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Full text of "Transactions of the Academy of Science of St. Louis."

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THE 



CONSTITUTION, 



CHAETBE, AND BT-LAVS, 



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ACADEMY OF 




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or ST. LOUIS. 



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ST. LOUIS: 





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GEOHGfi KNAP? & CO.; BOOK AND JOB PEXNTEBS. 

1857. ^J 

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OFFICERS 



OF THE 



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ACADEMY OF SCIEjS'CE OF ST. LOUIS, 



For 1857. 



PKESIDENT, 




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Benjajids' F- Shumaed, M.D. 

/ FIRSTTICEPRESIDENT, 

Adolphus Wislizexus, M.D. 



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SECOND VICE PBESIDENT. 



Charles P. Chouteau, Esq. 



Nathaniel Holmes, Esq. 



kecohding secketabt. 



J. S. B* Alleyne, M.D. 



TRE ASUKERj 



Simon Pollak, M.D. 



CI7BATQIIS, 



# B. F. Shumaed, M.D*, 

^ 

Dr. Albert C. Koch, 
Charles W. Stev^^s, M.D., 

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John Lebrecht, M.D. 



LIBBARIAX, 



MoNTBOSE A. Pallen, M,D. 



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COBRESPOKDINGSECBETABT, \ 



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STANDING COMMITTEES 



COMMITTEES. 



CHAIBMEN* 



Ethnology^ 

Comparative Anatomy^ 
Mam malogy , . 

Ornithology J . , 



A. WiSLizExus, M.D, 
Prof. C. A, Pope. 
Prof, C. W. Stevens, 

Edward Wyman, Esq, 



Herpetology and Ichthyology^ Prof. M. M. Pallet. 



Chemical Geology and 

Malacology^ 

Entomology^ 

Botany J • . 

Palwoniology and Geology^ Benj. F. Shumard. M.D 



H. A. Prout, M.D. 

Prof. W, M. McPheeters 
Thos. C. HiloarDj M.D, 



Mineralogy ^ 

Chemistry^ 

Physics^ 

Embryology^ 

MonslrositieSy 



John Moss, Esq. 
Prof. A. Litton, 
Jas. B. Eads, Esq. 
E. H. Gregory, M.D. 
J. S. B. Alleyne, M.D. 



LIBHAKY COMBIITEE. 



Geo. Engelma^tt, M.D., 
H. A. Prout, M.D., 

Bexj. E. Shumard, M.D. 




PTJBLI CATION C <|M SI I TTEE. 



Wm. M. McPheeters, M.D 
N. Holmes, Esq., 

F. E. Baumgartex, M.D. 






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I 




CHARTEE. 



AN ACT TO INCORPORATE "THE ACADEMY OF 

SCIENCE OF ST. LOUIS." 



Be it enacted y hy the General Jissemhly of the State of 

Missouri^ as follows : 

Section 1. That George ExgelmajS-n, Hiram A. Prout, 
Nathaniel Holmes, Benjamin F. ShumarI), Charles W. 
Stevens, James B. Eads, Moses M. Fallen, Adolphus 
Wislizenus, Charles A. Pope, Charles P. Chouteau, 

William M. McPheeters, and otliers — wto have heretofore 
formed an association in the city of 

AcADEiiY OF Science of St. Louis 

the advancement of Science, and ti 



St. Louis styled *'The 



city of a Museum and Library for the illustration and 
of its various branches — their associates and successor 
hereby declared and created a body corporate by the nan 
style aforesaid ; and by that name they sht 



d 



competent jurisdiction ; may 
[evise, receive and hold, prop 




)r mixed, and the same exchange, sell, lease, or otherwise 
di^se of, as they may deem proper, for the objects and pur- 
poses aforesaid, and not othei-wise; may have a common seal, 
and break or alter the samd at pleasure; and may make such 
constitution, regulations, and by-laws, as maybe requisite for 
the crovemment thereof, not beinjr contrary to the laws of the 



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Sec. 2* The constitution and by-laws of said association 
w in operation shall govern the corporation hereby created 









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CHARTER. 



until tlie same stall be regularly altered or repealed, and the 
present officers of said association shall be officers of tliis cor- 
poration until their respective terms of office shall expire, or 
be vacated in pursuance thereof. 



Sec 



and effects now belonging 



the 



association ^aforesaid shall, on acceptance of this charter, 
thereby become vested in the corporation herein created, and 
all property owned or held by this corporation shall be exempt 
from taxation so long as the same shall continue to be held 
and used in good faith for the objects and purposes aforesaid; 
but whenever any real estate of the corporation shall be leased 
to any other person or persons, the leasehold interest therein 
shall be taxable to the lessee or lessees thereof, as in other 

cases. 

Sec. 4. The members of this association acquire no indi- 
vidual property in the real estate, cabinets, library, or other 
effects thereto belonging, which are hereby declared to be 
fully vested in the corporation as such ; but the interest of the 
members therein shall be usufructuary merely, and shall not 
be transferred, assisrned, hynothecated, or otherwise disnosed 



of, than as hereinbefore provided. 



Sec. 5. Whenever this corporation shall have failed to an- 
swer the purposes for which it was created, or shall suffer its 
charter to be forfeited by the law of the land, its cabinet col- 



7 



vested 



the 



City of St. Louis, to be deposited with some public 
in said city, for general use and inspection, under 
lations as the said City may prescribe. 

Sec. 6. This act shall be taken as a nublio act 




and be 



force from and after its passage. 



E» C. Harri 



Speaker of the Hoitse of Kepresentatives. 



Jlpprovedy January 17, 185T 

Trusten Polk. 



H. Jackson, 

President of the Seiiate. 












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CONSTITUTION 



OF THE 



ACADEMY OP SCIENCE OF ST. LOUIS. 



ABTICLE I. 



STYtE. 



Section 1. This Association 

EMY OF SOIEN'CE OP St. LoUIS. 



called ^'The 



3? 



ARTICLE II. 



OBJECTS. 



Section 1. It shall have for its object the promotion of 
Science: it shall embrace Zoology, Botany, Geology, Miner- 



alogy, Palaeontology, Ethnology (especially that o£ the Abo- 



riginal Tribes of North America), Chemistry, Physics, Mathe- 
matics, Meteorojogy, and Comparatire Anatomy and Physi- 
ology. 

Sec. 2. It shall furthermore be the object of this Academy 
to collect and treasure Specimens illustrative of the various 
departments of Science above enumerated; to procure a 
Library of works relating to the same, with the Instruments 
necessary to facilitate their study, and to procure original 
Papers on them. 

Sec. 3. It shall also be the object of this Academy to 
establish correspondence with scientific men, both in America 
and other parts or the world. 

ARTICLE III. 



M£MB£HS 



Section 1. This Academy shall be composed of two classes 

of members — associate members and corresponding members. 






I 






pilOH^ 



Amm II 1 1 lia 













Sec. 2. The associate members shall constitute the mam 



body of the Academy, and shall exclusively con^ 
elect its officers, admit its members, etc. They 



\J.t/OJ.X ^HO KJA. UUlLi.V Citing 

enumerated. Thev sh 



Science above 



long as they continue members. 
Sec. 3. Corresnoridin^r mem 



payment of three doll 



consist of men of 



science, not living in the city and county of St. Louis, who 
shall be elected such by virtue of their attainments, and of 
other persons, not resident in the city of St. Louis, who may 
be disposed to further the objects of the Academy by original 
researches, contributions of specimens, or otherwise. 

Sec. 4. All candidates for admission into the Academy as 
associate or corresponding members must be proposed in wri- 
ting by two associate members at a regular meeting, and be 
"balloted for at the next regular meeting thereafter. The af- 
firmative vote of three-fourths of the members present shall 
be necessary to elect a candidate. 

' Sec. 5. All members shall have the privilege of attending 
the regular meetings of the Academy, and shall have access 
to the Library and Museum^ with the privilege of introducin 
to the same their families and friends. 




Sec. 6. If 



fee 



pay 



into the Academy, the election shall be null and void : 



bution within 



shall not pay the semi 



has become d 



be a member of the Academy: prov 



eter^ that ev^ry such member who shall be absent from the 
city or county of St. Louis for the space of six consecutive 
months, or longer, shall be exonerated from the payment of 
his dues accruing during his absence. 

EC. T. If any person shall be balloted for and rejected, 
is name be withdrawn previously to the ballot, no entry 







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CONSTITUTION. # 9 



of said rejection or withdrawal shall be made on the minutes 
of the Academy. 

Sec. 8. No person who shall be thus rejected, or whose 

name shall be thus withdrawn, previously to the ballot, shall 
be again proposed for membership before the expiation of six 
months next succeeding said rejection or withdrawal. 

Sec. 0. Any member may resign by notifying the Kecord- 
ing Secretary of such intention, provided he produces to the 

r 

said Secretary a certificate from the Treasurer that all arrears 
due from him to the Academy have been discharged. 

Sec. 10. Members may be expelled from the Academy by 
a vote of a majority (not being less than twelve) of the mem- 
bers present, at any regular meeting, for any act of flagrant 
disrespect to the officei^ or members, or for any intentional 
violation of the constitution, or for any grossly immoral con- 
duct : provided^ however^ that no member shall be thus 
expelled without having an opportunity of being heard in his 
own defence. 

Sec. 11. No person thus expelled shall, under any circum- 
stances, be re-elected a member of the Academy. 



ARTICLE IV. 



OFFICERS. 



nary meetings at the request, in writing, of three associate- 
members ; to give the casting vote, and to sign ^ orders oa 
tlie Treasurer* 






Sectiox 1. The officers of the Academy shall be chosen 
from the associate members, and they shall consist of a Presi- 
dent, Jirst and second Vice Presidents, a Corresponding Sec- 
retary, a Kecording Secretary, a Treasurer, a Board of Cura- 
tors, and a Librarian. Said officers shall be elected at the 
first stated meeting in the year, by ballot, and shall hold their 
offices for one year, or until their successors are elected. 

Sec. 2. It shall be the duty of the President to preside 
over the meetings of the Academy ; to nominate all commit- 
tees other than those specially excepted ; to call extraordi- 



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CONSTITUTION, 



secnrity, satisfactory to the Academy, m the sum o£ five thou- 
sand dollars, for the faithful performance of his duties. 

Sec, 6. The Lihrai-Ian shall take charge of all books be- 
longing to, or deposited with, the Academy, and shall be re- 
sponsible for the same ; he shall keep a catalogue thereof, in 
which the names of contributors shall be inscribed, mth the 
dates of their reception, conformably to the by-laws that may 



» 



Sec. 3. The duty of the 1st Vice President shall be the 
same as those of the President, during his absence ; and of the 
2d Vice President, the same dm'ing the absence of both Presi- 
dent and 1st Vice President. 

Sec. 4. It shall be the duty of the Corresponding Secre- 
tary to conduct all the correspondence of the Academy ; to 
keep correct copies of all letters written by him in such corres-, 
pondence, and to make regular reports of the same ; and to 
notify all corresponding members of their election. And it 
shall be the duty of the Recording Secretary to keep correct 
minutes of the proceedings and transactions of the Academy ; 
to keep all reports and other papers rea4 before it, unless their 
disposal shall be otherwise ordered ; to notify all associate 
members of their election ; to keep a correct list of the mem- 
bers of the Academy, with the dates of their election, and the 
dates of resignations, expulsions and deaths that may occur 

among them ; and to keep the constitution and common seal 
of the Academy. 

Sec. 5. It shall be the duty of the Treasurer to take charge 
of the funds of the Academy, and attend to the collection and 
payment of money ; but no money shall be paid by him ex- 
cept on an order of the Academy, signed by the President and 
countersigned by one of the Secretaries : he shall keep a clear 
and detailed statement of all receipts and expenditures, shall 
keep his books accessible to the proper committees appointed 
for their examination ; and he shall lay before the Academy, 
at the last stated meeting in the year, a statement of all re- 
ceipts and expenditures daring the year ; and he shall give ! 



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CONSTITUTION. 



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be establisliecl for the regulation of Ms duties ; he shall super- 
intend the publication and distribution of all memoirs, essays, 
and papers, written by members, whenever so ordered by the 
Academy, and shall attend in the Library at such times as the 

by-laws may prescribe. 

Sec. 7. It shall be the duty of the Curators to have charge 
of the Museum of the Academy, to supervise the arrangement 
of all specimens and apparatus belonging to it, to dkect the 
management of it, and to do all things necessary for its pre- 
servation and repairs. They shall purchase all articles wanted 
in the fulfilment of their duties aforesaid, hire janitors, teep 
the keys of all cases in the Museum, and shall report all ad- 
ditions made to the different departments under their charge, 
at the last stated meeting in the year. 

ARTICLE T. 

MEETISQS. 

Secti(5!s^ 1. The meetings of the Academy shall be held at 

anA^ flmpsj n.H fhp! bv-laws mav direct. 



Tit 






ARTICLE TI. 



AMEXDMZSTS 



Section 



The constitution may be amended 



lowing manner, viz : Any amendment proposed may be sub- 
mitted in writing to a regular business meeting of the Acade- 
my ; it shall lie over for consideration four weeks, when it 
shall be acted upon at the first regular meeting succeeding the 
expii-ation of the above named period, and may be adopted as 



dsof 



bers present. 












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B T - L 'A W S 



ABTICLE I 



COMBIITTEES. 



Section 1. There shall "be standing committees on the 

following subjects, viz: Ethnology, Comparative Anatomy, 
Mammalogy, Ornithology, Herpetology and Ichthyology, 
Malacology and Chemical Geology, Entomology, Botany, 



Geology, Mineralogy, Chemi 



lication. 



Library, and on Pub 



Sec. 2. These committees shall consist of three«members 



o£ eacli year. 

Sec. 3. Ir 



January 



the President 



nominate the first member ; the first member so nominated 
sball nominate a second, who shall nominate a tliird. 

All committees must report in -Rriting, and every 



4 



must be signed by a majority 



ing it. 



Sec. 5. All special committees, must report at the reo-ular 
meeting next succeeding their appointment. 

Sec. 6. The standing committees shall have charge, in 
conjunction -with the Curators, of their respective depart- 

and keep in 



January 



donations and deposits, carefully labellin 

keep a correct catalogue of all additions to their 

departments, and report at the last stated meetin 



N-" 



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BY-LAWS. • 13 






AUTICLE II 



LIBRARY, 



Sectto^t 1. All works in the Library must be classed ac- 
cording to tbeir subjects. • 

Sec. 2. The Librarian shall keep a correct catalogue of 
all books belonging to the Academy, the Library of which 
shall be open to the inspection and use of members. 

Sec 3. There shall be two sets of keys to the cases con- 
taining the books, one of which shall be kept by the Librari- 
an, and the other by the chairman of the Library Committee. 

Sec. 4. The Library shall be amply provided with chairs, 
tables, and writing apparatus, for the convenience of members 
desirous to consult books. 

Sec. 5. Members may borrow boo^s, the property of this 
Academy, from the Librarian, on signing a promissory note 
for fifty dollars, which shall become void when the book is re- 
turned. 

Sec. 6. But no works shall bo loaned from the hall, on 
any account whatever, except those marked with an asterisk 
(*) in the catalogue, unless by an affirmative vote of three- 
fourths of the members present, at a regular meeting, when 
the application is made ; and in case of deposited books, the 
written consent of the depositor having previously been ob- 
tained ; the name of the borrower and the title of the book to 
be recorded on the minutes, and full security given for its safe 
return, by note or otherwise, the value whereof shall be deter- 
mined by the Library Committee. 

Sec. 7. No book shall be kept from the Library longer 
than two weeks. A fine of twenty-five cents shall be imposed 



that any book is kept over the time laid down 



m 



Sec. 8. Ko member shall be allowed to renew the loan of 
a book, if any other member shall be desirous of obtaining it. 

Sec. 9. The Librarian and Library Committee shall be re- 
sponsible for all works committed to their charge. 






A? 






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14 . BY-LAWS 



ARTICLE III 



MVSEXTM. 



Sectiojt 1. Ko specimen, or apparatus, contained in the 
Museum of the Academy shall be taken from the hall, under 
any pretence whatever, unless by vote of the Academy. 

Sec. 2. The keys of the cases containing the collections 
shall be kept by the Curators and members of the respectire 
committees attached to the different departments, who alone 
shall have liberty to open the cases ; and they shall be respon- 
sible for all articles committed to their charge. If any mcm- 

is to inspect more closely the specimens in the 
collection, for purposes of study or description, he must ap- 
ply to the Curators, or a member of the committee on that 
department. 

All articles In the Museum must be kept labelled 
actieable, and a catalogue of the articles in each 



desiro 



Sec. 3. 



attached 



ment. 



Sec. 4. Wh 

iiseum a suffii 



depoi 



key of said case shall at all times be at his command. 

Sec. 5. Books, or objects of Natural History, deposited 
with the Academy, shall be returned only on a rernicst of the 



nd 



in all cases a receipt 
M be given to the Curators when the articles are retm^ned. 

Sec. 6. No specimen which is not capable of being ar- 
iged in the cabinet shall be received on deposit, unless the 
asent of the committftfi nn tliP r?onot.frv,,^«4. ; x.Lt. ,•» 



should be classed, and that of the Curators, be 



wntmg: 



Sec 



Visitors may be admitted to the Museum, gratuit 



ously, on Tuesdays and Fridays, from one o'clock 
set ; but sti-angers in the city may be admitted on evenr 
noon, between the above named hours, by presenting 
janitor a ticket signed hy any associate member. 



BY-LAWS. 



15 



Sec. 8. No children under twelve years of age stall be 
admitted unless accompanied by persons wbo will become re- 
sponsible for their good behavior ; and should any damage 
result to any of the furniture, specimens, or any property of 
the Academy, through any admitted child, pecuniary remu- 
neration shall be made by the person or persons assuming 
such responsibility ; the damages to be assessed by the Libra- 
rian and Curators, 









ARTICLE IV. 



COSIMUKICATIONS 



Section 1. 



written communications intended for pub 



lication, read before the Academy, shall be refen^ed to special 
committees, who shall report thereon at the regular meeting 
next succeeding their appointment. 

Sec. 2. All such communications become the property of 
the Academy, and shall be deposited in the archives, and those 
deemed suitable for publication shall be published when so 
ordered by the Academy; a copy, however, of any paper read 
before the Academy may be taken by the author. 

Sec. 3. Original papers, on the subjects before enumera* 

ted, may be subject to discussion. 



ARTICLE V, 



MEETINGS. 



Section 



be 



on 



Monday 



regular 



of 



the Academy shall 



every 



fixed from time to time by the Academy; no change, how- 
ever, shall be made except after two weeks^ notice 



g 



regular meeting 



Sec. 2. The order of proceeding, at the regular meetings 
of the Academy, shall be as follows : 

1. iMinutes of the last meeting read. 

2. Eeports of committees. * 

3. Keports of correspondence. 



i 




5. Written communications 

6. Verbal communications, 

7. Deferred business, 

8. New business. 

9. Elections. 

10. Rough minutes read. 

11. Adjournment. 



and Library 



ARTICLE VI, 






ArTHORITY. 



Section 1. In 



order that are not proYided 



for in these by-laws, Cushing^s or Mathias* "Manuals 
be the standard authority. 






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4hfa 




THE CHARTER, 



CONSTITUTION, AND BY-LAWS, 



^ 



OF THE 



ACADEMY OF SGIEIiCE 



OF ST. LOUIS 



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ST, LOUIS: 



X. p. SXtTDLEY COMPA]srr, PRIKTEBS 'AXB BINDSES 

1873. 




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OFFICERS 



OF THE 



Sdcideiqy of ;^ciende of ^t L(Otii^ 



For 1873. 



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PRESIDENT. 



JAMES B. EADS 



VICE-PRESIDENTS. 



ist— ALBERT TODD. 
2d— GEO. ENGELMANN. 



TREASURER. 

ENNO SANDER. 



CORRESPOXDIKG SECRETARY. 

NATHANIEL HOLMES 



RECORDING SECRETARY. 

CHARLES V. RILEY. 



LIBR^VRIAN 



JOHN J. BAILEY 



CURATOR. 

RICHARD HAYES 



PUBLICATION COMMITTES. 



GEORGE ENGELMANN, CHARLES V. RILEY, 
WM. T. HARRIS, NATHANIEL HOLMES 



CHARTER 






AN ACT TO INCORPORATE "THE ACADEMY OF 

■ SCIENCE OF ST. LOUIS." 



Se it enacted^ hy the General Assembly of the State of Mis- 

souri^ as follows : 

r 

Section i. That George Engelmaxn, Hiram A. Prout, 
Nathaniel Holmes, Benjamin F. Shumarb, Charles W. 
Stevens, James B. Eads, Moses M. Fallen, Adolphus 
WiSLizENUS, Charles A. Pope, Charles F. Chouteau, 
William M. McPheeters, and others — who have heretofore 
formed an association in the city of St. Louis styled "The 
Academy of Science of St. Louis," having for its object the 

advancement of Science, and the establishment in said city of a 
Museum and Library for the illustration and study of its various 
branches — ^their associates and successors, are hereby declared 
and created a body corporate by the name and style aforesaid ; 
and by that name they shall have pei-petual succession, may sue 
and be sued, implead and be impleaded, in all courts of compe- 
tent jurisdiction ; may acquire by purchase, gift, or devise, 
receive and hold, property, real, personal, or mixed, and the 
same exchange, sell, lease, or otherwise dispose of, as they may 
deem proper, for the objects and purposes aforesaid, and not 
otherwise ; may have a common seal, and break or alter the same 
at pleasure ; and may make such constitution, regulations, and 
by-laws, as may be requisite for the government thereof, not 
being contrary to the laws of tiie land, and may alter the same 
at pleasure. 



6 



CHARTER. 



Sec. 2. The constitution and by-laws of said association now 
in operation shall govern the corporation hereby created until the 
same shall be regularly altered or repealed, and the present 
officers of said association shall be officers of this corporation 



office 



in pursuance thereof. 



Sec. 3. The property and effects now belonging to the asso- 
ciation aforesaid shall, on acceptance of this charter, thereby 
become vested in the corporation herein created; and all property 
owned or held by this corporation shall be exempt from taxation 
so long as the same shall continue to be held and used in good 
faith for the objects and purposes aforesaid ; but whenever any 
real estate of the corporation shall be leased to any other person 
or persons, the leasehold interest therein shall be taxable to the 
lessee or lessees thereof, as in other cases. 

Sec. 4. The members of this association acquire no indi- 
vidual property in the real estate, cabinets, library, or other 
effects thereto belonging, which are hereby declared to be fully 
vested in the corporation as such ; but the interest of the mem- 



sufructuary 



otherw 



hereinbefore provided. 



5. ^ 



the 



the 



library shall revert to and become vested in the City of St, Louis, 
to be deposited with some public institution in said city, for 
general use and inspection, under such regulations as the said 
city may prescribe. 

Sec. 6. This act shall be taken as a public act, and be io 
force from and after its passage. 

R. C. HARRISON, 

Speaker of the House of Representatives. 

H. JACKSON, 

President of the Senate. 
Affroved^ yaniiary i*j^ IS57. 

TRUSTEN POLK. 



COIN'STITU'TION 



OF THE 



ACADEMY OF SCIENCE OF ST. LOUIS 



ARTICLE I. 



STYLE 



Section i. This Association shall be called "The Acad- 
emy OF Science of St. Louis." 



ARTICLE II. 

OBJECTS. 



Section i. It shall have for its object the promotion of 
Science and preeminently the Natural Sciences. 

. 2. As means to this end the Academy shall hold meet- 




ings for the consideration anrt discussion oi scieuuin. suuj^^-to, 
shall take measures to procure original papers upon such sub- 
jects ; and shall, as often as may bs practicable, publish its 
Transactions. It shall also establish and maintain a Cabinet of 
objects illustrative of the several departments of Science, and a 
Library of works relating to the same. It shall 
by correspondence and otherwise, in relation with other scientific 
institutions in America and elsewhere. 



also 



ARTICLE III. 



MXMBERS 



Section i. This Academy shall be composed of two classes 
members — associate members and corresponding members. 



o 



S CONSTITUTION. 



Sec- 2, The associate members shall constitute the main 
body of the Academy, and shall exclusively conduct its affairs, 
elect its ofBcers, admit its members, etc. They shall be men 
desirous of cultivating one or more branches of Science, They 
shall pay upon admission an initiation fee of five dollars, and a 



members. 



they 



Sec. 3. Any person elected an associate member may become 
a life member upon the payment of one hundred dollars, v^rhich 
will exempt him from any further assessments. Life members 
shall be entitled to all the privileges of associate members, in- 
cluding access to the Library and Cabinet, and shall have free 
admission to any Lecture or course of Lectures which shall at 
any time be delivered before or under the auspices of the 
Academy. 

Sec. 4. Corresponding members shall consist of men of 



ty and county of St. Louis, who 



virtue 



to further the objects of the Academy 
contributions of specimens, or otherwise 



who 




. 5. All candidates for admission into the Academy as 
associate or corresponding members must be proposed in writing 
by two associate members at a regular meeting, and be balloted 
for separately at tlie next regular meeting thereafter. The affir- 
mative vote of three-fourths of the members present shall be 
necessary to elect a candidate. 

Sec. 6. All members shall have the privilege of attending the 
r^ular meetings of the Academy, and shall have access to the 
Librarjr and Museum, with the privilege of introducing to the 
same their families and friends. 



7 



If any associate member elect shall not pay the fee 
1 within six montTis fmrr^ ti-.^ j^*.^ „r i.- „i lt :.,*« 



the Ac a 
member 



semi-annual contribution within six 



months after he has been duly notified that 
due, he shall cease to be a member of the Academy : provided, 
however, that every such member who shall be absent from the 
ci^ or county of St. Louis for the space of six consecutive 



■i'=- 



^ 



CONSTITUTION. 



9 



months 



accruing 



Sec- 8. If any person shall be balloted for and rejected, or 



try 



the 



rejection or withdrawal shall be made on the minutes of 

Academy. 

Sec. 9. No person who has been proposed for membership 
and who has for any reason failed to be elected, shall be again 
proposed within the next six months. 

Sec. 10. Any member may resign by notifying the Record- 
ing Secretary of such intention, provided he produces to the said 



certificate from the 
the Academy have I 



Sec. II. 



Ac 



vote of a majorit}' (being not less than twelve) of the members 
present, at any regular meeting, for any act of flagrant disrespect 
to the officers or members, or for any intentional violation of the 
constitution, or for any grossly immoral conduct : provided^ how- 
ever^ that no member shall be thus expelled without having an 
opportunity of being heard in his own defence. 



Section i. 



ARTICLE IV. 



OFFICERS. 



officers of the Acad 



the associate members, and they shall consist of a President, 

Jirst and second Vice Presidents, a Corresponding Secretar}^ a 

Recording Secretary, a Treasurer, a Board of Curators, and a 

Librarian. Said officers shall be elected at the first stated meeting 



offi 



until their successors are elected. 



Sec. 2. It shall be the duty of the President to preside over 



the meetings of the Academy ; to nommate all committees other 
than those specially excepted ; to call extraordinary meetings at 
the request, in writine, of three associate members : to give the 



sign 



Vice 



the 



Sec. 3. The duties of the isl 
as those of the President, during iii» wus^iii-c , «».« v,. ^^^ — . — 
President, the same during the absence of both President and rst 
Vice President. 



lO COXSTITUTIOX. 



Sec. 4. 



retary 



Academy 



rect copies of all letters written by him in such correspondence, 
and to make regular reports of the same ; and to notify all cor- 
responding members of their election. And it shall be the duty 
of the Recording Secretary to keep correct minutes of the pro- 
ceedings and transactions of the Academy ; to keep all reports 
and other papers read before it,uuiess their disposal shall be other- 
wise ordered ; to notify all associate members of their election ; to 
keep a correct list of the members of the Academy, with the 
dates of the election, and the dates of resignations, expulsions 
and deaths that may occur among them ; and to keep the consti- 
tution and common seal of the Academy. 

Sec. 5. It shall be the duty of the Treasurer to take charge of 
the funds of the Academy, and attend to the collection and pay- 
ment of money ; but no money shall be paid by him except on 
an orde!- of the Academy, signed by the President and counter- 
signed by one of the Secretaries : he shall keep a clear and de- 
tailed statement of all receipts and expenditures, shall keep his 
books accessible to the proper committees appointed for their 
examination, and he shall lay before the Academy, at the last 
stated meeting in the year, a statement of all receipts and expen- 
ditures during the year ; and he shall give security, satisfactory 
to the Academy, in the sum of five thousand dollars, for the faith- 
ful performance of his duties. And he shall deposit, in the name 
of the Academy of Science, all funds of the Academy coming 
to his hands, when amounting to $25.cx), in such incorporated 
bank in the city of St. Louis as shall from time to time be desig- 



Academy 



Acad 



Ac 



payment of its debts or expenses. 

Sec. 6. The Librarian shall take charge of all books belong- 
ing to, or deposited with, the Academy, and shall be responsible 
for the same ; he shall keep a catalogue thereof, in which the 
names of contributors shall be inscribed, with the dates of their 
reception, conformably to the by-laws that maybe established for 
the regulation of his duties ; he shall superintend the publication 
and distribution of all memoirs, essays and papers, written by 



CONSTITUTION. II 



members, whenever so ordered by the Academy, and shall attend 
in the Library at such times as the by-laws may prescribe. 

Sec. 7. It shall be the duty of the Curators to have charge of 
the Museum of the Academy, to supervise the arrangement of all 
specimens and apparatus belonging to it, to direct the manage- 
ment of it, and to do all things necessary for its preservation and 
repairs. They shall purchase all articles wanted in the fulfilment 
of their duties aforesaid, hire janitors, keep the keys of all cases 
in the Museum, and shall report all additions made to the differ- 



their 



the 



ARTICLE V. 



MEETINGS. 



Section i. The meetings of the Academy shall be held at 
such times as the by-laws may direct. 



ARTICLE VI 



AMENDMENTS 



Section i. The constitution may be amended in the follow 



A 



writing to a regular meeting of the Academy ; it shall lie over 
for consideration four weeks, when it shall be acted upon at the 
first regular meeting succeeding the expiration of the above 
named period, and may be adopted as a part of the constitution 
Kt7 a votf of two-thtrds of the members present. 



* 



BY-LAWS 



ARTICLE I. 



COMMITTEES. 



Section i. Standing committees shall be appointed on the 
Cabinet, on the Library, and on Publication. 

Sec. 2. These committees shall consist of three members, 
who shall be appointed at the last regular meeting in January of 
each year. 

Sec. 3. In appointing these committees, the President shall 
nominate the first member ; the first member so nominated shall 

nominate a second, and the two so nominated shall nominate 
the third. 

Sec. 4. All committees must report in writing, and every 
report must be signed by a majority of the committee offering it 



5- All 



me 



the regular 



Sec. 6. 



Cabinet 



Acad 



with the Curators, of the collections of the 



order all donations and deposits, carefully labelling each article, 
and keep a correct catalogue of all additions to the Cabinet, and 
report at the last stated meeting in the v^^r 



/^ 



ARTICLE^ IL 



LIBRARY. 



Section i. 



rrect catalogue of 
the Academy, the Libran^ of which shall 



be open to the lnspec^:o^ and use of members. 



BY-LAWS 



^3 



Sec. 3. There shall be two sets of keys to the cases containing 
the books, one of which shall be kept by the Librarian, and the 



chairman of the Library C 



Sec. 3. Members 
Academy, from the 1 
fifty dollars, which sh 



ty of this 




. 4. But no works shall be loaned from the hall, on any 
account whatever, except those marked with an asterisk (*) in 
the catalogue, unless by an affirmative vote of three-fourths of the 
members present, at a regular meeting, when the application is 
made ; and in case of deposited books, the written consent of the 
depositor having previously been obtained ; the name of the bor- 
rower and the title of the book to be recorded on the minutes, and 
full security given for its safe return, by note or otherwise, the 
value whereof shall be determined by the Library Committee. 

* Sec. 5. No book shall be kept from the Library longer than 
two weeks- A fine of twenty-five cents shall be imposed for each 
week that any book is kept over the time laid down in this section. 

Sec. 6. No member shall be allowed to renew the loan of a 
book, if any other member shall be desirous of obtaining it. 

Sec. 7. The Librarian and Library Committee shall be respon- 
vble for all works committed to their charge. 



ARTICLE III. 



MUSEUM. 



Section i. No specimen or apparatus contained in the Mu- 
seum of the Academy shall be taken from the hall, under any 
pretence whatever, unless by vote of the Academy. 

Sec- 3. The keys of the cases containing the collections shall be 



the 



ty 



to open the cases ; and they shall be responsible for all articles 
committed to their charge. If any member is desirous to inspect 
more closely the specimens in the collection, for purposes of study 



the Curators, or a member 



committee on that department. 



w^ 



14 BY-LAWS. 




far as 
ment 



T 

3. All articles in the Museum must be kept labelled as 



Sec. 4. 



sufficient 



Academy deposits in the Mu 



said case shall at all times be at his command. 

Sec. 5. Books or objects of Natural History, deposited with 
the Academy, shall be returned only on a request of the owners, 
or their representatives, and in all cases a receipt shall be given to 



the 



Sec. 6. No 



the 



the committee on the department in which the specimen should be 
classed, and that of the Curators, be .first obtained in writing. 

Sec. 7. Visitors may be admitted to the Jvluseum at hours to 
be fixed by the Board of Curators, approved by a vote of thd 

Academy. 

Sec. 8. No children under twelve years of age shall be 
admitted unless accompanied by persons who will become re- 



dam 



Acad 



emy, through any admitted child, pecuniary remuneration shall 
be made by the person or persons assuming such responsibility; 

the daraap^es to he asspccp/^I U%r *l^c. T :i^...,_r„„ i /-^ 



ARTICLE IV, 

COMMUXICATIONS. 



Section i. All written communications Intended for publi- 
cation, read before the Academy, shall be referred to special 
committees, who shall report thereon at the regular meeting next 
succeedmg their appointment. 



Sec. 2. A 



Academy, and shall be deposited in the archives, and those 



Acad 



when 



before 




. 3. Original papers, on the subjects before enumerated, 

may be subject to discussion. 



BY-LAWS. 



^5 



ARTICLE V. 



MEETlJ^TGS. 



Section t. The regular meetings of the Academy shall be 



Mo 



Acade 



however, shall be made except after two weeks' notice given at a 

regular meeting. 

Sec. 2. The order of proceeding, at the regular meetings of 

the Academy, shall be as follows : 

1. Minutes of the last meeting read- 

2. Reports of committees. 

3. Report of the Corresponding Secretary. 

4. Donations to the Museum and Library. 

5. Written communications. 

6. Verbal communications. 

7. Deferred business. 

8- New business. 

9- Elections and proposals for m-embership. 



lo- Adjournment. 



ARTICLE VI. 



AUTHORITY. 



Section 1. On all points of order that are not provided for 

in these by-laws, Cushing's Manual shall be the standard au- 
thority. 







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THE 



TRANSACTIONS 




A P 3 1 

w 



/^t^^ 




e^- , 



or THE 




OF SCIENCE or 




Vol. I. 



/P^-c 




[IBitlj :f latis 3l!itstrntiiig l^uprrs.] 




ST. LOUIS: 



I 



J 



Printed at the Office of the Missouri EepuWican. 



A- 



1857 



/ 



r 



7^ J 



/ 



f^ 



/ 



^ >* 



^X 




# w f 









-1 



^•.^,«r** 




BOTANICAU 




COMMITTEE OF PUBLICATION 



"VTILLIAM M. McPHEETEBS, M. D 
SiATHANIEI* HOLMES, Esq. 

r. Ernst Baumgabten, M.D. 



KoTE.— The Authors of Papers published in the "Xbansactxons" are lobe con- 
siOared as individually respoBsible for the opinions expressed in them. 






■s 



^\ 



* 



K^ 



fr 



/rf 



OFFIpERS 



OF THE 



ACADEMY OF SCIENCE OF ST. LOUIS, 



For 185T. 



PBJESIDENT, 



Benjamin F. Shumard, M.D 



FIHST VICE PRESIDENT, 

AdOI^PHUS WlSLlZENUS, M.D 



SECOKD VICE PBESIDENT, 

Charles P. Ch out bait, Esq, 



C ORRESPOM) isa SECRETARY, 

Nathaniel Holmes^ Esq. 



BKCORDXKa SECRETARY, 



J. S. B- Alleyne, M.D. 



tee asxtrer, 

Simon Pollak, M- D. 



CITRATORS, 



B. F» Shumard, M.D. 
Dr. Albert C. Koch. 
Charles W. Stevens, M.D, 
John Lebrecht, M.D. 



librarxak. 



Theodore C. Hilgard, M.D. 



STANDING COMMITTEES. 



COMQf I TTE E9. 

Ethnology, 

Comparative Anatomy, 

Mammalogy, 

Ornithology, 

Herpetology and Ichthyology, 
Chemical Geology and Malacology, 
Entomolo^, 
Botany, 

Palaeontology and Geology, 
Mineralogy, 

Chemistry, 

Physics, 

Eml?ryology, 

Monstrosities, 
Library, 

Publication, 



CB AI BM£N. 

A. 'Wisi-iZENUS, M.D* 

Prof. C. A. Pope, 
Prof. C. "W. SxrvET^s. 
Edward W^jhan, Esq* 
Prof. M. M, Pallest. 
H. A. Phottt, M.0. 

Prof, TT- M. MCPKKETERS 
T. C. niX-GARD, If.D. 

Besj. F, Shumard, M.D. 
John Moss, Esq. 

Prof. A. Litton. 

Jas. B. Ead8» Ksq- 

E. H. Gregory, M.D. 

J. S. B. AX.I.EYNE, M.D. 

Geo. EsoEuaAKK, M.D. 

Prof. W. M, McPHEETERS- 



'^ 



CHARTER 




r ACT TO IXCCRPORATE THE ACADEMY OF SCIENCE OF ST. LOUIS, 

! if enacted^ by the General jJssembly of the State of Missouri 
as follows : 

Sectiox 1. That George Engelmann, Hiram A. Prout, Na- 



thaniel Holmes, Benj 



F. Shumard/ Charles W 



Moses M 



William M. Mcf h 



crs — who have heretofore formed au association in the city of 
St. Louis styled ''The Acaoemt of SciE>-cii or St. Louis," 
having for its object the advancement of Science, and the estab- 
lishment in said city of a Museum and Library for the illustration 
and study of its various branches — their associates and successors^ 
are hereby declared and created a body corporate by the name 
and style aforesaid ; and by that name they shall have perpetual 

succession, may sue and be sued, implead and be impleaded, in all 
courts of competent jurisdiction; may acquire by purchase, gift, 
or devise, receive and hold, property, real, personal, or mixed, and 
the same exchange, sell, lease, or otherwise dispose of, as they 
may deem proper, for the objects and purposes aforesaid, and not 
otherwise ; may have a common seal, and break or alter the same 
at pleasure; and may make such constitution, regulations, and 
by-laws, as may be requisite for the government thereof, not be- 
ing contrary to the laws of the land, and may aher the same at 
pleasure. 



Sxc. 2. 



said 



in operation shall govern the corporation hereby created until the 



sa 



^d 



their respective terms of ojffice shall expire, or be vacated in pur 
suance thereof. 



-.V"-n 



w 



t 



6 



CHAETER. 



Sec. 3. The property and effects now belonging to the asso- 
ciation aforesaid shall, on acceptance of this charter, thereby be- 
come vested in the corporation herein created, and all property 
owned or held by this corporation shall be exempt from taxation 
so long as the same shall continue to be held and used in good 
faith for the objects and purposes aforesaid ; but whenever any 

real estate of the corporation shall be leased to any other person 
or persons, the leasehold interest therein shall be taxable to the 
lessee or lessees thereof, as in other cases. 

Sec, 4. The members of this association acquire no individual 
property in the real estate, cabinets, library, or other effects there- 
to belonging, which are hereby declared to be fully vested in the 
corporation as such; but the interest of the members therein shall 
be usufructuary merely, and shall not be transferred, assigned, 
hypothecated, or otherwise disposed of, than as hereinbefore pro- 
vided. 

Sec. 5. Whenever this corporation shall have failed to answer 
the purposes for which it w^as created, or shall suffer its charter 
to be forfeited by the law of the land, its cabinet collections and 
library shall revert to and become vested in the City of St. Louis, 
to be deposited with some public institution in said city, for gen- 
eral use and inspection, under such regulations as the said City 
may prescribe. 

■ S£c- 6. This act shall be taken as a public act, and be in force 
from and after its passage. 

Jip^roved January 17, 1857. 



^^i 



,St 



CONSTITUTION 



ABTICLE I. 



STYLE. 



Section 1. This Association shall be called "The Academy 



OF Science of St. Louis. 



?> 



ARTICLE II. 

OBJECTS. 

Section!. It shall have for its object the promotion of Sci- 
ence : it shall embrace Zoology, Botany, Geology, Mineralogy, 
Palseontology, Ethnology (especially that of the Aboriginal Tribes 
of North America), Chemistry, Physics, Mathematics, Meteor- 
ology, and Comparative Anatomy and Physiology. 

Sec. 2. It shall furthermore be the object of this Academy to 
collect and treasure Specimens illustrative of the various depart- 
ments of Science above enumerated ; to procure a Library of 
works relating to the same, with the Instruments necessary to fa- 
cilitate their study, and to procure original Papers on them. 

Sec. 3. It shall also be the object of this Academy to establish 
correspondence with scientific men, both in America and other 
rarts of the world. 

ARTICLE III. 

, MEMBEBS. 

Section 1. This Academy shall be composed of tw^o classes of 
members— Associate Members and Corresponding Members. 

Sec. 2. The Associate Members shall constitute the main body 
of the Aoademy, and shall exclusively conduct its affairs, elect its 
officers, admit its members, etc. They shall be men desirous of 



'o 



cience 



They shall pay upon admission an initiation fee 
and a semi-annual payment of three dollars so lo 
tinue members* 

Sec 3. Correspondinsr M ..nbers shall consist 



be 



# 



t 

8 CONSTITUTION. 

elected such by virtue of their attainments, and of other persons, 
not resident in the city of St. Louis, who may be disposed to fur- 
ther the objects of the Academy by original researchee, contribu- 
tions of specimens, or. otherwise. 

Sec. 4. All candidates for admission into the Academy as As- 
sociate or Corresponding Members must be proposed in writing 
by two Associate Members at a regular meeting, and be balloted 
for at the next regular meeting thereafter. The affirmative vote 
of three-fourths of the members present shall be necessary to elect 
a candidate* 

Sue. 5* All members shall have the privilege of attending the 
regular meetings of the Academy, and shall have access to the 
Library and Museum, with the privilege of introducing to the 
same their families and friends. 

Sec. 6. If any Associate Member elect shnll not pay the fee 
of initiation within six months from the date of his election into 
the Academy, the election shall be null and void ; and if any such 
member shall not pay the semi-annual contribution within six 
months after the same has become due, he shall cease to be a 
member of the Academy: provided, however, that every such 
member who shall be absent from the city or county of St. Louis 
for the space of six consecutive months, or longer, shall be exon- 
erated from the payment of his dues accruing during his absence. 

Sec, 7. If any person shall be balloted for and rejected, or his 
name be withdrawn previously to the ballot, no entry of said 
rejection or withdrawal shall be made on the minutes of the 
Academy. 

Sec. 8. No person who shall be* thus rejected, or whose name 
shall be thus withdrawn, previously to the ballot, shall be again 
proposed for membership before the expiration of six months next 
succeeding said rejection or withdraw^al. 




j:f 



Sec. 9. 



resiim 



prod 



retary a certificate from the Treasurer that all arrears due from 
him to the Academy have been discharged. 

Sec. 10. Memhers may be expelled from the Academy by a 
vote of a majority (not being less than twelve) of the members 
present, at any regular meeting, for any act of flagfant disrespect 
to the officers or members, or for any intentional violation of the 
constitution, or for any grossly immoral conduct : provided, how- 



f ■ 



CONSTITUTION. 9 

r 

ever, that no member shall be thus expelled without having an 
opportunity of being heard in his own defence. 

Sec, 11. No person thus expelled shall, under any circurastan* 
ces, be re-elected a member of the Academy. 

ARTICLE IV, 



OFFICEUS. 



Section 1. The officers of the Academy shall be chosen from 
the Associate Members, and they shall consist of a President, 
Jirsi and second Vice Presidents, a Corresponding Secretary, a 
Recording Secretary, a Treasurer, a Board of Curators, and a 
Librarian. Said officers shall be elected at the first stated meet- 
ing in the year, by ballot, and shall hold their offices for one year, 
or until their successors are elected. 

Sec. 2, It shall be the duty of the President to preside orer 
the meetings of the Academy; to nominate all committees other 
than those specially excepted; to call extraordinary meetings at 
the request, in writing, of three Associate Members; to give the 
casting vote, and to sign ail orders on the Treasurer. 

Sec. 3. The duty of the 1st Vice President shall be the same 
as those of the President, during his absence; and of the 2d Vice 
President, the same during the absence of both President and 1st 
Vice President. 

Sec. 4. It shall be the duty of the Corresponding Secretary to 
conduct all the correspondence of the Academy; to keep correct 
copies of all letters written by him in such correspondence, and to 
make regular reports of the same ; and to notify, all Correspond- 
ing Members of their election. And it shall be the duty of the 
Recording Secretary to keep correct minutes of the proceedings 
and transactions of the Academy; to keep all reports and other 
papers read before it, unless their disposal shall be otherwise or- 
dered ; to notify all Associate Members of their election ; to keep 
a correct list of the members of the Academy, with the dates of 
their election, and the dates of resignations, expulsions, and deaths, 
that may occur among them ; and to keep the constitution and 
common seal of the Academy. 

Sec. 5. It shall be the duty of tlie Treasurer to talce charge of 
the funds of the Academy, and attend to the collection and pay- 
ment of money; but no money shall be paid by him except on 
an order of the Academy, signed by the President and counter- 



_* 



10 CONSTITUTION. 

signed by one of the Secretaries: he shall keep a clear and de- 
tailed statement of all receipts and expenditures; shall keep his 
books accessible to the proper committees appointed for their 
examination ; and he shall lay before the Academy, at the last 
stated meeting in the year, a statement of all receipts and expen- 
ditures during the year ; and he shall give security, satisfactory 
to the Academy^ in the sum of five thousand dollars, for the faith- 
ful performance of his duties. 

Sec. 6. The Librarian shall take charge of all books belonging 
to, or deposited with, the Academy, and shall be responsible for 
the same ; he shall keep a catalogue thereof, in which the names 
* of contributors shall be inscribed, with the dates of their recep- 

tion, conformably to the by-laws that may be established for the 
regulation of his duties; he shall superintend the publication and 
distribution of all memoirs, essays, and papers, written by mem- 
bers, whenever so ordered by the Academy, and shall attend in 
the Library at such times as the by-laws may prescribe. 

Sec. 7. It shall be the duty of the Curators to have charge of 
the Museum of the Academy, to supervise the arrangement of all 
specimens and apparatus belonging to it, to direct the manage- 
ment of it, and to do all things necessary for its preservation and 
repairs. They shall purchase all articles wanted in the fulfilment 
of their duties aforesaid, hire janitors, keep the keys of all cases 
in the Museum, and shall report all additions made to the differ- 
ent departments under their charge, at the last stated meeting in 



the year. 



AKTICLE Y. 



IfftETIXGS* 



such times as the by-laws may direct. 



be 



% 



ARTICLE VI. 



AHESDJIESTS. 



SxcTioN 1. The constitution may be amended in the following 
manner, viz: Any amendment proposed may be submitted in 
writing to a regular business meeting of the Academy; it shaH 
Ue over for consideration four weeks, when it shall be acted upon 



first ^ 
named period 



3 



ee 



above 



pre 






BY-LAWS 



ARTICLE I 



COHUIXTJSES. 



Sectiojt 1. There shall be standing committees on the follow- 
ing subjects, viz: Ethnology, Comparative Anatomy, Mammalo- 
gy, Ornithology, Herpetology and Ichthyology, Malacology and 
Chemical Geology, Entomology, Botany, Palseontology and Geol- 
ogy, Mineralogy, Chemistry, Physics, Embryology, and Monstro- 
sities ; on the Library, and on Publication. 

Sec. 2. These committees shall consist of three members, who 
shall be appointed at the last regular meeting in January of each 
year. 

Stc. 3. In appointing these committees, the President shaE 
nominate the first member ; the first member so nominated shall 



nomin 



* 



AH 



every re 



port must be signed by a majority of the committee offering it. 

Sec, -5, All special committees must report at the regular meet- 
ing next succeeding their appointment. 

Sxc- 6. The standing committees shall have charge, in con- 
junction with the Curators, of their respective departments; make 
exchanges of duplicates ; arrange and keep in order all donations 
and deposits, carefully labelling each article, and keep a correct 
catalogue of all additions to their respective departments, and re- 
port at the last stated meeting in January. 



AETICLE ir. 



XIBBAET. 



Sectioit 1, All works in the Library must be classed according 
their subjects. 



■m-- 



* 



12 BY-LAWS. 



Src. 2. The Librarian shall keep a correct catalogue of all 
books belonging to the Academy, the Library of which shall be 
open to the inspection and use of members. 

Sec. 3. There shall ]be two sets of keys to the cases containing 
the books, one of which shall be kept by the Librarian, and the 
^ther by the chairman of the Library Committee. 

Src. 4. The Library shall be amply provided with chairs, ta- 
bles, and writing apparatus, for the convenience of members de- 
sirous to consult books. 

Sec. 5. Members may borrow books, the property of this Acad- 
emy, from the Librarian, on signing a promissory note for fifty 
dollars, which shall become void when the book is returned. 

Sec. 6. But no works shall be loaned from the hall, on any ac- 
count whatever, except those marked with an asterisk (*) in the 
catalogue, unless by an affirmative vote of three-fourths of the 
members present, at a regular meeting, when the application is 
made; and in case of deposited books, the written consent of the 
depositor having- previously been obtained: the name of the bor- 
rower and the title of the book to be recorded on the minutes, and 
full security given for its safe return, by note or otherwise, the 
value whereof shaU be determined by the Library Committee. 

Sec. 7. No book shaRbe kept from the Library longer than 
two weeks. A fine of twenty-five cents shall be imposed for each 
week that any book is kept over the time laid down in this section. 

Sec. 8. No member shall be allowed to renew the loan of a 
book, if any other member shall be desirous of obtaining it. 



Sbc, 9. 



The Librarian and Library Committee shall be re- 
sponsible for all works committed to their char<Te. 

ARTICLE III. 

* 

Section 1. No specimen, or apparatus, contained in the Mu- 
seum of the Academy shall be taken from the hall, under anf 
pretence whatever, unless by vote of the Academy. 

Src, 2. The keys of the cases containing the collections shall 



Curators 



tees 



to the different departments, who alone shall have 



cases 




com 



B 



tmmhei 



inspect more closely the specimens in the coHecticmy for purposes 



# 



^ - 



BY-LAWS. 



13 



of study or description, he must apply to the Curators, or a mem- 
ber of the committee on that department. 

Sxc. 3. All articles in the Museum must be kept labelled as 

far as practicable, and a catalogue of the articles in each depart- 
ment kept by the committee attached to the said department. 

Sec. 4, When a member of the Academy deposits in the Mu- 
semn a sufficient number of articles to fill an entire case, a key of 

said case shall at all times be at his command. 

Szc. 5. Books, or objects of Natural History, deposited with 
the Academy, shall be returned only on a request of the owners,, 
or their representatives, and in all cases a receipt shaU be givem 
to the Curators when the articles are returned. 

Szc. 6. No specimen which is not capable of being arranged 
in the cabinet shall be received on deposit, unless the consent of 
the committee on the department in which the specimen should 
be classed, and that of the Curators, be first obtained in writing. 

Szc- 7. Visitors may be admitted to the Museum, gratuitously, 
on Tuesdays and Fridays, from one o'clock until sunset; but 
strangers in the city may be admitted on every afternoon, be- 
tween the above named hours, by presenting to the janitor a ticket 
signed by any Associate Member. 

Sec. 8. No children under twelve years of n^ shall be admit- 
ted unless accompanied by persons who will become responsible 
for their good behavior; and should any damage result to any of 
the furniture, specimens, or any of the properly of the Academy, 
through any admitted child, pecuniary remuneration shall be made 
by the person or persons assuming such responsibility ; the dam- 
age to be assessed by the Librarian and Curators. 

ARTICLE IV. 



^1 



# 



COMMU51CATI05S, 



SzcTioH 1. AH written communications intended for pubKca- 
tion, read before the Academy, shall be referred to special 






mittees, who sht?!I report thereon at the regular meeting next suc- 
ceeding their appointment* 

Szc. 2. All such communications become the property of the 
Academy, and shafl be deposited in the archives, and those deem- 
ed suitable for publiration shall be pabliahed when so ordered by 
the Academy : a copy, however, of any paper read before tbe 
Academy may be taken by the author. 



K 



m 



y. 



» 



14 



BY-LAWS. 



- Sec. 3. Original papers, on the subjects before enumerated, 
may be subject to discussion. 

AKTICLE V. 



WEETINGS. 



Acad 



shall be 



SECTioif 1. The regular meetings of the 
held on Monday evening of every other week, at hours fixed from 
time to time by the Academy ; no change, however, shall be made 
except after two weeks' notice given at a regular meeting. 



: Szc. 2. The order of proceeding 
the Academy, shall be as follows: 

1. Minutes of last meeting rei 
2- Reports of committees. 
3. Reports of correspondence. 



guk 



Written 



Museum and Library 



6. Verbal communications 

7. Deferred business. 

8. New business, 

9. Elections. 

10. Rough minutes read. 
!!• Adjournment. 



ARTICLE VI. 



AUTHORirr. 



Section 1. Tn all points of order that are not provided for in 



standard 



MatHas' "Manuals" shall be the 



# 



t 



« 



TRANSACTIONS 



OW THE 



ACIDEMY OF SCIENCSE OF ST. LOUIS. 



March lOih, 1856. 

Ih:. Geohob Engeluakx in the chak. 



After several preliminary meetings respecting the organization 



March 



1856 



present the following gentlemen, viz: Geo. Engelmann, M.D., 
H. A. Prout, M.D., Prof. M. M, Fallen, Benj. F. Shumard, M. 
D., Prof. Chas. A. Pope, Wra. H. Tingley, M.D., Jas. B. Eads, 
Esq.. Prof. Wm. M. McPheeters, S. PoUalc, M.D., Prof. Chas. 
W. Stevens, A. Wislizenus, M.D., N. Holmes, Esq., Prof. M. JL 



Walters, M 



Dr 



Engelmaun was called to tlie chair, and Dr. B. F. Shumard ap- 
pointed Secretary. 

Dr. Tingley reported from the committee previously appointed, 
consisting of Messrs* Tingley, Front, Shumard, and Holmes, a 
constitution and by-laws for the government of the Academy, 
which were adopted ; and the following gentlemen were elected 
officers for the ensuing year, viz.: 

President George Engelmann, M.D. 

Isi Vice Presideiiiy Hiram A. Proat, M-D. 

2d Vice President^ Nathaniel Holmes, Esq, 



Secretaries^ 



Beniamin F. Shunmrd 

Wi 



Treasurer^ James B- Eads, Esq 



# 



16 TRANS. OF THE ACAD. OF SCIENCE. 



Prof. M. M. Fallen, 

Curators^ } •^' Wislizenus, M.D. 

B. F. Shunmrd, M.D. 
Prof. C. W. Stevens. 

E 

Dr. Geo. Engelraann, 
Dr. H. A. Pfout, 

N. Holmes, E.^q., 
of Council, ^ Dr. B. F. Shumard, 

Dr. Vy. H. Tingley, 
Prof. C. A. Pope, 
C P. Chouteau, Esq. 



^pril 21, 1856. 



A 



Associate 



Jecs 



Prof. J. B. Johnson, Prof. A. Litton, E 

Schiel,M.D.,anJ Messrs. Ner6 Valle, M. Le wis Qark, A. 'Behr 

James E. Yeatman, and E. C. Angelrodt. 



locality 



benefit of the Academv. a 



belong to Zeughdon, had 
Academy would bear the 



proposition was accepted. 



The 



souri River. 



Prout, presenting from Br 
a of fibrous gypsum, from 



litho, 



{Mmtodon siganteus), found by him in Missouri 



ounwnT 



3 . r !f '^" ^"'^'^ ^"^«""^' ^"^ ^ P^'« representinf a 
portion of the dermal covering of Squdodm. 

On motion, it was re.olved that the proposition of Dr. C. A. 
Pope offenng the free use of the Cabinet Hall, and other rooms 
suitable for the purposes of the Academy, in the Dispensary Build- 

mg of the St. Louis Medical College, he accepted, with thai^ks to 
VI. rope for his generous offer. 



t 



JOURNAL OF PROCEEDINGS. . 17 



Mr, Charles P, Chouteau stated that he would place the collec- 
tion of fossil remaias, obtained by Dr. Hay den from tiie Mavr' 
raises Terres and other parts of Nebraska, now in his possession, 
in the Museum of the Academy, as soon as a place was fitted to 
receive it. His owzi interest in the coilection, amounting to' about 
one-fourth of the whole, he presented as a donation to the Insti- 
tution. 

This liberality on the part of Mr, Chouteau places the Acade- 
my in possession of an extensive and beautiful collection of 

Mammalian and Chelonian remains from the Eocene Tertiary, 
together with a large suite of elegantly preserved fossils from the 
Cretaceous Formation of Nebraska^. Among the former may be 
mentioned specimens of Oreodon Culbertsonii^ 0. gracilis^ RhU 
noceros occidentalism Tiianotherium Prouiii, Machairodus pri^ 
mtEVus^ Anchitheriuhi Bairdii^ and Testado (several species); 
and among the latter are AmmoniieSy ScaphUes^ Bacxdiits^ Jno* 
ceramitSf Arca^ Rosidlaria, etc* 

On motion, the thanks of the Society were presented to Mr. 
Chouteau for his munificent donation. 



May 19, 1856. 

The President, Dr. Exgelmanx, in the chair, 

A letter was read from Dr. A. C. Koch concerning remains o£ 
Zkuglodon, found in the State of Mississippi. 

Dr. B. F. Shumard presented Decade VI. of the Memoirs of 
the Geological Survey of the United Kingdom of Great Britain* 

Dr. Engelmaun presented a number of monographs on various 
scientific subjects. 



* 

M" 



June 2j 1856. 

The President, Dr. Engelmanit, in the chair. 
Dr. A. C. Koch reported the result of his late explorations m 

Mississippi and Arkansas, He stated that he had visited a local- 

2 



^ 



18 TRANS- OF THE ACAD. OP SCIEKCE. 

ity, 13 miles from Canton, Miss., on the line of the railroad from 
Jackson to Canton, where remains of Zeuglodon had been ex- 
humed, and which were now in the possession of Mr. Wm. Mc- 
Dowell, of Canton. A portion of the bones were much broken, 
excepting one large lumbar vertebra and several heads of rib 
bones- Another portion, better preserved, and more in number, 
was composed of more important parts of the skeleton, viz: a 
nearly complete humerus^ some large lumbar vertebrce^ two ante- 
rior dorsal vertebrce^ portions of ribs, and the lower jaw (consider- 
ably broken), parts of the skull, and the whole of the petrous por- 
tion of the temporal bone. Appearances indicated that the larger 
and better part of the skeleton still remained in the deposit. 
Other bones were seen at the time of the excavation, but they 
have since been covered up by the caving down of the marly 
bank, about 14 ft. thick, in which they are found. He thought 
the whole could be obtained for the Academy at a cost of about 
$200. 

Dr. Koch stated that he had visited another locality, about 20 
miles from Hillsboro, Scott county, Miss. Remains of Zeuglodon 
had been discovered in several places in this neighborhood. At 
Hillsboro, he saw four lumbar vertebrae of Zevglodon macrospon- 
dyluSi of small size, which had been brought from a plantation 
16 miles distant, and which he had obtained for the Academy. 
Several others found with them had been destroyed, as he ascer- 
tained on visiting the place. The formations of this section of 
country were the same as those of Vicksburg, Jackson, and Can- 
ton, in Mississippi, and Washington Co., in Alabama,— being of 
the same geological era, the Eocene ; and he was not a little sur- 
prised to find himself within 90 miles of the place where he had 
disinterred the large Zeuglodon macrospondylus, which is now ia 
the possession of. Edward Wyman, E<q., of St. Louis, During 
his short stay in Scott Co., he had visited several places where 
similar remains had been found, and, in some, the bones had been 
exposed in the cultivated fields. One complete rib measured, as 
he was informed by reliable persons, 9 feet in length; but the 

had been destroyed throuorh carelessness. There was 



*¥■ 



sroecimen 



believed 



der of the skeleton would probably be found on excavating. 

Dr. Koch further stated that he had succeeded in making a 
highly instructive collection of fossils from the Teriiarv strata. 



*i^ 



JOURNAL OF PROCEEDINGS. 19 

near Vicksburg, some of which were identical with species found 

with the Zeuglodon. 

Dr. Koch presented to the Academy a large and valuable col- 
lection of Cretaceous and Tertiary fossils, which he had obtained, 
in the course of his tour, in the States of Mississippi and Arkan- 
sas. Among these were specimens of Exogyra ponderosa^ Arca^ 
BaculikSy Hamites^ Turrilihs^ Pinna^ and claws of a Crustacean 

of the genus Callianassa. 

A copy of the first and second Reports of the Geological Sur- 
vey of Missouri, by Prof. G. C. Swallow, State Geologist, was 
presented by Dr. Pope ; and 5ome catalogues of recent and fossil 
shells, zoophytes, and minerals, were presented, through Mr. 
Holmes, by Fred. S. Cozzens, Esq. 

Major M. L. Clark exhibited an instrument called the Roto- 
scope, which he presented to the Academy. Dr. Tingley pre- 
sented specimens of limestone from Walnut Creek, Kansas Ten; 
and Dr, B. F. Shumard, a scorpion, from Syria. 



June 16, 1856. 

The President, Dr. Esgelmann, in the chair. 



Bache 



Wash 



Members 



delphia, and from Dr. J. G. Norwood, of Springfield, Ills., elected 

and also, from Messrs. T. L. Snead, 
R. M. V. Kercheval, F. A. Dick, and H. T. Blow, elected Asso- 
ciate Members. 



The following gentlemen were elected Corresponding Mem* 
hers: Prof. Geo. C. Swallow, F. V. Hayden, M.D., and Messrs. 
Alexander Culbertson^ A. GiroUx, C. Galpin, H. Hodgkiss, C. M. 
Deming, Alex. Dawson, and A. Kipp. 

The following gentlemen were elected Associate Members: 
S. R. Clarke, M.D., Edward Wyman, Esq., N. D. Tirrell, Esq., 



Esq 



Todd. Esq.. J. S. B. AUevne, M.D., Louis 



Boisliniere, M.D., David C. Tandy, M.D., John Laughton, M.D., 



# 



20 TRANS. OF THE ACAD. OF SCIENCE. 

Gustave Fischer, M.D., Prof. John T. Hodgen, and Mr. Richard 
Bender. 

Donations of books and specimens were presented as follows; 
Decade IL of the Memoirs of the Geological Survey of Great 
Britain, by Dr. Shumard; three volumes of Congressional docu- 
ments from the Hon. Luther M. Kennett, by Dr. Shumard; a 
specimen of eyeless fish (jimblyopsis astacus) from the Mam- 
moth Cave, Ky., of petroleum from Arkansas, and rock salt and 
other minerals from Hallam, near Salzburgh, by Prof, C, A. Pope; 
an interesting collection of fossils from Nebraska Ter., JJmmon- 
ties from the Cretaceous formation in Arkansas, and other fossil 
remains from various parts of the United States, by Prof. M. M. 
Fallen ; specimens of Productus from the Carboniferous limestone 



( 



Topis solaius ) , by Dr. W. H. Tingley. 



( Phala 



JulyU, 1856. 

Vice President Holmes in the chair. 



Mr 



* 



dermist, a number of mounted specimens of «««=, *.««* *«^ . 

ity of St. Louis. 

Several specimeDs were presented as follows t a collection of 



Dr 



'S 



skulls 



Sioux Indians, by Prof. Fallen; a collection of several species 
•of liver shells from the Ohio, belonging to the genera I'niOy Jno- 
donta and Masmodonia, by Dr. Prout ; and a specimen of gutta 
percha, by Dr. Tingley. 

The following gentlemen were elected Corresponding Mem- 
bers: T. Bennett Dewier, M.D., of New Orleans, La.; Prof. Jo- 
.«eph Leidy, of Philadelphia ; Prof. J. L. Riddell, of New Orleans, 
.and Dr. E. K. Kane, of Philadelphia. 

The following were elected Associate Members: E. H. Gre- 
gory, M.D., P. E. Baumgarten, M.D., G. H. E. Baurt 
M.D.» S. Gratz Moses, M.D., and Charles Taussig, Esij. 




V. 



-tC-- 



^f. 



• 



JOURNAL OF PROCEEDINGS 



>* • 



21 



July 28, 1856. 

Vice President, Dr. H. A. Prout, in the chair. 

Dr- B. F. Shumard exhibited some rare specimens of crinolds, 
from the Carboniferous rocks of Kentucky, Illinois, and Missouri, 
belonging to the genera AciinocTinus^ JDichocrinuSy and Plaiy- 

crinus. 

■ 

The Secretary presented, as a donation from the Academy of 
Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, a set of the volumes of its 
** Proceedings," and the 2d Series of its "Journal" Voted, that 
the thanks of this Academy be communicated to the Academy of 
Natural Sciences of Philadelphia for this highly valuable and lib- 
eral donation. 



M. Auguste Trecul, of Paris, France, was elected a Corres- 
ponding Member of the Academy. 



n^agust 4, 1856. 

The President, Br. Geo. Engei^manit, in the chain 
The President stated that he h&d called this meeting for the 



^er catalogue,) the minen 
and apparatus, belonging 



( 



Western Academy of Natural 



Academy, 



transfer 



Br. Engehnann presented to the Academy 54 



tific books and pamphlets, and an extensive collection of rocks, 



with a cabinet case 



catalogue ) 



worics ( 



Br. C. W. Stevens and Mr. C. P. Chouteau presented a large 
collection of specimens of BacxdUes, Scaphiies, Inoceramus, and 
other fossils, from the Cretaceous formation of the tapper 3Iis- 
souri, inthe Territory of Nebraska; specimens of fossil wood, 
bones, and shells, from the Tertiary of Nebraska; skulls of buf. 



falo {^Bison Ajiitricanus^ 






Mountain goat ( 






^ 



% 



ii? 



;* 



'V- 



^# 



v;^ 



22 TRANS. OE THE ACAD. OF SCIENCE. 

fana), antelope, and fox; a fine head of a buffalo, an Indian pack- 
saddle, and other Indian implements, collected by them, on their 
late tour, in the region of the Upper Missouri. 

Dr. Stevens remarked that preservatives for objects of Natural 
History had been left, during their journey, at the different trad- 
ing posts on the Upper Missouri, and that arrangepients had been 
made by Mr. Chouteau and himself, by which they expected to 
secure for the Academy an extensive collection of specimens of 
the Natural History of that region, during the coming year. 

On behalf of Col A. J. Vaughan, U. S. Indian Agent, Dr. Ste. 
vens presented the head of a grizzly bear, two stuffed skins of 
buffalo (entire), three Mountain sheep (Ovis moniana), and 
some fossil skuUs of mammalia, from Nebraska ; also, a specimen 
of Belemnitella hnlhosa^ from the Cretaceous formation near Fort 
Pierre; and a tooth of Mastodon glganieuSy from the Loess of 
the bluffs at St. Joseph. 

Dr. Pope presented, in the name of Gen. Harney, U- S. A., ^ 

« remarkably large fossil tortoise, from the Mauvaises Terres of 
Nebraska; and, also, deposited in the Museum of the Academy 
the stuffed skin of a grizzly bear, presented to him by Mr. C. P. 
Chouteau, and an interesting collection of Cretaceous and Ter- 
tiary fossils from Nebraska, and some Indian implements which 
had been presented to him by Gen. Harney. Anaong the fossils 

^ were BacuUtes ovaius, Oreodon gracilis^ a tooth of Ekphas pri^ 
migmius. and a fossil tortoise; and, also, a remarkably fine |mir 



4 



of antlers of the elk. 



Mr 



abo 



the Cheyenne River, 100 miles 
Dr. Shumard remarked that this 



was very analosrous to the forms 



laceous strata of Texas. He had \^ 
named it A:nm(mites Galpini^ after 



{Phrj/nosoma), from S. W 
A. Pope. 



commonlv called horned frogs 



Mr. N. Holmes reported that an ordinance had been passed by 
the City Council of the City of St* Louis, providing for the de* 



'* 



y. 



JOURNAL OF PROCEEDINGS, 23 



posit of the State geological collection, when received, in the Mu- 
seum of the Academy. Dr. Pollak presented Dumas' Traiie du 
Chimie (4 vols. 8vo). 



August 11, 1856. 

\ 

The President, Dr. Geo. Engelmanic, in the chair. 

A letter was read from Prof. Joseph Henry, of the Smithsonian 
Institution, in reply to a letter of the Corresponding Secretary, 
and, also, letters from Prof, Joseph Leidy, of Philadelphia, and 
F. V. Hayden, M-D., elected Corresponding Members. 

Or. Pollak presented 30 species of fresh-water shells from the 

Missouri River, belonging to the genera Unio^ Anodonta^ and 
Alasinodonia. Dr. Shumard presented 45 species belonging to 
the same genera, from various positions in the Mississippi Valley. 
Dr. Engelmann presented specimens of the same from the Illinois 
River. 



Dr. Pope deposited in the Museum a specimen of fossil tortoise 
^Testudo Owenii)^ from Nebraska, and also \"arious Indian orna- 
ments and implements which had been presented to him by Mr. 
Giroux. 



Several blocks of sandstone from Green River, Muhlenberg 
Co., Ky., containing impressions resembling horses' feet, were 
exhibited by Dr. M. L. Linton, who slated that he had seen up- 
wards of a hundred similar imprints at the locality from which 
these had been obtained ; and he desired to hear the opinions of 

membepe concerning them. He was inclined to think thej were 
made by horses. 

Dr. Shumard was of opinion that the sandstone was of the age 
of the coal measures, and that the impressions had been carved by 
the Indians. He cited some instances, where impressions repre- 
senting the form of human ieet, and the feet of birds, have been 
found, along with rude figures of men and animals, in rocks be- 
longing to the oldest fossiliferous formations. Dr. Engelmann, 

al^, thought the supposed horse-lracks had been cut' in the rock 
by the Indiana. 



4k 



5^ 



# 



f 



. r_ 



24 TKANS. OF THE ACAD. OF SCIENCE. 



-\ 



Mr. James B. Eads submitted for the consideration of the 

Academy the following explanation .of the niech«nical principles 
of the Rotoscope: 

"The causes producing thiis interesting phenomenon are four 
well settled principles in the science of Mechanics, viz: Gravita- 



tioriy friction, the tendency of matter in motion to 7nove in right 



lines^ and, as the residi of the latter^ centrifugal force. 

*' There are several modifications of the machine, but the same 
causes act in all to produce the paradox. 

*'The instrument in the possession of the Academy consists of 
a metal ring, on opposite sides of which are two lugs or ears; by 
one of these the ring is supported upon the painted end of a ver- 
tical rod, having a heavy base to steady it; and across this ring, 
and supported by a pivot at each lug, is a shaft or spindle, having 
on its centre a heavy fly-wheel, just large enough to clear the 
ring. The spindle has a conical socket at each end, into which 
the pivots enter for its support. The position of the ring is hori- 
zontal, and, of course, that of the spindle is the same. When the 
fly-wheel is made to revolve swifily, and the ring is rested by its 
lug upon the vertical rod, the ring begins to revolve also $lowdy 
around upon the point of the vertical rod, carrying with it the fly- * 
wheel and shaft, and apparently setting tlie laws of gravitation at 
defiance. As the velocity of the wheel decreases, the revolutions 
of the ring become more rapid, until it gradually sinks below the 
plane of the horizon, and finally falls off the vertical rod around 
which it was revolving. 

''The revolutions of the ring are caused by the fOTfce of jrravi- 
tation and friction, at that pivot, supporting the fly-wheel shaft, 
which is nearest the vertical rod. 

'* The weight of a shaft in a circular rest is transferred from 
the bottom of the rest towards that side of U iowhich theshafti^ 
turning when the shaft is sd in motion. 

*^The above proposition, I believe, has not hitherto been ad- 
advaneed. Thia fact wiU be more apparent, if the rest be consid- 



erably greater in diameter than the shaft turning in it. The 
shaft, E3 it is turned, will roll up towards one side of the rest j and 
the greater the friction, the higher up this inclined plane will it 
rise. If the rest were free to move in a horizontal plane, the 
weight of the shaft acting upon this inclined plane would urge il 
forward, iust as a lubricated wedge would be expelled by a super- 
incumbent weight. The greater the elevation which the shaft is 
enabled to attain by us friction on the side of the rest, the more 
rapidly would U urge it forward; just as the greater the angle of 
the wedge, the more rapidly would it be expelled. 

*^Ruppose theendsof the fly-wheel shaft were supported In 
circular rests, mstead of by the pivots; then, the wheel being set 



in rapid motion, the rest nearest to the vertical rod, having the 



weight of the wheel and shaft upc^ it and being free to mo^e 



t 



JOURNAL OF PROCEEDHTGS. 25 



in a horizontal plane round the point of the vertical rod, 
would immediately begin to revolve around that point. Vefociiy 
lessens friction* As the fly-wheel revolves slower^ the friction at 
the pivot is increased. The shaft is enabled, therefore, to attain 
a higher angle upon the rest or inclined plane on which it is 
whirling. Thus, as the fly-wheel loses its speed, the shaft is 
working on an inclined plane of greater angle, and the ring is 
consequently urged round more rapidly. 

** The shaft being supported by pivots in its hollow ends, in- 
stead of in the manner just described, does not alter the case at 
all, except to reverse the direction of the ring. The friction of 
the shaft on the pivot transfers its weight from the top of the pivot 
to the side of it, and thus the inclined plane is found, and is 
urged forward as in the other case. 

"If the motion of the ring be accelerated, the outer end of the 
shaft rises above the plane of the horizon ; if it be retarded, the 
end of the shaft sinks below it. 

''By observation, it will be seen that, in accelerating the mo- 
tion of the ring, the pivot at the outer end of the shaft is pressed 
against that side of the shaft which is whirling upward, and it 
immediately brings the pivot above the horizon. If the ring be 
retarded, the pivot is pressed against the opposite side of the shaft 
w^hich is whirling downwards, and the result is that it immedi- 
ately sinks. 

"When a counterpoise is placed on the opposite side of the 
vertical rod from the ring, and the latter is lowered considerably 

below the horizon, the revolutions of the ring are made in an op- 

petite direction. This result will not take place if the \Yheei be 
running at a very high speed. When it loses its rapidity, the 
friction at the lower pivot is much increased. The socket is 
pressed upon it by the weight of the wheel, and the same direc- 
tion of motion is imparted to the ring which the wheel itself has. 
This is a contrary direction to the previous course of the ring, as 
will be seen by holding the spindle perpendicular to the horizon. 



i& 



V "^^^ ^ A A 

•'Every movement of the ring can be readily explained by the 
actioDi of gravity and friction at one or the other, or at both points 
supporting the fly-wheel shaft; and all the motions of the instni* 
ment will be found to correspond in every particular with the re« 



suits to be produced by the causes given above. 



" The revolutions of the ring being once understood, the paradox 
disappears. The tendency of bodies in motion to move in right lines 
IS manifested by matter revolving in a plane. If the ring he held 
in the hand, and the fly-wheel be in rapid motion, considerable 
force will be found necessary to divert the wheel from the plane 
in which it is whirling. This makes it resist any sudden ten- 
dency to fall to the earthy and causes' it to need but a slight degree 
of cenirifugarforce to preserve its shaft in a horizontal position, 
although supported at but one end. This centrifugal force is fur- 
nished by the revolutions of the ring around the point of the ver» 



« 



« 



J. 



26 



TRAX 



S 



OF THE ACAD. OP SCIENCE. 



tical rod ; and the loss of this ability of the fly-wheel to resist, in 
a greater degree, the force of gravity, as it los^s its velocity, is 
beautifully compensated by the increased velocity of the revolu- 
tions of the ring, which thus generate an increase of centrifugal 
force to aid in sustaining it." 

Messrs. F. B. Meek, of Albany, N. Y., and Henry Pralten, of 
Springfield, Ills., were elected Corresponding Members. 



August 25, 1856. 

Vice President Holmes in the chair. 



A letter was read from W. G. Binney, Esq., of Germantown, 
Pa., requesting an exchange of the Land Shells of Missouri and 
the neighboring States for the IVIarine Shells of the Atlantic coast. 

Referred to the Secretary, with directions that the request be 
complied with as far as practicable. 

Letters were read also from Prof. J. L. Riddell, of New Or- 
leans, La,, and Mr. Henry Pratten, of Springfield, Ills., elected 

.Corresponding Members. 

On motion, the chairmen of the several standing committees, 
not yet appointed, under the constitution of the Academy, were 
appointed, as follows: 



COMMITTEES. 



C H A I B M E K 



£thn< logy, 

Comparative Jlnaiomy^ 

mMammalogy, 

Ornifhologyj 

Herpdology and Ichfhyology, 



Dr. Adolphus Wislizenus. 
Prof. Charles A. Pope. 
Prof. Charles W. Stevens. 
Mr. Edward Wyman. 
Dr. Moses M* Pallen. 



Chemical Geology and J\Ialacology^ Dr. Hiram A. Prout. 



Entomology^ 
Botany^ 

Palmoniology and Geology, 
Jifineralogy^ 

Chemistry y 
Physics^ 

Embrydogyt 
MonsirositieSy 



Prof. W. M. McPheeters. 
Dr. George Englemnnn. 
Dr. Benj. F. Shumard. 
Dr. J. Schiel. 
Prof. A. Litton. 
Mr. James B. Eads. 
Dr. E. H. Gresfory. 
Dr. J, S, B. AUeyne. 



Prof. Louis Agassiz, of Cambridge* Mass., and Prof. Robley 
Dunglison, of Philadelphia, were elected Corresponding Mem- 



€ 



-J 






I 



* 



ft 



JOURNAL OP PROCEEDINGS. 27 



bers; and Prof. G. Seyffarth, and Messrs. Alex* Leitch, Kenneth 
Mackenzie, Beqj. McDonald, Benj. OTallon, Spencer Smith, and 
Win, Taussig, were elected Associate Members. 



September 8, 1856. 

Vice President, Dr. H. A. PHotJT, in the Chair, 

Letters were read from Prof. Robley Dunglison, of Philadel- 
phia, and from Mr. H. Hodgkiss, of Fort Clark, Nebraska Ter., 
elected Corresponding Members, and from Prof. Seyffarth, of 
Concordia College, St. Louis, elected an Associate Member. 

Dr. C. A. Pope presented a fine specimen of Heliophyllum 
Halli^ a Chaeides^ and a Spirifer. 



Mr 



Well 



city. [&e engraved copy below.'] 

Dr. Wislizenus presented a valuable collection of rocks, miner- 
als, and ores, collected by him, during his explorations, while con- 
nected with Col. DoniDhan's Reiriment, in New Mexico. 



A |mper was read by Dr. B. F. Shumard, entitled, *< Descrip- 
tions of new species of Fossil Shells* from the Cretaceous Forma- 
tion of Nebraska; by John Evans, M.D., and B. F. Shumard, 
M.D.** Referred to a committee consisting of Drs. Pope, Wisli- 
zenusj and Stevens. 

Prof. James Hall, of Albany, N. Y., Henry King, M.D., of 
Georgetown, D. C, B. B. Brown, M.D., of Sacramento, Cal, 
Ferdinand Lindheimer, M.D., of New Braunfels, Tex., Kirtly 
Byland, M.D,, of St. Clair Co., Ills., and Messrs. George Bunsen, 
Charles Bunsen and Adolphus Reuss, were elected Corresponding 
Members; and Drs. Montrose A. Fallen, Abner Hopton, J. M. 
McKeage, R. W. Olipliant, J. B. McDowell, and "Messrs. M. 
Schuster, Rob't K. Woods, I. W. Taylor, James Smith, George 
Partridge, Wm. H. Smith, and George Smith, were elected As- 
sociate iMembers. 



* 



^ 



28 



TRAXS. OF THE ACAD. OF SCIENCE 



September 22, 1856. 

Vice President Holmes in the chair. 

Dr, Stevens presented a stuffed fawn. 

Dr, Schiel presented a rare collection of horned lizards (Pkry' 
nosoma) and other reptiles, chiefly from the Humboldt Ri^er and 
the base of the Rocky Mountains. 

T 

Dr. Shumard exhibited pencil drawings of some new fossil cri- 
noids, intended to illustrate a paper which he had in preparation. 

Dr. Schiel read an interesting paper ou Glycerine, in which he 
advanced some new propositions respecting the chemical properties 
and affinities of that substance. Referred to a committee consist- 



McPheeters 



McPheeters 



experiments touching the therapeutic applications of Glycerine. 
Dr. S. replied that he was engaged in some inrestigations of 



that kind, and 



he 



Academy. He was of opinion that Glycerine would be found a 
nseful agent in cases where there was a tendency to the forma- 
tion of renal calculi. He also thought that vapors of Glycerine 
would he useful in catarrhal affections. The method of obtaining 
these vapors was very simple: it was only necessary to drop the 

substance on a hot plate, — Glycerine evaporating at a tempera- 
ture of 120=". 

Dr. Schiel exhibited, in illustration of his experiments, some 
very ingenious and delicate apparatus. 

The committee to whom was referred the paper read by Dr. B. 
F. Shumard, on some new species of Fossil Shells of the Creta- 
ceous formation of Nebraska, recommended the same for pub- 
lication in the Transactions. 



Befle 



^^ 



Wm. 

n, M 



ponding 



s^ong, Charles Roesch, M.D., Hermann Roesch, BI.D., Hon. 



Wm 



ienry S 

len, Esq.,and the Hon. Edward Bates, were elected Associate 
Members. 



-rs 



-V- 



Ij. 



JOURNAL OF PROCEEDINGS. 29 



■■«■ 



October 6, 1856. 

Vice President, Dr. H, A. Phout, in the chair. 
Dr. Prout exhibited specimens of a new species of Productus^ 

from the Carboniferous limestone of St. Louis, of which he was 
preparing a description, under the name of Produdus margini' 



* cindus. 



Dr. Schiel made some remarks on the Bi-sulphuret of Carbon, 
specimens of which were exhibited. He observed that Dr. Turn- 
bull had made use of this article, as a local application , in the treat- 
ment of diseases of the eye. When applied to the eye, or the 
surface of the body, it produced, at first, a sensation of cold; this 
was followed by irritation and burning. Dr. Schiel had made a 
compound, consisting of bi-sulphuret of carbon, 2 parts ; alcohol, 
2 parts; chloroforna and camphor, each, 1 part; which he had 
used, locally, in Tic Doloureux, Toothache, and Bilious Cholic, 
with marked effect, affording almost instant relief from pain. Bi- 
sulphuret of carbon was made by passing the vapors of sulphur 
over burning charcoal. 

A letter was read from the Rev. John Higginbotham, of St.* ^ 
Louis, presenting to the Academy five books, containing 212 
plants and shrubs, which had been collected in this neighborhood 
and in the State of Louisiana, in 1828-9, by the late Rt. Rev. Dr. 
Rosati, Bishop of St. Louis. A larger part of the collection had 
been lost in th^ great fire of 1849. 

Gen. Wm. S. Haraey, U. S. A., Col A. J. Vaughn, U. S. In- 
dian Agent, John H. Rauch, M.D., of Burlington, Iowa, John 
B. Jackson, M.D., of Boston, IMass., H. P. Goodrich, D.D., of 
Carondelet, Mo., Prof. L. P. Yandell, of Louisville, Ky., and 



nry. 



ICO 



The following gentlemen were elected Associate Members: 
Gerard Eyssen, M.D., J. H. McKellops, ^,l.B., John Lebrecht, 
BID., Emil Seeman, M.D., Hon. Alexander Hamilton, B. F, 
Hickman, Esq., and Messrs. Leopold Gast, Andrew Krug, Juhn 
Moss, H. E. Bridge, W. C. Buchanan, Jno. Cavender, Jos. Char- 



c 



:ogy, Geo. I. Barnett, John P. J^tes 



A 



« 



I- 
. 1 



# 



# 



ao 



TRAXS. OE THE ACAD. OF SCIEKCE 



JVov ember 17, 1856. 

Dr, C. A. Pope in the chair. 

A letter was read from Wm. H. Tingley, M.D., resigning the 
office of Secretary of the Academy and his memhershipi having 

changed his place of residence. 

Letters were read from John H. Rauch, M.D., of Burlington, 
Iowa, and John B. Jackson, M.D,, of Boston, elected Corres- 
ponding Members; and from T. L. Rives, M.D., elected an As- 
sociate Member. 

A letter was read from Dr. Edward Hallowell^ of Philadelphia, 
proposing to exchange specimens of Reptiles for those of the 
South and West. The proposition was accepted and the matter 
referred to the Secretary, to be carried into effect as far as prac- 
ticable. 



i 



Dr. C. A. Pope presented a specimen of Mygah Henlzht com- 
monly known as the "Tarantula," from near Pratte*s Landing, 
Blissouri, 70 miles below St. Louis. 

Mr, C. P. Chouteau presented several Indian hoes, made of 
flint, found a few miles west of St* Louis. 

Dr. C. W. Stevens was elected Recording Secretary, in place 
of Dr. Tingley, resigned. 

Lieut. G. K. Warren, U. S. A., was elected a Corresponding 
Member; and Messrs, Samuel Gaty, Benj. Farrar, John How, 
Alex. Kayser, Louis Holm, Juhn O. Farrar, C. C. Zeigler, and 
Henry Knyser, were elected Associate Members. 



Decemher 15, 1856, 

Vice President, Dr. H. A. Prout, in the chair. 
Dr. C. A. Pope presented specimens of the ** Tarantula" (My 



gah IImlzii)y and 
Texas. 



the 



Centipede {Scolopendra heros)^ from 



Dr. S. Pollak presented from E. C. Angelrodt, Esq., six pam- 
phlet volumes of works by Ehrenberg, on Microscopic Infusoria 



Sj 



-■3 



ir 



JOrRNAL OF PKOCEEDIXGS, Bl 



* 



Voted, that the offer of Mr. E. C. Angelrodt to purchase for 
the Academy a copy of the large work of Ehrenberg, on Infuso- 
ria^ be accepted on the terms proposed. 

Voted, that the Academy would subscribe for the forthcoming 
work of Agassiz, on the Natural History of the American Con* 
tinent. 

A Paper was read by Dr. H. A. Prout, on a new species of 
Producius (P. margi7iicinctns)y from the Carboniferous Lime- 
stone of St. Louis. 

Ordered, that the Paper and accompanying Figures be pub- 
lished in the Transactions. 

Edward Holden, Esq., of Jackson Co., Ills., Capt. John Pope, 
U. S. A., Lieut. F* T. Bryan, U. S. A., Hermann Behr, M.D., 
of San Francisco, and George Steele, M.D., of Austin, Texas, 
were elected Corresponding Members, 

The following gentlemen were elected Associate Members: 
John E. Goodson, Esq., Thomas McMartin, M.D., Frederick 
Hauck, M.D,, Britton A. Hill, Esq., and Messrs. Geo. R. Robin- 
son, Emraelt McDonald, and Benjamin Soulard. 



December 29, 1856. 

Vice President, Dr. H. A. Pkolx, in the chair. 

A letter was read from Dr. Abbadie, U. S. A., elected an As- 
sociate Member. 

Dr. A. C. Koch presented specimens of sulpharet of lead, and 
calamine, from the county of Lawrence, in the State of Arkansas; 
also, magnetic iron ore and quartz from Hot Springs Co., and 
granite from a point on the Arkansas 60 miles above Little Rock. 
Dr. Koch also stated that he had found a bed of coal, resembling 
» the cannel coal, near Batesvilie, in that State. 



Dr 



m 



gum 



Indian skull from a mound on White River, in Arkansas- Thia 



skull had been 



compression 







'J 



t 



V^ 



4 



32 TRANS. OF THE ACAD. OP SCIENCE. 

M 

and occipital regions, and expanded in the direction of the bipa- 
rielal and vertical diameters. He could not give an accurate de- 
scription of the mound, nor state the circumstances under which 
the skull was found ; but he would endeavor to ascertain the facts 
with certainty in regard to it. 

Mr. N. Holmes remarked that it w^ould be a matter of much 
interest to determine the age oO the mound. It was well known 
that the practice of artificially flattening the skull had prevailed 
among the Natchez, Choctaws, and other tribes of the Lower 
Mississippi and the Gulf of Mexico, and among the modern 
Nootka-Columbian Indians. Some of these tribes of the Gulf had 
been known, also, to build small mounds over the graves of their 
dead, within the historic period. This method of oblique flatten- 
ing, as vvtll as that of flattening and elongating the head in the 
backward direction, by compression in the frontal and parietal re- 
gions, had been practised among th« ancient Peruvians, If this 
mound were shown to belong to the age of the Mound-Builders 
of the Mississippi Valley, or to a still earlier age, and the position 
of the skuU in the mound were well ascertained, it might furnish 
evidence that the practice of flattening the skull had prevailed to a 
wide extent, on this continent, at a date lon^ anterior to all his- 
toric record. 

Mr. N. Holmes presented from Edward Holden, Esq., a pam- 
phlet printed about, the year 1631, written by James, King of 
Scots, and addressed *Ho the Noble Tycho Brahe, Lord of Knud- 
strup, the Chiefe Astronomer of this age,*' containing some curi- 
ous speculations on comets, and other matters touching the state 
of astronomical science at that day. 

Prof. G. Seyflarth read a Paper on an ancient Assyrian brick, 
giving an interpretation of the cuneiform characters inscribed 
upon it. The brick is now in the possession of Prof. C. A. Pope, 
of this city. It was taken from the ruins of Nineveh, near 
sal, and sent to him by Mr, Marsh, Missionary at Beyrout. At 
the request of Dr. M. M, Pallen, Prof. Seyffarth explained the 



Mo 



mann 



structure of the ancient languages of the East, he had arrived at 
his method of decyphering the arrow-head inscriptions. 

On motion, it was ordered that the Paper read by Prof. Seyf'^ 



be 



Transactions. 



JOURNAL OF PROCEEDINGS. 33 



t 



t 



Dr 



planation of its numerical and divergential law, under a simple 
t5rg:anolog'ical idea. Referred to a committee consistinsf of Drs. 



H. A. Prout, A. Wislizenus, and M. M. Fallen. 

The following gentlemen wore elected Corresponding Mem- 
bers: Dr. Wheeler, of Perryville, Mo., Col. Charles Whittelsey, 
of Cleveland, Ohio, and Warwick Hough, Esq., of Jefferson City, 
Missouri. 

The following were elected Associate M^embers: Tbos. Rey« 
burn, M.D., George R, Taylor, Esq., and Messrs, Conrad Wit- 
ter and Thos. E. Tutt. 



,January l^, 1857. 

Vice President Holmes in the chair. 



Prof A. Litton exhibited specimens of Aluminum. He gave 
a brief history of its discovery, and of the later methods which 

T 

have been invented for obtaining the metal from the common clay. 
It w^as now highly probable that it would soon be manufactured in 
great abundance and at a cheap rate. As it was less liable to 
garnish, cwr to be acted upon and corroded by other substances, 
than iron, copper, or even silver, it would, as well for this reason 
as on account of its lightness, tenacity, and beautiful silvery color, 
be likely to come into extensive use in the arts, and especially for 
culinary utensils, as soon as a sufficiently cheap method of obtain- 
ing it should be perfected. 

Prof. Litton exhibited also specimens of the mineral, Cryolife^ 
from which Rosa has lately obtained this metal in ^mall quantities. 

Mr, Leopold Gast presented a copy of an ^'A4'Ulimetic" by Ad- 
«ni Riesn, printed in Germany, in 1574. 

The fallowing gentlemen were elected ofiicers of the Academy 
IcHf the year 1857: 

President, Becj. F. Shumard, >I.D. 

1^/ Vice President^ A. Wislizenus, M.D. 

2d Vice President, Chas. P. Chouteau, Esq. 

Corresponding Secrdary, Kaihaniel Hohnes, Esq, 

Recording Secftiarif^ J. S. B. Aileyne, M.JD. 

Treasurer^ Simoo PoUak, Bf.D. 

3 



34 TEANS. OF TEE ACAD. OF SCIENCE. 



B. F. Shumard, M.D. 

Cixrafor^ < ^^' ^' ^' ^^^^' 

^ J John Lebrecht, M.D. 

Chas. W. Stevens, M.D. 

Librarian^ Montrose A. Fallen , M.D, 

The chairmen of the several staiidlng committees 'were ap- 
pointed by the President, as follows : 

On Ethnology, Dr. A. Wisliz^enus. 

" Comparative Anatomy^ Prof, C. A. Pope. 

•' Mammalogy, Prof. C. W. Stevens. 

•* Omitlwlngy, Mi. Edward Wyman. 

" Herpdology and Ichthyology, Prof. M. M. Pallen. 
•' Chemical Geology and Malacology, Dr. H. A. Prout. 

" Entomology, Piof. w. M. IVIcPheeter* 

" Botany, Dr. T. C. Hilgard. 

" PalcBoniohgy and Geology, Dr. B. F. Shumard. 

« Mneralogy, Hr.- John Moss. 

" Chemistry y Prof. A. Litton. 

■P'^!''5^*'^^^ * Mr. James B. Eads. 



t* 



" Emhryohgy, Dr. E. H. Gregory. 

" ^'Tonstrosities, * Dr. J. S. B. Alfeyne. 

•'• Library, Dr. Geo. En^elraann. 

" Publication, Prof. W. M. McPheetera. 

r 

Amadee Berthold, Esq., was elected an Associate Member. 



U 



# 



January 26, 185T. 

The President, Dr. B. F. Shcmahd, in the chair. 



a 



Wt 



of Jefferson City, and Lieut. F. T. Bryan, U. S. A., elet'ttd Coi- 

responding Members. 

^ The committee to whom was referred the Paper rtadby Dr. T. 
C. Flilgard, on PhyEotaxis, reported the same for publication m 
the Transaciious. 



Missouri, which wa 



the 



M 



WIsIIzenus read a Paper on ancient Indian grave 



osTeied by him, near Prairie du Rocher and Ka,.l.a.kia, in the 



Sfete of Illinois. 



* 



-fl 



JOURNAL OF PROCEEDmOS, 



35 



F 

Mr. Speneer Smith remarked that similar graves had been dis- 
covered on the bluffs of the Illinois River, in Greene county. 

The Paper was referred to a committee, consisting of Drs. 
Prout, Stevens and Walters. 

Prof G. C. Swallow presented a copy of his Third Report of 
Geological Survey of Missouri. 

The following gentlemen were appointed on the several stand- 
ing committees, by the respective chairmen: 



u 



it 



On Comparative Anatomy^ 
" Eniomologyf 

Mammalogy^ 

PalcBontology and Geology^ 
•• Ethnology^ 

" Monstrosities^ 

'* Chemical Geology and Malacology^ 



Dr, A. C- Koch. , 
" F. E. Baumgarten- 

Prof. J, T. Hodgen. 

Dr. H. A, Prout. 
Mr. N. Holmes. 
Dr. John Lebrecht. 

" M. A. Fallen. 

^* A. Wislizenas, 

" S. Pollak. 



Mem 



her, and Uriel Wright, Esq., Dr. John R. Washington, and Mr. 
Wm. Maffit, were elected Associate Members. 



% 



February 9, 1857. 
The President, Dr. B. F. Shcmamd, in the chair. 

A letter was read fjom Dr. B. B. Brown, of Sacramento, Call, 
elected a Corresponding Member. 

On motion, ordered that an edition of one thousand copies of 
the first number of the Transactions be printed, under the direc* 
tion of the Committee on Publication. 



M- 



some 



carved figures from the Fejee Islands, and an interesting suite of 
shells, corals, and lava, from the South Pacific. 

Mr. John Moss presented specimens of sulphuret of iron, and. 
sulphuret and carbonate of lead. 

Dr. B. F. Shumard read a Paper, cntltfed "Description of Kew 



l'-^ 



^V 



* 



_ ^ 



S6 



TKANS. OP THE ACAD. OF SCIENCE. 



Species of Fossil Crinoidea, from ihe Palseozoic Rocks of the 
Western and Southern portions of the United States," illustrated 
with Plates. Ordered to be printed in the Transactions. 

Prof. G. C. Swallow stated that, during the last season, he had 
discovered and opened, with the assistance of the people of the 
neighborhood, several ancient Indian mounds^ in the county of 
New Madrid, in the southeastern part of the State. The mounds 
were situated in a plain or wide basin, (not a river bottom,) 
and their bases rested on a layer of sand five feet below the sur- 
face of the ground ; and old forest trees were growing aver ihera 
as upon the surrounding plain. The largest mound was 900 feet 
in icircumference at the base, and 25 feet in height ; and there 
were other smaller mounds in the immediate neighborhood. Sev- 
eral of them were opened by sections from top to bottom. Ifi 
most of them were found various articles of earthen pottery, pipes, 
and bones of quadrupeds and fisH, together with small portions of 
human bones, and so.ne whole teeth. In the upper' part of the 
larger mound, the plou^, in making the excavation, struck the bot- 
tom of a sun-baked earthen jar or pot, about ten inches in diameter, 
lying bottom upwards. On taking it up, the top portion of a hu- 
man skull was seen inside, laying across the mouth of the jar, 
with the convex side downward. The mouth of the jar was five 
inches in diameter; but the piece of skull was much too large to 
pass through the opening, and could not be got out without break- 
ing it to pieces. How it got in, was a question which he would 
leave to others to solve. This was the only luue in the jar, except 
a single vertebra. 3So implements of war were found in any of 
these mounds; every thing discovered in them indicated peaceftil 
habits. Traces of decayed human skeltlons were visible in tke 
smaller mounds, and the articles of pottery appeared as if .they had 
been placed at the head of the buried body. No skeleton, or sk-uU, 
remained entire. He had caused accurate measurements and 
drawings to be mad^ . 



'. which would te given to the public in tke 
Geological Report. The mounds previously found in Howard 
•county, Mo., in which he had discovered a human skeleton buried 
■in a sitting posture, together with implements of war, he consid- 
.«red as belonging to a comparatively modern period ; but these of 
Southeastern Missouri must be admitted to be of very ancient 
date, as was evident not only by the growth of old trees upon 
lliem, but by the character of the pottery, the condition of the re- 



"■^ 



Jfi 



JOURNAL OF PROCEEDINGS 



ST 



mains, and the depth of alluvial strata which have been deposited 
around their bases since they were constructed. 

Dr, J. B. Johnson observed that savage races were inown to 
have used a portion of the skull as a drinking cop ; but that bone, 
neither in a fresh state, nor when boiled in water, would bend, or 
yield, to much compression, without fracture. 

Dr. M. A. Fallen remarked that bone, in some diseased condi- 
tions, became more or less pliable; but here was no evidence of 
such a condition. He concurred in the suggestion that the jar 
must have been moulded over the skull, and then dried in the sun. 

The committee to whom was referred the Paper jead by Dr; 
A. C. Koch, on Mastodon Remains, recommended the same fo 
publication in the Transactions. * 



1 



Th 



and by Dr. A. 



Wislizenus, on Indian Graves, were recommended for publication 



in the Transactions. 



It was also ordered, that the Paper prepared by Prof. A. Litton, 
on Belcher's Artesian Well, be published in the Transactions. 

Dr. M. A. Fallen, intending to be absent from the city for some 
time, resigned the office of Librarian. Dr. T. C. Hilgard was 
elected to fill the vacancy. 

On motion, it was voted to accept the Charter of Incorporation 



M 



granted 






-* 



T*^ 







w 



38 



TRANS. OF THE ACAD. OF SCIENCE. 



I. On some New Species of Fossils from the Cretaceous 
Formation of JVebraska Territory. By John EvanSj 
M.D., and^. F. Shumard, M.D. 

ACEPHALA. 



AviCTTLA NiBEASCAITA. 



Shell compressed, thin; cardinal margin straight, rather wide; 
buccal margin rounded, retreating; aual edge long, concave above 
and arched below ; posterior wing triangular, very slightly con- 



cave 



beak small, |)rojecting very slightly above the cardinal edge : sur- 
face markecl with radiating, thread-like, simple strise, ^ At four 
lines from the beak, there are about eight of these striae in the 
space of two lines; towards the palleal border the number is in- 
creased by implantation ; the interspaces are about double the 
width of the strise, and are marked with very fine longitudinal 
lines. "With the aid of a lens, very fine^ closely arranged, waved 
lines of growth are perceptible. 

Occurs in the Cretaceous Formation, near Moreau River, ^«e- 



braska Territory. 



LiMOPSIS STHIATO-PUNCTATtTS. 



Shell small, ovate, subquadrate, usually transverse, moderately 
gibbous, subangular behind, rounded before and below, posterior 
margin oblique, slightly arcuate; umbones rather prominent, a 



V 



beh 



tending above the cardinal margin, and situated nearest the ante- 
rior extremity; substance of the shell moderately thick; binge 
with strongly set teeth ; surface ornamented with fine concentric 
lines of growth, crossed by fine, longitudinal, flexuous strise, which 
are minutely punctate at the points of intersection. ^ - 

Dimensions. — Length, 5 lines; height, about 4 lines; thick- 
ness, about 3 lines. 



Local 



Mureau and Grand Rivers, Nebraska Territory 



This is a very neat, pretty species. It occurs in the greatest 
profusion — layers nearly a foot ia thickness being sometimes al- 
most wholly made up of them. 



CaBDIUM SUBqUAPRATTJM. 

Shell small^ sufK^uadranguIar, length greater than the height, 
gibbous; anterior margin founded, posterior margin truncated; 
very slightly arched; umbones prominent, large, obtusely suban- 
gnlated ; beaks nearly medial, rather obtuse, and extending but 
little beyond the cardinal margia; substance of the shell thin; 



T^. 







■'i 



* 



EV.VNS A SHUMAUD — NEW TOSSILS. S9 



surface with fine concentric strise of growth, wa\^ed and dentate 
posteriorly, where they are crossed by obscure longitudinal ribs. 

Dimensions. — Length, 5i lines; height, 4| lines; thickness, 
nearly 4 lines. 

Locality, — Moreau River. Very abundant* 

CaKDXUM HAAT7H, 

fi 

Shell small, ovate, subquadrate, mederately gibbous^ inequilat- 
eral, substance very thin, length and breadth nearly equals car- 
dinal edge short, somewhat sharp ; beaks projecting above the 



card 



subangulated behind; posterior 

paileal 



rounded; anal margin obliquely subtruncate; surface polished, 
and marked with very fine, closely arranged, concentric lines, 
.crossed on the posterior side by nearly obsolete longitudinal ribs, 
becoming more prominent as they reach the border, which on this 
part of the shell is finely crenulated. 

This species in its general form resembles Cardium svhquad' 
ratum^ from which it may be distinguished by its smaller size, 
blished surface, and the extreme thinness of the valves. The 
ongitudinal ribs on the posterior side are also nearly obsolete, 
and the bealis more prominent. 

Total length, 4| lines; width, 4 lines; thickness, tJ lines. 

Localities. — It is associated with Ltmapsis sfriato'^i 
Moreau and Grand Rivers. 




idatns 



Amca 



SUX.CATIKA.. 



he 



Deaks situated in advance of the middle, rather prominent, in- 
curved, distant; umbones oblique, angulated posteriorly, moder* 
atefy convex, having a distinct sulcus, which passes obliquely from 
the beak to the paileal margin, cutting the latter about the middle 
of the shell, sulcus most deeply impressed on the right valve; 
buccal margin short, forming nearly a rigiii angle with the cardi- 
nal edge; anal margin obliquely truncated; iigamentary area 
rather large, elongate-ovate ; surface with from IS to 20 radiating 
strisB, with accessory ones in the intervals. 

Length, 4 lines; height, rather more than 2 lines; thickness, 



1| lines. 

1 the specimens of this species 

casts. 

Loraliiy, — It was found with the 

Fork, 3 miles frnm Hr^nf! Pi'v^r 



ipecies on TVood's 



Leda fibkosa. 



ShcU ine^aivalve, in eqiiiktcrate, -ovate, subtriquetr^, very gih^ 



m 



* 



y^ 



40 



TRAITS-- OF THE ACAD. OF SCIENCE. 



tous, produced and abruptly attenuated posteriorly, the extremity 
truncate; umbones prominent, incurved, that of the right valve 
situated in advance of the other; surface polished, and marked 
with numerous, closely arranged, fibrous, concentric striae. 
• Length, 4^ lines ; height, 3^ lines; thickness, 2| lines. 

Locality. — In the septaria of the Cretaceous Formation, of Sage 
Creek, Nebraska Territory. 

f 

Mytilus Meesii. 

L 

Shell ovate, subquadrate» transverse^ height equal to about half 
the length; cardinal margin slightly arcuate ; umbones very ob- 
lique, convex ; ^eaks situated near the posterior extremity, round- 
ed, rather obtuse, moderately prominent; buccal margin short, 
strongly rounded ; anal margin expanded and regularly rounded; 
inferior margin nearly straight ; surface with obscure concentric 
folds, most prominent posteriorly; test very thin. 

Length of largest specimen, 9i lines; height, 5 lines; thick- 
Bess, 4 lines. 

Readily distinguished from M. Galpinianus (Evans Sf Shu-' 

mardy by its smaller size, the greater gibbosity of the beaks, and 
its subquadrate form. It can scarcely be confounded with M. 
attmuaius {Meek Sr Hay den) , which is a much more slender 
species. 

Locality. — Moreau River. 

OSTKEA STTBTKIGONALiS. 

Shell elongate, ovate, subtrigonal, very inequivalve ; superiof 
mlve flattened convex on the umbo, concave or plane towards the 



<rat 



palleal margin; inferior valve convex; umbo strongly subangu- 
kted, declining rapidly to the lateral edges, and rounded towards 

htly arched later- 
ally, scarcely incurved ; surface presenting some imbricating, con- 
centric lines of growth, and on some specimens a few indistinct 
ladlating cost®. 

This shell is very variable in its' form, scarcely any two speci- 



mens that we have seen being alike. 



Locality. — ^It occurs in greenish-gray calcareo-siliceous sand- 
stone, at a bulle in the vicinity of OwrButte, between Moreao 
and Grand Rivers. It occupies a higher geological position than 
the preceding species. 



GASTEROPODA. 

Pleurotoh A lBfI?r0B. 

Shell small, fusiform, spire elevated, spiral angle about 31*^ 
whorls seven or eight, convex; body whorl equal to one-half the 



entire length 



3. 



surface with distinct revolving lines, of which theie 



*. 



n 



EVANS A SHUMAUD — ^KEW FOSSILS. 41 

are about t\ve!ve on the second volution, spaces distinctlj' impres- 
sed ; lines and spaces crossed by fine strlx and moderately dis* 
tinct folds; lip rather strongly arched, and deeply emarginate 
above. • 

Length, 6 or 7 lines; width, 2- lines; length of aperture, 3 
lines. 

Locality. — Moreau and Grand Rivers. 

Fusrs Haydeni. 

Shell large, elongate-fusiform, spiral angle about 26*^; \xlutions 
about seven, convex; body volution occupying ivvo-thirds the en- 
tire length ; surface ornamented with numerous revolving lines, 
which are wider than the spaces — these again xkf^ traversed by 
longitudinal lines, which give to the surface a cancellated, sub- 
granulose appearance; lip somewhat sinuous; aperture narrow^ 
angulated behind. 

.Length, 2/^ inches; length of body whorl, 1 j\ inches; width, 

9 lines- 
Occurs with Cardium snhqnadratnm on Moreau River. 
Dedicated to Dr. F, V« Hayden, to whom we are indebted foi 

a very perfect specimen of the species. 

Fcsus Nebrascensis, 

Shell elongate, subfusiform, slender, spire elevated, spiral angle 
13** or 14°; volutions flattened, convex (number unlcnown); aper- 
ture sh'ghtly oblique, subelliptica!,angulated abo\*e; suture distinct. 
Of this species we have only found the body and succeeding whorl. 
Qn a part not exfoliated, distinct longitudinal folds are to be seen j 
other surface markinirs obliterated. 



BXk 



Length of body and nextwhorl, about 7 lines; width, 3 lines. 
Locality, 

TURRITELLA MULTILI>'EAT1. 

Shell elongate, conic, spire much elevated, opening of spiral 
gle 19**; whorls about 14, flattened; the last one angulated and 
gently convex beneath; surface ornamented with distinct, round- 
ed, revolving, unequal lines, crossed by longitudinal arched lines, 
so as to give to the surface an elegant granulose appearai.ce; su- 
ture linear, not very distinct; aperture short, subquadrangular. 

Length, about 16 lines; thickness, 5 lines; length and width 
of aperture, 2 lines. 

This is one of the prettiest shells that I have seen from the Cre- 
taceous rocks of Kebraska. The granute are arranged in regu- 
lar revolving lines over the surface, being most prominent on the 
upper volutions. Usually, we can count about ten revolving lines 

on the body whoxL 



f 



>■- 







42 TSAXS. GE THE ACAD. 0¥ SCIENCE 



Locality. — Moreau and Grand Rivers. 

R0ST£LLARIA AmERICANA. 

Shell elongate-conic, spire elevated; spiral angle 30"; body 
whorl obtusely angulated, and bearing two dislinct carinse, which 
diverge as they approach the outer lip, and become nearly obso- 
lete before reaching entirely around the volution; upper carhia 
most prominent, and rendered subnodulose by longitudinal, mod- 
erately prominent, double-arched folds; surface with distinct re- 
volving striae, of which there are about five in the space between 
the two carinas ; stride below the carinee rather sharper than those 
above; apertur§ elongate subtriangular. 

Length of last volution, 6i lines; width, 5J lines (not includ- 
ing the prolongations of the lip, which are broken off) ; length of 
aperture, 4| lines. 

Localihj. — Bforeau and Grand Rivers. 



CEPHALOPODA, 

r 

AMMO^■ITES GalPINI. 

Shell long, discoidal, whorls (number unknown) slightly em- 
bracing, transverse section ovate-subquadrate; dorsum with a 
prominent narrow keel, on each side of which is a well deEned 



smoo 



artilar 



ceeding- obbquely across the volution, terminate on the outer edge 
of the dorsal channels; ribs furnished with two prominent nodes, 
one situatfed at or near each extremity— those nearest the dorsum 
most prominent and subtrigonal— the other flattened in the di- 
rection of the ribs; iobation of chambers unknown, 
^ The above description is founded on about one-third of a volu- 
tion of apparently an adult specimen. The ribs vary considerably 
m number at different periods of growth. In young examples, 
some are .simple, some dichotomous, and others trichotomous, and 
the mtermediale spaces are shallow and narrow; while in adult 



mens 



ces are wide and d^'epIy impressed* 

BbnmnmtH.^W^'xghx o£ last volution, 2/^ iBche^; width of 
same, 2/. inches. "" 



wa 



obtained by Charks Galpin, Esq., of the 



above 



fL 



its confluence, and by him presented to the Academy o£ Science 



of St. Louis. 



4 



^ 



'Tnui.iUi\^tcail.'^i . SiXiHiU ^oLI. 



Bate 2. 




r^ 



EXPLANATION OF PLATE IL 



Eig. 1. Front view of Froductug margimc%nctu^. 
" 2. Side view of same. 
•* 3. Lower valve, with its perforation. 
" i, 5, 5 & 7- Different stages of growth. 
** 8- Magnified view of the hinge articulation. »' 

" 9. Diagram to slow thQ direction of the splac. 
" lOj 11, 12^ 13, 14 & 17. Different views obtained o£ the aiticulation of the 

hinge by grinding (magnified several t'mes). 
« 15 & 16. Diagram showing the arrangement of the minute ves^ela opon the 

npper surface of the ventral valve* 



'«. 



PROUT — "SEW SPECIES OF PRODUCTUS. 43 



* 



n. Description of a JVew Species of Pkoductus, from 
the Carboniferous Limestone of St. Louis* Bj Htram 

A. Pkout, M.D. {Plate IL) . 



4 



FAMILY, PRODUCTID.E. (Davidson.) 

Genus, Phoductcs. (Sowerby.) 
Groupy SemireiiculatL (De Koninck.) 

Productus mahgixicikctus (no6.) 

Shell of medium size, subquadrate, slightly transverse in full 
grown specimens, as broad as long in those of middle age, Dor^ 
sal valve vaulted, with the arch slightly inclining towards the beak 
and flattened near the anterior border; sinuated, sinus shallow, 
broad and nearly obsolete at the basal margin; longitudinal ribs 
round, salient, and tqj)erculated from the intersection of concen- 
tric ridges on the visceral disk; they are seldom dichotomous, 
and swell in a somewhat alternate manner, in nearly concentric 
rows, into long tubercles, which, at their lower termini, gave ori- 
gin to long and slender spines; this arrangement of the tubercles 
resembles that so beautifully displayed alike on the surface of the 
P. subquadratus and the P. Cancrini; neck slightly tapering into 
a sharp beak rather strongly recurved, terminating a little below 
the hinge line, upon which it is closely pressed. Auricular ex- 
pansions shorter than the width of the shell, elevated at the outer 
angle, much depressed near the beak; hinge line straight;* slight- 
ly granular on the inner but smooth on the outer border; area 
obsolete ; deltidium none. This valve terminates below in a large 
and prominent border, or ring, separated from the main body of 
the shell by a shallow groove, not entirely interrupting the conti- 
nuity of the longitudinal ribs^ which terminate upon the ring, and 
give it, on its lower surface, a crenulated appearance. This ring 
terminates in the angles of the cardinal border, and seems to have 
given origin to many long and delicate spines, and it Is probable 
that the longitudinal ribs were extended into long spines from its 
lower margin. The concentric ridges are not so large as the Ion* 
giludinal ribs, except on the auricular expansions on and near the 
neck, w^here they are much coarser, and give a wrinkled appear- 
ance to the flanks; they are nearly obsolete on the anterior sur- 
face of the shell. This valve had many very long and delicate 
spines distributed irregularly, but somewhat ahernately, over its 
entire surface: they were hollow, communicated by a perforation 
With the interior of the shell, and a long, black, horny, hair-like 
filament was found on the upper side of one or two, probably com- 
osed of periosticum. In a nieeial section, the spiries seem to 
ave grown perpendicularly tangential to the curvature of the shell. 
Length, about ten lines; width, one inch; eight lines from the 
beak, the space of two lines gives six ribs. 




^ 



44 TRANS. OF THE ACAD. OF SCIE^"CE. 

Ventral valve subquadrate, irregularly concave following the 
concavity of the dorsal valve, anterior border much thickened 
where it meets the curvature of the other valve ; on its dorsal face, 
the longitudinal ribs radiate from a perforated point nearly oppo- 
site the umbo, and are crossed by irregularly branching, coarse, 
concentric ridges, which give to this surface a beautiful reticulate 
aspect; it is further marked by a slight, broad and triangular Jom- 
relef, slightly depressed in the middle by a very shallow sinus, 
which is also triangular in form, widening much as it proceeds 
from the perforated point to the anterior border. This sinus and 
the depressions which occur between the outer borders of the bou- 
relet and the cardinal angles give place to three depressions on 
this surface of the valve; the bourelet with its middle sinus occu- 
. pies nearly the whole of the visceral disk. Spine holes are found 
here and there in the depressions between the longitudinal rils and 
the concentric ridges, arranged nearly alternately, or quidcuncial- 
ly, as upon the dorsal valve ; a little beyond the perforated point, 
the hinge line is thickened into a small tubercle, bisected by a tri* 



pond 



points 



of the articulation of the valves, apart from the hinge lines, was 
determined only after much patient and careful ipvestigation, and, 
although not as fully defined as could be desired from the limited 
number of specimens before me, will, I believe, be found to pre- 
sent the following arrangement: the hinge line of the dorsal valve 
projects as a thin, flat, corneous layer for several lines towards the 
centre of the shell, before it terminates in an attenuated edge; it 
is perforated near its middle by a tube which transmits the liga- 
ment from the perforated point of the ventral valve; this tube, 
extending forward and upward/expands like the petals of a tulip 
into five petaloid cavities, which are designed to receive the cor- 
^iKsponding divisions of the ligament, by which greater strength 
was secured to the ligament in its attachment. In Fig. 8, two of 



cbl iqi 
ttand 



ground 



on 



passage of the liga 



precedes 



pressed petaloid processes having apparently disappeared from the 
grmumg of the surface. Tlie space in front beiiig marked by the 
remains of the two lateral petaloid processes, and the axis of the 
ligament having been reached in ihis specimen, I am induced to 
believe that Jhere were five petaloid expansions ; the appearance of 



lo 




tubes. 



b^f^ed 



0« 




M the shell; they seemed to dip separately into each spine openmgi 

md to emerge, again, to dip into the next, to emer<ie in the same 



^ 



f 



y? 



■* 






m 



■* 



p 



? 



SCIIIEL 




LTCBRIN. 



45 



manner: it is probable that these vessels coalesced and formed a 
lining for the spines, for the better circulation of the water. Their 
arrangement is exhibited in diagrams Nos. 15 and 16. The lower 
surface of the ventral valve is characterized by the same beautifully 
reticulated appearance as the upper ; the whole surface, except the 
cardinal border, was covered %vith spine?. Ko traces of hepatic, or 
muscular, impressions were found, unless a semilunar depression 
found on the ventral aspect of the dorsal valve, near the umbo, in 
two specimens, may be regarded as such. 

Comparisons and Differences, — In general form, this species re- 
sembles somewhat the P. Jllonensis o/ Drs. Norwood and Prat- 
ten, but, independently of its belonging to a different group, (the 
semireUcuhiti,) ii possesses the marginal ring and other charac- 
ters which sufficiently distinguish it from this and all other spe- 
cies except the P. marginalis of De Koninck, from which ii is 
separated by its well marked sinus, the saliency of its ribs on the 
whole visceral disk, by the greater number of its tubercles and 
their nearly regular distribution in concentric rows, by the perfo- 
rated bourelet of the dorsal surface of the ventral valve, and by 
several other minor distinctions, which show that, though allied to 
the marginalis in its cingulum, it differs more than specifically in 
many other important points. 



"Nor 



being 



ness and evenness of its hinge line, in the absence of the two 
tubes on the auricular expansions, the greater distinctness of the 
concentric furrows on the visceral disk, the less pronounced depth 
of the dorsal sinus, and the distinct terminal ring at the lase of the 



m 



dorsal valve. 



fiemlen 



lam, which, together with other characters, sufficiently distinguishes 
it from the corresponding ^alve of the marginicincfvs. 

Geological Position and Localiiy.— Found in thinly stratified 
beds of argillaceous limestone, forming the upper series of the 
Carboniferous Limestone in the suburbs of the city of St. Louis, 

assfM^inted with the Produdus cora. 



im. Observations on Glycerin. 



By Jajies ScHtEL, M.T> 



Of all substances known in organic Chemistry, there is hardly 
one which has. in our day, attracted more the general atti liuoa 
tlmn Glycerin; discovered in 1779 by Scheele, a , century has 
nearly elapsed before the properties of lh\^ reniarkable sutelance 
were fully recognized and appreciated. i . • * 

Scheele considered it as a kind of sugar, end after him it has 



sugar 



ubsta 



f'- 



■m 



E^ 



-^ 



46 



TEANS. OF THE ACAD. OF SCIENCE. 



analogous to that of alcohol;, hut neither the composition, the che- 
mical behavior, nor the physical properties of it, speak in favor of 
this view, which still seems to be adhered to by some chemists. 

In the June number, 1842, of "The Annals of Liebig & Woh- 
ler," I published a paper, in which I showed that the substances 
which might be called by the generic name "Alcohols," formed a 
regularly progressive series ; so that if by R we designate the hy- 
dro-carbon (Ca Ha ), we have 



R 
R 
R 



HO+HO 
HO + HO 
HO.+HO. Glycerin. 



IMethylic alcohol, 
Vmic " 



Boiling point, 

60 

78.4=60 + IS 



R^ HO + HO (?) 



R 



HO + HO Amylic alcohol, 132=60+4+18 



(Fosel oil.) 






Rj<, HO + HO Hydrated oxyde of ethyli- 



R^, HO + HO 



a 



u 



cGTosy!. 



I 



It was shown that the boiling point of each siSbstance entering 
this series was 18° C higher for every R (Ca Ha), a regularity 
which had been previously proved by H. Kupp to exist between 
alcohol and methylic alcohol, and their compounds, but not farther; 
the general formula of alcohols was accord inirly given as Rq 2 
HO or ja, HO + HO, and glycerin- with the formula B3 HO^ + 
HO, and a boiling point far above 60+2x18, must therefore be 
left out or the series as not belonging to the alcohols; its place be- 
longs to propylic alcohol (Several members of the above series 
then unknown and marked by dots, have since been discovered.) 

The article on this series, which was the first progressive series 
evt-r published in organic chemistry at that time, closed with these 
word=>: '-There are undoubtedly other similar series in organic 
chemistry, and I hope in a short time to revert to this subject-' 
From this I was prevented by occupations of a different charac- 
ter ; but, three months after, M. Dumas laid before the Jcndemie 
des ^iences his series of fatty acids, fully confirming, by this, my 
opinion. 

According to Chevrruil and other chemists, the pure glycerin i9 
eiitinly without any odor; thesp.gr. was trpeatedly found by Pe- 

louze to be 1.27, but, amongst ali the articles brought into the mar^ 
ket which I examined, none were found to agree with their state* 
menls; they all had a highly offensive odor, and mostly a sp. gj- 
of 1.22, • In order to ascertain whether the smelling glycerin 
was of a different composition, a portion of it was placed in a lit- 
tle retort, w'hich was connected with an air-pump; the receiver, a 
itrong via^ was sunounded with ice; the vacuum fras continued 



« 



% 



SCHIEL — GLYCERIN. . 4T 

forUvotfnys: during tbe first day, the glycerin Avas not heated 
above 100'' C; the second, it was kept at a temperature of not 

above 140° C. 

The water collected in tbe receiver was about one-fifih of the 

quantity of glycerin used, and possessed all its odor and taste j 

the remaining glycerin, which possessed a strong odor, had the 

sp. gr. 1.269; it was a thick, slightly yellow syrup; a portion of 

it, burnt with oxide of copper and oxygen, shewed the composi- 

tion— * 

Carbon • . . .3S.65 

Hydrogen 8.S6 

. . Oxygen 52 49 

100. 

The composition of glycerin was found by Pelouze 

Carbon 39.03 

Hydrogen .*►....• 8.76 

Oxygen •52.21 

100. 

According to these itumbers, the analyzed glycerin had the nor- 
mal composition, and if its strong odor belongs to a foreign sub- 
stance contained in it, the latter is not present in such a quantity 
as to perceptibly influence the result of the analysis. 

Tke affinity of glycerin for oxygen seems tobe very indifTerent; 
a portion of half a gramme was exposed to the action of oxygen 
in the accompanying little apparatus for three weeks, and not 
one-eighth of a cubic centimetre was absorbed, although it was 
exposed to the influence of the sun. 

The apparatus mentioned consisted of a glass tube drawn out 
at both ends, blown up into two bulbs and bent at a right angle 
between the bulbs. The shape of the apparatus will be best seea 
from the annexed diagram. A portion of the liquid is drawn in 
by suction; the point c is dipped into quicksilver, contained in a 
small test tube; the other end is connected with a vessel of pure 
oxygen, and a current of this is passed through the vessel from 
five to six seconds, or until a small piece of ignited coal dipping 
in the test tube burns with a flame ; the apparatus is then sealed 
at the end a. This apparatus may be modified in different ways 
according to the wants of the chemist. I have used it for the last 
ten years, and have never felt the want of the large pneumatic 
quicksilver apparatus. 

As glycerin is coming more and more into general use, it is 
desirable to ha%'e a cheap source from whence to procure this 

substance. 

In manufacturing stearin candles, the fatty acids are saponi- 
fied with caustic lime, the stearates, margarates, palmiiates^ etc, 
of iime being precipitated, while the glycerin remains ia solution 



« 



« 



m 



» 



48 TRAKS. OF THU ACAD. OP SCIENCE. 

in the water, tf this water be again used in the saponification of 
a new portion of fat, the solution becomes more concentrated, so 
that, by the evaporation of 100 buckets of such water, we would 
obtain from 12 to 14 gallons of impure concentrated glycerin; 
it will require to evaporate these 100 buckets 15 bushels of coal. 

In the watery solution of glycerin, there is contained much 
caustic lime, which remains in the concentrated article. It has 
been proposed by some French chemists, to remove this by the 
aid of sulphuric acid-; hut no glycerin treated by this very defec* 
live and tedious method is entirely free from lime. ■ 

The following method will be found to be by far more _sim pie and 
more effective:— Into the somewhat concentrated solution of gly- 
cerin, throw pieces of carb. ammonia sufficient to thrown down 
as a carbonate all the caustic lime, stirring constantly while the 
evaporation proceeds; keep the solution boilmg at a temperature 
of between 140" to 150° C; this is effected by adding a little wa- 
ter when the solution becomes so concentrated as to raise the boil- 
ing point higher; in the course of an hour or two, all the the caus- 
tic ammonia, as well as the excess of carbonate added, passes on. 

The method of clarification discovered by Wilson consists in 
distilling concentrated glycerin by the application of over-heated 



steam. 



obtainf^ 



odorless; but I must confess that I could find no English glycerm 
in the market free from the offensive odor-; nor could I, by fol- 
lowing his meth<fd, obtain an odorless article. Moreover, it seems 



nhm g 



_, ycenn so oDtaiaed contams small portions or acroieiii, i^ 

a drop of it brought into the eye causes a sharp and painful 
"Sensaiion not produced by pure glycerin; this renders it entirely 



useless in diseases of the eye, iu which pure glycerin has some- 



very 

around the eye. 



o 



very 



added to injections incases of bilious cholic; th« vapors of bod 



ing diluted g 



De 



lungs 



IV. PhyUotaxis — its ntimeric and divergejitial l(^i^ ^^ 
plkahle under a simple organotogicai idea. By ^- ^' 
HiLG ASB , M.B. ( Plate III ) 

The phenomena of PHYLLoxAxts, or reUHik disposition oftk 




simplest '* mathematical expressions" or forms of menmiration. 
Both number and dluergence refer to the organological fact of ^he 
leaves, etc., appearing exclusively by sets, in which the leaves, alt^^ 



HILGARD — ^PHYLLOTAXI 



49 



# 



^ 



i 



positions 



which however may be repeated, as is generally the case on the 



stems, but more rarely in flowers. 



wlit ) 



( 



place, is called a cycle. 

In a bird's-eye view, the ambit is by the leaves divided into as 

The number of 



many interstices as there are leaves to e cycle. 

leaves, or int< 
W thereof. 



cyclar 



The leaves either occur, as they most frequently do, in single- 
file succession, after a certain law of alternation completing a cy- 



( 



permcunt- 



bent or correspondent to the first assumed one ; or, a number of 
leaves are placed at equal heights, radiating like the spokes of a 
wheel, which disposition is called a whorl or verficil, and either 
completing a cycle, or, as is mostly the case, a number of alternate 
whorls are required before the subsequent one becomes duly su- 
perincumbent above the first assumed one. 

In each of these c&ses, the number in question — whether of 
singly disposed leaves to a cycle, or the number of leaves compos- 
ing a whorl, or of whoris completing a (compound) cycle — is al- 
ways, with few exceptions, one of these, and no others: 1, 2, 3, 
5, 8, 13, 21, 34, 55, S9, 144, 233, 377, etc. A series evolved 
by 

mencing by 1 : 



a 



rule 



( ich 

hdum 



of adding the tv/o last numbers on hand, but com- 

1 + 1)^2, (2 + l)=3, (3+2)^5, (5 + 3) 
(S + 5)=13, etc.; and the number of 



interstices 



) 



series, invariably being the one antepenult imaie in the series to 
the cyclar number in question. Where there are 13 leaves to a 
cycle, aad consequently 13 interstices (in a bird's-eye view) to the 
ambit, tken each two proximate leaves thereof diverge (in the 
shon-vsray direction) 5 interstices — 5 being serially antepenulti- 
mate to 13, — or diverge by t^ ^^ ^ circle, admitting the interstices 
to be nearly equal; which, however, is irrelevant, as the law of 
alternation only is the point essential. Where there are S to a 
cycle, the mode of disposition is what is called ''| disposition," 
leaping, in the short direction, 3 interstices or 2 leaves; if 5, | of 
•the circle, or 2 interstices (leaping 1 leaf); and so on consi^eatly. 
Exceptionally, there occur other cyclar numbers and rates of 
divergence, but which form series secondarily derivable from the 
above series, e. g., by adding two penapproximate numbers. To 
prevent aU misunderstanding, and to have a general method of 
expressing whatever divergences, they r.re universally expressed 
by a fraction having as denominator the cyclar number, aad as 
numerator the number of interstices leaped in counting short-way 



4 



^' 



M I ssoimr 

BOTAKlCAi. 



f 



* 



•* 



W 



oO TRAILS. OF THE ACAD. OF SCIEXGE. 

from any leaf to the proximate one in height (or along the staffij. 
We here only purport to treat of the vastly prevailing, and 
doubtless ihe fundamental, series and its divergences, irrespective 
of the rare heteronomous exceptions above indicated. 

No sufficient explanation of either the numbers or the diver- 
gences, as to their origin from organic processes, or their relations 
to organic laws, has hitherto been put forth or established. 

'Foliar Paris, 

According to organological considerations, are the scales of 
buds;, the rudiments of leaves, preformed in the bud; the lobes 
of the seed-embryo, containing in a cavity, or between them, a 
fine preformation of leaves and stalk; the developed leaves; the 
leafets (bracts) subtending axillary flower-stalks or branches; the 
elements, of the perigon, calyx, corolla^, the individual stamens 
and capsular elements severally. All organs springing from the 
axils of leaves or bracts, as branches, buds and *'metamorphosed" 
branches;, as the 'tufts of asparagus, the fir, the tufted warts of 
Cacti; the ovate-lanceolate leaf -like branches of Ruscus,and like- 
wise the scales of pine cones, both arising from the axjisof bracts, 
and themselves bearing the blossom and fruit: all these, if com- 
plete, of course repeat the same order of disposition as. the foliar 
organs from the axils of which they arise. 

All foliar parts are originally predeveloped and concealed in the 
hud they constTtute,and are arranged in it on a short conical axis, 
or on a level, or even sometimes a depression. All slalk or axial 
prolongation proceeds after the rudera of leaves are formed; by 
the agency of which the contingent parts of the stem seem to be 
produced, each leaf developing unto itself a downward portion of 
stalk, moving aloft by increasing at the base, as the animal l^eth 
do, of which, if the crown be compared to the foliar rudiment, 
the root would figure the contingent segment of the axial parts* 

Generation in leaves resides at their base, or toward the centre 

of ihe stalk (Schacht). ^ 

Geometrical Phenomena. 



T. 



In a bud— as in the bud (calyx) 



the lowest leaf is the largest, 



and,benTg the most extrinsic, covers more than any of the rest d.. 
This 111 No. 1. Compare also the impress-figure of the beet-stub* 
ble m our diagram, originally obtained by priming off the object 
Itself. Nearly _ opposite to it stands the one next in height (on 
the axis) and size, diverging (in the short direction) | of a circler 
or, more correctly, leaping 2 interstices. At | divergence from 
It, m the same direction (close to No. 1), stands No. 3, overlapped 
(covered) on one margin by No. 1. Between Nos. 1 & 2, again, 
stands No. 4, mort- reduced in size ; and between Nos, 2 and 3 
stands No. 5, the narrowest and most ont>ressed of all 



-^. 



-ii-' 



uT 



EILG ARD — ^PHYLLOTAXIS . 



51 



These elements do not actually stand on equal heights, but they 
ascend a very little on the axis, and always are at different eccen- 
tric distances. ^ 

In the labiate and personate tubular flowers, where sets of 5 are 
fused into a tube or neck, the limhi or marginal expanses fre- 
quently, by the succession in which their lobes are found overlap- 
ping in the bud (prefloratlon), still declare the law of successive 
position, and probably of successive development,. Of this a very 
striking example is afforded by the corolla of JhTicrevibergia Jili^ 
caulis (Polemonio-petuniacece) of the gardens, where the 5 cor- 
ners of the rotate limhusj by their difference and succession ex- 
actly corresponding toa | disposition, bespeak the same successive 
development as in the previous examples. 

When a number of single-file cycles (successive disposition) 
are approximated on a comparatively short axis — as on the pine 
and pine-apple cones, the areolar impressions of the custard-apple, 
the tubercles on the body and fruit of Cacti, in the disc of the sun- 
flower, on the cupules of acorns and thistles — by a well established 
mathematical necessity, consequent on the divergential law, cer- 
tain bands of parallel spiral files (coils), comprising all elements, 
become prominent, alternating right and left as ihty succeed in 
steepness, and, by the number of coils contained in each diff^'rent 
band, successively rendering the very numbers of the series in as- 
cending succession: the flattest slope being of a single coil; the 
second in steepness, of ^ pair of coils, and in the opposite sense; 
the third, of 3 ; the fourth, of 5 coils; the next of 8— each embra- 
cing all elements, and in the opposite sense against the adjacent 
ones in steepness. * 

As an example; in the cone of the Norway pine we meet a 
very prominent flight of 8 steep coils, ascending (i. e-, winding) 
against the sense of w^atch-handa. The next lower slope or banu 
of coils we find wnnding with the watch-hands, and it embraces 
5 files. Next lower, a band of 3 to the right; next, still flatter, a 
band of 2 to the left; and last and flattest, a single file, verging 
to the right — each flight embracing all scales. Ascending, w"e 
perceive two more systems of files — one of 13, coiling in the op- 
posite sense, and a perpendicular flight of 21 columns} from w^hich 
we conclude that there are 21 scales to the circle, or cycles of 21 
scales, and as many cycles on the cone as there are individual 
scales co':*ained in each perpendicular column. It is easily seen 
how the cyclar number can be computed as a serial member, by 
counting the files of one band or member, and the number of 
subsequent steepening slopes, including the perpendicular, whose 
number of files equals the number of (phyllodia^ scales or) leaves 
contained in each cycle. 

