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Peofessoes H. A. NEWTON and A E. VERRILL, ( 
New Haven, 



No8. 109-114. 



i from foot, for Paris, read 
i from top, for Niougeot, re: 
). Chamberlin, read T. C. Ch 



Akt. I.— Iiiequjilities of the .^loon's Motion produced l>v tlie 

Ol)lateness of tlio Earth ; by J. X. Stockw-kij., . . . ." l 

II. — Electro-Dviuimoineter for Measuring Lar<>c (hirreiits ; 

by \V. N.'HiT.L, :.. 10 

IIL—G. K. Gilbert's Report on tlie Geolotrv of the Henry 

Mountains, .".' ...' 17 

IV.— Glycogenic Function of the Liver: Disposal of Waste; 

by j. Lf.Coxtk, ... 25 

^ —Electrolytic Phenomena ; by W. G. Lkvisox, _ 29 

VI.— New Forms of Fossil Crustaceaus from the Ujjper De- 
vonian Rocks of Ohio ; by R. P. Wihtfield, ;}3 

VJI.— Optical Method for the 31easurement of High Temper- 
atures; by E. L. Nichols, ._ 42 

VIII.— Kxplorations in the Wappinger Valley Limestone of 
Dutchess County, N. Y. (^alciferous as well as Trenton 
Fossils in the Wappinuer Limestone at Rochdale and a 
Tn-ntou ir,r;ditv:.t .W-wbunih. N. v.; bvW. H. I)wr(;.iT, 50 

IX.— Fir^t IJcMilt-'tioiii a lu'W Ditfraction lulling Kngine; by 

W. A. [;.m;ki;., . ...:...:.:. 54 

X.— Solar I'arallav fVoiii the X'elocity of Litrht ; bv D. P. Todd, 59 
XL— New Characl..r> .)f M.-sasain-oi.! i^.ptilrV; by O. C. 


Art. XII.— Contributions to Meteorology ; by Elias Loomis, 89 
XIII. — Color Correction of Achromatic Telescopes ; by Wm. 

Harkness, - .- 109 

XIV. — Finite in Eastern Massachusetts: its Origin and Geo- 
logical Relations ; by W. O. Crosby, 116 

XV. — Lintonite and other forms of Thomsonite ; by S. F. 

PECKHAMandC. W.Hall, 122 

XVI.— Elements of the Planet Dido ; by C. H. F. Peters,.. 130 
XVIL— Analyses of some American Tantalates ; by W, J. 


XVIII. —Method of Studying the Reflexion of Sound-Waves, 

byO. N. Rood, 133 

XIX. — Newton's use of the term Indigo with reference to a 

Color of the Spectrum ; by O. N. Rood, 135 

XlXbis. — Notice of recent Additions to the Marine Fauna of 
the Eastern Coast of North America; by A. E. Vbkrill, 137 

XX.— The Electric Light ; by F. E. Niphee, HI 

XXL— The Limbs of Sauranodon ; by O. C. Marsh, 169 

Physics and Chemistry. — Why the air at the Equator is not hotter in January 
than in July, J. Croll, 142.— Temperature of the Sun, F. Rosetti, 144.— The 
Pseudophone, S. P. Thompson. 145. — Explosion of carbonic Acid in a coal mine, 
Delesse : Heat of Formation of Cyanogen, Berthelot : First Book in Quahta- 
tive Chemistry. A. B. Pbescott : Notes on Assaying and Assay Schemes, P. 
DE P. Ricketts, 147 : Chemical Problem, J. C. FOYE, 148. 

Geology and Mineralogy.— A Manual of the Geology of India, H. B. MedlicOTT, 
148.— Note on the Trilobite, Atops Trilineatus of Emmons, S. W. Ford, 152.— 
List of Papers on the Taconic System, J. D. Dana, 1 53.— The Cave Bear of 

. California, E. D. Cope: The Miocene Fauna of Oregon, E. D. Cope, 155.— Ueber 
die erzfiihrenden Tiefemptionen von Zinnwald-Altenberg und liber den Zinn- 
bergbau in diesem Gebiete, E. Reyer: Brachiopodes. Etudes Locales, J. 
Barhande : Geological Survey of Japan, B. S. Lyman : Letha^a Geognostica, 
etc.. F. Roemer : Neues Jahrbuch fiir Mineralogie, Geologie, Paleontologie : 
Mineralogische Notizen von A. von Lasaulx, 156.— Mineralogische Notizen 
von V. VON Zepharovich : Ueber die optische Orientirung der Plagioklase, M. 

Botany and Zoology.— The Botanical Gazette, 157.— Additions to the Botanical 
Necrology of 1879 : Das Microgonidium, A. Minks, 158. — BuUetin of the IT. _S. 
Geological and Geographical Survey of the Territories, F. V. Hayden : Mit- 
theilungen aus der Zoologischen Station zu Neapel : Bulletin of the Museum 
of Comparative Zoology, W. G. Binney: Paleozoic Cockroaches, S, H. Scudder: 
Insects from the Tertiary Beds, S. H. Scudder, 159. 

;cular Changes in the elements of the orbit of a Satellite, G. H. 
9.— Earthquakes and the Planets, 162.— The Problem of the 
lie American Ephemeris and Nautical Almanac, 1882, 163.— 
cters and Spe'ctra, J. R. Capron, 164. 
Scientific Intelligence.— JJ . S. Mensuration Surveys, 164.— The Arctic 
y{ Nordenskiold, 165.— Chart of the Magnetic Declination of the 
United States, J. K. FIilgard: Temperature of the Primordial Ocean, R. 
Mallet: How to work with the Microscope, L. S. Beale, 166.— Monthly 
Microscopical .Journal : School of Mines Quarterly : Catalogue of Diatomacese. 
F. Habirshaw, 167. — Treatise on Fuel, R. Galloway: Petroleum, 0. A. 



Art. XXTL— Cliart of the Macrnetic Domination in tlie Fnitoa '''^"' 
States, constructod by J/E. IIiujAra). With Plato V,. 17;! 

XXIll.— The Old River-heds of (California; by J. LeCome, 176 

XXTV. — Xote on the Asje of the Green Mountains ; by J, D, 

Daxa, ...r ... lf)l 

XXV. — New Action of the Magnet on Electric Currents; by 

E. ir. Hall, 200 

XXVI.— Measures of the Polar and Equatorial Diameters of 

Mars ; by C. A. YouxG, 206 

XXVir.— Use of the Sine-formula for the Diurnal Variation 

of Temperature ; by B. A. Gould, 212 

XXVIIL— The Chemical Com])osition of the Unminite from 

Branchville, Conn. ; by VV. J. Comstock, 2-JO 

XXTX.— Mean Free Rath of a Molecule; by N. D. C. 

Hodges, 222 

XXX.— Western Limits of the Taconic System ; bv S. W. 

Ford, \ 225 

XXXr.— Principal Characters of Atnoricai. Jurassic Dino- 
saurs; by O. C. Marsil With Platen VI to XI, 253 

Z'vhgy. — Fresh-w;i 
Medu^cn, E II i( 



Art. XXXIL— Berthelot's Thermo-Chemistry ; by J. P. 

XXXIIl.— llYstory oV sorn'e Pre-Cambrmn'Koeks in "Ain Ji'ica 

and Europe ; by T. Sterry Hlxt, - . . - ! 

XXXIV.— iSynopsis of the Coplialopoda of the Northeastern 

Coast of America ; by A. E. Verrill, . ! 

XXXV.— Notices of Recent American Earthquakes ; by C. 

G. RocKwooi), Jr., ! 

XXXVL— Observations on the Ileicrht of Land and Sea 

Breezes, taken at Coney Island ; by O. T. Sherman, ... : 
XXXVII. — New Method of Spectrum Observation : bv J. 

^ N.LOCKYER, .....:... ; 

XXXVI II. — Presentation of Sonorous Vibrations by means 

of a Revolving Lantern ; by JIexry Carmichael, . : 

XXXIX. — Chemical Composition of Childrenitc ; by S. L. 

XL.— Observations on the Planet Lilaea; by C. 11. F. Peters, : 

XLI.— Efficiency of Edison's Electric Light ; 11. A. 

and G. F. Barker, ..... . '< 


Physics.— Vhotofcjaphf. of Star Spectra, ^Y. HroGiNS. 3Jt.— Direct measure of the 
lent of Heat, Rowland: A Dispersion Photomoier, Perby and Ayrton, 319. 

Gmhrjy.— The present state of the Evidence bearing: upon the Question of the 
Antiquity of Man, T. McK. Hiohes, ;{19.— Age of the Brazilian Gneiss Series. 
Discovery of Eozoon, O. A. Dekhy, :{24. — Limestone from tlie Gneiss Formation 
of Brazil, J. \V. D.vwsox: (leologicnl Survey of Alabama, E. A. Snixif, 326. — 
Couodonts from the Chazy and (Uncinuati Group of the Cainbro-Silurian, and 
from the Hamilton and Cenosee-Shale Divisions of the Devonian, in Canada 
and the Ignited States, G. J. Hydk: Report on the Paleontolof,'ical Field-work 

miiuus, W. H. (iii.BRESx: Morpholojry o: 

les, W. H. 



Art. XLII.— Outlet of Lake Bonneville ; by G. K. Gn 
XLIII.— Chemical and Geological Relations of the 

by T. Sterrt Hunt, 349 

shaean Rocks of Wahsatch Mts. ; by A. Geik 
XLV. — Apatites containing Manganese ; by S. L. Pekfie 
I. — Cleberne County Meteorite ; by 

XLVII. — Recent formation of Quartz and Silicification in 

California; bvT. Steeet Hunt, 371 

XLVIII.— Photographic Spectra of Stars, 373 

XLIX. — The Uranometria Argentina, . . 376 

L.— Ivanpah, California, Meteoric Iron; by C. IT. Shepaed, 381 
LI. — Atomic Weight of Antimony; by Josiah P. Cooke,-. 382 
LII, — Daubree's Experimental Geology ; notice by J. Law- 
rence Smith, 386 

LIIL— Bastnasite and Tysonite from Colorado; by O. D. 

Allen and W. J. Comstock, 390 

LIV.— On Argento-antimonious Tartrate (Silver Emetic); 

bv Josiah' P. Cooke, 393 

LV.— The Sternum in Dinosaurian Reptiles; by O. C. Marsfi, 

(With plate XVIII), 395 

LVI.— Southern Comet of February, 1880 ; by B. A. Gould, 396 

Chemistry and Physics.— Tormation of Ozone by the slow oxidation of Phos- 
phorus, McLeod, 402. — Explosion of a Platinum Alembic used for concentrating 
Sulphuric acid, Kuhlmann, 403. — Equivalence of Boron, Becker, Michaelis : 

ulphuric acid, Kuhlmann, 403. — Equivalence of Boron, Becker, Michaelis : 

'■" ct Union of Cyanogen and Hydrogen, Berthelot, 404. — Cellulose and its 

o derivatives, Edeb: New kind of Ammonium Bases, GaiESS, 405.-Photo- 

ihs of Spectra. Vogel : Limits of the Ultra Violet in the Solar Spectrum at 

graphs of Spectra, Vogel : Limits of the Ultra V loU 
different heights, Cornu : Atmospheric Polarization s 

ignetism upon the Atmosphere, 4 
Optics, Kerb : Connection between the laws of diffusion and Thermodynamics, 
BoLTZMAra, 407.— Density of the Halogens at very high temperatures, Cbafts: 
Use of the Heliotrope for Telegraphic purposes, Patterson, 408.— Artificial 
Formation of the Diamond, 411. 
Geology and Mineralogy. — Sketches of the Physical Geography and Geology of 
Nebraska, S. Aughey, 412.— Silurian age of the CrystaUine rocks of Eastern 
Pennsylvania, 41.^.— Carboniferous Volcanic Eocks of the Basin of the Firth 
of Forth. A. Geikie : Contributions to the Geology of Eastern Massachusetts, 
^V. 0, Crosby, 414. — Annual Report of the U. S. Geologi al and Geographical 
Survey of the Territories. F. V. Haydex : Earthquake of San Salvador : Oil- 
sands of Pennsylvania, C. A. Ashburner. 415.— Giesecke's Mineralogiske Rejse 
i Gronland, F. Johnstrcp ; Explorations in Greenland, Jensen, 416.— Geological 
. Dewalque: Edible Earth from Japan, E. G. Love, 417. 

.^oofo^y.— Genera Plantarum, Bentham and HOOKEB, 418.— Popular 
• British Plants, R. C. A. Prior: Botanical Necrology, J. Carey, 421 ; 
stin, 42.3.— Collection of Crustacea, J. S. Kingsley, 4 2.3.— Crayfish, 



Art. LVIl.— Physical Structure and Hypsometry of the 

Catskill Mountain Region; by Arnold Guyot, .. 1 429 

LVIII.— Recent Explorations in the Wappinger Valley Lime- 
stone of Dutchess County, N. Y. ; by W. B. Dvvight,.. 461 

LIX.— The Color Correction of certain Achromatic Object 

Glasses; by C. A. Young, 454 

LX. — Companion of Sirius ; by Asaph Hall, _ 457 

LXI.— Emmet County Meteorite, that fell near Estherville, 

Emmet County, Iowa ; by J. Lawrence Smith, 459 

LXIL— Oxidation of Hydrochloric Acid Solutions of Anti- 
mony in the Atmosphere ; by J. P. Cooke, 464 

LXnr.— Relation between the Colors and Magnitudes of the 

Components of Binary Stars; by E. S. Holden, .. 467 

LXIV.— Occurrence of true Lingula in the Trenton Lime- 
stones; by R. P. Whitfield, 472 

LXV.— Experiments upon jVIr. Edison's Dynamometer, Dy- 
namo-machine and Lamp ; by C. F. Brackett and 
C. A. Young, 475 

LXVI. — Substances possessing the power of Developing the 

Latent Photographic Image ; by M. Carey Lea, - 480 

Chemistry ( 

Peroxides of Barium and of Hydrojreii. Bertrai 
Oxide upou the Alkali-earths, Biunhaum and 



Art. I.— On the Inequalities i 
the Oblateness of the Earth ; 

Having given in the November number of this Journal, an 
account of a secular inequality in the moon's motion, arising 
from the oblateness of the earth, I propose to give, in the 
present number, a somewhat detailed account of the principal 
periodic inequalities in the motions of the moon arising from 
the same cause. And I would here state that a careful study 
of the effect of the earth's ellipticity on the motions of the 
moon, through the medium of analysis, has presented some of 
the most curious and interesting cases of perturbation to be 
found in physical astronomy. The principal inequalities to 
which I would call attention, are chiefly remarkable as being 
the product of a number of important, though mutually 
antagonistic forces, the resultant of which, on any given 
coordinate of the moon, is of far less importance than would 
arise from the undisturbed operation of any one of the con- 
stituent forces ; and I do not remember any cases of perturba- 
tion in the moon's motion, arising from the sun's attraction, 
in which the effect of the force on any given coordinate is so 
completely neutralized by the action of the same force on some 
of the other elements of motion. The analysis which I have 
employed has presented the results in such' shape as to show: 
Firsts the separate effect of the earth's oblateness on the 
motions of the moon ; and Second^ the combined effect resulting 
from the earth's figure and the sun'i 
these two points of view that I shall i 
Am. Joub. Sci.— Thibb Series, Vol. XIX.— No. 109, Jan., 

2 J. K Stochwell^Inequalities in the Moon's Motion. 

In the paper referred to above, it was shown that the motion 
of a body moving in a circular orbit in the plane of the 
equator would be uniform ; and that the motion in a circular 
orbit which was inclined to the equator would be subject to 
inequalities, the magnitude of which would depend on the 
inclination of the orbit to the equator. Now the ecliptic is 
inclined to the equator at an angle of 23° 27', and the moon's 
orbit is inclined to the ecliptic at an angle of 5° 8'. If, then, 
the ascending node of the moon's orbit is at the vernal equinox, 
the inclination of the moon's orbit to the equator will be 28° 
85'; and she will attain to thg ' . . ,. ■ 

during each sidereal revolution, 
the inequalities of the earth's ; 
their maximum values. Suppose, now, that the ascending 
node is at the autumnal equinox. It is evident that the incli- 
nation of the orbit to the equator will be only 18° 19', and that 
she will only reach that declination twice during each revolu- 
tion. The inequalities of the earth's attraction on the moon, 
in this last position of the node, will evidently be at their 
minimum values. As the node passes from one equinox to 
the other, it is plain that the inequalities of the earth's attrac- 
tion on the moon pass through all the changes of value to 
which they are at any time subject. Now the moon's node 
makes a complete revolution on the ecliptic in a period of 18'6 
years ; consequently all the inequalities of the moon's motion 
" ' earth will effect a complete 

must, in the calcula- 
of the separate effect of the spheroidal form of the earth 
on tne moon's motion, neglect the sun's attraction and regard 
the elements of the moon's orbit as constant, except so far as 
they are affected by the form of the earth itself. From these 
general considerations it follows that the moon's declination, 
on which the inequalities of the earth's attractive force depends, 
is affected by two conditions : namely, the longitude of the 
moon and the longitude of the node. I shall therefore in the 
present paper consider only the inequalities which depend on 
these two elements, either separately or in combination. 

In the calculations which I have made, the oblateness of the 
earth has been taken as ^; and in the few equations which 
are given, the symbols have the following significations : a and 
nt denote tlie moon's mean distance and mean longitude ; v 
and d denote the moon's true longitude and latitude, y and Q 
denote the inclination and longitude of node of moon's orbit; 
e denotes the obliquity of the ecliptic, and D denotes the mean 
radius of the earth ; p and f denote the oblateness of the 
earth, and the ratio of the centrifugal force to the gravity at 

J. N. Stochwell— Inequalities in the Maoris Motion. 3 

rtb's equator ; R denotes the disturbing function ; and 
ed before a quantity denotes the variation of that quan- 
tising from the oblateness of the earth. I also put for 

^={p-i^}-^sin6C08f. (1) 

T now give the equations which express the variations of 
the elements and coordinates of the moon, and which are inde- 
pendent of the sun's action. In the first place I find that the 
position of the node and inclination of the orbit are affected bv 
the following inequalities : 

(jQ=i^sin(2««-Q) = + 0''-185sin(2w«~ii), (2) 

dy = -^yS cos {2nt - Q) = + 0"-0165 cos {2nt^ Q). (3) 

These two inequalities give rise to the following inequality 
in the moon's latitude : 

6e=-.\fi^\unt=-0'''0\Q5Qmnt. (4) 

But I find that the direct action of the earth on the moon 
produces the following inequality : 

60=.^\IJ^mnt, (5) 

The sum of these two inequalities gives ^^ = ; whence it 
follows that there is no equation of the above form in the 
moon's latitude arising from the oblateness of the earth. In 
other words, the figure of the earth does not cause the moon to 
depart from the plane of the great circle in which its orbit is 

The above values of do. and 8y also give the following ine- 
quality in the moon's longitude : 

6v~-\- iPy sin S^ = + O'-O0074 sin Q ). (6) 

The direct action of the earth on the moon produces the 
following inequalities in the longitude : 

6v = fV /^ tan € sin 2nt - ^\ Py sin {2?it - Q ) ) ,^. 

= + 0''-0012 sin 2nt -^ 0'-00025 sin (2fit- Q). ) 
These inequalities in longitude are so excessively small as 
to be entirely insensible. The sum of the coefficients in these 
three terms of dv amounts to only 0"-0022, a quantity not 
exceeding /o?/r/een/eei if measured on the moon's orbit. From 
this calculation it follows that, if the moon were entirely free 
from solar disturbance, the effect of the oblateness of the" earth 
on its motions would be so small that it would never be detected 
by observation. 

Let us now examine into the effect of a combination of solar 
disturbance with that arising from the earth's oblateness. 
Since we have supposed the moon's orbit to be circular, it is 

4 J. N. Stochwell— Inequalities in the Moons Motion. 

evident that the earth's attraction on the moon is at a maximum 
whenever the moon is in the equator, or twice during each 
revolution of the moon. We will now suppose that the longi- 
tude of the moon's node is 90°, and examine into the conse- 
quences that must take place while it retrogrades through a 
semi-circumference, or from +90° to -90°. 

When a= +90°, the moon's orbit intersects the equator at 
a distance of 12° 45' to the eastward of the equinox : and since 
the node retrogrades on the ecliptic about 1° 27' during a 
sidereal revolution of the moon, it follows that the moon will 
arrive at the equator at a point a little to the westward of its 
previous crossing. In other words, the moon will make a 
complete revolution with respect to the center of force in a 
period somewhat shorter than the sidereal revolution. At the 
end of 9-8 years the longitude of the node will be —90°, and 
the orbit will intersect the equator at a distance of 12° 45^ to 
the westward of the equinox. Now the moon performs 
124-3256 sidereal revolutions while the node is retrograding 
through an arc of 180°. But 124-3256 sidereal revolutions 
correspond to 124'3266 revolutions +23° 21' with respect to 
the equator. Whence it appears that while the node is retro- 
grading from +90° to -90°, the time of revolution with 
respect to the equator is shorter on an average by 20™ 32^ than 
the sidereal revolution. It is plain that while the node is 
retrograding from —90° through the autumnal equinox to 
+90°, the point of intersection of the orbit and equator will 
advance from —12° 45' to +12° 45', and the time of revolution 
of the moon with respect to the equator will exceed the time 
of the sidereal revolution by the same amount that it fell 
short of that quantity while retrograding through the other 
half of the orbit. It is also plain that the inclination of the 
orbit to the equator increases while the equatorial node is 
approaching the vernal equinox, at which point it is a maxi- 
mum, and diminishing while it is receding from it. The 
constant retrograde motion of the ecliptic node of the moon's 
orbit, therefore, gives rise to a merely oscillatory motion of the 
equatorial node; and it is this pendulum-like motion of the 
equatorial node that gives rise to a number of inequalities in 
the moon's motion which I now proceed to consider; observing 
that the inequalities which are produced while the node is 
fully compensated by means of the retrograde 
hich follows. 

I now give the values of the perturbations of the elements 
and coordinates which I have obtained, as resulting from the 
motion of the moon's node, which is produced by the sun's 
attraction. I find 


J. K StockweU — Inequalities in the Moon's Motion, 
da = — ^sm^= + 9l''-324si 
<Sy = + -cosQz=~ 8''-2233 co 

a being tbe ratio of the motion of the node to the moon's 
mean motion. These inequalities of the elements give rise to 
the following inequality in the latitude : 

60— ^8mnt=~ S'''22S3m\ nt. (9) 

This is exactly the same as LaPlace and subsequent investi- 
gators would have obtained had they used the same value of 
the earth's ellipticity. This inequality in the moon's latitude 
is equivalent to the supposition that "the moon's orbit, instead 
of moving on the plane of the ecliptic with a constant inclina- 
tion, moves, with the same condition, upon a plane passing 
always through the equinoxes, between the ecliptic and equator 
and inclined to the ecliptic by an angle which is equal to i-, as 

LaPlace has remarked. 

I have not, however, been equally fortunate in reproducing 
the value of the inequality in the moon's longitude, which 
LaPIace and later investigators have obtained. I find as 
directly resulting from the motion of the moon's node, the fol- 
lowing inequality in the longitude : 

6v:=--^yBmQ= — lSi''-3smQ. (10) 

But the preceding inequality in latitude gives rise to the 
two following inequalities in the longitude : 

<5^ = + -^rsina-i^rsin(2^«-«)) ^jj^ 

= +18V-3sina + 0'-37 8in {2nt- Q) ) 
The first of these two inequalities derived from the perturba- 
tions in latitude exactly cancels the preceding inequality in 
the longitude which is produced directly from the retrograde 
motion of the node ; and we have as the resultant of the two 

6v = -^^ysm{2nt~Q) = + O'-SI sin {2nt - fl ). (12) 

I find, however, that the radius vector of the moon's orbit is 
affected by the inequality 

6v = ^apy COB Q, (13) 

and this produces the following inequality in the longitude, 

(Jt' = -6^Ksin8 = +4'-443sini3, (H) 

6 J. N. Stockwell — Inequalities in the Moons Motion. 

while LaPlace found 

6v = -^^-^y^m^=-[-r-0^^mQ,. (15) 

If, in the development of the inequalities depending on the 
oblateness of the earth we carry on the approximations so as 
to include terms of a higher order depending on the eccentricity 
and inclination of the orbit, we shall find two equations of 
sensible magnitude, having the same arguments as two empiri- 
cal equations discovered by Airy about a third of a century 
ago. These equations depend on the arguments nt — co — Q, 
and nt — to-\-Q., in which o) denotes the longitude of the 
perigee. These arguments have periods of 2744:32 days, and 
27-6661 days, respectively. The equation depending on the 
first of these arguments seems also to have been independently 
discovered quite recently, as an empirical equation, by Pro- 
fessor Newcomb, wdio attributes it to the attraction of some of 
the planets. From some calculations which I have made I am 
led to suspect that each of these equations has a value amount- 
ing to quite a large fraction of a second of arc ; and I call 
attention to them here as being worthy of a more thorough 
investigation by astronomers. 

It is but proper to add in this connection, that the mean 
motions of the perigee and node of the lunar orbit are afi"ected 
by the oblateness of the earth ; and are also affected by secular 
equations arising from the diminution of the obliquity of the 
ecliptic. The motions of the perigee and node which I have 
obtained agree in value with those obtained by LaPlace. I 
have therefore succeeded iu reproducing exactly, by my 
method of computation, all the inequalities in the motions of 
the moon arising from the oblateness of the earth, which 
LaPlace discovered nearly a century ago, with the exception 
of the equation in longitude. The coefficient of LaPlace's 
equation exceeds the value which I have obtained, in the ratio 
of 19 to 12 ; and it has been a matter of surprise that two very 
dissimilar methods of computation should give so many results 
identically the same, and leave only a single one discordant. 
This has led me to make a critical examination of every step 
of LaPlace's calculation of this equation ; and this examination 
has developed the fact that LaPlace has, in this instance, 
departed widely from the requirements of his own formulae 
and methods ; and that a correct calculation by his method 
gives a result identically the same as I have found by my own. 
I shall therefore now give the several steps of this examination, 
believing that it will not be without interest to the readers of 
this Journal. In this 

J. N. Stochwell— Inequalities in the Moons Motion. 7 

as the facilities for referring to any part of the work by means 
of the marginal numbers are much better than in the original. 
I shall also change the notation somewhat, putting s for i, and 
a for g—1 in some cases, and shall also put/=l. The num- 
bers inclosed in brackets refer to the corresponding marginal 
numbers of the Mecanique Cekstf. 

The expression of the force i?, [5362] becomes by using the 
value of /?, which is given by equation (1) of this paper, and 
putting /=!, 

Ji = 2^^l^smiv. (16) 

In this equation s denotes the tangent of the moon's latitude. 
This value of B gives the following values of the partial differ- 
ential coefficients, 

ii^\ = _6-^^sin 

The equation which determines the value of 8v, is [5367], 

and the value of dR is 

The value of s is given by the equation [5376], namely, 

s=r^m{gv-Q), (22) 

in which I have changed $ to Q, in order to avoid confusion 
of symbols. ISTow (22) gives by differentiation 

ds = gydi}co%{gv-gi). (23) 

If we neglect the eccentricity of the orbit we shall have <://■= 0, 
consequently the term \--yir will vanish from the value of 

di?. Now substituting the value of s, (22) in (18), and multi- 
plying (19) by ds, which is given by (23), we shall get, 

(^f-)ds = a^g^^rdvl.\nigv + r-^ - - - ...(25) 

If we substitute these values in ccy, only 

the term depending on the angle (y i' - - -H-ome 

8 J. N. Stock well— Inequalities in the Moon's Motion. 

AM=:~-a'^y{g^\)ch^m{gv-v-^.) (26) 

This gives by integration 

fdB=:a'^yco^{gv-v- fi). (27) 

If we substitute the value of s in equation (17) and multiply 
by r it will become 

Substituting (27) and (28) in (20), it becomes 

d6vz=- 3a' -4^7 cos {gv-v^Q). (29) 

This is the same as LaPlace has given in [5368]. 

But LaPlace has given a second term depending on the same 
argument. This second term arises from the variation of the 
sun's disturbing force which is due to the variation of the 
moon's latitude produced by the earth's oblateness. The 
expression of this force is given in equation [5372] and is as 
follows : 

6R — ^m'ii"r''s6s. (30) 

I shall now show that this value of dR is the same as the 
value of R given by equation [5362], except that it has a 
contrary sign. 

According to [5374] we have 

|m't.'V' = f'^=2^^-i, (31) 

and if we substitute this in (30) or [5372] it becomes 

6R='-2a'^%mv. (34) 

This is the same as (16) or [5362] except that it has a contrary 
sign. This force is therefore the reaction of the force expended 
by the sun in giving motion to the moon's node, which in turn 
produces the inequality in the moon's latitude. 

But in this second part of his work LaPlace seems to have 
committed a grave oversight, for he has treated his equation 
[5372] in the construction of [5373], as though ds were con- 
stant ; whereas it is a function of both r and t?, according to 

J. N. Stockwell — Inequalities in (he Moon's Motion. 9 

[5376] which he afterwards uses in his reductions. However, 
as I have shown above that equation [6372] is the same as 
[6362], and has a contrary sign, it is unnecessary to pursue this 
part of the inquiry further, since it is evident that the whole 
value of du must be derived from the value of E in [5362]. 

LaPlace has given the complete value of d8v corresponding 
to the plane of the orbit, in [5379] ; and he gives a correction 
in [5385] to reduce it to the plane of the ecliptic. It is appar- 
ent, however, that this correction does not exist, for LaPlace 
has shown in [923'] etc., where this subject is first investigated, 
that this correction is of the order of the square of the disturb- 
ing force ; and as terras of that order have not been con- 
sidered, it is evident that the value of that correction which he 
has given in [5385] is erroneous. 

To complete this subject, it now remains to be shown that 
the value of R in equation [5362] gives the value of ddv twice 
as great as LaPlace has found in [5368]. For this purpose I 
would remark that the value of ddv given by means of [5367], 
is the correction to the disturbed mean longitude, and not to the 
undisturbed mean longitude. In order to correct for this 
condition it is necessary to add the term 3—- fdR to the first 

member, and this cancels the same term in the second member, 
thus leaving the correction to the undisturbed mean longitude, 
or dv equal to 


This will be apparent from the considerations given in § 54 of 
Book II of Mecanique Celeste, from which it appears that the 
function di2 has a term of the form sin {at + /9), in which a is 
very small, and gives by a double integration a" as a divisor ; 
and LaPlace has shown in [1070'J that for this case we must 
increase the mean longitude by the quantity 3— fndi fdR, 

which is equal to 3^-^ fdR, or to the first term of the 
second member of equation [5367]. It therefore follows that 
the complete value of ddo will be given by the equation 

and if we substitute the value of r/"^) given by [5365] it 
becomes equal to twice 
as I have obtained by i 
Cleveland, Ohio, Oct. 29, 18 


10 W. X. Hill — Electro -Dynamometer for Large Currents. 

Art. II. — An Electro- Dynamometer for Measuring Large Cur- 
rents ; by Waltee N. Hill, S.B. (Harvard), Chemist, U. S. 
Torpedo Station, Newport, R. I. 

The use of electric macliines of large size, for the generation 
of currents of great strength, has become extensiv^e and prom- 
ises to increase materially. In connection with this, the best 
mode of measuring the currents obtained is a matter of much 
importance, as well as one of some difficulty. 

Probably at the present time, the method by the use of the 
galvanometer — heavily shunted — and that involving the deter- 
mination of the heat developed in the circuit are the most used, 
but tiiej' are objectionable from their inconvenience, complex- 

The method employing the electro-dynamometer is to be 
preferred for many reasons and it has also the advantage of 
being applicable to to-and-fro currents, as well as to those in 

Weber's form of the electro-dynamometer is an instrument 
which, as Clerk-Maxwell says, "]s probably the best fitted for 
absolute measurements." In this, one coil is suspended within 
another, the suspension being a fine wire through which the 
current is led to the suspended coil. It is therefore only suit- 
able for the direct measurement of very small currents. If 
currents of greater strength are employed, the suspending wire 
is heated and elongated. It is consequently necess 
uririg powerful currents with Weber's electro-dyn 
use very large shunts. 

As has been pointed out by Trowbridge, it is V( 
to avoid the use of shunts, since the entire resis 
circuit is of the same order of magnitude as the shunt. In gen- 
eral, a method depending upon the measurement of a very small 
proportional part of the whole current is objectionable, since 
very great accuracy is necessary and errors of observation are 

Trowbridge has designed an electro-dynamometer through 
which large currents may be transmitted and directly measured. 
(Proc. Am. Acad. Arts and Sci., Oct. 9, 1878). It consists 
essentially of two large fixed coils made from copper bands, be- 
tween which is suspended, from a torsion head, a small coil — 
the whole so arranged that by means of mercury connections 
the entire current will traverse the smaller coil, as well as the 
larger ones. A small mirror is attached to the deflecting coil 
and by means of a telescope and scale, the deflections may be 
read. " In practice, however, Trowbridge found that the better 
mode of observation was to bring back, by the torsion head, 

I)-; X. nm— Electro- Dynamomeler for Lur'je Currents. 

the coil to tlic zero point determined hy the telescope, seal 
mirror. Tliis instrument gives good results. Measurer 
can be made more rapidly with it than bv the gal' 

During the ])ast year, the writer has been experimenting at 
the U. S. Torpedo Station with an electro-dynamometer, differ- 
ing from Trowbridge's in the manner of observing or determin- 
ing the deflective power of the current In its general plan, 
including the arrangement for taking the entire current to be 
measured, it follows Trowbridge's form. 

Fig. 1 is a general view of 'the instrument. Figs. 2 and 8 
show the details of the suspended coil. The large fixed coils 
are made of copper ribbon '61^^^ wide by 1^" thick. The 
turns ai'C sejiarated by e'oonite rings and fastened together bv 
brass rods and screw-nuts insulated by ebonite. The metal 
frame-work is similarly insulated from the coils. The suspen- 
sion arrangement is placed on the top of the fixed coils and in- 
sulated from them. The upper cylinder which carries tlie 
suspension pulley is capable of vertical motion and can be fixed 

The ( 

leflecting cc 

>il (fig<.. 2 


I 3) 

is r 

made of copj)er i 


49mm ,,, 

ide bv li- 

thick, fa> 


id w 


insulated rivet 

s. In 

the cen 

ter ot the c. 

il and pa 


d wi 

th i 

t, is a light bra 

,ss rod 

or poin 

ter. A c.p 

per rod ii 

1 COI 



with the outer 

end of 

the coil 

1 or nieke 




.t, whieh dips il 

1 mer- 

cury CO 

ntained in r 

I dou]>le-^ 


cd n 


1 cup. li. on the base- 


A similar 

rod from 



e coil, 

ends in 

, the coil 

I rut 

t, c 

. coiit. lining me 

By meii 

ms of a nn<j 



ivetlv under the 


cylinder, D. which' 

lies centi 



tiie tops of the 



Til rough an 





Her of this cv 


passes a hollow me' 

tal plun.. 

V. w 


I dii)s in the m< 

contained in the cr 

.p of the 


11 ec 


Tll(> suspensioi 


fine sev 

.-ing silk, wf 

/xed or si 




'he thread jiasse 

a little 

pulley, E, al 

)oye, with 


Ill p; 


IKiraMel or nearl 

V par- 

allel ai 

id close togi 

ether. A 

d in hw-. I. the 

" large 

coils ai 

•e eonnocted 

" tandem 



rrent uoidd ent 

left har 

id coil at the 

>t ii 

nt : 

from the other 

end of 

this coi 

1, a thick wi 


e nu 


cvIindtM- IviuiX 

the lar 

Lie coils, mal 


on u 

• it, I 

the small \-oi'l 

bv Us 


y cup, and from the mercury ( 



<ses to 

one en( 

I of the othe 

r large coi 




• to prevent heal 

ing of 

the mei 

•curv connec 

rions, the 




is hollow an<l tl 

B is do 

uble walled. 

so that a 

^f e 

old water n.av 1 

)e sent 


^ tiiem from 


•ed I 


I the stand abo 

ve the 


-ent, the nee 

i\>sary e(ji 



ing made by mc 

'ans of 

small n 

ibber tubes. 

12 W. N. Sill — Electro- Dynamometer for Large Currents. 

When the current passes, the suspended coil is powerfully 
deflected but its actual movement is limited bj a vertical wire 
stop. There are two of these stops, one on each side of the 
pointer-rod of the suspended coil. They are about 15°'°' apart, 
so that the rod can move but 7-5°'°' on either side the center. 
To the pointer-rod are attached on opposite sides, two silk 
threads which lead over pulleys on the side bars to small pans, 
one on each side of the instrument. (Fig. 1), The pulleys are 

i for the threads. They are light, 
and turn on hardened steel pivots. When de- 
urred, weights are added to the pan on the side 
opposite until the pointer-rod returns to the starting point. 
If the weight added is too great, the pointer-rod is drawn 
against the other wire stop. Weights may then be removed 
or put into the opposite pan, until the right point is attained. 

W. N. Hill— Electro-Dynamometer for Large Currents. 

14 W. K Hill — Electro- Dynamometer for Large Currents. 

The weiglit employed exactly balances the magnetic force. 
The mode of observing the zero point was not quite satisfac- 
tory. It was originally intended to use a vertical wire stop, 
the pointer-rod to be drawn back until it just touched the wire, 
but it was found that it was difficult to hit this point exactly. 
Finally, a scale was marked on the cylinder in front of the 
instrument (fig. 1) and a pointer of aluminum wire fastened 
to the rod, so that it would traverse the scale. This plan 
worked well and with more careful construction will doubtless 
be sufficient, but a better method is probably one suggested by 
Captain F. M. Eamsay, U. S. N., which is to use a light verti- 
cal pointer hanging over the scale on the base. When ad- 
justed, the pointer-rod of the suspended coil should just touch 
the vertical pointer when the latter is at zero. The exact 
return to the same point would be easily seen, as a small excess 
of weight would cause a movement of the pointer over the 

The pans are of the same weight and the threads by which 
they are hung, are fibers of unspun silk. The friction of the 
pulleys is very small, and would be trifiing if they were made 
with jewelled bearings. Also, one balances or nearly balances 
the other, so that practically their friction may be neglected, 
although allowance might be made for it if extreme nicety 
were aimed at. It must be remembered that the actual obser- 
vation is made when the coil is in the zero position, the weight 
taken being that required to balance the deflecting force. The 
movement of the pulleys is then very slight and the weight acts 
exactly at right angles to the pointer-rod. 

For the measurement of the large currents derived from dy- 
namo-electric machines, minuteness is not demanded, since the 
variations due to fluctuations in the currents, alterations in 
resistance, etc., are much greater than the limits of observation 
in such an instrument as this. Thus in practice, when attempt- 
ing to ascertain the current obtained per horse power expended, 
we have to note the velocity of the machine and the indications 
of the power dynamometer, together with the current measure, 
as nearly as possible at the same moment. Quickness and 
simplicity of working, together with strength and compactness 
are required in the electro-dynamometer, and this instrument 
possesses these practical advantages, while it is capable of a 
good degree of accuracy. 

The writer has employed it at the U. S. Torpedo Station for 
measuring currents of from 20 to 80 webers. It is a good work- 
ing instrument and gives uniform results. It was made for 
experimental trial and is defective in certain respects. With 
some improvements in construction, it would be a little more 
sensitive, particularly to comparatively small currents. The 

W. K Bill— Electro- Dynamometer for Large Currents. 15 

suspension arrangement is supported on the large coils and 
lacks steadiness. It should be placed upon a distinct standard. 
A support for the deflecting coil when not in use, should be 
added and an arrangement for centering it quickly. 

Theory of the Instrument. — The expression for the strength of 
current is very simple. The weight found is that required to 
balance the deflective force and is observed at zero, so that the 
earth's and local attractions are avoided, nor does the torsion 
of the suspension enter. Let 

S = strength of current in webers, 

w = weight used, in milligrams. 

I = length of weight-arm or distance from point where weight 

C = constant of instrument or length of magnetic arm. 

By the theoiy of the electro-djnaraometer, the force acting 
to deflect is represented by the expression — ^ X 5- X S^ in 

which is the constant of the large coils or Gr, and g the 

constant of deflecting coil. This force acts with the arm C, 
and is balanced by the weight acting with the arm I, Hence 

The coils being large, Gr and g are readily ascertained from 
measurement. I is a known distance. C is'the constant of the 
instrument and must be specially determined. With the instru- 
ment in question, C was found by running the same currents 
through it and through Trowbridge's dynamometer, the con- 
stant of which was accurately known. C, I, Gr, and g being 
known, it is evident that from weight found, the current may 
be obtained with little calculation. Or, a table may be drawn 
up from which the values desired can be obtained by inspection. 
With this instrument, which has many turns in the fixed 
and movable coils, the deflections are powerful, requiring 
weights to balance them large enough to give sufficient sensi- 

The following table shows the weights required for currents 
from 21 to 80 webers, and from 91 to 100 webers, with my 
instrument as arranged. 

16 W. K Hill— Electro- Dynamometer for Large Currents. 

This table shows whole webers only, which, for some pi 
poses, would be sufficient, but the subdivisions can be suppli 
if desired. Thus, we have between 59 and 60 webers : 

If a set of weights arranged for ordinary balance use is em- 
ployed, it would be better to draw up the table to correspond, 
making the difference between any two contiguous terms of w, 
the smallest weight taken. Thus my instrument indicates 
lO""^, which gives sufficient minuteness. 

It is plain that a set of weights could be made which would 

represent webers current, making any calculation unnecessary. 

This would be often convenient, if much work was to be done. 

For technical purposes, when an approximate measure is 

sufficient, a set which would not be too cumbrous might ha 

•Speights for diffe ' '^ "" -. . . • 

;ermediate figure 

Principal weights. 

2-110 1 40 

With this instrument, I have worked with currents as small as 
10 webers, but it is not sensitive enough for such use. Above 20 
webers, it operates satisfactorily. Greater nicety of construction 
would confer greater sensitiveness to small weights, but it is 
evident that this form of the dynamometer is particularly suit- 
able for large currents. 

We have S : S' : : \^w : k^w\ 

That is, as the currents increase, the corresponding weights 
increase more rapidly and greater accuracy and minuteness are 
attained. Between 21 and 22 webers, the difference of weight 
is -06 grm., and between 99 and 100 -27 grm. 

My best thanks are due to Prof. John Trowbridge, of Har- 
vard University, for advice and tlie use of his apparatus. 

U. S. Torpedo Station, Newport, R. I., October 26, 1879. 

Gilbert's Geology of the Henry Mountain 

Mr. Gilbert presents much that is new to Geology in his 
account of the Henry Mountains. These mountains — so named 
by Mr. Powell in honor of Professor Joseph Henry — are situated 
in Southern Utah, about the meridian of 110^ 45', and the par- 
allel of 33°. They are an irregular group — not a range— of 
five mountains, the highest about 5,000 feet above the arid 
plateau at their base, and 11,000 feet above the sea. It is 
stated that although much cut up by vallies of erosion, they 
still show, to some extent, 
by their forms, but chiefly 
by the dip of their beds, that 
they were originally mammi- 
form bulgings of the strata of 
the region, or groups of such 
bulgings. The accompany- 
ing figure is a ground-plan 
of the ilenry Mountains: N, 
Mt Hillers; M, Mt. Holmes; 
E, Mt. Ellsworth ; it rep- 
resents N (Mt. Ellen), P (Mt. 
Pennell), H (Mt. Hillers) as 
each a group; M (Mt Holmes) 


domes, and E (Mt. Ellsworth) 
alone as single. The single 
bulgings or domes vary in 
diameter from half a mile to 
four miles, and the outline is 
nearly circular or somewhat 
oval, though more or less 
irregular where they have en- 
croached on one another. 

The strata constituting them are those of the Cretaceous 
formation, which c<MnprisCs, beginning abovt\ the "Maruk,"' 
''Blue Gate" and "Tununk" sandstones, and "lleurvs Park 
Group," and has tiiere a thickness of 8,500 feet ; the -Iura 'I'rias, 


the '^Fia; 


1 8 Gilbert's Geology of the Henry Ale 

"Yermilion Cliff" and "Sbinaru 

ness of 2,930 feet ; and the Uppe 

in the mountains are intersected by dikes of trachyte rising 

from a mass of trachyte below. The dip of the strata varies 

from zero at top and at base to various angles between, being 

even 80° in some of them just above the base; but the rocks 

beneath the plain around them are horizontal. 

The quaquaversal dip in the strata appears to indicate, as Mr. 
Gilbert states, that the dome-like elevations were produced 
through force acting directly beneath each; and, from the position 
of the trachyte, the natural inference is drawn that the force was 
connected with the eruption of this igneous rock. In the ideal 
sections given, one of which is here reproduced, a mass of 
trachyte is represented occu- 
pying an oven-shaped cavity, 
with the strata bulged upward 
above while horizontal below. 
The trachytic mass is called a 
laccolite, from Xdxxot; cistern, 
and Xcdot; stone. (Since the 
termination ite is distinctive 
in science of names of kinds of 
minerals and rocks, the mod- 
ified form of the term, laccolith (analogous to monolith) would 
be better, and is used below as essentially Mr. Gilbert's.) 

The laccoliths are flat, or nearly so, below, as was found to 
be true at eleven localities, showing that it had taken the form 
of the surface on which it rested. The thickness or height is 
sometimes over 3,000 feet ; and the breadth is, on an average, 
seven times the height, but in one case only three times. The 
trachyte dikes which rise from it are much more numerous 
than might be inferred from the ideal section ; and they often 
come up between the beds as well as intersect them. The sand- 
stone above and below the trachytic mass, or adjoining the 
dikes, is usually more or less altered by the heat for a thick- 
ness of a foot or more. The erosion which has reduced the 
original domes to deeply gorged mountain peaks and ridges 
has in some of them exposed part of the interior laccolith so as 
to show its original surface, while in one the whole stands bare, 
but much eroded through the action of waters. 

The chamber occupied by the laccolith was in all cases made 
along a shaly layer in the formation, where the cohesion was 
least. The trachyte is a compact porphyritic variety, wholly 
destitute of any trace of cellules. There are faint indications 
of three or four successive beds in some of the masses. 

In further explanation of these peculiar mountain structures, 
the following sentences and illustrations are cited from Mr. 
Gilbert's Eeport. 

In Mi. Ellsworlh "from all sides tbe strata rise, slowly at 
first, but with steadily increasing rate, until the angle of 45° is 
reached. Then the dip as steadily diminishes to the center, 
where it is nothing. A model to exhibit the form of the dome 
would resemble a round- 
topped hat ; only the level 

curve instead of an angle, and ' ',- ' ■"■•'^'> -'-W- -: - :.: " ' 

the sides would not be per 
pendicular, but would flan 
rapidly outward. (See fig. 8. > 
The base of the arch is not 
circular, but is slightly oval, 

the long diameter being one-tliird greater than the short. The 
length of the uplift is a little more than four miles; the width 
a little more than three miles, and the height about 5,000 feet. 
The curvature fades away so gradually at its outer limit that it is 
not easy to tell where it ends, 4. 

and the horizontal dimen- 
sions assigned to the dome 
are no more than rude ap- 
proximations." "Dikes and 
sheets abound from the crest 
of the dome down to what 
might be called its springing 
line — the line of maximum 
dip. At the center, dikes 
are more numerous ; near the 
limit, sheets. The central 
area is crowded so full of 
dikes, and the weathering ' 
brings them so conspicuously 
to the surface, that the softer 

cealed, and from some points of view the trachyte appears to 
make the entire mass." The above diagram (figure 4) "shows 
the arrangement of the dikes in one of the outer amphitheaters 
of the mountain, where they are less complicated than in the 
central regions." 

'■The trachyte masses and the altered rocks in contact with 
them are so much more durable than the unaltered strata about 
them that they have been left by the erosion in protuberancea 
The outcrop of every dike and sheet is a crag or a ridge, and the 
mountain itself survives the general degradation of the country 
only in virtue of its firmer rock-masses. Nevertheless, the 
iTiountain, because it was higher than its surroundings, has been 
exposed to more rapid erosion, and has been deprived of a 

20 Gilbert's Geology of the Henry Mountains. 

greater depth of strata. From the base of the arch there have 
been worn 3.500 feet of Cretaceous, and from 500 to 1,500 feet 
of the Jura-Trias series, which is here about 3,000 feet thick. 
From the summit of the arch more than 2,500 feet of the Jura- 
Trias have been removed. 

"The strata exposed high up on the mountain being older 
than those at the base, and the dip being everywhere directed 
away from the center, it is evident that the mountain is sur- 
rounded by concentric outcrops of beds which lift their escarp- 
ments toward it." 

" The laccolite of Mount Ellsworth is not exposed to view, 
but I am nevertheless confident of its existence — that the visi- 
ble arching strata envelop it, that the visible forest of dikes 
join it, and that the visible faulted blocks of the upper moun- 
tain achieved their displacement while floated by the still 
liquid lava. The proof, however, is not in the mountain itself, 
but depends on the association of the phenomena of curvature 
and dike and sheet with laccolites, in other mountains of the 
same group." 

27ie HiUers laccolith "is the largest in the Henry Mountains. 
Its depth is about 7,000 feet, and its diameters are four miles 
and three and three-quarter miles. Its volume is about ten 
cubic miles. The upper half constitutes the mountain, the 
lower half the mountain's deep-laid foundation. Of the jjortion 
which is above ground, so to speak, and exposed to atmospheric 
degradation, less than one half has been stripped of its cover of 
arching strata. The remainder is still mantled and shielded by 
sedimentary beds and by many interleaved sheets of trachyte." 
" All about the eroded (south) face of the mountain the base is 
revetted by walls of Vermilion and Gray Cliff sandstone, 
strengthened by trachyte sheets. At the extreme south, these 
stand nearly vertical (80°), and their inclination diminishes 
gradually in each direction, until at the east and west bases of 
the mountain it is not more than 60°." "The same beds which 
form the revet-crags on the southern base constitute also some 
of the highest peaks. Since these rest directly upon the lacco- 
lite, it is assumed that the next lower beds of the stratigraphic 
series form its floor." "It is noteworthy that wherever' the 
sedimentaries appear upon the mountain top they are highly 
metamorphic. But in the revet-crags [upturned Jura-Trias 
sandstone about the south side] there is very little alteration." 

The Mount Eih-n (UuKter (map, p. 17), having a diameter 
from north to south of more than ten miles, contains, if rightly 
understood, no less than sixteen laccoliths "in the spui-s and 
foot slopes and marginal buttes" about ihe central crest. A 
view of the western flank of the mountain is shown in figure 
5. In this view, there are recognized, in front of the highest 

Gilbert's Geology of tfie Henry Mountains. 21 

portion, the remains of three laccoliths : to the left the "G-eikie" 
laccolith; along the middle portion (S) the "Shoulder" lacco- 
lith, overlapping the base of the Geikie ; and to the right (N) 
two miles to the south of the Geikie, is the "Newberry arch," 
the last making a knob 1700 feet high, standing by itself. 
In the rear is the pyramidal Ellen Peak ; to the left of it, in the 
distance, is the *'Marvine" laccolith; and, to the right, still 

another, named the F laccolith. Lewis's Creek cuts across a 
flank of the Newberry arch and '' exposes a portion of the 
[trachytic] nucleus," overlaid by 100 to 200 feet of shale, and 
this by the Henry's Fork conglomerate. Erosion has also 
exposed on two sides the interior trachyte of the Geikie lacco- 
lith. The high crest or central region "of Mount Ellen is inter- 
sected by dikes of trachyte; moreover, Cretaceous shales are 
"baked to clinking slate," and sandstones are "greatly indur- 
ated," and there are beneath " perhaps the remains of laccolites." 
The Marvine laccolith, one of the Mount Ellen group, 
"surrounded by nothing firmer than the Tununk shale and 
Tununk sandstone [Cretaceous], has suffered a rapid denuda- 
tion, in which nearly the whole of its cover has been carried 
away without seriously impairing its form. It stands forth on 
a pedestal, devoid of talus, naked and alone. The upper sur- 
face undulates in low waves preserving the original form as it 
was impressed on the molten mass. Over a portion there is a 
thin coating of sandstone, the layer next to the trachyte being 
saved from destruction by the induration acquired during the 
hot contact. From the remainder this also has disappeared, 
and the contact face of the trachyte is bare." The extreme 

Gilbert! s Geology of the Henry Mountains. 


depth of the laccolith is 1,200 feet, and its diameters are 6,000 
and 4,000 feet 

In the Jukes laccolith " the trachyte has a depth of only one 
thousand feet, but it lies so high with reference to the general 
degradation that it is a conspicuous feature of the topography. 
The edges of the laccolite are all eaten away, and only the cen- 
tral portion survives. All of the faces are precipitous. The 
cover of shale or sandstone has completely disappeared, and the 

upper ! 

(figure 6) shows that its wasting has not progressed so far as 
to destroy all trace of an original even surface. The eminences 
of the present surface combine to give to the eye which is 
aligned with their plane the impression of a straight line. The 
hill is loftier than the laccolite, for under the one thousand feet 
of trachyte are five hundred feet of softer rock which constitute 
its pedestal, and by their yielding undermine the laccolite and 
perpetuate its cliffs." 

The laccoliths are described as occurring at different levels, 
between beds of the Carboniferous, Jura-Trias, and Cretaceous 
formations. The lowest in stratigraphical position, Mount Ells- 
worth, is 4,500 feet below the level of the highest ; and it was 
probably covered originally by at least 7,000 feet of strata 
exclusive of the Tertiary. But since the Tertiary, according 
to Mr. Gilbert, probably spread over the region, and owes its 
absence only to subsequent denudation, the total thickness, 
since that of the Tertiary is 3,500 to 7,000 feet, may have been 
much over 10,000 feet. 

The facts brought out appear to sustain Mr. Gilbert's conclu- 
sion that the mountains were made such, out of horizontal 
strata, by the ascending trachyte, which "insinuated itself 
between the strata, and opened for itself a chamber by lifting 
all the superior beds." (p. 19). 

The steps in the early part of the history are given as follows 
on page 95 of the Eeport. 

Gilbert's Geology of the Henry Mountains. 23 

"When lavas, forced upward from lower-lying reservoirs, reach 
the zone in which there is the least hydrostatic resistance to their 
accumulation, they cease to rise. If this zone is at the top of the 
earth's crust they build volcanoes ; if it is beneath, they build 
laccolites. Light lavas are more apt to produce volcanoes ; heavy, 
laccolites. The porphyritic trachytes of the Plateau Province 
produced laccolites." 

" The station of the laccolite being decided, the first step in its 
formation is the intrusion along a parting of strata, of a thin sheet 
of lava, which spreads until it has an area adequate, on the prin- 
ciple of the hydrostatic press, to the deformation of the covering 
strata. The spreading sheet always extends itself in the direction 
of least resistance, and if the resistances are equal on all sides, 
takes a circular form. So soon as the lava can uparch the strata 
it does so, and the sheet becomes a laccolite. With the continued 
addition of lava the laccolite grows in height and width, until 
finally the supply of material or the propelling force so far dimin- 
ishes that the lava clogs by congelation in its conduit and the in- 
flow stops." *'A second irruption may take place either before or 
after the first is solidified. It may intrude above or it may intrude 
beneath it ; and observation has not yet distinguished the one 
from the other. In any case it carries forward the deformation of 
cover that was begun by the first, and combines with it in such 
way that the compound form is symmetric, and is substantially the 

aid have been produced if the 
! laccolite gn 
length its cooled mass, heavier and stronger thai 

nbined in one. Thus the laccolite grows by succ( 

the surrounding rocks, proves a sufficient obstacle to intrusion." 
The lifting force was thus due to the forced upward-flow of 
the lava ; and it became able to overcome the resistance from 
the weight and cohesion of the rocks above by spreading into 
an opening between the horizontal strata, and widening the 
area of pressure. 

The force communicated to the lavas at their source below 
was hence sufficient, it would appear, to throw a stream, in spite 
of friction along the passage and the density of the material (at 
least 2-83 in fusion), for an unknown number of miles, up to 
the laccolith level ; and sufficient at this point, further, to lift, 
m the case of the lowest of the laccoliths, a superincumbent mass 
of beds 10,000 feet thick (supposing the Tertiary at top 3,000 
feet of it) and 2-25 in average specific gravity (equivalent in 
pressure to 675 atmospheres) to a height of 5,000 feet 

The Report offers no views as to the origin of the propelling 
force. Whatever the source, it is possible that some accession 
of energy may have come from vapors derived by the ascend- 
ing lavas from subterranean moisture or waters encountered on 
their way up, though slight compared with the vast amount 
received from action below. 

24 Gilbert's Geology of the Henry Mountains. 

The idea in the commencement of the above citation— that 
hydrostatic pressure determined the level of the laccolith among 
the strata — is dwelt upon at length in the preceding pages of 
the Report. The author argues that the relation as to density 
between the liquid trachyte and the several associated stratified 
rocks, and between the latter among themselves (the several 
densities of which he gives), is the chief cause determining the 
level among the strata of the laccoliths; saying that the lava, 
free to move upward or laterally, will intrude itself among the 
' "nation of superior 
L less average den- 
sity, and every combination of inferior strata, which includes 
the highest, shall have a greater density, than that of the lava." 
"If the fluid rock is less dense than the solid, it will pass 
through it to the surface, and build a subaerial mountain," or 
'' volcano;" if more dense than the upper portion of the solid 
rock, the fluid will not rise to the surface, but will pass between 
the heavy and light solids, and lift or float the latter," Cohe- 
sion in the rocks modifies the result; but, he says, neverthe- 
less, after discussing this point, "we are led to conclude that 
the conditions which determined the results of igneous activity- 
were the relative densities of the intruding lavas and of the 
invaded strata; and that the fulfillment of the general law of 
hydrostatics was not materially modified by the rigidity and 
cohesion of the strata." 

We refer to the report for a full explanation of this part of 
Mr. Gilbert's theory. To the writer, his explanation appears 
to be complete, without reference to this difference of density. 
With so powerful a forced movement in the lavas as the facts, 
if they are rightly interpreted, show to have existed, no other 
cause could be needed for a flow to the surface in case of an 
open channel, or for a flow to any level in the strata at which 
a fissure might terminate ; and this is true, whether the lava be 
light or heavy. In fact heavy lavas, having a specific gravity 
of 2-85 to 3'1, make the larger part of modern volcanic cones, 
as well as of non-volcanic igneous outflows, and one of the 
lighter lavas — trachyte, of the specific gravity 2-61, by Mr. 
Gilbert's determination — made the laccoliths. 

These lighter lavas are adapted to the purpose because they 
are the least fusible of ordinary igneous rocks; and they owe 
their difficult fusibility to the orthoclase feldspar which is the 
chief constituent, whose fusibility on Von Kobell's scale is 
marked 5, while that of albite is marked 4, and of labradorite 
and volcanic augite, 3. Such lavas are hence easily chilled 
and thicken greatly in the upper part of narrow fissures or of 
volcanic conduits, and it is for this reason that they have often 
made steep-sided domes over subaerial vents. 


J. LeConie — Glycogenic Function of the Liver. 25 

If the first step in the history of the laccoliths was the mak- 
ing of intersecting fissures narrowing upward, some reaching to 
the surface, it may be, and others to difterent levels in the 
strata, the trachytic lava passing up would tend to become 
thickened by cooling, or might even become solidified, in the 
upper part of such fissures, because of the large extent of the 
cooling surfaces as compared with the amount of liquid. But 
along their intersections it would be most sure to remain 
liquid, and here conduits would become localized, from which 
the upward forced liquid rock might spread laterally, what- 
ever the height, and produce the laccolith. The ready cool- 
ing of the trachyte would tend to limit the lateral flow of 
the lavas in such chambers, and so aid in producing the thick 
form of the laccolith, besides preventing a waste of energy. 
With intermissions in the flow, the trachyte of the chamber 
would be intermittent in its enlargement, and receive that 
degree of bedded structure which, according to Mr. Gilbert, 

The facts give some hints as to the source of the great 
force producing the upfllow of lavas in non-volcanic fissure- 
make the vast extent of such outflows, as 
n, India and other regions, intelli- 
Volcanoes are small outlets compared with fissures that 
extend for miles, and the forces they command are feeble com- 
pared with the action which makes such fissures. The opening 
of one or more great fissures is the initial step in the making of 
a volcano ; and the volcano is the open chimney or vent left 
after the fissure-action had spent its force — a point iliustrnted 
by the writer in his account of the Hawaiian islands and tlieir 
volcanic origin.* J. D. Dana. 

[Read to the National Academy of Sciences, October 30, 1879.] 

In my previous paper,t I attempted to show that the well 
known and remarkable fact that nearly the whole food absorbed 
from the alimentary canal is distributed through the liver be- 
fore it reaches the general circulation, is proof that, in a very 
important way, the liver prepares the food for the uses to which 
it is applied in the animal body : and further that the prepara- 
tion is accomplished by the glvcogenic function. According 
to my view there are three sources of glycogen, viz: 1. The 
whole of the amyloids: these are arrested in the liver as glyco- 
* Expl. Exp. Rep. Geology, 1849. f This Journal, it, 99. 

26 J. LeConte — Glycogenic Function of the Liver. 

gen and re-delivered as liver-sugar, little by little as required, 
and burned, 2. Albuminoid excess: this is split into a combus- 
tible portion (glycogen) which is delivered to the blood as liver- 
sugar and burned, and an incombustible portion which is either 
urea or rapidly sinks into urea and is eliminated by the kidneys. 
3. Waste tissue: this is also split in the liver and disposed of like 
the last. There are the same three sources of vital force and 
animal heat, viz : 1. the combustion of the whole of the amy- 
loids ; 2. the combustion of the combustible portion of albumi- 
noid food excess ; and 3, the combustion of the combustible 
portion of waste tissues. Therefore the function of the liver is 
to prepare all the fuel of the body, and this fuel is only liver- 

Now it has been brought to my attention that my account of 
the disposal of waste is in conflict with the usual view of physi- 
ologists, which view is supported by many facts. Let us then 
state sharply the difference. 

According to the usual view, oxygen taken in at the lungs 
is carried by the arterial blood to the tissues, there seizes with 
avidity upon these at the moment of their decomposition, 
changes them into CO,, 11,0 and urea ; and then these final 
products of combustion only are carried by the venous blood 
to be eliminated by lungs and kidneys. According to my 
view on the contrary, waste tissue is not burned or changed 
into final products at once, but circulates as incombustible 
matter dissolved in the blood, is carried to the liver, and there 
prepared for final combustion and elimination, and only there- 
after does it unite with oxygen to form CO, and H,0, We see 
the contrast; which view is right? 

There are some facts which strongly support each view. The 
usual view that waste tissue is burned at once and only the 
final products of combustion circulate in the blood, is supposed 
to be sustained : 1. by the fact that the change from bright to 
dark blood, the exchange of oxygen for carbonic acid, and 
therefore the combustion, takes place principally if not entirely 
in the capillaries and therefore in contact with the tissues ; and 
2, by the additional fact, that increased activity of any organ, 
e. g., a muscle, is attended with increased heat, increased waste, 
and therefore presumably of increased combustion of waste. But, 
on the other hand, ray view is sustained by the experiments of 
Schiff, already alluded to in my previous paper. These experi- 
ments prove in the most positive manner, that poisonous waste 
is carried to the liver and there decomposed and made compar- 
atively innocuous. 

Here then are two incontestible facts : 1, The combustion of 
waste takes place principally, if not wholly in the capillaries 
and therefore in contact with the tissues, 2. The waste is not 

J. LeConte— Glycogenic Function of the Liver. 27 

burned as such, as soon as formed, but must be carried to the 
liver to be prepared for final combustion. These two facts 
must be brought together and reconciled. I think this may be 
done as follows: 

First, it must be remembered that waste is hut a small fraction 
of the material used as fuel, by far the larger portion of such 
material being /ooo? which never becomes tissue at all, viz: 
amyloids and albuminoid excess. Now these also, although they, 
or the fuel made from them, are confessedly carried and burned 
in the blood, are burned principally in the capillaries and there- 
fore in contact with the tissues. The reasons then, for burning 
combustible /ooc? principally in the capillaries, would equally 
apply to burning combustible waste in the same place, and 
therefore the fact that combustible waste is burned principally 
in the capillaries is no argument that it is burned as soon as 
formed. Evidently then the question is not one which concerns 
the combustion of waste alone, but the combustion of all fuel. 
The question is, why does combustion of the combustible por- 
tion both of food and waste, take place, and therefore both heat 
and other forms of force are generated, in the capillaries and in 
contact with the tissues? l^he, final cause is, indeed, plain 
enough ; it takes place there, because there the force is vvanted ; 
but what is the jyhysical cause, or the process which determines 
this result? There are probably several. 

1. The blood is much longer time in the capillaries than in 
any other portion of its course, and therefore even if the rate of 
combustion be uniform, the amount of combustion would be 
greater there than in any other place ; and moreover, if in- 
creased activity, increases heat and tlierefore combustion, it 
does so because it also increases the blood-supply. 

2. But probably the rate of combustion in the course of cir- 
culation is not uniform. It is probable that the tissues them- 
selves are an apparatus for causing or accelerating combustion. 
The termination of nerve-fibers in the tissues, and the control- 
ling influence of nerves over all functions, suggests that the 
discharge or the arrest of nerve-current, in some way which we 
do not yet understand, is the principal cause of combustion and 
therefore of generation of force there. Farther: it has been 
suggested to me by Mr. Christy, an assistant in the chemical 
laboratory, that the chemical process may possibly be something 
like this: oxygen is carried by the haemoglobin, the fuel is 
carried as liver-sugar by the plasma, side by side in the same 
current; nerve discharge reverses the order of affinity and the 
oxygen immediately leaves the haemoglobin to seize the sugar. 
In most tissues, such as many glands, etc., which are constantly 
active; and in all tissues so far as tlie function of nutrition is 
concerned, the process is continuous and under the influence of 

28 J. LeConte — Glycogenic Function of the Liver. 

the sympathetic or vaso-moter system. In muscular contrac- 
tion, on the other hand, the discharge is powerful and periodic, 
and under the influence of the voluntary or of the reflex system. 

3. It is probable also, nay almost certain, that the first de- 
composition of tissue, short of combustion, i. e. the first forma- 
tion of waste, being a descensive change, a change from a less 
stable to a more stable condition, is itself a process by which 
heat and other forms of force are generated. This of course 
takes place only in the tissues. 

Mj view, therefore, is briefly as follows : The liver-sugar 
formed from the sources already mentioned, 1st, commences to 
burn in the capillaries of the lungs, and 2nd, continues to burn 
in the course of the arterial circulation. The combustion thus 
far produces only heat. But 3rd, the main combustion takes 
place in the capillaries, probably under the influence of nerve- 
discharge, and this part generates not only heat but other forms 
of force characteristic of the peculiar tissue. But the fact that 

has misled physiologists to believe that the tissues themselves 
are burned. 

It seems to me that physiologists do not even yet sufficiently 
appreciate the function of the blood as a reservoir. The blood 
must be regarded as a reservoir not only for oxygen and car- 
bonic acid, but also and still more for Jood, for fuel and for 
waste. It is now well recognized as a reservoir for oxygen and 
carbonic acid, but not sufficiently for food and waste. The 
tissue-food of to-day, is not used for building to-day ; but the 
blood is drafted upon for materials for this purpose and re- 
supjjlies itself from albuminoid food. The amyloid food of to- 
day, is not burned to-day ; but the blood is drafted upon for 
fuel and re-supplies itself from the liver, while the liver in its 
turn, re supf)lies itself from the amyloid food.* So also waste 
tissue of to-day is not mainly burned and eliminated to-day ; 
but the blood is again drafted upon for fuel from this source 
and re-supplies itself from the liver and the liver from the 

Finally, it will be observed that the view which I here 
present, as to the disposal of waste, is in some respects inter- 
mediate between the view of tiie old physiologists under the 
guidance of Lavoisier, and the usual modern view. According 
to the old view, waste is dissolved in the blood, carried to the 
eliminating organs especially the lungs, and there burned with 

W. O. Levison—Ekcirolyiic Phenomena. 29 

> the usual modern 

! there on the spot the waste, and the products of combus- 
)n are then carried to be eliminated in the lungs. The old 
ew is right in supposing that waste is carried in the blood, 
It wrong in supposing it to be combustible and therefore 
irned as soon as it meets oxygen in the lungs. The modern 
ew is right in supposing that combustion takes place mainly 
the tissues and not in the lungs, but wrong in supposing 
at it is the unprepared waste which is there burned. 


v. — On Electroly, 

tic Phe 

nomena; by Wallace 


[Abstract of a paper read befo 

.w York Academy of Sciences 

, February 

In 1866 I devised a battery 
or other electro-positive metal 
sodium or potassium amalgam, 
tery to my knowledge previous 
gam is perfectly fluid and its s 
in two Ibrms. 

in which the usual plate of zinc 
is replaced by a surface of liquid 
, It differs from any such bat- 
ily constructed, in that the amal- 
urface visible. It may be made 

The first consists o? a glass cup containmg two or three centi- 
meters in depth of 10 per cent sodium amalgam and filled with 
water. In this water a flat coil of platinized lead wire is sus- 
pended over the amalgam, and through a perforation in the 
side of the cup near the bottom a screw cup connects with 
the amalgam. A wire from this screw cup forms tlie negative 
pole, a wire from the lead coil the positive pole. This battery 
is strongly alkaline, yet gives quite a strong current. The 
second form is varied b\^ substituting for the lead coil a porous 
cup containinfT nitric acid and a slip of platinum, and for the 
water, dilute sulphuric acid. This form of battery gives a 

30 W. G. Levison—Electrocyiic Phenomeyia. 

amalgam is observed, which seems to arise from its being 
raised in the center while the current flows and its falling to 
the normal level when it is interrupted. 

While the circuit is broken there is a constant evolution of 
hydrogen gas in very fine bubbles from the entire surface of 
the amalgam. When the circuit is closed they no longer 
escape freely at the point of evolution, but glide over its sur- 
face from all sides toward the center where they coalesce to 
form large bubbles, which there escape. These bubbles are 
abnormally spread or flattened out upon the surface of the 
amalgam, escape with a peculiar trembling as if with difficulty, 
and if caught under the porous cup they still exhibit the flat- 
tened aspect. On breaking the current they become hemis- 
pherical and again escape readily from all parts of the liquid 
surface. Some of the phenomena thus observed I have since 
contrived to exhibit in another form by means of the vertical 
lantern, using an ordinary horizontal cell five inches in diameter, 
which, however, is especially prepared for the purpose by cut- 
ting a groove in the glass across it just deep enough to keep a 
long globule of mercury in place, and slightly shallower in the 
middle, so as to hold two globules of mercury opposite each 
other. When a globule of mercury three centimeters long is 
held in one end of the groove touched by the negative pole of a 
four-cup Bunsen battery, the cell filled with dilute sulphuric 
acid, the positive pole touched to the electrolyte at the opposite 
end of the groove, and by means of an included signal key, 
the current sent through the circuit, the globule of mercury 
instantly extends. On breaking the circuit it resumes its nor- 
mal form. On reversing the direction of the current by a 
pole changer, again closing circuit by the key, and allowing the 
current to pass continuously, the globule is at first agitated and 
repelled by the positive pole, but after a moment is again at- 
tracted. A globule at the opposite pole acts in a similar manner. 
Two globules at opposite poles first attract each other, on 
reversing current both are repelled for a moment and then 
being again attracted, extend toward each other. The exact 
amount of this attraction and repulsion may be measured by 
means of a perpendicular U tube containing mercury and 
dilute sulphuric acid over the mercury in one branch, the bat- 
tery terminals being immersed in the electrolyte on one side 
and mercury on the other. When the current flows, the mer- 
cury column being the negative pole, it will rise toward the 
positive wire. On reversing the current it will be more or less 
repelled below normal level. A capillary tube is not necessary 
as it may be a centimeter in internal diameter. In all cases of 
attraction the globule or column seems to be constricted near 
the end as if it tended to part at that point and the negative 

W. G. Levison— Electrolytic Phenomena. 31 

globule frequently does part throwing off a small globule which 
runs to the anode; in all cases of repulsion the end tends to 
spread or enlarge. 

Fusible metal in hot solution of sodic sulphate, or dilute 
sulphuric acid in a glass tube, and metallic lead under fused 
chloride of sodium, in a grooved scorifier, in a muffle at a red 
heat, exhibit the same phenomena ; hence they are not peculiar 
to mercury or amalgams. If, instead of a long groove as de- 
scribed, a series of five short grooves be cut (as shown in fig. 
3) so as to hold five globules of mercury in a line and the end 
globules be touched by the terminal wires (as shown in fig. 4), 
on making connection they become almond-shaped (as shown 
in fig. 5). The positive globule extends toward the negative 
pole, the other four all extend toward the positive pole. 

If the terminal wires be touched to the second and fourth 
globules, the second being positive, extends toward the nega- 
tive pole, the middle and fourth extend toward the positive 
pole, and the end globules though not included in the circuit 
extend toward the center. (See fig. 6.) These are fine exper- 
iments to project before an audience, and they may be greatly 

In both these cell experiments small globules that lie on the 
plane surface of the glass move either against the rim of the 
cell, or in smaller semi-circles concentric with it from the posi- 
tive to the negative pole, or toward the end at which hydrogen 
bubbles are escaping. The curves in which these globules 
move, may be conveniently regarded as lines of voltaic force, and 
the space between and surrounding the electrodes as the vol- 
taic field. If the mercury used in these experiments contain the 
least trace of zinc or other metal, the phenomena will be con- 
siderably modified. 

