(navigation image)
Home American Libraries | Canadian Libraries | Universal Library | Community Texts | Project Gutenberg | Children's Library | Biodiversity Heritage Library | Additional Collections
Search: Advanced Search
Anonymous User (login or join us)
Upload
See other formats

Full text of "On the Darlingtonia californica, a new pitcher?plant from northern California /by John Torrey."


—■ *'T"""~" 



*^^»*' 



J 



\ 



SMITHSONIAN CONTRIBUTIONS TO KNOWLEDGE. 







ON THE 



DARLINGTONIA CALIEORNICA 



) 



A 



NEW riTCIIER. PLANT 



9 



-'^ 



liluM NOJiTIIKllN CALIFORNfA. 



B 




JOHN T R R K Y. F. L. S. 



Mu. \\v>\. *'■ 1 1 Jen, 






[ \ •'«' KPTKO Won I'VBLK \T1'-*V, I^KrTKMBCR, 1 



, M 



•1 




COMMTS.^TON 



TO W 11 If! It THIS PAPER HAS BKEN REFERREP. 



Prof. A. GrvY. 



John Carkv, Esq. 



JOSEPH UESKY, Secretary S. L 



■.-»i.1- 



■- 




ON THE 



«- 





RLINGT 




NIA 



CALIFORNICA 



J 



A NEW PITCHER-PLANT, 



FEOM NOETHEEN CALIFOENIA 



BY JOHN TORREY, FX.S. 



This new Pitcher-plant was first detected by Mr. J. D- Brackenridge, Assistant- 
Botanist to the United States' Exploring Expedition, under Captain Wilkes, 



while passing overland from Oregon to San Francisco, in the year 1842. 



He 



found it in a marsh, bordering a small tributary of the Upper Sacramento, a 
few miles south of Shasta Peak. Owing to the lateness of the season (it was 
October), the flowers had passed ; and not even a seed vessel was found, but only 
the leaves and tall scapes, with the remains of a single capsule. The leaves, 
however, were so peculiar, that no doubt was entertained of the plant being either 
a Sarracenia, or a near ally of that genus. Without the flowers, nothing further 
could be determined respecting it ; but from the bracteate scape and deeply parted 
lamina or appendage of the leaves, it seemed more probable that it was distinct 
from Sarracenia. Long had I been hoping to receive the plant in a more com- 
plete state, when it was at last brought to me by my friend, Dr. G. W. Hulse, of 
New Orleans, who found it in flower in May, 1851, in the same region, and 
perhaps in the very spot where it was discovered many years before by Mr. 
Brackenridge. The plant proves to be generically distinct from Sarracenia, as 
well as from the genus Heliamphora of Bentham ; and I take great pleasure in 
dedicating it to my highly esteemed friend Dr. William Daxlington, of West 
Chester, in Pennsylvania, whose valuable botanical works have contributed so 
largely to the scientific reputation of our country. The genus dedicated to this 
veteran botanist by De Candolle has been reduced to a section of Desmanthus by 



4 



DARLINGTONIA CALIFORJVICA. 



Bentham ; and a Californian plant, on imperfect specimens of which, I ] 
indicated a genus under this name, proves to be only a species of St} 
followino- are the characters of the new P-enns : 



The 



■#■ 



DARLINGTONIA, Nov. Gen. 



Calyx ebracteolatus, 5-sepalus ; sepalis distinctis subpetaloideis. Corolla 5-sepala ; 



petalis latissime unguiculatis ; lamina ovata ungue multo minore. Stamina 



1.5, 



/ 



uniserialia ; filamentis brevibus subulatis ; antheris obiongo-linearibus ; loculis inae- 
qualibus. Ovarium turbinatum, 5-loculare, 5-Iobatum ; apice dilatatum concavum. 
Stylus brevis, columnaris, 5-fidus ; laciniis linearibus, divergentibus, apice intus 
stigmatosis. Ovula plurima anatropa, placentas dilatatas obtegens. Capsula . . 

Herba perennis, Californica, uliginosa, foliis Sarraceniee; lamina profunde 
biloba ; lobis divergentibus : scapis unifloris, bracteatis ; bracteis infimis distan- 
tibus, suprcmis approximatis imbricatis : flore nutante purpureo. 



* Having recently obtained good flowering specimens of this plant, the followino- 
description of it is appended : 

Stykax Califor:^icum (?i. sjp.) : foliis ovatis utrinque obtusis subcoriaceis integcrrimis 
ramulisque glabriusculis vel snbtns minute stellato-tomentosis ; racemis terminalibus 2-4- 
floris ; pedicellis flore multo brevioribus incrassatis cum calyce brevissime 6-dentato sub- 
tomentosis ; corollis sexpartitis ; filamentis ad medium usque monadelphis. 