All this is well known to be the mathematical consequence of 
the numeral law of divergence, in which the phenomenon has 
been reduced to its simplest mathematical expression. 

In the f oEowing, it will be our endeavor to construe the active 



9 



-N- 



4^ 



52 



TBAl!sS. OP THE ACAD. OF SCIEXCE 



causes which produce that law, by referring it to strictly corres- 
ponding (and hence probably the contingent) organological con- 
ceptions gAerally. 



The JSTumeric ^ies. 



Even the law of divergence being expressed by the instrumen- 
tality oi serial mimhers, the series seems to be the first point re- 
quiring investigation and explanation. 

How is it actually organized? 

In attempting to suit the character of the series to some organo- 
logic (supposed organic) process, the idea of considering each 
subsequent member merely as the sum of the two preceding 



t — 

mate result. 



promising, because less m 
idea involving all ike prev 



issues 



'/ 



damental) 



on its own merits, ^eing a distinctive ( 



procre 



lis values of powers appears to be the property of physical, in 
en, or L.echanical nature, that hence bears no germ for change 



or utterance, within itself: 



J 



if 



other of -inerfta.^ (Compare *'Weisangea 
SchcEpfungsgeschichte. Wien, bei M. Auer," 1855, 



re » 



§§ 



cause 



1S6.) To explain the rbenoraena cf life, the especial character 
of Its powers must be held in view, as elsewhere. 

The gendlc consideration of the mathematical form affords a 

strict parallel to the actual " 

parturition. 

If one cell he supposed (as it k universally obserred in micro- 
scopic studies on organic development) to produce another one, 
and each commences and continues to reproduce, at corresponding 
terms of maiunfy, then, at each successive partnriHm, the succes- 
nve numbers of the series, and no others, are produced. 

Commence to figure the matter ab ovo. At first, each bud rep- 
resents nothing but a single cell elevated above the tissue. If this 
one produce No. 2, and also a third one while No. 2 is attaining 
prolific matwuy, we successively obtain 1. 2, 3, cells or foliar ru- 
diments. Why No. 3 should spring up befaie No. 2 is ready to 
generate IS plausibly ansu'ered by the supposition that the 3d one 

is owmg to he ;^mnt influence of the mature 1st ceU and the ma- 
turing 2d celL 

* S! w2* 1 u ^'^'^^^"i"g perfection, both No. 1 and 2 have 

" "^^ ^ 0- 1 earlier than No, 9. With the 



scion 



hare 

progeny 



Of the 3 latest ones attammg perfection, the 5 old ones add a rein 



I 



*- 



HILGARD — PHTLXOTAXIS 




forcement of 5 young ones, making 13 in all. We need not go 

any further. 

It is not so probable that each additional set should push at once, 
but rather that its elements should appear successively, namely, 



after 



observations (Sch 



■>: 



bud each rudimentary foliar cell springs from a previous one. 

Thp new germs are always produced next to the centre of the 
axis; by their growth and expansion the older parts remove to* 
wards the widening periphery, and younger ones are conliuually 
coming up in the centre, as from a fountain of life. 

Divergence. 

A young and tender part has always a smaller angular space 
allotted to it than more adult ones, but when itself arrived at a 
stage of perfection, the angles become apparently equally divided. 
Hence the point in question is not so much the degree of diver- 
gence, but the order of alternation, which ultimately produces cer- 
tain effects of angles. 

The next question is, how will the idea of genealogical origin 
of foliar elements — hence of their numbers— apply to the law of 
alternations! and what of organological import can be elicited 
from the apparent relations between the supposed process and the 

mathematical form ? 

Ifj in a divergential scheme of some high-numbered cycle, the 
leaves being designated by radii (see the diagrams) marked with. 
the contingent ordinals, all those belonging to the last accrument 
be struck out, the elements of the penultimate cyclar number, 
which remains on the field, /o/fow exactly the same order ofalier^ 
nation as when constructed according to their proper laxDy inde- 
pendently o£ that accrument which had rendered the cyclar som- 
ber the next higher. In other words, each accrument, in its turn, 
appears iniercnlate^ between the conslituiing rrmnhers of each pre^ 



Tiotts cycle. Tins mathematical fact exactly corresponds to the 




qjcles. To a certain degree, this is also established by observa- 
tion, the second foliar rudiment (cell) springing from the first, 
thus increasing a cycle of 1 into one of 2 elements. 

Each accrument, as a whole, being inscribed bdwem the previ- 
ous members, what relation do its elements severally, or in com- 
mon, hold to the prior ones? 

We find that the elements of the later issues (accrBme^ts) 
stand closely to the side of those prior elements from which our 
hypothesis supposes tkem to have sprung. 

^Moreover, all belonging to the same issue or generation 
diverge from the supposed parental set iu one and the ^tme 
sense* 



j-^ 



* 



54 TRAlsrS. OF THE ACAD. OF SCIENCE. 

Again, each subsequent set diverges in the opposite sense from 
its progenitorial one. 

Also, if the elements of the accruments be severally inscribed 
in the order of their ordinals, or as they succeed in age, each old- 
est one of the young set is apposed to the oldest of the parental 
set, the second to the second, third to third, and so on. Compare 
the relative^ position of the white five-rayed star (9, 12, 10, 13, 
11, in our diagram) to the dark five-rayed star (1, 4, 2, 5, 3), 
. and the central eight-rayed star to the figure circumscribed by the 
dotted lines. 

We find the former severally dislodged from their respective 
elders in the direction of the movement of watch-hands, the oldest 
of the young set next to the oldest of the parental set, as above ; 
the second to the second, and so on, correspondingly. 

The white eight-rayed star we find dislodged in the opposite 
sense, but invariably the eldest next to the eldest. 

This apposition loudly pleads in favor of the idea of parentage. 
To explain why generation should take place, ahernately, one sfde 
and the other, if once commenced laterally, it is plausible enough 
that, next m its turn, some generative power might preponderate 
on the other half, and it would only require a cause that the first 
pullulatjon should take place sideward. We know of no such 
cause beforehand, and it must stand as a hypothesis until proved 
or disproved. Next, a cause would be required that such laterally 
alternate action should always extend on all the members of an 
issue. We know of no such communicated necessity beforehand, 
and so this IS another hypothesis consequent on the idea of essenti- 
ally a bilateral alternation. Next, something would be required to- 
tndxviduahzeihB x^ilons -issues" from one another, and we know 
ot no such character to demarcate them within their final cycle; 
one member continuously succeeding the prior one in size, diver- 
gence, and the sense of divergence. We have no observations, be- 
torehand, to correspond to the postulates of lateralify, solidarity 
aa to the sense of <iivergence, and of diversify among the issues. 
mt ao we, beforehand, know of any supposed "spiral," "alter- 
nate or "whorled " agency ;— all which must remain hypothesis 
or mferontml, mstead of conclusive, ^^ explanation r until either 
pioven, disproved, or superseded. 

If once suggested to the mind, it is easily observed that the same 
M. of sequences, embodying the fact of bilateral ahernation, also 

«lu1". ^° V"'°^'''' '^^' = '^^^ ^a«^ new-comer stands in the 
!!^?L Sr' 1?^*.'^ P"''''^ ^""^ ^^' °^dtst of its immediate 

TSfr { ^ ^- ''^^^^"= ^^^^^«» 1 and 6, rather than between 
iSn ' ^^ J^^^^^^ ^^i«;!^° 2 and 7, 2 being next in turn to 
Foduce an offspring and No. 7 offering more maturity (and pro- 
tebly gene ic power) than 10, which stands at the .other side of 
r*o. 2; and so on, consistently. 

^^!!v"^^°°,^?^^^^® productive of the series) depending on 
mutanty, and the locations of the progeny being directly refera- 



HILGAED — I'HYLLOTAXIS 



55 



We to values of maturity, there can be little doubt that here, as 



or 



and /Ac orier ofdismsition is a function ofm^ 

We see the two ideas— that of proZi^caci/, expucuuvc ui luc sc- 
ries, and that of maturity, explicative of divergence— by their na- 
ture so intimately allied among themselves and pervadmg each 
other, and both so eminently incorporated with the laws of devel- 
opment, generally, that we can claim these as quite sufficient, and 



serial 



Phyllotaxis. 



Whorh 



No doubt, the most perfect of verticillate positions of foliar ele- 
ments is found in tubular flowers. Among Monocotyledons we 
have tubuliflorous forms, as Hemerocallis, Funkia, Amaryllis, 



) 



(th 



3X2. Still they are fused into one circle, demonstrating that 
such fusion can take place among element? of unequal height on 
the stem, or lather of unequal age and eccentricity within the 
hud. Of personate tubuliferous flowers, among Dicotyledons, we 
have spoken above, \vhere the succesnive development is visible 
in the "prefloration" or disposition of the separate' tips in the bud, 
while in the rotate ones they appear coordinate. All germs are 
originally produced on the same level, so to say, each part grow- 
ing unto itself a small share of stem. Microscopical investigation 
will hsve to show, whether the leaves of whorls, oWgina%, spring 
up* simultaneously, or successively- The latter is by far the most 
plausible, as it conveys a motive for the serial numbers enibodied 
in the whorls, which motive might otherwise be found missing. It 
would be easy to suppose, that only after a certain number of pul* 
lulations, the shooting of a stem was entered upon simultaneously^ 
by some cause yet to be ehcited; and, as a postulate, offering a 
clue to further laws of vegetable organization, iuasmuch as it pro- 



pounds 



ii 



question to Nature." 

Cycles. 



As to cycks, if, dependent on the first cell, subsequent pul- 
es place 4 times, successively, under the ioBuence of 
each §erm, a cycle of 8 leaves is produced. The 4th pullulation 
completes 8, in num"ber, and, by further production, the position of 



influential 



ton 



o 



place, but henceforth only a repetition. This would appear strange, 
if the idea of maturity did not answer for both cases, that of in- 
tercalation and i^petition ; in either case, that position is assumed 
which commands the greatest antiquity and space letU In fact, 
so soon as intercalation is rendered impossible by organic exigen* 
cies — of nutrition, space, etc. — the prolific germs might thrust their 



m 



^ 



56 TRANS. OV THE ACAD. OF SCIENCE. 



last progeny on their own bosom ! — which, probably, is the originaT 
process, and is realized by the '* opposite" disposition (applied 
face to face — see Bean, in the diagram) of the two solitary get" 
minal leaves (cotyledons) of Dicotyledonous vegetables. If not, 
fertility was derived from the first cell, and ceases simultaneously. 

Cyclar JVumbers. 

The lowest' occur only in the seeds, namely, 1, 2 & 3. When- 
ever a single leaf appears on the stalk, as in Pontederia and Par- 
nassia, they are not really sole, but there are other foliar organs, 
of a scaly nature, at the base of the stalky completing a higher 



cycle. 



( Cryptogamm) 



cell, that flies from the parent and grows by pullulation within it- 
self._ In the higher Cryptogamce—nameiy, in disporous ferns, as 
Salvinia — one kind of seminal cells acts the fecundating part on 
the other kind, being an adult mass — a cotyledon, as it were. 
Next in relationship follow, probably, Ducksmeat (Lemnacese), 
Balanaphoreae and Rafflesiacece, where the seed represents a sin- 
gle cotyledon or seminal mass, which, compared with the cotyle- 
dons of higher plants, may be claimed as a cycle of a single seed- 
leaf. Wherever there is a skin to a seed, it must be considered 
as a vaginating foliar organ (Oken), probably itself forming a 
complete cycle of one, and being circumambient, as the bottle- 



(leaves) 



(1) 



(1) 



irwt 



series 1, 2, etc. Here, the seminal lobe, in an excavation, affords 
» taper, litde preformed stem — otherwise interpreted as a *^ rajick 



( 



figu 



•with a whorl of rudimentary 
. -* .he embryo of Pinus Cembra, 
) — and making twice a cycle of 



1 leaf, OT one of 2, succeeded by a higher-numbered whorl. 

In the ruscous (asparaginous) tribe, adjoining these phyllodia- 
coned tnbes, the sedge-leaf type— generaity called MonocoiyU- 
<fo»s— commences introducing the aedgp-leafed and invaginaied 
"jrfmufe,*' as in the sarsapariUa, alog, lily, iris, ginijer, banana, 
orchid, and TUlandsia tribes, and in flowering and "glumaceous 
grasses; mTyphaces, aroids, pandans, palms, and the pepper 
tribe, we find a cylmdric homogeneous embryo imbedded in alba- 
men, and, m im latter tribe, already manifesting a dicoiyMonovs 
structure, or a cycle of two seminal leaves to the seed, which, in 
all the higher plants, include be.lween them the delicate and rudi- 
mentary preformation of the future plant. • 

In conclusion, we would lay before the botanical public an at- 
tempt to establish a natural series, by adhesion to the first princi- 
ple, VIZ., catholomorpLic affinity, or thorough resmiblance offimi 



\ 



niLQAED — ^PnYLLOTAXIS. 5T 



a question, to which, during a space of twelve years* we have de- 
voted a chief interest, and for the ultimate results of which, we 
owe much to the anticipating courtesy of European botanists to- 
wards the transatlantic student. Of this series we would give a 
detailed exposition in a later number. The series once establish- 
ed, it was required to find an expression for the rhythmic re-occur- 
rences of floral symmerism and eleuthcromcrism observable, and 
afco an interpretation (^or form) for the recurrences of typical 
features generally. 

In grouping our series into such natural divisions as all those, 
who follow^ed the idea of total consiUution^moxe or less succeeded 
in forming, we thought we saw strikingly realized the idea set 
forth by the late Oken, inasmuch as the five successive whorls of 
the flower — chalyce (chroa), corolla (glossis), androccium or pol- 
linaries (pneusis), gyn(rcium or seed-vessel (heuresis, acousis), 
and seed (focality, oculition) — seemed tobe,preponderatingly,the 
type of the five large subdivisions of Dicotyledonse here assumed. 
Also, the medullary Cytembryons seem to develop the phases of 
the seed— fovilla, nucleus, amnios, plumule, and germination; the 
fibrous Monocotyledons, the 6urf, by scales (pines), bulbs (lilies), 
haves (bananas), and stalks (reeds, palms), — seed, scion, and 
fiower ; in confirmation of a leading suggestion of his, which he 
rather failed in realizing; correct hypothesis^ or "truth-invention,** 

being stronger in him than his objective comprehensions, however 
extensive. 

Actuated by the idea that the recurrences, and almost coinci- 
dences, so frequently assumed for serial affinities, might be owing 
to a phylloiactic mode of development and interpolation^ we tested 
various suggestions offering to that end. Eadi of the three chief 
heads divided into five files, which, if phyllotactically formed into 
an astral "|*' configuration, each line — at or near its phases of 
igyntsm—4raversing other typical files, would not only seem, in 
e well-known ^^ peniagrdm^'* to supply a suitable figure for those 
irresistible affinities, but also a fixed motive for co-ordinate suhdi* 
visions and characters ofvegetafion (Humboldt) mutually reftil^ 
ed from ray to ray^ affording grounds for designation, likewise, 
and thus, perchance, bidding fair to serve withal as a** leading 
ster ' of the crescive kingdom. 

REGNI VEGETABILIS 

SE RIEI CATHOLOMORPH^ 




I 



PKOCKOMtrS. 

(* Affinltaa statuenda.) 



A.— CYTEMBRYONE^. 



L GYBOPHYTA *. CYTEMBRrO?rE.i:, GESfESIS 



Texiura medullari, 

1. PtrXGI. GRTTMOSiE, Sa^COWCM. 

Phvcomtcetxs: Fermenta,* Mucedines,* Favi,* ITredineSi* 



^- 



'^ 



^ 
n 



■# 



5B 



TRANS. OF THE ACAD. OF SCIENCE. 



Spumanese. Acromycetes : Lycoperdece, Phalless, Agarices, 
Morchellese, Tremelleae. Bryo(Spongio)-mycetes: Pezizeas, 
Ciavarieee, Actidiese. * 

%. Lichens. Sicc^. Endoplastic^. 

BRYo(SpoNGio-)t.JCHBNES : Graphi4insej Verrucaneee, Lecidi- 
nsB, Pertusaricse, Umbilicariese. Acrolichenes: Parmelinae, 
Peltigereoe. Pteroliche>-es : Usneinse, Cladoniese,* B^Eomy- 
cese,* Calyciese, Pulverarise (Chloro-Proto-coccus?) 

3. ALGiE. Fl-TTXILES. ExSUPATIV^. 

Ptero(Hypho-)phyce^: Chloroccese, Nostochinse, Hydrodic- 
tyonesB, Conferve:^, Diatomese. Acrophyceje: Vaucherice, Flo- 
rideiB, Fucc^. MvcETOPHYCEie: Ectocarpese, ColeochsetcEe, Ba- 

trachospermesB.* 

4. Musci. SpoNGiosiE. Emphysemi^. 

Mycexobrta*: Charace£e(?) Sphagnece, Acroerya: Bry- 
oideas, Jungerxnanniacece, LicirENOBRYAt Marchantiese.* 

5. FiLicES, Contexts. Fibrillins. 

LicHENOPTERiDEs: LycopodiacesB, OphioglosseEDj SchizieaceJe, 
OsmundejB, Hymenophylltae, Acroptirides: Onoclese, Pteroi- 
deae, Cyatheacese, Gleicheniaceae, Marattiaceae. Phycopteri- 

sporis ditUnib'US : Marsileacese, Salviniacese, Isoeteie * 



DES : 



(CharacetE?) (Calamiles?) 8poris hermaphrodUis: Equisetace?e 



# 



B 



PHYLLEMBRYONEiE. 



:dosii^ 




1*^-^*-^ 



~^to^' 



Textura linha^ 

1. CONIFERiE S, PetTCIA. 



Rafflesiaceae.* 
deas J CupressinjE, Xbietinse. Taxinee.* Ca- 



Phycopeucia:* Lemnaceae* BalanophoretB * 
Acropeucia: Cvc; "■ -^ -^ 



I^AHOPEUCIA 



:8e* (Chloranthaceae?) 

2. luLOCAULEJE S^ IXTLI. 



Calimiuli * epigyn: Dioscorese, Taccacea^. Acriui.i, hy^^O' 
m: Soxlowghia^ce^,*Paride^*j9€ri^yii: Asparagese, Conval- 



) 



eratrum 



cseneas 



# 



3. BtTLBirE 



.# 



i6£e, Aera 



CoRYPnOLXRIA: 

(Lach 
Erjlhronium) Lilie© (Lifium, ept'gyn:^ Alstroemeria) Ama 
fyllideae, Irideae, Burmanniacea- * Apostasies, Orchidese,* Zing' 
beraceiB, Cannace^B, MusacejE* Pjeucoliria: BroxBeliacu^ 
Hypoxidea^, ptrigyn. , Hs&modoraceiE.* 



# 



.* 



<■ 



> 



HILGARD — PHYLLOTAXIS. 



59 



4. Gramina $, Calami. 



Pexjcocai-ami, hypogyn : * Astelieae ♦ Junceae, Restiacece,* 
(Apyllantheae ?) (Eriocaulese ?) Commelynacea^ * Xyrideae,* 
PhilydresB.* Acrocalami:* Centrolepideae, Graminece, Cype- 
racese,* Iulocalami: Typhacese, Acorideoe. 

5. PaLM^ *. CORTPHTA. 

Jueocoryphia: Aroideae, Pandanea?. Acrocoryphia: Pa!- 
msB, LiRiocoRYPHiA : * Piperitie,* Saururus,* Podostemete, 
Najadese, Alismaceae,Butomacea?, epigyn,, Hydrocharidea;* (con- 
jiwctio cum Nympheaceis Balanophoreisque). 

in. PLECTOPHYTA «. DICOXYLEDOXE^ ASTHESIS. 

Texiura reticularu 

1, Chhoanthje *. Charites. 

P^oo-CHARiTES s. Calyc A:iTui^ epi'peri'kypogyn: Nympha- 

caceEe, Nelumbiacese,Cabombeae,*Myristicacea?, Anonace2e,-Mag- 
nolicea, Illicieae, j:>engyn-,* Calycanlhe^, epigyn.,* Eupomaiiese,* 
Serpentarice* (conjunctio curu Passifloreis apetalis), Illigera, 
Gyrocarpus. Acrochahitjes s. Cissi, perigyn: MonimiaceaB, 
^yp<>gy^'^ Laurinae,* Menispermum * Schizandraceie, Berberi- 
deae, Ranunculacece (Helleborus),* Sarracenieae,* Nepenthes,* 
(Dionaea) Droseracece.* Parnassia,* Resedeae, Oxalidere,* Vio- 
lace^,* Cisseae, epigyn.^ Araliacese, Umbellifera? (Scandix, pf^rt- 
gyn., Erodium) Geraniaceae, Tropseolacecne* (conjunctio cum Me- 
liantho et ^sculo). Ambro-charites s, Siliquos^, hypogyn: 
Bilsamineae * Fumariaceee, Papaveraceae, Cruciferse, Cappari- 
de^,* epigyn.j (Bartonia) Loasacea?.* 

S. GLOSSAXTHiE S, MtRSIX^. 

AMBRo^rTRSI^-J3 s. GEKiciTi.ATiE,* hypogyu., Hypericince,* 
Lineas * Armeria, Statice * Nyctagineee,* Frankeniacese,* Scle- 
rantheae, Diantheas, Aisineae (Polycarpon), M llugine^e,* Elaiine, 
Portulaccace^, cpfg-yn., Cacteae (conjunctio cum E:.phoibiaceis), 
AcROMYYHSi:*-^ s. ComjriciTi.AT-E,iVIesembryanthemum,j)€rrg-^}K, 
Crassulacese, Aj/pogyn.5CunomaceiB,* Dilleniace^,^ perigyn., Es- 
callonieae, Saxifrageae, epigyn.j Ribesiace®* (conjunctio cum 
Gyninocladio), Rhodomybsi^-x 5. MrRxiFLORiE, Onagrariae, 
Melastomese, perigyn,, Cupheacea?, LagerslrcEmiete * ^igyn*, 
Puniceae, Myrtaceae, Rhizophoreae,* Trapa * Combretacege, Phi- 
ladelpheae (Beutzia).* 



3. Rhiitanthje *. PsoiE. 

RaoDOPiroiE, Ro^dlafa:,^ (Halesia) Styra 



« 




(Fabiana) 



Rhododendreoe ( 



(Ep 



VacciniesD, 
impressa, 



# 



Ebenaceas, Sanota- 



ceae, Myrsineae, Primulaceee (incL Lentibufatiag), Solaneae (Da 
tiira * Josephinia) Personat<2, Pedalinae, Bi 



# 




# 



■€> 



%■ 



t 



T 

^ 



60 TEANS. OF THE ACAD, OF SCIENCE, 



nieae,* 



) 



thacese (Russeggera* Cytinus) Orobancheae, Rhinanthaceae 
^. (Tozzia*Mimulus) Gratiolese (Capraria,* AnticharisyAnlirrhi- 
neee* (ColUnsia), Chelonese (Digitalis), Verbasceae (Alonsoa), 
Scrophulariess, Veronicese,^ Salpiglosseoe (Duboisia),* Myopo- 
rince, Stilbinse, Globularieae, SelagirKe (Hebenstreitia),* Planta- 
gineee, (Verbena stricta) Verbenaceae, Labiatse ( Dracocepha- 
Ion,* Echium) Salpinges, Borraginea^ (Heliotropium,* Phacelia) 
Hydrophyllese, HydroIeaceae,Polemoniaceae (Phlox),* Plumbago, 
(Eulhales) Goodeniaceae,* Cobaeaceee,* Petunieae (Nierember- 
gia,*^ Gilia) Gilieae, (Ipotnopsis) Convolvulaceae, Cuscutes,* 
Erycibe,* Diapensiacea^,* Lampades: Asclepiadete, Apocynaceaes 
(Nerium* Gentiana) Gentiane®, (Chlora* Nyctanthes), Jasmi- 
neae, Bolivareae, Strychoeae, Olivares: Loganieae,* Ligustringe,* 
epig,, Nyssa,* Corneae,* Rubieae, Cinchoneae,* Hydrangea,* Sam- 
buce^ * Valeriaiieae (conjunctio cum Spiraea,) AcBOPNO-as, ^yj?o- 
gynj Dipsaceae, epigyn : Calycerese, Ambrosiaceae, SynantUrtiz, 



(Tripteris), Calenduleae (Cryptostemma,* Lasiospermura) 



(Homogyne) 



) Evacege,* chceiopapperf 



necionea^ (Arnica), Inulese (Pulicaria), Baccharidea>, Asterese, 
Eupatoriaceae (Epaltes), Vernoniaceae, Cynarese, Mutisiaces, 
CichoracejE*(Cichorium),(Elpphantopese),*Lobeliacece,Campa- 

nulacece* (Stylidese),* ColumellfaceEe,* NhandirobecE, Cucurbita- 
ceae. Papayaceas, GronovieGe, Passiflorece apetala; epigyn?e (con- 
junctio cum Aristolochia). Chakitop.'to^ «. Sip^: Passiflore^e, 
P^rigynt^, Homaliuese, Samydeae^TurnerarprR. Ai/^nnir/m. » Cislin®, 

Tiliaces, ByttneriacefB, Sterculiacese, . ._..^, --^- 

ceffi* Gyrostemone^,*Ch]aenace2B, Ternstroemiacese, Dipterocar 
pea- * perigyn,, Rhizoboie^.* 

4. OTANTHiE *. AmBBJE. 

Chakitambe^ 5. Aceha:* Meliantheae, Jlsculinfe, Sapinda- 




ceve, 



apnyieacejB, Malpjghiacea?, Acerincp (Neg 
Fraxinege,* Celtis. TTImns* Pt*.!*.-! # YnntH, 



do, hyfo- 




(conjunctio cum Astrantia Xanthioque ). Acramb^: Beju- 

Huraulmas* Tkelygonum* Halorao-e;?* Casuarime, 



liua; 



nesB (Emex* Spinacia), Chenopode^ (Camphorosma), Awa 



.* 



rantace£E * Reaurauriacete, Tamariscinje* Populinje, Datisca 
™^»^*' «P%y"' . Artocarpes, Moretc, kypogyn., Urticeffi, 1 
cin«, Euphorbiacepe (conjunctio cum Cacto). MyhsisambbJ- 
Buxe,e* Empetreee* (Nitrarfe, Putranjive*,) Aqulfoliace*, 
HippocTateceie, Pittospore®, perigyn.* Hamamelide^E * Cetes* 
irmae, Rhamnea: (Hiyiica), Eleagnea;, Baphnoidese, Proteace^e, 
^pjn., Santalacere, *Garr5'acefie * Bruniace® * Alaugle^e.^ 



♦ 



Tri(nMu\AiiuL »^ci. St.LouU. Vol. T. 



Elak J. 



s 



A-. 






\ 



71 




CytcnihryO'Or -^pon -Q^ of CrvptotjumtJ€ 



^SP er ma U 



%. 



n yflemhryv 

or fhrialc 



-^ijir ofSalvinia 





(htvleden and plumula 

at 




JHnas Qmbra^ 



Zea Mais 



CvtemJlfryo - 



f^P or poUiii - 



Grain cf ■^onchns palustris (Hica^Udcnear/ 



'9hMle of a hect from a nat 

^'i^ Difpo.sition. 



nnprofst/m. 



Gamifuitintf h<ra/i. 



^2/ Diypo-^hfTj . 




1o^ 



/ 



/' 




WV- 



\ 




\ 




• 



GYRUS 



EVOLUTIVUS. 



^^^^.^— 'V?* J^ rj^^. 



'r 



■i^.: 



» 



KOCH— MASTODON REMAINS. 61 



Am 



Myhsikorhoda : * Vochysiacese,* Polygaleoe,* Simarubese, 
Ochnaceai,* Connaraceae, C^salpiniese (conjunctio Gymnocladii 
cumRibe). Acrorhoda: Sophorea, Mimosa (reflectiocum Me- 
trosidero). Pmoobhoda: Leguminoste (conjunctio Txifolii cum 
Scabiosa) Chrysobalanese, Amygdaliferse (Prunus,'* Spiraea) Ro- 



sese, Pomese- 



Amicissimis viennensibus amicis inscripsit 



AlTCTOR, 



V. Mastodon Remains yin the State of Missouri, together 
with Evidences of the existence of Man contemparane- 
ously with the Mastodon. Bj Dr. Aleert 0- Koch. 

It will perhaps be recollected that, some twenty years ago, I 
commenced making somewhat extensive researches and excava- 
tions for Mastodon remains, in the State of Missouri, and con- 
tinued them until, at one time, I was in possession of more than 
six hundred teeth of Mastodons of different j _ 
seventy-three inferior maxillas, and nearly as large a number of 
superior maxillas, with portions, greater or less, of the skull at- 
tached to them; five skulls; a large collection of tusks of all sizes; 
numerous bones of the extremities and other parts of the body, 
and the nearly complete skeleton, described by me under the name 
of the *'JWi'55owrttiw," being the same which is now in the British 
Museum. This collection contained parts of animals of various 
ages, from the yoyng suckling to the oldest patriarchy \||hose last 
molars were worn down to a level with the gums. By means^ of 
this collection, (what had been my principal design in making it), 
Palaeontologists- were enabled to throw much light on the dental 
system of this rem.arkable genus, then very superficially known. 
When, however. I brouiiht this collection befor 



af 



with the instructive collection of Zeus;loflon 



which I had discovered and exhumed in the State of Alabama; 
and for this reason I was compelled to take them to Europe, 
where, their scientific value being more fully acknowledged, they 
WjBre purchased and placed in the British Museum, and in the 
Royal Museum of Berlin. The general interest taken in these 
remains, yi Europe, induced me, in addition to a paper which I 
read before the Geological Society of London, to publish a small 
work in the German language, at Berlin, in 1845,* in which is 
given a minute description of all these remains of Mastodon, to- 
gether with the most important facts connected with their discov* 



ery 



appeared 



pb^ 



* Dii Rifigenthiere der Urweit, von Dr. Albert Koch. Berfm, Tcilag vob Alex 
suider Dunteerj 1845. 



62 TRANS. OF THE ACAD. OF SCIENCE. 

lish language, and is, perhaps, little known in America, I hope it 
will not be altogether unwelcome, if I lay before the Academy a 
repetition of some of the facts which were stated in that work, 
and which furnish some very striking evidences of the existence 
of Man, on this continent, in the age of the living Mastodon. I 
do this the more readily, for the reason that some account of this 
discovery was pubHshed, anonymously, at the time, in the Phila- 
delphia "Presbyterian" newspaper, from which it was copied into 
the Amer. Jour, of Science (vol. xxxvi. p. 199), with some ex- 
pressions of regret by the editor, that facts, so highly interesting 
and important, should be left to rest on anonymous authority 
merely. 

I will state then, that, in the year 1S39, 1 discovered and dis- 
interred, in Gasconade county, Missouri, (Lat. 38" 20' N.) at a 
spot, in the bottom of the Bourbeuse River, where there was a 
spring, distant about four hundred yards from the bank of the 
river, the remains of one of the above-named animals. The bones 
were sufficiently well preserved to enable me to decide, positively, 
that they belonged to Mastodon giganieus. Some remarkable 
circumstances were connected with this discovery. The greater 
portion of these bones had been more or less burned by fire. The 
fire had extended but a few feet heyond the space occupied by 
the animal before its destruction; and there was more than suffi- 
cient evidence on the spot, that the fire had not been an acciden- 
tal one, hut, on the contrary, that it had been kindled by human 
agency, and, according to all appearance, with the design of kill- 
ing the huge creature, which had been found mired in the mud 
and in an entirely helpless condition. This was sufficiently pro- 
ven by ffle situation in which I found as welf those parts of the 
bones which had been untouched hy tiie fire, as those which were 
more or less injured by it, or in part consumed ; for I found the 
fore and hind legs of the animal in a perpendicular position, in 
the clay, with the toes attached to the feet, in just the same man- 
ner in ivhich they were, at the moment when life departed from 
the body. I took particular care, in uncovering these bones, to 
ascertain their position, beyond any doubt, before I removed any 
pan of them j and it appeared, during the whole excavation, f uHy 
evident, that, at the time when the animal In question found iis 
untimely end, the ground, in which it had been mired, must have 
been m a plastic condition, being now a greyish colored clay. AU 
the bones which had not been burnt by the fire had kept their 
ongmaj position, standing upright and apparently qfiite undis- 
turbed in the clay ; whereas those portions, which had been ex- 
posed above the surface, had been partially consumed by the fire; 
and the surface of the clay was covered, as far as the fire had ex- 
teudedj by a layer of wood ashes, mingled with larger, or smaller, 
pieces of charred wood and burnt bones, together with bones, 
belonging to the spine, ribs, and other parts of the body, which 
had been more or less injured by the fire. The fire appeared ta 



KOCH — ^MASTODON KEMAIN'S. 63 



% 



have Leen most destructive around the head of the animal. Some 
small remains of the head were left unconsumed, but enough to 
show that they belonged to the Mastodon. There were, also, 
found mingled with these ashes and bones, and partly protruding 
out of them, a large number of broken pieces of rock, which had 
evidently been carried thither from the shore of the Bourbeuse 
liver, to be hurled at the animal by his destroyers; for the above- 
mentioned layer of clay was entirely void of even the smallest 
H pebbles: whereas, on going to the river, I found the stratum of 

clay cropping out at the bank, and resting on a layer of shelving 
* rocks of the same kind as the fragments; from which place, it 
was evident they had been carritd to the scene of action- The 
layer of ashes, etc., varied, in thickness, from two to six inches; 
from which it may be inferred that the fire had been kept up for 
some length of time. It seemed that the burning of the victim, 
and the hurling of rocks at it, had not satisfied its destroyers; fojr 
I found J also, among the ashes, bones, and rocks, several arrow- 
heads, a stone spear-head, and some stone axes, which were ta- 
ken out in the presence of a number of witnesses, consisting of 
the people of the neighborhood, attracted by the novelty of the 
excav^ation. This layer of ashes, etc., was covered by strata of 
alluvial deposits, consisting of clay, sand, and soil, from eight to 
nine feet thick, forming the bottom of the Bourbeuse, in general; 
and on the surface, near the centre of the spot on which ihe ani- 
mal had perished, was situated the spring, the water of which was 
used for domestic purposes; and it was in digging to clear out 
' the spring, that the existence of bones there had been first dis- 
covered by the owner of the land. 

It was about one year after this excavation, that I found, at 
another place, in Benton county, Missouri, in the *'botlom" of the 
Pomme de Terre river, about ten miles above its junction with the 
Osage, several stone arrow-heads mingled with the bones of 
the same nearly entire skeleton mentioned above as the *' Jllis' 
SQurixim'y This discoVery is already so well known, that I will 
merely mention the circumstance, in this connection, that the two 
arrow-heads found with the bones were in such a position as to 
furnish evidence still more conclusive, perhaps, than in the other 
case, of their being of equal, if not older date, than the bones 
themselves; for, besides that th*^y were found in a layer of vege- 
table mould w^hich was covered by twenty feet in thickness of al- 
ternate layers of sand, clay, and gravel, one of the arrow-heads 
lay underneath the thigh-bone of the skeleton, the bone actually- 
resting in contact upon it; so that it could not have been brought 
thither after the deposit of the bone; a fact -v^ich I was careiui 
thoroughly to investigate. 

This layer of vegetable mould was some five or six feet thick, 
and the arrow-heads and bones were found, not upon its surface, 
but deeply buried in it, together with fragments of wood and roots, 
and logs and cones of cypress j but no pebbles were observed in it. 



f 



•^j- 



64 TRANS. OF THE ACAD. OF SCIENCE, 

Alove this layer of mould there were six distinct undisturbed lay- 
ers of clay, sand, and gravel, viz., three of greyish clay, and three 
of pebbly gravel mixed with coarse sand ; in all, twenty feet in 
thickness; and a forest of old trees was standing on the surface 
soil. This bottom is still subject to occasional overflow, in very 

high stages of water. 

If we consider the manner in which these river bottoms have 
been formed, as it has been admirably illustrated by Prof. Swal- 
low, (Rep. of GeoL Sur. Missouri,) the layers of vegetable mould 
appearing to have been formed at the bottom of lakes, or in 
swampy depressions, left filled with water on the retiring of the . 
greater overflows, or on a change of the bed of the river, at dis- 
tant periods of time, and that, in these lakes and depressions, a 
^ deposit, at first, of clayey sediment, and then, of decaying vege- 
table matters, gradually accumulates to a considerable depth, be- 
fore another overflow covers the whole, again, with a layer of 
[ and gravel, it would seena necessarily to be inferred, that 
this animal must have perished in such a lake, or swamp, and that 
his skeleton, being thus quietly deposited, was slowly covered over 
in course of the gradual fcrmation of the vegetable layer; ana 
that it could not have been drifted by the high waters of the river 
from another and older position to be re-depo?ited upon the arrow- 
head at a period later than that in which the Mastodon lived. 



san 



YI. JK'olice of a Burnt Brick from the Ruins ofMne- 

vek. By Prof. G. Seitpakth. {Plate IV.) 



property 



cidling 



greatest literary curiosity of this city, and probably the only spe- 
cimen in the United States. The brick is nearly 20 inches by 20, 
and 4 inches thick ; and it contains a cuneiform inscription of 



seven lines. What may be the contents of this inscription, and 
to what epocli does it -belong ? Let us see. 

There are four kinds of cuneiform inscriptions: the so called 
Persian, the Median, the Assyrian, and the Babylonian. The 




This cuneiform character was lakenfa long time since, for tu^ 
primitive writing, prior to the Phoenician, Hebrew, Greek, and 
other alphabets. In 1820, however, I demonstrated, that tho^ 
euneiform letters of the Persians, Medes, Assyrians, and proba- 
bly that of the Babylonians also, had the Hebrew, or rather Noa- 



• 



• 



Uwrntr. Mxid. -fti'. St. loais. JpI. L 



Burnt briclv frtmiTftiieveli,at St Louis 



Hatr 



9 



'4 




jj — 



->^- 



SEYTFARTH — BURNT BRICK FROM NIXEVEH. 



65 



J. 



xihian, alphabet lor their basis.* For, all those groups of weclges 
originate from combinations of different wedges; and by bring- 
ing them, particularly the 36 Persian groups, into a row or file, 
according to the Jaw of combination, it appears that these letters 
then follow, the one after the other, like the letters of our alpha- 
bet: a, ft, c, and so on. Thus, the 36 cuneiform groups of the 
Persians correspond with the 36 letters of the modern Persians. 
Those 200 groups of the Median sjstem express the same 36 let- 
ters, pronounced with diffei'ent vowels, as Westergoord confirmed, 
four years after the publication of my *'Alphabeia Genuina."f 
The Assyrian groups, oE which 400 are already known, signify, 
partly, those 36 single letters; partly, the same combined with 
Tow^els, and, partly, the same joined to different consonants; as it 
was first shown in my *• Alphabeta Genuina," and confirmed, 
some years ago, by Rawlinson. My Cuneiform Alphabet of the 
Assyrians, published sixteen years ago, is r.ot at all complete ; and 
my Cuneiform Dictionary, as everybody will find in my book (p. 
124 — 138), is a very poor one. Notwithstanding, it has been 
considered as the first key to this immense new literature. Raw- 
linson, in the midst of Assyrian antiquities, has adopted, enlarged, 
and, without doubt, corrected it; his book, however, with his Al- 
phabet, Dictionary, and numerous translations of entire inscrip- 
tions, I have not yet been able to examine. Nevertheless, I aiu 
happy to be able to give some information concerning the Assy- 
rian inscription upon this brick, which, after many hundred years, 
has made its way from old Nineveh to St. Louis, through ihe in- 
strumentality of Mr. Marsh, an American Missionary, at Mosul. 
The cuneiform groups of the brick read as follows: 

I: HauTO — Muzdasa 

II: pabou paopala 
III: hosdhoij) pamalho 
IV: pahou paopala 

V: hoTuz paopala dak 

VI: Koshaulsa khuna kha 
VII: Bhatkahosh. 

That is: ^^ Xerxes, ihe son of Darius (namely, Hystaspes,t)18 R 
C. ), the Lord of Ihe earih^ the master of the earthy has given (the 
building in question) to Honnvzd (the Persian name of God), 
to the Lord of the earthy to the king (?) of the people J'' 

This brick, then, is now 2300 years old; it was burnt in the 



* Alphabeta gennina ^Tl^jp'ioTum, nee non A^ianonim, lireris Perparam^ Mtdo" 
ram, Asyrioruinqui cunciformibu?:, Z-'ncJui-*, Pehivicia tt S'^rscrin'ci* fuijetta. 
Acecdic dissertatio de menj^urls in S. S. memoratis, per im^Tquas cl^as JEjrp^inoaM 
Taonfiensem, Parlalnam, Lugdunensem illustratis: cum Yl Taburs alphabeticis* 
Lipske, 1340. 

■j- Ca the deciphering of the seooBd Achaemerian, er SMiau species of Arrow- 
heaited Writiag. ike Memoires de la Sociote des Antiquairet du Nord. Copenhag, 
1844. 

5 



m 



66 TRAS:S. OF THE ACAD* OF SCIENCE. 



time of Xerxes (d. 463 B. C*) ; and thus it is demonstrated, that 
the ruins of Nineveh, where the brick was dug up, or at least 
some parts of those ruins, are indeed 160 yeais posterior to the 
year 626 B, C, to which Layard has referred them. This fact 
was first proved by an I^yptian inscription, containing the name 
of Pharaoh Hophra (586 B.C.), now in the British Museum, 
which was found among Assyrian antiquities taken from the ruins 
of the palaces of Nineveh. After the destruction of Jerusalem 
(5^ B. C), Nebuchadnezzar overcame Hophra j and so, he 
brought those Egyptian antiquities to his palaces at NineveL 
This subject has been explained more extensively in the German 
translation of Layard's Nineveh, Leip. 18554 

My deciphering of this cuneiform inscription, I confess, con- 
tains some doubtful letters; but the proper names, and many other 
words, are certain, as similar inscriptions prove. Nobody can 
give more than he has to give. The Assyrian names of Ormuzd, 
Xerxes, Darius, differ somewhat from their Greek pronuncia- 
tion; but they are, in other inscrlptiont* of the Parsees, MedeSy 
and Assyrians, written and pronounced in like manner. From 
the Bible, it is already known, that the Orientals pronounced M- 
riavesh instead of Darius, The second letter of the third line is 
probably incomplete, and, therefore, the woid is doubtfuL 



« 



VH. Indian Stone Graves in Illinois. 

w 

By A. WiSLizENUs, M.D. 

In the neighborhood of Prairie da Rocher, Randolph cenntf, 
Ills., three miles east of the Mississippi and of the ok! Fort Char- 
ires, there are found many dd burying-grounda, belonging un- 
doubtedly to past Indian generations. Many of the graves have 



pened.and the 



When 



throwiMT any light upon 



I 



1843, to spend some time in that vicinity. I took occasion 



the 



spot, and to collect the most valuable objects as. far as their state 
of preservatron pemutted. The resuh of my researches I lay, at 
present, belore you. Tho»gh I opened a great number of graves, 
1 will mention only those which preaented some peculiarity either 
m their construction or contents. 

The first place, where I commenced my reaearches, was about 
haxf a mile north of Prairie do Rocher, on a small knoll in tte 




JwtracuSf ^^"^^ Aati^aJtied m to* Eamg ol HiwoBd, iBid th« j w cl Mnefeh'i 



I 



* 



f 



WISLIZEXrS — INDIAN QBAVES. 67 

woods. The ground was covered with many flat graves, recogni- 
zable generally by the prominency of one or more vertical stones 
forming the walls of the grave. All the graves were close to- 
gether- The first one I opened, 

Grave Jfo. 1, had its direction from east to west, and measured 
about 5 feet in length, from 1 to 1| feet in width, and about 15 
inches in depth. This space was enclosed with flat limestones, 
such as the neigboring bluffs and country around afford. The 
stones were of various sizes, and were joined together without 
mortar. The bottom of the grave was formed by a horizontal 
layer of these stones; a like one is generally on the top of the 
grave ; but the top one was here wanting,— a proof that the grave 
had been disturbed. In removing the loose earth, which filled the 
entire grave» we found, at a depth of half a foot, some fragments 
of human bones ; amongst others, a piece of a lower jaw ^ belong- 
ing to a child about six years of age. The skull bones with some 
fragments of pottery were lying northwards, the rest of the bones 
towards the west. 

The second grave which I opened there, a few steps only from 
the first, 

Grave JS^'o. 2, was constructed in the same way, but measured 
only 2S inches in length, 12 to 14 inches in width, and about 1 foot 
in depth. This grave, also, seemed to have been disturbed. I 
found in it only fragmentary bones of the extremities and a piece 
of the skull, all belonging to a very young child. 

The next burying-ground I explored was a cave in the bluffs, 
about two miles north of Prairie du Rocher. No regular graves 
existed here, but in the loose ground many human bones of large 
^ize were promiscuously thrown together: some pieces of flint 
were found with them. As I could not discover any skulls, and 
as the place was very narrow and dark, I left it for another bury- 
ing-ground on the bluffs, where, on a small natural eminence, 
regular stone-built graves were again found. I opened the fol- 
lowing graves: 

Grave w\o, 3.— Direction from S.E. to N.W. ; length, 7 feet;: 
width towards the N.W.. where the skull was, IS inches— towards 
the S.E., where the feet lay, 19 inches. In digging half a foufc 
through the sandy srround, we came to the horizontal top-layer of 
flat stones, and, below this, to a very complete and well preserved 
skeleton of an old'man. After having cautiously removed the 
sandy earth, which filled the interior of the grave, we saw the en- 
tire skeleton fully extended before os, lying on its back, the arms- 
stretched along the body, the face turned towards the west. Afl 
Ae bones were so well preserved, that I took the whole ski?lHom 
with me. When carefully dug up, the fragile bones soon dried 
in the air, and allowed transportation. On the left side of the- 
skull, which was remarkable for its gwat frontal-occipital lengtl^ 
we found a large marine sheH {Pyrula); on the right, two point- 



« 



'<• 



* 



68 TRA^^S. OF THE ACAD. OP SCIENCE. 

ed instruments prepared from birds' wings, and used probably as 



awls. 



JVb5 



were quite similarly constructed, though not quite so long', and 
the bones in them were not quite so well preserved. I took two 
fragmentary skulls from them, but neither ornaments, instru- 
ments, nor weapons. 

The fourth burying-place I explored was about three miles 
north of Prairie du Rocher, on a slight elevation, belonging to 
the farm of Mr, Fisher. As the land is in cultivation, most of the 
graves have been destroyed. Their construction was the usual 
one. In one of them, which I opened here. 

Grave Xo. 7, the direction was from N.W. to S.E., the head 
lying N.W., the feet S.E. The length of this grave was 6 feet 
8 inches; the width at the foot, U inches; at the head, 11 inches; 
the depth, 19 inches. After having removed the horizontal top- 
layer, we found the skeleton stretched out as usual, and lying oa ' 
itsback. Between the feet we found an instrument, formed of 
animal bone, which might have been used for digging or scra- 
ping. The human bones were tuo brittle to be removed, with the 
exception of the lower jaw, that contained nearly all the teeth, and 
belonged to a full grown person. 

^From hence I went east to a neighboring hill, where I opened 
me foUowine- ^ravps • 



w 



Grave JYo. 8. 



W., the head towards the 
skuM in it very well pre- 

belonffincr to an acrtnl nerson. On 



the right of the skull an earthen vessel was found ; on the left, 
two river shells ( Unio ellipsis and angulatus\ which are found 
m the Kaskaskia, the Ohio, and other tributaries of the Missis- 
sippi, and a very small marine shell (Margindla). A similar 
earthen vessel, with the figure of an animal bead upon it, I bought 



hbori 



graves, lliese vessels are made of clay mixed with broken shells, 
and are skilfully worked. Besides the vessel and the shells, we 
toand in this grave some sharp pieces of flint, and an instrument 
kke a knitting-needle, made of animal bone. 

Graves JSTos. 9 and 10 exhibited quite a different constructioa 
from any of the others. The stones of these graves formed a 
circle ** leet in diameter, with horizontal top and bottom layer, 
as u::ual. bkulls, and other bones of several persona, were quite 
promiscuously thrown together, but aU so decayed that I could 



save nothing. 



weapons 



A man, who dug for me, and who had opened many hundred 

graves, told me that he met here for the first time with this con- 

struction. 

Grave Jfo 11 had, again, the common lenmhy form. The di- 
xection was from N. to S., the skull towards the S., and tolerably 
weU preserved. Aiound the neck we found 24 beads, which had 



?\ 



^ 



k 



■VTISLIZENTS — INDIAN GRATES. 69 

formed a necklace- They were made from the joints of Unio 

ug together by 



were 



sinews, fragments of which I found still in them. 

After having gone through these specialities, allow me now to 
give a short resume of my observations, to draw some general 
conclusions from them, and to venture an opinion respecting the 

origin of these graves. 

1. The general construction of these graves is coffin-like, their 
side walls, top, and bottom, being formed by flat limestones, joined 
together without cement. The size of the graves was adapted to 



that of the persons to be buried in them. We 

fore, in length, from U to 7 feet; in width, from 1 to H feet; 

and, ill depth, from 1 to Ih feet. The top-layer of stones is sel-' 



dom deeper than half a foot below 



2. The graves are always close together, but there is no appa- 
rent order in their position and direction. I counted from 20 to 
100 graves in different burying-grounds. 



m separate ground. 

4. All the burying-places are situated on some elevation, slight 
as it may be. The bluffs, forming there a continuous chain of 
little cones, were, therefore, preferred for that purpose. 

5. In the graves, that have been the least disturbed, the skele- 
ton is found stretched out at its natural length, and lying on the 
back. Being aware of the customary sitting posture in Indian 
gra\^es, I was anxious to ascertain this point; but, having found 
the bodies constantly in the same position, I entertain no doubt of 
the correctness of my present statement. The ornaments and in- 
struments are generally found on both sides of the head; some- 
times in the hands, or between the feet. 

6. The only weapons found in these graves are pointed flints, 
tomahawks of stone, instruments made of animal bones, etc. ; but 
never yet have metallic weapons, or instruments, been discovered 

in them. , 

7. The pottery, found in them, shows more expertness in that 

art than the present Indians possess. 

8. The marine shells, found in some of the graves, prove di- 
rect, or indirect, connection with the sea-coast. 

9. Of skulls, which I considered the most valuable part of my 
discoveries, I got but four well preserved ones, which I prwented 
to the late Dr. Morton, of Philadelphia, for his craniologlcal 
cabinet* All of them bear the unmistakable signs of the American 
race, to- wit: the broad massive lower jaw% high cheek-bones, s«* 
lient nose, full superciliary ridge, low* forehead, prominent vertex, 

and flattened occiput, 

- 10. The American race has been divided into two great fami- 
lies, the ToUecan family, and the jlvterican family proper. The 
Bkulls of the Toltecaa family are characterized by greater ^ound- 
ness and sraallaess, by a decided truncation of the occiput, and by 
aa annarent irres'ularitv in both sides of the skuU. This irregu^ 



^v 



TO TRAJTSAC. OF THE ACAD. OF SCIENCE. 



lanty consists, chiefly, in the greater projection of the occiput to 
one side than the other, showing sometimes a surprising deoree 
of deformity. The skulls of the American family, on th*e contra- 
ry, are more elongated; there is little expansion at tlie sides, bat 
a characteristic narrowness, and elongation, from the face to the 
occiput, inclusive ; they possess more symmetry, besides, than is 
usual in the skulls of the other family. 

Now, two of the skulls, which I recovered from these graves, 
belong, undoubtedly, to the American family, and the rest to the 
Toltecan family. The elongated (American) skulls were found 
m a burying-ground on the bluffs, in graves Nos. 3 and 5, amidst 
the others, and in the same kind of graves. It seems, therefore, 
that persons of both families of the American race have lived, 
and were buried here, together. In the same way we find, in 
Mexico and South America, skulls of the ancient and 
ruvians lying together. 

11. How far bat;k we have to go for the existence of the peo- 
ple, who built these graves, is difficult to decide. All we know 
about the stay of the Toltecans in the present United States is, 
that they once have occupied Florida and the valley of tlie Mis- 
sissippi; but whether it was before or after their dispersion from 
Mexico IS not yet ascertained. We may, therefore, only venture 
to say, that we must go back for centuries to fix upon the builders 



modern 



of these graves. 



bcHie 



so superficially, co'ald be so well preserved for such a length of 
time, I Will remind hira of the favorable construction of these 
graves of the sandy ground, and their great elevation, which pre- 
vented any accumuJatipn of water. Perhaps, too, it was customary 
with that people, as with some modern Indian tribes, to expose to 
and dry m the open air their deai bodies, and bury them only when 
in a ha.f mummified state, so that decay would not attack* the 

bones so fasL SomR arp nf tk« rvr.:^:,.„ "11-. 



modern Indians 



for instance the Kaskaskias, are th*^ authors of these graves; but 



bodies 



; oklest inhabitants of that part 
both with the Indian 



lt:tj.f '^'f^f %">' '"'-^ '^"s**^™ »«ong these Indians in 
IZl^^ )t" ^^^' '* '^^"^' therefore, moFe rational to sup 
SC^±:!i!;^!^7-f ¥'it and used by an Indian race. 



,^ 



latm 



irrnn^r^f f ! ?• l^r'^'^'^P^^^^^ extension of these burying- 
grounds, I ascertamed that they are found 



IfL'-h''^^ -T^^l ¥™ P^ah-Ie da R-^-her to Kaskaskia. mostly 



n^LlZT.JZ } .iT .Pi*"^ '^^ ^""-er to Kaskaskia, mostly 

ihPvirif '*"" ^^"^^- I ^^ credibly informed, too, that 

they exist in many parts of Tnrll^r,. „.,,4 -c A.-. _. j .i__„ „«or- 



y. If these accounts should prove 



L' r "t,*l" 1™1¥-- -o^i »-' i'l^-y coincide* -.vi* 



J 



Indian mounds. 



J^ 
i 



■5 






-J 



^ 



SHUMAKD — ^FOSSIL CEIXOILEA. 71 



VIIL Description of new Fossil C rinoide a /rom the Pa- 
' IsBozoic Rocks of the Western and Southern portions (^ 
the United States. Bj B. F* Shumard, M.D. 



Genus DicHOCHixus. 



as 



as 



Basal pieces, 2. 

Radial ** 4, of which one is large X5. 

Interradial *' unknown. 

ii 

Anal " I known^ very large, reposing on the base. 

Arms, 10. 

The anatomical structure c^ a very perfect specimen of this ge- 
nus, which we are about to describe, corresponds only in part 
with the above formula, la our fossil we find a base of two pie- 
ces, supporting a circle of five large radials, and one large anal 
piece, as in all the known species of the genus. The radials, 
however, are not repeated, but each one immediately gives rise 
to two brachial pieces, which are pentagonal, and in turn sup» 
port, each, two simple arms; so that the number of the latter 
amounts to, twenty. The Messrs. Austin, who, up to this time, 
hav e figured the most perfect example of the genus, represent 
the number of radial pieces to be twenty, i.e., five repeated four 
time^.f 

In Dichocrinus ovaftis, described by Dr, Owen and llae author 
of this papw, there appear to be but ten, i. e., five repeated 
twice ;■}• while in D- cornig^us and D. sex'lobainsj now described 
for the first time, the whole number of radials is only five. It 
appears, therefore, that the number of these pieces is noi uni- 
form in the different species. 

The number of arms is, also, variable. Thus, in D. fvsiformu 
(^jJmiin) they amount to ten; in P. cornigerus (mw 9p.) there 



are, as already stated, twenty; and I have in my possession a 



leaden cast of an undescribed species, the original of which is in 
the cabinet of Bfr. S. S. Lyon, of Jeffersonvilk, Ind., that also 
exhibits very plainly the i^me number. 

All the American species of Dichocrinus appertain, exclusive- 
ly, to the Mountain Limestone or inferior division of the Carbo* 
niferous System. I am, at present, acquainted with eight weM 
marked species of this genus, from strata of the Western and 
Soathera States. Of these, two are from the Encrinital Lime- 
stone : all the others are from the Archimedes Limestone, as linj* 



* Mecherck€$ «rr lei Crwt0i4e$ du Terr^Hn C^^rhontferc 4e U M^pgue^ 
f Mimagrapbon Foft'llCrinoidea, 

% Beserp ioB« of fifteen new specie ©f Oincaa.a, ^e; Jmat^ A£^ Xat. Sei^ PM- 
lad. -New Sedea. VoL I. 



m- 



72 TRANS. OF THE ACAD. OF SCIEKCE. 



ited by Prof. Swallow in his Report of the Geol. Surv. of Mis- 



souri. 



DiCHoeKi:*us cornigerus. (^Shnm.^ 



PL L Fig. If a, bj Cj d. 



For this interesting species of Dickocrinus I am indebted to 
my friend, Mr. Henry Pratten, of the Illinois GeoL Survey, vfho 
informs me, that it \%as obtained from the Mountain Limestone, 
at Buzzard Roost, Franklin County, Alabama. In some respects, 
it is the most perfect specimen of the genus hitherto described, 



i 



ly the lower half of the body 
t also the vault entire and the first joints of the arms. 

Description. — The general form of the body is ovate, obliquely 
flattened on the anal side, and the pieces of which it is composed 
are thicker than in most of its congeners. The calyx has the 
form of an inverted, truncated cone; its plates moderately con- 
vex, and their surfaces snaooth. The base consists of two pentag- 
onal pieces, precisely alike, and these unite in the median line of 
the body by a straight suture to form a shallow cup, wHich is 
transversely elongated, and occupies about one-third the height of 
the calyx. The under surface presents a large, shallow, but well 
defined depression of an elliptical shape,, in the centre of which 
is a very small circular facet for articiSattng' with the last joint of 
the colura.n. The superior border is octagonal, with six angles 
salient; and two retreating; the latter being situated on the sides 
which correspond to the long diameter of the base; one of them 
receiving the inferior angle of the large anal piece, and the other 
that of the opposite radial. 

^ The radial pieces, five in number, are large, about as wide as 
high, and expand slightly in width from below upwards; four 
are nearly of the same form, and rest by straight edges on the 
base ; the fifth is larger than the others, and terminates below ia 
an obtuse angle, the apes of which corresponds to one extremity 
of the basal suture. The superior edge of each piece is excava- 
ted about two-thirds its width, and here presents a double articulai 
facet, on which repose two brachial pieces. All the radials swell 
very gradually from below upwards, and unite with themselves 
^"^J-^e base by distinctly marked sutures. 

The inierradial pieces are small, hexagonal, or heptagooal, and 
much elongated. Their number varies from four to five, and they 
rest by their inferior angles on the oblique, superior, lateral edges 
of the radial plates. i » i~ » 

The brachial pieces are irreguiarlv pentagonal, very short, and 
small. Each radial plate supports two of th^ra, so that there ara 
ten brachials m a single series, and, being axillary pieces, they 
support twenty very slender, simple arms, of which only one or 
^'0 of the first joints are preserved in the specimen figured. 
These are very small aemi-elliptical, and their artic"^ar faces aie 
Bearl| parallel with the axis of the body 



4 



*■ 



# 



SHUiURD — FOSSIL CRINOIDEA. T3 

The anal pieces consist of one large octagonal, and a great 
many small polygonal plates. The first, which is the largest piece 
in the boJy, is higher than wide, rests directly on the ^ase, and 
extends above the summits of the radial plates. The lateral bor- 
ders are nearly parallel, and the superior edges bear five small 
plates, which support several ranges of nine or ten plates, very 
variable in form and size. All of these pieces are smooth, and 
plane, or very slightly con%'ex. * 

The vault is composed of a great many polygonal pieces, which 
are very variable in size : some of them are flat, or slightly con- 
vex, some are very convex, and others are prolonged into promi- 
nent spines. The principal piece is wedge-shaped, and stands 
on one side directly above the anal opening from which it is 
separated by three or four rows of very mifiute pieces. The 
vault, as a whole, is somewhat hemispherical, higher than the ca- 
lyx, and much flattened on the anal side. It is divided into six 
longitudinal lobes, five of which stand directly over the radial pie- 
ces, and the sixth over the large anal piece. The former are 
quite prominent, and are separated from each other by deep, lon- 
gitudinal furrows; but the anal lobe is slightly prominent, and the 
furrows on either side very shallow. 

The proboscis is lateral, and situated on the anal side; but, un- 
fortunately, the specimen is fractured at this part, so that its posi- 
tion is merely indicated by an aperture, surrounded by many little 

polygonal plates- 

jJrms, — The number of arms, as above stated, is twenty, but 
only one or two of the first joints are preserved in the specimen* 
They are divided into fours by intervals about once and a half 
times the width of the first arm joints, excepting that on ihe anal 
side, which has a width equal to about six of these joints. . 

Column, — A single plate of the column still adheres to the base 
in the specimen figured, and this not perfect. It h very small, 
apparently circular, and its articular face striated on the margin. 

Dimensions. — Height of body, 7 lines; greatest width, at junc- 
tion-^f calyx and vauh, 5| lines; height of calyx, 3 lines; height 
of base, about 1 line; great diameter of same, nearly 4 lines; 
short diameter of same, 3 lines; height of radial pieces, 2| lines; 
height of large anal piece, 3 lines. 

DiCHOCRINCS SXX-I.OBATrS. {Shufii.) 

PI I Fig. 3, a, b, e. 

The calyx of this species is of a more depressed conical form, 
and the plates thicker, and more tumid, than in the preceding 
species; viewed from beneathj the outline is very distinctly six- 
lob-^d. 

The base is octagonal, short, convex, a little extended trans- 
versely, and composed of two smooth, pentagonal pieces. Below, 
we find a shallow indentation of an elliptical form occupying 
about one-third of its length, at the bottom of which is a minute 



*-> 



74 TRA^^S. OF THE ACAD. OF SCIENCE. 

ft 

circular, or rery slightly elliptical, facet, striated in radii for ai- 
ticulating with the column. This perf oration is very minute ; its 
form unkfiown. 

The radial pieces are thick, and about one-fourth wider than 
long. Their lateral margins diverge slightly from below upwards; 
• the superior edges are deeply excavated about two-thirds the 
width of the pieces, to accommodate the two first brachials, and 
on either side of the excavations is a short, oblique, straight ed^e, 
on which rests an inferior oblique edge of an interradial. The 
basal edges of four of the pieces are straight ; the fifth is very 
obtusely angulated below. The radial pieces are all very tumid 
just below the excavations for the brachials. • 

The interradial pieces, four in nutijber, alternate with the ra- 
diar 'TIL .,..,. 

slightly concave. 



(?) and very 



The brachial pieces are so badly weathered that their charac* 
ters are not to be made out. We only see plainly that there are 
two resting in the excavated upper edge of each radial piece. 

The anal plate, which rests on the base, is tumid above, elon- 
gated hexagonal, widest in the middle, and extends above the 
radial pieces. The other anal pieces are unknown. 

Column and vault unknown. 



menn'oTOS.— Height of calvx, 4i 



lines; smallest diarai 
width, 3i to 3i linei 
width, about 3 lines. 



base 



its great diameter, 41 
)f radial pieces, 3 lines; 

lines; greatest 




comtger 



K may be distinguished by the greater proporlional width of its 



below, aad 



fh^ ^ * -tV — ^^"'-vA wiAViiuc wiien seen iroiii ot?iuvv, au« 

the greater tumidity and width of its radial pieces. The base is, 
ai.o, less elongated m a transverse direction. 
formation and locality.~^We possess but a single specimen of 
tfie specie., the petrifying material of which is silex. It was ob- 
whirl l'''^ tte Archimedes Limestone, at Ruasellville, Kentirky. 

«^hprr -r^l ^''''^^.^'^^^^'^^^^^ with I\Jremiies florealis arid 
other fossils characteristic of that formation. 



DlCHOCELNUS SIMPLEX. (Skum.) 



H. I. Fi9. 2, «, ft. 

co'e^fnflff -f'V^'' [ittle Di.hocrinus is bead-^^^aped. or cylmdri- 

helht tTVif ''"^/-^^^^^.and forms ^\mA two-thirds the eirtire 
S Lh? t H f^\ ^H^ Pi«^s of which it is composed iil« 

Se t.t f^'t P r '^r ^^^^' Th« facet for articulating with 

l^. radial pieces are higher than wide, evenly convex, and 



♦ 



EEUMARD — FOSSIL CRINQIDExV. 75 

widest inferiorly. Four of them are quadrangular, tbeir inferior 



edges rounded, and one is pentagonal and wider than the other 



pieces. In fact, all the radial pieces differ from each other, more 
or less, in width. 

The anal piece resting on the base is all that is known. It pre- 
sents nearly the same form and dimensions as ihe pentagonal ra- 
dial piece* 



base 



imn. arms^ and vavlt^ are unknown. 
^ Bimmsions, — Height of calyx, 4i lines; height of base, 2 lines; 
diameter of same, 4 lines; width of anal piece at " 
do. at top, \h lines. 

For the fine specimen of this species, from which the above de- 
scription has been drawn, I am indebted to my friend, Prof. L. 
P. Yandell, of Louisville, Kentucky, whose estenaive collection of 
rare American Crinoids contains some fine examples of it. Tijey 
occur in ths Archimedes Limestone exhibited in the railroad cut 
at Spergen Hill, Clarke County, Indiana, where they are asso* 



( 



Pentremiies Jlorealis, P. latemifi 



The calyx entire is very rarely found, as the plates separate 
very readily at the sutures, but single plates are quite common. 
I have, also, found the basal plates of this species at St. Mary*3 
Landingj^Ste. Genevieve County, Missouri. 



AcxiNOCRijrus MULTiKiDiATUS. {Shum.) 



PL L Fig. 5. 



subov 



ml 



^^ * 

The cahjx is subconical, with its sides somewhat inflated- The 
plates are moderately thin, and their surface elegantly ornament- 

^ with distinct radiatinir rihs. vvhinh rnmmpnr*:* nr nr npj*r 



th 



and 



form 

body, the princl|ml 



enclosing one, and sometimes two smaller triangles. The points 



tubercle. 



freqtiewtiy 



The base is composed of three nearly equal pieces, which form 
a low cup with rapidly expanding sides. Beneath Is an obscurely 
liexagonal, slightly concave s|mce, in which is a circular facet, 
occupying about two-filths the width of the kis^, for receiving tLe 
last joint of the column. The central opening is moderately la^e. 



mnd appears 



centres. 



most promineM in the 
_ )nal, and two heptagonal 
with the first anal piece hat^ a len^h nr 
hreadtfc about equal, but the others are widest transversely. The 



greatest width of th 



The in* 



than the superior 



t 



76 TEAKS. OE THE ACAD. OP SCIENCE. 

edges of the hexagonal pieces are slightly rounded ; the heptago- 
nal pieces obtusely angulated. The 2d radials are hexagonal, 
and about one-third the size of the 1st radials. The dd radials 
are small, short, heptagonal, and, being axillary pieces, support 
two brachials which are short and hexagonah 

^ The inierradial pieces amonnt to three between each o£ the ra- 
dial rows. The first is hexagonal, and its size about the same as 
the 2d radial pieces. It supports two smaller pieces, also appa- 
rently hexagonal. 

*dnai pieces. — The first is large, hexagonal, a little elongated, 
and reposes upon the base. This supports on its upper edges 
two small hexagonal pieces, one of which is larger than the other. 
The form of the succeeding anal pieces can not be determined. 

The vault, compared with the calyx, is very low. It is convex, 
aiid composed of a number of polygonal plates, often marked with 
small tubercles, or short ridges. 

The proboscis is elongated^ situated nearest the anal side, and 
tapers gradually as it leaves the vault. A fragment, about a third 
of an inch in lengih, is all that is preserved in the specimen. 

j^rms.—OnlY ^^e commencemeat of the arms is exhibited. 
They are directed a little upwards, atid come off in pairs; the 
pairs being separated from each other by wide intervals, that on 
the anal side being more than double the width of the others. 

Dzmm5ion5.— Height of body to base of proboscis, 11 lines; 
transverse diameter at base of free arms, about 10 lines; length 
of calyx below arms, 6i lines; height of base,li lines; diameter 
of same, 5 lines. 

This species is nearly related to Aciinocrinus concinnus (nobis), 
but may be distinguished by its smaller size, the greater height of 
the base, and its more elongated calyx. 

^ Locality and formation.— I found this handsome species of Ac- 
tinocrinus near the base of the Archimedes Limestone (Mountain 
liiraestone), in the quarries of the Mississippi bluffs, at Quiucy, 
iihnois. It occurs there with Spirifer sfriatns (large var.) and 
Actmocrinus (Dorycrinus) Mississippicnsis (Rr^m.) Perfect 
specimens of the body are rarely found, but I have observed de- 
tached plates of it at several localities in ilissouri and luwa. 



Acns 



AcTiNocRiNus Yaitdelli. (Skum.) 



summit 



C«Hitril)n*l^ns to the Geology cf Ktn- 
tnctf, p. 24. Fig. 3, a, h. 

- ^naagnificent specH'S of Actinocrinus is some- 

what globose, the plates thick and very prominent in their ceu- 
fres, and sorneti.fles granulated. 

The cajyx is short, inverted conical, and occupies about one- 
third the height of the body. 

The base is very low, wider beneath than above, and its inter- 
nai cavity quite shallow. The inferior border is emarginate at 
the sutures, which divide it into three weU-defined, broad lobes, 



SIIUMARD — FOSSIL CRINOIDEA. 7T 



• 



which are marked on the middle of the under surface by a shal- 
low groove, forming an interrupted circle around the base. The 
articular surface for the column is round, crenulated at the mar- 
gin, and occupies about one-half the width of the base. The su- 
perior edge is nine-angled, six of the angles being salient, the 
others retreating. 

The 1st radial pieces are transverse, their width double the 
height; three are htxagonal and two hpptagonal, the inferior 
edges of the former slightly arched, the latter obtusely angulattd. 
The superior edges of all of them are slightly concave, and the 
upper oblique edges rather short- The surface of each plate la 
furnishtd with a prominent transverse curved ridge, the convex- 
ity of the curve being usually dow^nwards. These ridges are, in 
some specimens, studded wiih several granules. The 2d radials 
are only about one-fourth the size of the last, transverse, quad- 
rangular, and their superior and inferior edges a little arched. 
The 3d radials are transverse, irregularly pentagonal, sometimes 
hexagonal, and support on their oblique upper edges two short bra- 
chial pieces. These are pentagonal and hexagonal, vary much in 
their proportions, and the superior ones, being axillary pieces, sup- 
port a double series of brachials of the 2d order, which are very 
short and irregular. The number of brachial pieces, however, is 
subject to irregularity, as in the specimen represented by the fig- 
ures 4 b and c. In this, we find one of tho 3d radials supporting 
only a single brachial piece of the 1st order, instead of a double 
pair, as in the others, which piece is axillary, and bears on its up- 
per edge a double row of brachials of the 2d order, A similar 
irregularity occurs, also> in one of the brachial groups of the 2d 
order, in the same specimen, 

InUrradial pieces. — Between every two radial rows, we have 
three, and sometimes four, interradials, of which the principal 
ones have a length and breadth about equal, and are usually ten- 
sided, but sometimes eleven-sided. On these rest two smaller 
pieces, very irregular in form and size, one of them usually much 
more elongated than the other. 

The anal pieces amount to ten or eleven in number. The first 
IS hexagonal, rests on the base, and is a little Iiigher and nar- 



row^er than the others. On its superior edge rests a slightly elon- 
gated hexagonal piece, on either side of which is a polygonal 
piece, the three being of nearly the same size and smaller than 
the one resting on the base. To these succeed three still smaller 
pieces, unequal and irregular, which in turn support the same 
number of elongated pieces. 

**The vault is conical, forms about two-lbirds the height of the 
bt*se, and consists of a great many pieces, mostly hesagona! and 
heptagonat They are rather large, increase in £i2e from below 
upwards, and nearly all of them are raised ia their centres, and, 

m some specimens^ garnished with small tubercles. 

The proboscis is sub-ce^tail, elongate-conical, and from an inch 



• 



78 TRANS. OP THE ACAD. OF SCIENCE. 

L 
J 

to an incli and a half long. I have in ray collection a proboscis, 
apparently belonging to this species, which bifurcates near its 
middle, and presents somewhat the form of the letter Y, the prono-s 
being about half an inch long. 

The arms come off, at nearly right angles to the axis of the- 
body, in groups of four, and sometimes five, separated by distinct 
intervals. The commencement of 21 arms is to be seen on one 
of the specimens figured, and 22 on the other. 

The column is unknown. 

Dmensj'ons.— Height of body, including proboscis, 2| inches^ 
do. of calyx, | inch; do. of base, 1 line; diameter of ba^, 6 lines; 
height of 1st radials, 2 lines; width, 3i lines. ♦ 

This fine species was figured, in 1847, by Prof. L. P. Yandell 
and the author of this paper, in a small pamphlet, entitled "Con- 
tributions to the Geology of Kentucky ;" but the figures were 
badly executed, and unaccompanied by either a description or 
name. It presents the anatomical structure of that group of the 
genus Achnocrinus upon which S. Casseday. has founded the 
g-enus JBatocrinus, which really does not differ from JctinGcrinus 
of Miller, except that it possesses a greater number of anal plate* 
In jJdino-friaconfaJadyhs, the tvpical species of the genus, and 
in those species figured by De Koninck and Le Hon.-wefind only 
81X anal pieces; but in A. YandeUi, A. (Batocrinus) icosidacty 
tm, and several other American species of Adinocrims, the 
number is increased, and varies from nine to eleven. 

Formation and Idcalifies.— It occurs at Button IVIould Knob, 7 
miles south of Louisville, Kentucky, near the base of the Carbo- 
niferous System, m blue and yellow marly clay, associated with 
Frodmius pundatm, Choneies Shumardiana, Orihis Mdielini, 
P'lrigera Roissyii, and Cxjaihoxonia cynodan, I have, also, 
found sihcified specimens of this species, occupying the same 
geological position, at White's Creek Sprincrg, a few miles from 

rfashvi e. Tfnnpc;=po ^ =" ' 



The specie 



s 



L. 



Louisville, Kentucky, whose valuable cabinet is rich 



m beautiful examples of it. 



HoMOCRiytrs POLYDACTYLUS. (Skum.) 



PI- I. Fig. 6, a, b. 



CrAtHocBixiTBs. ChriBty's " Letteri on Geologt 



The summii of this species is conical, the plates moderately 
thick, smooth, and without exterior oiL.ment. 



™;l ''hJ;i?h\''i=,° "i^- . An"ra«.,fla,,e'nrf tend .u 



pentagon . 



is tumid, so thai the 



surface 



i~i,3r« / t '^«-.3e, when viewd from below, presents a 

distinct pentalobate outhne. The artieukr tm-M far the column 



pentagon a 




a— ij «im 113 laameter mnul 

oase. 



*i> 



# 



SHtrVIARD — ^FOSSIL CHINOrDEA. T9 



The sub-radial pieces are somewhat regularly hexagonal, a 
little higher than wide, larger than the basal pieces, tumid, and f 

marked above, on either side, by a broad, obscure ridge, which 
crosses the sutures to unite with similar ones on the lower part of 
the radial plates* 

The radial plates alternate with the last, and amount to 5 or 6 
in each row, the whole number being from 25 to 27. The 1st 
radials are pentagonal, about one-third wider than high, and their 
upper edges wide. The 2d, 3d, and 4th radials have the width of 
the 1st radials, but they are very short, slightly convex, and quad- 
rangular; the 5th is pentagonal, very short, and supports on its 
♦ upper oblique edges two rows of brachial pieces^ of which there 

are 5 in each row, 4 of them being quadrangular, transverse, and 
the 5lh, or superior one, short pentagonal. This last is an axil- 
lary piece, and bears on its upper exterior edge a sleiider arm, 
consisting of a number of small quadrangular pieces, in a single 
series extending to the summit; the ray reposing on the inner 
edge is several times bifurcated. 

The anal pieces amount to S or 10 innumher. The 1st, which 
rests on the base, is heptagonal, with sides nearly equal, rather 
tumid, and somewhat larger than the sub-radial pieces. It bears 
on its upper, straight edge a smaller hexagonal piece, which sup- 
ports two pieces of unequal size, one hexagonal, the other elon- 
gate quadrangular and very small. These again are succeeded 
by several smaller pieces which are variable in form. 

Arms. — The number of ultimate rays is from 40 to 50. 

Column, — A small fragment, only, of the column is known, 
consisting of alternate, moderately thick and thin joints, the supe- 
rior one pentagonal, the others circular. 

Bimensions. — Height of calyx below *the free arms, 4 hues ; 
diameter, 4 lines; height of base, 1|- lines; diameter, 2i lines; 
height of sub-anal pieces, 2 Hnes. 

I have referred this species to the genus Homocrinus, founded 
by Prof. HaU to receive some Silurian crinoids, that are very 
nearly related to Poteriocrinus of Miller. It was first discovered 
by Prof. David Christy, of Oxford, Ohio, and figured by him, in 
I&IS, in his ** Letters on Geology;" but no specific same was ap- 
pKed to it. The calyx of Homocrinus polydactylus resembles that 
of i£ {Poteriocrinus) gracilis^ Hail; but it possesses a^mucli 
greater number of arms, and the plates of which they are compo- 
sed are much wider and shorter. 

Formation tmd localUie^, — ^It occurs very abundantly in the 
Ticinity of Richmond, Indiana, in bluish-gray limestone, of the 
age of the Hudson River Group of the New- York System, I 
owe to the kind attention of Mr, Christy a remarkably fine slab 
from this locality, which contains more than a dozen examples of 



this beautiful encrinile. I found a single specimen of it, in the 



same geological p^^tion, at Oxford, Ohio. 



80 TRAXS. OF THE ACAD. OF SCHNCE. 



% 



PoTERiocRiNtJs MissoxTRiExsis. (^Shumcrd,) 

5^-7ionj/m--"Poteri'"crinus loxgtdactyltis. lb,, Geo], Snrv. of lli^soari, 2 Rep., Part 

II., p. 188, pL B. fig. 5, a-^c. (Non Austin Cnnoidj pi, 11, Jig, 3.) 

J 

When I published my description of Poferiocrinns longidac* 
iulus, in the Missouri Geological Report, I overlooked the fact, 
that Austin had described and figured a species from the Carbo- 
niferous Limestone of Clevedon and SoiTierset, England, under 
the same name. A3 our fossil appears to be quite distinct from 
the European species, it becomes necessary to give it a new name. 
I therefore propose, now, to designate it as P. Missourimsis. 

EXPLANATION OF PLATE I. 

Fig, 1. DiceGCRTNirs cossigerus, specimen four times enla^ge^L 

a. View of 'he anterlor.gide. 

&. View of the anal tide, showing the Imrge anal piece surmounted bytbc 

Fmaller one?, and tbo anal opening* 
c- Bjual view. 

Fig. 2. TJ1CH0CBI5CS srMPLEx, specimen nataral size. 

a. View of the anal side, 
h. Ba^ai view. 



Tig, Z. 
Fig. I. 



fpecfmcQ 



AcTi5rCRi?:U3 YASTDFLti, sppcimens of the natural size, from Button MoaM 

Knob, near Lomsviile, Kentucky. 
o. Profiio view of an individual, with the prob:^cis attachcc!. 
ft. Bas^l view cf another example. 

c. Structure rf the calyz of same, exhibiting the difposidon and fona of th« 
different species. 

Fig. 5. AcnN'X-Bmus mih^tieaijtatus, specimen from Qoincj, I!linoi?, natural size 

r^g. 6. HoMC-BiSUS POIYDArTTLrS. 

a. 8pecini-n from Richmond, Indiana, natural sizf*, partiaUv restored. 
&. Anal View of a sp^tmen froui Oxford, Ohio, enlar- d. 



IX. Belcher <S' Brother^s Jirtesian TFeiL Bj A. LiHOX 



% 



M,D. {Plaie V.) 



i 



v ^w expiorfationa in our city, or even State, excite greater in* 
^rest and iuniisli stronger eridpnce of individual enterprise and 
liberality, than the Artesian WfU at the Sugar Refinery of 
Messrs. Belcher & Brother. A work so expensive, that has perl- 
etratp4 the crust of the Earth to the depth of 2190 feet— that was 
eornrnenced and completed at the expense, not of Gorerment, bat 
ot individuals—meritssome notice, and deservt s that fifreater pub- 
licity should be given to the records ol the Joarnal of its boriug- 

Ihis well was commenced in the St. Lmiis Limestonp. which is 
otie of ihe uppt^r members of the Carboniferous or Mountain 
l.ime&tone, and separated from the superincumbent Low r Coal 
buies by a Ferrugi^ious Sandstone, at a point about §20 feet 
ab<H-e the levd of the sea. It v,-as originally undertaken merely 
wiia the mtenlion of excavating a well, into which it was hoped 



.1^ 



Uru/mit.. faul.Sd, StXiniu. Tol.I. 



Plate I 



1.(V. 



II 



I.e. 




2. a 




3, a. 





"^. 







3 



C-. 




6.h. 






l.cL. 




> 



S. 




■V 



. — ^ -."'^^i-.'T"- ..i... 






- . \ 



-^' 



% 



A 



J 



!. 



t^-^ - 





T 




.^. 



^_^ 



J'aaiL 



ri 



r yi 



..* 




m. 



LITTON — ARTESIAN WELL. 



81 



that the water of the Mississippi, distant about 300 feet, would 
find an entrance, and from which reservoir an abundant supply of 



be 



Worl. 



(th 



Refinery. Ac 



which was 12 feet, and the lower, 6 feet) was sunk to the depth 
of 30 feet, and though water was obtained, it was found to be 
hard in its properties, resembling more that of the wells than of 
the river, and unsuited to the wants of the Refinery; and as the 
height to which it rose was never that of the Mississippi, it is 
scarcel5^ probable it came from this last by percolating through the 



intervening stratum of limestone. 



Well 



9 inches in diameter, was commenced, and was proiecuted during' 
eighteen months with hand power only; but, as the rock was 
cherty and hard to penetrate, at the end of that period, only 219 
feet of rock had been bored through,- and the total depth of the 

well was then 249 feet. 

In September, iSoO, steam power was first employed, and used 
to the termination of the work, and the boring was prosecuted un- 
til February 7th, 18-51, with such intermission only as was requi« 
site for unavoidable repairs. Though 42 days were thus lost, 
durin^- these five months 208 feet of rock were nierced, and the 



tv 



total depth o£ the well was then 457 feet. The character of tlie 
strata passed through, and the thickness of each, as recorded in 
the Journal, will be seen by reference to the accompanying 



section. 



ISoL to Sentember 2^h 



3 



the work 



was 



was commenced with a bore of 83 inches in diameter, and con- 
tinued until March 22d, lS-52; the boring being carried on, night 



1851 



1S5 



well had been sunk to the depth of 1351 feet, and during this pe- 

feet had been penetrated. From 
th of the same year> was occupied 



894 



1852 



bore 



inches in diameter; which accomplished, alarge,pump was in- 
serted with a view of determining the quantity of water then fur- 
nished, but the results of the experiment proved unsatisfactory. 



September 



185 



■widening the 3i inch bore of the well to a diaifteter of 5i inches, 



457 



sert a four inch tube of 150 feet in length, to prex'ent the caving 



m ot ihe shales that , ^.-. ^^ , • - 

proved a source of great trouble, and in a measure had prevented 
the prosecution of the work. 

On January 6tb, 1853, the prosecution of tlxe work wns recom- 
menced with a bore of 3| inches in diameter, and continued up 



6 



1854; daring these fourleen montr 




p 



♦ 



82 ' TEAXS. OP THE ACAD. OF SCIENCE. 



o 



days were lost in making necessary repairs, it had been sunlx 848 
feet deeper, making its total depth 2199 feet* Since August, 
1856, the first 456ieet of the well have been tubed with a three 
inch wrought-iron pipe, and, at the time of inserting this, it vvas 
found that the water would rise to a height of about 75 feet above 
the surface. 

Carburetted hydrogen was first perceived in passing the thin 
Shale at a depth of 457 feet, and was found to increase in pene- 
trating the soft Shales at the depth of 650 feet and the Red Marl 
beneath, to augment in passing the Shale at the depth of 885, and 
to be evolved most abundantly in passing the Bituminous Marl at 
the depth of 950 feet. This stratum of Marl was found to be 
very bituminous, and the borings, when heated, evolved much car- 
buretted hydrogen, leaving a clay colored by the oxyde of iron. 
At the depth of 1090 feet the quantity of gas was found to dimi- 
nish, and this diminution continued to the depth of 1135 feet. 
At the depth of 1183 feet it began asrain to increase, and became 
still more abundant at the depth of 1222 feet. At the depth of 
12TO feet it diminished in quantity; but, at 5 feet below, it begaa 
again to increase, while at the depth of 1301 feet its quantity was 
observed to diminish. 

Sulphuretted hydrogen was first observed at the d^th of 1510 
feet, and the water was then found to be strongly impregnated 
with it. 

At the depth of 610 feet the water was first discovered to have 
a saline taste, and at S19 feet this property was found to be more 
marked, the water at that depth, upon evaporation, leaving a resi- 
due of 1| percentage of sohd constituents. Auhe depth of lOlo^ 

to 2i per cent. At 
iir:i^ leet tfie percentage of salts in solution was found to bare 
dimmished, 1 ft of water on evaporation leaving only 148 grms.; 
bm at the depth of 1230 ft. the percentage was found to be about 
three. * ^ 

^ The boring was effected by a simple wedge-shaped drill, the 
size of which van'pil nprAi>r»;r.rr tr. ^k^ A\^^^*^^ r^p fhfi> bore. This 



was 



n 



dxiU was screwed to a wrougk-iron bar, 30 feet long, and about 
inches m diameter, the total weight of which was about 600 fts. 




t 



by the weight of the bar &hne7 To this was fasrened the poks 



(with male and female screws), made of 



two 



the last poles was fastened one end of a chain, the other end of 
wftich was attached to a spring beam worked by a steam engine 
running with a speed of about SO revolutions in a minute, and a 
stroke of 14 inches. The boring apparatus was constantly twned 
by hand power, and, for perfofaiii;^ all the work connected mf 
tile boring the labor of four men was, in ffeneral, daily required. 



• Such is the history of the boring of'the weH, ai gathered from 



• 

LITTOX — AKTESIAX WELL. 83 



the Journal of daily work kept by Mr. Louis Holm, and from 
some additional notes furnished by him- It was pioperly com- 
menced in the spring of 1849, and the present depth was reached 
on the 12ih of March, 1854, about five years after the commence- 
ment of the work. During these five years the work was, at pe- 
riods, intermitted for monlhs, so thai the time actually en^ployed 
was only 33 months, during which, it was sunk to the depth of 
2199 feet, at a cost of not le^s than SilO,000, The depi!i of the 
Artesian Well, at Grenelle, is 1797, which required about eight 
years for completion, and cost over S30,000» 

Though it be difficult to determine, from the borings, with ab- 
solute certainly, the geological position of the different strata pene- 
trated, we think there is but liltb doubt, thai the Red Marls and 
Shales, penetrated at the depth of 6J0 feet, are the same as tho^ 
exposed -J of a mile west of the Sulphur Spring, on the Pacific 
Railroad, and which are classed as Cliemung in the Geological 
Report of ilissouri; and that the soft white sandstone, penetrated 
at the depth of 1505 feet, is the Saccharoid Sandstone. Taking 
these points as established, the strata have been geologically clas- 
sified as represented on the section by Dr. B. F. Shumard, who 
has had opportunities, during his connection with the State Geo- 
logical Surrey, of# becoming familiar, by personal observations, 
with nearly all the strata represented. 

The observations made during the sinking of the well showed 
that the main supply of water was obtained in the soft w^hite sand- 
atone at the depth of 1515 feet; and from experiments since made 
by Mr, Holm, by passing a tube to the depth at which the main 
supply of Waaler was obtained, he thinks there is no water w^hich 
rises to the surface from the strata below this sandstone. This 
Saccharoid Sandstone is very porous, and is exposed in the coun- 
ties to the west and south of St. Louis, at which points the general 
dip of the rocks is to the east and north. It is then, in all proba- 
bility, the water-bearing stratum, in which is accumulated that 
portion of the water deposited from the atmosphere in the form 
of rain and snow, and not carried off in streams and rivers, nor 
appropriated to the nourishment of vegetables, nor returned to the 
atmosphere by evaporation. This portion of the unappropriated 
water, sinking into the exposed edges of the Saccharoid Sand- 
stone, and the permeable strata above, finds n ready passage 
beneath the rocks on which St. Louis stands. Though these ex- 
jKJSures are geographically higher than St Louis, the water is ia- 
capaUe of percolating through the impermeable strata of shali^, 
and rising, in obedience to the law^s of hydrostatic pressure, to the 
Rime height as its source- When, However, these impermeable 
shales are pierced, as at the Artesian Well, then the accumulated 
wat r c^n escape, and will ascend to the same height as the level 
ot the fluid in the water-bearing stratum, which, according to Mr. 
Holm's experiment at the Artesian Weil, must be some" 75 feet 
above the ground OB which the Refinery stands. It w ould be in- 



# 



84 TKA2hS. Of THE ACAB. OF -SCIENCE. 

terestingto know accurately the elevation, above St. Louis, of the 
exposures of this sandstone ; but at present I am able to give that 
of only one, which is a little east of Franklin, where the junction 
of the 1st Magnesian Limestone with the Saccharoid Sandstone 

is 100 feet above St. Louis. 

The ratio of the increase of the Earth's temperature as we 
descend, deduced from the data furnished by the Artesian 
Well at St. Louis, does not agree with that calculated from obser^ 
vations made at other Artesian Wells. The water, as it flows 
from the well at the Refinery, has a constant temperature, and, 
according to ray observation made with a thermometeT graduated 
to L of a degree, it is 23= C.=73°.4 F. The mean annual tem- 
perature of St. Louis, deduced from the observations of Dr. En- 
gelmann continued daily during 22 years, is 55°.22 F.=12°.9 C. 
Taking the depth, from which the water at the well comes, to be 
151-5 feet, this would give an increase of 1° F. for every 83.3 feet 
of descent, and for an increase of V C. a descent of 71.8 feet; 
but for an increase of 1* C. lequireSj according to the observa- 
tions at 

Grenelle, a descent of 104.6 feet; 
Monsdorf. " 97.0 

Neusalswerk. . « 95.7 • 



Pregny, near Geneva, 97.3 

The water of the Artesian Well is now conveyed through a 
twenty inch cast-iron pipe, bolted 30 feet below the surface to the 
solid rock, and, by means of a connecting pipe, conducted outside of 
the Refinery, whence *it flows into a common sewer. Apparent- 



comi 



ced to flow, and it discharges, according to the measurement or 
Mr. Holm, about 300 quarts per minute. It has a salty taste 
and a strong odor of sulphuretted hydrogen. Though entir^y 
useless for the purposes of the Refinery, it is much used as a me- 
dicinal water, and, by some, is visited daily ; and, by others, con- 




}ag3 

virtues. 



^inalysis of the Waicr. 

gravity at 47' F. . . 1.0068 



gra 



orating dish at a low temperature, and the solid lesidue sea^nea 
for the rarer constituents sometimes found ia minute quantities 
in mineral waters; but I did not discover, with the usual reagents 
employed, the slightest trace of Iodine^ Bromine, Fluorine, Phos- 
phoric Acid, Baryta, Stiontia, Lithia, nor ^ilan^anese. 



determi 



rogen, the^vvater vm.^ tested 

a 



at the well by a solution of 1.269 gram, of pure Iodine dissolved 
by means of Iodide of Potassium in 1000 cubic centimeters <^l 
distilled water. The mean of three determinations, which agreed 



% 



* 



LITTOK — AKTE^^TAN WELL. 86 



woll with each other, gave for the quantity of sulphuretj^ed hydro- 
gen in 1000 CC. of the water, 0.015458 grm.^ To 1000 CC of 
the water was added a solution of arsenious acid in hydrochloric 
acid, and this gave for the quantity of sulphuretted hydrogen in 
this vohmie of water, 0*012465 grm. 

The mean of these determinations gives for the quantity of 
sulphuretted hydrogen in 1000 parts, by weight, of the water, 
0.014056 grm. 

Determination of Carbonic Jlcid. 

1000 CC. with Chloride of Barium, to which had been added 
Ammonia, and filtered, gave for Carbonic Acid, 0.1505 grm. 
0.1515 for 1000 parts by weight. 

Determination oj Chlorine. 

65.2717 grms. of the water, boiled and acidulated with Nitric 
Acid, gave with Nitrate of Silver 1-266 Chloride of Silver, which 
gives for Chlorine .3130 grm. 

65.2315 grms. of water, treated in the same way, gave for Chlo- 
ride of Silver 1.25S grms., which contain .3112 grm. ol Chlorine. 



Defnmination of Sulphuric Acid^ 

500 grms. with Chloride of Barium gave for Sulphate of Ba- 
ryta .6955=^.23^9 of Sulphuric Acid. 

500 grms., treated in the same way, gave for Sulphate of Ba- 
ryta «6995 grm.=.2403 grm. of Sulphuric Acid. 

Determination of Carbonates held in Solution by the Excess of 

Carbonic Acid. 

Two portions, each of 500 grms., of the water were boiled for 
several houre, replacing the water as evaporated ; the precipitates 
were dissolved, and the constituents in each, as also the Lime 
and Magnesia in the filtrates, determined. 



Precipitates gave 1- 2. 

Peroxide of Iron, .0025 .0040 



Carbonate of Lime, .0965 .0935 

Phosphate of Magnesia, .0130 .0110 

Filtrates gave 1. 2. 

Carbonate of Lime, .523 .524 

Phosphate of IVIagnesIa, .420 ,403 

Determination of Alkalies^ 
Two jK>rtions, each of 500 grammes, treated with a solution of 



Baryta, the excess of Baryta separated by Carbonate of Ammo 
nia, the total weight of the alkalies in ench determined, and the 
potassa separated by Chloride of Platinum, ga\*e, for weight of 
alkalies, 

1st, 3.2365, which ffires for double Chla of Platin. & Potass. .2545 
2d. 3.1995, " " t* u j2Jm 

6* 



• 



r'.^r 



9 



^ 



86 TSANS. OF THE ACAD. OF SCIENCE 



JDderminaiion of total weight of solid constituents. 

500 grms. of the water, to which had teen added 1.981 grms. 
pure Carbonate of Soda, were evaporated in a platinum capsule of 
to dryness, and htated to the 150° C, gave for total weight of 
solid constituents 4.3950; in which was found .0012 gramme of 
SilicaV 

Taking the mean of these determinations, we deduced that the 
water of the Artesian Well contains 

In lOCO parts. In 1 lb. AToirdupois. 

Carbonate of Protoxide of Iron, .0094 .0658 grain. 

Carbonate of Lime, .1898 1.3286 

Carbonate of Magnesia, .0182 .1274 

, Chloride of Calcium, .4964 . 3.4748 

Chloride of Magnesium, .6346 4.7922 

Sulphate of Lime, .8156 6.7092 

Chloride of Potassium, .1603 1.1256 

Chloride of Sodium, 6.2752 43.8264 



Silica, 



0024 .0168 



Sulphuretted Hydrogen, .014056 .098392 

Free Carbonic Acid, .0552 .3864 



Total, 8. 72 1 656 6 1 . 05 1 592 gr s. 



Direct determination of solid constit., 8.7910 61.5370 

No determmations of other gaseom 

Ionic Acid and Sulphuretted Hydroo-ei 
of an accurate eudiometer, ^ 



want 



f i 



KOTE.— The 



article 



«2ixiaen<»- 






I.- 



|1 



■, ; 






■- ^1 



K' 



or 



/ 



r 



-i. 
j 



# 






^>>«UlM^aadM^:^>'«f^(^>(^'^-hvat 



V ^r^ f 





mau s. 






I 

I' 



iVil^i!:av 



1 



lUiffu'sl miier l^'f i 



j[^m-i\^: H'u^^n^f' Mi<wi.mi0n 



f 



i 



J" 






./ 



r 




SK-^, 





^^ 



^ 4j^t4uorf^iw^^ ujl-i-^i*^*^**^^^'^*'^ 




'aai-iKOiivn 



*fa.v^'i:i iifciii 



aMT MMVKiaoMa suit xa *'siio^ xs xi aavi€ '0Q8I no* isoiXTAUtiKao iTjioo^ioHoaxiiW 



• 



# 



METEOROLOGICAL OBSERYATrONS FOR 1856, MADE IN ST LOtlS,* BY IJRS. EMGELMANPf AND WISLIZENLS. 



o 



r 



Jan, 
Feb. 
Mar. 
April 

Mr.y 

June 
July 

Aug, 

Sept. 
Oct. 
Nov. 
Dec, 



1S5G, 



BAEOMETER, 
Reduced to Pre. zing Point. 



O O -^s .i 



M 



29.621 

29.407 
29.556 
29.391 
29.447 
29.469 
29.509 
29.519 

29.577 
29.586 
29.001 
29.013 



29.529 



to 



30.062 

29.944 
29.909 
29.825 
29.736 
29.710 
29.708 
29.722 
29.757 
30.352 
30.381 
30.296 



30.381 



1 
1 

1 


i 


1 


9 


29.052 


0.980 


28.887 


1.057 


29.246 


0.663 


2S.965 


0.860 


29.080 


0.647 


29.261 


0.449 


29.180 


0.588 

1 


29.309 


0.413 


29.391 


366 


29.139 


1.213 


29.003 


1.373 


28 662 


1.634 



28.662 1.719 



TllEUMOMETER. (FaLreubcU.) 






I -S '- 



20.1 
26.6 
36.2 
59.3 
60.2 

78.5 

83.5 

74.2 
60.3 
66.3 

40.6 
29.6 



54.0 



s 




■<-> cs s rt 



20.0 
26.9 
36.1 
58.7 
65.2 
77.2 
82.1 
73.0 

66.8 
60.0 

dl.3 
34.7 



63.4 



CO 

w 



61.5 
55.0 
65.5 
88.0 
92.0 

99.0 

102.5 

93.0 

92.0 
85.0 
75,0 
55.0 



102.6 



4< 




_13.5 


65.0 


_15.0 


70.0 


15.0 


50.6 


34.5 


53.5 


45.0 


47.0 


51.0 


48.0 


03.0 


39.5 


54.0 


39.0 


36.0 


56.0 


29. 


56.0 


19.0 


56.0 


4.0 


51.0 


-15.0 


107.. 5 





6.1 



i 

at 

to 



I 






1.9 

2.0 
4.4 
9.4 
8.2 
102 
10.8 
7.9 

0.7 
6.3 
3.7 
1.4 



§ 



«s 




62 







4U1fl 



1.03 
3.64 

1.06 

6.35 

3.03 
1.24 
4.61 
6.32 
3.51 
2.10 
4.90 
4.29 



*** 



42.08 







(3 

a 



1^ 



W. 

w. &s. 

W.&N. 

s. & w. 

W. & E. 
S. & W. 
E. & N. 
N. & E. 
W. & 8. 
S. & E. 
W. &S. 
W. & S. 



w 



I 

as ^ 

IT,.;? 



d 



4.3 
4.2 
6.3 
6.4 
6.1 
7.1 
4.6 
4.0 
3.0 
4.9 
4.6 
5.1 



5.Q 



Hi 



H 



1 

6 
4 
7 
4 
4 
3 



29 




17./ 



-J" 






St. Louis. Missouri, is in Latitude 38 d. 37 m. 28 s. ; Lonpitudc 90 a. 15 m. 39 s.—CXicoUet.) The c^lcvatlon of St. tonis above the GuU of Mexico Is at iow 
Wfitcrmarkof tlieMisHibHippi,376fe«t; at tlie City Directrix, 406.5 fret J and the Barometer, used for the MofoorologJcal UbserratioUB, was placed durini? the ilrbfc 
hall ul tUe year, at an elevation*of 7<i icct, and, durinji; the Hocond half, at an elevation of GO feet alM.vc the City Plrectrix. ' 

t Or dinercuco bciwLX'u the dry and the wot hulh of the Thermomoter, In the open air. 
■ t CuUulalcd fryui the pveviuub coluuiu, 1 Ue^^ignating full Hatnratiou of the aluiospherc with moisture; 50, half eatoration, etc. 
11 la uunihci-.s from to 10, defc-igaatiuii euiire cleuruesii of aky, 10 eutiro cloudiuoss. 



• 



LIST OF WORKS IK THE LIBRARY. 



[Donated— Don, Depoeited— D^j^,] 



General Science. 

COLDEN CADWALLADEE, Sciectif. Corrcsp, Annii£cd by Asa Gray, M.D. Kew 

Haven, 1843, 1 vol. 8vo, (Don.) ' 

ERAUN", ALEX., Eelracbtungen uber die Erscheinung d€S Verjungung in der!?a- 

tur. Freib. im Erd^gau, 1840-^0, 1 vol. 4to. (Bcp.) 
03SIZ, PIL MAX., Naturalientausch. Prng., 1S23-2G, 1 vol. 8 vo. (B^p^) 
DIG. DBS SCIENCES NAT., par plusieurs Prof, ct des Brin. dea Ecoles de Pari?- 

Paris et Strasb. Tom. i-xxsvi, 8vo, 1816-1S3S. (Don.) 
SILLIMAX, BEXJ., LL.D., Araer/Jour. of Arts and Sciences- New Haven, Sm, 

Old Ser., Noa. 41-43, 1831-33. '(Bon) Old S.r., Nos. 86, 88-100,- New £er.; 

Nos. 1-6, 9-G4. (B^,) 

KORTOX'S LIT. IIEG1:.TEH, N, York, 1853, 1 vol. 8vo. (Ben.) 

JOUE. ACAD. NATUR. SCIENCES OF PHILAD,, New Set., vols, i, ii, ill, 1 * 

2. Piiil, 1347-55, 10 vols. 4' 0. (Bon.) 
JAHRBUCH ZUR YERBHEITUXG naturw. KenntnLse, rom Physical. Vereine 

znFraskf.-a-Maia. Frank,-a-M., 1831, 1 r^. 8vo. (Bon) 
ST. LOUIS MED. & SURG. JOUR., Marckand April. 1850, 1 No. Svo, VoI.xjt, 

Nos. 1-5, 1856. (Bon.) 

JOUR. FRANKLIN INSTIL, New Ser., vol. xviii, 4; xix, 5, 6; xxil, 3, 5; rxiii, 

4f xxiv, 4. Philad,, 183*>-9, Svo. (Bon.) 
TRANSYLVANIA JOUR. MED. A ASSOC. SCIENCES, ed. by L. P. Tandell, 

M.D., Nos. 1 to 26, except No?. 14, 19 A 22. Leiirgton, Ky., IS2S-S4. Svo. 



(Bon,) 



SMITIISOXIAN REPOET, 1S52 A 1S56. Wa.h., 2 vol.. 8to. 



ALOQUB 



(Don.) 



AX. REP. OF REiJENTS OF THE UXiV. OF STATE OF ]S'EW-YORK, 5Sth. 

Albany, 1845, 1 vol. Svo. (Bon.) 
BULLETIN OF PROOEED. NATIOX. IXSTlT. FOR PROM. OF SCI. Wash., 

1S41 & 1852, 2 vols. 870. (Don} 
PROCEED. AMER. AS>0. ADV. cCL, Ist, 2d, 3d, 4'h, 5th k 6th Meetings. Phi- 

larl ., Charlestown k Wash., 1 849-52, 5 vok. 8ro. f Dep.J 
MEMOIRS AMER. ACAD. ARTi AX0 SCIENCES. New Series, Tols. i,ii,i»; 



Gamb 



f-D^jj.i 



J^aiural 



Amer 



Waah., D. a, 1852, 1 vuL Svo. fUon.j 



(Smitberan. Ccnlrib.) 



T «. \V 1, « ""•' ^ oibf . NatnTsystem, mit ein. .osf. Erkli 
I^ &t MLllerj Pflanzen^js. mit a«=f. Erfci.j Natunro. des Mineral 
J. f . ttmelm Narfiberg, 1T?3-T9, tvm. i-xiy, Svo. fUon.; 



V. Ph. 



♦ 



-V 



r 

\ 

t 

I 



cu\ 



LIST OP- WORKS. 80 

[ER, BAB., Animal King., tiansL Lj H. McMurtrie, M.R S. York; 1821, 4 
vok, Svo- (Don,) ^ 

—, Le Kegn© Animal, distribue d'apres son Organization. Paris, 1817, 4 vols* 



8vo, (Don.) 
STIMPSON, "WM., Synop. Marine Inverteb. of Grai 

Contrib.) 1 vol. 4to. (Von.) 
HARLAN, RICIIAFJ), M.D., Fauna Amencana : 

N. Aicer. Philad., 1825, 1 vol. Sro. (Ikp,) 
FTMAN, JEFFPilES, M.D., Anat. Nerv. Sjs. tf 

Wa.^h., 1S53, 1 vol. 4to. (Don.) • 

PORTKAITS OF N. AMEB. INDIANS, bv J. M 



Svo. (Dan.) 



LEIDY 



Jeraej. Philad., 1855, 1 vol. 4to. (Don.) 

^ Flora and Fauna within Living Animals. Wa£h.,lS53, 1 vol- 4to. (Don.) 

— , Anct. Fauna of 2febra.>ka--be£crlp. Mammalia and Ghelonians, (Smith. Coa- 



tiib.) Wash., 1853, 1 vol. 4to. (Don,) 

—, Mem. on Extinct Species of Amer. Ox, (Smith. Gontrib.) Wash-, 1S52, 1 vol 

4to. (Don.) 
^, Descr. of Felts airo^, DicotyHmi, etc, Philad., 1SC2, 1 vol. 4to. ' (Don.) 
, Descr. of Fishes from the Carbonif. A Devon. Formations of the United States 



ii 



Philad-, 1S56, 1 vol. 4to. (Don.) 
GODMAN, J. D., ^LD., Amer. JNat, Hist Parti, Mastology. Philad., 1S26-28, 

3 vols. Svo. (Don,) 
WILSON, ALEX., Amer. Ornithology, or Nat. Hfet. of Birds of the U. Btate«» N. 

York and Philad., 1S28-9, 3 vols. Svo. {D€^.) 

NFTTALL, THOMAS, A.M., etc, Man. Ornith. U. States and Canada. Camb., 

1S32-34, 2 vols. Svo. (Dep.) 

^UDUBON, J. J., OmilholpgiealBiog.; or Habits of Birds of the United State*. 
Philad., 1831, 1 vol. Svo. (Dep.) 

LEVAILLANT, FR., Histoire Nat. d'Oi^aux Kouveaux et Eares de TAmer. et d^ 
Ind^. Tom. i. Parla, ISOl, 1 voL 4to. (Don,) 

CAT, OF N. AMER. REPTILES, in Mu^um of Smith. IJastituticn. Part i, Ser- 
pents. Wash., 1853, 1 vol. Svo. (Don,) 

SCHNEIDER, JOH. GOTTL., Ailgem. Naturgesch. d. Schildkrotoi. Leips., 17S% 

1 vol. Svo. (Dep,) 

HOLBROOK, JOHN ED., N. Amwr. Herpetology, toL ii, Phaad.,lS38, ItoI. #o 

(and Plates to vols, ii & iii). (Dep.) 
GIRARD, CIIAS., Contrib. to Nat. Hist, of Fr€?h--water "Fishes of N. America- I, 

Cotioids. Wash., (Smith. Contr.) 1S51, 1 vol. 4to. (Don.) 
MELSHEIMER, *F, E., Cat. of Cokoptera of ¥. S. Wash., 1S53, 1 vol. Svo. (Bm.) 
FABRICn, JO. CHRIS., Syc. Entom. Fleasb. et Llr^i^^ iTTo, 1 vrL 8va» (Dan.) 
S(X)PALI, JO. ANT., Eatomol. Camiolica. VindobonsD, 1763, 1 voL Svo. {Don.) 
MURRAY, JOAN, ANDR., De Vennibosinlepraoboiis et de luoibriawramsetisobs. 

Gott., 1?60, I ToL 12mo- (Bon.) 
LECONTE, J. L., M.D., F^vi^ion of Cicindelse of the U. States. PhiLad., 1Sj% 1 

vol. 4to. (Don-) 

. Elateridae of the XJ. States. Philad-, 1S53, 1 vol. 4to. (Don.) 
, Note# on Oa?f. of tht: Carabidse of the U. S. Phfl., 1S53, 1 Tol. 4to, (Don.) 
EIRBY, WM., and WM. SPENCE, Einleit, in d. Entomologie. Stxitf'^nrt 1^23- 

24, 2 vols. 8va (Dep.) 
^^E, J. A- E-, VeiSGch e» Kalurgesch, d. Emgeweidewunncr im feieris^w® Kot* 



^v 



p«r. Blankeaborg, 1782, 1 vol. 4to. (Dep 



1 

ft 
I 



I 

so LIST OF WORKS. 

EOSSMiESSLER, PROF. E. A., Icono^raphie d. Land.-a. Susswasser-MoliusfeeiJ. 

Heft.i-xiL Dresd. u. Leipz. 1835-42, 3 vols, 8vo, (Doh.) 
LEA, ISAAC, Synop.of the Family of Naiades. Phil., 1S3G, 1 vol. Sto, (Don.) 



J. w ., iHicroscop. Ji.xani. of boundmgs, made by U. S. Coast Surr. of At- 
lantic Coast, U. S. Wash.; (Smith. Contr.) 1831, 1 rol. ito. (Don.) 

-^ , Notes on Ne-ff- Spec. & Localities of Microicop. OrgaDi^ms. Wash., (Smith. 

Contr.) 1851, 1 toI. 4to. (Bon,) 

ZEXKER, JOXA. carl., Die Pflauit?!!, u. ihr wei^sensch. Studium uberh. Ein 
botaniacher Grurdriss. Eisenach, 1830, 1 vol. 6vo. (Don.) 

DE CANDOLLE, A. P., Vo^le^ilnge^ uber die Eotanik. 2t€r ThieJ. Physiologle. 
Stiittg. and Tubingen, 1S33, 1 vol. 8vo. (Bon.) 

LIXDLEY, JOHN, B.&.^,, Introd. to Nat. System of Botany; 1st Atner. ed.; Ap- 
pendix by John Torrey, M.D. N. York, 1S31, 1 vol. 8vo. (Bon.) 

SCHRADER, MEDICINALRATH, Jour, fur die Botanik., 1st, Bd. 2tes Stuck. 2ter 
Bd. 1st. Stuck. Gottingen, 1803. 1 numb, im 8vo. (Bon.) 

EPREXGEL, CURT., Hist, rei horbarial. Amsterdami, 1507-8, torn, i et ii, 2 vols. 
Svo. (Bep.) 

DARLINGTON, WJI., M.D., flora Cestrica. West Chester, Pa., 1837, 1 vol. Svo. 

(Bon,) ' ' 

EECIISTEIN, DR. J, M., Forst-botanik. od. vollst. Natnrgcsch. d. deutsch. Hol^ 

pflanzen. Erfurt, 1815, 1 roL Svo. (Bon.) 
PERINNE, BR. HENRY, Trop. Plants. Wa.h., 1838, 1 vol. 8 vo. (Bon.) 

., Rep., (Senate,) by Com. on AgricuL, 1833, 1 voL Svo. (Bon.) 

trRAY, ASA, M.D., Plants Wrightianas texano neo-mesieanw. Part i k ii, 1853- 
3, 2 vcl3. 4to. (Bon.) 

PJCHABD, A., Monographie des Orchid«es, recneniies dans la chain des NIl-GLer- 



tT^^f^v^'nr^^i^^''''lf '"'''■ Heidelberg, 1826, 1 yol. fol. (Bep.) 



a-M., 1805-8, 3 vols. 8vo, (Don.) 



prank.' 



COMSTOrPT Tf « rf r ^-^'^ ^^"^^ COMFAXY, 1S36, 1 vol. 4to. (Don.y 
(Dep ^^^ ^" "^'"^^^^- ^- O^^^^tog^osJe. Held., 1826, 1 vol. Svo. 

•, Characteristik der F.I.arteD. Heid., 1823, 1 vol. 8ro. (Bep.) 

-, Grandnjge dor Geologic u. GeogBOBie. Hekl., 1?31, 1 ^ol. Svo. (Bep) 

w' x^' ;;;. , ^^' *^**''- ^^P'- °^ r-'^^t ^^ I"^^. ^V-L-cocsin, and Ills., in 1839. 
Wash., 1844. 1 Tol. Svo. (Bon.) 

.Rep. Qeol. Reconn. and Sorvey of Indiana, ia 3831 and 1S38. Indianaj^lH, 
1639, 1 vol. 8ro. {Bon.) 
FEATIIFRSiTnvirAT'^TT o ^ ^ . _ 



Frame Wash., 1836, 1 vol. 8 m (Don.) 
'ER3, H. B., 2d Ann. ilep. Geo!. Esplor. e 
vol. Svo. (Bon.) 



ranuu 



HanL'b., 1S3S, 1 



/nf : ' ' ''°- ^*P- ^*^^- '^°'^- of Ohio. Columbus, 133S, 1 vol. Svo. 

EEP^ OP SEC. OF WAR on Geol. and Tofog. of California. Wa.h., 1S30, 1 Tol. 
Svo. (Bon.) . 

IHEMO^T MEUT. J. C, Rep. of Espl. bet. Misuuri Riv. and Rocky Mountains- 

Wasb., 181;], 1 vol. Svo. fDo».; 
TROOiT, G 5th Geol. Rep. of E^pl. of Tena^^ee, in 1835. Nashv., l^iO, 1 toI- 



LIST OP WORKS^ 91 



EMORY, LTEUT. (X>L. W. II., Milit. Ecconn. from Ft. Leavenworth to San Diego, 

Cal., in 1857. Wt?b., 1848, 1 vol. 8vo. (Don.) 
JACKSON, CII AS. I., Geol. * >Un. Rep. of Mich. Wash., 1S49, 1 vol. 8vo. (Lon,) 
FOSTER, J. W., and J. D. WHITNEY, Rep. on Geol. & Topo^. of Lake Sap, Land 

District. Part i A it. Wash., 1850-1, 3 voh. 8vo. (Don.) 
SWALLOW, G. C, Ist & 21 Hep. of Geol. Sur, of Missonri. Jefferson city, 1855; 1 

voL Svo. Do. ."^1 Rc'p. of so mo, 1SJ7, pamph. 
MACLURE, WM,, Obe. on Geol.of thj U. States. Phil., 1J=47, 1 vol. 8\'o. (Bon.) 
BRANDE, WM. T., F.R.S., Outlines of Geol. Lond.,lS20, 1 vol. Svo. fJDan.; 
HAYDEN, II- H., Gecl. Eaiajs. Bait., 1820,1 vrL 8vo. (Don.) 
ROGERS, WM. B., Rop. Geo!. Snr. of Virg'nia for 1837. 1 voL 4to. (Don.) 
DE KAY, J. E., L. C. BECK, & T. A. CONRAD, Rep. on Geology of New York. 

Albany, 1340, 1 vd. Svo. (Don.) 
REPORT OF EXPLOR. & SUR. cf Pacific R, R. Route?, n53-4, vol. u Waah.^ 

1855, 4to. (Don.) 
TRASK, J. B., Geoi. of a>ast Mta. t Sierra Nevada, Cal., 1B54- 1 vol. Svo. (Dep.) 
LYELL, CHAS., F.R.S., Prin- cf Geol., 4th ed. London, 1S35, 1 vcl. 12aio. (Dep) 
GEOL- REPORT of State of N. York for 1S38. Albany, 1?38, 1 voL Svo. Platen, 

1 vol. 4to. (Dep.) 
E(EMER, C. P., Das Rheinische TTebcrgaD^gebirge. Han., 1844, 1 voL 4to. (Dep.) 
MEMS. GEO. SUR. OF GREAT BRITAIN. Decades ii, iv A vi. LonJun, lSi9, 

1852. (Don,) 
BROWN, H. G., Index Geologicus. Stuttgart, 1848-9, 3 vcl3. Svo. (Dep.) 



-, Lethea Geagnostica. Stuttgart, 1S37, 2 vob. Svo. (Dep.) 



, Do. Abbildungen. Stnttgart, 1837, 1 vol. foL (Dep.) ^ 

MORION^ S. G., M.D., Sjnop. of Organ. Rems,. of the Cretaceous Groapi, U. States. 



Philad., 1834, 1 voL Svo. (Dep.) 






JVatural Philosophy/. 

M- 

• BOOTH, PROF. J. C, SmithsoD. Rep. on Recent Inaprovements in Chemical Arts. 

Wash., 1851, 1 vcl. Svo- (Don.) 
DOC, SENATE U. S. on Manuf. of Salt. Wash., 1839, 1 toI. Svo. (Don.) 
DUMA«. Traite de Chimie. Parfe, 1828-33, 4 vols, Svo. (Don.) 
LARDNER, REV. DIONYS., Treat, on Porcelain and Glass. Puilad., 1834, 1 voL 

12ino. (Bon.) 
McCULLOH, PROF. R. S., Reps, from Sec. of the Treas. of ^ient- InveBtigations 

ia relation to Sagar and Hydrometers, under enperintend. of Prof. A. D. Bache* 

Wash., 1848, 1 vol. Svo. (Don,) 
ROSE, HEIN RICH, Handbh. d. analvti?chcn Ghemie. 4te. Aufi. Berlin, 1338. 

2v(as. 8vo. (Dtp.) 
WEHRLE, DR. ALOIS, Ltrbch. d. Probier u. Huttcnkuiide. Wlea, 1841, 2 vols. 

tr-^. PIal«,l voL foL (T^ep.) 
LIEBIG, JUSTUS, Chemistry In its Application to Agricnl. Mid PhysioL N. York, 

184?, 1 vol. 4t^. (Dtp.) 
BIOT, J. B., Precis Elementaire de Physique Es|>eriinentale. 3inc. ed. Pan% 

1824, ^ viOa. Svo. 

MUNCKE, G. W., nandbch. d. Naturkhrs. Ueid., 1829-30, 2 vols. 8m (D4p.) 
BROWN, AISDR., Phil, of Physics. N. Yoik, UU, 1 vol. 8m (D^) 
0EHLER, 8. S. T., Physikalisches Worterbuch. VII Bii. L A 2. Abtlu Ldp^ 

1833-36, 2 vcO^ Svo. (Dep.) 
iSUYOT, ARNOLD. Meteorol*^. Table, prepared for SmithKm. Inst, ^s^sb., 1S52, 
^ 1 voL Sw. iDon.) 



« 



1 

I 



9^ IIST OF WORKS. 

METEOEOLOG. REGISTER, 1831-42, from Observ. of OJ. Med. Dep. U. S- Army. 
Wa^h., 1851, 1 vol. 8vo. (Don,) # . 

ISPY, .J AS. P., Rep. on Meteorology. 170511., 1850, 1 vol. fol. (Don.) 
CHAPPELSMITH, JOHX, Account of Tornado near New Harmony, April 30th; 
1852. Wash., 1855, 1 toL 4to. (Don.) 

METEOROLOGISCHE BEOBACIITUX^EN der Naturforechenden Gesell.chaft m 
Zurcb. Zurch, 1S37-38, 2 vols. 4to. (Don.) 

GILLISS, LIEUT. J. W., U. S- S,, Magnet. & Meteor. Obser. Wasli., 1845, 1 rcl. 
8?o. (Dep.) 

EACHE, A. D., Magnet. & Meteor, Observ. at Girard College, for 1840-45. Wash., 
1847, 3 vols. 8vo.; 1 vol. Maps, foL (Dep,) 

HUMEOLDT, ALES, v., U^kr d. Hptur.'acben d. Temperatur-Terscbiedenbeiteu 

aufd. Erdkorper. Btriin, 1827* 1 to! 4to, (Dep) 
JAMES, KING OF SCOTS, TO TTCHO BRAIIE. Pamphlet, 1631. (Don.) 



MORE 



uruxUDi:.^, vv.u. in., Vie funf ^\ urfeLs^bnit t. Landau, 18.32. 1 toI. 4to. (Don,) 

WALER, JAS. fried.. Algebra. 5te. AuQ. v. G. Fr. Wucherer. Carkrube, 1810. 
1 vol, 8vD. (Don.) 

TEG A, G. FREIH. r., Logaritbmisca-trigoiiometrisches Handb. 3te. Aufl. leip^., 

i£ll. 1 vol. Svo. (Don.) 
EISEN, ADAM, Recbnung auEder Linienund Fedem. 1574, 1 vol. 12ma (Don,) 
BOWDLTCH, NATfi*L, New Amer. Fract, Navigator. N. York, 1817, 1 vol. 8to 

(Doii.) 

J. HAM., Prac. Navigator. Lond., im. 1 vol. Svo. (Den.) 
MAUKY, LIEUT. M. F., U. S. N., Eiplor. and Sailiug Directions. Wash., 1831, 
.$ 4to. (Don.) 

AilER. EPIIEM. & NAUT. ALMANAC for 1858. Wasb., 1S56, Sro. (Bon.) 
IlEPORTS U. S. CO.iST SURVEY, im. New York-1850; 1851; 1852; 1S53; 

13a4— 4 voh. 8vo. & i vols. ito. (Don.) 
WiSLIZENUS, A., M.D., Mtm. of Tour to New Mexico. Waah., 1848. I toI. 

Svo. (Don.) 

ELLET, OIAS. L, Contrib. to Phjs. Geog. U, Slates. Part I, Mississippi Valley, 
(Smith. Contrib.) ^Vasb., 1849, 1 toL 4to. (Bon.) 

•^rch xulogy. 

WIIITTELSEY, CHA3., Des. of Ancient Works in Obio. Wash., (Smitli. Contrib.) 
1S52. lvoL4to. (Dm.) 

GLIDDON, GEO. K., AEcieot Egjpt. Philad., 1848. 1 vol. 4to. {Dm.) 

Philosophy, 

KRAtJSE, K. CimtST. FR., Anfungsgninde d. aHg. Theorie d« Musik. Hgb. t. 
Victor Strana Gottingen, 1833. . 1 ttI. 8to. fJJjs ; 

AW'S a. ^-thetik ; od. A. Hiil. des Fchoneii. Gott.. 1P37. 1 rol. 8m (Dtp-) 



T. d. ErkenntDi«, Gott. 1836, 1 Trl. Svo. (Dap.) 
,_,__._ „ ^ ^ - 3. Philosophie. G<^t.,]82S. 1 vol. 8v«. ID^4 

AimEN3, H., Coure de ^ftychdogie. Paris, 1836-8, 2 yclj. Svo. fl>«?».; 

Statistics. 

ME--SAUE AM) OOC. Wash., 1855. 3 ycla Svo fDon ) 



» 



\ 



TRANSACTIONS 



OF T U £ 



ACADE\[Y OF SCIENCE OF ST. LOUIS. 



jM ^kij ■ 



JOURNAL OF IMIOCEEDINGS. 

February 1% 1857. 
Vice President, Dr. A. Wisi.tzenus, in tlie chnir. 

A letter Avas re;i'T from tlie Hon. Geo. P. 31 arsli, of Burling- 
ton, Vt., elected a Correspon'ruin; Member. 

T)r. Geo. G. Shumard presented specimens of coal from the 
Coal Measnre^s near Fort Smitli, in Arkansas. He remm'kojl 
that he had traced the rocks of the Coal Measures from Wash- 
int^on Co., in that State, to Fort Belknap, in Texas; and they 
hn'tl been found about Idn miles further .southward. In the 
neighborhood of Fort Smith, the stratum of coal was, in some 
places, eight feet in thickness : tlie quality was good, the coal 

burning and coking well. « i rt t 

Spines of Crinoids, a Spirifer, and other fossib from the Coal 
Measures in Madison Co., Ills., were presented by Mr. Edward 
Iloldon; also, through Dr. PoILik, two boxes of mmerals and 
shells from South America, by C. C. ^Vliittolsey, Lsq. 

M.^srs. Will. Glasgow% .Tr., .Tohu Halsidl, AVm. H. Belcher, 
F. T. L. Bovle, and E. S. Lemoine, M.O., were elected Asso- 
ciate 3Iemliers. 



Man-h 0, 1357. 

Vice President, Dr. A. Wislizexus, in the chair. 

Letters were read from I. A. Lapham, Esip, of 3iihvaukie, 
^ri8„ and from Dr. R. B. Fleming, of Mine La:>L.tte, acknow- 

1 



91 TEANS, OF THE ACAD. OF SCIENCE. 



/ leclging their election as Correspondents ; also, a letter from 
Prof. S. F, Baird, of the Smitlisonian Institution, 

Messrs. J. W. Luke, Taylor Blow, EdwM Bredell, Jr., Fred, 
Mosberger, and C. C. Whittelsey, were elected Associate 
Members. 



March 23, 1857. 
Vice President, C. P. Chouteau, Esq., in the chair. 



M 



ar. Cliouteau proposed that the Academy should send a 
taxidermist to accomp 



trip of the Amer. Fur 



any him, free of expense, on the annual 
Company's boat up the Missouri River, 
and that he should be provided with the necessary preserva- 
tives. The proposition was accepted, with the thanks of the 
Academy to Mr. Chouteau. 

Hon. E. l^ixnQ, Capt* Geo. B. McCIellan, and Mr. Silas Bent, 
of Chicago, Ills., were elected Correspond4nits ; and 3Iess^. S. 
A. Holmes, F. 17. Cronenbold, and Drs. T. L. Papin, D. M. 
Cooper, and E. F. Sxiiith, were elected As^'ociate Members. 



4/m7 6, 1857. 

The Prcsifffnt, Dr. B. F. Sihtmard, in the chair. 

Letters were read from Capt. G. B. McCIellan, acknow- 
ledging his election as a Correspondent ; also, a letter from 
Dr. F. V. Haydcn, and from ^Fr. W. O. Binuey, of Gernian- 
tonrn, Penn., offenng to mnko up a suite of lanrf s^hells for the 
Academy. The thanks of the Academy were roted to Mr. 
Binney. 

The Corresponding Secretary laid npou the table the Vnt- 
ent Office Report for 185.5, and Expl.,r. .t Sur. of Facif R- 
Pi, Routes, Vol. I., frora the Hon. L. M. Kennett ; the Proceed, 
of the Amer. Phil. 8oc. of Phila-i, 1«fi6, from the Society; 
the Proceed, of the Acad, of Nat. Sciences, Phihid.,! 857, irom 
the Academy; and Explonitions in the Dacotnh Country, 
185d, by Lieut. G. K. Warren, tJ. S. A., from the author. 

Mr. Moss presented some iine -specimens of cobalt, nickel, 
and copper, from Mine La Motte. 

Prof J. J. Rt ynolds Eleazer Sherman, Esq., Dr. Isaiah 
For>>es, and 3fr. Wm. IL Chappell, were' elected Associate 
Me minors. 



JOURNAL OF PROCEEDINGS. 95 



April 27, 1^57. 

The President, Dr. B. F. Shumard, in the chair. 

Letters Avcrc read from Silas Bent, Esq., and Hon. E. Lane, 
of Chicago, elected Correspondents ; also, a letter from Prof. 
S. F. Batrd, of the Smithsonian Institution ; from Lieutenant 
G. K. Warren ; from the Librarian of the L^niv. of Virginia ; 
from the Western Acad, of Nat. Sciences, Cin., O. ; from Lieut. 
M. F. Maury, Obsci-vatory at Wash., L>. C. ; from the Masonic 
Coll., Lexington, Mo.; from the Acad. Nat. Sciences, Philad.; 
from the President of Harvard Coll., Cambridge ; from J. L. 
Sibley, Librarian of Ilarv. Coll.; from the Librarian of Yale 
Coll. ; from the Librarian of the N. York State Library, Alba- 
ny,— severally acknowledging the receipt of the Transactions 

of the Academy. 

The Corresponding Secretarj- laid upon the table the Pro- 
ceed, of the Bos. Soc. of Nat. History, 1856-7, and the Con- 
stitution and By-laws of the same, 1855, from the Society; 
Catalogue of Dart. Coll., 1855, 1856-7, from the Librarian ; 
New York ^leteorology, 1S26-1850— Report of Select Comit- 
tee to visit Charitable Institutions of New York, 1857— Cat. 

V «tatP T.ibrarv. 2 Vols.. 1856— and Seventh Ann. 



N 



U 



1857— from the Librarian; List of For. Correspondents of the 
Smith. Inst'n, from the Ass't Secretary. 

Specimens of a Trilobite {Dalmania tridentifera) from Bir- 
mingham, ]Mo., and bituminous and caunel coal from Big Mud- 
dy River, Ills., were presented by Mr. Holden, and a slab con- 
taining trilobites, by Mr. Moss ; bead-dress, quiver, and arrows, 
of a Comanche, by Dr. C. W. Stevens; and specimens of rep- 
tiles, by Dr. West, of Jeffei-son Co., Mo. 

On motion of Dr. W. M. McPheeters, the President was 
authorized to extend an invitation from the Academy to the 
Amer. Association for the Adv. of Science to hold its next 
annual meeting at St. Louis. 



'% 



May 4, 185<. 



Dr 



The Proceed, of N. Orieans Acad, of Nat. Sciences, \ oi. 
No. 1, and Constitution and By-laws of the same, were re- 
ceived. 

Letters were read from the Amer. Pliil. Society of Pkiia-l.; 

from the Essex Institute, Salem, Mass., and from A. D. Bache, 



96 TRANS. OF THE ACAD. OP SCIENCE. 



■ 

Sup. U. S* Coast Survey, severally acknowledging the receipt 
of the Trans- of the Academy. 

W. G. Binney, Esq*, Germantown, Pa,, W. O. A}Tes, M.D., 
San Francisco, CaL, Mr, Richard Dudding, Ills., H. Schoenich, 
M.D., St. Charles, Mo*, and Prof. John Locke, Jr., were elected 
Correspondents. 

Messrs. Henry Hitchcock, F. Holske, and J. E. Yore, were 
elected Associates. 



May 18, 1857, 
Vice Pres. Dr. A. Wislizexus in the chair. 

I 

Dr. Gregory presented a tusk of a Walrus and a Whale's 
tooth. 

Prof. Edward Daniels, of Madison, AYis., Edward H.Beebe, 
Esq,, of Galena, and Willard C. Flagg, Esq., of Paddock's 
Grove, Ills., were elected Correspondents; and Prof X M. 
Post, Rev. Wm.H. Woodward, and 3Iessrs. Caleb Oliver anJ 
James G. Soulard, As5?ociate Memhers. 



June 1, 1857. 
Dr. C. A. Pope in the elmir. 

J ■ 

Letters were read from the Librarian of the Univ. of Mich-; 
frotii the N. Orl. Aea^l. of ^^at. Sci. ; from the Franklin List., 
Philad.; from the Bos. Soc. of Nat. Ilis.; from the Elliot Soc. 
of Nat. Hist., Charleston, S. C; and from Prof S. F. Bainl, ot 
the Smith. Inst., — severally acinowlechdiif' the receipt of the 



Transactions of the Academy. 

The Corresponding Secretary laid upon the table the N 




Orleans Med. & Surg. Journal, 1857, rrom . 

Proceed, of the :^r. Orleans Acad, of Nat. Sciences, Vol l-» 
No. 1 (2 copies) ; the Rep. of Sanitar}- Com. on Epidemic Yel- 
low Fever, by members of the Acad., 1853 (2 copies) ; Kep. 
on Geol. Survey, by the Academy; Sketch of Gen. Andrew 



Gayan^: President's Ann. Address 



Acndemy. 



(2 copies), from the 



The Committee ajipointed to confer with Col. A.J. Vanghajr 
concorninor the pm-chase of his interest in the Ilaydcn Col- 
lection of Nebraska fus^ils, reported, that they had conchidert 
the pmehase of his entire interest, bein<T one-fonrth, for the 
very moderate sum of |40O, and that the'Academy was mucti 



* 



JOURNAL OF PROCEEDINGS. 9T 

indebted to tlic liberality of Messrs. George Partridge, Wui. 
II. Smith, and G. F. Filley, associate inombers, wlio had snl)- 
scribod, each, $100 toAvard the accomplishment of that object. 
One-half of the whole collection was now in the possession of 

the Academy. 

The thanks of the Academy were voted to the gentlemen 

named for their very liberal contribution. 

Dr. T. C. Hilgard was authorized to procure, at the expense 
of the Academy, a remarkable fossil fish, that had been found 
in the Cual Measures, in Illinois. 

Dr. Hilgard made some interesting remarks on the corres- 
pondence "of the several divisions of the vertebrate skull with 
the vcrtcbrffi, in respect of their parts or processes, illustrating 
his observations from crania of various animals. 

Rev. John Hi<rginbothara, of Halifax, N. S., was elected a 



W 



oemer, 



M.D., were elected Associate Members. 



June 15, 18.57. 
The President, Br. B. F. Shumarb, in the chair. 

The .Tour, of the Franklin Inst., Philad., ]Mny, 1857, was 
received from the Societv ; and a copy of " Med. Statistics of 
the F. S. Anuy, 1839-54," was presented by Dr. MePlicetcrs. 

Dr. Pope read a letter from the Smithsonian Institution, 
recommending that the collection of specimens in Nat. His- 
tory made bv Capt. John Pope, U. S. Corps Top. Eng., and 
by letter presented to the Academy at a former meeting, 
should be arrantred and labeled at the Institution before be- 



forwarded from Washington. Accepted. 



min 



erals, by Dr. C. A. Pope, who, also, deposited in the Museum 
the raineralogical and geological collection of the late George 
Coiiier ; a limestone slab, shoAving deep casts of mud-cracks, 
found un^lcrlying a stratum of sandstone, on the line of the 
Pacific Railroad^ by Mr. J. Moss ; specimens of CmthophjI- 
him^ Platyostoma, Dcdmania fridentifera^ and MynconeUa, 
from the Delthyris Shaly Limestone, near Birralngbani, 3Io., 
by Mr. Ilolden ; and crj'stals of sulphate of lime from ElLs- 



H 



d, 



ill 



aralleloiir; 



Korth and 



the 



is 



ijiwe two 
enclosure 



98 TRANS- OF THE ACAD. OF SCIENCE. 



was a single conical pile or niounrl of stones- It was situated 
on an isolated hill, near the junction of Osage Fork and Gas- 
conade Rivers. Some ten or twelve similar mounds of stones 
were obsen'cd occupying a commanding position on the hills 
along the valley, and standing some 300 feet above the Gas- 
conade. 