When sodium amalgam is substituted for pure mercury as 
the negative globule in the single globule experiment, it is 
always at first repelled as though it had previously been the 
negative terminal, and then the poles had been reversed. 

82 W. G. Levison— Electrolytic Phenomena. 

When pure mercury is thus employed as the negative glob- 
ule under sodic sulphate, it becomes sodium amalgam, and the 
violent agitation which accompanies the repulsion of the globule 
on reversing the current is probably due to the rapid oxidation 
of the occluded sodium. 

When, however, sulphuric acid is used as the electrolyte, the 
globule could only occlude hydrogen. Since in the latter case 
it acts in a somewhat similar manner, it is possible that hydro- 
gen is thus occluded, and from its rapid oxidation arises the 
agitation of the globule on reversing the current. The question 
might perhaps be decided by the Sprengel pump. 

Two platinum electrodes delicately suspended near together 
in dilute hydric sulphate, will repeatedly attract each other, and 
at the moment of contact fall apart again, each separation being 
accompanied by a bright spark. Two plates of carbon deli- 
cately suspended are perceptibly attracted when they form the 
electrodes in dilute hydric sulphate or other electrolyte of a 
20 cell Bnnsen battery. 

The attraction of solid electrodes may be due merely to the 
escape from them of gas bubbles, but the motion seems to be 
simultaneous with the closing of the circuit and to precede 
momentarily the evolution of the gas. 

The currents in the electrolyte, to which most previous ob- 
servers have attributed the movements of the globules of mer- 
cury, may be beautifully shown by projection on a screen if 
a number of globules between the poles are held in depressions 
in the rubber bottom of an ordinary upright clamp cell. 

I have given a great deal of consideration to the phenomena 
described in this paper and to the views of those who have 
studied them, and though I am not able to give expression to 
the law by which they are governed, T can not accept any 
suggestion as yet advanced. I believe, however, that they offer 
the way to an important discover}^, perhaps the mode of trans- 
mission of the electric current, when the methods of exhibiting 
them herein described, the abnormal behavior of gas bubbles in 
the sodium amalgam battery, the movements of metals and 
alloys other than mercury itself, the transmission of globules 
across the voltaic field, the mode of measuring the attraction 
and repulsion unimpeded by capillary force, and the move- 
ments of solid electrodes, attract the attention of observers 
provided with recent facilities for experimentally examining 
them, and that the results may lead to the complete develop- 
ment of a series of phenomena that have long awaited inves- 

R. P. Whitfield— Fossil Crustaceans from Ohio. 

Art. VI. — Notice of New Forms of Fossil Crustaceans from the 
Upper Devonian Roc^s of Ohio, with descriptions of New Gen 
era and Species; bj R P. Whitfield.* 

In the 16th Report of the State Cabinet of New York, 
there is described and figured a pecuh"ar bivalve crustacean 
from the Hamilton formation of New York, under the name 
Ceraiioraris punclatus. It is again repeated on Plate 23, fig. 7, 
of the Illustrations of Devonian Fossils, Section Crustacea, under 
the name Ceratiocaris (Aristozoe) punctaius. Among the fossils of 
the Ohio Geological Survey, there are represented three species 
of similar form, but specifically distinct from the above ; and I 
have seen examples of at least two species from the Hamilton 
and Chemung groups of New York, which may be distinct 
from any of these. 

These fossils differ from the true type of Ceratiocaris in so 
many particulars, and to so great an extent, that it is quite 
impossible to include ihem in that genus. The reference to 
Aristozoe Barrande, is, however, still more erroneous, as the 
forms to which that name is applied are true Ostracoides, hav- 
ing all their parts concealed within the carapace, as in the 
Leperditia and its allies ; while the forms under consideration 
are provided with a bivalve or, at least, a two-sided carapace, 
which incloses the thoracic portions; while the abdomen and 
caudal parts are naked, or not inclosed within this covering; 
and are more properly classed among the Pbyllopods. 

That this latter character, the naked abdomen and caudal 
plate, pertains to these organisms, is abundantly proven by the 
Ohio specimens now under consideration. The fossils are 
found inclosed in small concretions; and there would be but 
little chance for specimens, or parts of specimens of different 
species, or, less likely, of parts of individuals of distantly 
related generic forms, to be inclosed in the same small concre- 
tion ; so we may safely conclude, that, where parts or frag- 
ments of individuals of corresponding size are found in the 
same concretion, they are parts of one individual or, at least, 
of the same species. In the concretions in question there are 
parts of the naked abdomen 


with its , 


ipanying spines, i 

ire imbedded 

in thi 

e con- 


3n togeth^ 

er wi 

th the carapace 

which I have 


ed as 

the ! 

same species. 

This I consider 

as ample proc 

.f thf 

It the 


belong t 

,o the 

1 one individual ; 

; and that the 


lal of 


h they are 


•emains, was provided with a n 




spinose Ci 


appendage as ii 

1 Ceratiocaris. 

It ii 

. also 


hese descripti 

ions wil 

1 be repeated in vol. ii 

i, Paleont. Ohio, wil 

tb iUus 


species. AI 

cabinet of Dr. J. S. 




Thibb Sbbies, Vol. XIX, Nf 

>. 109.-JA1I., 1880. 

34 B. P. WMlfieU—Ntw Forms of Fossil Crustaceans 

stated in the Illustrations of Devonian Fossils that one specimen 
resembling C. punctatus has been found with a body similar to 
that called C. armatus attached to the carapace, showing their 
individual relations. 

The several species above mentioned, while differing greatly 
from Ceratiocaris, possess features in common which at once 
characterizes them as a natural group, sufficiently marked to 
be readily distinguished. I therefore propose to recognize them 
as a distinct genus under the generic name EcHlNOCARis, pos- 
sessing the following characters: 

EcHiNOCARis, new genus. 

Carapace bivalve, valves subovate in outline; united on the 
dorsal margin by a straight hinge; the anterior, basal and" pos- 
terior margins rounded, and generally more or less produced 
posteriorly. Surface of the valves marked by a more or less 
distinctly elevated, curved, longitudinal ridge, centrally or 
subcentrally situated ; also by one or more (usually three) 
vertical ridges, or ridge-like nodes, extending downward from 
the hinge-line upon the body of the valve, and usually situated 
anterior to the middle of the length. Abdomen naked, com- 
posed of several segments (four known) and a caudal plate, 
whicb is produced into an elongated spine with a lateral, mov- 
able spine on each side. Posterior margin of the abdominal 
segments bearing spines on the now known species. Type 
Echinocaris s'ublevis Whitf. 

Among the genera now known and referred to the Cera- 
tiocaridce^ there are several distinct types of structure, indicated 
by the features of the carapace alone, independent of the 
changes which take place in the abdominal segments and in 
the caudal spine and appendages. The following synopsis of 
some of their characters may serve to illustrate their peculiari- 
ties and to show more distinctly the relations which Echinocaris 
bears to other known genera. 

1st section : Carapace more or less elongated, with a straight 
or slightly arched dorsal line ; anterior end sharply rounded or 
pointed (rostrate); posterior end truncate; sides convex, smooth 
or simply striate, sometimes marked by a simple ocular node 
near the antero-dorsal margin ; no ridges or other nodes. Cera- 
tiocaris McCoy, 1849; Caryocaris Salter, 1862; Hymenocaru 
Salter, 1852; ISolenocaris Meek, 1872 ;(?) Colpocaris Meek, 1872. 
The last somewhat questionable in character. 

2d section : Carapace similar in form to that of section 1, 
with the postero-basal angles produced into spines, and the sur- 
face with longitudinal ridges. Diihyrocaris Scouler {=Argas 

3d section : Carapace rounded at both extremities, elongate- 

from the Upper Devonian Rocks of Ohio. 35 

elliptical or elongate-ovate in form, with a straight dorsal mar- 
gin ; surface concentrically striate, no nodes or ridges. Lingu- 
locaris Salter, 1866. 

4th section: Carapace triangular, dorsal margin straight; sur- 
face punctate or reticulate, and concentrically striated (growth 
lines?). Z>^W^ocam Salter, 1860. 

5th section : Carapace suboval or subovate, with a straight 
hinge-line: surface marked with longitudinal ridges or repre- 
I nodes and ridges ; surface of parts smooth, punctate 

or pustulose. ±Jchinocaris^ new gen, 

6th section : Carapace broadly oval or ovate ; no straight 
cardinal line, consequently no hinge; anterior end rostrated or 
beaked ; surface destitute of nodes or ridges. Physocaris Salter, 

7th section: Carapace composed of three pieces, or apparently 
of three, two of which are semi-circular, with the anterior end 
of each obliquely truncate, forming, when the two are united, 
an anterior triangular notch into which the third or rostral 
plate is inserted; surface concentrically marked by growth 
lines ; no nodes or ridges. Pellocaris Salter, 1866 ; Discinncaris 
Woodward, 1866; Aptichopsis BsiYr-Axidie, 1872; Pterocaris BsiV- 
rande, 1872 (not Heller, 1862). 

It will be readily seen, from the above synopsis, that Echino- 
caris differs materially in the features of the carapace from all 
the other genera enumerated. The features of the abdomen 
and caudal parts are not as reliable as those of the carapace, 
but are somewhat distinctive, as may be seen by the following 
table of comparison. (A mark of interrogation indicates that 
the parts are unknown or only partially known.) 

Ceratiocaris 5 or 6 smootli 3 

Dithyrocaris 1 smooth 3 

Hymenocaria 8 smooth 6 

Dictyocaris 6 smooth 3 7 

Physocaris 5 smooth 3 

Ecliinocaris 4 spiaey 3 

Peltocaris 3 smooth 3 

Caryocaris 1? 3 

Solenocaria ? ? 

Aptychopsis ? ? 

The number of segments here allotted to any given genus 
indicates the maximum number of naked segments known : 
some of them contain species having a smaller number, and in 
some a much greater number exists, some of which are con- 
cealed within the carapace. Thus Ceraliocaris is known to 
possess in one species fourteen segments in the abdomen, only 
six of which are naked. 

86 R. P. Whitfield— New Forms of Fossil Crustaceans 

The genus Dithyrocaris McCoy is described as having three 
longitudinal ridges on the carapace. This feature is seen only 
when the two valves are pressed open as in McCoy's example, 
so as to present the appearance of one large plate ; in which 
case the hinge-line forms the middle ridge. 

The third or rostral plate in Peltocaris, Caryocaris, Discino- 
caris and Aptychopsis, would appear to be quite analogous to 
the small rostral plate seen in Ceratiocaris, and supposed to 
exist in Dithyrocaris^ and perhaps some others, but which is 
usually absent. It is possible many of the forms may have 
possessed this rostral plate, at least among those that are deeply 
notched in front when the valves are spread open. In this 
case they would as properly be considered as having three 
plates in the carapace as those grouped under section 7. The 
forms of this section are usually found with the carapace spread 
open on the rock, and are then circular and discoid, but when 
in their natural position would have been more or less roof- 

Colpocaris Meek presents some features which raise a question 
as to its true affinities. The longitudinal crenulated line and 
the inflection of the supposed ventral border do not seem to 
be properly understood ; and I am of the opinion it may belong 
to a different group of Crustaceans. 


Carapace obliquely subovate in general outline, the height 
equal to two-thirds the length, widest and deepest behind the 
middle, the posterior portion projecting obliquely backward 
and downward beyond the extremity of the hinge-line; dorsal- 
line straight, forming a hinge-line two-thirds the length of the 
valve; outer margin of the valves, except on the dorsum, bor- 
dered by a narrow, slightly raised and thickened rim ; anterior 
border nearly vertical from the extremity of the dorsal line, for 
about one-half the width of the valve, except a very slight round- 
ing backward to the hinge-line above; below it slopes abruptly 
backward to and along the basal line, and again more abruptly 
curving around the posterior end of the valve and forward to 
the extremity of the cardinal line ; below which it is distinctly 
excavated. The portion of the valve which projects beyond 
the hinge is nearly or quite equal to one-third the length of 
the valve. Surface of the valves convex, and marked by 
ridges and tubercles. The principal ridge commences at about 
the anterior third of the valve, and just above the middle, as 
an elevated, rounded and nearly vertical ridge; but soon bends 
somewhat abruptly, and is directed backward in a broad, sweep- 
ing curve, at less than one-third of the height of the valve from 
the lower margin, and gradually decreasing in strength ter- 

from the Upper Devonian Roclcs of Ohio. 37 

minates a little within the margin opposite the longest part of 
the valve. A second and slightly stronger ridge rises from 
just behind the middle of the length of the hinge, descends with 
a gentle forward curvature, and terminates near the upper 
anterior end of the first one. The anterior or principal tubercle 
is large and distinct, and situated near the antero-dorsal angle 
of the valve, occupying the greater part of the space between 
the front margin and the two ridges just described. Between 
this and the second ridge, the surface is elevated, forming a 
low tubercle. The surface of the anterior tubercle is occupied 
by several small but distinct pustules, and the entire surface of 
the valve is covered by a minutely granulose structure. 

Abdomen apparently consisting of four free segments ; the 
first one being short and much thicker than the others on the 
anterior end, but rapidly narrowed posteriorly ; the posterior 
margin being armed with several small spine-like tubercles. 
The other three segments are shorter than wide, gradually 
decreasing in strength and increasing in length backward, the 
first of the three being apparently less than half as long as 
wide, their posterior margins all spine-bearing; a long, curved 
spine on each side, with three short ones between, and all in- 
creasing in length backward from the first or anterior segment. 

Telson proportionally large, of a general triangular form, 
but slightly protruding at the origin of the movable spines, 
and projected behind into a long, slender, and apparently 
cylindrical spine, making the telson with its spine about as 
long as the four free segments together. Lateral spines cylin- 
drical, very gently curved, and standing at an angle of about 
forty-five degrees to the central spine. " Surface of the telson 
highly convex and somewhat angular at the origin of the spine. 
Surface of the crust of the abdomen smooth. 

This species is closely allied in the form of the carapace to 
K punctahis {Ceratiocaris puvctatus Hall, 16th Eept. State Cab. 
N. Y., p. 74. plate 8, tig. 1), but differs in the form of the 
nodes and ridges, and in the surface structure; also in wanting 
the projection at the posterior end of the hinge, if this feature 
is natural on that specimen. It is probable that the abdomen 
and telson figured on the same plate under the name Ceratio- 
caris armntus belongs to the same species as the carapace of 
-K punctaius, as suggested by Professor Hall in the explanation 
of plate 23, section Crustacea, Elust. Devon. Fossils ; and if so, 
the distinction between these two parts of the two species is 
much more marked than between the carapaces. 

Formation and locality. — In small calcareous concretions in 
the Erie shales (Portage and Chemung), at Leroy, Lake County, 

88 R. P, Whitfield— New Forms of Fossil Crustaceans 


Carapace ovate, widest aoterior to the middle, the greatest 
height equal to three-fourths of the length ; hinge-line straight, 
rather more than half as long as the valve, while nearly one- 
third the length of the valve projects behind its extremity ; 
margin of the valve bordered by a narrow, thickened rim ; 
anterior end of the valve slightly excavated below the hinge 
extremity, and the margin broadly rounded in front; posterior 
end more pointed, while the basal line is broadly and evenly 
curved. At the posterior end of the hinge the margin is also 
slightly constricted as in front. Surface of the valve convex 
and marked by the characteristic nodes or ridges. The prin- 
cipal ridge commences in an oval node, which is situated just 
within the anterior third of the length of the valve; is placed 
ally, just above the middle of the height, and the hori- 

little less than one-fourth of the length from the posterior 
extremity. The second ridge commences at the hinge-line 
near the middle of its length, and descends with a slightly 
forward direction to within a very short distance of the top of 
the vertical portion of the principal ridge. The anterior ridge, 
corresponding to the anterior node or tubercle of E. sublevis, is 
narrow and nearly vertical ; of a slightly sigmoid form, and 
originates near the anterior extremity of the hii 

' end reaching more than one-third the depth of the valve. 
The surface of the ridges and of the valve in the posterodorsal 
field, as also of the space below the principal horizontal ridge, 
is marked by correspondingly large and distinct postules. 
Abdomen and telson unknown. 

This species differs from E. suhhvis in its slightly broader 
form, and in the want of the obliquity of the axis of the valve 
with the hinge; in the narrower posterior extremity, pustulose 
surface, and in the form of the surface ridges; most notably in 
the anterior one being ridge-like and vertically sigmoid instead 
of round. The individual used in description is half an inch 
in length and three-eighths of an inch in its greatest height.^ 

Formation and locality. — In calcareous concretions in the Erie 
shales, at Leroy, Lake County, Ohio. 


Carapace elongate-subovate, about twice as long as high, 
rounded in front and somewhat pointed behind; the basal 
line straightened along the middle portion and parallel to the 
hinge-line; cardinal line straight and nearly half as long as 
the length of the valve, and a little nearer the anterior than 
to the posterior end of the carapace. Margin of the valves 

from the Upper Devonian rocks of Ohio. 39 

bordered by a narrow, elevated, thickened rim, whicli is 
expanded considerably in width around the anterior end of 
the valve, and terminates in a rounded, elongated ridge at the 
posterior extremity of the hinge; from which point the ridge 
is directed obliquely forward and slightly downward from the 
cardinal line. The surface of each valve is divided into three 
slightly elevated areas, with depressed sulci between ; an ante- 
rior, a central and a posterior one. The first is situated in the 
middle of the anterior end of the shell ; the central one unites 
with the anterior one below, and extends along the basal mar- 
gin behind, in a narrow curved point below the posterior one, 
and projects upward near the center of the valve in a trianoular 
form, terminating in an elevated point just above the median 
line ; the posterior and largest area is ovate in form, and occupies 
a little less than one-half the length of the shell, is narrowed 
in front and pointed behind, taking the form of the extremity 
of the shell. The center of the anterior area is slightly tumid. 
Along the hinge-line and just below its margin there are three 
subangular tubercles or nodes, at nearly equal distances and of 
nearly equal strength, except that the posterior one is prolonged 
at its base into a low, rounded and slightly curved elevation, 
which extends to near the point of the central raised area 
before mentioned. These three nodes, together with the 
oblique, ridge-like one terminating the mai-ginal rim, border 
the hinge-line on each valve. General surface of the valve 
finely punctate, but most distinctly so on the posterior field. 

The elongated form of the carapace readily distinguishes 
this from any of the other species described, while the number 
of node-like ridges is a very marked feature. The abdomen 
and telson of this species have not been observed, although 
several imperfect carapaces, mostly showing parts of both valves, 
have been obtained. 

Formation and locality. — In calcareous concretions in the Erie 
shales, at Leroy, Lake County, Ohio. 

Associated with the Bntomostraca, above described as from 
the concretions of the Erie shales of Ohio, are the remains of a 
Macrouran Decapod^ which appears to differ so much from any 
described genus as to make it undesirable to refer it to any of 
them. One of its peculiarities consists in the possession of a pair 
of very strong antennal appendages which project from beneath 
the anterior end of the thoracic carapace, of such size and strength 
as to raise considerable doubt as to their true nature. The exist- 
ence of five thoracic limbs, exclusive of these, })rojeeting from 
beneath the carapace on one side would seem to place their pedal 
nature out of the question; while their great development as 
seen on the specimen would indicate that they had served 
some purpose other than simple antennae, and to raise the 

p. Whitfield— New Forms of Fossil Crustaceans 

as to the possibility of their having been chelate at 
As only the basal portions of these organs 
are represented, however, this question cannot be satisfactorily 
determined. Having had an opportunity of consulting Dr. 
A. S. Packard, Jr., in regard to them, he gave as his opinion, 
that from their position and the representation of the other five 
pairs of thoracic members without them, they could not be 
other than antennal in their functions, notwithstanding their 
great size and anomalous character. Taking this view of their 
nature, the specimen would conform strictly to the type of 
Macron ran Decapods. 

In its generic relations, as well as in its general expression, 
the specimen resembles most nearly the genus Pygocephalus 
of Professor Huxley, first given in the Quart. Jour. Geol. Soc. 
London, vol. xiii, p. 363, 1857, with figures and descriptions 
of three specimens, under the name P. Cooperi Neither the 
genus nor species were well characterized at that time. It is, how- 
ever, again referred to in vol. xviii, p. 420, of the same Journal, 
and a figure given of a specimen supposed to be of the same 
species, much better preserved, from the Coal shales at Paisley. 
There are, however, too many limbs represented as originating 
from the thorax for a Decapod; and the antennae, although 
represented as of large size, are not like those of the Ohio 
specimen, while there is a second pair shown. In other parts 
the figure is indistinct, and in the description the parts are not 
defined sufficiently for close comparison. The differences, 
however, are so great that I shall propose for this form the new 
generic name Pal^opal^mcn, with the following diagnosis. 

Pal^opaljemox, new genus. 
A Macrouran Decapod crustacean, having a shrimp-like 
body, with a thoracic carapace narrowed but not rostrate in 
front, and keeled on the back and sides. Abdomen of six 
segments terminated by i 
telson ; segments arched ; pleura smooth, 
lobed ; their extremities rounded. Sixth segment bearing 
caudal flaps, one on each side, composed of five visible ele- 
ments, the outer four apparently anchylosed to form a single 
large triangular plate on each side of the telson. Thoracic 
ambulatory appendages elongated, smooth and filiform, except 
the upper (second) joint, which is laterally compressed. Ab- 
dominal appendages short, the upper joints flattened or convex 
anteriorly, as if for the attachment of plates or fimbria An- 
tenna3 with the basal joints strong and well developed, of large 
size, much exceeding in strength any of the thoracic limbs. 
Eye-peduncles short. Type P. Newherryi Whitf. 

from the Upper Devonian Rocks of Ohio. 41 

This is, so far as I am aware, the most ancient Decapod 
crustacean yet recognized, and on that account alone is of 
great interest. The character of the caudal plates, in having 
the parts combined to form a solid plate on each side of the 
telson, is also an interesting feature, if rightly understood. 
From the impression of the plate as seen on the ventral side, 
it was at first supposed to be of a single element only, but on 
obtaining an impression in the fragment of rock, chipped from 
the top or dorsal surface, the obscure lines of the first and 
second joints w^ere detected, while the outer three are only 
traceable from the very slight difference in the surface char- 
acter of two of them, and the thickened substance of the third 
or marginal one. Of the thoracic limbs only parts have been 
seen, and of the abdominal members the three anterior ones on 
one side; the others being concealed by the rock. The 
abdominal appendages are inclined backward from their point 
of origin, while in most of the allied living forms as Atyoides, 
Regidus, Pandalus and others, they are inclined in the opposite 
direction ; but this is not necessarily of importance. The eye- 
stalks appear to have been very short, judging from the 
spherical cavities beneath the anterior extremity of the cara- 
pace, which are small, close together and shallow. 

The earliest form of Decapod crustacean previously described, 
so far as I can ascertain, is given by Mr. Salter in the Quart. 
Jour. Geol. Soc. London, vol." xvii, p. 531, 1861, as Palceocran- 
gon socialis, said to be from the Lower Carboniferous limestone 
of Fiefshire, Scotland. There is another supposed Decapod, 
Oitocrangon, noticed by Richter (Beitrage Paleont. Thuring.), 
from the Upper Devonian, which is mentioned by Salter, but 
of which he says he is doubtful if it be a crustacean at all. 
I have not seen the work in which the original description 
occurs, and can only judge of its nature from Mr. Salter's 

Body slender, the carapace forming a little more than one- 
third of the entire length, higher than wide, narrowed ante- 
riorly and truncate behind; being longer below than above; 
median line carinate, with a second carina on each side a little 
below the crest; anterior end not rostrate but obliquely trun- 
cate, and sloping rapidly backward above tlie truncation, form- 
ing, when looked upon in front, a narrow, elongated sliield- 
shaped and slightly depressed area, obtusely pointed above 
and rapidly widening at the base, the lateral carinse rising 
from the lower angles; lower posterior angles rounded; basal 
margins gently curved throughout and bordered by a narrow, 
thread-like band with a narrow groove within it. Abdomen 
moderately robust, highly arched along the dorsal line, the 

42 E. L. Nichols— Optical Method for the 

pleura curving inward below, giving a cylindrical form. Pleura 
broadly rounded at their extremities on the anterior face, but 
slightly angular on the posterior corners ; posterior margin of 
the segments strongly arching forward on the back. Telsou 
elongate triangular, a little less than twice as long as wide, 
somewhat angular above and marked by a central ridge below, 
and by a backward curving, transverse ridge across the widest 
part. Caudal flap large, forming a triangular plate on each 
side, the first and second joints short sub triangular; marginal 
plate of the flap thickened, narrow and elongate ; central plate 
narrowly triangular, a little longer than wide: third or inner 
plate of equal length with the second and a little wider than 
the marginal one ; the three combined as one, being apparently 
anchylosed at their margins to form a solid piece. Antennae 
very strong, the first joint half as long as the thorax, slightly 
swollen in their lower half, and flattened on the under side; 
the other portions unknown. Thoracic limbs very slender and 
only of moderate length, the second joint laterally compressed, 
making the height nearly double the width; other joints 
apparently cylindrical. Abdominal limbs known, only by 
their second (?) joints, which appear to be triangular in form, 
widening below, flattened and plate-like in character or slightly 
convex on the anterior face. (In one case only, a single thread- 
like appendage can be seen, as if projecting from the outer 
lower angle.) 

Surface of the carapace marked by very fine, tortuous and 
interrupted, raised lines, strongest anteriorly and running ob- 
liquely upward and backward; also by a single slender, dis- 
tinct, raised ridge, extending more than one-fourth the length 
of the carapace, originating at the lower anterior angle and 
passing upward and backward, with a bifurcation at the ante- 
rior third of its length. Surface of the abdomen essentially 
smooth. Caudal flaps marked by impressed lines increasing 
in number and fineness from above downward. 

Art. YIL — Upon an Optical Methodfor the Measurement of High 
Temperatures ; by E. L. Nichols, Ph.D. (Gottingen). 

In a previous paper* a series of experiments upon the nature 
and intensity of the light emitted by glowing platinum were 
described. It is proposed in this article to discuss more fully 
the results then obtained, and to develop from them, so far as is 
at present possible, an optical method for the measurement of 

* Oa the Character and Intensity of the Rays emitted by Glowing Platinum, 

Measurement of High Temperatures. 43 

high temperatures. This method depends upon our ability to 
obtain, from results such as are recorded in Table IX of that 
paper, a general expression for the radiating power of any 
given body as a function of the temperature, or, what amounts 
to the same thing, to find the values of the quantities, A, E 
and I, in Kirchhoffs equation 

These quantities being given, the temperature of a source of 
light could be determined by comparing the intensity of por- 
tions of its spectrum — as for instance those lying between X 
and X+dX, X' and X'+dX\ X", and X"+dX'\ &c.— with the corres- 
ponding wave lengths of the spectrum of a body of known 
temperature and of known emissive and absorptive capacity. 
Here, as in my former paper, are to be understood by the terms 
" absorptive and emissive capacity," the qualities A and E, as 
defined by Kirchhoff.* Such a inethod, even though its accu- 
racy be limited to that attainable in other spectrophotometric 
determinations, would bring into the field of quantitative re- 
search, a domain in which, so far as temperature is concerned, 
accurate measurements have been hitherto unattainable. 

M. Crova, in Comptes Bendus, has suggested a similar 
method. He gave, however, no measurements of glowing tem- 
peratures upon which to base his method, and ignored entirely 
the very serious difiaculties to be overcome before it can be 
made practically available. M. Crova proposes the following 
three modes of procedure : 

1. " Au moyen de la longueur d'onde de la radiation qui 
limite le spectre vers le violet. "f 

2. "Par la position dm maximum calorifique du spectre qui 
se rapproche d autant plus du violet que la temperature d'emis- 
sion et plus haute." 

3. " Au moyen du rapport de I'intensit^ lumineuse d'une 
radiation determin^e X, pris dans le spectre de la source, a 
I'intensite de cette meme radiation du spectre d'une source 
de temperature connue, compar^e au rapport des intensites 
lumineuses d'une autre radiation X' dans ces deux memes 

" .... La mesure vigoureuse des temperatures pourra etre 
faite par voie spectrometrique des que Ton connaitra la loi 
exacte de remission pour toutes les radiations et des constantes 
num^riques pour chaque longueur d'onde '' 

In the first method, the visible spectrum is falsely assumed 
to have a clearly defined boundary at its end nearest the violet. 

Rendus, Ixiivii, 322. 

U R L, Nichols— Optical Method for the 

In point of fact the " limit of the spectrum " admits (see vol. 
xviii, p. 400) of no sbarp determination, depending as it does 
upon the constantly varying condition of the observer's eye. 

If, as is commonly supposed, the position in the spectrum of 
the thermal maximum were a function of the temperature, the 
second method would be at best practically applicable to but a 
few of the most intense sources of light. Some recent discov- 
eries of Dr. Jacques in Baltimore,* seem to show that the posi- 
tion of the thermal maximum depends upon the molecular 
weight of the glowing body, and that, for a given source of 
light, its position is in no way affected by a change of tem- 
perature. This newly discovered fact renders Crova's second 
method useless. I shall show presently that aside from Jacques' 
experimental evidence there are good 'reasons for supposing the 
position of the thermal maximum to depend upon the nature of 
the glowing body rather than upon its temperature. 

The third method coincides with that which I have pro- 
posed. The chief difficulty in the development of it lies in 
the varying values of the emissive and absorptive capacity of 
different bodies. 

In Equation (1) the fraction — is to be sure independent of 
the nature of the body in question ; not so, however, the quan- 
tities E and A, considered separately. That A, possesses for 
different substances widely different values we know from for- 
mer researches. Hitherto, however, these experiments have 
been confined to ordinary temperatures, and the question of the 
dependence of this quantity upon the temperature has been for 
the most part neglected. 

For the purposes of general discussion it is convenient to 
divide all bodies into four classes. 

I. Bodies for which A=Constant, for all wave lengths and 
for all temperatures. 

II. Bodies for which A varies with the temperature, but has 
the same value for all wave lengths. 

III. Bodies for which A varies with the temperature and 
possesses different values for different wavelengths, but for 
which the ratio of these values in any two spectral-regions X to 
X+dk and A' to X'+dX' is independent of the temperature. 

IV. Bodies for which A varies with the temperature and 
wave length and for which the above-mentioned ratio is also a 
function of the temperature. 

Black bodies are, by definition, of the first class. Whether 
bodies exist for which A= Constant <1, can only be deter- 
mined by special experiment. To the second class belong 

* Distribution of Heat in the Spectra of various sources of Radiation. Cam- 

Measurement of High Temperatures. 45 

bodies which absorb all colors in equal proportion. They 
appear colorless when nearly transparent, white or gray when 
opaque, according to the intensity of the light falling upon 
them and to their reflecting power. That many transparent 
bodies belong to this class and not to class I, is evident from 
the fact that although they remain transparent and colorless at 
temperatures above that at which metals are red hot, it is possi- 
ble by heating them still further to cause them to glow brightly. 
Such a change in the power of emission corresponds to an in- 
crease in absorptive capacity. 

That in general the absorptive capacity of other than black 
bodies cannot be a constant quantity may be inferred from the 
usual equations for the intensity of the reflected ray. Let the 
body in question be opaque. Of all rays falling upon it one 
portion will be reflected, the remainder absorbed. It has how- 
ever been proved that such bodies are in general transparent 
when taken in sufficiently thin layers. The rays must there- 
fore instead of being converted into heat at the surface, force 
their way to a certain depth into the interior of the body, and 
ssuming that refraction occurs. Let r be 
■ refraction, and i the angle of incidence of a certain 
pencil of light falling upon the substance. Let the intensity 
of the incident ray = L Whatever the character of its vibra- 
tions — provided only that in accordance with the accepted 
theory they be transvei-sal — the ray can be resolved into two 
components, the one polarized in the plane of incidence, the 
other perpendicularly to it. Let Cp and e, be the amplitudes of 
these components the intensities of which are denoted by /„ 
and/. Then ^ ^' 

/,=:e;, /-e/; 
The amplitudes of the reflected portion of the component e^ 


3 justif 
gle of 1 


The amplitude of the other part of the reflected ray will be 

^-'' tang (/+r) 
and Its intensity 

«-=-^-^:^- '=) 

The expressions (3) and (5) approach as a limit when the 
values of r and i are made to approach each other. In other 
words, when the optically denser medium becomes less dense 

46 £1 L. Nichols— Optical Method for the 

the intensity of the reflected ray diminishes, and a larger 
portion of the incident ray is absorbed. 

We know that in the case of liquids their refractive index 
increases with their physical density, and that generally it 
changes for other bodies with change of temperature. The 
change in the index of refraction is however equivalent to a 
change of optical density and of the quantity {r — i) ; so that we 
may expect, for all bodies for which Fresnel's formula holds, a 
change in the intensity of the reflected ray and consequently 
of the absorptive capacity for e^i:rj change of temperature. 

Those substances, at the surfaces of which so-called "metallic 
reflexion" occurs, are not included int his argument, since the 

P'or such bodies MacCullagh,* makin 
' an imaginary angle of refraction, assi 

sinr= -- C08J+V- 
which admits of the common definitior 

In a similar manner MacCullagh assumes 

cos r = ^ (cos ;f '+v'^ «in X'), (^) 

ivhere m' and i' are functions of m and ■^. 
Substituting these values in equation (3) we obtain, 
R _ Am^-my-^r'^m"' m' sin' {x-x') 
^^ - pJ (;^^+ m'^+ 2m' m cos {x-x')f 
Rp to disappear we must set m=m' and X'^X'' 

sions concerning the influence of temperature upon these 

Cauchyf gives for Rp the following expression, 

Measurement of High Temperatures. 47 

making use of the hypothesis that the intensity of the 
refracted ray within the metal, diminishes in geometrical pro- 
gression from the surface inward. Here as in the equations 
for ordinary reflected light, R^ depends upon the quantity 
sin {i—r). In what manner r is influenced by change of tem- 
perature has never been experimentally determined. 

I have found, experimentally, the value of A for platinum 
at \^bO° C (of the Pt. thermometer). At this temperature the 
spectrum afforded by glowing platinum is similar as regards 
the relative intensity of its various wave lengths to that of the 
flame of a petroleum lamp. Such a lamp-flame, the luminous 
rays being emitted by hot particles of carbon, answers most 
nearly of any available source of light the definition of a black 
body glowing at a constant temperature. 

A flame of this kind is far from being opaque. It is quite 
possible under proper conditions to read fine print through it, 
so that in this respect the flame differs from a perfect, ''black 
hodyy I measured in the following way the transparency of the 
petroleum flame which I wished to use in the experiments 
about to be described. 

Suppose such a flame to be brought into position before the 
spectrophotometer so that a certain pencil of rays would fall 
upon the slit. Were the flame pei-fectly transparent, a second 
precisely similar one and equally bright would, if placed be- 
hind the first flame, double the intensity of the above men- 
tioned pencil of rays. Were on the other hand the first flame 
perfectly opaque, all rays reaching it from the second flame 
would be cut off, and the light arriving at the slit would suffer 
no increase in brightness. 

The nearest approach to a second precisely similar flame is 
the real image of the first one. This image would be, when 
of the same size, of weaker intensity than the flame itself; but 
its other properties should, provided the mirror absorb all 
wave lengths of light in equal proportion, coincide perfectly 
with those of the flame. 

I illuminated both halves of the slit of the spectrophotometer 
with two common petroleum lamps with jiat burners. Before 
the lower flame, was adjusted a system of cross-wires, of which 
the horizontal ones appeared as dark lines in the polarized 
spectrum. By means of these it was easy to tell which portion 
of the flame came into the field of vision. Behind this lamp I 
placed a concave mirror, so that a real image of the flame was 
cast upon the flame itself. This image was of the same size 
but weaker than the flame. Since the horizontal wires ap- 
peared in the spectrum of the image as well as in that of the 
flame, forming another set of black lines, it was possible to 
adjust the mirror so that corresponding portions of flame and 

48 E. L. Nichols— Optical Method for the 

image coincided. The spectrum formed by the two combined 
was much brighter than that of the flame alone, and it was 
easy, having measured the increase of intensity due to the 
image, to calculate how much of light reflected by the mirror 
and falling upon the flame, was absorbed, and how much 
allowed to pass through it. In making this calculation it was 
necessary to know : the reflecting power of the mirror, the 
transmitting power of the lamp chimney, and the relative in- 
tensity of the spectrum of the flame to that of the flame and 
imfige combined. 

First of all the transmitting power of the lamp-chimney was 
investigated. The lamp having been provided with an exactly 
sirailar''chimney, the spectrophotometer adjusted and the spec- 
trum of this lamp flame having been compared with that of the 
flame lighting the upper half of the slit, the chimney to be ex- 
amined was suspended in the path of the rays between the 
flame and slit, whereupon the spectra were again ' ^ 

found that the chimney permitted the passage of 8573 of the 
'■ ' "^' ■' • ' ' in hand. The lamp being 

noved a few centimeters to one side and the mirror turned 

light. Then the mirror was taken in hand. The lamp bein 

until the image of the flame occupied the former position of the 
flame itself; the intensity of the resulting spectrum was meas- 
ured. This gave as illuminating power of the image, 06509 of 
the flame's intensity. The lamp was then restored to its place 
before the slit and the mirror readjusted until those portions of 
the flame and image which appear in the spectral image coin- 
cided. The spectrum of this double source of light was then 
measured, and by repeated intervention and withdrawal of a 
black screen between the lamp and mirror, compared with the 
spectrum of the flame above. I found the ratio of flame and 
image combined to the flame alone, to be 1-2075 : 1. Had both 
flame and lamp-chimney been perfectly transparent, this ratio 
would have been 1-6509:1. The effect of the lamp-cylinder 
being eliminated the remaining difference is naturally to be 
attributed to the absorptive capacity of the flame ; and we find 
A = 0-6432. 

To determine the value of A for platinum at the temperature 
in question, it only remained to compare the radiation of a 
glowing platinum wire with that of the flame. The wire hav- 
ing been given a temperature of 1650*" (Ft. thermometer) for 
which the leucoscope* showed that the quality of the light 
emitted corresponded precisely with that from the petroleum- 
flame, the intensity of its spectrum was measured and found 
as compared with that of the flame to be as 1-198 : 1. 

The value of A for platinum at this temperature is accord- 
ingly, A = 0-7597. 

* For the method by which the platinum wire was made to glow, and for a 
description of the leucoscope, see Paper I. 

Measurement of High Temperatures. 49 

De la Provostaye and Desain* give as the reflecting power of cold 
platinum for lamp light (unpolarized), 0-677, so that for this 
metal when cold, A = 0-323. 

The difference between these values is so large, that making all 
reasonable allowance for the inaccuracies of both researches it 
seems certain that platinum at 1650° has a much greater absorp- 
tive power for the rays of the visible spectrum than at ordinary 

This experiment shows that platinum at least, of those sub- 
stances affording metallic reflexion, offers no exception to the 
general law deduced for other bodies, viz : that A and E are 
functions of the temperature. The nature of this function, and 
the dependence of A and E upon the wave-lengths of the rays 
in question must be made the subject of special and extended 
investigation. It is an unexplored domain. Almost the only 
researches which give substance for a probable surmise, are 
those of Jacques already mentioned. The fact that the position 
in the spectrum of the maximum of thermal intensity is a func- 
tion of the nature of the glowing substance and independent of 
its temperature, points to the conclusion that solid bodies belong 
to the first three classes. 

The effect of temperature upon the spectra of gases has 
already, thanks to the interest lent to this subject by its impor- 
tance in Spectrum Analysis, attracted much attention, and the 
existing researches admit of no doubt that in general the gases 
belong to the fourth class. 

The steps necessary to the application of the results of the 
first article to the proposed method of measuring high tempe- 
ratures are now evident. A general law for the changes of the 
quantity A must be experimentally determined, or failing in 
this, its values found for the various glowing bodies it is most 
desired to measure. It will then only remain to subject the 
results in Table IX (Paper I) to a further reduction so that they 
may be made to express the effect of temperature upon the rays 
from an ideal " black body" instead of those emitted by glowing 
platinum ; and finally to obtain a satisfactory comparison of 
the platinum thermometer with the scale of the Centigrade air 
thermometer. Experiments to this end are in preparation by 
the author. 

PeekskiU, New York, July 1, 1879. 

* De la Provostaye et Desain, Comptes Rendus, xxxi. p. 512; also, Aanalea de 
Chiraie et de Physique, III, xxx, 276. 

Am. Joutt. Sci.-Thibd Sekies, Vol. XIX, No. 109. -Jas., 1880. 

W. B. Dwighi — Wappinger Valley 

Art. VIII. — Recent Explorations in the Wappinger Valley Lime- 
stone of Dutchess County, New York ; by Professor W. B. 
DwiGHT, Vassar College, Poughkeepsie, N. Y. 

No. 2. — Calcifekous as well as Tbenton Fossils in the Wap- 
pinger Limestone at Rochdale and a Trenton locality 
AT Newburgh, N. Y. 

explorations in the limestone of the 
\ the publication of my former article,* 
i now present some of the new results obtained ; and first those 
at Rochdale. Before doing this I would express mv great obli- 
gations to Mr. R. P. Whitfield and Mr. S. W. FoVd, for their 
cordial assistance in advising me concerning fossils of whose 
nature I was not confident, and in naming several which I had 
failed to identify. 

In my former paper, 1 mentioned finding at Rochdale 
fossils of the Trenton limestone, whose names, as far as iden- 
tified, were given. I liave now to report the discovery also of 
Calciferous fossils in the Rochdale limestone belt,"" besides 
adding to the facts respecting the Trenton fossils. 

The Chaetetes of the Rochdale Trenton beds, composed of 
extremely fine columns, described as probably new, and for 

' "ch the name Ch. tenuissima was suggested, has since been 

compacta. Since, however, the greater part of the specimens 
observed at this locality, although extremely fine-coluninar, 
are yet decidedly and uniformly coarser than the particular 
specimens (from Pleasant Valley) which were thus identified, 
and as microscopic sections, which are under study by myself 
and others, promise to show other constant differences, I do not 
yet abandon the name proposed, as it may still cover the 
■ity of these corals. I leave the subject until further 
■gation shall enable me to report upon it more decisively, 
ddition to my former list of Trenton fossils from Roch- 

In addit 

dale, I have secured quite a number of Cyathopbylloid corals: 
and among them, with liitle doubt, Petraia corniculum, in some 
specimens of which the radiating lamellae are very well defined. 
I have also obtained several more specimens of Zep^cena sericea; 
a large number of Orthis pectinella, and others which are prob- 
ably 0. tricenaria ; a caudal shield of a trilobite, which has been 

ntified by Mr. Ford as lUoinus crassicauda, 
' ' 3 size c' - ^ • - 

urnal, M 
i Geol 1 

riy two- 
thirds the size of the largest specimen figured by Hall ;:{; and 
f Pal. Foss , 1862, vol. i, Black River Group. 


TK B. Dwight — Wappinger Valley Limestone. 61 

a head of Echino-encriniies anatiformis, distorted, which must 
have been nearly two centimeters in horizontal diameter. The 
star-shaped rays, discernible on some of its plates, leave hardly 
a doubt as to its being the species mentioned, which occurs, as 
I have certainly found, at another locality mentioned beyond. 

The Choeteies compacta (?) exists here in remarkable abun- 
dance, sometimes forming masses as large as a human head or 
The Chcetetes lycoperdon has not yet appeared in any of 
IS. The abundant encrinal columns are of the small 
size usual in this limestone; one of them is one decimeter 
long and seven millimeters in width. 

I have already mentioned my discovery at Salt Point, in the 
same Wappinger limestone belt, six miles northeast of Eoch- 
dale, and four northeast of Pleasant Valley, and also at another 
place two miles northeast of Pleasant Valley, of numerous uni- 
valves coiled nearly in a plane, and of small and delicate Ortho- 
cerata. Lately I have found abundant outcrops of the rock 
containing these fossils at Rochdale, in close contiguity to the 
Trenton exposures. 

Further study of these fossils, in consultation with the able 
paleontologists mentioned above, with the finding of addi- 
tional species, enables me to report essential progress in the 
study of these crystalline strata. The rock containing these 
fossils, wherever found, differs as a mass lithologically from the 
Trenton rock at the Eochdale exposure, and the difference is 
so marked that, as they lie apparently side by side at Rochdale, 
with conformable dip, the two kinds of strata are readily distin- 
guished by a passing glance. While such lithological differ- 
ences are not to be pressed as to rock-masses where these are 
separated by great distances, they may be of great importance, 
even in spots where fossils happen to be absent, in studying 
the rocks of a limited neighborhood. The Trenton rock here 
is of a dark bluish color, massive, but with some shaly portions, 
and generally very distinctly crystalline — that is, when it is 
broken, sparkling with crystalline facets about one or two 
millimeters in diameter. Though somewhat siliceous and trav- 
ersed occasionally by siliceous veins, or containing hornstone 
nodules, it is neither eminently arenaceous nor closely inter- 
sected with flinty veins. Its weathered surface is simply the ordi- 
nary gray of weathered Hmestone. The other limestone rock, and 
the predominating rock of this region, is however, in general, sev- 
eral shades lighter than the Trenton, often of a "dove" color; 
it is uniformly fine-granular in structure, with visible crys- 
talline facets an exception ; and it is traversed to a remarkable 
degree with either an angular network of siliceous seams, or a 
twisted, curved, and knotted network, always suggesting fucoids, 
and very frequently showing an undoubtedly fucoidal nature. 

52 W. B. Dwigfit — Wappinger Valley Limestone. 

Moreover its weathered surface is almost invariably white 
(frequently as much so as white lead), and highly arenaceous; 
and its fossils are, when weathered, of the same character. The 
fracture is apt to be much more splintery and conchoidal than 
that of the Trenton beds. 

The fossils which in several places abound in this lighter- 
colored rock, do not leave us in doubt as to its nature. I have 
found specimens of the following identified specimens: 

Ophileia complanaia. This species is found at Wallace's 
quarry. Salt Point, and is one of the coiled univalves of that 
place mentioned, but not identified, in my previous article. It 
occurs also at the railroad cut two miles northeast of Pleasant 
Valley, and abundantly at Eochdale. In general appearance 
it resembles the figure given by Vanuxem in his New York 
Geological Eeport (p. 30), though it is often larger and more 
delicate in its structure than the somewhat rough figure repre- 
sents. It is possible that this may be the 0. compacla, the two 
species differing so slightly that some authors (as Billings*) 
suppose them to be only varieties of the same. 

Ophileia levafa. This is less numerous than the preceding, but 
is quite as well marked. It is found at Salt Point, and at 

Ophileia {Maclurea) aordida. A number of specimens occur 
at both localities last mentioned. The ellipsoid form which 
induced Vanuxem to call the species Ell ipsolites leaves little 
room for doubt. 

Orihoceras primigenium. I have found perhaps a dozen speci- 
mens of this Orthoceras, all quite well marked ; and from the 
indications of fragments, should sa}' that it is rather abundant 
at both localities, but especially at Rochdale. The numerous, 
delicate, considerably curved septa are very distinct. Some of 
my specimens are from two to three inches long. In every 
instance they are shown in nearly central longitudinal sections. 

There are other univalves like Ophileta, or Belicoioma, 
which I have not yet made out; and some smaller Orthocerata. 
The univalves from Salt Point, previously described as appar- 
ently containing septa, and which I supposed therefore might 
be Trocholites, are probably Ophileta {levataf) as the septa 
prove to be false. 

These fossils often occur within the meshes of a network of 
fucoidal fronds, which, at Rochdale at least, a.ssume a more or 
less tubular form for the stems. These may be Butholrephis 
antiqiiata, but are too indistinct to be identified satisfactorily. 
This rock does not contain the abundant Chaetetes, the encrinal 
columns of the contiguous Trenton, nor any other of the fossils 
found in that stratum. 

• Geol. Can., vol. i, p. 246. 

W. B. Dwight— Wappinger Valley Limestone. 63 

The conclusion is unavoidable that the rock in question is 
Calciferous ; and it is probable that the portions containing the 
Ophikta are the " fucoidal layers" of the upper part of the 
formation. The description of these layers given in Vanuxem's 
Report (p. 30) applies exactly to those of Dutchess County. 

In carrying my investigations lately to the continuation of 
this limestone belt across the Hudson River, I received informa- 
tion from Mr. J. N. Weed, Cashier of the Quassaic Bank of 
Newburgh, N. Y., of a fossiliferous locality near that city. It 
has proved to be very rich in fossils, both as regards number 
and variety. Their presence here has certainly been known 
to one prominent geologist; but it was evident that no careful 
examination had been made, as there was scarcely a mark of a 
chisel, and the most interesting specimens had been left undis- 
turbed. The locality is 2| miles north from the Newburgh ferry, 
on the road leading to the brick-kilns on the river, and oppo- 
site to the property of Dr. W. A. Culbert. The place is between 
four and five miles in a northeasterly direction from the quarry 
(D. Miller's) where R. P. Whitfield discovered, in July la- —■• 

mens of Machirea magna of the Chazy. It is a sloping rock- 
face about twenty feet high and two or three hundred feet long, 
directly on the road, at the ] 

of the river. The rock is a dark crystalline limestone with the 
dip easterly 40°, and the strike N. 35° E. It is a mass of small 
encrinal columns and of fine Chsetetes. One of the most 
remarkable features is the presence of many specimens (I have 
collected about twenty), of an unusually large encrinal column 
for this geological horizon, and one never collected (I believe) 
in this State before. It is from one-half to three-fourths of an 
inch in diameter, and has been identified by Mr. S. W. Ford 
as Gleiocrinus magnijicus Billings, hitherto a Canadian fossil 

I have also found here the following fossils which are unmis- 
takably identified (except for doubts already stated as to 
Ch. compacta.) 

Orthis Lynx, several ; Orthis peclinella, many ; Rhynchomlla 
capax, several ; Leptcena sericea, several ; Strophomena alternata, 
abundant; Discina, new species, many ; Ckceieles compacta, very 
abundant; Chcetetes lycoperdon, var. ramosas, abundant; col- 
umns of iSchizocriniis nodosus, abundant ; head-plates of Echino- 
encnnites anatiformis, abundant. 

In addition, there are probably the species 0. tricenaria and 
Petraia {Streptelasma) corniculum, with pentagonal crinoidal 
columns, and some brachiopods too indistinct perhaps to be 

The Discina is one to one and a half centimeters in diameter, 
with an unusually conical lower value, and a nearly flat upper 

54 W. A. Rogers — Nisw Diffraction Ruling Engine. 

one, the peduncular groove being in the conical valve. As it 
is evidently new, I propose for it the name D. conica, and 
reserve a full description of it, and further remarks on the 
locality, for another paper. 

These developments establish this beyond doubt as a stratum 
of the Trenton limestone. 

Art. lX.~On the first Results from a new Diffraction Ruling 
Engine ; by WiLLiAM A. Rogers. 

The best diffraction gratings are subject to three classes of 

First. The accidental errors of single subdivisions, which are, 
for the most part, due to the irregular motion of the ruling 
diamond upon a non-homogeneous metal. 

Second. The periodic or systematic errors, which are a func- 
tion of one revolution of the ruling-screw. 

Third. Errors which depend upon the position of the nut 
upon the screw, and which are equivalent to a varying pitch of 
the screw. 

The errors of this class may be due either to the form of the 
screw itself, to a variation in its diameter, or to an imperfect 
mounting of the screw. The pitch of even a perfect screw 
practically undergoes a slight change with every variation of 
the amount of the friction between the moving parts of the 

Let us take as a type, the magnificent rulings of Mr. L. M. 
Rutherfurd, executed by Mr. D. C. Chapman. These gratings 
easily surpass all otiiers in their resolution of the lines of the 
solar spectrum. Here, the first class of errors is so far wanting 
that it is safe to say of a given space, that it is so nearly equal 
to its neighbor that the most rigid investigation with the micro- 
scope will fail to reveal any difference. 

For separate, narrow and adjacent spaces then, a well-made, 
and well-mounted screw is subject to less liability to error than 
the microscopic observation with which the comparison is made, 
even under the manipulation of the most skillful observer. 

With regard to the second class of errors, viz : those which 
are a function of one revolution of the ruling screw, it is to be 
said that the danger of their occurrence is far greater. Indeed, 
I am not aware that they have ever been entirely overcome. 
In the measures of single narrow spaces they easily escape de- 
tection. For example, suppose we have a screw having a pitch 
of one-twentieth of an inch, in which tbe first half of one revo- 
lution differs from the second half by one ten-thousandth of 

W. A. Rogers—New Diffraction Ruling Engine. 55 

an inch. Each half will then have an error of one twenty- 
thousandth of an inch. But this maximum value is made up 
of successive increments of very minute errors, starting with 
the zero of revolution. If the graduations are ten thousand to 
the inch, there will be five hundred spaces in half a revolution 
of the screw. This maximum value, then, of the twenty- 
thousandth of an inch, a quantity easily measured, will be 
' ' " ^e hundred additions of the errors of the succea- 

i spaces. If the error is a constant one for each 

space, its value will therefore be only one ten millionths of : 
inch, a quantity far beyond the ultimate limits of measurement 
with the microscope. When, by one hundred successive addi- 
tions, the error amounts to one hundred thousandths of an inch, 
it will then be barely within the limits of detection. 

In Mr. Kutherfurd's screw the errors of this class are nearly 
overcome by giving an excentricity to the index of the screw, 
sufficient to neutralize them at the quadrant points of revo- 
lution ; that they are not entirely eliminated is shown not 
only by the actual measurement of distant lines, especially at 
the octant points of revolution, but also by the fact that the sur- 
face-waves, resulting from the residual systematic errors, are 
easily seen with the unaided eye when the gratings are exam- 
ined with a monochromatic flame. 

In the investigations of the wave lengths of light hitherto 
made, no attention has been paid to the periodic errors 
which are a function of one revolution of the ruling-screw. 
Our present knowledge of wave lengths depends on the suppo- 
sition that the gratings from which they were determined are 
homogeneous throughout their whole extent If I am not mis- 
taken, both Angstrom and Van der Willigen, who have done 
the best work in this direction, obtained the value of one inter- 
val by dividing the distance between the end lines by the num- 
ber of spaces. It is at least possible that the error introduced 
through the neglect to take into account the varying pitch of 
the screw, may be of appreciable magnitude. I can now only 
note in this connection, that when oil or grease is used as a 
lubricant, the curve which represents the periodic errors usually 
has a perceptibly different form for each revolution. The com- 
pound error thus developed introduces a class of secondary sys- 
tematic errors analogous to those described under the third class. 

After a somewhat careful study of these three classes of 
errors in connection with the ruling-engine <*onstructed for me 
by Bufif & Berger of Boston, I determined, about two yeai-s 
ago, to attempt the hazardous and costly experiment of con- 
structing a new machine which should be capable of producing 
a grating homogeneous throughout its whole extent. In the 
execution of this work I was more than fortunate i 

56 W. A. Rogers— New Diffractimi Ruling Engine. 

the cooperation of Mr. Chas. V. Woerd, the mechanical super- 
intendent of the Waltbam Watch Factory. My warmest thanks 
are also due to the manager and treasurer of the Company, 
Mr. E. B. Bobbins, for consenting to undertake a task some- 
what outside of the regular work of the factory. 

To Mr. Woerd I committed the entire arrangement of the 
details of the new machine, after deciding upon the general 
principles of its construction. 

The new machine is now so nearly completed that some pro- 
visional work has already been done with it. It would be pre- 
mature to say that it will rule a grating absolutely without 
measurable errors. The resolution of solar lines must be the 
final test, and the decision on this point I must leave to those 
who may use the gratings which I hope soon to make. 

I venture the assertion, however, that it is the most perfect 
piece of work done in this country, and I doubt if its superior 
is to be found abroad. I feel the more free to say this because 
the credit for the execution belongs entirely to Mr. Woerd and 
to Mr. George F. Ballou who has done nearly all of the work. 
This is not the place for a detailed description of the ma- 
chine. I will only state the general principles on which it is 

(a.) In the usual construction of a precision -screw, it is the 
custom to grind and polish the threads with fine emery by 
means of a lead nut, after the thread has been cut as perfectly 
as possible in the lathe. A definite relation then exists be- 
tween the threads and the centers on which they are cut. Now 
in grinding and polishing, the lead nut is usually held by the 
hand as it traverses forward and backward, and the test of 
the uniformity of the threads is entirely one of feeling. But 
during this operation the relation between the threads and the cen- 
ters may be entirely changed, since the action of the lead nut no 
longer bears any fixed relation to the centers. Hence when the 
screw is mounted with respect to its centers, we may always 
expect systematic errors of various kinds. 

In the construction of the screw of the Waltham machine, 
an attempt has been made to avoid the errors introduced in 
this way. The bottom of the thread was, at the suggestion of 
Mr. Woerd, entirely cut away, giving entire freedom in the 
action of the emery upon the'laces of the threads. The screw 
rests in semi-circular bearings, and is kept in position by its 
own weight. The conical ends are made of tem})ered steel. 
One end presses against a polished diamond face ground exactly 
perpendicular to the axis of the screw. It is kept in contact 
by means of a steel spring bolt working against the other end. 
The nut is made a part of the moving bed-plate, and rests 
directly upon the screw. 

W. A. Rogers— Ntw Diffraction Ruling Engine. 57 

{h.) Usuaily the aliquot part of a revolution of the screw is, 
during the process of ruling, secured by means of a pawl act- 
ing upon the teeth cut upon the index. In this case one is 
limited to certain fixed arcs of revolution. Tn the Waltham 
machine a magnet-arm 24 inches long rests upon the axis of the 
screw. The end of the arm works between two movable stops. 
A magnet fitted to the curvature of the index is attached to the 
other end. Another magnet is attached permanently to the bed 
of the machine beneath the index. During the upward move- 
ment of the magnet-arm, the first magnet becomes firmly 
attached to the index, carrying it forward, an arc of revolution 
depending on the distance between the stops. During the 
downward movement of the arm the index is held in position 
by the second magnet. 

It will be seen that the arc of revolution may be made to 
vary at will between zero and a value limited by the greatest 
distance between the stops, which in this case corresponds to a 
motion of a little over one thousandth of an inch in the screw- 

The index of the screw regulating the distance between the 
stops reads directly to about one millionth of an inch ex- 
pressed in the corresponding motion upon the ruling screw. 
Since these divisions can be estimated to tenths, as small a 
movement as one ten-millionth of an inch can be given to the 
screw-plate with entire certainty as far as the mechanical indica- 
tions of this degree of precision are concerned. 

(c.) In order to provide for the neutralization of whatever 
errors might be found to exist in the screw in actual use, the 
following devices were adopted : — 

(1.) Instead of allowing the magnet-arm to fall upon a fixed 
stop, it falls upon a circular templet, having a motion in revo- 
lution simultaneous with that of the index of the screw. A 
curvature is given to the periphery of this templet which 
exactly corresponds to those measured errors of the screw 
which depend on one revolution. 

(2.) A straight templet runs parallel with the screw to which 
is given a curvature corresponding to those errors which de- 
pend upon the position of the nut upon the screw. This 
templet is supported upon a vertical fulcrum placed near one 
end. Since the other end is movable between guides, it is 
obvious that in effect the pitch of the screw can be varied at 
will by an easy adjustment. In practice however it is found 
better to secure this result by varying the distance between the 
stops of the magnet-arm. 

The present indications are that neither of these supple- 
mental corrections will be found necessarv. 

58 W. A. Rogers— New Diffraction Ruling Engine. 

(f?.) In the investigations of wave lengths from a given rLiled 
grating there are certain requirements which seem to need ex- 
perimental as well as theoretical research. 

First. It is important to ascertain the best relation between 
the width of the lines and the width of the intervening spaces. 
In this machine, after having obtained a good line of a given 
width, the width of the spaces can be varied at will 

Second. All we can say of the wave-length equation A=e sin^, 
is that it expresses the length of a single wave of light of a 
given color. When we take into consideration the conditions 
under which the waves reach the eye, it is at least an open 
question whether the form of the equation is not somewhat 
more complex. As an illustration, the law of refraction in 
passing from one thin stratum of atmosphere to its adjacent one 
is quite simple, but it does not follow that this law holds good 
for the combined strata which make up the atmosphere at a 
given altitude above the horizon. 

In order to ascertain the effect of errors of any class upon 
the position of the solar-lines it seems important to determine 
the effect of these errors experimentally. Hence the machine 
has been constructed in such a way that it is possible to intro- 
duce at any point, either any single error of a given magnitude, 
or any combination of errors, without interfering with the 
remaining graduations. 

The tremors communicated to the machine by the running- 
machinery of the factory prevent the best work ; but the ex- 
periments already made justify the hope that when it is per- 
manently mounted upon the firm foundation already prepared 
for it, work may be done which will contribute something to 
our present knowledge of wave-lengths. In this connection 
also, especial attention will be paid to the expression of all 
measured distances in terms of the standard Meter oi the 
Archives at a temperature convenient for use. With this view 
a standard decimeter subdivided into 10,000 equal parts will be 
taken as the unit of comparison. 

As a type of the character of the work already done I will 
close this article with a description of two glass plates ruled on 
different days with the same setting of the stops of the magnet- 
arm. The stops were set to correspond to a motion of one 
thousandth of an inch upon the screw. The machine was 
started at 10 o'clock a. m. Between 12 and 1 o'clock it re- 
mained at rest. It was also at rest during the night. Starting 
again at 7 o'clock the next morning it was stopped at 9^ 50°*, 
having ruled 4001 lines, covering a space of four inches. 

The plate was then removed, and another one was placed in 
position. The machine was again started, and this second jilate 
was ruled under nearly the same conditions with regard to time 
and temperature as the first one. 

D. P. Todd— Solar Parallax from the Velocity of Light. 69 

Having filled tlie lines with graphite in order to obtain a 
sharper definition of the edges, these two plates were then placed 
face to face in a mounting of stiff* balsam in the same direction 
as that in which they were ruled. When the lines at one end 
were made coincident, not only were the other end lines coin- 
cident, but every one of the 4001 lines exactly overlapped its 
fellow. With a power of 300 I was unable to detect a single 
case of deviation from exact superposition. 

This experiment merely showed that the machine would rule 
two plates exactly alike under the same conditions, but it gave 
no indications with reference to the homogeneous character of 
the graduations. But when the plates were placed face to face 
in a direction opposite to that in which one of them was ruled, 
then, coincidence being made between the lines at one end, a 
test of the homogeneity was found in the coincidence of the 
remaining graduations.' 

This coincidence seemed to be perfect for about two inches. 
At that point there was an abrupt separation amounting to 
about one eight-thousandths of an inch. This deviation re- 
mained a constant for about one inch, when it began gradually 
to diminish, and finally disappeared at about one inch and one- 
half from the point where it first appeared. 

This error is probably due to a change of temperature during 
the nights on which the machine remained at rest. It is rather 
curious, however, that the error should have taken this partic- 
ular form. It is not surprising that it escaped detection when 
the plates were arranged as first described. In the second case, 
the lines were barely separated, but the separation was suffi- 
cient to enable one to measure from center to center. In the 
first instance the overlapping of the edges was not sufficient to 
attract attention. 
Harvard College Observatory, October 28, 1879. 

Art. ^,—S(,lar Parallax from the Velonty of Light ; by D. P. 
Todd, M.x'V., Assistant Xauticni Almanac. 

The opposition of Mars in 1802. and the exj)primental deter- 
mination of the velocity of li-ht hv Foucauh in the sunc vcar, 
mark the beginning „f"a new era' in tlic history of the (Ictcr- 

attached to the suuVrt cvJr n'm-e, nor oiilv from its'iiiherent 
imi>ortancc, but also' from the n.pidU multiplying .letermina- 

D. P. Todd— Solar Parallax from the Velocity of Light 

If the generally accredited theories of the solar parallax and 
iter-related facts and phenomena are true, the better class of 
linations should yield values of the paralla 

consistent harmony with each other — modified only by dedu 
tive consideration of the amount of accidental and systemat 
error with which they are severally affected. The well know 

fact, however, is that even the best of these determinations 
appear, at present, singularly and unaccountably discordant. 
The solar parallax, 8'' '848, "derived by Professor Newcomb 
nearly thirteen years ago, generally replacing Bncke's value, 
8"'57116, was regarded with caution, only because it was con- 
sidered too small— the researches of Hansen, of LeYerrier, of 
Stone, and of Wiunecke were thought to have defined the 
parallax far outside Newcomb's value. Within two or three 
years, however, the parallactic pendulum has swung quite to 
the lesser extremity of its arc, until the true value of the solar 
parallax has appeared possibly below 8"'8 — and that, too, with 
good reason. But a slight gravitation toward a central value 
is already beginning to show itself — and now, in reality, it is 
not at all possible to say that the mean equatorial horizontal 
parallax of the sun is so much as a hundredth part of a second 
diflferent from the ancient figures, 8"'813 [27^'-2 centesimal], 
adopted by Laplace in the Mdcanique Celeste, and given by the 
first discussion of the Transits of Venus in 1761 and 1769. 

The method of determining the solar parallax through the 
velocity of light, though dependent on the results of physical 
experiments conducted under necessarily limited conditions. 

n a value of the parallax at all i 
a combination of the best of the purely astronomical deter- 
minations. And this consideration encourages indulgence of 
the hope that, at some time in the not far distant future, this 
method will define the solar parallax within very much smaller 
limits than astronomers have yet known. To show what the 
method is competent to at the present moment is the object 
of tills paper. 

I bring together all the determinations of the velocity of 
light which have at all the merit of trustworthiness. 

I. Fizeau made the first experimental determination of the 
velocity of light, in 1849 ; his experiments, however, hardly 
signify more than the completion of the first great step of 
proving the determination to be a physical possibility. The 
iirst reliable determination was executed thirteen vears later by 
Foucault. His work has never been published m exienso, but 
brief papers have appeared in the Comptes Eendus, vol. Iv, 
1582, and in Poggt^ndorrs Annalen. vol. cxviii, 1863. The 
resulting velocity of light is 298,000 kilometers per second, m 
which Foucault expresses confidence to about one-six-hun- 

D. P. Todd—Solar Parallax from the Velocity of Light. 61 

dredth part. I think I shall not be regarded far wrong in 
assigning a probable error twice as great This I do in con- 
sideration of the verj. unfavorable limitations under which the 
determination was executed, and quite independently of what 
has since become known. 

II. The tirst determination by Cornu, related in the Journal 
de rEcole Polytechnique, xliv cahier, vol. xxvii, 1874. The 
resulting velocity of light is 298,500'^=bl,000. 

III. The second determination by Cornu, related in the 
Annales de I'Observatoire de Paris, M^moires, tome xiii, 1876. 
The resulting velocity of light is 300,400''dr300. Helmert has 
given a rediscussion of these experiments in the Astronomische 
Nachrichten, vol. Ixxxvii, 1876. His interpretation assigns the 
velocity 299,990 kilometers, the probable error of which I have 
estimated at 200 kilometers. 

IV. The first determination by Master A. A. Michelson, U. 
S. Navy.* The resulting velocity of light is 300,100 kilo- 
meters. I consider this determination of equal weight with 
that of Foucault, and with the first determination by Cornu. 

V. The second determination by Mr. Michelson. The num- 
ber of this Journal for November, 1879, contains a brief recital 
of these experiments. I shall adopt, for the purposes of this 
paper, the results given on the "corrected slip," for his second 
determination of this constant of velocity. 

The largest result for velocity of light, 300,142 kilometers. 

The smallest result for velocity of light, 299,692 kilometers. 
Giving equal weight to the one hundred separate determina- 
tions, the resulting velocity of light is 299,930 kilometers per 
second. I find that the computed probable error of this deter- 
mination is no larger than six kilometers. But, in the deter- 
mination of almost no other astronomical or physical constant 
should we consider the computation of probable error of the 
final result from a corresponding number of observations quite 
so illusory. In consideration of all the sources of error, acci- 
dental and systematic, I think the probable error of this result 
may be estimated at 100 kilometers. 

All these several determinations of the velocity of light are 
now combined as follow : — 


III. 299990 ± 200 25 

IV. 300100 ± 1000 1 
V. 299930 ± 100 100 

The resulting most probable velocity of light is 

299,920 kilometers =186,360 miles per second. 

* Proceedings of the i 

D. P. Todd— Solar Parallax from the Velocity of Light. 

'be next step is the combination of this value with as 
for the determination of the distance of 

center of the sun from the center of the earth. 

(I.) Theory and observation of the satelHtes of Jupiter afford 
a determination of the time-interval required bj light in 
traversing the mean radius of the orbit of the earth. Only two 
astronomically precise determinations of this interval have ever 
been made : the first, by Delambre, in the early part of the 
present century,* from a discussion of an immense mass of 
eclipses of the satellites of Jupiter, comprising observations 
from 1662 to 1802 ; the second, by Glasenapp, in a Kussian 
thesis,! in which there are discussed the observations of the 
first satellite of Jupiter from 1848 to 1873. The results of the 
two determinations are as follow : — 

Delambre, 493»-2 ; Glasenapp, 500^-84 ± l'-02. 

It is quite impossible to judge with certainty just how these 
two widely discordant values should be combined. The former 
determination rests on a much greater number of observations 
than the latter ; but it is difficult to form a just estimate of the 
worth of an average last-century observation of an eclipse of a 
satellite of Jupiter. And, moreover, astronomers have no 
means of knowing the process of discussion which led the 
distinguished French astronomer to his result — which he has 
adopted in his own tables of the satellites, and which was 
adopted by Damoiseau in his Tables ficliptiques, published in 
1836. The latter determination rests upon a mass of observa- 
tions of definite excellence, which have been discussed after 
the modern fashion. I combine the two values giving weight 
unity to the first, and weight two the second. The adopted 
value of k is, therefore, 498'-3, which, combined with the con- 
stant of light- velocity just deduced gives the mean radius of 
the orbit of the earth equal to 

149,460,000 kilometers^ 92,866,000 miles. 

If, now, we combine this result with the value of the equa- 
torial radius of the earth derived by Listing,^ 
a = 6377^-377 r3-8046421] 
= 3962°"790 [3-5980011J 
there results the mean equatorial horizontal parallax of the 
sun, 8"-802. 

(II.) The velocity of light, the constant of aberration, and 
appropriate elements of the terrestrial orbit are combined, the 
equation of connection being, 

* Tables ficliptiques des Satellites de Jupiter, par Delambre, Paris, 1819. 

t CpaBHCHle HaB.iK)4eHifi SaTM-tnili CnyTimKOBi lOaHtepa Oh TaaiHiiasiH QaTJitHifl a 

X Neue geometrische und djuamische Constanten des Erdkorpers. Eine Fortset- 
zung der Untersuchimg : iiber unsere jetzige Kenntnisa der Geetalt und Grosse 
der Erde. Von Johann Benedict Listing. Gottingen, ] 878. 

D. P. Todd— Solar Parallax from the Velocity of Light. 

^ _^ = Vd cos <p^,^ 

wherein g^^^ denotes the mean anomaly of the earth, 

f^,^, the angle whose sine is the eccentricity of the 

earth's orbit, 
0, the constant of aberration. 
Struve's constant of aberration, 20"-445l, with Listing's value 
of a, leads to the following results : The mean radius of the orbit 
of the earth equal to 

149,293,000 kilometers = 92,768,000 miles; 
and the mean equatorial horizontal parallax of the sun, 8"'811. 

It remains to consider the probable variations of the elements 
of this computation, and the effect of such variations on the 
derived parallax. The following elements of sensible uncer- 
tainty are considered : — 

(1.) Uncertainty in the determination of the terrestrial 
velocity of light. In the process of experimental determina- 
tions of the velocity of light, almost no sources of mechanical 
error have been encountered which cannot, under the most 
favorable conditions and methods, be reduced to a minimum. 
What these conditions and methods of experiment are will not 
now be considered. Let it suffice, for the present, to remark 
that in approaching the utmost refinement in a determination 
of such supreme nicety, experimenters are like to be confronted 
with modifying physical circumstances — which, in all proba- 
bility, however, need not be considered in connection with any 
experimental determination of the velocity of light heretofore 
executed. For the detail of uncertain elements affecting the 
result of each series of experiments, reference must be had to 
the individual papers themselves, I am disposed to think that 
the limit of uncertainty of the velocity of light concluded 
above may be fairly taken at seventy kilometers. 

(2.) Uncertainty in the coefficient of the light-equation of 
the satellites of Jupiter. The same circumstances, unfavorable 
m considering the proper combination of the two independent 
determinations of this constant, hold here. The amount of 
Tincertainty is probably not far from one second of time. 

(3.) Uncertainty in the constant of sidereal aberration. I 
conceive that a variation of 0"-025 in this well determined 
constant will not be regarded far from the limit of uncertainty. 
However, this estimate of its variation cannot reasonably be 
adhered to, except on the supposition that the accepted value 
of the constant of aberration holds for stars in every part of the 
celestial sphere,— that is, that the motion of translation of the 
sdlar system in luminiferous ether is not sufficiently great to 
affect the astronomical accuracy of determination of this con- 
stant. This question pertains to the astronomy of the future. 

64 D. P. Todd— Solar Parallax from the Velocity of Light. 

(4.) Uncertainty in the relation of the absolute terrestrial 
velocity to the velocity in space. On this matter, much differ- 
ence of opinion exists. As the history of the Greenwich 
water-telescope shows that the constant of aberration is not 
affected by the passage of the light of the determining star 
"' ough refracting media, this element of uncertainty — =-"- 

only in the derivation of the ^solar parallax through the li^ 
xperimental determination of this relation renders the assun 

equation of the satellites of Jupiter. The 

tbrough the ligh 

I of identity ne 

{a.) Combining the maximum velocity of light with the 
maximum coefficient in the light-equation, and the minimum 
velocity with the minimum coefficient, the following relations 
exist : — 

Limiting Limiting Distance of Sun Solar 

k F In kilometers. In miles. Parallax. 

