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Full text of "A voyage to the islands Madera, Barbados, Nieves, S. Christophers and Jamaica ?with the natural history of the herbs and trees, four?footed beasts, fishes, birds, insects, reptiles, &c. of the last of those islands; to which is prefix'd, an introduction, wherein is an account of the inhabitants, air, waters, diseases, trade, &c. of that place, with some relations concerning the neighbouring continent, and islands of America. Illustrated with figures of the things described, which have not been heretofore engraved. In large copper?plates as big as the life /by Hans Sloane."

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To the Islands 












Natural Hiftorv 

Herbs and Trees 





Four -footed Bea/Is 







Of the laft 




To which is 

prcfix*dj An 




Wherein is an Account of the 

Inhabitants, Air, Waters, D if ea/es, Trade, 8cc. 

of that Place ; with fome Relations concerning the Neigh- 

bouring Continent, and Iflands of America. 



The F i g u r e s of the Things defcrib 



which have not been heretofore engraved. 

3In large eoppct^iates as ws as tlje iUfe* 

By Sir H A 





In Two Volumes. Vol. II. 

Many fhall run to and fro, and Knowledge /hall be increafed. Dan. xii. 4 




Printed for the 


Mo.Bot. Garden 





' '. 



To His Moft Excellent 



This Second VOLUME of the 



One of the Largeft and moft Confidzrabk 

o F 




I N 


with all Humility Dedicatedy 

As a Teftimony of bis Duty and Gratitude 



For the many great BleJ/ing. 
Which he with others enjoy ^ 


Vnder Bis Majesty'* Wife Government, 

and Powerful Prote&ion ; 
And for fever al particular Inflames 
Of His Majesty'* Favours conferred on 

His Majefty's moft obedient, 

moft dutiful, 

and moft faithful, 

Subject and Servant, 

Ham Shane 



T O 

H E 





|fS®?J^JT is now near twenty Years fince the firft Vo- 

g lume of this Hiftory was publifti'd, and at the 


fame time the greateft Part of the Plates belong- 
ing to this Volume were engraved. The firft Part 
met with a Reception in thefe Kingdoms and 

^ .. — ». - - *_ 

Foreign Countries much beyond my Expe&ati on-confider-- 




was publifh'd in Englijh 




very earned Solicitation from many People, for whom I have 
a very great Regard, to publifli this Second, which hath been 
delay'd chiefly by a multiplicity of Bufinefs inj:he Practice 
of Phyfick, which I efteem one of my firft Cares, and mutt 


be minded, if the Lives of Perfons be regarded, with due 

Attention to the feveral Symptoms and Changes of their 
Difeafes. This hath occafion'd many Interruptions and 
Faults of many kinds in this Work. The putting into 

, and 

with them, in 

fome kind of Order my Curiofities, numbring them 
entring their Names, 

and Accounts received 
Books.which was neceffary in Order to their Prefervation and 

Ufes, hath taken me up fome of the Time I have had to 
fpare from the exercife of my Profeffion ; and becaufe fome 
People have reprelented me carelefs and negligent, in not 
giving this fecond Volume fooner, I think it proper in my 
own Juftification to acquaint the Reader, that I have entered 
into Books, and numbred thefe natural and artificial Things 


a Earths 



The Introduftion to the Second Volume. 

Earths and Salts 

53 6 

Bitumens, Sulphurs, Ambers, Ambergrcefe H9 

Metals and Minerals 
Talcs, Micae, tic. 


Chryftals and Sparrs, or Fluores Cryftallini 1025 

Flints Stones, and other remarkable Foffils that are ano- 

. ^„.^-, 



Precious Stones, Agats, Jafpers, and fine Marbles 1 394. 
Corals, or fuch as are a kin to them, as Sponges and other 


Submarine Plants 

Vegetables, and Vegetable Subftances, as Roots, Woods, 
Fruits, Seeds, Gums, Refines and infpifla ted Juices 8aa6 

, owcu,, ^~x^-, 

Befides aoo large Volumes of dried Samples of Plants, 
amongft which are fuch Specimens, as were collected by my- 
felf in Europe the Madera Ifland, and America, as alfo 
thofe gathered by Dr. Merret, Dr. Tluhenet, Mr. Tether, and 

other curious Perfons all over the known World 



Teftacea, or Shel 


both natural, found 


at Sea and Land, and Foffil 


^Echini, or Sea Urchins, and Parts of them, both natural 
and foffil, found at Sea and Land 



Cruftacea. or Crabs, Lobfters, vc. 

Fifties, and their Farts . 

Afteriae, Trochi, Entrochi, Isle. * 183 


Birds, and their Parts 


^Quadrupeds, and their Parts 

Vipers, Serpents, ]3c. 




Humana, viz. Stortes of the Kidneys and Bladder, Anato- 
mical Preparations, and the like 507 

Mifcellaneous Things not comprehended with the forego- 
ing, both Natural and Artificial 11 69 

Things relating to the Cuftoms of ancient Times, or 


Antiquities, Urns, Inftruments, &c. 

Large Seals 

Pictures, many relating to natural Hiftory 319 

Mathematical Inftruments 



fc ' ■ ^ • I — * 

The Introduction to the Second Volume. iii 



Large Veflels, Handles, and other Things made of A gats, 
Jafpers, Cornelians, Chriftals, befides many Camei and Seals 

excifa, and incifa 441 

Medals, antient, as Samaritan, Phoenician, Greek, Con- 

fular, Roman, fcto and Modern, and Coins in all Me 
tals 20118 

Books in Miniature or Colours, with fine Drawings of 
Plants, Infe&s, Birds, Fifhes, Quadrupeds, and all forts of 


natural and artificial Curiofities 

Books of Prints, )Sc. 

Volumes of Manufcripts, the greateft Part of them relat- 
ing to Phyfick, and Natural Hiftory, Travels, l&c. ' 2666 

In van der Linden de Scripts Medicis put forth by MercWtn 

in 1687. are 3937 Authors, to which in my Library are 
added 3734, all fuch as have in Greek or Latin treated 
of the Medical Art, Natural Hiftory, Chymiftry, Ana- 
tomy, \ffc. which are come to my knowledge; fo that 
my Library confifts of 7671 Greek and Latin Phyfical Au- 
thors, befiderlf great Number of Latin Books publifti'd 

the Authors already mentioned in Mercklins van der 
Linden r and Editions, not taken Notice of by him, and 
other Phyfical Books publifh'd in the European Languages ; 

An Account of all thefe may perhaps be given hereafter 

myfelf; or by fome-body elfe from the Things them- 
felves, and the Memoirs left with them, which I hope 
may be for the Benefit of Mankind. 

I thought, and fully purpofed, to have given an Account 
of Authors, or a Syllabus Autorum at the Beginning or End 
of this Volume, wherein fhould have been fome Remarks 
made upon them, and upon their different Editions and Tran- 

flations, towards which, upon perufal of them, I had made 
fome Obfervations, as well as upon many Errors in van der 
Linden^ fome of which I had communicated to the late Mon- 
fieur Bourdelot at Tarts. This learned Gentleman was about 


publifhing that Book with the Additions of Medical Books 

in other Languages, which were in his very compleat 



iV The Introduction to . the Second Volume. 


Library, defcended to him from his learned Anceftors 
and which he intended to publifti in two Volumes in Folio 



but was prevented by Death. When I had fent him my 

Thoughts about this Work, with fome Part of my Emen- 
dations and Additions intended for his Notice, he returned 
Hie Thanks, with an Offer of whatever my Library wanted 
which he had; The War, and his Death, interrupte 

that Defign. I am not without fome hopes of fetting on 

Foot this undertaking of publishing van der Linden in Latin 

purged from many Errors with an Account of other Books 
of the fame Nature in the European Languages added to it, as 



alfo of Books of Voyages and Travels which are of the fame 
Nature, and are extreamly ufeful for many purpofes, and 

in particular to natural Hiftorians, Phyficians, Jsfr. but as 

the finding the Books, bringing them from al] Parts of the 
World, and putting them into fome fort of Order, hath coft 

me much Time and great Expence, I am not without hopes 
that they majdbmcJimgj^or^other, ferve for the propagating 
ufeful Knowledge. 

w ^BC % 

"Another Caufe of the retarding the Publication of this 
Volume was the Death of Mr. Tether, a Perfon fufficiently 

known by his Underftanding in Natural Hiftory all over the 
learned World. He was, when I knew him firft, an Appren- 
tice to Mr. Felt bam, who was Apothecary to St. Bart boh 

mew's Hofpital, and was appointed by his Mafter to difpence 
the Medicines there according to the Directions of Dr. Br 


Dr. Bernard, and other Phyficians of that Place, and after 

wards fet up for himfelf in j4lderfgate-ftreet, and was 

chofen Apothecary to the Cbarter-boufe. He had taken areat 

Pains to gather together the Productions of Nature in E 


land, and by his Correfpondents, and Acquaintance, all over 
the World procured, I believe, a greater Quantity than any 
Man before him. He did not take equal Care to keep them 
but put them into heaps, with fometimes fmall labels of 

Paper, where they were many of them injured by Duft In 



fe<3s, Ram, 0c. He always intended if he died before 
me^ that his Collections (hould come into my Hands which 

\ accord 

. -* , 

• » 


The Introduction to the 





accordingly they did. I found myfelf obliged to take lm 

mediate Care of all of them, and in the firft Place of the 
Animal Subftances, which are moft fubjeft to Deftruftion. 

This was the more neceffary to be done with Attention, 
becaufe as he hath taken great Pains to give the Synonymous 
Names of Authors to fuch as were defcribed, fo there are 

of by 




as were 

anV Natural Hiftorian before 

J r * t ^ ? * L 




taken Notice 






fuch fliort 

Samples were to afcertain what he meant 

Names and defcriptive Titles, as are to be found in his 

Pieces, either Anonymous or fuch as were publickly owned 


Some few of them perhaps may be only Varied- 

ties of thofe Produft 



fpecifically different 

- ' m • l * 1 



other Writers 



what was 'defcribed 
but this could not be fo certainly determined 

without the very Originals from whence he took his Defcrip 

tions and Figures. 

bring his Collet 

found thenfl 

I have taken as much Care as 1 can to 

ions and Papers out of the Confufion 
and will take farther Gare. that what he hath 


gathered together, by very great and undefatigable Induftry 
(hall not be loft, but preferved and publifhed for the good 







to his Memory, and my 

own Reputatiod 

Upon thefe Confiderations, arid many more too tedious 

to recite, I hope the delay of the coming out of this, 
but very indifferent Book, will be pardon'd, and yet I think 
it more curious then the firft Volume ; and that, becaufe 
there is an Account of the Animals, bfo as alfo the Figures 
of the Fruit Trees of Teru and many Parts of the World 
hitherto unknown 


and thefe drawn from the Life, in 

their natural 





the Profpe&s of them 


wherein their manner of Growth, and tola fades is ihown at 
Diftance ; thefe are, continuing the Numbers of the Tables 
after the Introdu&ion to the firft Volume, and which im 


mediately follow this 
and XI. 











The Introduction to the Second Volume. 

Tab. V. Fig. I. Shews the profpeft at Diftance, and in 

little of one of the Fruit Trees of Jamaica, called 
Nafeberry, which hath its Synonimous Names noted, p. ?o6 
of my Catalogue of Jamaica Plants, is defcribed at large in 
this Volume, p. 171. and figured as big as the Life, or 

of the natural Magnitude, Tab. 2 

Fig. i; Shews the growing of Cacao after the fame 


Fig. 3, 4, and 5. is the Avocada Pear Tree in like man 




Fig. 6. Shews the Figure of the Jamaica Plumb Tree 

after the fame manner 

r ■■-- 




Tab. VI. Shews, Fig. 1. the Caffada, Fig. v the Jamaica 
Pepper, or Pimienta Tree, Fig. 3. the Cuftard Apple Tree 
and Fig. 4. the Sweet Sop in like manner. 


: j 


% f 

Tab. VII. 

• * 


the Mammee, and Fig. 3. the Mammee 

ados Cherry Tree, Fig.a* 


Tab. VIII. Shews, Fig: 1 and a. the fort of Prickly Pear, 

thought in Jamaica to be that particular kind ofOpuntia, 
whereon feeds the fmall Worm or Beetle, from whence comes 

the Cochineel. Fig. 3. is the fower Sop Tree, and Fig. 4. is 
the Starr Apple. 

Tab. IX. Contains a Defcription of the Management and 
Culture of the Opuntiae, or Cochineel Trees, or Plants, and 

of the Aloe Americana, for obtaining a Liquor eailed Pul 

que (mentioned in the firft Volume of this Hiftqry) by the 

Inhabitants of America near Vera Cruz ai\d Me 
which was fent to the South-Sea Company, ^d gopied,' 
at my defire, by one employed by Mr. Lockyer u J[or 

the farther Knowledge of that valuable dye I have 

in the corner of the fame Plate given a very true Draught 

of thelnfeft itfelf, in its due natural Bulk, and a little 





The Introduction to the Second 


Tab. X. Fig. i . Shews a Branch of the Logwood Tree 

with its Flowers and Seeds fent me from Jamaica by Mr. 

Bar ham , from which I took the following Defcription of 
what is called, p. 181 of this Volume Loggwood, and hath 

the fame Name given it by Tradefcant, p. 36c or Cam- 

peigiana, Campechia. Ej. p. 35. < ] 

9 r 

^ 1 J 

The Leaves of this Tree are winged, two or three Pair 
ibeing fet on to a middle Rib, without jany odd one at 
the End, each of them being fbaped, and lin other refpe&s 
like the Leaves of the Lignum Vitae Tree, or Box ; ex alts 
foliorum comes a two or three Inches long String, whereon 


are \ fet many Flowers, which refemble in growth thefe of 

the Sycomore, are Hexapetalous with a Stylus, and have 

Stamina of a yellowifh brown Colour, after which follow 

Siliculae, or Follicles growing after the manner of Afli^nkeys, 

of a light green Colour, each fafhion'd like the end of &. 
Spear, being flat opening in the Middle, from whence 

fmall flat Seeds. The Branches are cover'd witK~"a"Tmooth 

Afli coloured thin Bark, and have at the going out of the 
{Leaves an Inch, or two Inches long lharp Thorns; thefe 
Thorns growing thick, make it very proper for Hedges in 

{Jamaica, where it is planted from Seeds fent to Mr. Bar- 
am. This curious Gentleman directed an Indian, he fent 
to the Bay of Campeche to cut that Wood, to furnifh him 
with the Seeds for the propagation of it. He informs me 
alfo, that when they cut that Wood, they ftand up to their 

Knees in the Water, where it grows, in Danger of be- 
ing .cut off by the Spaniards, who pretend no European 
Nation can with right cut it but themfelves. Another 

nger to them is the being ftung prodigioufly by MoC 
quitos, by which many of the Loggwood Cutters have 

died, which by his Care in bringing over the Seed may for 

the future be prevented. Since the Year 1715 the firft 
fowing of this Seed in Jamaica, many Trees now have 

ripe Seeds. 


10 , 


viii The Introduction to the Second Volume. 

Fig. 2; Shews a Part of a floating Piece of Timber, or 
drift Wood befet with Bernacle Shells, or Conchae Anatiferae 
growing to it, mentioned p. 346 of this Volume. 



Tab; XL Shews fome Shells I had from the Streights of 

Magellan, the Coaft of Chili and the Tier r a, del Fuego, a 

_ . 

mongft the reft a fmall black Trochus, which being ftrung by 
the Natives on Fifh Guts, or Nerves, and worn as Bracelets 

, W* fc ,v.* .v-^, 

and Necklaces^ come to an extraordinary fine Colour, even 
beyond that of the fineft Oriental Pearl. 1 thought to have 
given a farther Account of this Voyage to the Streights of 
Magellan and the South* Sea, and of natural Things from 
thefe Places, but muft leave them for another Opportunity; 

' R ; f: 1 mo! 


will be proper in this Place to take Notice of 

Objection's, that may have been made againft my former 

Volume, and fuch as I find fault with myfelf therein, and 


ft own, that many of the 

in this. 

Figures were taken from dried PlanfT, and that both the 

JPerfon who fattened them into the Books, he who defign'd 

theih afterwards, and the Engravers have committed feveral 

Miftakes. I had obferv'd Books of Natural Hiftory and 

Voyages to be fo filFd with Figures of Natural Productions 
made from relations by word of Mouth and Memory, that I 
Was perhaps too nice in not correcting what was amifs, my 

Reafon being, that if there were any Slips of that kind in the 

Prints, they were eafily to be mended, by perufincr their 

Defcriptions, where if any of the Leaves had dropt off, or been 

neglected by the feveral Workmen, as for example, in 
being by fuch means placed alternatively, in (lead of being 
fet oppofite to one another on the Stalk, fuch Error is fet 
to rights. This is fo true, that I do not find any Body, who 
minds thofe Things in Jamaica, ever mifs'd by my Defcrip 

tion and Figures, to find the Plants I meant, as may appear 
by what follows, Mr. Barham above-mentioned, an ingenious 

5 *t> 

Phyfician in Jamaica, amongft many other curious and ufeful 
Obfervations hefent tome by Letters and in a Manufcript,call'd 

Hortus Americanus, which I hope he will publifli, many of 






• " * s • • *■ - "J**K ■ - * 



The Introduction to the Second Volume. ix 

which are taken Notice of at the latter end of this Volume, 

they coming fince it was finifh'd, took notice to me of an ac* 

cident, whereby feveral Negros had been poyfon'd in r the 
Year 171 1. The Account he gave me was this, that a 

Negro Servant carrying fome Rum in a Veffel upon hi$ 

Head, as their Way is, found, that upon motion, it ruii 

over, to flop which he pluck'd the Leaves of a Plant he 

found growing id the Savanna or Meadow, over which he 

was paffing. Upon drinking this Rum they found the 

Negfbs poyfon'd, fome whereof I think died, and there 

upon the Negro was try'd for his Life, the reft re 
cover'd by the life of the Juice of the Indian Arrow Root 
or Canna Indica radice alba Alexipharmaca, of my Cata 

logueof Jamaica Plants, p. 122* Hift. Vol. 1. p. 152. Mr 


arham obferving thefe Leaves, and comparing them 

with my Defcription and Figure, found them prefently to 
be of the Apocynum ere&um fruticofum flore luteo maximo 

fpeciofiffimo, Cat. p. 89. Hift. Vol. 1. p. 206. He far 

ther tells me, that no Cattle will meddle with this Herb, and 

that he faw two Drams of the exprefs'd Juice of it kill 
a Dog in eight Minutes, but he fays, it may be fo ordered 
as not to kill a Perfon in many Days, Months, or Years, 
knew, fays he, a Practitioner in Phyfick poyfon'd with 

this Plant by his Negro Woman, who had fo order'd it 


as not to difpatch him quickly ; but he was feiz'd with 
violent gripings, inclinations to vomit, and lofs of Ap 
petite, afterwards he had fmall Convulfions in feveral Part 

of his Body, a Heftic Fever, and continual wafting of his 

Flefh. He fent to me, and I fent him fome Ghandiroba 
vel Nhandiroba Brafil. (Cat. p. 85. Vol. 1. p. aoo.) Kernel 

to infufe in Wine, and drink frequently of the Infufion. 
This cured him, and he is alive at this Day. But it was 
fome conliderable Time before his Convulfive Symptoms 
left him. He adds, that two or three Spoonfuls of the Juice 
of the whole Plant given to ftrong young People, purges them 
upwards and downwards, bringing away Worms. The 

Milk outwardly applied takes away Warts, cures Ring 

Worms and Freckles. A Cataplafm of the Green Leaves 



Introduction to the Second Volume. 


good againft cold Swellings. A Planter gave the Powder 
'the dried Root, which work'd upwards and downwards 

as Ipecacuana, which he faid it was, but was as much mi 
ftaken, as thefe affirming the Subfequent to be the fame. 
The Tryals or Ufe of the Root and other Parts of this Plant 
feem to me to be very hazardous. 

The fame Gentleman takes notice of the next Apocynum 
eredum folio oblongo, flore umbellato, petalis coccineis re 

flexis. Cat. p. 89. Hift. Vol. 1, p, * 06, which he fays is 

commonly call'd in Jamaica Blood Flower, Jsfc. from its 

flopping Blood, when other Medicines fail'd. The Juice 
injected by a Syringe flops the Bleeding of the Piles, A De- 
coflion of the Leaves, Stalks, and Flowers, twice a Day for 
five or fix Days cur'd a runnning Gonorrhoea, that nothing 
for twelve Months could flop, after the virulence was carried 

off, and Balfamics came to be us'd, without any Gleet ; the 

Flowers dry'd, drank as other^ea, cure Gleets. He fays 
alfo, that it is likely to be good for the Fluor Albus. 


« ! 


The Root of this Plant was fent many Years ago to me 
from Virginia, for the Root of Ipecacuanna in order to get 


it fold, and a Commerce eftablilh'd for it ; but obferving 

that it was not right Ipecacuanna, I excufed myfelf from 
difpofing of it, as not knowing what Mifchief might enfue 
from the Ufe of an unknown Root. Some Years fince Dr; 
Burnet^ who was fent over by the South^Sea Company to 
take care of their Factory at Torto Bell> or Tuerto Belo % 

who is well underftood in Natural Learning, at my 

defire fent me over fome natural Productions of that Country, 
with the Ufes of them, and the Draughts or Defigns of 
others taken by black Lead. Amongft thefe, moft of which 
grow in Jamaica, and are taken Notice of in this Hiftory 

iwas the Draught of the above named Apocynum, and an 
Account that the Spaniards and Inhabitants about that Place 
took the Root of this for that of the true Ipecuacanna. 

time after Mr. Barham wrote me the Account of this 

from Jamaica above-mentioned. Thefe Accounts which 



The Introduction to the Second Volume. xi 

had by degrees made me very careful in prefcribing that 
Root for feveral Years, that unlefs the Patients earneftly de* 
fired it, as being their cuftomary Vomit, or their Difeafe re- 
quired it more particularly then another Vomit, I pre- 
ferred it with a little doubt and reluftancy, leaft this bad 

kind fhould be given. When I was certain, by the feveral 
Circumftances abovemention'd, I deiired the Cenfors of the 
College of Phyfitians, and the Wardens of the Company of 

Apothecaries, when they were going upon their fearch to 
take particular care of this Drugg, fo much in ufe and 
adulterated in fo dangerous a Manner. I at the fame Time 
{hewed them the Difference between the true Ipecacuanna- 
Roots, and thofe which refemble them very much and are 

likely to do Mifchief, as may appear to any Body who 

will be at the trouble to compare Tifo and Marcgraves 
Defcription of that Plant, which is only known yet to come 

from Brafile^ and that of thefe Apocynums ni my Catalogue 
and Hiftory, of which I fhewed them the Samples or Sped 
mens, agreeing with the Draught from Torto Bell^ which 
likewife (hewed them. 1 alfo had the falfe, and true Roots 

which I likewife compared before them, whereby it ap- 
peared, that the true had a gray Bark, tho' it varies fomething 
from the Soil in which it grows, many Rings and Wrinkles, 
or Corrugations going round a String, Nerve, or Pith in 
the Middle, and that there were feveral Fiffures or Cracks 
of the outward Bark quite to the Nerve ; and that the 
mealy parts of the Bark and Nerve were whitifh. In the 

Root of the Apocynum or Falfe, the Colour is dark, 
browner, or of a yellowifti caft, the Fiffures, Wrinkles, 
ar Corrugations fewer, and \ the Bark of the Root 

fmoother. Both thefe Roots are frequently fo crooked 
and turned as to make acute angles one part of the Jtoot 
with the other. Upon this occafion notice was alfo given to 
the Matter and Wardens of the Company of Apothe- 

caries by Letter, and to the Cenfors, that in their pub- 
lick and private Searches they would take care to condemn 
and deftroy fuch a dangerous Root, by which I hope the 
Miichiefs of Inflamations in the Stomach, Guts, lSe. which 







The Introduction to the Second Volume. 

I think I have endeavour'd in vain to remedy, after what 
I vehemently fufpeft giving of this Root for the true, have 

been prevented. I know it is alledged from what I have 
faid p. 25. of my Introduction to Vol. I. that there is a wide 
difference between frelh Roots and thofe dried^ which tho' 
poyfonous, become even Nourifhment in many Cafts ; but 'tis 
alfo moft certain, that there are many dried Roots that are 

mortal Poyfons ; and I (hould be loath to be the firft Ex 
perimenter of fuch a Matter, either upon myfelf ot any 
body elfe. 


I wifli the fame or the like Mifchiefs may not anfe ffoiri 
Gumm Guajacum, which is adulterated with that from the 
Manfaneel Tree, which yields the ranked Poyfon in the 
World : Both of them are Refins, and pretty near of a Co- 
lour, and grow out of both the Trees, the Lignum Vita 

and ManfaneeL in the fame roundifh, or oval Shape, the 


Manfaneel is not fo dark, and hath no greenifti colour or caft, 
as hath the other. I think I have feen great Difeafes in the 
Bowels happen after taking Medicines wherein was prefcribed 
Gumm Guajac, which I could not fo eafily account for, as 
by the bad Gum gathered from the Manfaneel by the Slaves 

in the Weft-Indies, fold for the true. 


Another fault, I find with myfelf, is the Confufion there 
is in the Quotations of Authors, in giving the Vertues of 
Plants, l&c. This indeed came partly from want of Time 
to continue the Difcourfe with References in the Margin 

or Bottom of the Pages ; but 1 have the fame Reafon as 
above, that every one may fee what concerns their Lives 


and what Authorities are to fupport the Virtues afcrib'd to 

, for I think it not fit to take upon myfelf the cohfe- 

quences to the Lives of People, which may attend the taking 
Medicines that 1 have never given, and which too many People 
are apt to take upon flight grounds, and to afcribe to them the 
fame Virtues as to thofe of the fame Tribe in Europe, when 
there are many inftances, that the Virtues of many Plants 
of the fame Tribe differ widely. Upon this Occafion, I 



The Introduction to the Second Volume. xiii j 

cannot but take Notice of fome Paffages. Of thefe one was 

concerning Dr. Burnet of the Cbarter-Houfe his Theory of 
the Earth, (ibme of the Notions whereof he had probably 
from an old Abaffinian Philofopher mentioned, in Francefco 
Patritio's libfo della rhetorica Dialogo i.) which is a Book 
thought to be wrote, as all Dr. Burnet's Books are, in an ex- 
traordinary fine Style. Mr. Flamflead, the Aftronomer at 
Greenwich , f pea king to me with great Wamrth about fbme of 
his Opinions, faid at laft, that he would prove and make him 
know, that there went more to the making of the World 

then a well turn'd Period. I have had the Fate to fall 
under the Difpleafure of fome Critics, for even the Faults 
of others, as becaufe I made amongft many others of the. 

like Nature a faithful Quotation of the Name of a fort of 

Coral or Coral Stone from Boetius de Boodt one of the beft 
writers upon that Subject, viz. Aftroitidis 2um & %um Genus^ 
(which natural Produ&ions do not agree to the Defcription of 

the Aftroites oi&liny) muft this feemingly Grammatical Slip 
in that Writer, in giving that Name to the Subftances he deC* 
cribes be imputed to me ? It is certain that as Knowledge of 

Things that were not known before increafc3$-nevtr -Karnes 

muft be given to them* The endeavouring to exprefsnew 
Things by old Claffic Words, hath been a hindrance to Natural 
Hiftory, and it is well known what Confufioti another Mark 
of profound and great Learning, the tranflating proper Name* 
of Perfons and Places into Claffic Latin hath brought into the 
Hiftory of the Progrefs of Learning, and of Places in Geo- 
graphy ; fo that it hath been found neceffary to print a Di£tio 
nary for Tbuanush Works, and another for Buchanatfs^ to 
bring fuch Names back to their proper and vulgar Significa 
tion, that the Senfe of the Writers may be underftood. I have 
learn'd, 1 think, more from Oviedos Hiftory of the JVeft- 
Jndies wrote in Spanifa his Mother Tongue, he under 

ftanding no other, than from the long fine turn'd Periods of 

the celebrated Latin Writer Teter Martyr in his Epiftles* 

have heard Fault found with the Word Oferatio, for the 

Effeds of vomiting, purging^ or other Phyfick^ which though 

it be not ufed by Celfus^ is very well underftood amongft 

all People at Home and Abroad pra&ifing Phyfick, and 





TJte Introduction to the Second Volume. 


made ufe of by Dr. Willis, evert in the Title Page of 

his <P harmaceutice Rationdis , printed at Oxjord. 1 was 

told of a great Critic, who notwithftanding I think he was 

one of the worft Speakers. I ever heard, when Perfons of 

Learning and good Undemanding were commending the late 

Dr. S?ratt, Bifhop of RjKbefler., for his writing the finett 

Language of any Author in the Englifb Tongue, he faid 
he was fo far from being of that Opinion, that the very 

Title Page of his celebrated Book of the Hiftory of the 

Society was not good and Gramatical Englijb* 

Olaus Rudbeck makes it appear, that Women who 
feldom of never ftudy Grammar, are the moft exaft 

Speakers of any Mother Tongue, and I believe moft 
Grammars are made from the Languages themfelues as they 
were or are ufed in common Difcotirfe. I will mention but 
one Paflage more of a very good Scholar and Phyfitiari, 
who had a greafTtverfiotwto the late Dr. Radcliffe, and 

Would one Day eadeavour to perfuade me, that he could 
not cure a Difeafe, becaufe he had feen a Latin Prefer ip- 

of his, wherein Pilula was wrote with a double 
inftead of a Angle one. I have never obferv'd, that thofe 

itians who regarded the Latin Turns and Words of 

theif Prefcriptions, more then the other material Things 
to be confider'd, were more Fortunate in their Cures of 

Difeafes then others, who took a fort of Lingua Franca 

o Utt *• *• «"*-«« 

the common Language known in Apothecaries Shops, and 
which all other Profeffions ufe in their Affairs, as well as 

atians. Neither have I feen any Effeft of Gibberifh or 
ether Words ufed as Charms to cure or rather fright Difeafes, 
tho' in ancient Times, and even now fome have a great Opi 
tiiott of them from a Belief they have in an axiom herbis 

verbis^ \$ lapdibus^ inefi magna vis. 




There ate many other Things that are obje&ed againft, 
fome Opinions 1 have taken up, I think upon good Grounds, 
as that the great Pox, or Venereal Difeafe came from the 

Wcft^Indies to Europe iti the firft Ship from thence, againft 

it is alledged, that it was known in all Times, and 

particularly, that the Elephantiafis or true Leprofy was the 


The Introduction 

the Second Volume. 



fame Difeafe wi 
often taken 




This Opinion which hat 



all Ti 



fiilce the Knowledge of that 

feems to be entirely 


many Argu 

ments, and particul 

one common and notorious 


Truth, namely, 
all its Symptoms 

that almoft all Degrees of the Pox and 


and no degree . of the 

true Lep 

wilt be 


to hold we 


a Salivation, .itho' it be 


three or four Times with all the force imag 




fl fa : 

!:. ' ! ^( :ti 


It hath been faid, that Lizards were not Eatfen in Jamaica, 

the Weft 




fo notorioufly falfe 

that even 

or the W en-maies^ rnacMs 10 iioiuHuuuy iai«. r «» "«"■ wvvi 
the '{mailer forts was the ordinary Food of - Monfietir f Sa 
*W and I -think Father ^Plumier^oi late ¥ears, a* Fa 




ther Laiat 


Father Tlumier°ik late Y 

a* Fa 



the World >:! efteem them 

All Nations : mhabiting thefeflParts 


r'%as affur'd 

or rne vvuriu. cuccm iu«., «„« * ».-- -~~ 

firft Planters "of %»««, that they bme fet* 



ftom, under Colonel 2tyfy 
the firft Settlement f of the 



o\.wa&» Governor there at 



wheif iVdvifions were 



the common 

ft Settlement of the ±Lnglip, wnen rrovmons were 
aid that they were then fold at a very dear Rate in 
enmon Markets. ! ! ' • - c * J i *>% 



i 1 












; * T b' 




It hath been fuggefted, that I fpoke in fome Place 
efpeafully of ; the Inhabitants r n rmJ> - ar - : — - 1 " 








dons of their Diftempers, whieh 




ordinary Cafes 


to prove that the Difeafes there 

were the fame as in England 


it would K have been faid 



the £ 


not done this, 

ame People,oto be an 

Hypotheiis without Foundation, and this is 


all Phyfttians who write 
their Cloathing was very 

ften Ca 







Secondly, by faying 
which is very true, 
ife of it as being lighter 
ool then molt lorts or other Apparel. Third- 
fpoke more honourably of the Inhabitants of 

Reflexion. I myfelf 




ar in refpeft of their Civility 
meant to detract any Thing from the Inhabitant 






for there 




as in all thefe Parts of the World 







Xvi The^Jntroduction to the Second Volume. 

their Countrymen arrive, there are very great and un- 

common Civilities fhewn to Strangers byr all forts of Peo- 
ple in their feveral Stations. ' Arriving Bar/>ados 7 
perhaps that: kind of unufual civil Treatment, efpecially : 
by fo me of my old Acquaintance might influence and make 
a greater Impreffionjupon me then the lame, or perhaps 
greater kindnefles fhewn me in ^famaiat^ <where I was in a 
manner at home. 



hath been faid, that I have defcribed and figured Tf 

better by Dr. Tlukehet and others, I will only 
nsiention two or three Paflages.i Dr. Tlukenet one Day we 

met, .ask'd what Fruit the Ebony of Jamaica, bore, I told 


, , _ tl .like the Afpa lathi, .to the Wood 

of- which it r was of kin, being very hard and ponderous. 
He adapted this Fruit in a Book he printed to a Shrub 

which- grew at .Chelfea, and refembled it * in its Leave 


without mentioning -my Name. At laft the Flower and 

.- . 

Berry appeared on that at Chelfea^ when not only he, when 

he law his Miftake, but many «■ others believed that 


impofed on him, till what I told him appeared by my 

Catalogue, and now by this fecond Volume, pT 3 x . to be 

true. He pretends to find fault with my making ufe of 
his Synonimous Names, whereas he antedated fome of the 

Books of his Phytographia, {Seep. 130 of this Volume) 
four Years, publilh'd them without being perfect, there want- 

ing. feveral Tables afterwards engraved, and takin* a 
Lemma to his Book, Vires dedit aecnula virtus, which 
believe he meant, that I being about to publifh my Ob 
fervations, he made hafte to come out before with 




1 When I firft return'd from Jamaica^ I brought with me 

Collection of dried Samples of fome very ftrange Plants 
which excited the Curiofity of People who loved Things of 
that Nature to fee them, and who were welcome, 'till I ob- 

ferv'd fome fo very curious, as to defire to carry part of them 
home with them privately, and injure what they left. This 


The Introduction to the Second Volume. xvii 


made me upon my guard with them. Dr. Tour m fort, a 

Peribn of the greateft Curiofity in Things of this Nature, 
fent over to me from Taris, Dr. Gundelfcheimer, to view 
what I had brought from 


%. This laft Gentleman 
afterwards travelled with him into Greece, with a Defign 

furnifh'd with all forts of Conveniencies and 
ceffaries at the Charge of the late French King) as Dr. 
Toumefort acquainted me, to difcover the Plants taken 

Notice of by Htffocrates, 'Diofcorides, and other Greel 

Phyfitians, whofe Defcriptions were very dark and (hort 

He had formed many Years a Projed of going into the 

Countries where they lived, by that means to afcer- 
tain in fome degree what thefe Simples were. This 
Gentleman, who was afterwards Phyfitian to the King 
of Truffia, and is lince dead, carried back to Dr. Tour- 

:fort an Account of what I had brought from the Weft 

Indies, and at the fame Time a prefent, 1 made him amongft 

other Things, of Sixty very extraordinary Ferns, of which 

had duplicates. This was the Occafion of Father Tl 
miers being fent to the TVefi-Jndies, as appears by the fol- 
lowing Paffage in La bat : " Un Medecin Anglois avoit 

<c publie un livre de plantes de L'Amerique, dans lequel 

us de foixante efpeces de Fougeres, 

a il avoit fait graver 

cc On crut quil eftoit de Thonneur de la Nation d'en de 

a couvrir davantage, & comme on ne connoiflbit perfonne 

u plus capable de foutenir le poids de cette grande affaire, 

cc que ce Minime, on luy donna la Commiffion. Labat 
u T. IV. p. 24. in his Journal of the Year 1697* 

to the Names and Method, notwithftandiiig they 

re every day changed without (I humbly conceive) fuffi- 
cient Reafons by every Perfon who almoft treats of them, I 
have continued the fame formerly ufed. It doth feem to 

me to be a great Obftrufition to the Knowledge of na 
tural Things, that every feveral Writer (hould affume to 

himfelf a liberty of treating very ill, and ibmetimes fcur r 

riloufly very great Men, fuch as Monfieur Toumefort and 
others, for not taking notice of fome {lender minuti^ 



xviii The Introduction to the Second Volume 

*» * 

.«. . *•• 

perhaps not worth obferving, It is to be noted here, that 
what is faid by fome of them, that the Fruits or Seeds 

are the finis ultimus of the Plant, and therefore pnnci 
pally to be regarded in a Method , is not foHowe 
themfelves who only' almoft go by the Pericarpium, Husk 

or Seed Veffel, which parts of Plants are very often lei 

confpicuous, for a fmaller time in view, and to be not 

fo much regarded as the Leaves, Flowers, and other parts 

of the fame Plant, and yet for a hair, or the like, ftand 

on them, they will pretend # to overthrow what their 
Predeceflbrs have fettled, as much as perhaps is neceffary 
to the fullying their Memories, and which is worfe, to 

the bringing into Natural Hiftory fuch divers Names, that 
it would require fometimes a days labour to find out what 
Plant defcribed by other Writers they mean to give an 
Account o 


Having thus endeavoured to anfwer all the Objections that 

I have heard made by others, and taken notice of the Faults 

obferved by myfelf* I will conclude with an Apology for 
what Imperfections remain. In that diftant Climate the Heats 
and Rains are exceffive, fo that there are often hin- 
drances upon thofe Accounts: The Parts not inhabited 


are very productive of feveral Things very Curious, but 
have no Conveniencies for lodging Men or Horfes, and 


are often full of Serpents and other ' venomous Creatures, 
which tho' of themfelves they will fly from Men, yet 

the Places where they Neftle, or have their young, aire 
come near, they are thought to make very fierce and 
dangerous Attacks upon Mankind. The fame Places re- 
mote from Settlements are very often full of run away 
Negros, who lye in Ambufti to kill the Whites who come 

within their reach. In all thefe Cafes the Obfervations to 


be made mult be very much fhort of that accuracy , 
which thofe void of fuch Circumftances attending them 

may have. I (hall be extreamly pleafed to fee my Ob 
fervations of any kind rendred more perfect and ufe 


\rborum frucftiferarum lnfulaee9 &f?l&i£$, confpertus 



Tab. 16 o • 
















iwn?tc<v con 






radiee tuf> e/ . ' c 

e vC \\mt Ca W2fc*' £; * 













fo Ujs .o.blongis^ngutti.sfi. 











Vt\ areo 


o, ^TTVf ht »v> 













• . 












Fig. 4. Ano'na, folijs 

fquammofo, parvo 

oratis minoribus, frucVu conoide 
i.Cat.» u 


amf. 205.H1II:. Vol. 2. / 



6 8. Tab. 227. TluiJnHetJc 



s launm* 

"Fie. 2. My^tus arborea aromatica Folij 

Cat..#>/"./'* i6iJfi/£ V0I.2. />.j 6.Tab. 191. Fig. 1. 

Pirniento, Jamaica. Pepprr or o// Jpicejhce* 


Arborum friictiferarum 

'antaicxE confpectus 


A r >, 

£1: i 

A !'« >; 





v j 


£'• Arbo*^ baccireraJoHo 

f| ^erafino fulcato,rubro,p 

s ^nnulatis.^A3 am / 7 * 

uc£u mflximo. fcaP . 



^8-enfeY^.Jam./^7a r 

S-3 • J%; Mamm 




v etv 




bado e s Cherrif 

TfCC ■ 


• • 

* ^ ?° °/>/ 


y iJsm a^is^-^ o ^A>^ 

>" J *4.Tab «& 7& Manure Sap«t< 


/ « </iuA t4<jn 

>orum Iructiierarum Infills 

• • 



Fig.i . Qpuntia maxima folio oblongo 

libus iX irniocentibus 

11)4. Hilt. Vol. i.f\ \^ 2. 



•re Ih'ijs rabris variegate CvX.&am. l 

A ^ p lob.Tab. ? 2r 7y 

^ ^ c 






• . 



is moi- 












■ 9* • -4- 

Hamulus arbors ferenrig lignum 

iiiiiuiam . Imiiil . Laef . 


e ch i e 




y/ {/jivzur/i 




gm-e man adan tiro erufum oui. adlwrrefotmf conch 







^S' 3' ^ihcpja v rif vafculnii 


/«^". ^ . $ ejnen 


^& £***»*& 



tum,roitro recurvo ; umb 

extus muricibus conca 

a 2&umcraflum 

icato,intus album 
longi s 2£l 

Fig4-.^. Operculum live umb 

gris tomm obfitum.ExMari^/^pi 
>Ok6 provmeiam Americanam. 
I 15.3. £ uccinum angulKim Wve utrmqi 


atus, parte plana mfcus,ftC 

Fioi.S.q.Trochu^ non umbilicaius,k 




icibus f 

lo natus. 1j*E • e to StiaaelL 


FigOT.Bucciiiuin minus ,1'ubn 

Lavicula lonea munrata,ro(ho recur- 

icens.Ei P 



ETrero E/tiagelL 

extus totuspurpureus^uimstotus argen- 

teus ,E Treto .. u<i</e/l<7/Uco . 

Yieao.n.Trochiis terreftris argentms,l»- 

vislineisrubris notatus.TL TEreto t- iLn/c/din. 

Fie.i2.lX. Cocblea minor einerea levi- 

rer fuleata. E fFrfeto \snageUcvriico, 




Trochus parvus, levi 



[hiatus, non umbilicat; 


ETreto. /W 

Fig.i8.Trochorum pe;rtuforum,inteiHnis phocae pifcis confertoru; 1 

?a, qua, terra* de/Fuct/o incola?loco armilla* vel torquis , tttunttir. 












9. \ 


I ■ 




Trees of 

A M A 



H E greateft Part of the Ifland of Wj was heretofore 

d with Woods 

the Trees remaining are very tall, fo 


the Leaves, Flowers, or Fru 

that I could not come 

many of them, which makes the following Defcriptionsthe 
lcfs perfect . r 



I was unwilling to divide Trees into thofe with divided and not d 
vided Bodies, becaufe I found the Papaya, which generally 


have an undivided Body, to be fometimes divided, and fo fom 

Palms. I therefore rather chufe 

if I had not that 

range them as their Fr 


their Flowers or Leaves 









Trees which bear their Flowers and, Fruit fiparated 



* - 

VXjuglans tri folia, fructu magnitudine nucis mojehaU. Cat p. 12 $ 

, cJ 57 ' ¥tg n l ' R *tj**#fi*tt. Tom. i.dendr.p. 6. An Arbuf- 
cula Jamaicenfis aleagni folij ' .'.... J 

ifidenttbus. Pluken. Aim. p. 47. Fhyt. Tab 

This Tree rifes to twenty Foot high, h 

communi pediculo longiffi, 

. Via 1 ? 

66. Fig 


grey-colour'd Bark, with 

fomeSulci in it,being as thick as onesThigh^a vingBranches fpread round 
it, making a comely Top.The Twigs have Leaves which Hand on their Ends 
without any Order, always three together on the fame, two Inches long 



The Natural Hiftory of 


common redifh FoOtftalk, each of which has a fmall quarter Inch Foot 
ftalk, rs about three Inches long and one broad, thin, fmooth, an 
dirty or brownifh green colour. Ex alls foliorum come^the 2«/*,tw. _ D 



h about an Inch long, made up of a great many fma!l greenifii 


Flowers not open 

I'he F 



r ellow Points, granuU herb , 

rom theBranches by an Inch longFootftalk,isoval,yel]owifh in Colo 

big as a Nutmeg, having under a very thin mucilaginous Pulp, a large 

Shell of the fame Shape, which I never 

member I 


but think 

Fruit may berefer'd h 



Town S 

wo M 



the woody Part, between it and 
Banks of the Rio Cobre* below the Town 

of St. J ago de la fag 

Tis plai 

that this is differing from the Hickery Nut Tree which 

Dr. Plukenet, f. 236* of his Mantiffa fufpe&s may be 

r - 

II. AlnifoliO) arbor \ f olio fubrot undo [err ato. Cat. p. 1 28. Tab. 1 57. Fig. 2. 
Raij. Hi(i-Tom 3. dendr.p. 11. 

The Branches pf this Tree were ftreight, covered with a fmooth 


blackifh Barl^ under which was a white hard Wood ; the Twigs had at 
their Ends feveral Leaves ftanding on very (hort Footftaiks, each of them 

being almoft round, tho' fometimes fomewhat pointed, of about three 

Quarters of an Inch diameter, ferrated very prettily about the Edges 
thin, and fomewhat like the Leaves of Alder. 
It grew on the Road going to the North Side of the Ifland about 

Mount Diablo. . 

This, as appears by its Figure and Defcription, is perfectly different 

from the aim folia Americana [errata floribus Pentapetalis albis in fpicam 

dtfptfttis. Pluken. Phyt. Tab. 15. Fig. 1. Aim. p. 19. tho' the Do£kor 

fuppofeth it may be the fame. Mant. p, 

in tenues 

III. Juniperus maxima Cupreffl folio minima^ cortice 
philyrasfpitales dutfili.Cat. p. 128. Fab. 157, Fig. 3. Raij. Hi ft. Tom _ 
dendr. p. 1 2. An Juniperus Barbadenfis Quprejfi folio arbor prtcelfa tetragono- 
phyllos ftve foliatura qu adr angul ar i . Pluk. Mant. p. 109? The Juniper Tree. 

This Tree grows to be one of the largeft and higheft Timber Trees 

of this Ifland, affording very large Boards, of a reddifh brown Colour,, 
clofe and firm Contexture, fliining, very odoriferous, and ftronglyv 
fcented, extreamly like, if not the fame with the Bermudas Cedar, being 


towards its Outfides of a paler Colour and loofer Contexture. The Bark 

is thin, and ready in great Pieces to drop off, appearing fomewhat con- 
torted, of a reddifh brown Colour. The Branches, Twigs and Leaves 

are cxa&ly like thofe of the Sabina folio Cuprejfi C. B. or B^cci/era. J. B* 

The Twigs or Surculi are more denfe and fmaller than thole of this 
laft, and lefs than the Leaves of the other Kinds, fmelling of Rofin, 
and like to Savin. The Fruit I never faw, but was told it was a Berry 
like thofe of the Juniper. 

It grows on the Hills near the Blue Mountain in Liguanee, near 
Mr. Harrifon*s or Mr, Mac Gragtfs Houfe. 

Thefe Trees are fell'd and very much us'd foe wainfeoting Rooms, 
making Efcritores,Cabinets,(^r.C^r^w and other Vermine avoiding this 
Smell ; any Papers or otherGoods devourable by them are put up inChefts 
of this Wood and that of Cedar, where they remain fecure and fafe for 
many Years, from the Attempts of that ail-devouring Tribe. 

Thevet tells us, the Indians usM to put their Feathers in Jioxes of it 

being durable, and prcferving Things put therein, but it gives a bitter 




The Natural Hijlory of J A M A I C 

Tafte to Vi&uals. He alfo fays 'tis good Timber for Ships agairift Worms 
eating them and the Sea, and deftroying equino&ial Air. But I have feen 

Keels of Ships of this Wood eaten thro' and thro' by thefe large Sea 

-■ ■ 

IV. Moras frucia viridi^ llgm fatphareo tintlorio. Cat. p. 128.T4&.158. 

fig. 1. Ratj. Hifi- Tom. 3. dendr. p. 14. Bo is jaane ou fa ft ok Roc he f. />. 91. 
Tab/, p. 2Q. Arbor baccifera Brafilienfts y frucia tubercalis in*quali y mori xrna^ 
lo. Raij. Hift. p. 1639. An Bots jaane Abbeville, p. 208 ? De But. p. 338 
Bots jaane. Pommet. p> 122. An Lignam croceo tingens. J. B* T. 1. p. 493, 

Fultick Wood. 

This Tree has a great many very long and great Roots with abun- 
dance of fmaller Twigs, having a very yellow-colour'd Bark, by which 

firmly nVd into all Parts of the Earth near it, and fends up a 

h, cover 


large and {height Trunc, fikty Foot or more high, cover'd with a light 
brown-colour'd Bark, having here and there fome fuperficial Furrows, in 
which appear a bright yellow Colour. The Wood is very firm, folid, and 
of a very fine yellow Colour : The Branches are fpread on every Hand, 
and the Twigs are cover'd with a Bark of a more light Colour, fet with 
Leaves, (landing on fhort Footflalks. They are rough, dark green in Co- 
lour, larger towards the Footftalk, from whence they end in a Point, and 
fomething referable Elm Leaves,only are longer; a great many Jali orCat- 
kins ceme out at the Ends of the Branches,they are whitifh and fhort ; the 

Fruit ftands on a Footftalk, is as large as a Nutmeg, round, having 
Acmi like the other Mulberries, of a greenifh Colour both without and 
within the Pulp ; there are in it fome fiat brown fmall Seed, like Linfeed, 
d before the Fruit comes to be ripe 'tis milky and not pleafant, b 


when come to Maturity 'tis pleafant to the Talle, altho' very lufciouily 

This Tree grows very quickly : I have feen Trees thirty or forty Foot 

high in feven or eight Years Time. 

It grows by the Banks of the Rio Cobre y near the Town of St. J ago de la 
Vega^nd in all the Plains of the North and South Sides of the Ifland. 

It is fell 'd and cut into Loggs to be fent for Europe^ to be ufed by the 
Dyers, for a yellow Colour, and 'tis worth Fifty Shillings per Tun in Ja- 
maica. 'Tis one of the Commodities this Ifland naturally afford: 
and being cut down in feveral Places, is by fome again planted for Shade, 
in their clear'd Fields, as well as that they may fell and make Profit of 
the Wood in fome few Years. 

The Wood is Ukewife very much ufed by Wheel- Wrights. 

The Fruit is pleafant to cat and very much coveted by Negro's as a 


D j. 

It is better if eaten with Wine and Sugar. Pifo. 

This is not the Ponga H- M. /. 3. 74. as Commelin fufpefts. 

It grows much in St. Cruz, and Tobago. Roch. 

The Fruit is eaten when frefli ; a Sapa is made of it good for a fore 

Throat. Nieremb 

V.Juglandi affinis arbor julifera, latfefcens, <venenata,pyr if oli 'a ,Mancanillo 
Hifpams dicta. Cat. p. 129. Tab. 159. MancaniRa de Efquemeling. p. 34 

Malas Americana^ laurocep •afi folio >, venenata. Mancintllo arbor fen Ma/Jinitta 
dicta. Cbmmel.hort. Amft./>. iji. Mane and a pyri facie Plurnier. pi. Ameri. 
p. 50. Macenilla arbor toxica & lactea y ftuttu fuavi pomiformi qua Indtani 
fagtttas tnficiant. Surian. Mancaneel Tree of Dampier. cap. 3, An Matfimlia 

major Herm. par. Bat. cat. p. 9 ? The Mamaneil Tree. 


The Natural Hijlory of J A M A 1 C A; 

This Tree has as large a Trunk as our European Oakes, out of w 

Boards are faw'd, not only for Wainfcotand Cabinets, but 
for the largeft Tables ; this Wood being very much coveted by all 
PeopIe,not only for its being able to endure thePoli/h, but for its Durability, 
and like wife for its delicate and pleafant variousColours,which are dark. The 
Bark is grey, almoft fmooth, with no deep Sulci in it, and ufually after 

fing ftreight up Ten or Twelve Foot high, divides it felf into feveral 

Branches, which make a round fine fhap'd Head, riling Thirty or Forty 

Foot high with their Tops. After fome few Days Rain, the Ends of 
the Branches fprout out three Inches long Juli of a yellowifh green Colour 
made up offmall yellow Apices: And at the fame Time,ufually between the 
Parting or Divarication ot twoTwigs, the Fruit grows on theBranch 

moll: no Footftalk,at firft no bigger than a Pin's Head,rotind and green, but 

ugments to the Bignefs of a \Vallnut without Skin, or one of our wild 

rctab Apples, of a yellowiih green Colour when ripe, and has exaft- 

their Smell if one come on the Lee Side of the Tree under which 


g a fmall Hole for the Crown, and a Pulp no thicker 

a half Crown Piece, which ufually dries away under the Tree, fhowing 
fome Furrows or Channels in it, and turning to a light fungous Matter. 
This Matter being with Difficulty taken off,there appears a roundifh very 
hard Stone, having many fharp Points on each Side of it, in which 
lies in Cells fome flat Seeds fomewhat like thofe of a Melon* 

While the Fruit is ripening, come the Leaves, ftanding without anv 
Order on the Ends of the Twigs, on three quarter Inch Footftalks, being 
Inch and half long and Inch broad, a little beyond the round Bafe where 
broadeft, from thence growing narrower 'till they end in a Point, being 
fmooth, hard and of a yellowiih green Colour. 

It is in all its Parts extreamly lull of a very fiery and hot Milk in great 

It grows in the low Land, Sandy Woods, near Gullies and Places where 

"Water runs fome Times of the Yea 

Mr. Mohun told me, he knew a Fellow eat four of them, and yet 
" much hurt by them ' 

I do not fay 'tis the Baxana, as is alledg'd by Dr. Plukenet /. 23, of his 

Goats feed on the Fruit when fallen from the Trees, very greedily and 
in great Plenty, and yet neither their Flefh, nor which is more wonder- 

ful, their Milk is in the leaft poyfonous, but eaten indifferently as other 

This Tree is very much valued for its fine Timber, but Workmen take 

great Care in Felling it that the Milk fhould not come near their 
which it very much burns and deftroys, efpecially the Eyes, as you mav 
fee by an Inftance of one who had his Eyes hurt and was with fome 

Difficulty cured, of which I have given an Account in my Introduaion to 

the firft Volume of this Hiftory. p. CXX. 

I Mm y r A tel ' s " s > the Fruit tur "s into Worms when eaten, and that if one 

fleep under the Shade, their Head fwells and they grow blind, but if thev 
lleep it out they recover their Sight, as likewife that they raife Puftles if 
Xf«M?w ^ e a nakcd c^° d . y ' wl ^hcaufe deadly Pain unlefs helped 

by Salt Water or Spittle, that fmelling the Wood is deadly, 

and that it cannot beany where carried without great Hazard. The 
Indians tried by the Smoakof this to free themfelvei of the Chiefs of the 
Spaniards.when they were afleep.They made thelndiansconfefsth.sDefign 
and fome of the Authors of it were punilhed. The Indians have an He?b 

whole fmell faves them from the Harm of this, that they may carry lt 


,s » * 

? * ■« 

The Ndtural 



bout with them. They often fall into Rivers over wh 
d if the Fifh eat them and are taken, they beget many 



range Difeafea 

.„ Men feeding on them. Thomas H. Ortiz,ius tafted one of therii, and fa id 
that it was fharpand fweet,it hurt him a little,aDraught of Oil is theAnti- 
dote. This Fruit kills Cats,Dogs or any quadruped which eats it. Pet. Martyr. 
It grows on all thelflandson the Coaft of the Continent from Dragons 
Mouth to N ombre de Dios, which is 400 Leagues, they are molt pernicious 
to People lying in their Shade, their whole Bodies fwell, their E) 


being moft extreamly fo 

they had been bu 

Chance any 
it was Aq 

Dew touch the Flelh, it burns whef 


if by 

fortisy and if it touch the Ey 

them to Pieces and 

pts them fo that they never can be remedied, but remain for ever blind 
The Wood gives a horrible (linking Smoak, much worfe than that 


he Ind 

poifon their Arrows 




irremediable^ and I do very much doubt if in. the World the 




for Nothing 

Plant, others being ufeful for Phyfick or Mechanics, but 


1 - 

This Fruit dry'd feems to be the fruttus Peregrinus, 2 US defer ibed and 
fiour'd by Clufius in his Exoticks />. 45. the Stone alone clear'd of its fungous 

**o — — j J 

Matter his frutfus Per eg 

5 9 and perhaps 4 

Juices till they brought it t6 the 

The Indians ufe the Juice of this Tree to poifon their Arrows. Thevetl 
Ben&ofays that the Poifon for their Arrows was made of Roots, Herbs, 1 
Ants, Apples, and other filthy Juices that old Women boil'd with Serpents 

" ht Mixture, neither are there 
few who are kill'd withtheVapour ; if anyBcdy be wounded with an Arrow 
poifon'd by this when frefh, he fwells and dies fuddenly mad, but if noc 
frefh it is lefs ftrong. The beft Remedy is burning with a hot Iron. 

The Indians takeDeer by pbifoning thePonds where they drink with this 
Fruit, with which and the Milk of the fameTree they anoint their A Gom.'Ths Fruit if eaten breeds Worms in the Body, corroding the 
Guts of Man or Beaft, fleeping under it makes the Head ach and Eyes 
fwell. Fire and fait Water is the Remedy. The Indians have another Herb 
whofe Roots Juice remedies the Poifon of this Fruit, {An Canna India 

radice alba, Alexifharmaca Cat. pi. Jam. p. 122. Nat. Hifi. Jam. p. 2 5 }.) 


Arrows have 


Ends Rayesl 

nointed with the Juice of th 

Fruit, or other Poifon made of many Things, which wounding kills 

Id. cap. 7 

In making the Compofition of this Fruic, Ants, Scorpions, &c. if 

old Women dye with its Steam, 'tis thought very good: Th 

The Ulcers on which a Drop of the Milk falls, gangreen prefently, they 

do not corrupt as Appl 


lignous. The beft inward Remedy 

vomiting with Oil Olive, but there is no Remedy after an Hour. Thole 

dead of it were found to have a large Place in their Stomach as big 

Hand, black and burnt. Tertr 

The Apples falling in the Water, are pernicious to Fifh eating them. I 
Maccaws feed on the Fruit 




other C 




With Manfaneel Appl 


gether with venomous Bats, Vipers, Adders 


Serpents, they make a Medley, and therewith anoint their 

poifon'd Arrows for Wars, which they keep 






covers himfelf 

of the Bignefs of a Man's Arm : Thefe will hurt a Spaniard who 

Horfe with two Inches thick quilted Canvals 


Spaniards report that it kills in twenty four Hours. Hawk 

if. Hakl. p 







• • 

- - - - 


The Natural Hiftory of JAMAICA. 

The Fruit feems fo defirable, it may be thought that of our firft Pa 

Of thofe Fruits, big Ants, Efts and Vipers, is made their Poyfi 

which poyfonous Maffc is black and like Pitch ; of Fifty wounded, 
Three have not recovered ; Salt Water is/thought good. The Wood 

when burnt, a Stink ; repofing under it is pernicious, cauling fwell'd 

Eyes, and Droppings of Dew from it, if falling into the Eye, deftro) _ 

the Sight. Ovtedcfs Summary, Edin. p. 198. and 209. 

This Tree grows in Efpanola, and for the Space of four Hundred 
Leagues of the Coaft of Terra firma, is hurtful to thofe deeping under 
It; caufes Headach, fwelling of the Eyes, Eyelids and Jaws \ the Drop- 
pings of the Dew of it is very hurtful, like Fire, and getting into the 
Eyes endanger the Lofs of them ; the Smoke of the Wood bu 

not to be born by either Man or Beaft, caufing much Weight, and 
for Arrows Head Poyfon is a Compofition. Ovied. Coron. 

Fowls or Swine will not meddle with this hurtful Fruit. Smith* s Qhff. 

a • - 

This Fruit is like Apple-John , Ligon.p. 68 

Their Weapons (the Indians of Carries) are Bows and Arrows, their 
Bows are never bent, but their String lies flat to the Bow their Arrows 

fmall Reed, four or five Foot long, headed fome with the poyfon'd 
Sting of the Tail of a Stingray, fome with Iron, fome with Wood, but 

all Jo poyfon'd, that if they draw but Blood, the Hurt is incurable. Smith'* 
Obff. p. 5 


. 1 

I doubr whether this be the moft ftrong Poyfon for Arrows u fed bv 

theJrora's, a People as black as Negro's, with fmooth Hair; they (w.^ 

are hurt by it) dk fometimes ftark mad, and their Bowels are'difcolour'd 
and unfavoury, enduring great Torment, and Drinking, tho' dry is 
more certain Death. Sir Walter Rarvleighoi Guiana, p. <c. a p Hakl 6aq 
A -, what, £ ^ y 

1 ; 

Kjymis ap. Hakl. />. 688. mentions, viz,, the Herb Wapototo, whofe Tuici 
invenoms Arrows, the Wounds of which, brings incomparable Torment 
And in the next Page he mentions in Guiana, four poyfonous Herbs 
viz. Ourari y Caraffi, Aparepo, Parapara, arid Herbs good againft Poyfon a' 
many, viz.Turara, Cutarapama, Wapo and Macatto. Or, that which 

The Sapiesznd Sambofes alfo ufe in their Wars, Bows and Arrow 
made of Reeds, with Heads of Iron, poyfon'd with the Juice of a Cu 

mber, whereof I had many in my Hands. Sir John Hawkins, ap. Hakl. 


t* ' I ' ' * I 


We arrived at Cape Verde the 18th of AW. where we landed one hun- 
dred and fifty Men, hoping to obtain fome Negro's, where we <*ot 
but few, and thofe with great Hurt and Damage to our Men, whTch 
chiefly proceeded of their envenom'd Arrows ; and altho' in th 


ginning they fee m'd to be but fmall Hurts, yet there hardly efcaped 
any that had Blood drawn of them, but died in fti 


with their Mouths fliut fome ten Days before they died, and after 
their Wounds were whole, where I my feif had one of the ereatdl 
Wounds, yet Thanks be to God, efcaped. Hakl. p. 2. p. < 2 I. %*- 

*rt " ' 

They Qhe Spaniards at CartagenaJ had joyn'd with them many Ind 
whom they had placed in Corners of Advantage, all Rn«,Ln 

Corners of Advantage, all Bowmen, with 

their Arrows moft villanoufly empoyfon'd, fo as 1Y they did 


Skin, the Party fo touch'd died, without great Marvel. Some they flew 
?LT JS** ^ lth p lhe f r A , rr , ows ^ fome tht Y ****** mifchiev'd to 

fnH Sln Certai K PriCks ° f / mal1 Sticks OtoWT P°^ted, of a Foot 

and a half long, the one End put into the Ground, the other em- 

- poyfon'd 

_ .. > 

The tffitwral Hifi&ry 4 J A M , A I C 



. .... - % m 

poy fon'd,; /licking } fa ft upright, againlt 
fhnuM annroach from our Landme t( 

fhould appro 
had planted 

ogr corrwng m the Way, as we 
g towards the Towft> whereof they 



a weaderful Number in the ordinary -.Wart jj but aw kelp 
Sea-wain Shore 


pily. C/t/« */>. Hakl. p. 

miffed the greateft Part; of th«jm vitoyMiap* 






• ' 



The. Fruit poyfons Water, that even the Fithes are hurt by it. Oil 
Olive is the beft Antidote, or the Patieat is. to be bound fa as .not to 

drink. A Spaniard told Commetin that the Roots were mod poyfonous, 
and the Seeds the Antidote bruited and given with Wine. Commit, 

•* . - f •• ■ < «li 

whofe Figure is not good. 

It is certain that moft Parts of this Tree are poyfonous, and that 

■ _ _ 


poyfon'd Arrows of the Indians were anointed by a Subftance, likely 

to "be moftly of the. Milk, which they had from this Tree. 


And yet I have feen a Grove of young Manfaneels, which I wasaf- 
furcd, had fomeYea/s before, fprung up from the Seeds of thefe Trees 
which were lod&M in the Dung of Goats, which after feeding on their 
Fruit, had reforted thither. ^ . - 

Land-Crabs, Barracuda's and other Fifh feeding on the Leaves or other 
rts of thefe Trees, are poyfonous to the Perfons eating of them. 
This is not unlikely to come from die Parts of this Tree undigefted, 

which may 



their Flefh may be wholefood enough. 

-ill. have.- for the Satisfa&ion of the R 

their. Mouths, Stomacks or Guts> whereas 

7/ « - i • "< I l ft 




l I have; for the Satisfaaiori of the Reader given % Accounts of fhis 
jnoft poyfonous Tree from ieveral Travellers, moftly in "their own /Words 
and they who defire to know the fevcral^ Countries where it grows 

and Authors whd r have fpokc of it, 
Cat. pi. Inf. Jan. P. 1 29, 1 J o, and 1 3 1 , 


ay 'find them refer rd to in 



x •• 

a «. -» 








« * 




\ ■ 










Shews a Branch of the Tree with the Leaves and the Fruit. 



2. A Branch with the Julus. 

. T^Manfaneei-Apple 

drfi and JhrivePd. 



5. The fungous Outfidej ^, _ .. u, ^ 

6 4W 7. T//^^j /^ broken, where the Cells of the Seeds appear ■, 

%. Three of the Seeds taken out. 

8. Three of the Seeds taken out. 





ivree oj we &zw> wucrn/ut. j 

^ G«w >vA/V£ f*yi^« o«^ of this Tree, like Gum. Guajaci* 


VI. RiVwi frutlu glabro 

X ft. * «1 / O v T? : 




This Tree 

58. F* 


is of the fam 

lifer a. lattefcens folio myrtino. cat. 

with that called Camerti 



KM.) has gray colour'd fmall Roots, *^ „. - ^ r 

Hand very deep into the Earth, they fend up a 1 rune of the .Bjgnels ot 

on every 


d with a gray Bark 



ones Leg, about 20 Foot higL, ^ , 

which within is red and milky. After Rains the Twigs have lull ». 

abundance, about a Quarter of an Inch long, made up oB many 





yellowifli green, round, fmall, very tender 

the Leaves, two Inches long, one broad, in the Middle they arc 


>t> fome fc 

broadeft, being narrow both at Beginning an 

perceivable Notches in them, and being of a dark-green-lhunng Colour . 

r - - • ■ fhort Footttaiks, a fmall green tnan 

The Twigs have here and there, . 

gular Fruit, which afterwards comes to be as large as the Grana- 1 





The Natural Hijlory of J A M A 1 C A. 

the fame light brown Colour, and contains three roundilh Seeds in fo 

many Loculaments. 

i It grew in a Wood between the Town Savanna and two Mile Wood. 

Gully in great Plenty 

This, tis plain is not the Lyctum myttifolih fubrotundis Americanum 

UZicfcens Umbts foltorum argent at is. Pluk. Phjt. Tab. 224 Fir 7. Aim 

*> 234. Tho' theDr./. 122. of his Mantijfa thinks it may be the fame. 


Of Trees bearing dry Fruit which are not Siliquofe. 

Palm* Mies Nucifera Coccus Jiff*, R*ij. Hift. pi. p. , j $ Coconut of 
C*t. pi. Jam. p. 1 j 2. Damper cap. 10, &c. Yay-fa Palma de Coco Boym. 

Thevenot.RtUt.p.ij. J ' 

The Coco- Tree. 


*2S B*j is £° rf and fo i° rte ? i ef n ri ? d * nd fi s ur ^ cf p cei % i» 

the Hortus Malabancus, that I ihall do neither, but refer to Au- 
taken Notice of in my Catalogue of Jamaica Plants- /. ij 2 , i? ?# 

7 he 'ESf "SS bc S*** a . nd wh ?K°me xVourifhment, the Inhabitants 

and 154 


of feveral Illes living on Nothing elfe 

The Tree or the Wood is good for Mails for Ships, Planks and Nails 

as well as Boards and Timber for Houfing and Firing. 
The Leaves for covering Hats, Houfes, &c. and for Sailes. 

The outward Skin for Ropes, Okum, which fwelling more with wet 

is better Okum than ours. » 

They are planted in all the hot Parts of the E*fi and Wefi-lndies, for their 

£% f \ ^Vr lent, [ Ul I y , f0 J Und ¥ V, and 1 fu PP° fe ' Natural 'y wild in the 

^ M k*m a j d » he defert £ "> /w " t M« "««• the Shore, being not found in 

the Midland Parts, D 

The Oil, made by Decoaion, is as hard as white Wax- The Way 

of making it is to grate the Kernel, and boil it in Water, the Oil fwim- 
ming at Top is taken off, and is reckon'd very cooling, duretick and 
Peaoral, good for Burns and for every thing that Oil of fweet At- 

monds is. 


The Pulp of the Nut grated and mix'd with Water, makes a Milk, 
to be ufed to make Cheefecakes and any other Way as ordinary Milk! 

and mix d with fome Salt, drank to eight Ounces, is good for Worm* 

and in the Eaft-Indtes is mixed with their Rice for Food. 
The Top of this Tree, the Germen being tender, is eaten as that of a 

Cabbagc-Tree; the elder the Tree, the tenderer, but the Tree after 'tis 

taken off, penfhes. ' 

porated, it leaves a fort of 

T) J, tJ° P • • JT g w l 0Un I dcd . g'vres a Liquor, which 

Days Time, is vinous, and fit to drink, in three or four Days it turns 
to Vinegar, and if when new it be evanorareH. it ,„.,J\ V"™ 
Honey or Sugar. 

bv^om^Ta h3rd S *? ] ■ \ made int0 D «nking.Cups, and is thought 
Dffortt, to give an Alex.pharmac nervous Antiparalytic and Antiaoo- 

fiS C hS , S y? t0 ^ , L T ° r $*!*** ia '"> ™d makes VeffdsKl 

S , b "Lter t0 be d <^d »P°"- Of the Shell is made a Coa 


a / 

ufeful to Goldfmiths 


The Natural Hi/lory of J A M A 1 G 

The Water contained in the Nuts not ripe, is very pleafant, cooling, 
and a natural Emulfion,good in Gonorbxas, Stoppage of Urine, Fevers, In- 
flammattonSjcK and is the moft pleafant cooling Liquor that I ever tafted ; 
but in Come fmall Time, if fuffer'd to remain in the Nut, it turns into the 
Kernel, iticking to the Infide of the Shell, for which Reafon, it ftands 
well here amons Trees with a dry Fruit, tho" Dr. Pluk. f. 143. of his 

Mantitf. thinks other wife. j > 

Marcgrave faw this Tree removed when thirty Years old at Brajil, there 

being three hundred People to do " 

In Goa they take out the white Kernel, dry it, and fend it in Traffick, 
as well as the whole Fruit, to Mdabar i Cambaja, Ormus, &c. which is for 
making Oil to eat, ferve their Lamps, and for Phyfick to purge the Sto- 
mach and kill Worms ; the Dofe is Eight Ounces when made of Frefh 
Nuts • When made of old ones, it ferves for old Aches, Gout and Con- 
traftions of the Nerves. They cut the Flowers to get the Liquor Sura. 
... a Bottle clofed from the Air, 'tis from thence, none in the Philippine 
inlands are troubled with the Stone; it being cooling to the Liver and 
Kidneys, and cleanfing the Vrethra ; (landing an Hour in the Sun it turns 
to Vinegar, which muft be mix'd with Meat when almoit cold, for ~ 
the leaft Heat, itiofes its Sournefs ; diftill'd twice, it is called Vr — 


jR^) ufed very much in the Indte s, being as hot as Spirit of Wine; with 
Raillns it makes a fine red Wine ; carried thro* the Mies, and Jagra, a 
black Sugar, good for the Breaft, and every thing as our Sugar, is made 
oiSurs by Evaporation ; the Cabbage (or Germen) is a great Dainty ; the 
Maldives are full of thefe Nuts, fo that their whole Barks, Loading, 
Meat, &c. are all from this Tree. Linfcbot. Garcias. 

Martyr fays this Fruit was brought to the American Ifles, but, that ma- 
ny were found naturally in Peru, it may be doubted whether they were 
not brought thither by the natural Currents of the Sea. 

The Nuts when young are eat, they tafte like Artichokes, and flop 
all Manner of Fluxes. Xtm. HermanL Garc. Jcofla. 

Of the Villi or Fibres of this Fruit Birds make their hang Nefts to 
fecure them againft Serpents. Valer. ap. Zju.p. 27. 

The Roots Chark'd, gives an excellent Temper to Iron, and the Boughs 
and Leaves make Torches to drive away Serpents, and take Fifh as in 

Portugal ; of the Leaves are made Parafols to flicker from Sun and Rain 
and Coverings for Palanquins; fome Palm Leaves ferve for Paper, being 
writ on with a fteci Pencil ; of the Twigs or Petioli of the Fruit are made 
ordinary Caps ; when the Clufter appears yet cover'd with the Flower, 
gather'd pounded and boyPd in three Pints of Cows Milk, it is a Remedy 
againft the Yellow- Jaundice, which is infallible ; the Water of the unripe 
Nuts is an excellent Wafh: When the Palm puts forth her Shoot or Poyo % 
ftaped like a Moorifh Scimiter, before the Clufter appears, they cut three 
Fingers Breadth from the Point, and tying it near the Incifion, flitting 
it put the End of the Shoot into a Pitcher made for that Purpofe, leaving 
it' there, the Shoots weep that Juice which fhould have produced Cww- 
Nuts ; the Inhabitants take it away twice in 24 Hours, Morning and E- 
vening. Fifh putrificd at thefe TreesRoots are good Manure, fomeEftates in 
India confift of them ; they do not thrive on Hills too much expos'd or far 
from the Sea ; the Indians Sow the Ground between them ; the bed are 
in Ma and India ; they plant them in Beds, and cover them with Eaith, 
and when grown big, they tranfplant them ; they are fecur'd as it 
with a fort of natural Canvafs againft Winds ; their Age is known 
by the Veftigia of their Leaves dropt off. Hiercnjmo de Lobos. 






The Natural Hijlory of J A M A I C A, 


makes Veffels, giving Wine a Fragancy, eafing Pa 



nd Lo 

provoking Ur 


ins of 
beat the Kernell 

with Water and drink it 
The Iflanders of Zjbut 


Sicknefles. Tbevet. Sing 

with Coco Oil their whole Bodies. Cap 

The Cups made of this Shell are gcod for thofe that are fpienetick, and 
good Thatch is made of the Leaves, Cafalp. 

The Leaves ferve to write on, the firrt Letter fent to the King of Por- 
tugal from Calecut, was writ on this Leaf. Ferdinando Lopes. 

This Nut binds Lugd. 

The common Figures of this Tree with a round and fingle Fruit, are 

not good 


made of it like Almonds for Meat, and for 

boiling Rice 


it is 

as good as ordinary Milk. 

The Indians make Ufe of the folding inward Subftanceof this Tree for 

Paper, hid 

4. cap 


The Shells having three Holes are in fome Places put on for Masks 



fright Children. Anon, ad tab. Cojm. The Ind 
with Worms from this Fruit. 7. B. 

Leaves make Paper and Cloaths. I. B. Such Cloaths were fent for a Pre- 

fent to the Portugal King. Maffei. 

The Indians write very elegantly on the Leaves. Bont. 

The Top of the Tree is eat, Elephants love it and therefore root out 



the elder the Fruit, the more Oily the Tafte of it, at firft the 

Water in the Nut 

mpid, aft 


tis turbid when the Kernel comes 


the Nut is eat when tender and young. Suri, or Sura, an inebriating Li 
quor comes from the Footftaiks of the young Fruit, yielding a 

made with 


Jagra a Sugar is made with Lime put to the Suri , Vineg 

Fermentation in Lime ; the elder Trees give lefs Suri but ftrongwi , wu 

of the Fruit is good for Hemorhoids and fcabb'd Heads ; the Juice from the 

Pains of the Ey 

lender Branches mix'd with Honey 





of them are in Guam 

of the Ladrones Ifles 


when ripe is very hard to digeft ; Moifture makes the Fruit iprout; Toddy 
is drawn from the Tree, and from it fowr Arack, the beft is from this 

for Punch 

drawn from a Branch that wi 





JUl lUlluijHWU«av»u »iw»» » *" B "v.u iuai will yiWU It rt> lUiig aS IH< 

Fruit would have grown ; the bearing Branches if all tapp'd there fol 


Fruit, thofe not 

tapp'd bear, the Fruit Kernel 


Water, makes Milk to boil Fowl or Flefh in ; Oil is got by boiling theNut 
Kernel rafp'd inWater, it fwims atTop ; thelndians beat theHusk to make 
Rope-Yarns and Coarfe Sail cloth ; they grow overflow'd with Salt Wa- 

the Fruit Fattens Hogs whofe Flefh is as hard as Brisket BqqL A 

bundance of them fwimming 


found with Water in them 

off o$ Sumatra. They grow fmaller, but more ponderous in an Ifle 

that overflowed with Salt Water. The Hottentots and in moft Eaft India. 
Ifles, the Inhabitants anoint themfelves with Coconut Oil, two or three 
Times a Day, efpecially Mornings and Evenings, chafing it in for half 


Hair and Ski 


Raveneau de Luffan, p. 78. found thefe Trees along the Coaft by Nico 

ga y for the Space of fifteen Leagues, as if planted, in five Rows Alleys 
Oakamismade of the Rind by the Spaniards, which is better than Tow 

Cltfe a P Hakl p. 3. p. 749. fays that he found this Tree in M*b t one 

of the Cafe Verde Ifles. "~ " y 



— ' 

/'/><? Natural Hijlory 0/ JAMAICA. 

Pjwvi A /„ fa/, who liv'd feveral Years in the Maldives Uh7* T 
by his own Experience knew more of this Tree than In, Wr te, n, '° 
tells us, that there it is,,, j. , 22. called ZW, ia^lS^' 

/^»«^ by the Portugueje Palmero, and Fruit Caw, it grows nlv 

^ $*», tho' there not every where , more in the AlluZt °ul 

any other Fart; they are forced to cut them down to mTkckwSfcr 

Houfes, which they fuffer them not near, becaufc th wJZr^- 
bW them down o'n their Houfes. and kill *S£ttSS2TSS 
eat Holes ln them when green for Meat and Drink, whereby tfi 
and fall often killing thofc about them, becaufe of the HcLht Li h 
he, wetght ; fo that in the Defert Ifle's the Ground is Vovf ed 39 

'IT' bUt r^ f ° , Whe ^ thc Ifles are inhabited . becaufe when fo dry'd the! 
make good Fuel. Ants make their Tracks at their Feet, and ran v the 
Earth from them, whence they fall, p 2 i Thev o m », ,!!. , I •? 
high,* The under half of the Tree is ewd for \SJ^A%^ tSl 

Water. 24, 50 Cocos arefometimes in a Bunch.a Bunch comfs e vervMonth 
* It loves motft and fandy Ground. 24. and' does no c™n\ 71 wkhia 
Land. 24. -f no Water be in it, and it be too dry, it will St* row 
The whole Fruit muft be planted, otherways it corrupts. «. w he„ Wz'- 

4i ^T ' » k K ng , °" 1C ' ° r V* k , is a Si S n of i£s b£ i"g ripe or not. 2 e | 

I-he Middle Rib cleaves and makes Laths and Palifales /Z Ve ?& 
Leaves few 1 for Thatch. 26. with Stiles they write on them u Paner tf 

rhev are nferl for Sale ;A ii/tw tj^„ tilJ? •_'. " u i em as ^aper. /£. 

ufed for Sails, tf. Mats, Hats, Panniers and Para fob 5 


every thing ufually in Europe made of O/ier or Willow, & Jjttle Baskets 
Brooms and Coffers are made of the middle Ribs of it, 26 avehns are 
made of the middle Ribs tyed together and Iacker'd,2 7 thev make Pins of 

them likewife, * and rteep theBark of the Fruit or H^SmewtjgS 

peel d from the Nuts to make Ropes is to lie ? Weeks in the Sea' 

Water cover'd with Sand, then thelnhabitants beat itasHemp "rFb ' with 
wooden Mallets, ib. make Match of it when the F ' P 


foak'd land 1 beat.but fpun with all its Subftance, then they boil i wit Alhes 
and ufe ,t for Match all over theWfe, except where Cods are fcarce wh 

diey ufe Cotton. 28. Pots, Spoons, or Cups are made of the Shell 'ib. and 

Forge Coal. ib. The Kernel is eat as Bread with other Victuals' ami 
-atec I and prefsU it. gives Milk, as fugar'd Milk or Almond MIk and 

with Honey or Sugar is drank falling, and is their only pureinc Medirinr 

it IS 

fc * * 

This Milk boil'd, thickens and turns into 0.1 k "for* Frka fes 
for Lamps and for curing Ulcers, 29. The Author was cured with it •' 
alfo good for the Itch. From a yellow Oil it grows a white Butter, " k 
kept three Months, to be ufed as Oil .• The Marc or dry Part of the Kernel 
prefs'd.wtth Honey and Sugar, is us'd to make Prefer ves, 29 when very 
young, Husk and all is eat like an Apple, but this is only one Kind, which 
is not good when ripe 33. they make Quarts or Meafures of the Spatba 
and Confevesof the Howers, 30. The Membrane between the Leaves is 
good to make Sacks and alfo Sieves to ftrain things thro', 30. the Indilns 
cut the flowering Footftalk a Foot high, and get a fort of Wine, a Quart a 
Day for fix Months, they boil it with fome clear white Stones foundin the 
Sea, and make it intoHoney or Sugar, 30. and with other Stones it is made 
whiter, th. they make goodArack, 31. and good Vinegar of it it the 

Drawing this Liquor fpoils the Fruit of the Tree, 31. the tender Ton 

three Foot in Length is good to eat, ib. the ripe Fruit left in moift 
Places or in the Ground three Weeks or a Month, the Sprout or 
Germen, is good Meat and very tender, ji. they dry the Kernel to 

fend it to Arabia &c. by dividing the Nut in two, and expofing it to the 



The Natural Hifiory 


Sun to dry and ufe for S 


longer than that drawn from the frefh F 

Pottage and Oil, 52. which Oil is better and 
, fr«r« rk<* fr<*r\i Vvn\t th. a Mark Colour is 

given by the Sawings of the Wood 

own Sugar, and Water left fome 

Days in the Sun, ib. infinite Numbers of Ships 

a hundred or a hundred 

and twenty T 

made of it, without the Help of any Iron or other 

Wood but whatcomes from thisTree. Anchorsof this arefih"d,the Hollow 
with Stones to make them heavy, 32. thefe Ships are fill'd with Merchan 


made from the Tree, 72 

the Natives m 


Drums of this Tree, 
and fourbifh their Arms 

th a Bod- 

hollow'd and cover'd with large Ray-skins, 

&c with the Wood, ib. The Inhabitants write on the Leaves 

kin ; they are as white as Paper./. 103. The Natives eat one half ripe and 

drink the Water of it af the Beginning of aMeal, faying it is wholefomeand 

laxative, lb. p. 128. Drink Wine of Cocos the fame Day, 128. Another Drink 

which is hot is made of Water and Honey of Cocos with Pepper, ib. the 





gar of this with 


of Sugar and C 

diflolv'd in Water, ib. S 


Rice bruis'd and boil'd, are given 

Children, ib. 12 a. this Tree comes naturally at Maldives without planting. 

> )t - ~~ ' ~ * '~ • ~ • 'is the 



6 5 Cairo or Ropes of Cocos and Bolys ? or (Gorvries, Cor is) 

Reveniie'of the Chriftian King of Maldives ; with the $d of which, Ships 
are fent every Year as Tribute to the King of Portugal, of 150 Tuns 

each. 17 


Tree is at Mali cut. cap. 2 a,, p. 232. cap. 27. p. 286 


Country about Calecut, where 

Houfes are coverM with its Leaves 


.89. but only by the poorer Sort, the richer having Tyles, 290. They write 
with Iron Bodkins on Leaves of Palm-Trees, 293. p. 2. p. 18. Thefe Trees 
are planted and enclos'd in Gardens about Got, where they are farm'd 
by the Canarins, chiefly for the Wine's fake ib. p. 88. they likewife grow 
in Cey Ian ib.p. 100. at Bantam, Molaccos.p^i 48. and at Mofambiq 
Mr. Cdfsr Frederick ap. Hakl. p. 2 1 8 


that Sa 


of the Leaves, and Spoons of the hard Shells of the Fruit, and that they 

Cochin. Cananor. f . 227. in Andemaon and in Goa,p 


Mr. Fitch ap.Hakl. p 


fays that a Boat he went from Bafara to 



them, ib. p. 25 

was fow'd with Cajro Ropes but it was leaky, and that he found 

at Chaul 

Lay field ap. Purchis lib. 4. p 

6 5 and 1173 found them in Porto R 

Cotes ap. Hakl. p. %i p- 5?7> found them in St - J g i° one of the Ca t e 


Mozambique') we took a Pangaja, which is a 

Verde Ifles 

Here (at Qnitagone 

Veffei like a Barg 

with one Mat Sail of Coco-Nut Leaves. The Barg 

fowed together with the Rinds of Trees, and pinn'd with wooden 

Tins, May. Ap. Hakl. p. 3- P-V 1 - J ; , , _. _ 

Brou deCoco is a Material for Cordage, Loubere du Stam, p. 3 5. Tom 

The Trees are taxed there, id. p 
for drinking Water in the 

Indies, id. Tom 

they ufe the Shell 





Cocos grow in Nieubar . May. Hakl. p 




Sir Francis Drak 


Iflands Eight De 

p 7*i % met with them in Mayo Ifland _ 

erees N. of the Equinoctial Line, near Malucos, 758. in Barateve an 

Eaft-India Ifle 





Java where this Tree is called Calap 



made of Palm-Trees Pigafetta of Congo. 1. Part Ind. or p. S 

Pretty ap. Hakl. p. ^p- 817. fa w them 

Ladrones Ides, and in the Phi 


ib'. %i%. &nb\ in Java, ib.$ 

^vhd'olnhis Summary ap! Eden, p . 105. tells us that they make Cakes 

with the Milk of this Fruit, 


The Natural Hijlory of JAMAICA. 13 

Hughes, p. 60. I have been told by Negroes, that in Guiney they take 

the outward Rind of thefe Nuts, teafe it, card it out into a 
Kind of Okam, and then make Ropes and Cordage thereof, and alfo 
Sails. They take the Kernel, beat it a little, and put th 

to the Liquor that came forth of the Nut, then (train it and 

it maketh a perfect and pleafant Milk both in Colour and Tatte 

fo that it is fcaree to be difcerned by them 


from the Milk of fome Anima 


well acquainted 

MandelJIo, p. 179, fays this Tree grows in the South Provinces of 

China, and />. 206, in Madagafcar. It was found in St. J ago, one of 
the Cafe Verde Ifles, by Ligon. p. 9. where 'tis the chief Trade of the 

Place, 18. 

Terry, p. 53. met with it in Mohelia, and p. 55, fpeaks of a Gum com- 
ing from it to calk Ships. If this be his Toddie Tree, 'tis in the 
MoguPs Country, p. 97. where its Wine cures the Stone, which Palm 

or, Toddie-Tree is planted by the Per fees in Guzarat, id, p. $5$ 

Cables are made of the outfide of Cocos called Cairos, Linfchot. cap, 56. 
A Demi Pardante, or Carolus Profit is made of each Coco-Tree at Goa, 
every Day, cap. 25. Linfchot. who in laGuinee, cap. $. found 

this Tree in Congo, 

Three Malabar Ships were found loaded with Cairo and Coco-nuts, 

Dcunton apud Purchas. lib. 3. cap. 12. §. 5. 302. who fays that dry'd Coco- 

nuts are fent to Chaull. ib.p. 304. and that Jagara or brown Sugar from it 
is loaded from Calicut to Aden* ib. p. 3 06. 

Hoare apud Purchas. lib. 5. cap. 8. /. 6<yj. found it on the Coafl: of 


Pyrard. cap. 4. p. 32. found thefe Trees at Molaclei one of the Comor- 
ra's lilands, and tells us, that Thirty two Barks were made of, and loa- 
ded with them, as at Maldives, and fent to Mofambtq 

Saris apud Purchas. lib. 4. cap. 1. §. 1. p. 336. faw them at Comorra 

and ib. §. 5. p. 360. at Moluccos and BqI\ tb. ltb.4. cap. 7. §. 1. p. 457 

Mal-ilha one of the Comorra*s Iflands. ib. p. 364. by the Moluccos and 

apud Purchas. lib* 4. cap.j. §. 2. p. 461. at babul, and at Maldiva and 

Beringar. Elkinton ib.p. 515. §. 1. found thefe Trees in an Ifland gom 

from S ur at t to Bantam. Milcead by Java ib. lib. 4. cap. 14. p. 525. Pay 

lib. 4. cap. 15. §. 1. p. 529. at Mohelia. Child, lib. 5. cap. 2. p. 606. at 

Comorra and at Brin. Jan* and not far from Comorin. Pring. ib. lib 

7. §. p. 633 
Payton apud Purchas, lib. 4. cap. 9. §.1. p. 489. found them likewife 

at Mohelia near Comorra, Ifles, called there Sejavoye ; where Surra, a 

kind of Drink is made of the Fruit, they were alfo at Doffar on the 

Coaftof Arabia, ib. p. 490. 

Pyrard fays, that the Fruit on the Maldives is the Price of Labour, 
where they make Sails and Panniers of their Leaves, p. 46. They likewife 
are thrown down by great Storms, 65. Thefe Trees are the Riches of 
this Country, 70. Honey is made of their Water with the Help of 

Coral, 72. andcap. 10. p. 85. tb. the Kernel is Bread, its Wood ma 

Houfes which are thatch'd with its Leaves fow'd one into the oth 

Jo. dos Santos ap. Purchas. lib. 9. cap. 1 2. §. 4»/>. I $ 54. This Tree grows 

on the Hie of Quirimb*. Of Cairo are made Ropes, from Cabo dos Co 
rientes to the Red Sea, for Ships, Pangayas and Almadias, and Sail 
fort hem are made of the Leaves. 

Toddy (as Copland apud Purchas lib. 4. cap. 8. p. 467, §. 1. tells 

fweetning and fatning at Suratt 



! 4 The Natural Hifiory of J A MAICA. 

Pyrard. cap. i.p. 4. found this Tree at Annabon. Sir Thomas Roe apud 

Purchas. lib. cap. 16. §. 1. ^6 and 5 j 7 . found it at Angerefia one of the 

Commits. At MohelU another of them, where the Rinds are ufed for 
Towels, and the Shells for pouring out Water. The Coco-milk is for 
Drink * Junks of Forty Tuns are made of it, they are fowed not pinned, 
calked and freighted with this Tree's Produft. ib. They grow alfo at So- 

cotora. P'llQ* m . , , 

The Dutch, fecond Voyage fays,W. 5- "?• *$• t- 7°9- thc y grow at 

^uartdeMenejes. Purchas. lib. 9. cap. 10. §. i.f. 1506. found about Goo. 

Groves of them planted at twelve Paces in Length diftance, where they 
cover their Houfes with their Leaves, 1511. and have great Numbers of 

Cocos. Jo. dos Santtos ib.cap. 12, §. i.f. 1^6. tells us, that Oylismadeof 
this Fruit, which burns clearer than that of Olives-/'. 1537. The Por- 


—guefe drink Palm-Wine there, butthe Cafres that oi Guinej)-W he 

makes them tipfie. Galvanos faw them,#. /M689. on the low Ifles called los 

5 at dines difcovered in the South Seas by Scavedra in 12 or 10 Degrees 

Latitude. The Fruit is eat inftead of Bread, breaking it before it is 
ripe, putting it under the Sand, after certain Days, thcy take it out 
and lay it in the Sun and then they will open 

An Anonymus Portugal, Purchas, lib. 139. cap. 1. p. 1307. found them 

in Brafil fet in Farms. Ferdinando, Giros. lib. 7. cap. 10. p. 1424. inTerra, 

Aufiralis incognita, and David Middleton, ap. Purchas. lib. 3. c. 

26. about the Moltccos, and by Polo ap. Purchas. lib. i.f. 105. in 


Purchas. lib. 2. p. 28 J. tells us 'tis in the Philippines, and if it be his 

Palm-Tree thereof Wine is made in China, ib. p. 29 
Monfieur Rochef. p. 8a. affures us that the Water clears the Face of Wrin- 
kles, and gives it a good Colour. 

The Nuts being broken to pieces, their Bark taken off, and the 
Kernels dried, are carry'd to Places where they are not plentiful, and are 
eaten as Chefnnts, being better than the whole ones brought to Porta* 
gal. Niertmh. The Elder the Tree the better the Cabbage, ib. 

There is no other Kernel but the foft, hollow, thick and oval, white 
Subftance within the Shell 

, miwv «nv*^w« 4 , WiUUW, 

Jones apud. Purchas. lib. g. cap. 9. §. 1. p. 228. met with thefe Trees 

Pembazndp. 229* in great Plenty in the Comorha Ifles near St. L 
and in defolate Iflands thereabouts. 

Cauche,p. 146. relates that Wine is made of it in Madagascar and 

Cape Verd Ifles 

Henry Midi e ton apud. Purchas. lib 

Trees at Moha in the Red Sea. Dounton. ib.cap. 12; §. 4.0. 298. about 

found thefe 

Surat, where feventeen thoufand of this Fruit were bought for Refrefh 


Davis apud Purchas lib. 3 • cap. 1. p. 1 1 9 . §. 4. found this Tree on the 

Maldiva,p. 134, and on Diego Graciofa. Lancajler on Diego Piz. 10 De 

and one half South Lat. near the Maldives, apud Purchas lib. j. cap. y. 

2 />. 151. Kjeling apud Purchas lib. g. cap- 6. §. 5. p. 2t>2. in the 

"Woods of Banda, and Salbank apud Purchas, lib. 3. cap. 9. §. 4 

about Goa Tow 

Antonio Pigafetta, apud. Purchas. lib. 2* cap. 2. p. 37. fays this Cocos 

a Fruit of certain Date-Trees, whereof they make Bread, Wine, Oyiand 
Vinegar. They make Wine in this manner ; they cut a large Branch of the 
Tree, and hang thereat a Reed as big as a Man's Leg, into which drop- 

eth a fweet Liquor from the Tree, like White-wine, fomewhatta 

, iviuvwuau wa« i, 

The Natural Hiftory of J A M A I C 

o as 

it as a 

and let the Reed continue there from Morning till Evening, and from E 
venmg to Morning. The Fruit of this Tree" call'd Cocas, is as b, s 
the Head I of a Man, or more. The firft Rind of this is green, and o? c,,* 
Thicknefs ot two fingers, having in it certain Threads, whereof they 
make Cords, with which they tie their Boats. Under this Rind there is a 
thick Shell, which they burn and make Powder of, and ufe ... „ 
Remedy for certain Difeafes. Under this Shell is a white Subftance, lik 
the Kernel of a Nut, being a Finger in Thicknefs, which they eat -— 
Flelh and Fifh, as we do Bread. It hath the Tafte of an Almond, an u , 
uied in the fteao of Bread, when it is dry'd. In the Midft of this Ker- 
nel is a clear and fweet Water, being very wholefome and cordial. This 
Water fometimes congealeth, and lyeth within the Shell like an Ess. 
Wnen they intend to make Oyl of it, they lay it to putrify in Wate?, 
and bod ,t until it be like Oyl or liquid Butter. When they intend to make 
Vinegar, they fuffer only the Water to putrify, and then fet it in the Sun, 
where it becometh Vinegar, like that which is made of White-wine : 
And when they mingle the Kernel with the Water which is in the midft of 
the Fruit, and ftra.n it thro' a Cloth, they make a Milk thereof, like 
Goats Milk. Thefe Date-Trees are like them that bare Dates 


not fo full of Knots. With the Juice of two of thefe Date-T 
Family of ten Perfons may be maintain'd with Wine, ufint u „„ 
eight Days, and the other eight Days, for they fhould elfe be dry\l and 

wither d. Thefe Trees continue for the Space of an hundred Years. 

II. Cacao. Cat. Jam. p. i 34. Tab. 160. Cacaos Pommet, p. 205. Cacao Jvel- 
Una Mexiana Lob lobo coccineo ex quo Chocolatafamofa conficitur furian. Cacao 
fruttus. Calceolar. Muf. p. 606. Worm. Muf p. 191. Ah or. 

Cacavi fera Americana] cujus fruttus folliculo inclufus amyrdalarum Cpeciem 

refert. Pluk. Almag. p. 40. Pbyt. Tab. 268. Fig. 3. 

The Cacao Tree. 

This Tree rofe to about 1 5 Foot high, with a grey, almoft fmooth Bark, 

nd a Trunk as thick as ones Thigh. It hath fe veral Branches on every 

Side, the Ends of them being long, fet with Leaves ftanding on half Inch 

long Footftalks the Fruit is 7 Inches long and two and a half broad in the 
Middle where broadeft, of a yellowifh green Colour, hard and pointed • 
Outof the Body of theTree, orBranch, comes a very fmall Flower, ftanding 
on a half Inch long Footftalk, it is made up of 5 Capfular Leaves, < crooked 
Vetala, feveral Stamina, and a Stylus, of a very pale Purple colour, after 

which follows the Fruit, which when ripe is as big as one's Fift, bigger in 
the Middle than at the Ends, which are pointed, it has torn* Sulci 
and Afpermes on its Outfide, is for the moft Part of a deep Purple colou 
the Shell being about Half a Crown's thicknefs, and 'containing within 
many Kernels of an oval Shape, §ach of which is as big as a Piftacbia Nut 
having a thin Membrane without which is a mucilaginous Subftance 
which it lies. The Nuts themfelves are made up of feveral Parts like 
an Ox's Kidney, fome Lines being vifible on it before broken, and is hol- 
low within, its Pulp is oyly and bitterifh to the Tafte, made up of ma- 
ny Stri*, which tend from the Circumference to the Center. 

They are planted here very frequently, and in the Caribes, fometimes 

Du lertre. 



1 6 The Natural Hijlory of J A M A I C A. 


It grows in the Bay of Campeche, where the Nuts pafs for Money, 
in Cofta Rica, between Portabel and Nicaragua, on theCoaft ofCaraccas and 
in the South Seas at Guiaquil, Collina, and Jamaica, The Car ace as Nuts 
are oily, tho' not fo large as thofe of Cofta Rtca, therefore they are burnt 
by the Spaniards to dry away the Oil, leaft they fhould make them too 
full of Blood, they drinking Chocolate five or fix Times a Day. They are 
ripe in December and June, twice a Year ; the Inhabitants fweat the Cods 
the Nuts are dried on Mats, being taken outjof the Cods: Nuts are not 
hurt with fait Water. They Set the Nuts to raife them every four or 
five Years by Plantains, to keep them from the Sun, for they are much 
annoy 'd by Heat- Dampier. 

Leaving Tecoantepec, I went ftill along by the South Sea, about an 
hundred and fifty Leagues in the defolate Province of Soconufco, where 
there groweth Cacao, which the Chriftians carry from thence into 
Nova Hifpania, for it will not grow in any cold Country. The In- 
dians of this Country pay the King their Tribute in Cacao, giving him four 
hundred Carga's, and every Carga is twenty four thouland Almonds, 
which is worth in Mextco thirty Pieces of Rials of Plate. The 
chiefeft Merchandise in Suchetepes and Guafacapan is Cacao. Chilton ap. 

Hakl. p. $. p- 457- #•/• 4<5i* The Indians alfo pay their Tribute in Cacao 

from Campecbe. 

In certain Provinces which are call'd GuatimaU and Soconufco, there is 
growing great Store of Cacao, which is a Berry like unto an Almond .- 
It is the beft Merchandife that is in all the Indies. The Indians make 
Prink of it, and in like Manner Meat to eat. It goeth currently for 
Money in any Market, or Fair, and may buy any Flefh, Fifh, Bread 
or Cheefe, or other Things. Hawks ap- Hakl. p. j. p. 464. 

Cacao is found about the Port of Tecuanapa, not far from Nicaragua in 
the South Seas. Defer, of the Fort of Tecuanapa ap.Hakl. p. 3. p. 496 and 


petty Hakl.apud.p- 3. ^,814. tells us, that in Sonfonate the Nuts are 

Money and ready Payment, an hundred and fifty for a Rial. 

Hughes, p. 102. This Tree is (haded by the Bonana : The Harveft of the 
Nut is ufually in January, or May ; they cut the Kernels out, cleanfethem 
from their Slime, and cure them, drying them in the Sun on Sheets or 
Mats, they are adftringent, caufing a pale Colour, they grow orderly, and 
are planted Ci%, feven, or eight Foot diftant from each other. Chocolate 
is beft which is made up in the Country where it grows. The Nuts 
are clear'd of their Films by a moderate Heat, and beat up, 1 1 7. Notty 
is added to it to colour it, 119. The Indians us'd it (imply, and the 
Spaniard* added Chille, or fweet Pepper and Achiote. The In£re- 
dients are beat apart and wrought into a Made, ib. The Oylinefs and 
Spirits are dried up with too much Fire, 121. Cacao Nuts are ground in 
a Mill of black Stones, 122. and are adftringent, and caufe Obfb u£tions r 
124. Oyl is drawn from them like that of Almonds, having the fame 
Operations, 125. and the Butter is good in all Inflammations, &c. and is 
coolin^ and anodine, ib. the Lumps ought to be nine or fourteen Days 
old beiore they beufed, 128. Ca fay a Bread will not difTolve fo well in 
hot Water as cold, 129. Chocolate is not good with Phyfkal Matters put 
into it, efpecially Laxatives, 152. it fuftains the Spirits, 154. Unfchot. 

defer, de V Amertque, cap. 5. tells US it grows ip New Spam. 

'The Indians when taken Prifoners by us Strangers (hew'd their Efteera 
for thefe Nuts more than any other Commodity, tern. Col. 


Three or four Nuts tirft tofted ftop the Bloody Fluxes. Jorft. 



The Natural Hiftory of T AM A I C A. 17 

When the Spaniards went firit to Mexico thefe Nuts went for current 
Money, whence Peter Matrjr gave them the Name Amy^ddt PecunUrU^ 
The Indians planted them in a hot and moift Ground, and purchased with 

m whatever they wanted of their Neighbours. Thefe 1 

• - 


ed by others to fhade them from the fcorching Sun, and fave them from 

* ^__ ____■_. _____ ^__p' . *■ 

grear Showers oi Rain, 'till they are able to bear both ; then the Mot 
Tree or Nurfe is cut down. The Food of it is made by pouring from on, and it inebriates. Martyr. 

When young and tender they are planted by great Trees to keep 
them from tempeftuous Winds, great Rains and iharp Froits. Xtm. 
They are uneafily kept from Apes and Squirrils. Laet. 

The Nurs mult be torrefy'd, having (o much Oyl that it may be 
fqueez'd out of them. The Chocolate for Food is made of feveral In^re- 
d ents, and by pouring it out of one VefTel into another, from on high, 

bring the more oily Parts and Froth uppermoft, to be drank ; the co n- 
pound Sort promotes Venery, the Simple cools, fattens, and nourifhes 
very much. It is good for hectical and confumprive People who are ex- 
tenuated : It is phnted by a free call'd Atlma, which is proper for Shade, 
and no other Ufa. Too much Ufe ofChoeolate deitroys the Colour, 

- _»'_■_- ~v 1 * _. _______ _. _ • J 

brings Obftru£tions and a Cachexy. Hern. Xim 

Thefe Trees mud be fhaded, otherwife they die ; the Fruit is ad* 
ftringent, cooling, and ill tafted, fo that I could not like it for fome time. 
The Nuts mult be taken out of their Cover, expo^'d to the Sun, and 

_ ____■ * * ______ > ___. . — __ - - • 

^r — w 

4* ■•••_••* v 

fweated, then they are roiled, mill'd with Indian Pepper, and mads 

• _* 1 r\ 1 f_ - - - -- 

into an ungrateful Drink. Benzo. - c 

__)' Acug»a fiys this Tree grows wild on the Banks of the River Ama- 
zones, and that every Foot of this Tree is worth eight Rials of Revenue, ail 

Charges paid 

__, _, . 

They mix with Chocolate many Ingredients, but chiefly Indian 
Pepper, making it have foveral Vertuis ; the Nuts pafs for Money, and 
are given to tneir Poor , thoie not us'd to it are not curious of it, but 
loath it; thofe who are accufton'd to it cannot be without it. They 
ant another Tree by it to keep it from the Sun. The belt is in Guati- 


maU ; it keeps long. Acojla. 

It grows in Nicaragua^ Guatimala, Honduras, and New Spain, in flia- 

dyPUces; the Inhabitants gather them when ripe, and take them out of 

their Follicles, and expofe therm to the Sun till they fweat out thei 

(hire. To make Drink the Indians dry them on an earthen Tile, grind 

them with Stones to Powder, and mix it with Water and Pepper, which 
makes a Difh fitter for Swine than Men ; it was a Year before I could 

drink of it, for which jhe Indians would laugh at me; it does not ine 
briate ; arid is in greatest Efteem among the Indians. Benzo 

' * • 4 

They grow naturally in Nicaragua, and G u at imal 4, butarealfo there 
planted as Olives and Vines; in two Years it comes to bear Fruit, 

and fails after twenty. The Fruit is gather'd twice a Year; there is more 
Oyl in them than in Almonds 


It is good Food for the Bread to diflipate malignant Humours fettling 
there; carries off Gravel, keeps the Body cool and in good order, pro- 

ded it be moderately us'd Rod 

Their fmall Money is Almonds, which oftentimes they ufe to eat in 
Couche, a Country twenty five Days Journey North of Bengala. Fitch 


% #• ________ 

The belt Sort of Cacao Nuts are calPd Caraccas, a Word corrupted 
from the Name of the Province of Nicaragua, whence they are 

brought '** Vi w 





v v* - _/-• 

t - v + '■ -"-'O- , ■■>". *'"■ •" ■'•' ' • - 



18 2Tfc Natural Hifiory of J A M A I C A. 

II. Cacto affinis, frutex fpinofus, Ijcij fact? jgfmini flore albo, fruftu in 

difpares particulas inter fe arcle bxrentes divifo. Cat. Jam. p. 135. Tab 
161. Fig. 1. Rati. Vol. 1. Dendr. />. 82. 

This Shrub rifes 10 or 12 Foot high, it has a Trunk as big as one's 
Arm, covered with a reddifh rough Bark, and having feveral Branches op- 
pofite to one another, which have three quarter Inch long fharp Prickles 
ftanding againft one another; the Leaves come out oppofite to one ano- 
ther, they are one Inch long, and half as broad, of a yellowifh green Co- 
lour, fmooth and fhining, from no Footftalk, augmenting to the Mid- 
dle, whence they decreafeto the End, Exalts Folioruw come the Flowers 
which are pentapetalous, white, and ftand on a halflnch long green Ca- 
lix. appearing like a Star, after which follows a half Inch long green umbi- 
licated Fruit as big as one's Finger in the Middle, tapering to bOch End 


hin a thin green Skin and a Hollow, a black bublr 

ppearing like Cacao Nuts, having feverai irregularly fiz'd Farts clapt 
lofe together. 

It grew on the Road to Guanaboa very plentifully. 

By a Sample of the Jafminum Spivofum Americanum Folio Lucido fubro 

tundo. Herm par. Bat. pr. p. $42. fent me by Dr. Richard/on who gathered 

the Garden of Lejden y I find this and that to be the fame as 

fufpe&ed p. 1 j 5. of my Catalog 

III. Alniftuttu, laurifolia arbor maritime Cat. Jam. 13 5. Tab. 161. Fig 
2. Raij . Vol. Dendr. Tom. 3. p. 11. 

Button Tree* 

This Tree has a Trunk as thick as one's Thigh, ftreight, thirty 
Foot high, having a fmooth, whitifh, or grey Bark, and feveral Branches 
fpread on every Side, with their Leaves at Joints fet oppofite to one 
another. They ftand on one quarter Inch long Footftalks, are two Inches 
and a half long, and an Inch and half broad, almoft oval, only fomewhat 

broader towards their End, and fmooth. The Leaves towards the Tops of 

the Branches among the Flowers are narrow and pointed, of a yellowifh 
reen Colour. The Tops of the Twigs are branch'd, fuftaining at firii 
ome fmall roundifh Heads, no bigger than thofe of Pins, growing lar- 

hairy, downy, or mufcofe, looking like the Juli of Willows, be- 

of a yellowifli green, or red Colour. Thefe augment to fo many 

red Balls, fomething refembling the Cones of Alder, or like 

Buttons, whence the Name, fticking to the Branch by a quarter of 

an Inch long Footftalk, each of which is made up of a great many redifh 
corner'd Seeds, fticking in a fungous Matter on its Outfide, and regar 
ding its Center, fo that by their Means 'tis rough or echinatcd. 

It grows near the Sea-fide by P ajfage- B or t > and old Harbour, among the 

Butter-Flies fwarm very much about this Tree. 

It is very plain from Commtlim\ Figure, Hort. Jmffl. p. 1 1 <j. that 

this Tree is the ManghaU arbor Curajfavica folijs falignis. Herm. par, 

1, $ 

IV. AlnifruBu^ morifolla arbor \fiore pentapetalo Flavo. Cat. Jam. p. 1 3 $ 

Raij. Vol. 3 . Dendr- p. 1 1 . Cenchramidea Jamaicenfis monfolta fruttu 

cvali integro verrucofo* int n$ in quinque cellut as , granula ficulneis ftmilia in- 

€ludentes difpertito* BalfamuM olentt. Plukenet. Almag. p, 92. 



The Natural Hifiory of JAMAICA. 10 

Bajlard Cedar-Tr-ee. 

'■ * 

Tliis has a very ftrong Root deeply faften'-d in the Ground, 

gup a Trunk as large as one's Middle, forty Foot high, its Bark is 

of a dark brown Colour and furrow'd as Alder. The Branches are fpread 
on every Hand, befet alternatively with Leaves at half an Inches Ditfance, 
"anding on quarter Inch long Footftalfts, they are 3 Inches long and 
i broad near the round Bafe, where broadeft, from whence tliey end in a 
3int, their Edges are ferrated, furfaces woolly, of a yellowifh green 
Colour, having one Middle and feveral tranverfe Ribs thro' the Leaves. 

Ex alts Fo/sorum come fmall Branches fuftaining on floori 

great many pentapetalous yellow Flowers. The Cones 

the End of one's Finger, of a dark brown Colour, round, 

within are feveral Cells, in each whereof lie many dark brown, roundrfli 



grows in the low Land Woods and Savanna's very plenti 

It is left ftandtng when other Trees are fell'd, becaufeof its Ufeful 

(hing Cattle when Grafs and other Food fail. la great 
Droughts, the greater Cattle come to thefe Trees and very carefully 
gather the Cones for their Food. They are alfo gathered and kep 

"Planter? for their Cattle in Times of Scarcity, for they fatten upon 
them as well as Corn. , 

Earth taken up from under thefe Trees raifes Nifpera Seeds the beft of 

any. This Tree being rais'd with Difficulty I fuppoie is brought for 
ward by the Dung of the Cattle reforting to thefe Trees fo 

mix'd with the Earth of the Place 



•+* ^* ww »w*. «.«.»w m~m*-m - ~ » - ^~ m w H v . — ^^ 

The Timber of this Tree is du&iie, white and good to make Staves of 

for Casks of all Sorts 

J u i 

f * 

V. THU forte arbor racemofa s folio longiori jubtus albicante nervis furf 
infignito, flare pentaptt&lo purpttreo. C at. Jam. p. 135. Ra/j. Dendr, Tom.i 
p.%%.Tab.i$. Fig, 3. 


• m ,« u 

, . j I i % , w I 

This Tree had feveral woody {lender Branches covert! with a 
light-colour'd. reddiih, brown, lmooth Bark, under which 
white Wood, being divided into Twigs fet with Leaves 
third of an Inch D*ftance from one another, each of thei 
ing on one ten Inches long Footftalk, being about two Inches long and 
one and a half broad, roundiih, larger at Bafe than at the End, where 

it is obtufe, being green above, and very pleafantly white underneath, 
with one Middle and feveral tranfverfe Ribs running thro' it of a Purple 
Colour ; the Flowers came out of the Ends of the Twigs on Strings a 


bout two or three Inches long, plac'd alternatively after one another, each 
having its feveral fmall Inch-long Petiolus, and a Folioluni, or 
Leaf at Bottom, on the Top of which /lands fix ftrong, thick, fnaall, 
purplifh Petala, or Foliola, enclofing as in a Calix, a fingle roundiih 
black Seed, fomewhat like thofeot the Tilia. 

I found it in the Woods, I cannot exa&ly tell where. 

An yerva mora Qanar. Pkkenet mant. p. 21 . ? Aim. p, 42 f 

• / # 

*. * - . \ .,.,.. . ^ ..I. . . 1 . * * 


\ % 1 





/ . 

20 The Natural Hiftory of J A M A I C A. 

VI. Tilid Affinis Laurifolia, arbuti Floribus albis tacewofis odoratis, fructu 

pentagono. Cat. Jam. p. 156. Tab. 163. Fig. I. *W. Tow. 3. Dendr 

This Tree rifcs to about thirty Foot high, by a Thick Trunk, co* 
ver'd with aClay colour'd, furrowM Bark. The Ends of the Branches have 
Leaves coming out irregularly, Handing on an 8th of an Inch long Foot- 
ftalk, being two Inches long, one broad in the Middle, where Broadeft, 
fmooth, having a large MiddleRib :On the Ends of theTwigs come out the 
Flowers fe vera I together, on an eighth of an Inch Footfta.'k being urceo- 
lated, or like thole of Erica Ramulis terms. I. B. only white and ve\y fweet 
fcented, after which fucceeds fo many five angPd or cannulated 

ted, roundifh dry Berries or Seeds, lying in a Pentaphyilous Calix, having 

each htle Leaf, two little obtufe Apices or Prickles at Bottom 

It grows on the Mountains near Mr. Elletforfs Plantation in Li^uanee. 

This feems to me different from the Laurus tinus Virgimana floribus albi- 

dis eleganter bullatts. D. Samper Pluk. Phyt. Tab. 199 Pifr'fi #305. 

Fig. 2. which Dr. Plu kenet fu fpects. p. 116. of his Mantijfa may be the 

VII. Ltar if olio, Arbor flore tetrapetalo, Truffu racemofo rot undo c annul at 
coronato. Cat. Jam p. 136. Tab. 163. Fig. 2. Rat). Vol. ^^ Dcndr. 

, $6. An Laurifolia J aw a i c e *tfis bacctfera Frutlu parvo oblongo ftriato. Pluk, 
Aim. p. 211. f 

This Tree had its Branches {freight, cover'd with a dark colour'd 
fmooth brown Bark, under which was a white Wood. The Leaves 
come at the Ends of the Twigs, without any Order, {landing on a 
qr. of an Inch Footftalk, being about two Inches long and one broad 
near the further End where broadeft, being narrow at the Be£inning, 
. augmenting to near the Top, where they are blunt and round. They 
are fmooth, fhining, thick, and fomewhat like to the Leaves of the Cortex 
Winter anus Tree. The Flowers come in Bunches on the Tops of the 
Twigs, being oblong, of a pale yellow Colour, made up of four Pe- 
tala ; the under Part of this fwells into a cannulated, round, coro- 

• _ -tt - JIM. . . 

nated, fmall Fruit, not fo large as a Pepper- Corn, but very elegant 

and pretty. 

found it in the North Side of the Ifland of Jamaica. 




VIII- Cariophyllus fpurius inodorus^ folio fubrot undo fcabro, flore racemofo 
hexapetaloide coccineo fpeciofffimo. Cat- Jam. p. 136. Tab. 164. Ratj. Den dr. 

as f 

Vol. 3. p. 86. 

This Shrub by feveral, eight or nine Foot high Stems or Trunks 

having a Clay colour'd Bark, rifes ftreight up, having Leaves at the I ops 
of the Branches, (landing on round Inch long Footftalks very thick fee 
by one another. They are almoft round, four Inches long and three broad, 
very harfh to the Touch, and of a very dark green Colour ; the Flowers 
are Handing each in a long rough Calix on the Branches Ends on their 
Footftalks, Umbejl Fafliion, are of a delicate fine fcarlet Colour, many 
and large, confifting of a long undivided Tubulus y fomething like a Clove, 
and a broad Margin, divided into fix Sections, all ftanding in a dark 
brown Capjula. The Fruit I never found in Perfection, but perhaps it 
ought to be referr'd to the Cariophyllifpurij. 
It grew on a rocky Bank over Mr. Batcbelor's Houfe near the black Ri* 

ver Bridge, and made there a molt pleafant Sight. 




The Natural Hijlory of T AMAICA.. 21 

^^^^^ - -1** " *• 

IX- Laurus folio lonoiore, flore b*xapet*lo racemofo y frutlu humid 
Cat. Jaw. p. 136. Tab. 165. jRj/7. Tom. 3. £///?. Dendr.p. S6. 




Sweet- Wood 


are w 

This Tree rifes to the Heighth and Largenefs of the ordinary Bav, 
having many Branches, whofs Twigs have Leaves fct on them without 
any Order, on half-Inch longFootftalks ; rheyare feven Inches long and two 
brotd in the Middle, where broadefr, being narrow at the Beginning and 
ending in a (harp Point, fhining, hard, fmooth, thin, having one mTddle, 
and feveral tranfverfe Ribs, and when broken giving a very grateful 

Smell, in all Things refembling the Bay. The Flowers ..__, _ 

petalous, each of the Petala being broad and fliorr, feveral of them 
Handing in a Sparfe Bunch fattened to the Ends of the Stalks by two 
Inch long, red Footftalks. To each of thefe flowers fucceeds an oval 
blackifh Berry, bigger than that of the Bay, containing within a thin 
black Pulp, one Kernel exactly like that of the Bay Berry. 

It grows on the red Hills, by the Banks of the Rio Cabre very pi 
tifully, and in feveral other Places of this Ifland. 

X. Laurus folio breviore, flore racemofo minor e. Cat. Jaw. p. i?6. Tab 
66. Fig* 1 . 



The Branches of this Tree werecover'd with a fmooth, reddish b 

Bark, under which was a hard, white and fomewhat aromatick Wood, 
having Leaves {landing alternatively on its Twigs at uncertain or une- 
_ * Diftances; ' each of them had about one eighth of an Inch long 
Footftalk, were about two Inches and three quarters long, and one 
ad in the Middle, where broadeft, whence it decrea: 

d, ending 

a Point; it was very fmooth on its Surface, had one Middle and 
fome tranfverfe Ribs, and was very like the Precedent: The Ends 
of the Twigs are branchM into feveral Footftalks, fliftaining many 
fmall Flowers, as to growing, &e. very like the Precedent, wherefore I 
have reduc d it hithe 


# f 

It grew in the Inland, or North Parts of this I/land. 



XL Lauri folia arbor venenata folio acuminato, cofiofum lac prAens, ex a 
jfpijfatoz'ijcus aucupum paratur. Cat. Jam. p. i?$. Tab. 167. F/V. 1 

Rai).Dendr.p.%-j ? Vol. ^.Hifi.An Acomos Rochef. p. 69? An Lauri fu... 
arbor venufte venofis foltjs L&cie turgens Americana, Pluk. Phyt. Tab. 1 00 

tig. 6. Aim. p. 210. * y/ 

» * 

) I 

— » 





This Tree has a Trunc as big as one's Thigh, cover ? d wi .. „ 
almoft fmooth Bark on the Outfide, being reddifh brown within & and 
near one quarter of an Inch thick. It rifes twenty or thirty Foot hioh, and 
has feveral Branches, whofe Twigs are befet with Leaves at at? Inch's 
Diftance ; they ftand on more than an Inch long Footftalk, are of 
lowifh green Colour and round, fix Inches long and almoft three broad 
in the Middle, where broadeft, and whence they decreafe to both Ends. 
They are very fmooth, thick, and have one Middle and feve- 
ral tranfverfe Ribs going from it to the Sides. From the End of the 
Footftalk they augment in Breadth to the Middle, and thence decreafe 


the Poi 







JVwa/ H(/?ory of JAMAICA 

is accounted 

The whole Tree in all its Parts is extreamly milky, an 

"Z frJwsTear CdE S^Plantation beyond (ta^ and 

the Town 

well as in all the O/fc J/k<"k 

The Ba k of this Tree being deeply gaft'd, yields a g eat Qpan f 

Milk which on Evaporation turns toBird-lime : This is made ufe of in the 
Indian-Corn Fields, whither the Parroquets come to feed. So foon as 

taken and makes a Noife, the reft come .and perch about it, 



mod of them are taken likewife 
It may be doubted whither this be 

the Curuficaiba of an anony 

mus Portugal of Brafil. Apud. Purcbas. Lib 7. Cap.i.p. i$oS. of w 

is made Bird-Lime, and which cures Wounds 

XII. Laurifolia arbor folio Utiore longo mucronato Uvi [fiend 


telas plurimas linearum tmulas extenfil 

Cat. f 

J7- Tab 

cor t ice 
. 168. 




M/m wwfo radtcofa, linteaminis ffecicm mira 

Arbor Americana Sindopboros laurifolia 


proferens. Pluken. Aim. p. 4 


qaafi telam 


L age to 

The Branches I had fent me of 

Tree (which I 

told was 

very large) had 

white Wood, a fmall Pith, and were 

d with 

fmoothjight brown, or grey 

d ftriated outward Bark. 1 

^ he in- 

ward Bark was folid and white. The Branches were divided into feveral 
Twigs, which are befet with Leaves alternatively on oppofite Sides 

{landing on one quarter of an Inch long Footftalks, which when they fall 
off leave on the Twig a protuberant Mark. Eeach Leaf is about four 
Inches long and two and a half broad near the round Bafe f where broad 

eft, having one Middle and feveral tranfverfe Ribs, being of a yellowifh 


free is, that the inwar 

fhining, thick and fmooth 


moil flrange in this 


is made up of about twelve Coats 


Layers, or 

fome Length, clear'd of 

Tunicles, appearing white 

nd folid, which if cut off for 

tward Cuticula 


Bark, and 

by the Fing 


the Filaments or Threads thereof 

g fome rhomboi- 

dal Interftices, greate 

fmaller according to the Dimcnfions you 
tend it to, form a Web not unlike Gaufe, Lace, or thin Muflin, in 
Length and Breadth proportionable to the Length and Circumference of 

the Branch from which the Bark 

xtended was 


s inn- 

much, that in Scarcity it has been 

made ufe of in lieu of them for Mourning Linen both for Men and Wo- 

tates Linens, Gaufe 


men, and unlefs one know them well and look 

perceive the Diffe 

ly, he will noc 

I was told likewife, that it would bear wafhing 

well as other Linen •, and that King Charles the Second had a Cra 
made of this prefented to him by Sir Thomas Lynch Governor of Jamaica. 

I had it from Mr. Lerning, who fent it me from Luidas , an Inland 
mountainous. Plantat 

It appears 

where thefe Trees grew in great Plenty 

following Paifag 

found in feveral Places of both Indies and Af, 

that Cloth analogous 




nd that it fo refembles 

our Cloths, that the Inhabitants when they firft favv ours, thougl 

grew upon our Trees. 

Pigajett* makes mention of the inner Bark of a Tree call'd Entanda, a. 
Ibrt ot Mangrove Tree in Congo, which beaten, clean'd, and ftretch'd 

in length, is made into Webs fit tor Cloathing the meaner Sort of People. 


* 1 




«* -• \ 

e Natural Hiftory of JAMAICA 


Ant on 1 m Pigaft 


nius Pigafetta fays, that in Tidore the Women are brutifh, and g 
fave that before their Privities they have a Covering made of 
which being fteep'd in Water is beaten into as large a Form as they 

m . 44. and 
Bark of the Palm-Tree ferves for the fame Purpofe in the 

37. & p- 38. the fame mentions 
Cloth made of the Rind of a certain Tree, with which they cover their 

will, and 

Thinnefs of S 

Purchas. lib 




and lib. 2. 



Clufius like wife fome where mentions a Clew of Thread of the Bark of 

a 1 

feveral Barks fit for writing 

A ftriped Stuff of Cotton, or Rinds of Trees is worn in Java. Scott, api 

Purchas. lib. f.cap. 4. §. i.-p. 165. 

Cloth of Rinds of Trees is ufed to cover thePrivities of thofe 0? Madagas- 
car. Kjeiwg. dp. Purchas. 192. Will.Finch, ib.p.^ij. lijb.4. cap.^. §, 2. There 

is alio mention'd a Commodity brought from Gapgamora in St. Law- 
rence. (Cloth made of Barks of Trees, whence they make cool Ga 

ments) by Payton.ib. cap. 15. §. \.p. 529. being fent as Merchandife to 


Palm Cloth,great Store was bought InLoango by Battel, ap. Purchas. lib.j. 
cap.z. §. 2./>. 971 .and wore about the King of Gaga's Middle./*. is a 
Commodity there in Loango, 979. and of fundrySorts, 981. of the Leaves of 
them clean'd and purg'd, they draw Threads long and even for that Pur 


making Velvet 

Damasks, Sarcenets, Taffa 


and Sattins. ib 

98 <. Thev are kept water'd and cutevery Year 

In the Province of Dombe in Guiney, near Congo, or Angola, they wear 
Cloth of the Tree Infandie, which is neither fpun nor woven. Battel 

Purchas. lib. 7. cap. $. §. 2. p. 973 

Cloth is mad 

of Palm Leaves. Pigafett. of Congo, p. 1. Ind. or p 



Palm Leaves are likewife mad 
ments made of them. p. 4. 
Our European Cloth was 

Ind. or pars. 6. p. 4} 





it to grow 

thofe of Kjrmentain 


Cloth made of the Bark of a Palm Tree, is taken Notice of by JVeljb ap 

Hakl. p. 129. p 


In Cintigui Cloathes 

lib. 1. p. 94 

made of the Bark of Trees. Polo ap. Purchas, 


In Loanda is the Tree Enfanda growing 

Filaments (fhot from the 

Ends of the Twigs) 
which after beating 

„nder the firft Bark grows a Sort of Linen 
ieanfing, ftretching in Length and Breadth 


ciiw Iflanders for their Accoutrements. Linfchot. defer. Guin. cap 4 

Foncoe is a Tree, of the Bark of which is made Paper. Loubere du Stam 

*' Arbor miraculofa Enzanda ditta Pigafett. de Congo. *-P".M ferves tc 

make Cioathsof its inner Bark which refembles Cloth made, /. 8 
This Treefeems 

miffs or a Mangrove Tree 

be either a Fig Tree, funiculis a fummis ramis de 


Nets of a Tree's Bark in Kprmenttin. Ind. or p 


An Anonymus Portugal of Elvas 


Purchas. itf6. mentions 

Florida Mantles of that Country which are like^Blankets^ they^make 
them of the inner Rind of the Barks of T 

like Nettles 

ler Kina 01 tne Bants 01 j. « <^»> •»»* ••" 

which being beaten is like unto Flax 

and fome of a Kind of G 


from the' Wafte downward, the other over their Shoulde 
Arm out like the Egyptians or Qfffies. 


Women wear two, 

with their 





The Natural Hijiory of J A M A I C A. 

An lucinu 

XIII. Lauro affinis, Terebinthi folio alato, ligno odcrato candUo 

Cat.Jaw. p. 137. Tab. 1 68. Fig. 4. R*ij. Vol. $. dt*dr. />. 88. 

arbor tiltxfoltjs minor i bus Americanum. Pluken. Aim. /.22S. Pbjt* Tab 
tig. 3, 

ore a 


Lignum Rhodium or Lignum Rorum 


The Truncof this Tree is as big as one's Leg, hard, having a Ba 

other times dark brown Colour. It is fometim 

be fee 

with a great many fhortPrickles, and rifes twenty Foot high, its B 

„_ bow'd dow 

folid, and of 



Ground. The Wood is white, 

Pith : the Leaves ftand on the B 

y pleafantand odoriferous Smell, having a pretty larg 


three or more pairs of Pinnae, without any odd 

ing'd, confiding of 




other at half an Inch's Diftance one from the other, to the middle 

colour, being 

Rib, each of which is fmooth 
roundifli, about an Inch long 


of a very dark g 





Middle, where broadeft. The Flowers grow at top in Bunches, are white 
and like thofe of Sambucus, being fmall, and each made up of three Petala, 
thick, having Stamina in their Middle, and to each of them follows 
a round Fruit as big as black Pepper, having within a thin, dry, brown- 
ifh Skin, which opens in two Halves, around black Seed, the Skin and 
Seed fmelling fomething like bay Berries. 

I found it near Mr. Batcbelor^s Houfe among the Hills, where it grows 
as well as in other Places very plentifully. 

This is commonly taken for Lignum Rhodium by Tome Planters here, the 

Smell coming fomew 
find them to be quite differing Woods. 
If the Wood of this be burnt, the Smoke 

one may by Attention foon 


d diffufes 

felf along the Savanna's or Plains a great Way, and therefore I am 
believe the Smoke of this Wood burning afhorer 


Columbus found near the South Shore of Cub 

Ifland, which is mention'd by feveral Hiftoria 

If this be called Ligni aloe by Fernanda Col. 

found in the Lucaios Jfles. &F. 60 in Guadalupe 96 and l 

the fine Seen 
on his Difcovery of tha 

di padre. F. <6 



XIV* Lduro affinis arbor , folijs latioribus ex adverfo fit is, Cor 



bino, liqnomofchum olente. Cat. Jam. p. \7i.Tab. 17 


Raij. Vol. 1 


< ■ 


Alienator, or Musk-Wood 



_ _ , / 

This Tree, in refpect of its fweet Smell, I reduce h 

for I 

ther Flower 


had fom 


utmiti nuwci uuiriuic, uuc it naa lome iman dpurs by which th 
Roots go into the Ground; the Trunk is freight, one Foot in Diametei 


the Smell is pleafa 
whence the Name 



nd fweet like Musk, or that of 


Membra n 
Twigs fet 

d with 

grey Bark, peeling off 



Hemp. The Branches are towards th 

1 thin 


very I 


with pairs of Leaves oppofi 

Top, and have 

broad, of a paleg.ree 

•* - 

very fmall Footftalks ; they are two Inches long and or 

,,, ., . . .1 1 colour, and thin, having Veins very eafily difcerr 
able running thro' all Parts of the Leaf. . " 

It grew on the Road's Side bcyondG uanaboa, going to Collonel Bourden 

# V 



4 t 


t r #"s 




V > 

i 1 


XV. L 

The Natural Hijlory of JAMAICA. 2 * 

XV. Lauro affinis Jafmini folio alato, cofta media, membranulis utrinq 
extent ibus at at a, ligni duritie ferrovix cedent. Cat, Jam. p. 1J7. Tab. 162 
Fig, I. Raij. Hift. dendr. Vol. $. /. 88. An Sjderoxjlum Surinamese, Len 
"cini minor ib us Folijs y radchi media, appendicibus auclo. PluL Mant 


Iron* Wood, 


ThisTree has a very hard Wood, of a pale yellow Colour, clofe like Box, 
cover'd with a grey Bark, rifing to twenty Foot high, having nu- 
merous Branches fpread on every Hand, on the Ends of which, come 
the Leaves, they are wing'd, the Pinnae being very fmall, and having 
one odd one at the End ; the middle Rib is about an Inch, or fome- 
times two Inches long, having narrow extant Membranes or Appendices, 
like to the Ate, or extant Parts of the middleRib of Sopeberry-tree Leaves] 
or the Leaves of Orange-trees : Between each pair there is an Ifthmus' 
where they are fet oppofite to one another. Each of the Pinnae 
are about one third of an Inch long and half as broad in the Middle 
where broadeft, whence they decreafe to both Extremes, fmooth 
and of a yellowifh green, Colour ; the Fruit comes out of the Sides 
of the Twigs, two or three together, being a Membrane or thin Pulp 
which cleaves in two, and fliews one large Seed or Kernel. 

It grows in the Savanna's, and has the Name from the Hardnefs 
of the Wood. 



James Re id brought a Tree over from Barbadoes, which was in ever/ 
thing the fame only the Twigs were prickly. 

If this be the Iron-Wood o£Ligon,p. 41. it grows in Barbadoes. and/. 74.* 
he tells us, that his proper to make Cogs, that neither Sun nor Wind 
hurts it, and that it is fo hard as to break their Tools. 



XVI. Paliuro affinis Liguftrifoliafpinofa,flore Monopetalo diformi, frucltt 
ficcco fubmundo. Cat. Jam, p. 137. Tab. 16*6. Fig. 2, j. Raij. Hift. VoL 
3. Dendr. p. 97. 