Mr. Holmes observed, that similar stone mounds were men- 
tioned by Messrs. Squier and Davis as occurring in the Scioto 
Valley, 12 miles West of Chillicothe ; also, at Somerset, Ohio, 
and Beaver Creek, in Virginia. In some places the stones 
were vitrified by the action of fire, and it had been inferred, 
that these mounds had been used as signal stations in the age 
of the mound-builders. Such mounds Were distinguishable 
from the stone heaps of modem Indians, covering a grave, as 
obsei-ved by Col. Fremont, West of the Rocky Mountains, and 



by others, East of the Mississippi. 

Prof D. S. Sheldon, of Iowa Coll., Davenport, and W. H, 
Barris, Esq., of Iowa City, were elected Correspondents, and 
the Hon. Samuel Reber, an Associate Member. 



June 29, 1857. 
Vice Pres. Br. A. Wislize^ntus in the chair, 



ecretarj' laid upon the table " Report 
f N. American He1iciJ», by John H. 



The Con-espon diner S 

on two New Species of ^ -...,_„_ 

Kedfield," from the Author; the "College Jour/of'' Med. Sci- 



ence," Cin 

Human 



'? 



and the Pro- 



jrnuua,, oy j,A. Jleigs, MA)., from the Author; and the rro- 
ceed. of the Acad, of Xat. Sci., Philad., March, 1857, from the 



Society. 



Nuraeroiis mounted and preserved specimens of mammals', 



birds, re 



Upper Missouri 

er \yy tlie taxidermist sent by the Academy to accompany Mr. 
C. P. Chouteau, on the annual trip of the Anier. Fur Co.s 
boats, were received and deposited in the Museum. The 
tliaiiks of the Academy were voted .to Mr. Chouteau. 

Dr. T. C. Hilgard remarked, on the skull of vcrtebrata, that 
there ^-ere, besides the tranprorse processes, five parts in each 
vertebral ring ; and these mi^ht be traced in fee correspond- 
ing divisions of the skull. — - 1--- 



was 



ted fur the display of the correspondencies of the appendages 
(hteujal arches) ; for the parts were more diHJoiiited, and were 
tvpieal of the general plan. The temporal bones belonged to 
the lower jaw astheii- coxa, but were inserted into the cranial 
crevices. There were five pairs of ribs in the fish con-espoud- 



JOURNAL OP PROCEEDINGS. 99 



ing to the five vertebral arelies ; and iLere were also five pairs 
of extremities. The trnnsverse processes of each part could 
be shown in the base of the slciill. He ffive ilhustrations from 



different 



skull. 



Lu McGregor, MJ)m of Chamois, Mo 



respondent, and Messrs, Thomas Allen and S. A. Ranlett, 



Associates. 



Jxdy 27, 1857. 

Vice Pres. Dr. Wislizexus in the chair. 

The following works were receired from Dr. Bennett Dow- 
ler, of Xew Orleans: N. Orleans Med. & Surg. Journal, July, 
1857; Tableaux of Yellow Fever, New Orleans, 1853; Geo- 
graphical, Commercial, Geolo^cal, and Sanitarj' Condition of 
Xew Orleans; Experimental Researches by Bennett Dowler; 
Progiess of Discovery in the Ner\^ous System, and Med. Eth- 
ics, by Bennett Dowler; and "Decouverte de rAmeiique par 

leg Xonnauds." 

Dr. T. C. Ililgard made some highly interesting remarks 
upon the subject of Systematic Botany, which he illustrated 



m tne veg 



table kingdom. He maiutained, that a connected series 
throughout, from the lowest to the highest order, might be 
established. 

Messi-s. James C. Reid, Herman Kcenig, J. X. Dubarr}', and 
Hon JnfiTi IVf TvriitiK ^f^rp plecttul Associate Members. 



August 10, 1857. 
Dr. E. II. Gregory in the chair 



I 



Hist., X. York, 



from 



ackn^vledging the rece 



^-:i. 



the Academy. 

The Corresponding Secretary laid upon the table the ^ 
moirs of the Amer. Acad, of Arts * Scieuccp, ^^v^^ Ben, % 
VL, Part I,, and the Proceed, of the Amer. Acad, of Arts & 

Vols. I., 11. tfc III,, from the x 
lin Inst., Plulad., July, 1>>1^ and D 
wsys,fri>m the Society; '^Prodronnis Descriptionis Anima- 





100 TKA^^S. OF THE ACAD, OF SCIENCE. 



lium Ercrtebratonim, quae in Exped. ad Pacificuin Sopten. 
obsen^avit et descripsit, W. Stimpson," from the Author. 

Specimens of fossil ferns, fossil wood, anA coal, from the 
Coal Measures in Jackson Co., Ills., ivere presented by Mr. 
Edw. Holden; an Indian axe of specular iron ore, and a quoit, 
found in Crawford Co., Mo., by Dr. Williams ; some small 
fragments of human bones taken from a conical stone heap 
on Piney Creek, in Pulaski Co., Mo., by Mr. Watkins ; and a 
number of Indian implements from the southeastern part of 
the State, by N. Paschall, Esq. 



August 24, 1857. 
Vice Pies. Dr. Wislizexits in the cluiii 



y^ 



Chester, Ills. 
Dr. T. C. TTilgard read a paper on " The Idea of Species." 



RefeiTed 



ford, M.D., of Troy, N. Y., and Dr. Willi 

Co., Mo., were elected Con-espondents, and 
Bliss, an Associate Member. 



W 



Will 



September 7, 1857. 
The President, Dr. B. F. Siil-mard, in the chnir. 

Letters were read from Dr. Berthold Seenian, Eev. John 
Higginbotham, and Dr. T. W. Blatchford, acknowledging 
their election as CoiTespondents. 

The Smithsonian Report was received from the Institution, 
and the Jovir. of the Franklin In^t., Voh LXIV., ?^"o. 380, from 
the Society. 

Presentations were made of a beautiful specimen of nitro- 
ammoniuret of copper from the Stanton Copper Mines, from 
Mr. H, W. Leifingwell ; a Liziird, from Dr. Shumard ; and WO 
crania of Assiniboin Indians, from Dr. John Evans, F. S. <je- 

Whittelsey, Esq., made some interesting reninrlt« 
npon the rocks of the shores of the St. La^vr.nce, and pre- 
sented specimens of minerals which he had conectctl there. ^ 

Dr. Shumard stated that ho had extended an invitation tn 
behalf of the Academy to the Amcr. Association for the Adv. 



ologist. 



JOURNAL OF PROCEEDINGS. 101 

of Science, at the late meeting in Montreal, to hoM its next 
ineetin.2 in St. Louis ; that it had been well received, and 
might be accepted another year. 



September 21, 1857. 
The President, Dr. B. F. Suumard, in the chair. 



V 



Bos. Soc. of Nat. Hist., August 



No 



381, from the Society; Proceed, of the Elliot Soc. of Natural 
Hist., Charleston, S. C, 1857, from the Society. 

A letter was read from Prof D. S. Sheldon, of Iowa Coll., 
Davenport, accompanying a suite of shells from that vicinity, 
and requesting an exc'hange. Referred to the Committee on 



D 



og>' 



r. 



grow 



corn» 



Dr. B. F. Shumard read^a paper entitled "Descriptiona of 
New Species of Blastoidea from the Palaeozoic Rocks of the 
Western States of North America; with Observations on the 
Structure of the genus, Pentremites." Referred to a com- 



mittee. 



from 



to Mm by Prof. E. Emmons, of Alhanv, N. Y., dated the 15th 



^ tember, 185 <, by which it appe 
the Univ. of Zurich, 



n 



plants 



had come to the conclusion that not a single plant, either of 
the Richmond Coal Field, or of the K. Carolina deposits, was 
Jurassic, or Oolitic, as had been maintained 1)y Rogers, Hall, 
LyeU, and others : and moreover, that several of them were 
identical with those of the Keuper, in the vicinity of Stutt- 
gart (Wtirtemburg). Sir Charles Lyell, having examined the 
whole matter anew, relating to the age of the Virginia and N. 
Carolina Sandstones, with Veferenee to the _ 
Emmons and the views of Prof. Heer, had been induced to 

change Lis opinion. 

" " ' ' '■ ;atfcd as neccs- 



reports 



Th 



sar 




names 



N"OT 



Fccopteris /'ilmft/s is probably Loecopteris and PMembles 
Z. gemiinans (Geoif.) His Infra-TJassic P. CaroUmmis is re- 
lated to Guthleria anffuatiloba (Stemb.), but is distmgnished 



^T 



'i?^ 



1 



--n 



102 TRANS. OF TUE ACAD. OF SCIENCE. 



from that species by its indusium separating into more than 

four parts. 

Loccopttris is a related genus, but has the sporocarp form- 
ed of a small number of large sporangia ])laoed in the form of 
a star. Prof Heer calls it Gutbieria Carolinensis. The F. 
htiUattiS of Bunbury is P. Stuttgartiensis of Brogniart, is 
widely spread in Europe, and belongs to the Keupen N'eti- 
ropteris lineafolia (Bunb.) is Cydopteris^ related to (7. pa- 
chyrachis (Geoff.) JPterozamites deciissatus (Emmons) is 
PAongifolium (Bronn),and a Pterophyllum is PterJongifo- 
Hum. Pterozamites is much like Zarnites distans (Sterab.), 
but differs in species, at least. 

Prof Heer regards the Walchia diffusus not as JLycopodi- 
um^ but as Taxodites^ close to T. Mun^terlcinus. Calamites 
arenaceu.% Strangerites ohUqwts^ and ^rostiehiles ohlongus^ 
are good. The latter is the Pecopteris Whithyensis so much 
relied upon by Rogers and Lyell as a Liassic species* They 
mistook the character of the side veins. 

Thus the views of Prof Emmons -with regard to the Con- 
necticut River Sandstone and the N. Carolina and Virginia 
Coal Series woiild seem to be sustained. The decision of Prof 
Heer is, that the upper part, where the jdants referred to oc- 
cur, is Keuper of Europe, and that the mass, containing the 
Promotherlum and Butiodon depsisamus^&c,^ is Permian, or 
can not be" newer than the Bunter-sandstone; and it is said, 
as Prof Emmons has said before, that the PromotJienum syl- 
vestre is the most ancient mammal yet discovered. 

Rev. Dr. George White, of Florence, Ala., Rev. Chas. H. 
A. Dull, Calcutta, E. India, Sir William E. Logan, T. Sterry 
Hunt, Esq., and L. A. H. Latour, Esq., of Montreal, Can., Dr. 
Hoy, of Racine, Wis., and Prof E. Emmons, of Albany, K Y., 
were elected Corresponding Members. 



October 5, 1857. 

r 

The Pre.«irlent, Dr. Siiumaeb, in the chair. 

A letter was read from James G. Souhinl, Esq., presenting 
to the Academ)^ a very fine specimen of galena from the 
Mammoth Lead Mines of Mr. Wm. Marsden, three miles from 
Galena, weighing 210 lbs. ; also, a letter from Lieut. F. T. 
Brj-an, U. S. Anny, accompanying the presentation of :i ^'^^^ 
able collection of mammals and "reptiles (n9. per nuraberea 
catalogue by Mr. Wm. S. Wood), consisting of a variety of 
snj^eg, lizards, ploverV cgof, budg^T, prairie-dog, gniy vvoll, 
frafflao, gtnped squirrel, antelope, «te., collected along the 



JOURKAL OF PROCEEDINGS. 103 

valley of the South Tlatte to the Rocky Mountains, in the 
months of June, July, and August, 1857. 

The thanks of the Academy were voted to the gentleTnen 
named for their valuable donations. 

Two cases for the Museum were presented by Mr. Spencer 

—^' "^ "J" ~ 

Smith. ■*■ 

Dr. Ililgard exhibited a curious specimen of an ear of corn, 

with sever.al distinct ears growing around a central one, and 
made some remarks exphiuatorj' of the phenomenoTi. He, 
also, presented a specimen of Kelumhium lutettm^ the mytho- 
logical Lotus of the Egyptians, from the American Bottom, 
an*d made some interesting observations respecting its nutri- 
tive character. 



I 



October 19, 1857. 

I 

Vice President, Dr. Wislizexus, in the chair. 

Letters were read from Sir William E. Logan, Rev. George 
White, Prof E. Emmons, and T. Stony Hunt, Esq., acknow- 
ledging their election as Correspondents. , , , rp 

The Correspondinfj Secretary laid upon the table the "la- 
conic Svstem, based on Observations made in K. York, Mas- 
eachusctts, Maine, Vermont, and Rhode Island, by E. Em- 
mons," presented by Dr. B. F. Shumard. ^ _ 

Dr. T. C. Hilgard read a paper, entitled " Exposition ot a 
Natm-al Series of Immediate Catholic Affinities in the Vege- 
table Kingdom." 

He remarketl-, in Umine, that from experience it was deemed .idvisable to 
iecure a just appreciation of what is actually iinpliod, and on what terms. 
All T^presentadons were limited, conditionally requiring the proper key m 
order to be nnderstood. Sensuous figures were required in order to ren- 
der any idea fixed and transmiasible. All clear definitions fiually rested 
Aemselves into sensuous images of plain meaning, implying intellectnai 
ideas. Popular classification was according to effect and purposes ; scicn- 
tiflc elassificatioa was according to causes. A philosophic representation 
required both the causes and effects to be held in view : it thus became a 
part of popular language. The popular appUcation of words was a rccoru 
significant of innumerable observed relations. An efficient definition could 
be given only synthetically on the known causes. Where the actuatiM 
ouues were unknown, as in the phenomena of life, description must stand 
foremost. The given conditions, or original first po.nfe of view, were the 
only safe material, because on them we could proceed comlusively as on 
causes. In systematic Botany, the given eonditmos were i»rfm^*a/ M'UitAf 
for identification and Mality o/ rcsemNantf tor affi nities. B- .'.my had as y et 
been chiefly diagnostic. It» natural liistory. or rather ^^-^^^^"^"^ 
had been tmtU lately neglected. The natural grouj^ established by the l>e 
Jus&ieus had stood the test of appreciation, aiil given the death-hluvv to ar- 
tificial definitions. Many authors had coiyectured a u-nal connection ot 
affinities. Ceniectures were the only means of arriving at an understand- 

inir aftnm^ .- while effects could be d^uad. An hypothesis was requirfca 



104 



TKANS. OF THE ACAD. OF SCIENCE. 



to be intuitively explicative, so as to come true in its applications. The 
causal truth was required to be anticipated. This was most safely done 
step by step, advancing from the concrete phenomena and their immediate 
causes into the deeper causes by suggestion. This was the inductive me- 
tliod. His series had been constructed by juxtaposition, according to most 
perfect resemblance in total. The ditTerent portions of a series tlius ob- 
tained gradually became a connected series by the same process. Collat- 
eral relations were also observed in confirmation of various authors. All 
tne natural orders found their connecting links, and, even in the most ex- 
tensive ones, such as Labiatae, Leguminosa;, &c., a corresponding intrinsic 
series was realizable. f b 

The detailed expositions began with the ascertained end of the series, and 
tonowed the order obtained. Fungi were the lowest vegetable organisms, 
and, serially, stood at the lowest extremity. The fermentation cell, per- 
haps identical with that of putrefaction, was not the perfect plant. Its self- 
multiplication was the normal process of tissue increase. This must be 
Keptm mmd, likewise, respecting the cells of Diatomeje, the so-called "fos- 

w "i'^*^"'? 1 ■^■,'^H. *" ^^^' completed forms of fer men tation, or leaven, fol- 
lowed niould, and Wight, and various epyphytes, as smut, and scall. Some 
were iiifeftinns diseases. ^./^ .^ > 

mded his remarks through a description of the 



uifectious 

H 



ipecimens. 



diatrrams 



The paper was rcfen-ed to a committee. 

Dr. Enno Sander exliihited several i>reparations of Pyro- 
phosphate of Iron, and its sohitions. 

The plate accompanyinsr Dr. Shumard's paper on Pentre- 
mites was ordered to be lithographed. 



JVbvembtr 16, 1«.57. 
Dr. H. A. Peoi-t in the chair. 



Jitters were read from W. H, Banis, Esq., and Dr. A. L. 
Mc(^regor, elected Correspondents ; also, a letter from Messrs. 
Little, Brown & Co., Boston. 

The Corresponding Secretary- laid ui.on the table the Pro- 

j ,o-?'i^^^'^'^''- Philosophical Society, Fhilad., Jan. to 
June, IS;), from the Society; and Jour, of the Franklin Inst., 
Oct., 1N4*, from the Society. 

A paper from Dr. G. G.*Shumar<l, entitled "Observations 
on tlie Geologicjil Formation of the Country between the Ki 
1 ecos and the Rio Grande, in X, Mexico, near the line of the 
T> ^ ^ai'uilel; being an abstract of a portion of the Geological 
Report of the £x|>€d. under Cot.t. John Pope, U. S. Corps 
lop Engineers, m the year 1855: l)y George G. Sliuraara, 
MAJ Geologist of tlie Kcpeditlon," wU read by the ^ 

ponding Secretary. 

The pap*.r wa.s ordered to be pnl.li.lR.d i,i the Trun^iictions. 
^onie Indian beads found 40 feet below the surface in an 



^' 



Corres- 



f 



:^ - 



JOURNAL OF PROCEEDINGS. 305 

excavatlou on the line of the Railroatl, near Alton, Ills., were 
presented by Dr. E. F. Smith, and specimens of granites and 
traj) rock from Cape Ann, Mass., by Mr. Iloldcn. 



Kovcmber 30, 1857. 
Vice Prcs., Dr. Wislizenus, in the chair. 

The following; works were placed upon the table : Smith- 
sonian Rep., 18.56 ; President's Mess. & Doc, 1856-7, Parts I. 
& II.; Patent Office Rep., 1856, Vols. I., 11. & III. ; Central 
Amer. Affairs & Enlistment Ques., Wash., 1857 ; Explor, & 
Surveys of Pacif. R.R. Routes, Vol. II. & III., from the Hon. 
L. M. Kennett ; and Reports of the Society of Nat. Hist., 
Montreal, from the Society. 

Specimens were presented for the Museum as follows : a 
collection of fresh-water shells from the Illinois River, fossils 
of various kinds, and 15 cases of Insects from California, de- 
posited by Dr. C. A. Pope ; a fine spechncn of silver ore from 
El Paso, ]Sr. Mex,, and other minerals sent to him by the late 
George Collier, presented by Dr. Pope ; specimens of kaolin, 
yellow ochre, limestone from Crown Point, a slab of limestone 
curiously worn and polished by nature, greenstone from Xa- 
hant, shale containing fossil ferns, red jasper from Vergcnnes, 
Vt., fossil coralline from Lake Champlain, grai.tolite from N. 
York, gypsum and selenite from Nova Scotia, %nitc from 
Rutland,' Vt., and kolophonite from Willsboro, K. Y-, by Mr. 
Spencer Smith ; adipociie, by Dr. C. W. Stevens. 

Mr F.dwnrd Biildpr was elected an Associate Member. 



soman 



December 14, 1357. 
Tlie President, Dr. Shumakd, in the chaLr. 

r. 

illoAving works were placed upon the tal)le 
intrs. to Knowl„ Vol. IX., from the Instituti 



ceed. of the Bos. Soc.of Xat. Hist., from the Society; Jour, of 
the Franklin Inst., Phiiad., No. 383, 1857, from the Society; 
X". Orleans Med. & Sur. JomTial, Nov., 1^57, from the editor ; 
Trans, of the Illinois State AgricuL Soc, 185^-7, from I. A. 
Lapham, Esq. ; Smithsonian Rep., 1^55, 1856, from the Insti- 
tution. 

Dr. I'uilak presented the Annual Rep. on the Geology of 

the State of 3Iaine. 

A memorial was addressed to Congress pniying the publica- 



106 TRANS. OF THE ACAD. OF SCIENCE. 

tion of the Report on the Geological Survey of Oregon and 
Washington Territories, by Dr. John Evans, under authority 
of the IJ. S. Government. 



Becemher 28, 1857. 

The President, Dr. Shumabd, in the chair. 

Letters were read from Dr. John Evans, returning his thanks 
for the memorial adopted, at the last meeting, in relation to 
the publication of his report ; from E. C. Aiigelrodt, Esq., ad- 
■vising the Academy that he had received the work of Ebren- 
berg on Microgeology, previou^ily ordered ; from the Califor- 



nia Acad, of Xat. Sciences, acknowledging the receipt of the 
Transactions of the Academy ; from Mr. W. G. Binney, in re- 
ference to subscription for hi's work on the "Ten-estrfal Mol- 



TJ. States 



table: "Micro- 
the Acade- 
my; "X. Amer. Deer Species," and Trospectus of Jour, from 
the Mississippi to the South Sea, by Mollhausen, from Mr. 



The following works were placed upon the tab 
geologie," by Ehrenborg, 2 vols, fol., purchased b} 



zn 



Hist 



6- 



by Louis Agassiz, Vols. I. & II., purchased 

Proceed, of the Cal. Acad, of K'at. Scie; 

Society. 

Mr. Spencer Smith read a paper, entitled "An Hv-pt 'thesis 
on the Formation of Hail." Referred to a committee. 
Dr. B. F. Shumard read a paper, entitled "Description of 
ew Fossil Shells collected from the Tertiary foraiation of 
Oregon and Washington Territories, and the Cretaceous of 
\ ancouver's Island, by Dr. John Evnn«?, U. S. Geologist, im- 
der instnictions from the Department of the Interior." Re- 
ferred to a committee. 

Mr. Fred'k S. Cozzeus was elected an Associate Mciaber. 



N- 



Jaivary H, 1858. 

The President, Dr. B. F. Shumard, in t\ie chair. 

A letter was read from the « Knis. Akad. der Wisseti- 
cliaften, _ol \ienna, Austria, acknowledging the receipt of the 
rransactsnus of the Academy, and advi^inij them that the 
"Comptes lieTidu,-? de la Classe Physique et'de Math, de FA- 
cad. Lnppriale" would be forwarfed in return through the 
fcmithsouian Institution; also, a \v\u^ from L. A. H. Latour, 



JOURNAL OF PROCEEDINGS. 107 

Esq., of Montreal, acknowledging his election as a Corres- 
ponding Member. 

The N. Orleans Med. & Sur. Joun, Jan., 1858, was received 

from tlie editor. 

An eleixant series of models of the various forms of erystali- 
zation were presented by Mr. IL W. Bonder. 

Dr. A. WisHzenus read a paper containing his Meteorologi- 
cal Observations, at St. Louis, for the year 1857. The paper 
was ordered to be published in tlie Transactions. 

The President made the following report of the progress of 
the Academy during the past year : 

Report of the President ^ on the progress of the Acctdemy 

during the year 1S57. 

m 

M U 8 B U M . 

The additions to the Museum, during tlie past year, have been unusually 
large in nearly all its departments. I am happy in being able to state tliat 
our Institution now possesses an equal share with the Academy of Natural 
Sciences of Philadelphia, in the splendid collection of fossil remains made 
by Dr. F. V. Hajden from the cretaceous and tertiary formations of the 
Mauvaises Terres of Nebraska, and other portions of the Upper Missouri 
country. To the generous donation of Chas. P. Chouteau, Esq., in 1S56, 
of one-fourth of this collection, has been added another fourth, by purchase, 
from Col. A. J. Vaughan, U. S. Indian Agent, who, being desirous Uiat his 
I>ortion should remain in our city, consented to sell it to the Academy at a 
prit*e much below its real value. And it gives me pleasure to add still fur- 
ther, that we are much indebted to our fellow-membew, Messrs. George 
Partridge, William II. Smith, and Giles F. Filley, who came forward, and 
with great liberality at once subscribed three-fourths of tlic purchase price. 

The Academy is again under obligations to Mr. Chas. P. Chouteau for 
valuable and extensive donations in sieveral of the departments of natu- 
ral history, from Nebraslcn and the adjacent Indian Territory. 

We are also largely indebted to the following gentlemen for highly im- 
ptHTtant contributions to the Museum : 

To Capt. John Pope, of the United States Corps of Topographic^ Engi- 
neers, for an extensive and unique collection of fossils from the carbonifer- 
ous and cretaceous systems of Texas and New Jlexico; among which are 
a number of species that are entirely new to science, and for numerous 
specimens in Herpetology from the same districts of country. To Lieut. 
Bryan, United States Corps of Topographical Engineers, for a choice suite 
of reptiles, and skulls and skins of Mammals, from the Platte River coun- 
try, and the base of the Rocky Mountains. To Spencer Smith, Esq., for 
interesting miiierals and fossils "from various parts of the United States, and 
to Prof. Chas, A. Pope, for large additions to the Entomological cabinet, and 
for a number of rare minerals. 

The different departments of the Museum have received the following 
donations dining the year tliat has just passed : 

Aimxmudia. — Of ^lis class, nicely preserved skins of thirteen species, airil 
twenty-five individuals, have been presented, chiefly from Lieut. Brran 
and Charles P. Chuuteaa, Esq. A number of these hare already been 
mounted and platted iu the cabftiet 

Ornhhdoqj/. — Of birds we hare not received as large additinnt as during 
the year previous ; nevertheless, quite a number of Bne specimens fnim 
tile Upper Missouri hare been presented by Mr. Chouteau; and otf^rs 
have been procured from the sanie region through our taxidemir^t. 

tt^ptUia. — In this class the *- 'binet biu received rich acce«»fons during 
the past year. C^tmn John Pope ha- prescnteil a large series of repiiies. 



108 TRANS. OF THE ACAD. OF SCIENCE. 



collected by him during his explorations for the United States Govern- 
ment in Texas and New Mexico. These are now in the hands of Professor 
Baird, of the Smithsonian Institution, who has volunteered to examine 
and classify them for us. Lieut, Bryan has donated eighteen specimens of 
reptiles belonging to thirteen species, from Kansas, Nebraska, and the 
Rucky Mountains. Mr. Charles P. Chouteau has added largely to his pre- 
vious donations in herpctology, from the region of the Upper Missouri. 
Specimens from our own State have been presented, chiefly by Dr. West, 
of Jefferson county, by Pnrf. Pope^ Dr. A. L, McGregor, of Chamois, and 
Mr. Belcher. 

Compamtice Atrntowi/. — In this department a number of skulls of Mam- 
mals have been received, chiefly from Mr. Chouteau and Lieut. Bryan. 
Dr. Evans, United States Geologist, lias presented two skulls of Assiniboin 
Indians, and llr. G. G. Shumard an interesting compressed human skull, 
taken from an Indian mound in Arkansas. 

Entomofofjif.—Y>v. Pope has enriche<l this departraent of the Museum by 
adepoiiit of fifteen cases of insects from California. 

Molimm, — In this class there have been received from Dr. McPheetcrs a 



collection of marine shells, chiefly from the South Pacific Ocean; fromDn 
Pope, fresh-water shells from Illinois ; and from D, S. Sheldon, specimens 
of the same from Iowa. 

Botany. — But few additions have been made to the herbarium; some 
specimens of fossil fern^ and woods from Illinois were presented by Ed- 
dward Holden, Esq. 

Palfeontolojy ,— The increase in this department of the Mu^cum, during 
the juist year, is in the highest degree encouraging. In addition to the 
acquisition of one-fourth of tlie Ilaydcn collection, and the donation, by 
Capt. Pope, of a large collection of fossils from Texas and New Mexico, 
already spoken of, there have been presented an entire case of fossils from 
the palaeozoic rocks of the Mississippi Vallev. This collection is now ready 
to be placed in the :Museum as soon as the case, which has been ordered by 
the Academy to receive it, shall be completed. C P. Chouteau, Esq., pas 
presented cretaceous fossils from Nebraska, and Messrs. Spencer Snijtli, 
Edward Holden and Drs. Wislizenns and Pope, palseozoie fossils from other 
Vi estern localities. 

^ Minera[r0,~Jn this class large additions have also been made to the cab- 
inet. C. C. ^Vhittelsey, E>q., has presented a nite of minerals from S utn 
America, and specimun^ of rocks from Canada. Spencer Smith, E>q-*'i 
handsome series of specimens from Vermont and other localities, m tn^ 
Lnitod States. Prof. Poi>e has given us, from time to time, choice nnn^r- 
als, and among the rest a beautiful specimen of silver ore from El ra-^^- 
He has also deposited with the Musemn the minernl cabinet of the late W©* 
Collier,E^q, Ja.. G. Soulard, Esq., has donaf.'d n magnificent spK^ni^n ox 
galena from Illinois ; and othur miiterals have been presented, chieliy ^J 
Mr. Muss and Dr. G. G. Shamard. ..a 

CUnmfry.— Of chmnciih, a number of spi>cimens have been p^^^"^ 
by Dr. Enuo Saiider. 

Etkn<Jmiy.—ln this departraent, -x... have received from Br. Wm. M^Jj 
Fheeters, implements of war. and articles of costnnie, from ^^^^^"^,'?^ ;„, 
Inlands. From.N. Paschall, Esq., a box, containing a variety of I^^^^^^L^, 
plements and antiquities. From Dr. C. W. Stevens, a head-dR>ss, qwj^^ 



and arrows of a Comanche Indian; and' from Dr. E. F. Smith, a string 
lMlm^ hpad?, found forty feet beneath the surface in Illinois. 

LPrrnry^-ri:hx: total nnmber of additions to the Library since our la^t ar 
Hal meeung amount to ninety-seven, of wludi twenty-five are yoW^^ ^ 
and the remainder seriala and pamphlets. Most of the^e have l^^^^^^JJ"^^ 
ed m exchange for the Transactions of our Academy and as/<>fl^^^^^^^ 
dneflj from the Ih.n. L. M, lu-nn*^tt and E. C. An-elrodt, P^^^f^.,^^^^^ 
F. Baird and Wm. M. Mel 'heeters, and I. A. LaphaSi, Ksq., of ^^^^^f J^^^^ 

,. ..^ Anvnig the most vnluahle acqmstinns received. ^^'^^^^^. .^o 

agmrteent ^ork of Ehrenberg on Microgeolugv ; the nr^ 



Wisconsin. 

tioa the m 



JOURNAL OF PROCEEDINGS. 100 



volumes of Agassiz' Contributions to the Natural History of the Uuiied 
Stiites; tlie publications of the Smithsonian Institution; the lUports of the 
U. S. Coast Survey, and the rroceedings of the American Academy of 

-iVrts and Sciences. 

Transactions. — It is extremely •rratifving to know, that tlie first number 
of our Transactions has been very favorably receive<l by the scientific pub- 
lic. Compliraentary acknowledgments have reached us from many of 
the learned societies, bodi at liome and abroad, and we are now regularly 
receiving all the most prominent American atcientific publications in ex- 
change for ours. Most of tlicm are of the highest value to students of Nat- 
ural History, and could only be prociired by purchase at a cost Ix^youd the' 

means of most private individuals. 

Through the politeness of Profs. Henry and Bainl of the Smith.^onian 
Institution, and our associates Mr. E. C Ange!ro<lt and Dr. Engelnumn, 
copies of our Transactions have been distributed to different foreign scien- 
tifiic societies and libraries, free of cost. From some of them we have al- 
ready received advices that viduablc pubUcations have bt^en sent to ns, and 
we may reasonably expect eqxially valuable returns from others, during 

the present jear. 

In view of the utility and acknowledged want of a scientific library m 
ourcitv,it is of the first importance that we should continue the publication 
of the "Transactions of the Academy at regular intervals— say one number 
annually. By this nieans, we shall couliuue to receive the journals and 
transactions of foreign and home institutions, the value of which will alone 
thrice exceed the cost of our publications. It may be here mentioned, that 
while there are many extensive and excellent scientific libraries in the 
Eastern cities, some of which, if lost, could not be replaceii in a century, 
there is not a single one in the broad valley of the Mississippi. Hence it is, 
that iKTsoas residing in the West, who are disposed to pursue original in- 
vestigations in science, must look to libraries of tlie East for tlieir works 
of reference, and thus they are compelled to labor under many disadvan- 
tages. It shoidd, tiiierefore, be one of the principal features of our Institu- 
tion to collect together, as rapidly as possible, a library of scientific jotir- 
nals and transactions ; and this desirable end is to be accomplished, mainly, 
through its exchanges and donations. 

Sdcntfjic Papers. —Bendes numerous vc-rbal communications of more or 
less interest, there have been presented, during the past year, tlie foUuwing 
scientific papers for publication in the Transactions : 

B^/ Dr. Tlieodore C. Ililgard.—'' Exposition of the Natural Serie?, Divis- 
ions, Affinities, and Formal Expressions, of Tj'pical Laws in the Vegetable 
Kingdom;" also, " On the Idea of Species." 

By Dr. B. F. SX/fm^r J.— "Descriptions of New Species of Hastoidea, 
from the PaliEozoic Rocks of the Western Stetes of Nortli America, with 
Observations on the Structure of the Genus Fentremites;" and "Descrip- 
tions of New Fossil Shells collected from the Tertiary Formation of Oregon 
and Washington Territories, and the Cretaceous of Vancouver's Island, by 
Dr. John Evans, XT. S. Geologist, under instructions from the Department 
©f the Interior/' 






By Dr. G, G. j^wmarr?.— "Observations on the Geological Fofmtkm <rf 

the Country from the Kiver Pecos to the Eio Grande, in New Mexico, near 
the line of the thirtv-second Parallel, being ^ Abstract of a portion of the 
Geological Keport of the Expedition under Capt.^ John Pope, Corps of To* 
pographical Engineei^ U. S. A., in the : ar 1855." 

By Spetmr Smth.—'' An Hypothesis on ibe Formatiion «rf Hail, 
Bff Dr, Widizmms, — "Meteorological Observations at St. Louis 

Trm^frrg, — From a eommnnication from Dr. Pi>!lak^ Tw^RWrer, I 9m 
happy in being able to state that our Tn asury is in a very sound condi- 
tion. Our receipts during the vear have been $1,378.45; expi*ndit\ircs, 
$1/)TL58; leaving ft balance in the Trcasoryof ?306.?7. Our liabihtKvs are 
S1S7, and our assets S75S.87- Balance in favor erf* the Treasury, $331.8*. 



I 



^ 



110 TRACTS. OF THE ACAD. OF SCIENCE. 

In conclusion, permit me to remark that we have reason to feel proud of 
the unparalleled growth of our young Institution. Scarcelj has a period 
oi two years elapsed since the first specimen in Natural History was de- 
posited in this HaU ; and we now possess a Museum that far surpasses, in 
the number and value of its objects, that of any similar institution in the 
West, though some are of many years' standing. 

The Report of the Treasurer was read, and referred to a 
committee for examination. 
Officers for' the ensuing year were elected as follows : 

t 

President, Benjamin F. Shumard. 

m Vice President, Adolphus Wl.-lizenus. 

M Vice President, Hiram A. I'rout. 

Corresponding Secretary, Nathaniel Holmes. 

Pecording Secretary, J. S. B. Alleyne. 

Treasurer, Simon Pollak, 

Zibrarian, Theodore C. Hilgard. 

Curators, ^ B. F. Shiimard, C- W. Stevens, 

II. A. Prout, and F. S. Cozzcns. 

Standing Committees were appointed as follows : 
Publication^-^ . Holmes, Wm. M. MePheeters, and B. F. 

bhuraard, 

IMrary—R. A. Prout, C. A. Pope, and J. M. Krum. 

Ifiname—.J. M. lu-um, Spencer Smith, and T. L. Rives. 

Ethnology, p^ Wislizenus. 

tomparative Anatomy, C.A.Pope. 




Mammalogy, 

Enibryology 



C. W. St.'vens. 

J. S. B. Alleyne 
M. Lewis Clark. 



Ornithology, 

Eferpetology and Ichthyology, M. M. Pallen. 

Uiemtcal Geology and JIaiacohgt/, II. A. Pi-out. 

Antomology, 



35 ^ ^ . W. 31. MePheeters 

Potany, rj,_ ^ Hilgard. 

ralmmtology and Geology, B F. Shumard. 

Mineralogy, j^ y^ Bender. 

^%^^*^*' S. Smith. 

Astronomy, ^ SeySUrth. 

Meteorology, a Wislizenus. 



M 



January 25, IS. 5 
Vice Pres. Br. A. WisLiZE^rtrs in the chair. 

tetters were road from Prof Edward Saess, of the Imp. 
uscura of Mmeralogj", Yienna, Aus.; from tlic Soc. of Arts, 

7 




JOURNAL OF PBOCEEDTNGS. Ill 

Manuf. and Commerce, London ; from the Nat. Hist. Soc. of 
JSTorthuraberland, Durham, and Newcastle-upon-Tyne, Ei: 
from the Geological Soc. of London; from. the «Vereins fiir 
Natur-kunde zu Prcsburg, Hungary," — severally aelinowledg- 
ing the receipt of the Transactions of the Academy. 

Three skulls of the grizzly Bear were deposited in the Mu- 
seum by Dr. C. "W". Stevens j specimens of cupriferous iron 
pyrites from East Tennessee, and silicate of alumina frum 
Alabama, were presented by Mr. Bender ; silicious infusoria 
from Sweden, by Mr. F. S. Cozzens. 

The Committee to whom was referred the paf^r by Mr. 
Smith on "An Hypothesis on the Formation of Hail," report- 
ed the same for publication. 



February 8, 1858. 
Dr. C. A. Pope in the chair. 



Mr. R. W 



Referred to a committee. 

Prof. Edward Suess, of Vienna, Ans., G. C. Broadhead, of 
Columbia, Mo., E. Billinsrs, Esq., of Montreal, Can., Major F. 
Hawn, of Weston, Mo., Rev. Dr. S. Y. McMasters, of Alton, 
Ills., and John James, M.D., of Upper Alton, were elected 
Corresponding Members; and Kov. Pi". Wra. G. Eliot, Rev. 
E. Carter Hutchinson, Rev. Montgomery Schuyler, and Mr. 
Oscar Collet, were elected Associates. 



February 22, 1858. 

Yice Pres. Dr. Wislizencs in the chmr. 

The Corresponding Secretary laid upon the table the Pro- 
ceed, of the Bos. Soc. of Nat. lll^t., Oct., 1S57, to Jan., 18o8, 
from the Soc. ; and the Jour, of the Franklin Inst., No. 884, 

Vol. LXIY. 

The foUowinfj letter was read from Prof. G. C. Swallow : 

Geologicai. Eoo-m^, C0LU3IEIA, Mc, Feb. 18, 1858* 
B. F. SutrMAR©, President of the St. Lemis A&ukmy ofSciemx, 

My Dear Sir :— I have Lad the pleasure of examlmng fti^j^^H^^^ 
of fo???5l3 from Kansas, 

rej of that Territory | *>^*«, «« -.^^ ™«.. ^.^ -. ^..^ ^^ 
«3rttem not known to exist in tlie West, it may interest your Acnicmy to 

know the results. 

I &n have no doubt timt the rocks are P^rm'an, since the proof i$ v^/ 




^ 



112 IRANS. OF THE ACAD. OF SCIENCE. 



conclusive to my own mind, as it, doubtless, will be to yours. All of the 
described fossils, with perhaps two exceptions, are identical with Permian 
species of Russia and England, while all of the new species appear to be 
more nearly allied to Permian forms than to any other. 

Three of tlie four species of Bryozoa are, without doubt, Permian. 

1. Thammscus dubius (King), is certainly in our collection. 

.%Fenestelh reijformis {King), Our specimens agree with the Russian 
species from the Permian, referred donhtfnilv tn t>n'« hxr Tr^ncfioio 



Russ., YoL I., p. 630.) 



(Geo. 



deterthined 



witli a Permian specimen figured in GooL Trans., 2d Ser., Vol. 3, pi. 12, 
ng. /. 

4. ScMzodas Eosskiis ('Venieuil), Geol. Euss., pi. 19, figs. 7 &, 8. We 
have numerous specimens of this very important Permian fossil. Both ra- 
neties and the intervening forms are reprcscntefl in our collection. 

5. Avtcula antiqua. (Geol. Euss., Vol. 2, pi. 20, fig. 13. M^or Ilairn's 
collection contains many specimens which appear to be identical with this 
1 ermian species. 

Major Hawn's collection also contains specimens which are nearly, if not 

quite identical with Productus horrrsr.ns, Ver., Mmxfdaomu sulangulata, Ver., 

Myttlns Fallasi^ Sdem^a Blarmica, Ver., Ostmffema Kutorgnna, Ver., of the 

1 ermian m Russia, and Cardhiia Listeri of the English Lias. There are 

also many specimens of Monotis, a genus seldom, if ever, found below tlie 
Permian. ' 

I can but feel that these facts are sufficient to justify our decision that 
these rocks are Permian. Indeed, I know of no other formation in the West 
vhose fossils would give so large a proportion of species identical with, and 
analogous to, those of the same rocks in any one locaUty in Europe, as these 
With the Permian of Russia, 

_It gives me great pleasure to announce through your Academy ^lajor 
liawn s important discovery, the result of his long and earnest labors to 
develop the Geology of Kansas. The friends of Western Geology will look 
torward with great interest to his forthcoming work on the results of Ms 
geological investigations in that Territory 



Kaiis; 
Form 



"Very respectfully, your obed't serr% 

G. C. SWALLOW. 

Swalldxr find TT" Unxtm Antitlcd "TI 



Corresponding Secretary, and referred to a committee em- 
sistiBs^r of D rs. Prout, Slmraard and Wislizemis, and Mr. Smith, 
itev. C. F. Smarius, Rev. T. H.Kewton, and Wm. S. Allen, 
Jisq., were elected Associates. 



March P, 1858. 
The President, Dr. B. F. Shumaed, in the chair. 
A letter was read from Br. John Jame^ elected a Corres- 

The Ibllowln,^ w(>rks were placed npon the table: Evplor. 

nnt.'^'T'- ""^ « ''^- ^■^'' ^out^Vul. I< from Hon. L. M. Ken- 
aett; Iowa Hand-Book, l>v Ed. IT. Parker. 1856, and the Kan- 




x^ 



JOURNAL 07 PROCEEDINGS. 113 



sas and Nebraska IIuinl-Book, l««57-8, by Edw. IT. Parker, 
from the author; IVoceeJ. of the Acad. Nat. Sciences, Philad., 
Dec., 1857, from the Society; Jour, of the Franklin Inst., No. 



W 



Society 



teniporaneons with the Mastodon?" Hcferred to a committee. 

The Corresponding Secretary rend a enntimmtion of the 
paper read at the last meeting, bjr G. C. Swallow and F. Hawn, 
on the "Roekfi of Kansas," giving additional descriptions of 
New Species of Fossils from the Permian Formation in Kan- 
sas Ter. Referred to the same committee. 

Dr. B. F. Shnmard read a paper, entitled "Descriptions of 
New Fossils from the Coal Measures of Mssouri and Kansas, 
bv B. F. Shumard and G. C. Swallow." 
" On motion, this paper was referred to the Committee on 

Publication. -, ^.r . 

Dr. B. F. Shumard stated that since he had examined Mnj. 
Kawn's Collection from the Permian Rocks of Kansas, he had 
studied a series of fossils from the White Limestone of the 
Guadalupe Mountains, New Mexico, which were obtained by 
his brother, Dr. G. G. Shumard, while acting in the capacity 
of Geologist of the Government Expedition under Capt. John 
Pope, for obtaining water by means of Artesian wells al^ng 
il.P IJtio nf tl.P a->f1 ParalleL and that he had arrived at the 

'.. This White 



erminn ag 



Limestone, he remarked, contains a number of fossils that are 
identical with Permian species of England and Russia, while 
others are near analoirnes of characteristic Permian forms of 
.^^^^ ^v.«....x^.., „^...al are also identical with Permian spe- 
cies, described by Prof Swallow, from Kansas. The Collec- 
tion contains well marked examples of Aidosteges, a genus 
that has not been recognized in formations below the Permi- 
an ; the species, however, is distinct from the English and lius-- 
Bian forms. There are specimens which agree perfectly with 
the descriptions and figures of Cah.aropnoHa ,ScMothetm%, 
C. Geinitziajia, and Frodmtus Leplmji, as given by Vemeuil 
and King; also a Trodiictus very analogous, if not identical, 
with I'roductus Cancrini and a Terebratula(?), which agrees 
with T. superstes of Verncuil in every resj.ect, except that 
the dorsal valve of the American fossil is not quite so gib- 
bous. There is also in the collection Terebratvia eloni/ata^ 
Terebratula (Spirigera) pectii-iifera, Spirifer crisma^Acmi- 
thodadia anceps, SynodarTia, and fragment? of a J/a«"?t5 
which approaches nearest to 31. spehmcaria. Be^id^ these, 
the collection embraces new species of Prodnrfus^ Sj'.rifer, 
ChmMe»^ Corals, TriMim, SLixd a slender Fumlina ne-^lj 
two inches in Icnjjth. Scarcely any of thean f<^^sds are posi- 
tively identical with foi-ms of our Western Coal Mea^wtm 
Aecordlnf' to the MS. Report of Dr. George G. Sliutnard, this 



^-_ 






^ 



114 TRANS. OF THE ACAD. OF SCIENCE. 

White limestone presents a thickness of more than a thou- 
sand feet. 

Dr. Shumard further stated that he was preparing a paper 
on the new fossils from the Permian of the Guadahipe Moun- 
tains, which he hoped to complete in time to read before the 
next meeting of the Academy. 

Messrs. Ernest Weyden and Frederick A. Churchill were 
elected Associates. 



March 22, 1858. 



The President, Dr. B. F. Shumard, in tlie chair. 

T 

A letter was read from tlie Horticultural Society, London, 

*-ng acknowledging the receipt of the Transactions of the 
Academy. 

The following works were placed upr.n the table: Keport 
of Esplor. & Surv. of Pacific R.R. Routes, Vols. IT. & V^ 
^.}^^ ^^^'P- ^^ t^*^ Superintendent of the U. S. Coast Surv., 



'A 




uv vv.il. i^osran and T. Sterry II unt," from ur- 
ird ; Jour, of the Franklin Inst., Voi LXV., Xo. 387, 
irom the Society. 

The committee to whom was referred the paper of Dr. Wis- 
iizenus, « Was Man contemporary' with the 3IaFtodon?" rec- 
ommended the same for ptibUeation. The paper of 3Ir. Bender 
on the "Formation of Ilail" was referred to the Committee on 



Publication, 



liom TTjis referred the pnpcr of O- C. 



n 



swallow and I. Hawn, entitled "The Rocks of Kansas, with 
i^etcnptions of New Pcnnian FosrfK" recommended the same 



for publication. 

A paper, entitled «0n the Ultimate Analysis of Light, by 
John James M-D," was read by the Corresponding Secretary, 
and referred to a committee. i « 



<5r?'-' ^•^^'^0^'^^ read a paper, entitled "Descriptions of Ke^ 
Species of Brv'ozoa from f cxas and Xew 3Iexieo, collected by 



for 



to a committee. 




P^""??' ■^' f '"""T^ ''^^^'^ ap^-irt-^, entitled "Descriptions of 



%^ 



ermian 




e Jlonn 
humard, 




Art 



P 



^ - 



I, 



JOURNAL OF rROCEEDINGS. 115 



Re 



referred 



.e, U. S. Corps Top. Eng." The 

nittee. 

[iev. E. F. licTkclcy, and Messrs. 

Pittraan, and Edw*d Miller, were 



sociate 



April 5, 1858. 
President, Dr. B. F. Shumaed, in the chair. 



Th 



Blair, Jr.: Report of Explor. & Surveys of Pacific Railroad 
Routes, Vol. VI.; Report of Sup't of U. S. Coast Surv., 1855; 
Finance Report, 1854; Compend. of U. S. Census, 1850; and 



Emory 



IJ. States & Mexican Boundary Survey, by W 



A paper was read by Prof. Sej-ffarth, D.D., entitled "A Re- 

It^ Seal, in Dr. Abbott's Eirvptian Museum at N. York, 



as 



on Publication. 



Norwood 



March 



To B. F. Sliumard, MD., 

President of the Acaclem^ of Science of St. Louis. 

Dear Sir : — I beg leave to submit for the comideraUon of the Acaaemy 
the following remarks on some of the rocks of Illinois, which overhe the 
main Cfjal Measmxa in several counties of tliis State. 

In 1855-0, while making examinations in the La Salle Coal-^eld, I found 
in the upper beds a number oi organic remains which were entirely new to 
me but belonging mostly to genera liberally distributed through the Coal 
Measures of this and the Ikeighboring States. Being associated with Coal 
Measure fossils and intimately connected with beds of coal, they ^^re con- 
sidered to belong to the true Carboniferous era. In the wmtcr of 18«>, l 
caused drawings to be made of some (rf them, with the intention of descri- 
bing them in connection with the late Mr. Henry Fratten. Since his death 
feese drawings have not been found. Last summer Mr. H, A. Ulffers wrote 
out descriptive notes of several new Producti and Chonetes from the localises 
alluded to, to be used in a small monograph on Productt and Ckmides wfticH 
1 was then having printed, but which stiU remains unfinished. 

Mv attention was not especially directed to a comparison of these fossiJs 
with organic remains peculiar to rocks of the Permian system, as establish- 
ed by Sir Roderick Murchison and other European geologists, until smce 
the announcement, made by Prof. Swallow, of Missouri, of the txist^ce of 
Permian roci* in the Territorj- of Kansas, which WM »oon foUowed by the 
publication of the same fiict by Mr. F. R. Meek and Dr. F. V. Haydcn. liaf- 
ing thus hatl my attention directed to this subject, after a renew ot «om« 
Of the f<J«sils found in Bureau, T.a Salle, and IleBfy Cmmties.l hare become 
■atiafied that flie upper beds at least of the J a SaUe rocks are of the same 
age as those ctmtaining many of the organic remMUS desCTibed by the gen- 
Meraen above named sm belonging to the Permian rock? «f f^p '^- 

Among the fossHs are Pecten Clmvdandicm (Smdhw) M^tff W«'««^ 
(S<m.\ P,-oductia Norwoodii (S,eai.% Momdm radtaus? (PhU.), tdtmmdta 



\ 



116 



TRANS, OF THE ACAD. OF SCIENCE. 



Murchtsoma ? (King), Leda (Nucxda) mhs-dtida (Meek ^ Ilayden). In a pa- 
per wliich I am preparing for tlie Academy, the wliole fauna of these rocks 
will be noticed so far as I am acquainted with it, and a comparison institu- 
ted between tliat and the underiying Coal Measures. In the meantime, I 
enclose a rertical section of the rocks at one point in La Salle County. 

The beds are composed of sandstones and conglomerates, luagnesian 
limestone, slates, and red and blue gypsCDus marls, all of them resting un- 
comformably on tlie underlying beds. In addition to the beds named, three 
thin seams of coal occur in the rocks alluded to as seen in the section: thus 
showing, that, if this formation shall be proved to belong, undoubtedly, to 
the Permian period, the great probability is, that the upper beds of coal in 
seveml sections of the State are of the same age. This is renclered almost 
certain from the very partial examination I have been able to make of the 
organic remains from other' localities. I may also mention the occurrence 
in the slates of scales of a PUUifsomus, which belongs to the Permian epoch. 



SECTION OF T1I£ 

1. Bluish and reddish clay 

shales ..♦.,,..• 14 

2. Limestone (breceiated)«- 15 

3. Gray shale, irregular ••4 to 6 
4- Gray compact limestone, 

fossiliferous -...-.... \i 

5. Black slate, irregular - • • 

6. Shaly limestone, very ir- 

regular in thickness • . 

7. Coal 1 

8. Limestone- ...... 26 

9. Shale, gray 

10. Gray limestone • 7 

11. Gray shale 5 

12. Blue limestone 5 

13. Black slate 7 

14. Coal 

15. Blue shale 9 

16. Limestone- •••-.. .-•.«, \ 
i. I • \>oul ■•*♦ «••.•* •*,« »,,, 

18, Pire clay ...,. ,, 

19. Shale .-...• 

^. Limestone ...... ...... g 



AT LA SALLE — I>KSCENDISG 



xn 



9 
6 

8 

8 



• • • 



1 



9 



5 

6 
1 
8 

3 

5 



22. 

2i. 
25. 
26. 

27. 
28. 
29. 
80. 

81. 
32. 
33. 
34. 
35. 



No. 

21. Coal 

8122. Fire clay 

8 I 23. Blue shale 

Gray limestone 

Blue shale • • • • ■ 
Gray limestone 
Blue shale ••••• 
Blue limestone* 

Blue shale 

Black slate • • • • 

Blue shale 

Hard limestone 

Blue shale 

Blue limestone" 
Red shale •••••' 

36. Limestone 

37. Red shale 

38. Brown sliulc • • • 
89. Sandstone* •••• 

40. Silicious shale • 

41. Slaty shale •*••• 

42. Black slate • • • ♦ 






43. Coal 



ft. in. 
1 

17 1 

3 5 
9 5 
2 5 

12 

2 

1 

2 5 
13 

4 

2 7 
6 

2 
g 

4 5 
10 

18 
19 
11 3 

6 

4 5 



This section embraces only a portion of the rocks of La Salle, wliile m 
liureau County beds occur which overlie all those here given. 

I wiU lorward to the Academy, a3 soon as completed, a notice of tlie Ge- 
ology of that region, together with that of jmoh other sections of the State 
as appear from a comparison of their fossils to be of the same age. 



respectfully 



J. G. NORWOOD 



read 




Academy, that, at the time whea he 
Yioon ft, Hit «wjrt. nf its imDortance, 



I>r. W. 

»B thosi 




pabUshed 



^ no .iware,) as well those 
xmbumt: 3II tht^w«ar^«T,= 



weapon; 



partially 
vi ,„)ject9 me 
several stone spears 



and arrow4u..,1. -nil !.;„.:„,:::"'? ^ ""f ^Ztim^'fix^f'^^.^<^' VP^ 

t\^ .,ntr«.i », re ~ — v"'-"'-'^^^,ann ashes, samples of the clay in whitn 
the animal h*l been mired, and of the W.a^.k allnvfnm bv which the bonet 



wood cuKlei^.charcoaLanfl 



JOURNAL OF PROCEEDINGS. 117 

had been covered afterwanis, — and tliat they were now in the Eoyal Mu- 
seum of the UniTersitj of Berlin, where any person might examine^ them. 
They had been exhibited, soon after their discovery aiid exhumation, in 
St Louis, in Philadelphia, and in London, where they had attracted the 
attention of the late Drs. Harlan and Morton, Sir Charles Lyell, and other 
distinguished scientific gentlemen. 

4 

Concerning the arrow-head lying underneath the femur of the Mastodon, 
in Benton Co. Mo., he would further state, that the place where the arrow- 
head had come in contact with the bone could still be discriminated by its 
greater whiteness, the remainder of the hone's surface being of n brownish 
color. Dr. K. exhibited a profile section of the deposits cut tlirough in the 
excavation at this locality. He observed further, that, so far as he knew, 
only five skeletons of 31. 'giganteus had thus far been discovered, the bones 
of which had not been so far separated and scattered as to preclude their 
being brought together again and arranged so as to form a complete articu- 
lated skeleton. Of these five, one had been formerly exhibited in I'eaie's 
Museum, in Philadelphia; there was one in Baltimore; one <m the conti- 
nent of Europe ; the skeleton found in Benton Co., Mo. (now in London) ; 
and, lastlv, that of the late Dr. John C. TTarren, in Boston, l^Iass. 



5Ir. Holmes remarked, touching this subject, that he did not agree with 
Dr. Wislizenus that it could be considered "a hasty and thus far unwar- 
ranted supposition that Man had existed contemporaneously with the Mas- 
todon." Nor could the M, giganteus be considered as an ante-<liluvial rather 
than a post-diluvial animal. Properly speaKng, there had been no such 
geological era as a diluvial period. Diluviimi or marine drift and alluvium 
or fresh-water drift had been common to all geological periods since there 
had been land above water. This subject had been amply illustrated by 
Prof. Hitchcock. (Surface GeoL) Prof. R. Owen, of London, had express- 
ed the opinion (Brit Fos. Mam.) that it was negative evidence only that 
excluded Man from the PUcx^ene fauna of the British Isles. Pictct had con- 
sidered the question to be : What animals inhabited Europe when Man first 
appeared there, and thence, at what geological epoch his origin was to be 
placed 1 And this learned author (Trait de Pale., Vol. L), admitting with 
other Palaeontologists, tliat tliere were, as yet, no positive proofs of the ex- 
istence of Man, in Europe, during the Older Pliocene, nor as early aa the 
great northern boulder drift of the Newer Pliocene, had nevertheless con- 
cluded, that Man had established liimself in that country but a short time 
after^^t drift, the continent not having been wholly submerged ; that these 
first inhabitants saw the cavern bears, elepliant, rhinoceros, and otlier ani- 
mals of the Older Phocene age, which became extinct in Eun)pe_ in the 
Newer Pliocene; and that some of them were victims of the same inm)d»- 
tions which had filled the caverns with the bones of theare animals, human 
bones having been found mingled together with them in the same deposits 
and caves, r .I!.a and water-worn in like manner, and in the ?nmc altered 
condition of their texture. And this would seem to be conclusive of their 
contemporaneousness. In America, the Rhinoceros had not been found in 
deposits later than the Pliocene, nor the M. giganteus in deposits earlier than 
the Post-Pliocene ; and this age was later than the cavern epoch. Prof F. 
S. Holmes, of Charleston, S. C, had lately cstabliahod that not only the 
tapu-, peccary, raccoon, opossum, deer, elk, and musk-rat, oi species still 
Hving, but some domestic animals, also, as the horse, «heep, hog, smd ox» 
which (so far as po:^itive evidence went) became extinct before the arrival 
of the white race in America, were contemporaries with the 5 [astodon. Me- 
gatherium, Md Megalonyx, on this continent, in the time of the Post-Plio- 
cene depo.>its of South Carolina; and in this conclusion he had the con- 
currence of Agassiz. It was very e-rtaln tlmt neither the entire surface 
drained by the Mississippi, nor the whole southern portion of the Frnted 
States, liad been srJ merged under the ocean, since tiie Poat-Fliocene 
era, so as to cut off the ^t;cam and succession of mammalian life. 



118 TRANS. OF THE ACAD. OF SCIENCE. 



Professor Holmes }iad further expressed the opinion, that ahhough 
"it has been acknowledged that the mastodon, megatherium, elephant, 
glvptodon, and two species of Equine genera, etc., are entirely extinct, yet 
the discoyeries made of the remains of even some of these would indicate 
that they still existed at a period so recent, that, in the language of Prof. 
Leidy, **it is probable the red man witnessed tlieir declining existence." — 
(Post-FIiocene Foss., 1858.) It was not the purpose of Mr. H. to allude to 
the proofs, that existed, of the contemporaneousness of Man and the Mas- 
todon on this continent, but merely to observe, that the researches of emi- 
nent Geologists seemed, thus far, to have furnished no scientific ground of 
objection by way of antecedent improbability against the hypoUiesis. 



am 



District, Ohio ; also, a mass of iron ore, from the Iron Moun- 
tain, 3lo^ about ten feet beneath the hurfaee, in ferruginous 
clay, at the foot of tlie mountain. 

Ilev. D. B, Woo^ls, and John Lapsley, Esq., were elected 
Associates. 



April 1% 1858. 

The President, Dr. B. F, Shumard, in the chair. 
The followin<r works were received: "< 



f 



inland," presented 



Harrison; "Procecr!in2rs of the Dedication of Pluni- 




•ape Culture « 
retan', and re 



A paper from Prof. G. C. Swallow, on 
Missouri," was read by the Conespondin| 
ferred to a committee. , . 

A letter was read from Maior F. Hnwn, communicating a 



to a committee. 



Kansa 



18 read, niKl refon-ed 



April 19, 1858. 
The President, Dr. B. F. SnuiiARD, in the chair. 




A letter was read, dated March 15, 1858, from the 
Imp. des Katnrallstes de Moscoii," acknowledging the r«'U^ 
of the Trans, of the Academy, and advising them tha^ * 
"Bulletins" of the Imperial Society wouM be sent in ^^^ 
through the agency of the Smithsonian Iii^t n ; also, a w^ ' 



JOURNAL OF PROCEEDINGS. 119 



dated Jan. 17, 1858, from the "Academie des Sciences, Arts 
et Belles-Lettres de Dijon," acknowledging the receipt of the 
Trans, of the Academy, and advising them of the transmis- 
sion of the "Memoires'' of the Acadoniy of Dijon, 2d Ser., 

Vols. I.— v., through the i 
a letter, dated Jan. 9th, ISS^S, from the "Imp. Ttogio Istituto 
Lombardo di Scienze, Lettere ed Arti," of 31ilan, acknowledg- 
ing the receipt of the Trans., and advising the Academy that 
the publications of the Imperial Institute would be sent in re- 
turn through the agency of the Smith'n Inst'n. 

-• works wore liiid uDon the table: "Memoires 




de TAcadenxie des Sciences, Arts et Belles-Lettres de Dijon," 



2d Ser., Vols. I., II., IIL, IV. & V., 1851^56, from the Acad- 
emy; "Description d\m Nouveau Genre d']5dent6 Fossile — 
Atlas — par L. Nodot," from the Author; "Lettres sur les 
Roches du Jura et leur Distribution GSographique dans les 
Deux Hemisphereg, par Jules Marcou,'' Paris, 1857, — "Cours 
de Geologic Paleontologique," Zurich, 1856,— "Esquisse d'unc 
Classification des Chaines de Montagues d'une partie de FA- 
merique du Xord, par M. Jules Marcou," Paiis, 1855,-—" Carte 
Geologique des Etats-Unis et des Provinces Anglaiscs de 
rAmeiique du Xord, par Jules Marcou," 1855, — "Institut de 
France— Acad, des Sciences : Ru]>port sur un Memoirc de M. 
Jules -Marcou, relatif a la Class'n des Chaines de Montagnes 
d'une partie de FAm^rique du Nord," — from Prof. Jules Mar- 
cou; "Crustacea and Echinodermata of the Northern Pacific 
Shores, by Wm. Stimpson,'' Camb., 1858, from the Author; 
"Eighth Ann. Rep. of the Board of Directors of the Pacific 
R-K.," and "Address by E.Miller, Chief En ir./' from E. Miller. 

An Indian quoit was presented by E. 31iller, and a black 
snake, by E, Weyden. 

The Special Committee to whom was referred the paper 
entitled "On the Fltimate Analysis of Light'' made their re- 
port, and were discharged. 

The Committee to whom was refen-ed the paper entitled 



CT)orted 



m 



The Committee to whom was referred the paper by Major 
F. Hawn, on "The Trias of Kansas," reported the same for 
publication, 

O. G. Gates, Esq^ was elected an Associate Member. 



H 

J 



120 TRANS. OF THE ACAD. OF SCIENCE 



Descriptions of Nmv Fossils from the Tertiary Forma- 
tion of Oregon and Washington Territories awd the Cre- 
taceous of Vancouver's IslancJ, collected by Br. Jno. Evam^ 
IT. S. Geologist^ under instructions from the Department 



jfthe 



BY B. F. SnUMARD, M.D. 

TERTUTIY SPECIES. 

\ ■ 

LirciXA FIBROSA, Shumard. 



great 



the height ; buccal margin obtusely subangulate above, ob- 
liquely subtruneate below; basal margin very slightly arched, 
or straight in the middle and rounded at the extremities ; anal 
margin rounded; ligament margin straight in young speci- 
mens and gently arched in the adult ; ligament impression 
lanceolate, deeply excaTated, wrinkled, margined by a slightly 
elevated carina; beaks obtusely rounded, slightly elevated; 
surface with inequidistant concentric lines of growth, and a 
broad traniverse fold in advance of the beaks. With a mag- 
mfier we can perceive close, fibrous, longitudinal stria? in the 
spac^ between the concentric lines ; these arc quite iiTCgular 
and frequently biflircate. In old age the shell assumes a sub- 
qTiadrate form, and the basal margin is quite straight or even 
slightly concave. 



irth 



fragment 

^ " 'Ml" 



ines; lieight, 20 line< ; tliickness, 9 line?. 
., _.. in the collection which show that this 

species considerably exceeds these proportions. 

^orm. (B Zoc— Obtained by Dr. Evans in daik argilW; 
ceous shale at Port Orford, Oregon Tcrritor)', and at D^vis 
Coal 3Iine. The specimens under observation are cnisbea 

and distorted from pressure. 



CoEBULA EvA^rsAXA, Shumard, 



Shell 
lenorth 



igtn greater 
anal end ob 



somewhat rostrate 



ly truncated at the extremity! posterior slope forming n^ar^J 
n nght an-Ie with the umbo. An elevated sharp carina exteaa. 
from the beak of each valve to the posterior inferior extremi^, 
and iiitcnor t^ this is a second carina, which is somewhat r')aB 
dccl and usually most distinct in the right valve ; basal m^m 
obtusely rounded, sKghtly produced ?iear the m^f %f, ;«. 
most specimens slightly contracts postcrioriy; beaks flatten 



''«hk 



SHUMAED — TERTIARY AND CRETACEOUS FOSSILS. 121 

ed near tlie anterior inar^n, convex, rather prominent, incur- 
vetl; surface marked with fine, rather indistinct, concentric 
stria*, nn«l jj^enerally with several distinct folds. The cardinal 



I 



tooth of the right valve is tliick, trigonal, and placed under 
the beak nearest the buccal side, whili^ the cavity for receiv- 
ing the tootli of the opposite valve is triangular, deep, and sit- 
uated directly under the beak. The substance of the shell is 
rather thick, and at the cardinal marmn quite robust. 

Length, 7i lines; height, about 5 linos; thickness, 4i lines. 
These projiortions vary somewhat with the age of the shell. 

Although the collection contains many specimens, not one 
of them retains its original form, all being more or less distor- 
ted from pressure. 



In a few specimens the posterior slope exhibits a double 
carina on only one of the valves and a single exterior one on 
the other, but generally there are two carinje oil each valve. 

Our shell resembles C. densata (Conrad), from which it is 
ilistinguished by the double carina on the posterior mde and 
its thinner valves. 

Form. <6 Zoc. — Tliis species is exceedingly abundant in the 
dark aluminous shale at Davis' Coal Mine, and at the Coal 
Klines of Port Oxford, where it is associated with jLucina 
Jibrosa^ and Cerithmm Klamethensis. 

Lei>a "Willamkttexstb, ShumarcL 

^ Shell small, oblon^-ovate, convex, inequilateral ; buccal mar- 
gin gently arched, and fonuing with the cardinal margin near- 

E^'^l side prolonged, rostrated, truncated at 
extremity; basal margin slightly arched; cardinal bonier 

of the beak and slightly excavated behind; 
ot very prominent. The surface markings 



mi 



beaks sub-tnedial not ^ 

are entirely obliterates ^^^ tx^^ vj^hj .-^ 

ed of this species. 

^ Farm. cC* Loc. — Occurs with Jjucina parx^is in dark-gray 
sllicious limestone, at Brooks' Lime Qaarrj', Willamette V^- 
ley, five miles north of Salem* Oreo-on Territorv. 



Leoa Okegoxa, Shtimard. 

Compare Leda {yumda) impressa (CoBnid),iii Geol-of U. 
S. Exploring Expedition. 

Shell rather large, ovate, compressed, convex ; anterior ex- 
tremity strongly arched; posterior extremity rostrate, slightly 
recurved, truncated; bas^ margin forming a broad curve, 
slightly contracted near the posterior extremity; ligament 
inarpn ^lightly concave; bej^ sitiiatcd a little in advance of 
the middle; surface neatly ornamented with regxdar, concea- 
tne^ impressed lines, becoming more approximate above; 



# 



122 TRANS. OF THE ACAD. OF SCIENCE 



hinge with a Kne of closely-set oblique teeth on each side of 
the beak. 

Length, 20 lines; heii^ht, 10 lines. 




The specimens in the collection were obtained by Dr. Ev- 
ans and the writer, in the autumn of 1851, from the Willaui- 
mette Valley, a few miles south of Oregon City, Oregon Ter. 
They are all internal casts in fine-grained, soft, yellowish and 
white argillaceous sandstone of the Miocene epoch. Their 
surfaces are coated with a thin film of brown hydrated oxide 
of iron. One of the specimens, a mould of the exterior shows 
the surface markings very plainly. 

Pecten CoosEJfsis, Shumard, 

Sliell large, suborbiciilar, mucli compressed; valves flatten- 
ed convex, the superior one more depressed than the other; 
surface ornamented with from twenty-seven to thirty-one 
coarse, radiating, prominent ribs, which are flatten' 
marked with an obscure, median, longitudinal groove 
the palleal margin ; on the inferior valve the ribs are about 
equal in width to the spaces, but on the superior one the spa- 
ces are much the widest; ribs and spaces crossed by nuiaer- 
ons fine, subimbricating, concentric strise of growth j ears 
nearly equal, those of superior valve marked with distinct 
strisB, and folds running parallel with their lateral borders ; 
those on the anterior one are crossed by from six to eight m- 
distinct, radiating ribs; anterior car of lower valve deeply 
emarginate for the passage of the byssus, striated, and marked 
with three or four rather broad, radiating ribs; stria' of poste- 
rior ear nearly vertical ; ligamentarv pit triangular and rather 
deep. 

Apicial Migle excluding the ear;*, 100°. 
This jspecies is subject to more or less Yariation. In sojn 
specimens we find the ribs of the middle of the shell beannf 
a longitudinal, slightly elevated, rounded carina, with a shal- 
low groove OB either side, while toward the lateral margn 

- - - ove. Inoi^i^t 

irface, without 

A.^»;i In (Treat 



t 



am 



specimens the ribs exhibit merely a plane snrface, 
groove or carina. 

Form, d Xoc.— This fine species "Dr. Evans found Ir 
profuaioTi at the mouth of Coose Bay, in slightly coherei. 
sandstone of the 3Iiocene period. 

^ 

Tknus secueis, Shumard, 

Shell large, ovate-subtrisonal, moderately convex, lepgt ^^ 
httle greHterthan the hoiaht; basal mai^in and anteri^^ , 
tremity rounded; posterior extremity subangulated ; du 
Bide very short, excavated tiiider the b«ak» J posterior pori 



** 



SnUMAED— TERTIARY A^D CRETACEOUS FOSSILS. 123 



long, angulateil from beak to posterior inferior end ; corselet 
excavated superioriy, becoming neariy plane Ih'Iott, and form- 
ing almost n right angle with the nmbonial region; ligament 
impression very deep and its edges strongly defined ; lunule 
cordate, somewhat longer than Avide, deeply impressed, and 
its edges strongly defined; beaks rounded, elevated incurred, 
situated nearest the antt^rior extremity; surface marked with 
subimbricating ribs and fine striae, the ribs attenuated in front 
and posteriorly ; on reaching the posterior angle tliey are sud- 
denly directed obliquely upwards over the corselet and redu- 
ced to fine imbricating stnas. The anterior muscular impres- 
sion is rather large, broad ovate and distinct ; the posterior 
one is shallow subovate, broadly rounded below, narrow and 
truncated above; palleal impression broad and distinctly im- 
pressed; sinus triangular, not deep. 

When the exterior crust of the shell is removed, we find 
numerous radiating ribs extending Irom beak to base, cro^ied 
by very closely arranged concentric-waved lines, and the 
whole surface presenting a remarkably elegant appearance. 

The dimensions of a full grown specmien arc, for the length, 
2/j inches; height, 2*^ inches; thickness, lj-\ inches. 

Form. A Loc, — Collected by Dr. Evans in gray, fine-grain- 
ed sandstone of the ^Miocene age, at the mouth of Coose Bay, 
Cape Blanco, and on the shores of the Columbia a short dis- 
tance above Astoria, Oregon Territory, At all of these local- 
ities it is quite common. 



CRETACEOUS SrECIES- 



Inoceba:mus YA^^co^TE:RE^*sIS, Shumard. 

Shell large, ovatc-subquadrate, not very oblique, gibbons 
and sloping gradually but somewhat irregularly to the basal 
margin, height equal to or greater than the length; cardinal 
margin straight or very slightly arched ; bucc^ and basal mar- 
Ins regularly rounded and forming together nearly a semi- 




circle; anal side lengthened, its margin gently arched and 
forming with the cardinal margin rather more than a right 
^^g^^j umbo very ventricose above ; beaks directed oblique- 
ly forward, incurved, very elevated, obtusely pointed, latuated 





prominent concentric Unes. In very young specimens a 
ew longitudinal stria} are to be seen pas5^ing' over the umbo^ 
A striking peculiarity of this species is the remarkable promi- 
nence of the superior part of the umbo, which in most speci- 
mens in the collection becomes suddenly verv' ventricose, 
and forms a cirenms^ribf d, ovate tumor* In other specimen^ 
however, although there is a swelling of this part of the shell, 



% 



m 



124 TRANS. OF THE ACAD. OF SCIENCE. 

it does not rise so abruptly from the general, sui^flice. This 
Intter variety of our shell resembles somewhat InocefHu'^ 
convexics (Hall & Meek), from which it is easily distinguished 
by the concentric lines of the surface, which are much wider 
apart. The L Va7iGouverensis is also much less oblique, ami 
this character also separates it from Z Sagensis (Owen), to 
which it bears some resemblance. 

JDim€nsions.~T\\e measurements of the best specimen in 
the collection are — length, 4 inches ; height, 4 inches ; thick- 
ness of left valve, § inch. There are, however, some fragments 
which show that this species attains a much greater size, per- 
haps more tliau double the dimensions here given. 






Form. & Loc. — Occurs in the dark argillaceous, couipa 

limestone of Nanaimo River, Vancouver's Island. Dr.^Evans 

placed fragments of this shell in my hands for investigation 

several vears since, from the snmn lncnltt\-. alonf? with n -^^^- 



tilus which appears to be identical with N. Dekayi (Morton| 
and other fomis of the Cretaceous system. But, notwithstnna- 
ing their great interest, as pointing out for the first time the 
existence of Cretaceous rocks in that region, these fossils were 
not described, as they were not sufficiently well preserved t^ 
pennit an accurate determination of their specific characters 
Subsequently Dr. Evans again visited this locality and ob- 
tained a number of more perfect specimens, and among the 
othei-s a fine collection of L Vancouverensis. 



Pi^fXA CALAMiTOiDES, SJiumarcI. 

Shell elongated, triangular, compressed, sliglitly curved, n^- 
>'rmes rounded ; buccal portion attenuated ; ligament mai^ii 
acute, arcuate ; palleal margin gently concave ; surf-ice mnric- 
ed witli about fourteen slender, rounded, longitudinal n^ 
separated by spaces much wider than the ribs. On the H^ 



ment side of the shell these ribs are quite distinct, reguiar.u« 




fold 



Dimensions ^PqncM angle, 28°; at the distance o/^!*^^ 
two inches from the point of the beak the width is U I'^t^ 
and the thiclcness 6 lines. 

A singde specimen, onlV, of this shell has come .^f^^^T^S 
observation. It is somewhat mutilated, the extremities w? s 
broken off and the smface more or less exfoliated. M e-^^ .^ 
mation of more perfect individuals may therefore ren<^e^ 
Ttcccssary to slightly modify the above descrijitioii. _ 

For cfeZoc— Cretaceous formation of Nanaimo Rive^ '^^^^ 
couTcr'a Island. The fragment of rock in wluch the 8P^"_a 
was cmb( .Ided is a dark greenish ardHaccons, sandy-texj .^ 
hmestone, with dark igneous pebbles disseminated throu^. 



% 



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HILGARD — NATURAL SERIES. "125 



-1 J 

+ 

Pyrula glabra, ShuTThcinL 

Shell small, ovate ; spire conic, spiral angle 75°; volutions 
about four, convex widening rapidly from the apex ; last vo- 
lution subpyriform, very ventricose above, lower extremity 
curv.ed a little to the left; aperture elongate-ovate, broad and 
rounded behind and contracted before. The exterior coating 
of the shell is not well preserved ; it appears to be perfectly 
smooth and without ornament. 

Length, 9 lines ; do. of last volution, 8 lines ; greatest width, 
6 lines. 

L 
J 

Form. & Loc, — Found with Inoceramus VcDicouverensis 
and Nautilus DeJcayi in dark limestone, Nanaimo River, Van- 
couver's Island, It seems to be rare, as there is but one spe- 
cimen in the collection. 



1^ 



JExposition of a Natural Series by linrEDiAXE Catholic 

Affinities in the Vegetable Kingdom, 

BY T. C. HILGARD, M. D. 

Analytic Classification. 

F 
' J 

J 

Every classification derives its significance from the points 
of view it embodies. Au absolute classification would be ex- 
pected to survey all the ultimate bearings and relatione of 
phenomena ; and this is possible only by conceiving of them 
from the standpoint of their causative relations, or efficient 
conditions. A proposition of primary constituents once ad- 
vanced, all the dependent ground, or the consequences, are thus 
intrinsically and deinonstrably qualified by the known factors, 
e. g., with the mathematical proposition, or assumption of a 
straight line, assumed=l^ this being assumed into right angles^ 
and then into a Bquare, its proposed diagonal^ squared^ must 
of necessity, to all intents and parposes, be the geometrical sq* 
root of 2. But whereas in respect of the concrete phenomena, 
and especially those of organization, we are emphatically ig- 
norant of the primordialiy actuating conditions, we are as yet 
unable to class them in an all-efficient synthetic, or develop- 
ing manner, but merely in an axialytic one, from such primary 
grounds as we are able to advance, and, by their applicability, 
establish. 

Phenomena may be classed^ i. e., subsumed and judged, on 
any prompted point of interest, as a leading or determinative 
conception. Such a classification purports merely to render 
the relations between the object and the contemplating mind, 
A serviceable classification must render the phenomenal con- 

3 



126 TRANS. OF THE ACAD. OF SCIENCE. 



factors 



consuleration most consistently characterizing the concrete 
objects and under their most varied bearings is that which 
qualities all the ultimate effects through their causative con- 
ditions ', and, being the most cathoHcally applicable, when once 
conceived IS most apt to be assumed into the universal appli- 
cation of thought, and thence of language. Classification of 
tne ultmiates from their fiindamental relations is '•' under- 
e^ner l'^' " *"*^^^^^^^^" " o^' appreciation of the special by the 

All understanding takes place by svllogistic derivation of 
ine known ultimates from their granted fundamentals, or effi- 
cient categones. Hence, without the fundamental ideas, no 
syllogistic comprehension or understanding is possible. 

in experimental, analytic, or « inductive" science, where we 
are bound to proceed on the gi-anted ultimate phenomena, 
sueli as conceived, the fundamental or explanatory ideas be- 
ing^ tiein selves the occult object in question, they remain to 
bemfroduced m order to effect an understanding. 

llieretore, the progressive introduction of the explanatory 
Ideas IS the vital vein of progress in analytic sciencef 

science itself being, like intelligence generally, (A. M. 
♦V eiss; perceptive knowing, and creative, its conceptions are 

correspondingly diagnostic, dogmatic, and indagative. The 
nist class IS embod ^rl h^ fi... ^- __.'..• ■. _ n n^ i . .■. 



diagn 



,^..«,i -k W "" -'"^'^ >^j tiiu uiagnostic nanci-DooKs, tne se- 
onnif ^ r! *f^t-books," or dogmatic representations of the 
conceived truths the third by the progressimly mqqestive 
questions to reality" (Humboldt), their sj^ithet if application 
and logical test, or the creative operations of the mind. 

science itself is the systematic survey and nexual under- 
standing at phenomena, whether that nev^is be a truly causal 
one or merely one of typical associations, called "laws." From 
the knowledge of nexual relations, we are enabled to "class," 
or, collectively appreciate, the multitudinous ultimate r.heno- 
mena under the simplified points of view of their efficient 
factors, mvolvmg and cathoHcally elucidating them in all their 
combinations, pennutations and possible ultimate consequen- 

^^fL ,n ■/ ^''^'i^ ^^ %H or any luminous point, which 

?SS4 Jl^d iu!"i'^~'''A'' ^^^ several qualities, especial 
inrolvecL 



rays therein 



The 



o^/>i«r,^ ^^A A, T i'---^*^^« into me conception or tne iriu> 

cSi^f fbf«. f '"'*^"''^ '"^"^-^ i- ^-^ tr"« ^«^vs and true 
StW%!i ^^i'' ^V'^V^ and profonnder in causal gr.^d- 
I55V WKv' ^^?.fr-'^«^^^I clomalns (Proc. Am. Ass^n, p. 
I pJ..!^ f ^?'4?'''^ "?t« their most ultimate effects (Proi: 
itirnStK.' ^'^■f'^^''')^ l%^ics, Smith. Inst.), which con- 

^d^f^lf'T*^^ f '^^^ "^ ^^^^^ ^^^ t^e pervasive 
iJnderstanding ttiereof U science It^olf 



C 



i. 



i 

V 



» 



HILGARD — ^NATURAL SERIES. 127 



The required conception of a fundamental relation, once ad- 
vanced, the test of its competency is, \vhether all the conse- 
quences thence derivable, consistently with the fimdamental 
position offered, do coincide with the respective real phenome- 
na. Hence its sufficiency can, at most, be proved only in 
those cases upon which it is brought to bear, and upon which 
it may be borne out, as by so many odds in favor of its truth, 
or upon which it can, by any actual discrepancy between it 
and the respective real effects, be thus far disproved. 

Tlie mind of animals, as numerous observations on animal 
sagacity render probable, is by no means destitute of a share 
of logical reasoning, on the strength of experienced associa- 
tions of phenomena. In their wild state, and on limited, and, 
on the average, the same occurring associations, no progress 



t 



18 observable ; while, under the varied conditions of domesti- 
city, which frequently are systematically contrived for the 

purpose of training, their scope becomes enlarged by the in- 
creased number and the varied aualities and combinati 



associated phenomena. 



qualities and combinations of 



A logical deduction is the qualification of the questioned 
ultimates, or effects, by the known or granted fundamental 
relations or causes. Where the fundamental relation is itself 
the question at issu€y and the granted ground to proceed upon 
IS the ultimates or effects^ logic can find its application only 
^er the fundamental idea, pm-portiug, by its consequences, 
to cover the phenomenal effects, has been advanced. The 
fimdamental relation once conceived, and its applications like- 
wise advanced, then it is, indeed, by logic, thatjfollotcing the 
achieved conceptions in their track, we test their bifixrious or 
polar consistency, with the advanced positions, by syllogisyn, 
?^ ^^^f ^1^^ hand; and, on the other, with the phenomena, by 
^dmtifying the advanced and logically consistent consequen- 
ces with the respective real effects; logic proceeding, like 
judgment, from both the purpose and its realization, present 
in either, and, when subsequently rendered manifest, repre- 
sentative of both in one act. (^"AWisnugen mos. Sehpf,'' Ws. 
6,7,8.) ^ ^ 

The purported explanatory relation being the more funda- 
mental one, for that very reason it can not be arrived at by de- 
letion. Therefore, in the attempted explanation of causes, 
themselves not directly observable, and hence requiring to be 
YiT^rred or "construed," it is absolutely a contradictio in ad- 
J^<^toto require the conception thereof to be originated by logi- 
cal deduction^in the manner of syllogism ; but, as fur as logic is 
concerned, it has to test the sufl^ciency and efficacy of the pre- 
conceived ftindamental position, and of its synthetically con- 
cei^ed applications, on the grounds of the assumed cause, on 
^ne one h:md,and of tho established phenomena on the other. 

^^e introduction of the explanatory idea is essentially 



* 



128 TRAXS. OF THE ACAD. OF SCIENCE. * 



synonymous witli hypothesis, suggestion, conjecture,or theorem, 
which is the basis of the " uiide^-standing" ("Yerstaendniss") : 
these Tciy- terms being in most instances expressive of some- 
thing introduced in order to sustain. The popular expression 
of "jumping at a conclusion" essentially implies not the en- 
actment of a deduction or actual conclusion, but the aiitid- 
pation of a correct fundamental relation. In a like manner, 
the consciousness of this anticipating nature of causal surmise 
IS expressed in the idiomatic phrase, " I guess" ; and the an- 
ticipated correspondence with effects, in its equivalent, «I 
expect"; while the Greek language si^ifies the optional 

proposition by "-men^ and the subsequent reflection thereon 
by''</e." ^ 

Ti is only by a faculty of explanatory suggestion, that is an- 
tecedent to logical test and prepares the matter and ground 
for the operations of the latter, that the human mind can en- 
ter into the essential constitution of phenomena by the con- 
ception of fundamental relatimis, which, it is presupposed, will 
P^*^76 t™e m their subsequent synthetic applications; and 
which, if successful in covering the dependent phenomenal 
ground, actually amount to nothing short of an intuition or 
actual divination. The science of correct hypothesis, or of 
trutJifuT antlci2Xition,v.'()Vi\<]i indeed be the science of sciences, 
the invention of inventions ; for it is on this promethean fac- 
ulty of a priori invention (of true relation) which produces 
the matter for subsequent logical scrutiny (e. g., syllogism and 
Identification), that essentially depends all efficient action, or 
^cin^X progress, m scientific, aitistio, and executive pursuits; 
whereby an unbounded progress into the depths of causes and 
the surv^ey of their dependent ]»henomena (B. Peirce, aim.) is 
rendered possible ; and such is the power and domain of hrj- 
pofhests, the \'ital factor of intellectual progress, by its actual 
vein of iXTuiTivTE uxderstaxbixg. ("Die Sehergaben," 
Leipz., Fr. Fleischer, 1842, p. 62, etc.) 

Truth, as the intellectual representative of realitr, being 
generated from within, at the prompting of the objects to be 
eomprehended, nothing can be more conducive to its origina- 
tion than the abundant supply of the objective matter, the 
, step m anah/tic research, which consists in perception, 
analysis by classiiicatlon into categories, comparison, hypoih- 
esLS, synthesis, and logical scrutinv. It would appear that the 
chief characteristic of induction consisted in the estaNishment 
o; co^fitnateh/ component ohjectice conceiMons, so that an idea 
Tjcing advanced and ascertained with one of them, the syn- 
thetic application may be tried on all the rest; and if ascei^ 
tamed on ali the rest of the coordinate conceptions, then it is 
predieuble as a romnion feature or "law" those coordinate 

conceptionrcomprising the whole knmmi stdnect by being its 
component mtegi-als. j j o 



.^ukjT>iA^n 



HILGARD — NATURAL SERIES. 129 

It is therefore required, first, to establish all the ultimate 
objects under consideration, as, in organ ©graphic al classifica- 
tion, the individuals, as coordinate conceptions and which 
comprise the whole subject. Kext, by the conception of hia- 



traoisiti 



>/ 



is made coordinately to comprise the whole subject once more. 
A certain character being once conceived as obtaining in re- 
spect of one group of species, if the same character hold 
good in its synthetic application to the coordinates, the other 
species, it will likewise produce coordinate groups, compris- 
ing, once more, the whole subject; and another platform is 
gained, on which to realize a law exhaustively^ because com- 
prehensive of the whole subject at issue. By such a gradua- 
ted process of conception of coordinates, the most complete 



amount 



faculty 



may, at once, be exhaustively applied by an application on 
all the coordinates concerned. 

It is thus, that, by a systematic graduation ot the^ subject, 
that^ subject itself is rendered as complete and available^ as 
possible, provided the motives advanced for such coordination 
be themselves aptly conceived, which remains a matter of m- 
tuitive device, not one of deductions. The subject being 
thus prepared and made available, still it by no means guar- 
anties any subsequent excellence of explanatory hypothesis 
to be introduced. Indeed, experience has shown, that many 
anticipations, or inferences, largely "jumped at^" have proved, 
in the end, more real, effieit nt and productive than a great 
^any others that were more elaborately conducted; for these, 

too. no Iasq in ^TTovTr -^r.^ ^^+1.« T^-polir^imnrv ns woll aS eSSCU- 



J 



volve some predetermined drift or purpose, some mom of 
view, or « turn of mind," in each particular partial enactment. 
A remarka!)le instance of tlie prophetic energy of truth, 
^^nving to embody its creations on the objective materials, is 
afforded, on a closer consideration, by the Linnean numero- 
sexual system of vegetable classification. The boding truth 
of a paramount swav of Generation and number, in the "-phy- 



.. , , r-. 81.) is evidently 

^\ and hen 



JPhyUotaxis 




ap- 



plication and in its identifications with the object at issue, 

affinity, in many cases, dnrinoly at fiudt; this 
)odiment renrescutincr oulv, asTt were, the foot- 



T^atural 



ipecial 




witl 



al served to impress m\d propagoie oevunu 

any doubt, and, in this inrolute form, has rendered umTCi-sally 



130 TRANS. OF THE ACAD. OF SCIENCE, 



ovm 



rrm 



9 



Indeed, as A. v. Humboldt 



ideas onec considered infallible, in most cases it was only the 
nltininte cnib..diment or formulation that perished, the nti- 
rlensofutnie and j>o\verful thought persisting to this dav, 
nnder its vnrions modern embodiments ; in any case, a proof 
of the production of actual truth from within the mind, and 
Jiut as a deduction from, or passive consequence of, the objec- 
tive phenomena. 

Languapro, in its significant ajipreciations and classifications 
of idoa^, convoys and involves the repeated and multifarious] v 
ditresfed opmions and modes of view of millions of intellects, 
And of more or less qualified obser\-ers and thinkers ; and, 
doitbtlcss, owes most to the prophetic imagery of poesy. It 
I8»in many cases, by its profound philosophical conceptions, 
chiefly manifest m the symbolic application of figures, a fer- 
tile, although imperceptible, source of intellective suggestion ; 
being, m a remarkable manner, borne out by the final scien- 
tific new of the respective cases, e. g., in the idea of sharp air 
as productive of those maladies now withprobabilitv ascribed 
to the agency of the ozone state of the atmospherical oxygen, 
or in that of pith or "ma/vmr," as the natural figure for the 
emanative axis of vital power, borne out as such by the scien- 
tihe consideration of the great nervous centres, no less than 
l^ the succulent marrow of the young vegetable sprout bein-x 
"■-V rcc(«iuzed as the primary organ of vegetable 
gencsi'., the new radial elements spmiging up at the succnlent 
terminal raarrow-ore originating the bud, and ultimately 
<-Htitajned within it (Schacht). ^^hether the same or a cor. 
re™dmg character will not hold good with the "maiTOw" 
oi fistulous bonesjikowise, remains for the future to show. 

A truly philosr.phical view of any subject can alone cover 

m emcTgencies ; au intrinsically consistent one alone can stand 

torever, and, il once assumed, be maintained in universal cir- 

cniation and elaboration as above remarked. Kot so with 

ejaawftcations, or, points of view, exclnsivel v diagnostic, ntili- 

tanan, or inconsistent, l)ecause in many of 'their applications 
apt to fiill v-hort. 



11 



ororano- 



be 



™J*1"1^?^^^ I'bilosophical designation, or classification, 

""*"""" " ' " ' ss, so that by 

es of elabor- 




aUuir the same, ages and nati 
tendency and degroo of tLeir f^ 

Ucfnnl heiirht. * 



Puts 



lOGEAPHT, 



For t ue panoses of identification bv differential diagnoi«», 
■Md P.ir that of total representation, twJ modes of considerable 

— arc practically in use^Descrijptwn and Definition. 




IIILGARD — NATURAL SERIES. 131 



Definitions purpor 
characters 



essential 



tliey require a pcifect tiltimnte representation, and liciioe 



knowledge 



the phenomcnn, under all conditions, in the manner in which 
a logical or mathematical assumption covers all the conse- 
quences thcrefi'ora derivahle. 

The specific or distinctive fundamental conditions of the 
phenomena of organic action and exi8te7ice reniaining, as yet, 
occult, the possible scope and limits of organic phenomena 
cannot be developed a priori in a synthetically deductive 
way, but require to be experimentally circui ascribed and ana- 
Ivtic-allv ascertained and recorded: and this is the province 



of DESCEIPT10^% 



ORGANOGRAPnY. 



Descriptive efforts, or the record of observationa made. 



re 



assortment 



diagnostic material. Observations on the especial and gen- 
eral economy of organic life, the knowledge jKir excellences viz^ 
of the conneanon of organic phenomena, the due repository of 
which is Natural History, are mostly lost for w-ant of an op- 
portunity to record them, and through the comparative neg- 
lect in wliich, by a stransre misconception, Natural History 
seems to be held by the" generality of students ; while it 
formed the chit'f obifit^t w "ith the fathers and regenerators of 
botanical 



science 



Dioscori 



de^. Brunfels, Bock (Tragus), Fuchs, Corda, Tabenuemonta- 
nu^, and with Gesner ; to the latter of whom, also, the honor 
of the first steps in natural classification seems to be due. In 
Natural History, Linne and Buffon stand perhaps unequalled 
to this day. By his intellective suggestions, tndy prophetic, 
Goethe, the poet, seems to have been the 
vegetal as well as vertebral morphologg.,^ 
ved to others, acouainted with the special: 



prin 



orr^etness 



WautifiilU- advanced by him, e.g., in his poem, "Die Metamor- 
phose def Pflanze," and, concerning the mutual relation be- 
tween the elements of the skull and of the vertebral^ column, 
im his correspondences. Xew and spirited points oi view have 
been start t^rl Kx- S^Kmiw «TT^i M>;<.flv A. V. IlnmboMt : the 



■eotrr 



lais 



concerning the" moral, ethnological, and statistic relations of 
the virescent world; while the intrinsic or causativ^and the 
extrinsic or ultimate, philosophical relations of vegetable econ- 
omy, such as development (II,M.)hI,Schacht, K. 1-^seck), orga- 
notaxis (C. Schimper, A. Braun), morphology (W- ^- ^'^etiie, 



132 TRANS. OF THE ACAD. OF SCIENCE. 

a W. Bischoff, G. Engelmann), vegetable migrations (Fno-er) 
geography and scenery, as specialities, are more and more cnl- 
tu-ated by the nnmerous devotees of Flora. A beautiful con- 
^.1 \l *^ T^''"^} 't*^^^ of plants ^ve find in the mono- 

Y Humboldt has, m his "Kosmos," given us a :N-atural Histoiy 
ot the physio-sensuous Universe, C. Mueller, in his " Versuch 
emer kosmischen Botanik," an essay on the extraneous rela- 
tions of vegetable types, and Schleiden ("Die Pflanze und ihr 
i<e^ben ) one on their intrinsic and aesthetical ones, we need not 
despair of soemo- ^ atural History once more resume its eatho- 




Kosmos' 



or 



purposes 



Tir.+T,:^ 1 X - " -- '■^K, i^^±^\joK=o in. ui»rf specie amij 

nothing but a misapin-ehension of its objects and charactS-. 



Affixity. 



M^riSf ":.r*?;ll-!J"'''-- - -I-' Sro.n.U all artl. 



and systems 



n^ jLZr^fT''^^'^'''^''^^y ^^^^''^^ they were, at 
S. vT^ f , }"" ^-' *? ^ ''"^'^^ '^^^g^-ee, coincident with 

siMH \p Vx^f 't ' °-' \^.^™«i<^^^% and cStholicallv thoeough 
^ vet wf.% "^•\'^^tials and species we are not enabled 



true 
as T)romr*tpi1 



? .1 .a ,I,n J ^•^- • i'"™=<™ties in the parts of the indi- 



Hn^A xl^T...^ t. i^ ""-^- ^^t4iiit:iuuii examples wJience to con- 

St" t '^nd hf.^ ^^T'' ^'-'^"^^^^ •''"^1 ^^-^^^t the more con- 
ac er^i nnl. tif ^' ^^^'^^^^y, the more essential or grave ehar- 

L to tot. n. « n^^^^^^^^^ conditions. In a comparison 

^e r.lp v\/ "thorough" resemblances, called " aifinities," we 

to c S ' I ' ^Zrt.'^^r?^'-^^ ^^-^^ i-l-i^-^^ totals 



atural 



<juestion 



'ei 



Uo i»nn<s+;tii«,,+ "--V..,.. M^iuj. uasea on tiie evulence ot catno- 

for the CO oolff f '' '* '^ '>"" ^^^^-^^ ^ ^«^t fertile ground 
tfons L om2!^ f cosinological or catholic ultimate rela- 

tr::n^:i^fl:^IhJ>' ^---"^ ^^— ^> the foun- 



ders 111 botany '.ii^m?!*^® monographer, of natural Ur- 
viz., of cIo.e^t S relmbbmrir^ '^"' primitive question, 
cruuiiin.^^ tli«v 0.1, ^''^"nol.mces, were so successful m the 

m-conwK *..! n^ i "" V* .^'*^ c\er since T)Gen receive J, because 
Z^l^i^^l f **^ pronipting of their arrangement ; 

BYBtla t c4nv d^fin?, i '^- ^;^thstood the futile attcmipts at 
B^iiinttitally definmg, by isolated abstrf„.f*>d r-h.r^^for wh.it 



HILGARD— NATURAL SERIES. 133 



■giiment 



tson , „..^ „ ^ 

V 



} 



or 



jet, in contradiction to their very principles of total^ corres- 
pondences, the Orders are subdivided on partial criteria, often 
gratuitously selected and quite inefficient. 

The process, by which I arrived at my results, was one of 
strict analytical inference. On a received suggestion of linear 
connexion, I arranged the adopted natural orders and single 
en-atic fomis, elevated, faute de mieux^ to the rank of Orders 
(Tamarix, Coriaria, Calycanthus, Punica, Podophyllum, The- 
lygonum, Datisca, and the like), after the fundamental rule 
of natural affinity, applied to serialization, viz., closest total 
coincidence of characters ; the dignity of each character bcin" 
partly as an impression of judgment derived from their^ com- 
parative values of constancy and variability on the individuals 
and within the species, and withal from the relative part they 
assumed, a posteriori, viz., subsequent to tJie juxtapositions oi 
species, genera, orders, etc., on the fundamental leading prin- 
ciple of affinity, thorough con-espondence. 

On the ground of established Orders, such as Ericaceae in- 
clusive of Vaccinieae, Nymphacaceie Inclusive of both Nu- 
har and Victoria, and Rosiflora? inclusive of Dryadece and 
-'omaceae, I drew the conclusion, that in these cases the dif- 
ference between hjqiogynous and epigynous forms was sub- 
ordinate to that of the assumed Order, and like-\^-ise, that 
these fonns, by gradual transitions (Nuphar, Njmphaea, Yic- 
t<Mia; Pyrola, Gaultheria, Vaccinium) through mediating 
forms connected much closer among each other than such 
forms as, e. g., Panaver with Erica, althouarh alike h\-pogynons. 




the h 





form 



mth ejng-ynoiis ones, and thus^ perhaps, a series hy immediate 
(connexions {jMiixw^l series) be realizable. 

Synthetically starting on this proposition, mentally con- 
structing epigj-nous forms to given hypogynous ones, and vice 
versa^l was charmed to find that the'se fictions had their 
strict con-espondencies in reality. As an h}7>ogynous form of 
Cjilycanthus, I de\-ised the very counterpart of Illicium of 
^lagnoliacea?. As a st/Sh}-pogynous form of Cactea-, Portu- 
lacca, as a stihe])\gynons one, the apex of the carpels not being 
covered by the coherent calyx, as likewise in Mespilus of Rosi- 
floroD, I recognized Mosembryanthemum, of which the hypogyu- 
ptis forms must bo Crassulacei^. I had known Bartonia, when 
"1 ^imn I found that Glaucium luteum may stand as an 
nypogynous Bartonia. Papaveraeea2 connecting, on tht^ one 
hand, directly with Fumariaceffi by such forms as Chulidoui- 



and 





Loasacea;) seemed to be precluded. How- 



134 TRANS. OF THE ACAD. OF SCIENCE. 

ever, following up the idea through Cruciferse connecting on- 
ward by Raphane^e and Yella with Capparidea?, and there the 
floral fahric of Glaucium rcoccurriug in Cappans I conceived, 
in the reseiJihlance between them and Bartonia, a mere trans- 
mutation of hypogynous to epigjTious forms. The same I had 



former 



artonia, 



Dianthoids; and there being no closer mediation between 



^Pigyji^^i^s connecting UnJc. 



(B 



This is only one of many more similar cases, by Aray of ex- 
emplification of the mode of proceeding, which led me to the 
subsequent results. 

The paitial and striking coincidence of especial characters in 
Glaucmm, Capparis, Bartonia, Hypericum, etc., I found, after- 
Wards, to be but one of innumerable instances where some sa- 
lient character will reappear, after an apparent suppression, in 
the penes that can be established by closest total resemblan- 
^^f- ^f '^^e were enabled to define, or demonstrate, a vege- 
table form out of its fundamental conditions, these pai-tial 
recurrences would, of course, be contained in the very fonda- 



rmul 



din 



milar 



'«u*.i-u ueiween Aconitum, Tropseolum percgnnum, Impati- 
ens hdya, Corydalis, etc., foi-ms by immediate and thorough 
connexions belonging to natural orders, in part othenvise 
"Widely disconnected. 

By an analysis of Diclytra and Fumaria, and by their com- 
ansonwith their dissolving phase, so to sav, in Hypecoum, 
t conceived the parts, which in the former connect at the apex, 
iike a little paw or snout, including the pollinary and stig- 
niatic organs, were not two, but four, in number, leaving in 
r umaria one saccate, one flat, and cross-wise, two smaller se- 
pals, as in Impatiens : the whole difference, then, amount- 




to 



a. 



idewise 



Fumaria are 



•At ,1 fT^J^^ast coherent at the ajiex, and, in Hvpecoum, re- 
««^ I^^ ^ *^^® coTifines of the Order of FumariacesB ; and 
S f / "^'Y'^ ''*^'-'^' ^i^rted common characters a pod-Hke, 
^'^^dy and remlutthj dUUient camnle (Papaver., Siliqno- 
sffi, Cappnrideae) obtaining no less in " Gruinales," Endl., (W 
pntiens, Geraniace»,) I conceived these established natural 
groups oi orders toconnppt Kn+.,-„„^ ^.i. >.„i :*^ „. ^l 



sc- 



ntifL '^-r"'^'''"''"* '*''^®'^ ^"^^ ™*l ^^ to the exclusion of 
oiners. Ihe conceived interpretation of the sei.als, as being 

CmcY ^^"^^'^ '"- *^^^ I'^«^' is confirmed bv BL-,cuteIla of 



-iucuer^^, wnere, m the four elements connn-sing the calyx, 
w« nnci them m pairs uf different bt^Itrbts. T>laced cross- wise, 



-Jtf 



HILGARD— NATURAL SERIES. 135 



according to pliyllotactic necessity, and the two superior ones 
saccate, almost calcarate, at base ; as in Dielytra. 

In Troj)3eolaceae we perceiA'e the balsamineous forai be- 
come perigynous, and if, inductiyely, we look for the expec- 
ted epigynous form, on the advanced hypothesis, the form re- 
quired seems to correspond to epigynous forms mentioned 
by Endlicher, among Vochysiacese, which, in their hypogyn- 
ous ones, seem very closely to coincide with the floral type of 
Balsaminese, while alternating from 1 petal to 3 and 5, I liave 
not had tlie occasion of an autopsy, so liberally granted to 
me by the kind consideration of Profs. Fenzl, linger, and 
others, in the imperial collection at Vienna, which I was al- 
lowed to peruse. It may also be, that Melianthus belongs to 
this conjunction. Confining myself to Avhat I have leisurely 
examined, if we contemplate Scandix Pecten Veneris, may 
we not be forcibly reminded of geraniaceous fonns, such as 
Erodium moschatum? In fact, if we imagine, according to 
our theory, a Scandix to be hypogynous, or an Erodium to be 
epigynous, they become almost absolutely identified in habi- 
tus and in most of the analytic detail of floral structure, e^:- 
copt that in Umbclliferae the carpophore, as in most CruciferEe 
(Biscutella!), bears tAvo desiliont valves, while in Geraniacese 
we have 5 one-seeded (rostrate) elements, in TropceolaceiB 3 
and 2. in FumariaccEe and Crambe a single one. That the 
number of cai-pic elements in this region is of little import- 
ance, is deducible from its indiscriminate occurrence within 
the single^ natural Orders, such as, with Papaveraceae, 1 in 
Sanrruinaria, 3 in Glnncium, many in Papaver; all being, in- 
dubitably, most intimately connected by total transitions, 
}^'hich refer them to the same natural order. In Araliaceae, 
i^Miediately contiguous to Umbclliferae, the number of carpic 
elements is likewise increased ; so that we may safely infer, 
^^t,t|ie different number of caipic elements can not undo the 
affinities otherwise and in a thorough manner obtaining be- 
tween two natural orders, or an epigjTions and an hypogynous 
form, such as Scandix and the umbellate Geranoids. 

If we look for the other aiEnities advanced and conceivable 
^'^th Umbelliferae, we find Araliaceae as its inmiediate proxi- 
niates, A close affinity obtains with the likewdde canaliculate 
w calcarate Gminales, EndL ; and Vochysiacese may enact the 
continuous mediation ahi\ Certain coincidences of floral type, 
often assumed for actual affinities, are those of Umbelliferae 
vath Conieae ; wdth certain Synantherese (Eryngium and Ja- 
^ma); with Hydrangea; with Cupuliferre (Astrantia); with 
Kioes; no less, in my opinion, of their alate forms, with Be- 
^c/n-io. We have seen, that the epigvnous form, the num- 
fV^ ^^^^^'^ and, it may be added, the agixregnte condition 
01 flowers, are incident iu every part and witlun many diflTer- 
^nt orders, and so hs occasional apetalism. These criteria can 




186 TRANS. OF THE ACAD. OF SCIENCE. 

not, tliorrforCjhe cstcemecl stringent ones, but only of a con<li- 
tional v:iluc. \Vliat I find to be far more indieative, is ^vlmt is 
c:\11cm1 hahit; for, however multiforai within an established Or- 
r, still every- natural Order, or group of Orders, has its high- 
impressive, although scarcely describable character ofh>lhit. 

Jv habit, UmbellifercD thoroughly connect, on the one hnn<1, 
with Araliacaffi ; on the other, with Gruinales. From either 
of the other affinities remarked, they are emphatically distinct 

-least so from Begonia. Coniese, by habit ami Imme- 
diate continTiity of total conespondences, connect, on the one 
hand, with Nyssa, in fruit and habit representing an epigyn- 
ous olivaceous fonn; on the other, with Rubiacese, which, 
through Lonicercffi, Hydrangea, and ValerianeEe, conduct us 
to Dipsacea; and Compositae : so that Gomeae appear as an 
€pig}-nnus phase intermediate between Tubiflorce (Auct.) and 
S\-nanthereaB. Ribes, presenting another partial affinity to 
UmbcllifcnB, on the one hand, directly connects, by the forms 
endowed with a long, tubularly produced and petaloid calyx, 
^Tth Fuchsias of onagr^ceo-salicario-myrtaceous affinity ; on 
the other, through the mediation of Escallonia, with Saxifra« 
tr-^-. BegomacciE by their anthero-connectival febric in«^icate 
a close relationship with anonaceo-hydi-ocharideo-nympha?oid 
WTOs, an attinity confirmed bv the serpentarioid, flexiio««>- 
n.Hloloira stem, the liriodendroid stipules, and cissoid and 
▼inorioid foliage, of a certain Begonia, and, if consMered hy- 
pogpaons, would, in their triquetrous capsule, alate seed, 

ijpetahsm, and tufted stamlnation, represent the floral fob- 
ric of mpenthu, itself of aristoloehioid affinitr, while, \>f 
n» pitchered leaves, direetlv belonging to Sarracenias and Di- 
«TOea?. An affinity of BcC-onia to Euphorbias, by a divided 
itigrna and inequilateral, spotted foliage, also desen'cs consid- 
tnitmn but stan<Is umtudiated; while Euphorbiaceaj them- 
J^lves by their cupulate forms immcrliately connect with Fi- 
coide®, on the one hand, and in their crotonoid forms, on the 
mhcT, most probably with Danhnoids. 

The foliage of Cistm, its stipulaj and habit of stem, which 
appears to l>e composed of very distinct bands, or colnmns, of 
btxneous tissue, as m Vitis, unites the forms 




1 



xttc»o-nodaloTis^steiumed Tiola species; the whole of the 



ffrnl 




^nhrmed by the occasional apaalism of Viola ptibescens, 
illi «! "^T^f^ seosoas, I thus obtained the foUowing par- 
lul ot ^fA<»>st conix. uons: rtnbcllifliriB, AraliaceEB, Am- 
peftiten;, \ i<^,jioe«, Resedaceae, Pamassia, Droseracc:B, Am- 
FlTl!? (sarracenio-nepenthoidsX Besoniaces, both of tbe 
tgjuous) temuni being of a mnltiferiouslv related tyr«% 




HTLGARD — NATURAL SERIES. 137 



and tlie whole (Vitis, Menispennum, Leontice) claiming an 
riffinity to the niagnolioid tribes. ]\Ingnoliacea3 by IHuiiua 
initiutu the calycanthoid tyj^e, in its resinoso-camphoraceous 
properties and habit at once indicative of both amagnoHa- 
ti'-nv auJ an asaroid affinity. In Enpomatia, as de«cril»cd by 
Endl^ I find a nieloniferous aristolochoid fomi, uniting the 
iadumentnl and stftijiinal parts of (perigynons) Calycnnthua 
in an ejugynous version, with the carpic character of Aristo- 
iocliia. Kext to identical in floral structure with Calycan- 
these are (Eudl,) Monimiaccse of lauroid affinity. Laurus 
Benzoin and Lanrinae generally have the resinoso-camphonite 
property of Magnoliacese in their fruit, and partly in their fo- 
liage (L. Benzoin, Asiniina tnloba). The spotted, curved 
and smoothlsh branches of Laurus Sassafras are those of Mag- 
nolia glauca. ^ The antheral valve and floral texture of Lauri- 
niB we find in Berberis, a ybt/r-celled anther in 3Ienisper- 
mum, likewise,— all of magnolioid affinity. It is but natural, 
that most of my devised affinities should be based on the ha- 
bitual impressions derived from the vcffetation of the United 



States an<l the south of Europe, tliose conveyed by the habit- 



ual forms of central Eurcype having already served the Euro- 
fKati hotain&ts to group forms around their starting-points, 
mostly indicated by the very name of the Order (Itanuncu- 

lacejE, Berberidesp, Kosacese, GeraniaccEB, etc.), until at last a 

brcarh ensued ; which breaches, if a natural series of total 

connections does exist, mii^f naturally be supplied by the 

^(■•jetations of other countries, less consulted, because less 

frequently prompted to contemplation by frequent accidental 
occnrrenee. 

L. we consider the enonnous difference of seminal structure 
•etween forms so closely allied as Papaveracea; and Crucife- 
HE, and as Ca?salpinetB and Papilionace® of LegnminosiB, a 
■umlar one between Laurinae and Magnoliacea can Lnre no 
^nnd against their affinity; and Linne, in recognizing the 
"" mcance of embri-onal structure, seems not to have expect- 
e<l as much importance from the seminal induments and de- 
posits, which properly belong rather to the old than to the 
young plant, by becoming effunct as the latter assumes an in- 
dependent vital existence. 

JiagnoliacesD, throu2:h Anonacea, SchizandraeeK and Menis- 
permum, connect with Berberidesp; and the latter, throuiih 
tae '^"1^ forms of ^ctoo, etc., join lianunculaceae. Ra- 
ouncttlus Flamraula, by its habit<*, and the catervated, lenticu- 
mrfv ««♦,♦« ^, .„„„.. ... , highly in^„,iative 

V -^"{^.iv.ii..,, X cAniiiiiieu uie latter as to Its cau- 

une structure, which, as I had thence anticipated, a<^ually 
F^e<l to be an exogenom one ! Even before then I had been 

umiaent ut the alleged monocotyledonons character of Alis- 
"aactffi and the rest of najadaceous tribes, on account of the 





188 



TRANS. OF THE ACAD. OF SCIENCE. 

number of their carpels exceeding the dominant one of "Mono- 
cotyledoneEE," all of which have three, with the exception of cer- 
tain Gramincae. The (magnoliaceous) stipules of Potamofre- 
ton seemed likewise to contradict that location. I have not 
yet been able to satisfy myself of the actual embrj-onal struc- 
ture of Alisniaces. The horse-shoe seed seems to present 



foimer. At the 



fcutt end I found a tubercle, which I would compare to the 
amniotic sacculus as observed in the allied Podophyllea;, Ano- 



nacea and Caboinba. 



caceffi, besides the foliage and epigynism of certain Nympha- 
ceae,_afford the 2mrietal placentation of Xymphsa, Hydrocleis 
(Najadese), and, more distantly, CruciferoBiJ), combined with 
the mmutis of Xajades, the epigynous form of which I claim 
them to be, and to which (compare the antheral structure of 
Cycnogcton Huegelii, Endl. Iconogr., and Triglochin) Junca- 
gmesB, no doubt, belong, as the connecting link (Scheuchzeria 
and l^utomus) to Alismaeeae ; while, perhaps, Burmanniaceffi 
reqmreto be added to the dependencies of HydrocharidejB. 
m habit,^ SchoUera of Pontederete likewise belongs here, 
representmg, as it were, a perigvnous Zostera by the habit 

A Ir^'V^ ^^, '^^ ^*''°* ^'^^^ foliage, while the sagittaria leaf 

and the densely clustered spike of Pontederia likewise recall 

the najadeous tribes generally, so that the " Order" of Pon- 

xeaeresB is likely to prove the perigynous form of Hydrocha- 

ride^e, connectmg them with hypogynous Fluviales, Endl. I 

nare not^ yet been able to examine fully the rhizoma of Vow- 

xeaeria, but those ofMlumhinm and Mtphar are strict!]/ en- 

<^ogmm(s ! In Podophyllum peltatum, the perennial rhizoma 

i^» pertet y exogenous, while the herbaceous floriferous stem, 

wnicn alone is exserted, bearing a terminal flower between 

TWO opposite terminal leaves, has the structure designated by 

endogenous." In a specimen of Ilydrocharides, as well as 

m ftagittana, 1 find the caudieal structure to be clearly exoge- 

»a?A. anrt as JN j-mphacacese, by their epigjmous forms, seem 

A^r^^ V" ^*^^"e^^ ^ith Hydrocharide^, the two may be 
7) V ^ i f co«f ec^rn^r links beticeen MonocotyledoaeoB and 
i^ly.'^'''''^'^i ^^\ %pogynou8 nvmnhifioid forms, such as 



Kel ural 



t-^ ■-* 



and 




.>;b 

ly allierl to Piperitse, and 
t, confirming tlie position 
seem 



tir./^/.fx4^^^ - --7 v'^.it i ip^xiisB seem TO meaiaie u. 

wt^ W.T' ^"f ^l^«>tylcdono«8 forms bv transition 



>_ 



k to its 
u^ connections, wlucL we found to be njedia- 

ra of 




r" 



HILGARD — NATURAL SERIES. 139 



floral 



foiTOs, perigrynous 



thege, and arriving at an epigynous ("pomal") dividing ridge^ 
so to say, in meloniferons Enpomatia, Serpentarise and succu- 
lent Begoniacese. The latter seem to be, in an liypogynous 
version, represented in Amphoratse, of which Xepenthes has 



« ..-^ ^ ^e Vio. 



^ o o jr • -- 

lacese, and the triquetrous capsule of Tiiglochin and Reseda. 
Reseda imagined apetalous and its pendent fruit turned up- 
'wards, we have the (melanthoid !) image of a Nepenthes inflo- 
rescence* No doubt Parnassia, by its fimbriate petals, is of 
all violoid forms most closely allied to Reseda ; through Yio- 
laceae and other cissoid forms, such as violet-leaved and scent- 
ed Ampelidese, we arrive at epigj'nous Hedera, whose foliage 
is foreshadowed in Begonia Dregei, while Araliacese, Um- 



form the dividing node 

termi- 



nated by Loasacese, whose pinnatifid, cucullate forms, such as 
Cajophora, unite in themselves somewhat the striate fruit and 
elematoid habit of Umbelliferae and Fumariacese — a sort of 
recurrence of tgpe obseiwable in aU "pomal" foims, on trial 
of the suggestion; thus in Loasacese we likewise see, by 
Bartonia, the floral habit of Cereus and Opuntia foreshadow- 
ed — the head of a Cactus on a capparoid body, so to say. It 
IS thus that both terniim^ or pomal dividing and connecting 

', of these orders may be conceived to join at their ends^ 
ng a "circuit" or "cycle"; and tlie application of this 
idea holds good on all the othei-s, as we sliall ])resently see, 
and therefore may be held a "law." Likewise, the forms cou- 
tamed between the ^'7iodes^ or pomal forms, may be stated 
to be rather homogenous, or uniform of habit as well as floral 
stnicture,such as the "rhceadoid" and "polyearpic" Orders are 
^vitlun themselves ; and this conception, applied to the other 
intcmodes," or circuits, holds likewise good; so that the 
^"[^^^^f itself can be said to be constituted by a homogeneity 

W hahit^ as to tho Romntir^ r\^i^ • qt^iI an plpnthproniprons an- 



form 



structure, in two dirpptmns tn-idnn11v transfomiin 



XI- 



^yuimerous and finally epigynous or pomal ones, of appn 
J![^^*^ .types, but not immoftlately mediated by transition, and 

""^ ^irina strilrina rp^pmhhinepR tn nrohahhi all the other 




^ '/7n5, by a remarkable rarfa5?7//^ of floral struc- 
ture- m each epigA^nous phase. 

Amarantace<*e, Chenopodcce and Pulve^onese have, from a 
^eat coincidence of habit and embrj-ological character, and 
cmetly by immediate connexions, such as through the spinous 
^trieufar perlgons of both Emex and Spinacia, bet-'^*^" 
j;*>lygonejE and ChenopodezB, and by th< 
vamphorosma, between Chenopodece and 
accounted, as a connected whole, as Olei 



omi 



Am 



140 TRANS. OF THE ACAD. OF SCIENCE. 

by hal)it no less than by their seminal structure antl petaloid 
calyXj likewise apetulous, are mostly considered ajffiries to Po- 
lygonese, to which as well as to Amarantacese (Amarantus de- 
ffexu?;, Herniaria glabra) Paronychiacese likewise claim a 
great affinity, so striking between such forms as Paronychia 
nivea and polygonoides on the one, and Poh^gonum adculare 
and some more bracteate ones of the MediteiTanean resjion 
on the other hand. The calyx of chenopodiaceous Sal^ola like- 
wise represents that of Nyctagine^e, and no less that of Sta- 
tice^ rather incongruously and artificially united by authors 
with polenionioid Plumbago. The dense crests of scarious in- 
florescence of Statice approximate the genus likewise to Ama- 
taceiBj its capitate clusters to capitate Dianthus. In the 
Gennan language, popular appreciation makes Statice a 
"sand-pink" By the frequent Tiew, in Spain, of such highly 
petaloid fonns as Statice sinuata, with a blue, and S. segypti- 
aca, with a white, petaloid calyx like that of Mirabilis, I was 
fitrongly imjtre^sed with the coincidence, suggestive of the 
idea, that the one was an aj>etalous form of the other, both 
coming, by the eleutheromerism of Statice, under the dialy- 
petalous, not the tubiflorous, affinities. 

Franktniaceae, in every respect except the presence of pet- 



als, belonging to the neighborhood of Xyctaginese, by these 



combined characters likewise join Statice, as w^ell as Scleran- 
thacese of Dianthoids. Frankeniacese have the fleshy, farina- 
ceous, fohar texture of both Polycarpon and Chenopodiacea^, 
and in habit, stipuloe, etc., most "closely join Paronychiacese, 
and recall Alsinese. According to Endlicher, they may abo 
be somewhat compared to Taiimrucinm. 

The hi])pocrepiform embryo in a farinaceous albumen, the 
scarious texture of capsules, the ciliate filiform stigma, the 
fiexuous <tem of Polygonese, and many characters of habit un- 
dufinable, have caused the prevalent assumption of a corres- 
pondence between Oleracete and Dianthoids. To my mind, 
an actual connection is mediated through Paronychiacese 
(and Frankeniaceee) between Polygonese and Callitrichine^, 
Batis, etc. 

As in Dianthoids we have forms with a tubiliurous and an 
eleutheromerous calyx, so in Statice we have a nyctagineous 
one, in Armeria the sepals of Zinunh, with which it would 
seem %o connect by the multiple number of flised carpic ele- 
ments likewise, as m habit generally. Such forms as Linuia 
(sp.^o/X/^5on), with it:^ rigid and projecting calyx, also recall 
Alsinete. The yellow, arborescent, tristylous Linmns no doubt 
clost^Iv armroaeb iKa tri«tt-T.M:.. Tr,-...^^.,.,.. ...../.loa wlule the 




Portulaceaceie 



seems to be indicated by Elatine, uiiiting the habital charac- 
ters of JloUugo with the rippled seed of Ilvpericina?. 

In tlie neighborhood of triearpic Hypericins we must per- 



HILGARD — NATURAL SERIES. 141 



haps place Cistus and Helianthemurn, by their membrana- 
ceous, co?;tate calyx, partly spirally ttcisted^ and scabrous feci, 
seem to hint at Loasacese, Avhile the resinous, ladaniferoiis 
character recalls capparid properties on the one, and the vis- 
cous exsudation of Lychnids on the other hand. A position 
for Cistina^ might also be sought for near Tiliaceae, ^diero a 
similar valvate dehiscence (Sparmannia) and similarity of 
stamiuution, as well as of foli/ige (Byttneriaceae) obtains. The 
same, nearly, might be quoted for Hypericin^e, by habit so far 
distant from Tiiiace^e, notwithstanding a polyadelphous stam- 
ination. An autopsy of Hj-pericum calycinuni and Baitonia 
must decide in farox of loasaceous affinity for Hypericinse, 
and perhaps for Cistin^e, 

We thus mio-ht assume the following: linear connection : 
-oasacere (with Bixacea^? Tumeracese?), Cistinn?, Hj^eridnae 
(Oehranthe?), Linum, Armeria, Statice, Nyctagincse, [Polygo- 
ne©, Chenopode^B, Amarantaceae, Paronychiacece?] Frankeni- 
aceae, Scleranthaccse, Dianthece, Alsinese, [Elatincas? Callitri- 
chm^? Batis?] Mollugineae, Portulaccace^, Caeteae, the latter 
the epi^ynous form of both PortulaccaccEe on the one, and 
crassuloid Mesembryanthemum on the other hand, Cereus with 
Bartonia formally rounding off this cerastoid circuity while 
essentially disconnected for want of links for immediate and 

closer transition than the very one through Dianthoids and 

Linoids. 

In a communication, last year, on the kind request of B. See- 
mann, Ph. D,, made on this subject to the Linnean Society of 
London, the whole of the series, from Paronychi:icea3 + Calli- 
taehmae, Batis, Elatine, etc., through Oleracese jip to Tama- 
mcmse and Salicinae, are intercalated between (episfvnous) 
Unnalnn^,Platanoids, etc. That Salicin?e may, by the iden- 
tity of the fruit and seed, be justly cLutned as apetalous depau- 
perated forms of Tamarisciui^e, is justifiable by alike compar- 
^on between perigynous Acer and mona3cious, apetalous and 
merely Ustaminate Negundo, the evidence of which likewise 
mers Fraxinus, by its single samara a semi-Acer, or seml- 
^cgiuido, to that neighborhood. Whether Tamariscinm+Po- 
p^lmtB,+Iieaumiiriacefe, belong to the ameutaceo-Jicoid trihe^ 
J^ather than to the cerastoid one?, under discussion, I am not 
prepared to say, althougli a connection between Tamarlscin^ 
^ caudate Amarantacea? has been pleaded by me. As they 
^Tid as yet without any evident connection, they may stand 
wiiere authors have crenerally referred Popxilinfe, namely, in 
^e neighborhood of CupulifenB. Perhaps the mediating Jinks 
A^I ^^^ ■^*^ conceived among the known ones, or liereallter be 
Jbcovered. Amouii: Chenopodeae, there are strong indications 
^ urticoid affinity afforded by the mulbcm/dike carnified pe- 
fianth ot BUtum, the platunoid piluHfcmis aments of Obione 
^*racteosa (Pi, Ileennann.), the platanoid foliage and habit of 

4 



142 TRANS. OF THE ACAD. OF SCIENCE. 

Atriplicea\ the leafless articulated stems and depauperated 
flowers of Salicornia, recalling artocarpoid Casuarina, to which 
IlalorageiE by their verticillate, amentoid stems also seem to 
claim affinity. If 3I}Tiophyllum can be justly claimed an epi- 
gynous callitrichine form, on the ground of its habit and the 
quadricomous fruit, then probably the whole of Oleracea? and 
their dependencies belong thither, namely, to Amentoideo-Fi- 
coidese ; an affinity likewise borne out by the spike of Polygo- 
num, when stripped of its flow^ers, its ocreal bracts giving the 
exact prototype of the scaly male aments of Carpinus and 
Populus ; and if, as above remarked, the oleraceous t)7)e re- 
quires to be referred thither, the connection is no doubt af- 
forded by Halorago-Thelygonoids, Cannabince and Cupuliferae 
on the one, and Gomphreneae, Tamariscina?, Populinae and 
Platanoids on the other hand : a question I must now leave 
undecided. 

In any case, Alsine[e,by Polycarpon and perhaps other ver- 
ticillate fonns, approximate Mollugo' of Portulaccace^e, the 
(8iib)hypogynous Opuntias. Dianthece, Frankeniaceae, Statice, 
Linum, Hypericinge, (Bixaceie?) and Cistinae, seem to jom 
Bartonias, and the whole passage may be designated as the 
diardJioid type, 

Cactese, Mesembryanthemum, Crassulaceee, Cimoniacetr, 
Saxifragese, Escalloniea? and Ribesiacese form one iininter- 
rupted lile and succession. The foliage of Escallonia fore- 
shadow^s both that of Ribes aurea and "Fuchsia groeca, Rihes 
rubruin, in its flower, stem and foliage, oflfers a resemblance 
to Acer Pseudoplatanus and others, as well ns to Hydrangea, 
whose close affinity to Viburnum Opulus, however, secures it 
^sentially to the lonicerous neighborhood. The rostrate Rt- 
bes recall, by their long, tubulate, petnloid calyx,^ together 
with Fuchsias, which they essentially join by catholic connec- 
tion, the (fuchsioid) type of Gymnocbdus, so exceptional 

J Csesalpinese, and the ealycine proboscis of Serpen- 
taritie, the nodal point between Magnolioids and Amphorat^. 

In Ribes aureum, besides the tube and erect petals of I ucii- 
sia, we have the heavy caryophylline aroma of both the pm^ 
and clove. The berried Onagracese join Ribesiace^ in habit 
and particulars, while those of ringent corolline structure, as 
Lopezi^, join Melastomea?, with truncate capsule attached to 
the calyx merely along the nerves of the latter, so as to ini- 
tiate the hypogynous form of Salicaria?, while reflecting some- 
what on the Tittate fruit of I^mbellifertE, and the truncate 
epl^n-nons berries of Hedera. As a remarkable coincidence 
in habit between Melnstomca^ and Salicariie, CentradeBia 
rosea and Cuphea ri^cosa mav be mentioned. Salicansa 
assume a carapannlate tapetal ealvx in Lagerstra-uiia, higniy 
resembling the otherwise epinrvnnu:^ one of Punica, and the 



amon 



petals of both we find in Cup^<^^ 



HILGARD— NATURAL SERIES. 143 



cordata likewise. In Bertholletia excelsa, of Myrtacege, we 
find the calvx of Punica, indurated and coalesced with the 
capsular elements, thickened, with the external appearance of 
a gigantic walnut, which belongs to another, disconnected, 
epigynous, and at the same time cupnlate type. Bertholletia 
bears a wooden bomb-shell, filled with large oily seed, in re- 
semblance to Juglandese. In other Myrtacece, as in Metrosi- 
deros, we have a subsucculent, woody, truncately-dimpled, 
myrtaceous poniule^ with the insignificant seed of SalicarisB, 
Leptospermum offers a most striking resemblance in flower, 
hy its orbicular petals and dense brow of stamina, to the rosa- 



ceous forms, such as Crataegus, while the fruit of Myrtus itself 



resembles an Amelanchier's, Combretacese seem to join Myr- 
taceae, and Philadelphus likewise. Philadelphus repeats the 
square form of Ludwigia, of Onagrariae, and seems to formal- 



ly round off the myrtiflorons circuit back into its commence- 
ment, wliile repeating the caryophylline odor of the preced- 
ing diaathou^ (pii^t), saxifragous (Ribes aur.) and myrtoid 
(clove) circuits. Deutzia, of Philadelphese, is tubiflorous. The 
stamination of Philadelphers approximates them, besides the 
quaternary, and, in Deutzia, tubifliorous type, to Ilalesia, of 
St\Tacej]e. The bud of Philadelphus (Zimmtroeschen) resem- 
bles that of the rose, its stamination that of Citrus. 

Styraceas and Yacciniese are epig}'nous Ericaceae, of which 
the rigid foliar type, and truncate, epigynous beny-, as in 
vacciaium, sufficiently resembles the myrtaceous ones; and, 
hy correspondence without connections, ^as habitual with epi- 
gynous types, it likewise recalls Melastoma, Viscum and He- 
dera. Tiirough Philadelpheae and Styraceae the mediation is 
perfect, and it is here that Ilydningcse, by multiple stamina, 
Kiight claim a place. But the multiple stamination we also 
find in dioecious Nyssa, an epigj-nous olive^ at the other or 
nibioid extremity of Tubiflorae,' where Hydrangea belong, 
aad of which Sjanphoria likewise formally rounds oflT the cir- 
cuit with VaeeinicjB, as Hydrangea does with Philadelphese. 

vaccinieoe, RhododendrcGe, Ericacca?, Epacridese, Sapota- 
ce^, EbeaaccEe and Myi-sinese are known to connect. The 
^tter, by their rostrate stamination and stellate corolla, join 
^nmulace® and Solanaceae— Primulacece, directly, in the Ly- 
s«Mchia and Anagallis tvpe. To Primulaceae, no doubt, be- 
iong Pmg^ieula and Xltricularia, as ringent forms. Solanncere 
are known to be the closest allies of Primulaceae. By the 
pnckly capsules of Datura and Josephinia, Solanace® and Pe- 
aaims connect, an affinity borne out by the throughly hyos- 
eyamme habit, although gloxiniod flowers of Martynia, whose 
stratified podded capsule connects no doubt with Eccre- 
moearpas of Bignoniacese, followed by podded Crescentie® 

jV^aCtc^neriaceae, by Myoporin® connecting with Scrophula- 
nacejE, merging, throuirh Mimulus and Toz/ia, into Rhinan- 



144 TRANS. OF THE ACAD. OF SCIENCE. 

thacesB. The lower, ovate, entire, lonp;iturlina]ly nerved, rad- 
ical leaves of Castilleja coccinea are the forebodings of Plan- 
tago, while their eauline ones are those of Hebenstreitia, of 
Selaorina^, Ko dotibt RhinanthaceGe merge into parasitical 
Oiobancheae and Cytinns, the latter possibly of a Balano- 
phorea? affinity, as Endl. has it, but, by the most stringent 
connections^ of an orobancheous charactei*, the calyx however 
consisting of two sejunct sepals, in the axil of a bract, accord- 
ing to the comparison with its immediate proximates. That 
the embryo should be imdeveloped, or in a fungous coales- 
cence,^ seems not strange in a parasite, where pallid, fungous 
sponginess is a frequent character, but can never, as an isola- 
ted character, decide a diremption contraiy to the most com- 
plete evidence of all other characters, as in this case. 

The subscarious flowers and erect spike of Acanthus con- 
nect the orobrancheous forms with Stilbime and Selagince— 
the latter a labiate, orobanchoid modification of a pinnate- 
incised-leaved Plantago. If we find and acknowledge regular 
tubiflorous forms, such as Lycopus and Isanthus, among La- 
biate, a distinction need hardly be made between Selagine^ 
and Plantagineae. Also the hypocraterimorph, scarious, quad- 
ripartite corolla of Ajuga Iva, of Spain, is the very one of 
Plantnirineae. 



, and 

rm o 



■e in every 





Straight-nerved, hoary, sometimes deeply dentate foliac^e and 
the compact spike corresponding. The* capsule is still bipar- 
tite in Verbenaceag, hut maturin!? only four seeds, and adher- 
ing to them, in its dehiscence ts determined by them. By 
such forms as Yitex and Lavandula, Verbenacese and Labiats 
seem to connect ; while in Echium we have a labiate form of 
EurraginsB, through Heliotropimu and Phacelia connecting 
with HrdrophyllcfB. To Polemoniacece, proximal to Hydro- 
hyllese and Ilydroleaceas, naturallv seems to belong Plum- 
a, and, through the mediation of Gilia, also Nierembergia 
and Petunia. Of Goodeniacea; I have seen but one species 
of Euthales, by habit apparently approximatinET Plumbago. 