499«-3 299990 149,785,000 93,074,000 8"'782 
497'-3 299860 149,115,000 92,658,000 8"'822 

(6.) Combining the maximum velocity of light with the 
maximum value of the constant of aberration, and the mini- 
mum velocity with the minimum constant, the following 
relations exist : — 

Limiting Limiting Distance of Sun Solar 

e V In kilometers. In miles. Parallax. 

20"-47 299990 149,510,000 92,903,000 8"-798 

20"-42 299850 149,076,000 92,633,000 8"-824 
It will be remarked that all these combinations are made in 
the most unfavorable manner, so as to give the limiting values 
of the solar parallax with the variations of the elements pre- 
viously adduced. The probable errors of the intermediate 
values of the parallax are about one-third these variations. 

In conclusion, then, all the experimental determinations of 
the velocity of light hitherto made give, when combined with 
astronomical constants, the mean equatorial horizontal parallax 
of the sun, 8''-808±0"-006. 

The corresponding mean radius of the terrestrial orbit is 
149,345,000 kilometers = 92,800,000 miles. 


I. Chemistky and Physics. 
1. On Alloys of Gallium with Alumitmm. — Lecoq de Bois- 
BAUDEA]sr has been studying the alloys which gallium forms with 
aluminum. If the latter metal be used in large proportion, the 
two must be heated pretty strongly even to a dull red. The 
alloys thus obtained remain brilliant, and do not sensibly attract 
oxygen from the air during their formation. After cooling, they 
are brittle and but slightly coherent. They decompose cold 
water, better water at 40°, with elevation of temperature, evolu- 
tion of hydrogen, and the formation of a chocolate-brown powder 
Avhich ultimately becomes white flocks of alumina, almost the 
whole of the gallium being set free in globules apparently free 
from aluminum. The alow evolution of hydrogen by a solid* alloy 
is considerably quickened by contact with a globule of liquid gal- 
lium even below 15°, forming very brilliant liquid or pasty alloys, 
uliicli decompose water with great energy. Ordinarily thif^ 

ii|M.ii contact with it. ()n touching the liquid alloy Avitli a frag- 
uu'ut of solid gallium, crystals appear which are ])ure gallium. 
:iiid which do not act on water. After their removal, tIic alloy i^- 
li-- active; but if the whole is re-raelted by the lieat of tlu' ha'nd. 

ride is itself volatile as mch.—J3er. Berl (Jhem. Ges., xii, 2066, 

3. Oft the preparation of the Acetic ethers of Polyatomic Alco- 
hols. — Fbanchimoxt has shown that by making use of the dehy- 
drating powers of zinc chloride, acetyl derivatives of the higher 
polyatomic alcohols can be obtained with ease. The carbohy- 
drate is warmed with four times its weight of acetic oxide and a 
small fragment of fused zinc chloride. The acetylization is com- 
plete, as experiments with cellulose, mannite, and glycerin have 
satisfactorily shown. — Ber. Berl. Ghem. Ges., xii, 2059, Nov., 
1879. G. F. B. 

•f Gladstone and Landolt with reference to the relation 
efracti\(' j)o\vei and chemical constitution, and has obta 
nteresting results. The researches of these chemists h 

d tlic den 

^ity, p. 



ibr any given sn 

ibstance, which is 

independent of 

the temperature 

. I.andolt had i 

nultiplied this by 

the molec 

>ular w 


, obtaining 

y{-;-) whic 

or feebly refracti 

h he called the 


• refrat 


power. F 

Lve media h may 

repres, „1 

ni.y d< 



0, that of 1I„, the 

red line o 

t hy\v 


liut in .) 

rder't.) compare 

substances which 

are hii-ld 


>, as 1<. til. 

■ir r(fiacli\e po 

vver. none of the 

observ c d 


, \\\\\ 

the\ are all influenced by disper- 

sion. A 




thu^ affected xs o 

nhl be the index 


ding 1 

o a 

lav of inf 

initely great nv: 

ive-lenotli. Tlii^ 

Lan(h>lt f 

ind^ ax 

follows: Callii. 


•or liuht (.i ^^a\e- 

length A, 

and //^ 

, foi 

• that of w 

ave-length A^, tin 

' loinuili ofC.iii- 

chy gives 

, for sil 


ices not to< 

-> highly refracti\ 


B= 1 1 and A=//;_--p, 

• ^: ~ K 

1 which B is the coefficient of dispersion and A the ind 

aluelor/, i.itlu forinul, abov... u, I, .v. Mm ( xpK-M<.i 


• liKi uf this i,y the molecu- 
Tnolecular refraction. The 

Chemistry and Physics. 67 

densities and the refractive indices were determined at 20", the 
former being referred to water at 4° and to a vacuum, the value 
being- indicated by d^^ and carried to four decimal places. The 
indices for obtaining the refraction-coefficient A, were those of 
Hq and H^. In Landolt's investigations, the same molecular re- 
fraction was obtained for all isomeric bodies; thus showing that 
only the number of the atoms and not their arrangement influenced 
this constant. Hence the atoms have the same refractive power in 
all their compounds ; and by comparing different bodies together 
the atomic refraction r^ for carbon was given as 4-86, of hydrogen 
as 1-29 and of oxygen as 2'90. Hence the molecular refraction of 
CxWyOz would be RA=:4-86ic-|-l'29i/+2-90z. The author has now 
shown that the molecular grouping has an essential influence vipon 
the molecular refraction, those atoms which are united directly to 
each other by more than a single bond, exert a greater influence 
upon the transmission of light than those singly bound. If \i^ be 
the calculated refraction-equivalent of an unsaturated hydro- 
carbon, a the influence of a double union, and x the number of 
pairs of removed hydrogen atoms, the formula for a body repre- 
sented by (C„H^„+,)— «H, 

would be P( — ~^\—V\.i,-\-xa. If y represent the number of pairs 
of hydrogen atoms removed to form a closed chain, and hence 
without influence optically, the formula becomes Pl^^^ — T~]^^ 

ie p|^Lj.\_R^^a. In diallyl, we have (CJI,„+,)— 2H, and the 
formula is p/A^ j=R^+2«. In benzene, we have (C„H,„+,)_ 
4TI^; but a closed chain exists, with only three double unions; 
therefore .r-?/z= 4 -1=.*3 and the formula becomes p/---~M= 
riA+;''^^ Experimei»t has fully confirmed these conclusions, which 
have been extended to chlorine, bromine and nitrogen which 
efractions of 9-53, 14-7o, and .rr8,> respectively. The 

US states 

it:— The molecular 

doubly u 

nited carbon atoins 

•ulated fr 

om the sum of tlu^ 

lal to the 

number of such du 


J^erl. Chem. Ges., xii, 2135, : 

63 Scieritific Intelligence. 

5. A new method for preparing Hydrohromic and Ilydriodic 
acids. — Since both hydriodic and hydrohromic acids are decom- 
posed by strong sulphuric acid, they cannot be prepared by dis- 
tilling potassium iodide or bromide with this acid. They are usu- 
ally prepared by the action of water upon their phosphorus com- 
pounds, a process which is tedious and inconvenient. Ubuylakts 
proposes a new method for preparing these acids, founded on the 
tact that bromine and iodine unite at ordinary temperatures with 
certain organic substances to form compounds which at higher 
temperatures are decomposed so as to evolve hydrobromic or 
hydriodic acid. For this purpose he proposes the oil of copaiba, 
prepared by distilling copaiba balsam with water and drying. 
The oil boils at 250° to 255°, and can convert three times its 
weight of iodine or bromine into hydrogen iodide or bromide. It 
is ])ut in a tubulated retort of 500 cub, cent, capacity furnished 
with a return condenser, to the end of which is attached a tube 
leading to a drying cylinder. For 60 grams of the oil, 20 grams 
of iodine may be used. It is dissolved at a gentle heat, and then 


little, and then more iod; 

used. This quantity of iodine gives 145 to 150 grams hyd: 
acid. The oil becomes for the most part soUd during the reac- 
tion. Bromine is used in the same way, only with more caution. 
From 60 grams oil and 150 of bromine 142 grams hydrobromic 
acid were obtained.— ^er. Berl. Chem. Ges., xii, 2059, Nov., 

6. T/iermo-chennstrg.—JvLivs Thomsen has published (Ber. 
Berl. Chem. Ges., Nov. 10, 1879), some new and very interesting 
results from this field of investigation. 

(1) The heat of formation of the various anhydrous carbonates 
regarded as formed from metal, oxygen and carbonic oxide, are 

K2 +O2 + CO 250,940 Ba + Oj + CO 252,770 Mn +O3 + CO 180,690 

Aga + Oa + CO 92,'770 Ca + Oa + CO 240,'660 Pb +O2 + CO 139,690 

If from these numbers we subtract 66,810 units — that is, the heat 
produced in the reaction CO + 0=C'0, — we can obtain in each 
case the heat of formation of the same salts when formed from 
metal oxygen and carbonic dioxide ; that is, in the general reaction 
M"+0-i-CO^. If now from these last values we subtract the 
heat evolved in the oxidation of each metal the result is the heat 
of formation of the aiihy<lroiis salt when produced from the metal- 
lic oxide and carhnnic dioxi'lc; that is, in the general reaction 
M"(> + CO.^. The results thus obtained' in a few of the more im- 
portant anhydroiis carbonates are as follows: 

Chemistry and Physic 

Since the molecule of calcic carbonate \ 
425 units of heat, in round 
of weight of limestone (regarded as pure calcite) burned in a lime 
kiln. Favre and Silbermann found for the same constant the value 
308 units Avhich is i too small. A comparison is made in this 
paper of the heat of formation of tlie anhydrous carbonates and 
sulphates of the same metal, corresponding to the general reac- 
tions R" + 0^4-C0 and R" + 0.^+SO,, from which it appears 
that the diifereuce is far from constant. In most cases the heat of 
formation of the sulphate is greater than that of the carbonate, 
the difference varying from 22,620 heat units in the case of the 
potassium salts to 3430 units in the case of the silver salts ; but 
in the case of the salts of cadmium and manganese the conditions 
are reversed, and the heat of formation of the carbonate is greater 
than that of the sulphate. These facts are thought to indicate 
that SO, and CO, stand in diiferent relations to the molecules of 
the salts, in which these radicals are supposed to exist as actual 
atomic groups. 

(2) In his previous investigations on the heat of formation of 
the oxides and acids of nitrogen, Thomsen had loft undetermhied 
the heat of formation of NO, which enters us a radical into so 
many of this class of compounds. The determination of this im- 
portant value required the construction of a special apparatus, and 
for this, as well as for other reasons, has been delayed. The result 
now reached differs greatly from that obtained by Berthelot, and, 
if sustained, will require a material correction of some of the most 
important thermo-cheraical data. According to Berthelot, N -f O 
= —43,300 units, while according to Thomsen this value should 
be -36,395 units. Thomsen claims that there is a large orn.r in 

process used by the French chemist the quantity estimated was 
several times greater than the quantity measured, and the quantity 
measured too small to admit of accurate results under such circum- 
stances. But the details of his own method on which his conclu- 
sions are based, are not given in the " Berichte," and he refers to 
an extended paper in the Festschriften der Universitat zu Kopen- 
hagen. How great a change the correction thus introduced makes 
in some important values calculated from the old data, the follow- 
ing table shows : 

For a large number of other thermo-cheii 
the new fundamental value of N + O, wt 
page 2062. 

V. On a mio Standard of IJght—'S 
presents the advantage of using the incan. 
means of a constant electric current for n 
foot-notes he states that this is not a ne^ 

Draper's papers on radiation published in 1 844. Mr. Schwendle 
lamp d 

From h , _ _ 

the unit of light equal to the light emitted by a standard candle 
irom 300 to 725 units of current were necessary according to the 
size of the platinum strip, while with the use of the carbon electric 
lamp only 10 units of current were necessary. He thereupon states 
his conviction that "from an engineering point of view, light by 
incandescence can scarcely be expected to compete with light by 
disintegration^'' (electric arc). He believes that light by incarv- 
descence is not much cheaper than light by combustion. No 
reference is made to the late resulis of Edison on platinum sub- 
mitted to alternating currents in a partial vacuum. — Fhil 3/ag., 
Nov., 1879, p. 393. j. T. 

8. Report on the Electric Light. — Mr. Louis Schwendler in a 
report on the expediency of lighting the railroad stations in India 
by means of the electric light, gives the following results of his 
measurements. A normal candle, six to the pound, and consum- 
ing 120 grains per hour, employs in producing the unit of light, a 
work of from 610 to 1365 megerga per second. An electro- 
dynamic machine with not more than 0-1 Siemen's units resistance 
in the circuit, only from 10 to 20 megerga; so that one electric 
light produced only at one place in the circuit, is 50 times cheaper 
than the candle. Division of the electric light, on the other hand, 
^Ir. Schwendler finds to be uneconomical. A dynamo-electric 
machine with the greatest number of divisions of the movable coil, 
gives the most constant current. The strength of the current in- 
creases at first quickly, then is proportional to the velocity of 
rotation, then increases more slowly. The electromotive force 
decreases with a constant velocity of rotation more quickly than 
the ■ 

resistance is zero, the electromotive force reaches its maximum. 
The following table represents the conditions in the electric are : 
J is the strength of the current in electro-magnetic units (webers), 
W the resistance in Siemen's units, and E' the electromotive force 

J 28-81 23-87 16-27 W 0-91 1-72 1-97 W 2-02 1-91 1-86 

by the formula 

where W and w represent the work respectively during the pro- 
duction of the current and during the running of the machine 
on an open circuit, and R represents the inner and r the outer 
resistance. If J>20, the loss of work reaches 12 per cent.— X. 
/Schwendler, Precis of report on Jblectric light. London, Waterlow 

Geology and Natural History. 

investigation the following : 

(1) Atmospheric air, oxygen, nitrogen, carbonic oxide, carbonic 
ficid, illuminating gas, ethyl and marsh gas, indicate a rotation of 
the plane of polarization in the direction of the positive current. 

(2) The amount of this rotation under like conditions is different 
for the different gases. 

They detail the precautions employed in their research, and give 
the methods at length. It is found that the electro-magnetic ro- 
tation is the greater the greater the index of refraction of the gas, 
although the authors have not been able to determine the exact 

or any physical constants of the gaf 

zation of air by the magnetism of the earth ; and by reference to 
their tal)le of results, estimate that 253 km. of air in the north- 
soutli-diiection would experience under the magnetism of the earth 
a rotation of 1°. — Wiedemann'' s Amialen der Physik und Chernie, 
No. 10, 1879, p. 278. J. T. 

II. Geology and Natural History. 
1. A Hudson River fossil plant in the Roofing slate that is 
associated with chlorite slate and rnetamorphic limestone in Mary- 
land, adjoining York and Lancaster Counties. Pennsylvania; bv 
J. P. Lesley. (From a letter to J. D. Dana,' dated Philadelphia, 
?ssor Lesquereux has just determined Butho- 
fvliosa on a slab of roofing slate from the quarries on the 
• near the Maryland line. This is a most im- 
portant discovery. Professor Frazer has been studying the roofing 
slate belt and adjoir)ing chlorites, for several years in connection 
^vnh his York and Lancaster county work. He never found any 
traces of organic life, nor could hear of any. But he found several 
curious forms in the rocks across the state line in Maryland, one 
of which looked like a flattened Orthoceras. Professor James 
Hall and .Mr. VV^hitfield were disposed to consider tliem not 
organic. They have been figured for the American Philosophical 
Society's Proceedings and for the Reports of the Survey, These 
are the only fossils ever seen in that region to our knowledge. 
Ihe slab of B. foUosa, is in our museum and will be figured. 
Professor Frazei- received it from a Presbyterian clergyman, pro- 
fessor in Lincoln University, who got it from a miner, with six or 
seven other larger and finer slabs which ho sent to the York Mu- 

from the Peaclibottom quarries as asserted. 

fhere are two species of Ihithotrephis known in the Trenton 
Jifnestone, three in the Hudson liiver slates, one in the Clinton. 
^»e is reported from the Devonian of Russia, Several from the 
sub-Carboniferous remain unstudied. B. foliosa is characteristic 


72 Scientific Ldenigence. 

of the Hudson River. It is in the upper part of the Hudson River 
formation, along the foot of the Kittatiuny or Blue or North 
Mountain on the Lehigh River in Eastern Pennsylvania, that we 
have our Statington and other roofing slate quarries; and no trap 
is known in the neighborhood, and no reason can he assigned for 
excessive metaniorphism of structure (not of lithology) ; but on 
the Maryland line a trap dike many miles long has been followed 
by Professor Frazer across Lancaster count j, pass mg through the 
celebrated Gap Nickel mine, to and across the roofing slate belt 
of Peachbottora. But this belt is a number of miles long, and I 
can see no important connection between the trap at one end of it 
and its metamorphism. 

Professor Frazer feels sure that the roofing slates are part and 
parcel of the chlorite slate formation wh\ch makes such a show 
along the river for miles north of the quarries. But the structure 
is very obscure. To the north of the chlorites, a bold double- 
crested anticlinal (of Toquan creek) crosses Lancaster and York 
counties, and is finely exposed upon the two banks of the Susque- 
hanna River, bringing up massive gneisses, etc., evidently belong- 
ing to our Philadelphia rocks, to those of the Welsh Mountains 
west of the Schuylkill River, and to those of the Highlands of 
New Jersey and New York State. 

The chlorite slates are always, with us, seen in juxtaposition 
with the limestones, which we feel confident are No. H ("Magne- 
sian, Calciferous") ; but the structural connection is not quite 
satisfactory yet. Mr. C. E. Hall is disposed more and more to 
look upon them as No. HI (Hudson River) melamorj)hosed, all 
along the Chester county "South valley" hill, and across the 
Schuylkill into Philadelphia and toward Trenton. 

Everything points toward n on- conform able basins or outlying 
patches of metamorphosed Silurians in the heart of our Azoic 
country of southern Pennsylvai 
ery of B. foliosa leaves very i 
the subject. 

2. Pennsylvania Second Geological Survey. Harrisburg, 1879. 

(1) Second Report of Progress in the Laboratory of the Survey 
at Ilarrishirg, by Andrew S. McCreath, MM. 438 pp. 8vo. 

(2) The Geology of Lawrence (Jounty, and a Special Report 
on the Condition, of the Coal Measures in Western Pennsylvania 
and Eastern Ohio, by J. C. White, QQ. 336 pp. Bvo, with a 
colored geological map of the County and 134 vertical sections. 

(3) L The Northern Townships of Butler County; II, a Spe- 
cial Survey, made in 1875, along the Beaver and Shenango Riv- 
ers, in Beaver, Lawrence and Mercer Counties, by II. Martyx 
Chance. V. 248 pp. 8vo, with four maps, one profile section and 
154 vertical sections. 

These additions to the series of volumes of Pennsylvania 
Reports, already numerous, show efficient action in both the head 
of the Survey and the corps who are at work with him. The first 
of these Reports, while mostly the work of Mr. McCreath, includes 

Geology and Natural History. 73 

tho fclloumji: (Classification of Coals, l»y P. Frazee, Jr. ; 

Idick Ic'sth, l)v F. l^LA-rr; Notes on clolomitic limestones, by 
'. \Ai^LK\ ; ITUliziition of Anthracite slack, l)v F. Platt. The 
h scs of Mr. MrCrcatli arc of coals of ditfcrent coal beds, cokes, 
I ores, irons, cin(UM>, clays, fire-bricks, zinc ores, lead ores, 
."-tone--, marls, the mincra'l baritc, and other substances, and 
their number aiul character indicate a irrcat amount of excel- 

work. They are accompanied by descri])tions, and often sec- 
is, of the beds from which the specimens were taken. The 
ilts of tests of Pemisyhania and other coals for weather-waste 
» are given in tables.' The volume is a very important contri- 
ion to'the practical as well as scientific part of the great sub- 
- of coal and iron. 

)ne of the most important questions before the geologists of 
ins\l\ania is that with regard to the relation of the rocks of 

western margin of the State to those of the adjoining part of 
in, described by the Ohio geologists. Its settlement is neces- 
v to a correct mapping of the rocks and coal beds of the two 
1^ s. In Air. J. C. White's Keport, after details on the geology 

en of the coal beds and a:^ 

3. ideological iSurcey of iSan Salrador. — Tlie 
Economic 'Survey of San Salvador has been en 
government of that country, to .Mr. W. A. Goo.h 

end of September for his new field of labor. 

4. A Mimnal of Pal^e-ontoloqu^for the XH. <f 
i^<i)ienfl Introi/urtion on the l\'in'<uj>b :< -f l'"!" n 

7-4 Scientific Intelligence. 

brate fossils, American as well as British, has well prepared him 

dent or instructor ; and such is his work. The arrangement is 
zoological, commencing with the lowest forms, the Protozoans : 
and in connection with each section the zoological characters and 
relations, and the stratigraphical position or range are stated. 
Such general deductions as the science has established are also 
presented, but without wandering into speculative discussions. 
The numerous illustrations are well selected for showing structure 
and generic and family distinctions. Why the author should 
write Kainozoic for Cmnozoic or Cenozoic, when he uses Eocene, 
Miocene and Pliocene, and not Eokaine, Miokaine, Pliokaine, is 
not clear. But this is a point in orthography, and does not 
diminish the value of the work. The mechanical execution of the 
work is excellent, quite in harmony with the beauty of the illus- 
trations. All interested in Geology will find Nicholson's Manual 
of Paleontology a very valuable companion in their studies. 

5. Dana's Manual of Oeology. Third edition. 912 pages. 
8vo. Over 1250 figures, with 12 plates and a chart of the world. 
New York : 1880. (Ivison, Blakeman, Taylor & Co.)— In this new 
edition of the Manual, the part on Kinds of Rocks has been wholly 
remodelled; that on Dynamical Geology has been mostly re- 
half ; and that on Historical Geology, while but partially revised, 
has received important changes in the pages on the Green Moun- 
tains, American fossil Mammals, and the Glacier and Champlain 
periods of the Quaternary. Through the kindness of Professor 
Marsh the volume contains also twelve plates : three illustrating the 
American Jurassic Dinosaurs ; two, the two types of toothed 
birds of the Cretaceous, and giving figures of the complete skele- 
ton ; three, the Tertiary Mammals of the Rocky Mountain region ; 
and, one, the relations in size of the brains of Tertiary and Mod- 
ern Mammals, In addition, brief lists of works and memoirs are 
added, bringing out the history of opinions in connection with the 
Dynamics of the Science. 

6. Catalogue of Official Reports upon Geological Purveys of 
the United iStates and Territories, and of British North America ; 
by Frederick Prime, Jr., Assistant Geologist of Pennsylvania. 
12 pp. 8vo. From vol. vii, Trans, Amer. Inst, of Mining Engi- 
neers, Philadelphia, 1879.— Since Professor Marsh's Catalogue of 
American Geological Reports was published in this Journal, 
the number of these Reports has more than doubled, and the 

new and nmch improved catalogue. It givt-s, witli the titles, full 

Geology and Xatnral nistory. 75 

7. CJass!ficati07i and Description of the American Species of 
CJi'iracen- '■ by B. 1). Halstki).— The earliest paper diroctly re- 
latiiiLT to the Amoricaii C/ianc appeared in this Journal in V843, 
viz: the '' Brief Xot ice of the Chara?. (f Xorth Ann:rica, by l*rof,'a n(')tiee of American Choree appealed in a note to Phtntm 
LnuUniunrm^ published in the Boston Journal of Natural History. 
SiiK-e that date we have only scattered references to Charm in 
loeal lists and reports of different expeditions, until within tlie last 

quently turned to the species of this small but interesting order. 
The task of determining native species will be much facilitated by 
two w(u-ks which have recently apj^earcd. One by Dr. T. F. 
Allen entitled Characea? Americante, an illustrated work of which 
t\\o ])arts have a])peared, has already been noticed in this Jounial. 
'llie other, ()i-i<riiially ]>rescnted as a graduating thesis at Harvard 
University in May, 1878, by Mr. B. I). Ilalsted, is now imblished 
ui i)art in the J'roceedings of the Boston Society of Natural His- 
tory. There is a short introduction, giving a general account of 
the structure of the order, followed by detailed descriptions of 
the eighteen species known to the writer from an examination of 

Cambridge and a number of ])rivat<. 
NitelhK oiie to Tolyp, 

the more i 

) appear 
gie der 

Miscellaneous LitelUgence. 
specially i 

Oscillaria, Ustilngo and some other genera, however, Professor 
Sclimitz was unable to detect a nucleus. Ha3matoxyline is the 
reagent advised for bringing out the nuclei in doubtful cases. 
The article is followed by a note on the Fructification of the 
Sqaamarice, which, it appears, have an arrangement of creeping 
filaments such as have been described by Thuret and Bornet in 
Dudresnaya. w. o. f. 

9. Le Charhon de V Oignon ordinaire, by Dr. Max Cornu. — 
In the Comptes Rendus of July, Cornu records the appearance 
in the markets of Paris of the onion-smut, Urocystis Cepuke. The 
disease which iH known to have been common in Connecticut 
and JVIassachusetts for a number of years, had not been hitherto 
observed in France. Dr. Cornu considers IT. Cepuke to be dis- 
tinct from U. Colchici. w. g. f. 

10. Entwiclcelungsgeschichte einiger Rostpilze,\iY T>v Z . Schkoe- 
TEK. — This paper, which consists of advanced sheets of an article 

■ ■ " ' ■ ^ fiber of Cohn's Beitrage znr Biol- 
• Pflanzon, is replete with interesting facts on the develop- 
ment of different Uredinei, for the careful study of which in recent 
years we are more indebted to Dr. Schroeter than to any other 
botanist. It includes a synopsis of the European species of Pue- 
cinhi which are found on the Umhelllfe/rm. In reading the paper, 
one sees at what a complicated condition the study of the JJredi- 
uei has arrived ; and that no one but a specialist can hereafter 
expect to be able to understand what is written on the different 
transformations of this most perplexing order of plants, w. G. f. 

11. Botanical Necrology for the year 1879. 

William T. Feay, M.'D., died at Savannah, Georgia, on the 
2 •2d of Mav, at the age of not far from 76 years. His remains lie 
in Laurel Grove Cemetery, under the shadow of the noble live 
oaks whose boughs _ 

Za/^f.^/a //«//ec•^■(■fes, swinging mournfully i 

in the neighborhood of Savannah is associated in the writer's 
mind with tliis estimable botanist; for his only visit to it was 
in Dr. Feay's company one spring morning. We had known him 
ill correspondence, and it was a pleasure to become personally 
acquainted with this most amiable man. Dr. Feay was one of 
those botanists who know very much and never publish any- 
thing, and who, though living a useful life, wholly fail to play the a wliile at'tlu. Univcrsitv c.f Vu-orgia, nt Athens ; thou 

It is reported that, at a critic 
enihle patrimony in some e; 
hitnself and had to live by h 
a school teacher. To this v<. 


Geology and Natural History. 

anrl for the best \ 
])rivate school, li' 

all ]»is earnings to the purchase of books and all 1 
the acquisition of knowledge. During the war of the'rebellion he 
took refuge in Florida, teaching when pupils were to be had, 
studying plants at all seasons, and making some interesting dis- 
coveries. Several of these commemorate his name, among them 
little Lobelia. 

ar the most aged of American botanists, 
died at Boston on the 10th of January, 1879, at the age of 92. 
A brief biotrraphv was published in a preceding volume of this 
Journal (xvu, 263), in April last. 

James Watson Robbins, M.D., died at TJxbridge, Massachu- 
setts, January 9, 1879, one day before Dr. Bigelow, his only 
senior among American botanists, as he had reached the age of 
77. A biographical notice of him appeared in the Necrology of 
the preceding year, in February last. 

Hermann Itzigsohn, a cryptogamist of considerable repute, 
whose name is connected with researches on the spermatozoids 
of the lower trioes of plants, died at Schceneberg, near Berlin, 
January 4, 1879, at the age of 65. 

JoHAN Angstrom, a distinguished bryologist, of Sweden, died 
January 19th, at the age of ^5. 

n. W. Bfek, favorably known for his indexes to DeCandoUe's 
Prodromus, died at Hamburg, February 10th, at the age of 83. 

H. G. L. Ueichenbach, the veteran German systematic bot- 
anist and in his day a voluminous author, a man greatly respected 
and honored, died at Dresden, March 17, at the age of 86. The 
orchidologist of our time, bearing the same name, is the son, now 
Professor of Botany at Hamburg. 

H. R. A. Grisebach, Professor at Gcettingen, and one of the 
most prominent and voluminous systematic botanists of our day, 
died May 9, in his 66th year. His earliest considerable work was 
a Monograph of the GentianeoB, in 1839. His most important 
one, a comprehensive treatise on the Vegetation of the Earth, was 
published in 1872 ; his latest, Symbol* ad Floram Argentinam, 
appeared about the time of his unexpected decease. He is well 
known in this country for his elaboration of the extensive collec- 
tions of Charles Wright in Cuba, as well as for his Flora of the 
British West Indies, one of the earlier of the English Colonial 

riuLo Irmisch, an acute morphologist, author of many valuable 
l^fipers, especially on the subterranean parts of plants, died at 
^'>ndershausen, Germany, April 28, at the age of 64. 

I'-DoUARD Spach, native of Strasburg, for very many years the 
}^i*'per of the Herbarium at the Paris Museum, Jardin des Plantes, 
I'l the earlier portion of his scientific life a voluminous author, an 
acute systematic botanist, a worthy representative of the school 
^'hieh is disposed to multiply genera upon single characters, died 
'^'^y 17, at the age of 78. He had been for some time super- 

78 Miscellaneous Intelligence. 

Kakl Koch, the prince of horticultural botanists and a most 
learned dendrologist, born at Weimar in 1809, explorer of Asia 
Minor and the Caucasus in especial reference to the origin or 
nativity of the long-cultivated plants of the Old World, died at 
Berlin, May 25, in the 70th year of his age. 

David Moore, Director for the last forty years of the Glas- 
nevin Botanic Gardens, Dublin, which he kept in unrivalled per- 
fection, author in part of the Cybele Hibernica, of a synopsis of 
Irish Mosses and a Report on the Irish Hepaticse, died June 9, at 
the age of 72. 

Edward Fenzl, who forty years ago was the assistant of 
Endlicher in the Vienna Imperial Herbarium, since Endlicber's 
death in 1849 the Professor of Botany and Director of the Botanic 
Garden at Vienna down to the year 1878, whose earlier studies 
were directed to the Alsinece and their allies, and who published 
various memoirs of critical value, died September 29th, in the 
72d year of his age. 

ioivs MiEBS, the ISTestor of English botanists, died at his resi- 
dence in London, October 17th, at the great age of 90, He 
went to South America many years ago as a mining engineer, 
there took up with ardor the study of botany in which he has so 
long persevered, made a vast number of drawings and sketches, for 
which he had a great facility, and in about 1840 he began the 
long series of his papers in systematic botany, monographical and 
critical, of which over fifty are enumerated in the Royal Society's 
Catalogue of Scientific Papers coming down to the year 1863, 
but whose issue continued down nearly to the last year of his 
remarkable life. Original in his treatment, and ready to grapple 
with recondite questions of affinity, in which it is not always easy 
to control plausible inferences by decisive tests or by intuitive 
judgment, the value of Mr. Miers' work must be various, and that 
of much of it not yet determinable. Some of it is doubtless over- 
ingenious, and too great trust may have been placed upon draw- 
ings prepared long before their use. But the indomitable spirit 
of the man, and his guileless amiability were equally and wholly 
admirable. a. g. 

III. Miscellaneous Scientific Intelligence. 
1. Gt'olnyh-al Survey < 

r,-nri,kO, That this ..fiicer siiall 
logical Survey, and the cla!>feific: 
of the geological st 

MisrAlaneous Intelligence. 79 

products of the National Domain, and he may extend his exam- 
ination into the States, not to interfere, however, with any Geo- 
logical Survey now being made by the States."* 

The vote for the amendment stood — yeas, 92, nays 53, 141 not 
voting. It thus appears that the important measure, s})rung upon 
the House in its closing hours, unknown to, and unconsidered by, 
the country, ?ind onhj ninety-two votes in its favor. 

lu order that the exact views of those who advocated tlic bill 
may be understood, we make a few citations from tlic remarks in 
the discussion. Mr. Atkins, its most urgent advocate, said : 
"Tennessee has a large deposit of coal and iron, aud would be 
glad to have accurate nd'ormation as to it." " The object that I 
had in offering this joint resolution was simply to eiiable the Geo- 
logical Director to make in his noxt re])ort a ])r:iclical [)resenta- 
tion of the mineral resources of the States of the Tniou, m) far a> 
thev relate to coal and iron.-' "The object is to make >urvevs of 
the' mineral dei)osits in all the States/' .^ir. Wilson, of SVe^t 
Virginia, said: ''The \ a^t mineral wealth locked u]) in our mount- 
ains should be developed." Mr. Haskell said " Congress does not 
])Ossess the power to oust the State surveys from their work under 
the State laws, and this is simply to give free and full power and 
op])ortunity to give us what we need — a Geoloijicai Survey of the 
United States." On the other hand, Mr. Keagan, of Texas, said 

^teji, m advance of them 
authority of the Constitu 
ture, and entailinjr new bv 



mg to ]ni 




Mis, not 

to the 

v. It 

is asked tha 

t the ore 

« in '1 

lould be 


by a rnite<l 


nt, with t 



go\ ern- 





of the 


be inv( 


bveach \ 


.> for 



, of the 

lud it'! 

citizens, as is done for 


■ces, but 

by the 

\\ Gov( 

?rnment. Te 

nnessee ha 

'^ ai 

I able 




m her < 

>wn State (k^ 

.logist, Vv< 





>rd, who 

Miscellaneous Intelligence. 

)se labor 

deposits, and who are ready to carry on any further investigations 
that may be made. A special agent at Washington is not wanted, 
unless it be that the United States Treasury is, through Congress, 
a more accessible source of funds for surveys than the State Trea- 
suries. The idea that here is an open door for the supplies 
needed for new geological surveys would be pretty sure to give 
such a scheme favor among geologists. 

The following are points deserving careful consideration before 
the amendment is passed. 

(1.) Its passage wall put an end to all State Geological Sur- 
veys; for, by it, the General Government appoints a Director for 
such surveys, and gives, thereby, an implied pledge that it will 
supply the funds required. 

(2.) Its provisions embrace not only paleontological and geo- 
logical surveys for the whole country, and surveys of mineral 
deposits, but surveys of the lands of the country at large with 
reference to Agricultural resources, and to all other points on 
which the value of the Public lands depend. And it might 
include surveys with reference to water-power along all streams 
with the same propriety, as these are resources of the highest 

(3.) All the States may go to Congress for appropriations for 
these various purposes, if they are granted to one, 

(4.) Xearly all the States have had their Geological Surveys 
and have published volumes of Reports containing their results 
with regard to the rocks, fossils, ore beds and all mineral re- 
sources. More detailed and complete surveys could, however, 
in all cases be made. But it would be vastly better, that mensu- 
ration surveys should first have been carefully made, as the writer 
has already urged. And with respect to the ore-deposits, these 
are now so well known through the surveys tha: 

tluiing the nc\t h^cd \c 

Miscellaneous Intelligence. 81 

ExteiulinfT observations ou coal ;md iron into old states 2o|ono.00 

Geological survey of gold and silver in Division of "Rocky 

Geological survey of gold and silver in Division of Great 

Survey of geological structure of public lands in Mississippi 

Basin 2r..{)00.00 

tsurvey of geological structure and classification of public 

Survey of geological structure and classification of pul>lic 
lands in (Jreat Basin SO.ODO.DO 

Survey of geological structure and clns=>ificatiou of public 

lands in Pacific... 25,000.00 

Thus Mr. King assumes that the proposed amend men t is as 
good as passed, and makes his call for 330,000 dolhirs for his 
first year's expenses. The proportion for " the States" is not very 
large ; it is a beginning. J. T). dana. 

2. A Handbook of JJonhle Stars, with a Catalogue of Twelve 
Uundred Double Stars, and exhmsim Lists of Measures. With 
additional Notes, hrin.<ii.n<i the Measures up to IS/O. For llie use 
of Amateurs. P>v b:i)wi>.'CK.)ssLEV, F.K. A.S., Jcm:imi (ii Kt-mi i, 
F.K.A.S., and Jamks .M. Wil.son, M..\., F.U.A.S. Lu,,,]..,,, I-7'.. 

of observers as this excelleut liandbuu'k' Only tli..M' u li,. liavr 
n from inability to procuir tin j.uli- 
fully appreciate 

experienced delay and vexation from i 

which the compilers have bestowed" upon this vohi 
It is modestly dedicated to the use of amateurs, it 
books which the professional astronomer will find 
ready reference in the observing room. 

The work (wdiich is gotten up in excellent styl 
cally), is divided into four i)arts : " the first part, 
descriptive of instruments and methods; the ^econ 
i<:d ; the third part contains lists of men^un s .-f tin 
!"i: double and multiple stars, with historirnl iiMtt-. 
:uf of special interest; the fourth part i-« UiblMMr;!] 
'"•-<> much that is thoroughly good in ilii- \\«>ik 
'■^q-li'-us to suggest any omissions: vet \X i- ^ rr\_ 

I'-^iiorcd by English equaloriul oI.mtv. rs ■;' The l»i.., 

82 Miscellaneous Intelligence. 

wishes to use but one micrometer-screw. Gauss's modification of 
Bessel's method for determining the focal length of the object- 
glass should have been given, because it is one of the very best 
methods of determining the value of the revolution of the micro- 
meter-screw; and most o])-,ervers would have like<l to have some- 
methods is ai^ evccdlent feature, and it would be difficult to im- 

3. Boiihle IStar'OhservaHoiis mruhvi 18V7-8 at Chlcar/o iHth 
the. 18^-bieh Jiefractor of the iJeorhorn. Observatory., comprising, 
I, a (JataLoyue of 251 new douhle stars with measures., anct, II, 
Micrometrical rrieasures of 500 double stars ; by S. W. Burniiam, 
M.A. From the Memoirs of the Royal Astronomical Society, 
vol. xliv. — ^fr. l^urnham's Memoir was received too late for a 
notice. It bears testimony to his ability, precision and energy as 
an astronomical observei*. His observatioiis make an important 
part of the Handbook of JJ)ouble Stars, just noticed. 

4. tSolar JJf/ht and Jfeat, the Source and the ISiqqdy : Gravita- 
tion: with ej-jdiinatioits of Planetary and Molecular Ihrces; bv 
Zaciiauiaii AiA.KS, LL.l). 241 pp. 8vo. New York, 18V9. (Ap- 
pleton &. Co.) — This is a sequel to the work published by the 
author in 18of, The Philosophy of the Mechanics of Nature, etc. 
The idea of the author is, that the revolving planets in passing 
through the universally ditfused electric ethers generate by their 
motion the moving force which comes to us as light and heat. 
It is hardly to be expected that his views will be accepted by 

l*rijtCw)r r>. F. Ml iMiE. — Professor Mudge died at his resi- 
dence, in Manliattan, Kansas, suddenly, on the'iJst of November, 
of apoplexy. J'rure..,M)r .Mudge was the State Geologist of Kansas. 
Oidy a few mouths shice — last September — his IJeport on the Geol- 
ogy'of Kansas was noticed in this Jounial. Professor Mudge was 
a man of great industry in his favorite science, and made large col- 
lections of fossils, which were, however, sent to others to describe. 
Lesquereux was indebted to him for colleetio?is of Cretaceous 
plants from the Dakota group in Kansas, which make a considera- 
ble part of his report, and Professor Marsh for specimens of Creta- 
ceous vertebrates. Professor Mudge thus contributed largely to the 
progress of American Paleontology, although not himself describ- 


The Mosasauroid reptiles are so rare in Pluropc that the type 
specimen described by Cuvier still reniuin^ the most perfect yet 
discovered there, and' the only one from which important char- 
acters have been made out. In this country, however, this 
group attained a marvelous develo])ment, and was re]i)rc^ented 
by several families, and numerous genera and -^jiccies. The 
abundance of specimens is perhaps hQ<t illustrated bv the fact 
that the Museum of Yale College contains remains o"f not less 
than 1,400 distinct individuals. In not a few of these, the 
skeleton is nearlv if not quite complete, so tliat every part of 
Its structure can be determined with almost absolute certainty. 
From thi.s store of materi;il. T have alie.uU made out various 

The absence of a sternuin 1..- L.^mi .s^^uu-d In Cope to l)e 
oucoi the important chaui^.-.^ oi il.o Mo^.i^auioid loptde^.f 
and this statement has bi^en .uceptcd In some authoi.^. Seve- 
ral specimens, however, in the Yale Mu>eum, one of which is 
figured in Plate I, figure 1, prove the contrary, and indicate the 
presence of a sternum in the entire group. 

The most perfect ^pecim(Mis of the Mosasauroid sternum pre- 

84 0. a Marsh— New Characters of Mosasauroid Reptiles. 

In the other genera of Mosasauroid reptiles, the sternum has 
not yet been found so well preserved as in Edestosaurus, but 
there can be no reasonable doubt of its presence. In Holosaurus 
there appears to have been a partially ossified raesosternum. 

The Fore-limbs. 

In Plate I, figure 1, the entire pectoral arch and paddles of 
Edestosaurvs are represented, essentially as found in the matrix. 
Hitherto, the limbs of this genus have been only partially 
known. The general structure of the paddle is Cetacean in 
type. The humerus is very short, and the radius is larger than 
the ulna. There are seven distinct carpal bones. The outer 
one of the proximal series, which probably represents the pisi- 
form, does not assist in the support of any metacarpal. The 
digits are five in number, of moderate length, and much ex- 
panded. The writer has already determined and figured the 
fore-limb in Lestosaurus* and the entire arch and paddles are 
here given for comparison. In this genus, there are but four 
carpal bones, all grouped together on the ulnar side. There 
are five digits, longer, and less expanded than in Edestosaurvs. 

In Tylosaurus, the coracoid has no emargination. The hu- 
merus, fore-arm, and entire paddle is much longer than in the 
above genera, and the digits were less expanded. The number 
of phalanges was much greater, especially in digits IV and Y. 
The Hind-limbs, 

Since the writer discovered the posterior limbs in several 
genera of the Mosasauroids, and figured the pelvic arches, little 
has been added to the subject. In Plate I, figure 3, the com- 
plete pelvic arch and hind paddles of Lestosaurus are repre- 
sented, the latter nearly in the position in which they were 
found. The?y are considerably smaller than the fore-paddles, but 
very similar in general form and proportions. The femur is 
more slender than the humerus, and there are but three tarsal 
bones, all on the outer or fibular side. There are five weU 
developed digits, and the number and position of the phalanges 
are shown in the figure. 

In Tyhsaurus the hind-paddles are smaller than those in 
front, but their structure is verv similar. All the genera of 
the Mosasanroal irroup have a well develoncl iielvic arch, and 
functional i)osterior lind.:^. 

but they exist in Tylosavriis and Lestosauru. 

all the genera. A pair of these bones wa; 

* Thia Journal, vol. iii, Plate X. 

0. a Marsh— Ne. 

of Mosasauroid Reptiles. 

represented in the figures 
The upper end is obliquely truncated, and occupied by a rugose, 
concave face (a) resembling an imperfect suture. The shaft is 
>lcndcr, and somewhat curved. The lower end is expanded, and 
l!;i> two distinct facets on the outer and inner angles {b and c), 
where it was attached to other bones. In Lestosaurus there are 
liyoid bones very similar in form to those here described. 

In Lestos 

xvrus ai 

d Tylosa 

irus, there is apparently another pair 

of hyoid b( 

nes, nu 

re slender than the one here figured. 
The Sct.krotic Plates. 

In the u- 

nera L 


and Tyhsavnis, the orbit was pro- 

teeted by 

A ring 

of osseo 

us plates, somewhat like those in 



a few re 

cut birds. This ring was comjwscd 

of only ;i s 

ingle r 

)w of p 

•ites, which in position overlapped 
ai'C subroctangular in shape, longer 

each (it her 


e plate. 

than V. ide. 

and the 
V. ^fh 
n. T\ 
cc I'm, 


1 features are shown in the figures 
■dpr.. are bevelled so as to form a 
n- is not uniform, but is so situated 
>f pliites. Some of these are shaj-ed 

thickened, and th( 

bit. All of these ])lates 
ty external. The outer 
thin and sharp. The 

0. G. Marsh — New Characters of Mosasauroid Reptiles. 

.1 the plates shows 
diameters of the sole 

Librectarigular shape of all the plates shows that 
losition, the outer 

Figures 2, 3, and 4.-S( 

The sclerotic plates of the Mosasauroids may be distinguished 
from the dermal scutes on the head and body by their peculiar 
shape, and much larger size. The latter, so far as known, are 
more rhombic in form, but their variations on different parts 
of the body, and in different species, remain to be determined. 

The Tkansverse Bone. 

The element in the reptilian skull which Cuvier called the 
transverse bone, and Owen, the ectopterygoid, has not been 
observed hitherto in the Mosasauroids, but it is present in 
Tylosaurus^ Lestosaurus, and Edestosaurus. In the first of these 
genera, it is an L-shaped bone, thin and somewhat twisted. 
One ramus unites by suture with the corresponding process of 
the pterygoid, and the other extends forward, nearly at a right 
angle, to join the posterior end of the maxillary. 

The Pterygoid Bones. 
There has been som 
called pterygoids by Cu 
tion can no longer be fairly questioned. Various specimens 
in the Yale Museum show conclusively that the dentigerous 
bones of the palate in various genera of Mosasauroids were 
attached posteriorly to the quadrates by ligament ; to the 
basipterygoid processes in the same way; to the maxillaries 
by the 'intervention of a distinct transverse bone ; and to the 
true palatines by squamous suture. Cope has called these 
dentigerous bones ''palatines,'' and stated that they were 
separated from the quadrates bv intervening bones;* baton 
both points he was in error. The true palatines are small 
edentulous bones, in front and outside of the pterygoids. They 
* Yertebrata of the Cretaceous, p. 118. 

0. a Marsh— New Characters of Mosasauroid RepUles. 87 

separate the latter from the slender, distinct vomers. In the 
genus Tylosaurus, the posterior ends of the pterygoids form a 
distinct head. In Lestosaurus and Bolosaurus, this extremity is 
broad and thin. In none of these genera were the pterygoids 
united by suture on the median line, but were more or less 
widely separated. 

The new characters above presented are all Lacertilian, rather 
than Ophidian. The important characters of the Mosasauroids 
now known indicate that they form a suborder of the Lacertilia, 
which should be called Mosasauria. 

Holosaurus abruptus, gen. et sp. nov. 
The type specimen on which the present genus is based is 
one of the most complete skeletons of the Mosasauroid reptiles 
yet discovered. This genus is most nearly related to Lesto- 
mji.rus, and agrees with it in the form and general charactei-s of 
the skull. It may be readily distinguished by the coracoid, 
which is entirely without emarginations, as well as by other 
[loints of difference. From Tylosaurus it is separated widely 
by the premaxillaries, mandibles, and the palatines. 

Tlie present species was one of the shortest in proportion to 
its bulk hitherto described, the skull and tail being both 
abruptly terminated. The entire length was about twenty 
feet. There are 98 vertebras preserved between the skull and 
a point in the tail where the caudals have a diameter of one 
inch. Many of these vertebrae are in position. The caudals 
preserved all had articulated chevrons. 

Some of the dimensions of the present specimen are as 
follows : 

Length of entire lower jaw (two feet) - - 610-""" 

Length of dentary bone, on lower border. . - 342* 

Length of twelfth vertebra - - 71- 

Transverse diameter of ball- _. _ - 50- 

Length of twentieth vertebra - 85" 

Length of humerus 146- 

Width of distal end , -- 136- 

AM. JOUR. SCI., Vol. 
















"y^ '^'y- 




^ ^ 1 


'^'Ii§%. "^h 

"Irr ■'■-•■''-'" 


du'.r ' 1 



Art. XII, — Cordributions to Meteorology^ being results derived 
from an examination of the observations of the United States 
Signal Service and from other sources ; bj Elias LoOMiS, 
Professor of Natural Philosophy in Yale College. Twelfth 
paper, with three plates, 
plead before the National Academy of Sciences, New York, Oct. 28, 1819.] 

Mean pressure of the Atmosphere over the United States at differ- 
ent seasons of the year. 
During the last three or four years I have devoted much 
time to the study of atmospheric disturbances in their progress 
across the Rocky Mountains. This work has been attended 
with serious difficulties, a part of which have resulted from the 
mode in which the barometric observations at the mountain 
stations of the United States Signal Service are reduced to the 
level of the sea. The method of reduction consists in adding 
a constant quantity to the observations at each station ; and 
the same constant is adhered to throughout the entire year. 
J- hat tliis mode of reduction is erroneous appears from a com- 
parison of the observations on Mt Washington witb the obser- 
vations at neighboring stations near the level of the sea. In 
the following table, column 2d shows the mean height of the 
barometer on Mt. Washington (reduced to sea-level by the 
•Signal Service method) for each month of the year according to 
the observations of six years (1871-7). Column 3d shows the 
mean of the observations at Burlington, Yt., and Portland, Me. 
(also reduced to sea-level) tor the same period; and column 4th 
Am. Jodb. Sci.-Thtrd Series, Vol. XIX.-No. 1 10, Feb., 1880. 

90 K Loomis— Observations of the U. S. Signal Service. 
shows the differences between the numbers in the two precedii 

We thus find that by employing a constant reduction to sea- 
level for all months of the year, the pressure for Mt. Washing- 
ton in January is made 0*33 inch too small ; and the pressure 
in July is made 0-296 inch too great. 

A similar error must exist in the reduction of the observa- 
tions at the Eocky Mountain stations, but it is more difficult 
to determine its exact amount, because the nearest stations of 
comparison which are situated less than 1,000 feet above the 
level of the sea, are distant over 500 miles. Under these cir- 
cumstances I have endeavored to reduce the observations at 
each of the mountain stations to the level of the sea, for each 
month of the year, independently. The chief difficulty in 
making this reduction arises from the uncertainty as to what 
should be regarded as the temperature of the point situated at 
the level of the sea and directly under a given mountain station. 
The following is the method which I attempted to employ. I 
determined for each month the mean temperature of a point on 
the Pacific coast, and also the temperature of a point in the 
Mississippi Valley, each having the same latitude as the given 
station. Between the two temperatures thus determined, I 
interpolated a value corresponding to the differences of longi- 
tude between the given station and the two points above named. 

The following table shows the required data for the month 
of January and the results of the computation for each of the 
stations (except Mt. Washington and Pike's Peak) for which 
the reduction to sea-level by the Signal Service is made by the 
addition of a constant quantity. 








Station.! Base. 





Santa F6 

4 41 

106 10 6862 








105 4 5162 


104 42 6067 





Salt Lake C. 



37 29 


Virginia C. 

112 3 5480 


Fort Benton 


19-20 1 2-90 



B. Loomis— Observations of the U. S. Signal Service. 91 

Columns 2 and 3 show the latitude and longitude of the 
stations named in column 1 ; column 4th shows "tlie elevation 
of the stations above sea-level as assumed bj the Signal Service ; 
column 5th shows the mean temperature of each station for the 
month of January according to the observations of five years; 
column 6th shows the temperature at the level of the sea 
directly under each station, estimated in the manner already 
described; column 7th shows the reduction to sea-level adopted 
by the Signal Service ; column 8th shows the reduction to sea- 
level computed by Dunwoody's Tables contained in the Annual 
Report of the Signal Service for 187H, pp. 354-360 ; column 
9th shows the mean pressure for each station as deduced from 
the Signal Service observations, and column 10th shows the 
mean pressures corrected by the reductions given in column 8th, 

If now we attempt to represent by isobaric lines all the 
observations at the Signal Service stations for the month of 
January (employing for the Mountain stations the values given 
in column 10 of the preceding table), we find that nearly all the 
observations can be well represented by curve lines which have 
a tolerably symmetrical form. There are onlv four cases in 
which the discrepancies amount to as much as'O-05 inch, viz: 
Virginia City, Santa F6, North Platte and Dodge City. 

The result above found for Virginia City indicates a probable 
error in the assumed elevation of that station. According to 
Hayden, the height of Virginia City is 5,824 feet ; according 
to peLacy it is 5,778 feet : and according to the Signal Service 
ij- is 5,480 feet. The mean of these three determinations is 
0,694 feet. Assuming this to be the true elevation, the corrected 
pressure becomes 30-15, which accords pretty well with the 
observations at the other stations. 

According to Wheeler the height of Santa Fe is 7,047 feet, 
and according to the Signal Service 6,862 feet. Assuming the 
true elevation to be 7,000 feet, the corrected pressure becomes 
30-14, which accords tolerably well with the observations at the 
other stations. 

The results at North Platte and Dodge Citv appear to be 
about 0-25 inch too small. These discrepancies cannot reason- 
ably be ascribed to error in the assumed elevations, but they 
are apparently due to an erroneous mode of reducing the obser- 
vations to seadevel. If the observations at these stations as 
published in the International Bulletin are reduced to sea-level 
oy Dunwoody's Tables, the results will be found to agree pretty 
well with those at the neighboring stations, I then drew the 
isobars which best represent all the Signal Service observations 
lor the month of January, including the four stations above 
named, with the corrections which have been indicated. These 
curves exhibit an area of high pressure for the central part of 


K Looniis— Observations of the U. S. Signal Servic 

the An 

an Continent somewhat similar to that which prevails 
in winter over nearly the whole of Asia, but much inferior in 
amount This area 'is however apparently divided into three 
subordinate areas of maximum pressure, one having its center 
near Salt Lake City ; another near Yankton, and a third near 
Atlanta in Georgia. 

I next made a similar comparison of the barometric observa- 
tions for the month of July, and the results for the mountain 
stations are exhibited in the following table. 











Santa Fe 










Salt Lake City 


Virginia City 







Column 2d shows the mean temperature of each station for 
the month of July according to the observations of live years; 
column 3d shows the temperature at the level of the sea directly 
under each station, estimated in the manner before indicated ; 
column 4th shows the reduction to sea-level adopted by the 
Signal Service ; column 5th shows the reduction to sea-level 
computed by Dunwoody's Tables; column 6th shows the mean 
pressure for each station according to the Signal Service obser- 
vations ; and column 7th shows the mean pressure corrected by 
the reduction given in column 5th. 

It will be noticed that in four of the seven <^,ases in the pre- 
ceding table the temperatures in column 2d are greater than in 
column 3d, and the average of the temperatures in column 2d 
is considerably greater than in column 3d. This may be 
regarded as demonstrating that I have adopted a very absurd 
mode of deducing the temperature at the level of the sea. 
But it may be replied that the summer temperature in the 
Salt Lake Basin is higlier thnn it is upon the same parallel on 
the Atlantic coast or the Mississippi river, and very much 
higlier tlian it is on the Pacific coast. If we assume a decrease 
of temperature of one degree for each 300 feet elevation, we 
shall have a mean temperature of 91° for July at the level of 
the sea under Salt Lake City, which certainly is not the tem- 
perature which would prevail there if tlie mountains were 
' "' ime the temperature at the sea-level to be 

at actually observed at Salt Lake City, the 
barometer to sea-level will be 0-04 inch less 

If we 5 

E. Loomis — Observations of the U. S. Signal Service. 98 

than that given in the above table, which change would not 
materially affect the conclusions which I have drawn from the 

If now we attempt to represent by isobaric lines all the 
observations at the Signal Service stations for the month of 
July (employing for the mountain stations the values given in 
the last column of the preceding table), we find that all the 
observations are pretty well represented except those at the 
four stations above named, viz : Virginia City, Santa Fe, 
North Platte and Dodge City. 

If we assume the height of Virginia City above sea-level to 
be 5,694 feet, the corrected pressure becomes 29-74, which 
accords very well with the observations at the other stations. 
If we assume the height of Santa Fe above sea-level to be 7,000 
feet, the corrected pressure becomes 29*84, which also accords 
very well with the other observations. 

The results at North Platte and ])o<lge City a[)pear to be 
about 0-30 inch too small, which is apparcMitly due to an 
erroneous mode of reducin<»- the observations to sea-level, as 
intimated on pasre 91. 

I then drew tlie isobars which best r(>iM-osent all the Siunal 
Service observations for the month of ,Inly, including the four 
stations above named with the coi-rcciion^ wliirii have been 
indicated. These curves exhibit an :n\':i of h.\v |uv-sure for 
the central part of the American eoniincni .similar to that which 
prevails in summer over nearly the whole of A^ia. but far infe- 

■J^'iw this table I decided to sub.-^ti 
had previously prepared, and on. 
yations to the level of th.' .u> i 
heights of the 

Service Report f(n' 1878 wi 
and Santa Fe. The hc^iglit 

.p. 418-lJ 

1) the mean 
. corrected 

onlv. A^ 
-r the tab 

le' which I 

, n^hu-eal 

1 th(;obser- 
nncr. The 
rW Si^ 

94 E. Loomis — Observations of the JJ. S. Signal Service. 

woody's Tables (Eeport 1876, pp. 354-360), and for stations 
whose altitude exceeds 1,200 feet, the reduction was also 
determined by ray tables contained in Guyot's collection of 
Hypsometrical Tables as published by the Smithsonian Institu- 
tion, pp. 52-3. The observations at Mt. Washington and Pike's 
Peak, have not been employed in these comparisons. 

The following table shows the data for the month of January. 
Column 5th shows the mean height of the barometer as deter- 
mined at each of the stations ; column 6th shows the mean 
temperature of each station and differs slightly from the num- 
bers given on page 90, as it includes the observations of an 
additional year ; column 7th shows the estimated temperature 
evel of the sea directly under each " ■■ -■•'v. . 

January ohservations. 

, the lev 

and differs 

-— - 










Santa F^ 










Dodge City 






N. Platte 







Virginia C. 







28-228! 5-7 




somewhat from the numbers given on page 90 for the reason 
just stated ; column 8th shows the height of the barometer 
reduced to sea-level by Dunwoody's Tables (30 inches being 
omitted); column 9th shows the height of the barometer reduced 
by Loomis' Table, and column 10th shows the differences be- 
tween the numbers in the two preceding columns. It will be 
perceived that these differences are small, showing that Dun- 
woody's Tables accord very well with Laplace's formula. 

Plate II shows the isobars drawn to represent the preceding 
observations and also those at the other stations of the Signal 
Service, together with a few observations beyond the limits of 
the United States contained in Buchan's paper on the mean 
pressure of the atmosphere (Ed. Trans., vol. xxv, pp. 575-637). 
These curves bear a pretty close resemblance to those derived 
first collection of observations. There 

of maximum pressure having its center near Salt Lake 
City ; there is an area of maximum pressure whose center is 
near Yankton, and there is an area of maximum spread out 
over the Southern States. In the latter area, the isobar of 30*2 
inches extends further to the northeast than was previously 

E. Loomis — Observations of the U. S. /Signal Service. 95 

found, but the general features of the curves are but little 
changed. The breaking up of the area of high pressure into 
three subordinate areas is distinctly indicated, and it is pcaix-cly 
to be expected that this feature will be made to disappe.n- by 
a longer continuance of the observations. It appears prohnhle 
that there is a permanent cause for this peculiarity, a^ul it may 
perhaps be ascribed to the usual course pursued by banjnietric 
minima. The centers of great storms, particularly in winter, 
generally follow the eastern slope of the Roeky Mountains 
until they reach latitude 40° or a little furthfr s<Hith, after 
which they turn eastward and soon ineliiie somewhat to the 
north of east This low barometei' is partly eonipensated l)y 
the high pressure which succeeds it, but this eompeDsation i's 
apparently not quite complete. 

The following table shows the data for the month of July 
for the same stations named in the table on page 94, and the 
arrangement of the table is the same. 

July observatio 











Santa Fe 


.3.3.3' 60-02 




Dodge City 



North Platte 




Salt Lake City 




Virginia City 


24-339 64-54 





It will be noticed that the differences between the results by 
Dunwoody's Tables and my own are quite small, showit 
Dun wood v's Tables give very good results for altitudes a 
as 7,000 feet, for summer as\vell as winter. 

Plate III shows the isobars drawn to represent the preceding 
observations as well as those at other stations of the Signal Ser- 
vice. These curves bear a close resemblance to those de- 
rived from my first eolleetion (^f obsL-rvations. The area of 


the west side. These curve. 
itions very well ; but there are : 
' the stations between the Koc 
an. The greatest discrepancy 
^-^erved height exceeds that shown oi 
uile at Chicago the observed height 

96 E. Loomis — Observations of the U. S. Signal Service. 

0-05 inch. The observations make the pressure at Dodge City 
0"03 inch less than at Denver, while the chart makes the former 
025 inch greater than the latter. A part of these discrepan- 
cies may be ascribed to the fact that the observations at the 
different stations were not all made on the same years. Ac- 
cording to the Dakota Southern Eailroad Survey the elevation 
of Yankton is 1,202 feet. If we adopt this value, both the Jan- 
uary and July observations at Yankton accord pretty well with 
the observations at neighboring stations. The obse^rvations at 
Chicago seem to indicate a small zero error in the barometer. 

The pressure at Salt Lake City reduced to sea level appears 
to be 0472 inch greater in winter than in summer ; while in 
Central Asia the difference between winter and summer amounts 
to an entire inch. It is evident that the same cause operates in 
North America as in Asia, but with diminished energy. 

Comparison of barometric minima in Europe and America. 
The monthly Review of the weather for 1877 published by 

Dr. Neumayer of Hamburg, ( 

ary of the results 

compare some of these results v 

Mate of progress of barometric minima. — Dr. Neumayer has 
given for each month of the years 1876 and 1877 the average 
daily progress of barometric minima in Europe expressed in 
myriameters. I have reduced these values to English miles 
per hour, and the results are shown in column 4th of the fol- 
lowing table. For the purpose of comparison, I have placed 
in column 2nd the velocities deduced from three years observa- 
tions in the United States as published in this Journal, vol. x, 
p. 1. I have also reduced to a tabular form the velocities given 
in the monthlv Reports of the Signal Service since Nov. 1875, 







33-3 J6-8 
























— ; — 


and have determined the averages for each month. These 
results are shown in column 3d of the table. They are derived 
from forty-four months of observation, and refer to the region 
between the Atlantic Ocean and the meridian of 100° from 

E. Loomis—Ohservatiom of the U. S. Signal Service. 97 

The average velocity of storm centers as shown by the 
monthly Reports of the Signal Service is almost identical with 
that which I had previously deduced. As these two results 
are based on the observations of six and two-thirds years, it is 
probable that they will not be greatly changed by a longer con- 
tinuance of the observations. Dr. Neumayer's result is deduced 
from observations of two years, extending over every part of 
Europe, and is probably a close approximation to the average 
velocity of storm centers in that country. The average velocity 
of storm centers in the United States is seen to be 69 per cent 
greater than it is in Europe. In my tenth paper (this Journ., 
vol. xvii, p. 3) 1 determined the average velocity of storm cen- 
ters on the Atlantic Ocean to be 14 miles per hour, which is 
somewhat less than the value above found for the continent of 

It appears then to be an established fact that storms travel 
more rapidly over the eastern portion of the United States than 
they do over the Atlantic Ocean or the continent of Europe. 
What cause can be assigned for this inequality? The winds 
on the Atlantic Ocean are certainly stronger than they are over 
either of the continents, and it is" believed that the winds of 
Central Europe are generally stronger than the winds of the 
United States. In my eighth paper (this Journ., vol. xv, p. 16) I 
gave the results of an extended comparison of the winds at the 
Signal Service stations. For the stations north of latitude 40° 
(omitting Mt. Washington and Pike's Peak) the average 
velocity is 8-7 miles per hour. The average velocity which I 
have deduced from a considerable number of stations in Eng- 
land and its vicinitv is 11 '3 miles per hour. The average 
velocity at several stations in Northern Prussia is 11-8 miles 
per hour, and the average velocity at Vienna is 11*5 miles per 
hour. In my first paper (this Journ., vol. viii, p. 7) from a com- 
parison of a large number of cases, I showed that generally the 
stronger the wind on the west side of a storm, the less the 
velocity of the storm's progress. If the more rapid progress of 
storm centers in the United States results from a difference in 
the velocity of the winds, it seems probable that the effect is 
produced by means of the vapor which is precipitated. From 
the Rocky Mountains to the Atlantic Ocean storms advance 
from a dryer to a more humid atmosphere. In Enropc, while 
storms travel eastward, they advance from a huimd to a drver 
atmosphere. Upon the Ariantic Ocean the vap<.r on the west- 
has upon the eastern si(k% owing to the wanii water of \he 
^ulf Stream. In my eightli paper (this Journ., vol. xv, p. 11) I 
nave shown that in the vicinity of Newfoundland storms are 
frequently delayed several days, and this result is apparently 

98 E. Loomis — Observations of the U. S. Signal Service. 

due to the abundant precipitation of vapor in that region. In 
my first paper (this Journ., vol.viii, p. 6) I have shown that when 
a storm center advances eastward most rapidly, the rain-area 
generally extends to an unusual distance on the east side ; 
and the storm center advances less rapidly than usual when the 
i-ain-area extends but little on the east side. These facts seem 
to indicate that in Europe the center of the rain-area must 
precede the center of least pressure by a less distance than it 
does in the United States. I have endeavored to decide this 
question by a comparison of observations. The most satisfac- 
tory course would probably be to determine the position of the 
rain-center with reference to the point of least pressure, for a 
large number of cases in Europe and America ; but unless we 
take all the storms of a year indiscriminately, we might be 
charged with having selected cases for the purpose of establish- 
ing a preconceived hypothesis. I have therefore adopted a 
different method, and have taken all those stations both in 
Europe and in the United States for which I could obtain a 
record of the rain-fall, as well as of the barometer, more than 
three times a day. I then divided the rain of each month into 
two portions, one containing the rain which fell while the bar- 
ometer was descending, and the other containing the rain which 
fell while ihe barometer was ascending. Whenever it happened 
that the barometer remained stationary during the interval 
between two observations, the rain for that period was divided 
equally between the two columns. The materials which I have 
been able to obtain for this comparison are the following: 

1. Observations made at Girard College, Philadelphia, from 
1840 to 1845. For three years the observations were made 
hourly and for the other year once in two hours. 2. Hourly 
observations at Valencia, Armagh, Glasgow, Aberdeen, Fal- 
mouth, Stonyhurst and Kew for 1874. 3. Observations eight 
times a day at Paris for 1877. 4. Observations once in two 
hours at Brussels for six months of 1879. 5. Hourly observa- 
tions at Prague for 1865, '6H and '69. 6. Hourly observations 
at Vienna for 1854, '55 and '56. These are all the stations in 
Europe and America for which I have been able to obtain 
observations of the rain-fall and barometer more frequently than 
three times a day. The results are shown in the following table, 
and are all expressed in English inches. When the (>})servations 
at any station were continued more than one year, the average 
fall for all the years has been taken. The first column under 
each station shows the monthly fall of rain while the barometer 
was descending, and the second column shows the fall of rain 
while the barometer was rising. At the bottom of the table is 
shown the total fall for the year, and the last line shows the 
ratio of the total numbers in the two columns. 

Loomis — Ohservations of the U, S. Signal Serv 

We see that at Philadelphia the amount of 
while the barometer is descending, is nearly thr( 


on of rain-fall to barometric presmre 



































ParlB i tirassels 


one year. 

one year. 

one year. .bIx months 

three years 






RiB'g| Fan 











1 -55 











































2 03 






















case IS nearly five times as great as in the latter case. In s 
joer there frequently occurs a thunder shower with an exces 
:?!^ of^rain accompanied by a slight rise of the barometer, 

the explanation of the fact that 

a rising than w'' ' "" ^ 

occurs with 

At the sti 

^and, the an 

twice that w 

jar the west coast of Great Britain and Ire- 
rain with a falling barometer is more than 
ng barometer ; but this ratio rapidly dimin- 

100 E. Loomis — Observations of the U. S. Signal Service. 

ishes as we advance eastward. At Paris this ratio is reduced 
to one and a half; and in Central Europe more rain falls while 
the baron:ieter is ascending than while it is descending. 

From these observations we must conclude that storms may 
travel eastward even though the center of the rain-area is some- 
what west of the center of low pressure. In my tenth paper 
(this Journ., vol. xvii, p. 12) I have shown that the change of 
wind which accompanies a barometric minimum generally 
begins at the surface of the earth, before it does at elevated 
stations, indicating that the west wind in the rear of the storm 
pushes under the east wind, lifting it from the surface of the 
earth, so that a change of wind and an increase of barometric 
pressui-e is observed at the surface before there is any change 
of wind at the elevation of 2,000 or 3,000 feet. This move- 
ment of the winds does not prevent the storm center from ad- 
vancing eastward, but the storm advances less rapidly than 
when the center of the rain-fall is considerably east of the cen- 
ter of low pressure, as is generally the case in the United States. 

Barometric minima advancing with unusual velocity. 
Dr. Neumayer finds in Europe occasional examples of baro- 

and there are othe 

On the 9th of September, 1876, there was a barometric mini- 
mum (29-06 inches) not far from Konigsberg in Prussia. 
Thence it made a circuit through the southern part of Sweden 
and Norway, and at the end of six days it was in Holland 
about 720 miles west of the first named position. On the 19th 
of December, 1876, there was a barometric minimum (28-70 
inches) near the southern extremity of Ireland. Thence it 
made a circuit through England and back into Ireland, and at 
the end of six days was near Cherburg in France, less than 
500 miles distant from the point first mentioned. 

The following table shows all the cases in 1876 and 1877 in 
which storm centers advanced over 1000 miles in twenty-four 

:;olnmn 3d show 
twentv-fonr ho 

1 shows the hci 

n: colunu! r.rl, 
,nin- of the iriv 
; barometer at ; 

s the 

gll'^t n 

on d;i 
the C( 

I ;it the l.-ii 

IV : coiuim, I 
3nter of the 

the bai 
ictcr (i 

' of the 
^3th she 

rometric minimum 
h miles; column 
u English inches) 
,f thedayinques- 
• center at the he- 
ms the height of 
at the end of the 

■en day; columi 

1 7th 

latitude of the center at 

it instant; colu. 

mn 8th shows the force 

of the strongest 

id reported at i 

ation for ihi 

it day. 

The scale is not 

E. Looviis-Ohserva 

stated but is supposed to 
different directions of th 
preceding column. 

ions of the U. S. Signal Service. 101 

be 1 to 12. Column 9tli shows the 
e winds whose force is given in the 


28-6G |ti2-2 
'2S-35 51-8 





It will be seen that the m ■ I ; 

storms advance 1000 mih^^ m a da \ . ani.i 
years, being an average of f)^ cases annual!; 
of progress observed" is 1830 miles in a > 
generally advanced toward a point north 

east; the average hoicrht of the l.;nv,ii(';t'i 

29-0 inches; and thcv were all acr-viii]!. -iii'd 1 

\ w 

niUol ureat 

violence. " ' 

In the United States, the cases in uln. 

1 >r< 

•m. ..dvance 

with a high velocity are of mneh more lie 



:uid tiiey sometimes attain a vclocitv greatc 
observed in Europe, but the aim)unt of the 1 

r th 

m has been 


etric depres- 

ol. viii, p. 1) 

I alluded to these examples of lligh vd.^r-ity. 


<h(nved that 

in these cases the rain-area extended <> i-tur 

id o 

the .torm"^ 

center to an unusual distance. The -amv^ -i 


^v:i- fill r her 

considered in my third paper (this J.Mii'n.. no 

.. (1). 


minima advanced at least 10*00 miles in a (hiv, durinu the period 
for which the observations of the Sianal' Service have been 
I'ublished entire, viz: Sept, 1872, to Jan., L875, and Januarv 
to March, 1877. In the follouin, \aVV. .•.-Im- Nt -JvJs 
the number of reference: ' "^ .. ■ . r ,, ,j,,. 

nieneement of the day ,• ~'.Vy 

^- M. observation; eolui -''-h 

miles that the ^toim adx, nm 

-Ith (increased by twent^v -ci^J>f im -'.■-. ^ ;i uht of 

102 E. Loomis — Observations of the U. S, Signal Service. 

the given day; column 6th shows the station at which the 
height mentioned in the preceding column was observed ; col- 
umn 6th (increased by 28 inches) shows the height of the 
barometer at the center of the low area at the end of the given 
day ; column 7th shows the station at which the height men 
tioned in the preceding column was observed ; column 8tli 
shows the direction and velocity (in miles per hour) of the 
highest wind at any of the stations near the low center 
during the given day ; column 9th shows the direction and 
velocity of the highest wind on Mt. Washington observed 
during the progress of the storm or immediately after the 
storm had passed eastward ; column 10th shows the total rain- 
fall at the Signal Service stations within the low area (barometer 
below thirty inches) during the day in question ; column 11th 
shows the distance that the rain area extended eastward of the 
center of least pressure ; column 12th shows the distance east- 
ward from the storm-center that abnormal winds extended 
(that is, winds from S., S.E., E. or N.E.); column 13th shows 
the direction of an area of high barometer, with reference to 
the low center ; and column 14th (increased by thirty inches) 
shows the greatest height of the barometer within the high 
area mentioned in the preceding column. 