Hab.— Upper Sacramento : Col. Frdmont. Near the upper crossing of the Sacramento, 
about lat. 40^ 30' : Dr. G. W. Hulse. Foot-hills of the Yuba Eiver : Dr. Stillman. Flowers 
in March and April. 

r 

An upright branching shrub, seldom attaining a height of more than six feet. The leaves 
vary from an inch to two and a half inches in length, and are more or less broadly ovate in 
outline. The under surface is paler, and either nearly glabrous or clothed with a close 
stellate pubescence ; on the upper side they are usually quite smooth. The racemes are 
produced at the extremity of short leafy branches, and are mostly about three-flowered ; 
occasionally the flowers are solitary. The pedicels are from three to six lines long, and are 
thickened upward. The campanulate calyx is furnished with six very short subulate teeth. 
Corolla about three fourths of an inch long, nearly white, or slightly cream-color; constantly 
6-Darted. with oblonf?-lancftolat,fi rjitlift-r oht.nsp epo-rrifiTita Stamens 10-14 • the filaments 



s 



monadelphous to near the middle. Ovary 3-celled, with several ovules in each cell ; but the 
dissepiments soon separate from the walls. Style slender, longer than the stamens ; stigma 
minutely 3-cleft. Immature fruit one-celled, with a single seed. 

Of the numerous American species of Styrax only two have been found on the west side 



found in any part of the world. 



Mexico. This is the most northern species of the genus 
It has a strong resemblance to S. officinale of Southern 
Europe, from which it is chiefly distinguished by its fewer-flowered racemes, thickened 
pedicels, and longer stamineal tube. There is a well-marked, unpublished species (S. platini- 
rOLiUM, EngeJm: ined., gathered on the Guadaloupe, north of New Braunfels, Texas, by Mr. 
Lindheimer), the corolla of which is more commonly 6-parted. Its dilated and subcordate 
leaves are glabrous and shining on both sides. 




I 
■ 




DARLINGTONIA CALIFORNICA 



5 



DARLINGTONIA CALIFORNICA, Tab. XII. 






Hab. — Head waters of the Sacramento ; Northern Cahfornia,' near Shasta 

w 

Peak ; growing in marshes, and flowering in May. Mr. J. D. Brackenridge, and 

Dr. G. W. Hulse. 

A perennial herb. Root-stock short and thick, producing 



-t 



numerous 



fibrous roots. Leaves all radical ; the adult ones from 



o 



marked with strong 
^nder veinlets. The 



two feet or more in length ; the petiole or pitcher tubular, grac 

ward, and singularly twisted on its axis about half a turn, 

parallel and longitudinal veins which are connected by very si 

summit is vaulted, and formed into a sac about the size of a hen's egg, on the 

under side of which is an oval orifice, about half an inch in diameter, opening 

r 

into the cavity of the pitcher. The areola? of the sac, and also of the back of the 
tube, on the upper part, are discolored (of a dull orange color in the dried speci- 
mens), as in Sarracenia variolaris and S. Drummondii. Along the inside of the 
petiole is a narrow wing, which is single, except at the base, where it separates 
into two plates that clasp the scape and the base of the superior leaves. The lamina 
is narrow at the base, and deeply divided into two somewhat unequal widely- 
spreading lobes, which are oblong-lanceolate, rather acute, bent downwards and 
often also backwards ; the inner (or properly upper) surface very minutely pubes- 
cent. The pitcher inside the hood is retrorsely hirsute with short conical hairs ; 
from thence downward it is dabrous : but towards the base it is lined with long 



slender hairs, also pointing do\ 
found. Neither these hairs, nor 
character.* The scape is from 



remains of 



furnished with sessile clasping straw-colored scales. These 



and alternate ; the lower ones distant and lanceolate, the upper more 



more 



imbricate. They are marked with longitudinal veins, which are forked 
The upper surface is paler than the lower, and under a lens shows minute 
papillae. . The flower, when fully expanded, is nearly two inches in diamete: 



The 



lly imbricated. There 



pals 



The 



gth of the caly 
quincuncial. The petals are oblong, pale purple, marked 



veins, and are apparently not connivent over the pistil. They are furnished ^vith 
a small ovate, concave lamina, and a very broad, obovate claw, which is two or 
three times larger than the lamina. Stamens from twelve to fifteen, hypogynous, 

* The orifice of the Pitcher, being placed directly under the vaulted summit, cannot receive either 
rain water or dew ; and yet Mr. Brackenridge thinks he found some of the leaves containing water. 
Still I cannot think the water was secreted by the hairs in the tube. In Sarracenia psittacina the orifice 
is likewise concealed and protected by the hood, so that the leaf can hardly be said to have any lamina ; 

. k « 

the arched summit helo] 





■>V J m c 



6 



DARLINGTONIA CALIFORKICA. 



inserted 



a single 



ovary : filaments short and 



and partly concealed by the dilated summit of 
rather stout : anthers oblonof, with the cells i 



turned by the twisting of the filament 



the 



are anterior and 
nnle and soherics 



The 



the smaller cell lying 



against the ovary, 
lied and somewhat 



five-lobed, concave and dilated at the summit, so as to exhibit a sort of 
which projects over the stamens : the columnar style is short, and five-cleft 
summit ; the narrow seorments diver^inff. and stijTmatosP! at thp PYtrpmitv 



inside 
projec 



Ovules very numerous, anatropous, covering the large placentae, which 



into the cells of 



ovary, 



No fruit was found 



on one of the 



specimens collected by Mr. Brackenridge, there was a small portion 
which was evidently five-celled. 