The connection of Polemonio-Petuniacese with Convolvu- 
lace® seems to be chiefly mediated by such giiiod forms as 
Ipomopsis. The affinity between Convolvulacese and Asclepi- 
adea, so manifest in tlie habit, foliage, stem, bast and milky 
mice of twining Asclepiadefe, and some of their convolvidoid 
flowera, seems to be mediated by aphvllous Cuscutese, whose 
affituty, so manifest in the capsule, 'is universallv acknow- 
ledged, notwir!i standing the deficiency of cotyleduus or f:^liar 
paru-, of the embryo, the whole stem beincr destitute of well 
developed radial oi-gans, being a parasite like Cytinns above 
treated. Er3-cibe (Ericybcie, ISndl.), with the contortuplicate 
cotyledons of Convolvnlace®, a sessile, radiately five-lobed 



HILGARD — NATURAL SERIES. 145 



Stigma and monospermous berry, seems to join dichotomous- 
etyled, drupaceous Cordiacese, with plaited cotyledons, and 
these NolanaceoB, of convolvulous habit, but "vvitli distinct 
foUicidar^ drupaceous earpic elements, and the filiform, annu- 
lately cun^ed embryo of Cuscuta. Hither Limnantheo?, with 
annular corolla-tube and basi-glbbons filaments, seem to refer. 
Asdepiadese connect onwards with ApocynacesB, with which 
their affinity with Convoh^ulacege is urgent enough, A re- 
markable coincidence in both Asclopiadea? and A])Ocynaceae 
with Bignoniacese we find in the podded fruits, p^altered pla- 
centa and winged seed: apparently, the type of the tubiflor- 
ous capsule, as soon as developed to a sufficient size, and, as 
it were, only siipjyressed, so to say, in the small-fruited forms. 
Apocynacecp are followed, through the mediation of Vinca 
and others, by Gentianece, through octomerous Chlora and Xyc- 
tanthes connecting with Jasminese, by habit and floral struc- 
ture closely approximating Ligustrinse, Loganiaceae and other 
sub rubioid forms. In such forms as Olea and Ligustrum the 
petals being free, we need not be surprised to find an altern- 
ation of free and tubiflorous petals likewise in CoracEe and 
RubiacecB. N'yssa (Tupelo), by its multiplied stamination re- 
caUing Hydrangea, and by habit and the color of its epigyn- 



^/^ 



ibumum 



froiii Oleaceae to Corneae. The latter, through its tubiflorous 
Cephnlanthus, etc^ forms, no less than by the eleutheromerous 
corolla and meriearpous fiiut of Galieea?, are connected onward 
with PtuljiaceiE, whose cinchonine forius repeat, in the e])!- 



gs'nom version, the bipartite podded fruit, psaltered fusi- 
form placenta and alate seed of Bigoniaceas and Asclepioids, 
affording another example of the versatility, yet latent perdu- 
ranee, of tj-pe, so to say, of the several parts singly ; while the 
wfid stigma and many-seeded, bilocellate fruit vindicate to 
Hydrangeas a position in this neighborhood as well as their 
putaminous forms do to lonicerous Yiburnum— both, in their 
"sinow-bair varieties, naturally only occuning in some of tlie 
marginal flowers of the inflorescence, as well as by habit 
^ertiiig their thorough mutual aflinity, and also a more 

Seabiosa and certain Umbelliferte, where a sim- 

war hegonioirl development of a rotatelv flattened, tetramer- 
om petaloid calyx likewise obtains. We have spoken of the 
rektion of Hydrangea to Philadelphose, also to Ribesiacea? 
and EscallonieEe, and its affinity to both TJmbellifenE and Be- 




more 



ormer 



i^nities to most, or perhaps all others, will obttuB either sever- 
^uy or combined. 
LoranthacesB no doubt rc^iuire a place in this epigvnous 



and 



jrvn- 



J 

146 TRANS. OF THE ACAD. OF SCIENCE. 



ous forms, as Ganya (Garr} ncese, EnclL), not essentially re- 
quired to establish the connection and succession of the chief 

Orders. ^ 

Of Lonicereae, so closely allied to RubiaceiB, Yiburnum Opu- 
lus is a form in its habit and peculiarity of marginal flowers 
most clearly resembling Hydrangeae, some of which hare a 
baccate fruit likewise {abi\) The pinnate foliage, property 
and habit of Sambucus closely approaches that of Yalerianese, 
iu wliose occasionally plumose or searioso-rotate ^ajt>/?/ we see 
the peculiarity of Scabiosese and Synanthereae introduced. 

^ In herbacious Fedia cornucopioides we see a form interme- 
diate between Caprifolium and Centranthus, and in Fedia co- 
ronat^ the initiation of the Scabiosa type, or Dipsaccse. 

With Dipsaceae the epig}'nous character is lost, its pergame- 
neous, pappiferous la^eniform calyx being mostly free from the 
capsule. A most striking feature is the adhering and pappose 
condition of the bmct enclosing each flower. Among Synan- 



designated 



" which 



rmnopsis, Cichorace^, 



such as Zacj-ntha, certain GnaphalieiB, and, to my mind, in Ca- 
lendula, being in every respect a proximal form to Zacyniha. 
In the apetalous section of Ambrosieae we find the bracts 



durated 



um 



The same cortication seems to 



obtain iu the niarginal achenia of Calycerese, to which those of 
(epinvnoush Ivnautia oriPnfr,i;c ^4'G:^oi^,'r^^o^ nflr^^^ri o ctriViTur 



parallel. 



In Synanthere^ the cpigynous type is resumed, with a 



position m the embryo and an exclusion of albu- 
it yet in CalycersB, the embrj^o of which likewise is 



change of 

men, present 

an inverse, not an erect one. 



space 



intcmal serialization of Svnantliereae and 
other extensive Orders, as Labiatae, Leguminosje, etc^ of 
which I wotild hereafter submit an analysis on the principles 
of natwal (analytic) classification. 



form _ . ^ ...^v.^ duvi 

and Elephant opus, with an iinilate 
together with the sjiiantherous cha 
Pi-obahly the capitate forms of Camr 
rets and somewlmt nnnnor.*..,! „-.4.i 



corolla, 



the next allies to the onward exordium of Composite, in its 
labiatiflorous forms. Within Campannlinfe a sudden change 
of floral development takes place. Tracheliuin, by its floral 



Centran 



thmj oi V alenanetfi ; and if Fed in did not by closer „„ _ 
univei^al CDnneetion inevitably conduct into Scabiose®, and 
irom tlicseinto t^^Tianthereae, an immediate closest connection 
between valenanoa3 and C,i\mr,ir,.,}u.-^ «,;«!,+ i»o n«snmed on 



CampanulinaE mig 



HILGARD — NATURAL SERIES. 147 

w 

the strength of Centranthus and Trachelium. It is evident 
that the " Aggregatae" (Endl.) circuit, of uuiform habit, is 
contained between these two terminal points ; while in Lo- 
belioids, bj the amply campanulate corollas, the trimerous, 
delicate capsule, the involute placentas and margined seed, as 
well as acrid, milky juices, and habit generally, the peponif- 
erous type is introduced. 

The connecting link between Lobelio-CampanulinE and 
Cucurbit acese is no doubt effected by Columelliaceae, on a 
campanulaceous trunk and capsule bearing the deeply-lobed 
corolla and gyrate antheral margins of CucurbitaccEe, the two 
stamina recalling Stylidese. Canarina, of CampanulaceiE, by 
its ample ochraceous corolla, its succulent, venous vine, and 
cucurbitaceous tendrils, gives alone sufficient evidence of this 
connection, conceived by Oken likewise. 

Through Nhandirobese, Papayacea?, and Cucurbitacep, in 
nticiferous Gronovia we an-ive at a resolution of the cpig}n- 
ous peponiferous forms^ perigynously continued in Pussi- 

florece. 

Of all the epigj-nous passages, the one just considered is no 
doubt the most extensive in species, groups, and relations. Its 
syuantherous, cupidate, nclienia-bearing forms are the counter- 
part forms of the likewise ag-CTCo-ate-flowered Cupulifens and 



'e?»*'-o 



Ficoidea? ; the former, with the nut, the acorn, chinquapm, etc 
one huge, epigynous, pergameneous achenium, and nutted, 
sometimes oily seed, in a xanthoid involucre. The campanu- 
laceous t\^e reproduces Yalerianeae to a certain degi-ee, and 
Cucurbitacese the ^trast-meloniferous fruit and habit of Eupo- 
matia, Sei-pentariiE, and Begoniaceae; and in habit and texture, 
and in the costate fruit and scabrous feel, the climbing Loa- 
sacciE; while PassiflorcsB in their foliage repeat tho violaceo- 
vitldoid type, and in Passitiora lutea the foliage of the ivy. 

Wliatever be the mediating links, Passiflorea; claim a very 
eiose affinity to Colmnniferae. In the biserially lobcd "peri- 
gon" of Homalinese, as well as in the multiserially fimbrate 
one of Passifloreae, consisting of transitional forms between 
petals and stamens, Calvcanthus, and in the staminal tube 
enclosing the pedicle of the capsule, the gynandrism of 
Aristolochia is reflected. There is evidently a very many- 



sided and accumulated relation of habit between the cucurbi- 




able, and as striking as the coincidence of somatic type be- 
tween Cacteas and cactoid Euphorbias. 

The perigonal habit of Samydeae seems to vindicate for it a 
place close to Humalineae, while the pulpy indument of seed, 
^ in Bixaccae likewise, recalls the same feature in Momordica. 
Malesherbia perhaps belongs near Gronovia and Passifloreae. 

In podded, hypogynous Bixacefe we have an evident affin- 



$ 



148 TRANS. OF THE ACAD. OF SCIENCE. 



ity to the eleutheromerous tribes of Columnifer£e, such as Tili- 
acea? and Sterculiaceae. In fact, tlie difference of the latter 
consists mainly in its plurality of carpic follicles, which is no 
distinctive character at all. It is in Sterculiaces?, offering nu- 
merous partial resemblances to Passiflorese in the structure 
of the calyciue lobes and submonadelphous stamination, that 
among the various embryonal tj^^es the malvaceous one is 
introduced, 

Malvaceae, Byttneriacese and Tiliacese are noted as constit- 
uent part^ of the Class Columniferse. In both BjttneriaceBe 
and Tiliaceae we find, on the one hand, amvgdnlinous embrjoiis 
destitute of an albuminous aura ; on the other, a presence of 
albumen, — showing the subordinate value of this criterion. 

In Columniferje we find all the carpic forms of Rlioeades 
and Ranunculacese represented — Aqnilegia in the spirally 
twisted follicles of Helicteres, Papaver in Sida and the like, 
Biscutella in Heliocari>us, a siliqua in Corchorns, a drupe in 
Grewia and othei-s, a sapindoid winged fruit in Columbia. 

Closely allied among themselves are Temstoemiaceas and 
ChlEeuacejB, while of the former Trocbostigma in its carpic 
structure strongly recalls Phytolacca. GjTOstcmon, a phyto- 
laccaceous plant, on the trunk of Phytolacca beara a turbinate 
firuit of inverse «cm?ie-?rin^e(7 carpels, with a semilunar seed, 
and compactly radiating from si. peltate central columella as of 
Lavatcia. Phytolaccaceae are justly considered proximates to 
Malvaceae. The carj^io segmentation of Phytolacca is also ob- 
Tious in Coriaria, apparently closely allied to Tremandra, and 
by the scarious floral induments, the ligneous segmented cap- 

les, and coriaceous foliaire, Ervthroxvlon likewise claims 




nood, ot which the epigynons pha 
iii Phizophoreae, their epigynous „ 
through such nucamentaceous foi-ms 



fl 



8istent,mdurated calyx, as Dipterocarpea;, Soulameoe, Trigoni- 
mem, the fonner of acknowledged columniferous affinity. To 
the immediate neighborhood of Khizophora, with large em- 
br^-onal radicle protruding through an apical i)ore of the nnt, 



»Biongs, sjy tlie same character, Trapa, and by the compara- 
tively huge radicle, almost filling the wdiole seed, Eliizoboleff, 
with mostly four to six nuts, cohering at the central angle 



orm 



fold, confirmatory of the suggested rule. Its affinities refer 
It, more distantly, to :^lyrtaceai and Loasace®. The nnca- 
mentaceous calycnie form of Dipteroearpese repeats the 
caipic type of Gronovia at the onward dissolution of the 
e«cui'bitaceous tj-pe, and between tliem obtains the coluw 
nmrms circuit tv-pe or cvitlA. h^- ;t= >.^i 



r-mer 



HILGARD — NATURAL SERIES. 149 



Adansouia)* 



(Magnolia 



The samaroid type is already initiated in many columnif- 
erous forms, with a foliaeeous plicate, curved embryo in a mo- 
nospermous samaroideo-appendaged carpic element, as in Gy- 
rostemon likewise. 

The calycine peculiarity of Dipterocai-jHis and Lophira, two 
of the five calycine segments being alately increased, is tliat 
of PolygalcK likewise, of which, in Securidsea, in the solitary 
acorine or malpighiaceous samara, we see the affinity con- 
firmed ; while some prickly, rugose, carpic forms point out an 
affinity to ^sculus and certain Evonymus species, and Kra- 
meria seems the very intermediate form between nucamenta- 
ceous Dipterocarpus, Trigonia, etc., and Hippocastanese. 



fonns, 



m 



*ed 



by Endlicher, while by total connections they claim a position 
ititermodiate 'betwepn TTnih^lUf^riP. find Tihn-ndpc "Rn.11 ^ 



In- 



true 



^mtnnsically of gruinal or sapindoid affinity, remains vet to 
be mvestigated, while by habit they belong to both. These 
three coincidences of the serpentarioid type and the peponif- 
erous, the gi-uinal and sapindoid, the cactoid and euphorbi- 
otts, were the base for my attempt at a graphical representa- 
tion of these coincidences, by geometrically projective identi- 
noation, or, in a plane, an intersection of these con^esponding 
pomts, — of one and the same continuous line representative 
01 serial connection, Avhich by no means excludes a 7mdtij}li- 
<^f!/ of relations, nay, of immediate total affinities, so fre- 
qnently alleged by aiithors, and embodied in their various 
senahzations, by no means contradictory of each other, nor of 
^e Idea of serial continuity generally spenlcing, provided the 
diwrgeiit liyies cirmmscrihe a figvre {retimi). 

-^sculinse, Sapindacese, Malpighia- 

^ tut to be mentioned to be striking 

contemplator, chiefly of the various tricoccous, pterococ- 



and 



to tlie 



eons, samaroid, alate and inflated for 
large-seeded version continned b j ^scxiliufe 
^iit' pjunct acerine samarse of Malpighiacese. 
«ai>it oi a fraxinonjs, by flower, of a periirync 



Stapbylea is by 

nously acerine (Ac. 

rmous affinity, Nei^jundo 



Jf ^n apetalous Acer, Fraxinus a simplified Negimdo fraxini- 



fonns of Fraxinesc, as 




nous phase. To this conjuncture, no 
fe^? -^^^P^tree, FutranjivcEe, XitrarisB and Ceitis may be re- 
erred, the proximals of the latter again beim? of manifest aeer- 
DoV*?^^^^^' »;i<-*h as Ulmus, while Ptelca seems to be a com- 
P and of chiiinauthous flower, ulmous fruit, and fra:^ineous 



150 TRANS- OF THE ACAD. OF SCIENCE. 

foliage; perhaps, however, by Its siibtherebinthiuous property 
and other characters accountable of rutaceo-xanthoxylous 



affinity. 



Mai pi 



and a correct clue as to what other depauperated forms repre- 
sent is certainly diiEcult. If, with most authors, we assume 
for perigjTious IJlmacese an affinity to epigynous Cupuliferse, 
we have once more arrived at an epigynous, nuciferous, cnpu- 
late, carj'opse form, resembling, in these points, Synantherese, 
Datisca, apetalous and of cannabine habit, has much of a sap- 
indaceous character, also the open carpels of Reseda, of an 
essentially gruinal connection and therefore no less influen- 
tial in vindicating to Datisca a sapindaceous neighborhood. 

It can not be denied that, in florition, the female flower of 
Datisca has exactly the appearance of that of Juglans, after- 
wards alienated by a different development of seed ; Juglans 
Itself, however, has an ossified epigynous achenhmi for a finiit, 
included in a cortical cupule. 

If we assume the coreopsoid achenium of Betula for the 
epigynous form of perigynous ITImus, their habitual juxtapo- 
sition seems justified, JuglandeiB connect, by Pterocarya, 



hose 



an indurated, epigmioitsi 



/ 



nu 



Canna- 



mnm / iiivough. Ilumulus. The affinity between Caiya and 
Pistacia seems to have determined Endlicher to bring Jug- 
landQx in contact with Anacardiacea?, violently separating the 
former from their natural location with other Ameutaceae. Per- 
haps part or the whole of Anacardiaceas require to be referred 
to the acerino-amcntoid vicinity, theii- epigynous form then 
being represented by JuglandetE. 

Cannabinae bring us into close proximitv with Urtices, 
which, however, are hypogvnoiis. Thelygonuni is referred by 
Endl. close to Cannabine. ' As far as I could detect, the sta- 
mmal flowers have a tubular, in Ml florition macerated, peri- 
gon, and the parts described as a perigon in Endl. Ord. are 
real bracts. 

Judging from the thelygonous habit and cannabine male 
flowers, m an interrupted terminal spike, Halorageaj belong 
lil^wise to the immediate neighborhood of Casuariiia, a mo- 
■rtf^rous, though scarious-Ieaved, apparently hippnrine, tree. 
1 iie temale flower closely resembles that of Broussonetia, its 
stammal ones those of Salicomia. If we strip the fruit of 



Mv 




foi 



I I 



four 



erescent-^haped segments. Considering the frequent indica- 
tiOTis of morxferous, platanoid, and casuariuous t}-pe (Blltain, 
Ubiono, Saiicorma), I shoul.l think that the whole of Olera- 
ceae, considered in the vicinity of Dianthoids, rather refers 



HILGARD — NATURAL SERIES. 151 



here than elsewhere. In Xyctaginese we have the rigid tubu- 
lar calyx of Liqiiidambnr, in whose neighborhood perhaps Da- 
tisca, with its open carpels, likew^ise might be referable. In 
Platanus we have the orbiculate, leaf-like stipulse of Polygo- 
num orientale and Salix species; in Liquidambar, a valvate, 
polyspermous capsule. With Plataneae Artocarpeae most close- 
ly connect, which are known to merge into Morece, Ilrticeae, 
and Ficinte; and the latter, by total and especial resemblance, 
often mentioned by authors,*^ merge into the fleshy cupulifer- 
ous forms of Euphorbiacese, presenting, by their cactoid^ mvo- 
hierate forms, a striking somatic resemblance to the Cactus Or- 
der, and withal multifarious in its affinities like other epigynous 
forms, e. g., with Asclepiadese by the milky juice and satin 
hast of Euph. coroUata, w^hile Cyathophora pandurata plays in 
abundant variations of anient aid foliage, from the sinuate- 
pandurate leaf of Q. coccinea, or Q. nigra (Black Jack), to 
the linear, lanceolate, serrulate one of Salices, by way of 
repetition. Perhaps, in a certain sense, Artocarpeae and Fi- 
coids generally, by their floral integuments maturing, may be 
claimed as vicariating for epigynous forms, but of an aggre- 
gated, depauperated, and apetalous condition, the other con- 
junctions being mostly epigj-nous. 

The one-seeded and no longer cupulate forms of Euphorbia- 

Santalaceae, 

epigynous version, con- 
nected with apetalous, petaloideo-cafycine, Proteaceae, Aqui- 
lanna^, blistering Daphnoideae, Eleagnea?, by such fonns as 
iiippophae rhamnoides strongly sugwstlve of rhamnoid affin- 

& ^^^^^^ ^^ ^^^^^y tenable on the evidence of such apetalous 
Kfaamnese as Phylica, which miijht be almost as w^ell accoun- 
ted an Eleagnoid. 

Iwhurnneae, Celastrinae, and Ilainamelis, of rhamnoid foliage, 
evonyiuoid flower and capsule, and a xanthoxylous seed, pre- 
^nt many features in common with the rutaceous Orders, 
ihe^ persistent calyx of Hamamelis is indicative of an im- 

nons genera of 
us and Khus 



ceae,such as Crotonop sis, have much resemblance to 
which might be considered their truly epi<rvnous \ 



o 



pending epigynous form, perhaps the epigync 

anacardiaceae. The floral stracture of Celastr 

^e much alike. Perhaps the hj7)ogvnous genera of Anarcar- 
aiaceoe belong this side of this epigjTious climax, between it- 
-eu and Santalaceae and the epigynous forms of Proteace® 
comprising the thyradaceous type. 

irn K 11 ^^ffiwty of Anacardiaceje,RatacejB, BiosmetB (Zy- 

^op&y tloiE ?) and Xnnthoxyleai is w^ell known. The latter are 
miiiator}^ of the hesperid Orders, such as Mcliacea^, Cedrela- 
ce^ Aunantiace«, by Connarace^p, Simarubeo^ and OchnacotB 
connming with Leguminos^. 

den? .^^'^\^^^^^ ^^^ eleutheromcrous habit of Cassia is sud- 

rti,^/ ^^^i^fonued into a highly symmcrous and perigynous, 

/ucnsotdonQ in Gymnocladus, and reduced in 31imosei, still 



■■Sr 



152 TEA?rS. OF THE ACAD. OF SCIENCE 



more in Papilionacecej until an increased calyx, ivith a tiihi- 
florotis coalescence of petals^ is arrived at in Trifoliimi. 

From Anacai"tliaee?e to Csesalpinicts, lioAvever, no perfect 
epi^psra, apparently, is known, althongh closely approached 
by Gymnocladus, of ribesioid floral structure and aroma. Be- 
tween it and Trifoliea?, etc., true Leguminosas seem to be con- 
tained, while through Chrysobalanese, AmygdaleiB (Prunus 
virginiana, Spin^ea Arnncns), Rosacese (Rosa, Cratcegus), and 
Poniaccne, the termination of Dicotyledoneae is arrived at, all 
being subsumed; and for Pomece no other true affinity, not 
even to MjTtacese, otherwise contained, is recognizable, except 
in one sense : backward, toward Rosacece. 

The serialization of Dicotyledons completed, doubtless 

the most difficult and extensive part of the subject was dis- 
cussed. 

I was struck with the uniformity of type between these 
three successive types or floral circidtsTthe nymphacaceo- 
magnolioid, the violaceo-cissoid, and the geranio-rhoeadoid. 
In the two at either extremity the aconite peculiarity of floral 
structure is recurrent, in Aconitum, Tropseolum, Impatiens 
(fulva), Corydalis. Ranunculacese, Violaceae and Geraniacese 
(Anemone, Geranium, Ran. abortivus, Viola delphinilblja) 
have much similarity in foHage ; and where they become pin- 
nate, as in Thalictrum, Ac^uilegia, UmbelliferiB, Fumariacese, 
L<yisace^, the same trinary type of division obtains. The 

deuces of foliar habit are too frpouont to need further 



come 

ex em 



adingly their popaveroiis habit is changed in 




homogeneous foliar habit and " comicidate'' or eerastoid 



tmcture 



) 



If, suggestively, for the next three circuits we look for a 
common character, \re find in TiibiflbnB, Synantherese and 
ColumniferaB the coaltseence of corollar and stmninal parU 
causing in MalvacejE the flower to be shed as a connected 
wi.ule no less than in TuMflorce, and also a tendency at 
conmctb'al enlargement, throughout, in Tubiflorese, Synan- 
tiierere PeponiferaB and Colnmniferae, producing a striking 
resemblance between reniform malvaceons and Labiatse an- 
tHers, and, m the gj^ately coalesced antheral seams between 
f:l'?^^ StcrenliacesB and Cncurbitacc® + Colnmellias ; we 

find a tendency for the occasional recurrence 
placentas and capsuhtr follicles, as in Bignouiace^t 

lioneae, Cucurbit aces, Bixaccne, Sterculiacess 
The increase of the connective produces 




ttncriacesB 



"1 2vm.wjnmew a resemWanee to VioiacesB, their pollen a wen 
known one to Orchide®. 

The ffisculo-sapendoid, amentaceo-oleraceous and thynieb- 



/ 



HILGARD — NATURAL SERTE 



153 



4 



c€o-rliamnoicT triad of floral circuits can be said to be charac- 
terized by the prevailing monospennous follicles and amentoid 
apetalkm — " Apetelse," par excelUnce. 

The citroid, legumiferous and rosifloroiis triad, if a trisid, 
and not a single circnit, might be qualified as the truly pin- 
nate, legumiferous or amy gdali nous-seeded one, none of these 
characters, however, being constant. 

The natural subdivision in apparently fifteen intra-epigynal 
floral courses or circuits, and their natural subdivision into 
five triads once conceived, I tried to express geometrically the 
coincidences of type above detailed. The suggestion, that it 
might be graphically realizable by_ a sort of phyllotactic | di- 
vergence, the parts in question being 5, a number organically 
realized in phyllotaxis and organotaxis generally, and a sort of 
recurrence or cdternation (p. 53) of types being conceived: on 
the mere adjustment of the peponiferous node to the serpenta- 
rious, and, next, the geranioid to the acerine, the euphorboid 
became at once coincident with the oactoid, the ribesioid with 
the g}Timocladous, the tubiflorously capitate tj-pe of Scabiosa 
with the likewise tubiflorously capitate one of papilionaceous 
Trifoliuiu. If these coincidences be so adjusted as to make 
the respective epigy nous phases coincide, then the j)entagram- 
matic figure at once exhibits the nodal phases by intersections 
and comers; as a geometrical representation of the 15 assumed 
circuits, their triadic subdivision into 5 large t}^ep, and their 
order of succession. If we wovdd realize each type as a c«>- 
tuit, and the mutual epigj'nous relations as a mutual coinci- 
dence in space — if we draw the five points of intersection to- 
gether in one central point, then the hj-potenuses to the rays 
are converted into cii'cles (or omegas, so to say, if kept sufli- 
ciently apart to indicate the order of immediate connections), 
which gives a twenty-fold aflSnity to each intersection-node ; 
and if the points of the rays be likewise haided in and united 
with the central point, the 15 circles connect there in the 
shape of a turban, and there ai-e 30 diverging directions of 
t}T>ic development from cue ^wa^^i-centre, or 28 distal nffini- 
*'-^" and 2 essential and real ones, to each epi.£:3-nous point. 



I 



) 



mosis ) figures, the convergen 




*Iaeejc and Geranio-Rhoeadoids, geniculate curvembrj-onous 
Olerace® and Dianthoidea>, resinoso-punetate Myrtaeese and 
Citroids, peach-bloom, drupaceous Tubiflorse and RosaccT, and 
at ever}' approximation of a point of intersection, four diiferent 
types are approximated, such as the rosaceous, tu1 ill orous, ag- 

a and Valeriana ; 





•ifolium (and M- 
t:u'tu;ri Kosiflorse 



154 TRANS. OF THE ACAD. OF SCIENCE. 

and ^ryrtifloras, are satisfied by the representation in a central 
connection. In the astral configuration ("Anatole") the h}T)ot- 
eniises (and in the inverted, cyclar one, -where each triad is rep- 
resented as a circle, divided by intersections, the exterior arch- 
es) are remarkable for their duplicity of type, corresponding 
to the covfir/uous sides: as Leguminosae assume the apetalous 
mjitoid habit of Metrosideros in Mimosea?, the labiate or rin- 
gent floral type in Papilionacea? ; Aggregatae assume the spi- 



neoid 



( 



, Saxifragese 






^ .pparently polymerous) Synanthereee ; Vio- 
lacesB and AmpelideEe the stereuliaceo-tiliaceous, digitate- 
palmate leaved, Araliacese and Umbelliferse tlie pinnate spray 
of Sapindaceoe ; Cupuliferse tlie pandurate, lyrate foliage of 

Papavero-Cruciferje, OlcraceEB the c ■ ' " " "" 

the punctate one. 

Crj^ptogamae naturally divide into 
distinct in habit, yet connected : Fui 

ens by epidermal (dotslind clouds o 

etc.!) ActidicjE and Graphidinae; Lichens hy otherwise umbili- 
earioid Collema with I^Tostoc and Zonarieje of Algaj; the latter 
with mosses by the foliate articulated forms, as Cladostephus, 
Batraehospcrmum and (epigynous!) Chara with Chloroccoc- 
cum, the acaulous capsule of Lepraria kermesia or Proto- 
Chlaraydococcus, joining Archidium and Sphagnea; and 
mosses with fenis thro' Lycopodiaceie and Equisetacea?. The 
bi^^cxual-spored natant ferns initiate the amorphous, phyllo- 
<?»a? phanerogamous forms of Lemna, Balanaphorete (Raffle- 
^i^'-^x.^^^ Cycadeae, joining Cupressinae and Conifera3 gener- 



truly 



(Yol. I, Pljyllo- 



O 



taxis, p. 48) and 

Ruscus. 

By the conjunction of Conifer® to Monocotyledonea?, in the 
iiteral significance of the term, we have five rather natural 
divisions m Monocotyledonae likewise— Coniferie, Inlocaulege, 
liiria, Gramineae, and Spadiflorffi ; the convallario-melanthoid 
forms, however, not so typically distinct from Liria as all the 
rest are among tliemselves and these. 

rhat the quinary astral figure applies equally well to Cryp- 
togaraae and Monocotyledonese as to Dicotyledonose, although 
toy no means mMIihly, but only in an average sense, may be 
realized by the schematic rAnr-ncn,.* n+;^,, °r-i,T^li hnwever 
claims no other significance 



repre 

o ^bnn tlifif nf tliA irJAfis bv which 

Itself was arnved at. 

It would not appear likely that a graphic representation, in 
which proximity m space wouhi signify correlation, is at all 
the most serviceable ; for, in all other or<'-anic combinations 
and repetitions, as the bodies of the or<^anisms themselves are, 
tt»e organs of eqn.d function or value are not coincident or 
catervated, but only architectonicaJhj c&rremowl ml : an4 



.X 



niLGAKD — ^NATURAL SERIES. 155 

■ L 

thus it maj, after all, turn out to be an organically architec- 
tonic form, which might best serve to spatially embody the 
correlations of vegetable tj-pes. 

Leaving the detailed discussion of Ci'ji^toganias and Mono- 
cotyledons, and the characterizations of their component 
groups, for future communications, I would here add some 
explanatory remarks on the accompanying Plate. 

The body of Fungi is the incorporated sarcodic, filmy, 
thalline mould. Mushrooms and puff-balls, as well as superfi- 
cial mould, are merely its fructijications. As that of ferments, 
I consider the jioating scum of free spores — Vapj^a- Cheese, 
likewise, is the organo-chemic rcsvilt of a fermentative mucor, 
the developments of which are indicated by the stratifications 
of cheese. In putrid diffiuence the sporous development ap- 
pears as a rusty, supra-natant !"«_/>/>«; in dry ones, as a favoid 

crust. 

In lichens, the dry, pastous, gay-colored tissue is entirely 
drawn to the surface as a niemhrane, and develops its per- 
fect fomi and fructification only in bright light; while Fungi, 
its next alhes, require the dark and a cosubstantiation with 
the soil. The exuberant, mealy, cytic luxuriations of lichens, 
found on shady rocks, in crevices, etc., and called mountain- 
meal, are welf known. I have found one individual of Par- 
nielia aurantiacca on one half degenerated into Byssus anrea; 
a cytic hixftriat io7i of Parmelia, not a Ilyphomyces. (Endl.) 
'•Lecidea" humosa I find, in a perfect specimen I possess, to 
be a Collema, with a sporangial Solorina scrobicle ! In Col- 
lema, the aqueous, algoid tyi^e of a sudden commences, con- 
necting with Zonarieje, Pcyssonnelia (Phyllophoreae), etc. 

lu a full-grown Conferva, of five feet length, I found Jiu- 
tnerom large sporangia, of the size of a common moss-sporan- 
gium, in solid continuation with the capillary stem. Its bival- 
vously dehiscent, cytido2yhycoid s-poranghim resembles the bran 
or scab of canary-seed ; and its bright gi-een, clavate contents 
resemble a bright-green calculus, and coalesce, when emit- 
ted, into larger calculi. No doubt tlie component cells of 
Baccillaria are mere vegetal or thalline phases of cytic devel- 
opment, and their true fruit yet to be observed, as in Confer- 
•v-a they seem to have been taken for impurities, and cleared 
away before microscopic examination. Then the «/to substan- 
tia opaca gnimosa facta,'" the dark granulated films, eeem, as 
in other ahjcae,tu represent the paraphyses, and the "copulation 
of cells" a sort of budding. In Brj'opsis I found branches with 
spikes of filiform, acuminate leaves^ and large spores (sporau- 
^'"^\ besides their known phyllodially hypnoid, 
oranehes, with gruinouslv granulated (male) tenniiial cells. 

The vesicles of Chlorococcum I followed in their further 
development. They arise in dense crow-ds c^- de^nltor}^ crystal- 
line cells, no doubt their humous thalius. After emitting their 



ran 



15G - IKANS. OF THE ACAD. OF SCIENCE. 



spores by an apical pore, like mosses, the contents, by develop- 
ment, change into a confervoid velvet- This develops into va- 



_ ^ ^ keimesin 

covering, at certain seasons, nil open ground in a region, by 

millions of acres probably. The miniate varicosities by cytic 
pullulation develop into a loose, bro^vnish sand-colored luxu- 
I'lation of cells resembling ashes and loose humose earth, so 
light as to be swept away by every wind. As this plant goes 
through so many developments, besides its perfect, sporanginl 
one of Chlorococcnm, is it not possible that the various cytic 
developments or conceived '^ changes of generation" of the 
Proto-Chlamydococcus cells are mere thalline developments, 
(as in lichens and probably Baccillaria likewise,) and that 
perhaps they merely are the conditional developments of the 
Chlorococcnm cells strewn throughout the atmosphere? 
Sphagnum seems to derive its nourishment solely ftom the 
atmosphere, adding to, and substracting nothing from, the soil- 
It contains large, open cells of air in its dew-drenched foHage, 
and increases on a rootless stem. Ferns require a soaked soil, 

nnd a wami, steamy atmosphere — a fusion of elements, as it 
were. 

In these five typically different qualities of tissue-develop- 
ment in Cryptogamae, a parallelism with the gradual develop- 
ment of the seed can be conceived, and themselves as so many 
^moses of 6omuto<ienetic nrocessos in wnprnh 



GRAPE CULTURE IN MISSOURI. 



BY G- C. SWALLOW- 



There is, perhaps, no department of husbandry in which 



iffieultv and mcLt with 



Mures as in the cultivation of the viae; and yet, while some 



trae that others meet with eminent 



Itia quite obvious that the mo.st of those who have failed m 
their efforts must attribute their faihire^, to the want of adapt- 
ation, la their modes of culture, to the habit? and wants of the 
Vine; as others, on the same soil and under the same son, 
have been most successful. 

Notwithstanding the tme principles of grape culture are 
so nttic understood by the community at large, no depai-t- 
mcnt ot agriculture has been more carefully investigated, 
more distinctly defined and reduced to s<'Ientific principles- 
Since \ irgil wrote his masterly treatise upon the halnts and 
cultivation uf the vine, the principles which nhuidd gov- 




P 



SWALLOW — GRAPE CULTURE. 



157 



c'liraatc adapted to its perfect development. And, indeed, 
it could scarcely be otherwise, as the vine has occupied so 
prominent a position in the husbandry of almost all the 
enlightened nations of ancient and modern times. Since 
Xoah planted a vineyard, the vine has followed the pro- 
gress of husbandry and civilization throughout India, Arabia, 
Palestine, and Southern Europe. It holds an important place 
in the history of those seats of ancient civilization and, pro- 
gress. The " vine-clad hill" occupied a consjncuous position 
in every landscape, and the juice of the grape had its place at 
the wsocial board and ruled the joys of the banquet hall- While 
it held so important a position among the nations, its Value 
led the ablest minds to investigate its habits and deduce the 
best modes of culture from the experience of the many en- 
gaged in the pleasant pursuit* Solomon investigated th'^ prop- 
erties of the vine, and Yirgilgave so excellent a treatise ui>on 
its habits and culture that the investigations and experience 
of the last t^vo thousand years have added but little to the 
knowledge then possessed. Since then the habits of the vine, 
and the modes of culture best adapted to it, have been so 
carefully determined, and so thoroughly established by the 
experience of the last 4,000 yeai-s, it only remains for the ^il- 
tivators of our times to investigate the modes of culture so 
long and so successfully practiced in India and the countries 
bordering upon the Mediterranean; to inquire how far the va- 



ated, 



determine 



nties may not succeed better in other climates and soils; and 



crree 



01 success in the various soils aiid climates to xrliich we would 
introduce the vme. 

It is obvious that the success of the gi-ape depends upon 
the mutual adaptation of both soil and climate. In places 
where the soil has all the requisite properties, the climate 
^^y he such as to prevent full success ; as in many parts of 
^ew England, where the climate is too cold, and in England 
where it is too moist. In many localities in Southern Europe 
the soil is such as to prevent the full success of the vine, 
though the climate is all that could be desired. 

^oil— According to Ylrgil* and the best authors who have 
followed lum, the soil should T)e ica>-m, lights dry, and rich in 
ttlkalies and alkaline earths — especially potash, soda, lime and 
(jmsia. The best vines have been grownf upon soils of 



t The gi^at vine at Wind 



and 262—" Optima p«fei arra solo 



ft 



years ago 
bunches 



nmcent grapes, fiUed a hou«e 1:?^ i.:^Qt loni? ami 16 feet vviilrs aiid had a 
sxem 2 feet '.* inches in circumference. The border in which it grows is 
«^^^, %A/, dr^ and sTujdhwr 

5 



158 



TKANS. OF THE ACAD. OF SCIENCE. 



tliis description, and when any of these qualities have been 
Trantinjr the most skillful A-ine-gi-owers have carefully supplied 



them by artificial means. 



Hence 

the stones and 



rons stones and rough shells" in the trenches 
shells to loosen the soil and perfect the drainage, and the 
shells to supply the defect of lime. The vine has erer sue- 
ceeded the best, other things being equal, in a calcareous soil 
The best vineyards upon the Rhine, the Ohio, and the Mis- 
souri are upon soils rich in lime ; and according to D'Orhig- 
ny, the wines from such in France are more lively and spirit- 
uous. 

The chemical composition of a plant also gives us sure 
indications of the mineral ingredients of the soil required for 



=:: 



its perfect development. The following Table, from John 
ston's Agiicultural Chemistry, contains the compositions of 

" "" " result shows 



grown 



The 



most conclusively what mineral substances are demanded for 
the perfection of the vine. 




Potash* •••••• ..•..• 

Soda •••••• * 

Lime ••••.. .... .».. 

3Iagnesia 

Oxide of iron 

Phosphoric acid 
Sulphuric acid • 

Chlorine 

Silica***"*- ••*. 



* # • • 



• • • 



17.32 

1 


25.24 


28.50 


2.74 


29.75 


40.75 


9.78 


7.47 


4.12 


1.52 


5.20 


18.87 


1.96 


2.88 


1.82 


0.53 


1.55 


1 

i 



■ll^ 



100. 



V. 



Total tlOO. 

i Per centage of ashes 

in dry twigs...... I 2.885 i 2.689 



34. 1 3 
8.03 

32.67 
4.66 
0-16 

16.35 
2.16 
0.50 
1.45 

100.11 



24.93 ! 


26.41 


7.31 


8.79 


37.59 


33.47 


7.12 


9.16 


0.24 


■ 0.19 


19.55 


16.87 


2.37 


2 44 


0.35 


0.26 


0.62 


2.48 

1 


100.08 


100.06 

1 
1 



25.60 

11.07 

S4.85 

7.64 

1.25 

15.37 

2.36 

0.68 

1 22 



100.04 



2.525 



2.25 I 2.325 ' 2.525 



d 




"V 



me, and tliat grapes vill succeed best on soils rich m 



those 



matenals. 



The other ingi-eclients are such 



that 



as are fotind m 
neai-ly all soils and may be left out of our investigations. 
It is a well established principle of vegetable science 
lime mny supply the place Qlmda and ^o^asA, in part at lea«, 
in some j.lants. The folIcR-irig analyses of vinos from two lo- 
calities show this to be tnie of the vine also : 



Alkalies 

Lime 



I. 

45.82 



n 

27.98 



( 



mf^ 



• * t • • 



*•*••# %% 



29.75 * ••• *.40.ii> 



SWALLOW— GRAPE CULTURE. ^ 159 



If therefore soda and potash be deficient in soil, their place 
may be partially supplied by lime, should it exist in sufficient 

quantities. 

Climate, — The success of the grape on the islands and the 
shores of the MediteiTanean show their adaptation to a cli- 
mate in which the wintei-s are short and mild, and the summers 
are temperate and equable. In the Ionian Islands, where the 
grape attains great perfection, it is never exposed to pinching 
cold or burning heat, or to any very sudden changes from one 
to the other. But the great profusion and excellence of the 
grapes in India, at Candahar and Cabul, the sunny homo of 
the grape, indicate an ability to reach perfection in spite of 
sudden changes from extreme cold to burning heat. "In no 
part of the Vorkl," says Lindley, " are the grapes more deli- 
cious than in Candahar and Cabul" ; and yet the traveller 
speaks of the hitter cold iciad and blazmg Jires at nighty 
and the burning sim by day, in March; and the sun's heat at 
140"^ in May, where the grapes ripen as early as June. 
^ We may conclude then that the grape will, under favorable 
circumstances, reach the greatest perfection though exposed 
to sudden changes and extremes of heat and cold. 

Having ascertained the conditions of soil and climate best 
adapted to the successful culture of the vine, it has been my 
aim, daring the progress of the Geological survey of Missouri, 
to determine how far these conditions are fiilfillod in Mssou- 
n ; to what extent and with what success the vine may be 
cultivated in our State, and the advantages to be derived from 
Its cultivation. In order to secure the most accurate data for 
our conclusions, our investigations have been dii'ccted to the 
following subjects : 

1. The eharactei-s and habits of all our native vines, and 

the soils on which thev succeed best, have been carefully 

noted. 

2. Five persons* have been been appointed to malco mete- 
orological observations. One at Sprin^eld in the South- 
West, one at Cape Girardeau in the South-East, one at Pal- 
^jra in the North-East, one at St. Joseph in the ISTorth-West, 
and one at Columbia in the Center, in the valley of the Mis- 
souri River. These observers have been supplied with the 
^ery best instnmients, and they have made and recorded 




>■_ 



t " SJ^es me great pleasure to bear testiraonv to lie disinterested la- 
Dors tf those who have so fe.ithfully obserred and recorded the meterolog- 
icai phenomena at the stations above named. Our State will be tinder 
many obligations to the Rev. G. P. Comings, of St. Paul's College, PaluiV- 
ra; Kev. James Knouil, of St. Vincent's College, Cape Girardeau ; J. A. 
ofcpiiens, Esq., Springfield ; E. B. Necly, A.M., of the St. Joseph Hisrh 
'.(.nool; and ili.-,, M. B. mil, at Columbia,— who have made the observa- 
tions at their several localities. 



160 TKANS. OF THE ACAD. OF SCIENCE. 



their observations according to the plan adopted by the 
Smithsonian Institution. 

3. The experience of our most successful vine-growers has 
been collected, and the results carefully compared with the 
conclusions derived from our examinations of the climate, 
soils and wihl vines of the State. 

4. The soils of the State have been carefully observed, and 
the varieties collected and submitted to a most skillM chem- 
ist for full and accurate analyses. 

Native Grapes, — The growth and fruit of our native vines 
give us most important indications of the adaj)tation of our 
soil and climate to the cultivation of the grape. The follow- 
ing species have been observed ; the growth habits and fruit 
of each variety have been carefully examined. 

1. YiTis LABRUSCA, Linn. Fox Grape of the Northern 



States. 



This 



It attains 



to a very large size* in our rich alluvial bottoms and on our 
best upland soils ; but the vines of a smaller size, which are 
found on the poorest soils in the State, produce much the 
best grapes. Those which grow upon the dry ridges, on the 
declivities of the bluffs (especially those of the Magnesian 
Limestone) and on the talus of debris at their bases, exhibit 
a healthy, fiim growth and produce an abundace of fine fruit. 
The grapes found in these localities are larger, and the pulp 
is more juicy and palatable. 

Many well known and excellent varieties of arapes now in 
cniltivation were derived from this ppecies. The Isabella, 
CatawbOy Sckuylkilly and Elands^ are the most esteemed. 

2- ViTis -ESxivALis, Mlchx. Summer Grape. 

This, like the preceding, is found in all parts of the State, 
and is doubtless the largest of all our vines. It is one of the 
most striking objects in our magnificent forests, while the 
intern, like a huge cable, hangs suspended from the limbs of 
the largest trees, the branches clothed in rich foliage, and of- 
ten loaded with fruit, hung in graceful festoons over the high- 
est boughs. But the vines growing on the thin soils of our 
limestone ridges and bluffs, and on the loose debris at their 
bases, where they are more exposed to the air and the sun, 



•J 



abundance 



B. TiTTs coKBiFOLiA, Mchx. Winter or I'rost Grape 



\*me 



■o 




♦ This vine oftea attains a diameter of 10 inches, ascend* the Krfkiest 
tre€«, aad spreads its branches over their highest boughs. 



4 



t 



SWALLOW — GRAPE CULTURE. 161 



not so large as the Fox, or the Summer Grape. Its fi'uit is 
small and acerb. 

4. ( Var. of the former, gray.) Vixis kifakia, 3Iichx. 

Miver Grape. 



Fox 



This grape is partial to 
of our streams. It grows 

5. ViTis YuLFixA, Linn. 

Grape, according to Elliott, in the South-eastern States. 

It is most abundant in the southern part of the State. It 
grows very large and produces abundantly. Its fruit is ver}' 
much esteemed. The cultivated SciqyperHong Grape is a va- 
riety fi'om this species. 

r' 

6. VlTIS BTPIXNATA, Michx. 

This plant was observed in Cape Girardeau and Pemiscot 
Counties. 

4 

7. ViTis iNDivisA, Willd, 

r 

This vine abounds in the central and western counties. 

From this list it will be seen that Missouri possesses all the 
native grapes of our country save one, the Vitis Carihma? (D. 
C.) of California. The vines are so abundant and so large as to 
form an important and consp 



i3ughout the entire State. They are everj- 
present, lending grace and beauty to every landscape, a 
dicating with prophetic certainty that the day is not f; 
tant when the purple vineyards will 



or 



our 



of the -vine-dresser fill the land with joy, and the geut-roiis 
juice of the grape ivill improve 
physical powers. 
. E^rience of our FiHe-<7rt*^Mrs.*-— Several vine-dressers 
a our State have been engaged in the cultivation of the grape 
^uring the last twelve or fourteen years. Their success has 
heen folly equal to their expectations; and they are fiill of 
high hopes of the most useful and profitable results, even of 
entire and pei-manent success. Their experience in cultivat- 
u^ the vine has led them to the same conclusion that we have 
aeduced from our scientific examinations of the soil, climate, 
and native vines; viz., that the vine can be cultivated with en- 
tire success, in favorable localities, if^ all parts of the State, 



#1 



wli *"^ indebted to Mr. Wm. Haa?, of Boonville, Mr. CSeo. Hastnann, of 
^^ann, Mr, Frederic Munch, of Marthasville, and Mr. Joseph btuby, ot 
ttanu)urg, for Taluable iaforination resecting the cultivation of grapes in 
our fetate. 



162 TRAXS. OF THE ACAD. OF SCIENCE. 



_ It shoiikl be borne in mind that these results have been de- 
rived mostly from vineyards in the valley of the Missouri and 
3Iississippi Rivers, which are not, by far, the most favorable 
localities in the State; for the "mildew" and the "rot," the 
most fonnidable obstacles they have had to contend with, 
may be partially or entirely obviated in localities where the 
atmosphere and soil are not so densely charged with raoist- 
ure^ " The ro^," says one of our most successful vine-dressers, 
Mr. Haas, "attacks the hemes when the soil is in a wet con- 
dition, in July and August." "It is most severe on the low 
and wet parts of the vineyard." Mr. Husmann says, "the 
principal cause, all are agreed, is an excess of moisture about 
the roots, and damp, moist weather." Now the larger part of 
onr vineyards are located upon a stiff, cold, clayey subsoil, 
tvhich of necessity retains the excess of moisture and produ- 
ces the injurious results.f This evil may be obviated by thor- 
ough draining and preparation of the soil ; or, what is better, 
by selecting some of the millions of acres in the soiithern part 
of the State, where the soil is warmer and lighter and richer 
in the ingredients most ftivorable to the vine, and where the 

subsoil is so porous as to permit a fi-ee passage to the excess 
of moisture. 

The mildew appears in June ; and all agree that it is caused 
^7 ^"'f'^gOy-, <^"mp,mi^ hot loeather accompanied hy mists, 
^-hich is much more prevalent in the valleys of our large riv- 
ers than on the table lands of the south. 

The characters of the two regions under comparison show 
most conclusively that the excess of moisture in the valleys 
must be considerable and permanent. These valleys are cov- 
ered with numerous and extensive lakes and sloughs, and fur- 
rats of rank growth and vast extent, besides the broad rivers 
which tlow thi-ough them; while the table lands are almost 
destitute of lakes and ponds, and but partially covered by a 
Tcij sparse and much less vigorous growth of timber. And, 
besides, they occupy an elevation of several hundred feet 
hove the valleys. 

Ko fears, therefore, need be entertained that these obstacles 
will prevent the entire success of vine-culture in Missouri, 
should our atmosi>here even continue as moist as at present. 
Biu we may expect much improvement in this respect, as it 
IS tally established by past experience, that the settlement of 
a country and tlie opening of a soil to cultivation lessen the 
amount of ram and moisture in the atmosphere. 

2s" ot withstanding the many dirhcnlties our vine-dressei^ 
have had to contend with, and notwithstandinf^ some of their 
vineyards are n.-t, to say the least, In the most favorable local- 
ities in the State, their success has been very flattering. 



a 



t See soil JTo. 12, page 165. 



t 



SWALLOW — GRAPE CULTURE. 163 



The vineyards of Boonville have yielded the present sea- 
son about 63OOO gallons, worth ^li^OOO. Five acres gave a 

clear profit of $2,000, or $400 per acre- MnHaas made 1550 
gallons from 3 acres. 

The \^ntage of Hermann was about 100,000 gallons, from 

le3S than 200 acres. At $1.00 per gallon, which is less than 

the value, it will give a profit of at least $400 per acre, or of 

^S80,000 on the 200 acres in cultivation. One small a ineyard 

at Hamburg, Mr. Joseph Stuby's, yielded over 1,000 gallons 
per acre. 

The entire cost of vineyards, preparing the soil, setting and 
training the vines till tney come into bearing, varies from 
$200 to $300 per acre ; annual cost of cultivation after, $50 to 
"60 per acre; ten per cent, on first cost, $20 to $30 per acre; 
total expense for each year, $70 to $90 per acre. So that an 
income of $100 per annum for each acre is sufiicient to pay 
the interest on the first cost and the expense of cultivation. 

Judging from the statistics before me, I would suppose all 
our vineyards have jielded an average of at least 250 gallons 
per acre since 1849, which, at an average price per gallon of 
$1.60, would give nn annual income of $400, and a yearly 
profit of $300 per acre. So that the vine-dresser, even in the 
poorest seasons, can scarcely fail of a handsome profit ; while 
in good years his gains will' far surpass those derived from 
^y other department of husbandry. But the profits of our 
most successful cultivators have been much greater. M. Poes- 
cM, of Hermann, is said to have made over 400 gallons per 

♦^AA^^^ t^i^ ^^^t ten years, and an annual profit of "more than 
?ouO for each acre. 

Such are the favorable results legitimately derived from the 
experience of our vine-dressers, in theii- early efforts in a new 
country, wnth a soil and climate unknown to the cultivators 
g the grape. All must admit that they are most satisfactory. 
f*^ en if our climate does not become more dry, if no more 
improvements are made in the modes of culture, and if no 
more favorable localities are obtained, gra]>e culture must in- 
crease very rapidly, and become an important element in our 
agncultural and coiumercial interests. 

Uimate.—h will be impossible to give, in the few pages al- 



lotted 



of our meteoro- 
in sreneral terms, 



joited me m this communication, the results 

Ih^f^fi ^^^^^^^tions. It must suffice to state ix. ^..^.^. ........ 

of th L^*"^*^^"^^^ of heat and cold are not so great as in some 
tne best grape-growing regions ; and that the atmosphere 
mtue southern part of the State is sufficiently dry. The re- 
^ts, m short, present but one very objectionable featui-e. 
^Ti W ^^^ ^^<^''isional changes of temperature so great and 
^ aaon as to prove somewhat injurious to the grape at cer- 
jam stages of its growth. But it should be observed that 
^aese changes are not so marked in the hiirh table lands of 



164 TRANS. OF THE ACAD. OF SCIENCE. 

the south and west as in the north and in the valleys of the 
Missouri and the Mississippi, where our vineyards are loca- 
ted ; and, even where most objectionable, they are not so 

gi-eat as in India, and other grape-growing districts of the 
old world. 

That pbrtion of Southern Missouri, extending from Xewton 
County in the south-west to Ste. Genevieve in the south-east, 
usually represented' as the eastern extremity of the Ozark 
3Iountains, is in frfet a table land varying from 1,000 to 1,500 
feet above the ocean. Jn the west it is sufficiently undulat- 
ing to be well drained, while in the east it sometimes rises 



knobs 
'untry descends by moderat 



From this table 



tion. On the northern slope are the head-Avaters of the Sac, 
Pomme de Terre, Niangua, and Gasconade, flowing into the 
Missouri ; on the east, the Meramec and the Big, flowing into 
the Mississippi; on the south, the waters of the St. Francis, 
the CuiTcnt, and the White with its tributaries, descending 

towards ArlcanSflS! nnrl Snrinfr "RIt-c nr./l Ql^r^nl n,.r^a'l- ^n tTl»> 



item 



The valleys of the numerous streams which flow from this 
table land are at first but little depressed below the general 
level ; but the f^u-ther they descend the deeper and wider they 



more 



merous, bold, and pure ; the streams clear and rapid. 

Ihe surface of those table lands is undulating, with no 




, hie temperature which usually prevails at that elevation un- 
der the 3 ah parallel of north latitude. There are no swamps 
or ovei-flowed Innds from which vapora and noxious exhala- 
tions can aiise to render the air damp and unhealthv. As 
these facts plainly indicate, the summers are Iohlt, ten: 
dry and salubrious,* and the winters short and mild. It pos- 
sesses the clear, brilliant skies of Italv, and the diy, bracing 
air ol the western prairies. 

^oiZ— Nearly all the soils of ilissouri possess all tlic ingre- 
rtients necessary to the complete development of the vine ; 
r>ut some of them are too heavy, wet and coL1. imless im- 
proved by artificial means. This is true to some extent of 
those on the bluffs of the Mississippi and ]Missouri, where 
nearly all the vineyards of om- State are located. These soils 
nre base., ui^on the Bluff formation, where it contains more 

ciay and less Imie than in the western counties, which possess 
our best soils. ' ^ 



tZ^^"^^ *" '^]^ ^^'""''^ ^^P^^^^'^f ^850, this !s one of the most iKalthv 

rvgii/Ua m the countrv. ' 



SAVALLOW — GRAPE CULTURE. 



165 



Analyses of Soil from the bluffs of Boone Co^ hy Dr, Littmi. 



Water expelled by drying at 150^ C. 

Organic matter L water not expelled at 150*^ C. 

Silica, etc., insoluble in hydrochloric acid 

Soluble silica •• • 

Alumina •.-... .••• 



• • 9 



Peroxide of iron - • • - 

Oxide of manganese 
Lime 



Magnesia 
Potash • . . 



Soda... 

Phosphoric acid 

Sulphuric acid 
Chlorine 



» • • • 



No. 12 A. 

0.4105 
3.0957 
90.1420 
0.1384 
3.0654 
2.0553 
a trace 
0.2086 
0.3423 
0.8368 
0.1828 
0.0560 
0.0035 
0.0000 



I 



No. 12 B. 

0.6558 
2.6049 
90.8063 
0.1475 
2.9343 
2.0590 
a trace 
0.1242 

0.2088 
0.2121 

0.2925 

0.0346 

0.0508 

0.0000 



No. 12 C. 

0.8030 
3.8901 

85.0571 
0.2187 
4.7672 
3.8814 

a trace 
0.4722 

0.6581 
0.3895 
0.1220 
0.0556 
0.0099 
0.0276 



Total il00.0373jl00.131l|100.3524 

No. 12 A was collectecl from 2 to 6 inches below the surface ; No. 12 B, 

from 10 to 12; and Xo. 12 C, from 18 to 20 below the surface, on a high 
ridge. 

This soil is very similar to tliose upon wliioli tlie vineyards 
of Boonville, Heraiann, and Hamburg, are located ; and it pro- 
duced an abundance of large and excellent grapes, on small 
yines of the Vitis lahrusca. The superior native grapes, grow- 
ing upon this soil, and the success of the vineyards above 
named, prove its adaptation to the vine. Its greatest defect 
18 a capacity to hold and retain an excess of water ; which 
must be remedied by trenching and a proper admixture of 
vegetable matter, sand, pebbles, and broken limestone. This 
labor, however, may be avoided by selecting some of the mil- 
lions ..f acres in Southern and Central Missouri, the soils of 
^J hich are already prepared, as if by design, to invite the vinc- 
oresser to possess and cultivate them. 

'r 

Analym.s of a Ma</neskin Limestone Soil/rotn the Southern 
^>m of Callaway Co., hy JDr, Litton. Soil N'o. 14. 

JJ'ater expelled by heating to 150° C. 1.1700 

^rgamc matter and water not drircn off at 150° C. 9.6299 

?S!^ % •"^oJ'^ible in hydrochloric acid ... - • ■ 54.2600 

»oluWegihca 0.1639 

Peroxide of iron .... . V.'.V. ! VV. ' V *"•"*'** " * * * * "_* [ \ \ 

Manganese *** * 

Wme ** 



Magnesia 
iOtassa .. 



Soda 

Carbonic acid .. 
Staphurk' acid . 

^osphoric acid 




10.8588 
2.5186 
a trace 
8.0720 

1 

1.6378 

0.3442 
10.1111 
0.0605 
0.0950 
0.0053 



Total . 



«4i« «*«Stift 



-.100.5880 



166 TRA>'S. OF THE ACAD. OF SCIENCE 



i 



This soil is all that could be desired for the culture of the 
grape f it contains an abundance of all the mineral substances 
which enter into the composition of the vine, as shown above 
by its analysis. While it is war^n^ light and dry^ it contains 
large quantities of magnesia and vegetable matter or humus, 
giving it gi'eat capacity for absorbing and retaining a suffi- 
cient quantity of moisture, even in the droughts of summer. 
This is a fair representation of the soils on the Magnesian 
Limestone ridges and slopes throughout Central and Southern 
3Iissouri. These slopes and ridges occupy millions of acres 
now deemed worthless, which are, in ilict, by far the most 
valuable Iannis in the State for the cultivation of the gi'ape; 
especially is this true of those located upon the southern high- 
lands, away from the vapors and sudden changes of our large 
livers and their broad valleys. 

The Magnesian Limestone Series occupies a lai'ge portion 
of Southern Missouri, and is made up of magnesian lime- 
stones, sandstones, and porous chert, which are usually over- 
laid with thin beds of reddish-brown marly clays. The sand, 
lime, magnesia, and alumina, derived from the decomposition 
of these rocks, together with the abundance of vegetable mat- 
ter and the alkalies derived from the fires which annually 
overrun this country, combine to form a soil* lights dry^ 
tcarrrij and rich in potash, soda^ lune, magnesia, and all the 
other mineral ingredients needed to render it fertile, and suit- 
nble in an eminent degree for the culture of the vine. In ma- 
ny places this soil is underlaid with a sufficient quantity of 
pebbles and fragments of porous chert to constitute a most 
thorough system of drainage ; while in others the fragments 
of chert are disseminated through the soil in such quantities 
as to injure it somewhat for ordinary cultivation, but giving 
precisely the preparation so highly recommended by Virgil 
and later authoi^jand the best cultivators of the grape. It is 
true that the native \ines do not grow so large and sappy on 
this as on the deep, damp soils of the State; but they are 
nevertheless strong and liealthy, nnd produce finer clustei-s of 
larger and better grapes. This" improvement was particularly 
observed in the Muscadine, the Northern Fox, and the Sum- 
mer Gf\ipes. 

This variety of soil also extends over a large portion of the 
counties on both sides of the Osage, and over the southern 
part of Boone, Callaway, Montgoniery, and Warren, on the 
north side of the Missouri, oecupyinir in all an area of some 
15,000,000 acres. Of the^e, at least 5,000,000 acres might be 
selected in the most desiruLle localities and devuted to vine- 
yards, without encroaching upon the lands most desirable for 



^ J. 



* See preceding anah-sis 5fo. 14. 



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•^ 



SWALLOW — GRAPE CULTURE. 167 

L 
H 

Other departments of agriculture. And so far as we can judge 
from the characteristics of soil and climate and tlie indications 
of the native vines, these 5,000,000 acres in the highlands of 
Southern Missouri present rare inducements to tlie vine- 
dresser—such a combination of favorable circumstances as 
vnll not fail to attract the attention of those who would en- 
gage in this most pleasant and profitable department of hus- 
bandry. And so important wall be the results, that every 
effort 'should be put forth to hasten the time when these 
5,000,000* acres shall be covered with flourishing vineyards, 
giving profitable employment to 2,000,000 people, yielding 
more than 1,000,000,000 gallons of wine, and an annual profit, 
at the lowest estimate, of $500,000,000. And what is still more 



un 



the place of the vile, maddening compounds used under the 



Wl 



sobriety; and our people, nourished by the grape and its pure 
urines, would become as robust and hardy as they are now 
daring and indomitable. 

N'atural Terr aces. —The bluffs of the numerous streams in 
Southern Missouri, and in the valley of the Osage, usually 
slope back into knobs and ridges, which are frequently sur- 
rounded by numerous natural terraces so regular and unifonn 
that they appear like the w^ork of human hands, as seen in 
Hate VIII. These ten-aces are produced by the decomposi- 
tion of the strata of magnesian limestones which form the 
bluffs. Their height varies from one to six feet, and the width 
of the top from two to twelve, according to the angle of the 
slope and the height of the terrace. Their surfaces are nearly 
level, and usually covered with a light, warm and rich soil, 
containing fragments of chert and the decomposing limestone, 
all wonderfully prepared by natm-e for the planting of vine- 
yards. These terraces generally surround high, open ridges 
and knoKa avrvrtoo/i +r, +1,,. +'..^^ «;,.«,ii.itinn of the drv atmos- 



tere of the region under consi<loration. ^Ve have observed 




at one objection to theii- use for vineyards. In some places 
the soil does not appear sufficiently deep to secure the vme 
against the effects of droughts. But, as an offset to the w^ant 
ot depth, it always contmus large proportions of carbonate of 
»agnesia and humus, which give a great capacity for absorb- 
ing and retaining moisture j as these substances possess _ this 
capacity to a greater degree than any of the other ingredients 
of our soils. And besides, the thinnest soils on these terraces 





France has about 5,000,000 acres in vinorarrls. They yieW abo^* 
m.im gaHoas of wioe, besides the 95.000,0t,)O gallons distiUed into 
brandj, and give profitable employment to 2,000,000 of people, mostly 
A-omen and cbildrcai. 



168 TRANS. OF THE ACAD. OF SCIENCE. 

sustain a vigorous growth of prairie grasses, flowers, shrubs, 
and vines which produce the finest quality of grapes in great 
profusion. 

Caves. — There are numerous spacious caves in all parts of 
this interesting country. The temperature of those measured 
ranges betw^een SO'' and 60*" F. Many of them would make 
most excellent wine cellars, as their temperature is sufficient- 
ly low and unifonn to prevent that acidity to which the wines 
of all temperate latitudes are predisposed. It should also he 
borne in mind that this is the richest mineral region in the 
3Ii9sissippi Valley. It abounds in mines of Lead, Zinc, Cop- 
per, Cobalt, and mountains of Iron, and quarries of Marble; 
and, besides, its agricultural resources are sufficient to sustain 
a population of many millions. 

These facts respecting the native vines^ the climat€y the €«- 
perience of our vine-grcncers^ nxid. the soil^ clearly prove the 
capacity of Missouri to become the great wine-growing re^on 
of our continent. They should encourage those noble spirits 
who have so ^lithfully devoted their labor and their money 
to promote this important department of husbandry in our 
midst; for the time is not flir distant w^hen the "-'poor fiint 
ridges" and terraced slopes of Southern Missouri will be as 
valuable for vineyards as some of them are now for their rich 
mineral deposits. The vine-clad hills of the beautiful Kian- 
gua will vie in wealth with the leaden veins of Potosi and 
Granby. 



Was Man cotemporaneovs tcitJi the Mastod&n? 

BT A. WISLIZENUS, 51, D. 

In the first volume of the Transactions of the Academy » 
paper was published by Dr. A. Koch, tending to prore the 
cotemporary existence of Man witli tlie gigantic Mastodon. 
Dr. Koch states tlierein, that, in 1«39, he dlscorered in the 
bottom of the Bourbeu&e River (Gasconade County, Missonn), 
near a spring, the bones of a 3fastodoir gigantms, more or less 
burned by fire. He states, that the skeleton was found stand- 
ing upright, as if the animal had been mired ; and that those 
portions which had been exposed above the surfiice, especially 
the head, the spine, and the ribs, had been partially consumed 
*--- fire. On the suifacc of the clay, covering the 'bones, was 
nc! a layer of wood-ashes, mingled with "pieces of burned 



foun 

bones, _, ._ __ . 

ttoue arrow-lieads, a stone spe 

This mixed laver was covf rp^l 



ep 



WISLIZENUS — MASTODON. 169 




to nine feet thick. From these data Dn Koch draws the con- 
chision that the Mastodon, wliile mired, was killed by weap- 
ons, stones, and fire ; and that Man must, therefore, have ex- 
isted with the Mastodon. 

This paper of Dr. Koch, although many members of the 
Academy disagreed with the author's views, passed from the 
hands of the examining committee to the press without any 
comment upon it and without a discussion. Since, however, 
in the last meeting, the subject was incidentally brought 
again before the Society, and a wide difference of opinion was 
manifested in regard to the correctness of T>i\ Koch's conclu- 
sions, I take this opportunity of expressing my belief, and of 

to convince the members, that all the facts, stated by 
och, can be accounted for in a for more simple and 
natural way, than by the hasty and thus far unwarranted sup- 
position, that man has existed cotemporaneously with the 
mastodon. 

To substantiate the statements in the case more firmly, it 
^ould certainly have been desirable that Dr. Koch had saved 
those small remains of the head, by which he recognized the 
mastodon, also the stone weapons and the wood-ashes, with 
the burnt bones and broken pieces of rock, and that he had 
submitted them to a critical, chemical, and microscopic exam* 
ination. Exact measurenxents, too, and a diagram of the 
whole locality would have been preferable to mere estimates 
and a rather loose narrative.* But, as Dr. Koch has acquired 
some experience in digging up fossil bones, I will assume that 
all his obser\'ations and statements of wliat he found are strict- 
ly correct, and will base my exjdanation of them upon the fol- 
lowing grounds : . 

!• The mastodon standing upright was, no doubt, mired in 
a soft, s:u'ampy ground (caused peihaps by the vicinity of the 
spring), and perished in that position. " That antediluvian 



animals have often perished thus, is a well established fact; 
sometimes crowds of them have been found, standing upiight 
^d pressed closely together, as if a sudden land-slide had 
buried them all simultaneously. 

2. That fire has been l)urning there, and not an accidental 
one, but a contuiuous, intense fire, lighted by man for some 
purpose, seems also to be certain from the qiumtity of wood- 
ashes accumulated, said to be from two to six inches thick. But 
the fire was apparently not made below or around the animal, 
o« on the top of it, and had extended but a few feet from that 



centre, Tlie 



portions only which were 




aK- ^^' ^^ ^^^ infoniied the Acadcmv at a later period, that all these 
^jects mentioned were collected and saved by him, and are no^ in the 
wiuseum of Berlin. But rs my views were not at all ba^ed upon their ab- 



«^^^ce, it does not, of coarse, in the least invdidute my arguments. 



m 



% 



170 TRAXS. OF THE ACAD. OF SCIENCE. 



a'bove the sui-fiicOjas the head, spine and ribs, were found par- 
tially burned, while the lower parts were undisturbed ; there- 
fore the head, the highest part, was burned to such a degi'ee, 
that but small remains of it were left miconsnmed. Now, if 
men, as Dr. Koch supposes, had fovmd the mastodon there 
while being mired and alive, and, unable to kill it in that 
helpless condition by weapons and stones, had resorted to fire, . 
is it likely that they would have made a fire above the ani- 
mal instead of around it ; and, after having triumiihed by such 
unusual efforts over the huge animal, is it likely that they 
would have left its body quite undisturbed, without even tak- 
ing a trophy along, as they are wont do after a combat with 
fai" inferior animals ? Or, Would the wood-ashes in that case, 
have formed such an equal layer above the animal? would 
they not rather have fallen from the protruding higher parts 
to the ground and have been washed oflfby the rains, or been 
blown by the winds in all directions, befoi'e alluvial ground 
could cover the spot? These are all questions that can not 
be satisfactorily answered by Dr. Koch's theory. 

3. The arrow-heads and stone weapons seem to prove the 
presence of Indians on that spot, — not of antediluvian Indi- 
ans, cotemporaries of the mastodon, but of the same Indians 
that have, no doubt, for thousands of yeai's occupied this, their 
native continent, preserving their peculiarities of body and 
mind, their languages, their customs and habits, from the old- 
est times down to the present day* 

^The following combination of circumstances appears to my 
mind the most natural and likely to solve the question : 

An Indian family, attracted perhaps by the springs, selected 
centuries ago that place for a residence, and fixed their tent 
or -wigwam on the very spot, where, unknown to them, the 
bones of the mastodon rested below. The ground, covering 
and hiding the bones, formed then but a superficial layer, pe^ 
Laps of one foot in depth. Whether that was its original depth 
at that time, or whether part of the gi'ound had been removed, 
either by natural agencies or by human interference, it is now 
imposdble to deci<le and quite immaterial to the question. For 
oiu- purpose it is sufficient to assume, that an Indian family, 
under such circumstances, fixed their lodge there and lived 
there for some time in their usual way. Now, everybody, 
who has seen anything of Indian life, knows that cooking and 
roasting form a part of domestic duties in savage life as well 
as iu a more refined one, with the difference, only, that tbe 
Indian kitchen is far more simple, and that they use neither 
stove nor hearth, but make their fires, especially in the colder 
season, in the midst of their lodges, on the bare ground, in a 
hollow circle. That by such daily fires, kept up for months, 
perhaps for years, a deep hollow would be fornicd in the 
ground and a layer of ashes be therein collected, and that by 



# 



¥■> 



HAWN — TRIAS OF KANSAS. ITI 

these daily repeated fires and heated aslies underlying bpnes 
could be partially burned, is self-evident. But tbe Indians, 
like many other primitive nations, are also in the habit of pre- 
paring sometimes their food, especially their meat, in holes 
dug in the ground and filled up with alternate layers of heat- 
ed stones, meat and embers. Such underground kitchen work 
would, of course, exert a still more powerful and speedy effect 
in partially burning underlying bones, and would account, at 
the same time, for the presence of stones in the ashes. Tiieir 
presence might also be accounted for by the Indian custom 
of covering the lower end of their tents with stones, to keep 
them closer to the ground. In a deserted Indian camp these 
stones will, for a Ions time afterwards, indicate the places 
where their lodges were fixed. 

That in the course of centuries, nfler the spot was left un- 
disturbed, alluvial ground could have accumulated over it to 
the depth of eight or nine feet, burpng both the mastodon 
with its partially burned bones and the traces of the Indians, 
will scarcely need a word of comment. 

This combination of simple and throughout natural circum- 
stances, though it wUl by no means give us certainty, seems 
to me to deserve after all more credit than the forced expla- 
nation by assuming the coexistence of man and the mastodon, 
for which no incontrovertible proof has as yet been ^ven, or 
the still more flxnciful suggestion of intelligent apes. 

Br. Koch mentions in the same paper another " evidence 
stUl more conclusive" for the same theory, to-wit : he found 
m another liver bottom several stone arrow-heads mingled 
'S'ith the bones of a mastodon, one of them Ijdng underneath 
the animal's thigh bone, *' so that it could not have been 
brought thither after the deposit of the bones." It seems to 
me, that the interference of some burrowing animal and the 
agency of water, which is so paramount in river bottoms, 
vould do away with that impossibility. Stone arrow-heads 
are widely spread over the State of Missouri, and are often 
found below the ground, unconnected with mounds, graves 
or bones. The agency of w^ater no doubt changes sometimes 
their locality just as well as it controls the distribution of 
pebbles and other small stones. 



THE TRIAS OF KANSAS. 



BY F. HAWN. 



A krge portion of Kansas, extending westward to the Sixth Principal 
^endian, seems to be underlaid by brown and jenow sandstones and 
X ^\t ^^^^^ fi^rmation also extends towards the south- west &r mto 
«ew Aiexico, and to the nortli-wcst in the valley of the Mi 



soun Kiver as 



1T2 TRAXS. OF THE ACAD. OF SCIENCE. 



fiir up as the mouth of Judith River. In Eastern Kansas the formation is 

composed of sandstone, blue and variegated pyritiferous clays, gypsum, 
etc. 

This formation in Kansas, in the north-west at the mouth of Judith Riv- 
er, as well as that of the Pyramid Mountain in Now Mexico, have been re- 
ferred to the Cretaceous system of Nebraska, Arkansas, Texas, Alabama, 
and Xcw Jersey, etc.* At that time no organic remains had been found 
sufficient for an undoubted reference. But recently I obtained a few fos- 
sils from a stratum of this group in Kansas that would place them in the 
Permian below rather than the Cretaceous above; hence it was nominally 

rctl'rred to the Trias, as these beds rest noncouformably upon the Per- 
mian. 

The surface upon which these Triassic strata were deposited was very 
luieven. Frequently we find Permian beds standing up through them in 
ridges which must have represented reefs in the ancient waters in which 
the Trias was deposited. Indeed there may he traced from the valley of 
the Kansas to the Arkansas a line of coa«t, with its littoral configurations, 
reefs and islands. The Upper Permian strata form the eastern boundary 
between those points, and dip towards the west at the rate of from eighty 
to one hundred feet per mile, and pass under the Triassic beds. The 
scenery then undergoes a radical change, from that of a high, rolling, bro- 



ken region, to a gently undulating surfiice, to which the appropriate term 
'* plains" has been universally applied. This change may be reahzed in 
travelling the Santa Pe road from Diamond Spring to the Cottonwood, 

The Cellular Limestone, on which the Trias rests, is variable in charac- 
ter.^ It is usually a brown and yellow cellular niagn<?sian limestone, often 
laminated and traversed by thin plates (which are sometimes waved) 
forming rectangular cells. These cells are often coated with browa mam- 
mdlated chalcedony, or partiallv filled with small rhombic, translucent 
crystals of calcareous spar. Sometimes they contain a reddish-brown pul- 
verulent substance. The surface presents a very rough exterior, vith nu- 
merous sun-cracks. The strata often pass into a brecciated conglomerate, 
the fragment?; more or less comminuted and water-worn. The beds thus 
constituted are of variable thickness, and alternate with heavy beds of 
coarse brown, and fine white and blue pyritiferous clay, containing a bed 
of white granular gypsum. The cellular beds often p^iss diagonally 
througli the clayey strata. 

The fragmentary character of these beds, and the sua-cracks so abund- 
ant m them, show very clearly that they were formed on a shore of the 
sea. ^ 

In that era, the valley of Kansas, from the mouth of the Smoky-Hill 



sesses 



Lower 



^iiUst on the south side the latter formation is found in regular beds one 
hundred and fifty feet ahove the outliers on the north. . 

Ihe lermian strata constitute the formation between the valley of Kan- 
sas and Republican Fork, and previouii to the depi>sition of the Trias form- 
ed a promontory extending we^t to the Sixth Principal Meridian, agamst 
irhioh the latter was deposited. 

The sandstone of the Trias probablv exerts an important influence. « 
faraishes the drifl-sand at the mouth of Little Arkansas, and west to the 
™mtg of the Santa Fe road, where it forms the " Sand-Hills," and prolh 
ably turmshes the sand of the arid plains of the south-west. 




# 
Mes 



Conntrr 



Eiver, by 



f ^- } ' ^' -^hx ^^'^ ^' ^' Hayden, M.D., p. 19. (See Pro 
the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philad., Mav, 1857.) 



i^* 



i^- 



SWALLOW AND HAWN — THE EOCKS OF KANSAS. 173 



THE ROCKS OF KAISTSAS. 



BY G. C. SWALLOW AND F. HAWN. 



_ r 

In presenting the following paper to the scientific world, 
we feel it incumbent upon ourselves to state that it was pre- 
pared in great haste, in the midst of other pressing duties ; 
and that the specimens, in many eases, are very imperfect, and 
would not permit us to detei-mine with certainty all of the 
specific characters. Where we have represented them as 
identical with species heretofore described, the proofs of iden- 
tity are conclusive ; where there have been any slight differ- 
ences, these have been fully stated. Some of those specimens 



ermine 



are 



eration of the interest which will be felt in knowing all the 
relations of these new rocks, been deemed worthy of a place 
in our paper; and we have stated what seems tons to be 
their most obvious relations to well known European forms, 
as it is never safe or advisable to form new species on imper- 
fect specimens. 

Whatever defects may appear in our descriptions of new 
species, the characters ^ven can be relied upon as true to the 
original specimens. 

, The great importance of these rocks to scientific and prac- 
tical men* has induced us to present the results of our first 



imis 



«ay, give our con( 
Pitted the examin 
our possession. 



Kan 



«iem ot the Fenman Rocks of that Terntory, ana tne sciu 
'^•ider range of those beds between the Permian and the Cre- 
ta^ous, which we suppose may prove to be Triassic. 

The following section gives the rocks of Kansas as observed 
oy Maj. Hawn during his lineal surveys in that Territory. 



The many beds of gypsum which these rocks contain, will enable the 
^nner to convert the yait sandy plains of Central Kansas into the most 
prwtuctiTe regions of the West, and fill that wide wilderness with a teem- 
!3.^J^??y people. These beds wiU also supply the commercial demands 
^ ie illssissippi Valley. 

6 



174 TRANS. OP THE ACAD. OF SCIENCE. 



SYSTEM I.— QUATERNAEY. 

No. 1—150 feet Bluff, the same as in Missouri— 2d Ann. Rep. Mo. Survey. 

4 feet %rhite clav — 2d .Vnn. Een. of Mo, SuTTev. 




" 3— 15 feet local drift. 

169 feet of Quaternary. 

SYSTEM II.— CRETACEOUS. 

No. 4 — 45 feet light gray crystaline limestone.* 
" 5 — 27 feet slope strewn with light gray calcareous concretions.* 

72 feet of Cretaceous. 

SYSTEM IIL— TRL.VSSIC. (?) 

No. 6 — 12 feet light gray arenaceous limestone. 
7 — 10 feet blue pyritiferoua clay. 



" 8—15 



" 0— 8 feet, like No. 7. 

" 10 — 18 feet flesh-colored quartzitic sandstone. 
** 11 — 14 feet variegated, red and white, clay. 

12 — 8i feet white granular gypsum. (Local.) 

13—12 feet, like Nos. 7 and 9. 
" 14 — S) feet dark brown ferruginous sandstone 
« 15 — 13 feet variegated, white and red, clay. 
" 16 — 50 feet soft, coarse, buff sandstone. 
" 17 — 30 feet Dvritiferous clav. 



it 

it 



18 — ^10 feet yellowish brown ar^ 
19 — 10 feet thin silico-calcareou 



" 20 — 3 feet brown impure lignite. 

" 21 — 10 feet black pyritiferous clay, contaioiag numerous stellated crys- 



tals 

'^ 22 — 60 feet gray, blue and brown c 

and flesh-colored nodule 
75 feet soft, cmrobling, brick-red sandstone 



thtWn seams of fibrous selenite, 



it 9'v 



4 — 17 feet white clay, with soft concretions of ox 
5 — 15 feet conglomerate of coarse sand and small 



420i feet of Triassic. (1) 

SYSTEM ni.— PERJIIAN. 

trPPER PEHMIAX. 

2S— 100 feet brown and yellow, cellular and brccciated Umestone, 

alternating with brown, bhie and white pyritiferous clay, coa- 
taining a bed of white granular gypsum, 5 feet thick. 

27— IS feet conglomerate, of angular, water-worn fr^^°^^^^, PVi? u 

stone, cemented with white argillaceous matter. This oe^ 
local, and may not have its true position. 

^ — 15 feet, resembhng No. 2^^^ but more compact. 
" 2^—60 feet dark brown, silicious Umestone, alternating with <^OBXse, 

iniDUre, brnvB-n nlnva nnntiii'nintr nrvstalft of clialccdony ^fl 



it 



*4 



it 
it 



agatized quartz. 

■25 feet dark buff, compact limestone. 
31 — i5 ft-^et red clar. 




LOW£R PEliillAS. 

No. 32—25 feet brown shale, containing? geodcs whose drusy cavWef ^ 

filled with crystals of quartz, and reniform nodules of >^-^' 



liar' 




section of Mcs^^rs v ^ v*.av and F, T Hay^en's fS^'^.^^T 



tions to the Academy of Xatural Sciences or Pbilad'a. (Se€ 



SWALLOW AND HAWX— THE ROCKS OF KANSAS. 175 

No. 33—30 feet gray limestone and flint, with beds of brown clay. 
« 34 — 25 feet massive, cherty. maernesian limestone and brown clay ; tlie 



« 



It 

it 



it 
it 



« 



n 

it 



4t 

« 

« 
(t 
U 

it 
u 
it 

H 
4« 
U 
€t 
4i 

U 
U 







H 
H 
if 



lower magnesian beds contain angular fragments of jasper. 

35 — 20 feet of brown clav, fossiliferoiis. 

36—18 feet red clay. 

37—60 feet silicious, yellow, magnesian limestone, with heavy beds of 

brown clay. 

38 — 10 feet massive bed of flint and limestone. 

39 — 25 feet gray and yellow limestone, containing small globular and 

pear-shaped nodules of chert, and geodes with crystals, altern- 
ating with beds of bro^vn and blue clay. 

40 — 75 feet brown magnesian limestone, alternating with beds of 

brown, olive-green and red clays. 
41—25 feet Hght buff amy gdaloidal-magnesian limestone and chert. 

42 — 8 feet heavy-bedded yellow, magnesian limestone. 

43 — 3 feet blue fossiliferous slate- 
41 — 15 feet brown slate. 

45 — 10 feet brilliant yellow, magnesian limestone. 

46—17 feet dark brown limestone, with numerous joints of large 

crinoidal columns. 

47 — 4 feet Ught yellow flilicious limestone. 
■30 feet red clay. 

49— 8 feet silico-calcareous slate. 

50 — 5 fggj olive-green clay. 

51 — 4 feet red clay, 
52 — 10 feet dark gray limestone. 
63— S feet olive-green slate. 
W— 8 feet dark blue slate. 
55— 6 feet buff limestone. 
56—16 feet brown slate. 
57 — 3 feet dark blue slate. 
68 — 13 feet gray clay. 
59— 3 feet compact, light buff limestone. 
^0 — 5 feet brown clay. 

61—15 feet blue shale, fossiliferous. , ' 

02— 3 feet compacl^ drab, silicious limestone, with small nodules 

of chert. 
63— 4 feet brown limestone. 
^3 feet soft, light brown clay. 
*3':»— lo feiet soft, olive-green clay, with a band of red clay, one foot 

^2^ 4 feet gray oolitic limestone. 
ci~ f ^^^^ bright olive-green clay. 
^ 6 feet dark, buff, oolitic limestone. 
oy— feet dark blue slate. 
70-. 7 feet drab limestone. 



Total, 820 feet of Permian Rocks. 



SYSTEil lY.— CARBONIFERO 



1073 feet coal 



measures, & C5ontinuatIon of, and probably above, the upp 
Coal Series af Missouri. (See 2d Mo. Rep. Part I., p. 78.J 

j|3^^^"*The data for the above section, were obtained amidst onera 
TOPICS connected with the lineal surreys of the Territory, confining n 
r^f "^^?^ to arbitrary iinea and localities ; this, together with a want 
^2^^ in the strata near No. 25 of the foregoing section, rendc 

^ parts of it hy|K5thetical, but I believe it is sufficiently accun 
W general mastration. 

F. HAWN. 



176 



TEAIi^S. OP THE ACAD. OF SCIENCE. 



CATALOGUE OF FOSSILS 

Obtained from the Permian Rocks of Kansas. 



NAMES OF SPECIES, 



PLANTS, 
A trilobate leaf of an unknoKn 



exogenous plant 



ZOOPHYTA. 

Stenopora crassa, Lonsdale -**•. ^ . 
Stenopora spinigera, Loiisdak ^ • * • 
Ch^tetea, three species, (undeterm- 




LOCALITIES. 



ined) 



* m 



. BRYOZOA, 



* 



.. *? 



# JTo. 14(1) of the forgoing sec- 
tion. 



A • 



• • 






• * 






« « 



< # 



Fenestella flabellata {?), Philips.. 

Sjnocladia virgulacca (1), King.. 
Thamniscus dubius, Scklotheim • . . 
Acanthocladia anceps (?), Schlot- 

ThjUopora Ehrenbergi, Geinitz ..' 

ECHIXODERMATA. 

Archajocidaris Tcrncuiliana, Kim, ..*!.... 
Cyathocrimis ramosus (?;, King.\ 

ANNE LL AT A. 

J 

Serpula (Spirorbis) ralvata, Gold- 
bpu'orhis orbleulostoraa. Swallow- 

CRUSTACEA. 



Valley of Cotton--rooa. 
Eoek Creek, Santa Fe' road. 

Valley of Kansas, west of F<^ 
EUey. 



STear Council Grore, 
Valley of Cotton-wood. 
Valley of Cotton-wood. 

Near Ilay's Eanch. 

Valley of Cotton-wood 






• ) • • 



PhilUpsia, species not dtder 



mined 



* « 



Near Lost Spring, S. Feroad 
Near Council Grove. 



# 



« « 9 



BRACHIOPODA. 

Productus Callioimianus, SwaUow 
Profluctus semireticulatus, Martin 
Prod actus Eofersii. Norwmd ^ 

^ . Prallen...'* 

1 rodiictus ^qnicostatus, Shumnrd * 
Productus Norwoodii, StcaUauj. ■>.. 

^ [H nfer cameratus, Morton t * 

bpirlfer plaaoconvexa, Shumard .J* 



* 



V • 



# 



1 9 



Hill Fork 
:ton-wood 



Near Council Grore 






* 

# 

# 



wood 






« • 



# 9 



■ » ! • • 



» « 



* « 



• • 



'alley 



South Fork Cotton-wood. 
.Valley of E:an5as, W.FtKiky 
- i Valley of Cotton-wood. 
..iRock Creek, Santa Fe road- 
Valley of Cotton-wood, 



SWALLOW AND HAWN — THB ROCKS OF KANSAS. 



177 



NAMES OF SPECIES 



Ifi 

Pi 



O 

o 



Pi 

o 

1-1 



Spirifer pectinifera (?), Sowerhy . - 
Chonetes riemingii, Nonrood ^' 

Pratten^' 

Orthisina unibraculum, BucA 

Orthisina Shumardiana, Swallow . 
Orthisina ^lissourlensis, Swalloiv . 
Rhynchonella Osagensis, Swallow, 
Terebratula(?} subtiUta, Ilall .... 



* 



* 









* 






ACEPHALA- 






* 



CO 



LOCALITIES. 



> • 



» • 



» « 



Monofas speluncaria ( ? ) , ScMotheim, 
Monotis " var. Americana, 

T,, ,. , Swallow-' 

Monotis radialLs -P^jZ/ips 

Monotis variabilis, Swallow 

Monotis Halli, Swalloia 

Aneula gryphmata{?), 3Iunsier.. 

fecten CleaTelaiidicus, Swallota.. 

^ecten mgens, Swallow 

recten acutialatus, Swallow. 

MytUui (MyaHna) Permianus, 

u.^i ,-., Swallow-' 

Mytilus (MyaUna) concarus, 

M7mus{MyaUna)«,uatlT- 
J^^ina Kansasensis, Shumard- . . 

E SS^ R'^^'«^'^' ^^■«^'«"' 



# 



• • 



» ♦ 



# 



* 



* 



# 




* 



* « 



» • 



# ^ 



# « 



♦ • 



SolZ ' ^4^** ""^ determined). 

cSi!;^I™'^"^»' Swallow <... 
«ujomorpha Kansasensls. Swal 

c^n-^ <^[d--^ta, sa-«/;o,« .'. . .?r: 

SSSr^*'^ Permianul M 



• • 



• • 



» • 



• « 



# 



• • 



Valley of Big Blue. 

Near Council Grove. 
Generallv diffused. 

Red Water and Cotton-TTOod- 

Red Water. 

Valley of Big Blue Rirer. 

Generally difiused. 



• • 



t 9 



• ♦ 



* ft 



1) 



» • 









• a • 

• « 



• * 



• • 




Near Smoky-Hill Fork, 
Near Smoky-HiU Fork 
Valley of Cotton-wood 

Valley of Cotton--\Tood. 
Near Smoky-Hill Fork. 
Valley of Cotton-"wood, 
Valley of Cotton-wood. 
Valley of Kansas. 

Valley of Kansaa. 

White Water. 



Valley of Cotton-Avood. 
Valley of Verdigris. 
Valley of Verdigris. 
Ni.ar Council Grove. 
Valley of Kansas. 
Valley of Kansas. 
Valley of Cotton-wood, 
Valley of Cotton-wood. 
Council Grove. 
Valley of Cotton-wood. 
No. 13 of forecroine section. 



Valley of Kansas. 
Smoky-HiU Fork. 
Smoky-Hill Fork. 

Council Grove* 
Vnlley of Cotton-wood. 
Valley of Cotton-wood, 
Valley of Cotton-wuud. 



* • 



ft « 



Smnkv-Hill Fork, 
Valley of Cotton- wood. 



1T8 



TBANS. OP THE ACAD. OF SCIENCE. 



NAMES OF SPECIES. 



o 



^ 
^ 



1 

ScliizoJus triangularis, Swallow*-- 
Schizodus Rossicus, Vemeuit .-.* 

Lyriodon (Myophoria) orbiculare, 

Gddfass - • 

Allorisma lanceolata. Swallow 

Allorisiiia curta, Sicalhw . • 

Allorisma Miimahaha, Swallow^** 

GASTEKOPODA. 

Murcliisonia subangulata(?), Vem. 
Murchisonia Kansasensis, Swallow 
Murcliisonia perveri^a, Swallow* . * 
Loxonema fasciata. King ........ 

iracrocheilus spiratus, McCoy .... 

Naticopsis Pricei, Shumard 

CEPIMLOPODA. 

r 

Nautilus Permianus, Swallow ... 
Nautaus occlilentalis, SwaU&w . . . 
Orthoceras Kickapooense, Swdlow 

Cyrtoceras dorsatum. Swallow -.. 



« ■ 



* 



PS 



o 



# 



* 
* 



» • 



» • 



» • 



# 






OS 



* 



« » 



* 



o 






LOCALITIES. 



Valley of Cotton-wood. 
Smoky-Hill Pork. 



* No. 18 foregoing section. 

Near Council Grove. 
Near Council Grore- 
Near Council Grove. 



* « 



• « 



No. 26 foregoing section 

of Cotton->rood. 
of Cotton-vrood. 
of Kansas. 

of Kansas. 

of Kansas. 



VaUey 
Valley 
Valley 
Valley 
Valley 



Smoky-Hill Fork. 
Valley of Cotton- Trood 
Smokv-Hill Fork. 
Smoky-Hill Fork. 



FOSSILS OF THE PERMIAI^ ROCKS OF KANSAS. 



PLi2?TS. 



r 

^ A trilobate jeaf of an exogenous plant, is tlie only fossil plant 
in tte collection belonging to the beds aboTC the Permian. 



ZOOPHYTA. 






Ste^-opoea ceassa, Zonsdale, Ge. Pais., Vol I., p- 6 

A, %.12. 

Calamopora Mackboxhii, Mtiff, Per. Fos^ pi. III., figs. 3-6. 
Chaetew.s(?) ^UcaoxHii, Edi^arifs and Ilaime, Brit. Fos. 

Corals. 

^ 

Whatever may be the generic and specific relations of the 
above corals, I will not pretend to decide among the conflict- 
ing opinions; but our specimens agree -with Lonsdale's in ct- 
ery particular indicated in his figures and descriptions. They 
do not show the mural foramina of Kinn-'s figures. 



SWALLOW AND HAW^^— THE ROCKS OF KANSAS. 179 



SxENoroKA spixiGERA, Lonsdcih^ Ge. Rus., Vol. L, pL A, fig. 

11. 
Stexopora coLU5iNARrs, Khig^ Per. Fos., pi. in., figs. 7-9. 

Our specimens agree Math tliose delineated by Lonsdale 
and King, except they are not "incrusting" like some of 
King's. 

Both of the above species of Stenopora are from the Lower 
Permian rocks in the valley of the Cotton-wood, associated 
with Monoth IlallL 

Chaetetes. Three undetermined species, probably new. 

AH of these corals were obtained in strata supposed to be 
Lower Permian of Kansas Territory. They are very abund- 



ant m some of the beds. 



BRYOZOA. 



PJEJTESTELLA FLABELLATA (?), Fhilli2)S, Gq. York, Pt. IL, 

pL I., fig. 7-10. 

Our specimen presents tlie striated surface only ; all the 
characters displayed are like those delineated by Phillips. 
Lover Permian strata, near Council Grove, K T. 

Syitgcl.vbia virgulacea (?), PhilUjys, Trans. Ge. See. Lon. 
2d Series, Vol": III.., pi. xn., iig. C, p. 120 ; and the Ency- 
clopedia Metropolitana, pi. in. 



figs 



viaGtiiu.cEA(?), King. Per. Fos., p. 39, pi. it., 



It is impossible to tell whether our specimens are identical 

With those figured and described by Phillips, as cited above ; 

bat they differ from King's in having but two or three rows 

01 cellules, generally two. His species is described as having 

trom "thi-ee to five" rows of cellules. Whether the specific 

characters should be so extended as to include those speci- 

niens -^ith two rows only, as seems most reasonable, is left 

tor others to decide. 8. biserialis would be a good name for 

our species, unless it be included in the virgulacea. 

-fcrom the Lower Permian strata in the vallev of the Cot- 
ton^wood, K. T. 

Thamatiscus DUBIU3, Schlotkevn. 

GoRGoxiA BCBiA, Goldfuss, Pet. Ger., p. 18, pi. vii., fig. 1. 
Thamkisccs dcbius, King, Per. Fos. p. 44, pi. 5, figs. 7-12. 

There can be no doubt of the identity of onr fossils with 



King, 



180 TRANS. OP THE ACAD. OF SCIENCE. 

From the Lower Permian strata in the valley of the Cot- 
ton-wood, K. T. 



%.l. 



>s (?), iSchlo 
Goklfuss (?) 



AcAxiHocLADiA AscEPs(?;, J^ng (?), Per. Fos. p. 48, pi. T., 
fiofs. 13-18. 

Our specimens differ in having the rows of cellules diago- 
nal to the axis of the stem, instead of longitudinal, as repre- 
sented by lung, and on ridges like that figured by Goklfuss; 
they are less regularly branched, and not so distinctly pinna- 
ted as those delineated by Goldfuss and King. Should these 
differences entitle our fossils to a specific distinction, Ameri- 
cana would be a good name 



m the 



K T. 

Fhtllopoea Ehrenbeegi, Gehiitz. 

Phtllopoha Ehrexbergi, m-ng. Per. Fos., p. 43, pi. T, 

figs. 1-6. 
PHTLLoroBA Eheenbekgi, PictcL Tra. PaL-e.. t>1. xcn. fi^. 16. 



•? **o 



I 
I 



PeiTni 



seem to be perfectly identical with the specimen figured and 



Kinfr and 



ECHIX0DEE5L1TA. 

AKciLEocrDAEis VEB^'EuiLiAJTA, Kinr/, Per. Fos., pi. TJ 

22-24. 

\ ■ 

Ap^ch^ocidaeis AccLEATtTs(?>, Skummxl Trans. Acad 



St. L 



ouis. 



^ 

■^ 



Our specimens seem to be identical with those delineated 
by King. 

Kear the junction of the Upper and Lower Permian strata 
■west of Council Grove, K. T. 

CxATHOCRmi-s EASiosus (?), ^M^, Per. Fos., pi. ti., figs. 15 

r 

^ We have one plate and several intemodes from near the 
junction of the Upper and Lower Permian rocks, west of 
Council Grove, which are very analogous to the above fossil 



AKXELLATA. 



Sekpula {Spirorhis) valyata, Goimss, Pet. Ger^ p- 225^ 

pL 67j fig. 4. 



SWALLOW AND HAWN — THE ROCKS OF KANSAS. 181 



This species from the Muschelkalk seems to be identical 
with one of our species from the Upper Permian strata of 

K. T. 



Spirorbts orbiculostoma, SioaUow. 
^AJZ small; spire elevated; volutions about three; convex 



marked 



aperture 



oblique, sub-orbicular, not modified by the preceding volu- 
tion ; umbilicus small. 

Our shell differs from the JS. valvata. of Goldfuss, which it 
most resembles in the number of volutions and the transverse 
ruga? ; and from S. helix of King, (Per. Fos., p. 54, pL vi., figs. 
10-11,) in the form of the aperture. 

Maj. Hva^vn's collection from the Permian Strata of Kansas, 
attached to Naittilus Permianiis and N^. occidentalism 



CRUSTACEA, 



PHrLiipsiA. Species not determined. 



wer Permian strata, on a slab with 
Acanthocladia anc^a (?). 



BEACHIOPODA. 



Product cs Calhou^-iaxus, Swallow. 

Shell, large, sub-hemisplierical ; simiSy narrow, extending 
from the visceral recnon to the anterior border of the dorsal 



horde 



in the cardinal 



; ears large, triangular, strongly arched, curving tmvards 
the cardinal border, ornamented with numerous tubular spines, 
those on the cardinal border somewhat reguhu^y arranged in 
^ullelrows; car di^ial harder^ as long as the greatest width of 
the sholl,the extremities somewhat reflexed toAvards the visceral 
^^on of the dorsal valve : dorsal valve, regularly arched, with 



beak 



ornamented 



in^egular, loniritu- 



prominent towards the beak, but 



oroader and more flattened towards the anterior margin, their 
^ber increased by insertion Mid subdivision; the whole 
™rtace ornamented with tubular spines, which are more nu- 
merous towards the borders and on the ears, and usunlly 
pnng from the costs?; visceral region^ for a sliort distance 
^m the beak, marked with irregular, concentric, MMvin^, 
di^/lftf ^ 1^^^ proniinent ruga?; ventral valve, strongly arched, 
^htly flattened on the visceral region and towards the an- 
^or margin, ornamented with costaj and rugte, like the op- 



182 TEANS. OP THE ACAD. OF SCIENCE. 



posite valre; mesial ridge^ corresponding to the dorsal sinus; 
internal surface of ventral valve garnished witli a prominent 
trifid cardinal jjrocesSy fortified at its base with three diverg- 
ing ridges, two extend laterally nearly parallel to the cardind 
line and become obsolete on the ears ; the third or the mesial 
ridge, extends perpendicularly from the cardinal border to the 
middle of the valve, where it becomes prominent and sharp; 
on each side of the last, and in the angles between it and the 
two former ridges, are the oval rugose scars of the adductor 
muscles/ vascular impressions^ ovate, nearer the anterior and 
lateral borders, connected by recurved sinuses to the anterior 
part of the mesial ridge; central portion of the visceral region 
punctate and marked with longitudinal costse ; around the 
anterior border is a zone, ornamented with tubes, those on the 
inner portion large and prominent, while those nearer the 
border are small, depressed and more numerous. , Interior of 
dorsal valve marked with oblong, elliptical rugose adductor 
muscles^ separated by a deep,"^nan'ow, longitudinal sinus* 
Length from beak to anterior border, 1.65; breadth, 2,25 ; 
height of dorsal valve, 1.15. 

The Calhounicmns^ so far as observed, is confined to the 
Lower Permian. 

The variety Kayisasensis ranges down to the base of the 
Carboniferous System. They were found very abundant by 
Major Hawn in Kansas. 

By request of Xnjor Hawn, this naagnificent species is 
named in honor of Gen. John Calhoun, Sun-cyor General of 
Kausa?5 whose liberal oflScial policy enabled Major Hawn to 
make the Geological survey of that Territory. 



*) J^oKWooDn, SioaTloi€. 



SJifM thin, 



ornamented with indistinct concentric rugae and nti- 
small tubular spines; dorsal valve arched, curve regu- 
lariy increasing from the anterior mardn to the beak; mesial 



mnus w 



dmal marrjln slightly curved, less than the gi-eatest width of 
the shell ; cardinal Urn sub-linear, expanded beneath the besfe 
into a narrow area, which is divided by a small deltoid aper- 
ture; ears of medium size, sharply defined, triangular, arched, 
rugose, ornamented with numerons spines inclined towards 
the posterior lateral angles, which are well defined, and vary 
but little from light angles. Ventral valve, sub-orbicular, nar- 
rowed towards the posterior border so as to present an ovate 
»>rm, truncated by the cardinal maro-in, slifrhtly concave, with 
a semi-circular deT>res5?inn -m^nn^.i '^♦,^ ^t^S 



ears 

or it 



anterior margm 




proce 



SWALLOW AND HAWN — THE ROCKS OF KANSAS. 183 



beak 



is a flat, narrow area. Both valves are ornamented 



lar, indistinctj concentnc comigations or lines of growth, 
which rarely assume the form of thin, scaly laminse ; they are 
most distinct near the beak and the anterior margin; numer- 
ous small, unequal, depressed tubular spines are developed on 
all parts of the surface, even to the point of the beak j their 
attachments make the shell appear as if marked with small, 
rounded, interrupted, longitudinal costa?; they are smaller on 
the ventral valve. In some specimens there are indications of 
an effort to range them in concentric lines, particularly near 
the margins; but usually there is no perceptible order, which 
together with the narrow area of the dorsal valve, and other 
characters, gives the shell strong affinities with the Productiis 
horrescens of Verneuih 

Length of dorsal valve, 1,08; greatest width, 1.11; height, 
0.55; length of cardinal line, 0.87 : lenerth of ventral valve, 
0.91; width, 1.07. 

The P. N'orwoodii mav be distin^ished fi'om the P. Aor- 
rescens of Verneuil, hy its entire beak and smaller area ; and 
from the P. jRogersii, iVI ijb P., which it faintly resembles, by 
the want of large concentric ridges, and by the smaller size 
smd greater number, and irregular arrangement ot the spines. 
1 he Strophalosia 3Iorrissiana^ King, has a larger area. 

^ Major Hawn's collection from the Lower Permian Rocks, 
m the valley of the Cotton-wood, where it was associated 
^th ThammscKs dubiuSj Productiis Mogersi^ and Monotis 



Op.TnisnyA Shumaedia^ta, SxcaUinc. 

Shell depressed, transrerse, sub -orbicular, each valve marked 

^* "bout ten u-regular, broad depressed, rounded, radiating 

)ns, which become obsolete towards the beaks; the 



with, 
piicati 
whole 

ed 



Lh 



^, ramatmg stria?, and by smaller concentric lines, which are 
;piemselves finely striated ; the concentric striae most obvious 



im- 



^tween the radiating lin , „. 
plantation. Dorsal valve semi-conical, highest at the beak, de- 
pressed in the center, and in a circular zone parallel to the 
antenor margin; leak pointed, semi-conical, oltcn slightly ob- 

• I, ^"^ng^ilar, vertical, base the longest side, decus- 

^ with fine strijE ; aperture elongated, sub-deltoid, closed 

itti a convex, transversely rugose deltidium. Ventral wh-e 

^"^ex, gibbous towards the beak, depressed near the junc- 

obt'! ^^^ lateral and cardinal mars-ins, forminer small, ^-*- 




utral margin, giving 
^ ! verv much incurv 



184 TRAXS- OF THE ACAD. OF SCIENCE. 

towards the beak, which is small and curved beneath the del- 
tidium ; area^ very narrow or obsolete. 

Length, 0.94; breadth, 1.25; thickness, 0.62; height of area, 
0.28 ; width of area and length of cardinal line, 0.64. 

^Oiir shell differs from the 0, Missouriensis in being less 
gibbous; area and deltidium wider, and not so high; ribs 
more depressed: radiatii '" " " * 



o _""-- --o 



the beaks to the margins. It also may be distinguished from 
the 0. eximia Ver. (Ge. Rus. pi. XI. fig. 2, p. 192,) in the 
markings, although the two shells present the same general 
characters, M. Verneuil says of the eximia: "La surface est 



us 



que les intei-valles qui les separent," which is not true of 
our shell; and, besides, ours has concentric striae. 

Major Hawn's collection from the Lower Permian Rocks, 
in the valley of the Cotton-wood, K T. 

ted with Thamniscus duhiuSj Moiiotis 
variabilis. 



Ilalli. and Monotis 



ACEPHALA. 



PeCTEN- CLEAVELA^fDICUS, Swallow. 

^ Shell of medium size, orbicular, oblique, with a deep, rounded 
smus between each ear and tbe adjacent sides ; cardinal bor- 
der long, sligbtly curved. Left valve very convex, flattened to- 
wards tlie margins, particularly on the posterior slope, orna- 
mented with broad, rounded, radiating cost®, crossed by fine 
concentric stria?, which are nearly obsolete on the ribs, large 
and more numerous towai-ds the margin, increased hy implan- 
tation ; anterior wing large, triangular, marked with from 
eight to twelve radiating cost«, and coaree, transverse 8tn«, 
parallel to the anterior margin ; posterior icing longer and 
narrower, marked with eleven radiating cost®, which are 
cro^?ed by stria? parallel to the posterior border ; heaJc poiute^l, 
depressed, extending nearly to the cardinal border. Bight 
valve, plane or concave, marked like the one opposite, but the 
costae are not so prominent ; 2?osterior wing nearly smooth, 
with a few fine rug;e parallel to its posterior border; ante- 
riar wing convex, strongly wrinkled parallel to its anterior 
border. n 

Length, 0.95 ; height from beak to base, 1.63 ; length of 
postenor wing, 0.48 ; length of anterior wing, 0.38. 

Collected by Major Hawn, in the v 
wood, K. r., where it is associated wit« ^.,«v..u ^- — , - 
Uhis occidentalism Sjjirorhis orbiculo^toma and Jfgtiivs squa- 

Shdl transversely elongate, ovate ; left valve convex, with a 





f 



SWALLOW AND HAWN — THE ROCKS OF KANSAS. 185 

rounded ridge extending from the beak to the middle of the 
ventral margin, and convex towards the posterior side ; ventral 
mar^m angular in the middle, depressed tOT\'ards the sides with 
which it forms obtuse angles; lateral margins nearly straight, 
converging to the beak; anterior w?fn^ triangular, separated 
from the body by a well-defined convex margin ; a wide sinus 
separates it from the anterior lateral margin; heaJc small, de- 
pressed, projecting slightly beyond the cardinal margin. 

Our specimens are impeifect, and show no siuface markings, 
save a few irregular corrugations. 

Height from beak to ventral margin, 0.95; length, 0.70; 
depth of left valve, 0.16. 

Major HaAvn's collection from the valley of the Cotton-wood, 

in Permian strata. 



Pecten AcuTiALATus, SicaUoio. 



Shell small, depressed, polished, inflated part of the left 
valve orbiculo-cuneate, rounded on the ventral margin ; ante- 
rior wing long, naiTow, acuminate, separated from the side 
by a deep, rounded sinus, and a sharply-defined boundary 
from the sinus to the back; j^osterior wing separated by a 
deep, narrow smus ; carcUnal border as long, or longer, than 
the length of the shell; no surface markings seen, save some 
faint mdications of wide, depressed, radiating costse on the 
inflated part of the left valvei Our specimens have no well- 



6. 



mian Kecks m 



preserved surfaces. 

length, 0.74 ; heig 

Major Hawn's col 

valley of the Kansas. 

Mo>fOTis Hallt, SicaUoio. 

^ Shea ovate or sub-orbicul.ir, somewliat obKqne, inequilateral, 
in-egularly plano-convex; le}^ valve gibbous on the middle 
towards the beak, flattened near the lateral and basal margins, 
ornamented with radiating costte ; costCB smaller, or entirely 
obsolete near the beak, larger and more numerous towards 
the margin, unequal, usually^two or more small ones between 
the larger, all armed with vaulted and tubular scales, which are 
^rger, more prominent and numerous towards the margin ; 
o«ak prominent, depressed or incurved, extending to or be- 
yond the cardinal border ; posterior wing of medium size, flat, 
sttb-eostate or rugose, sometimes spinose, outer angle obtuse ; 
fnteH&r icmg tlun, flattened, cxtendinir down into the sinus. 



anpressed on the anterior margin of the convex part of the 
vaive, marked with numerous sharp, sinuous wrinkles ; right 



J^t'e sometimes irregular, sub-orbicular, nearly plane, orna- 
mented with cost® similar to those on the opposite valve, but 



186 TRANS AC. OF THE ACAD. OF SCIENCE. 

usually more numerous and more densely set with vaulted and 
tubular scales ; anterior wing narrow, Ungulate, marked with 
irregular rugag, separated from the valve below by the deep, 
bissiferous notch ; aperture for hyssus deep, funnel-form, with 
two semi-cylindrical channels, one extending out and upwards 
to the cardinal margin under the beak, the other obliquely 
down to the anterior margin ; posterior wing obtuse, rugose, 
extending down to the sinus, depressed in the posterior bor- 
der of the valve. On both valves the stages of growth are 
marked with concentric, scaly, crenuLited lamina, which are 
rami numerous at the margin ; they are crenulated, and seem 
to form the vaulted scales and spines on the costre. 

A large ovate specimen measured in. inches: — Length, 2.00; 
breadth, from beak to ventral margin, 2.38 ; length of cardi- 
nal border, 0.85 ; depth of left valve, 0.38. Length of a smaU 
orbicular specimen, 2.00 ; breadth, 2.04 ; length of cardinal 
border, 0.85 ; depth of left valve, 0.48. 

_ Our specimens are very nearly allied to the M. Garforthen- 
9%s, King, (Per. Fos. pi. ;s:iii., figs. 24r-25) ; but ours have very 
unequal radiating costae; the right valve is verj' distinctly 
costute on the inner side ; its anterior ear is long, longitudi- 
nally rugose, with sides nearlv parallel. It is also very dis- 
tinct from Ostrea spondyloides, Schlot., as represented by 
Goldfusa, which Mr. King savs, resembles his shell 



K 



Permian 



, associated with Ncmtihts occidentalis, Jlonotis spe- 
Monotis variabilis, and Pecten Cleavelandieus. 



Mo-voxis sPELL-xcARiA, Schlotheim, 

MoxoTis spELr-xcAEiA, A7?j^, Mou. Pcr. Fos., p. 155, pi. xiu., 
figs. 5-21. 

Vab. Amesicaxa,* ^ohis. 

J 

I am unable to detect any specific difFerences between our 
specimens and those described by Mr. King. The fossil is very 

with a few snecimens one mio-ht be 



make several species. Thov differ nearlv as much from each 
other as they do from those' figured m the Monograph of Per- 
mian Fossils. But there appear to be two points of distinc- 
tion wliieh are constant. The left valve of the Kansas fossils 
IS not m elevated, and tlie inside of the right is marked 

S Repressed, radiating costa. 
_ Major Ilawn's collection frnm tf,o iiT.r,or cVivimm of the 



and 




^S^ B'^'^^^f ^^^ ^^^«e>*> Mr, Meek has puWished this shell under 
rae name M. Hawm, 



SWALLOW AND HATTN — THE ROCKS OF KANSAS. 187 



,U)IALIS, Ph 



Kina. Per. Fos., p. 157, pi. xiii 



22-23. 



Our specimens are identical with those figured and described 



Kin 



3Iajor Hawn's collection from the Upper Permian strata, 
near Smoky-IIill Fork, K T. 

MOXOTIS VARIABILIS, JSwallOW. 

Shell variable, oblique, inequilateral, transversely elongate, 



left vcdve 



gularly 



namcnted with fine, radiating and concentric strife ; on the 

ventral and lateral margins are variable, radiating spinose, 

and scaly costae extending from one-fourth to one-half of the 

distance from the ma 

disappear; beak small ^ ^ 

border or a little beyond ; the whole surface is marked with 

concentric lines of growth; cardinal v^argin oblique, poste- 



23 



sinus 



terior wing^. M 



This species is very easily distinguished by the j)eculianty 
of its markings, by the smooth, finely-decussated visceral^ re- 
gion, and the coarsely costate and spinose or scaly marginal 
zone. It is very variable in form. 

Length, 0.88: height, from beak to the anterior margin, 
1.31. ' o J 



M, radial is, Phillips, in form 



very 



nm 



in the valley of the Cotton-wood, K. T. 

ilvTiLus {Mycdina) Permianus, SicaUoic. 

Shell elongate, sub-quadrilateral ; anterior margin long, con- 
cave, depressed, so as to produce a somewhat flat or concave 
plane nearly as wide as the thickness of the shell ; carcJiiml 
fnargin rather short and straight, meeting the anterior bor- 
der at an angle of about 58% and the posterior by an obtuse 
angle or abrupt curve ; posterior margin long, convex, par- 
allel to tL.- nn<-«i-;<T.r T-.^^^^-. f^-.. ^rr^r^-na tTion tialf of thc Icnerth 






of the shell, curved rather abruptly towards the base, meetii _ 
the opposite slope in an abrupt curve nearer the anterior 
P^argin. Each valve is marked with an angular ridge extend- 
ing from the beak to thc opposite extremity ; tliese ridg<^« are 




«ne fiat anterior surface and the convex cardinal and posterior 
slopes; but they diverse from the line of the anterior margin, 
become rounded and depressed as they approach the basal ex- 



188 TRANS. OF THE ACAD. OF SCIENCE. 



tremity ; heaJcs sharp, terminal, curved in and forward. The sttr- 
face is marked with numerous imbricating lines of growth, 
sub-parallel, but most distant on the posterior basal slopes; on 
the flat anterior sm-faoe the lines of growth appear Uke fine 
stria?, slightly diverging towards the basal extremity; punctate 
under the magnifier. 

Height from the beak to the basal extremity, 1.96; width 
from the anterior to the posterior margins, .86; thickness, .72. 

Our shell differs from the M. rectus^ Shumard, in having a 
concave anterior margin ; beaks curved foru'ard, posterior mar- 
gin parallel with the anterior, and a more abrupt curve or 
angle between the cardinal and posterior margins. M. vetus- 
tus, Goldfuss, (Pet. p. 169, pi 128, fig. 7,) from the Muschel- 
kalk, is less curved on the anterior margin, not so thick and 
the extremity of the base not so near the anterior margin. 

Maj. Hawn's collection from the Permian(?) strata in K T. 

Mytilus (M/aUnaT) conga vrs, /Swallow. 

Shell short, triangular, marked with sub-imbricating laminse 
or lines of growth, which are concentric on the posterior car- 
dinal^slopes, but straight and slightly diverging on the concave 
anterior surface. A'/iterior margin concave, nearly as long as 
the shell; cardinal margin long, straight or slightly convex; 
posterior basal margin regularly curved from the cardinal to 
the anterior margin, with both of which it forms angular june- 
tions ; anterior slopes so flattened as to present a sharply de- 
fined, even, concave surface as long as the anterior margin, and 
as wide as the thickness of the shell ; cardinal and posterior 
elopes slightly convex, forming sharp edges on the correspond- 
ing margins; the ridges bounding the anterior surface are 
^arp, well defined and parallel to the anterior margin ; heaks 
pointed, curs^ed in and forward. 

Height from beaks to base, 1.07 ; width from anterior to the 
posterior margins, 0.60 ; thickness, 0,40. 



Perm tan 



triansrular form. long 



convex posterior margin, and by the more sharply 
regularly concave anterior surface. 



Ion from the Permian (?) strata ib 



in the 



MrrTLrs SQrA:iiosus (?), Soto. ^^^ 

MiTiLus ILvrsMANKiO), Golilfnss, Pet, Gen, p. 163, pi. I3»t 

fig. 2. •^ 

MixiLcs sQUAMostrs, Amg, Per. Fos., p. 159, ph xir^ fig- 1^^' 

Our specimens are like the smooth variety mentioned and 
figured by King. 

^Lower Penman, valley of Cotton-wood, K. T. 



SWALLOW AND HATVN — THE ROCKS OF KANSAS. 189 



Baketellix a'N'tiqua, 3funster. 

AVICULA AXTIQUA, GolclfuSS^ Pct. GgF., p. 126, pi. CXTI., fig. 7, 

AvicuLA AXTiQUA, Yemeuil, Geo. Rus., pL 2:x.,fig. 13. 
Baketellia antiqua, JSa7iff, Per, Fos., p. 168, pi. xiT., figs. 



28-34 



Th 



it is found in the Bunter 



Germany, the Permian 



land, and the Upper Permian Rocks near Smoky-Hill Fork, 



Kiinsas 



Baeevellia(?) pulchra, Swallow. 

Shell rather large, polished, elongate, depressed, with a ridge 
from the back to the posterior ven'tral angle, where it becomes 
obsolete, marked with indistinct concentric plications or lines 
of growth and a few radiating costaa on the posterior cardinal 
slope; cardinal margin oblique, long; posterior icing narrow, 
two-thirds as long as the shell, with a deep sulcus parallel to 
and near the cardinal edge; ventral margin slightly curved ; 



tnargin. 



extremitij 



length 



Permian 



XMi 



Goldfi 



We 



rerj 



Permian (?) of Kansas 



Ei>ato>fDLL GiBBosA, SwaUow. 

^Shi:II gibbous, snb-equilateral, marTced with regular 

»ic costs, and very Indistinct striae; valves regularly 

or flattened toward tbe ventral manrin, with roundec 



cen- 



from 
beak 



c utiUKs lo tne anienor ana posxenor vkuli ;ii itugieis , 
ery large, gibbous, stronglv incurved, approximate, sub- 



_ cardinal margin depressed, shorter than the shell ; 
«3tremitie8 narrow, posterior the lonsrer, flattened near the 



end, ^^ 

cardinal marmn 
i^entral 



and depressed; 



the 




Talley of the Cotton-wood, K. T. 



Permian Rocks, in 



Ebmondia Oxoeksis, S^mlloia. 




-^^^ small, sub-orbicular, oblique, gibbous, inequilateral, or- 



7 



190 TRANS. OE THE ACAD. OE SCIENCE. 



namented -u'lth regular concentric costse and strioe; heak$ 
large and strongly incurved. 

Maj. Ila^vn's collection from the Lower Permian Rocks, in 
the valley of the Cotton-wood, K. T, 

Edmondia SEMioncicuLATA, Sicallow. 

Shell elongate, sub-elliptical, inequilateral, slightly conves, 
regularly curved at the extremities; posterior end, the wiiier 
marked with regular concentric plications with sharp pronii- 
nent edges. JieaJcs sub-central of medium size, slightly in- 
clined forward ; cardinal border sub-rectilinear; valves legn- 
larly convex, flattened at the posterior cardinal border. 

Length, 0.55; width, 0.39; thickness, 0.83. 

Maj. Plawn's collection fi-om near Council Grove, K. T., in 



Main 



King 



Edm ondia March 



tions are larger, the beaks more prominent and central, and 
the posterior margin more regularly convex. 

KuctTLA {Ledd) Kazaxensis, Vemetnl, Ge. "Rns., Vol. IL, P^- 

iix., fig. 14. 

Upper and Lower Permian in Yalley of Cotton-wood and 
near Smoky-Hill Fork, K. T., where it is associated with 
Monotis IlallL Monotis s-Delmicaria. ScJdzodus JRossicus and 



Nrc UL A s PE CIO 3 A (?) , 3fu n s ier. 

KccuLA srEciosAC?), Goldfuss, Pet. Ger., p. 152, pi. csxi^-' 
fig. 10. 

We have an imperfect cast which resembles the above fossil 
of Goldfuss from the Muschelkalk 



No 



assic. 



i suppose may prove to he in- 



__ m. 

NucuLA— species not determined— from the Tipper Pcrmiafl 

strata, K, T. 

SoLE^n-A Biap.mica(?), Vemeuii, Gc. Riis. - 

SotEMYA BiAKMicA(i), ^V?^, PcT. Fos., p. 178, pi. xTT.,ng- 1- 

Our specimens are imperfect casts, but so far as the charac- 
ters are shown they agree with this species from the Permian 
of Kussia and England. 

From the Upper Penman strata, near Council GroTe. 

SoLExf?) Permiaxus, SimUmo. 

ShcU small, cylindrical, narrowed and flattened towards tiie 



'= 



'i 



■g 



SWALLOW AND HAWN — THE ROCKS OP KANSAS. 191 

posterior extremity, marked with fine distinct concentric string 
and large iiTegular lines of growth; cardinal line straight, or 
ver}- slightly convex ; anterior extremity rounded. 

Length, 0.68 ; width, 0.44. 

From the Upper Penman strata, near Smoky-IIill Fork, 
K. T, 



Carbiomoepiia (?) KHo:iiBomEA, jb'wallmc. 

1 — 

JShrll inequilateral, transversely elongated, oblique, ovate, 
rhomboidal gibbous from the beaks to the ventral posterior 
angle, flattened on the posterior slope, anterior and ventral 
margins regularly curved from the beaks to the posterior mar- 
gin, ornamented with about twenty large concentric ^costie or 
laminne parallel with the ventral and posterior margins •, car- 



formin 



obtuse angle ; beaks prominent, approximate, recurved, inclined 
towards the anterior marcjin. 



Lenirth 



mm 0.71; length 



der, 0.42; tluckness, 0.39. 

Major Hawn's collection from the Lower Permian strata, 
near Council Grove, K T. 

F 

Cardiomoepiia Kansasexsis, Swalloto. 

SheM elongate, ovate, oblique, gibbous from the beaks to- 
■fi^ards the posterior extremity, flattened near the posterior 
and ventral margins ; ornamented with large, flattened, con- 
^ntric costge and small concentric and radiating strias, ren- 
denng the surface finely tuberculated ; regularly curv^ed from 
the heuk around the v.entral margin to the posterior; cardi- 
nal margin nearly straight ; heaks large, tenninal, incurved, 
approximate. 

l-ength, 1.83 ; height, 1.23 ; thickness, 1.05. 

Jiajor Hawn's collection from the Permian Rocks m the 

^aUey of the Cottomrood, K T. 

CiamxiA COBDATA, SwolloW. 

Sh(:U oblono-, 



spann 



■eminent 



marked %\-ith regular pi,-uiiii«ut, uuiiucu-^iixv ^^^..^^ , --^-. p-, 

pointed, ineun-ed, inclined forward ; presenting in profile a 
margin regulariy convex from the beak to the posterior ex- 
tremity of the ventral margin, and a concave border from the 
oeak t.) the anterior margin, which is short and rounded; vefi- 
™ margin convex and regularly cuned ; posterior margin 

Owr specimens are casts, and show no surface markings. 



192 IRANS. OF THE ACAD. OP SCIENCE 



Length, 0.92; breadth, 0.67; thickness, 0.38. 
Major Hawn's collection from the Lower Permian RocTcs, 
in the valley of the Cotton-wood, K. T. 

Caedinia (?) suB-A^'GULATA, SwaUow, 

L 

r 

Shell ohlong, sub-oblique, inequilateral, sub-pentagonal, 
marked with strong, irregular, concentric ribs or plications, 
slightly convex, flattened towards the margins. Bealcs 
largo, prominent, incurved, inclined forward and approxi- 
mate; a profile view gives a line slightly convex from 
the beak to the posterior margin, and a very concave line 
from the apex to the anterior margin; cardinal border nearly 
as long as the shell, and sub-rectilineal; posterior ventral 
margin convex, rounded at the anterior extremity and suh- 
angular at the posterior ; anterior margin short, oblique, con- 
vex, forming a well-defined right angle with the cardinal bor- 
der ; posterior extremity oblique, sub-truncate. 

Length, 0.83; greatest breadth, 0.58; thickness, 0.42. 

Major Hawn's collection from the Lower Permian Rocks, m 
the valley of the Cotton-wood, K. T. 

Caedixia, species undetermined, but similar to Cfascimlaris 

Duvignier^ as given by -Pictet, Tra. Pah, pi. lxxix., 
fig- 7. It is like the 

Cakdi^-ia Listebi(?), Soicerhy, Min. Con., p. 123, pi- 154 

I 

Our specimens are very similar to this fossil from tbe LiM 
of England ; I should scarcely tliink of separatiBg tlieni if 
they were from the same formation. Specimens from Eng- 
land and Kansas together in my cabinet do not appear out 
of place. 



PLEmROPHOEus (?) Peemia^'us, SwaUotc. 



d broa3, 



&heU elonorate, inequilateral, gibbous, posterior ei 
angular at the extremity, anterior end short, contracting rap- 
idly to the rounded extremity, flattened towards the antenor 
ventral angle ; the cast shows the impressions of concentno 
laminrc and radiating costce on the posterior cardinal slope, 
and a rounded ridge from the bealcs to the ventral posterior 
angle. JJeaks elevated, inclined forward near the antenor 

as Ions a» 




U^ ^^ ^^"-'O 



tral margin strongly curved at "the ends, meeting the antenor 
and posterior slopes near the middle of the extremities. 

Length, 1.55; greatest width near the posterior cxtrermtf, 
0.87; thictness, 0.75. 






ff 



g 



SWALLOW AND HAWN — THE ROCKS OF KANSAS* 193 



Major Hawn's collection from the Upper Permian Rocks, 
near Smoky-Hill Fork, K. T., associated with Mo?iotis spe- 
luncaria-j M. radialis^ and Schizodus Hossiciis. 

SCHIZODUS TKIANGULAKIS, SwoUoW. 

Shell small, suh-triangular, inequilateral, marked with fine, 
concentric striaB. Boi\\ extremities are acuminate and rounded 
at the points; the anterior a little broader and more rounded; 
hcahs large, prominent, incuiTed, approximate, nearer the an- 
terior extremity ; 2^osterior cardinal sloj^e rounded, slightly 
less convex than the anterior; both sharply carinated; V€7i^ 
tral margin arched, curve increasing about equally at each 
extremity. 

Length, 0.49; width, 0.36; thickness, 0.21. 

It most resembles the JSchlotheimiy Geinitz^ from the 
Upper Zechstein of Germany, and the Permian of England. 
The triangxdaris is more nearly equilateral, and is not trunca- 
ted at the posterior extremity, and is more elongated. 

Major Hawn^s collection fi'om the Lower Permian Rocks, 
associated with P. CalhoimiamiSy Cardinia sxd)angulatay on- 
the waters of the Cotton-wood, K. T. 

ScHizoBus OBscuKus, Sowerhj, Min. Con., Yol. lY., p. 12, pi. 

ol4. 

ScHizoDcs oBgcciirs, ^ingy Pen Fos. p. 189, pi. xv,, figs. 
23-24. ' ^» r I r > o 

^ We have but one cast of this fossil. It is very similar to 
i>owerby^ figures, and King's figure No. 23 is as much like our 
^cmien as an engra\-ing can well be made to the original. 
^hJS fossil is found in many localities in the Pemiinn Rocks of 



Monotis iTalli 



rmian 



r 

Schizodus Rossicus, Verneuil, Ge. Rus., Yol. II, p. 309, pi. 

XIX., figs. 7-8. 
iJcnuoDirs KOTcxDATrs, mng, Per. Fos., p. 190, pi. xv., 
fig. 30. ^' 1 F > i- » 

0) Axixcs EoiuxBAxcs, Browu, Man. Ge. Soc, Yol. I. 

Onr specimens are eridently identical with the JRossicus of 
V emcuil from the Permian Rocks of Russia, and there is 
fecarcely a doubt of its identity with King*s rotwuMus from 
"«i Permian of England ; but there is more doubt about Mr. 
«rown s rotundatiis, which he says is smooth. All the other 
ipecunens are striated, including those from Kansas. 

chtt^ ' I PP*^ Permian strata, near Smoky-Hill Fork, nsm- 
^ ^ with JYucuIa Kizaiunsis, BalevelUa antigna and Mo- 



1 



194 TRANS. 0¥ THE ACAD- OF SCIENCE. 



notis spehincaria. Our specimens present the varieties men- 
tioned by M. Verneuil as occurring in Russia. 

Allorisma lance ol ATA, SwalloiD. 

Shdl elongate, lanceolate, ^vith a well-defined, rounded 
ridge from the beats to the ventral posterior angle, marked 
with large, regular, prominent, concentric costae, strongly re- 
curved toward the cardinal margin; it is also ornamented 
with nodular, concentric, and radiating strisD ; the radiating 
stric'B most obvious on the posterior extremity; heaJcs small, 
pointed, recurved forward to^ or beyond, the anterior margin; 
luniile ovate, depressed. 

Length, 1.30; Avidth, 0.67; thickness, 0.42. 



Major Ha^-n's collection from Permian Rocks in the valley 
of the Cotton-wood, K. T. 

Allorisma (?) cuRTA, Swalloic. 

SJtell short, transverse, sub-rectangular, inequilateral, ^b- 
bous, broad at the anterior extremity and narrower atthepos- 



terior ; marke 

small 

nent in 



and 




^^ , , — terminal ; anterior inargin , . ~— - . 

short, depressed, extending down the anterior slope; cardinal 

margin as long as the shell, straight. 

Length, 0.97; width at beaks, 0.64; thickness, 0.56- 
This species resembles the lata ; but it is more gibbous, and 

the dorsal margin is not curved down towards the posterior 

extremity. 
Maior ] 



Permian Rocks, near 



K 



ALLOrJSMA(?) ^ill^'XEHAHA, jSwalloW. 

Shell elongate, inequilateral, trapezoidal, tumid, vnth^ » 
Strong diagonal ridge from the beak towards the postenor 



^gi 



marked witli irregu- 



^ 



lar longitudinal cost^e and strise, parallel to tbe ventral and 
' " ■ * forming au acute angle at tlie posterior ex- 



tremity ot" ttie vent 




and more crowded and sometimes obsolete as they approach 



tne caramai margin ; posterk 
obliquely truncate, and marl 
etnsBy nc arly parallel to the di 

ty Fhort, narrow, rounded; h 




d. 



.Vx-.s large, pointed, stronglj m- 
, rminal ; lumde ovate, depressed, 

down the anterior slope: escutcheon or mure 



HAWN 



KANSAS. 195 



nearly as long as the cardinal border, depressed, bounded by 
the obtuse ridges of the dorsal margin; lunule and suture di- 
vided by a longitudinal elevated ridge, in the cast ; valves 
flattened towards the ventral margin where they meet at an 
obtuse angle, rounded and depressed on the dorsal border ; 
posterior margin straight, oblique ; voitral elongate, arched ; 
anterior short, rounded ; dorsal short, depressed, and strongly 
cur\-ed up at the posterior extremity; external ligament nearly 
as long as the cardinal border. 

Dimensions of a large specimen : — ^Length, 2.31 ; greatest 
breadth at the posterior extremity of the cardinal border. 



1.26; greatest thickness 
posterior extremity, 1,02. 



Middle 



near Lexington ; and Major Hawn's collection from the Per- 
mian rocks, in the vallev of the Cotton-wood, K. T. 



¥^ 



Iyeodok {Myophoriaf) osbiculaee (?), Got 

% 10, p. 196. 

Our specimen is a cast, and it agrees in size and form with 
the cast figured and described by Goldfuss from the 3Iuschel- 
kalk of Germany. 

From No. 1 8 of the Triassic (?) System, K. T. 



GASTEROPODA. 



/ 



-f 



HrscHiso^iA (?) Kaxsasexsis, Swallow. 

^A€/Z elongated, mth from eight to nine convex volutioni?; 
volutions marked witli six uoJular, spiral costae. 
Length, 0.19; diameter of anterior -^'liorl, 0.07; spiral 



sutural ang 



wood, K. T. 



Major Hawn, in the valley of the Cotton- 



HuBCHisoxiA (?) rEETEES.v, Sicallow. 

^Idl minute, elongated, sinlstrorsal, with from six to seven 
convex volutions which are marked with fine, spiral, nodular 

cost*. 

Length, 0.12; diameter of anterior whorl, O.OC; spiral angle, 
•^< ; sutural angle 59°. 
From the vallev of th^ not t<,ii -wood. K. T. 



196 TRANSAC. OF THE ACAD. 



SCIENCE 



MuBCHisoNiA suBAKGiTLATA (?), VemeuU^ Ge. Ru3., p 



340, pi. XXII., fig. 6, 



more than any other species. 



KT. 



.perfect, but they resemble this 
29 of the Upper Permian strata, 



Exng. 



r 

Lower Permian strata, K. T. 

Maceocheilus spieatus, McCoy, Brit. Pal. Fo8., p. 549, 

pi. 311., figs. 1-2. 

I am iinabio to see any specific distinctions between our 
specimens from the Lower Permian and tliat described and 
figured by McCoy, from tbe Carboniferous Limestone in 
Northumberland. 



CEPHALOPODA 



Kautilus Permiaxus, Sicallma. 



gpire formed of ts 
I volutions: dorsal 




ffin broad, flattened, slightly concare along the middle of 
mme specimens ; sides flattened ; interior lateral slopes con- 
Tex ; internal margin concaTe, as modified by the succeeding 
whorl; umMicus large, showing ail the rolutions; septa 
convex, sub-reniform, curved forivard from the centre of the 
dorsal and ventral margins to the lateral, direct on the latenil; 
mphnnde large, sub- 

h^t chamher large, e — .^...^ ^^^^^^.j tuwai,^ *xx^ ..y^ , 

beconnng less angular ; aperture transverse, reniform, slightly 

modified by the succeeding whori. Surface markings not 
seen. 

^ Diameter, 2.68 ; width of aperture, 2.25 ; length of aperture 
m middle, 1.64. 

Major ITawn's Collection from the Permian Rocks, near the 
Smoky-ffill Fork, K. T. 



i' 



ow. 



Kautilus occide^- talis, JSicall 

SheUormedlmn size, diicoldal, tapering gradually, ornament* 
ed with SIX longitudinal rows of nodules, rendering the spire 



heptagonal; the two dorsal row?, -separated bv a deep concav 
channel, have each a large nodule on every "chamber, one on 



BWALLOW AND HAWN— THE ROCKS OF KANSAS. 197 



and 



alternate 



ber; the nodules around the umbilicus are smaller and less 



numerous. 



curv 



dorsal and lateral margins, forming a rounded sinus in the 
dorsal channel, and a more obtuse curve on the flat lateral sur- 
faces ; sipkuncle large, sub-central ; umbilicus large ; aperture 
small, sub-ovate. 

Our specimens are imperfect casts of the last volution, from 
which we can not determine the surface markings or the num- 
ber of volutions ; but it may be easily identified by the ar- 
rangement of the nodules and septa. 

Maj. Ilawn's collection from the valley of the Cotton-wood, 
where it was associated with Monotis Malli and JPecten 
Cleavelandicus. 