Besides the cases here enumerated there are a few others in 
which storms may have advanced with equal rapidity, but 
there is so much uncertainty with regard to the exact position 
of the center of least pressure that I have preferred to leave 
them out of the account. The number of cases in the table is 
39, occurring within a period of 82 months which gives an 
average of 14 per year, being 2 J times as many as occur in 
Europe. The greatest observed velocity of these low areas 
was 1872 miles per day, which is 40 per cent greater than the 
highest velocity observed in Europe, 

The average height of the barometer at the beginning of the 
days enumerated was 29-62 inches, and the average height at 
the end of the days was 29'42 inches, which is only half of the 
average depression observed in the storms of Europe. In 27 
of these cases the depression at the center of the storm in- 
creased during the day, in 11 cases it decreased, and in one 

except Nos. 31, 37 and 38, "the center of low barometer passed 
north of the United States, and it is doubtful whether the 
lowest barometer was observed. Thus we see that in the 
American cases, the stoi 
while in the European i 

The highest wind recorded at any station during the days in 
question (excluding Mt Washington and Pike's Peak) ranged 

E. Loomis— Observations of the U. S. Signal Service. 103 
barometric minima advancing at least 1000 miles in 24 hours. 




High Bar 







-Uon 1 -X 










5 <^ 





Portland N 

41 NW 6 


SF 19 

Quebec W 

Deo. 14.1 





Bufl\rr \ ? 

32IN 6. 

li' I9 lit 


N^l '2 

Jan. 4.3 





Porthnd N F 


50 66 4' ' 


IS. J io 

Lake Cy 

Hal fax N 

9 71 94i 

20 10, 948 

May 12.2 

1 -441 St. Paul 

Porthnd ° N 

3 2"! 318 



Pitt=.*l u,Vh N r 


NTV 7^ 








Halifax N E 

NW 72 

28 39 640 

M< M 

Jan. 3.3 








492I 00 


^E -ii 





11941 780 

F. Point 


I 54 84(, 

cjp-' 44 





W 92 3 44|l226 


F. Point 


\^ 92 9 76 783 




Quebec W 

i)eT ^2:2 

l-89|st Paul 


QueUc AP 



C. Ro/ier |n ^ 


Haiii IX \\ 

52N^\ - 1 • 



l-59'Ottawd In W 




l-37Haldax K\ 

30J;m\ m 1 





1-59 Quebec SW 

30|N^ .n , 



Jan. i.3 




0-89HaMa. |. 


-I 43 




F. Gibson 

1-35 Post n I 



s/ 09 



l-19|p;r. N^ 



Parrj S s 

42 A \\ 


31 K \\ 


Cha^tham \\ 

oo'n 11 

1-56 Dodge C. 

Kno^vUle ^ W 

44L\ W 


C. Htnn N ^A 

40 N \^ 




Malone' V 

{6'N^^ 6MIS 

1 30 





1 42 l| 80 4| 9 )7l G0( 


104 E. Loomis—Ohservations of the U. S. Signal Service. 

from 18 to 68 miles per hour. In the case of No. 20, winds 
higher than 18 miles per hour prevailed in other parts of the 
United States, but it is doubtful whether they ought to be 
regarded as belonging to the storm here investigated. The 
average of the numbers in this column of the table is 42 miles 
per hour. The number of cases for the different points of the 
compass is shown in column 2d of the following table. 

Thus we see that in 28 of the cases, the highest wind came 
from the quarters KE., N., N.W. and W. ; and in only 11 of 
the cases did they come from the quarters S.W., S., S.E. andE. 
The average direction of these violent winds was about N.N.W. 
while in Europe it was but a little west of south. 

On Mt. Washington the highest winds range from 54 to 110 
miles per hour, the average being 80 miles. The number of 
cases for the diiferent points of the compass is shown in col- 
umn 3d of the preceding table, and we see that in 35 of the 
cnses the hi^rhest wind came from the points N.E., KW. and 
W.; while in only 4 of the cases did thevcome from the points 
S.W., S., S.E. and E. 

The average rainfall in 24 hours within these low areas was 
9-97 inches, which is considerably in excess of the usual rain- 
fall at the same stations. The amount of the rain was how- 
ever very variable, ranging from to 36 inches ; and there 
v^ere ten eases in which the total rain-fall within the low area 
was less than two inches in 24 hours. In 6 of these 10 
cases the storm center passed beyond the northern boundary 
of the United States or very near^to it, and it may be claimed 
that probably there was rain on the north side of these low 
areas ; but in Nos. 2, 3 and 38, the center of the low area was 
500 miles south of our northern boundary. No. 21 was a 
peculiar case. On the morning of Nov. 28, 1874, the lowest 
barometer at any of the signal service stations was 30-15 inches, 
so that the barometer at Mobile was only relatively low, the 
pressure being unusually high from the Atlantic to the Pacific 
Ocean. In preparing column 8th of the table, it was necessary 
to have a uniform rule which could be applied without bias, 
and I have regarded the term low as including all stations sur- 
rounding the storm center, where the barometer was below 30 
inches. This rule indicated no rain for the morning and after- 
noon observations of Nov. 28th, although in fact there was a 
great fall of rain and snow within the system of winds which 

K Loomis — Observations of the U. S. Signal Service. 105 

circulated about Mobile. If all this precipitation is regarded 
as belonging to the storm No. 21, it makes a total of 17-60 
inches for that day. No. 15 presents another case in which 
the rain-fall in column 8th is made to appear very small in 
consequence of the rule above stated, but if all the rain in- 
cluded within the system of circulating winds for that day were 
counted, the total would be 1219 inches. We see then that 
these cases of fast moving barometric minima were generally 
accompanied by a large rain-fall ; but there are apparently some 
cases in which the rain-fall which can be associated with these 
low areas was very slight. Such were Nos. 2, 3 and 38. 

The area of rain generally extended a great distance in ad- 
vance of the storm center, the average distance being 667 miles, 
but there were several cases in which the rain extended but 
little eastward of the storm center. These were generally cases 
in which the rain-fall shown in column 10th was very small, 
but No. 12 was a case in which the rain-fall was considerable, 
yet for each period of eight hours the rain did not extend sen- 
sibly eastward of the center of least pressure at the close of the 
eight hours. This implies that the rain did actually extend 
eastward of the low center to a distance equal to the space 
traveled over by the storm center in about four hours, that is, 
200 miles; but on the morning of January 4th the center ol 
the rain urea very nearly coincided with the center of least 
pressure, and wus'apparently a little westward of that center. 

The a))nortnal winds generally extended on the east side of 
the low center to a distance of about 1,000 miles, the average 
being 993 miles. By abnormal winds I understand winds from 
the south, southeast, east or northeast. No. 20 is the only 
instance in which this distance was less than 500 miles ; and 
in this case there was another low center at a distance of 1,500 
miles on the east side, the two being separated by a narrow 
ndge of higher pressure, in which the highest barometer was 
30-15 inches. This ridge of higher pressure separated two 
systems of circulating winds, and was apparently levelled before 
themorning of September 3d. 

What now is the cause of these rapid movements of storm 

centers ? Several of them apparently resulted from the muuiai 
influence of two low areas. In my 10th paper (this Journ., vol. 
" . 5) I showed that on the Atlantic Ocea 

10th pap 

, - itlantic 0_.. 

frequently become merged in one. In such 

low area is generally retarded in its progress, and is sometimes 
turned backward toward the west. At the same time the 
progress of the western low area must be accelerated. Such 
cases appear to occur within the limits of the United States, or 
near our borders, although the geographical extent of the 
Weather maps is too small to exhibit the full development of 
Am. Jodb. Sci.— Thibd SBBraa, Vol, XIX, No. UO.-Fbb., 1880. 

106 E. Loomis — Observations of the IT. S^ Signal Service. 

these changes. Nos. 3, 6, 8, 9, 13. 15, 18, 19, 20, 25, 27, 28, 29, 
30, 33, 34, 35, 37 and 38 were apparently of this kind. 

The maps accompanying the Hamburgh Eeview for January, 
1877, clearly show that No. 7 of the cases on page 101 belongs 
to this class. I have no information which enables me to judge 
of the other European cases on page 101. 

The cases of barometric minima enumerated in the table on 
page 103 were all accompanied with high winds and some of them 
with violent winds ; they were generally accompanied with a 
great fall of rain or snow, and the rain-area generally extended 
to a great distance in front of the storm's center ; but the most 
noticeable circumstance which characterizes all the cases is the 
great extent of abnormal winds in front of the storm's center. 
These abnormal winds were apparently due to an area of high 
barometer situated on the south, southeast, east or northeast 
side of the low center. These winds (in consequence of the 
rotation of the earth) tend to produce a depression of the bar- 
ometer on their left side. They were generally accompanied 
with a considerable rain-fall, which tends to increase the 
velocity of the winds and thus produce a greater depression 
of the barometer. 

In order to illustrate more clearly the operation of these dif- 
ferent causes, I have prepared Plate IV, which shows the isobars 
and winds for January 15, 1877, at 4.35 p. m. (case No. 31 of 
the table on page 103). We see that the center of the low area 
was between Cincinnati and St. Louis, the lowest pressure 
recorded being 29*39 at Cincinnati. Around this center the 
isobars are arranged with considerable symmetry, but are 
crowded most closely together on the northwest side, and we 
find an area of high pressure (3046) whose center is not far 
from Breckenridge. Also on the northeast side near the mar- 
gin of the chart, we find another area of high barometer (30"35). 
The winds tend from these high centers toward the low center, 
but by the rotation of the earth they are deflected to the right, 
thus producing an increased pressure on the right of their 
course, and a diminished pressure on their left. The move- 
ment due to these causes would soon cease if there were no 
liting force. This force is supplied by the precipitation of 

u:-L : gj^j. |j^ ^^Q ^jj._ ^ijgn ^i^^g vapor is con- 

• air rushes in with great force to supply 
the place of the condensed vapor, and the air is expanded by 
the latent heat which is set free. This cause is sufficient to 
maintain high winds as long as there is a great precipitation of 

On Plate IV the direction of the wind is indicated by arrows ; 
and the force of the wind is indicated by the number of feathers 
attached to the end of the arrows. One feather indicates a 

nsed, the tu 

E. Loomis—Ohservations of ihe U. S. Signal Service. 107 

velocity not exceeding five miles per hour: two foatlicrs indi- 
cate a velocity from six to ten miles; tliree feathers ironi eleven 
to fifteen miles; four feathers from sixteen to twenty miles, and 
so on for higher velocities. 

The center of low pressure advanced eastward along the dot- 
ted line represented on Plate IV. Some have claimed that this 
advance of storms is simple drift, the entire mass of air within the 
low area being earned bodily eastward, that being the average 
direction in which the atmosphere moves in the middle lati- 
tudes. This explanation will not stand examination. If while 
the winds are circulating around a low center, the entire atmos- 
phere within the low area is carried bodily eastward, the effect 
of this movement should be different upon the northern and 
southern portions of the storm. In my forraei- papers I have 
shown that on the north side of low areas in the United States 
the average direction of the wind is nearly northeast, and on 
the south side it is from the southwest, and the average velocity 
of the winds on both sides is nearly the same, viz : eight miles 
per hour, while the average progress of the low center is twen- 
ly-six miles per hour. Suppose now the velocity of progress 
to be increased to fifty miles per hour, if the entire mass of air 
within the low area is carried bodily eastward, the velocity of 
the wind I'elativc to the earth's surface should be greatly in- 
creased on the south side of the low area, while that on the 
north side should be diminished, and the direction of the wind 
on eacli side should be materially changed. But we see from 
Plate IV that on the north side of the low center the winds 
blow from the northeast with an unusual velocity, while those 
on the south side generally blow from the southwest and are 
comparativelv feeble. If we compare the stations within the 
isobar 29-9 we find that on the north side of the track of the 
storm, the average velocity of the winds is 14-9 miles per hour, 
and on the south side it is 8-5 miles ; that is, on the north side 
the average velocity of the winds is seventy-five per cent greater 
than it is on the south side. The air within this low area did 
not then drift bodily eastward, but the eastward movement of 
tne^storm was due to some other cause. 

I'lie same conclusion applies to areas of high barometer, as 
^^'ill appear from a comparison of a few well-established facts. 
In a former paper I have shown that in the United States the 
average rate of motion of areas of high barometfi- is about 
twenty-five miles per hour. I have also shown that the winds 
Wow outward from areas of high iKirometer. und therefon' at 
the center there must be a mim, as observati>)n generally indi- 

mg bodily from jjlace to place at the rate of twenty-five miles 

108 E. Loomis — Observations of the U. S. Signal Service. 

twenty-five miles per hour. We must then conclude that the 
areas of high barometer is like that 
it motion results from a subtraction 
of air from one side and an addition of air to the opposite side. 

The progress of areas of low barometer must be due to sim- 
ilar causes. The pressure is diminished on the east side of the 
low area and increased on the west side, i 
which the low center suffers a displacemeni 
the earth's surface, and the rate of progress of the low center 
will depend upon the rate at which the pressure is reduced on 
the east side, and restored on the west side. 

The advance of storm centers across the United States may 
be affected by atmospheric conditions prevailing much beyond 
the limits of the signal service maps, so that we cannot be sure 
that we know all the circumstances which influence the case 
we are considering, but from Plate IV we can see a reason why 
the pressure on the west side of the low area should be rapidly 
restored. The air from the north and northwest rushed in with 
great velocity. This air had a very low temperature, the ther- 
mometer at 4.35 P. M. (Washington time) being below zero of 
Fahrenheit at Pembina, Bismark, Breckenridge, Fort Sully, 
Yankton, North Platte and Omaha. On the northeast side of 
the low center the wind was generally from the northeast, by 
which means the air was drawn off from that region and the 
pressure diminished. But if no other force operated, the low 
area would soon be filled up by these movements of the atmos- 
phere, and the pressure would resume its normal state. This 
result is prevented by the condensation of the vapor which is 
present in the air. The rain which fell during the nine hours 
from 7.35 a. m. to 4.35 p. m. is exhibited on Plate lY by dot- 
ted lines. We see that a slight fall of rain or snow covered 
nearly the entire United States east of the meridian of 100°, 
but the greatest fall was at Louisville (1-66 inches in nine 
hours); and the area of one-quarter inch rain-fall extended 
from Lacrosse on the north, to Yicksburg on the south, and 
Boston on the east. The moist and warmer air on the east side 
of the low center rises from the earth's surface and is supplanted 
by the cold air which presses in upon the west side. The great 
extension of the rain area on the east side causes an unusually 
rapid fall of the barometer on that side, and a corresponding 
advance of the storm's center. 

We have seen from the table on page 99 that in the middle 
latitudes, storms generally travel eastward, even though the 
principal rain-fall should be on the west side of the low center; 
but when the principal rain-tall is on the east side of the low- 
center, this causes a diversion of the winds in that direction, 
and the low center travels eastward with increased rapidity. 

W. Earkness — Color Correction of Achromatic Telescopes. 109 

During the entire Drocrress of the storm of January 14-17, 
1877, the winds on Mt. Washington blew. uninterruptedly from 
the northwest, and the least velocity reported was thirty-six 
miles per hour, showing that the movements represented on 
Plate lY were confined to the lower stratum of the atmosphere 
and did not reach to the height of 6,000 feet. 

Most of the cases enumerated in the table on page 103 agree 
with No. 31 in several of the particulars here stated. Their 
rapid movement eastward appears to have been due to an un- 
usual extension of easterly winds which seem to have owed 
their origin to the accidental proximity of areas of high barom- 
eter, and the influence of this high barometer was sustained by 
the precipitation of vapor which" extended to an unusual dis- 
tance on the east side of the low center. 

In the table on page 103 are a few cases to which the explan- 
ation here given does not seem to apply. The rapid movement 
of Nos. 2 and 3 was apparently due to their position between 
two areas of high barometer, oiie on the northwest side and the 
other on the southeast. In order to maintain these areas of high 

some region not shown by the Signal Service observations. 
These examples illustrate the importance of having observa- 
tions from a large portion of the earth's surface, in order that 
we may fully investigate the phenomena of particular storms. 
In preparing the materials for this article I have been assisted 
by Mr. Henrv A. Hazen, a graduate of Dartmouth college, of 
the class of 1871. 

Art. XIII. —On the Color Correction of Achromatic Telescopes; 
A reply lo Prof. Chas. S. HASTINGS ; by Wm. Harkness. 

In the December number of this Journal, pages 434, 435, 
the distinguished Associate Professor of Physics of the Johns 
Hopkins University has criticised my theory of the color cor- 
rection of achromatic telescopes in language which I quote 
nere to avoid the possibility of misrepresenting it; merely 
adding numbers to the clauses for convenience of reference; 
.^^" These results are diroctly opposed to th<>se of a recent writer 
I^ut his r.Miclu-i..,i^ ariM'- from i>vn'iu'<Miv Val,-ul:itioiis.' (I) Xot 

ahsur(lir\ ihat in :i -x .tvtn ..f iiitiiiit t-Iv t hiii leii-e- " in (-..ntiiet its 
Properti;. are d.^lmnine,! hs thr onh-r of the lenses, but the in- 
terpretation is in,p..-il,h, true A should have an opposite sign 

110 W, Harkness — Color Correction of Achromatic Telescopes. 

and consequently his subsequent reasoning is fallacious, for in 
that case n does not have to be infinite to cause equation (27) to 
vanish. (Ill) I may add that the origin of the confusion is in 
making the ratio D -^E in equation (9) constant ; it may be, and 
of course should be, indeterminate." 

" (IV) Professor Harkness has made another mistake, founded 
upon inadequate experiment, which has so important a bearing on 
the theory of the double objective that it should not be allowed 
to pass uncorrected. His statement (p. 191) concerning the con- 
dition for color correction is substantially correct, though in my 
opinion, it is not self-evident but requires proof. This proof I 
shall supply in a forthcoming number of the American Journal of 
Mathematics. (V) His experiment, however (p. 193), directly 
contravenes this principle, for he finds that the focal plane does 
not correspond to the minimum focal distance, but to something 
greater. (VI) The source of error is the introduction of a varia- 
ble element in the system, namely, the eye, which would adjust 
itself diflFerently in observing the star and its spectrum. Had the 

eye-pieces of successively higher power, thus lessening 

power of accommodation of the system, with 

prism, he would have seen his points y^ and j/„ approach until 

progressively the power of accommodation of the syst' 
' ■ prism, he would have seen his points y^ and j/„ appro; 

r sensibly coincided ; or better still had he formed his 
truni by a grating (such as perforated cardboard) before tne 
objective, instead of by a prism between the ocular and eye, he 
could not have been misled, since the uncolored image would 
serve to control the eye." 

" (VII) Finally, the fourth conclusion (p. 196) is strictly true, 
though we are not to conclude, as would seem from the text, that 
the detriment due to the secondary spectrum depends either solely 
upon the aperture or varies inversely as the focal length ; * * *" 

Let us examine this criticism in detail; referring- to its 
clauses, and to the equations of my original paper, by their 
respective numbers. 

Clause /virtually asserts that three quantities can be arranged 
in two classes otherwise than by putting one in one class and 
two in the other. To prove this we remark that equation (12) 
may be written 

= A,(6. + 2cj/;) -h A^{b^ -h 2c^y:) + A^{b, + 2e^y:) (36) 
For all glasses of which I have any knowledge, ^< is positive, 
and yory much larger than c. The latter quantity is some- 
times negative ; but wlien this happens, it is exceedingly small 
X cannot be otherwise than positive. From these conditions it 
results that the quantities {h 4- 20^0) are invariably })ositive, 
and therefore the sign of each term in (36) depends solely upon 
the Hgn of its A. But in order that {U) may be true, one of 
its terms must have a different sign from the other two; and 
just because the properties of a system of infinitely thin lenses 

W. Harhiess — Color Correction of Achromatic 

in contact are independent of the order of the lenses; the 
choice of this term is arbitrary. Taking advantage of this 
circumstance to follow the usual practice of opticians, I made 
the middle lens different from the other two, and wrote 

But Clause I declares, " True Ag should have an opposite sign 
to Ai + Ag, but that asserts nothing as to likeness of the latter 
symbols in sign."— A statement which is manifestly untrue, 
unless it can be shown that three quantities can be arranged 
in two classes otherwise than by putting one in one class and 
two in the other. 

Clause II asserts that n, in equation (16), may be negative. 
This is absurd, because n= A^^ A^, and it has just been 
shown that the signs of A, and A^ are always similar. 

Clause in declares that D -r- E should be indetei-minate ; and 
that all my alleged errors arise from making it constant. 
Referring to"' equations (6), we see that 

D=AA + AA + A3*3 ^6^ 

The A's depend only upon the curves of the lenses, while the 
^'s and c's depend "only upon the physical properties of the 
glasses employed. In designing an objective D and E are both 
so far arbitrary that any glasses, and any curves, may be 
chosen ; but when the objective is completed I certainly do 
hold that its curves, and the physical properties of the pieces 
of glass composing it, are constant If I am right in this, it 
follows that both D and E, and also their ratio are constant ; 
Clause -Iir to the contrary notwithstanding. 

Clause IV admits the"^ accuracy of my statement that an 
objective is properly corrected for any given purpose when its 
^^^^^fnum focal distance corresponds to rays of the wave-length 
which is must efficient for that purpose ; but says the statement 
requires proof, and is not self-evident. With the law of dis- 
persion assumed in equation (2), the focal curve can have but 
one tangent parallel to the axis of abscissas ; and I did not 
suppose it necessary to tell the readers of this Journal that the 
parts of such a curve nearest the tangent hne are those adja- 
cent to the point of taugcney. That consideration proves my 
proposition, and it is so elementary that I thought it self- 
evident. If more than two lenses, and a dispersion formula 
mvolvmg more than two powers of the wave-length, are 
assumed ; I venture to say that the condition for color correc- 
tion stated above cannot be proved. It may be true in special 
the focal curve will have such a form as 
focal distance. 


112 W. Harkness — Color Correction of Achromatic Telescopes. 

Clause V involves the assumption that the focal plane must 
be tangent to the focal curve at the point where the latter 
makes it nearest approach to the objective. No reason is 
assigned for this, and I do not believe any exists. 

Clause VI virtually asserts that the focal distance of an 
objective is a function of the power of its ocular. For all 
astronomical instruments carrying filar micrometers, the first 
business of the observer is to place the wires accurately in the 
focus of the objective. This once done, they are not again dis- 
turbed, unless to make some radical change in the instrument. 
A dozen eye-pieces may be used in the course of a single 
evening; but no matter what their power, when they are 
focused upon the wires they are always found to be focused 
apon the objective. Hence, the focal plane always coincides 
with the wires. But the plane of the wires is fixed ; and the 
focal curve, as I have defined it, is also fixed. Consequently, 
the points of intersection of the focal plane with the focal curve 
are fixed, and the universal experience of astronomers demon- 
strates that the positions of the points 7-^ and y^ do not vary 
with the power of the ocular. 

As Clause VII affirms the correctness of my fourth conclu- 

sion, it is only necessary to express my thanks for such an 
indorsement; but I cannot refrain from adding that, since this 
clause rests upon equations condemned by my critic, there may 
be people wicked enough to inquire how these erroneous equa- 
tions finally led to a correct result. 

In this connection it is desirable to state that some months 

tives between apen 

As the admissible limit of the latter of these elements i 
trary, it is not possible to fix absolutely the relations between 
the other two ; but I believe the focal distance should rarely 
be less than that given by the formula 

F=(9-04a*-f.l296)* — 36 (38) 

in which F is the focal distance, in feet; and a the clear aper- 
ture in inches. For small apertures, the foci given by this 
expression are inconveniently short ; while for large apertures, 
they considerablv exceed those in general use. 

Now consider 'a system of infinitely thin lenses in contact; 
and let us inquire how many lenses are needed in the system, 
to bring the greatest possible number of light- rays of different 
degrees of refrangibility to a common focus, with any given 
law of dispersion. 

For this purpose we revert to equation (5), which may be 

/-I = (;/, - 1) A,+(;i, - 1)A, + (//, - 1) A. + &c. (39) 

W. Harkness — Color Correction of Achromatic Telescopes. 113 

the number of terms being unlimited. For the dispersion 
formula, we write 

^^=<p{X) (40) 

The form of f{X) is regarded as unknown ; but there will be no 
loss of generality if it is developed in a series arranged accord- 
ing to the powers of k We therefore have 

yu = a + M'»+cA« + eA^+&c. (41) 

in which a, h, c, etc., are constants, and the number of terms 
may be taken as great as is desired. Also, let us put 
C = A,(a, - 1) H- A,(a,-1) +A3(a3-1) + &c. 
D = Afi^- A/, 4- A3&34- &c. 

E = A^c, + A,c, + A3C3 + &c. (42) 

F = A,e,-t-A,e, + A3e3 + &c. 
&c. &c. &c. &c. 
the number of these equations, and the number of terms in the 
right hand member of each of them, being the same as the 
number of terms in the right hand member of (41). Then, by 
a simple transformation (39) becomes 

/-I = C + DA" + EA- + FA^ + &c. (43) 

This is the equation of the focal curve ; X being the abscissa, 
and / the ordinate. Its first derivative is 

f =~/XmDA"'-' + nm-^ +i>FA-' + &c.) (44) 

which, as is well known, expresses for every point of the curve 
the tangent of the angle made by the tangent line with the 
axis of abscissas. The number of rays of different degrees of 
refrangibility, which can be brought to a common focus, will 
evidently be the same as the number of times the focal plane 
intersects the focal curve. But the focal plane is necessarily 
parallel to the axis of abscissas; and therefore the greatest 
possible number of intersections of the curve with the plane 
can only exceed by one, the number of tangents which can be 
drawn parallel to the axis of abscissas. To find these tangents, 
we equate (44) to zero, and obtain 

As X 

(ither zero, imaginary, or negativ 

have to consider only the real positive roots of this equation; 
each of which corresponds to a tangent. To make the number 
t>i roots as great as possible, the quantities D, E, F, etc., must 
tje independent of each other ; which will be the case when 
the right hand members of the equations (42) contain as many 
A 8 as there are powers of ; in (41). Hence it is evident that 
the number of real positive roots in (45) will be one less than 
the number of powers of X in (41), and we conclude that — 

114 W. Harhiess — Color Correction of Achromatic Tel 

In anj system of infinitely tbin lenses in contact, the number 
of lenses required to bring the greatest possible number of 
light-rays of different degrees of refrangibility to a common 
focus is the same as the number of different powers of I 
involved in the dispersion formula employed. 

The method used in deducing this result was adopted because 
it exhibits clearly the geometrical relations of the problem. 
The result itself is evident from a mere inspection of equation 
(48), which cannot possess more real positive roots than it has 
independent coefl&cients, D, B, F, etc. 

The color correction of an objective depends only upon the 
form of its focal curve; which form is as much under control 
as the nature of the case admits when the coefficients D, B, F, 
etc., of equation (43), are independent of each other. This, 
taken in connection with what precedes, demonstrates that — 

In an objective consisting of a system of infinitely thin 
lenses in contact, the color correction cannot be improved by 
increasing the number of lenses beyond the number of different 
powers of ^ involved in the dispersion formula employed. 

This result confirms the conclusion of my former paper, in 
which I used a dispersion formula involving but two powers of 
the wave-length, and consequently found but two lenses neces- 
sary in an achromatic objective. It also throws a curious light 
upon the general theory of achromaticity. If the law of dis- 
persion had been sach as could be expressed by a function 
involving but a single power of the wavelength, there would 
have been no irrationality of spectra, the mean dispersive pow- 
ers might have been just what they now are, and yet, Newton 
would have been right in saying that achromatic telescopes 
were an impossibility. Conversely, the greater the number of 
powers of the wave-length involved in the dispersion function, 
the greater the number of rays of different degrees of refrangi- 
bility which can be brought to a common focus ; and this, irre- 
spective of any irrationality which may exist in the spectra. 
With rational spectra, and a law of dispersion involving at 
least two different powers of the wave-lengths, a pair of lenses 
would suffice for the construction of a perfectly achromatic 
objective. In strictness, these statements apply only to objec- 
tives consisting of infinitely thin lenses in contact. Possibly 
they may require modification when the thicknesses and dis- 
tances apart of the lenses are considered. 

The text books teach that the condition of uchromatism for 

e the foci, and /)i and ^2 
They further teach that i 

in which d/x is the difference, and fi the mean, of the refractive 
indices for the rajs Dand F. For a law of dispersion involv- 
ing at least two different powers of the w^ave-length, these 
equations will hold ; but for a law involving only a single 
power of the wave-length, they may be satisfied, and yet the 
system of lenses will not be achromatic. Instead of embodying, 
these equations are actually independent of, the essential con- 
dition of achromatism ; which is that at least two rays of 
widely different wave-length must be brought to a common 

I have not had leisure to examine my critic's figures ; nor 
does it seem worth w^hile to do so. My equation (2) represents 
refractive indices with an accuracy of about four and a half 
places of decimals, while most of the authorities upon whom he 
relies only give these quantities to five places of decimals. If 
this difference of five units in the fifth place of decimals can 
originate such changes in the focal curve as he supposes, it is 
evident that trustworthy conclusions can only be reached by 
usmg very accurate dispersion formulae. Cauchy's formula, as 
written in equation (2), has hitherto been most used ; but when 
compared with the best observations, the residuals, although 
small, show some constancy of sign. It has recently been 
claimed* that Briot's formula, which is ' 

pi = a-^ bX~' + cX~* + kX' (48) 

represents the best observations, throughout the whole space 
from the extreme ultra-red to the extreme ultra-violet, within 
the limits of accidental error. If such is the case, a triple 
objective may possibly be better than a double one; but my 
critic's figures certainly do not suffice to prove this. They are 
founded upon a formuha whose independent variable is not the 
wave-length of the light, but the refractive index of a standard 
piece of glass ; and his Table II, page 482, shows that when 
compared with observation this formula yields residuals exhib- 
iting as much constancv of sign, and almost the same magni- 
tude, as those given bv my equation (2). The use of any inde- 
pendent variable other than the wave-length, is likely to pro- 
duce erroneous results, and certainlv does not tend to elucidate 
toe subject. 

Having seen that a dispersion formula involving only three 
powers of the wave-length suflices to represent the best obser- 
vations, and remembering that this circumstance limits the 
number of lenses which can be employed with advantage in an 
* By M. Mouton, in the Comptes Rendus, 1879, vol. Ixixviii, p. 1190. 

116 W. 0. Crosby — Finite in Eastern Massachusetts. 

objective to not more than three ; we are now in a position to 
appreciate the absurdity of my critic's assertion, page 429, 
when, enquiring if it is possible to eradicate the secondary 
spectrum by increasing the number of lenses in an objective, 
he says, "Theoretically, since a new disposable constant for 
color change is introduced with each lens in the system, the 
answer is evidently affirmative ; * * * " 

For an objective consisting of more than two lenses, and a 
law of dispersion involving more than two powers of the wave- 
length, the condition given in my former paper, page 196, for 
the best color correction, is no longer applicable. The problem 
then becomes very complex, but I am inclined to think that it is 
satisfactorily solved by attributing to each element of the focal 
curve a mass proportional to its efficiency for the purpose for 
which the correction is required, and varying the curve until 
its moment of inertia about its intersection with the focal plane 
becomes a minimum. It is also probable that this condition 
will suffice to determine the relative merits of double and triple 
objectives ; the focal curve with the smallest moment being the 

Finally, it only remains to reiterate that the conclusions of 
my former paper are certainly correct to the degree of accuracy 
involved in my fundamental equations — that is, for a system of 
infinitely thin lenses in contact, and for the law of dispersion 
embodied in equatio;i (2). For a different law of dispersion, or 
if the thicknesses and distances apart of the lenses are consid- 
ered, these conclusions may require modification. 

"Washington, Dec. 29, 1879. 

One of the most interesting constituents of the conglomerate 
so extensively developed in the vicinity of Boston is a soft, 
greenish and"^ somewhat unctuous, amorphous mineral, which 
many observers have mistaken for serpentine, but which is 
shown by its ready fusibility not to be magnesian ; while analy- 
sis proves that it is essentially a hydrous alkaline silicate of 
aluminum. In fact, it presents in it's chemical, as well as its 
physical, characters a close agreement with the species pinite. 
(See analyses below). The hardness is ordinarily near, or a 
little above, 3 ; the purer varieties, however, usually refuse to 
scratch calcite. The specific gravity, so far as determined, is 
between 2-7 and 2'75. Luster none, or waxy and feebly shin- 
ing. The predominant color is a whitish-green ; but the varia- 
tion is from nearly white through whitish, grayish and dirty 

W. 0. Crosby — Pmite in Eastern Massachusetts. 117 

greens to a dull grass or olive green. The deeper color seems 
usually to belong to the purer varieties. 

At some points, the paste or cement of the conglomerate 
appears to include much pinite ; yet in its purest state this sub- 
stance occurs mainly in the form of pebbles. In either case, 
however, it is always clearly an imported constituent of the 
rock. Although not properly a principal ingredient of the con- 
glomerate, the pinite detritus is scarcely ever entirely wanting; 
while in several limited localities the rock is mainly composed 
of it; forming a distinct pinite conglomerate. The following 
are the principal localities in the Boston basin where the con- 
glomerate is notably rich in pinite : the north shore of Squan- 
tnm; Milton, on and near Central Avenue; several points in 
Xewton, especially in the vicinity of Newton Corner and New- 
ton Upper Falls; and along the line of the Sudbury Eiver 
Aqueduct in South Natick. 

The pinite pebbles, probably on account of their inferior 
hardness, being permanently plastic, as it were, are usually 
very much flattened in parallel planes; giving rise, where they 
are sufficiently abundant, to a decidedly schistose structure in 
the rock, or more properly an imperfect cleavage. This cleav- 
age structure in the pinite conglomerate is very clearly the 
result of pressure, and shows a nearly constant dip and strike 
in all parts of the district; being entirely independent of the 
stratification, and agreeing perfectly in all these respects with 
the cleavage of the slate rocks. Where the pinite pebbles are 
scattering, they are sometimes found as contorted layers envel- 
oping pebbles of harder materials. 

The distinctly stratified rocks of the Boston basin include 
two principal varieties— the conglomerate, or "Roxbury pud- 
ding stone," and the slate. The volume of each of these varies 
from four hundred or five hundred to perhaps one thousand 
feet ; and the former constitutes the lower half and the latter 
the upper half of one continuous and conformable series. The 
upper or argillaceous member of the formation includes the 
^aradoxides slate in Braintree ; and this determines the Pri- 
mordial age of the entire series. The slate, and more espe- 
cially the sandstone which marks the passage from the slate to 
the conglomerate, is sometimes greenish and evidently com- 
posed in part of the debris of pinite. The sediments in the 
"asm of the River Parker, some thirty miles northeast of Bos- 
ton, are also probably of Primordial age ; and the conglomerate 
portions are largely, sometimes almost entirely, composed of 
pinite. Traces of this mineral have been frequently observed 
in the conglomerate of uncertain age skirting the southern base 
of the Blue Hills, and extending thence southwesterly to Rhode 

18 W. 0. Groshy — P'mite in Eastern Massachusetts. 


• Parker basins, and having its best developraen 
the towns of Marblehead, Saugus, Meb'ose, Maiden, Medford, 
Dedham, and Hyde Park, is an extensive and somewhat pecu- 
liar conglomerate rock known locally as the " breccia" or 
''petrosilex breccia," being principally, usually almost wholly, 
composed of fragments of petrosilex cemented by a paste of 
the same rock more finely comminuted. The breccia is often 
of a greenish color, and in not a few localities includes in both 
fragments and cement large amounts of what appears to be 
more or less perfect pinite, i. e., material of a light green or 
greenish-white color, which yields readily to the knife, afibrds 
water in the closed tube, and is somewhat unctuous, resembbng 
serpentine in many of its physical characters, and yet easily 
fusible before the blowpipe^ "Dr. T. Sterry Hunt has called 
my attention to tha existence of pinite in the breccia in Sau- 
gus ; and my own observations have convinced me that its 
occurrence in this waj^ is a general fact. The best points for 
observing this variety of breccia are the following: East Sau- 
gus, south of the railroad ; Newton, about one mile south by 
west from Newton Center; West Dedham; many points in 
Hyde Park and the adjacent part of Dorchester (Mattapan); 
ami Milton, between the Neponset River and Pine Tree Brook. 

The basins mentioned as holding the Primordial strata and 
the underlying breccia have been excavated from the ancient 
Huronian formation, which, in Eastern Massachusetts, consists 
mainly of the following lithological members: granite, bimirv 
and hornblendic: petrosilex, stratified and unstratitied ; strati- 
tied and unstratitied diorite; and quartzite. In these old crys- 
talline rocks we have the sources of all the materials observed 
in the conglomerate and breccia, not excepting the pinite. In 
this connection, the most interesting Huronian terrane is the 
petrosilex. For the sake of convenience. I here include under 
the name petrosilex both the acidic division of the compact 
feldspar rocks, or petrosilex proper, and the basic division, or 
true felsite. The physical distinctions between the true petro- 
silex and felsite, in Eastern Massachusetts, are not conspicuous. 
They both include exotic and indigenous varieties ; and both 
present the same general range in textures, including, besides 
the ordinary compact and porphyritic forms, many different 
kinds of banded structure. Elvanite or quartz porphyry is a 
common rock ; but this belongs, of course, entirely to the acidic 
group. As a result of numerous chemical analyses, I find 
that the petrosilex predominates, and is usually of red, brown 
or purplish tints; while the characteristic colors of the felsite 
are greenish, whitish and sometimes black. 

W. 0. Orosby — Finite in Eastern Massachusetts. 119 

Although associated with both the petrosilex and felsite, the 
pinite is found most frequently with the latter. Wherev^er 
occurring in the conglomerate and breccia, as already observed, 
this material is always clearly an imported constituent; but 
with the Huronian formation it never presents this aspect, all 
the facts pointing to the conclusion that it is indigenous here. 
In other words, and more explicitly, the pinite, as far as the 
evidence allows us to judge, exists in the Huronian series only 
in association with the petrosiliceous group, and here only as a 
product of the superficial decomposition or alteration of these 
rocks. Indications of this may be observed in many places. 
In the first place, we have abundant evidence in the fragmental 
rocks themselves that the pinite which they contain has been 
derived from, and owes its genesis to the alteration of, the Huro- 
nian petrosilex (using this term in its comprehensive sense, as 
explained above) ; for there exists, both in the pebbles of the 
puddingstone and the fragments of the breccia, every possible 
gradation between unaltered petrosilex and the purest pinite; 
and It seems highly probable that much of the petrosiliceous 
debris of these rocks is still suffering some change in the direc- 

Turning now to the parent formation, we find the evidence 
even more conclusive. For instance, the greenish elvanite 
which covers a large area in Needham, usually presents a slaty 
appearance, yields to the knife, and affords water abundantly, 
^substantially the same statement may be repeated concerning 
the green petrosilex in West Dedhana, and the greenish "toad- 
stone" and some other varieties of petrosilex in Newbury. In 
a 1 these cases the rock is green, at least superficially. In Mar- 
Wehead, Lynn, and other districts, I have observed the brown, 
gray, black, and other colors of the petrosilex changing to 
green near the joints. In many instances, probably, the change 
IS to kaolinite rather than pinite, but not always. 

Another argument showing the derivation "of the pinite in 
the fragmental rocks from the petrosilex is found in the fact 
that, with few exceptions, those portions of the conglomerate 
land the .same is true of the breccia), marked by a predomi- 
^nceof pinite debris occur in close proximity to ledges of 
petrosilex ; and in the exceptional cases the underlying rocks 
are probably petro-siliceous. This association is very signifi- 
cant; but the strongest evidence on all these points yet 
remains to be adduced. 

. I he locality affording at once the clearest proof that the 
P'nite is indigenous in the petrosilex, that it makes its appear- 
^-nce in this association as a decomposition product, and that 
Pjnite so originating is essentially identical with, and the source 
*^t, that in the more recent, detrital formations of Eastern Mas- 

120 W. 0. Croshy^Pinite in Eastern Massachusetts. 

sachusetts, is in Milton, on Central Avenue, about one-fourth 
mile south of the Neponset River. The petrosilex is exposed 
here only on the northwest side of the avenue, forming the 
southwest end of a section which is composed mainly of a typical 
example of piuite conglomerate. The small pinite pebbles are 
embedded in a brownish, slaty paste, and have suffered an 
extraordinary degree of compression, developing a well-marked 
foliation or cleavage in the rock. The contact between the 
petrosilex and conglomerate is straight and well-defined. It 
strikes east- west, and dips to the north 75°, being exactly par- 
allel with the schistosity or cleavage of the last named rock ; 
while this imperfect cleavage agrees perfectly in dip and strike 
with that observed elsewhere among the slates and conglome- 
rates of the Boston basin. The contact just noticed almost cer- 
tainly marks a fault, and both it and the cleavage are at rigiit 
angles to the strike of the beds. The stratification, however, is 
much obscured by the cleavage, though it can still be made out 
by careful observation. 

The color of the unaltered petrosilex in this case is dark pur- 
ple, and the pea-green pinite occurs in it in the form of irregu- 
lar and ill-defined masses which seem to have their major axes 
normal to the surface of the ledge. Closer observation shows 
that they follow the jointing of the petrosilex ; each joint being 
bordered on either side by pinite which exhibits a gradual pas- 
sage into normal petrosilex at a distance of a few inches. The 
rather limited exposure is best in the vertical direction ; and 
tracing one of the pinite-bordered joints downward, it seems 
plain that the zone of this material is broadest and best-marked 
near the surface, becoming narrower below, and almost entirely 
fading out at a depth of a few feet. The best examples of the 
pinite are found along those joints which have become the seats 
of slender veins of quartz. The disposition of the pinite in the 
petrosilex evidently leaves us no option but to believe that 
here at least it is a decomposition-product ; and that percolat- 
ing atmospheric water, for which the joints have afforded chan- 
nels, has been the chief agent in its formation. 

The indications are very strong that, geologically speaking, 
the conglomerate has not been long removed from this part of 
the petrosilex; hence this is probably, in all essential respects, 
an ancient surface ; and I take it that we have here an exam- 
ple of pre-Primordial decomposition. The composition of a 
characteristic specimen of the pinite, taken from its original 
position in this ledge, is shown by the following analysis (1> 
made by Miss E. M. Walton :— 

¥. 0. Oroshy—Pi, 

aite in Eastern M 















lite in this petrosilex is unquesti* 

ishes rapidly as we recede from the outcrops of petrosilex ; and, 
secondly, the mineral, in the two geological positions, is essen- 
tially identical physically and chemically. The pinite pebbles 
are mostly quite small and well flattened ; and hence consider- 
able samples are not easily secured. The portion submitted to 
analysis was obtained from perhaps a dozen pebbles from dif- 
ferent parts of the ledge, great care being taken to prevent 
admixture with the slaty paste. This was analyzed by Mrs. 
Alice B. Crosby, and the result is given in analysis II above.* 

The formation of pinite by the alteration, and particularly 
by the hydration, of feldspathic rocks and minerals, which has 
been denied by some authorities, must apparently be conceded 
m some cases. Of course where derived from a rock holding 
iree quartz in an impalpable state, such as petrosilex, the pinite, 
though appearing quite pure, may, as the above analyses show, 
attord an abnormally high percentage of silica. A typical 
example of purple banded petrosilex from the Milton"" area, 
tfiough not from the pinite ledge, afforded 66-3 per cent of 
sihca. This is, strictly speaking, essentiallv a true felsite. 
<Jther ledges in the vicinity of Central Avenue contain an 
abundance of pinite, but the exposures are not favorable for 
displaying its relations to the felsite. 

In summarizing the geological history of the pinite (or pinite 
schist, since, considering its origin, it is rather more properly a 
rock than a mineral), we may say that, to furnish the pinite 
detritus of the various fragmental rocks in Eastern Massachu- 
setts, an extensive formation has been required. No vestiges 
01 such a formation, distinct from the Huronian petrosilex, 
now exist in this region; and 

, * Both 

3 analyses were made in the Woman's Laboratory of t 

-' Technology. 

Am- Jour. Sci.— Third Series, Vol. XIX, No. 1 

122 Peckham and Hall — Thomsonite from Minnesota. 

;-Priinordial times, the petro-siliceous rocks, 
lepth, were changed by tl ' ' " ' 

pheric agents, not to kaolin, as generally i 

nsiderable depth, were changed by tne action oi atmos- 
^ents, not to kaolin, as generally at the present time, 
' toward pinite ; and that subsequently this decompo- 

sition-product was, for the most part, swept away by the £ 
which were deposited the breccia and the Primordial conglom- 

Another very clear example of the derivation of pinite from 
feldspar has been observed on the rocky peninsula of Marble- 
head Neck. On the northwest shore of the Neck, visible only 
at low tide, is a hard, whitish, compact, feldspathic sandstone 
or slate, the age of which is unknown. It rests unconforma- 
bly upon the banded petrosilex forming the shore at this point; 
and the layer of pebbles at its base shows very clearly that the 
sandstone "is chiefly composed of the debris of the petrosilex. 
This origin explains the highly feldspathic nature of the sand- 
stone. Scattered through the sandstone are clear, almost trans- 
parent, rhombic crystals of orthoclase, 3 to 6°™ long, which are 
very clearly indigenous in their present positions. Occasion- 
ally they are sufficiently numerous to give a porphyritic aspect 
to the rock. Erratics of this sandstone are scattered all over 
the Neck ; and in some of these which are very thoroughly 
weathered, the orthoclase crystals are changed to a soft, unctu- 
ous, waxy, green mineral, — in other words, to pinite. Where 
the weathering has been less thorough, the characters of the 
pinite are less strongly marked. 

Art. XV.— <9n Lintonite and other forms of Thom.somte: A pre- 
liminary notice of the Zeolites of the vicinity of Qravd Marais, 
Cook Comity, Minnesota; by S. F. Peckham and C. W. 

Grand Marais is situated on the northwest coast of Lake 
Superior, one hundred and eight miles northeast of Duluth. It 
is the site of an early French trading or mission station, and 

Duluth and Pigeon Point. 

The rocks, for several miles east and west, as well as at the 
Marais, are classed in general as igneous, and have often a basal- 
tic structure. They present, however, great diversities of charac- 
ter both to the chemist and lithologist; and while the mineral 
species are perhaps altogether old, the forms are in some cases 
new. It was our original intention to confine this research to 
one or two peculiar forms that first attracted our attention, but 
in the progress of our examination the subject has outgrown its 

Peckham and Hall — Thomsonite from Minnesota. 123 

earlier proportions, both as regards its extent and the time re- 
quired for its successful completion. We have therefore con- 
cluded to give in the present paper some general observations 
with such details as are at present in hand, reserving others 
until further study and analyses shall have rendered the work 
more complete. 

At Good Harbor Bay, about four miles to the westward of 
Grand Marais, there begins a bed of dark colored rock, highly 
decomposed at surface, and related to diabase in its lithological 
characters. This bed extends westward along the coast for 
several miles, sloping gently from the wooded hilltops a mile or 
two inland, and disappearing beneath the waters of the lake. 
In its fresher parts the rock is somewhat mottled where coarsest, 
and nearly black with a greenish tinge where finest in texture. 
It is only from the talus, under the wall of rock rising above 
an underlying sandstone outcrop in Good Harbor Bay, that 
this fresh material can be easily obtained. Even here the mot- 
tled appearance discloses the partial decomposition of the most 
perishable of the constituents, and the formation of some new 
viriditic mineral. The lower layers are firm and compact, 
while the upper are extensively jointed and fractured, and 
filled with amygdaloidal cavities. These cavities, in whatever 
manner they were originally formed, have become filled with 
zeolitic minerals. Some of the cavities are now empty, but 
evidently as a result of the removal of their contents by solv- 
ents percolating through the enclosing rock. Occasionally the 
cavities are only partially filled, and the substance within 
shows on its surface unmistakable traces of the action of solv- 
ents. In some cavities one mineral is nearly all washed away, 
leaving the surface of the remaining one or several, as the case 
may be, rough or uneven, as originally formed. This occurs 
only where water has had access. 

The prevailing mineral, thomsonite, is only sparsely distribu- 
ted in the lower and compacter beds of the formation. The 
general occurrence of the several other minerals, so abundant 
here, would seem to indicate that this mineral was formed first 
01 all from the decomposition of the rock, and that one of the 
others owes its origin in part at least to the decomposition of 
those that were formed before it. In many masses of the rock 
where much exposed and weathered the matrix has been so de- 
composed as to be easily broken away from the amygdules, but 
in the fresher portions the fractures extend across them. The 
other zeolites, being less persistent than the thomsonite, rapidly 
disappear, while the amygdules of this mineral remain upon 
the narrow beaches of this vicinity in the form of pebbles of 
various sizes frequently unbroken and beautifully polished. 

The cavities containing thomsonite are in many places ex- 

124 Peckham and Hall — Thomsonite from Minnesota. 

ceedingly numerous, and in other cases few in number, even in 
the same bed of rock. The size varies from a microscopic 
point to a diameter of two or three inches. In one piece of the 
thomsonite-bearing rock, now in the General Museum of the 
University of Minnesota, the number of amjgdules distinctly 
visible to the unaided eye on a surface two inches square is suffi- 
cient to give more than 10,000,000 to the cubic foot. The 
largest in this area was about half an inch in diameter. The 
amygdules are generally much larger and more scattered than 
this specimen would indicate. Since they abound in the rock 
throughout many feet of its thickness and many miles of its ex- 
tent along the shore, the supply appears to be inexhaustible; 
but practically the number of beach-pebbles, valuable as speci- 
mens, is quite limited. All the different varieties of thomsonite 
are so hard that they take a fine polish ; and on account of this 
property and their often unique banded structure, they are 
much sought after by tourists and others as objects of rare 
beaut}^, and also for buttons, studs, etc. 

On our first visit to the beach where the greater number of 
these pebbles occur, we at once recognized fragments of the 
large amygdules as thomsonite. Intermingled with these were 
spherical and oval pebbles, often more or less flattened, and of 
all sizes from that of a pin's head to that of a hickory nut, but 
for the most part of the size and form of beans and peas. 
Some of these were also recognized as thomsonite. The larger 
portion presented a great diversity of color and physical struct- 
ure ; some being white and opaque, almost conchoidal in fract- 
ure, with but slight indications of a fibrous structure ; others 
flesh-colored throughout, hard and fibrous, resembling thomson- 
ite from the Tyrol and other localities except in their greater 
hardness and finer texture; others coarser, closely resembling 
the mineral from other localities ; others, curiously banded ex- 
ternally with zones and annular spaces of red, green, pink and 
white; and still others, opaque and chrome-green in color, 
shading out in some to colorless and translucent with a con 
choidal or uneven fracture. These last were at first supposed 
to be fragments of prehnite, rounded by attrition. On further 
examination a number of the green pebbles were found to have 
a fibrous and flesh-colored interior with a shell oi the amor- 
phous green mineral. In given portions of the rock formation, 
tlie amygdules were, for the most part, of the same general 
character ; in one place, being green and opaque; in another, 
without green bands ; while in another, for the most part, 
beautifully variegated. Similar local peculiarities were ob- 
served in reference to texture, some portions of the rock con- 
taining only those that were hard and fine grained, while others 
those that were uniformly coarser in texture. 

Peckham and Hall — Thomsonite from Minnesota. 125 

In our examinations of the amygdules, we designated the 
opaque white variety, Number one (I), the ordinary thomsonite, 
Number two (II), and the green varieties, Number thi^ee (III). 

As regards hardness, the thomsonite — in nearly all its varie- 
ties — is peculiar. Some fibers scratch quartz, which indicates a 
hardness above 7 ; but this may be owing to the presence of 
free silica. The harder specimens of No. Ill scratched an 
agate mortar easily, but were scratched by quartz crystal ; yet 
the percentage of silica was found to be no higher in the harder 
than the other specimens. The grain of such specimens, however, 
is exceedingly fine. Most frequently the hardness is between 
5 and 6. The specific gravity varies from 2-33 to 2-35; the 
water-worn and somewhat weathered pebbles have it a little 
lower, one or two as low as 2-2. The fracture of Numbers I 
and II is fibrous ; of Number III very uneven, and takes place in 
all directions with almost equal facility. They all gelatmize in 
hydrochloric acid to a thick jelly. Before the blowpipe they 
fuse easily and intumesce to a porous white enamel. In the 
closed tube, water to the amount of 11 to 12 per cent of the 
whole weight was given off at the heat of an ordinary spirit 
lamp. Grains of native copper are frequently found in them, 
particularly in those of Number III, which, if the pebbles are 
transparent, exhibit under a low magnifying power arborescent 
groups of crystals, thrusting out their branches in every direc- 
tion through the enclosing mineral. In one instance an amyg- 
dule, about as large as a cranberry, contained at its center a mass 
of copper of this kind, one-third" of its diameter. In this char- 
acteristic Number III resembles the prehnite of French River. 

Number I. — The amygdules of this type are perhaps of less 
common occurrence than other forms. Externally they look 
like porcelain with a slight creamy tint. Under the micro- 
scope they appear for the most part translucent. Countless 
fine dark lines extend longitudinally through the thin section, 

rapidly disapp ' ^ ^ ^ ^ 

a longitudii 

part by refraction of the light from the edges of minute densely 
packed crystals, from cavities, and from microlites. One notice- 
able result of these lines is to weaken the effect of the mineral 
on polarized light. Not infrequently this opaque modification 
01 the mineral is banded with alternating zones, either trans- 
parent or yellow, or even with both ; the transparency here 
seems to be owing to an absence of the lines and microlites just 
noticed ; while the yellow zones owe their color to globules of 
lerric oxide distributed through the mass. In the worn amyg- 
<^iiles the mineral often has a beautiful pearly luster. In 
n^mute quantities the ferric oxide gives the mineral a flesh- 
colored tint. 

Peckham and Hall— Thomsoniie from Minnesota. 

ean of three analyses showed the composition of this 

. to be : 

SiO^ 40-45 

A1,0, 29-50 

JXO3.. 0-232 

CaO 10-75 

KO 0-357 

Na^O 4-766 

H,0 13-93 

Even opaque white amygdules afforded a trace of ferric oxide, 
which increased to a few hundredths of one per cent when the 
tint was perceptibly flesh-red. 

Number 11. — Under this type nearly every specimen is fibrous 
and radiated. The masses are spherical or elliptical, with the 
point from which the crystalline fibers radiate on one side of 
the mass, or, as is perhaps more common, having several cen- 
ters of radiation within the compact mass. Occasionally the 
mineral fills seams, or occupies cavities that run together; 
here, there are centers of radiation at frequent intervals and by 
a system of suture like joints, the whole is made into a com- 
pact mass. Yet, solid as the mass may appear to be, a thin plate 
cut from it invariably separates into pieces along the line of 
these joints, giving the mineral an appearance of fragility while 
it is really as hard as agate. The fibers often interlock along 
the line of these joints. 

At the outer extremity of many of these radiated concretions, 
there often occur many transparent needles, large enough to be 
seen with the unaided eye, extending backward along the di- 
rection of the fibers toward the center of radiation. These 
needles are broken up into short pieces by transverse fractures. 
They all taper out and disappear, the longest of them reaching 
no further than the middle of the mass. They act strongly on 
polarized light and contain some inclusions. These lines do 
not occur as developed crystals. 

Around the borders of many amygdules there are numerous 
small sphserolites. They have probably formed around gran- 
ules of various foreign substances as nuclei. Their size is small ; 
to the naked eye they look like mere spots, but they are so 
numerous as to form an envelop almost entirely around the 
radiated concretions. 

A mean of three analyses gave — 

PecTcham and Hall — Thomsonite from Minnesota. 

SiO, 46-020 

Al^O, 26-717 

Fe,0, 0-813 

CaO 9-400 

KO 0-390 

Na,0 . 

Number III. — As before stated these pebbles, when first seen, 
were supposed by us to be worn fragments of reniform prehnite, 
so common in several localities along this shore. We soon found 
evidence that they were amygdules; still the fact that they 
were not prehnite was not suspected until their specific gravity 
had been determined and found to be that of thomsonite, 
2-32 to 2-37. Analysis showed them to contain— 

SiO, 40-605 

Al^O,.. .-- 30-215 

FeO.. -40 

CaO 10-370 

KO -49 

NaO 4-055 

H,0 - 13-75 

This composition allies the mineral very closely to thomson- 
ite, so closely that, considered alone, there appears little reason 
why the mineral should not be considered as a variety; but 
there are several notable reasons why a specific name may 
properly be applied to this, as we believe, hitherto undescribed 

These pebbles are wholly destitute of the radiated and crys- 
talline character of other" forms of thomsonite. Under the 
microscope the texture is wholly granular so that the crystal- 
line system cannot be determined ; and the granules are so fine 
and so compactly arranged in many specimens that they can be 
resolved only in polarized light. Their size, however, is not 
uniform in the same pebble, being so fine in some places that 
only a high power will make them visible. 

Spha^,rolites are also frequent; but unlike their mode of 
occurrence in the thomsonites, they are distributed almost at 
random in any part of the amygdules containing them ; and 
frequently some foreign material, as a bit of copper, is a nu- 
cleus. The spha^rolites often occur in groups; large numbers 
are crowded and heaped together, growing into and overlap- 
ping one another, like the tridvmite scales in the rhyolites of 
Mexico and the trachytes of the Siebengebirge, These group- 
ings are not always spherical; sometimes they extend in long 
curving lines through the mass, following perhaps a fracture or 

128 Peckham and Hall—Thomsonite from Minnesota. 

a seam, instead of being collected around a nucleus as a sphaero- 
lite. They show parallel green fibers meeting along a median 
suture and correspond in their manner of occurrence to Zirkel's 
description of axiolites in the rhjolites of the 40th parallel.* 

The amygdules of the green variety rarely exceed in size a 
small hickory nut. As before stated, they are not generally 
found interm'ingled in the rock with the other forms, but have 
special localities — they filling nearly all the amygdaloidal cavi- 
ties within a given limit, whose boundary at the same time is 
not sharply defined. Frequently the forms of Number I or II 
are enveloped in a green covering of considerable thickness. 
Moreover, the amygdules of this type uniformly contain fer- 
rous oxide in small but varying proportion in combination, 
whereas in Numbers I and II the microscopic sections show 
the ferric oxide to be segregated in minute particles or patches 
mechanically distributed through the fibrous mass ; and in 
many amygdules these particles can be seen distinctly even 
with tbe unaided eye. Nor can Numbers I and II be considered 
as altered forms of Number III, as the condition of the iron 
might indicate. No amygdule has come under our observation 
which exhibited a nucleus of Number III, surrounded by Num- 
ber I or II. On the contrary, we have quite a number in 
which, through a thin translucent shell of Number III, the pink 
interior can be discerned. And we also have fragments, and 
amygdules have been cut, which show the external crust of 
Number III passing toward the center into the radiated form of 
Number II. 

In determining the oxygen ratio for Number II, the silica 
appeared to be too high. We had previously suspected the 
presence of free silica from the exceptional hardness of all of 
these varieties. As the microscope showed the ferric oxide in 
every case to be free, we concluded to compute the percentages 
for Number II to 40'45 per cent of silica, the amount found in 

Fumber I, and exclude the i 

ron oxides. 


were mi 

rised at the results, 

, which ar 

e given below: 































FeO -40 

Peckham and Hall — Thomsonite from Minnesota. 129 

These figures prove conclusively that we were dealing with 
varieties of the same mineral. On comparing these percentages 
with those given in Dana,* the water and silica were found to be 

Computing the oxygen ratios and formula for Number III, we 

Percent. Metal. Oxygen. Atoms. 

FeO 0-40 0-3111 0-0889 -0064 

K,0 0-49 0-4068 0-0832 '0052 

NaO 4-055 O-0118 1-0432 -0654 

CaO 10-37 7-4070 2*9630 -1852 

SiO^ 40-605 18-949 21 656 -676 

H,0 13-75 1-528 12-222 -766 

Dividing the oxygen percentages by 5, we have 

RO : RP3 : SiO, : Up=l : 3 : 4 : 2^, 

which is the ratio for thomsonite, given in Dana's Mineralogy, 

with the bases low and the silica and water high. Dividing the 

atoms by -005 we have the formula 

(|(FeO+Kp+Na,0) +-|CaO) AIP3, (SiOJ,(H,0)3, 
with the protoxide bases low, and the silica and water high.-f 
Computing the ratios after Rammelsberg, we have : 
(N"a+K) : (Ca+Fe) : : 1 : 1-35 
(Ca+Fe):Al:: 1:1-54 

(Ca+Fe+K-f Na)=R : Al : Si : : 1'13 : 1 : 2-03 
Si:H:: 1:2-26 
Rammelsberg deduces from these ratios a formula which he 
calls a half silicate (Halbsilicat), according to the expression 
j m(2Ca AlSi^0^+5aq) ) J 
] w(2Na^AlSi,0^4-5aq) ] 
m which m indicates a certain proportion of a hydrous silicate 
of aluminum and a dyad protoxide, and w a certain proportion 
of a hydrous silicate of aluminum and an alkaline or monad 
protoxide. The ratio between m and n varies in different 
specimens. Number I and Number II, without the excess of 
silica, approach more nearly the thomsonite of Elbogen in com- 
position (in which the ratio of m to r/ = 2 : 1) than any mentioned 
oy Rammelsberg. While the ratio of Si to H is about the 
"" given by Rammelsberg, the percentage of both in these 

' "gher than in the analyses quoted by him. 
System of Mineralogy, fifth edition, p. 425. f 5th ed., p. 425. 

Rammelsberg Min. Chem., Ed. 1876, p. 637. 

130 a K F. Peters— Elements of the Planet Dido. 

We conclude, therefore, that this mineral contains a small per- 
centage of free silica, and also that a part of the water is basic. 
This latter opinion is strengthened by the fact that about 12 
per cent of the water escaped at a dull red heat, and that only 
prolonged heating in a platinum crucible for several hours 
would expel the last 1-75 per cent. At least six determinations 
of the water were made in this variety, with the same result. 

The percentages of Numbers I and II are so near that of 
Number III that no material difference can exist in their form- 
ulae. While recognizing this fact as respects the chemical con- 
stitution of these minerals, the great diflference in their phys- 
ical structure leads us to regard Number III as a distinct and 
well marked variety of thomsonite, if not a distinct species. 
We have therefore given it the name Linionite, in honor of 
Miss Laura A. Linton, a recent student and graduate of this 
University, to whose patient effort and skill we are indebted 
for the analyses given in this paper. 

University of Minnesota, Nov. 20, 1879. 

Art. XYl.— Elements of the Planet Dido ; by Professor C. H. F. 
Pe ers. (From a communication to the Editors, dated 
Litchfield Observatory of Hamilton College, Clinton, N. Y., 

For the planet Dido (209), I have derived from observations 
of October 25, November 15 and December 7, the following 
elements : 

Epoch: 1880, January 00, Berlin m. t. 

log a = 0-500848, 

which represent an observation obtained on January 1, when 
it was still very near. The small eccentricity of the orbit is 
remarkable. In consequence of this, there remains consider- 
able uncertainty as to the longitude of perihelion and the mean 
anomaly, but not as to their sum M-b7r=L, the mean longitude 
in orbit 

W. J. Comstock— Analyses of some American Tanialaies. 181 

Art. ISNll.— Analyses of some American Tantalates ; by W. J. 
Comstock. (Contributions from the Laboratory of the Shef- 
field Scientific School, No. LYII.) 

The following paper contains analyses of three American 
tantalates which have not been previously investigated, and 
which offer some points of especial interest. 

No. I was collected by the late Professor F. H. Bradley, in 
Yancey county, N. C. ; its precise locality is unknown. The 
specimen analyzed was from a massive piece, a few ounces in 
weight. Specific gravity = 6-88. 

MgO 0-35 0-32 0-34 -0085) 

RaOs : RO = 1 : 1-03 and Nb^Os : TaaOs = 1 : 1-53 or nearly 2 : 3. 

No. II was from Northfield, Mass. The portion analyzed wai 
I fragment of a large crystal, which had the habit and anglei 
)f ordinary columbite. " It was placed in my hands by Profes 
'or Brush. Specific gravity =6-84. 

Ta,05 5V23 56-51 56-90 •ll^Vl 

R^Os : RO = 1-025 : 1 and Nb^Os : Ta.O^ = 4 : 5-1. 

No. Ill was from Branchville, Conn. Its occurrence was 
described by Messrs. Brush and Dana,* and the specimen anal- 
yzed was given to me by them. Only a small quantity of the 
mineral was found at the locality, and enough for one analysis 
was all that could be obtained pure. Its powder was brownish- 
gray, and in thin fragments it was slightly translucent. Spe- 
cific gravity =6-59. 

Ta^Os 52-29 

R2O5 : RO = 1 : 1-007 and Nb^Os : Ta^Oa = 1 : 1-04. 

Tantalic and niobic acids were separated by Marignac's 
method,! in the application of which I have received all neces- 

*This Journal, July, 1878, p. 34. The specific gravity, by a typographical 
error aa I am informed, is there given 5-6 instead of 6-5. 
t Archives des Sci. Phys. et Nat., Jan., 1866. 

132 W. J. Comstoch— Analyses of some American Tantalates. 

sary aid from Professor O. D. Allen. In other respects the 
methods recommended by H. Eose were followed. The ordi- 
nary methods of testing for and separating tin, tungsten and 
titanium were applied in each case, with negative results. 

The relation between the specific gravities of columbites and 

tan tali tes and the percentage of tantalic acid, shown by Marig- 

nac, holds good in these examples also, as will be seen by a 

comparison with the numbers given in Marignac's table.* 

Sp. gr. Ta.O,. 

1. Columbite, Greenland, ._ 5-36 3-3^ 

3. " La Valate, near Limoges, . 5-70 13-8 

4. " Bodenmais, (iJtamfe), 5-74 13-4 

5. " Haddam, Conn., ... 6-85 10-(?) 

6. " Bodenmais, 5-92 27-1 

7. " Haddam, ._ 6-05 304 

8. " Bodenmais, 6-06 354 

9. " Haddam, 6-13 31-5 

10. Tantalite, . .. 7-03 65-6 

To which are here added— 

Sp. gr. Ta^Os. 

Yancey Co , N. C, .-. 6-88 59-92 

Northfield, Mass., 6-84 56-90 

Branchville, Conn., 6-59 52-29 

These all agree with the formula (Fe,Mn)(Ta,Nb),Oe. 

Since tantalum and niobium appear capable of replacing 
each other in all proportions in columbites and tantalites, Kam- 
melsbergt has suggested that when the number of tantalum 
atoms exceeds that of the niobium atoms, the mineral should 
be called tantalite, and when the number of niobium atoms 
exceeds that of the tantalum, the mineral should be called co- 
lumbite (Rammelsberg uses niohite). According to this method 
of classification, the Yancey county and Northfield minerals 
would be called tantalite, although the latter in form is not to 
be distinguished from columbite. The manganese niobo-tantal- 
ate from Branchville, however, has the ratio Nb : Ta = 1 : 1 
(very nearly), a coincidence which we might reasonably have 
'' possible. The almost complete displacement of iron 
nganese is also an interesting peculiarity of the Branch- 

_: 1 _„j :^ doubtless the cause of'its slight trans- 

cy and the light color of its powder. 

lerhaps of interest to add here that a mineral of this 
group trom Uto, Sweden, containing 85"5 per cent of tantalic 
and niobic acids and 9'5 per cent of manganese protoxide 
(3-6 FeO), has been called mangatitantalite by Nordenskiold.ij: 

* Given in his paper first referred to, in which he explains the variations from 
a regular progression, which are seen in the table, 
f Mmeral Chemie, 2d edition, 1875, p. 356. % Zeitsch. Kryst., i, p. 386, 1877. 

It is perl 

0. N. Rood—Rejkxion of Sound- Waves. 

Art. XVIIL— On a Method of Studying the Reflexion of Sound- 
Waves ; by 0. N. EooD, Professor of Physics in Columbia 

It has been the custom for several years to introduce in cer- 
tain forms of the melodeon a revolving fan for the purpose of 
obtaining rapid alternations in the intensity of the notes. This 
arrangement is called a "tremolo," and its action was consid- 
ered by its inventor and by those interested in it to depend on 
the currents of air produced by the motion of the fan. An 
examination of the apparatus soon convinced me that this idea 
was erroneous, and that the alternations in the loudness of the 
sound was due to reflexion or non-reflexion from the face 
of the revolving fan, for I found that the same effects could be 
produced by the aid of a circular disc consisting of open and 
closed sectors and revolving in its own plane. A disc of this 
kind constitutes a useful piece of apparatus for studying the 
reflexion of sound-waves, and some results obtained with it 
were communicated by me to the National Academy of Sci- 
ences, as long ago as October, 1876. 

As no account of these experiments has ever been published, 
a short description of them may not be without interest to those 
engaged in experimental researches on sound, as with their aid 
the following facts may be easily demonstrated : 

1st. At a perpendicular incidence the short sound-waves are more 
copiously reflected than tlwse that are longer^ and the regular reflex- 
wn is more copious from large than from small surfaces. 

The diameter of the zinc disc was in the first set of experi- 
ments 21 inches =53-3 centimeters ; alternate quadrants were re- 
moved, and the rate of rotation varied from two to four turns in 
a second. The tuning-forks were mounted on their resonance 
boxes and gradually removed away from the revolving disc till 
the alternations could no longer be distinguished bv the ear 
placed near the fork. The results are given in the table below, 
in which "distance" indicates that of the open end of the tun- 
ing-fork from the disc : 

3 same experiments were made with a disc having a 
onlv 8^ inches or 21 '5 centimeters, it was found 
forks much nearer to the disc before the 

•mg the i 

0. N. Rood — Reflexion of Sound- Waves. 

light, '( 

2d. When the sound-waves fall upon small flat surfaces at an 
gle, the reflexion is most copious in the same direction as 
ht, hut the reflected and inflected waves can he traced all 
around the semicircle. 

Experiments on this point were made in the open air, the 
larger disc being used with angles of 60° and 70° (from the per- 
pendicular); the Ut, and Ut, forks were employed. 

The regularly reflected waves could be heard at a distance of 
ten or twenty feet from the disc, the fork being held a foot or 
two from it ; inflected waves were easily distinguishable all 
around the disc and even a few feet behind the fork. 

When the forks were placed in the plane of the disc the alter- 
nations of loudness were reduced to a minimum, but in the 
open air and in a room never wholly disappeared. This I sup- 
pose to be owing to the fact that the source of sound is not a 
point but a surface. Even under these circumstances, feeble 
alternations were heard all around the disc, the inflected waves 
actually returning to their source. With a plain disc alterna- 
tions were not perceived. 

3d Qualitative comparisons between the power of different sub- 
stances to reflect sound can easily he made. 

For example, a disc of card-board in which filter paper is 
fastened over the open sectors gives alternations, owing to the 
difference of the reflective powers of the two substances. 

4<A. If a composite sound-wave falls on the rotating disc the 
shorter waves will undergo regular reflexion more copiously than 
the other components. 

This experiment is most easily made with a reed without its 
pipe. Uts, Ut„ Utg reeds give alternations but mainly in their 
high overtones ; the alternations consequently have a ringing 
metallic sound. 

m. The reflexion of sound from very small surfaces is easily 

If an Ut, or Ut, reed without its pipe be employed, alterna- 
tions are easily obtained by moving a visiting card properly 
near the reed! By substituting a gas-flame for the card the 
reflexion from the flame can be demonstrated. The gas-burner 
should be attached to a long slender rod. 

Almost all of these experiments are so easily perfoi-med as to 
be suitable for lecture-room purposes. 

0. K Rood — Indigo in the Spectrum. 

Art. XIX.— On Newton's use of the term Indigo with reference 
to a Color of the Spectrum ; by Professor 0. N. Rood, of 
Columbia College. 

The coloring matter known as indigo has a dingy, dark blue 
color, which scarcely qualifies it to rank as a representative of 
one of the pure brilliant colors of the spectrum. Yon Bezold 
has already objected to its use on account of the darkness of the 
tint, but in the present paper I propose to show that in another 
and more important respect it is equally inapplicable. New- 
ton intended to designate by it the color of that part of the 
spectrum which is situated between the blue and violet; 
indigo, however, is really a representative, though a poor one, 
of an entirely different region of the spectrum, as will be shown 
by the following considerations. 

Experiments were first made with three dififerent samples of 
indigo in order to see whether important differences in hue 
existed when the substance was prepared by different persons. 
One of the best methods of studying the hue of a colored sur- 
face is to ascertain the nature and amount of the colored light 
which is complementary to it Discs of card board were 
accordingly painted with indigo as a water-color pigment and 
these were combined by Maxwell's method with two discs 
pamted with chrome yellow and vermilion, and neutralization 
effected by rapid rotation. 

Indigo as a water-color pigment (prepared by Winsor and 

Ratio of red and yellow necessary to neutralize it. 
Chrome-yellow, OT. Vermilion, 33. 

Indigo as a water-color pigment (prepared by Barnard). 
Chrome-yellow, 65. Vermilion, 35. 

Dry commercial indigo was then rubbed on white drawing 
paper, and gave a result similar to those just detailed ; the 
ratio was: 

Chrome-yellow, 62. Vermilion, 38. 

In the dry state the color was then a Uttle more greenish, 
a slightly larger quantity of the vermilion being required; the 
three experiments, however, substantially agree. 

A solution of commercial indigo in water'was also compared 
with the discs, and seemed to agree well with them. 

Instead of comparing one of the dingy indigo discs directly 
with the brilliant-colored spaces of the' spectrum, I made an 
accurate comparison of its color with that of a disc painted 
With Prussian blue, reserving the latter for direct comparison 

with the 


The Winsor and Newton disc which the previous experi- 
ment had proved to be the least greenish in hue, was now com- 
bined with one of vermilion and emerald green, and the fol- 
lowing equation obtained : 

I 51-4+Y 29+G 19-6 =32-8 white. A disc of Prussian blue 
similarly treated gave Rb. 39-9+V 35-7+a 24-4 =274 white. 

These equations prove that the hue of the indigo and Prus- 
sian blue discs were identical, for the ratio of the red and green 
required to effect neutralization is the same, being in the case 
oi the indigo, 597 vermilion to 40-3 emerald green; in that of 
the Prussian blue, 594 vermilion to 40-6 emerald green. 