This Tree or Shrub had feveral fmall Stems from the fame Root, 
ten or twelve Foot long, inclining their Heads downwards, and co 

d with a whitifh, grey, fmooth, Bark. Towards the Ends of the 
Branches, they have a great many fhort crooked Prickles, oppofite one 
to the other, at half an Inch's Interval, and at the fame Place, many 

Leaves fet likewife oppofite to one another on half Inch long Footftaiks, 

being two Inches long and half an Inch broad in the Middle, where broad* 
eft, of a Grafs green Colour, fmooth, and narrrow at their Beginning and 
End. Several Flowers ftand together at the Ends of the Twigs on 

Inch long Footftalks, two for themoft Parr on the fame Footftalk, 

an Inch long, Monopetalous, difform, whitifh, and having in theirMiddle, 
feveral very long Purplilh Stamina. The Flower dropping off the Stylus 
augments, and there follows a roundifh, fmall, Fruit, Head, or 

, ,»*,au, i 1 uu, iiw«u, 

dry Berry, no bigger than a fmall Pea, of a peculiar Shape and Fig 
being roundifh, with a Ligula or Top. 

It grows in the Savanna- Woods, and in Barbadoes. 




XVII. Paliuro affinis arbor fpinofa, flore racemofo herbaceo pent ape taloi 
de,fruttu ficco nudo c annul at lappaceo. Cat. Jam. p. 157. Tab. 167. Fig 

4. Raij. Hift. Vol. j. Dendr. p. 97. Pifonia acute at a frucJu glutinof Am. p. 7 


♦c •*/* 

1 Z 


h ' q 




Natural Hiftory of JAMAICA. 


this Tree has a Trunc of the Thicknefs 




d with 

light brown, fmooth, Bark, riling not above eight or nine Foot high, and 
inclining its Top towards the Ground,, being weak if not fupported 
the neighbouring Trees, which fometimes they turn round ; the Branches 
are always oppofice one to another, and go out at oppofite Sides of the 
Trunc, and fo do the Twigs and Prickles, the upper Branches, Twigs or 
Prickles making a Crofs with thofe immediately under them ; the Prickles 

to any 

very crooked, ftrong and many, fufficiently 

die Jliwi i, *vijf v.^v/v/i»~v«, »'v..g — . — —j 7 j -— W...J vv/ any 

frequenting the. Woods. ThisTree is for fome time as many other are here, 
altogether void of Leaves, and the Flowers fprout firft, coming out many 
together, filling the whole Tree on Bunches near to, and at the Ends of the 

being feverai, ftanding on fmall branch'd Footftalks, fmall, mo 


with five Points or Seel: 


greenifh yellow 


Colour, having white Stamina, and fmelling like Sambucus. After fome time 

each fingle Flower's Footfhlk lengthens and fufta 

oblong, cannula 

ted, rough, naked, brown, large Seed, flicking by the Means of crooked 
fhort extant Points, like thofe of Burs, or Agrimony, only fhorter, to any 
thing they come near. After the Fruit is perfected come the Leaves at 
the Ends of the Twigs, ftanding on three quarters of an Inch long Foot- 
ftalks ; they are two Inches and a half long, and one broad in the Middle 
where broadefl, of 



green Colour and like thofe of the Prunus 


grows every where in the woody Parts of the Savanna, 






The DecoEHon of the Roots of this Tree with thofe of the Lime Tree 
e thought very good for Gonorheo's, and fo it is if the Root is ground 

y & uuu >Wl www***, -, auu l\J 1L » U U1C IVUUU lb grOUH 

Powder ftir'd m Lime Juice till it be thick there with 
rhe Seeds by their crooked Points take hold of the Wings of Ground 

Doves and other Birds feeding where they 

cannot make, nfe of them to fly, or fcarce flutter 

d flick fo faft that thev 

* ft * m * f J 

their Enemi 


void which, by 



the Ground ivhen thefe Seeds are ripe 


• * 

* . 

Infttnft, they feed not on 

■> ." 




1 t ijii.i 


* t 


XVIIL Acer fcandens folij sUurinis. Cat.Jnm.f 



\ I 


94- 4 

Pluken. M&nt. p 


31* Raij... Hi ft. Vol. j 


American* fcaqdew fru% H fulgente majors 

This Shrub. has a Stalk, no , jbigg 

,y.hitijfl) colour'd fmooth, Bark, being within wopcb, with 

Swan?s Quill, cover'd with a> 

Pith, I^rifes,. by t and turns, round any. Plant or Tree it comes 

pretty largd 


feverai Foot 

* i T 

t • 


now and ' then fending forth Foot long 
Branches, with Twigs ftanding oppofite one to the other, on which at an 
Inch's Pittance ftand oppofite one to the otber,ithe Leaves on quarter of an- 

oog Footftalks; they are three Inches long 

the Middle, where broad 



• v ' 

alf as, broad 

Point, having 

being fmooth, hard, thin, and of a dark green 

and feverai tranfverfe ____ _ 

Colour. The Tops of thefe fmall Branches, for three Inches 
Length, are befet with Flowers Spike-fafhion 

long Footftalks of 

middle i Rib 


feverai Flo we 

in their 
ancjjithe quarter of an 

of a ruffet Colour 

blowers are yellow, fmall and pentapetaious, the. Seeds are made up 

protuberant Part where the Seed 



wingy Part, exactly like thofe 

the Seeds of Acer Ma) 

ge Maple 

1 y there are often three of thefe Seeds together, whereas in the ordinary 
Maple I never law above two. 3 


The Natural Hijiory of JAMAICA. 27 

It grew plentifully on the Batiks of the Rio Cobre below the Town, in 
the Road between Faff age Fort and the Town, and in a Gully hard by 
the Church in St. Dorothfs Parifh. 


XIX. Acer Sc aniens minus , apocyni facie , folio fubrotundo. Cat. Jam. p. 
Raij. Hifl<Vol. ?. dendr- />. 94. Tab. 162. Fig. 2. An Acer Scandens, 

convolvulifolio, pre ex aureo coccineo. Plum. lnfi.Tournef.p.61^. pi. Am 

This Shrub which was fomewhat inFace like the Jpocynum Scandem ma] 

folio fubrotundo, rifes to about four or five Foot high, with round Stalks, 
which turn about any neighbouring Helps, and rife by a Stalk as big as a 
Goofe Quill, cover'd with a grey, fmooth, Bark. They have Leaves 
oppofite to one another, ftanding at the Joints, which are three or 
four Inches diftant from one another , they are almoft round, about 

two Inches and a half long, and one and a half broad near the round 
Bafe where broadeft, and whence they decreafe to a blunt Point, 
being fmooth, equal on the Edges, with one Middle and feverai 
tranfverfe Ribs. Oppofite to the Leaves, come Inch long Footftalks, fu- 
ttaining Umbel Fafhion on half Inch long Petioli feverai Flowers, made 
up of five Pitala, or Leaves, each Flower's Leaf being Spoon Fafhion'd, 
only not hollow, or beginning very narrow, and being round at their Ends 
and broad, indented about their Edges, and after thefe follow the Fruit, 
being feverai Seeds joined together with feverai Membranes ftanding out 

from them like the Seeds of the Acers. 

It grew on the Entrance of the Red Hills in the Road to Guanabo& % and 

in Ba'rbadoes. . ..„.., , . A f , , 

Dr Plukenet. P. 26. of his Mantiffa, doubts if this be not his ArbujcuU 

claviculata periplocs. folijs heft a phyllos, ex inful* Johanna. That Title can 
never agree to this Defcription. 

Aceri vel pal it tiro afflnis, angufto oblongo I igu fir i folio, pre tetrapetalo 
herbaceo. Cat. Jam. p. i$8. Rat] . Htft . V ol . J. dendr. p.o^Tab. 162. Fig. ?. 
Triopteris IndU Or ientalis feu ArbujcuU amygdaU nantfolijs difpermos filtqua. 
Thlafpios Dhfcvridis, ternisamplioribus dlis Wtnella Ceylanenfibus dicta. Pluk. 
Jim: P.- J77. Triopteris Jamaicenfis angufofalicis folio Fruttu minor efufco 
Eiuftl' ib An Triopteris Indix orientalis, chamxnerij fplendentibus folijs Ve- 
riiSJe Mai ab arorum , Ej. mant. p. 185 ? An Triopteris JEleagni folijs - uifcofis U- 
tevirenlibus Americana, Ej. ib. p. 185? .An Acer minus fruttu orbtcuUri 

falicis folio Braflianum jeujolijs & fr uttib us m ajor ib us Breyn. p. 2. 

This Tree rifes not over 10 or 12 Foot high, has a Trunc, or feverai 
Truncsfrom the fame Root, oftheBignefs of one's Leg,cover'd with a light 
brown outward Bark, which fticks not, except in fome few fuperficial Places 
to the Wood, hanging lqofely to it, like uncarded Hemp ; its Branches 

ttl v, upright, redifh brown; having many Leaves on their Tops which 
a^e of feverai Sizes, as to Length and Breadth, fome whereof are longer 
others fhorter, but for the moft part three Inches long and half an Inch 
broad near the Top, where broadeft, fmooth, hard, beginning narrow, 
without any Footftalks, and of a darkifh green, Colour. The Flowers or 
Rudiments of the Fruit are many together on the Top's of the Twigs, each 
uu a fmall Footftalk, being green, fmall, almoft round, made up of tour 
channePd folid Petala, fhort and thick, in the Center of which comes a 
laree green Stylus, to which follow two, three or four round, brown, 
Peafe,lyinginaflatSeed Veffel, or Follicle, hav ing two, three, or more 
membranous extant Appendices, either flat as the Seed Veffel of the Paliu- 

rus, or ftanding out, as thofe of the Dogwood Tree, or Laferpmum, like 
the Sails of a Windmill. U 



2 8 The Natural Hiftory of J A M A I C A. 

It varies in the Bark which fticks clofe fometimes, in the Leaves which 
are fometimes fmaller, in the Heighth, being fometimes lower, and in the 
Number of the membranous Appendices, which 'lis likely may come from 
the different Age or Soil of the Plants. 

I believe this to be Dr. Plukenefs ArbufcuU vifcofa, &c. notwithftand- 
ing what he fays in his Mant. p. 22. 

It grows at Old-Harbour by the Sea-Side, and on the red Hills going to 
GuAmboAy very plentifully. 

XXI. Aceri Atit paliuro affints Arbor caudice non r*mofo y Foltjs Sorbi fihe- 
flriSy fioribus pent apet alts racemofis fpeciofts purpureis,fruciu ficco tribus membra- 
nulls extant i bus aUto. Cat. J Am. /». 138. Ratj. Hijt. Vol.^.Dendr. p. 94. 
Tab. 170. 

The Roots of this Tree take hold of the Surface of the Earth. The 
Stem or Trunc is about an Inch Diameter, (height, without Branches, or 
undivided, rifing up to Forty Foot high, having no Leaves 'till within 
half a Foot of its Top, after the Manner of the Palms ; its Bark is 
fmooth, whitifli, but near the Top round about has the Veftigia or 
Mark of every Leaf fallen off, like thofe on the Stem of Coleworts. The 
Leaves ftand round the Top, being winged and very large, the middle 
Rib being three or four Foot long, whitifh and downy, each of the 
Pinnae or Lobes being fix. Inches long and one broad at its Bafe, whence 
it decreafes, ending in a Point ; they are foft and hoary. Above the 
Leaves the Top of the Tree is branch'd out into many Twigs fpread on 
every Hand, and fix Foot high, at the End of whofe numerous Stalks 
are many very pleafant pentapetalous Purple Flowers with yellow Stamina 
to which follows a triquetrous, fmooth, membranaceous Bladder. 

It grew very plentifully on the Rivers Sides, amongft the Mountain* 

and Rocks near Hope River in Liguanee. 

XXII. Evonj/mo affinis Atbor fpinofa, folio alato, fruBu (icco pentagono & 

pent ace ceo, ligno fiavo fantali odore. Cat. Jam. p. 138. Raij. Hifi. VoL 1 
p. 70. Tab 

This is for Bignefs and Heigth one of the Iargeft and talleft Trees in the 
Ifland, it has a grey and whitifli colour'd Bark, fmooth only here and there 
along the Trunc, having longobtufe Prickles like Coxcombs ; the Branches 
are forty or more Feet high, and are all befet with fhort, crooked, Prickles • 
theirEnds are thick befet with winged Leaves without anyOrder'; the mid- 
dle Rib is Purple, having a Prickle at every Pinna, Fourteen Inches long 

the Pinnae fet not juft tho' near oppofite one to the other, they are each 
two Inches and half long, and about an Inch broad near the Bafe where 
broade/r, of a very dark grafs green Colour, without any Footftaiksand 
fmooth, having no odd one at the End ; the Ends of the Branches are 
feveral, two Inches long Twigs fet on every Hand with a multifiliquous 


d, green, Fruit, each Se&ion or Corner containing an aTmofl 
round, black, fhining, Seed, as big as a great Pin's Head, (landing naked 
half out of a green Husk. The greater Spurs or Prickles on the Trunc of 

this Tree when beaten off at the Bafe, fm ell not unpleafantly, fomething 
like yellow Sanders .. 

It grows every where in the lower Lands of this Ifland and Bar 



Ligon- p. 1 4. tells us it grows in Cape Verde Ifles and Bar badoes. p. 41. 

where 'tis good Timber, and p. 73. that 'tis good for Ufes within 


I could 


* > \JL * v 1 - 1 - «. 

W V 

The Natural Hiftory of JAMAICA. 2 p 


I could find no Difference between this and James Reid*s prickly 
ed Wood brought from Barbadoes ; the Pinnae of which had one middle 
Rib which had a Prickle on its under Part, and I believe this of Jamaica 
hath it likewife. 

It is one of the beft Timber Trees of the Caribe Ifles. Tertre. 

Dr. Plukenet. p. 191. of his Mant. doubts if this be not the fame with 
the Tree defcrib'd before under the Name of Patmro affinis liguftri folia 

Spinofa flore monopetalo difformi frutfu (iccofubrotundo. How juftly any Body 

may fee who compares their Defcriptions and Figures. 

XXIII. Tbymelea facie frutex maritimus tetrafpermos, flore tetrdpetalo. Cat. 

Jam. p. 1 $8. Raij. Hift. VoL J. p. 96. Tab. 162. Fig. 4 

This Shrub rifes to about feven Foot high, has a Stem or Trunc as 
thick as one's Arm, covered with a thin very red brown Bark, and being 
towards its Top divided into feveral Branches, round the Ends of which 
come the Leaves in very great Numbers without any Order, being almoft 
an Inch long, and fcarce one tenth of an Inch broad at the further End, 
where broadeft, having no Footftalk. They arc very narrow and aug- 
ment to near the Ends, where broadeft, are very thick, fucculent, arid of 
a dirty green Colour. From among thefe Leaves comes a half Inch long 
crooked, Footftalk, holding down feveral yellow tetrapetalous Flowers 
within a pentaphyllous green Calix, in which, after the Flower is fallen 
follows four naked, rough, roundifli brown Seeds, fet very clofe together 
like thofe of the Cynogloffa. 

grew on Houfe Cayos, which is a fmall Ifland off of Port Royal, and 

Sea Side in St. Ann's, near Capt. Draxfs Plantation very 


■ • ■ 


XXIV. Verbafci folio minor e arbor, floribtts fpicatis luteis tetrapetalU r m 

minibus fmgulis oblongis infingulis vafculis ficcis. Cat. Jam. p. 139. Raij. Hifjt 
VoL 3. Dendr. p. 9 7. Tab. 172. Fig. I. An Opbioxylon Americanum, folij 


oblongis mucronatis leviter ferratis, bar dan* infiar fubtus lanuginofis. Lignum 

Colubrinum Barbadenfium Snakervood ibi nuncupatum. Pluken. Aim. p. 270. 
Phyt. Tab. 210. Fig. 1. 

This Tree, or Shrub rifes to nine or ten Foot high, having a Trunc 
as thick as one's Leg, a white fmooth Bark, with feveral Branches, whofe 
Ends are bow'd down towards the Ground ; the Leaves come out oppofitc 
to one another towards the Ends of the Branches ; they have fcarce any 
Footftalks, are three Inches long, and half as broad, green above and! 
white underneath, fomewhat like Viburnum Leaves, The Tops of the 
Twigs are branch'd into feveral Inch long Stalks, every one of which is 
very thick and clofe befet, with many tetrapetalous fmall yellow Flowers, 
which have a pale greenifh Capfula and no Footftalk, and to each 
of which follows an oblong, or oval brown Capfula, which is fill'd with 
a pretty large, brown, Seed of the fame Colour. 

It grows near the Rio Cobres Banks, in moft Gullies io Jamaica, and 
moft of the Caribe Iflands. 

This feems to be quite different from the Opbioxylon Amerkanutn folij 

oblongis mucronatis, Sec. Plukenet. 



XXV . Verbafci folio mayor e odorato arbor, floribus pentapetalis albis. Cat. 
Jam, p.i-$<). Raij. Hift. Vol. J. Dendr. f. 97. Tab. 17 j. 

This Tree feem'd to be the fame in every thing with the Precedent, only 
the Leaves are fix Inche's long, and as broad. Its Flo wers are white, and 
pentapetalous, with yellow Stamina, and the Leaves have a very ftrong 




2o The Natural Hijlory of J A M A I C A. 

* - 

It grows in the fame Places with the former 

The Tree calFd Loblolly in Barbados is, as I believe, hereafter de 
fcrib'd, tho' Dr. Plukenet, p. iS. of his Matttiffa, takes this to be it. 

XXVI. Mall folio arbor, artemifi& odore, pre pentapetalofpicato. Cat, Jam. 
p. 159. Raij. Dendr. Vol. $.p. 17. Tab. 174. Fig- 1. 

This Tree rifeth to twenty or thirty Foot high, its Trnnc is as big as 
one's Thigh, having a white Wood cover'd with a brown dark coloured 
almoft fmooth Bark ; the Branches grow ftreight up, having a great ma- 
ny Leaves, almoft like thofe of an Apple Tree, ftanding without any 
Order, on half Inch brown Footftalks ; they are three Inches long, two 
broad at the Bafe, where broadeft, of a dark green Colour, and fmooth. 
The Flowers are a great many, ftanding round the Ends of the Branches 

on fcaly Inch long Spikes, making in all a Panicle •, they are whitifh and 

con/ift of feveral white Stamina ftanding round a Stylus of the fame Co- 
lour, and having five, fcarce difcernible white Villofe, or woolly Leaves 
underneath, like to a Perianthium, which fmells, when rub'd, extreamly 
fweet, and fomething like thofe of Mugwort, as do alfo the Leaves and 
all Parts of this Plant. 

It grows in a Wood between the Town Savanna^ and Two Mile Wood. 

rr^ X J}' M * U f oli ° arbor " tmi $* 0*0" &fiore. Cat. Jam. p. i 3q . Ra r u 

Hijt. Vol. ■$. Dendr. p. 17. Tab. 174. Fig. 2. 7 J 

This Tree was in every Thing like the preceeding, only the Bark of the 
Twigs was more white and odoriferous ; the Flowers came not in Pan,* 
cles but Spikes of about an Inch and a half long, and were made up of 
feveral Flowers ftanding one over another, each being made ud of five 
large and long Petala ° ^ xvc 

I do 

aaiy remember where I found this, but think it wa* nm- 

far from the Town of St. Jago de la Vega. ' nK lt Was not 

XXVIII. Spirt* congener fpnof*,folio fubrotando samhuto Me<rro,pule S H 

odore, jruclu t zrvo oblongo, cmnuhto, coronato. Cat. Jam. p. I?0 RaThSfl 
Vol. } . Dendr. />. 9 1 . Tab. 1 74. Fig. 3 & 4. J r ' 9 ' KM 1 ' **V* 

This Shrub has often feveral Stems coming from the fame Root each of 

which is no b.gger than a Goofe Quill, round, woody, ofTbVowriftf 

black Co our, nfing three, or fometimes fix Foot mah LEZ^r* the Neighbourhood of a ftronger Plant Sftpjft the iwks 
are many, going out of oppofite S des of the Stalks Mv\LkJHv -Ti g 
one third of an Inch longhand Leaves ftanding on ^eTlSo? an'lnS 

SuW a,kS i °T^ t0 ° ne T ther ' at 0I * *ird of affihfdiftance 
about half an Inch diameter, a little pointed at the v n Ao Va , <l 

round, of a ydlowifh green' Colour, 'fm^^^ft^ 
Nummular,*, but very ftrong fcented like Puleeium Thfwu * 

at the Top, being fniall, pentapetalou" manyTo e ether feSS "^ 
pentaphyllous Calix, of the Colour, and fSha t § ref™ hr d, u S r in r 

S f ir M Theophrtfti, \ ho - not fo clofe fej nor fo hSdW fe - h ° fe ° f 

cemus Bunch, or Umbel, and to them follow SSu* 1° * \fl 

theVoTyi^xa $@a$g&& * *«» * 




■ . 



The Natural Hijtory of JAMAICA 

3 1 




Of Trees that have Papyiionaceous Flowers, and are Siliquofe. 

Laburnum humilius, ftliqua inter grana & grana juncla^femine ejculento 
Cat* Jam. p. 139. Thalamath feu Arbor Vomit or ia Hernandez,. ^.70. Bipicat 
Pi/on de Angloa fruticofum folio trifolioy An agrydis facie fubincano, fort lutei 

optimum in edulis Surian. Kjijana arbor fabifera trifolia falvitfolij 
luteis elegant ijjimis pbafeolos fpeclans. Aman. bort. Bof.p. 18. 






HIS Shrub rifes four or five Foot high, having a green round Trunc, 
of an Inch Diameter, being about a Foot from the Ground, divi- 
ded into many Branches, fpreading themfelves on every Hand, being 
ftreak'd and channell'd,having plac'd on ihem alternatively, feveralLeaves, 
always three on the fame half Inch long Footftalk, each of which, is 
an Inch and a half long, and $ quarters of one broad in the middle where 
broadeft ; foft, of a dark green Colour above, and whitifh underneath. 
Ex alts Foliorum towards the Tops of the Branches come out $ qrs of Inch 
long Branches, on which are feveral yellow Flowers with purple Streaks, 
(landing Spike-fafhion, on half Inch long Footftalks, being Papyiionaceous, 
to which follow flat, brown, two Inches long Pods, in which lie about 
four Peafe, having tranfverfe Partitions between each Seed, being the 
Sides of the Pod clapp'd down, making a tranfverfe Furrow on the 
outfides of its Valves, and a fwelling between. 

It is frequently planted in this Ifland. the Caribes % Surinam* 8cc. 




as a 



lafts many Years without decaying, 

and will thrive on barren Land which has been worn out, where 
fcarce any thing elfe will profper. 

They are fometimes gather 'd and eaten 
is to feed Pigeons, whence the Name. 

The Branches with the ripe Peafe and Leaves are not only given 
to feed Hogs, but Horfes and all other Cattle, which they fatten ve- 

by Men, but their chief Ufe 


One Boil, makes them fit for eating, Rochef. 

They are hard to (hell Tertre. 

This is a little Tree, and the firft Year 

that it is planted it beareth 
no Fruit, but afterwards it beareth three Years and then it is cut down. 

Battel ap. Purchas, lib. J. cap. 1.§.7. p.gS'}. 


IL Afpalathus arbor eus y feu pfeudoebenus buxi folio, flore luteopatulo y fili- 

qua, lata, brevi cbartacea femen exiguum reniforme comple&ente. Cat. Jam. 
140. Tab. 175. Fig* I. Ebene verte de Pommet.p. Biet.p. 3 $8. An 
Sois vert, de Bonton p. 84. Rochef. Tab. p. 20. An Lycio fimilis Jr ut e x lndicus 
fpinofus buxi folio Bryn. Prod. 2./>. 65. f Spartiumportulactfolijs aculeatum 
ebeni materie Plum. pi. Am. p. 1 9. 


This Tree has a great many long, brown Roots, creeping under thi 
Surface of the Earth, from which rifes a Trunc as big as ones Thigh 
for the moft Part crooked, and forty Foot high, having a dark brown 



3 2 

77* itom/ H^or; of J A M A I C A. 

or grey 

Bark, with many Sulci in its Length 

The upper fometim 



it felf from the under Barks 

being wreath'd 


Hemp uncomb'd, and is fo tough as to be fit to tye any thing , witM!, 
inne?Part of the Wood is ver/hard dark browmfh i green ot Colog 

; the outward white, foft and more apt to decay, tne 
towards the Top, and arebefet with many very imall 

* * dry Times. After Rams 


brittle but lafting 

Branches go 

Prickles ; are grey colour'd and quite naked 
come out the Flowers, the 

are thick fet on the Branches, yellow, 
Paovlionaceous, very open, imall with a crooked green Stylus in their 
fflte fmeffing wyfwSct; a little while after come the I eaves, they 
IS fSll ^^^ roundifhattheTopand largeft there, half an Inch long and 

a quarter of one broad, having 

Footftalk, they 


Colour, fmooth, fhining and like the Leaves of Lycium 
come the Pods, they are broad, fhort, thin like Paper, 


dark green 





brown Pea, lhap'd like 


It grows every where 

the Savannas or Low-land Woods 

wherefore 'tis a Commodity exported 

The Wood for its fine greeniih brown Colour^capabteof Fo^M* 
very much coveted in Eur of 
from Jamaica 

the Eaft-Indies, whence 

tho' 'tis quite different from the 

black Ebony from 


s, wiiwuvw, «nd particularly from Madagaft , 

yet this pafTes under that Name in the Iflands 

Cauche tells 

il cumvj , /*"• *•—» r~* 

The Wood, becaufe of 

Hardnefs is ufed very much for Wedg 

This with other Woods for Workmen, us'd to be brought from Cubx 

and the Ifles to Spain. Jof Acoft 

The Wood gives a green Dy 


Roche f. 

The true EEony ha's a Laurel Leaf, is Hko Oak in its Bark, &c. and 

has a Fruit like an Acorn, Cauche 

The Eben 

black Wood 


Ethiopia, Bermudez af. Purchas, 

lib. 7. caf. 7. §. 5. Dendr. f. 1 167. 
Ebony grows in Madagafcar, 

Ifland and the Portuguefe in Mozambiq 

Aloes. Mandelfoi f. 207. 

This is not the Ebenus Jamaicenjis arbufcuU huxi folijs ffinofa pore luteo 

and is Part of the Trade between that 

as well as Dragons-Blood and 

Pafylionaceo Siliquifera of Dr. Plu 

Phyt.Tab. 89. Fig. 1. Aim. f.12 

I told him in common Difcourfe that this Tree of Jamaica had a Papy- 
lionaceous Flower, and was Siiiquiferous, but never affirm'd that of the 

Shrub growing in Chelfea Garden, concerning which, I with Reafon 

doubted if it were the fame with the Jamaica Ebony, for they are - 
different Trees. 


III. Genifid affinis Anonym* arbor, flore colute*, buxi folio. Cat. Jam.f. 
141. Tab. 170. Fig. 2. Raij. Hifi. Vol. 3. f. 107. 

This Tree had a very hard, folid. white, Wood, the Bark fmooth and 
grey, having on itsTwigs, Leaves placed alternatively, each having aFoot- 
italk one Eighth of an Inch long. The Leaf it felf is about an Inch and a 
half long, and three quarters of an Inch broad in the middle, where 
broadeft, and whence it decreafes to both Extremes, being even on 
the Edges, on the Surface, lhining and having few Veins, being of a yel- 
lowifli green Colour. Ex alts Foitorum come fmall yellowifh green Flowers, 
two or three on a little Petiolus, each being made of a Galea and 
Bifid Lip, or rather Papylionaceous. The Seeds are two, ftanding after the 
Manner of the precedent, being like a Heart as painted, or haivng 
a Defeft on the upper fide at their Junftion, and a very fmall Ledge or 
extant Ala, round them* 



The Natural Hiftory of JAMAICA 


I do not remember the particular Place of the Ifland of Jamaica 
^here 1 found this Tree. 

This comes very near in rriany things to the Tree defcrib'd under 

the Name of Anonymos fi 




Plant, hiftor. p. i o $ 

It is alfo in many things like the Kj>datsjari. H. M. tab. 6j 




Commelyn Portulac* folijs fimilis Planta y pre albogale* 
un,& labiato [mine oblongo, rotundo y rufo, fufco colore. 

The Figure and Magnitude of this Tree (hew it to be different from 

{[^ Poly gala frutefcens major folio buxi Mentzd. tho' Dr, Plukenet } p 

<5f his Mann ft fufpefts it may be the fame. 

IV. Cytifus arborem % folijs obtufts glabra, folioi urn preiiculis alatis. Cat. 

°fam. p. 141- Tab. 176. Fig. v Raij. Hift. Vol. 3. p. 47$. 

This Tree has feveral Truncs each as big as one's Leg, riling together, 
cover'd with a fmboth,Cinamon colour'd Bark, ftreight, eight or nine Foot 
high, the Branches rifing upright, are all round befet with Leaves^coming 

Inch's Interval 


l ")» ,VU " •W*»M*» ■-rw.-.. ,r ...» — w-, ~~- 

always tO£ether, all taking their Orig 


theEnd of an Inch long, green,commonFootftalk,a little foliofe or flat,with 
extant narrow Alae, each of which are an Inch long, half as broad near 
the further End, where broadeft, and round, beginning narrow and aug 
rtientin^ to the Extremity, being of a yellowifh green Colbur,very fmooth 
havine°one Middle and fome tranfverfe Ribs. ■ 

I found it by the River's Side under the Town, and on the Red Hills 

V6 Dr P Pluhnet is mifrakeri, />.6*$. of his Mantiffa. where he thinks this 

may be the fame with his Cytifus Protumbens American™ fiore ' 

(fimus qui anil {up f edit at apud Barbadenfium Colonos. Phytogr. Tab. 86 

luteo ramo 

Fig. 2. Alm.p 

29. This being quite different 


V. Cytifto arbor ens bituminoftts, heder* folijs Hon angulops. Cat. p.i^il 

Tab.\ni. Raij- Hift. Vol. 3. P. 473. 

This Tree had a tf hite hard Wdod cover'd tfrith a fmooth grey Bark, 
both being very odoriferous, and fmelling like to Bitumen, having here 
and there Leaves plac'd on their Branches without any Order, but moftly 
{landing againft one another, being always three on the fame common 
Inch long Footftalk, each of them being about an Inch long and three 
quarters of an Inch broad in the Middle, where broadeft, and whence 
they decreafe to both Ends, where they are fharp ; they are fmooth on 
their Surface, and each refembles the younger Leaves of Ivy before they 

grow corner'd 

What the Flower and Seeds were I know 


but by 

three Leaves growing together, I conjeaure this to be its true Place 

It grew on the Red Hills among the Woods 

This is quite differing from the Lucinum arbor tili* folijs minoribus Ame 

ricanum.Pluk.Pbyt. Tab 

'4, thinks it may be the fame 


tho' the Dr. p. 1 20, of his Man 

VI. Crotalaria trifolia fruticofa, folijs glabtis, flore e viridi luteo minor e. 
Cat. P. 141. Raij. Hi ft. Vol. $./>. 465. Tab. 178. Fig. i. An Crot at aria Ame- 
ricana trifolia rotunda glabra, tierm. Par. Bat. fr.f* 1*9 ? An Crotalariafru* 
tefcens Americana, triphyU folijs fimimbus glabris fiore purpureo. Pluk.Pbyt. 


This Shrub has a pretty large Root divided into three or four Branches, 
about two Inches long, of a reddifh Colour. The Stalk, or Trunc is as 

big as one's Thumb, ftreight, three or four Foot high, having an almoft 



34 The Natural Hifiory of J AMAICA. 


fmooth, brown Bark. It has many Branches befet on every Hand with 
Leaves, three always ftanding together, on a three quarters of an Inch 
long common Footftalk; they arc three quarters of an Inch long and 
half as broad, fmooth, of a yellowifh green Colour that one oppofite to 
the Footftalk, or in the Middle being the largeft. ExaltsTolmum come 
the Flowers, which are Papylionaceous, of a dirty yellow Colour ftand- 
ins on a fhort Footftalk, and to them follow Inch long brown Pods, oar- 
ow towards the Footftalk, ventriofe or big at the Ends containing too 
w fix irregularly figur'd Seeds, being fmall, comprefs d, each haying a 
Notch or Defeft in them, and all making a Noife when ripe, like a 



teis,fructupubtjcenti. i at. p>. 141. tidtj Jritjt- vol. 3. p.tpo. iao. 
. 1 . An Ononis natrix dicta frutefcens annua Americana (lore luteofpi- 
tjs Meliloti Italic*, fubbtrfut a major Brejm prod. 2. p. 78 ? Anonis A- 

TR 3f tic 

It grew in a Wood between the Town Savanna and two Mile Wood. 

VII. Crotalaria trifolia fruticofa y folijs rotundu incanis^ floribns fpicatis e 
viridiluteis, frutfu fubtfcenu. Raij Hift. Vol. 3. fr^M. Tab. 


xato % foltj ., r _ . , 

mericana, folio fatiori,fubrotundo,Tournef. e l. p. Juft. p. 409. Crotalaria Afi- 
atica trifolia fubbirfuta. H. Lejd. App. p. 663 ? Cytijiu Zjylarticus folio la- 
bor ni Amman. Raij. Hift* Append. 189?. 

This Shi ub has a fmall, fhort Root having fewFtbers.The Stalk is round 
and green, rifing four Foot high, the Leaves ftand on the Branches with 
out any Order, being almoft round, always three together on the fame 
Inch long Footftalk, being hoary, and of a yellowifh green Colour, the 
Flowers are many, on the Ends of the Branches fpike fafliion, greenifh 

yellow and Papyhonaceous, and to them follow as many rough or very 


hoary at fir ft green and afterwards brown* fwell'd, Pods like thofe of the 

Crotalaria- of which this may be reckon^! one. In thefe Pods lie feveral 
Seeds, fmall, flat, irregularly figured, of a reddifh brown Colour, there 
being a Notch in each of them, and being fomewhat like the Seeds of 


It grows at the Crefcent Plantation, in the Plantations at Quanaboa^ 
and in feveral other Places of this Ifland, as well as Barbadoes. 


VIII. Colute* afftnis fruticofa y floribus [pi cat is purpurafcentibtts, filiquis in- 
carvis, e cuj us TincJura Indigo con fcitun Cat. Jam. p. "141. Tab. ijg.Fig* 2. 

Enter us Americanus filiqua incurva. Tournef 1/tft. p. 656. Cor on ill a Indie a ex 
qua Indigo VoUk. p. 1 24* Indigo jer a rotundifolia. Mum. Aard p. 229. An In 

digofera coluteocdes. Ej. ib. Pbjt. cur* Caacbira. Annil berba loto affinis ex qua. 
Indigo feu paftellus ad color andas Unas confeitur. Surian. Anil. Pommet. p* 151. 

Indicum ejficin. Dale. p. 32$. Ilerb out of which is made Indtco of Dam- 
pi tr. cap, 8. Anil. Muf. Suammerd. p. 13. An arbre tint. Ogilby Africa, p. 545. 




This Shrub has a 5 or 6 Inches long Root, white, woody ,round, crooked 
and hard, fending out feveral Fibrils and fmalier Branches here and there ; 
it fends up feveral Stalks cover'd with a brown Bark, round, woody and 
rifing a Foot and an half high, very Bufhy ; the Leaves come out along 
the Branches alternatively, at half an Inch's Diftance, they are wing'd, 
the Middle Rib is more than an Inch long, the Finns three Pair with one 
odd ; they are oppofite one to the other, have very fmall Footltalks, are 
one third of an Inch long and half as broad near the End, where they 
are round and broadeft, fmooth, of a bluifh gr sen Colour and un- 
favory Scent. Ex alts Folhrum come the Flowers, on fmall half Inch 


The Natural Hiftory of J A M A I C A. 

long Stalks, they are fpike fafhion, Papylionaceous, Purple red 
in Colour and very fmall, and to them follow crooked or falcated 

nd Pods, made like a half Moon or Hook, yellowifh when nne 
and containing feveral very fmall quadrangular Peafe, of a yellowifh 

Thefe Shrubs are planted in mod Places of this Ifland. 
They fill a large Fat two thirds with feveral Baskets of the Herbereen 
then put Water out of the Cifterns, juft to cover it ; they put two Beams 
it, which are kept down by two Bars, going into two Mortifies in two 

Beams lying over them, fecur'd by two notch'd Pofts above, and kep 

firm by two Pins going crofs, or athwart them ; thefe Devices keep 
the Herb and Water from rifing when they ferment. In twenty four 
Hours time 'tis ready to draw off into the Beating-Fat, where 'tis beaten 
by Foot Diameter Boards with Holes in them, faften'd to the Ends 
of nine Foot long Staves, till from a green Colour it comes to a blackifb, 
and being taken up and let ftand a little, it lets fall fome fmall Grains, or 
when mix'd with frelh Urine, it immediately lets them fall and leaves clear 
Water at Top ; if it be beaten longer than enough, thefe Grains are again 

abforbed into the Water, and mafce it appear black : This Fat in beat 
is apt to have a Froth at Top, which, when it appears, is quelPd by throw" 
ing in five or fix Drops of Oyl by a Feather into the Fat; thefe Grains 

fome Hours fubfide the clear Water is drawn off, and the Sediment p. 

into Bags like Manic* Hipfocratis ; 'tis drain 7 d by hanging fome Hours and 

then 'tis put into fquare Boxes and expos'd to the Sun, and ieaft it fhouki 
crack, it is cut into fquare fmallerDivifions. if it be not well dry'd or cur'd, 
it breeds Worms. It has a moft unfavory Smell, and draws all Vermin to- 
wards it, whence the Fats are ufually plac'd at a pretty Diftance from 
dwelling Houfes. 

TheProcefs varies very much, according to the different Seafons of the 
Year, when 'tis made. 

Land where few Rains happen are proper for this, being in fix Weeks 
ready for cutting. 

There are two Sorts of Indigo, Guatemala and fade Platte, the firft is 
beftj fome of the Seeds {about 20) are put into Holes at Foot's Diftance, 
and cover'd with 2 Fingers Deepnefs of Earth, in Rainy Times 'tis up in 4 
Days, and ready to cut in $ Months, and in fix Weeks is a fecond Crop 
1 hey mix it with Water, and after Fermentation, let it out of the 
Tremfoire to the Batter ie, where 'tis beat till it granulates, and before it 
be again mix'd with the Water, they let it out into Sacks, and mix in 
beating fome Oil to hinder the Foaming : Indigo is made with the lighteft 
and fweeteft Water ; 'tis dried when feparated from the Cafes. No 
Indigo Works can be made of Wood becaufe of its piercing Quality. 
Some Negroes and French have been kill'd by its ill Savour. Swimming 

Indigo is beft. Tertre 

This feems to be the Xihuiquilitlpitxahuac, Hernandez and Xim y tho 

be a very ill or improper Figure, as may appear by their fay 
that it is Ciceris folijs, thefe Leaves being not at all like them, 'tis hot 
dry in the fecond Degree. The Powder heals old Sores if they be 
wafh'd with Urine before; bruis'd and put to the Head, they cure its aching, 
as docs their Decoftion. They thinks it would grow well in Spain. 

It was not formerly known in Braftle, Marcg. 

It is reckon'd vulnerary, and prepar'd feveral Ways to be good a. 
gainft Ulcers of the Head and Foet. Pijo. 

It grows in Tucatank Laet 



3 6 The Natural Bftory of J A M A I C A. 

Thofe of Madagascar beat the Leaves to a Lump and make ufe of it to 
dye with. The firft and third Years Indigo a finks and is not good, the 
fecond fwims, and the Smoke is blue. Cauche. 

Indigo is known if good by applying it to the Flame of a Candle, in 
which if it fcattcrs, diffufes, or melts like fine Flower 'tis good, 
if it turns, or remains when burnt, like Sand, 'tis not of worth fo that 
which fwims is good, and that which finks in Water is bad. Linfcbot. 


It is very good in Guatimah y Laet. and is to be dried on Sand for 

fear of fpoiling the Colour, id. 
In New-Spain 'tis plentiful, in 1 547 came in the Flota, 566 3 Arrobfs 

worth fo many Pefo's. Aco(t 

It us'd to be brought from Cairo fifteen Years fince, to Chriftendom, 

now 'tis carry'd thither. Lambert. 

That is beft which fwims on Water, and being burnt diffolves into 
a fubtle Powder, and leaves no Sand ; 'tis faid to be given to Chil* 

drenofbad Digeftion. Fra 

It mitigates Pains of the Stone, if the Decoclion of the Root be 
given. The Leaves beat with Water laid to the Belly p rovokes U- 
rine The Indigo is good to dry Humours. H. M. 

lnde is made of Leaves, Indigo of Stalks and Leaves 

Pyrard. />• 2. /. 158 

carried from Cambaya, and Surat to Goa. 

and/. 13.?. 3. that it growi like Rofemary,is wetted anddry'd feveral 

Times till it becomes blue. 

Salbank.ap.Purcbas.lib.^.cap.g.^.4. 2j6./>.fays thuBUmy is the chiefeft 
Place for Indigo of all the Eaft, it is two Days Journey from Agra, there are 

t welveMills there. It groweth on fmall Bufhes, its Seed is lik& that of Cab- 
bage, it lies on Heaps after cutting half a Year to rot, then by Oxen is 
trodden out from its Stalks, afterwards is ground fine, then boii'd 

Furnaces, and forted into feveral Sorts. The beft Indigo is worth eight 

Pence per Pound. 

Sir Henry Middleton. ib. cap. 11. §. $. p. 259. fays that 'tis made at 
Tayes and Motif a Towns between Moha in the Red Sea and Zenan. and 

cap. 11. §. 6. lib. ?• ib. at Surat 

Dounton. ib. cap. 12. §. 2. p. 2$l. at Jde ft. ib.§. 5./. toj. ztDabuff, 

And Saris, apud Purcb. lib. 4. cap. 1. §. 3. p. 349. that that of Labor _ 

beft. Worth at Moha, a hundred Rials for one hundred and fifty Weight 
that of Cirkefa is not fo good. ib. * 

William Ftncb. apud Purcbas. lib- 4. cap. 4. §. 5. » 420. found it near 

Agra. It grows alfo at Byana, where the fatnefs of the Soil and brackifh 
Water make it good. It is the fame with that of the Weft Indies it is 
fteep'd for fome Days with Stones on it in a Ciftern, the Infufion is 

, **»w *ii 1U UUII, 


beat and dry'd on the Sand in the Sun. The Produce of the Second 
Year fwims; of the firft and third is not .fogood ; that which gives 
a blue Vapour in the Fire is beft, Orfena. 429 

Whithington. lib. 4. cap. 8. §. 3. p. 483. found it in the Mogulh Coun- 
try, and Purcbas.ib.p./fii. at Sinda, which is not fogood, but courfe. 

Payten. ib. cap. 1 3. §. J./.488. and 615. §. 1. tells us that 'cis a Comnu> 

dity at Studs and Surat, p. 529. and that from Labor is the beft, and 

Hbtrques the worft, in the MogulPs Country, ib.p. 504 

Dounton met with it at Surat. cap. n. §. 1. 

Dodfoortb at Sarques, not far from Amadavar. ib. cap. 12. p. 518. 6. 2. 

And Btddulph.ib. lib.B. cap.y.p. 1 341. fays that the Arabs Wives co 

lour their Lips blue, and likewife their Face when hir'd to mourn. 


The Natural Hijlory o/JAMAIC 


The Brand's, which are of the King's Country (for the King is a Bra 

ma) have their Legs, Bellies, or fome part of their Body, as they think 
good themfelves, made black with certain Things which they have. Tiny 
ufe to prick the Skin, and to put on it a kind of Anile or Blacking, which 
doth contiuue always; this is counted an Honour among them ; which 
none may have but the Bram*\ who are of the King's Kindred. 

fitch dp. Hdkluyt. Tom. 2. p. 26*2. ap. Purchas. lib 

About the Year 


\p. 6.^174 

the Trade for Indigo flood thus. Three 

hundred and fifty thoufand Pound of Indigo was fpent in a Year in Europe 

-which at 4*. 6 d. per Lib. at Aleppo coft 758$$/. 6s.%d. Mun 
Purchas. cap. 17. />. 7J4. at 1 /. 2 

4 4 and is us'd for dying Cloath chiefly. Two hundred thoufand 

d. per Lib. in Eafi India coft 20416/ 

Pound of Indig 

yearly in England, 

d. cofts 1 1 666 I. is 

4<f. Sold at 5 j. comes to 50000 /. One hundred and fifty thoufand Pound 

of Indigo, at 7 s. per Lib. when from Turkey is 52500/. 

Dm Val Pyrard. p. 129. fays 'tis made in Cambayt. 

Rob. Tomfon. dp. Hakl. p. 454. found it about Mexico % where 'tis 
to die Blue, 'tis made of a certain Herb that groweth wild in the Fields, 
is gather'd at one Time of the Year, burnt, and of the Afhes thereof, 

with other Confections put thereunto, the faid Indigo is made. 

60. propofes among other Things, for the 



M. Rich. Hakluyt. p 

Good of our Cloathing Trade, that'Anile, wherewith 

fliould be brought into this Realm by Seed or Root, and the Art of com 

?ounding the fame. In St. Salvddor on Coft* Rica, I beftow'd that which 
carry'd in Anile (which is a kind of Thing to die Blue withall) to Port 
of Cavahs in Honduras, from whence 'tis fhip'd for Spain. Chilton 

fidkl.p. j./>. 558. and/. 491. reckons it one of the Commodities exported 

from Meridd on Tdhdjco River in Cdmpeche Province. 
Polo dpud Purchas. lib. 1 . p. 1 06. met with it in Cambaia. 

Indigo, one hundred and fixty fix Pounds, fold about the Red Sea. for 
from thirty five to fifty Rials. Saris dp. Purchas. lib. 4. up. 1. p. $47. ' 

Petty Hdkl.p. 3. p. 814. found it in Sonfondte. 

Smith of Virginia, p. 149. tells us 'tis one of their wealthy Commodi- 

the Weft Indies, and that 'tis in the Summer Ifles, but planted there 

71. Ligon. found 

Bdrbddoes.p. 42. Rawolft 


brought from India to Aleppo, as a Commodity. Terry, p 

tp.S. fay 

they put Indigo Leaves Gripped off the Branches to heat and fweat in 
Heaps certain Days before Infufion, after which they let it evaporate by 
the Sun in exceeding broad and fhallow Veffels made of Plaifter of Pdris. 

The beft Sort 

from Biana near Ag 

fer from Cirkeefe 


from Amadavat, and p. 192. that 'tis planted there by the Coolees. 

Mdndeljlo. p. 206. met with it in Madagajcar, but there they make 
it not into a Pafte. 

Ay mucho color azul muyfno in Efpanola. Lepez de Gom. cdp. 26. 

IX. Colutea 

iffinis fruticofd argentea, fioribus fp 

viridi put put 7 is 

ftliquu faUatU. Cdt.Jam.p. 142. Tab. 176. Fig. $. Raij. Hift. Vol. $. p. 45 

" feu poly gala tndica minor (iliquis r< 

' & 1892? An Colutea Curajft 

325 ? vel coluted Indie dt 


An Coli nil Hort. Mai. Part 

Syen. ib.p. 1 04 f Raij. Hift. p 

vied argentea 

fti foli 


Bat. p 


joltjs fuperne glabris virentibus fubtus jericeo nit ore Angenteo fpl 


dentibus, Plukehet Aim. p. 112? Colutea 'lndicdfeu Indigo Sylvefiris poly 

filiqms recurvis Americdnus, Bjufd. ib ? feufrutex primus innomindtus Macar 


ip.S.p. 6% 

vel Eruumfeu rob us drborejeens minus incdnus,gluyrhiz 

folijsflorefpicdto Americans pediculo pinnarum rubente. Brey 

p. 2? 

An In 


The Natural Hijlory of T A M A I C A. 

digo folio r ot undo ^ five Indigo f era, rotandijolia 9 Mant. p. 228 ? Nil five Indigo 
fpuria. Raij. p. 1734. Cola tea ex vera Cruce folijs argent eh anguftis. Herm. 

par. Bat- pr. p . 3 2 5 

Another Sort of Wild Indigo* 


This Shrub has a woody Stalk, or Trunc, cover'd with a fmooth, dark,; 

()rown > Bark, rifing four Foot high, having feveral Branches on every 
Side, befet thick with many wing'd Leaves, the middle Rib whereof is 
four Inches long, one Inch thereof being naked, the reft, has Pairs of 
Pinnae fet oppofite to one another, at one third of an Inch's diftance, with 
an odd one at the End ; each Pinna has a petiolus one eighth of an Inch 
long, is it felf an Inch long, and half as broad, fmooth, of a bluifh green, 
and like the Leaves of St. Foine ; Ex alis Foliorum, comes an Inch and half 
long Spike of many fmall papylionaceous Flowers, partly red and partly 
green, fet round the fame fmall Stalk, and to them follow feveral 
Pods about three quarters of an Inch long, round, falcated, or very 
crooked, bow'd down, or back from the Footftalk, on which they ftand^ 
and containing four or more quadrangular fhining brown Peas as big as 
a fmall Pin's Head. 

It grows in the open Grounds and about the Town very frequently, and 

in the Caribes. 


X. Coral arbor Cluf, Cat* Jam. f* 142 


The Bean-Tree. 


this Tree is Very well defcrib'd and figur'd in the Hortus Malabarkm 
and is frequently planted in Hedges. 
It has Great Prickles as that of Clufius. 

IhsMalabars make Sword and Knive Sheaths of the Wood. The 


Leaves powder'd and boil'd with Coco Nuts till it comes to an Ointment 
confumes Bubo's, and cures Bone-aches. The Leaves beat and apply'd .1 
the Temples, cures the Cephalea and Ulcers, mix'd with Sagra, eafes 
the Cholick, which is done by the Bark with Vinegar, the' Bean 
freed of its outward Membrane with Sergelim {Sefamium Ojl) and the 

Juice of the Leaves cures Venereal Pains, with Infufion of Rice it 

flops Fluxes, with Betle Leaves it cures Worms in Ulcers, and with Ovl 

the Itch. H. M 

XI. Coral arbornon fpinofa, flore longiore & magis claufa. Cat. Jam. P. 14?.* 
Tab. 178.% 1 and 2.Raij.HiJt. Vol. 3 .Dendr.p. 108. Arbor fpinofa Coral 
Americana Maxima. Pluken. Aim. p. 29$. Sea Phafeolis accedens arbor nm 
fpinofa Coral dicJa frufiu rubro infiar Corah] expoliti fplendente. Ejufd. ib. 
Arbor Coralli Americana femine oblongiore & tenure rubicundiffimo, minus 
jptnoja, folijs Ute vmdantibus. Brejn. Prodr. 2./. 19. An Coral arbor A- 
mericana. Commel. hort. Amfi. p. 211 

Another Sort of Coral, or Bean-Tree. 

This Tree had a Trunc about 9 Inches diameter, cover'd with a reddifh 
ff u "' ° r $*l •' ? lmoft fmooth > on 'y *e outward Membrane peelipg 

off here and there ; it had frequent Branches and Twigs ftanding ftreight 

p, along which ftand a great many Leaves without any order, being 

? T mam t ? ge ^ hcr on the fame three Inche s Jong Footftalk, that 
in the Middle having an Inch long Petiolus, or being an Inch farther 


The Natural Hi/lory of JAMAICA 

i the Stalk, _„_, _._ _ r ^ 

das broad at the Bafe. of a pale and yellowifh green Colour, h 

they are three pointed, about two Inches and a half lone 

Coral Tr 

iddle and feveral tranfverfe Ribs, being very like the Leaves of 

At the Tops of the Branches 

Flowers, plac'd at one quarter of an Inch's diftance 

fix Inch long Sp 

ftandine on 


Jithof an Inch Footftalk ; each of them isanlnch.and half lone, tubu- 
lous made up of one curioufly colour'd fcarlet Petalon, inclofing feveral 
™ a T ™* l P ch ,on S Stamina, in the Middle of which is a greenifh Sty 

which in time comes to be a Pod, two or three Inches long ventriofe 


between the Peas, and larg 

them, inclofing two or three 

It grew from a 

den Hedge at Mn Canning 


Palifado brought out of the Woods, and fix'd in a G 

Houfej in the Town of St. Jago de U 


XII. Coral Arbor PolyphylU non fpinofa fraxini folio, ftliqua alls foliateis 

extantibus, rota molendinaru fluviatilis, vel feminum laferpitij infk&r autta. 

Cat. Jam. p. 143. Tab. 176, Fig. 4 and 5. Raij. Hift. Vol ?. Dsndr. p. io 8.' 

AnPhafeohs accedens Coral arbor polyphyllosfolijs durioribus glabris non fpinof 


Aim. p. 293 



4. tig. 4 ? An Toulonimibi vimtn 

fruticofum cor onar turn fpicatum purpureum femine alato ad pifces inebriandum 


pi. Am* p 

CoraHo dendron Americanum fraxini fohys Plum. Tournef. Inft.p, 66 

Dog-Woed Tretl 

This Tree has a Triiric Twenty five Foot high, ftrcight, having a Bark 
almoft fmooth like that of anAfh, with feveral white, large, Spots on it ; it 
is as big as ones Middle ; the Wood is white and a little ftinking, the 
Branches and Twigs are many, and altogether bare about the Month of 

December, but in January or February they are all cover'd over with Blof- 

foms, neither Leaves nor Fruit appearing; they are Papylionaceous of 
a dirty white Colour with an Eye of Purple, the Petala of which are not 


opened, but lie clofe to one another, to each of which fucceeds 

brown, Membranes 

the Fruit or Pod two Inches long, having four thin, 

half an Inch broad, ftanding out on every Hand, the Length of the 

Fruit, like the Sails of a Windmill, or the membranaceous Appendices 
of the Seeds of Laferpitium, and within a fungous, brown t as it were 
jointed Matter, lie five or fix Seeds or Peafe, whitifh, quadragular and 

When the Fruit is ripe, come the Leaves, wing'd like thofe 


of the Afh-tree, the Pinn* are two Inches long and one broad, faften'd 

to the middle Rib, being oppofite one to another, with an 

the End, and are, for the moft Part, feven in Number. 


one at 

This Tree grows every where in the Savanna's or Low-land Woods. 
The Bark of this Tree ftamp'd and thrown into a ftanding Pool where 


up, and coming above Water, but if they are not prefently caught 

are, intoxicates them for fome Time, they turning their Bellies 


they come to themfelves and recover. I have been told that the like Phce- 
nomenon happens if quick Lime be ufed the fame Way. 

The Indians and Negro's make Ufe of this Bark to take Fifh, efpecially 
in deep Holes in inland Rivers, when there is no Current but the molt 
Part of the Rivers are dry, only fome deep Holes or Pools, whither the 
Fifh retire for their own Safety. The Fifh caught after this Man- 
ner, are counted very whoiefome and good Food. 



40 The Natural Hiftory of T A M A I C A 

The Indians have a Tree wherewith they take their Fifh, for their pre* 
lent Ufe, being near their Habitations. They take three or four little 
Sticks of it and bruife their Ends againit a Stone, rub them between their 
Hands, in (mall Creeks, which at high Water are full of Fifh coming with 
the Tide, it caufes them to turn up their Bellies, and fo they take as many 
as they pleafe. This is a Providence of God to thofc barbarous People, 
being a natural Help for prefent Food and Suflenance. Rob. Harcourt. 

ap. Purcbas. lib. 6. p. 1276. cap. 16. in Guiana. 

After the Sea has left many Fifh in Holes and RecejQTes brought thither 
by the Tide, in their Boats they rub the Twigs of this a little beaten 

into the Water, that the Juice of the Bark maydiffufe itfelf, and the 

Fifh are fo fleepy as to fwim at Top and be taken with Hands. Pif. 

Laet. J 

TMo, a fort of With, intoxicates Fillies. J* de Laet. Lib. i<. Cap. 16. 

in Br aft I e. f 

The Bark of the Root beaten and put into Bags walh'd in a River. 

intoxicates Fifh. Tertre. ' 

Chrijtofle & Acugna, in his Relation of the River of the Amazons, 

makes mention of a Wood called lnecou, made Ufe of by the Indians 
G alibis and thofe of Cayenne, of which, if Sticks be made broad at the 
iinds, and the Surface of the Ponds beaten therewith, the Fifh crow 
drunk with the Noife, or rather Quality of the Wood, that they rife up 

t e i 'uii f^ er them felves to be taken with the Hand by the Indians, 
which I believe may be by the Wood of this Tree. * 

A Kind of Wood with which the Indians take 'their Fifh thev heat It 
againft fome Stone or Tree until one End thereof lea I M ^nd nu 
ting that into the River, prefently the Fifh become drunk, an I ru them 
fel ves on the Shoar and fwim above Water as our Haddock do in fi£ 

Purchas. lib. 6. Vol. 4. p. 1 264. Wilfon. c*»g'*»*. 

* S-L^t r C fF* f% *°" &**Z f raxhi f° Uo r <>tundme, folijs 
&ramulupubefcennbm.Qat.Ja m .p. 144. Tat. 187.%. 3. Raij. HiJt.DeJr. 

The Twigs of this Tree were cover'd over with a woollv whitifli Rarlr 
having fome foft Wood and a very large Pith ; the Leave Same out rouS 
nfTiA ei 1 g 7 ° r 8 In< i hes , ,0D S' and havin S Pin "*fct on to them, each 

Of Which had one tenth nf an fnrh Inni. P»f;„l.,„ K„:._ _,.„'' CaC ™ 

™.*H ° u" e tenth of an , Inch ,0D S P«»olus» being roundilh, or ova 
and of about three quarters of an Inch diameter, wodly on do h Skies' 

and white, having an odd one at the End- The Tops of the Twigs are 

for about four or five Inches Spikes of papylionaceous Flowers af rht 
former, each of which Hands in a white CaV I d"d nit obferve the 
Seeds, or Seed-Veffel and therefore can fay no more of it ** 

I found it in the inland Parts of this Ifland. 

This is not what I fufpeft to be Qexmdiut Quhauwx ■ but the Prece 

P ^IT it" E ; hi "f a / f"?.***** ft$t roiuniioribus. Herm. Cat. <1*m. 
Mm.,. 5. B*du ( b. Vulgaremajus PolythjuJ^Jftl.Am.P^. 

Nicker Tree. 

hJh^J^l °, r Trunc of this Trec ' or Shrub, rifes eigl 

«ign, is as thick as one's Arm »,„.,:.,„ „ r-i ' „,. 5 

«c ^ 7 a . -. — o-t or nine Foot 

as one s Arm, having a Clay colour'd, fmooth Bark, 



The Natural Hifiory o/JAMAICA. 4. i 


and towards the Top being bow'd down with the Weight of its Lea 
which are decompofite, pinnated, and very numerous. The Branches 
main, as well as other Ribs, are very thick befet with fliort crooked and 
very fharp Prickles ; the Branches are fet oppofite one to the other, as are 
the Pinnse, which are placed by Pairs, and even in Number ; each Pinna is 
fmooth, green, a little yellowifh, fliining, almoft oval, only fomewhat 
broad near the fhort Footftalks End, where 'tis join'd to the middle Rib. 
A little above thefe Branches come out two or three Inch long Foot- 
n alks, fuftaining feveral papylionaceous Flowers of a ferrugineous yellow 
Colour, to each of which follows an almoft round Inch diameter, dark 
brown Pod, the Valves of which are very thick befet with fharpPrickles, or 
echinated, containing for the moft part, two perfectly round, but fome- 
times deprefs'd, fhining, yellowifh, Beans, very hard, and containing a bit- 
ter Kernel. 

It grows among the Shrubs in the Savanna's every where, and in Bar- 


The Beans are taken inwardly to flop a Gleet, or Running of the 

They are madeufeof as round Marbles by Children to play withal and 
brought very plentifully into Europe for making Buttons. 

The Root is hot and bitter ; the KoCm is a Vomit, and it is cood againft 
thofe Poyfons which work flowly. Ptfc 

Gerard fays they were offer'd to be fold for Bezoar; but that 
they were poyfonous and emetick, as was reported to him. 

XV. Lobus echinatus fruUu c*fw folijs longioribus. Herm. Cat. Jam. 

p. 144. Bhafeoli ex lobo Eckinodi, Clus. Mus. Srvamm. />. 1 5. Inimboy 'ft 

fpinoj'a viminea & lobifera nuculis lapideis ad Cor alias precarias ; An lobus [pi- 
nofu* Clus Surian. Jm 

There is no Difference between this Tree and the Precedent, but the 
Colour of the Bean, which is grey. 
It grows with the former. 

It was fent from Fona firft, under the Name of Milium Indicum then 

Bonducb. C.B. * 

The Beans preferve Children from ill Fortune, being tied to their 
Backs and are good againft the Bitings of Scorpions. Taken in Powder 
" ' £<*> 1 }*Y ^re the Megrim, Pains of the Mouth, and are good 
for the Epilepfie ; the Quantity is as much as two Grains of Pepper If 
it be drank in Wine to the Quantity of a Cicer, it cures Quartans, the 
Colick, and refills all Poifons. This Fruit is much efteem'd 
Turks,™* was fent with an Account of thefe Vertues from Conftamiwpi 
and Alexandria, where it was much pris'd, Bona 

I think the Eaft and Weft-India Plants are the fame, tho' from the 
Difference of the Defcription of the Leaves, Zjnoni would argue the 


The Root and Bark beaten and given in Decoaion, help Ruptures, and 

£. e o aVeS t° the fame > if a PP ! y M t0 the Parts w "h Coco- Nut beaten 
The Beans beaten and us'd with Coco-Nut Milk are good for Ruptures • 

they diffipate Wind, cure the Colick, and roafted to Powder are cood 
to provoke the Menftrua. The Pith is good in the Stone. H. M. 

^, B( i lh , the S lgUre an< J Defcr »P^ on of the Rhamnm myrtifolius ex infuU Sti 

Chrtfttphort Cornut.p. 8$. agree to this, notwithftandmg what Dr. Plukena 
fays in his Mant. p. 2. and 170. 

Thefe Nuts are often caft Afhore by the Sea on the North Weft Coafts 
ot Ireland and Gotland, and are called Molucca-Beans by the Inhabit 




The Natural Hiftory 


from thofe Iflands 

of the latter, they {uppofins them to have come m>m tno c ,u k 
by an imaginary North Eaft Tallage, of which I have elkwiiere e ivea 

an Account 


XVI. Caffia nigra feu fftulof* prima 

Caffia ffiula Alexand, 


? du Levant. Pommet. p. iij.Csfrf EgyP t e. Ej «fd . p . 21 \Xf des Ifis. Ejp 
o A long Caffia Fruit of E g) pt,oi Hubert. p. f-f'IP'JM* Uttr J f>/ e «' 

V- .** b y... . potatfisflore luteo. Pluken. Aim. p. 89. ^ C#4 

dentibus alatis folij * - . - ... 

Jamaicenfts fiftularts fenis folummodoMts jolty 

tibus MuUi Courtenian.Ej. p " 


fummo obft 

Cbatalhuic Mexit. Hern ? 

27^ ordinary Purging Caffia. 

This Tree is frequently to be met with about Houfes, or where in the 

Spaniards Time Plantations have been 

Martyr tells us that it was pi 

ted in Hifpaniol 




and Jamaica by a Spaniard, and that it brought fa 

they hurt every Thing near it. 



many Ants to it, that 

Canes are usM to purge the Belly of Cnoler 

Humours being pulped, and to cool the Kidneys, and generally thougl 

and the Blood of 

proper in 

Difeafes of the Breaft. The F 

when green 

fervM by the Jj 

ot tne JjreaiT. ine rruic, wuch grccu, l* pic- 

and fent into Europe, which Paludanus fays he obferv'd 

of thefe preferv'd 

one in Loypt. Hernandez fays that three Outuca 
purge Flegm and Choier veryeafily; and Acoft 



tender, fteep'd 

works well. They are firft when green and 

and then boiPd and preferv'd. It grows in the Eaft: Indies 

an Ounce 
in Water, 





laft is counted bet 

And mix'd with Oyl of 

being fooner brought from the Weft Indies 

ter. Mon. The Pulp, if outwardly rub'd on the Part, cures Eryfipelas 

and Inflamations, as alfo the Gout. Acoft 

Sweet Almonds, eafes the Pain of the Kidneys and Breaft, if outwardly 

rub'd on the Parts. Mon* The Dofe is from ten Drams to an Ounce and a 

half of the Pulp, and four Ounces not pulp'd. Clufim thinks the Eajb 

India better. The more reddifli, blacker, fmoother, and weightier, are 

the better, as are thofe not founding. Vefiing. 

The Flowers are preferv'd either with Sugar powder'd as Sugar of 


whole, and Purge being given to two or 



feafes of the Kidneys, or Ureters. Vefiing. As alfo the young Pods, giving 

two or three Ounces, being 

when boil'd 


adftringent of themfelv 


nd grateful. Many of thefe come from 

St. Domingo and Porto Rico. Cajfia is beft given half an Hour before D 
working then better, as Galen and Hippocrates gave feveral other purging 
Medicines. Mon. 

The Bark and Leaves beaten and mix'd with Oyl, are good if rub'd on 
Puftles. The Seeds open the Belly and purge, and are in Meal ufed in 

Cataplasms. H- M. 

The Flowers give in the Morning fo fweet a Smell, that the Egyptian* 
love to walk near them. This Tree flowers in 3*^ and July* The beft arc 

thofe of Cayro or Alexandria, which found when beat. Alp. rvhoje Cut /. 

The Fulp purges twice as much if the powder'd Seeds be added 

lallop. Jon ft 

In cafe they be broke down by the Winds before ripe, they 


gether in Bunches. Vejling 

by being too old. 

who fays, that 

if Caffia doth any Injury 






- ■ 

The Natural Hijlwy of J A M A 1 C A. 4.0 

The Sound they make with the Wind gives a differing Note, according 
to their Fullnefsor Age* Nieremb. 

Caffia from Cajro is good ; but from Brafil the beft ; one Ounce purg- 
ing more than two of the other; Bod. a Stapel. 

It grows in the Woods of Java. Bont. 

Caffia with Sugar, Ginger, Ebony, and Lignum $ 'an <B urn, was the chief 
Commerce of the Ifland St. Dominique, from whence were fhip'd in the 
Flora, wherein he came, forty eight Quintals. 

This Tree is very ufeful, and was fown by the Apothecaries Seeds> 
only they are deftroy'd by Ants. Lop. de Gom.fol. 29. 

Caffia cometh from Egypt : The Pulp drying the Seeds make a Noifc 
when the Pod is fhaken. The weightier!:, largeft and moifteft Pods are beft; 


Thefe Trees ap. PurchasJtb. 9 cap. 9. p. 150J. were found by Cairo and 
Jo. des Santlos. ib.fol. Q.tap. 12 jj. p- 1547* found them on the Lunata 

Hills. Some attribute Fluxes in the Indians to Flefh of Kids feeding 

upon this Fruit. The Occidental is beft, becaufe frefheft. Avicen com- 
mends the Bark of this with Cinamon, and Caffia in retentis Men/truis 

It keeps two Years* Dort. 

It is very windy and needs Anife, or fome Correctives. J. B. 

It was unknown to the ancient Latins and Greeks,znd brought into Ufe 

by the Arabs. Lon. 

The Flowers are preferv'd for purging. Tertre. 

The Caffia Fifiula of the Greeks is Caffia Lignea, and not this of the At a- 

bians, which was unknown to them- Fuehf. y.l ji. 

The Caffia from Cairo carry'd to Venice^ is fourifh, that from Damiate 
to France^ is {weet. Lambert. 

Attuaritu defcribes it flrft, calling it &U ^W*, being known to the 

Arabs fa ft. Dod. 
It is very good for Difeafes in the Kidneys. Bauh. in Math. 
It may be given in Fevers. Lugd. Manatdu* fays the Seeds are purgative 


but in that was miftaken. Mufa. 

Some old Phyficians ufe the Bark of this Fruit for the Caffia of the An 
cients or Cinamon in hard Labour, which is very dangerous. Lac. The 
Pulp helps Mad People to deep. ib. 

Sanderfonap. Purchas.lib. 9. cap. 16. §.1. /. 16*15. takes Notice of this 

Tree in £g;/>r, and p. 1617, that they lay the Logs of it at Length for 
ftrengthening their Walls and Buildings. 

Pyrard tells us that it grows in Decan, Flowers in September, and is 
ripe in January, when it fails and Cattle eats them, and the Inhabitants 
fcruple eating Mutton or Beef then, becaufe of their being laxative - - 


Loubere. Tom. \.p. 288. found it in Siam. 

White in the fifth Voyage to Virginia took fome of it in a Prize near 

Hifpaniola. .•*./.•• 

Rob.Tomfon ap. Hakl. ^449. found it in Sto. Domingo. Much of it is 
fent into Spain rrom Cuba and Porto Rico. ib. p. 466. Hawks. 

And from the Weft-Indies in the Flota. Philips ap. Hakl. 


An 'jnonymw Relator of Cumberland Voyage, ap. Purchas.Vol.4. p. 1 147 
fays that in Jamaica two Barks were laden with Hides and it. 


Rob. Harcourt ap. Purchas. lib. 6. cap. 16. p. 1276. met with it in 



fc •*• 

44 The Natural Hijiory of J A M A I C A. 


Caffla-ftftulaasgood as that of £4/? Mi the Spaniards ufe in Br*// 
but it was unknown to the Indians. Anonymus Portugal Purchas p. 1308. 

Oviedo Summary, ap. Eden. p. 221. found it in Hifpaniola. 

Oviedo, Lib. 8. Cor on. Cap. 1. tells us, that from Seeds this throve won- 
derfully in the Weft Indies. 

Ligon , p v 1 4. met with it in Cape Verd Ifles, and />• 68. fays ir grows 
eight Foot in a Year, and that the Pod is fhaped like a Black-Pudding. 

Hernan Lopez, deCaftaneda, cap. 40. found this Tree in Cwanor. 

And Terry-, p. 118. in the Mogul's Country. 

Linfchot, defer, de Guinea, cap. 5. found it in Congo ufed by the Moors 

for Difeafes of the Reins, and to purge eafily. and in his Defer, de V Amt-< 

rique, cap. 5. in New-Spain, as alfo that Rio de Cana-fiftola in Brajil hath its 

Name from much of this growing there Defer. Am er. cap. 10. 


XVII. Caffla minor fruticofahex&phylla feriAJoiijs. Cat-Jam- p. 146. Raij 

Vol. j.Dendr.p. no. tab. 180. Fig. 1, 2,3, 4« Caffla Americana fcetida foltjs 

fenr>£..Plum. Tournef. toft. f.. 619. pi. Am. p. 18. An Caffia-fifiula Jamaicenfn 
Acacia tintforUfeu tamarindi ovatis folijs denfioribm giabris. Plukenet. Aim 


Several Stalks or fmall round Stems of the Blgnefs of ones little Finger, 
having a Barkflike young Hazel, of a light brown Colour, rife {freight up 
from rhe fame Root to five or fix Foot high, they are woody and brittle, 
and fend forth towards their Tops, feverai Branches, befet with many 
winged Leaves like thofeof the Colutea, there arealmoft always fix Pin- 
nx or three Pair fet one againft another, very round, of a yellow green 
Colour, but no pleafant Smell. On the Tops of the Branches are always 
Flowers, they are yellow, Pentapetalous, like thofe of Caffia, and ftand 
fomewhat like to Papylionaceous Flowers, tho' more fparfe, have many 
green Stamina, in the Middle of which is a hooked Stylus like the Cajfia.- 

fiftula Alexandrina. C.B. to the Flowers of which, this in every thin 

like. After the Flowers follow the Pod each about an Inch and half long" or 
longer, round,of a light brown Colour, containing one Row of comprefs'd 
brown Seeds in a fweetifh Pulp of the fame Colour, filling the reft, of the 

It grows in the Plain or Low-lands of Jamaica as well as all the Caribss: 
The Leaves are uied in Place of Sena, and purge well ; the Pulp is of 
the fame Tafie and Vertue with the ordinary Caffia Syen. 

If this be the Sena mentioned by Rob. Har court ap. Purchas. 1276 it 
grows in Guiana. ' 

i c 

XVIII. Caffia nigra feu fftulof a 2 da five C x affix fiftuU Br afilixnx C.B. P/>. 

p. 403. Cat. Jam. p. 146. Caffia- ft /Ida Brafdixna cuj us folia ovat* fulvx I ami- 
gtnejunt obtetla. Pluktn.Alm. p. 90. Caffia fylveftris hifl . lnful Ant'tU Hort. 
Reg. Parts, p. p. Cajfe du Bref. Pommet. p. 218. An Caffia fylveftris Ameri- 
cana ftiiqua fubrotundx Caffia uncialem longitudinem vix excedente ex infuU 

Barbados ad nos allata. PUken. Mam. p. 40. 

Htrfe-Caffia, from its being given to purge Horfes by Farriers. 

This grows in the Low- land Woods by the Sides of Rivulets in great 
Abundance, and I have nothing to add to what Breynius fayscf it, but 
that he is miftaken when he faysand Figures the Flowers to come out ex 

alts Mtorum for they take their original from the Branches themfelves, as 



« • 


■ f 

', ■- 

tm -• ; . 

The Natural Hiftoryof J A M A I G A. 

*• • 


He was led 

the C&*-$M* Jlexand 

B anch and Flowers lent to him lep 

flower in Europ 

for I fuppofe he 

Error by, having the 





Before the Fruit is ripe It is adftririgent, but after loofening, tho' Marc- 
grave fays 'tis adftringent, contrary to Experience ; the Tops of the Leaves 


pplied cure Wounds and 111 natur'd Puftules,P//£ 

Pif& { was very much miftaken when he took the Figure of an Anonymus 
Plant defcribM by Marcgrave above ; aijd figur'd by l^aet over againft the 
Tapyracajanana for this, aiad gave it in his fecond Edition, from whence Jon* 
(ton continu'd JU '~~ ** 


tfCUIIUHU U mo Piui, 

One Ounce of the Pulp of this purges more than two of the Shop 

Caflia. Lobel 

This Caffia is not fo good as that of Egypt, or Arabia. Th 
It purges with Gripes, is not 



well tafted as the Caffia of 



the Shops. 

It is very large, but empty (vana.^ Oviedo 

The Pods are fometimes not above an Inch long, whence, I fuppofe 
Dr. Plukenet took that Variety in his MantiJTa to be a new kind 

♦ ■ 



XIX. Tamarindus Ger. emac.Cat.p. 147. Munt. Aard.p 


Qafl el. Hort* Meff. 2 2. Tamarins Pommet. p 




1 1 




* * 


The Tamarind Tree. 

• 1 


* * 


i * • » 

; ? ; / • 1 : 

Thefe Trees are commonly planted every where in thislfland, and 

feldom mifs to thrive; tho* t Pi/b(kys they were rare in Braftl. 
Thev are good to reflxain bilious Humours, and cool. 



The Leaves are four, cooling, and quench the Third in Fevers, if 

eaten. Their Infufion or Decoction purges, and kills Worms. Ah. 

Thefe Trees were brought into Egypt irom Ethiopia and Arabia Eklix. 
The young Pods are preferv'd by the Arabians, as is the tulp to carry with 
them in travelling thro' the Deferts, with which their Third is quench'd, 
and they are cool'd. They are good, mix'd with Water in Fevers and 
Gonorrhxas. Alp. 

The Inhabitants ufe to boil fome of the Pulp of this Fruit in the Eajt 
Indies with their Rice inftead of Verjuice or Vinegar, being infus'd in 

Water, it is their 

Europe. Linfchot 

Purge. The Indians fait it: and fend it for 

I • 


- • 

The Fruit helps Mad People. Math. ,, t . , 

The Turks carry it about them to quench their Thirft. Cam. 

A little of this infus'd in Water is the common Remedy for Fevers in 

thefe Countries, as well as Egypt and Turkey, jnore efpecially fuch as 
peftilential, or moft acute. 



Thefe Trees were Strangers in the Weft Indies, and 

Acapulco. Tamarinds prepare 1 

firft at 

elt and purge, bile, and cut x Flegm^ 

are cooling and adftringent; thofe from the Ea.fl Indies are falted. The 

Leaves are us'd inftead of Vinegar in Sauces. The Leaves cover the 
Fruit to defend it from the Cold every Night. The Fruit is civeri mix'd 




with diftilfd Waters, or Coco Oyl, or without the 

a little Sugar. The Fruit makes Vinegar; and Leaves apply'd cure the 

Eryfipelas. The Inhabitants make a Conferve of them, doing all as above; 



Cauche of Madagafiar fpeak's of a Sort of Cat living only on Tama 

rinds, p. 125. 


f f 







T& A 7 <»> * #</^ qf J A M A I C A 


The Leaves bruis'd are apply'd to Eryfipela's by the I»dUm. The Ta- 

out u-henhefaid, that in MMtf'tb People us'd the Juice in their 

^Se Sates in 0***«« make the Merchants they take in Trizes drink 

fait Water and Tamarinds to make them void their Pearls and Gold 



y for Fear fwallow'd. J. B.They are good in Gonorrheas. Fallop* 
u it. Fevers. Plater prefcribes them by Number, de Febb.p. 158. 
Pyrard 9 p. \. 14- lays they grow every where in the , Indies. 1 he lndun* 
ferve themfelves in theirPottage with them inftead of Verjuice. TheFruit is 

laxative. The Wood is us'd for Fire, de Loubere.Tom. %. f. 288. of Stam. 
Pajton apud Purchas. lib. 4. cap. 15. §. i- /• 5 2 9* found them at M>- 


Sir Thomas Roe. ib. lib. ^ cap. 16. §.7. />• 56*2^ Planted in theJMfc*/ 
Country. , x ,. 

Bemudez. iklib. 7. w/>. 7. §. 2. />• 1 1 5 6 - B y tne Rivers in Ethiopia^ whei 

thev are eaten in Times of Scarcity 

fo dos Sanctos. ap. Punkas, lib. 9. cap. 12. §. J. /. 1547. in an Ifland 

in Lake Rufumb* about So/*/*. 

L*go»» />. 69. of Barbados newly planted 



Terr>/>. to j. in the Afog/zfl's Country 

Her ft a ft. Lopez de Cajla. cdp. 40. in Cananer'. 

Linfchot. Guinee. cap. 5. in Congo, where he tells us that the 

Turks and Moors mix it with Water and drink it, to cool themfelves 
Fevers and Voyages, as well as their Livers and Reins, this Drink o 


pening the Belly 

Maridelpi p. ^49. tells us that the Leaves clofe. at Sun-fet to pre- 
serve the Fruit from Dews, and that in Java they ufe the Fruit in Sauces 

for Verjuice. . 

They grow commonly in Senega. Porntnet. 

Dounton dpud Pslrchks; lib. J. c. 12. p- 277. §. 1. found this Tree in Ma- 
dagafcaryWhevQ it was cut for Fire-wood, being moft plentiful of any So 

there. The Fruit is Good againft the Scurvy, and ib. §. f. f* 304. it ufed 


be from Chaul laden for Ormus 

WtllUm Finch, dp. Purcbas. lib. 4. cap. 4. §* 2. p> 417. met with it in Ma 
dagafcar. ib. §. 4. p. 426 and in the Mogults Country. 

Davis apud. Purcbas. lib. 7. cap. 1. $. 4. p. 1 18- faw it in Madagafcar. 

The Bark powder'd and mix'd with Rice Water, rub'd on the Body 
diflipates fuperfluous Humours. H. M. 
The Fruit varies oh the fame Tree, being long, round, and of all 



The Leaves miraculomly cover the Fruit in the Night Time. 

The Leaves are adftringent and four ; good in the Cholera Morbus and 
Difenteries. The Inhabitants make a Drink in Java of Thirty Amphorae 

of Water, two Pound of Sugar, two Lemons, and two Ounces of Ta- 
marinds, all fermented. 




Hj/2«7 of JAMAICA. 



Captain Heath (when there was great Sicknefs 

his Ship) order'd 

fome lama rinds to be given to each Mefs to eat With their Rice, and 
contributed much to keep them on their Legs. Dampier. 

Caftor Durkntes's Figure of this Tree does not relemble it, being, that of 

the Top of a Palm Tree, neither is the Figure of it in the HortusMiU&iuw 

• i < 

«• ■ 





XX. Senna (fee art da) It alio a fe& folijs ojbtafis. C. £« Cat* p 

Hi ft. dtndr. P 


Sened* Italic Pdnfntet.p.itf 

ft t 

I ! 


; - 

•« / 


*• •• 


Ro uh M r e 'dv' V $ 


^ » 

This Shrub had a trailing green 
it felf, of about four foot long, 



weak that it could riot fupp 

With winged Leaves, three Inches long 

am, i\j wwaiv mat uvuuiu nut luupui l 

g now and then fmall Branches, befee 

Pinnae b 

another, and even in Numbe 

One to 

. made up of fix or feven pair,eachof which 
was like the Sent Alexandrine only broader at the Point. The Flowers ftand 
on a three Inches long Spike, each having a fmall Petiolus, and being 
made up of five large, open, yellow, Petal* by their Reflection making a 
Cavity and enclofing fome.darkifli green Stamina, the Pods and Follicles 

which fucceed are falcated or crooked, of the Shape of a half Moon, 

anaceous on bo 

Inch and hal 


Inch A 

d, m 

Sides, at 

v.. • 


firft green, then blackifh, having eight or nine jprot 

under which are fo many Seeds or Peafe of a very irregular, triang 

Pyramidal Shape. 
I found it planted 



Garden at Half- Way- Tree in Liguanee 

in Berry 
It is not annual as in Italy. 
It purges with Griping. „,. * . 

The true Sena is a Tree, Serapto laying that the Wind throws down 

Follicles which are gathered 

this" round leaV'd S 



ena, was known late in Greece; comin 
tfemer. In Uguria % Thufcia, Rome, and 

'd in Harveft, loving no cold, the Ion 

Greece; coming from Ardbid where 'liWas called 

Weak, Cafalp 
Sena was known 


beft "the round and fhort leav'd the \vot&> the beft is Dome/tic, Lob. it ai 

Afulia^ 'tis fo wn in May 


vny*(*y ua aw wit Ail JL*J.(*jy auu get* 

fharp Myftlefleav'df one is the 

ways gripes without a Gorreaiv 
One Dram' alone, half an Ounce with Correftives purges. Dor 





It is hot in the 2d and dry in the in: Degree, it purges totigh Humours 






It is not fo ftrong as^that of the E. Indies, Cafalp. ; 

The Folliculi if gather'd green and dryed purges better than the Lea 


Some diftil a purging Water, from it and other Irigtedients, Park. 
pZmet I miftaken when he fay* this Sena is the Leaves of cdiel. 

. • -» • -r^ »h?. rr* . L - Ow T?>~ ^ f\~*Lx4t e Tiv /fill in *» 11 e i/tva 



R at) Dendr. Vol. $ 

dicttis Matapdfta Luftanis Marc 


OroteV 'Briftlienfts Tareriq 

R si/. Hifi. ». 9 , a . C#* ^a. 

ku&nm her bice i btxtfhjt* mttior CejUmca. Amxn- Hart- Btff-^f H'J%* 

I„dica hexaPhyh. Rail H>ft. 9 "? *£*»? S ? ur J* m r <{"!"> R *'J- ... ., 

•to), quaf, abfciOis fua hngitMne fntnUm <l«kptui»mm fittf** foftc Bnj». 
pr. 2. p. 29 ? 


The Natural Hiftory e/JAM A I C A. 




* • 




This Plant -has a. very fmall Root 

les by a green, round, ftrcight 

Stem, three Foot high, having fome Branches fpread on every Hand 
wards the Top, whofe Leaves are wing'd, ufually fix Pinme or three pair 
fet one againft another, each of which are broadeft towards the Top like 
the Colutea Scorpioides. C. B- Pin. Of a blueifh green Colour and unfavory 
Smell, the Flowers are of a deep yellow Colour, Pentapetalous, almoft Pa- 


the Petala being fet fparfe 



fhort Footftalk, to 

which fuceeds a four corner'd two Inches long brown Podi containing 
Row of brown fhining fmall rhomboidall Seeds. 

After every rainy Seafon this Shrub comes up very plentifully and fills 
the Clay-land Places of the Savannas about the Town of St. Jago de U 
Vega, having at firft two Seminal Leaves, as feveral of the Legumina have. 

It is ufed the fame Way and for the fame Ends with the foregoing only 
'tis not fo powerful, it is apply'd to Carbuncles and Ulcers to draw out 
the Heat. The Leaves being put 

Water and rotted, a thick and fat 
Subftance comes of them, which is ufed for a cleaning Ointment. Pita 

XXII. Senna occidentalism odore of ij virofo, orobi Pannonici foiijs wucrona- 
" glabra Herm. Cat.?. 148. Raij. Hijt. Vol. $. p. 449, Orobus Brafilienfts 

luteo Pajomsrsoba Marcgr. Raij Hift. p. 912. Senna fpuria Occident alls 


cdore opij vtrofo foiijs mucronatis glabris. Comm. Hort. Amfi 

there is no gbdd Figure. Caffta Americana faida foljis oblongis glalr'is Jo^ 
nef. Inft. p.6i 9 . An Indigo f era long/folia. Mutt.Aard. p. 229. Pbyt cur. V 

Caa china ida Pift 
Major Aman. Hort. Bof. p 

I his Plant has 

An Galoga Indica heccedecaphyllos feu Senna CeyL 

•* ? Sopber a foljis lent if ci. Ej.p. $4 

ed Root, having feveral Fibri 

two or three Inches long dark brown, oblong, crook 

XT *n r» *-" 

Nouriihment from the Earth 

The Stalk rifes three or four Foot high, is lignofe,. and has a great manv 
crooked Branches, befet with winged Leaves, whofe Pinnae are InJt 
in Number, about five pair fet on the middle Rib 

# ^r"^B ^^^a^m ^^% ^ ^ 

the other, on 




^ootftalks, they are three quarters 



* J — - W ~B.A«.W MUU1 IW1 J \Jl till 

third of an Inch broad, of a dark green Colour, and 

fmellihg very ftrong. At the Tops of the Branches 

Flowers, cenfifting of five Petala with 

feveral yellow 



molt. Papyl 

green Stylus, like the Flowers of Cadia", and to each of Vhefe foilows 
three or four Inches long Pod, ere£t, flat, containing a Row of browa 
comprefs'd fmall Seeds, there being a Swelling on the Outfide of the 
Pod over every Seed, and a parting Membrane between. 



cept the Word Hijfidus 
It grows every where 

* e Caribe Iflands 

agrees very well to this and his Defcript 




Savanna 1 


plain Grounds in Jamaica 




very cold, the Leaves are beaten, and the T 


cures the Inflamm 

Fomentations are made of it in all Inflammations 

- 3ice Js put into the A 
thereof, called the Bicho del cul 

of the Leg 


This beOdes its cooling, has an opening Quality ; the Water of the Leaves 
and Flowers cure the Heats of the bladder and Kidneys 



and provokes 

is a 

good Counter-poyfc 

and a 

rangury. The Seed isB^ag^nWe^'The" le v s 85 

laid Warm to the Side, cures its Fains. Man . 

gainft the 



f * • * -1 







The Natural Hifiwy a/JAMAICA. 


- Altho' I have feen this Plane in fome Gardens, as well as fome Sam- 
ples of it amongft dry'd Plants by the Name of Sophera Alpini, yet I 
think Alpinus\ Figure neither as to the Number of Pinnae, wbicti are even 
in this, nor Length or Figure of the Pod, which are in this {lender, can 
agree to it ; add to this, that in the Defcription he fays it had four 
or five Seeds, and this hath many more. What to fay to it I know 
not ; for C B. who had the Plant from Bellas and Seeds from Alpinus 
feys they are the fame ; andyet, Bellus fays his differs from Alpinus's. 


XXIII. Sena /pari* tetraphylla, filiqua lata, comprejfa. Cat. Jam. p. 49J 

Raij.Htft. VoL 3. dendr. p. 1 1 1. Tab. 1B0. Fig- 6 and 7 

This Shrub, or Tree nfes generally to about five or fix Foot high, altho 

fometimes I have feen it fifteen Foot high. It has a brown, fbining, 
fmooth Bark, the Stem no bigger than one's Arm, along which, at an 
Inche's Diftance, are plac'd winged Leaves, confiding always of two 
Fairs of Pinns, plac'd on three quarters of an Inch long Footftaiks, tfaey 
being fet oppofite one to the other, the firft Pair being fmall, if com- 
par'd with the laft, which is fet about half an Inch further on the fame 
middle Rib, each of thefe Pinnx^being more than an Inch long, half as 
broad, fmooth, of a dark green Colour on the upper Side, having a mid- 
dle and fome tranfverfe Ribs. Ex alts foliorum y and on the Tops 
of the Branches come feveral two Inches long Spikes of Flowers* each of 
which has a fmall three quarters of an Inch long Foot/talk, the Flower 
being made up of five capfular green Leaves, five yellow large Petala, 
within which is a crooked or falcated Stylus. 'Trie fetala falling off this 
Stylus augments to be a black, fhining, Pod, of about an Inch long, one 
quarter as broad, on each Side of a ycllowifh middle Rib, containing in 
a black fweetifh Pulp, one Row of almofl: round, black, fhining, Seeds. 

tt grows on the. Red Hills, on each Side of the Road going to Guanaboa 
very plentifully, flowering from November to February. 

XXIV. Sena fpuria arbor ea fptnofa folijs alatis ramops, feu decompofttis, 
fore ex luteo & rubrofpeciofo. Catt jam. p. 149. Rdiji Vol. 3. p. 482. Acacia 
orbis Amer leant altera, forepulcher, tmo. Hort- Reg. Par if- p. 3. Flos lndicus 
cauda pavonis diftm. Vorfl. Cat. p. 24. Acaciagloriofa infuU Jamaicenfis folijs 
minor ib us fubrotundis f pints ad genie ul a (implicibus floribus flavb purpureas. 
Pluken. Alm.p.^. Acacia or tent alis glor to fa, colate* folijs, rachi medio ad 
genicula folummodo [pints gemellis acute at a. Ejufd.ib. An Acacia gloriofa solu- 
te* folio Chinenfis, rachi medio tarn ad genicula quam ad inter nodia, ' Spinis 
curtis duplicatis, deorfum infexis munito. Ejufd.ib ? An Acacia gloriofa Spinis 

Ejufd. ib Crifia pavonis fore albo. Am an. Hort. Bof> p. 9. Acacia 

prima ftliquis platiformis atropurpureis, fi 

Ude* Surian 


Igo p 

l m 



w - m * 

Flour fence of Barbados. Wild Sen a 9 ot Spanif/j Carnations 

'. . 


This Tree rifeth to about ten Foot high, with a fireight Trunc as 
thick as one's Leg, cover'd with a whitifh fmooth Bark, having here and 
there fome brown Spots on it. The Branches, which are towards the Top, 
are fpread round on every Hand, have Prickles, are green, and fu- 
ftain many decompofite winged Leaves, fix or feven Pair of middle Ribs, 

feeing fet oppofite to one another. The Pinnae are like Sena Lea 

fmalleV and broader at the End, having a very ftrong Smell like 

The Tops of the Branches are Spikes of numerous Flowers flanding 



Mo.Bot. Garden 





Hijlory of JAMAICA 


prety long Footfhlks, each confining of five 

fine red and yellow variegated Colour, wi 

PetaJa of 


which lland 

traordinay fine, red and yellow variegated Co 

fome Stamina feveral Inches long, and to which follows a dark, brow 

"an Inch broad 

Figure and brown Co- 
in the Pod made of 

flat, fmooth Pod, two Inches long and three quarters of 


containing four 

flat Peafe, of an irreg 

lour, each being kept from the other by a Pa 

fungous Membrane, 

nd all of them when ripe, being loofe and 



kins a Noife in 


the Pod as the Crotalarioe. The Flowers fmell like 



It grows in moift Grounds and Gullies by the Rio Cobre Banks, near 

Town of St. Jago dela Vega, &c. and in the Caribe Iflands. 

In Barbados 'tis planted for a Fence, and to diftinguifh Fields from one 

another, both for its Ufe and Ornament. I thought I never faw any thing 

finer than a Hedge of this which grew between Bridge-Town and Fonte- 

belle in Barbados. 

The Leaves are us'd as thofe of Sena to purge withall 


It provokes the Mcnftru 

rnely, caufes Abor 


and does 




whatever Savin or powerful Emmenagogues will do 

It grows in Jmboina 9 and the Eafi Indies* Breyn. 

The Tincture of the Leaves with the Leaves of Scedang 
fills a fmall Gourd, drank, takes away the Coliek, efpecially if the Sick 
lifts up his Hands to Heaven, {landing ftraight up. H. M. 

Ltgon, tells us it was carried firfi: ta Barbados from the Cape Ferd Ifles 
and that it throve there very much. 



XXV. Sena fpuria arborea fpinofa, filijs aUtis ramofi 

flore luteo y fliquis brevibus fukatis nigris y fabin* odore. Cat. J 


Raij. Vol. 3. dendr.p. 1 1 1. Tab. 18 


Herm. par. BaU pr. p. 325. Plakenet. Tab 


Col ute ok vera Cruris vefi 

Fig. 3. Aim. />. in. 


Indian Savin Tree 


» • 


This Tree rifeth to fifteen Foot high, having a Trunc fomewhat crook 

ed, about the Thicknefs of 


d with a whitifh 


almoir fmooth Bark. 

with Leaves coming _ _ 

winged; the middle Rib. is 4 or 5 'inches long, and hath fo many Pair of 

;, whofe Pinna ftand at half an Inch's diftance on them, each 

The Tree has feveral crooked and prickly Branches, 

decompofite and 

qiial Diftances, being 

alated L 


of which is very green, fmooth 


almoft round, of 

half an Inch diameter 

,J vw.j & ivvii, ""win, aiiuwii luunu, ui nan an men 01a 

Defeft at one End, being a little pointed on the othe 


withall fhining. The Tops of the Branches are divided into feveral Spikes 
of Flowers, three Inches long, each of which is hexapetaious, of a deep 

yellow Colour, to which follow feveral Inch long, blunt, Pods of 

Colour, fmooth, flat, having fome Sulci in 
fmooth, brown, round Peafe. 


them, and 


containing larg 

All Parts of this Tree, if bruis'd and fmelt to, have a very balfamick 

ftrong, Scent. 



It grows by Parage Fort, and on the Road from thence to the Town 

very plentifully 

This is of the fame Kind with Caka Mulla. M M.p. 63? 

Br. Plukenet is miftaken very much when he fufped 
this is the fame with his Rhus obfiniorum (mills leptipb] 

Spinofa rachi medio appwdisibtts auclo. Pht, Tab, 

9- ' ~ ' - 

^/. 161. Mant. that 

leptipbyllos Trag&des Ameri 

07. big. 4. Aim 


• , ' • >.%--; -^ 

•-- »•« 

The Natural Htfiory of J A M A I C A. 

XXVI. Senna occidental 


Cat* %am 


filiqua multiple folijs herb* mmeC* 

RsijHifi. Vok J.. A 48 


An Sen*, fpuria Virsw 


minof* folijs -,floribus parvis nijtitantibus. Plukenet. Tab. 214 Wis < ~Ail» * 
341 ?^* Chamxcnjtapwonis major. Cmml.Hort.AmH.pft f F ' 

This Shrub rifes not 

d with 

^ re L^lM havin S i wood y Trune, 

fmooth, brown Bark, having on its Branch 

wing'd Leaves, whofe Pinnae 

other to the Middle Rib, fmooth, half 

Prickle at the End ; the Flowers ftand 

in Number, fet 



aind the 

an Inch long, with a (harp fmall 

, „ vi . «, c , ® n Inch iong Footlratks arepen- 

petalous, yellow, like theFlowers of the Sophera, with purple Stamina in 

the Middle 


which follows 


Inch and half ._ b 



There is another Sort or Variety of this with fmaller Lea 
gather'd in Barbados 


which I 

. j 1 

It grows on the red Hills on each fide of the Way going to Guanaboa 

from the Town 

[harp, hot and dry in the third Deg 

Root powder'd and 

inwardly, purg 


Flegm, and by that Means diffipates Bubo's. Hernand 

Dram of the Bark of the 

s> but efpecially 


* * .• 







XXVII. Senna occidental filiqua fingulari folijs herbx mimofe. Herm.Cat. 
Jam. p. 150. Raij.Hift. Vol. $. p. 18. Senna f pur i a mimofe folio, flare max i* 

mo, filiqua fingulari. Par- Bat. Cat. p. 12. Senna f pur ia Occident alls minor fi 

liqua fingulari. Volck. p. 5 5 o. An- Senna fpuria occidentals mimofa folijs fdiq„„ 
fingulari hirfuta feminibu* nigris.Herm-fl, L. B-fl; p. 114 I 

From a woody Root lie fpread on the Surface of the Ground feverai 
woody four or five Inches long Stalks, being befet with Leaves like thofe 
of the Humble Plant, winged, the Pinnae whereof are pretty long, making 

the whole Leaf broad, which is of 



Colour; the Flow 


come out Ex alls folior urn ; they are papylionaceous almofi, being c 
Shape of thofe of the Caflia's, or Sophera of Alpinus, only the Petala 


the other, to which follow feverai half Inch 


g, fla 


It grows in the fandy Place* of the Savmna, near the Town of St. % 

de U Veg 


> 1 I 



» • 



XXVIII. Eademfloribus pediculis longioribus infidentibus 

This feems to be no Variety but a different Plant, the Stalks are not fo 
woody, but longer, and of a Grafs green ^Colour, 
ftanding on very long Footftalks 

It grows with the former. 

having the Flower 


' 1 



n r 


.* * 


I * \ ' 

\ • 

• » 

' ' 1 ] 

XXIX Senjfpuru aut Afpalatbo affit is arbor fi I iquofa folijs bifidis, flvrt 
fentapetalo vario. Cat. Jam- p. 1 50. An Arbor SanBi- Thorn*, five Jffijtra Ja 

mhi 2" a.noni Rrenn^ Pr. 2 .P. 10? \(\ . , I 

obi Za 


v * 



Mountain Ebonj 

• ■ 






. • 

j # 

This Tree rifes to about fifteen Foot high,, having feverai (freight T 

about the Thicknefs of one's Leg 

d with a whitifh Bark* divid 

themfelves into many Branches and Twigs, making a pleafant Top 



feverai, ftanding without any Order, on Inch long Footftalks; 

they are three Inches long, two broad,where broadeft,of a very odd Shape, 
looking like the ScilTars wherewith Sheep are ftiorn at the Points when 

half open, like a Sheep's Foot, as if a Piece were cut out, or having a 



The Natural Hijlory 


deep Incifu 

Notch in each of them, round at Bafe, two fhort Points 

and a Defied in the Middle between them, of a yellowifh green Colour 



having feven or more Ribs beginning from the End of 
the Footftelk, and going thro' the Leaf with fome tranfverfe ones, making 
the Leaf very nervous ; at the Ends of the Twigs come the Flowers feveral 
together, {tending on their diftirift half Inch long green Footltelks, having 

long wh 


with a green Apex, many white Stamina {tending 




round it* all pretty long, and inclos'd 

frriated long Petala, and to this follows many fi 

flat, brown, Pods, containing feveral Peafe of the fame Colou 

mix'd. or 

fix Inches long very 

It grows on the Hills every where in this Ifland 
There is great Variety in this Tree, both as to the Leaves in Magni- 
tude, and as to the Colour of the Flower, which becaufe I have fecn to 

be wh 

red, (Mated, mix'd,^ 

the fame Branch, I take 


Differences, but only Varieties, and perhaps others of the Hortus Mt- 
labarieus may be here. 
This Wood is very hard, whence the Name of Ebony 

The Decod 

a good Lotion for Ulcers. The Root boil'd in Wi 

Puftles in the Ear, being rub'd with* it. It cures the Toothach 

being put 

or eaten. The Bark 



cutaneous Difeafes 


Flowers being beaten with Pepper and apply'd to the Forehead, cures 

theHeadach. H.M. 

XXX. Vrucu. Cat. Jam 

JA Tab. l8l 

fig, i 

Vrucu arbor Indies 

fructu hirfuto eajlane* coccifer*flore rubro cujus Indiani tintturam Mam olera 
nam coccinea famofam extrahunt & prmodum ve fitments inurtguvt corpora fu, 
Surian. An Vrucu arbor coccigera frutfu glabra fiore cameo A Mi tell a America 

maxima tinBoria. Tournef. el. t 

lnfi. p. 242. Vrucht Roucou Sterbeeck 

p. 20$. Vrucu arbor Indie a coccigera ftutfu glabro flore cameo Triumfi 

Cupan. Hort. Cath.p. 236. 

M. S 

- ■ 








This Tree, or Shrub rifes to about eight or nine Foot high, having fere 
1 Branches, making a round Head r ~' * " 

The T 



a whitiih 


Bark,the Branches a brown one, as alfo Leaves without any Order, (landing 
three Inches long Footftalks, fix Inches long and five broad at the round 

Bafe, where broadeft, ending in a Point, being (hap'd 
dark green Colour, and having feveral Nerves or Veins 





_ appearing in 

The Flowers come put feveral together, (tending on brown Foot- 

f r geP eta ] aj of a white incarnate Colour, like 

nd confift of five 


Peach Flowers, and in 
lour, to which follow 
like a Chcfnut, two or three Inches 

Middle very many Stamina of the fame Co 
many oblong, round pyramidal Pods, fomething 


broad, of a redifh 

Colour, befet with blunt Brides, Hairs, or ftrong Strings, like thofe of Bu 

only red, (tending out, but not aculeated, within which Pod, or Seed 
Veifi ' 



d thirty or forty imall irregularly figur'd Seeds, having 

the two Outfides two Impreflions, or fmall Holes 


nd being all cover'd 

over with a red ungratefully fmeird moift k Pulp, or Pafte, infefting the 
Hands of thofe touching it. 

It is planted in a great many Places of this Ifland, and Barbados in their 
tat and ncheft Bottoms, and thrives very well with very little Care. 

Sometimes whole Plantations have 

making the Balls of this Dys of the Seeds aft 

ing elfe to fupport them, but 


the followin 

1:0 3U 





L 1 


■ - 


Mi — — -"•"*- 

« - -• 

The Natural Hifttry of t A M 


Some Onions, with, a little* of this Pafo 

againfl -Difficulty 6FUr 

Amotto, or the Pafte ufed in Dying or for, other PurrJofes ts made by 
fteetfingihe Seed*<6f this Tree in Wa^^D^outMWl^rl^C^r 
lying upon their Surfaces comes off and they 'are clear'cWit THe ! W 

ter Co impregnated is afterwards boil'd in feverai Cqpp'ers or Pots like 
the Juice of the Sugar-caner till it comes to be pretty 'thick, wpen 'tis 
put into Canvafs with hot Allies under it, till it combs to the Con 

of Honey. 'Tis then'. Adds into Balls, fiidf.* are fen t to 

Europe. 'Tis chiefly made by: the Spaniards.and is ! rft'tjfe' fay theth hot 
only tor Dying but Fbyfic, all .over the Wqft-Indies. • '•" . 

It was very tnuch ufed by the Indians' to Mint- them (elves in 

TimesofWar ' ' ' ' ; ' 

If one makes tnree or four (mall Pills out of the Ball and fwal 
low them as Rhubarb is often taken in a Flux, it purges eafily and 

ufually . ■■•*•■■ 

Tt grew formerly wild, but how ! is planted in Gardens; it is 
mix'd in Netv-Spa$n with Chocolate, as well to hinder it from being 


hurtful,- as for its Cbldur and' Tafte. " They give' fpYne of the Seeds 

cumpulteex Tipioca qudcarmadkiiur^to ah indefinite Quantity to all fick 

People, either poifon'd or others^ It ftre.ngthens the Stomach, ftop 

Fluxes, and with. Water takes or? the Heat of Fevers; T/ie Root '.and 
Seed have 1 no Wear. Tafte, are eafier t6bi tikeh, bejn^ codfee^ ' l m the 
third Degree, drying, and adftringeht. If bdll'd witf/ Broth, it'^es it 

a Saffron Colour and a good Tafte-r' The Roots- have been longer 

in UC and are thought better,- and by Tome, of the "Natives ufed. as 

C*r^«^ for SafTrori. They make : an Extrad of them with burnt 

Wine. P//t7. • • rt. 

This Pafte mix'd with Water gives it a r^d Tindure, which 
drank, is good againft divers Poifons^ being bitterifh and Spicy. Thofe 
of Brattle dye their Gourd ' * ~ ' 

It is verv 

Jourds without .with this Colour. Marcgr. 
g, 200d !j in Fevers, bbenVhe?s Third, and 


Milk, if mix'd with the covering Of the- CataO, wftictf l helps it to digeft 
It makes with Urine a very .Ming. £olptfr.".X«w« \ 

The Indians make Balls oftriefe Seeds, with* ^Hch-'they paint them 

felves, being mix'd with Gums, and ufed both in ,Wa*ft and Dances, it 

is adftringent ancf wholefotne, but'i« «HHF Ufc is, not to difcover 

the Blood when they are wounded, 'btlhg of the farne Colour, an 
therefore it's thought to give Courage 

Thd Indians of EfpanoU pkinf! themfelyes fed with this when they 

go to War ; Uom. 

It is ufed in Mexico for dying and Figures for the Mexicans had 

no Letters but in painted Tables kept the Plats of their Fields and 
Bounds of their Lartdv whence Stalgers name arbof firtitiin regundorum 


. i. " v llil.' "vj 

«* ^ 


It is given in all Fluxes. Tift 

The Bark makes better Ropes than Hemp or Cane, Hern. 

They beat it up with Linfeed Oil or tffe it alone, or with Urine and it 
gives a good Colour. Tertre. They put the Seeds into an earthen Pot 
pouring on therri hot Water, and wafh off the Colour, thefi let it 

fubfide and dry it in Balls. The Roots give fhe Tafte and Colour 
of Saffron to Meats Roc... . 

The red Fodder is ufed as a dry Colour, but being Wet, at leaft 

with Oil, it makes a dull oii6:Gren> 

ufed foi^rfving a tefnmon Colour by Dydrs, Id 

/ 1 f 

. i 


54. The Natural Hiftory of JAMAICA 

It dyes yellow Wax of a deeper Colour. 

Kjiivet y ap. Purchas. lib. 6. cap. 7. § 4. p. 1 228. tells us that with this the 

Indians paint themfelves. 
Anato, is a Berrie or Cod, fuch as the Indians paint themfelves with- 

: mingled with Oil. Leigh apud Purchas. lib. 6. up. 12. p. 1251. who 

obferved it in Guiana. 

Anoto-Berries which dye a very fine Stammel Colour. Wiljon ap. Pur 

chas. lib. 6. cap. 14. p. 1 264. who found it in 'G 

Annoto-Berrses are taken Notice of for dying a perfect and true Orangt 
tawny Silk and are fold for Twelve Shillings per Pound in Holland. Rob 

Har court of Guiana ap. Purchas lib, 6. caff. 16 p. 1275 

They do ufe to anoint their Bodies both Men and Worn 


Kind of red Earth, becaufe the Musketa's or Flies (hall not offend them 

Davie s of the River Amazon $, ap. Purchas. lib. 6. cap. 1 S.p. 1 287 

The Ifland Dominica is inhabited by favage People, who go naked 

their Skins are coloured with fome Painting of a reddilh tawny, and they 
are very handfome and perlonable ftrong Msn. Cates ap. Hakl.p. 3. p. 5™. 

Thefe Indians (of Trinidad) are a fine fhap'd and gentle People, all na- 
ked and painted red, their Commanders wear Crowns of Feathers, 

Duddeley ap. Hakl. p. 7 p. 575 

Hughes, p. 55. tells us that this Tree's Wood being rub'd, produces Fire 
that the Bark makes long durable Lines, the Root is of a grateful Tate 
and is ufed as Saffron, it is called Macaw from the Colour of the 
Bird fo named Notty is added to Chocolate to colour it. p. no. and 

to be a Cordial. ^/7>/*, /£. 120, Notty has the fame Qualities with 
Saffron, it is not the fame with Achiote, which is of a dangerous Quality 
id. 132. in this Hughes is miftaken, Athiote or Achiotl being the fame 
with Notty or Arnotto, as I have taken Notice in my Catalogue 

Ligon. p. 14. met with it in Cape Verd IQes. 

* toil's 0*/. />. 54. fay it grows in St. Qhriftophers, and is ufed 


The Indians ufe this Oil to make them olive coloured beine hnm 
white. Lfet. lib. 16. cap. 16. p. 620. of Brafile. Roucou and klnvOil 


ufed againft Chegns. id. cajp. 15, 16. p. 61 9 

hath ilrm'd^ COlOUr mHl Sa " d ior ^^i their B»«er, as Dr. CyfrU ms 

The Flowers (Seeds) remain in Water till they rot, and by much jumb 
ling diffolve to a hquid Subftance, like the Indigo, and being fettled Tnd 

the VV ater drawn of the red Mud is made up into Rolls or Cake? and 

laid in the Sun to dry, Damper. It is worth four Rials, and Indigo three 
at Porto Rko, and is made alfo at Guatimala. g ee » 

XXXI. Acacia arborea maxima „ „ fthofc fmnis mamibus {lore Mo Mi 

S ua contort* eocene* m# elegmWma. Cat. p. tjjab. ,£ ft \ ' 

Ra,j. Vol. j. f . 477, & Denir.p io,. Acacia nonfpnofa 4Zi}e*frM'll 

utsfi ,» mu forma* fafiigutit. Plukenet. JL j. I PhpTil^ £ 

Sort of WiU-Tmtrinl 

This is one of the largeft Trees to be met with in the ™,„,i .. 

larger than our Oaks having white and SKj pfiffeSS* 
"ling to Cjcty Foot high, cover'd with a erev or 2L £ »U° k ,l imber 

Sulci or Furrows ol V Th^I, g « y ^ wh j.ti(h &rk, with many' 
Ground, .*££& &S£HiSWS n0t '"A™ th * 

or Branches being Lded gjjg ^£fl A«ft R,bs 

j »««iivi, mi. veiy tniCK, oneoD- 

, .„. ¥V1/ u one op- 


The Natural Hifiory of J A M A I G A. 


pofite to another, and thofe alfo are fet very thick with Pinnae or Leaves 
fmall tho' larger than many of this Kind, of a dark green Colour' 
fmooth and like thofe of the Tamarind Tree, whence the common Name 
the Flowers come out among the Branches, ftanding on a two Inches 
long Footftalk* and confift of a great many whitifh Filaments fet i 
reddifh Capfula:, ftanding all round the fame 




Centre, being perfectly 

fpherical like a Ball, as big as a Cherry, and fmelling very fweet. After 
thefe come the Pods hanging on two Inches long, brown Footftalks, each 
whereof is five Inches long, a little contorted or turn'd fpirally round 
as big as ones Middle- Finger, on their outfide, of the fineft fcarletCo* 
lour I ever faw, the Pods are vcntriofe or bunch'd out in feveral Places, 
and when ripe not dry but mojit, when opening they are white in the 
Infides and contain in each of the burich'd or protuberant places one 

, and moift, having 

black Pea, fmooth, perfe&Iy fphericah like Sloes 
its Pulp or Infide greenifh. 

It grows in Gullies, near the River fides, and in moift Grounds in Ja- 

maica, and all the Caribes. 

is one of the largeft Timber Trees the Itland affords, and is felPd 
and made Ufe of on all Accounts about building, tho* 'tis a little 



9 <* fl 

t . • 

XXXII. Acacia arbor e a maxima folijs vel wlpinnis minimis pre adora 



vo* Cat, p. 151. KaiyVoL y p. 477. Dendr. p. 101. Tap, 1S2. Fig, 






d with 
which are many Furrows ; the Wood is hard and 

This Tree has a Trunc as large as^ that of an Oak 
dark grey Bark, 

reddifh ; it has a great many Branches crooked, of a grey Colour, and 
riling thirty Foot high, equally fpread on every Hand, the Leaves are 
on the Twigs, they are winged, the Pinn» whereof are the leaft of 


of this Kind, I have obferved, of a dirty green Colour, fet 

their middle Ribs. Towards the Ends of the Branches come out the 

Flowers on half Inch long Footitaiks, they are yellow, very odorife- 

made up of many Filaments let round like the other A- 


cacia, and fmell 





yfweet, to thefe follow an Inch long crooked Pod 

now and then, and containing in a fungous 


Pulp of a pale Colour, feveral, fmall, long, Drown, very hard Seeds, 


beinc crooked, hollow and very like thefe of the Mactavera.J.B 

The young Trees have many long white Prickles 

The Flowers fmell fo fweet and 


pleafant walking 

near them. 
It fweats 
but more 


w tiw _ might be ufed for Gum Arabic 

It grows about the Town of St.JagodeUVeg 

d Gum, falfly taken for Opopanax, 


and between it and 


the Plains very plentifully 

Lacuna gives the Figure of 

large Tree growing abundantly in Peru f 

and there called Guacia, which I believe may be this 

See hereafuer in the Tunas about Cochineel, where is mention d an Infeft 

coming on this Tree, which by Roaffeta,f P«m. / cajkd Vermil 

lion, of no ufe becaufe thicker than Cochineel, 


be d ry 'd 



XXXI 1 1 

The Natural Hi/lorv of T A M A I C A. 

[ | i r U >1 .. \ 

I « *"S « , 

XXXIII. AcacIa AwcricAna, filiquis teretibus ventfiojis, floribas lattit. 
Herm. Cat; p. i $2." Acacia Mica Tradefc. P. 74. Acacia American* Farneji- 

una. Grjjli virid. p. 1. AcAcialndicafloreluteo, Cajlell. bott Meff. />. 1. ^w- 

► ♦ 

ova prima. Lj/cium alteram Vimen pennatum > rubi facie frnclicofum flore gfo 
bofo luteo odor at Of Syrian' . - * 0V1 

» • w « , 


' • btJ - . j". ) Acacia. ] '•■' 

There are feveral Trees of this in feveral Plantations, particularly 

Col. Copeh in Guanaboa juft by his Houfe; and in St. Chriftopber 7 s juft by 
Colonel Hilts, Iobferved a large Hedge of the fame. 1 

^/ : a fays fr ftinks, and is not for that Reafon to be ufed in 

Andramuhufs Treacle. a ] V ' f t <1 ' 

Dwfcrides defcribes Acacia ALgyptjaca with a white Flower.* i ! J< i 

Itlofesits Leaves in Italy every Winter, yields a Juice of riiany con- 

fus'd Taftes, has Flowers of feveral Colours .at feveral Times, and At- 

p'tnus defcribes it to have the Pod,of a Lupin. : '> ; i il 

The Arabs feed their Goats with the Leaves beat down with- a Pea re h, 
the Juice of the unripe Pod is at Cairo ufed for tanning Leather. « 

XX XIV. Acacia arbor ea major fpinofa y pw»U quatttor,mdjoribtajhbrotan- 

dvifpHqmis varie ittPortis. Cat. Jam. p. 1 52. VbL \. p.u 3. . An CeratU quod- 

ammodo affinis Bengbalenfts folijs bigemellis fubrotundis ftliquis admodumimor- 
tis & in orbes circumflexis, ex minio nigr ic ant ib us f ruff u rubro macula nigra, 
inftgnito. Pluk. Phyt. tab. 82. lig. 4 ? An Acacia Americana folijs amtliori- 
bus filiquis cincinnatis. Plum. Tournef. hft.f. 605 ? An Tobecora Arbor fpU 
nofa venenata marit'ma folio gemino rotunda corniculis refiexis coacineis> pif*\ 
gagatina includens.Surian? . f» 1 h, , . *J : 

This Tree has an undivided Trunc the Bignefs of ones Thigh, for : about 

a Yard or two high, where it branches out into Boughs, equally: thread 

round about into a Bufhy Head (if it be not hinder'd by other Trees) the 

Trunc and Boughs arecover'd with a grey or wbitifli, almoft fmooth 

Bark, brown within, the Twigs have little Swellings or Knobs, and feme 

fhort thick Prickles, the Leaves or Pinns are 4, two always ftandiftffon 

the fame Footftalk and two of thefe Footftalks being ioin'd to thQEnd 

of a common Inch long Foot/talk or middle Rib, fo that the Leaves are 

ever four, and the Leaf in a manner decompose ; eaehr of thefe Pinnas 

or Leaves is one Inch long and three quarters broad near the End where 

broadeft, fmooth, thin,, nervous and of a very dark green Colour, .„_„,- 

bling in many things the Leaves of Box, the Flowers come out ex^alis 

loliorum ftandmg on two Inches bng Footftalks, from which they ftand 

round on every Hand as from a. common Centre, and confift of nothing 

but half Inch long white Filaments in a green Capfula, to which fu£ 

ceed feveral two Inches long Pods, crooked at firft, but when open'4 

they turn and twift by the Sun, among one another, looking very odlv 
and turning from a white to a brown Coiour.The Peas are black irregularly 
Jgurd, angular and coming near a Trapezium in Shape, being flat and 
having a white fungous Porous Matter, by which with the Help of a very 
fine Hair, 'tis faften'dto the Pod, and afterwards turns as the Infide of 
the Fod, from being moitt and white, to. be dry and brown 

It grows in the Savanna's every where about the Town of St. °fm 
de la Vega and in Barbados, in the Low Lands. * 

The Peas are eaten by Goats in Scarcity of other Food, and in Bar- 
bados by the Negro's, as I was. affured by fome of the Inhabitants there. 


> ' 


r m 

4. / 

The Natural Biftory of J A M A I C A. tn 

" — "— 1 f' * 

The Bark of this, which is bitterifh, either powder'd, or the Decoo 
tion ufed by way of Fomentation to old and ill-natur'd Ulcers is faid 
to cure them, by Pifi 9 nay even Cancers themfelves, by its cieanfin^and 
drying Quality. ° 

The fame Author fays 'twas ufed to reftore the Tone ofrelaxM 
parts, being very adilrringent, and that Whores made great Ufe thereof 
to conceal their lolt Virginities. 

XXXV .Herbamimofa nonjpinofa ^mfetr©- fe u tepw*,* dejamaica 
Pata-vwa ditta. Monfi Cat. Jam. p. i^ 2 .J„ miU m toddt ViUi Hort , Mdab 

Part 9 p.yj -Tab. 21 .? Mfchwomene mitis prima Commelin. Hort. Amir. 

£"!' \ LT'a '£?""• **»»+ '49- Herb* fenfuiv* ima infJu 
Tab ago R ochef An Mfcbjnomene feu mtmofa arbor efcens Americana non fpinofx 

fmnu Acacu lanor.bus flore albo. hnyn. prod. 2 ? An the ftrange Plant of 

bombmootLancafierap Purchas.lib. j.cap. ? . §. 2 ./>.i 5 2. ? An Tervavi 

Porto Rico ? of Layfeld ap. Purchas. lib. 6-p 



This agreed in all things with the Defcriptiohsof3>M/andBm*/«, 

on y the Leaves were foroewhat broader, and thin plac'd, and the Foot- 

ftalks fupportwg the Flowers had no fmall Foliola on them, which may be 

Varieties rifing from different Soils and Climates. 
It grew about Sixteen-Mile- Walk-Plantations in Jamaica. 

ufed to give this Herb powder'd in the ViSuals of thofe they refolv'd to 

kill, giving it in fmall Quantities fecretlyand often, and that there was 

no better Antidote for this Poifon than the Root of this Shrub, and 
likewife he fays that the poifonous Leaves made into a Plaifter 


the Strum* by refoiving them. It poyfons, as he tells us, and kills them 

&e ^e^ m m CachcaicaJ> ihort winded and Melancholly till 

The Seeds are Food for Turtle Doves, and in Scarcity are eat by the 

Inhabitants of Curafao. Qommdw. * y 


XXXVI. Mmofaarborea nonjpinofa foli)sf e „pi m u Utijfmi,. Cat. fam. 

p. 152. Tab. 182. Fig. 6. Ratj. HifiVol. 3. p. 480. J 

Another Sort of WildJTamarirtd or Senpble-Ttet. 
This Tree rifes to not above Nine Foot high having a ftreiafif 

t.i ^ haying winged Leaves, four or fix fet on the com- 
mon Inch long Footftalk or middle Rib, 'the Pinna, are even^Numter 

fet one oppofite to another, fmooth, and of a dark green Colou^ the 
Flowers come out ex Mis Foliorum, confifting of many long whke 

Hairs or Filaments, in a greenifh Capfula, many of whicf' are fet 

round the End of their common Footftalk, making a fDherical HeaH « 

3Tj2te2»» *?" "?8 ^« "To &!, H w a pod a S S 


feveral B 


Soluble Sg SSS •E^*™? 0VW * ™> 

ver'y Eful thC Way fr0m the T ° Wn t0 GuMtb °* on *• «* Hills 





Natural Hifiory 



XXXVII. Mimofa berbacea, non fpinofa, minima, repe/ts. Cat. Jam. p. 15? 


of every Footftalk, each of which has three or four very 


M}. Hifi. Vol. 3. f. 480. Tab. 182. Fig. 


This has many creeping Roots with which it fpreads itfelf, cove- 
ring large Spots of Ground for many Yards in Diameter, putting forth 
every now and then Leaves ftanding on the Top of Inch long flender 

They are wing'd, and two middle Ribs ftand on the Top of 

" , fmall 

broad, foundifh Pinnute, fet as the others of this Kind, fmooth and of a 
dark green Colour. Ex alis Foliorum come the Flowers ftanding on Foot- 
ftalks of the fame Length with thofe of the Leaves, they are round, 
white, made up of a Ball of Filaments, as others of this Kind, te 
which follow Pods, being very fliort, comprefs'd, blackilh and like 
other Plants of this Kind, 

It grows on the Magotty and Moneque Savanna's very plenti- 

Dr. Plttkemt p. 1 3 1 . of his Mantiffa doubts if this be not his Mimofa ori- 
ent dis nonfpinofa rarioribus ramis floribm fpicatis. Phyt. Tab. 507. Fig. 4. 

but their Defcriptions and Figures fliew them different. 

It is fo very ien/ible, that a Puff of Wind from your Mouth will make 
Impreflions on it- 1 have on Horfeback wrorc my Name with a Rod 
in a Spot of it which continued vi/ible fox fome Time, and it " 
moil fenfible of any of this Kind. 






XXXVIIL Herb* mimofa rmfpintfa Mrf****? om&7@" jeufpuria de Par nam 

— _^_ #1 A mm. *mA% ftl M \W mA\ Am **-rfJ ±m\ mmm** mm\ m+* mm* Mm* *m%\ 

hue a, Motif. Cat. Jam. p. 1 5 $ 

From a ftreight woody Root are fpread on every Hand feveral nine 

Inches long lig 

Branches, which 





befet towards their Ends with 

the others of this Kind , 
every thing lefs ; the Flowers are globofe, made up of a g 


many, white, long Filaments, making up one round 

which fuccceds an Inch, long Bat, one quarter of an Inch broad 

which every fmall Pea makes a round Protuberance before 'tis open 

Head of Flowers, to 



It does 

feei the^Touch as do the other Mimofa but on holding it in 

themielves, as 


ones Hand for fome Time, its Leaves will contract 
feveral other wing'd leav'd Plants. 

It grows in gravelly Grounds of the Savanna near the Town of St. Jago 
de la Vega % in feveral Plantations in the fame Ifland, as well 

the Cm* 

mod oi 




Xgnetois out is very good 



XXXIX. Arbor filtfuofa Brtfitienfis folijs p'wnatis, cofia media membramtlis 
«*n^- txuntibm aint aRaijJtifi . C at . Jam.p. 15 ? . Tab. 18}. %i. ^* Cartb 
from Barbados. Tt ode f cant. f. 96. Inga fare rtbo, fimbriate, fruSta **r Am. p. 1$. Nux Amriuna toft a fid brum appendicibus aatfa. Piui-. 
Phyt. T*b. aoj. Fig. 4 1 Hon. Amfi. cap. 94. ? &ipp a Hon. Beaum. p. 21. P. 


This Tree rife to about twelve or 
veral crooked Branches, cover'd with 1 

down to the Ground, 

, r uiuuiw ) anu wiiigu weaves itan< 

Ends of the Branches without any Order, they are 

fifteen Foot high, having fe- 
white, fmooth Bark, hanging 

i the 
fix Inches 

and wing'd Leaves ftanding toward 



ijlory of JAMAICA; t 9 


long having about three pair of Pinns ftanding oppofite to one a- 

nother on fmal] Footftalks, with an odd one at the End, larger than 
the others, which are each of them an Inch and an half long, and about 
halt as broad in the Middle, where broadeil, ending in a Point, being 
fmooth and of a dark green Colour ; the middle Rib between each 
pair ot Pinnx, has an extantMembrane on each Side of it, aboutan 8th of an* 
Inch broad, like the Border or firft Leaf of an Orange-Tree, or like that of 
the Sope-berry Tree. The Flowers are many which come out at the 
Ends of the Branches (landing on an Inch and half long Foot/talk, they 
are made up of feveral pale purple, long Stamina, to which follow three 
Inches long, angular Pods, of a greenifh Colour, containing a great 
many quadrangular, foft Peas, lying clofe together in a white, fweet 

Pulp, which is eat by the Negroes. 

It grew on the Banks of Rio Nuevo hanging down over the Water, 
in the North Side of this Ifland. 

The fweet Pulp in which the Peas are lodg'd, is eat by the Negro's 
and Indians. 


XL. Juglandis folio, fruticofa Jiliquofa folijs pinnatis toft* me it mem- 

brmulh ntrincpie exttmtibus *lttt& % fdiqaa qu adr angul a . Cat. Jam. p. 10 

Tab. 175. Fig. 2. An J end* Americana, non fpinofa, Joint jugUndis fl t 
jurpareo. Plum. Team eft In ft. p. 6 o 5 f An €affia fylveffirit fetid* ftliquis 
ulatis. Plum ? 

This Shrub has a woody a nguf a r Stalk HUM with a white Pith, and co- 

ver'd with a green, ftriated Baric, riling two Foot or more high, on the 
Twigs of which tome alternatively feveral wing'd Leaves, the middle Rib 
whereof is about a Foot long, being cornerM and ftriated, to which 
are join'd the Pinnae, at about an Inch's Diftance fet oppofite to one 
another by Pairs, each of which is two Inches long and one broad 
near the round End where broadeft, fmooth, and of a ydlowifh green 


It £**eW on a Bank near the Crawl Plantation on the Road going to 

the Ferry, 




bv.'PMenet lufpe&s this to be the fame with the Precedent, p.i^j 

% • -m * - rr 1 ? — . ^ *. £wCV J wjb Am iCL«* a #-» f- 

ofhisMantiffa.bat they are perfe&iy differ 

Infulmifolijs utuntur *d her petes car an das hmc GtKice ab ipfis Dart tier di 

titur D. Ju0eu 



XLI. Acacijs affinis arbor ftiiquofa foih fubrotundo pngularijore ftamioeo 
Ibido, ftliqua tereti ventriofa, cujus interior tunica tft mucof* & eleganter 
nniata. Cat. Jam. p. 1 53. R**j- H'ft. Vol. 5. Dendr.p. 102. 


This Tree rifetfc to about Twenty Foot high, having a Trunc 

m Jk as ones Thigh, the Bark is of a dark grey Colour, the Branches 
bow downwards and are crooked, having here and there Knobs on 

them, the Leaves come out on each fide of the Twigs alternatively, 
at about half an Inch's Diftance, landing on a brown half Inch long 
Footftaik, they are two Inches long, and one and a quarter broad, of 
an oval Figure, having one middle and feveral tranfverfe Ribs, being 
fmooth, thin, and of a dat* green Colour ; the Fiowers come on the 

Ends of the Twigs, and confift of a great many very long, white 
Stamina inclos'd in a gr een Capfula, to which follow three Inches Jong 


green, fcaooth, venuiofe Pods, in which, under each Swelling, 


6o The Natural Hiftory of J A M A I C A. 

is contarn'd one Pea, in all four or five, being green and foft, inclos'd 
in a white Pulp* The inward mucilaginous Membrane of the Pod is of a 
fcarlet Colour ; the Pod opens of its fdf and its Contents are much 

d by Ants. This Pod hangs to the Tree by a two Inches long 

Footftalk, and is fmall at the further End 

It grows on each fide of the Road between Pajfage-Fort and Town 
and in the mod woody Parts of the Town S wanna in Jamaica and in 



XLII. Ceratonix affinis arbor ftl/quofa ole& folio , flore tetrapetalo albido 
fili qua tereti venttiofa, cujus interior tunica eft mucofa & elegant er mini at a 

Cat. Jam. f r 1 5 j . Ray* Hift. Vol. -$ . Dendr. p. i oo. An falix jolliculifera Ion 

gifftmis argent eis & acutis folijs Americana, Plukenet, Tab. 3 27. Fig.6 r Aim, p 
328? An Ceratia cariofa Caribearum^foHiculis teretibus tuberofis, cortice f 

fafco rubefcente jcabro, intas miniato y mali citrei femine.ejufd. Mant. p, 44 



An Cynophallofhoros mucronatU folijs folliculU clavatis ex uno pediculo binu 
Pluk. Pbyt.Tab. 172. Fig, 5 ? Aim, p, 127 ? An Brejnia Eleagni folijs Plum 

pi. Am . p. 40 ? 

This Tree rifeth to about thirty Foot high, having a Trunc as thick 
as ones Thigh, and an afh-colour'd, fmooth Bark, a pleafant Top by 
its Branches and Twigs being fpread on every Hand ; the Leaves are 
many, placed without any Order, each having one quarter of an Inch long 
Footftalk; they are three Inches Jong, one broad in the middle where 
broadeft, fmooth, of a dark green Colour above, and underneath 
whitifh, having one principal Rib, and being very like the Leaves of 
the Olive-Tree; the Flowers come at the Ends of the Branches, ... 

petalous and of a white Colour, and to them follow hanging fa 

, are 

ften'd to the Branch, by an Inch long Footftaik, three Inches long, 
ruffet Pods, round, bigger than a Swans Quill, having here and there 
Eminences over the Peas within, or being ventriofe ; the Peas are a- 
bout fix in Number, foft, and lodg'd in a fcarlet colour'd Pulp, befides 
which, the inward Membrane of the Pods is fcarlet and foft, and 
both it and the Peas are very much coveted by Ants. Thefe Pods 

Help of the Heat of the Sun, twift open themfelves, Jhew their 

fcarlet infide, and let drop their Peas 

It grows in Jamaica in the Woods between Paffage-Fort and the Town, 
and in the Savanna's about the Town of St. J ago de la Vega. 

Without doubt this is the Salix Arbor foHiculifera obtufts folijs candi- 

tantibm Americana, Pluken. Phyt, Tab. 221. Fig. 1. Notwithstanding 
what the Dr. fays./. 62. of his Mant if} a. 

XLIII. QeratonU affinis ftliquofa I ami folio ftngulari y flore Pentapetaloide 
purpureo ftrtato, fdiqua craffa brevi pulpa efculenta & purgante femina am 

biente, **"■ tr ~ - --- K •• »»— - • — * A * 

Rocbef.p. 58 7 Pluk 

Gift Jam. p. 1 54. Raij. Hill. Vol. $ . />.i 00. Tab, 1 84. An Courbarj 




The Bicky-Tree 


hnfi? f n W3S bUt fCVen YeafS 0ld ' rai$ d from *■* which Wi > s 

tl,>L S L £ m AV* t> y et i twas n twenty Foot high, had a Trunc as 
.W \c the u Calf 0/ ones Leg, ftreight and round, cover'd with an 
here andThere' lt^ brown Barg, with greyifh or white Spots 

here and there, the Boughs were fpread on all Hands, thofe lower be- 


/x*» S • *'- 






• •* -..' 

f . 