Orthoceeas Kickapqoense, Swalloio. 

iSA^Z? elongate, conical, tapering gradually, sub-cylindrical, 
slightly flattened on the side next to the siphuncle; se2:>ta 
convex, distant less than one-third their smallest diameter ; 
perij)hen/ sub-elliptical and slightly curved in the direction of 
the major axis ; siphimcle small, eccentric, one-third of the 
diameter from the flattened side. Surface markings not seen. 

Maj. Hawn\s collection from the Upper Permian Rocks, 
near Smoky-Hill Fork. 

Ctrtoceeas borsatum, Swallow. 



Shea 



extremity 




and ventral surfaces ; last chamber large ; aperture elliptical, 
dilated, somewhat irregular and corrugated on the inner mar- 
gin ; sipkuncle cylindrical, touching the dorsal margin ; septa 
convex, elliptical, oblique, distant on the dorsal margin less 
than one^hird of the least diameter, approximate on the inner 

- V . \_. , nuous, curs'ed forward from the 
^aek to the sides and back on the sides. Surface markings 
not seen* 

turn, 1.26; minor axis, 1.01; dis- 

last an^ penultimate septum on tlie outer 
"^rgm, 0.31. 

From the Permian Rocks of Kansas, near Smoky-IIUI Fort, 
associated with Nautilus Permianm and Smrorbis orbicu- 




■} 



198 TRANS. OF THE ACAD. OF SCIENCE* 



Descriptions of J^Tew Fossils froii the Coal Measures of 

3Tissoiiri and ^Kansas. 

BY B. F. SHUMAED AND G, C. SWALLOW. 



I^AUTiLus M1SSOURIENSIS3 Swalloic. 

Shell small, gibbous, smooth, somewhat flattened on the 
dorsal margin; aperture renifonn, transverse, slightly modi- 
fied by the preceding whoi'l; 8epta sjiaringly concave, margin 



cur\ 



mphimde sub-central, a little nearer the ventral margin; 
mnhilicus deep, partially closed. 

Diameter, 0.65 ;* thickness of last whorl, 0.54 ; diameter of 
last whorl, 0.38. 

State collection, from the Hydraulic Limestone, near the 
base ot the Coal Measures in Boone County, where it is asso- 
ciated with Productiis BpAendens^ P. Wahashends, Chonetes 
mesohha^ Spirifer cameratiis^ S. Uneatus and Natkopsis 
PriceL 

' - H 

Nautilus rLANoyoLTis, Shumard. 

Shell discoifl, composed of about three gradually enlarging 
volutions, which are very slightly embracing; umbilicus very 
wide and moderately deep; sides flattened, declining very 
gently from umbilicus to dorsum, which is flat or very slightly 
Convex; angle of junction between the sides and doi-suw 
rounded, as is also the inner edge of the volutions ; septa 
mimerons, curving rather strongly backwards on the sides 
and doi-sum; aperture sub-quadrate; surface markings not 
shown in any of the specimens in the collection. 

This species is nearly related XoKautilus trochlea (McCoy), 
from which it is readily distinguished by its much naiTOwer 
Volutions. 

Dimemiom, — Lenerth, 2.26 ; diameter of volution near 
aperture, 1 inch. 



near 



aska Territorj\ 

Collected by Prof. S^rallow. 

Kavtilus jtodoso-doksatfs, Shumard. 
Of this <«pecies ^e possess merely fragraeats of the la>t vo- 




* 



this 






V ■ -I 






SHUMARD AND SWALLOW — XEW FOSSILS. 199 



lution, which permit us to recognize only the following char- 
acters: Depressed discoiclal; umbilicus wide, allowing all the 
volutions to be seen; septa rather thin, numerous, sinuate 
on the sides and gently arched backwards on the dorsum ; 
ddes flattened, rounded at the inner edge and obtusely sub- 
anirulated on the dorsal edge; dorsum moderately convex, 
marked with three ranges of tolerably prominent nodules, 
one of the ranges being central, the others situated on the 
exterior edges. 

GeoL Pos. and Loc. — Upper Coal Measures, Valley of Ver- 
digris and Kansas Rivers, near Pottawattamie Reservation. 
Collected by Maj* F. Hawn. 

GoKiATiTES POLiTUS, Shumavch 

-^ 

Shell small, extremely thin, discoid, much compressed, pol- 
ished; volutions embracing, the last one only visible; umbili- 
cus ver}^ small; doi-sum" strongly rounded, smooth; sides 
gently and evenly convex, most prominent about the middle ; 
aperture elongated, its margin very strongly sinuate on the sides 
and concave in fi-ont ; surface marked ^\ith very obscm-e, stx'ong- 
ly waved, transverse folds and minute strias of growth, w^hich 
are crossed by extremely fine, revolving, closely arranged 
striae. The lobation of the chambers is not visible on any of 
the specimens before us. 

i>im€n^*w25,— Length, .30; heii^^ht, -21; thickness, .09; di- 
ameter of last volution at aperture, .14. 

Ged. Pos. and Zoc. — This little species occurs rather 
abundantly in tlie dark septaria of the Middle Coal Measures 
»t Lexington, Missouri. 

Collected by Prof. Swallow. 

GoKiATiTES PAEVTTS, ShumarcL 

Shell small, discoid, moderately compressed ; Yolutions em- 
bracing, the inner ones entirely hidden by the last ; mnbilicus 
very small, circular; dorsum strongly arched; sides gently 
convex; aperture longer than wide, mar^ns sinuate; surface 
fflarked with a few, obscure, transverse folds, which are most 
ttistmct towards the aperture. Other surface markings and 
lobation of the chambers not visible in the specimen under 
examination. 

This shell resembles the preceding species, but is not so 
aiieh compressed. 

i>iwe««io?i^.__Length, .33; heifjht, .23; thickness, .13 ; di- 
ameter of volution at aperture, .13. 

^JM. Pos. ami ioc— Upper Coal Pleasures, >Yillow Spring, 
on hanta Pe road. 

CoUected by 3Iaj. F. Ilawn. 



200 TRANS. OF THE ACAD. OF SCIENCE. 



GoNiATiTES MiKiMUS, Shumard. 

Shell very small, discoid or siib-globose, thickness equal to 
about three-fourths of the length; volutions embracing, only 
the last one visible; umbilicus reij minute ; dorsum and sides 
strongly rounded; aperture semi-elliptical, its length and -nidth 
nearly equal. The surface to the naked eye appears perfectly 
smooth, but when strongly magnified it is foimd to be thickly 
covered with extremely fine, transverse and revolving striae, 
and near the umbilicus a few obscure folds. 

This is the smallest species of Goniatites hitherto found la 
American strata. In young specimens the form is quite 
globose. 

Dimensions.~-'LQn^\ .12 ; thickness, 09. 

Gtol. Pos. and Zoc. — ^Slissouri State Collection obtained 
by Prof. Swallow from the Middle Coal Measures on the 
shores of the Missouri river above Dover's Landing. It oc- 
curs quite abundantly in dark septaria, associated with 0-. 
planorhiformisy G.poUtus^ Cardiomarpha Missouriana and 
Prod act us Boonejisis. 

Collected by Prof SwaUow. 

OrthOCEEAS ACTTLEATUiT, StCaUoW. 

SJicll elongate-conical, particularly from the last septr"^ to 
the aperture, tapering very gradually, flattened on the 

most distant from the si nb n n < -1 r : spnfa snhpllinti 



distant from one 



al, 



cle eccentric, small at the septa, enlarged in the chamber?, as 
il made up of a succession of small hollow spheres, one occu- 
pying each chamber with a diameter equal to the distance 
between the septa; surface markings not seen. 

Our shell resembles the 0. later ale of Phillips, as descrihed 
hY M. D'Koninck {An. Fos. p. 508) ; it is however not fusiform 
towards the aperture, but rather more conical than in the other 
part, and the last chamber is not so large. 

Maj. Hawn's collection from the Upper Coal Measures m 
the valley of the Kansas, K T. 

OfiXnOCERAS MOXILIFOEME, SiSaUoW. 



wl 

ed 




adually and some- 

I ^?tK Km:id.ronna- 



nelij 



^_-. ".....^.^tiuus, wnicn are separated by deep angular cxiaiH---' 
the bottoms of which correspond with the periphery of the 
septa ; the outer shell formed of several concentric lanim«> 
«?i>Ax convex, distant one-fourth to one-third of their diameter, 
periphery of chambers convex; siphuncle large cyhnthicai. 
central, somewhat irregular in its development. Surfoce mark- 









^ 



SHUMARD AND SWALLOIT — NEW FOSSILS. 201 



much like tlie rattles of the rattle-snake. 



cry 



M 



igms 



Orthoceeas occidentale. Swallow. 



\ 

* 



Shell slightly conical, flattened on the side next the siph- 
uncle ; septa convex, distant one-sixth to one-fifth their diam- 
eter, periphery elliptical, cui'ved in the direction of the 
major axis; siphuncle small, sub-elliptical, eccentric, less than 
one-third of the diameter from the flattened side of the shell. 
Surface markings not seen. 

Maj. Hawn's collection from Clifton Park, near the junction 
of the Coal Measures and the Permian Strata, IC T. 



I^Iacrocheilus Missgukiensis, SicaUoio, 

Sh^ oblong ovate ; sjyire elongate, diminishing gradually, 
"^th six or more convex volutions; aperture wide, ovate, 
about half the length of the shell; hody whorl short and large. 
/'* th€ cast the suture is impressed, the volutions angular, 
forming a spiral plane perj^endicular to the axis on their pos- 
terior mar^ns, which become much broader on the body 
whorL 

Length of shell, 1.75; thickness of body whorl, 0.98; spiral 
angle, 45°; sutural angle, 81^ 

Missouri State Collection, jfrom tbe Lower Coal Measures in 
Howard county. 

Mackocheilus Kan-sasensis, Sicallaw. 

Shdl oblong-ovate; spire tapering gradually, with five or 
more regular convex volutions ; suture impressed, ascending 



anterior end roimi 



^arly arched. 



o 



otiter lip reg- 



Length of shell, 1.45 ; tliickness of body whorl, 0.65 ; length 
01 aperture, 0.72 ; width of aperture, 0.45 ; spiral angle, 43°; 
sutural auixle 85°. i^ ' 



Iq'^^^^ species resembles the 3£ aciUus, Sow. The 



^uons fewer and less convex, and the aperture more clon- 



TO- 




ited. 



(fjudma hdegru oi say, 




more 



. — are from the Tipper Coal Measures ot 31i3- 

^n and Kansas. I am indebted to ^laj. Ha^m for a fine 
«Pecmien from Willow Simnffs. K. T. 



202 TRANS. OP THE ACAD. OF SCIENCE. 

Macrocheilus pondeeosus, SioaUoio. 

Shell thick, elliptical, orate; spire short, tapering rapidly; 
volutions five to seven, convex, imbricate; suture slightly im- 
pressed ; aperture oblong ovate, more than half the length of 
the shell; columella strongly plicated and thickened at the 
anterior extremity; outer lip acute, much arched; hody whorl 
vciy large, twice as long as the spire, marked with very small 
obscnre, transverse strise. 

Spiral angle, IT ; sutural angle, 65° to 70° ; length of shell, 
1.25 ; length of spire, 0.45 ; length of body whorl, 0.90 ; length 
of aperture, 0.80; breadth of body whorl, 0.85; length be- 
tween the last and penultimate sutures on the side opposite 
to the aperture, 0.19. 



by (Min. 



^ 



Macrocheilus imhfi 
194) 



not so much elongated ; its spire is shorter, spiral angle gi'cater, 
an<l the markings are more obscure. It also differs from the 
3f. Spiratus, McCoy, (Pal. Fos.) in having no concave space 
below the suture. 



gris, K 



Upper Coal Measure 



TuiiBo OBEsrs, Shumard. 

Shell rotundate-ovate ; spiral angle, 96° ; spire depressed ; 
volutions rapidly enlarging, evenly rounded, the last one in- 
flated; aperture elongate-ovate; surface marked with equi- 
distant revolving sub-uodulose rounded stria3, of which there 
are from seventeen to twenty on the body volution and which 
arc preserved on the cast. 

iJimensions.—LQTic^h, .64 ; width, .54 ; length of apertnre, 
.44 ; width of same, .35. 

Geol. Pos. and Zoc— Upper Coal Measures, near Iowa 
Pomt, Nebraska Tcrritorv. 

Collectca by Prof Swallow. 

Naticopsis (Nerita) Peicei, Shumard. 

Shell ovate, oblique, longer than Tvide ; spire veiy much^^ 
wesse*T, ohtTi<;;oW T-AT.T.;?^..i ^* ^^^^. ^ohdion^ two nnd anixi^ 



3 



or three, convex, the last one \ 



ery 



and somptiTTus strongly channelled towards the aperture, '^a 
at the snme time it becomes more or less shouldered just oe- 
neath the suture ; below the flattened })ortiou it is still evenly 
rounded to the base; suture indistinct at the apex, but graa- 



< 



SHUMARD k^D SWALLOW — NEW FOSSILS. 203 

ually becoming more deeply impressed as it approaches tlie 
aj)ertiire; apertm^e lai'ge, rotundato-quadrnte, its height usu- 
ally a little greater than the width, very oblique to the axis 
of tlie shell, contracted below near the columella; Up sharp, 
strengthened above at its juncture with the columella by the 
callosity of the latter; colvmiellar lip thick, concave, callous, 
smooth; surface marked with numerous very fine lines of 
growth, and on the upper part of the volutions with rather 
strong plicistria?, which curve obliquely forwaixls to the su- 
turcij. In some specimens the original coloring matter is still 
preserved, and the fossil presents a delicate vermilion hue. 

Dimensions. — Spiral angle from I'iO'' to 130°; length from 
apex to base of an average specimen, .85 ; greatest width, .82; 
height of aperture, .50; width of same 45^ 

GeoL Po5. and Loc. — ^^lissouri State collection, Upper Coal 
Pleasures, at a number of localities along the Missouri River 
and Hinkston Creek, Boone County. Maj, Hawn found it at 
various points in the valleys of Cottou-wood Creek and Ver- 
digris River, K. T. 

We are pleased to be able to dedicate this beautiful species 
to R. B. Price, Esq., of the Missouri Gcol. Survey, to whose 
labors the State collection is indebted for a mimber of its 
most interestincT fossils. 



MiTRCHisojnA MixiMA, Swallow. 

Skill minute, turreted, elongate ; volutions eight to ten, very 
convex,^ marked with from six to eight very prominent revolv- 
ing^ strise ; suiure deeply impressed ; aperture oblique, semi- 



variable 



^.« ^^......^.^^ near 



whorl, 0.02 to 0,08; spiral ati^rle, 25^; sutural angle, 89^ 

, Ibe M striaiula, B'Koninck (An. Fos. p. 415, pi. 40, fig. , 

IS ver}' nearly allied to this species ; but the minima is not so 



7) 



ite fossil was first obtained in the Middle 

Lexingrton- Mo., aj^soriated with Bellerophon 



}^ms. Chonetes mesoloba, C. Fhmingii, Prod, muricaius, etc. 



Pl-EUKOTOMAETA SINISTROKSA, SwalloW, 

Shell small, turreted, elongate, polislied, often sinistral, with 

jTOitt four to five very convex volutions ; marked on the cen- 

im and anterior sides with about five distinct revolving strife ; 

Ktiiffi very indistinct or entirely obsolete on the posterior 

oj>« ; suture deeplv de|)res8ed ; aperhcre orbicular. 

l^ength, a.26; tliiekness of last whorl, 0.14; spii-al angle, 
^ ; sutural angle, 95^ 



9 



•■ii- 



204 TRANS. OF THE ACAD, OF SCIENCE. 



Bellerophox Meekia]S"us, Swallow. 

Shell small, gibbous, broadly rounded on the dorsal margin, 
carinated near the aperture, ornamented with fine, crowded, 
longitudinal stri^ and very minute transverse lines; aperiun 
very much expanded, reniforra, transverse, much modified by 
the preceding whorl; /rp thickened and reflected over the 
umbilicus, with a linear callosity extending back from the 
points of junction on to the adjacent whorl; vohdions cm- 
cealed; umbilicus shallow, distinctly modijSed by the thick 
reflexed lip. 

Diameter, 0.77; width of aperture, 0.60; length of aper- 
tore, 0.35, 

This beautiful little shell resembles the B. pertains of Con* 
rad, (Jour. Acad. K S. Phil, Vol. YIII., p. 270,) but his speci- 
men has no transverse stride, and ours is carinated only near 
the aperture. It is also similar to J9. Witryanus^ D'Koninck 
(An. Fos., pL 28, fig. 9, p. 341) ; but the latter is easily dis- 
tinguished by its very large umbilicus. J?, decussafus^ Flem- 
ing, (Phil. Ge. York., Vol. II., p. 231, pL 17, fig. 13,) may he 
identified by the greater depth of the umbilicus and its well 
defined carina. 

Missouri State collection from the Middle Coal Pleasures 
nQWt Lexington ; also by Mr. Price in the Lower Coal Meas- 
ures in Howard County* 



Belleeophox tricarinatus, Shumard. 



Shell 



jfrorn 
mar]% 



igated, expanding rather graclually 
ure elongate, sub-pentagonal ; dorsum 
e, which are rather strong towards 
-^. ^^^. ^..^ ^.wiixc u..M)Iete posteriorly; central one most 
prominent, rounded ; lateral ones broadest and snb-angam't 
sides descending obliquely from the carinse to the base, flat- 



beak to front ; aper, 
ed vrlih three carin 



before 



(ira^n 



The specimen from which the descnptlon has been drawn 
'm deprived of the test and no snrfaee markings are preserveo. 
Ga)L Pos. and Hoc— Upper Coal Measures, K T. 
Collected by Maj. Hawn. 

Belleegphon Kaitsasensis, SkumarS' 

Shell of small size, sub-globosc, very rapidly expanding ^t 
the front ; aperture very transverse, short, reniform, the m-^ 
becoming much thickened, extended and gently re^^^^ 
posteriorly, where the volution is covered by a smooth an _ 
thick callosity; umbilicus small, round, sometimes P^J^X 
hidden by the thickening of the lip ; surface ornamented vn 
ftom twenty-two to tventv-four transverse, rounded nv^ 



SnUMARD AND SWALLOW — NEW FOSSILS. 205 

whicli are gently arched forwards on either side of the dorsal 
sinus and become nearly obsolete before reaching the umbili- 
cus; these are decussated on each side of the sinus by from 
ten to twelve revolving thread-like lines, distinct on the dor- 
iuin, but becoming indistinct towards the umbilicus ; at the 
points of intersection of the transverse and revolving lines 
there is a thickening which gives to the surface a very beau- 
tiful gub-granulose appearance; dorsal band narrow, rather 
rtrongly depressed anteiiorly, becoming shallow posteriorly, 
b^nnded on either side by a thread-like line, and marked by 
the transverse fiirrows, which are arched backwards. 

Dimensions. — Length, ,44 ; height, ,32 ; \^ddth of aperture, 
.40; length of same, about .19. 

^ There is in the collection a specimen which Is double the 
size of that from which the above proportions were taken. 

^ GeoL Pos. and Loc. — This is one of the most beautiful spe- 
cies of our Western Coal ^Measures. It was obtained by Maj. 
Hawn from the valley of Yerdigris River, K. T. 




Capulus paeyus, Swallow. 

^dl small, oblique, obsoletcly cai'inated on the left anterior 
^d right posterior slopes; sub-erect, elongate, conic; apex 
obliquely recurved, acute, prominent; aperture sub-regular, 
xt>tundato-ovate, sinuate on the anterior and posterior margins ; 
surface ornamented with fine, irregular, undulating, concentric 
stna?, curved towards the apex on the anterior and posterior 
'^ ^"'5, very regular and direct near the apex. 

ngth from apex to anterior margin, 0.30; height, 0,23; 
trtosverse diameter of aperture, 0.09. 

M^. Hawn's collection from the Coal Measures in the val- 
tey of the Verdigris, K T. 

CaPULUS TRtPLICATUS, SwalloW. 

Shtllrery oblique, depressed, elongate-conic ; opex scarcely 
o Ti? ' ^^!?^t > aperture elongate, irregularly ovate, sinuate 
n the anterior mar^n ; anterior ilope occupied by three broad, 
epresised plications. Surface markings not seen, as our speci- . 
laems a cast only. s > 

Length, 1.09; height, 0.25 ; width of aperture, 0.69; length 
« aperture, 0.92. ° ' ' ^ 

%^^^'^^'^ collection from Coal Measures near Bull Creek, 
Santa F^ Road, K. T. 

CtPRICAHDU. PLICATUtA, SwoUoVO. 

s^^ transverse, gibbous, ine<iuilateral, Bnb-rhomboiJ 

O^y marked, with nmmmonf ^nn/^om+rirt TiOnTIlJE. wlli 



with prominent eonceatric lamiiijie, which 



8 



■. 



> 



206 TRANS. OF THE ACAD. OF SCIENCE. 

■t 

rise abruptly from the smooth, even surface of the shell,_leav- 
inir the space betTreen them flat and smooth ; beaks prominent, 
sub-anterior recurved, inclining forward, distant; /■unu/edeep, 
elongate-cordate ; lips of escutcheon very prominent ; margm 

arcuate, posterior sub-angular. t • v a. 

Dimensions of a large specimen.— 'Length, 0.77 ; height Ironi 
beak to opposite margin, 0.64 ; thickness, 0.44. Dimensions ot 
small specimen— length, 0.37 ; height, 0.29 ; thickness, 0.20. 

Our fossil is very similar to Venus parallela, Phil. (Ge. lorL 



pl. v., fig. 8) 

furrowed. 



P 



Fos, 



pl. iii., fig. 15) referred to rhillips spc 

fers in the markings. His is " ienuissime striata. 



»» 



ni. Ha^ii in 



sectioiu 



Meas- 



ures, Howard County, and Middle Coal Mea 

7 ti ^ 



E." 






County. 



Isocaedia(?) cukta, Shumard. 



about 



gm 



obliquely subtruncate, gently rounded and forming an obtuse 
migle with the palleal border, which is sHghtly arcuate ; one- 
cal margin descending with a strong curve to the J*^^'. "j?* 
lones convex, gibbous, greatest gibbosity between the mioai 
of the valves and the beaks ; leaks elevated above the car- 
nal fine, strongly incurved, situated about one-third theien^ 
of the shell from the anterior extremity. _ . 




The mouV exhibits obscure concentric 

with the borders. „,-. ,,j 

Bimmsions.—RQmU, .44 : length, .46 ; thickness, .6^ , ^F 



cial angle, about 85°. 

Geol. Pos. and Loc. — CoalMen^nres 



Louis 



County, Missouri. Missouri State collection. 

V 

CAEDirM(?) LEXI2fGT0NEXSIS, Su'olloW. 

Shell small, polished, ovate, oblique, inequilateral; anknor^ 

and trenfra? margins forming a very perfect ^^^^^^^ £J^>iI, 
rior shfthiit slightly arched, marked with kregular, uneq^.^^ 
concentric rxigse^ and fine strire and fine radiating costse,^^^^ ^ 
are more prominent near the anterior slope, where "fj^^ ^^^:,^^. 
most gibbous; beaks small, nearly terminal, slightly ^Il^^^^^j^g 
posierior slope longitu*3inally striate, strire slightly fii^ o 
from the center. . a 

Length, 0.35; breadth from beak to" ventral margin, v- 
thickness?, 0.22. 




? 



SHDMARD AND SWALLOW — NEW FOSSILS. 207 



Missouri State collection from the* Middle Coal Measures at 
Lexington, Mo, 

Cardiomorpha Missouriexsis, Shumard^ 



Shll inequilateral, elliptlco-subquadrate, very thin, length 
double the height ; superior and inferior borders sub-parallel ; 
cardinal margin long, slightly arcuate, inferior border slightly 
arched; anal and buccal inar gins strongly rounded, the latter 
being very short ; umbonial rtgion moderately convex in young 
specimens and very gibbous in the old, greatest convexity a 
short distance belo^v the beaks; heahs situated near the ante- 
rior margin, rounded, closely incurved and nearly approxi- 



'/ 



Btriae, which are sometimes more or less floxuous. 
Dimensions. — ^Len<?th of a full m-own si 



crowded, concentric 



U 



his shell varies much in proportions at different periods of 



Its growth. 



nJ 



Measures at Charbonniere, St. Louis County, and at Lexing- 
ton, ^Missouri. Missouri State collection. 



Leptodomus graxosus, Shumard. 

Shell usually very gibbous, elongate-subquadrate, thin, 
height usually about one-third less ' ^ ^ - ■• . 



able 



than the length, but vari- 

3ove and 

and 



1 



^Hel with the palleal margin, which is nearly straight in the 
Jniddle and rounded at the extremities; anal margin raihor 
short, obliquely subtruncated; innhones very prominent in 
j^ost specimens, flattened in the middle, or marked with a 
t>i"oad, shallow depression, extending from beak^to base; 
greatest sibbositv r>nsfprii^rW n7i*1 nbont the 




tuse ridge extending from beak to postero-inf( 
behind which isi n. widp, Rhnllow depression; I 



granxil^e 



very 



large, elliptical, deeply impressed above; surface of 
^Ives marked with slightlv prominent, concentric folds, which 
are variable in size, finely^tri 
radiating striae, bearing minute 
Ams shell varies much in i 
r^ .^0 gibbous that the thiols 



tesp 



triy equals the height, 

nounts to thii o-fourths 

species 



mblauce to Lejifo/fo/nw {Sang uinol lies) variabilis, (McCoy,) 



% 



^ 



208 TRANS. OF THE ACAD. OF SCIENCE. 



which, however, never attains the extraordinary thickness of 
the American shell, nor do we find in our specimens the "ir- 
regular inteiTuption and undulation of the concentric wrinkles 
in front of the middle" mentioned by McCoy (British Palaeo- 
zoic Fossils in Mus. Univ. Camb., p, 508). 

Dimensions, — A very gibbous variety gives the foIloMing 
proportions: Length, 2.08; height, 1.33; thickness, 1.2L A 

compressed variety gives: Length, 1.84; height, 1.04; thick- 
ness, .78. 

GeoL Pos. arid Loc. — This fine speeies is from the Upper 
Coal Measures of the valley of Verdigiis River, K. T. 
Collected by Maj. F. Hawn. 

^ 

LEPTODOsrus ToPEKAE^'SIS, Skumard. 



■: 



E 



i 



lengtl 



marmn 



rounded below; anal margin oblique, subtruncate; palleal mar- 



arcuate 



'f subangulated post 
gibbous a short dist 



gibbons, ob- 



slop 



beak 



I, 



nent portion of the valres by a distinct but shallow linear 

sinus ; beaks large, incurved, considerably elevated above the 
cardin.il pclcra snl->-or.r«iio+,^;i 'k^^^^^ ^^;i 'K«ii:,^.i T^i^ot/^r! near 



irft 

are 
and become obs 



igul 



ice uiurKea -vvitn irregular, rounaeu, i:vu^^^i^^^^-' 

gently waved at tbe sliglit anterior depression 

solete on the anterior slope, posteriorly they 

die out before reaching the linear sinus at the inner edge ot 



iimbonial 



This shell resembles in some rfspects Cypricardia occiden- 

talis (Hall), but the outline is quite different. 
-Dmensians.— Length, 1.40; height, .80 j thickness, .61. , 

Geol. Pos. and Xoc— Missouri State collection. Occnrs in 
the Coal Measures of the bluffs of Missouri River, a sliort 



J 






I 
I 



Ki 



Solemya(?) RECUJavAXA, Swallow. 




row rounded, one-third the 



ibbous; heffh 

exfremity nar- 

li 



ty wide, obliquely truncate, gapm<r; cardinal border long, cun'«a 
jp at the posterior extremity ; ventral margin regularly cnrrea 
from the anterior extremity to the ventral posterior angle, 
posterior margin long, oblique, slightly convex; vah^^ cony^^^^' 

fattened towardii the ventral margin, where they meet at an 






t: 






SnUMARD AND SWALLOW — NEW J-OSSILS. 209 



cxteiKli 



slope, showing the remains of an external ligament; escutcheon 



rucrose liga- 



ment ; surface markings not veiy distinct in our specimens, 
but sufficiently so to indicate irregular, sub-imbricating lam- 
inae and fine striae parallel to the anterior, ventral and poste- 



rior margms. 



Length, 2.18; gi-eatest ^ddth near the posterior extremity, 
1.16; greatest thickness a little back of the beaks, 0.85. • 

May Hawn's collection, from near the junction of the Coal 
Measures and Pemiian Rocks in Clifton Park^ K T. 

Akca cuspidata, Swallow. 

Shell rhomboidal, inequilateral, subeqniTalve ; leaks promi- 
nent, strongly incurred, inclined forward near the anterior 
extremity; valves gibbous towards the anterior extremity, 
with angular or rounded ridges from the beaks to the anterior 
ami posterior ventral angles, the space between full and con- 
vex; the posterior ridge more prominent in the left valve, 
while^ the anterior is more so in the right of some specimens ; 
anterior margin forming an acute angle with the straight car- 
Oinal margin ; surface marked with large, rounded, concentric 

Costa. Surface markings not seen, as our specimens show 
the cast only. » ' f 

length, 1.2.5 ; breadth, 1.19 ; thickness, 0.91. 
Jiaj. Hawu's collection, from the Upper Coal Measures near 
Isurhngame, K. T. rr - 

EDMO]>fDIA HAWifll, Swallow. 

# ■ 

Shell subquadrate ; angular at the junctions of the lateral 
ih K u "^^^ margins, inequilateral ; gibbous on the line from 
ine beak to the ventral posterior angle ; flattened on the slope 



prottunent 



ornamented with very 



^— ~>"x.^o imeiy crenuiatea. Cardinal border nearly straight ; 
^^w prominent, incurveo, inclined forward, approxiniate, 
m,?^™^'^al; anterior margin shorter than the posterior. 
nn^t ' ^^ sometimes sub-rhomboidal, narrower at the 

l^sienor extremity, and marked with a few irregular cost^ 
»>e^-een the laminiB. 

f^^^^' 1^^^'^ collection from the Coal Pleasures near the 

0«^\ n ^^o^^cy and in several other localities in K. T. 

Tftl TT 1 '■^sembles the E. unionifor mis , Phimps. (Ge. York. 

fe dec* 1 if^'' ^°- ^^' '"'''^ ^' ^-^ "^"' ^«*»'' P^- ^•' ^S- 4») Tb«t it 
"tPTt *^^v.iiiore quadrate, and I have seen no specimen 

(Ap F ^^^'^V'^ abducta." It also differs from E. Jotcpha, D. K. 

oSt pi. T. fig. 5)^ in f,-,i.j^ jj^,l 3^^j.f.^^3g jj^^j.^j^5gg^ It also 



/ 



210 TEANS- OF TUE ACAD. OF SCIENCE. 



diifers from E. rudis, McCoy, (Brit. Pa. Fos , pL 3, fig. 9,) 
in having the anterior and posterior slopes plicated, and not 
" neariy smooth*'' 

I take pleasure in dedicating this shell to Maj. Hawn, the 

indefatigable discoverer of the Permian System in Kansas 
Territory. 

Allokisma cuxeata, Swallow. 

Shell elongate, cuneate, thick and narrovt^ at the anterior 
extremity, broad and thin at the posterior; obliquely gibbous 
from the beaks to the posterior extremity, ornamented ^vith 
concentric ribs and stii^e, which form a sharp curve near the 
posterior extremity of the shell ; ventral margin defined by a 
regularly increasing curve from the beaks to the posterior ex- 
tremity; anterior half of cardinal margin straight, the remain- 
der curved towards the ventral ; posterior extremity suban- 
gular; beaks prominent, pointed, approximate, and temiinal 

Length, 1.73 ; greatest breadth, 0.89 ; thickness, 0.61. 

This shell differs from all other specimens of the genus by 
its cuneate form, and very pointed terminal beaks. 

Missouri State collection from Middle Coal Measures near 



Lexington. 



Alloeisma lata. Swallow. 



Shell elongate, subovate, narrowed and flattened towards 
the posterior extremity ; anhrior extremity rounded, mai'ked 
with concentric ribs and stride ; ribs unequal and large ; 8tn^ 
most distinct between the ribs ; heal^s small, incurved, approxi- 
mate and nearly tenninal ; ventral and cardinal margbs about 
equally curved towards the posterior extremity. 

Length, 1.G4: greatest breadth about the middle of the 



shell, L04; gi-eatest thickness near the beaks, 0.68. 
This shell is distinguished by its great breadth 
Missouri State eolli^f^tion. ^v<^m iho "Middle Cc 




near Lexrnc 



Aticula semielliptica, ShumarJ. 
Left jalve semielliptical, moderately oblique, depressed con- 



clinal margin, wliieli is gtraidit ant 



margm an ang[e of al>ont 80'; buccal margin slightly arcuate , 
posterior nn.l iBferior margins rounded ; anterior wing iJ'"S^' 
rounded at extremity, not well defined from tlie body of tne 
Aell ; umboms depressed convex ; heals small, pointed, scarce- 
ly elevated above tbft f-nr.llnnl tv, o i-rr,' ,-, or.r1 cJtnated rather «e- 



'■face beautifully omamen 



SHOMAED AND SWALLOW — >"EW FOSSILS. 211 

^ 

very fine, cro^vJed, waved lines, which are crossed by numer- 
ous irregular, flexuous, slightly prominent, radiating striae. 

Dimensions. — A young and nearly perfect specimen gives 
for height, .32 ; and for the length, .26. 

GtoL Pos. and Loc. — Found by Maj. F. Hawn in the Upper 
Coal Measures of the vallev of the Verdis-ris Kiver, K. T. 



AvicuLA Shawxeexsis, Shumardn 

Shell very inequilateral, subtrigonal, linguseform, oblique, 
carved, height much greater than the length; buccal and pal- 
leal margins, fomiing together a long, moderate curve from 
the cardinal edge to the posterior inferior extremity, which 
terminates in an acute angle ; anal margin deeply concave ; 
Mmbonial region rather elevated, moderately convex, mo3t 



orulated 



din 



and 



posterior 



wrng large, triangular, its cardinal edge straight^ extremi 
pointed. The surface markincrs are not Avell preserved on ai 



under exanii 



ncentric striae 

Dimensions, — 



From beak to posterior inferior extremity, .66 ; 
tiackness of lefT valve, .13; length of cardinal margin, .44. 

GeoL Pos. and Loc. — Discovered by Major Hawn at Clifton 
rark, Kansas Ter., in Upper Coal Measures. 



\ 



AE^" 



triefonal, linguieform 



Shell very inequL 
length rather more than double 'the height, very gibbous, 
gfeat^st prominence near the beaks ; cardinal and anal mar- 
^s forming a stronor curve from cardinal to posterior extrem- 

n ^^^^ ^^ sharply rounded; buccal margin very short; 
paUeal margin long and gently concave or sinuate; umbonial 
^^on strongly convex, abruptly deflected inferiorly to the 
paUeal border ; 5Zir/ac€ marked with very fine, crowded, con- 

centnc stride and coarser lines, indicatingr the successive stages 
of growth. ' 

^i^msions,- 

GtoL Pos. an 

Collected b\ 
R^er. Onlv^ n 



■Length, .84 ; height, .42 ; thickne 

UoDer Coal Measures- 



Verdigris 



Uuly one specimen is contained in the collection. 
Mytilus TExuiEADiAxus, Shumurd* 

J* 

u Sjf \^^ inequilateral, thin, much elongated, greatest 
. »gnt about the middle, valves convex ; superior and postc- 



margins forniin^ . ...... ,,. 



curve 



212 TRANS. 0¥ THE ACAD. OF SCIENCE. 

r 

extremity, Tvliich is rounded ; buccal margin very sliort, round- 
ed; palleal margin straight, or very slightly sinuate; nm- 
honial region convex, moderately gibbous, gi'eatest convexity 
about one-third the distance from beak to posterior extremity, 
declining gently from the prominent portion to the posteiior 
extremity, and somewhat abruptly to the superior and inferior 
edges ; beaks small, very slightly elevated, situated a short 



distance 



/< 



fine, concentric striae, crossed by very delicate, closely approxi- 



cur\ 



Dimensions^ — Length, .78; height, .27; thickness, ,18. 

This species is very analagous to Mytilus Pallasi VerneuiU 
(Geol Russ., p. 316. pi XIX., Jig. a—k), from the Permian 
System of Russia, but it is separated by its greater propor- 
tionate height, and the shortness of its buccal edge. When 
the surface markings are presented, our shell is at once distin- 
guished by its numerous, filiform, radiatmg strias ; the Russian 
species, according to M. de VemeuiL beincr marked only oc- 



K 



sionally with three or four. 
Geol Pas. and Loc. — Upper Coal Measures 
/oUected bv Mai or Hawn from vallev of " 



MYAi.rN"A KECTA, Shumard* 



cal 



-trigonal, thin ; in 
lers are sometime 



bttc- 



more 



ca/ Sorcfer usually vciy straight from beak to base ; cartfinoj 



ery 

ery obtu$ 

OTilated 



anterior edge, where tlie valves are abruptly inflected, foxining 
an acute angle vdth the plane of the body of the shell, wmcn 
slopes gently to the anal and palleal borders ; beahs terminaJ, 
pointed, straight ; surface marked with thin, imbricating lanic^ 
he, which in some specimens are crossed by fine, indistinct, 
radiating striaj. , . 

have not been able to see the hinge and other intcniai 
characters of this species, but it possesses the form of ^^-n/«"«^ 
and we therefore refer it to that genus. The Mytihs sqwi- 
mosus of King, from the Pennian of England, which is also 



We 



our 



above given will enable the student to distinguish readil) 



the 



'mensions. — ^Height, 2 inches ; length 



s, .60. 



Geol P OS. and Xoc— This species was found byMaj. Ha^ 



Permian strata in Clifton Park. K 



SnUMARD AND SWALLOW — NEW FOSSILS. 213 



Mtalina Kansasensis, Shumard. 

Shdl sub-rhomboidal, sub-inequivalve,inequilateralj gibbous, 
the left valve more gibbous than the right ; height about double 
the length ; in young specimens the gi'eatest length is at the 
cardinal border, but in the adult towards the palleal margin ; 
cardinal margin oblique, slightly arched, and fonningwith the 
posterior border an an^le of about 120°; posterior margin 
rather strongly arched m adult specimens, and veiy gently 
rounded in the young; palleal mar gin Tounded; buccal margin 
concave; nmbones very prominent anteriorly, and declining 
with a moderate slope to the posterior margin ; anterior slope 
verj- abrupt; beaks terminal, attenuated, directed obliquely 
forward, incurved; surface with stl-ong, imbricating, sub- 
equidistant, concentric lamellse, whose free edges are often 
"^5^'^ii*vly crenate, lamellae most prominent on the left valve. 

The ligament facet is broad, and marked with equi-distant, 
clos^ deeply impressed linos, parallel to the cardinal edge, the 
number varying with the age of the shell ; beneath these is a 
rather broad, smooth space, which is continuous with a similar 
space extending from the palleal region. Each valve exhibits a 
single muscular impression, which is large, ovate, and situated 
towards the posterior margin. 

I>tmmsions.—lWight, 2^ inches; length, 1.17; thickness, 

•Oo. 

This species is distinguished fi-om M sulauadrata (nobis) 
»y Its smaller size, greater proportionate lieignt, more slender 
waks, and stronger and crenate laraellaB. 

ixtol Pos. and Loc— Major Ilawn collected this fine species 
irom the upper division of the Coal Measures, on the Santa Fe 
road, south of Lecompton ; nine miles south-west of Council 
roTe ; at the Sac and Fox Agency ; on the head waters of 
^ge RiTer; and from the valley of Verdigris River, K T. 
\n^%^ ^^allow found it occupying the same geological position 
}J tne Blufis of the Missouii below the mouth of Platte River, 
Nebraska Ter 



Pecten aticulatus, Swallow. 



mm 



««• f.^^**^er large, sub-orbicular, sliglitly convex in the cen- 

With Tif^^ ^A^ small, outer margins forming an obtuse angle 

Hn<>« ca^'^mal line, separated from the shell by depressed 

^s, no sinus between them and the sides of the shell; below 

-like appeudagog extending 
height of the shell, leaving 




« 



facenn, ^ '^*^ ^^" valve broadly ovato-cuneate; sur- 

Knes of ™'^'"*^ ^**^^ ^''*^' concentric and radiating striae, and 
Ttatml ^^™ which are most distinct near the beak and 

««U margin: 6eai verv sm nil .IpnrossA*?. -nninted- 



« 



214 TRANS, OF TEE ACAD. OF SCIENCE. 



Length of cardinal line, 0.60 ; greatest breadth of shell, 1.56; 
height from beak to base, 1.58. 

Major Hawn's collection from the Coal Measures in the 
valley of the Verdigris, K. T. 

Pix:n^a pekacuta, Shumard. 



Of this shell the collection contains nothing more than frag- 
ments of the anterior portion, which do not permit us to give 
more than a verj'" partial description of the species. 

The shell is very thin, conico-triangular, very gradually 
tapering from the beak posteriorly, where (judging from the 
lines of growth) it is strongly rounded; the beak is acute and 
tapering; o^mftones most* prominent above the middle, gently 
rounded above the gibbosity and flattened below to the pal- 
leal margin, 

Geol Pos. and ioc— Occurs in the Upper Coal Measures of 
the Missouri River, near Iowa Point, where it was found by 
Prof. Swallow. Major Hawn also found it in the same geolo- 
gical position at several localities in Kansas Ter. 



Lima eetipeba, Shumard. 



Shell 



some- 



^ forming 

sin rather more than 



greater than the width; 



gins rounded; anal mar g 



a right angle; buccal and pallealmar^ 
trgin oblique, slightly concave; postf- 



rior umbonial slope Mling rather abruptly to the car, which is 
obtusely angulated, ra flier small and blightly recurved; ante- 
rior ear small, not ribbed, triangular, its cardinal border m- 
cun-ed ; leak small, obttisely pointed, passing beyond the car- 
dial edge, and situated a little in advance of the middle of the 
same; surface of left valve marked with fine, concentric j^triiB, 
and about twenty-five distinct, angnlated, sub-eqnidistant, 
radiating ribs, which usually bifurcate anteriorly, and are ^- 
ple behind ; on the anterior umbonial slope the ribs are in- 
distinct, and on the posterior entirely wanting- ., . 
mmefmons.— Height of left valve, .64; length of same, .D4, 



thicl 



extern 



to 



wliich genus we nnbesitatingly refer it, beliering that t!j|.j7* 
teraal characters when seen will confirm this opinion, il^^' 
erto no example of this genus has been fount! so low down n 
the geological series. Prof. King cites a single spec^^^/Xr 
Permtana ) from the Permian rocks of England ; aU oui 
known species are from Secondary rocks. . xvn 

Geol Pos. and Loc— Collected hj 3Injor T. H;nvn ^^^l^'\. 
Coal Measures of the Tdley of the Verdigris Kiver. ^^ 



SIIUMARD AKD SWALLOW — ^'EW FOSSILS. 215 



there associated with Produdus JWbrascensU and Fusulina 

cylindrical 

BRACHIOPODA. 



LiXGULA CARBOXARiA, Shumavd. 

f 

Shell elliptico-subquadrate, length nearly one-third greater 
than the width, a broad, very slightly raised elevation extend- 
ing from the beak towards the front, obscurely channelled in 
the middle and becoming obsolete before reaching the front ; 
lateral edges sub-parallel, forming with the cardinal margin a 
continuous curve from beak to palleal mardn, the curve being 
somewhat stronger at the extremities ; palleal margin truncate 
or very gently arched ; beak very slightly elevated, obtusely 
rounded ; surface polished and marked with delicate, concen- 
tric lines of growth, and fine, rather indistinct, radiating striae, 
which are not apparent on all specimens. 

The shell of this species is exceedingly thin, and the valves 
J4)pear to be very flat on the surface of the shale in which 

they are embedded, though this may be in part due to com- 
pression. 

^mensions. —Length, .42 ; width, .28. 

Tlie Lingula carbonaria bears a strong resemblance to L. 
squamifortnis and L. parallela of Phillips. From the first it 
13 distmguished by being rounded retrally instead of acu- 
nimute, while the second has no radiating strife, which are 
plainly visible in our species. 

^fol. Pos. and Loc. — Occurs very abundantly in dark shale 
01 the Coal Pleasures in Clark Countv, 3Iissouri, associated 
with ferns and other coal plants. 

Pkoductus Calhoukiaxus, Swallow. 

Shell large, sub-hemispherical, sinus narrow, extending from 
tQe^Viioi.Tal region to the anterior border of the dorsal valve ; 
oea.f small, recurved beyond and within the cardinal border ; 
ears lai^e, triangular, strongly arched, curving towards the 
cardinal border, ornamented with numerous tubular spines, 
Mose on the cardinal border somewhat regularly arranged in 
[j ^ft'l rows ; cardinal border as long as the greatest width of 
cili • *^° t'Xtremitie? somewhat reflexed towards the ^-is- 
^mi region of the dorsal valve; dorsal valve regularly arched, 
the K ^t"^ ^<>nstantly increasing JErom the anterior border to 
lonmt r ^"^'^™^®i*ted with numerous, somewhat irregular, 
but hi costae, narrow aiid prominent towards the beak, 
ft ■ "^'^''itler and more flattened towards the anterior margin, 
Wl I ^^^^^^ increased by insertion and subdivision; the 

wie surface ornamented mth tubular snines. which arc more 



216 



TRANS, OE THE ACAD* OF SCIENCE 



/ 



numerous towards the borders and on the ears, and usually 
spring from the costae; visceral region for a short distuuce 
from the beak marked with irregular, concentric, wavmg, more 
or less, prominent rugas ; ventral valve sti'ongly arched, slightly 
flattened on the visceral region and towards the anterior 
margin ; ornamented w^ith costae and rug® like the opposite 
valve ; mesial ridge con-esponding to the dorsal sinus. Internal 
mrface of ventral vah 
cardinal process^ fortifiet 



with 



arly 



become obsolete on the ears : the third or the mesial ridge 



inid 



die of the valve, where it becomes prominent and sharp ; on 
each side of the last and in the angles between it and the two 
former ridges are the oval, rugose scars of the adductor muscles. 
Vascular impressions ovate, nearer the anterior and lateral bor- 
ders, connected by recurved sinuses to the anterior part of 
the mesial ridge ; central portion of the visceral region pimc- 



din 



those 



portion large and prominent, Tvliile those nearer the boraer 
are small, depressed, and more numerous. Inteiior of dorsal 
valve marked with oblong, elliptical, rugose adductor muscles 
separated hj a deep, narrow, longitudinal sinus. 

Length from heak to anterior border, 1.65 ; breadth, 2.25 ; 
height of dorsal valre, 1.15. 

Vak. Kaxsase^-sis, Swallow.— Tim shell differs from the 
abore species in being much more elongated; ralres more 
produced; dorsal valve much more elevated and strongly in- 
curved ; ventral valve more flattened on the visceral region, 
and both more distinctly marked mth concentric rugse on the 
visceral regions. 

The P. Calhounianus Is more closely allied to the P. smi- 
reliculaius, var. aritiquaius, D. K. {.in. Fos.) than to mj oit^eit 
species ; but it differs from it in having the costce narrower, 
more prominent or sharply carinated, and more irregular, less 
distinctly reticulated and more sulnous. The ventral v" ^ 



ched, while the internal markings 



alve 
different 



The Calhounianus, so far as observed, is confined to tne 
Upper Coal Z^IeasuresC?) and the Lo^^'er Permian strata. 

?ry abundant by Major Ila^Rii in Kansas. 
KaTis,aunns is abundant in Kansas in the sam 
ranges down thron<jch the Coal Measures anu 



^ 



position. It 

Monntain Li 

By request of Majorilawn,* this magnificent ?P«^^^ / 
named in honor of Gen. .L.hu Calhoun, Surveyor GeiJerai 
Kansas, whose liberal official policy enabled Major Hawn 
make the Geological survev of that Territory. 



-E 



SHUMARD AND SWALLOW — NEW FOSSILS. 217 



Pkoductus Booxexsis, Swallow. 

Shell small, elevated, sub-hemisplieiical, without a mesial 
iinus, ornamented with fine, regular, rounded, longitudinal 
costs, and larger, iiregular, concentric rug^, and small, tubular 
spines ; the rugae which pass over the visceral region and down 
across the ears, are the largest and most regular; the spines 
are more or less regularly arranged in diagonal lines and quin- 
cunxes; they are most numerous on the margins and ears; the 
ventral valve is marked with small pits instead of the convex 
bases of the spines on the dorsal; cardinal margin slightly 
curved, as long or longer than the ^idth of the shell ; dorsal 
valve very gibbous, often varying from hemispherical to ob- 
lique conical, strongly and regularly arched ; slopes from tlie 
visceral region to the ears very abrupt; beaks prominent, 
strongly incurved, scarcely passing beyond the cardinal line ; 
tars large, flattened, strongly corrugated, with about seven rug® 
perpendicular to the cardinal marjxin, each fold sustaining one 
or more spmes, arranged in lines parallel to the cardinal mar- 
gin; outer angle usually sub-acute, with a slight sinus between 
them and the lateral margins. Ventral valve semi-orbicular, 
>^ery concave, regularly arched ; ears separated irom the vis- 
ceral region by welWefined ridges. 

V AB. ELEVATA, P. BooxEXSis, morc clcvatcd ; heaJc much 
Baore elongated and strongly recurved; spines lef^s numerous, 
but more regularly arrancred in diagonal lines. This variety 



^e^ nearly resembles the P. spinulosus. Sow. 

Typical Specimm.—Lenaitli, 0.56; breadth, 0.62; height of 
dorsal valve, 0.33. 

^ar. elevata.—Length, 0.54; breadth, 0.44; height of dorsal 
valve, 0.33 ; length of cardinal border, 0.51. 

i he P. Boonensis may be distinguishsd from the P. spinu- 



torn of Sowerby by tile larger ears, longer cai'dinal bord 



^y 5^?^^ distinct ' concentric ragse; from tlie P. undiferus, 
«ttich It most resembles, by the marks of spines on the ven- 

\r ^ ^^^ ^^^^ more distinct concentric Tugx. 
C , ^*1^ State collection from numerous localities in the 
v-oal Measures, particularly the upper divisions near the 
S! n ?^J^^ ^^^^^te, in K. T. Mai. Hawn's collection from 
tte Coal Measures in K. T. 

Peoductus costatoides, Swallow. 

Inn l"^'**^^' transrerse, sub-rectangular; cardinal horier 

Zn^i ^r'^^ ^^^ ^'^^^ o^ t^ie sheU ; bpak small, recurved 

^arceiy beyond the cardinal bnrder; ears large, thin, vaulted 

retlexcd ; dorsal valve elevated, somewhat regularly arch- 



218 TRANS. OF THE ACAD, OF SCIENCE. 

cd, slightly flattened on the visceral region, and towaiJs the 
anterior border marked with broad, depressed, irregular longi- 
tudinal cost£e; of these about four on each side of the mesial 
sinus are much larger and extend from the visceral region 
to the anterior border; the whole surface ornamented with 
large, tubular spines, an-anged somewhat regularly in diagonal 
lines; mesial sinus deep and broad; vmiral valve strongly 
arched, slightly flattened on the yisceral region and towards 
the anterior margin ; marked with longitudinal depressions 
corresponding to the costae of the opposite valve ; inesial ridgt 
conspicuous on the anterior prolongation, the whole marked 
with deep pits about as numerous as the spines of the oppo- 
Bite valve; visceral regions of both valves have indistinct, ir- 
regular, transvei^se r 



The costatoides in general appearance resembles the costatns^ 
but it is much smaller and less distinctly reticulated on the 
visceral region. It resembles the splendens in size and form, 
but the mesial sinus is not so large, the costa? much larger 
and not so regular, spines much more numerous, aiid it wants 
the flat band of iTia nntf^ririT' ^nfl To+i^vnl T^r»tn7*^r nf the ventral 



Talve. 



Wahashensis of Norwood 



Pratten in having more tubes on the xlorsar valve and ears, 
and pits on the ventral valve, larger and more irregular longi- 
tudinal costae. 



This unique little fossil was collected by Maj. Hawn in the 

Upper Coal Measures of Kansas. ^. 

Length, 0.50 ; breadth, 0.65 ; height of dorsal valve, 0.^*^- 

Okthis caeboxasia, Swallow. 

T-t 

Shell or1>IcuIar or broadly ovate ; dorsal valve convex ; t^- 
iral valve convex, with a sli<?ht sinus extending from the niui- 
dle to the anterior margin; both valves ornamented with con- 
centric lines of growth, and fine, rounded, thick-set, tubalar, 
radiating striae, increased bj insertion. These stria?, partico- 
laiiy in the large specimens, often terminate abruptly m a 
minute, tubular aperture, pointing towards the anterior marg"^ 
as if produced by the removaUjf depressed, tubular spmc?; 
area high, triangular; aperfure narrow, deltoid; kflfo distant, 
slightly mcurv-ed, prominent, that of dorsal valve prolongea 
beyond the other. 

Shell variable in size as indicated by the following raeas- 
urr-ments of two specimens : 

S*^' i~~J*'"^^'' ^'^^ ' breadth, 0.49 ; thickness, 0.2B. 
^o. 2— Length, 0.18; breadth, 0.20; thickness, 0.12. 
Ao. 1 IS but little larger than the common size. 
Slissoun State collection from the Middle Coal 3Icasnre»» 
near Lexington. Maj. Hawn*8 coUection, K T. 



SHL^MAUD AND SWALLOW— NEW FOSSILS. 219 



• 



Ortiiisixa MissontiENSis, Swallow. 

Shell Bomewhat irregular, variable, transverse, sub-orbicular, 
gibbous; dorsal valve sub-conical, highest at the beak, slightly 
convex, but usually depressed near the center; beak long 
pointed, semi-conical, usually inclined towards one of the 
extremities of the cardinal border; area large, deltoid, sub- 
vertical, decussate ; oper/i^rc narrow, linear, or contracted to- 
wards the summit, extending from the base of the area to the 
summit; deltiJhun convex, closing the aperture, sometimes 
slightly deltoid, pointed at the apex, marked with transverse 
rugae. Ventral valve convex, verj^ gibbous, recurved near the 
beak, dightly flattened towards the anterior margin; area ob- 
solete; beak small, in contact with the deltidium. Each valve 
is marked with obscure, concentric rug^e or lines of growth, 
ind from ten to fourteen large, strongly carinated, radiating 
Tih^ which become depressed and smaller in the middle and 
obsolete near the beaks ; the surface is also ornamented with 
longitudinal and concentric striae; longitudinal sfrim large, 
Bodular, increased by insertion, regular towards the beaks, 
but irregular on the angular costa^, where they usually pass 
from the summit of each diagonally back to the bottom of 
the channel; the transverse sirisB are smaller, more obvious 
between the longitudinal lines, concentric towards the beaks; 
but on the ribs they cross the other set of stria^ nearly at 
ngnt angles. The longitudinal striae are themselves some- 
times marked with very fine nodular lines or by rows of mi- 

»me papillge. 

Length of a small specimen, dorsal valve, 0-72; ventral 
Talve,0.70; width, 0.75; greatest thickness, 0.64; height of 
^^n 0/29; width of area and length of cardial border, 0.33 ; 

\r ^^ ^^^ti^'^i^m in the middle, 0.08. 
Missouri State collection from the Upper 
^mm. Xaj. Iluwn's collection from the I 



Coal Measures at 
Upper Coal Meas- 



^es of K. T. It also passes up into the Permian Rocks, 
KnrxcoKELLA (Camarophoria) Osage>-sis, Swallow. 



Shell small, Tarymg from orbicular to pentagonal, gibbous 



#• 



^" '^^P^cssed ; /ronf rounded or angular; sides converging 

regnlarly to the beak, where they meet at an aifgle varying 

otacd tollT; dorsal valve convex near the beak, some- 

wfiat depressed or concave in the center; the anterlur part is 

marked with a deep sinus and from seven to twelve strong, 

gyiar, radiating plications ; beak more or less pointed, larger 

^l that of the opposite valve, slightly incurved, perforated 

tn an oval foramen. Ventral valvt shorter, always convex 

"lacked with a ridge and plications corresponding to the 



220 TRANS. OF THE ACAD. OF SCIENCE. 

sinns and plications of the opposite valve ] beak smaller and 
curved beneath that of the opposite valve. 

This species is very variable; some gibbous, others de- 
pressed; m some the length is greater than the breadth, 
while the reverse is true in others. The sinus varies in width 
and depth, and is marked with from two to six j^lications; all 
the plications are usually more strongly marked in very 
gibbous specimens. 

Missomi State collection, and Maj, Hawn's, from the Upper 
Coal Measures of Missouri and K. T. 

To show the variable form of this species the measurements 
of two specimens are given : 

No. 1— Length, 0,48 ; breadth, 0.44; thickness, 0.40. 

Xo. 2— Length, 0.45; breadth, 0.46; thickness, 0.21. 

Our shells are like Camarophoria Schloihtimi^ (Ge. Bm^ 
Vol, II.) but they are not identical. 

Retzia PuxcTiLiFEEA, Shumard, 

^ Shell small, ovate, length gi'eater than the width, usually 
gibbous and sometimes even siibglobose ; dorsal valve more 
convex than the opposite one, most prominent between the 
beak and the middle of the valve, having usually a moder- 
ately wide, shallow sinus, which extends from the front nearly 
to the beak, and bears two longitudinal ribs ; beaJc much pro- 
longed, elevated, incurv^ed, having a large, circular perforation; 
area small, triangular, its cardinal edge equal to about onc- 
tMrd the width of the shell, the apex slightly truncated by 
the foramen, and the sides distinctly defined by an angulated 
margin; ventral valve as broad as long, neariy cu-cular, most 
proaiinent ne^the beak, no trace of mesial ridge, funnsnea 
with a small area somewhat alated on either side of the bcas j 
leak pointed, incurved, passing a little beyond the cardmai 
margin ; surface of Yalves marked with from fourteen to sev- 
enteen simple, distinct, rounded ribs, which are separated OT 
spaces about as wide as the ribs. Under a strong lens t&e 
suffice appears very finely punctate, the punctse being 
ed in fine, concentric, crowded, zig-zag lines. . _ 

Bimensims.—The measurements of an average specimen 
are: Length, .49; width, .4G; tliickness, .40. A gibbouB ^^f- 



arrang 



'i 



aess, .49. 
GtoL 1 



o • -^^'-"o 



terest- 
in and 



J 



mg species was obtained by Prof. Swallow in Audrain 
Howard Counties, Missouri, and on the banks of the 3Ii5S0«i 
River a <^hort distance below the mouth of Platte River, y^' 
brnska Territory. Maj. Hawn obtaitied it near Manhattan, aj 
Wdlow Spriiiuf, on the Santa Fe road, and on the head wa^cr? 
of V erdisris River, K. T. 






-■; 

I 



SnUMARD AND SWALLOW — NEW FOSSILS. 221 



DisciXA MissOTJKTKXSis, Skumavd. 

Shell circular, small; upper valve dcprcsporlj come, sloping 
^atlunlly from beak to front, and rather abruptly to the car- 
Iniil edge ; leak rounded at tip, not cuned, situated at about 
one-thinl the diameter from the posterior edge, its elevation 
equal to about one-third the length of the. shell. Surface 
marked with fine, close striae, which are arranged in concentric 



nearly parabolic curves, the extremities of which are directed 



to the front. Loueer valve circular, flat, or sli<:rhtlv concave, 

.aaving a large, deep, elliptical depression, at the bottom of 

which is an elliptical aperture. The surface is marked with 

rather strong, concentric lines of increase. 

Dimnsions. — Length of an average specimen, -33 ; height, 
.10. 

Found by Prof Swallow in dark limestone of the Middle 
Coal Measures, at Lexington, Missouri, along with Goniatiies 
planorhiformis. It occurs also at Charbonniere, St. Louis 
County, Missouri. 

DiSCINA CONVEXA, Skiimnrd. 

ft 

Superior valve patelllform, nearly circular, convex, thin, 
h^^?nt not quite equal to half the diameter, a shallow depres- 
sion directly under the beak on the posterior side ; beak situa- 
ted about one-third the diameter of the ^"hell from the poste- 
nor margin, rounded, scarcely incurved; surface marked with 
<^nccntric stri^ of growth, which are distinctly preserved on 
*^ts; inferior valve unknown. AH the specimens in the col- 
lection are casts. 

^^Wfom.—Diameter, .62; height, .30. 
^oL Pqs. and Loc.—Coliected by Maj. Hawn from the Up- 
P*'r Coal Measures of the vallev of Yerdiims River, K. T. 



ECHIXODERMATA. 



roTERiocRixus HEMisFirERicrs, Skumard. 



The 



Md 



ery 



wncealetl from view when the cohimn remains attached to 
^e cup. Tlie five jneces of which it Is composed arc of a 
rnombic shape, lonsrer tlian wide, and the interior edges nearly 
uouble the length of the exterior ones. 
^ne columnar facet 



central 



perforation rather large and pentalobate. In 



9 



* 



222 TRANS. OF THE ACAD. OF SCIENCE. 



interior of the calyx tlie base forms an elevated conical pro- 
tuberance. 

The sub-radial jneces are thick and longitudinally recurved; 
four of them are pentagonal, a little longer than -wide, tlieir 
superior edges gently arched and slightly longer than the 
infero-lateral edges; the basal edges are very short. The 
iifth sub-radial is hexagonal, its superior angle being truncated 
to support an anal piece. 

The \ si radial pieces are pentagonal, very massive, and as 
wide again as loni;. The inferior edws are slightly concave 
and of equal lengtli in three of the pieces, but on the anal 
side they are unequal. The superior edge is nearly straight 
and rounded. The articular facet is very broad, nearly Jion- 
zontal, and furnished with a prominent transvei-se ridge, 
which is situated nearest the external margin. Extenor to 
this is a smaller ridge, which coalesces with the main one be- 
fore reaching the extremity of the pieces. Both ridges are 
strongly crenulatcd. . 

Anal pieces — Of these pieces only one remains in the speci- 
mens before us. It is rather small, elongate-hexagonal, and 
is wedged in between two of the first radials, above which it 
projects about half its length. 

The secondary radials, vault, arms and column, are unkno^^- 
■ I)imensions.^B.cight of calyx, .30 ; width, .90 ; height ot l^t 
radial pieces, .26; width of same, .42. „ 

There is in the State collection from Boone Coiinty, 3li5- 

souri, a single radial piece, apparently of this sp^'^'i'^'^' ^"^{Jj 
shows that this crinoid sometimes attains a size nearly douwe 

the dimensions here given. r t> t '> 

The P. kemuphericas belongs to the same group of 1 oterw^ 
crinus as P. calyx and P. McCoy anus, which specie?, -iccor'tin^ 
to MM. D'Koninck and Le Hon, have, in common, a cm.^^^ 
very wide and short, and the articular surfice of the ra< ^^ 
pieces vcrj' largely developed. They have also abase ^/^^'^^^ 
concave. The American species, P. spinosus, appertains 

the same group. D'T'on- 

Our species is most nearly related to P. McCoyatws, V ^ 
inek and Le Hon, (P. excavatus, McCoy,) from w*»^*^*',"|,e 
distinguished by the greater height of the calyx, ^^\^-^ 
greater proportionate length of the subradial pieces, ^^^^^i 
to tlie middle of the heidit of the cup, while m the ^u ^ 

ean species the edges of "the cup are formed almost ent . 

y the first radials and anal oieces. ^ i tliis 

Form^ and Loc—lrt Missouri, Trof. Swallow has ioundi^^ 
species on Ilinkstoii Creek, Boone County, and on if^'y 
souri River near Lexington. Maj. F. Hawn found it on ^ ^^ 
head watm of the Verdigris River and nine miles soutu-« .^ 
of Council Grove, K. T. At all these localities it occu 
the Coal Me as rues. 



• 



SnUMAED AND SWALLOW — ^NEW FOSSILS. 223 



f 



PoTERiociiiNUS liUGOSUS, Shumard. 

TTie calyx of thi^ beautiful Poteriocrinus is depressed, sub* 
hemispherical and its under surface broadly excavated. The 
iurfau is generally thickly studded with short ruga?, strong 
and irregularly disposed, but sometimes with granula}. 

The bast is rather small, pentagonal, concave, and profound- 
ly excavated in the middle. The pieces are rhombic, recurved, 
and their lateral edges much the longest. The columnar facet 
is circular, occupies about one-half the diameter of the base, 
and is situated at the bottom of a deep excavation. The 
central perforation is small and pentalobate. In the interior 
of the calyx the base forms a strong niammillarj^ swelling. 

The st^-radial pieces are rather thick, longitudinally recurv- 
ed, and slightly wider than long. Four of them are pentago- 
nal, with basal and infero-lateral edges about equal, and supe- 
rior edges very slightly arched. The fifth piece is hexagonal 
^d its superior edge very short. 

The 1st Tvfial pieces are very thick, transverse ; inferior 
edges very slightly concave, and more than double the length 
of the lateral edges. The superior edge is nearly straight, 
bevelled outwards, the articular facet well developed, and 
marked similar to that of the preceding species, though it is 
^tuh narrower. 

^i Radial pieces. — ^There is in the Missouri collection asin- 

which apparently 

thick, pentagonal 

^d an axillary piece. The articular facets"'are broad, strongly 



gle 2d radial piece from Putnam County, 
*ipP^rtains to this species. It is short, very 



^'irkc*d, and their edges strongly crenulated. 

^nal pieces. — The principal anal piece only remains attached 
to the calyx. It is very small, elonj^atc-pentagonal, and 
^edged in between the lateral edges of two of the Ist radi- 
^K projecting above the plane of "their superior edge?. 

-piWn5?<>ri5.— Height of calv\% .32; diameter, .92 ; diameter 
base,.t>5; height of sub-radials, .10; height of 1st radials, 

GeoL Pos. and Loc. — ^This elefjant Poteriocrinus was found 

»y I*rof. Swidlow in the Cool Pleasures of the bluffs of the 

^wmi River, and in the same geological position in Put- 

^ County near Black-Bird Creek. It appertains to the 

^me group of the ^nus Poieriorrinus us the preceding spe- 
cies. 



A.RCH^0CIDARI3 ACULEATL^S, Shumavd. 



^^c^meas of the interambulacral plates an 



wehave,nM? 



^nmaiy 



The wiuamitulacTol plates are tliin, irregal 



224 TRANS. OF THE ACAD. 



i 
OF SCIENCE. 



and bear a small, j^rominent, primary tubercle, which is deep- 
ly perforated, and situated on an elevated, smooth boss, from 
the border of which it is separated by a deep, circular canal. 



Around 



^„^ ^.^^^ vfi ^.ino Kj\j^;^ IS a uruuu, cucuiui aiuuiOj lue 

inner semi-diameter of ^vhich is a slightly raised ring nearly 
plane, while the exterior portion is concave and marked with 
very obscure, radiating rugae. The areola is margined hy a 
nng of closely-set secondary tubercles, arranged in a single 

hue. Exterior to thi?; rino- tho cnr^T^^o ^a tliioMTr cfTi.Llod ah 



primary spmes are clongat 



granule} and sec 
clonsrate-fusiform 



m length and rather strongly curved at their bases. Some 



curva- 



tare bemg m an opposite direction to that of the base. The 
transverse section in most specimens is multangular, but 
sometimes it appears to be nearly circular. The ring at the 
base is small, finely milled on the edge, and set oblique to the 
axis of the spine. The surface is very finely striated longitu- 
dmally and thickly studded with short spines, whose apices 
are directed obliquely upwards. They are arranged on the 
angles of the principal spines in from eight to twelve longi- 
tudinal rows. 

^ dimensions.— The primary spines vary from one to two 
inches in length, and their greatest diameter from .10 to .14 
OT an mch. 

Geol Pos. and Xoc— This species was collected by Maj- 
liawn from the Upper Coal Measures, at variou spoints along 
the valley of Yerdigi-is River, on the Santa Fe road near 
Kock Creek, and 25 miles west of Council Grove in thevalle/ 
oi Cotton-wood Creek. Dr. Geortre G. Shumard found it 
abundantly in the Coal Measures near Fort Belknap, Texas. 
At all of these localities it is associated with Fusulina cylv^- 
arica and Spirifer camerahis. 

Ancn^EociDAKis BiAXGULATUs, Sktiniard. 

Tlie interamhulacral plates of this species mav, at the fi^ 
glance, be readily mistaken for those of Archkocidaru an.- 

i- 1* - "^^^ principal differences exist in the areolai 
which IS covered with very minute, radiating strise, ana » ="- 
hexagonal mstead of circular. The inner ring of the areo^ 
w also n^rower and much more prominent, while the outer 
ring docs not exhibit any traccg of nisrse. - ,, 

. 1 he primary spines are very long, slender, and the surface 
IS covered with exceedingly fine, c?owded, longitudinal stn^ 
which are scarcely visible to the naked eve. Just above m 
expanded portion of the base the spines "arc cylindrical, »»* 
they soon become much flattened and their extenor e.l,^ 
acutely angnlated. The edges are garnished on either side 



_4 






suriace. 



Yj. 

■ r 

r 
V 



SnUMARD AND SWALLOW — NEW FOSSILS. 225 



\ 



with nearly equi-distant, short, flattened, thorn-like processes, 
which rLsc from a broad base and are directed obliquely up- 
ward. These thorns, of which from twelve to fourteen may 
be counted on cither side of the spine, do not rise from the 
same horizontal line, but the bases of those of one side are 
higher than those of the other. The expanded part of the 
base of the spines is marked with coarser and more distinct 
siriae than the rest of the surface, and the outer edges are 
strongly and elegantly striated. 

DimeTisions, — Width of interambulacral plate, .24 ; height, 
.IS; length of primary spines, about 2\ inches; diameter, in- 
cluding thorns, ,10 

Geol. Pos, ami Loc. — This beautiful species was collected by 



Prof. S^vallow in the Middle Coal Measures, at Lexington, 




in thin layers of limestone parting beds of shale. 
It is associated with Fusulina cylindrical Chonetes Smiihii, 
and Orikisina J\Iissouriensis. 



Archjeocidaeis megastylxjs, Shumard^ 

The interambulacral jdates of this species in the collection 
^re large, hexagonal, wider than long, and rather thick. The 
areolar surface is very broad, nearly circular, slightly concave 
at Its exterior portion and rising gently to the base of the cen- 
tral boss. It is encircled by a single series of small, secondary 
tubercles. The boss is broad, smooth, and the central tuber- 
cle deeply perforated. 

The primary spines are long, robust, cylindrico-fuslfonn, 
and the transverse section circular. The surfoee is very finely 
rtnated lon^tudinally, and studded with rather distant gran- 
^^ or minute, short spines, arranged spirally or proniiscu- 
onrfy. The ring at the base is oblique to the axis, its border 
^^atly crenulated, and the diameter less than the greatest 
uiameter of the spine. The socket is deep, rather wide, and 
Its margin smooth. The neck is marked with a slightly raised 
'^Rg, which is finely striated longitudinally. 

I>inmsiom.'-AYidth of interambulacral jdate, .78 ; height, 
'W; length of primary spines, about 3 inches: greatest diam- 
eter of game, .34. ^ 

Ihe interambulacral plates of this species are very anala- 

hi^^ Tn!^*^^^ ^^ ^^^ ^' acw/cafu,?, but their size is neaidy dou- 
e- The opines are veiy peculiar and can scarcely be mista- 

G^ *^^^ ^^ ^^^ ^^ ^*^ congeners. 

*^. Poj. and Loc. — ^ITpper Coal Pleasures, Kansas Ter. 

effected by Ma|or Ilawn near the head-waters of Verdi- 

ris Kiver and in the valley of Cotton-wood Creek. 

Pbillipsia MissouRiExsis, Shumard^ 
Head and thorax unknown. 



I 



226 



TRANS. OF THE ACAD. OF SCIENCE. 



Fygidium semi-ellijjtical, elevated, width greater than length; 
surllicc very finely punetate,pimct£B rather distant and arransjed 
somewhat m quincunx ; margin rather broad and smooth ; axal 
lobe strongly arched transversely, gradually tapering, fomiing 
not qmte four-fifths the total length ; its width equal to about 
three-fuurths the width of one lateral lobe ; rings about eight- 
een, rounded on the dorsum and flattened at the extremi- 
ties, transverse furrows narrow, distinctly impressed on the 
dorsum, becoming nearly obsolete before reaching the longitu- 



igiilated, 



secrments 



curving slightly downwards, not furrowed; fuiTows between 
the segments rather deeply impressed, except the two poste- 
nor ones, which are quite shallow. 



Dimensions. 



cfreatest 



length of axal lobe, .56 ; greatest width of same, .23. 

GeoL Pos. and Loc— Collected by Prof Swallow from the 



_,.^.x, Missouri 



-* 



PiiiLLiPSiA MAJOE, Shumavd. 



little 



Head and thorax unknown. 

Pygidium large, elevated, approaching to semi-elliptical, a 



surface 



raarinn 



larly towards the posterior extreinity; axal lobe very much 



lobe, rather strongly 



elevated, gently tapering, forming 

total length :.__ 1 , 

arched longitudinally^ sides with a broad, shallow groove run 
ning their whole length ; rings 23, very strongly arched from 
side to side, angulated in the lateral depressions and their 
extremities directed obliquely backwards. The fii-st six or 
seven from the front are very flat in a longitudinal direction, 
and are separated from each other by fine, scarcely impressed, 
transverse lines or furrows. Posterior to these, the fiurows 
are distinctly impressed to the extremity of the lobe, vM« 
the nngs gradually become rounded on the dorsum, but on 



the sides they still continue flattened. Lateral lobes mpci- 



eraxeiy convex, obtusely angulated in front; segments twei^t 



pressed, except the two last, which are nearly obsolete. 

Dimensions.— Width of pi-giiliiim, l/A inch ; length, iHv 
length of axal lobe, .r ^^' ^ " - -*--""- 

This is the largest \'nown species of the genus. It J'^ 
collected bv Af.ii.u- TTnT.-„ ,•.. m:i^„_ /^„„-.^,. Ar:<:aoiin. ami m 



same at antenor extren" 



Talloy of Verdigris 



lin 



tli of te- 



SUniARD AND SWALLOW — NEW FOSSILS. 227 

comptou on the Santa Fe roarl, Kansas Ter. It has only 
been found in the Upper Coal Measures. 

Phillipsia Cliftonexsis, Shumard. 

Pilfridium small, semi-elliptical, giT)1>ous, width greater than 
the length; axal lobe elevated longitudinally, gently arched, 
dorsum slightly depressed, width at forward extremity about 
equal to one lateral lobe excluding the smooth margin, gi-adu- 
aily tapering and terminating in a blunt point posteriorly; 
rings, from thirteen to fourteen, sub-granulose, separated by 
distinctly impressed furrows; lateral lobes angulatcd near the 
middle, flattened above and on the sides, well defined from 
the margin by a shallow but distinct ftirrow ; segments seven, 
ronuded, separated by distinct linear sulci ; margin moderately 
wide and regularly convex. 

Dimensions.— Length, .23 ; width, .25 ; height, .11 ; height 

of axal lobe, .04; length of same, .19. 

Geol Pos. and ioc.— This little species was obtained from 
the superior beds of the Upper Coal Measures, at Clifton 
Park, Kan>;as Ter. 

Collected by Major Hawn. 

Cytuese (Beyrichia) A^tEEiCAKA, Shumard- 



Valr^ 



length 



edge and extremities round- 



ed, margined with a narrow border which is broadest at the 
iargt-r end; ren/r a/ rnr/rgin straight, occupying about two-thirds 
tlie length ; sides marked inferiorly with three furrows, the 
middle one deeply iraprc-'^cd and "extending obliquely from 
the ventral margin to the middle of the valve, the others 
rather shallow, and that near the smaller extremity curved. 
Oimeniions.— Length, .04; height, .02. 

This beautiful little species was collected by Major llaMii 
from the Upper Coal Measures of the valley of Ver^' 
wver, Kansas Ter. It is exceedinglv abundant on thin 



<ms 



Ui 



with Myali 



228 TKAXSv OF THE ACAD. OF SCIENCE 



Description of New Species of Bryozoa from Texas and 
New Mexico, collected by Dr. George G. Shumard, 
Geologist of the U. S. Expedition for Boring Artesian 
Wells along the S2d Parallel, under the direction of 
Capt. John Pope, U. S. Corps Top. Eng* 



BY HIRAM A. PRODT, M.D. 



Fe>'estella tkititbekculata. (Prout.) 

u 

Corrailum funnel-sliaped, or undulating fan-sliapi 



cimon. 



spe- 



Interstices or lo7igitudi7ial rays large near base, more at- 
teuuated near the border, seldom bifurcated, bifurcations not 



aniiles : midrib 



above the terraced suiface, wliich supports the cells on either 
side, marked by three tubercles to each fenestrule, inclusive 
of one iipon the junction of each dissepiment with the longi- 
tudinal rap, and one near the centre of each fenestrule; these 
tubercles are rounded to a point, vith the api)earanee of an 



obsolete 



^ 



tiutmally at the base ; their number to each fenestrule is f 
constant that we have been induced to use this character in 
assi^jnmg to it a specific name. 

Dissepiments short, Large near base, longer and more deli- 
cate at the middle of the frond, about half a line apart, regular 
after leaving the base, sometimes opposite but most generally 
alternate, non-poriferous, 

Fenestrules varied in form near base from the shortness 
and thickness of dissepiments, often ovate or oval, more regu- 
lar in the widest portion of the expansion, being liere more 
or Ies8 qua.irangular or oval, about twice as long as broad ; 
three inthe space of two lines longitudinallj', six in the space 
of two lines transversely. 

^ Cell pores round, mth a raised lip strongly indenting the 
border of the fenestrule, three to each fenestrule, or five count- 
ing the two, oj>posite the boundinir dissepiments. 

I^ei'erse not seen, bnt a worn longitudinal rib shows the 
tuljular-stnate stnu-ture of the axis. ... 

Comparisons.—Thh neat snccios resembles F. patida {M<^ 




► The itmsHa of this paper were placed in my hands for description b/ 
■»■/■ t-HiTMABD, to whom Capt. Pore has entrusted the PalaeoatoK^ 



PR013T — NEW SPECIES OF BRYOZOA. 229 



t- 



Coy) in the number of its Interstices, dissepiments, and cell 
openings ; but differs in being seldom branched, in its line of 
tubercles on the midrib, and other minor points. 

It resembles F. suhantiqiia {UOrhigny)^ but differs by the 
greater number of fenestrules and cells, as well as by its line 

of tubercles. 

Resembles F ant i qua {McCoy^ Gold, sp,) in its general 
lonn, the number of fenestrules, and cells; but differs by its 
line of tubercles, and in some other respects. 

It resembles very nearly F. retiformis {J\[cCoy)^ synony- 
mous with Ktratophytes retiformis of Schlotheim^ but differs 
in the smaller number of tubercles, their greater size, the want 
of alternation between the tubercles and cells, and by the 
len^h of its fenestrules, as well as by the relative spaces oc- 
cupied by the interstices and fenestrules. 

Locality. — Carboniferous Limestone, Organ Mountains. 

Fe^testella PoPEA2iA. (Proiit,) 

Corrallum most probably campanulate, rapidly curving 
outward from frequent bifurcation. 

Longitudinal rays or interstices sub-angular, striated as 
•fi«n by the im]»ression on the cortical envelop of the reverse ; 
seel obsolete; bifurcations frequent, mostly about one line 
apart, large near the base, nearly as ^^ide as the fenestrules. 
^ I>h9s^^:pinie7its moderately large, round, expanded at junc- 
tion with interstices. 
Feyiestrules ovate or (]^uadrangnlar, roimded at the angles, 

«ve m the space of two Imes longitudinally, about five 
Tersely. "^ "^ 



trans- 



of Ulterstices, alternate on tlie two sides of the longitudinal 
ray, three to each fenestrule, rarely four, caused Ly a super- 
nnmerar)- placed at the angle of bifurcation. 

Inis beautiful species is dedicated to Capt. John Pope, 
Whose indefatigable labors in the serrice of his country, and 
J^nose zeal and devotion to the interests of Science, desei-ve 
ine compliment. It was collected, with other specimens, from 
tae Cnadalupe Mountain, by Dr. George G. Shumard, and is 

classed bv Anrii-^^l>„ -d' •J._^ TA^ T?T7 CI „,;i „c « T»,.v^ 



laian 



draw 



^^de of the expansion; but ite form. 



can 



aM • •r"'""'nc. Only a small portion of the poriferous 

S ' ■ f ^f ^^'^®*5' the fracture being mostly down to the cm- 
r.ZT^^^^^'^^ *^^ ^^^ rcTcrse; sufficient ho wcrer can be made 
o«t to ,aentify it a« a new species. 

^^wnpansms.—Ji resembles very nearly JF. 2)^t^^<^ (^*^ 

tnJt 1 r J^V^"^^ ^^'^3 l^^ee'" interstices, with a strongly 
' ^^ ^ecl. It is only half as large as the i^ Fomana^ and^ 



230 TRANS. OF TUE ACAD. OF SCIENCE. 



besiiles, the latter has feuestrnles nearly double as wide m 
the interstices, being at the same time strongly corticated, 
at least on the reverse. 

It resembles the i^. antiqua ( Gold sp. 3fc Coy)^ hut differs 
by the thickness of its interstices, as well as by the greater 
length and fewer number of fenestrules in a given space. 

Permian White Limestone, Guadalu2>e Moun- 
taiiij New Mexico. 

FXXESTELLA COKTICATA. {PrOUt.) 



\ 



■ Jl 

CorraUum wide, long fan-shaped ; bifurcations few, caused 
by the mere insertion of a middle line of fenestrules ; length 
luiknown — ^that of the specimen at least two inches. 

Longitudinal rays or interstices large, only about one-third 
less than the fenestrules, tubular-striate where worn, the strise 
expanding as they ascend between each oscule, from one dis- 
septiment to another, about seven to two lines. 

Dissepiments short, stout, expanding at junction "wdth raj's, 
seeming to surround them, non-poriferous ; seven in the sfmce 
of two lines. 

Fenestrules nearly as wide as long where woni down, pre- 
senting hollow squares with thin sharp edges ; wliere well pre- 
served with the cortex investing them, they are nearly oval ; 
shout six transTersely, or longitudinally. 

Cell pores indistinct, hut sufficiently marked to show three 
large cells to each fenestrule, or five counting the two wliicfl 
belong to the dissepiments above and below. 

Heverse distinctly corticated, the surface showing an irrego- 
lar line of tubercles upon each ray, with scattered pores. 

This description is drawn from a specimen which is m"'-" 
Weathered, but by careful observation we trust we have been 
able to define its relations : — It bears an analogy to the i* • 
patula {McGoy% and the F. antiqna {Gold. sp. ib.), bat dU- 
fera in the same relations as the F. Popeana. It may, m'X^^'M 
be only a variety of the latter; but, from its fim-sh?""'' ^'^' 




trafls- 



pansion, the greater length of iti 

of its fenestrules, and the wider ....„..„ - 

versely on the two sides of the longitudinal rays, we are ib* 
clined to believe that better preser\'ed specimens will eiia^ 
US to establish a specific difference. The F. corticata and ^• 

that it would be diffi 
difle r e n c es. B < > th o J 
disbc]aruent3 are rep 
beins: thinner " 



ana both resemble the Fttepora (F.) tenuijllla ana J 

jrahe/lata, FMUim. but his descrintions are so nieag'^ 




m 



Carbon 



^.......^i ,;u.m 1,1 yur ^T^Q species. , ^ , t>,p 

o^Yy.— Collected by Br. Geo. G. Shumard from ^c 



v<n\n Mountains 



PROUT — NEW SPECIES OF BRYOZOA. 2S1 



Fenestella i>'termedia. {Prout.) 

Corrallum most probably fan-shaped; size not known, t\n 

we Imve only a fragment near the outer border. 

Interstices or longitudinal 7'ays slender, round, or coni]*res- 
»ec! at the sides, so as to render them subangular on the ob- 
Terse, more or legs flexuous, irregularly dichotonushig; three 
branches from one stem dichotomise first at two, then at one, 



two, and even three lines apart. JS^e/ nearly obsolete; seems 
to have been somewhat tubercled. 

Difis^meut8 about one-third as large as the interstices, 
round, expanded as they terminate on the longitudinal rays, 
deprei^ed below the general surface, sometimes opposite but 
most frequently alternate, about one line apart. 

Feiie^truhs irregular in form, but generally long rectangu- 
lar rounded at the angles, from one to four times as wide as 
the interstices, lanceolate at the bifurcations, about two in two 
lines longituilinally, about five or six transversely. 

Cdls from five to seven, most frequently six, on each side 
of the fenestrules; small, oval; longitudinal lips thin; the two 
lower cells, with a supernumerary, are placed in a triangular 
expansion at the bifurcations ; periphery of the fenestrules not 
indented, the cells seeming to lie rather under the longitudi- 
nal ravs. 

AT 

Ktnsons, — This graceful species bears a close analogy 
to I\Milkn {Lonsdale^ as more fully descriht^dhy McCoy)^ 
but differs in the length of its fenestrules, the want of altern- 
ation and anastamosis among the cells, and in the number of 
the cell pores to each fenestrule. 

It resembles the i^\ mibantiqna {!>" Orhiy?iy), T". antiqua 
(T-onsdale), but differs by its slender dissepiments, their great- 
er distance apart, and the greater length of its fenestrules, 

This species being analagous in its general fonn and other 
characters to F. Milleri and F. suhantiqua, I have assigned 
» rt the name of inUrmedia. 

Locaiity,— Collected by Dr. George G. Shumard fiom the 
tarboniferous Limestone of the Oman Mountains- 




Fenestella taeiabilis. {Front.) 
Corralhim large, branched, biforeating irreg 



fan-rf 



Jntprmces stout, slender 



near 




fiances apart, about one line and a quarter in tlie best 
^^-ed portion of the specimen. 



232 TRANS. OF THE ACAD. OF SCIENCE. 

Fenestrules long, irregular in form, generally quadrangular, 
seven or eight times as long as tlie width of the interstices, 
deeply indented or knotted on the sides by large and project- 
ing cells; two and one-half in the space of two linos vertical- 
ly, ahout four in two lines transversely. 

Cells \:irgo and prominent, distant, placed in somewhat va- 
ried series on the two sides of the longitudinal ribs, alternate, 
six or eight to each fenestrule. 

This species resembles no other which I have seen describ- 
ed ; it has been described from a fragment well preserved on 
the surface of a black limestone, with other more imperfect 
branches embedded in the matrix; the stems arc sometimes 
slender, and become irregularly thickened near the bifurca- 
tions, where they have the indistinct appearance of anotLcr 
line of pores, between the prominent pores on the sides. In 
some large stems, which couLl not be decided as certainly be- 
longing to this species, there were indistinct appearances of 
three linee of cells. 



Feis'estella SnuMAKDii. (JProui.) 



CorraUum form 



dissepiments, most probably fan-shaped or dendritic. 

Interstices bent, somewhat contorted in jdaces, very slen- 
der, frequently bifurcated at the distance of one to one aiul a 
half lines apart; keel delicate, a fine line frequently interrup- 
ted by the infringement of the cells. 



B 



i! 



at nearly regular intervals, bowed towards the border, not 



fjing glass, much depressed, swelling at tbeir junctions with 
the dissepiments. 

Fenestrules quadrangular or oval, eight in the space of t^'o 
Imes transversely, about eight to nine in the same space ver- 
tically, indented by the large pores. * 

^ Cell pores comparatively large, placed near reverse or w^ 
m the fenestrules, about two to each fenestrule, one to each 
dissepiment, sometimes two where the dissepiment is expantl- 
ed, lip thin but cells more or less projecting. ^ 

This small and beautiful species we have dedicated- to iJJ"- 
George G. Shumard, Geologist to the United States Expe<li- 

a under Capt. John Pope, whose ardent laT)ors and scieft- 

c zeal have contributed so effectuallv to unfold the (-tCOI- 
o,gy of a larare portion of the hitherto unexplored regions oi 
Texas and ^uw Mexico. 

ZocaUty.—ln dark gray subcrvstalline limestone of ^« 




ICQ, 



Mountains 




PROUT — NEW SPECIES OP BRTOZOA. 233 



Fenestella Nokwoodiaka. {Prout.) 

Corrallum most probably cyatluform, small an<l delicate, 
reverse only exposed. 

Longitudinal 
trules, minutely 
one point. 



grannl 



^mmeiits 



Fenestrules generally sharp, quadrangular, seldom oval, 
slightly longer than broad, sixteen or seventeen m the sj>ace 
of three lines longitudinally, eighteen to nineteen in the same 



space transversely. 



/ 



Interstices characterized by a minute, sharj>-edged and oc- 
casionally tubercled keel, separating two alternate rows of 
large vesicular cells, with small pore openings one to each 
dissepiment, and one to each fenestrule where regular; some- 
times two to 'a fenestrule, but this is an exception to the t}T>e. 

Comparison. — This minute and beautifvil species resembles 
the jp. crilrosa (JlaG)^ from which it is distinguished by the 
greater number of fenestrules in a given space. Further com- 
parison can not be instituted, as Hall did not see the obverse 



nnen 



Locality. — Carboniferous Limestone of Organ Mountams, 
Xew Mexico. Collected by Dr. Geo. G. Shumard. 

It is With much pleasure that we dedicate this handsome 
species to our friend Dr. J, G. Xorwood, whose labors have 
contributed so largely to our knowledge of Western Geology 
and Palaeontology. 

Fenestella bubretiformis. {Prout.) 

Corrallum fan or cup-shaped, waved transversely, probably 
t^o or three inches long, reverse only exposed. 



^nttri^iicts stout, mmu 
striae 



seeming 



ous 



concentric lines, bifurcations 



opposit 



not frequent, Bitnated two and a half to three and n half lines 
apart. 

Pissepiments nearly as large as interatices, granul 
«tna*€ when much worn. 

fenestrules oral, generally 
Waved transverse lines, irreguk 

rl^ ^i»^ measured transversely or lungitudmally. 

mvene, or medallion face, interstices marked by a luM.lle 
line of large, irregularly sized tubercles, with larger and small- 
^celjg irregularly placed around them ; we thought we could 
perceive traces of a row of larger cells on the two sides of the 
lenestrule, about two to each space, but these when seen were 
n»ost frequently opposite to the larce tubercles. 



r n 

234 TRANS* OP THE ACAD. OE SCIENCE. 

Comparison. — It ^'ill be seen from the description that 
this species resembles the Fenedella retiformis {Mc Coy)— 
Keratophytes retiformis (Schlotbeim), — but differs in the ?ize 
of its interstices, in the large tubercles on the midrib, and the 
irregular disposition or the cell pores, and the absence of in- 
dcntatation by those of the fenestrules. 

JSfote. — There seems to be some discrepancy in McCoy's 
description of 7^. retiformis ; it may, however, prove to be a 
typographical error. We are told that the interstices are thin, 
the fenestrules about two thirds the width of the interstices, 
and nearly tM'ice as long as broad, while the dissepiments are 
strong ; yet the space of two lines, longitudinally or trans- 
versely, give the same number of fenestrules, or five to six. 
Now this is an impossibility in a mathematical point of vicTr, 
so that some error must have crept into his description. 

Collected by Dr. Geo. G. Shumard, from the Carboniferous 
Limestone of the Oi-gan Mountains, New Mexico. 



') coxcEXTJjicA. (Prout.) 



Corrallum 



tion, compressed or flattened ; outer edge thin, smooth ; lon- 
gitudinal ridges separating cells minutely striate, strire sur- 
rounding the prominent lip of the cell in concentric lines; if 



any acce 

re mil 



Lccessory cells, one placed at the base of the aperture, ir- 
arly punctate from weathering ; cells slightly vcntricose, 
oval, Trith the appearance of a raised round lip, arrange*! m 
alternating lines between the ridges, or in transversely oblique 



membraniform 



dest part of the bifurcation, which is about 'four lines wi^le, 
eight in the narrowest part, which is about two and half Imes 



Tvide, 

fibrous on both sides. 



tliree lines wide ; cellules 



JEi 



Vfc have placed this species provisionally among the ii^- 
ara; it is different from the U. scalnellwn (Xonsdale), and 



rata of Ilagenow. 



E. scalpellwn (L 
its surface the E. 



V 



■Locality. — Organ Mountains, Kew ^lexico. 
Collected by i>r. Geo, G. Shumard, 

ESCHARA (?) TUBERCUL ATA. {PrOnt) 

Corrallum somewhat flattened, border round, wider thaa 
lonnr, ndges minutely granular and tubcrcled between the cei.s. 



the furrows, or in U^m- 



Cell ' - ^ "" 



mate in 




ings, about mx in the same space 



inc3 



^pOB 



^r 



"iK- 



I" 



.-^^ 



TtZr 



r- 



PROUT — CARBONIFEROUS BRYOZOA. 235 



"We have placed this species, also, among Eschara provis- 
ionally. Notwithstanding the able effort of D'Orbigny to 
bring about harmony and regularity in the chaos which pre- 
vailed in the classification of the Bryozoa^ we are inclined to 
believe that some confusion still remains in resjard to the tnie 
generic characters of Eschara^ Sulcapora^ Etilodictya^ and 
Sukocava. TThetiier these have been separated upon inade- 
quate structural differences, we are not prepared to deter- 
mine. 

Locality — Organ Mountains, New 3Icxico, 
Collected by Dr. Geo. G. Shumard. 



1 



First of a Series of Des€ri2)tio?is of Carboxifekous 

Bryozoa. 



■V 



I «w 



BY H- A. PSOUT, M.D. 

FEXESTRALIA, 7ieio mhgenus. {Prout) 
Fenestralia St. Ludovici. {Prout.) 

Corrallurn flabelliform, bifurcating frequently, and rapid 
expanding into a broad frond, folded upon itself longitudin _ 
ly near the top. 

Longitudinal rays or interstices large, round near base, 
inore angular towards the middle of the frond; midrib indis- 
tinct near the base, very prominent and well marked where 
slightly weathered. 

Jjissepiments short, strong, and enlarged at the junction 
^Uh the longitudinal rays. 

Eenestrides long oval or elliptical, rarely quadrangular, two 
to two and a half in two lines measured longitudinally, four 
in two lines transversely, 

Cdls in two rows on either side of the midrib, most gener- 
^^y/^PP^^ite in the two rows, and opposite on the two sides 
ot the midrib, five to each fenestrule, or twenty inclusive of 
the two rows on each side. 

^ -K€t?er»e, fenestrules quadrangular from the want of exj»an- 
sion in the junction of the dl^sei)iments5 rays and dissepiments 

^iii^ Penes telia is characterized by a double row of pores 
on each mde of the midrib, without a divisional keel between 




f ^^^^'^"^ pores upon the sides- No generic d^crip- 

^n m Fenestclla would include this species except the very 

eneral original desciiption of Lonsdale. As Umited by 

^^ r^ w King, it would be a wrong collocation to place it 

'^^^%Fenestella projier. The existence of two rows of pores 

^aeh side ^-ithont a separatinj^ keel entitles it to be ranked 

^nn ^^^S^T^s <^f PenesteUa^ as liiucL as two approximating 

*mes ol cells withont a keel would give authority to M. D'Or- 



236 TRANS. OF THE ACAD. OF SCIENCE. 



bigny to separate Hetejjorina^ or minute lines of pores on the 
midrib would authorize him to establish the genus of Fmes- 
treUina. The same remarks may be applied to the Kera- 
tophytes of Schlotheim^ the Pohjpora of McCoy^ and the 
Synodadia of King. If the Keratophytes is to be separated 
because it has more than two serial lines of pores without me- 
dian ribs, we see no good and sufficient reason why our sub- 
genus may nut be established on the characters which we have 
indicated above. It is certainly a departure from the origi- 
nal type of Fenestella as limited by D'Orbigny, as well as a 
departure from the broader limit given by King, in the ab- 
sence of median ridges between the double scries of porcs.^ 

We have another specimen from "Warsaw, Illinois, which 
seems to be larger and somewhat differently bifurcated; in 
this the cells are large and tubercuhited iu the two lines, 
prominently indentiiig the sides of the fenestrule, but^ the 
number of pores to the fenestrules could not be deterimned 
because of the depression of the dissepiments; it seems to be 
a larger and better preserved species of this subgenus. ^ 

Locality. — Upper layers of St. Louis Limestone, St. Louis. 




^ ^..^STELLA PLUMOSA. {PrOUt.) . 

Corrallum formincr a broad, waved, funnel-shaped frond, about three inc^ 
es wide, one and three-quarters high ; bifurcations frequent, at from one to 
two or more lines apart. 

Intfrstices or Imyitudinal rays not slender, beautifully striate on rererse, 
keel moderately large, round, slightly ^aved, dilating into three ormo^^ 
low tubercles to each fenestrule, waved linear where not worn, i ^^ 
tubercles are less than their diameter apart, sometimes opposite, ana som 




ween the bifurcating and anastomosing^^' 
tlie sDace of two lines longitudinahy,awi 



Fenestrules in regular lines bet 
gitudina! rays, generally six in tlie space of two lines ^^"S^^^^^^^^'ji' ^^^^^^ 
ten iu the same space transversely, being nearly twice as i^ng as D _ ' 

Cell pores large, indenting the margin of the fenestrule, three to oacn 
estrule on each side. ^ * weath- 

Reverse beautifullv striate wliere not too much worn ; where ^^f^^ ^^ 
ered so as to be cut'down to the base of the cells, these are seen to ^^^^ 

apparently ani^ular, alternately in juxtaposition without ^^ ^"z„ i jfe 
pores, or mesial 5oIid division. There is a distinct pedicle ^\^^^*^ F;^ 
weathered appearance of other rootlets, and also a process shooa g ^^ 
from the longitudinal rays, at the distance of about three l*^*^'.^? ^^f the 
which seems to have been to give greater firmness to the P^^^^ ^^^gof s 
funnel-shapefi corraihim. There is near the base, also, ^^®,*PP?!"^^in3to 
thick, yellowish, stony crust, %vhich is irregularly porous, and ^'^^^^^l; "^^gij^, 
be a part of the incrustauon which covered this polypidom in us ^^\-^-^ ^ 
Omparimn. — This species resembles very closely the r> ^^\j^^pr 
SiMotheim, but differs in the greater thickness of the interstices a»ti ^^ ^^ 
ments, and the want of constancy and prominence in the ^'^"^^« •' ,r>his^ 
be observed here, that any FenesteUa with sessile colls, or ceils ui^^ ^^^^ 
in the midrih, are Hable to apjM^ar in the weatht^red ^^^^*^*^^V^ Jj^^-ois ^ 
tuberculous. At one point in the specimen before us where «^^r^„ ^r these 




separate it from the F, retijormis. Lomlitij, — Warsaw, IlUnOiS 



jr 



^1: 



£ 



f . 



PROrT^ — BRYOZOA, IST SERIES. 237 

L. 4Tf6 T. 



20— 
25 

2 lines. 



POLYPORA VaRSOVIEXSIS. (jPtOUL) 



Corralhnn 



fragment 



amen, about one inch long and three-fourths of an inch wiJe, 
the balance of the expansion having been worn away. 

Interstices broad, round near base, more flattened above, 
having three irregular lines of pores near the pedicle, four or 
five m the more expanded portion of the frond; the interstices 
and fenestrules disappear at one point, and there is a broad 
expansion for the space of three rays and about ten or twelve 
dt-^scpiments, studded with numerous cell pores, above which 
the longitudinal rays and fenestrules appear again, and proceed 
regularly toward the border of the frond. 

JJissepiments short, broad, depressed, striated, non-porifer- 
ous, and much enlarged at the junction with the longitudinal 

rays. - a 

Fenestrules oval, forming regularly dichotomizing lines, 
wbere not interrupted by the expansion referred to above; 
aoout live m the space of two lines transversely, four to five 

ongitudmally, or twenty to twenty-five in the space of two 
unes sqiuire. ^ 

cm p^res not in regular lines, large, round, with sharp Hps 
f|>!ng obhquely upward from the face of the corrallum, with 
iniersttccs moderately wide, and sometimes minutely porous ; 
axis, where seen, minutely tubular-striate. 

A qaostion of some interest arises in regai-d to the expan- 
fro^ 1^?-'^^ a^ove: was this the result of a wound in the 
il_ ..' ^r.^^« 1' proceed from excessive formative action in the 



onA f • -^^ ^' ^"^^" their growth was too much devel- 
it mn + F^'^ "^^ ^^ oscules? We are inclined to believe that 
iCTt\ ^esw^ted from a wound, or injury of the frond, as 

Ion Jr ?• ^*^^"^ ^^ ^^^'^ ^^^^ directed from the two bounding 
*>n£tudmal ™ to heal the breach of continuity; it is weii 
^«n ttiat the frond of our m: lorn Gorgonias when injured 
»e repaired m a similar manner. 

a 8'iX" ' \74f«55ia«a or G. retiformis of DeKaninck; there is 
•L 'P " resemblance between it nnrf th*> r^tifnrmis m thp -bsn^ nf 



Com 



^b« fenestr 

Jwo species. It b 

*«*a or m 

f^^ inctpi 

nwrfy to i^ocladiZ ' We 



retiformis 



.e 



( Polypora ) 



(Poly. ) fiusiriformis ( Ph illips ). The Poly- 



** 



a 



initrifTfn ( D 7, ', * ''^ « "ave as yet seen no aescripiion ot me i'. 
cola p}r}-!r^^> t*** ^' fi^^uosa ( £>' Orbigny), the P. Hfur- 
Con- hJ» f'' i^^^^^ing), nor any of the species of M 

cemin ,n„ •/^\'^y *^ *^*^^« ^^^-e their nomenclature founded on 



Locality 



warran 



10 



238 TEAN3. OP THE ACAD. OP SCIENCE. 



Descriptions of New Species of Blastoidea from the 
PalcBozoic HocJcs of the Western States^ with some Oher- 
vations on the Stkfcture of the Summit of the Genus 




NTREMITES. 



BY B. P. SHUMAED, M.D. 



CODASTER PYRAMIDATUS, JV^ Sp. 

(PL IX., fig. 1 a— e.) 



summit moderately convex* and its contour reerul 



daL 



onal. The surface is elegantly marked with distinct stris 
parallel to the edges of the pieces. 

The hase is triangular, pyramidal, rounded at the angles, 
slightly constricted below, and occu2>ies about one-third the 
height of the body. Of the three pieces composing it, two 
are hexagonal of equal form, and the third is pentagonal. 
The superior edges are concave to receive the convex basal 



gul 



(radials) ; below is a very small trian- 
ncave, bearing a circular fiicet for the 
ated by a minute alimentary openin: 



gradually 



{assiike furcati) are much longer than 
prominent in the middle, f^nd expand 
om below upwards. The ineudo-amtnir 
lacral spaces are triangular, rather shallow, sharply edged, 
and extend downwards scarcely more than one-fifth nie 
length. At the lateral sutures we find a broad, distinctly im- 
pressed band, marked with several rather prominent 1*-'^^'^": 
diiial strltB, and limited on either side by a slightly raised 
hair-like carina. 

P sexido-amhulacral areas. — From the central stelluona 
space at the summit radiate five fields to the angles of tne 
pentagon; these are of a petaloid form, and each is ^HJ ^^ 
Its entire length by a deep mesial furrow, on either mem 
which is a shallower lateral furrow. The number of pore pi^ 
ces in each row amounts to about twenty-two. These bem 
divide the summit into five broad, triangular spaces, one o 
which is smooth and pierced by a lar^e opemnEC of a rhomu 

" • belir a rather ^road, ^f' 

and narrower tn^a 



for 
t^ne 



the fields, and whose extremity corresponds to tx lateral » - 



^. 



een .„_ ^. 

lacral fields are traversed m in Cadaster acuucs \^^^^-/^ v 

either siu<^ ^* 



prominent lamelliforra stri^, which arise from u^^..^- - , 
the ridges and proceed to the exterior bordoi-s in Hnes aeanj 
parallel with the fields. 






SnUMARD — BLASTOIBEA. 239 



Dimensions. — ^Angle of divergence of sides, 46°; length, 
0.42 of an inch; width at summit, 0.27; length of base, 0.14; 
width of same, 0.14. 

Our species differs from C. acutus (McCoy), by its more 
slender form, narrow base, convexity of the summit, and other 

important characters. 

Occurs in the Devonian strata of the Falls of the Ohio, and 
on Bear-Grass Creek, near Louisville, Kentucky ; also in the 
vicinity of Columbus, Ohio.- Beautiful examples of this spe- 
cies are to be found in the cabinet of my friend, Dr. L, P. Yan- 
dell, at Louisville, Ky. 

CODASTER A]MERICAXUS, If. Sp. 

The body of this little species presents the form of an in- 
verted p}Tamid, with a convex pentagonal base, and its t 
verj' slightly truncated. The surfaces of the basal and radial 



with 



rection 



gular 



and occupies about two-fifths the entire length. Its superior 
«dges are but sliofhtlv excavated, and the under surface bears 



small 



The radial jneces are longer than wide, most prominent in 



parallel or slightly divergent 
I^eudo-ambulacrai spaces are 

ted. and fht^ir^ n/T^^« .i;^«^^^ ^ 



and 



The 



limbs are 



M. 



inwards 



linear, jmd 



^ated from each other by broad, triangular spaces, marked 



sumlar to those of the preceding species. The specimen is 
imperfect at the summit, so that the form and number of the 
P**^piece8 can not he determined. 

rhis_ species is reiy similar to Cadaster pyramidatus, of 
which it may be merely a strongly marked variety. The prin- 
cipal differences are the much greater fineness of the stnse of 
the surface, the entire absence of the broad depressed band 
*t the lateral sutures, and its shorter radial pieces. 

■^i'nen,nons.~Lengi\i^ 0.29 ; width at summit, 0.20 ; length 
ot base, 0.10 J width of same, 0.12; length of radial pieces, 

U.l.*>. J J o 

Found in the Devonian strata at the Falls of the Ohio. 

J*fiXTREMITES (CoDASTER?) KeNTUCKYEXSIS, K. Sp. 

(PI. IX., fig. 5.) • 

K ^%^-^~ merely fragnnents of this species, consistinir of 
uae Dasal and two of the radial nieces, but thev are so differ- 



240 TRANS- OF THE ACAD. OF SCIENCE. 



ent from those of any known species that we feel justified in 
characterizing them. 

The basal piece which remains preserved in our specimen 
is thirij pentagonal, wider than long, convex, and with shglitly 
diverging sides. Its upper edge is concave and longer than 
the Literal edges; below is the segment of a small, somewhat 
prominent ring, from which radiate three broad, obtuse, roun- 
ded ridges, two of them terminating at the superior angles of 
the piece, and the third at the middle of the superior margin. 

The radial pieces are larsje, longer than wide, and expand 
somewhat gradually from below upwards. The basal margin 
is obtuselv angulated in t^e middle, and about half as long as 



one of the lateral margins. The sides are nearly plane and 
slope* somewhat rapidly from the margins of the pseudo- 
ambulacro spaces to the lateral margins; below are two 
obtuse angular ridges, which start from the extremity of the 
pseudo-ambulacral fields and proceed to the infero-lateral an- 
gles of the piece. The surface is marked with rather promi- 
nent, uneven striae, which run in lines nearly parallel with the 
lateral and inferior margins. ' 

The pseudo-ambulacral areas each form an elevated, nar- 
rowj linear ridge, in the middle of a very large, triangular 
space, which is depressed and marked on each side of the area 
with closely arranged, lamellar, longitudinal striae. The pore 
pieces are elegantly striated on their inner edges, and consist 
of two rows of altematincT pieces to each field. 



hal^ 



at 



his fine species I found several years since in the shai^ 
"Button-Mould luiob," seven miles south of Louisville, 
Kentucky. Its geological position is at the base of the Car- 
boitiferous System, in^beds which are equivalent to the Encn* 
nital Limestone of Missouri, Iowa and Illinois. It was found 
associated with Actinocrinus YancMli, Productus pimctam 
and Product)/ s semireticidatus. 



4^. 



PiCXTEEMITES GeOSVENOEI, If. S}). 

(PI. IX., fig. 2 a, b, c, d.) 



The 



O 



and the 




F 



closely arranged strisB, wMch are scarcely perceptible to tbe 



naked eye. 
The base 



t , 



rounded. Its length is almost double the widtli and it o^^^l^' 
pies about one-third the total length. The under surfic^ is 



facet ~- 



_ llie radial pieces are rery much elonr^atcd, subang^^ 
m the middle, and flattened on the sides. "^ Their branches <ii- 
verge slightly and are very short, scarcely forming more tbm 



SHUMAED — BLASTOIDEA, 241 



one-fifth of the length of the pieces. The deltoid pieces are 
small, lozenge-shape dj and rather prominent m the middle. 

The psendo-anwulacraljields are petaloid and deeply lodg- 
ed in the grooves of the radial pieces. They consist of 
from eighteen to twenty pore pieces, which are divided into 
rather prominent lobes by several oblique furrows, whicli rati 
ohlifjuely from the inferior edges to within a short distance of 
the superior ones. 

The specimen figured exhibits at the summit a large cen- 
tral stelliform space {moiith)^ which is surrounded by five 
ovarial apertures, situated just within the extremiticfj of tlie 
interradial pieces. The covering plates of the apertures have 
not been preserved. 

Dunensions. — Length, 0.32; width, 0.12; length of base, 
0.10; width of same, 0.05. 

For the favor of being permitted to make known this unique 
species we are indebted to H. C- Grosvenor, Esq-, of Cincin- 
nati, who obtained it from the Archimedes Limestone at Sper- 
gen Hill, Indiana. It is very rare, the specimen figured being 
the only one that has been found. It is associated with Pentre-^ 
mites conoideus (Hall), and Bichocrinus simjjlex (Shumard). 

Pexteemites lixeatus. 
(PL IX., fig. 3 a, b.) 

^ The calyx of this little Pentremite is rather slender, subfti- 
siform, five-sided, pyramidal above, becoming triangular be- 
loyr. The surface of the thirteen princii)al pieces is marked 
with extremely fine striae of increase which are scarcely \-isi- 
oie to the naked eye. 

The base is tiiangular, pyramidal, with the angles rv^anded. 
It forms about one-third the entire height and the length is 
about double the mdth. The superior edges are straight or 

ler surface very small, tri- 

gular, gently concave, and marked with a small circular 
fecet for the column. 

The radial pi'^ces are narrow, very much elongated, their 
borders Subparall6l or veiy slightly divergent ; below the mid- 
dle they are obtusely angulated and on the sides flattened. 
A he branches are very slender, lanceolate, increase in thick- 
ness from below upwards, and their extremities arfe obliquely 
™cated to receive the interradials. The inner edges are 
^hparallel and tnarl-^d with a delicate, slightly raised caiinn. 

small, somewhat lozenge- 

rp ■ ^^v «w v.*-- uv^mmit. 

J-^^ pmifJo<imhulacral fclds are narrow, linear, deeply 
«ttiat€^ and extend downwards about half the length nf the 

1^'lial pic, ,,g. Each of the fields contain about fifty transverse 

jWfe pieces, arr;in<Tf>f? ?T» 1 /IrtTiWa olfi^i-TiitirxT row. 



rv 





rf« 



242 TRANS. OF THE ACAD. OF SCIENCE. 



Owing to the cmslied state of the only specimen we have 
seen of this species the structure of the summit can not be 
further deteiTained. From the same cause the figure rcpre* 
sents the species much "^ider than natural. 

Dimensions. — Length, J5 ; width, about 0.26 ; length of 
base, 0.25; width of same, about 0.13. 

This Pentremite cannot be mistaken for any species hith- 
erto found in our Carboniferous strata, but it is closely alUed 
to Fentremites Beinuardtii (Troost); an Upper Silurian spe- 
cies from Tennessee. Our fossil is, however, more slender, 
and the pseudo-ambulacral fields reach down to the middle 



_P. Heinwardt 



gth 



For the opportunity of describing this rare species I am in- 
debted to Henry M. Matthews, M.D., who has kindly placed 
it in my hands for this purpose. It was found in the Encri- 
nital Limestone near Monmouth, Illinois, where it occurs with 
JPentremites Norwooclii^ Megistocrimis Evaiisi^ and Adino- 



if< 



Pe^-TEEMITES DECXTSSATrS, iVT SJ> 

(PL IX., fig. 6 a, b.) 



Wo have had several radial plates of this species in our col- 
lection for a number of years, and although the locality where 
they occur has been fre'quently visited by collectors, no one, 
m far as we know, has been so fortunate as to find a perfect 
specimen. 



i 

ii 
I 



idial plates arc large, rather 



'» 



and longitudinally arched. The basal margin is verj' short, 
incurved, and the lateral margins diverge at an angle of aboat 
ir. The pseudo-ambulacral gutter extends to the base of the 
pieces. Below the middle it is narrow and deep, and the sid^ 
nearly parallel, but towards the summit it becomes shal- 
low and increases in width ; on either side is a well-defined 
angular carina, terminating below in a salient angle, wliicji 
serves to support the extremity of the pseudo-ambulacral field. 
On the upper portion of the" piece this carina is separated 
from the poral plates by a longitudinal gi'oove. The sides are 
nearly flat and decline from the carina to the lateral mar^n^ 
very abniptly for a short distance from the base, and then 



graduallj 




ledby 

; ape- 



clcsrant 



The psei 



base of the pieces. For some distance above 



the 



Tatter they are narrow and their sides nearly parallel ; tlu-.- 
then gradually widen until they arrive at the summit, wher* 









r - 
r 









SHUMAKD — BLASTOIDEA. 243 



their width is twice as great as at the base. A deep, angular 
mesial furrow extends the whole length of the field, and on 
either side of this is a broad furrow, which coalesces with the 
sides before reaching: the base. The fields consist of numer- 
ons pore and supplementary pore pieces, the foniier of which 
are transverse, gradually increase in width from below up- 
wards, and extend the whole width of the field. They are 
somewhat wedge-shaped, their surface transversely excavated, 
and their inner extremities deeply and beautifully striated. 
The supplementary pore pieces are very short, arched above, 
and straight below: 

This interesting species occurs at the base of the Carbonif- 
erous system at Button-Mould Knob, seven miles south of 
Louisville, Kentucky. 



JPentreinites. 



rf the SummU of the 



wnter. 



announced 



rhuad. (Vol. 2, p. 65), that the mouth and ovarial apertures, 
which we find at the summit of Pentremites, were, in the per- 
fect state, completely closed by a conical covering of small 
calcareous plates. This announcement was, however, unac- 
comp^ied with any details of structure, as it was intended to 
jmbfish a fuller account, illustrated with figures. But the 
*^r^ci«ien xxpon which our observ^ations were founded w^as un- 
fortunately niislaid, and, although hundreds of Pentremites 
have since been examined with the view of again detecting 
tiiis structure, no example was found that exhibited it until a 
ftiw da^ since. 

During a recent visit to Cincinnati, the writer obtained, 
Mitough the kindness of Mr. Samuel T. Carley, several ^^eci- 
^^^^ of Pentremites conoideus (Hall) from the Archimedes 
I|^unestone of Spergen Hill, Indiana, a species belonging to 



the 



cleaning th^e 
ery clearly the struc- 



TOe group Floreales of Roemer. After carefull 

fimils, one of them was found to exhibit very c_ _ . ^ 

tare represented in PI. ix., fig. 4. The central stelliform 

space (mouth) is perfectly closed by six small microscopic 



smalle 



central one of a pentagonal fonn, surrounded by five 

hich 



^rture and form a little dome. The five ovarial openings 




, ^ , — ^.. „i its general appearance reminds one of 

^e ovarian pyramid that we find m Caryocrinus^ Agdacri- 
^^^xmi other genera of the family Cystidea. 

V mee the above w^as written and the plate engraved, Prof. 
25 wallow ha.s libf rail v presented me with a specimen of Fen- 

. , - -jmer) from Chester, Illinois, in wliich the 

eammit openings are also completely closed ; but the form 




244 



TRANS, OF THE ACAD. OP SCIEXCE. 



ot the covering pieces are quite unlike those of P. conotdens, 
and they ai-_e arranged in a very different manner. In this 



with 



pyra- 



interrS' 



dial pieces, while the retreating angles correspond to the cen- 
tre of the x^seudo-arabulacral fields. The base of this little 
ppamid is joined to the superior edges of the pseudo-ambula- 
cral fields so as to completely roof in the buccal and ovarial 
apertures. It consists of about fifty pieces, arranged in ten 
senes j the first or exterior ones in each series being of a tri- 
angular form, the others elongated quadrilateral. Two series 
of pieces stand over each ovarial aperture, those of one side 
uniting with their fellows of the opposite side at the salient 
angles of the pyramid. 

From these observations there would seem to be but little 
doubt that the summit openings are closed in all the forms of 
the genus Pentremites, whether they belong to the group 
Florecdes, ElUptici, Truncati, or Clavati. This view is stiU 
turther strengthened from the circumstance that the central 
opening has already been found closed in several species of 
the group Elliptici, namely, P. VerneuUL P. Sayi, P. Nor- 
ieoodit, and P. meh. ' "^ 



^ 



SHUMARD — BLASTOIDEA. 



245 



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246 



TRANS. OF THE ACAD. OF SCIENCE. 









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SHUMARD — BLASTOIPEA. 



247 



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248 



TRANS. OE THE ACAD. OF SCIENCE 



EXPLA:^^ATIOX OF PLATE IX. 



Fig. 1. CODASTER PTRAMIDATUS 

a — View of the summit. 

^— Side tIcw, showing the position of the anal aperture. 

r 

c — ^Another view of the side. 

d — One of the pseudo-ambulacral fields greatly enlarged. 

«— Natural size- ' 



Fig. 2. Pjentremites Grosyenoki. 

a — Summit riew^ 

h — View of the side. 

c — ^Pseudo-ambulacral field, greatly magnified. 

d — Bepresents the natural size. 



Fig. 3. Pextremites lixeatus 



a — Side view of a specimen, natural size. 
h — Pseudo-aiabulacral field, enlarged. 



F^ 



Penxremites oo>'oii)Ers. 



flrraBgc- 



and ovarial openings 



Fi 



( Cadaster) 




Fragment of calvi, conslstim? of two 



basal, ysJ^ 



size 



Fig. 6. Pentremites decussatus 



a — Kadial plate, natural size. 



£— Upper part of pseudo-ambulacral field, greatly magnified, ^^^J^';^^^ 

form of the pore and supplementary pore pieces. The 8 . j^ 
rating the former from the latter hare been omitted by tae 



man. 



jf 



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f/tf7rA\'>^ffffix . Sham . 



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n\- 



SEYFFARin — ^EOTITLiN SEAL. 249 



A Mtmarkahle Seal in Dr. Abbot f$ JTuseum at New York^ 

Explained by G. Seyffabth, D.D. 

Since the restoration of Egj-ptian Archseology, in 1799, 
more than 500 Egyptian liierog] yjtliic, or Hieratic, or Demotic 
Papyrus-scrolls have been brought to light, which harmonize, 
word for M-ord,the one with the other, r*r, nt lea^tt, contain the 
same parts of an original manuscript. Dr, Abbott's Museum, 
at New York, contains three Papyri of that kind, 22, 23 and 
36 feet in length, re<5pectivt!v, A much larger one, brought 
fromThehaB to Paris, has been published by Cadet, and re- 
published in the "Description clo ]'l5?rypte;'» A Hieratic Pa- 
p}Tus nearly of the ^amc length was in the collection of the 
ute General Minutoli nt Derlin, which in, at present, in Eng- 
land. The largest of all l^apyrii^j-Rcrolls nuw ejttant, measur- 
^g 60 feet in length, and in the lu^f condition, was acquired 
by Drovetti, the French Consul in Cairo, and sold, toizcthcr 
?2oq ^^^ of his collection, to tin* irovenunent of Turin, in 
iS^3. It contains, in consequence of the gmallness of the 
^^^Jgv'pWc figures, nearly the double of Cadet^s manuscript. 

All these Papyri contain, as Champollion conjectured, 
^pptian Liturgies concerning the sepulture of the dead; 
wiierefore he called them Ritmh funeraires. Mr. Lepsiu^, 
i;! ^^^^^,^trarj', although al?o imable to understand a single 



tnmj-- 



"«e ot ^}je mtuels funeraireB according tt> Champ 
S T'l!^''/^^* '^ that they contalrKMl an illustrated c 
^m^f ^^?} I'tnm Metenipsycho^i?;. firticularly uf th( 
gration of the buul nKntioned in each Paprrus; which nii- 

S k" ^"'^*^''' "^^f ^'^"" y*^a»^» with the r.t'urn of that soul 
y a liunian body. Accordingly, Mr. J.evnm, pnl4ishlng the 

TV;"!^^ Book of thu Dcaa~-[l.eipmr, 1^ ♦*-?]• 
thek '*'^®*i 'ircaius havr rani^hed piuc^ the discovery of 
of irif^i ^*l ' E'vptian lit. rature, and since the translation 
an/ft^ ^^''^^ ^"^ chapters of the so-called TodUnl 

ithu, wf« I r,vi,l, what I first ^^^-^ - ■»«*>« '" ^ 

«»^t kind are copies of tlf. nnciel? 



% 



sacred 




*««u dts^tf f^'*^! ?. V*^ rouleau de p^rrm trourd k Thfetet dajBi oh tom- 

Pag.to^'''*'*"8cn ueW die ^gypt. Papyrus to Berli- Leip. 1826. 



# 



250 TRANS. OF TEE ACAD. OF SCIENCE. 

Egj-jjtians enumerated by Clemens Alexandriniis,* and, ac- 
cording to historical traditions, Avritten by Athothis, the ws 
of Menes, tlie first king of Egyjjt, about 2781 B. C, 666 year* 
after the Deluge. They are almost all ornamented with 
vignettes,^ sometimes colored, and even gilded ; each chnpter 
begins with a few red letters, like the manuscripts of the 
Copts and the Ethiopians ; all the chapters and rows of let- 
ters are enclosed by vertical and horizontal lines. The aiga- 
ment of them, in general, is a religious consideration of m 



emor ot the world, oi his mmi 



ii^ 



iiui ueinys, uiiu oi vxou s scvcrai worKS in neaven ana on t 
to which ethical exhortations are commonly annexed. 

All these sacred books of the Egyptians very often, s^ 
the name of God, i. c. Osiris (osh-heri, the most holy oae^ 
mention the name of the late owner, which was inserted by a 
later hand in all the places left blank for that purpose by the 
copier. In many such places, however, the later writer fo 
to insert the owner's name ; and therefore we find some p 
ces not filled up, in all such manuscripts. 

As regards the suppljdng of the owner's name, the resiO! 
of it was the follo-R-ing : — The great quantity of such hjwr 
nic Papyri still in existence proves that nearly all the learned 
and pious men owned a copy, executed and sold by the holy 
writers in Egypt. After the owner's death, the priest?, » 
Diodorus relates, assembled for judging him, and, first of ail, 
hearing witnesses for or against the deceased. If hehadbeea 
a righteous man and never committed crimes, the pru-^'a *• 
clared liira to be a holy one ; and then, it was believed, tM 
soul of the late K X. had gone to God, was reunited witi 
him, and become a partaker of all the glory, power, and got- 
emment of God. At the same time, one of the priests insert*^ 
the name of the late owner after that of Osiris; and thns,aU 
hymns, referring before to Osiris alone, now referred, also, to 
his partaker, the late proprietor of the book, as the transla- 
tions show.f 



pos 

wit 




dep 
Lr'that^way, all the hfl 



wiui tfie mummy m a catacomb. In that way, an in^ j' 
3rummy-scrolls have been preserved, which, since 1799, ana ju 
former times, have made their wav from the silent graves 



^^r ^^ sp^^ating Egyptian Museums. 
^ The owner of the^large Turin Pap\ru^-a^i^", "^- rr 
IB to be found in aU tlie chanters, is indicated by the ioliM 
ing letters : 



rus-scroll, wLo5<^^"^ 




Strom 



amm 




I«ge62. 



f Eecent Discoveries in ^^^'^^^ J^iBl^ 
jptiaa Archaeology, cet- ft«^ ^ ' 



I 



X 



'i 

rj 
ir 



JI_- 



£ 



SBYFFARTfl — EGTPTIAN SEAL. 251 



7 6 5 4 3 2 1 







4^ 



In many places, bowcver, the hieroglyphics Xos. 5 and 6 are 
wanting, because No. 4, in consequence of its syllabic power, 
contained in itself the omitted letters (Xos. 5 and 6), as we 
fehali see. The true pronunciation and explanation of that 
name depends, of course, on the true deciphering of each fig- 
pe, and on a true hierogl}T)hic system. Mr. Lepsius, follow- 
ing Champollion, pronounced the name Aufo7icL Such a 
name, however, is without analogy, and is pure non^sense 
when taken for an Egj-ptlan word"^ He confounds vowels 

intb consonant-?, niifl f*»lrAc fha 



life 



crux ansata (No. 4) for an 



nown 



^gypt 



a 



tumgiial inscriptions and many translations of whole boots 

Mt^ chapters, the key to the hierogl}T)hies and the true signi- 

^on of all hieroglvphic figures are, I hope, sufficiently ex- 
l^mned* 

^0.1, a le.ifj sounds a in innumerable proper names, bc- 
cacae its ancient name began with the sound a. 

No. 2, a young bird, in Coptic apoi, but hapoi in the older 
voptic, because the h became mute, as is the case in all lan- 
pi^; and hapoi corresponds with the Coptic hahl (musca), 
'; ' (pan'Hlus avis), hiptomai (volare), and so on. There- 
ivre, the said bird expressed, in the older monuments, the A, 
^Q only in later times it sounded o or ?' ° "^ ™ A,,fnny,^f.-.y 
-Awusins, and other Roman names. 

-^ '^. 3, a serpent, called hob, hof, hfo ; wherefore it very 
<»ten exprP5«ed syllabicaUy the letters hb, hf, and alphabeti- 
*^% the Coptic suffix /. 

These three letters ahf, or ahb, gave the word ahah, in the 
oui fegj-ptian langxiage ; being nearly related to the Hebrew 
«J2^ (amare), in modem Coptic hop (to lore, to marry), 
^5^ 18 evidently a corruption of ahah. 

*>o. 4, the so-called crux ansata, signifies the belly; in mod- 
J?J-'«Ptie, nehi; in the older, cmeM, and is easily undcr- 
^^l ror it stand-? rery often, and even in our Pap\TU8, for 

W^^^, Kos. 4, 5 and 6, viz^ mik. Consequently, it 

^ alphabetically the a, syllabicaUy ank. 

* •>••■*» * ^<^5 nsed promiscuously with the zigzag, signifies 
C>t>S* ^^ ^^^^^ the agzag represents the waving sea ; in 
te*.;S """•'' consequently, both signs sicrnify the », "- ^'"""- 
^-Zl'"'^*'" ^'»™PS proVe. 

....... ■ III 




-Q 




g^^-««imncn ^Kjpuaca. 





mil qo ^f •r''^';^^T^-^'^^ ^'-^^^ ^^^ G :-:!iich^ d°es IlierogljphenscWui^ot^s 



^<«raphiea. Gotha 



^z^-f.- 



-J 



252 TRANS, OF THE ACAD. OF SCIENCE. 



jjio. D, xne Dreasi, fctoe^ sounas /c m many proper names, e.g. 
in kype (camera). See Inscript. Rosettan. IV. 13. 

No. 7, a sitting man ; in Coptic, esh ; in Hebrew, isk IVe 
find it commonly annexed to the names of men, in order to 
distinguish the sexes; consequently, the owner of the Turin 
Papyrus was a man (ish). 

Thus, then, the crux ansata, \yith or without the following 
line and breast, gives the letters ank, the name of the God* 
dess AnuJce^ the Egyptian Venus. For, a Greek inscription 

gays: 'Apou/c^z, rj /ca2 'Ear/a, ceU, Oeolg fieyulocg; i.e. " To Anu^^^ 

bei7iff Vestaj or Venus Urania, cet., to the great deitiesJ^* 
The same is proved by the ivory plate discovered by Layard 
in the ruins of Nineveh, representing on both sides Anuke; 
and there, that name is expressed by the crux ansata alone.f 
The whole name of the late owner of the large Turin Pa- 
pyrus, consequently, w^as not Aufonch, but Ahah-AnukejU- 
the friend of the Goddess Anuke. . Similar names, similarly 
compounded, were very frequent in Egypt, For instance, the 
said plate from the ruins of Mneveh, now in the British Mu- 
seum, expresses the name of the king ffophray in the time ot 
Nebuchadnezzar, 585 B. C, by the following hieroglj-phics : 



I 



v^/\ I If 




The 



Turin 



emifies 



goxmd; consequently, the whole group expresses the same 
word, ahah (friend). The zigzag n is a mark of the gene- 
tive ; the pupil, in Coptic Ara, in Hebrew raah (videre), 
signifies lira and Ra, the sun; and the boundary-stone, 
wot or pot^ is the 



stood not before, but after, 



ptians 



called this kin^ Ahap-JIra, or, shorter, Mophraj ^^J^ 
Hebrews, the Apnes of Herodotus, the Uphre in the vw- 
gata, i. 0. "the friend of Hra," or the Sun-God. Of a smu^ 
composition are the names of the kin 2:3 : Mberis, 1. ^■/^ 
Ha, the beloved of the Sun-God; Jfenman, I e. mm-Amofh 
the beloved of the God Amon; Osi-ma-n-pthah (C 
thya), i. e: mai-n-Fhtluu the beloved of the God . 



iiman- 



and so on. 



The question now is, who may that Ahab-AnnH ^^^^"^T 
er of the largest Egyptian Papyrus-scroll, have been i 



NineTeh, pi. XXII 



xxxn 




EYFFARTH — EGYPTIAN SEAL. 253 



wliat city, and in wliat time, did he live? What was his office, 
antl what his caste ? The Papyrus itself says nothing about 



rminative esK we learn 



was a man : 



(Justus 



tificatus), testify that Ahabanuke was then dead, and already 
justified by the judgment of the dead. Besides, in some 
places of the Papyrus, it is said that his mother was the ^she- 
ri Phxminiy i. e. the daughter of Phamini; a common name 
in Egj'pt, which occurs also iii the Greek-Egyptian mummy- 
chest at Berlin. This is all we know, and nobody can tell us 
what was the condition of Ahabanuke, nor where and when 
that remarkable manuscript was written. Notwithstanding, 
all these questions are very important for deeper historical 
researches; for, as all the copies of the sacred Egyptian 
records differ, in many places, the one from the other, 
sooner or later the question will be asked, which of the dif- 
ferent readings is the genuine one, and to what country and 
age does the Turin Papyrus, and similar ones, belong? The 
only probability is, that this costly manuscript was the prop- 
erty of a rich and distinguished person, and that it originated 
n»?iny hundred years later than Mr. Lepsius supposed ; for, a 
Papyrus-scroll, sixty feet long, with more than 30,000 hiero- 
glj7»hics and many vignettes, the translation of which alone 
^ould fill a quarto volume, was, in that time, a verj' valuable 
treasure, accessible only to rich men, or people of the high- 
^ rank* Regarding its age, it is clear that a manuscript of 
that character, and in so small letters and so perfect a state 
w preservation, must be many hundred years youn^rer than 
those of the XVni. and XIX. Dyn. (1900 and 1600 B. C), 
^hich bear mai^ks of much greater antiquity. In short, for 
^on? thsya forty years we have been ignorant of all the essen- 
Jjal particulars concerning the greatest monument of Eg}-p- 
pn Literature yet in existence ; and therefore it would be 
y^teresting to discover an inscription, by means of which the 
tor^ing questions might be answered. 

It is a curious fact, that onr own country, many thousand 
'^fs distant from old Eg\'pt, possesses such a memorial of 
^f^qnity as the seal of the same Ahabanuke, preserved in the 
^^-^^'^-n Museum of Dr. Abbott in New York ; and to this I 

liberty of calling attention. 

40 «.^*^ of seals is verv ancient. We read in Gen. xlL 

?"• *^^^ Pharaoh (2092 B. C.) took off his ring from his 



^^^^ and 



siimet-stones 



The greater number 

elain 



» aa4 'Shaped like beetles or Scarabsei of all sizes, of which 
«we than 5,0Uu (a few of them with their gold or rilver set- 
^S k ^ ^^ t>e found in the Egyptian Museums, and nearly 
^ iiave been copied by myself. The Egyptian Scarabiei 

11 



254 



TKANS. OF THE ACAD. OF SCIENCE. 



J' 



and seals of mere gold,* or silver, or bronze, or lapis lazuli, or 
other precious stones, are not so nnmorous. To another chm 
of signet-stones belong quadrangular plates of porcelain or 
stone, commonly engraved on both sides, and set in the same 
way. Further, for the sealing of bricks, the Eg}'ptians, as 
many specimens in Dr. Abbott's Museum show, used burned 
cones of red clay from six to twelve inches high, bearing an 
inscription on their base. Finally, there are stamps, both ob- 
long or elliptic, copper or wooden, from two to four inches in 
length, with a ring on the back side and inscriptions opposite, 
which were, as many monuments show, worn on a cord de- 
pending from the neck. Seals of that description are repre- 
sented m many Egj-ptian monuments, e. g. in the copper com 
of the year 1570 B. 0., and in all Egyptian texts, because the 



To the last order of seals is to be referre 



t 



am 



m Dr. Abbott's Museum, of wbich the following is an exact 



aliB 



I •/ 7 " 1 

wax, taken by a friend of mine: 



25 



7 



2 

3 

5. 
6 



11 



10.9 



12 



15. 14 



19 

20 



18 



24 




1 



The stamp is 2 inches 6 lines long, 
4 7 lines wide, and 1 Hne higher m 
the midst of the inserii^tion tiian 
on the four edges, so as to resem- 
8 ble the segment of a sphere. -1^^ 
convex surface of the stamp servea 
for facilitating clear and pertecx 
impressions in Kile mud or cm- 
Its inscription consists of ii> ▼«-' 

or box, 



13 



16 known hieroglpyhic figures, 



17 

21 

22 
23 



nuit-ii iiiu EgJ'pt.. - . ,. 

called Cartoxrche by Chnmp<>l^^^; 
includes the others, ^^^f, .^2 
be the meaning of these 25 hH. 

glj-phics ? 



25 




ameofriiaraoh 






* Of that kind is the gold ring tearing the name ot 1 ^i^^"" ; ^i.v^tt « 
builder of the great rvramid near Ghizeh, represented m iJ^- 



Catidogiie under No. Vj-M. 

t See my Gramniatica iEgypt No. 540, and the fac si 
mj Eerichtigungeu dcr alien 'Ceschichte, cet., p- 137. 