The position of the Prussian blue disc in the normal spec- 
trum was now determined with the aid of a large spectrometer, 
the eye-piece being provided with a slit which excluded all 
except a narrow slice of the spectrum. Such determinations 
can be made by a practiced eye with considerable certainty, as 
I propose to show at some future time. It was found that in 
a normal spectrum including from A to H 1000 parts the posi- 
tion of Prussian blue was at a distance from A equal to 740 of 
these parts. Now according to my observations on this spec- 
trum, blue-green ends and cyan-blue begins at 698 ; also cyan- 
blue ends and blue begins at 749 ; hence the color of Prussian 
blue falls in the cyan-blue space near the beginning of the blue, 
and to this same position we must consequently refer the color 
of indigo. 

It afterwards occurred to me that possibly Newton might 
have used the indigo in the dry lump, and accordingly I pre- 
pared a flat surface of dry commercial indigo and compared it 
carefully with the blue furnished by genuine and artificial 
ultramarine, its color being of course enormously darker, or 
one might say, blacker than that of either of these substances. 
A mixture by rotation of six parts of artificial ultramarine blue 
with two parts white and ninety-two parts black gives a color 
more or less like that of commercial indigo in the dry cake: 
that is to say, if a fj-eshly fractured surface of indigo be com- 
pared with the compound disc just mentioned, the color of the 
indigo will be found somewhat too greenish ; but on the other 
hand, if a scraped surface of the dry cake is used it will be too 
purplish. Newton therefore probably employed his indigo in 
the dry state. 

I give below, according to my determinations, the positions 
and corresponding wave-lengths of indigo, Prussian blue, cobalt- 
blue, genuine ultramarine-blue and artificial ultramarine-blue, 
in a normal spectrum having from A to H 1000 parts. 


[igo is really a greenish blue when 

2d. The color of the dry cake is not only very black, but 
variable according to the mode in which it is handled. 

Taking all this into consideration, it would appear desirable 
to allow the term indigo to fall into disuse, and to substitute 
for it ultramarine, the color of the artificial variety being 

ons to the Marine Fauna of 
No. 8 ; by A. E. Verrill. 

Brief Conirihutions to Zoology from the Museum of Yale College. 

No. XLV. 

Octopus obems, sp. nov. 

Male, remarkable for the great size of the spoon-shaped 
organ of the right arm of the third pair. Body relatively large, 
stout, oblong-oval, somewhat flattened above, obtusely rounded 
at the posterior end ; soft and somewhat gelatinous in texture ; 
skin, so far as preserved, smooth, soft. No cirrus exists above 
the eye, in our specimen, but the skin is not well preserved in 
that region. Eyes very large. Arms moderately long, the 
dorsal longest, others successively shorter; all somewhat later- 
ally compressed at base, tapering to long, slender tips ; a mod- 
erately developed web connects them together at base. The 
hectocotylized arm (third of right side), bears at the end a very 
large, broad and thick, but not very deep, spoon like organ; its 
inner surface is crossed by eleven oblique, thick, rounded folds 
°^ jibs, ten of them converging backward to the median line 
and at their outer ends joining a marginal thickening; the 
Qistal end terminates in a median pointed lobe, with a thin, 
pounded, lateral lobe each side of it ; the proximal border is 
tormed by the last (eleventh) fold, which is V-shaped, with 
the apex pointing distally. A broad thin marginal membrane 
extends along the lower side of the arm, from the terminal organ 
to the base. The suckers have been partly detached from this 
^''m. Suckers of all the arms modei-ately large, nearly globular 
^^- JoPB. Sci.— Third Series, Vol. XIX, No. 110.-Feb., 1880. 

138 A. R Verrill— Marine Fauna of North America. 

in form, rather numerous ; the first six to ten from the base are 
nearly in one line, except on the left arm of second pair, and 
appear to form only a single row; in this part the inner face 
of the arm is narrow, and most so on the right arm of the sec- 
ond pair, and least on the left of the same pair ; farther out this 
face becomes broader and the suckers are in two distinct rows ; 
they are destroyed on the distal portion of all the arms. Color 
of body and arms mostly destroyed, but so far as preserv^ed, 
pale pinkish, more or less thickly speckled with distinct reddish 
brown spots, most conspicuous at the bases of the arms and 
above the eyes (elsewhere the color is probably not so well pre- 
served). Length of body, from posterior end to base of arms, 
82"'°' ; to center of eye, 72'^"' ; to edge of mantle, beneath, 49"'°' ; 
to tip of right dorsal arm, 213°'"' : left, 198 ; to tips of second 
pair, 200 : to tip of right arm of third pair, 173 ; of left, 197 ; 
to tip of right of fourth pair, 187 ; of left, 178 ; to edge of web, 
110; breadth of body, in middle, 46; breadth of head, across 
eyes, 38 ; breadth of dorsal arms, at base, 8™™ ; diameter of 
largest suckers, 3°""; length of spoon-shaped end of right arm 
of third pair (hectocotylized), 35 ; breadth, 16 ; length of rest 
of arm, to mouth, 65°™. 

Taken from the stomach of a halibut, 36 miles east from the 
N. E. Light of Sable Island, in 160 to 300 fathoms, by Charles 
Euckley, of the schooner " H. A. Duncan," and presented by 
him to the U. S. Fish Commission, 1879. 

This species differs from Octopus Bairdii V.,* and 0. piscato- 
runi v., from the same region, in its longer and larger body, and 
especially in having the basal suckers in a single row. The 
'spoon' of the hectocotylized arm is much larger than in 0. 
Gronlandicus^ and larger and flatter than in 0. Bairdii. 

Octopus lentvs, sp. nov. 

Female, body broad, stout, depressed, slightly emarginate at 
the posterior end, soft to the touch and somewhat gelatinous in 
appearance ; a thin, soft, free, marginal membrane runs along 
the sides and around the posterior end of the brulv, becominir 
widest (about 12°'°') posteriorh. Head h\r<ie. brond. dppr<>-'^ed. 
with the eyes lar<2e and far apait; aboxccadi ,'\. t' (m ■ i^ . 

web('omu,Nih,■al!.'l^.^^t^M(,l m/, '.-■.. t',. ■, ! - ~ 

A. E. Verrill— Marine Fauna of North America. 139 

runs up to the tips as a broad margin to each arm. The arms 
are rather large, stout at base, with broad inner faee, gradually 
tapering to very slender tips ; the first and third pairs are 
nearly equal in "length; those of the second are also about 
equal in length to the fourth pair, but are somewhat shorter 
than the first and third. The arms on the right side are all 
somewhat longer than the corresponding ones on the left. The 
arms, measuring from the beak, are more than twice as long 
as the body. The suckers are arranged in two distinct rows, 
to the base. Color of head and body, above, and of body, be- 
neath, deep reddish-brown, closely specked with darker brown, 
and with many small roundish spots of whitish on the body 

Length, beak to end of body, not including marginal web, 
eO"''" ; breadth of web, 22'"'" ; length of longest arms of right 
side, 1-12'"'"; total length, 194°^; breadth of body, 40'"'" ; breadth 
of head, across eyes, 32'"'" ; of eye-openings, 10'"'" ; of eye-balls, 
17'"'"; length of mantle, beneath, 38'"'"; length of first pair of 
arms, 112 and 105"^""; of second pair, 103 and 96"""; of third 
pair, 112 and 106°""; of fourth pair, 94 and 97°'">; breadth of 
those of the three upper pairs, S"'"^ ; of the ventral pair, 7"™. 
Taken off Nova Scotia, near Le Have Bank, in 120 fathoms, 
by Captain Samuel Peeples and crew of the schooner " M. H. 
Perkins," and presented to the U. S. Fish Commission. 

In tlie soft con.sistency of the flesh and skin this species 
resembles the preceding. The shorter and posteriorly emar- 
ginate body, and especially the great difference in the arrange- 
ment of the suckers, render it very improbable that it is the 
female of that species. 


^risinga Americana^ sp. nov. 

A large and very showv species with fifteen to twenty long 
and verv spinose ravs, whioh arc hish and much compressed 
laterallv near the base, but farther out become depressed and 
taper gradnallv to the slender ends. In our specimen the disk 
IS gone. Fifteen detached arms remain ; some of them entire, 
but mo.stlv broken, probablv bv the spontaneous contractions 
of the cn-ature whrn taken: A.«C(n-dino- to the statement of 

140 A. M Yerrill— Marine Fauna of North America. 

each plate ; they are comparatively short near the base of the 
arms, but soon become much longer and more slender, and so 
continue to near the end. Just outside of these, on each side, 
along most of the arm, there are transverse clusters of four or 
five very long, slender, acute, divergent spines, borne .upon 
transverse prominent lateral plates, one of which occurs oppo- 
site about every fourth adambulacral plate ; toward the base 
of the arms these clusters become gradually reduced, both in 
number and length of the spines, till two small ones remain, and 
finally only one ; and still nearer the base, for about { 

this disappears also, leaving the broad side, close to the swollen 
aked of spines, except dorsally ; the elevated basal 
s:cept close to base, is crossed by series of transverse 

lateral and dorsal plates, in line with those described, 
forming prominent ridges, which bear long, slender, sharp 
spines, in simple, transverse series ; between these ribs the 
skin is naked and there are numerous slender scattered papulae. 
The transverse rows of dorsal spines continue to or beyond the 
elevated region of the ray (nearly one-third of the length) ; 
beyond this the dorsal surface is covered with low, granular 
verrucse, to the end. All the spines are enclosed, when perfect, 
by a loose, bag-like membrane, extending beyond their tips, and 
covered with minute pedicellariae, granule-like in size and ap- 
pearance, like those of the dorsal verrucse. The ambulacral 
suckers are large and form two regular rows. Eyes, in alcohol, 
yellowish, well-developed. Length of adambulacral spines, at 
base of arm, S"*"* ; in middle of arm, 8°™ ; length of longest 
lateral spines, along middle of arm, 12 to 14™^ ; including the 
sac, IB™"". Color, pale orange-red, in alcohol, when first re 
ceived, soon fading to whitish ; when living probably bright red. 
Taken off Nova Scotia, on the western part of Banquereau, 
in 175 fathoms, by Captain Samuel Peeples and crew, of the 
schooner "Addison Center," and presented to the U. S. Fish 

This species is related to B. caronata G. 0. Sars, but it has 
much larger and stouter arms, and much larger adambulacral 
spines, and more numerous lateral and dorsal ones. Our speci- 
men was found clinging to the branches of Paragorgia arhorea. 

Nipher—The Electric Light. 

Art. XX.— IVie Electric Light ; by F. E. Nipher. 

In the Philosophical Magazine for January, 1879, p. 30, Mr. 
W. H. Preece gives a discussion, in which he shows the condi- 

to be supplied in electric lighting, in order to obtain 
■ um effect. In eq. 2, p. 31, he gives :" ^ ^ ^ 

X - X . .. ^6^^ dis- 

'ibuted to the incandescent material, 

where p represents the battery resistance, and r and / represent 
the resistances of the connecting wires and an incandescent 
lamp, respectively. 

For n lamps joined up in series, we must substitute nl for Z, 
while if joined in multiple arc, we must put — for I In either 
case, the value of H is found to be a maximum, when the re- 
sistance of the lamp system is equal to that of the rest of the 

Mr. Preece then proceeds on the assumption that this condi- 
tion cannot be complied with, if n is large, reaching the conclu- 
sion that the amount of heat liberated in each lamp, varies in- 
versely as the square of the number of lamps. This is true in 
either of the two cases discussed by him. 

If, however, we have n lamps, arranged in n' parallel circuits, 
in each of which we have n" lamps, the previous equation be- 

With this arrangement it is always possible to supply the 
condition which makes H''' a maximum, entirely irrespective of 
the value of n. If 

? heat generated in each 1 
number of lamps. 
t. Louis, Dec. 30, 1879. 

Scientific Intelligence. 


1. Why the air at the Equator is not hotter in January than 
in July; by James Croll.— The following, I think, is the explana- 
tion of the difficulty why the January temperature at the equator 
when the earth is in perihelion is not much higher than in July 
when in aphelion. The difficulty is more apparent than real, for 
if we examine the indirect results w^hich follow from the present 
distribution of land and water, we shall see that there is no rea- 
son whatever why the air at the equator should be hotter in 
January than in July. 

It is well known that, notwithstanding the nearness of the sun 
in January, the influence of the present distiibution of land and 
water is sufficient to make the mean temperature of the whole 
earth, or, what is the same, the mean temperature of the air over 
the surface of the earth higher in July than in January. The 
reason of this is obvious. Nearly all the land is in the northern 
hemisphere, while the southern hemisphere is for the most part 
water. The surface of the northern or land-hemisphere, for rea- 
sons to which I need not here refer, becomes heated in summer 
and cooled in winter to a far greater extent than the surface of 
the southern or water hemisphere. Consequently when we add 
the July or midsummer temperature of the northern to the July 
temperature of the southern hemisphere, we must get a higher 
number than when we add the January or midwinter temperature 
of the former to the January temperature of the latter. For ex- 
ample, the mean July temperature of the northern hemisphere, 
according to Dove (" Distribution of Heat on the Surface of the 
Globe") is 70°-9, and that of the southern hemisphere 53° -6 ; add 
the two together and we have 124°-5, which gives a mean for both 
hemispheres of 62°-3. The mean January temperature of the 
northern hemisphere is 48°-9, which, added to 59°-5, the mean 
January temperature of the southern hemisphere, gives only 
108°-4, or a mean of 54°-2. Consequently the air over the surface 
of the globe is hotter in July by 8° than in January, notwith- 
standing the effects of eccentricity. It is obvious that, were it 
not for the counteracting effects of eccentricity, the difference 
would be much greater. Ten thousand years ago, when eccen- 
tricity and the distribution of land and water combined to pro- 
duce the same effect, the difforcticc inust have hww far greater 

But it will be asked, How can this affect the air over the equa- 
tor, which is not situated more on the one licniisplurc than on. the 
other? It is true that those causes have I)ut little <1h<'(^t effect on 
the air at the equator, but ivdireetfy they have a vi'ry powerful 

gions from both hemispheres. In fact, the air which we find 

Physics and Chemistry. 148 

there is derived entirely from the temperate regions. In July we 
have the northern trades coming from a hemisphere with a mean 
temperature as high as 70° '9, and the southern trades coming 

from a hemisphere with a mean temperature nol 
in January the former trades How from a hem 
50"^, and the latter from a hemisphere no highe] 

wliieh the equatorial regions received from the 
trades must have a higher temperature in July than in January, 
The northern is the domiiuuit liemisphere ; it pours in hot air in 
July and cold air in January, and this effect is not counterbal- 
anced by the air of the opposite hemisphere. The mean tempera- 
ture of the air passing into the equatorial regions ought therefore 
to be much higher in July than in January, and this it no doubt 
would be were it not, let it be observed, for the counteracting 
effects of eccentricity. The tendency of the present distribution 
of land and water, when our northern winter occurs in perihelion, 
IS to counteract the effects of eccentricity. But ten thousand 
years ago, when our winters were in aphelion, that cause would 
cooperate to intensify the effects of eccentricity. In fact, it 
would actually more than double the effects then produced by 
eccentricity. Now if the influence of the present distribution of 
land and water is so great as not merely to counteract but to re- 
verse the effects of eccentricity to the extent of making the mean 
temperature of the eiirth 8° warmer in July than in January, it 
IS not snr|>risiiig tliut it should be sufficient to make the equato- 
rial regions ;it least as warm in the former as in the latter period. 
The fa.t that the equator at present is not hotter when the 
earth is in i)erihelIon, instead of being an objection to the theory 
that the oiacinl period was due to an increase nf eciHMitricitv, as 

u>''k IlunvJ't 

. is in r< 
hat a m 

■ality anothe 

to inducr a (• 



Wphore tl 

.an would oth.erwise 



lOther c: 

uiM- which n 

"ary and rai 

se tlu- 

uorthern tra<l 

'iiirthcr s'diit 



than the iati 

>n. The ge 

lower the ten 


than in July 

is of coi 



■IIS iiiul ..llu 


Mii;;;; • 


144 Scientific Intelligence. 

rays before it rises as an ascending current and returns to the 
temperate regions from whence it came. More than this these 
trades prevent us from being able to determine with accuracy the 
intensity of the sun's heat from the temperature of the ground ; 
for the surface of the ground in equatorial regions is kept at a 
much lower temperature by the air blowing over it than is due 
to the intensity of the sun's heat. It thus becomes a very intri- 
cate problem to determine how much the surface of the ground is 
kept below the maximum temperature by the heat absorbed by 
the moving air. — Nature^ Dec. 11, 1879. 

2. Teynperature of the >SWi.— Professor F. Rosetti, of the Uni- 
versity of Padua, concludes a series of papers entitled — " Experi- 
mental researches on the temperature of the Sun," with the fol- 
lowing remarks : — 

The effective temperature of the sun may be defined as that 
temperature which an incandescent body of the same size placed 
at the same distance ought to have in order to produce the same 
thermal effect y if it had the maximum emissive power, i. e., Errl. 
In this place we could apply the formula 

y = mT\T—d)-n{T~6) ; 

if we only take into consideration the absorption produced by the 
terrestrial atmosphere. If we neglected this absorption we should 
have a lower temperature. In short, in the observations made, 
the maximum was obtained on September 28th at midday : this 
is represented by 210 scale-divisions, which gives y the value 

2/=5-6921X 210= 1195-3. 
If we introduce this value into the formula, we obtain 


This result will be greatly modified if we take into account the 
absorption exercised by the solar atmosphere. According to 
Secchi, the solar atmosphere exercises a veiy powerful absorption 
on the rays which proceed from the photosphere : on account of 
this absorption only y'^^ of the solar radiation pass beyond the 
atmosphere of the "sun, while yV\ are absorbed by it. If we 
regard this value given by Secchi as correct, we can calculate 
the thermal effect which the sun would produce if it were without 
atmosphere. This effect would be 

Physics and Chemistry. 145 

The formula gives 

T = 20653-'7, 
and consequently 

« = 20380-7. 
There arc still two causes which can modify these results; but 
certainly their effect is slight, since their influences are contrary 
and so compensate one another. One of these causes is the value 
of the specific emissive power of the sun, which may possibly be 
less than unity ; and in that case the true temperature of the 
sun would be higher. The other cause is the transparency of 
the different strata of the solar atmosphere: although this is 
small, it is nevertheless certain that we receive the rays from sev- 
eral superposed strata ; and although their temperature is certainly 
lower than that of the photosphere situated underneath, neverthe- 
latter a portion of the radiation ^ 

these strata joins itself; and consequently in that case a lower 
temperature of the s\in is sufllcient to produce the heating meas- 
ured by our instruments. 

I think, then, that I may fairly conclude that the true tempera- 
ture of the sun is not very different from its effective temperature, 
and that it is not much less than ten thousand degrees if we only 
consider the absorption of the terrestrial atmosphere, nor much 
more than twenty thousand degrees if we also take into consider- 
ation the absorption by the solar atmosphere, estimating the latter 
^^ i^A of the total radiation of the sun. — Fhil Mag., Supplementary 
No., 1879. 

3. The Pseudophone. — For investigating the laws of Binaural 
Audition,* Professor S. P. Thompson has devised a little instru- 
ment which he calls the pseudophone, and which, as he states, is 
the analogue of the pseudoscope of Wheatstone, since it illustrates 
the laws of audition by means of the illusions it produces in the 
acoustic perception of space. It consists of a pair of ear-pieces 
furnished with adjustable metallic flaps or reflectors of sound, 
which can be fitted to the ears by straps and can be set at any 
desired angle with respect to the axis of the ears, and can also be 
turned upon a revolving collar about that axis so as to reflect 
sounds into the ears from any desired direction. In regard to its 
use the author says: 

The estimate we are able to make of the position of a source of 
sound, judging solely by the relative intensities of the sensation in 
the two ears, depends upon our previous perceptions and upon 
our possession of a constant amount of effective an.litory surface, 
and a constant angle subtended between the ears and the line of 

In the pseudophone these angles are variable, and the amount 
of effective surface can also be varied, and tins without any 
Knowledge, on the part of the person experinientliig with the 
instrument, as to how much they mav bo varied. Jlence the 
acoustic illusions which are now to be descrilied. 

146 Scwntifk, Intelligence. 

Suppose one flap to be adjusted at any angle of about forty 
degrees with the line of sight, in which position it is about most 
favorably situated to I'oooive sounds from a point riglit in front of 
the observer; then if thr other flap be adjusted to any angle 
greater or less than forty degr<>es, fewer rays of souihI are refieeted 

tense. Accordingly, to verify tlie perception, the 
lead until both ears hear the sound equally loudly, 
iw that he is looking in the direction of the sound, 
oking at a point situated nearer to that side on 
effective surface exists. This observation agrees 
The illusion is very easily obtained 

) be to believe the former rat 
)ccurs when the flaps of the 

come from immediately behind the obser 

if a source of sound, situated anywhere behnul t 

red, if the observer does not know how the flaps Ji 

m pitch, 
ork; but 

the sensation ih oi»e of a character from 
impossible to draw any precise judgmeni 
appear to lidve any precise locality, * * * 

Tho illusion succeeds in the open as vv 
sound of a lou<l-ticking clock, and with 
with shrill sounds it succci-ds best, notab 
of a metronome, and even with a raetrono 

Another experiment with the ]>seudoi)l 

one Ha 

Physics and Chemistry. 147 

certain direction, and so the judgment is sophisticated — Phil 
l/a^ , IS o\ t mbei , 1879 

4 Explosion of Ca,hotnr Acid m a coal mine —M Dliissi 
In** ixuen in the Comptes Kendns a, shoit statement in ngard to 
m explosion m tin coil nunc of Kochelxlk (Gaid), vhich caused 
the d( xth ot thuc miiuis Ihis explosion is cxphincd is h ning 

'sured beds of coal md i 
g under bo gicat a pies^ 
o On the mat of For) 

in ls()4 ml IX 11 ,\\ ( mhiincd Like a(ct\Uiic CJI^ ind nitrogen 
dioxKU N () (\m (H il.M)rl)s heat in Its s;ynthcsis This, Btr 
thelot tlinil X m ^ i^ x\\k u ison why this hody manifests in com 
biniiicj 1,1 UK i_\ ( Mtinn iblc to that of tlie elements —i?i</Z l^oc 
^V/, II, XXX,, ,s, \', is-o G F T? 

/^ s/ Bo I , i <j>i,thf It >i ( he,n7^try, by Aij^kfo B Prfs 
con l(,0ppsw> ^l^^ \oik l-VO (D AaiiXo'^trand)— This 
httU \\<ik li ts ) clii, Ktn (it Its o\^n m that it is dcsijrned not 
onH to teuh tlu oidii! ii \ s„„])l( method of analjsi^ but also to 
srne the student it the suno time \ ^Mder kno\\lcdgt ol chtmical 
ri lations, and ehemual lacts, than he is likelj to iriin if hi*! itttn 
tioi, iv diiected exclusuely to the differences upon ^\hich anahti 
(il methods are bised In the hands of a good teachei this book 

~' ^ t , \ <i imq (tinl A<isatf iichemet , b\ V n I'i\- 
"' !Jf Ki iix I Al IMi I) Second edition, rcM^^td ml m 
'>'- I « !l -^ • ^^^v Yoik, 1S79 (J \\ lU \ ^ ^ n ) — 

^'^'iti 1 tl ix ,1 I till \* limu on its fii'^t appt irimi I Ik >t ( n<l 

148 Scientific Intelligence. 

\ised in these " Notes." Dr. Ricketts is at the head of the assay 
laboratory of the Columbia College School of Mines, and these 
" ISTotes" are the daily guide of the students of that institution. 
It is a particularly practical book and well adapted to its objects. 
8. Chemical Problems, by Jambs C. Foye. 43 pp. 8vo. 
Appleton's Misc., 1879. — Many teachers may find their work facil- 
itated by having a series of problems on the fundamental princi- 
ples of chemistry prepared for them. 

II. Geology and Mineralogy. 
1. A Manual of the Geology of India. Chiefly compiled from 
the Observations of the Geological Survey by H. B. Medlicott, 
M.A., Superintendent Geological Survey of India, and W, T. 
Blanfokd, F.R.S., Deputy Superintendent. 2 vols. roy. 8vo, in 
all 820 pp., with a map, and 21 lithogr. . plates. — The authors of 
this Manual of India Geology are prominent members of the 
corps connected with the Government Geological Survey; and 
the work may therefore be received as a faithful presentation of 
the latest results obtained. The facts and views are ably set forth, 
and those relating to fossils are well illustrated in the many plates. 
The work has a high interest to geologists of the other hemis- 
phere, because of the striking contrasts with the geology of 
Europe and North America which it affords, while sustaining the 
md principles 

nd both the physical geography and 
geology of these areas are treated of. 

The following are some of the peculiarities in the geology of 
India which are described at length in the volumes, 

(1.) The division into Peninsular and Extra-peninsular India by 
the broad plain of the Indus and Ganges, at the foot of the inte- 
rior mountain region ; " the Extra-peninsular area is geologically 
an intrinsic portion of the Asiatic continent, whilst Peninsular 
India is not." 

(2.) The absence of marine fossiliferous beds older than Ter- 
tiary in Peninsular India, excepting some Jurassic and Cretaceous 
in the Cutch and Jessalmir just northwest, and similar beds 
along the east coast, although there are unaltered sedimentary 
rocks of great thickness from the Cretaceous to the Lower Silu- 
rian (?), with metamorphic rocks underneath ; first, a great " Vind- 
l)yan" formation, north of tlie Nar1)ada, 12,000 feet thick, consist- 
in'j; of limcstoiK's and sliales in many altera ation s ; and, secondly, 
the Goufhvana, or plant-liearing and coal-bearing series, of wide 
extent, tlio lower Dortion of uiru-h (the Talchir and Damuda 
n and Triassic, and the upper 
.hadeva and Kajmahal) to the Jurassic* 
The only animal fossils of the Damuda series are an Estheria, some Laby- 


Geology and Mineralogy. 149 

f marine fossiliferous beds of Silurian, Devon- 
ian, Carboniferous, Triassic, Jurassic, Cretaceous and Tertiary 
age in the moimtain regions of the Extra-peninsular area. 

(3.) The Coal-period of the country having its commencement in 
the Permian and reaching its maximum in the Triassic (the period 
of the Damuda group) : showing that the era of gentle oscilla- 
tions about such a mean plane ot level ab A\ould niakt wide spiead 
nlar'^hes m ilteniatiou with ^\lde spread shallow \\ateis, came 
later than in the hcmispheie of Kuiop( md Amoiu i, and that 
thtse diveifee hcmispheies did not toiuspond lu liiiut \\ith the 
north and south hemisphcies of tin splu u 

(4 ) A (lose relation in ^p( cic^ b( r^^(l ii tin C oil pi uit"- (species 
oi Glos-ioptens, etc), of ilu Tikhu uid Dimud) uioups xnd 
those of the CoaHield*? of iListcm Vu-ti iln, lud iKo thost of 
Southern Afru a (the Kaioo bcd^), show ing that these three distant 
poitionb of the globe had certain common iclations in that era. 

(5 ) A clobe 1 elation betw een the Re{)tilian and Amphibian fauna 
of the Later Gondwana beds and that of the upper beds of the 
Karoo series * 

(6) lhceMstenco,mth( ' 


n rnojK^fi 

mei strata, espe- 

cialh tov^aid the b i^e ot 

tiK ^lOlip 

„1 1m Is^oi 

bowldeis, the 

bo^vldor. ruundul,iiom ha 

11 (ItuiKte 

. to fifteen leet 

and thirty tons m vv eight 

M)nt ot I 

liuu with 

sciatched and 

smoothed surfaces mdof 

sinulai bowl 

idei beds 

m the knve. of 

the South Afiica deposits ii 



(7) The existence in the Lowei Vu 

idhyin sorics m Southern 

India, of a diamond-beaiin< 

feet thick (of dark gra\, led and brown 


huh is explored 

for dnmomK bv me ins' of . 

uid shoi 

r o ilk IKS— the 

dnmond. suppo.. 1 t . b< ,m 

ol.tbu of 

HuHi" like the 

pebbU.u,.l!lhunMUn 1 

< t till uhI. 

111^ 1 ' k 

dso ot -mother 

(« ) In Extra pcnmsul ii 

150 Scientific Intelligence. 

jab, to the north, along the Suleman Range to Peshawar; in the 
" Salt Range ;" in Northern Punjab, through the Hazara and the 
Murree Hills, and other hills west of the Indus; and along a 
region 200 miles or more long and 25 wide in Tibet, in the upper 
Indus valley, 15,000 feet above the sea level.* (The statement, 
by Dr. Thomson, as to the occurrence of Nummulitic beds on the 
Singhi Pass, at a height of 16,600 feet, is said to need confirma- 
tion, because of the importance of the fact, if true.) 

(9.) A thickness of Tertiary in the Sub-Himalayas (a range of 
mountain ridges, fifty miles in width, 5,000 to 8,000 and rarely 
12,000 feet high) of 12,000 to 15,000 feet, with the beds much 
folded, but conformably with the underlying beds ; in the Punjab, 
of 25,000 feet thick, 15,000 feet being of the Siwalik formation or 
Upper Tertiary ; in Sind, in the Mountains of Khirthar, 8,000 to 
10,000 feet for the Pliocene (Manchhar group) alone, the beds 
much folded, (related to the Pliocene of the Siwalik Hills). 

(10.) In the Punjab, beyond the parallel of 32°, between the 
Indus and Jhelun, the " Salt Range," including strata ranging 
from the Silurian (?) to the Pliocene, many containing marine fos- 
sils, the Sub-Carboniferous limestone being well displayed and 
extending into Kashmir. 

(11.) Salt-bearing beds (Silurian?) at the base of the series of 
the "Salt Range," the salt layers often 100 feet thick, and at the 
Mayo Mines of Khewa, containing 550 feet of pure and impure 
salt, in a thickness of 1,000 feet; also, in the Kohat region, in the 
Punjab, underneath Nummulitic beds, beds of rock salt and gyp- 
sum of great thickness, exceeding 1 ,000 feet near Bahddur Khel, 
with a width of outcrop of a quarter of a mile, and ridges of rock 
salt 200 feet high standing in the region, 

(12.) Trap rocks, doleryte and basalt— the "Deccan trap" — of 
great geographical extent, reaching, with even horizontality, from 
the sea-coast at Bombay (72° 51' E.) to the head of the Narbada 
(82° E.), and from near Belgaum (16° 35' N.) to north of Goona 
(25° N.), an area, covering about IG degrees of longitude and 9^ 
of latitude, little less than 200,000 square miles (the railway from 
Bombay to Nagpur, 519 miles long, never leaving the volcanic 
rocks until it is close to the Nagpur station) ; and all subaerial in 
origin ; probably erupted at or near the close of the Cretaceous or 
during the Lower Tertiary, in successive outflows occurring at 
intervals during a long period ; the thickness near Bombay, 6,000 
feet; in Cutch, about 2,500 ; in Sind, only 200 in two bands; in 
Belgaum, at the southern limit, 2,000 to 2,500 foot; to the south- 
east, near Rdjamahcndri, lOO ^- •>. n c. .,* 

The Zanskar contain 

Geology and Minerahgy. 151 

(1.3.) Other extOMsivo 
west of tho dolt a of the 

have been cotomporaneons witli tli'e Deccaii ()utri()\\>, with "little 
petroh^gical diptiiiction hetvveen tho traps" of the two regions; 
and still others in the Sylhet region, east of the delta, overlaid by 
Cretaceous rocks. 

(14,) A line of eruptive rocks on the Upper Indus, from Kargil 
ea'Jtward, accompanying the Eocene strata "from end to end," 

The above indicate some of the points which the reader will 
find presented in full in the volumes. 

With regard to the movements producing the Ilimalnyas, the 
w'-rk makes the following remarks in the brief geological sum- 
iiKu\ with which the work commences (pages l\i,^lvii)/ 

We cite, in closing this notice, the following general remarks 
(from pages Ivi, Iviifou the Or'tijin of the Himalayas. — During 
the interval that has elapsed since Eocene tunes, whilst no 
important movements, except small and partial changes of 
elevation, can be traced in the Peninsula, the whole of the 
Dutortion and folding of the 
sular mountains are due, must 
have been exercised. The Sub-Hinnilayan Eocene beds were 
deposited upon uncontorted Paleozoic rocks ; and although 
the Himalayan area was i)robably in great part land at a much 
earlier period, there is no reason for bt'lic\ inu" llinl thi^ k-uid wa^ 

IS clearly due to post-Eocene disturbance. It will Ik- -Ihuii. in 
the cha])ters relating to the Sub-IIimalavan rock-, t!u- m.'\L'- 
ment has been distributed over the T.ili.nv an. I i.o>.t-Tcrtiar\ 
period; and a Ljreat portion is ,.f post-Plio.H-iu' date. Indeed, the 
fact that earthquakes are now of conim.Mi ueeunvnce in tlie Him- 
alayas, tlie Assam hills, Burma, Cntcli, :ind ^^inM. and tinit nianv 
of the shocks are severe and s„ine violent. wliiM tlu Fenin-ular 
area is but rarely affected by eartlupiakes, mav indie.ite tiiai tli.^ 
lorces, to which "the elevation and contortion of ilu' 
are due, are still in action; and that the hii?hest mount.Vni^ in tl.js 

nd that the r_ 

'ted by the 1 „_ .._ 

! Himalayas near the Ganges and 
Sutlej, at an earlier period than farther to the westward. In the 
Simla area, there is marked unconformity, due evidently to 
' upheaval and denudation combined, between the Sirm^r and Siwa- 
lik series, and between the lower, or Nahan, group of the Siwalik 
series itself and the next overlying sub-division ; whereas farther 
west, in the Northern Punjab, all the groups follow each other in 
apparently conformable sequence. The evidence, however, is not 
sufficient to prove that the contortion to the eastward is older 
than to the westward ; and the absence of any important break 
in Burma is opposed to the suggestion of great movements hav- 
ing taken place in that country in early or middle Tertiary times. 
It is evident that the forces, to which the principal ranges in 
the Extra-peninsular area owe their direction, have not only been 
exerted throughout a considerable portion of the Tertiary period, 
but that these forces have acted contemporaneously, at all events 
in the post-Pliocene period." 

2. Note on the Trilohite, Atops trilineatus of Emmons ; by 
S. W. FoED. — In his paper on " Fossils of the TJtica Slate and 
! of 

list of synonyms oi^Triarthrus Beckii, Atojis trilineatus Emmons, 
1844, Taconic System, p. 20; and u±to/)S trilineatiis Emm., 1846, 
Agr. Rep. N. Y., vol. i, p. 64. The figures are the same in the 
two publications cited. The species represented by Emmons is 
not the Triarthrns Beckii, and of the ITtica Slate, nor is it that 
species and of the Hudson River group, as maintained by Hall, 
but has since been shown to belong to the genus Cofiocoryphe 
and to characterize the Primordial. It has not yet been met with 
beyond the State of New York, nor at any point west of the 
Hudson River. In an earlier part of his paper, Mr. Walcott treats 
of the views entertained by Mather concerning the rocks upon the 
east side of the Hudson, quoting from that geologist to prove that 
he considered them to represent all the members of the Champlain 
division, and these only; and he then proceeds to speak of "Mr. 
Dale's discovery of an old locality given by Mather," and the 
writer's " verification of the presence of a lower member of the 
'hamplain division by paleontological evidence," as serving 
■ ' " Mather's views. 

■ be thought of Mr. Dale's discoveries, I am 
satisfic.l that th<'ir intrinsic value will tiol ho at all lessened by 
Mr. WalcottV TuetlHxl of putting tliiim's. The important fact still 
remains, tliat, up to tlic date of Mr. Dale's discovery of Hudson 
River fossils at Poiis^hkecpsie, the age of the slates occurring 
there was unknown. ' With rep-ard to myself I may say that I am 
eds of Troy, N. Y., as repre- 
1 generally under- 


Geology and Mineralogy. 153 

stood, and have so expressed myself in former papers. The 
evidence respecting the horizon of these beds is mainly paleon- 
tological; and this, as it at present stands, shows that their fauna, 
though closely linked generically with that of the Potsdam sand- 
stone (or true base of the Charaplain division) on the one hand, 
and the Acadian on the other, yet has a decided leaning in this 
respect toward that of the Acadian. Specifically it is entirely 
distinct from both. Until, therefore, more is known upon the 
subject, it seems to me an obvious over-reaching of facts to refer 
the beds in question unqualifiedly to the Champlain division of 
the New York System. 

New York, December 12th, 1879. 

3. List of Papers on the Taconic System j by James D. Daisa. 
—As an Appendix to my last paper on the Taconic System, pub- 
lished in vol. xvii of tliis Journal (May, 1879, p. 375), I have 
prepared a list of the principal papers on the subject. It contains 
those treating of the true original Taconic, and of the changes in 
the limits of the Taconic system which Emmons introduced ; but 
the papers which bear only on the age of accessories to the system 
are not included, since they never had any right to a place in the 
system and their age has no bearing on the question as to the age 
of the true Taconic. The list is in two parts; first, that of papers 
sustaining the pre-Silurian (pre-Potsdam) age of the Taconic sys- 
tem ; and secondly, that of papers adverse to this view of their age. 

poaed equivalents, boin^' made the Lower, and some added fossiliferniia rocks 
li nmordial and later], ^^ itli their supposed equivalents, Ujc Upper.— Tdem : Report 

f. JoL-K. Sci.— TniKi) S 

>oo. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist. 

ScieMijic Intelligence. 

I by Mather) 

H. D. & W. B. Rogers: Proc Amer. Phil. Soc, Jan. 1, 1841 ; make the slai 
of the laconic Moimtaina and the rocks east and west to be Lower Sikirian, a 
refer the slates to the Hudson River group.— W. W.Mather: Report Geol. 

ing against the Taconic system.— H. D. Rogers: Address, etc., Rep. Amer. Ass. 
Geol. & Nat., for 1844, p. 67, and Amer. J. Sci., xlvii, 137, 1844; urges the sai 
views essentially.— James Hall : ibid., p. 68. 

tem. Report Amer. Assoc, for 1850 (New Haven meeting) says, "The results 
the [Canada] survey have shown, as I had the honor to state at the last anni 
meeting at Cambridge [in 1849], that the Green Mountain rocks are nothing el 

in a metamorphic condition."— James Hall: N. Y. Palseontology, voK iii, p. ] 
1859.— T. S. Hunt: Amer. J. Sci., H, xxxi, 402, 1861 (after Logan's defining 
the Quebec group); says, "the Quebec group with its underlying shales is 
other than the Taconic system of Kmmons.'" — Idem: ibid., xxxii, 427, 1861 ; mak 
the Taconic, exclusive of the slates, equivalent of the Calciferous, adding that " 

the lower slates as a Tacanic formation older than the Potsdam."— W. E. Loga: 
Geology of Canada, 8vo, 1863, p. 934; makes the system to consist, "for i 
greater part at least, of the strata of the Potsdam and Quebec Group." — J. 
Dana : Manual of Geology, 1863 ; cites and adopts the views just mentioned.- 
James Hall and W. E. Logan: Amer. J. Sci., II, xxxix, 96, 1865; refer t: 
Hudson River slates south of Albany to the Quebec group.— T. S. Hunt: Addres 
etc. Rep. Amer. Assoc, for 1871; refers the Stockbridge or Green Mouuta 

Taconic schists and slates (those of the Taconic Mountains) are of Hudson River 
age, and the limestones Lower SUurian. and shows also that mica schist, gneiss 
and other crystalline rocks are included among the conformahk Lower Silurian 
strata. — Frederick Prime, Jr. : Lower Silurian Fossils in limestone as.sociated 
with Hydromica Slates in Eastern Pennsylvania, ibid., xv. 261. 1878; shows the 
Chazy or Trenton age of the rocks, which are part of the so-called Taconic, and 
are like those of Berkshire.— T. Nelson Dale : Discovery of fossils, proring the 
Hudson Hirer age of the supposed Taconic Pouglikeepsie slates.— J. D. Dana : On 

the slates of the Taconic Mountains, as exhibit* 

slates and limestones with those of the Taconic System 
Vermont.— W. B. Dwight: Fossils of the Wappinger ^ 
389; adds to the number of localities, and gives lists 
— Whitfield : On the occurrence of Maclurea of th 
Bamegat Limestone near Newburgh, New Y 
B. Dwight: On Calciferous as well as Trenton fossils in 

stone at Rochdale and in Trenton in the same near N-ewburgh, N. T., ibid., xix, 
71, 1880. — J. P. Lesley: On the discovery by P. Frazer, of Hudson River or 
Trenton Buthotrephis in slates on the Susquehanna, near the borders of Penn- 
sylvania and Maryland, ibid., xix, Tl, 1880.— Proc. Amer. Phil. Soc, xviii, 365. 

Cal., James D. Eichardson discovered the skull of 
several inches of oave earth and stalagmite. The si)echnen is in 
a good state of preservation, and demonstrates that the cave bear 
of that region was a s])ecies distinct alike from the oave hoar of 
the East {Crsiisprifithmii), and from any of the existing species. 
In dimensions the skull equals that of the grizzly bear, but it is 
very diiVerently pro])Oitioned. The muzzle is much >hortor, and 
is wide, and descends oblicjuelv downward from the very convex 
frontal region. It wants the' large postorbital processes of the 
grizzly, but has the tuberosities of the polar bear ( T. waritimus), 
which it also resembles in the convexity of the front. Sagittal 
crest well developed. Three (one median and i)osterior) incisive 

large, and the series presents the peculiarity of being without 

there were not three premolars, the second tooth has 1 wo well- 
developed roots. First true molar with but two external and one 
internal tubercle. The absence of diastema renders it necessary 
to separate this bear from the true Ursl, and I propose to regard 
it, provisionally, as a species of Arctoth rium (Jerv. The <-anine 
teeth are large* and compressed at the base. Lengtii of cranium 
along base from below apex of union to premaxillary border. 

width lH'.tu..n iu.u.rbonb.r 

of iHwirri" 

Dm-mi,rr,'Vs 7 ;).''' '^ '''''""'" 

paper, jmbli.lK.d 'ulxLvvnJv 


Society, Dec. .-MS-... 


Mamnull^ of Oregon. The ii 

of the Uni-ted States (iol 

h/k'-:?! '^ul•^ 

February, ]8r<.». The latter 

livth-W <•<> 

se\ en species of mammals, .1 

^^ hite T?iver formation of ( 
I>ai)er ProlVs^or (\)ne ha^ be 


"tlu. ex, .edit ion. lleino- nwl 
Wortm;m." Thi. i-il.r.- con 

tain- the -1 

new s) ' ■ 1 

K : I />,■</"/■ 



i'Mer <y>aofuon^:, r,,/,,,,. ,.,/„ 

Hi'. ,■".■■, ( 

i'j-ofessor Cope Stat.'. th;.t > 


156 Scientific Intelligence. 

for several of the above, has sent remains also of Laeertilia and 
Ophidia., orders previously unknown from the Miocene of Oregon, 
but made known by him as occurring in the White River forma- 
tion of Colorado in 1873.' 

6. Jleber die erzfilhrenden Tieferuptionen von Zmnwald-AUen- 
berg und iXher den Zinnherghau in diesem Gehiete ; by Edward 
Reybr. Tektonik der Granitergilsse von Neudeck und Karlsbad 
%md Qeschichte des Zinnbergbaues im Erzgebirge; by the same. 
Banka und Bilitong ; by the same. — ^The earlier studies of Dr. 
Reyer, entitled, "die Euganeen: Bau und Geschichte eines Vul- 
canes," and " Beitrag zur Fysik der Eruptionen und der Eruptiv- 
gesteine," are already well known by those interested in the sub- 
jects of which they treat. The series of papers whose titles are 
given above are based in part upon the theories advanced in these 
former memoirs. They contain detailed descriptions of the method 
of occurrence of the tin ore in the Erzgebirge of Bohemia, specula- 
tions as to its genesis, and also many valuable and interesting 
facts in regard to the history of the tin-mining industry. 

7. Brachiopodes : Etudes Locales. Extraits du Syst^me Silu- 
rien du centre de la Boheme ; vol. v, Brachiopodes, I. Variations 
observees parmi Brachiopodes siluriens de la Boheme. II. Distri- 
bution vertieale des genres et esp^ces de Brachiopodes dans le 
bassin silurien de la Boheme. III. Connexions speciiiques etablies 
par les Brachiopodes entre les faunes siluriennes de la Boheme et 
les faunes paleozoSques des contrees etraug^res ; par Joachim 
Barrande. 356 pp. and 7 plates, 4to. Prague and Paris, 1879. 

8. Geological Survey of Japan. Reports of Progress for 1878 
and 1879; by Benj. Smith Lyman. 266 pp. 8vo. Tookei, 1879. 

9. Lethma Geognostica, oder Beschreibnng und Abbildung der 
fUr die Gehirgs - Formationen bezeichnendsten Versteinerungen, 
"herausgegeben von einer Vereinigung von Palaontologen. I Theil, 
Lethsea paheozoica von Fred. Roemer. V^" Lieferung. 324 pp. 
8vo. Stuttgart, 1880 (E. Schweizerbart'sche Verlagshandlung — 
E. Koch). An Atlas to this work was publislifd i '-""' "■ 
tains sixty-two plates, illustrating 
the successive Paleozoic formatic 

10. JSfeues Jahrbuch far Mineralogie, Geologie, Baleontologie. 
— A new decade of the "Jahrbuch" begins with 1880, and with 
it it is announced several changes will be made which are cal- 
culated to increase its usefulness. There are to be in future six 
numbers yearly, in two volumes, wliich together will include one- 
half more matter than the annual volumes hitherto issued. Vari- 
ous other changes in the selection and arrangement of the matter 
(some of them of considerable importance), are also proposed. 
The editors. Professors Benecke, Klein and Rosenbusch are doing 
a great service to science in perfecting and making more complete 
the journal which has been intrusted to their care. 

11. Mineralogische Notizen von A. von Lasaiilx.— Professor 
Lasaulx describes a new mineral species under the name of Tita- 

Botany and Zoology. 157 

nomorphite. It occurs as an alteration product, forming a white 
coating about a nucleus consisting of rutile or menaccanite, or 
both. This coating has in part a radiated fibrous structure, but 
on the outside is granular. The grains in some instances admitted 
of a crystallographic and optical examination, which showed a 
close relation between the mineral and titanite. An analysis by 
Bettendorff afforded TiO^ 74-32, CaO 25-27, FeO tr=:99-59, which 
corresponds to tlie formula CaTi,P^. Found in the amphibolyte of 
the " Hohe Eule," Silesia. It is regarded by Lasaulx as probably 
identical with the white decomposition product from menaccanite 
or rutile often observed in microscopic sections of rocks but 
hitherto of uncertain composition. 

Professor Lasaulx also describes a manganese vesuvianite (3-23 
p. c. JNfnO) from the neighborhood of Jordansmtlhl, in Silesia, 
and gismondite from the basalt of Schlauroth, near Gorlitz. The 
crystals of gismondite are shown to be generally twins, belong- 

12. Mvneralogii 

fessor Zepharovich describes interesting crystals of calcite and 
cerussite from Bleiberg, the former with the rhombohedron R|; 
also of sulphur, pyrite, and arsenical pyrites. 

13. Ueber die optische Orientirung der Plagioklase von Max 
Schuster. — The results reached byDesCloizeaux in his optical 
examination of the triclinic feldspars were regarded by him as 
strong arguments against the correctness of the^theory of Tscher- 
mak, that they are isomorphous mixtures of anorthite and albite in 
vaiyiug proportions, with these two species as the extremes. The 
subject has been farther investigated by Schuster, and as his 

relation approaclung the one or the oth^T of these two spt 

'cies. It 

is also shown that microcline and ortluxhise are relate. 

1 to the 

other feldspar species in the position of the plane of the op 
and in the position of the positive bisectrix.— /^er. Ak. 

tic axes, 


Ixxx, July, 1879. 

14. Ueber den JPerowskit von H. BAUMiiArKu.— The tr 

ue crys- 

talline form of the rare species perofskite has long been 


tion, and has been discussed by DesCl)i/eaux. Kokscharo 

senberg and others. Baumhauer has api-lied the method 

of etch- 

ing to crystals from several localities, and has contirnied 

an opin- 

ion previously expressed by others, that they belong ii 

1 fact to 

the orthorhombic system. 

III. Botany and ZooloCxY. 

1. The Botamcal Gazette, a Paiycr of Botamcnl Notn 

N edited 

by Prof J. M. Coulter and M. S. Coulter, hns eoinplet^Hl it 

s fourth 

year, .„d its existence is now assured. The pr,nei,,nl e 

now a professor in Wabash University, at CfinvfoiMsviU 

e, ludi- 

158 Scientific Intelligence. 

ana, where the Gazette is now published, in monthly numbers, at 
the low price of a dollar per year. It is an organ for communica- 
tion among botanists, for the prompt publication of notes and 
observations, and of those contributions to knowledge which 
every accurate observer may do his part in, but which must be 
collected in order to be preserved and utilized. New species are 
published or announced in it, but it is rather an organ for new 
observations and botanical news. It is well conducted ; it is very 
useful ; we learn that it is in a condition which ensures its contin- 
uance, and that every increase in the subscription will go toward 
increasing its value. Our botanists should now see that it is worth- 
ily supported. Indeed they can hardly do without it. a. g. 

2. Additions to the Botanical Necrology of 1879. — Our obit- 
uary list was drawn up earlier than usual, so that it might appear 
in the January number of the Journal. Two additions are already 
to be made to it. 

Ferdinand Lindheimek died, at New Braunfels, Texas, in the 
early part of December, at the age of about 78. The Texan news- 
paper which announces his decease states that he was a volunteer 
m the Texas revolution under Gen. Houston. He was for many 
years editor of a German newspaper published at New Braunfels, 
He was an assiduous and excellent collector and a keen observer ; 
the notes upon his specimens are full and discriminating, and 
added not a little to the value of tlie collections which wore dis- 

the i:)ul)li('atioii. /^/<ni/i>^ Lindhthnerijuio ^ in which a largo {tart of 
them Wore }»ublished and annotatoil. Various new s|)ecieH dis- 

peculiar genus of i'ompositfp, discovered by hitn. Lindheiuiera 
Texanain a very pretty Texan annual, which h:is romaiucd in cul- 
tivation for nearly forty years, at least in botanical ganh'u^; and 

lections of Dr. Parry and Dr. Palmer. Hardly any name is more 
identified with the botany of his adopted State than that of the 
worthv Lindheimer. a. a. 

Cmart,ks Hknry Godet, of Neufchatel, author of tlie Flora du 
Jura, died December 16, in the P3d vear of his age. This vener- 

Astronomy. 159 

gelehrter Gesellschaften. Mit 6 colorirteti Tafeln. 249 pp. 8vo, 
Basel, Genf. Lyon, (St. George's Verlag). 1879.— This work, 
noticed already by tlie present writer in this Journal, has happily 
at length made its appearance in very handsome form, and com- 
mends itself to all, at least to cryptogamic l.otanists. It is impos- 
sible to question either the care or'tlie siiu-crity of tlu^ author; 
and if any views on the topic of this memoir (k'nunul attention 
from those qualified to consider them, certainly his do. Further 
notice must he postponed. " e. t. 

4. Bulletin of the United /States Geological and Geographical 
Survey of the Territories; F. V. Hayben, Geologist-m-charge. 
Vol. V, No. 3, 331-520 pp. Washington, 1879.— This number 
contains the following papers: on the species of the genus Bas- 
saris, by J. A. Allen: the American Berabicidae; Tribe Stizini, 
by W. H. Patton ; list of a collection of aculeate Hvmenoptera 
made by S. W. Williston in northwestern Kansas, 'by W. H. 
Patton ; further notes on the Ornithology of the Lower Rio 
Grande of Texas from observations made in the Spring of 1878, 
by G. B. Sennett, edited by Dr. Elliott Couks; additional lists 
of elevations, by Henry Gannett; generic arrangement of bees 
allied to Melissodes and Anthophora, by W. H. Patton; anno- 
tated list of the birds of Michigan, by Dr. .Morris Gibbs ; the 
Coleoptera of the Alpine Rockv Moimtain Region, part II, by 
John L. LeConte, M.D. 

5. Mittheilungen aus der Zoologischen Station zu JVeapel, zu- 
gleich ein Ropertorium fflr Mittelmeerkunde. Vol. i, in 4 num- 
bers. 592 pp. 8vo, with 18 plates. Leipzig, 1879. Wilhelm 

6. Bulletin of the Museum of Comparatire Zooln.nj at ITarcard 
College, Cambridge. Vol. v, number 10. On tin- .Taw and Liiiiiual 
Dentition of certain terrestrial Moilusks. I.v W. (;. IUsskx. 
331-368 pp., with 2 plates. Cambridge, isyo. 

7. Paleozoic Cockroaches: A comphf^ rcl^inn (f fh, Speei>s 

IV. Astronomy. 
e Seeidar Changes in the elements of the orbit of a 
rolv/ng about a planet distorted by Tides;* by G. H. 
The investigation which forms the subject of this paper 
nathematical, and is therefore not of a kind to be easily 

I paper read before the Royal Society, on December 18, 

160 Scientific Irdelligence. 

3 effects on the configuration of a planet and 
" '^ '■ 1 tidal friction — the tides in the p' 

being either a bodily distortion or oceanic. The investigations 
are, I think, not without interest as a branch of pure dynamics, 
but this side of the subject is too complicated to be made intelli- 
gible without mathematical notation, and it would occupy too 
much space to explain the methods of treatment. 

There is, however, another side of the subject, which must, I 
think, attract notice, or at least criticism, and this is the applica- 
bility of the results of analysis to the history of the earth and of 
the other planets. 

We know that no solids are either perfectly rigid or perfectly 
elastic, and that no fluids are devoid of internal friction, and there- 
fore the tides raised in any planet, whether consisting of oceanic 
tides or of a bodily distortion of the planet, must be subject to 
friction. From this it follows that the dynamical investigations 
must be applicable to some extent to actual planets and satellites. 
For myself, I believe that it gives the clue to the history of the 
system, but of course an ample field for criticism is here opened. 

The investigation is intended to be more especially applicable 
to the case of the earth and moon, and therefore, instead of planet 
and satellite, the expressions earth and moon are used. 

The effect of tidal friction upon the eccentricity and inchnation 
of the lunar orbit here affords the principal topic. The obliquity 
of the ecliptic, the diurnal rotation of the earth, and the moon's 
periodic time were considered in a paper read before the Royal 
Society on December 19, 1878, and which will appear in the Phil- 
osophical Transactions for 1879. 

The present paper completes (as far as I now see) the main in- 
vestigation for the case of the earth and moon, and therefore it is 
now possible to bring the various results to a focus. 

It appears tlien, that when we trace backward in time the 
changes induced in the system of the earth and moon by tidal 
friction, we are led to an initial state which is defined as follows : — 

The earth and moon are found to be initially nearly in contact; 
the moon always opposite the same face of the earth, or moving 
very slowly relatively to the earth's surface ; the whole system 
rotathig in from two to four hours, about an axis inclined to the 
normal to the ecliptic at an angle of 11° 45', or somewhat less; 
and the moon moving in a circular orbit, the plane of which is 
nearly coincident with the earth's equator. 

This hiitial configuration suggests that the moon was produced 

t earth 

est period <>t revolution of a Hirh! nias^s of the same mean .tensity 
as the earth, which is consistent with an eUipsoidal form of equi- 
librium, is two hours twenty-four minutes; and that if the moon 
were to revolve about the earth with this periodic time, the sur- 
faces of the two bodies would be almost in contact with one another. 


The rupture of the primeval planet into two parts is a matter 
of speculation, but if a planet and satellite be given in the initial 
configuration above described, then a system bearing a close 
resemblance to our own, would necessarily be evolved under the 
influence of tidal friction. 

The theory postulates that there is not sufficient diifused matter 
to materially resist the motions of the moon and earth through 
space. Sufficient lapse of time is also required. In a previous 
paper I showed that the minimum time in which the system could 
have degraded from one initial state, just after the rupture into 
two bodies, down to the present state, if fifty-four millions years. 
The time actually occupied by the changes would certainly be 
much longer. 

It appears to me that a theory, reposing on a vera causa, which 
brings into quantitative correlation the lengths of the present day 
and month, the obliquity of the ecliptic and the inclination and 
eccentricity of the lunar orbit, must have considerable claims to 

It was stated that the periodic times of revolution and rotation 
of the moon and earth might be traced back to a common period 
of from two to four hours. In a previous paper the common 
period was found to be a little over five hours in length ; but that 
result was avowedly based on a partial neglect of the sun's attrac- 
tion. In this pape'r certain further considerations are adduced, 
"^vhich show that, while the general principle remains intact, yet 
the common period of revolution of the earth and moon must 
initially have been shorter than five hours to an amount which is 
uncertain, but is probably large. The period of from two to four 
nours is here assigned, because it is mechanically impossible for 
the moon to revolve about the earth in less than two hours, and 
It IS uncertaiTi how the rupture of the primeval planet took place. 

But if tidal friction lias ])een th<> agent by which the earth and 

similar changes must have been going on in the other bodies 
^vliich nuiko up the solar system.' I will therefore make a few 
'•*m:irks on the other satellites and planets. 
In the first place it is in strict accordance with the thoorv, that 

162 Scientific Intelligence. 

Now a large planet has both more energy of rotation and more 
angular momentum ; hence it is to be expected that large planets 
should proceed in their changes more slowly than small ones. 

Mars is the smallest of the planets, which are attended by sat- 
ellites, and it is here alone that we find a satellite revolving faster 
than the planet rotates. This will also be the ultimate fate of our 
moon, because after the joint lunar and solar tidal friction has 
reduced the earth's rotation to an identity with the moon's orbital 
motion, the solar tidal friction will continue to reduce it still fur- 
ther, so that the earth will rotate faster than the moon revolves. 

Before, however, this can take place with us, the moon must 
recede to an enormous distance from the earth, and the earth 
must rotate in forty or fifty davs instead of in twenty-four hours. 
But the satellites of Mars are so small, that they would only 
recede a very short way from the planet, before the solar tidal 
friction reduced the planet's rotation below the satellite's revolu- 
tion. The rapid revolution of the inner satellite of Mars may 
then, in a sense, be considered as a memorial of the primitive 
rotation of the planet round its axis. 

The planets Jupiter and Saturn are very much larger than the 
earth, and here we find the planets rotating with great speed, and 
the satellites revolving with short periodic times. The inclina- 
tions of the orbits of Jupiter's satellites to their " proper planes " 
are very interesting from the point of view of the present theory. 

The Saturnian system is much more complex than that of 
ns partially in an early stage of development 

nd partially far advanced. 
The details of 

18 of the satellites are scarcely well 
enough known to aflford strong arguments either for or against 

I have not as yet investigated the case of a planet or star 
attended by several satellites, but perhaps future investigations 
may throw further light both on the case of Saturn, and on the 
whole solar system itself. 

The celebrated nebular hypothesis of Laplace and Kant sup- 
})oses that a revolving nebula detached a ring, which ultimately 
became consolidated into a planet or satellite, and that the central 
portion of the nebula continued to contract, and formed the 
nucleus of the sun or planet. The theory now proposed is a con- 
siderable modification of this view, t'oi- ir supposes that the rup- 
ture of the central body did not take placf until it was partially 
consolidated, and had attained nearly its present dimensions. 

[ do not pretend, in tliese remarks, lo have thoroiiofilv discussed 
the cases of the <.tlu-r planets, and have only -irawn attenti.^n to 

Astrenomy. 163 

obtained from a study of Perrey's tables of earthquakes from 1760 
to 1842. He finds two groups of Maxima, commencing in I'ToO 
and iToC respectively, ea<'b with a period of about twelve years; 
and two other gron])s, commencing- in IToB and 111'.) resi)ectively, 
with :i period of about twenty-eiglit years. He remarks that 

reaches the mean longitude of 2G5" and 1,-L5''; while those of the 

longitudes ; wheTicc lie infers that terrestrial earthquakes have a 

tioned. DeUuniey attributes the increased number of earthquakes 

meteors; and in like manner supposes the influence of Jupiter 
and Saturn to be due to their passing through meteor streams 
situated in mean longitudes Vib'' and '205°. As a consequence of 
thix he ventures to predict an increased number of earthquakes in 
the years 1886, 1891, 1898, 1900, etc. r. G. r. 

.3. The Prohlew of the E>n-ipux.—Ti\% tides in this narrow 
strait between Eubcea and the nuiinland of Greece, have from 
cla'>sic times been a scientific puzzle, for which a solution has 
been recently suggested by ^I. Forel, in a paper before the Paris 
Academy of Sciences. The currents through the strait are some- 
times " regular" and sometimes "irregular." When "regular," 
the direction change^ four times in the lunar day. When 
" irregular," the clianges number from eleven to fourteen or even 
more in a lunar day. ' The current is " irregular" from the 7th to 
l:Jtli and from the 21st to 26th day of the lunar month, or at the 
tunes of quadrahin, and " regular"^" the rest of the time, or about 

^1. Forel attributes the "regular" tides to the ordinary tides of 
the ^Egean Sea, which would be stronaor at the syzygies. The 
"irregular" tides be thinks are due to seiches in the'channel of 
Talauda (which forms a nearly closed lake to the northwest of 
f-uripus), these prevail in i? over the weaker ^Egean tides of the 
quadratures. From a t!en years study of the seiches of Lake 
Leman, M. Forel has derived' a formula to rei)resent their time of 

'I'Tth of the lake), when apidie.u'o the channel cf, whose 
l"<-_nh is 11.5 kilometers and maximum depth 2.m) r.fhoni^. -ives 
!'■'• the time of \ibration !■_'•_>. lMi,:,nd ><- rnn.utes. ae( onlmu- ',s 

:""'■ 1--J. \V;i^l,i,„>-(, 
I'-|'linn,.riv. Pmle...., \ 

mteeoVthe National. 

Miscellaneous Inielligen 

observed, with data for tlieir computation. The principal addi- 
tions consist of the mean places of about 180 stars, making 383 in 
all, for the convenience of field astronomers, more complete data 
for eclipses, data about the transit of Venus, and largely increased 
information about the satellites of the planets. 

5. Auror-m: their Characters and Spectra; by J. Rand Capeon. 
F.R.A.S. 207 pp. 4to. London, 1879. {E. & F. N. Spon.)— 
The subject of the Aurora Borealis is one of popular as well as 
scientific interest, and this work by Mr. Capron not only presents 
It in a way to be entertaining to the general reader but also of 
great value to the scientific worker. After a few pages devoted 
to the historical part of the subject, the author goes on to describe 
in detail a number of specific auroral displays of especially remark- 
able character, and with them the various attendant phenoniena. 
The latter half of the work is devoted to the discussion of the 
spectrum of the aurora, and the various magneto-electric experi- 
ments that have been made which tend to throw light upon its 
cause. The various theories that have been advanced to account 
for the aurora are mentioned. The book is published through the 
: Mr. Capron, and in respect to the number and 

V. Miscellaneous Scientific Intelligence. 

of the whole 

ountry, in accordance with the recommendation of tbe Academy 
of Sciences to Congress at the last regular session, becomes more 
and more apparent the more closely the subject is studied. At 
the present time nearly all the States have tlieir Geological Sur- 
veys so far advanced that nothing further can be done until these 
States are completely mapped by triangulation and topography 
on a suflficiently large scale. Such a survey is of great import- 
ance to every one owning an acre of ground ; by it all boundary 
disputes could easily be settled ; every farmer would have a com- 
plete survey of his farm, with all undulations of surface given 
and its relations to the adjacent farms, streams, woodlands and 

f)f work referred to in one organization, with its unity of purpose 
atul action, great economy would result in tlie execution o) the 
work over a given area, with the certainty that every separate 

It is quite certain that large areas of th 
for purely agricultural purposes, could be i 
accurately surveyed, for purposes of sale, 

Miscellaneous Intelligence. 165 

by the present system (so admirably adapted to agricultural 
lands), with the additional advantage"^ of obtaininu' aii accurate 
map without additional cost. 

The trianfrulation part of the Geodetic Survey, with the recon- 
naissance for progressive work, executed by the ('oast Geodetic 
Survey now covers one-third of iVIaine, two-thirds of New Hamp- 
shire, one-third of Vermont, one-half of Massachusetts, one-half of 
Connecticut, two-thirds of New Jersey, one-quarter of I'ennsylva- 
nia, one-quarter of Maryland, ojie-third of Virginia, one-quarter of 
North (arolina, South C'arolina, Georgia and Alabama, one-sixth of 
.Mississippi, one-sixth of Tennessee, one-fifth of Kentucky, one-tenth 
of ( )hio, one-tenth of Indiana, one-tenth of Illinois, one-s'ixth of Mis- 
souri, one-fifth of Wisconsin, one-sixth of Colorado, one-sixth of 


ence, familiar with the work, and con 
skilled persons. 
The ultimate cost of such a sur%e> 

i:' rated in popular opinion. In the 
'•"'tails, such as houses, roads, clearing 
the average cost, as nearly as can I 
ence, would not, except in cases of the 
cents per acre. This expense should 1 
oral Government and the Stale, the 

us of the <'<)\M\lry, incln< 
remainder ot the tope 

> to Congress at its last regi 
just requirements of the 
md a new hope of increase. 

\(lolf Erik yordenokiohj, 185B- 
s. *447 pp. Hvo. London, 1879. 
interest that has recently been 

166 AfisceUaneous Tntellkjence. 

excited by the remarkably successful voyage of Professor ^for- 
denskiold, around the north coast of Asia, cannot fail to have 
awakened a desire for further information in regard to his earlier 
Arctic explorations. This desire will be satisfied by the present 
volume, prepared by Mr. Alex. Leslie, of Aberdeen. It opens 
with an autobiograj)hical sketch of Professor Nordenskiold; then 
follow accounts of the Swedish Arctic Expeditions of 1858, 1861, 
1804, 1868, 187;3, also of the voyage to Greenland in 1870, in 
which the large masses of native iron were discovered, the voyages 
to the Yenissej in 1875, and again in 1876, and finally a pahiul 
account of the Northeast Passage expedition of 1878-1879, in the 
Vega. The accounts are intended to be popular, only occasional 
brief references to the scientific results of the expedition being 
introduced, but they are well written and fully illustrated. The 
book is a valuable addition to the many fascinating stories of Arc- 
tic ex])loration, and still more is a worthy tribute^ to one of the 

;5. Ciiart of the Mnr/netu', TJerUNafJon. of the United Stites ; 
by J. E. IIiLGAKi). Washington, 1879. (IJ. S. Coast and Geo- 
detic Survey, Carlile P. Patterson, Superintendent.— Appendix 
^'o. 21, Report of 1876.)— This chart of the magnetic declination 
of the United States for 1875, by Professor J. E. Hilgard, is 

together v 

.ith ohs 


tion t 

,o these 

of observations tr 



■ the din 

of the ob.i'rv 



, of Mr. 





hr ; \ 

.y Ron,.. 

the Coast Survey obsei 

-PhlLM<ft/.,.]iiu., I brio. 

JIow to Work with the Microscope. 5th edition, ( 

revised. 518 pp. 8vo. Philadelphia, 1880 (Presle 

MisceUaneous Tntelligence. 167 

Hi- xir. F.IJ.S.. Piv.'i.'i;nl ..f tlu- h'oyal Micnwoplcal SooiotV/is 

sco|)r.' Tl.o well Tm.owi. 4th cdit-Km hu^ lu'c;!) 'oonipUlolv romotl- 
oloa; over lOO pages of lunv niattcr and foO cM.o-raviiV«Z<^ liavo 

A\c iiotice: (1) bvProf. Gull'uiT, F.H.S., 41 timiivs oi' phmt orvs- 
taU with original notes; (2) hy Mr. Weiihaiii, r.H..M.S., practical 

\^sMv. \\.\ . Sorl.v,, additional matter on si>ectn)-mkTO- 
M'op>: (1) \>s Mr/Frank Hutley, of the (Zoological Survey, con- 
portion of the la^t edition on pliotograpliy hy Dr. Maddox, has 

'erlrun ^^OJ,thh/ Ml, 

offec and 1t^ 'aduhr 

Miscellaneous Intelligence. 

Treatise on Fuel, scientific and practical; by Robert Gal- 
T, M.R.I.A., F.C.S. 136 pp. 8vo. London, 1880. (Trtibner 

& Co.)— This little book contains, in a compact form, th( 
important facts in regard to the properties of the diffe 
of fuels, their heating power and the calorimetric methods by 

important facts in regard to the properties of the different kinds 
ing power and the < ' ' 
5 determined ; also a chapter on pyrometers, and another 

on the Siemens regenerative gas furnace. The work is arranged 
with a view to being used in instruction, while at the same time 
valuable to the practical manufacturer. 

10. Petroleum. — Mr. C. A, Ashburner, in a lecture in the 
Franklin Institute course, upon the subject of petroleum, stated 
that he estimated that Pennsylvania, from the discovery of oU by 
Col. Drake, in 1859, to the end of 1879, had produced in the 
aggregate 133,262,639 barrels of crude oil, from the sale of which 
the State has realized |340,709,672. The theory that the Penn- 
sylvania oils are derived entirely from tlie decomposition of the 
vegetable and animal life of the Devonian age, and that the oil 
sands are but reservoirs holding the oil, Mr, Ashburner thinks 
established beyond a doubt by facts gathered from the oil miner. 

, Professor of Mineralogy at tlie Univer- 
sity of Kiel, and author of many papers upon mineralogical sub- 
jects, died on the 9th of December, 1879, at the age of thirty-six. 

ort of the Entomologist, Charles V. Riley, M.A.. Ph.D. 52 pp. 8vo, w 

"Washington, 1879 (Report of Department of Agriculture for 1878). 
■nal of the Cincinnati Society of Natural History, vol. ii, no. 2, July, : 
its : — Annual Address, bv V. T. Chambers : notes on some new or 
North i 

. Freeman ; description of twelve new fossil species and 

r'nser Sonnenkorper nach seiner physikalischen, sprachlichen und mytholo- 
gischen Seite hin beirachtet von Dr. Schmidt, Rector in Gevelsberg. 60 pp. 4to. 
Heidelberg. 1877. 

The Workshop Companion: a collection of useful and reliable recipes, rules, 
processes, methods, wrinkles and practical hints for the household and the shop- 

Tlie Palenque Tablet in the United States National Museum, Washington, D. C. ; 
by Charles Rau. 81 pp. 4to. Washington Citv, 1879. 

A Dictionary of the German terms used in Medicine; by George R- Cutler, 
M.D. 304 pp. 8m New York, 1879 (G. P. Putnam's Sons). 

Report on the Meteorology of India, for 1877, by John Elliott. Third year. 
Calcutta, 1879. Quarto, pp. 2:^0 ; appendix pp. 1 14. " 

Report of the administration of the Meteorological Department of India. Thin 

Report on tlie Madras Cyclone of Atay, 1 877, by J. EUiot, M.A. Meteorological 
Reporter to the Government of Bengal. Quarto, Calcutta, 1879. 

Zoology for Students and General Readers, by A. 8. Packard. ii.D., Ph.D. 


Since the first species of the present genus {Sauranodon 
natans) was described by the writer,* eight other specimens of 
the same group have been discovered, and are now in the Yale 
Museum. In three of these, the skull is preserved, but there 
are still no indications of teeth, so that we may consider these 
reptiles as entirely edentulous. The skull shows many points 
of resemblance to that of Ichthyosaurus. The vertebrae, also, 
are very similar to those in that genus. 

In the characters of the limbs, ^auranodon presents some fea- 
tures of special interest. The anterior and posterior limbs are 
well developed, and adapted for swimming. These extremi- 
ties are less specialized than those in any other known verte- 
brate above the Fishes. 

In the fore paddle, the humerus alone is differentiated. Be- 
low this, the bones of the forearm, the carpals, metacarpals, 
and phalanges are essentially rounded, free disks, implanted in 
the primitive cartilage. The radius may perhaps be regarded 
eption, as its free margin is nearly stra: 

bones of nearly equal size in the first row below the humerus. 
The radius may be identified with certainty by its position. 
The next bone evidently coiTesponds to the intermedium, and 
the third, or outer one, to the ulna. In the succeeding row, 
ttiere are four subcircular bones, and five in the next series. 
These represent the carpals. There are six metacarpals, and 
also six well developed digits, each composed of numerous 
phalanges, which are all free, and neari;^ circular in form. 

In the posterior limb, the structure is essentially the same. 
Ahe distal end of the femur has three distinct facets, and of 
tnese the middle one is the largest. Kext below the femur, 
and articulating with it, are three bones which apparently rep- 
resent the tibia, intermedium, and fibula, although the first 
alone can be determined from its shape and position. The 
^ext row contains four rounded bones ; and the succeeding one, 

170 O. a Mwrsh—IAmhs of Sauranodon. 

five, as shown in the cut below. These correspond to the tar- 
sals, and in the next series are the six metatarsals. There are 
six digits represented in this specimen. The distal phalanges 
are small and circular, and are left unshaded, as their exact 
position has not heen determined. 


one-eighth n 

The above figure agrees essentially with the other paddles 
preserved, and thus may be taken to represent the typical limb 
in this group of reptiles. The most striking features in this 
Sauranodon limb are, the three bones articulating with the 
femur, and the six complete digits. These characters mark a 
stage of development below that seen in any other air-breathing 
vertebrate, and only approached by the limb of Ichthyosaurus. 
The transverse segmentation is distinct in the first five series, 
the humerus and femur as the first segment, or 
If the three bones of the second series (epi- 
podials) are rightly interpreted, the middle one is the interme- 
dium. Its position in the paddles of Sauranodon of both the 
known species indicates that its true place is in the segment 
where it is found. If so, it follows that in the process of 
differentiation this bone has been gradually crowded < 

>dial b 

O. C. Marsh — Limbs of Sauranodon. 171 

In Ichthyosaurus, the intennediiiin is not entirely excluded 
from the epipodial row ; in Plesiosaums and all other reptiles 
the process is essentially completed. In some Amphibians, 
this bone still separates the lower ends of the two specialized 
bones above it. Sauranodon marks an earlier and most inter- 
esting stage in the differentiation, and, taken in connection 
with the examples here cited, indicates clearly how the trans- 
ition was accomplished. 