-■ - 

ing the 






~ *v 


the Twigs were on their furth 



nother, and for the moft Part 


Ends befet with verv 


The Footftalks were two Inches 
coming out of the Twigs, and another 
fix Inches long and two broad in the Middle, where broadeft, fmooth 

having a Swelling at the 
Leaf it felf, which was 


having one middle Rib, fending 

fverfc ones to the Sides 




the Leaf of the Cacao-Tree, The BlofToms 




feveral, coming out from the Branches themfelves, pentapetalous, tho' all 
the Petaia be joyn'd at Bottom, yellow and purple ftriped, with a yel- 
low Stylus, (landing on the Ends of Green branch'd Stalks, three In- 

ches long 





thick and broad Pod, with 

cs lUIig, IU wuiui iuuuwj a ictig^, ijjvii, uuuvauuuiudu ruu, Wim- 

which lie feveral great Beans or Seeds, about which is an edible fweet 


«• 4 • 


• - • 

K m » 

The Seed brought in a G 

Ship from that Country, was here 

planted by Mr. Goffe in Colonel Boarders Plantation beyond Guanoboa 


lied Bichy by the Coromantin Negro's, and is both 

ufed for Phyfick in Pains of the Belly 




4 v 



■ .. 

-4 « 

X LI V. Nerium Arbor e urn ^ folio mdximo obtufiore, fi 



p. 154. Tab. 185, and 186. Fig. 1. Raij. Vol. j. Dendr. p. 114. Clematis 
borea Americana, laurinis amplijjimis folijs, flare lace* colore od$ratiffimo J, 
waicenfibus & Barbadenfibus noftratibus y The Jeilemy-Tree nuncupata Plait 
Almag.p.ioy Plumeriaflore r 

pi. Amer 


' <\ 

odoratiffimo. Tour fief. ln(t. p. 65 9. 9 1 am 




? > 







This Tree grows to be about the Bignefs of an Apple-Tree, and 
fpreads it felf on every Hand with few Branches, which at their farther 
Ends are befet with very broad oblong Leaves of a yellowifh green Co* 
lour and fmooth. The Ends of the Branches fuftain Bunches of ex 
tremely pleafant Flowers both for Colour and Smell, much larger than 
thofe of Neiium, but otherwife exa&ly like them. The Seeds are laid clofe 

in horned Pods after the manner of others of this Kind.J 

It is planted for Ornament in 



the Caribe Iflands. 


ens of Jamaica 9 Barbados an 

This Tree yields a Milk of a burning Nature, and yet the Indians fay 
that taken quatuor obolorum menfura y or two Scruples twenty four Grains, 

~* egmatic, Cacheftical Humours of thofe in 


it purges very eaiiJ 

the French Pox or Dropfy, efpecially if they come from a cold Caufe. But I 
do not believe this can be taken into the Body without Hurt, being moft 
vehement, therefore 'twill be beft (as the Indians know by Experiment) 

to purge by applying it to the Navel in a fmall Quantity. It cures 

the Skin Difeafes, as Scabs, Leprofies, Ring-worms, &c. Thofe 
of Guaxotozinca ufe this to two Drams, in intermitting Fevers. Her- 
nander, who fay5 i; he had almoft kill'd himfelf with tafting the Milk, 
he with Ximenes affirm, that it rcfolves Apqftemes, and that altho' it 
be a great Poifon, yet it may be in fome Cafes very ufeful. 

Hughes tells us that Butter is made of this Jafmin, fmelling very 





* ■■ 


a* • 

* V 

■ ' \ 

It has a white Milk which is good in Cholicks and the Pox to purge 
with, it works fafer if anointed on the Navel, it caay be prepar J 
as Efula Scammony and the like, Jonfi 

• • 












62 The Natural Biftory 4]k MA ICA 


XLV. Nerium arboreum altijjimum, folio anguflo, flore alho. Cat. Jam. f 
54. Raij. Vol, $ t Dendr.p. &14. Par ad. Bat. p.^q* ApocynumAmericavumfru- 
if c ens longijfimo folio flore albo odorato. Commei. Hort. Amfl. Part, alter 

47. Plumeria flore niveo^ foltjs longis angufiu & acuminata. Tournef. Infi. p 

659. Plum. p 1. Am. p. 20. 


1 : 




The Wild Jafmin Tree 


This Tree is the fame ^with the former, only much larger, it hath 

narrower Leaves, and white Flo we 

I found it plentifully in the Woods of Liguanee in Jamaica 

- \ 

XLVL Nerium arboreum folio latiore obtufoy flore luteo minor e. Cat. Jam 

.p. 154. Tab. 1 %6. -Fig 


This Tree has a Trunc as thick as one's Leg, coverM with a whitifh 
toolour'dalmoft fmooth Bark, rifing to about iif teen Foot high, and fending 
out long crooked Branches having likewife a whitifh colour'd Bark, and 
at their Ends Leaves (landing on Inch long Footftalks, being four Inches 
long and two and a half hroadjn the Middle, where broad eft, of a very 
dark *green Colour, fmooth, fhining, having one Middle and feveral 
•ttfrnfverfe Ribs. Ex alis Foliorum, come the Flowers on branch^ 
crooked Petiola, one quarter of an Inch long, being yellow, pentapeta- 
Jous as if they were twilled about, having a half Inch long Tubulas 
and fmelling very fwect ; to thefe follow two long Pods, fork ? d like Horn 
as in the other Oleanders. 

It grows under the Town *f St. Jago de U Vega, by the Banks of the 

Rio Cobre. 

f 1 " • ....»• 

-. tXlLViII. Nerio affinis arkor ftltyuofa folio falmato feu digit at flore dfo 

Cat. Jam. p. 1 54. Raij. Hift. V*l. $. p. 1 14. Pfendo apocynum femine compreffo 
>& alato ere '£1 urn Barbadunfe, lignum album Barbadienfe dittum. Bob art. Monf. 
Ox. p. 612. An pfeudo*pocynim,kc>Jam*J6e»fefeminibus minoribus alatisalbii 
'£jufd.,ib. An Bignonia Americnns : uvbmfxms. PentaphyMa flore rofeo tna\or 
pliquis pi avis, Plum. Tourmf. Infl. p. 16 5 f pL Amer. p. * 


White Wood 


This Tree is as large as any of this Ifland, having a very great (freight 
Trunc cover'd with a fmooth whitilh Bark, under which is its very hard 
Wood, which is White, the Leaves are digitated, or fingered, having three 
— four Inches long Footftalks, from the Ends of which, as from 

, as irom a com- 

vmon Center, ftand feveral long, narrow Segments, or Leaves, being cut 
in quite to the very End of *he Footftalk, each whereof is fmooth and of 
'« very dark green Colour, of an equal Breadth for almoft their whole 
length The Leaves fall off for fome Weeks, and then the Flowers come 
.outyf the Ends of the Twigs, feveral together, (landing on an Inch long 
*J6lftalk, each whereof is *ery ikrge, white, monopetalous Difform, 

like thofe of Stramorucum, and fell off very fbon after ; they are very open 
^end to them fuceeeds a five or fix Inches long (quarePod, with feveral *mi 


•«^.^ L '"^ S ° u.- K Sn i?"£ e » •# a brown «<h Colour, within which .« 
■5^gfefKin B m ' i * m * *° WKkh l reck °" this Tree 


~*j ui run* ? ; . : » „j 

JL g TJ !£ thC 1 a\ L 2 ad l b ? the Rims 9ides ' by^the Sea Side >in J*. 

mwts, B*rb*i9s t and the Gtrfrti. ' "" 

^\ 4 % 

The Natural Hijiory of J A MA I G A, 

It is fell d and made into Planks to (heath Ships ; the Worms as it i« 
laid, which deftroy Ships in theie Parts not daring to eat this Sheathing 
perhaps from the poyfonous Quality all of this Kind have 

XLV-III. Nerio affims arbor, verftcolora maPerie, lauri folio lucidoAore fm 
Upet abide fulphureo ample. Cat. Jam. ^.155. Tab. i$}.< Pig. 2. Ratj. Hijt 

VoL 3. p. 115. An JecuibaBrafil. Marcgr-p 

? . • 


r i ■ - 

. 5 

5 . TheSfanifh Elm, or Prince Wood. / 

■ i ..:• 

■ \ 

, This grows to be a very large and ftately Tree, affording very broad 
Boards to make Tables or Cabinets of its Wood, which is of the Soitnefs 

and Grain of Elm, whence the Name of Sfamfb Elm, having many 
undulated light browa, or grey Lines lit it, making a pleafant fhow, 
whence came the Narhe of Prince Wood amongft our Cabhiet-Makers* 
<they ufing it very imuch, diofe Lines being Only the Interftices between 
the yearly additional Circles to the Tree; the Barkis Afh-colour'd very 
fmooth, having no Afperities in it at all ; the Branches Ends are befet* with 
Leaves on three quarters of an Inch long Footftalks, they are two Inches 
long and one broad im the Middle, where broadeft, from whence they de- 
creafe in Breadth to both Extremes, they are fmooth, not ferrated, and 
of a frefh green Colour. The Flowers ftand feveral together; they are 
large from a narrow Beginning, opening wider, almofthke a Be'll Flower, 
the Margins being divided into five Sections, of a fulphurous Colour or 

like the yellow Flowers of the Mervailes of Peru. The fruit I -few* 

nor. ' ,•■ ' • 

It grows on a Hill over Mr. Bauheior's Plantation, and in the North 

Side of the Ifland more copiouiiy, becaufe they have not been fellM fd 
much there, as where the Spaniards had more need of Wood in the 
South Side. 

1 t 

When this Tree is young it makes good Hoops 

It is felPd and fent into Europe in great Quantities for the Ufe of Cabl* 

t Makers, &c. 



XLIX. Jpovyno affine Gelfeminum Indie urn he der actum fruthofum minus* 
Cat. Jam. p.i 1 6 . An Bignonia Americana luteafraxini folio filiquis anguftiori- 
bus Sirinami. Tournef EL p. 1 $ 3 . Bagnonia arbor fraxini folio flore lotto. Am. p. 50. Clematis Peruana digitalis fiote folio fraxifti. Herm. par. 
Bat. pr. p 3 04- Clematis Americana fraxini folio erect a. Breyn. pr. 2* 

The branches of this Shrub were woody, the Bark brown, fmooth and 

tough, it had alaced Leaves made tip of three or four Pair of Finns, with 

an odd one at the End •, the Pinnae ilood ex adverfo, were about an Inch 
long, half as broad, fmooth, pointed at -the End, indented about the 

Edges, and had no Footftalks. The Flowers flood in a Spike, were like 
thofe of the common Tecwnextnhitl, only leffer, t<* which fueeed Pods like 
thofe of Apocynum 

It was brought from Jamaica by James Harkw^ and given me by 

Dr. Sherard. frorii:Sir Arthur Ratvdon. 

Mangle pyri foiijs cum filiquu hngis ficui Indie* affnts. Cat. Jam. 
5<. Raij. Hip. Dendr. p.*Vi$. Maugles aquatic a , foiijs fnbrotuudis &***p. *?• Red Mangrove of Dampier* c*p.-$.&c. An 

Mangles alba coriaria, folio dmfiufiulofobmumio glabra ftu&u forma cariophyl 
lir aromami major*. Pinken.p. f. T*b. 204. #£.4? An Montochiba tirtin 


boramygd doties tin ftvri* paludof* Parmvkr vivlet ft 


. 4 


6 a. The Natural Hiftory ©/JAMAICA 

The Mangrove Tree 

• • 

This Tree rifes to thirty or forty Foot high, having a Trunc as big as 
one's Body, and a greenifh white, fmooth, Bark, with fome white Spots 
here and there. The Tree has very many pendulous Branches fwelling to- 
wards their Ends, where are plac'd 9 or 10 Leaves fet on round them by 

half Inch long Footftaik, they are 4 Inches long and 2 broad, of the 


Shape of thofe of Laurocerafus, fmooth, thick, of a dirty green Colour 
and having one very large eminent Rib running the Length of the Leaf-, 
theFlowers ftand on an Inch long Footftaik, are compos d of 4 thickyeliow 
Petala, and as many brown, with fome yellow Stamina in the Middle, 
being withia cover'd with a yellow Farina, to which follow Pod-like 
Subftances, having a Swelling at their Beginning, otherwife exaftly like 
Bobbins, with which Bone- Laces are wrought, that Protuberance is rougl 
and a little redifli in Colour, about an Inch long, having within a 
vity fitted to receive the fmall Ends of the Pod-like Subftances, and int 
which they are fet, each of them is about fix Inches long, beginning Her 
der, fwelling by Degrees to near the End, where it is biggeft, and from thence 
ends inaPoint, exadly fhap'd like a Bobbin, ha vinga fmooth greenifh brown 
Rind, and within no Cavity or Seeds, but a Pith and fungous mealy Sub- 
ftance, which never ripens, or is otherwife than woody, for this Subftance in 
a fmall Time is on the under Branches lengthned, and fhoots out ftreight, 
hath a brown. Colour, the End very much fwell'd, and when ever it 
comes to the Salt Water or x Mud, there it ftrikes Roots every Way, and 
in Frocefs of Time becomes a Trunc, from the Tops of which Branches 
fpring and propagate themfelves after the fame Manner, fomething like 
that of the Picus Indict. that whatever Branches are on the un- 
der Parts of the Trunc of the Tree, take Root, looking like fo many Ar- 
ches,, and become Truncs themfelves in a very fhort Time, and thefe 
Mangroves propagate themfelves after this manner for a great many 
Miles in length along the Coafts and Rivers whither the fait Wat 


What feems very ftrange in this Tree is, that the Pod-like Subftanc 
feems to be as it were one (ingle Seed, which being planted in that fun 
gous Protuberance, by which it is faften'd to the Branch, thence as it wer 

grows and fhoots out till it comes to the Water or Mud, fattening its felf 

and taking Root therein, what had been its Origin, Beginning, or Root 
formerly, now becoming its Top and Germen: I could never obferve any 
black Pulp in this, as Oviedo did, neither any Seeds, but do firmly believe 
propagates it felf after the aforefaid manner, herein differing fi om the 

Indian Fig, which does it by Filaments thrown down from the Branches. 

Root in the Ground. 


They grow about Cartagena. Laet. 

Pifo fays thefe Pods had a bitter Pulp, but I could never obferve any, 

rave* that Land Crabs eat them, du Tertre % that the Fruit 

was flat and large as a thirty Sols Piece, and eaten by Parrots ; and 
Rocbefort fays that the Bark tans. 



The Roots cut and tolled, apply'd, cure the Stings of the Fifh Niq 

An Anonimus Portugal of Br afil. lib. 7. cap* 1. ap.Purchas. p. 1316. tells 

that the Fruit, which is hollow within, makes Flutes, that the Bark 
and makes Ink, and that the Wood is good for Building. Will.Finchi ap. Pur- 
chas. lib, 4. cap. 4. §. 1. p. 41 5. ib. p. 416. found thefe Trees with Oyflers 
on them fed on by the Negroes at Sierr* ieona, and Ravenean de Luff an 
mentions the Bay MangUres in the South Sea near Panama, probably fo 

call'd from thefe Trees gowing there. Gomara, 


' * 

k*ty* s 

>* .^v» > » ■• . v v - .* •** 

77* JV&I fcft Hijhfy of JAM 



Gomara mentions thefe Trees to grow on the Shores of Peru, and that 
the Spaniards wha went to conquer here, firft, were forcM to eat their 
Fruit in Neceflity, it being bitter, faltifli, and without Juice, he fays 
likewife that being high and ftreight, they made JV£afts. 

This Tree grows in the Marifh Places near the Sea-Side, and propa- 
gates it felf a good way into the Sea at Old Harbour, as weflbyShfcits 
as by the Pods falling and taking Root. 

The Timber makes good Shingles for covering Houfes. 

The Bark tans Leather well for Shoe Soals, not for Upper Leathers, 
or Infides, it thus tan'd burning the Skin. J 10 l! - 

The Trees clear'd of their Bark decay. 

Pifo's Figure is pretty good. 1 - £ ■ i / < 

The. vountr Buds of the Flowers of this Tree before oben 

) : i X 

The young Buds of the Flowers of this Tree before opening feem to 

e that Friiit fent by Alexander Bdam to Zjnoni, and by him defcrib'd and 
figured, />. 98. it being eafy for Mariners to take it for a Clove, and 

tut the Name of Venimou* to whatever they believ'd not eatable 


The Roots ferve for (lying of Linen, and Leaves for Dung. The Bark 
is us'd by Tanners, and Landrefles forCloaths, mix'd with Oyl like Dirt 
it is good againft Wearinefs, and with Milk or frefh Butter, outwardly 
apply 'd, helps them who are difeafed in their Livers. They grow in 
Cochin. H M. where is a good Figure of this Tree. 

Pigafet. of Cong, pat: 1. Ind. or/. S. tells us that Oyfters 'ftick to them, 
• Whofe Flefh is as big as one's Fift, calPd Ambi&iamatare, and that there 
are two Ufes of the Shell, the Infide to make Lime, and the Odtfide is us'd 
like Bark for tanning Leather. - ; 



In the Ifle of Trinidad is a mt River that had Store of Oyfters on the" 

^Branches of the Trees, which were very fait and well tafted. AH their 

Oyfters grow upon thcfe Boughs and Spraies, and not on the Ground. 

-The like is commonly feen in the Well Indies and elfewhere; This Tree is 

defcrib'd by Andrew Thevet in his France Antartique, and the 1 Form figur'd 

in his Book as a Plant very ftrange, and; by Plinie in his Twelfth 

Book of his Natural Hifiory. But^ in this' Ifland, as alfo in Guiana 
there are very many of them. Sir Walter Rawleigfrs Difcovery of Guiana 

p. 2. ap. Hakl.p. l'p> 6 j 1. 

• ; I 

In moft Places of Mevis the Wood groweth clofe to the Water Side at 
a High -Water Mark, and is in fome Places fo thick of a foft fpungy 

Woodj like a wild Fig-Tree^ that you cannot get thro' it but by making 


9 % ^ •% 

your Way with Hatchets or Faulchions. Smith's Obf. p. 57 

I told you once I do remember how in my Travels into Africa and Ame 
rica, I found Trees that bore Oyfters, which was ftrange to you, till I 

mm m « % V^ f 1 * 1 W ^ 1 • f 1 fl -.^"^ft /^l « 

told you that their Boughs hung in the Water, on which both Oyfters and 
Muskles did ftick faft, as their Property is to Stakes and Timber. Park 
bur ft. ap. Hakl. p. yf. 1 3 $ . in a Letter to Mr. Hakluit* 

N*# * / r - -4 *** 

1 ■ « - 

. I - . . 

In this Ifland (by C^^ K<?^ in Guinea) betwixt the River and the 
Main, Trees grow with Oyfters upon them. Hortop ap. Hakl. 

Oyfters which haflg upon the Branches of Trees of Rob. Harcoart ap.. 

Purch. lib. 6. ^/>. i6./>. 1275. m G H * An ** 

We found at S/>/r* L^»^ on the Coaft of Guinea, Oyfter9 upon Trees 
of one Kind, fpawning and increafing infinitely, the Oyfter fuffering no 

Bud to grow. Sir Francis Drake. Hakl. p. 3. p- 742. 

• V We tpund (at Sierra Leona) Trees growing by the Water Side with the 

Stalks hung full of Oyfters, and great Periwinkles and Crabs amongft 

them. Ward. Hakl. P. ?♦/>. 758* 




Hughes t p. 95. fays that a Tree will propagate its fe 
d twenty .Miles, that it is good Tor Fjre-Wood 
/fters grow on them, which incite. to Venery. 

feif in length one or two 
u fo# Ships, and that 

rs grow 
A Place in Summer Ips t (from thefe Trees) call'd Mangrove Bay y Smith 


» •• » 1 


• * 

* • 


t- l 9&-\ -;:: * ' . , „ ■ ' ni c 

Ltgo», p. 1.4. found this Tree in the Cape Verd lfts, and /. 7 

dos, where a Kind of Gum oufes, we are told, from its Limbs, and hang 
Drop by Drop till it roots ; and that the Bark is us'd for Rop 
Hamacks, by which 'tj$ plain he confounds this with 

a the firft Volume of this Hiftory, and a Figg-Tree to be defcrib'd 

great Mallow, de- 







This is what is call'd a great and fair Tree of fpecial Obferv 

Tern, p 

-in the Mogul\ Country 


! k) 

s 1 * 

■ > 

• 1 v 

We took X*t Mjdag&fc&ry fome Oy iters, which the Inhabjta 

Thefe ftjck to the Trees and Buflies that 


being at Highr. Water cover'd, with the Tide. They are larg 
Hcate as any-E^/**^ affords^ Mandel/lo y p. 205 

its call 
upon the Sea Side, 



This I believe to be the Mangle arbor pyrtfolia faifis locis in Am 

venkns, jruBu^ng 

fummis ramis 

Pluk. pbj 




■ . • 

« '1 

The ftreight Shoots and Frujt of thefe Trees, whereby they root them 
felyes in the Mud, or Sea, are cut off ancl made intp follow Truncs, where 
by Boy 
Pe_as and the Force, of theur Bsieteh. ''/ ; 


Humming, and other finall Birc|s v ^with the Help of fmall 

That Part of the B 

• Of/ 

or thefe Trees that is under Water, 


Wded foraetimes very ^llj p£. Qy fters fticking to them ; they are- ac firft 

*A m near as bigus J'JV&s* Oyfters, and,are thence aatber'd 


f 4 


oots ; are fp incqrlaq'd, that,t{iey mak^jt. inacceffibl 

w i v 1 J ! J I i l . ■' ' 

d by thefe Trees. Abk 



The Pods.are, eat in fcar^eTim 



na^ceuiDie. . .; i : - ) 

a#* hitter and yellowifh r being 

The. Woq4 is good for fi Poors, Windows, &c f Ovied 


* \ 

Thefe Trees are 

■ J 'A 

bout Realejo. cap. 5 

in mjqy Pam q'f the W^ iW/>j. Damp 



y » 



* <v 


1 f 




t - 

• » 


LI f Mangle l^uroqet aft \j ~4 'ijf.Jore alio tet^petaio. Ctt.Jam. p. red. Ran 



Fig ' 

6i c 
• - 

ijfiufculo molli 

* ■ 

Ctenaci.inuk.Alm.p.v^.ph^ . . __ ^_ ^ 

i;^s,^re^ i^a^ther Sp n jof this, agreeing mottly with the former 

BhfTO9!h;^huilh green Bark^ and from the fame Pla 

- \ 

fixteen Foot high; its Trunq istnot folarg 

prppagating the T^e? as the former 


of the Stem are 

at Top are 

jointed towards their Ends here and there, where con\e out the L 
oppofite pne to another^ on very fmall Footftalks ; tney are two beta 
a^id t a half m&t, one^brpadin the Middtcy where.broadeft, fmooth, foft 
naving one large Rib of a dark green Colour ; the Flowers 

nd tetrapetalou 

the Tap of ..jfeft fcancbts, : wh 
It grows indifferently with the form 

,„An Awnings Portugal ^feafile. ap. Purchas. lib 

found it thqr^growing Hkje, Willows 






.Q .A 

+s « 


I-'- - 


■ • 



^ _ 

' ill 


* - 



■ ■ 



* ' 1 


yltf^ M*»&efolijs elliptic ($ adverfi mfcfntibm.Ut.'tam.p. , c6. R*/7. 


tv ^ 




* * T ' 

TJxi MaturaMJifiwy . ofifA M A 1 G A. 

• •' ♦^--•i; v.a'vA •■•■ ,-.Vi\fiWikV.«a >.:>• A: ■ •.> 

•» * X 

I V 


The U'jtcii Mangrove Tree. -" ■ ; •• '• > \ W. 


u; • J * • -002 . f,V.':^.cr» ^ •■: ^ v, „.„7.V. ; :.../.. ."*'-. 

t - 

frwas a ivery large Tree, *4fi rig Aiiw or forty -Foot -hi 

a vine- a 

unc and Branches covered wirii'a brown fmooth WVjarid 

at two or three ln< 



Leaves (landing on them oppof, .„ „.._, uv lvvv , UI „„ , 

Pittance, on one third of an Inch long Footftalks, the Leaves them 

S^T tW ,° In ?? and a half iM & ™* near two Inches 

Middle, where brcadeft, being oval in Shape, fmooth, the whole ,„v.„ B one 

Middle.and forne iew very fmall Veins tuning thro' its Surface. E%MU 

"awsthcTop tifeinch long Strings, or'Ligute, on which 


towards their Tops are many whitidh tykes, QxGrankU Heduea plac'd 

round it, which I believe may be a julus, or Flowers not expanded. 

"JEigirew on the Sea Shore aroongft; ithe Mangroves by Old H. 

hour ~ '• • ^ -f>—> "*• *»*>»sut 



\M. Mangle foli] s oblongts ixiegris, Vtrinque molLi Imagine koloferictaob 



iuStiSr&tt. Jim^^.i^Rk^tm^^^iMi^'-f.^^ Tab 
White Mangrove of Damj>ier..c*p. $. .... ,?*' 

This was a Tree about twenty Foot high, having Branches fpread* on 
every Hand, whole Wood was white and Pith very foal!, having man* 
Twigs, whofe. Bark was fmooth and HWitti&^and tfie-Ends had federal 
Leaves ftanding round them on\ very flior*,rbr no Footftalks; verv ,.,.*.« 
fet,each being about an Inch idng; and half as broad, being narrow^t'ithe 
Beginning and End,, with fomedRibs apparent, and all cover'd over With 

a whitifh ihort fliining Wooll, making it look as if it were Sattin. 

Itgrew at Old Harbour by the Sea Side amongft the Mangr 

- i 

t LI V 

tim nafc 

l roi (): . , rsil'.: .-:■ 

Mangle JuliferafolijsfubrotundtsWrfmfumrniUus^ Confer* 

ntibus y cohke ad, cor in denfanda utilij Cut. J art. f. ■ 1 56. RaiyHtfl 

Vol. j.dendr.f. 116. Tab. 189. Fig. J. An Mangle alba cor'taria, Mb di ' 

j?^«/(j fubrotundo g/abro, fruftu forma cariofhylli aromatic i mxjore. Pltik, 

fhjt.Tab.zo^Fig.^Alm.f.^if : n ? , , . 



1 § 

.00 o- . , 9fi 1 . The Olive Bark Tree 


» - i * » s 

This Tree rifeth thirty Foot: high, it lias a crooked Trunc about one 
*6Qt diameter, cover'd Avith a grey, rough, Bark ; the Ends of the Twigs 
are *ery thick befet with Leaves, having Footftalks half an Inch long ; 
* k -" are two Inches- long and one broad near the further End • where* 
broadeft, ending in a round Point ; ai«e fmoo*th, of a ydfowifli 
green Colour ; amidft the Leaves comes out Jdi, or two Inch long 


Footftalks, or Ligulae, fuftaining on the 

Half,; a great many 

and whitifh fattin'd fmaO Heads, or Granula Herbacea, as krge a^ P... . 
Heads, to which follow many Seeds like the Acini or Stones of Raftns, 
fticking to each Side of the Liguls, each being pyramidal and corner'd, a 
little bigger than Grape Seeds. 

•••■■, } !.• ( , 


It grew on the Banks of the Freih River, going to the Lwana in the 

vmanes. 7- fc .?i £ , uU ni : . . ♦ 



The Bark of this 1 Tree isusM in Pawning df Soal Leather 


t ^ . ; 1 : 

LV. Goffiptitfn Brafilianam fldre flam^ Cat. Jam. f. 1 56. ^/^ arboreum 
flore flavo 

10. Cotton. Pom»kt*y.2rt Jlgodm i G*tee» fh* &tffip4*m. : fM fanrfMi'l 

L lib 

6 8 77* A^m^/ H(/fory of J A M A I G A. 

lib. 4. cap. 2-$ i An Gofftpium frutefcens pentaphjllos, ex infula Barbouthenfi, 
feememis foltorum ad later a rotundioribm, ex quo totonum optmumjeu bombax 
friciinfarcandidi(fima. Plukenet. Alm.p. 1j2.phjt.Tab- 299. Ftg. 1 ? GfiJ- 

fiptuwvulgare, Swammerd. Muf.p. 14? Cotton of the fmaller Plant fc*nd 

on the Bajbee IJles of Dampier. cap. 1 5 ? Gofftpium herbs famine albo Bob. Hift. 
Ox part $./>. 517* 




77* G?//0# 7Vw 


add nothing to the Defcriptions of this extant in moft natur 
Hiftorians, but only that there is great Variety in it, as to its Larg 

&c. otherwife it agrees exa&ly 

It is planted in Jamaica and the Car ikes* 


Cotton is usM for Pledgets in place of Linen, and to flop Haemorha 

ges. Alp. It is perennial, as is not that of Cyprus. Id 

The Shoot* being ftampM and drunk with Water, cure the Stinging of 
Scorpions, Vipers, arid other vencmous Creatures. The Stalk is cold, dry, 
and adttringent, powder'd and ftrewM on Ulcers, it heals them./ The 

Leaves are aifo healing. Hernandez. Marcgr 

The Seeds and Tops of the Twigs, either by themfelves, or given 
with other Things, are good againft the bloody Flux. A Mucilage of 
them is us'd by the Indians againft Fevers, Difeafes of the Breaft and 
Poifbns corroding the Stomach and Guts. Pifh. Alp 

The Seeds are Venereal, and flop Coughs, the Aflaes of the 
Cotton- Wooll flop Hxmorliages, and the Oyl of the Seed takes away 

Freckles. Ger. •_ . ; e I n «il 

The Cotton Tree has.fmooth Leaves. jf.B. That otBraftl hasnuny 

Seeds conglomerated, the other its Seeds feparated. jf. B. 
. The Inftrument by which they feparate the Seeds and Filth from the 
Cotton, (lands as a turning Loom, and is made of two, long, imall, round, 
Cilindersof Wood,, on which are three or four fmall Furrows* thefe have 
more or lefs Space between them, as the Mafter defires, but generally 

are fo clofe, as only to fuffer the fine Cotton to go thro\ whereas the 

Seeds are kept back, and the Cotton is drawn in by one of thefe Cilin 
ders, and thruft by the other, they being turn'd by the Feet two contra- 
ry Ways, the one from the other, which is explain'd, Tab. 190. 

Z^inoni was miftaken when he defcrib'd from Lery thefe Flowers to be 
the fame with thofe of Campavmla\ for he writes feverai Things con- 
tradicting himfelf, as when he fays, that they were Bell Flowers lilte 
thofe of Citrulls, or Gourds. I take this of Jamaica to be the fame, t ho* 
varying in fome Things fronrthat of the Levant. 'Tis certain they differ 
not fo much as the Ricini. Peter Martyrs Cotton, of which he Ipeaks 
was not this, but the filk 


• • 

.0 ■ ■■ 

■ ' 

It was not known to 

Galen, unlefs under the Name of 

Ellycbnium Tarfenfe by the laft \ but to Pliny 

Authors tell us,- Uiat in Egypt 'tis a Tree, anti ia Cyprus and Crete Her- 
baceous ; Thevet, who faw them both, fays they are different • this grows 

Brafile. Tbevet.* • , . > wiy , 

Sixty three Arroba's of Cotton came in the Flota 1547. Acofia. who 

fays, that it was jus'd very much in the Indies for CLoathing, Sails, Nap 

&c . and that it grows in Peru and Tucuman. Id 
Very, good Cotton grew in Jamaica Lop, deGom. cap. 48 



If Cotton be burnt, the A/hes flop BloQd like Paper. Dod. 

Cotton Cloth, is whiteft before us'd or wafh'd, contrary to other 


Cloths.,, It rancles Sores laidjoit, pccafioriing Matter. J. B 

The Natural Hijlory of J A M A I C A, 69 

The Inhabitants about the River Amazones make Stuffs of this of 
rs Colours, with which they cloath themfelves and Traffick. Pag 

d D 7 Acugna. 

The Fundus of the Flowers is purple, the Tips yellow 


Vafquez di Cor on ado ap. Ramnus. p. 3. p. 362. Hakl p. 378. found Cot 

ton in a Country North of Mexico, difcover'd by him. Leigh ap. Purcbas. 

lib. 6. cap. 12. p- 1 25 1. in Guiana. Fernando Alar ebon in Cevola ; where ic 

was not us'd for want of Weavers. Ramnus. p. 367. p. 3. ap. Hakl. 43? 

Welflj, ap. HakL p. 2. p. 129. in Benin. Sir Walter Ravleigh. p. 34. ap 

Hakl. 641. and p. 95. ap. Hakl. 660. and Kjymi$ y p. 3. Hakl. p. 675. in 


Chilton ap. Hakl. p. 456. p. 3. tells us that Mantles of Cotton-Wool 
painted throughout with Works of divers and fine Colours, cloath 

the Indians of Tlaxcalla and other Cities about Mexico-, that in 

Chiapa. p. 459. they pay their Tribute in it, being found in great 

Store ; and that they in Campecbe pay like wife their Tribute in it. p. 461. fo. 

Hawks ap. Hakl. p. 3. p. 465. found Cotton about Mexico in great Plenty 
us'd for Garments by both Indians and Spaniards. 

Wilfon met with this Shrub in Giana ap. Purcbas. lib. 6. p. 1264. Turner 

Sancta Lucia, ib. 1265. Robert Harcourt ap. Purcbas. lib. 6.cap.\6.p 

75. in Guiana. Schnirdel among the Cartels, lib.'], cap. 4. p. i?ci. ib 

Marco Polo Veneto ap. Purcbas. lib. 1 . cap. 4. p. 70. In Mus y or Meridin, not 
far from Moxul, or Georgia. 

It is found in the Province of Cotam. Polo ap. Purcbas. lib. 1. p. 74 

Bengal, p. 94. and/>, 106. in Guzaratte y where is Store, and the Tree being 

fix Fathoms high, endures twenty Years, but after twelve Years the 
Cotton is not good to fpin, but for Quilts* 

■ There is great Plenty of Cotton Cloth in China y for the Country People 
wear nothing elfe but fine Cotton Cloth, which is more accepted than 

Silks, for here is great Store of Silks, and they are good and cheap 

Sebaftian Bifcaino Hakl. p. ^.p. 560. 

Cotton- Wool grows in Guiana. Mafljam Hakl. p.^.p. 694. Martin Per 

nandez de Enctja ap. Hakl. p. 3. p. 699. found it by the River Maran 


A great deal of Cotton was brought from Pernambuck in BrafU by Lan 
ca(ter y when they took that Place. Hakl. p. 3. p. 708. 

Much Cotton is in Brafile. Hakl. p. 3. p. 787. and at Fernam- 

buck. Lopez. Vaz. 

Bom bafin Cotton Trees were obferv'd by Pretty. Hakl- p. 3. p. 813. in 
Puna in the South-Seas. 

Oviedo in his Summary, p. 321. ap.Eden. and p. 208. found Cotton in 

Hifpaniola, and in his Coronica Jib. 10. c. 5. he fays that it grew wild there 
and was much efteem'd of by the Indians. 

Hughes, p. 86- tells us Hammacks are made of it, that its Wood 
burnt, ftops bleeding, p. 70. thatCaliicoes are made of it, and that it lafts 
three or four Years, one Sort being wild, and the other cultivated. 

Cot?ton is one of the wealthy Weft India Commidities. Smith. Virginia. 

p. 149. Bellon. lib. 1. cap. 18. fays, that in the Levant 'tis fow'd with great 

Ligon found it in Barbados. p. 22. and Qlappham. ap. Boyle of Air. p. 178. 
in Tenariffe. 

The Turks wear Cotton Shirts. Rawolfe. cap. 3. lib, 1. The Shrubs are 
planted about Aleppo, id. cap. 5. where are great Store of Cotton Manu- 
taftures to be fold, and alfo Muslin : Cotton Cloth comes from a Country 
in Mefopotfimi* call'd MufeUi. id. ib t cap. 8. he faw feveral Acres of Cotton 





* k «■ « 

o The Natural Hijlory of T AM AI C A. 

(own about Bir. id. p. 2. f*/>. 1. about Deer, id />. 2. cap. 4. and/? 

p. 2. at Ram ah near Jerufalem 

Linen Cloth is made oijlgadon, and is a Commodity in Malabar. Hi 

in Lopez de Cajtaneda, cap- 42. 

Callico is made of Cotton- Wool, XV/r/, /> 111. and is the great Star 


Trade of the Moguls Country, it is fow'd every three or four Years, the 

fer Sort is ftain'd, which Art is proper to the Afiatics. 114. It 
planted there by the Coolees,p. 192. The Mogol and his Nobles are clad 
in fine Callico Lawn, which is wafh'd after once wearing id p. 39 

Cotton is born on a Shrub. Smith's Obf. p. 54. in St. Chrijt 

Jo. de Laet. lib. 1. cap. 15. mentions its growing in "Jamaica in g 


Loubere da Siam 9 p. $6. 1. Tom. tells us, that Cotton Cloth is properly 
wore in hot Countries, it not heing made to be cold by Sweat. 

J obf on obferved it in Gambra, p. 125. Mandelp in Japan, p. 160. and 

Madagafcar, 206. 

Mantillas de Jlgodon were brought to Spain from the Weft-Indies in Co- 
lon's fecond Return from thence. Lopez, de Gomara, cap. 20, and cap. 26. it is 

obferv'd to grow in Efpanola, where the Inhabitants were naked, except 
fome few who wore Cotton-Cloth. 

Aloifio diCadamoflo ap.Ra.mnm, p. 109. av.p. fays that Cotton is ufed 
about Senega River for making Cloaths, and/. 112. av. p. that it grows 
1 hot Countries where Sheep are not ; which he brings as a Proof of Pro- 
vidence, p. 11 j. It is much about Gambra, where 'tis the common 



Sir Thomas Roe dp. Purchas, lib, 4. cap. 16. §. 7. p. 562. obferved it in 1 
Mogofs Country, and Cotton Cloaths in the Gafares Country in Etk 


pi a, ih. lib. 7. CAp. 7.. §. 5. fa n68 

BMW, ib. lib*, cap ..9 &w it in Cyprus, p , m . Pyrard cap. 4.^. j,. 
at Mojambique, and Ravenau de Luffan.p. 29. fays that the Indians iSambes 

near Darten make their Cloaths of it. 

Duval A 

Pyrard.p. 129. obferves it to grow in Cambaya 


Cotton Wool grows near Shiras in Perfia between that and \ Lar about 

tar row. Newberry ap. Purchas % Lib. 9. cap. $.p. i^a 

Benjamin Tudelenfis ap. Purch^s, ib. lib. o. cap < & <• P \a& rake* 

Notice of it « Nekrokis perhaps abouc Or J,, wheVa Vfadewas" droJe 
of ir in his Time. 

C « -4r mkF >„rd ■#, lib. 6. cap. 5. /.. , , S 9 . tells us it was a Commo 

&fi ttiSitlT- that h was an E^yment these to 

Seeds and pack it 

Alfo they (of Peru) fow much Cotton Wool, which is Naturally white 
red, black, green yellow, orange, tawny and of divers other Colours 

Galvanos, ap. Purcb*s % lib. icu cap. 1. p. ,<$ 94 
Sparrey ap. Purchas. lib. ' 




fays it grows in G 
Cotton Cloathing is ufed about Sofai* and Quitevt. Jo. ios Sanil 


aj.Burchas lib 9. cap. , 2 . §. ,. f . t S4 o. where fcfaw it Rowing along 
the R lV ers with Sugar Canes, ib. 1 54" & h 8 

Galvanos, ih. lib lQ . M p. t . /». ,695. feys that 'tis ufed in Gtum* 
Country between Quito and Brafil. * 

xoCoteTZlthe^- ™ ati T£ ^ po£ ™«» Cotton-Cloth ftew , d 

%Z w^^TT ^Harbours near JV,» 6>««f et forth in it. 

Cot m'&Jd'w& ^ '^i* roent « >n d as given «o Or^a Mapof 

Cotton- Wool, wherein was painted the Situatiqn of the whale Country 



The Natural Hiftory ?f JAMAICA, 

from Xicalanco unto Naco and Nito. and even as far as Nicaragua w 

their Mountai 



Fields, Meadows, Vail 

Towns, and ten principal Men'for Guides 



rs, C 


■ * 



Pyrard, p.y p. 16. and cap. 24. />. 236. fays that Cotton is at Be*a*B 


f. 264. that 'tis in Malab 

fported manufactured and not rhanufaaurM, cty. 2 6 


d that 'tis 

d f ap 





d for Cloathing from Head to F 

77. m 

tis leafed 

Countries between the Cape of' Good Hope and China, p. 2. p. 16 

the Mapl 

they ma 


d Match 

d not of Lint, or Hemp. ib. p. 28. Duval found it (Nott. Pyrard. p. 10?.) 







fays that Cotton 










Colon.Vita.Chrifl.p. 51. found Cotton fpun in Clews in G 
which was brough 

were in a Clew, it was well 

Cloth was made of it-for cover 

there, 59. and are about Samana y f\ 74. and IS Guadalupe, whe 

Bed Nets and Hamacks t "~ 

in truck, twenty five Pounds 
bought for nothing almoft ; and 

g of Beds, /. 55. Thefe Trees grow wild 

re were 

f it. /. 94 
Will. Finch, apud Purchas. lib. 4. cap. 4.- ^ 1. /. 414. fays that at Sierra 

Leona, 'tis made into Cloth 



dp. 41^ 

d Innummai ib, p. 419 

It is cultivated by the Slaves of the PortugueJ* 

Loronha Davifs. ap. Purchas. lib. 4, cap. 6- fy. i.f. 455. ) 

It lofes its Whitenefs by wafhing. 'jonft. 

Its Flowers bak'd under the Allies, wrapt in! i 


Flowers bak'd 
redifh vifcous Oyl, curing 

Du Tertre. 

oi n 


wrapt in 1 its Leaves 


old Ulcers. The Seeds intoxicate Parrots 



The Seeds are compos'd of two long and thin Leaves, admirably rowi'd 

1 into an rttral THin-nr** (lr*um 

up into an oval Fig 


The Indians cut it down every Rvg or fix Years. Abb 
It was us'd to make Cloaths of in the Parts abou 





It was us'd in Mexico, and Mantles were made of it 

with which they paid their Tribute. Mexic. Chron 

the hot Country 


« i 

Cotton grows in great Plenty near Surate Salbank dp, Purchas. lib. 2 

9- §-4 

where Pimades, &c. are made of 

Dounton ap. Purchas lib, J. cap. 12. § 4 5 





from Caliicut for the Red-Sea. Saris, lib. 4. tap. i.p. 290. that 'tis a Com 

modify from Bantam in Java and at £4/7 

chandife from Japan, ib.p. ^95 


ft 392, and 

(e a Mer 

Dounton, ib. lib. ^ t cap 

48 j. found it in thzMogul's Country 

ib. cap. 1 2 . § 

d. faw at 6'/ww 

§. 1. 504. at Surate. Elk 

514. at Madagafcar. ~ Pajton, ib. lib. 4. cap: r<[. §. 1. ^ 

Cloth made of Cotton- Wool, as Callicoes both white and colour'd 

It was feen at Bah the firft Voyage by the Dutch to the Indies, p. 708 
lib. " - 

ib. lib 

5. /*. >, 7 

726 from 6 

be brought from C£/ 

nd by S 

By the before mentioned Paifages it feems plain that Co 


found cultivated in the hotter Parts of Afta, Africa, and America, wh 

there is naPlenty of Flax, Hemp, or Sheep 





Sort of courfe Wool. It appears aifo that it was found manufactured lb 



the Indians* when Columbus firft difcover'd the West 


1 * 


LVb Gofftpiam 


7 2 The Natural Hijlory of JAMAICA. 

LVI. Gcffipium arbor eum maximum fpinofum folio digit at o, Una fericia grift 
Cat. Jam.y. 159. Lamfer 'a arbor peregrin a , Muf. Swam. p. 14. Arbor Ian 

gera fpinofa Nott* in H. M. Part 3. p. 59. Fromagier de Rocbef. Taby. 19 
Ceibaviticufolijscaudiceaculeato&glabrOy Plum. pi. Am. p. 42. Cotton 

Tree red and white of Dampier y c 4, and 7. Silk Cotton fuch as in Cbint 
they make their fine Paper of, Hubert , p. 40. 

The Cotton-Tree* 

When this Tree firft grows up, it has a very round Stem, green an 

lmoft cover'd over with fhort Prickles, being very thick, where they 

flick to the Stalk, fometimes fhap'd like a Cock's-comb and blunt. Th 
Leaves are then fmall, and of a very deep green Colour; after fome 
few Years, the Tfunc, when it's come to its due Growth, is large 
to a Wonder, even to that Degree, as to be fit to be hollow'd into 
the Figure of a Boat, or made into a Canoe, able to carry many T 

on the Water. The Wood is white and very foft, the Bark is grey 
fmooth, without any Prickles or Sulci, and the Trunc rifes ufually to 
about fixty Foot high, being towards its Top, bellied, or larger than 
it is at Bottom. This as feveral other Trees, at its coming out of the 
Earth, has feveral Spurs, that is, on every hand very broad, plain Roots fup- 
porting the Tree (like Buttrefles to old Buildings; running themfelves 
on and into the Surface of the Earth, the larger the Tree, the larger are 
thefe Buttrefles towards the Roots, fo that fometimes they are made into 
large Tables. The Branches towards the Top are fpread on every hand 
all round, making with its Leaves a very fine Shade. About the Be- 
ginning of January the Leaves wither and fall off, and there come ac 
the Ends of the Twigs feveral Tufts or Bunches of Flowers, everyone 
of which ftands on an Inch long, green, round Footftalk, it is made 
up of five three Quarters of an Inch long purplifh, brown, fattin'd Petala, 
enclofing as many Stamina with purple and yellow Heads, on the outfide 
of them is a green five pointed Capfula, within which is a round, green 
Knob, which as foon as the Flower is open'd, thrufts it and its Stam 

na (being all join'd at the Bottom) off together, fo that being undet 

the Tree in a hot Day, one would wonder to fee what Numbers 
fall everyMinute. After theFlowers follows an oblong, round,pointed mem- 
branaceous Pod or Capfula, almoft as big as ones Fift, made up of 
feveral Pieces, containing a great deal of very foft or filken, grey Down, 
and in it, fome almoft round, brown Seeds, near as large as Peas, 
much of the Shape of Cotton-Seed ; When the Fruit is ripe, the Wind car- 
ries the Down away, filling v/hole Fields with it. The Leaves come 
after the Fruit is ripe ; they are figured like thofe of the Horfe-chefnut, 
there being feven or nine very long, green, fmooth Sections, ftanding al- 
ways on the fame common long Footftalks. 

Sometimes this Tree when it is young is prickly, when old it is 

Fifteen Men are fcarce enough to fathom about this Tree, Herrera. 
who fays, that many of them grow in Nicaragua. 

It grows in the low Lands as well as Hills in every Part of this 


The Trees are fo large as to be made into very great Canoes, for which 

they are chiefly valuable 

Fifteen or fixteen Men are fcarce able to fathom this Tree round 
J. B. and it grows fo high, that a Stone is not to be thrown up to th< 

Indians Houfes on it, Peter Martyr. Jbeo 


The Natural Bifiory of J A M A I C A. 

Theophraftus fays, that in Corfica the Trees were high to a Miracle. Cba 
The prickles being tak - • ■■ 

which a very littl 
when inflam'd orr 
Sight and ftrength 


fFand bruis'd 
Quantity being put into th 





it cures 




gWith Water, it likewife manifestly flaarp 

r> • r m 




Ptfo. T 

the R 



ed to prevent Con 

vulfions.The Flowers and Fruit made into a Poultice and put on the Head 
cures the Headach and Vertigo, H M. A Liniment is made with Lem 

mon Juice, of the fecond Bark powder'd, which affwages Inflammation 

Ba r k 


and w 



the Root is 


is good for T 

purge, and is diuretick, id 

a Vomit, the Liq 

:tters ; of 

in the Fk 


good l 

They ftuff Beds with thi> Down in Jamaica but they are not counted 

althy to ly 


fed about Bantam for filling Pillows and Bold 

as well 

but order'd 

Way than Lint or Hemp. C/us 

They fturf Pillows with this Cotton, and have a Care of Fire, it being 
fily fit ed, and very tenacious of it ; it is too fhort to fpia. Bont. 

— .-. - - th, in the Ea(t~ Indies, 

This is ufed 

rhiftle Down, to fluff Pillows w 
mon as in the Weft-Indies, Damp 

freeare Holes very often, in which remains Wa 

In the Spurs of 

r for Drink for Tra 

The Shade is w hoi fome, Laet. 

Every twelve. Hours the Leaves fall off and grow again. Laet, p. ?8 

which is.falfe 



n t 


I believe that the different Faces of this Plant according to its Age, & 

notwithstanding what 

makes it have Variety of Names and Figuiva, 
faid 5y Dr* Pluk. p* 93. of his Mam. 

Cadamofio ap. Ramnus, p. 117. fays that Yis Seventeen Fathoms about, 
twenty Paces high, and feventeen or twenty Feet broad. 

Duret hath given a fabulous Figure of this Tree. p. 

ia Cub 

This Cotton was found growing of it felf 

Davis, ap. Pur ch as. lib. 3. c, 1. ^. 5.^. 1 3 


a, Purcbas, lib. 2. § 5 







with this Cotton 


it in Lor on h a 

found Gowns quilted 

• *- 

A Tree call'd Memba, which is as light and as (oft as Cork ; of this with 

Knife I built a Jergado naiPd with wooden Pegs and rail'd round 


that the Sea fhould not wafh me 

the River Bengo to the Sea, Battell ap 

and got down from Lake Carp 

Purcbas, lib 


979 , 

Nieremb. p. 3 7 



bout, that an Arrow fcarce can be 

that fixteen Men cannot eafily fathom the fe Trees 

to their Top, that they 

One hundred and twenty Foot about, and that a thoufand People may ttand 




! ■ / 

Six or feven Men 

< c ■ f 


Hiero. cap 


fathom about a Cedar o£ Libanon. Luffy Pe 

A Canoe was feen in Cuba in Columbus's firfl: Voyage, ninety five 

Palms long, and able to receive a hundred and filty Men, Fernan^ 
Colon. 63. 




tain'd in many dry Places in the Boughs, of this Tree 
fcarce to be exhaufted, provided by Divine Providence, Laet* 561. 
A Canoe was feen as long as a Galley, and eight Foot broad, at Guanara t 

Per nan. Col, 199 

This Cotton is only fit for Pillow 






6 . the Tree is like 





74 77* i\7itf «r*/ #i/?&o> ^/JAMAICA. 

A young Shoot of this Tree fix'd in the Earth, if it be good, in 
three or four Years will grow to be as big as the largeii Oak in France^ 


The Seeds are eaten and tafte like Almonds, Hern- 

Et difmontati in terra, vedemmo gli habit atori habit ar nelle cime de gli al- 
bert* come uccelli havendo Attra 'verfati d^aH un ramo all altro alcuni battoni 

& fabricate quivi le loro capanne, che cofi pojjono chiamarfi fiu tofio che cafe. Et 
Ancor che noi non fapejfimo I a cagione di cotal novita, nondimeno yi die ammo 


che chio frocedeffe dalla paura de Grifi quali fono in quel paefe ;0 de nimici 
percioche in tutta quella cofla hanno da una lega allaltra gran nimicitie^ Fern* 

Col- 213. 

It is not unlikely this is by Battel! called the Alicundeov Eliconde, which 
is a Tree very tall and exceeding great, fome of them are as big as twelve 
Men can fathom, fpreading like an Oak ; fome of them are hollow, and 
from the liberal Skies receive fuch Plenty of Water, that they are hofpitable 
Entertainers of thoufands in that thirity Region. Once have I known 

three or four thoufand remain at one of thofe Trees, and thence receive 
all their watery Provifion for twenty four Hours and not yet empty. 
The Negroes dimb'd up with Pegs of hard Wood (which that fofter 
eafily receiveth, the Smoothnefs not admitting other climbing) and I 
think that fome one Tree holds forty Tun of Water. This Tree affords 
no lefs bountiful Hofpitality to the Back than Belly, yielding (as her- 
Belly to their Bellies foj her Back to their Backs ; excepting that this 
is better from the younger Trees, whofe tenderer Backs being more 
feafonable for Di/cipline are foundly beaten (for Mans Fault whence 
came the firft Nakednefs) whereby one Fathom cut from the Tree, is 
extended into twenty, and is prefently fit for wearing, tho* not Confine 
as the Juranda Tree yields." This Tree yields excellent Cloth from the 
inner Bark thereofeby like beating. Battell. ap. Purchas, lib. 7. cap 

§.7. />. 985. J id 33 

Linfchot. defer, de Guinea cap. j. tells us that in Congo they make Boats 
of its Trunc, able to hold two hundred Men. Twenty or thirty Pipes 
of Water are carried in Canoes of this Tree in the Eaft-Indies, id. 

fioveneau de Luffan t p. 27. met with Canoes of this Tree on Boca del Chic a 
River, and p. 58. at St. Juande Cueblo Ifle, Boats made of Mapo or Acajou 

as he there feems to call this Tree, are able to carry fourfcore Men. 

Zsppoli t cio e almadie tutte d*un legno* di Cads Mojto, av. Rammus. p. no.' 

were found in the River Senega % u fed to fifh with, and y. 114, the fame 
in the River Gambra. 

This Silk Cotton is likely to be Certa Una che colgono da certi arbori, Di 
Alvaro Nunez, p* \\% . apud Ramnus \ which is ap. Purchas, tranflated certain 
Cotton, p. 1 510. lib.%. 

In the Winter in Guiana the Tivitivas live upon Trees, where they 
build very artificial Towns and Villages, as it is written in the Spanifh 

Story of the Weft Indies, that thofe People do in the Low-lands near 

,the Gulf of Vraba River ri/ing between May and September* and overflowing 

their lower Houfes on the Ground whereon are their Summer Houfes. 

* L 

Sir Walter Rawleigh,Q{ Q u ian* % p. 42. apud Hakl. p. 644. 

This is probably the Silk mention'd to be in Guiana'by Kjymit. Apud 

"1 $75* 1 vi b \ ni 

Canoes or Almadits in Guinea are made out of one Tree like a Trough 
able to carry twenty, thirty, or fixty Men, eight Yards long and one 

broad, Sir John Hawkins ap. Hakl. p- \. p. 504. Jt mi 

There is; in Brafile a certain Tree very great and broady^havrng 
Holes in the Branches full of Water, growing in dry Places, afford- 







ing Drink to Travellers, and they will harbo 

Anonymits Portugal of Braftt, PurebsU, lib 


♦ t y 


dted. Ferfons 

Here fat Dominica) the Indians came unto 

tap. l. 

j 09 


whole Tree 




fome whereof 

e or fourteen. 

in Canoes. mad 


three Men, in fome four or fix. and 


made of this Tree Co laree, as 

Davie s apud HakL p. ?. p. $yd 


to hold an hundred 


hundred and twenty Men. The Buttreffes, Spurresor Feet of this X 

as high as a Man can reach with a javelingi there were three or 

in the Province of Guatnro 

twenty Foot between each; There is a very great Tree 

each of whofe three Feet were twenty 

ins thick on their outward Side, and forty five Span 
where they joinM the Trunc, Oviedo*$ Svm. p. 206. ap. Eden 




by fifteen Me 


they were fo large as fcarce to be fathomM 

Smith in his Obf. ft 54. obferv'd thefe Trees in St. thrift 'other 's, which 

was overgrown with them 
Ufe for Bed 


nd that this Silk Cotton, or 

Down, is of good 

Pigafett. of Congo, Ind. Or. p. 1. p, 10. fpeaks of aTree whereof C 
are made, which 


Men with extended Arms cannot fathom, they 
two hundred Men with Arms and Oars. 

There are Trees fixteen, feventeen, or eighteen Fathoms 

tres puutdt. Ind. Or. Part 6. p 

Hoadte. as 


at Cap 


Silk Cotton is callM by Molinet. p 

he tells us 

ufed to line Cloaths and Coverlids, is new and commodious, and that it 

brought from the Indies for that Parpoft 



is like Cotton, and with ic are made 

Lob el 

P- 45 


certain, the 

The Down of Bedeifi 
Veftments called Ouatte Honap 

That this is the tabifme fern icofa pL,„» 9 x^w%*. r . ^yx. » uium, uic 
Figure Of it when young, agreelngjo Lobet\ and that the Plant there 

figured is 

of his Alinageft affirms, is very 

ing when g 


the Bonduch, as Dr. Plakenet, p. a. of his Manlijfa and 4 

the Figure Of the Bonduch be- 
up, fmooth, and no .ways referfibling that Figure of 

) ri lyr 




i • 

9 * 






I Iyji • 


C H A P. IV. \ iE] 


vsf) I 






tvh/eb h*r Berries, **d art VmbUiahi or CdlieaUtU 


up the 





of this Tribe, viz.] Myrtl 

tfland mak 




Rwanda Sort of Trees which are Very numerous, having Leaves ot 


or MaUbathrum, elegantly nervous, and a 

Which ' comes neareft to a Goofeberf y of any European TFr 

I have put arfloflgft the Myrtles fome Myrtle-leav'd 

and therefore am not pofi 

d Fru 


did not meet with 

belong to this Place 



of which 
tive they 

long to this Place. % 

As for thofe called Vibhna by fome Authors, and by me, Veridymem y 

tdo not 

eftion but that their Fruits are 


and their Flowers and Fruit fo like thofe of the Peridjmena 
I fhali have the Affent of thofe who nicely confider both- 

om Viburna, 



7 6 The Natural Hijiory of J A M A I C 

For the Trees with Canella Leaves, tho' I have heard greatMen have 

reckon'd them Kinds of the Cijrm, yet conildering their Flowers are not 

fpecious, nor Fruits like thofe of the Cijlus, I hope I fhall not be 

condemned if I reckon them a differing Kind of Trees from thofe of 
that Family. 

^ » 

. Mjrtu4 arbor e a Aromaticafcltjs Uurinu. Cat. Jam. p. 16 1. Tab. 11 1. 
Pig I- Rkij, Dendr. p. jj. Vol. 3. Phil.Tranf. No. 192. p. 462. Poivre de la 
Jamaique des Anglois, Amomi des Hollandois, fruit de bois d } Inde t graine de 
girofls du Vulgaire Pommet.p. 121. An ytziperequa I aunts Mich a ac .mentis Her- 
nand.p.cfi? Ajfourou Arbor- regia aromattca lnd. dapbnogariopbjllon video 
bois d y Inde Surian. An Mjrtus folijs laurinis, b ace is t ctruleo n/grts. Pli, 

pi. Am. p. 1-8 ? 



This T 

Piementa, Jamaica Pepper, or All-Spice-Tree. 

• % 9 

is a Trunc as thick as ones Thigh, rifing (freight up about 
Foot high, cover'd with an extraordinary fmooth Skin, of a grey 
Colour, and branched out on every Hand, having the Ends of its Twins 
let with Leaves of feveral Sizes, the larger being four or Rvq Inches 
long, and two or three broad in the Middle, where broadelr, and whence 
they decreafe to both Extremes, ending in a Point, fmooth, thin, ihining, 
~r a deep green Colour, and itanding on an Inch long Footftalks, when 


bruis'd, very odoriferous, and in all things like the Leaves of a Bay 
Tree. The Ends of the Twigs arc branched out into many two Inches long 
Footftalks, fuftaintng fo many Flowers, every one whereof is made 
of a great many whitifli green Stamina, ftanding within four very fm a » 
Petala rcfleaed downwards, of the fame Colour. To that follows many 
crown'd or umbilicated Berries, (the Crown being made up of four fmafl 
Foliola or Leaves) at firft, when fmafl, greenifh, but when ripe, larger 
than Juniper Berries, being black, fmooth and finning, containing in 
a wet, greenifh, Aromatick and biting Pulp, two large Acini feparated 
by a Membrane lying between them, each whereof is a Hemifphere and 
both making a Globe, or perfectly round, appearingly one Acinus ' 
Clufms makes it one Seed divifible into two Parts 


It grows on the hilly Parts of this Ida nd. but chie"- - -*-- * f "^ 

fide thereof, and now is left ftanding, when other Trees are fell'd and 
planted in feveral Plantations, becaufe of the Profit from the cured Fruit 
fent in great Quantities yearly into Europe. 

It flowers in June, July and A ugufi, but in feveral Places fooncr or 
later, according to their Situation and different Seafon for Rains and 
after it flowers the Fruit foon ripens ; but 'tis to be obferv'd, that in 
clear'd open Grounds, 'tis fooner ripe than in thick Woods. 

The Leaves are very much made Ufe of in Baths for Hydropick Legs 
&c by the Indians, Negroes and Surgeons, and may be fubftituted 
-•—ever Bay Leaves are thought ufeful, they refembling them in 


ry tiling 

There is no great Difficulty in the Curing or Preferving of this Fruit fo 

The Negroes and Indians climb fomc Trees, cut d „ llltli , 

and pull off the lwigs with the unripe green Fruit, which are fsipara- 
ted from the I wigs, Leaves. and ripe Berries,, nd are afterwards (bread 
on Cloths expos d to the Sun, from it's Rifing to it's Setting for many 

Days, whereby they become dry, rugofe, and from a green, change to a 
brown Colour, and then are fit for the Market, wheFe 'tis ufiialTy fold 
at Eighteen Pence the Pound in the Beginning of the Seafon, and at tfr! 

Shilling the whole Year after. -f 

the Natural Hi/lory of J A M A 1 C A. 

The ripe Berries are very carefully feparated from thofe to be cured 
jfe their wet and plenteous Pulp makes them unfit for Cure, wf 


efe Berries always coming unripe dry'd into Europe, has been the Oc- 
cafion of Naturaliils thinking it to be.fructa umbilicato ficco* 

In Curing, the Dews mud carefully be avoided. 

It may defervedly be 'counted one of the bed Spices in common Ufe, 
having a very fine Reliffi of many, from thence called All-Spice, and* 

being much milder than any of our ordinary Spices, 'tis very m 
fought after and imported into Europe, 

It yields with Water by Diftillation a delicate odoriferous ChymicaJ 

Oyl per Peficam, (inking to the Bottom in Water, as Oyl of Cloves. 

'lis Binding, Drying, and may have the fame Effects with Cloves 
and is now ufed inftead of other Spices. 

It may be a Succedaneum and good for any thing that Myrtles are. 

Every thing in this Tree agrees with the Defcription of the Xocox- 

tta, or Piper Tavafci, of Hernand, and Ximenes in theSpanifh Tranflatiori 

of Human. Printed at Mexico, f. 2. only the Flower, which he defchbes 
be fcarlet and like Pomgranatcs with the Smell of Orange* Flowers, 
no way agree to this. 

Clufms thinks this Heating, Binding, and Drying as the Amoniurri o 
Diofcorides, which it is very like, only fome few Marks are wanting, 
he feems to be of Opinion, that this is the Garyophyllon Plimj, his De- 
fcription agreeing to this, fmelling, very fweet and for that Rea fori 

if chaw'd, takes away a (linking Breath. But 'tis not likely that th 
was known to the Ancients, it not being obferv'd to grow- iti the Eaft 

but Weft -In dies 

Parkin/on fays, thofe more audacious than wife, lifed it for Anwhum. 
Hughes, p. 5 j. tells us that 'tis good to fcent Chocolate, but caufes the 
Head-ach if too great a Proportion be ufed. 

It is ufed for Carpobalfamum, which is quite a different Fruit. Berlu 
in his Treafury of Drugs 

John de Barrios fays, that in a fmall Quantity, it was in his Tinle one 
of the Ingredients of Chocolate. 

Franc ifesis Vria brought it frOrri New Spain to RedL and faid it was 

there commended againft the Epilepfy and Gutta Serena, it may (fays 

Redi) be granted to have the Properties of Juniper, Cloves, Pepper and 
Cinamon, but in thofe two Diflempers I have long tryed it on divers 
Subjects without Succefs ; neither do I believe it hurts in thofe Cafes, 
but think it does not a little help the Head and Stomach if in Time 

and Place it be moderately given. Red. Exp. Nat, p 

Grains of Turpentine Trees are found abtiutMontpelier/thty grow 1 alfd 11 
the Way between Jerufalem and Jcppa, and are bafely, fold lor Carpobal 

fa?num Rawolfe, p. 3. cap, 22. 

It may fupply the Place of Pepper and be ufed for Q ar p ob alfam urn or 
Carpefmm, it flrengthens the Heart and Sf mac h, helps the Mother, ex- 
pels Wind, the cold Fit of Agues, opens Obftruftions, is diuretick, is 
good for the Colic and Iliac PafTions, excites Venery, and cuts grofs 

and tough Humours, Hern, 

It is now commonly fold for Carpobalfamum by the Druggiflsand Apo- 
thecaries, which I fuppofe came from Hernandez, who fays it may be fub- 
ftituted for it, but 'tis not that Fruit, neither do I think it ought to be ufed 
as its Succedaneum, being lefs adftringent, and Balfamick, but more odorife 
rous, fo that I think in Want of the true Fruit of the Balfam-Tree, 
the beft Succedaneum we can have for the Fruit as well as the other 

* * 





The Natural Hiftory of J A M A I C A. 

Parts of the Balfam-Tree, were thofe of the Terebinthm, or Lentifcm y as 

Lqbel foys, to which they come very near in moft Parts. 


A Brother Jefuit who had travel'd much, told me that he found 
Tree bearing Pepper in the Deferts of Jamaica. Jof.Acofta. 

The Wood is hard, theTeaves are broader than thofe of Laurel, and it 
bears a kind of bay Berry. The Leaves are us'd in Sauces. Tertre. And for 
Tumours in the Less after malignant Fevers. Rochef. 

This Pepper Tree hath in all Things its Flower and Berry like the Ivy- 
Berry, and thofe Berries are Grains of Pepper, fo that when they gather 
then) they are green, then they lay them in the Sun, where they become 
blac£,and grow without Labour. Frederick ap.Hakl. p. 242. and Fitch, ib.p. 
265. both fpeaking of the common Black Eajt India Pepper ; and 'tisobfer- 
vable that Pliny takesNotice that Myrtle Berries were us'd as black Pepper 
now is, before the Difcovery of this laft Spice. 

The Leaves fupply the Place of Cinamon, Cloves and Mace in Barbados. 

Lie ox* 

.* * 

The Difference of the Leaves in Dr. Plukenefs Figure and Clufitss's from 
mineifl jhe Fhilofophicd TranfaUions and here, may proceed only from a 
Variety from the different Age, or Soil of the Trees, notwithstanding 
what Dr. Plukenet fays in his Mant.p. $9. 

II. Myrtus arbor 


Cat. Jam 

no do 



Raij. Tom 

latis fubrotund 


Dendr. p. 35. Tab 

albo frutf 

This Tree has a great many deep Roots, fmall, flxeight, and 

ith a grey-colour'd Bark ; the Trunc 





fifteen Foot high, and cover'd with a Clay-colour'd Bark, having crooked 

Branches hanging down, the Twigs whereof are fet oppofite 

ther, as are on them the Leaves 

one ano- 

eing exactly like thofe of Myrtus L 
folia Belgipa. C. £. Pitt- The Flowers come out Ex alls Foliorum, feveral 
gether, Standing on half Inch long, green Footftalks, each whereof is w 


with many white Stamina in the Middle. The Berries 

.uittp^iuuj, wim many wimc oiauima in me lvnaaie. 1 ne tsernes an 

thofe of Myrtle, round, black, umbilicated, or crown'd, and of the Bip- 

^ a large Pea, ha 
roundifh Stone like that 



pretty thick greenifh Pulp, and 


It grew on a Gully's Sides in a Wood between the Town of St. 7a?o de 

la Veg 


and Two Mtfc Wood 


III. Myrti folio arbor cortice argent ea folijs oblongis i 

inodoxUy ep adverfo fit is, flore pent ape taloide 

Cat. Jam. p. 162. Tab. j8 

bafin latioribu 




& Rai h Htf- Yol. 3 .p. 3 5, 4n Myrti 6> 

A 5 



Amencan* vjeracrme. Herm. par. Bat. fr.f. l%% . Mjrtho la„r, folio fmilu 

Americana. Hort, D * - ' T "* • — - y •* ^ 

.//r^r Americana 

Barbadenfibus rodrvood dicta 

myrti laure* folijs inodoris. CowmeL fiort. Am ft An Lance- Wood of Damp 

baccifera Myrtifolia viminaltbus Virgis, feujiagelliferl ml] 

Pluken.Tib. W Fig. b I Ar 



Silver Wood, 

S!^^ 1 !^ J!*^,^^!?. 1 *^^ w^a ^wgb 

almoft fmooth grey Bark, with fome very wr 
Name j the Trunc i* no thicker ' 


than one's Leg, 



it hajs an 

. 7 

s. on it, whence the 

£ p^f ^^ fe ^p?^^{fp ¥**? 

to t 



&k5p!W^^ r P ^ ad ^ n ^ r y s % the Leaves come out 

° ~ '"' tying very ftort, or 

ey are 

, very t&n, of a yellowilh green Colour, an 



•* # • ' *. 

The Natural Eifiory cf JAMAICA. 79 

_ - * * 

Inch in Length, and almoft one in Breadth near the Beginning, 
where broadeli and roundifh, from thence, decreafing to the Point, which 
is (harp, tho' fometimes they are not fo round, but mora painted. 
They are whole, or not at all ferrated orientated. The Flowers come out 
Ex alts folioruwy foretimes many, fbmetimcs few together, fmall, and of a 
pale white Colour, itanding on crooked Petioli, being made up of five little 
Petala, itanding on the Edges of an open Cup of a green Colour, from 
within which come out iiiiany very long Stamina, with yellow Apices at 


It grows very plentifully in the Woods over Mr* Batch-tier's Houfe in his 


Lance- Wood is hard, tough, heavy, and good for Looms, Handles 


Staves for Oars, or fcouring Rods for Guns. It grows as ltreig 
Aih.Dampier. about Nicoja and Blew Fields. 

IV. Myrti folio arbor, folijs longiffimis inodoris. Cat. Jam. p. 162. Raij 
Dendr. Vol. ?• p* $6* Tab. 192. tig. 1. An Buxus lauri Alexandrine foltj. 
accedens Americana. Pluk. Phyt.Tab, 80. Fig. 6 ? An Arbor Americana bac- 
cifera Myrtifolia viminalibm virgis, longius mucronatis feu cufpidatis & puncta- 
tis folijs feu flagellifera minor. Ejxfd- Tab. 139. Fig. 7 ? An Arbor Jamai 
cenfis modora, folijs camphor if ere fimilibut. Ejufd. Tab. 262. Fig. 2 ? Aimag 

p. 42 

This Tree was very like the former, only the Leaves came out alter- 
natively, and were long and narrow, being about j or 4 Inches long and 
one and a half broad in the Middle, where broadeft, being narrow at 
both Beginning and End, without any Foot/lalk, and very like in Conjfi 

ftence to the Leaves of Myrtles, tho* not odoriferous. The other Parts of 

this Tree I never faw, but by the Face of the Leaves it ought to 

belong to this Place 

It grew with the former on the Red HMs 9 near Mr. Bat cbel^s. 

V. Myrti folio arbor , folijs latis fubrotundis flor* albo racemofo. Cat. J ami 
p 162. Raij. Vol. 5. Dtndr.p. 36. Tab. i^.Fig. 1. 

The Wood of this Tree was very hard and white, being cover'd with 
a erey,fmooth Bark, the Twigs had Leaves alternatively at about three 
quarters of an Inch's Diftance, each having one third of an Inch long 
Footftalk, being about two Inches long, and one and a half broad near 
the round Bafe, where broadeft, being even, ihimng, with very few ap- 
pearing Veins on their Surface, and being pointed without any Indentures 
on the Edges Ex alts foliorufn % towards the Top comes a two Inches long 

Footftalk, or' Ligula, to the End of which, by fmall Footftalks — 


fattened white Flowers, ftanding on a roundifh finall Apex, or Head 
which I take to be the Rudiments of the Fruit, and therefore refer it hi- 
ther • the Petala were in Number five, and there were feveral Stamina in. 
the Middle. I never faw the Fruit ;- 
It grew in the Iflaod of Jamaica, and if I rightly remember, on the Red 

VI. Myrto affim buxi folijs for ibw pallide luttu. Cat. Jam* p. 162. Raij, 

Vol. i.p.&Td. 192-f'i-* 

This free rifes thirty Foot high* wich a white, fmooth Bark, 
it has Leaves like thofe of Box, only in every Thing larger, especially to- 
wards the Top; the Flowers come ouo by Tufts along the B 

very final), without Footftalks, round, and of a pale yellow 

Ugrewon thewopdy Hflfcawr Mr.B4r*W^sHou6-ioJ««^^ 


The Natural Hijiory 


VII. My 

Jam. f 



fflnis arbor, folijs laurinis, {lore albo tetrafetalo odor at o. Cat 

Ratj.Vol. S-Dendr.p 

Tab> 193. Fi 


An arbor Ameri 

Bat tea UtifolU facie aromatica. Pluken. Mant.p. 5, 

J hisTree rife to ten Foot high, its Bark is fmooth, afh-colour'd, having 

its Top bow'd down, the Branches End 



ding on fh 


broad in the Middl 

d A 11 !r c dICDe 'et with leveral Leaves 

f ootftalks oppofice to one another, four Inches long and 

broad eft, fm 

lour, having no Smell, and being very like B 

Flowers come out of the 

M * 








Leaves. Th 

s Branches oppofite to the Leaves, they are fevc 
landing on the fame branched Footftalk, tetrapetalous, with many Stam 
both ot a white Colour and fmeliing very fweet. I never faw the Fruit 


It grew in a G 

3 ago de Lt vegx. 


beyond Troopers-Qi 

near the To 


VIII. Lots srbcris folio ^gnftiore.rubi floreJruBu polyfferrHo umbil. 
Cat. Jam.p. 162. Ratj Htft. Vol. 5. Dendr. p. ? 2 . lab. [ql.Fiv 

fdus American ahnvel coryli folijs, fruau Mucaginofo MbY. Commd" Hon 
jimfi. />. 1 55 ? talabura alba. Par. Bat pr. Herm ? ' 

fm S, T ""^ a -- UnC " $ •"^ " ° neS - JhiSh ' C ° Ver ' d W " h a " aIm0ft 

Branches, rifing thirty Foot high; the Twigs are 

reddifli brown Bark, and branch'd towards the Ton into feveral 




a quarter of 
h of an Inch j 


nd half 




1 Inch's Difta 

g Footftalks, and are' two Inch 


they have yellowifh 



Edges ; of a dark green Colour above 
bor, only narrower, foft and vifcid. Th 
half Inch long Footftalks ; they a 
Stamina, like a Bramble Flower : 

Side, hoary 


dented abo 


ry like the Leaves of theLotus Ar 

Flowers ftand ad. alas foliorum, 01 

them follows 

white, with 




big as a Cherry, firft green and containing 

mbilicated Fr 

d, whitifh Seed 






grows going to the Ferry near the Crude, and by Colonel Cot 
anon. J "-"'"'"=' *.ot 


IX. Loti arboris folio anguUijpmo arbor baccif 

racemofa ftuftu minima 

^^monopyreno.CatJamp.^i An falvifolU arbor Oriental Uih 
tenuiffime crenatu. Pluken. Pkyt. Tab. 221. Fig- 4. Jim ? 2 Q ? J 

This Tree rifeth to about fifteen Foot high having a Cmnarh r^vcu 
light brown Bark, a (height Trunc a, thif ? t ]Zls U g anV e'veS 
Branches fpread towards the To P( The Twig, have Leaves a everv 
half Inch s Diftance coming out alternatively on each Side of the Twj/ 
they ftand on an eighth of an Inch long Footftalk, are two Inches lone aid 

,Ul Lfl fc£ \™lu th f , Bafe -auW'tho Footftalk w g h"e 

broadeft being rough, dark green coloured, from a broad Bafe 

a Point, ferrated. and having Veins taking the' - " T '" e 

Foorrtalks End and middle Rib 



Beginning fro 

he Pa 


of the Leaf, 
E* oils fol.orun come the Flowers ^ ZT^.^L "gSSSSlS 

which in every thing refembles thofeofthe Lotm Arbor only 

t.X alii fnunr/jm rr\m<* +U a r?l~.. .1 _ J 

pentapetalous, and 

m fucceed 

ftalks, three or. four fmall Orange colour 'd Berries as b 

stn ot an Inch long crooked Foo 

Head, almoft 
within it 


fipid, having 


a fm 

d Seed 



a fmall Pin's 
d Pulp and 


'tlfeT™ sl Ban r kS K° f Z'° C ° hre bdow the Town of St. %, g0 de U V „ 

tlie lame bide, of the R upr ^r. q:„- — \*:i. *,, ,, ^ j &»»■**»* rg 

Mile- Walk 

on Sixteen-Mile- Walk Path, near S 


and in the Woods by the Road going to Gumabol 


The Natural Hi/iorf of J A'MAI.0AM r \ 8 £ J 

^TFfre fmall, black and yellow^Birds, feed on«the Berries of; .thi»£Ejfee. 
The Root, Bark, Leaves and Frttit of this Tree* are thought to be i 
Specific .Remedy agaihft the Epilepfy, Phrenfy/tad other Bifeafes bl 

Head* Hort.MaL .. ... , - it <-■ 


' ' ! ' ■ ! ■ . .: ) v. : 'i t r\j • f . 

» V 

» * i ■' r'AM •» -i .- 4 , 

X. Periclymenum. nclum, falvU folio r ugofo mapr e Mwgo 'k'uKato, for 
alba? jruclu longiort. -.Cat:. Jam. />. i6j. Rat'f Ht/lb.VoL ^rDkndr. p^u 
Salvia Bar badenfik&s dicjafpica forum compatfori Plttktnet y T*k ati* big. $>.; 
^f» Cama'ra arbor efcens fnlvU. folia Plamipl. Jm&j pi\%a~ ? . An Calabar a rubrij 
folijs taurine, Herm. par. Bat. pr. p. 319? Pluk> Aim. p. 7 5 ? 

- 1 

The largeft Sort;of Wild-Sa 

i. I 

\ V 

r • 

This Tree has.a.Trunc as thick as ones Leg* cover'd with. a, brow , 

moft fmooth Bark, rifing ten or twelve Foot "high, having Branches 
fpread on every Hand,, making a very handfom^. Head, the Tops of the 
Twigs -are befet with feveral Leaves plac'd round them alternatively, 

at a quarter of an Inch's Drfiance* they m fta rid on one .third of an 

Inch long Footftalks*uflre an Inch and a half Jong and- half as broa<J 

Middle, where broadefr, corrugated Or crtimpl'd andcbjtfUflied, rougl 
like the Leaves of Sage, of a greerj. /Colour above, whitif|ictei|eath,an<ii 
fmeJIi Uk$jthe Leavesfjof Qiftuii 3 The Heads: arejhe fa/p$,wiMij others^ 
of this Kind, only longer. ... l^rjsb -jor.nh mcrii ( i\ Jt oid 

It grew on the Road to Guanaboa, on the red Hills very : frequently, ^ 

ro\ iv. j -'L It- r;f I 

and in Barbados t[ yniim si* 213 

0^ ns'io oi& hciB - .■'•"' ' , !j v '° - : '^ ' 3 

XL Periclymettum rectum fdlvi* folio rugofo m^jore fubrotunfo buJUto, Cat 

IT i. - * 

% * - -• 

Jam. p. 163 Raij Hift. Dendr. Vol. 3. p. 31. Tab. 195. Fig. 1. 

Of the foregoing this is only. a Variety different -in the leaves, which 

der and more bullated, otherwife the^fam 
I found it on Mount Diabh 

0: '■' 0i£ 2j7t/- 

1 ' s ^ /. ; v. i \ oj ( ; vc.-j 

j ; • t 


i 2 > ' 

£ i ' / J » ' •*.».» 

i iO ■•/ ;. 

XII. Peridymenam refltim, fdlvU folio rugefo minor e bulUto t flo^e albo. C 
Jam. p. i6$. Raij. Hift. Vol, 3. Dendr.p. j i. ^.^94, Jf/>. *> y 

H 7 //^ 1 tS^f 


# ♦ • 


This Shrub has feveral woody, redifh, brown Foot-long Jloots, fpread 
rotmd on every Hand, under the Surface of tlieS^h, from whence fprings 
up a (freight Stem, as thick as one's Arm, feyen Foot high, having 
a fmooth, Cheftnut-colour'd Bark, and , toward* the Top feveral 
Branches on every Side, whofe Twigs are befet with .rough Leaves 

thofe of Sage, from whence its Name, fmelfing Very gratefully Iik 

Cijius ; they (land on an eighth of an Inch long Footftalks, are an Inch and 

a half long, and half as broad at the Bafe, where broadeft, from 
whence they diminifli to the Point, and are fnipt, or cut in, on the Edges 
and bullated on the upper Side ; ; at the End of the Branches are the 

Flowers jn a round 3 Head, being many together, ^landing clofe by one 

other, white, monopetalous, having theiji^r* divided into five 
Sedions, to which follow many red Acini or Berries, conglomerated o£. 
fet clofe together like a Mulberry, Blackbery^r rather the Fruit of the 

Pericljmenum, each of which contains a pretty large, round, blackiih Seed 

tnin ru.p. v ' . : 10,02 3lob. • rPilianoj va 

It grows every where in the Savanna, about the Town of St. b ^ de la 
Vega, and in all the Carfas. usmooji^AoI i^A 


- ->j 

m ■ ■ ' 








The Leaves are very much u fed in Baths for Hydropic People, tocleanfi 

Skin, and in 'all hoj^Fom 


find by a Specimen fent me by Dn Richardfon, that this is no^the i/Efc 

burnum falvis foliy obtufts floribus albis, Herm. Par. p. jljS fa* 

fufpeaed, p. 164, of my Catalogue, but that, that and the Viburnum ctfli 
f*mtn* feJfdvUfolijs mmronatU Ammo anum odor atum mmus floras ^ 

Of the feme Author are Varieties of the Penclymemm rectum falvixfo 



rugofo minor* fubrotundo mentioned to grow 

Voyage to Jamaica, 

XIII. Periclymenum rectum 

the 1 ft Volume of this Hiftorj 

Barbados, p. J'$. of my 


1 \ 



* * 

/i/w hirfuto majore, flore fl> 



fam. P. i6?.Tab. i 9 $. Ftg.2. R**j Hift.VoL V Dendr p. ja AnChryfan- 
tbemum Brafilienfe majus urtic* folio. Bob. p. 24 ? W an Pfeudo Marrubium 


Viburni facie flore cameo. Ejujd, Hift. Ox. Part $. p. ?)$ ? 




» 1 . > i 





Another Sort of Wild-Sage. ,bn 6 H 1 



:)\ i ? 


I ;\ 

Foot hieh, a^d 

much the fame with the precedent, its Trunc rifes 7 or 8 




Wrift, has a fmooth, white Bark , and 


downwards, the 

fcveral Brar&hes towards the Top, inclining . 

fct oppofite to one another in feveral Joints,, they ftaud on half Inch long 
Footftalks* are two Inches long and one broad at the round Bafe, where 
broaden 1 , from thence decreafing to a Point, fnipt about the Edges, 
nd very like to the Leaves of Scorodonia 





the Flowers are many piac'd 

the forme 

and are of an Ora.. 

ling like thofe of the foreg 

in Heads clofe by one another as mt iui mci , ami aic ui auyntug 

deep yellow Colour, to which followsVa Bruit exactly like that or 

$ .V .fc 

• - 



It grows every where with the former./ i n < 
Its Leaves are ufed as thofetof the Precedent 

This agrees to Hernandez, and Ximenes their Defections who fay, that 

the Deco&ion of the Bark of 
Uterine Difeafes 



Roots and Tr 




good for 
and cleanfes the Body, and that the 
Roots, Bark or Leaves apply 'd, open, c lea nfe and diffipaee Swellings 
nd Ulcers, and heal B 




XIV. Pericljntenum retfum bumilius^falvU folio rugofo major e flore purp 
\fruftu oblongo efcultttio furfur eo. Gotham, p. 164. Raij Hist- Vol. 3. ^ 
ao. Tab. 195. F/£. 3. tfiburnuni cifti f(tmin*feu falvU folijs mucrortAtis A 

mericanum odoratum minus floribw ittcanidtu, Herm. par. Bat. pr. 384, Pluken 
Alm.p* 386. An Viburnum Anierkanum minus cifti ; fevm^x folijs cr en 

Brejur. /r. 2. ^. »oj 








ri t 



t t 



« » 


A fourrh Sort of WiU-&ag 

iV f l I 

I K 




' » 

** J 



feveral corner'd 

or four Foot high 

having a very large Pith, this 

two or three Branches coming 

tfiick befet with Leaves oppofite to one an 

vmv a.w «* j^ni*., miivh ^r*.*«*»- TV»ia *_jwu,vw w^wiuv IW V/IJV ailUliiWl, 

having Ihort or no Footftalks ; they are two Inches long, and one broad 
in the Middle where broadeft, indented' about the Mdges, very near- 

this Kind. 


long, hairy 

, many together, let.cloie to one 
Colour, and'ate pentapetatous. To them fucceedytheFruit, which is made 

another, of a»pale r Purgl 


up of many Acini, clofe fet to one another like Mulberries, eaeti' Acinus 



The Hamml HifioYy of J AM A I CA. 

containing one flat, white Seed, the whole Fruit being of a. Purpl 
bureh more juicy than the other Species of this Kind 

to the Tafte, whence Child 

s of this Plant 

other Species of this Kind, and hot unpfcafamc 
ildren covet and* garfiervthe* Fruit to eat Thk 
re hairy. - [ n '^ ' c?: < - zhlf 

I _ f f r 

*• t • A' iftAn h 

XV. ? erkhrtzmiM r eft am urtic* folio, Aon maah'-mWk (Jrf.-Mtffo 

Si/ Cmmtv fixtd mtofriricbfs cdmimhoiiesjoribas ^ricitlxt.. 

n * ■ ■ Surian. V iter mm Ann Main WHU fdlA S , ' fttf 


flortbtts minintis. Commtlin 


383. Per* 
0*. P^rt 

f could' obfeVvV no Difference between this Shrub and that wittf rite 

yellow Flower defcrib'd before, only the Flowers were larger and of i 
icarlet or. deep red Qolou 

•** *i 



looking very 


' 1 found it betweeri the W^llstt the^arn'rfehurchj built bvP^frAfemr 

in the old Town of Srwtoiaihe North (foe of this Iflahd. ' 

^■Anon)masFon«£tibi&$l,j: fjn.ap. Purtfa, Wf\ cikt, fays 
that a Decoction of this is a Remedy for Sc4l$ the Pox, and new Wound*; 

[tat a DeCOCTlon ui una is a. jrvtuifeuy iui ^uau^y hi* x ua, f»uu ucw w oun 

nd that they make of its Flowers, Nofega^fbr the Qrikifcrii of-Alu 

*i A Uet. lib. 1 5. «/>. i6i tells us tHHartieV., >:'- "■ ,*,.« , ; : '. •■• 

* The Leaves are hot and. dry in the third fee, Wf- 

Excellent Baths are made of it. The LeaVesareufed as well to corro 


■ r ■ ' . ' •* 

dly, in Lieu of Mint and Balmi as to cleanfe outwardly 

hey cure miny Difeafes of the Skin, and th* Itch it W. Pifi 

The Figure in Pifi and jfcfofig. agrees- TVeff to this. " fiJ ^ 
The infpiffated Decoclion cures' f old 'tflc^r^ and' tAe^a way th 



ach proceeding from Cold, if the lick PeVfdft pe waih'd^With it- Pifi.. 
The Flowers arefirft yellow, then become brangecofoared and after- 

Wa Dr S pSw'f fg 7 fof his ^^Wtes^tstB^fa^e with the (aft 

Flant fa 

hy lJr. *-. f; T , /( 

I leave others to jucfge 

Spfadfuib I cannot (qq 


1 ' / . : i 


XVI. Periclymenum tettum falvufolih major ibmobMgfrrHucronms fub 

M vi»J& dternatimptsflfmfrufu mnorlbus. .^pam.p^Tab. 
-94- -^4- I' Vlmi dngulhfolU facie bacctfm Jatnatctnfis fotijsfapernefcabtis 
fubtus villofis fiortbuspvis ferfufiHisJruStu botryoide monojfetmo. Pluketi. Phjt; 

This Tree had its Branches cove'r'tf With a fmooth blackifh Bark, 

which 4 was a hard*, v^nite Wdod, towards its Ends were the 

Leaves placed at upwards of an Inch** Diftance from one another, being 

about two Inches long arid near oner broad in the Middle where 

ft having very fmaH Fodtftalks, b^ing indented about theEdg 

toush or corrugated oir the upper Outface, like the Leaves of Sage, 

$&m mm r KiW Tfggs, ?« tbe EndUf which are 

the Flowers, ftaflding t fcveril togetnej 1 , being fmallet than the for- 


**" ' • -- °' iO 

Wound it in the North-Side of this Matt* 

r . r • ' ; i ■' :• * 1 ! 








The Natural Ht/iory m AM M Q A 

I * 





rl-T j ' 


' 1 10 T ! | ■ * . I \ j. ' 

hmenum reel urn TalvU folio^ rueofo Id 

£tl 3(i< 

f - # 




i- ) 



ch f vverq =ve^,loog.and narrow, coming out of 

WJWb fet <>PP. ofil: 

preceding the Leaves only differin 

fquare Stal 


coming out ot .tJae iquare Stall 
ther, /landing on, very Iliort Foot 

{talks', being a'bout an Inch and a half long, and one third of an Inch 

broad in the Middle, where broadeft, whence they decreafe to both Ends 


Oteinz ftarp pointed, dentated about the Edges, of a dark Golour above, 
wnitiih. underneath* and in their Surfaces like the Leaves of Sage. Ex alts 


j » * 

Toll oram rife 


3 former. ; ,; 
It grew in the S 

This appears by us D 

Inches long Footftalks, fuftaining Heads like thofe of 

nna's on Mount D/«W 

firft of this Tribe 

bis Manttfa ma key hem to be, the fame 

gure q 


rom the 

defcrib'd, notwithftanding Dr. Pluhner,p. 166. of 




ves 01 tnis are narrower 






XVIIL GroffutirWfruftu arbor maxima nonfpinofa, Malabathri folio wax 

imow^ro^one^c^o alba, 'Cat jam. p. 1^4. Tab. 1 9 6. Fig. 1 . Raij.Hift.Vol 


^.jJenur, p. 26. r^ctrwdtndrop 4mencanum qu> 
cutis folijs jimflffimisglabru prona parte albicant 

Jmericamm quixque vervium comantibus jlof- 
na parte albuantibus, Vlukenet Mant. p. 4. An 

QrotfuUriAAmerjcaha^pUntagimsfolio lato frutfumwimo caruleo. Plum. Tour 

This Tree has a 1 rune as r tinck 

« J 




• r 

fet colour'd, almoiifmootlv 





1 n # .- . 

>,igs come from the Bcanches toward_s the Top, oppofi 

Thigh, cover'd with a ruf- 

twenty Foot high, 



to one ano- 

Diftance, Leaves fet oppofite- 
Toot and a hajf long, and 

to one ar 

half as broad in the "Middle, 1 where broadeft, being narrow^at the Beg 

ningiincreafing to -ijhiej Middle, and thence decreafing till thev end ii 

Poi'ntL: a little, ferrated aboijt, th 

ite beneath, an 
eginning th 







7 r-^j «"^ ver y green above 

ti iach having five large Ribs running from 
Length with trar 

ono being ftreight, the others. arch$, exadly like the Leaves of Malaba- 
thrum." On the Tops, of the Branches are feverar Bunches or Spikes of 

pentapetalous, with white Stamina, three or four corn- 
out in Tufts, to which follow fo many fmall Berries crown'd as 



the. others of this Kind. - 

grew on the Inland Mountainous Woods, ,as about Mount Diablo. 


on ;he jed H 

B&rMos. . 




a beyond Colonel C^'s Plantation,^, and 


\^ > w4 


1XI1X. Groffitlarufructu arbor maxima non fptnofaMalab 

mtnvr.e.JubSui albtdo % jructu maiore. Lot. jam. p^ 104.. Arb 




•^ - ^ ,-r^™ lR1imi „- f ,, irtI , , *%mtjricanaquinq\ 

antibus fio] cults, }olj]s ampl/J/imis glabtts Prona parte albtcantibm. 


F/g. 4. Jfm-'f. 40. Actnodeniron Amerhanum 

pliore folio trinervi, interim alba Unugine incano*> Ej. Jlmag. p. a. An Grof- 
jularix American a* pUntaums Ulto.Q I abro. nor e rofeo. Plum> Tournef. InlL 
/>. 640 . ? . /»/. Ame r. P< .1 5 

.. rr T»is was the lam 

y f uv) i vsSv4 • 

r ._ n fo dar 



every thmg with the preceding, 
d but white underneath and like 


the Lea 

There is a V 

neath, andthe fame Coloui 

larger, as was the whole Tree. 
anety or this with the Leaves 

nd like ; them above, the 

» *. 


' - - 

a RoffeitoMr under- 

ath, andthe lame Colour above» fit ,-,,, , < a > .• . 

It grew on the red Hills going'w'Gr^i^M. ^"oA h a> ii 1 • ^j. 






*- %T> 



XX. Groffularia fruBu arbor maxima, non fpinvfa Mahbathrt folivinteg 

minor? fubtm ferrugineo. Cat Jam p. 165. Raij. Hift, "Vol. } . Dendy. p. 26 


Tab. 19^. Fig, 2- Arbufcula trinervis'aut f otitis pentanenros folijs craffis hirfu 
tis ad amkitum rarioribusferris ex infill a Jamaicenfiy Plukenet* Phyt, Tab. 264 

i found it with the former from which it fcarce differs 
It appears by the A 

* * 

pared with that found in Barbados 
defcrib'd,/>. 39. of my Voyage to Jamaica that they are two different Trees, 

notwithstanding t>r. Plukenet y s contrary Opinion, p. a. of his Mantiffa. 


XX I t Groffularia fruclu arbor non fpino fa Mai abathri folio maximo glab 
& (pendente.. Cat. Jam, p. 1^5. Mdij. Hift. Vol. j. Dwdr. p. 26. T*£. 19. 
Fig. I. Acinose ndy on Americdnum cane/U folio maximo utrinque glabro Pluken* 
Mantiff p. 4. An Groffularia Americana plant aginis 1 folio ampliffimo Plum 


Tourwf: Infi. p. 640? pL Am f p. 18? 

This Tree had a browri'&ark", being laVge, having crooked Branches and 

.TwigS as it were jointed, the^Angles comprehended between the Twigs at 
oaclx joint *beiyg v&r^obtfife. The Leaves coYne out alternatively at half 

in InqhY pittance, each whereof is about four- Inches" long and two 
brpad in th^Micl die, where broadeft, being even on the Edges, having 

three Nerves or Veins running* from the Foot/fall's End thro' the Leafi 
which k of a fine Contexture, with tranfverfe Veins appearing in a very 

fmooth Surface . very pleafantly ; the upper Side is fliining, and of a 

~« - : *-'---- t he Fruit and Flower are as thofe tUf 

fine pale green Colour. -IJupr 

the former. v ,, 

I fourfd it on the red Hills in the WWds. 

■ -^ » • - - - 

* - ; . 



% - 

■ d ■ 1 

This is by fome accounted a Baftard-Cinamon-Tree. 

. i 

t i 

, XXII. GroffulartafructtM nonfpinofa, Malabathri folijs long* & ruffa la- 

nugi ne b ir fut is\ fr act u major e 'caffuleo. Cat. Jam. p. itfVf. T*£. 197. Fig. 2. 
Ran. Hi(l m Voi \. Djndr. /. 74. Texhuatl. Hernand. />. 41?. Arbtifcula *la- 
maicenfis qutttque nervis mtnuUljime dentmis folios $r caule pubefcentifrus flojeu* 
lis ex [\nitfoliorun\gemeltis. Plttk. Aim, p. 40. Phjt.Tab. 264. Fig. 1. Arbuf 

c«/4 Jamaicenfis penta» euros folios craffis lev iter dentatis^fuperna facie ferruqt- 

nea y pfona canUcahte^& molli Unugtne vi/lofis.*Ejufd. ib. Acinodendron 

Americanum pentaneuron folijs trafjis birfutis ad ambttttm rdrioribus ferris ex 

Infula Jamaica Ej. Mantiff. p. 4. An Atinodendron Amer'uanum trinerviuin 

fat 'tis, per ex ignis. Ej. ib ? feu cifii faeie arbufcula Jamaicenfis, folijs trinervjis, 

fioribus & capfulisfparfim enajceritibu* Ej. Aim. p. 105? An Groffularia Ameri- 

. canaplantag inis folio ang ujliore hirfuto. Plum. Tourffefi Infi. p: 640 ?* 

This Shrub had federal angular Stalks, rifing to about four Foot hich 

Very thick cover'd with ruiTet colour'd, long Hair, divided into feverai 
Branches^atiiboufan Inch* aqd a half 's Diftance, rifing out of the AU 
of the Leaves whkH are fet oppofite to one another, (landing on a 

quarter of an Inch long Footitalks f they * were four Inches long and 
almoft two broad in the Middle, where broadeft , from the Footflalk in- 
creafing to the Middle, and thence, decreafing to the Point, being a lit. 

tie corrugated on its Surface, Of a yeJtowilh green Colour, having 
large Nerves, taking their Beginning from the Footftalk's End, rt 



thro' the Leaf with feveraK tranfverfe ones> like the Malabathrum*otCfa- 
namon-Kmd, and being all over very hoary, with a ruiTet colour'd. 

. long,. Jb ft Hair. The Frui^ftands on the finds of the Twigs, beino- 
a crown'd, oval, fmooth blue Berry, almoft as big as af Nutmeg. It has a 
pentapetalous FJoweY which is white according to Mangr. but I never 

fa w it. 


86 The Natural Hipry of J A M A I C A. 

There Is another Variety of this with longer Leaves. 
It grew on the woody Hills between Guanaboa and Colonel Bourden's 
Plantation, on Mount Diablo, and the other Inland, woody Hills of 

this ifland 

f he Berries give a Juice like Myrtles, and are eaten by the Blacks. The 
f eaves powder'd and fprinkled on Ulcers, coming from a hot Caufe, 

cure them. Marcgr. 

They extrafl: a Soap out of the Berries to wafh Cloaths, Pifo. But 
how this is done he doth not tell. 

Not only the Powder of the Leaves but the Juice is good for ill-naturM, 

hot Ulcers, and therefore much fought after by Surgeons, Pifo. 

XXIII. Groffularid fructu non ffinofa y Malabathri folijs fubtus niveis fruc- 
tu racemofo in umbelU modum dtfpofito. Cat. Jam. p. 165. Tab. iijji.Fig. 1. 
Raij. Hif.Vol.f.Dendr.p.26. 

1 have nothing to add to what I have faid of this, p. 40 of my Voy- 
age to Jamaica prehVd to the firft Volume of this Hiftory. 

XXlV. GroffularUfruBu major e arbor fpinofa % fruftu fotiofb evrrsdi albs 
came. Cat. J am. p. 165. Raij $ Vol.Hift. Dendr* p. 27. Mat us American a 

fpincfa portal ac a folio, fructu foliofi 9 femine reniformi fplendente y Blad* 

Apple vulgo. Commel. Hort. Amfi. p. 1 3 j, Pereskia aculeata 7 fore albofrutfa 

fiavefcente. Plum* pi. Am. p. $$ 

This Tree had the Face of d Rhamnus with many Prickles coming out 

#f the fame Place of the TrUrtc in Tuffs, fome longer, fome fhorter, and 

a Fruit about the BignefsOf a Watlnut, oval, whitifh green, fmooth,.with 
Tttfts offmall Leaves on it. It had a whitifh, mucilaginous, foft Pulp, 

with Acini within it* like Goofeberies* The whole Tree was about fifteen 

Foot high and well fpread 

it grew near the old Monaflery Ruins by the Town of St. Jago de U 

Vega whether naturally or planted I know not, but I never faw but that 
one Tree. 

It was brought from the Ifland Margarita to Amjlerdam. Commel. 

Dr. Plukenet doubts, p. 4. of his Mantiffa, if this be the uva crifpa Ame* 

ricana. Pif p. 242. & />. 155. confounds this with the Portulaca fpinoja. 

Unuginofa arbor ejcens Americana., and hisPortulaca Americana latifoli 
ad Potior um or turn lanugine obdufta longioribus aculeis borrida. php* Tab 

Fig. 6. Aim. p. 504. which muft be vaftly different from it. 

XXV. Baccifera arbor calyculatafolits laurinis f rutin racemtfo efculentofuh 

tundo monofjreno pallide luteo. Cat. Jam. p. 165. Tab. 198. Fig. 2. Raij 

Bift. Vol $. Dendu p. 49. An Locus fpuria pun flatis folijs, arbor America 
nxjrutiuparvopruniformi officulo fulcato. Pluk.pbyt. Tab. 200. Fig. 6 ? Aim 
p. 225? Vel an Lotus arbor Virginiana folijs Uvtbus fructu fiavefcente. E 
Lotus arbor Virginiana fructu rubr§. Raij. Hilt. app.p.tqnfL 




The Ballard Locufi-Trec 

This Tree has a very thick Trunc, cover'd with a fmoeth, clay co- 
lour'd Bavk, having Branches equally fpread round about it, which to- 
wards their Ends are befet with Leaves itanding on a quarter of an 
inch long Footftalks, being five Inches long and half as broad irt the Mid- 

die, where broadeft, ending in a Point j they are of a dark green Colour 



The Natural Hi/lory of J A M A I C A. 

and fmooth. The Fruit comes on the End of the Twigs, being a Stalk 
String, on which grow feveral fmooth, green, round ifh Berries, bfg 

han Peas, faftciVd to it by an half Inch long Fodtftalks, at its under 

e, having a brown five lea vM Calix or Crown encompamrig it. The 

Pulp is fweet, white, mealy, including a hard, brownifh, black Stone; big 
ger than a Pepper-Corn, and much like it. 

It grew near Mr. tLlletforfs Plantation on the Savanna iri Ligtunee^ m 

Sixteen-Mile- Walk, &c. and in Barbados. 

The Berries are ripe in Auguft, then fall oft the Trees, under 
Which they are gathered and carried to Market, being eaten and thought 

a pleafant Difert. , 

Reid, a Gardiner feht to Barbados for Plants, relates, that this Tree bore 
JPods good to eat, but fure he was miftaken. 

I dm doubtful whether this Tree be meant by Ligon. p. 14. to be found 

in Cape Verd. Ifles, Or p. 33 and 74, where he fays, that the Nuts of 

Locuft feed Swine in Barbados, that the Trees are fifty Foot high, th 

foot and a half Diameter, of clofe Timber, hard, Brittle but lafting 


being not unlikely that thefe may be the C*rolr or fome fiiquofe x 

XXVI. Baccifera trior caljculata>folijs inUgrU oblongU acuminata^ frutfu 

rufefcente. Cut. Jam.p. \6%.Tak 198. Fig. J. RaijHif. Vol. j. Denary. 49 


This Tree had many woody crooked Branches, corer'cf wuh a light 

colour'd, brown, grey, fmooth Bark, and having a white Wood. At the 
Ends of the Twigs are many Leaves, ftanding oa a quarter of art Inch 
long Footftalks, about an Inch and a half long, and one broad in the Mid- 
dle, where broadeft, being narrow at the Beginning and End, tho* fome- 
times they are blunt at their Ends, or fomewhat ronndifh, fmooth, with- 

anv Incifures on the Edges. The Fruit comes at the Top of the 

Twigs* being a fmall roundifh corner'd Berry, many of them togethe 

bigger than that of the Elder, or as big as a Pepper Corn, ftanding on a 
fmall quarter of an Inch long petiolus, at the find of which is a fmall Calix 

incoriipafling the Bottom of each Berry, which is reddilb, having 

Pulp, fe verat fmall irregularly figurM Acini, Kkc thofc of Grapes 

It grew towards the North Side of this Ifland 
* appears plain that it is different from the precedent Baftard Locuft 
Tree, tho' Dr. tlukene^p. 1 19 of his MantiJJa makes them the fame. 

XXVII. Arbor baccij ? era y laurijolia, aromatic a, fruftuviridi calyculato ra> 

cemoto.Cat.*lam.p\6%. Tab. 191. Fig. 2. Phil. Tranfaft. No. 192. p. 46^, 

Caffia lignea Jamaicenfis, taureoU folijs fubcinereis; cortice ftprkmodo 

Ytuken. Almag. p %g. Caffia lignea, laurifolia Americana cortice albo y valde 

acri & aromatlco. Ejufd. Caffia Cindmomea S. Cinamomam (tlveftre Barbade*. 
ftum arbor baccifera fructu ealjculato tetrapjrenojhlia enervi Pfeudo Caffia 

Cinamomea Americana, Ejufd. Almag. p. 89. Caffia Americana fpuriafi/fil 

ditta. Herm. par ad. Bat. pr. p. 3 20. CaneSe blanch^ cofius blanc, coHus 

ifus & ecorce de Winthems de Pommet. p. i J o. Bou de Canelle. Ejufd. f . 1 9 5 


Cortex Winter anus-Tree % Or, Cinamon-Tr 

This Tree has a Trunc the Thicknefs of the Calf of one's Leg, rifing 
to about 20 or 20 Foot high, having many Branches and Twigs hanging 

downwards, making a very comely Top. The Bark is made of one outward; 








88 The Natural Hiftorfof / A M A I C A. 

Rind or Cuticula, which is thin and of a grey Colour, with fome white 
Spots here and there, and now and then fome fballow Furrows in it, 
of a very biting and aromatick Tafte, fomething like Cloves, as isalfo 
the inward, which is thicker and not fo rough or furrow'd- The Leaves 
come out round the Ends of the Twigs, without any Order, (landing 
#n a quarter of an Inch long Footftalks, are two Inches and a half long 

more than one broad, near the End, where broadeft, roundifh 
being narrow at the Beginning, and of a* yellowifh green Colour, fhin 
ing and fmooth, with one middle Rib. The Tops of the Twigs are 
branch'd out into Bunches of many pentapetalous, fcarlet or purple Flow- 
ers, made up of five Petala, to which follow fo many Berries being 
each of the Bignefs of a large Pea, roundifh, green, and containing 
within a mucilaginous, pale green, thin Pulp, tour black, large, fhining, 
Seeds or Acini, of an irregular protuberant Figure. 

All the Parts of this Tree are very Aromatick, hot and biting to the 
Tafte, which, if too troublefome, is cured by fair Water. 

It grows in the Low-land or Savanna Woods very frequently, and 
on each Side of the Road between Paflage-Fort and the Town of St, 

Jago de U Vega : In Antegoa and the Car ikes 

Hie Bark is ufed for a Sp 

hot Plantations very much, and 

d by only cutting it off the Tree, and letting it dry in the Shade. It 
commonly called Winter's- Bark horn one Captain Wiriter, tho' it be n 
that ; for altho' this be biting, good againft the Scurvy, and Aromat 

as his, yet lie gather'd his by the Streights of Magellan, and Sir John 

Narborough brought fome from thence, which was of a brownifh, not 

white Colour, of which I have given ah Account in one of the Phil. Ttanf* 

It yields per Veficam an aromatick ponderous Oil, finking to the Bottom 

of Water, like Oil of Cloves, with which it is mix'd and fold for it in 

Eur of 

It is not only ufed for a Spice, but is given likewife phyfically, mix'd 
with prepared Steel, or in Lieu of Stomachics, but being very hot and 

fiery, 'tis ufually complain'd of 

If Rum bedtftill'd from fome of this Bark, it communicates to it fome 
good Qualities, and takes off its bad Scent or Empyreuma, 


■ - ■ * 

This is not the true Cortex Winteranu* tho' fold for it, but it is de 

fcrib'd by Gupta y under the Name of Canellaalba 

The Tree, whichR**^ brought homBarbados was very like if not the fame 
with this, the only Difference was, that the Leaves feem'd more pointed 
and the Flowers did not go out at the Top on long Footftalks, umbellatine 

but out of the Sides of the Branches on fhort Footftalks, which I reckon 
ly Va 


The Author of the^firft Voyage to Virginia, ap. Hakl.t. 246. feems to 
mean this Tree, and ajter/>. 249. tells us that the Drink ufed there, was 

Water with tljjs foddenjn it with Ginger, or fometimes 

Gomara, cap. 143, HiB. Gen. tells lis, that Goncalo Pifcarro went 

Pmu to the Country of f anella, and that under the Equinoftial at Cum . 7 
they found it, and I anvapt to beheve by its Defcription, that 'twas 

this Tree, it agreeing to it, only the Cup feems to be too large. Jug. Sarate 

lib. 4. c. 2. PefaCijJ^.f. 1. cap. ^o.Benz* lib. |, cap. 8. 

Its Bark is good for cold Difeafes, and to difcharge the Stomach of Slime 

and Phlegm, JLochef. „. , , 



amon Trees .were fbi^nd by Pedro de Orfua, as they pafs'd down the 
of OrtlU^uan de Q* fall ami 4 E(eg. de Vat on, illuHr. de Indias. Hakl 



The Natural Hlftory of J A M A I C 

The Bark is hot and dry in the fourth Degree, taftes fharp like Clov 


od Sawce, purges the Blood and is ufed againft Poifon : Pieces of? 

an the Teeth, confume the immoderate Humidity of the Stomach 
and W Brain, difcufs Wind and help the Colic, boil'd with Wine it is good 
againft the Gout ; it is not glutinous as Cinamon, but dry and crumbling , 

T T 

The Bark powder'd ftrengthens the Heart and Stomach, Lugd 
The Pigeons are drawn to this Tree by the Smell, Nieremb 


It is abufively ufed for Nutmeg and other Spices in the Efices fi, 


The Bark gives Meat a good Tafte, is an excellent Alexipharmac, 

and purges the Blood, Laet, 

— ' of in the Province of Samaco, having 


Fruit like Alcornoques or Acorns, being a wild Kind different from 

the Eaft-Indies, by Galvanos,ap, Purchas. lib. 10. cap, l.p, 1695 

The Tree that beareth the Rind of black ^Cinamon of which Mr; 
Winter brought from the Streights of Magellan *W2& obferv'd in the fir ft 
Voyape to Vtwnia, ap, HakL p. 246. where 'tis faid, that their Drink in 
Virginia, except in Grape-Time, is Water boil'd with black Cinamon 
Ginger or Salfaphras, p. 249. and this in an Ifland near Wingendacoa. 


CL .i ' i> ■ 

XXVIII. Arbor baccifera, Uurifolia, fruciu Corallino ribium inft 

mofo y calyculato, venenato, Raij Hift. Vol. J« Pepdr. p. 150, Tab. 190. Fig 



IflcOMfr^ Curr arts-Tree. >\) \ 


1 . 



This Tree rofe to about fifteen. Foot high, by a Trunc as thick as 
ones Thigh undivided till near the Top, where it had numerous Branches, 
on whofe Twigs were Leaves fet without any Order, having no Foot- 
ftalks being two Inches long, and one broad at the round End, where 
broad'eft, for they begin narrow and increafe by Degrees till they end in a 
round Po'int being white on their Surface like to Halimus, The Flowers 
I faw not. 'The Fruit were many, round, red, calculated Berries, as big 
as very fmall Peas, {ticking to a common two Inches long String, . by a 
imall quarter of an Inch long Foatftalks, in Colour and Way of Growth 
looking very like our Currans, or Ribes, whence its Name, each of which 
Berries has in a reddifh Pulp feveral tranfparent rouo<Sift*\red Ac* ' 

It grew on a Bayes fide between Mr. Abraham's Plantation and the De 
vils Bowling-Green, in the NorttoSide ofotus.lfland. 

A Negro Hunter told me the Berries were not eatable but poyfonous. 

. I 2R 'J flf HI B 



. no f . oil ifil y 

_ ~»t .+..^\ . « +,**>* J 

Of Trees which bear Berries, that are neither Vmbilitaud not Calicut at ed 

H , 213'j !d ,.{v. -Air: Das 

1/ I ^Erebinthus 

' ** 

am, p. 167 

X Tab. 199. Fig, 1, 2. Raij Hi ft. Vol.^ Dendr. p. 50. An Terebinthus 
\mericana palamalata dtffa. Commelin. Hort.AmH. p, 149 ? Arbor Tacapta- 

haccam liqmdam ferensfoHjs nm ferratkBreynprodr^ 2. p. 107 

ri rfhooT§cfol WQljgw^jfpnliij 



«*d iri - s . ,gainirft brafd" s Bfru an . : -. lJ r«- i_ 

This Tree has a great many Roots runnmg fciperficially on the Earth 
every Hand for fome Yards round, from.the Middle of which nfes a 

J ^ ' ~ Trunc 

po The Natural Hijiory of J A M A I C 

Trunc as thick as a Hogfhead or Pipe, cover'd with a brown, red, fmooth> 
membranaceous outward Bark, falling off in round Pieces like to that or the 
Englilh Birch, whence the Name. It hath feveral crooked Branches,mount- 
ing to thirty Foot high, cover'd with a brown, fmoothBark, near the Top of 
which come out feveral two or three Inches long Stalks fuftainingon half 
Inch long Footftalks, feveral Flowers one above another, each made up of 
five thick, yellowifh, fhort Petala, with Stamina in the Middle, and after 
thefe follow three-fided or triangular Berries, of a fmall Pea's Bigncfs, 
with a reddifh brown Colour'd Skin, very Gummy, and fmelling like Te- 
rebinthine, under which, lies a white, very hard, triangular Stone, con- 
taining a Kernel. The Tree having flood naked fome Time has 
firft its Flowers come out, and its Leaves begin to bud a little while 
after, which are wing'd, fmooth, of a very frefh green Colour, 
Handing round the Ends of the Branches at half an Inch's Diftance ; the 
middle Rib is five Inches long, hoary, and fet at an Inch and a half's Di- 
ftance from the Beginning;, with Pairs of Pinnce one againft another, on 



a half Inch long Footftalk, the Pinna are an Inch and a half long, 
and half as broad near the round Bafe,where bioadeft, and fhining; there's 
a fmall odd one at the End, and ufually four Pair or eight, which with 
the odd one make up the Leaf. 

It grows all over the Ifland, as well as in the Caribes. 

Fernan. Colon fays that in Cuba, thelndians made their Fire of a Tree like 
Lentifc in Leaves and Fruit, only larger, which grew there plentifully 
and I fuppofe to be this. 

This Tree being wounded yields a Balfam of the Confifrence and Smell 
of Turpentine, which is thought to be very vulnerary and healing. 

The Balfam is taken in Cotton/* I/aer. 

It is ufed inftead of Turpentine in all outward Applications. 

This Balfam feems to be that deicrib'd by Cluftm in Not. ad Monard. 
de Balfamo, under the Name of Baljamum ex S. Domingo, and perhaps like- 
wife it is the Refina Carthaginenfisr.oj; Monardes, commended much in 

Wounds of the Nerves, oi *. 


1 ' * ■ l 

% m 

II. Terebinth us maxima, pinnis paucioribm majoribus at que rotundioribus 

frutfu racemofo fparfo. Cat. Jam. p. i6j.Tab. 199. Fig. 3. Raij. Hifi. Vol. 
$. Dendr. p. 5 1 , An T ere bin thus Americana, piftacia frutfu non eduli. Blum. 
Tournef. lnfl. p. 580 ? 1 [ \ 

IV- J * - - > . .< X c *• •*« . ^ , , . I 


Hog Voftor-Tree, or, Boar-Tree. 

t 1 t 1 

This Tree has a Trunc as thick as our Oaks, rifes ftreight up to 
fifty Foot high, and is very numerous ia its Branches r -which4t~ begins 

to lend forth at twenty Foot's Diftance from its Root, which runs a great 

Way on the Surface of the Earth, drawing Nourifhment to the Tree 
from feveral Places very far from its Trunc. It is one of thofe Trees 
which fheds its Leaves about the Months of November and December 
getting Flowers and Leaves in January and February, the Flowers fprout- 
ing firft out of the Ends, of the Twigs; they are ftamineous, androfa 
purphfh brown Colour; the Xeaves come after n they are wing'd, being 


te to 
to .the mid* 

for the moft Fart, made up of two Pair of Pinnae, let oppofi 

another and^.ph at the End ; each of them isfalten'd to ._ 

die Rib by a three quarters of an, Inch long Footftalk, is roundifh 

two Inches long and one and a half broad, fhining, of a light brown 

Colour, thin^ind ; hath many appearing Rib* on its -Surtac^i i .The 

~ 7 ■? r TAVikVi »'«ny a^auug iviui un us sounacevt: il he 

Fruit is fevtfal- oblong, rbundifh Berries, containing within, a refmous 


'. * 

The Natural Hiftory of J A M A I C A, 


thin Pulp, one Stone of the fame Shape, each Berry being faften'd 

common Petiolus of 






whitifh or grey, almoft fmooth 

a half Inch long Footftalk. The 

there the old Bark is raifed from the new, in Sp 

here and 

of the Palm of ones Hand, and flicks v 
to d rop off. 

There comes on the Trunc of this Tree 

of about the Bignefs 

y (tenderly to the T 



of fhining Gum, or Refine, wh 






grows on the Red-H 

d brings it off with 

in feveral Places, black Spots 
f wetted by the Rain and touch'd. 


other Places of the Ifland 

the Woods very plentifully, as well 




to have feen it, that wild in this Ifland by Peop! 

come to this T 


Hogs when wounded, 

they are cured, from w 

nderftanding Bl 


natural Inftincl: 

bbing its Balfam on their Wounds 

this Tree hath 




common Name, and a 


for R 

me" he faw a Wounded Hog 


but had been fo hurt, that he expired on its Roo 


The Berries are very much coveted for Food, and 

wild Pig 

The common Pradice of thofe who 

Tree call'd Hovoum. with good Succefs 

Sorts of 

4 V 

I t*l » 


tryd the liquid Balfam of this 
give a quarter of an Ounce 


to a Man in Strength, in all Cafes where Vomiting and Purging 
cefTary, this is by them faid to be moft excellent and^effe&ual, e/pecialJy 
Colic, laund' ~" "* " *"*" * * 

Rheumatifm, and all Chronical Difeafes, 

Glafs of Water, and will, as they bel 

befr to be 

y Vom 

or fifteen Minutes Time after taking it, with all the Pleafure defirable, 
without making the Perfon fick or caufing any Uneafinefs. After drinkins 

Dtfh of Water-Gruel, it will ufually give three or four very large Stoo 
it's reckoned a Secret in all Venereal Cafes and all Difeafes of the Urethra 
as Gravel, Stone or otlrer Stoppages in the Bladder or Kidneys. 

1 I f 

III. Terebinthus folio Jingularinon ahto, rotundo, fuceulento,flore tetrap 

67. Tab 



tdo palltde luteo, iruftu major e mpnopyreno. Cat. Jam. p 
I. Rati Hifti Vol. 2, Dendr. p. 51^ Lenchramtdea arbtf faxts adnafu^ % 
rotundo pingui folio fruttu pemiformt in plurim^ CfipfuUs granitla ficulnet 
flylo columnar 1 hexagono prtduro adharentia conti^entes dwijoybalfamumft 
dens. Plukenet. Tab. 157. Fig c 


v ? 

An Arbor rep 



Laet. lib 



tepeamatl. Hernandez, 

j ; 




The Balfat 


* 1 * « 


- ■ 






J t 


• f 

This Tree nfes to about twenty Foot high, having a Trunc about 
the Bignefs of one's ;£,eg, cover'd wr u " r ~"~ 
colour'd Bark, has feveral Roots at about a Foot and a half's Dilta nee 

th a fmooth, reddifh, light brown 

I • A 

from the Ground, ftnking into it, the Branches are. many 

on every Hand rifing upwards, the Twigs are at their Ends befet with 

Leaves fet oppofite to one another, at 

one Eighth of an Inch's Inter 

thev ftand on an eighth- of an Inch long footftalk, are almoft 

y Hi J -• I 5Ci Oi O I dill I Cj ^f t ' 1 * t ^ • 


round, of about two Inches Diameter, very fmooth, thick, 




and of a dark gre'e^ Colour, having fome few Ribs appearing 'in them j 

* _ . " " ' Flowers made up o 

an 8 th of an Inch lpng fcaly Footftalk, a fcaly green Calix,four very thick 

the Tops of the Branches are divided into 

whitifh Pefala, within which are purplifh Stamina, and after which fol- 
lows ja^very large, fpherical, green or reddifh Berry, as big as the Top 


of one's Thumb, Siade up of a thin Pulp and Skin, lying on the Stone 
Kernel. - 

9 2 The Natural Hifiory of J A M A I C A 

grows every wherein Jamaica in the Savanna Woods, and in moil 

of the Caribe Iflands 


This Tree, growing in the Low-land Woods, where it 
had little Opportunity of obferving the Fruit, but by what I obferved, 
it iook'd like the Vifcum Berries, only was larger. Whether its Stone or 
what is within the thin Skin or Pulp doth afterwards open, as Dr. Plukenet 

have it I will not be pofitive, but leave to the fubfequent Ob 

fervations of thdfe who have better Opportunities. In the mean 1 
the Face and Nature of the Plant feerri to bring it hither, and tho' it 
fhould have fo thin a Pulp as to be dry and then open, I think it 
may remain in this Tribe as well as Evo^mus, kc. 

IV. Vifcum. Ger. emac. Cat. Jam. p. 168. 



Upon very diligent Search into all the Parts of this Pknt, growing 

rees here and of that in Europe, I could not find the leaft Difference 


between them. n „ , , M D1 

It grows upon all Sorts of Trees, and every where in very great Plenty 
but is moft erteem'd being gather'd from Sweet- Wood. It grows alfo : - 

the Eafl-Indies, Bont 


A Neero-Do£tor who was very famous for the Cure of Afthma's, made 
Ufeofthis gather'd off of Sweet- Wood, and Bean or Coral-Tree Tops, 

hut akho' he fometimes cured with it, yet at other Times, he was not 
°A few of the Berries bruifed ftrain'd into Oil and drank, hath 

. -*•- -* 

m * 

eda ericvous and fore Stitch, Ger. who obferves that Bird 

f \ -r 'f ' ■ v» i t f\ • . . • I 


lime ismaturative ^_ 

EmpL Vifcin.Scribonij.Larg. Draws Matter from the inward Parts 

of the Body, Lob, , ■ # , r tit 

The Branches make Birdlime better than the Fruit. Cord. 
The unripe Berries gather'd, dried, and put into Water to ferment for 
twelve Days make Birdlime by feparating the Skins from the Pulp, but 
it muft be mix'd with Wall nut- Oyl when ufed In ?v*nce the Magi Dr Hide* 
efteem'd nothing more than it, and its T^ree, if an Oak. The Lignum Vifci 
Quercin. to a Dram is good in a Pleurify, given with Barley Water, for it 
Revokes to fweat and cures C^K ^ - ; 

Birdlime taken inwardly is Poifon> as Nicander fays, Hopping 


i 1 .• 

Birdlime is made by boiling the Berries till they break, then they beat 
them and wafh them in Water, and then the Bran muft be taken away. 

ThevtakeThtufhes on artificial Juniper Woods ; they rub round 

Vines with it r to take Worms, and other Infeds, Math. But the Ants 

v Straws with them to make Bridges over it, and pafs on them 

the great Damage of tkc Gardiner*, Lac. 

1 Wnat Part of the Fruit and Pulp is Nourilhment, is concocted, but the 
Seed remains as the Ancients faid, I think Vifcum 'to be the Excrefcencies 
of Trees like to the Nails and Horns, of Animals, C. B. But of late it hath 
been propagated by the Seed put upon the outward Barks of Trees. \ bns 

V Wmiw latioribus & fubrotundis foTtp^pre purpureo. Cat. Jam.pA6$. 
t' )ir ' t?:_ ibbiiii unci i/„/ - n»fct /?*< J*" * * w niniiw ,si* 3*1 Jiiiw 

T*£. 200. Ffc. 2. R4ij «J*. Krf. j. De»dr.pV}2. * «" 

This Miffcltoe feem'd to agree exactly in every thing with the ordinal 

one, only the Leaves were much bWffdct iBd of W frefher green Col 


t*v .•* 

The Natural Hiftory o/JAMAICA. ™ 

***^* ,M — J ^ J — ^» rn i ■ _ii — ^m 

the Stalks on which the FJowers ftand, as well as the Flowers themfelves 
being purple. ' 

It grows indifferently with the former oh all the Trees of this Ifland 

VI. Vifcam Opuntioides ramulis compreffis- Cat. Jam. p. 16$. Tab. 201. F^ 
1. Rdij. Hjft Vol. j. Dettdr. p. 52. ' & ' 

This Miifeltoe grew out of the Truncs of Trees after the Manner of 
the Vifcum baccis albU, C. B It feem'd by its Way of Growth to be near 
of Kin tO the OpuntU, having no Leaves or rather Stems, but what 
we mutt call the Stem or firft Leaf at the coming out of the Trunc of the 
Tree* was flat, fomewhat roundifh, of a very dark green Colour* having 
at every Inch and half's Diftance, out of their Sides only, Branches or 


Leaves oppofite one to another, and growing out of one another, afte 

Manner of the Indian Fig, being an Inch and a half long, and «„ 
eighth of an Inch broad, the whole growing to be a Foot long ; at the Ends 
of the Branches are the Flowers, being fmall, yellowifh, and two toge- 
ther, to which follows a whitifh Berry, exactly like that of the ordina- 
ry Mifieltoe 

This Miffeltoe grew on a Tree by a Ford, near Mr. Mac Gragh 

Houfe in Liguanee, on the Banks of Hope River. 

The Defcnption and Figure of this make it plainly different from the 

planta baccifera fcandens, epidendros Maderaspatana geniculato & qatlripin- 
nato caule flofculis exiguis adgenictiU capreolis don at a. PI u ken. Tab. 210. Ful\ 

6. Aim. p. 298. tho' the Dr. in his Mantip,p. 152. thinks they may be the 
fame* - , v *i« ^« < 


VII. Vifcam ramulis & folijs longls denftflimis , Jlriatts & radiatis. 
Jam. p. 168. Tab. 201. Fig. 2. Raij. HiH. Vol. $. Dendr.p. 52. 

This hung down from Trees aft^r the Manner of Miffeltoe, ha- 
ving a roundifh, green, woody, ftriated Stalk, as big as a Goofe's Quill, 
two or three Foot long, fometimes flatter and fometimes rounder, ha' 
ving a large Pith. It was divided into feveral Branches, and they into 
Twigs at every one, two, or three, Inch's Diftance, at which Divifions 
the Stalk was always fet round, almoft after the Manner of ftellated Plants 
with roundifh, Inch and a half long, green Leaves* juft like Stalks, onlv 
fmaller and very numerous, fo that it appears very bulhy. What Frutc 
it has I know not, but am apt to believe it to be like that of the Prece- 



^ Q 


It grew on the Arms and Branches of Trees like Miffeltoe, in the 

North Parts of this Ifland 


Vll. TbjmeUa humilior folijs acutis atrovirmtibus.Qat. Jam. p. 168. Tab, 
-. Fig. 1, 2. Raij. HiH Vol. ?. Dendr.p. 55. r 

This Shrub has aRoot as thick as ones Little Finger, of a reddifh brown 
Colour, having a rugged flark,which main Root is branch'd out into more 
fmall roundifh ones three Inches long, going into the Ground to draw 
thence its Nourifbment ; the Stalks are angular and cover'd with a grev 

Bark,nfingtoaFoot and a half high, bufhy, and being towards theirfops 

thick befet wth Leaves oppofite to one another, they are almoft an 
long, and not above one tenth of an Inch broad, where broadeft, very 
fmooth, hard and of a dark green Colour, the Flower comes out of the 
Ala of the Leaves, without any Footftalk* is tetrapetalous, each Petalon 


SX 8 *™** nar ? ow v a !! d r bow ^ backwards, pale yellow, green coloured, 

X £2 C k amina °/ th n fame 52° ur in their Middle > after which follows 
the Seed, being a fmall .roundifh Berry or Seed. 



Tbe Natural Hiftory 


It grew near the Palifadoes by Port-Roy 

r->.. D/..l„.,„, in hlQ Ml/It. P. 170. doubts : 


Dr. Plukenet, in his Man}, p 

7 9. doubts if this be not th 

t 1 9' t 


diudtM & fericeis filiji floribus inhrfolu Pbjt. Tab. j . 8. hg. 6. Mm. f 

367. which 'tis pi 

IX. ThjmeU* mritima eric* folijsjurmlistumidis & ivmentofu. Cat.Jm 


Rail Hilt. Vol. 3. Dendr. f. 55 


d With a fmooth, light browti j Bark 

ath many Twigs Which for 

avZVrTSrt erea and vftfU fwell'd being do^ny and 

which are ufually reddifh 

>rt 01 me rwuuiivs ui mv >-v» , w„ v*^^ « *,„, 

th WooFor Tomentum of a whitifh Colour 


of the 

four dfttVioifc, 'nfiildngnt tetra 

and exaftly like thofe ol this 


I foUftd^nW'ngthe Rbeksby t&Sea Side, near Don »«Cw 


B from the Renins of the old'To^6f Sevill*, in the North Sidb of th 

I queftid 

but that this agreeing' y fo 


by ChfiOs, it 'has the fame purgative Qualities. ; 


X. Laureola minor fylvaticafolijs ex adverfo nafctntibus baccis rubris,Cat 


This Shrub W* altera, about tneBigtiefs of ones little Finger, g 
jointed, roundjfmopth, above aF 6 ot- high, at e^ery haif Inch'sDiftaftce fend 

thep-they ftand on Inch long 

ine out Leaves by PaiUs, brie oppoike r , 

Footftate;are '4 Inchek long and fene and a half broad near the End, 
broadeft and found j Of b'dark brBwn fhining Colour, frhoothand thick. 
Fxalif fblhttim* tbwards the T6p corrfes out a rnlall 'Branch fuftaining fe- 
veral,red,^ound Berries, chiefly confining of a white Pulp. 

It crows irfthe togher 'and AttHy Woods, in the Irrtand Parts of this I- 

'" tarn-River W6ods beyond Guanaboa, ' Colonel 1 Bout den's 



1 $th i 

Momt-Dublo going to the North Side 

XL Cerafo affinis arbor baccifera racemofa, flore albo pentapetalo,frutfu flaw 
monapyreno eMidutcKC'dt.Jam^M^ Tab. 203. Fig. 1. Raij.Hift. Vol. 5 

Dendr.P. 45 


r 8 a i 1 

* < 

Baft ard-Cherry -Tree 

■ • 




* - 

. U •• 


w i 



• ♦ 


a dark brown Bark, wherein" are feveral Sulci or Furrows, is'ftreight, 

and <of *he r Bignefs of that of a Pear-Tree, ^dividing it felf towards 
the Top into ietferal Branches, having large, ; whole, fmooth, oval J ~ '" 
•Preen Leaves, tWb^Ihches and a half long, and one Inch broad in* the' MM 


a ftita1y, ; ^U6w, m ^ r 

It grows in the Low-la^d-Wo6'^evdr^ r ^ere^bbutihe?1rown^f^^ 

tyago de la Vega. 



•4 *— — *• 

The Natural MJior^of, J A M u Jl 1 C A. 9 i 

The Berries are eaten by Child 

J/jr. 4. y4/#2. /. 9 5 

. • '. . 


^t T ^> ^ ~ • r W ; JX/. 