■rr^ik of the "^ '" 



* SEYFFARTH — EGYPTIAN SEAL. 255 

Tlie |>rintecl Catalogue of Dr. Abbott's Museum, New York, 
1854, gives, un Jer No. 595, the following notice and transla- 
tion, according to Champollion's system: "^ long icooden 
fAamp, in the shape of a Cartouche^ inscribed. Mr. Osimld 
gives tJie follotmug as a translation: ' The priest of Phath^ 
the great God^ Macrohius, the keeper of the house of gifts of 
Osiris, the Lord of the West.^ " 

That translation "and explanation, however, following Cham- 



pollioivs Grammar and Dictionair, do not contain a single 
word of truth. First of all, the said friend of mine, Mr. Edwin 
Smith of Xew York, now residing in Egypt, who has devoted 
his leisure to Egyptian studies, discovered, four years ago, that 
the said stamp contains the name of the late owner of the 
large Turin Papyrus, the so-called Todtenhuch; and that, 
consequently, the bearer of the seal was the same person, 
Aufonehr Soon after, on examining that inscription, I found 
that it^ tells us, unexpectedly, who that Ahabanuke was, what 
bis office and business were during life, where he lived, and 
^no was his king; consequently, in what city, or part of 
^-gypttand in what century B. C, the famous Turm Papvrus- 
scroll originated. 

f-et us now examine the single hieroglyphic figures and 
g^nps of the seal, and proceed as carefully as possible in or- 
dtT to avoid all mistakes, and, at the same time, show in what 



*fyj ^t present, Eavptian inscriptions ousrht to be decipher- 



j^^XV.^ JH^V/lW I.V.T, ^iV*0 S.XJ.X. *._, 



ea, no Egj^itlan Dictionary (like my own, which contains 
more than 6,000 articles) being yet published. 
tK ^'"^^r of the Hieroglyphics is kno^vn; they run from 
^« top downwards, and, at the same time, here, from the right 
» the left, because the figures look towards the riirht side of 
tbe msenption. 

tli^p ^•' ^T^^^^^ effusing water, like that of tlie God Nilus in 
Z^/ '"^"^ -^^^"seum, called in the Coptic language pot/ij pahtj 
-Pw, woih,wothen (effimdere), must express tie consonants 

olf] ^'^J-^ 1 ^^ ^^^ nnme, particularly, of course, according to the 
., V"^.. ^^'^^^t, the rouirher ones. I't. Indeed, the bilingual in- 

the Greek 

. ,, .„...._..^ , .„ ^.^._, »-., the ancient 

fiH,n ^^^^ related to the Coptic hopt (principalis), the Ger- 
|7. ^^«"i>^ the English head, the Old English heapt, the 
_«n caput, the Hebrew kop, and so on * Consequently, that 
Prem ^?i syllabically the word kept (head, caput), the su- 
sor PK ^^^^^^ ^^ highest. Mr. Oswald and his predeces- 
sigliV"|"^P^jllion, mistook that vase for a similar one which 

mnl- ^"^^^' ^^^ therefore they failed to translate the two 
*ouowmg hiero-lrphics. 





^stf^^- }J- *• See my Theologi 
S tier zwcisprachigea Inscliriften. Gotii^ 



I 



AiM 



256 TRANS. OF THE ACAD. OF SCIENCE. 



% an Egyptian windo\^, in Coptic Jcori^ consequently 

bic sign for the consonants Jcr^ expresses Ar in the prop" 

er names of the Demi-gods Xap-xvov/icc, Sitha-cer. and .stands 



very often for T^indow and mouth {Jcr) in other copies of the 
Egyptian sacred books. Consequently, the window signified 
all words containing the same consonants At, particularly the 
word Jcara (to slaughter), as we shall see. 

No. 3, a baking-dish with dough, the latter being repre- 
sented by the square in the dish, which, without the square, 
signifies dish. That baking-dish expresses sacrifice iu the 
Rosettana, the Coptic shot; and often, also, meal^ the Coptic 



(sacrifice 



partico* 



These three hieroglyphics are joined in order to express, as 
the Egyptians used to do, one idea, consisting of diffei-ent 
irords, namely: hopt-Jcara-shot^ i.e. the head, or chief of [the 



G 



name 



for sacrifice and victim was glil^ the Hebrew kalil^ descend- 
ing from the roots kala Jcara (mactare, jugulare); and the 
Coptic hol-hel (sacrificare) corresponds also with the He- 
brew Jcara (mactare). Thus, then, the owner of the seal m 
question, and of the Turin PapjTus, was the head of the 
slaughtering priests, i. e. of the first sacerdotal class. 

No. 4, the Egyptian crown, in Coptic neh^ sounds alpha- 
betically w, as is known from innumerable proper nam^ 
particularly between two substantives, the n signifying the 
genitive. 

Nos. 5, 6, 7— the bushel, hat ; the mount, tow ; tht . 
kite — as also many proper names prove, express alphabett* 



chain 



JPtah, in Greek JPfi 



FJitJi 



pie stood in MempMs, the present Cairo, the second copit^ 



since 



That name of Phtha is 



very 



Fhtha in the Rosettana, ^\'hile the bilingual 



pro* 



kt^^V 



Hcrmapion at Rome explains it bv Ares, or li 

No^ 8, the Egyptian Salad-plant, 'called woti and^/^^ 




exc 



el 



therefore contamin^^ 

in many words, particularly in iroti '(<ii.-,.i»5— - - ^ 
lent), e, g. in the groups wot esJi (a distinguished n^^"'^^ 
Jmne (a distinguished woman), and is translated by ^°*-'" 
(worthy), the Coptic tcot (worthy) in the Rosettana-f 




i Inscript. Hog. XIII. it. Todtenbucli 1, 10 ; 80, 6 ; and so on- 
^ * See my Astronomia .Egvpt. Tab. TIL Latt. D- & B. Inscnpt K 
\II. 24; XII. 7. Obelise. Flamin. West, Col. III. 9- ^ 

t Inscriptio Eosett. IV. 20. Roug^, Me'mo!re, cet. Concerning i^ ^^ 
^nption in the Catacomb of Amos, a coteinporary <rf ^o^'^^- ^ 
Tlieoiogisclie Schriften, p. 39, 



* 



SEYFFARTH — EGYPTIAN SEAL* 257 



Xo. f>5 the Egj'ptian axe, the Coptic hater^ ather^ and short- 
er, lor, tori (axe), which is often expressed by the figures aoce 
{=h)y mount (=^), and tnouth (=r)j is the syllabic sign for 
Uie same consonants 7Ur^ and signifies in all bilingual inscrip- 
tion^s OftSf (God); the Coptic, hetor ; the Hebrew, adir (the 
Almiofhty, the Creator, the mighty God). Thus, tlien, Phtha 
ia called the mighty God {tcot hetor)^ and he belonged indeed, 
according to Herodotus and othei-s, to the highest class of 
deities, the seven Cabiri, God's ministers. 

Xos, 10, 11, 12, and 13, correspond exactly, as we have 
seen, with the name of the proprietor of the Turin " Book of 
the Dead,'' the said Ahah-AnuJce (the friend of Annlce). Mr. 
Oswald, neglectful of ijraraniatical studies, translated it Ma- 
crooius; and the Aufonch of Mr. Lepsius is a similar chimera. 

No. 14, a sitting man w^ith a whip or scourge in his hands; 
in Coptic, ham-Uki (homo flagelli, or flagellifer). The whip, 
6^*A"i, expresses all the words containing the same consonants; 
eonsequently, also, the Coptic, hoh (servus). Therefore, the 
fflan with the whip expresses syllabically ham-hoJc (homo ser- 
"Hens, minister),! Ahabanuke, then, calls himself a servant- 
^ian, or minister. In his Turin Papyrus-scroll he is called 
only esh (vir), because he was then dead. It was enough, 
there, to distinguish the sex. Champollion took the bearer 
of the whip for a symbol of a king, probably because kings 
^'"^ **<^^^^^g a whip in their hands. Xor did I ever hear of 
iryptian king called Ahahamthe^ as Champollion's whip- 
ping kmg would require. 

No. 15, the crown, already explained, alphabetically ex- 
pt<..>ses both n, the genitive, and the preposition in; the 
t^Ptic n, en, and hen (in). 

-^o. 16, the plan of a house, in Coptic ake^ Tery often ex- 
pre^^ the letters ahe^ in Coptic oJie (abode, mansion, house), 
^ f; ^ the bilingual inscriptions.! 

^o. 17, the landmark, called in Coptic wotiy in Hebrew 
J^» (separatio), signifies syllabically wt in the word wot (one), 
J^oldpo^, hopt; and therefore alphabetically jo, the article 
^'^ which in the old Eirvptian lanOTasce always follows the 
Stth^^tantives. , 

t ^^^^^'^-tance of the first part of the inscription, tlien, is, 
mat Ahabanuke, the chief of the slaughtering priests, belong- 
m to the temple of Phtha, served in the house of another. 
^m^ tollowing hieroglyphics, of course, must contain a proper 
^«*»e, \xz^ that of a king, because the Afhole inscription is 
Grounded by a royal cartouche (Xo. 25), which always, as 



,s 




mri4h 



o^n^i^* Signification of the man holding » whip « obTiotis in many 
Scbriien 'l^' ^' "* *^® Todtenbuch, Tab. L, Tit. Comp. my Theolog. 

4 Inscript B<»ett. Xni. U : XI V. 32. Obelise riamin. HI. 6. 



i 



258 TRANS. OF THE ACAD, OF SCIENCE. 

we learned first from the Inscription of Rosetta, and the Ro- 
man Obelisk translated by Hermapion, includes royal nam^ 
The so-called cartouche, however, is rather the Egyptian ark 
or shrine, in Coptic ran^ in Plebrew aron, and therefore nc* 
rt all a symbolic sign, as ChampoUion supposed, but the 



expressed. 



7^n (nomen, proper name) being syllabically 



omamcnte 



j3jrindin.£]^-stone and the sparrow-hnwk, 

The grinding- 



) 



stone, or muller, derived from the Coptic shote (concidere) 
and related to the Coptic shote (forina), expresses the letters 
St in the names of the Demi-gods Set^ jSothts, in the word saai 
(transire), and similars ; consequently, all the words and prop- 
er names of the same composition. The sparrow-hawk, with 
the royal insignia, in the bilingual inscription of Phils andtbe 
Flaminian Obelisk at Rome, is translated by fiaailev^ (ting), 
and 'Qpo? (Horus, Apollo), from the root uro (king). ManT 
copies of the Eg^-ptian sacred records put, instead of the 



sparrow-hawk, the letters hr (wax and mouth) 



the old name of uro (king), jj For, it is evident that all these 
Words wro, Jlorus, the Latin hemsj the Grerman Berr^ the 
Greek icvgtos, the Persian Mur^ (the sun), the Persian bi^S 
Cyrus, the Old Egyptian l^ur or kor, originated from the same 
primitive root, prol^ably from the Hebrew kabar, gabar,<to'n' 
tracted hiir^ gitr (to be powerful, to govern), and that in later 
times the h chano'ed into a and A and h. mute. In short, the 



signifii 
ime P 



% 



^he article P, was derived. The same signification uf the gpf- 
:o vv-hawk is proved by its insignia, the crown and tlie whip? 



{neh) 
the w 
Coptic 




diacritical marks. For the Egypti 



.1 







^gyptiorum linsrwa) the word king* Consequently, jne 



ypMcs, muiier and span-ow-bawk, with their t'^e'teOTin^ 
tives, contain the name of a king, Set, or, with the Orees 
termination, Setho^ and Sethon. Manetho and Herodotus 



mention two kings of that name, the' one belonging to tie 




XXIII. Dynasty of Manetho. Th«J| 
existed also .i mt^ ,%. t^„.^„ t?.-1„>^- „..o^ P Indium, ciiUt« 



8ethrcm 



nantt 



contains exactly all the c^nsonan _^ 



k, 




Se% or Sethro, belonged, in whose palace 'Ahabanuke, 



:e 



uh 




See my Grammatica .Egypt, p. G9, Xo. SOI. 
• Joseplms, Contra Ap. L 14; II. 445. 



SEirFARTH— EGYPTIAN SEAL. 259 

high-pritst of Phtha, was employed. To that question we 

diall return hereafter. 

No. 20, a Hne, and its frequent substitute, the zigzag, repre- 
mnX<, as we have seen, both the calm and the waving sea, in 
Coptic nu/i, and expresses alphabetically n, the sign of the 

lenitive. 
X.> 'it is .1 ^nl-inrr-clish without dough (corap. Xo. 3), or 

carefully executed representations, e. g. 
the mosaic hieroglyphics in a Turin sarcophagus show ; and 
therefore its name was nub-4 (complexura opus), and its syl- 
labic pronunciation ?i^. Thus it expressed in the bilingual 
inscriptions the Coptic words nibi^ niben^ mm (omnis), as well 
is nib, ntb (dominus), and similar words.f 

No. 22 and 23, a mount and a chain of mountains. The 
former, called in Coptic toia (mons), expresses syllabically tie, 
tb, tp ; e. g. in the words towe (parentes), top (consnetudo), 
Ume (mane), as the bilijigual inscriptions prove, and especial- 
ly in that frequent group tubo (purus,mundus), the word ^^i^o 
k-ing related to tabteh (omatus, niundus).t Tlie chain of 
mountains, in Coptic Mobe, expresses syllabically A-J, particu- 
lariy in the group in question, Jceb (dujdex), and consequent- 
ly, together with the preceding mount, the words tuho Iceb 
(both worlds), riz.. Upper an3 Lower E^pt. From the Ro- 
■etta-stonc it is known that Egypt, being formerly divided 
into two parts, was frequently called the vpper ar\d low er laud 
[h uv» Koi KU.TU x<^i><^) . For the same reason, the writers very 
often put two mounts instead of one in the same group. The 
Whole is translated by Hermapion * oUovfiivTi, i. e. the whole 
world of Egj']:,t.§ Thus, then, the said king is called " the 
I*rd of butii Ec'}7)ts." For the rest, we often find one or two 
mounts after the chain of mountains, and that reading gives 
Ae ^me but transposed words Icb tubo, or keb ti, 
(uterque mundus), instead of tubo tubo Jceb (mundus ntor- 

Ho. 24, a composition of fom' liierogh-phics, viz., an ostrich 
pther, a mount, a kind of st ool, and a vase, of which the two 

serve as diacritic signs. The ostrich feather very often 





^/ **P«^. in Coptic masM;\ whcrefoi . 

<aation was m^h^ and its signification mesh (plenitudo), when 
ttmted with the mount, ttubo (the world). Consequeiitly, the 
^tiich featliM- r,,,,! ft,^ «,^„„<. rAx-a tiiA words mem ttioo 



t In»cTlpt. Boaett. VIU. 7; LX 2: XI. 47, 60. OWisc. Flamin. I Pied 
I *«. U. «, ni. Pied. 
4 ^P^^*^ Pl^l- ^ I- Inscript. Rowtt H. 12. Todtenbtieh, Tab. T 

S Obelac n^jn. n. a, and in other places. 



260 IRANS. OP TIJE ACAD. OF SCIENCE. 

(plenitudo terrs), the fullness of the world (of Egypt). The 
stool, or instrument for elevating and distinguishing objects 
placed upon it, is pronounced mini, in the proper name, Pha- 
minis, on the bilingual Berlin mummy-chest ; wherefore it be- 
longs to the root maiyii (insignire), to render more visible, or 
distinguished. This hieroglyphic figure, then, expressing the 
consonants mn, gives, in that composition, the word mom 
(mansio, hahitatio), and serves as a determinative to express 
the idea, that Egypt was the abode, or home, of mankind. 
Finally, the joined vase, called shashiiy being translated ^«««f 
(in Coptic shesh)y and byssus (in Coptic shesh), and meal (in 
Coptic shaish),l expresses syllabically the two consonants sh- 
^/i,and consequently, in the composition in question, the Trord 
shesh (cxtQnsio, or extending). Therefore the whole group 
contains the words mesh tubo mone shesh, i. e. the fullness of 
the world, the extending home (of mankind). The tvro last 
detei-minations, which are sometimes wanting in the same 
group, were added in order to explain the preceding biero 
gl}7)hics, and to prevent misunderstanding. Messrs. Cham- 
pollion and Oswald translate the last groups thus : " Osirts, 
the Lord of the West.'* And, indeed, they sometimes do ag- 
nify the West, because the ostrich feather expressing msh, 
gives also the word mashi (Occidens)j but, here, such .1 trans- 
lation is nonsense. Or, can it be proved that the Eg}-ptian» 
adored four different Osirises (the most holy ones), the first 
residing in the East, the second in the South, the third in the 
West, and the fourth in the Korth? And where in the whole 
inscription, Osiris being constantly expressed by an eye ana a 
throne^ Is Mr. Oswald's Osiris mentioned ? 

The whole of that inscription contains, tlien, the following 
letters and words: "'Wot hara shot en Ft ah, toot hem 
A/iabanuJce, hamhok e?i ahc pe JSet-hnr, neb, hok, rafh «» "^ 
tubo l-eb, mesh tubo, mone shesh, •" of which this is a trans- 
lation: «r/ie chi(f of the (priests) slmightering victim^ 
Phtha, the great God: jihabanuJce, the minister in the pai- 
ace, namely, of Set, the Jciiig, the lord, the sovereign, f^em^ 
of the two hngdoms, and of the fullness of the worL4 W 
Eg}'?*)! the extending home (of mankind). 

At last, it will be asked, what literary advantages mar w^ 
derive from that inscription ? They are, indeed, greater tnaa 
could be expected from so small an Eirvptian stamp; wn 
^ 1. Till now, the particulars of all the persons relerred to 
the copies of the Egrvptlan sacred records, and even tbai 
the late owner of the largest Papyrus-scroll existm& ^'^"^1. 
velopcd in impenetrable darkness. But now we know x«« 




t Inscript. Eos. lU. 4; XL 18. 

t Inscript. Eosett. X. 41. Todtenbuch 71, 1 ; 106, 1; 128, 4 



BEYEFARTH — EGYPTIAN SEAL. 261 



this Ahabanuke (the friend of the Goddess Anuke) was the 
head of the first class of priests in the temple of Phtha, and 
that the said Turin Papyrus was once in the hands of a Tery 
distimruishcd person of the ancient world. For, according to 
Clemens of Alexandiia,* Diodorus of Sicily, and others, the 
Egyptian priests were divided into very different classes; and 
their chief was a high -priest, like the high-priest of the He- 
brew?, the head of all the slaughtering priests, of all the Le- 
vites and their classes, and of all the Kethinim. Tliis Aliab- 
anuke was, moreover, a minister in the house of the king Set. 
Hence wc may conclude, that the large Turin Papyrus* 
«n-oll, being W"ritten for the use of so mighty and distiuOTished 
a person, was copied by the hand of a verj^ learned scribe, and 
With the greatest accuracy, and that it must contain the most 
reliable readings. The said Papyrus is, at present, the only 
manuscript of the Egyptian sacred records from which we 



former 



caste. 



1 Fr 



ory. 

^hnhnTiiiko. we learn 



mxs m 



phitic manuscripts; for the owner was t 
Phtha, whose great temple stood in Memph 



first kinir of the 



tower %ypt, under Pharaoh Amos, the .... . .....^ ^- — - 

aVUL Dyn,, in the time of Moses, (1904 B. C.) Concerning 
the temple of Phthn, the Rosettana says: "The priests re- 



midst 



) 



'wn 



perform 



pmicnbed for a king entering upon the goremmeiit "f J 

ther, Suidas says : ^^i^, ''Hoawroc Trapd UeaUrai^ (Phtha is 

Vulcanus in Memphis). And even the capital, Memphis, 



^.^ f ^-^j i^^m* 

> ulcanus in ]ii 



Fur- 
is the 



9 



lained its name from its <rveat temple of Ththa, because that 
^e consists of the words mone FMha (the tlwelling of 



k 



minister of the 
(particular! 



'^^ ^et) resided at Memphis, it follows that a Papyrus-scroll 
*ntten for the use of a minister in the house of a Mempliitic 
^"g, and at the same time a high-priest in a ]\[emphitic tem- 
^e, must be a Memphitic manulcript. Thus, then, the Turin 
^k of the Dead is the first copy of the sacred Egyptian 
^r'ls of which the place of origin is demonstrated, and that 
Eict m a n>;eful one ; for, in comparing a great many of such 
S^ "» *Jifferent ^luseum.s, particularly at Berlin, the ono 
^^ the other, and word for word, for the puq>o8e of making 




, P««H9M Alexandrin. Strom. VL 4, Sjlb. 

' ^script. Rowtt. XI. 12. See my Theologische Schriflen eet. p. 65. 



262 TRA!^S. OF THE ACAD, OF SCIENCE. 

out tlie genuine readings, I discovered that all those Pap}7i 
contain a great many discrepancies, and that they ori^nated 
from two different redactions of the original text, being exe* 
cuted, the one in Thebes, the other in Memphis, the two 
Egyptian capitals.J Sooner or later, it will be a problem to 
reestabhsh the genuine text of the very ancient holy books of 
the Eg}^tians; and for that purpose it must first of all be de* 
cided to what redaction the single manuscripts of that kind 
belong. As Thebes, where Athothis, the author of the sacred 
^oJTti^'^a books, 700 years after the Deluge, lived, was the 
Egj-ptian capital, 800 years before Memphis, and as that city 
was the first residence of priests and sciences, it is evident 
that^the Thebaic redaction of those books, and not the 3Iein- 
phitic copies, deserve preference. In the same way, the origi- 
nal text of the New Testament was reestablished; for the 
Critics, first of all, divided the manuscripts into different 
classes according to their countries ; and then, on the grounJ 



were 



restored. 







3. Finally, the seal of Aliabanuke brings to light in vrhat 
ne its owner lived, and in what age the ^at mannscript ot 
irin was written. The kin"-, whose minister Ahabanuie 
is called Set, or Set-Auro,lind Manetho's Catalogue eo^ 
tiuiis two different kings of that name, viz., the first king o* 
the XIX. Dyn., Sethos, and the last king of the XXIH Pjt.-, 
ZeL As the Greek 2 sounded like 5 in later times, there is 
no difference between ^S'e^ and Zet ; and even Herodotus{U. 
141) pronounces the Zef, the last king of the XXIII. 1>^-. 
con-eetly : Sethos. The age of Bet, or jSethos I., is detemu^ 
ed by the Nativity, or planetary configuration in the year m 
birth, of tliat king, represented on his grand sarcophagus la 
the British Mnseum, called formerly the Sarcophagus ot Al- 
exander the Great, which was preserved in a Mahomet,™ 
mosqne in Cairo, and after the battle near Abukir was bwngai 
to London. § According to the said astronomical 0^^". 
tions, Sethos, the first king of the XIX. Dyn., was born » 
1631 B. C, and consequently his government must Havt. ^^ 
gun about 1600 B. C. The same is proved by several/^ J ^^V^ 
ties of the preceding Pharaohs, and other astronomical j^ 
servations made during the XVIII. and previous i^F^^LJ 
which concern the vears 1693, 1731, 1832, 1904, If ^'-fj 
and 2781 B. C.f Supposing Sethos, mentioned m the ^e.i 




I See my Bemerkungon ueber die Berliner Papxrusrollen. I^'F- 

J Seemy AstronomIa^%yptiaca, cet, Lelp. 1S33, p. ^53; »«« 
siMiIe of the Astronomical Inscriptions, Tab. V. a,h. ^ 

t See my A^tronomia MgyU, cet Lc-ips. 1833; and Bericlitig««^ 
alten Geschichte cet. Lelps. 1855. 



SEYFFARTH — EGYPTIAN SEAL. 263 

Ahabannke, to be the Setlios of the XTX. Byn^ >vhoin Syn- 



urm h(Aff))}n a clrtK 



aocorJiiig to the Vetus Chronicon, calls Thu-oriSj 
the large Turin Papyrus and the seal in qnestion beloncjed 
to the year 1600 B. C. But the name of Sethos, on hii^ Lon- 
(\^r\ Sarcophagus and other monuments, is expressed by other 
hieroglyphics than it is in the seal of Ahnbanuke, viz., by the 

and by tlie sparroir-hawk. The arm 
with a club, equivalent to the man holding a club, piijnifies 
^h6tj or shot (violenter agere, csedere, vulnerare), and expres- 
»s the consonants sht, or st/ consequently, also Set^ or ^- 
thm^ or, with the sparrow-hawk, Set-hro. As the arm with 
the club, however, signifies also kite (ferire), and in many 
words the consonants Id and t^ the said king could also be 
pronounced Thuoris^ as Syncellus, or rather the Vetu^t Chro- 
mcon did; and it is known that the written names of many 
K^tian kings were differently pronounced, e. g. Amos or 
Tkuthmos, the first of the XYIII. Djti^ in consequence of 
the different namos of t.hp s.imA Liprno-lvriliii^ fi<mres- XuW, 



as the name of King Sethos^ on the seal of Ahabanuke, is ex- 
pressed not by the arm with a club, but by the grinding- 
rt^e, we must conclude that the latter belonged to the 
AAIII. Dyn^ namelv, to Manetho's ZeL the Sethos of Herod- 
otus (H. Ul). 

. The question now, is, in w^hat time Sethos II. reigned. It 
ts apity that, in consequence of corrupted ciphers, the chro- 
nologies of Manetho, Julius Africanus, Eusebius, the Anne- 
^^^^^ translation, and the Vetus Chronicon, regardiusz the 
s^emments of the XIX« XX,. XXI.. XXII. and " 





^n^Hties and their single king^t, differ verj- much the one 
w)m the other; notwithstandinir, it is possible, by means of 
tnose astronomical observations concernin<r the^XIX. and 



rt 1 '^-^ ^^ determine very nearly the time of Setlios 11^ 
»e Ia.^t king of the XXIII. Dyn. 3Ianetho and hid copiers 
mention the following longer and shorter periods : 

5^"-$i^- 209 ve«r8 for 194}. 

^S"" 55V • 178 • " (or 135). 

"jn.XXI 130 " (or 121, or 114). 

i(y°'t™- 148 « (or 120, or 89, or 44). 

%n.XXm. 89 " (or 44, or 34). 

Total ••..754 years. 

A.> Sethos I, was bom 1631 B. C^ an^ reigned about ICOO 

£vl'' • ^^ ^^- ^^^ ^^^^ ti^^ ^f tbe XXIIL Dxjx^ seems to 
oniv r^^'^"^ ""^^ B. C. Africanus, however, ^iVes 67 years 
ml^x ^"^ ^'"^ anonymi kings of the XXII 



pner^ 



^ eriod reigned nearly 2o 
iBay add a hnndrc J years to those 75^ 







SyaceU. Chronogr 



264: TRANS. OF THE ACAD. OF SCIENCE. 

and thus bring Sethos 11. down to about the year 746 B, C. 

It is probable that the copiers of Manetho's histor)', takb? 
together the goveniments of the three first anonjmi kings oi 
the XXIL Dyn., wrote 25 years instead of 75 years ; ani 
taking together the government of the three last Anonymi 
since Takellothis, put 42 instead of 92 years. In that ca=e 



following: 



XXII 



BYXASTY XXII. WITH NINE KIXGS, 



1. Sesonchis, or Sesonchosis 21 rears. 

2. Osoroth, or Osorton 15 ' " 

3. ) 

4. > Anonvmi^ together (25) • 75 " 

5. ) 

6. Takellothis ...'. 13 " 

7. 

8. [ Anonymi, together (42) 92 " 

Total... •216 years. 

That correction, at least, Iiarmonizes witli Herodotus (E 
141), T^-ho says that Sethos II., behig before a priest of Pttha 
at Memphis, once defeated Sennacherib, the king of Assyria, 
near Pelusium, perhaps the ancient Sethron. The same Sen- 
nacherib, as is related in 2 Kin^ xviii. 14, besieged Jernsa- 
salem in the 14th year of Hezekrah, vho reigned since 726 B. 
C. Consequently, Sethos IL, who reigned 31 years, was con- 
temporary with Sennacherib and Hezekiah, about 760 B.C. 

Another calculation, based upon a Biblical relation, brings 
Sethos II. down to the same time; for it is stated, 1 lungs 
XIV. 25, and 2 Chron. xii. 2, that in the fifth year of Reto* 
boam, who reigned since 950 B. C.,* consequently in the yent 
945 B, C, Jerusalem vras taken by a Pharaoh Shishak' Afl 
Chronologers, before the restoration of the Egyptian Arche- 
ology, supposed, despite the chronological discrepancie?. tM 
Biblical Shishak to be the first king of the XXII. Bjn^ ^^ 
netho's SesoncMs, or Sesonchosis, no other king of that naiB« 
being yet Icnown. The monuments, howeyer, mention tiro 
kings of that name, and distinguish them by their titular '^ 




^ - own that nearly all the ^cry^tis.n mscnpuv^^ 

mentioning a king, give first his sacred name and tlien d^ 
VTilgar name; which was necessary, because many %>J^^ 
kings obtained the same yulgar name, e. g. that of -4/nj^ 
Bamses, Thuthmos, and so on; who were, of couree, to « 
distinguished by their sacred names. On the other hand, ^^ 
ilnu in the monuments equal roval sacred names beuifjo^" 
to different royal vulgar names' ; of which the follomng 




f See my Clironologia Sacrat, p. 258 ; and Summary of Bccent 



enes in Biblical Cironology, cet., p. 217 



# 



SEYFFARTH — EGYPTIAN SEAL. 265 



the reason. Many ancient kings, father and son, reigned to- 
gether, as the history of all nations shows, and in such cases 
— Egypt the sacred name belonged to both father and son. 
ISovr^ the Egj-ptian monuments mention two ShishaJcs^ being 

distingnished by their sacred names. That of the older Shi- 
«AaA- is expressed by the hierogh-phics/>?/;j>t7, head offox^ and 

hy$ms-hunch ; Vth^XQ thQ sacred name of the later Sht\'^hak 
conn^? of the hieroglyphics pupil^ crown^ and beetle. The 
whole name is this : 

VCLGAa NAME. SACRED NAMK. 

/WVTTTTTT .ymUkk'^ © 











>® 



Further, the same sacred name in other monuments pro^^edes 
the vulgar name of King TaMlothis, the sixth of the XXII. 
Dp^ as we have seen. Consequently, another and younger 
Shishnk reimed together with Takellotlds ; therefore the 
succession of the last Pharaohs of the XXIL Dyn. was the 
following: 

6. Taienfis... 13 years. 

I. isnishak II. 

8. Anonymus, ^together 92 " 

9. Anonym MS, 

Dynasty XXIII. till Z^t, or Sethos 89 " 

Total ••••194 years. 



As then a Pharaoh iShhhak took Jerusalem In the fifth vear of 
Kehoboam, i. e. 945 B. C, it is evident, again, that the Sethos 
^ who reigned 191 years after TaJceUothis, the co-regent of 
iyliuhak 11^ must have governed about 750 B. C. A more 
eiact chronology of that time is impossible, because the ci- 
^ ^" Manetho's copiers differ too much the one from the 

From this successioa of the Pharaohs in the XXII. Dya. 
»e also learn, that the Pharaob whose daughter Solomon iiiar- 

ihi rS jP'^^^^^y ^® ^^^<1 King Takellothis, the father of 

Thus^ we arrive at the well-founded conclusion, that the 
«Wi-pnest Ahabanuke Kved about 750 B. C. To that same 




l^rA^-^n 1^^ ^^ * :Memphitic priest, in the rear 787 B. C^ 
taini« *"t Ut^^^® great Granite Sarcophagus at Vienna, eon- 
^mg the Kativity of a priest in CGI B. C, Dec, 29th ; and 

t-,fn;'^"i*^5^^<^^P^^g»8 in the British Museum, No. 3, 

-""^i^'g the ^ati^-ity of a priest in 631 B. C, Dec. 27tb .• In 



con- 




• 



See my Bcrichtigmj 



ier 



266 TRAXS. OF THE ACAD. OP SCIENCE. 



short, Ahabanuke was a cotemporary of B 
mus; of the Hebrew kings Uzziah, Jotham. 



Bomxilu 



Fekah 



Pekah iah. 



Hosea, Isaiah^ JVcihum, Michah, Obadiah, and Habakkuk. 

At the same time, we now see that the seal of Ahabanuke 
and the famons Turin Todtenbuch do not belong to the XYI, 
or X V^ or XIV. century 



confirm 



That manuscript is the first copy of the Eg5T)tian sacred 
books, of wliieh the age is made out; and with its aid it k 



nnine 



older Papyrus-scrolls, as is the case with the Greek and Ro- 
man mamiscripts. The seal of Ahabanuke, in ]Srew-York, i% 
as yet, the only monument containing the name of Phara./u 
Sethos IT., being mentioned by Manetho and praised by He- 
rodotus. 



Second Series of Descriptions of Betozoa from the Patm- 

zoic Rocks of the Western States and Territories. 

BY H. A. PKOIJT, M.D. 



• 



Coscrsfiuii {Keyserling). 



Lobed expansions in the form of a leaf, consisting of two 
mutually applied strata, whose free planes exhibit free po«3 
quineuncially arranged, so that on the cross-fracture of the 
leaf are seen the tubular oblique cells, biserially distnbated 



Ei 



foliaceous expansion is perforated by regular series of hol^ 
as in Adeona crihrifomiis, from which, however, it vanes by 
the want of an articulated stripe. These expansions, as it ap 
' ;, originate from densely cellular ramified pedicles, weih 






tical with the structure of Eschara, and are character!^ 
only by their great thickness. Our genus coincides ^th ^• 
chara, also, in the character of the intercellular snb^an^- 
wliich is permeated ivith capillary tubuH; tins substance 
up, w-ith age, the holes likewise, which are then distwgj^ 
as spaces without cells. If in Anthozoa we avail o^rs6m^_ 
the manner of propagation as a criterion for genen^T™ 

tion?, wc may here likewise consider as a new — ^ *^''^*'"^ 
which, while otherwise completely coincidl: 

by the regular holes in the leaf or foil, indi. . . • 

cessation of gemination in the cell series. The ^"t'^'^f ^f 
Gorgonia proma (Eich. Trwelt, 112, p. 44, tab. 1, ^^h- ' '' 
from Silurian limestone, seems to belong to this genuS. 



-■o 



■V. 




^ 



PEOUT— BRTOZOA, 2d SERIES. ' 267 



quote 



Keyserling's original description, with the view of presenting 
iotne further details in the organization of this Bryozoa, which 
were probably not so manifest in the specimens upon which 
ke founded the genus. 

The two strata or surface plates are not invariably separ.*- 
ted by a thin lamella, but even on the leaf-like expansions of 
the corrallum, where this character is in general best presei*- 
ved, we find them sometimes for considerable spaces so com- 
pletely welded together, of solidified, that the mesial or di- 
Tiiional plate cannot be recognized. "Where the dividing 
plate is more fully seen it has a cancellous structure on either 



tenninatin 



Ian; 



This 



ional plate is sometimes separated by the development of its 

own internal cell structure, so as to form two, or even more 

divisional lamellEe, In one cross-fracture where the outer ta- 

Um had been separated several millimetres apart, there was 

the appearance of three Inmellse, interrupted and dislocated 

by {^xcGssive cell development. 

This development of the intercellular spaces sometimes sep- 
arates the nnfpr f iilJtiG +/% fTia /!ii2+OTir*o nf flirpp nr faur niilfi- 



structure 



middle 



V4I> or hollow spaces between them; this change was obser- 
i^ed in a portion of the very thickened, sinuous, and angularly 
eontorted plates near the base of the polypidom. It would 
^em in the regular development of the larger cells, that, as 
*^*^'y grow outward, their bottoms become filled up with 

Waller eolk Knf flw^tr. o4^,.^.+,,«^ ^. ..A.^^^. i^^nconfe fha c 



obserrabl 



ptate 



almo 



by Keyserhng are very 



ure 



«8,ui subparallel tortuous lines, which separate the alternating 
^nes of larger cells on either side. These striae, vhen more 
weathered, seem to be fomiecl of long cells inclined out war. I, 
^nich, coming to the outer face of the plates, form the inter- 
^Ualar spaces. Xcar the base, where the structure is more 
^nclfcnso,!, these striae are frequently covered in places by 
J«in inminffi transversely wrinkled, showing the beginning of 
!?f ^eiU which j£o to the free sui-fice. It is possible, that the 
JP^^ ^i ^'^^ P^^te may fit into the depresaons between the 
nqiresof the other, but thLs we could not verify by observa- 

rhese striatioDS, which are resrarded by Kcyserling as 

^ores between the alternating rows of cells, arc very beau- 

W;»"^v *^'"' arrangement ; running in tortuous, subparallel, 

"SitQclmal lines, thev fonu somewhat concentric waves 




268 TRANS. OF THE ACAD. OF SCIENCE. 



around the large holes, which gives to the whole a pecuHnr 
and graceful appearance. This arrangement is given by al- 
ternate expansions and contractions from the branching and 
coalescence of the rays. In regard to the large holes or dim- 
ples, they are only apparently filled with foreign matter; on 
a close examination, we find large cells proceeding from the 
middle plate, filling the space between the sharply defined 
and thin borders of the holes, and placed at a right angle to 
the plane of the expansion. There seems to have been a r}lb- 
micnl development of the middle 'plate, which gave ria^ to 
these cells at an angle differing from that of the alternating 
lines of cells, which is oblique to the surface. 

In the dimpled species, which we shall describe beloTT, the 
cells seem to have been rythmically abortive, and their out- 
lines are only marked upon the surfiice of the bottom of the 
depressions. 

The oblique cells present, in one form, the characteis m^ 
signed them by Keyserling, but this form seems to be the re- 
sult of weathering. In perfectly preserved surfaces of tro 
specimens of a new species, they are subcircular, with a ais- 
tmctly raised lip. 

In the new species above referred to, the Keyserlingh we 
find that the long elliptical dimples are arranged in obhque 
lines on two sides of a middle row of elliptical dimples, run- 
ning perpendicularlv, or as the barbs of a feather upon itt 
vane ; this middle row of dimples is found at the bottom ot 
an angular folding, or a yexy broad and deep inflection of tne 
leaf 

In these features of their organization these fonns f^^^^ 
differ fi'om the JEschara, where the bases of two opposite rom 
of cells are eemeuted base to base, so as to form the division^ 
or middle plate. The sinuous and contorted irregulantr o 
the base of the corral! um, and their internal ftmcture, \v^ 
seem to us to place them in nearer alliance with the teU^^<^ 



cervkomis, which was at one time regarded as an Escmra. 

CoscixiuM Cyclops {Keyserling). 

We have three Bpecimens of this species, belonging *© 
cabinet of our friend Dr. B. F. Shumard, one of ^^'^^^ jjjg^ 
sents nearly the same distances between the 0P°^^"?* ^^ ^j«# 
and the cells as the specimen from which ^^'P*-' i'gt btrt 
his description. The two others are somewhat i"iFf^„5nve 



one gives the beautiful striated structure referred to ^^^^^^ 
This, and the next species to be described from tn -^^ 
cabinet, are Devonian species, found at the Falls ot tnt ^^^^^ 
This places the Coscinium Cyclops in this ^o^^^Jbere H 
lower in its stratigraphicai horizon than in Europe, w 
has been found only lu the Carboniferous series. 



i 



t' 



i 



PROUT— ERYOZOA, 2d SERIES, 269 



Coscixiu:3x CBiBRiFORMis {Prout). 

Leaf-like expansion broad, holes arranged quincuncially in 
alternating oblique lines, in the space of 20 mm- there are 
five in oblique lines, and nearly five transversely, ohhrnflf 
ovai in form, long diameter 2,5 to 3 mm*, short diameter 
2 mm., about 1.3 mm. apart on oblique Unes, about 1 mm. 
transversely; cells, iivc in oblique lines in the space of 2mm^ 
Imi than their own diameters apart, more or les« orbicular, 
being much worn, with the appearance of a minutely cellular 
iftuiture separating them on more perfect portions of the 
frond ; thc^e minute cells, when filled up, cause the surface 
to Appear granular. The two tables or plates are very dis- 
tinct in this species ; they seem to thicken in the middle of 
the gpfice between the thin borders of the large holes, which 
latter seem to be filled up by larger cells rjthmically devel- 
aped fi-om the mesial plate, in a direction almost opp<^^ite to 
that of the obliquely arranged cells of the general surface. 

ComparUon, — It resembles in some measure the C. st€nn2->^ 
« KeyserHng, but diiFers from it by the larger and more ex- 
''anded form of its leaf-like expansion, the relative size of its 
<>lea> the number of cells in a given space, but mostly in the 
native dLitance between the holes longitudinally and trans- 
^rsely, the distance being short longitudinally and wide 
^nsvcrsely in the C. stenop^, which is the reverse in this 

^e were at first disposed to refer this species to the O, 
op^^ supposing it to be a broader or more expanded por- 
tmn of the ramified stem-like specimen from which Keywr- 
tK'^if^^ his description; but the relative distance between 
the holes, which no accidents of cTOM'th except compression 

^ liKely to change, induced ns to separate it from tliat 

^^jp^^^ «»<^ XocaZtVy.— Shell-bed, Devonian, Falls of 




Foliaeeons 



CoscixiuM Keysekuxgi {Front), 
expan^sion thin nnd delicate, with 



^J?S **^al diusjiles Imring raised borders, not seeming to 
linn I' ^"^ ^^ ^^^ compression, arranged in sub-regular ob- 
S ' **" **^® ^^ ^^'^«» ^f » middle row of long diinplen, 
_ muar to the barbs of a fpathor ntion its rane ; the row of 





nes is 3 mm., and between the oblique t'.ws from 

mm. The diameter of the holes is from 3 to 3.5 mm, 

by 1 mm. in width ; in a space of 20 mm. in the ob- 

12 



■i' 



270 TRANS. OF THE ACAD, OF SCIENCE, 

lique lines six dimples are found on a surface slightly waved 
transversely. Cell pores five in oblique lines, five t^an:5ve^s^ 
ly; cells with prominent round lips; apertures round or sub- 
oval, larger and more distinct on the borders of the dimple?; 
bottom of the dimples marked with cells which seem to have 
been rythmically abortive. In one specimen, where the cells 
are worn, the labial borders are destroyed, and the cells ap- 
pear more or less orbicular, or suboval. This beautiful species 
we dedicate to 31. Keyseriing, the learned founder of the ge- 
nus. We have before us three specimens belonging to the 
collection of Dr. B. F. Shumard. One of these presents sev- 
ersl characters belonging to the species Coscinium Cyclops 
near its base, as described by Keyseriing from a specimen 
l>rought by Dr. Ruprecht from the Mountain Limestone at 
the confluence of the Gusinetz with the Indiga River. It 
differs, however, in the dimples being longer and more dis- 
tinct, in having six dimples side by side in 20 mm,, and in 
the foi-m and prominence of its cells. The dimples and cells 
correspond to those of the wider expansions of the species 
which we have described abov^e. 

Formation and Locality. — ^Archimedes Limestone, ^ '^• 
saw, Illinois, 

After a very careful comparison of Coscinium with the 
genus Clathropwa of Hall we find no material difference be- 
tween them; in the latter, the intercellular spaces are more 
compact, and become more sbarjdy septate or divisional to 
the pores, but under a moderate power of the microscope are 
seen to be distinctly tubular porou*». In a cross-fracture ^ 
the frond, the cell structure resembles more closely that « 
Escham than is the case with Coscinium, but as in Cosctnvm 
its mesial plate is seen to be occasionally cellular. In }^^ 
specimen of Clathropora frondosa of Hall, under e^^^S 
tion, we can perceive traces of the perpendicular cells wm 
fill the holes or depressions. 



L.2x3T. 
[6] 



PoLYPOIiA MlIXICANA UP 



CormUiim 



Tnn which to tk 

nated eye appears regularly meshed. It is fractured ^o 
show the pores on the mcfiallion surface* . , ^^^t 

Longitudinal rays sub-regular in size,dicbotomJ^atiO ^ 

very numerou?^, at the distance of two and five ^^^!.^.^{J^^ 
arising from the intercalation of an additional l^^^,^tj,«j^t^ 
trules; a little or much expanded at junction with ^ -^- r 

Dissepiments from one-third to one-half of the si^^ 




OiC 



u!^ 



-- xa« i^yniuoi usea nore indicates the nurnner oi i^-^^-^- . 
found in the length or breadth of 2 lines. These miUtipUt-^ h 
flie nuoihc^r in 2 lines sfjuare. 



I 



I 



-;- 



i. 






l^ 



pj^OUT — BRYOZOA, 2d SERIES.*^ 271 



rayi, %h 

rife reus 



ticallv. 



transverse!)' 



C^ pores small, numerous, in oblique lines across the ray, 
seldom varying in number on the same ray, from three to 
seven in the oblique lines according to the size of the inter- 
stices, which sometimes become smaller after bifurcation, 



about six or eiprht to the length of an oscule. 

This neat specimen is about one inch long, but must have 
been longer; the substance of the corrailum is broken away 
•o as to show the medallion face, but sufficient remains to 
manifest the characters aiven above. It was imbedded in a 
— ... ..^^..^.x.K_, ^*.ML .x.^ contrast formed by its white rays 
and dissepiments is very marked. 

This species bears a very striking resemblance to the JPoIy- 
pora verrucosa of McCoy (Brit. Palae. Foss., p. 116), but dif- 
fers in the smaller size and inequality of the longitudinal ra} 
in having from three to five vertical rows of pores, or as often 
tluree as four. The cells in the specimen are not well preser- 
red, except probably at one point, where they seem to have 
a swelled base, and are not wart-like. The cells in the oblique 
lines vary from four to seven, with only from six to eight to 
each oscule; there are only two oscules in the space of two 

UneS. Thomf» rUffiironni^a -ara /Innm r^f en ffir*1Pnt, U'Plfrht tO claim 



ior It, at least provisionally, a new name. 

ForrnaUon and Locality. — ^Permian Strata, Jornada del 
Muerto, Xew Mexico, Collection of the 17. S. Government 
Expedition for Boring Artesian Wells, under the direction of 
Capt. John Pope, IT. S. Corps Top. Eng. 




4' 



PoLTPOEA Shumaiidii {Prout). 

^^^^f^ifrn broadly fan-sbaped, or perhaps funnel-shaped ; 
wforcations frequent, so as to cause the upper part of the ex- 
pansion to fold in longitudinal plaits. 

LongitufUnal rays lame, round, or flatly vaulted on both 
■wes, occasionally alternately thickened and attenuated, be- 
in? irregnlar in size compared with one another, dichotomiz- 
^^ ^ distance of from seven to two lines apart 

IHsaepirnentg about one-third as large as the iut 
"Jmetunes much expanded at their function, occasion . 
▼stPd or dt'pressed above or below a tnie transverse line, 
**;>7 occasionally poriferous. 

j^emttrules on reverse depressed, round, or subcircular, as 
2J<*e as many of the large longitudinal rays, ns broad as long, 
•ometimes broader; on medallion face somewhat smaller and 
^^ai, Utile OT very slightly depressed. 



'Ji 



272 TRACTS. OF TEE ACAD. OF SCIENCE. 

Cell pores in lines oblique to the axis of the rays, very nu- 
merous and small, varying from three to seven in the oblique 
lines according to the relative sizes of the rays, and the amount 
of expansion at the bifurcations, about three or four to each 
oseule; no material alteration in the number of lines of pores 
on the same ray, except immediately below the bifurcations. 

Meijerse thick, white, smooth, condensed, microscopically 
celluliferous or striate. 

We dedicate this large and beautiful species to our friend 
Dr. B. F. Shumard, whose contributions to Western Pnteon- 
tology merit the highest praise, and to whose kindness and 
liberality we are indebted for all the specimens which we 
have described in this series. The expansion from which the 
description is drawn is a large part of a very large corralhun, 
measuring some four inches in length by three in width. 

Formation and Locality. — Shell-beds, Devonian^ Falls of 
the Ohio, 



L. 7x9 T. 



[631 



(^ 



Corralluvi s 
irregularly waved longitudinally- 



ihaped, 



Longitudinal rays with a striated sole for the cell pores, 
iiTegular in size individually or collectively, being sometimes 
tumid and sometimes attenuated, becoming smaller above the 
bifurcations. ^ . . 

I^issrpiynents thick, short, and expanded at junction witn 
longitudinal rays. j v ^ 

Penestndes oval, subalternate, or in obliquely ^;^^'^^^^^^ 
seven in the space of two lines longitudinally, nine in the sam 
space transversely. 

Cell pores laro;c, about two or three to each oseule, ge^ J 
ally only two lines to each longitudinal ray, occasionally tnrt 



.pically 



at the bifurcations. 

porous or striate. -^ 

At fii-st we felt some hesitation in founding a new spt^^^ 

npon this specimen, thinking: it midit possibly be p^^X.^ J^^. j^ 



-P. Varsovtfinsis.hnt we are 



u a oinerent species. 
It h often difficult 



amon 



of this genua. The cell development takes place ^^^^^^^^ 
upwiu'd and forward from a sole or basis of mmutel} ^£. 



dinal tubes, so nrnxngod as to pre 




striated* The reverse is covered \\ ith a whitish, thicKei J^^^iy 
tical substance, which is generally almost smooth, orm ^^^^ 



striate or porous undc 
pre^Kint 



-^r a hidi magnifj^ng power. ■^; n^l 
eneraf analcliei tltat we ^^^^^^^^^^ 



m a measure to rely upon their ""varied forms, tn^* ^ 



i" 



SnUMARD — GEOLOGY OP N. MEXICO. 273 



t 



•1iaf»e aud dze of their oscules, and the number of port'^s. as 
iudicia for specific distinctions. The species above, if the me- 
dallion face alone were observed, would be classed probably 
«s a FenesteUa / but its flattened sole, and other characters, 
place it among Polypora. "\Ye regard it as a species show- 
ing the transition from the one genus to the other, the ditfer- 
ence being mostly in the rounder, or more basaltiform, and 
regularly distributed longitudinal rays of the Fenestella. 

Comparison, — It resembles in its characters Pohjpora Jaxa 
picCoy), Retepora laxa (Phil. Geol. York., Yol. II., pi. 1, fig. 
2&-30), and Fenestella laxa (Phil. Palaoz. Fos., p. 23) ; but 
diifeim in being smaller, in the more regular distribution of its 
longitudinal rays, and the larger size of its cells. 

Formation and Locality. — Shell-beds, Devonian, Falls of 
the Ohio. 



Observations on the Geological Formations of the Coun- 
try between the Rio Pecos and the Rio Grande, in New 
Mexico, near the line of the ^1d Parallel; being an xib- 
stracl of a portion of the Geological Report of the Erpe- 
ditian under Capt. John Pope, Corps Top. Eng., U. S. 
-4., in the year 1855, by Geo. G. Shumaud, :M.0., Geol- 
ogist of the Expedition, Communicated to the Academy, 
with the permission of Capt. Pope, in advance of the pub- 
lication of his official report. 

The Expedition remained, for several months, encamped 
on the Piio Pecos, near the month of Delaware Creek, and a 
tovorable opportunity was thus afforded for examining' mi- 

Wy the geological structure of that vicinity. The tlano 

^^e • ^^^ *** ^® ^^^'^ ^*^^^ *^'^'' C'^™P' stretching for an 
ffiaefinite distance eastward, in the form of an elevated and 

gently undulating- plateau, thinlv covered with short grass, 
«nd nr*v..PT,f;r,« ^^.,.^|j^.^ 1,^^^ Yiit\Q variety of surface. It is 




... , „„ ^^^^ „^.,^.j „^ the Pecos lliver, which 

.^^ ^« a tortuous course, with an average width of about 
|inty feet, amid low htlls and bluffs of conglomerate and 
ttmfc&tone. Beyond the Pecos, the counlry assumes a more 
j;oken and hilly appearance, and, at the' distance of sixty 

^V K ^ *^^ ^'^^^' ^^"""its of the Guadalupe Mountains, of 
^leh the higlu'<t 'p' 'ints had been observed long before wc 
'a^ed at the mouth of Delaware Creek. 

The folluwlng is a section taken near the mouth of Delu- 
w»e creek : 



274 TRANS. OF THE ACAD. OF SCIENCE. 



1. Quatomary Congloiricrate, composed of limestone from the 

Guadalupe ifountains 70 feei 

2. Upper Cretaceous limestone • • • • • 100* " 

3. Lower Cretaceous marls and sandstone Cas far as bored) ... 860 " 

Total thickness - - . 1030 feet 

The rocks of this vicinity, save the limestone noticed on 
onr last day's journey, were found to differ somewhat, in gen- 
eral character, from those ohserred further to the eastward 
on our line of march. The limestone, here, attains a thick- 
ness of over a hundred feet, exhibiting itself chiefly in the 
form of flattened conical hills and rough cliffs, sometimes with 
vertical faces and in places rising above the creek or river 
bed to the height of fifty or sixty feet. The rock is usually 
hard, of a light cream color and earthy texture, and con- 
tains numerous spheroidal cavities from a fourth to a half aa 
inch in diameter, ^'hich are sometimes partially filled with 
loose, ferruginous earth. In one locality, the exposed edges 
of the strata were covered with an incrustation of salt a 
fourth of an inch thick. This limestone forms the bed of the 
Pecos River, and here gives rise to a succession of rapids. 
Fourteen miles to the eastward, the same limestone becomes 
much softer and lighter colored, and resembles impure chalk, 
but does not there exceed in thickness tliii'teen or fourteen 
feet. Fossils are exceedingly rare in it. In a few instances, 
I obtained imperfect specimens of GrypJuea Pitchen and 
Ja7iira quadricostata. Underneath the Kmestone, we have 
deposits of gjpsum, clay, and sandstone, which are often ^eU 
exposed in this vicinity. The gypsum is frequently found m 
connexion with white, soft carbonate of lime, and presents aa 
average tliiekness of about twenty-five feet. From the Arte- 
sian Weils, situated, one fourteen, and the other eight miles 



stone 



east of the Rio Pecos, vertical sections of the chiy and saM- 
ne were obtained to the depth of eight hnndred and nttr- 
ht feet. The clay is, usually, highly indurated, and co^ 
tains more or less of an admixture ofiime. In color, iM'anes 
from nearly white to blue, brown, and rermilion. The^ in- 
tercalated layers of sandstone are generally softer than tfto^ 
previously encountered, and constitute by far the m^^ 
portion of the exposed thickness of the formation. Ibe w- 
peiior beds are often little else than loosely cohercnt^s^^ 
but, at the base of the sections, the strata are much tirm^ 
and of a light yellow colour, and contain small rounae^ V^^ 
bles of eru|)tive rocks. 

Besides the strata above des 



bent 



quaternary conglomerate is, also, largely developed. -'' 
til e junction of the Pecos and Delaware Creek, this torniau 




* The Upper Cretaceons limestone, at some points about ooe ^^ 



miles eastward, attains a tlilckn^ of 'llOO feetJ 



SMTMARD — GEOLOGY OF N. MEXICO. 275 



ippeans. 



ly, in the form of gently rounded hills and ridge*?, some of 



rminate abruptly toward the river. With the excep- 
tion of being somewhat coarser and occasionalTy traversed by 
irreijtiljn- Imnds of coarse, yellow, silicious sandj^tone, the nia- 
terial^ composing it do not differ from those of the same form- 
fttion last descnbed. Many of the included masses are rich 
ill or)xanic remains, and present a considerable variety of spe- 
«es of Upper Palieo?;oic types. The most common are: JPro- 
fT*^^f^f.^ semireticulatus^ P. sjylendensQ)^ Chonetes S^n!thi{^)j 
Omvfrffp7ioria '^'■/^^o^Aetmi/, and a remarkably elongated spe- 
de** of I^/.sHlirm* Comminirled with these I found a few im- 
perfect Cretaceous spe ^ ^ 
limestone, ns follows : Arcoparpa Texan€^ Janira quadrkos- 
toto, CarJiura mtdtistriatum, and Grypkrea Pitcher L From 
the general appearance of these fossils they evidently could 
not have been transported far. 

Directly south of Delaware Creek, the strata are strongly 
folded and inclined in different directions, at angles varying 
fi^m twenty to fifty degrees. The period of disturbance ap- 

to have been anterior to the deposition of the conglorn- 
since the latter is found renosincr uncomfonnablv, in 






«tra 



dge 



was taken from a nearly vertical exposure 

y thft wpsf Tifint nf iho "Rio Pofos froQi near 



mouth of Delaware Creek S.S.E^ for the distance of about 
half a mile. Here, the limestone is found dii>ping i]i opposite 
airections, at andea Viirying from 20° to 30% tlie upper beda 
having been ruptured and widely separated, and the entire 
™a«i traversed from top to bottom by fissures ten or twenty 
feet wide, jRlied, chiefly, with small angular fragments of lime- 
stone firmly cemented' with calcareous matter. In one place, 
"^r the base of the section, beds of gypsum aie exposed to 
^^e thieknes-j of fifteen feet. It is for the most part a white 
^rphous variety, and resembles, more or less, loaf mgax. 

Another section was taken from near the east bank of the 
*«o Pecos, several miles below the last. It exhibits a stdl 
grater amount of disturbance, the underlying clay and sand- 
«*>«ie bemg here well exposed, dippinsr in 'opposite directt 
J- '^iigles of from 45° to 50°, and, at the «anie time, the up 
tomed edg^n of the limestone appear somewhat altered m 

'P being harder and sometimes fractured iflto small an- 
fragments firmly re-cemented so as to tr've the rock a 

?. The sandstone is also 

- .... j,...^. „,mul thiekly besprinkled 

With nnall green and yellow spots. 



ons. 



itt 




ir 




* FusuUmz dongatn (Shmmtrd) 



^«»F 



275 TEANS. OF THE ACAD. OF SCIENCE, 



The extent of this region of disturbance could not be accu- 
rately determmed on account of the levellini]: effects of the 
€iibsequent denudation and the thickness of the superincum- 
bent deposits of more recent date; but fi'om the fact, that the 
limestone is observed for a distance of twelve or fifteen miH 
both east and west of the Pecos River, in nearly horizontal 
strata, and appears merely in gentle undulations, at a point 
only a few miles south of the place where the last mentioned 
eection was seen, it is highly probable that it does not, in WBJ 
direction, exceed fifteen or twenty miles. 

Proceeding from the mouth of 'Delaware Creek, on a west- 
ward course, our road, for the first few miles, wound amw 
gently rounded hills and ridges of quaternary conglomerate 
or limestone breccia, from thirty to a hundred feet high, with 
occasional exposures of Cretaceous limestone ten or Mem 
feet in thickness. The soil and subsoil were calcareo-silicioi^ 
As we proceed, the conglomerate gradually thins out, and, 
finally, appears only at intervals, while the limestone is much 
more largely developed, and fomis short ridges and truncated 
conical hills sometimes five or six hundred feet in heigtt. 
Occasionally, these were isolated and widely separated from 
each other, and sometimes grouped together in clustet^ m 
eight or ten. In general outline and composition, they v^ 
closely resemble the hills and ridges previously encountma 
fertber east, thus indicating, pretty clearly, that they coa^ 
tute the remains of a once continuous table laud, of the forfflW 
existence of which, and its subsequent removal bydenaanW 
they are the monuments. The dip of the strata is, pretty 
uniformly, about 1' E.S.E. Near the summit of ^<^^^/* ^' 
highest elevations, hard, projecting bands of brown and li^ 
gray limestone occur, but, unhkc tliose forming the ^^^^ 
of the hills and elifis farther cast, they are exceedingly b^^ 
of fossils, and have yielded, after a careful search, but a mn^ 
imperfect specimen of My t Hits. In conformable beds ^f^^ 
the limestone, we find red marly clay, sandstone, and ^^r 
sum, exhibited in nearly vertical sections sixty or ^*^'^"^^** -xt 
in height. The g}'psum is, in places, deeply discolored ^|JJ 

oxide of iron; and the suriucc of the country is *^^^^^^^1^ 
powdered g^-psum and white carbonate ^^ ^^^^^/Jl^f^^ 
ten feet in thickness. Tlie soil, along the valley of ^^^^^ 
Creek, is moderately fertile, and competed of snnd, clayt ^ 
lime, in variable proportions. The water of the stream 
clear, but has a stronir, disagreeable taste. ,, - ^ 




m.- 



in color from brighrvenuilion to deep blue, ^^^^.^^^^^s 
presents, in places^a thickness of about sixty ^^^^^'f f^arie- 
every degree of compactness from the soft pulverulent ^^^ 
t}-, before noticed, to compact bluish-white alabaster. 



^ 






b 



SHUMARD GEOLOGY OF H. MEXICO. ■ 2ii7 

softt»r varieties often pass upwards, almost Insensibly, into 
li^b of ?oft, white carbonate of lime, sometimu;> fifteen or 
*'"entv feet thick. 

As we continue to a«lrancc, the compact limestone rapidly 
^linishes in thickness, and, in a distance of six miles, ui»ap- 
ptrs entirely, and is replaced by thick beds of quaternary 
urwcia, much coarser than any previously encountered, and 
tHoundingin a great variety of fossils. We are evidently ap- 
pmaching the source of this deposit, since the frairnionts are 
pot onl^^ laigt^r and more angular, but the formation is incmas- 
ing mpidly in thickness, which, in some places, was estimated 
it from four to five hundred feet> 

At the distance of about thirty miles from the mouth of 
Dekware Creek, the red and blue clay, gypsum, and pulveru- 
lent carbonate of lime, which had been largely exhibited, for 
several milei^ along our route, suddenly disappeared, and 
•Irota with f^>ssils of the Upper Coal Measures came into 
new, in low hills and ridges. They consist of yellow, quart- 
«»e ^sandstone, surmounted by black, gray, and white lime- 
rtone, as exhibited in the following section (descending) : 

I" Sf^P" J^^fied, compact, white and Hglit-grav limestone. 

t fc^' *^^y ^^'^"^"lattHi limestone ••-. ^1.... ............ 100 feet 

7 ^^"^™y» thin-bedded, crystalline limestone 50 

1. Yellow 4«uirtso»e ftaadstone, with thin scams of black, com- 
pact hmestone interstratified bJL its upper portion ♦ 

These rock> are unconformnble with the Cretaceous, thoudi 
^ dip h still E.S.E. Owing to the great thickness of tSe 

^^^^^^^ J^positS the upper white limestone is not well- 
^*osed,just at this point; but at other places, not far distiint, 
H presents a tliickness of several hundred feet. It is, usually, 
ahard,cr>^talUne limestone, abounding in fossils identical with 
^0^ so trequpntly obsa^ed in the breccia. 

Ibe organic remains of this limestone, so fiir as they have 

?o^ ascribed, are as follows: I^roductus semireticidcUH^, P. 
n^e species, in the Western and Southwestern States, are 

*^^ ^^^'^ ^^ ''^^^^ n^I>^^ division of the Carboniferous sys- 
*^ w Coal Measures. 

*^m the dark-simy fimestoue (Xo. 3 of the section), the 
owmg undesciibed fo^ils were obtained, which, as far m 

to this portion of the 

. . ^ , Camaraj)h oria^ Straparol- 

Itwo species), and PfdlUpsia. 



« 



til 






i^!^^ «^ '^f tt^ t&m!^ of the beds of this w<^on with sptcu .^ fie 
•tte^tk^ ^^^^ ^^^ *h« Permian Svstem ot England and Russia, and 
wi^ ^io»e wetitiv diieorered bv j!aj. Hawn in Kan>a.s, described by 

* nil. Swallow and An^«»- xr^.i J it__:'j_„ „- -i *^ ^^^ of Prr. 

■ ^- 2St. U3m%, Meet Jlarch 8, 1858.) 



^^bm \^ ?^*^^ Messra, Meek and Harden, provei then? ti> be 

im^ ^^r J r ^?^^^nceiacnt of Permian Backs in 5ew Mexico, 



278 TBANS. OP THE ACAD, OF SCIENCE. 

No fossils were observed in the underlying sandstone. Tha 
rock is fine-grained, more or less micaceous, and of moJerat* 
hardness. Although sometimes exposed in heavy, mas-^ivt 
strata, it is, for the most part, thin-hedded, and, occasionallT, 
finely laminated. It contains, near its upper portion, bandi 
of dark, compact limestone from a few inches to two feet 

thick. 

Denudation. ^ 

everywhere exhibited the strongest evidence of denudation, 
being deeply excavated, and often appearing in detached hiLj 
usuallv of a conical form, and sometimes separated from eaci 
other by intervals of several hundred yards. The Imiestoa* 
is, now, only occasionally observed capping the summita (A 
the highest elevations, and nowhere presents a thickneii «* 
more than one or two hundred feet. Immediately south « 
our route, the countrv is much cut up by deep yallevs art 
rocky ravines ; to the" north, the surface, although less brosoi, 
is, nevertheless, rough, and thickly strewn with coarse, aii£ 
lar fragments of limestone. By following the ^nndmgs oi w 




dip of the strata. The quatem ^ ^ e msk- 

with an average thickness of over two hundred feet, coni*ir 
ing angidar blocks of limestone sometimes several lee 
diameter. _ , 

Head of Delaware CreeJc.—This stream rises in a bro^^ 
and fertile valley, and is formed by the united waters ox ^ 
eral springs that issue from the base of the breccia or ^^ 
glomerate and the upper portion of the sandstone ^^^y.^ 
stitutes the floor of the valley. These springs are conti^,^^^ 
to each other, btit xnrv, remarkably, in t'^i-iracter. ^ 
they issue from the conglomerate, the water is^ ci ^^^ 
slightly calcareous, and has an agi-eeable taste; ^^^ . ,| 
they flow from the sandstone, they are h^S^^y.^f^L^le '^ 
with various saline ingredients, have a <^sagreeabie w^ ^ 
emit a strong odor of sulphuretted hydrogen. At t r^^ 
the valley of the creek is about two hundred anu_u ^^^ 
deep, and its width is from a few hundred J^^'^ ' j^g ^U 
miles. It appears to have been hollowed o"; ^_ ^^atf 
strata by denudation. On either side are abrupt t^^^^„„{ed 
and liills of massive and thin-bedded sandstone, s«n ^^^^ 
by heavy and finely laminated strata of limestont, 
itcd in the folio wine: section : 

"= • 50*f 

1. Heavy bedded, gray tm?k white limestone '\ llO 

2. Finely laminated, black limestone * "Vf*no with a 

3. Heavy and tMn-beddi-d, yellow^, qnartzose ^'^"'^'^'liftLi.... \^ 

thin seuins of black, compact limestone inters Erauii — ^ 

Tntal thickness -■ 26® 




&:. 



L^- 



SUFMARD— GEOLOGY OF N. MEXICO. 2Y9 

The^o he(\9 appear to be precisely the same as tlmsc ob- 
ferv«*<] on Delaware Creek, thirty miles above its confluence. 

The floor of the valley is generally smooth, bnt liere an<l 

Qmt marked with ridges and abrupt conical hills of sand- 

<tnne and limestone, from one to two hundred feet hirrh. 

The m»l is calcareous, calcareo-argillaceons, and, in some |ila- 
W&, silicioiis. 

At a short distance from this point, we begin to approach, 
hy % gentle ascent, the eastern base of the Guarlahipe Moun- 
taing. The hills are, for the most part, gracefully rounded, 
»n4 from one to four hundred feet high : the valleys to the 
^.uth, become much deeper. The strata do not differ much 
from those already described. In places, the san-l'Jtone is 
«tr 'f"l» by denudation, to the height of six hundred feet. 
The oTerlj-ing limestones are confined mostly to the hill;*, 
^ijl, at some points, exhibit a thickness of nea'rly f mr hnn- 
«^1 feet. They are filled with fossils of the same character 
m those last enumerated. The dip is still E.S.E., but with 
agra«hially increasing angle. No evidence appears of any 
iw^lden or violent disturbance, but the nplifting of the strata 
nas endently been the result of causes operating in a unifurm 

h- k^^'t ^'^"^^ manner. The subsequent denudation, to 
which they have been so largely subjected, liM imparted to 
tnw rponnn a rough and broken asi>ect. By following the val- 

; . S which have a general east and west bearing, the nscent 
■ emf. ° 

From Independence Springs, which bubble up throudi 
y^" y circular ojienings in the sand-rock that composes the 
■•w of the valley, to the eastern base of the Guadalupe 
^^OBtains, a distance of about six miles, there is a gradual 
^ent of several hun.lred feet. For the whole of the diV 
fQc^ the dark, thin-bedded limestone is well exposed. As 



approach the mountains, the inclination of the strut; 



I m- 



At th^ '"iip being about 20" and the direction still E.S.E 
Uie mountains, they are seen to pass under the massive 
hftf J ***'^"^» ^'hich, an we shall soon see, is, here, much 
JZ:f developed than farther east. To the south, and aj.pa- 
^"y c<,ntinuous with the line of upheaval of the monntainf«, 
raptured edges of the same strata are to be seen present- 



^' to the 



^^ V^^ ^^^t, rugged and nearly vertical escarpments, from 
sw^wf^" ^^^ to two thousan<^ feet high and extending 

ally ,.7^^ ^^^ ^* vision reach e*?. These clifls are occasir.n- 
7 ^Ppi-l with light-colored limestone, but, generally, thiii 

T>^^f ^oved by denudation. 
r'« : - "f ^^^'^P*^ Mountains, near their sonthcni extremity, 
hiffhM* "^ • * '^™ ^ A'tntly ascending surface, and attain, at the 
^ S,**?'? l^" altilude of nearly 3,000 il^et above their base, 

ime of upheaval, trends somewhnt irregularly north- 



.V 






280 TEANS. OF THE ACAD. OF SCIENCE. 



east and southwest. From one point of obsen^ation, there i« 
a gradual descent to the northeast, while, to the south, the 
ranire tenninates abruptly in a frightful precipice upwartlsof 

Arnnnrl t'hp hasf> of this ureciBice OUT 



ten 



2,000 feet in height. Around the base ot this precipice 
road led, by a gradual descent, through a deep canon, 
rough and nearly vertical cliffs on either side. The c. 
slope is rapid towards the plains, and marted by deep and 
ruixired canons, often with nearly Tertical sides. _ One i 
these canons, situated near the southern extremity, and 
known as " 57ie jPinery," was explored for the distance of 
about a mile. At some points, it is upwards of half a m» 
wide, and bounded, on either side, by vertical, or abruptly 
slomua: walls of such extreme height, that their summits ottoi 



f^. 



appear enveloped in clouds. It is only when observea irwj 
the wpsL however, that these mountains can be eouteapated 



n 



the west, however, that these 
in all their grandeur. Here extends an unbroken ime w ^^t«- 
tical precipices, from two to three thousand feet in height,^ 
feces of which are so smooth as to be accessible only a^ 
hundred feet above the base. The abrupt ftces of these earn 
pursue a general course parallel with the axis ^^ "Pt^^^^ 
the muunTains, which present the appearance of lia^^g /^^ 
cleft vertically through their centre, and the western Wi^ 
removed. They attain their greatest elevation ^^!>f ^^ 
mile north of the southern extremity, from which poml ni« 
is a gradual descent to the north and south. ^ .^. 

Geological Structure.— The Guadalupe Mountains con^ 
of white, grav, and bluish-black limestone, and fine an'i fo*r 
grained quartzose sandstone. They present the toa.j 
section in descending order : 

1. Upper or Trhfte limestone • • •• ..••••• j^ « 

2. nark-colorod, thinly laminated and foliated l™cstone--^'-;f ^^^ » 

3. Yellow quartzose sandstone • •• " 5OO 

4. Black, tliia-bedded limestone * 

The white and gray limestone reposes, in heap' ^J jj'j^yj^ 
the sandstone, and exhibits the enormous ^^^*^^"^^ ggiy ee- 
than a thousand feet. It is harder than any ij^"^' J. ^jj/jone 
countered, but, in all other respects, it is precisely ^^^^^^ ^ 
character as that seen at the head of Delatrare j, jg i«- 
between that point and the Guadalupe Hountams. ^^^^^^^ ^ 
markubly rich in organic remains, a lari^e portion o ^^^ ^ 
new to science ; but others appear to be fornis ^^ ^^^ 
Measures. Some of the layers of white ^tj^^* j ^Juct^trf* 
posed, almost wholly, of remains of Crinoidca.^ ^ p^x^'^*** 

termxned species), Ckoneies Smidth R^^H^ 

* For description of New Fossils from the Wliite i^^^ " 
iper of Dr. E. F. Slmmard. r-o^/. 



i- 





9e^ 



m 



^, 



SHUMARD — GEOLOGY OF N. MEXICO. 281 



Qndetormined species), Spiriftr plaiio^onvexa^ and Avicida^ 
Cypricardia^ Straparollus^ CyatJiophyllum^ FenestcUa^ Chm- 
ktesy 3aid P/iillipstay of each, one or more undescribed spe- 
cies. With tliese occurs a slender Fusxdina^ uj> wards of an 
inch in length, which appears to be quite distinct from the 
Fusulina cylindrical so characteristic of the Coal 3fcasurcs 
of the Missouri River. There is also a braohiopod, Avhich po<;- 
iMies all the external characters of Camaraphoria Schlot' 
hmmii (Vemcnil sp.), of the Permian system of Russia,* 

From the dark limestone interposed between the white 
Imestone and sandstone (No. 2 of Sec.) fossils were col- 
led which ^e identical with those occurring in the beds 
Mar the head of Delaware Creek. 

The sandstone is best displayed in the caiion, atid on the 
ire^tem side of the mountains. In the latter position, it ex- 
hibits a thickness (estimated approximately) of from twelve 
» fifteen hundred feet. Toward the top it is soft, and 
3V.nn(is in fossils, as follows: Spirifer cameratxis^ Spirigera 
mfhf;i;prt^ Productus (new sp.*), Spirifer pla720-c07iv€xaj Bd- 
itf'Ophfm^ and FasuUna elongata. At one point, stratn np- 
wards of a hundred feet in thickness are composed, almost 

^^Sjf^^' of the last mentioned fossil. 

The inferior layers are generally compact, coarse-grained, 
ttd micaceous. At the base, are intercalated bands of hard, 



^ark, argillaceous shale, and, beneath these, are thin layers of 



fpk, compact limestone, which, at a locality a little north of 
Jh^j Pass is exposed to the thickness of five hundred feet, 
l^agent search was made for fossils in these beds, but no tra- 
«^ of any were detected. 

As ire wind around the southern extremity of the moiun 





>ne, shale, and underlyinor dark-colored limestone, were 
*»^essively passed over. 

Beyond the foot of the cafion, a range of hills, from five to 
^"^ hundred feet in height, presents a precipitous face to- 
wards the east, extendinjr, irregularly, for several mile% in a 

rith the mountains. In this range, 

.. ' W^.W^ or in a direction contrary 

^ that observed in the Guadalupe Mountains. But the rocks 






^^ j^^,<>f this section), ha.^ been made by Dr. B. 

TOOitot in the disco verv of othf>r Pt!rniiaa sD€di< 



^^^ .— Miv u.ja\;u4i;r/ ui uuitfr i t;riiiia,u a^t-wK^ tang^ing throtiijfa 
71^^ ^^^^ ^^ which establishes, we think satis&ctorily, their Per- 
i^J^' ^^^ *^« «f ^he black limestone (No. 4j is still doubtful, aj- 
*rr¥J ?u'^ opinion is tfmt it is Ukewi^e rcrmian. (See Prac. of the Acad- 

f^^^^^'^-i n^ning of March 8, 1858.) 
^^"™<«^ JPftpCT, foHowine nnt)et on Pentimn 




282 TRANS. OF THE ACAD. OF SCIENCE. 

are in all respects similar to those of the mountains, a porti-!' 
of the western slope of which they, at one time, formed, al- 
though, at present, separated by a deep valley several mil -' 
wi'^e. Facing, also, in an easterly dii'ection, and about fifte^a 
miles to the southwest, there occurs an extensive range of 
rugged cliffs, from the summits of which the surface slopa 
gently towards the west. These cliffs, as well as conM be 
determined from a distance, arc from a thousand to fift^^ 
hundred feet in height. Their bearing is nearly parallel with 
the escarpments south of the mountains, which they reiy 
closely resemble in general appearance, and, doubtless, tky 
have the same geological composition. Between the ranges 
is a broad and gently undulating valley, with its surface (^ei 
dotted with small saline lakes. 

Passing through this valley, w^e emerged into a broad ar^ 
^ntly undulating country, the surface of which (m^-"-' 
chiefly of tenaceous, red, calcareo-argillaceous clay, coarse vel- 
low quartz-sand, and limestone detritus, which is often fii™? 
consolidated by means of calcareous matter, and characten«l 
by io&dU different from those found in the mountains. It* 
general thickness is about ten feet. Three or four ™^^t^ 
the southward of our road w^ere seen several shallow sahae 
hikes, some of them two to three miles in circumferea* 
Their flat beds, after evaporation, are often encrusted w^ 
salt to the thickness of several inches. Some miles forthef 
on, we came upon a range of hills of fine yellovsish ^T^^^ 
sand, extending five or six miles to the southward, witn n 
average width of about a mile. These hills appeared to^ 
slufting their position, in a northwardly ftii'^<^'ti^»5^^^^^]^^ 
mezqmte bushes as they advanced. At the distance oi t^ 
ty-four miles from the foot of the Pass, there occur mr^ 
small shallow lakes, the water of which is ^trongl^^i^^^ 
ted With gj-p.sum, and the dry ' "* 
off, are thickly covered with small shinin. 
ite. Beyond these, we travelled over a 



prairie 



T 




mar 



carbonate of lime, the latter not unirequGntly mised wit 



white gjT»^um, an'.T presenting a general thickness ol^^ . 

~ — extensive •^'^^^ 

dark-gray, subcry^itulliiie, and highly fos-'^^"^"'-"'' ^^^^"^ 



or tT\-cntT feet. 




!,and; of soft fem^^ 

sandstone, and is marked by fossils of the Coal Meason^^ 

fallows: I^^lkrophon Ifontfortkmusi^) {^ ^^ \^ ^ Tj^nu^ 
thisiyia umhraculur,^ Strapar alius catilloides(f), an«^ 
of Cri7ioidea, Among tlic loose detritus=, I obserre. 
small fi-agm en t:s of soft, yelloT^', earthy, cretaceous 1""^** 
containins: Ostrea, pu 

re strata of dark-gniv, snbcrystalllne Hme^»|^ ^ 
•Coal Measures were largely exhibited, for seYCTSl mm 





SnUMABD — GEOLOGY OF N. MEXICO. 283 



dn. The rock, 



th 



mentioned, only, in beinsf harder, and, occasionally, more or 
hm cberty. The embedded fossils arc, usually, finely pre- 
•ened, and often so thickly cro^rdcd as to constitute; the 
hnrer part of beds many feet in thickness. The most com- 



iw 



Product 



B 



yton^ and ArchcBOcidaris^ of undescribed species. 

As we progress, the strata become highly contorted, the 
Kirfhce more undulating, and the hills, which attain a height 
of from fifty to one hundred feet, characterized by gentle 
ibpi>, until we am^e at the Cornudas Mountain, an isolated 
!»««* of eruptive rock, rising almost vertically to the height of 
«ix or seven hundred feet, and appearing at a little distarr^e 
to be compoaed of materials thrown confusedly together. On 
every side, it presents rugged and nearly vertical cliff>», some 
of them fif^sured, and exhibitinir near their baj?es small trian- 
gular openiHOT. The largest of these extends into the moun- 
|»ii nearly abundred feet, and terminates in a spacious cham- 
fccr of an iiiegidar elliptical fonn, with a pool of pure water 
ia the centre. 

The Cornudas Mountain extends about one mile northensi 



ted southwest, and its width 
a milo. It is ctiiniposed 



s of 




ijjre* 



B inicn IS of a jet black color, and exists m very 
teall particles. Tlii» grniiite disintegi'ates very mpidlj. 

iTom tLi^ Comndas. the KmosfnTiP nrpsjonts* .1 mmonaversal 



-. , .^^ limest 

«»P» at fingl 



Near the point of con- 



■» 



*** witii tLi^ ornptive rocks, it is highly metaitiorphMed aiisl 
«pnTmed into hard cellular rock of a duskv-brown color, lis 
JiaWe thickness is tipwards of fire hundred feet, and, at a 
"ttle distance from the eruDted mass, the beds are crowded 
* ; fHssils, many of them L 
voal ileasures. 

h'^^ leaving the Cornudas, we continued to travel over 
Wly tmdulated strata of limestone of the i^ of the Coal 
««*^ures. The surface of the country is rolling and diversi- 
awl W!th low, rockv hills and ridges. Southwest of our road 
^ ii» unintermpt'ed chain of hills oX eruptive rocks, which, 
J^r connecting with the Sierra de los AlamoB, stretch acrons 
|» wuntrj' for % number of miles in a southwest comi?'-. 
j_^, mik> from the Siurra Comuda?, we came to tlie Sierra 
*5^- k • l^*^ thwc roii-h, isolated peaks, the hitrhost of 
."»»» about eight hundred feet above the general level oS 
nc country adjacent. These diflfer from the C^*f»t 



lat m 



11^.1 I appearance and mineralrrjneal compositi 



though 




system of eruption 



t- 



284 TBAXS, OF THE ACAD, OF SCIENCE 



The rock consists of granite, gneiss, and light-grccnish por- 
phyr}\ The granite is hard, compact, and fine-textured, and 
graduates almost imperceptibly into the gneiss and poryth}!}*. 
The latter is usually hard, and contains crystals sometimes of 
qnartz, and sometimes felspar. On both sides of the eruptive 
rocks, the Upper Carboniferous limestone is sli^tly metf 
morphosed and inclined at angles of 10'' to 30°. Beyond tke 
Sierra de los Alamos, this limestone is largely developc^i, nnd, 
in places, crowded with characteristic Carboniferous fmis. 
It extends to the Sierra Alto, in undulating strata, nod the 
surface of the oountrj- is marked with low hills and ridg^ 
from the rocky sides of which fossils were obtained in tw 
greatest abundance. 



The Sierra 



It if 



jj- 



gular base to the height of about fifteen hundred feet, 
completely isolated from the neighbouring mountains, and ^ 
rugged summit projects considerably above the Wg^5^^ 
them. Its main axis extends nearly east and vest, vx tm 
distance of about two miles, and its width varies^ tiom > 
fourth to about three-fourths of a mile. On all sides, it « sj*" 
rounded by hills nnd ridges, which present abrupt ac« 
toward the mountain, and slope gi-adually in the q)p<®i« 
direction. The mountain is composed of liard granite «> 
light gray color, in which the felspar predominates over »» 
quartz and mica. The weathered face of the rock pres^ 
sometimes a yellow and sometimes a brown color, and, o<^ 
sionally, exhibits a jointed structure, but more frequent')^ 
smooth and polished appearance. The stirrounding nm »• 
ridges consist of limestone and soft sandstone, ^'""j..^^ 
Ftronglv upheaved, and dip, nnaquaversally, at angles o 
5° to 40' . The layers in contact with the eruptive m^^^ 
highly metamorphosed and of dirty brown and yelioj ^ 
As well as could Lc determined from their exposed e%^ ^ 
thickness of the limestone and sandstone cannot,^ n(! i 
short of 2500 feet. As we recede from the monntain,^^^^ ^ 
of the gtrata becomes much less apparent, so that, in 
tance of a mile, it does not anywhere exceed 5° to 1 ' j^^y 
The Pass.—Jmt before reaching the eastern base 



m 




Alto 



aft 



the 



m 



the cmigraui- ^^—^ ^ 
r<.e, whi?h cun-es aro«i^ 

This gorge or es;^^ ^ 

■walled up throughout its entire extent with "^''^^^^^ -4 3d 
places, nearly jx-rpendicular escarpments of h-'ira, ^-^^ ^^ 
gray suberystalline limestone, and soft, Jf'^^^*A^^M^ 
grained sandstone, with occasional intercalations oi '^^.^^^ 
argillaceous shale. Kear the eastern extremity? n^' 15^ 



width Li over a quarter of a mile, and, here, tm ^'■" ^^(r^ 

'■ ping southeast from 15° to 25^ As "«^.^^ ^• 
ecomes much narrower, and the direc 



seen n 

' caiion 





■^ 



I 



>L— 



SflUMAED — GEOLOGY OF N. MEXICO. 285, 



< 



Ijmclually 



ng as wc reach the western 
does not exceed b"" or lU**. 



K- 



. 



(See Sec. 1 ,) 

A« the strata exposed at the Pass are some distance re- 
moved from the central axis of eruption, they have undergone 
hut sHglit metamorphic change, and are often densely crowd- 
ed with fussils. Amons: these vre recognize severiu species 
which are <^uite characteristic of the Coal Measures of Mis- 
•ouri, Illinois, nnd Kentucky, along T^'ith others that range 
downwards to the base of the Carboniferous system; but most 
rfthe species are yet undcscribed. The list inclurlo<t Produc- 
ts costntm^ P. cora,, Tellinomya protensa{^)^ AUorisma re- 

gyhn$^ Bf^lhrophon Jlriii^)^ Bdkrophon (several new spe- 
des), StraparoUus (several new species), Plenrotomariay 
Mnrchis&nia, Natxca^ and Chemn itzia (several sj^cies), 
M <r of the fossils, at this locality, ^vere obtained from the 
debra at the base of the cliffs. 

Skrra Ilmm. — From^he western extremity of the Siena. 
Alto, our roa-1 lerhbv a arndnal fl< 



hilly r^^giuii. 






m Its torm. J his valley, to the west and northwest, tJ^ens into 
we "Valley of the Salt Lakes,'' but, in every otlier direction, 
rtts abruptly terminated by rongh hills and cliffs of limestone 
from five to eight hundred feet high. Its floor consists en- 
*"^iy of eruptive rocks, of which the sharp and jagged points 



theH 



Mountain, preci 



huadn-a feet It is divided hy a broad canon into two nearly 
«q'wl portions, and, on all sides, are vertical cliffs, often deepr 
^ figured from top to bottom, affording, by their frowning 
•PF^rance, a remarkable contrast with the smooth grassy 
Wf^ce by which the .v are surrounded. 
pie rock composmsr the Sierra Hueco is a fine-textured. 




mctamor 

N'ear the base 



. t greenish-gray granite, which is soft, and crumbles read- 
"y Ott exposure to^tlie weather. It contains a much larger 
proportion of tels»par and less q^uartz than any of the granites 
5* oaj e hitherto encountered. The weathered edges present 
«Wttginous brown and yellow colors. 

ihe hmestonc of the Coal Measures, which constitutes the 
«^*^ If the valley, has 

Change, and is rich in or 

^raia, more than a huntTred feet thick, composed almost * 
«»«i>' of a species of FmuLina quite different fruM F. cyl 
^m and from that charact ~ ' ' 

ISfiT (See Sec. No. 2.) 

4 Be rollowmg section (Ko. 2) represents a distance of about 

TOir miles, the Mneco :V[ountain being in the centre, and on 
*•»»»* r side the valley bounded by cllfe of I/unestme. 

•^13 



O 



■■■i 



286 



TRANS, or THB ACAD. OF SCIENCE. 









CQ 




/ 



•a 



•/.■/>: 



•//r. 






•^ 



>.^', 



/ 













y^Vui.y 



Ai ri 




. "wVti 




iN '■ . - 




\ 4 








I 

§ 

GO 



CO 



ft 

I 

i 



}^ 



c^ 




I- 



^ 



.1 



V 



2- 




^ 
^ 



1' 



f 






1 

I 



<M 



f 




2 






«• 



■J. 



■< 






I 



S 



-v« 



M 



*■ 



#• 















I "ey o/tAe ^ii Lakes, — Shortly after knvin^ tlie If u 
Ma«nt^n, we eiitt-rotl the "Valley of the S ilt Laki^s* miiirh 
Mi»tehM north and «mith several hundred mih •*. it m Jwmnd- 
mi M the irett by the Ora^n nml Kl Paso M ►unfain«, th*> 
•hftrp aiid)img«Hi otttltnes of which be^^feak, i\vn at ihi« di^- 
*MWV, the eruptire character of the nw-kn romp... lug them, 
ttl tkir eam, tne valley is limited by an iininti'rnipf<»d Hue of 
^^^f abrajpt cliflk of limestone, which, to the feoutlu are r !• 
* '^ with the blufia in the vicinity of the Hneeo Mountain, 



m 



ifl the opposite diret tion, tliey extend for a di^^tance iA 



iBty or f fty mile^ and temiin^e in the Hacratnento M 
t«it«, which riaa majestierdly to an altitude of aeveril iL 



'»tni^ 



on 



rrfct** 



l»»i fret. A little west of this line of clifis, and running par* 
lIM with them, is a chain of >«har|) ridges and c^nic^ hilL«, 
w**'^ rrmnert with the Sierra Hueeo, and powen, as far at 

*^ *he aamc structnre, hoine cuinf»o«ed of fine-textnred 
?*ay granite* At the point of entrauet^ the ralloy is about 
2^lv-fivc miles wide, and has a smooth, eren gtrrface, v- 
wed, f^ t^^ most part, with short grass; but, after t*ntering 
w» we IMM ai^?r e<»yrse, reddish ^aiid and detritiis of emptive 

Vwa Mmintains. — After trarellina for tTr^ntY-^urbt 




^3^«^ thc«f* deposits of sand nnd dctntu«^, wen^e]>ed the 
•■•ti^m ext- mity of the El Buo Monntain^v ammid which 
^jr*E*ad led, by a gradual dv -ent into the valky <4 the liio 
~**' * Th€«e iii"^nnt.^ns form a coutinnous cliftin ab<nit 







nt\m in length 

ttid aouth diiTCtion. and. althoui/b be 





t^y constitute merely a detached porti*^ <>f the < >r]g^ 
_.. &om wUch they are s^^f parated, on tlie ii*irth, by a 
••^ x%}\^r, from a fourth to a half a mile *wido- To the 
•^^ 'h^y terminate abruptly to form -The V^^r beyond 
**^ thm loftir suminits of the same tmxm are again 





^ES^ 



^ . c.«^athwnrd for many miles. Viewed fiv 
•^^*W ftlHTQi^Iy from a tmooth ^id gently a>cer 

2^'i%^ th^ hi|?he«t pointy an elevation of .. ... -^ .. 
^•t^liieir tnmmits are general iy isharp nndt jtig^e^, and, 
"f Bwth, they rise in un<-ee^siou one abov* 




■ L 



^f^^ 



whicfi ha« 




ttid to tibt entire ranggre- As it will be sbowE here 
^^ eon^iderably in eompf^ition* The m>uthen 
nm^ of hard granite and p>ridiyry. The gra 

or& the I* *rphyry, and rnrie^ in c 
to deep t^ermilion. It ti tometime!? more et 
ft "^^ ^^ hardne-f^ and dimiWlity would make 

J^^eellefit buildtnir mater.^L The poq hyry 
_^| *^ tU, «rtnmit ^ i -.u.-UIv. it m of a deep red col 






^tab ^ Qu^tz Mid 'sometim ci feli^ar. Near 




* i 



^ 



288 TRAXS. OF THE ACAD. OP SCIENCE. 

western hnse, fragment*' of dark colored scoria were frequeiit- 
ly obsened. 

Agaiuj^t the western declivity, the limestone strata are«*mif» 
ly upheaved, and where it is in immediate contact with ^ 
eruj)tive rocks, it is highly metamorphosed. I was much b> 
terested by findinof, here, near the base of the exposure, wffi* 



esp<m<l 



Ai 






River group of the New-York series. The following f(^^ 

procured from these beds: Orthis t€8tudinaria (Dat 



Mu 



), 0. occidentalis (Hall), lihynconella capnx (Conr^ii^ 



Melasma cornicula? fHalU. and columns of Crinoidi. 



dep 



» ^"^ nXlAVAXi^tj 



:(WM 



nothing was encountered but granite 



> ^' ^ 



limestone. The surface is generally hilly, and slopes tow«* 
the Rio Grande, which is, here, of moderate depth, and 2' *» 
over a rocky bed. 

From this point to Doila Ana, the course of the Expe'^'^ 
was nearly north, pursuing the ralley of the Rio ^^'f^ 
which varies greatly in width, and is characterized br oar^ 
rich, alluvial soil, bearing a luxuriant vegetation. From tfie 
east, the surface slopes towards the Rio Grande, and thew 
border is marked, for the first few luiles above El » *f^ 



em 




by nigcred mountains of granite and porphyry, and afte 
by precipitous bluffs, which fomi the eastern edge of J*^ 
rated mesa. The soil is frequently encrusted with m<^^ 
cenees of common salt and soda. The river has an % 




width of abotit one hundred yards. The water is mod 
deep, and highly charged with fine yellow sediment, i 
El Paso Mountains exhibit the same general appearan*^ 
nuneralo.i,ncal composition as before. The limestone « J 
Lower Silurian system is seen strongly upheaved agaJ--'- ^ 
western base, until wc reach a point ten or eleven nule^o^-^ 
of the place where it was first discovered, when it disapl^ 
and is succeeded by strata of the Carboniferous *1^^^\^ 
are exposed, in places, to the thickness of about ^"^^^ 
dred feet. B1aek ferruginous sand was observed m.*^. _^^ 

base of the mountains, and th« i^^'^^^g 
were sueh as to lead to the belief that this region ^- . 
fijund 



loealities near the 



division of thn hi 




of the 




".t^\'- 



:en de«cribc<i bv^- 
Ferd. Rcrmer, in his excellent and finely iUustnited w«» ,^ 
the Cretaceous strata of Texas. We are able, no*^®^^.. ' 

,lacedffl"' 



gidcrably 

new and 



I, which have been 



EQUMARD — OI^JLOflY OF K. MEXICO. 



^f> 



Iwnda of A Pateontologist for cxaniination anfl <lim rifitirm. 
We will, therefore, at present, merely cnnmcrate pnmc of the 



ie« which have been found most characteristic of the 






Th« following species have been fonnfl to mnpe from the 
to the hn>Q of the formation, viz: Gryph<"t Pit<httl 
(M<sTt.»n>, Ej-ogyrn arktina (Rccm.), Jnvirn T<rana (T?«em. 
•p.) Jnnira (fiadricmtata (Sowcrby), and Tereltrtidihi If a- 
mmm» (R<rmer). 

In the nppcr part of the formation, ^ve fin«l most commonly 
til* following, anfl, as far as our observation* extend, th^y are 
jMcaliur to it: Cerad'fcs {Ammonites) pedemnlift (Ha'm.sp.), 
?ferwf«nf<i tubfusiformis (Shum.), I'lcnmfnmaria cmfnlni- 
'" ", Scaiaria vertebroil',^? (Morton §p.), JVir/iVa 




ya) tumi'Ia (Shum.), Natica utvafff (Slmm.), J/b- 
m^' m Texana (H<i>m.), Zhna Ff^Tr^^*^*/." (Tuem.), Ostrea 
^mmlimta^a {lUi^m.), 0. carinata (Lamank), rai>*^p'^a 
Ttjmm (Shnm.), and Astrocoenia Gvnff'dxipoui (Rpm.) 

forms are 

Tur- 



In the inferior strata, the most characteri»tMJ 



I 



^mtmitet ve»p€rtinu9 (Mort.), A. Popeamis (Sluim_), j 

'■WftM Brnzoetud* (Ruem.), JSaadites asper (Mort.), IZi-'>;, 
mttttta (S^y), M art^fina (It<»m.), if. kevimcuJ'i (i: iTii), 
Otrm mH'^tdariif (Lam.), Ory^marUrltri Qiori . ) , F octtn, 
l^undw), Janira quadn'costatn? (Sow^, Inocerwnui Crip' 
tU (Mant.), Z mytiloides (Man!.), Inorrramm (sixjci-'* 
•*^t-), I'holadmiya ekgantuia (D'Orb.), Cardium ^r^^ymi^ 
'•^ » (EtEm.), t'as.nduhfj^ (xquorem (R«*m.), Tet^atiM 
f -"'J^rmtis (Shum.), Nerima Texana (Rujin.), and 7H- 
P**^ (nov. 8p.) 

h will be men from the above list of specie*, that, with 
•ftiae few exceptional, the fossila of the superior and inferior 
ions of the Upper Cretaceous strata of Texas and Kew 



2Ceverthele?«!i, as we cannot draw 
by litholo^cal characters, we have 




uco are q^t« distinct. 
* weil-iaarked horijton 



*ro|^r to make no separatiaa of tLe strata. 



ht 



290 



TRAKS. OF THE ACAD. OF SCIENCE 



# 



Notice of New Fossils feom the Permian Strata op 
New Mexico and Texas, collected hy Dr. Gmmt G. 

Shumard, Geologist of the United Stales Governmed 
Expedition for obtaining Water by means of Artesm 



Wells along- the S2d Parallel, under the direction of 
Capt. John Pope, U. S. Corps Top. Eng, 

BY B. P., SHUMARD, M.B. 

[Head March 22, 1858.] 



Pboductus Popei, iV^ sp. 

_L 

Shell of medium size, suBquaJrate, wider than long, great- 
est width at the cardinal border. Dorsal valve (remmg 
valve) gibbous, very strongly arched, somewhat enroUeO; flat- 
tened convex near the beak"; anterior prolongation of m-^ *''■• 
ate length, fonning a gentle curve from the visceral re^o^JJ 
the front ; sinus commencing near the beak, where it is ^^ 
shallow, but it soon increases in depth, and becomes J^^^ 
found on the anterior prolongation, so as to give thj F^ . 
of the shell a very marked bilobed appearance; ^^"^ff'^.^^f 
from six to ten unequally rounded, coarse ribs on each si ^ 
the sinus, their number sometimes increased by division ^ 
itnplantation. These ribs arc usually quite prominent »^^ 
broad on the anterior prolongation, but on the postenor 
of the shell they become obsolete, leaving a nearir sm ^^ 
surf ice for some distance before the beak; sides ff^'^K^ 
ruptly to the margins, near wliich they are «8«^* - p^|j gx- 
with a series of eight or nine rather strong tubes, ww^ . 
tend from the beak to the front. Besides these, m*^^ J' ^ 
specimens exhibit a few smaller tubes, sometimes sea 
I>romiscuo ' . ~ - - -« -ncr ifl o^ 

liquo lines 




ed, slightly incurved, and passing a little beyond the caw^^^ 
margin; ventral valve ellintico-subquadrate, gen^lv ^ ._. 



margin; ventral valve elliptico-subquadrate, s—- e^^xv^f 
or flattened on the visceral disk, its sides with a row or ^ ^ 
which, with other surface ornaments, coiTCspond to i 



the opposite valve. 

We dedicate this, one of the most beautiful species 






American JProdwtm, m compliment to Oapt. Jonn L^^ 
the U. S. Coqis Top. Eng., whose Expedition has tat ^^ 



of having first procured palseontological evidence o 
ence of Permian Strata in New 3Iexico and Texas 



K 



E 



^ 



■i'^ 



■3 



gHCMAED— PERMIAN FOSSILS. 291 



Peoductus Mexicants, JVI .^^. 

iSA-7 r»f medium size, Bubrectangular, width greater than 
the length; dorsal mUve elevated, strongly archcrl, marked 
with a broad^ very slight mesial depression, which is Bcarcoly 
developed into a sinus ; sides rounded, falliniij aT>niptly to the 
iBKpns, front very gently convex ; beak small, pointed^ con- 
TCT, moderately prominent ; sw^face ornamented with from 
eighteen to twenty-four prominent, rounded, longitudinal ribi^ 
iheir number somewhat mcreased by implantation or bifurca- 
tion. The ribs are separated from each other by ^aces as 
Uride as thomselve<3. and both ribs and snaces are crossed at 



-^ 



i&mewhat irre 



folds, 



which give to the ribs at the points of crossing a handsome 



fchnodul 
bent a5 the ri 
ttiMBS before 



pe* 



developed into strong wrinkles. VtfUrul valve unknown. 

i>tmen^V;k^. —Length, 0.64; wndth, 0.70; height, 0.54. 
Theae proportions were taken from a yo\mg specimen on ac- 
«wnt of its being more perfect than the others. The coHee* 
Hon wntains fragments of full-grown shells, which, if perfect, 
w<mld perhaps meai?ure one-third greater. 

White Limestone of the Guadalupe Mountains. 



PbODFCTXJS nUEOLUS, iVI sp. 



^ 



^1*^ imall, strongly arched, gibbous, outline approaching to 




«des and front roundc<1, terminating below in a projecting 
*«^'i or rim, which is rounded and extends to the cardinal 
^'e; mnbo prominent, somewhat flattened mit€rk>r to the 
oeak. slopes falling rather abnn tl j to the ears ; beak promi- 




wm wi 



•with several slightly elevated, concentric fohls, which are most 



il^Hmient on the sides and arc continued on the ears, where 
wey are directed backwards and become obsolete before 
*»ehing the efltdinal edge ; anterior prolongation binooth or 
®^ed with very obscure concentric folds. 
^ 1 ne colleetion contains but one specimen of this little spe- 
®«J»nd this b partially deprived of its test 



^»?en^to««._Lt.ngth, 0.36 ; width, 0.32; height, 0.24 



Occurs in the Whire Permian Limestone of the 
««>antaias. 




•Ts 



I 



292 TRANS, OF THE ACAD. OF SCIENCE 



SEMTRETicuLATUs, 3Iart. m 



This 



eollectiou from the White Limestone of the Guadalupe If ^ 
The specimens resemble most the variety jP. anHqiiatm^)M 
the sinus of the receiving valve is more profound and narrower 
than in the example figured by De Konincic, which are gener- 
ally marked with a broad shallow sinus. One of our fossib 



group 



\ repress- 
Vise,M 



gium. {Monog. Prod, et Chon^ pi. IX., % 1 J, c 

■ h 

AULOSTEGES GUABALUPEXSIS, iVI Sp. 

Ventral vahe large, outline sub elliptical, gibbous, flattened 
convex at the umbo, enlarging rapidly from beak tofiont an^ 
forming a prettj regular curve in the same direction ; great- 
est width about the middle of the valve; lateral inargiiis 
rounded, front slightly sinuate; a broad, shallow sinns com- 
mences some distance in advance of the beak and continue: 
to the front in one of the specimens, and in the other the u- 
iius is somewhat profound and naiTOW on the unihonal re- 
gion and becomes shallow towards the front ; beak elongated, 
flattened, straight or slightly curved upwards at the extrem- 
ity, which is pointed ; area triangular, Ycry much elevated; 
lateral edges sharp and strongly defined. Surface marbBd 
with numerous slightly prominent, radiating, interrupted nH 
crossed by obscure, rounded, concentric ridges, which give w 
the former a subnodulose character ; intervals marked wi^ 
small circular pit.s, probably the points of attachment m 

spines.. Dorscd vahe vmkno^^^n. •3%,-\i^' 

DimenMom.—Lemrt^ of ventral valve, 1.40; width, l- » 



height, about 0.59 



o 



h^ 



] 



le 




has not been found below the Permian. ^ , ,„_- 

Geol Fo9, S Zoe.— White Limestone of the Guadawp 
Mia^y Kew Mexico and Texas. 



Spibifer Mexicajsts, If. sp. 



■oatig 



age, extremely so^'in ftill-cn-owu specimens, greatest ^^^^ 



oreatest width 



^^ii^iii cuiisiueraoiy less tfiin tnc greatest w*"-»» l,.^n3 
found near the middle of the smaller valve, latera ma^^^ 
rounded, front sinuate. Ventral valve (receiving ralve; ^»^ 
larly arched, much more prominent than the oppos^^^ 






SnUMARD— PERMIAN FOSSILS. 293 

liaving a deep narrow sinus extending front beak to front, 
ii'le^ rounded, cardinal margin equal to about one-half the 
width of the valve, cardinal angles rounded and obtuse; beak 
prolong* (1, elevated, incun'cd, pointed at extremity; area 



fm 



ifW^ forming an angle of about 76°, deltoid opening 
wider than lonsr. Dorsal valve broad elliptical. 



regularly 



convex, mbbous m full-errown specimens; oeak small, pointed, 

-o- -V r-^^^^^^S ^^^^ cardinal border; area nar- 
row, it.s margin gently arcuate. Sui-face marked with round- 
ed, irregular, radiating, usually trifurcate ribs, which are indis- 
tinct on the lateral margins; they are separated by shallow 
fiurrows, and the number on the border amounts to from 18 



lo 24, on each side of the mesial si 




s. 



The dimensions of a young specimen are: Length and 
width, 0J6: thickness, 0.48. Of a fulI-srroWB individual: 



Le 



^ 



age, Guadalupe ilts^ New Mexico and Texas* 



SriRIFER SULCIFERA, If. 9p. 

Shell rather small, ovate, subpentagonal ; length about one-* 
fifth gi'cater than the width; greatest transverse diameter 
^car the middle; cardinal extremities slightly auriculated. 
Ventral valve (receiving valve) gibbotis, more prominent than 
tne opposite one, greatest convexity a short distance behind 
the beaks; mesial sinus distinctj commencing at the point of 
Mie beak and increasing gradually in breadth and depth to the 
&ont; area broad, tnangular; lateral margins sharply round- 
w; deltoid aperture rather large, triangular; surface m:xrked 
^th six broad, rounded, prominent folds, tho^ next to the 
s^us being double the size of the othei-s ; ribs bearing one or 
jawe shallow longitudinal sulci, which become entirely obso- 
tete before reaching the beak ; intenals marked with obscure 
{P^p^.^^linal strise. JDorml valve semi-eHiptical, convex, a 
ttttle frvn^r than wide ; mesial fold moderately elevated, hav- 
^g a distinct median groove extending its whole length, and 
m either side a broad sulcus, which bears one or more slcn- 
jier, slightly prominent, rounded ribs; intervals marked with 
j^gitndinal striae as in the opposite valve. Under a magni- 
^^- da«i^ the surface exhibits very fine, concentric lines of 

growth. •^ 

i^wen^T 9/1^. _ Length, 0,G6; width, 0.57; Lvl-ht, 0.39 j 
iiBgth of dorsal valve, 0.48 ; heiglit of same, OJS- 

tareol. p^^ ^f Loc— ^Whitii Guadalupe Lim Jt--?, oeetipf* 



geological position as the preceding specie 






I 



294 TKAXS* OF THE ACAD. OF SCIENTB. 



Spirifxrika BirxiKGSii, 2^. ^. 



S/ieU of moderate size, wifler thnn long, gibboui) anili ^ 
Hne less than the width of the shell, extremitto^ rcwM 
Vt^titral voice gibbon?, strongly arched, mnrkcd with a ^*^ 
nioderatelv broad, anovular sinus, extending; from tii 
to front, sides convex ; beak prominent, prolongw, !■■ 
sharply incurved, extremity pointed; area well dt?A(ii 
Mcuatc, broad triangular, lateral edges rounded, deli^^ #*^ 
ture larire. Surface with from six to eight ^rominest,?«ii*^ 

3 of the sinus ; they are simple tmA ff* 

the beak to the margin^. IhndmH^ 
semi-elliptical, convex, having five or six prominent i ft^^ 
eaoh ride of the mesial fold, which is angulated, mtlMf i^ 
and towards the fi-ont much elevated above the gener^^ ; 

ine straight, or very slightly " 
beak scarcely passing the cardinal line. The somcc 

tudded w ith extremely fine granuW 



^ly enlarge jQrom 



Texitv; 




wte 



Length 



n 



growth. 
iXmensions,— Length, 0.74 ; width, 0.90 ; tfuckum 

,, _re, 0.44; thickness of T«ntrai vii^^ ^ 

Thi?» ?:pecies is verj- similar to aS". cr^^^a^^ (^^*1*^*'^;- 
which we at first were disposed to refer it. Our ^ml ^h ^ 
ever, larger, the beak more elongated, and the are* w^ 

and higher. ^ ^ -n r a '^H' 

The specimens in ' 

from the W 



m 











the dark limestone suLortlluate to the ^Vhite lini 
the Qnaternaiy Cunglomerate at the nioutli of 
Creek, Kew Mexico. ^ j^^ 

Dedicated lo E. Billings, Esq., Palaeontologist oi »* 
logical Survey of Canada. 

Ketzia tapillata, Nl sp* 

SJi^M small, ovate, Ioniser than wide, ^^^^3^f^#< 
sides rounded, valves nearly equally eoTtrf^x; ^^^^ 
With T!iinieroii8 extremely fine papilte, ^sf*^ ^^^ 
eleven or twelve well-rounded, prominent rib^ tho^ 
^ilm currin^ rather strr^nijly to the margiiii 




t- 









as 









»»aU, Fli-htly arcuate, irell defined hf a shfirpir 
margin ; beak #h»ntrated, mcurved extremity tn«J^^ 
lag a large circular foramer.. DorMtl rahe w^^^ 
strongly an.l pretty regtilarly arcuate &om i^ ' 



.»««l 



i F 




ak t^ 





petnA5 Fo«iiim 2^ 



mmHmaiumimm v crv liMrt, atraiii^t, f »nnmfc an o^ftiW 




wi*H *-« . ' •<; he*iA' imislL stronjjlv incunr«d, tan 



imh bt > ud tin- Mffltnal line. 




ite_^ .— Ifneth, 0.40; wMth, O.ni; tliM ••, ^'27. 



fiat »? !1 diffrra from tin? R^'^lm j-mn ^^ff/era {m^i*'^ m 

|gr*'t frwi r ribs, and a wnallrr cnrdinal 3T»»». 




flw Whito Limr«5tAn0 of the Gu:vlnln|«« >i'»iinUua»i 

*** isdber small, ovate, gibboti'^. lenfftlt •llirfittv^Twrt^* 
tlMi^liMi width, valir«i nearly equally cnnvejc, umHoniai altif** 

portion of fi ^ ?i and front rr-gwlaHy roaod- 

•4 iiii faiii of — ch vaJre inarkMi with fmm eight U»t«'ri itwrn- 




tmifiliatinf plieatirmiS, rounded f.T fwwi** d!**iiiet ^rom 
f ^^11 bMnwin|r snbanirnlar towards the fr. *nt ; they ^x- 
'. .«fj imMlHili)- in*m thfir origin to Xhf bonfelii aiw «« 
!•*' hj rathrr de<!p snin, JM wid^ as themidlvta. Th« 



«r tlw li^ «M Mrh warke<i with thr^ or toot* •!"•« 



*H-**Jb apt iwiHy qnitf distinct at llif b*»rf1»** of th© 

•■l'iil»-%tt bt^-'-ne obwlet€ beforv rpnf^iing the beakai A»4l 

(rf*'*«iving va1v«») 



ttlVftwm 






^ «r«f Very amatl; I- •'■ - . Mlcmf^'T frroli^pd. fwin.l- 
•4 iieiBTH.. lAerMl r^^ elevntad near tlw Ibi^k ; «n»W 

•si, dNiiM tomt^what flattened: ftirsimiyt mar"^" «Lvrt; 

- - -, _. , . :tfotigly in -\r\-f^. 

^*«W»«<w#— Length, 0.46 ; y^\f\'% 0.42 ; h«^t^*, 
#tit /*»•, ^ X-- -.—Th** s^-pc-ritnc-? of the wifc ■ -'«« are 

White iJraest , Guadalupe 5If <*. ; dark 1inie«t^*ne 








»■ 



Whit« limr-tonc. i-iund;;: u"' W"-^ and Coo 
-th JDelawaoe Creek. \ e w Mexi 




^m. n mhtnmgtik r -nth t»w anglcai rounded, irunTex, wider 

■- ^''*™ raar^na n-arlv str ' 3% coni^f^ng at «l 
*'<' dwirt ^ aid*' ^- ;. . .,. : ^ ting a Iwgc, w*4l-*lefiiif< «-lhp 

nbrt, «mootii w u whic4 i# csarlnatH al ♦!• 








«f lii« ralTi ■. and extends from tb*» %&A^-^ ^ ^ ^"f 

^«» t^ ■ • : front stmngiv or s%hay «inr-t«-„ T^ -^^■*^ l'** 

«"* ikm m% m proranent a» the oppo»t« <»« ; «»^**^ 





f^^^da^ frr>m heak to front, lateral rdgea g«f «v arr-- 

wt, #Mi-*' ■••— '-ft »D vex. rath f-T strongly lac i»T^«* /Mr#^ 





'<» 



ff^gttlifflT eon vex aad ^.tper g« 




29i3 TRANS. OF THE ACAD. OF SCIENCE. 



from beak to fi'ont, and a low, broad mesial elevation, ^-liich 
is scarcely perceptible except near tlie front; Seal' depress v!, 
gently convex and closely incurved. Surface marked with 
numerous rather coarse, rounded, radiating striae, their num- 
ber increased by bifurcation and insertion. The bifurcation 
generally take place near the beak. At the border the num- 
ber of strise amount to from thirty to thirty-five on each valve. 
Dimensions.— l.engt\i, 0.58; width, 0.76; thickness, 0.4i 
A handsome species, and quite characteristic of theT\hite 

Limestone of the Guadalupe Mts. of New 3Iexico and I^tj 

CaMAKAPHORIA (?) BI SULCATA, A^ Sp. 

Shell variable, outline varj'ing from nearly circular to siA- 
pentagonal, with angles obtusely rounded, sometimes ve^ 
gibbous and sometimes moderately so, usually a little trans- 
yerse, sides ahvays rounded, front sinuate; shell structure 
fibrous. Ventral or receiving valve very depressed, gently 
convex, greatest convexity near the beak ; cardmal mar^ 
forming an obtuse angle; mesial sinus broad at the tron^ 
scarcely reaching the middle of the valve, shallow, or nttier 
deep, perfectly smooth, or bearing from two to five 'J^^^'l^' 
rounded ribs ; tongue of sinus moderately produced, broaoiy 
truncate at extremity, and cun-ed upwards, sometiin« 
nearly a right angle with the general surface of the vaij^^ 
heaJc imperforate, pointed, incurved nearly in contact 'snt 
opposite valve. Jjorsal valve strongly rounded m most -^ 
cimens, much more gibbous than the opposite "*'^^^\^^^ 
-with a broad, shallow depression or false sinus extenmng 
beak to front, which is bounded on either side by a ^^^f\l 
obscure on the rostral half of the shell, but formmg to^ ^ 
a broad mesial fold towards the front, which is *.n^*^^. ^^^ 
marked witii two or more slightly prominent P^if '^*J^°t'of the 
Founded, obtuse, extremity usually hidden by the beas 

opposite valve. ^ , nSg-widA 

Dimensions of an average specimen : lengtn> v-" » 

0.63 ; height, 0.35. ^hichi*'* 

^ Resembles Terebratula superstes^ Yerneuil, from -w^ ^^^^ 

distinguished bv the greater convexity of the uorb 

and its more flattened ventral valve. . _ „» 



b 




found also abundantly in t£e Conglomerate at the ta 

¥ \ ^ T .. i. . s* ... 1 Tk"^ *m •• • 



ooth<^ 



Delaware Creek, Xew 3Iexico. 



PEBANNFLAT 



3 Jiiyfd€f ^ 

Pygidiv.m deltoid, as wide as Iong» elevated; ^^^^ ^ 
row, smooth, inflected behind, outer ^^g^ sinuate, i" 



SMITH — EORMATION OF HAIL. 297 

obtnsely subangulated, the anterior two-thirds marked with a 
flhaUow furrow ; posterior extremity narrow, very strongly 
irehed; axallobe elevated, nearly as wide as one lateral lobe, 
tapennir very gradually from front to posterior extremity, 
which IS bluntly roxmded and nearly terminal; axal rings 
from twenty-eight to thirty, rounded, distinct on the dorsum* 
bocoming obsolete on the sides, margins sinuate, surface of 
each ring studded with a single row of four or five granules, 
the granules of one ring alternating w^ith those of the adjoin- 
ing ones, transverse furrows much narrower than the rings 
and not deeply impressed; lateral lobes arched, somewhat 
flattened superiorly; segments eight, subangulated, simple, 
eently arched forwards, posterior ones directed obliquely 
Wkwards, the last one being nearly parallel with the longi- 



tudinal axis ; transverse furrows deep and rather broad ; sur- 
face of rings garnished with a row of distinct granules. 

Dimenno?is. — Length and width, 0.74; height, 0.28. 

€kol Form. t& Loc. — ^White Limestone of Guadalupe Mts., 
Xew Mexico. The collection of the Expedition contains sev- 
eral extmiples of the pygidium of this species. 

FuSULr^TA ELONGATA, K. Sp. 



SMI nearly cylindrical, very slender and much elongated, 
ointed at the extremities, which are slightly curved; cham- 




€rs ve 



:^ry numerous; aperture very narrow^ linear, extending 
the entire length. Surface covered with fine, somewhat flex- 
sous striae. 

Dimensions, — Length, from one to two inches ; width, from 
^e to two lines. This species is at once distinguished from 
^- cyliiidrica by its remarkable length. 

Occurs in the' White Limestone, Dark Limestone, and Sand- 
stone, of the Guadalune Mt^. of New Mexico and Texas, 



•^ Hypothesis ccmcerniug the formation of Hail 



BY SPENCER SMITH. 



ileteoi 



be ret 



JJmo^pliere a much longer time than they w^mld occupy^.^ 
Mhug fredy. The reasons upon which they hnve based this 
J^ncUwon, are the ereat size to which these ^0it€s<rften at- 
^^^^m^and their rounded and amorphous form,«o different from 



293 TRANS. OF THE ACAD* OP SCIENCE. 



the beautiful crystalline snow, — nay, the absence of all cm- 
tallization, showing that they are not formed from vapor « 
water at rest. On the contrary, they usually have the appear- 
ance of a series of aggresrations. Some contain a nucleus of 
snow, while others are a mass of ice thro ugh ont. We are, 
liowever, so familiar with their general appearance, that far- 
ther description is unnecessary. That any incontrovertible 
theory respecting the manner in which hailstones are thai 
aggregated in the atmosphere, can in the present state of me- 
teorological science be proposed, is hardly to he expeetd. 
The most that will now be attempted, will he to show that 
the theory heretofore received as very nearly, if not quite, the 
true one, is, if not impossible, at least open to very grave ob- 
jections. I proceed then to state another, perhaps, in its turn, 
to be proved no better founded than its predecessor. _ 

While the young science of Electricity was at the zenith fl* 
its novelty, and every new electrical toy was astonishing the 
savans of Europe, Volta proposed to explain the formation a 
hailstones, on the jjrinciple which governs the action of the 
dancing balls and images between two metallic plates, ne 
supposed two strata of clouds to be in opposite states of elec- 
tricity, so that the hail formed in the upper, and then mn 
to the lower, would there become similarly ekctrifiecl ; thro* 
back again, in obedience to the attraction of the ^^I'F^. '^'J!^ 
it was again cast into the lower cloud, and so on, nntil tne 
raentuni of the ball carried it, through the lower one, to w 
earth; or, if the clouds were side by side, the hail woo^'^.T 
thrown frotu one to the other, as it fell. Now, althougfi n^ 
hypothesis is somewhat plausible at first view, I tmns u 
hardly bear the test of philosophical scrutiny. ^ ,^^ 

We can hardly conceive of a cloud charged with elt'CJi^_M 
of such tension as to airest and throw back a lump of ice j^^ 
ing four ounces, or even matciially to alter its course, ^ 
it has fallen a few feet only. Again, ice, though cap^^j^ 
being electtified when dry, is not easily so when ^J^|^g^« 
it most certainly would be while passing through tfie ^^ 
Here, then, arc two of the objections to this hj-pothfi- ^^ .^ 
it is^ a theorj^ so generally received, is probably ^^J^^i^^Wr 
having been advanced ' =.•- >,-,.^ i 

city excited the won 



I 



■■i 



Kl when every new ^^^f^'^^'^Z lesrrd 
dcr and astonishment of both tiiei ^_ 

and the unlearned, and also when many P'^^^'^^^'^^.^QJentlj' 
ture, inexplicable by other means, were very coo • 

ascribed to its agency. ^Vithout, however, making - ^.^ 
tensions to accurate 'obser^-ations in Meteorology, « ^ ^^ ^^ 
ing that I can bring foru urd an hypothesis not Ua. ^^ ^^ 
jections, I may be permitted to offt'r a few obsenat ^^ ^^^ 
two storms which I have studied with some care.^ ig29;^ 
one occurred at Tergeiuies,yt., on the 22d ot'Jiuy, 
the other, at this place, In 1S52. ' 



I 



SMITH — ^FORMATION OF HAIL. 299 




1 have selected these merely because they exhibited the 

«neral characteristics, common to all such storms, in a strik- 
iiit^' manner; and as like restalts usually follow from like cau- 
ses, we may presume that the facts in one case will, with little 
variation, apply to all similar cases. A brief description of 
that in 1829, will be sufficient to present the princij)al facts 
illustrative of the proposed hypothesis. It commenced about 
four o'clock in the afternoon of a very hot, sultry day. Just 
before the hail began to fall, there was a violent wind, in its 
upward tendency resembling a whirlwind. The dust of the 
streets seemed carried upward, rather than onward, as if rush- 
ing to a vortex, the centre of which was in the clouds. But 
this passing gust nearly ceased before the hail began to fall, 
which it continued as usual to do for a few minutes only. 
Upon breaking open some of the hailstones which fell during 
the storm, they were found to contain particles of dust. As to 
size, they have seldom, if ever, been surpassed, several measur- 
ing from six to ten inches in circumference, and weighing from 
foxu" to six ounces. The majority of them did not exhibit the 
usual snowy nucleus, but were one mass of ice throughout. 
Some of the largest were very irregular in shape, appearin 
to be made up of aggregations of smaller ones. Others looke 
like a snowball coated with ice. This storm passed over but 
a small territory, a strip about six miles wide and twenty long. 
The one which took place here in 1852, exhibited all the gen- 
eral characteristics of that already spoken of It occurred at 
about the same time of day, was attended by the same vio- 
lent wind With its upw^ai^d rush, and also continued for a few 
^mutes only. The hailstones presented the same aggregate 
fomi, but were not so large. Now, I have observed that great 
eleetrieal disturbance of the atmosphere, together with the 
peeuHar wind which I have mentioned, always accompany 
hailstorms. I account for these circumstances thus:— The 
pa^ng^e of clouds, oppositely charged, near each other, gives 
J^e to discharges of electricity, which cause a vacuum, and, 
^ the adjacent parts rash together, thunder is produced. This 
ruAmg in of the air, then, accounts for the wind, and, as wifl 
Hereafter be sho^ra, the discharge of electricity is from below, 
upward. The circumstances under which hailstorms ordina- 
ry occur, we suppose to be the following:— At the close of 
» hot, sultry day,— for hail usually falls in the afternoon, and 
™^^v, if ever, at niglit, — a cloud in the upper regions of the 
^mosphere passes ovtr a lower one which is akeady highly 
flayed by evaporation from the earth ; a discharge from this 
^ the upper one lakes place, and, a vacaum being prodneed, 
«e warm vapor from the lower cloud is carried to a higher 
^^i^ colder position, where it is rapidly coiiLlensed into hail, 
^J»ese stones, prevented from falling by the strong upward 
current, continue to increase in size, both on account of the 



I 



*S00 TRANS. OF THE ACAD, OF SCIENCE. 

condensation of vapor, and of their coming in contact with 
each other ; while being covered with water they congeal, 
and thus take on the ragged form which they sometimes pre- 
sent* The process is conceived to be much the same as that 
of making shot in our modem shot-towers. These, instead of 
beino" carried to a great height, as was formerly done, are now 
only^about thirty feet high, and the drops of melted lead are 



means ^^ .. ^,^.^..^ 



ced into the base of the tower through large bellows. This 
current of air retains the molten drops imtil they are thor- 
oughly cooled. That large lumps of hail, then, are formed by 
a similar process, seems highly probable for several reasons. 

Hailstorms almost always occur in hot weather, towards 
the close of the day. Rapid evaporation generates electn- 
city— as is seen in the hydro-electrical machine— and sudden 
condensation sets it free. We readily understand the fonna- 
tion of hail from a vapor-laden cloud being earned rapiOff 
.upward into colder regions. But Volta's theory supposes m 
to be formed in the upper region first. If this were bo, m 



warmer vaj)or oi iiie lowui ciuuu. wvuivi v^^v. -- v «■ I 

rather than to increase the size of the hailstones. x>ov, 
conceive that the passage of a current of electricity turo^ 
the atmosphere would, by causing rapid expansion, gen 
great cold. The small hail first fumied, being tossed ajow 
this cold current, would, on coming in contact w"^. _ 
other, be quickly congealed together, thus deriving tne^r «, 

gregated form. ■ t.> t. f Am tlifi 

Such is the somewhat crude hypothesis ^^^^'^' "^f^ u 

limited obser^^ations that T have made, seems f^^^^^ ^o 
the attention of meteorologists shall I^e^caftcr be on^.^^^^^ 
this subiect, more foots may be gathered contributing ^^^ 

to establish or to falsify it. The presence ^^ P^^\\*^-|:factciffl 
in hailstones is, I believe, not uncommon; andu i ^^ ^ 
be well-established, in a majority of cases it will, 1 1 • -^ 
far to illustrate their origin. It is generally conce ^^^ 
that atmospherical electricity and hailstones are ^ - f- ^j. 



as cause and 



spect. 



e. 






METEOROLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS FOR 1856. 



301 



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TEANS. OF THE ACAD. OF SCIENCE* 



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PREVAILING WINDS, 1856 & 1857. 



303 



PREVAILING TVIXDS IN ST. LOUIS, MO., 

BY DAILY OBSEKVATIOXS OF A. AVISLIZEXCS, M.D 

In 1856 (5y 1098 Observatiom). 



l^^. 



I 



X. 



A 



Jan. 

liar. 

April 
May 

June 

A ug. 



13.0 
1±5 

28.5 

11.0 
18.5 

9.5 

22.5 
32.5 



Sept. 13.0 



Oct 






16.5 



'V. \ 12.0 

6.5 



i 



E. 



S 



w. 



16.0 
15.0 
15.0 

21.5 
29.5 
15.5 

30.5 
23.5 

IU.5 



26.0 
12.5 
25.5 






1 S.5 
24.0 
13.5 

28.0 
11.5 
40.5 

21.5 
15.0 
29.0 

37.0 
29.0 
25.5 



45.5 
35.5 
36.0 

29.5 
33.5 
24.5 

18.5 
22.0 
37.5 

13.5 

36.5 



II 



It 



N. 



E. 



S, 



W. 



J 

i 



54.0 



39.0 



68.0 



35.5 ; 35.0 



1856. 




196.0 241.0 I 293.0 
0.1 « 0.22i 0.27 



11 




117.0 



87.5 



78.0 



85.5 



368.0 196.0 






0.33 



J - 

!i 



241.0 1293.0 : 368.0 



KoTE.~The direction of the wind was observed daily at 7, 2 and 9 o'- 
r^%«^entereil in eight points of the mmj^n^^ : N,, E,, S., W., N.E., 
o-r. > . W., S-W. At the end of ererj month, the four direct winds were 

"^^ ^ch n< one, and the four intermediate Arlnds as two halcfs. A nu- 
™"*«al proportion wa« thus obtaintnL strikiiiKly similar hi the two ye«r«. 



Ih 1857 (hi/ 1005 Observatiom) 




■^ 



Jf.' 



T E A X S A C T I O X S 



or. THE 



ACADEMY OF SClEiN'CE OF ST. LOUIS 



JOUIiNAL OF PEOCEEDIXGS 



May 3, 1858. 



The 



Scren members present. 



Beebe, Esq^ of Galena, 



|i«^", acknowledging his election as a correspondent; a1<!o a 
letter from the Hon. F. P. Blair, Jr., dated April 19th, 1858, 



„ - transmission of book 
The following works 



^roc. of the Bos. Soc. of Xat. Ilist., Vol. VI., April, 1858, 
.5^ the SociPfy ; Rep. on Commercial Kclations of the U. 
fe. mth Foreign Xations, Vol. II., Part II., Tarifl^, Wash., 4to, 
}^1, from the Hon. T, P. Blair, Jr. ; Report of Com. ou 
*«ghts of the Hudson's Bay Company, 1857,— Rep. of Connt 
|« Kottcnnund on the Mines of Lakes Superior and Huron, 
1 il^ '^'^' — E^ai 8ur les Insects et les 3I:iladie9 qui affectent 
le liie, par EmiHen Dunont. IVfontrenl. 1857.— Calendrierde 



^^«mction Publique pnnr 1858; Extraits du J^pp. sur 
'Xp'*;^iUon de Paris relativement aux Produits du Canadn, 
^oronto, i857,^Rep. of the Superint. of Education for Lower 
^-inada, for 1850-1, Quebec, 1852, ^om Capt. L. A. Huguet- 
j|.;"f f F^c. Acad. Xat. Sciences, Philadelj»hia, Jan- to 
t?^^W?'^*' Z****"* f^« Academy; Geol. Sur. of Canada— 

J ot Frogreg^i for 1^5$- 4-5-6, Toronto, 1857, and Plans 
*^««« and Rivers between Lake Huron and the river 



I 



^^' m tiie State of Wisconsin for 1857, by Prof. E. Daniels, 

15 




306 TRAILS. OF THE ACAD. OF SCIENCE. 



Madison, 1858, and Trans, of t"he W 



Esq 



f' 



and Great Salt Lake—War Dep., 1858, (2 copies,) and Map 



U 



Warren 



W.H 



Humphreys, Top. Engs., U. S. A., ordered by tlie Hon. Secre- 
tary of War, 18 54-5-6-7, /roj?i Zieut. G. K. TFan-en; Jour. 
Franklin Ins., Vol. XXXV., April, 1858, from the Society; 
Bulletin Mensuel de la Societc Imp. Zool. d'Acclimation, 
Paris, Tom. V., No. 3, Mars, 1858, from the Society. _ 

Dr. H. A. Pro ut read a paper, entitled " Second Senes (fl 
Descriptions of Bryozoa from the Carboniferous Formation 
of the Western States, with a description of one speaes 

from the Devonian." 

On motion, the paper was referred to the Committee on 

Dr. B. F. Shumard presented a specimen of Petrified Wood, 
taken from the Artesian Well in N. Mexico under the Oirec- 

tion of Capt. J. Pope, U. S. A. , t t, t «n(A. 

Messrs. James S. Wilgus, Alfred J. Noble, and Johu Longn 

borough, were elected associate members. 



Publication. 



3fciy 17, 1858. 
The President, Dr. B. F. SnuaiAED, in the chair. 

Nine members present. ^ • of 

Letters were read from Prof. A. Winchell, of the I m^|^^. 
Mich., 3d May, 1858, requesting copies of tn^^^t' .Q57. the 
from the Leeds Phil. & Literarj^ Soc, Dcc. 8tti. _i-^ |„.,. 
"Zeuwsch Genootschap der Wetenschappz, -^ ^ ^J^. ^ 
the "Societe Linneenue de Normandie, 24 r*o^-» - , ^^ 



ackno^ 



Books received were 
of the TJ. States and 



I&f" 



copies), 

I, W 

of P: 



TJ. States and jVlexican Boundai-> v.u.^- ..^^.j 
W. H. Emory, U. S. A., Vol. L, ^ ^:^%^, Vol 
l,-Fourth Meteor. Kept, of Prof, ^^'fi^lor * ^"'' 



Wa^h. ^. 



from the Hon. Trust en Polk 



des Sciences Physiques et NatureHes de Bouiaea. ^ 



-rr 






k 



JOURNAL OF PUOCEEDINGS. 307 



Cah. 1-2, l?i5-4-5, fro)n the Society ; Trans, of the Liternry 
& Phil. Soc. of Leeds, Yol. I., Part L, Lond., 1837, — Ac- 
count of an Egj'ptian Mummy, presented to the Leeds Phil. 
& Lit. Soc. by John Bladys, Esq., by W. Osburn, Jr., F.R.S., 
Leeds, 1828, — Guide to the Museum of the Leeds PhiL 
& Lit. Soa 1854, — 37th Rep. of the Council of the Leeds 
PhiL & Lit. Soc., 1856-7,— Rep. of Proc. of the Geol. & 
Polytechnic Soc. of the West Riding of Yorkshire, 1856-7, 
Leeds, 1857, from the Society/ Einundvierzigster Jahres- 
bericht dcr Naturf. Gesellschaft in Emden fiir 1855, 
ZTveiundvierzigster Jahresb. of the same, for 1856, 
Kleine Schriftea der JSTaturC Gesells. in Emden — Die Ge- 
witter der Jahres 1855, von Dr. M. A. F. Prestel, Emden, 
1856, — ^Dcr K. K'aturf. Gesellschaft zu Moskau zur Feier 
ihres iunfzigjahrigen Bestehens am 23 Dec. 1855, die 
Katiirf. Gesells- zu Emden, — Die Temp. v. Emden, von 
Dr. ^L A. F. Prestel, 1855, from the Society ; Rep. on 
Com!. Relations of the IT. States with Foreign Nations, Yols* 

I, III-,& lY., Wash.,4to., 1856-7, from the Hon. F. P. 

Mia XT. Jr. 



Mr. C. P. Chouteau presented a mass of meteoric iron, 35 



^s. weight, found in Nebraska Ter., about 20 miles from 
Fort Pierre ; also, in the name of CoL A. J. Yaughan, a 
fine stuffed skin of the Giizzly Bear. 

The thanks of the Academy were voted to the above named 
gentlemen for these valuable donations. 

Mr. George D. Hall was elected an associate member. 



May 31, 1858. 
The President, Dr. B. F. Shumjkd, in the chair. 



V 



Thhteen members present. 

I-ctters were read from S. Andrews, Ann Arbor, Mich., 
anu from Wm. Sbarswood, Phila^ requesting copies of tlie 



A ransactions of the Academy ; also from Prof. Joseph Henry, 



ecretary of the Smitlisonian In 
oianojes. 



rhe following books were received : Jour, of tlie Franklin 
Jft^ Phila., May, 1858, No. 5, Vol. XXXV., 3d Ser., from 
T rP'^''*lf; Proc. of the Bos. Soc. of Nat. Ilist., Vol VI., 
^pnl, 1858,/ro;/i the Society; Eep. U. S. Coast Sur., 1866, 
»^ ash Ito., from the Hon. Trust en Folk; Rep. of Explur. 
and Sur. of Pacific R. Routes, Vol. VII., Wa.-1u, 4to., 
^^< , pom the Hon. F, I\ Blair, Jr. ; Kosmos, Zeitsclirill 



303 TRAXS. OF THE ACAB. OF SCIEXCE. 



filr angewandte ISTaturwisseiiscIiaften, Kos. 1, 2, 3, January 

md March, 1858, Leipzig, from Mr. Edward JBiihkr. 

