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SMITHSONIAN CONTRIBUTIONS TO KNOWLEDGE.
NEW riTCIIER. PLANT
liluM NOJiTIIKllN CALIFORNfA.
JOHN T R R K Y. F. L. S.
Mu. \\v>\. *'■ 1 1 Jen,
[ \ •'«' KPTKO Won I'VBLK \T1'-*V, I^KrTKMBCR, 1
TO W 11 If! It THIS PAPER HAS BKEN REFERREP.
Prof. A. GrvY.
John Carkv, Esq.
JOSEPH UESKY, Secretary S. L
A NEW PITCHER-PLANT,
FEOM NOETHEEN CALIFOENIA
BY JOHN TORREY, FX.S.
This new Pitcher-plant was first detected by Mr. J. D- Brackenridge, Assistant-
Botanist to the United States' Exploring Expedition, under Captain Wilkes,
while passing overland from Oregon to San Francisco, in the year 1842.
found it in a marsh, bordering a small tributary of the Upper Sacramento, a
few miles south of Shasta Peak. Owing to the lateness of the season (it was
October), the flowers had passed ; and not even a seed vessel was found, but only
the leaves and tall scapes, with the remains of a single capsule. The leaves,
however, were so peculiar, that no doubt was entertained of the plant being either
a Sarracenia, or a near ally of that genus. Without the flowers, nothing further
could be determined respecting it ; but from the bracteate scape and deeply parted
lamina or appendage of the leaves, it seemed more probable that it was distinct
from Sarracenia. Long had I been hoping to receive the plant in a more com-
plete state, when it was at last brought to me by my friend, Dr. G. W. Hulse, of
New Orleans, who found it in flower in May, 1851, in the same region, and
perhaps in the very spot where it was discovered many years before by Mr.
Brackenridge. The plant proves to be generically distinct from Sarracenia, as
well as from the genus Heliamphora of Bentham ; and I take great pleasure in
dedicating it to my highly esteemed friend Dr. William Daxlington, of West
Chester, in Pennsylvania, whose valuable botanical works have contributed so
largely to the scientific reputation of our country. The genus dedicated to this
veteran botanist by De Candolle has been reduced to a section of Desmanthus by
Bentham ; and a Californian plant, on imperfect specimens of which, I ]
indicated a genus under this name, proves to be only a species of St}
followino- are the characters of the new P-enns :
DARLINGTONIA, Nov. Gen.
Calyx ebracteolatus, 5-sepalus ; sepalis distinctis subpetaloideis. Corolla 5-sepala ;
petalis latissime unguiculatis ; lamina ovata ungue multo minore. Stamina
uniserialia ; filamentis brevibus subulatis ; antheris obiongo-linearibus ; loculis inae-
qualibus. Ovarium turbinatum, 5-loculare, 5-Iobatum ; apice dilatatum concavum.
Stylus brevis, columnaris, 5-fidus ; laciniis linearibus, divergentibus, apice intus
stigmatosis. Ovula plurima anatropa, placentas dilatatas obtegens. Capsula . .
Herba perennis, Californica, uliginosa, foliis Sarraceniee; lamina profunde
biloba ; lobis divergentibus : scapis unifloris, bracteatis ; bracteis infimis distan-
tibus, suprcmis approximatis imbricatis : flore nutante purpureo.
* Having recently obtained good flowering specimens of this plant, the followino-
description of it is appended :
Stykax Califor:^icum (?i. sjp.) : foliis ovatis utrinque obtusis subcoriaceis integcrrimis
ramulisque glabriusculis vel snbtns minute stellato-tomentosis ; racemis terminalibus 2-4-
floris ; pedicellis flore multo brevioribus incrassatis cum calyce brevissime 6-dentato sub-
tomentosis ; corollis sexpartitis ; filamentis ad medium usque monadelphis.
Hab.— Upper Sacramento : Col. Frdmont. Near the upper crossing of the Sacramento,
about lat. 40^ 30' : Dr. G. W. Hulse. Foot-hills of the Yuba Eiver : Dr. Stillman. Flowers
in March and April.