Cerafo afflnis arbor h'ffifera raejm^J^reffatafetj^oJ^fhceogtittM 

/r##« coscweo monopyreqo vffifa) femine ru^ofy Cat. Jam. f. 169 

. ,-U J 

mcsUgwofoXmmL Hon 

^ura r$r m 

b '-— i . ^ :• . * J,. ' ,. . , , ^ •' / .. ^^ii'ilQL. b r 'ijA! ; id 

This Tree hasa ftreight undivided/JTrunc, about the Thickn'efs of p 

Body, having an almoft. fmooth,CIay cotodrd Bark, arid riling to rift 
high, having near the Top 

Leaves let on them w 

Dp, Branches on : e*exy *}$?& &W< 
thout any Order, by icarce any Fo 

e 1 wigs nave 

ootftalks, they 
fix Inches, lpng, almoft two broad in jhe Middle, where broadeft, 

Jhining, of a ■ liglit grefcn ,£61hur, Thefe Trees fheo! tjieu; Leaves abo 

the latter End of December, and in' February the Flowers come out 

the fyfa ,of jhe jaM Twigs, ftandipg mm t0 3^h 99 

pre of : a yellowifli g^ 

rown Spots, pencapwlp^aach Qt the./ 


when i;hey ^,v f e^fen fometime out, come the ^avw flcfo 
, and afterwards: the Fruit, which are fpflencal.jBerries, as b 


peas, of a fine fcarlet .Colour, hay'mg within' a th'm clammy or 
jvjfcid Pulp, one chequer^, rugous j Stone, .^hite, and tyvlng many fmall 
follows, or Cavities on its round; Surface. { vA . oI (U/ 

fiatt.: _ ( 

It grows with the former . _. , 

* The Berries are fat W Food to Gmnn Hens, .whence m the.Seafon 
when they are ripe, tftatFowhsmoftin.Requeft 

; :j- V ' ■• ■* ~ ^ 


XIII. Cfr4/i 4j?*« 4^c?r bdccifera racemofafruttpytruleo, monoftrenp y 


fiicuLtto. Cat. Jam. p. 169. W. 202. iv^. 2. A*//. jW/7/. ^i?/. j. D^Wr 

\u^A . \ V' , 

This Tree rifeth \)Y \ m^ny Tri^nqs as big as oi^es Leg, to thirty 
Foot high^ having Blanches hanging downwards, us coyerM with 
•an almoft (mooch, dark -grey Bark, haying at the Ends of the 


Twigs, feverai Leaves ftandmg oppofite one to .the other, on half Inc 
long Footftaiks, being four Inches long, and one and a half broad, in 
the Middle, where broadeft, from -the Footftalk, augmenting to the Mid- 
dle and from thence decreafing to a Point, being thin, fmooth, and of a 
ver'y dark. green Colour, .haviag a Middle Nerye.^d fome tranfverfe 
ones. The Fruit is a Clufter or. Uflbej of ferries ftanding on,three 
Inches Iong^green,braqphy Footftaiks, two alw.ays.ftickingclofe^r bping 
join'd togeefcr,. as if tefticulated. Tfhey are of a |d«ep blue Colour, and 

within a thin .fmall Pulp, r a , very, hard, f fmall, almoft round 

■^l, To ; T( 7fl 




Th\sisnottbG$tw4M4j»elpfidt.H.. t M. Part .6, f, 81. as to any who 
compares this Delcriptiqn and Figure wjth tfet,,may appear 

I 1 It grew on the Hoad which goes from, the Tow 

Plantation izGuwabQ^m the Woods pa^he red^jlls 

near the 

Colonel C^/> 

»., ii« > , l 

• • * r 

• -/ 


The Natural Hijlory of J A M A I C A. 

XIV. Cerafo forte affinis arbor racemofa,)olijs Uurinis ex adverfo nafcentl 
busfubtus albicantibus, flore fentapetaloide. Cat. Jam. p. 169. Tab. 189. Fig. 4 
Raij. HiH.Vol.^.Dendr.p. 46 

f he Branches of this Tree, which was very 


f not altogeth 

fame with the Precedent, had a whitifh ftriated, fmooth Bark, under 
which was a white folid Wood, it had towards the Ends, Leaves Iran 



nother, at about half 


Diftance, on orte 

and half as 

third of an Inch long Footftalks, about three Inches lon_ 

broad in the Middle, where broadeft, and from whence it decreafes to 

both the Beginning and Ending, having one middle, and fcveral tranfverfe 

ppearingRibs, being fmooth 
fh und 



dark green Colour above, and wh 

At the Top of the Branches ftand the Flowers in Bunches 
on branched Footftalks, many of them together, being fmall and divided 
into five Sections at the Orae, having feveral Stamina within in their 


r i 


the Woods of this Ifland 



I found it in 


XV. Jaftninum, pericljmeni folio, flore at bo, frutfu flavQ, rot undo, tetrapy 



am, P 


Tab. 204. Fig. i. Raij. Hist- Vol. 7. Dendr 



This Tree rifes to about eight or nine Foot high, having feveral T 

covered with a clay cofour'd or grey Bark, like that of Dogwood ; 

Branches have many Twigs, with feveral Leaves two Inches long and 


of a yellowifn green Colour, a little rough and hoary on the upper 
Side, and fomething refembling the Leaves of Periclymenum, (landing 
halt Inch long Footftalks ; the Flowers are many together on the Ends 

f the Branches, (landing on fmall Footftalks 

green Capfula,and 

in it a white Monopetaious Flower,' the Margin whereof is deeply divi 
ded into five Sections, to which fucceed fpherical Berries, as big as larg 



fame Colou 

of an Orange Colour, containing 



round Kernel 

gular Stones fet fo 


together as 

Pulp of the 
ro appear 

It grows in the Savanna Woods every where 



XVI. Jafminum Uurinis folijs, flore paHide luteo, fruttu atroearuleo, poly 
pyreno, vemnato. Cat. Jam. p. 169. Tab. 204. Fig. 2. Raij. Hist. Vol, ? 
^ j n JaT m i num Virginianum flore albo laurifolium. Banifitr, Cat 

Dendr- p 

Plant- Virg ? An Jafminum arborefcens, folijs folani, iaccis nigro-violaca 
Plum. Tournef. In ft. p, 598 ? 







This Tree has a whitifh, fmooth Bark, covering a ftreight Trunc, ri- 
fing to (even or eight Foot high, the Branches are many fpread on every 
Hand, fet towards their Ends with many Leaves on fhort Footftalks, 
fmooth, long, of a dark green Colour, growing 

then decreafing to a Point; the Flowers are manyrcoming out among the 
Leaves, of a very pale yellow Colour, monopetaious, tho' their Margin be 
very deeply notch'd by five Notches, making them feem five pointed or 

er to the Middle, and 

. 1 

ifh blue, or 



are fe- 

ows a black- 


j i r 

pentapetalous, having a long Tubulus or Cup, by which 
verally faften'd to the fame Footftalk, to each of which 

, v,» «v^ Purple Berry, 

having within a very juicy Pulp, a great many flat Seeds, all of the fame 


e, as big as a Field Pea 




• -« 

The Natural Hiftory of J A M A 1 C A. py 

It grows every where among the Shrubs and Buflies about the Town 

of St JagodeU Vega. 

The Berries are poilonous. 

A Branch of this Tree was fent me dryed by Dr. Richardfon which was 

ther'd by him in one of the Gardens in Holland, under the Title of Sola- 

g a 

nttm fruticofum latifolium non laciniatumfatidijpmum 

XVII. Jafminum folio integro obtufo, pre ctruleo racemofo, fructu flavo. 
Cat. ham. P. 169. Raij. Hip. Vol. 3. Dendr.p. 64. 

This Tree rifeth to about ten or twelve Foot high, by a Trunc as 
thick as one's Leg, cover'd with a white Bark, having near its Top, fe- 

veral Branches, with Leaves (landing in Tufts like thofe of the Cal 

bafh Tree, they are oppofite one Tuft to another, and towards the Top 
of the Branches come out Strings of many blue, monopetalous, fi 

pointed Flo 

follow fo many Berries, oval, larger than ordi 

y Corinths or Ribes, and containing in a fmooth yellow Skin, and 

great Pulp, feverai yellow Acini or Seeds. 

It grows about the Town of St. Jago de U Vega very plentifully, in fe 

veral Places. 

XVIII. Jafminum forte, folio myrtino, aliorum adminicub fefuflentan 
flore albicante racemofo. Cat. Jam. p. 169* Tab. 188. Fig. 3. Raij. Htfi. Vol. 3 
Dendr. p 64 , » , , 

} . \ 

This Shrub has a long trailing or bow'd down Stalk, round, of the 
Bignefs of ones Finger, dark brown, fmooth, and nine or ten Foot long, 
of it felf weak, creeping thro' and being fupported by Fingrigo or other 
Trees aitho' it does not climb or Turn round them, towards the Top it 
has feverai green Twigs, having always two Leaves, the one oppofite 

to the other, each of which is two Inches long and one broad in the 

Middle where broadeft, fmooth, fhiniug and pointed, having an eighth 
of an Inch long Footftalk. Ex eorum aU goes a three Inches long branched 
Stalk, the Top and Branches of which are fet with feverai fmall, green, 
whole Flowers, their Edges being &ve pointed, of a whtfifh Colo 

It grows among the Trees of the Woods in the Town Savanna toward 
Two-Mile-Wood. u 

, , • • - * f CI 2*1 

" \ iftA liiO . 11 


XIX. Jafminam forte, arboreum, folijs laurinis ex adverfo nafcentibus <xb- 
lonois acuminata pre albo. Cat. J*m. p. 169. Tab. 205. Fig.i. Raij. Hift. Vol. 
3.^.64. An Jafmwum arbor efcem, Uunjolio ■ odorattjTmo.fim albo. Plum. 

Tournef. Inf. p. 598 ? is jal . >f ; ■ 

This Tree which was fomewhat like the two foregoing, rtfeth to 
fifteen Foot high, has a very fmall Trunc, cover'd with a grey colour'd 


whitifh Bark, having towards the Ends of the <Braij<?hep Several Leav 
fet one oppofite to another on half Inch long FoqtftaJks, the Leaves 
are fix Inches long and two and a half broad in the Middle, where 
broadeft, from whence -they decreafe to both Ends, are fmooth, thick, and 

of a dark green Colour: at the Ends of the branches are many Flowe 

Handing in a Bunch together on fmall Twigs each ofrijem being very long 

moftly tubulous, white and divided towards the Edges into five Points 
It grows in the Woods over Mr. Batchelor's Houfe. 
This appears to be different from the Jafminpm IndicUm laurifolio in* 

odorum, umbellatumpribus coccineU. P. B. tho' Pluken. Phyt. Tab. 59. Fig. 2. 

Dr. Plukenet. p. 108. of his Manttffa thinks they may be t he fa me. A 

* ♦ » 

• ■ * ■* * » 

I Ol ■ ' " ' 





B b XXj 



The Natural Hijiory of J A M A I C A. 


XX. Jafmin urn forte, arboreum,folijs laurinis obtufis I at lor ib 

bus, ftore pent apetalo racemofo pur pure o rejlexo. Cat. Jam. p. 169. Tab. 200. 
Fig. 2. Raij. Hift. Vol. }. Dendr. p. 64. 

This Tree rifeth to about thirty Foot high, having a Clay or Afli- 
colour'djpretty fmooth Bark ; its Twigs are fet about with Leaves which 
are very fmooth, of a dark green Colour, having a quarter of an Inch long 
Footftalks, being four Inches long and two broad in the Middle, where 
broadeft, having an eminent middle Rib. The Flowers ftand on ieve- 
ral little Branches, being pentapetalous, purplifh, bow'd back, having 
yellow Stamina in their Middle. 

It grows on the Mountains near Mr. Elletforfs Plantation in Liguanee. 

XXI. Mali folio fubtus albicante arbor baceifera, ligno duriJJimo,frutfu mo- 
nopyreno rubro^officulo c annul at 0. Cat. Jam, p, 170. Tab. 206. Fig. 1. Ratj. 
Hift. Vol. $ . Dendr. p. 61. Sideroxylum American am feu lignum duritie fzr 
rum xmulans. Pluken* Pbjt. Tab. 224. Fig. 2. Jim- p. 346. 

Iron- Wood. 

This Tree grows to about twenty Foot high, having a fmooth, whi- 
tiih or grey Bark, crooked Branches, and towards their Ends fe* 
veral Leaves, very fmooth, thin, two Inches and a half long and one and 
a half broad, of an oval Figure, whitifh on the underfide, and fomething 
refembling thofe of a Pear-Tree, Handing on very fhort Footftalks, as 
do the Flowers, which are many, coming out among the Leaves ; 'the 

ies ftand fingly each on an eighth of an Inch long Footftalk, having 
within a reddifh Skin and Pulp, an angular, cannuiated, oblong Stone. 

The Wood is very hard, whence the Name. 

It grows in the Savanna Woods in feveral Places. 

XXII. Baecifera racemofafruticofa Buxi folio nervofo adfummitates laticri, 
fruttu amaro monopyreno. Cat. Jam. p. 176. Raij. Hift. Vol. 3. Dendr. p. 61. 

This Shrub rifes to three or four Foot high ; the Trunc is cover'd with 
an almoft fmooth Afh-colour'd Bark ; the Leaves come out of the Branches 
at half an Inch's Diftance, (landing out on one 10th of an Inch lon<* Foot- 
ftalks, are an Inch long and 3 quarters of one broad, from being narrow 
growing round and broader to the Point ; they are very green, fmooth, 
ard, and thick, having a middle Rib and feveral tranfverfe ones. The 

Fruit ftands feveral together, on very fhort and crooked Footft 
coming out ex alts foliorum ; they are very red Berries, of a round 
comprefs'd Figure, bigger than Barberies, having within a bitterifh Pulp, 
a Stone of the fame Figure with the Berry, containing a white Kernel, 
It grew on the Hills between Mr. Bernard's and Mr. Freeman's Planta- 



This feems to me to be quite differing from theXerafaHottentotorum&c. 
Pluken. Phyt. Tab. 82. Fig. 5. tho 7 Dr. Pluk. p. 43. Mam. thinks thev may 

be the fame.- Neither is it the Buxw, &x\ figured bv him, Tab. 80/ as he 
there fufpefts. 

< . 1 . 




XXIII. Salicu folio lato fplendente^ arbor, floribus parvu pallide lutets 

fentapetalis tramulorum latertbus confertim exeunttbus. Cat. "Jam. p. 170. 
Tab. 206. Fig J r / 

.i i 

This Tree (which was in many Things like the preceding, tho' I know 

not the Fruit) has a Trunc as thick as ones Thigh, cover'd with a reddifh 


. ' ■ 

• " « - . v- 

The Natural Bijiory of J A M A I C A 

nd almoft fmooth Bark 


having feveral Branches rifing to twenty or thirty 
the Twigs being loaded with feveral Leaves 

foot high, the Ends ot the Twigs being loaded with feveral ^ 
fet without any Order round them, they ftand on half Inch long Footftewo 
are 2 Inches long, and not above three quarters of one broad, foft fmooth 
having a whitifh middle Rib, and being of a dark green Colour broad 


eft in the Middle, whence it grows 


Flowers come out in Tufts from the Branches 

towards both Ends 


{landing on an eighth of an Inch long Footftaik 


fmall, pale yellow 

a Stamen (tending up 

three or four to- 

having five C 




is verv 

ery one as it were 

It grew on the red Hills between Gaanaboa and the Town 



By the Figure and Defcription of this it appears different from th 

Sali x arbor folliculift 

phyllos lucide atrorvirentib 


Black- Sallow Barbadenfebas vulgo Pbyt. Pluk. Tab 

tho 1 the Dr 


of h 


a, queftions 

t folijs Ameri- 
. Ftg* 2. Aim. 

it be not the 


XXI V. Arbor Baccifera, flore luteo mon'opetalo diffor mi , fr utt u fpl 
gricante monopyreno. Cat. Jam. p. 170. Raij. Hift. Vol. 7. Dendr. p. 6 

This Tree has fe 


with a fmooth almoft wh 


Truncs as thick as ones Leg, cover'd 

ting to twenty Foot 

"*-" r ; %« . #T . *«••*»» Hung iu Lwciuy root nign, tne 

Branches and Twigs ftanding upright, on which are the Leaves 

placed alternatively on one tenth of 

Inch long Footftalks, being 

Inch and a half long and three quarters of one broad in the Middle, where 
broadeft, fhining, thick, fmooth, of a yellowifh Colour, and having a Mid- 
dle Rib. ■*- '' r '-- -•- - ™ 

Ex alls foliorum come the Flowers, one 

ing fmall, galericulated 

Hated, of 

or more 

pale yellow Colou 



of which follows a fphericai blackifli Berry, as big as a Field Pea 

containing with 



Pulp a very larg 


nd whitilh Seed or 

It grows on the Red H 

going to Guanaboa, very plentifully 

t , 


XXV. Berber is fruttu arbor maxima baccifera racemofa 9 folijs integris cbt 

albo pentapetalo dor at tflimo , fruttu nigro monopyreno. Cat. J, 

70. Tab. 206. Fig. 1,&^ Raij.Htft.Vol. 3. Dendr. p. 61 


1 1 . ' 1 v. m 



This grows to one 

the largeft Trees, of thisIQand, rifing fixty FoO* 

high, ftreight, affording very large and good Timber, cover'd with a wh. 
tifh brown wreath'd Bark, which hangs down or flicks loofly to the Body 
of the Tree, looking like Hemp, or the Cannabis Bark after 'tis fteep'd and 
peePd off of the Stalk- Towards the Ends of its Branches come the Lea 
Handing pretty thick without any Order on half Inch long Footftalks, three 
Inches and a half long, and one and a half broad in the Middle where 
broadeft, narroweft at the Bafe, of a frefh green Colour ; at theEnds of the 
Branches come fix Inches long Strings, like the Strings of Ribes to which 


the Flowers are faften'd, they 

white, pentapetalous, and 
follows a roundilh, firft green 

many, ftend in 



extremely fweet fcented, to each of which 


fmooth Berry, in a thin Pulp, inclofing 


yellow, and when ripe, black, 

• large oval or roundi/h 


It grows very plentifully in feveral Places about the Town of St, Jago 
di U Vega and in the Low-land Woods. 

I do 


i oo The Natural Hifiory of J A M A I C A. 

1 do not queltion but a very fweet fmelling EiTence might be made of 

this Flower. 

The Wood is very much ufed in Buildings, &c. 

There is another Sort of this with a finger'd or palmated Leaf, grow- 
ing to be one of the largeft Trees in the Ifland, with the like Bark with 
this/concerning which I know nothing, only that in felling it, when they 
come near the Pith, a Water fpurts out which is ufcd to be drank by 
fome here in Lieu of fair Water. 

XXVI. Berber is frutfu, arbor baccifera racemoj Ca f folijs integris acnminatis 
frutfu rot undo monopyreno. Cat. Jam. p. 170. 

This Tree rifeth to about thirty or forty Foot high, by a Trunc a; 
thick as ones Thigh, cover'd over in feveral Places, with almoft loofe 


round Pieces of Bark, of a grey Colour, under which is a fmooth, reddifh 
brown Bark. It has towards its Top, feveral Branches on every Hand, 
the Twigs having here and there, feveral Leaves coming out alternative- 
ly, {landing on an eighth of an Inch long Footftalks, being two Inches 
long,and a quarter of one broad in the Middle where broadeft, ending ina 
Point; they are fmooth, of a very deep Grafs green Colour, having "a 
middle Rib and fome tranfverfe ones running to the Sides from it. At 
the Tops of the Twigs come Strings, three Inches long, containing fe- 
veral roundifh, green Berries, faften'd to it by very fhort Footftalks, which 
have within a very fmall Pulp a thin, brown, Shell, in which is contain'd 
a Kernel, purple on the outilde. 

It erew in a Wood between Two-Mile- Wood and the Town of St. 

J ago de la Vega. 

XXVII. Rhamnus foliis buxeis minimis confertim hafcetttibus, fpinis longis 
armata. Cat. Jam. p. 216. Tab. 207. Fig. 1. Raij. Hifi. Vol. 3. Dendr. 

i ;.:..:! 

This Shrub was woody, cover'd with a fmooth, greenifh Bark, from 

which went feveral Leaves growing in Tufts together, three or four at the 

fame Place, each whereof was fmall, of the Confidence of Box Leaves, 

fmooth, green, narrow at the Beginning, growing wider to the End 

where they were roundilh, from thefe Leaves come out two Thorns 
about half an Inch long, green and fharp, among them alfo comes the 
Fruit, which is fmall, and a feemingly coronated Berry, fo that I am 
not certain if it ought to continue here or not. 
It grew in Jamaica whence it was brought by James Harlow, and given 

by Dr. Sherard 




) ■ ■ , • < J ' r 

XXVIII. Baccifera Indie a trifolia,fructu rxXundo monopyreno. Raij. Hi ft 
p. 1 593. Molago Mar am. Hort. Mai. Part 5. p. 49. Tab. 42. Cat. Jam. 

70.. I *b. 20S. Fig. 1. Arbufcula Jamaicenjis baccifera hederx Virg 
joUjs crajfwribus Jubtus lanugmofis. PlukentteAlm. p. 48, & 49. Tab. ,267 
Fig. 4. Pbjf 1 ■•!•-.- 


This Tree rifeth to about thirty Foot high with a Trunc about 
Tlncknefs of ones Thigh, cover'd with an Afh-colour'd, fmooth brown- 
ifh Bark, the Arms and Branches fpreadingi'-themfelves on every Hand, 
at the Ends of the Twigs (which %/ith che Leaves Footftalks are ruffet 
colour'd and hairy; come the Leaves without anyOrder, three always toge- 
ther on the fame 2 Inches long Footftalks from the Top of which they take 
their Beginning, being each ot them four Inches and a half long, and two 
Inches broad in the Middle, where broadeft, of a very dark green Co- 
lour above, and woolly underneath^ooThe Flowers are very numerous, 


The Natural Hiftory of J A M A I C A. 101 

whitifli yellow, fmall, fet very thick and clofe to one another, round 

Inch and a half long Stalk or Spike, exa&ly like a Julus ; three or 


four of thefe Spikes are fet on the fame Inch and a half long Foot 
ftalk, feveral of which come from the Ends of the Twigs. To 
thefe Flowers follow a great many very fmall Orange colour'd, fmooth, 
Berries, about the Bignefs of a fmall Pin's-Head, having within a thin 
Pulp, a fingle large Acinus or Stone, which hath in a very thin and brit- 
tle Shell a large Kernel in Proportion to the Fruit. 

It grows on the red Hills and on the other Woody Hills of this Ifland, 

very plentifully. 

This refembles very much the MaiUElou y H.iM. p.^.p. i. tho'it be 

in fome Things differing from it, but it feems rather to be the Molago* 

Mar am, Ej. p> 49 


The Pulp of thefe Berries is fo dry and little, that it may be doubted 
whether they ought not to be reckon'd amongft xhokfrutfu per maturi- 
tatem ficco, but the Evonjmi and fome others reckon'd Bacciferous will 
keep them here. 



XXIX. Baccifera trifolU racemofa, flofculis albis tetrapetalis^fratfti nigro 
monopyrtno fcetido* Cat* Jam. p. 170. Raij Hift. Vol. j. Dendr. p» 60. Arbor 

Jamaicenfts denfiori till* folio tripbyMo ftoribus coattius feu fpijfius dispofitis*, 

Pluk. Phyt. Tab. 147. Fig. 5. & 276. Fig. ? An Iperoba BraftL Marcgr.Lib. ?* 

?• 97 

This Shrub rifes to fix or feven Foot high, with a ftreight Trunc, 
whofe Bark is almoft fmooth, and of a dark brown Colour ; the Branches 
Ends fuftain very many Leaves, three always together, of a frefh green 
Colour, ftanding on an Inch long Footftalk *, the Ends' of the 

are branched into a great many Footftalks, fuftaining many tetrapeta- 
lous, fweet fcented Flowers, very fmall and white, to which follow as 
many black, round Berries bigger than a Pepper-Corn, fmooth and con- 
taining in a blackifh, ftinking Pulp, one white oval Stone or Seed, 
made up of a thin brittle Film, and a green, pretty large Kernel. 
It erows about the Banks of the Rio Cobre near the Town of St. 

Jag9 de I a Vega. 




7 • t ' % 


XXX. Baccifera fruticofa, pre luteo pentafetaloide, fruftu purpureo mo 
nopyreno. Cat. Jam. p. 170. Raij. Hift. Vol. 3. Dendr. p. 604 . sri 

This Shrub fends out a Stalk cover'd with a reddiih brown Barki; the 
Branches are jointed and rife to four or five Foot high; the Leaves 
ftand oppofite one to another on very fmall Footftalks, .at the Ends 
of the Twigs, being three Inches^ long and one broadtun the Middle 
where broadeft, narrow at the Beginning and End, of a yellowifh green 
Colour, to which, follows a Purple Berry, bigger than a Pepper-Corn, 
containing in a Purple Pulp, one irregularly figured white Stone. 

It grew near the Town of St. Jago de la Vega in feveral Places. 


* • * 

XXXI. Berber is f rutin fruticofa racemofa, fraxini folio alato, fruttu nigro 
dipyreno. Cat. Jam. p. 170. Tab. 208- Fig. 2. Raij. Hift. Vol. $. Dendr. 
f. 65. 

«• i»i» 

This Shrub rifes to nine or ten Foot high, having a Trunc about 
the Bignefs of ones Arm, cover'd with an almoft fmooth, dark brown 
Bark with fome white Spots on it, the Twigs have at their Ends fe* 
veral Leaves placed without any Order, winged, and very like thofe 
of Afh ; the Pinna: are for the moft Part odd in Number, being feven 

very often fet on, at an Inch's Diftance, to the middle Rib agamft one 




™— — — 

The, Natural Hifiory 


another, tho' fometimes they are not oppofite ; each Pinna is about two 
Inches long and one broad in the Middle, where broadeft ; from the Ends 
of the Twigs hang down feverai Strings one Foot long, having at every 
half or quarter of an Inch's Length, a Knot or Tuft of pale yellow, trian- 
gular, fmall Flowers, to which follow Berries oblong, red at firft, and after- 
wards blackifh, each of which inclofes two oblong, brown Acini or 
Stones, flat on one Side and round on the other, the whole looking 
like a String of Berberies. 

It grows in a Gully beyond the Town towards the Angels, and on 
the Road's Side, between PafTage-Fort and the Town, very abundantly. 

Entada. H. M. p* 9./. 151. Tab. 77. is A-kin to this. 

XXXII. Buxi folio m ajor e acuminato arbor baccifera,fruc7u minor* 

dip j. 
p. 65 

Cat. jam. fi!jti Tab. 209. Jig- I. Raij.' Hill. Vol. }. Dendr 
An Buxus lauri Alexandrine folijs accedens Americana, Pluk. Phyt 

Tab. 80. Fig. 6. Aim. p. 74 ? 



ftreight, cover'd with a whitifh g 

Trunc as big as the fmall Part of ones Thigh 

d, fmooth Bark 



twenty or thirty Foot high, near the Top come out feverai crooked 
Branches, the Ends of which have feverai Leaves alternatively plac'd 
round them at a quarter of an Inch's Diftance, (tending on an eighth 
of an Inch long Footftalks, they - . . 


broad in the Middle where broadeft 

Inch's Diftance, ftanding 

an Inch long and tnree quarters 

, a little hollow, fmooth 
and of a yellowilh green Colour, almoft like the Leaves of Box. The 
Fruit is a fmatt round Berry, ftanding on the fixth of an Inch long 
Footftalk, e x alu foliorum % not fo big as a Pepper-Corn, having a thin 
almoft dry orange colour'd Skin, with two Seeds in their Capfula's 

gether as if tefticulated 

It grew near the fandy Road between the Crawl Plantation and Pafi 





XXXIII. Buxi folio minore integro rotundo baccifera arbor fruclu minore 



Cat. Jam. p. 171. Tab 


Raij. Hift. Vol 



with a whitifh 

Trunc as thick as the Calf of 

d, almoft fmooth Bark 



the Top is ten or twelve 

Foot high ; along the Twigs at tvcry quarter of an Inch's Diftance 
are Tufts of Leaves three or four together, coming out of a fmall Pro 

tuberance ; they have no Footftalks, and from 

narrow Beginning 

almoft round, of about three quarters of an Inch diameter, with a 
little Notch or Dcfcd; oppofite to the Stalk, fmooth, and of a yel- 
lowi/h green Colour. The Berries are fmall, ftanding feverai together 
by Tufts, being almoft round, fmooth, of a reddifh Colour, containing 
under a very thin Pulp, a very hard Shell, in which lie two Stones 
jom'd together each of which contains 

It grew on the Sands by Pajfage-Fort 

a very fmall white Kernel 



Myrti folio angufio acuminato, arbo 

fulcato feu cannulato dipy 

Hift. Vol. 3. Dendr. p. 66. 

This Tree had a fmooth 


Cat. Jam 

racemofa baccifera, frutftt 






d Bark, and 

*. .* *• 

a Trunc riling 


bout fifteen Foot high, having a hard white Wood, and feverai 

were at their Ends, placed moftly oppofite 
to another, having fcarce " ~ " 

Branches whole Leaves 

any Footftalks 

long, and about half as broad in the Middle, 

an Inch 

where broadeft, and whence 


"™^ M ■ " M • j 

F/x? JVtfarviZ fi//fery 0/ J A M A I C A. r 03 

they decreafe to both Extremes, being fmooth and equal on the Ed? 

On the Ends of the Twigs come the Flowers in fmall Bunches, being 

oblong and of a pale Colour, to which follow federal oblong Ber. 
biggeft in the Middle, and when dry channel'd with Furrows, havi 
within it two flat oblong Acini, which are pretty large 
It grew on the red Hills over Mr. Bachelor's Houfe. 

, naving 


XXXV. Lyciunu buxi folio rotundiore integro flore purpareo tetrapetalo r 
J finis validtffimis & longis arm a turn. Cat. J am. p. 171. Tab. 210. Fig. y. 

Raij. Hi ft. Vol. 3. Dendrp. 7 J. An Al at emus Americana, fpinofiffima, buxi 

folio. Plum. Tournef. Infi.p. 596 ? pi. Amer. p. 17 .? An Berber dis facie ar- 

bu/cula Americaua fpinofa folijs lycio nonmhil fimilibus. Htrm. par. Bat. pr. 
p> 217? 

This Shrub has a Stem or Trunc as big as ones Thumb, cover'd 
with a fmooth, greenifli Bark, branch'd now and then into feveral 
Twigs, rifing to three or four Foot high, along which, come out al- 
ternatively the Leaves, at three quarters of an Inch's Diftance, they 
are almoft oval, ftand on very fhort Footftalks, have a three 
quarters of an Inch long Prickle almoft at every Leaf, whichis 
three quarters of an Inch long and half as broad, thick, fmooth, 
fhining, of a yellowifh green Colour. The Flowers come out ex 
alls Foliorum, being many on fhort Footftalks, tetrapetalous and purple 
with yellow Stamina. 

It grew near the Hog-Holes in the Savanna by the Town of St. Jaga 

dela Vega. 

Whoever compares the Figure and Defcription of this with thofe of 

the Lycium Mjrti folijs fubrotundis Amertcanum laclefcens limbis foliorum ar- 


gentatis. Pluk. Phyt. Tab. 97. Fig. 7. Aim. p. 234. will hnd them diffe- 

rent, tho' Dr. Pluk. p. 122. of his Mantijfa thinks they may be the 


XXXVI. Evonjmut) caudice non ramofo, folio alato, frutfu rot undo tripy- 
reno. Cat. Jam. p. iji. Tab. 210. Fig* 2, & $. Raij. Hilt. Vol. j. Dendr. 

ui .J . 

p. JO. 

This Tree has feveral Truncs as thick as ones Arm, by which it 
riles to twenty Foot high, without any Branches, 'tis cover'd with a 
reddiih brown, fmooth Bark, except the Remainders of the Foot- 
ftalks of the Leaves. Towards the Top come out on all Sides of 
the Trunc, feveral fmall two Inches long Stalks or Branches, fuftain- 
ing on all Hands, a firft green, then purplifh round Fruit, which when 
it comes to its Maturity, is as big as a great Garden-Pea. The Foot- 
ftalk by which 'tis faften'd to the Stalk, is half an Inch long, and 

the outward Skin breaks into three Membranes expanding themfelves 

each of them having a Creft or Rifing in their Middle, and (hewing 

..l -i /l *.- i._ j:/i:.a rr \Z rj ~., — ' .:.u - -I.:- r 

three almoft triangular diftinft Kernels, cover'd over with a thin fear- 
let Pulp. On the Tops of the Branches come, without any Order, the 
Leaves, they are winged, the middle Rib a Foot long, the Pinnae are 
fet at an Inch's Diltance, oppofite one to the other, with an odd one at 
the End, they are an Inch and a half long, and an Inch broad in the Mid- 
dle, where broadeft, are pointed at the Ends, andftand on an eighth of 
an Inch long Footftalks, being fmooth, and of a dark green Colour; 
They a^e found in feveral Places about the Crawl Plantation. 

I • 


- t 

i oa. The Natural Hijlory of J A M A I C 



XXXVII. Vittiyfruciu minor e, rubro, acerbo, folio fubrot undo win us I act* 
mato,fubtus alba lanugine teffo. Cat. 'Jam. -p. 171. Tab, 210. Fig 4. Raij. 

Hift. Vol. 3. Dendr.p.6$. Iritis Vulpina Virginian*, Fux grape from Vir 

ginia* Trade/cant. p. 77. An Vitis Vinifera fylvtftris Virgirnana alba 

ejufd.ib? Vitis Vulpina dicta Virginiana vigra. Pluk. Aim. p. $92. An Vi- 
tis Vulpina dicla Virgtniana alba. Ej. ib ? An Fit is Amtricana folijs Cyla- 

tnini, uva corymbofa Minis nigr ic ant ibus . Plum. Tournef. lnfi p. 614. pL A- 
weric. f.i%? 

Water -With. 

This Plant has a Trunc as thick as ones Leg, as to Manner of Growth, 

Bark, Heighth, &c. exactly refembling the ordinary Vine, having its 
Branches cover'd with a white Down, and here and there Twigs, op- 
pofite to which are five or fix Inches long Clavicles ; the Twigs have 
here and there Leaves ffanding on Inch long Footitalks, they are cor- 
dated and roundiih near the Shape of our Vine-Leaf, but not fo much 
ferrated, corner'd or indented about the Edges, two Inches over, foft, 
green on the Upper Side, and very white underneath. The Fruit is a 
pretty large Bunch offmali Grapes, about the Bignefs of Corinths, red 
or deep Purple colour'd, round, of a pleafant acerb or auftere picquant 

It grows on the red Hills by the Road going to Guanaboa, among the 
\/oods, and in feveral other Places of thislfland, the Fruit being ripe 

in September. 

The Fruit, tho' fomewhat auftere, with its fweetifli Piquancy is not 
unpleafant, and is very much eaten as well by Way of Diiert as made 
into Tarts. 

This Vine growing on dry Hills in the Woods where no Water is to 
be met with, its Trunc if cut into two or three Yard long, Pieces, 
and held by either End to the Mouth, there ifTues out of it fo 
tifully, a limpid, innocent and refrefhing Water or Sap as gives new 
Life to the droughthy Traveller or Hunter, whence this is very much 

lebrated by ail the Inhabitants of thefe Iflands, as an immediate Gift 
of Providence, to their diftrefs'd Condition. 


This was found in Columbus his fecond Voyage, but the Fruit not 

liked by them, as Peter Martyr relates. 

The Stalks and Leaves are adftringent, cold, and dry, they excite 
Appetite, cure the Ring-worm, repel Tumors, extinguifli Heat, cure 
Inflammations of the Eyes, Fevers, and the Pain of Ulcers ; they dry 
up Matter, Hernandez^ who wonders the Indians made no Wine of 
the Fruit, when they made fo many other Sorts of Liquors with which 
they were drunk, he thinks thefe Vines might be made very good 
by Culture, and Ximenes allures us that they grow very plentifully in Flo* 
rida y and wonders they did not cultivate them there. 

The Indians of Efpanola made no Wine of thefe Grapes, which Go- 
mara wonders at, they being given to Drunkennefsw tj 

The Vine grows wild in .Arabia^ljle des Rats, &c. Th 

The Juice mix'd with Oil cures yellow Eyes ; the Root mix'd wi 
Coco-Nut-LMilk and Oil, cures Boils, Puftules and Carbuncles ^the Jui 
of the Root with Sugar is Cathartic, evacuating Phlegm. H. M. 



The Natural Hi/lory of ] A M A I C 




was in 



1 Thei 

Colon's fecond Voyage difcover'd in St. J ok 
,f. 104. and was found cultivated and good at IjabtlL 

les de Mendoza, ap. HakL />. 386. found thefe V 



1 w* 1 

d E- 

m A 

The fame were obferved in Mechuacan by Chilton ap, HakL p. 3 
and by Hunks ap, HakL p- $. p. 464. about Af 

many wild Grapes 




Woods (aoout Laos J Gap- 

ar da Cruz,, Purchas, lib 

They went on Land 

Cod, Parch as. lib 

Great Trees 



d found goodly Grapes, Hudfon near 
6.,/. 587 


nd Vines laden with black Grapes of plea fa 


were obferved by Oviedo in his Summary, ap. Eden, p- 206. and lib, 8. c 




El Panola 



Bufhes over-grown with Vines were found by Gofooll 
7. in the Ifles 





the North of Vir 

And in Viroinia s Smith 






* / 



/V^i/4 Francia. p, 276; Efcaibot,& p. 17. where 

fchey are black* Tome fmall, others as big as Plumbs, /£. p. 9$ 

they know not the Ufe of Grapes, fpitting them 

d whe 

b. />. 97 


de Gomara tells us that they 

Indies. Hi (I. Gen, cap 


pe in March 





• ' 1 

* / 


n 1 


d<? Verazzano, ap. HakL p. 297. fuppofes that they may make good 

away the under Boughs that they may ripenj 

row in }4 ,c> N. Lat. and are fweet when 


when they efteem them 

dryed, Ramnus,p, 4 

Laudonmere, de la Floride, p, 3. ap. HakL p. 3 



obferved them in 

Florida, p, 41. bearing Quantity of Fruit, afiHakl.p. 3V23 



Thefe Vines were feen along the R 

of Canada- with much Fr 

fo larg 





by Jacques Cariier^ p, 44A. av. p.tranjlat. af t 
i . ti : £Tji 'i j l 

/&£/. p. 21 _ _ 

Notice is taken in the firft Voyage to Virginia; ap. HM, pi 246 J of 

credible "Numbers of Vines thereon little a$ ; we1l as *?reatJTrees> 


- Numbers of Vines there On little aswell as ^great'T 
find fraall'a^ldfowrGra^s , idbferv , d , by Harriot, hp. 

HakL p. 16%. 
Virginia, as well as Grapes which were lufei^us fweet aud large. 
Champlain ap, Purchas, p. 161 1. takes Notice in Canada of fair Grapes, 

whofe Ufes 

are not 
And wild tall V 

known, *£ 

a > * * 



ing up the Ti:ea$-"'iri 'Florid* -by 

, V * 




Something like this PVater-With was obfei ved-in Amboina. t v\z. A Rarity 

Portugal of Elvas, v, 66, Purchas. 154 


me. in Nat 

or T 




in the Woods of this llland a Fla 


or w 

I fh 

call it I know not, in Sub 

ftance much like to the Body of 

or fi 
Sprig or Sp 



Length- five or fi 

Ivy, in Form like a H 




the one End faft in the Ground, the other hVd to 

the, Limb of a great T 

thereolViand fo per£endicular,rthat it is very difpiitabl 

Fathom or: better diftant from the Body 

whether it 

grows up from the Ground or' ffoiti 

This Rope is of firmffoli'd Woold^Av 


mb of the Tree to the Ground 


ny 1 Concavity, and-} 

t it 




Rent! gbod j te'tf ^wdf fweet- Wifd^r; and a^ frefh as from 
k nor.: doth it hettitf.adfWi^of«'»ny Di(Hn6>ion or Diftb- 

be the more delicate •• According ; to your Companies 


lefs thereof, distributing 


one the' 1 Quantity ; o£i^wb 

bouts and they^fhall have fufflc^t, fof ev^ry Piece Will 

rui\;tor the Value of a Piuc or'thereabautsV'and that in an Inltant 5-^ 
itra:oge v tefrefhing toiithofe * that travel 1 t^hoftqhigh and %y ''MdonfoioV 
my fclf did find by good Experience,- FtoJAbtrk'tfap, ¥utih*s, If&i j. cap 

$ \p,6y%. of Amboi 


XXX V 1 1 f 



The Natural Hiftory o/JAMAICA. 

XXXVIII. Arbor bacczfera, folio fubrotundo t fruclu ccrafno fulcato rubro 
polypyreno, cjficulis e annularis. Cat Jam. p. 172. Tab. 207. Fig. 2. Raij* 
Hi (I. Vol- }. Dtndr.p. 74. Cerafus Jamaicenfis fruflu tetraf>yrtno y CommeL 
ti)ft. Arnjt.p. 145. An Malpighia Mali pumci facie, Plurn> pi. Amer, p. 46 ? 

Barbados-Cherries> or Cherry-Tree. 



about fifteen Foot high, having fe 

d with. a clay colour'd, fmooth Ba 

out on every Hand, making a pleafant round Head 

Twigs two and two oppofit 

/eral Truncs 
many Branches fpread 

and fending out 


one another, cover'd with Leaves fet 

fe againft one another; for the moft Part the Leaves 


fmooth, very green 





g Footftalk 

g very fmall Fooiftalks, an Inch long and three 

is made 

mong which come out the Flowers ftanding 

fifting of five Petala 

of wh 

Bl » J ) vuuuuiug wi iivv luaia, vov.u ui IS UlilUV; 

being narrow at the Beginning, and round pr broad 

towards the End, and of a purple Colou 


g Footftalk 

thefe follows on an Inch 

d, having one or more Furrows or Channels on. its Outfid 




d red Fruit of the Bignefs of a Cherry, fmooth 


are fo accom 

thin a reddifh, fweetifh, not unpleafant, cop 
triangular fulcated Stones, whofe Sides 

modated to one another as feem to make one round one with feveral 


on its Outfide 

Being thought a pleafant Fruit, they are planted in moil: Gardens 
where fome fmall Time after Rain one never 

mi lies 

They are not only ufed by way of Difert, but likewife 

tipe Fru 


fick Peo 

pie, whofe Stomachs languifh ; they difpel Wind, and take away the 
Qualmilhnefs of the Stomach: If given with fome Sugar they are 

good for 

Breaft, Pifc 

The firft Edition of Pifo anjd Mangrove hath the fame Cut of this Tree 
which is truer than that in thelaft Edition of that Book fet forth by Pifo. 





in Commelin 


Am ft. Fig. 79 


to this 

. , » 




XXXIX. Arbor baccifera> folio oblongo fubtilifftmis fp 

frutfu cerafino Julcato polypy 

Tab. 207 

fficulis. c annul at is 


fubtus obfu 
Jam. p. j 


Ratj. Hifi. Vol. 3. Dendr. p. 74. Mefpilus Am 


folio lato, fubtus fpinofo, fruflu rubro, Plum. Tournef Intl. p. 6 a 
pighta angufiijoha olifo fubtus fpinofo. Plum. pi. Am. p. 46 




• • 


Couhage Cherry 


I 3 J 



M *** ■ 

) W 



Tree hath a (freight Trunc 






Leg, cover'd with a 

there are fom 

ihaped like thofe of Bay 1 

ght brown, fmooth Bai 

fome Knots as thick 

as ones 

nly he 

very fuperficial Sulci, appearing on it ; the Lea 

d like thole pt Bay Trees but have this peculiar to them, that 

under Surface are very thick fet with very fmall fharp Prickles lying 

long clofe to the Leaf which fills ones Hand or Fie fh coming to tou 
* lull ot Prickles, as likewife their Cloaths, tha 

>able Time before 

the Flowers ftand on Footftajk 

it will be 

can be freed from fo troublefome Camp 


h of which. h 
End like a Spoo 


many at the fame Place in one Tuft 


Petala beginning narrow, and having 

thefe there follow 

pale purple Cololi 



within jirhich are yellow 




Fruit about thd Bignefs and lik 

^ 4 

\ » 

i ' J >\ • A. ^ 

^6 /that 

«S ' -" *.-* 

The Natural Bijlory of JAMAICA. 



that Fruit here called Barbados-Ch 

ft before defcrib'd, wh 


. * r ■" ^ " «-»»-wvwwfw, |uii uw, u ,w uwuiuu, WHICH IS OI 

tnc bigness of the European Cherry, of the fame Colour, with ibme 

Sulci in it, and contains within aVeddifh fucculent Pulp, fe 


deeply furrowed 

yellow Acini or Seeds 


wardmoft Sides whereof, are very 

It grows between that Part of the Town of St. Jago de la Vega, called 
Troopers-Quarters, and the RioCobre,znd near the old Monafterv. 

The fcarce perceivable Prickles lying on the under Side of this Leaf wll 


make themfel 

be felt 

touching Or coming 


XL. Arbor baccifera, myrti folio tatiore, fracta nigro cerafino dtp) 

Jam. p. 172. Raij. Rift. Vol. ?. Dend 


mil a in ericetis arenarijs p 


An Cera jus Barbadenfis p 

the Sandy Heath-Cherry die! 

Aim. p. 94 ? Vel, An Cerafus Africana, frucJu caruleo ex codice Compt 

Ejufd. Phyt. Tab. 1 57, Fig. 5 ? ~ r 







The Branches of this Tree are cover'd with a brown Bark, with wh 

on it here and 

the Lea 

like thofe of the Mjrtus Latifolia 

fet one againft anoth 
Fruit /lands on v a fmali 

Inch long Footft 

, exa&iy 
ghth of 


very thin black Skin, with a very fmall Purpl 

eluding two white Stones 

that the two comprefs'd Sides being 


Black Cherries, whence the Name, having 

md fweeti/h Pu/p, in 

flat on one Side, Sphaerical on the other, fo 



they make one 



It grew in the Woods over Mr. Batchelor^s Houfe bn the red Hills. 
If this be the Black- Cherfy-Tree mentioned by Tomfon dp. Hakl.f. 454 
it groweth about Mexico. 


XLI. Solani fruttu fruticofa,folijs lauritiis oblongis integrv fubtus hir/i, 

flore minor e purpureo. Cat. Jam, p. 17?. Tab 


Fig. I. & Tab. 211. Fig 


Raij. Hi ft. Vol. 1. Dendr.p. 75. Arbor Sycophora Jamaicenfts folijs minor ib us 
Plukenet. Phyt. Tab. 266. tig. 2. Solanumfrutefcens Brafilianum folio capfic 
baccis rubrit. Herm. Par. Bat. pr. p. j-jy. An Solanum Cafficum dictum arbor ef- 
ts ob 

Americanum nigrum, foltjs obfeariw virentibus Uvioribufq-, ejr 

tufts feu ft felt jEthiopici Jrutefeentis, Breyn. Pr. 2d 

. As to Manner of Growth, this Teems to have fome Relation to the fore- 
going, tho* I cannot be certain, never having feen the Fruit. The Branches 
f this Shrub had a grey, fraooth, ftriated Bark, and a white Wood un- 


it, and Leaves ftanding 

Twigs, oppofite 


Footftalks, being about an Inch and an half long, and half 
as broad iri the Middle, where broadeft, from whence they decreased 

under Side 

to both the Beginning and End, being rough 

alls foliorum, towards the Top, ftand the Flowers on one third of 


Inch long Footftalk 

or fometimes two being on the fame Pet 

lous Ca 

of which is fmall and Purplifh colour'd, ftanding 



where I do 



found it in Jamaica, - 
Defcription is taken from the dryed Sampl 

nly reme 
found in 

« 1 V 

b 1. 




This is not Solanum lndicum laurinis dnguftioribus, folijs maximum 

H. R. H. Aim. p. 550, and figured by Dr. Pluk 

Phyt.Tab.22-j. Fig 

\y r 

the Dr. thinks p 


his Manti{fa 9 that it may be that 


. i 




• - .• 



The Natural Hijiory ofJAMAICA. 

» • 

> • 

XL II. Arbor bactifera^ jolijs oblongis acuminatis, floribus confer tim 


alts folicrum erumpwttbus ftuctu mtntmo croCeo. Cat, Jam. p, 1*1$. Tab, 211* 
Fig. 2. Raij. Hi ft. Vol. 3. Dendr. p. 75. 

This Tree nfeth 



Prune as big 

as ones Arm, to about 

fifteeen Foot high, having 

it has many Branches, whofe Twigs are 

a white, fmooth Bark, like that of Haze! 

thick fet with Leaves at 



bout one third of an Inch's Diitance alternatively, fo that if one 
take not very good Notice one would think the Twigs were wing'd 
Leaves; each Leaf Hands on a very fmall Footftalk, is two Inches long 
and three quarters of one broad in the Middle. where broadeft, fmooth, 
and of a yellow green Colour; between the Branches and thefe, come 
the Flowers, they are fo fmall as to be fcarce difcernible, roundifh 
and pale green, many together and without Footftalks, to which fol- 

low fo many Berries of an Orange Colour, bigger than large Pins 
Heads, confuting oi a thin yellow Skin, very thin' Pulp, and Acini or 

It grows every where among the Low-land Woods near the Banks 

of the Rw Cobre> below the Town of St J ago de la Vega, 

XLIIT. Jgrifolium folio tenuiore magis acuminata & minus corrugato, fpi- 

tiulis gracilioribus & longtoribus armato. Cat* Jam. pi 17 j< Tab, 188. Fig. 
2. Raij. Hift. Vol. 3. Dendr, />. 71. An Ilex Carotin ienfis longis ejr anguftis 
folijsjptnu ad oras rarioribm % Muf,, forte Ilex aculeata baccifera 
arborea minus fer ax Virginiana, Pluken. Aim. p 198? 

This feemed to be in every thing the fame with the Agrifolium 
Ger, Oft Common Holly, only the Leaves were' longer, more pointed, 

not fo uneven or fo much corrugated; on the Edges were many 
Prickles, longer and weaker than thofe of the ordinary Holly. The 
Leaves likewife were not of fo deep a green Colour. 

It grew in a Wood near St Chriftopher's Cove, not far from the Ruins 

of the old Town of Sevilla del Oro in Jamaica. 




1 • 

'': \ 


* * 


XLIV. Hdiotropij pre, f rut ex baccifer racewofu$ y folio rugofo, fcetidc, 

waximo fubrotundoy htrfuto, frucJu albo.. Cat* Jam, p, 17J. Tab. 212. Fig. 
. Raij. Htst Vol. 3. Dendr, p. 75. An Heltotr opium maximum Jamai- 
cenfe limonU mali folio % fupraJcabro y fubtuslanuginefexruginea>molli. Pluk. 
Al*n*p., 182? An 'Heltotropiumfrutefcens Curaffavicum y iodore Salvia. Herm. 


far\F* 340 . ? - ad 3C j I 'cfta , 

J his Shrub rifes to three or four Foot high, it has a green brittle 
Stem, having very many Eminences; or Crefts, on it* Surface irregularly 

anci a half long Footftalks without any Order 

placed; it has many Branches and Leaves on them, {landing on Inch 

, they are nine Inches long 
and three broad, a little curled, rugous or corrugated* and withal hairy, 
of, a dark green Colour and very unfavory Smefcl ; the Top of the 
Branches are divided into feveral Springs varioufly running) one among 

another, and refleQed back, turn'd like the Scorpion's Tail, 



liotropes, fuftaining on their upper Sides, a great many fmall, long. 

to wtych follow as many white Berries 

Flowers of a white Colour, 

making an unufua] LFigure h>the Hedges* , >{, . /, mhfoQ 
It grew in the clear'd woody Grounds near Sir Francis Watfon\ Houfe 

i^^feven Plantations,, in # any Places going to the/dNorthtfide, and 
othet Parts oi ^|Qand. ^ 

■ T 


T r T" 

:bi 11 nm 

V i 3 

0>J .wu\ i\ 



. siri • 1 ,<i /.A, .,t! [ij o J 


* V- 

* . 

■ • 

The Natural Hiftory of J A M A I C A. 

, A 




XLV. Heliotroptj flore y frutex y folio max f mo oblongo acuminato y 


Cat] J 

/>. i7J» Tab. 212; Fig. 2. Ra//\ ///'#. JV. $. Dendr, p. 7 

~.**t*<itl a Ur,4.r. feu Uovh* tift/L l/itirnltA* 1~fp^tiakdt>r. />_ orio ? 




HaehtchtnoapatU boac feu herba tifla latifolta. Hernandez^ p. 292 i 

This is in moft things the fame with the former; its Leaves are 
not corrugated nor hairy, but fmooth, neither are they round, but ob- 


The Branches with the Flowers are longer, having on its upper 

Side feveral whitifh long Flowers, placed like the Heliotropes, each of 

which is five pointed. 

I think the Berries' or Seed is as the former. 

I met with it in the fame Places, 

* XLVI. Rubusfolijs longioribm fubtui motli Untigine obduttis & intinU 

fore & fruclu minor ibus. Cat. Jam. p. ij$. Tab. 21 J. Fig. t. Raij. Hijl. 

Vol. $. Dendr. p. 76 




fruttu nigro, C B. only the Leaves were 

every thing with the Rubus vulgaris y feu Rubus 

n g 

d over with 


g e 


fort Wool; the Lea 

derneath, be 



ferrated on the Edges, and the Flower and Fruit were fmaller. Oviedo 

the North Sid 

the Moneaue Savanna 

fays likewife that thefe Brambles were high 
It grew on the South Side of Mount Diablo 

as one goes 

' This in all likelyhood, is what Peter Martyr in his Third Decade, 
Eighth 'Chapter fpeaks of, to be found growing on the higheft Plain* a 
mongft the Mountains in Jamaica and Htfpaniola, from whence he argues 
the Coldnefs of the Air, but this being — ^' c " : ^ ~— " - 

the fame with 

E11 opean 

Rubus but differing as above mention 'd, I take his Argument to be not 

Dr. Plukenet 9 P. i6fy of his Mdittiffa doubts if this be not Rubus Id W 
fruttu nigro Virgimanus Banijter. 

But 'tis 


is a Bramble and 



XLV II. Frutex baccifer, folio oblongo integrb^ fort pentapetalo^ paHide luteo 
odor at ijftrno . Cat. Jam. p. 1 7 3 . Raij. Htft. Vol. 5 . Dendr. p. 7 $. 



is a 

fmall Shrub rifing to about eight 

veral fmall Truncs, not fo big 

Arm, ftraight, and 

Foot high, by fe 


d with 

_ reddifh, grey coloured Bark \ the Branches have Leaves 
teis of an Inch's Diftance, which about the Beginning of February 
fall off, and in their Place come Tufts of Flowers, four or five together, 
on fcarce any Footftalks ; they are pale green, pentapetalous with fome 
Stamina of the fame Colour, and fmell very fweet ; to thefe follow 
oval black Berries, about the Bignefs of fmall Sloes, cleaving into 
two for the moft Part, whence the Name. After thefe come the 

Leaves, they ftand on 

Inches long, one 


lowifb green Colour, except the Ribs 

tenth of an Inch long Footftalks, are three 
the Middle, very foft and woolly, of a yeU 

hich incline to red 

It is to be met with in feveral Places of the Ifland towards the Caymanes 

and on the red Hills going 




fatt'ning them 

The Berries when ripe give Meat to wild Pig 

very much. 

This does not feem to be the Solanum Americanum Strycbnodendro acce- 
dtns jtuclu medio ante maturttatem qua ft fi]fo> Pluk.Phyt. Tab. 11 1. Fig. 4 

jilm,p. 349. as Dr. Pluhnet fancies in his Mantiffa.p 





1 1 o The Natural Hiftory o/J A M A I C A. 

•-■■ . . • . • , . 

XLVIIL Trutex faccifer, flare fentafetalo utrhleo fruttu violaseo. Cat. 
am. p. 17$. Raij. Hi ft. Vol. 5 . De/idr. 'p/j J 

1 1 

This Shrub riferh to feven or eight Foot high, with (mail tender Twigs, 
having a fmooth whitifh. Bark, and a yellowifli green Leaf ad Inch 

long and half as broad. Its Flower is blue and peri tapetalonsy to which 
follows a long oval blue Berry. ' 

» . -_ ^.f 

It grows on the Honey-Comb Rocks, near Mr. Bachelor's Plantation. 

* ' i -' - Ik. 


* /• 

- . v 

. . * 


- «4 *- • " I 

G. ; *h a p VI. : ; X3 1 

• • , 




: b ;Ioo\ • rhiw - 

* ^ ' ^-*'/» * * w r "^ 

1 • 

J J 


tif'Pramferous Trees, or, fuch al bear Plumb 



* f - ; 

2 ft « * 

r . 


- • - \ i * 

ANY that are hereafter reckoned to belong to this Tribe* 
perhaps on two Accounts, may be referr'd to other Places, 
firft Corifideration which may place fo me of them other' wife, is 
Smallnds of the Pulp, which is, in fome Palms fo inconfiderablc 
3-s to dij away, and fcarce be worth Notice ; yet considering the Agree- 
ment of fuch Palms in their whole Face with Dates, lam apt to* think 
tlieymay Well enough ftaad here till fome other Jtotaniil Ends a. bet 

Secondly, There are many Trees in this Tribe, "as the Cedar and 
fome others, whofe Fruit I never faw, but becaufe the L 

ter Place. • nislq ..' mSL ,^..„_ « 

• - I » 


nearer! to the Leaves of Plumb-Trees' 'here srowing r till future more 

diligent and. exacl Difcoveries and Obervations bring them to fome 

,nK \ 


more proper Kind, I know not where better to puC them 

All Palm-Trees growing here have an undivided Trunc, are very high, 
at leafl moft Sorts of them, have Leaves only towards the Top, and when 
one falls do^n, another comes out Of the Top of it; they have thick 
fhort, black Roots, matted one within another, and make a Swelling abo. _ 
the Surface of the Ground; moft of them are fmailer at the Bottom 
than at the Top, and the Gewm*, Q m j % or Heads of moft of them, called 

Cerebri (which; if cut the Palm dies) are eatable whilft the Buds are 


all inclos'd, tender and white, but this is moft Evident in the Top of that 
called the Cabbage-Tree. , The moft Part of Palm-Trees have iikewife 

broad Footftalk to their Leaves, which failing off leaves a Mark in 

Trunc from whence it fell 


By Leaf is meant, in the following Defcriptions, what by many Au- 

thors is called a Branch, viz. that Part of the Palm which falls do 

from the Top of the Tree by one common Footftalk coming off 

of them have an lnvolucrum covering the young budding Flo , 

called Spttha, being made up of many Fibres, running curioufly one by 
another and making very fine reticulated Webs fie for Strainers, 
of which I believe the P alma faccif era Qluf. to be — 

__ .1 


l .vj H *\ 



The Nat ural JHi/ioty of J\&M A 1 CA. 


■•■•.{ . U . } A | 

_ II P/i/^a d*tty lifer a mayor vulgaris. Jon/?. Dcndr. Cat, Jam. p. 174, Palm 

Tnees of the Jews- Land of //**#r/ A p. 36. Palmier Port urn les Dattes. P 

met. p. 21 ? Pa/w* wapr. Palmadatfyltfera.Qafh/l. Hort. Me ft p. i,8. D*/^ 

*fc Afo/*« /». 84: f Pdlmiers de Fepes.p 2 6> 77, # 141.. Pafoja dact)tif er *, In- 
die*. !&u»t* Phyt. but. p. 47> Fig, 244. PalmaMffylifera Pa{meira. Grift. w= 


a double; Hogfheadw- Wirie-prpe^befee from-Bottom to. Top round a/} 
wifehe' remaking Uafts -of the fallen ^or-cut Foot^alks, (ticking out 
for fome Inches; the Footfiafks are prickly, the Leaves are feveral, about, 
nine Feet long, the middle ftifr ftc very. thick with Pionce at half an 
Inch's Dlftance, not juft bur near oppofiee. to one another ; they are, 
gtaify or like Flag Leaves, ofia- pale or blulfh green. Colour, /ixi Inches. 

long and three quarters of one broad near the letting on to the nud-j 
die Rib, where broadeft. For the Defcriptions of Flow era and* Fuiit, 
they may be had in common, Herb a Is J .< 

There grew ftme of thefe at Colonel Bourden\ Plantation beyond Gu&+ 
naboa i from the. common Date Stones, one very large and high between 
Paffage-Fort and ihe Town, in the Crefcent Plantation, and feveral other 

Places ot this Illand. \ • I * . i . 

The Fruit that I tafted feem'd not fo good as t hole Dates that com 
from beyond Sea, which perhaps proceeded from, not rightly under/land 
ing their proper Culture. f ' I 


rVi/Itaw Finch, lfb. 4. cap. 4 §. 2. p. 418. ap Purchas. found Dates in. Son 

cotora, where they were nothing but Stones almoft, and where they 
make Wine of them, ib.p. 419. He likewife obfervedtfiem ib. §. 6. />• 436 

• f M • N. , ■ 



the Mogul's Country 

Heynesy ib.lib. 5. cap. $. p. 628. faw Groves of them near Moch 


Suan, ib. lib. 5. cap. 16. p. 724. takes Notice of them fent from Mufcat 

for Chauly and ib. p. 727. ac Macera not far from Rofalg 

Dates ierve them of Zocotora for Bread Dounton, ap. Purchas. lib. 3. . 
12. §. 1. P. 280. their Price was at five Rials of Eight per Cent. 

Saris found them aifo, ib. lib. 4. oapili. §. z.p. 5^9. onSocotora* 

Shirley ap. Caucbe.p. 100. dbferved them by ./fo*/?. and Albert y p. 
Egypt. ■ I a ' { k 

Saibank faw them in P<?r/fo */>. Purchas. lib, 3. <:4/. 9. §. 4. 237. and about 

Sir H<?#*7 Mid diet on. ap. Pumhas. lib. 3. f*/>. 1 1. ■§. 3. />. 254. at Mob a. 

They are ufed for Food in Perfia. tb. lib. 4. cap. 9. />. 492, ^493. and 

they were alio obferved by Steel about Tki« in Perfia tb. c*p. 13. p. 523 

ninety two Days Journey front Spahan. t { 

Bermudez. ap. Purchas, lib. 7. cap. 5. §.■ \.p. 1 167. found Dates in 0&g; 

Ferrer ap. Purchas. lib. 8. cap. 13. p. i$y%. and &//<?#, /'£. /. 1379. both 
met with them near Mount Sinn. BanjamnTudel jtp. Purchas, lib. 9. 

iM- $-3* A H5*- ^Bagdit. A Nubian,' tbjtk 9. up. 8. ^. 1497. at 

Batn-Marri near -Affwa and at Medina- ^ where the Inhabitants live on 
them (wanting Corn and Cattle) for their Food, and John Sander ft 

Purchas. lib .9. ctifc 16. §..j./. 1-6*5* in Egypt,ahdib. p. riij. & i.6ji.;fay 

about Jerufalem t there are Orchards ol them, -where .the Inhabitant 
yearly pare the Ou t-fide Branches :* ThelAioors take ac their, opening 
the Male Cods dr lowers (Spatb*) and put them to the Females, one 

in Con tagion infe&s another; the. Trees yield Dates which are ufed to 


• 1 



i j 2 The Natural Hiftory 0/ JAMAICA. 

be eat alone, in Cheefes, and to make Sherbett ; Frames to lay Beds on 
are made of the Branches Stalks, or middle Ribs, and the fame are ufed 
to inclofe Bails of Goods inftead of Chefts ; for Baskets, Fans, Mats, 

Hoops and Cords. ib. p. 16, 17. 

In Cbiapo in eight Years Time after planting they bore Dates, Laet. 

Dates are a principal Part of their Suftenance in Socotora y and are 
when thorough ripe laid on a Heap on a Skin lying (loping, whence 
the Liquor diftilling is their Wine, it is received in earthen Pots in 
the Ground, therewith they will be drunk ; the Dates are then ftoned 
and pack'd in Skins, they are cut and ftoned before they are ripe, and 
preferved, and they iikewife are gather'd by the Deputy's Orders for the 

King. William Finch, 

SirTbo.Roe, lib. 4. cap. 16. §. 1. />. 539. obferved them at SocoHra. 
Don Jo. deCaftro, lib. 6. cap.i. §. 1. / 112$. at the fame Place, where 
they are ted on, being moft Part of their Suftenance. And at Toro, ib. 


Newberrietibjib. q.cap. 3./M141. found them at Anna. Ej. p. 141$. and 
at Sbiche an Me in the Red-Sea. Cartmight. ib. lib. 9. cap. 4. §. 2. f 4 143 1. 

at Casbtn and at Old-Babylon. 

Date-Trees were found by Balbi *p< Purchas.lib. 10. caf. 5. p. 1722. ifl 

Beggiany an Ifle irt the Euphrates. 

Date-Trees were found in St. Helena. Pretty, ap. HakL and by Ligon,p< 
72 in Barbados, by MardelJlo,p. 200. in Madagafcar^ and f 216 in Congo. 

Dates are hard of Dige/tion, caufe the Headach and Obfti uctions 

of the Liver and Spleen, from grofs Blood they breed \ they are good 

for thofe who fpit Blood or have the Dyfentery ; they promote Venery 

and are good againft a Confumption, Ger 
The tender Tops of this Tree were eaten by the Ancients as Ke 

nopbon>Tbeopbrafius 9 &c. tell us. 

The under Part of the Trunc is (tenderer than the upper, whence 
'tis faid to be nourifhed by the Top ; the Powder of the Spatba and 

Deco&ion is good againft all Haemoi hages and Fluxes. The white 
Powder in the Involucra gather'd in t ] K Spring-Time, when beginning 
to flower, is ufed for Hoarfenefs, Coughs, and Inflammations of the 
Eyes ; it is adftringent, flopping the Menjes, and hindring Abortion ; the 
fame doth the unripe Dates, which are Iikewife vulnerary, and Syrup 
of unripe Dates is ufed for the fame Purpofes. The Dates are a little 


adftringent Iikewife when ripe, and in Ufe for Coughs, &c. their De 
codion expels the Small- Pox, Ate. 

The Females do not bring forth if not in the Neighbourhood or 
Sight of the Males, Bojm. The Inhabitants make Honey, Wine and Su- 
gar of them, and eat abundantly, of them. 

It bears no Dates in lndia y but only yields Wine or Sura f in AfricA 
they are beft, the Stone beaten and drunk in Water is good for Wo- 
men in ftrong Labour, to eafe their Pains and facilitate their Deli- 
very, which comes, as fome believe, from the Letter O, on its Side 
imprinted by the Virgin Mary. 

They make a Hole in the Truncs of Trees feeming Dates, to draw 
the Liquor Sura, and then no Fruit comes on them. Hieronymo de Lobos 
p. 8. 

The Coverings of the Flowers, were ufed by the Ancients for infpiffa- 

ting Ointments, out is now out of Ufe, Cord. 

The Fruit is hot and moift in the fecond Degree, breeding Obftruc- 
tions in the Liver and Spleen, it flops Looieneffes, Dor ft. 

Diapb<enicon is made of theie Dates, the Fruit is good againft (pitting 
Blood, &c. Lonicers. * The 


the Natural Hiftory of J A M A I C A. t i 3 

The Leaves ate good where withall to tie Things and make Um- 
brella's, of light Hats, they bear no ripe, but unripe Fruit in Italy ; Dates 
are good for Defluxidns on the Throat, Cdf ' * 

The Stones burnt in a Potter's Oven in a new Pot, make Spodium. 



1 ! : > * - *- 


Dtacalcitheos ftirr'd with a Branch of this, ; is faid to be adftringenr, 


t • r » f% f ' ' 

This Tree thrives not in a fandy Soil, X*jj$ 

• > 

About Tripoli they feed on this Fruit, Ntcolai 

The Stone has the Sign of a Heart on it to denote its being a Cord 

Lac, - 

( 9 #"* 


' -♦ 


It's wonderful fo hard a Stone fhoiild to fofteri as to peel and come off 

from- its inward Marrow, which is like a Cartilage, Cam 

Many of Alexander the Great's Soldiers were ftrangled with green 


TO . 

Ltnjchot, Defer, de la Guinea, cap. 5. takes Notice of this Palm-Tree 


m— ~ - - - ■ - -^ J m W 

Congo. ' •'• J T 

Pigafett. of Caflgtf. JW. Onf* 1. />. 29. takes Notice of them growing 

there. < 1UC ; l !: : ; ' 

a in great Qu L Jf . 

Pyrdrd, p. 2. />; 152. at Socbtora in great Quantity, in 0m/», />. 153. 
& frl't* £?' anc * ** Morocco 




Alutfe de cado Mop, ap.^Ramn. p. iffiioj. at Hddtn near Cape Blanc 

where they Itve oft' them With Barley, and b^ the Azanagi near the Ri 

ver Senega, to , jJ ? -3 

<*. • - - 

This Palm-Tree is faid tdbear Dates mariTfland called Sarrope in t 

Lake in Florida by Laudonniere, apud Hakl, f**3$& • 

Dates are faid to grow about B^/ar* * n tne P er fian Gulf in fuch Quan- 
tity fo as to furnifh Babylon, Pitclhap. Hakl.-f. 251 <" 

Palm-Trees grow about Ormw, Polo.-ap. Purchds, lib. i, 

. 1 


• - 

Dates which rife from Stones planted ia-Efpanola are not good, be 

* t Vv 

fe of their Ignorance in curing them, Oviedo, lib. 8. cap. 1. 


Date-Trees {Rawolfe, cap, 2.) grow about Tripoli. and^>. 1. cap. 9. about 
Aleppo, and />. $.cap, 21. about Jerufalem, and <:4/>. 22. between Jerufalem 

and Jo/y*. and />. 2. f4/>. 4. and tit/; 5. about irf***, 1 Where are Woods of 
them, and fo of no Efteem ; among others there are two lefTer Kinds 

11W i ' ' 

red, another yellow 
Hernan Lopez, deC a/lander takes Notice of them both raw and prefer ved 
at Mofambique, cap. 6, And Terry. p*y6. in the MoguPs Country 



• * 

II. Palma, foliotum pediculis fpinofs^ fruclu pruniformi luteo oleofo. Cat* 
Jam. p. 175. Tab. 2 1 4. R aij. Hifi. Vol. % . Dendr. p. 1. An palm a Americana 
pdiculis cr foliorum carinis rarioribus at longiffimis fpinu aculeata^fummis apt 
cibus lev iter f err at is, Pluk. Aim, p. 276 ? An Ergon Theod. de Bry. prof at 


1. Part. Ind. Or. vel pruno ftmilis exotica %va. feu pruno cereo fimilisfructus 

Africanus C. B. pin. p. 444 .? Argan feu Erguen, Ogilb. Afr. p. 22 f An Pal 
ma Americana craffis, rigidifyfoltjs. Herm.par. Bat. p. 210 ? An Palm a dac 
ty lifer a & vinifera. Plum. pL Am. p. 3 ? Palmier qui porte PHuile de Palme 
Pommet. ^.214 


i ' 



la yii t 

mu The Palm Oil-Treei 

' " ■ - % ' ■ - i 

• • . 

This had a Swelling towards its Root, the Trunc of the Tree was as 
big as one's Body, cover'd with the Remainders of the Leaves Foot* 
ftalks ; the Leaves come all out at the Top ; they were for Length, 

middle Ribs, f inn*, &c. like thofe of the Coco»Nut-Tree, only the 





■ . - 

TheiNatttral Hijiory &$ A M, A I G A\ 

Fpotiralks were two or three Foot long, : broad at the beginning, where 
y were let on to the Tree, and were be fee with Ions crooked Prickles, 

the Tongeft being "loweft ; the pruk hangjj on fuch ftxxftalfe' as 

Pdwitto-Royab o^lj much £h * 

a :-.:' * 


The Head of this Palm-Tree, which was brought me from Guinea by 

Mr. Staphorjl 

Surgeon to a Merchant 'Ship trading there, was 

ndifh, about one Foot and a half long, and one Foot Diameter in- the 
Middle where btoadeft : it wasfomewhat tenderer at Bottom and conical 
towards the Top. The Stalk o^ic which look'd fomething like a Rope, 
was about two Inches Diameter, and was composed altogether of many 
Fibres, brown and ftrong ; each of them was as large as a grofs Thread, 
-and jiike, but bigger than, the Fibres cohering the: Coco-Nut. Tbefe 
Fibres \v ere all cover'd with a brown, fmooth Bark. Out of this. Stem 

on all Hands, -.arpfe^ numberlefs. crooked Petioli, about fix Inches. wu S , 
onea-ctrStde of which, grew great Numbers of crooked, blunt Prickles, 
between which and the Petjolusj, lay the Fruit, mutib lefs, but in Shape 
ahef Colour refembling a fmall Chefnut ; each Nut had two or three 
mwa ^Scales, furroupding it, and was cover'd with a Pulp full of O 

Bout one fixtti olf an Inch thick, of a Saffron Colour, and fmelling 
fpm,et||ing like Violets. Each Nut had a fibrous ffiUs. Under the oily 

Pulp Iky a hard, brown Shell, cover'd over with Fibres, apd of the 

gjiage. of that or the Coco-Nut, -only not^igger tfan the Filberd. The 

* was dark brown colour'd, about a flxtb of an* Inch thick, and in- 
cldfed a white Kernel of the fame Shape, refembling the Kernel of a 

Coco-Nut, but it. was vecy hard and lignoije. The Head and: Fruit of 

are flgur'd, Tahi 214. 

Araongft the fev^ral vegetable Subftances which afford Oil, which is 
fo neceflary Tor maintaining Life andvpromoting Manufactures,. I know 
none but the Fruit of this and the Olive-Tree whofe Pulps are ufeful 
tor thefc ,Purp6fcs ; . Oil of Almonds,, Walnuts, &c. being from Kernels 

d that of Rape, Muftarfl, Lin, &c % being drawn, from their feveral 

Seeds. I was; fo nwich furpnz'd with this Singularity, that to be fu 

1 it, I was at the Pains tq : try ..the Experiment my fejf at Montpdier % 
by dravving the Oil from the copious Pulp of that Sort of Plumb, fepa- 
rated caretully from the Stone, whofe Kernel being mix'd in bruifing in 

Mills for drawing Oil Olive, I apprehended, might afford moll of it. 

was brought over with fome others from Guinea, in Tubs 

water'd by the Way, and then planted by jColoneJ. C<?//^* in his Plan- 
tation now belonging to Mr. Bernard. 

^Tlieregrow Palmeto Trees at; Cap ford, which are as high as a Ship's 
Mam-Malt, and on their Tops grow Nuts, Wine, and Oil which they 

ill Palrmto-Wine, and Palmito Oil, Horn?, ap. HakL />. 3. p. 488. 

Cadamop, ap. Ramn. p. 112, Lat.ed. p, 28. fays that Wine is draw 

of its Foot which inebriates, and that its Oil fmells of . Violets, talks of 
Oil Olive, and hath the Colour of Saffron ;. he knew not whenc 
but found it in Senea 




• » ^ 


Sir JobnHawkms^p. 3. p. 504. ap. HakL found this Tree in Guinea, wh_. . 
Towns were walled with Stakes and Palmito Leaves, and thatch'd with it, 
tb. They make the Rind of Palmito-Trees artificially into Mats, and of thefc 
Mats Partitions. The Inhabitants lie upon fuch Mats laid on Sticks a Foot 
from the Ground, without any Covering unlefs fuch a Mat, ib. And Wine 

is got by a Hole, cut in the Top of ,it> hy applying a Gourd, to receive 

/'W' ffi 11 J P li i ■'< ' Aiivt h ^. ■> ,yb d i. o. 


T °o a i T' '•' 9 6 ' fa y s t hat thiS:Tree was newly planted the** 

the Eaft-Indi«. . '■ ". , Jo Ai , aU ... ^„„n ^ 



TTheNdurd HyiMytf J AM AI & A 



This Oil is ufed for Meat as Butter or Oil Olive the K>m*i c d i 

m 'refale ^T W ^ td * fto " *** The Tr^y fosW.n^ 

borWa*,, the ^»^r u bfidi ft g. By ftanding the Water h the Ou at 
lop the ,W„ is dgatn boH\J -vnth- Water, to feparate the remain n 2 

Oil ironi it; 'Roels^ v ; ..;uvi am ,'■',. r u lciiidiumg 

CJ - * ■ ' ? - - ' i -v ill 

o Jobfc^-G^br^f. rji.tefe His thft thefe trees gftnf there in»reat 
Strife* tbeycufc'a Hole iH the Body of the' Tree and X imnCV 

Piece of Gam thro«%hich, the WiJfc convey'd into Gourds rt the 

%£^]&**m. ^rrt^nty four rto^s TtStkf net* 

White- Wine. 

l£fi) 01 .f] )J 

• : 

The- Oil ii^Ied ^ appeafe gbuty Pains" ifcd for cdrins Difeafes 

proceeding ftom ttAd Humours: Pommet. -> li ^ ...... 

2JtS^^— & &**M J»d. Or. Pan 6 

ij f ' J ; 

fiftJAg Torches with Palm-Oil pft npon Boards ib p 7 V 
The Blacks^ Wm 6. f.^. anoint | t b k£?^?£& 
which is thwe etteert'd unhealthy, /t. » 70 ' 

This O.l tinges Waarofa-yeUbwiGofoiif'tike Saffron, the inhabitants 

or Riee StAW, wnhnt. ft has 1 the 9rtl6II ofAfc/^ Violets, and Tafteof 
Oil Ohve A v*erefore iwany put it to rheitW -Rice, and other Vi^ 


that they eat. iThevet of Senega, Stn£fo*l 
Of this QW mdFdtn Aites^ii made Soap by thd iftordes. Thevet 


They ftave; good Store of .Soap and it fmelleth lik? beaten Violets 

tl(h-»P-H*kt.p.2.p:i2q.iA1SMn.'- '° -■<■■ ' • • "i- 1 

1 This is called Negr0Oil : by L^, ? . 51.' who telli us when ill thev< 
anoint their Breafts Bellies, and Sides with it, and that in'fcruifes an* 
Strains it istchieflv ufeful. - } J »' ' l ^ * • 

• • • ; . :. !-, .. r.-£ - , ■ 

Lin/cK De/^. AeUGuinee.cAf:^. takes Notice that in' Congo Oil is 
drawn out # of the Pulp of this Fruit, as out of, Olives, and that it is 

ufcd~for Oil and fitter as w«lfas ! in Lar^sVantl to anoint their B 

dies. Vinegar eomes-frbn* the 1 Tops. : dT the ^ l Trees as well as Wine. Their 

likewife make Bread of the Kernel like Almbhd Cakes. - 



In Congo the Negroes ufe Fowder of ShxMerrxtid Palm. Oil to rub 

IndWr.p. tt.^ '■' J t 

vers^with red^^W^/ poVdd ( r'd and mix'd 

iftoveytheBod^.^./^ ^. 0. 

- * , • 

with Palm 

They cure Fe 

Oil, rubf&ig it att over' *he Body, Id. ik p. 5 

Fhey pretend to cure the Pox fo with Aflncofour'd Saandfff, ib. '■ 

Oil is d^wn from the Pulp, facxi ^s Oil OlrVd^ ^readisniade 

Veins in the Stone ; Wine- €6^^ from the Top as well as Vinegar,/^ 

' ' *"'" '* this- ftiinl-Tree with that of the 

/k 29. Mtndeifap. 2i6i who confoiinds 

Coco. L J l 10i l0 I 1 : * ii, jJ - 

, •. » 1 \ 4 1 • 1 . i i 

w • i - 

III. P4/*»* 4//#^k ^b^ fp'tnofcfrMa prunifofmt minor t, ricemofb, ftarfc 

Cap. Jam. p. i 7 6.Tab. 215. R*/;. H# Vol, /. tar. />. fe" P Aim* Ame- 
ricana farimfeta & papyrifeta ejtctlfiffifita, fraffapapvo, racemofo y rotando, nu- 
cleo inftar nticti MojchaU virhAto, Bltike/r. Atm: x p. 27 <- tabbaee-Tree of 

Damp/er } cap. 4, ^ 7. ' Paititt'ei qta 'patchra & [ rJmofk in fyfois caulep 

dulct & grato; terian. Cabbage^Tree fron* Barbados trMefcdnt, p: 9 ± 
Falmtfte f/anc. kOtxnkUn.f. 7 t. • ' > / yt 





1 1 6 The Natural Hiftory of] A M A I C A. 

• c 

Cabbage- Tree 

•* & 

\ 4 C 



This Sort of Palm has, at coming out of the Earth, a fmajl Hill 
Protuberance made up of a great many round Ligulas, or Thong 

woven, as moll: others of this Kind ; the Trunc its felf rifes to a hundred 
or two hundred Foot high ; it is about the Thicknefs of one's Thigh, with 
a grey colour'd fmooth Bark, having fome Marks or Veftigia of the fallen 
off Leaves on its Surface. The Leaves are all round the Top, about fifteen 
Foot long, the Pinnx are very green, feveral Foot long, and thick fet to 
the middle Rib ; the Footftalk is five Foot long, and fo broad 

compafs or inclofe the other Leaves Footftalks above it at Top* for four 
or five Foot in Length, fo that the outwardmoft Leaves Footftalks in- 
clofing thofe within it, and they others, at la ft they all furround the 
Gemma or Germen, which is the Leaves not yet fprouted, and this is what 
is cail'd the Cabbage, which being kept from the Light and>l.Air is very 
tender and delicate. About five or fix Foot, under the Leaves, near the 
Top, comes out a Footftalk, three or four Foot long, very ftrong and 




very much * branched, and having Twigs fcatter'd or fparfe, it„,is 
fet on very firmly round the whole Tree, being hollow, broad, and 
f weird there, and every one of its Branches or, Twigs which come 
from the main one alternatively, have a round Swelling at their Divi 
(ion; the Berries or Fruit ftick to thefe; Twigs without any Footftalk 



big almoft as Ha?le-Nqts, cover'd with a yellowifh Skier; thsj 

Pulp is thin and infipidj ( and indofes a : Nut fun of a white, fweet 


nfrequented Parts 


They are very commo 

common in the mountainous and 

d becaufe of their He ighth and ,St 


of the Iflano, ana oecauie oi tneir neigntn ana btraigntneis are orna 
mental, and fuffer'd to grow when other Wood is felPd. Every Tree from 

the Gemma or Cabbage is taken grows no more, or being felPd, 

therefore no wonder if thefe Trees are lcarce near Settlements, and pi 
tiful in the North Side of this Ifland v They grow like wife in all the 

Caribes. • ■ Q to juo . L 3111*1*1 Xlljri - > - ■ nwj 

They ufe the Tops of Falqutos for Bread, Sir Walter Kawlehhol theT/ 

Guiana, p. 42. ap. 64^., where they manure nothing, but 

eat wild Fruits, Fifh and Deer, ib. ^, 

* * si 

J 1J > 

We recciv'd of them (of Ternatej^thQ fame Night for our Provifion, 
Meal, which they call Sagu, made of tjie Tops of certain Trees, tafting 
in the Mouth like fowr Curds, but melteth like Sugar, whereof they 
make certain Cakes, which may be kept the Space of ten Years, and 
yet then good to be ea*en. Sir Francis Drake ap. Hakl. p. 3. />. 740. & 

741. he met with it in Bar at eve an Ifland there, and in Java Major, ib. 


where Saga fignifies the Bread of the Country. 742 

Ligorty p. 14. fays this Tree grows in Qape-Verd Ifles, and/>. 75. (whe 

Cut of it) in Barbados^ that at about thirty or forty Years old it bears 
Fruit, and at one hundred Years old it comes to Perfection • the Fruit is 
as big as a Grape, of a purple Colour and fattens Hogs, p. 76. it rifes 
to two or three hundred Foot high, ib. it is fixteen Inches in Diameter, 
ib. p. 77. the Branch or Leaf is fifty five Foot long, the Pinnae are 
four Inches diftant one from another, it raifes up the Earth at Bottom, 
the Wood is hard and tough, the Leaves are eighteen Inches long,/£. ; 
78. There are Excrefcencies very ftrange like Polypodium r or, Mtffeltoe 

upon this Tree, which want skilful Men to find out their Virtues, ib. 


*.. ♦ 



The Natural Hiflory of JAMAICA, 


The Jamaica Wood 

foft when newly cut 



cuous in the Cabbage-Tree, which being a Wood foft enough wh 

down, the Pith which is very copious 



the rert of the Tree fe 




quickly roc 


not corrupt 

nder G 



felf, and 

dred Foot 

Boyle of Air, /> 

elated from the Governor's Phyfi 

but grow almoft as hard as Iro 


This Tree was obferved by Smith in his Objf. p. 5 5. in St. Chrifiop 

The Encepbalum of Palm-T 

Theophrafius^s Time, and the fam 

been do 



fed as Meat in 

the Chameripbe as, 




The Berries are very muc 




wild Pig 


and fatten them 

very well 



When they hav 





to the Cabbage, they cut down th 
would be much .Difficulty to climb it 

- * 

Gemma inc 

ted from what is not 








the Foot/folks Lea 



w as 

* * 

* * 

being fo high 
cut off th* 

which fep; 

Heads of Palmita-Trees, which boil'd with Beef are as good as Cabbage 
were found by Saris, ap. Purcbas. lib. 4. cap. 1. $. 5. p. 364. near the Mo 


Kjtivet ap. Purcbasjtb. 6. cap. 7. §. 2. />. 12 10. fed on thefe Cabbages ii 
the Defe rts of Br aft I 



Palm-Trees were 



1 . 


Chriftians fed on the Palmltos or Cabbage and 

yielding no Fruit of Profit, but wandring 

had been out of the 



ng thro' 

Fruit when they 
fifteen or fixteen 

Groves where only were Oxen Paths, Anonym. Portugal of E/vas,p. ij h . 

If thefe Trees be^eant by Nunno diG/djman, ap> Ramnus, p. j. *, 
**>- /. Purcbas. 1 557. they were found not far from Mecbuacan 


> •! 


Scbnidler, lib. 7. m/. i-f- IJ59- 1 *?- * > *"^"- tells us that among the Sib 

hey feed 
This T 

them, and Car 



abhage taken 

out of the Leaves it is folded in, is as big as the fmall of the Leg, 

3* \ 

Foot high, the 


fweet as a Nut when eaten raw 

J 1 Jt * J *^ A I V _ 

The Berries are hard 

a Foot long, iwcci d> dixui wuui cdigu law: inc uernes are hard, 

round as a Cherry, and good to fatten ftogs, wherefore the Spaniards 



n^e them down, Damp„. . . . 

and is efteem'd good for the Haemorhoids, Lery 


They have Palm Mats for Bed F 

Purcbas. lib; 20. p. 2. p. 7n 

fpeaking of the Ladrones Inhabitants from Pigaft 
They grew on the Mland Juan Fernando, Damp 

The Wood or Trunc cut into two halfs, makes very good and long 

mnphs or Conduits to convev anv Liauors or Water in frnr« ^n» 

Liquors or Water in, from one 


Troughs or Cond 

Place to another as Neceffuy requires 

The fame is alfo ufed on the Outfides of Fortifications, Palifadoes 
and Houfes, and being very 





defends very well from Shot^ and 
ufed by the Indians to make Heads of Arrows, Tertre. 
The Pith of this Tree beat into Cakes ri £ats not unpk 

hungry, as Ptfo fay 


fantly when 



The Juice is well tafted, the Wine is not worth preparing, Tertre 
The bpatha of this 

Tree is ufed inftead of 



* * » ^ ^ 



«i % - 




eaves are ufed as Thatch 
Thev grew near Frefh Water Riv 






< •• • 

-. . 

.. v _ y . w ..- . .—-.-„ ten moderately they cool 

and when immoderately f they hurt the Stomach and the Head, liugh 


>> i\% 



J t V. 


IV. P^ 




X * 


The Natural Hiflory 


IV. Palma non fpinofa humilis frutfu racemofo pruniformi,minimo i pift mag 
rittudine. Cat. Jam. p. 17 J. Raij Hift. Vol.^.Dendr 

Tree of Dampier f 

Palm* bumilis 

An the Palm 

latifolia major. Plum, fl. Am 



Palmeto-R qyal. 



lay or grey 

Palm-Tree grows to about 1 5 Foot high, with a ftreight, round 

d Trunc, as thick as 


Thigh, the Marks of the 

fallen off Footftalks appearing all along to the Top ; the Leaves are a- 
bout the Length and Shape of thofe of the Coco- Nut-tree, only in every 
Refpeft lefs, of a greener Colour, and never bow'd downwards as the 
Leaves of that Tree are before they drop. The Fruit ftands on a two 
Foot loBg Footftalk, and is branch'd into a great many Foot long round 
Twigs ; the Fruit itfelf ftands on thefe Twigs without any Footftalk, they 
are numerou 


a very thin, fweetilh Pulp 

nd, as big as a Rouncival Pea, fmooth 


white Kernel 

They grow very plentifully in the Inland Mou 
Gully and River Sides 

Mountains between St. Mary 

, green, having 
ing a fmall Nut, quite full of a fweet, 

Mount-Diablo ; on the R 

of 'Jamah* by 

d Sixteen-Mile- Walk, and 

■J y 

Banks very plentifully ; and about Port Marcquis, Damp 

Sides, in the 

on Rio D'oro 

The Leaves of this Tree vvhiten'd 


Hats, fuch as our Straw Ha 
Injuries of the Sun 

the Air, is made 




keep their Beauty and Colour from the 


Dr. Plukenet, p. 1 44. of his Mantijfa, thinks 

to be the fame with 

the precedent, which are extremely different one from the 

y ' • "hat ,i 

k* JL 



1 1 v 

V. Palm a non fpinofa humillima. Cat. Jam. p. 177; Raij. Hi/l. Vol. ?, 
wdr. p. 3. An $alma*lamaicenfis non fpinofa humilis folio multifcijfc 


flabelli formi ^ Ampanx Malabar baud abftmili. Plukenet,Tab. Ki.Ffa 

Palma Jamaicenji. 

fpinofa humilis Bambu folijs arundinum ritu 



Pluk. Phyt. Tab. 51 . Aim. p. 277 ? A Sort of Dwarf Palm called 

Spaniards Patmeto-Royal of Dampier. cap.g. An Palma humilis cocifera latifolia 
minor. Plum pi. Am. p. 3? Palma pruntf era humilis non fpinofa, infuU Hif- 

pamoUyfrutfu Jujubino fimilis, ofliculo triangulo. Commelin. 'Hort-Amft.p 


The Small Palmeto-Royal. 



This feems to be in every thing the fame with the former, only it^ifes 
not above aFoot out of the Ground, and has its Leaves almoft 

as large 

as thofe of the greater. > • ■ • ° 

It grows on the Road going to Sixteen-Mile-Waik, and in other 


~ ft 



r • 

> 1 

The Leaves of this are fometimes usM for Thatch. 



This Thatch if well laid on will indure five 

u o H 

vd bo\ 


or fix Years, it is more 

ferviccable and lafting than that of Palmeto, thefe Trees grow in iamaica* 

Darien and Campeehe, Dampier. ' " ' 

f j 

LJ •« 

. J • 

u a :■ 

VI. Palma non fpinofa, 
Jam. p. 1 7 2. Raij. Hift. Fo 

Ijlgonati* brevhriias ttvitet 
Pl*k.H)t. Tab. 

ffinofa, #*ffis rigidifc jolij 
Herm. p. 361 ? 

folijs mi 

l. K p* 

[ »dl 

jd ariT 

noribus, frutfu pruniformi -minimo. 


Pendr.p. 2. An Palma Americanajolih po- 
ibas ttviter far at U & x nonn\hil fpinofis, truneo cralfo. Brtyn. 
.io|. Fig. 2^& TmWf^.q*Uwm,* Americana mm 

caudice ft mo in caput protuberante. P. B p. 




The Natural Hiftory ^JAMAICA. 


The Palmeto-T* 


lis Tree has a 


Swelling at the Root, and 

the Trunc is fixty Boot high, has 

is fome what 

ge as. one's Thigh, or fometimes about i far 16 Inches Diameter 
imooth, having few or no Veftigia of Leaves appearing on it. Few Leaves 


are on its Top in Comparifon of other Palm 



owifh green Colour y the Fruit is as thole of 

and thofe not fo long, and 


ly blackifli 

It grows in Barbados between Bridge-Town and FontabeHe, and in the 


amaica in Palmeto. Savanna^ and 

in the Woods thereabout very 



the Top when young is 

the Middle tha 

bie. Ov 





Parrots neftie 


Pito, as well as Parrots, a Bird, nettles in th 

Bird CarpinterOy Gom 

That this Tree is not Dr. Plukenet 

the Spaniards call this 

lio flic At Hi feu flabeUi formi frutfus ofjiculo nigro 

PaIwa BArbAdetiQ. 

ain, and yet he, 


fpinoft ft 



of his MA/ttiJfA, doubt 



be not th 



J » 





fphofa ntAJor, fruflu pruniformi. Cat. Jaw 


PdmA-Portoricenfii fpnofiffirnA vinifera, Hart. Beaum. p. ? 2 * An Palm a Su 

rtinamtnp fagittatiA, five folio polygonati it 

validiffimis fpinis & loni 

giffimis horrido Breyn. fr. 2. p. 82 > ' Palma ffinofa fagiitAlis Sirinamenfi. 

H*rm. p 

, _ 






-* * 


MACAw-WoodoA which 


nude Darts^ of Daw 


«■ ■» 

7 he great Macaw-Tvc 



This Tree has a 





at the Foot of the T 

the Tr 

as others of 

he Top; it J is as thick as one's Body 

Afh colour'd Bark 

towards the Bottom than at 
fes to thirty Foot high, has 

the Lea 




3 fhorte 
thofe of th 

d is very thick fet with /harp, black Prickles, 

fually in Rings ; at the Top comes 


the Middl 



th Prickles. TheFi 

r y 

Kind, only the Pinnae fet on 





Apple, und 


tis as 

he whole Leaf fa very thick 

is placed much after the Manner of others 


f the Shape of a Crab 


* * 



green Skin it has a thin 
Nut full of a white, fweet, edible Kernel 


fweetifh, adftringent Pulp 


Common in moft Sava 

of this Ifla 


# . 


below the Church on the High-way Side near the River at Spanifh 
Tm*,n t nunv i« tin**.* s..,an rt „ near Half-way Tree, and in feveral 

'Liguanee Sa 

other Places of this liland. *" 





Indians and Negroes get up by a Ladd 



n »f» 

the Top of this 

Tree,t!where making a Hole, likely in the Petiolus of the Fruit, there 

1 y plentifully a Liquor which in fome fmall Time becomes 




y pleafant Drink 

If this berhe Vrape eft Leigh, 4p. PurehAS. Itb. 6. cAp, 1 i:p. 1261. ha found 

in G»iA*A 9 where it yields a Heavy Wood fk tQ be made into Swords 

d Bows. .'Vv L iO - ••> . 

d Bow 


4» found this T 

hath natural Pick-Tooths 

CApe Verd 


nd p 

he fay 



1 20 . The Natural Hijiory 0/ JAMAICA. 

If this Wood be the Palo de ferro Arrows are headed with it which 
will pierce Iron, Laet. 

Bajtoncilli di palm a negri come pece & duri come cjji. are by Fern. Col. /. 

204 mention'd to grow in Carta, where we are told the Point of this 

Weapon is arm'd with a Fifli's fharp Bone, certe ojfa o fpini acuti dt 
pefce, which is the Bone on the Tail of the Stingray, or Pafiinaca mari- 
rina, defcrib'd hereafter. 

Albert li quali pajono palme , lifci dr copiofi di fpini nel tronco (ilunghi come 
cfaelit del porco fpinofa obferved by Etrn. Col. vtt.f. 219. are thefe Trees 

from which they make Wine by beating and exprefling the Juice with 
Water and Spices. 

The Wood of this Tree is by fome thought to be a Sort of Ebony, 
and the Indians ufe it to head their Arrows with in Brajile, Pifo. but it 
cannot be fo, becaufe 'cis neither fo black nor fbining as the tiue Ebo- 
ny which comes from Calecut and other Parts of the Eaft Indies. 


The Top of this Tree is not eatable, Ov 
The Indians make of this their Warlike Inftruments, Linfcbot. 
The Wood is hard, finking in Water of which the Indians make 
Clubs, Arrows, is a Sort of Ebony, Lerj. Gom. 

Thefe are the Black Date-Trees of Oviedo in his Summary, ap. Eden, 
p. 206. They are alfo his High Date-Trees full of Thorns, whofe Wood 
finks in Water; the Indians make of it Pikes, Swords, Clubs, Spears, 
Javelins, Arrows and Veffels for Houfhold-rtufT; the Chriftians make 
of it Lutes, Gitterns, &c. giving a good Sound, ib. 210. the Indians 
make Javelins alfo of Xagua Wood, and a clear Water is had from it, 
with which wafliing their Legs it takes away Wearinefs, ib. 

Thevet tells us, that at the Promontory of Cape ford the Inhabitants 
who are Blacks, pierc'd a Palm-Tree, having no eatable Fruit, about 
two Foot trom the Ground, and that thence iffued a Juice called Mignol, 
which was made ufe of by them in Lieu of Wine, but whether this 
be it or not, I know not ; it was falted that it might keep as Verjuice, 
and was cooling tor the Inhabitants of thofe warm Parts. The Egyp- 
tians before embalming their Dead ufed to walh their Bodies three 
or four Times with this Liquor, id. It is ufed in feveral Countries of 



op 1 a for Wine, id. 

The Wood of this Tree is of the Colour of black Marble, many call it 
Ebony, but true Ebony is more fhining, this is prickly on all Sides: 
Ebony comes from Calecut and Ethiopia, and finks in Water; the Sava- 
ges make their Swords of it; Necklaces are alfo made of it and Arrows 
which pierce every Sort of Codelet, Thevet, 

The Indians burn away the Prickles by a Fire made at the Tree's 
Root, Rocbef. 

Thefe Indians (of the River Marannon) do make Wine of the Fruit 

r * . 

of Date-Trees, which Fruit is yellow in Colour, and is as great as a 
little Dove's Egg, and being in Seafon is good to be eaten^rand of it 
proceedeth good Wine, which is preferved for a{ long Time,. Martin 

Fernandez, de Encifa Hakl. p. j. p. 699. 3. ML hn 


. » 


If this be the Momin or Toddie-Tree of Hughes r p. $7. he fays that the 

Wine iffuing from it is good for the Stone, but offends the Head. 


Ml ? ■ 1 \*~ 

VJIL Palm a fpinofa minor ,/ rutfu pruniformi. Cat. Jam. p. ij&.iRaij. 
Hi ft- Vol. j . Dendr. />.$.; An Palrna datfy I if era aculeata minima . Plum. 

pi. Am. p. 3 . ? Maccatv-Berries of Dam pier. p. 20. .?>v 


bnuol .f 1 .<\ c * 

i •( 

5 x ~ii*>i a u a nc 


The Natural Hijtory of JAMAICA. 121 



The fmall Maccarv-Tree 

The Trunc of this Palm-Tree is no thicker than the Small of one's 
Leg, rifes not over fifteen Foot high, has Prickles in the fame Man- 
ner as the larger foregoing one, and is like it in every thing only 
much leffer, by which it is fufficiently diftinguifh'd from it, tho' Dr. 
plukenetp. 144. of his Mantijfa would make them the fame. 

It grows beyond Guanaboa in the Woods near the Road going to 

Colonel Bourden's Plantation. 
The Tops are not eatable, Ov. 
The Fruit of this is eatable, Dampier. 

IX. Palma fpinofa minor caudice gracili,fruttu pruniformi,minimo, rubro* 

Cat. Jam. p. 178. Raij. Hift. Vol. 3. Dendr. p. y Palma dattylifera, aculeata 
fruttu corallino minor- Plum. pi. Am. p. -$. An Palma polygonati anguftis, Ion 
gioribus joliis, pediculis fpinofis exinfula Johanna. Pluk.Mant.p. 144 

Prickly Pole. 


Thirty or forty of thefe grow always together, clofe to one another, 
they have, at coming out of the Ground, a Swelling, as moft Palms, 
made up of many Thongs or Liguke interwoven or matted toge- 
ther; the Stem is very fmall, being but four or five Inches over; 
'tis forty Foot high, of a clay or grey Colour, and very thick befct 
with large and long Prickles round it ; the Leaves are all at the Top 
like the Coconut and the others of this Kind, only greener, not fo 
long, altho' the Pinnae are longer in Proportion to the whole Leaf, and 
very thick befet with Prickles ; the Fruit ftands as the others of this 
Kind, is bigger than the largeft Pea, has a red Skin covering a fweet 
thin Pulp which inclofes a hard, white Kernel. 

This grew in the Thickets near the Monetae Savanna, very plentifully 
and in feveral other Places of this Ifland. 

O » *ww*«-J 


They are the mod fit to make Rods and Scowrers for Guns of any 

Tree in this Ifland. 

Negro's travelling barefooted thro' the Woods, very carefully avoid 

-Places where thefe grow, becaufe of the many Prickles that fall from 

their Stems and Leaves, fo that for feveral Paces in Cirumference the 

Ground is full of them. 

X. Palma Braftlienfts prunifera folio plicatilifeu fiabelli formi caudice fqu am 

wato.. Raij Hift. Cat. Jam. p. 178. Tab. 213. Fig. 2. P alma humilis feu 
Cbamartphes curaffavica prunifera fpinofa nucleo extus eleg anter var legato. 
Pluk.Alm. p. 277. Palme to-Tree of D ampler, cap. 6,& 10. Palmetto* 
Leaves, ejufd. cap. 15. An Palma Barbadenfts non fpinofa, folto plicatili feu fia- 
belli formi, fruttu s officulo nigro. Pluken. Aim. p. 277 ? An palma dattylifera 
radiata minor aculeata. Plum. pi. Am. p. 3 ? 



This Palm-Tree has a Swelling at the Bottom of the Trunc, is very 
imooth, not over theJJignofsof one's Leg at fmalleft, ofa c clay Colour and 
•towards the Top appear fome reticulated Baggs, wherein wer/iri- 
clofed its Leaves or Flowers, it grows to about ten Foot high, and at xhe 
Top come many ^Leaves, thay*x$ {landing onFootftalks two or three 




122 The- Natural Hijiory of J A M A I C A. 

Foot long, which are prickly here and there. The Leaf is fhap'd 

like a Fan being femicircular or more, having Folds like that of 
Fan, and fome long Strings, Leaves or Appendices going out of their 
Circumference, which are longer or fhorter according to the Age of the 
Plant. The Fruit is as big as thofe of that Kind of Palm called Cab- 
bage-Tree, and fhap'd like an Olive, or like a Date. ,,',.. 

This grows on all the Honey-comb Rocks of this Ifland, thro which 
the Fibres of the Roots draw their Nourifhment. 

It is ufed for Thatch all over the Weft-Indies. 

It grows at Guam, Dampier, cap m 

Rwenau de Luffau.p. 268. fays that the Leaves of this Tree are ufed by 

the Inhabitants Indians Mouftiques about Cape Gracias a dios againft 
the Rain, and that the grey Stuff taken from .among the Origins pf the 
Leaves fome Feet under the Extremity of " 

which is like wife 

d with it, affords Coverlets for the Nigh 

They calk Ships with Oakham and make Ropes of the Bark of 

Palmitu Alvaro Nunmz,, lib. 8. cap. 1 . p. 1 504, in Florida 

In Santa Martha, Houfes are covered with Palmito Leaves, Baptift 


Antonio, Hakl. p. i-p* 548. 

In Diftrefs, in Bermudas the Inhabitants made their Cabins of Palmeta- 
Leaves with Facility, Smith, Summer-JJIes, p. 175. and they eat the Berries 

of them for Food, ib. p. 1 

The Difference of the Barks in the two Carnaibas in Pifo, feems to come 

from their Age, as do the Varieties of the LacinU or ProcefTes going 

out of the Ends of the Leaves. Likely for the fame Caufe, Tertre makes 

two Leaves, one bigger than another. 

The Name of Palm feems beft to agree to this Sort fhaped like 
a Hand, when young the tender Tops are good, Ov. 

They make Chefts or Boxes of the Barks of the Footftalks and Leaves 
of this Tree to keep out Water, and fo prefer ve Salt ; they eat the Roots in 
fcarce Times, viz,, of the younger ones a Foot under Ground, where they 

are tender like a Bullrulh, Oviedo Summary p. 209. & Hift. lib. 7. cap. 9. 

The Bark of the Footftalks. is ufed to make Panniers, Searces, &c. 
and the Wood is ufed for Bows, Clubs, Darts and Airow-Heads> as is 

f the Cabbage-Tree, Rochef, 


In Bermudas and elfewhere they make Hats, Baskets, Brooms and 

Fans to blow the Fire inftead of Bellows, with many other Houfe Im 
piemen ts> of Palmeto Leaves, Dampier. They thatch their Houfes in 

Puna. Guam, Mindanao, and Nicobar ljles 9 with them, id. 

XI. Palmis affinis malus Per fie a maxima caudice non ramofo, foliis longifji- 
mis, flore tetrapetalo pallide luteo, fructu ex arboris franco prodeunte. Cat, 
Jam. p. 179. Tab. 216. & Tab. 217. Fig- 1, 2. Raij. HtH.VoL 3. 


The Anchov) Pear-Tree. 

* % 


This has an undivided Trunc, no bigger than one's Leg, cover'd 
with a grey Bark, tapering towards the J op, rifing ftraight up to 
twenty Foot high, having near its Top, the Veftigia offeveral Leaves 
which have formerly dropt off; the Leaves come out only round near the 
Top, for half a Foot in Length, they have no Footftalks, are two Foot 
and a half long, and fix Inches broad in the Middle where broadeft, 
beginning very narrow, they grow wider in the Middle and thence 
decreafe, ending bluntly, much of the Shape of Hartftongue. They have 

one middle Rib and feveral tranfverfe ones, fliine, are fmooth and 



, W^v, 

fW ■ 

.^^_-_ . * 

The Natural H 'iftory of J A M A I C A. i 2? 

hin_ 1 wo or three toot below the Top, along the Trunc come out 
he Flowers without any Footftalk almoft at all, fometimes finely, for- 
tunes- in Tufts ; they are at firft a round Knob or Button, wnich after- 
wards opens ,nto a tetrapetalous Flower ; the Petala being thick, pale 
yellow and full o a great many Stamina, fmelling very Met, to which 

follows a Fruit like to the Mammee Safota,\n Bignefs, Shape, Colour, &c 

vefal IT-' <? mg C ° Sl «f en -Mile-Wallc, by the R.vers Side, and in ft- 

veral other Places, as well as all over the hot Weft Indies. 
1 he Fruit is by the Spaniards pickled and eaten in Lieu of Mango's and 

llT^r;* W r 6ft \ dieS - t0 °' d *fr aS the g'^teft Ra g rhy'. d 
L>go»,P. 38. erf. 72. fays that it was ufed in Barbados for Difert but 

he never faw it. " UBt » ""' 



XII. if Mint Per fa maxima, foliis rotundioribus fflendentibus olabris. 
frucfu maxtmo , fcabro, rugofo, /ubrotundo, fulfa dura /Mites, unum vel 

flura officula flamentofa cingente. Cat. Jam. f. i 1q . Tab. 217 Fir 

Jpfell-Mamtis Steerbeck. citr. p. 3 o. Mammee & MammeuTree ofDampL, 
"p. S1&7. Mamei magno fruclu Perftc* fapore, Plum. pi. Am. p. aa. A* 

Peregrins ft actus crajfus in quo magnus nucleus, J. B. f. 398 ? An arbor 
Americana am f I tor thus jubrotundu duris & nervofis foliis, frutiu pusni maith 

rts mynmdime, Pluken Almag. f. 39 ? Pbjt. Tab. 268. Fig. If Fruit us 

rettcula'o corio conftans. Maf.Summerd.f.iA, 


• W 

% • 

L > ? ,3J j • . ;/ 


i The Mmmee-Tree. « < 1 - oM 



This Tree is above fixty Foot high, as large as the biggeft Oak, 

the Bark on the Outfide ts full of Sulci, of a grey Colour, and within 
is yellowifh. The Leaves are fet on the Branches oppofue to one ano- 
ther.jat two Inches Diftance, on very ihort Footftalks, they are four 
Inches long and two broad in the Middle where broadeft, having one 
middle and feveral tranfverfe Ribs, very fmooth and green; the Fruit 
ftands on a fhort, thick Footftalk, is as big as one's Fift, round, or fome- 

times having a Ledge, or Creft, the outward Skin being when ripe, yellow* 
ifti green, rugous, iomething like a rufleting Apple, and having feveral Fi- 
laments on the outward Surface, like fome Melons; the Pulp is at firft 
milky, when ripe very grateful to the Palate, yellowifh like a Carrot, and 
harder than an Apple, having fomething of an Aromatic Tafte, about the 
Thickncfs of three quarters of an Inch. Within this Pulp are lodged one, 
two, or three Stones, being rough, or having feveral Furrows and Af- 
penties, which are filamentofe, of a reddilh brown Colour, being 
if more than one, flat on fome of their Sides, and roundifh on the 



whereby they lie clofe to one another ; within this thin out- 
ward Shell lies an almoft fmooth Kernel, of the fame Colour and Shape 
with the Stone, made up of two Lobes, as molt other Kernels are. 

It grows in great Abundance on moft Hills of this Ifland, both 
the South and North Parts thereof 

It is one of the moft pleafant and grateful Fruits to be met with 
in thefe Parts, eaten by Way of Diferr, as other Fruits. 

Wild Swine fe^ed^ on this Fruit, and are extremely fatten'd by them in 

the Seafon when they are rip** 


The E. of Cumberland, ap. Purchas lik 4. p. 1152, met with them at 

mink*. i t£ i oil J io r - 3 


.Ldjfittd % ap. Purcbks, lib. 4. f. 1 1 72. in Porto Rico. uo 

Nicoly ap. Purch4s lib. 6. cap. tp p* 1255. * n ^ /4 « Luc 

i/i37Si bns jib! m - > amvi I fi\ 


t 30; 
i ^A 


124 The Natural Hiftory of J A M A I C A. 


A Portugal of Elvas. p. 10. and ap. Purchas. p. 1520. tells us it was 

the beft Fruit of the Country (Brafile) and efteem'd by the Iflanders 

They differ in Taftc, have one or two Stones, and grow in the 
Ifles, of them is made a good Marmelade, Acofta. 
In the Continent they are longer, larger, and more pleafant than in 

HtjpanioU, where they are rounder. Benzj. 

It is the befl Fruit of the Weft-Indies, Lop. Gom. 
In Vtragua they make Wine of this Fruit, Fern. Col. 

This Tree grows in St. John's de P. Rico fourth Voyage to Virgini 


XllL Mali Perfic* Mamey* dicU folio longiore arbor maxima , cortice,ful 
cato,cinereo,amaro. Cat. Jam.p- 180. Wild Mammee of Dampier. cap. 7 
An Palma Maria-Trees ejufd. cap. 8- An Nucifera arbor femper virens India- 

vr&longis foliis venufte venofts, cujus lignum Redwood, /. e. Erythroxyloh 

r ibus % &ax vero Dhumba Ceylonenfibus difta. Pink. Mant.p. 136? 


Bsfiard Mammee-Tr*e y or, Santa Maria 

<^ ;V i «~ 


This is one of the larger! Trees of the Ifland, fo that I could never fee 
the feveral Parts of it to defcribe it more exactly than what follows. 

It had when young, a very fine, fmooth, yellowifh Bark, with fome 
white Spots on it, but when old had a great many Sulci not un- 
like the Bully-Tree, it was Jong and ^lender, and had a broad Leaf 
fomething like that of the Mammee, for which Caufe, knowing not its 
other Parts, I refer it hither. 

From the Name of Santa Maria given by the Spaniards to this Tree, and 

Bark beine bitter, it was thought by fome to be the Cortex P 

anus-Tree* and to have great Vertues, but it proved otherwifc upon 


^ 1 \ \ ! 

► % 



yal. 4 1 

7 The Wood is ufed to make Staves 

This Tr^e is ftraight, tall and tough, and therefore ufed forMafts,D4/«/>. 

The Grain of the Wood of Palma Maria runs not ftraight along but 
twifting about it, and therefore it is tough, Dampier. who fays it is ufed 
for Maris by the Englifh and Spaniards about Quibo 

XIV. Malus Perfica maxima foliis magnis, integrity longis. fruclu maxima 
oblongo, fcabrQy officulo partim rugofo, partim glabro. Cat. Jam. p. 180. Tab 

Fructus oblongus utrinty\ acuminatum feu conicus Uvis fplendens fpadiceus 
ux caftane* j pedes videtur, Muf. Cor ten. Raij, Hi ft. p* 1800. Arbor Ameri* 

can a pomifera, frondofis r amu lis , foliis amplify longioribtts y obtufis, duris ejr 
nofisy margin e equal i Mammee fapota Jamaicenjibus audit PI u ken. Aim. p. 39 
Phyt. Tab. 268. Fig. 2. Mammee Sapota-Tree of Dampier. cap. 7. An SapoU 

frutfu ovato mayor i Am. p. 4$ 

Mammee-Sapota) or %i MaumA-Supporta 



• mm ^ * 

This Tree has a ftraight Trunc thirty Foot high, about the Bignefs of 

one's Middle, cover'd with an afh-colourM Bark, having here and 
there fome Furrows in it; the Trunc is undivided till it comes about 

twelve Foot high, whence the Branches come out, being equally fpread 
on every Hand, and on the very Tops of the Twigs the Leaves fct aH 
round them without any Order, having an Inch long Footftalk, they are a 
Foot long and three Inches broad near the farther End where broadeft, 
of a pale green Colour, fmooth, thin, having one middle and feveral 

* tranf- 


The Natural Hiftory of JAMAICA. 125 

tranfverfe Ribs, from a narrow Beginning, increafing to near the End 
where broadeft, then ending in an obtufe Point. The Flowers come out 
from the Branches themfelves, being of a Cream Colour, and after them fol- 
rs the Fruit, being oblong, round ifh, two or three Inches long, biggeft 
the xMiddle, where 'tis almoft as big as one's Arm, tapering to both 
Ends ; 'tis cover'd with a rough Cinamon or ruflet colour'd Skin, ha- 
ving feveral Eminencies and Depreflions on it of feveral Figures. With- 

ward' Skin lies a Pulp half or three Quarters of an Inch thick 
of the fame Colour, fweet and lufcious, called natural Marmelade from 
its Likenefs in Colour to Marmelade of Quinces. Within this Pulp lies 
one large Stone, long and pointed, bigger at one End than at the other, the 
Shell being of a Cinamon Colour and fhinrng, except one long Slit a- 


Ion" its Edge, which is of an Afh Colour and has an unequal Surface 
roundifh on one End and pointed at the other, within which lies a 


It is planted by the Stone in feveral Places as other Fruit Trees, and 

yields Fruit mod Part of the Year. 

The Fruit isefteem'd by fome as very pleafant, eat either alone, or be- 
caufe 'tis lufeioufly fweet and fomewhat infipid,with Lemon Juice mix'd 
with it, and it's thought by fome People to be very venereal from fome 
Signature they fancy they fee upon it. 


*The Relation that Clufws had of thefe Stones being the Produce of 

the Tree yielding the Balfamum Peruvianum, appears without Ground 
tho' this feems to be the fame defcrib'd by him, tho' larger 

From the fweet Tafte and Colour of the Pulp of this Fruit like 
Marmelade, this Tree has been faid to bring natural Marmelade, and the 
fame was obferved by Jofepb Acojla to be the Opinion of the Crollos 

CroelUns of his Time; he fays it grew in the hot Parts of New-Spain, and 

that it was thought to furpafs all the Fruits of Spain, but he himfelf 


of that Op 

It is accounted the principal Fruit of the Weft-Indies, Damper, who 
takes Notice of it about Panama. 

Mammee-Sapotas are the Food of Tigres on the main Continent of Ame- 


Dr. Smallwood who liv'd there affured me 


Dr. Plukenet. in his Manttjf. p. 1 9. makes the Coxcocypote, Cluf. exot. to be 
this and another of his own Trees in his Aim. p. 1 9. Lin, 4 and 16 


m„*~*~~ de Luffan,p. 45. found this Tree in the Ifles near Panama in 

the ?Sou) 'h7to*i, where he fays it had two Stones and a red Pulp, but ' 


. ... 

Rob. Tomfon ap. HakL p. 454. and Hawks, p. $. f.464. met with it 

growing about Mexico 

growing _ _ J£3 > 

. ". • J £11 Ol • ! 

A j ; . 

rbor pumila maritima, fruclu mirabolano citrino perfmilis Icaca alter a 
teriam. Surian., Hobi, Qviedo Summary, p. 210. ap. Eden. Arbor i detti 

XV. Myrobolanm, folio fraxini alato fruclu luteo, officulomagno fbrofc 
Cat. Jam: P. iSi- Tab. 219. Fig. 1^,2. Ratj.Mift.Vol.^.Dendr.p.^. /£ 


addyfenter^ . 

lobialtro modo chiamati mirabolanu Roman ap. tern. Colon, ytt.p.iz-j. Arbo 

procer* qutfm&m ferMt injlar ptunorum, crocei color* quosaqua co£tos,exp 
mant tliciuntq\ Itquorem palato admodum gratum, nef, infalubrem, Laet, p. 66 

7 .r rhi ■} Ibn N] >U J 

The fellow Plumb-Tree. 


^ This Tree rifeth to about thirty Foot high, having a thick Trunc,^ 

cover'd with a whitifh grey Bark, with few Sulci in it, it is ufually crook rt 

ed, and foreads itfelf out in large Branches on every Hand, whofeEfids 


I i .0- ) r - ••* ' .-v . \\ 

a great many winged Leaves, the Pinnae whereof are odd incum- 
ber, fct one againft another to the middle Rib, with an odd one at the 
End, of a frefh green Colour, having one confpicuous Nerve in the Middle: 
Aboux December t^hefe Leaves drop off, and about March appear the 
fmall Flowers, to which follows an oval Fruit on an Inch long Footftalk 
as big as one's Thumb, having fometimes Ridges on it, being fmooth, an 
of a yellow Colour ; the Pulp is not thicker than a Crown Piece, yellow, 
of a fweetjfh balfamic, or aromatic Tafte, incloiing a large Stone co- 
ver'd with fome Filaments or Threads which fpoii the Gums, accord* 
ing to Oviedo. It is not fo hard as other Stones, but fofrifh. 

. • 


The Fruit is ripe in Auguft 

A reddifh or dark brown mucilaginous Gum comes out of the wounded 

They grow in the Woods of this Ifland, the ben: Plumbs are brought 
down the River from the inland Parts, when ripe dropping into the 

Current, and fo fwim down \ they are pick'd up to be eaten, and 
reckon'd wholefomer than the other Kind, having no Worms in 

• '•■ 

They are planted in Hedges for Fences by the Slip, and grow very 

quickly, in Barbados and Jamaica 

The Tops of this boil'd in Water is good to fhave the Beard withal, 
and wafli the Legs, being of a good Scent ; the Bark boil'd the fame Way, 
its Deco&ion by wafliing the Legs with it is adftringent, and eafes the 
wearied ; the Indians ileep under it becaufe its Shadow is not hurtful. 
A Piece of the Root cut gives Drink, as the Water-With before de- 
fcribed, Ovied. Gom. 

is certainly a Sort of Mkdbolan as Peter Martyr fays, tho' neither 
Codro nor any other Phyfician did allow it. 

he Shade is wholefomer than that of any other Tree, keeping thofe 
under it from the Headach. A Piece of a Branch of the Root being 
c\x\ jieids Water to quench the Thirft, as Wutr-With* Uv 





The Fruit fattens fwine, and is ufed in Ouicou or MMy to heighten its 
Gufto or Relifo, Rochtf. J h 

The piflaers. who went out of the Cave Cacibariagd in Hifpaniola. were 
by the Sua Uransform'd into this Tree, Roman according to the Relation 
of the Hifpanola Indians. 

The Bark boil'd makes an excellent Bath for the Leg 

fbme Shadow, Oviedo Summary. 

Ldyfield df Pvrchas, /#. 4 . p.uj.i. found them in Porto Rico, where 
they are ufed to ftay Fluxes * 

, *•, **«*. a. wnv/ lv - 

w hole 


Great Store of yellow Plumbs which are good to eat, grow in one of 

the fey en Ifland near G«mjm, Majbamap. HakL p. ?. p. 694 

P\umb-Dnnk is made of the prefs'd Juice of wild Plumb 

Plumbs in Barbados 

» ( ... ... ■ , . . 

flumb-Trees of Smith'sObO, p. j$. from whence i&made good Drink 

\ * 

rrnirV ^ 1 « 


Dr. Ptukem'w hisMantJffdy p. 156. makes this Tre$ to be the fame 
W rA ™° : ^™ ia & how juftly, any one may fee who pleafes 

Defcription and Figure with Attention 



«™di r W T'"Z' f e *"f'** i »* *l*to,fru(iu purpurea, cffculo msgno 

p. 4J. Mm lt*&*mpuno. Humien. pi. ^m-p .44,. tmi d*. EfqaemUm. 
Lit W^tfr**"* £«** fuM - "9"' *»/* mtturiutm, foli< --- 

promtf, Piuhn. Aim. p. jo6. i i 


Tfcr jVtowra/ #i/?ory 0/ JAMAICA. 127 




¥ l umbs 



This Tree rifes not paft ten Foot high, is as thick as one's Le. 
ftraight, and grey Colour'd in the Bark; it hath in the Beginning of tfi 

Spring, after having been naked for feveral Months, fome very fm 



purple pentapetalous Flowers with yellow Stamina breaking out of the 
Ends and Sides of its bare Twigs and Branches, and fometimes feveral 
together on the fame Footftalk, to which follows on the fame bare Twigs 
an oval fhaped, fmooth Fruit, of the Bignefs of one's Thumb, firft green 
1 purple, of a fweetifh fulfome Tafte when ripe, but notunpJeafa 

The Pulp is but fmall in Comparifon of the Fruit, the Stone bei 

, ._.. 

large and cover'd with fome Threads and Filaments. The Lea 
come after the Fruit is ripe towards the Ends of the Branches 

are many and winged, the Pinnae fet to the middle Rib are an I 

long and about half as broad in the Middle where broadeft, and have 
an odd one at the End, and are of a frefh green Colour. 

The Fruit is ripe in the Months of May and April* 

They are planted by the Slip as Phyfick Nuts to make Hedges, both 
for a Fence growing fpeedily, as alfo becaufe they are not unpleafant when 
eaten by Men, and that all Manner of Cattle will feed on them. 

If one cut the Fruit a-thwart when ripe, a great many Erucae appear 

in the Pulp, from whence they are thought to breed Worms, and bring 
the Gripes to thofe feeding on them. 

J t 

Some Savages by the Bay of Honduras love this Fruit fo well, depend 
ing on it for Nourifhment, that they in the Seafon leaft their Nb'i 

bours wanting them fhould get them, guard them with Bows and Ar 
rows, Roche/', whofe Figure is fabulous. 

Layfeld ap. Purchas. lib. 4. /M172. obferved them in Porto Rico where 


they ftay Fluxes 
Oviedo lib. 9. cap. 16. tells us they make Wine of the Fruit, and 

flieds its Leaves, id 




• ' ■ - ' v J ' \ I 

XVII. PrunmBrafilienfufrucluracemofolignointusproofficulo. Raij Hift 
Cat. Jam. p. ij 2.prunifera Arbor Americana, fruclu lutto ovali, offish majori 
quorum nuclei ad porcos fagmandos ipfis glandibus prefer untur y Pluk. Almage ft 
p. 307. Monbm Arbor foliis fraxinifrutiu luteo racemofb. Plumier pi. A%er 
f. 44. Hog-Plumb-Tree of D ample , f ' 


y _ _ 



This Tree has a Trunc of about a Foot or two Diameter, cover'd 
with an alh colour'd £rey Bark, having very many deep Furrows in 

ifing to forty or fifty Food high j the Branches are crooked, and 
towards their further Ends have a great many very large winded Leases - 
the Flowers are in very large Pyramidal Bunches on the Ends of the 

Twigs ffanding on frnall branch'd Petioli, they are white, pentapet*- 
lous, with white Stamina, fmelling fweet, and making a very fine Shew 

in the Month of March, and to them follow feveral ovaL yellow Plusnb 
much like the yellow Plumbs before defcribVL n . r. 

They i grow in the Lowland Woods and Savannas every where* 
The Wood is foft and ufed for Cork, it grows caffly by the Branch 

the Leaves afford a good Sawce comfortable to the Stomach, beiag &w* 




It grows about Amapalla, Damp 

r\9 ■ .£ ^ "«• - ...'■'.. .V*Vlfc8 

I » 


V- 11 313.'! 


128 ; The Natural Hiftory of] AM A I C A. 

The Fruit is good for Squeamifhnefs and the Bloody-Flux ; an inebriat- 

ing Wine is made of them; the Buds and Tops make a good Sallad 5 and 

being bruifed, they yield a Froth of thin Parts, which being put into the 

Byes, clears them, taking away Inflammations, Spots and Clouds, the 

Fain which it firft caufes vanifhing prefently. The Bark, Juice, or Buds 

are good in Gargarifms, againft inflamed Throats, or in Lotions for hoc 

outward Difeafes of the Body and Feet ; the Leaves and Wood are fowr, 

and adftringent, good for the Appetite and Thirfr in Fevers. Black and 

yellow Birds as big as Pyes (Watchpickets) make Nefts on their further 

Ends frequently, to defend themfelves from Snakes, Pifo. 

This Tree hath a brittle Wood and the Fruit hath Maggots in them 
when ripe, Dumpier. 

XVIII. Pruno forte affim's arbor folio alato, fore berbaceo pentapetalo 
racemofo. Cat. Jam. p. 182. Tab. 220. Fig. 1. Raij. Hi ft. Dendr.Vol. $. 


This Tree came the neareft in its Leaves and Flowers to the precedent 
of any I met with in this Ifland, wherefore I place it here. It rifeth to a 
bout twenty Foot high, by a ftraight Trunc, cover'd with an almoft 
fmooth, greyifh or light brown Bark, with fome few white Spots on 
it. About feven Foot or more from the Ground, it fends forth feveral 
Branches bowing downwards, the Ends of which are befet without 
any Order, with fome few. winged Leaves ; the middle Rib being a- 
bout three Inches long; the Pinnas are fet one againft another, having 
an odd one at the End, each having an eighth of an Inch long Foot- 
ftalk, is an Inch long and three Quarters of one broad near the Footftalk 
where broadeft. They are fet at almoft an Inch Diftance afunder, are 
of a dark green Colour and fmooth. The Ends of the Twigs are branch'd 
out into feveral, two Inches long, green Stalks, which, juft at the Bot- 
tom are branch'd into others, fuftaining leveral whitifh green penta- 
petalous Flowers, having five green capfular Leaves, within which are 
many purple headed Stamina. I never faw the Fruit. < 

The Figure of this compared with Dr. Plukenet y s Arbufculum Ameri- 

canum amplexicaule cerafi folio, corymbojum. Tab. 146. Fig. 4. Aim. />. 48. 

Jhews it to be different, tho' he thinks they may be the fame Mant.p. 26. ♦ 

grows very plentifully between Pajfage-Fort and the Town of St. 

Jago de la Vega. 

O #' «■* 

< • > 

XIX. Truno forte affinis arbor maxima, mater ie rubra, laxa, odorata. Cat. 

Jam. p; 182. Tab. 220. Fig. 2. Raij.HtH. Vol. j. Dendr. p. 43. 


The Cedar-Tr 

! > 


This is one of the largeft Trees of this Ifland, it has a reddifh, not 
clofe but lax, odoriferous Wood, with fome fhining fmall clofer Pieces 
in it, and Leaves which are winged, the Pinnae being fet oppofite to 
one another, about two Inches long and <!>ne broad, being fcmetimes 

blunt, and fometimes pointed : Becaufe o£its Leaves I refer it hither* 
It is proper for Canoas and Pereagos (tho'it will be Worm esitcn)Damp 
It is found on the Amazons Banks, fix Ells in Circumference^ Pagafi ,8 H n i J ni ['pd 

An Anomymus Portugal^ Ap. Purcbas, lib. 7. cap. up. 1309. met with 

it in Brafile. mc )K ■ V sowfcti * 

i sdl 

Battel, ap. Parcbas, lib. 7. c. 3. §. 3. p. 975. in Benegah Part ofrGufaey 

where is Olicondie 




The Natural Hijicry of J A M A I C A. 

Jo de L 



/>• ii. takes Notice of this Tree 

Trunc makes Canoas able to hold fifty Men 

Cuba where 

his Coron. lib. 9. cap. 7. tells us that the Worms eat it 

as other Timber^ fometimes, tho' more 

from its Scent 

Ligon, p. 14. obferved 

as well 
rely, and that it has its Name 

- , • a , n . Cape Ferd IJles & p. 41. that it works frm, 

t 75. that it is ftrong, lading, and not very heavy ; and by Reafon of 


Smoothnefs and Fairnefs of the G 
hath Alh-Lea 

good for Wainfcot, and that 


grows in Barbados and Jamaica in irony Grounds 

St. Andreas, Bermudas and Vir 




in St a, Maria 

well as in the Ifihmus of 

When the Pa 


this Fruit, which is like 



o\they ta (re of Garlick ; a great Quantity of Gum, liko Arabic, come* 

out of its wounded R 


A c r r: u 1 , inoas are made °f ic forty Foot long 

and five or fix Foot broad ; good Shingles or Tiles are made of it, Du Tertrl 


Ships are fheath'd 

Vermin, id. Pyrauguesare made of 

d Cofres are made of it to keep 



It gives Victuals laid in it a bitter Tafte, Laet 
It grows in Barbados. Smith's ObiT. 


XX. Prunus r+ritima racemofa, folio rot undo glabra, fruclu 

Cat. Jam. p. 1 8 j 


minore pur 

220. Fig. i, 4, &j. Rdij. Hifl. Vol. 2 

Dendr.p 40. Nhaloubonou, Icacoa altera, arbor mar it tma fruclu myrabol 
rubro pifiatta, latter e & carnofwre folio. Surian. J J 

latiore & carnofwre folio, Surian 







The Mangrove Grape-Tree 

This has feveral 

fs of one's Leg, cover'd 

welve Foot high Trurics 


f about the Thick 

having feveral Branches and Twigs with Leaves 

reddiQi brown, almoft fmooth Bark 

on them placed 

ly, ftandingon a quarter of an Inch long, red Footftalks 

moft perfectly round, about fix Inches diametei 
Colour, having one middle Vein and feve 


thick, of 


grafs green 



long and wh 

Flowers ftand on 
ny Footftalk ; they 

Strings or Stalks two 

or Myrabolans of 

After the Flowers follow feve 

he Bignefs of an ordinary Raifin 

tranfverfe ones branched 

three Inches 

Berries, fmall Plumbs 

hexapetaious, the Petala 


Bunch of 

? ? £\ b J l n !," n r de :, an ^ tward reddifll b ™" or purplifli Membrane! 

a foft, not unpieafantly ad firing 
round Stone, containing a Kernel 


very thin Pulp, covering one largi 

It grows 
the Ifland, and 

fandy Shores about Port-Royal, in the North fide of 


The Fruit being pieafant, is gather'd and brought to Market in Bar 


cefs 1116 St0neS, ^^ VCry adftrin S ent > areuf ed in Fluxes with g 


The Spaniards ufed 



Bodkin's End, when they were in Want of Pen 


both Sides of thefe Leaves with i 

, Ink and Paper, Oviedo 

This feem 


to agree in every thing with Lobel 

American Poplar; he took the 

Julus, like that of a Populus, 

Defcription arid Icon 

which hangs the Fruit. 

w • 




- > 

x ^o The Natural Hiftory of J A M A I C A. 

Benzo compares thefe Fruit to Sloes, and fays, becaufe they had 

much~Srone and little Pulp, they could not make Wine of them 

Thevet fays it grows m Canada, Cojm 
Re chef, 

Wood is hard and of a violet Colour, good for feveral Works; 

Layfrld, *p. Furckas.tik 6. p. i 1 72, fa w this Tree in Porto R/Vo, where 

the Fruit 'dons Fluxes. 

1 here are Berries called /frto** ufed by the Indians to flop bloody 

Fluxes, Harcoart i ib. 1 276. ft ,.. w .„. ..*:'.. 

Dr P/tfto" finds Fault with me,/. 190. of his Manttffa, that I took the 
5 ynoninom Names of this Plant from his Phytography. This Book of his was 
rot nublifhed before my Catalogue, tho' the Date on the Title Page was 
made 1692, it never was publifhed till 1696, as may appear by the 
Gi-ttts and other Books wherein new Books were then advertis d. 

XXI Prams racemofa, foliis oblongis hirfutis maximis, fratfu rubro.Cat. 
Vam.P.'iU- Tab. 221. Fig. 1. Raij.Hift* W. 1-Dendr. p. 4$. Arbor Indie* 

J i r , /- . . !•• # :.r. r -L/„?L. D -~Z, -J „ M GL**A Jiff* n/^U*****- 

b ace iter a verbafei joins lanuginofa, Loblolly Barbadenfibus ditta. Plukenet 
Alm.f. 38. 