The six complete digits in the limbs of Sauranodon is a 
character not before observed in any air-breathing vertebrate. 
Some of the Amphibians retain remnants of a sixth digit, and 
Ichthyosaurus often has, outside of the phalanges, one or more 
rows of marginal ossicles that probably represent lost digits. 
With these exceptions, the normal number of five digits is not 

Sauranodon discus, sp. no v. 

A comparison of the various specimens' of Sauranodon now 
known indicates two distinct species, which may be distin- 
guished as follows : the type species {S. natam^s) has the facial 
portion of the skull much elongated, and the snout slender. 
The vertebrge are short, and deeply concave, in fact, almost per- 
forate. The head of the humerus is but very slightly convex. 
A second specimen, which agrees in its mam specific charac- 
ters with the type, has a subcircular coracoid, with but slight 

In the species here described, which is based upon the 
greater portion of a skeleton, the coracoid is more deeply 
emarginate, and the head of the humerus rounded, nearly as 
much as that of the femur. The paddles, also, are broader 
in proportion to their size, than in the type species, and other 
differences are apparent. 

The present specimen indicates a reptile about twelve feet in 
lengtli. It is from the upper Jurassic of Wyoming, and was 
deposits which "' - '^— i-~ 

/ .^-^\ 





! • 

4 . \ i I'^l 



^ 1 


IT- ~'^ 

JRM 'jL^rA-H[l'\KY 

Links of Equal Magnetic Declixatiox ix tiik Hxited Sta'iks von the Yk.wi 1875. 








Art. XXII.— On a Chart of the Magnetic Decimation in the 

United States, constructed, by J. E. HlJ^GARD, Assistant U. S. 

Coast and Geodetic Survey. With Plate Y. 

[Prom the United States Coast Survey Report for 18Y6.] 

Sir : I submit to you herewith, for publication in the Coast 
Survey Report for 1876, a chart of the magnetic variation in 
the United States. This chart, which shows the lines of equal 
magnetic declination (so-called Isogonic lines) for the year 
1875, is mainly based upon the observations made during the 
progress of the coast survey up to 1877, together with those 
made under my personal direction during the period 1872-7/, 
at the charge of the fund bequeathed for scientific research by 
the late Professor Alexander Dallas Bache, held in trust by the 
National Academy of Sciences. 

When the income of this fund became available for its 
objects, I proposed, in 1871, to the board of direction, then 
consisting of Professors Joseph Henry, Louis Agassiz, and 
Benjamin Peirce, that a portion of it should be devoted to the 
investigation of toTestrial magnetism in the United States, that 
subject being one in which Professor Bache had taken much 
interest, and in the investigation of which he had been person- 
ally engaged. Moreover, while this was a subject of general 
importance, there was not at that time any provision made for 
Hs prosecution on the part of the government. The board ot 
direction having approved of my proposition, an allotment was 
made for several years in succession, and the observations were 
prosecuted under' my immediate direction by observers whom 
Am. Jouk. Soi.-Thikd Series, Vol. XIX, No. 111.-Makch, 1880. 

174 J. E. Hilgard— Magnetic Declination in the United States. 

I personally instructed in the work. In this way observations 
of the magnetic declination were made at about 200 stations, 
distributed over a large area of the interior country, at 150 of 
which stations the dip and horizontal intensity were also 
observed. These observations will be published in detail 
under the auspices of the National Academy of Sciences. 

Subsequently, when on the extension of the scope of the 
Coast Survey so as to embrace the interior country, you pro- 
posed to undertake the requisite magnetic observations, the 
board of direction of the Bache fund deemed it best to close 
the work that I had been carrying on, and to publish the 
results obtained in the most available form, beside printing the 
observations themselves as a matter of record. Such publica- 
tion can best be effected by combining them with all similar 
data available, and giving a graphic representation of the gen- 
eral result. 

In the accompanying map this has been done for the dechna- 
tion (or variation of the compass) which is the element of the 
most practical utility. Since the data obtained by the Coast 
Survey form a very large part of the material used, an early 
publication in the Coast Survey Report is thought to be the 
most advantageous mode of giving the results to the country. 

The incessant demands made upon the office of the Coast 
and Geodetic Survey for information relative to the variation 
of the compass in different parts of the United States bear evi- 
dence of the appreciation in which is held the similar map 
given in the Coast Survey Report for 1865 and published in 
1867. The present map cannot fail to meet acceptably the 
constantly-increasing demand, as it is not only brought up to 
a more recent date, but is based upon a very much greater 
number of exact observations in the interior. 

I have made use of all available data up 

. . ;ith the surveys of the Grreat Lakes and those of the 
Northern and of the Northwestern Boundaries by the United 
States Engineers, and those made under the direction of the 
General Land Office in tracing some of the principal meridians 
and base-lines for the surveys of the public lands and the 
boundaries of some of the Territories. Moreover, some very 
valuable observations have been furnished by private observers, 
which will be specified in another place. 

I am indebted to Mr. A. Lindenkohl, chief draughtsman in 
the Coast and Geodetic Survey Office, for his valuable aid in 
the graphic construction of the Isogonic lines. 

It was fortunate that, for the construction of this chart, the 
researches of my colleague, Assistant Charles A. Schott, on the 

J. E. Hilgard-- Magnetic Declination in the United States. 175 

secular variation of the magnetic declination in the United 
States were available, without which it would have been diffi- 
cult to reduce the observations to a common date, with some 
approach to accuracy. His latest paper on this subject, printed 
recently, will be found very useful for reference. 

For a separate publication, it will probably be convenient to 
print Mr. Schott's map, illustrating the annual change, on the 
obverse side of the chart of magnetic declination, in order to 
make the sheet available for use without the aid of an explana- 
tory text. 

Assistant Coast and Geodetic Survey. 

To Carlile p. Patterson, Swperintendent. 

U. S. Coast and Geodetic Survey Office, Washington, D. C, July 1, 1879. 

Addendum.— The approximate annual change of the declin- 
ation for the epoch 1880 in different parts of the country is 
given below, as deduced from the map accompanying the val- 
uable research on the secular variation of the magnetic declina- 
tion m the United States, etc., by C. A. Schott. Appendix 
JNo 8 to Coast Survey Eeport for 1874, third edition, 1879. 

Ihe observed amount of change is by no means the same 
^^^•^ij^. places not far remote from each other, as New York 
and Philadelphia. In grouping together a table of the present 
rate of change much allowance must therefore be made for 
possible local peculiarities that have not been ascertained. 
*or the interior States the information is very scanty, or 
altogether wanting. 

. ^y^ annual change is expressed in minutes of arc, a -f sign 
indicating increase of westerly or decrease of easterly declination. 

^-Hjunpshi^e;::::::::::: X\^ 

i;a8sachuse"t^a;;a8te"rn'parV " " + K 

New York. Long li^uf^^l'. X^2\ 

^-nsSa-:::::::::::::: Xl, 

The negative 


J. LeConte — Old River-beds of Galifornu 

Art. XXIIL— 27ie Old River-beds of Galifornia ; bj Joseph 

[Read before the National Academy of Sciences, Oct. 29, 1879.] 
Old river-beds are found in nearly all countries which have 
been affected by drift-agencies. In nearly all such countries, 
too, these old beds are filled to great depths with river deposit. 
But the old river-beds of California are in several respects en- 
tirely unique. In most other countries, as for example, in Eu- 
rope and Eastern United States, the new or present river-beds 
occupy the same position as the old ; while in middle Califor- 
nia the rivers have been displaced^ by lava flows, from their 
former position and compelled to cut entirely new channels. 
Again : in certain portions of Europe and in Eastern United 
States, the old river-beds are broad, deep troughs, filled some- 
times several hundred feet deep with detritus, into the upper 
parts of which the present much shrunken streams are cutting 
their narrower channels on a higher level ; while in California 
the displaced rivers have cut their new channels 2000 to 3000 
feet deep in solid slate, leaving the old detritus-filled channels 
far up on the dividing ridges. In northeastern United States 
the drainage system has remained substantially unchanged 
since early Tertiary, or even still earlier times ; while in middle 
California the Tertiary drainage system seems to have been 
obliterated and the streams have been compelled to carve out 
to a much deeper level an entirely new and independent drain- 
age system, having the same general direction but often cutting 
across the former. In the one case the old beds underlie the 
new, while in the other they overlook them from the tops of the 
neighboring ridges. Furthermore, in California the detritus 
which fills the old river-beds is nearly always capped with 
lava or other volcanic material, clearly indicating the cause of 
the displacement. If to all these peculiarities we add the 
usually extreme coarseness of the detritus which fills the river- 
beds of California, consisting as it does largely of pebbles and 
bowlders, compared with the fine silts which fill the old river 
channels of the Eastern coast, and we will see how marked is 
the contrast in many respects. 

For all that is known concerning the old river-beds of Cali- 
fornia, we are up to the present time almost wholly indebted to 
Professor Whitney. His valuable investigations on this sub- 
ject were published in the first volume of the Geological Sur- 
vey of California in 1865. He has also recently published a 
fuller description and a complete map of them. His viev^s 
have therefore been before the scientific public for many years, 
and are so well known that a bare enumeration of their mam 

J. LeConte—Old River-beds of California. 177 

features is all that is required here. Whitney shows : 1. that 
there is in California an old river-system entirely different from 
the present river-system ; 2. that the old channels were filled 
by detritus, and the detritus covered by lava-streams ; 3. that 
the lava flows, completing the filling of the channels, diverted 
the streams and forced them to cut for themselves new chan- 
nels ; 4, that the displaced streams cut their new channels to a 
much lower level than the old, so that these latter are now 
found on the present divides. My own observations entirely 
confirm these results, and they form therefore my starting 
point. Whitney also regards the old detritus as the representa- 
tive of at least the whole Pliocene and the Lava flow as its 
closing event. In what respects my own views are an exten- 
sion of Whitney's, and in what respects they differ from them, 
will be sufficiently indicated in what follows. 

The general relation of the old and the new beds is well 
shown in the following figures taken from Greological Survey 
of California. In figure 1 the eld and new beds are parallel, 
and the section is across both ; while in figure 2 the new beds 
have cut across the old, and the section is along the old and 
across the new. 

This peculiar relation of the old to the new river-beds does 
not characterize the whole Pacific slope, but only the aurifer- 
ous slate belt of middle California. It is not found in the 
Coast Range, nor in the region of the granite axis of the 

Sierra Range. Neither is it found, at least in any marked de- 
cree, in extreme northern California nor in Oregon, nor yet in 
southern California. It seems to be confined mainly to the 
slate belt of the western slope of the Sierra from Plumas 
* The material here called sandstone is a cemented river sand. It is usually 
covered with tufa or tufa 

178 J. LeConte—Old River-beds of California. 

county on the north to Tuolumne county on the south inclu- 
sive, a distance of about 250 miles, and from the San Joaquin 
and Sacramento plains on the west to about 4000 feet elevation 
on the Sierra slope on the east, a breadth of about 35 miles. 

There is no problem in California geology more important, and 
yet none more difficult — none more enticing and yet none more 
baffling — than the mode of filling of the old river-beds and the 
cause of the displacement of the streams. The opportunities 
of study are abundant, for in many places the old beds have 
been bared, and complete sections of their fillings made by the 
operations of hydraulic mining ; but the phenomena are so ex- 
tremely complex and difficult of interpretation that we are not 
yet prepared for a final theory. I have on several occasions 
utilized my vacations by the study of these old channels and 
their fillings. In 1877 I examined those about Forest Hill ; in 
1878 those in Tuolumne county. Very recently under the in- 
telligent guidance and kind assistance of Mr. Hughes, the super- 
intendent of the Blue Tent mines, I have made a more ex- 
tended and thorough examination than ever before. Exten- 
sive gravel deposits exist on both sides of the South Yuba 
Eiver for many miles. This is in fact the finest mining 
region in the State. I went up one side and down the other 
and examined these in succession. I wish now to very briefly 
present the conclusions to which I have provisionally come 
by much reflection on the observations made on this and on 
previous occasions. I present them with some misgivings, 
well knowing that much more complete and detailed observa- 
tions are necessary before an entirely satisfactory theory can be 

General Description. 

It is well known that in hydraulic mining the whole thick- 
5 of the old river-channel-fillings is worked down and r'" 

the whole area cleared, and the fillings exposed from bottom to 
top, on the face of an ever-receding vertical cliff 200 to 400 
feef high. 

The 5ec?.— The old stream-bed thus exposed has a shallow, 
trough-like form, i. e. is lowest in the middle and rises gently 
on both sides. These higher sides of the trough are called the 
" rimsy The hed-rock, which is usually slate with nearly ver- 
tical cleavage, retains usually its original soundness and hard- 
ness, but in some places is more or less decomposed, and some- 
times, while retaining its form, is completely changed into 
plastic clay. In all cases it is worn into irregular and fantastic 
hollows and channels, and often into deep pot-holes. As there 
is no apparent relation between the hardness or softness of the 

J. LeConte—Old River-beds of Califwnia. 179 

bed-rock and the amount of wear, it is certain that the softening 
has taken place since the filling. The surface-forms of the bed- 
rock are precisely such as are always produced by swift cur- 
rents carrying coarse materials — precisely such as are now pro- 
duced in the artificial channels through the rim-rock by the 
rushing torrents loaded with pebbles and gravel, resulting from 
the incessant play of the hydrauhc jets against the cliflP.* 
There can be no reasonable doubt, therefore, that these trough- 
like depressions are really the old channels oi rushing torrents 
loaded with eroding materials. 

The general fonn of the wide, shallow, trough-shaped chan- 
nels of the old rivers is in marked contrast with the deep, 
sharply V-shaped canons which characterize the present rivers 
in the same region. 

The filling. — The cliff exposed by hydraulic mining, consists 
usually from bottom to near the top, of distinctly but irregu- 
larly stratified material. The lowest portion next the bed- 
rock, sometimes a few feet, sometimes many feet in thickness, 
is a conglomerate of pebbles and bowlders often of large size, 
with a paste of sand and plastic clay usually of a slate-blue 
color. This is the " Blue graver of the miners. The pebbles 
and bowlders are usually well rounded (" wash gravel "), but in 
a few channels I have found them sub-angular, like those of 
iill Above the Blue gravel, the whole way up to near the top, 
the material consists of alternate layers of pebbles, gravel, 
sand and clay, usually of a yellowish or reddish color. The peb- 
ble layers occur in lenticular masses, and the sands and clays 
are often cross-laminated. In many cases the whole material is 
more or less firmly cemented by lime carbonate or by silica, so 
that the cliff must be loosened by blasting before it can be 
washed down by the hydraulic jets. Irregularly distributed 
throughout the whole mass are found fragments or sometimes 
large trunks of drift timber, oak, maple and conifers, in a ligni- 
tized or else in a slicified condition. In some cases the ligni- 
tizing change has progressed but a little way. I found at 
Sailor's flat, beneath the volcanic cap, to be presently described, 
iogs of Eedwood (Sequoia) or of cedar [Libocedrus) probably 
the latter, in which the bark was still tough and fibrous although 
the wood was soft and could be cut like cheese. In the finely 
stratified sands and clavs are found beautiful impressions of 
leaves of many kinds. According to Lesquereux these leaves 
indicate a Pliocene age for the deposits. More rarely mamma- 
han bones have been found. Among these are allies of the 
rhinoceros, hippopotamus and camel, indicating, like the leaves 
a Pliocene age, but also in many undoubted cases the mam- 

Bloomfield n 

180 J. LeConie—Old Riverbeds of California. 

moth, the great mastodon and a tapir, undistinguishable from 
the living species, indicating a Quaternary rather than a Plio- 
cene age. These Quaternary remains have been in several 
instances found under the volcanic caps in the lowest blue- 
gravel, next to the bed-rock. Several examples of this kind 
are now in the museum of the University. Some human re- 
mains and implements are also supposed to have been found in 
this detritus, but the authenticity ot these is disputed by many. 

In several cases I observed in the vertical cliff of detritus 
distinct curved lines of discontinuity, concave upward, indicat- 
ing sab-channels cut in the main mass of detritus. Undoubt- 
edly the main channel had been first filled, then partly swept 
out by erosion, and then re-filled. This observation is impor- 
tant, as it seems demonstrative of a true river agency. 

The lower portion of the detritus, the so-called blue gravel, 
differs from the upper portion partly in structure, but chiefly 
in color. In structure it is almost if not quite devoid of 
lamination ; and when the rock fragments are sub-angular it is 
almost undistinguishable from true till or ground-moraine. In 
most cases, however, its pebbles and bowlders are perfectly 
rounded. Its blue color is undoubtedly due to the fact that its 
iron is in the form of ferrous instead of ferric oxide. There is 
no such line of demarkation between the blue and the red 
gravel as would indicate a different origin. On the contrary 
the irregularity of the plane of contact and the shading of the 
color shows a downward progressive oxidation of iron, greater 
in some places than in others. 

Tfie capping. — Above the detritus which constitutes the 
main portion of the filling of most of the old river-beds, we 
nearly always find a capping of volcanic matter 50 to 150 feet 
thick. This is sometimes hard basalt underlaid by tufaceous 
conglomerate, but more usually tufaceous conglomerate only. 

In this latter case, however, the presence of scattered blocks of 
basalt on the surface often indicates the former existence of a 
thin basaltic cap which has been removed by erosion. When 
a basaltic cap remains it gives rise to flat table-topped ridges 
as in figures 1 and 2. Otherwise the ridges become rounded 
by erosion. Figure 3 is an ideal section showing the more 
usual form. When the cap consists of tufaceous conglomer- 
ate above, the whole thickness of the filling, including the 

J. LeConte—Old Riverbeds of California. 181 

volcanic cap, may be washed down together by hydraulic pro- 
cess, although the latter is of course barren matter ; but when 
the cap is basaltic the auriferous gravel can only be worked by 
the slower process of drifting. In this case 'only the lower 
portion is extracted. In all cases the volcanic cap, especially 
the tufa, has furnished down- percolating, alkaline waters hold- 
ing silica in solution. The condition of greater or less satura- 
tion (with perhaps other conditions)* seems to have determined 
whether this solution deposits or takes up silica. When it 
deposits, the gravel is cemented and the drift-wood is petrified ; 
when it takes up silica the volcanic and slate pebbles are rotted 
down to '■'putty stones" and the bed rock is softened to a greater 
or less depth.f 

The tufaceous conglomerate which is so constant an attendant 
of the old river gravels consists of a soft, earthy, reddish tufa, 
enclosing rounded pebbles of all kinds, volcanic, slate and 
quartz and of all sizes, distributed more or less abundantly 
but irregularly through its mass. It is probably volcanic ashes 
washed down from the higher Sierra slope by rain and melting 
siiow. But the absolute absence of the least trace of stratifica- 
tion (which I sought for in vain) seems to show that the 
quantity of ash in proportion to water was so great that it was 
hterally a mud-flow gathering pebbles in its course. In some 
cases, however, are found alternate layers of gravel and tufa. 
Where the basaltic lava occurs it always nearly overlies the tufa. 

Nearly all the higher parts of the country are covered both 
with the gravel and with the tufa. The lava is also very 
widely spread. The indications are that these materials formed 
at one time an almost universal covering, but subsequent ero- 
sion has left them in ridges and patches. 

Explanation of the phenomena above described. 

There are many difficult and important questions suggested 
. oy the phenomena above described which press upon us for 
solution. " How were the old river beds filled with detritus ?" 
"w^ were the streams displaced from their old beds?" 

Why have the new channels been cut so much deeper than 
the old?" "When did these events occur?" I shall take 
these four points in the order mentioned. 

1. ^e mode of filling of the old river-beds.— There are three 
possible modes in which we may conceive these beds to have 
*^° silicificatioa of wood there is little doubt that the percolating alkaline 
tod th -"^^^^ ^'*^ ^'^'^^ """^ '^®"*^'*^'^^^ 

182 J. LeGonte—Old River-heds of California. 

been filled with detritus. 1st. They may have been filled by 
glaciers slowly and steadily retreating up the valleys, dropping 
their debris on their way, the debris perhaps afterwards modi- 
fied by currents from the melting glacier. 2d. They may have 
been filled successively from mountain foot toward mountain 
crest with detritus brought down by the rivers into a bay or 
fiord which steadily moved up the valley by subsidence of the 
land until the sea stood 4,000 feet above its present level. Or 
3d, they may have been filled in all parts nearly simultaneously 
by true river action in the same way as river-channels elsewhere 
have been or under certain conditions are now filled. 

I shall not discuss the first and second. I mention them 
because each, but especially the second, has been held by some 
persons. I have kept them constantly in mind during all my 
observations but have been compelled to abandon them as 
untenable. I am quite sure that no one can examine these 
deposits carefully without being convinced that they are true 
river deposits, though formed, certainly, under very exceptional 
conditions. It is these conditions which I now wish if possible 
to realize in imagination. 

That the conditions were really exceptional is very evident 
on a little reflection. The present rivers in all this region run 
with high velocity, have cut very deep channels and are still 
cutting : why then should the former rivers in the same region 
ha,Ye filled up instead of cutting their channels ? The difficulty 
is not removed by supposing a lower velocity ; for the charac- 
ter of the deposits, especially the great bowlders, often many 
tons weight, show a much higher velocity than now exists. 
With such rushing torrents why did the beds fill up instead of 
cutting deeper? To this 1 answer : any current, however swift, 
will deposit if only its load he sufficient. Every current has a 
certain amount of energy, and can therefore do a certain 
amount of work, increasing of course with the velocity.* This 
energy is usually divided between the work of transportation 
and the work of erosion. If the load of transported matter be 
moderate, a large amount of energy is left over for erosion ; 
but if the load of transported matter be very great, the whole 
energy may be expended in transportation and none is left for 
erosion— the limit is reached at which erosion ceases and 
deposit commences. Now, since transported detritus is the 
main erosive agent, it follows that in every stream there is 
a certain amount of detritus which produces the maximum 
erosion. Pure water has little effect for want of erosive agent ; 
too much material also produces little effect, because too much 
energy is consumed in carrying. 

It 'is evident therefore that all that is necessary to cause 
any stream to deposit is to increase its load beyond the 

J. Le Conte— Old Riv&i^-heds of California. 183 

limits of its energy. This principle is well understood by 
hydraulic miners. The amount of water gathered in the sluices 
from the hydraulic jets must be duly related to the amount of 
earth removed. If the water is in excess, the precious water 
is wasted and the erosion of the sluices is very great; if the 
earth is in excess the sluice is choked, even though the velocity 
under proper conditions is sufficient to carry bowlders of several 
cubic feet. The water must be loell-louded but not over-loaded. 
The same important principle is well illustrated by the pheno- 
mena of the floods of the tributaries of the Sacramento Eiver. 
As I learn from my nephew, Julian LeConte, who has been 
engaged in the hydrographical survey of this river, at the time 
of flood, the rushing waters first come down Feather Kiver 
bringing only fine silt and clay ; the water rises and increases 
proportionally in depth. Next comes the great mass of coarse 
sediment, sand, gravel and pebbles creeping slowly along the 
bottom and filling up the bed twenty feet deep ; the water 
though in full flood is but little deeper (though much wider) 
than before the flood.* Lastly, as the water falls and has less 
sediment to carry, it again takes up the sediment previously 
deposited and scours out the channel even though its general 
velocity is now far less than when the same was deposited. In 
this case the filling is not permanent; but cases are not want- 
ing of steady building up by rivers of very high velocity. 
According to the authority already mentioned the Yuba River 
at Marysville has permanentlv filled up its beds 30 feet deep, 
and 15 miles above Marysville 115 feet deep, in the last 30 
years. This is wholly due to the large increase of transported 
matter produced by the operations of hydraulic mining. Again, 
according to Captain Dutton,t the Colorado River through its 
caflon and the Platte River over the plains have about the 
same slope, viz : eight feet per mile ; but while the Colorado 
has cut its wonderful canon and is still cutting, the Platte has 
tiled up its channel and is still filling. The sole difference is 
the amount of load carried ; the Colorado is w^irfe/Ioaded, the 
J^latte overloaded. 

It is evident therefore that river deposits cannot, like ocean 
and lake deposits, be taken as a measure of time. Rivers 
either erode or build up by deposit. If they build, they almost 
always build very rapidly ; for the carrying power of running 
water varies at so high a rate that a very slight change in con- 
ditions affects enormously the amount of deposit. While they 
huild, therefore, they build rapidly but are liable under even 
very slight change of velocity or amount of sediment to scour 
out again. For example. Feather River fills up 20 feet m a 
single flood and scours out again when the flood subsides, 

* The rise of the surface is about 23 feet ; the filUng of the bed 20 feet. 

t Nature, vol. xix, p. 274, 1879. 

184 J. LeConte—Old River-heds of California. 

But if the overloaded condition be permanent or habitual, then 
the building is permanent as well as rapid. For example, the 
Yuba Hiver above Marjsville has built up 115 feet in 80 yearb. 
I believe that most thick river deposits, whether of the present 
or of previous epochs, have been made in comparatively short 
space of time. 

Now the phenomena of the old river-gravels, as I have 
described them, are precisely those of deposits made by the 
turbulent action of very swift, shifting, overloaded currents; 
only in this case the currents must have been far swifter and 
more heavily loaded than any existing currents. The detritus 
of the old river beds is usually exceptionally coarse; therefore 
the rivers at the time of deposit must have been exceptionally 
rapid ; and therefore also the quantity of material necessary to 
overload them must have been exceptionally great; and there- 
fore finally the process of filling was probably exceptionally 
rapid. It might have occupied years, or even centuries, but 
was geologically a very rapid process. Now I cannot conceive 
how all these conditions could have been fulfilled, except by 
the rapid melting of extensive fields of ice or snow. But why 
— it will be asked — was the detritus not carried away again? 
I answer : Because immediately after the filling was completed 
the detritus was protected and the rivers displaced by the lava- 
flood. This brings me to the next question, viz : 

2. The cause of the displacement of the rivers. — As already shown, 
the mere filling up of the river channels with detritus alone would 
never have displaced the streams. On the contrary, as soon as 
the conditions determining the filling were changed, the rivers 
would immediately have commenced cutting into the detritus 
as they have done on the Eastern coast ; and, on account of the 
high slope of their channels, would ere this have completely 
swept it all out, as they have done in Southern California. 
The protection of the detritus and the displacement of the 
streams is due wholly to the lava flood. 

Middle California lies on the southern skirt of the great lava- 
flood of the Northwest.* The center of the great outflow was 
the Cascade and Blue Mountains. In Oregon the lava is 3,000 
feet thick and therefore completely conceals the previous sur- 
face configuration of the country. ' In extreme northern Cali- 
fornia it is still a universal mantle several hundred feet thick, 
and therefore the old river beds with few exceptions are hope- 
lessly concealed. In Middle California we find it reduced to 
ridges and patches by erosion, but originally it probably was 
even here a nearly universal mantle, covering the whole sur- 
face, except some highest points, and substantially obliterating 
the drainage system. But yet this lava mantle was not so 

*See article by the writer on this subject in this Journal, vol. vii, p. 16T, and p 

J. LeConie—Old River-heds of California. 185 

thick but that subsequent erosion has cut through the thinner 
parts, i. e., on the previous higher ground. Immediately after 
the obliteration of the previous drainage system, the rivers, of 
course, commenced cutting a new system, having the same 
general trend (for this is determined by the general mountain 
slope), but wholly independent of, and therefore often cutting 
across, the older system. Furthermore the streams in forming 
their new beds seem to avoid the places of the old beds, for 
there the lava would be thickest, and cut their channels on the 
old divides for there the lava was thinnest and therefore soonest 
removed by general erosion, or perhaps was absent altogether. 
Again : we have already seen that the rush of overloaded 
waters which filled the old river-beds with detritus, could have 
been produced only by rapid melting of snow and ice. We 
have seen also that the process of filling must have been com- 
paratively rapid. Still further we have seen that the detritus 
must have been quickly protected and the streams diverted 
by -the lava-flow. Bearing these things in mind we are natu- 
rally led, nay we are almost driven, to the conclusion that the 
approach of the subterranean heat of the impending lava-flow 
was the cause of the rapid melting of the snow and the conse- 
quent rush of the overloaded waters which filled the channels 
with detritus. Before the melting was completed the ash-erup- 
tions had already commenced, and mud-streams, followed by 
lava-streams, completed the work of obliteration. We see pre- 
cisely the same phenomena on a small scale, in the destructive 
floods and mud-streams which precede and accompany the 
eruptions of volcanos like Ootopaxi, whosfi summits are cao- 

volcanic peak, a great 
covered with snow, erupted. 

Some geologists of the Uniformitarian school, may object to 
the foregoing views, as savoring too much of Catastrophism. In 
answer I would remark that it is simply impossible to account 
tor wholesale obliteration of a river system except by some- 
thing like a catastrophe. Powell and Button* have shown that 
of all geographical features, river courses in elevated regions 
are the most permanent. In early Tertiary times the Green 
Kiver was winding its devious course southward when the 
Uinta Mountains commenced to rise directly athwart its path- 
J^ay ; but the river maintained its level and its course by cut- 
ting downward in proportion as the mountain rose upward, 
farther south the Colorado plateau commenced to rise; but 
the river still maintained its level and its course by cutting 
downward in the same proportion. When once a river, as it 
^ere, bites in and gets a grip upon the rocky bones of the 
247 ^°r^"' ^^Ploration of Colorado river, p. 152; Button, Nature, vol. lii, p. 

186 J. LeConte—Old River-beds of California. 

country it does not easily loose its hold. Elvers with deep 
channels like those of California will not change. Their chan- 
nels must be obliterated, and then they make new channels. 
Such obliteration can only take place by submergence and 
prolonged sedimentation or else by a lava-flood. 

We have seen that tufaceous conglomerate usually underlies 
the basaltic lava and covers the detritus even where the lava 
is wanting. It is evident therefore ash eruptions preceded the 
basaltic flow. The washing down of these ashes as mud 
streams completed the filling and then the lava flood covering 
all prevented the re-cutting of the channels in the same places. 
Furthermore, if we imagine the ash flood as even more general 
than the lava flood, it is easy to see how the new channels 
would commence between the lava streams, i. e., between the old 
stream beds, and once commenced would continue to cut in 
these places. 

King* has drawn attention to the fact that in the same locality 
and therefore presumably from the same subterranean igneous 
reservoir acid eruptions immediately precede basic eruptions. 
He accounts for this order by supposing a gradual separation, 
by gravity from the same fused magma, of a lighter, acid, less 
fusible portion as a sort of scum on the surface of a denser, 
basic, more fusible portion. Eruption would of course com- 
mence with the ejection of the upper, acid, and finish with the 
lower, basic, portion. The eruptions of which we have been 
speaking seem to confirm this idea. The imperfectly fused, or 
aqueo-igneously f used,upper and more acid portions were ejected 
first as ashes and only later the igneously fused, basic, bottom 
portions were ejected as basaltic flows. 

The conditions necessary to produce the double system of 
river-channels are peculiar and found only in the Sierra range 
of Middle and Northern California. In extreme Northern Cal- 
ifornia and especially in Oregon the lava flood is so thick that 
the buried old river system is not revealed by erosion — the 
present rivers are running far above the old rivers. In South- 
ern California on the contrary the rivers have never been dis- 
placed by lava, for the lava flood did not reach so far. If these 
channels' were ever filled with detritus, this has not only been 
swept out again, but the rivers have continued to deepen their 
channels even to the present time. The double river system 
of Middle California is the result of the fact that this part lay 
in the extreme skirts of the great lava flood. In British Co- 
lumbia beyond the limits of the lava flood, the relation of the 
new to the old river beds, as I learn from Mr. Amos Bowman, 
is again like those of the Eastern States. The rivers are now 
cutting into the detritus which fills the broader and deeper 
channels of the old rivers. 

♦Exploration of 40th Parallel, vol. i, Systematic Geology, p. H5. 

J. LeConte—Old River-beds of California. 187 

3. Why the modern rivers have cut to a lower level. — I have 
already in a previous article* given reason to believe that the 
great lava flood of the Northwest came not from craters but 
from great fissures, and that the force of eruption was not the 
pressure of elastic gases merely, but also the lateral squeezing 
by which mountain ranges are elevated. It is almost certain, 
then, that coincident with the outflow of lava in California 
there was an increase in the elevation of the Sierra range. The 
inevitable effect of this would be the cutting of the new chan- 
nels below the level of the old, and thus finally the singular 
relation between the old and the new channels which now exists. 

There is a certain definite relation between the slope and the 
amount of detritus which determines the depth of the canons. 
If this relation be disturbed by increase of slope, the stream 
will strive to reestablish it. All deep canons have been cut in 
rising ground and for the purpose of reestablishing this relation. 
Thus it has been with the great canons of the plateau region ; 
thus also with the canons which trench the eastern slope of the 
Colorado Mountains; and thus it must have been with the 
canons of the Sierra Nevada. Again there is a certain relation 
little understood, between rain-erosion and stream-erosion. In 
Tertiary times we may imagine the conditions were favoi-able 
for general rain-erosion and unfavorable for stream-erosion or 
cafion cutting ; and the result was a system of broad, shallow, 
trough-shaped channels with low divides. Since glacial times, 
on the contrary, the conditions have been favorable here for 
canon cutting. Among these conditions the slope is certainly 
most important. It is difficult to imagine that the Tertiary 
river channels should have remained so shallow^ after the ero- 
sion of the whole Cretaceous and Tertiary times, if the general 
Sierra slope were as high then as it is now, viz: 100 to 200 feet 
per mile. It is true that the great glaciers of glacial times have 
probably greatly assisted in cutting the present canons ; but 
this would only aftect the amount of time required, not the final 
result; for if glaciers cut deeper than streams would have 
done, these streams would again fill up their channels until the 
proper relation was again established. 

The elevation which I suppose took place in the Sierra range 
at the time of the lava flow, was evidently of a gentle kind, 
unaccompanied with crumplings and dislocations of the strata, 
ami therefore undetectable except by the work of canon-cutting. 
I he axis of the Quaternary elevation on the eastern portion 
^J". the continent was probably along the valley of Mississippi 
f^iver ; the axis on this side was the crest of the Sierra, where 
It gave rise to fracture and outflow. 

I^he places where the lava emerged have not been found with 
certainty. It was probably along or near the crest, where the 

• This Journal, vol. vii, p. lIT, 18U. 

188 J. Le Conte— Old River-heds of California. 

subsequent erosion has been so great that the evidences are 
mostly obliterated. In Alpine County, about Silver Mountain 
and about Markleeville, the Sierra crest is formed largely of 
volcanic rocks. From this region probably a large number of 
streams radiated. But over the larger portion of the high 
Sierra erosion has bitten so deep that the lava streams have 
been entirely removed, I have however observed many dio- 
ritic, doleritic and felsitic dikes in all the granite region above 
the lava flow. These I have thought are probably the exposed 
roots of the flow. 

4. The age of the old river gravels and of the lava flow. — Whit- 
ney and Lesquereux, on the evidence of the organisms, espe- 
cially the plants, refer the gravels to the Pliocene, and regard 
them as representing at least the whole of that epoch, and the 
lava flood as its closing event. My own conclusion differs a 
little from this. I have already shown that the accumulation 
of the gravels and their protection by the lava flow may be 
regarded as geologically almost simultaneous. I now add that 
these two events closed the Pliocene and inaugurated the Qua- 

As already seen, the mammalian remains are a mixture of 
the characteristic Pliocene species still lingering and of charac- 
teristic Quaternary species just coming in. They undoubtedly 
therefore indicate a transition from Pliocene to Quaternary, and 
whether on these evidences we refer the gravels to late Plio- 
cene or early Quaternary will depend upon whether we regard 
as the more important test of age, the extinction of old or the 
introduction of new species. The evidence from human 
remains and implements, if these be regarded as authentic, is 
certainly on the side of greater recency. The Plants, it may be 
admitted, are Pliocene. But plants are far less delicate tests of 
age than mammalian animals : for not only are they, by their 
lower organization, less sensitive to changes of the environ- 
ment; but being incapable of voluntary migrations, they are 
often compelled to linger beyond the epoch to which they 
belong. It is natural to suppose, therefore, that the Pliocene 
flora would linger even into the Quaternary until destroyed by 
the extreme rigor of glacial climate, or else by some catastro- 
phe like that of the lava flood. 

Again: the general phenomena of the gravels and the man- 
ner of their accumulation, as I have explained them, are wholly 
those of the Quaternary period. They can hardly be explainea 
except by the existence of glacial conditions. Also the gentle 
movement of elevation which we have supposed preceded and 
attended the lava flow is characteristic of the Quaternary every- 
where. It is probable, therefore, that the gradual elevation 
and the attendant glacial conditions commenced and advanced 
until the former culminated in fracture and outflow of lava. 

J. LeConte—Old River-beds of Cahfornm. 189 

But on the other hand, it is certain that the Pliocene passed 
insensibly into the glacial epoch, and therefore that glacial con- 
ditions commenced in the Pliocene. Furthermore, it is certain 
that here in California glacial conditions continued and reached 
their acme after the lava flow; for glaciers occupied all the 
present canons,* and swept away all the lavas from the granite 
axial region, exposing their roots, in the form of dikes. 

In conclusion, therefore, it seems best to make both the accu- 
mulation of the gravels and the lava flow which protected them, 
the dividing line between the Pliocene and the Quaternary, 
although I believe that glacial conditions had already com- 
menced when these events occurred. 

In a previous article already referred to, I have shown that 
the great lava flood commenced in its central part in Oregon, 
about the beginning of the Pliocene epoch, and has continued 
there almost to the present time. But as in volcanos the erup- 
tions commence and perhaps continue in a central crater, and 
as erupted matters accumulate, later eruptions occur also on 
the outer margins; so in this great area of fissure eruptions, 
the eruptive activity commenced first in the center, but as 
erupted matters accumulated, the eruptive activity spread cen- 
tnfugally to more and more distant points until at the end of 
the Pliocene it had reached Middle California. 

Thus it seems to me that the four questions suggested by the 
phenomena of the old river beds and their iillings, have been 
not only each answered, but they have been all connected 
together in a satisfactory manner. 

Sequence of Events. 

It may be well to briefly recapitulate the main points of my 
view, by narrating rapidly the events in the order of their 

Immediately after the birth of the Sierra Nevada, at the 
beginning of the Cretaceous period, a drainage system com- 
menced to be formed. This system we may be assured 
remained unchanged during the whole Cretaceous and Tertiary 
times, for, as already seen, river channels are remarkable for 
their permanency. The result of the river-work of all this 
time was a system of broad trough-shaped channels separated 
by low divides usually called the Tertiary or old river system. 
^«"ng all this time I suppc ' - ^ ■ • 

related to velocity that ther 

the end of the Pliocene, a rising of the Sierra regie 
* Some Ancient Glaciers of the Sierra. This Jour 

^01- i, p. 126, 1875. 
Am- Jodr.Sci.-Thikd Series, Vol. XIX.-N0. 1 

190 J. LeConte—Old River-heds of Califorma. 

high Sierra was mantled with snow and ice and glaciers proba- 
bly occupied the higher portions of the river troughs, and thus 
large quantities of loose debris were prepared ready for trans- 
portation. Then the ground heat of the impending lava flow 
melted the ice mantle and caused the rushing overloaded tor- 
rents which filled up the river channels. This filling doubt 
less required many years, perhaps centuries, during which there 
were alternate partial sconrings out and re-fillings, yet tbe 
whole was, geologically speaking, a rapid process. Then imme- 
diately thereafter occurred the Assuring of the high Sierra, and 
immense discharges of ashes which, washed down by the still 
melting snows, formed mud streams, which almost completely 
filled up the river channels, and often apparently overran the 
low divides. Immediately following the ash-eruptions, lava 
streams flooded the mountain-slope and completely obliterated 
the drainage system. Coincidently with the eruptions, and as 
their cause, there was a considerable elevation of the Sierra 
range, and increase of the mountain slope. 

The previous drainage having been abolished, glaciers and 
rivers immediately commenced cutting a new system wholly 
independent of the previous one, though having the same gen- 
eral direction. In cutting these new channels the rivers seem 
to have shown a preference for the old divides, because there 
the lava was either wanting or thinner than elsewhere. As a 
result of the increased elevation of the Sierra, as well as an 
increase of the causes which produced the Glacial epoch, the 
reign of ice now reached its culmination. At this time not only 
was the high Sierra ice mantled and all its canons tilled with 
glaciers, but even the much lower Coast Range was snow-cap- 
ped, and glaciers probably ran down its valleys nearly or quite 
into the Bay of San Francisco.* As another result of the 

subsequent times, the erupted lava was swept clean away from 
the greater portion of the high Sierra, leaving onlv the roots 
visible in the form of dikes, and the river channels lower down 
the slope were cut far below the detritus-filled and lava-cai)ped 
old river channels, which are thus left high up on the present 
divides. Meanwhile meteoric waters percolating downward 
through the decomposing lava caps, and therefore charged with 
carbonates of soda and lime, and therefore also dis>(>lving sihcii? 
cemented the gravels and uetritied the drift wood, or cl>e tak- 
ing more silica, changed in places volcanic and slate pebbles 
and bed rock into clay. 

Berkeley, Cal., Oct. 15, 1879. 

* I have fouad what I regard as good evidence of trlacial action about tlie si e 
of the University, 300 feet above the Bay of San Francisco. 

Art. KXIY.—Note on (he Age of the Green Mountains ; by 

Having iu the new edition of mj Geology, as in the pre- 
ceding, referred the epoch of the formation of the Green 
Mountains, that is, of the folding, upturning and crystalliza- 
tion of its rocks, to the close of the Lower Silurian, I here pre- 
sent a fuller statement of my reasons for this conclusion. A 
further study of the stratigraphy of the eastern part of the 
region is required to establish its "correctness beyond question ; 
but I believe that the following facts and considerations will 
be found to be strongly in its favor. 

By the term Green Mountains, I mean the swell of land with 
Its ridges, about N. 16° E. in trend, which lies between the 
Connecticut River on one side, and Lake Champlain and Hud- 
son Eiver on the other, and reaching in the south to New York 
Island. All the rocks of the area thus bounded are not refer- 
able genetically to the range ; for it is well known that the 
"Highland " region of Archaean rocks extends over the most 
of Putnam County, New York, and the southern border of 
Dutchess County ; and that rocks of the same age constitute 
areas to the east of north of this Highland region, in Connec- 
ticut, and also farther north in Massachusetts and Vermont, 
ihese Archaean areas introduce difficulties into the geology of 
Western New England. But the Taconic range and the asso- 
ciated limestones are a known base in the study of the strati- 
graphy ; and by working from it, the difficulties will quite surely 
oe ultimately surmounted. For the sake of the present dis- 
cussion, the Green Mountain region may be regarded as con- 
sisting of (1) a Western section, which includes the Taconic 
range or belt, and the associated bands of limestone, together 
with conformahle formations of slate and schists ; (2) a Central 
niouiitain section, separately distinguishable only in Vermont ; 
^^d (3) an Eastern section. The mountain section in Vermont 
contains the highest summits of the Green Mountains, and is 
toe part to which the name was given. In Massachusetts, the 
QJghest peaks are in the more western Taconic range ; but still 
J^^e greatest mean height lies south by west of the mountain 
Delt of Vermont. 

I" the following pages, the evidence reviewed is arranged 
«nder the following heads: 

(1) The extent to which the Western belt is a hnown region 
^^/^gards geological age. 

1^) The relations in rocks and stratification between the 
Western belt and those east of it. 

192 J, D. Dana— Age of the Green Mountains, 

(3) The occurrence of unconformable Upper Silurian rocks 
witl)in the limits of the region or on iis borders, 

(4) The magnitude of an individual among mountains. 

1. The extent to which the Western belt is a known region as re- 
gards geological age. — The facts ou this point are presented in 
the writer's former papers,* and need not be here repeated. 
They establish (1) by means of fossils, the discoveries of Wing 
and others in Vermont, and of Dale, Dwight and the writer in 
Dutchess County, K Y., and (2) by the conformabilUy of the strata, 
the Lower Silurian age of the Taconic schists and of the asso- 
ciated hmestones and schists, eastward to the easternmost of the 
limestone bands, and westward through Dutchess County, 
New York, to (and somewhat beyond) the Hudson Kiver, 
Through their conformability, these strata show that all are one 
in system of dislocation and one in epoch of mountain-making ; 
that the several Lower Silurian formations, from the Hudson 
Eiver group to the Primordial, are involved in one system of 
conformable and simultaneously upturned beds.f 

The width of this known region is, in the southern half of 
Vermont, 15 to 20 miles, or two-fifths of the width of the 
State; in Massachusetts, 15 to 20 miles: in Connecticut, 12 to 
16 miles; in Dutchess County, K Y., west of Connecticut, 23 
to 25 miles, reckoning to the Hudson River. 

The width for Western Connecticut and Dutchess County 
together is 35 miles, which is about half the whole width be- 
tween the Hudson River and the Connecticut. North of 
Dutchess County, in Columbia and Rensselaer Counties, N. Y-, 
the rocks are a continuation of the slates of Dutchess County, 
and are conformable to the Taconic, according to Mather and 
Emmons, and hence they belong to the same system. Conse- 
quently, the width through these counties and '(Western Massa- 
chusetts is 40 miles, or, again, half the distance from the Hud- 
son to the Connecticut, The rocks are also Lower Silurian in 
Washington County, up to Whitehall, as represented in the 
geological maps of Hall and Logan; and in the northern half 
of Vermont, to its northern boundary. 

It thus apneaib, that, of the masb of land which topo^i iph 
ically belongs to the Gieen Mountam range that pnt\^hic'i 
IS already proved to be Lower Silurian in age, and of one _(<^ 

J. D. Dana— Age of the Qreen Mountains. 193 

logical and orological system constitutes nearly one-half of the 
whole range. The part of the Western belt which is not in- 
cluded in the above, is (exclusive of the Archaean area) the 
southern, or Westchester County, whose connection with the 
system has not yet been clearly made out. 

I. VYestkrx Section of the Green Mountain Region. 

2. Rocks; t^tr alijication.—lxs. m&n\:\ox\mg the kinds of rocks 
we pass from north to south, and from west to east; the former 
direction follows the strike of the rocks and of the ridges, 
and the latter, transverse lines. 

It is important to note, in reading the following, that hydro- 
rnica schist and mica schist are essentially the same in compo- 
sition, the former differing chemically from the latter only in 
the presence of a few per cent of water (not usually over 5). 
Physically the difference is wider ; the hvdromica schist being a 
fine-grained glossv slate (shading often" into a variety that is 
ca//erZ argillyte from its clav-slate aspect, and which is used as a 
roofingslate), and feeling ■'more or less unctuous or talc-like.* 
This roofing slate from Fair Haven, near Castleton, Yermont, 
one of its most noted localities, is only a more finely grained 
hydromica schist ; for in recent determinations of the alkalies 
made for the writer by Prof. O. D. Allen of the Sheffield Sci- 
entific School of Yale College, and by Mr. 0. B. Atwater of 
the same School, the amount is as great as has been obtained 
for the hydromica schist, Prof. Allen finding potash 4-61 and 
soda 1-58 per cent, and Mr. Atwater, potash 4*62, and soda 
1'64 ; and, moreover, the slate fuses rather easily to a light- 
colored slag. It is therefore a hydromica argillyte, or, better, 
hydromica phyllyte. 

. (1) In Vermont, unaltered and partially altered fossil-bear- 
ing Lower Silurian limestones, shales and sandstones occur 
along the western border of the State. 

The Taconic range, next east, commences near Middlebury 
as a belt of roofing slate, the hydromica phyllyte just men- 
tioned ; but it becomes, to the southward, a belt" of well char- 
acterized hydromica schist, yet with small beds of quartzyte 
in some places. 

Next east of the main band of crystalline limestone (east of the 
niendian of l.'utland), exists a second band of hydromica schist, 
^'nich, in the southern half of the State, is formed largelv of 

i the Report are changed i! 

194 J. D. Dana— Age of the Green Mountains. 

to its greater hardness, high peaks consist of the quartzyte, and 
these have given the impression that this is the only constit- 
uent of the ridges — one not sustained either by the descrip- 
tions of Hitchcock in the Yermont Eeport, or by the writer's 
observations. The hydromica schist passes into chloritic, mag- 
netitic and feldspathic varieties, and into a hydromica gneiss* 

(2) South of Vermont. 

In New York, west of Massachusetts, occur slates like argyl- 
lite in aspect, but, largely, glossy slates which are hydromica 
schist ; and the latter is the prevailing rock of Dutchess 
County, except toward its eastern border. 

The rocks of the Taconic belt in Massachusetts are, besides 
ordinary hydromica schist, chloritic and garnetiferous varieties 
of it, and then in Connecticut, mica schist and staurolitic and 
garnetiferous schists ; and farther south in Eastern New York, 
toward and below Pawling, 200 miles and more from the com- 
mencement of the band in Yermont, micaceous gneiss and 
gneiss. Again: The Yermont belt of hydromica schist and 
quartzyte, east of the main belt of limestone, continues through 
Massachusetts, with the quartzyte still a prominent feature. 
But the interstratifications, on going southward, are of quartzyte 
with mica schist and true gneiss, instead of with hydromica 
schist. The mica schists and gneiss are at first fine-grained va- 
rieties, but pass into coarser and well characterized kinds in 
Southern Massachusetts and in Connecticut. 

The variation in the rocks on passing southward is very 
gradual ; the extremes are 200 miles or more apart. In going 
eastward toward the central mountain belt, the same changes 
are passed through in an interval of 30 to 50 miles. 

These different kinds of rocks in this western section are 
throughout in conformable strata, as already stated. 

II. EASTEKisr Section of the Greek Mountain Region. 

The following remarks are confined almost wholly to Ver- 
mont. Since the highest of the Green Mountain summits are 
in this State, we might here look for the strongest contrasts m 
the rocks on going eastward to the mountain section and be- 
yond it, n7dess all the three sections are of one monntain system. 

According to the geological map of Yermont and the de- 
scriptions in the Report l)y C. H. Hitchcock, a band of by- 

J. D. Dana — Age of the Green Mountains. 195 

dromica schist extends through the State on the east side of 
the mountain section, much like that on the west side; more- 
over, near the northern boundary of the State the two join and 
are one, showing thereby the closest relation between them. 
The eastern belt contains to the south some small beds of 
quartzyte and to the north as well as south, many localities of 
steatite and serpentine; and the western, while including much 
quartzyte, has to the north some small beds of steatite. The 
eastern becomes micaceous to the south and passes into mica 
schist; Mr. G. II. Hitchcock speaks in the Vermont Eeport 
(p. 510) of the gradual change to micaceous rocks, and accounts 
for it on the general principle that " the rocks grow more 
metamorphic as we proceed southward from the Canada line." 
East of this eastern band of hydromica schist there is a band 
called clay slate, having parallel relations to that which exists 
in the western section (Taconic belt). Farther east, there are in 
the northern two-thirds of the State (besides some local granite 
areas), a north-and-south belt of mica schist ("Calciferous mica 
schist"), with some gneiss, and, beyond this, another of argillyte, 
with a small band of true hydromica schist in some parts near 
the Connecticut, 

III. The Central Mountain Belt. 
_ The mountain belt, which is only one to four miles wide 
1" the northern threc-lifths of the State, is marked gneiss on 
tlic geological map. But the descriptions in the text,'and facts 
I'oin other sources, show that for the northern fifty miles of its 
Jength the jmncipal rock is not " Green Mountain gneiss;'' that 
tnc niosi common kindh to the north are lo/dromica schist and 

Jn tlie far north, a few miles from the Canada boundarv, 
stands Jay Peak, 4,018 feet in heiirht above the sea level ; it 
consists of hydromir'a schist much'likc that of the region ad- 
joining on the east and west.* Thirtv miles to the south there 
!s Mt. Maiislield, 4,130 feet hidi (Guvot), the highest summit 
in the mountains; and it consists chieflv of mica schist, but in 
P<Y<^ IS made of hvdromica schist and chloritic hvdromica 
^clnst,t and specimens of the latter o-athcred bv the writer 
from the summit are not di^tin'mishablo from those of the 
true Taconic in Mas^acluisott^. 'Inftv miles to the south is 
Camel's Hump, another of the hi'di j^eaks, 4,08-^ feet high 
.(Guyot). which con^iM^. ;,<-p<n-dMi- to Adams, and observations 
oy Mr. E. S. Dann of ini-M .rhi^t • it is stated bv Hitchcock 

5 J. D. Dana — Age of the Green Mountains. 

be gneissoid rock, meaning apparently gneissoid mica 

gion either side ; and they are essentially the same for the rest 
of the belt, with this difference, that to the south the mica 
schist is replaced to a large extent by gneiss. 

Again, according to the sections in the Vermont Geological 
Eeport and the text describing them, the schists of the mountain 
belt are conformable with the hydromica schist on the east and west. 

In Massachusetts, the schists east of the limestone belt are 
mica schist (as in the Hoosac Mountain) and micaceous gneiss, 
and they are conformable, according to Hitchcock and my own 
imperfect observations, with the beds of the limestone belt. 
But an Archaean area extends northward from Connecticut, 
and, fifteen miles west of Pittsfield, interrupts the series. C. 
H. Hitchcock states in the Vermont Eeport (p. 462) that the 
mica schist of Hoosac Mountain is a continuation of the Grreen 
Mountain belt of gneiss, and that a diminution in the amount 
of feldspar makes the difference. 

In Connecticut the rocks need more study before general 
conclusions can be positively stated, owing in part to the Arcb- 
;vhich give complexity to the subject in the northern 

the rocks and geographical 
distribution. — As has been shown, marked differences exist be- 
tween the rocks of the north and south, and between those of 
the west and east ; but the differences are so systematically dis- 
tributed along the range that they are testimonv to its essential 
unity. The differences are in the main just those that would 
have come for the most part, from differences in the grade of 
metaraorphism. Intenser metamorphism should be naturally 
looked for along or about the axis of the range than to the 
west of it ; and so, also (as shown by the facts connected with 
the Appalachians), on the eastern side of the axis than on the 
western ; and thus it is in reality. 

In view of such facts we may safely hold that if to the south, as 
in Westchester county, the rocks are mainly gneiss, this alone 
would not be sufficient evidence of difference of system or age. 

J. D. Dana — Age of the Green Mountains. 197 


The three ranges of facts bearing on this point are the following: 

(1) The absence of Upper Silurian strata from among the con- 
formable formations of the Green Mountains. 

(2) The existence, near the western border of the moun- 
tain range, of fossiliferous Lower Helderberg limestone (upper 
divisonof the Upper Silurian) resting unconformahly on the 
upturned Hudson River slates. 

(3) The existence of fossiliferous Lower Helderberg beds, 
and in some places Upper Helderberg, near the eastern border 
of the mountain range, in the Connecticut valley, resting un- 
conformably on slates or schists which maj be of Lower Silurian 
age, if not of the period of the Hudson Eiver group. 

The cases of unconformabilitv between the Lower Helder- 
berg limestone and the Hudson River slates on the western side 
of the mountains occur in the Hudson River Yalley, not far 
from the river, and are described and illustrated in Mathers 
New York Report (1848). The following figures are from 
his plates ; they represent two cases east of the Hudson River 


Lcc.afis MtTTlimibuC 

^ - MomiU 

•-ind foui ,ust ^^(.t ot 
thecitv o( Hudson (fio 
Bob (f,om ].lat. .\^) , 

It FlL^ 1 Bcciift- M 

m Mathe. pi itc 24^ m ^ 

beds are n( uh hon/on 

foN mik^ .outh of I 

^-^^^^^j^< ^wim' 

>^ ■"_ 


198 J. D. Dana — Age of the Oreen Mountains. 

west of Cocksackie. Mather describes another section on Pine 
Mountain, between Rondout and Kingston Point, where a high 
cliff of limestone overlies unconformably the gray grits of the 
Hudson slate series, the slates dipping 40° to 60° to the east- 
southeast, and the limestone 80° to the west-northwest. Other 
sections, from near Rondout, are given in the paper by Mr. T. 
Nelson Dale, in vol. xviii of this^Journal (1879), p. 293. 

Special descriptions of the localities are not here necessary. 
From the observed facts it was inferred by Logan that a very 
extensive formation of Lower Helderberg limestone once 
spread over the Hudson River valley ; and it is certain that the 
beds were kid down, as he recognized, after the slates of the 
Hudson River region and other conformable rocks had been 
upturned ; and since the slates are now proved to be of 
the Hudson River group, the making of a large part, if 
not the whole, of the Green Mountains preceded the era of the 
Lower Helderberg. The occurrence of Niagara limestone— the 
Coralline or Stromatopora limestone — at the Rondout locality 
(see the paper referred to by Mr. Dale, and Dr. Barrett's note 
in the same volume) is evidence, further, that the epoch of 
upturning or mountain-making preceded the Niagara period, 
which is the first of the Upper Silurian ; and hence that it oc- 
cupied the interval between the Lower and Upper Silurian. 

The faulting and folding of the Upper Silurian strata prove 
the occurrence of later disturbances, which affected also the 
underlying unconformable slates : and these, as Mr. Dale sug- 
gests, may have taken place at the time of the Appalachian dis- 
turbance after the Carboniferous, and have been a consequence 
of the action which raised the Catskill Mountain plateau. 

On the eastern side of the mountains the case of unconform- 
able superposition of Upper Silurian fossiliferous rocks occurs 
at Bernardston, in northern Massachusetts, west of the Con- 
necticut. The facts, first made known by Hitchcock, are given 
in detail in articles by the writer in "this Journal.* The 
Lower Helderberg age of the fossiliferous beds and their un- 
conformability to the underlying argillyte are admitted by all 
writers on the subject These underlying slates are made con- 
formable, in the Vermont Report, with the calcareous mica 
schist and these, as alreadv stated, with the hydromica schist 
farther west, where the two ""are in contact. This point of con- 
formability needs, however, further studv before it is received 
as established. The underlying argillyte, althougli resembling 
that west of the mountain belt, is, therefore, not vet proved to 
be Lower Silurian. The reader can review the "various con- 
siderations bearing on the question, and derive his own conclu- 

J. D. Dana — Age of the Green Mountains. 199 

sionas to the probability in the case. The Crinoidal limestone 
at Bernardston is overlaid by qaartzyte and fine grained mica 
schist which, since they cover a Lower Helderberg limestone 
stratum, may be metamorphic strata of the Oriskany group, 
or the lower beds of the Upper Helderberg. The similar beds 
of quartzyte and mica schist, with conformable beds of am- 
phibolyte, staurolitic mica schist, and quartzytic gneiss and 
syenyte, representing tlie same formation, extend up the 
Connecticut valley. At Littleton, 120 miles to the north, east 
of the Connecticut River, occur beds of limestone containing 
fossil corals and Brachiopods of the Upper Helderberg ; and 
on the northern borders of Vermont occur corals of the same 
age at Owl's Head, *on the borders of Lake Memphrema- 
gog. These Lower and Upper Helderberg beds were made, 
as their positions and limits show, in an arm of the sea, which 
reached from the St. Lawrence region down what is now the 
Connecticut valley, and they seem to indicate, in connection 
with other facts, 'that the valley was defined at an epoch not 
long preceding the Lower Helderberg, or at that of the making 
of the Green Mountains. 

V, The Magnitude of an Individual among Mountains. 

"uiis ot upturnmgs and 
continuous region in one 
was made at one birth, or 

tam-individual called the ..^ , - -o . 

breadth not merely the various ridges and vallevs that make 
the mountains west of the Blue Ridge, but the Cumberland 
T'able Land and its extension northward to what was once a 
Catskill Table-land ; and in its length it reaches from Central 
New York to Central Alabama. It has this great extent and 
.yet it is one of the smallest of the earth's mountain individu- 
als. Mountain individuals are necessarily large because they 
depend on movements in the earth's crust ; and, if the crust 
were no more than twenty-five miles in thickness, deep bendings 
much less than 100 miles in span and some hundreds in length, 
would be, from a physical point of view, hardly a possibility. 
A very large area is therefore required for a mountain individ- 
ual of folded rocks. It is hence naturnl, in the case of a 
mountain-individual along western New England, to look for 
a breadth at least equal to"that of the region which the Green 
Mountains topographicallv cover. The Green Mountain 
region is a northern portion of the Appalachian system and 
these views make it simply a portion in which the mountain- 
making occurred at an earlier epoch, having been hastened, as 

E. H. Hall on a New Action of the 

Iisr CONCLUSION, I repeat the considerations that have been 

1. The western half of the region between the Connecticut 
River valley and the Hudson River, that is, the western half 
of the Grreen Mountain area, is proved to consist of rocks that 
are (1) of Lower Silurian age ; and (2) of one orological system. 

2. The schistose rocks of the eastern half in Vermont are 
to a large extent similar to those of the western, 

3. The rocks of the central mountain section in Ver- 
mont are, in its northern part, identical schists (hydromica, etc.), 
with those on the east and west sides of it. 

4. The western l)order of the region in the Hudson River 
valley has itsfokled or upturned Hudson River (Lower Silu- 
rian) slates, overlaid unconformably by Niagara and Lower 
Helderberg (Upper Silurian) beds. 

5. The eastern border of the region in the Connecticut 
valley at Bernardston, in Massachusetts, Vernon in Vermont, 
and the adjoining part of New Hampshire, has Lower Helder- 
berg beds overlying, unconformably, folded or upturned roofing 
slates (similar to those on the western side), the Lower Silu- 
rian age of which is not improbable; and at Littleton in New 
Hampshire, and on Lake Memphremagog, in northern Vermont, 
occur unconformable Upper Helderberg (Lower Devonian) beds 
with fossils. 

6. A mountain-individual of folded rocks is necessarily one 
of great magnitude. 

In view of these various considerations, the evidence, al- 
though not 3^et beyond question, is maniTestly strong for em- 
bracing the whole region between the Connecticut and the 
Hudson (and to an unascertained distance beyond) within the 
limits of the Grreen Mountain synclinorium. 

Art. XXV.— 0^ a New Action of the Magnet on ElectricGurrents;* 
by E. H. Hall, Fellow of the Johns Hopkins University. 

Juctor be a rotating < 

Magnet on Electric Currents. 201 

a fluid it will move in obedience to this force, and this motion 
may or may not be accompanied with a change of position of 
the electric current which it carries. But if the current itself 
be free to choose any patli through a fixed solid conductor or a 
network of wires, then, when a constant magnetic force is made 
to act on the system, the path of the current through the con- 
ductors is not permanently altered, but after certain transient 
phenomena, called induction currents, have subsided, the dis- 
tribution of the current will be found to be the same as if no 
magnetic force were in action. The only force which acts on 
electric currents is electromotive force, which must be distin- 
guished from the mechanical force, which is the subject of this 


t seemed to me to be contrary to the most natu- 
ral supposition in the case considered, taking into account the 
fact that a wire not bearing a current is in general not affected 
by a magnet and that a wire bearing a current is affected ex- 
actly in proportion to the strength of the current, while the size 
and, in general, the material of the wire are matters of indiffer- 
ence. Moreover in explaining the phenomena of statical elec- 
tricity it is customary to say that charged bodies are attracted 
toward each other or the contrary solely by the attraction or re- 
pulsion of the charges for each other. 

Soon after reading the above statement in Maxwell I read an 
article by Prof. Edlund, entitled " Unipolar Induction " (Phil. 
Macr., Oct., 1878, or Annales de Chemie et de Physique, Jan., 
1879), in which the author evidently assumes that a magnet acts 
upon a current in a fixed conductor just as it acts upon the 
conductor itself when free to move. 

Finding these two authorities at variance, I brought the 
question to Prof. Kowland. He told me he doubted the truth 
of Maxwell's statement and had some lime before made a 
hasty experiment for the purpose of detecting, if possible, some 
action of the magnet on the current itself, though w^ithout suc- 
cess. Being very busy with other matters however, he had no 
immediate intention of carrying the investigation farther. 

I now began to give the mat'ter more attention and hit upon 
a method that seemed to promise a solution of the problem. I 
Jaid my plan before Prof. Kowhm.I and asked whether he had 
any objection to my making the He approved of 
my method in the main, though suggesting some very import- 
ant changes in the proposed form and arrangement of the ap- 
paratus. The experiment proposed was suggested by the fol- 
lowing reflection : 

If the current of electricitv in a fixed con.luctor is itself at- 
tracted by a magnet, the current should be drawn to one side 
"f the wire, and therefore the tesistaiice experienced should be 

202 E. H. Hall on a Neio Action of the 

To test this theory, a flat spiral of German silver wire was 
inclosed between two thin disks of hard rubber and the whole 
placed between the poles of an electromagnet in such a posi- 
tion that the lines of magnetic force would pass through the 
spiral at right angles to the current of electricity. 

The wire of the spiral was about ^ mm. in diameter, and the 
resistance of the spiral was about two ohms. 

The magnet was worked by a battery of twenty Bunsen cells 
joined four in series and five abreast. The strength of the 
magnetic field in which the coil was placed was probably fifteen 
or twenty thousand times H, the horizontal intensity of the 

of a Wheatstone's bridge and 
1 galvanometer, so delicately ad- 
justed as to betray a change of about one part in a million in 
the resistance of the spiral, I made from October 7th to October 
11th inclusive, thirteen series of observations, each of forty 
readings. A reading was made with the magnet active in a 
certain direction, then a reading with the magnet inactive, then 
one with the magnet active in the direction opposite to the 
first, then with the magnet inactive, and so on till the series of 
forty readings was completed. 

Some of the series seemed to show a slight increase of resist- 
ance due to the action of the magnet, some a slight decrease, 
the greatest change indicated by any complete series being a 
decrease of about one part in a' hundred and fifty thousand. 
Nearly all the other series indicated a much smaller change, 
the average change shown by the thirteen series being a de- 
crease of about one part in five millions. 

Apparently, then, the magnet's action caused no change in 
the resistance of the coil. 

But though conclusive, apparently, in respect to any change 
of resistance, the above experiments are not sufficient to prove 
that a magnet cannot affect an electric current. If electricity 
is assumed to be an incompressible fluid, as some suspect it to 
be, we may conceive that the current of electricity flowing in a 
wire cannot be forced into one side of the wire or made to flow 
in any but a symmetrical manner. The magnet may tend to 
deflect the current without being able to doso. It is evident, 
however, that in this case there would exist a state of stress 
in the conductor, the electricity pressing, as it were, toward one 
side of the wire. Reasoning thus, I thought it necessary, in 
order to make a thorough investigation of the matter, to test 
for a difference of potential between points on opposite sides of 
the conductor. 

This could be done by repeating the experiment formerly 
made by Prof. Rowland, and which was the following : 

A disk or strip of metal, forming part of an electric circuit, 

Magnet on Electric Currents. 203 

was placed between the poles of an electro-magnet, the disk 
cutting across the lines of force. The two poles of a sensitive 
galvanometer were then placed in connection with difterent 
pans of the disk, through which an electric current was pass- 
ing, until two nearly equipotential points were found. The 
magnet current was then turned on and the galvanometer was 
observed, in order to detect any indication of a change in the 
relative potential of the two poles. 

Owing probably to the fact that the metal disk used had 
considerable thickness, the experiment at that time failed to 
give any positive result. Prof. Eowland now advised me, in 
repeating this experiment, to use gold leaf mounted on a plate 
of glass as my metal strip. I did so, and, experimenting as in- 
dicated above, succeeded on the 28th of October in obtaining, 
as the effect of the magnet's action, a decided deflection of the 
galvanometer needle. 

This deflection was much too large to be attributed to the 
direct action of the magnet on the galvanometer needle, or to 
any similar cause. It was, moreover, a permanent deflection, 
and therefore not to be accounted for by induction. 

The effect was reversed when the magnet was reversed. It 
was not reversed by transferring the poles of the- galvanometer 
from one end of the strip to the other. In short, the phenom- 
ena observed were just such as we should expect to see if the 
electric current were pressed, but not moved, toward one side 
of the conductor. 

In regard to the direction of this pressure or tendency as de- 
pendent on the direction of the current in the gold leaf and 
the direction of the lines of magnetic force, the following state- 
ment may be made : 

If we regard an electric current as a single stream flowing 
from the positive to the negative pole, i. e., from the carbon 
pole of the battery through the circuit to the zinc pole, in this 
case the phenomena observed indicate that two currents paral- 
lel, and in the same direction, tend to repel each other. 

If, on the other hand, we regard the electric current as a 
stream flowing from the negative to the positive pole, in this 
case the phenomena observed indicate that two currents i^amWcl 
and m the same direction tend to attract each other. 

-ft IS of course perfectly well known that two conductors, 
bearmg currents parallel and in the same direction, are drawn 
toward each other. Whether this fact, taken in connection 
with what has been said above, has any bearing upon the 
question of the absolute direction of the electric current, it is 
perhaps too early to decide. 

In order to make some rough quantitative experiments, a 
jew plate was prepared consisting of a strip of gold leaf about 
^ cm. wide and 9 cm. long mounted on plate glass. Good con- 

204 E. K Hall on a New Action of the 

tact was insured by pressing firmly down on each end of the 
strip of gold leaf a thick piece of brass polished on the under- 
side. To these pieces of brass the wires from a single Bunsen 
cell were soldered. The portion of the gold leaf strip not cov- 
ered by the pieces of brass was about 5^ cm. in length -and had 
a resistance of about 2 ohms. The poles of a high resistance 
Thomson galvanometer were placed in connection with points 
opposite each other on the edges of the strip of gold leaf mid- 
way between the pieces of brass. The glass plate bearing the 
gold leaf was fastened, as tlie first one had been, by a soft 
cement to the flat end of one pole of the magnet, the other pole 
of the magnet being brought to within about 6mm. of the 
strip of gold leaf. 

The apparatus being arranged as above described, on the 
12th of November a series of observations was made for the 
purpose of determining the variations of the observed effect 
with known variations of the magnetic force and the strength 
of current through the gold leaf. 

The experiments were hastily and roughly made, but are 
sufficiently accurate, it is thought, to determine the law of va- 
riation above mentioned, as well as the order of magnitude of 
the current through the Thomson galvanometer compared with 
tlie current through the gold leaf and the intensity of the mag- 
netic field. 

The results obtained are as follows : 


11420 H 




11240 ^'' 







7670 " 




H is the horizontal intensity of the earth's magnetism ='19 

Though the greatest difference in the last column above 
amounts to about 8 per cent of the mean quotient, yet it seems 
safe to conclude that with a given form and arrangement of 
apparatus the action on the Thomson galvanometer is propor- 
tional to the product of the magnetic force by the current 
through the gold leaf. This is not the same as saving that the 
effect on the Thomson galvanometer is under all circumstances 
proportional to the current which is passing between the poles 
of the magnet. If a strip of copper of the same length and 
breadth as the gold leaf but J mm. in thickness is substituted 
for the latter, the galvanometer fails to detect any current 
ai-ising from the action of the magnet, except an induction 

Magnet on Electric Cnrrents. 205 

current at the moment of making or breaking the magnet 

It has been stated above that in the experiments thus far 
tried the current apparently tends to move, without actually 
moving, toward the side of the conductor. I have in mind a 
form of apparatus which will, I think, allow the current to fol- 
low this tendency and move across the lines of magnetic force. 
If this experiment succeeds, one or two others immediately 
suggest themselves. 

uplete and accurate study of the phe- 

Baltimore, Nov. 19th, 1879. 

It is perhaps allowable to speak of the action of the magnet 
as setting up in the gold leaf strip a new electromotive force at 
right angles to the primary electromotive force. 

This new electromotive force cannot, under ordinary condi- 
tions, manifest itself, the circuit in which it might work being 
incomplete. When the circuit is completed by means of the 
Thomson galvanometer, a current flows. 

The actual current through this galvanometer depends of 
course upon the resistance of the galvanometer and its connec- 
tions, as well as upon the distance between the two points of 
the gold leaf at which the ends of the wires from the galvano- 
meter are applied. We cannot therefore take the ratio of C 
and c above as the ratio of the primary and transverse electro- 
motive forces just mentioned. 

If we represent by E' the difference of potential of two 
points a centimeter apart on the transverse diameter of the 
strip of gold leaf, and by B the difference of potential of two 
Pomts a centimeter apart on the longitudinal diameter of the 
same, a rough and hasty calculation for the experiments already 
made shows the ratio -^ to have varied from about 3,000 to 
about 6,500. 

The transverse electromotive force E' seems to be, under 
ordinary circumstances, proportional to My, where M is the 
intensity of the magnetic field and v is the velocity of the 
electricity in the gold leaf. Writing for v the equivalent ex- 
pression - where C is the primary current through a strip of 
^be gold leaf 1 cm. wide, and s is the area of section of the 
same, we have E' oc — . 

0. A. Young — Diameters of Mar, 

Art. XXVL— J/easw 
of Mars, made at Pr 
C. A. YouxG. 

The polar compression of Mars has never yet been satis- 
factorily determined, the results of different observers ranging 
from that of Sir W. Herschel, who made it ^, to that of Bessel, 
who found it insensible. The value ^, deduced by Main at 
Oxford, from his measures in 1862-3, has proV)ably been of late 
though by no means 

Hartwig, in his recently published investigation upon the 
diameters of Venus and Mars, gives -^ as the result obtained 
by combining all the double-image measurements made at 
Konigsberg, Leiden, Oxford, Berlin, Paris and Strassburg. 