From Sarracenia, this genus differs in the calyx not being calyc 
form of the petals ; in the somewhat definite and uniserial stamens ; 
turbinate ovary; and especially in the absence of the large umbrella-s 
of the style, which is so conspicuous in the former genus. The 



forked lamina of 



the leaf, and the bracteate scapes, are also characters not found 
Sarracenia. 

From Heliamphora, 



m 



any 



it is still more distinct 



In that genus, the scapes are 



the style is entire and not dilated at the summit, and the 



destitute both of calyculate bracts and petals 



The 



the 



the verv small 



The geographical distribution of Sarraceniaceae is worthy of notice. 



small order consists of 



three 



America. 



hich 



This 
all exclusively natives of 



(Sarracenia purpurea) 



d to North 



extensive range, being found 



fi-om lat. 48", north, to Southern Florida, but westward only as far as Ohio , 
remaining species being confined to the Southern States. Heliamphora, a genus 
of a single species, is a native of British Guiana, and has not been found else- 
where. Darlingtonia is the only representative of the order west of the Rocky 
Mountains, and even there it seems to be extremely rare. 

The affinities of Sarraceniaceae, notwithstanding the discovery of Heliamphora, 



ever. 



of another genus belonging to the same family, are 
Its resemblance to NymphsBaceae and Pap 



by several botanists ; 



Dr. Lindley, without hesitation, pi 



latter order and Ranunculaceae. A more remote affinity to Droserace^e has also 

been mdicated ; but this, however, is chiefly seen in the structure of the leaf of 
Dionaea. 

The most recent opinion respecting the affinity of Sarraceniaceae is that of M. 



Planchon,* who 



these plants are very closely related 



1 



points out some striking characters in which Sarracenia resembles 



* Hooker's London Journal of Botany, 5, p. 252. 



I 



\ 



DARLINGTOXIA CALIFORNICA. 



7 



the genus Moneses (Pyrola uniflora, Linn?) ; in addition 
remarked that the seeds of Hehamphora are furnished wit 
and a minute embryo, as in P5T 
comparison may be drawn still 



it may be 



Moneses and Darlinfftonia the 



more 



closely : in the floral 




the 



almost definite stamens, in the structure of 



well as in habit, the Hkeness of our new genus to Moneses is quite remarkable. 
many points, too, we may trace in Darlingtonia an approach to Monotropa, of 
f nearly related family Monotropacese. Heliamphora, in its several-flowered 



more like Py 



The singular pitchers of Sarraceniacese might seem 



to show a wide difference between the famiHes thus 



pared 



from the abnormal condition of a single organ are not of high im 



determining affi 



In conclusion, I would remark that, while offe 



a 



few 



additional considerations that seem to strengthen the views of M. Planchon, I 



adopting those 



When we obtain the fruit 



of the Darlingtonia, perhaps it may give us some better knowledge of the 
that its family should occupy in the Natural system. 



# 



■i 





\ 



I 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATE. 



Plate XII. DARLINGTONIA CALIFORNICA, page 5. 



Fig. 1. Plan of the flower. 

2. A petalj of the natural size. 

3. A stamen, considerably magnified. 

4. Grains of pollenj highly magnified. 

■ 

5. Longitudinal section of the ovary, having portions of the floral envelopes, 

and two of the stamens; considerably magnified. 

6. Style and stigmas, more magnified. 
Y. 'An ovule, more magnified. 

8. Hairs from the inside of the tubular petiole, near its base ; highly magnified. 

9. Hairs from the hood, just witliin its orifice; equally magnified. 



PUBLISHED BY THE SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 

WASHINGTON, D.C., 

APRIL, 1853. 



-^ 



PL. xn 



\ 




^.cy 



c}y tccauc o&/. 



DARLINOTONIA CALIFORNICA 



liA afSndLeotiJt C9JU: 



Author: Jc'-^n """ ^y^^y 



litlc^: Cri "' - ^ rli^^ on2« "^ Mfornxc^, 



/I Ne.^ ^ "^ ^^k>^r I 



i* w t 



re uortherii ~ "'^ '•<^ 



"-^r-- ^"^or- a ac^ ^nawv^i "" r^**^: 



Lth usu •'^'"i ^^ " Hii vyf?^^t ^ '-"^ . «vt. ^uii .' ^^"^y for th^ 

] ath-^ '^■^*^ • v;^..^d witH hot glue. I ^o end . r ad- 

n- ^ wxoii ^c >u^. "'^v^a --If ^' u^.^ O'^ tne ynm^. wucrv- 



^reij. r on 1,1 



1 

L 



,. 



1 



I te: / ' ■- ' 



_ ^'^ ^j.^ 



|itM»