The Broad-leaved Cherry-Tree* 


' ■ 

This Tree has a Trunc as thick as one's Middle, cover'd with a grey 
i'urrow'd Bark, riling to about fifty Foot high, having many crooked 
.Branches • the Twigs are green and befet with Leaves, a Foot and a 
half long, and half as broad near the Bafe where broadeft ; each of them 
is hoary, corrugated like Sage or Fox*glove, woolly, and of a frefh green 
Colour, having one large middle Rib and feveral tranfverfe ones, and 
ftands op a Footftalk three quarters of an Inch long. The Ends of the 
Branches or Twigs are divided into feveral hoary and purple Footftalks 
nine Inches long, having here and there feveral Berries or Plumbs 
which have a fmall Pulp, are of a reddifh Colour, and about the Bignefs 

of a great Bean* 

It grows in all the inland Woods, and near the Town of St. Jago de 

la Vega on the Banks of Rio Cobre. 

Mr. Retd who went to Barbados in Search of Plants, brought the Leaves 
of this Tree from thence which only differ'd in being lefs. 

The Defcription of this fhews it to differ from Dr. PlukeneVs Arbor 

Americana amplifpmis rugofis foliis fere orbiculatis glabris ex Syrinam. Pluk* 

contrary to his own Conjecture, Mant. p. 1 8. He is likewife miftaken 

in his Opinion in the fame Book, p. 27, where he thinks it may be the 

Arbor Americana convolvulacea Broad-leaf, i. e. Platyphyllos Barbadenfibus 
dUU foliis J en Mis, Phyt. Tab. 146. Fig. i.Alm. p. 48. 

XXII. Arbor maxima forte prunifera, cortice cannabino, folio longi/Jtmo 
lAtiffimeft Cat. Jam. p. 1 84. Raij. Hift> Vol. 3. Dendr.p. 43. 


The Broad-Leaf-Tree, 

This has a very large Trunc, and grows to a vaft Heighth, cover'd 
with a grey, or very light brown Bark, like that of Fiddle-wood- 
Trees, feeming to be loofe and come off of its felf in feveral lor 
Pieces (like to the Bark of Hemp before 'tis much wrought) in many 

Places- It hath here and there fome Knobs or Eminencies on its Sur- 




The Natural Hiftory of JAMAICA 

• • •-- 



rge and long Lea 



hich Caufe I refer 



all the inland great Woods of this Ifland, and becaufe 

never come to defcribe the Parts of it more 

face, and v< 
this Place. 
It grows 
it was very high 

■ * 

XXIII. Arbor, f orte prunif era, folio fubrotundo glabro, vents purpureas. Cat. 
Jaw. p. 184- Tab. 221. Big. 2. Raij.Hift. Vol. }. Dendr. p. 41,. 

This had a very large Leaf, being roundifh, about a Foot long and 
nine Inches broad near the further End where round and broadeft, 
beginning from a fhorc Footftalk, narrow, and augmenting in Breadth 
to near its End. This Leaf is even on the Edges, having one middle 
and feveral tranfverfe dark brown or purpIiQi, colour'd Ribs, and is fmooth 
on its Surface. Becaufe of its Largenefs I refer it hither. . 

I gather'd it in the Woods of Jamaica. 


XXIV. Prunm racemofa, caudice non ramofo, alato frdxini folio non crenato- 

fruftu rubro fubdulci 
7. Dend. p> 44 

Jam. p. 184. Tab 


Raij. Hifl. Vol 


The Maiden-P lamb-Tree. 

' * * 

This Tree has a ftraight undivided Stem, twelve or fifteen Foot 
not much bigger than an ordinary walking Stick, very brittle and eafily 

broken, and cover'd with a grey Bark; the Leaves are only about 
the Top, fpreading themfelves on every Hand, being winged, about 
fourteen Inches long, by the Middle Rib which is roundifh, Purple on 
one Side and green on the other-, the Pinnae are fet on by Pairs not 

juft dppofite 

to one another, at an 

Inch and a halt's Diftance, having 


fcarce any Footltalks, being three Inches long and more than one broad 
near the Middle where broadeft, of a very dark green Colour and fmooth, 
having a middle and fome tranfverfe apparent Nerves. The Top of the 
Tree is branched out above the Leaves into many tender and fmall foot 
long Branches, futlaining feveral Flowers, each whereof confifts of three 
Apices or Petala, with iome yellow Stamina, to which follows a Fruit 
of the Bignefs and Colour of the largeft Cranberries, biggeft at the Bot- 
tom and tapering to the Top, and containing within a fmooth, 
red Skin, a liquid, fweetifh Pulp, in which is a large Kernel of the Shape 
of the Fruit, lying in a very thin Shell. 

It grows on the Road between PafjagiFort and the Town of St.Jago 
de la Vega, and on the woody Savanna's, as well as on the red Hills going 

to Guanaboa. 

It is pretty plain that this Tree differs from all the foregoing Trees, 

and is alfo not the fame with the prumfera arbor Madera, fpatana malt 
Perficx foliii rugofis, Pluk. Pfyt. Tab. 312. Fig. 2. Aim. p. 307. tho' the 
Dr. thinks they may be all the fame with this. 

• * 

XXV. Pram/era racemofa, folia alato> cop media membranulis atrin^ue 
extantibm donata, fruftu faponario. Cat. Jam. p. 184. Sapindus joliis cojU 
dldU innafcentibus, Tournef. p. 6 S9. An japonarU arbor Indtca Aman. Hort. 
$o[. />. g 2 ? Noulourhoue faponarta altera, arbor racemofa coccigera ; pro pre- 
carta corolla & fapone Indians utuntur, Surian. Nax Americana foltts alatts 
biUis feu Kjiippa Htrm. par. pat. p. Hort. Amfi. p. 18$. An prunifera fen 
nuci prunifera, fruila faponario, minore fufco ex infula Jamatcenft, Pluken. 

Jlmag.p. 266? SaponmafphtruU Gontant 

muf. Swammed. p. 15. 



1 3 2 The Natural Hiftory of J A M A I C A. 

!Htf S ope- Berry, or, T£<? &?/* Apple-Tree, 

This Tree rifeth to twenty or thirty Foot high, it has a Stem as thick 
as one's Thigh, cover'd with an alh-colour'd, fmooth Bark, like that ot 
the Fraxwm ; the Branches are few, rifing ftraight up, and the Twigs are 
thick fet with winged Leaves, which have a middle Rib for the moil 
Part, a Foot long, having an extant Membrane on each Side a tenth 
of an Inch broad, except an empty Space at every Inch and half's Di- 
fiance, where the Pinnae are fet on, almoft oppofite to one another, 
with an odd one at the End. Each Pinna is four Inches long, and one 
Inch and a half broad in the Middle where broadeft, having no Foot- 
iialk. one middle and feveral tranfverfe Ribs, is fmooth, and of a dark 

Colour. The Flowers come on the Ends of the Branches, wh 
divided into many fmall Footftalks fpread on every Hand, fufta 

ing many white Flowers in a great Bunch, to which follow as many 
brown Berries, or Plumbs as big as Cherries, having little or no Pulp 

being perfectly fpherical, and made up of a thin brown Skin, having 
many Veins running thro it, lathering with Water as Sope, and wafh- 
ing Linen, in which (an empty Space being between) lies a round, black 
Ihining, hard Stone. 

It grows in all the Low- land or Savanna Woods. 

The outward Skin or Pulp of ths Berries wafhes Linen as Sope, 
burns it in fame Time. 

The Stone is made Ufe of for Buttons, and therefore the Berries 
gather'd and the Stones fent into Europe in great Qj 

The Stone makes better Beads to be ufed in Prayers than Ebony. 
Cioaths wafhed with this Fruit are injur'd by it, it being very lharp ; 
being bruifed and thrown into Rivers it kills the Fifhes, as Timbo, 

;. Pifo. 

The Beads made of this Stone, turn'd, and the bitter Kernel taken 
out, are better than thofe of Jet or Ebony becaufe light, and becaufe they 
never crack ; the Sope wafhes Cioaths as well as other Sopes in 

ain. Xim.Oviedo. 

The Powder thrown into a River intoxicates Fifh, Nieremb. 
Three or four of thefe Berries wafh Cioaths better than a Pound of 

Sope, Mon. 

They burn the Cioaths wafli'd with them. Ov. 

An Anonymus Portugal takes Notice of it in Br a file Purchas p. i$oo. 

lib. 7. cap. 1. where Beads are made of the Fruit, and Sope, which is as 
bitter as Aloes, ib. 

Sope-Berries wafhing as white as Sope, were found by Smith in his 

Obff, p- 55- in St - Chrijtopher\& p. 56. in Barbados, where he fays they 

have a good Kernel, and are eatable. 

Lery tells us of a Fruit like a Citrull, as big as one can carry in 
one Hand, which being cut into Pieces, lathers like Sope, and was us'd 
by the Indians for that End ; and Rocbefort, of a foft white Root 

ufed for the fame Purpofe, in the Hies. 

XXVI. Prunifera arbor, frutfu maximo pyriformi viridi, pericanio efen- 
lento butyraceo, nucleum unicum maximum nullo officulo tec~lum)°cinoente. 

, „„. 6 

Cat. Jam. p. 185. Tab. 222. Fig. 2. Raij. Hifi.Vol. $. Dendr. p. 48. &£_ 
Sterbeeck citr. p. 259. Plm. pi. Amer. p. 44. Arbor Americana ampUjfimii 
pergamenis joltu, fuperficte mtidtjjima, frutlu pyriformi, crujlaceo cortice co- 

rtato. Plukenet. Almag.p.y). phytogr. Tab. 267. Fig. 1. feu Cucurbit if era 


..' The Natural Hiftory ^JAMAICA, 

arbor American* ffunos ferens pyriformes, ejufd. ib. Avogata Pear-Tree of 
Dampier, cap. 


The Albecato Pear-Tree, Hifp. Abacado t feu, Avocado, 


This Tree has a Trunc as thick as one's Middle 


a light 

fcrown or grey afh-colour'd Bark, having very deep Furrows or Sulci 
in it, rifing to twenty or thirty Foot high ; the Ends of the Branches 
have a great many Leaves, ftanding without any Order on yellowifh 
half Inch long Footftalks, they are three Inches long, and one and a half 

broad in the Middle, where hroadeft, rery fmooth and of a deep green 
Colour, with an Eye of yellow in it, having one Rib in the Middle and fe- 
veral tranfverfe ones bra nch'd from it. Among the Leaves come out a fllort 
half Inch long Stalk, to which are faften'd by fhort Petioli from near 
the Bottom, Flowers of a yellowiQi green Colour, to which follows a 
Fruit fhaped like a Pear, as big as one's two Fifts, greeniih on the our- 
fide, having a fmooth Skin and a Pulp under it of an Inch itfThicknefs, 
which is green, foft, almoft infipid to theTafte, and very nouriihing. Withiu 
this lies a naked great Kernel bigger than a Wallnut, having many Tu- 
bercles and Sulci on its Surface, divifible into two great Lobes, between 
which lies the young Sprout or Germen. 


It is planted and grows every where in this Ifland. 

This is accounted one of the wholefomeft Fruits of thefe Countries, not 

Way of Difert, being eat with Juice of Lemons and Sugar to 

£ive it a Piquancy, but likewife for fupporting Life it felf. It is ufefui 
not only on thefe Accounts to Men, but likewife to all Manner of Beifrs* 

It is reckon'd a great Incentive to Venery, and fofajfs Scaliger. 

Hawks ap. Hakl. p. ^p. 464. found this Tree about Mexico. 

There (in the Way between Panuco and Mexico) groweth a Fruit 
which the Spaniards call Avocottes, it is proportioned like an Egg, and 
as black as Coal, having a Stone in it, and it is an excellent good 

Fruit. Hor top ap. Hakl. p- 3. p> 492. ■ < ■ 

Hughes, p. 40. tells us that this Fruit nourifhes, ftrengthens, and is Ve- 
nereal ; and that it is eaten with Vinegar and Pepper. . 

Clufms defcribes this Tree with a black Fruit, and 'tis purplifh when 

m .-— mm ■ m mr- "• • ^ mm* S Jkm m m* m - * ^ 

has a pen- 




reft well, only it 

rips; hedefcribed the Fruit by Hearfay 
tapetalous Flower. 

The Leaves dry, powder'd and ftrew'd on Wounds, cure Hxmorhaees. 





The Fruit is eat with Salt and Plantain roafted, and is fit to make a 

Meal of, at Campeche, Cartagena, Caraccas and Jamaica, Dampier. . 

I believe the Synonimous Names in my Catalogue, p. 185, to belong to 
this Tree notwithstanding what is faid by Dr. Plukenet.p. 18 of his Man* 

tiffa. Hernandez,.. fol. 89. defcribes it with many Kernels,, which may 
be a Variety. 



XXVII. Pruno vel Evonymo affinis arbor, folio alato,haxeo, fubrotundo, 

flore pentapetalo ctraleo racemofo frutfu aceris cordato, cuju* cortex luteus cor- 
rugate, jtmen unicum majufculum nigricans nullo ojjiculo tedium operit. Cat. 
Jam. p. i£') r Tab. 222. Fig. 3, 4, 5,6. Guajasum Americanum lentifci folio 
Com. tiort. Arnfl. p. 171. Guajacum arbor lndica buxi folio rot undi ore flore 
purpureo, vulgo Bois Saint, Surian. Guajacan,Worm. Muf. p.ijo, &ijj. Gua- 
jacum verum majus Munt. p. 96. Phyt. p. 4. Fig. 16. Guajacum legit imum cefa- 
tonU foliis aceris frutfu, C. H. B. M. Guajaicum minus verum S. Lignum 

Santlum, Munt. p. 5. JF/g.17. Guajacum Alter urn lentifci folio evonymifrutfu, 






The Natural 


C. H- B. M. Guajacum fore caruleo frucia fubrotundo Plumier. pi. Am. 
.39 Gayac, Guajacan, Bois-Saint ou Mien. Pommet. /. 114- Lignum- 
Vita of D ampler* 

"Lignum-V it £• 

This Tree lias a Trunc as thick as one's Thigh, rifing to about thirty 

Foot high, the Barkis very fmooth, of a green and white Colour mix'd. 

Spots of each being for the moft Part large, the Bark thick, the 

fide of the Wood, or that Part near the Libra being white, the inner 

black, very hard and ponderous ; the Branches are many, making 
fant Top, and having Knobs or Joints at every Inch and half's Diflan 
On the Twigs come winged Leaves oppofite to one another ; the Pinnae 
or Leaves are always two pair or four fet one againft another without 
any Footitalk to the three quarters of an Inch long middle Rib, they are 
nervous, fmooth, about an Inch long and three Quarters of one broad 
of a dark green Colour, and referable the Leaves of Rue or Box 
from the further End of the Twigs come the Flowers, many togeth 



on Inch long, green Footftalks, as from a common Centre* or Um 

bell Fafhion, they are pentapetalous, blue, the Petala being long, and 
ftanding Star-fafhion, within which are many blue Stamina with yellow 
Apices, and a purple Stylus. After thefe follows the Fruit, which is 

ihaped like the Seed of Burfa Pafloris or the Fruit of Acer Montanum candi- 

dum B. wanting the Ala, or a Heart, the Apex being that Part flicking to 
the Tree, and the Bafe uppermoif, of a yellow Orange Colour, moid 
and corrugated Subftance, which opens ir felf and lets drop an oblong 
large, horny, oval, black Seed, almoft like that of Cotton. 

The Elder Trees of this Kind have generally fticking to their Barks 
good Quantity of a refinous inodorous Gum, refembling benzoin in every 
thing but Smell 


It grows every where in the Savanna Woods and Hill Sides of the 
South fide of this Ifland, but none that I could fee in the North 

Thefe Trees afford not good Fire*wood, and are fo hard as to break the 
Iron Tools ufed in felling them, and therefore are generally left ftanding 
when other Trees are fell'd. 

The Flower when dryed turns pale, and does not keep its blue 
Colour, whence Jo. Terentius, Lyncem ap. Hernandez, defcribes the Flower 
to be of that Colour j in other Things the Defcription is good, and 
the Icon of the Fruit exaft ; but there feems to be great Corifufion 
and^ very few certain Marks between Guayacan and Lignum+SancJun?, as 
may appear to any peruiing Hernandez Ximenes and Terentius 

The Bark of this Tree is efteem'd more efTe&ual than its other 


This Wood boiPd in Water, and drank for many Days, Morning and 
Evening, is good in Difeafes of the Liver and Breaft, efpecially their 
ancient Obftru&ions, being of fubtle and hot Patts ; it helps the French 
Pox and Stoppage of Urine ; The white Juice coming out of the Bark 
is good againft a fcal'd Head, Pifo. 

Thofe of Braftle ufed it againft the French-Pox, Marcgr. 

Concerning the great Price of it in the Eaft-Indies, after the Pox 
reach'd thofe Places, vid. Garc. de China. 

A Spaniard getting from an Indian Woman the French- Pox was 
cured by his Indian Servant of his Pains, by this Wood, &c. in Hifpaniola, 

whence others did the like, and thence it came in Uleat Seville ; thro 1 all 


The Natural Hiftory of J A M A 1 C A. 

ty«/«, and the whole World. The Way of Cure then, was to 


in Rvq Qi 

gs of the Wood twelve Ounces, two of the Bark, and boil 

of Water 

ot the 

the Confumption of two thirds^then ftraL- 
~ again in a little 

gand keeping it for Ufe* They then, boil the Wood 

more frefh Water, till it boii'd away ,about a fourth Part, and* fir 
it. They drank pi " 

the firft Decoction warm 

in Bed twice a Day after 





Ounces, fw 


Morn li 
eating Raid 

d for two Hours, in the 

*», «.~ «. ^a.j «ii,vi tu, wwi iwvw u im two riours 

nd Evenings. They fhifted their Linen four Hou 

d Almonds with Bifcu 

drinking nothing but the fecorid Decoft 




fifteen Days, a Ch 
the twentieth Day 

after v 

keeping their Chamber and 
for ordipary Drink. They 

Courfe for forty Day 




fted, and purged eafily, as like 

then eat Flefh and 
it roots out the Pox arid 

tinued the 

other in- 


Difeafes, efpecially if the Pox have preceeded fuch Diftemp 


Clujius his Defcription is not 

been broken, and he has adjufted it wrong, for I never faw 


maica more th 

Fruit come out fo 

xa&, for his Specimen feems to 

two Pai 




four Pinnae, neither do the Flower 


Bunch, as he makes them 

„i* w~- ~- ~ -^^wj .v^^w ma.wuuwi, » «W Mian 

The three Sorts of this Wood differ only in Age, the paler 

nd hath more Vet 

but keeps not fo long 


Fruit and Flowers 

defcrib'd by Matbio/us, who fays the Oriental is beft, and that it was 

taken forty Days in the Dark, and 

at firft dangerous unlefs 


with an exa& Diet 


It grows in St. Euflace, Tertre 

good, infufed in Wine, id 





Pox common thei 

06. met with this Tree in Brajile, where it cures the 

There is another Sort of it having fix Pinnx, or th 




hich may be that of Porto Rico, I had it from Barbados 


Lob el fays it came from Calecut as well 
fuppofe he was miftaken, p. 439. Adv 

Weft-Indies, in which I 



In 1547 the 


three hundred and fifty Q 


from the Weft 



or Bo is & lnd 

It finks in Water, he calls it Lignum Sanctum, B 


It was brought from Hifpaniola, Benz. An Indian Servant in HifpanioU 
cured his Mafter of the Pox with the Water of this, whence it became 

famous. Clave to in eundem. 

This is a Remedy for the Pox, and 

many Mounta 

full of 

tlifpaniola, Lopez, de Gomara, 

The tenth Deco&ion of this Wood will be little lefs bitter, fliarp and 

thick than the firft. Lugd. 

Guayacan,con quefecuraelmal de Us Buas. mention'd by Oviedo Cor on. 

lib, 10. cap. 2. is our Lignum Vita, the largeft of which is beft bee 
frelheft in Europe, the youngeft is beft in Efpanola which comes from 
the lfland Beat a 5 twenty or thirty Days ufing it cures the Pox, with 
a ftri& Diet, drinking a Cup in the Morning ; it muft be boii'd 

a Bocbetum ufed likewifej the Wood is good to 




Lacuna fays the Difference of the Woods is only in their Ag 

Plantain Leaves and 

be much Ve 




thinks ther 


in the Flowers and Leaves of this 

oppos'd by China and Sarfa, but remain d Vi&orio 



it has been 


fhere is a Difpute concerning Guajacan and Lignum-Sanctum^ whether 

they be the fame, the laft being 


at Heart, but all yellowifh 

and curing what the other does not \ they come from different; Ifles 




136 The Natural Hifiory of J A M A I C A. 

but credible Men report them to be the fame, fa that it only differs 
inRefpeO: of its Place of Growth, Fragof, 

Thefe Woods only differ in Refped of Age, C B. 

Great Forefts of this Tree are mChiapa, and in Granada, Laeh 

Great Care ought to be taken that the Shavings fhou Id be clean from 
the Obier or what is called the Sap and other Wood. The Rofin gives a 
fweet Scent on being hurnt, and is a great Sudorific. Pommet. 

Sparrey, ap. Purchas, lib. 6. cap. 1 1. p. 1 248. found this Tree in an Ifland 

not far from Guyana. 

Laet. p. 669, takes Notice of this Tree in Cubagua, and p. 66%. in 

"Blanc a. 

The 4th Voyage to Virginia, p. 281. in St a. Cruz. 

Pigajettd de Congo, />. 2. at St a. Helena, where 'tis thought good for 

the Lues. 
Hughes, p. 92. fays that 'tis like a Birch in the Bark. 

Ligcn^ p. 74. that the Wood is lafting, hard, good for Bowles, Tables 
Table-men and Cabinets. 

SmittSsObK. p. 54. tells us Vis in St. Chriftopher*s. 

And Boyle of Air, p. 220. that 'tis foft when new cut, hardens after, fo 
as not to fufTer Tools as moft other Woods, ib. 



XXVIII. Bomifera, feu potius pruniftra Indica nuce reniformi fummo po 
mo innafcente, Cajous did a. Raij. Hifi. Cat- 'Jam. p. 187. Acajoux, ou Caj 

Anacardes Ant art f que s. Pomm. p. 209. Lit. C. Thevenot. p. 20. A caj 

arbor pomifera fruclu delectabili, rnbro nuce reflux* propendente anacara/j 

ritUy Surian. Nux Cajous Cluf. ad Garciam, muf. Swammetd. />. 1 

1 nil 

The Cajhetv, or, Acajou-Tree. 

This Tree has a Trunc that rifes to about fifteen Foot high, as thick 
as one's Thigh, round, cover'd with a white, almoft fmooth Bark on the 
outfide, being within thick and reddifh, having Branches fpread equally 
on every Hand, making a handfome Top ; the Tops of the Twigs are 
fet round pretty clofe together with Leaves, having Footftalks one 

third of an Inch long and green, being almoft oval, four Inches long, 
and two Inches broad in the Middle where broaden 1 , round at both 
Ends, having one Middle and feveral tranfverfe Ribs running from it 
to the Sides, fmooth, thin, and when rubb'd, yielding a pleafant balfa- 
mick Smell, being of a green yellowifh Colour. The Flowers ftand in 
Bunches on the Tops of the Twigs, which are divided into feveral th 

or four Inches lo nr Footftalks, holding on their Tops, each a fmall 
green Calix, out o; the Top of which iffue dve purple, long, narrow 
Petala, fometimes of a pale green Colour, and always f melling extremely 
fweet, to which follows a Nut of the Shape of a Hare's Kidney, having 
a round Bunch, or being Gibbous on one Side, and hollow or having 
a DefecT: on the other ; this grows bigger, having an outward fmooth, 
fhining, light brown Shell, within which is another, and between both 
lies a thick, black oily and inflamable, cauftic Subftance, of the Con- 
fiftence of Honey, and within both a Kernel, which, when roafted, is 
beyond either Almonds or Cheffnuts for a pleafant Tafte. While this 
Nut ripens, between it and the Footftalk there fwells a little Protu- 
berance, growing as big as a fmall Pear, which gave Occasion to Pi fits 
Description, feemingly contradicting that Figure, on the great End of 
which is this Nut; this Pear or Apple is fmooth, yellow, red, orftreak'd 

when ripe, as our Apples, having within it a great many long Fila- 

— ^^~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ■■ W^_ _____________ ____ ______ 

^ ~ BH — HHHH ^ ■^— — ———*—- — — 

77*? jfoftirviJ Hifiory of J A M A I G A, j <yj 

ments or Strings, and much Juice of a pleafant Tafte, only biting and 
adftringent a little in the Throat. '5 

the Nut, altho' it is large at firft, yet it increafes with the Apple and 

not decreafe as Acofta would ha 
The Oil or mellaginous Succus in Anacardium, is called, MeUAnacardU 

mm Cottons are ftain'd with it and Lime. The Fruit ground or pounded 

yields much Oil, by Expreflion, Grew 

It is planted everywhere in this Ifland,and the Car ibes. 
They were drunk with Acajou- Wine, which makes People fu 

Maraq u an. Abbev. r 


The Oil is very cauftic, being hot in the fourth Degree, it is good azainft 

J letters, ma id nanr nir^rc -r,^ w- — „ -r _u_ »'_ _ & «., &., 

malignant Ulcers and Worms of the Feet called Bichos 

7^1 S™ 1S ln * a r cu,ties and CoIo " r Hlte the Arabic, and is good againft 
Obftruclions in Women in Br a file they make War for thefe Nut! the 
Viaors pitching their Tents where they are, till they be all eaten, 
they ripen once a Year, wherefore the Indians reckon their Age by 
them The Juice flams Linen, which will not wafh out fuddenly, but 
tis ifalfe that they remain till they flower the next Year as Du iW/favs 
The Nuts keep for many Years, and the Kernel is a moderate Ad- 
ftringent, good againft Squeamifhnefs and Vomitings, and is vene- 


The cauftic Oil is good againft St. Anthony 

The Gum is ufed by Painters ; the Bark is good to dVe Cotton 

si? uSri !\tr Ware; if boird in Water ,dss °° d skss 

If one offers to crack or bite this Nut, the cauftic oilv Subfta 

between the double Shell, draws the Mouth together and takes off the 
Skin, wherefore they are ufually roafted* 

This Nut fhews odd Fires if held on the Point of a Knife to a Can- 

u C, t ^fi being pnck'd up and down with a Needle, the inflamable 

thick Oil fpumng out in fine colour'd Flame, from which in the Aj- 

cardium > the Indian Conjurers ufed to pretend, that Spirits taught them 

what Anfwers fhould be made to the People. b 

1 he cauftic Oil cures Corns, Pommet. 

Pjrard. cap. 24. p. 236. found this Tree at Bengale, & cap. 27. p. 2 %6. 

Hops and Quinces ftain Linen, which Marks come belt out at the 

™ n-i * ear c when they are in their Prime. Boyle, of Air, p. „, 
1 he 0.1 made of the Mellago between the Nut Rinds, marks Linen 
with an indelible Black and rubb'd on Wood keeps it from Putre" 

faftion ; the Ju.ce of the Fruit is good in the Q?nhe* and 


_ Diabetes. 


It C 4"^c °" T v C ,° r u $ ' f0ftnin S and extirpating them, Rocbef. 
fc_Fi? u are - ^ h ' 8h that we could not B« ^e Fruit out by the 

Monkies beating it down, Lery. y 

Cheflnut, redd.lh and thick, with which they anoint their Feet ta 
preferve them from CW,, and keep it for other Ufes, as Wo Un d s 
Hurts d-,. which I take to be made from this Fruit, Ur hP Jg' 
1 he Trees m Brafile bear this Fruit on the Tops, where People cannot 

a r rTe h atefb y y JESS? " * ^ ** *ft SS ^ 

The Nuts are good, fome make Drink of them. ]W 

* ' -J* 




The Natural Hi/lory of J A M A I C A. 

There are many Woods of them in Brafile near the Shore, thefe 
Trees being there naturally produced. They ufe the Apple in the Eah> 
Indies, foak'd in Wine and Salt to take off its ungrateful Tafte to the 

Palate. Pif. Mant. 

An Anonymus Portugal of Brafi/e, ap. Purchas.hb. 7. cap. 1. §. 5. p. 1506. 

tells us that the Apple cools much in hot Weather, and ftains Linen; 

the Nuts are eaten raw, laid in Water and blanch'd as Almonds, or roa- 
med * they alfo make Marchpans and other Sweetmeats as Almonds. 
The' Gum is good to paint and write, and is produced in great Store; 
the Bark dyes Yarn and Veffels fervingfor Pots; the Bark boiPdwith Cop- 
per a third Part away, is a Remedy for old Sores healing them quickly ; 
the Indians make Wine of the Apples. 

* » 





Of Pomiferous Trees, or, fucb as bear Apples 


HE Plenty and Delicacy of the Pulp of many of the Fruits of thefe 
Trees have brought the Seeds of feveral of this Tribe to be planted 


Jamaica, from 



hey being fole Matters of the Co 

Main, while the Spaniards inhabited 



the Reafon 

why feveral Anon* are found here, that are not to be met with in any 
of the Caribe Iflands which were not inhabited by 


It will 

alfo appear that feveral of them are naturally the Production of Places 

The OpuntU are likewife here numerous, and 


about Panama. 

the Ficus Indie* and Calabafhes, but as to the two laft, in many of 

them my Obf< 

fo full 

wifh they had been 

Fie us In die a maxima cor t ice nigricante 


folio oblongo, 

funiculi* e fummit 

Cat. J 


ramis demiffis & radices agentibus je propagans, fruit u caprifcus 

.188. Ratj. Hi ft. Vol. 3. dendr. p. 1 5. An Ficus foliis lauri FruUumaximo 
el minori. Plum. pl.Am. p.2i.Tournef Inft.p.66$ ? feu Ficus Indicafb 


? trunco exeuh 
Vvifera arbor Am 



fcentibus augens. Ratj. Hifi 



par funiculos a fummis ramis ad terram ufque de 


prolifera The Mangrove-Grape, Barbadenfibus ditfa. Pluk 





The Fig-Tr 


This Tree has Roots running a great many Yards round the Bottom 

winding and twining 

he Tru 

on the Surface ot the Ground 

ere and there on the Rocks 
taking their Original from the 


d with 


grey Bark 



which this Tree has, like thofe 


a dark 



of the Cotton-Tree. The Body is as large as of any Tree, and as 
high, cover'd with an almoft fmooth Bark, 
The Wood is foft and not fit for manv Ufes 

wards the Top mtoj ..«**., . . r .~,~ „„ w.w» 7 **«.-«, 

Twigs are befet here and there with Leaves at a quarter of an Inch 


The Trunc is divided to- 

Branches fpread on every Hand, whofe 


they (land on Inch long Footftalks 



long, and 

half as broad in the Middle, where broadeft ; fmooth, of a very dark 

een Colour, having one middle and many tranfverfe Ribs. Ex alls 




oliorum comes the Fruir, at firft about the Bignefs of a fmall P 

but afterwards as big as the C yrificus ; they are fpherical or perfearv' 

round, green on the outflde, and are within full of red Grains or ScecU 
like thole of our Figs, altho' they are of an infipid Tafre. 

The whole Tree and Fruit, in every Part, when broken, is milkv 
yields a wheyilh Juice. } 


and to take hold of 


it pulls 

'Tis very frequent to fee thefe Trees creep up any other old T 

it, fqueezingit by various Anaftomofes, till 
it down and confumes it, throwing down from its Blanches a great many 
long, ftraight, round Threads or Filaments of a greenifh brown Colour 
about the old Tree, which in Time increafe much bigger, uniting among 
themfelves and flicking to the other Parts of the Tree, whence the Wood 
becomes hollow, when the Tree falls, and they themfelves fail, falling 
down and difturbing Travellers in the Paths thro' the Woods, the Top 

of the Tree in fuch a Cafe becoming a Roar. 

Quintus Qurtim makes mention or one Sort of this in his Ninth Book, 
Pliny in his Twelfth Book,Chap. V. and Strabo in his Fifth Book; but 

them, or Theo- 

this feems to be larger than that there defcrib'd 





It is to be met with in barren rocky Grounds thro* all Places of the 

*■ 4 


There are large Trees naturally in Dominica, delighting fo much in 
Equality and Multiplication, that having grown to a definite Stature, with- 
out Defire of over-topping others, they willingly let down their Boughs, 
which being come to the Earth, again take Root, as it were to con- 
tinue the Succeflion of their decaying Progenitors. In the Skirts of 
their Country unpaifably woody; a natural Defence is left fo. Lay field 
ap. Purchas, lib. 4. f. 1 1 5 8 . By this Paflage mutt be meant this pig- 
Tree, or, the Mangrove-Tree before defcribed. 

Another Sort or Withes we have but the y are made of the Gum of 
Trees, which falls from the Boughs Drop after Drop, one hanging 
another, till they touch the Ground ; from which they receive fome Nou- 
rifhment, which gives them Power to grow larger, and if it hapens that 
three or four of them come down fb near to one another as to touch, 
and the Wind twifl: them together, they appear fo like Ropes that it 


cannot be difcerned five Paces off whether it be a Rope or a Withe, 

&c. Ligon. />. 98. 

Wild-Fig-Trees were taken Notice of by Smith's ObfT 



6. in Bar 


Trees growing in a Number of Roots which defcend from the Top 
of the Branches, which are forty or fifty Foot high, and take Root 
again, fo that the Tree fheweth like a Woodirack, of Milrvard p. 525* 

lib. 4. cap. 14 

Pjrard,p. 3. p. 21. faw this Tree in the Maldives. 

And Kjnvet) ap 


Pwrchas. lib. 6. cap. 7.$, 2. /. 1026. at St.$etaftiansin 






. ■ . 

II. Ficus Indica maxima, cortice caniicante, folio oblongo- Cat. Jam. p. 1 89. 

Raij. Hifl.Vol. 3. Dendr.p. 16. 

There is a Sort of this Fig-Tree differing from that before defcrib'd, 
in the Bark, which is of a lighter Colour, being almoft white, 

growing as high, and fecraingly the fame in 



altho' I 

cannot be pofitive that ever I faw it ftrike down Threads as t 






i + o The Natural Hiftory of J A M A I C A. 

The Boughs are ftruck off to make Tables, Doors, &e. without in- 

juring the Tree; two hundred Men may be under its Covert, Rochef. 

III. Fieus Jndica maxima, folio oblongo, funiculi* e fummis ramis demiffls 
radices aaenttbus fe propagans, fructu minor e fpb&r ho fanguineo. Cat. Jam. 

p. 189. fab. 22}. Raij. Hift. Vol. 2. Dendr. p. 16. An Tftela. Hort. Mat. 
Part 7. p. 85. Tab. 6$ ? feu Ficus Malabaricafrufiu ribejij forma & magni- 
tudine, Tfida diBa. Raij. Hift. H35 - ? Arhor Maderafpatana Galactoxyli A - 
mericani foliorum amula. Pink. Phyt. p. $. Tab. 14$. Fig. 4. Ficus arbor A* 
mericana, arbuti folijs non ferrata fruttu pi ft magnitudine, funic alis e ramis 
ad t err am demiffls prolifera. Plukenet.Tab. 178. Fig- 4. An Arbor fycopbor* 
raryopbylli aromatici foliis & facie Jamaicenfis, Phyt. Tab. 266. Fig. 1 ? An 

Ficus Americana folio Citri obtufo fruclu fanguineo. Plum. Tournef. In ft. p. 
667 ? pi. Amer.f. 21 ? 

This is much the fame with the former, only the Fruit is not big 
ger than a Hazel-Nut, ot a Scarlet or Carnation Colour, the Talte 
iweetifh and not unpleafant, containing Grains as the former. 

I faw it in the Woods near Colonel Cope's Plantation. 

The Fruit is very much coveted by all Sorts of wild Pigeons, and 

when one in the Woods fees thofe Figs thrown down, one may be fure 
that Pigeons are at the Top of the Tree, tho' many Times fohigh 
as not to be reach'd by the longeft Guns. 

From the Root, Bark, and Leaves boiPd in Oil. is made a vulnerary 
Balfam. The Bark boiPd in Butter-milk makes a Gargle for the Mouth, 
and cures bad Gums and loofe Teeth. H. M. 

The fecond has the fame Vertues with the firft ; and the Root with 
Lime and Curcuma boiPd in Water, makes a Bath to cure the Leprofy 
and Epilepfy, id.\ 

IV. Ficus Indica, folio oblongo acuminato, minore, atrovirente, fruUufpl 

paUide luteo ceraft magnitudine^ in fummitate aperto. Cat. Jam. p. 189. 
Raij, Hift. Vol. 3. Dendr. p. 16. An Handir* alou. Hort. Mai. Part 3. p. 77. 

Ficus Indica fecunda, Raij. Hi ft* p. 1458? An Ficus Americana fot to 

fubrotundo fruffu umbdicato. Plum. Tournef. Inft. p. 66$? pi. Am 

p. 21 



This Tree has a Trunc as big as one's Thigh, covered with a white 
or Afh-colour'd Bark, having no deep, but fome fuperficial Sulci in it, 
it rifes to about twenty Foot high, and hath feveral Branches on e- 
very Hand, having here and there Leaves irregularly placed towards 
their Ends, ftanding on half Inch long Footftalks, being two Inches 
long and one broad in the Middle, where broadeft, very fmooth, fhin- 
ing, and of a dark green Colour. The Fruit comes out ex alis foliorum , 
ftanding on a quarter of an Inch long Footftalk, being round, bigger 
than a Cherry, with a Hole at the Top, of a pale, yellow Colour, having 
within a fmall thin Pulp, a great many round, brown Seeds, bein& 
empty in its Middle as the others of this Kind. 

All Parts of this Tree are la&efcent. 

It grew near the Rio Cobre under the Town, on the fame Side of the 

River. \ 

V. Ficus Indica folio oblongo, obtufo fruftu minor e paUide luteo fpharico 
Cat. Jam.p. 189. Raij.Htft* Vol. 3. Dwdr.f. 16. 



.. 11V. j i 1 


■ — — — — — t ^ m ^ mmmm ^___ • •- • 

The Natural Hifiory of J A M A I C A. 14! 

This is in every thing the fame with the precedent, only the Leaves 
are not fo much pointed, being broader by half an Inch. They are like- 
wife not fo dark green in Colour, the Footftalks being grey. The 
Fruit is larger, {landing on a fhorter Footftaik, and hath no Hole at the 


Ic grew on the Banks of the RioCobre near the Town on the fame 

Side of the River, as alfo near the Bridge over Black-River. 

Uviedo fays they made Ropes of the Bark of this Tree, if this b 

what he means by Gagey. 


VI. Mufa, caudice viridiy frttttu longiore, falcate, angulofo. Cat. Jam', p 
189. Mufa, Munt- Pbyt. Fig. 4, & 5. Dudaim, Ludolph. Ficus exotica cm- 
cut a. Steer beck citri cultura,p.6i. Mufa Banana Banantes, Ficus Indie a 
Munt. p. 26. Ficus lndica, ejufd- />. 8}. Figuiers ay ants la fueille environ trot 
ulnes de long, de Feynes. p. in. Ficus lndica racemofa, fotiis & frutfu am 

pltjfiwis, Mufa Arabibus dicta P/uken. Almag. p. 145. Plantain-Trees of 

• : 

Dampier, p. 9. & cap. 11. &c. Mufa fracJu Cucumerino longiori. Plumier 

pi. Am. p. 24. Pa-cyao. ticus lndica & $ in tea Boym. Flor. Sin. lit. B 
ou Fi°ues des Indes & de U Chine. Theven. rec. p. 19. C. Mufa Steer b 

* 61. Arbor Mufa Banana /, Grtfl. virid. p. 7. 

The Plantain-Tree. 


This Tree, Plant, or Shrub, has a tuberous, white, and very large Root, 
fill'd with a vifcid Juice, and cover'd with a reddifh Skin, which fhoots 
up feveral Leaves, their Footftalks enclofing the Body of the Tree or Stem, 
as well as each the other; they rife to fifteen or twenty Foot high, more 
or lefs, according to the Difference of the Ground. The Leaves themfeives 
are fix Foot or more long, and one and a half broad in the Middle, 
where broadeft; fmooth, thin, of a yellowifli green Colour, and oval 
fhape, having feveral Veins running tranfverfly from the middle Rib 
to the Leaf's Margin, making right Angles with it. Thefe Stalks as 
well as the Footftalks, are made up of many Cells feparated from one ano- 
ther by Membranes, as in fome Water Plants and Rufhes, all fill'd with 
a waterilh Liquor gufhing out when wounded ; the Leaves, when they 
firft come out, are whole, but afterwards, by the Wind are crack'd or 
cut into very narrow Parts, (imitating fomewhat the Feathers of Birds) as 
far as the middle Rib, to which they ftick, looking as if they were Pinnae. 
From out of the Middle of thefe Leaves, cover'd by their Footftalks, being 

11 as thick as one's Thigh, rifes the Stem ftraight up, being folid and 
made up or many white Nerves or Fibres, fill'd with a vifcid whitifh 

the Top of it being bow'd or inclining downwards, 'tis at firft 
all cover'd over with purple Spathae, inclofing the feveral Bunches of 
Flowers, and thefe Sheaths in fome Time falling off, the Flowers appear; 
there are feveral Tufts or Bunches of them fet at fome fmall Intervals 
on the Stalk's End, three or four coming but together ; they are made 
up of two or three Petala of a yellowifh Colour, with fome brown Streaks 
and purple Stamina ftanding on the Top of a fmooth, green, trian- 
gular, crooked Body ; this Body is the Rudiment of the Fruit, and fwells 
bigger 'till it comes to be a Foot long, and Inch Diameter, fmooth on 
the Outfide of the Skin, of a green Colour before it is ripe, and 
then 'tis yellow ; the Skin is about a quarter of an Inch thick, and is 
thrown away ; the Pulp is yellow in Colour, very fweet and lufcious, 
and contains, lying near four ftringy Subftances, as many Rows of fmall 

brown Seeds, when 'tis cut tranfverfly, looking like a Crofs 





1 42 The Natural Hijtory of JAMAI CA. 

Mathioltis was out when he deferib'd this with deciduous Leaves 
rije inward Leaves when tender and young, and the budding Flowers 

are pickled with Pepper, Ginger, Garlick, Salt and Vinegar, and eat 

as Capers. 

The Leaves are cooling and good to lie on in hot Weather, and for 



They are planted in Holes about a Foot deep, three or four Piece 
of the Root or Suckers being put into each Hole, at ten Foot fquan 
Diftance. They muil be carefully kept from Weeds. Several Ac 
planted together. 


They are planted very carefully by moll Matters of Plantations in very 
fat and low Grounds, by Gullies Sides, &c. where they bring forth Fruit all 
the Year round. 'Tis ufed in Guimy, Ethiopia, moll hot Parts of the 
World, and all over the Eaft-Indies. 

When they fee the Bunches of Plantains large, and turning yellow 

tains wit 

ripe, they cut down the Tree at the Root, and cutting off the PI 

Top, carry it Home, and hang it up, w 


in fome Hours, and turns from green to yellow 

They are thought friendly to the Lungs in their hot Difeafes b 
hurtful to the Stomach. y 

The tender Stalk is eat, the Root bruis'd and drank in Milk is cood 

for the Vertigo, and the Water of it is good for the Kidneys, and Heat 

f Urine, the Stalks beaten and eat with Honey are good for the 
Eyes, H. M 

Before they are quite ripe, they are baked under the Embers and 
e " en 1 . n ] Lleu of Bread, and J:afte very pieafantly, being very nourifh 

ing, windy, venereal and adftringent, efpecialiy if not fully ripe 

After they are ripe they are eaten feveral ways, fliced and fry 'd 

^LrA%*k™l>^%^* l *™3. boil ' d «L«* Skins, peel'd' and 

beat to a Pafte, form'd like a Dumplin and eall'd, Bajf-Jacket 

The Jews and Greeks think it was the Fruit forbid to Am in Pa- 
radife. I was told jf one gathers the Fruit before it is ripe or eood 
to eat, the Branch will turn on him and eive him a »£.„ „„.u„ 

Nofe ; contrarywife, if it be ripe, it wiJl not be dangerous, 
Thofe of Brafile are twice as large as of Stria. 

Ltry fays that there was no Leaf in Europe, A(ta or Jfric* like to thefe 
Leaves,/-. 193. for Largenefs. 

A pleafant Drink is made either of this Fruit or Bemuds when ripe 
their Pulp being malh'd with Water till it comes to the Thicknefs of 

Honey, it works and clears it felf, the thick fwimming at the Top and 
thethui Drink drawn out of a Tap at the Bottom of the Trough 

This Drink is in Ufe all over thefe hoc Parts of the Weft-Ind 


but chiefly in the North Side of this ifland 
Jobnfin's Figure of this Fruit in Gerard is good, being taken from 

one ripe in England, brought from Bermudas. b 

t h? V v ty r 1Ve V Ut , d0W " J dies » and others a,wa y j are coming out from 

& h v > a u nd §-° W u"P in a Year ' s Ti ™ to the due Big- 

nefs have Fruit, and then die, others fucceeding. ° 

I he Ants are fo great Deftroyers of this Tree and Fruit, that thev 
have fore'd feveral People to leave planting '" ' F 



gooJLFigsfodded" 8 ^^ and d ' yed in the SU °' iSth0U g ht t0 beas 

lei fo h and U ^. b0il d in S Uga , r or Honey, and then dry'd, is good forcho- 

B an che d Sfc ' C W" The £«"« are 8 Q0d for Bu ™- The 

mancnes are gwen to Elephants for Food, Borm. 


The Natural Hi/lory of J AM AICA. i^ 

Some are of Opinion that this was the Apple wherewith Eve tempted 
Adam. Others doubt whether 'twas not the Fruit that was brought by 
the Spies to Mofes from the Holy-Land. 

The Fruit not fully ripe, roafted and eaten as Bread, is fomewhat ad- 


The Liquor or Juice of this is given in Fluxes, the Trunc of the T 
Leaves Footftalks, being firft wounded 

The Fruit is very good Nourifhment, Venereal and good for the 


The Leaves ferve to convey any thing or to wrap it up in, for Nap 
kins and Table-Cloaths, as well as Beds, when dry, to lie on, or wind 
ing Sheets for the Dead. 

The Fruit is hard to digeffc and apt to beget grofs Humours and Ob« 
ftru&ions of the Liver, but it is good for hot Difeafes of the Breaft 

Kidney* if the Decoftion be drank 

The Decoction of the Rind of the Fruit, or the fame in Powder, 
is corroborating and ftrengthening of the Heart. It is thought that it 
firft was produe'd by grafting a Sugar-Cane on Colocajia, to which 

Plants 'tis tike, Alp 

Its Leaves are made ufe of to lie on, and for Victuals for Eleph 

The Young Leaves and Flowers or Bunches candied, eat like Capers 


Chr. Acofi 

I *, Ut^ i 3 k'f? '2 

There are feveral Varieties of this Fruit, occafion'd by the Soil 


Age of the 1 



The grea'elt Sort which is rank, is called Horfe-Plantain 

The larger Pleaiant-PIan 

fhe leaft Sort called Maiden-Plantain, is reckoned the mod: pleafant of. 

anv and hath the Colour of the Footftalks of a faint C 




One may almoft fee the Plantain-Tree grow : I cut a young Tree, even 
*at the Top with a Knife, immediately it grew up difcernibly, and in an 
Hour's Time the inward Leaves, which had been wrapt one within ano- 
ther, were advane'd above the others, half an Inch. 

If one cut or wound the outward Bark, or Leaves Footftalks, there 
fnurts out much Water, which to the Tafte is very adftringent, "and 

turns black on the Knife, ftains Linen, of a; brown Colour, and is 

commended in Fl x 

It is called Plain from the Largenels of the Leat like Put anus, but 
is not that Tree, becaufe it has a Fruit. Pliny tells us of a Plain 
fo large as that eighteen Perfons fat in one of their Truncs, and Call- 

aula with eleven more on the Branches of another ; nor are the PI found in Italy or Spain, nor are their Leaves like Vine 


Fiff-Leaves. There are three hundred Plantains in fome Bunches ; they 

are rather cold than hot ; they dung the Tree with Afhes, it came 

firft from Ethiopia-, the Negroes love the Fruit; itV nourifhing and 

they make Wine of it ; it's eat raw, roafted, inPotageor Con 
and the Leaves are made Ufe of by fome for Paper, Acofta. 

This Tree was no Native in the Weft-Indies, but brought thithei 

from the Canary-Ifles, by one Thomas di Berlanga, a Fryar, to 3 

Domino m the Year 1516, from whence they were fent to the other 
Ifles and Main, and they being very ufeful and takiog extremely 

were planted every where. Qviedo, lib. 8. Cap. 1, but in all Probability 

Plant came firft from Guinea to the Caoaries.j 


1 44 The Natural Hijiory of J A M A I C A. 

It cannot be the true Platanm of Pliny that calling a great Shade 
this none when they grow fingly, but when they grow in Groves cr ver 
thick, neither had his Platanus any Fruit. 

Rocbefort\De £r^,and mod: other Figures of this are fabulous, but it 
is very well figur'd in the Hortus Mdabaricus. 

Becaufe of the Sign of the Crofs in this Fruir, the Spaniards an 
Portuguefe will not iuffer it to be cut with a Knife, but eat it with 

their Teeth. 

Martyr's Reafon, that this cannot be the Mix* or Pliny, becaufe no 
Wine is made of it, is falfe ; for Wine is made or it every Day, by 
the Addition of Water, which that Author did not think of, but tha't 
'twas to be made of the Juice of the Fruit as ordinary Wine, which 
is impoflible. 

Ward, at. Hakl.p. ?. p. 758. found this at Serra Leona. Pretty, ib. v. 

804. at Cape-Verde ljles, at Puna, ib. 812. and at Chacallo eighteen 

Leagues from Corientes, 815. and in the Ladrones y Pretty , tb. p. n 

where the Men (of Caput) go naked only wear a Strop about their 
Waftes of fome Kind of Linen of their own weaving, which is made 
of Plantain-Leaves, &c. ib. 819, and in Java, 821. 

Oviedo in his Summary, ap. Eden. p. 208. fays that the Fruit keeps 
teen Days iif gather'd green ; and that the Ants infeft them, ib. and in 
Coron. lib. 8. cap. 1. that this Fruit never did any Harm, being of good 
Digeftion, that fmall Boiling ferves it, and that 'tis a Year in growing, 
if fplit a-crofs and dryed in the Sun or Oven, it is pleafant like Figs , is 
good at Sea for fifteen Days when gather'd green ; a great Quantity of 

g it ; Ants covet it ib as to be trouble 
Tcmas de Berlanea carried them fir ft from 

Water comes out of 

fome, and they 

Gran Canaria in 1516, they came from the Fall: as he was inform'd. 

Smith met with this Tree in the Summer-Ifles. p. 171. but it had been 
planted there being brought from the Weft-Indies, 184. and the Inhabi- 
tants had found a Way by pickling and drying them, to bring them for 

England. Obfervations of the Summer -Jjles, p. 45 

Ligon, p. 1 $• found them in the Cape-Verd Ifles and in Barbados, p. 22. 
where Plantain-Drink is made of this Fruit and boiling Water which 
is as ftrong as Sack, p. 32. The Bodies of them, are Food for Swine,/. 
2?. Every Negro has a large Bunch allowed him or two little ones 

Saturday Night for a Week, p. 37. They are better iatisfy'd with 

thefe than Loblolly, Bonavift, or Potatoes, tb. 4$. and p. 80. where 
a Figure of this Tree which is fabulous. 

Rawolfe takes Notice of them about Tripoli, p. 1 . cap. 4. and that the 
Fruit fills mightily and gripes, and was therefore forbidden by Alexander 
the Great, The middle Rib which is great and ftrong, keeps them up 
and hinders their breaking. 

Hernan Lopez de Cajlaneda, cap. 9. fays they grow at Mombafi; Terry y 
p. 5. in Mohelia. 

They grow in the Moskito-Indians-Country, and in moft Places of 

the hot Weft-Indies. D ampler. 

Nicols ap. Purchas. lib. 6. cap. 13. p. 1255. law this Tree in Sta. 


An Anonymm Portugal of Elvas, p. 10. or apud Purchas p. 1529. on 

St. Jago at Cuba. Robt. Thomfon,ap Hakl. p. 454. about M 

Mouces which we call Adam's- Apples, Mr. Cafar Frederick, ap. Hakt. 
227. p . 2. mentions to grow in Andemaon. 


The Natural Hi/lory of JAMAICA 


a Fruit very like unto a Cucumber, but very Pleaf 

inner r\n a \vc±c± tiror r^i.^J f *m? i/t — . / * ltai( 

eating, growing on a tree, was found by Wellb ap. Hakl . i . '" 

and by Hooks ap. Hakl. p 464. about Mexico f ' 2 ' * ' 2 9- 

An Indian Fruit called Nochole, which Fruit is long and f ma n 
much like in Faft.on to a httle Cucumber, was met with by pfi 

Hakl. p. j. p. 447 . in the Way from Panuco to Mexico. \t Z 


'» at Sta 

Hortop. "p. Hakl ;. /. .j . /. 488, found it uCape-Verd 

m^tm^^im'^' i,7j - at p ^^ and 


the River ^ 


£""£* ! 26 5. A Purchas, Itb. e.cap.x^ in &,. L 
Kob. tiarcourt in Guiana, ib. p. 1 268. and P 
And D*wu, 4/. Purchas, lib. 6. ca 

K Portugal in Brafile, ap. Purchas. lib.i. cap. 1 p J2 

the Leaves are cooling in Fevers to thofe lying on them? 

Purchas Itb. 2. J.284. that they are naturally in Plenty in the La 
drones and/. 28 5. at Philipp in as. J y tne " 

C*« y ? . Hakl. p. j ,. j£. found this Tree in St. ^ one of the Cape, 

%\£BkJ±h 74o. T. S alfo in IW W ,, ib. p. 74X , and in 

IVhere 'tis called Gardanae t> ~ia<> x " ' " ' T~~ "~ •'"T* 

They were found by Smiib'sObK. ». «, and < 4 . in St* OrfiL* 

and /. 56. in Barbados. V 5 ' 54 m &ts C *"A/* 

W^, /-. 9 s 8. and 1 j o. faw this Tree in Gambra. 

Plant anes of Placentia, are cut down before they are rinfe el£ fh«.„ 
cat by Vermine, Sir Richard Hawkins OhfT Y PC ' eIfe the y 

f£ , Ifland, S, iLas^p. ^f&f&^fj^ 
Banana are mention'd InL Or.Part. 6. p. 2J . an d/». j6. and 48 to *row 

fm i\prmentain) ^ , - r 3 «»u ^o. w grow 

rif a n ? . takenN ° t,Ce ° £ J>y Rave » ea * de L 4"»- ?-*7. at IWrf 
2/'on ^r r R r T ,n f g m D t0 th il S ^^"Sea, about VrL. 7 p. A » £f 

ing about C^-G^W . c^. Some of thcfclwT«Tn? /k '." 

Indians, by the overflowines of Wa te • h, ^C. , plan , te . d b ? the 

Mulato's andNe^ro'sl J ;HV*> butthe y are P'^teddry by the 

Win. Finch apud Purchas, lib. 4. cap. f 6. 1 ' » /. r ^ fi,„„^ .t. «> . 

£«. «, plante/ about their Ho 4 U fe{ t S, ^ *4lt *T* ^11" . W ^ 

pening at Sea, p. 4 ,6. ., , I . '' ^ 4 * S> The > r were fix VVeek^l 

wKa^tte &. It T 9 - t f -> 48 9- m « with thenf at*i 

onthe n Coaft h of SX^BK t ftoT« ,lBd ^'^ at D ^, 

i 'a 6 The Natural Hifiory of } A MM G A. 

# . # C\ * f if* 

In thefecond Dutch Voyage, */>. Purcb<t*, li%W cfy/iff. 709. fjm 


Fruit was found at Amboyna. ... . . , in the Cape-Verd Ifles; •; ". 

" Adam^s-Figs, or Moufes, were feen by Sanderfon ap. .Purchas, lib. 9. 
**/>; 16. ^. 1. p.. 161 y. at Darnietta, they are eaten after, or towards the 
latter End of their Meals at Cairo, and are fed on by the Hippopotami! 
I am in doubt whether thefe be the Efchol-G rapes mention'd by the 
fame, weighing twenty or twenty one Pounds, p. 1655. for he faith that 
the Valley is planted with Grapes, ib. 


Pj/r^, tells us ™/>. 1. /mi. that they grow at Annabon, and f <r^ 4. 

42. at Comorra Jjle Malailli, and at Moluccos, p. 10J. />. 2. 

Plantain-Trees were met with by Sir Tho. Roe, lib* $. cap. 16. §. 1. * 

537. in the Gardens at Molalia one of the Comorras, where they are roafted 
and eat with fodden Rice. ib. ■§. 8. />. 570. in the Mogul's Court. BatielL 

dp. Purchas. lib.n. cap, ?. §. <. /\ 979. and 9S5 in.Loan?o,2ind p. 981 in 

Mayombe. ' • ■. . 

J<7. ^ Sanctos ap. Purchas, lib. 9. ^. 12. §. 1. p'1526. faw feventy 
Plantains to a Bunch about So/tf*. 

An Anonymm, ap Purchas. p, 1184. met with them at the Weft- End' 

ol Porto* {Geo. Leigh,- ib. lib, 6. cap. 11. p. 125 1. in Guiana. 

/<$ er n andez, ,xp . P w ch as , lib.y. cap. 8. §. 2. p. 1183. in Ethiopia^ 

- AT » - # # MM m ■- _ _-_ ■ ._ a . . — A ■ ■ k _ . ^. I ____ 


' « ' f ' ' \\V\w*v>(. 

Biduiph, ik lib. 8. ta/>. 9. />. 1 347. -at Damajcus 

Pyrard. cap. 7. />. 52. in the Maldi<ues,cap. 10. ^. 85. and crf/\ j 3. £. ip£ 

where^the Leaves are ufecl on, their Mats, for Table-cloths and Napkins, 

asalfo an Calecut r j. 279, W A * -°* "<*" -*-*-*"0 ^A.L..^.^ .1 .... 

Children of the Poor, /\ 134 

asalfo at Calecut^p. 279. and^. 286. trteFruiris there given to the 

_ __ _j?een 


1 7 <. • p 222, at Mdtcut, iH oaprztf p 2 >2. and p.- 2.. p. 148. l an 

204, at Mozambique. t ! , .. 

The fame p. 3.^.16. telfe us Hhte tender Pith ferves for Potage, the Leaves, 

for Plates and Napkins "Stoat Infants aW nourifbed by them, as in Eu 

re*pe\vidi ?ap. in ^the M&dhves are great Gardens full of the Fruit, which 

lafts the Year round. 

]n.H',Lo/ .3>Ui. ,., 5i A . - , 

Si& tfe fouritH, Voyaged Ph&tiA W*&2. aprtiakt. J t5hey were found 

in St. J*b*'s frora whence young Tknts Were babied to Virginia. 

PolotM.'up.i.o} iaw themat M^,where<«fg"Ldaves weWufeHfor 


•■Lmbere in ^^ rTW. * .&&% an»*^° ' &'noi:flcn IB ^^ 
ftrjivet,ap. Purchas, lib. 6. cap. 7.^1202. in Brafil/>. where ^ffie^^Ortu- 7 

guefe call it.r£^a»*/, the MoM^il^^. and 12 ^ 4 . 3 £. r a2&'iik 
^^.whereiit^thechicfoPi^dua of^tne-Earth; IlfI ^ : : V 

-* . 

Pjt^/09 was miftaken where he faid that this Tte* bears moi| 

..illdfiffhl »13f!J ^Olg " "DfflTZTT' '* 

, The young Flowe s - f - iiS -^ ^-^.- t .,w:A ^ Am»^iSH 

one Bunch. 

lowersiarte pkkledf•Wlth^Pepper^refll. 6inlj9gbfij% 
.asCapets, 3^. : A ^^i n»« W ; -; -J 

Salt and Vinegar, ^..^ ^.^ . , , 

They make Wine of the Fruit in Madagafcar called 

Leaves, labk-cloths* -and. ^pfcin^4&&" £ : 7,7^ anH; 

r c ?t ML lays tttiat thdfe^ T?ddsf tnft)V out ^IBSpi 
breeding a nev^ Eknq which is a fabuiofe^Stb^ 11 ^^^ ! 

l\\ •7i^V\»- %v 

vt* w Wi wyT.j7«f*w^,ii K Mi»^r^]r^r4irrctnc i^xarones, wnere .tneAtn^u 

their Meat^ and7theLeave&ftf ve f6^ ffl^Cb^h^htllfetf iHdSfeSB l^hal 
a VTard long were found , in <P«homP$. 1^* » uuTJ Hi *W t RWW 

nl O O Plantar, 

.:Figs a handful long,, ^i^ig-Tree LeaveV tffti* long 
Notice of byiP*w^, -ftttoop^rt^^Ji^^^^-whc 

„ * * - . •- . JW- -» . %fr»~ .*. 

The- Natural ' Hiftory of J A M A I C A. 1 47 


Plant arts were obferved by Lancajter in Madagafcar, ap. Purchas^Ub. ? 

Art. J. §.2. />• 151. David Middleton, ib. cap. 8. p. 226. in the Moluccas. 

Sir Henry Middlet on. ib. r. 11.. $..3. /\ 254. at Mw* in the Red-Sea, where 

they are ufed for Vidua Is, t)ounton ap. Purchas, lib, 3. Art. 12. §. 2. 281. 
at yA**.' #. '§• 4- />« 2^8. at Suratt. ib. §. 5. p. 303. at D*&*//. ib. p. 307 

at-^#. SariSyibJih. 4. §. t. p. 336. atComdrra-l/!es. and 'tf. §.2. p. 342. 

at jl*>fo.' 


In Mihdanoa, Plantains are ufed for Bread, taken when full grown, 

but flOt fipe or turned yellow ; they are eaten with Cod-Pepper (or Cap- 
ficuni) Salt and Lime-juice as Sauce ; or the' Pulp of fix or feven ripe 
ones, is eat >ftea'd" ot Bag-Pudding, they call it Buff-Jacket, Tarts are 

made of thetn, as alfo Flower to make Puddings of green ones fliced 
thin, dryed in the Sun and grated, the ripe Fruit when dryed in the 
Sun being firft fliced,* is like Figs, they are alfo kept in Lumps, when 
malh'd and dryed over the Fire; they road a ripe Plantain and mix 
it with a Pint and half of Water, and it is like Lamb's- Wool!. Ten or 
twelve ripe Plantains and two Gallons of Water, in two Hour's Time 
ferments, and in four is fit to drink or to bottle, it keeps twenty four 
or thirty Hours, but afterwards foWrs, and fet in the Sun becomes very 

good Vinegar. They take the Body of the Tree, clear it of its outward 
Bark or Leaves, cut it into four Quarters, which put into the Sun, the 
Moifture exhales ; they then take hold of the Threads at the Ends and 
draw them out, they are as big as brown Thread, of this they make 
Cloth in Mindanao, called S^<?#, which is ftubborn when new, wears 
outfoon,.and when wet it is {limy. Jackets are made of Plantain-Leaves 

in Ba&ee Iflands as rough as Bear's-Skins, Dampier, cap. 1 5. 


U L 

Vtt« Mufa 7 caudice maculajo[ fruit u ret7o 7 rotundo y breviore 7 odor at 0. Cac» 
jf/ttw. p. 192. Ficm In die a racemoja, foliis venujlim venoms, fruit u minor e 


Plukenet' Jim. p. 24c. Mufa fruit u cucumerino breviori. Plum. pi. Am. 


\«- rs 4/-N if * At 

This Tree is in eW thing the fame with thePlantain, only rifes higher 

has the Footftalks of the Leaves^ encom pa fling the Stem of a purplifh 
Coiour, and the Fruit neither x fo J long, crooked nor- angular, being five 

or iix Inches long, ftremht, round, folter, more Iufcious to the Tafte, 
juicy, and lefs coveted for Food. . , • t 

ley are when ripe, eaten dv tnofe who love them,, by 
fcft-tfdd : uftdasthntaiils. r ( u i5 " , V K r ^ 

~*Recfofort in hidiiMre ^ ^//^/, took this for the Plaintain,and the 

ain for this, %s may appear in thofe Notes oi his Banana, viz.' that 

is fifteen Inches long, hath J f^wer Figs, which have a firmer 
all whkh Marks agree to the true Plantain, and the contrary to this. 

are planted m 3F«»4/w with the farmer, and at St. He/^, P^ 

* f 

liugbes, p. 71. fays that they are Planted for a Shade to Cacao- 
Trees, erow an Inch in two Hours Tims if „eut off in- the" Middle : and 

tjiat t^e Fruit is good for the"Kidney£' and'Reios. ,. 

' tigo% ? . 11, arid 1 4. obferved' this in the 'Cape-Verd Ifles, and Barbados, 

^l _ _' . * • * - I * 'M V # ' « .1 ^^ — -^ ^ — -*^ Am ft ^ ^^ M^ «-&. « * 

Li£ »,f. 11, ^rigfi 4 . observed' this in Oui'C^e-Fnd Ifles, zni Barbados, 

a.nd,f.22. tenses that their Jozies are P6pB for the Swine there ,. „ 

;.The fameAutBor p. ti.%itA .'a fabulous Figure, it hath lefs blackifli 

f * f « 

i 1 nv/,i 

?jppts on the Bddv, does not turn back, but (lands upright, /. Sg. T^here 
is a, Crucifix in the Fruit. /^ : 

.' Af»/i humilior foliis minor ibus nigmAntihusj. FruStu minimo ereifo. 


Qft*yj£m.f. 193. R'aij. ffift.VoL 3. Dendrip.4. 

1 48 The Natural Hifiory 0/ JAMAICA. 


This Tree does not rife fo high as the Plantain, the Leaves of it are not 
fo large, they are of a blueifh or dark green Colour, not breaking with the 
\1 ind, as the other Kinds ; the Flowers come out at the Top of the Stalk, 
on each Side of it, like Boxes, one within another, ranged on both 
Sides alternatively for a Foot in Length; they are triangular, confift 
of one thick yellow Leaf, hollow and containing Stamina ; this Leaf or 
Sheath nor. dropping off as the other Kinds. The Fruit fwells within 
it, but never grows large, neither is it good for any thing I know of. 

It grows in the fhady moift Woods every where in the Inland Parts 
of the Ifland. 

The Savages ufe them for covering Huts, &c. They are a Sort of Can* 

na lndica, Tertre, and have Seed like it, Rocbef. 

Of the other Indian-Fig-, Tune, Nochtl, or, Opuntia KJnd y Cere us, Sec 



common'to all of this Kind that their Stalks or Branches 

mod Part of them have each of their Joints cora- 

prefs'd and broad, which has generally given them the Name of 

Leaves, but this Figure in a great Meafure leaves them for that of 
rounder one when they are old, and altho' they really are Branches and 
not Leaves, yet, becaufe Ufa has obtained them to be call'd fo, they 

muft go by thac Name 

That Property that Theophrajlus gives his Opuntia of Striking-Root 

from the Leaves, " is not agreeable to this, becaufe it has properly no 

Leaves, but to feveral others, as Oranges, &c. the Leaves of which, on 
being planted in the Ground, will ftrike fome fmall Fibrills, whether from 
the Footftalk ox Gemma, of the Leaf lodg'd in its Ala, I am not certain. 

This Plant has the Name of Indian-Fig from fome fmall Refemblance 
the Fruit hath to a Fig, as alfo that of a Prickly-Pear from 
fomething of the Shape of a Pear, and being withal Prickly. 

The Cerei are propagated by Seed or Leaf, as the Prickly-Pears* and 


Z • * T ' 

bear not much watering, Herm 

Cafpar Brauhine and from him Parkin/on, feem to have taken the 
ypung Plant not grown to its due Bignefs, for a different Species of 

this, and to have given it the Name ot Ltvis Pilofa, the young Plants 
appearing downy ; and when it grew a little bigger, the Name of Hu- 
milis. It is very ordinary for the Fruit to vary in Bignels, according 
to rainy or dry Weather, whence his two Species of Fruclu mayor e& t 
minore, I take to be the fame Plant. 

The feveral Species reckoned by Hernandez feem to come chiefly from 
the^Colour of the Fruit, which taken when young is green, and from 

thence goes thro' the intermediate Colours 'till it comes to a deep 

purple Colou 

' . - 

Oviedo in his Hiftory does defcribe the Tunes in his Lib. 8. 25. Chap. 
and the 10. Book, 1. Chap, the Tree confolidating Fraclures, by J both 

which Defcriptions it feems to appear very plainly that in the firft 
under the Name of Tunes, he defcribes and Figures, the Prickly-Pear 

young, or before the under Leaves are grown round and turn'd 

Sort of Stalk or Trunc ; and under the other Name does defcribe 
the fame grown larger and higher, and €0 the under Leaves different 
from what they before were: fo that it may be cither the fame with 

the Prtikij-Pear, or another Kind, which is Caulefcenfi* * J " . 


The Natural Hijiory of JAMAICA. 1*9 



IX. Opuntia Major, folio oblongo, rotunda, f pints Ion rgiffi 'mis & validifftmis 
cmfertim nafctntibm, obfito,flore luteo. Cat. Jam. p. 1 9 j. Raij. Hift. F0L7.De/1dr. 
p. 9. Tab. 224. Fig. 1, Cardajfes deRoufeanap. Pommet. p. 33. An Ficus 
Inaica major Worm. Muf. p. 148 . ? An F km feu Opuntia ex infulis Ca- 
ribhrfis, Herm. Par. Bat. p 8 I An Opuntia, major validifflmis f pints arm at a, 

Tournef. El. Inft. p. 2^9 I feu Ft cm In di cave I Opuntia, folio mi nor e rotun- 
diore & comprejfiore, H. L. Bat I An Ficus Ecbinata elegans Morini tra- 
de/cant, p. 11$? Opuntia Indica major, folio fpinis longiffimis & validiffimis 
armato. Aman. Hort. Bof p. 2 5. An Opuntia, folio minor e rotundiore 
compreffiori Ej. ib ? An Ficus Indie a Opuntia major, byjiricis fpinis. Cufan 
Syllab. p. 46 ? Hort. C at h. p. 78 ? Opuntia Theophrafti major, CaJtelL 
Hort. Mejf. p- 17. Opuntia fpinofa. Hoffm. Cat. ap. Ficus Indica fpinof a, Bry. 

Ilor. p. 80. Prickly Pear-Bufh, or, Shrub of Dampier. Cap. 8. 

The Prickly Pear Tree, 

The Roots of this TreeorBufh, are fe vera 1 two or three Foot lor 
tapering, white, round and ftrong Thongs, fpread on every Hand l__ 
der the Surface of the Earth. Above Ground appears no Stalk, but 
Leaves growing out of the Sides or Tops of one another, to five or 
fix Foot high ; they are about a Foot in Length, nine Inches 
broad, an Inch thick, of a lively Sea-green Colour, very full of a mtf- 

laginous or vifcid Juice, of an oblong roundifli Shape, almoft like 


that of the Hand the Fingers being extended, and befet very thick 
on both Sides, with about ten Tufts of Inch long, white, crooked and 
{lender Prickles ; four of them coming ufually together out of the fame 
Tuft or Bunch, befides much prickly Down, or very fmall Prickles 
at the Bottom of thefe ; when by many of thefe Leaves grown out 
of one another the Tree is four Foot high, and has fpread it feif 

in Breadth, the under Leaves grow more round, turn from their 

vivid green Colour to an Afh one, lofe their Prickles, and look as 
f they were a Trunc or Stalk. The Leaves by Time and Weather 

falPn off or not growing, are cleared of the outward Membra 

Pulp, and (hew a delicate reticulated Texture made bv the Nerves 


and Filaments of the Leaf varioufly branch'd and anaftomos'd, and 
look exadly like a Racquet wherewith Tennis-Players ufe to ftrike 
their Balls, whence this Plant has the Name of Raquettes in all French 
Authors. Mod commonly out of the Edges, fometimes the Sides of 
thefe Leaves, come the Rudiments of this Fruit, which are Pear-figured 
or tapering, round, prickly Bodies, green, and putting forth at theirTops 
their Flowers, which are a great many Petala, broad, fhap'd like thofe 
of the Rofe, fet in a double Row, of a yellow Colour with an Eye 
of red, inclofing feveral Stamina of the fame Colour ; thefe fallir 

off, the Fruit augments, 

the Bignefs of an ordinary Fig 



and turns from a Green to a Purple Colour, having a Navel-Hole 

Cavity at the Top, larger than that of a Medlar, where the Flower 
flood, and being befet with many very fmall Tufts, of fcarce per- 
ceivable Prickles (running themfelves into the Hands of their unwary 
Gatherers, and tormenting them very much) and thefe Prickles are 
chiefly fee rouud the fetting on of the Fruit to the Leaf. Under the 
Skin, where the Hole on the Top of the Fruit is, is a round Subftance 
like the Rowel of a Spur (which muft be taken out before it be eaten ) 
Under fucculent Membranes and Covers lie the Seed and Pulp of this 

Fruit; the Seeds are very many, roundifli, flat, finuated, with feve- 

p P 

i ^o The Natural Hi/lory ^/JAMAICA. 

ral Impreflions in them, irregularly figured and white, lying in a Suc- 
culent curioufly colour'd Purple, inodorous, not ungratefully Tweet Pulp, 
dying Linen of the fame Colour, as well as Mouth and Hands, or what- 
ever it touches, and not only fo, but even the Excrements of the Belly, 
fo that feveral have thought themfelves to have had Veins broken within, 
them by feeing their Excrements fo ting'd. 

This fometimes fweats out a mucilaginous Gum like Gum-Arabic, 

given in the Stone, and called by the Spaniards Alqnitirs de U tierra 
as Kimenes tells us, which is Gum-Tr agac ant h of the Earth. 

It grows in the Iflands of Barbados, AUeves, St. Ch rift other's, and 

Jamaica, where it is to be met with very plentifully in the Savanna's 
and towards the Sea-fide. It grows likewife in European Gardens with 
Care, tho' not fo large or prickly as in the Indies or newly come from 
thence, whence Parkinforfs two Names. Bodxus a Staptl fays they come 
fometimes without Prickles in Holland. 

This Shrub at all Times of the Year, rainy and dry, is full of Blo£ 
foms, young and ripe Fruit. 

It is either propagated by the Seed or Leaf, by the latter it is 

planted two Ways, either the Leaves are half buried upright, at about 
a Foot's Diftance in ft r eight Furrows made on Purpofe ; or, which is 
the more ordinary Way, the Leaves are drawn together and laid 
ftraight in a Row, flat on the Surface of the Ground, and feldom mifs 
to ft r ike Root and pro/per. 

The chief Ufa of this Plant is for Fences, the Prickles of it are fa 
Iharp, as to fcare any living Creature from attempting to get over it, 

efpecially confidering that thofe Prickles (chiefly the downy and final! 
ones) are very hard to be got out of the Flefli if once lodg'd in it, 
wherefore it is ufually inflamed and rankles if Care be not taken, and 
thence 'tis counted poyfonous to be prick'd with them. Horles and all 
other Cattle are afraid of coming near them, hence the Grafs near them 
is loft, they not daring to come to eat it. They ipread tfery much 

both by Seed and Leaf. In the Ifland of Su C h*iftpfker\ when it was 

to be divided between the Englifh and French, it was order'd by the Con- 
fent of the two Nations, that there fhould be planted three Rows of 

thefe Trees between the Bounds of the one, and thofe of the other, 
they thinking them the ftrongeft Fortification that could be thought of 
to hinder the Attempts of one another in Cafe of a War. 

The Leaf of this Plant cleared of its Prickles and baked under the 
Embers, in a wet Paper or thin Leaf, is reckon'd better than any ma* 
curative Cataplafme for ripening Apoftemes, &c. it is likewife counted 
mollifying, anodine and thought to be the beft Attractive in draw- 
ing out its own Prickles, when they are Ipdg'd in the Fleih. l3 

The Fruit is very cooling, if eaien with the Seeds it is adftringent, 
and not unpleafant to the Tafte, but if more than one or two be 
eaten at a Time, the); flop up the Belly. They are much -coveted by 

Hunters when they ftand in Need of Water, to moiften their Mouths 
and quench their Thirfts. 

The Juice of the Fruit is made Ufc of as a Dye for Sweetmeats, 

&c. and a Syrup is made of it to cool and moiften in Fevers, if put 
into Julips. 

The clear Juice of the roafted Leaf is very dcterfive and cleanfing 
to any iU-condicion'd Sore, efpecialty if the roafted Leaf be appiy'd in- 
ftead of a Plaifter, it curing proud Flelh, &t. 


If you cut off one of the Tufts of Prickles and hold the largeft 
the Point before your Mouth, with a fudden Blaft you may 



The Natural Hiftory <of JAMAICA. 151 

Tend all the fmall or downy Prickles about the great One's Root 
in your at prefent infenfible Oppofite's Face, and tho' they light on 
his Cloaths they in a fmall Time fo work their Way thro' to his Flefh 
as to torment him worfe than Cowitch. 

The bruised Leaves are laid to disjointed, overftretch'd, or broken 

Places by the Ind 

Thofe of Mexico ufe the Juice of the Leaves in Fevers inwardly, and 
'outwardly, to 'hinder the burning of Cart Wheels. 

Hernandez, fays that with Chili ov Indian Pepper the Leaves are 
boil'd and ufed as a -cooling Diet. 

Oviedom his 25 Cap. Lik^. of his Hiftory of Wejt-IndU, tells a Story 
how he was ptft into a vaft Fright ! nbt daring to ma'ke Water as he had Oc 

cafion, lead all his Blood fhould be voided, by eating this Fruit to a- 

bout fix or feven, he piffing red, which bethought was Blood, in fom 
Time after, and he farther adds, that they were ufed on the Wall of the 
Town as a Fence. 

The Leaves cleared of their Prickles and bruifed, are laid to broken 
Arms and Legs after Repofition, with great Succefs, whence it has fome 
Of its Mames. 

Oviedo fays, 1 Cap. Lib. 10. Hifl. that the Indians ufed a Parte of this, 
and fold it in the Market for a Paint, and that fo ufed it is durable. 

It is reported of fome, that the Juice -of the Fruit is excellent for 
Ulcers of a long Continuance. Ger. 

The Leaves cure admirably frefli Wounds. Lac 



They grow in Peru, 8 

This is thought to be the Ficus -India, of Theophrafim by <1 *fal prtnu s , iff 
which he certainly Was Wiiftaken, as may eafily appear to any who will 
compare the Deffcripwotrs. 
■> It's a Wonder fuch a hard Seed (hould produce fuch a Plant, Cam. 

The Fruit colouring the Urine, it may be good for Dying, Tertre. 

This Plant varies in the Length, Thickftefs or Number of its Prickles, 
they fometimes being twice as long as at another, which I fuppofe 
is occafion'd by fome accidental Difference, as in the Soil, Rains, &c. and 
for that Reafon I will not multiply the Species on that Score. 

It likewife varies as 'to the Goodnefs of the Fruit, which is efteem'd 
when planted, and not fo good when wild. Acoft 

That fet from Leaves has no Caudex as that of Seed ("which is 

< a 



falfe) Dod. 

The Fruit whole and cut is figured, Tab. 224. Fig. 1. 

In the Mexican Chronicle apud Pur -ch as , $d Tome, p. 1066. the Eagle te 

faid to have had her haunt in this Tree, and there they fettled, call- 
ing it, or Mexico, Tenuchhtlan % or, TunaA growing in a Rock. It is very 

groflely figured, in p. 1068 

Rok. Tbomfdn ap. HM. p. 454- obferVed this Tree about Mexico. Ovi- 
vdo in his Summary, /►. 208, that it makes the Water appear like blood. 

The fame fpeaks of Trees or Plants having certain Branches full of 
large and deform'd Leaves. Summar) p. 21 *.*/>• EdtM Where the Leaves 
fpreadon a Cloth after Beating, like '* Plaifter, are faid to cure broken 
Legs and Atms, (licking no longerthan the Operation. 

Smith in hi* Summer-Ifles, p. 170, and />. 54. takes Ndtlcc of thettl 

in St. Chriftopher's, and p. 56. in Sarba^ Where they are faid to be good 

*o eat or make Drink. 

Thefe Shrubs are itiMGattci* in Woods fifty Leagues long, where 

they might with Culture bring Forth GtchiMl, L*tt 


i $ 2 The Natural Hiftory of J A M A I C A. 

Ltgon p. u. found them in the Cape-ford Ifles, 14. tb. p. 70. where 
the Cut is fabulous with Leaves. 

Harriot ap. Hakl. p. 27 3. \n Ftrg 

Jlvaro Nunez,, ap. Ramnus.p. $ 19. ap. Purchas,p. 1 $1 1. tells US, that 

Indians feed on them three Months in the Year and nothing elfe ; 
and that they go thirty Leagues to find them in the proper Time of 
Year, p. 1513- Ramnus y p. 320. wring open, dry them, and hang them 

on Garlands to eat them by the Way Home ; they powder their Rinds 

alio ; dance and are without Care at this Time, tb. and talk or it, 

beforehand, comforting themfeives. In four Days Famine they eat the 
Leaves likewife, p. 1518. ap. Ramnus, p. $22. av. p. after they were 

baked in an Oven. He tells us that they are eat by the Indians them 


felves. tb. Laet. lib. 5. cap. 25. tells us that Woods of them are near St 

Philip in Mtchoacan into which, Cattle for their Food get in dry T 
and come not out till wet Weather, which makes that Country pi 
per for Herds of Cattle. 

X. Opuntia maxima, folio cblongo rotundo majore, fpinulis obtufts, mollibtts^ 
& innocentibm obfito, flore firiis rubris variegato. Cat. Jam. p. 194. Raij 
Hip. Vol. 3. Dertdr. p. 19. An Raquette ou Car dap que les Botanijies appel- 
lent Opunttum ma)us fpmofum fructu fanguineo- Plum. Pornmet. p. \\. An 

Ficus Iridic a major Uvis feu non fpinofa, vermiculos cochcnilla vocant prof 
Pluk. Tab.2%1. Fig. 2, 

This PJant in every thing agrees with that before defcrib'd, 
'tis larger in every Fart, grows to eight or nine Foot high 

Leaves are a Foot and a half long, half as broadj and have no Tufts 
of Prickles, but in Lieu of them are fmall Holes in the Surface of 
the Leaf, fill'd with fmall oblong Protuberances. The Flowers are 
ftreak'd with red, the Fruit is like the former, only notfo favoury 

faw this Plant in Mr. Worlefs Plantation, about two Miles be- 
low the Town, on the other Side of Rio Cobre, where it was planted 
by him, being brought from the main Continent of America by a Spa- 

Prieft, and affirm'd to be the Plant on which grew the Coche- 
neel. But altho' there were many Plants here and in other Places of 
the Ifland, yet they never could obferve that Worm upon any of theie 

Hernandez, his Figure agrees pretty well to the young Plant. 
Pifo feems to have been very much miftaken thinking his Jamacaru 

to be this Plant. 

Newberry Ap. Purchas, lib. 9. cap* 3. p. 1414. tells us that Cochineel 

a good Commodity at Sbtras in Per ft 

Cochineel comes from Misba fifty Leagues N. W. of Mexico which 
is not a Worm nor Fly, as fome fay, but a Berry. Rob. Tom/on, Hakl 

454. and is gather 'd from Bufhes in the Fields wild, in the Time of 

Year when ripe. 
Grain which they call the Grain of Cochinilla* Mexic. Chron. ap.Pur- 

chas, 1094. was paid as a Tribute. 

This is chiefly made a Commodity of, by the Spaniards and Indi- 
ans living near Cofta R 



One Captain Goffe and an Indian King who had lived many Years 
in that Place, affured me that the Indians and Spaniards there planted it 
very carefully, in fometimes fixty Acres of Ground, that they kept it 
very clean that the Infe&s^ might breed on it, that it is not pnckly, 


The Natural Hijlory of J A M A I G A. 150 

grows higher, but aftci the fame Manner of the Prickly Pear-Tree that 
the Infers come trom another Tree, that they appear on the Surface 
of the Leaves \a the Form of a little Bladder which the Indians (climb 
ing the Tree) fweep down into an Iron Pan that is fet on the 
Fire afterwards and leaves the Cochineel to be put into Cherts as 
cured ; if they be not enough dryed the Infe&s take Life and 


A Buccaneer affured me, that once fome of his Comrades, join'd with 
]f, had taken a Prize, and there being in it much Cochineel, they lay 
on fome of the Bags, and that it took Life and crept about : it came 

from Metoque in the Bay of Honduras. 

I found in the Sulci of the wild Tamarind-Trees in Jamaica the fame 
Infed, or one very like it, and it imitated Cochineel fo well on firft 
Tryal by being cured after the fame Manner, that I do not aueftion but 
that 'tis the true Way. * 

Other Infefts ; that I faw on this Tree were white, and no bigger 
than a Loufe, IhapM like it, many of them, lodg'd in the uncur'd 
Cochineel, crawling about and very much coveted by Ants, whence I 
believe they are the greateft Enemies they have. The Account given 
by Herrera of clearing the Shrubs with Foxes Tails may be to clear 
them of thefe Ants. . , 

They ftink like Hair, dr ftorn bv a Candle 

1 1 


Hernandez, fays they came either naturally or elfe the Seed was kept 
""* mJLm Time put to the Leaves, and that the Places where 

they grew were kept clean and fene'd from Cattle. 

Rocbefort tells us of a Worm on a Sort of this Tree, dying red. 

Tho' this Tree yields no Fruit of Ufe, yet they cultivate it with 
great Diligence, for the fmall Worms breeding on the Leaves when 

it is well cultivated, being faften'd there and cover'd with a deUcwv 
Web. They dry them and bring them into SftuL in 1547 in the 

Flota came 5677, Arobas y Acofia. * 

It is generated on the Tuna, and is a Worm like a Cimex. The Trees 
fet in open Places defended from the iStorth ; it is lefs than a Flea 


gather d twice a Year* they plant their Trees like Vines, the younger 
Trees are the better ; they ufe Foxes Tails to clean the Tree from In- 
feds ;■ Hens are kept off of it; they are killed, when large enough 
with > Water, and dryed in the Shade, or they kill them with Afhk 

wafhmg them, but that killed with Water is belt, the wild is not good 
There is another Sort wild and blacker; the Mountainous, on Chichi 

meca is not good, that from Tlaxcatta is beft, it is beat and boii'd 

in a Decofcion of Leaves of Tezhuatl with a little Allom, which fob- 
fiding is made up mto Cakes called Gran* En Pan for Women and 

Painters. Laet. Herr. io 


The beft grows in Mifieca Province, Laet. 

Cochineel breeds in the Fruit about Guatemala, Chape and Guaxa 

Mexico, Damper. ' V' / 

I doubt if this be the Cochi neel^Tree called by the Spaniards Toon* 

oiDampier, Cap.S. or the Tree that bears the Silvefter, td. 

The Commodity of CothimU* groweth ia greateft Abundance about 
h f °» W \ °[ VuM \ dt l6s *&«> and is not worth above 40 d. v er 

Ltb. Boihenhamap.. Hakl. Part. 3. p. 455. Coshwilta is brought into Spain 

from Pueblo de los Angelos, Chilton ap. Halk. p. 4 <6. and the C 

thereabout, fome Indians paying Tribute in it. it. p. 4S7 . and from Pit- 

wr. l m H l ndur *h which is not of fuch Value a* that of Nov* 

Hijpanu, tb.p. 458. 

Q.q in 

i ^ The Natural Hijlory ©/JAMAICA. 

In this Town {Jlaxcalla) is all the Cochimlla growing. Hawks a?. Hakl. 
p. ■$. p. 46%. 

Cochimlla is one of the Commodities for Spain from the Weft-Indies. 

Philips ap. HakU p. 5. />. 486. 

Cochmilla was fold for fifty P*/fr the Quintal, and now it is fold at M*- 
/Vo for fifty five F*/oV, and fince there is Advice from Spain that it fold for 
feventy two Ducats the Quintal, there are laden in this Fleet 1400a 
Arrows of CochmilU, and 7000 Jrrovas more were laden in the Fri- 
gats which departed before the Fleet- Bartholomew Cano, Hakl. 
561. in a Letter dated 30th hhy 1590 from Mexico. 

CochxneU {Smith's Virginia, p. 149) is one of the wealthy Weft-lndU 

Commodities. . 

It is a Grain, but Ptttmier fays 'tis an Inker which lives on feve 

ral Trees especially the Opuntia, they are coveted by Ants, but pre- 
ferved by \ rer put round the Root of the Plant; they are fweptoff 
by Petits Ballets into Veffels where are Afhes and Water and when 

drown'd are taken out and dry'd, they multiply vaftly, fo that a hun 
died produces Millions. This Infeft: comes on Acacias and Cherry- 
Trees it carries its Eggs on its Legs and Breaft, and gets the Colour 
from the Opuntia, being paler or yellower on the Acacias : Two Slaves 
and Flibuftiers told the fame, Pummette. It hath no Wings nor Feet, 
therefore it is a Seed, Pommett. It is little ufed in Phyfick, unlefs in 

taking it for Kjrmes. id. 

In the Hiftory of the In feels of Jamaica hereafter will be given a far* 

ther Account of this Infect Cochenille. 


XI. Opuntia major fpinofa caulefcens, felijs atrovirentihus longis & angtttfis 

pendulis, flore rubro. °Cat. Jam. p. 1 9 $. Ratj. Hift. Vol. 3 . Dendr. p. 1 9. Tab* 
224. Fig.2i An Opuntia major angufii folia Munt. Aardi p. 32? An 0- 
pantia In die a folio fpinofo iongijffimo & anguHo, Am. Hort. Bof. p. 25 ? F/- 
cus indiedfeu Opuntia maxima folio fpinofo longiffimo & angufto ad imum 
rotundtore. Pluken. Almag. p. 147 t An Ficus ludica folio oblongo anguftif* 
fimo & fpinofifflmo. Herm; fl. L. B fl. p. 1 3 7 ? I $i 

This Tree grows to about nine Foot high, it has a very ftreight tapering 
Trunc or Stalk, about the Bignefs of one's Leg, fet very thick in Rows 
from Bottom to Top, with Tufts of Prickles Star-fafhion, whiter and 
not fo long as thofe of the Prickly-Pears. When it has rifen to about eight 
Foot high, come out the Leaves and none under, they hang downwards 
one out of another towards the Ground, and are like the Leaves of 

ordinary Prickly-Pears, only of a deeper green Colour, longer and nar- 
rower, being about a Foot and a half long, two Inches broad, and 
a quarter of an Inch thick. The Flowers are made after the fame 
Manner, only fmaller every Way and of a red Colour, to which 
follow the Fruit like others of the Opuntia. 

I do not queftion but the Stem of this rifes at firft from Leaves one 
out of another, in Time turning round, as others of this Kind. 

This grew in the Cajmanes below Mr. Worlefs Plantation on the other 
Side of the Rio Cobre, and elfewhere in the Sandy Places, near the 

Shores of the Ifland. F 

From the red Colour of the Flower of this Species, People are apt to 

judge this to be the Sort on which the CochinilU breeds, but 1 think 

without Ground. - ~ , 



I w 






The Natural Hi f lory of JAMAIC A. 

XII. Opuntia major fpinofa caulefcens, foliis glaucis, longis 


pendulis, fpmis crebrioribu* & minor thus obfitis, flore rubro. Cat. Jam. 

195. /{a//. Htft. Vol, }. Df^r 


An Ficfts lndica feu Opuntia minor 

caulefcens arbufculi in modum ramis cineriteis fpinofiffima. Plukenet Alma* 

ii * An ? 

This Tree as the precedent, has a very ftreight, round Stem, rifing to 
about five Foot or more high, on which area great many Rows of Star* 
fafhion'd, fhort, white Prickles, in Tufts, very thick fet, fo that very 
little elfe is feen, they almoft covering the Stalk which tapers towards 
the Top, from which come the Leaves hanging down from one ano- 
ther as in the ordinary Prickly-Pear, they are longer proportionally 


in Tufts, that the Leaf fhews almoft nothing elfe, and heV% 'touches 

thofe of the Prickly-Pear, of a lighter green Colour or Glaucous, 
fo very thick fet with 

Rows of fmall Prickles and prickly Down 

them tho' arm'd with Gloves, will feel nothing elfe in fome bays. The 
Flowers are as ufually, only fewer, being made up of about fix Pe- 
tala of a reddifli Colour and ftanding on 
this Kind. 

the begun Fruit as in all of 

It grew near Old-Harbour, in the fa ndy Ground between it and Mn 

->hun\ Houfe verv olentifullv. 

Mohun's Houfe very plentifully. 

The reticulated light Contexture of Ligneous Fibres, making up the 
main Part of the Stalk of this Plant, the others being dertroy'd by the 
Injuries of the Air, is faid by Pifo to be us'd as a Flambeau in Brafile 
this is not made Ufe of in Jamaica, but that of Dildoe-Tree the leffer 
which with its Heighth he mentions, 
fo highj makes me doubt he confounds thofe 


never feeing this but always that 

two very different Plants 


. together. 

Fife's Figure agrees very well to this Plant, and no ether. 

Lib, 10. of Medicinal Plants, Cap. 1. Oviedo Coren. fpeaks of this call- 

ing it 

per j on a 

del h 

plant a con que ft fueldan las quebraduras cofas rompidas tn U 

>ombrt. The Leaves clear'd of its Prickles^ beaten, fpread 
on' Linen as a Plaifter and apply'd to broken Bones after they are 
fet, cures them, it -flicks till they are whole and then falls off. It makes 
a Fruit in Nicuaragua larger than an Olive, and fcarlet, out of which is 
made a Pafte, fold in the xMarkets for colouring with Water, it keeps fix 
Years without Alteration or Gum. This is the fame with the Tunas 
which he fays was about three Spans high, and therefore it" was 

. ' VV ■ •■• ' '■ •■..:,.• ! i 





• • 





XIII. Ficus lndica folio triangular* enfiformi (profundi r canal icul at 0) ft ell a- 
tim aculeato. Raij tiifi. Cat .Jam. p. 196. Raij 3. p. 20. Melocaflus Ameri- 
cans repens trigonm, fore alto, fruttu violaceo, Plum.Tournef. ln[l t p. 563. 
pi. Am. p. 19. MeUcatfus foliofus &fquammofm^ Carduus Pitabaya. Oviedi 
Bob. Hift. Ox. Part 3. p. 171. Ficoidts triangulart articulatum amplexicault f 
fpinis brevioribus obfitum. Plukenet. Aim. p. 148. Ctreus fcandens minor trigo 
ms articulatus, frutfa fuavfflwo- Herm. par. Bat. p. " Q »*-*.— «*— 

. n8. 


ton, ej. ib. p. 120.^ An Ctreus fcandens minor ^ trigonus 

Cat. 5 


articulataty ej. ib. 

WCi'., v 


1 N r 


A i v * I 



111 OJ 


4 * j 







t iw '.01 i i n } 1 V l» 

. . PrickljJVith. 

] ... A\ i . { 

This Plant has feveral fmall Roots, white, tapering and very ftrong 


on \ 

kicking to the Barks of the Trees it grows 

feveral very green Leaves, protruding one another 

from them comes 


as m 



.• i k* 

. i 




1 5<5 The Natural Hijiory of J A M A I C A. 



Species of this Kind ; every one of them is triangular, each Side 
three Inches broad, furrowed between the Angles Very deep, the Ca- 
vity being round, very fmooth, of a very frefh green Colour, and look 
ing juft like the Shape of a three cornered Sword- Blade ; on the three 
Eminenciesor Angles ftand Tufts of fmall, fhort, white Prickles, in Rows. 
very thick, Star-fa/hion, every Leaf is about a Foot and a hail long, they 
creep up Trees, and ftick clofe to them, rifing to forty or fifty Foot 
high, when the Prickles and fucculent Part of the Leaves fall offther 
remains the long, round and ftrong inward Part, which is made Ufe of 
for Withs to tie Pallifadoes clofe to one another, in Building, &c. The 
Flowers come out of the Leaves, as in others of this Kind, at firft 
appears a woolly round Knob which afterwards augments, and fhews 
on its Out-fide a great many long, fcaly, reddifh green Leaves, one 
longer than another, enclofing feveral very long, white Petala, in the 
Middle of which ftand many long Stamina; the whole looking like 
the Flower of the white Lilly ; the under Part of this Flower or Rudiment 
of the Fruit beginning to fwell the PetaU drop oft and it augments 
till it comes to the Bignefs of an Apple with feveral Protuberances on 
its Surface, when ripe 'tis of a yellow Colour, a little reddifh or to- 
wards an Orange, and within a thin Skin lies a white, pleafantly 

fweet Pulp, inclofing a great many fmall, black Seeds, fo that the Pulp 

and Seeds look like fferma Ran arum 

Sometimes as other Wood-binds it creeps on the Ground, and grows 
there, and then 'tis larger and much fairer. 

It grows on all large Trees in the Savanna Woods towards the Sea's 
Side, and is fought after by Negro's for the Withs as well as the 

V ^ 

The Fruit is ripe in December and January. 

The Fruit eaten, makes the Urine red as Prickly-Pears, C. B. LaeK 
j 'Tis chiefly fought after for its Withs, which are ufed wherever any 
thing of that Kind is needful, they are ufually made into round Hanks, 
ty'd betwen Sticks and fo fold in the Markets. 

The Fruit is the beft and pleafanteft of any of this Kind, and fo 
more fought after, both for Diferts, and as they are cooling ; they in 

two Hour's Time after eating two or three, colour the Urine as Prickly- 
Pears, Oviedo. , 

- : » f . • i » ." 


Clufm fays the Indians cured broken Bones with this, the Tops when 
green, being bruis'd and apply'd to the Fraft 

Dr. Plukenet, f. 76. of his Mantiffa, makes the Miffs Cluf. exot. t 
86. not to be this, but his Cereus minima /erf ens &c. defcrib'd hereaV- 

ter, in which I do not agree with him, for I 'think Clufius\ Miffi to be 
this Plant, as may appear by his Defcription agreeing to this and no 

other. _\ tv *-V\ 

Pifq in the firft Edition, 1648, of his Book, f.99. gives an Icon a- 
greeing exadly with one of the Leaves or : Joints of this Plant- In 
the 2 3d Page of Mangrove in the fame Edition it is defcrib'd and fi- 
gur'd under the Name of Jamacaru Brafilienfibus Car don Lufttanis, as 
growing on Trees with the v *fame Figure as before Pifo had ufed ; 
and/. 125. is given the Icon of many Joints growing on Trees which 

taken by Pifo and given as a Figure to the Jamacaru 9 to which _. 
Ways agrees. Pifo in the fecpnd Edition 'viz. 1658. />. 188. takes his firft 
Icon but leaves his firft Defcription, which belong'd to another Plant, 
for that of Marcg&ufoi tfce : moft p art . There are likewife fonre Dif- 

ferences I fuppofe accidental in the Colour of the Fruit, which is ei 
ther red or yellow, which^'am apt to believe comes from the Soil 

Rains, or fome fuch like Caufe. l p ra „. 


77>e Natural Hijlory ofJAMAICA. 1^7 

Francifco Vltoa ap. Ramxus. p. J4? H*^« p. 404 

l : 

is eat by the Inhabitants of Sta. Cruz, and that it is found likewife to 
wards California in about i7°N» Lat. - / , 

.. . . . 



9 t 

XIV. Cereus cra{ft$mus y fructu intus & extus rubro. Cat. Jam. p. 1 96. 

Rai\. ffi{t' Vol. J. Dendr. p. 21. Melocactus Amencanus, monoclones, flore 
albofruftu atro furfur eo Tournef Inft< p. 56$. .//# Cereus erect us Curaffavicm 
maximus fructu fpinofo rubro- Herm. par. Bat. p. 11$ ? Cereus crtji 

Beaumontianus ejufd.par. Bat. pr. ? vel An Cerus erectus fructu rubro non 
fpinofo. Ejufd. par. Bat. p. 114? Cereus erectus fructu rubro non fpinofo 

Unuginofus. ej. lb 


DildoeTree the larger 


The Roots of this Tree, when young, are fpread on the Surface of 

the Ground for feveral Feet's Diftance, folid, of a CheiTnut C 
from whence comes one Stalk or Stem, which mounts {height up 

to twenty Foot high, having a Notch or round Incifure, at 


two, three, or four Foot's Diftance, being: the Beginings and End 

, m.vs,, 

ings of the different Leaves of which 'tis made up \ 'tis about (1 
teen Inches in Circumference, green when young, or towards the Top, 
channel'd on the Sides from the Bottom to the Top, with eight, 
nine, or ten deep Furrows. On the Edges, Striae, Emiriencies or Ribs 
of this Trunc ftand great Tufts of white Prickles, half an Inch long, 
twelve, more or lefs in a Tuft, fhnding Star-fafhion ; the Ste 

low, and on a great many folid, woody Fibres clofe fet together, ex- 
cept fome Netlikc Spaces left between, is a green, thick Pulp, on the 
Edges of whofe prominent Parts grow the Prickles abovefaid. This 
mpty. round, woodv Contexture is what is in the other of this Kind 

, l«Ui. U , 

ufed for Torches very often. The main Trunc, at one of its Not 

is branch'd, or has Leaves going out , on which grow others to 
a pretty Heighth, of the fame Make and Bignefs with the main 
Body. At, or near the Top of this Tree, on feveral Places comes out 

a round, woolly, fcaly Knob, which fcnfibly breaks out into the Flower, 

this when open is three Inches long, has a roundifh Knob, (the Rud 
ment of the Fruit) on which it ftands, from a narrow Neck above that 

it fwells, is three Inches long, and confifts of many green Lea 

placed fquammatim one over another, the innermoft being the longeft 
within which ftand two Rows of Petala, long and white, and withir 
them a great many long, yellowifh Stamina with a large Stylus, to whicl: 
fucceeds a Fruit, flicking clofe to the Stem, as big as a large Rufleting- 
Apple ^ when ripe or an Orange or red Colour, having feveral little E 
minencies, lomething like the Pine, on its Surface ; its Skin is thin, and 
contains within a red fweet Pulp, a great many fmall, black, fhining, 

Oviedo fays the Chriftians call'd thefe Cirios, becaufe, except the 
Prickles, they, look as if they were made of Wax, and that they were 
planted by the Indians, but for what he knew not ; perhaps for Torches. 

It grows neai; the Sea in fandy Places, every where in the Savanna 
Woods near the Town 

The Fruit of this is extremely coveted by Wood Ants 
It is eaten to cool in this hot Country. 





j j. 8 rk Natural Bi/iorj of J A M A I O' A 

w . . 

This, and the other immediately following Sort, as they were mifta- 
ken by feverai for the Euphorbiam, fo the Inhabitants of Jamaica were in 

the like Error when they prohibited the Exportation of this Plant alive, 
on any Account whatever, lead it fhould grow in fome other Place, 
and hinder their expe&ed Trade for that Drug. But it certainly is noc 
the Euphotbium o{Ger. becaufe it has no Prickles ftanding two together 
and is not milky. 

This is very vulnerary being beaten and apply'd, it cures Wounds 
and I was cured fo of a Wound made by one of its Prickles, Man * 


. » 

XV. Cere us alt'ijfimus gracilior fruit u extusluteo, intus niveo, feminih 
igrisphno. Cat. Jam. p. 197. Raij. Hifi. Vol. 3. Dendr. p. 22. C 

ttus alttjfimus, Sirwamenfis Herm. Par. Bat. p. 116. An Cereus erectus 

f rutin f'pimfo coftarum numero varians 
ib. p-117 - ? Diido-Bnjb or Dil do-Tree of D ] ampler, cap. \,& 5."* A Stick 

Cblobre de Spine . Hifp. Ejufd. 

that isgvown hollow like a Net, of Hubert, p. 35 

Bildoe^Tree the Lejfer, or, Torch-wood, 




.1 - -V , 

a " • 

This Tree is in every thing like the former, only fmaller, its Flower _ 
feven Inches long ; the Fruit is as big as a large Tennis-Ball, with Eminen- 
eies as the other, and has within a yellow Membrane, a white fweet 
Pulp, like Snow, amongft which lie little black Seeds, interfpers'd as 
in the former. 

It grows with the former, often in the Woods alone, and on Se- 

baldt de Verds and Gallapagos Iflands, Damp 

The Fruit of thefe is ripe in Ocfob 
They are eaten as the former. 

I feverai Times wounded all Parts of both Sorts of this Tree, but 
could never find any Gum tranfude from either of them 


The inward Contexture of the Fibres of this Plant remaining after the 
Weather has confum'd both the In and Outfide of it, is ufed for a Torch 
fcy the Indians to catch Fifh in the Night-Time, they hold it out of the 
Ends of their Canoes lighted, and the^Fifh leaping atit,they ftrike them 
with their Inftruments, and great Plenty of them are caught fo, efpecially 
Mullets, J 

Euphorbium has Milk and a three corner'd and feeded Fruit like th© 

Tithymals, Cord. Hift. fL foil 2 o 9 . 
Abbeville fays that the Fruit of this Tree taftes like Strawberries. • 


XVI. Cereus minima, ferpens Americana^ Rlukemt. Cat. J am. p. 197. Rat) 
Hifi. Vol. 3. Dendr. p. 27. An Cereus minimus articulatus ex vera cruce^ejujd, 

b. Cereus fcandens miner Polygonus articulatus, Herm. par. Rat. p. 120 



Meloc actus Americanus repens tetragonus pre albo y fruclu cocci neo. Plum 

Tournef. Inft. p. 563. pi. Amer. p. 19, An Cereus fcandens minor arti- 

latns coftarum numero varians Volck. p. 97 ? Cereus fcandens medius poly 
gonus articulatus Jpinofffimus y Ej. ib ? Cereus fcandens minimus articulatus 
fexangularis, Ej. if 

This Plant is in every thing like the Cerei, it has Furrows, Ribs,PrickIes 
&c. like them, only it is letter, being not over half an Inch in Diameter 
its Colour is a little more whitifh, being Glaucous, it climbs the Trees „_ 
the Woods and fticks to their Barks very clofe, like Ivy, with broad and 
foft Clavicles, and mounts fometimes ftreight up Trees to forty or fifty 
Foot high, at other Times creeps along the Rocks or Ground, the 
Flower and Fruit are the fame as they are in the other Cerei only fmaller* 


The Flowers are red, Plukenet 



The Natural Hiftory of J A M A I C A. ,159 

I found thismoft elegant Plant firft,in aWood above Mt.Batcbelor's houfe 

on this Side Black-River Bridge, and afterwards on the- Red-Hills u 
the right Hand of the Road going to Guanaboa. 

: * 

. . . 


XVII. Opuntia non fpinofa minima, caulefcens, folijs filofis ftritfifjimis, 
trenis foliorum frutfum & flor em prof evens. Cat. Jam. p. 216. An Nopalxdcb 
tuez-altiquiri. Hern. p. 292, d* 457 ? Canambaya Marcgr. p. 78 ? Opuntu 
forte affinis Sirinamenfis, e foliorum trenis nova, folia, produtens, Hort. Beau 
mont.p. 19. Phylldnthos Americana finuofts foliis longis, craffis & carnofis 
tuntU in modtem florigera Plukenet. Phyt. Tab. 247. Fig. 5. Epiphyllum A 
mericanum. Herm. par. Bat. prod. add. Ficus Indica fcolopendr/a folio, e 

pby Uitis. Herm. par. Bat. Cat. p. 8. Ficus feu Opuntia non fpinofa fcolopendri* 
folio finuato, Raij.Hift. Vol. 3. Dendr. p. 21. 

This Plant had feveral long Strings or Thongs, which had Roots and 

Fibrils to take Nouriftiment by, having ftrong Nerves in their 
Middle, which United made a pretty large Root, and feat up a? 
round aflvcolour'd Stalk, from whence went feveral Leaves, which 
at firft were very hairy, and afterwards came to be about a Foot 
long and an Inch broad in the Middle, where broadeft, and from 
whence they decreas'd to both Extremes. The Leaves had an Inch long 
Footftalks and a Nerve running through their Middles. They had ai- 
fo round Indentures on their Edges, and were of a pale green Colour. 
Out of the Indentures or Notches of the Leaves came the Fruit which 
was fmallj comprefs'd, and like the others of this KiHd having fmall 
Seeds within its Pulp. The Stalk of this when cleared of the fuccu- 
nt Part fhew'd its cancellated, reticulated Fibers as ethers of this 


This grew in Jamaica, and was brought thence to Sir Arthur Rawdon 
j James Harlow, and given rne by Dr Sberard. 

XVIII- Echinomelocactos ClufCat.Jam. p. 198. Melocardaus fulcis refit's 
fpinti ad angulos appofit is major Bob. Hift.Ox. p. $. p. 170. An Melocaclus 
purpurea* Sir its in jpinis intortis. Plumier. Tournef p. 563 ? pi. Amer. p. 19? 
Ficoides fm Melocaclos Americana foment ofo captte fulcis reltis. Plukenet. Aim. 

An Ficoides feu Melacatfos Americana major fulcis obliquis. hj. ib. Fi- 

cordis, feu Melocaclos major longtoribus aculeis donata, Ejujd. ib f Echenomelo 
catfus five Melocardaus tchinatus India occidentalis Coutant, p. 2. Ecbinome 
locaoins major tomentojo capite, cops recJis y Herm. par. Bat. p. 1 j 5 



* -j .„ _ _ . 


This has a great many Foot long, round, ftrong and white Thongs 
for Roots, ftretch'd out on every Hand under the Surface of the Ground, 
which fend up a very ftrange Plant, or MafTe, it feems to be only one 
~oi nt of the former Plants, is about one, two, or three Foot high 


bout three Foot in Circumference at Bottom, where it is largeft, and 
tapers towards the Top ; it has very deep Channels, Furrows or Sulci 
in it, ftreight for the moft Part, tho' fometiraes they vary and arc 
crooked. On the Eminencies or Ribs between the Furrows ftand in 
Rows, Tutts of Prickles, rayed Star-fafhion ; they are white and longer 
than thofe of the Prickly-Pear, and very fharp. i he Skin of this Plant 
is of a dark green Colour, thick and juicy, like that of Aloes, and in the 
Infide it is full of an infipid, whitifh green Pulp, which fome People 
fay after boiling is eatable, but I could nod find it very favoury. On the 

Top of this comes up a Head rifing an Inch or two, more or lefs above the 




The Natural Hiftory 



other, being about 2 Inches in Diameter ; it is made up of reddifh b 

fharp P 
Quantity of T 


nd long, th 

Roots of which ftand in a 



or Dow 





of which comes alio the Flower which 

ired than Co 

• ' * A 

y Footftalk, con 


f very many Purple Petala, long and narrow, lying out as from 

a common C 

appears only i 

be d 


to which follows a Fru 


Footftalk of which 


that of Cap ft 

with the End of % the Fruit, the other Part being 
e TnmentuM. it aoDears to be a fmall tapering Fr 

f the Tor, 




an Inch and an half in Lcn 


it ha 




nd within that a Pulp of 






ed Memb 

fame Colour wi 

the others of this Kind, but this Fruit is mi 

of the others, having a fine Piquancy or 




m it, as 



Sulci* Prickles 


plea fa nt than 



much in its Largenefs, Streightnels of the 
amongft a thoufand PI 



haps not fee two juft alike, whence the Variety defcrib'd in Authors, 


It grows 

the Town Sa 

near Pajfage-Ft 

the S 


nd in all the fandy Grounds near the Sea, in Jamaica, as well as in 

moll of the Carib 



is fcarcc ever without Flower 

The Fr 




that the 

y plea fa 

ng to eat. 



rd Pulp of the 




ery good 

I could not find any thing of that, it being very iniipid 

even the beft Way prepared 

CluftMS F 


heft, and Defcription good, altho' Terrentitu blames 

him, defcribing another Plant of the fame 



XIX. Cereo affinx feandens ft ant a aphylla caule rot undo , articulato^glabro 
fucculento faturate viridi. Cat. Jam. p. 198, Ratj. Hift. Vol- 3. Dendr.p. 21; 

X4&. 224. Fig 



An Apocynum hurnile aiz,oide$ % filiquis erectit, catiti* 

cutis longiffimtSy denticulis rarioribtts donatum. Pluk. Mant.p. 57 ? 






hangs down from the Branches of Trees 



a Stalk- 



others to forty Foot high -, it feem 

jointed or made up of Leaves, going one out of the other like the 

Cerei. it is about three quarters of an Inch in Diameter, very fmooth 

thout, deep green colour'd 






Inch's Difta 



hich goes 



three or four Inches long Cla 

vicle, which catches hold by its broad vifcid End of any Part of a T 

this comes another as long Clavicle, or Leaf 

comes near. Oppofit 



d membranaceous, from a broad Beginning, ending in a Point;, 

and fometimes branch'd. At feveral 

Stem it feif is folid, juicy, 

es of the Year, and in feveral Places,. I have feen th 



could never obferve any other Leaf then the Clavicle above mention'd 
(if that may be called a Leaf ) neither could I ever fee it have any 
Flower or Fruit. 

the H 

grew in a Wood beyond Rio Ccbre 

gainft the Angels 

upon great Trees, between Colonel Ballard's and Major Bragg 


s 9 

The Juice of 
Oils, being 

Plant either alone, or mix'd with proper Ointments, 

b'd on any pain'd Pa 

away old Aches or Pains 

and helps one to the Ufe cf their Limbs, after they have been loft in 
the Belly-Ach* ' , 


The Natural Hiftory of J A M A I C A. 1 6 1 

It always (on its Ufe) Occafions great Pain and itching in the Part be- 
fore it works its Effeft, is very penetrating, and much efteem'd for its 

Vertues, by the Indian and Negro Doctors. 


XX. Malo funic*, affinis pomifera^flore pentapetalo alho y frui~tu nullis dijfep 
mentis inter ft inttd y ex toto efculento y rubro y majors. Cat. Jam. p. 1 98. G 

from Barbados of Trade/cant. p. 119. Jppel. Guayavas. Steerbeck, Citric, p 


jo. & 200. Gouianes de Bout on. p. 6$. Cienko % Boym. Lit. K,. Tbevenot. p 

22. Guava Fruit with the Infide red of Dampier, cap. 8* 

The red Guava-Tree. 

'this Tree rifes to twenty Foot high, has a Trunc as thick as one s 

Thigh, cover'd with an extraordinary fmooth Bark, of the fame Colour 
with that of an Afh-Tree ; its Branches towards the Top fpread them- 
fe4ves on every Hand, having feverai Leaves fet one againft an other on 
fhort Footftalks, they are two Inches and a half long, and One broad in the 
Middle, where broadeft, having one middle Rib, from whence feverai 
tranfverfe ones go out on each Side, fmooth, and a litttle curl'd. Ex eorum 
Ala comes a quarter of an Inch long Footftalk, fupporting a large 
white pentapetalous Flower, having very numerous Stamina of the 
fame Colour, to which follows a Fruit not unlike a Pomegranate, or fmall 
Lemon, fmelling fomething like Bugs, ungrateful to the firft Tafters, 
being crown'd or umbilicated at the Top like an Apple, fmooth, of 
a light yellow Colour, having within an edible Skin, about an eighth 
of an Inch thick, a fweet Pulp likewife edible, and gratefully plea- 
fant, in which lie great Numbers of Seeds like Grains of Paradife on- 
ly harder (whence Hernandez?* Name) without any Membranes fepa- 
rating them one from another, as in the Pomegranate, each of which 
is irregularly fhaped, fmall and hard, of the fame Colour with the Pulp, 
which is fometimes red and fometimes white, ct which the firft are 

ted the be ft 

The Fruit has an Aromatic Smell 

Thefe Trees are planted every where for their Ufefulnefs, and grow" 
naturally in the lowland Woods* or Plains in Barbados, the Caribe Iflands, 
and Jamaica. The raoft ordinary Way of planting them is after they have 
been eaten by Men, Birds or Beafts, the Seeds paffing the Digeftions, 
are by the Slaves, &c. planted here and there in the Fields, wherever 
they part with their Excrements, in this agreeing with the Fruit 
JamgomaS) Garc. ab orta y who fays that they are beft planted with the 
Excrement of the Birds eating 

The Fruit is counted extremely pleafant, delicious and wholefome 
and may very defervedly take the firft Place among the Weft-India Fruits 

_f eaten when thoroughly ripe. They have only this Inconvenience, 
that being very adftringent, they ftop up the Belly if eaten in great 
Quantity, and the Seeds fometimes fticking on the Outfide of the hard 
Excrement in coming thro' the Inteftines, efpecially the Retfum, by rheir 
irregular fharp Angles will occafion great Pain there, and very often 

bring a Flux of' Blood. 

To an unacquainted Palate this Fruit feems very unfavoury. 

The Fruit any Way boil'd, ftew'd, or otherwife prepar'd, taftes yet 

" ft! i • : 3i 

I ' * ' • I 

more pleafantly 

Swine and all other Cattle coret it very much 

1 r 

S f 


1 62 77* ^f«r«/ #*/% 0/ J A M A I G A. 

; To a ! a ^! S Iree or its Roots bo *r* i n Water, the Decode 
is good to ftop Fluxes, &c. and is reckon'd one of the beft Adftrin- 
gents in Jamaica, being accounted cold and dry 

v „t °5 Fruit r r h r Icf ?, ripe the more adft n"gent, and when they are 
very npe , or foft and rotten, they loofen the Belly. 

I hey came to Br a file froifl the Northern Americ 



The Leaves are good for aduringent Baths of all' Sorts,* curing the 


The DecoQion of the Bark cures fwell'd Legs and fiftulous Ui- 

the nfnfinn Sfi g n n^ d P\ hd P S Dige«Kon ; a Syrup is made of 
the Infufion and Decodion of the Leaves, which is a very good Re- 

tllLf* $ l i° ^ ? kcn accor ding to the Patient's Need, being 

good as Syrup of dry Rofes, Xim. ' b 

WlSTver^V^*^" WCre mUCh ° Ut When the y defcrib ' d this FfU * 

w«n levei ai Concamerations. 

.reaver J ™S "° I "f 1 W fmdlin S '" ,ike Puna ^ or Bugs, they 
fome Inrf ™ P f a ,, , by ?" Creat «^ voiding their Seeds, it is unwhol- 

Worml IT *" kteIy f ° Und in Vf'* 01 *- When not r P e the y bree d 

The purple Sorts are beft, which roafted cure the Fl 




A Syrup is made of the young Shoots, which is excellent in Fluxes 

This Tree hinders Porto-Rico from having rich Failures for the Grain numerous, fpring up and choakthe Graft, Laec ' 

ft hake's weT™^ "ma^T T W leffe r ' °™ io C ™ 

Jt cakes well, may be codled, and makes good Pies 



They Fopagate this by the Branch in «,»4, W Pr J 

^"ZtZ ^ p / ds ' as blg as F, &> were obfi = rved b y an ^«V- 

w Author «*. ?«-<£«, /. 1529, or PorW of £W, /. IO at St 

r„ rl ( V -f f /"l^ Wlthin forty Leagues of AtoV) our Men were ve- 

te Ind£T™ SU r ,and Wi l h - ,4* ° f another F'uit cXd fn 

foT the SoJe Z $ tin y t ""\ Wh £ h Fruit did bind us f0 fo te, that 
iL/V'f .T£. X * n " twe,ve Da y j we could not eafe our felves. 

>f sap. HM.p. V f. illl , ...... 

We travejl'd there feven Days and feven Nights before we came to 

r^MF takes. Notice of them in Sta. Lucia. Purch* p ,,6< lib f, 
«£ .> and that when they are not tipe they are bbd.n'g, «S wheri 

npe fcowenng, with Probatum in the Margin. 8 ' 

Z££±2*£« l,i - 6 - "f-^-f- >hi obferved them 

River Amazons 

I 4 1 IT***' ' ' 

££« , ,. ,4. in C^f-^rrf Ifles, and in Barbados, p. M , and f, w 

Seed, pafs, Ottk eat the Fruit and lav it ev"rv ZLrl ;*\^° 
intations, which t 

• w ■ ^ • ^^ • a v a> a ^^^ 

it every where in theic 

At *I r-, ^ 


that the V u "t i ' oolt PU il °/ * Sa h ng T C0l0UI : ^' ? 44- 

Ifles,and,n SmtfTofir p fPrt that they grow in the C^-^ri 

» " ««* s ufc//. p. 5 6. they were found in Barbados. 


The Nat urdHiJiory of JAMAICA. ,$ 

Tfo /ir^f, #£fo G**™, 

is ssjk hSsaPtfivft! wi > h the red *■* ° n, y *■ F,u;t 

gether fo well Xd h '"' " 1S ^ W' tho ' «*« ««»• 

It grows in the Plains every where with rfcp «,(,».. »vi t 
cfpecially in the inland Parts of this Tfland ^ bUtra ° re 

It is planted in Malabar- a Rath Jc ™~a c l ^ 

which bf its Hear, caufes'fweatfot d""^^^^" ?*** 

the Bark and Root ooens ObOrn/TL J . • %^ evers J a Decoction of 

X and Jaundice? lKh*Bw8 wSSt 7 &/" P^ A 
the Dyfcnrery, //. A/. vinegar tuies a Loofenefs and 

/*/. IVfc J. Dm*.,. , 9 . GytvierfMvsg* de Roche}. TaL T 2 f * "* 


T^ y«^, #£//* G//4i/* 


This Tree ,s exaltly the fame with the others of this Kind only 

Fru t is much fmaller, white within, and not fo juicy, or plea f 2 
It grows here and there in the Plains with the fftmer wh te j 

Sort horn which I w.ll not affirm it to be fpecifically diftinft 


The Fruit preferved is cooling, and adftrin 

ferves for th 

fame Purpofes as Conferve of ££* m3 'de rf On fo ces^e 
Sft^oers Th/R , 'r ft:din 1 ! Jaths ^"ft both inwardTnd outward The Roots are the moft ufefulof all the Parts of this Tree 

they being diuretic, and of fubtle Parts, with a Sweetnef and Ad 

ftnngency, and therefore efteem'd good for the Spfcen and Kidneys 

XXIII. Mtlm P«»ic* fativa alii, f tm pl ici a re. Gra»au f »ff Dendr 
C*,.J* m .p 20 i Md»* Panic* frj u acidj, Ca,hll. HortMekpt' 

Hm* p. ui Grenade deLcty. TZ^l^f^^ S^S 

" * ■ i . 

The Pomegranate^Tree. 

r P ing u of s t^ £fe$ s* «? j-i^'j^aa 

Flu^el L°: der ° f thC FfUit dri£d [a an °™ * a clofed Pot cures 



The Rind with Galls, or inftead of them, makes the beft Sort of Irt* 



The Fruit is € oolmg, good fo Fevers, quenching Thirft, drying and 

bindi„ t , 

1 64. The Natural Hiftory of J A M A 1 C A. 

binding, and withal very ftomachic, it is good againft the Flux, Squeam 

ifhnets and Vomiting, the Flowers are adftringent iikewife, but moft 

of all the Bark ot the Fruit, which is good in Ruptures, Fluxes, Gar- 

garifms for fore Throats, loofe Teeth, 6 

The Flowers cure the Prolapjus Intejlini with Galls, Trag. 

The Flowers ufed as Rofes make a Sugar like them. Math. 

The Fruit comes well if the Trees be clean'd, the Leaves fall not 

off. Tertre. . 

Phillips, ap.Hakl. p. 3. p. 476. found this Tree about Panuco. Ward 

ib. p. 758*. at Sierra. Leon a. Pretty ib.p.%1^. at St. Helena. 

Pyrard,cap. io./>. 85. met with it at the Maldives^ & cap. 24, p. 236. 
at Bengale. & cap. 27- p. 2S6. at Calecut. p. 2. />• 88. in Ceylan. p. 3 

6?. and at Marocco with Figs. 

Ligon,p. 14. in the Cape-Verd Ifles, c^/>. 70 in Barbados ', where Hedge: 

are dipt and made of them. 

Pomegranats were found by Be/Ion ap. Purchas lib. 8. *4/>. 1$. />. 1379 
near Mount-Sinai. Newberrie, ib. lib. 9. cap.^.p. 141 1. at -4w*4. C 

ii. /;£. 9. f*p. 4. §.2. /M4?i* at Cu£/*. By Jo. dos Santfos, ib. 

lib??, cap. 12. §. x.f. i$?6. at S0/4/4. By iloVw P0/0 4/. Purchas, lib. 1. 

/>. 7 1. in Perfia. 

Saris apud Purchas, lib. 4. cap. 1. §. 1*^. $36. law them at Comora. Cop- 
land, ib- cap. 8. §. 1. / , .4^7- at S*r4/ in Gardens. And Fernandez, ib. lib. 

7. p. 1 18 j. §. 2. in Ethiopia. 

Oviedo lib.%. cap. 1. fays that they were firft brought from Spain to 


Hedges are made of thefe Trees in Bermudas, Smith, p. 184. Ra- 

p. 1. cap, 2. obferved them about Tripoli, cap. 6, about Aleppo, 
and about Anna id 

Pomegranate (Rinds) Pills tan the Goat Skins in which they churn in 

Arabia, Cartmight ap. Purchas, lib. 9. cap. 4. §. i.p. 1422. 

Pomegranates were taken Notice of by Hernan Lopez de Caftaneda, 
at Mombasa. And by Terry p. 96. in the Mogul's Country. 

XXIV* Mai us Punicapleniflora fore major e. Cat. Jam. p. 201. Balauftia 
rubra. CaftelL Hort. Mtjj. p. 2. Balauftia, Sterbeeck. />. 192. Malus Punica, 
{lore pleno. Hort. Reg* Par if. Balaujles, Pommet. 180. Malm Punica Ba- 
latttttfera, feu flore pleno, Grift, virid. p. 44. 

This Tree grows here with the former, but feidom has, if ever, any 
Fruit ; it is good for the fame Purpofes. 

XXV. Papaya mayor, flore ejr frutfu major ibm pedi cults curt is inftdentibtts. 
Cdt. Jam. p. 202. Papaya Peruvianorum. Am an. Hort* Bof. p. 26. Ficm 

Arbor utrsu/q; India platani foliis MonoHeleches, fruclu mali cydoni) aut me* 
lonis magnitudine. Plukenet Tab. 278. Fig- I. Papaya fruit u Melopeponis 
effigie. Plum. Tournef. Jnft. p. 659. pi. Am. p. 20. 

The Female PapA-Tree. 

This Tree has feveral round Roots fpread on the Surface of the 
Earth on every Hand, from whence rifes to fifteen Foot high, a ftreight 
Stem of about a Foot Diameter, hollow, foft, and cover'd with an 
Afh-colour'd, almoft fmooth Bark, having here and there Ve/ligia of 
the fallen off Leaves ; the Trunc is often, tho' not always branch'd, and 
thefe Branches, as well as their main Stem have their Leaves near their 
Tops, coming out on every Side of them ; they iland on long, round 


%• ' 


The Natural Hiftory of J A M A I 



d ftrong 

hollow Footftalks 

and have Leaves fomewhat refembling 
thofe of ~Jcer majtts, only much larger, more deeply laciniated and fnipt 
about the Edges. Ex alls foliorum come the Flowers, on none, or very 




yellow, hexap 

and pretty 



ter them follows a Fruit about the Bignefs of an ordinary Muskmelon 
fmaller towards the Footftalk, like a Pear in fome, tho' in others 

ther Fig 


utward Skin is fmooth, before it is 


green, when ripe, yellow 

a pretty large Cavity, in which 











the Infide of the Pulp, ftick the 
h Seed being as big as a Pea, black, having feveral 

Rifings and Impreffions on its Surface, and being 



tlear Bladder 
feveral PI 






fore being drefs'd, the Fi;uit be not fteep'd in Wa 
This is propagated irt China by the Leaf,'B<?> 

fully ripe, cut athwart, yields in 
thought very unwholefome if be- 


This Tree has always Flowers, young and ripe Fruit, the ripeft being 


. - 

It is planted and grows very fwiftly, a Seed being dropt any where 

into the Ground, and 


be near the Male 




It is eaten when ripe as a Melon, tho' in my Op 


pleafant Fi 


The more ordinary Qfe of th 

one's Fift 

help'd with. Pepper and Suga 




is before it is ripe, when as 

fbak'd in Water till the 

is out, and then boii'd and eat as Turneps 



[ : . 7 . Oil I 

Milk of the unripe F 

4. . 


bak'd as 

Lui i 


Hernandez, commended in the 



It is thought to be natural to the Weft-Indies and a Stranger in the 

Ea ft -Indies 


delta Fade, and I believe it may be fo, there being a 

lefTer Sort wild in the Woods oi Jamaica, which by Culture may have been 
improved to what we fee. Linfchoten fays it came from the Weft-Indies 
to the Philippine Ifles, and from thence to Goa 

. ;. s. , 


Tis Called Mamoera by the Portuguese, from its Refemblance to the 

Breafts of a Woma 


d from 


St 1 1 


The Stalks and Fruit are both preferv'd and fent over ai 
to Europe, and are faid by Ximenes to be very cooling and 

ufed for that Purpofe in the Hofpitals of New-Spain. 

Rochforth fecond Figure is the beft, his firft is fabulous 


Cordial, and 



fays this Fruit loofens the Belly 




* • fc. 


; i y- 

Saris ap. Pure has, lib. a 

PjrarJ, p 

in Potag 



in the 

*?6. met with this Tree ztCtimotrha 



where they eat the Fru 


being green. Njcjfe. ap, Purchds, lib. 6. cap 




S)\ . }*4 T»VVA< 

*• \ 


\ ' A 




^ » 


I take thefe Trees to be the Fig-Trees which bear Figs as big as 

Fift, yello\y within ancliof fmallTafte, obferved by w&nonymu* 

Portugal of Elvas> tap. 5. p. 9. and ap^Purchas, p<> 1 5 29. at St. Ja^oAn Cuba 

Layfield ap. Purchas. lib. 4./. 1172. tells us that they were good again ft 


Porto R 

Wtlfon fa w them ib.p. 1264, in Guiana 

Smith in 


the Summer-IJles, p. 171. planted there, being brought at firft 
from the Wejlrfndies* ib. 183. & p. 5 5. of his CM! he takes Notice of them 

St. Chriftophers, & p. 56. in Barbados,, 



kw them in Cape-Ferd-IJles. & 

d <rt 




**%»*'* f x 4* ldW L "cui 111 ^apt-ytra-ijies.a' p. 70. in 1 

the Tr«? was branched, and the Fruit was eaten as Turnep 

Barbados* where 










The Natural Hi/lory of JAMAICA. 


XXVI. Papaya major t flore & fruciu mhoribtis pediculis longis mfidentibHs. 

Cat. J, 


20 $ . Pepo arbor efcens Mas .feu flerilis. Hern. pa,r. Bat. pr. p. 361 

Papaia. Orient aiis Mas feu Jiertlis, Commel. cat, p. 261. 



The Male Paparv-T 

This Tree is in every thing the fame with the former, only the Flowers 

and a 


y together faften'd on a long and commo 

fo fruitful as the other 

very fweet fcented 

branch'd Foorftalk 


a (mail Fruit 




What was related to Clufnu tha 


Flowers _are both very jalie, for this hath a 


3 Fruit and the Fern 

ge Flow 

lie no 
Fruit, and the other 


Female T 

grew in Baifc 


Garden of Saladinw Artaf 

with Ch*giw\ and others mentioned by Tenant in a Lilt publifhed 

& 18, of his III or iaB 





Fruit hinders Gener 

Itch. Id 




nd is good again ft the 

• * 

XXVII. Papaya minor, fore & fruciu minor ib us pediculis curt is in ft dent i- 
bus. Cat* Jam.}, 203. Raij. Hi/i .Vol. 3. Dendr. p. 4. 