Either of these values, however, is apparently irreconcilable 
with the planet's known mass and period of rotation, if we 
admit the presence of water upon i+s surface, as the polar 
"snow caps" seem to indicate, except upon the almost absurd 
assumption of a density rapidly increasing from the center 
toward the surface. 

It has seemed to the writer quite possible that the difference 
of illumination of the limbs of the planet, caused by phase, 
may lie at the bottom of the difficulty. Except on rare occa- 
sions there is phase enough, even at the moment of opposition, 
to produce a notable difference of appearance between the 
fully illuminated edge of the planet's and that opposite, a 
dif!erence which can hardly fail to be felt in micrometric 
measurements. Unexceptionable observations for determining 
the polar compression can therefore be made only when the 
planet reaches opposition and its node together. This was so 
nearly the case last season, that on the night of November 
12tb, an observer on the planet would have witnessed a Transit 
of the Earth. At this time, and for a few days before and 
after, the phase was extremely small, and an opportunity was 
presented for determining the planet's ellipticity such as will 
not be available again for nearly half a century.' 

The measures detailed below were made by myself with a 
filar position micrometer attached to the nine and oi.e-half iuch 
Equatorial of the School of Science Observatory. The ol)ject 
glass of this instrument (by Clark) is constructed substaiitiully 
upon the Gaussian curves, and is of the highest excellence. 
During the past vear it has shown repeatedly both of the satel- 
lites of Mars, the two outer satellites of Uranus, and the Satur- 
nian satellite Mimas, the last, for mv eve, which is not extremely 
sensitive, being just at the limit of visibility. The teles- 

a A. Young— Diameters of Mars. 207 

cope doubles distinctly, and on fine nights easily, the little com- 
panion of a' Capriconi, nor has it yet failed upon any of the 
objects usually considered tests for twelve-inch inst: 

While perfectly aware that measures by a filar 
are subject to a considerable constant error, the measure of an 
illaminated disc being always excessive, I have thought they 
might safely be used in determining a diflference of diameter in 
difierent directions. The wires were dark upon an illumina- 
ted field. The magnifying power throughout the observations 
was 398. The value of one revolution of xhe micrometer 
screw at 50° R, as determined by about a hundred star tran- 
sits, IS 17''-860dr0-''003. The screw appears to be a very per- 
fect one without sensible errors of periodicity or run. 

Marth's ephemeris, in the Monthly Notices for June, 1879, 
was used in setting the position circle and in computing the 
minute phase-corrections. Each measure of a double diame- 
ter consisted of twenty settings of the micrometer wire, five 
with the movable wire on one side of the fixed wire, ten with 
It upon the other side, and finally five more in the first posi- 
tion. The correction for thickness of the wires was deter- 
mined by a full set of readings at each of the three diflferent 
nxed wires, once at least in each evening's work. 

After each measurement of either diameter, the wires were 
turned 90° by the position circle, and the other diameter was 
measured, in some cases, however, after finishing a set of 
lour measures (two of each diameter) at one of the fixed 
wires, the movable wire was transferred to another of the fixed 
wires, and the same diameter was then measured again as the 
urst of a new set The measures thus come in pairs, each 
measure of the polar diameter being matched with an equato- 
rial immediately preceding or following. The only exceptions 
to the above statements are the asterisked measures of Novem- 
t^er 12th, which consisted of but ten settings each, and the 
polar diameter Ko. 23 (marked with a dagger) which has no 
strictly corresponding equatorial measure, work having been in- 
terrupted by clouds. A supplementary equatorial measure, 
■No. 68, was therefore taken to equalize the numbers. 
. All the measures which were made are given, without omis- 
sion or alteration of discordant readings. The weights assigned 
^re on a scale of ten for a perfectly unexceptionable obser- 
vation, and were determined from the atmospheric and other 
conditions at the time of observation. The total number of 
rnicrometer readings, exclusive of those for determining the 
thickness of wires, was 1140. 

Had not cloudy weather prevented, the series would have 
been much more extensive. The nights of November Uth 
^nd 13th were entirely overcast; on November 12th only a 

a A. Young— Dlo 
















-0 47 

-I sj 

+ 16 


+ 80-4 












+ 310 







Equatorial Diameter, 20"-634±0035. a = Io =0"168±0"-050. 

single pair of measures of small weight could be obtained, and 
on the 14tb only two pairs and an odd one. On all the other 
nights there were also occasional periods of atmospheric dis- 
turbance or entire interruptions. It is especially to be regretted 
that more measures were not obtained at considerable western 
hour angles, as they would have gone far to eliminate the effects 
of atmospheric dispersion and astigmatism of the observer's eye. 
The observations have been very carefully reduced under my 
direction, by my assistant, Mr. M. McNeil, who deserves and 
has my warmest thanks for his interest and help in the matter. 
In the accompanying tables the first column contains the 
reference number oif the observation ; the second gives the 
date, the third the hour angle of the planet, and the fourth the 
angle between the measured diameter and the vertical. The 
fifth column contains the measured diameter, corrected for 
thickness of wires and reduced to arc, and the sixth, headed p, 
gives the assigned weight. The seventh column, (/>+^), <^on- 
tains the sum of the corrections for refraction and phase in 

C. A. Young — Diameters of Mars. 
Polar Diameter of Mars, Mvember, 1879. 



















+ 1 39 
+ 29 
-3 12 

+ 78-9 













+ 312 
+ 309 






Polar Diameter, 20'-552±0"-043. C = 0"-082 ±0-035. Polar compre8sion=5itf. 

units of the third decimal ; the eighth column (m) gives the re- 
duction to opposition, or the correction necessary to reduce the 
observed diameter to what it would have been if the planet 
were at the same distance from the earth as at the instant of 
opposition. The next column, headed I, contains a correction 
which will be explained below, depending upon the inclina 
tion of the measured diameter to the vertical ; the column Da 
contains the concluded opposition-diameter, and the last col 
umn, the product obtained by multiplyin,<i the square of ead 
residual by the weiijht. For the polar diameter 2'//r'=0-6l77 
lor the equatorial, 0-6435 : both together =1-2 «U 2. 

tion to opf)os'iti<)n, and group the results according to the angle 
made by the observed diameter with the vertical, it at once be 
comes evident that a further correction is needed, horizontal 
Hnes bfin^ systemntically measured smaller than the same wher 

rial d'vc 

; if ^ 

.■.ke the 

1 to the vertical ^ 


210 a A. Young—Diameters of Mars. 

than 45°, we get for the mean (by weights) 20"'687±0''-028 at 
a mean angle of 72°'4. The nine nearly vertical measures, 
give 20''-730=b0"-044 at a mean angle of i9°-B. Similarly the 
ten nearly borizontal measures of the Polar diameter give 
20"-608zb0''-031 at a mean angle of 73°-8, while the nineteen 
nearly vertical measures give 20"-706±0-926, at a mean angle 
of 16-°9. No sensible difference appears hetween results ob- 
tained when the measured diameter inclines to the right, and 
those obtained when the inclination is toward the left. 

It is not certain what causes produce this difference between 
horizontal and vertical measures, but it is probably due in part 
to atmospheric dispersion, and partly to a known vertical astig- 
matism of the observer's eye. In either case the effect would 
be proportional to the cosine of the inclination, and we may 
therefore assume with sufficient approximation, that the correc- 
tion required to an observation is I=aXcos^; ^ being the 
angle with the vertical, and a a constant to be determined from 
the observations themselves. 

Approximate values of a can be obtained from the data 
given above ; thus from the two groups of equatorial measures, 
(regarding each group as a single measure) we get a=0"'l49. 
The two polar groups give a=0''-146 ; a coincidence which 
strongly attests the reality of the correction. 

It is not, however, strictly correct to treat these groups as 
single observations. The more legitimate course is to regard 
each observation, (corrected for refraction and phase and re- 
duced to opposition) as furnishing an equation of condition of 
the form 

measured diameter = true diameter-^ a cos /3. 

This has been done, and from the equations of condition, 
using the weights given, normals have been formed, in several 
different ways. 

Thus we may take as the unknown quantities ;r, s, (the polar 
and equatorial diameters) and a. Or calling c = e—7t, we may 
take as the unknowns a, t: and c, or a, e and c. Or finally, 
putting m = ^^ — , we may form our normals with m, c and a. 
Whichever of the four sets of normals we use, we get for the 
unknown quantities involved, the following values, weights and 
probable errors, viz : 

s (Equatorial Diam., Nov. 12, 1879) =r20"'634±:0"'034 ; wt. 8-92 
It (Polar Diam., " " " ) = 20'552± 0-043 ; wt. 5-85 

a A. Yoimg—DMme.ters of Mars. 211 

The introduction of the correction I reduces the sum of 
i^yMrom 1-3994 to 1-2612. 

The values of the diameters are of course not very reliable, 
being subject to the considerable constant error which alwavs 
affects filar micrometer measures. If we accept Hartwig's 
determination, 9"-352,* for the diameter at distance unity, a 
value which depends upon the whole bodv of heliometer and 
double-image micrometer measures up to 1877, we get for the 
opposition diameter of 1879, 19''-128. Comparing this with 
my mean, we find r'-46 as the constant error of my filar 
micrometer measures, a value rather unexpectedly large, but 
not unprecedented. 

_ This constant error can however have but very slight, if any, 
influence upon the measured difference of diameters, and we 
find for the ellipticity of the visible periphery of the planet, 
the value 51^= Jj. 

As the pole was 
Marth's ephemeris a 
rection is still needed to deduce the true polar compression. 
The diameter measured as polar was that joining two antipodal 
pomts in Areographic latitude 75°"5. Eecalling the formula 
tor the radius of a spneroid at any latitude, viz : 


and putting ^-= ~- we easily find e, the eccentricity of a 
planetary meridian, and from it C„, the polar compression. 

i'erforming the solution we get C„=^, ' 

as the final result of the work here detail 

its of probable error extend from y^ to -^, and so 

be judged from the observations themselves, the 

chances are more than two to one that the ellipticity lies be- 

tween . 


The work of reduction was nearly finished before the writer 
bad seen Professor Adams's recent paper upon the orbits of the 
satellites of Mars, in which he gives ^ as the ellipticity which 
the planet ought to have if it follows the same law of central 
density as the earth. The closeness of the accordance is prob- 
jo'j in considerable degree accidental, but it is quite satis- 
Princeton, New Jersey, Jan., 1880. 

, A. Gould—Use of the Sine-formula for the 

Art. XXVIL— O/i the Use of the Sine-formula for the diurnal 
Variation of Temperature ; by B. A. GouLD. 

In the " Jahresbericbt des physikalischen Centralobservato- 
riums fiir 1877 und 1878," Dr. H. Wild, the eminent director 
of that institution, has recently published some deservedly 
severe remarks upon the large amount of time and labor which 
is unprofitably spent in making observations with inaccurate 
instruments, and calculations with inaccurate or insufficient 
data. Probably there is no physicist who has occupied himself 
with meteorological studies to any extent without finding his 
attention forcibly attracted to the same considerations; and it 
would be needless to add any testimony in support of the 
general tendency of Dr. Wild's remarks. 

But to my surprise I find a foot-note appended to thera, 
which I transcribe in the original, lest I do it injustice in the 
attempt to translate : 

" Ich kannte damals noch nicht den eben erst erschienenen 
Band mit den physikalischen Beobachtungen der amerikani- 
schen Expedition der " Polaris," wo Herr JE. Bessels das Ab- 
schreckendste in ganz unniitzen Berechnungen aller meteorolo- 
gischen Elemente nach der Bessel'schen Formel geleistet hat. 
Schade urn die Zeit, die so fiir eine bessere Verwerthung der 
schonen Beobachtungen verloren ging. Die Palme der Leis- 
tungen in dieser Eichtung gebiihrt freilich Hrn. Grould, der es 
in dera erst ervschienenen, im iibrigen sehr werthvollen ersten 
Bande der * Anales de la Oficina Meteorologica Argentina ' zu 
Stande gebracht hat, fiir Buenos Aires, aus bloss 3 Beobacht- 
ungen am Tage, 4 Constante der Bessel'schen Formel zu bestim- 
men, und damit den taglichen Gang der Temperatur, des 
Barometerstandes, der Bewolkung, etc. zu berechnen." 

Had this criticism emanated from any one whose scientific 
position and services in meteorology were less distinguished, or 
whose opinions seemed entitled to less deference than is de- 
servedly conceded to those of Dr. Wild, I should not reply to 
it But, under the circumstances, I ask leave to call attention 
to one or two considerations which he has overlooked in the 
sarcastic intimation that I had undertaken to determine four 
unknown quantities from three equations. 

As answer, I might, it is true, cite the facts ; since the series 
of observations made for many years at 8 A. M., 2 P. M. and 8 
p. M. — a part of which is printed oxi pages 314 to 359 of the 
volume referred to,— were incorporated in the computations as 
well as the series made at 7 A. M., 2 p. m. and 9 P. M. One 
hour being common to both systems, it was easy to determine 
the small constant correction needed for making the two sys- 

Diurnal Variation of Temperature. 213 

terns congruous. And it will be seen that in determining the 
diurnal variation of the temperature (pp. 412-414) and its ex- 
pression bj the goniometric formula, five dailj observations 
were really employed instead of three only as stated by Dr. 

It is, however, not this circumstance which leads me to make 
a public rejoinder ; but the general principle involved. For as 
regards the diurnal barometric variation, tlie constants of the 
sme-formula have in truth been deduced from the results of 
only three daily observations. By reference to page 427, it 
will be seen that I intentionally disregarded the results of the 
two others on account of their apparent want of congruity 
with the other series made by a ditierent observer and wiih "a 
different instrument. Here Dr. Wild's implied censure might 
find application from his point of view ; and it is with refer- 
ence to this that I desire to reply. 

There are, in these cases, conditions .attendant upon the 
problem which serve the purpose of additional equations, 
l^ven were the so-called formula of Bessel to be regarded 
solely as a means of interpolation, as Dr. Wild seems to sup- 
pose it, the conditions that the daily maximum of temperature 
occurs within two or three hours after noon, and the minimum 
not very long before sunrise, furnish the requisites for deducing 
four constants from observations made at proper intervals three 
hmes a day. In determining the diurnal variation of the 
barometer, the attention of the reader is, on pugQ 427, directed 
to this circumstance, and the two hypotheses are distinctly 
stated upon which the values of the constants depend. It 
appears to me that any just criticism of the investigation must 
rather be directed against the propriety of these hypotheses, 
than against the legitimateness of the method. 

There is yet another consideration which, although not fully 
set forth in the printed volume, has guided me in the course 
which [ have pursued, and in which I purpose to continue, in 
the investigation of the climatic constants for other points in 
South America. It is that observations made at other houra 
and not very remote places accord in confirming the general 
form of the diurnal curves, which is the only hypothetical 
assumption. The observations made before the " Oficina Me- 
teorol6gic£e " was established, but especially the series which 
nave for some years been carried on at this observatory, afford 
such corroboration. The monthly means of the hourly obser- 
vations made here during the last two years are very well rep- 
resented by the sine-formula with only three variable terms. 
I he object' of the investigations is to attain a knowledge of the 
true laws. If there really are laws, they must be capable of 
expression by some algebraic formula; and numerous tests 

214 B. A. Gould^Use of the Sine-formula, etc. 

have shown thai the sine-formula affords such expression more 
conveniently than any other known to me ; so that the well- 
established general form of the diurnal curves in these regions 
affords the only requisite in addition to the three daily obser- 
vations for a trustworthy determination of the constants. The 
only possible objections to this procedure are : either that the 
diurnal curve is in fact not a true curve, or that the assump- 
tions relative to its form are too uncertain to take the place of 
an equation of condition. That, in these regions at least, both 
of these objections would be untenable it would be extremely 
easy to prove. 

in his treatise upon the Temperatures of the Eussian Empire, 
published in the Supplementary volume of the "Eepertorium 
fiir Meteorologie," Dr. Wild has taken the positions — 1st, that 
the sine-formula represents no law whatever in the diurnal 
variation, but is solely a means of interpolation ; and 2d, that 
the mean daily changes of temperature cannot be expressed by 
any simple curve. And he gives practical expression to these 
opinions by totally abandoning the employment of all general 
formulas, even for those places where the observations are 
made hourly. It is apparently in advocacy of this, singular 
doctrine that he has made the scarcely < '"'"' 

which prompt the present remarks. 

Even were the f( 
tion, I cannot see how m tliis respect t 
draughtsman could be more correct. Yet it would seem that 
Dr. Wild intends to assert this, and that he believes that the 
moments of mean daily maximum and minimum can be better 
determined by graphical approximation than by numerical 

Far be it from me to object to graphical methods. There is 
no doubt of the fact that in various investigations for which 
much more nicety is requisite than is attainable in determining 
atmospheric temperatures, such methods are most serviceable. 
But, so far as my knowledge extends, it has never before been 
asserted that they afford greater accuracy than numerical ones. 
And, putting this question aside, how can the excessive 
minuteness with which the temperatures at given moments of 
local time at the various stations have been referred to moments 
of Gottingen time, by reductions calculated to hundredths of 
a degree, be supposed to afford a corresponding accuracy, 
unless there be reason to suppose that the observations were in 
general really made at the instants recorded, — that the clock 
even was always sharply determined, the observers unfailingly 
punctual, and at least the observed tenths of degrees reasonably 
trustworthy. (See '* Supplement Band," p. 86.) In such cases 
we cannot even suppose a compensation in the errors of obser- 





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S 1 00 





i|??'"" -'■■' 







































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: i = 

216 B. A. Gould— Use of the Sine-formula for the 

vation, inasmuch as the effect of a given error in the time dif- 
fers at different seasons. Yet, in spite of all this, these insig- 
nificant minutise seem to be thought worthy of application to 
data obtained bj the free hand of a draughtsman, rounding off 
errors in the observations, while the representation and generali- 
zation of the results by a formula accompanied by an exact 
exhibit of its discordances from the several observations, is 
deemed inadmissible. 

If the epochs of daily minimum, as deduced from monthly 
means of hourly observations by the two methods, differ (as at 
Katharinenburg, for example) by amounts varying between 
+57 and -71 minutes, I cannot 'agree with the distinguished 
author in attributing a large share of such discordances to 
errors occasioned by the use of Bessel's formula ; nor even in 
preferring the results of the graphical method. It seems much 
more probable that the phenomenon ought to be attributed to a 
very different class of influences. It is at least certain that 
what the draughtsman obtains without gauge or measure in 
equating out a series of data, the formulas will afford together 
with accurate indications of the probable errors. Yet if in the 
numerical computations the manifest uncertainties and contra- 
dictions of inaccurate data may not be equated out, while on 
the other hand, the draughtsman's line may be boldly drawn 
across and through all such irregularities, it is highly probable 
that this latter method may furnish a line which represents the 
true law with a nearer approximation. Wtien not too many 
terms are employed, the general formula gives correctly what 
the graphical process only gives approximately; and by a 
glance at the residuals the computer sees what additional 
degree of accordance with the data may be attained by the 
introduction of an additional term. Finally, upon the hazard- 
ous assumption that all the data are faultless, so that only an 
accurate interpolation is needed, any number of observations 
may be represented with absolute precision by the formula. 
Yet recourse to a computation in which twelve variable terms 
are used to represent twenty-four hourly observations is xeij 
nearly equivalent to a declaration that the computer believes no 
periodic law to exist. 

That entirely similar discordances present themselves be- 
tween the times of maxima and minima, as obtained by the 
two methods, for other stations than the one cited can cause no 
surprise. The only surprising fact in the case is that the 
inference should have been drawn that the employment of a cy- 
clical formula is inadmissible even when it represents the entire 
series of observations within the limits of reasonable error. 

Still retaining the hypothesis already mentioned regarding 
the character of the service rendered by the sine-formula, a 

Diurnal Variation of Temperature. 217 

great advantage must certainly be derivable from a general 
expression which absolutely represents such observations as 
exist, even though it might not be demonstrably correct for 
intermediate moments. Objections may be urged against the 
abuse or improper application of such a formula, but there is 
certainly a legitimate use for it. An empirical periodic func- 
tion can be made to represent any number of observations of 
any periodic fluctuation, provided the number of constants be 
equal to that of the independent data. Whether it does or does 
not, at the same time represent the true law throughout its extent 
IS a separate question. But surely the attainment of a general 
expression which represents the available observations is most 
important, since the higher terms serve to make manifest the 
degree of confidence to which the lower ones are entitled. 

If, however, with an inferior number of constants, a satisfac- 
tory representation can be obtained, we have an argument to a 
corresponding extent, that the periodic variation does in fact 
follow the law expressed by the formula. This ceases to be 
simply an implement of interpolation, whenever the number 
of Its constant is less than is logically required by the data 
and the conditions which it adequately satisfies. Consequently 
II the coefficient of the third term is small in a formula which 
well represents a given number of observations, we have thus 
a measure of the trustworthiness of the preceding terms, and at 
the same time are informed what epicyclical term suffices to 
satisfy the existing series. But when a large number of suc- 
cessive observations, in all parts of tiie cvcle can be sufficiently 
well represented bv a small number of terms, this foot gives 
evidence that the law is l)V the formula. This 
IS the only basis for a legitimate application of Bessel's formula 
to the diurnal variation of teniiierature. If it represents the 
true law, it ought to be used, since it affords the most general 
and convenient expression. 

f he monthly means of the hourly observations of tempera- 
ture at Cordoba have been found capable of representation with 
great accuracv by sine-formulas with only three variable terms, 
ibe average mean discordance for a single hour, since Novem- 
ber, 1877, is 0-28° or scarcelv greater than the error to be 
apprehended in a single observation, when all sources of error 
are considered. For the barometer this discordance is less than 
U-0o°. We have thus tlie ev i.lonee that the formula represents 
the true law of nature with cIom^ ni^proxinvition • and tlie de- 
gree of approximation is furthernK)iv attested bx the character 
^f the residuals, irresnectivc of tlxMr maur.itude. ' If the mental 

218 B. A. Gould— Use of the Sine-formula for the 

fully justifiable to employ a similar formula for discussing a 
small number of daily observations made at places not too 
remote and in which the topographical conditions are not too 
difierent. The results so obtained thus far fully confirm this 
view, and especially those relative to the variations of tempera- 

In his treatise on the temperature of the Kussian Empire, 
Dr. Wild arrives at a conclusion which he expresses as follows 
(p. 95): "For interpolating omitted hours, especially those of 
the night, the formula of Lambert and Bessel can,' — according 
to Theorem 11 regarding the form of the carve of the diurnal 
period in the temperature, — only be applied, at most, for en- 
tirely maritime climates. For all places of which the situation 
is in any degree continental, it must be toJ:ally rejected, on 
account of the sudden bend in the curve at the time of sun- 
rise, which it is only capable of representing by the employ- 
ment of very many terms (10 or more), even for complete series 
of hourly observations." 

That this conclusion does not hold good for Cordoba will, I 
think, be manifest to any one upon inspection of the preceding 
table, which exhibits the residuals between the monthly means 
of hourly observations and the corresponding values afforded 
by the monthly sine-formulas with four variable terms. Cor- 
doba is situated about 400 miles from the La Plata in a straight 
line, and about 620 from the Atlantic, its position being pre- 
eminently continental. Buenos Aires, however, for which 
t my use of the sine-formula is so sharply censured by Dr. 

Id, is a seaport. 

The residuals which result from the use of only three varia- 
ble terms are by no means important, though of course some- 
what larger than those given in the table. There is a certain 
tendency to grouping of their signs by triplets which shows 
that the fourth term may be added with advantage ; yet neither 
their order of magnitude nor the fluctuation of their signs gives 
token, even in this case, of any such discordance between the 
formula and the true law of variation as Dr. Wild thinks be 
has discovered for the Kussian stations. Here at least it may 
be said of the daily curve, "Natura non facit saltum." As 
regards the magnitude of the residuals, no one can be more 
conversant than Dr. Wild with the numberless influences 
which, in spite of every care, affect the accuracy of observa- 
tions, nor yet with those analogous ones in the varying and 
intricate combinations of transient atmospheric conditions, 
whicli by their perturbations throw a veil over the true funda- 
mental law. And I think he cannot fail to acknowledge that 
the true law is here expressed by the sine-formula closely 

Diurnal Variation of Temperature. 219 

enough to justify its employment for places in this region 
where the number of daily observations is very much smaller. 
In order to show the relative as well as the absolute amount of 
residuals, I have appended the mean amplitude of the observed 
daily variation for each month. 

Finally I am quite ready to concede that, although the mean 
daily variation in Cordoba follows with much regularity the 
law expressed by a few terms dependent upon sines of anglea 
proportional to the time of day, it is by no means improbable 
that in higher latitudes and ditferent circumstances this may 
not be the case ; inasmuch as the simplicity of the law and its 
corresponding formula may there be essentially affected by 
perturbations which are not manifest here. Yet even in such 
case it would be difficult to justify, either from a scientific or 
from any other point of view, such remarks as those cited at 
the beginning of this article. 

If the efforts of meteorologists to raise their study to the 
rank of an exact science are to attain that success for which the 
progress during recent years justifies a hope, this can only be 
accomplished through the aid of algebraic generalization. The 
frequent misuse of a method affords no argument against its 
legitimate employment. 

I could wish that these few remarks might tend to convince 
the eminent Eussian meteorologist, that in his zeal against the 
misuse of the so-called Bessel formula, he is in danger of taking 
a backward step and obstructing the progress of meteorology 
DJ opposing his great influence to the custom of algebraic gen- 
eralization, which is a necessary condition for the advance of 
the science from the descriptive to the exact stage. Yet even 
though this hope should prove unfounded, I cannot but think 
that he will perceive the very great injustice which he has done 
to my work. Although there is, under the especial circum- 
stances of the case, a certain grim humor in the imputation of 
a needless waste of time and labor in deducing illusory results, 
■i shall not allow myself to be drawn into any personal consid- 

•^ut in any case, I must express the earnest hope that the 
comparatively modern usage of generalizing meteorological 
'■esults to the utmost by means of algebraic formulas may be 
stimulated and encouraged in every way. 

'-ofdoba, Argentine Republic, November 9, 1S79. 

220 W. J. Comstock — Chemical Composition of Uraninite. 

Art. XXVIII.— On the Chemical Composition of the Uraninite 
from Branchville, Conn.; by W". J. CoMSTOCK. (Contribu- 
tions from the Laboratory of the Sheffield Scientific School 

The composition of uraninite, or pitchblende, has never been 
satisfactorily established, although' the formula UjO.^UO, 
+ 2U0„ suggested by Eammelsberg, has been generally ac- 
cepted. The presence of the other elements, shown in the dif- 
ferent analyses, has been explained by assuming that the 
material analyzed was impure. Professors Brush and Dana ob- 
tained during their recent explorations at Branchville,* small 
isometric crystals having a specific gravity of 9-22-9-28, which 
reacted with the fluxes for uranium, and yielded upon reduc- 
tion before the blowpipe a globule of lead. They identified 
the mineral with uraninite and suggested the probability that 
the lead entered into its composition. The material for analysis 
was handed to me by them. 

The crystals occurred in a small vein in albite ; there was 
nothing with which they could be confounded, and hence the 
purest material was available for analysis. A few crystals had 
a thin yellow coating, probably of uranium phosphate. The 
crystals were all octahedral in habit, in most the planes of 
the dodecahedron appeared, and in a few cases, those of the cube. 
The mineral is readily soluble in nitric acid, yielding a yellow 
solution, but it is not" acted upon by hydrochloric acid. It de- 
crepitates on heating and gives off* traces of moisture. When 
heated strongly in an open tube it has a very slight acid reac- 
tion on litmus paper. An analysis showed the mineral to have 
the following composition : 

The uranium, lead and iron were separated and weighed 

according to the ordinary methods. The water was driven ott 

by ignition and determined by absorption in a calcium chloride 

tube. The oxygen was determined by decomposing the ni'ii' 

* This Journal, III, xvi, 35, July, 1878. 

W. J. Comstock— Chemical Composition of Uraninite. 221 

eral with sulphuric acid in a sealed tube and titrating with a 
solution of potassium permanganate, thus affording with the 
uranium, lead and iron determined, all necessary data for calcu- 
lation. That this method can be employed with accuracy in 
presence of both UO, and UO3 was first proved by experiment- 
ing upon pure \Jfi^. The best results were obtained by boil- 
ing the sulphuric acid used to expel the air, and displacing the 
air in the tube by CO, before sealing. The following are the 
results obtained. 

Taken. Found. 

1. -5160 U3O, containing -1655 UO, -1647 ITO, 

2. -5016 U^O^ " .-...-1608 UO^ -1599 UO, 
Assuming the state of oxidation in which the lead and iron 

exist in the mineral, the percentages of UO,and UO, can be cal- 
culated from tbe data furnished by the permanganate titration. 
The most probable assumption is "that they exist as PbO and 
FeO, replacing the UO, by equivalent amounts of (PbO), and 
(FeO),. The analysis then becomes : 



"1 which the E represents tetrad uranium replaceable by two 
atoms of lead or iron, and K, hexad uranium. 

. At is also possible that the iron exists as Fe,0„ which, like 
pitchblende, crystallizes in the isometric system. But under 
that supposition, the ratio of 3 : 2 would "not be essentially 
When the mineral is heated in air, it is to be expected that 

When the mineral is heated in air, it is to be expected that 
'e uranium would be oxidized to the state of U,0„ and the 
on to Fe.O,. Calculated from the analysis, the gain in weight 
Y this oxidation wo-^l^ nmr^nnt tn 1 -4.8 nftr ciRiit its weiffht In 

'rmining the w^at( 

t more after ign: 

's 1-45 per cent. 

t. JocTB. Sci.— Third 

wouia amount to ito })er cent its weight 
^ater, the mineral was found to weigh -57 . 
gnition : this, added to the water expelled. 

222 N. D. C. Hodges— Mean Free Path of a Molecule. 

The mineral may then be considered as a basic uranous uran- 
ate, in which the basic uranium is replaceable by lead (and 
iron). That the uranium exists in pitchblende as U,0„ has 
been assumed without proof; the only related crystallized 
mineral heretofore analyzed is the questionable uranoniobite of 

Scheerer, who gives 15-6 p. c.=PbO,I 

The acid reaction shown in the tube is unexpl 
first attributed to sulphur, but by careful 
could be detected. 

),0, and SiO„ and 2-7= 

The free path of a molecule is dependent on the amount of 
obstruction it meets with, on the density of the medium. Meyer 
gives for the mean free path on page 308 of his Kinetische 
Theorie der Gase, L=z: — ^^N^*' "^^^^ ^ ^® ^^^ number of 
molecules in the unit volume. 

I consider the length of path in a medium of variable den- 
sity. At the surface of a liquid, if there is no sharp transition 
from the liquid to the gaseous state, we shall have a succession 
of less and less dense vapors from where there is liquid to the 
surrounding atmosphere. The layers V (fig. 1) are what I refer 
to. The depth of these vapors, is of course, much magnified. 

I propose to find the pressure upon the particle, p, when the 
surface of the liquid is plain and when it is spherical. Taking 
molecules moving with any definite velocity, they will reach /> 
and give it an impulse, when they are at a distance from p less 
than their mean free path. Now, the particles from below come 
from denser layers than those from above. A greater number 
will come from below than from above ; there will be a tend- 
ency to drive p upward. To find this tendency, we must find 

M R a Horiges— Mean Free Path of a Molecule. 


how much denser the lower layers, from which molecules im- 
pinging ovL p come, are than those above, from which particles 
come to^. If dp is the obstruction met bj a molecule in pass- 
ing vertically upward through a single layer, — ^will be that 
met in the direction at an angle ip with the vertical. The 
integral — --_ /^' cip gives the obstruction met bj the mole- 
cule from one end to the other of its path. This integral 
must be constant, for the length of path is independent of the 
direction. As the differential of the obstruction is the same as 
the differential of the density, 

COS q}J cos g) 

when /?„ is the density at the point p and /)„ that at the other end 
of the path. As ^'~^° = h, tl 

proportional to cos (p. The pressure on p is proportional to this 
aifference, and the resultant component in the upward direc- 
tion to cos' (f. r r 
When the surface is spherical (fig. 2), each element of the path 

offers an obstruction expressed by /^ , . for the parts be- 

^ ^ cos (9 - \a) 

low p, and by ^^^ ('^+i^) f^^ ^^xose above p, a is the angle 

between the radius of curvature at the point » and that to the 

other end of the path, f-^a is the mean value of the angle 
between the direction of the path and the normals to the surfa- 
ces of equal densitv for the parts below p, and (p+^a the corre- 
spondmg angle for" those above;?. 

Integrating, -^JZB^ = ;, ^^^KtZ^ This shows that, 
^' cos((^-|a) co^{cp+^a) 

wnereas the difference in density above and below was the 
same for a plane surface, in the case oi curved surfaces the 
pressure from below is greater, and that upward less. Or the 
pressure from below is greater, and that from above greater, 
i-his must cause a greater density at p. 

224 2V: D. a Hodges— Mean Free Path of a Molecule. 

The tendency for a particle to move from the liquid into the 
surrounding atmosphere is due to the difference in density of 
its liquid and of its vapor. For small changes in the density, 
the change in this tendency may be assumed as proportional 
to the change of density. It must be found what change in 
density takes place oX -p. As the change in density is due to an 
increase of pressure on p^ this increase must be equal in all 
directions. So it is only necessary to consider one direction. 
Take the direction tangent to the curved surface at p. The in- 
crease in pressure is, therefore, proportional to the difference in 
density of the layer through/ and that through h, or to the 
length fh. It is evident that ^ =^, when r is the radius 
of curvature, and L the length of the mean free path. 

„ - the change of tension ^L 

Hence we have -t—l ■ ^ ^. ■, j — = — - 

the tension of the vapor at plane surface r 

Sir William Thomson has shown that the change in tension 
at a curved surface is equal to the pressure of a column of the 
vapor of the height to which the liquid would rise in a capillary 
tube of a diameter of twice the radius of curvature of the sur- 

In a tube of diameter 1-294'^'° water rises to a height of 
23-379=-^. The data for the calculation are : 

Weight of a liter of water vapor (at 100° C.) -80357 grams 
" " mercury 13-579 " 

Tension of water vapor at 20° C. 18-495""" 

The height of a column of mercury equivalent to the column 

The first factor is the fraction of a liter of mercury which 
a liter of water equals. The second reduces the height of this 
to millimeters. The third gives the result at 20° C, supposing 
the vapors to follow Boyle's law. The fourth is the fraction of 
a liter there was to be considered. 

The expression for the mean free path in these surface vapors 
is then 

^^= '^*^I3;579 ' ^^^' ~760^' T8l'9^ ~T^ '' "^ '^^^' 
This gives L = -0000024""". 

If the law according to which the density of the vapors vary 
with the depths was known, the free path of a molecule in a 
gas at the ordinary pressure could be found. 

Physical Laboratory, Harvard College, Cambridge, U. S. A., January 27, 1880. 

W. Ford — Western Limit of the Taconic System. 

for July, 1871), Professor Dana' has repeatedly urged that the 
Troy Primordial beds, together with those of Bald Mountain, 
Washington County, aod their equivalents farther northward 
m Vermont and Canada, should not, in strictness, be referred 
to the Taconic, inasmuch as they were added by Dr. Emmons 
to his Taconic System several years subsequent to its original 
definition, and upon insufficient grounds. In this view I have 
always acquiesced, partly because of its essential justness, and 
partly because of the endless disputes and controversies which 
Its adoption seemed to me calculated to prevent. In my paper 
referred to, tlie Troy beds are spoken of by me as part of the 
laconic System, not, however, as a believer in the system, but 
because they appeared to me to have a better right to this title 
than to any other that had previously been applied to them. 
I he Taconic System, as a svstem distinct from the Silurian, 
has appeared to" me from myWliest knowledge of it, of ques- 
tionable standing ; but the chances in favor of its general ac- 
ceptance seemed to me quite as good so long as it rested within 
the limits originally assigned to it. In extending his system 
westward, in 1846; from Petersburg, K Y.. to the Hudson 
-Kiver, Dr. Emmons certainly had the remarkable uniformity of 
dip andconformability of the rocks over the region studied in 
his favor; but when he found himself under the necessity of 
assuming an inversion of the whole system in order to get the 
blacK slates of Bald Mountain (in which Trilobites had then 
recently been discovered) at its summit, grave doubts were 
justly raised respecting the correctness of his interpretations. 
I have no doubt that, to many, this assumption in itself (the 
typical region considered bv Emmons being not far from 45 
miles wide), has all along been regarded as practically fatal to 
toe Taconic cause. We now know, thanks to the earnest and 
enlightened researches of Wing, Dana, Billings, Dale, and oth- 
ei's, that the true Taconic rocks represent the Champlain Di- 
^•I'^ioii at least from the Calciferons to the Hudson River group 
i|"'l'i>iv(>, aiHl possiblv the division entire: but with regard to 
jlx' -Nnnli-an.i-Sonrl. l>Ht added to tl.oni in 184(5 y^ny that lying 

226 Scimtific Intelligence. 

my mind, one of Dr. Emmons's greatest services to the cause 
of science was his recognition of the great stratigraphical 
break running east of the Hudson River by which the Primor- 
dial rocks were made to stand above those at the top of the 
Lower Silurian, and his advocacy of it in spite of the adverse 
paleontological determinations of Professor Hall, who referred 
the whole at first to the Hudson River group, and subsequently, 
at least in part, to the Quebec. Dr. Emmons's pronounced 
antagonism to the Hudson River doctrine grew, in this case at 
any rate, out of his appreciation of fundamental differences ; and 
for this signally good work, notwithstanding the failure of his 
favorite system, he should ever receive, it seems to me, the 
grateful recognition of all workers in the department. 
New York, February 5, 1880. 


I. Chemistry and Physics. 

xpenments on tne 
vapor-density of chlorine at high temperatures. The plntinous 
chloride which w^as used was heated in a boat. After the opera- 
, this boat contained a rod of solid coherent platinum sponge, 

naving tne lorm oi tne vessel. Kemoved witn care, n 
was almost precisely that calculated from the PtCl^. 
of sublimed or crystallized platinum could be detected. As to 
the experiments of Troost and Hautefeuille, it is difficult to see 
how platinum heated to a yellow heat in chlorine, is perceptibly 
volatile, due to the formation of platinic chloride, since platinic 
chloride is completely dissociated at 600° C. As in all similar re- 
actions, time is of course an important factor ; but the author 
found that a weighed quantity of platinum heated for an hour to 
about 1570°, in an active current of dry chlorine, lost scarcely 
one per cent. Hence it can scarcely be supposed that the quan- 
tity of metal volatilized during the few seconds required for a 
vapor density determination, with no gas current, would be at all 
appreciable.— /?er. Berl. Chem. Ges., xii, 2199, Dec, 1H79. 

2. On the Action of Pho.'^iiei>e, ynn on Anu>u,><la.—Y\^^'^o^ 

when phosgene gas (COCl.^; nct^ ii|.i'n nifitn-inia, witli n view to 
ascertain whether the urea coiit.iiin d in if is the (.r<liii;ir_\ form of 
this body or an isomer of it. Tor the ].rr|Mr:iti(>n. ihc tun thor- 
oughly dried gases were hi-ought t'tgctlicr in l,i?g<' tl;Hk''>, the 
phosgene being prepared by parsing carlK)ti()Us oxide through 

Chemistry and Physics. 25 

boiling antimonic chloride. A portion of the white solid was e: 
amined by Bouchardat's method, and crystals of guanidine sii 
phate were prepared from it. Another portion wa8 evaporated t 

with CO^, evaporated and dic^ested with absolute alcohol. On 
evaporation of the alcohol crystals were obtained having all the 
appearance of urea. Treated with sodium hypobromite and hy- 
pochlorite, the nitrogen evolved was nearly twice as much with 
the hypobromite. Evaporated with silver' nitrate, silver cyanate 
crystallized out. Heated in a tube, ammonia was evolved and 
the residue gave a strong reaction for biuret. Heated to 40° 
with urea ferment, its solution became alkaline and gave off am- 
monia. Nitric acid and mercuric nitrate gave their characteristic 
reactions. Hence the substance obtained is identical with ordi- 
nary urea. Direct tests showed that this urea existed as such iu 
the original white powder, and hence rendered it probable that 

Its isomer, the symmetrical carbamide CO -j -jo-u* is not formed 
m the reaction. — J. Ghem. /Soc, xxxv, 793, Dec. 1879. g. f, b. 

3. On the Hydrocarbon Fluoranthene. — Fittig has published, 
in conjunction with Liepmai^tiv, a second paper upon fluoranthene, 
a hydrocarbon discovered by him in 1875 and described in 1878. 
It occurs among the more solid products of the final distillation 
of coal tar, and has the formula C,JI,„, intermediate between 
phenanthrene 0,^\^^ and pyrene C,gH,„. Separation from pyrene 
by the fractional crystallization of the picrates being tedious, 
f'-actional distillation in a partial vacuum was resorted to with 
success. The vapor density of the pure fluoranthene was 6-638, 
theory requiring 6-574 for C„H,„. On o.xidation with chromic 
acid, diphenyleneketone-carbonic acid is the principal product, 
mixed, however, with a quinone. By- conducting the (operation 
with care, a mixture is obtained on the filter, of the acid, the 
quinone, and the unattacked hydrocarbon. Removing the acid 
with sodium carbonate and dissolving the residue in hot alcohol, 
long, flat, ruby-red, brilliant needles of a compound of the 
qumone with fluoranthene C,JI,0^-f(C,^H,„), separate on cooling. 

i'lsr the hydrocarbon. The quinone crvstallizes from :ilcuh<.l in 
•^mall red needles, fusing at 188°. D'ii>h.'nyIcnek(<-arb<,ni<- 
»'id resists oxidation energetically, and hiiue may be prepared 
ironi the crude product from the press. Treated with fuming 
nitric acid at a gentle heat it gives mononitro-diphenyleneketone- 
carbonic acid. " Fused with'' potassium hvdrate, it gives iso- 
Oipheni. a.a. C„H. < gg"}} o. \ '^^f.f^^^l which o„ o.i<,a. 

acid yields a carboxyl derivative ofdiphenylenemethane (fluorene), 
which the authors call fluorenic acid ' '^j'^^^^^. This acid, dis- 
tilled with lime gives the hydrocarbon fluorene ^ h''^^^"' ^^' 
idation by chromic acid destroys fluorenic acid, but with perman- 
ganate in an alkaline solution, diphenylene-ketone-carbonic acid 
is formed. From these data the authors assign to fluoranthene 

the formula A TT " , and to diphenyleneketone-carbonic 

acid X TT _cOOH' i^o^^ip^^^^c acid being as above given. — Lie- 
big's Ann., cc, 1, Dec. 1879, g. f. b. 

4. On the Introduction of Hydroxyl by Direct Oxidation.— R. 
Meyer and A. Baur have examined the possibility of converting 
cumene-sulphonic acid into an oxyacid by direct oxidation while 
its isomer, propyl-benzene-sulphonic acid resists this action. Nor- 
mal propyl-benzeue was converted into the sulpho-ncid, and this, 
first into the barium and then into the potassium salt. The lat- 
ter, submitted to permanganate, in solution of potassium hydrate, 
gave only carbonic acid, the greater part of the salt remaining 
unchanged. Cumene from cuminic acid was converted into 
cumene-sulphonic acid, and the potassium salt was submitted to 
oxidation as in the previous case. A product resulted which was 
markedly more soluble in alcohol than the salt used, and which af- 
forded on analysis the formula C„H^ -j g^^^ • Consequently the 
oxidation had resulted in the substitution of an atom of hydroxyl 
for one of the hydrogen atoms in the lateral isopropyl chain, pro- 
ducing oxypropylbenzene-sulphonic acid C,H^ i SC?^^^' ^^^"^^ 
results are a new confirmation of the view that only hydrogen 
atoms which occupy tertiary positions can be changed into hy- 
droxyl by a direct oxidation, the isopropyl group containing one 
such hydrogen atom, the propyl group none. — Ber. Berl. Chem. 

bodies ot the iormula C^H^Br^ ; one acetylene dibromiae, anu mt 
other dibromethylene. One of these bodies must be symmetrical 

and have the constitution || ; the other must be unsymmetri- 

cal, and be || . Arisohiitz has demonstrated that it is the 

acetylene dibroniide which is symmetrical, and hence, by ^"^^r" 
ence, the dibromacetylene must be unsymmetrical. To estabhsn 
this question experimentally, Demole has made use of the fertile 

Ohemisiry and Physics. 229 

discovery of Friedel and Crafts, that aluminum chloride remark- 
ably facilitates the substitution of a hydrocarbon radical for a 
haloid element, and mixed together 28 grams dibroraethylene 
with 150 grams benzene, adding gradually to the mixture from 
50 grams of Al^Cl^, Hydrobromic acid was disengaged, 
■ ■ On fractioning the hydrocar- 
ollected, one boiling from 270° 
to 200 ', and the other above 850". The former was an oil, color- 
less, highly refractive, of an agreeable odor, having the formula 
("„n,,,, or that of stilbene or dipiienyl-ethylene. Us boiling point, 
:iiid its state as a liquid show it to lie the (lis>^vnietrical stilbene 
<»f llepp. To prove this dissynietry still further, it was oxidized 
with chromic acid, saturated with sodium carbonate, and the 
< rystallized sodium salt distilled. The substance obtained boiled 
at '-Mi5°-300°, crystallized on cooling in large white rhombic 
prisms, fusing about 48°, and was therefore pure benzophenone, 
^'0 ] ^V•}{^— ^w/^. ^or. Ch., II, xxxii, 547, Dec. 1879. G. f. b. 

thesriichens tfien 1 

Scieritific Intelligence. 

spheric oxidation in a manner hardly to have been expected, 
tie part of coal in very fine powder take three or four parts 
e mixed alkali-carbonates. Mix intimately in a platinum 
and heat at first gently, using alcohol in place of gas to avoid 
ulphur of the latter. Raise the heat very slowly, not reacli- 
1 visible red until the surface of the mass becomes faintly 
. Then heat to a faint red, and keep it there for an hour, 

when the n 

J ass wi 

[11 be nearl 

y or quite white. It is then t 


with water 

•, filtered, and t 

he sulphuric acid determined 

in the 

filtrate as usual. 

The com 

plete CO 

mbustion of coal and o 

oke at 

so low a temperai 

ture is noticeable. 

The carbonate seems t 

no chemica 

1 actioi 

ti in the ca 

se, but £ 

ictB mechanical! Y, appareiitlv 

the spaces ' 


m the part 

icles all( 

Dwit.ff a draft of air, a 

nd the 

proceeding from the bottom toward the top. 




; no loss of 

■ sulphur 

, and comparative test* 

3 prove 

the results 

to be J 


The con 

.plete roasting process occu- 

pies about 


ir and a 1 


Chem. Soc, xxxv, ISt 

;, Dec. 

8. A Theoretical and Practical Treatise on the 3famifacture 
of Sulphuric Acid and Alkali, with the Collateral Branches ; by 
George Luxge, Ph.D., F.C.S., Professor of Technical Chemis- 

I, pp. 658, 8vo. (John Van Voorst).— Dr. Luu.,., 

on Sulphuric Acid, explains in full detail, not only the practical 
steps of the manufacture, but discusses, as only a good chemist 

The' work is illustrated with plans drawn to scale, of every part 
of all the apparatus required, and such clear directions as to con- 

that the book is a complete guide to the mauufacturor. 

Since the first decade of this century, when sulphurous acid 
was first conveyed in a continuous stream into the lead chamber, 
and the steam jet was introduced, and the operation thus made 
uniiitermittent,'the main features of this, the most important of 
all the chemical industries have remained unchanged. Hut the 
ingenuity of mamifactiirers has found ample scope in discovering 
other sources of sulphur than crude brimstone, and devising suit- 
able furnaces for burning them in, and in contriving mean'* tor 
reducing to the utmost the loss of sulphur and nitrogen. li'^>'] 

other metallurgical products, have displaced brini^t'uu' m itio>f 

yiehl of copper allows of a verv K 
sulphur contents. Of this import.' 
000 tons are imported annually int 

Chemistry and Physics. 281 

rily for the manufacture of acid ; but 20,000 tons of metallic 
cop])cr arc extracted from it by leachinj^^ — a not inconsiderable lye 
product. Dr. Lunge expresses surprise that similar mineral, 
which he supposes to abound in many localities on tliis side the 
Atlantic, has not here also taken the place of brimstone. The 

1st works of the \] 
m, Ur. Lunge offi 
mtages and di^ad 

—is the best method of add- 
node of preventing its loss, 
used to absorb by means of 
irig from the la'^t chamber ; 

:)inion prevalent that if the 

of Durham, 
the present 
York. 18K0. 

much good. The editor, Professor Church, has brought the 1 
down to the present time, but throughout, as he states, with the 
design to respect both the method and style of the original work. 

10. " Why the Air at the Equator is not Hotter in January than 
in July ;"" by A. Woeikof (St, Petersburg). — In Nature, vol. xxi, 
p. 129,* Mr. Croll gives bis reasons why the equator is not much 
warmer in January than in July, notwithstanding the greater 
nearness of the sun at the former season. To state the case briefly, 
he, having recalled the fact that the whole earth is colder in Jan- 
uary than in July, because in the former the cold winter of the 
northern (or principally land) hemisphere coincides with the mild 
winter of the southern (or principally water) hemisphere, he con- 
tinues: "Consequently the air which the equatorial regions 
receive from the trades must have a higher temperature in July 
than in January. The northern is the dominant hemisphere ; it 
pours in hot air in July and cold air in January, and this 
effect is not counterbalanced by the air from the opposite hem- 
isphere. The mean temperature of the air passing into the equa- 
torial regions ought therefore to be much higher in July than in 
January, and this it no doubt would be were it not for the coun- 
teracting effects of eccentricity." And further : " There is another 
case which must also tend to lower the January and raise the July 
temperature of the equator : the northern trades pass farther south, 
and consequently cool the equatorial regions more during the 
former than the latter season." 

I maintain that there is no such influence of the northern trades 
on the temperature of the equator, becau';e thev scarcely any- 
where reach it, and then hecni'^e the lower latitudes of the north- 
ern hemisphere arc lu-t colder in .Innuary ihan thos(. of the south- 
ern hemisphere in ,!iil\. /// f/'u \ll<iiiti<' tin ii(.i-tJi>rn Iradts do 
not reach the eqiialnr af it/l ;,, J./nthw;/, Imt <n\\\ in Fel)rnary, 
March and April, iin.l tlii-^ hiil in llic western purt of tiie ocean. 

alone'the trades an' regular. In ihe Western Pacitic, as well as 
in the Western In<lian' Ocean, I admit that air from the nortliern 
hemis])here reaches to the equator and somewhat beyond in Jan- 
uary but not that this tends to give the equator a lower tempera- 
ture in this month than in July. According to Dove, rlie mean 
temperature of 10° N. in January is V7°-2; of 10° S. iis ,liily. 7t)°'l- 
So far as the temperature of the equator is concent* <K tl'^' south- 
ern is the dominant hemisphere, and the equator is ceitMinly coolfd 
by winds coming from the south. If the equator i> n<it eviTV- 

" This Journal, FeV 

Chemisiry and Physics. 23^ 

year, there is scarcely any difference at all between the months 
Somewhat to the south of thft equator, where to the difference in 
the nearness of the sun is added a much greater height above the 
horizon in January, we have — 

80, by the^first-rate observations of Batavia, it is established that, 
80 far as 6° S., January is 1°-1 colder than July, because the former 
18 very rainy, while the latter has little rain. Even to 9° lat. N., 
July is colder than January, if the former has much more rain, 
80 for example- 
Fernando Po, W. Africa, 4° K 79"-9 16^-5 March to November, 
bondokoro, Upper Njie, 5° n. 81°-3 IS""! April to August. 
Freetown, W. Africa, 8^" N. 80° -4 77°-0 June to October. 
Thus, in the lowest latitudes of the northern hemisphere, we 
find differences amounting to A°-6, while in the southern greater 
differences than I'^-l are not known, which may, to a certain 
F.!*^' I^V^^^^^^*^^^ ^^ ^^^ nearness of the sun in January. 

1 that, as to what we call the temperature 
if the lowest stratum), it is, on the equator 

, -o — land south f'-^"" '^ ^^^i- nxM^r-t. \^^'^nor\(>lM^ 

t>y the yearly distribution of clouds 

The resu 
:new the temperature of the whole h 

The heating of the"ipper'Vurfacro?tire'crom^ by tlu' 
especially the heat liheratcd in the condensation' " 

r as to the effi-ct of winds in cooling the equatorial regions 
lering them habitable, as they would be too hot for man 
the cool air brought from the temperate regions. I think 
II has enormously over-stated the effects of winds on the 
tare of the e(iuator. The extent of the tropical zone is so 
^ tompi'rature so very near to that of the equator, the 
liiHi l.l.nv :icn.>s it m) o-fi.tle, that I n-n^dcr the effect of 

to the full force of the northeast monsoon from the China seas, 1 
a January temperature above 77°. Clearly the thermal eiFect e\ 
of the cold winter monsoon is scarcely perceptiVjle farther soutl 

I consider water to be the only direct cause of the mildness a 
uniformity of equatorial temperatures, and this in three ways 
(1) by the great heat-capacity of water ; (2) by the clouds whi 
interpose a screen between the sun and the surface of the earl 
(3) by the evaporation of rain-water by the soil and plants. 

The first cause is especially powerful on the ocean, while t 
two latter act especially on land, even very far from the sea. 

especially on land, even very fa 
:he clouds and evaporation, how 

it was not for the clouds and evaporation, how could we explain, 
for example, the absence of great heat (hottest month, 78° O) at 
Iquitos, on the Amazons, 4° S., and more than 1,000 miles from 
the Atlantic, where the winds are generally weak? 

As to the winds, I admit of their eiFect in this ease; but (1) in 
causing ocean currents, and thus removing the heated water from 
the equator; (2) in spreading the cold air from over the cold cur- 
rents over a greater distance. The latter is the cause of the low 
temperature in the equatorial regions of the Eastern Atlantic and 
Eastern Pacific. 

Where the sky is clear and humidity and rains deficient, very 
high temperatures of the air are attained, even at a great dis- 
tance from the equator (10°-30°) and this notwithstanding winds 
of considerable force blowing from coole 
pie, the north winds blowing hi ' 
coming from the cooler Meditern 
the trades of the ocean and y 
attaining a higher temperatui 
region,— JVature, Jan. 15. 

11. Report on Magnetic Determinations in 3Iissouri in the 
Summer of 1879; by Francis E. Nipher.— The magnetic sur- 
vey of Missouri, commenced in 1878, was continued during the 
summer of 1879. Observations of the declination and inclination 
of the needle, and of the horizontal intensity, were made at a con- 
siderable number of new stations. The report gives the methods 
employed and the results of the observations in detail. A map 
is added giving the isogonic lines for both Missouri and low's, 
those of the latter State being based upon the survey by Dr. G- 
Hinrichs. These isogonic lines exhibit remarkable flexures, wIik'" 
are believed to bear an intimate relation to the .li-iiinaue systems 
of the two States. Prof. Nipher offei-s the followinir c'X[)lanati.>n : 

Assuming the existence of earth-cuiTents of electricity, t'l*^ 
general direction of which is from east to west, they 'list iiinite 
according to well-known law-, Howiiiu- in ur",ite^; (]i.:niMiy 
through the lines of least r(•^i^t;mee. Tlu m:iL;neti<- nei-lle i''i"l- 
to set at right angles to the cni-reiit, li>lln\\iuu tlw u ril-kii<)\s n l.i\\ 
■ ' Vby Ampere. Where li.e g, neral .lireeti-.i. of the m-'i-^t 

ley 18 at nght 
netic needle, the position ol the latter is n 
dency of the needle is to set at right angl 

Chemistry and Physics. 

tricity. In such a valley (a , 

between Jefferson City and the mouth of the river), the direction 
of the needle should be normal, the direction in which the water 
flows being without (appreciable) effect. Where the river runs 
at right angles to the earth currents, the disturbing cause would 
be practicallv removed, as there would be no deflected component 
of the earth current along the river vallev. 

The maximum effect is produced in the case of rivers making 
an angle of 45 degs. with the general direction of the earth cur- 
rents. Of course, this effect would be most marke.l where the 
river and valley are very large, as in the case of the ^lississippi 
and Missouri, or where w-e have an immense drainage system 
consisting of long rivers and creeks running parallel and in the 
proper direction, as is the case on the eastern slope of Iowa. 

Whether the explanation above suggested be the true one or 
not, the deflection of the 11° and ]0°"irnes to the east in the west- 
ern part of Iowa, the abrupt bends between St. Joseph and Kan- 
sas City and between Glasgow and Jefferson City, the westward 
l)ending of the 8° and 8° 30' lines in the Osage Valley as com- 
pared with the 9° line in the same latitude and the remarkable 
flexures in eastern Iowa, are all in harmony with it. 

12. V.iriaf!<j),s in the 3Iagnetic necliuation deduced from obser- 
mtums made <it Moncalieri {Piedmoiit) from 1871-78.— The con- 
clusions de.luce.l by R. P. Fr. Denza in 'relation to the variations 
01 the ma.,.netic declination in Piedmont are as follows: The 

inean monthly variation of the declinat 
iJecember. It increases at tirst slowlv. 

ry, and then more rapidly from Februarv to April. Tlie largest 
values are attained in April and June, the first of which is a little 
the larger. In the intermediate month of May there is a sensible 
diranmtion of the value. After attaining the maximum in June 
there is a second diminution during July and August slowly, and 
^ore rapidly in the autumn months to December.— Cowjo^e^ 
Rendiis, Jan. 12. 

13. On a new action of Magnets on Electric Currents; by 
J^- H. HALL._In a letter from the author, received by the editors 
since the article on pp. 200-205 was printed, he states that the 
values of M, the strength of the magnetic field, given in the 
article should be multiplied by a constant factor which is nearly 
2. The precise value of this reduction factor cannot be given, 
but the change does not affect the main conclusions arrived at. 
->lr. Hall adds that he hopes in a month or two to publish more 
exact numerical results in regard to the new action as observed 
la several diflerent metals. 

Scientific Intelligence. 

II. Geology and Mineralogy. 

1. Geology of the Hio Mo Francisco, Brazil— ^Slr. O. A. 
Derby, of the Brazilian National 3Iuseum, bas recently l»eeii 
making, in company with a party of government engineers, a geo- 
logical examination of the Jiio Sao Francisco, from the falls of 
Paulo Aftbnso, to Januaria. From the latter place Mr. Derby was 
to proceed to Kio cle Janeiro overland, by way of the rich mineral 
districts of Minas Geraes. The latest news from Mr. Derby is 
contained in a letter, dated near the city of Barra, on the 8ao 
Francisco, November 9, 1879, which giveis us a few genera! statf- 
ments of interest, as to the result of his observations up to that 
time. From Paulo Affonso, the ascent of the river for eighty 
leagues was made in canoes, and then a small steamer was pro- 
cured to accomplish the remainder of the journey. Cretaceous 
fossils, similar in character to those of the fresh-water basin of 
Bahia, were discovered in abundance, in the sandstone formation 
about Paulo Alfonso. Leaving the sandstone region, they trav- 
eled for a long distance through a gneiss region, with occasionnl 
patches of itacolumite. This was succeeded by a region, com- 
posed mostly of itacolumite, which extended as far as they had 
gone ; but two days out from the city of Barra, they came upon 
the horizontal limestones of the upper river, which Mr. Dei-by }»ro- 
posed to study with great care, in order to determine their gooh-u- 
ical age. So far they had yielded no fossils, but Mr. Derby wa^ 
hopeful of finding at least some remains, as the beds are ^■ory ^v^ U 
developed in certain localities, yet remaining to be visitc.l. I" 
closing, Mr. Derby remarks : " One thing is certain, we have ^ot 
to give up the great Tertiary depression and greatly extend the 
area of the Cretaceous. I find that many of the beds, which have 
been described as horizontal and undisturbed, have really suf 
fered upheaval, and are far from horizontal over large areas." k- 

2. Age of the Taconic rocks and Geology of Vermont, accord- 
ing to Professor (J. H. Mitehcock.—Froiessors Edward and <-'• 
H. Hitchcock, in describing the Taconic system (the slates, lime- 
stones, quartzyte, etc.) in the Geological Report of Vermont, aifcv 
treating of its distribution, its rocks and its fossils, and apparently 
referring it on account of the fossils to the Lowe r Silurian, have, 
next, a closing section (on pages 446, 44V) headed PrcsniupttO't--^ 
in favor of the Taconic System, and in this section the conclusion 
is formally stated that the Taconic Svstcm underlies the Lo\vi'r 
Silurian. _ I was led, therefore, in pre}>;uiiio- the bibliographioal 
note published on page \b?j of this vohimc l;uid -ilso in the new 
edition of my Manual of Geology, page h:\7i) lo place the Vermont 
Report with those works that make tiie TaconI<- I)e<is pre-Siiuri:in, 
as I had previously done when writing my articles on \'erinont 
geology. In a letter from Professor^ C. ' 11. Hitchcock, <lHtt''' 
February 10th, he states that the "Presumptions" were introduced 
"as a brief expose of the Taconic System, couched in such 

Geology and Mineralogy. 237 

e used." It is with great 

1 and cite, f 

the same letter, the fact that "there is nothing in the Report any- 
where favorable to Taconism," although, as he also writes, it does 
not refer the system distinctly to the Lower Silurian, except in 

■ °*"* nt of paleontological facts that really support this 

the earlier pages, 251 to 257, Professor Edward 

litchcock gives a section through the Taconic region and i 
8 to the folds which accord fully with this opinion. 
He says also that at the time when the fossils were discovered 

and submitted to Professor James Hall, just before the public 
tion of the Report, it was Mr. Hall's opinion that the quartzyte 
was the Medina sandstone, and that the Taconic group was 
mostly above the Lower Silurian, and hence the reference of some 
of the fossils — none of them very distinct specimens— to the 
Upper Silurian. 

Professor Hitchcock also says, in the recent letter to me, after 
remarking on his disbelief in " Taconism :" " Within the past two 
years I have gone over most of the Vermont sections, and have 
felt that they demonstrated the essential equivalence of the 
Taconic system with the Potsdam and the overlying limestones 
and slates [of the Lower Silurian]. I have been throughout in 
essential accord with you and Mr. Wing." He adds that Mr. 
Wing's views had been his for years. 

Ihia important correction was not received until after mv 
article on the age of the Green Mountains (p. 191) was printed, 
or else this note would have been attached to it. J. d. pax a. 

}■ A Monograph of the Silurian Fossils of the Girvan Dis- 
trict in Ayrshire ; with special reference to those contained in 
the " Gray Collection," by H. Aixetne Nicholson and Robert 
J^THERiDGE, Jr. Fasciculus n. Trilobita, Phyllopoda, Cirripedia, 
and Ostracoda, pp. 137-233, with plates x-xv. Edinburgh and 
London: 1879, Wm. Blackwood & Sons. 

4. 0?? Spodumene and its Alterations, from the granite veins 
V Hampshire County, Massachusetts.— yU: A. A. Julikn has 
published recently (Annals N. Y. Acad. Scl, Nov., is;!)), a valua- 
ble and extended memoir on spodumene and tin- rtsiilts ol its 
alterations. The two localities which are particularly desciihed 
are those of Goshen and Chesterlield, Massachusetts. Analyses 
oi pure and unaltered spodumene from these localities yielded the 
results given below. No. 1 was from the Levi Rarrus farm in 
Goshen; specific gravity = 3-19. No. 2 from Chesterfield Hol- 
low; specilic gravity =3-185 and 3-201. 

BiOs AUO, Fe^Oa MnO MgO CaO Li^O Na,0 K^O H,0 
J 6.3-27 23-73 1-17 064 2-02 Oil 6-89 099 1-45 0-3fi = 10063 

^^ 61-86 23-43 273 1-04 V55 0-79 6-99 0-50 1-33 46 = 100-68 

These closely agreeing analyses correspond very nearly to the for- 
niula Li,Al,Si,0,„ for which the quantivalent (= oxygen) ratio 
Am. Jour. Scx.-Third Series, Vol. XIX, No. IH.-March, 1880. 

238 Scientific Intelligence. 

for R : ft : Si = 1 : 3 : 8. This is the same formula recently de- 
duced by Doelter (see this Journal, xvii, 333, 1879), and though 
diifering from the one before accepted, agrees with that obtained by 
Brush in an early analysis of the Norwich (now called Huntington) 
spodumene in 1850 (1. c. II, x, 370), The true composition of 
spodumene may consequently be accepted as established beyond 
a doubt. Mr. Julien remarks very justly that the specimens pre- 
viously analyzed had doubtless suffered partial alteration, bringing 
with it*a duller color and an inferior luster, translucency, hard- 
ness and specific gravity. 

Much of the spodumene from the two localities mentioned, 
is altered into cymatoUte. This name was given to a similar 
mineral from Goshen by Shepard, but the imperfect analysis 
published, with later that of Burton, left doubt as to the niie 
composition of the species. This point has been very satisfacto- 
rily determined by Julien. The Goshen variety of cymatolito, 
previously called aglaite by the same author, occurs only as a 
continuation of the square prisms of spodumene, sometimes six or 
eight inches long, not as a coating over them. The structure is 
micaceous, the lamination flat, rarely undulating, and always in 
the plane of the orthodiagonal cleavage of the original spodumene. 
The laminae are brittle but the thinner scales are flexible, some- 
what elastic and transparent ; they often project slightly beyond 
the sides of the crystal. The physical characters are: luster 
silvery to satin ; color white ; feel soft ; hardness = 1 -5 ; specific 

The Chesterfield variety is much more abundant. It occurs 
forming the whole, or with the original mineral a j)art, of crystals 
of enormous size; one is mentioned which was 35 inches in leiiffth 
while still lying in tht- vein and with a diameter of 10 to 11 inclie^. 

In thu smaller crystals the plane of foliation is usually at riu^l't 

ate from a central T)lant 

' ill the 

' crystals 


1 are comi)l( 

tere.l ; 

but in the larg, 

or ones. 

, within 

a thir 

1 radiating ( 

this ki, 

■Kl, the folia gene. 

•allv coi 

iform to 

the cei 

iitral plane o 

a<re of 

■ the spodumene 

and a 


1 foli: 

ition often 


mes a core of blac 


' (killi 


-crystals; ^\l,iU. 

laro-ci- ci 


the core con 


lene often uith I 

as ;, thir 


^\ nni-r. 

)\i1(' i-c 



in tlie 

larger pscn<lom<>^ 
specific graNity 

rphs n, 



. ■ The hanl 
a- brittle. ' 




te ; 1, fr. 

.,n tlu 

. Manning f 

2 from 

the liarrus farn 

"i, both 

^ froni Chej 


SiO, Al,O.Fe,0„ 

Mnf) MgO CaO I 

.1,0 Na 

,0 K.O n,o 

.^^_.... ^.^^ ^^^6, A1^03 24-99, Na,0 15-09, H^O 1-46 =100. 
It is shown that the formula is the same as that of spodumene ex- 
cept in the protoxide elements present and the additional molecule 
of water. Mr. Julien also describes in detail the microscopic 
characters of cymatolite, and from the fact of its greater atomic 
volume as compared with spodumene, argues that the process of 
alteration must have been accompanied with the exertion of a 
great pressure, the results of which are believed to be observed in 
many cases in the distortion of the pseudomorphs. 

As mentioned above the variety of pinite called Mllinite also 
occurs as a pseudomorph after spodumene, though more sparingly 
than cymatolite. It has a foliated texture, retaining the cleavage 
of the original mineral. Hardness = 3-5, sp. gr. = 2-623-2-652. 
Luster dull and greasy to vitreous, the latter on the cleavage 
planes. Color greenish-gray to olive-green, also greenish -black ; 
feel greasy. An analysis of the mineral from Chesterfield Hollow 
(G. = 2-623) yielded 

SiOs AUO, FeO MnO CoO MgO CaO Li^O Na.O K,0 HjO 

46-80 32-5-2 2-33 0-04 0-04 0-48 O'lT 0-32 0-78 7-24 766 
Organic matter ri4 = 100-12. 
For tl.i<; the formula H K AI Si O is obtained or H,K,Al,Si,0„4- 
2aq. The original killinite is from Killmcv n:i\ in In'lan.l; it 
corresponds closely with the Clic^terfichl (wincriil. 

In addition to the above pseudomoq^hN ..i1h i-s aflci spo-hun- ne 
are described which consist-— ( 1 ) of vein ar'init, , niadf up <-t' mu- 
j:Ome,^albite and quartz with large- cymatolite ^r'""'"; J^;;;^;''! 
hundred pounds or more in weight ; (2) of greenish-yellow munco- 
^'ftf, more or less intermixed with cvmatolite, it sometimes occur- 
ring only in mirnite, disseminated scales, and in others making up 
the whole of the pseudoniorphous crystal, retainint; the form and 
^tnations of the spodumene. The^e and the intermediate varieties 
are regarded as the results of intercr\stallizati(.n ot tlii \^^<> miu- 
ei-als, m the process of alteiation: (:i) ofaldih, gcnu-ally inter- 
mixed with musco^ ite and quartz: (4) of u/f^rrfz: tii-M. p-ua.. 
morphs are rare and while ret-xinino- xhv form of t !ic >.i i^ii'al 
mineral contain more or less mica. The la-t two lonn- lu ni. n- 
tioiied as varieties of (l) above. 

-vir. Julien closes his verv interestin<r paper \\illi -^n. n >u iik- 
'V the paragenesis of spodumene and the di.n-.icier oi t'l. .ilt. ra- 
iion which has resulted in the formation of tlu j.^ui.l-.morph^ 
aescnbed. Two figures illuvtrate the nlation«- nf il,e M\.ral 

5. Crystals of WollastonlW. I'mf, ..or <). K'-.m mMition^ ti)e 
Yorr^'y oi' very large cry^iaK of uolaMonite at ' ^i '^"-J- ^ ^;__^^, 

Jf'- hn^ rd!o'!S,e!l',mSlv'i!'rtz!-'!.m^^ '-^^ '1^ ''''"''' ^' 

»rom the locality on the we.^t bank ot Vr lan l...k. . \. ^ • 

Scien HficlTntelligence. 

Ill Zoology. 
1. Fresh-water Mhizopods of Worth America; by Joseph 
Leidy, M.D., Prof. Aiiat. Univ. Pennsylvania. 324 pp. 4to., with 
48 colored plates, Washington, 1879. Vol. xiiof the Reports of 
the U. S. Geological Survey of the Territories, F. V. Hayden, 
Geologist-in-Charge : Department of the Interior. — This new work, 
by Dr. Leidy, is a very important addition to the quarto series of 
reports connected with the Geological Survey of the Territories 
under Dr. Hayden. _ It is the result of a vast amount of careful 

^er the North 

American Continent ; and the numerous plates with crowded 
colored figures are attractive for their beauty, as well as for the 
insjtruction they impart. 

Dr. Leidy 

" The objects of my work have 
represented in the illustrations, and" so interesting as indicated in 
their history which forms the accompanying text, that I am led to 
hope the work may be an incentive, especially to my young 
countrymen, to enter into similar pursuits, * * * ' Going fishing ?' 
How often the question has been asked by acquaintances as they 
have met me, with rod and basket, on an excursion after materials 
for microscopic study. ' Yes,' has been the invariable answer, for 
it saved much detention and explanation ; and, now, behold, I 
offer them the results of that fishing. No fish for the stomach, 
but as the old French microscopist, Joblet, observed, 'some ol 
the most remarkable fishes that have ever been seen ;' and food 
fishes for the intellect." 

These fresh-water Rhizopods are of special interest to the phi- 
losopher, as w^ell as the naturalist, because they belong to the 
lowest division of the animal kingdom — the higher section of the 
Protista of Hseckel— and yet are very decidedly animal in their 
characteristics, and wonderfully complex in their animal functions. 
As Leidy states (p. 5) : 

" The soft mass of protoplasm, or sarcode, forming the essential 
part of all Rhizopods, has no internal cavity like the body-cavitv 
of higher animals, neither has it a mouth like the higher Protozoa, 
nor has it stomach or intestine. Without trace of nerve elements, 
and without definite, fixed organs of any kind, internal or exter- 
nal, the Rhizopod— simplest of all animals, a mere jelly speck- 
moves about with the apparent purposes of more complex^ crea- 
tures. It selects and swallows its appropriate food, digests it and 
rejects the insoluble remains. It grows and reproduces its kind. 
It evolves a wonderful variety of distinctive forms, often of the 
utmost beauty; and indeed, it altogether exhibits such marvelous 
attributes, that one is led to ask the question in what consists the 
superiority of animals usually regarded as much higher in the 
scale of life," 

Zooiogy. 241 

Dr. Leidy divides the Rhizopods into five orders : 1. Protoplasta, 
11. Heliozoa, III. Radiolaria, IV. Foraminifera, and V. Monera ; 
agreeing in this with the views of Professor L. E. Schulze, as 
brought out in a recent Number of the Archiv ftlrMikroscopische 
A^.. :_ /^g^^^ 21). The Protoplasta and the Monera « 
ikel'sPrc ■ " • " - ■ " 

spond to Haeckel's Protista. Excepting a few of the Mi 

fresh-water Rhizopods belong almost'entirely to the 

and Heliozoa. All the fresh-water species described by Lei< 

Rhizopods belong almost'entirely to the Protoplasta 
Hiiu nenozoa. All the fresh-water species described by Leidy are 
of these two groups, excepting one Foraminifer, named by Leidy 
Gromia terrieola, the genus Gromia being exceptional among 
Foraminifera in that it is represented by several species inhabiting 
both salt and fresh water. The Protoplasta include the genera 
Amoeba, Difflngia, Nehela, Arcella, and others ; and the Heliozoa, 
Actinophrys, Heterophrys and others allied. With regard to 
Monera he says, " though Professor Hgeckel has indicated and de- 
scribed a number of fresh-water species, I am not sure that I 
have had the opportunity of finding any of them, excepting per- 
haps the genus Vampyrella of Cienkowski, which he ascribes to 
the same order." 