An upright branching shrub, seldom attaining a height of more than six feet. The leaves
vary from an inch to two and a half inches in length, and are more or less broadly ovate in
outline. The under surface is paler, and either nearly glabrous or clothed with a close
stellate pubescence ; on the upper side they are usually quite smooth. The racemes are
produced at the extremity of short leafy branches, and are mostly about three-flowered ;
occasionally the flowers are solitary. The pedicels are from three to six lines long, and are
thickened upward. The campanulate calyx is furnished with six very short subulate teeth.
Corolla about three fourths of an inch long, nearly white, or slightly cream-color; constantly
6-Darted. with oblonf?-lancftolat,fi rjitlift-r oht.nsp epo-rrifiTita Stamens 10-14 • the filaments
monadelphous to near the middle. Ovary 3-celled, with several ovules in each cell ; but the
dissepiments soon separate from the walls. Style slender, longer than the stamens ; stigma
minutely 3-cleft. Immature fruit one-celled, with a single seed.
Of the numerous American species of Styrax only two have been found on the west side
found in any part of the world.
Mexico. This is the most northern species of the genus
It has a strong resemblance to S. officinale of Southern
Europe, from which it is chiefly distinguished by its fewer-flowered racemes, thickened
pedicels, and longer stamineal tube. There is a well-marked, unpublished species (S. platini-
rOLiUM, EngeJm: ined., gathered on the Guadaloupe, north of New Braunfels, Texas, by Mr.
Lindheimer), the corolla of which is more commonly 6-parted. Its dilated and subcordate
leaves are glabrous and shining on both sides.
DARLINGTONIA CALIFORNICA, Tab. XII.
Hab. — Head waters of the Sacramento ; Northern Cahfornia,' near Shasta
Peak ; growing in marshes, and flowering in May. Mr. J. D. Brackenridge, and
Dr. G. W. Hulse.
A perennial herb. Root-stock short and thick, producing
fibrous roots. Leaves all radical ; the adult ones from
marked with strong
^nder veinlets. The
two feet or more in length ; the petiole or pitcher tubular, grac
ward, and singularly twisted on its axis about half a turn,
parallel and longitudinal veins which are connected by very si
summit is vaulted, and formed into a sac about the size of a hen's egg, on the
under side of which is an oval orifice, about half an inch in diameter, opening
into the cavity of the pitcher. The areola? of the sac, and also of the back of the
tube, on the upper part, are discolored (of a dull orange color in the dried speci-
mens), as in Sarracenia variolaris and S. Drummondii. Along the inside of the
petiole is a narrow wing, which is single, except at the base, where it separates
into two plates that clasp the scape and the base of the superior leaves. The lamina
is narrow at the base, and deeply divided into two somewhat unequal widely-
spreading lobes, which are oblong-lanceolate, rather acute, bent downwards and
often also backwards ; the inner (or properly upper) surface very minutely pubes-
cent. The pitcher inside the hood is retrorsely hirsute with short conical hairs ;
from thence downward it is dabrous : but towards the base it is lined with long
slender hairs, also pointing do\
found. Neither these hairs, nor
character.* The scape is from
furnished with sessile clasping straw-colored scales. These
and alternate ; the lower ones distant and lanceolate, the upper more
imbricate. They are marked with longitudinal veins, which are forked
The upper surface is paler than the lower, and under a lens shows minute
papillae. . The flower, when fully expanded, is nearly two inches in diamete:
lly imbricated. There
gth of the caly
quincuncial. The petals are oblong, pale purple, marked
veins, and are apparently not connivent over the pistil. They are furnished ^vith
a small ovate, concave lamina, and a very broad, obovate claw, which is two or
three times larger than the lamina. Stamens from twelve to fifteen, hypogynous,
* The orifice of the Pitcher, being placed directly under the vaulted summit, cannot receive either
rain water or dew ; and yet Mr. Brackenridge thinks he found some of the leaves containing water.