The Female Wild Papaw-Tree 

ck> sJ 


» # 

This Tree is in every thing the fame with the other whofe Fruit is eater* 
that 'tis no larger than a Wall nut, and the Leaves, Stalk, and 


Part of it are lefs 

Flowers without and with Footftalks 

tis alfo of two Sorts Male and Female 



it is common in all the Inland Woods of the Ifland 



1 H 

has the 

• ; 

^ * 

• * 







* - 

XX VIII. Papay Acinar, flare & fruciu minor thus pe died H loneis* 
bus. Cat. Jam. p. 20J. Raij. jjift. Vol. 3. Dendr. p. 4. \ 

. 1 




* \ 

The Male Wild Pap aw- Tree 


• v 

;iT c 

£3i a 

■ » 



This Tree grows with the former from 


hich it differs 


as that of the Gardens, or which is planted 

nly in the 




f 4 I 

! ,; 

XXIX. Anona maxima, foliislatis fplendevtibus, fruttu maxima viridi co 
12%'J? ***'"/** fP"*to i«»o<embus. affera. Cat. Jam. p. 20 {. Raij 

Hip. KoL p Qendr. p. 77. TaJb. 22c 

4»*»* Commelin. Hart. Amft 

JiumHtrmfPicwRulJcb & ■ K#g*l ur 0h$ & E u »d em m 

h r 


e 'virt 

lutefcente moHiter aculeato 




**-*,..» - Plum. pi. Am. p. aj > •-■■■PriM 

Cuttard, Apple from Bukion* John Tradtftam! ? . 55. F Ar^Jte 

Worn^ m .p,m.- Ja£M 2^m. lit\o&Tl>evLt.p. 20? Mi^l 

fin & frrop. pzxcoii LicU Nievhofp.vo^ Ma* Y*U Bojm. I * N 



'. !£ Jdsuoid J 


O'f r 

ft' i v 

Sowr-fep Tw 

. I <* 

I ' I 


! ^ I 






• V \ r 


i »nv\nwZ. 

twenty Foot high, be 




twI^V^w H * l^tK bigger fan one's Thigh, rifmg tfo «Fte^oV 
thick, and redjwahlh. Thia tt**o u in! ~ ^fa^L^A u.,. u_. «"l^> 

thick, and red|»«hin 

li^oh it, 



Th*s Ti«e is not much fpread, but has Br t fn 





The Natural Hifioryqf JAMA I C A. £ .j 6 

on every Hand, fending out here and there Twics befer «,,», . 
alternately towards their End, they have Foot^Iks an V vuf^ 

an Inch long, are three Inches and a half in Ten * h I/ 8 " 1 °! 
and a half broad near the End, W here Ladeft; & re S5 VoS 

fli.mng, very green, and when rub'd or bruis'd betw^n rf.'- v ' 
fmcll not unpleafantly. On the Branches h re nScic fe 
Flowers on j qrs. of an Inch long Footftalfe; there appear at firft th e 
green Leaves, then three yellowifh ereen thick- P,t,i,\Z\J f 

rough, green y -or Knob, 1 i ke £ SSSn 5 fcfc* & ptfc Leavt' 
falling, encreafes by Degrees till it comes to be a very large Fr^^ 

as big as one's two Fifts, being turbinated, of an 

large towards the Footftalk, ^^ZTtZi-^^ 
green on the Out-fide, and cover'd with^everal Sj pointed Knob] 
or Tubercles, blunt and foft ; the Skin is thin, and when ripe the 

£*$"»!! 1S ■ as ,5 >ft as Cuftards > bein S *«** "icy, of a fow? and 


I Z I 1' a \ I m ' ' T, Ca '" lng ma ."y 0blon S' round ' ,b > brown S= C u S , a 

little flat, Aiming, and having within them a white Kernel of the fame 

It is propagated by the Seed in Jamaica and the Caribes ■ 

r^AcVl aie a r, yet r ripe ' and abou£ the Kgne6 of'Turiieps, if 

lo drelsd, they eat like them.f •-» • M • ■ v t • 

j. The, Fruit from its Tafte is recfeon'd one of ' their pleafanteft 

Fruits, it is cooling, and if a whole tone be eaten it y hu._ 

o faith. . . *V\cI * 



Of the unripe Fruit prefs'd is made a Wine which is as clear as Water 
d is good for Fluxes and Cankers in Chiidrens Mouths 


e Wood is not very ftrbng. 

e Leaves infus'd according to Vif 0> or burnt and mix'd with 
according to Mtrcgr. being rubb'd upon an Apofteme, ripens, opens and 
heals it. r 

C B. did not well to make this the fame with Duriones^ 

If this be Lici, it as well as the following, are kept feverai Days by 

nnHinn rsr% tharr* Gilt- Wnt-.M' T3 *i * / 

g on them Salt Water, Boym. >> 

* • 

An Anonymm Portugal obferved this Fruit?, in Braftle Purchas Lib. 7 

1. p. 1307. and Ltgonp. $8. & 70. faith ic<-taftes like a mufty Melon 

and is fliaped like an Ox's Heart. 1 fi ,33. m 

XXX., ^m mAxim* % foliis. obUngis angttftis, fruttu maximo luteo coftorde 

gUbro in areola dittincio. Cat. Jan. p. 204. Tab. 226. Rvj Hift. 

Vol.^. Dendr. p. 77. Anon A idafpecies, Ruyfch & KJggelaer. Obff. inhort 
Jmft. />. 13$. Avon* Steerbetk cttrk. p. 201. An Guanabanm frutta aa* 
& molltter acuhato. Plumier pi. Am. p. Ah ] Araticuape. Worm.muf. 

%6>Xachimem deBoutonp. 6j. L«5^^. %w. //^. £. ? Thevenot.p, 201 r° 

'/" .• vo »no .1 ,! i( '10 : fix ijcin 

io rbnuU bslni ti 

.' •. ■- 

4 ^ 

T^ C»^4^ Apple-Tree. 

Oil ,'/ L I 

This Tree is larger in every Part than the former, ^the Branched art; 
more fpread, the Bark is fmooth and grey, the Leaves are longer, being 

five Inches long and one broad m the Middle, wherePbroadeit, : and 
trough'd or hollow ; the Flowers are longer, the Fruit bigger, of a 
deep yellow or Orange Colour, when ripe, the Membrane covering, 
it has* jffiiny Ums raised fmd deprefs'd in it, making its Surface 
divided into many Are^ the Pulp is for Colour, Confiftence and fweet 
lfh Tafte like al Cuftard, whence the Name, and the Seeds are 1* _:_, 
oblong, deprefs'd and fhining, like thofe of the Sowr-lop only much 
fmatter and blacked t t Ugon 

168 The Natural Hi/lory of T A MA I C A. 

Ligo» % p. n,dr 14 obrcrved this Fruit at Cape-Verd-Ljles, &f.Jt. ill 
Barbados, where they eat it with Spoons. 

\ i 

They ripen the Fruit, by letting it lie after gathering, as Medlars. 

It grows in the Plains or Savanna's every where, if planted, 'i&Jkmics 

and the C&ribes. 

It is thought a very delicious Fruit. 


It begets Wind and bad Humors, the Seeds flop Fluxes, Herm. 

The Spaniards born in the W '.Indies called Crollos efteem this Fruit 
jch faying that either this or the preceding are a natural Cuftard, j 

much fa > 

It grows in New-Spain 


J CO ft A, 

They breed Wind, Laet. The Seeds flop Loofeneffes. id. 

The Sprouts refift Poyfons. Nieremb. 

It was a Stranger in Malabar, and ferves for the fame Ufes with the 

following. H. M. 

The Fruit is dry and hot, fpoils the Liver, caufing Inflammations 

and Heats in the Face. Tertre. 

It clears the Stomach of tough Humours, Rochef. 

XXXI. Anona, foltis odoratis minoribus, fructti conoide fquammofo parvo 
duici. Cat, Jam. P. 205, Tab. 227. Ratj Hift. Vol. ?. Dendr. />. 77. Gua 

banm fruftu Jubc*ruleo Plum. pi. Am. p. 43. Anon* ^t a f pedes Ruyfch & 

Kjoaelaer nott; in Comm. Hort. Am/h p. 134. An Guyjant fruclusfquam 

forma trochi Bafil Befler fqfe. ? An arbor infuU JamAicenfis, G 

hvd foliis & fdcie, forte Guititoroba Brafilienfiu?n. Marcgr. Steen*Appk 
Belgis, Plukenet, Almag. p 7 42. Pbytogr. Tab. 267. Fig. 2 ? ^f* Tat* Boym 
lit. N. Jonft. Dendrolog. ^476 ? ThevewU p.*!? An Melenken. Thevet 

I. B. t. 1. p- 264. C. B. 507 ? Prickle-Apple of India of Hubert p. jc?. 

» Vim bn£ Si " 10 . . - V ::: ' 

Tie Srveet-fop-Tree, 

* k. * 

This Tree rifes to about twenty Foot high, having a ftreight 
Trunc* as big as ones Thigh, cover'd with a grey, fmooth, Bark on 
the Outfide, red within, c " having Branches fpread on every Hand' 

towards the Top, whofe Twigs are thick fet with Leaves which are 

oval in Shape, very fmooth, of a yellowifh green Colour and fmelling 
fweet, whence fome would have this. Tree to be that from whence 
Benzoin comes. The Flowers are made up of three long triangular 
thick Petala. whofe Outfides are greeriifh, but within are of a Cream 

Colour, or of a yellowifh white, with a white, round, rough Stylus] 

or Rudiment of the Fruit, which, when the Petal a fall, augments till 
it is as big as one's Fift, of ^a turbinated or conoi'd Figure, bigger at 
the Footftalk's End, and decreafing to its \rcund End, having feveral 
oblong, jround Knobs, as big as the End of one's little Finger, grow^ 
ing Scale-fafhion, or imbricatim, one over another, like a carv'd or 
painted Bunch of Grapes of a yellowifh green. Colour firft, afterwards 
bluifh, cover'd over with a whitifh Hoarinefs or Meal like that on 

Sloes^or Plumbs, containing a fweet Pulp arid feveral Seeds lying 


g n lt .^rows in the Low Lands, or Sayanna's. h. r - fli ' 

p -THis Fruit is i|ot fo much coveted as others of this Kind. 

^Ws brought from XhzManhiUs and Philippines to Malabar, 6rft by 

the<$f^ hy the Portuguefe. The Leaves 

heat.en,j put dng Salt to them^/nake; arjpptiltefs whkh put on malignant 
Tumors powerfully ripens tfyefp. Th^jUnfipe.FiniiiJboiPd with a little 
Gifjger in fair Water, ciire^the Vertigo ^ lC U bns b )h <gm 

Tlie Fruit wlien ripe cools and is laxative, H. M. - ' XXXIL 

The Natural Hiftory of J A M A I 


1 60 

XXXIL Anon a aqudtica fdliis Uurinis atrovirentibus, fruBu minore 

wide luteo, cortice glabro in areoUs diJtincJo 

Cat. J 



p. 205. Tab. 228 

Raij Hist. Vol. $. Dendr. p. 78. An Anon* $a [pedes Ruyfch & 

tr OhfT. in J-fnrt- Amih it t t t ? Av/ttiru r>/iv)/t W/\v*n m.r +> - — 

KJggelair. Obff. in Hort. Atnfl 


Guanabanus pauluftris fructu Uvi viridi Plum, pi. Am. p. ult 

Araticu pan a Worm, muf.p. 187 

\ttm it I, Am. it ult ? 

The Water- Apple, 

or, Stveet-Apple-Tree. 

This Tree 


40 Foot, having a T 


Middle, (freight, cover'd with a rough, grey colour'd Bark, and fome few- 

Branches, whofe Twigs are fet with Leaves ftandingon a quarter of an 
Inch long Footftalks, they are 4 Inches long, and one and a half broad in 
the Middle, where broadeft, being fhaped like thofe of the Bay, fmooth, 

dark green 

d and hard. The Fruit 



and bringin 
is left in the Fr 

fome of the Pulp 


one's Fift 


ke a Sowr-fop, hanging to the Tree by an Inch long Foot/talk 


when ripe, fo that a Hole 

the outward Skin is rirft green, then yellow, fmooth 

iy it hath fome checquer'd Lines on its Surface, as the Cuftard- Apple 

Seeds lie from the Centre to the Circumference of the Fr 


ana are as 

a Bean 


lmoft round 

large as 

favoury Tafte, tho' it has fbmething 

be efcuient. 1 


their Lengths, lying in an Orang 



n Afh Colour, having a 

_ ; colour'd Pulp of an un- 

of the Smell and Relifh of an 


11 r^n 

It grows plentifully at and above the Bridge over Black-River in St 
Doroth/s, where I gather'd the ripe Fruit in 

The Country People could fay nothing of it but that it was edible 

and called 



or. S 





Marcgrave fays that this Fruit is venomous, and Pifo y that if it be eaten 

Quantity, it fufTocates the natural Heat, and . that this 

in too 

Difeafe- is to be cured as that 




or the J 






fhe Fruit is fo venomous as to kill Crabs 

This, Dr. Plukenet,p. 14. of his Mant. thinks m 
Anchovie Pear-Tree. defcrib'd/>* 122 of this Book 

1, 2. but 'tis plain they difFen ^ - 


it. Red 

ff » 

Dr. Plukenet,p. 14. of his Mant. thinks may be the fame with 


Tab. 2 1 6, '& 



, w .217. 





• ■% * K % W 



~,\S *U 

V k 

\- fc 

XXXIII. Anon a trifolia, pre Jlamineo, frutfu fpharico ferrugineo fcabro 



Cat. Jam. p. 

Rain Hift. Vol 


Pomifera Indica trifolia 9 fructu pruniformi caudato. Raij. Hift 
Tapia Braftlienfium fimilis. Commel. in Nott- Arbor Americana tr'iphyll 
merofis jtaminults+ purp 




\picibus praditis ftoris umbilicum occupant ibus 

P Men .Tab. 147. Fig. 6? AnHeder* Virginian* triphjUa auodamodo 


cede ns arbor Jamaicenfis. ejufdemiAlmag. p. 1 8 1 


rborea tr'tpbyll Am. p. 22. Malm Americana trifolia 9 frutlu fomi aurantij in- 
fiar color at Arach Simmer on vulgo. Commel in. Hort^A^ft.°p. u 

Acacy nappil aur&ntiis par vis fimilis frutfus. L B 

v. 1 nft vtti i 


p. 806 



■4 ^r 


1 > : t 



"* * 


J > iJi 



The Gdrlick Pear-Trie 

oJ v 


i. * 

. • 



* - 





Tree has 


: .?l ' 



• C 

* % 

thick as one's Thigh, cover'd with 

II 1 M 


O. ilia, 1'^uaaa nuut dJ UUtiV <t5 UlIC S X lllgll, ^UVCr U Willi's 

greenifh Bark^ rifing ,to about thirty Foot ; the Tree is for 

Months bare altogether, or naked ; the Flowers bud 

the Ends of the 

firft round 

ftanding on two Inches long Footftalks, con 

filling? for the moft Part' of many greenifh Inch long Stamina 


U u 





The Natural Hijiory of J A M A I C A 

—■ * ■ 

purple Apices fa ft en ed 

to which follows a Fi 

ind a Stylus of the fame Length and Colours 
Handing on a two or three Inches long Foot 

ftalk perfectly fpherical, of the Bignefs of a Tennis Ball : It has wi 





gh Rind, a mealy Pulp like that of 


ke Garlick, whence the Name, near 

fweetifh, fmel 

black, fhining, large Seeds, like thofe of the Sowr-fop 

i a ^ai, iwcetiij], lmci- 

Centre are placed many 

The Leaves 







three Inches long Footftalk, each of which is four Inches long 
two broad in the Middle, where broadeft, fmooth, thick, of 
green Colour, fet on to the Stalk 


the famecom- 









Jamaica and Barbados 

eighth of an Inch long Peti- 
Shape refembhng the Lobe of one of the winged Elder- 

the low Land, or Savanna Woods in 

grows very commonly in 

They are eaten by Way of DeiTert and for Pleafure, tho* they are 

not very delicious. 

If Swine be fatten'd with them, they communicate their Smell of 

Garlick to the Flelh 

The bruis'd Leaves 
Pain and are cooling ; the fame put 


ach caus'd from Heat. Psft 

the Amu, cure its Inflammations, eafe 
into the Ears take away the Head- 

It grows in Malabar, the Juice of the Leaves taken in Linen 

ply'd to 

lngui#a, is diuret 



Ifo the Fruit bruis'd mix'd with 

Salt Camphire and the Faces of Cats appiy'd the fame Way. The Bark 
fteep'din Water and boii'd in Milk and Jefamine Oil, with long Pep- 
per and Ginger till the Moifture is gone, makes a liniment which 
is good for cold Tumors ; the Seed boil'd with the Infufion of Rice 
and mix'd, (being brmsM) with Buuer, ripens aud foftens Abfceffes. 





l£ 1 / 



on ; m 


XXXIV. Anona* 





_ , foliis fubtm ferrugfnevt, frullu rotunda ma} are, Isvt 

purpareo, Jemme nigro, partm rugofo, partim glabro. Cat. Jam. p. 206. Tab 

229. Raij 

Vol. ^.D^r.f.jjd. Guwabanus fruBm purpurea. Plum 

Am.p.\y Arbor Jamaiceufis Uun fol 



u-p~"<'""r' f»v* /ww, ^w* part* typr*] expoiift colon 
fuafifandice Hnttif. Shryfodendros America**, Pluken. p. 4* 

quoad titulum. The Star Apple-Tree of D ampler, cap, 7. Qaimito folio iub 
tus aureo, fruftu malijormu Plum. pi. Am. p. 10. 

Plum. pi. Am . p 

• ■\ 


. • 









The St** Apple-Tree 


This Tree h$% a Tnmsvpf a, Fpot Diameter, having a yeddifli browa 

Bark, and nfing to 30 or 40 Foot high, with Branches and Twigs fpread 

on every Hand, hanging down and reaching almoft toths Ground j tht 
Leaves come alternatively qui; of the Twigs, have half an inch long 

Footftalks, they are five Inches long and two broad in the Middle, where 

broadeft, fmooth, and of a dark greeen, fhining Colour on the uppe* 

Side of the Leaf, tfee und^r feeing of a fueille morte, or rufty ferrugineous 

Colour, ihining, and exaSly like Sattin, in Beaut 
much beyond any Leaf I ever beheld. Ad alas foliorum 




great many purplifh, round, 

fwsujem Pet4*y and Stamp*, %q which Mows a "purple' Fruit* fmooth 

fmall Flowers, confifting each of five fmall 

*ound,Ukea large ?ippin,or 4ppJ 


9 a I'ui^uv. iiuii, iuiuuuif 

whitifb, fometimes purple 

Pulp like Jelly, wi* fcve-ral milky Veins running thro' it, fweet and 
piealant enough, enclofing round the Centre of the Fruit fome black, 

»wing> rhwbQidal Seeds, having a white SchTure or SUi on one of 

> •-, 




■ — ^^^"^^^^^b^MM^^m — _ _ ■ _ 

#& JVtf artf /7//?ory qfJAMAICA. 171 


their Edges, always regarding the Centre, bigger than thofe of 

eras, each of which is inclos'd in a thin, white Membrane. If the 

Fruit be cut athwart the Places where the Seeds were lode'd win ™ 
P ^ f ?i C a r ta [' W u en ^ e , the Name as weI1 ma 7 be derived, as from 

the likenefs that the Pulp has to what is called, Fallen-Star-Tellv 

doth not grow here fponte % but the Seeds are dropt as thofe of o 

ther Fruit Trees, and by them propagated, they thriving very well 

and growing without any farther Care * * 

ufed by Way of Deffert as other Fruits, is not 

- , . - , — , -.«~j, is not very mwa- 

fant, and is thought from fome Signatures, and Similitudes to be 
very much provoking to Venery. 

The Fruit is fmall in the Ifles, on the Continent it is as large as a Tennis 
Ball (as all I ever fa w were) in other things they are alike, being whole- 

fame, and o* good Digeftion. Many are fold in Sto. Domingo in the Seafon : 
Ore limber is ftrong and good to work upon, if it be not ufed before 
It is leafon'd, or when too green, Oviedo. 

They grow in Peru, Laet. and in the Ifles about Panama. Damfier* 
Ravenaude Luffan p. 45. found this Tree in the pleafant Ifles of the 

South-Sea in the Bay of Panama 

Dr. Pluhnet has confounded tbiSj the Sapaditla and feveral other Trees 

XXXV. Am»a, folik hurhnis glabris, virUrfufcis, fruttu minor e rotunda 
vmdi-fUva, ftabro, femimbw fufcis, fptendentibus, fiffura alba, not at is. Cap. 

Jam. p. 206. Tab. 2 jo. Raij. Hijt.Vol. }. Dendr. p. 7$. Sapadilloe-Tree 
Of Damfkr tap. 7. A : \ t t r 

mi f n. 


t * 

The Nafetxrfr I e. Mtjpih* Htfc and iri Pdrtuguef^ Nefperia, or 

3 s 

rt *~i r Y f 



This Tree rifeth up with a ftreight Trunc, cover'd with a dark 

brown Bark, having fome Sulci in it towards the Bottom* to about 

thirty Foot high j its Branches rife freight up likewife, the Ends 
the Twigs inclining downwards, being very thick fet 


they ftand on Inch long Footftalks, are. four Inches Ion 
and a half broad, where broaden^ fmooth, thin, fhining, an 

dirty green Colour; the Flowers come out at the . Ends of the 

Twigs, many together, every one having its diftinft three quarter* 

of an Inch long Footftalk, on, which arc fix pale gfeen Leaves, 

and one round, white, monopetalous Bell-flower, fweilins in the Mid 

die and growing lefs towards the Top like the Flowers of Arb 

or Ltliium Convallium % having green. Stamina, to which fucceds a Fruit 

the Bignef$ and Colour of an ordinary Ruflfeting- Apple, being round \ its* 

Skin is rough, having within a fweet, brownifh, juicy Pulp, wjieri 

ripened with lying, feveral fmooth, black Seeds, fhining, with a white 

"'it on one Edge, -and "within it a pretty hardshell, containing a white 


The whole and all Parts of this Tree, the Wood excepted, are milky, 
and the Fruit- it felf when Tree ripe, is fo full of Milk, as to drop out 
plentifully when gjather'd. and if it be cut there appear little Rills or 

Veins of Milk, quite thro* the Pulp, and then 'tis fo acerb and ungrate 
fully aaftere, as to draw the Mouth together, and therefore is not $Q 

be eaten till rotten as Medlars 



1 7 2 The Natural Hiflory of ) A M A 1 C A. 

main Co 

They grow on an Ifland near Campecbe 
in feveral Places, where they afford Meat for Monkies and Tygers, but 

here in Jamaica none grow but what are planted by Seed, and that 

. _th Difficulty, being to be taken Care of by the beft Soil brougl 
from under Bail ard- Cedar-Trees. Concerning the Reafon of which, fee 
the Defcription of 

Their greateft Ufe is by Way of Deffert as other Fruits, they com 

mending themfelves fufficiently to all Pallats by their grateful Tafte 

Ravenau de Luffax, p. 45. and Dampier found this Tree in the pleafant 

Ifles by Panama in the South-Sea. 

Dr. Plukenet Tab. 269. Fig* 3. Aim. p. 45. figures fome other Tree 

for this, perhaps one of the Plumb-trees before deicrib'd- 

XXXVI. Anon* maxima, foliis laurinis glabris viridi fufcis, frutlu mi- 
nimo rotundo viridi flavo, jeminibus fujcis y fplendentibus, fiffurd alba not*- 

tis. Cat. Jam. p. 206. Tab. 169. Fig. 2. Raij. HiJK frl. $. Dendn 


The Buflj-Tree. 

This, which is of the fame Kind with the Nifperas, only a larger 

Tree and fmaller Fruit, has a Trunc as big as an Oak, and nietri 
much higher, having a Bark of a light brown Colour, very rough, 
with very deep Furrows in it ; the Brandies, which are many, arc 
at their Ends befct with a great many Leaves without any Or- 
der, each of which has an Inch long Foctftalk, is four Inches long 

_nd two broad, of an oval Shape, green Colour, being fmooth, thin and 
dry, having from one middle Rib feveral tranfverfe . ones. The Fruit 

comes among the Leaves upon Inch long Footftalks, they are round 
about the Bignefs of a Nutmeg, having their outward Skins rough 
like thofe of the Nifpera, or Ruffeting, to which in Colour they are 

like : The Pulp is fir it auftere, but after lying, fweet* and has with 

in it a great many oblong, comprefs'd, black, fhiniag Seeds, with a 
white Ed^e, Slit, or Fiffure, exadly like that of the Nifpera "*' 

in every thing ferg 

** • '4 ♦ 

: I 

It is" one of the largeft Trees in the mountainous Woods of this 



I 1 

The Timber is of great Ufe for making of Shingles to cover 

Houfes, for which it is very proper 

The Fruit is eaten, and is not unpleafant. 




is one of the beft and ftrongeft. Timber Trees in the llflands 


its J 


Ql I I . • ■ — 

iTV . 

It is not pleafant unlefs macerated in Water thereby to "part with 

r I 

4. fpeaksof it in thsCape-Ferde-lJleSjand Barbados, p. 41 
where he' fays that it affords good Timber, and p. 73. that the Fruit 
is tike a Bullace. 


Arbor cucurbitifera Americana folio fubrotnndo. Raij Hift 

206. Arbor 1 cucurbitifera Americana, folio longo % mucronato % 
fruttu oblongo, ,Commel. Hort. Jmft. p. 137. toutou Lagenaria arbor In- 
* * frutlu cucttrbitino tumido & amplo e trunco enafcens, Surtan. Tfboa* 

Lagenaria arbor altera, frutlu minor e, quo Indi loco difci utuntur, Ej 

Cujete foliis oblongis & anguftis, magno frutlu ovafo. Plum. fLJm.f 


The Natural Hiftory oj JAMAICA. 173 

Chtyfte. Steerbtck. citric, p. 2O4. An Cucurbitifera Arbor Americana folio 

lonop mucronAto frutfu orbicularis grams cor diformibus , pulpa mora involu 
tis. Plukemt. Tab. 1.7 i. Fig. if A great Maraca 2i Fruit of India of Hu 
bert.p. 37- An another Sort of Maraca. JLji ib. p. 38 f 

The Cdlabafi-T, 

• • 

This Tree rifeth to twenty, or, twenty five Foot high* having a Tru 

as thick as one's Thigh, cover'd with a whitilh fmooth Bark, with 
fome Knots here and there, and many Branches going out on every 
Hand towards the Top, in a pleafant and regular Manner- The 
Leaves come out on the Branches by Tufts, at about an Inch's Di- 
ftance one from the other, the Twigs being there fomewhat knot- 
ty, 6r having a Protuberance, out of which go feven or eight Leaves 

without any Footftalks ; they begin narrow and enlarge by Degrees till 
within an Inch of the Top, and then {heighten till they end in a blunt 
Point* being three Inches long, and one and a third broad near the 
Top, where broadeft, having one Middle Rib and feveral tranfverfe 
ones, being of a very dark green Colour, fmooth and fhining : The 
Flowers come out either from the Body of the Tree or from the Branches, 
having an Inch long, green, round Footftalks, and two capfular Leaves, 
inciofing a greenifh yellow, dirty coloured, monopetalous, difform 
Flower, an Inch and a half long, the Edges of which are very much 
herniated and fpeckled, with brownifli Streaks, or Veins, containing 
within it four Stamina and one Stylus of the fame Colours with the 

Flower. The Fruit varies in Bignefs and Figure, being fometim 

t •" 

perfectly fpherical, at other Times oval, for the molt Part as big. 'as 
one's two Fifts, having an outward, almoft fmooth, greenifh, pale 
yellow Skin, under which is a very hard Shell, thicker than a new 
mill'd Shilling, which is full of a white, or pale yellow ilh coloured 
Pulp, foft, of a tartifh fweet and unfavory Tafte, fmelling not 
unpleafantly, through which lie every where interfperfed, a great 
ma,ny Seeds fhaped like a Heart, brownifh, flatter and lefs than 
thofe of the Citrull Seeds, containing within its Skins, a thin Pulp or 


...-.- • n 

grows every where in the Savanna's and Woods of Jamaica, and 

j 1 j 

4 *; 

„.Irt Scarcity of Grafs by Drought, Cattle feed on this Fruit fallen 
off the Boughs, or the Trees are then v cut down on Purpofe 
that they may feed on both the Fruit and the Leaves, in which 
Time it is thought they give a Tafte to the Milk, nay even 
to the Flefh of every Creature feeding on them; from thence 'tis 

a common Phrafe, that fuch Milk or Flefh taftes of the Calabafb 

but this is a Miftake, for that Tafte comes from another Plant, 
viz. Guiney Hen-weed, on which, being green, and nourifh'd by its deep 

and long Roots, Cattle feed in the like Seafons. , 6J3 ^ 

A Gentleman related to me that he once faw a Horfe, which biting this 
Fruit in Order to eat it, had fo faften'd his Jaws in it, that he could 



never open them, but died in the Woods for Hung 

This Fruit roafted and apply'd, being fplit, to any Apofteme, is 

thought to ripen it very fpeedily. [ 

The great red Wood- Ants eat Holes into this Fruit when ripe, and 
fallen, feeding on the Pulp, and laying therein their long yellowifh or 
reddifh white coiour'd A Egg 

a IT 



174 Tbe Natural Hijlory of JAMAICA 

The Shell of this Fruit, the Pulp and Seeds being taken out, is made Ufe 
of for Cups, Spoons, and all other Indian Houfhold-Goods. according ttf 

their various Shapes, the round chiefly for Cups, and the oval or long Sort 
for Spoons. They are generally made without any great Labour, only 
when they would do fomething extraordinary, they cut on them, after 
a rude Manner, ftrange Figures of Beafts, &c. without any other De- 
fign than that of Ornament. 

The Indians wanting Goldfmiths, thofe that work Tin, &c, are 

fitted with this Fruit to fupply their Places. It cures Burns, and Pains of 
the Head proceeding from Heat. The beft Way is to boil it to get out 

the Pulp. Tertre. 

It cures Third in Hunters, but flops up the Belly. Rochef. 

The unripe Fruit is candied with Sugar, Jottft* 

The pulp is eat candied with Sugar, when not ripe, it is as good in 
Fevers as Citruls ; apply'd as a Poultefs to the Head and Temples it cures 
theHead-ach which comes from the Heat of the Sun. Pifo. 

In Time of Scarcity the Indians eat this Fruit for Food, but the 
great Ufe of it is to make Cups and VefTels to drink out of, called Tb- 
comatesy efpecially for Chocolate. Xim. Cluf 

The Balfam of Tolu is always gather'd in thefe fmall Calabafhes, 
whence I believe it to be the third Fruftus orbicularis, Cluf. p. 30. 

The Shells of this Fruit were made Ufe of by the Canibals in their 
Conjurations, being empty'd of their Pulp and, fill'd with Stones or 
Maix, adorn'd with Feathers, ftuck into the Ground by Handles faften'd 
to them, and when handled by their Paygi or Conjurers, after their having 
taken Tobacco, were faid to return them their Anfwers. Thevet. Cluh 

The Wood is firm, fit to make Stools, Saddles, &c. Oviedo. 

This Fruit being pierced, hollow'd in the Middle, and fmall Stones 

, « uu uuaii oiuiicj, 

or great Millet, or Matz, put into it, thrufting into it a Stick of a Foot 
and a half long, makes an Inftrument called Maraca, with which, the 
Indians, holding it in their Hands, make a ftrange Noife. This being 
adorn'd with Feathers is ufed by them in their Religion, to make the 
Spirits fpeak. They fometimes fmoke Tobacco, and would fmoke the 
Faces ot the Indians, telling them to receive the Spirit of Force, where- 
by they may overcome their Enemies. The Maraca with three or four 
fine Feathers, is by its Handle planted in the Ground among the Houfes, 
and the People are order'd to carry Meat to it, and after they have 
ftay'd fourteen or fifteen Days with Meat and Drink carried bv the 

Inhabitants, they arc thought to have received fuch a Virtue that on 
ratling them a Spirit fpeaks by them, and that it makes their Roots 
for Food to grow. Lerj 


Every Houfe has two, or three of them ; the Indians think that the 
Toupan fpeaks by them, and they adore nothing elfe. They make Vef- 

fels for Ufe, Thcvet. 

There are feveral Kinds, or Varieties of this, as* 

Arbor Cucubitifera fruffu wait 

* - 

M I 



Arbor Cucubitifera fruclu oblongo. 

Arbor Cucubitifera JrucJu maxtmo, bumani Capitis magmtudinem, exct 



* I "^ * »r- 


The Seeds Macoquer produced a Gourd, and fo Clufius was mi 

making this and the Macoquer all one, Laet 

The Bay of Honduras was called Htbuer*s firft, from Gourds floating 




The Natural Hiftory of J A M A I C A. 





The Ind 

fted, flops th 


carve them fometimes with Lines 

Belly and Bleeding, Lm 

Man's Head 





Hubert was mifinform'd 


the Su 

hen he was 


Zt ?!u y 'J n * mean ? this b Y his other Sore of Marl] 

Tree, which I take to be this Tree, only with a leffer Fruit 

%,,cce perforate con Pietre dentro, cbe e C infirumento delle lor Major Me & 
» le cavanofe mem per Mare o per medicare m e alcuno che lUrJlL Z. 

Li are in rnanofe non e/Jt 

dal cieloperche in quel paefi (Florida) 

~m, * u ft, fffcware ne e aicuno che I' arc 

dicono che quelle Troche hanno virtu & ch 

Pardifca p 

non che portano i ft 
Ramnus. a p. Purchas 

, ^ ^r^w mww ^^ WWW UtW"'^ 

ifce y ne fanno onde vengano, j 

yuan do vengono groffi Alvaro Nunez 


r , r - . , - by which . 

tor the fame Purpofes in Braftle and Florid 

appears that they are 

? 2 4 



Hughes, p 6 5 . tells us that the Fruit fmells like Wine, and that the T 
drank by fome : the Shells make Toharm fw< r„nc f., a*Zi 


Ligon p. 14. found th 


other Liquors, and Dram-Bottles 

Tobacco Boxes. Cups for drinking 


in the Cape-Verde-ty 


and p 


This is the Courge creufe de la quelle eft fait P inftrument apelle Maraco de 

mcbot dfic. Amer. cap. it. mpni-innM «v> rrr^t,; :~ d--/:/- 

Linfchot drje. A 

The M 

he Shells 

s a Tnb 



that 1 
were z 

Nicol. ap. Purchas i lib. 6 

Ifland of St a. Lucia. 

Chronicle publifhed by Purchas 

grow in Brafil 


takes notice 

is Fruit, out of which they drank their Cacao 

the Mexicans from the Towns of their hoe 


p. i2j5.obferv'd this Tree in the 

This Fr 

is likewife the Z^che feche mention'd 

empty Water from Canoes by Col. f. 

XXXVIII. Cucurbitifera fruticofa trifolia fcandens: 



two to 

Raij. Hip. Vol, 3. Dendr. p. 82. 

Cat. "Jam. 


This Tree has a woody, round Stem, cover'd with 

a fmooth, light 


brown coloured Bark, rifmg and turning round the higheft Trees, put- 
ting forth here and there on the fame Footftalk always three Leaves 
which are fmooth, of a frefh green Colour, long and narrow : the' 
Fruit is exadly like a Calabafh, only fmaller. 

It grew on the Trees, in a Wood in the Road between Tuftice Free 

man s and Mrs. Guy\ in Guanaboa. 

XXXIX. Cucurbitifera arbor forte, rhamni facie fpinofa, foliis oblong 
"ifertm nafcentibus. Cau Jam. p. 207. Tab. 22~ 

3. Dendr. p. 8 

2. Raij. Hift. Vol 



Shrub rifeth by feveral Truncs, each about the Bignefs of 

Arm, from the fame Root ; they are ftreight, nine or ten 

d with 

Foot high, and 

Twigs Handing ftreight 

y fmooth, white Bark, having feveral Branches and 


of a fmall Frotuber 

the Branches have Tufts of Leaves com 

fmaller. at 


as thofe of the Calabafh-Tree, 

. Inch's or lefe Diftance on the Twigs or Branches, each 

being almoft an Inch long, and three quarters of one broad near the 

End, where they are round and broadeft, fmooth, of 

Colour, the Twigs ufually end after an Inch and a half's 

yellowifh green 

Prickles, whence 

a Number of them the Shrub feems prickly 

Length, in 

iwww, w iivuwv uy A iNuinDcr ui inem tne anruo leems pricKiy. 

It grew in a Wood, between the Town Savanna and two M 





1 7 6 The Natural Hiftory o/JAMAICA. 

XL. Cucu.bitifera arbor forte, foliis fubrotundis confer tim nafcentib 

mulorum extrtmttatibus tumidis. Cat. Jat/t.p.soS. Tab. 228. Fig. $. Raij 

Hift.Dendr.Vol. J./>.8 

This was a lais>e Tree, having many Branches divided into T 


fet oppofite to one another, cover'd with a fmooth, white Bark, und< 
which was a hard Wocd, the Twigs always obferve a Dichotomia, an 
h^veat their Ends a crooked Swelling of about a third of an Inch long, 
twice as big as the other Part of the Twig, rough, and of a black- 
_{"h Colour, out of which come about three Leaves landing in a 1 ufr, 
each having a quarter of an Inch long Pootftalk. They are about an 


Inch and a half long, and three Quarters of one broad near the fu 
End, where broadeir, where they end round, beginning narrow, and in- 
creasing thither, being thin, of a yellowifh green Colour, and fome- 
what like the Leaves of the Calabaih-Tree. 

I found it in a Wood near St. Cbriftopber*s Cove, not far from the Ru- 
ins of the old Town of Stviid, in the North Side of the Ifland of 'Ja- 

XLI. Cucurbit if era arbor forte, foliis oblongis integris acuminata ; confer tim 

fcentibus. Cat. Jam p. 208. Tab. 169. Fig. 3. Raij Hifi. Vol 

The Branches of this Tree were flreight, cover'd with a fmooth 

white Bark, und 

d white Wood. It had feveral Tw 


{landing oppofite to one another, on which, at upwards of an Inch's 
Diftance, came Leaves in Tufts likewife fet oppofite to one another, they 
had a quarter of an Inch long Footftalks, were about an Inch and a half 
long, and near an Inch broad in the Middle, where broadeft, being 
narrow at the Beginning, and pointed at their Ends, (hining, fmooth, and 
fomething like the Leaves of the Calabalh-Tree. Ex alts Fdliorum 
come on Footftalks, which; are fhort and fmall, long Flowers (land- 
ing in a fmall Periantbium of little Leaves. . 

I found it 111 the North-fide of this Iiland, in St. Jnne\ Parifh. 

h I 

* 1 

XLII. Cucurbit if era arbor forte, foliis oblongis integris confertim nafcentibus, 
•vo folij medio & ramulorum fummitatibus lanugine ferruginea obfitis. Cat. 

208. Tab. 228. Fig. 4. Raij Hi(l. Vol.]. Dendr. p. $3 

The Tops of the Twigs of this Tree were cover'd with a ferru- 
ginous Hair, as were alfo the great Ribs of its Leaves. The Leaves grew 
many of them together, like thofe of the Calabafh, and had a quar- 
ter of an Inch long Footftalks, being two Inches and a half long, 

and half as broad, fomewhat pointed towards the Top, (hining, of 
dark green Colour, and fmooth 

I found it in Jamaica, but where I do not remember 


XLIII. Citrus arbor & malus citrea Cord. Hip. Cat. Jam. p. 208. 
Citreum vulgar e Tournef. Inft. p. 621. Malus citria Steerbeck. Citric, p. 
44. Malum citreum vulgar e ej. ib p. 48. Malus citria C aft ell. Hort. Meff. p. 

29. Malus citria vera feu medic a. Hoffm. Hort. p. 40. Malus citria feu 

medica vulgarly Qrifl. virid. p. 44. Cedrcira. 



The Natural Hijlory of JAMAICA. 177 

The Citron-Tret. 

Thefe Trees are frequently to be met with fet in Walks, by the 
Way-Sides, or the Seeds are dropp'd near Plantations, in mod Parts of 

this Ifland, as well as the Carries. 
The Leaves difcufs Wind, Jonft. 

Atheneus celebrates the alexipharmac Quality of this Fruit by tel- 
ling a Story how a Malefactor in Egypt preferv'd hirafelf by eating 
one of them, which cured the Bitings of Serpents. 

Aitho' this Tree was carry'd into Brafile by the Portuguefe, yet 
having planted them by the Shore and River Sides they are greatly 

ikiply'd, Lerj. 

Tragus paints Citrons and Oranges on the fame Tree, Cord. Gefn. 
he Rind put among Cloaths, keeps them from Moths and gives 


a good Smell, Irag. 

Palladius brought them firft into Italy, from the Medes and Perft 
and then into Spain ; they are made fweet with Care ; they did not 

them but kept them for their Smell and Phytic anciently. Conft 

tfxfar fays, the Seeds being moiftenM in Sheeps Milk made them fweet 



The Leaves are drying, Galen. 

The Juice of the young Sprouts mix'd with Turpentine, mofl of 

it being confumed over a Fire, is good for Wounds ; the Water 
ood in Difeafes of the Stomach with Sugar; fifty Pounds of Flower 


an Ounce of Oil, like that of Amber, yellow, the Decoction of 
the Fruit is good in acute Fevers, its Eleofaccharum is a good Antidote 
againft the Poyfon of Fungi, Jonft. 

They grow Wild about Goa. Carvallius ap. Ferr 

Pyrard. cap. 4. p. 3 2. found this Tree at Molailli, one of the Cc 

morris. />. 34. & cap. 6. p. 46. on the Maldives, & p. 8$. & cap. 24 

Bengale. & p. 286. cap. 27. at Calecut. p. 2. p. 148. at Mo 

76. at Bengale. cr p. 2&0. ^* 27. at ^aw™. ?. v.. j/. 140. at ivio 

biaue. p. }. p. 6$. at Marocco. pi 2. /. 190. at St. Helena. & p. 204 

and at Brafi, 


Oviedo, lib. 8. cap. i. tells us that they were brought from Sp 



Copland ap, Purchas, lib. 4. cap. 8. §. 1. p. 467. obferved them at Surat 

L -ft . ^ - 

in Gardens 

Ligon, p. 14. in the C ap t-Ver d-IJle s . 

Loubere, p. 106. faw an Alley of them at the Cape-ofrGood-Hope in 

full Ground. 

Purchas, lib. 2. p* 285. mentions them in the Philippinas. 

The fecond Dutch Voyage, lib. 5* cap. 1 5. apt Purchas p. jog. takes 

notice of them at Amboyna. 

Layfield, ap. Purchas, lib* 4. p. 117$. tells us what is fcarce credible, 

that three or four lade a Horfe. An Anonymus Portugal obferved them 

in Brafile. lib. 7. cap, 1. p. 1519. ap. Purchas 

Clip, ap. Hakl. p. 3. p. 753* faw them in Brafile,^ and Pretty i ib 

823. in St. Helena 

Li°on, p. 69. in Barbados. Ratvolfe, cap. 2. in great Plenty about Tn 

poliy and Jerufalefh) lib. $* cap. 21* & cap. 6. about Aleppo, Deer, id 


p. 2. cap. 4. and about Anna. id. cap 

Mandelpy p. 205. found them in Madagascar, p. 206. in RoRes-IJle, not 
far from St. Thomas, ib. p. 212. & p. 216. in Congo, p. 219* in the Cape- 

Verd-ljlei, & in the Azores, ib.p. 22 




1 7 

The Natural 



. »- • m» ,- 

Tf 7*7, /?. 96. obferved them in the Moguls Country. 

Linfchot, Defer, de la Guinee, cap. 5. in Congo. 

Citrons are in great Abundance in Brajile, Jo. de Laet. lib. 15. ca 

15. where they are hurt by the Ant5- 





ii- . \\ 


.J * » * - \ 

XLIV Limo arbor ^ ejufq\ Frutf&s Limo. Cord. Hisl. Cat. Jam. p. 209.. 

Malts* citria vulgaris, limoma. Hojfm. hort. p. 40. Limon vulgaris Steerbeck 
citrictdt. p. 78. Malum Limonium. Tradefc. p. 139. Mains limonia fruclu act* 
io r GriJl vindip. 44. Limoeno. Limones magm. CaftelL hort. Mtjf. Ind.fimpl. 
13. Citrons aigres. Pomwet. f. 231. Limons de Marini, p. 57, Limonier 

de Boa l on, p. 54 



' ■ ' ■■■'■ ■ . T"'J 

.••■_,.■• . , ■ V w • • ■ - •-• ■ 


The Lemmon-Tree. 

. . 

Thefe Trees are planted here in Rows and Walks, the Seeds are dropt 
here and there, and feldom mifs to profper. 



diftill'd Watpr of the. Juice is good againft Freckles. 

The Juice is good in Fevers, to repel Choler, and againft Poyfon, 

a$ .that of Citrons, Dod. 


Syrup is good in Fevers, and the diftilPd Water from the Juice, 

is good for the Face, being ufed as a Cofmetic, Math. 



The Juice is ufed by Dyers, Park. 
The Juice is good for the Scurvy and Stone, the Water of the 
Rind with Mkakengi is alfq a good Medicine for the Stone, Jonft. 

They grow wild about Goa, Carv alim ap. Ferr. 
Slices of it ftrung fo as not to touch one another, dryed and pow- 
der'd. make a Sarbet and good Drink, if mix'd with Water, Ferr. 

Sir James Lancajler in his Voyage, where he was General in the 
Eaft-lndies^ carry' d with him Bottles of Juice of Lemmons, where by giv- 
ing three Spoonfuls to a Sailor in the Morning, he fading till Noon, they 

were kept from, .or cured of the Scurvy ; they > were likewife ,cured 

with thefe and Oranges upon the Illand of Madagascar. 

^A 1 c- 

ym u . 

.jtammons were found by.tiaris ap. Purchas. lib. 4. cap. 1. §.!./>. 556- at 
Comora. ib. §.2. p* 742. 2X Moha in the Red-Sea. Willi Am Finch a 

. 4. §. 1 . 

Purclm lib. 4. cap. ^. §. 1.^415. law whole Woods of them at S/Vrr* 

Lew?*, & ib. p. 416. defcribes them to be like Crab-trees with a Willow 

Leaf. Davis of* Purchas, lib. 4. cap. 6. §. 2. /. 448. takes notice of them 

at the Ifle St. Mary on the Eaft Side of St. Laurence. Befi, ib. cap^j 
§. 1. p. 457. on the Comorra-lJles,& §. 3. ./>. 465. on St. Helena. Copland, 
ib.. Uh. 4. *4/y8. />. 467. §. 1. at 6V4;. Pay ton, ap. Purchas, lib. 4. ^p. 9. 
§• 1. />. 489. d* cap. 15. §. 1. />. 529. at Mohelia near the Comorra-ljles, and 

lays that they are called Demon there. C7;//^ //£. 5. cap. 2. />. 606. law them 
at the Comorra-IJles. Pring lib.^. cap.j. §.5. ^.644, & 645. at St. Helena. Th 

fecond Dutch Voyage, & Lib. 5. w/>. 1 5. /. 709. obferves them at 

Amboyna. Sir Tho* Roe, ib.lilr. 4.. cap. 16. §. 1. at JngAzepa one of the 
Comorra*s and Mohelia,p. 537. near St. P40/0 in Guinea, plentifully, ib. lib. 

7. cap. 3. §. 2. /. 973. Newberry, ib. lib. 9. c*/>. 3. />. 1411. at Anna. Jo. 

^oj Sanfiosy ib. cap. 1 2. §. 1. />. 1 3 56. at Sofala, & itfj. where they grow 


• LaniiHer,appPtirchaSylib.i.. cap. 3. §.2./. 150. takes likewife notice 
of fthem in Madagascar. Kjelwg* ib. \ 8 9. at Sierra Leona. 

Pyrard, cap. 5. p. 40. e^/>. 162. cap. i7.,at the Maldives.tap. 24. /►. 23d. at 
Bengali p* 2. ^. ^8 % in Ceylan. p. 104, at the Moluccos. p. 203. he tells us 

that they are brought preferv'd from Br afile, where, p.206. they ufe them to 

cure the Bifcht being put up the Fundament a Quarter of one three or four 


- •- 


The Natural Hi/lory of J A M A 1 C A. 1 79 

Times. Part ?. />. $8. & p. i. />. $4. The fame Author fays that the 

Juice is a good Antidote againft the Scurvj 

Kjiivet, ap. Purchas, lib. 6. cap. 7. §. 2. aiTures us like wife that Slices 
of it with green Pepper put up the Fundament cures the Heat in the 
Anus from Worms ; a Difeafe in Br a fit 

Du Val.p.ii^. fays that Lemmons grow in Portugal, and that Bees mal 
Honey of their Flowers, p. 157 


Hawks y ap. Hakl. p. $. p. 462. found them about Vera, Cruz, ejr p. 464 

about .Mexico* Philips, ap. Hakl. p. $. ^.476. about Panuco. And an 
Aponjmus Portugal , in Br a file, ap. Purchas. lib. 7. cap. k />. 1^19 

Per din an do Gtros in the Terra Austral, incognita* ib. cap. 10. 

4 v^ Z 1 


y iv* cap. 10. P. 1424 

Purchas, lib. 4. c4/>. n. p. 80 li in CV*jy. and at Labor, in the King 

• * » 

CWm ap.Hakl. f.^. p. 557. takes notice of them in St. J^, one of 

the Cape-Verd-lfl, 



Sir Francis Drake, Hakl. p. 3. p. 741. in Bar at eve, art Easi-In 


• ■■ 

' * 

And £//#?, J&R p. 3. p. 7$?. in Bra/?/ 

Limmon-trees full of Fruit were obferved by Ward in the Woods of 
SkrraLeona, /&£/. p. 3. p. 758. Pretty, ib. p. 804. faw them at S 

Leona, on P00*. p. 813. at Charcalla, eighteen Leagues from Cape Co 

rientes. /£. 8i<. and at St. Helena, ib* 82?. j h i*> • 

Limons were iirft brought from £/*/# to$Efpanola^ Oviedo. lib. 8 
1. . ;•' i . 1 rs •• [ sdi tn • riO ! 6 d] 

;if«g^,p. 47, found them in Jamaica. > .- s ) ^ 

Smith in Bermudas, p. 1 97. 

Ligon, p. 14. in the Cape*Verd-ljles, and in Barbadoes, p; 22. 

... ■ 

Clappham ap. Boyle of ^/>, p. 178. in Tenariffe. ; 

Lemmons in great Plenty grow about Tripoli, Raxvolfe cap. 2. about J* 
ufalem. p. 3. f4p. 21. e£* p. I* w/. 6. about Aleppo, Deer* p. 2. ^0.4, ^5 

nd about ^/r/74 


Hernan Lopez, de Caftagneda tells us that they gvow: at Mombajfa 


^v w 

. c 


XVrrjjf p. 96. in the Great Mogul's Country. r Guinee, cap. 5. in Congo. ,l< \ n < 1 

Jo. de Laet. lib. 1 5. cap. 1 5. in great Abundance in Brafile* but that 

the Trees are there hurt by the Ants 

Mandeljlo, p. 166. tells us they grow in Jap 




• * 4 


• • 

. * 


XLY. Malus Aurantia vulgaris mayor. Jonfi.Dendr. Cat. Jam. P. 210. 

jm/iw Arantia Bermudenfis, frutfu grati faporis amplo & fpeciofo. Pluken 

Aim. p» 238. Oranges of Dampier. cap. 9. Aurantium vulgar e Steer beck. 

Citricult. .-.p. 10. Malum Aurantium vulgar e may us Tradefc. p. 136. jkk//^ 
Aurea.Jeu Aurantia fruclu acido Larangeiras Orijl. vir id. Oranges de Marini 
p. ( Maire, p. 1 ^.Oranges aigres. Pommet. p. 233. Arantia Srvert. Part. 2 
7*£. 40. jfig. 2. Aurantia Poma Eyfl. , ^< t A 



The Orange-Tree 

♦ - .* lit # lU ^ 

A - >+ 9*0 

ThefeTrees are here planted and thrive everywhere in great Abundance. 

The Rind is good for cold Stomachs, Trag. 

One Tree every other Year at St. Rhem gives two thoufand or four> 
thoufand Fruit; it iafts five hundred Years, one living at Rome is fo old \ 
the Leaves ferve for bruis'd Shins laid on twice a Day; it cures the 
Jaundice if the Rind be given* The Name Aurantium comes from the 


1 80 The Natural Hijiory of J A M A I C A. 

Colour of the Rind ; they were not known at Rome in Auguftus, Ti- 
berius, or Claudius Time. It comes not from a Pomegranate grafted 
on a Cition* as fome imagine, for then it would be a Pomegra- 
nate. At the Footftalks End is a fmall Leaf like a Heart which goes 
before a larger one, there being an Ijlbmus between. Ferr. 

This was not natural to Era file, but brought thither by the Portuguefe 
and planted on the Shore and Sides of Rivers, where they profper and 
bring large Fruit, call'd by the Indians Morgoa-Morgou~j*, Lery. 

They were not natural, but firft brought to the Weft-ladies where 
now are Forrefts of them the Fruit rotting, the Seed growing and 
being carried down the Rivers, are very much propagated, Acojla. 

The Rind is candied, and good for the Stomach, Math. 

The diftill'd Water is a great Cordial, caufes Sweat and is good a- 
gainft Peftilential Fevers, Math. 

The fweet Juice with Syrup of Violets is good in Fevers to cau 
Sleep; the Rind powder'd is good for the Colic; the Water diftill'd 
from the Flowers is good in malignant Diftempers. Cam* 

Rofelot was almoft dead by Hunger, with his Teeth being fet on Edge 

by Oranges which grew wild in Spain. I. B 

What is imagined by Monardes, that it is made by grafting together a 

Pomegranate and Citron, is not true. Ferr. 

Thefe Trees grow wild in China by Semedos Relation, and in India 

Goa Francii'cus Carvallius, ap. eundem 

The difrill'd Oil from the Flowers is called Neroli, Pommet. 

The Oil of Oranges, as well as the Water wherewith 'tis diftill'd,. 
kills Worms in Children, id. 

Pyrard. cap. i. p. 11. met with thefe Trees at Annabon. cap. 4. p. 32. at 

Comorra. cap, 10. p. 85. at the Maldives, cap, 24. p. 236. at Bengale. cap 

27. p. 286. at Calecut* Part 2. p. 88. at Ceylan. p. 104. at the Moluccas 

Mozambique, p. 190. at St. Helena, p. 203. He tells us the Fruit 

brought prefer v'd from Brafile. p. 204. Part 3. p. 38. where alfo 

he fays that the Juice is a good Antidote againft the Scurvy, p. 3. and 

zt Mar oc co. Duval, p. 135. relates that they grow in Portugal. 

Battel!, ap. Purchas, Itb. 7. cap, 3. §.2. p. 973. faw them near St. Paulo in 
Guiney in great Plenty. Fernandez,, ibJtb. 7. cap' 8. §. 2. p. 1 183. in Ethiopia. 

Lancafler found them in Madagajcar, ap, Purchas. p, 104. and at the 

Cape-of- Good-Hope, lib. 3. cap. 3. p. 1 50. § 2. 

Saris, lib. 4. cap. 1. §.3. p. 354. on Java not far from Bantam, Cockes, 

lib, 4. cap, 3. §.3. in Japan. Wm, Finch lib, 4. cap. 4. p. 415 

Sierra Leona, p. 419. §. 2. at Socotora, where there are but few. Payt 

ib.cap, 9. §. 1. p. 489. & ib.c. 1 5. §. p. 529. at Mohelia. Court hop, lib. 5 

p. 674. at Banda. The fecond Dutch Voyage, lib, 5. c. 1 
709. takes notice of them at Amboyna. Sir Tho. Roe, ap. Purchas, ltb,\ 
6. §. i. p. 536. in Angazefta one of the Comorra*s Mohelia p. 537. and 

Socotora. p. 5 3 9 

Newberry ap. Purchas, lib. 9. cap, 3. p, 141 1. obferved them at Anna. % 

dos Santfos, ib. lib, 9. cap. 12. §. 1. p, 1 536. at SofaU,&p 1537. where he 

tells us that they grew wild. Galvanos ap. Purchas, lib, 10. cap, 1. p. 1687 

St. Matthews, an Ifland near the Coaft of Brafile, in 2 ' lat. Balbi 
Cofmi in 16 \ in the Eaft -Indies, ib. p. 1725. //£. 10.^.5 

The 4th Voyage to Virg 

Hakl. relates that they were 

carried from St. John's to Virginia, And an Anonymus ap. Purchas, lib. 

p. 1 1 84. tells us that at the Weft End of Porto-Rico, there grew both 

ibwr and fweet 



. *. 

■ . 

• «■»■.- 

. * . 

» w 


The Natural Hiftory of JAMAICA. 

Louhere of Siam Tom. i p 68 relates that thefe Trees are there tax'd ib. 
284. Mand-ljlo, p. 205. found them in Madagafcar, ejr 206, & p. 212. in 
#0^ ifland not far from St. Thomas, p. 216. in Congo, & 219. in the 
Cape-P'erd-JJlcSi cr p. 221. and in the Azores. 

Welfo ap. HakL p. 2. p. 1 29. in Benin. 

Hawks ap. HakL p. 5. p. 462. about Vera, Cruz, ejr p. 464 about Mexico, 
Phillips ap. Hdkl. p. 3. p. 476. about Panuco. 

Lay fit Id ap. Purchas Vol. 4. p. 116 5. at Porto Rico. An Anonymus Portu 

gal in Brafi/e, tb. lib. 7. ca 

I. p. 13 19 

Ferdinando Giros, ib. cap. 

10. p 

1424. in Terra Auftr alls incognita. Gafpar de Cruz. Purchas. lib. 1. p. 178. 

in China. 

Catei ap. Hakl. p. 3. p. 537. in St. Jago one of the Cape-Verd 

** J • 

Finch ap. Purchas, lib. 4. ™/>. 4. p. 433. tells us thefe Trees are planted 

at Labor in the King's Garden. 

Cliffe, ap. HakL p. 3. p. 753. takes notice of them in Brafile. 

Ward ap. Hakl. p. 3. p. 758 at Sierra Leon a. 

Pretty ib . p 


on Puna Ifland, and fays that both fweet and fowr 

grow at ChacaHa, eighteen Leagues from Cape-Corientes. That like- 
wife in 'Java there are both fweet and fowr, p. 821. and in St. Helena, 
tb. 82$. 

JVaranjos dulces y agrios 9 are faid by Oviedo lib. 8. cap. 1 . to be firft brought 

from Spam to the Weft-Indies. 
Orange- trees are thought 


es, p. 46. to grow naturally in the 


"Woods at Orange-Bay in Jamaica, both fweet and fowr in great 

in the 

Smith obferved Orange-trees in Bermudas, p. 197. Ligon,p. 14. 

And in Barbados, p. 22. and p. 70. 

Clapham ap. Boyle of -<4 #> , p. 1 7 & in T enar iff e. 

Rawolfe, cap. 2. faw them in great Plenty about Tripoli, and Jerufa 




/<w, /:£. j. cap. i\. & cap. 6 about Aleppo, and //£. 1. 

about Anna. 

Hernan. Lopez, de Caflagneda, cap. 8. & 9. near Mombaffa, both fweeter 

than in Portugal, and fowr, and in Zjnzi bar, cap. 27. where were Groves 
of them. 

7>rrjr, p, 53. obferv'd 'em in Mohelia, ejr p. 96. in the Great MoguP% 


Defer, de la Guinee by Linfchot, c. 5. in Congo. 

Jo. de Laet. lib. 1 5. c. 15. in Brafile in great Abundance, where they 
were hurt by the Ants. 

Job/on, p. 1 30. faw them in Gam bra. 



XLVI. Malus Aurantia Sinenfis. Jonft. Dendr. Cat. Jam* 

rantium Olyftyonenfe. Steerbeck Citricult, p. 1 2. Orange de la Chine, Pom 

met. p. 233. Malus aureacorticevefcojaponenfis Lu ft tan or urn Grijl. virid. 
44. Lar angeina de Chin a. 

The China Orange-Tree 

Thefe Trees are planted in moft Plantations in Jamaica, and thrive 

extremely well, yielding the moft delicious Fruit, when ripe and freih 
gather'd, I ever tafted of the Kind. 

There are (in the Province of Canton in China) the beft fweet Oranges 

which hitherto we have known, which are eaten with the Skin, Purchas 
lib. 2. p. j66. 







* • 

XL VII* Malm Arantia, frutfu limonk pufillo, acidifpmo. Cat, J&w. P» 
211. Lirnon pufiilus Calaber Steerheck, Citricult. p. 80. Limon Alter ejufd. ib. 
p. 81. Lima acris ejufd. ib. p. 99. Lima cortice UviCaftell. Hort. Mejf. Ind. 
(impl. p. 13. Malm Lima fruclu acido, Grifl.Virid.ip. 44, An Malm limonia 

fruBw parvo coriic? tenui y ftuco acidiorh Ej. The Lime-tree of Dampier 9 

c.q. & 10 


' • ■ 


The Lime-Tree. 

- ■ 

Thefe 'frees? are to be met with every where in this Ifland* in 

V alder as and Guam. D ampler. 

frey grow wilU : in Africa, Lob 


The Juice is fqueez'd out of the ripe Fruit in a Prefs that they have? 
for that Purpofe, and after (landing iome Time to clear it felf in -the 

Cask, is (old to be fent over into 5 Europe, c *>> 

It has a fomewhat aromatic Tafte which comes from the Rind, bei 

with the Pulp, which makes it the more wholefome, it being 
*" * to the Sowrnefs of the Juice, which is apt to caufe Gripes 



the Belly-Ach 

It takes awav 

a-way Thirft (Iked with Sugar, brings away Sand, and ftops 
Gonorrheas ; it does the fame if drank with White- Wine, or unfalted 
Broatb, to four, fltf, eight, or ten Drops, Ferr. 

The Roots are diuretic and open Obftru&ions, being hot, dry, cat- 
er, flmrp, and of fubtle Parts. The Juice is profitable to thole who 




are* hot atid abotind with Gholer, if it be ufed as a Sauce, efpecially if 
Sugar be put to it ; Children and aged Ferfons are not to ufe it, being 
too cold •, aimoft the fame Camion is to be taken with Sorbetti, or Scer- 
bmf'h keeps%$nYthe Scurvy, the Sailors cure Ringworms, Scabs, and 
tf&er Skin Bifea-fcs-with k ; and chymically prepared, it diffoives Pearl 
nd a little quiets the boiling of Sugar : A Draught of this boiPd with 

a* iitrW Water and Sugar, given in the Beginning of the Fit of a Fever 
wonts try Swert and Urine, and either cures or checks it, fo that it 

works by bwert and Urine, and either cures or checks it, fo that it 
goes off; this^Pz/ptry'd in feveral. It is a very good Antidote againft 
the' fittings of 'Serpents. The Seeds are ufed with Succefs as well as 
their diftill'd Oil, not only as an Antidote againft all cold Poyfons (as 
the Juice againft hot, and contagious Difeafes) but Worms. The Extract 
of the Flowers arid Rind is good againft the fame* The Juice of the 


Tops cures poyfon'd Wounds, Fife 

Two Ounces of the Juice of Lemffions with as'imuch Spirit of Wine 
prevents the Fit of an Ague, it given before it comes. Oranges and 

StiNirriate are gbod for the Itch. The Seeds are good againft Worms 

is the Juice. Ger. > • «ri » c 





Hochfort was miftaken in faying that thefe Trees were particular to 

' terica. 

Layfield ap. Purchas, lib. 4. p. 1165. found them in Porto-Rico, num- 

ber lefs 

■■ < 


Jones apud Purchas, lib. ?. c. 9. §. 1. p. 228. in the Comorra-ljles between 
' aurence and the Main Continent of Africa. Doumon ap. Purcl 

j."**p. 12. §. 4' PV295}. about Sur/te, where they are very refrefhing 
^ 0f ^y o ry a S ers - ^- P- 307. and at Aden. 

?. PWtft*, /lit. 4. m^ 9 . §. r . p. 4« 9 . at Moheli* near the Ow«rr-« 

fe from Lemmons. & ib. c 1 5. §. i. p. 5*9, #<?/*,, W. 5. c. < 

it Mw*«. ^ p. 624. Sir Tho. Roe, at Molalis. tb. lib. 4. tat. i 


The Natural Hiftory of J. A M A-I C A. 

. ,.. u *»■ . j ' ^ i yt^^,** » . « — # * 

An Anowfwus Portugal found:them in Bra/tie, lib.j, cap 

ap. Pure has 




Pretty *?,H*kl. p j. p. 8ij,at Puna Me* and in y^ 4 . /£. p.8_. 
Hughs, p. 4S. thinks the Juice of this Fruit (harper than that of Lem 

mons-,. and. that tis good for the Scurvy and to make Punch 

L'tgon, p. 14. takes notice of thefe Trees in the Cape^erd*Mes y and in 

Barbados, p. 22. j 


The Lime-tree whichjs thick of Leaves and Prickles is a good Fence 
againft Negroes and Cattle, Ligon,p. 7 


Lime-trees are in great Ahundance in Brafile, Laet. lib 
where they are hurt* by the A 
Small Lem mo 

£™, p. ItjO. 


are mention'd to grow by Job/on, in Gam 





\ # 

Chap. VIII. 




0/ WW/, FwV/, R^w Sec. 


OR the Teveral Things defcrib'd in this laft Divifion, they are 

fuch as I know verv imnerfeftv. nnJi; (r> ftr * c t-u^r nr« ,~„^ 

as I know very lmperfedy, oaiy fo far as they ara made 
Jamaica to the Purpofes hereafter recited. Lam apt to fuA 
foms. of them may be before taken, notice of ' and that 

have, not known them to be the Vegetables put to thofeUfes here men 
tion'd, I fhall be glad, to find any that fhall come after me to give us a 
more particular Account of them 

As to what I could learn of Logwood, &c. tho' I talk'd with Peo- 
ple who liv'd on the Place and fubfifted by. cutting it, yet their Ac- 
counts were fo imperfeft, different, and inconfiftent with one another 
that I chofe to fayh Nothing .of them, rather than give fuch imfier 

feci: and contradictory Relations. — - . . 

* i 

3 I ; 1 


Lignum Campechianum, /pedes quxdam BrafiL Jo. da Laet. Cat. Jam. 
p. 21 J. Tab. % 1 1. Fig* 1, 2. Raij. HtJL Vol. s.Dendr. p. 172. Lignum Cam: 

fuccium, Terzag, p, ijy. Logwood of Dampier, cap. 4. Bois d* Inde que nous 

ppellons vulgairement de Campefche de Pommtt y p. 1 2a \ ', no?l 

If ri ssf oilc & Zim 

f -■ m 

Log wood 



This Wood is generally cut into Logs of ahout a Yard ;n Length, and 
two or three Inches Diameter, 'tis of a dirfy Colour on t|ie out-fide from 
the Injuries of Weather, Dirt, on fait Water, hut within is pf a pale 
brown reddifh Colour, 'tis heavy and the out-fide or Sap of it is generally 
chipp'd off by thofe who cut it, thereby clearing it of what is not 

ufeful to Dyers. . 

It is cut about the Town of Campeche in great Quantities, and brought 

to Jamaica in Sloops to be fent into Europe, by the Traders rn Jamaica 

It Jls ground to 

Mills made for that Purpofe, and ufed by 

Dyers, as I am told, to give their Cloaths a good Ground and Foundaf 
for other Colours, . $ 01Ti i 

BatteU ap. Purcbas } lib. 7. c. j. §. 5. p. 979. found this Wood in Guinea, 

Loango, very fine to dye with, the Root is beft, it was there laden 

them in Mayombe-Bay, p, 98 1 . d" p. 98 


» • , • 

1 84 The Natural Hijlory of J A M A 1 C A. 

Middleton dp. Purcbas, lib. 6.c. ic. p. 1246. tells us it was taken In a 
Ship about Cape St.- Anthony. 

There is a Wood tailed Logwood) or Camped 

a glorious blue, but our Workmen cannot make it fure. 1 

Wood you muft take with you, and fee whither the Silk-Dyers, or 
Wool-Dyers in Turkey can doit; with this you may enrich your fclf 
very much, and therefore it is to be endeavour'd earneftly by you. 
It may bring down the Price of Woad and of Anile. Taken out of the 
Remembrances for Mr. S. from Mr. Rich. Hakl. for a principal Factor 
at Ccnftantinople, for the Profit of the Commonweal. 
Dampier, * . 4. p. found this Wood in the Bay of Hond 

The chiefeft Merchandize which they lade there in fmall F 

a certain Wood called Campecbe (wherewith they ufe to dye) Chilton 

dp. Hakl. p. j. p. 461. at Merida, near RioTabafco mCampeche Province. 
Campecbe-lVood good to dye withal was taken by William Parker at Sebo 

a Town of three or four hundred Indians, near the Town of Camptche in 

Jucdtdn, dp. Hakl. p. 3. p. 603. 

Logwood was burnt by the E. of CumberUnd in P or t c-C dv alio dp. Pur- 
cbas .Vol. 4. p. 1 147. 

Pommet is miftaken when he takes this to be the Wood of the Ja- 
maica Pepper- Tree. 

II. Lignum InfuU Bondire Belgis Stockvifb-hout. Ldet. Cat. Jam. p. 213. 

Tdb. 251. Fig. 5. Raij.Hift.Vol. £. Dendr. p. i$2. An Cor dll in um Lignum. 

Herm. far. Bat. pr ? Erythroxylum Americanum, Ghcyrrhiz* folio floribu* ex 
luteo tjr rubro t varif>gatis,(\liqua latijjima. Commel. Hort. Amjl. p. 20}. Red- 
wood, Blood-wood, or Nicaragua-wood of Dampier, c. 5. Le Brefil de Ste. Mar- 
the de Pommet. p. 119. 

Nicdrag ua - Wood. 

1 his Wood is almoft as red, and as heavy as the true Brafile ; the 
Logs of it are about three Foot long and coniprefs'd, not round, about 
half a Foot broad, thicker in fome Places than in others, and having Slits 
or Cavities here and there in it, which fometimes go quite thro', and are 
cover'd with a whitifh, or fometimes brown almoft fmooth Bark. 

It is ufed as the former and is imported in great Quantities to 
from Nicaragua, Std. Martha, &c. 

It grows about Nicoja in the South-Seas, from whence it is carry M by the 
Lake of Nicdragua to the North-Sea. 


III. Pfeudo-f ant alum croceum. Cat. Jam. p, 21 3. Tdb. 152. Fig. ?, 4 

Raij. Hifi.Vol. 3. Dendr. p. 132. An arbor quaddm peregrind, colore inter 

fandalum, rubeum & Prefilium medio. Cord. obf. fylv. p. 223 ? Br e filet des 
Antilles, de Pommet. p. 1 1 9 


This Kind of Wood is very like Logwood, only is fmaller and 
generally in longer Pieces, but for Weight, Colour, Ufe, &c. comes 
very near it. 

Ic grows in Jamaica, where 'tis cut and fent into England for Dy 

Ufes, in great Plenty every Year. 



The Natural Hijlory of JAM -A- 1 C A. 185 

1 > \ ■ 

I I J ' • * 

IV. ^r^r </#^ iv/ Br allien fern rube dine fnferat. fod. Or. Part. 6. c. 56 

Cat. jaw. p. 215. R*ij Hi/?. Dendr. p. 13$. Red-wood for Dying called 

Cam-\yood of D ampler, c. 4. An nucifera Arbor Jemper-virens h?diaru?n pr&~ 
low is {ol*is\ venx/le. vencfis, cuj us Lignum Red-wood, /. /. £ryf hroxjlmn Bar- 
badenfibitf rtax irro Dhumba Cejlanenfibvs dtiia Pluken. .Mint iff. p. 136 ? 
^# />o/V dV favan ^ Pommet, p.i 19 ? 

This is very red, more porous, lax, and lighter than any of the foregoing 
Woods ; 'tis brought over m pretty thick Pieces or Logs for the XJfc of Dy- 
ers and. Turners. - , ' ( ' 

It is found in Guinea at Sherboro y Southwards of Sierra Leona, 
Dawpier, and frequently brought in trading Ships to Jamaica. I am apt to 
believe that what Battell ap. Purch.ts has taken notice of under Lo<iawood. 

p. 183 of this Volume is meant of this, as I judg'd,/\ 214 of my Catalogue. 

•1 i » -l 

1 • w • . . . • • i : . • 1 Hi I I ! • ' ! t ■■'< 

V . , fc • • • 

V. Planta fruticofa fcandtns ex cujus cattle fiunt fcipionts cincrei flexiles 
flriati & tuberculati^nervis cr tuber cutis fpiraltter difpofuts. Car. [J aw. p. 214, 

Tab. 23 1 . tig. 6. :Rai}. Hift. Vol. 3. Dtoiu p . 1 j j. '■ «nT 

k ♦ 


j ib.'i 

1 . # 

1 _ . 1 . "vr 

The Stalk above-mention'd is about the' Thicknefs of one's 1 
'tis li^ht, fmootb, of an Afh-Colour, and the fibres '■ of it -nir 
jpiral Lines Parallel to one another. It has luge Knobi upon ir, \vl 
are alfo fpirally difpofed,and f« at certain Diftances. ! ' ' ; : »»T 

They gro w in the Woods, and are ufe'djbr walkiifg Slicks. <.-<> .i'V 

It is not likely that this is the SmiUx Virginian* \pini-i tntweuis am 

f Dr. Pluk. Phyt. Tab. 110. ¥tg. 5. J/w./'. 349. as Dr. P/»* 
iV/^ // r. p. 1 7 

?d nu 

t - 


1 , 


VI. Plant a fruticofa Jc.tndc#s y cujus caul is loco chorda ■ muficis infirume^ti. 

adhtbetur. Cat. Jaw. p. 21 \.Tab. 23c. Fig* 1,4, 5, 6. Raij H'jl. Vol. 3. dendr 


> f f 

Thcfe Strings were the Stalks of fome fcandent Plants which .were 
clearM of their outward Bark. They were fmooth, white, without J"' 

Joints, fomething like, and of , the 

Bignefs of Quick-Grafs Roots, the 
d do, with drying, feparace from 

Fibres run fpirally in thefe Stalks, 

oneanother. , ,• ,. . ulid// ..../ (b.'dv/ t ' i^'i '• 1 d; // 


This grew in the Woods, where they were gathered, tied -up if 

d Parcels or Hanks, and us'd inftcad of other Stnnizs. or G 


Animals tor the Ufe of Mufical.Inftruments, which they fupply d to- 
lerably well. 

. - 

VII. Radix fruticofa I //tea, gljcyrrbiza (ikiMs y cortue fufco dtnribkdmun- 
dipcandis infervtens. Cat. Jam. p. 214. Tab. 232. Fig. 2, $• R<tij> tiiji: Vol. 

■\.dendr* p.i^i* . « . 1 il . l\%n'nu; 

.; I j - . • ! • ■ . Ui»i '■ 

. * 

This was a Root which was almofl as big as ones little Finger, 

it was cover'd with a brownifh Bark, and was within yellower man 
the Root of Liquorilh, it parted into many Fibers at the Ends Ufte 
a Bruih ; thefe Ends were us'd by the N 

Jegroes for clcanfing their 
Teeth. They are in .every Thing like the Pieces of Vine Sarrnents 
brought for the fame Pur pole from the Canary Illand-s,- which are d;p 
in Draaon's Blood. • * : »*»0 

A a a 


1 85 The Natural Hiftory of J A M A I C A. 

This Root was taken up out of the Woods of Jamaica by the 


VIII. Bar ace frutfus e pluribus nucibtu Arbor is Hur*. Cat. Jam. f. 214 

Hurt Americana abut Hi Indict Folio* Caff. Commit. Hont. Amfi. Pa>rt. alt. p. 

1 1 i* An Batata 4 a Species arbor laclea in Sytvis, frudtu eduU nuculaquo 

dammodo. Surian. 

Thefe Nuts grow in Jamaica, but they are not vomitive, when ripe, 
but called, and eaten as Wallnuts. The Planters tell ,me when green 
they are both Vomitive and Cathartic. 


IX. Fruttus exoticus cinereus, cum lineis & tuberculis durti, J. B. Cat 
Jam* p. 214. Fruttus Jam. ov alts for aminofus. Pet. Gaz. Nat. lab. ji. 

or, a hard oval Fruit with Seed Holes round its Surface, found on the 

Shores of Jamaica. \ 

This is frequently caft up on the Shores of this Ifland by the Waves, 
and is one of thofe Fruits thrown on the Northwett Iflands of Scotland 

by the Seas. 

X. Fruclus elegant iffimuf. de Laet. Cat.Jdm. f. 215. Raj. Hill. Vol. 3 
Dendr. p. ijj. Palmapinus maritima Barbadenfis & Jamaicenfis, Fruclu orb 
culari pomiformi, fquamr/tato put amine tetfo. Plukenet, Aim* p. 278. Phjtog 

Tab. 122.. Fig. J. Frutftts oblongus fqutmofus Americ Pet. Gaz. A 



Tab. 64, j. or, An oval, rugged, fcaly like Fruit, brought from about 

Carthagena in America 

» % **■ 

This is frequently caft up by the Waves on the Shores of this Ifland, 
and is one ot thofe Fruits thrown on the Northweft Iflands of Scotland, 

by the Currents and Seas. 

XI. Refina, pallide lutea, odor at a, gummi Elemi ditto ftmilu, Cat. Jam. 
. 215. 

There grows a Tree in Barbados and Jamaica, yielding a Gum like 
Elemi, but reckoned a Sort of Copal ', I know not whether the fame 
with Tertres Gomier blanc, for he fays that they ferved them fe Ives 

with Fuel of this Gum, which was white like Snow, and in Place of 

XII. Rejina picifimilis inodora. Cat. Jam. p. 21 J. Tab. 141. Fig. 4 



is frequently brought from Surinam on the main Continent of 

America to Jamaica, where 'tis very much valued and prized for its 

Virtues in curing Aches, &c. It is good in Rheumatifms, Gout, &c. Park 

as likewife in Pains of the Loins after frequent Travail, ufed as a 

Cerat to the Parts affected, and for frefli Wounds. Pifi 

Gum Colliman, or, Carriman of Rob. Harcourt, p. 1276. Puubas, lib 

6. cap. 16. where he fays it was Proved by Mr. Catj of Wiaham 
Bucks, Practice r of iPhyfick. A little put on Coals makes a pleafant Smell. 
Hold the Head over it three or four Times a Day it cures Giddinefs ; 
it is a Remedy for cold moift and rhcumattck Pains, and for the 
Dead-Palfie, it is good for Pains in the lower Part of the Back in 


I" v ' 

The Natural Hiftory of J A M AIC A. 187 

Women after Travail, melted in a Pewter Veflel, fpread on Leather, 
apply'd to it till it comes off, as alio good for Aches, and ftrengthens 
the Sinews, it is good againft the G out, and cures Wounds. 

XIII* Verbena, nodiflora incana Curaffavica latifolia. Herm. par. Bat. pr. 
f. 383. Plukenet. Tah 232. Fig. 4. Hort. Beaumont. Cat, Jam. p. 216. 

This had a folid, jointed, green Stalk, as big as a HenVQuill, 
having at every three Inches Diftance, Joints, whereat flood the Leaves 
oppofite to one another, on none, or very fmall Footftalks, being about 
an Inch long, and half as broad, near the further End, where round 
and broadeft, from the Beginning increasing thither, and being cut in 
on the Edges, a little rough, and of a dirty green Colour, at the Joints 
come like wife fmall Twigs with Leaves like, but only fmaller than thofe on 
the main Stalk. Ex alls Foliorum come the Flowers, (landing on four 
Inches long Footftalks, like the others of this Kind, being naked, and 
of a yellow Colour. 

It grows by Rivulets in feveral Places of this Ifland. 

XIV. Acacia & QeratonU media affirtis altera. Brejn. pr. 2. 

This was gathered in Jamaica by Mr. James Harlow, and given me 
Dr. Sberard) who had it at Sir Arthur Randoms. 


• - 







. * 




. ' 



■ * . . 




■? i 

• x 

• \ 



* > 







' « 

Bui mnl uili 

x\i (j 

.70 3TE 

■>nir ;. ;;; 


) rn o : 

H E Power, Wifd'om and Providence of God Almighty, the 

Creator and Preferver of 



ppear no where more 

fmalleft Animals, called Infe&s, which 


nabled to 

than in the 

vided with fuch Sen fes as are neceiTary to bring them 

their fevera) 

their little Bodies and many Enemies in every S 


Changes, to Perfection ; and notwithftanding 




and propagate their Kind, fo that fined 

arc tliauivu i.v/ iiv^) uuivw, aim pi w[/ago»,w «uvu j\iuu, i\j nidi ihil^ 

we have any exacl Hiftory ofIjtbem,«none*feem to be k>ft.< Of -many 
Kinds of thefe, appear herein fome 



I (hall follow in" this Book the common received Notions, as to their 
Changes, without, difplacing. them from. their ordinary Divifionst thV 

I belie v( 


were they nicely obferved, more 

Fleas* {which rilP of 

believed to come from Worms) would, or ought 

late Years were 

to be placed amongft fuch a» undergo feveral Mutations in >efitte 



, M j ,- 


1 'IE V'" ; 

V el 


4 ► 




~ - 

■* t 




- - i 


- t V-* %- 

HA P. 




jliisvl . , uq 

• t - i j 


3*1 fi 

iii nulc :••:- us 




Of fuch * f«ff<r no Chink* in thtir^ormi, \ ffl %ty »% ¥m 


3i .: m 

Umbruus terreflrts minor rubicundus 


/ titiuiK n() 



about an Inch and a half long, feems to 

fame with 

England cailed the Dew-Worm, only fin 

* * 

* » 

Ttii to be found in the 

• i 

_ T> ' W2 _ 

> \ 

wef gravelly Edges pf Rivers 

fed for Bait for taking Mud-Fifh, N &c 






1 90 The Natural Hiftory of J A M A I C 

They have a white Bag containing their Young, which is lefs than 

a Field Fea 

II. Belly-Worms r or, Worms in the Inteftines of Mankind, fubfifi 
within them here wjthoyt being hurt by the Climate, and are of as 

many Kind* as it\&4r?pe, viz;, Lumbrici Imepnorttm teretes, Lumbrici lati f 

cucurbttini x & ^fiaifid$s, tjjey caufe the farpe Symptoms, and are cured 
after the fame Manner as thofe of other Countries, concerning which, 
fee Pag. cxv. of the Introduction to the firft Volume of this Hiftory. 

Ill* Vena, Me dent, i. e* Dracunculus r Gerard' Crem. & An 

[ 6* Wi * 

Vena Medinenfts, G> H. Vtlfchi], Avicen. vel Ebufin. lib. 4. fen. five Sett, j 
Traclr 2- Cap. 9 1 * . Vena, gxicns Alfbaravij. Tr. xxviii. Cap. xii. F. cxvii; 
Vena civilis Rafts, Cqnt. xxvj. tr. 1. cup. 1 . /. ccxcviii. Vena egrediens Mi 

.e. Franc. Pedtmwt. Part 2. Sect. 2. cap. 7. Vena cruris. Aibucafi. lib 

cap. 93. Vena Saniofa Hal) Abba'. Theoric. lib. 8. cap. 8. vel jamofa Gui 

Caulae. tr. 2* Cbir. c. viii. Vena Medent. td eft. Pu/taU VtrmLuilax ix. 3* 
C0//* Elucid. Chir. five Qomw.jn iv & Ebufin. [eft. 4* m 2* c^>. 21. T*£. 233 

Fig. 1. 


This is a~"toTTg Worm, lodg'd amongft the mufcular Flefli under the 

Skin, in fcveral Farts of the Bodies pf Negroes and others coming from 
Guinea and fome -Parts of Afia ; concerning which, fee cxxvi. Page of 

the Introduction to the firft Volume of this Hiftory. They generally 

are owing to the WateF oFtfie Places whence the Perfons having them 
come ; concerning them, G. H. Velfchius hath wrote a large Treatife, and 
lately £»i^Mr^'JO^^t^^ obferved them mofi about Gornron in 

• ... 

F^fiii It ist ine& made, pp of anmihir/ Pieces or Rings, as common 
Vforgte, btf* i re fe m hies father Fiddtaftriings, they are: fometimes broader 
fowfltimes ngrwower, often longer than the Arms, kegs, or Parts of 
f hfl l^Q^y wfers they lie coiPd up. 1 agn rl'J I //If " 

Y.itkvm*> AtfoMtviMSy'.RafaAhulcAfipkj and other Arabians, in whofe 
Countries they,iare common, treat of ihem at large, and ^thoi'4nanyof 
tfegtti he. in. federal Parts of the* Body, they are not< commonly Mdriak 

unlefs Accidents furvenc^.i oil : f ornd! ni: : h- 


- ' * 

J;he Blanks which coraejfrom Angola and G*w£* are not troubled 

Ci ' 

* il 

V^ith them, buj: thofe from .the Goki-^Coaft very much. 

Qeriaim ver/ dans let^ambe&s like Cbanttrtlle de Violons. Eenmer t wha 

S5 ogPpinipit^ that they ate caused by bad WateF from the Dirt or Ex- 
^r^?3en« of Men and Horfcs, mix\J with it; they come fbrth fobe- 
times prefently after the Voyage, to fuch Places where they are brSeTac 
other Times more than a Year will pafs e'er they appear • they are taken 
out .by: t wiping them rotm^a Stick by little ancHittre. 

Letter Worms bred in them of Ethiopia^ by eating raw Flefh which 
are cured by a purging Fruit. AnUn^Fffntyidez, Purchas, 1182. 

Worms between the Skin and Flefli coming from the Water, Alfba* 

rsvim r freaks of 1 them 15 tys Ft&ic$. Jo, qr«,t|^ anoint, the Fart 

with ffefh' Butter^ Linfcbfot. 

On Rains, Worms are bred in 

. '"■ ' vr 

the Flefli about „Qor &g »a. R» V v> t «-d* 

.Hid a m.-Ay : The Naked Snails are^ ' ; > 


A^ t-' •' 


.3 jar 

IV. Lirnax nudm 

1 JJ ° *5< * - ! M«M-fi . »r»- • *t ti^H tni h j ran t 

The Natural Hijlory of JAMAICA. i o i 

The naked white Smile. 



It look'd almofi: like a Leech, was three Inches and a half long, 
one broad, convex on one Side, and plain on the other, it had Horns 
three Quarters of an Inch long, was all over white, or afh-colour'd, 
with fome black Spots, they leave fhining Marks after them, fhewing 
their March, as our Snails do. Tab. 232. Fig. 3. (hews the under Side 
of this Snail after it had been preferved in Spirit of Wine feveral Years 
where on the Belly, for near its whole Length is a remarkable Riling, 
made up of many Rings, on which I believe it creeps when alive. 

They feed on Herbs, and are to be met with after Rain f their Ex- 
crement is round, long and black. 

Lopez, de Gomara fays, that after beating the Indians, the Spaniards 
found thefe among other Frovifions for Merchandize, for the Inland 


V. Limax nudut e cinereo fufcus maritimus^ fub aquis, herbas marinas uti 
fucos, &c. comedens. Tab. 23 $. Fig. 4. 

This Snail, while under Water, appear'd to be about three quarters 

of an Inch long, it was roundifh, fomewhat comprefs'd on the under 
Side; and had on its upper Surface on each Side, one long, narrow, 
yellow Line, the Back was roundifh and light brown coloured. 
Belly was comprefs'd and more whitifh. ' ' 


It was feeding upon a Fucu* marinus growing on the Rocks under 
Water near Don Chrijlopberh Cove, in a Creek of the Sea, not far 
from the ancient City in the old Maps of Jamaica called Sevilla> now 

Captain Drax's Plantation. 

When I faw it flrfl: it had divers Motions in the Water, and after I 
took it out, altho' it ftew'd fufficient Signs of Life, yet it put itfelfin 

to fuch Shapes, as you may fee by the Figures, the two Poftures it lay 

in. Tab. 233. Fig. 4. 


■ ■■ — — 
« ■ 


- ■ 


• * 


Of Ufttfs which are commonly believed to frjfet no £<$w> 

and have, fix or more Feet. ■ vd bono ' lh , 

\ I / % « '•> " 

[ JO i:. ) C I ^Ss 

J.f~Mmex lettuUritU) odor e fee ti do infiguis, The Qhinche y or, Wall-Loufe, 

\^j Kjams runaite. moujett. Kan. p. 7. DUgs. ., , 

Theft are too common in Jsmaica and atfW Countries^ ™\ • ' 

it. 51 .w\ 

II. Pulex 


vulgaris. Rain Infect, p. 7. Fleas ate very cQrampn. 

r are verv rnmm™ Tw-,^ JiubmifA Which: fee ^' 

ML C*£* are very common ''Bete, coric&rriirig wnichyTee, /. cxxtV 

and exxv. of the Introduction to the firft Volume of this Hiftory. 
They are called Niguas by O^Mo in his Sthmnary, /« 1S7Y (,V^. ?* 

Of Smith of r#i{teV. />. 148. Laet. P. 6 4 i. : c ^ <* ° 

Another Kind of fmail Worm by T^/^ HakLfs^g. and Ton. by 

Meville, p. 256. L4f;. />. 555. 6 


192 The Natural Hijlory of J A M A I C A. 

Chegoes are like a Loufe, blue, about as big as a Chcefe-Mite. The\ 
ncf the Fin about its Bag when they take it out of the Foot. 

Li? or, . 

Ton Pulicis genus, by Laet. p. 620. 

Niguas are lefs than Fleas, launce the Skin, and yet are (b fmall as 
not to be taken. The Remedy is to anoint the Place with 0}i,and 

{crape it with a Rafor. Ovied, 

Nigua is like a fmall leaping Flea, loving Dirt or Duft ; it comes 
no where but in the Foot between the Flefh and the Skin, laying 
Eggs or Nits in there, which grow to be bigger than its Body, and 
foou breed others, and if left to themfelves, multiply fo that they 
cannot be got out or remedy'd without Inftruments and Fire, but i 


taken out like a Ciron there is no Harm. The Way to prevent this 
Inconvenience is to lie with Shoes on, or to keep the Feet well co- 
vev^d ; fome Spaniards have loll theirToes, others their whole Feet, of 

this Difeafe. Oviedo. 

Thefe creep into the Soles of Mens Feet, making them fvvell as b _ 
as a Man's Head : They open the Fleib three or four Inches and fo 
dig them out; many of our Men died of thefe, at taking Puerto Rico, 

The Ton (Cbego) leaps like a Flea, and fettles between the Flefh an 
Skin. They Rub with Palm Oil or Roucou their Joints ; they get to Dogs, 
fo that they were fore'd to be put into Hammocks. Kjevioup (Cockroches) 
eat in the Night Chegos, or Tons and Apparel, and are fed upon by 
Ducks and Hens, Laet.p. 2 58. Palm Oil or Roucou is a Remedy againft thefe. 
The Indians are born white, but Roucou or Arnotto gives them an Olive 
Colour, Laet, p. 620. Chegos are in Efpanola, p. 5 and Guiana, Laet. 

Worm like a Flea, of Leigh of Guiana. The Indians bring them out 
melted Wax with which they are brought forth when it grows cold 






.1 - * 

little Vermin like our Fleas. Purchas,i^6^ 
\ Fleas are troublefome in New-England* Smtth. p. 2? 4. 

Niguas were in Guiana. Laet. />. 641. 

Cheques, de Rochef. p. 272. They are cured by Salt Water to water the 
Floors, Chamois Stockins, and never going ba 

Petit Animal fort incommode qu J on appelle Pico. Treater of Peru 


IV. Pediculm vulgaris. \\ _ ,, : 

The Loufe is very much incommoded and does not thrive fo well 

this warm Country; which good Fortune to the Inhabitants is oc- 

casioned by great fweating. Clutters of Lice lay in the Flefh as b w 
as Peas or Beans. James's Account of Candtjhs\ fecond or laft Voyage^ 

V. Pediculusferus, Moujfft, frfe&fatipo. Pedim^y, ingumriiiiJn 

Red. Raij. Infetf. f. 8. 

Thefe, called by fome AfuriieV are 1 likewife here and cured 

Jwfee^p.cUii.oCijhe 1 


the firft VQlume of th& JEiiftory 

rO^. > udl.lo^L uioV •- -i ci [j bounl *jj : o .vxxd I b 

.VI. Kjm*/ fjV'JtrtSy vel Hexapus \njtttum *wnus \fufcum iB rfd 
rot undo e flavo & nigro vario, , , , . . * Wx y^ lo ^ 

\u ••• V baa .^ ;-^\ v , y^ ml0 'f- ml lo bi E isriioi 



• • 


.ckd .??? A^kA .■ • . .<\ .^\\ Patau 

The Natural Hiftofy of JAMAICA. 193 

Pat at a Loufe. 


This is a fmall InfecT: very much troublirig thofe who go amon 
Patata- Pieces, or Grounds planted with thofe Roots; it has a very fm 
brown Head and Thorax, with fix indifferently long Legs of a 
light brown Colour ; the other Se&ion, viz,, of the Abdomen, is a 
little bigger than a Muftard-Seed, almoft round, and of a black and 
yellow Colour mix'd. It had extended, from the Flower of a Patata to 
a Leaf a long Thread like one of thofe of a Spiders Web, and on it was 
a little Bag, containing its Eggs or Young, which it was very careful of 
putting under its Belly, as fome Spiders do. 

They ftick to the Legs of Men and Women, and raife Knobs, or 
fmall uneafy Lumps in them, and are in moil Patata-P 

They cleave to the Inhabitants like Ticks in the Marfhes. For Reme 
dy the Part is anointed with Oil, and fcraped or burnt, Ovitd. 

VII. Coffus vel Hexaptts infect um y maximum, albicans, edule. Tab. 233 

Tig. 6, 7 and 8. 

The Cot ton -Tree Worm. 


f , f • •• i/\n m * f 


This Worm was from the Head, which was very large, to the Tai 
about two Inches and a half long, it was as big as one's Thumb 
confifted of twelve Annuli or Se&ions, comprehending the Head and 
Tail, and was almoft white, fmooth and fhining, bating fome final], fliort 
Hairs here and there. The Wrinkles, Furrows or Sulci between the 
Annuli were very deep, there was a black Line run down the Back, 
from the Head to the Tail, which was a little brown, the Anus co- 
ver'd with a fmall Flap; every Annulas had on its Sides, oval> fmall, 
brown Holes, likely its Windpipes, and there were fliort Hairs about 
them. The fir ft three Annuli had on each Side of their under Sides one Foot 
or Leg very fmall in Proportion to the Creature, and brown. The fir ft 
Section, or that on the Head was inclining to a brownifh Orange Co 
lour, fomewhat hairy, and harder than the reft; it had by the Mouth, 
two black, hard, hairy (harp Claws, with which it eat or corroded rotten 
Wood, over them was a brown Flap like a Lobfter's Tail under the 
jeveral Claws, and in the Sulci was a certain fmall white Kind of a Loufe 

which infefted it. The Excrement of the Belly was folid and an- 

Worm, iflued out a great Quantity of 



Upon the flrft open 

limpid Water, and appeared a great deal of Fat on all Sides of the I 
tefttnes, which were yellow. There were a great Number of fmall, fi 
white Threads went from them into the Fat, as alio from the oval, 
brown Holes, Trachea, or, Windpipes into the Worm. I could not ob- 
ferve the Guts, from the Mouth to the Anus, to be wider in one Place 
than another ; they had one Circumvolution or two before they ended 
in the RecJuw 9 and were partly fill'd with a vifcid, yellowilh, brown 

They live, feed on, and eat their Way thro' old Cotton-Trees, Bully- 
Trees, and others, wherein they breed, and thrive very well, efpecially 
when thefe Trees fall and rot on the Ground. 

They are fought after by Negroes and Indians, and boyl'd in their 
Soups, Potages, Ollios, and Pepper-pots, and are accounted of admirable 

Tafte, like to, but much beyond, Ma 



1 94 The Natural Hiflory of J A M A I C 


They are alfo roafted a little at the Fire by Negroes, and 
Bread as delicious Food, without any other Cookery. 

The C#defcribed by Maffet, lib. 2. /. 250. called in Englifh Timbe 
Worms, and the fourth Kind of the Teredo by Aldrovand de Infectis, lib. 6 

feem to be pretty near this if not the fame, only this is much 

f hefe Coffl are a Prey to Wood-Peckers, who live moftly on them 
this Bird is contrived by its Toes, which are two fer, as well back 

ward as forwards, two forked ftrong Feathers in its Tail on which 
it leans when it flicks to or runs up the Truncs of Trees, and a ftrong Bill 
with a fharp, bony, long bearded tooth'd Tongue to bore the Trees and 
bring out the Coffl, tho' deeply lodg'd in them. 

Fig. 6, 7. Tab. 2$ $> (hews its upper and under Sides, and Fig* 8. as it lies 
in the rotten Wood. 

VIII. Hexapus Infect urn media magnitudinis album , C apite fufco, Tab. 233. 
Fig. 9. 

This was about two Inches long, as big as one's little Finger, of a 

white Colour made up of feverai Annuli \ the Head was of a dark 
brown Colour. The three fir ft Rings had on each of their under 
Sides a Leg. 

Where I found it I do not remember. 

IX. Hexapm Infetfum minus efufco cinereum, Capitefufco, fplendente. Tab. 
233. Fig. 10. 


This is the fame almoft in every refpecl; with the former, only 
leffer, and of a dark white, grey Colour, The Head was brown and 


^ *J 

• • 

found it in Jamaica. 

X. Teredo vel fcolopendra maxima, maritim&,cinerea, annulis pilorum penicilu 
ubique fuperna parte obfttis. Tab. 234. Fig. 1, 2. Tururugoire. Abbeville. p. 258. 

4 ' 

This was about Bvq Inches and an half long, it was of a grey Colour 
and was largeft a little beyond the Head, where it was about the 
Bignefs of the middle Finger, whence it decreased in Bignefs to the 
Mouth, which was blunter, and the Tail which was fmaiier. The whole 
Body confifted of about forty Rings between each of which was a 
fhallow Furrow. Thefe Annuli or Rings were fmooth on the Belly or 
under Side, and had on each four Holes, out of two of the uppermoft of 
which iffued Tufts of brown Hair like Pencils, furrounded with Papilla, 
Tab. 234. Fig. 1. fhews the Worm, and Fig. 2. a Piece of Timber per- 
forated by it. r 

Thefe Worms eat thro' the Sheathing, Planks, and even Keels of 
Snips in the Seas about Jamaica, almoft all over the hot We A and Ea(t- 
Indies, the Mediterranean, &c, and not only thro' the fofter and lighter 
Woods but even I have feen Keels of Ships made of Oak, and the 

Cedar.Tree, which is reckoned to refift all manner of Worms by its Smell 

fhi mo£' pedo i;* ted ty them ' There is left b y t{ ™ ^ the Cavities 
they make, a white teftaceous Body like Egg-fhel. 

At Toulon .where thefe Worms in that Harbour hurt Ships, the 
late M ( ; King endeavoured to kill them by turning the Liquor 
irom i an-pits into the Places where his Ships lay, but without Effect 


The Natural Hiftory of J A M A I C A. 185 

This Worm eats the Boats at the IQand Noronba y Abbeville. 
The Gulf of Cambaja is the worft in India for Worms, p. 4 8o, Davies 
ap. Fur chits. 

At Surat the Ships ought to be fheathed double to hinder the Worms, 
which deftroy the Rudder and their (leering, Payton, p. 432. ap. Pttrcb&l 

Worms eat the Ships at Banda Middleton, p. 245. ap. Purcbas. 

Villermont fays that the Hardnefs of the Wood between the Tropics, 
and the fcorching of it by Fire hinders the Canots from being hurt by 
Worms. See his Preface to Chriftofie d 1 Acunna. of the River Amazons. 

Of S P I D E R S 


XI. Araneus venatorius major pilofus, domefticus, fufcus, pedibus muculis^ 
n'tgris notatis. Tab. 235. ivg. 1, 2. Araneus alius, Faba magnitudine 
quentiffimus in jEdibus, Marcgr. p. 249. ; 


The great Hovfe-Spider. 

The upper Part of the Thorax of this is almoft round and brown, with 
yellowiih Circle about it, the Abdomen roundifh, hairy and b 

the Legs with two Antenua or Chela a re d i fpo fed on each iide of the 
Thorax. It hath two fhining black Teeth, feveral round fhining Eyes, the 
Legs more than an Inch long, brown, and hairy with bkckSpots on them. 
This Spider is near an Inch in Diameter, and holds, as it goes along, a 
round Bag, white and like Cotton, of one third of an Inch Diameter 
under its Belly hatching its Young contained in it. 

It is very common in all Houfes, running about even on their Cielings, 
with a flat Bag under their Bellies, in which lie their Eggs, figured 

They are not venomous, nor do they any Hurt, but hunt and kill 
Cockroches, and therefore are carefully defended from Injuries by 

I faw one of thefe Spiders eat a fmall Lizard call'd a Woodflave, which 
was half out and half in his Mouth, and another eat a large Cockroch. 
Tab. 235. Tig. 1. Ihews the Spider, and Fig. 2. its Bag. 

XII. Araneus Venator ius minor, prona parte niger, fupina fafcijs albidis (jr 

fufcis don at us, pedibus maculis albis & ntgris vartegatis 


This Spider was about one third of an Inch long, about one eightl 

of an Inch broad in the Breaft, the Head was very little, the Eyes ma 

ny and black, the Back was brown and white in Streaks, down th 
upper Part of the Abdomen went a blackifh brown Streak to the Anus, 
then on each Side one whitilh one, then a brown down the Sides. It had 
two °reat Claws Forcipes or Chela in Proportion to four Legs, two for- 
ward and two backward, all of them taking their Origin at the Th 



they are all fpeckled black and white, the under Part of the Belly 

Breaft and Head are black. 

They take the Flies they lie in wait for by a fudden Leap, and altho* 
have feen fome Webs come out of their Anus, yet I never faw them 

ufe any to catch Flies. 

XIII. Araneus major Jylvaticus rete fpiraU robujlum & vifcidum texens 
abdomwe e luteofujeo, thorace argenteo. 



1 9 6 The Natural Hijiory of J A M A I C 

The great jell orv ijb IV ood- Spider. 

This was about an Inch long, the Fore-part of the Body, vi 
Head and Thorax were by an Jfthmus divided Jrom the Abdomen, its 
Bread was one thud of an Inch broad, flit, of a white Sattin Colour, 
or Woolly, with black Spots in that Part of it where broadelt near 
the Abdomen. The Abdomen was two thirds of an Inch long, round- 

ith, of the Bignefs of a Swan's Quill, appearing hollow in the Mid- 
dle, of a brownifh yellow Colour, with white Spots on it ; on the 
under Part by the Head were two Claws, Chel* or Forcipes of three 

a-piece to hold any thing by, under the Thorax four Legs on each 
fide, the two full and lad Pairs being two Inches long, the Penultime 

much more than half fo much, they werj all three jointed, greenidi 

in the fird Joint, on the two others yellow and black, the black Pa 

being very hairy, the under Part of the Abdomen was reddifh b 
with two yellow lines tranfverfe near the Middle. 

It is to be found in the Woods beyond Judice Freeman's and on the 
Roads in the North Side. 

They have an almod fpiral large Web made of yellow Spiders Thread 

Silk, glutinous or vifcid, with which it will flop not only final! 
Birds, but even wild Pigeons, they are fo ftrong as to give a Man in- 
veigled in them Trouble for fome Time with their vifcid dicking Quality. 

Arane* pulcbra, vanjs color/bus dijlinclx, Laet. p. 29. who tells us that 
Webs of them catch Birds. Et Aranei grandiores qui telas nent ita pertinaces 
at vix difrumpi pcjfint in Cum an a. p*6jj. 

Spiders with Body and Legs bigger than a Man's Hand, extended eve- 
ry Way, the Body as big as a Sparrow, Oviedo Summary, p. 198. 

Spiders of Variety of Colours needing Force to break their Webs, 

Cap. 78. 

in the Woods on the Hills in Madagafcar, are many great Spiders, 
which fpin their Webs from Tree to Tree, it being very excellent drong 

Silk, of a yellow Colour as if it were dyed by Art. Peter William 

FloreSj ap. Purchas,p. 417 

Spiders whofe -Webs were good and drong as Silk in Madsgafcar, 

Kj ding, ap. Purchas. 192. 

Arane* verficolores, make Webs to catch Birds as big or lefs than Spar- 
rows, it is hard to break them, Pet. Martyr Decades. 

Beautiful Spiders not poyfonous in Barbados, Ltgon 65. 

Certain Spiders of a large Size not dangerous, but making a fort of raw 
Silk, catching Birds bigger than Blackbirds, and like Snipes, in their 
Nets, drefs'd over w;th Silver, Gold and Pearl, Smith ot Bermudas^ 

XIV. Araneiis c an cr if or mis major, reticulum fpir 'ale texenf, e flxvo & niqro 
variuSyAbdomme jptnults objito. Araneus valde tlegans. Marcgr. p. 248. 

This Spider had a very fma!l Head, two Forcipes or Claws both of 
a brown Colour ; the two Fore-Legs were long, the four in the Middle 
Ihorteft, and the two behind longed of all; thefe Legs were in all 

d took their Original from the Thorax in the Form of St. An 


Crofs, and were of a black and yellow Colour, now of a Circle or Ring of 
one of them and then of another of thofe Colours. The Abdomen was halt 
an Inch long and one third of one broad in the Middle where broadeih 

beginning narrow at its hindion to the 77 


by D 


The Natural Hiftory of J AM A I C A . 197 

then from the Middle decreafmg to the Anus ; on the under Part of th 

Abdomen was one large yellow Line in its Middle, all the reft was of a 

dark brown or black, like Sa 

fore and hinder Legs had th 

geft fkft Joint of a grey, or light brown Colour ; the Head was a little 
difh, white and fhining, fo was above the half of the Abdomen, the 

other half being brown, yellow and white mixed; It had fix or eight 

Corners round the Abdomen, and feveral Tubercles or Rifings on the 
upper Part of the Belly ; It had two Eyes, was full of white fma 
Eggs, and had a large fpirai Web,, in the Centre of which it lay, having 
the two foremoft Pair of Legs and the two hindermoft extended, in 
Form of a St. Andrew's Crofs, at their Ends towards the Head for the mod 
Part, were two very broad waved Lines running a pretty Way into the 
Web. Tab. 2^5. Fig. 3. (hews this Spider as it lies in its Web. 

This and the following one were together on a Hedge in one of the 
Streets otSt.Jago de la Vega. This laft is very common in the Savannas and 

about the Town amongft the Prickly-Pears, where a great many fmaJl 
and great Webs are ufually together. 

XV. Araneus Cancriformis minor Campeflris, reticulum fpirale texens 
bdomine fupinA parte albo, c-r Jex fpinulis ad later a obfiio, quafi encaujh 
bducto, maculis nigris notato. Araneus parvulus, tefia clypeata tecJus^ injlai 
efiudinis terreftris. Marcgr. P. 249. Tab. 235; Fig. 4. 

* ' 

- . •" ■ ""* 

.- j x ■ * 1 

This Spider had eight very fhort Legs, four on one Side and four on 
the other coming from the Thorax. It had two very fhort Claws about 
its Mouth, the Belly or under Part was of a brown Colour, fpotted 
with white, a little reddifh, the Head was red, and Legs of a brown 
and white Colour, it had on the upper Part or Back an oblong 

white Body, as it were enamel'd with black Spots round it, and four 
in a Square upon its Middle, the two oblong Ends being crofs the 

Spider and reaching beyond and over its Body, having on each Co 
two fhort Prickles, as there was other two, in all fix, on each Sid 
the Anus one. The Abdomen was very large in Refpect or the Thorax 
and Head, and the joining of them together very fmalland /lender; the 
two foremoft Legs and the hindermoft were longcft ; the Abdomen or 
hinder Part was not over an eighth Part of an Inch from the Head 
toward the Tail or longways, and about half an Inch crofs or in Bread 

It weaves a fmall fpirai Web in the Field 

J %- V *. 

; j J 

XVI. Araneus minor cinerem, compreffus, maculis fufcis notatus, peJ.itus 
longiffimis. Tab. 235. Fig. 5. 


A fmall \ flat, grey Spider , with brown fmall Spots, and very long Legs, 

, : This Spider was one third of an Inch long, the Abdomen larger t 
the Thorax, a. little flat, of a light brown or grey Colour, with fmall 
black or brown Spots, it had eight Legs, four on every Side, the fii ft 
Pair an Inch long, the Joints of a dark brown Colour, the two Pair of 
Legs in the Middle fhorteft, and the two Pair behind almoft as long as 
thole before, viz,, about three Quarters of an Inch. 

It is common againft Limewalls in Corners where it fpreds fome few 
Threads in Lieu of a Web, and catches in it Wood Ants, &c. 





1 9 8 The Natural Hi/lory of J A M A I C A. 


XVII. Araneus minor, reticulum fpirale textns, abdomine efufco furpureo^ 
alb is maculis not at o. Tab. 235. Fig- 6. 

A fmali brown and white Spider 

\ • 

This has a very fmall Head and Thorax , an almoft triangular half 

Inch long Abdomen, purplilh brown with white Spots ; It has eight 

Legs, the two before and the two behind three Quarters of an Inch 
Jong, having black and white Rings alternatively, the four in the Middle 
fhort, it has a fmall fix corner'd purple Bag in which its Young are 
hatch'd, in the middle of its Cobweb where it lies iiretch'd out at 

Length, the Cobweb is like an ordinary Englifh Spiders fpirai Web. 

It is frequent in molt Houfes. Tab, 235. Fig. 6. fhews the Spider, Web 
and Bag. 

XVIII. Araneus Dome flicks, reticulum tenue texens, inedius fufeus. Tab 

3 5- % 

'I fmall brown Spid< 


This is larger fomewhat than the former, it has an almofl: round 

Thorax, fmall Head, with two white Eyes ; ona Swelling near its Head 
from the Thorax go eight Legs, thQ two foremoft biggeff, and hinder- 
moft iongeft, it has two fhort, as it were, Claws at its Mouth, and 

the fir/f. Joint of every Leg is white; the Abdomen is oval, about the 

Bignefs of a Field Pea, and 'tis all over of a dark brown Colour 

it makes its Web on old Walls where Holes are, it entring any of 
them, and from thence as a Centre ftretching out its Web, and bring 

ing thither its Prey. \ bre ■ . : 

It*s on the Sides of the Walls of all Houfe#:which are not kept 

very clean. Tab. 2354 Fig. 7. ihews this Spider and its Web 

* • 

f * + • 4. A 1 

# * • 

- - 

XIX. Araneus niger minor, Abdomine rotundo, prcn* parte matniA 

drat a alba 

H 1 


r t 


, This was brought to me from Jamaica by Mr. Barham, who told me 
"at its Bite was poyfonous. It was fmall and blackiOi, only the under 
Part of the Belly had a white fquare Spot On it. The Legs were eight, 
the two middlemoft Pair the fhorteft. It had a large grey Bag with its 
Eggs or Yowig. 

XX. Mites, or, Syrones, are here plentifully found in Cheefe brought 

)m Europe/ . * Z. < 

horn. Ear op 

» » 

w > 

XXI. Scorpio, Pif. p. 144. The common Scorpion is here, and at Efpa- 
mU, I had one, I think, difering, wbiclv I called, Swrpio fufcits, ca*d& 

C cbeiarum internodiis lineis nigrts donms. From Mr, Burmt. from Pweft* 

Velo. They are the Scorp tones, Laet. p. 555. who fays their B 

dorn Unortal, but give Pain for twenty four Hours. 'No twit 

this, Mr. Quningham a Surgeon, and a Perfbn of great Veracity 


that one of the Seamen of the Ship to which he belong'd, was bk near 

the Back Bone, by«one of them, that 4aiy under tlie Bark of a fiece of 

Wood he was carrying on his bare Back, to wood the Ship, lying 

EfpanoU, which proved mortal 


The Natural Hi/lory of J A M A I C A 


XXII. Afellus minor cauda augufliore 

This was about a quarter of an Inch long, half as broad, having two 
'Antenna jointed on its Head, the Tail and towards it, is much nar- 
rower than thofe Parts of our Millepedes, in Colour, Feet, &c. elfe it 
agrees with them. 

They are to be found in Dunghils, &c. 

They are of the fame Virtues in Difeafes, particularly of the Eyes, 
with thofe of Europe, as alfo in opening Obftru&ions, $vr. only there 
muft be a greater Number given. 


4 • 




XXIII. Pediculus marinus Bellonij & Gejner. Raij* 

"-■ - - v- 


« - * 

» f* 

They are found flicking to the Fifh in Jamaica. 



* • 


■ • 


• • 



XXIV. Scolopendra longa, gracilis, e caruleo cinerea, tripilis, affelliformis* 
Mi He pes fecundus, Marcgr. p. 2 5 J. 



is very (lender, 

tapering from the Head 

Tail made up 

of Annuity in Colour it refembles the Ajelli, Woodlice, or Sow 



hath three Seta 



or Briftles, at the End of the Tail, and is 


* ■ 

. 1 


found amongft Books 



* * -0 


i iovo pi 



more rarely 

e£v. in Jamaica and Europe, th® 




& * 

I W 


1 i 

-■■' . ..-' 

• -* 

t * 

' •■ 

W-4 i I * 




XXV. Scolopendra media e fufco albida, Forty Legs. 7V^ V 234« Fig' A 

Centum pedes Cebayahual M 
& exigu^, Pif. p. 44. Jap 

,Xim. Laet. p. 330. Scolopendra grand 

BrafiL Marcgr, p. 25? 




. * 

» <r 



; , 


This differs nothing from thofe of the Ea (I -Indies 


tis not 

large as thofe from the Cape-of -Good-Hope, and of a more wJunfli brown 


Beaten and mix'd with Water 
good for the Tooth-ach, Laet. 

% . > ■ • 


if the Jaws be anointe4 therewith 'tis 


; ' ij 

t 1 p ^ 

* * 





; [If 



XXVI. Scolopendra afflne infeclum lucidum. 

\ s 

, *j 1. 1 , . 


r < 




* > 

■ * 


This is not over a third in Bignefs compar'd with the foregoing Scolo- 
fendra, it has its Body made of Afh colour'd Joints, fla>t like ir, or -the 

Luwbwus latus, but no Feet fo big 

or long as 




is large, and has two crooked Antenna, 

thofe of the Precedent.; 

. ■ 


They bite with a great Deal of Venom. 


- . , 





It was told me that they fhone in the Night, and 'tis likely they may, 

"*- f *' 

as the Juli of Brujerus, 


• . 

» * 



1f 1/ 


v ■* - 1 1 1 




I * 





i* • 





- i 

4 > 





' - 

c h a a 

. ■ 


' .■* 


; * 

i . j 




fl ' 


i ' j ; 

> : 






* « 




. . - - *\- -» — -— * 


200 ■ The Natural Hijiory of JAMAICA. 

HAP. Ill 

Of LibelU. PerU, or, Adder bolts, Wild-Bugs > Locufts And Crickets, 

• . 



lb ell a Rufa Major. 

This is from the Head to the End of the Abdomen about an Inch and 

a half long, the fides of the Head being two large Hemifphoerical Eyes. 
The Thorax is large and cover'd all over with a reddilh rufty-colour'd 
Hair or Wool, the Abdomen near an Inch long, made up of feven or eight 
Annuli, tapering and forked, at the End, all of a bright, reddifh, rufty 
Colour. The Legs are fix proceeding from the Thorax, of a dark 
brown Colour, the Wings four from the upper Part of the fame Place, 
membranaceous, with four rufty fmall Spots, and two long ones run- 
ning parallel to the Abdomen along the two laft Wings. 

This is frequent near all Handing Waters or Rivers Brinks. 


II. Li be Ha Rufa Minor 

: > 

This is in every thing the fame with the former, only in every Part 


'Tis to be found with the former every where. 


• ; 

III. Libella maxima ctrulea, aut *vmdis* 



4 ♦ 



This is three Inches long, the Eyes very large and brown, the Head 

green or blue, theThorax as large as ones little Finger, three quarters 

of an Inch long, of the fame Colour the Abdomen cdmpos'd of feven 
or eight Annuity of a yellow or green Colour, the Tail forked. It hath 
fix brown Legs and four membranaceous Wings coming from the Tho 

rax, with very fmall Marks or Clouds on them. The Wings are an Inch 

an half long 
This is frequent by all (landing Waters and Rivers fides 

*. • 


IV. Libella purpurea. An Jacatinga Marcgr. p. 254 i 

This is about an Inch and a half long, more than two Inches crofs 
meafur'd to the End of the Wings, the Head is purple, the Eyes large, 
the Legs half an Inch long, rough and brown, in Number fix, going 
from the Thorax y the Wings membranaceous, four, having a fmall Spot 
on the upper Side of a brown Colour, the Body is made up of nine 

or ten Annuli all Purple. 

It haunts watry Places as other LibelU. 

V. Libella minor c&rule*. 

. This was about an Inch in Length, the Head has two large pro- 
minent oval Eyes, the Thorax is big and has three pair of Legs not 
very long, the Abdomen is made up of feveral Annuity and is not much 
bigger than two or three Hogs Briftles join'd together, all of a blue 
Colour, the Wings four as the former, only fmaller. 
It is to be found in the fame Places with the former. 


The Natural Hiftory of J A M A I C A. 201 

1 _ 

VI. Locuft a Hi fp ante a maxima e fafco cinerafcens, alls punclis nigris macu- 
latts. Raij Hift, lnftcl, p. 62. precedentt congener Africana, cum firiis in /cap* 

pulis. Ej, ib. Locufta maxima cinereo purpurea maculis brunts, Hift. Nat, 
Jam, 1 Vol, p, 29. 

This Locuft was two Inches and a half long, it had two three quar- 
ters of an Inch long Antenna, a large Purple and brown Head, fix Legs, 
the hindermoft Pair more than twice as long as the others, being about 
two Inches in Length , the Wings membranaceous, of an afh-purple Co- 
lour, with brown Spots, pretty frequently on them. 

It came on Board the Afliftance-Frigate, about three hundred Leagues 

to the windward of Barbados, and fell on the Fore caftle among the 
Sailors. More concerning this Locuft may be teen, p. 2Q.of the firft Volume 

of this Hi (lory. 

Sir John Nar borough told me he had frequently met with the like 
Lotufts at great Diftances from Land in feveral Voyages. 

About five Years before I was in Jamaica, there came a prodigious 
Number of thefe Locufts thither, they came from the Eaft and went 
Weft ward ly, they flew fome no higher than the Heighth of a Man 
others very much higher, and went in a Stream ; and at the fame 
Time were a great many Crickets very common in thefe Parts. Al- 
tho' the greateft Part went Weft and did not ftay here, yet feveral 
Stragling Locufts did, and ^confumed a great many of the Vegetables of 
the Ifland. 


BeaupUn tells us, that in Tartary thefe Locufts are as big as one's Finger, 
and three or four Inches long, lay Eggs into the Ground by their 



Tails, are hatch'd in April, when if Rains come, they are deftioy'd, 
they are ready to fly in fix Weeks with the Wind, are fometimes four 
Inches thick on the Ground, and that at Night the Swine feed on 

VII. Locuft a cimreo purpurea major ^ maculis brums vslfufcis. 

The common Jjb '-co loured Locuft* 

This is about two Inches lone, the Head has two Antenna half an 
Inch long, the Eyes are oval ; it hath fix Legs, taking their Origin from 
the Thorax, the hindermoft the iongeft, by more than two Parts, 
the Abdomen is three quarters of an Inch long, confifting of eight 

Sections or Annuli ; the two Wings are membranaceous, the Whole is of 
a light reddifh brown, fpotted with blacker yellow, the Wings are more 
than an Inch long, and reach one third Part of an Inch beyond the Ab- 


It is too common in all Savannas of this Ifland and the Car ibes, and 
eems to differ little from the Precedent. 

VIII. Locuft a maxima viridis, alis latijjlmis. Tab, 236. Fig, 1,2. 7V 
curubt BrajiltenftbuSy Marcgr, p, 246. An Sauterelles vertes, du Ttrtre. 

• ?47f. 



This from the Head to the End of the Abdomen was not over an 
Inch long, but to the End of the Wings two Inches and a half, the 
Head was very fmal 1 , with two black Eyes ; the Legs were fix, 
proceeding from the Thorax, thofe laft two Inches and a half long, the 

E e e Wings 



The Natural Hijiory 




Wings were an Inch broad in the Middle where broadeft, covering the 
whole Body except a very (mail triangular Piece near the Head over the 


It came amongft fome Scotch Grafs 



from the Cay manes for 


the Horfes, and was taken in the Stable and kept alive on Sugar and 
Water for fome Time. 

IX. Locufla viridis media. Tab. 236. Fig, *$ 

The Middling Sort of Green Locujl 




long, (lender 

of Body, which was an Inch long, 

with two as long ProceiTes, going from the End of the under Part of 
the Abdomen. It hath two Antenna pretty long, two grey Eyes ; the Legs 
are fix, the hindermoft Pair longefr, all over of a green Colour. 
It is not very common. 

X. hoc u ft a viridis minor. Tab* 2 $6, Fig. 4. 

The Common Green Locujl, 

This is in every thing the fame with the former, only of a much 

not being an Inch long ; 

fmalier Size 


the Wings are not over 
third Part of an Inch in Length, not covering half the Abdomen, 
all of a fine green Colour, only fome black Spots or Points 


it is 

to be feen here and there. 

very fmall 

• r- 

They are common in the Savannas, in the Months of December and 


I fometimes thought this might be the former not grown to its due 
Bignefs, but afterwards found the Young ones of the former perfectly 
refembling therm 

XL Focufla Cicada fonum edens, cinerea. 

I have feen an Infecl: very like the Locufla viridis media of an Afh 
Colour, fmg l'weet, and louder than any Cicada I ever heard. 
I oblerv'd it at Guanaboa> 


XII. Mantis major viridis, alis fubtus coccincis. An Grojfe Moache belle 
perfection. Rochef, p. 158 ? Sauterelles roups y du Tertre, p. 347. 

This Mantis (agreeing with all the others of its Kind in mofi Parts) has 

Wings of a fine fcarlet Colour, with 

Inches long, and all over of a green Colou 


on them, 'tis two 

I found 

old Sevilla 

Branch of a I 

in St. A 

near the Ruins of 

XIII. Mantis minor viridis. Tab, 236. Fig. 5. Gaajara BrafiL Marcgr. 

246 ? ■ « 

Tis leffer in all its Parts, and has no fcarlet Wings. 
I found it on Moum-Diablo, going to the North-fide, 




XI \ 


The Natural Hiflory of J A M A 1 C A. 202 

XIV. Cimex jylv at ictts foe tens* viridtiyCriangularis. Tab.2^j. Fig.ic. & \6 

This has an almoft triangular Body, a fmall Head, two Ante?. 
two Prickles Handing out agamft one another on the upper Region of 
Thorax* fix Legs> and is all over of a Grafs green Colour, 


underneath. When it is kept it turns to a dark brown Colour* It fmel 

:ry ftrong and unfavourily. 

It leaps from Bufh to Bufh in the Savannas* 

XV. Idem Medius fufcus. 

XVI. Idem Minor. Tab. 237. fig. 22 

Thele differ only from the Precedent in being lefler, and of ~a 
brown Colour. 

XVII. Cimex fylveflris oblongus* e coccineo ejr nigro *v tr i egat us y fup 

far te Grace Sti Andre* not at u*. Tab. 2 J 7. Fig. 29 



A Cimex of afcarlet Colour with a white St. Andrew^ Crofs on its Back* 


This is one third Part of an Inch in Length, has two fhort Antenn^ 
fix Legs, is all fcartet, only towards the Tail black, and fome black 
Spots elfewhere, and a white St» Andrew^ Crofs going down its Back 

the Belly is whitifh. 
It is very often to be met with amongft Flowers. 


XVIII. Cimex minor caruleus^ lineis alhis varias, tejladinis forma. Tab 

237. Fig. 36, 37. 

This fmall Cimex is almoft round, the Back is of a fine purple, or 
deep blue Colour^ in which, here and there arc many waved white 
Lines, making it fomewhat like the fine Land-Tortoilhels of America. 
The Belly is whitifli and the Legs are fix. 

'Tis not very common. 


XIX. Blatta major' cinerea. Tab. 237. Fig. 25, 26. Cacarootch* Smith. Vi 
49. Blatta molendinaria ab Injula Jamaica allata major. Ratj Hijf 

Infeff. p. 6S. Cockroches of Ligon, p. 42. 62. Aravers. de Lery 9 L 

555. Ravets. Tertre.p. 350. Ravet le plus gros } Rochef. p. 271. 

Thefe are of two Sorts, as are theEnglifh Blatta winged and not winged 
Male and Female : They are much larger than the Englifh, grey, wi 


black Spots on the Wings, and do much Hurt to Cloaths, &c. getting 

into Chefts where they lie, going thro' almoft any Slit by the thin 

Make of their Bodies. They leave a very unfavoury Smell behind 

They come to your Bed in the Night and bite you, Ligon, and eat 
Hangings, id. They creep into Chefts where they eat every thing, and 
defile it with their ill fcented Dung. Smith, p. 149. 

They eat Bread, raw and drefs'd Meat, Linen, Books, &c. Tertre. 

This is the Blatta domsfiica, Luzon. Noel urn a. Hi J p. Cucca & Cucaracha, 
Lujiu Bar at a. Indis Ipn & Baucocang Kjtmel. Pet. Gaz» A 1 at. Tab. 48. N° # 9« 

which are fa id to be very devouring, to appear in the Night only,and 


2 OA The Natural Hijiory of J A M A I C 



that the Indians drink their Afhes in Phyfick, bruife and mix them 
with Sugar and apply them to Ulcers and Cancers to fuppurate. It's 
alfo faid they are given to kill Worms in Children. 

XX. Blatta major fufca. Tab. 237. Fig. 9, 10, 11, 12. Ravets les plus 

petit s Roche]. 

Thefc are in every Part fmaller, brown, and perhaps the Young 
of the former. They are exprefsM in their differing Forms at Fig. 9, 10, 

11, ar)d 12. Tab. 2^7. 

XXI. Gryllm Campeftrh, Mouffet. p. 134- Raij } f. 167. Tab. 236. 6 GriHos 

de Gomara } cap, 69. 

The Field Cricket. 

This is not an Inch long and pretty broad, it hath two half Inch long 
Antenna, two fmall globular Eyes, fix Legs, the hinder moll: Pair being 
twice as long as the others, and prickly, all taking their Beginning 
from the Thorax, the Wings membranaceous, coverir 

g not half the Ah 

domen, all of a brown Colour. The Abdomen is blackifh, having two 
fork'd Appendices 9 each one third Part of an Inch long ; of a light red 

difh brown Colour, and two others coming out below them, longer, 
and of a darker brown Colour, and made like the Antenna of But- 

They are very common in the Town Savanna, where they make 

Burroughs for themfelves, and a very great Noife all Nigh 

I find this Cricket mention'd by Ligon, p. 65. who tells us, that in 
Barbados are Animals no bigger than Crickets, lying all Days in 
Holes and hollow Trees, making in the Night a Noile, and in Terra 

Aujlr&lis incognita. Giros, ap. Purchas, p. 1465. Lopez, de Gomarafoy 

that they were found in Baskets amongft the other Provifions of the 


Chap. IV. 

Of BEETLES. major e fufco niger, fplendens. Tab. 237. Fig. 3. 

The large plain Scarabaeus. 

» ... 

This has a fmall Head, tho' as large it felf as the Top of ones Finger; 
thsThorax is pretty large, that and the Head make one third Part of an 
Inch, and the Wings two Thirds more in Length. Tis about half 
as broad, as it is in Length, blackifh brown all over, and fmooth. The 
Legs are fix, much about three quarters of an Inch long a-Piece 
arm'd with feveral Prickles, the Lyes very fmall and fphcerical. 


It is very ordinarily flying about at Night making a very great 


Do? res are faid by an Anonymus Portugal of Brafile ap. Pur elms, p. 1 320 

to be found in that Country. 


The Natural Hiftory of JAMAICA. 20$ 

II. Scar abacus major niger, fplendens area, triangular i inter elytra fit a, dona* 

Another plain Beetle, with a triangular Piece between the two Sheaths for 

the Wings, 

This is fmaller than the former in all its Parts, more fhining and 
black, and has a triangular fhining Piece between the two Sheaths of 
the Wings, about a third Part of an Inch in Length. 
. 'Tis as ordinary as the former* 

III. Scarabtus major niger tricornis. Tab. 237. Fig. 4, 5. Naficornis tau* 
roceros Marianus fplendens Caftanei coloris y Terra Marianne Hifl. No ft. feu Acf. 
Philt N°* 271. p. 814. 45. It is Combborn'd, autennis petfnatis. Pet. Gaz* 

Nat. Tab. 24. N 0, 10. Brown-Maryland Bull, Rhinoceros, Ej. Cat. Topic. 
Clajf. p»gi- 

A Scarabaeus with one Horn like a Rhinoceros going between the Eyes, 

and two Horns on each Side above it. 


This agrees with the others in all things, only it has two grey Eyes> 
a third Part of an Inch long procefs or crooked fhining Horn, 
rifing on the fore Part of the Head like the Horn of a Rhinoceros be- 

tween, and below two others fhorter and ftraighter than it, and a little 
above it. 


Tisas as common as the former. 

VI. Scarabdus maximus platyceros, Taurus, nonullis aliis, Luc anus ', feu Ceri 
vus volans. Muf. Suammerd. p. 30. Scarabtus Cervus volans, the Stag-Fly* 

Raij Hifl. p. 74 

The Stag-Fly. 

1 had the Head of one of thefe given me which was brought from 

Carolina, and others faid to be found in Jamaica. 

V. Scarabxus e rubro cinereus minor, maculis nigris not at us. Tab. 237 


A grey Scarabaeus inclining to a red with black Spots on it* 

This is about two Thirds of an Inch long, one third broad, the Head is 
fmall, the Eyes are reddifh, the Thorax Rhombidal, having a Piece going 
in between the two Wing-fheaths. It is all of a grey Colour, with black 
Spots on its upper Side, and hath fix Legs as other Scarabs. 

Tis to be found with the former. 

VI. Scarab aw e rubro fufcus minor, alarum vaginis ftriatis. 

A fmall reddifh brown Scarabafcus. 

This is as big as the End of ones little Finger, roundifh, fmooth, the 
Sheaths of the Wings ftnated, with little Cavities in them, and Lines 
between, the Eyes are of an Afh-colour, and the whole Body of a Chef- 

dark brown Colour inclining to red 

It is very common 




The Natural Hiftory of J A M A I C A. 

VIL Scarabaus miner e viritt nigricans alarum, vaginis Jlriatis* Tab 


Tig. 9* 


This is three quarters of an Inch long, and flat, the Thorax has feveral lit* 
tie Holes or Cavities on its upper Part, and the Sheaths of the Wings are 

ftriated with 




two Lines of final! Impreffion 





of a blackifh green or blue Colour, it has fix Leg 


Tis as common as the former 

VIIL Scarabtus minor, ex argenteo luteus, maculis nigm fplendens. Tab* 

237. Fig. 38. 

This is about one third of an Inch long, as thick, as a Goofe 
Quill, of a yellowifli white Colour, (hining with two black Spots on the 
Thorax, and four on the two Sheaths for the Wings* 

'Tis as common as the two others. 

IX* Scarabtis affine formica fimile Infetfum. 

This is one third Part of an Inch long, the Abdomen and Thorax join' 
very eafily together, all of a fhining black Colour, it has four Legs from 

Abdomen* and one Pair from the fore Part of the Thorax 


fis not very common 

X. Scarabaus medius fufcus y thor 




or Brornas. Pet. Martyr. C 

igulofoy lacem 





222. Cocuyos, ej. Cor on 

Glow-worms of Oviedo 


Fiery Worm 


Ternate) flying in the Air, no bigger than Englifh Flies, Drake, 740. Scar 

baorum genus. 

Glow-worms of Sandys^ Purchas, 1328. Cucuius & N oft Hue a. Petr. Martyr 

Laet. p. 5. Memoa BrafiL Marcgr. p. 258. Flies ihining like 

Mouches luif, 

Lou b ere. p 

Arbor admiranda 


Mufcarum fpl 

dentinm. Jonjl. Dendr. p. 471* Arbor Mufcarum fplendentium* Chabr. 599 
dpp. Cujero. Ltnfchot. Defer, de V Amerique. Mouches luminenfes de Ro 
chtf. p. 154* Mouches luff antes du Tertre. p. 280. 

The Fire-Fly. 

This was more than an Inch long, 



being towards the Head, and two extant Aug 

of a brown or Chefnut Co 

the Head was fmall, blackifh, with twoEyes, and two prickly jointed 

The Thor a x was near an oblong fquare, the narrower!: Part 


Prickles towards the 

whence iffues 

anfparent Spots, 

the Thorax ; the Abdomen was 

where were two oval, grey 
its Light , it had fix Legs going from 
taper'd from its Origin to a round End. 