The Committee appointed to frame an additional by-hw 

defining the duties of the Committee on Publication reported 
the foUo^-iner, which was adontpfl • 



AETICLE L 



S 7. The Committee on Publication shall be appointed by the Presi- 
dent; and it shall be their duty to edit the publications of the Academy 
^d superintend the printing thereof. The Transactions shall be pub- 
hshed m numbers as ot^en as the Academy may direct, in a suitable fona 
to^ make up bound volumes of convenient size, and each number shall cou- 
tam a digested abs^tract of the Journal of Proceedings prepared by the 
committee, together ^ith all such original papers as shall have been re- 
ported by committees and ordered by the Academy for publication ; but 
if, at any time, it &haU happen that* more matter has been ordered for 
pubhcation than the proposed number will contain, or if the committee, 
m arranging the same for the press, shall doubt the propriety of including 
^y paper, they shall report the fact to the Academy, when the President 
^all appoint a Committee of seven members, including tlie Committee on 
Pubhcation, to consider thereof, and report in writing to the Academy 
what papers shall be taken, and what omitted, in tlie given number. 

Messrs. J. M. Kershaw and Joseph S. McCune were elect- 
ed associate members. 



June 14, 1858. 



^ecies 

proposed to 



hicli lie 



JToIloTrfn 




Tlie President, Dr. B. F. Shumaed, in tlie cliair. 

Sixteen members present. 

A letter was read from tlie Hon. Trusten Polk, XT. S. Sen- 
ator, m relation to books transmitted ; and also, fi-om the 
l^ev. C. II. A. Dull, of Calcutta, acknowledging liis election 
M a correspondent, and presenting a specimen of Fern from | 
the toot of the Kincliinj unga peak of the Himalayas. | 

Laid upon the table: the Jour, of the Franklin Institute, i 
torfflay, IRoR, from the Society: Address at the Unij. oi 
ienn before the Society of the Alumni, Dec. lOtli, 1856, bf 
A.a^: °^ Sharswood, LL.D., Phila., 1857, from tU 



JOUKXAL or PROCEEDINGS. 309 



a future meeting, 



extenso 



A specimen of Spider {Mygale) was presented by Islx. 
Bender; and a specimen of Specular iron ore from Dent Co., 
Mo- by ]\Iessrs. Johnson and Colman. . 



Jxme 28, 1858. 
Dr. C. A. PorE in the chair 



Six members present. 

The folloAving letters were read: From the "Society 
Koyalede Zoologie a Amsterdam, Nov., 1858, proposing to 
send to the Academy the "Recueil d'Observations Zoolo- 
"jques,'' and requesting an exchange of publications ; from Dr. 

elix Fliigel, Leipzig, March 5tli, 1858, advising of the 
tommission of books and pamphlets; from the "Konicrl. 




taafech 



zu Freiberg," 13 Dec., 1857; the 
\ and Sciences,'' 7 Dec, 1 857 ; the "Ba- 
r Proeftmdervindelijke Wijsbegeerte 

bergische 



oi^chende Gesellschaft in Frankfurt am Main," 24 Dec^ 





Stetti.,,_^o j^ec, i«o/ ; the « Verein far Vaterlaudische Xatur- 
sunue m Wtiittemberg," Stuttgardt, 1 Jan^ 1858 ; from Dr. 
til\ ™?^^^^ Pro^- "1 the Uuiv. of Bonn, and Editor of 
'oe AichiY fur Katurgeschiclite," Bonn, 10 Jan 
acknowledging tlie receipt of iS^o. 1, YoL L of the Trans., 
ti transimttmg publications in exchange. From the Trus- 
of V 1 *^® ^'ew York State Lib., 15 June, 1858; Librarian 
iL y- r^^*^2:e, 16 June, 1858 ; Librarian of Hansard Col- 
^r U June, 1868 ; Essex Institute, 21 June, 1858 ; Libra- 
^° r *^® ^^niv. of Mich., 22 Jnne, 1858 ; and fiom the 
«^r«tan- of the Smithsonian Institution, 19 June, 1858, 
J4|^|%»gthe receipt of Ko. 2, Yol. L, of the Trans, of 

he following publications Trerc received and laid upon the 



i 



?o V ^' ***" Explor. ci' Surva. of Pacitic IL Route?, 

& 'rL: t>^^ '•' ^^*^-' ISS^' f^<^^ ?^^ ^<^' TruBten PoU:, U. 
kZr^l-^^'^' of the Acad, of Kat. Sciences, Philad., for 

from the Society; Practical Die. of the English 



Sitrt!f '^" Jr^^'ii'^^^gPs, PJrts L & II., L^ipziL^ 1857-8 
"rage zur bprachenkundc yon H. E. Ton der Gabelentz,- 



310 TRANS. OF THE ACAD. OP SCIENCE. 



Grammatik cler Dakota-Sprache, Leip., 1852, — Ziu* Feier des 
50 jahricren Doctorjubilaums des Hcitii Isaac Jeitteles: von 
Dr. Wilh. Rud. Weitenweber, Prng, 1850,— Aus dcra Leben 
xind TTirken des Heirn Dr. Job. Ph. Helds — Eine Festschrift, 
von Dr. Wilh. Rud. Weitenwebor, Prag, 1847, — Deutsche 
Maasse, Mtinzen und Gcwichte, von dem Herrn Prof. Dr. 
Gerling, — Rep. on the Comet of 1843, by Dr. von Bogus- 
lawski of Breslan, Lond., 1846, — Systematisches Yerzeichniss 
der Bohmischcn Trilobiten, mitgetheilt von Dr. Wilh. Rud. 
Weitenweber, Prag, 1857, — Erforschung der wahren Ui^ache 
deskrankhafiten Zustandes der KartofFelpflanze, von M. Protz, 
Leip., 1853, — ^Yerhandlungen des Vei-eines ziir Befordening 
des Gartenbaus in dem Konigl. Preuss. Staaten, JalirgangIV» 
Lief. 2-3, Berlin, 1857, — ^Literarische Syrnpathien oder in- 
dustrielle Buchmacherei, von Dr. J. G. Fltigel ; nobst eincm 
Vorwort von Prof. Dr. Gottf. Hennann, Leip., 1843,— Die 
englische Spraehe in I^ordaraerika, — Arch, filr das Studiiim 
der neueren Sprachen tind Literaturen, TV. Band, 1848 



! 



Die englische Philologie in jSTordamerika, — Ein Beitra^ zur 
Geschichte xmserer Erde von L. Gr. von Pfiel, Berliu, 1853, 
Ischel, by A. E. Mastalier, M.D., Leip., 1850, from Dr. Felix 
Ftfigtl; Bericdite des naturvissenschaftlichen Vereins des 





die Physik der MolecularkrSfte, von Prof. Dr. Zolly, Mfin- 
chen, lS57,-~ireber die Grtindungdor Wissenschaft altdcnts- 
cber Spraehe tind Literatur, von Dr. Konrad Hofmann, 
Milnchen, 1857,— Aim an a eh der Konigl. bayerischen 
der Wissenschnften fUr das Jahr 1855, from the Socidy; 
Terhandl. der Naturforschendcn GcscIIschaft in Basel, Heft 
1 — J, 1S54-7, from the Society; Physicalisch-mediciii- 
ische Gesellschaft zu Wiirzburg— Sitzungs-Berichte filr das 
Gesellschaftsjahr 1856-7, /'om the Society ; Entomologisclie 
Zeitnng, heransg. von dem Entomologischen Tereme za 



Stettin, Jahrg. XVIIT., Stettin, 1857, from the SociOih 
Wtrtteiiibergisehe K"aturwissenschaftliche .Jahreshcfte, Al v . 
Jahrg. Heft 1, Stuttgart, 1858, from the Society; BcncWe 
uber die Leistungen im Gebiete der Herpetologie wahrena 
des Jahres 1854,— Bericht ftber die Leistuno-cn m «^ 
A aturgeschichte der Saugcthiere wahrend der Jahres 1*>^ 
froyn Br. F. IL Troschel ; Rep. on Consnmption ofCottoa 
VI Europe, ])y John Cluibome, Esq., Son. Doc. No. 3^ ot tfl| 
35th Cong, 1st Sess., 1858, fr(ymrthe lion. T. ^'ojhU.S. 
te. / Essay nn the Relation of Atomic Heat to Crystal^ 
Fomi, by J. Aitken Heigs, 3LD., Phil.t., 1855, fromtm 
Author; Rep. on a Memorial of the Alumni of Dart, t o -, 
Boston, 1858,— Address Before the ^Uiimni of Dart, tom 






JOURNAL OF PROCEEDINOS. Sll 

l»v Prof. S. G. Brown, Concord, N. H^ 1856,— Catalogus 



Coll. DartJii., 1855, 



/' 



the College; Catalogue of the N. Y. State Lib., 3 Yds., 
1855-6— Annual Rep. of Comptroller, Jan., 1858,— Meteor. 
Observations, 1826-1850, by Franklin B. Hough, A.M., 3I.D., 
Albany, 1858, /rom the New TorJc State Library. 

Dr. C. A. Po])C presented a specimen of Snlphuret of Cop- 
per, from Mine La Mottc ; two molars of Mastodon gigan teus^ 
found in the State of Wisconsin ; and a specimen of coral. 

Thomas Kennard. ]\LD.- was elected an associate member. 



July 12, 1858. 

The President, Dr. B. F. Snuii-iKD, in the chair. 

Fifteen members present. 

Letters were read from D. M. Johnson, Coshocton, Ohio, 
Jnly 3d, 1858 ; from S. Andrews, Ann Arbor, Mich., 2 July, 
I'^SS; from Dr. K. B. Benedict, N. Orleans, 25 June, 1858, 
acknowledging receipt of Trans. ISTo. 2 ; also, a letter from 
■T-^eph M. Kennedy, Washington, 3 July, 1858, ofiering to 
&pose of a collection of reptiles. 

The following books were received : Jour, of the Franklin 
Institute, Phila., for July, 1 S 58, /rom tJie Institute ; Tro- 
uromus Descriptionis Animaliura Evertebratorum, qute in ex- 
P^ditione ad Oceanum Paeificnra Septen., obscrvavit et 
descripsit W. Stimpson, Part V., 1 858, from the^ Author. 

The mass of iron ore presented by Mr. Harrison, at a late 
meeting, and supposed to exhibit the structure of wood and 
i«arks of an axe, was referred to a committee consisting of 
JJrs. Hilgard and Prout, with the request that they_ would 
examine the same and report thereon at a future meeting. 

The Meteoric Stone presented at former meeting by Mr. 
Chouteau was referred to the Committee on Chemistry^ for 
eiammation and analysis. 

lion. James B. Colt, and Messrs. James R. Larkin, Richard 
^-wards, C. S. Pennell, and B. G. Fairar, were elected 
*>»oeiate members. 



312 TRAX3. OF THE ACAD. OF SCIENCE. 



July 26, 1858. 

The President, Dr. B. F. SnuiiAED, in tlie cliair. 

Ten members present. 

A letter was read from the « Deutsche Geol Gesellscliaft," 
Berlin, 5 I^oy., 1857, acknowledging the receipt of No. 1, Vol 



I 



., of the Trans, of the Academy, and advising of the Iran 
mission of publications in exchange ; also, a letter from A. F. 
-bandeher, Highland, Ills., 16 July, 1858, requesting copies of 
the_ Transactions, and proposing to send a collection of ento- 
mological specimens to the Academy j and from S. Andrews, 
Ann Arbor, Mich., 10 July, 1858, enclosing the price of 
1 ransactions received. 

The following publications were received : Descriptions of 
two new species of JS'orth American Helicidee, by Thomas 
bland, Xew York, 1858, from the Author ; N'ew Orleans 
31ed. and Surg. Jour., for July, 1858, Vol. XY., Xo. 4, p 



^e muors; BuUetin de la Society Philomathique de 

?'"'"< 1o^'' ^^ ^^^-^ ^"o- 2, 4 Trim., 1856,— Xos. 1, 2, 
u, 4, 1857, fro7?z the Society; Kosmos, Zeitschrift tur 

angewandte Naturwissenschaften, No. 4, April, 185S, Xo. 5, 
xVlay, 18oS, Leipzig, from Edward BilhUr ; Zeitschrift der 
ijeutschen Geologischen Gesellschaft, Beriin, VIII. Ban^l 

T r. ^•^°'^' ^^^* ^~-' 1856-7, /rom the Society. 
., ,.* •*• ^- I^eid presented a specimen of Krematite, from 
the limestone overlying the coal in the Illinois Bluffs, "if 
miles from St. Louis; Mr. Cozzens, a specimen of Talc; 3Ir- 
i^eljaim, a Kpccimen of Arragonlte ; a botanical specimen 

from India was received from the liev. C. H. A. Ball, Cal- 
cutta. 

The President read a paper entitled "The Geological 
structure of the 'Jomnfln .1a1 M„«,.f..' "NT^tir I^FayJco. ben 



Mr 



an 



Expedition unde 



2^ew 

logical Report of tie 
U. S. Top. Engs , f 
r>f tl,*» .q-2(7 parallel, by 



^. G. fchumard, MJ)., Geologist of the Expedition.'' The 

WZ^f "1"^f^ to a comnSttee, consisting of Brs. B. F. 
^humard and H. A. Prru.f 



Tpn^n'c ^V^;T"^^'^Sa''''^ presented specimens of the branches and 
;t1lM "I f ^ ?^"^^^ Cotton-wood tree, growing. ib£ 



;liborhoo 



and species. 



an'jie^ r.FK....u.^ „j— ',J^^l"g crenately ferrate !^ ^jj^jg and 



^Li?^ *^^e germinal plant, the Icar^ ai« o^^ 
e, oesides beinsr cr^nntplr .^r-mifo in all age*- 



partljr ven- prominent, partly Imperce, 



J 



I 






^ 



JOURNAL OF PROCEEDINGS. 313 



the leares Tary_ from ovate to ovate-cordate acuminate, deltoid acumi- 
nate, and rhombic acuminate in the young leaves, as shown in the speci- 
mais. According to Gray's descriptions, these forms (occurring in one 
ttd th. iatne individual) would not only comprise Populus monihfera, 
M. (synonyms. Pop. Canadensis, MichauXy Pop. I^vigata, WillJ.}, 
hit likewise Pop. angulata, AiL, and perhaps P. halsamifera, L. (Balsam 
Poplar) and its variety, candicans (Balm of Gilead) with round branches, 
wiuchwe hkewise^findinour common Cotton-wood when full grown. 

A similar relation seems to obtain between the assumed species of 
|^soccidenta!is,Z.,andC. Mississippicnsis, Base, the latter being sup- 
posed by Gray to run into the former. These two forms, apparently 
corresponding to the description of foliage of eitlier species— rough, lanceo- 
tote. serrate, and smooth, entire, acuminate— I have collected from the 
•«me mdividiial trees, one at East St. Louis, the other at Milledgevilie, Ga. 

ilietwo Eocty Mountain species figured by Nuttall seem to be mere 
^eto hkewise, perhaps the more marked because separated from the 

hTL ; \^ ^ . .^ woodless prairies, so as not permit the local varieties 
to be levelled by fertile commixture. 



tlie 



Under any^marked peculiarity of outward conditions, peculiar varieties 



se they will inveterate and have 
g of a species. Should the time of florition of 
wpaK« u^k ''''*"" "■ '''■ '^^ possibility of commixture with another one, 
imrnn 1 ^u^ ^ ^*^^^^^ ditference of species to all empiric effects and 
Sh! n-^^^^^^l ^^de of framing the species is, that it is made to 
eS !/l mdividuals among which no typical difference can be estab- 
eaJfifa^. • ^ H^ characters are insensibly mediated, so far no differ- 
bSSif^i!^'^' T> established. Wherever fertile intercourse continues 
»id^»v nf ^i"l ^?™^v ^^ ^^^^ ^y experience that all characters are 
Sto TL> ""^"^'v J^^"^^* between individuals fertilely commimrhng 
thtt«Li/Z' i^^- difference of species can be established. It is ^thus 



species 

mm I 

point 
5^ 



■the Hud beins a 
assumed point of view. The 



can 



E^ *^^"J«^ons of the same stock. 

P««enitoiN "mJ^ " ^^ ^'*^ ^^^^ species, nay, descendant of the same 
'^"H cha^;vfT^ ^*^'^r^ »" ^J'e final developmentof variety,— how deeply 
W infeSfv "^""^ inveterate, and whether it may not extend to mu- 
^went .riJ^;."?^^ questions yet to be examined. In the latter case, 

The r>Ta^^! T^. .^ ®^™C" ancestral stock mav be anticipated. 
PaWication Pi^f"; ?^il"^ ^^ natural self-impressions described in the 
Ow«fcsaiiate or 7 -.J J^osmos," and shown in this specimen of Quercus 
fte inrfst-TTH '^ • ™'' ^^ ^'^ ^*^"^* destined to prove very useful in 
^^es mio-hi ;? °^ similar questions. These specimens of cotton-wood 
'""eiy of form preserved for all time in all their peculiarity and 

^^flc SK!i ^^^ }^^^^ represented exists under two forms considered 

***»«i«on8 eXt r" ""^ ^"^ ^^^^^^ ^^®»i^^ fr"'** Wliether in Europe the 
'*^« bet-n at 1 ?Aa« f^ iniaWe with certainty to say; but I recollect to 

*« preserved thof ^ i^'i*' ^°'' *^°® ^^ ^^^ '^^^'^> '^ some cases, but have 
^perhaps twn vo!> r-^'^^^r^^ specimens, probably the intermediate links 
*^^^*-hich »r^l,!l-^ "^ <*°e original stock met on the same ground; 
'^anatv of oak in '" P^^<^ss of an interchange rendered diificnlt by the 
** selected s^lk Europe, and the artificial rearing of its forests 

*^*f Am0 ' '*^^'^s. 
^^, as H^!^f„ P^^' our Quercus alba resembles most this European 
^r^« of Eurone tn n ^ specimens. It woxild be interesting to trace all the 
*^Ocr Eastern ^ 1 ^^^^^^^ allied ones of Asia, of our Western coast 
^^i^nsible conn f- -^^ region, as I do not tliink it improbable that thus 

^iinectiun by some primeyal stock, perhaps f^ril, of a prl- 



_T 



314 TRANS. OF THE ACAD. OF SCIENCE. 

meval Asiatic continent, might actually point out a not improbable com- 
mon Asiatic origin for these oaks, as varieties become acclimated at 
the^ two opposite shores of the Atlantic, where science first fell in with 
their unmecliated extremes, and assumed them for different species. 
Thus, according to Nuttall, no tenable difference is to be found between 
certain species of Poplar of Asiatic Russia and an Oregonian species,it- 
self seemingly a mere variety of our Cotton-wood. 

The diiference bc^reen the angular young form of Cotton-wood and the 
rounded floriferous branches of older individuals, as also between the fo- 
liage of Black-Oak in different heights of stem, are no less remarkable than 
the threefold foliage of Sassafras officinalis and Broussonetia papmfm 



same 



variety of foliage and resembling tlie ravages of caterpilL 
different snecies of mulht^rrv 



m _ ^ 

ference on the form of the "leaf alone. 



spec 



Thomas Dayidson, F.II.S., Sec. G. S. of London, was elec- 
ted a correspondent 

Messrs. A. A, Van Wormer and Alfred de Claiisel were 
elected associate members. 



August 9, 1858. 
The President, Dr. B. F. Shumaed, in the chair. 

Sixteen members present. 

Letters were read from A, F. Bandelier, His?hland. HU 21st 
July, 1858, and from Dr. John James, Alton,^Ill., 5th of Au- 
gust 1858, aeknowledgincr receipt of copies of the Transac- 
tions, and enclosing tlie price. 

^ Dr. T. Kennard donated for the Museum the following spe- 
eipaens collected by him on his late tour on the Upper 3l!S- 
If M^ 5"'*^^ • ^ ^^^lute boulder from a point 60 miles beloW 
Milk Paver; lignite, from a point 50 miles above FortUpioa* 
vertebr® of Titanotheriu"^ n^^..,.-,- f, — „«ar Fort Pierre, 



«cimens of cretaceous rocks from LTau-qiii-Court Kiter, 
ebraska Territoiy ; petrified wood, from Fort Clark, Vfp' 



Missouri River. 

'Hie Committee to whom was referred the paper of Dr. 0. 
^T bbumard on the Geological Structure of the Jorna'ia «' 
Miierto reported the same for publication in the Transactions. 




5 



4 



i 



JOURNAL OF PROCEEDINGS. ol5 



August 23, 1858, 

The President, Dr. B. F. SnuiiAEB, in the chair. 

Twelve members present. 

The following publications were laid upon the table : Some 



/' 



Wm. ^ 



anal\ 



G. Xonvood, M.D., State Geologist, Chicago, 1858, / 



Holden 



f' 



i 



Soc. of Agricnlture, Arts, Manuf. & Com., vol. Y. New Ser., 
■Lond, 1857, from the Society ; Notes pour servir S, une Dc- 
^nption Geologique des Montagnes Kocheiises, par Jules 
Marcou,Prof. I I'Ecole Polytechnique federalc, Geneve, 1858, 
*'om the Author. 

A letter was read from the Hon. F. P. Blair, jr., F. States 
aouse of Reps., requestinsr copies of the Transactions, which 
^ere ordered to be sent. 

Dr. B, P. Shumard deposited in the Museum 300 species of 
J ertiary fossils, from Austria; Trilobites from the Lower Si, 

n ° A ^otemia ; and fossils from the Trias of the Alps. 

„ • \ C. Koch deposited several specimens of fossil bones 
coHected by him. ^ 

Dr. Sander presented, in the name of ll!r. De Clausel, a 
ving specimen of Siren lacertina, eano-ht in the American 
bottom after the flood of 1858. 



September Qth, 1858. 

f 

The President, Dr. B. F. Shumaed, in the chair. 

"Thuteen members present. 

eul^^/s^^^^ read from M. Alfred Malherbe, Mctz, 5tli Au- 
5e8 Pi ■ Jll ^*^ prospectus of his proposed " Monographic 
Thf^ J^?^ ^^^ requesting subscriptions in aid of the work. 
Pn?r !• ^"^ '•eferred to the Committee on Library. 

Ram\T,'p ^Z^*^'*^^^*^^ ^^^^ 1^*1 ^l""^ ^^^ *^^^«' ^^ follows: 
» p w • f^^''*-''-' ^» Essay on the Tapeworms of Man, hj 
Pe'ctn« !^J*i'^°?; ^^- ^-^ <^amb., nh%.fromthe Author; Pros- 
isSSV ^'k^'''^^^^^"^^*- Mouthlv, by J. D. Kunkle, Camb., 
the^Eft''^ ^r'*-'''"^ Med. & Sun Jour. July, 1858, from 
mTf.'J^'^^' *^^ the Franklin Inst, for June and July, 
^^^froin the Institute. 



316 TEANS. OF THE ACAD. OF SCIEXCE* 



Dr. Pope presented two specimens of Trilobite from the 
Niagara grouj"), near the mouth of the Illinois River, at Graf- 
ton quarry ; a molar tooth of Mastodon giganteus^ and an 
Indian relic, being a small figure of the human head carved 
in stone, found near St. Mary's Landing, in St. Genevieve 
county. Mo., by Mr. Bernard Pratte. 

^li\ Joseph Charless presented a Shark's tooth and a cham- 
bered shell allied to Mega^iphonia ziczac^ and other fossiU, 
from the Eocene Tertiary, in the vicinity of the Zeuglodon 
bed near the town of Choctaw in Clarke county, Alabama. 

Dr. Engelniann stated, that while on his recent visit in En- 



rope, he had distributed the copies of the Transactions of the 
Academy sent to his address to scientific societies. He bad 
received assurances from several societies and gentlemen, that 
they would send their publications in exchange for those of 
the Academy. He observ-ed that he had met with good sac- 
cess in procuring the execution of engravings for his forth- 



coming report on the Cactaceae of the United States and 
3Iexican boundary, shortly to be published by Congress. He 
had enjoyed opportunities of examining many living species 
of Cacti, in diiferent European collections, and a few species 
naturalized in Italy. He had derived especial pleasure in 
^tudj-ing the unique collection of Prince Salni Dyck, at his 
chateau of Dyck, near Cologne. He had also made it an es- 
pecial object to examine and compare the rich botanical col- 
lections in the capitals of Europe in regard to the numeroua 
species of the intricate genera of Cuscuta and Euphorbia. He 
fiirthennorc stated that he had the pleasure of acquiring tor 
our public spirited fellow-citizen, H. Shaw, the extensive her- 
barium of the late Prof. Bernhardi of Erfurt, Germany, whicfi 
Lssaid to contain 40,000 numbers. This collection, together 
with many valuable works, the commencement of a Botani- 
cal Library, also bought by him for the " 3Iissouri Botanic 
Garden," is now on its way to this city. 
Mr. Charless remarked that he had seen a large Cactu 



s, in 



fud bloom, growing on the stump of an old oak near tn 
sea coast, in the State of Mississippi. rr.| 

It was voted to subscribe for the Atlas of HumaQ n^ 
liimths, shortly to be published by Dr. D. F. Weinlaucl. 

G. S. Walker, MJD., was elected an associate member. 



September 20, 1858. 
Dr. Geo. ExGEtsTAnrx in the chair, 
Fourteen members present. 



JOURNAL OF PROCEEDINGS. 317 



i 




A letter -^as read from Thomas Davidson, Esq., Sec. G. S. 
of Loudon, acknowledging his election as a correspondent. 

The following puhlications were received : Jour, of the 
Franklin Inst, for September, 185S, fro)n the Society; Proc. 
of the Bos. Soc. of Nat. Hist., August, 1858,/rom the Socie- 
fy;Xew Orleans Med. & Svir. Jour, for Sept. 1858,//-om the 

lilors; Proc. of the Essex Institute, vol. II. Part L, 1856- 
%from the Society; Bulletin de la Soeiete Imp. Zoologique 
d'Acclimation, Tom. V., No. 8, A out, 1858, Paris, /row ?Ae 
Society; Prodromus Descriptionis Animalium Eveitebrato- 
rum, Ac, observavit et deseripsit W. Stimpson, Part VI., 
frora the Author. 

Mr. Taylor Blow proposed to donate to the Academy a 
specimen of Lead ore, 1300 lbs. in w^eight in one mass, from 
the mines of South-western Missouri, provided the expenses 
of freight were defrayed. 

Tlie thanks of the Academy were returned to Mr. Blow 
for his generous offer, but the proposition was declined. 

Dr. Stevens exhibited specimens of brown paper made of 
corn-stalks, broken, gi'ound, and manufactured in the ordina- 
^ ^ay. It compared well with the best quality of brown 
P^per in common use. 

Dr. Engelmann deposited in the Library the Annals of the 

•^^^ of ^^^t. Hist, of New York, vols. L— IV. 

l>r. E. also exhibited specimens of the fruit of the Osage 
^"^^^^{Macluraaurantiaca), a native of the South of Mis- 

Jonn Arkansas, and Texas, and now extensively cultivated 
here for hedges. 

He exhibited several of the plates finely engraved on steel 
li^his work on the Cactacea? of the United States and Mex- 

^Wi boundary. 

. '^^^^I^^ttee was appointed, consisting of Dr. Engelmann 
^ .^r. Holmes, to devise a suitable plan for labeling the 

wmens collected in the Museum, and to procure the ne- 

^^^ary labels. 

her ^* ^' ^' ^^Pheeters was elected an associate mem- 



I 



Octohev 4, 1858. 

Vice-President, Dr. IL A. Pkout, in the chair. 

L 

^'ve members present. 

Bin^?!?^ '"'''■- ""^^^ ^^'«"^ tlie Librarian of the British Mnse 
' ^^'^^'^Q' »th Jan. 1858, an-l from the Literary- and Phil 



• 



318 TRANS. OF THE ACAD. OF SCIENCE. 

Soc. of Manchester, Eng., acknowledging the receli:it of No. 
I., Vol. I., of the Transactions of the Academy. 

A letter was read from C. Witter proposing to sell to the 
Academy Goldfuss' " Petrefacten," with Plates; Gceppert's 
" Fossile Coniferen," and other works, at prices named. The 
matter was referred to the Library Committee. 

The following works were received : Rep. of Explor. & 
Survs. of Pacific R R. Routes, Vol. VIII., Wash., 4tf>, 1»58, 
containing Prof. S. F. Baird's Report on the N. Americati 
Mi\mmds,—from^the Hon. F. P. Blair, jr., V. S. Eome of 
Hejjs.,' Proc. of the Amer. Phil. Soc. Philad., Vol. VI., Ko. 
59, Phil., 1858,/ro«i the Society. 

An interesting collection of Hindu clav images were re- 
ceived from the Rev. C. H. A. Dall, of Calcutta, and deposi- 
ted in the Museum. 



October 18, 1858. 
Dr. Geo. ExGELMA>">r in the chair, 



Ten members present. 



Forma 




/ 



May— Sept., 1858,/; 



\ead. of Nat 



Dr. Engelmann, from the committee on the subject of la- 
bels, made the folluwing report : 

Tour committee would beg leave to report that they hare, after ni«^ 
deliberation, come to the conclusion, to recommend to the Academy^ 




The 




mens, i mch square, which 
label, 2i mcbes long and U 
specimen, or lait' 
labels are to be 

jilting the different depunmeais oi .viamraais, xiiru>, ...y^^^--. 
with a number for each letter from 1 onwards, foUowing the date 
anisiUon by the Academy. 

The larger labels are to be inscribed with corresponding I*^t^^^^ i'i^S 

i^;''"l'^'^^i^^ ^^"'^ ^f ^^^ specimen, the locality where tof ^J' *y^ 
when obtained, and the name of the donor. The small labels are J^ 



of 

E arope 



: Woe for t^ 



ZZVn'x •' ,." V'^ uic^ksiatic; ret! tor the Atncan, »u«4^s'-, . ricfc 

«»-WK-r''-7j''^v^^™«^^°i«'>c« ^^y be pure white for l^''>Tm^ 
toa white with a black bord.r for South America; and white wilb ^^ 



i6 



I- 



JOURXAL or PROCEEDIXGS. 319 

On motion, the plan reported was adoiDted. 

Mr. Tlolmes presented in the name of Mr. Geo. De Baun, 
Jr, a specimen of Crystaline Limestone, highly polished and 
membling alabaster, from a qiiany in Franklin Conuty, jMo., 
tbout 2i miles from the South-west Branch of the Pacific 
Railroaci, where it is found in beds three feet in thickness. It 

pears to he well adapted for ornamental work, and can be 

'tained in large masses. 




ITov. 1, 1858, 



chair, 



Vice President, Dr. H. A. Pi 

Sii members present. 

j,^^^^"er was read from E. Billings, Esq., F.G.S., Montreal, 
Uct., 18j>8, acknowledging his election as a correspon- 
oent: also, a letter fi-om the Canadian Institute, acknowledg- 
ing receipt of the Transactions. 

1 lie following works were received: Rep. of Explor. & 
?rII'?J ™ficR.R. Routes, Vol. VIII., Wash., 4to., 1857, 

vTttt Tt"*- ^^^^«^«« ^olk; Pat. Office Rep. for 185G, 
^of. UI Mechanics, ^Tash.. 1857, /r •' ^" " " 
fw, Jr.; Geol. Sur. of Canada- 



■Fiars 



a/ Pi I Urganic Rems., Dec. III., Montreal, 1858, from 
nLJ ^""^^Z Canadian Fossils— Description of some 
fL.!°^'"* ^°*^ species from the Silurian and Devonian 
the A \T *^^^'"i=^t^a, by E. Billings, Montreal, 1857, from 
Vf-iiT Til . P- ^^ ^^^'^^' Anolvsis of White Sulphur 
iL wJl n? ^i^'tesian Well of Lafliyette, Tnd., by Chas. 
4i^W ??"' P^- ^- ^i-^. Lafavette, 1858, fmm the 
for 1 rTa^ 'T '^P' ***^^uperin. of Education for Lower Canada 
^^' loronto, 1857, from CapL Z. A. Huquet-Latour. 



-Vby. 15, 1858. 
Dr. A. C. Kocn in the chair. 



^ive members present. 



^0. 5^ V??^%'! ^''^^^ ^cre received: Jour. Franklin Inst., 



5,K 



\\x^'jc'^^'''S^^'^f^^^ihc Society ; Xcw Orleans Med. & 



320 TRANS. OF THE ACAD. OF SCIENCE. 



Dr. T. C. Hilgard presented several specimens of plants 
from tlie neighborhood of St. Louis, and a collection of 
Lichens and Algae, in 25 folio volumes. 



JSTov. 29, 1858. 



WiSLIZEXU 



Twelve members 2^rescnt. 



Wilh.Rud.TT 



of the " Naturhistorische Verein Lotos in Prag," 3 Jnly, 
1858, transmitting publications J from the " I^aturforsehende 
Gesellschaft in Freiburg," 15 Oct., 1858, transmitting publica- 
tions ; and from Capt. L. A. IIuguet-Latour, Montreal, 20 Nor, 
1858, acknowledging receipt of Xo. 2 of the Transactions. 
^ The following w^orks were received : Lotos-Zeitschrift ftr 
^''aturwissenschaften, Jahrgang VIL, 1857, from the So- 
ciety ; Denkschrift ilber die Gebruder Job. Swat, unrl Carl 
Bor. Presl,— von Dr. W. Eud. Weitenweber, Prag, 1854, 
V erzeichni^ss der K. Bom. Gesellschaft der Wissenschaften in 
Prag, 1855, from Br. Wnt€?iiceber : Canadian Jour, of la- 



/ 



from the 



The 

cellar 




-„ , , 18 drift, it must hare liaa soui^*" ^ 

aace eiUier hv digging or Mmshiiig ;-or perhaps both. I *«^ 
ground, some half milp fm™ *hJ'^u^ Tlu> skeletoQS of 8«*^ 



austry, Sci. & Art., N"o. X 
from the Canadian Instil 
cnces, Phila., Sept., 1858, 
Bus. Soc. of Kat. Hist., 
Society. 

Dr. C.A.Pope presented, from the Rev. Mr. Higginbo- 
tham of Halifix, a walrus tooth, shark's tooth, horse-shoe 
crab, lr,h.ster, lower jaw of phocicna, star-fishes, Sec, fi'om ^No* 
va Scotia. 

Dr. Pope read a letter from the Rev. Dr. S. Y. McMasters, 
of Palmyra, Mo., accompanying a coin found near Alton, 1". i 

St. Paul's College, 
Palmyra, Mo., Oct. 22, 18i>S. 
My Dear Sir .-—Having never been able to attend the meetings of m 
Academy of Science, I beg leave to present to it, through vonr bnf ';^J 
the accom^ying coin, witli the transktioii of ita inscriptions. It "^T 
never be of much value ; but it ia better in the keeping of a P«bbc J3'« 
tution tiian m private hands. 

five or six years ago, in <lig^Jf J 

ground, in hard drift ,f {; ^ 

HritV Ti •. -™ "- "uuK uuitit h^ been brought there in ^ 

n i :,1 J'Z f ..'^™«. *^'-^^ -J by whom brought, rnav be a que.h^ ^^ 



f™ i^ "T\ ''^ '^'^ ^^'^y ^^nch T'ionee?B. Although the m^^ 
forrnat.on m which it was found h drift, it must have had ^oxaenf'Z 



JOURXAL OF PROCEEDINGS. 821 



wolves, fte., have been conimonly found in similar situations, doubtless 
corered by some local flood, perhaps even by one single rain. Or, some 
pioneer Jesuit may have buried it, purely as a record of early times, 
ffinch as we deposit coins, &c., in the corner-stones of churches and other 
public buildin;?s. 

While in Washington, last summer, I showed it to Maj. Bowman, of 
the Engineer's Department; whereupon he, at once, called in Mr. Bruff, 
who was greatly given to the work of deciphering dark records in the 
oriental languages. His translation I send with the coin, to be kept, or 
Ottfosed of, by the Academy. 

Tours truly, 

S* Y. Mc Masters. 

Dr. C. A. Pope. 

/Wri/?f ean ; — A modem copper coin of the Eng. E. India Companr. 
J>&: Persian Arabic characters: "Be who is the shadow of Dhine favor," 

' 5J1 ^ • ^^o upper lines in Bengalese characters, Assamese language ; 
middle hne, rude Arabic (spoken by the Mahomedans of Assam). They 
«pity the same thing, i. e., that the coin is of the current value of two 
pteces, m aU the E. India dependencies of Great Britain. 

Tr ,. J. GoLDsBOKOUGH BncrF. 

na^ngton, Julij 10, 1858. 

S- B. The Burmese conquered Assam, and treated the people with 
nHi T^^^^'^J ""^'^ conquered themselves by the English, in 1824, and 
ooiiged by the peace of 1826 to leave the country, forever after, under the 
PWection ot the English East India Company. J. G. B. 



Pheet 



M 



ers. 



December 13, 1858. 
■Dr. Geo. Ekgelmaxx in the chair. 



I'lfteen members present. 



I-etters 



FpsaL 



?tli J^ -io-r; ^^ ^^^^^ ^"c Koy. boc. oi sciences, ujisai, 
^^■nsS IH' ^^® ''-K^n. Sachsisehe Gesellschaft der Wis- 




March ia-o 1. ^^^' ^^c-' 18^' ; «*>>'»! Soc. of -London, lytii 
Geo'.ir ^^ ' n"""^^^^ ^«c- I^ond., 8th Jan., 1858 ; the «Soci^'t6 
bet ^ft'I''^^*^ Iinp- de Russie," St. Petershur<?, 18th Decera- 
"Katurfni v*^-'; ^^'^S- Soc. London, SOth Dec, 185T; the 
*«Thi«toS t '''41*^ ^^^"""^ ^' ^%«'" ^Ist Jan., 1858 ; the «Xa- 
Bonn ll^h r ^^^'^ ^^^ Preuss. Rhem. and Westphalens," 
of^o 1 Af fif^Tn^^^^' — ^^'"^"Grally acknowledging the receipt 
Tk * Vii . ^transactions. 






of Marcon's 



/> 



sc-Jiaft T i> "f^'^^Kenbercjischen 2^ atnribrsehexiden (iesoJI- 
ffankfur;. Af^-,2 ^^^^-^ 18-55, and 11. Band. 1 Lief. 1856, 



^^'^ ^^n l>- om the Soeuty. 



322 TRANS. OP THE ACAD. OP SCIENCE. 



Mr. Conrad Witter presented four boxes of prepared imi- 
tations of various poisonous and edible mushroons. 

Dr. Engelmann exhibited examples of impressions of bo- 
tanical specimens, taken by the process invented and now In 
use in Vienna, called "-Natiir selbstdruckP A minutely accu- 
rate impression of the dried specimen on a sheet of very 
soft lead is obtained bypassing both between steel cylindere; 
copperplates, fit for printing, are then obtained in the usual 
way by electrotyping. He considered it admirably adapted 
for the purpose of exhibiting the accurate form and the more 
delicate venation of leaves, though the stems and thicker 
parts of plants could not be copied in this manner. 

Dr. Hilgard continued his remarks on the relation of the 
parts of the skull to the vertebrae, illustrating the subject 
from the skulls of fishes, and especially the Buffalo-fish (fo- 
tostomus), which he considered as well adapted to esmoit 

the parts in question. 
Mr. J. H. Gardner was elected an associate member. 



December 27, 1858. 
Vice-President Dr. A. Wislizexus in the chair 



Ten members present. 

Letters were read from the '• Gesellschaft ftr Beforde^ng 
der Xaturwissenschaften zu Freiburg i. B.," 25th Jan., i-^y 
the "Overijsselsche Verccniging tot Ontwikkelmg van rr« • 
Welvaart," ZwoIIe, ISthMarch, 1858,— the "^"erem fiir ^ aie^ 
liindiache Katurknnde in Wurt tomb erg," Stnttgard, ^^f J^'^: 
1S5S,— Royal Soc. of Sciences, GOttingen, 27th 3J^i^'^^ 
the « Oberhessische Gesellschaft fiir ^s'-itur-und-HeiiK"" j^ 
Glessen, April 6th, 1858,— the ''NaturforschendeGe_seu>_<:^^^_ 
in Danzig," 8th April, 1858,— the "Bibliotheque de L L n 
■•- - - ^ May,1858,--severallyacknowled^"|^t^^^ 



receipt of No. 1 of Vol. L of the Transactions, 



an^ 



atamten i»i aturw 



mitting publications in exchange. .^ -a gy- 

The folio wbff publications were received :Zeit;C .^ 

the Sodety; Beriehte tiber die VerluiiuH- der Gesciiseg-^ ^^ 
Beforderang der Naturwissenscliafteii zu Freiburg ^* ;! ^^g 
I._IY. (25—29) ' '■ -^'^''"^'^ 



g€Ti in 



lied 



igend V enaog 



JOURNAL OF PROCEEDINGS. 323 



3[r. J. A. Yan Roijen, Zwolle, 1842, — Yoorlezlng, bevattende 
eoniu^e bcschenwingen Betrekkelijk den Physieken Toestancl 
de LageBodoms, door B. P. G. van Diggelen, ZwoUe, 1843, 
■VerhancL over de Verbctering van liet Zwolscbe Dicp, 
door B. P. G. van Diggelen, ZwoUe, — De Aardkunde van 
Twenthe, eene voorlezing door Dr. W. C. H. Staring, Sal- 
\mil, en het Land van Vollenhove, door Dr. W. C, H. Star- 
ing.--Overzigt derLandboiiw-Scheikunde door Nederlanders, 
Zwolle, 1846,^ — Verband. over den Overijsselschen Vee-Sta- 
door J. Jennes, Zwolle, 1849, — Ouze Banken van Leen- 
loor Mr. J. Kalff, ZwoUe, 1849,— Catalocriis van bet Mu- 



pi, 

seam, li<52, — Ontwerpcn voor eene Yaste Bnig over den 
ijssei, 1856, — Catalogus van de Bcefcerij der Overijs. Yereen, 



Ontwikkoling van Prov. W 



Al- 



gemeen Jaarlijksch Verslag yan der Dii-ectie der Overijs. Ve- 
^n. tot Ontwikk. van Prov. Welvaart, 1854-6-7, 3 Vo; 



Wiirtt 



Arts et Beiles-Lettres de Caen, 1858,/; 




Jalirg 



ottingeu, 1857,/; 



S ^ ^^ll^schaft fiir Katiir-und Hcilkunde, V.— YII. (2 
nT^l'.,.^^^""''? Giessen,— tiber die Naturwissenscliaften von 



^' Phili| 



from the Society; Hq- 



ZT ^" ^ Anatomie, la Physiolocrie et TEmbrvog^nic 
^ «rvozoaire?, par P. J. Tan Beneden, Brax^ 4to, 1840,— 
wcaerches snr les Biyozoaires fluviat. de Beldque, par P. J. 
^oniieneden, Brux., 4to,1857,— Reclicrches sur L'Embrj-o- 
tlm^P^ Tubnlaires, par P. J. Yan Beneden, /rom the Aii- 
Tj'm'^Tl^?*^^^"^®" '^er Katurfors. Gesellschtiil in Danzig, 

Belwif \fT^^ ^^^ Society; Annales des Univcrsltes de 
we, 1HD3-4-5, Brux., 1859, /rom the University; Hints 

>omT/"'?^?^^^' V J- Aitken Meigs, M.D^ Phil., 1858, 
to ml ^1"^^^^/ Proc. of the Amer. Antiq. Boc, Worccs- 
Tex^ X*!?'''^*^^ '^ocie??^; Amen Gcol— Letter on Geol. of 
Ravdpn C T ^^' Kansas and :N'ebraska, to Messrs. Meek & 
H. 'MeT! . 1. .^ ^^^^^^^ Zurich, 1858,— Gcologieal 3fap of 



del. 



Carte des Etats-IT nis 



is.SS^vr* i^'^^^'^' par W.Maelure (fac simile) 



1 



«KilK W«^^ i ol P^^ons who collect Shells, by A. E. Bel- 
^aE T "^ x^^'—/'*^"^ ^^0/ J^^^ Marcou; Jour, of th^ 



r. 



% LJec, 1Sd8, from the Society. 
ConUT^^^^ presented to the Acadomy, on behalf of 
^ VV itt^r a sandstone slab from the Triassio fomia- 



«oo aearlT*! Ik 

^ a retiHK« .^^'^^'"^"^^^ i^ Germanv, containing 
"^mim ammal alHed to the Cheirotheriu^ 



>» 



1 



324 TRANS. OF THE ACAD. OF SCIENCE. 

Dr. Engelmann exhibited specimens and drawings of the 
"Buffalo-grass" of our '\restern Prairies. It had been de- 
scribed, some forty years ago, by Mr. Th.Kuttall under the 
name of Sederia dactyloides^ but neither he, nor any of the 
numerous subsequent explorers, had discovered pistillate floir- 
ers. Among a botanical collection made by his brother, Henr)' 
Engelmann, who went as Geologist with the Utah Expedition, 
he found among the male also female specimens. They are 



different 

dicecious grasses known. The female plant is very differ- 
ent from the male, so that they might have been taken for 
different species. There is another dioecious grass found m 
the U. States on the coast of Texas,— as far as known, as 
yet imdescribed. 



January 10, 1859. 
Vice-President Dr. A, Wislizejtus in the cLair. 



Kiueteen 



A letter was read fi-om Prof. Jules Marcou, Zunch, 5th 
Dec, 1858, acknowledging the receipt of ^^os. 1 & 2 o^ tM 
Transactions, and transmitting publications; also, a lett 
from the Hon. F. P. RlnJr. ir.. TT. S. House of Reps., 5th Jan., 



1859, transmitting public documents. 

The f^lllowmry ^x-nrVs «-nrc rAf-rMVpd ' SniithsOnlan Rep. tw^ 



1857, 8vo., Wadi., / 



our. ^ 



Ind. Sei. & Art, No. XYIIL, Xor., 1858, from the Cm^ 
Institute; Catalogue of N. Amer. Birds, by Spencer *• iJa'^y' 
Asst. Sec. of the Sittith'n Institution, Phil., 1858, /-^'"^^ 
Author; Hints to Cranioffrapliurs, by J. AitkenMeigs,^-J 
from the AaiUr ; Smithsonian Rep. for 1857,-Congressiun^ 
Globe, 1st Sess. of the 35th Cong., and Special ^^s^*^' 
Senate, by John G. Rives, Vol. XXXTL, P^n-t I- ^f^^f^ 
1858,-TJ. S. Naral Astron. Exped. to Chili, by Iiei^ 
M. Gillis., L.L.T)., Yoi. m., 4to., Wash., Vi^P^Jl,. 
Hon. F. P. Blair, Jr.; Bnlliore's bi-monthly ^^^^VtTVp-*. 
sale Account of the Creation, by J. C. Fisher, ^^V mn-u 
fromiU Author; Proc. of the Acad, of Nat. ^^^^ 
Nov. 1858, from the Soneh/; Pmc. of the Amer. rn^x 
cent leal Asso., 1858, fi-om Aiffaie X. J/assot ^^^ ^ 

Dr. Engehnatm donated a photographic plate oi ^^_ 
mams of the temple of Jupiter Serapis at PozznoU, au 
plained the geologicui importance of these antiqm"es. 









JOURNAL OF PROCEEDINGS. 325 



Dr. Wislizcnus read an extract from a communication ad- 
<lressed to him by Mr. Wm. McAdams, jr., giving an ac- 
count of certain ancient mounds lately discovered by him 
in Jersey county, 111. 

The Corresponding Secretary was directed to send copies 
jf Nos. 1 & 2 of the Transactions of the Academy to Mr. 
SlcAaams, and request him to draw up a full description of 
the monnds in question for publication. 

The Corresponding Secretary communicated tlie following 
extract from a letter addressed to him by Prof. Jules Marcou : 



[traxslatxcx.] 



I>«*rSir: * * « # 



* My endeavors at Geological Maps are very 
^rr 7'1 ^^ "^perfect, and I earnestly desire that the learned Gcolo- 
»h h ™"^ ^'^^^^ ^^^ ^^^'^ correct, and give them the form 

th^m'fif^ approximate tliem more nearly to the truth. In publishing 
wcm 1 have endeavored to give the general outlines and rational ideas 
«pon me new regions of the West. I do not at all fear the criticisms which 
«Te Deen made, and still are made, in almost every number of Silliman's 
7^2 n f P°° ™^ observations and opinions. In ten years from this time, 
e .nau know very weU who has been wrong, I, or my adversaries. Here 

Ut^V i r°^^^'^^ of opinion, which I undertake to establish, and which 
^niT vou to communicate to your Academy : 

Efcd <^Jtl T ^^"^^tones of Lake Superior are of the epoch of the New 
steia t' -r^Vn^' ^'^^^ particularly, of the stage of the Bunte Sand- 



ftem tn^Ilf n ¥f^' ^^^^y Rogers, Logan, Wliitney, and Foster, refer 
"■era to the Potsdam Sandstone. 




Coal 



Wt^s- ^^ Carbouiferou , __ „^_„ 

«^^<€rti'r* ^^^^^'^^ '"s geological chart in Emory's Report, safs tlmt they 
m Tk <P^^ tarboniferous above the Coal Meastirea. 



.ni- TheXe 



tliat is to say, Por- 



*5f the Rockv \r ; • "' -^^ischelkalk, and Keuper— exists on both sides 
"^e than • ^^"^'^ins, and covers an extent of country more consider- 
Bo^ers an^/Tu" '^^'^™''^*''^" i" ^^le tJnited States: whilst Hall, Dana, 

I^' Th^ T ■' P^'^® ^^ *^i8 ^^ew Bed in the Cretaceous formation. 
*^ra GeJ^^^^^ ^'^*^*^ '^^ around the Rocky Moimtains : whilst Hall, 



formation 



4c- irp^tl^*^"^?^-*'^ opinion upon 'less general qnestions, I do not speak; 

t^woio^f ^^^x"^ ^^^'^ ^ l^^V^^ containing a report of his Me- 
-- ,#,^^servations, at St. Louis, for the year 1858. The 

v^ai, ordered for publication in the Transactions. 
^P^n fr^'"S ^'•esident, Dr. Wislizenus, read the following 
y«ar: ^^^" ^^ progress of the Academv during the past 




h the ah' ANNUAL REPORT. 

!*P«'»ted StoteV^ ®"^ President, Dr. B. F. Shumard, wlio, having been 
»cientiil(- a •^'***'^ Texas, has found there a more extensive field 

'"^luirements, the duty has devolved upon me of lay in 




S 



I 



S26 TRANS. OP THE ACAD. OF SCIENCE. 



■ _\ 



before the Academy an abstract of our progress during the last year. I 
$m happy to state "^that our young Institution has given also, in the put 
year, such proofs of its actirity, that its future permanency may be safely 
relied upon. Our meetings have been regularly attended, and were ul- 
rened by scientific discussions, and by verbal and Tvritten commnnicntians 
on a great variety of subjects ; donations to our Museum and Library hare 
been most liberally forwarded from friends far and near ; and the second 
number of our "Transactions," published during the last year, has beea 
received with great favor, if not partiality, by tlie scientific world, both at 
home and abroad. 

The distribution of our publications in foreign coxxntries has been chiefly 
effected through the agency of the Smithsonian Institution, and in this vay 
wc have been put in communication with numerous Institutions of simiiar 
tendency in the cultivated world, who kindly appreciate the first trma 
of our industry, and in exchange return us most valuable books ai^ vrhole 
sets of scientific journals. The number of societies to which our Trance- 
tdons have been sent is one hundred and eightv-one, to wit : 

Forty-nine within the United States, Canada, Mexico, Cuba, and CM, 
5 in Asia ; 2 in Australia ; 1 in Africa ; 134 in Europe— 1 Iceland l^t^n- 
mark, 2 Norway, 4 Sweden, 1 Spain, 1 Portugal, 6 Switzerland, bmpr 
uni, 7 Holknd, 8 Russia, 12 Italy, 22 France, 24 Great Britain, oJ u^ 
many ; and from a large number of them returns have been rcceiveU. 

It is certainly very desirable to keep up this intercourse witli o^J^^!;| 
acquired scientific friends, and the yearly publication on our part ot a - 
ume, large or small as our means allow, seems to be the most appropna^ 
mode of doing it. art 

The acquisitions that our Library has made during the past 7^^^ 
quite considerable. Most of them we owe to the liberal system of ^^^^ 
from older societies, but a great many also to private ^^o"^*^^^' „ >^ 
lie documents, too, of the last Con.^ess, presented to us by the i^*^f ' ^'T 
ten Polk and the Hon. Frank P. Blair, afford an unusual mterest on ^^ 
count of the numerous Pacific Eailroad explorations, vrith contricuu*- 
from a host of scientific men. . ..^pralilT 

The additions made to the ^luseum emanate nearly all from the ^^^ 




private hands. I will mention some of them under their diffcrem 

Et/molofjy.—Tae Rev. C. H. A. Dall, of Calcutta, India, P^-e^^^f f^ierir 
an interesting collection of East Indian figures, exhibiting the cuarat 



tics of tixat Eastern people. , ^v^aJ 

^ ComparaUm Anatomy.— Dr^. Pope and Hilgard made some vaiua^^^ 



-* > 



tions to this class. 




f with * 

, „ CoL A. J. Vauglian has enriched this department t» 
tondsome specimen of the Grizzij Bear. ^twted hr 

Ormthokgy has rcceiyed additiona from Capt. John Pope, cow 
him (on the 32d paraUel) and by E. Weyden, Esq. . ,,,» aftf 

Uerpadofpj and MthtjolrMM.—S'pcclmens of Siren lacertinn, ^""^g^ ^^4 
^e great flood in the American Bottom, were donated by Vt. om 
Mr. De Clausc-L . , nortiii*!!'' 

J/a/tico/«0.— Prof. A. WincheU, of Michigan, increased this de^^ ' 

■a collection of land shells. ^^^innM 



llectK* 



Bo^m>^.-J)r Th. C. Hilirard presented to the Academy a coat ^ 
Je flonv ot tins neighborhood! also a collection ofjxchet^^^^^ , 
Tarouyh the kmduess of C. Witter, Esq., we received trom uer*^ 
hne collection <rfartif5ciairy made mushrooms- ^ , „„ .t^eact et 

Metmrdoffy.—X)Ti. Engehnann and Wislizenus reported aa ai« 




_ .., - -""^^^iMi iiueni received iuaii,> i»i»««...' — ~ & Calms. 

iJr. Pope, Messrs, Cozzens, Harrison, De Baun, Jones & ^*" 






JOURNAL OF PROCEEDINGS. 327 



Bender. The latter gentleman presented also a set of mathematical figures 
for the illustration of Crystalography. Chas. P. Chouteau, Esq., has en- 
riched this department with an exquisite specimen of meteorite, from the 
aeighborhood of Fort Pierre, weighing 35 pounds. 

PaifTontdoffy and Geology, — Although we have acquired no collection in 
&x$ department, as in previous years, many valuable donations have nev- 
ertheless been made by Messrs. J. Charless, E. Pratt, Drs. Pope, Kennard, 
Koch, and others. Dr. B. F. Shumard, before his departure, deposited 
with the Academy three hundred specimens of Tertiary fossils, from Aus- 
tria; Trilobites from the Lower Silurian of Bohemia, and fossils from the 
Trias of the Alps. Through the favor of our associate member, C. Wi^ 
ter, Esq., we received also in exchange from Hildburghausen, Germany, a 
sjyjerb specimen of the celebrated Cheirosaitnis or Ckeirotkerinm, which, 
iHten first discovered in 1833, by Jlr. Sicklcr, in the New Ecd Sandstone 
^&U region, created a great sensation among geologists. The slab, upon 
which three larger and three smaller tracks of that singular quadruped are 
well preserved, measures nearly five feet in length, and a foot and a half 
ffl width, and would be an ornament to any collection. 
^ In connection with this department, I have yet to mention the interest- 
mg discovery, within the past year, of the Permian System in the Terri- 
^ of Kansas, and its probable extension over a great part of the West 
lae minutes of the Academy show us what part was taken by several 
ambm of our society in this discovery. In Febrnary of last year. Pro- 



3-, 



^ -'ir Swallow and Dr. Shumard informed the Academy of the discoTery 

jj ''^•'^^1 *>ssils made in Kansas by our corresponding member, Major F. 

^wn, of the U. S. Survey, which led the first named gentleman to the 

, .mon that the Permian System existed in that region. In March, Dr. 

V T*? iiiformed the Academy that from a series of fossils collected by 

u ".^r, Dr. George G. Shumard, in the Guadalupe Mountains, Few 

'inuco, he had also discovered the Permian System in that region. Dr. 

Vh , !r'^°°d' of Illinois, wrote to the Academy, in April, that he believed 

« "M tound the same system in the upper beds of the La SaUe Coal field, 

iiimois Prof. Swallow and Dr. Shumard prepared soon afterwards a 

t per on the subject, which created at first some discussion among gcolo- 

L^' "'^**"«^,"'scovery of new and more characteristic fossils seems to 

e removed all doubts, and the existence of the Permian System in 

Mid B^ '^^^'xTu^"'*^'^*'*^ as a fact. Near the same time. Sir. F. B. Meek 
Itount aVTj;- I- ^"*^^"' ** I'liilaihdpliia and Albany, published, also, an ac- 
*luch » discovery, claiming the priority for themselves,— a question 
•fflce all !«f ♦!; "^^''•^ ^^ decide; nor do we consider it of great importance, 
»iJn^ 1 °*' ^^ <ioul>t, deserve credit for their zeal in proving a new 
SY'^gical system in the West. 

WoreSo" ^- ^^edless to enumerate here all the scientific papers read 
imMkh^f . ^If*^ during the last year, since nearly all of them have been 
come nnKl- second number of our Transactions, and have thus be- 

^ tS^ In IT'P*^'^?'- ^Pon the authority of Dr: Engelmann, I will men- 
^t^ah^vl^^* ^^^ geological and pala-ontological papers publi^lied 
HaorlLaar ^^ Swiulow, Drs. Prout, B. F. and George Shumard, and 

Zanlv T K "^^^^ received with especial favor. 
^ the rrpo- T^ to state, from the report of the Treasurer, Dr. Pollak, 
*Ul«- ^2fT^.^^^^<i-^<^af'iiimy, fur 1858, were Sl,258,— the expenditures 
"Wesof abo^ ' -j^^?*'''' ">*^'*^'tJ"g oar liabilities, he estimates an actual bal- 
OM torrtRnn r ™ "^"^ **^°^' *° <3«^ fro*" members. The number of 
^t«> memf-o!! T°^ members is at present 82; the exact number of asso- 
»^thdrawn jT * "''^ ascertain, since many cf them have indirectly 
^itti at nre«? t P*y^"^ *^eJf 'i"»?3- The dues from associate members 
•*.»ilh8ntK r '^^ V"^y revenue, and it requires strict economy to pur- 
'•^ttttionru r™*^*^ means, the various objects of oui- Society. Similar 
**f^o Bimn ^^P^ 'Cities have had, in the beginning of their career, to 
" "^'^ *^is of mind versus matter ; bat liberal-minded citizeua 



328 



TRANS. OF THE ACAD. OF SCIENCE 



I 



lent them a helping hanc!,and endoAved them with suflBcient means to make 
their field of operatiou more extensive and useful. The Academy of Natu- 
ral Sciences in PhUadelphia, for instance, holding now the first rank, -would 
not have prospered as well without the munificent generosity of a Madure 
and others. Our own city, the groat centre of the Mississippi Valley, can 
certainly lx)ast of as wealthy and liberal men as any in the Union. Lctm 
hope tliut, in a not far distant day, a Maclure may arise among tliem, vill- 
ing to perpetuate liis name in the annals of Science. 

The Corresponding Secretary presented his report of cor- 
rospondence for the past year, which was accepted. 

The Treasurer presented his annual report for the year 
1858, which was referred to an Auditing Committee, consis- 
ting of Messrs. Eads, Smith and Harrison, and, on examina- 
tion, being found correct, was accepted. 

The following gentlemen were elected officers of the Acad- 
emy for the year 1859 ; 

I^residenty 

1st Yice President^ 

M Vice President^ 



Adolphus Wislizenus, 
George Engelmann. 
Charles A, Poj^e. 



Corresponding Secretary^ Nathaniel Holmes. 



Rfimrding Secretary^ 

Treasurer^ 

Librarian^ 



Curator 



s. 




J. S. B. AUeyne. 

S. Pollak. 

Theodore C. Hilgard. 

H. A. Prout, C. V. Stevens, 



T. C. Hilgard, 



d Spencer Smith- 



Corn, on FuhUcation 



K Holmes, ^Ym. IsL McPheeters, 
Georc:e Eno^elmann. 



Com, on Library, | H. A Prout, C. A. Pope, 

*^ ^ Samuel liebei% 

Committee on Finance, | 5?^^*^^:^^^^^^;* ^' ^^ '^''^'' 

' ^ C. C. TThittelsey. 

Chairmen of the Standincj Committees, for the year 



1859, 




were appoliitea hj the President as follows, viz : 

N. Holmes. 
C. A. Pope. 
J. S. B. AUeyne 
C. W. Stevens. 
M. Lewis 



Comp. Anatomy, 
Era hryology, 
-Mammxdogy, 
Ormthologyy 






Clark. 



mrjietology and IcUhyology, M. M. Pallen. 
EyitornoJogif^ 



JBoff 



my, 



Palmrnitology and 
Mineralogy^ 

Chemistry^ 
Phymcsy 

istrono'my^ 




Meteorology^ 



^Vm. M- McPheeters 
Geo. EnirelnKinn. 
H. A. Front. 
A. C, Koch. 
A. Litton. 
Spencer Smith. 
G. S^yffiirth. 
G* Engelmann. 






I 






JOURNAL OF PROCEEDINGS. 329 



■^. 






January 24, 1859. 
The President, Dr. A. Wislizexfs, in the chair. 

Eight members preseut. 

A letter was read from Lieut. G. K. Warren, U. S. Top. 
Eiigrs., transmitting twenty-five copies of Map of the U. S. 
Territories between tlie Mississippi River and the Pacific 
Ocean ; and also, a letter from Edward L. Young, Norfolk, 
Va., requesting a copy of No. 1 of the Transactions, which 
was ordered to be sent to him. 

The following books were laid upon the table : Nat. Hist. 
of the Amphiumidse, with remarks, &e., by Bennet Dowler, 
^•^i/''o« the Author; Cong. Olobe, Vol. XXXVI., Parts 
JI. & III., Wash., 4to., 1857-8, — Vol. XXXVII. Appendbc, 
l«3<-8. Wash., 4to., 1858,— /rom the Hon. F. P. Blair, jr.; 
i|f. Orleans MeJ. & Sur. Jour., Vol. XVI., No. 1, Jan., 1859, 
leom the Editors; Smithn. Rep., 1857, from the Hon. T. 
J oik; Juur. Franklin Inst., Vol. XXXVII., No. 1, January, 
liio^,from the Institute. 

Dr. Engelmann presented a specimen of the black variety 
o| the Missouri Fox Squirrel. This variety occurs occasion- 
^y ui this vicinity, and some specimens can be obtained in 
^^r markets almost every winter. It has been described by 

"'■ iman under the name of Scmrtfs Auduhoiii, but can not 
*]»arated from the common western fox souin-cL which 



1 



Bad 
be 




as 



Barli '^''"t> ^ ^^^^ preoccupied, as Sc. Smji, And. & 
dp ^' 11^' ^^^^^^ however, has shown that it had been 
6«r^^ V. ° before Say, by Custis, as Sciurus Ludovicia- 
» and has restored this name to our species ; our present 
^cunen would properly bear the designation, varietus airo- 

^^ll '^^^^^ Charless presented several specimens of min- 

trate^'r ^f^*^ exhibited an apparatus contrived to illus- 
Pour-i % ^ ^^^ ^^ '^^ artificial globe, the experiment of 
%x\^ ^^^^^strating the revolution of the earth on its 

* >t!n«r .f *^"'^s made some observations on the means of 
heen itti P^®s<^nee of ozone in the atmosphere. lie had 
H^eats. ;*"'''J^*'^/^^» hitherto, in numerous and vai'ied experi- 
tv 1.V tv ^^^•''^ning any indications of ozone at this locali- i 



»f stirri 1^*^ '^ aib)pted by Prof. Schoenbein, using slips 
Pota^i,,f ^."^^'^^ iinpresrnated with a solution of iodide of 
^^"^°"' Which is turned blue by ozone. 



f; 



330 TRAXS. OF THE ACAD. OF SCIENCE. 



February 7, 1859. 
The President, Dr. A. Wislizenus, in the chain 

Tliirteen members present. 

Letters i;\'ere read from the Secretary of the Sniitli. Inst^ 
accompanying packages transmitted ; and from the " K. Dan«- 
ke Videnskabernes Selskab," 1st July, 1858,— the "Zoolo- 
gisch-botanische Verein," Vien., 15th March, 1858,— the " Sie- 



E " 



ISTatui 



- Geol. Reichsanstalt," Vienna, 10th Jan., 1858,— the "I.R 
Istituto \ cneto di Sci., Lettere ed Arti," Venice, 15 Dec^ 
1857,— "Presidenza di I. R. Accademia di Sci., Lettere ed 
Arti di Padova," 1 Dec, 1857,— the "L R. Accnd. di Sci^ Let^ 
tere ed Arti di Padova," 16 Dec, 1857,— the «MnseumFnia- 
cisco-Car.,'' Linz, 28 Dec, 1857,— the *^ Werner-Verein zur 
GeoL Durchforschung von Miihren und Schlesien," 14 Dec^ 
1857, — severally ackno^'ledging the receipt of No. 1, Trans^ 
and transmitting pubhcations in exchange ; also, a letter from 



dams 



concern- 



ing his discoveries among the mounds in Jersey county. 
The following^ works were received: Patent Off Rcp.i<>^ 

-from the Hm^ 

nrritnrit\S of the 



F. P 



\j . S. between the Mississippi River and the Facitic uecm, 
by Lietit. G. K. Warren, Top. Eng. U. S. A,—fram Luid. (r. 
K Warren; Atti del' I. R. Istituto Lombardo de Scienr^ 
Lettere ed Arti, Vol. I., Fasc. 1—5, Milano, 4to, 1 S.-)S,-;/rf'« 
the Society; Yerhandliinf^en der Xaturforschenden tres^J* 
scLaft. in Basel, TL Theil, 1 Heft, Svc, Basel, iS^-pom m 
Societi/: Ovcrsigt o%^er det Kongelii?e danske \idensKa- 
bemes Selskabs Forhandlino-er 02 dets Medlemniei-s Ari>«- 



ten, 1 Aarot, 1S57, & Questionesr ISoS— from the ^o«f% 
\ ^rhandlunfxen des Zoolomscli-botanisclieu Veremsin VYieu* 
Bund VII., iS57, Wien,— /row the Society; Verhandlungen 
nnd BrittheHungen des SiebenLurgischen Vereins m 3:»nt 
ivissemcliaften zn Ileniiannstadt, Jabrgang, I-— "^^^VC kX 
dar^Wirbdtliiere Siebenbtirgens, &C., von E. Albert i^^^^ 
18ob,~Statnten des Siebenbflrgischen Vereins ftir >at^" ' 
zu Ilcrmannstadt, 2 cop. 1S55.— from the >S'o«'e?y; J^H'.w 




-t- 



■cuiogiscnen Keichsanstalt, VIII. Jnhr., Ko. ^^^ 
-c^ ia57, Wien,— /rom the Society; AlU f » /^^^ 
Istituto Veneto de Scicnze, Lettere ed Arti,!^^^^^ 
Tom. II, Ser. IIL, Di.p. l_lo ; Tom. III., Bisp. 1 &:^: \ '^ 



ri deUa L R. Accademia df Saenzes Lettere ed Art 



^ 



'•% 



JOURNAL OF PROCEEDINGS. 831 



va, ToL V, Trim. 3 & 4, 1857, Fasc. Xll.—from the Society; 
Terliandlungen des Yereins fiir Naturkunde zu Presburef. I. 
Jahr., 1S56; II. Jahrg., 1 Heft, 1857,— /rom the jSocietij; 
Slebenzchnter Bericht tiber das Museum Francisco-Caroli- 
num, Linz^ 1857, — Beitrage znr Pala^ontologie und Geogno- 
sie von Oberostcrreich und Salzburg, von Carl Ehrlich, M. 
Ph.tfecT Linz., 1855, — Geognostische Wanderungen in Gebicte 



der nordostlichen Alpen von Carl 'Ehrlich,— from the Muse- 



um F. C; Jaliresbericht dcr Direction des Werner-Vcreins 
Jtnr Geologisclien DurcLforscbung von Miibren und Sebles- 
ien,!.— VI., 1851— -1856, Brunn,— Beitrage, zurKcnntniss der 

^^nostiscben Yerhaltnisse des niiibriscben Gesenkes in den 




_ udeten, von Albin Heinrich, 1854,— Bericht tiber einige 
im Zwittnwa-Thale und im stldwestlicben Mabren ausge- 
^rte Hobenmcssungen, von Prof. Karl Koristka, — Bei- 
trage zur geognostischen Kenntniss 3Iabrens, von Dr. Aug. 
Emm. Reuss, Prof, zu Prag., 1854,— /row tJie Society; Ver- 
handelingen derKoninklijke Akad. van Wetenschappen, I.— 
>I. Deel, 4to, 1854— 1 858, Amsterdam,— Yerslagen en Med- 



edeelingen der K. Akad. van Wetenschappen, Afdeeling Xat- 



jnrkun.le, I.~YI., 8vo;— Setterkunde, I.— III., 8vo,.-Jaar- 
wek van de K. Akad. van Wetens. 1 Deel, 1 Stuck, Amster- 
«ani, 185T, — Lycidas Ecloga et Musa3 Invocatio ; — Octavise 
^'i^rela, Amsterdam, 1857,— /?-oot the Boy. Soc.of Sciences. 
Air. Chas. P. Chouteau presented a fine mounted specimen 
w the Cross Fox, from the ITpper Missouri River. 



February 21, 1859. 
The President, Dr. A. Wislize^ts, in the chair. 

Eleven members present. 

The following publications were received : Zeitscbrift der 
A^tttschen Geo!. Gesells. Band. IX., Hefl 4, Band. X. Heft 
W R ' 1857-8,— frojn th>^ Society; Geol. Rep. on the S. 
ftlki ^'''■^' of the Pacific Railroad, by G. C. Syrallow, State 

T.!f T-^'i^^^'-^o«* ^- -^1- IliJ^^ ^"/•.' Canadian Jour, of 
^^ S^«. & Art, for Jan., 1859,- 



Iiid 



Dr 



fi 




kMTi^T,'""?'""'^"^ presented a living specimen of a Meno- 
^'^"rfius Ibttnd in tfiis vicinity. " 

tl r''"^'^" the "Filtration of Water," illustrated by a dia- 
tirt^'l^^ ^'"* Reineke, was read by Dr. T. C. HiJgard, and re- 
^^^\committce. 

ed tn !>' °1 communicated the substance of a letter address- 
wm by :\Ir. J. Y. Phillips, giving a description of a To- 



\ 




TRANS. OF THE ACAD. OF SCIENCE. 



temic mound, situated about nine miles from Dubuque, in the 
State of lowa. 

Dr. Engelmann stated that, on the 1 9th & 20th Feb. last, the 
Thermometer at this point had passed through 46"" FJn 12 
hours, falling from IQ"" in the afternoon to 30° on the follow- 
ing morning. Such violent changes ^vere not usual in our 
climate, occurring onlj once every five or six years, hut in 
two instances he had noticed a still more violent fall of tem- 
perature, 52 to 54^ in as short a time. 

Mr. Win. Mc Adams, Jr., of Jersey ville, III, was elected a 
correspondent. 

Saniuel Annan, M.D., and O. Blank, M.D., were elected 
associate members. 



March 7, 1859. 



Tlie President, Dr. A. Wisllsej^us, in the chair. 

Eleven members present. 

The following works were received: Kep. on Finances, 
1858,— Patent Off. Rep. for 1S57 — Explor. & Sur. of Pacific 
B. Routes, Yol. IX., Zoolo^r, Part II., Birds of X. Amcr., 
^^ ash., 4to, 1858,— Rep. on 'Comm. & Nav. 1858,— />o//i the 

Hon. F. P. Blair. Jr.- .Tnnr. n? thfi Frnnldin Inst.. Xo. -, 



Feb. 1859,—/) 
for 1859. 



of Mich., 



^— ^-^ ^^^ m 

_I)r. Engelmann presented a fossil bone, found !>}' him some 
fifteen years since on the bank of the Mississippi, being a 
portion of the os pctrosum and orbit of an ox different from 
the common os and the buffalo, and probably belonging to 
Leidy's Bos cavifrons. 

Br. E. also exhibited a branch and flowers of the C7w«« 
Americana, found in this vicinity. It was the snrue as that 
found in the eastern States, tliouirh it did not attain such ma- 



I'm 



woods, however, immense trees of it may be seen. He sp'^^ 

about the biserial phyllotactic arrange- ent of the leaves ana 

branches Idug, tc^ether mth the slendemess of the brancM* 

" ..,rrn/>pfil1mOWth0fthW 



«ina twigs, the cause of tlie peculiarly graceful g 

A pai>er on ^^ Pavements," and a paper on the "PoP^^J 
Street S.^wer,"' by Mr. Reineke, was read by Dr. Hilgarfl, ami 
TCiiirred to a commiftoo 

George Johnson, 3I.B., and Messrs. J. V. TlMf^. ^f^ 
tos^lcDowell, and Charles H. Vanderford, wert 
sociate members. 



as- 



JOimNAL OP PROCEEDINGS. 333 



March 21, 1859. 
Vice-President Dr. Geo. Exgelman^t in the cliair. 

Eight members present. 

A letter was read from the Sec. of the Smith. Institution, 4 
ilarch, 1859, transmitting publications; and also, a letter 
from tlie Lyceum of ISTat. Hist., N". Y., acknowledging the 
receipt of No. 2 of the Transactions. 

The foUoTrinjj publications were laid upon the table : Proc. 
of the Acad. Kat. Sci., Phil., Jan., lSb9,—fj'om the Society; 
Geol Rep. on S.W. Br. of Pacif. U.^—from Col C. Kribhen; 
Proc. of the Amer. Antiq. Soc, Worcester, 1859, from the 
Society; Proc. of the Bos. Soc. of Xat. Hist., 
\U%~froyn the Society; K". Orleans Med. & S 

March, 1859,-^rom the Editors; Jour, of the Franklin 
Inst, Phil., March, 1859,— //-ow the Society. 

1 rof. G. Seyffarth read a paper entitled "An Astronomical 
Inscription concerning the year 1722 B. C," illustrated by a 
rac >imile of the inscription. The paper was ordered for pub- 
lication in the Transactions. 

i rof W. p. Riddell, of Austin, Texas, was elected a cor- 
r^pondent, and Dr. Pdsche was elected an associate member. 



Jan 



2, 



A2yril 4, 1859. 

The President, Dr. A. Wislizexits, in the chair. 

Eighteen members present. 

A letter was read from the Pottsville Sci. Asso., 21 March, 



^J^th March 

^ also, a letter from Mr. Conrad Witter, 2 April, 1«59, 

^wsnT) A ^Jl^^^^'^ical specimens presented; and a letter 

of rJiv . ^ • '^"^^J 1 April, '59, concerning an exchange 
®^ l^oucations. if 7 i o 

Kif^i ^^r T^2« ^»»'^s ^ere received : Smith n Contr. to 
the I;J''^^; i— VIIL & X. fr<mi the Imlduiion ; Proc. of 

l4 nf P f ^t^' ^^•^- ■f'l'ii- Feb., lS59,-/ro//i Ihe Sodefp 
«p^f Explor. & Sur. of Pacific R Routes, Vol. IX., Wa4., 

MeL« ''?, ^^'^"- Tru^ien Polk: Fossil Plants of the Coal 

as, of the U.S^by Leo.Lesouereux', Pottsville, 1^58, 



334 TRANS. OF THE ACAD. OF SCIENCE. 




from the Pottsvilk Sci, Asso. ; Proc. of the Amen Phil. Soc., 
Phil., Ko. GO, July &Dec., 1858,— /ror/i the Sociei 

Dr. Pope read a communication from Mr. J. iB. M, South- 
erton, presenting Indian pottery, a stone chisel, and other In- 
dian implements, found in Missomi ; and, also, a honeycomb- 
like piece of wood of an old oak ti'ee, being pi'ohably the 
result of fungous development throughout the inner wood 
of the trunk. 

Prof. Sej-ffarth presented an impression In wax of the seal 



ring of Pharaoh Suphis (builder of the great pyramid of 
Cheops,) taken from the ring now in Dr. Abbot's Museum, in 
New York. He remarked that he had seen the ring itself 
and considered it as belonoring to the XlXth Dyn., in the 



time of David, and not to the IVth Dyn., ia« had been snp- 
posed by some authoi-s. 

Dr. Engelmann presented a specimen of Tapewonn {T(rn\a 
solium). He observed that he had never seen any in natives 
of Mi;ssoiiri ; all those observed by him Were found in immi- 
^ants from Europe, aud also in some Texans after a long cap- 
tivity in Mexico. He dwelt upon the late discoveries of Ae 
compound nature of the Tapewonn and its earlier stages of 
development as the "measles" of the hog. 

The Corresponding Secretary read a paper byEdwar«niil- 
ler, Civ. Engr., entitled «A Memoir on Methods of obtaining 
Water on the Hi^h Prairies of 3Iissouri." The pnper was re- 
fenc^ to a committee. 

Mr. J. C. Reid presented a specimen of fossil coral from the 
bluffs in Illinois, near the track of the O. & Miss. Railroad. 



April 18, 1859. 

T 

The President, Dr. A. TTislizenus, in the chair, 



Ten 



^ '^" w^ ^ -** -'^^ ^^ m^^ \d * 

A letter was read from Br, B. F. Shumard, Austin, Tex^ 
3 Apnl, 1S59, enclosing a paper and drawings of fofsf ^?,' 

. letter from Prof. S. F. Bulrd, Asst. Sec. oi tne 



Smith'n Tnst., Marcl 



The 



g publications were received : Proc. ot tiie ^ 



^x Jnst., Vol t^ 1848— lS5<],~/roTO fhe Society; < 
the Elevation of certain Districts of Penn. abote 



3iWi 



'fram the Pottsvilh Set. Jsso ; ^^ 



otheque de feu M. Lichtenstein,— from the FiMi&herj ^^ 
Neocomien dans le Jura et sin role dans la Scne strau 






JOURNAL OF PROCEEDINGS. 335 



graphiqne, par Jules Marcoii, Geneve, 1858, — from the An- 
thoT} Mem. et Doc. relatives a L'llistoire du Canada, publU 
^pnrlaSoc. Historique de Montreal, 1859, — from the So- 
rkty; Joun of the Frank. Inst., Phil, No. 4, April, 1859, — 



/ 



The Correspondin 



Shunianl, accompanied witli drawings of Permian fossils, cn- 
titled_ " Xotice of New Fossils from the Coal Measures and 
Permian strata of Texas, obtained by the U. S. Expedition 
under Capt. John Pope for boring Artesian Wells along the 
Zit] parallel." The paper was referrecj to a committee. 

Mr. S. Smith read a paper by Prof. John Eussell, of Bhiff- 
^e, 111., on " Western Antiquities." The paper was refer- 
rtitl to a committee. 

Dr. Pollak said he was authorized by Mr. C. P. Chouteau 
t« state, that he desired the Academy to name some Natur- 
fali.st to accompany him on his expedition to the Upper Mis- 
»uri, this summer, and free of expense to the Society. Dr. 
™h was appointed to that service, and the thanks of the 
AaiJemy were voted to Mr. Chouteau for his generous offer. 

Dr. TTislizenus presented a large black spider, a species of 
'■%«^^ which had been found in the streets of the city. 

^r. Hilgard presented from his brother, Prof. E. W. Hil- 
ganl, btate Geologist of Mississippi, a collection of 307 spe- 
««s of plants from that State. The thanks of the Academy 
i^ere voted to Prof. Hilgard.- 

in'iJt ^''^^'■'^ produced a irarabcr of slvtills, such as those of the new-born 

' u, young cat, muskrat, rat, chicken, swan, turtle, frog, that of the cat- 

\ 1 inielCKlus ) , muskalonye (Esox estor, Les.), white perch (Corvina 

A?J U- '', ^^f' * number of skulls of buffido-fishes (BubaUchthys, 

mnlti^f^ I' "isjointerl for schematic illustration, for the purjiose of de- 

1 th'f /¥*« considerations of comparative anatomy : 
^tiv mn ■ I 1*^^ ^^^ cranium involves Jive (not only, as is now prcva- 
fte n-nil^f i ' ^'^^^^ complete vertebral belts, each consisting oxily of 
J«ka» ,^ P^.*""! that in the typical numbers, namely : one body, two 
mT \P^"«rated) side-slabs (processus transversi), and two apical 

^m^ \t^^ ^^ ^^^" ^°<1 Cuvier being demonstrably correct, "that the 
«*ntifi«l .„T v""^. "is^rted into crevices of th'e skull," these once truly 
€«B»klpi^l- *^"""natefl from the rest of the cranium, the parts left under 

^^t^u conform to the above numeric rules. 
ti»eii!amm?-^'^™*^'^ "^*^^ human occipital bone, with the lineas semi- 
«MBpo.,..F "f » '^'M^ ^^'^ eminentia crueiata inside, is representative, and 

A^l;, thJfi P^=" ^^ top-slabs, 
ftefir^t i': '™ t'^'^t vertebra, eomraencing at the spine, is represented by 

^ii b "-,'«'■ *'^'''"<^nt; ito superincumbent pair of plates; and, severed 
<* %«artir» L' *,'*'''\'-'"^'ig temporal " processus ma-stoidens :" tlie two low- 
^^„ '^ ax tJie rhombic, cruciate-crested "diamond" or Owen'a "key- 

Til* c 

^' 'M^^^rV^^^^^y represented, e. g. in the new-born infim^ by the 
*»»*a<*b2mtf r ."^ Blumenbachii , and that is impressed for the me- 

•^*« unci, of corpora oli varia ) imbedded on it as a Wo<* ; witli 



1^ 



336 TRANS. OF THE ACAD. OF SCIENCE. 



the flat condyloid slabs, each perforated (between its prongs) by the (motor) 
hypoglossie nerve; and that piece of the occipital "squama" which is be- 
low the linoa semicircularis, or the transverse arms of the eminentia cm- 
ciata internally, and that in the ancient Peruvian skulls described by 
Tschudi, is demarcated by an actual suture both in adults and inknis. 
This suture is the same which in such mammals as the cat, inuskrat, rat. 
etc., is preserved, close beyond the insertion of muscles or the steep pari 
of the occiput. 

The remaining triangular, "crescent," or otherwise tabulate bone— that 
I»rt which, in man, is contained between the cross-arm of the eminentia 
cruciata and the sutura lambdoidea, are the fused top-plates of the smmrf, 
or auditory, vertebra. All median bones, except the blocks, of the verte- 
bral fabric existing typically 6y pmVs, and median fusions frequently qccmt- 
ring all along the spine and in the tabulate top-slabs, e.g. of thefront:^ 
bone likewise, (adult man, codfish, etc.) there can be no objection to Use 
same supposition in this case, as well as in that of the (fused) platform of 
the fifth or olfactory vertebra, too. 

The next tliree transverse processes, or side-slabs, and respectively con- 
taining the Pons Vanilii, Hypophysis cerebri (sella turcica), and Chiasm 



erally 



the acoustic, the gloft- 



sopharyDgeal,,and the optic,— and they are indicative of as many Tertebrai 
belts. Although underlaid, in many fishes, by a single lithe slab, in Ufu 
of a corresponding number of block-pieces, vet, on closer inspection, it ?ig- 
nificandy presents three sellar intractions, each indicative of one presumable 
block-piece,— all those of the fish-spine generally being rather hour-gl;^^j 
shaped, or " thin-waisted." In the iniant skull, as in manuuals, the blocs 
containing the actual sella turcica is completely separated from the adjafc^t 
optical and basihir ones; hence, the several sections being identifiable bf 
their corresponding contents no less than bv their rigid confines, v-e npd 
each one occasionally isolated by perfect joints or sutures, and can ckaa 
tliera as three individual elements. 

After these, follows the fifth, with a separate block-piece, thought to^ 
the voiner of mammals, ete. On it arise exostose-likc crested side^ per«>- 
rated by the olfactory nerves; thev are the "laminae cribrosie ossis etbmoi- 
dahs. These again are overlapped by an often squarish apiea! pl^f^^i^ 
presumably representative of a pair, in tlie schematic idea. Tins f^^^^ 
sendmg down a dividing ridge— a true lamina perpendicularis ossisdhmmt^ 
(Cuyier)— r!T!f1 joining the block often by a suture, it is therefore the arrn- 
top fnot, as Oktn and Owen supposed, the ossa nasalia, but) the ^««'^ 
perpendiruhris and "crista iralli" of mammals- In amphibia and m^r 




ward view. U follows, mnreovCT, that thus all the different ^^g^^'^^u^ 
these five vertebrae contribute in forming tlie cranial cavity; very ufiu 
the (mer. 1y external) os?a nasalia. , . ♦!,« t\sid 

This anterior (olfactory) platform is, backward, foUowcd by ™ T!!^ 
or trontal one overiapping most of the profound orbit,— which, af/^^ 
Mmamiy enclosed by the ethmoidal and the two sphenoid **alp ^^ 
aiabs : the anterior of which passes the optic nerve, the po^^f ^'*^5^*^!;^i„a 
gp^^ryng^^al nerve,~whleh, in man, supplies exclusively^^ 
rf specific gustation (sour, saltish, sweet, bitter), as I have P^^J^^ 
where. The fiontal bone, are admittKl to colrespond to the (optic) *^^^P^ 
^es autenores/' and in fishes extends far backward in the f^^^-^k 
^leaving a median JhntaneUe, m do frequent! v theia.equent. i^ 
parietal bones ^-^ " . ia ^^^ »Tiisia« 




vertebra. This 

being a cruciate ^u^siua oi two pair of top-siabs : tne iuut^ii'- --- , , _ 
«S^ r^ tJie petrous or auditory, the ^>.terior to the " <^"^,^>j;^rteit' 
inl^^i'fnC ''^'-!^'^ b^t mrtiy separated from them ^l^''^t,nd 
mg tnad (Oken) of temporal bones, exclusive of the petto^s I^ 



?■, 



■v. 



I- 



JOURNAL OF PROCEEDDTGS. 337 

rhicfi. in accordance with Ohn's law— not suflBciently appreciateJ hy his 
iUustrious followers, Agassiz and Gould— is tripartite, typically con^ist- 
m^,/*?oa (''glenoid'^) /Kfcra, of extremities and javrs, si blade (shoulder- 
tode. Ileum) and claricular prop (clavicle, os ischii), and an occasion- 
lif deficient stjdoid hook (coracoid, not acromion). In the temporal 
Mwei, these are represented by, 1st, the pro-gUnoid blade, or squama and 
faU*rculum articulare,— in Esocinc fishes so extensively developed as to 
Me fran view, and entirely overlap, as a shield, the cartilaginous undcr- 
Ijm^ frontal and parietal bones ; 2d, the mvLSioiii prop ; and, 3d, the unnnate 
-t)etween the condyle-plates and the parietal ones— with its escarped or 
^liunar base (as an os pubis does a foramen obturatonium) enclosing 
^ a^ temporal scrobicle, which is often obturated with a cartilaginous 
itemtHwie at its depth,— being, in higher animates, the osseous meatm au- 
mmt$ txttrms, with the tympanum for its obturatory membrane. This 
n«K T "^"^^^^^^^ element invariably takes a similar part to that of the os 
^is to circumscribe an obturatory passage. Hence, in the "shoulders 



wmicram of the fore-fins of Bubaliclitbys (buffalo-fish), and simikr ones, 
^ kL^"^-°^ °^ P^^^'^'^ structure is tangible, with an arcus pubis, fo- 
ftkl^ 7?^'™' ^^-^ ^*^ uncinate clement is chiefly active in producing 
wttSon ^^^^^' ^^^ *^^ affording tlie starting-point or clue for the 

(J^fJ"?r* articulating in fishes in the temporal bone's glenoid cavity, 
bethprai » 1*^^ , ' ^J^^elodus, immovably soldered to it,) and known to 
ThuT Tt i! '^^ ^° ^'^'^^' present the exact simile of a bird-shoulder, 
rsaiatn n !"m, ^ representing the pterygoid bones as tlie fulcrum of the 

Ais pSIm "Zw »°^™^'^'"'^'"7 ^'•'^'^^- The stout clavicular prop of 
fcWp tKf inpod IS the lamina pterygoidea externa of mammals ; the 

filMid »^.1ff '"^**' ^°"^' *^^ ^T^CMs, tlie styloid process. In fishes, the 

li^noi-l ^itv ^112"^^^^ "^ ^'-^'^^ ' *^^ underlying bone that turns in the 

""""""'"'" the prop or exterior pterygoid ; and the curved 

ie gill-lid, the styloid or hook. The ascending 



eB«tonn 



*Rnof this Tvil /'i '"'^^^ "J "-"t liiuiuiiifiy iieveiu|«;u uumerus aiiu iuil- 

*H1 M thp • f i^PP''^''''^^"^ '■ an^itiie maxillary and intermaxillaries, as 
Kotnn f!!^ f"""'^^'*^' ^^^ the hand and five fingers, turned backward 
® the nm^ ' ^"^-^ °^ *^*' f^^"C- In hirds, the lower jaw swings 



a«nmaK intl P^^^^^gow"; in fishes, on the elbow of upper jaw; in 
*e hst n'«r4, I S^^^^oi'l cavity of the temporal bones. In Bubalichthys, 

ucnai vertebra; present all the segments and developments, in a 
manner ot the cranial vault, while its tabuLate rib-rudiments 



Pjjnnonito 



PttSig, 



ipital steep and its condylar 



May 2, 1859. 



Th 



'^«^en members present. 

^ane^t* -I ""■ i ""^^ ^^"^ ^^i<? FranTvlin Institute, Pliilad., 17 
Wtts'of ;f -^"*^^^i^"^l?^ng ^^^^' ^'e^^ipt f>^ ^'o- 2 of the Trans- 



\<>f the Academy. 



h 



Proc, 



Jour. 



tk * r» *^'' March, 1859,— fm» the Canad 

the Acad, of Kat. Sci., PhU., 31areh, 1959-/; 



338 TRAXS. OF THE ACAD. 0¥ SCIENCE. 



Sociefi/ ; Pres. 3Iess. & Doc, Parts IT. & III., 8vo., 1858-9,- 
frofn ike Hon. F. P. Blah\ Jr. ; On Longevity, by Drs. Chail- 
M and Dewier,— /row the Authors ; Proc. of the Bos. Soc. of 
Jfat. Hist., Jan. — ^IMurch, 1859,— /ro?>i the Society; U. S. Xa- 
val Astron. Exped. to Chili, by Lieut. J. M. Gilliss, LLD^ 
Vols. LX' II., Wash., 4to.,— from J^. Holmes; Cat. of French 
Library, — -fronv C. Witter, 

Dr. H. A. Prout read a paper entitled " Third Series of 
Descriptions of Bryozoa from the Pula30zoic Rocks of the 
Western States," and exhibited drawings of several new 
species. 

The paper was referred to a committee. 

The committee, to whom were referred the papers by Mr. 
Eeineke on "Pavements," on "Filtration of Water," ai^d on 
the "Poplar Street Sewer," recommended that the sme 
be filed in the archives for future reference, and were o^ 
charged, 

Henry Shaw and Edwin R. Mason, Esqrs., were elected as- 
sociate members. 



Miy 9, 1859. 






Vice 



, 4to, 



Eight members present. 

Tiie following books were received : Sketches of tlie TJ-^- 
Coast Sur. 1S51, 4to.,— Rep. of U. S. Coast Sur., 18^-3 
Maps and Views accompanving Mess. & Doc, 1853-5, 4w-, 
Patent Office Eci.. 1853, i?art II.— 1854, Parts I. J ^^ 

and 1856 — LyellVPrin. of Geo!., 8vo., ISbi,— from B. fj^ 
- -^ .from the Editori' 



Mr, Wra. Glasgow, Jr., presented specimens o^ ^f!^^ jj^ 
deposit upon wooden troughs from the water of tiie _ 
Springs, in Hot Springs county, Ark. ; also specimens oi 
thermarum, an Alg-a found on the water of these not .] - 



•d. 



at a temperature of 125' Fahr. . Dj. B. 

The committee, to wliom was referred the paper ^ a'^^ 

' entitled '- Xoticc of Xew Fossils from ti^ ^^ 
^fxc«=uiU3 a,ud Permian strata of Texas," &c^ TCfon 
same for puhlication in the Transactions. p,.,^ 

Dr. T. C. Ilil^^ard read a paper entitled « Notes on^^^ 
paratn-e OrgaiKJtaris." The paper was referred to ^ 

Dr. Engehnann read a paper on the « Dioecious Gti-- 



f: 



''■r 



\ 



JOURNAL OF PROCEEDINGS. 339 

the United States," mentioned at a previous meeting. The 
paper vras referred to a committee. 

Dr. Engelmanu also read a paper entitled " A Synopsis of 
the Species of the Genus Cuscuta^'^ which was referred to a 
coEuuittee. 

^ He remarked furtlier, that these curious parasites had attracted his atten- 
^ about twenty years ago, when he distinguished in our immediate 
Tidaity five or six species, while at that time only one, the Cdscuta M- 
Mmmm of Linnaeus, was mentioned in the works on North American 
BoUav. He published a first paper illustrated hy a plate in the 43d Vol. 
of Silliman's Journal, (1842,) which attracted some attention, and was fa- 
^^Mf noticed and copied into Hooker's London Journal of Botany, 2d 
'^' ^™- He had continued his investigations into this penus, in 
▼men he was greatly assisted by being enabled to compare the speci- 
aem m the collections of many American botanists, obligingly commu- 
B^tai to hun, and of the rich herbaria of Sir \Vm. Hooker, of Kew, and 
a the impenal botanic garden at Vienna, which were with the great- 
wuber^ty entrusted to him. Meanwhile, different botanical explorers 
« our country, especially those connected with the Exploring Expedi- 
»^ to the West and South-west, had furnished him with a great deal of 
WW material. During his recent visit to Europe, the botanical treasures 
w «a the great collections in London, Paris, Berlin, Vienna, Geneva, and 
J^r places were thrown open to him ; the Cuscutae of the Herbaria of the 
^^Jc garden m St. Petersburg were sent to him; and many botanists, 
^ong Whom he would only mention the Nestor of botanists, Robert 
a^.' w^^if f^^^^^'^sed, kindly assisted him with advice and with speci- 

L^ inf ^^^ ^^^ ^^^^ ^^^^^ ^^ ^^^^ ^^^ ^^^ ^^s* material in his 

JtTttr ♦ ^'^^'"P^^^^ monograph, as he intended to do, but considered it 
wtdZM , scientific men who had so liberally assisted him, not to 
-niuaold any longer the results he had obtained so far. 



May 16, 1858. ^ 



The President, Dr. A. TTtslizexus, in 
Twelve members present. 

^-!^**A?iTf ? ^ead from the " Zeeuwsch Gci 
«3."I^1 9^ aI ^^^^^ l'^ ^^<^^'-' 1858,— the "Xauui. k^k^^^^h^., 
j^ei 23 jtov l858,_theRoy. See. of Sciences, Fps^^l. 22 
S' i7?|^~*^,^ ^'K- B, Akad. der Wissens^" Munich, 26 
Wo^^'i^?"^*^^ "Oberhess. GeselR fiir Xatur-und Heil- 
^n '^ ifi n ^^^^n' ^^ ^^^-^ 1858,— the - Naturf. Gesells. in Em- 
,..! ^^-^ec l8oS,~the '^Natmf, Gesells. Danzig" 16 Jan. 



Wet- 

atiuf- Gesells.," 



or- 1858, 




^'^ov ifi^o '^^^'^- Geaells. des Osterlandes 

S 1^08, sererally acknowlei' ' ^'" " 




* ^ 



A 



o o 



310 TRA^^S. OF THE ACAD. OP SCIENCE. 



of tlie Transactions ; from the "Yerein fur Naturk. im Ilcr- 
zogtham NassaiV Wiesbaden, 11 Dec, 1858,— the "L k. 
geographischen Gesells.," Vienna, 30 IS^ot., 1857,— the "Acad. 

oy. dos Sciences de Stockholm," 15 Nov., 1858,— tlie "L 
Preuss. Akad. der Wissensch." Berlin, 12 Aug., 1858,— ser- 
erally acknowledging the receipt of No. 1 of the Tran?., and 
transmitting publications in return. 

The foUo^Ai-ing publications were received: Uebcr diecliem. 
Constitution organiscbcr Yerbindungen von H. KoIbCj Pra. 
zu Marburir, 1858 : Mittheil, aus dem Osterlandc, Band XIVm 



cli. 



Heft 1—2, 1858, Altenburg,— /ro?;z the Society; Die Ath 
nus-Arten der Gegend von TTiesbaden, von C. L. Kir 
baum, 1858,^Jahrbucher des Yereins fiir Naturk. im Her- 
zogthum Nassau, Heft 12, 1857,— /row the Society; Zeit- 

-frorti 

mUorT r Ylvhixn^i der" Kussisch-K. ^lineralogischen 
-fromthe Soci-'j; 

Attf deF"!. R? i7titiIt"J*Ven7tS',' Tom. III., Ser. Ill, ^^V- 
3 & \—f)-om the Society; Mem. de rAcademie Imp. de C'^n, 
1856-S,— /roryi tJie Society; Yerhandl. des Verems zur l^e- 
ford. des Gartenbaues, Jalirg. V., Heft 1-2, Berlin, Ibo., 
from the Society; Mem. of the Lit. & Phil. Soe. of Hanche^ 
tcr, X. S., Vols. XIY. & XT. Part I.,— Proc, of same, ^No- 
l-li —from the Society; Mittheil. der k. k. geographischen 
Gesells., Wien., Jahrg. 1857, Heft 1-2, I'^oS, Heft 1 '/';"'" 
the Society; E. Svcnska Yetenskaps-Akad. HandUngar, ^> ) 
foljd, D. 1, 1, 2,-Ofversigt, 1857,-Freg. Eugemcs^KtJ 
~ 1-5,— //•()?» the Society; Monatshericht der k. r^«. • 
Akad. der Wisscn.^^.zu Berlin, 1857-1 '^58,--/a->w 'f '^'^"l 
ty; Reply to the " Statement of the Trustees" of ^^^ }L 
ley Obserr., by B. A. Gould, Jr., Albany, 1859; ^fV-f;. 
gress of the Geol. Sur. Canada, for l%bl,—from ^^tr*' r^-m- 
3Iess. & Doc, Yols. I. & III., 1858-9,— Rep. o" ^^Vrs- 
tracts, 1859,— /rom the Hon. F. P. Bhiir, '^'V R^P-^ig^ 
plot. Exped., 1842-3-4, by Capt. J. C. Fremont, 8ro.,i_^*' 
from B. A. mil Esq.: Jour. Franklin lust., May, i^-^ ' 




the 




same 



dischareed 



ed the paper of P. 
" recommenced taa 
future reference, ^^^ 



It was voted that the Curators be authorized to en _^ 
assistance of a taxidernilst, if necessary, for the tjew r 
servation of the zoological specimens in the niu-cum. 






SHUMAED — GEOL. OF N. MEXICO. 341 



77//^ Geological Stkucture of the "Jornada del MuertOj' 
New Mexico^ being' an Abstract from the Geological Me- 
port of the Expedition under Capt. John Pope^ if. S. Top. 
Engrs.yfor boring Artesian Wells along the line of the 
W Parallel Bj G. G. Shumaed, M.D., Geologist of 
the Expedition. 

Before entering into a detailed description of the geology 
of the district of countrj^ known as the Jornada del Muerio-^ 
we will offer a few remarks upon its general features. 

It lays immediately east of the Rio Grande, and may be 
aeseribed in general tenns as a gently sloping plain, some- 
^iiat eljiptical in form and enclosed on both sides by lofty 
raoantains. This plain extends from near the southern ex- 
tn}iiuty of the Dona Ana Mountains J^'.^^.W. for the distance 
of eighty or ninety miles, and varies from twelve to forty 
miles m width. JITear the southern extremity it is partly in- 
termpted by the Bona Ana Mountains, and there its width 
ws not exceed twelve miles ; but as we travel north it rap- 
W!y widens, attaining its greatest transverse diameter at 
Wertistance of twenty or twenty-five miles; it then gradu- 
^ ? 'iimmishes until we arrive at the northwestern extremity, 
' lere it does not exceed eighteen or twenty miles in width. 
inruiighout the entire length it is marked by a distinct cen- 
rai .lopression, which, as will be seen hereafter, corresponds 
jTctty accurately with the synclinal axes of the underlpng 

r I V 



^ fa 



foiTnation 



ermr • 1*^*"^ «>f rocks in all respects the same as tl-^se 
^nposnig the neighboring mountains, from which it has been 
wnDties. rnamly derived. The precise thickness of this de- 



Mt 



determined 



of tli ^^^^^^"3 were obsei-\'ed, and these only near the base 
i«e mountains. In two locahtics its observed thickness 
wa« nearly fire hundred feet. 



Th 



2 the eastern and west- 



mmtTv^^ ^^ *^^® Jornada del 3Iuerto curve gently in 
rcimku ^^^''^^^"^' '"^^ '"^ ^^^ remarkable for their close general 
iwitl. ?1^! l^^ ^^P^jcity of structure. In each we find a 

l*eci 



d bold and nearly vertical 



«hinit 1 fi I '^PP<?site direction. Along their 8nmmit>: are 
The I "^ ^^"^ Jagged edges of their uplifted strata. 

}^T^ '^^ the east varies in width from five to fifteen 



lies, 



torms 



!2e exteu 



Jliig north 



342 TKAN3. OF THE ACAD. OF SCIENCE. 



and soutli the entire length of the "Jornada." As ivill 
hereafter be seen, it is composed principally of upheaved 
strata of dark gray, blue and black sub-crystalline lime- 
stone, dipping TTCSt at various angles. Although these moun- 
tains have the same general direction and are apparently 
continuous with the Organ range, Trith "wdiich they hnre been 



hitherto classified, nevertheless their general conformation 
and structure are totally distinct. In no respect is there the 
slightest resemblance between them, one being composed al- 
most entirely of sedimentary strata, and the other mainly of 
eniptive rocks. The cause of the upheaval of this portion of 
the Organ Mountains is rendered fully apparent by a chain of 
low igneous hills which have been traced extending along the 
eastern base for the distance of nearly ninety miles, and which 
towards the south a}»pear to be continuous with the eruptive 
rocks of the Organ Mountains. 

Upon the western side of the " Jornada'' the mountains m 
interrupted at their northern and southern extremities bv 
broad valleys; the main portion of the range being separated 
in the one direction from the Fra Cristoval Mountain by an 
extensive volcanic district, and in the other, from the EobWo 
Mountain by the valley of the Rio Grande and a chain of ig- 
neous hills. Although in general appearance vcr}' closelv a- 
serabling the mountains upon the opposite side of thepbn^ 
the central portion of this range is found to differ somewhat 
from them in composition, the^limestone being here overL. - 
^y grits, shales, and sandstone, which altogether present an 
average thickness of about eight hundred feet, and are «bi- 
formly found dipping towards the east. The length ot t -' 
portion of the range is from forty to forty-five miles. 

Geologically speaking, then, the Jornada del Muertoia^. 
be considered as nothing more than a simple trough, ^^f"^, 
8ed mostly of limestone^ sandstone, and shale, and covert' '^ 
the depth of five or six hundred feet with loose detritus- ^^ 
is the upheaved edges of these strata that constitute ^^^ 
aomitains on either side, their synclinal axes bemg ^v ^..^ 
where strongly marked bv the central depressioQ ol ^^^ 

As this trougli throughout the greater portion <^f ^*® j ^ 
appears to be entirely free from igneous protrusions, ^^^ 

of the opinion that an abundant supply of ^'^^®^J"'^"i,.ni 
always bo htained by means of Artesian Wells. ^P*^ '' f^ 
to which boriiigs wonhl have to be canicd for thi* P«n^ " 
Qnn not very rca.lily be determined, as but few f^'^'S^ 
tinns were exposed upon the plain, and tbesc only ex^^^^, 
tnrough a portion of the detritus. But as the ^i^^" ,|^,|; 
sandstone overling the shale of the Coal measure^ 
wc-Jd have to be first passed through, exhil'its m tm 



"1. 



^- 



I 






SHUMARD — GEOL. OP N. MEXICO. 843 

Urns upon the western side of the " Jornada" an average 
thickness of about six hundred feet, it is probable that water 
could not be obtained at a less distance beneath the surface 
than a thousand or fifteen hundred feet. 

As the "Jornada," besides its lateral slopes, presents a 
general one from N.N.W. to S.S.E., the most flu orable situa- 
tion for the experiment would probably be along the central 
di'pression marking the synclinal axis of the strata, taking 
care to avoid, on the one hand, the igneous protrusions, of 
which the Doiia Ana Mountains form a portion, and on 
the other, the chain of volcanic hills near the north-western 
extremity of the plain. 

Agreeably to instructions^ I started from Dona Ana, 

on the afternoon of the 11th of Deeember, accompanied by 

Mr. S. Homans, Topographer, Mr. Thompson, guide, sLx 

l^rers and Mexican packers, and a mounted escort of nine 
soldiers. 

Taking a course in the direction of the north-western ex- 
tremity of the Dona Ana Mountains, we travelled over red 
«Ba purple porph\Ty, greenstone, basalt, and felspathic 
wb, usually covered with coarse reddish sand and detritus, 
•j^ariiig a moderately fertile soil. To the south-west and on 



the 



opposite 



ceajed sedimentary strata (Upper Carboniferous) were seen 



formm 



wmnut of the Robledo Mountain, wliicli presents somowliat 
precipitously to the east, and slopes gradually towards the 
west and south-west, where it is abrujitly terminated by an 
Igneous peak known as tlie « Picacho." The Kobledo Moun- 
tain extends north-west and south-east for the distance of 
a&out eight miles ; and it appears to be composed almost 
entirely of stratified rocks, which present an irrcscular dip of 
^m 10 to 20' S.W. From its north-eastern base to the 
J^3 ^^^ ^fountains, occurs a broad open space, composed 
fsr, fk ®™l't^^^ rocks, which may be traced extending as 
wr as the « Picacho," where they rise aborethe oreneral sur- 
ace t^ the height of eio-ht hundred and tifty feet. After 
!!!'fT=, ^y a gradual slope for several miles, we finally 
^«4cnea the base of the Dofia Ana Mountains, and entered 

d^t I®^ ™SSed canon, where, finding an abundance 
^Aierand srood orass ff,v r.«r. .^',^^rr^^,^^ xi-A nnn eluded to 



o-w.» grass 



'"^P/<^r the ni^hf. 

tiott fo -^ ^na Hountains extend in a north-westerly direc- 
rorsix or seven miles, and are composed of a number of 
aooTft J'^^^^ ^^^ highest of them alwut one thousand feet 
comr^ ,1 .^^"^^^ ^cvel of the plain. Many of them are 
tiiiclh^ '" ^^^ted, and, owing to their lower portions bemg 
^ covered with detritus, annear to shoot up abraptiy 




844 TRAXS. OF THE ACAD. OF SCIENCE. 

from a smooth and gently sloping plain. The portion of these 
mountains observed to-day consists of gray and puq)]e por- 
phyry, mica-schist, greenstone, compact quarti^, and felspar, 
mo«t of which appear to be undergoing rapid disintegration, 
being not unfrequently so soft as to crumble readily between 
the lingers. The weathered faces are of yellowishj brown, 
and purple colors. 

Dec. 12. Staited at 7 o'clock. For the first few hours we 
continued to wind through deep and rugged canons, some of 
which presented nearly vertical sides, "exhibiting here and 
there tortuous veins of greenstone and quartz. As we pro- 
gressed, the rocks became harder and more gTanitic in their 
character until we arrived at the eastern base of the range. 



bere coarse gray 
We next emero 
ery«-here i 



plain 



[g J'KUIl, 



tig uninterruptedly as Hir as the Organ Mountain?, 
This pLain here constitutes the southern and narrowest portion 



Jornada 



W 



tion, being bounded on either side by lofty mountains, whose 
sharp and jagged points appear in the distance rising one 
above the other in almost endless succession. 

Being desirous of commencing the examination of its east- 
ern boundary as fiir south as practicable, we now traveile't 
m a direction X. 70° E. The first six miles was over a grad- 



ual descent, covered with fragments of eruptive rocks, which 
v,-ere surrounded by fragments of dark gray compact sub- 
crystalline limestone, containing numerous carboniferous f<^ 
sils- We now encountered a more fertile soil, which ^va3 



frrow 



lowards evenmg, we anived at the western base oi i»« 
Organ ^fountains, and shortly after entered a deep go^ 
near the eastern extremity of which w^e were lucky enongs 
to find a running stream of good water, where we coucladeti 
to ^encamp for the nircht. 

This gorge or canon extends in an easterly course abou 



four miles, and is walled 



1 nearly 



, „ ...,.,, afforded iis a fine opportimitjr ot a.tt^ 

tammg the stmctnre of the mountains. Tlicse were loniia i» 




Mtic gramte. The limestone is in massive beds, strongl) tip- 
heaved against the granite, dipping W.S.W. from 30 to -^ 
Its exposed tliickness is neai- two thousand feet. J«enr tna 

five mass, it i->^ 1"?^^^ "^f twk 



phosed. bein 



eru] 



ding^'-nroAvn an^ --- 

colors. Fossils occur in this Ihnestone in the greatest aWn- 



^ 



SHCMARD — GEOL. OP N. MEXICO. oio 

dnnce. In many places, beds of consideraLle tMckness a2>- 
penr to be almost entirely composed of the remains of On- 
mkka. In addition to these, the rock presents a great 
vnricty of other forms, among which we recognize the JPro- 
dv/^fi/s cora, and I\ jnmctatus. 

The granite was only observed near the eastern side of the 
mountains, in the foi-m of detached conical hills, above the 
litghest of which the edges of the uplifted carboniferous strata 
are seen to project many hundred feet. These hills are but 
spurs of the eruptive portion of the Organ Kange, which only 
a Icvv miles further south rise majestically to the height of 
several thousand feet. The rocks composing these hills do 
»ot differ essentially in composition from those constituting 
ttie greater portion of the Organ Range at the south. They 




— u^u.4nv ui a jignc gray color, and. contam a mucii larger 

proportion of felspar than usual, and a delSciency of mica. 

ihese everywhere appear to be undergoing rapid disinte- 
gration, oof 

Bee. 13. Started at 8 o'clock. Having with some little 
^enlty regained the mouth of the canon, we travelled du- 
™g the remainder of the day in a northerly direction, keeping 
as near the western base of the mountains as practicable. 
wiir road was over a succession of low hills, composed i)rinci- 
'<tt /''^™*^^'^^^^o'^is limestone and limestone detritus, the 
u\^ *^i firmly cemented with calcareous matter and con- 
Minmg fragments of quartz and sandstone. 

le Organ Mou atains, as observed to-day, present an aver- 

fTfr ^"^^^ ^"^^ ™^^eS' a^t^ ^ ^i^'iglit above the plains 

the™ ^^^'0 thousand to two thousand five hundred feet. In 

theeS^^'^^i-i'^*^^^^^ ^^^^^' appeared to curve gentlv towards 
cHffis to t/^ ^ "^" ^ slope to the west and nearlV vertical 
<^omrr ^^ ^?^*- Wherever examined they were found to be 

foi£ ''n ^'^^' *^^ massive beds of gray and dark highly 
_mierous limestone. The fossils obtained from these beds 
folloJ, . ,'^J^^^ ^^i-'^t they belong to the Coal Measures, as 
(Bill I 7> , ^''*^' ^^i^^ta, (Hall,) Spinfer huaipUcatus, 

iR^errmc 1 ^ slender species or vnemjiiczuiy aim mi- 

Wonul """fv^ C'mwiVfs.* Tliese strata arc often highly 
W S Vr P^^ <iislocated, and present a general dip to the 
ftoia' ton V K ^ '*^°- ^"^ ^ ^^^ P^^'^ces, they arc traversed 
^f QMrf \- ^^^ ^^ tortuous veins of compact and cellu- 
.; ' '^- "^ o granite was observed during the day. 



Belkrojyh.on. W 



Th T i3-""ii-c ttus ouservea aurmg xne uay, 

« •'omada, with the exception of being mucli wder, did 







ofUiia 



paper. 



346 TRANS. OF THE ACAD. OF SCIENCE. 



not differ in general appearance from the portion alreaJj 
described. On either side, the surface exhibits a gentle slope 
to\vards the centre, and is everywhere covered "with moss-like 
grass. Soil calcareous and moderately fertile. 

Towards evening we came to a series of rocky basins, filled 
with clear water supplied from springs in the Tidnlty. At 
this point we concluded to encamp for the night. 

Dec. 14. Continued our route in a northerly direction, our 
road being mostly over rocks of the same character as ob- 
served yesterday. In a few places the limestone contained 
bands of coarse grained yellow qnartzose sandstone of the 
same character as that met with, yesterday, in the detritn?. 
To the east, the mountains are to be seen rising to the height 
of near two thousand feet, and the edges of the upheaved 
strata are found overlapping each other in quick succession, 
presenting abruptly to the east, with a continuous slope to 
the west, which corresponds very closely with the general 
inclination of the strata, so that the mountains present the 
appearance of having been cleft through their centres. After 



hours, dui-ing which time I busied myself in exploring a rag- 
ged canon that extends through the mountains in an easterly 
direction. It presents, on both sides, nearly vertical cht& « 
limestone, from one to two thousand feet in height, and is 
tenninated abruptly at the eastern extremity by an igjieoiw 
protnision of gray poi-phj-ritic granite, against which tne 
limestone was observed resting in a highly metamorphosea 
condition. The line of this igneous protrusion m^l ^ J^ 
tmctly traced along tlic eastern base of the raountnms tor 
number of miles, appearing everywhere in close contact wii 
the limestone, and risins; gradually towards the south, untit 
attmns the height of eight hundred or a thousand feet 

Several larg'e springs were observed near the castm 
tremity of the canon, and I am of the opinion that good '.^ 
can here always be obtained in abundance. 

The limestone was highly charged with remains ol ^rm^^. 
dea. I fonu'l here, also, Productus cora, P. ^^^^^^^f'-A'^^l -u 
reficuJaim, Chonetes SrnithL Atrypa, (Sp. "ndt.) -^/^y'':^ 
uella, (Sp. undt.) Straparollus catUloides, JS^autmh ^ 
undt.) Fmestdla, Syrinarmora, These fossils indicate ^^ 
at kR«?t a portion of these strata belong to the era oi 




Coal Measures, In'placcs," the strata wer^ again ftmo<? ^ig > 
contorted, fractured, and, in a few instances, standuig J"" 
rertical. Tlie general dip is about 45° west. ^^^ 

By 3 h, P. 31., wc were a-ain in motion, contm^i"^ 



beiofP: 



northward course over rocks %i the same character as _y 
Bntil we arrived at the San Andres canon. A> this m 



r * 



* 



t 



t 



SHUMARD— GEOL. OF N. MEXICO. 347 



an easy passage through the moxmtains, and it being desirable 
to ascertain as minutely as possible the character of the rocks 
along their eastern base, we here concluded to change our 
course and enter the can on. It proved to be exceedingly 
n)ugh, and presented on either side precipitous walls of mas- 
sive limestone of about the same altitude as those encoun- 
tered yesterday. The limestone is here of a much darker 
color and far more compact than any previously observed. 
When struck with. the hammer it emits a sulphurous odor, 
bat does not differ, palteontologically, from that seen during 
the morning. In a few places, hard yellowish and brownish 

quartzose sandstone and dark colored schist were found in- 
tercalated. 

The canon proved to be about six miles in length, and 

from a few yards to a mile wide, and appears to have been 

liollowed out of the solid rock by erosion. Near the eastern 

^, ^emity a large stream of clear water aushes out from near 






we base of the strata, and, after flowing for several hundred 

yards in an easterly direction, again disappears beneath the 
surface. 

pec. 15. Shortly after starting this morning we reached 
^ck beds of mica and hornblende schist, which continued to 
•^ largely exhibited, until we arrived at the eastern extremity 
w the canon. Here the granite was again obsers'ed La the 
jomi of low conical hills, the highest of them not exceeding 
mi or five hundred feet. Near the point of emergence from 



the 



and 



tae canon the limestome presents to the east in bold s 
!l^™y ^ertical cliffs, some of which were estimated at nearly 
wee thousand feet in height. In front of these extends the 
V alley of the Salt Lakes," which is here about thirty mHes 
w-oad, and is abruptly terminated on the east by the Sacra- 
^ato Range, whose highest point, the Sierra Blanca, was 
»^n toweling far above the rest, its summit mantled ^vith 

am- • 1 ^^ ^^^^^' ^^^® t^i^ o^«^ ^e have just been ex- 
^nmg, bears north and south, and apparently possesses the 

!j® geological constitution. Having reached the eastern 
«e ot the Organ Mountains, we travelled for several hours 
^ a northerly direction. O ur road was for the most part over 
n. ? ^^niWende and mica-schist and porphjnritic granite. 
irith ' reposed upon the last, and were thictly marked 
l""k ^^^"^ ^^ ^"^^^^ ^^ greenstone. The granite is of a 
bLLFT ^^^^' decomposing rapidly, and often contams 
£*f pt compact felspar several feet m diameter, 
.rll *^ ^^^ ««y we arrived at the Tina Blanco canon, which, 



late the 




Here i V ' "* ^^^^ hundred to two thousand feet high. 

^ inuestone, although strondy upheaved and highly 



o48 TRAXS. OF THE ACAD. OF SCIENCE. 



contorted, seems to have undergone but sliglit metaniorpliic 
change. The fossils obtained here are chiefly Frodi' ''n 
contains. The thickness of the strata, as "«'ell as could be 
determined from their exposed edges, is about three thousai^ 
feet. After travelling several miles through this canon, we 
gradually ascended to the summit of the mountains wliere 
night overtook us, and Tve Tvere, for the first time since leav- 
ing Dona Ana, obliged to camp without water. Tcnipera- 
ture at 12 o'clock P. M., 8° F. 

The height of our evening camp, as determined by barome- 
trical measurements, was found to be one thousand seven 
hundred and eighty-one feet above Dona Ana, and five 
thousand six hundred and fifty-eight feet above the level of 
the sea. 

Dec. IG, At a little distance from our last evening's camp, 
we came to a small spring of clear water, impregnated with 
sulphuretted hydrogen gas. It possesses a slightly alkaline 
but not very disagi-eeable taste. Here, we concluded to take 
breakfast and allow our animals time to graze. After a cou- 
ple of hours' delay, we again started, taking a north-wt^t 



which slope towards the west, and present precipitously in 
the opposite dii-ection. At a little distance, these appear to 
rise one above the other in the utmost confusion ; but up^^ 
a closer examination, they were found to present a distinct 
linear arrangement, the different ridges corresponding to tije 
edges of the uptilted strata. . ^ 

During the day, the sandstone was frequently obsene- j 
apparently occupying a position superior to the limestone, i 
nowhere exhibits" a thickness of over sixty or seventy lett. 
It is usuaUy hard, fine grained, and of light yellow ^"ffy' 
ish colors. In .1 finv nlnnpc. if is finplv laminated and higii-) 



l>laces, it is finely lammatea 
stone did not differ in thickn 



micaceous. The limestone did not differ in thickness, or gen- 
eral character, from that of yesterday. As before, it ^-^* 
found to be rich in organic remains. Among the species W' 
lected from it durinrr the day were Froductns <^f!f:^ 
tatus, (Shum.,) Prod, splendens, (Nor. & ^^'^^■^X'^f'il.A 



hemiplicatus, (Hall,) Mimlina cuUndrica, (Fischer,) an 
Athi/ris suhtiiita, (Hall.) All of these fossils are PJ^^^^-'V^^ 
the Coal Measures of tlie Western States. In ^ ^ 
places, I observed veins of quartz. Springs of sulphur wai 
were several times enc<Hmtered during the day. _ 1 

m J>ec. 17. For the first few hours we continued to tra 
north-west, our roa.l being mostly over rough peaKs . 
through deep canons, which rendered this portion 01 
day's march necessarily slow and very toilsome. ^ 1 «« -f ^^ 
still prosen-ed a westerly dip and presented precipii<>u^^. 



SHUMARD — GEOL. OF N. MEXICO. 349 



4 



t. 



f- 



r. 



the cnst. The -vvcatliered faces of the limestone were of a 
bright vellow color, and often coated with saline efflorescence. 
When freshly fi*actured, it exhibited various shades of bine, 
I'ruwn, and Wack. Fossils of the same character as last men- 
tioned were detected in it, in great numbers, and in many 
places the strata appeared to be almost entirely composed of 
tacrinite columns. 

Towards noon we ai^jain came in siojht of the "Jornada,"^ 
ana soon afterwards descended by a gentle slope fi'om tlie 
monntains to its eastern border. We then travelled nearly 
dae north over thick deposits, principally of course silicious 
tand and angular blocks of limestone and sandstone, often 
finnly cemented with calcareous matter. The surftice of the 
country is hilly, and fi-equently divided by long naiTOW ra- 
viaes, and presents a gentle slope to the west. Kear the 
Mie of the mountains the sandstone was again encountered, 
and, in places, presented a thickness of nearly three hundred 
K(jt. _ Wherever seen, it was found resting confomiably upon 
tlie limestone and with the whole dipping west at an ande 
ot about 3U'. 

Late in the day we reached a chain of low hills that ex- 
toad from the mountains several miles into the " Joniada." 
Inese are composed chiefly of gray and dark colored lime- 
»toue. From these the mountains were to be traced noith- 
vard as far the eye could reach. For the first twenty or 
twenty-five miles, they appeared not to differ in general 
wraposition or character from those already examined; the 
Slope being uniformly to the west. Bevond' this, they wore 
senior the first time sloping east, while the abrupt cliili iliced 

Ha\-ing now can-ied our explorations northward nearly 
JJgfity miles and obtained a tolerably accurate knowledge of 
^^e general geological feature of the eastern boundary of the 

•Jornada,' we concluded to devote the remaining portion of 
^aetmie aUotted us for exploration to the examination of the 
Biountams along the western border. 
j,_T^^"S *lisappointed in our expectations of finding water 

aa good grass during the latter portion of the day's march, 
were compelled to cross the plain after night, and after a 
r.nrl k ^^^^^ ^^ inore than four hours we struck the wagon 
^. u about three niHes north of the " Lacuna del 3Iuerto." 

l»ii' h"^ 1 ^^^^' ^San to exhibit strong symptoms of ex- 
for'' "^'•?? ^^ ^^'^^° compelled very reluctantly to encamp 
' ^^' nigtit with but little fuel and no water. 

Jornada," at the point we crossed it. is about eig^^teen 




^ ■ t^ ^^ ^^ wide, and presents a crentle slope from either 
whei r '^ \^e centre. The 8urftice^:>f the country is every- 

^o^cred with loose soil and detritus ; but their precise 



350 1RAX3. OF THE ACAD. OF SCIENCE. 



character could not, in consequence of tlie darkness of the 
night, be determined, 

Dec. 18. We arose this morning at an early hour, iOnd by 
hi ii. A. M,, TTcre again on our journey, taking a southerly 
course in the direction of the " Ojo del 3Iuerto." Our road t^t.s 
over thick beds of volcanic rocks, consisting of dark colored 
scoriae, basalt, greenstone, and other eruptive rocks, most of 
those apparently undergoing rapid disintegration, and en- 
crusted frequently with a chalky substance. The surtace of 
the ground is thickly coated with coarse reddish sand, and 
iragments of porphyiy, basalt, and other eruptive rocks. 

At the distance of three miles we came to the "Lagunadd 
Muerto," an ii-regular basin-shaped depression in the prairie, 
capable of containing a large body of water. The floor of 
this basin appears to be composed of compact igneous rock, 
which, toi^ether with the fact of there beingr no lateral outlet 



to it, will sufficiently account for water being found hei^, 
sometimes several months after the rainy season. A htt.: 
north of this we entered a rugged caiion, through which oar 
road gradually descended until we reached the ^' Ojo del 
Muerto." !Near the entrance of this caiion occurs a chain of 
low conical hills composed of highly metamoiyhosed sand- 
stone and gritstone. These are light gray and yellow, and 



exhibit merely indistinct traces of stratification. The lareff 
are strongly waved, and, as well as could be determined, pre- 
sent a ^neral dip to the east of about 30^ , . 

Passm^ these hill^^ we again struck eruptive rocks, whion 
continued to prevail largely during the remainder of oar 
morning march. They consist for the most part of resicuiar 
amygdaloid, dark colored scoriae, and puq^lish porphjT^^. f^ 
of which appear to be yielding rapidly to the weather, u^-^ 
not unfrequently so soft as to crumble readily between m 
finsrers. „ ^ 

About nine o'clock, we readied the «Ojo del Muer^ 
a running stream of clear water originating from spring ^ 
is.>ue from the igneous rocks. The Avater is highly -'^i^^^' 
and has a bitter taste and an odor of sulphuretted i^J*^]?-^^ 
The neighboring gi-ouud is in places coated with an etnon^ 
cence of sulphur and soda. _ ^ ^k^ 

As it was thought desirable to obtain a knowledge oi ^ 
eoiintTy between this point and the " Fra Cristoval M<>^^^; !f 
situated about ten miles distant, I left the grater portion 
tne party in camp, and, taking with me a su&cieDt e^t ^ 
started in a north-east direction. After tniveUmg ^ ^^^ . 




more over igxieous rocks of the same character as ^ ^1^ 
came to tluckbe^a of black scoriaceons I^i^a, whieU cou 
tied to be largely eihibited iintU we reached the '^^j^^® J j^e 
«ira Cristuval Mountain."* This lava stream is "»^'"' 



-^> 



^ 



'^ III 






^ 



f. 



SnUMARD— GEOL. OF N. MEXICO. 851 



miles broad, from four to fire hundrecl feet thick, and appcnrs 
to hive proceeded westward from several distinct points of 
eruption. To the east, it is everwhere abruptly terminated 
>iy a chain of low conical hills that stretch many miles to the 
north-east, and consist of scorise and compact basalt; the 
former bearing marks of having been subjected to a much 
awro intense heat than any hitherto observed, being light, 
fiinble, and resembling highly burnt cinders. From these 
hills the lava stream was observed gradually descending and 
^ching, it being in a number of places cut tlirough by the 
Rio Grande, which here winds a tortuous course over vol- 
canic rocks, and affords, by its smooth shining surface and 
grassy borders, a pleasing contrast to the otherwise barren and 
gloomy character of the scenery. 

Late in the day, we arrived at the « Fra Cristoval Moun- 
tain It is about eighteen miles in length, and rises abruptly 
to the height of fifteen hundred or two thousand feet. Its 
general beaiing is pretty generally north and south, and its 
western base is partly washed by the waters of the Kio 

Ihe rocks composing this mountain are principally massive 
^^ of hard blue and gi-ay subcrj'stalline limestone of the 
^^rtromfernus group. In places, the beds are largely eom- 
«to ,^^^J'<^^''iin3 of Crinoidea and veins of quartz ; green- 
»one and fibrous gypsum are seen traversing them in various 
directions. ^ The dip is W. 20°. 

jrrm. this mountain we obtained a good view of the "Jor- 
^, and the valley of the Rio Grande. The former could 
mant -1^ *^^^^^' ^^tending north-west and south-east for 
«nm J ? ' Presenting a vast unbroken grassy plain of a 
mnnt! • ^^'^i'l'"^! outline, margined on both sides bv lofty 



jnountain ranges. To the east Tnd south-east, the sharp an^l 



aSTtl \**^ upheaved strata are to be seen rising one 
CBrvin ^^ *^ *1"^*-'^ succession ; the range in its course 
a ffraH? ^,y towards the east, and presenting everywhere 
«S?« P*^ towards the plain. To the north, its contin- 

wWch t^^^^*"^^^^^ interrupted by a broad valley, beyond 
ton*! rliff .™®"^*^^°^ **%® to the east and exhibit precipi- 

^'Jornori « '^'*^'^' ^^® ^^^*- "^^^^ t^e western side of the 
fW t!r appears another range, much shorter, but in all 



cotl?t3^ closely resembling the last. Tliis curves 
4edi<jt? J ^^^ ^'^®*' ^^'^ extend? in an unbroken Hue for 
^her^'t^ J^ ^'''^y "^^ ^*^^' "^^l^s. Here the slope is every- 
^enieallv ti ^ ^ *^^^' '*"^ the mountains appear as if ckt^ 
Woved ^t^'^/'^^gh their middle and the western halves rc- 
the Fra p . ^'®^** t^e northern extremity of this range and 

^nstoval fountain, occurs a broad open valley, 



352 TEAXS. OF THE ACAD. OF SCIENCE. 



W'liicL, as we have already seen, has been, anrl that, too, at no 
very remote geological period, the theatre of intense igneous 
action. With the exception of the portion constituting the 
river valley, the surface is everywliere rough, black, and 
almost wholly devoid of vegetation. The lava ai)].»ears t^ 
have undergone but little change since the period of it> 
eruption. To the west, the view is interrupted by the 3Iim- 
bres Mountains, whose highest point, the Picacho de los 
Mimbres, I visited upon a former occasion and found it com- 
posed of compact purplish granite. The general direction of 
the range appears to have been pretty nearly north and south, 
and the mountains, as well as could be determined at a dis- 
tance of thirty or forty miles, present everywhere precipit- 
ously towards the east. Between these and'the Kio Grande, 
the surface is exceedingly rough and broken, being thickly 
marked ^^dth ridges and low conical hills, most of which ap- 
pear to be composed of unstratified rocks. 

Having concluded the examination of the Fra Cristoval 
Mountain, we again started for camp, which, according to a 
previous agreement had been removed several miles below 
to the river valley, and which we reached at a late hour m 
the night and greatly fatigued. 

- At camp, the Eio Grande is about one hundred yards 
wide, flows between low bluff banks of yellow clay, and is 
characterized by a number of rapids. On either side ^ 
hills and ridges of iirneous rock, through some of winch the 
river appears to have gradually cut its way. Close to the 
water's edge the soil is dai-k, and supports a luxuriant vege- 
tation. Trees, chiefly Cottonwoud. 

i>^c. 19. From our last evening's camp to the northern 



nous beds of igneous 



extremity of the Horse Mountains, our road led overcontm^ 

ons rocks, consisting in part of purple an 
slate colored^ porphyry, basalt, greenstone, and granm 
quartz. The suillice is everywhere rough and ^>i'^^^J^',^ 
divided by caSons with abrupt sides, through one ol tne^' 
at least a thousand feet in depth, the river winds a serpenuii 
course. 

The Horse Mountains, as obsen^ed to day, are from fift^^^ 
hundred to two thousand feet high, and present but a su - 
slope, which is towards the east, beino:, as already i^^^f ^' ,^! 

abruptly terminated in the opposite direction by nearly > 
tical precipices. Tliey are composed of upheaved, m^^ 
pLices, hidily folded strata of sandstone, shale, and hme.toB . 
dipping E.,from30^ to 70^ f^ 

The upper sand^^tone h finegrained, micaceous, a^ ^^ 
l^ght gray color, and contains Inoceramus, Carm^h 



w 



SnUMARD — GEOL. OF N. MEXICO. 353 

Other fossils of the Cretaceous Group.* Beneath this sand- 
stone occurs dark bituminous shale, which we regard as form- 
ing the superior part of the Coal Measures. Underneath these, 
agnin, we have heavy-bedded light gray limestone of the 
Coal Measures, containing Fusulina cyUndrica{?), JProduc- 

tus costatus, Athyris suhtilita, Rhynchonella, and Cyatho- 
phyllumq). "^ ^ 

From lithological and palasontological characters, the shale- 
and underlying limestone of this locality must be considered 
m belonging to the true Coal Measures, and although unable 
mjself to detect any coal, I have but little doubt that its dis- 
^verj- m this region will hereafter reward the researches of 
the geoloijist. 



fte Coal Measure 



lime St 



metamorph 



anee, and here also the cause of the upheaval of the moun- 
tain?* la fniK- «v.^_„ X 1 1 ' ^^ ^ ^ 1 -ti . . 



icmGOus 



jrnicti the Umestone rests, and which are observed extending 
in a southerly direction for many miles. Wherever examin- 
^J. -ley were found to be composed principally of compact 
reaaL^h granite, mica-schist, and hornblende rocks. West of 
„A ' 1"^ "^er still continues to wind through deep and rug- 
h^ canons, the sides of which are often precipitous, and ap- 

T> OA ""^^^^"^b^ composed of igneous rock. 
Cofif' A f ^^'^rted at 6 o'clock. Being now distant from 
milpa 1^1 ^ ^^^ shortest practical route, about eighty 
^^ and having but a scant supply of provisions for three 
of'thfx ^^^ nothing of the rongh and broken character 

oomn^ir?"^^^ ^*''^^® "^' "^^'^ ^^^"^ during this day necessarily 
Me any examine hastily and to avoid as much as possi- 

*^ 1-^?^* <ieviation from our general course. Our road 
»bicf ?H ^'^ •'' ^^^^^ ^^^^ western baf^e of the mountains, 
<5randf f^"^"*"^° ^"^ elevation, above the valley of LherJo 
^oath th ^^^^^^ bundred to two thousand feet. To the 

^a^on^i^ P'^^ent a gradual descent towards the plain. 
exiubite?! tv i ^-^^^^^ ^^^^ ^'^S'^'m found mucb folded, and 
tive rofl= v ^ *^^°^ °^ quartz, greenstone, and other erup- 
'^^or and ,^''^^^'^ ^^^ limestone is of a bright yellow 
WOTint'iinl' ^ distance, resembles verv closely that of the 



-T^ 



ign 



omac 



^ed Xf V ^"^' inentioned yesterday, are still to be ob- 




pearua 



^*« 'aa«Sto?rj''^"^i.«cd, and which was made in tlie fieicT. the whole 
^m home how"' ^'^^^'"^^ '« the age of the Coal Measures. Since my 
**M coarinc^ n^^ttf"^' ^ ^^^ careful examination of the fossils ha? at 
•®2£, ishoold l» Ii« -1' r^ superior layers; if not the wfiole of the fmM- 

I classified with the Crc taceous Group. G. G. S. 