Still I cannot think the water was secreted by the hairs in the tube. In Sarracenia psittacina the orifice
is likewise concealed and protected by the hood, so that the leaf can hardly be said to have any lamina ;
. k «
the arched summit helo]
■>V J m c
ovary : filaments short and
and partly concealed by the dilated summit of
rather stout : anthers oblonof, with the cells i
turned by the twisting of the filament
are anterior and
nnle and soherics
the smaller cell lying
against the ovary,
lied and somewhat
five-lobed, concave and dilated at the summit, so as to exhibit a sort of
which projects over the stamens : the columnar style is short, and five-cleft
summit ; the narrow seorments diver^inff. and stijTmatosP! at thp PYtrpmitv
Ovules very numerous, anatropous, covering the large placentae, which
into the cells of
No fruit was found
on one of the
specimens collected by Mr. Brackenridge, there was a small portion
which was evidently five-celled.
From Sarracenia, this genus differs in the calyx not being calyc
form of the petals ; in the somewhat definite and uniserial stamens ;
turbinate ovary; and especially in the absence of the large umbrella-s
of the style, which is so conspicuous in the former genus. The
forked lamina of
the leaf, and the bracteate scapes, are also characters not found
it is still more distinct
In that genus, the scapes are
the style is entire and not dilated at the summit, and the
destitute both of calyculate bracts and petals
the verv small
The geographical distribution of Sarraceniaceae is worthy of notice.
small order consists of
all exclusively natives of
d to North
extensive range, being found
fi-om lat. 48", north, to Southern Florida, but westward only as far as Ohio ,
remaining species being confined to the Southern States. Heliamphora, a genus
of a single species, is a native of British Guiana, and has not been found else-
where. Darlingtonia is the only representative of the order west of the Rocky
Mountains, and even there it seems to be extremely rare.
The affinities of Sarraceniaceae, notwithstanding the discovery of Heliamphora,
of another genus belonging to the same family, are
Its resemblance to NymphsBaceae and Pap
by several botanists ;
Dr. Lindley, without hesitation, pi
latter order and Ranunculaceae. A more remote affinity to Droserace^e has also
been mdicated ; but this, however, is chiefly seen in the structure of the leaf of
The most recent opinion respecting the affinity of Sarraceniaceae is that of M.
these plants are very closely related
points out some striking characters in which Sarracenia resembles
* Hooker's London Journal of Botany, 5, p. 252.
the genus Moneses (Pyrola uniflora, Linn?) ; in addition
remarked that the seeds of Hehamphora are furnished wit
and a minute embryo, as in P5T
comparison may be drawn still
it may be
Moneses and Darlinfftonia the
closely : in the floral
almost definite stamens, in the structure of
well as in habit, the Hkeness of our new genus to Moneses is quite remarkable.
many points, too, we may trace in Darlingtonia an approach to Monotropa, of
f nearly related family Monotropacese. Heliamphora, in its several-flowered
more like Py
The singular pitchers of Sarraceniacese might seem
to show a wide difference between the famiHes thus
from the abnormal condition of a single organ are not of high im
In conclusion, I would remark that, while offe
additional considerations that seem to strengthen the views of M. Planchon, I
When we obtain the fruit
of the Darlingtonia, perhaps it may give us some better knowledge of the
that its family should occupy in the Natural system.
EXPLANATION OF THE PLATE.
Plate XII. DARLINGTONIA CALIFORNICA, page 5.
Fig. 1. Plan of the flower.
2. A petalj of the natural size.
3. A stamen, considerably magnified.
4. Grains of pollenj highly magnified.
5. Longitudinal section of the ovary, having portions of the floral envelopes,
and two of the stamens; considerably magnified.
6. Style and stigmas, more magnified.
Y. 'An ovule, more magnified.
8. Hairs from the inside of the tubular petiole, near its base ; highly magnified.
9. Hairs from the hood, just witliin its orifice; equally magnified.
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