They fly about every where in the Savannas, and about Woods in the 

ThcWomen work by them, and Indians travel with them faften'd to 


their Feet and Heads. Ov. Sum, The fame 


weave, boil, paint, d 


hunt Hutias with them 
and Hands they 


his Coronica, fays the Ind 

by their Light in the Night 


Night, and filh ; tied to their great Toes 


travel as with Flambeaux and Torches. The Spaniards 
d Letters by them. They kill the Mofquito's which hinder them from 

than for Light 

for this Reafon the Indians carry them to their Houfes, more 

They take them with Firebrands, whea calling them 

'. '• ?:-*** 



% • 

The Natural Hiftory of J A M A I C A. 

r *r 

r' i 


by their Name, they come to the Light ; or with Branches, not bein^ 
able to rife when knock'd down by them, whofbever anoints his Hands 
or Face with thefe, Stars feem to burn, frighting People ; a marvelous 
Water, he fancies, would come from them if diftill'd. 

This Fly hath four Lights, two about the Eyes and two under the 

Wings ; it is likewife a Scarabjeus, it hunts and takes the Mutquitos. 

The inhabitants take thefe Fire-Flies 

carrying in the Night a Fire- 

brand, and on a high Place turning it round, and crying Cucuje, Cucuje, 
but likelier they come thither as other Flies, when throwing the Fire- 
brand on the Ground, they are caught lighting thereby, or when by a great 

Bough they are (truck to the Ground, and fo caught, 


ing lheathed, or 

are carried Home and the Door fhut 

throwing either it or a Cloth on them. 

Wing* be 


they hunt the Mofquitos and 

take them about the Perfons that fleep in Hamacks. The Inhabitants 
fpin,^. by this Light Their Light lafts till they want Food, then 


on their Faces. 

They let them out. Children are frighted 

this Infect 
Two of thefe tied to the Indians great Toes, give 
Light in travelling like two Candles, and one ferves them to catch 

VtU 9 Martyr* 

They have four Wings, two whereof are hid. The Light only ap 

pears when they fly, and they are driven away by Norths, Louhre. 
There are (near SufaU) innumerable Worms like Beetles, whofe Tails 

like burning Coals, and 

fhine in the Night 

lighten all the Air, Sanffos ap< Purchas. 1545. 

are fo many that they en 

Thefe Infefts will come to a Fire brand in the Night, they 


in the Day. One of thefe will afford Light to our Fathers to read Mat 

tins, in Want of Oil and Candle 



XL Scarab .tits minimus 


vaginis alarum Jtriatti 


line is lute is 



This is not over a quarter of an Inch in Length, half as broad, the 
Head is Imall and black, the Legs are fix and yellow, the Thorax is 
yellow, the Shaaths for the Wings are ftriated, and have black and yel- 
low Lines running their whole Length alternatively. 

I had them off of fome Flowers whereon they fed in Guanaboa. 

There is alfo there zCimex three Quarters of an Inch long, and about 
one tenth Part of an Inch broad, all over, except two black Antenn^ 
of a pale yellow Colour. 

'Tis as common as the former and found with it* 

XII. Cojfus mini mm us fyramidalis, ventre albido, dorfc 
vario. Tab. 234* Fig* 4* 


& fufc 

The Worm eating the dry Birds 

This was about one third Part of an Inch 

broad, round 


and about 

the Bignefs of a Hen's Quill, it was near an Inch long, and biggeft at 

the Head, from whence it grew fmaller to the Tail *, it was made up of a 

great many Incifures, Rings or Se&ions, ten or twelve which were black 

or fhining, and between each grew black or brown Hair, the Belly was 

^lat, white, and had Cik fhort Feet towards the Head, whereby it 

little dry Birds, and eat their Flefh, Cartilages 

a very quick Motion; they lurk'd in the Bellies and Cavities of 

Ligaments and all except 

the Bones. They then took an oblong Shape of a grey Colour and came 
out finaB Scarabti whofe Defcription is as follows. The 


• t . . y- 

2 08 The Natural Hijiory of J A M A I C A> 

XIII. Scarab&olus e fufco nigricans 

The Small Scarabaeus 

This was not over a quarter of an Inch Jong, had fix Legs, is of a darfe 
brown or black Colour, in every thing like a Scarab* 

It deftroys all Bisket, dry'd Flefh, Corn, &c. and was a great Hinde* 
fance to my preferving dry'd Birds. 

XIV. Scarabeolas hemifphericus Cochineelifer. Pet. Gat. n. Tab. 1. Fig. $} 
Cochinilla dr Coccwilla Off. Dale. p. 539. Cochineal. AEi. Phil, n. 176. p. 1 202, 

& N 0, 19^. where it is represented. Tab. 237. Fig. ][i. is the Chryfalis, 3 j, 
the State in which it is in the Shops, and 52, the Beetle. Scarabtus nigri* 
cans alarum alias rubicundarum limbisi Mer. met. Ins. Surin*p. 2. 

I was told that feveral Bags of Cochineel here being lain on by Priva- 
teers, had taken Life and crept about. It comes to Jamaica in great Plenty 
from Mete que in the Bay of Honduras. I think 1 met with this in thg 
Clefts or Sulci of the Barks of that fort of Acacia calPd wild Tama* 
rinds in Jamaica and before defcrib'd. 

XV. Scarabeolus Hemifphericus, totus luteus auri inftar. fplefideris, tejlu* 
dinis forma. Tab, 237. Fig. 27. 28. 

The Tortoife Fly, 

This has two yellow Antenna one third Part of an Inch long, by 
Tvhich it feeks its Way ; fix Legs, taking their Original from the Thorax 

of a very dark yellow or Orange Colour, as was the Thorax and Abdo 
men, the Legs were very broad at their Ends, it was almoft round and 
flat on the Belly, about half an Inch Diameter ; the Head was bluifli 
the Thorax large, and the Abdomen made up of feveral Annuli. All thofe* 
Parts and the membranaceous Wings, with a hard Wing Cafe having 
feveral Holes or Cavities in them like thofe of a Thimble, were raifed 

fomething of the Shape of a Tortoife in the Middle, there only- 
being one Seam, where the Divifion of the two Wing Cafes were fe- 
para ted. All over when alive 'tis of a fhining yellowifh Colour" 
with an Eye of green and fome red rufty Specks here and there. The 
Colours were changeable, and it made a beautiful Appearance which 
went beyond that of any Infeft I ever faw. 

'Tis frequently to be met with on Trees or by the Rivers fides. 

There is another Sort in every Thing the fame, only the Back is 

together fhining, and when dead it appears of a rufty Colo 

XVI. Scarabms Cafricornus diet us major, viridis fuave Glens Tab 
Fig. 40. # 


The Musk Flj. 

This is an Inch and a half long, has two Antenna above its fphcerical 
brown Eyes, above three Inches long, jointed and black, larger at Be- 
ginning, growing fmaller by Degrees, confifting of about ten Toints. 

- 2t h ?lJ?J 0tt Ot r S " 0ut and a TbordX > haIf an Inch l°ng, having in 

its Middle two final! Prickles ; on the under Part the Thorax it is larger* 


The Natural Hi/lory of J A M A I C A. 209 

giving original to fix Legs, the Iaft Joints of them all being broad, the 

Abdomen is tapering and made up of five Annuli. The Head, Thorax 

above and below, and Sheaths for the Wings (which are a little longer 
than the Abdomen) are all of a fhining green Colour, the laft Pair of 
Le^s is an Inch and a half long, and the firft Joints of all the Legs 
are°reddifh, the others black. The Feet have Claws, and the Abdomen 

is grey. 

I met with it in a Wood, between Rio Nuevo and Milk River, in the 

North Side of this Ifland,nearan old Tree which Was fallen crofs the Path. 

It fmelt very ftrong and not unpleafantly. 

X VII. Scarabaus Capricornus diet us major, elytris, fafciis vet Lineis albis^ 
per dorfilongitudinem excurrentibus,variegatis. Tab. 237. Fig. $4. 

This is about an Inch long, it has a broad black Head, two reddifh 
thick, jointed, half Inch long Antenna, a broad Thorax with few Prickles, 
two Sheaths for the Wings tapering towards the End of the Abdomen from 
the Head to the Tail ; 'tis of a fhining black Colour, with three white 
enamel'd Lines running its whole Length, one in the Middle, and two 
on each Side one ;• the Wings are brown, the under Part of the Thorax 

is black and white, the Legs are red, the laft Pair as long as the 
whole Beetle. ^ , 

They are found in the Woods at fometimes of the Yean 

XVIII. Scarab&us, Capricornus diet us maximus, nigricans compreffus, ely~ 
tris fafcijs coccineis & flavis, pulcherrime variegatis* Scarab* us nigricans 9 
& ex rubro fllavoque pulchriter maculatus. Mar. Sibjfl. Merian. Met amor* 
fho/l Infetf. Surinam. p t 28. Tab.i%. 

I had this from Jamaica. Mr. Courten had one from the great Ri- 

ver of the Amazons in America. 

XIX. Scarab* us Capricornus diet us minor, eljtris ex cinereo & fufco va 

riegatis. Tab. 23 7. Fig. 24. 

This is about half an Inch long and a quarter broad ; the Antenn* 
brown and jointed, longer than the Body and bow'd back. The Sheaths 
have fraall Protuberancies, the Legs are fix, fhaped as the former. All 
over it is of a light brown, grey, or afh Colour, with two Spots and 
fome waved Lines of a dark brown Colour. 

It is not unfrequent. 

XX. Scarabaus Capricornus ditfu* gracilis fufcus minor, eljtris, maculis 
quatuor,paUide luteis, variegatis. Tab. 237. Fig. 21. 

This is near an Inch long, very (lender. It hath an Inch and a half long 

jointed Antenna, fix Legs, two Sheaths of a reddifh brown Colour all 

over, only four or rather eight pale yellow Spots on both the Shea Lis 
or Wings. 

*Tis pretty common. 

XXI. Scarab am Capricornus dittus fufcus, gracilis, minor, eljtris, fafciis 
luteis tranfverjis per dorfum excurrentibus, notatis 





The Natural Hijlory of J A M A I C 

This has two thick jointed Antenna, is of a darker Colour than 
the Precedent, has traniverfe Ftfei* inftead of Spots on its Back, of 
a yellow Colour. For Bignefs, &c. it is much the fame. 

'Tis as frequent as the former, flying about in the Night Time. 

XXII. Hydrocantharas niger, levis, media magnitudinis^ fimbria, fubjlava 

circumdatus. Tab, 237. Fig, 13, 14. 

This was about an Inch long, of a black fliining Colour, the Head, 
Thorax and Elytra being furrounded with a yellowifh grey Margin 
round them. The Legs were prickly, and the Eyes hemifphcerical 
and grey. 

I iound it in Jamaica, 

XXIII. Cantharis maxima, Elytris cufrei coloris, fulcatis. Tab, 234. 
Tig, 12. 13. Aureus cr fulcber Scarabaus, Mer,met, Inf, Sur.f. 50. The 

large golden Saw-horn. Sena Corn, max, Stir in, e viridi aureo refulgens. 
Pet. Mem, p 10. 25. 

This was two Inches long, near an Inch broad. It had two hemif- 
phcerical reddifli colour'd Eyes. The Thorax was green, fmooth, fhin- 
ing, with two large Copper-colour'd Spots. The Sheaths of the 
Wings were furrow'd longways, with little Cavities between. 

1 had it from Tamaica, 

Ear-rings or Ornaments are made of the Elytra or Sheaths of the 
Wings of this Cantharis, I was allured by one from whom I bad one 

of thefe Ear Ornaments, that the changeable green fhining Colour 
of them, fparkied, (hone and gave an extraordinary Luftre and Orna- 
ment to thofe who danced with them in the Sun, in Gumey, where they 
are ufed for that Purpofe. 

XXIV. Cantharis major, capite cr thorace cavitatibus donatis, elytris le 
iHbus Ida, 234. rig, 7, 


This was about an Inch and a half long, the Thorax where broa deft 
half as broad, the Head had two black jointed globular Antenna, It 

ad two grey, large hemifphcerical Eyes, it was pounced, or had Ca- 
vities or Holes in it like thofe of a Thimble, as had alfo the Thorax. 
The Abdomen tapsr'd, and the Elytra were fmooth. The Legs were 
fix, and of a Copper fhining colour. The whole Body was of a fliin- 
ing green Colour, as other Cantharides. 

i had it from Jamaica. 

XXV. Scar abatis e cunulionum genere, frobofcide longa deorfum arcuata 
trtsfafcits albis & luteis,variegatis. Tab. 237. Fig, 35. 

This is about an Inch long, the Head fmall and black, bow'd down 

wards, the Eyesare fphecrical and black, the Antenna grey, one third Pan 
of an Inch long. It hath feveral fmall Rifingson theSheaths which are two 

thirds of an Inch long, with two white Belts or Falaa, and as many 

yellow on them; the under Part of the Thorax is „.. & „, ™~ 
whue. It hath three Pair of black Legs, broad at the Ends and D . 
I ne Wings are brown, and the Thorax is made up of feveral Annul 

It is to be found with the former 


The Natural Hijlory of JAMAICA. 211 

XXVI. Idem minor, niger, macule albis. The Name exprefles the 
Differences from that juft foregoing. 

XXVII. Scarabaus, e curculionum genere, probofcide long* deorfum arcuata* 
eljtris fafctu luteU y & e viridi albidis fplendentibus, variegatis. 

This was the fame in all Refpe&s, faving that the Belts or FafcU on 
the Sheaths were yellow, and of a whitifh green fhining Colour* inftead 
of white and yellow as the Precedent. 

It is found with the former. 

XXVIII. Scarab&us capricornm dicfus waximus, fufcus, Cervi Volant is, 

cornubus reel is, brevibus, introrfum dent at is. Tab, 237. Fig. 6. Scarab At 
ex vermibus ligno putrido inclufis. Mer. met* Inf. fur, p. 24. The greater red 
difh Surinam, Goat Chaffer, Capricornus major & minor furinamenfis rufef- 

Pet. Mem. Jan. 1709. P. 10, 2c, 21. who tells us, that the Horns 

in the Beetle come from the Teeth of the Worm 

This had the Face of the common Stag-Fly, only it was every Way 
larger, being above two Inches and a half long. The Horns were 
irreight, half an Inch long, and had one Tooth on each of their Fore* 

fides. The Eyes were large, oval and grey. The Thorax had many 

extant Prickles, and was angular. It had Antenna very near as long 
as the Body, and was all over of a Cheflhut Colour. 

I had it in Jamaica, where I was told it came out of rotten Wood, 

and is probably hatch'd from the Cotton-Tree Worm before defcrib'd. 

XXIX. Scarabaolm hemifpbdricus, eljtris luteis, maculis nigris notatis. 

This is of the Common Size of the European Lady-Cow, the fore 
Part of the Head is whitifh, the underfide of the Body black, the Sheaths 
of the Wings yellow, each having two larger and two leffer black Spots 

on them. 

I brought it from Jamaica. 

XXX. Idem minor non maculatus totus luteus. 

This is the fame only leffer in every Part, being not half fo big, and 
having no black Spots on the Sheaths of the Wings. 
I had it with the former. 


2 1 2 The Natural Hiflory of J A M A I C 

Chap. V. 


OF Eruct, Aurelix, or, Coffins, Butter files, and Ph den <e 9 or Moths, 

Rue a minor lutea y maculis nigris not at a. Tab. 238. Fig. 8, 9 

The common Tellow Caterpillar 

Its Bignefs is as that of a Goofe Quill, it is about an Inch long, of 
a yellowifh Colour, having here and there black Spots on it, alter it 
attains its due Growth it becomes the, 

II. Aurelia triangularis purpurea, lineis luteis not at a 


The common triangular Jurelia. Tab. 258. Fig, 10.' 

This is almofl: triangular, about half an Inch long, and one fourth 
Part of an Inch broad at broadeft, having here and there fome Angles 
and Eminences, and is fharp at both Ends ; it is of a purple Colour 
with fome yellow Streaks. When the Worm or Caterpillar has fed it 
felf full it creeps to a Place free from Wind, and there fallens one 
End to the under Part of a Stone, Twig, &c. and the other End 
hangs in a String like that of a Spider's Web, where it takes this 
Figure and comes out. 


III. Papilio fulphureus, maculis argenteis &fufcis notatus. Tab, 239. Fig. 

& 1 2. Papilio [ulphurea Jamaicenfis major. Raij Hi ft. Inf. p. 112. 

The common yellow Butterfly. 

This was about an Inch long from the Head to the Tail, about 
twice as much from Wing to Wing extended ; it had fix Feet, three 
of each fide, it had two brown Antenna, three quarters of an Inch 
long went out of its brown Head, and two large brown globular 
Eyes. It had hanging out of its Mouth a long fpiral twirling Probofcis, of a 
brown Colour ; the Body was cover'd over with a long yellow Down 

d the Wings with a fhorter, there were in the Middle Part of each 

of the four Wings, two filver Spots or Eyes, inclofed in a b 
Circle, or Iris, befides feveral other brown Spots or Lines, here and 
there, efpecially on the Margin of the Wings on the upper fides. On 
that Pair of Wings neareft the Head, or the upper Pair, were 
the out fide, two brown Spots as big as a large Pin's Head. 

'I he Eruca of this Butterfly above defcribed, N°-I. feeds on what 
they call here Wild Indigo, or Sena minor herbacea, p/erumq; hexaphylla 
folio obtufo. Cat. Jam, p. 14. and of this Hiftory,/>. 41. 

They are the moll common of aJl Butterflies. 

IV. Papilio minor luteus alis ad Angulum exterior em fufcis. Tab, 2? 9. 

Fig. 27. 28, An Papilio Mart anus minor luteus extremitattbus fuperne ni- 
gris, MuJ. Pet. N Q - 504. p. 49 f ' ' 


The Natural Hiftory of JAMAICA. 213 

The fmallefl yellow , brown and white Butterfly. 

The Body is not over half an Inch long, and of a brown Colour, 
the Antenna are one third Part of an Inch long and brown, the Legs 
fmall, the Wings four, the Tips of the firfr. Pair above are brown, the 
other Parts are yellow, with one brown Stroke, and another orange 
at their Ends, the fecond Pair is all white only the round outward Mar- 
gin is brown, the underfide of both Pairs of Wings are yellow, 'tis 
not over an Inch from Wing to Wing extended, and they are about 
half as long. 

'Tis to be met with near the River. This Sort frisks up and down 
never taking a long Flight. 

V. Papilio pallide luteus, alarum marginibus fufcisi 

The pale yellow or white Butterfly with brown Edges to the Wings, 

The Body of this Butterfly is about three quarters of an Inch long, 
of a dark brown Colour, the Antenna of the lame Colour, and half an 
Inch long, the Wings of a pale yellow or rather white, the Margin 
of the firft Pair being brown, the Wings four* an Inch and a half diftant 
when extended, and about three quarters of an Inch broad* 

They are very common all the Year in the Savannas. 


VI. Papilio minor albidus, alis fupina parte maculis eoccineis & nigris 


A fmall white Butterfly with fcarlet Spots and fome few black ones. 

This is in Body three quarters of an Inch long, whitifh with black 
Spots, has two round black Eyes, the Wings from End to End ex- 
tended, are an Inch and halflong and half as broad. They are on the upper 
fide, of a white Colour, with many fcarlet colour'd Spots and fome black 
ones, underneath of a fcarlet Colour with fome black ones likewife. 

'lis common in the Savannas, frisking up and down, and taking no 
long Flight. 

VII. Papilio major, alis e flavo albidis, fuperioribus marginibus fufcis. 

Tab, 236. Fig, 11, & 12. Elegans Papilio, Mer,met, Inf. fur in. p. $1. The 

Surinam Brimftone Butterfly. Papilio Surinamenfis flavus. Pet, Mem. Cur. 
1708. p. 189. An Papilio Surinamenfis e flavedine albefcens* Ej. ib, N 

or, the whitifh Surinam Butterfly. Mer, met. Inf. Surin.Tab. 58. 


The whitifh Butterfly. 


This is three quarters of an, Inch long, and an Inch and half from the 
Tip of one Wing to the other extended ; the Head, Thorax and Abdomen, 
blackifh brown, the Thorax large, the Eyes fphcericai and chryftailin, 
the Legs fix iffuing from the Thorax, Wings four, thofe under of a whitifh 
yellow Colour, above white, the Edges of the upper brown or blackifh *, 
the Antenna are half an Inch long. 

I found it in Jamaica. 

I believe this to be rather a Variety in Sex, than a differing Infect 
from that above defcrib'd, N 0, III. and that Merian hath figured it twice, 
'viz. p. 51 and 58. 



2i4 T ^ e H atur d fflftwy of J A M A I C 

VIII. Papilio Jamaicenfis major, alts awplffimis, media parte fulvis 9 cum 
nervis nigris, marginibus nigris maculis & puntfis albis crebris pulchre refperfis. 
Raij HiJL Inf. p. 138. Tab. 2^9. Fig. $, 6. Papilio Carelinianus rufefcens timbis 
nigris albis gut talis afperfis. Pet. Muf.p. $2. N°->27. An Papilio novfAnglu 
Aurantiacus, maculis albis limbis & venis angujiis nigricantibus. Ejufd. ib. 

P'<yi< N°* 5 25. An Papilio Marianus aurantiacus maculis albis limbis & venis 
latis nigricantibus. Ej. N°* 526. 

The common f err ugineous black Butterfly with white Spots. 

This is an Inch long in the Body, has two Antenna three quarters of 
an Inch long, largeft at the farther End, a long black Probofcis, two 
hemifpbcerical black Eyes, the Bread is large and its Head black, with 
white Spots, the Bread is Prominent giving Original to its Leg 

d four Wings, the laft Pair being two Inches long when extended, ha- 

g black Nerves or Ribs running through them, of a rufty ferrug 
neous Colour, the Margins round being*' black with white Spots, the 
Body is of a rufty Colour, made up of feven Annuli as other But- 

v fis very common in all the Seafonsof the Year in the Savannas. 

They are fometimes fmaller in all their Parts, which perhaps are Males. 

IX. Papilio Jamaicenfis major fulvefcens imis alls, limbo nigro, guttulis 
albis afperfo cinclis. R aij HiJL p. 139, Papilio Carolinianus rufefcens, albis 

guttulis afperfis) bimaculatus. Pet.Muf. p. 52. N°* 528 

It is found with the former, 

X. Papilio media magnitudinis alis utrhque fulvU fupina parte maculis 
rotundis nigriS) prona argent eis oblongis fplendentibus, not at us, Tab. 239. 
Fig. 23, 24. Papilio media, alls pronis prafertim interior ibus maculis 
oblongis argent eis per be lie depitfis Raij Hi (I* p. 136. Pulchra Papilio, qua- 
rum latus inter ius croceo, exterius flavo, ruble undo, fufco tinctum erat colore 
adfperfo maculis argenteu. Mer. Met. Inf. fur in. p. 25. Mem. Cur. p. 295. N° # 

?4- i7°° 

The fame with black Spots above, and /liver ones beneath. 

This for Bignefs, Shape, Colour, &c. is the fame or very little dif- 

ferent from the former, only on the upper fide of the Wings are a 



great many roundifh black Spots, and underneath are a great many 
"blong filver ones, as if, or better than if they had been filver'd over 

the beft Artificer, and befides there are two long fcarlet Spots on the 
Foremoft Parts of the firft Pair of Wings. 

This is very common during the Seafon for Flowers. 

There is a Variety of this larger, which perhaps may be 

XI. Idem pluribus maculis nigris utrinq; not at us. 

The fame with more black Spots above and beneath. 

u !?i?i ls / omewnat dialler than the two foregoing Sorts and withal 
u u 1 Spots both on the u PP er and under Sldes of the Win 

which are longer, and not fo broad as thofe of the Precedent. 

B D > 


The Natural Hiflory of JAMAICA. 215 

'Tis not fo common as the foregoing Sorts- 

XII. Papilio minor efulvo fufcuSy oculatus. Tab. 239. Fig. 28, 29. 

A fmall dark brown coloured Butterfly, with black Spots like Eyes and Pome 

rujly Marks. 

The Body of this Fly is not over half an Inch long, of a dark 
brown Colour, changeable to green ; 'tis about an Inch and an half 
from the Point of one Wing to that of the other extended, and each 

Wing is about half as broad, the upper fide is dark brown, changeable- 
to green, with one large round, black Eye or Spot, with a blue'Speck like a 
Pupil, a reddifh or rufty colour'd his, and fome more of the 
fame colour'd, and pale Marks ; the underfide in every thing is the fame 
only lighter colour'd, and hath an Area or Fafcia on it of a light Colour 
which varies in Bignefs. 

'Tis to be met with plentifully in the Savannas where it frisks up 
and down taking no long Flight. 

XIII. Papilio major utrinque fulvuSy alis fubtus line is aliquot fufcisy un- 
datisy notatis.Tab. 239. Fig. 21, 22. 

The Saffron> or, rufty coloured Butterfly 

This is three quarters of an Inch long^ has half an Inch long An- 
tennty fix legs, two dark brown hemifphcericai Eyes ; the Wings are 
four, two Inches from the End of one to the End of the other ex- 

tended, and about half as long, above of a mining Saffron or deep ru 
fty Colour, and of a paler, with fome wav'd brown Spots under 

It is very common among the Flowers after a rainy Seafon. 


XIV. Papilio major cinereus, alls oculis jex donatiSylineU fufcis & fulvis 
br is undat is oblique duflisyvariegatis. Tab. 239. Fig. 13, 14. An Papilio 

AlpinuSy ex albo nigroq;variegatus y iride rubente oculatus. Pet. Muf. p. 49 
N°'^o2. An Papilio Alpina major y alis albicantibus exterior ibus maculis 
nigris notati$ y inter ioribus Maculis ophthalmioidibuty iride rubra. Raij. Hift 



The light coloured brown Butterfly % with rujly Spots and dark brown colour'd 

waved Lines. 

This has a dark brown colour'd, three quarters of an Inch long Bo- 
dy, half an Inch long Antenna four Wings two Inches long when ex- 
tended from End to End, three quarters of an Inch and more deep, 
above of a light brown colour, with black and waved Lines, rufty 
colour'd Spots, fome few black ones and fome whitifh; the under- 
fide is the fame only paler, and the Body white, with Ci^ Legs. 

'Tis very common every where after Rain* 

XV. Papilio caudatus Jamaicenfis nigrefcensy utrinq\ ex viridi aureo 
fplendide ftriatm. Pet. Muf p> 50. N°* 509. Tab. 239. Fig. 11, 12. Venuft* 
Paptlioy variis pitta color ibus , nigroy virtdiy cceruko & alboy at que auri & ar- 

gemi inftarfulgens. Mer. Met. Inf. Surin. p. 29. The green ftreak'd Jamaica! 
page. Pet. Mem. Cur. Ott. 1708. />. 292. 

.* * 


2 1 6 The Natural Hijiory ©/.JAMAICA. 

The black and green chargeable coloured Butterfly, 

This is not an Inch long in the Body, of a dark brown Colour, 

the Antenna almoft an Inch long, the Ends of the extended Wings are 
diftant two Inches and an halt, the fecond pair of Wings are an Inch 
and a half long, from their Beginning to the End of their Appendices which 
are a quarter of an Inch long, the underfide of the Body is grey, the 
upper Fart of the Wings is blackifli, with tranfverfe Strokes of a fhin- 
ing green changeable Colour, having one large Spot with an Eye of purple, 
on the underfide of the fame, but much lighter. Befides the two one 
quarter of an Inch long Appendices, are feveral others fmaller along 
the Margin of the fecond pair of Wings. 

'Tis to be met with in the inland Woods, whence 'tis blown by the 

Norths into the Savanna's, tho' not very commonly. 

'Tis one of the moil: elegant Sorts of Butterflies I ever fa w. 

XVI. Papilio major e <viridi nigricans alis laciniatis, quarum fuperiorum 
margines utrinque maculis luteis not ant ur, infer iores annulis croceis infigniun- 
tur. Tab. 2 J 9. Fig, 19, 20. An Papilio nigricans & ex albo rubroque macu- 
lata.Mer. met, Inf.furin.p. 17. Red fpotted, black Carol. Papilio dentatus 
niger,furin. maculis rubris. Pet. Mem, Cur. Gel. ljoS.p. 239 f 

The dark brown coloured Butterfly inclining to green , with yelloivifo Spots round 

the Margin. 

The Body of this Butterfly is near an Inch long, black or dark brown 

above, tho' underneath it has all along Thorax and Belly fcarlet Spots; 
it is two Inches and a half from the End of one Wing to that ot the 
other, being both extended ; the Wings are four, and they are about an 
Inch deep and wav'd. All the upper fide is of a dark brown Colour or black 
and green changeable, witii pretty large yellowifh Spots round the Mar- 
gin of both Pairs ; the underfides are of the fame-Colour, only has fe- 
veral fcarlet Spots within the yellow ones, and the Ribs are black. 

This Fly has a fpiral long black Probofe 
'Tis not uncommon in mod Places about the Town 

XVII. Papilio maximus odoratus,ocuUtus, alis utrinque e fufco purpureis 


lineis undatis fuj'cis variegatis. Tab. 236. Fig. 1?, 14 

The Urgeft brown and purple flveet fmelling Butterfly. 

The Body of this Butterfly is not over an Inch long, 'tis big, and all 
except the Head cover'd over with a brown Wool pretty long, the Head 

has two^ Inches long Antenna, and two hemifphcerical large Eyes, the 

Thorax is large and gives original to fix long Legs, the Joint next 

Body or Thigh being cover'd with a long downy Wool, the 

Joints being brown. It hath four Wings, when extended from the 
one to the others End they are three or four Inches long, and an 
Inch and a quarter broad, covering much more than the Abdomen. 
Underneath they are of a fine purple Colour, variegated with brown 
Lines, waved and changeable, and have fome brown Marks at their 
Margin, above of the fame Colours but they are darker. They 
two Spots on each of the firft Wings, half way down their upper fides, 
with two Eyes black with a brown Iru. The whole Butterfly fmells 


The Natural Hiflory ^JAMAICA. 217 


very gratefully, fomething like Musk or Vagnilias ; the Ends of the Wings 
are waved, laciniated or jagged. # ■-• , ... 

It is frequently to be met with in large wade Houfes, Churches. &a 
in jawdicdm . 

XVIII* Papilio maxima i fujcus, margin* laciniato, a/is maculis magnis 
oblongis e luteo pallide virefcenttbus utrwque notatis, prona parte fajciis 
julvis tranfverfis & oblique duffis, infignttts. Tab. 239. Fig. 9, 10. Papilio 
-Jawaicenjis, efufco lutefcens, fubtus virejcens, Croceo mixtus. Pet. Gaz» Nat. 
Tab. 13. Pig. 1. 'Jamaica tricolor ejufd. cat. top. & claff. p. 63. Papilio diur- 
pus flavefcens. pulchriter [plendens, viridibus maculis ornatus. Mer. met. Inf. 

Sunn. p. 2. or, the Grafs Butterfly. Papilio Surinamenfts e vtrefcente <? 
nigredine mixtis. Pet. mem. cur. ijo$>p* 290. N°*JJ. 

The largefi yellow and brown Butterfly* 



The Body of this is not an Inch long and fmall, the Antenna are black, 
three quarters of an Inch long, the Eyes brown, the Body black, 
above, whitifh underneath. The Legs are fix, the Thighs, Belly and 
Bread have a white down, the Wings are four, two Inches and a half 
from End to End extended, and one Inch and a. quarter long, being 
waved on the Ends, and having one large Appendix there, they are of 
a dark brown Colour, with large yellow Area or Fields and Spots on -the 
upper fide, of the fame lighter or yellowifh green ru/ry Colour and 
white underneath, making a very pretty Variety. 


They are to be met with very often, efpeciaily in the Woods. 

9 * r 




, XIX» Papilio minor nigricans, alisfafciis ohlongis quinque, & maculis partis 
luteis utrinque donatis, tnt trior thus prona parte maculis quibufdaw cocctneis 
parvis infignitis. Tab. 239. Fig. 15, 16. Papiliones ex atro mautUta & 
tranfparentes, Merian. met. In J. Sunn. p. 19. Guava longale. Papilio longi- 
pennis, Surinam, niger campis tranfparentibus. Pet. mem. cur. 1708. p. 294. 
N°* 29. An Papilio nigricans cujus dua aU Julphureo, dua pofler lores 
coccinto erant imbut a colore. Merian. met. Inf. Surin. />• 30. The Tricolor 
longale. Papilio longipennis, Surin. e nigro luteo ac infer tits rubro mixtus. Pet. 
ib. N°* 31. Papilio Surinamenjis ex auranlio nigro luteoque mixtus. Pet* 
Gaz>. Nat. Tab, 12. Fig. 8» Vincent's furinam. long tricolor, ej* Cat. Top. &■ 


A fmaller yellow and brown Butterfly, with fear let Sp 



. • 

This is not over a quarter of an Inch long, the Body very (len- 
der, the Antenna black, almoft . three quarters of an Inch long, the 
Head, Breaft and Abdomen (which is made up of Annuli) of a yellowifh and 
brown Colour rnix'd, the Ends of the Wings extended diftami ' from 
each other two Inches, not over half an Inch deep; they -.are ,1'our^ 
and are on both fides dark brown, with yellow! intermix'd longway 
and on each Pair of Wings near the Thorax are .one long and 

round fcarlet Spots. r.v ; 7 ; n w vsd 

They are a very fine Ornament 

he Woods of Jamaica vt 


Colours, and are frequently to be met with there. 7 

XX. Papilio major fufcus caudatus, alls fupinis tribus fafciis tranf- 
t y albidiSy obltquis t exterioribus tribus maculis albis ad unguium 




218 The Natural Hi/lory of [ A M A I C 

extremum notatis,pronis,fafciis crebris, obliquis, albis fulvis & purpurafcen 
tibus variegatis. lab. 239. Fig. i 9 2. 

The dark brown coloured Butterfly, with waved lighter brown Lines. 

This is not over half an Inch long, the Body of a dark brown C 
lour, the Antenna almoit as long, of the fame Colour, more than 

Inches from Wing to Wing extended, and half as much each Wing 
is long counting the Appendix which is to the fecond Pair of Wings. 
They are of a dark and light brown Colour waved and pleafantly 
mix'd, each of the upper Wings at the upper Angles have three 
whitifh Spots, and each of the Appendices have a fcarlet Spot, the Horns 
and under Fart of the Body are white, the underfide of the Wings light 
brown, white and purple changeable, and very curioufly intermix'd. 
This is fometimes, but very feldom, to be met with in Woods, where 
it takes no great Flight, only from Leaf to Leaf. 

XXI. Papilio caudatas major fufcus, alis utrinque ftriis & maculis e 
cceruleo virejcentibus infignitis, tnterioribus maculis & li/jeis coccineis 
notatis. Tab. 239. Fig. 17, 18. Venufta Papilio, Page de la Retne. Mer. met. 
Inf. Surin. p. 43. Red-Urea}? d Maryland Page. Papilio caudatus Marianus 
fufcus y ftriis p allefc e nt ib a s y linea & maculis fanguineis fubtus ornatus. Pet* 
mem. cur. 170S. p. 2]<p. N°* 24. Muf.Pet. N 0, 508. 

The Body of this Butterfly is blackifh, and underneath variegated 

with white. The Wings were two Inches and a half long, counting 
Irom the fetting on the Shoulders to the End of their Appendices or 
Tails. They are of a brown Colour on each fide, with yellow ifh 
green Lines and one large Spot in their Middle, and leffer Spots on their 
Margins. The under Pair of Wings hath two long fcarlet Lines 
feveral fcarlet Spots on their under fides, and two fcarlet Spots on 

their upper fides. 

brought it from % 

XXII. Papilio media magnitudinis, alis fapina parte fufcis, ad angulum 

exteriorem unica Area lutea notatis, infra, lineis albidis purpureis & fufc 
undatis variegatis. Tab. 239. Fig. J , 4 

A middle ftz?d Butterfly, with one large and long yellow Belt on the 

flrfl Pair of Wings. 


This is an Inch long in the Body, the Eyes reddifli brown, the 

Horns as if white enamelPd, the Antenna brown and almoft an Inch 
long, the Legs fix, the upper Part of the Body brown, the under Part 
white, the Wings four, two Inches diftant from End to End when ex- 
panded, on the upper Part altogether brown, except on the 6f ft Pair of 
Wmgs,which have long yellowBelts or Streaks, and two fmall yellow Spots 
the under fide is brown and purple waved, except two pale yellow Belts 

anfwenng the yellow Streaks on the upper Part of the firft pair of 


Tis now and then, tho* rarely to be met with, in the Woods. 



The Natural Hiftory of J A M A I C A. 219 

XXIII. Papilio minor , alisfufcis ad exortumfulvis, & fafcUtranfverfa al- 
ba, ad exteriorem angul urn , not at i s . Tab. 239. Fig. 25, 26. Papilto Carta- 
genius nigrefcens alba linea prope extremitatibus alarum. Pet. Gaz. Nat. Tab* 

vi. Fig* 7' The black Darien Butterfly with two Spots. Ej.Cat.Top.& 
Claff. p. 93' 

This is much the fame only lefs, the Wings are all of a dark 
brown Colour, with two large Spots at their Ends, and two Saf- 
fron colour'd Streaks at their Beginnings. 

'Tis common with the former, and was fent from Cartagena on the 
Continent of America, to Mr. Petiver. 

XXIV. Papilio ingens alis utrinque fufcis, fupina parte ccerulefcentibus cJ* 
duabus lineis undatis flavejcenttbus prope extremitates infignitis, prona parte 0- 
culatis & lineis flavejcentibm variegatis. Parvus Atlas Merian. Met. Inf. Sa- 

rin, p. 2 3 . Papilio Surinamenfis maximus fubtus per belle oculatus & mar- 
moreatus. Pet .Gaz. Nat. Tab. 28 Fig.i. Buff Atlas ejujd. Mem. Cur. 170S. 

292. N 0, 22. ViwenPs large Surinam Peacock's Eye. Ej. Cat. Top. cr 

CUff. p. 9 J 

This is about fix Inches long from Wing to Wing extended and a- 
bout three from the Head to the End of the Wings. The upper 
Wings are dark brown, excepting two parallel waved Lines of Fafci& 
of a yellowifh Colour towards their Out/ides, and a hrge Field or Area, 
of changeable blue towards the Body continued to the under Pair of 
Wings, which are all of that Colour except their exterior Parts, which 
are dark brown, with a yellowifh Margin. The under Sides of the 
lower Pair of Wings have on each two Eyes, the lowermoft about half 
an Inch Diameter, and on that Side they, as well as the upper, are of 
a dark brown Colour, variegated with great Numbers of yellowifh 

Fafci/t Lines or Spots. 

I found it in Jamaica where were many of the fame Sort, 

XXV. PbaLena maxima cinerea, cauda & alis acutis, utrinque lineis un- 
datis tranjverfis, fufcis, crebris, variegatis. P an ap an amuc u . Marcgr. p. 249 

Mouche qui a deux trompes, Roehef. p. 150. PbaUna fpadiceo tincla colore. 

Merian. met. Inf. Surinam, p. 14. The Sowr-fop Hawk Moth. Accip 
trina minor Surinam, mar more at a Corpvre macalato. Pet. mem. cur. ijoS.p 
331. N°- 1$. An major ejufd. ib. p. 330. N°* 12 ? Vel nigricans, alb' 

Papilio noBurnus. Merian. met. Inf. Surin. p. 3? Vel an magna PbaUna, ejufd, 
ib. p. 38/* Vel Accipitrina longipennis cinerea Surinam, undts nigricantibus. Pet 

mem. cur. 1708. p. jjo« N*' 10. Orangefpotted Hawk Moth. 

The largefl Night Moth of a dun Colour, or,fometimes light brown. 

The Body of this is an Inch and a half long, as big as ones mid- 
dle Finger, the Abdomen made up of fix Annuli, tapering to the End, 
mark'd with yellow and white Spots. Out of the Mouth goes a very 
long fpiral Prebofcis; it has fix Legs and four Wings near four 
Inches from one End to the other extended, the firft Pair or upper 
far larger and longer than the under; the firft are not over an Inch 
long, all above is of a grey Colour with waved Lines or Spots of a 
dirty brown or dun Colour, underneath of a light brown or grey Co- 
lour, with fome few black Spots. 

r 'Tis 


The Natural Hijiory of J A M A I C 


mmon in the Night Time flying every 



is another So 




k b 





with yellow Sp 
h the former. 

the fa 
here and there on it. 



nly of 

XXVI. PhaUna minima cinerea fplendens, guttulis nigris variegata. 

Moth of a, {birring light brorvn Colour with black Spots. 

A [mall Night 


This is not over a third Part of an Inch in Length of Body, nor 
over three quarters of an Inch from Wing to Wing extended, it has 

Wing to 
four Wings and is all over of a grey fliining Colour, with black mealy 

the Wings are about half an Inch long. 

They flutter about and kill themfelves in Candles at Night when dark. 


XXVIL Eruca maxima, cor nut a. Tab. 234. Fig. 6 





pwards of four Inches 
than ones Thumb. It was 

hitifh with an Ey 



Annuli which were very near of an equal Bignefs 





had ' 


nd Ta 


ded blu 

A muli or Rings were fm 

Horn about 

Middle on 

half an I 


fide of the Wo 


g> it 


fh brown at Bottom 

d bl 

branched or prickly at 1 




each of 

m fo 


two following 


the firft 
:k and 


on their 

f the fame Make and Colou 

bout two were upwards of an Inch 


nd two were fhorter 




of the Annuli. Each fubfeq 

f an Inch long, placed on the upper Parts 

Ring had about fl 



Prickles, black like in every Thing to the Top of the others before de- 
fcribed, and two oval Trachea on the Edges, the laft Annulus had a 


black prickly H 




the Anus. On its Bel 


in the Middle were eight Papilla, at the End by the Anus two Pa 



d towards the Head were 


It was brought from Jamaica 





XXVIII. Eruca minima e rubrofufca. 


ve Worm eating the Sugar Canes. 


one third of 

reddifh brown of Colour 

Inch long, and not fo thick as a 


nd Hole mad 

two or three Inch 

in the gree 

It is convey'd in at firft 

thence makes a 

Sugar Cane, and 


round, red Cavity the length of the Cane 

whence when perfect it comes out. 

It is in Probability a Sort of a Butterfly, Moth, Beetle or Weevil!, which 

fts in th 
to be 

£ gg 


then tis 

h'd and feeds on this Cane 

greyifh Skin which I have often found 

to an Aurelia, whence it comes out 

:ill it be 

leaves a 



eaten are not 

make Rum 

given to the Hogs to feed 

make Sugar, and therefore are 

Canes fo fpoil'd 

Sometimes Ants eat into the Canes, and have their Young ia them 


• I * 

» ■ ■ ■ • 

The Natural Hi/lory of JAMAICA. 22r 



Of Infers with membranaceous Wings, as Ants, Bees, Wafps f Flies, 

and Gnats. 

Ormica maxima nigra, alata, circa arborum truncos eJ» ramos nidificansl 

Tab. 2} 8. Pragrandes formica, Merian. Met. Inf, Surinam, p. i~ 

VJfa ete Abbeville p. 255. An Araraa. Ej. ib ? Formica edules. Laet.p. JJJ, 
& 379. Gros Fourmies, Capiana. Roulox. Bar op. 215. Poux dcBois, Tertre. 

$45. Rochefort, p. 270. Lab at. \T. 2. p. jji. where they are faid to feed 

Poultry. Formica volans, Marcgr. p. 252. Fourmis noires, Tertre. f> $44 
An Fourmis Qbiens, ej, ib* 

Thefe, which are very large, black and winged Ants, to avoid the 
great Rains which fall irt fome Months, and cover the Plains fever ai 
Inches deep in Water, make themfelves Nefts on Trees with a cover'd Way 

for them to go up on the Lee Side of the Tree. Thefe Nefts are round- 
ifh on the out Side, plaifter'd and fmooth, made of light brown Earth, 
and are larger than a Bufhel, and inwardly have many /in uous Caverns 
or Lodgings communicating one with another, as expreft'd in the Figure. 

Tab. 258. The 
Medicated Earth 


Spaniards in the Weft-Indies have a very highly 
1 caird Makimaki, which I think may be made 


may be made of this 

I faw once on the Red-hills a Cave wherein were Indian Urns, and 


where was buried the Body fuppos'd to be of a Spaniard or Indian which 
bad been all eaten, excepting the Bones, by the Ants who had their Nefts 

in this Cave. They had even entered the Thigh R™*c by the round 
cartilaginous End, and eaten into the Hollow to devour the Marrow 
contain'd in them. If you thruft a Thigh Bone of any Creature into a 
common Ants Neft, the Wood Ants will come and kill the other Ants for 
Love of the Marrow in the Bones. If you put Sugar into a Room troubled 
with Bugs in Jamaica, the Ants will come for Love of the Sugar and at 
the fame Time deftroy the Bugs. 

Ants far larger, building Nefts like Bee-hives with Avenues or Galle- 
ries, going out infenfibly to avoid Cockroches and Lizards watching 
them. Ligon, p. 65. 

The great Ants are fricafied, Abbeville of Noronka. 

Thefe Ants are fo large as to be fold in the Markets in New Granada, 

wnere they are carefully look'd after and brought up for Food. Laet. 

HI, and 579. 

The Ants in Siam neftle in Trees becaufe of the Inundations and 

Water, Loubere. p. 44. 

Indians bake their earthen Ware by the Nefts, and Surgeons fweat 

hydropical People with them. Thefe Ants take Wing, Tertre. 

They cut and throw down the Leaves of Trees for their Young, de- 
ftroy every thing, and even Men themfelves, Merian. where is a very 
good Cut, or Figure of them upon a Tree. />, 18. 

Thefe and all Ants (in Neronha) eat the Seeds fow'd in the Ground un- 

lefs look'd after, Abbeville. 

Thefe Ants will deftroy all the Seeds of a Field fow'd with Tobacco, 


Negroes feed on the Abdmen of thefe Ants in Brafile, Marcgr. 


The. Natural Hi/lory of JAMAICA. 

II. Formica minim* rubra. Jafure, Abbeville, p. 256. Vffaouve. Ejufd.ib. 
255. Petites Fourmies rouges, Tertre. p. 344. 

This is much the fame with the common red Ant of Europe, only 


They live and neftle in Woods by the Roots of Trees, and bring up 
the Filth, Earth, &c. out of their Habitations as thofe of Europe. 

Thefe Ants make a Sort of Cochineel, Abbeville 


III. Formic a major rubra. An Cangheave, Abbeville, p. 256? 

This is much the fame with the Precedent, only much larger. 
They hurt the Inhabitants, Abbeville. 

There are great and red Ants in Ethiopia that do bite, and are fo many 
that they do not let the Inhabitants deep. Bermudez, Purthas, p. 1199. 


IV* Formica major nigral 

This is the fame with the foregoing large red Ant, only fomething 


V. Formica minor mgerrima fj/lvatica, Abdomine triangulari. 


This is as black as Jet, and hath a triangular Abdomen. 

It is found in the Woods. 

VI. Formica fufc a minim a y antennis longiffimis. Little Ants, Smith's Vir~ 
ginia.p. 149. Ants very little and black, Qvted* Summ* apudEden. f. 200. 

Ants of T.infr.b*t, J .ignn s p. 63. 


This is of a dark brown Colour, very fmall, and hath two very long 


They devour every thing; I attempted to prefer ve the Skins and Fea- 
thers of Humming Birds, and was oblig'd,to keep them from thefe Ants 
by hanging them at the End of a String from a Pully faften'd in the Cieling 
and yet they would find the Way by the Cieling to come at and deftroy 

I have feen them when one of thefe travelling about hath found a dead 
Cockroch, he hath gone back to his Hole from whence came great Num- 
bers to it, and having fome pull'd, fome fhov'd it towards the Mouth 
of their Hole, there they disjointed it to carry it in by piece-Meal, what 

would not 20 whole 


ThQy earneftly covet Sugar. Sometimes Ants eat into Sugar Canes 

and hatch their young in them 

In New-England, for preventing the Ants doing Mifchief to their Fig 
the Inhabitants anoint their Frame Bottoms with Tar. 

They make Hillocks in the Fields of a very hard Confidence, as high a 
a Man, or their Holes are under Ground far from Woods, to avoid the 

Ant-Bears. Oviedo, 


Ant-hills in Gambrazre twenty Foot high. Job/on, p. 4? 

Ants do much Hurt to the Canary Birds at Goa, Linfch 

White Ants in Senega, make Houfes like Ovens. Aluife de Cadamofio. p 

112. ed. lat. p. oT 

In the Fields about Buenos Ajres, formerly there were many Vineyards 
planted by the firft Spanifh Inhabitants, which are now ruin'd by the great 
^Ants which eat the Fruit before it was ripe, now there are only fome Vines 

whofe Feet are defended by Water, feuillee. p. 246. Ants 

The Natural Bifiory of J A M A I C A. 223 

■ r- 

Ants have all one Soul, are ubiquitaries, Cupboards are fet in Hollows 
of Water to prevent their coming to them, and yet they will make 

Bridges of one another to come at them, and go up to a Ceiling to go down, 

to hinder this the Inhabitants tar the Strings by which any thing hangs. 

They inform one another of Sugar, &c on a Table, Ligon. They eat 
their Hangings there, id. 

Pyrard de U Val of the Maldives, p. 87. tells us, that there the Ants with 

Rats, &c deftroy their Provisions and Merchandize fo as to be 
iorc'd to make Magazines in the Sea two or three hundred Paces from 
Shore on Piles to hinder their Deftruction, and that they are alfo troubled 
with them fo as to be forc'd to ufe cover'd Plates. 

Loubere fays they are forc'd to japan the Covers of their Books in Siam 
topreferve them from the white Ants./. 45. 

Great Heaps as Haycocks are made by Ants* Morifot. Nott. in Roulox 

The Ants are call'd Reyes do Brafil, becaufe of their being every where 
and deftroying every thing. TheNegroes feed on the Bellies of them, Mar eg. 

About Sena near Sofala is a Worm call'd lnharara y feeding on the Ants. 
Sanctos ap. Purch. p. 1545. 

VII. Scar -ah 'tis affine Formica ftmile Infeclum. Tab. 237. Fig. 20. 

This was near an Inch long, not half fo broad, all over black. The 

Eyes were grey, the Head and Thorax fmooth, the Vagina of the Wings 
channel'd or ftriated. The Antenna were globular, half an Inch Jong. 
The Legs fix, two pair feeming to iffue from the Abdomen. 

I had it in Jamaica, and apprehend it may be the fame with N 0, IX. 

or Scarabais affine Formica fimile Infeclum, defcrib'd in this Volume^. 206. 

VIII. Bombylim totus e viridi cccrulem. Tab. 240. Fig* 1. An Abeilles 
bleves. Rochef. p. 1 6 1 ? Eyreouue, Abbeville, p. 255. 


The great green Humble-Bee. 

This was an Inch long from the Head to the End of the Tail, the Head 
was join'd by a fmall Thread or Fifiula to the Thorax and that to the 
Abdomen, the Head was large, on each fide of which were two Urge 
oval Eyes, between which arofe two Antenna a quarter of an Inch long, 
and crooked, the Thorax was about one third of an Inch long, and gave 
original to fmall membranaceous Wings which took their Beginning 
from two fmall round Knobs, the Feet proceeded from hence hkewife 
they were fix, the two foremoft were fhorteft, and had two Joints, the 
firft whereof was of a dark greenifh blue Colour, as was the Head and 
Thorax ; the two middlemoft Legs were in every thing like the others, 
only longer, thefe two Pairs, had their fecond Joints cover'd with a black 
Hair, the third Pair of Legs were longeft and very thick cover'd with a 
green long Hair, and all the Legs had Claws to them, ftanding forked 
and crooked. The Abdomen was half an Inch long and one quarter broad, 
it was green and had five Sections or broad Scales coming one over another. 
It was rough about the Anus and fhew'd a long Sting, and had a fmall 


It goes from Flower to Flower, and fucks fomething from them, mak- 
ing fuch Noife as our Englifh Bees only ftronger. 

They build in Crannies of Rocks and hollow Trees, make black Wax, 
and have no Stings. Rochef. 

2 2 4 The Natural Hijhry of J A M A I C 

IX. Vefpa e fufco iutea. Tab. 240. Fig. 23. p. 284. Guefpes. Rochef. p. 266. 

Tertre. Wafps of znAnonymus Portugal of Br afile. Purchas, lib.'], cap. 1. 

* I 220. Avifpas y Lop. de Gomara, cap. 80. 

A J mall brown and yellow Wafp. 

This is about an Inch long, the Head is brown, only the Flap over the 
Mouth is yellow. The Thorax is brown, with fome yellow Spots. Ic 
hath fix yellow Feet and Legs, four membranaceous, brownifh blue, fhin 

!~~, X\l\m-<r . f\\cx fit-fl- nnir 1«*rrr/* r»ni/prin(T MP AhAnwxBYt \ifMp1i \t> +*% *+]**> A - 

ing Wings; the firft pair large, covering the Abdomen, which is tack'd, as 

it were to the Thorax, by a very (lender Pipe or FiftuU joining them, two 
jointed crooked Antenna. The Abdomen ends fharp, and is made up of feve* 
ral brown and yellow Annuliov Joints. 

This is every where on moift fandy Grounds. 

There is a Difference in Magnitude between the Flies of this Kind. 


X. VefpA'ichneumon medi<emagnitudinis y tota aerulea fplendens. Tab. 240 

This is the fame in every refpeft with the following, only it is confi- 
derably lefs. 

I had it with the former. 

XI. VefpA'ichneumon major tot a cceruleA fplendens. Tab. 240. Fig. 4. Pa 
naau-rAen Abbeville of Noronha. p. 255. Vej'pA Br afil. C 'haly bis lucent e. Pet. 

Gaz, NAt. Tab. 60. Fig. 5. Steel- Wafp. Paipu guAcu. BrafiL MArcgr. 



The long blue Bee. 


The Body of this is about an Inch and half in Length, and pretty thick, 
thicker than a Swan's Quill, the Head has on it two jointed Antenna the 
firft Joint blue, the reft yellow, the Eyes are large and hemifphcerical' the 
Head is join'd very eafiiy to the Body by a fmall Thread or FiftuU and fo 
is the Abdomen to the Thorax, the uppermolt Wings are largeft 



near an Inch long, ths Legs fix, the hindermoft 

Inches long, and all the whole Infecl: is of a very dark blue Colour it 
has a tapering Snout, fhining and hard. 

It is to be met withal frequently amongft the Flowers, going from one to 
another, fucking them as Bees do. 

XII. MufcA c Am Art a mAjor vivipArA. 

have feen in jAmAtca frequently a large grey Flefh-Fly, lay tapering 

fmall Worms alive, which I believe prod uc'd Flies like the Mother after 
Nourifhmentin a fhort Time. 

XIII. MufcA minor cinereA alls purpureas. 


A fmall grey Fly. 

This is fmaller by much than our European Flies, has two crooked 
Anttm* % a large Head and Thorax, fix Legs, the laft pair longeft, the7 borax 



The Natural Hijiory of J A M A I C A. 225 

and Abdomen feparated by a very fmall Thread or FiftuU, four membra- 
naceous purple Wings, larger than the Abdomen which is all of a 
light brown or grey Colour. 
It is commonly on Tandy Ground* 

XIV. C ul ex e fufco cinereus major. Marigoui ou Marine ouin. Abbeville. 


An Ration, Ej < 

The Merryiving, or, Common Mufquito. 

The Body of this is 

third of an Inch long, all made up 

of brown and white Rings, the Legs fix, the laft Pair the Iargefl, a 
Probojcis with which it fucks Blood, and two Antenn& y the Legs have 
black or brown and white Rings, the Wings are of a purplifh Colour, 
and two in Number, it looks finely in the Microfcope, efpecially its An* 
tennx) blue large Eyes, and bloody Probofcis. 

They are every where after Rain, in a Day or two's Time, and are 
bred from fuch a frisking fmall Worm hatch'd in Water as Sveammer- 

dam figures in his Book of The Generation of Infects. 

It is a very troublefome Infc£t, efpecially towards and in the Nights, 
as much by its Wings, making a finging Noife, as by its Biting, upon 
which the Places fwell into a very hard Bump. 

The Legs of this Infect are twice as long as the Body. 

Maringouins de Rochefort, p. 265. Da Tertre, p. 268. They bite, with 

Noife. To avoid them the Inhabitants build in airy Places, or free them- 
felves by Smoak, or rub the Part bitten with Vinegar or Lime Juice. 

Mufqueto and Merry- wings are called fo from their humming Noife. 

Hughes, p. 140. They are mod troublefome in Woods, p. 141, and good 
for the Health in hot Places by helping Perfpiration. 

Mofquitos are in Cumana. Laet. f'6~ll* 

This Infec> is called Mapiery 9 and is a Plague in Guiana. Fire is the 
beft Remedy, againft it. Laet. p. 641. 

The TaUpoins have Gauze Beds to hinder their killing Coufins. 

Lou b ere, Tom. 2. p. 57. 

The Indians make a Hole in the Sand, covering themfelves in the 
fame, to avoid the Bitings of Mouftiques, Lujfan. p. 268. 

Maringouins, du Tertre, p. 268. the beft Remedy is Smoke or a net- 
ted Pavillion. An Mouftiques. Ej? p. 287 ? 

Mofcites, Luf. Braf. Marigue Pif.p. 58. 

Nhatiu y Br aft, Marcgr. />. 257. Thefe Flies have two Wings, fting thro' 
Linen, and are called Tatium and Mariguoy. 

Musketos fting, Merrymngs make a Noife, Ligon of Barbddosp. 62. 

It rains nine Months and is hot in Tabajco, whence Culicum copia gene* 
ratur. p. 276. Laet. which are very troublefome there. 277. as alfo O- 

lices tn Guatemala, p. 2 30. Teti ejufd. p. 555. Maregues 9 ejufd. p. 575. 

who takes Notice they are found by the Mangroves in Braftle. Mating 
deLoubere in Si am. p. 45. where he fays they pierce thro' Chamois Leather. 
Mouj quit es } or, Coufins, fays Pyrard. p. 87. are troublefome in the Mai- 


Many new Comers are troubled with Mufquetos at Vera Cruz,, where 
they fwell after being bit. Hawks. p. 462. 

Garapatas Chinches con alas. Gom. cap. 67. where are reckon'd four 
forts of Mofq 






The Natural Hi/lory of 






bled with Muskvtos in 66° N. Lat. For by 

HoufholdFlies or G 

make them f\v 





with long B 



m and 




the Ind 

Spain, p. 449 

Te quant, Philips, at Rio de la 

Ha ch 



Gnats Marag 

Ruffia,ib. p. 5 J 


Remedies againft them 



Purchas. Anonymus Portugal, p. 1316. Flies and Gnats, ej. ih. lib. 7 

320. fwelling the Part when the Blood is frefh and tender, witl 


Fare of Portugal 

They make fmoaky Fires all Night in Motecalo againft Gnats and Fl 

fecond Dutch Voyage,^. Purchas. p. 714. 

Muskitas of Davies at Selinama, ap. Purchas. p 

Culices colonists in locis palufiribus fit as infe ft antes. Petr. Martyr, who fay 

they were hunted by the Fire-fl 


Coulfws and Moucherons are troublefome about Aft 


Lambert, p. 140 

Flies which lame People by their B'iimgs,Linfchot, Defer ipt. de I'Jmeriq 
Flies keep a Country from Inhabitans, Mandeville, p. 1 57. 
Showers of Rain near the Equinoctial breed Moths. Terry 
Musket as are troublefome in New-England, Smith, p. 254. 
Musketos and Flies are too bufie in the Summer-IJtes, id. p.ij 

Mofquitos fometimes kill in Mi 

Laet.p. 258 

They are (in the I/land Noronha) amongft the Mangroves. Ration bring 
Bloood by a long Snout, Abbeville. 

XV. Culex niger minor 

A Bottle-Arje. 

Mouftiques de Rochefort which bite without Noife, and caufe fcratching 

and Ulcers, 265 
This Fly is very fm 



rger than a Pin's Head, the Body 

black, the Wings grey, the other Parts fcarce perceivable 
It fixes on a Part, and when you will fcarce feel the Bite, 

Inftance, on your Hands, you'll find them full of bloody Sp 
It is very common near black River Bridge. 


if you look, for 

A Small Fly like it. 

There is a Variety ofthisexaaiy like it, only the bloody Spots 
feen here as after the former. 



every where after Rain, efpecially in the Savannas where they 

ftick very much to Peoples Garments in an Evening 








Teftaceous Animals. 


Of LA N D and R I VE 


OC HLEA t err eft r is maxima, compreffa, fufca, ore unico dente 

don at o. Tab, 240. Fig. 6 


An Cochlea & fafcik & ipfo ore ni 




gricante unico dente columella diftincta. Lift. Hift. Conchjl. Tab 


Cochlea Jamaicenfi 

708.^98. N 







This Shell was dark brown on the upper Side, and lighter brown on the 
under, with one dark Belt or Fafcia. It was about an Inch and a half in 
Diameter, comprefs'd, or a very little raifed, had about fix fpiral Circum- 
volutions, which had on them capillary oblique Stria. The Mouth was 
a little purplifh, and had in it one Tooth. This varies in Magnitude be- 
ing found fometimes not over half the Bignefs of this here defcrib'd. 

I found it in Jamaica and brought it thence. 

II. Eadem vaulo minor 

alba, ore duobus dentibus donato 

Cochlea bidens 

parte tantum columella, margine obtufiore clavicula compreffa. Lift. Hift 

Conchy I. Tab.%2. N 

Nat. Tab 


Cochlea Jamaicenfis depreffa bidens. Pet. G 

6. Cat. p. 576. Mem. Cur. Ann. 1708. N 

This is about one third 
very Refpe£t. 

1 had it with the former 

Part lefs and whiter, otherwife the fame 



228 The Natural Hijiory of J A M A I C A. 

III. Eadem umbilicata deprefflor. Cochlea Jamaicenfis depreffa, bidens, um- 
bilicata. Pet. Gaz. Nat. Tab. 71. N #i 10. Cat. N°" 563. A flat button'd Ja- 
maica Shell with double Teeth. Ej. 

This is the fame only fomewhat IefTer,umbilicated and more depreffed. 

I had it from Jamaica. 

IV. Cochlea terrefiris major, compre/fa, fufca, ore duobus dentibm 

This is not over half the Bignefs of the firft, and hath two Teeth in 
its Mouth, and is of a brown Colour > otherways exaftly like it. 
I had it with the others* 

V. Cochlea terrefiris media magnitudinis, compreffa, albida, ore duobus den- 
tibus donato. Cochlea leviter umblicata margine valde acuta davicula com* 
preffiore bidens ex parte tanturn columella, Lift. Hift. Conchyl. Tab. 90. Fig. 90. 
An Cochlea bidens, fubrufa davicula paululum exert a, vel turbo dent at us mar- 
gine acuta. Ej. ib. Tab, 96. N°. 97 ? 

This is much the fame only lefs than the Precedent, they are both 
brownifh and white, which may come from their being frefh gather'd, 
or having Iain in the Sun and Weather. 

I found it with the others. 

VI. Cochlea t err e sir is minor , fufca, ccmpreffa, ore quatuor Dentibus donato. 
Cochlea fubrufa, quatuor dentibus donata, qutbus tamen extra duo tanturn (inns 
refpondent, Lift. Hift. Conchyl. Tab. 98. N°. 99. 

This is lefs than the Precedent, the Spira a little more rais'd, and one, 

two or thre Sinai's or Hollows on the Out-fide, over againft or anfw 
the Teeth 


I had it with the former 

VII. Cochlea Jamaicenfis minor, ore tetra dentino. Pet. Mem. Cur. Ann. 

1708.^.98. N° # 11. Cochlea fubfufca quatuor dentibus ex parte columella 
donata, adverfus quos extra tot idem Sinus confpicui. Lift. Hift. Cochjl. Tab. qj 

This a Variety of the former wherein are four Sims'* s correfponding 

to four Teeth. 

I took it from the Crevice of a Lignum- Vitae-Tree in Jamaica. 

VIII. Cochlea terrefiris umbilicata, minor, albida, compr eff a , or e rotunda, 0- 
perculo donato. Tab. 240. Fig. 8. 9. Cochlea umbilicata minor fubrufa orecir- 
ctnato & opercular. Lift. Hift. Conchyl. Tab. 55. N°* 51. Cochlea Jamaicenfis 
media alte umbilicata. Pet. Mem. Cur. 1708./. 97. 

The fmall Mountain Snail. 


This is about half an Inch Diameter, is comprefs'd, or at leaft the 
Spira or Circumvolutions are three, and very little raifed, the Shell was 

very thin, fmooth, and of a brownifh white Colour. It had a Hollow 

or Vmbiltcus in the Middle of the under Side, and the Mouth was round, 
and cover'd with an Operculum which was pretty ftrong. The Snail it 


The Natural Hi/lory of J A M A I C A. 

felf was of a whitifh Colour, about an Inch long, and had two Horns. In 
was a true Domiporta, for it carried its Shell wherever it went. 
I found it in the mountainous Parts of Jamaica. 


IX. Cochlea, fufca, terrtdris, major, comprefja, fafciis albidis 

Tab. 240. Fig. 15, 19, 20, 21. 


non aentatd. 

This is as the firft, only fmaller and without any Teeth, there is 
toward the outward Spira a Ring or Fafcia which is white. There is a 

Variety of this, or rather diftincl: Sort, which is umbilicated. 
often fill'd with Hermit Crabs. 



I brought both Sorts of them from Jamaica where I found them. 

X. Cochlea Terreftris, fufca, compreffa, minor clavicula par urn data, non 
dent at a. Tab, 240. Fig. 22, 23. 

This is very like the foregoing only lefler, the Spirt or Circum 


volutions are fix, and a little more raifed. 'Tis without Teeth 
brown on the upper Side, and whitifli underneath, with a white Line 
on the Margin. 

I had it with the former. 


■ » 

XL Cochlea terrefiris, maxima, albida, fpiris parum elatis, ore tribus denti- 
bus donate, repando. Cochlea tridens ex parte columelU omnesjuxta foftti labro 

fromiffo. Lift. Hift. Conchy I. Tab. 94. N°* 


This is two Inches long 
of three Circumvolutions c 


Inch and a half broad, it 




fed than any of the fo 

and they end in a large, wide, brownifh Purple Mouth, in which 
three Teeth fet clofe togethe 


I had this Snail in 
Leaves of Trees. 

Inland Wood 


where it was feeding on the 



XII. Cochlea terrefiris, maxima, fafciis albis & fufcis variegata t ore albo 
Cochlea pull a fafciata cap ill an bus ftriis lev iter exafperata t Lift. Hift. Con 
chyl. Tab. 42 & 45. N°* 


This is a roundifh 

very large Snail, as big 


BalL the C 






d than the foregoi 

lyfafciated with brown and white colour'd Stt 


id it 


Mouth is very wide, and has a whiteMargi 


it. The Colours vary fometimes, being more wot 
whitifh, and fometimes 'tis more ponderous, fometimes 
I found it in Jamaica. 

fmall Lip which furround 

when 'tis moi 


XIII. Trochus, five Cochlea terreftris, 





t enui . 


Cochlea, alba fex orbium, margine primi orbis pulvinata, five Troches 

Jamaicenfis. Lift. Hift. Conchyl. Tab. 62. N 0, 60. Fibula Jamaicenfis 

Gaz.Nat.Pet. Tab. 75. 10. Cat. 577. 


Jamaica Button Shell. 


This is all white, and hath about fix or feven Gjri or fpiral Cir- 
cumvolutions, raifed one above another, in all being as large as a Nut- 

The Shell is very thin, and the Mouth ftrait. 

I found it in Jamaica. 


M m m 


o The Natural Hi/lory of J A M A I C A. 

XIV. Trochus t err e sir is, fubluteus^ minor, Brits & limit fufcis, variegatu 
Tab. 240. Fig. 10, 1 1. An Cochlea J ublivida nigris line is undatis defer if t 

List, Htst. Conchy I. Tab* 58$. N 0, 38. An Buccinum minus Jamaicenfe y me 

ndris (Iriatum. Pet. Mem. Cur. 1708. p. 98. N 


This is about threee quarters of an Inch long, tapering from s 
broad Mouth, to the End, of about five Circumvolutions, the firft of 

, IU mw .^ww, 

which is (harp. The Shell is very thin, yellowifh with black Lines on 

it. It hath a thin black Operculum. 

I found it feeding on the Leaves of the Mangrove-Trees near Paffag 

Fort in Jamaica. 


XV. Trochus cinereus terreflris mi 'nor ', ore patulo y labro repando y lineisfuf- 


Tab. 240. Fig. 14, 15 

This is much lefs than any of the foregoing, being no bigger than a 
imall Haz,el*nut, it hath a wide open Mouth, and is of a grey Colour; 
with brown Lines following the Windings of the Spirt. 

I had it in Jamaica if I rightly remember. 

XVI. Buccinum terreflre, minus , e fufco cinereum, cancellatum, ore rot undo 
fmbriato. Tab. 240. Fig.i 2, 1 }. Buccinum tenuijfime firiatum, ipfo ore circinato 9 
cuius etiam limbus, latus & Hriatus. List. Hist. Conchy L Tab. 26. N°* 24. Co- 

chleajamaicenfis reticulata, ore circinato. Pet* Mem. Cur. ijcS.p. 98. N 0, 16. 

The long Wood Snail. 

• I 

This was about an Inch long, and of a greyifli brown Colour. It had 
about five Circumvolutions, which were raifed like the Buccina 9 and 
tapering, all over cancellated or chequer'd by Stria running athwart or 
eroding one another. The Mouth was round and had a very broad mar- 
in growing round it, and it alfo had an Operculum to cover it. 
I found it in the Woods of Jamaica. 

VII. Buccinum terreftre ventricofum undecem orbium, ore fubrotundo. Lift. 
Hift.Conchyl. Tab. 21. N°* 17. Olivaris Jamaicenfis flriis capillar ibus. Pet. 

mem. cur. 1708,/. ()%. N Q . 15. 

This was an Inch long, almoft round, as big as a Goofe Quill, a little 
tapering to both Ends and big in the Middle. It was made up of about 
eleven or twelve Circumvolutions, and was all white. 

I found it in Jamaica. 

XVIIL Cochlea fluviatilis major, e fufco flava, fafcijs fufcis anguttis vari- 
egata, ore patulo. Cochlea evtridi fubflava, clavicula leviter compreffa, faf- 

ciis anguflis donata. Lift. Hifi .Conchy I. Tab. 1 30. N°. Jo. Cochlea Jamai- 

cenps major fajciata. Pet. mem. cur. 1708./. 97. N°. 2. 

This is of feverai Sizes, fome as large as a Wallnut, it hath about 
four Circumvolutions a little rais'd towards the End, and very wide at 
the Mouth. There are many narrow brown Fafcti or Streaks, which 

variegate the Spirt of it. 

I found them in the River in Sixteen-Miles-Walk, and have had them 
tvomStam and feverai Places of the Eaft-Indies, differing in Magnitude 
and other Varieties. & XIX. 

The Natural Hijiory of J AM AIC A 


XIX. Buccinum fluviatile minus fubviride, line is nigris variegatum 


fubviride, brevibus lineolis fubrufis velut fafciatim depitfum. Lift. Hi/l 

ConchyL Tab* io<).N 

mem, cur. 1708. p. 98. N 

Bute mum minus jfamaicenfe, fafi 





Inch long, is tape 

to a Point, where ends ab 

ing from a narrow oblong Mouth 

1 Circumvolutions. 'Tis greenifh 
brown, and fmooth, and hath feveral fliort dark Fafcia which varie 

I had it with the former 

XX. Buccinulum recurviroftum nigrum fluviatile, fir latum & off erum mi- 
nimum. Tab. mat, Lift. Hi ft. ConchyL 1 o 1 8. N°. 8 1 . depiti. 

not over half an Inch long, all black tapering, and hath Stria 

is here and there rough, by fmall Apices extant, 

in Jamaica. 




I had 


* 9 






? r 

*» * 




. : • 

- • ^i ' r? 

- . * 











AteUa minor elata, radiis vel fafciis rubris 
ConchyL Tab. mut. 529. depict* 

iperto* Lift. Hist 

This is fmall, oblong and high or rais'd, the Sides being as it were 
fqueez'd together. It hath an open Top, from whence proceed Rays 
or broad Girdles, of a white and red Colour alternatively, and of this 
there are Varieties, with narrower and broader Belts* with more extant 

or fmooth Stria, and lefTer or greater Heighth. 
I found it on the Shoars of the Ifland Jamaica. 

II. Patella minor albida fere levis. Patella albida intus citrina, extra raris 
punfturis fanguineis elegant er depict a. Lift* Hift. ConchyL Tab*, 537. N°* 1 8. 

This is a fmall Patella almoft fmooth, with no Aperture at its Top, 
a whitiih Colour; 

fome Stria. 

hath fometimes red Spots on it and fometimes 

I found it with the former. 

III. Patella minor rotunda, nigra, elata radiis albis di/lintta. Patella nigra 
ftriis majufculis albis alternatim fere inaqualibus. Lift* Hist. ConchyL Tab. 

53 9 .N Q -23 

Ann. 1708. p* 157 

Patella Galeata parva cofis albis inaqualibus. Pet. Mem. Cur 
^- vro. , ri*~ w**. r^L. fi^ xi«. *«, C*t. «-R-> 


Gaz. Nau Tab*io. N* 10. Cat* 58 j. 




222 The Natural Hi/lory of JAMAICA. 

Small white ribb'd Barbados Limpet. 

This was very fmall, round and much raifed, the Top was not per- 
forated but moftly white, tho' fometimes black. It had white and black 

Fa fbu on its Margin. 

I fouod it with the former. 


IV. Patella major tenuis comprejfa, Striata, cinerea, maculis crebris e rubro 
fufcis variegata, vert ice albo. Tab, 240. Fig, 16, 17. 

This was a little oblong, thin, compreffed, of an Afh Colour, varie- 
gated with many reddifh black Spots. It had Ribs or Stru, and an ori- 
ent Pearl colour'd white Top, {landing not in the Middle but towards one 
End of it. 

* r 


V. Patella alba,paucis & valde eminent ibus ftriis ft ellata. Lift. Hift, Conchyl. 
Tab. 532. N°- 11. 

The Figure of this fmall Patella was oval, not half an Inch longways, 
and a quarter of an Inch broad. It was of a grey Colour and very thick 
fet with very extant or eminent Ribs or Stria, from the Centre or Jpex 
to the Circumference. 

I found it on the Shoars of Jamaica, and have had it from Barbados. 

VI. Patella albida cancellataUateribuspaululum comprefjis. List. Hift* Con 
ihjl. Tab.^j. N°-2o. 

% %• • 

This is a very thin tranfparent Shell, oval, about three quarters of an 
Inch long. It is flat, the Vertex being more to one End than the other. 
The Stru run from the Vertex to the Circumference, and are crofs'd by 
fome others which are circular and concentric to xht Vertex. 

I had it in Jamaica on the Shoars of that Ifland. 


■ . 

VII. Patella minor comprejfa, oblonga, cinerea, vertice perforato. Pa- 
tefla admodum deprejfa Jinu quodam ad marginem donata. Lip;. Hift. Conchyl. 
lab. 528. N°-$. 

This Shell is a little oblong, about an Inch long, half as broad, flat, of 
a grey Colour. It hath very fmall fine Stru running from the open Apex 
as from a Centre to the Circumference : It hath as other Sea-ihells of 
Jamaica, a red or grey Incruftation here and there upon it. 

I found it on the Shoars of Jamaica, where they differ in Mag- 


' . 


VIII. Patella cinerea minor, vertice aperto elato, ftriis nodofis donata. Lip, 
Hift. Conchyl. Tab. 528. N°- 6. Patella Barbadenfis, rugofa. Pet. Gaz. Nat, 

Tab.%0. Fig. 12. Cat. />. 4. N 

1 ' 4 

1 ' k. 

The Wart ribb'd Barbados Limpet 


This is a fmall round Shell of a grey Colour, it is more rais'd than 

the Precedent, hath fewer Stru and here and there Lumps or Knots on 

them. The Stria begin at the open Top, and end in the Circumfe- 

I found it with the former. 


Th e Natural Hiftory of JAMAICA. 



IX. Patella 
admodum (IrL 



Tab. 80. N°- xi. Cat. N 

Lift. Hi ft. Conchy I. Tab. 527. N 

elato, aperto. Patella cancelUta d< 

T*L *~~ MO. « n„. ,-. x 

2. P 


Na t . 

Barbados Thimble Limpet, Patella reticul 


Bon. p. go. No. 6. Muf.KJrcher.p. 463. No. 6 

This is a fmall P^<?//<* of a greenifh grey colour on the outfide, the Top 
ofit is raifed and perforated, and from it run many fmall Stride to the Cir- 
cumference, which are crofs'd by others at right Angles which are cir- 

I found it on the Shores of Jamaica. 

X.Patella ftriata,medi£ magnitudinis e rubro cinerea vertice aperto. Patella. 
for amine circinato confpicua, maculata. Lift. Hift. Conchy I. Tab* 528. N°. 7. 

This is larger than any of the Precedent, and hath frequent StrU from 
the open Top to the Circumference, with here and there fome little 
Afperities and Spots of a reddifh Colour. 

I found it with the others. 

XI. Patella oklonga articulata, articuli* flriatis, extus fubfufcis intus e *//• 
ridi-ceeruleis. Ofcabrion Carolinianus per elegans fquamis bifariam variegatus 
Pet.Gaz.Nat.Tab. 1. Fig. 3. Lima x matin* RumpkoTkef. Amm. Tab.X. 
No. 4. 

This which flicks to Rocks under the Sea Water in Jamaica after the 

manner of Limpets, is about two Inches 

long, one broad, made 

up of 

eight Pieces or Joints laid over one another. Each of the fix middlemofl: 
Joints is ftriated two Ways on each fide, and fmooth in the Top or 
Middle, of a dark brown Colour above, and bluifh green underneath. 
The whole Margin is made up of a Skin, on which are many round raised 
Points, which are alfo on the firft and laft Joint of the Shell. 

I found it of feveral Magnitudes flicking to the Rocks under Water, 
on the North-fide of the Illand of Jamaica near Don Chriftopher's Cove. I 
have had Joints of it from Nieves. 

•-• -A 

XII. Patella oblonga, articulata, articulis extus albidis, 

intus, e viridi 


It is the fame in every Refpect, only the Colour on the Outfide is white 
and hath no Stride, whether naturally, or, that a Matter precipitated 
from the Sea Water hath filled it up, I cannot determine. 

I found it with the former, and have ftruck it off the Rocks in the Sea 

adjoining to Jamaica, where it ftuck after the manner of European Lim- 

pets. When they have lain afhore expos'd to the Weather rhey turn 

fometimes yellowifh. 

^•\ 1 h 

















The Natural Hijiory of J A M A I C A. 



Of Tubuli Vermium. 



Er mi cuius Jamakenfis rectus maxim us an Rumph. 41.3. Pet. Mem. 
Cur. Ann. 1708. p. 126. N°* $0. 

This was about feven Inches long, almoft ftreight, whitifh and fmooth 



it fide a 
a little 

d infide. It was round, the Diameter more than 

pering, very 



d ponde 

It was brought from Jamaica to Mr. Petiver who gave it to me 


II. Tubuli Verm turn albidi, vel e rubro fufci. Vermiculus Barb ad,, tort His 


Mem. Cur. Ann. 1708 

6. N 


Vermiculus rufefc 

leviter firiatus five cancellatus. Lifi. Hifl. Conchyl. Tab. 547. .F/g.4. Tubuli 



Bon. p. 92. No 

Muf. KJrcher. p. 437. No 

Thefe are wh 
wrinkled or corrugated 

Worms. They are fometimes 

reddifh brown, a little 

d here and there 





of fm 




ft ftreisht. oftener make (ome C 

cumvolutions very thick together refembling 



or at other Times 

they are waved or undulated as Earth Worms when in JM< 

are of the hard Confidence of Sea-ihells, and fometimes 

d are 


Hollow, and taper to the End 




to J 

They ftick to Stones, Shells, &c. in the bottom of the Seas adjoining 

d are fometimes 

adhered to them 

on onfe fide where they have 

\ • . 





• ' 


1 7 




1 : 

Of Conch* Veneris. 

- . 

cha Veneris major fufc a, cui macuUfufca alb is circuits circumdata.. 
Ltft.Htft.Conchjl. Tab. 698. N°'4<). Concha Veneris Jamaicenfis 

major maculata. Pet. Mem. Cur. Ann. 1 708. f. 1 57. N 0, 9. 



bout th 


where broadeft and w 

near half as broad in the Middl 


it tap 

to both End 

Ihining brown all over, excepting fome large Sp 
fome of which have a black Spot in their Cent 
fide is a little whiter, and the 
Teeth, and at the 

hath a Sinus nn on; 

i. It is 

of a wh 

fmoorh and 
ite Coioui 




for the Length of it is bel 

The Belly or und 


h b 



the Head of the Fifh it is wider and 

I found it on the Shores of Jam 

fide. It differs in Magnitud 


The Natural Hiftory o/JAMAICA. 235 

II. Conch* Veneris, Uvis, fubfufca, trifafciata major, maculis majufculis 
albis not at a. Eadem cum proxime fuperiore tamen fafciata, & m*jonbus 

maculis. Lift. Hi/?. Conchyl. Tab. 6yg, N 0, 46. 

This is the fame in every Refpect only fomewhat larger and lighter 
colour'd. It alfo differs in having three large and broad Fa feu or Belts 
on its upper Side. It is of various Magnitudes. 

I found it with the former. 

III. Concha, Veneris ex viridi fufca, lata, valde gibbofa, maculis fufcis la* 
tisdepicla. Lift. Hifl. Conchyl. Tab. 687. N°' $4. Concha Veneris major 
maculata, dorfo gtbbofo, Pet. Mem. Cur. Ann. 1708. p. 15. N°' 10. 

The Back is highly raifed, otherwife much the fame with the for- 

I found it with the former. 

IV. Concha Veneris, parva, fubfufca, Uvis, elato dorfo, bif aj data. Lift. Htfi. 
Conchyl. Tab. 670. N°. 16. Concha Veneris fuf a, valde Levis, duabus faf- 

ciis albidis exornata. Ej. ib.Tab. 66 j. N°'ii. Concha Veneris Jamaicenfis 

fulva fafciata, rima rufefcente. Gaz. Nat. Pet. Tab. 80. N°* 8. Cat. 

N P * 585. Jamaica BuffGoury, with a purple Mouth. 


: 1 

This is mere than an Inch long, halfas broad in the Middle where 
broaden:, and whence it decrcafes to both Ends. ''Tis high and of a 
reddifh brown Colour, with two tranfverfe broad whitifh Fafcu going 
from fide to fide and Teeth on each fide of the Belly or Moutli which 
is fometimes purple. 

It varies very much in Bignefs and Colour. 

I found it plentifully on the Shoars of Jamaica. 

V. Concha Veneris parva, alba, craffa, maculis croceis donata. Concha Ve- 
neris Jam aic en fis minor j maculis ftivejeentibus. Pet. Mem. Cur. Ann. 1708. 
p. 158. N°'i3. Concha Veneris Barbadenfis minor, maculis ftave\ceniibus. 

Ej. Gaz. Nat. Tab. 95. N°- 13. Cat. 586. Small yellow fpeckled Barbados 

■-■ - 


. * ■ 


This is about three quarters of an Inch long, more than half as 

broad, rars'd, light and white. It is .pretty deep for the Bignefs, and 

ih on its upper fide feveral frnall Saffron coloured round Sp 
y on each fide of the Slit or Rima, which runs its Length. It hath 

there on each fide of k white Teeth 

in Masnitud 


of this Kind. It diff 



I found it with other Shells upon the Shores of Jamaica 




VI. Concha Veneris ftriata, cui fummo dorfo ftnuato, fufcA macuU. Lift 
Ht(l. Conchyl. Tab. 706. N°'j6. Concha Veneris Americana, /Iriata, dorj< 

ftnuato. Pet.Mufp. 5. N u# 18. American Nuns 



This is half an Inch long, not quite fo broad, deep or raifed of a 
„ght reddifh Colour, having crooked Ribs Stru, or Eminenues all 0- 
ver it, both Back and Belly. There are fome black Spots upon it and 

a little hollow on its Belly. 

I found 


The Natural Hijlory 



found it in Jamaica, and have had it from Scotland, where it is found 

upon the Coaft. 

VII. Concha Veneris exigua, alba, ft 

Lift. Hi ft. An Jngl, 




Concha Veneris exigua ftriata leviter admodum rufej 



r fo integro macula rufefc 

Ej. Hift. Conchy/. Tab. 7 07. No. 57. G 

Muf. R 
Mem. C 

e frP 


?8. An Concha Veneris American a, ft 

.. O ^ XI 0. » A 


708. p. 157. N 






Thefe are much fmaller and all over reddifh. They are found fome- 
times in Jamaica, and likewife in the Orkney Iflands, and are call'd there 

John of Groafs Buckles. 

VIII. Concha utroq; latere fe colligens, umbilicata ex fufco maculata, labro 

ftnuofo. Lift. Hi ft. Conchy I. Tab. 7 14. N 
m armor at a. Pet. Gaz>. Nat. Tab. so. N 



Veneroides Barbad. minor 
Barbadoes Diper. Ej. Cat. 

C/afs. Top. p. 94. N°* 584. Mem. Cur. Ann. ijo%.p. 158. N°* 18. 

This Shell is about an Inch and half long 

d. is thin, whitifh 

d all over marbled 


broad, it is almofl: 


Variety of reddifh 

i uuiiUt 13 LllllJ* WIULIIJJ* an 11 ail vsvs*i uiai uicu^ vrnti t anviv v/i iwi 

brown Spots of no certain Figure or Magnitude. The Rima toward 

End is narrow, and towards the Mo 

feveral Magnitud 

ry wide without any Teeth 

d finuous or oblique. It is of 

I brought it from the Shores of Jamaica, and have had it from Barbados 

the Caribe I/lands 


Siam, and the Coafl: of G 


IX. Concha Veneris U 



Lift. HiH. Conchyl. Tab. 669. N 

magna, fubcinerea, vcl fubliv.„», 



I avis & perleisis f'afi 



dor ft 


Veneris Jamaicenfi. 
-t? vro. . . . d l 

tenuis* ex 


Conchyl. Tab. 74 


N c 

Pet. Mem. Cur. Ann. 1708. />. i$8. N ' II. Rh 




tola purpurafc 

Lift. Hi ft 


47. No. 266. Muf. Kjrch 

Concha venerea, levi & fragili t eft a, Faft 

465. No. 265 

This is about 

it decreafes tov 
lour, with three 
from one 




rds both Extremes 



middle, whence 

one Side to another. There appea 
tions on the End oppofite to the Mouth. 
Teeth and is pretty open. 

I found this on the Shores of Jami 

light, of a grey co- 
ry dark brown broad Fafcia going tranfverfly 


or Circum 


is befet with b 

of feve 



X. Perftcordes Jamaicenfe guttulis perlatis, maculis, marginaliter flavis 

Pet. Mem. Cur. Ann. 1708. p. 158. N°* 29. 

* — 

This refembles the Concha Veneris very much, and is more than half 

Inch long, about a quarter broad, very fmooth, of 


r with fm 




s P 


and two or th 



rubb'd off, 


End hath fe 

as Ivory and fhining when the 

extant Circum 



It is at 

Cruft is 

fpiral Li 

nding oppofite to the Mouth, which hath fome Teeth on the Sid 

End of the Rima or Sli 


Slit at the fur 

wider than in other proportionably large Concha t 

End of the Mouth is 


I found it 


the forme 




The A carnal Hi/lory of J A M A I C A. 237 


Of Nerits. 

I» TV T ^'^ tttrinque dent at us ore citrino y elegant er & undatim variegatus* 

jj^ Lift. Hist. Conchy L Tab. 600. N°. 17. ^» Nerita albidus, ore Ci~ 
trinOy minutulis fafciis, in&qualibus depiUus. ej. ib. Tab. 60$. N°* 21. Opregte 
Wiiimoud. Rumph. The/. Arrim, Tab. 22. N°* 8* Cochlea marina, exotica, mar" 

morea. Fab. Col.purp. p. 18, 19, 20 

This is more than an Inch long, half as broad, white, thick, and all 0- 

ver mark'd with undulated and varioufly fhap'd Fafcta or Belts of a dark 
brown Colour. The Mouth is tooth'd towards the Volute and yellow. It 
hath two or three fcarce appearing Spira or Circumvolutions, and is all 
over fmooth. 

I found it in Jamaica with black and purplifh FafcU, and have it 
with yellow and reddifh Fafci*. It comes alfo from the Ifland Mauri- 

tins near Madagafcar. 

II. Nerita Capillaceis nigris lineis undarum modo crifpatis eleganter depiclus* 
Lift. Hift.Conchyl. Tab. 605. N°* 32. Nerita major -reticulatus. Lift. Ht ft. 
Conchy I. Tab. 605. N°- 30. 

This Shell is near an Inch long, more than half as broad, the Circum- 
volutions are raifed or extant fome length and taper. It hath Teeth on 
the Side of the Mouth next the Clavicle, and hath many undulated, 
black or purple and bluifh Lines upon it, very thick, with fome white 
Spots, whereof fome are larger and fome fmaller. The Mouth is cover'd 

with a long Operculum. 
' I found it in Jamaica. 

III. Nerita fluviatilis Uvis, totw niger y ore edentulo luteo. List. HiH. 

Conch) I. Tub.mut. 145. N°' 37. depitf. 

This Shell is thin, light, black and fhining, about half an Inch long 
and a quarter broad. It is as to the Circumvolutions the fame as the 
other i\erit* y having one or two cppofite to the Mouth, which is yel- 
lowifh, long, without Teeth, and fhut up with an Operculum of the 

fame Shape. 

I found it at the Mouth or a River running into Port-Royal Har- 

IV. Nerita reticulatus. Lift. H'tft. Conchy I. Tab. 604. N 0, 28. Nerita 

Barbadenps i/istar pluma eleganter maculata. Pet. Gaz. A 1 at. Tab. 11. Fig- 4. 
Bar badoes Partridge Nerit. Cat. CUff. & Top. p. q\. N p# 580. NerituU 

Brafil, nitide punctata. Ej. Gaz. Nat. Tab. 67, 4. Nvritula BraJiUa mgra t 

punctulis albis. Ej. ib.Tab. 67. 5. CUjf.& Top. N°' 568. & 571. Varieties 
of Nent Shells from Brafrie. Nerita ebeni trigredtnem iupernns lacfoo colore 
puacJata. Bon. p. 141. N c - 218. Muf. Kjrehtr.p. 462. N°* 218. 



2 3 8 The Natural Hijiory of J A M A I C A. 

This refembles the la ft but one in every thing, only is much blacke 

or darker coloured, and lcoks fo from the many dark Lines upon it, 
with (bine white round Spots. 'Tis fmooth, and hath a Mouth and 
Covering to it like others of this Kind. Whether the three laft be not 

only Varieties I am not certain. 
1 found it on the Shoars of Jamaica. 

V. Nerita vel Citrinus, vel colons caUavei. Lilt. Hist. Conchyl. Tab. 607. 

This Nerita is fmaller than any of the former, round,fmooth and yellow. 
I found one ofthefe in Jamaica, and have had them from theCoafts 

of Ireland, Scotland, and England, as well as from Nova Zambia 

Captain Wood, who was fent to difcover a Paflage to China by the 


VI. Nerita exiguus, nigro lineus ore fubcroceo. Lift. Hift. Conchyl. Tab. 

605. N p * 31. Nerita Jamaicenps alba, parva, (triis caftaneis. Pet. Gaz. 

Nat. Tab. 15. N 0, 8. Small Jamaica Saffron mouth'd Nerit. Ej. cat. 

clajj. top.p.y\. No. 581. 

This is about a quarter of an Inch Diameter, fmooth, white, with 
a great many oblique dark brown or blackHh Lines running over its 
ourfide. The Mouth is wide and yellow. 

I found this plentifully on the Shoars of Jamaica, and fometimes 
with the Lines rubb'd out. 

VII. Nerita maxim us variegatus, ft r tat us ad Col ft me Sam ex auro & croc 
rujefcens. Lift. Hi ft. Conchyl. Tab. 595. No. 1. Nerita Americanus e ni 

gro rubedine undata. Pet. Mem. Cur. Ann. 1708. f. 126. No. 12. 

This hath the Twirls or Circumvolutions of the Shell prominent 

Top, and is about an Inch Diameter. It is white, ftriated after the man 

ner of the courfe of the Spirt lengthways, and mark'd with tranf 

or purplifh colour'd crooked or undulated Fafcu or 
Belts. It is tooth'd on the Side of the Circumvolutions, and is there a 
little Saffron colour'd. 

I found this on the Shoars of the Ifland Jamaica. 

VIII. Nerita frofunde fulcatus, e nigra, albo, & purpurea variegatus. Lift 

Hilt. Conchyl. Tab. Mut. 596. No. 7. 

This is much the fame with the former, only the Sulci are deeper, 
the Spots are black or Purple, and not continued in Belts. The whole 

Shell is fmaller. 

I found them with the former, with their long OpercuU with, Hermit 
Crabs in them and all white, I have alfo had them from Siam. 

IX. Nerita prof unde fulcatus, ex albo nigroque variegatus, paucis & exiguis 

dent thus ad columellam ad roftrum mult is & longe dedutfts. Lift. Hift. Lon- 
ely L Tab. ^97. No. 9. Nerita Jamaicenps ex albo ntgroque tejjelatus. Pet. 

Gaz. Nat. Tab. 13 . pig. 12. Barbadoes Lettice-pied Nerit. Ej. Cat. p. 94 

No. 579. Mem. cur. Ann. 1738. />. 126. No. 11. I'alvata Julcata nigra, 

Rumpi.'ihtj.AMm. Tab. 22. In N. Nerita magis afper a. Bcnan. p* 141. 
No. 220. MuJ.Kjrcher. p. 462. N c « 220. 


The Natural Hi/lory of JAMAICA. 2 

This is commonly fmaller than the foregoing, tho* fometimes as large, 

is deeply furrow'd, all over white and black. It hath an Operculum 
fitted to the Mouth which hath long Teeth many towards the 
Spira or Circumvolutions, and few on the oppofite fide. 

I found it on the Shoars of Jamaica, where I faw one which was all 

I have had it likewife from Siam. or at leaft one fcarce different from it. 


Of Sea-Snails and Trochi 

\.f~AOch!eanivea, nitida, rarior Fab. Col, Lift. Hi ft. Conchy I. Tab. 571 

No. 2 2 . Cochlea nivea, exotica. Fab. Col. Obf. aq. p. L. 1 1 . An Co 

chit a jubftava unicolor. Lijler tb. Tab. 566. 14. Cochlea valvata. Herm. Muf. 

No. 449. Cochlea Jamaicenfis alba, crajja, umbilico pulvinato. Pet 
Mem, cur. Ann. 1 708. p, 1 2 J. No. 2. Cochlea Jamaic. fubflava vel alb a 

& crajfa. Ej. ib. No. 2. 

This Shell was not over three quarters of an Inch long, about 
halt an Inch broad, all milk white and fhining as turn'd Ivory. It 
had only three Volut a which began from a long Mouth, near which 
it was umbilicated, and ended in a deprefs'd Vertex after three Turnings. 

It is fometimes of a light brown yellowifh colour, giving the Variety 
mentioned above from Mr. Petiver.. 

I found this Shell on the Coafi of the Ifland Jamaica. 

II. Cochlea marina e cceruleo putpurafcens, compreffa, Uvis, tribus volut 
tjians. Nat. Hifi. Jam. p. $ 2. Tab. 1 . Fig. 4. Cochlea e cceruleo purp 

i/cens. Lttt. Hist. Conchy I. Tab, 572. No. 27. Carina Holuthuriorum 

Rumph. Thef. Tab, 20. Fig. 2. Cochlea Jamaic. purpurea, fragilis. Pet. mem 

cur. Ann. 1708. p. 125. No. 6 

The largeft of thefe, which are all very light, thin and brittle, that 
I have met with, is of an Inch Diameter, more than half as deep from 
the Bafe, where is the Mouth, which is very wide, to the End of the 
Volut d on its Top. It hath not over three Circumvolutions or Turnings, 
and is at the Top of a light bluifh or purple Colour and fmooth, on the 
under, purple and ftriated. 

I found it fwimming on the Top of the Sea, with Bubbles out of 
its Mouth which was uppermoft, near Barbadoes, and have found it at 
Jamaica, and have had it fent me from the Caribe lftands, and Fort St. 

George in the Eafi -Indies. 

III. Cochlea marina Janthina, Fab. Col. fur p.p. 12, 1 J. Lift. Hill. Conchyl. 
Tab, 572. No. 24. 



2 a o The Natural Hi/lory of J A M A I C A. 

Thcfe are much the fame only more flriated than the former, aru 7 
the Clavicle generally more raifed or extant and prominent. 

IV. Eadem ore magis patulo e freto Magellanico. List. Hifi. Conchyl. Tab. 
572. No. 23. 

This differs only in having the Mouth wider, and being in Colour 
fomewhat darker. Mr. Handyfide gave me ftveralof thefe which he found 

in the Streightsof Magellan, 

V. Trocbus maximus, Uvis, ex nigro maculatus. List. Hist. Conchyl. Tab, 


640. No. 30. Trocbus Bar bade nfis magnus ex albo nigroque undatus. Pe 

Mai', p. $$. No. 845. Gaz. Nat. Tab. 70. Fig, 9. The large Barbadoes 

Magpie Top-fhell. Mem. cur. Ann, 1708. p. 126. No. 21. Cochlea umbi- 

licata, Bonan, p. jij. Fig, 29, 30, Muf. Kjrcher. />. 451. N°* 29, 30. Trochus 
Jamaicenjfs minor alte umbiltcatus. Pet. Mem. cur, Ann. 1708. p. 126, 

No. 22. An Trocbus Jamaicenfis minor, marmoratm, ore quafi dentkulato* Ej, 
ib. No. 23. 

This Shell is three Inches diameter at the round Bafe, whenc 
bout fix Circumvolutions it ends pyramidally in an Apex wh 


is two Inches high. It is umbilicatcd by the round Mouth by a Hole 
which feems to be continued to the Apex, like the Well of a Stair-cafe. 
It is very (olid and ponderous, fmooth, within white and ihining, 
as if filver'd over. The outfide is of the fame ihining Colour, under 
a Cruft or outward skin'd marbled, or variegated with white and black 
Spots and Streaks. 

Thefe are common in the Seas of Jamaica, and are eaten by fome 
People, being of various Sizes. They are alfo found in the Seas near 

Barbadoes, Nieves, the River Miffifipi and the Bahama Iilands. 

•• , »■ 

VI. Trocbus minimus firiatus, albidm. 

This is not over a quarter of an Inch in diameter, and about as high 
from the round Bafe to the Vertex. *Tis all whitifh and ftriated by fmall 
Ridges and Furrows, for the whole Dud or Courfe of the Volute which 
end pyramidally in a Point. 

I found it on the Shoars of Jamaica. 

VII. Trochus parvus, firiatus, undatim ex fufco denfe radiatus. Lift. Hi/r. 
Conchyl. Tab. 641. No. 51. Trocbus crebris ttnis fufci* & tranfverje & 
undatim difpofttis donatus. Lift. Hifi. Animal. Angl. 166. Tit. 1 5. 

I found this on the Shoars of Jamaica, and could obferve no D 

rence in it from that met with on the Coafts of England, Scotland and 
Nova Zjmbla, from all which Places I have had it brought me. 

VIII. Trochus planior pyramidalis, Jiriatus, muricibus radhtim ad margi- 

nem. Lift. Hifi. Conchyl. Tab. 622. & 623. No. 9. Trocbus fwuofus, orli- 
bus ac baft muncatis, e Miffifipi. Pet. Mem, cur. Ann. 1708. p. 128.N 

N 9 . 366,367 

703. p. 1 2d. iNO. 19 

Cochlea depreffa, Bonan. 0.165. N°- 366, 367. Muf. Kjrcher, P.43J 



The Natural Hiftory of J A M A I C A. 


The Diameter of this at the Bafe which is a little finuated, is an Inch, 
'tis half as high from the Bafe to the Afex. It hath feveral long Api- 
ces or extant Points, along the Margins of the Folut<e y is white and fhining 
like Pearl, when the outward 


whitifh rough 

Skin is taken off. 

I found this with other Shells upon the Coaft of Jamaica. 

IX. Trochus pyramidalis,albidus, (lriatus y murk at us. Lift. Hist. Conchy I. 
Tab. 62S. No. 14. An 'Trochus pyramidally rugofus f baft afpero e fluvio Mil- 

ftffipi. Pit. Mem. cur. Ann. 1708. p. 128. No. 18 ? 

This is about an Inch Diameter at the Bafe, about an Inch and a 
half high from the Bafe to the Apex or 'End of the circumvolutions, 
which are muricated for their wholeLengrh as the former, and have beficjes 
tranfverfe Ridges and Furrows very frequent of a reddifh white colour. 

I found one of them on the Shoar of Jamdica, with a Hermit Crab 
in it. 

X. Trochus major variegatu 
bus diftintfus. Lift. Hi ft. Conchy I. Tab. 646.N 

s } ex viridi rufoq, bafi Uvi,(lrijs multum 


ftis finuofi. 




rficolor. Pet. Mem. C 

Trochus Jamaicenj 






» » 


• * 



i J 



* 1 

, '> 

J * 

This is about anlnchand a half in diameter at theBafe where it is fmooth 

It is about an Inch high from thence to the Ap 

End of the Volut 

ir \ ' 

all underneath like Mother of Pearl and mining, having 

nd there fome few tranfverfe Ribs and Hollows betwee 

between each of the Circum 



d all 

nd a F 
over w 


white Cruft and with Lines and Spots of reddifh green and brown, ma 
it appear as if it were cancellated. 

I found it plentifully on the Shores of the Ifland Jamaica. 

XI. Trochus minor e luteo cinereus, comprejfus y umbilicatus, unidens,ftriatus s 
fpiris finuofts. Cochlea Barbadenfis rugofa unidtns. A fmall rugged Shell 

with a fharp Ridge, and a deep furrow'd Twirl. Pet. Gaz. Nat. Tab. 63. 

N°- 1 1 . Cat. claff. top. p. 4. S Q * 


Trochilus Jamaicenfis rugofus uni 

dens. Pet. Mem. cur. ann. 1708. p. 128. N°* 24. Trochilus unidens umbili- 

cat us, fir Us nodofts exafperatus. LtU. Hi ft. Conchy I. Tab. 655. N°* 52 

This Shell is of a yellowifh greyColour, half an Inch in Diameter, near 
high, having about five Circumvolutions which are ftriated with fmall 

eminent Lines 

d Furrows 

having crofs them fome Em 

ding to the Courfe of the Tw 

hich are 




v . -/ • 

the Length of the Oibes. They are umbilicated by the round 


Mouth which hath 



I had it from Jamaica^ Barbados and 

Tooth or Knag by the Columella 


■ ' ' ■ " 

The Sinuses in Mr. Petiver'i 

iumciently exprefs'd, having been rubb'd orr. 




• '.« .r 








•^ ♦ 



rr j u 

inh . 


t * 1 * ■ 

• , 








p P p 

> ?. 

r \ 











* V 
V * * 

.. ■-. 


% * 


The Natural Hijkry of J A M A I G A. 

H A P 



0/ Buccina tv/;^ Spirae arefljort. 


Vccinum brevi roftrum ventricofum % undatim Uepilum, maximum, ftri- 

atum, clavicuU muricata, depnffa. Lift. Hifi. Conchy!. Tab. mut. 

4. Cochlea In die a Ventri- 

co/a. Bon. p. 159 

CaJJis rubra. Rumph. Thef. Tab. XXIII 

$23. Muf.Kjrcher.p.tfo. 




* • 



This Shell is very ponderous and thick, being almoft at the Bafe or 
under Part by the Mouth triangular, every fide of the Triangle being 
near five Inches in Length. It hath a long narrow Mouth, a little crooked 

or oblique at the End, tooth'd on both Sides and brown. The Lipoppo- 

fite to the Clavicle is welted or turn 'd up. The Circumvolutions are ail 
ftriated according to their Courfe with Ridges, the moft eminent of 
which are nodofe or knobbed, the fmaller are numerous, and tfce Fur- 
rows between them have Eminencies and Hollows between them 


ning crofs them. The whole Shell is whitifti, and hath many larger 
2nd fmaller brown Spots upon them. Placing this Shell on its Mouth, 
it is about four Inches high. 

They are common on the Shores of the Ifland Jamaica, auctare'eatea 

for Food, but 



v * 

t /pid 

very hard to be digested. 

i« k. U. 


1 -■ 



brevi-rojl rum> ventricofumjuvdatimdepiEitim, clavici 
. Conchy!. Tab. 1004, 'N° k <%. > m*[a jamaicenfis 

'a™ r*.* -«« r*7^£ /, »^~ MO. ,<? A„T*.-L- : 

clavicula muri- 


IT. Buccinum 

cat J. Lift.Hifi 

nodoja. Pet. Mem. cur. ami. 1708. p. 190. N°' 18. An Turbo anritus tuber- 
culofus Jldrov. exang. Fig.tfi. id. Franc. 120. Tab. y ? Caffidisfccandi 
fpecies. Rumph. Thef. p. 4. Tab. XX III. N°* 2. 

' , I 

This differs from the 

n * c ill 

oregoing -in being lefs, having the Cfevicle 

more raifed, and no Stria: or Lines drofling one another upon 

I found it with the former. 


III. Rhombus fufcus quafi nticulatus iclavicuh inttoH. LiH.Hift. Con 

r^. 725. >n 


P.f. ikfrar. Cur. 1 Anno 1708. */. ^58 

r • • • , » . i . 1 • i 

CyHndraceas Bar bad. *vu! gam Hindis inarmoratis 

» *rt% XT°. rs% I h i man 



fc . 


fill 3 

i tnai 

• • 




• v 



Inch and half 

where thickeff. 


g> a 


half 'as thick ift the Middle 


nd whence it grew lefs to : both'Erife. The 'fifft Crr- 
made the greateft Part of the Shell, it was fbm'ing as if 
pohfhed, white and had many waved redifh brown ^Lines upon it. Tire 
Mouth was dentated towards the firft Voluta, thick, long, and narrow. 
The Apex was made up of feven Circumvolutions and ended in a Point. 

There are of differ 

fome there are fmaller 



this Shell, many being larger and 




horn the Shores of Jamaica, and Barbados 

1 * 

Buccinum dentatum Uve 9 fubrufum, fafcijs interfeciis five ntAcuUtis dep 

turn. Lift. HiH. Conchjl. Tab. 842. N Q - 4 1 . 


'■ . 

The Natural Hifiory of J A M A I C A. 




bout an Inch and an half long, half as thick, or in Diamece 

the Middle wh 



bout fix fpiral Circum 

d, with a crool 

lutions in a Point. The Mouth is open, oblong, 

Roflrum, tooth'd oppofite to the Columella. It is fmooth of a darker b 


ghter brown Col 

nd hath feveral white B 

or Fafcu foil 

ing the Courfe of the Spira, made up of 
I found it on the Shores of Jamaica. 


nd black 



V. Olivaris ^amaicenfis vufoatiffimus croc&o vjtriepatus* Pet. mem. cur. 

, . p. 158. N°* 26. . 

\ -* * 

This is the fame with the former, only it hath no-other Spots or Co 
lours but fuch as are white and yellow. 
I found it with the former. 

VI. Oliviaris Jamaicenfis brevis, columella dentata, jlriis obliquis albefcen- 
libus. Pet. mem.cur.ann. 1708. p. 158. N° # 28. 

This hath oblique large white Clouds or irregular Spots of white and 
blackifh, or yellow intermix'd. 

I found it with the former, and perhaps,* his and the precedent are only 
Varieties of it. 

1} vvrj ti iijulw sloivslD rb io i jj 

VII. Rhombus Cylindropyiarnidalis, brevis, mt/tor, Urlatus> efufco & atfa 

variegatus. Claviculaleviter nodofa & mucronata. 

This Shell is more tha 

an I 







ich long, a little more than half ai 
the Beginning of the Volutx or Wind 

the Anx or End of 


Way, and the End of th 

Mouth the other. The opening. of the Mouth is very narrow and ftreigl 

e Ends of th 



and there are extant Points or blunt Ap 

Circumvolutions towards the yd/** which is a little prominent 

cumvolutions are about fix 

the Shell is 

er, and the firft and ereateftPart of 

fly (haped covering 

very pleafantly clouded with white and brown Clouds 


which are difcernible lbme 6' 

j % ■ 



I found it on the Shores of Jamaica 





) I ; 


* . 


VIII. Rhombus cylindro pyramiddisybrevis^fl 
gatuSy clavicula nodofa Leviter mucronata. 


dr albo 



lours which 

is larger, otherwife 

SaflV o n 

all Refpe&s the 
d and white. 

fame, excepting 

the C 


I found it with the forme 



< r 





k * 



i J 


.iiCiol ibiii 

s. i 

\ior\ 01 



» • 'i 



! ?.. 

* * 


I » 


i I 









..: : I 




» - 


H A P. 


^ *. 




1 1 


244 The H* tur * 1 Hi ft° f y ^/JAMAICA. 

H A P. VII. 

Of Buccina tvhofe Spirx are longer and fmooth. 

J. T^%Vcc/num maximum varies atum ac ftriat am. Fab. Col. Ob r . p. ^ 


Lift. Hist. Conchy/. Tab. 959. N°*i2. Buccina magna. Bon. 
N°*i88. Muf. Kjrcher. />. 460. N°*i88. Buccinator turn Bar~ 
badenfemajus. Pet. mem. cur. ann. 1708. />. 190. N 0, 16. Rond. aq.p. 81. 
c. 1 2. Fig . ? 

This is the largeft long Buccinum I have feen, and is ufed for trumpeting. 

I had it from Jamaica^ Barbados, &c. 

• * • 


II. Buccinum ex viridi fubflavum Trochoides limbo quo dam acuto in medio 
orbe circumfcriptum. Lift* Hift. Conchyl. Tab. iii. N°* 5. 


This Shell is about three quarters of an Inch long frcm the Mouth to 

the End of the Clavicle which is very fharp, half as broad or in Diame- 
ter at the firil winding or Twirl by the Mouth. There is a (harp Edge 
on the firlt Voluta, and about fix Turnings or Volute in the whole, which 
are all whitifh coloured and fmooth, only feveral tranfverfe oblique 
Lines going crofs them. 

I found it inr the Tame Places with the former, of feveral Magnitudes. 

uW O . V.A » \ Oili JO £0 in j i; . t • • 

r III. Cochled{eviter& denfe ftriata y ctebris undatis lintis rufts Per obliaum 
■depfta. LiH. Htft. Conchyl. Tab. 58$. N c - fr. 

X ■ , 

- 1 

This Shell is about half an Inch long from the Mouth, which is round- 
ifh to the End of the Circumvolutions, which is fharp, and near the fame 
Diameter at the Mouth. It is ftriated the Length of the Circumvolutions, 
which are about fix in Number, between each of which is a hollow ; 'tis 
thin and whitifh or dark brown of Colour and of feveral Magnitudes. 

I found it on the Shores of 'Jamaica. 

: * 

A .111/ 

IV. Buccinum parvum, roflro integro. labro dentaio, bifa[ciatum.'Lift< H'rit 
Conchyl. Tab. S ? 4 . N"- 60. 

. • rv 


!• ll (i I L 

This fmall Shell which is cylindrical and pyramidal rs about 
half an Inch long, and more than a quarter broad. It tapers from 
the Middle to both Extremes, is fmooth and whitifh, with two 
brown Belts or Fafcu running over the firft Circumvolution of this 
Shell which makes much the greateft Part of it. The Mouth is ftreight or 
narrow and hath two or three Teeth at the End. 

I found feveral Varieties of this as to the FafcU. fome being aflh co- 
others brown, and others blackifh, and with, and without Fafc 
the Shores of the Ifland Jamaica. 

V. Btfttinum dentatum parvum, ritfu comprejfo fve dvgufto, varirgatum 


finis valde exajperatum. Lift. WJl. Conchyl. ft*. 824. N Q . 45. Bucc malum 


The Natural Hifiory of JAMAICA. 24$ 

dent at um Mediterraneum, (triis fafciatis maculatum. Pet. Gaz. Nat. Tab. 

9. Fig* 4. Common American Olive. Cat. p. 4. N°* 582. Olivaris Ja- 

waicenfis vulgaris tricolor. Ej. Mem.cur.ann. 1708. />. 158. N 0, 27. 


This is not over half an Inch long, near as broad and high, the 
Mouth is narrow, teeth'd on both fides and finuated. It hath many 
fmall StrU or Ridges, and Sulci or Furrows which are deep in Proportion 
to the Shell. It is whitifh and variegated by frequent yellow or brown 
Spots and Clouds, and fometimes white Faj'cU are intercepted by brown 
Lines. The Clavicle is made up of five or fix Circumvolutions, and 
is not very prominent. The firil Circumvolution tapers to a Rostrum 
or Point oppofite to the Apix. 

I found this on the Shores of the Ifland Jamaica, and have had it 
from the Coaft of Norfolk in England, and from Gibraltar and Tangier^ 
near the Mouth of the Streights. ... 

VI. Idem majus & Uvius. 

This differs from the former in being longer, being not fo much 
flriated, and having only brown colour'd Clouds and Spots. 
I found it in Jamaica with the former. 

■ • 


VII. Buccinum rojtratum grande, raris lineis circumdatum Uve, non nifi 
ima parte cujufq\ or bis jtriata. Lift. Hi ft. Conchy I. Tdb. on n*sFig. 2. . B&c- 
cinum Jam. fafciatum tenue. Pet* Mem. Cur. Ann. 1700. f. 190. Fig. 14. 
Gebaande achaat-hoorn. Rumpb. Tab. 94. Fig. H. Buccina Uvis & 

nttida. Bon. p. 1 $6. N Q ' 187. Muf. Kjrch. p. 460. N°* 187. 


.\{\ ■ 

This, ifl about four Inches long, one and a half broad in the middle 
where) broadeil, and as high in the fame Place, whence it tapers to the 
End of the hollow Roftrum or Mouth one Way, and the pointed Ver- 
tex or End of about icven or eight fpiral Circumvolutions the other. 
'1 is all over fmooth and of a purplifh white Colour, having large 
Spots of a brown Colour all over the Volutd, and feveral brown Lines 
running fpirally the fame Courfe, fo that I am lomething doubtful if 

that from Campeche figur'd by Dr. Lifter, ib. Tab. 910. Fig.t* be not 

the fame Shell, only the marbled brown Spots worn our, and the 
Lines remaining. It hath a wide, long Mouth without Teeth. 

I found thefe of feveral Magnitudes and Ages in the Seas adjoining to 
Jamaica, and have had it from the Ifland Beata and River 

* y •# 

VIII. Buccinum dent at um admodum craffam, fufcum, leviter & denfe 
fir iatum yentricojum. Lifi.Hift. Conchyl. Tab. 8? 1. Fig. 55. An Buccinum 
dent at um rojlralum fufcum Uve clavicula acuta. Ej.ib. Tab*. 8$ 2. Fig' 56? 


•' • 

This is very thick and ponderous, about an Inch and a half long, 
half as broad and high near the Mouth where broadeft. It hath a 
crooked Mouth, with a Hollow for its Tongue, which is tooth'd on 
both fides. It hath about fix Circumvolutions tapering to the End, 
is whitifh, variegated witli brown Spots and 67r/>, which in fome arc 
fcarce perceivable. 

% * *\ ^ 

I found forac Varieties of this on the Shores of Jamaica. 







The Natural Hiftory of J A M A I C 

IX. Buccinum minimum 

oblongum, U 

Barbadenfis vix dent a 

e cinereo & fuft 




ftaneo reti- 


Pet. Gaz. Nat. lab. 30. Fig. 6. Barbadoes 

'• 24. Cat. Clajf. N Q - 

rictu angufto. OUvaris 

cuUtus, elavicula ccerulefc 

net Olive. Mem. Cur. Ann. 1708. /. 178 

This is about half an Inch long, about a quarter of an Inch in 
Diameter about the middle where thicker!. It hath a long Aperture 
for the Mouth, is fmooth and fhining, and is white and brownifh 

marbled all over. 

The infide is of a bluifh white Colour. 


I found it on the Shores of Jamaica 

X. Buccinum dentatum, fubrufum, anguftum leviter Hriatum. List. Hijl, 
Conchyl. Tab.Sig. Fig. 33. Buccinum dent ortile. Bar bad. J afciis Capillaceis 

Pet. Mem. Cur. Ann. 1708. /. 158. N°- 3 


about an Inch long, of half as much Diameter 

the Head 

whence it tapers to the End 


hath two or three Teeth towards 

the Columella on one fide of a long Mouth. It is on 
difh grey and the whole Duds or Courfes of the Volut 

the outfide red- 
x are ftriated or 

have fmall Ridges and Furrows which 
I found it with the form 

fpirally along them 

XI. Buccinum breviroftrum, claviculatum or bib us fuperioribus l*vibus 3 

caterum JtrUtum fafciatum. Lift. Hist. Conch) I. Tab. 379* Fig. 37. 


This is more than an Inch long, a quarter of an Inch in Diameter 
near the Mouth where thickeft, and whence it tapers to a point. The 


Part of the Volut* are fmooth, the under, ftriated. 

It is all of 

a (huiing whitifti Colour, with fome FafcU of a dark leaden Colour 
running along the Volut*. 

I had it with the former. 



Buccinum ampullae eum minus 

& albo variegatum 

tenue y roftro leviter fi\ 



crebrioribus & minus profundus . Buccinum b 

iftrum, ftriatum, fufcum, undatis Uneis albis depittum. Lift. Hi ft. Conchyl 


Buccinum breviroftrum tenue umbilicatum, afp 

Tab. 984. Fig 

Jlriatum variegatum. ej. ib. Tab. 985. 'Fig. 44. Perdicea Jamai'cenfis vul 

gar is. Pet. Mem. Cur. Ann. 1708. f. 90. N 9, 2i. Buccina quatuor fp 

mm JRnn. cl* 7. Fio. tot Muf K ivcUpy +> aA* vro. .0^ 

Bon. p.i 3 7. cl. 3. Fig. 191. Muf. KJrcher. p 


This, which was a fmall one of the Kind, was about two Inches 



an Inch broad at the End of the firft Circumvolution and as 
It was extreamly thin, having a wide oval Mouth, at the End 

of which towards the Columella was a Sinus. The Circumvolut 

which were about fix, were ftriated by Ridges and Furrows follow 
ing the Courfe of the fpiral Lines, their whole Length, and was red 
dilh brown with white Lines and Spots. 

I found thefe plentifully on the Shores of Jamaica 

% V 


riatum 9 pluribus uridatis finubu* 

XIII. Buccinum breviroftrum tenuiter / 

dijlintfum. Li&.Hift. Conchyl. Tab. 962. Fig. 14. Buccinum 
fej'cem ftriatum & undatum. Ej. Hifi. Anim. Angl. p. 1 56. Tit 

no ft r as c oft is fafciatis & ftriatis. Petiver. Muf. 


•cwum maunum 



The Natural Hiflory of J A M A I C A. 


SogCrab-rvhelke, Ej. Mem. cur. am. 1708. p. 285. No. 7. Buccina intrinfecm 
livida, extrinfecus terrea, Bon. p. 136. Ftg. 189. Muf Kjrcher. p. 46. Fig 

1 . Muf. Stbbald .1 


thefe Shells I found in Jamaica on the Shores 


but tha 

I ha 

well defcrib'd and figured by Dr. Lifter that I fhall fay no more, 

had it from many Parts of England, Scotland, Ireland 

Wales^ and Norway. I have feen it likewife come from the Cape-of 




and from the Orkney Iflands with Hermit-crabs 


XIV. Buccinum album, Uve maximum feptem minimum [fir arum. List. 

tit. 1. Buccinum roftratum majus craffum, orbibus 
Hifi. Conchyl. Tab. 9 1 $ . Fig. 4. Idem gracilius 

Hilt. an. 
paululum pulv 

Ang. p. 155 

Buccina fenis orbibus € 

460. Fig 

Bon. p. 1 1 7. Fig. 190. Muf. Kjrcher. p 

Buccinum Fqffile rostratum maximum Lifteri referens. D. Dale 

Phil, tranj. No. 291. Buccinum medium craffum ponder ofum & Uve. Pet. mem 

yoS.p. 285. No. 8 


This is found in England^ amaic a, and at the Cape-of Good-Hop 


XV. Ve fie aria marina nonramofa y e veficulis infundibuli forma, membrana 
undid at a extante coronatis, const ans. Cat. jam. p. 7. Hifi. Jam. p. 64. Tab, 24. 
Fig. 1 . Alcyonium veficarium coronatum, buccini* minimis rep let um. Plum. Fit. 
Amer.p. 145. Tab. 168. lit. (X 

•• " 1 



t\ ■ 


- «*■ 


# r 



I * 


I have nothing to add to what I have faid, Pag. 64. of the Firft Volume 
of this Hiftory, but only that I believe this to be the Ovarium of one of 
the large Buccina before defcrib'd. 




Of Buccina whofe Spirae are long and muricated. 


• i 









maxime patente purpur 


cuU marie At a. Lift. Hifi. Conchy 1. Tab. mut. %6j. depilf. Mur 

bilw^uis Jamaicenfis maximus nodulis majoribus. Pet. Mem 





Kjrcher p. 469. N 

Muf. Kjrcher. 


59. N 

Mur ex Jamaicenfi. 
N°' K. Mur ex auritus. Bon 


304. Mur ex alatus ejufd 



ditfant ibu 

s in- 


• 474- 
Muf. Kjrcher 






Murex Cartaginenft 

• 304. Muf. 
71. N°- 404, 405 


ib. p< 

• ^w 

I . 





is one of the largeft Shells, very weighty bad 
the outfide yellowifh white, and the firft Circumvolution makes up 

the greateft Part of the Shell, which together with its diffus'd, fpread, Lip 

referable a Wing. The infide is extremely well poliftfd and of 
fcarlet Colour, and is made into Buttons being fet in Gold or Sil 





-«., a „v« „ maw uuu utivvv/**^ ~~.-- — - 

midling fiz'd are about a Foot in Length 


Diameter. It hath 


fix or 

half as 

lutions all of them befec with 
vary in their Lengths. 


Ligtu, auuut nan a 

Spir* or Circumvo 

s/^ * 



are blunt 


24.8 The Natural Hijlory ^JAMAICA. 

I had it from Jamaica. It is alfo found near Cartagena in America, 
and in great Plenty on the Shores of the Leeward Part of Barbados, 
where they are eaten and tafte like Tripe. They likewife there make 
Lime of them. 

II. Idem minus. 

This is perhaps not differing but only the younger ones of the former, it 
is not filiated nor of fo fine a red Colour within, but otherwife the fame. 
I had it with the former. 


III. Buccinum ampullaceum ftriatum, clavicula muricata apertura leviter 
purpurafcente. Lift. Hift. Conchyl. Tab, 886, Fig, 7. Idem grandioribus 

ibu-s, & piclura quadam magis undata diftincium. Tab, 808. Fig. 9 
& Tab. 887. No. 8. Murex Jamaicenfs, fafciata, nodofa. Pet, cat, claf 

dr top. Fig, 579. Mem, Cur. Ann. 1708. p. 189. No. 6, Marbled Ja 

maica Murex with knotty Twirls. Gaz. Nat, Tab, 74. No. 1. t Murex 

coronatus. Bon. p. 15?. No. 288. Muf. KJrcher. p. 468. No 

This which was a midling fiz'd Shell of its kind was about fix Inches 
long, two broad, about the Middle where broadeft, and whence it taper'd 
to the End of the Mouth and Clavicle. It was alfo two Inches high in the 
higheft Places when laid on its Mouth. It had about fix or {even Cir- 
cumvolutions, on the upper Ends of which towards the Apex were 
extant blunt Points hollow within. All the Circumvolutioi 
ftriated lengthways, it was white on the outfide and within 
and by the Mouth it was purplifli or reddifh. 

They are found plentifully in the Seas adjoining to Jamaica. 

That mentioned by Mr. Petiver is, as he fays, the fmalleft of its 



• - 

IV. Buccinum recurviro strum, clavicuhtum, Jlriatum & afperum. Lift. 
Hift- Conchy I. Tab. 1018. Fig, So. 

This is about an Inch long, half an Inch in Diameter near the 

Mouth, whence it taper'd to the End. It hath a round Mouth, in 

one Corner of which is a crooked Bill or Reft rum. It is white all 
over excepting fome thin brown Clouds, and all the Cirumvolutions 

which are about fix in Number, have StrU and extant Points running 


\ . i 


I found it on the Shores in Jamaica. 


- • 


I ■ 


V. Buccinum recurviroflrum, ventricofum, labro putvinhto variegatum, 
ftriatuum & afperum. Lift. Hift. Conchyl. Tab; 1001. Fig. 66. Bur fa J a- 
maicenfis vulgaris imbricata. Pet. Mem. Cur. Ann. 1708. p. 190. No. 20. 
Caffidum Species 3. Runtph.Tab. 2$. Fig. 3, p. $1. Cochlea ovi four am ex- 

primens. Bon. p. 1 $2. No. 162. Muf. KJrcher, p. 458. No. 16 r. ' 

This Shell is about two Inches and a half long from one End of 

the Mouth to the other, refembling, in a great Meafure, the Concha 
Veneris, having a Slit or Mouth toothM on each Side, with a crooked 
Ending and a Cavity as a Bill or Tongue. The Circumvolutions 
are little extant on the further End, in Number about fix. The 
Mouth on one fide hath a Welt, on which are dark brown Spots, 

and from the Mouth to the Top of the 1 -firft Valuta 'tis about an Inch 



The Natural Hifiory of J A M A I C A. 2 4.9 

and a half high, and 'tis as broad meafur'd crofs the Belly. The firft 
Valuta, or Circumvolution is mark'd lengthways by many fmall StrU 
and Ribs with Furrows between, which are cut at right Angles 
others fewer and larger. The Shell is whitifh with red brown Spots 
or Marks. It is generally thick and ponderous, tho' at other Times 

'tis lighter and thinner. 

I found feveral Varieties o( this on the Shores of Jamaica both in 
Colours and Magnitudes. 

VI. Buccinum muftcum grave, fafc latum ex lineis quibufdam inter ft tits 
maculatum clavicula leviter muricata. Lift. Hi[t, Conchy/. Tab. 809 


No. 18, & 812. No. 21. Murex qui Cochlea. Hebraa a nonnuUis vacatur. 
Bon. p. 154. No. 295. Muf. Kjrcber. ^469. No. 292. Murex rojlt atsss 

merito aptllandus. tj. ib. No. 294. Muf. KJrcher. />. 469. No. 295 

This is about three Inches long, half as broad towards the End 
of the Clavicle where broad eft, and about as high when lying up- 
on its Mouth on the Ground. It hath a wide Mouth and feveral 
Rifings towards the fides of the Circumvolutions, but none oppofite to 
them. The Shell is very ponderous and thick. It is whitifh and hath 
many brown ftreight Lines as if drawn for Mufick, which are crofs'd 
here and there by others oblique or undulated. The Windings or 
Spirt (which are about fix in Number) of the Shell have many deep 
Furrows and Ridges on them, at the End of each of which Ridges 
areobtufe, blunt and extant Points. 

I found it in Jamaica 

VII. Rhombus cylindro-pyramidalis fufcus, albida fafcia infignitus, clavi- 
cula nodofa, alb is maculis diftinttus. Lift. Hift.Conch)l. X*£. 784. N 0, 31. 

This is about an Inch long, half an Inch broad near the Cla 

Circumvolutions where broader!;, and whence it ends in a Point. 
'Tisas high from the Mouth which is very narrow or ftreight, to 
the upp^r Part. The Volute are nodofe and very little extant or pro- 
minent. The firft winding is a little ftriated, is brOwn, and hath a 
white Fafcia or Belt, and here and there fome white Spots which 
have great Varieties. 

I found them in the Seas adjoining to Jamaica, and have had them 

from Barbados and Suratte. 

VIII. Buccinum roftratum, dent at um, fufcum, ftriatum, fpiris nodofis. Buc» 
cinum dentatum y rofiratum, fufcum, clavtcula muricata. Lift. Hift. Conchyl, 
Tab.%2%. N 0, 50. Buccinum dent or tile Barbadenfe fafciis nodulofts. Pr/. 

Mem. Cur. Ann, 1708. />. 158. N 9 ' 32. 

This is about an Inch long, half as much in diameter about the 
Middle where 'tis thickeft, and whence it ends in a pointed, hollow, 
crooked Rojlrum one Way, and after about fix Circumvolutions in an 
Apex, the otherway. The Spir* are brown, ltriated, and have Nodi, or 
blunt extant Apices the Length and Du£t of their Courfe. The Mouth 
is narrow and tooth'd. It is fometimes twice as large. 

I had it from Jamaica, Barbados, and St. Chriftopbers. 





s 5 o 

> * * 

The Natural 



if lory of 


Buccinum raft 


Milts" Hurt; ph. T 

nw, labro dupl 


long ius 9 fl 






P. P/ 

'/. Htft. Conchjl. Tab. mut. 944. ^/#. 
£1*. 7<w*. '0 Pay. p. 74- T/^. 4 ? Murex'j 

£. xx vi. L*>. B ? TVta 

muricis tuberculis 


Bon. f.i2y N°. 10$ ? M«y: Kjrcher.p. 45$. N 



Vol fit A 



bout three Inches long, two broad in the Middle of the firft 

Mouth is round 

Winding where broaden*, and ashieh. 


with a Lip 

d up 




Tongue oppofite to the Cla\ 

fee with extant Ridg 


1 v.-. "-{J' •»»wwim 1J IUUUU 

ooked hollow for the Beak or 


f a whitifh Co! 


gher tha 





deep Furrows running 

the Length of the Volute. Thefe are croft'd 
by others which run tranfverfe, are fewer and more raifed, making 

ght Angles with the former 


found this Shell on the Shore of J am ah a 




uccinum roftratum magnum 

1. N°- 

Hi ft* Conchy I. Tab. 94 



tr. Ann* : 
Tab. 1 o. 






Muf. J^irchr.'p. 468. N Q ' 

labro duplicato quad tri&ngulare. Lift 
Buccinum "jamaicenfe triangulares Pet, 
Triangular Wilk. Muf. j'ociet. Reg. 

. 154. CI. 

Murex triangularis. Bonan 



which was the larger! of th 



ever faw, is near fix; 

Inches long, two and a half broad at the Bafe of the Triangl 

the Mouth, and two Inches high. The Lips of the 

gular Mouth 

are welted, and have feverai Rifings on that Side oppofite to the Co 

lamella, which are the Ends of fo many Ribs 
ftd hollow within. There are alfo feverai Stria between th 


on the Outfide 

3 Ribs 



Tis of 

Jit reddifh 

brown Colour without 


and hath a crooked hollow Bill or Roflrum for the 



:. The 


large Ribs have feverai obtufe Points on all the fpiral Circumvolu 

of the Shell. 

I found it of feverai Magnitudes and Colours on the Shores of the 





ro recurvo % labro dent at o duplicato minus e fufc< 
ho variegatum, flicaturis & firiis donatum. Buccinum rosiratum 

XL . Buccinum 


, anguflius, labro dupl 

m.Conchjl. Tab. m .N*-i 9 



qualiter Hriatum. Lift 







high. The Mou 

es-i it is 


fome of 

w , near an Inch broad, and half an Inch 

welted and tooth'd with frequent Teeth on both 

The Shell hath fome extant Welts or Ropes over 

* or Windings. It is thick ftriated with brown 


Vo lut 

u*> Jf Une V u ™ m S frilly the length of the Circumvolution 
and following their Courfe. .., Thefe Voluu are fix in number, and the 

ana rojiowing tneir >.our e. i nele Voluu are fix in number, and the 
whole tfutfide of tlie, Shell is of a dark reddilh brown Colour, varie- 

ijated/w^h white, Spots and Fafc 
1 round it on the Shores of *? 


of 7. 