854 TRANS* OF THE ACAD, OF SCIENCE. 



to be everywhere in close contact with the limestone. At 
all the points examined, they were found to be composed 
principally of hard red and purple granite and gray mien- 
schist. To the west, the surface is thickly coTered with 
coarse angular fragments of limestone, sandstone, and igne- 
ous rocks, with occasional seams of sand and reddish claj. 
These were often found loosely cemented with calcareons 
matter, and exhibit along the river valley a thickness of about 
three hundred feet. 

The valley of the Rio Grande varies from a couple of hnn- 
dred yards to several miles in width, and is everywhere 
clothed with luxuriant vegetation. Soil deep ^anJ dark 
colored. 

Dec. 21. Started at half after five o'clock. The country 
obser\'ed to-day does not differ in general appearance from 
that of yesterday. Our road was mostly along the eastern 
border of the valley of the Rio Grande, w^hich appeai-s to ex- 
pand rapidly in width, and is for the most part covered with 
a dense growth, principally, of cottonwood. Through tlicv*^'* 
ley the Rio Grande pursues a serpentine course over beds 
of igneous rocks, and on either side occur hills and nages 
of red argillaceous clay and detritus; the latter courser and 
much more igneous in its composition than that seen y^ 
terday. It appears to be increasing rapidly in tliick^|^'' 
som^ of the hills being near five hundred "feet in height. 
Near their base, the hills were often found to be thickly stri- 
ated with horizontal seams of loosely coherent .^^yfjfi 
To our left, the mountains present an unbroken line of boW 
precipices, which appear still to be composed of hme^ton^ 
sandstone, and shale. The thickness of the strata, as well ^ 
could be estimated from their exposed edges, is about tw 
thousand five hundred feet. The limestone, as before, w^ 
observed resting a<^inst an igneous protrusion, and near 
junction i^ highly metamorphosed. Fossils, such as last m^^ 
tioned, were fuund in great abundance. ^g. 

As we travelled south, the igneous lulls appeared ta^^ 
crease slowly in height, and in a number of places ^^^^^^^^ 
dykes of greenstone, basalt, and purple porphyry. ^ ^^ 
present ill their compo?^ition a much larger per ceni^ 
felspar a..l mica than was observed yesterday and ^ 



^ 



ciency of quartz. Soil of the valley, dark, porous, ^^^?%-l 
carbonaceous. In many places, it was tliiekly coated ^ 
saline effluresccnee. ,^ ^ 

Dec. 22. Started at 4 o\>lock A. H. For the fc^^j^^ 
hours we continued to travel alon^ the eastcm ^>f "^^'P „jiies 
valley of tiie Kio Grande, which isliere from four %%%,.. 
broad, and exhibits on hoth sides hills and ridges ol f^^,. 
Its siufacs is in many places bo*^<^v and coTcred ^"' - 



^f 



SHUMARB — GEOL. OF N. MEXICO. 



355 



kkeF, the water of some of them being highly alkaline and 

pc^essing a bitter taste. 

At the distance of six miles, we reached the southern ex- 
tremity of the Horse Moimtains, and entered the "Jornada." 
At this point, our road vras over igneous beds, consisting in 
part of dark gi-ay granite, porphyry, and hornblende rocks. 
These aj^pear above the surface in the form of low conical 
hills, which may be traced, extending apparently in a con- 
tinuous line fi-om the southern extremity of the Horse Moun- 
tabs to the San Diego Mountain, a little to the south of 

to the ^vest. To the east, the 



gradually 



aft 



eye encounters naught but a smooth and gently sloping plain 



3 



mg near the centre a marked depression 



grass, and exii 

Jom 



here, as well as elsewhere, appears to be composed of detritus, 
the thickness of which could not be determmed. In some of 

toe neighboring ravines it presented sections of nearlv five 
handre * 



About 



feet 



form 




of nearly a thousand feet, and is evidently of much more re- 
<^nt origin than any of the others examined. Its axis runs 
pretty nearly north and south, and, as far as w^e were able to 
jQuge from a distance, is composed of granite. Near its 
western base we observed heavy beds of quartz, poiphyry, 
^^ greenstone. Against the sides of this mountam the 
qj^atemarv deposits were seen strongly upheaved and highly 

g both to the east and the west, at aa 
•^^ ot about 70% and exhibiting shades of light vellow, red, 
We, and black. The lavers comprising them ate for the 
™ part firmly consolidated, and have a thickness of about 
• ^^ndred feet. Black ferruginous sand was discovered 

great abundance in this neighborhood. 
RoH ? \T ^^^ ^'^^S^ to the nortb-easteru extremity of the 
J /iedo Mountaiu the country appears to be composed 

^mo.t entirely of igueous rocks. /^ ' ^ '^ 

Pio r T^^ ^ ^^^ *^^ "Jornada'' inta the Talley of the 
n _ ^^^^de, the rocks are well exposed, and here consist, for 

«^, h 



m 



ear 




taiiL ii • ^^*^^S tiie eastern base of the Robledo M 
irith rr^^f ^"^ ^^'^ ^^st of its course a broad vaUey, coy- 
^ ^ moderately fertHc soiL 



356 TRAXS. OF THE ACAD. OF SCIENCE. 



An AsTaoxo3iiCAL Inscription concerning the year 1722 
B. C, explained by G. Seyffarth, A.M., Ph.D., D.D., 
Prof, in the Concordia College^ St. Louis, Mo. 

The Museum of the Philosophical and Literary Society of 
Leeds, in England, has been in possession, for more than thirty- 
five years, of a very remarkable Muiumy-Coffin, which liter- 
ally is covered with paintings and hieroglyphics, of whicli 
Mr. W. 0.-,})uru, in 1828, published a learned Memoir with 
plates.* At that time, however, neither the key to the 
hieroglyphics, nor that to the astronomical inscriptions, ^.is 
as yet discovered; for, in 1828, as I have shown in my Snra- 
inary,t Champollion still tauglit that the one half of every 
hicroglyphic text consists of symbolic figures, which may be 
explained to suit every body's fancy, the other half, of mere 
letters; that the astronomical figures represent deities, as of 
medicine, philosophy, love, theft, murder, and so on ; that the 
rows of deities, so frequent on Egyptian monuments, were 
understood only by such as were iirihc secret of the myste- 
ries ; and it was not yet known that no one of the 630 Egvp- 
tian hierqglyphics is symbolic, but that each expresses syUa-^ 
hkaJhj the lettei-s contained in its name ; that the 7 Cabin 
and the 12 Great Deities of the Egyptians signified simp!}' 
the 7 planets and the 12 signs of The Zodiac; that, fiuaLy, 
the combinations of the Cabtii with the other deities express 
planetary configurations. As Mr. Osbum always " follojea 
the «^ystera of Mr. Champollion, being entirely- convincc-l oi 
the correctness of the principle upon which it isf^>unded,_ no- 
body will wonder that his explanation of the hieroglyphics is 
wholly destitu^2 of foundation, and that he mistook, entire^ 
this very important astronomical inscription. A ^^\^^^f^' 
pies will demonstrate thi^. « The God Ptah," says Wr. u» 
burn, «is that personification of the God Ptah which goveii 
the destinies of disembodied spirits after they have attnuit^ 
tbe regions of happiness. It is on this account that he is 
frequently depicted on Mommy-cases and other funereal m<- 

In the first shrine (on the cofiin) is that torm 
^e uod Ptah, the Meroglvphic name of which is lor* 
Tre, 1. e., the beetle. Thoth (in the second shnne,), i" 



J 




* An A 

dmwtn Tip 




Soeiety 



ai 



'^ 




body by Messrs. ^. - jg. 



pages 



tary of the Society. T. P. Teale and R. Hey, i^^ 



Sumnsary of Kecent MscoveriM. ^ Npw York. 18ST, page 31- 






l-msac.Acad.Sd.St.LoiU9 Vol. I. 



Phih 



iV, 



I 

Alb Agronomical TnscripUon nftrring to fk year 1122 B! C 



i? 



I. 



[im^Uaimu 




li 



- J 

!1 




IIT 



'. 



A. 





M M > f jK 



n 



A- 



^ 



: 1' 



'■!• 



SETFFARTH — LEEDS MUMMY- COFFIN. 857 



twice great Hermes of the Greek authors, was the inventor of 
the art of writing, and presides over it in an especial manner. 
His office was also to conduct the soul to the bar of Osiris, in 
Amente, and there to appear as its advocate with that deity. 
Thoth, in that mystic picture, faces in the opposite direction 
to the other deities, and is evidently in the act of making in- 
tercession to them on behalf of the deceased." 
Since 1833, we have known that those Ptahs, Thoths, and 

Tores signify simply the planets, Mars and Mercnrj', and the 

Moon. 

Kegarding the key to the astronomical Egyptian monu- 
ments, it was found in the following way. First, Diodorus 
Siculus, and many other reliable authoi-s, testify, that the 



E^'ptianshad observed innumerable planetarj' configurations, 



ana represented them on their monuments from the earliest 
tunes.* Consequently, a great many of those monuments, 
seen by Diodorus and others, being still in existence, the as- 
tronomical inscriptions of Egypt can not have disappeared 
entirely. Farther, Choeremon, an Egj'ptian priest, says ex- 
pressly that all the deities of his country signify the planets 
and the Signs of the Zodiac and its subdivisions-f The 
same we find in Aristotle, and many other Greek and Latin 
authors, referring their own gods to the Planets and the Zo- 
aiacal_ signs, which verifies the statement of ChieremouJ. 
Jur, smce all the Pagan nations, according to Jeremiah 51, 7, 
orooght their Mythology with them out of Babel ; since Plu- 
jarcbus testifies that there was no difference between the dei- 
S? ^H ^"^^^ ^^^ *^^^ South, the East and the West§ ; and 
Prff n ^ P^^P^^ ^^ antiquity worshipped 7 Cabiri and 12 
woat trods; It is obvious that the Greek and Roman deities 

lu.^\ *"^ °^^^^ ^^g^^» gods really referred to the 7 plan- 

conH 1 i\^*^ Signs of the Zodiac. From such passages I 

ciuaed that all the Egyptian monuments, containing cer- 

tJnnc'^^^^.^^^^'^^^^'^^Pi'essed certain planetary configura- 

'"' mentioned by the ancient authors. 





tiaca anar^J^ J '*'^" <i>i>MrTovmv. See my Sjstema Astroaomiaj -Egyp- 
^ ^^dnpartitum, etc., Lipsiae, 1833. 

J^Thyrius in JamhlmKn..' n^ x,t„„*„_::- tc„^,^^^ p^^^e 7 . "Chjeremon " 

noscunt, ante mundum nunc 
*»ri)onnnt ri "^^"'^ ^^''^^ -^gyptiorun), in ipsis scriptorum suoruniexcr- 
^ uat jjeos, prater vulgo dictos planctas ct Zodiac! signa." 

^ fSS^'^n^^^^^-' ^^ ^' savs : "It is related by the Ancients that 
*e 12 Grp^f f? J-onstfillations are deities :" and in other passages he refers 

*« deSi?vf ^n ^* ^^^'■' P- '"^TT, says: " There is no difference between 

«"i and of "t ^i^^^^ '^"'l t^^oae of the Barbarian! 

"t ^"c northern nations." 



^ 






858 TRANS. OF THE ACAD. OF SCIENCE. 



Now, tlie question was, wliat Egyptian gods referred to the 7 
planets, and by what deities the Signs of the Zodiac and its 
smaller parts were represented. As to the planetary deities 
of the Greeks and Romans, their names are known and still 
used in all modern languages. The names of the Eoman 12 
Great Gods and their respective Signs of the Zodiac, are spe- 
cified in the so-called Calendaria Rustica and other ancient 
authors. Comparing the names of the planetary gods with 
those of the Zodiacal gods, we find, as Lncianus already men- 
tions, that some of the 12 Great Gods were called by the 
names of some Cabin*. Thus, e. g., both the second pliin- 
et and the fourth Sign of the Zodiac were called Mercurius; 
of which ambiguity the reason was this : The Zodiac, the 
staiTy belt within the limits of which the sun, moon, and 
planets perfoim their revolutions, %vas divided, according to 
the 12 months, into V2 equal parts of 30 degrees,^ and each ot 
them was presided over by one of the planets, viz., in conior- 
mity to their natural order, Saturn, Jupiter, Mars, \ enn^ 
Mercurj', Moon, Sun. Therefore, then, some of the Greek and 
Roman planets, and some of the 12 Great Gods, bemg the pre- 
sidents of the 12 Signs, were synonymous 3 and for that^same 
reason some of the 12 months, corresponding with the 1- 
Signs, also bear the names of some of the planets, e. gi 
March. The same is the case with the Egyptian Cabin sM 
Great Gods ; for, e. g., Thoth (Mercuiy) signified both m 
planet Mercury and its Sign in the Zodiac, the Cancer; aott 
also the corresponding month of the Egj'ptian ycai'i^^" ^ 
Thoth. In order to distinguish homonymous but diflerew 
deities, the ancients applied certain Distinctiva ; as sumaffle^ 
the residence, the parents, peculiar insignia, and so on. ^ ^ 
Egj-ptians, as we shall see, signalized the Cabin ^X P\"'"= 
sceptre in their hands ; the Zodiacal deities, by a bath-fflJJ^ 
ure upon their heads ; synonymous gods , by mentioning 
offices. . ^^^1 

A?, then, the astronomical signification of the smgie ^ ^ 
and Roman Cabin and Great Deities, both male and ^^^^^^J 
was known, it was possible to determine, also, by what 
and images and symbols the Planets and Signs ot ttie ^^^ 
ae, and its other segments, were expressed on Egypt^«" ^ 
uments. The first elements of the Egyptian astronomj ^^ 
made out in Jablonski's Pantheon ^gyptiacum, 1 ',^ ^ 
the learned author, by the aid of innumerable GrceJc an 
man passages, shows what E^vptian deities cone^p 
with the Greek and Roman Cabin and Great God., i- 
with the Planets and Siuns of the Zodiac. 



o 




* Ltician. Jiip. Tra-oDd. f 18, page 21u : Ti'/noi itm ^' 

In % -alaiag fiovlT/^ t7/c iwl Kp6vm, Terrapeg Si i^ rrr.' i«J«£« 



^sol htra. rpoi F 



SEIFFAKTH — LEEDS MUMMY-COmX, 359 



^."■ 



r 



Finally, the question was, by what method the Egyptians 
determined the places of the planets, and represented plane- 
tary configurations. This question is answered by the Nati- 
vity of a certain Annbio, specified upon an Egyptian payrus- 
scroll, written in Greek,* From this authentic witness we 
leani, first, that the ancient astronomers detennined the places 
of the 7 planets not according to constellations of the Zodi- 
ac, but according: to its movable sirjns. The constellations of 



^ >„ .w„ — — o 



the heavens move, as is known, every year, 50" 2'"; every 72 
years, nearly 1 degree ; every 214G years, nearly 30 degi-ecs, 
i.e. an entire Sign. This phenomenon is called the Reces- 
sion of the equinoctial points, because the point of the eclip- 
tic occupied by the Sun, while the day and the night are of 
eqnnl length, does not remain the same ; it moves from East 
to West in the ecliptic, i. e., the stars of the ecliptic move 
from West to East, 50" 2'", eveiy year. It is known, also, 
how many Signs and degrees each constellation of the Zo- 
diac, since its determination, advanced from West to East, 
viz^ 107 degrees. For, the originator of the Zodiac, as we 
^am^ from the ancient astronomers, proceeded in tMs way. 
He dlnded the w^hole Zodiac into two equal parts, the lim- 
its of which were the points of the winter and summer sol- 
stices in the Ecliptic. Then, he divided again the one and 
the other said part into six Signs, and combined with them 
the natural file of the planets, making each of them the mas- 
ter of a Sign on each side. It is on that account that the 12 
sipsof the Zodiac were called the houses of the planets, 
and their masters, the planets, named CEcodespotaj (lords 
Oj the houses). Tims, then, Saturn, the slowest of the seven 
pianets, became the (Ecodcspota of the two Signs next the 
Wiflter^ solstice, East and West of it ; the adjacent ones on 
^th sides were assigned to Jupiter, the following ones to 
«ars,Tenus, and Mercuiy. Finallv, the Signs opposite to 
tae houses of Saturn, being East and West from the sonimer 
^istice, were appropriated to the Sun and the Moon. As, 
"ien, every planet, except the Sun and the Moon, had two 
aouses each, the Ancients, in order to distinguish the two 
aigns of the same plautt, made the one male, the other fe- 
™ ; and thus it is clear, why the 12 (Ecodespotxe, or the 

-i J^rreat Divinities of all the ancient nations, consist half of 
^f, half of female deities. 

its ^> ' ^^^ originator of the Zodiac took care to express 
„, '/^'^"stellations by certain images taken from the com- 

'^ "re, he proceeding thns : According to ancient Mjtholo- 
h., each object of nature belonijed to one of the planets, vi2., 




exrfi^M^vn -^"^ ^'"^'^ '" Totmg's Hieroglyphics, Tol. H., PI. 52, aud its 
*»««aaoa m my Astroaomia ^evntiaca: d. 212. 



860 TRANS. OF THE ACAD. OF SCIENCE. 



to that of which the true or imagined nature was most rela- 
ted to the object. Libra and Cancer, e. g., oscillate, and go 
backward, like Mercury; wherefore they were chosen a? 
symbols of Mercury's houses, viz,, Cancer and Libra, and 
so on. For the same reason all deities of the Greeks, Ro- 
mans, Egyptians, and other nations, were represented witli 
animals on their side, or bearing their heads, because the lat- 
ter belonged, as the ancients say, to the Ducatus, i. e., to 
the department of the respective deities. The follo^nng 
scheme will show the original condition of the Zodiac, its 
constellations, and their (Ecodcspotie, or planetary Directors; 

Aqnarius, Capricornus, Sagittarius. Scorpio. Libra, Tirgo* 
[Saturn.] [Jupiter.] [Mars.] [Venus.] [Mercurj.] [Sun.] 



WINT, SOLS. 



SCM. sow. 



[Saturn.] [Jupiter.] [Mars.] [Venus.] [Mercury.] [Mood.] 

Pisces, ^rie^, Taurus, Gemini. Cancer. ieo. 

These constellations of the Zodiac, as is known, liave re- 
tained their names and places up to this day, because their 
images were linked to certain stars, and therefore they origi- 
nally comprised partly more, partly less, than 30 degrees. 
But the Houses of the Planets, the Signs of the Ecli|)tic, 
changed their places ; and 2146 years after 5870 B. C, i. e^ 
the birth-year of that Zodiac, the constellation of Caprieor- 
nns did not stand in the House or Sign of Saturn, but in that 
of Jupiter, and so on. 

, every Sign was subdivided into 3 Decurije, 5 Ho- 




ria, 12 Dodecatenioria, and 30 degrees, as the Ancients re- 
late ; and each of these zodiacal subdivisions was also pre- 
sided over by a planet ; consequently, they were also mova- 
ble like the Signs. 

The first, then, we learn from the said Grseco-Egyptian 
papyrus is, that the Egyptian astronomers determined m 
places of the planets, obser\'ed at any time, not according t« 
the constellations of the Zodiac, but according to its Signs, 
which were alwavs 30 degrees in leno-th. That same auto- 
graph informs us, that the Efr^-j^tians in their Kativities ineB- 
tioned not only the Signs, but also their subdivisions, the Df- 
cnnae, Horia, and so on, with which each planet was then m 
conjunction, or witliin the limits of which the respective plao- 



et appeared ; the reason of which use is the following. As 



the J!,g\ 




yptians beHeved that not onlv each planet, b"t ^^ 
each segment of the Zodiac, was invested with pecw'^^^S 
ers, and that the ciBcacy of the sinHe planets ^r:is niodiiief 
by the Signs, Decuria, and other p°rts of the Z<f'^'^^'5f 



Which the planets were in conjunction, the Egyptian «=-" 

omers considered it necessarj-, also, to mention the smauef 



r 



SEYFFARTH — LEEDS MUMMY-COFFIK. 361 



parts of a Sign, containing a planet, in order to show what 
influence they would exert upon the future lile of the respec- 
tive child, year, period, and so on. 

Finally, we learn from Firmicus, Pliny, and the monuments 
themselves, that the Egyptians, Greeks, and Romans observed 
planetary configurations on the four Cardinal days, i. e., on 
the days of the Vernal or Autumnal equinox, or those of the 
Summer and tV^inter Solstice, always previous to the births, 
or historical events, which were to be fixed astronomically.* 
All these matters have been discussed in exteyiso in my Egyp- 
tian Astronomy; and this is, in a few words, the key to all 
the astronomical monuments of antiquity, and, of course, also 
to the Leeds Mummy-Coffin in question. By the instru- 
mentality of that key the following 35 astronomical inscrip- 
tions have been deciphered, concerning the astronomical 
years: 

2781 B. C. The Kativity of the EGfvptian empire. 

1832 " « That of Pharaoh Amos7 XYIIIth Dym 

1*31 « « That of Pharaoh Osimandya,Sesostris,XVIIIth 

Dynasty. 
1693 ^ « That of Pharaoh Ramses Meiamun, XYIIIth 

Dynasty. 
1631 " « That of Pharaoh Sethos, XlXth Dyn. 
10,3 « « That of Pharaoh Raphaces, XlXth Dyn. 
lji!3 « « That of Raphaces' vicegerent, XlXth Dyn. 

-S " " That ofa private individual 

*v6 « « That of an Egyptian priest. 

i!7 « « That ofthe Greek Olympiads. 

*J2 ^ « That ofthe city of Rome. 

^J « " That ofanEgj'ptian priest. 

^0 ^ « That ofanEgvptian priest. 

479 « « 

396 « tt 



That ofthe battle near Marathon. 



39fi « battle near balamis. 

Ai^ ^ " That of an unhappy year of the Romans. 
? " That ofthe battle near Lacus Trasimenus. 



61 « tt 



on „ " That ofthe Emperor Augustus. 
^9 " « That of Tiberius. 



26 « « 



22 « u ^^^^ of a private individual. 

8 « « That ofa private individual. 

7 « « That of Claudius on the Ara Capitolina 

9 A P ^^^ of Claudius on the Ara Borghese. 
13 tr ThatofTespasianns. 

37 « « ^"at of Caligula. 

S7 « a ^^^^ ^^ ^^To on the Zodiac at Paris 




ThatofKeroin tlie temj^le at Demlera 



^«r altj?'<|!!! ??^**^™- Asb^nomicnn llbri octo. See ray Berichtigungen 
^ G^schichte. cet., 1855, p. 20 1. 



362 TRANS. OF THE ACAD. OF SCIENCE. 



tte 



60 A. C. That of Domitlanus. 

54 « « That of Trajanus upon the Isis-table. 

74 tt a That of Iladrinnus on the Corinthian Ara. 

75 " " That of Hadrianus at Daphni. 
131 " " That of a private individuah 

137 " " That of Anubio in a Greek papyrus, 

138 « " That of a private individual. 
255 " " That on the ruins of Palmyra. 

Before we proceed to the astronomical inscription on t 
Mummy-Coffin of Leeds, It will be necessary first to examine 
its historical part. 

The name and character of the deceased are, as Mr. Osbnni 
relates, repeated more than fifty times on the coiEn, (See 
Plate X,, No. III.) Some of these hieroglyphic groups m 
missing, or inserted In different places ; they are inclu(fed by 
crotchets [ ] upon our Plate. The whole hierogI}T)hic le- 
gend contains the following? 33 words. For the pronuncmtioa 



of the Egyptian hieroglyphic figures, see my " Gramatiea 




iiaca." 



throne 



the figure of a man, signifies : a very holy or reverend person. 
For the throne expresses syllabically the Coptic word osh,m\ii' 
turn ; the eye, the Coptic her, sanctus and re verendns ; -^m 
the human figure, the word ham, homo. Mr. Osburo, accortt* 
ing to ChampoUion's System, takes this group for a symbm 
representation of the god Osiris, and, although no trace ot ^ 



inirs 



the 



2. Tiie pcrfiiming-vase, in Coptic here, which often oc 
determined by the sparrow-hawk, bearing a human hem, 
signifying tlie soul {Jcor), ns Horapollo testifies^ expre^^^ ^ 

. " and related words, iiro, huro, hents 
lor 

3 





^r-es, i. e., tne re-.;- „ 
Mr. Osbnm p^^^'^f ' ,,^ 




X 



as 



g 



clerk, (:S'o. 6). Why Mr. O^bnm 
hard to explain. 




5. 



tran 



latcfl 5a ^^- 



o 



SEYTFARTH — LEEDS MUMMY- COFFm. 363 



Roscttana by jVpof, priest ; in tlie Coptic v:oteh, web, sacerdos; 
aiKl the following Epha-nieasure, in Coptic epe, hepe, give 
the word Aop, operari, niinistrare, and hwA^ collecta, tribu- 
tnm. Consequently, the deceased was a priest in the office of 



ministering the tiibutes. 



6. A composition of three different hieroglyphics, viz., the 
branch of a reed {Team), the globous vase (mm), and the sack 
(#0^), which is translated in the bilingual Inscription of Ro- 
sptta by jpdfi/iara, in Coptic, l-om en slai, literatura; then 
scriba, recorder. Mr. Osburn translates correctly, scribe or 
dork, in consequence of a mere conjecture. 

7. The weft of hair (hopt and hotp), followed by the chain 
{hot), which is wanting ia some places, and also by the papy- 
r!i?-?croIl (hopt), the sign of the plural, expressed the Coptic 
words, boti, icoti, fructus, proventus terrae, and hott, tributum, 
ufebitum. Thus, then, the deceased was a priestly clerk for 
the collection of fruits, or grain. 

8. This group, in some places, stands for its first figure, a 
table with a cup, which gives syllabically the same ""letters 
hotp, hopt, offerre ; because the first hieroglyphic was called 
in Coptic /if op, and A fjjoi. The whole group, then, sounds: 

. 9. This gi'oup is put in other places for Nos. 7 and 8, gir- 
Mg the same sense in other w^ords. For, the kernel or grain 

*"ii«!*^^' ^^^*' *^^^*'' "^^^^^^ ' fructus, proventus) expresses the 
worn irmts, the Egj-ptian tithe ; and the added figure, a cup 

P i- * i^^pot) gives again offerre. Mr. Osburn trans- 

10 ri' ^' ^' ^' ^"g^^iously, the devoted of the provender. 

(A i- • ^^^''^*^^^'* {hater) expresses, as we have seen, hetor 

^ l^^'^J^'^"-us),beijig translated in the Rosettana by ^m, god. 

an/' . f®'^*^^^*'' i^o^) gives the same WQrd.kot (domicilium), 

na with the preceding htor (dens) : house of god, temple, 

vinum aedificium, hpbv, as the Rosettana translates this 

fwnbmation of the house and the word god. Mr. Osbnm 

fivl .^ ^o^e, although its door and roof are very visible, 



^r a shrine. 



10 IT,, • 

tie h $^P'^V stands in many places for the hatchet and 

km 7f^' P^^°S ^^^ S'^"^® sense. For, the square, or fenced 
ktM-;i'^/'^^^^"*^"^5 the word ^?or (dens, divinus), trans- 
teiTpie *^^'eUing, or domicile {tene) of god, I e., again, the 



13. Th 



i'epond {mone), and the bull (knlu-ki), atlSTo. \% al- 





signify be- 



^ther th ' f*^^"®"ire), and the word kalo (deponere), alto- 
«'i to th + \^ '^^ tributes of grain beloni?ing to and ofier- 

^ temple. Mr. Osliurn translates the pond, althougli 



364 TRAXS. OF THE ACAD. OF SCIENCE. 



angmontect by the sign of plural, by servant ; and the bull, 
the bulls of Anion ; which I do not understand. 

14. The waves (mm) express the most common fonii of 
the Coptic genitive (n) ; and the subsequent three hatchets 
(hater)j signifying the plural of htor (gods), have been ex* 
plained above. This group, standing in some places for Nos. 
11 and 12 (temple), gives the sense : those fruits were pre- 
sented to the gods. 

15. The baking dish (nub-t) with the usual signs of plural, 
expresses the so frequent word iieh-wi (domini), lords. Thu§ 
the gods are called the lords of Egypt. For, 

16. The reed {Team) expresses the vulgar name of Egypt 
(Z-am, Jceme)^ and the joined plan of a city {hahi) gives the 
word haJci (civitas, terra), together, Team baki, the land of 
Egypt. 

17. Another kind of reed {Jcam) with the same determina- 
tion ; and from the Rosettana we learn that both groups^ ^J- 
nifythe Upper and Lower Eg\-pt (r^v aru Kal r?^ mro) x^p^} 
The plan of a city, not being necessary for understanding, is 
sometimes omitted. 

18. The bull {kalu-ki), expressing the participle of the 
Coptic root halo (deponere), stands, as we have seen, for the 
pond amoni (possidere, pervenire) ; and the following groa^ 
are also synonymous with the groups following the pond. 

19. The plan of a house {ahe\ preceded by the ?aid signet 
the genitive, and followed by the usual article pe (tbe), ex- 
presses in the Rosettana the Coptic ahe (dwelling, domicm- 
urn). Besides, the waves {nun) signify very often the prepo- 
sition in, tL. Coptic en. ' , ^ 

20. The feather {a), a piece of cloth (m), an^.*^^, ""^"^T 
(n), give the well known name of the god Amun ; m ^^^)^^^ 
tic, the illustrious one ; wlio was, in higher respects, the Lre. 

tor, but commonly the Sun^god. The group ^'^^^PV^'^ Z.^ 
name of Amun, viz., (2A^p6 (the house), precedes it m son 
places, since it was the same to say, the house of ilniun? 



Amun's house. 
o 



1. The pupil, from tlm root hra (videre), e-vpre?ses 



the 

tbe 



word JmH (herus, Herr, lord), and then hra, re (^^^^' ^^ 
Sun), to which is added the usual article pe (the). ^ ' 
immediately follow the group Amun, the whole exprt 
Amun-Eha, the Sun-god. . t n-ord 

22. The flax-plant, hi Coptic shento, sadhu gives the ^^ 

8utm (goYemor, king), as the Roscttann P^^o^'*^*^-,. ;« wtk? 
qttpnt mount (totre), ig added often to hieroglyphics «» ^^^^^ 

to mdicate their syllabic pronunciation ; it fr^q^^^fh/ Coptic 
ever, malces participles out of infinitive moods, like tne «. i 
t appended to verbs. 



/ 



SEYFFARTH — LEEDS MUMMY- COFFIN, 365 



23. The hatcliet and the plural termination express, as we 
have seen, hetor-im, the gods, 

24. The vulture, in Coptic amoni, gives the word pascere, 
nonrish, in Coptic mone; and the added mount changes the 
root into a participle, or into the substantive pastor \mone- 
^if, QT et-mone) . In order to determine this same significa- 
tion, the whip (biJd) is connected with the vulture, expres- 
sing syllabically the word pastor, in Coptic bok. 

25. By means of the breast, in Coptic ken, followed by the 
sign of syllabic pronunciation, the mount, and the flax-stalk, 
the letters his are expressed, which correspond to the name 
of an Egyptian deity, Chous, i. e., Hercules. For, this word 
a related to the Coptic kous (vis, power), and to the Greek 
^<^ (the earth, mundus), which word belongs, as the Lexi- 
co^phi say, to a foreign, i. e., Egyptian root. In short, that 
^h-equent^-ows, in its first meaning, was the earth, and then 
we god of the earth, Hercules. Thus, then, Amun (the Sun) 
w caUed here the herdsman of the world. Mr. Osbura ob- 
jnins this nonsense : the Osirian scribe of the provender of 
tne bulls of Amun, Keith and Ooh-n-sou. These bulls of 
^un Neith and Ooh-n-sou, formerly totally unknown, are 
«»me ot the extravagant children of Champollion's system. 
Dia f^"^ ^^ Amun, the illustrious one (No. 20), soi 



some 



L ot the cofBn contain the letters mnt, preceded by 



?. 



refe^T'^^I^ ^cF"' ^^''^^^^ S^'O^P^ on astronomical monuments, 
/ : ^ ^?® S"" ; and, being derived from the root mnut 
ii^iosj, signifies a watchman, who, like the sun, never sleeps. 

and tf '^"'^ IS »^«o followed in other places by the i.u])il (Aem) 
Quentl ^ H**^^® ^P^)-! ^- e., the Sun, as we have seen; conse- 

27 Tk"' ^^ .-mother name for the Suii-god. 
pressW t-f^^i^^*'"'') ^oMing a crook {boM), is also an cx- 
^4^k.]^mhok^^ Sun-god, meaning a governor; in the 

forKo i*^,^^^"'f"^'^*^^ (niib-t), which in some places stands 
tic L/ r^ \"^m-bok, governor), commonly expresses the Cop- 

x7U ■'"'^' as we have seen. 
tioVfolInlTP^® ^'^■""^) ^^^^ tlie sign of syllable pronuncia- 
nifies W .^'i^^ ?^="' «f » city {balci\ i. e., a country, sig- 
hma.l£.^\^^ *"® Lateran Obelisk, and expresses exactly 
lo' iT'' *^? ''^^g^' "=^'^^e of Egypt. 



% DBT^l^^ ^'t*'^ ^^^ gridiron, in Coptic Jcera, is interposed for 
, f«M»ose 01 mftnti<^n;,i™ *i ii * „x> t?™,.^* !,„«,„., 




'oots, jna/l ^ \ ^*^' ^"^ Mizraira is a composition of the 
^cj, beci "*i' "^'""^ (^"alidus), and aim, the Hebrew dual 
lowpJ „«.-:2 "^® %^Pt consisted of two oarts. the upper and 



^ow-er c^)nxi f M^^ consisted of two parts, the upper and 
^ En-DL tiI"^'V V^"^' ^^*'-'"» *^tie Sun is called the watchm.m 
e. ¥H we land of power, or the mighty countrv. 



I . 



-■-^ 



366 TRANS. OP THE ACAD. OF SCIENCE. 



31. Now, we come to the name of the deceased priestly 
officer, which consists of two different words. The firet con- 
tains the letters NK SI, which in many places (see Lep^in?' 
Todtenbueh, cap. 149, 25) signify ratio, modus; in Coptic 
nl-a-s (ratio, modus) . The following figure, a papyrus-scroU, 
which is wanting in other places of the coffin, signifies, as we 
hare seen, the plural {hico% and then translates rirtntes, in- 
stead of virtus, or ratio. Mr. Osburn, taking the handkw- 
chief (I^aisi) for a t, and the scroll (hojy-t) for a p, pronounces 
JVatsif. 

32. The naraeof Amun (the illustrious one) which has beea 
discussed sufficiently, and the subsequent determinative, a 
man (ham) holding a whip {hibi)^ signifies a servant, or a 
suljject (ham-bo/c), a servant of the Lord. The whole name, 
then, is EnJcasiin-Anmn^ i. e., imago Ammonis, the likeness 
of Amun, or, as the Greek papyri briefly translate, Ammo- 
nius. Mr. Osburn's Ncitsif-Amim remains irreconcilable to 
any Coptic root. Besides, many proper names occur in the 
Eg}^tian literature similarly composed, e. g., Enkasi-thm 
(the likeness of Hercules), EnJcasi-Amone (the hkeness ot 

the i^ourisher). , i^ 

Finally, the ell {mashi) and the plumb-line {momh 




which always follow the names of deceased pious pe^ote, 
signify a righteous man {mashi mosA?', Justus justificatuj?). 

The whole of this historical inscription on our coftnp^ 
Bounces thus : Osh heri^ Jeer hetors, [em web hob hunj, * 
en sl-ai hehote [hotq hico hotep {boti hoteb'] kot htor ' ^ 
hetorl amom'-ice en htor-htor-htor, neb-ici kerne Ibakij i^f_ 
IhaJci], l-alo-tci en pe ahe Amun, pe Ba, suten Mor-^^ , 
mone boh l'o?}s, en mmit, pe Ha, ham-bak [neb] ^'^.^^^X^g. 
ItnJcasi-w-Amun^ ham-hoh, mashi, moshi ; of vnicn 

lowing is a translation : , \dih^ 

The reverend priest ministering the tributes, tQ^!^^'^ j^^i 
clerk-office in the temple of Mnut, the Sun, ^h*' ^%* Lj^. 
and governor of Keme-Zor (Egypt) ; caring ffX^nrth^ft^ 
bated to Amun, who is the royal watchman ot tiie e." ' l^ 
the house of Amun, the Sun-god, the lord of the g*^^*-!:^^^!,, 
ed to the gods, the lords of Upper and Lower LgJT'^' " ' 
Enkasiw-Amun, the ser\'ant, the righteous man. „ ^jj 
At what time may this so distiniruished person ^^^^-j^^. 
bIograi»hy have lived ? Of what age may that ^o*"- - ^^ 
my-Coffin of Leeds and those dies be, which have P^^^^ 
for tts, during so many revolutions of the sun, ^^^^ V ^^^ $si- 
ordinary monument of the arts and the science o ^^ 
elent worid ? This question is answered first .^^^^^^^ 'pi. 

cartiAiches found on the neck of the mummy "*\ X,^ t6« 
X., Nu.. IV. A. B). Mr. Osburn relates that, "ami^j^,^ i 

'^'^"*'~**'on of unwrapping the mummy, a singnl-ir 






s- 







L 

J _ 



l r 
I" 

.V 



I 



SEYFFARTH — LEEDS MUMMY-COFFIN, 367 

composed of three straps of red leather, was discovered, 
wliich contained the said royal names. The figures and hie- 
roglyphics upon this ornament, formerly worn on the neck, are 
evi.Iently the impressions of heated metal types." 

The royal cartouches in question refer to two different Pha- 
raohs, the first expressing a sacred, the other a Tulgar name ; 
md it is known that to every Egyptian king belonged two 
names of that kind, which commonly were put in juxtaposi- 
tion. The shrine ^ is a sacred name, contaming the letters 
K M S S T P :N'-R a, i. e., Ramses, the favorite of the 
Sun, which on innumerable monuments, e. g., on the Obelisk 
on the Porta del Popolo in Rome, translated by Hermapion, 
aM on the famous Osimandyeum of Thebes, the ruins of 
which belong now to the village ofKarnak, precedes the royal 
vulgar name of Osimandya (Osimantwa), or rather Osiman- 
pta, as the monuments read. The cartouche B contains also 
a well known name, that vulgar of RaMSeS Me-AMuN, 
j. e^ the Son of the Sun, the fi-iend of Amun ; to which be- 
Joags, on mnumerable monuments, the sacred cartouche, con- 



tomiasr 



ces? 



Ostrich-feather, 
itish Museum, which 
kings I'eigning suc- 

amses 



-ueiamun, we learn that Osimanpta was tlie father of Kam- 
w ileiamuu ; and Manetlio shows us that both the kings 
m,f ! ^,^^\ul^-ineously during 68 yeai's, after the father, Osi- 
"anpta, had governed 5 years alone. For the reason of their 

enmv'^°!2'^^ government the E^^vt)tian monuments usually 
^uniDioe the names of both the kings, especially the Obelisk on 
Osim ? Popolo, praising the combined government of 
rea^ftf /k T^^ ^^^ ^'^"' R^imses Meiamim ; and for that same 
eart^n 1 decoration of the Leeds Mummy also puts both the 
«^m-hes m juxta-position. 

For tK ni'^v'i *^^ ^Se of the deceased is nearly determined. 
B C T ^^^^° of Abydos names 38 kings from Henes, 2781 
h^-i rri^^VoA ^^^®^^®^'™^uii; and supposing each of them 
Wh IPi ? ^'^?'"'^' ^® ^^^^ down to the year 1671 B. C, 
coincilJ^^ ^^^^ ^^ ^^^^ Leeds Mummy may nearly have 
^tor of tK ^'■^'l^osthenes (bom 273 B. C), the Greek trans- 
piaee*/ .„ •« -^ Abydos, ns I have shown in another 
tii€ flpik f ^^^^ ^^~^ rears intervening between Menes and 
nastv nf tt ^t^^^^es Meiamun, with which the XVIIIth Dy- 
kt 'in p J,, Egyptian kings, in 1705, would have e.^ ' ' 

C»r>vi«»trff •^°^®' I^aterculum one king, probably By Ms 
' •^-' ^ omitted, and the whole of the historical literature 





^- 



^1- S« m? T wfT"" ^^'; ^- ^^'^^s- GeseUschaft tier Wisscnsch. 1848, page 

• =^eoiog!sche Schriftea der aiten M^pter, cet. 1866, page 94. 



368 TEANS. OF THE ACAD. OF SCIENCE 



■■>■;'- 



S^^ 



of the ancient world does not, in consequence of the carele^ 
ness of transcribers, contain a single figure that, being alone, 
is very reliable. Manetho specifies also the number of the 
years of the government of the kings from Menes down to 
Ramses Meianmn; but there is such a discrepancy iu the 
figures in the copies of Africanus, Eusebius, the Amienian 
Eusebius, and in Syncellus, that it is impossible to fix exactly 
the governments of Osimanpta, the Great Sesostris of the 
Egyptians, and of Ramses Meiamun. Mr. Osburn, fol- 
lowing the confused system of Champollion Fis^eac, gives to 
both the kings the 19 years from 1493 to 1474 B. C^ while 
Manetho gives them not 19, but 68 years; and besides, 3fr. 
Osburn was mistaken by more than 200 years, as we shall see 
directly. 

The question still is, then, in what time the said Phamohs 
reigned in Egypt, and in what year the deceased was reallf 
bom ; and this date can not be made out exactly but by the 
planetary' configuration observed during his birth-year, which 
is^represented on his last house, the Leeds coffin. (See PI- X, 
Xos. I. and IL, which is an exact copy of the fac simile 
given in Mr. Osburn's Memoir.) 

The planetary confio;uration preserved on our coffin is ex- 
pressed like those on the sarcophagi in the British MuseuB^, 
Xos. 3 and 23, and many other monuments mentioned above; 
and, tlierefore, it will be easy to make out, in what places of 
the Zodiac the planets stood at that time, at the priest's birtt 
Kearly all the astronomical images, occurring on the_ coffin, 
have already, by the aid of other astronomical inscnptions, 
been explained in my Egyptian Astronomy and my Corw- 
tions of Ancient History*; it will be sufficient to remember 
the following rules of Egyptian Astronom} 



C^ 



^- 



1. The 7 planets, inclusive of the Sun and Moon, were ex 
pressed by the images and the names of the 7 Egyptian 
biri, tlie supreme deities, Osiris, Isis, and so on. - 

2. The 12 Signs of the Zodiac, the so-called 12 houses o| 
tbe pinnets, were represented according to their regular o 
der, by means of the images and names of the 1 2 great i.g^r 
tian deities. 

3. The ro^r of the 12 great gods usually was twice ex- 
pressed, once on each of the longer sides of the sarcophagi 
the purpose of specifying the places of those planets ^ai 
occasionally occupied the same signs (houses) or siTt»» 
parts (DecurisB, iToria, Dodecatemoria) of the Zodiac. 



7 v^^-^uiiw, lioria, iJo(lecatemona) oi me ^""r , -^^li 
4. Tlie images of tlie Zodiacal deities were distingtusu 




■^, ^i^'^teina AstTonomiK; .^gyptiacse qiiadripartitum, c«*',,-^'fjii We- 




SEIFFARTH — LEEDS MUMMY-COFFIN. 369 



from those of the planetary gods by means of a bushel-meas- 
ure (in Coptic hat)^ put upon the heads of the CEcodespot*, 
expressing the Coptic abet^ house ; which was necessary, be- 
cause some images and names, given to some presidents of 
the Signs or houses, corresponded with those of certain plan- 
ets, being the (Ecodespotte, or presidents of those same Signs: 

5. The place of a planet or two in a certain Sign^was indi- 
cated by putting the image and the name of the planet in the 
place of the image of the (Ecodespota, which was then omit- 

ted. 

F 

6. In case two or more planets stood in the same Sifjii, it 
was customaiy to specify the Decurise, and even the Horia, 
within the Hmits of which the iwo or three planets, being in 
conjunction, appeared ; and therefore they put that planet, 
particularly on the left side of a sarcophgiis, in the house of 
a planet, viz., that which was the warden of the Decuria oc- 
S5^ V t^e planet. Supposing, e. g., the Moon and Sun 
wood in Sagittarius— the former, however, there in the Decu- 
™ of the planet Mars,— then the image of the Moon was not 
owyputmthe Sign of Sagittarius, but also in a house of Mars. 

inf ^^^^ ^^ ^^^^^ curious practice was, that the astronomei's 
intended to show what influence a certain planet would exert 
well m a certain Sign, as in a certain Decuria, presided 
Ml ; I ^°°^^^^ planet. For, it was believed that the origi- 
annttuence of a planet was equally modified while he stood 
«« me house or in the Decuria, of the same planet, 
sent^/i ^ Pfanets, moving from West to East, were repre- 
p^Z ^P.'^iof or walking, in the direction of the CEcodes- 
^ • ^^ hile the retrograde planets, i. e., moving from East to 

t^e othr'"l ■^^P^^^^''*®^^ ^^cing in the opposite direction of 
a . j,'^ "61 tics. 

• AU sarcophagi and Mummy-Coffins, representing a plan- 
head of ^h^A?*^"^"^' '^^"tain the house of the Sun, where tlie 
Pogitf. «; { -^ittmmy lay ; the house of the Moon on the op- 
SLrnn '' I .*^^ ^^^^^ 10 Signs according to their regular 

9 Th T ''^*^ *^ ^^^« ^%^t and left of the Mummy. 
Wnce t!. ^''P^^'^i'' ^'■'^'^^' an^ Roman Nativities have re- 
birth son? r®/*f the four Cardinal days previous to the 
stHBe to XxT f I ^^^ ®^ *^® \Qm2il or autumnal equinox, 
^^ this nrn t- Simmer or winter solstice. The reason 

<*«rve5 tK ^.^^^^® '^ ^^' *^at ttc astronomers constantly 
which a new ^"^^^^^^""^ ^^ *^^ 7 planets on those days %vith 
*^tenaine th^^?' ^^^^^^^ ^^^^ ^ year, began, in order to pre- 
^^^', then t?^ ^^ ^' ^^' "»^i''^rpy nature of the beginning 
•^■ed ann il ^^ I'ecorded this planetary configuration in-the 
^"»t 'iurinrrti''" represented it on the coffins of all persons 
^^e same rf. . ^^^^ quarter of a year, and influenced by 

' planetary configuration. ^ 

19 



870 TRANS. OF THE ACAD, OP SCIENCE 



Remembering these rules and the specific results obtained 
from the other astronomical monuments already explained, 
any one will readily understand this new astronomical in- 
scription. 

First, everybody recognizes, on both sides of the coffin (PI. 
X., Xos. I. & II.), the said houses of the planets, the 12 
Signs of the Zodiac, For, on each side are represented 10 
Egyptian buildings with their roofs, to which, in both c^es, 
are to be numbered the two squares at the foot and the head 
of the coffin, the said houses of the Sun and the Moon; and 
each of these houses contains the image of its (Ecodespota, 
or that of a planet standing, at that time, in the respective 
sign. These planetary houses are exactly thus depicted a 
the old sacred records of Egypt, e. g., in Lepsius' Todten- 
buch, PI. LXI.— LXYII, 



. « * 



Further, every one sees that in the row II. four divinities, 
equally drawn, bear that bath, the bushel-measure, upon their 
heads, which, as we have seen, served in other monuments to 
express the houses (abet) of the planets, or the Zodiacal 
Signs, viz., Nos. 6, 9, 10, 11. Consequently, the other dinm- 
ties in the other houses or Signs represent the planets, viz^ ib 
Nos. 2, 3, 4, 5, 7, 8 ; the said four Signs only were not occu- 
pied by a planet. Of these planets the only one in the house 
Xo. 3 was retrograde, because it faces in the opposite mr«?<'- 
tion. As for the divinities in the row I, Mr. Osburn M^^}^ 
copy their images from No.Q to 11 ; his Plates show owyJ!"f 
tlie planets Xos. 2, 3, 4 and 5 were in the same houses m wbicB 
they appear in the row II. p .t. 

The question is now, first, what Signs or bouses oiw 
planets are expressed by the single divinities standing m ^|^'^ 
tain houses ; which question is answered by the names ^ 
insignia of the 12 Great Gods, or CEcodespotae, recoro 
in the single houses, which are already known from ^^^^^^^, 
tronomical inscriptions, and from Greek and Roman an 
ties, as my Astronomia ^gyptiaca shows. . , ^. 

^o. 1. As the square on the head always contains in 
eodespota of the Sun-house, the Virgo, and as Isis somei ^^^ 
signifies the female Sun, this deity, representedin ^^- '^ 

presses the house of the Sun, the Virgo. The P^^^^ %^, 
contains the following words : Ushi mast, lore-t, ^'P'^^'Lj^ 
heri hur-tpe mesh toto Jcah (L e., Isis, geuitrix vahUa, ^^^ 
divma, veneranda domina plenitudinis terraruiu j , ^j- 
predicates dearly notice the Sun-god, the CEcodesH ^g 
the Sign Virgo. By means of the additional iour^^^, 
known Genii, the lords of tlie four seasons, it is mai^ ^^ ^ 
tiie same time, that the Sun-god was the^ governor 

four seasons of the year. * ' . q , •r;t^irifl?- 

The Signs next to Virsro are Libra, Scorpio, ^•^h- 



= — -^ ' "S 



I 



SEYFFARTn^LEEDS MUMMY-COFFIN, 



371 



Capricornus (Xos. 2, 83 4, 5), which, as we hare seen, do not 
contain their CEcodespotse, but tlie imae:es of certain planets, 
Xo. 6. This 



CEcodespot 

id JVeiih. kc 



1- e. 



Xeith, coelestis genitrix, valida mater deorum ; in one word, 
Yenus Urania, as the Greet and Latin authors translate. This 
goddess was a female personification of Saturn, the O^codes- 
pata of Aquarius, and consequently no planet stood at that 
time in Aquarius. 



i*rus 



we find two planetary gods. 



A 



GE 



tith masi, hor amom-t htor (viz., Neitha genitrix, valida 
iHitnx divina) ; consequently this Xeith differed from that Ve- 
nus Frania; she was a female personification of Mars, the 

ttcodespota of Taurus, as is known from other astronomical 

mscnptions* 

Xo. 10. The Gemini, follo\\ing Taurus, are expressed by the 

i^g}-ptian goddess Selk, whose title is SelJc, M-hoite-t Jcor Jcoh; 

f e., belk, textrix vestium, domina texture. The name Selk 
iteelt IS related to hU n^^l •Jo ^^k.. c.^^..,.:,.^ ^^a \r^«,... ^^«c;/io/i 
also 



over the sign Scorpio, as we have seen. 



(Ec 



ITraruaB. 



L e 



genitrix. 



by the 

Mercu- 

is Nept 



aA^^tt^^'l^^^ ^^ ^^^ ^^^* of the mummy, w^hich always repre- 
^u thehouse of the Moon, does not ''contain the image or 



(Ecodesp 



sKnii %. ^^ouespota, out tne symbol ol a 
sn;uuee directly, adored by Isis and Neplithvs. 

^r.t. '', ^"b ^^^ 1- Signs of the Zodiac were, 



^^^anged as follows: 



on the coffin, 



S1G>-S. 

^- Scorpio, 
*• Sagittariu3, 
^ Capricornns 
^. Aquarius, 

*' iisces, 
o- Aries, 

**■ Cancer, 
^** Leo, 



«K 



• > • • 






8 



tECODESrOTJE. 

Isis, 

5 

% 

Ncith Kor, b 



PtANETS 



9 « «• 



• «*»«• 



«« «k 



a 



Neith, 

Selk, 

Xephthjs, 






S9 

9 

3 



t « 



2( 



^^ ^^ same deities, wliicli were partly equivalent onP5, 



372 THANS. OF THE ACAD. OF SCIENCE. 



and partly served to specify the position of certain planets, 
as vre shall see. Thus, e. g., the CEcodespota of Cancer (Xa 
11 of the row L), viz. Mercury, is called Auubis, which is a 
well known name of Mercury; the CEcodespota of Pisces 
(row I., Xo. 7) is called Mashi (Nemesis), which is a cominon 
name for the female Saturn. 

Finally, the question is, what planets stood in those Houses 



ges of certain planets ? 



CEcodespota? 



N"o. 4. Fii-st, the place of the Sun is easy to be recognized; 
for, on both sides of the coiBn, Osiris (the well know n Sun- 
god) and his names are put in Sagittarius. This deity, oms- 
mented by his solar disk, crown, whip, and scepter, is called 
on one side, osh heri-ham^ nat mesh tho^ wen mifi^ neb h^ 
tneu — i, e., Osiris venerandus, textor plenitudinis terr^, hi> 
ntts spiritus 
tene. ham— 



ij_r±iiLLi.o, jjixiic^^^ia |^t:iciiiiio 5 111 tiic ucixcx j.w*t, /I" J •«" •"■•- 

. ham — i. e., Horus, the lord of both the sijheres, tlie crea- 
tor. Thus, then, the Sun stood, at that time, in Sagittarius, 
the house of Mars, as we have seen, viz., in its first degree : 
for the place of the winter solstice was al^-ays between the 
eastern and western house of Saturn — ^i. e., the signs Aquarioi 
and Pisces (Xos. 6 &, 7),— and all the planetary configurations 
were observed on a Cardinal day; consequently, the Sun, be- 
ing put in the 3d house or sign west from the winter solstice, 
Wiis, at that time, in contact with the first degree of the Sign 
Sagittarius, i. e., on the place of the autumnal equinox. 

No. 4. The place of the Moon is equally ea-'y to be ma« 
out ; for, Isis, ornamented with the throne— pronouncea »^ 
and accompanied by the legend, Eshi mas, ammi ^'■t'^^^'^'f^ 
Isis genitrix, nutrix divina— is the most common image of tw 
Sloon ; and she also is put in San:ittarius. Besides, that other 



(Ecod 
tlie lunar Isis in 



In the row I 



Mash 



e 



t 



.T..otitia judicans— ornamented with the ostrich feather,^ 
pressing the same word Mashi, Justicia ; and this deity reie 
also to the Moon, particularly to the new moon, like then 
ate of the Greeks and Ilomans. . r..«, 

Ko. 4.- The planet Yenus, whose greatest elonga 



Mars 



ymbol 



degrees, is also put m the sai 
ted there by the span-ow-ha*^ 

viz., for « r^ 



of roum, by its head in the roof of the house ^^^^"^^3, 
Consequently, Venus stood at that time in the Sign ^ »» _ 
rius together with the Moon and the Sun ; whcretoa 
palace and tliat of the Moon were to be determined more 
tinetly in other places, as we shall see hereafter. j,^^^.. 

No. 3. The planet Kercurv. in the house of V enus \^ 









I 

■t ' 

h 



SEYFFARTH — LEEDS MUMMY- COFPIN. 373 



J- 



pio), is expressed by its most common symbol, the god Thoth, 
the well known Egyptian Mercury. He is represented ^vith 
the head of Ibis, holding a papjTrus-scroll, and a scepter bear- 
ing the image of the starry heavens, because Thoth is said to 
have been the inventor of Geometry, Astronomy, and the art 
of writing. The subjoined legend contains the words Thot\ 
mme toto^nuht Jttor tout-wi kom-sJcai ; L c, Thoth, pasior 
terrarum, inventor divinarura iraaginum scripturjs. As he is 
represented in the opposite direction in the house of Venus, 
the planet Mercury was, at that time, retrograde in the Sign 
Scorpio; and thus the position of the Sun in Sagittarius is 
confirmed, because Mercury's distance from the Sun never 
amounts to more than 29 degrees. 

-No, 5. The Sign Capricornus, the house of Jupiter, contains, 
on both sides, the well known image of the planet Saturn ; 
for he was, in Egypt, called Seh—\. e., xp^o^^ Saturaus,— and 
<«Jtinguished by two ostrich feathers and the following title, 
&*, esh pot shot-exit Jitor^ Jitor^ Jitor; i. e., Saturnus, perse- 
?S^^ *^*^?ram. The same is said of the god Typhon, i. e 
Atlyersarius, which was a characteristic surname of Saturn. 

f \^*/'"' ^^ ^^^ house of the Moon, the Sign Leo,we find a 
loorfold altar, expressing in other monuments the planet Ju- 
^}ter. (See my Astronomia ^gj^t., p. 399, ISo. 607.) That 
leroglyphic figure, sounding tate^ expresses the god Tatis, 
jentioned by Manetho ; which name, derived from the Cop- 

m\ ^^^^ ^^^'^ (splendere), characterizes Jupiter, the very 
^ienrtid^ planet. For the rest, Jupiter stands between the 
«i<i aeities, Isis and Nephthys, adoring them, probably be- 
^use this planet appeared then upon the limits of two zodia- 
J|i segments in Leo belonging to Isis and Nephthys, i, e., to 
^unand Mercury: for Isis, as we have seen, was the 
^oaespota of Virgo, the Sun-house; and JS^ephthys, bearing 
^^er name upon her head, simiified (row IL, No. 11) the 



^ode 



Consequently, 
the house of the 



-^uaespota of Cancer, the house of Mercury 

mLh ?i!* J?pit^^, at that time, stood in tl 

of th f ^^^^^ ^"^"^^ ^^' ^^^^ distinctive upon the boundary 
Mu^^ zodiacal segments of Leo,'belonging the one to 



Xo"?' -T?*? ^^'® "^^^'^^ *° *^^6 S^^"' ^» "^^® ^^^'^^ ^^^ hereafter. 




fjeitv ■' ^^ ^^ mentioned, viz., the EgAnptian Ttah ; for this 
tre ir*^P^^sented in the shape of a mummy holding a scep- 
tJ^e cront ^^^- *^ ^^■''"^ ansata, the fourfold tabic, a whip, and 
^m JiW 1 ^^^^ ^vllabically express the character and (juali- 
^kari f'^^^^^^^y god, is accompanied by the name pMh 
^ _ ' "'^ expresses, on innumerable monuments, the planet 



A 



oli TRAIN'S. OP THE ACAD. OF SCIEXCE 



Thus, tlien, the planetary configuration represented on the 
Leeds mummy-coffin is the following : 

Saturn (Seb) in the House of Jupiter, i.e., Capricornus. 

Jupiter (Tatis) " " the Moon, " Leo. 

Mars (Ptah) " " Mercury, " Libra, 

The Sun (Osiris) " " Mars, " Sagittarius. 

Venus (Isis) " " Mars, " Sagittarius. 

Mercury (Thoth, retrog.) " Venus, " Scorpio. 
The Moon (Isis Amoni) " Mars, " Sagittarius. 

The date of this planetary configuration is determined by 
the places of Saturn, Jupiter, Mars, and the Sun alone, and 
there is no need of concerning ourselves ahout the places of 
Mercury, Venus, and the Moon ; for there are not two au- 
tumnal equinoctial days in all ancient history on which a 
similar planetary configuration, abstractly from the so called 
inferior planets, had occurred, as we shall see hereafter. As, 
however, the places of Venus, Mercury, and the Moon must 
confirm the date in question, and as the inscription contains 
some other planetary figures — viz., In row I., Kos. 2 & 6, and 
in row IL, ISTos. 2, 7 & 8 — not yet spoken of, the question b, 
what do they mean ? 

As the ancient astronomers used to specify the smaller 
parts of the Zodiac occupied by tliose planets which were in 
conjunction with others, and as Venus and the Moon togeth- 
er with the Sun stood in Sagittarius, the planetary images 
in question must refer to the Decuriae and Iloria in the Sign 
of Sagittarius, within the limits of which the respective plan- 
ets appeared. Those Decuriae, Iloria, and so on, were also 
presided over by the planets according to their natural suc- 
cession; and the first Decuria together with the first Honon 
of tlie Zodiac, and so on, began with tlie place of the vernal 
equinox ; consequently, Avith the original house of Mars, tne 
sign of Taurus. It is for that reason Ovid sings, "Apent 
TauTOs cum cornibus annum." The whole scries of the i^gn** 
tian Dicuriae, Horia, and so on, with their planetary waxdens, 
is depicted in the first Plate of my Astronomia ^gyptiaca. 
Finally, recollect that the Egyptian astronomera used, o 
monuments of this kind, to put the planet standing, e. ^^^ 
the Decuria of Mercury, in one of Mercury's houses, torn 
monly, the astronoraera agreed in mentioning the Vecm 
occupied by a certain planet ; sometimes, however, they m« 
tioned also the Horion, and even the Dodecateraonon air 
the degree ; which was the case when two phinets occuP 
the same Decuria or Horion, or when a planet stood in i • 

- ,-,uded overbimself; for, i" tjf f ^'' S 
BU[)|iosed influence of the planet was not modified d) 



Deciu-ia which he presi 



supposed influence of the equal planetary warden. 



SEYFFARTH — LEEDS MUMMY- COFFIN. 375 



imi 



of the autumnal equinox, contained the following Decurife- 
and Horia : 

28 21 20 14 10 6 

1 I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I i i I i I I I i I I I I I I I 
20 10 

Dec. I Jupiter | Saturn | Mars j 

28 21 14 ' 6 

28 21 14 6 

Plan.| I I ]) I 2 I O I 

Ait, then, both the Moon and the Sun stood at that time in 
Sagittarius, and as the Egyptians used to specify the places 
of the inferior planets by mentioning in what Decuria and Ho- 
rion they also stood, and by putting the planet in that plane- 
tarj- house which belonged to the same planet which was the 
president of the respective Decuria or Horion, the next ques- 
tion is, in what Decuria or Horion of Sr_ 
^oo<l at that time. Indeed, our inscription contains three 
aeities representing the Moon, viz., in Sagittarius, where the 
Moon was in conjunction with the Sun, further in the house 
M Jupiter (row II., No. 8), and finally in the house of Saturn 
(row I., Xo. 6) ; for that Thoth, with the head of Ibis and 
w crescent upon it, accompanied by the title, Thoth, mom 

t^m, neb zor — i. e., Thoth pascons terras, regina cceli, 

^11 known lunar deity, differing from the Thoth-Mercury : 
^ijse the Egyptians, as Cicero and others relate, had many 
ihothg, and that Thoth, in ISTo. 3, representing Mercury, is 
aistinguLshcd by other insignia and titles. 

finally, the house of Saturn (row L, ^o. 6), although Mr. 
tV r °^g^e*^ted to copy the likeness of the deity occupying 
«w» house, contains the name of another well known lunar 
pojess, namely. Tore ; always expressed by the hieroglyph- 
L- ."^(0, mouth (r), and leaf (e). As, then, the Moon, 
$9<^' *" Sagittarius, stood at the same lime in two zodiacal 
.l; ''"^^Jf>«longing the one to Jupiter, the other to Saturn, 
^l g«st hare been observed in the Deeiiria of Saturn and 
»ti<i7if"?T" *?^*^^^Piter, or vice versa, in the Decuria of Jupiter 
riTT, !f ^.(^'^"on of Saturn, viz., in Sagittarius. Kow, Sagitta- 



is a 



""". as the sch 

2"*. a Decuria of 
ttonon of Saturn 



Saturn 



imrfr ?,^^ ^legrees, contained a Horion of Jupiter cxtcnd- 
timp T.^ ^? ^^ clegrees. Consequently, the jVIoon, at the 
*i 1?^ }^^ observation, was in the Det^mia of Saturn and m 



theH 



(lefm.riT ^*\Jupiter; in other words, she stood be 
a'^es 14 and 20 of Sagittaiitw, the house of Mar 



3<6 TRANS. OF THE ACAD. OF SCIENCE. 

^ Venus, as we have seen, was with the Moon and tlie Sun 
m the same Sign, aiul therefore the Decuria and the norion 



lmiit3 



which Venus appeared. Indeed, we find two other images of 
this deity expressed on our astronomical monuments, viz., in 
the house of Mars (rows I. & II., No. 2), and in the house of 
Saturn (row II., JS^o. 7) ; for the latter deity, ornamented with 
the head of a sparrow-hawk and the Egyptian crowns, aecom- 
panied by the legend, ITor hoi', shut shot totce pe-f—i e, 
Tlorus regius, ultor severus patris sui (Osiridis),— is the so 
frequent image of the planet Venus, or Horus junior, differing 
from the abovementioned solar Horus. 
^ Further, Venus, standing in Sagittarius, as we have seen, 
18 expressed by the head of a sparrow-hawk in the roof of the 
house of Mars (row II., No. 4), and the same symbol of Ve- 
nus we find in the roof of Mercury's house (row II., Xo.2); 
consequently, Venus must also have been seen either in the 
Decuria or in the Horion of Mercury. And this position of 
Venus is,fiirther,more clearly expressed by the godded stand- 
ing behind Ptah in this same house of Mercury ; for the said 
goddess, ornamented with the sparrow-hawk of Venus, and 
accompanied by the hieroglyphic name fanne, including s 
sparrow-hawk— i. e., Ten-IIor, which is also the name of the 
city Ten-Hor, or Ten-nte Hor (Fines Hori), called in later 
times Tent}-ri and Dcndcra,— is the well known goddess Ve- 



nus. 



Consequently, the planet Venus, standing iu Sagitta- 
-as in the Decuria of Saturn and the Horion of 3Iercu- 



ry or vice versa. As, however, Sagittarius does not contain 
a Decuria of Mercury, but one belonging to Saturn, contaui- 
ing a Horion of Mercury, it is obvious that Venus stood then 
in the Decuria of Saturn, extending from 10 to 20 degrcess 
and also in the Horion of JVIercury, extending from 6 to H 
degrees; consequently, between the 10th and 14th degree ot 



Sagittarius. 

Finally, the 
Leo, was put 



question is, why Jupiter (No. 12), standing in 
between the two zodiacal segments, expr^«^ 



inage. of 3Ier^ 



feign of Leo contained the followincr Decurise. 
Gecatemoria : 



'o 



J, ^ ' « M I I 1 I 1 I i , ji , n M I I I I I ! 1 1 M 

I><^c- I Sun I Mars | J^F^^ ' 

Hor. I Saturn } Mars j Venus j Jupiter | Mercury I 

T.^ , « . ^ 20 15 W ^ , w I 



SEYFFAKTH — LEEDS MUMMY- COFPIN. 377 



From this scheme vre learn that the Sis^n of Leo did not 
contain cither a Decuria of the Sun and Mercury, or a Horion 
of the Sun and Mercury, confining the one with the other; 
consequently, the position of Jupiter between two zodiacal 
segments must refer to the Dodecatemoria. Indeed, the 3d 
and 4th Dodecateniorion, extending from 5 to 10 degrees, be- 
loTieocI to the Sun and Mercury ; consequently, the longitude 
of Jupiter, standing between the Dodecateniorion of the Sun 
and that of Mercnry, was 7% 5' in the Sign of Leo, Thus 
Jupiter stood, at the same time, in the Decuria and the Ho- 
rion presided over by himself, as the scheme shows; in such 
cases, however, the Egyptians, as we have seen, omitted to 

mention the Decuria and the Horion, they being of the same 
nature. 

Recollecting the discussed places of the seven planets, the 
following was the exact planetary configuration on the day of 
th6 autumnal equino:s: previous to the birth of the deceased: 



0-— 30 



SI 



Saturn in the House of Jupiter, the Sign of Vf 0^— 3(F [tt\^ 
•Jupiter ....Moon gt 7^30' 

^^^^ Mercury 

Sua .Mars / oo 0' 

^^'^113 Mars / 10^—14 

Mercury (retrograde ) . . Venus IT^ (F— 30^ [Ttj 

^^oon ••'• Mars • * / 14^— 2fP 

In what year and on what day of the Julian year may that 
pianetar)^^ configuration have been observed? Our astronom- 
^1 inscription is of that arrangement, as we have seen, that 
«« point of the winter solstice lies between the houses of 
mnrn (Xos, 6 & 7), Capricornus, and Aqnarins; that of the 
Jammer solstice between Leo and Virgo: consequently, the 
Fint of the vernal equinox was between Nos. 9 and 10, Tau- 
^ and Gemini ; that of the autnmnal equinox between Scor- 
iio and bagittarius; and bv this disposition of the Signs the 
sstrouomical Ion-'*-"' ^ " ^ ^ ^ -^ -t-x — :„,.! 'v\.^ 
^mzl nlanetary "^ 



determine 



Tiu7 1 calculated, put the winter solstice between Sagitta- 
s anri Capricornus, thai of the summer solstice between 
AriM 1 Chancer, the vernal equinox between Pisces and 
lib? ^^^^ ^^ ^^^ autumnal equinox between Virgo and 
etarv ' ^"^"^^l^^ently, in order to calculate that ancient plan- 
exnri *^ 1 S"'*'i^ion, it is necessary first to reduce the places 
Fress«a on the Leeds coffin to the places of the four cardi- 

the ir ? "^ ^^'^ ^^'^^^'■' adopted in our Tables. Thus, 0. g., 
cofljn **"^ ^ ^^^ aiitin>ninl Pom'nnv, k represented on the 

f^nter soli 
«>at the as 



e nave seen, 90 decree 



til 



878 TRANS- OF THE ACAD. OF SCIENCE, 

Libra. The places of the phanets, thus recluced, are indicated 
in the foregoing scheme, and put in crotchets [ ]. 

The following is a calculation of the said planetary configu- 
ration according to Lalande's Planetary Tables, not an exact, 
but an approximative one, because the latter is sufficient for the 
pur]jose, and because a more accurate calculation would have 
produced a diflerence, perhaps, of but tw^o or three degrw. 
Only the place of the Moon, on wiiich, as we shall see, de- 
pends the correction of the usual Tables of the Moon, is more 
exactly calculated. The date in question is this : 

Jidian year 1722 B. C, October 1th, 6A. P.T. 

ANCIENT OBSEKVATION- HELIOCENTK. GEOCENTB. 



Saturn in.... n\^ 0^—30^ TCl 27^ 44' X\ 20^ 

Jnpitcr--.. --^o 7^ 30' £5 V^ 41' 25 12*^ 

Mars % 0^—30° Q 7*^ 20' Q ST'^ 

Sun ^ Qo 0' -.0^(58.29*^2?) 

Venus £b I0^_i4o ^ 26^^ 22' =2= ll"" 

Mercury.... tijj 0^—30'^ (ret.) n 12*^ 54' m 6^ (retrg.) 

Moon- =2= 14'^— 20"^ =ib 2G? 

All the places of the planets observed 1722 B. C^ as it is 
obvious, haraionize with the calculation except those of J«pi- 
ter and the 3Ioon, of which the longitudes were a few degree* 
shorter, according to the Ancients ; and this discrepancy shall 
be discussed hereafter. Even the retrocrrade motion of iler- 



cniy agrees with the Tables ; for it is known that ilercurv 
being heliocentric in Gemini 12° 64', while the Sun stood m 
Libra 0°, must appear retrograde to human eyes. 

Perhaps, however, one would object that the said^ plane- 
tary configuration may have occurred not only in 1722 B.t, 
bnt also in a later or former year. This objection, howeren 
is easy to bo removed ; for, as the Sun was in Libra 0°, ajrt 
Jupiter in Cancer 7° 30', these positions of Jupiter and tj? 
Snn, as eveiy astronomer knows, can not return till after t- 



or rather 166, or, more exactly, after 249 years, •^"''^"Siu 
consequently, not twice in the age of the whole ^^^ 
Dyn, till Osimanpta and Eamses Meiamun. Fuvthen j^at^ 
does not, on the same dav, return to a degree occupied tom^ 
erly on the day of the autumnal equinox till after 206 1^ 
Mars can not again, on the same day, occupy the same «t^ 



of a Sign till after 205 years: and the 31oon bang at «^ 

time tn Libra Id" OA" ;„ \ ^^^:„ :„ ^^^inn^Hon Wit" ^^ 




X205X19 years, i. e., in a period of many millions ot J^ 
and taking into consideration the position of Tenns ana J^ 



0tirT, we would liave several millions more. And ^^"3 .. 
law of astronomy the Ancients were already well acquaint > 






SEYFFARTH — LEEDS MUMMY- COFFIX. 379 



la- 



forProclus (Lib. I., chap. 2, p. 10) says: "omnium ca?lcstium 
et terrcstriutn restitutioncm vel nunquam ad amussim acei- 
dnnt, aut certe non iis spatiis, qiia3 «omprehendere homines 
powunt." The translator of Tabari's chronicle, mentioning 
the planetary configuration of the year 5870 B. C, adds: "tliis 
was the beginning of the world, and since that time the plan- 
els have never again been in the same position." It is true 
that after 2146 years similar planetary configurations return, 
but the longitude of some planets is then very different; and 
2146 years before 1722, i. e., 3868 B. C. (viz., 422 yeai-s before 
the Deluge), or 2146 years after 1722, i. e., 424 A. C, in the 
timeof Theodosius, no Egyptian Pharaoh called 0»imaupta 
or Ramses, was reigning. 

Thus, then, the result that the priest in the Leeds coffin 
wjtemporary of the great Sesostns, the builder of the wur 
renowned Osimandyeum at Thebes, was bom in 1722 B.C., 
Tnl!, I hope, remain fixed for all time. 

T'lnally, it will be asked, what benefit can we gather from 
teeh all rubbish? Let us see. 

1. The Leeds muramy-coffin confirms the key to the astrono- 
mical monuments of the Egyptians, Greeks, and Romans. It is 
P<»Hhle that my Astronomia ^gyptiaca still contains many 
aefet'ts, but tlie principles upon which it is founded can not be 
rallaeious ; for, supposing I had there referred wrong Cubiri 
w the planets, and wrong deities to the Signs, Decurire, and 
uona of the Zodiac— that I had applied a wrong method of 
ejpaming the astronomical minutes of the ancient nations,— 
we present inscription, surely, would never have yielded a 
^netnry configuration harmonizing with its particulars and 
^fi t-g^ptian history. 3Ir. Osburn's Memoir first came into 

J hands a few months ago; notwithstanding, the deities, 

pressing the planets and tlie zodiacal segments on the cof- 
i\"^ ^^'^"'ectly predetermined in mv EiTvptian Astronomy. 
-^ Key to the astronomical moTinaients of all the ancient na- 
IriMK? "^^ accessible to everybodv, and this fiict, no doubt, 
J.„ , ^efttl in many respects ; for there probably still exist 
y J; ^H?''ied astronomical inscriptions of that kind, preser- 
_on H^^ptian pyramids, temple walls, catacombs, on the 
tin7r''i^' ^o-^fis, and papyrus-scrolls, in the Egyptian muse- 
inW ^^^"^''» on the Greek and Boman temples, altars, se- 
kin\ "*.?J»«^ents, vases, and so on, reaching from 2760 B. C. 
riar R Vi ^^' ^- 5 ^^'^ I am convinced also that the Assy- 
OTiJir ^ '*"' I»^^ian, Chinese, Mexican, and similar anti- 
3f aom''*^"'^^^^^ suuilar planetary conficruration*'. By the aid 
PecSv ^"^' ^''*^*^n*^mie^ monuments,^it will be possible to 



^WjT'fT* a»i«i more, E.gj-ptian history and chruuology, 
f uuang 80 many centuries, were enveloped in impene- 



380 TRANS. OF THE ACAD. OF SCIENCE- 



trable darkness and irreconcilable contradictions, and to illus- 
trate those of other nations. As in former times no astronom- 
ical observations prior to the time of Ptolemy (130 A. C.) 
were known, and as those of the Egyptians refer to quite older 
times and even to that of Menes (2780 B. C), it is obviooi 
that such numerous and ancient observations must sen-e to 
rectify our planetary Tables, based upon Ptolemy, and the 
present theory of our solar system in general. Besides, ttose 
astronomical mscriptions, as we have seen, are so simple ami 
plain, that every one, being acquainted with the elements of 
astionomy, is enabled to understand and explain them. 

2. The Leeds coffin proves again that astronomy is as old 
as human society, as Josephus, Aristotle, Cicero, Diodonwj 
Egyptian papyri, and other authors, testify. Formerly, it 
was believed and taught tliat no Zodiac existed before the 
year 500 B. C; but here we see that the Egyptians, in 1'-^- 
B, C, were already familiar >vith the snuillest segments of the 
Zodiac; that they already understood the art* of determining 
the places of the planets to a nicety; that they knew the mo- 
tion of the equinoctial points. Now, how many centuries, 
prior to 1722 B, C, must have elapsed before astronomy at- 
tained to so high a degree of perfection? Therefore noboay 
has a right to despise and reject the planetary configuratios 
observed at the end of the Deluge in 34^6 B. C, at the be- 
ginning of the second age of the world in 3724 B. C^ and tkt 
at the commencement of its first age in the year 5870 B.C. 

3. The Leeds coffin also confirms the key to the whole my- 
thology and history of religion among the ancient nauoc^ 
w^hich, for more than 300 years, was a very chaos; for nobodr 



liuu u) uie iLgyptians, Uanaanites, Assyrians, ^-TreuK^t-^*^^—- 
Persians, Scandinavians, Indians, Chinese, Mexicans, and ot& 
ers; why they worshipped 7 Cabiri, 12 Great Gods, SCintenoj 
deities; why they distinguished them by certain animals an^ 
peculiar ornaments. According to the historical system 
the deities of the Ancients were eminent persons of te^^ 
times. According to the principles of natural philosci^ 




i 




and so on. From the chemical principle it was deduced li^^ 



the same deities represented certain chemical P<^^*^"^^* L^, 
different aeiaities and alkalies. The author of the chrmoi^ 
cal principle pretended that these same deities were sj-m^ 
of diffTorent shorter or longer period?, as days, mB&o^\l^ , 
septenuia, centuries, milleninms, etc. The fetish V'^'^ 
made out that the most ancient human race, being not ^ 
different from the orang-outan£r, adored but fetishes— i- «" 



* 



f 



SEYFFARTH — LEEDS MUMMY-COFFIN. 381 

ft»rior objects of nature, as trees, plants, pieces of wood, ser- 
pents, and so on— in which, as they supposed, magical forces 
re^nded. By and by, however, when human reason had made 
•ome progress, these magical powers were abstracted and ad- 
vanceil to the rank of peculiar deities. The adherents of tlie 
wUronomical principle pretended that the ancient deities 
were but the pLanets and the innumerable constellations of 
heaven; nothing else. According to the metaphysical frmci- 
pie, these gods represented different ideas of metaphysics, as 
strength, justice, wisdom, fidelity, honesty, bravery, virtue, 
ted the like. The advocates of the political principle main- 
tained that the ancient deities were mere phantoms, ex- 
c<^tated by the priests for the purpose of restraining the 
anarchic and refractory people. According to the moral prin- 
ciple, these different godheads were created by benevolent 
persons in order to establish moral ideals, and to induce the 
people to conform their conduct to these moral patterns. At 
present, in consequence of the geographical principle, it is 
touersaUv tai " 



* B 



"«ure visiDie m Its own country, as nyers, lakes, mountains, 
valleys, volcanoes, seas, and similar objects. Finally, many 
fneient authors, as Cicero, Aristotle, Seneca, Maximus Tyr- 
«as,aRd others, testify that the ancient deities, in the first stage, 
»€re representations or symbols of Divine qualities, viz., of 

SlS"'-^!"*^^"^,^' wisdom, magnificence, bounty, justice, in- 

In the second stage, 
qualities from the Cre- 
higher beings, created 



•f^tabiUtj 
^f^e philosoph 

Wor. anrl r.Tw., 



Is of the Egyptians 
"•jj-worK tor their master and for his glory," to which he 
s«a committed tlie work of creation and the goveniment of 
tn^lTif i' ^f ^^^I^5eh, finally, the bodies were the 7 planets 
t^m V^ ^^'*^^"^ const elhations of the Zodiac. At the same 
^^ 311 objects of the world were divided, according to the 



tei^or 

and ov 
from 



asse% 



T -^^M^.?, ^i U-UlJiliUt*, UIl e Ui lilt; piuii'-.t^a ^iv..7*v.^,v* , 

"^nich classes the insignia and symbols and ornaments 




*Sen 



eca 



gs by dif- 



fef^nt ^ ^ ^^' ^^^ ^ ^ creator oi aii uun^^ ujr un- 

^ ^ th^^ '' ''^' Tonitrans, Conservator, Fatum, wliich may be as nniner- 
*^ bat jL^"^^^^^^^*'^^^ <>f his power. Liber, Hercules, Mercurius, they 
%a»KuJ^ P "^^ ""^^^^ ""^ ***^ ^'^^^ ^^^'^™ ^^^S^ referring to its different 
<teimir* ^^^^-'^- ^^ Abstin. IV. 9: ,JEgyptu ptr iwmornm snorum 

^*ara^J^ r^-^^^^^*^ ^^^ ^ "® omnes potentiam, quam ^guli deorum 
'\ jj^. ^^^^^^ ^'- D- L 10 ; ilundus est Deus, qtioniam partes tnnndi 



susiDe 



F 

382 TRAXS. OF THE ACAD. OF SCIENCE. 

of the single deities were chosen-f Some of the 7 planets 
and the 12 Great Gods were called by similar names and rep- 
resented by similar images, because the planets were the pres- 
idents of all the segments of the Zodiac, These and other 
particulars are confirmed again by the astronomical inscrip- 
tion on the Leeds mummy-coffin. In short, then, the dckks 
of the ancients were, in higher respects, God's mhusters or 
angels — in later times, spirits — residing in the planets and 
constellations, and in their own creatures. 

4. Tlie Leeds coffin, being to-day nearly 3520 years old, 
confirms, by a new and mathematical proof, the true histor}' 
and chronology of the Egyptians, and confutes many a cele- 
brated book; for it is known that for 400 yeai^ innumerable 
attempts were made in order to determine the time of the 
single Egyptian dynasties, and that in consequence of the 
corrupted figures in the Vetus Chronicon, Josephus, Africa- 
nus, Eusebius, the Annenian Eusebius, Syncellus, and others, 
not one of them corresponds with the othenj Kegardingthe 
XYIIIth Dyn., we find differences of many hundred jcai^ia 
the works of Ameilhon, Perizonius, Savigny, Boret, 3Iufe, 
ChampoUion Figeac, Rosellini, Crothwaite, Archinard, Hen- 
Tj, Felix, Leseur, Sharpe, Barucchi, Maury, Rask, Yaucelle, 
Bnnsen, Lcpsius, and others, Mr, Osburn himself ascribes to 
the Pharaoh Ramses Meiamun, the last king of the XVIHth 
Dyn., the period from 1493 to 1473 B. C. In 1833, howevj 
the nativity of this same Ramses, represented on his magma- 
cent granite sarcophagus in the Louvre, and some years alter. 
the nativity of Ramses' father and predecessor, O^^iaiaupti. 
represented on the costly alabaster sarcophagus in Saones 
Museum at London, came to light; and what was now w 
time of the combined government of Osimanpta and Ramses. 
The latter was born in 1093, the former in 1730 B- C.; oon^ 
qncntly, they reigned at least 200 years before the tinie^h^^ 
by Mr. Osbiim and Cliampollion. With reference to the b^ 
ttvity of tlic successor of Ramses Meiamun, called Sethos, tn 
first king of the XlXth Dyn., preserved on his grand m^ 
phagns in the British Museum— which nativity, as 1 ^ 



showed, in 1S33, in my Eirvptian Astronomy, refers to 




_ t Cicero K. D. I. 13 : Sunt cHi octo, quinque qui in vagis s^eH * ^^ 
tis) nominantur, unus (mundus), qui ex omnibus sidenbiw, 1'^^jg,as 
coelo sunt, ex diversis quasi inembris, simplex sit pu^ndus de^, ^^^^ 
Sol, octavus Luna. Clemens AL Protr., p. 44 : Scptem sunt du w^ 
octavus vero, qui ex his omnibus constat, mundus. ^ 

t Of the same kind is the rery large work of Mr. Lepsius, ^^ffj^ 
kshed entitled the " Koenigsbuch der alten iEgypter." I i^^^^;. ,i„^ 

■' ■ " " to Titus, it does not contain » - - 



¥- 



true 



i%m 



SEYFFARTII — LEEDS MUMMY- COFFIN. 383 



t 



year 1631 B. C, — the governments of the said kings were 
fixed thus: 

1730 B. C. Osimanpta born, 

1693 " Ramses ^leiamun born. 

1692 " Osimanpta still governs alone. 

1691 " Ramses M. governs together witli his father. 

1631 " Sethos, the first king of the XlXth Dynasty, boru. 

1606 " Ramses Moiammi dies. 

At present, the Leeds Nativity says to us tliat the deceas- 
H, being a contemporary of Osimanpta and Ramses, was 
bom in 1722 B. C, i. e., S'years after Osimanpta, and 29 years 
befljre Ramses; consequently the said Pharaohs, indeed, must 
have governed from 1691 to 1G06 B. C. Further, as Ramses 
ditnl m 1606 B. C, and as from Amos I., the first king of the 
XVirith Dyn., down to the expiration of the XYIIlth Dy- 
nasty, 298 years elapsed, the government of this Dynasty 
must have hegun 19U4 B. C, which date is confirmed by the 
transit of Mercury, and the renewal of a Phcenix-period of 651 
^eara, during the government of Amos I. Finallv, as, accord- 
mgto Eratosthenes, the Tables of Karnak and Abydos, and the 
Vetus Chroriicon, Mcnes reigned 1175 years previouslv to 
Karases' death ^in 1606, the Ecjvptian empire must have be- 
^j^^° 2781 B. C, together with the first Canicular Period; 
Jnich date is supported historicallv by Herodotus and the 
vetas Chronicon, mathematically by the Nativity of the 
^gJTtian empire, represented on sixteen monuments, and re- 
lemng to the year 2781 B. C. For a chronologer, who had 
ml' f ^"^*^* ?^ Ramses, Amos I^ and Menes, very differ- 
f ) T^^ ^^^ ^^^ predecessors, nothing could be more coni- 
■ '"^ *i!^^ ^^ meet with an astronomical monument verify- 
. g ins chronological statements, many years after, wath ma- 
thematical certainty. ^ ^ 

Bil'r M ^^^^ astronomical inscription confirms nisothe true 
••'Ileal history and chronohxry. For, in consequence of the 

vS^^ 1 Kings 6, 1, according to which, not 880 but 480 
tK» p ^^\ ^^ ^^® Septugint reads, 440 years onl} elapsed from 



lieal or°^ \° ^^^ building of Solomon's temple, all the 
n.*:, 'V"^^**g^es now in vosue nut the dispersion o 



Bib- 



put the dispersion of the 



JiiS, the deluge, the creation, 400 years too late. The 
Wk ?^SQ^ ^^g genealogies in the Old Testament, and 
the 1"^ "^^'Gver, testify that 8«0 years intenened between 
s*rintf/^ ^^1 ^"'^ Solomon's temple, and that is what our in- 
late tW ,7''% confirms. For, the Fathers of the Church re- 
«f thrYv^Trr '■^^®^**^^ ^^^ %ypt ""^er Amos, the fii-st king 
»Otenn ^^ T)v-n., and in Exod. 1, 8, we read: "There 

«^iior tK* ^^'^' ^^"« ^^"^'^' Es^'Pt> which knew not Joseph," i. 

tne son of the preceding king, but the fust king of a 



...F-* 



884 TRANS. OF THE ACAD. OF SCIENCE* 



new, viz., the XVIIIth Dynasty. As, tlien, this Dynasty, 
down to Ramses' death, in 1606 B. C, governed during 298 
years, its first king, Amos, must have been upon the throne 
about 1904 B. C. ; consequently, the Israelites left Egv-pt, not, 
as is universally supposed, in 1500 B. C, but 400 years ear- 
lier, exactly in 1867 B. C, as follows from the detailed Bibli- 
cal biography and the remarkable conjunction of Saturn 
and Jupiter in Pisces in 1951 B. C, three years previous to 
the birth of Moses ; which phenomenon is mentioned by Jo- 
sephus and the Rabbis. As, then, the Exodus happened 400 
years before its formerly fixed year, it is obvious that all the 
preceding Biblical epochs are to be put earlier by 400 years, 
as the planetary^ configurations, refei-ring to the deluge ana 
the ages of the world, confirm. This matter has been treat- 
ed in exfenso in my Chronologia Sacra and the Summary of 

Recent Discoveries. 

6. The same planetary configuration gives another inst;ince 

of the necessity of correcting tlie usual planetaiy tables. The 
longitude of Jupiter in Cancer is, according to Lalandes 
Tables, as we have seen, too great by four degrees ; ^as my 
calculation, however, is not exact, and the perturbations of 
Jupiter sometimes are considerable, I drop the investigation 
concerning this planet. As to the Moon, however, it is ob- 
vious that the said excess of at least 6 degrees matenally n!- 
fects our Tables. The Egyptian astronomers, having proved 
themselves, as many other monuments show, able to deter- 
mine the places of the planets to the nicety of half a degttej 
could not have committed a mistake of 6 degrees, or l^^^ 
ameters of the full Moon; and, since very imi»ortant^ino(tin- 
cations of a beginning year depended, according to their 
lief, on the position of the god of the Moon, at its mtmjr 
they would not have carelessly placed the Moon m ti^^^ 
totally wrong planetary departments. Besides, the tune ^ 
that observation, viz., about sunset, is equally sure. *^^* 
the 3Ioon stood only 20 degrees East from the Sun, her bea- 
ting took place one hour and twenty minutes after thato^^^^ 
'Sun, the parallax neglected; consequently, the Moon j;^?^/^^;^^ 
invisible the whole subsequent ni^dit, and the next i*^*^'^^ ; 



evening the Moon stood in another Si?n,13° E. from teH*'"^g 
place, and not "in the same house with the Suu. /^^^^ |, 
only possibility left is, that our Lunar Tables are mem , • 

or,,i tKic „«„^l4.;„_ xi' , 1 IT • ^,.:a^A a* well 0) i"^ 



and thi 
known 




,e of tlie 



subsequent Lunar Tables, as by the total eclipse oi ^'' .j^j. 
observed in 1851 in Europe, and by a great multitude oi 
and lunar eclipses observed by the Ancients. , j9 

First, Ptolemy (130 A. C), in his Almagest, menUom 



■^^ 



SEYFFAKTH — LEEDS MUiDIY- COFFIN. 385 

eclipses of the Moon, inclusive of 7 old Babylonian ones, con- 
nected witli certain j-ears of certain kings, and, regarding- their 
time and dimension, calculated by himself to minutes*; in 
dom^ so, however, he had the misfortune of following the very 
incorrect chronological tables already in use in his days. The 
oldest eclipse, that in the first year of Mardokempad, e.g., oc- 
curred not in 720 but in 721 B. C, and also all the others in 
other ycare; thus, Ptolemy could not but incoiTCCtly determ- 
ine the said mean motion of the Moon, the lunar nodes, and 
Kt on. All subsequent authors of Lunar Tables relied upon 
noleiE^'s calculations, but never succeeded in constructino- 

2!f^ T • l^* ^ *^^' ^'^^^^ ^^^®^ ^^^^ Tables had been con° 
WiTcted, It became apparent that they did not correspond 

jmh tbe latest observations, on account of Ptolemy's theory 

»ing wrong. The same must be said of the celebrated Ta- 

wes ot iJarckhardt and those of Daraoiseau ; for, on occasion 

« the total eclipse in 1851, it was brought to light that the 

^T^^^^^^^ ^^ seconds slower than these, our best Tables, 
TOO Airy^s corrections, had determined. The longitude of 
w Jioou was 34 seconds shorter than that obtained by the 

Jil7\i ,^^^ ^^ proved bj 28 ancient eclipses, the more 
w the older they are. Thus, e. g, that authenticated solar 
j^up^e which was seen in Rome in 752 B. C, 3Iay 25, l6h. 
i 40m \? ^^^^^' according to the modern tables, at least 
tip V^ l"" sunrise ; consequently, the mean motion of 
(«««n,'r?\? •^^t^rmined by Ptolemy, and adopted in all sub- 

M<v^n rV '.""'''^ ^^ ^^° g^'^^^t- The total eclipse of the 
? T ^bserved at Babylon, in 721 B. C, Sept. 23, Ih. 40m. 

Worp«^ ?^,' ^^'cording to our Tables, at least Ih. 30m. 
in U^ R o T^^ ^^^'^^ *^%se of the Sun observed at Rome, 
SOnt" Th t T ^^' ^^^' ^' ^•' Preceded sunrise nearly 2h. 



WOL Th * 1 ' j-uu. A.J.., preceuea sunnse neuriy sn, 

ftom vtT *?*»leclipse of the Sun seen on the Halvs, 36' E. 



ecdedVn^- ' '? ^^^ ^' ^-^ ^^•'^i- 27, 17h. 45m. P. T., 
o^^ervlff o* ^^^^^ ^^''^' That total eclipse of the ^^u.^ 
ceded !1 •^^'" Smyrna in 478 B. C, Feb. 27, 15h. 30m., pre- 




^ m 4^ R^n ^^^^^^ ™ ^^^ afternoon, as Thucydides testi- 
^ later T \ ^^ ^^h., must have taken place 2h. 

^ <^clip8eL h- k *^^^ ^^^ ^ added more than twenty simi- 
^^^tion ^if ^*r ^^^^^^ ^ proving that the secxd;ir mean 
^is div ;« ^ ^?"' ''^'^^Pted in all Lunar Tables down to 

The ' ^""^^^'^'^t too great. 
^^ ecll4t"* ® Jjon^mers, forced hy the before-mentioned 

in l8ol, have, indeed, already attempted to rec- 




GoettingischegcleLrte Anzeigen, 1855, No. 125, pp. 1241-T5. 



20 



586 



TRANS. OF THE ACAD. OF SCIENCE. 



oncile Burckhardt s and Damoiseau s Tables with tlieheawi^ 
not by diminishing the supposed secular meiin motion of the 
Moon, but by changing its supposed anomaly- This proceed- 
ing, however, is in conflict with our Egyptian astronouier, anJ 
with 28 of the ancient eclipses specified in the chronolo^al 
Tables appended to my Summary; according to which, the 
adopted mean motion of the Moon is to be diminished before 
all. The modern theory of the Moon supposes the Moon to 
move, in 100 years, 9 signs, 7 degrees, 53 minutes, and 10 
seconds ; but, in 1722 B. C, the place of the Moon was at least 
6 detrrees West from the i>oint fixed nccordino^ to the said 



secular mean motion of the Moon; i.e., the Moon did n* 
reach that place till nearly 12 hours later. It may be granted 
that th€ Egyptian astronomers observed the Moon one hour 
after sunset, while the horizontal parallax took two hours; 
then the fault of the modem Tables concerning the epoch of 
1722 B, C. amounts to 9 hours only- AYe may further sup- 
pose that the half of those 57 seconds, by whicli the toial 
eclipse in 1851 began too late, equally afiects the lunar anom- 
aly, being also based upon Ptolemy's wrong theory, and th^ 



reached 



our 



ly, the acceleration of the Moon, like that of the lunar notli'< 
is equal to the squares of the times. These cases beiiisr ^■ 
mittea, I say that, in 1722 B. C, Oct. 7, 7h., the Moon re^iy 
stood nearly 6 degrees West from the place obtained bv the 
present Tables ; consequently, in fact, 19 degrees East fr«a 
the Sun, as the Eg\-ptian astronomers obserred. 

Aad this result agrees perfectly ^V'cll with the ancient eclip- 
ses ; for then, e.g., in 752 B. C, the Moon was nearly ^ *■"■"" 
later in conjunction with the Sun, and the eclipse w;i< 
Rome 2 Jiours after sunrise. The same holds with the sawi 
Roman eclipse in 642 B.C., and all the rest That f^ii^ 
tot-al eclipse of the Sun, near Smyrna, in 478 B.C., Feb.-*? 
15h. 1.3itt., took place not 2 hours 50 minutes before sunn*^' 

I with sunrise, as Herodotus relates, and so on. 

eulations nro Tint nt nil pxnot. but real astro"""*^" 



>ho«rt 

IMS in 



wiU excuse 



otwithstajadino-. I take the liberty 



caa 



ing their attentir.n to an important object, 
correct theory of the Moon, and e^act 



* 



SHDMARD — NEW FOSSILS. 387 



XAke of Fossils from the Permlin Strata of Texas 

anrf New Mexico^ obtained by the United States Expe- 
dition under Capt. John Pope for boring- Artesian Wells 
along tlie ^2d ParaL, with Descriptions of New Species 
from these Strata and the Coal Measures of that region. 

By B. F. Shumaed, M.D. 



PERMIAN FOSSILS. 

At the meeting of March 8, 1858, 1 had the honor of aa- 
noancing to the Academy the existence of an extensive de- 
telopment of Permian Rocks in the Guadalupe Mountains of 
Texas and Xcw Mexico. This announcement was based upon 
a rather hasty examination of a series of fossils collected by 
my brother. Dr. Geo. G. Shumard, while acting as Geolo^st 
<rf their. S. Expedition for boring Artesian Wells along the 



direction of Capt. John Pope. The 



present 



s, 



kindness to nlace in my hands 



^determination and description. It will be seen that the 



beds 



Permian 



ttd Ilnvrlen, 



Messrs 



Others are identical with characteristic fossils 
<J the Permian beds of England, Germany, and Russia. But 
tt^ largert proportion of species are new to science. 

I would further obser\-e, that Prof. Marcou, in the map^ nc- 
^ompanying his late work on the geology of North America*, 
M» TOiored that portion of the Guadalupe Mountains whence 
<*^r Permian fossils were obtained as Coal Pleasures and Low- 
^ turboniferous, and that the rocks described by him as of 

J;ennian age do not agree in lithological features with the 
baadai 



■upe strata. 



ZOOPIIYTA. 



C^^T£TES M.iCKEOTnn, Geinitz. 

^w specimens apparently agrc 

^ u^"^!^^ ^^'^ des<!riptions of t 
*otk8 of Geinitz and ing. 



untains 




♦ Geol. of N. Amer., Zurich, 1858. 



% 



333 TRANS. OP THE ACAD. OF SCIENCE. 



CfiiETETES, Sp. (?) 

Locality, — ^White Limestone, Guadalupe Mountains, 

CAMPOrnYLLUM (?) TEXANUil, n. sp. 

This is a long, subcylinclrical, flexuous species, having a di- 
ameter above of about one-third of an inch. It is covered 
with a thin epithelium. The interior structure is unknown. 
I place it provisionally in the above genus until I can hare 
an opportunity of examining better specimens. 

Loccditi/, — White Limestone, Guadalupe Mountains. 

POLYCOeiTA, (?) 

There are several examples of a Cyathophylloid coral which 
«eexu to possess the characters of the above genus.^ 
Locality. — Dark Limestone, Guadalupe Mountains. 



J. 1 



CRUSTACEA, 

Phillipsia peranxulata, Shumard, Tr: 

Louis, Vol. 1, p. 296, pL XL, fig- 10. 

White Limestone, Guadalupe Mount ai 
Mexico. 



Bairdta, sp. (?) 



-tbirti 



etli of an inch in Icnrrth. 
White Limestonp. dm 



BEYOZOA. 



Fe^-estella Popeana, Front, Trans. Acad* Sci., St. Loui^ 
Vol. 1, page 220. 

White and Dark Limestone, Guadalupe Mountains. 

ACANTHOCLADIA A^IEEICANA, SwalloW. 

^ Our fossa seems to be identical with this characteristic spe- 
cies of tlie Permian system of Kansas. , «-^ 
Gray Limestone, Guadalnpe Mountains, Texas and ne 



Mexico. 



rORAMINIFEKA. 



FirsuLT^'A ELOXGATA, Shuniaitl, Trans. Acad. Sci., St. to^^ 
Vol. 1, page 297. 



jt 



SHUMARD — XE-W FOSSILS. 389 

V 

L 

White Limestone and underlying Sandstone, Guadalupe 
Mountains, Texas and New Mexico. 



BRACHIOPODA. 



_ J 

Gexus Productus* 

p. CALHotrmAxus, Swallow, Trans. Acad. Sci., St. Louis, 
Vol. 1, p. 181. 

The collection contains tw o sp ecimens, which I refer to this 
H)ecies, one of them from the White Limestone and the other 
from the underlying Dark Limestone of the Guadalupe Moun- 
tains. They are both somewhat imperfect in the cardinal re- 
gion, but after a careful comparison of authentic specimens 
cf P. Calhoujiianiis from Kansas, I am unable to find any 
marked sneoific diffprpnn^i. 



Vol 



1, p. 291. 
liVhite Limestone of tlie Guadalupe Mountains. 

P. riLEOLrs, Sliumarcl, Trans. Acad. Sci., St. Louis, Vol. 
1, p. 29L 

White Limestone of the Guadalupe Mountains. 

P. SKMiRETicuLATus, TAB. ANTiQUATUS, Martin, Pctrif. Derb., 
p. 7, pi. 32, fig. 1-2, and pi. 33, fig. 4. 

^\ bite Limestone of the Guadalupe Mountains. 

I*- PoPEi, Shumard, Trans. Acad. Sci., St. Louis, Vol. 1, p. 
290, pi XL, fig. 8. 

A number of specimens of tliis species are in the collec- 
non, all of them from the White Limestone of the Gua- 
jalape fountains. There are two distinct varieties ; one 
^Tmg a remarkablj deep sinus with five to seven costs on 
•^her si.le, and the other with a less profound sinus and fi-om 
^ht to thirteen costas. The latter variety, I, at first, regard- 
^ as a distinct species, but a more thorough examination of 
: ,^^^ of specimens has led to the opinion that it should 

* oe separated from the species above cited. 

^' ^^^^-^ooDii, Swallow, Trans. Acad. Sci., St. Louis, Vol. 
1» p. 182. 

in fk ^^°h1® specimen of the ventral valve of this species is 
^^^ collection of the Expedition. It was found in the Dark 



390 TEAXS. OP THE ACAD, OF SCIENCE. 



Limestone, towards the base of tlie Guadalupe Mountains, 
Texas. 

P, Leplayi (?) Verneuil, Geol. Russ., Yol. 2, p. 267, pL 16, 
fig. 1 a — ^b. 

The specimen, which T refer with doubt to this species, is 
partially embedded in the matrix. The principal difference 
that I perceive is in the spines on the ears, which are more 
robust in the Texas shell. 

White Limestone of the Guadalupe Mountains, 

Genus Steophalosia. 

S. (AuLOSTEGEs) GuADALUPENSis, Shumard, Trans. Acad. 
Sci., St. Louis, Vol 1, p, 292. pi. XL, fig< 5. 

White Limestone of the Guadalupe Mountains. 



Genus Chonetes. 



C PERiHANA, n. Sp. 

Shell small, sub-semicircular, widest at the cardinal border^ 
Tvidth one-third greater than the length, front and sides 
rounded. Yentral (receiving) valve moderately convex, with- 
out mesial sinus; cardinal margin sloping gently from beai 
to extremities and marked with five or six spines; earsmu- 
cronate, gently convex and separated from the vault ^X ^ S^^' 
tie depression. Ventral valve and area unknown, burtace 
marked with extremely fine concentric stride of growth. 

I have several specimens of this species before me, none 
which exhibit any traces of longitudinal striae. 

Found in the Con<?lomerate at the mouth of JJelawa 
Creek, Texas. 

C. Flemi.ngi (?) Korwood & Pratten, Jour. Acad. >' it. Sci, 
Pkila., 2d Ser., Vol. 3, p. 26, pi. 2, fig. 5 a— e. 

The fossil from tlie WLite Limestone of the Guadalupe 
Mountains corresponds pretty well with the figures an 
scription of the above cited species, though I can see n ^^ 
points of difference which leave me in doubt as to wiietot 
M really identical. 



I 



Genus SnuiFEE. 



S. Mexicanus, Shumard, Trans. Acad. Sci., St. Lotus, 



1, p. 292, pL XI., fin. 4. 



This Bpccies bears considerable resemblance to S. dvp 



SHUMARD — miW FOSSILS, 391 



tatOf Phillips, as figured by Mr. Davidson in his excellent 
monograph on the British Carb. Brachiopoda. Our shell is, 
however, much more gibbous and attains a much greater size. 

Locality, — White Limestone, Guadalupe Mountains. 



a Gu 



ADALUPEXSIS, n. Sp 



Shell of medium size, ovate, longer than wide, quite gib- 
bous in full grown specimens ; hinge line less than the great- 
est width, which is found about the middle of the shell ; dor- 
sal valve varying from elliptical to circular, evenly convex, 
exhibiting no trace of a mesial fold ; beak incurved, passing 
a little beyond the cardinal margin; ventral valve convex, 
niueh more gibbous than the opposite valve, without sinus, 
but in very old specimens flattened near the front ; cardinal 
STigles rounded ; umbo prominent, rounded ; beak prolonged, 
rather acute, incurved; area contracted, elevated, not very 
sharpily defined ; aperture large, triangular ; length of sides 
and base nearly equal ; surface marked with moderately dis- 
^ct concentric strise, the edges of which were probably 
mn|ed with piliform spines as in >^. lineata. 
'A}^^ species may be compared with & lineata^ from which 

. ^^^^ in being much more gibbous, and in the absence of 
J^Hher sinus or mesial fold. The same characters will also dis- 
tinguish our shell from S. setigera, HaU. 

Locality. — White Limestone, Guadalupe Mountains. 

S- srLciFEEFs, Shuinard, Trans. Acad, Sci., St. Louis, Vol. 
1> p. 29E, pL XL, fig. 3. 

^^f %.~White Limestone, Guadalupe Mountains, Tex- 
^ and ^ew Mexico. 

S. CAMERATus, Morton, Smiman's Jour^ 1st Ser. . 



The ventral valve of a well marked example of this species 
^^Monnd in the Sandstone towanls the base of the Guada- 

♦k^^rS^^^^^^^^^ a^d fragments of it were also procured from 
tbe Vi kite Limestone. "" 



GeXUS SpiniFERIX-V. 



1> P- 294; 



Some of the varieties of this shell correspond so nearlr 
'V •^■'^^^^as figured by Davidson in his monographs on 



^'^fata a 
■i^b Perm 



wnttliex our sheU is really entitled to be considered distinct 



"^n 



392 TRANS. OF THE ACAD. OF SCIENCE. 



from tliat species. It is desirable that a direct compariioB 
should be made with authentic European specimens, iu orte 
to settle the question. 

LocaXity. — White and Dark Limestone, Guadahipe iloua- 
tains- 



Gexus Tekebeatula, 



f 



T. ELOXGATAj Schlotheim. 

I have before me a number of examples of Tcrebratnla 
which appear to be identical wdth this remarkably variable 
Pei-mian ihelh Some of them present all the characters of 
T. elongata proper; others have the wider and more inflated 
form of the variety T. snffMta; while others again exhibit a 
distinctly impressed though shallow sinus near the front of 

thp rlorsnl x-nlvp nc; in T Rnp/*iJn. nf flip PfirbAnifproUS Pcnoi 



PEEIHTLAX 



Shell ovate, very gibbous, width and thickness abont eqa4 
one-third longer than wide in Ml grown specimens; fro^ 
subtruncate or slightly emarginate ; sides rounded anterioHj 
and converging posteriorly to the beak at an angle of abo^t 
55^ Dorsal Talve varying from circular-ovate to snbcireulr^r. 
coarex, forming usually a regular curve from beak to front, 
old specimens mai*ked with a slight mesial elevationjn fiv-J 
and an obscure fold on either side, which become entirelv 'ib- 
solete before reaching the middle of the valve ; cardinal ^^^ 
rather deeply indented by the false area of the ventral v^ve. 
Tentral valve strongly convex, more elevated than the opj^ 
site valv^, front marked with a shallow sinus, %vhich usnaiiv 
becomes obsolete before reaching the middle of the valve 
beak 



3 



aeate and strongly incurved ; surface marked with nne con- 



centric strife of srowth. 



JJimmsiom of a full grown specimea — ^Length, 0.67 ; wiat^ 
0.52. 

Form. a*K? Xoc— White Limestone of the Gua 
Mountains, Texas. It aj^pears to be quite rare, only i^'o W 
cimeiLs having been foun.L 




GeXUS "RFIYNCHO^fELLA 



Tol. 



E. Guadalupe, Shuniard, Trans. Acad. Sci., St. Loais, 
1 , p. 29.5, pi. XI., fig. 6. 

Restrictedio tlie White Limestone of the Gflsdalupe Uo^ 
tains. 



h 



SinJMARD — NEW FOSSILS. 393 



1 



^ 



n 



R nrBKXTATA, n, sp. 

Shell variable, subo vat e, gibbous, length and breadth about 
«qual, sides converging rapidly from tlie middle of the shell 
to the beak, and rounded towards the front, which is slightly 
indented. Dorsal valve strongly arched, much more elevated 
than the ventral valve ; umbo flattened, broadly and rather 
ie^Ay excavated in front by the tongue of the opposite valve ; 
timnl ridge slightly elevated, and in some specimens scarcely 
pea-eptible except at the front; lateral margins very sinuous, 
being deeply indented at the cardinal margin on either side 
of the beak by the false area of the opposite valve ; bealc 

ttened and closely incurved. Ventral valve convex in the 
trnibo and sides, scarcely gibbous, having a broad shallow si- 
BUS, which becomes obsolete on the umbo; false area well de- 
veloped, distmctly defined, depressed below the plane of the 
worsal valve, and marked with fine strite; beak acute and 
sjoderately incun'ed. Surface marked with fine strife of 
&owth and from 20 to 25 rour 
<^me obsolete on the umbo ; costas in the mesial fold and in 

-^imemtons.— Length, 0.55; width, 0.50; thickness, 0.40, 
ioca/iYy.— "White Limestone of the Guadalupe Mountains. 

^- Texa^.v, n. sp. 

Shell small, ovate, moderately gibbous, front ronnded or 
«?wly indented ; antcro-lateral luarcrins rounded, converging 
P*tenorly to the beak at an angle of 63°. Dorsal valve as 
"' wi^long, convex, more elevated than the ventral valve, 
^ooth on the umbo and haTin 

«^nt, bearing usually three prominent subangular ribs, on ei- 
W€f Mde oi which are two or three less prominent riba ; car- 
dial edges rather deeply indented by the false area of the 
^^''Site valve. Ttatral valve gently convex, most promi- 
J^t about the middle, marked in front with a moderately 
• P mesial sinus, which becomes obsolete on the umbo and 

two or more subangular ribs; beak prolonged, acute 
^'y; foramen narrow, triangular: false area rather strongly 
"«^^ioped, not verj- distinctly defined- 

'p^'^ensims.—LQnffth^'O.'do; width, 0.30; thickncF?, 0.22. 

WoTl'k^^ ^'^^•~™°* ^^^ ^^^^ Limestone forming the 
oi the Guadalupe Mountains, and from the Conglome- 
"^ « the mouth of Delaware Creek- 

^^^CHOHELtA, sp. f?^ 

tinn wK-T f^S^ents of a large RhvnchoneTTa in the eollec- 
' ^^^^ belong to a species similar to i?. pentatoyna, 




- rv^. 



■Vf 



394 TRANS. OF THE ACAD. OF SCIENCE. 

Fischen The specimens are not sufficiently well preserved 

to permit me to give a satisfactory description of the species, 

I^ocality. 



Mount 



Ge:n^T7S Camerophoeia. 



C. BisuLCATA, Shumard, Trans. Acad. Sci., St. Louis, Yol. I, 
p. 296, pi. XI., fig. 2. 

This species was found very abundantly in the Dark Lime- 
stone beneath the White Limestone of the Guadalupe Mons- 
tains and very sparingly in the White Limestone. It is abo 
quite common m the Conglomerate at the mouth of Dela- 
ware Creek, Texas. 

C. SWALLOVIAKA, n. sp., pi. XI., fig. 1 a— 6. 

Shell small, subpentagonal, flattened or quite gibbous, width 
equal to or greater than the length, Tridest near the front. 
Dorsal valve much more elevated than the ventral, butde- 
gree of elevation very variable ; in some specimens a distinct 
depression in front of the beak, and sometimes one on either 
side forming two small lobes ; mesial fold rising near the mid- 
dle of the shell and becoming prominent in front, variable in 
Tridth and height according to the number of ribs. Snrfaw 
marked (in the specimen figured) with seven prominent sub- 
angular ribs, which commence about the middle of the Tslve 
and extend to the front ; of these, three are situated on m 
mesial fold, and two on either side. Ventral valve gently 
rounded on the umbo, and marked on either side by a depres- 
sion, which extends from the beak to the middle of the latc^ 
al edges; mesial sinus confined to the anterior half of tM 
shell, broad in the middle and becoming narrow at t n e ex- 
tremities, oraaraented with two or more rounded plicatio^ 
which are not as prominent as those limiting the sinus; ws^^ 
elongated, sharfdv pointed, and slightly curved; shell ^t;-> 
ture distinctly fibrous. 

This species is very variable in its characters. Some ex- 
amples are extremely gibbous, and othere much flattene^ 
The ribs on the sides are quite distinct in some specimens 3B« 
nearly obsolete in others. This species resembles ui f^. 
respects, C.glolidlna of Phillips, but it may be <listmguisfl^^ 
easily by its more elongated and sharply pointed beak anaw^ 

less angular form of its ribs. 

Dedicated to Prof G. C. Swallow, Sfnte Geologist of 3lir 

souri. 
Form, and Zoc.—Pcrmmn rocks of the Gwa'^^'-'^f^^t!!!! 

tarns in Texas and Kew ilexieo. It is one of the most a»ui. 



1^- 



E 



SHUMARD — ^NEW FOSSILS • 395 



Whit 



itone 



MI, (?) 



There are some specimens in tlie collection from the White 
Limestone of the Guadalupe Mountains that are very clostly 
allied, if not identical, with this species. 



L. 

Genus Retzia. 



R. PAPiLLATA, Shumard, Trans. Acad. Sci., St. Louis, Vol. 1, 
p. 294, pi. XI., fig. 9. 

In the Dark Limestone subordinate to the "White Lime- 
stone of the Guadalupe Mountains. 

R. MEKKIA^'A, Shumard, Trans. Acad. Sci., St. Louis, VoL 1, 



White 



tbe 



Ge^s'us STiiErTOEnTxcnus. 



-1 

S. (OfiTHTsixA) Shumaediaxus, Swallow, Trans. Acad. Sci 
ot Lonis, Vol. 1, p. 183. 

A sinp:le specimen of this characteristic shell of the Per- 

niun of TTiTionc! irroo ^,^,,,.;j :_ it. „ o i-j. j. ,„,7,4.i,. 



hase 



-Mount 



Gexus Ortiiisixa. 



OfiTHISLXA, sp. (?) 



The onTv 



^ne oniy specimen found is quite imperfect. The surface 
mntfcingg resemble those of 0. tmihracuhim, but its general 
fona IS quite difierent. 

Xoca^iYy.— Whit e Limestone, Guadalupe 3Ioiintains. 



6E3n: 



talve V ^^!^^' somewhat variable in form, upper or larger 




'^ens suban 



ded 



ex, showino-, when the exterior crust is exfolif 




396 TEANS, OF THE ACAD. OF SCIENCE. 



a long, naiTow pseudo-clclticlium, marked with distinct arched 
stride ; apex neaiiy or quite marginal, obliquely truncated and 
sometimes excavated in front. Surface marked with concen- 
tric lines, crossed by irregular, inteiTupted longitudinal (not 
very distinct) rugae, which are most prominent, and assume a 
somewhat varicose appearance, near the base. Smaller ralre 
. very gently concave, surface markings obKterated, Interior 
characters unknown. 

Dimensions. — Height of larger valve about IJ incbes; 
width at base, about 1 inch. 

Zocality. — White Limestone, Guadalupe Mountains. 

ACEPHALA. 



Gexus Myalika. 

31. SQUAMOSA, Sow., Trans. Geol. Soc, London, 2d Sen, Vol 
3, p. 120. 

Our shell from the WTiite Limestone of the Guadiilnpe 

Mouutahis agrees very closely with the descriptions and fig- 
ures of this species as given by King and others. 

Prof. Swallow and 3Iessrs. 3Ieok and Hay den cite tliesame 
species from the Permian of Kansas. 

M. RECTA, Shiimard, Trans. Acad. ScL, St. Louis, ToL 1, 



p. 212. 



-tf 



A single ^ecimcn only of this species was brought ho^* 
by the expedition. This, however, fortmiatcly preserves tne 
form perfectly, so that I can have no doubt as to its itlentitv 
with the above cited species, which is quite characteristic ot 
the Permian of Kansas. It is probable that the M. recta naj' 
prove to be identical with M, lyerattenuata^ Bleek & Haviitn- 

GeXUS pLEUROrHOEUS* 

P. occiDE-fTALis, Meek and Ilavden. Trans. Albauy In?t^ 



V ol. 4, p. 9 (of Extract). 

The description of this species by Messrs. Bleet and Haj- 
den applies so exactly to ourspecinien from the White Liffif- 
stone of the Guadalupe Mountains, that I can have ao dou .•' 
as to Its identity with the Kansas fossil. 



Genus Moxotis. 



M. SPELCNCAEIA, Schlotheim. 

Our specimens are all more or less imperfect Several a 



f 



r 
I 



SHUMARD — NEW FOSSILS. 397 



them, however, preserve tlie snrfaee markings, distinctly, and 
in tills particular tliey agree well with some of tlie varieties 
of Moiwtis speluncca-ia, as represented in the figures given 
by King nnd Geinitz. 

The clear description of Messrs. Meek and Hayden of the 
lorfacc of J\L Ilawni^ likewise applies exactly to that of our 
-• ^cimens, so that there exists but little doubt with regard to 
the iilentity of the Kansas and Texas fossil. Nevertheless, 
jithout pretending, from the imperfect material before me, to 
decide whether the American and European forms are the 
same, I refer my specimens to M. spehmcaria. In doing so, I 
auyremark that my cabinet contains a number of authentic 
ipecimens of M. speluncaria from the Zechstein dolomite of 
Germany, none of which show the beak of the larger valve 
•0 mnch elevated as represented by Prof. Iving in the Per- 
iman monograph, but, in most of them, the beak passes very 
wightly above the hinge. The posterior sulcus, too, in sev- 
eral of them, is but imperfectly defined. It would seem, 



M 



therefure, that the characters chiefly relied on by 

ilayden, namely, « beak extending Uttle above the hinge," 

t* v"^^^® °^ posterior sulcus, will not serve to distinguish 

w Jl.IIaimi from at least some of the yarieties of M. spe- 
hmcaria. 

^a%._White and Dark Limestone, Guadalupe Moun- 



-'"O^fOTIS, sp. (?) 

This 13 a very large species and apparently distinct from 
Sor^ °fi ^" S^^eral fomi and size, it. resembles M 
mnA. I ^^*"o^> l>ut the radiating and concentric striae are 

Sn^^ri""'"''"*- ^^^^° ^ ^^* ^""^ example in 



the 



Iiocal 



»%.— Whit 



Mountains 



Genus Axixus. 



A. 



sxcrBirs, n. sp. 

^ compressed, length and height nearly equal ; anterior 




~ ™y curved, and about one-third shorter than the 

onn xt^ .,^1, -. ntly rounded; posterior extremity 

posterior slope obtusely subangii- 

ResembT"'' ^^^"^"S^ unknown. 
^ch^ "re ^^'^^^^^'^tus. Brown J but the valves of our 

•® stronffi °^°^t "'itteneJ, the buccal marcnn longer and not 

t^or P^/ ^lit'd, and the beak is situated nearer the aa- 
j extremity. 

i y — -^^ y^g limestone. GuadalnDe Mountains. 



398 TRANS, or THE ACAD. OF SCIENCE 



GeXUS EDMOTiTDIA. 

E. suBOKBicuLATA, Swallow, Trans. Acad. Sci., St. Louis, 
Vol. 1, p. 20. 

My specimens are not perfect, but they agree pretty veil 
"with Prof. Swallow's description of the above species. 
Locality, — White Limestone, Guadalupe Mountains. 

^ 

Genus Cardiokorpha. 



Cardiomorpha, sp. (?) 

Our specimens are all casts of the interior. They present 
the general form and dimensions of C. ^an^a^e/?^/^,^ Swallow. 
Locality. — White Limestone, Guadalupe Mountains. 

GASTEROPODA. 



Genus Tukbo. 



T. Gu^u>ALUPENSis, n,sp. 

Cast elongate ovate; spire conical, tapering more graauallj 
to the apexlhan we usually find in species of thisgemis ; j=pt- 
ral angle, 47^ ; volutions four or five, moderately convex, m 
one slightly ventricose, longer than the spire ; suture hne:^ 
distinct; aperture ovate (?); surface marked with numero^ 
obscure, closely set, revolving lines, which are wider than 
spaces between. 

Dimensions, — Length, 0-85; width, 0.48. ^^j 

The collection contains merely a single finely pre^^eru^ 

cast of this species. In general form, it resembles some 

the recent species of Limniea. 

Locality,— Diirh lamestone, Guadalupe Mountams. 



( 



There 



oft 



small Turbo, from the White Limestone of the ^^"'^"^^"^ 
Mountains, which correspond pretty closely in S^^F^^^^. 




ured by King and Geinitz. But as the specimens iruiu 
are imperfect, I am left in dotibt as to whether they art tv^: 



identical. 



1 



SnUMARD — NEW FOSSILS* 399 



Gexus Straparollus. 

Steaparollus, sp. (?) 

This is a large and very much depressed species, with the 
dorsal margin sharply carinated. 
Locality. — Gray Limestone, Guadalupe Mountains. 

Genus Belleeophon. 

Belle ROPHox, sp. (?) 
Bark Limestone, Guadalupe Mountains. 

r 

Genus Pleurotomakia. 

p. Hallun-a, n. sp. 

Shell depressed conical, tapering rapidly to the apex ; spire 
ttort ; spiral angle 90° ; volutions five or six, convex, slightly 
aepressea belo\v the middle and gently expanding at base ; 
j35t volution occupying more than half the total length, gib- 
WU4, Its exterior edge sharply carinated, under surface flat- 
ened convex; umbUicus deep infundibuliforin ; form of aper- 
i«re unknown. ' *^ 

pj\ ""^^'^^ surface of the body volution is marked with sev- 
"a» Sharp revohing, thread-like lines ; other surfoce markings 

^;sembles in general form P. VerneidUi of Gcinitz. 



f'^^nnom,~Uncrt\ 0.35 ; width, 0.88. 

^ocmty .—\\\y\iQ Limestone, Guadalupe Mountains. 



Ge>'^us Chemkitzia. 



C- SWALL0VIA>-A, n. sp, 

Sjiell subulate, verv 



4 

:ing to the apex ; spiral 



^tl m"ii3? ^^^*^"^ about 15 (?) very gently convex ; suture 
with] .^^ excavated; suiface of volutions ornamented 

anertm."^'^ , '"'^^' '""^^^'^ ^o^s which do not cross the suture j 
''mure unknown. 

^hCir i^**-^^^^^^^" contains but a sinsrle specimen of this shell, 



imperfect 



■ vThite Limestone, Guadalupe Mountains, 



^^^Tll-tS, sp. (?) 



CEPHALOPODA. 



The s 



pecimen is from the Dark Limestone of the Guada- 



400 TEANS* OF THE ACAD. OF SCIENCE. 

lupe Mountains. I am unable to refer It to any of the knowa 
species, and it is too imperfect to permit me to make a sati*- 
factory description of it. 

■• I- 

'Orthocera», sp. (?) 

■Dark Gray Limestone towards tlie base of the 
Guadalupe Mountains, Texas. 

PISCES- 

\ 

The collection also contains scales and part of the tail of a 
fish, which appear to belong to a species of Palasmism^^ 
They are found in the Dark Limestone and Sandstone under- 
lying the White Limestone of the Guadalupe Mountains. 




Cakboxifekous Fossils. 



GASTEROPODA, 



TlTRBO TkxanuSj li, sp. 

J 

Sliell small, rather thick, globose-conic, length equal to or 
greater tlian the width ; spiral angle 55° to 60" ; spire short 
conical, varying somewhat in length ; volutions five, roimded, 
obtusely angnlated above, the last one ventricose and forming 
two-thirds the entire height; suture distinct; aperture sub- 
ovate, occupying about half the entire length, outer lip tlucb 



ened as it joins the columellar lip; surface handsomely orna- 
mented with revolving granose lines, of which there are seun 
or eight on the last volution, the grains on the upper Ime 
usually more prominent than the others. In some specimeu^ 
the revolving lines appear to be crossed with obsciu-e oblKiue 

costje. 

Dimensions. — Length, 0.34; width, 0.25. 
Our shell resembles Turbo 3Iaric&, Yerneuil, but the spire 
is more elevated, and the body volution has fewer lines ot 

Gta. Pos. and Zoc— Found abundantly in D^tf ^2 
Limestone of the age of the Coal Measures, four miles ^^-^ 
of the Sierra Hueco, El Paso Co., Texas. 

L 

STEArAE0l.t.r3 CoR?fTTr>AT«-T-s. n. an. 




discoid, spire gently concave, outyJ/» , 
gins strongly carinate and subnodose ; dorsum rounueu ^ 
marked with twoTer\- shallow revolving channels, ^^^ ' . 

f the vola- 
(f gen- 

iutions 



broadest and occupies about one-third the height . ^^ ^ 
tion ; voltitions four or five, flattened above and swpjn-, | 



Suture: un 



surface of vo 



J 



SHUMARD — NEW POSSILS. 401 

roun'^e*!, the last one ornamented with arched folds, which 
«re indistinct at the inner edge of the volution but become 
prominent as they approach the carina, which they render 
nodulose ; suture strongly impressed; umbilicus very broad, 
deep, exhibiting all the volutions; aperture circular; surface 



grow 



sp 



distinct in the umbilicus. 

iHmensions.—LQngth, 1.02 ; height at aperture, 0.42. 

Form, and Xoc— In Dark Limestone of the Coal Meas- 
ares, 'Sierra Comudas, and four miles west of Sierra Ilueco, 
El Paso county, Texas. All the specimens that have come 
under our obser\^ation are silicified. 

Pleurotojlvkia Thoutiaxa, n. 

Shell small, turreted, conical, spiral angle 43° ; volutions 
abuut fire, strongly carinated in the miajle, flattened on ei- 
tner side of the carina ; last volution ventricose, margin sub- 
angulated below the carina, beneath rounded ; surface of vo- 
wtions marked mth distinct revolving lines, which are finely 
granose and most prominent below the carina; these are 
«J>ssed by longitudinal striae and finer lines of growth ; um- 
oiiicus very small, aperture subquadrangular. 

Jimemions .—LcTi^t\x, 0.41 of an inch ; width, 0.33. 
^i-yrm a«tZZoc.— Coal Measures four miles west of Sierra 
«aeco, Li Paso county, Texas. 

P^EL-fiOTOirARIA OBTUSISPIEA, H. Sp. 

nell large, trochiform, depressed, conieal, truncated at 
*re-t strongly carinated at base and gently convex beneath ; 

wions SIX or seven, the two apicial turns gentlv convex 
^^'■♦^ejy ^'isible when the shell is viewed in prJfile ; last 

tions flat or slightly convex, stroiv^v carinated at base ; 
abovp '"^T?^'^' bearing the band of the sinus and limited 
^in t\ ^^^^ ^^' ^ <^istint't revolving depression ; suture 
with / "^•'^^^^^^J umbilicus large, round; surface marked 
ovat/f , ^^y ^°^ ^*^* of growth ; aperture varying from 
ovate to subqnadrate. ^ 

fteJp^T^^ ^"°^® of this species varies considerably with 
3„ ^* ^^6 sbell. The angle of a full grown specimen is 
^^^^^ yo^Jig specimen, 56'. "^ 

Hr'PPr^^^^^*^ Measures, four miles trest of the Sierra 
^' i^l Paso County, Texas. 

^^^tEOTOMARIA P£ROP.XATA, n. sp. 

'^^ mJ^f^' conical ; length greater than the width, tnper- 
- -ymewhat regularly to the apex, which is pointed ; spix-al 



O 



21 



402 TRANS. OF THE ACAD. OF SCIENCE. 



gle 37°; volutions six or seven, convex; body volution or- 
namented, usually, with six rounded carinxe, of which the two 
upper ones are quite prominent and separated by a deep fur- 
row; remaining volutions each with two strong carinae, Sar- 
fece marked with numerous longitudinal, flexuous folds or 
striae, becoming thickened as they pass over the carina, to 
which they give a subnodulose appearance; suture deeply 
impressed; aperture oblique ovate* 

Dimensions. — Length, 0.26 ; width, 0,16, 

GeoL Pos. and Loc. — Found with the last. It is an ei- 



trcmely neat and elegantly ornamented species, and it we 
may judge from the number of specimens brought homebj 
the Expedition, it is quite abundant at this locality. 

Macrocheilfs Texaxfs, n. sp. 

Shell of moderate size, ovate; lengtli greater than the width; 
volutions five, evenly convex ; body volution large gibbons, 
occupjang about three-fourths of the total length ;_ spire di- 
minishing rapidly to the apex which Is pointed ; spiral angle 
69°, suture slightly impressed ; aperture oblique, elongate sab- 
ovate, occupying rather more than half the length of the shell, 
angulated above, rounded below, outer lip somewhat regular- 
ly arched, inner lip sinuate. No surface markings are per- 
ceptible on any of the specimens that have come under oar 
observation. 

Dimensions.— L(,xig\h, 0.76 ; width, 0.46 ; length of aper- 
ture, 0.42 ; width of same, 0.13. 

•7, .„ ,A^n/7(J»-/]<!7/,'. S^» 



low 
but 




pror 



Form, and Zoc.—Same as last species. Collected,*^ 
gether with the others, by Dr. G. G. Shumard, Geologic'. 
the Expedition. 



: 



SHUMARD — NEW FOSSILS. 403 



explanations" of plate XL 

Fig. L CAiTEEOPHOEIA SwALLOYIAKA, p. 394. 



fl— Dorsal view, showing the beak of opposite valve, 
fc— Ventral view, 
f— Profile view. 
(/—View of the front, 
Eostral view, showing tlie depression in the umbo of the dorsal valve. 



Fir/. 2. Camerophoria bisulcata, p. 296 



3— Dorsal view of a fip< 
^Ventral valve of san 
f— Front view of same. 

<^— ftt)fi!e view ^f snmf 



Fig. 3. Spirifek sulciferus, p. 293. 

«-View of the ventral valve. 

V^l, ^^ dorsal valve, showing the beak and area of ventral valve, 
c— Profile view. 

Fig. 4. Spiripeb Mjexicanits, p- 292. 

^a>ml view, showing beak, area, and foramen of opposite valve. 
•-"Ventral view. 

%,5.SXB0PHAL0SIA (AULOSTEGES) Gl^ADALt^PE^^SIS, p. 292 



R-ofileview. 
*-VeiitraI valve. 



V- S* 



^9' 6. RnvxciioxELLA Gl^adalup-e, p. 295. 



f-Jeatml Tiew. 
^Dorsal yieir. 

•-KMtml view. 



*-I'rofile Tiew. 



^ig- 7. Retzia 3Ieekia>'a, p. 295 



^S"^^"'^=- 



r 

^ig. 8. PsoDircTus PoPEi, p. 290. 



t^oaie View. 



^ig- 9. Rktzia papileata, p. 294. 



/ 






^ J* 10. PfliLLIPSIA PEEANKULATA, p. 296. 



^^ 



b. 



i04 TRANS. OP THE ACAD. OF SCIEXCE. 



Observations on the Geology of the County of Ste. Gene- 
vQvCj heing an extract from a JReport made to the Missouri 
Geological Survey^ in 1859. By B. F. Shumaed, MJ). 
(Communicated to the Academy by penuission of Prof. G. 
C. Swallow, State Geologist.) 

[Read June 6, 1859.] 

This county contains about 486 square miles, and emLracw 
within its limits considerable diversity of surface. In ge^e^ 
al terms it may be described as hilly ; the hills rising some- 
times to the height of 500 feet above the ^Iississippi, and 
from 50 to 300 feet above the adjacent streams. The general 
direction of the main ridges is N.E. and S.W. Many good 
firms are to be found on the highlands of different parts of 
the county, but there are some districts in which the surface 
is very uneven and the soil too light and sandy for successful 
cultivation. In the vicinity of the Junca and the head 
branches of the Aux Vases, the country is remarkably rough 
and broken. We find also some broken country bordering 
the valleys of the Mississippi, Saline, and Establishment The 
alluvial bottoms of the streams throughout the county p<^^ 



sess soils of gi-eat fertility, and well adapted to the gro^hof 
all the staples of the country. There are many fine farms to 
be seen alons: the Saline and its branches, the Aux Vases be- 



.^ VliV. |._/,^I.AiXXV^ «.Xl...i. X^.^ ^XC*!.*^.*^^.., 



^i^f^^ -«- -I— -I-I- ^ ■ — - ^ -^ ^ ^ — ^b- I ■ ^■- ^ ^^■— ^^ -»^ ^^ " ^ ^» "-^^ .-" -.- -•- — r — ■— — -■- — J _ ^ 

low tlie Junca, North and Soutli Gabouri, Fourche a Polite, 
Establisliment, Fourclio i Duclos, and Isle au Bois Creeks. 

Tiraher.—'^iiOiYlj every part of Ste. Gene\'i6ve is sap- 
plied with timber in abundance. The valleys of the large 
streams ai-e covered with a heavy growth of forest trees, as 
are also, frequently, the hill sides in their vicinity. On tM 
head branches of the Aux Vases, Establishment, and lei« 
Blue, there are heavy forests of excellent pine, but ^]}^^K 
railing growth over a large portion of the highlands is blac 
oak, black Jack, post oak, and black hickory. 

Streams. —IS Q^xrly all parts of Ste. Gene^d^ve are weU ^ 
tered. The Mississippi foims the Xorth-eastem boundaij,« 
the coimtj and receives a multitude of small streams wnH 
rise chiefly in the Western townships. 



G-EOLOGY. 



Quatcrnarj 



■ous ana tTpF/ 



and Lower Silurian Systems are all more or less deve^^^ 
The accompanying vertical section exhibits the tluckness _ 



relative petition of the 



Agnized in Ste. Gcnev 



« 



SHUMARD — GEOL. OF STE. GENEVIEVE. 405 



QuATEEXAKY Syste:m:. 



V 



J. 

Allumum. — This formation presents the usual chara