' » 

* . 




»l I ^ /C 

/ , I 






The Natural Hifiory of JAMAICA. 

XII. Buccinum dent at um, rofiro tenui produclori ixfignitum, minus Album 
fir iis & flic at arts eminent thus ex a/per at am, cancellatum. List. Htit. 

Conchjl. Tab. mut. 830. N°- 54 ? 

This is much fefs and hath a prominent hollow Rollrum, is all white 
an:l hath Lips like the former. It hath many Ridges and Furrows 
crcffing one another, making it cancellated. 

I found it with the former. 

XIII. Buccinum breviroftrum, labrofum, crajfum, nodofum, columella, lata 
plana. Lift. Hift. Comhyl. Tab. 989. N°' 49. Perdicea Jamaicenfis nodofa.Pet. 

mem. cur. Ann. 1718. P. 190. No. 22. Cochlea colore cinereo in 

as nignc antes geftiens. Bonan.p. 165. CI. 2. Fig. 36%. Muj. Kjrcher 

p. 473. No. 36 

This Shell is two Inches and a half lonp, and an Inch and a half 

broad, and an Inch high when laid upon its Mouth. The Mouth 
very wide and oval, the firft Circumvolution makes the greateft Pa 
of the Shell, and is ftriated with reddifh brown FafcU or Beits, on the 

largeft of which are blunt Apices or Points, 'tis whitifh in all Places 

except the Stria and FafcU. • In the leiTer and younger Shdls of this 
Kind the Apices are more in Number and fharper. 

I found thefe on the Shores of Jamaica. Dr. Lifter had it from Bar* 


XIV. Buccinum ampullaceum fafciatum, tnuricatum, labro patent 
List. HiH. Conchy I. Tab. 904* No. 24. Murex mucrombus brevibtts, 

or dine difpofitis aculeatis fafciis infuper albis cinffus, cceterum color 

in nigrum propendente. Bon. ^.154. No. 295. Muf. Kjrcher.p. 469 

No. 296 Murex Jamaicenfis rnultiformiter fptnofus. Pet. mem. cur. Ann. 
1708. p. 189. Dubbeldegetakte /chilpadslaart of Beddeteyke Rumph. Thef. 

Tab. 24. N°- 2. Cochlea fafciata inter purpuras numeranda. Bon. p 

35. N°'i86. Muf. Kjrcher.p. 40. N°- 186. 


This is about three Inches long, about two broad and as high. 
'Tis of a whitifh Colour, and hath many large brown Belts or Faf- 
cU upon the firft Circumvolution, which makes the greater!: Part of 
the Shell, and is fet with Rows of very large fharp Prickles. The 

windings of the Shell are about fix, and are all brown, with fome 
times a deep Sulcus between, they are fometimes more, fometimes 
lefs exerted or extant, and at other Times are almoft fmooth, are 
lighter or darker coloured, but have all wide Mouths and are oval fhaped, 
whence the Varieties figured Tab. xxiii. by Rumphius. 

I found them plentifully on the Shores of Jamaica, and fometimes 
they had Hermit Crabs in them 

1 * 


XV. Purpura five Murex Pelagius m armor eus. Fab. Cel. Obf. p. lx. & 

lxiv. Buccinum roHratum triplici ordine Muricum ctnaliculatorum horrtdum. 
LiH. H/Jc. Conchjl. Tab. qa6. N°'4i- Murex Americans v. tide rugofus 

Pet. mem. cur. Ann. 1708. p. 190. N°* 8. An Aldrov. Exang. p. 558. /. 
Id. Fr.p. 117. Fig. 8. 9. Species Muricis ramofi, Rumph. Tab. xxvi. N u ' 1. 

Tbef.ah.p. 5. Purpura triangularis. Bon. p. 151.^.276. Muf. Kjrcher. 

4<7- N°. 281. 


252 The Natural Hiftory of J A M A I C A. 

This is about four Inches long, very near three broad and high, 
including the Prickles, fome of which are an Inch long. The whole 
Shell is white within and fmooth, with almoft an oval Aperture for the 
Mouth, out of which, towards the Columella iffue two more than 
Inch long hollow Prickles or Murices, which feem to be for two 
Tongues to thruft out from the Fi(h. Thefe are fometimes branched, 
which Branches are Iikewife hollow as the Prickles. The Mouth 
is alfo finuated all round, over which Hollows are Prickles or Murices y 
with many of which there feems to have been no Communication 
with the Fifh in the Shell. They are of different Lengths, as are 
thofe placed on a ftreight Line on the Top or Vertex of the Shell. 
The whole Shell is of a reddiih brown Colour, and ftriated fpirally as 
the Volut& turn. They are fometimes milk white, which may come 
from the Lofs of their outward Skin, by polilhing, or Accidents. 

They are found of feveral Magnitudes on the Shores of Jamaica, 
and I have had them from Nieves. 

XVI. Buccinum fublividum, Hriis nodofis & inter dum murk at is exafpera- 
turn. Lift. Hi ft. Conchy /. Tab. 30. N Q * 28. Cochlea Jamaicenfts vermiculata. 
Pet. Gaz,oph. Nat. Tab. 70. N° # 11. Cat. Clajf Top: N°* 564. Jamaica Wart- 
Shell. Buccinum parvum, breve, afperum. ej. Phil, tranf, N 0, 255. 
29$. N Q ' 1. 


This is an Inch long from the Mouth to the End of the apex voluU 

axis of the Shell, or Columella, which is fharp. It is about three q 
ters of an Inch in Diameter about the firft Voluta, where is a round 

Mouth, coverM with a thin black Operculum. The twirls or Volute 

are about fix, ftriated their whole Courfe by fmali Ridges or Eminen- 
cies running the length of the Foluta, on which are placed Studs or 
Eminencies which are fometimes blunter at other Times (harper. The 
Colour is fometimes blackifh brown, and fometimes whitifh. 

I brought this from a Marfh near the farther End of the Bay 
which makes Port-Royal Harbour, and gave fome of them living to 

Dr. Lifter, who kept them alive in his Garden for a whole Summer 
I believe the Shell from Afcention defcribed. Phil. Tranf. N°. 255 
295. as above to be a Variety of this. 

XVII. Buccinum bilingue, fubfufcum, labro craffo, riftu fobcroceo, intus 
ftriato, muricatum. Lift. Hist. Conchy I. Tab. 871. N 0, 25. Muf. Sibald 

55? An Buccinum bilingue majus tenue, ex rufo nebulas tm muricatum 

Tab. 860. No. 1 7 f Murex bitinguis Jamaicenfts 'vulgaris. Pet. mem 
Ann. 1708. p. 189. No. 3. Murex intus rubefcens cortice tuberofo 

Bon. p. 155. No. 300. Muf. KJrcher. p. 469. No. 3 

This Shell is three Inches long, near two Inches broad, and as high. 
The firft Winding makes the greateft Part of the Shell. The Lip is ve- 
ry broad and thick extended a great Way and having three Sinus's 
two oppofite to the Clavicle, and one oppofite to them bv the Cla 

vicle, at which Places it is ftriated or tooth'd, the Mouth is white or 

reddiQu The Windings or upper End have extant Apices which are in 
fome longer in others lhorter, and continued to the End of the Spine 
in proportion diminifhing. Thefe are hollow and often rubb'd off. There 
are fome Ridges and Furrows on the Outfide of the firft Circumvo- 
lution of this fheil which are a little knotted or have blunt Apices 





• I » 

The Natural Hiftory of J A M A I C A. 

'Tis all over brown with feme white Spots and FafcU. The Colour 

is fomerimes blacker, fometimes more reddifb. 

I found thefe Shells plentifully on the Shores of the Ifland 



XVIII. Idem e ftxvo rubrum majus, cUvicuU muricata, non striatum. 


This differs chiefly from the former in being of a yellowifli red 
Colour. The Windings of the Clavicle are more muricated tho' there 
are no Stria on the firft Winding as in the Precedent. 

I found it with the former. 


■ •- 


XIX. Buccinum breviroftrum y labrofum y crajfum, variegatum f unico or- 
dine clavatum. Lift. Htft. Conchyt. Tab. 991. N 0, 52. An Buccinum brevi- 

rostrum ^ Ubrofum, crajfum , ex bino 

erta. Ej.ib. N c *53 


or dine m uric at urn, clavicula fur am ex- 

This Shell is very thick, ftrong and ponderous, near an Inch long, very 
near as broad and high. It hath a wide Mouth with an Operculum 
fitted to it, and is all over of a dark brown and white Colour in- 

the firft Winding 


termixed, the Clavicle is very fhorr, 

with extant Points, or muricated, and fometimes the fecond. There 
are in all about four of thefe fpiral Lines ' ' : •™ J w * »-' ' lJ 

I found it of feveral Magnitudes on the Sea Shores of Jamaica 

** - 

XX. Buccinum brevi roftro e nigro & candido variegatum, dent at urn & 
muricibus crebris obtujis obfitum. An buccinum brevirostrum nodis valde 
eminent ib us at obtujis diftintfum. List. Hifi. Qonchyl. Tab. 956. N°'. 



This feems to be twice as large every way as the former, and dif- 
fers from it not only in having blunt Apices or extant round Points all over 
the Circumvolutions of the Clavicle, but alfo in having the fame 
on feveral extant Ridges upon the firft Circumvolution towards its 
Mouth which hath Teeth towards the Columella. 

I found it on the Shores of Jamaica, and have had it alfo from the 
Shores of Barbados and St. Chrtftopkers. 

XXI. Veficaria Marina, non ramofa, e veficulis infundibuli form* mem- 
brana undulata extante coronatis 9 constant. Cat. Jam. p. 7. Hifi. Nat. Jam. 
Vol* 1. p. 64. Tab. 24. Fig. 3. Alcyonium veficarium coronatum Buccinis 
minimis repletum. Plum. Fil. Am. p. 145. Tab. 16%. Lit. O. 

I have nothing to add to what I have faid of this Subftance in the 
firft Volume of this Hiftory 







4 L 






2 5<f 

The Natural Hi/lory of 






Of the Coverings for the Mouths of font e unknown Shells, 

% ■ 



Perculum, five umbilicus marinus hemifpharicus, albidus, Uvis. Tab 


This was flat on one fide, hemifpherical on the other, about half an 
Inch Diameter, all white only on the upper part of the Hemifphere it 
was brownifli. It was all fmooth, and had a vifible fpiral Line; on the 
flat fide which is on the out fide of the Mouth of the Shell. 

I found it on the Shores of 3f**w*/V*, an( j have received it gather'd up 

on the Shores of (he Magellan Streights by Mr. Handy fide. 


II. Operculum, five umbilicus marinus apicibus parte convex a donatus, gib 


oblongus. fab. 34 


* • 

* «• 








flat on 


Inch long, and about three quarters of 



were abundance of fmall 

d and hemifpherical on the other, where 

d Af 

or extant white Points 


flat under Part was brown, and had a fpiral Line on it. 
It was fent from 'Jamaica to Mr. Petiver who gave it 


III. Operculum, five umbilicus marinus e viridi nigricans, comfrejjus, mem 

branaceus. Tab. 241. fig. 






This was no thicker than a Membrane of a horny Subftance, perfectly 
flat without any Rifing or Convexity of either fide. It was of a greenifh 
black Colour near an Inch Diameter and had a fpiral Line upon it. 

had it from Jamaica. 

t * 











Of Bivalv'd Shells, and fir ft of the Pinna, and Spondyl. 


i tenuis Striata, muricata. Lis?. Hisl. Qonchyl. Tab J70. N 
Pinna lata- altera. Kumph. Tab. 46V lit. M. 



The fnudl murtcdttd Pinna. 

* » 



Pinna is 

bout half a Foot or fix Inches long, beginning 

the Car do very fmall, and growing broader to the roundifh wide 
End. It is itriated on one half by roundifh or circular Stria, and on 
the other by extant Ribs, which towards the broad End are muri- 

cated or have hollow Af 
Colour and very thin 

The whole Shell is of 

greyifh brown 


cated, which perhap 

fome of thefe Shells not half fo big, and others 


iy Varieties from Age or Accidents 

I found them plentifully call upon the Shores of Jamaica by the. Sea 

The Natural Hijlory o/JAMAICA. 2 $ * 

II. Spondylas fere ruber muricatus. Lift. Hift. Concbyl. Tab. 206. N°» 
40. Spondylusgravior leviorf, ejufd. Tab. 207. N ' 41. An Spondylus Aldro- 
vand. Rondel et. p. 41 ? Oftreum e chin at urn. Rumph. Tab. 47 Jit. E. Oftreun 
echinatum janguineum. Ej. Tab. 88. N c : 1. 


This, which was the upper Valve, is very ftrong, thick and heavy 
about three Inches long from the Hinge or Car do to the Circumference, 
about two Inches broad at the broadeft Part oppofite to the Cardo. It hash 
many pretty Jarge StrU from the Cardo to the Circumference, on which 

are placed Murices or extant Prickles, hollow'd upon their underfide 
fomeof them are half an Inch long, others fhorter, and fometimes the 
Ribs or Stria are fmooth, either naturally or by Accident. It is of it 
red Colour above on the Convex, and white on the Concave, about hall 
an Inch deep, and very often hath fmall white Tubulifov Worms, flicking 
upon it. The under valve is the fame, only hath a Neck or round Point 
jetting out a little crooked, varioufly fhaped and hollow. 
I found it on the Shores of Jamaica. 

Thefe Shells are alfo found and have been fent to me from Suratte, Mada- 

gafcar and Siam in the Eaji-Indies. Mr. Salvador e hath fent me fome 
dug up near Barcelona, from a Bed of grey Clay, which hath made 

them heavy by filling their Infides, and coloured them, and their 

Murices with the fame Colour without. 

* % 

III. Spondylu s minor fubruber , tenuis, imbricatus, apice dijlorto, cavitate 
inter 'tore auricul am refer ens. Tab. 241. Fig. 4, 5, 6, 7. 

• 1 • ' 

The greater Valve of this Shell was about an Inch diameter, had an 

'Apex very much diftorted towards the right Hand when the infide 
of the Shell is turn'd downwards. The outward fide all over was co- 
vered with extant Scales and hollow Apices of a reddilh white Colour, 
feveral extraneous Bodies ftick to it, and the Sediment of the Sea. It 
was reddifh within and fmooth, very hollow at leaft three quarters of 
an Inch. The fmaller Valve was almoft flat, and in the infide, refembled 

a human Ear. It had one long Hollow to receive a Protuberance of the 

other Valve to ferve for a Hinge. Both Valves were very light, con 
trary to what is ufual in this fort of Shell. 

I found it on the Shores in Jamaica. 

The Colour varies being fometimes whitifh at other Times yellowilh or 

IV. Sfondylus major cr afliffimus , fcaber, angujius, e cinereo fubruber, apice di 

fiorto, cavitate inter tore auricul am refer ens. Tab. 241. Fig. 

This is very thick, narrow and ponderous, of a whitiih or reddifh 
Colour, of various Magnitudes, and three or four Times bigger than 
the Precedent and like it only not fet with Prickles but rough. 

I found it with the former, and of great Varieties. 


V. Spondylus craffus, minimus, albus, ft r its vel fafciis extantibus, imbricatus, 
Tab. 241. Fig. 10, 11. 

This is about half an Inch long, half as broad towards the farther 
End where broadeft, thick and white. It hath feveral concentric extant 
Stri* or FafcU over the Breadth of the Shell as if drawnbyaCom- 
pafs from the Hinge or Cardo which is pointed like the Bill of a Bird. 

I found it in Jamaica on the Shores of that Ifland Chap* 

s= «:-.#» #•'•*.» 


The Natural Hifiory of J A M A I C A. 




Of Scallops and Cockles. 



Etfen ex afro rufefcens tenuis, admodum cavus, leviter canaliculatus 

r-n. ma r> /.../ >r _l . aQ xtO. - -D a n- av , <Y„«^; n. a„::. Jo 

__ Lift. Htfi. ConchyL Tab. 
vibus. Pet. Mem. Cur. Ann. 170 





Petfen^ Jamaicenfis Jlrijs it m 

241. Fig. 12, IJ« 



One of the Val 



of this Shell is an Inch hollow or deep 


other ftreight or rather a very little convex on the Infide, and hoi 

low'd withou 

It is 

Imoft round, about three Inches and a half 

Diameter, of a brownifli red or deep Colour without 


JL/iaiJIClCi, Ui a uiuwuiui iv,u ui uvv^i vwiwui wuuuuij wimv c 

fmooth within. It has feveral Furrows on both upper and under Va 



is not proportionably thick 

and light 



others of this Kind, but 




Thefe Scallops are frequent on the Shores of Jamaica, and eaten by 
the Inhabitants. 


II. Petfen variegatus, Jtrijs circiter otfodecem majufculis donatus. Lift, ffift. 

«./,*/ T~l. ,~^ \JQ. .A 

Conchy l. Tab. 179. N 


This is more than an Inch long from the Car do to the Circumfe- 

rence, where it is about as broad, it is ftriated with many large Stri* 
is reddifh and brown variegated, and ear'd. 

I found it on the Shores of Jamaica flicking to the Bafhrd Sponge 

and have had it fent me from Suratte and Siam in the Eaft-Indies. 




111. Petfen parvus, ex croceo variegatus tenuiter admodum ftriatus, alter nis 

fere Jlrijs paulo minor ibus* Lift. HiJL ConchyL Tab. 189. N 0, 23, 



This is about an Inch long, eared on one fide, and about an Inch broad 
the Circumference, where broadeft and round. It is white with Saffron 

d Spots and ribb'd from the Cardo to the Circumference, 'tis fmooth 

nd wh 

in the Infide 

I found this on the Shores in Jamaica and have had it alfo fent to me 
from the Iflands on the Coaft of Scotland. 


IV. Petfen albus anguslus flrijs crebris tenuibus & imbricatis exafperatus. 

rr __, vto Petfen albus minor fopuamofus! Pet. 

Lip. Hift. ConchyL Tab, 176. N 

Mem. Cur> Ann* 1708. 




two Inches 

and a half long, one 

Inch and a half broad 

near the End where roundifh and broadeft 



It is about three quarters 

the Cardo, all over white and pellucid, now and 

of a grey brown, ftriated by frequent Lines of the fame Colour, 

inch broad 


I found it 
the Coaft of AJ 

nd of feveral Magnitudes 

the Shores ot Jamaica, and have had 

it from Tang 


^ -.-.«. * 

- • » 

Peel en fubrufus flrijs viginti auatuor ad minimum donatus. Lift 

ConchyL Lib. 1. Tab 

80, <£i8i. N°- i7<*-i8 

Petfen tenuis fubrufus ma 

J J 

culojus circiter viginti jtrijs major ibus & levibus donatus. Ej. Htfi. An. Angl 


Morton. N. H. N 

200. N 9 '2. Tab 



r < * 



The Natural Hiftory of JAMAICA. 257 

I have nothing to add to what is above exprefs'd in the Titles, fave 
that I found it on the Shores of Jamaica, and that Mr. Morton found it 
fofliior underGround in the inland Parts of England, v\z.A r orthamptonfijire. 

VI. Pecien minor, terms quaternifve ftriis minus extant ibus, donatus. Lift, 
Hi ft Conchy I '. Tab. 171. N°. 8. An Spondylus variegatus ftriatus margine di- 
git at a, Ej. ib. Tab. 210. N°* 44.] 


This has the Cardo on one fide of the Valves, which are deeply 
furrow'd with five or fix Stria, and at the Circumference deeply 
let into each other alternatively. 'Tis variegated with red, and is 
of feveral BignefTes, from three quarters of an Inch Diameter tp 
more than twice that Magnitude. 'Tis narrowed at the Cardo, 

I found it in Jamaica. 




VII. Pecien minor cinereus, compreffus, striatus. 

This hath many Stria from the Cardo to the Circumference, is eared 
on both (ides and fhaped like an ordinary Scallop. It is about an Inch 
in Diameter and of a grey Colour. • *> 

I found it in Jamaica on the Shores of that Ifland. hhi 




VIII. Peciunculus major, polyginglymus, hirfutus. Tab. 241. Fig, 14, if 
16. Peciunculus albus, crajfus profunde fulcatus, edulis concha. Lift. Hift 
Tab, 236. N 0, 70. An idem Tab. mat. 232. N°* 66. depict, Petfen virgi 
neus. Rumph, Tab, 44. lit, I. Concha & Concha Indica, Bon. f. 108. N 0, 73 
d-74. & Muf,Kjrcher.p.W)M°- 7}, 74. 

This is a very large Cockle, about three Inches longways, and near 
as much in Breadth, the two Valves are about two Inches deep. The 

Furrows and Ridges are deep and large. The Shell is join'd at the 
Hinge for about two Inches in Length by numerous fmall Teeth and 
Cavities. It is on the outfide all cover'd over with a brown Membrane 
thick fet with fhort Briftles or ftrong Hairs, and white underneath. It 
is of feveral Magnitudes. 

I found it in the Sea adjoining to Jamaica, where it is ufed for Food 
I have alfo had it from Suratte, 

IX. Mufculus Mathioli. Mufculus striatus fafciis undatis fubfufcis depic- 
tus. Lift. Hist. Tab. 368. N°- 208. Bi-Jndian large Mufcle. Mytulus Ind. 
Orient. Occident alis facie. Pet. Mem. cur. ann, 1708. p. 247. N°' 62, Mytu- 
lus Barbadenfis vulgaris striatus, ftriis fufcis. Pet. Mem. cur. ann. 170 
222. N 0# 1 6. Regte Noacbs-Ark. Rumph, Tab, 44. Lit. P. Ah Pe ft en fax a- 

tilis.Ej.ib. lit.L. Concha navicul am exprimens, Bon. p. 103. N v# 32. Muf. 

Xjrcher.P. 442. N 0, 31. 


This is lefTer than the foregoing, of the fame Shape. It is white, 
variegated with reddiCh brown FafcU eroding the Stria which go from 
the Cardo to the Circumference. The Hinge is two Inches long, with 
fmall Teeth and Cavities as the former. 'Tis alfo cover'd on the out- 
fide with a thin Skin or Membrane of a light brown Colour. They 
are of all Magnitudes from half an Inch long to the Length of two 


T t t 


t ■ 


2 5 8 The Natural Hiftory of J A M A I C A. 

This Shell-fifh is found on the Shores of Jamaica, as alfo on thofe of 
Barbados and feveral Places of the Mediterranean, all which Shells, 
what I can obferve, differ very little in aoy thing one from anot her. 

X. Pectunculus denfe firiatus margine fere ina^uali & pnuofa. Li si. Hift* 
Conchy I . Tab. 229. N°' 64. Tab. 241. Ftg. 17. 

This is, as to Hinge and Shape, cxaftly like the former, only more 
round and fphericai, being about an Inch in Diameter. 'Tis often cover'd 
with the Sediment of the Sea and hath frequently Tubuli Vermium 

Oyfters, &c. (ticking to it. U hath an Opening or Hole towards the 
Edges rendring each Valve finuous. 

I found it among the Corals, Spunges, &c. in the Bottom of the Seas 

adjoining to Jamaica. 

XI. Pe&unculus folyginglymus, alb us, oval is. Peclun cuius denfe & frojunde 
ftriatus ovali Figura. Litt. Hip. Conchyl. Tab, 2^7. N°* 71. 

This is the fame with the Precedent only the Car do or Hinge which is 
very long and tooth'd, is not (freight but oval, as is the Figure of the 
whole Shell, which is much kfs than the foregoing. 

I brought it fromjamaica, and have had it fent from theBay of Camfeche. 

XII. Peolunculus minor, folyginglymus, albus, Uvis, vert ice ad latus diftorto 
intus argenteus y jfUndem. 

_ * 

This is not over half an Inch long from Corner to Corner on the fide of 

the Shell oppofite to the Cardo or Hinge which is a little diftorted to one 
fide. It is above a quarter of an Inch from the Cardo to the oppofite Part of 
the Circumference, fmooth and white. It is deep and the infide of a 
Aiming white Colour, as if cover'd over with Leaf Silver. It hath ma- 
ny Teeth for about one third of the Circumference of the Shell at the 


lound it in 7- 

XIII. Petf uncut us alb us, murk at us, car dine ad latus difiorto. 

This fingle Valve which was the only one I had from Jamaica, or 
ever faw, was three quarters of an Inch long, very near as broad to- 
wards the Circumference oppofite to the Cardo. It was all white, almoft 
triangular, with a great many extant Ribs, with Furrows bet ween, drawn 
or running from the Cardo to the Circumference. The Rib in the mid- 
dle was muricated and made it look as if it were triangular. The Vertex 
was a little diftorted to one Side. 

I had it from Jamaica. 

XIV. Petfunculus e fufco rufefcens admodum denfe ftriatus. Lift* Hift. 
Conchyl. Tab. 2$i.N 9 ' 6$. 

This is letter in every Part than the above defcribfyotherways very 

it, fo that I am doubtful if it differs materially from it, and fufpecl it may 
only be a Variety, and both are fo like the Mufculus Math, that there are 
fome Reafons to believe they may be all three the fame. 

I found it in Jamaica on the Shores, &c. and have had it from the 



The Natural Hijiory 0/ JAMAICA. 259 

XV. Pectanculus exiguut, a/but, tenuiter firUtus, gibbofior. 


This is not above half an Inch long, half as broad, very deep, white 

nd almoft fmooth. It hath a long tooth'd Cardo, and perhaps may 

be only a Variety of the Petfunculus polyginglymus, albus,ovalis 
I found it on the Shores of Jamaica 

XVI. Petfunculus tenuis modo ruber modo citrinus, ttriis nunc ex parte 
nunc ex toto muricatis. Li ft. Hi ft. Conchy I. Tab. $22. N ' 159. Petfun- 
culus tenuis petlucidus, lev iter purpurafcens, denfe ft ri at us. Ejufd. Tab. 342. 
N Q * 179. PecJunculus vulgaris. Rumph. The/. Anim. Tab. 44. lit. E. Zflfame 
nagel fchulpe. Ej. ib. Tab. 48. N 0, 9. 


This Cockle is two Inches long, and an Inch and a half broad, of the 
Shape, &c. of an ordinary Cockle. It is fometimes yellow fometimes red 
or white and fpotted. It is very thin and deep, and partly or all muri- 
cated with extant Apices or Points on the Ridges of the Shell, efpeci- 

ally on the Sides of it. 
I found it in the Seas, and on the Shores of Jamaica. 


XVII. Petfunculus rhomboeides, ftriis imbricatis exafperatm. Lift. Hift. 
Conchyl. Tab. $ 1 5. No. 1 $ 1. Fragum. Rumph. Amboin. Theft. Tab. 44. ///. F. 

An Concha ftriat a, umbone rotfrata, vinofo colore, tenets maculis diftintfo. Bon. 

.111. No. 44. Muf. Kjrcher. p. 446. 91. 

- This is much the fame only thicker and with one fide plain and not 
round, making it of a rhomboidal Figure. 

I found it with the former and fometimes not imbricated, perhaps by 

XVIII. Pettunculus fubrufus paululum ftnuofus, denfe & leviter admodum 

Jlriatus. Lift. Htft. Tab. 245. No. 46. 


* * 

This is round, about an Inch and a quarter in Diameter, and hath 
many fmall Teeth join it with Hollows between to the other Valve. 
Thefe Teeth are placed upon one third Part of the Circumference 
of the Shell towards its fmall Head, which referables the Bill of a 
Bird. It is of a whitifli Colour with fome reddifh Marks on its outfide. 

It is a little flat, each Valve being not over a quarter of an Inch 


I brought it from Jamaica where I found it on the Shores of that 


a j 

■ \ 

XIX. Petfunculus exiguusfubfufcus. Lift. Hi(t .Conchyl. T*b. 317. No. 154. 

This Cockle is not an Inch in Diameter, with a {freighter Side ma- 

king it rhomboidal. It is deep and othcrways of the Shape of the or 
dinary cockle. 


I found this in the Seas of Jamaica, and Dr. Lilitr, in thofe round 



XX. Pettunculus planus, albUus, intus Uviter ftavtfctm* Lift. Hift. Con- 

chy I. Tab. 26 5 . No. 1 o 1 . 

* '• 

* * 



* ,.j* 

iU i 




The Natural Hiftofy of T A M A I C 

This Cockle is about two Inches and a half from theCardo to the oppo- 
fite" Circumference, three Inches from one Side to the other in the broader! 




an Inch deep, both V 

y appa 


or Afp 



lis ali over 
fome very fi 

Lines as if drawn from the Cardo f and within a little yellowifh 

I found this in the Seas 


XXI. Pectunculus magnus, pi 
sir its qua ft cancellatis cortfp 



Lift. Hist. Conchyl. Tab. 337 



Pectunculus Barbadenjis cance/latus. Pet. Mem. cur. 1708. p. 222. No. 27 

This is three Inches in 

Diameter, flattifh, thick and white, it 


imall StrU going from the Cardo to the Circumference which are crofs'd 

by concentric Circles, making nearly right Angles with the others and 
the whole Qutfides of the Valves cancellated or reticulated. 
I found it on the Shores of the Ifland of Jamaica. 

• J. 

4 • 

XXII. Pectunculus maculatus y fafciis crebrioribus don At us. Lift. Hijt. Con 
chyl. Tab. 278. No. 115. 

This Cockle is round, about an Inch and a half in Diameter, about 

an Inch deep when both Valves are join'd. The Cardo is not exa&ly in 
the Middle but on one fide, and from it go very fmall StrU or Lines 

which are crofs'd or reticulated at nearly right Angles by raifed Circles or 

Fafci* made concentric as if drawn by a Compafs, one End of which 

was placed in the Cardo. The Shell is thick and has two blackiih blue 
Spots on the infide, and many brown of different Shapes on the outfide. 

I found it in the Seas adjoining to Jamaica. 




I . 

XXIII. Pectunculus parvus intus ex viola purpurafcens. Lift . Hi ft . Con- 

chyl. Tab. 338. No. 175. 

This is much the fame with the former only lefler, and the concen- 
tric Circles are not near fo extant or raifed but equal to the StrU 

leading in (freight Lines from the Cardo to the Circumference, 
brown Spots without vary, and thofe within likewife. 
I found it with the former. 


* ♦ 

XXIV. Pectunculus parvus , albus, 

recurvorofkiOy tenuiter c ana Hat us. 




Vertex or Rojlrum placed a little 


y thin, of about half an Inch Diameter, and 


^s w 

lated on the Surface of the Valves on the outfide 


I found this on the Shores of Jamaica 


XXV. Petlunculus 

fubruber, minutiffimis Jlriis undatis exaratus. 


LiH.Hift. Conchyl. Tab. 339. Fig. ij6. Pectuncelius Jamaic.rubefe 

capiUaceis tenuiffimis. Pet. Phil. Tranf. No. 299. No. 18. Mem. Cur. 1708 
No. 24.^.222. 



This Shell is very thin, about three quarters of an Inch Diameter 
white on the outfide, red within, almoft tranfparent. It hath fome con- 
centric Circles and oblique waved Lines eroding one another appearing 
on its Surface if it be look'd upon with Attention. It is very hollow or 



The Natural Hiftory of J A M A I C A. 



This I found in the Seas adjoining to Jam*ic* f and have had it from 

e Shores of Carolina, 

XXVI. Veciunculus orbicularis pUnior rugofus. Lift. Hifi. Conchyl. Tab. 
281. No. 19. 

This in every thing refembles the ordinary Cockle only 'tis fefs, and 
ftriated by concentric Circles as if drawn by a Pair of CompafTes from the 


Leg or Point being placed the 

Tis of a brownifh Colo 

I found it on the Shores of Jamaica 

• « 

XXVII. PeStunculus albus admodum cra(fus y finu ftvefulca confpicnus. Lift 

Ht ft. Conchyl \ Tab. 305. No. 138. 




out any apparent Stri 


from the Cardo on one fide to the Circumference 
I found it on the Shores of Jamaica. 

d an half in Diameter, almoft as Jeep, wkh- 

nd having a Sinus running 

white, thick 


XXVIII. Pecfunculus albus, minimus profundus, ft 

Tab. 241. Fig 


i l 

This is half an Inch in Diameter, white, very deep ancf thick, ftriated 
with Ribs and Furrows from the Cardo to the Circumferernce which are 
croffed by concentric Circles, making it reticulated. 

I found it with the former. 



XXIX. Pettttnculu 


Tab. 301. No. 14 

parvus, albus, profundior, tenuiter undatus. Lift. Hift 



crofs the outiides of the V 

quarters of an Inch in Diameter, very thin and tran- 


deep or hollow, and having waved 

rooked Lines going 

I found it with the former, and have had it from Suratte in the Eaft 


• ' 


j» * 






« t 


Of Oyfters, Mufcles and Pholades: 




Strea. oblonga arb 






rvaare onder een Hammekammotie Herm. p. 49. No. 425. Oft 





Oft race a annex a baculo, Aldrcv. Lift. Hi ft. Tab. 


Tree-Oyjters, or, Mangrove-Ojfltrs. 


s is about two Inches long, three quarters of an Inch broad 
whitifh, about half an Inch deep, finuated or waved on the Edg 
crooked and flicking to Stones, Trees or Coralline Branches 

bick Part. 





o^2 TheMatumlHiJImefJ A M A I C A. 

It is fometimes round, not finuated and hath other Varieties. 
They are eaten as other Oyfters. 

. If. Qstrea- minor futcala,oblonga, gibbofa, ambit u ferrate Tab. 241. Fig. 

20,21. Spondylm variegatus, Jtriatus,margine digitata. List. Hist. Conchyl. 
Tab. 210. No. 44. Spbondylus Barbadenfis parvus, alte fulcatus. Pet. Gaz. 

Nat. Tab. 24. No. 12. Speckled Barbadoes Rag-Oyjler. Ej. Cat. clafflc. & 

Top. p. 93. No. 571. 


The Hinge is made up of two Teeth and two Cavities on the 
Cardo of each Valve. That End generally flicks to fome Stone, Pebble, 
Coral or other Shell at the Bottom of the Sea. 

I found them caft upon the Shores of Jamaica. 

III. Oftrea arbor ea y ProteijormiSj dblda, admodnm cava. 

This, which hath a hollow on the back of it where paffed the Root 
of the Mangrove, is about an Inch from the Cardo to the oppofite End. 
'Tis triangular, near as broad at its End as long, and about three quar- 
ters of an Inch deep, all of a white Colour like Oyfters. They vary in 
Shape being oblong, roundifh, &c. and have often Depreffions in the 

upper Valve. The End oppofite to the Cardo is fometimes round as 
weSl as ftreighr. 

. I found them of feveral Shapes on the Shores of Jamaica. 



IV. Mjtilo peciunculm auritus rarior Berberoides. Fab. Col. aq. & terr. 

Objf.p. lii. & liv. Lilt, Hift. Conchyl.Tab. 244. No. 57, 58, & 59. Auricula 
Rumph. The/, an. Tab. 46.* lit. G. Concha tenuis tejU y Bon. p. 106. No. 58. 

Muf. KJrcher. p. 444. No. 57. / 


The Jamaica Pearl Oy(ler-(beIl 

* * 

This is about two Inches long, and about an Inch a,nd a half broad, 
it is fmooth on the outfide, only it hath fome little feemingly loofe Scales 
which are (ome times dark colourM and fometimes whitifh. The 
infide of the Shell is of a Pearl Colour, tho' not fo bright or Orientas 
that of the Eaft Indies, but a little as it were fullied with Smoak. It 
hath an Ear or fharp End which runs ftreight out from one fide 
of the Cardo, and is very long. This Ear is fometimes wanting either 
naturally or by Accident which makes the Variety of Figure in Dr. Lifter. 

I found it on the Shores ztjamaica and take it to be the Oyfter in which 
are found the beft Pearls of the Weft-Indies, which are fifh'd up at both 
Santa Martha and Margarita Iflands in the North-Seas, and the Pearl Ifles 
near Panama in the South-Sea. They eat the Oyfters at both Places. 
The Pearl partakes of the Colour of the Shell, as may be teen in thofe 
of the Ptnna which are reddilh brown ; thofe of the Magellan Mufcle 
which *re purphfh blue, fome that are reddilh, and the Bohemia and 
Scotch which are of the Colour of the River Mufcle or that from the 
Oyfter from whence they come. 

The Shells of fome are on the outfides dark, on others whitifh. 




r r Y a %*! C * 1 ™ t*™ m > l **™, tenuiter (triatm ex fufco purpurafcem. Lid. 
Hi ft. 1 ab. $66. No. 206. J J 1 r J 


The Natural Hiflory of JAMAICA. 



This which is a very fmallone of the Kind, is about an Inch long, 
very much raifed in the Middle, or Convex on the outfide, and hollow 
within, not over a quarter of an inch broad. It hath many Ribs ou 
Stria going trom the Cur do to the Circumference, is on the outfide grey, 
and within of a deep blue as molt other Mufcles. It is of feveral Mag- 

I found it on the Shores of Jamaica. 

VI. Mufcus tenuis Uvis fubpurfurem. Lift. Hift. Conchjl. Tab. 356. No 
95. & Tab. % 5 9. No. 198. Mufculm Bahamenfts fere radiates. Pet. Gaz, 

Nat. Tab. 7 1 . No 
jor. Rumph. The/, 

Radiated Providence MuJ'clc. Mufculm vulg 

Tab. 46. lit. B 

Thefe Mufcte 
nut colour, with 

about two Inche 

whitifh or pale colour'd Fafcia or Bel 

long, not one broad, of a Chef- 

going fr 

the Cardo to the oppofite Edge upon the moft eminent Part of the Shell 

It is very th 

ght bluifh purple colour within, where it hath a Iarg 

deep Cavity. I have one Valve of this Kind which is of a deep blue Co 
lour inftead of a Cheffnut. 

I brought thefe Shells from Jamaica, wh 

the outGde by Membranes which perhaps 

had a large one of this Sort which was given me by Capt. Dampi 

found them 

the Shell. 



d in his fecond Circumnavig 


lfo from Providence one of the Bahama lfland 

rom Scotland. I ha 

g a 


w «*. 

*. v 

• : 


VII. Pholas minor \atro-rubens, tenuis, ftriatw. Tab. 241. Fig. 22, 2J. Pho 
las niger e magnis radicibm cor alii albi India Occident at is exempt us. Lift. Hi (I 

Tab. 427. No. 268. 

- ■ 

This was about an Inch and a half long, about half an Inch broad, 
w T as very deep and thin, of a Cheffnut colour without, and bluifh within, 
having the Face or Refemblance of the foregoing Mufele ; one half of it to- 
wards the Cardo was ftriated tranfverfly. the other towards the End 

fmooth. It had fomething of the Figure ot a Sol 

Ic is 

of fe 

¥ * 



' ' ' 

I found this lodg'd in C 


diointng to 

large Corals 

Sphondyli the thicker Shells, wl 

tionabie to their Bodies, as ma\ 

the Aftroites undulatt 

Jamaica t and in the Subfta 




make themft 




be (cqi\ } Tab. 241. Fig. 22, 25 




' * 



• ' 



Hi • i 



' . 

. - , 








26a. The Natural Hifiory of J A M A I C A. 

Chap XIII 

Of Tellium and Cham*. 

I. r 9 ^ Ellin a tenuis, ad umbonem extra maxiwe rubefcens. List. Hip. Conch)l. 

Tab. $97. No. 236. 

This is about an Inch from the Cardo to the Circumference and near two 
Inches from one corner to the other, fmoothand all white. The Shell is ve- 

ry thin and varies in Magnitude. 

I found it with the former, and fometimes bor'd thro* by other Shells 

or the Furfural as I fuppofe, and caft on the Shores. 

II. Tellina magna, nivea minimi ambitu /errata, internum lutefcens ni car* 
dinem punclo rubro infignita. 

This is not fo broad as the foregoing being not half fo broad from the 
Cardo to the Part of the Circumference oppofite to it. 'Tis all white 

hath on the outfide a fcarlet Spot over the Cardo or Hinge, which I 
did not obferve upon the former, tho' Dr. Lifter mentions it in the Title 
he gives it. The former feems more circular or round on the fide oppofite 
to the Hinge than this which is almoft ftreight. 

I found it on the Shores of Jamaica and am not certain whether it 
be different from the former, thefe Shells being in great Plenty found at 

NieveSy Barbadoes, and even in Pembrokeshire* Among them are fome yel- 

lowifh, others with red Spots within as well as without the Cardo, and 
others all white. 

III. Tellina Uvis albida y rotunda. Tellina parva intus rubra ad alteram la- 
tus ftnuofa. Lift. Hi ft. ConchjLTab. 405. No. 250. 

This is about three quarters of an Inch in Diameter, is thin and deep or 
hollow, of a yellowifh white or made up of Rings or Fafiu that are of that 
Colour. It hath a Sinus on one fide and varies very much in Largenefs, 

I found it on the Shores of Jamaica, and have had it taken up from the 

Shores of England. 

IV. Tellina crajfa admodum, leviter ft 


r r 

olacea. Lift. Hift. Tab 

375. No. 216 & 176. No. 218. Tellina parva radiata intus omnino purp 
rajcens. Pet. Gaz. Nat. Tab. lS.Fig. 4. Tranfitft. Phil. No. 299. No. 18. 

This Shell is white, about an Inch long from one Corner of the fide of 
the Shell oppofite to the Cardo to the other, about three quarters of an Inch 
from the Cardo to the oppofite Part of the Circumference. Ic hath many 
pru or Ribs running the fame Way from the Cardo to the Circumference, 
which is notch'd or dentated, and feverai Fafcu, Streaks or Belts going the 
fame Courfe of different Breadths,and of a blackifh blue or violet colour 
which covers the greateft Part of the Infide of thefe Shells. This Shell is 
thick and hatha triangular Shape. 

J found this in Jamaica on the Shores, and have had it from the Ifland 


The Natural Hifiory of JAMAICA. 2 6 £ 

V. Tdina parpurafceits, margine finuofs. Lift. Hijl. ConchyL Tab. 276^ 

This is the fame with the Precedent, only wants the violet colour'd F«/l 
ax o» Belts, and hath the Edge oppofice to the Cardo fiuuated or oblique* 
I iound it with the former. 

VI. Tellina intus & extus albida, craffa, tenuffime Striata] 

This differs from the foregoing only in being all white and having ver^ 

fine Ribs or Stn<e. 

I iound it with the foregoing. 

VTI. Tellina alb id a, crajfi, intus viol ace a, fafciis viol ace is circular thus in* 

7 his differs from the others only in having fome circular f afctx concer 
trie to the Cardo. 

It is fometimes twice as large and found with the others* 


VIII. Cham* dijfujior, intus vio/acea,ftr/ata ex purpura raatat*. Lift. Hift 

Conchyl.Tab. 425. N v * 27J. 


This is two Inches from the Cardo to the oppofite Gde oi the CircUmfe** 
rence, and 1 Inches from Corner to Corner of the fame fide. It hath many 
Strix going from the Cardo to the Circumference in ftreight Lines, is in- 
wardly white with fome large blackifh blue or Violet colour'd Spots, fome 
Streaks of the fame Colour, and is very deep. It varies in the Shapes and 
Situation of its Sdols and Streaks and in their Colours. 

I found them in great Plenty in the Seas adjoining to Jamaica, and have 
had them from Suratte in the Eafi Mies, and the lfland Mauritius near 


IX. BaUnus Bellonij tenuiter firiatus. List. Hilt. ConthyL Tab. $67. No/ 
207. Tab. 241. Fig. 22, 25. Mytulus Jamaicenfis verruculatus fufcus. Pet, 
Mem. cur. ann. 1708. /> 222. No. 17. Concha oblonga & angufta. Bon 

. No. 78,79. Muf Kjrcher. />. 44$ No. 77, 

This is more than an Inch long, half as broad, deep, and very much re- 
fembles the Muf cuius Mathioli, (after which it fbould have been plac'd 
/>. 247. No. X. had not its Name given by Beliomus brought it hither byMi 

ftake) only the Teeth and C 

Hinge are not fo confp 


neither is the Hinge fo (freight. It is ftriated from the Cardo to the Cir- 
cumference, and fometimes crofs'd at right Angles by other o/r/^ placed 
as if concentric Circles had been drawn from the Cardo. It is reddifh as 
the Mufculus Matthioh, and covered with Corals, efr. to be met with in 
the Seas where it is found. 


I brought it from Jamaica, and have had it from Si 




H A *t 

266 The Natural Hi/lory of] AMAIC 

Chap. XIV 

Of Multivalves. 

Oncha anatifera margine murk Attn Lilt. Hift. ConchyL Tab. 436. 
N 0, 282. Telling pedaU. Bon. /. 95. N Q# 2. Muj. Kjrch. p. 439. 

N°' 2 

This is found plentifully flicking to Ships, Timber, Sargafo or Gulf- 
Weed, or any thing floating in the Seas adjoining to "Jamaica. I have 
nothing to add either relating to it, or its Synonymous Names, to wliac 
I have faidnow and p. 32- of the Firft Volume of this Hiftcry. 

II. Edams major ', anguHus^ purpurafcens, capitis ape; tura *ual&e patente 
Lift. Hist. ConchyL Tab. 44}. No. 285. An Ealanm majufculut ventruojia 
capitis aptrtura anguftiore. Ej> ib.2%6? Ealamrum tefia. Eon, Clafs. 2. No. 

2. Muj. Kjrcher. p. 436. No. 1 

Several of thefe Shells grow together flicking to the Sides of Sh'ps, 

Shells, and other Subftances in the Sea, with a flat Bottom. From 

thefe Bafes proceed two, three, four or five corner'd roundifh Shells of 

about an Inch in Diameter, which feem to be made up of many ftri- 

ated purpliOi Laming beginning broad at the Bafe, and ending pyrami* 

dally. The lntefticts of thefe Plates are fill'd up by other Lamina not 

floated, and the infide is all one Shell fomething in Colour and Subftance 

like that of the infide of an Oyfter. This Hole at Top hath within it a 

She!l-fifh having Cirrbi like the Concha anatijera lodg'd in a Mouth fill'd 

with four large ftriated pyramidal Shells and two leffer, each about an 

Inch long, meeting and making a common Rolirum like the Teeth of the 

Echini lodg'd in and filling up the Cavity at the opening or Top. This 

Shell hath great Variety ofShapes,and is fometimes an Inch wide at Top, 

and more bellied out at Bottom, and of various Figures according to the 
Shells it flicks to. 

I found it in the Seas adjoining to Jamaica. They occafion great 
Inconvenience to Ships failing in thefe Seas, flicking to thofe Farts of the 

Ship which are under Water, and retarding its Motion unlefs fcrub'doff. 

H A P* 

— s 

1 ^he Natural Hi/lory of J A M A I C A, 267 


Of Echini Marini, Sea Vrchins^ or % Sea Eggs* 

H E Mouth, Teeth, and other Parts of the Shells of thefe Ani- 
mals make them compos'd of feveralShells rather than of one(like to 

>i egoing BaUni whom they much refemble) which they appear to 
have only at firft View. They are cover'd on the outfide with Prickles of 
feveral Shapes and Sizes which are fee on to Studs or Balls on the out- 
fide of the Shells piae'd in Rows, and have Sockets or are hollow'd on their 
under Pare making a Joint on which they can move every Way 
I have feen them at the Bottom of the Sea ufe them inftead of Legs and 
move fwittly, and dired them towards the fame Point, as in an Army 
Pikemen ufed to turn their Pikes. The ordinary ones found on the Coafts 

of England and on the Southern Coafts of France are eaten as Oyfter 
the bft of thefe Places. Many of their Shells are found inclos'd and fill'd 
with Chalk in the Chalk Pits of Kjnt, where they are calPd Chalk 

nd are fuppos'd to contain in them a finer fort of Chalk usM 
to cure Loofenelfcs, and are therefore laid by and preferv'd by the Work 

men. I have one from near Guilford in Surry which is halt Chalk and 
half tranfparentChryftal. More of thefe Kinds are found foflil than of 
the other torts of Shells which are found under Ground. Some are found in 
P'linr, and the feveral Parts of their Shells as their Mouths and other 
Pieces are alfo found with them and their Prickles of which the La- 
fides Judaici fcem* to be a fort. I have had lately given me by Mr* Kjy- 
jler from Hanover, iome Monganar Sand which feems to be common whi- 
tifli Sand, wherein are Pieces of thefe Shell and their Studs and Spikes 

p near Hanover at a Place call'd Monganar. They feem very 

little chang'd from their natural Stats, only broken to pieces. The 
Prickles of moft Echini are different in Length and Magnitude, tho' on the 
fame Shell, they correfponding to the Magnitude of the Knobs of the 
Shell on which they are to turn. 


I. Echinus marinm major elatus rotundus, aculeis gracilibus, fubviridibus^ 
glabris. Tab. 242. Fig* 1,2. An Echini marini efculentii Rumfh. Thef 

an. p. 2. Tab. xiii. Lit. A, B, C. Pommes de Mer. Rochef. p. 23 }, & 235 

The common Sea Egg. 

This was in every thing the fame with what is found on our Coafts, 
only the Prickles were fomewhat larger and greenifh, and the Body 
of the Echinus more fpherical. 

It was taken on the Reefs near Gun-Gajos off of Fort- Royal Harbour. 

II. Echinus Mar inus major, rotundus, el at us , aculeis gracilioribus y afperis 
longioribus y nigricAntibuSydonatus.Tab. 243. 


The great) long prickled Sea Egg. 

This is round, as big as ones Fift, fet about on every Hand with 
Prickles, the largeft being three or four Inches long, with Membranes 

round their fetting on to the Shell, where the Prickles are large, and there 


268 The Natural Hiftory of J A M A I C A. 


alfo is an Articulation of Balls on the Shell fet in double Rows from the; 
Apex to the Bale or Mouth, and Sockets or Cavities on the lower End of 
the Prickles, on which they move, as if they were Legs, into and out of the 
Water. Their Mouth is made up of triangular Teeth, very long, m 
a common Centre. It is all cover'd over with a thin purple 
lour'd or reddifh brown Membrane, which is fo tender as not to ho 
the Spikes bng after the Animal is dead. The Prickles of this Sea 
Echinus are very rough and counted poyfonous. 

I found them on the Reefs by Gan-Kjy, or, Caps off of Port Royal 
Haibour in great Numbe 


T<ib. 24? fhews this Echinus in feveral Pofuions, with and without its 

Prickles, as alfo its five T 

III. Echinus marinus, minor, rotundas, elatm, acultis gracilioribus, afperis 

longtoribus, nigricanttbus, donatus* Tab* 244. Fig. I, 2, 


This feems to be the fame, only in all its Parts lefs, whether the 

young ones of the former, is to me doubtful. 
I had it in the fame Places. 

IV. Echinus marinus media magnitudinis, rotundus, el At us, aculeis longio* 

rib us, crsjjicribus, afperis, obiufs,Jubrubris, don at us, 'i ab. 244. £;g. 4, J, 6, 7. 

This is of about an Inch in Diameter round, raifed, befet with Knobs in 
Rows or Series's as the others oi this Kind. The Knobs or Balls have 
near twelve blunt Aculei or Spikes each an Inch long, and between them 
arefmaller flit (harp Prickles. 

I found them of feveral Magnitudes with the former* 


V. Echinus noftras Spatagus. Pet. Mem. cur. Ann. 1709./). 4. No. 18. Tab. 
242, Ftg. l, 4, 5. Echinus minor an^ulojus, ex utraque parte compreffus. Sea- 
ling. Lift. JHifi. Anim. AngL app. p. 28. Tab. 1. Fig. j$. Spa- 
tagus, Rond. p. 580. GaILp.^16. Echinus fulcatus striis m Armor eis ditatus. 
Rumph.Thtf. amm.p. 3. Ttb. XIV- No. I. Et Echinus fulcatus, albus, fed pa- 

rum cinericet colons, ej. tb. No. 2. 

I found thefe Echini Marini in Jamaica cover'd with very fmall Prickles 
like Silk or Down, and could not upon comparing them, find any Dif- 
ference between them, and thofe thrown up upon the Coafts of England, 

Wales and Scotland. 

VI. Echinus marinus, major comprejfus, albidus, aculeis minor ibas, brevibus 
&quinque r adits, fuptna parte, foliorum rofz infiar,donatus. Tab. 242. Ftg t 
6,7,8,9, 10, 11. An Echinus fulcatus primus Rumph. Thef. an p. 2. Tab. 
xiv. Lit. C. 


This is four Inches in diameter, flat, not more than an inch high 
hollow on the under Side, and convex on the upper, where are Refem 
blances of Rvq Leaves as it were riling from the Apex, and growing 
broader towards their round Circumference made up of Rows of fm 

Holes. It hath reddifh or purplifh Hairs or Prickles all over it, arifing 

from the Studs or fmall Knobs, as others of this Kind 

I tound it thrown on the Shores of the Ifland of % 












Cruftaceous Animals, Sea-Stars and Blubber. 


JNCER terreUris, eaniculos fub terra agent. Nat. Hift. Jaml 
VoL 1 • Tab. 1 1 . Qrabes blanches. Rochef. f. 2 54. ' 

the Land Crab. 

1 ' * 

Thefc make Burrows under Ground, like Rabbits, feed upon Ve* 

They refembie very much 

getables, and are very common in Jamaica 

common eatable Sea-Crab, only 

a little darker red colcur'd, and 

pt on their upper fides, where are fome Depre(fions,Furrows or Wrinkles, 
neither have they any fmall Legs likeFins, but all their Legs except the great 
Claws are long and not forked but (ingle pointed, and have on their twoiaft 


fome fmall Prickles : The Edges of the Margins of their Bod 

fmooth, and have in the fore Parts two Holes, long and large enough 
to lodge in them the Eyes of the Crab; 

They are eaten by the Inhabitants, and are much beyond any Crufta- 
ceous Animal I ever eat, in Delicacy of Tafte. They are thought to be 

poyfdnous when they feed upon the Manfanilla-Tree Leaves or Ft uit, 
which I fuppofe may come, from fome of it lticking to their Chaps, or 
lying undigefted in their Stomachs, which are not feparated betore eating 


II. Cancer filujfris tunicuhs fub terra, agem. Maracoani. Marcgr. f. 1 84 

ed. 1648* 




The Natural Hiftory of J A M A I C A. 

This Crab 

es in 

ry thing to th 


It is frequent in all fait marilh Ground 


efcription of Marcgrave. 

d among the Mangroves by 

P 4 /pg e - F< 


felf B 



or that, 


and runs into them without 


any choice 
one large enough to receive it as our 

Coneys often 

III. Guaia apara. Marcgr. Ed, 1648. f. 182. 

This mod b 
fcri prion 

autiful Crab agrees 

with every 

Part of Marcgrave's 


It was brought from the Canoes. 



IV. Ciri Apoa. Marcgr. p. 183. 




This agrees in every thing wlthMarcgrave's Defcription, only the Shap 



the g 

Points or Eminencies here and thei 
Claws, that the Fifhermen alway 


it b 

, having.! 

with thefe 


It is commonly taken at Sea 


fter catching, take them off for Fea 
lone of the beft Food. 


V. Qancellus marinus minimus quadratus 
una, BYaftlienjibus. Marcgr. p. 184 r 

- » 

Tab. 245. Fig. 1. 


An Car am 

This is exa&lv the fame with the other Crabs 

tremely fmall,abou 
and of a grey Colou 

every thing only ex- 

the Bignefs of the Figure half an Inch fquare, fmooth 



found on the Sargaffo and other Submarine Sea-PIa 

Nor,thfide of Jamaica. Columb 




finding th 



on Jhe 

Sargaffo float 


luded himfelf not far from fome. Land in tlk 

Voyage he made on the Difcovery of the Weft-Indies 




p. j. 

VI. Cancer caudal us Moluccanus Clufto diet us. Muf.Swam. p. 28. 
wonftrofus fignoc <vel ftguenocaraneus marinas de Laet. p. 56. Cancer perveif us 

Rumph.Thef. anim. p. 2. Tab ( xii. Lit. A. B. ■ - 

• . • f . - - - 

This is fo common in Cabinets, that I fhall not add to what is extant 





• 1 

. i 

The Tails of them 

•* * 

- . v 








ufed by the Mmouchiquois to head their Ar- 


* *, 




• » 

It is found fometimes in Jamaicaznd the Caribe Iflahds and 

Indies where 

reckoned by fome for good Food 

, - 

the Eaft 


VII. Locufta marina vulgaris dorfo fpinofo. The Thornback 

Pet. Mem. Ann. ljoZ.p. 5. Locufta marina, major Ej. ikann. 1709. p. I 

.aft a marina, male ab Ichtbyopolis no fir is, a Long Oyfter Jon ft. 14. t 
drov. 104. Gej. 485. Locufta marina, feu Carabus. Jftacus l at wis 







a marina 

Ron de let 


La Langoufte. Ejufd. Gall 

Potiqw W a Braftl t Marcgr. Locufta marina, ejufd. />. 185 

•- r 




The Natural Hiftory of J A M A I C A. 271 

Sea Lohfter, or, Long Oyfter, corruptly fo calPd from Langoufle, which is its 

Name in the Market At Montpelier. 

This agrees in every thing with Margrave's Defcription, only the Pi 

are black and yellowifh mixt. 

They are found with the other Cruftaeea and are not counted fo g 

Meat as the commoner Sort of Lobfter. I have fcen them which have 
been taken on the Coafts of England, and at Montpelier, caught in the'jkfc- 

diterranean Sea. 


VIII. Potiquiquyxe Brafilienfibas. Marcgr. Squilla lata Marcgr. p. i $6 
An Squilla lata Rond. p. 54^. La Squille Large ou Orchetta. Ej. Gall. p. 391, 
Vrfa cash at a latinis Be/Ion. Aq. p. 345. Vrj'a Cancer & Squill* lata Rumph. 
Thef an. p. i. Tab. 1. lit.Q. D. Squilla Mauritania lata verrucofa Pet. Mem. 

ann. 1708. p. 8. No. 5. 

This I have feen taken near the Canoes in the Sea adjoining to Jamaica 
It differs from the European in having its Body broader, ferrated on th 
Edges, and being fomewhat hairy. 

. . . . •*. - -*-*••• ■• * -*.| * 

IX. Aftacus flaviatilis Gammarus the Crey-fifh. Jonfi. 1 $. t. 5. & 20, 
Tab. 4. Aldrov. 129. Gefa. 1 04. Men* Pin. p. 192. Cammarus Utinu Bel-* 

Ion. p. 355. Aftacus fiuvi at His. Dale P harm. p. 558. 

The Common Craw-fJIj, Crevice, or, Efcreviffe. 

It is very often taken in the frefh Water Rivers out of the Holes of the 
petrify'd Rocks 

. <* 1 • • - 

- - 

They are not counted fo good as the Englifh Cray-fifli 

X. Aftacus fluviatilis major, chelis aculeatis.Tab. 245. Fig 


This is as large as the Figure, and much exceeds* any of the Kind 
lever faw. It is fufficiently difhinguifh'd by the large Claws be 

very prickly 


It is found in the frefh Water Rivers of Jamaica, 

1 1 - 1 * 

. v.\ . • • - ■ - \ » : — r». • 

XI. Squilla roftrata major. Pet. Mem. Cur. Ann. 1709* p. J, N.°- 4. SquilU 

Rond.p. 547. L* Caramote. Ej. Gall. p. 394. Prawns moll: great and excels 
lent of Smith Obf p. ^. 

■ ; ' * r r I * 

* 4 


I could not obferve any Difference betweert the Prawns in Jamaica and 
thofe in England, and do believe them the fame with thofe which were 
taken Notice of by Capt. Smith in St. Chriftvfbers* 



XII. Squilla roftata minor, Pet. Mem. Cur. Ann. ijoo.p. 3. N 0, 5. SquilU 
of Dale Suppl. 338. N°* xxi. Squilla gibba Rond. p. 549. Caramot. Ej. Gall 
p. 395. Squilla gibba minor ', BeUon.p* J 5& 

* * 

Shrimps are in the Seas of Jamaica Iikcwife 


m * * 


* r r 


XFII. Cancellus & Scyllarus. Rond. p< 5 J ?. Paunacare Brafilienfib 

Gammarus in concha degens. Marcgr. p. 188. Cancer in teftis degens i jonft 4 

p* 30. Tab. j4 WrongheirsjMerr.Pin* ^192. Cancelltts 362. Cat 


272 The Natural Hi/lory of J A M A I C A. 


ceolar, p. 94. Petits Cancres converts dune coquille, Da Tertre, p. 235. SoU 

dats Rochef. p. 152, & 162. Squill a lutaria Rumph. The/'. Amm. Tab. v; 

Ltt. KL, />. 1. 


This fmall Lobfter or Crab differs in very little from the European 

Souldjer or Hermit Crab, It hath two large forked Claws like thofe 
of an ordinary Lobfter, one of which is bigger than the other, both 
rounder, more tumid, lefs prickly, and of a paler red than that of Eu* 
rope. The Legs are four in Number, long, not forked, but fingle toed. It 
hath two Antenna and two Eyes which ftand on a long Cylindrical 

They fit themfelves with any Shell which they find empty, whether it 
be of the Land or Sea, and cover themfelves almoft over in it, carrying 
ir on their Backs wherever they go, like a Snail. 'Tis not poflible to be- 
lieve how quick the LandCraDsdefcrib'd,/. 269, N Q * 1, and this Crab 
will run upon the leaft Appehenfion of Danger : Till they are turnM up no- 
thing appears but a dead Shell, the Mouth of which lies under moft,out of 
which iome little Part of the Crab appears after 'tis taken up. 

Chap. II. 

Of Sea Star-fifhes 

Tell a MArin a minor tchin At a. purpurea. TaL 244* Fig. 8,9* An S tell a 

marina fcolopeniroides fpinoja, Rumph* The/. An. p. 7. Tab. xv. lit.Bi 

The Body of this Star is not over a quarter of an Inch in Diameter, five 
corner'd,and cover'd with purple Prickles, the Rays or Points are five, 
each of which is an Inch and an half long, and hath feveral purple fmall 
Prickles arm'd on every hand, which are white at Bottom. 

This 1110ft elegant Star-fifh flicks to the Coral Rocks and Sponges in the 
Seas near Port-Royal. 


II. Stella mArinA minor cinereA Uvk. An Stella marina Uv is.' Rumph 
Thef. An. p. 3. T*b. 1 5. lit. C ? 

This has a Body and Rays of the Bignefs and like the other, only fmooth 
and of a brown Colour and fomewhat flippery. 
I found one of them near the Palifkdoes by Port RojaI. 

III. StelU mArinA mAximA reticuUtA. Stella marinA Indies reticulata, Lo 
bel. nott: in Pharmacop. Rond. p. 1 3 8 & 1 3 9. Etoile de Mer. Dutertre, 
236, Rochef. p. 233. 


This Star is in Body five Inches Diameter, has five Rays each one tnd 

ing in a Point from a broad Beginning, three Inches long beyond the 

Body, it has on its under fide five long Troughs or Cavities along each 

Ray, and a great many white round fphericai Bodies near one anotner, as 

big as Peas, the upper Part or Side has a great many blunt Protuberan- 

~ " cics 

The Natural Hi/lory of JAMAICA. 


es and long Eminencies between, fomeching like Network, foaietimes of 

paler, and fometimes of a darker yellowifh Colour. 
This is frequent on all the Shoals within Port-Royal Harbour. 

f his was us'd by Rondeletius as an Ingred 

EmpL ad Ht 

may b 


p. 138 of his Pharmacopeia, publiih'd by Lobel 


H A P. 


Of Sea-Nettles* Blubber, or Pulmo Marinus* 

Rtica marina, folata, purpurea, oblonga, cirri s longifJlmis.Voydg. J am * 
p. 7. Tab. iv. Fig. 4. Moucicou. Brafil. Pij*p. 44. ■ 


I have nothing to fay more of this than what is taken Notice of, p. 7. of 
my Voyage to Jamaica, in the ift Vol. of this Hiftory, but that 'tis 
and then met with in the Seas about this Ifland. 

The Remedy of the flinging of this Sea^NettJe is Jcajou Oil. Pif 

II. Vrtica marina minor, foluta,fabrubra. 

Small reddish Blubber. 

This is exa&ly made like the great Sea-Blubber in every thing, and has 
the fame Motions with it, only it is not over half an Inch in diameter, has 
in its Middle a Spot of white Gelly, and from thence feveral ferrugineous 
orrufry colour'd Rays or Streaks* 

I tound them in the Sea floating very plentifully all along the South 

Coaft o? Jamaica by Surinam Quarters* 


* *• 








. s 







-* * -^ 

» * 


O F 


VPU<I Of l J 




wil 4 

1 •: 

<r * 







s o 




« * 4 » 

C- V 


l Miii^k^dk± Know not, neither have I heard of any Place where there 

?$§p*^§3£ are greater Plenty, of frefti Water and Sea Fillies, than in 

*SQ) I PUtf- ^ c ^ an ^ ant * on tne Coafts of Jamaica, which is a great 
H q1 _ lo g; Providence and Contrivance for the Support of the In- 
^ll^Slll habitants, the Temperature of the Climate and Air hin 
* : * l ' ,fW dering L the faking, preferving, or drying Provifions, as in 
other Countries. And as the Fifhes are many, fo the Indians, the. firft 
Inhabitants here, and thofe of America, were great Lovers of, and very 
dexterous*; in taking them with long bearded Arrows^ or Javelins, 
thrown, at them, which, Allowance be ~ 

ing by 

them made for the Re 
fraction of the Water, they feldom mifs'd in the Day ; and in the. 
Night they us'd to invite them to the Surface of the Water by Torches 

and then ftruck them wiuv 
the "fame Weapons. "Another, fort of Fijhing they had with the.Bark 

made of the Cerei lighted in their Canoes 

of the Tree callM Dog-mod, which being bruifed and put Into {tend- 
ing Waters, either being eaten by the Ftfhcs, or the Water impregna- 

ted with its Virtues, intoxicated them, whereby they were 




By thefe Wavs, and knowing their Haunts and Cuftoms, the 
Indians will take in a very fm&il Time, what will be fufficient ior fe 
vera] Families, which makes^em the more efteem'd ; (o that one - 
thefe Fifhers, who fball only labour two or three Hours in a 

fhall be worth a hundred Pound, when a Slack ilia il labour ail Day and 
not be worth a quarter of that Money. 

My being fix Miles" every Way from the Sea, the Heat of the Air 
making^ Fiihes foon putrify here, and my other Affairs have made my 
Qbferv^ti^ns of this Kind very imperfect. 


* * 


in 6 The Natural Hiftory of J A M A I C 


Of Long Cartilagineous, and PUin Flat F/JJj. 

Cipaquitly Fernandez, p. $4. V Efpadon de Rocbef. 191.' Prifcis 
— — Rondel, p. 487. Pefct Imperatori. Col. f. 32. SerrxtmririA, BtHon* 
65. Prijiis five ferr* Pifcis Clujij exet. lib. 6. cap. 9. /<*//, />. 61. Tab. 

J3. 9. F/V. 5 . Syn. p* 23. 


The Sarv-Fiflj. 

Thefe are found in the Seas about Jamaica and ate the Sword Fi flies 

of an A nonymus Portugal q{ Br a file, Purchas, lib.j. cap. 1. p 313. who 

kill Whales with their Snouts. The Indians beat and fright their 
difobedient Children with them ; in Brafile they catch Fifhes where- 
on they feed. ib. and 

A ftrange Filh named Vtelif which had fought with a Crocodile, and 
being hurt came near the Shore, where one waded in and drew him on 
Land by the Tail ; the Body was eaten, being like a Sharke. Fenton ap. 
Hakl. p. 759. /. }. at Sierra Leona, it had twenty three Spikes or Pricks 

of a fide. 

Poiffon ape lie Sie de Dutertre. p. 208. 

Pexe lamado VihueU de Oviedd. lib. i 3. tap. 4. it was fo big as to load a 

Cart drawn by* a pair of Oxen from the Water-fide to a Town in 
Darien. It is eat in Neceflity; The large Filh here are generally not 
good to eat, except Manati. "The leaflroff"this Kind is the bell Food. 

Pefce viola de vie do ap. Ramnus. FoL 157 


II. Canis Qarcharias, feu lamia Rondelet. Gefn. Aldtovand. Raij. 
nopf. f. 18. 

The Shark, 

I have nothing to add to what I have faid p. 22,23,^24. of 
Firlt Volume of this Hiftory. 

III. Paftinaca, marina, Uvis, ex atro c<erulea,albis maculis not at a. Autre forte 

deRaye de putertre, p. 2 17. Rayes having in their Mouth two Bones, breaking 
Wilks with them of an Anonymus Portugal of Brafile* Pur chas, lib. 7. cap. t . 
131$. Nari+Nari Braftlienfibus. Marcgr. Ed> 1648. /^. 175. Pif. lib^.p 

Ed. 1658. & lib. 5. p. 2^9. Nari-Nari Brafilienfibus Marcgr . AquiU 
/'pedes. Belgis Pijljlert <uel Setcle. Raij, p. 66. Tab. C 1. Fig. 5. Syn* p. 24. 


This was about two Foot over from Comer to Corner, and all blue, 

even the Flefh itfelf with white Spots on it, the under fide or Belly was 
white, as in others of this Kind, the Tail was fix Foot long, black, 

fmall and fmooth, of which are made Whips, whence the Name Whip 
Ray, beyond the Pinna at the End of the Body or in the Beginning of 
the Tail lie one, two, or three, Inch and half long flat ftreight Bones or Radij, 
they are white, ferrated with Teeth on both Sides like a Saw, made fo 
as an Arrow that's bearded, to enter the Flefh eafily but not to come 

out without tearing it, they lie one on another on the upper Part of 


7 T* Natural Hi/lory of J A M A I C A. 277 

• • 

the Tail where there is a Hollow or Cavity made to receive them like 
a Sheath, that they may fwim with lefs Impediment, and only life 

them on Occafion. 

*Tis commonly thought this long Tail is ufeful to the Fifli as an 

offenfive or defensive Weapon, wherewith it may Iafb any thing of- 
fending ir. Or to turn round their Prey to ftrike them the better. Pifo, 

p. 294. ed. 1658. 

They are to be found every where in (hallow Waters, where I was in- 

form'd they feed on Herbs, b'uci, or Grafs. 

They are eatable ; the Stings are cut off as fbon as they are taken, left 
they lhould hurt unwary People. 

IV. Pdflinaca marina, ftrruginea, tuber cut at a, torpedinis facie* Tab. 246. 
Fig. 1. Atereba Bra(ilienftbus Rat * fpecies, Marcgr. ed. 1648. p. 175. Ptf. 
ed. 1658. p. 295. Aiereba Brdftlienjibus, Paftindc* fpecies circinitd, Mtrcgr. 
Ratj> p. 6$. Tab. C. 1 . Fig. 2. Syn, p. 25. An Amaya curub of an Anonymus 
Portugal of Brajile f lib, 7. cap. i.p. 1314, ap. Purcbas. 


Tbe Sting-Raj. 


This had the Appearance of a^ Torpedo, and was almoft round, of 
about four Inches Diameter, about half an Inch from the fore Part 
above were the grey Eyes, and behind them were two roundifh Holes, 
as in others of this Kind, it had feveral Afpcritics on the Skin, and was 
of a brown Colour with yellow Spots here and there, the Tail was three 
Inches long, tapering, and fet with little Afpcritics. About an Inch from 
the Fin, at the End of the Tail, was the Sting, about half an Inch I 
and like thofe of the former ; befides the Fin that was round the Body, there 
were two at the Beginning of the Tail, and likewifc Appendices, fuch as 
are ufuaj in this Kind ; the Eyes were prominent, and the Back pretty 
fiigh, the Belly white, and the Mouth was as others of this Kind. 

It was to be found with the former. 

It is Poyfonous and cured with Mtngue as the former, or the Oil 

Of the Fruit of the Palm Vrucuri. Pifon. 

This feems to be exaftly the fame with Marcgrave's only differing 

in Age. 

Arrows of the Caribes arc fome of them headed with the poifon'd 
Sting of the Tail of a Sti*g-Ray. Smith's Ubjf. p. 52. & 58. 


V. Rata Salvian. p. 149. Rata proprie ditfa. Behn. p. 79. Rata Clavata 
Rondeietij.p.^^.& altorum, Raij,p.j^.Tdb. D. 2. Fig. 3. Syn. p. 26. Repe- 
runtur htc & Raid, quarum eaudd tres & femis pedes long*, craffd in initio 
tres digitos & in fine plane acuminata, plen* tuber cutis ntgricantis in totum 
colons, fiexiles utfeutic*, Marcgr. ed. 1648./. 175. 

The Tbornbxck. 

• * 

Thefe are found about this Ifland, for their Prickles are very often 
thrown up on the Shore, of which I have feveral fccmingly not differing 
from the Prickles of the European Thornback. 


• 4 • 

VI. Paffer lineis tranfverfis notatus. Tab. %afi. Fig. 2. Raij Sjn. p. j 57. A 1 

Soles of Br a file, of an Anonymns Portugal ap. Purcbas. lib. 7. cap. 1. 




The Natural Hijiory of J A M A I C 

The Flounder. 

This Fifll was \ 
was very thin, wh 
brownifh Scales, I. 

bout fix Inches long, and four and a half broad, it 

the Belly 
fix or 


the Back cover'd 
m black Lines i 



over it, 

d about was one Fi 


had a crooked L 



from the Head 
the Back. 

lail, both under or in the Belly, and above or on 

Its Mfophagus was very fhort, the Stomach ruddy and not very thick 
was empty? the Guts were fmail, and had feveral Turnings. 
It was taken at Old-Harbour. 



v \ 


i ^ 





Of the Eel. 

■ ■ 



Nguilla Be Hon. 295. Salvian. Fol, 

omnium Autorum. Raij,p 


Tab. G. S^} n *f'Zl % An Much Brafilienfibus, Marcgr.p. \6i.ed. 1648 

An Mucu Brafilienfibus, Lamp 

Jrt£* 2 . 

ffinu, Marcgr. Raiu P> 106. Tab. G. 7 


The Frefb-Water Ed 






doubted whether the Frefh- Water Eel of Jamaica was the fame 

with thofe ot Europe, and therefore took its Defcription and Figure as 

well as open'd it to fee, the Inwards, and found upon Comparifon, they 

fhould doubt the De- 

were exaclly the fame : However, left 

fenption of it, fuch 


as ItookinHafte, follow 



was about a Foot and ,a half long, almoft 


round, as big as a 
Child's Wrift of a Year old, liad round black Eves with a white Iris. 


the unde 

ferved in thofe of Europe • like wife) it was 

Head, ar 

a very little longer than the upper (which I h 





d from thence tapering to the End, having one Fin beginning 
from fix Inches beyond the Head on the Back continuing to the Tail's End, 
and another beyond the Anus, continued to the fame Place, \ 

d* ' L 

two 1 n 

light brown 

h fide beyond the Brancbu- the upper Part of this Eel is of 



g to a yellow Colour, the under white.and all is fmooth 

ndflippery like other Eels. The Stomach was long, Sack-fafhion'd, thick 
and white, containing feveral \Vorms made up of flat Joints, of an Afh 



Colour, fquare, and "having here and there fbme fmail Feet, 

e Bottom of the Water lying under the Stones ; the Gut is large, 
making no Circumvolution, and the Liver, which dry'd is reckon'd a 
great Specific in hard Labour, is frefh colour'd lying from one Hypo- 

hondre xp the other 




It is one of the moft delicious Fiflies in this Ifland, (the Fat and 



being moft 

of the Waters 

fly interlarded) 'which may come from the Clearnefs 


t - 

- ■ 

The "Natural Hiftory of JAMAICA. 279 


is to be found in all frefh Water Rivers and Ponds efpeciaily 


the Country, whence they and Mullets come down in extraordinary Plenty 
in great Rains with the Violence of the Stream, and when it runs 
no more, they are left in Holes of Handing Water and taken with 

Dogwood Bark. 

There being great Varieties in Eels in Europe, according to the feve- 
ral Waters they live in, it ought to be no Wonder if the Eels in 

maica differ in fomefmall Matters from thofe of Europe, the Rivers be- 
there much more rapid and violent than in other Places where 

Rain is not fo great or lafting. 

I am very inclinable to believe Marcgrave*s Mucu to be the fame with 
this Fifb. 

Eel is of a very good Nourifhment, but being fat is hard of Digeftion. 
The Fat, dropping from them while roafting, dropt into the Ears, helps 
their old Aches. The fame taken off the Top of the Water wherein 
they boil, is good for Wounds. The Fume of the Skins of thofe faked 

put on Coals and receiv'd by the Fundament is good for Dyfenterical 

Gripes. Salvi 



_ . . ; »,, -*-,, — ..».»-* . . i * H&*## S* < 

■j. ': ixvr; t : ~ :jv/ -■■ 

HAP. III. _ £J 



Of Fifbes with rounder or contracted Bodies. 


lftrix Pifcis Clujij exotic. Willughby, p. 146. Tab.l. $. Hiftrix, Pifcis 

longifftmis [finis donatus, Lifter, ib.p* 155. Tab. I. 6. Raij. Syn. p. 42. 

Anorbis muricatus alter. Clu[. exotic. An orbis Bartrachoides. Muf Soc. Reg. 
Guamaiacuguara Braftlienfibus Marcgr.p. 158.^. 1648. Raij, 147. Guamata- 
cuouara. Pi[ ed. 1658. f. 360. Anorbis muricatus, Gefn ? Heriffon de Mer. de 

Rochef. f. 198. Poijfon arme\de Dutertre.p. 209. Toad-Fifh wich many cruel 

Prickles, which flead, is eat, but the Skin is poyfonous. It is Good for 

the Bloody-Flux. Anonymus Portugal of Bra[tle y Lib. 7. cap. i.p. 13 14. * 
Pure has. 


I have nothing to add to the Defections of the above recited Au 

thors. s . * . , ^ . , 

The Gall of it is Poyfon, Pi[o. The Antidote is the Crab Aratu. 

The Contrivance of the Mouth is admirable, having no Teeth but 
being made up of two large Bones bioad and hoilow'd, as Mill-ttones 
with which the Meat which are Sea-Snails, Crabs and other Shell-fiQi 

crack'd, ground, and made fit for the Digeftion in the Stomach, wherein I 


found many of them, in one I difleded taken in Port-Royal Harb 

Thefe Mandibles are found deep under Ground in feveral Places in England 


II. Orbis Uvis oblongus, cinereis &[ufcis maculis noiatus. Tab. 247. Fig. 1. 
Rat]. Syn. p. 4$. An orbis oblongus teftudinis capite Clufij exot. lib. 6. cap. 26 ? 
Willughby, p. 147 ??*£. I. 9. F/£. $ ? An Toad-fifb Amayacuof an Anonymus 

Portugal, ap.Purchas.lib.j. cap. 1. p. lgty It is poyfonous if eaten mtb the 
Skin, but not without it. It kills Rats 

The Toad-Fifh. 

This was 5 Inches from Head to Tail ; it was roundifh and about an 

Inch broad near the Head, where broadeft, the Mandibles were four 




The Natural Hiftory of J A M A I G 


Bones cover'd with Skin, the Eyes flicking out of its Head, blue, 
with a white and S-.arlet Circle or Iris, it had four Fins, one fmall one 
on the Back near the Tail,two/>^ Branchtas and one fmall one f oft Anum 
tinder the Belly, and a fquare three quarters of an Inch long Tail ; it had 
two fmall Knobs for Noftrils. It was coverM with a Skin on the B*ck 
white and brown fpeckled all over, and on the Belly white, i'mooth and 


Without Scales, and capable of a great Extenfion, which it does, puffin| 
it felf up as a Toad, whence its Name. 

The Stomach or Place where its Victuals are digefted, had feveral 
Windings, and were very well fitf'd with the Fuci growing on the Rocks 
under Water; the Stomach had under it two Wind Bladders, by which it 

puffed it felf up. 

They feed on Fuci r See. 

They are taken all along the Coafts of this Ifland. 

III. Cugupuguacu Braftlienfibus. Marc^r, p. 169. ed. 1648. Wifluohby. p. 


Tab. I. Tab. 247. Fig. 2. Rati. Sytt. p. izj 

The Pinna want? -de $ Are 

% 1 - • 

rv tut t*g. An? o't^ons de Roche de Rochef.p. 189 ? An Vapitaines de Dutertre. 
p. 2 J 6 . ? An petite morne. e 



This I had drawn from the Life at Jamaica : "t was taken in the Sea 
uear Port-Royal, as were like wife the other two I lilies following, but be- 
ing in Hd/ie, I rook no Defcriptions, but the Figures are as big as the Life, 
which I /hall therefore call 


* > 

IV. Cugupuguacu cogener. Tab. 248. Fig. 




V. Cugupuguacu cogener, corpore rotundiore 

• ♦ 



• • 


* • 



1 V4 » ' 


- - * 


48. Fig 


* . -- 


VL Guaperva longa, Cauda fire quadrata ejr mininie forcipata capit 

latiufculo. Lifter app. ad Willughbj, p 


Tab. I 





An old Wife, or 

* 5 * 


e : ; 

It was taken in the great Ocean going to the Weft-Indies 



VII. Fife is triangularis maximus, cot nut us, fqu amis hexagonis & radiatis 

vedU fqu am* five earum 

parum em i net. Lift 

f in Ap 

Wtllughb h p. 19. p if w triangularis cornutus. Cluf.WilLughby.p. 149. Tab. I 

4. Raij. Syn.p. 44. GuamajACu ape Brafilienfibus. Pifcis triangular 

Mar eg 

Bones and 


ed. 1648. Guamajacu ap 



Guts are Poyfon, but 


,* > w 


in the Brafiiian Tongue Itaoca, whereof the Sk 

a rp Pnufnn K.^ I, ;,.„„„ /]..J ,*„ « 

6 5 8;. 3 





(/». Pur chas. lib. 7. *ja. 1. jp. i* r4 

This is frequently taken 

this Ifland 


rl Jim 

i in 







* ♦ - 



i ». 

■ ■ 

Thofe that arc hurt with the Prickles of the Porous Marinus. are cu 


with the Slime of the reft of their Body, Pliny 

1\\ « 

* • 


* • , 

VIIL Hippocampus Rondelet. & aliorum. Raij. Sw. p. 4 < 


This is found on the Shores of the Ifland Jamaica. 

M * 






■ « 





/ * 


The Natural Hiftory of J A M A I C A. 






Of Fijbes which are fmooth f and have one Fin on their Backs* 



OvacuU Pifci Congener pfttaci roflro. Tab* 249. Fig. 2. Perroquets 

de mer de Rochef. p. 185. Du Tertre* 219. Raij fynopf f. 156. An 

Cochomichin Fernanda 



The Parrot Fijb. 

This was about a Foot long, and nine Inches 

broad, where 


near the Head, the Mandibles were each two Bones join'd together 
before, of a fine blue and green Colour. 

There was one fmaller taken at Old Harbour, it was fix Inches long 
and two and a half broad near the Head, where broadeft, from whence 
it gradually decreas'd, on each fide to the Tail it had fix Fins, one from 
its broadeft part along the Back to the Tail, two behind the Branch/'*, 
two under the Belly, and one poft Anum continu'd to the Tail, all of a blue 
and green Colour. The Tail was fquare, the Scales large and roundifh, 
and their Circumference red. It had a very fmall Tongue. 

The Stomach and Guts were one, tho' here and there widned, du& t 
the Guts were full of Sand and Fuci, the large one was taken at the 
North-fide of Jamasca in St. Anrfs Bay or Harbour. This Fifli hath its 
Name from its Mouth, being like that of a Parrot. 

It feeds on fubmarine Plants growing on the Rocks. 

It feeds likewife on 


Shell-fifh, which 

it bruifes with its Mandibles. 

II. Parts pifci Braftlien(i Congener, fine pinnis ventralibus. Tab, 2 50. Fig 

4. Raij. fyn. />. 51. 


A Pampas 


This Fifh was very little of its Kind, about fix Inches long and 
four and a half broad in the middle, it was almoft round in the fore 
Fart, and from its broadeft Place decreas'd 

Degrees to the Tail, 
it had a round fpeckled flefhy Tongue, and the Mandibles fet with 
fmall fharp Teeth, the Eyes large, black, having a large white 
Circle, or Iris round them, it had four Finns, two long ones behind, 
the BranchU, one beginning from the middle of the Back and ending 
at the Tail, and a fourth, two and a half Inches long, beginning in 
the middle of the Belly, and ending in the fame Place; it had a 
forked Tail, two and a half Inches long, and an arch'd Line through 

the upper Part of its Sides, it was all cover'd over with white fmall 

The Stomach was round, and was befet with pretty (harp Bones, 
like to thofe of the Teeth of a Wool Carder's Comb, and the Guts had 
feverai Circumvolutions. 

It was taken at Old Harbour, from whence it was brought to 


A - 



282 The Natural Hiftory of J A M A I C 

III. Harengus major, fyaamis minoribus, rofiro longiore & acutiore. Rail, 

fyn. p.i 59 


This was twelve Inches long, and two broad, in the middle whcr 


broader}, it began narrow at its Mouth, increas'd to the Middle, 
whence it gradually decreas'd to the Tail. It had a long white Car- 
tilaginous Tongue, the Mandibles only rough inftead of Teeth, two 
Noftrjls fmall and round, the Eyes large and black, with a white Circle. 
It had fix Fins, one pretty large in the middle of the Back, two under 
the Branchia, two in the middle of the Belly, and one pofi Anum all 
of a yellowifh Colour fpotted with black. The Tail was very long and 
forked ; there was a Line went through the middle of the fides from 

Head to Tail, it was all fcaly, white underneath, and blackifh in the 


The Stomach of this Filh was a Sack, like a Manic a Hippocratis, the 

Point whereof reach'd as far as the Anus, and the Interline was but 
one, and that ftreight. 

They are taken at Old Harbour, and brought to Market, where 
had it, the Snout is longer and fharper then that of a Herring, and the 
Fins and Tail are larger. 


• 1 * . ? 

IV. Harengus major, totus {rgenfeus,fciuamis major ibus. Tab. 250. Fig. 1* 

R/$ m 

< x t 

■» i 


This Fifh was eleven Inches long, and two and a half broad where 
bvoadeft, near the Neck ; it growing greater there and decreafing towards 

the Tail. The upper Mandible was a quarter of an Inch long 
then the under, both had white Lips, and within were rough fmall 
Teeth. There was a white Cartilaginous thick Tongue, and near an 
Inch above the Snout were two Holes for Noftrils, the Eyes were 
black in a white his or Circle, there were fix Fins, two behind the 
Branohia, two before the Anus, one near the Tail, and one on the Back, 
it had a forked Tail, and a Line in its Middle from the Tail to the 
Head; it was cover'd all over with large white (hining Scales. 
This Fifh is very full of Bones, it was taken at the Canoes. 

There are much larger of the fame Sort 

V. Harengus minor. Tab. 250. Fig. 2. Raij fjn. p. 159. An Pilchards 

like them of Spain of An Anonjmus Portugal of Braftle. Purchas Lib. 
cap, 1. pi\}it 

The Spratt 


This was four Inches long, and one and a half broad in the middle 
where broadeft ; very near the Snout were the Eyes, which were black 

with a white Iris. It had two fmall Pinna on the Belly, one on the 


, and one foft Anum, and a forked Tail. It increas'd from the 
Snout to the Middle, and decreased from thence to the End, and was 

cover'd with fmall Scales, brownifh on the Back, and white 
where elfe. 

, w» vw *i»^ w miw wacft, 

The Natural Hi/lory of JAMAICA. 283 

Jt was taken at the Canoes. 

I could not find any Difference between this Sprat and that of 
England, but perhaps ic may be the young one of fome of the former 
land of Herrings. 

VI. Jcas. Salvias p. 68. Gefn. p. 13. Acus vulgaris Op ft mi Aldrov. It 
1 cap. 2$. Raij p. 231. Tab. P. 2. fig. 4. fyn. p. 109. Needle Fifh of 

Jnonymus Portugal of Br a file. Purcbas lib. 7. cap. 1. p. i$l?. Timucu 

Brafilienfibus Marcg, p. 165. ed. 1648. Timucu Pifon. p. 62. ed. 1658. Acus 
prima J pedes. Rondelet. p. 227. An Jcus major. Be lion. p. 163? having 

no pinnuU ad caudam like a Mackar-ell. Egutlle de mer. Rochefort* 18S 
Du Tertre. 218. An Or fie Ej. i ' 

The Gar-E/fb. 

This was two Foot long from the End of his Chaps to that of his 

Tail, from the Point of the Jaws it augmented in largenefs by De 

paft theGills, where it was roundifh like an Eel, two Inches 
broad, and continued of that Bignefs to the Anus, from whence it 

narrowed by Degrees to the 'End, its Colour on the Back wasg 
and in the Belly white, it had i two Lines run down its Sides, one to- 
wards the Back, and another towards the Belly for its whole Length, 
and had one Fin on the Back four Inches from the Tail, beginning 
broad, and growing narrower till it ends in a Point, the Branchiae 
were red, and there were two Fins behind them, there was a'lfo a 
pair in the middle of the Belly, and one fingle one beyond the Anus, 
the Tail was forked and much longer on the Point below than that above. 
The top of the Head was flat, from the Eyes to the End of the lower 

Jaw (which was fomewhat longer than the upper) were five Inches 

the Jaws began broad and tapered to a Point, and were fet with rows 

of green quarter of an Inch long Teeth, with very fmall ones on 

the out fide, and a rifing Septum in the middle of the under one. The 
der Jaw had a round long bony Subftance, with fharp raifed tranfverfe 
Lines, the Tongue was fmall, hard and cartilaginous, and the Eyes 
large and fphxrical. This Fifh was all cover'd over with fmall Scales 

Its Stomach was no way to be diftinguifh'd from the jEfopbagus or 
its, all three being one flraight equally large Tube from the Mouth 
to the Anus, it had a very long red Liver, a Heart like other Fifh, and 
two hard Roes or Ovaria, one of each fide the Intejlinum rectum, ending 
at the Anus, and having large VefTels at their beginning. 

It was taken at Old Harbour* and was brought to Market with other 


, ~~W „«- ~IW« Q 

They often leap and skip out of the Water, about a Foot or more 

high from its Surface, for fome paces, and ftrike themfelves againft 

they meet in their Way. One of thefe meeting with a 

Waterman rowing in a Boat, {truck its Snout into his Side for fome 

depth, whereby the Man was almoft kill'd : This was told me for a 

Truth, and that it happened between Port-Royal and Paffage-E 

is well tailed, fried with Butter, and is without Bones. Marcg. 
They perfecute the Herrings. Gefn. 

VII. Jcus , mandibula Superiore brevl circinata, inferiore in roftrum en 

fif or me product a. Tab. 250. Eig. J. An Acus cujufdem Indict caput. Lifter, i 
app. add. Raij lcbth. p. 23 ? An. Elejants neufe. Acus Indica mandtbula inft 

fpiculum product a. Raij. app. p. 4. Tab. 6. N°. 4? Syn.p. 109 



2 84 The Natural Hijlory of J A M A I C A. 

This Fifh was nine Inches long and one broad, in the Middle 
where broadefr, the under Chap ended in a tapering fharp Inch and 
half long bony Subftance, covered with a blackifh Skin, there being 

no fuch Production on the upper Chap, the Mandibles were roug! 
with fmall Teeth fet in feveral Rovves. It had two pretty large Holes, 
or Noftrils, the Eyes were large and black, in a white Iris, the Fins 


were fix, two of which were by the Gills, two in the Belly where 
it begins to decreafe, one fofi Anum, and another above before the forked 
Tail, the upper Part of the Fifh was cover'd with dark Blue, and 
the under with white large Scales. 
It was taken at the Canoes. 

VIII. Saurus maximas, non maculatus. Tab, 251. Fig. 1. Raij. fin. f. 1 59. 

The Sein-Ftfh, or Se a-G ally-W a fp . 

This was about fourteen Inches long, in the middle five Inches 
round, and tapering to both Ends, the Month in both Jaws had one 
Row of fmall fharp Teeth, and on the upper two more within, 
paralel to them, and a Row of the fame on the upper Part of the 
Cartilaginous Tongue. Three quarters of an Inch from the End of 
the Snout were the Eyes round and grey, there were two Finn* fofi 
Branchias, two under the Belly, one on the middle of the Back, foft 
Anum another, and a forked Tail, it was all over fcaly, the Back of a 
dark brown, and the Belly of a white Colour. 

It was taken about P ajjage - For t . 


Of Fijbes which are fmooth, and have two Fins on their Backs, 

Comber Linea & maculis luteis. An A Fifh calPd Chicbarros, like 
a Mackarell, of an Anonymus Portugal of Brafile. Purchas Lib. 

l V3 

Spanijb Mackarell. 

This Fifh was about eight Inches long, and two and a quarter 

broad in the middle where broadeft, from the Mouth it enlarged by 
Degrees to the Anus, and thence decreas'd to the Tail, the Jaws were 
pointed, and each had a Row of fharp fmall Teeth. The Eyes were 
large and black, with a white Circle round them, it had feven Fins, two 

behind the BrancbU, one beginning at the largeft place of the Back 
and being almolt continued by little PinnuU or Notches to the be- 
ginning of the forked Tail, as in others of this Kind, another begin- 
ning poft Annum, and ending at the fame Place, and two very fmall 
ones under the Belly, and a feventh beginning behind the Head, and 
reaching to the long one on the Back. It had a ftraight yellow Line 
from the Head to the Tail through the Sides, and another very 
crooked and white, befides fome yellow Spots here and there \ it was 

all over fmooth without any Scales, blackifh on the Back, and white 



The Natural Ht/iory of J A M A I C A. 285 


on the Belly. Towards the Tongue and Gills were a great many of 

thofe Cruft'acea figur'd by Pifo on the Fifh Acarapiamba, and very like 
a Shrimp only broader, and of a white Colour. 

The Stomach was oblong or Sack-fafhion'd, and the Guts had but one 
Circumvolution, the Liver was cover'd with a great Subftance or Mafs 
of Flefh, like the Thymus, having white Veins or Nerves like the 
Cerebellum when divided running through it. 

They are taken on all the Shores of this Ifland. 

Thefe Fifh feed on long Worms. 

II. VmbU minor marina maxillis longioribus. Tab. 247. Fig. g. Raij.fynl 
pi 158. La Becane de Rochef. 197. de Du Tertre. 204. Raij. fyn* p. 155. 

A Barracuda, 

This Fifh was about fifteen Inches long, and three Inches broad 

in the middle where broadeft. The lower Jaw was about a quarter 
of an Inch longer than the upper, from the Eyes to the End of the 
Taws was about two Inches. The Jaws were near as long; the 

dtr Jaw had two Rowes of fmall Teeth, and one long one at 

the Et'd in the Middle, the upper had one Row of fmall Teeth on 

the out fide and another within of long ones, the Tongue was oblong 

and cartilaginous. It began narrow, widen'd by Degrees till pan: 
the Gills (which were red) then continu'd of the fame breadth and 
bignefs to the Anus, from whence it decreas'd in breadth to the 

Tail. It was of a dark brown Colour above, and white underneath 
A Line went from the Tail to the Head through its middle, it 
had here and there fome black Spots, and was cover'd over with 

fmall thin Scales. This Fifh had feven Fins, two on the Back about 

Inch in Length and Breadth, two by the Branchi*, another pair lower 
on the Belly, and one fmgle one beyond the Anus y all of them foftc 
The Tail was large and forked 


The Stomach was two or three Inches long, Sack Fafhion'd, hanging; 

down, the Inteftina Caca's or Appendices were very many, the Liver very 

white colour'd, the Heart as that of other Fifties, and fo was the 

Swimm or Sound. 

According to its feeding on venemous or not venemous Food, 'tis 

wholefbme or poyfonous to thofe who eat it ; 'tis alfo noxious in. 

fome Seafons of the Year, and in fome Places, and innocent in others. 

I fuppofe according to its Nourifhment, by which now and then, it 
acquires fo much Poifon as to kill immediately. 

It was taken at Old Harbour, and notwithstanding its fuppos'd 
poifonous Qualities fold in the Markets. 

Rocbefort attributes a venemous .Quality to its Teeth, and Da 
Tertre fays, that if the Teeth be green, and the Liver bitter,* 'tis 
poifonous, and not to be tafted, beleiving it to feed then on Man 

cenilles, dropping into the Sea : He tells us, he was very ill with eating 
Soldats or Hermit*Crabs on the like Occafiom 

Ill* Trutta congener, pifcis Uvis fluviatilis colore varias c&tdphracti 

facie. Tab. 249. Fig* 1. Raij. fyn. p. 158. An Amore pixuma Brafthenfi- 
bus* Marcg. p. 166. ed. 1648 ? An Amore pixuma Pifon. p. 72. ed 1658 ? 
An Amore pixuma, Brajilienjibus vulgo corrupts Afnorea Marcg. Willughb* 



. ' 

\ \ 1 

c c c 



The Natural Biftory of J A M A I C A. 

The Mudd Fiflr. 





Back, near the Head where 





to the 1 






about an Inch over the 




ce it j*rows lefs by 


two behind the Branch 

two in 


moft a 



two on the Back, and one pop Anum^ ic has alio 

all the Skin except the white Belly 


over with fmall Scales; partly 

the under Taw is the Ion£elt 



ft. both 

or yellowifh, and partly black 

ider Jaw is tne longeit, notn 1 
many Rowes of fmall fharp I 

nd the 



pper are fe 

th a 

the Tongue is carti- 



They are in all 1 the frefli Wate 



the Ifland 


ted one of th 



ate Fifh 




Of Fifbes which are prickly, and have one Fin on their Backs 

Agrus line is lute is varius. Tab. 252. Fig* I. Raij. 


132. An 

Laquais de Du Tertre. p. 220. Pargos of an Anonym us Portugal of 
Bra/ile. ap. Furchas Lib. 7. cap. 1. p. 1 3 1 j ? 

The Pargie. 

This Fifh was feven Inches long, four in the middle where broadeft, 

round or arch'd above, almoft like a Semicircle. About an Inch 


and a half below the Head rofe 
Back, having prickly Bones 


which was continued do 



had two Fins by the Gills very long 
Belly had two, and there was one beyond the Anus s defended with 

a prickly Bone. The Tail was pretty long and forked 

It had round Eyes, both Mandibl 


nd without fet with 

cutting and grinding Teeth ; the Tongue was white and triangular, the 
Skin was fcaly, very light brown towards the Back, and white in 

the Belly, with feveral yellow Lines 

g from Head to Tail 

It was taken at Old Harbour > and reckoned very good Food 


II. P agrus totus argenteus. Tab. 25$. Fig. 1. Raij. Jyn. p. 132. 

A Stone-Baffe. 

. ■ 

This is taken in all the Rivers of this Ifland, and likewife in the 

, they are altogether of a white Colour, and are the 

Sea, with Mullets 

moft common, and one of the beft fort of Fifh they have in Jamaica 

III. Scaris affinis pifcis edentulus argenteus diBus. Raij. fyn.p.\6i. 
Cafeuna Braftlienfibus Mar eg 


Qz 6. Fig. 5 ? An Capeuna Pif. p. 54. ed. 1658 ? 


ed. 1648 ? Wiilughby. f! 307 ? Tab. 



Silver- Ftfb. 

was a fmall one of its Kind, it was four Inches and a halt 
nd half as broad about an Inch behind the Head where 

* broadeft, 

- t 

The Natural Hifiory of J A M A I C A. 287 

broadeft, it growing larger till it comes thither, and then decreafing 
gain by an Arch towards the Tail, It had no Teeth, a narrow- 

Mouth, black Eyes with a large white Circle, it had £\\ Fins, one 

beginning on the broadeft Place of the Back, having prickly Bones 
to defend it, and on each Side a large Row of Scales, ending at 
the Tail, two Inch long ones behind the BranchU, white as the for- 


mer, two in the broadeft Part of the Belly yellow, and one pofi Anum, 
defended with a long prickly Bone. The Tail was an Inch long and 

forked, it had an arch'd Line from Head to Tail on the upper Pat 

its Sides, and was cover'd with pretty large white Scales, fomewhat 
dark towards the Back. 


There was nothing obfervable in the inwards, only the Peritoneum 


It was taken at Old Harbour. 

They are accounted very good to eat. 

IV. Dentici aut Coracinb congener pifcis ex cinereo & fufco vkrius. Tab. 
259. Fig. 2. Raij.Jjn. p. i6i. 

The Rock Fifi. 

It was ten Inches long from the Head to the Tail, and four Inches 

and a half broad from the BeUy to the Back near the Head, where 
it was broadeft, it had two Holes under the Eyes like Noftrils^ 
large Eyes black with a white Iris or Circle round them, and a yellow 
one round that, the Mouth was prominent, the under Jaw long 

than the upper, both fet with feveral Rowes of fmall fharp Teeth, 
the upper part of the Tongue and Palate of the Mouth of an Orange 
Colour, the Tongue Triangular. It had one large Fin an Inch broad, 
reaching from near the Head along the whole Back, the firit 

lcarce difcernible Scales, being of two Colours white and brow 

half having prominent prickly fharp Bones. It had behind the 
Bronchia two Finn*, of two Inches in length, and one Inch in breadth 
redifh, it had alfo two Finn* Inch and a half long under the Abdomen; 
behind the Anus was another guarded with a long thick prickly Bone'. 
The Tail was an oblong Square, the Skin on both fides had very fmall 

varioufly interfpers'd in great or fmall Spots or Macula. 

It had a great Stomach oblong or fack Fafhion'd, it was very thin 
and white, and fill'd with two Crabs almoft entire, the Stomach was 
cover'd with a whitifh colour'd Liver, and a great many Veflels or Strings 

of Fat like an Omentum, the Intefiina Cacas or Appendices of fome other 

Fifties. The Guts had feveral Windings and were fmall, the Heart fmall, 
its Auricle white, and the Tongue and Palate of the Mouth foft. 
It was taken at Old Harbour. . 

They feed on Sea Crabs. 
They are counted good Food* 

V. Firatiapia Marcgravij turdis congener pifcis. Willughb. p. % 28 ? Tab 
X. 7. Fig. 4? Firatiapia Brafilienfibus Mar eg. p. 157. ed. 1648? 

Firati apua Fifom p. 50. ed. 1658? Raij. fyn. pi 127 

• . 


Another Sort of Rock-Fifb. 



This is found in the Seas adjoining to Jamaica 



288 The Natural Hiftory of J A M A I C 

VI- Dentici congener Pifcis Tab. 25?. Fig. 1 

A Snook. 

This Fifh was two Foot long, and about five Inches broad ill the 

middle where broader!, cover'd with whitifh large Scales, and having 
a black Line running on each tide, the under Jaw is longer than the 

it was taken at Pajfage-Fort. 

hap. VIIL 

Of Fijhes which are prick I), and have two tins on their Backs. 


1658. /. 61 . ? 

llvus cirratus. An Mijuipira & Pirabebe Brafilianis Peixe volador 
Lufitanis, Mar eg. p. 162. ed. 1648? An Pirabebe j. Pifon, eL 

The Gurnet 

The Defcription given by Marcgrave of Mijudp'ira, & Pirabebe, 
agrees in every thing with this, befides which this hath three Inches 
long Cirriy Beards, or Cartilages between the two Pinna at the 

BranchU, and the undermoft Edge of the large Branchta, are blue, 

the Edges of the Mouth or Lips are red, the Tail is not forked but 

fquare, the Scales or Bones about the Head are ray'd, fo that I am 
ape to believe this is a differing Fifh from that defcribed by him, 
tho* he might pafs over thofe Remarks in his Defcription. 

The Stomach was whitifh, not very thick but large, oblong or 
Sack Fafhion'd, and full of fmall Fifh and Frye, the Liver was ruddy, 
and there was in his Body opened, two white oblong Bodies Chri- 
fhllin and full of Mucous Flefh about an Inch long, taken for Air Blad- 

" : rs by Mr. R ay in m'tlvo Salviani. 

They are taken at Old Harbour where they are calPd Gurnets, and 
brought to Market. 

They feed on fmall and young Fifh and Frye. 

-*• *— * * 


IL Mugil, cephalus Rondeletij, Cephalns feu mugil Bettoniy, P. 210. 

Gefn. Willughby. p. 274. Tab. R. 3. Tab. 251. Fig. 2. Raij. fyn. p. 84 

Mugil. Salvian.p. 75. Curema Brafilienftbus Marcg. p. 181. ed. 1648? 

Willughby. p. 277. Curema Pif. ed. 1658. p. 70. Mulets de Rochef. p. 188 

The Frefb-Water Mullet. 

-* * 


- ,— * 

This was about nine Inches long, two broad in the middle where 

broadeft, beginning narrow at the Mouth, growing larger to the 
middle, and ending in a forked Tail. The upper Chap is longer!, the 

Lips are cartilaginous and white, the Eyes half an Inch beyond them 

black, with a white Iris. It has feven Fins, two foft Branchias, two 

der the Abdomen, one large prickly one beyond the middle of the 

Back, one near the Tail, and one beyond the Anus, and a forked 



• ' • - - - <* -* ' 



Natur al Hiftory of JAMAICA; 



- -.- >af 

the Scales are large, rhomboidall, blackifli on the Back, and white 

The Liver was large, dark dirty coloured, having on its upper Part 



white and thick, 

11 Gall Bladder very large and turgid, the Stomach oblo 


the Kelicls of & venal Worms. 


Guts had tew Turnings, and were fill'd with Gravel. 

They are fometimes very large, .are in all frefh Water Rivers an 

Ponds, especially up in the Country, whence they, are brought down in 

extraordinary Plenty in great Rains with the Violence of the Streams; 


and when the Rivulets' run no more, they are left in Holes of Water 
and taken with Dogwood Bark, as is . before related. 4 

are very good and delicious Food, being' extreamly fat and 

favory, which may come from the Rivers not being here foiil'd with 
excrementitious Matters fo much as thofe of Europe. 



is good for the Ears, and the Stones found ih 

drank with Water are good for the Stone. Plwi 


Mugili afflnis fluviatilis tiifci cuius, duabus 

\ * 

F • 



U. Vtg, 3. Raij. h 


• • 4 




• • ■ 




t> « 





The trefb-Wati 









bout three Inch 



in the m 


hroadeff. it" had a 

4 j vJ * 

half long 

'•o 5 j « ". 


* 4 * i « % » 


a a . j 

bout half rfs broad 





hout Teeth, a Great brown Pupill in its Eye in a large white 1 



'IS* It 

grew larg 
to the T J 

from the Mouth to near the middl 



l i 

it had 

d One to the other' from the middle of the B 

ge Fins, one prickly and 









one j>oft A 

Fins long a 


fmall /><?// Brattcbias* two 


3 the end of 
der the Abdo 

th e 


nd a 

d 1 









it was all over coiour'd with ' whitifh 

Scales which towards the Ba 





d th 





Heart was verv fc 


«. ' 

* • 




tween two 

lobes of fat white M 

d the Guts were very fi 



v e- 


be* found with J the Mullet ts ia ail frefh Water Lak 


Rivers of the Ifland 

V ' 

1 . 


V A — * * *- 



' * *" 

IV. Ab/tcatuaja Brafilienfibus. Mar eg. ed 164S. p. 161, Raij. p. 259. Tab, 
.18. 2*%. 2V -fyn.f. 99. Abacatuaja. Ptfoh. p- 55. ^. 1658. Jf/z Aw aM at toe 
five Jahive, L&et. dejer. Am. lib. 15. capi izf Lunes de Du Tertre. ft 212 


The OldWfii 

This elegant, Fifh agrees in every thing with PifiPs Defcriptidn; 

Its Stomach Was full of remainders of Fifli therein "digefted. and was 

Sack Fafhion'd. 

-* * 


was taken with the Gurnets before defcribed at Old Harbour, and 

t to Market with them. 


It eafily appears not to be the Fder of Gefneri 

There is no Prickles in this Fifft's Fins only long Strings, therefore 

1 doubt if this be a proper Place. 

» .' 


■ w 

\ « 

D dddf 


*» ™-"l 

2 o o The Natural Hijlory of JAMAICA 

V. Faber marinus fere quadratus. Tab. 251. Tig. 4. Raij. fjn. p. 160 


This Fifli was almoft fquare with the Firs. It was five Inches long 


and four broad, where broadeft in the middle; and decreas'd from 
thence to the Head and Tail gradually, the Mouth was little, and 
let with Rows of fmall and fharp Teeth, the Tongue round and cartila- 
ginous, the Pupill large and black, in a white Circle. It had feven Fins, 
two pofi Brancbias y and two under them in the Belly, one on the higheft 
Part of the Back, with a black Inch and an half long Ligula, and feve- 
ral Prickles after it, it had one other after this on the Back very large, 
and another on the Belly, having each one Ear. The Tail was almoft 

uare, the whole Body was colour'd with gray or Afh-colour'd Scales, 
bating fome three or four broad tranfvers and black Lines. It had 

very crooked Line from Head to Tail. 

It was taken at the Canoes and brought to Market. 

VI. Guatucupa Br aft 'lien fib us May eg. Cor acini at videtur [pedes j Corvin* 

Lufitanis. Raij. p. 302. Tab. S. 18. fig. 5. Tab. 282. Fig. 2. Raij.fyn p. 160. 
Guatucupa Braftlienfibus. Mar eg. p. 177. ed. 1648. Guatucupa, Pif\ p. 62. 
ed 1658. 

The Drummer-Fiflj. 

This Fifh was about nine Inches long, about four Inches broad below the 
Head where it was thickeft, from whence it was circular, the Back 
riling as it were in an Arch leffening to the Tail. Juft under the Head, 
it had one triangular Fin prickly, and after that along the Back an- 
other, the Fins in the Belly, and by the Gills were each of them two, 
and beyond x^t Anus was another, having a very ftrong Bone to guard it. 
The Tail was an Inch and half long, and as broad and not forked, 
both the Mandibles were fet with fmall fharp Teeth, the Tongue large 
and white, two fmall Holes for Noftrils, and the Eyes round, the Gills 
very red, it was fcaiy and filver colour'd under the Belly, of a very 

light brown Colour on the Back, and had a crooked Line running from 
the Gills to the Tail. 

This was taken at Old Harbour* and is eatable: 

VII. Ac am pinima. Braftlienfibus. Marcg.ed. 1648./. 152; JcAr 'a pinima 
Pif.ed. 1658. p. 51. Raij. fjn. p. 06. 

The Graj-Grunti 
This was feven Inches long, two and a half broad where broadeft, 

in the Middle, from the Mouth it growes larger to the Middle, and 
then decreafes on both Sides to the Tail. The Pallats of both Mandi- 
bles and broad round Tongue were red, the Mandibles fet with fhort, 
not fharp Teeth, the Eyes blue, with a white Iris or Circle round 
them. It has feven Fins, two on the Back, one with fharp ftrong Prickles 

and a hollow cavity to lodge them in, two behind the BranchU, two 

the Belly, and one pofi Anum y defended with a ftrong fharp Prickle, 

mm — mm ^^ — *B ^^ ^^ — ^^ ^^ ^^ — mm WmM 

the Tail was forked and large. It was all colour'd over with yellow 

-and white Lines, running from Head to Tail, which made the fmall 

round Scales of both Colours 


• ■ 

■ * • 

The Natural Hiftory of J A M A I C A. 

- - ■ 

The Stomach and Guts of this Fifh were not diftinguifhable from one 
another, only here and there it was wider or narrower, and con- 

tain'd Sand, c?c 

It was taken at Old Harbour 

VIII. Cuculus non cirratus 


nlgris maculis notatus. 


Scorpio affinis nigris maculis not at us. Raij. fyti. f>. 160. 

255. Fig 

, '■ 

This Fifh was fix Inches long, and two and a half broad near the 

Head where broadeft 




Tongue was white fhort and thick 

Mandibles rough. It had feveral Hollows on 

blue, in a futile morte Iris, and very prominent, the Head composed of fc- 

the Snout, the Eyes 





veral large Plates or Bones, 

on the Back, &c. as in the Jcara pnima. 

one over another ; The Fins feven, two 


The Colour of the 

fmall Scales on the Head and Back was brown with black Spots> oil 
the Belly white with the fame, and under the Belly redifh* 
It was taken at Old Harbour. 


' 9 3 








* . 


*■ t 



■ ;\ 


V v 

l/4 vi 

« -a 

Birds of JAMAICA. 



* • 

&;M$&&&t:^| HERE are very many Birds in Jamaica, both of Land and 
IggS fcOQ ^gg, Water, as well as Waders or fuch as frequent and haunt 

% watery Places, many of which are very good Food. 

It is a common Opinion, that the hot Parts of the 
World abound moil with Birds of fine colour'd Feathers, 

V> VX * '+ 

<? *& ^ */?*/? *Z* *i7 *JT *p 


and that they want thofe who ling : The firft of which 
is true and the latter falfe, for there are many Tweet finging Birds to 
be found here, a'nd thofe of as pleafant Notes as any in Europe^ 

The Defcriptions that were taken of them, were taken with thole of 
feveral Plants I met with and defcribed in thofe Parts, whofe Leaves 
Flowers, <^f. I meafur'd by Inches, and confidering that they do admit of 
great Latitude in their Dimenfions 

Soil, &c. but even on the fame Bough fome are bigger than others, 
I therefore thought 

not only according to their Age, 

it moft reafonablc not to be too ftricl in the 

Meafure, but to give a near Gusfs 

after a grofs Manner, which was 


meafuring with my Thumb 
cient with other Circumfrauces 
to difference them from others. I wilh I had been more exact if* 
meafuring the Birds, for they (I think) do not vary fo much in.. big- 

nefs as the Parts of Plants, and therefore would have endur'd more 

nice meafuring then 



have here beftow'd on them, tho' the Figures 

to have them drawn as 



may help in fome Degree, my Rule being 

Life. One thing may ferve to' correct this Deficiency,' 
and that is, that I take it generaUy, I come under the exact Meafure 
of Inches rather than exceed it, which I know 

the Way I generally usM 



my com par in 

* - 






I — — Ml ^— 

2 94 2Tv Natural Hi/lory of J A M A I C A. 

H A P. 

Of Land Birds. 

\."\ T Vl t ur gallin* African* facte. Tab 254. Vruhu Br afi lien fib us. Marc*. 

p. 207. ed. 1648. WiHughb. Angl. />. 68. fyn. av. p. 10. Vulturi 
Brafi/ienfis Vrubu Marcgr. Raij. jyn. p. 180. Tzopilotle five aura 

Hernandez, p. 331. quoad defer ipt ion em. Cozaauauhtli de Htrnande 

edit, a Ximen. p. 186. Jura Nteremb 

The Carton Crorv. 

This is from the end of the Bill to that of the Tail, two Foot long, 
and twice as much from the end of one Wing to that of the other 
extended. The Head, and an Inch in the Neck, are bare and without 
Feathers, of a flefh Colour, covei'd with a thin Membrane, like 
that of Turkies, with which the moll part of the Bill is cover'd like- 
wife, this Skin on the upper part of the Neck is crumpled or wrink- 
led. It has two large Noftrils, the Bill is more than an Inch long, 
and crooked at the Point, where 'tis whitifh and fharp, the Tail 
broad and nine Inches long, the Legs and Feet are thiee Inches 
long, the Toes four, three before and one behind, that in the middle 
before is more than an Inch long, cover'd with Afh-colour'd Scales, and 
arm'd with brown blunt Claws ; 'tis all over of a dark brown 
Colour, except the under fide of the Wings and Tail, which is of a 

light brown or grey. 

It flies exa&ly like a Kite, and preys on nothing living, but when 
dead, it devours their Carcafles, whence they are not molefted. 

They are to be found every where. 

At the flrft Landing of the Engltflj on ^Jamaica, by the Barenefs 
and Colour of the Skin on the Head, they took this Bird to be a Turkey, 
and kilPd feveral of them in feveral Places for fuch, but foon found 
themfelves deceiv'd with their (linking and lean Bodies, which they 
almoft always have. 

The Figure of Hernandez does not agree with this, neither does 
his Defcription agree with his Figure. 

The Allies of their Feathers burnt, take away Hairs fo that they 
come not again, the Skin half burnt heals Wounds if apply'd, and 
the Flefh be eaten, which alfo helps thofe that are fick of the Pox. The 
dried Dung to a Dram helps Melancholly. Hernandez. 

It maintains it felf principally on Snakes, Rattones, and Lizards, 
which it takes, it refifts the Violence of the Winds wonderfully, keep- 
ing its felf againfl: them without Motion. Ximenes. 

II. Tinnunculus five Cenehris. WiUughb. Jng. p. 84. Tab. 5. Tinnuneu 
lus five Cenchris, eive valde fimilis accipiter. Raij. fyn. p. 180. 

A Small Hatvk. 

It was a Foot from the end of the Bill to that of the Tail, and 

two Foot two Inches from the tip of the one Wing to that of the 

other extended, it had a three quarters of an Inch long crooked B 



The Natural Hijlory of J A M A I C A. 295 

the upper Mandible longer than the lower, the upper one blackifh, 
the under whitifh, that above having a yellow Membrane at its Bale, 
in which are two round Noftrils, the under Chap has fuch a fniall 
yellow Membrane tho' not fo large, the Eyes have a large PupiIU 
bluifb, and a redifh Iris, the Eyelids are yellow, the Head, Back, 
Tail and Wings were of a dark brown Colour, having here and there 
very rarely a SnufF-coloui'd or a whitifh Spot. Under the Chaps were 
few Feathers, the Breaft, Belly, under Part of the Wings, Tail and 

Thighs were whitifh, with an Eye of yellow, and with fbme brown Spots 

in them. The Tail was five Inches long, the Legs and beet two Inches 

and a half, cover'd with Skin and fmall Scales of a yellow Colour, 

the Toes four, three before and one behind, that of thole before in 

the middle being the longeft was an Inch long, and all oi chern were 
arm'd with long black, crooked and fharp Claws. 

It had an oblong roundifh white Stomach, having feveral Plic* 
in it, no inward feparable Tunicle to defend the Stomach, ah ho' full 
of Beetles Legs, Heads of Libdlas y he. The Stomach was not very 
thick, and yet had feveral mufcular Fibers in it, the Circumvolutions of 
the Guts were all almoft Spirally the Heart was very large, and fo 
was the Liver, and like thofe of other Birds. 

It feeds on Savanna, Birds, and for want of other Fare, on Beetles, 

Lib t lias % &c. 

It often flies low on the Savannas (eeking its Prey. 

Altho' this differs in fome fmall Matters from the common Keft- 
rell, yet I take it to be the fame, only perhaps difagreeing in Age, Sex, 
or Climate. 

III. Guira querea, Mar eg, v. 202. ed. 1648. Willugb* Angl. p. 10 

Tab. 14. Guiraquerea Marcgr. Cafrimulgi [pedes, a Wood Owle or Goat 

Sucker. Rati. fyn. ^.180. 


Wood Owle. 

This Owle was eighteen Inches long from the end of the Bill to the 
end of the Tail, and thirty Inches from the end of one Wing to the end 
of the other, his Bill was crooked, and befet with a great many hairy 
Brifties, his Noftrills were large, placed in a pretty large Furrow, the 
Aperture of the Throat was very large, the under Jaw was almoft 
altogether bare of Feathers, his Jaws were made triangular, the Bafe 
was three Inches, and from thence to the Point of the Bill it was two 
Inches, his Head was cover'd with a great many Feathers, his Eyes 
were plac'd in the undermoft Part of his upper Chaps, flood prominent 
fphserically at leaft a quarter of an Inch, were bluifh, all Pupilla, only 
the Iris of an Orange Colour, the Feathers of the Head and Neck were 
of a Snuff Colour and Black mixt. The Belly above the Tail and 
the Wings were more whitifh, the Tail and Wing Feathers were dark 
brown and white mixt, the Legs were about a quarter of an Inch 
long, three Toes before and one behind, the middlemoft of the three 
before was Inch long, the Tail it M^ was eight Inches long. The 
Tongue was fmall and triangular, the Stomach whitifh not very mufcu- 
lar, it was full of Beetles half diffolv'd, the Liver was ruddy, and divided 
into two Lobes on the right and left Side, the Guts had feveral Cir- 

It feeds on Beetles, &c. that fly about in the Night 
It haunts the Woods. 



■ -W- I 

296 • The Natural Hifiory of J A M A I C A. 

IV. Nociua minor ex paliido & fafo *varia% Tab. 255. Fig* i. Capri 
mulgus feu notiui f&lv&tica Jamajcenfis minor. Ratj. fyn.p. 180. 

The Small Wood- Owl V. 

This was feven Inches from the end of the Bill to that of the T; 
and ten from the end of Wing to Wing expanded, it had a quarter of 
Inch long crooked biack Bill, with two Tubuli about one eight Part 
an Inch long lor the Noftrifis, along the upper Mandible were feveral 
briilly Hairs in a Line, like thofe of a Cats Muftachoes of a 
Colour, the Aperture of the Chaps or Swallow, was extraordinary 
hrge. The Feathers on the Head and under the Chaps were 

y, the Tail was four Inches long, the Head and Back were 

covered with Feathers of a mixt Colour of Fueille Morte y grey 
black, the Wings and Tail were of the fame Colour only Lighter, under 
the Chaps, Breait and Belly was alfoof the fame, the Legs and Feet were 
an Inch and half long cover'd with brown Scales, the Toes four, three 
before, that in the middle three quarters of an Inch long, and one 



Its Stomach was not very mufcular, it was fill'd with Scarabei, 
The reft of the Bowells agreed in every thing with thofe of the 

eater Sort, concerning which fee the Defcription before. 


They ta:d on Scarabei, and other Infects of that Kind 

I hey are found with the former. 

V. Pfiltdeus Maximus cyanocroceas Aldrov, Omitholog. lib. \\. p. 663. 
Willughb. Angl. p. no. Tab. 1 5. R aij. fyn. p. 28. and 181. Ararauna Brafilten- 

fibus. Mar eg. p. 206. Willughb. Angl. p. in. An Premier tfpece d 7 Arras 

de R.cb*f. p. 170 ? 

The Great Maccaw. 

This from the end of the Bill to that of the Tail was near two Foot 
and a half long, the Tail it felf was a Foot long, it was two Foot from 
the point of Wing to Wing extended, the Bill was crooked like that 
of a Parrot very ftrong and black. The Tongue was thick, of the 
Shape of a Man's, and of a black Colour. On each fide of the Head 
was a redifh flefhy bare Membrane near the Eyes, with fbme few 
black Feathers growing on it, the Top of the Head above the Bill was 
green, under the Chaps black; the upper Part of the Neck, Back, 
Wings and Tail were blue; the under Part of the Neck, Bread, Belly 
and under the Wings of an Orange or a Fueille Morte Colour. The 
Legs were an Inch and a half long, cover'd with black Scales, the Toes 
were four, two before and two behind, the longeft of which was about 
an Inch, and all of them arm'd witTTblunt crooked brown Claws. 

It would with the Bill break very hard Wood. 

It fed on raw Flefh chiefly, but would eat other things likewife. 

It fpoke very plain, and more Articulate than any Bird I ever 


ltfmelt as thofe fmall red Parrots call'd Lores which come from the 

Spice liknds, or fomething like a Goat. 


»1 " > ■•.'A.S ■' * " '» 

•* i * *. '. ' * * * • \ *. * ' - . t * . " » ■ \. % . -v -^N, 

J . . . . - 

The Natural Hi/lory of JAMAICA. 297 

*** v •%. > •.■*!'> 

VI. M r ar acan >a alter* Brafilienfibus. Marcg. p. 207. Willughb. Angl 


The Small Macaw. 

They are very common in the Woods, and are eaten as Pigeons 
but when young, are tamed, and kept as Parrots. 


VII. Pfittacus viridis alarum cojla fuperna rubente. AUrov. Ornith. 

lib. ii. p. 662. Raij. fin. av. p. 30. & I Si. Pfittacus media 

magnitudinis. Willughb. p. 112. X*£. 16. 


- 4 \ / 

This is brought from the Spanifh Main, or Continent of America. 
frequently hither, and is reckoned one of the mofi docile Parrots. 

VIII. Papagayos verdes que tienen un flueco de plumas bl arte as en el na- 
eimiento del ptco. de Oviedo lib. 14. cap. 4. Raij. fyn. av. p. 181. Ah 
pfittacus Leucocefhalus. Aldrov. p. 670. lib. n. Raij. fyn. p. 31 ? 

Thefe are brought from Cuba to Jamaica frequently, and are found 
likewiie in Htfpantol*. 5 ., 



IX. Pfittacus minor collo feu torque mimateo. Raij. Jym dv. f. i$ii 

An Xaxabes de Oviedo. lib. 1 4. cap. 4 ? 

^ i • 


The common Parrot of Jamaica. 

It is leffer then thofe of the Main, and has a redifh colour'd Neck, 
being\very where elfe of a green Colour, it has a fhort broad Tail 
and fpeaks very articulately. 

Parrots are intoxicated with Cotton Seed as Men with Wiri& 

Du Tertre. 

They when eaten have a different tafte according to their Food 
They are eaten bak'd in Pyes and tafte as Pigeons. 

X. Pfittacus chereus feu fubcaruleusi Aldrov* f* 6j$< Qrnitb 

lib. 11.* '*i 


* « 

- • 

I ; 

■■ * - ■ - 


Thefe are brought to the Ifland of Jamaica in great Quantities from 







f * 

XI. Pfittacus minor macrourus totus viridis. Aldrov. Ornith. lib. 1 1 ; 

Tut f pedes 2. Tuiaputejuba. Mar eg. p. 206. Willughb. p. 116* 

Rail. fin. av. p. 22.24. and 181. Paxaritos todos verdes. de Oviedo lib 
\6fCap. 4. Rochef. p 172. Du Tertre.p i$ 

1 * 




This is very common in the Ifland of m , t „ 

And in Efpanola. Oviedo 

•- 1 

They learn to fpeak articulately but ate reckonM to be Ill-humotirM 

Fff f 

* • ^ 


■ *V 


■ T 



■ % \\ • * * 

___ ___ . hn« 


208 The Natural Hifiory of J AM A I C 


XII. Monedula tota nigra, major, garrula, mandibula fuferiore arcuata. 
Tab. 256. Fig. 1. Ant Brafilienfibus Marcgr. p. 195. ed. 164S. }lillughb. 
. 120. Raij. fin. />. 35 & 185. 

77;* Gr^/ Black- Bird. 

This was i} Indies long from the end of the Bill to the end of the 
Tail, and about fifteen Inches from the end of one Wing to the end 
of the other both being extended, the Bill was three quarters of an 
Inch long and black, the under Mandible being ftrait, the upper 
of a lingular Make, diftinguifhing it from other Birds, for it was 
arch'd, or' round, rais'd high, flat and thin on the. upper round Edge. 
The Feet have three Toes before and one behind (tho* Marcgrave 
fays otherways.) The Legs are two Inches long and black as Jet, the 
middle Toe before is one Inch and an half long, arrn'd with a pretty 
fharp Claw, and the other Toes proportionable. The Colour of the 

Feathers all over is black. 

The Stomach of 'this Bird was pretty thick, it was very full of 
Grafs-hoppers, Beetles, &c. disjointed and partly diffolv'd. f 

It haunts the Woods on the Edges of the Savannas, and is very com- 
mon, making a loud Noife upon the fight of Mankind, which alarms 
all the Fowl in their Neighbourhood, fo that they are very prejudi- 
cial to Fowlers, but on the other Hand when Negros run from their 
Matters, and are purfued by them in the Woods to be brought back to 
their Service, thefe Birds on fight of them as of other Men, will make 
a Noife and direft the Purfuers which way they muft take to follow 
their Blacks,, who otherwife might live always in the remoter inland 
^oods in Pleafure and Idlenefs. 


Perhaps this Bird may have the Toes fometimes-. two before, at other 

^ l. _u: _ j • 

times two behind. 


» • 1 

* 4 



XIII. Cor nix nigra garrula. Raij. fjn. p. 181: 

* . 

+ ' + 




Chatering Crow, or, a Cacao IValke, 

1* * 

_ _ m s 

This was one Foot and an half long, and three Foot from Wing to Wing 

ded, his Bill was black, ftrait, one Inch and an half long, having 
pretty . large Noftrils, the Neck was three Inches long, , the Tail fi 

Inches long, all the Feathers over the whole Body of a black Colour, 

the Legs and Feet were three Inches long, the Toes four, three4>efore 

nd one behind, the one in the middle of thofe before about an Inch in 

V.\ _ 

gth, all cover'd as the Legs with Scales black 

• -* 


His Stomach was rhufcular and pretty thick, it had a ftrdng; 
inward Tunicle, to defend it from being hurt by any thing within it, 
it was fill'd with red Berries, arid feveral Beetles ^hd Seeds; 

It frequents the Mountains, where it loves, to be always maki/ig a 
chattering Noife, different from that of any pf^Buropeaii Cr^Wf*. 



I It is very much in the North-fide of the Maria. '"-^ ^ . 
L It feeds on Berries which it gathers In the Woods, Beetles, &c 

It is counted pretty good Meat, but is not much fought after. 

This comes very near the comnfoh Crow in England , but feems to 
differ in feveral Particulars, as may be gathered from comparing their 



The Natural Hi/lory of J A M A I C A. 299 

XIV. MouiMi totA nigra. Tub. 257. Fig. 2. Raij. fjn. p. 185 

The Swatl Black-Bird. 

This is from the Bills end to the end of the Tail twelve Inches, abo 

fixteen meafur'd broad Ways, the Wings being extended. The Bill is 
black, one Inch long, pointed with no rifing as the other of the fame Name 
hath, and like a Magpyes. The Head is proportionably large to the Body, 
the Neck is two Inches long, the Tail five Inches in Length, the Feathers 
all over are black, the Legs and Feet are three Inches long, black, and 
fcaly. It has four Toes, three before and one behind, the middle one of 
thole before being the longed is more then an Inch in Length, they 
have all crooked Claws, tho' they are neither long nor (harp. 

Its Stomach is mufcular like thofe of its Kind, and it was full of 
Beetles and the Remains of other Vermin. 

They are to be met with on the Road between P*ff<*ge-F ert and the 
Town of St. 'J ago de la foga very frequently. 

XV. Picas v Arias medias. Tab. 25$. Fig. 2. Raij. fytt. p. 18 1» Jfi 
If ecu Mar eg. p. 207. WiUughb. p. 138* Tab*, 22? 

/ - 


The Woodpecker: 

• t 

This was ten Inches long,, and fourteen Inches from the Tip of 
one Wing to that of the other extended, the Bill was an Inch long, 
ftrait, roundifb, black, and pointed, the Tail was three Inches long 
and forked, the end of the Tongue was hard and pointed* Above the 
Bill was Down of a yellowiih white Colour, the Head was brown, the 
back Part and Neck of it of a fcarlet, the Back, Wings, and Tail black 
with white tranfverfe Stroaks or Lines, the Neck, Breaft, and Belly 
between an Orange and brown Colour, the Feet and Legs were an Inch 



and an half long, cover'd with greenifh yellow Scales, the Toes four 
and plac'd two before and as many behind ; they had iharp, crooked, 
brown and pretty long Claws. 

This had a pretfy large Stomach, with no feparable inward Mem- 
brane, the Contents of it were feveral Sorts of Berries on which it fedj 
the Gall Bladder was long, and lay on the Guts, it was fhap'd like 
Hippocrates's Bag, being Pyramidal. The Guts were everywhere very 
wide and the Fat yellow. The Tongue had on its upper part, a fharp, 
hard, two edgM half Inch long and black Point, fomething like an Arrow 
Head joined to its End, having Prickles, or being indented on each fide 

which it kills the Coffin and other Infers in the Truncs of .the Trees 


bringing them out, tho' deeply lodg'd in them. 
They are every where in the Woods. 

They love the Indian Pepper, or Capficum very much. 


XVI. Itferus minor nidum fufpendens. Raij \ J) n. p. 184. J» jpujabafeu 
Japu BrAfUienftbtts Marcg. p. I9 j. ed. 1648 ? WiUftghb. Angl. 142 ? Tab. 23 ? 

The Wttchy Picket i or, Spanijb Nightingale 

This Bird was Cut Inches lone from the end of the Bill to that of 

the Tail, and nine Inches long From the end of 
tended, the .'Bill was ftrait, pointed, thick at 



goo The Natural Hiftory of J A M A I C A. 

whitifh, ending final! and black, with two Apertures for the Noftriis* 
Round about the beginning of the Bi!l was a little Ring of black, the 

upper Part of the Head, Neck, B3ck, and Tail, w