Dr. Leidy's experience enab 
tion as to the localities of thef 
collecting them. The following paragraphs taken from pages 8 to 
11, are a part of his observations on these subjects: 

"Fresh-water Rhizopods are to be found almost everywhere in 
positions kept continuously damp or wet, and not too much 
shaded. They ate especially frequent and abundant in compara- 
tively quiet waters ; clear, and neither too cold, nor too much 
heated by the sun, such as lakes, ponds, ditches, and pools. They 
are also frequent in wet bogs and savannas, among 
springy places, on dripping rocks, the vicinity of 
springs, and fountains, and in marshes, wherever the 

are also 

) promote the growth of algae. They 
- - - - : algae, liver- 

of sedges, rushes and gra 

: damp shaded places, among s 

or those of shrubs and trees growing in or at the borders of bogs 
and ponds or along ditches and sluggis 
likewise to be found \^ith algfe in da 

depressions and fissures of rocks, in th , 

decaying logs, among raossses and lichens, on the bark of j 
ing trees, and even in the cr 
old dwellings and in cities. 

'The favorite habitation of many kinds of Rhizopods is the light 
superficial ooze at the bottom of still waters, where they hve m 
association with diatoms, desmids, and other minute algae, which 
torm the chief food of most of these little creatures. They never 
Penetrate into the deeper and usually black mud, which indeed is 
almost universally devoid of life of any kind. 

"lihizopods also occur in the flocculent materials and slimy 
matter adherent to most submerged objects, such as rocks, the 
dead boughs of trees, and the stems and leaves of aquatic plants. 


242 Scientific Intelligence. 

A frequent position is the under side of floating leaves, such as 
those of the Pond-lily, Nymphcea odorata ; the Spatter-dock, 
JSFuphar advena ; and the Nelumbo, Nelumhium luteuni. CtT- 
tain kinds of Rhizopods, especially the Heliozoa, or Sun-animal- 
cules, are most frequent among floating plants, such as Duck-meat, 
Lemna j Hornwort, Ceratophyllum • Bladderwort, Utricularia ; 
id the various Confervas, as Zygnema, Spirogyra^ Oscillatoria, 
' ' "" ^ ^ ^ictyon. 

[ found Rhizopods of the kind under 
consideration in such profusion, number, and beauty of form as in 
sphagnous bogs, living in the moist or wet Bog-moss, or Sphagnum. 
Sometimes I have found this particular moss actually to swarm 
with multitudes of these creatures of the most extraordinary kinds 
~ ■ " ------ - - ■ ,, A drop of water 

3 often yielded scores 
of half a dozen genera and a greater number of species. Fre- 
quently, however, the Sphagnum of many localities contains com- 
paratively few Rhizopods, though I have rarely found them 

have not observed to be specially favorite habitations of the 
Rhizopods, not even such aquatic kinds as the Fonti) talis.'''' 

In water squeezed into a watch crystal from a small bunch of 
Dr. Leidy obtained thirty-e ght species. 
i mode I have habitually adopted for collecting Rhizopods, 
which is also equally well adapted for collecting many other 
microscopic organisms, plants, and animals, is as follows : 

For ponds, ditches, or other waters, I use a small tin ladle, or 
dipper, such as is commonly employed for domestic purposes. 
Into the handle I insert a stick of convenient length, and for this 
I usually carry with me a jointed pole of two or three pieces, each 
about five feet. The dipper is used by slowly skimming the edge 
nlong the bottom of the water so as to take up only the most 
superficial portion of the ooze, which is then gently raised from 
the water and transferred to a glass jar. A small hole in the 
bottom of the ladle favors the retention of the collected matenal, 
but care should be taken that it is not so large as to permit the 
material to stream through. After the collecting-jar is full, it 
more of the material is wanted, after allowing that in the bottle 
to settle, I pour ofi" a portion of the water and supply an addi- 
tional quantity from the locality. 

"Usually, I have proved more successful in obtaining Rhizopods 
from the ooze near the shores of lakes and ponds than I have in 
deeper water; but this I suspect was mainly due to the circum- 
stance that near the shore 1 could see the ooze at the bottoin of 
the water, and could much better manage to collect the desired 

" Aquatic plants, if rooted in the mud, should be carefully cut oif 
and gently lifted from the water so as to disturb as little as 
possible the adherent mateiials. A sufiicient quantity being 
placed in a tin preserving-can or other vessel, water from other por- 
tions of the plants may be squeezed upon that which is retained. 

Zoology. 243 

" Wet Spbagnum may be collected and put in tin preserving-cans, 
and the water of other portions may be squeezed upon the portion 
preserved. The same process may be pursued with otlier mosses. 

" From the surface of the ground in wet places, to collect the 
Rhizopods, it is sufficient to scrape up, with the broad blade of a 
knife, the green algous material with which the animals are 

With regard to localities of marine Foraminifera along coast 
regions, he remarks, p. 17 : 

"Sea-sands contain as an important constituent the dead shells 
of recent Foraminifera, though in very variable proportions. 
They are generally most abundant in the sands of warmer lati- 
tudes, and especially on shores profusely furnished with sea- 

"Plancus,* who, according to D'Orbigny, was the first to 
describe and figure the shells of Foraminifera, counted 6000 indi- 
viduals in an ounce of sand from the Adriatic. D'Orbigny esti- 
mated that there were 160,000 in a gram of selected sand from 
the Antilles. Schultze gives 1,500,000 as the number he found 
in fifteen grams of sand from Gaeta on the coast of Sicily. 

"Even on the comparatively barren shores of New Jersey, con- 
sisting of quartz sand, foraminiferous shells occur in notable 
quantity. In a portion scraped from the surface between tides, 
at Atlantic City, I estimated that there were 18,700 shells to the 
ounce avoirdupois, all of a single species of Nonionina. In 
another sample, from Cape May, I obtained 38,400 shells to the 
ounce, likewise of the one species. 

' In sand collected by scraping up the \ong white lines on the 
bathing beach at Newport, Rhode Island, occupying an indenture 
M the rocky coast, covered with sea-weeds, foraminiferous shells 
were found to be much more numerous, but, excepting in the case 
of some examples of Miliola, of smaller size. In an ounce of the 
sand, I estimated that there were about 280,000 shells, of several 
genera and species." 

One of the most remarkable forms described in the book is the 
L>inaia(x,ba mirahiUs, from the Cedar swamps of New Jersey, rep- 
resented bv manv figures on plates 6 and 7. h is commonly 
oream-white or greenish-white in color, but «>potted often with 
.^reen, brown, an.V yellow, all the colors, exceptinir the white, being 
'''u- t(M he food-balls, whicli arechiefiy the I)c'snii<K, I)'nl>/in<>priuta 

Scientific Intelligence. 


ments of Dinai 
and the subula 
did not exist." 

Another species of peculia 
buff-colored, or straw-colore 

The species of Nebela, particularly N. collaris, JV. hippocrepis 
and N. ansata, are of special beauty ; but we must refer to the 
work with its plates, for the facts respecting these and the various 
other kinds. The book is adapted to the uninitiated i 

Dr. Leidy says, " In the coarse of its p 
id ray pupils in mind, a 
nal aid to their studit 

[•have always had ray pupils in mind, and I shall be glad 

that it is well adapted to this and its higher purpose. 

The work closes with a Bibliographic appendix, containing the 
names of authors of works and memoirs on living Rhizopods and 
lists of all the species they describe, together with the synonymy 
so far as giving the names of the same adopted by him. 

2. Zoology for Students and General Headers ; by A. S. Pack- 
ard, Jr. 8vo, 719 pp. 544 cuts. New York : 1879. (Henry 
Holt & Co.)— This work is one of the best of the various manuals 
of Zoology that have recently appeared, and is decidedly better 
adapted for use in the class-room and laboratory than most of 
them. The general treatment of the subject is good, and the 
descriptions of structure and the definitions of groups are for the 
most part clear, concise, and not so much overburdened by tech- 
\ several other manuals of structural Zoology now 

of the various groups. Somewhat detailed accoun 
omy of various common representatives of the more prominent 
groups, both of vertebrates and invertebrates, add much to the 
value of the work for laboratory instruction. These are illus- 
trated by good, original figures, showing the more prominent 
anatomical features. The dissections of vertebrates, and the fig- 
ures illustrating them, are by J>r. C. S. Minot. The illustrations 
are throughout copious, and generally good and well-selected, 
though mostly borrowed from other works. 

The classification adopted is, for the most part, nearly in accord- 
ance with the more recent European writers, and not very different 
from that of Huxley's recent works. One feature, that of dividing 
the " Crustacea " into two great groups, Neocarida and Falao- 
carida, is of very doubtful utility. If such a division be neces- 
sary it would seem better to adopt the name Crustacea for the 
former group, as has been done by others who have proposed the 
same division (under the name Merostomata), and to have given 
a new name (if. any be needed where several are in use) only to 
the group cut off from the Crustacea, But it is doubtful whether 

the PalcBocarida, including, as it does, Trilobites and Limuloids, 
can be maintained, with our present knowledge of the former, as a 
natural group, while it has been fully shown by the anatomical 
researches of A. Milne Edwards and others that Limulm is not a 
Crustacean, in any proper sense. The Fyaiogonida have also 
ip, remarkable for so many 
iliarities is dismissed in three 
lines (p. 360), as a family of ntites! But the Pycnogonida would 
not, by any means, go vinder the definition of the sub-class Arach- 
nida, much less into the order A carina, for many of them have 
a larger number of limbs than any true Arachnida. The dilation 
and relaxation of the limits and definitions of Insecta so as to 
mclude, not only the Arachnida, and Pycnogonida, but also Peri- 
patiis, seem to us objectionable. The introduction of Mollusca 
between the Vermes (including Annelida) and the Arthropoda 
does injustice to the exceedingly close relationship existing be- 
tween the Annelida and lower forms of Crustacea and Insecta ; 
but others have done so before. In the present unsettled condi- 
tion of zoological classification, it would be useless, however, to 
lay much stress upon the particular views adopted by any writer, 
for these views are continually changing, as discovery advances. 

A few errors, mostly of no great importance, we have noted. 
Doubtless the author will, at an early date, have an opportunity 
to correct them in a second edition. A few of the figures are in- 
correctly named : thus, fig. 74 represents Astenas Forbesii (not 

A vidgaris) ; fig, 225, is Palcemonetes mdgaris (not Crangon 
vulgaris). On page 60, Sarsia prolifera is mentioned as " the only 
example known of budding in free medusa?," the author evidently 
lorgetting several New England species that are well known to have 
this peculiarity in a marked degree and have long ago been so 
described in the works of L. Agassiz, A. Agassiz, and others. 
ilybocodon prolifer Ag., and Dysmorphosa fulgunms are notable 
examples. The statement on p. 390 that " the products of diges- 
tion do not pass through the walls of the stomach and directly 
enter the circulation, as in invertebrates," is an obvious error, un- 
less profoundly modified, by putting a small part for the whole. 
There appears to be some confusion on pp. 418 and 420 in refer- 
ence to the breeding of the " dogfish," for on the former page it 
18 said that they lay eggs, while on the latter page " the dog-fish 
i^^gifalfis Americanus)'' is mentioned. The latter produces livmg 
young, as well as the Mustehis canis. a. e. v. 

3. Das .System der Medusen {Erste HMfte des ersten TheiU: 
System der Graspedoten); von Dr. Ernst Hjsckel. i-x and 
?pO pp., with 20 plates. Jena, 1879.— Since the publication of 
Eschscholtz's System der Akalephen, an immense number of addi- 
tions to our knowledge of some of the smaller groups of Medusse 
have been made. The principal attempts to revise the classifica- 
tion of the group as a whole we owe to Gegenbaur (1856) and 
'Agassiz (1862). Their own observations were based either upon 
European or American species, and they could do but little toward 

246 Scientific Intelligence. 

clearing up the relationship of the many Acalephs described hy 
older writers in the great voyages of circumnavigation of the ear- 
lier part of this century. Up to the time of Gegenbaur and 
Agassiz a great number of young forms of free MedusiB had been 
described, either as new genera or new species entirely independ- 
ently of the study of the Hydroids and of their developmental 
history. It is easy to see that endless confusion must little by little 
have crept into the classification of the group. To reestablish 
under these circumstances a certain amount of order in the classifi- 
cation of Acalephs, an investigator was demanded thoroughly 
familiar with the Acalephs of several districts in their living con- 
dition. Agassiz and Gegenbaur, though often holding very dis- 
similar views, have greatly simplified the classification of Meduste, 
but no one has taken up the general subject since their time, 
and innumerable papers on special points of classification, anatomy 
and embryology have been published. Hseckel's System der ile- 
dusen, of which the first part is issued, is intended to incorporate 
all this material. With his extensive knowledge of Acalepiis 
obtained during frequent visits to diflPerent points of the seasliore, 
he proposes to revise the whole group, adding to the species 
already determined a great number of new species, nearly all of 
which are very effectively illustrated. 

It is very satisfiictory "to find this work of Heeckel's free from 
the abusive personalities which have disgraced so many of his 
more recent productions, and to find his investigations full of in- 
genious views, acute criticisms, and speculations based upon obser- 
vations and not upon fanciful theories. This memoir will take its 
place beside his Monographs on Radiolaria, on Sponges, and on the 
development of Acalephs, which have given Hajckel so prominent 
a place among investigators. 

It seems unfortunate that Hjeckers facility for coining new 
names should lead him to reject so frequently the established 
names of the higher sub-divisions whenever they do not have the 
identical limits he himself assigns to any group. This method 
carried to its logical conclusion will render the rejection of all 
accepted names which do not enter into the systematic or morpho- 
logical views of an author, not only necessary but imperative. 
Haeckel has no patience with systematists who constantly replace 
old names and compel the writers of the present day not to ignore 
completely their predecessors. He accuses them of needlessly in- 
creasing the existing confusion. Yet he himself ignores as com- 
pletely existing nomenclature, and in his zeal to adopt or coin 
names representing his individual views, introduces a far greater 
confusion. This extreme mctliod is not limit ctl with Iltvckel to 
the higher groups, but extends sysli-niatically to taniilies, sub- 
families and even genera, so that" it will hereafter often l)e ex- 
tremely difficult to trace the history of a o-einis or species which 
Hffickel has remove.! from r-ne place to aiiother as nrl.itrarily_ as 
the very systematist whom he so often takes to task. Tin' existing 
confusion which is so frequently his theme is indeed only increaserl 
by his own equally arbitrary proceedings. 

Zoology. 24tJ 

We certainly do not seem to gain anything either i 
or in our knowledge of the groups by having the Tubularians 
(in the widest sense) appear again as Anthomeduste or the Cani- 
panularians as Leptomedusse. Yet in the primary sub-divisions of 
the Craspedota the classification adopted by Haeckel is an advance 
upon previous ones. The position of the Trachynemidae and Cu- 
ninae has always been a doubtful one. Hseckel enters the field 
with a mass of new information, and the position he assigns these 
groups is well sustained by the evidence he advances. He has 
likewise from the groat number of Geryonidje he has himself ex- 
amined, finally cleared up the chaos existing in regard to the 
relationship of the family, and the divisions he adopts are ex- 
tremely satisfactory. The recent magnificent histological work of 
the Hertwigs, of Eiraer and others has thrown a flood of light on 
the affinities of many of the primary groups of Medusae, of which 
Hjeckel has availed himself to the fullest extent. 

It seems to us that Haeckel has needlessly increased the number 
of his families, sub-families, genera and sub-genera; this has been 
carried so far by him, that it appears almost like a satire on his 
own work, and we feel inclined to vary the question with which 
Jn a somewhat dramatic way he closes each one of his general 
ciiaptors "und was ist bei den Anthomedusen cine bona species?" 
hy another: and what is among Craspedota, a family, a sub- 
family, a genus or a sub-genus V 

It is incredible that Hteckel with his great knowledge of Medu- 
sa? should so readily transfer merely from the drawings of others 
the young of species with which he is not familiar, either into gen- 
era with which thcv have absolutely nothing in common, or estab- 
lish new genera for their reception. Haeckel also makes a number 
of imaginary corrections of others, evidently due to careless reading. 
1 may mention among them the retaining of both the Laodicei<la3 
and Melicertidae, by A. Agassiz and their relationship to the Po- 
lyorchidie, and his complete success in restoring the former confu- 
ston existing among the Thauniantiadae instead of clearing it up, 
his cnticisrns on Turris, on Obelia and Eucope which he himself 
disproves a few pat^e-, afterward by adopting the same method to 
separate those of his own genera ! 

, It sectns to have escaped Ibeckel tliat already in 1863 A. Agassiz 
^'^fid called attention to the confusion existing in the family of 

Hajcke! au-ain\^etvis%/hi^ 'iwem''wh!-n' 'lie b:i^ fi.nin d and 

248 iScientiJic Intelligence. 

analyze more closely the combination of characters of the genus, 
none of which are new, as Haeckel himself states, we cannot help 
being convinced that Hasckel has exaggerated beyond measure 
the externa] resemblance, and that there is not in Ctenaria a 
single feature characteristic of the Ctenophorae, while on the 
contrary every structural detail is met with in some other genus 
of the Tubularians (Anthomedusse). The eight ribs of lasso 
cells of Ctenaria, similar to those of Ectopleura, certainly can not, 
in our present state of knowledge, be homologized in any way 
with the locomotive flappers of Ctenophorae. Nor is the symmet- 

other genera, 

.vhere, however, the branching is not symmetrical. Nor is there 
anything in the genital organs, the stomach, or proboscis, which 
we do not find in other Tubularian genera, while we find nothing 
whatever like the above structures in any Ctenophore. And 
iinally, if we imagine the pedunculated knobs of lasso cells, of 
Gemmaria and Pteronema to be scattered along the peduncles 
we have the tentacles of Ctenaria, and when they are reduced to 
knobs on the tentacle, we have the identical structure of many of 
the Sarsiadffi and the like. But as Hffickel's specimen was an 
alcoholic one it is as yet by no means clear that the tentacles of 
Ctenaria differed in any way from those of the other Cladoneraidse. 

That the material still rer 
is well known 

and to see the immense wealth of pelagic life float by; while 
Haeckel's work shows how much progress'' could be made in our 
knowledge of Acalephs by selecting a few properly placed stations 
where Medusae could be studied advantageously. a. ag. 

4. List of Dredging Stations occupied bi/ the United States 
Coast Survey Steamers " Corwin^'''' " liibb,'''' " Hassler^'' and 
'' Blake,'' from 186Y to 1879; by Benjamin Pierce and Cae- 
LiLE P. Patterson, Su)>erintendent8 of the Coast Survey. (Bulletin 
of the Museum of Comparative Zoology, at Harvard College, 
Cambridge, Mass. Vol. vi, No. 1), September, 3 879. 

5. Ophiuridce and Astrophytidm of the Challenger E^ped^- 
tion ; by Theodore Lyman. Part II. (Bulletin of the Museum 
of Comparative Zoology at Harvard College, Cambridge, Mass., 
vol. vi. No. 2). December, 1879. 

6. The Cotton Worm ; Summary of its Natural History, with 
an account of its enemies and the best means of controlling it ; 
being a report of progress of the work of the Commission ; by 
Chas. V. RiLKT, M.A., Ph.D. Washington. 1880. (United 
States Entomological Commission. Bulletin No, 3.) 

IV. Astro:n-omy. 

1. Catalogue of the Library of the U. S. Naval Observatory. 
Part I. Astronomical Bibliography ; by Prof. E. S. H olden, 
4to, 10 pp. Washington, 1879.— this is part of a proposed Cata- 
logue of the very valuable library of the Naval Observatory. 
Professor Holden has, we understand, done excellent service in 
securing the completion and in arranging this library. The pres- 
ent bibliography is not strictly confined to the books now in the 
library, nor to the literature of observational Astronomy. It will 
be a very valuable help to those who have not, as well as to those 
who have, access thereto. 

^^ It seems to have been intended to cover the bibliography of 
Astronomy, Geodesy, Optics and Mathematics." But just as 
only in exceptional cases it has gone beyond the limits of the 
Observatory Library, so has it only partially filled these three 
branches of science" bordering on Astronomy. The author might 
have made his catalogue much more useful had he marked out a 
well defined field, however narrow, and then covered the whole 

)ooks here given lacks symmetry, and the selection 

Whifh s 

vo Imd a r 

ight to ev 

i>ect in whatever 

conios iVc 

>ni the Xa- 

That th 

Iocs not cov 

er •' (ieod, 

.sy, Optics 

," will bo 

seJn b' 

V the simple 

mention ( 

)f a few of 

Ihr pn", 




ds consult. 



•s History 

le Theory o, 

*' AttracVu 

9« aud the 

of the Fm 


u'pV h 

\port fi> 'the 

British . 


on Tal, 


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I -'•' ^' 2 ^ A'. J., a,><7 10° to 70O ±Y. (kol.,for Jamionj 1, 
T. II. Saffoki). 4°, Washington, 1879.— Thi.s Cata- 
prepared under direction of Lie^it. Wheeler of the U. S. 

250 Miscellaneous Intelligence 

Engineer Dep 
veys west 

is nearly one-fourth of the celestial sphere, being that part that is 
of use in field work. The aim has been to determine with the 
utmost accuracy attainable the declinations, and the annual pre- 
cessions and proper motions in declination, of these stars, and in- 
cidentally the corresponding elements in R. A. The logs, of a' V 
c' and d' are given for each star. For the region covered, this 
must for some time to come be a standard catalogue for the prin- 

4. Annals of the Astrono; 
lege. Vol. xi, part II. Cambridge, 
Director. — This part is a continuation of Photometric Observa 

: about a hundred i 

quif "doubfe s 


Assuming an albedo for the satellites equal to that of their 
primaries, and of the asteroids equal to that of Mars, Prof. Picker- 
ing arrives at the following diameters of some of the smaller mem- 
bers of the solar system in English miles, a result of general interest. 
Phobos 5-57" Dione 542™ Titania SSe^" Vesta 319° 

Deimos 4-85 Rhea 745 Oberon 544 AntioDB 51 

Mimas 292 Titan 1406 Sat. JTept. 

Enceladus 370 Hyperion 193 Pallas 

'^167 Eva 14 

Tethy3 570 Japetus 486 Juno 

94 Menippe 12 

Japetus varies with his position in his 

, orbit, which naturally 

leads to the conclusion that his time of rot 

nation on his axis equals 

the time of revolution in his orbit, as is t 

rue for our moon. The 

V. Miscellaneous Scientific Intelligence. 
1. The Smithsonian Institution ; Journals of the Board of 
Regents, Reports of Committees, Statistics, e^c.;' Edited by Wil- 
liam J. Rhkes. 844 pp. 8vo. Washington, D. C: 1879 (Smith- 
sonian Miscellaneous Collections, 329). — This volume has been 
compiled in accordance with the instructions of the Board of Re- 
gents to the Secretary, to have prepared and to publish a history 
of the origin and progress of the Smithsonian Institution. It 
contains the Journal of Proceedings of the Board of Regents 
from its first meeting, September la, 1846, to January 26, 1876, 
together with the reports of the Executive, Building, and Special 
Committees. It al... inclndo eulooie. ...> derca-nl nu-inbers of 

Miscellaneous Tntelligence. 251 

Company).— The first half of this work contains a life of Dr. 
Darwin by his grandson, and the remainder is devoted to a dis- 
cussion of his scientific works hy Krause. The book will be read 
Avith ai)])rociation by many, hoth in view of the interest which 
attaches to tlie general history of the Theory of Development, 
and because it shows how far the habits of thought of the older 
naturalist have descended to the grandson who has given his 

3. lUowpipe Aiiali/sfs; hy J. Laxdaukr ; authorized English 
Edition by .Iamks Tayi.oe and William E. Kay, of Owens Col- 
lege, Manchester. lUl pp. ] 2mo. London, 1870. (.Alacniillan 
and Co.)-Tho original (Jerman work, of wlii.'h tlii> is :in English 

It follows themanual'ofElderhorst^Vi'tlK'llrm 

found a useful 

ogical point of a 

■iew Tbe 

vpipe analysis ar 

e fully and 

cnient tables. It 

contains an 

actions of Dunse. 

,, and, also, 

. systematic courj 


um plate of 

d \n\ isf actorrhand-hook by 

with tlie practica 

1 use of the 

....//;,•. purr .1,, 

J .pplud. 

AvMH-iato VA\\o 


ace of tliree diiueusiou'^. by 

I'^ble alike to American sciciuT :.. 
auspices it is published. 

^''urmtive of the Fol<(r;.<. — h 
^^^ the Public Printer at \V;.-l.i 

first, orders fur the new edition 

have been sold by authority of Congress at ten per cent above the 
cost of press work and paper. 

6, Bernhard von Cotta Fund. — A request has been made to all 
the pupils and friends of Bernhard von Cotta, who died at Frei- 
berg on September 14, 1879, to join in erecting a monument to his 
memory, and in establishing a fund which shall be called the 
"Bernhard von Cotta Stiftung." The memorial stone is to be 
erected at a suitable spot in Freiberg ; the fund is intended for 
the assistance of indigent students at BVeiberg, either to enable 
them to take part in geological excursions, or in more extended 
tours, or to facilitate their studies in other ways. The advantages 
arising from this fund are to be open to all worthy students, 
irrespective of nationality or creed. 

Among the large number in America who have been friends or 
scholars of von Cotta there must be many who will take pleasure 
in responding to this appeal. The American members of tlie 
Committee are: Prof. G. J. Brush, New Haven, Ct.; Prof. F. 
Prime, Philadelphia ; Prof. Raphael Pumpelly, Newport, R. I ; 
Dr. R. W. Raymond, New York. 

v. The Naturalist^ Quarterly, Vol. i, No, 1, January, 1880, 
Salem, Mass. (Naturalist Bureau). — A popular magazine devoted 
to Natural History in all its branches. 

8. A Geological Atlas of the United States and Canada.— l^ 
is proposed by Professor C. H. Hitchcock, as the completion of a 
plan made some years since, to prepare a geological map of the 
United States. The support of those interested is called for in 
order to make it possible to carry through the undertaking. The 
responsibility of issuing the map hag been accepted by Mr. Julius 
Bien, of New York (18 Park Place), on condition that a sufficient 
number of subscribers be obtained to cover the expense. 

The base is the United States Centennial Map, revised and com- 
pleted by order of Congress. It is to be 8x13 feet, and will be 
tiimished with the geological colors, mounted on rollers, at ^50, 
or in sixteen sheets at $45 per copy. An explanatory text wiU 
accompany the map. 

9. M. Dumas. — " Nature " has published (Feb. 6) an extra 
number devoted entirely to an account of the life and work of 
M. Dumas, the eminent French chemist. The paper is prepared 
by Dr. Hofmann, of Berlin. 

10. Erratum.— In the notice of Professor Cope's memoir, on 
page 155 of this volume, the number of species mentioned in the 
eighth line should be thirty-seven instead of seven. 

Brain Work and Overwork; by Dr. H. C. Wood, Clinical Professor oi^^^- 
vous Diseases in the University of Pennsylvania, etc. 126 pp., 12mo. Philfxie'- 
phia, 1880. (Presley Blakiston.) ^ ,, 

Tfie Pathology of Mind; being the third edition of the second part of tiu 
" Physiology and Pathology of Mind," recast, enlarged and revrritten; by Hen b^ 
Maudsley, M.D. 580 pp., Svo. New York: 1880. (D. Appleton & Co.) 


A R T. XXXI. — Principal Characters of American Jurassic 
Dinosaurs; by Professor O. C. Marsh. Part III With 

six plates. 

In the previous articles of this series, the writer has recorded 
the more important characters of several groups of Dinosaurs 
irom the Jurassic deposits of the Rocky Mountain region.* In 
the present communication, some of "the peculiar features in 
the structure of the Stegosauria are made known. This sub- 
order proves to be one of the most specialized of the known 
iJmosaurs, and diflfers widely from the other groups. 

Steffosaurus, Marsh, 1877. 

The type genus of this group {Stegosaurus) may be taken as 

the representative of the suborder. Among the characters 

which at present distinguish this genus from the other known 

groups of Dinosaurs are the following : 

(1) All the bones of the skeleton are solid. 

(2) The femur is without a third trochanter. 

(3) The crest on the outer condyle of the femur, which in 
fiirds separates the heads of the tibia and fibula, is rudimentary 
or wanting, 

(4) The tibia is firmly coossified with the proximal tarsals. 

(5) The fibula has its larger extremity below. 

Vanous other important characters of the present group, 
which are shared in part by some aberrant Dinosaurs, will be 
given below. 

The Skull and Bkain. 

The skull in the Stegosauria, so far as known, was remarka- 
bly small. In its main features it agreed more nearly with that 
of the genus Hatteria, from New Zealand, than with any other 
living reptile. The quadrates were fixed, and there was a 
quadrato-jugal arch. The jaws were short and massive. 

♦This Journal, xiv, 513 ; xv, 241; xvi, 411 ; xvii, 86; and xviii, 501. 

254 0, C. Marsh — American Jurassic Dinosaurs. 

Little has been known hitherto of the brain of Dinosaurs, 
but fortunately in one specimen of Stegosaurus the brain-case 
is well preserved, and apparently without distortion. Figures 
1 and 2 of Plate VI show the form and general characters of 
this brain-cavity. The brain of this reptile was much elon- 
gated, and its most striking features were the large size of the 
optic lobes (o^), and the small cerebral hemispheres (c). The 
latter had a transverse diameter only slightly in excess of the 
medulla. The cerebellum was quite small. The optic nerve 
{on) corresponded in size with the optic lobes. The' olfactory 
lobes {ol) were of large size. As a whole, this brain was lacer- 
tilian rather than avian. A brain-cast of a young Alligator 
(figure 3) is given on the same plate for comparison. The con- 
trast in the development of the cerebral region is marked, but 
in some other respects the correspondence is noteworthy. 

In comparing the proportionate size of the brain of this 
living reptile with that of Stegosaurus, as given on Plate YII, 
the result proves of special interest. The absolute size of the 
two brain-casts is approximately as 1 to 10, while the bulk 
of the entire bodies, estimated from corresponding portions of 
each skeleton, was as 1 to 1000. It follows that the brain of 
Stegosaurus was only -^ that of the Alligator, if the weight 
of the entire animal is brought into the comparison. If the 
cerebral regions of the two brains were alone compared, the 
contrast would be still more striking. This comparison, gives, 
of course, only approximate results, and some allowance should 
be made for the proportionally larger brain in small animals. 

rcipital condyle. 
The brain of Stegosaurus ungulatus is clearly of a lower type 

0. C. Marsh — American Jurassic Dinosaurs. 255 

own sacrum.* In the latter genus, the brain was proportion- 
ally shorter, and the cerebral region better developed, as shown 
in the cut above. The absolute size of this brain as compared 
with that of Stegosaurus is about 16 to 10, the brain of the Alli- 
gator figured being regarded as 1. Taking again the body of 
the Alligator as the unit, and Stegosaurus as 1000, that of Moro- 
saurus would be about 1500. Stegosavrus had thus the smallest 
brain of any known land vertebrate. These facts agree fully 
with the general law of brain-growth, made out by the writer 
m extinct mammals and birds. 

The teeth of Stegosaurus are very numerous, and mostly cylin- 
drical in form. Those from the maxillary figured on plate VI 
may be regarded as typical. The series represented in figure 
4 consists of functional teeth in position, although separated 
from the jaw. The crowns are more or less compressed trans- 
versely, and are covered with thin enamel. The fangs are 
long and slender, and the pulp cavity is continued nearly or 
quite to the crown. The jaws contain but a single row of 
teeth in actual use. These are rapidly replaced as they wear 
out by a series of successional teeth, more numerous than 
hitherto observed in these reptiles. Figure 5, on Plate VI, 
represents a transverse section through the maxillary, immedi- 
ately behind the fourth tooth. The latter is shown in place (1), 
and below it is a series of five immature teeth (2 to 6), in 
various stages of development, preparing to take its place. 
■Ihese successional teeth are lodged in a large cavity (c), which 
extends through the whole dental portion of the maxillary. 
1 he teeth in use were loosely implanted in separate sockets, 
and were readily displaced. The entire dental series evidently 
formed a very weak dentition, adapted to a herbivorous life. 

The Vektebr^. 
The vertebrae of Stegosaurus preserved all have the articular 
faces of their centra concave although in some the depression is 
slight They are all, moreover, without pneumatic or medullary 
t;avities. On Plate VII, a selection from the vertebral series of 
one skeleton is given, which shows the principal forms. Figures 
1 and 2 represent a median cervical. The other neck vertebrae 
fiave their (•cutrn of similar length, but the diameter increases 
from the n'vi^ tn the last of the series. Some of the anterior 
cervicitis Imvr a smnll tnlxTole in the center of each end of the 
ceritra, a feature <een :i!.m) in some of the caudals. All the cer- 
vicals supported short ribs. 

256 0. 0. Marsh — American Jurassic Dinosaurs. 

The dorsal vertebrae have their centra rather longer, and 
more or less compressed. The neural arch is especially ele- 
vated. The neural canal is much higher than wide. The head 
of the rib fits into a pit on the side of the neural arch. Figures 
8 and 4, Plate VII, represent a posterior dorsal, with character 
istic features. The ribs are massive, and strengthened by 
their form, which is T shaped in transverse section. 

The sacral vertebrae are coossified, but their exact number in 
the present genus has not yet been fully determined. 

The caudal vertebrae offer the greatest diversity, both in size 
and form. The anterior caudals are the largest ' in the whole 
vertebral series, and highly modified to support a portion of 
the massive dermal armour. The articular faces of their cen- 
tra are nearly plane, and very rugose. The neural spine has an 
enormous development, and its summit is expanded into a 
bifurcate rugose head. These caudals are very short, and their 
neural spines nearly or quite in apposition above. These ver- 
tebrae have no distinct faces for chevrons. The transverse 
processes are expanded vertically, and their extremities curve 
downward. Further back, the same general characters are re- 
tained, but the centra are more deeply cupped, and the spines 
less massive. Figures 5 and 6, Plate VII, show a caudal ver- 
tebra from this region. The chevrons here have their articular 
ends separate, and rest upon two vertebrae. In the median 
caudals, the spine has greatly diminished in height, and the faces 
for chevrons are placed on prominent tubercles on the postero- 
inferior surface. The lower margin of the front articular face 
is sharp, and the chevrons do not meet it. In the more distal 
caudals (figures 7 and 8), the neural spine and zygapophyses are 
reduced to mere remnants, but the chevron facets remain distinct. 
These vertebras, as well as those further back, have their centra 
much compressed. The caudal vertebrae are remarkably uni- 
form in length throughout most of the series. 

The Fore Limbs. 

On Plate VIII, some of the bones of the scapular arch and 
anterior limbs of Stegosaurus are figured. The scapula and 
coracoid are of the true Dinosaurian type. The former has its 
upper portion rather short, and moderately expanded (figure 
1). The coracoid was closely united to the scapula by cartilage. 
It is perforated by the usual foramen, which in some cases may 
become a notch. 

The humerus (figure 2) is short and massive. It has a dis- 
tinct head, and a strong radial crest. The shaft is constricted 
medially, and is without any medullary cavity. The ulna (figure 
3) ivs also massive, and has a very large olecranal process. Its 

0. C. Marsh — American Jurassic Dinosaurs. 

fore limb, 

I. The radius is smaller than 

- , whole, was very powerful, and 

adapted to varied movements. 

The Hind Limbs. 

The pelvic arch of Stegosaurus is not complete in the speci- 
mens at present known, but its main characters agree with the 
Dinosaurian type. The acetabulum is formed bv the ilium, 
ischium, and pubis. The last was apparently directed downward 
and forward. The ischium is shown on Plate IX, figure 1. It 
has a large head for union with the post-acetabular process of 
the ilium, and a thin extended vertical margin where it joins 
the pubis. At its distal end, it was united with its fellow by 

The femur of Stegosaurus (Plate IX, figure 2) is by far the 
largest bone in the skeleton. It is remarkably long and slen- 
der. There is no distinct head, and the great trochanter is 
nearly or quite obsolete. The shaft is of nearly uniform width, 
and very straight. There is no evidence of a third trochanter. 
The distal end of the femur is peculiar in having very flat 
condyles, with only a shallow depression between them. The 
external one has only a rudiment of the ridge which passes 
between the heads of "the tibia and fibula, and is so character- 
istic of true Dinosaurs and Birds. 

The tibia (figure 3) is very much shorter than the femur. 
Its superior end is unusuallv flat, indicating that it met the 

t condyles of the femur so as to bring the 
ariy or quite into the same line. The s 

) shaft of the tibia is 
constricted'medially, leaving a wide space between it and the 
nbula. The distal end of the tibia is blended entirely with the 
convex astragalus, so as to strongly resemble the corresponding 
part in Birds. 

The fibula (figure 3) is slender, and has its smaller end above. 
Ibis extremity is applied closely to the head of the tibia by a 
rugose suture, so as" readily to unite with it. Its upper articular 
^jrface is nearly or quite on a level with that of the tibia. 
The distal end of the fibula is expanded, and in the specimen 
figured is firmly coossified with the calcaneum. The two 
coalesce with the tibia and astragalus, and form a smooth con- 
vex articulation for the distal tarsals. The latter are distinct. 
The posterior limbs were more than twice as long as those in 

. , The bones of the feet of Stegosaurus have not yet been fully 
laentified, although a number have been found. In figure 4, 
P>te IX, a motapodial bone is shown, and in figure 4, Plate 
V III, arc views of a very characteristic terminal phalanx. 

Dermal Spi:nes and Plates. 

The most remarkable feature about Stegosaurus is the series 
of ossifications which formed its offensive and defensive 
armour. These consist of numerous spines, some of great size 
and power, and many bony plates, of various sizes and shapes, 
well fitted for protecting the animal against assaults. Some of 
these plates are a meter, or more than three feet, in diameter. 

The spines were of different forms, and varied much in size. 
On Plate X, four of these are represented. All of those pre- 
served are unsyrametrical, and most of them are in pairs. One 
of the largest is shown in figure 1, which gives the more usual 
form and proportions. This specimen is over two feet (630 
mm) in length, and its fellow is of the same size. 

This spine has a rugose oblique base, and its sides are 
marked by vascular impressions and grooves similar to those 
on the bony horn-cores of ungulate mammals. It was evi- 
dently covered by a horny substance, and in life formed a most 
powerful weapon. The spinous appendage represented in fig- 
ure 2 of the same plate was very similar in form and propor- 
tions, but of smaller size. It agrees closely with its mate, 
found not far from it. Nine different spines of this character 
were recovered with this same skeleton, and others may have 
been lost 

Figure 3 represents a different kind of spine. This also 
is obliquely truncated at the base, and thus is unsymmetrical 
but its fellow has not been discovered. Its sides are flat and 
covered with vascular markings. There is a distinct ridge 
near the base, showing the depth this spine was inserted in the 
flesh. A smaller spine of the same general character was found 
near it. The small tubercular bone, shown in figure 1, Plate 
X, is very similar to the base of a spine-core, with the blade 
aborted. ' 

The position these various spines occupied in life is uncer- 
tain, as none of them were found in place with portions of the 
skeleton fitted to support them. A spine somewhat similar to 
that in figure 2 was found with the skeleton of Omosanrus, in 
England, and regarded by Owen as a carpal appendage. 
Stegosaurus may have been so provided, but the number and 
variety of the spines found with one skeleton indicate that 
various other parts were equally well armed. There are no 
indications of the attachment of spines to the tarsal region. 

The dermal plates which protected the same animal were 
much more numerous than the spines. Some of them were so 
large and peculiar that their position is indicated by the struc- 
ture of the anterior caudal vertebra, whose enormous neural 
spines were especiallj^ adapted to support them. 
* Palaeontographical Society, 1875. 

0. C. Marsh — Americari Jurassic Dinosaurs. 259 

The plate represented on Plate XI, figure 2, was perhaps a 
dermo-neural spine, which stood erect over the caudal vertebrae. 
This would imply a deep compressed tail, and of this there are 
various indications. Several other plates found near the 
caudals probably occupied a similar position. 

The largest plates discovered are similar to the one repre- 
sented in figure 3. These are unsymraetrica], and their sur- 
faces indicate that their position was on the back, arranged on 
each side of the medial line. There may have been several of 
these rows. Some of the smaller plates were discoidal in form, 
and quite thin. That shown in figure 1, is one of the smallest 
recovered. With such protection as the plates and spines 
together afforded, Stegosaurus was doubtless more than a match 
for his larger brained cotemporaries. 

In considering the afiinities of Stegosaurus, it would appear 
that the nearest known ally was Omosaurus. The fore limb, 
dorsal vertebrae, and one dermal spine are similar. The caudal 
vertebrae, however, are different, and there is no evidence that 
the latter genus was provided with plates, or that the skull and 
teeth were at all like those of Stegosaurus. They both may 
prove to belong in the same sub-order, and perhaps in the same 
family, Stegosauridce. 

The two known species of Stegosaurus were about thirty feet 
m length. They were herbivorous, and probably more or 
less aquatic in habit. It is possible that the difference between 
them was only sexual, as spines were found with only one. 

The great disproportion in length between the fore and hind 
hmbs, greater probably than in any known Dinosaur, would 
imply Ihsit' Stegosaurus was more or less bipedal in its move- 
ments on land. The very short, powerful fore limbs, admit- 
ting of free motion, may "have been well armed with spines, 
and thus used most effectively in defence. The back was 
evidently armed, as well as protected. When alive, Stegosaurus 
must have presented by far the strangest appearance of all the 
Dinosaurs yet discovered. 

The remains of the animals here described are all from the 
AtlantosaurQs beds of the Upper Jurassic, in Colorado and 
Wyoming. In bringing them to light, Messrs. Arthur Lakes, 
W. H. Reed, and S. W. Williston have rendered an important 


^^ % 




Figure 1.— Left ipohium of P!tego<^aunis ung^dntiis, \ 
ing pubis ; s, symphyai 

3.— Tibia and fibula of s; 

Figure I.— Dermal spine of Stegosau? 

*M. JOURN. SCI., Vol. XIX, ,880. 

Plate XI. 













Pip.™ 2.-De™,,l plate o!»m.-.n 

ne- twelfth ti 

Marsh; «,. superior view : h. 



Art. XXXlL—iVotice of Berthelot's Thermo- Chemistry ; by 
J. P. Cooke, Jr. 

. The new work of M. Berthelot, entitled " Essai cle Mecan- 
»que Chimique fondle sur la Thermo-chemie," presents for the 
nrst time in a sj'-stematic form the results accumulated during 
tbe past ten years from one of the most fruitful fields of investi- 
gation ever opened to the chemist. The book supplies a most 
important want, for the details of the work— published in 
numerous separate papers rapidly following each other in 
tne chemical journals— have been almost unintelligible, ex- 
cept to those who have followed the investigation from the 
beginning, and no connected statement of the general prin- 
pipies involved was accessible to the student. The work 
Ji this new field has been done almost wholly by two investi- 
gators, Berthelot, of Paris, and Thomsen, of Copenhagen. 
Guided by different theoretical views, these skillful experiment- 
ers have gone over very nearly the same ground, and their 
'united testimony, concurrent as it is in most cases, gives a 
certainty to the" results obtained which is as fortunate as it is 
unusual when the field explored is so extensive as the one we are 
considering. These two men alone could write authoritatively 
^^ the subject, and it is, perhaps, fortunate that the first pre- 
^^"^ation should come from M. Berthelot, who has the usual 
SKiIl of his nation in exposition and generalization. 

In his introduction, Berthelot enunciates the fundamental 
principles of thermo-chemistry under the three following heads : 
^- Joaa. Sci.-Thikd Sbbies. Vol. XIX, No. 112.-Apbii-, 1880. 

262 J P. Cooke, Jr.—Berihelot's Thermo- Chemistry. 

Principle of Molecular Work. 

I. The quantity of heat evolved is the measure of the sum 
of the chemical and physical work accomplished in any reaction. 

Principle of Conservation oj Energy. 

II. When a system of bodies — simple or compound — starting 
from a given condition undergoes either physical or chemical 
changes, which bring it into a new condition without producing 
any mechanical effect on external bodies, the amount of heat 
evolved or absorbed — as the total result of these changes — 
depends solely on the initial and final states of the system, and 
is the same, whatever may be the nature or order of the inter- 
mediate states. 

Prhiciple of Maximum Work. 

III. In any chemical reaction between a system of bodies 
not acted on by external forces, the tendency is toward that 
condition and those products which will result in the greatest 
evolution of heat. 

The first two of these principles are direct deductions from 
the mechanical theory of heat; but the third is a generalization, 
which Berthelot claims as original, and, if so, it is his greatest con- 
tribution to this department of the science. In the work before 
us the two first principles are discussed in the first volume, and 
this discussion, together with a description of the methods of 
experimenting and an enumeration of the numerical data thus 
far obtained, fill nearly 600 large octavo pages ; while the 
discussion of the third principle occupies a second volume 
which is still larger. We will follow the same order in the 
few remarks which the limits of a short notice permit. 

As the announcement of an almost axiomatic principle of 
tbermo-dynamics, which every investigation of thermo-cbem- 
istry necessarily assumes, the first of these general principles 
has an appropriate place at the opening of a discussion of the 
subject. In regard to heat, as in regard to other manifestations 
of energy, the total effect is equal to the sum of all the partial 
effects. But Berthelot adds to his statement of the Principle of 
Molecular Work the remark — -'This principle furnishes the 
measure of chemical afiSnities." When, however, we come to 
his discussion of this general principle, we are disappointed to 
find that the whole subject is summarily dismissed without 
giving the reader any clear conception of the distinction be- 
tween the two modes of change whose results are so inextricably 
blended in all chemical processes. . , 

Were we able to distinguish between chemical and physical 
change, the first principle would undoubtedly give us a measure 
of what we might then clearly define as chemical affinity or 

J. p. Cooke, Jr.—Bertheht's Thermo- Chemistry. 263 

chemism. Not only, however, is it, at present, impossible to 
eliminate from our results the effects of physical changes ; but, 
moreover, when we study the details of the chemical processes 
with which we are most familiar, we are surprised to find to 
what a large extent the thermal effect depends on the changes 
in the obviously physical condition which the process involves. 
For example, in the formation of hydrogen gas from diluted 
sulphuric acid and zinc, the passing of a solid into a liquid, on 
the one hand, and the development of a gas from a liquid, on 
the other, involve physical changes which very largely control 
the amount of heat developed in the process, and, therefore, 
also according to the third principle, control the process. In- 
deed, as is well known, all chemical action ceases as soon as 
the water becomes saturated with zinc sulphate, although a 
large excess, both of sulphuric acid and of zinc, may be present. 
But, after making all allowances for the potency of physical 
conditions, it would undoubtedly appear from the present 
standpoint of Chemistry that there must be certain differences 
of qualities inherent in the atoms, which correspond to differ- 
ences of chemical affinity and which are important factors in 
determining chemical changes, and it is certainly legitimate to 
seek to measure what we may call the relative potential of the 
atoms when in a state of indefinite expansion. It is obvious, 
however, from Berthelot's discussion of the subject, that we 
are, as yet, far from realizing such a result. In fact, the only 
case in which he claims that we measure directly the heat of 
chemical action independently of phvsical changes is in the 
well-known reaction fl,+Cl,=2H01, which is attended with 
the evolution of 22 units of heat for every ^-6 grams of 
hydrochloric acid gas formed. Since in this case the volume 
01 the aeriform compound is equal to tlie sum of the volumes 
of the two elementary gases from which the compound has 
been formed, and since, moreover, there has been no essential 
change in the specific heat, we may reasonably infer that the 
heat evolved resul ts from chemical action only. But, according 
to the theory which is accepted by the great majority of chem- 
ists, this chemical action is by no means so simple as the direct 
union of two gas volumes would seem to indicate ; for, as our 
symbols show, the process implies the parting of the similar 
atoms which are united in the molecules, both of hydrogen and 
01 chlorine gases; and, unless we misinterpret a very large 
number of facts, this separation implies the expenditure of a 
no inconsiderable amount of mechanical work, and may imply 
a change of physical condition as well. Berthelot, in common 
J'lth a school of French chemists, rejects the modern theory 
oased on the assumption of the equal molecular volumes of all 
substances when in the state of gas, and uses throughout his 

264 J. P. Choke, Jr.—Berthelot's Thermo -Chemistry. 

work the chemical equivalents of the older chemistry in place 
of the atomic weights of the new. At the same time he accepts 
fully the mechanical theory of heat and the conceptions of 
molecular work which this "theory implies. To those who con- 
sider that Avogadro's Law, and, therefore, the modern theory 
of chemistry are direct deductions from the mechanical theory 
of heat, this course seems inconsistent, and this inconsistency 
deprives the work of a very considerable degree of simplicity 
which might otherwise have been secured. The remarkable 
progress made in organic chemistry during the last twenty 
years has resulted almost wholly from the circumstance that 
the investigators have worked back from the elementary sub- 
stances to the elementary atoms and discussed the various 
modes in which these atoms might be grouped in the mole- 
cules. In the same way in thermo-chemistry we shall find no 
satisfactory basis until we go back likewise to the atoms and 
discuss the thermal effects which attend their union or their 
separation. One generalization we can already make in regard 
to atomic work with a great degree of certainty; — that the 
union of atoms is attended with the evolution of heat and the 
parting of the same atoms in the same associations with an 
equal absorption of heat : — and it must be remembered that, as 
defined by modern chemistry, atoms are definite masses of 
matter, so that in enunciating this general principle we refer 
to a palpable effect as resulting from a well-defined process, 
entirely independently of the theoretical views we may have in 
regard to the nature of the chemical atoms or of the modes by 
which they are united and grouped together. The general 
principle just stated explains a great many facts of thermo- 
chemistry which are otherwise anomalous and obscure. It 
moreover gives us the basis for a clear theoretical distinction 
between a chemical and a physical process, the first consisting 
in the separation or union of atoms, the last in the separation 
or drawing together of molecules. It is true that the distinc- 
tion here drawn is, as yet, theoretical ; but the theory involved 
gives us a basis from which to work, and this is enough for the 
present The problem of finding what we have called the 
thermal potential of the atoms is not more remote than many 
problems which have been successfully solved in organic syn- 
thesis, and it is in this direction, as it seems to us, that we can 
alone expect to reach a measure of chemical affinity. It may, 
indeed, be found that the problem cannot be solved and 
attempts to solve it may lead to results which will inf><^fe^^ 
supplant our present theories. It may appear that the difier- 
ence between a chemical and a physical process is one of degree 
and not of kind ; but, whatever the result may be, there can be 
" ■ " " ivestigation will lead to larger knowledge 

J. p. Cooke, Jr.—Beriheht's Thermo- Gheniistry. . 266 

As it seems to us the principle of molecular work should 
be supplemented by the principle of atomic work, and it is 
certain that neither clearness of conception nor definiteness of 
statement has been gained by the obvious attempt to avoid the 
recognition of the modern theory of chemistry. 

We readily accept Berthelot's second fundamental principle 
of thermo-chemistry when enunciated as above, because it so 
obviously falls under the general law of conservation of energy ; 

uui IT, is obvious that this principle could not have been 
assumed prior to its experimental verification, any more 
than could the principle of the conservation of mass, prior to 

? experiments of Lavoisier, and as Lavoisier worked ( 
last great principle with the balance, so Berthelot and Thomsen 
have demonstrated with the calorimeter the corresponding fun- 
damental principle of thermo-chemistry, which must be regarded 
as a generalization from the results oF their work. Moreover, 
although in cases of simple direct combination the principle 
under discussion is almost self-evident, and has been long 
admitted, yet, before the investigations of Berthelot and 
Thomsen, no chemist conceived of its application in the very 
complex and indirect reactions by which the greater part 
of the thermo-chemical data have been obtained. It must be 
reniembered that very few processes of direct chemical combi- 
nation fulfill the conditions which an accurate measure of the 
accompanying thermal change involves, and a vast amount of 
chemical knowledge and ingenuity has been shown in devising 
indirect methods by which the results could be reached. The 
general theory of these indirect methods may be stated thus: 
We arrange two systems of reactions, both of which begin 
with the same factors in the same conditions, and end with the 
same product in the sameconditiona In one of these series of 
reactions there must be no process whose thermal result — if not 
already known — cannot be measured with the calorimeter. In 
the other series the chemical combination or decomposition, 
whose thermal effect we are investigating, enters as an unknown 
term, the effect of the other chemical changes involved being 
known or capable of measurement, as in the first series. It 
follows now, from the principle we are discussing, that if we 
subtract the sum of the quantities measured in the second 
series from the sum of those measured in the first series we 
shall have the value of the unknown quantity. An example 
will make the method more intelligible. 

It is required to determine the heat evolved when aluminum 
combines with bromine to form Al,Br„ and in the following 
scheme we assume, as is usual in this subject, that the chemi- 
c<-d symbols stand for a number of grams corresponding to 
the atomic weight, and that the amount of heat is expressed m 

266 J. P. Cooke, Jr.—BertheMs Thermo- Chemistry. 

units. Two series 
to fulfill the conditi 

! of reactions may now be 
ons we have assumed— 


A\C\ dissolved in 

First Series. 
= (6KBr+Aq) 


570,000 units. 
321,800 units. 
152,000 units. 
1,043,800 units. 



Second Series. 
K,+Cl,+ Aq=(6KCl+Aq) 604,800 units. 

' - 3r,=Al,Br, x units. 

, dissolved in (6KC1+Aq) 1*73,800 units. 

778,600 units. 
a;-|- 778,600 = 1,043,800. a;=265,200T 
In studying these two series of reactions it will be evident 
that we begin in each case with the same amounts of the same 
elementary substances, namely: K., Al,, Br,, Clg, and that we 
end with aqueous solutions in the same condition. Hence, 
the total amount of heat evolved in each of the two series 
must be the same, and we can at once deduce the value of the 
only unknown quantity. In this determination the only quan- 
tities which had to be measured at the time were the heat of 
solution of aluminic chloride in an aqueous solution of potassic 
bromide, on the one hand, and the heat of solution of aluminic 
bromide in an aqueous solution of potassic chloride, on the 
other, using, of course, equivalent quantities in each case. 
The other values given had previously been determined by 
indirect methods, and it can easily be seen that the investiga- 
tion displays not only a great command of knowledge but also 
a great fertility of invention, 'and yet this is a comparatively 
simple case. 

As deductions from the general principle of the conservation 
of energy, Berthelot gives a large number of theorems which 
serve to illustrate the extent and variety of its application to 
the study of the thermal changes which accompany chemical 
reactions. We give two as examples : 

Theorem III. — In two series of reactions starting Jrom differ- 
ent initial conditions^ hut ending in the same final state, the differ- 
ence in the quantities of heat evolved is equal to that which would be 
evolved in paf^sing from one of the initial states to the other. 

This theorem enables us to determine very simply the 
amount of heat evolved in the formation of the definite hydrates, 
although it would be very difficult if not impossible to form 
these substances with a definite composition in the calorimeter. 
Thus, to determine the heat evolved in the reaction SO, + 
H,0 = H,SO„ we have only to dissolve in one experiment SO, 
and in another HgSO^ in a comparatively large amount of 

J. p. Cooke, Jr.—Bertheht's Thermo- Chemistry. 267 

water when the difference in the heat evolved in the two cases 
will be the quantity required. So, also the heat of forma- 
tion of a hydrocarbon may be determined by comparing the 
heat of combustion of the compound with the heat of combus- 
tion of the hydrogen and carbon of which it consists inus 
- - " etylene C,H, (26 grams) has been 

directly measured and is equal 1 

! the heat 
onombustion^of'^ cj24grlms) plus the heat ofcombustion of 
H, (2 grams) only amounts to 257,000 units. Hence it is evi- 
dent that in the formation of 26 grams of acetylene 64,000 units 
are absorbed. Acetylene, indeed, belongs to a class ot com- 
pounds whose formation is attended with the absorption ot 
heat. This class of compounds which have a special interest 
in thermo-chemistry are said to be endothermous, while by far 
the larger class of compounds whose formation is attendea 
with an evolution of heat are said to be exothermous 

Theorem Yl.— When a compound gives up one ofiUeements 
to another hody, the heat evolved in the reaction is the fJlf'^f'l^ 
between the heat of formation of the first compound and that of the 
resulting product. , , . . j „„ „ti 

Thus, when an aqueous solution of chlonne ^^ "fe^ as an 
oxidizing agent, for every eighteen grams «^J^^*^^[ f^Ttfer- 
9,600 units of heat are evolved, ^nd this amount is the ditJer 
ence between the heat of formation of H,0 ^"f, ^HCl As can 
easily be seen, the same theroem applies to the P'-^^ «i^ P!^^ 
sented by explosive agents of various kmds and simplifies the 

'"^Thre few i'Ctrations wllTserve to give a general i^eaof the 
mode of investigation in this new field of thermo-chemistry 
but thev are wholly inadequate to show either tbe exient^ u 
the field or the great skill with which it has been cuUivated 
We must reserve for another number a notice of some verj 
interesting relations which, under his third /undamental prm 
ciple, Berthelot discusses in the second volume of his great 

T. S. Hunt— History of Pre- Cambrian Rocks 

Art. XXXlIl.—The History of some Pre- Cambrian Bocks in 
America and Europe ; by T. Stekky Hunt, LL.D., F.RS. 

[Read before the American Association for the Advancement of Science at 

Saratoga, September 1, 18T9.] 

I. Introduction 

One of the earliest distinctions in modern geology was that 
between the crystalline or so-called Primary strata, and those 
which are found in many cases to have been deposited upon 
them, and being in part made up of sediments derived from the 
disintegration of these, were designated Transition and Second- 
ary rocks. While the past forty years have seen great pro- 
gress in our knowledge of these younger rocks, and while their 
stratigraphy, the conditions of their deposition, and their geo- 
graphical distribution and variations have been carefully in- 
vestigated, the study of the older rocks has been comparatively 
neglected. This has been due in part to the inherent difficul- 
ties of the subject, arising from the general absence of organic 
remains, and from the highly disturbed condition of the older 
strata, but in a greater measure, perhaps, to certain theoretical 
views respecting the stratified crystalline rocks. In fact, the 
unlike teachings of two different and opposed schools lead to 
the common conclusion that the geognostical study of these 
rocks is unprofitable. 

The first of these schools maintains that the rocks in ques- 
tion are, in great part at least, not subordinated to the same 
structural laws as the uncrystalline formations, but are por- 
tions of the original crust of the earth, and that their archi- 
tecture is due not to aqueous deposition and subsequent me- 
chanical movements, but rather to agencies at work in a 
cooling igneous mass. The igneous origin of gneisses, petro- 
silex-porphyries, diorites, serpentines, and even of magnetic 
and specular iron-ores was held and taught almost universally 
by our geologists, a generation since, and has still its avowed 
partisans; some maintaining that these various crystalhne 
rocks are portions of the first-formed crust of the planet, while 
others imagine them to be volcanic matters extravasated at 
more recent dates ; in either case, however, more or less modi- 
fied by supposed metasomatic processes. By the term metas- 
omatosis are conveniently designated those changes which are 
not simply internal (diagenesis), but are effected from without, 
as a result of which the chemical elements of the original rocR 
are supposed to be either wholly or in part replaced by others 
from external sources (epigenesis). , 

The other school, to which allusion has been made, and 
which, not less than the preceding, has helped to discourage, m 

A7nerica and Europe. 

tasomatic in their nature, which have been effected 
and more recent sedimentary beds, obliterating their organic 
remains, and transforming them into crystalline strata. Ac- 
cording to this view, feldspathic, hornblendic, and micaceous 
stratiform crystalline rocks, having similar mineralogical and 
hthological characters, may belong to widely separated geo- 
logical periods ; while the same geological series may, in one part 
of its distribution, consist of uncrystalline siliceous, calcareous, 
and argillaceous fossiliferous sediments, and in another locality, 
not far remote, be found, as the result of subsequent changes 
effected in these strata, transformed into gneiss, hornblende- 
schist or mica-schist, by what is vaguely designated as meta- 

The recent history of geology abounds in striking illustra- 
trations of the fact that in a great number of cases these views 
have been based on misconceptions in stratigraphy, and without 
entering into the discussion of the question, it may be said 
that, in the writer's opinion, careful stratigraphical study will, in 
all cases, suffice to show the error, both of the pi u tonic and 
^e metamorphic hypothesis of the origin of crystalline rocks. 
Ahe former is supported chiefly by the lithological resem- 
blances between certain stratified and unstratified rocks, and by 
the appearances of stratification occasionally found in these ; 
while the latter is sustained by the analogies offered in cases of 
local hydro-thermal action on sediments, and by the resem- 
blances which recomposed materials frequently offer to their 
parent crystalline rocks. It is here maintained that the great 
formations of stratiform crystalline feldspathic, hornblendic and 
micaceous rocks, which, in various parts of the world, have been 
alternately described as plutonic masses, and as metamorphosed 
paleozoic, mesozoic or eenozoic strata are, in all cases, neptunean 
^ocks, pre-Cambrian or pre-Silurian in age, and that we know 
01 no uncrystalline sediments which are their stratigraphical 

We have then before us two schools, the one maintaining the 
secondary origin of a great, and, by^ them, undefined portion of 
the crystalline stratiform rocks, while assigning to certain older 
ipre-Cambrian) crystalline rocks (of which they admit the ex- 
nean or a plutonic origin. The other, 
lile asserting the plutonic derivation of 
^"e greater part of the crystalline formations, accepts, to some 
extent, also, the notion of" secondary and neptunean metamor- 
Phie schists. It is believed that the above concise statements 
cover the ground held by the hitherto prevailing neptunean 

270 T. S. Hunt— History of Pre- Cambrian Rochs 

and plutonist schools, neither of which, it is maintained, ex- 
presses correctly the present state of our knowledge. In oppo- 
sition to both of these are the views taught for the last twenty 
years by the writer, and now accepted by many geologists, 
which may be thus defined : — 

Ist. All gneisses, petrosilexes, hornblendic and micaceous 
schists, olivines, serpentines, and in short, all silicated crystal- 
line stratified rocks, are of neptunean origin, and are not prima- 
rily due to metamorphosis or to metasomatosis either of ordi- 
nary aqueous sediments or of volcanic materials. 

2d. The chemical and mechanical conditions under which 
these rocks were deposited and crystallized, whether in shallow 
waters, or in abyssal depths (where pressure greatly influences 
chemical affinities) have not been reproduced to any great ex- 
tent since the beginning of paleozoic time. 

3d The eruptive rocks, or at least a large part of them, are 
softened and displaced portions of these ancient neptunean 
rocks, of which they retain many of the mineralogical and lith- 
©logical characters. 

II. The Histoet op Pre-Cambeian Rocks in America. 
Coming now to the history of our knowledge of American 
crystalline rocks, we find that the lithological characters of the 
Primary gneissic formation of northern New York were known 
to Maclure in 1817, and were clearly defined in 1832, by Eaton, 
who, under the name of the Macomb Mountains, described 
what have since been called the Adirondacks, and moreover 
distinguished them from the Primary rocks of New England. 
Emmons, in 1842, added much to our lithological knowledge 
of the crystalline rocks of northern New York, but regarded 
the gneisses, with their associated limestones, serpentines and 
iron-ores, as all of plutonic origin. Nuttall, who had previously 
studied the similar rocks in the Highlands of southern New 
York and New Jersey, had, however, maintained, as early as 
1822, that these had resulted from an alteration of the adjacent 
paleozoic graywackes and limestones, into which he supposed 
them to graduate. This view was, at the time, opposed by 
Vanuxera and Keating, but was again set forth in 1843, by 
Mather, who, while admitting the existence of an older or Fn- 
mary series of crystalline rocks, conceived a great part of these 
rocks in southern New York to be altered paleozoic, and distin- 
guished them as Metamorphic rocks. To this latter class be 
referred all the crystalline stratified rocks of New England, 
and ended by doubting whether a great part of what he haa 
described as Primary was not to be included in his Metamor- 
phic class. The subsequent labors of Kitchell and of Coote 

tn America and Europe. 271 

have however clearly established the views of Vanuxem and 
Keating as to the Primary age alike of the gneisses and the 
crystalline limestones of the Highlands. 

The similar gneissic series in Canada, which was known to 
Bigsby and to Eaton as an extension of that of northern New 
York, was noticed by Murray in 1848, and by Logan in 1847, 
as pre-paleozoic, though apparently of sedimentary origin, and 
hence, according to them, entitled to be called Metaraorphic 
rather than Primary. It was described by Logan in 1847, as 
consisting of a lower group of hornblendic gneisses, without 
limestones, and an upper group of similar gneisses, distin- 
guished by interstratified crystalline limestones. 

These rocks were found by Logan and by Murray to be over- 
laid both on Lake Superior and in the valley of the upper Ot- 
? J J % ^ series consisting of chloritic and epidotic schists, with 
bedded greenstones, and with conglomerates holding pebbles 
derived from the ancient gneiss below. The same overlying 
senes had, as early as 1824, been described by Bigsby on Lake 
superior, and by him distinguished from the Primary and 
classed with Transition rocks. 

Labradoritic and hypersthenic rocks like those previously 
described by Emmons in the Primary region of northern New 
Xork, were, in 1853 and 1854, discovered and carefully studied 
in the Laurentide hills to the north of Montreal, when they 
were described as being gneissoid in structure, and as inter- 
stratified with true gneisses and with crystalline limestones. 
In 1854, the writer, in concert with Logan, proposed for the 
ancient crystalline rocks of the Laurentide Mountains, includ- 
ing the lower and upper gneissic groups already mentioned, 
and the succeeding labradoritic rocks (but excluding the chlo- 
"tic and greenstone series), the name of Laurentian. In an 
essay by the writer, in 1855, the oldest gneisses of Scotland 
and of Scandinavia, were, on lithological and on stratigraphical 
grounds, referred to the Laurentian series, and at the same 
"me the name of Huronian was proposed for the chloritic and 
greenstone series, which had been shown to overlie unconforra- 
at)^ the Laurentian in Canada. 

, ^^evious to this, in 1851, Foster and Whitney had described 
the Laurentian and Huronian rocks of Lake Superior as consti- 
tuting one Azoic system of Metamorphic rocks, with granites, 
porphyries and iron-ores, of igneous origin ; and in 1857, Whit- 
ney attacked the two-fold division adopted by the Canadian 
geological survey, maintaining that the stratified crystalline 
rocks of the region belong to a single series, with a granitic 
"ncjeus. The observation? of Kimball in 1865, and the later 
studies of Credner, of Brooks and Pumpelly, and of Irving, 
°ave, however, all confirmed the views of the Canadian survey 

272 T. S. Hunt— History of Pre- Cambrian Rocks 

as to the relations of the Laurentian and Huronian in this re- 

The Primary age of the Highlands of southern New York, 
and their extension in what is called the South Mountain, as far 
as the Schuylkill, was now unquestioned, but the crystalline 
rocks to the east of this range, while regarded by Eaton and 
by Emmons, as also forming a part of the Primary, were, by 
Mather, as we have already seen, supposed to be altered paleo- 
zoic strata. These rocks in New England, with the exception 
of the quartzites and limestones of the Taconic range, were by 
him assigned to a horizon above the Trenton limestone of the 
New York system, and portions of them were conjectured by 
other geologists, who adopted and extended the views of Mather, 
to be of Devonian age. 

The characteristic crystalline schists of New England and 
southeastern New York, passing beneath the Mesozoic of New 
Jersey, re-appear in southeastern Pennsylvania, where they were 
studied and finally described by H. D. Eogers in 1858. Ac- 
cording to him these crystalline schists, while resting uncon- 
formably upon an ancient (Hypozoic) gneissic system, were 
themselves more ancient than the Scolithus-sandstone, which 
he regarded as the equivalent of the Potsdam. While he sup- 
posed these newer crystalline schists, called by him Azoic, to be 
connected stratigraphically with the base of the Paleozoic series, 
he nevertheless assigned them to a position below the base of 
the New York system ; thus recognizing in Pennsylvania, below 
this horizon, two unconformable groups of crystalline rocks, 
corresponding stratigraphically, as well as lithologically, with 
the Laurentian and the Huronian of the Lake Superior region. 

The existence among these newer crystalline schists of Penn- 
sylvania, of a series distinct from the Huronian, and represent- 
ing the White Mountain or Montalban rocks (the Philadelphia 
and Manhattan gneissic group), had not then been recognized. 
Eogers at this time taught the igneous origin of the magnetic 
iron-ores, the quartz veins, the serpentines and their associated 
greenstones in this region. The belief entertained by Bogers 
of an intimate connection between his upper or Azoic series 
and the Paleozoic, had its origin apparently in the fact of the 
existence in this region of still another and a newer crystalline 
series, the Lower Taconic of Emmons, or the Itacoluraite group 
of Lieber, which I have designated Taconian, and propose to 
consider in detail in a future paper. In it are included the 
iron-ores of Beading, Cornwall and Dillsburg, in Pennsylvania. 

The views of H. D. Rogers with regard to the crystalline 
schists of the Atlantic belt were thus, in effect, if not in terms, 
a return to those held bv Eaton and by Emmons, but were m 
direct opposition to that maintained byMather, which had beeo 

in America and Europe. 273 

adopted by Logan, and by the present writer. The belt of mi- 
caceous, chloritic, talcose and epidotic schists, with greenstones 
and serpentines, the extension of a part of the Azoic of Eogers, 
which, through western New England, is traced into Canada 
(where it has been known as the Green Mountain range), was 
previous to 186 J, called by the geological survey of Canada, 
Altered Hudson-River group. It was subsequently referred to 
the Upper Taconic of Emmons, to which Logan, at that date, 
gave the name of the Quebec group, assigning it, as had long 
before been done by Emmons (in i846) to a horizon between 
the Potsdam and the Trenton of the New York system. 

In 1862 and 1863 appeared, independently, two important 
papers bearing on the question before us as to the age of these 
rocks. The first of these, was by Thomas Macfarlane, who, 
after a personal examination of the three regions, compared the 
Huronian of Lake Huron and the Green Mountain range of 
Canada, with portions of the Urschiefer or Primitive sch-ists 
which, in Norwav, intervene between the ancient gneisses and 
the oldest Paleozoic (Lower Cambrian) strata. The second 
paper was by Bigsby, who was, as we have seen, the earliest 
student of the Huronian in the northwest, pointing out that 
these rocks could not in any sense be called Cambrian, but 
were the equivalents of the Norwegian Urschiefer, The con- 
clusions of Macfarlane were noticed in connection with the 
Views of Keilhau on these rocks of Norway in " The Geology 
of Canada " in 1868, with farther comparisons between the New 
J^ngland crystalline schists and the Huronian, but official rea- 
sons then, and for some years after, prevented the writer from 
expressing any dissent from the views of the director of the 
geological survey of Canada. 

Meanwhile, the existence of an equivalent series of crystal- 
hne schists was being made known in southern New Brunswick, 
where they were described by G. F. Matthews in 1863, under 
^he name of the Coldbrook group, which included a lower and 
an upper division. In a joint report of Matthews and Bailey 
|n 1865, these rocks were declared to be overlaid unconforma- 
oJy by the slates in which Hartt had made known a Lower 
Cambrian (Menevian) fauna, and were compared with the Hu- 
ronian of Canada. The lower division of the Coldbrook was 
then described as including a large amount of pink feldspathic 
quartzite and of bluish and reddish porphyritic slates. In the 
same report was described, under the name of the Bloomsbury 
group, a series lithologically similar to the Coldbrook, but ap- 
parently resting on the Menevian, and overlaid by fossiliferous 
Upper Devonian beds, into which it was supposed to grad- 
uate. The Bloomsbury group was therefore regarded as altered 
^pper Devonian, and its similarity to the pre-Cambrian Cold- 

274 T. S. Hunt— History of Pre- Cambrian Rocks 

brook was explained by supposing both groups to consist in 
large part of volcanic rocks. 

In 1869 and 1870, however, the writer, in company with the 
gentlemen just named, devoted many weeks to a careful study 
of these rocks in southern New Brunswick, when it wsis made 
apparent that the Bloomsbury group was but a repetition of 
the Cold brook on the opposite side of a closely folded syncHnal 
holding Menevian sediments. These two areas of pre-Cambrian 
rocks were accordingly described by Messrs. Matthews and 
Bailey in their report to the geological survey of Canada in 
1871, as Huronian, in which were also included the similar 
crystalline rocks belonging to two other areas, which had been 
previously described by the same observers under the names of 
the Kingston and Coastal groups, and by them regarded as 
respectively altered Silurian and Devonian. 

After studying the Huronian rocks in southern New Bruns- 
wick, and their continuation along the eastern coast of New 
England, especially in Massachusetts (where, also, they are over- 
laid by Menevian sediments), the writer in 1870, announced 
his conclusion that the crystalline schists of these regions are 
lithologically and stratigraphically equivalent to those of the 
Green Mountain range of western New England and eastern 
Canada. These, he further declared, in 1871, to be a prolong- 
ation of the newer crystalline or Azoic schists of Rogers in 
Pennsylvania, and the equivalents of the Huronian of the 
northwest. The pre-Cambrian age of these crystalline schists in 
eastern Canada has now been clearly proved by the presence of 
their fragments in the fossiliferous Cambrian strata in many 
localities along the northwestern border of the Green Mountain 
belt, and farther by the recent stratigraphical studies of Selwyn, 
as announced by him in 1878. 

In close association with these Huronian strata in eastern 
Massachusetts is found a great development of petrosilex rocks, 
generally either jaspery or porphyritic in character, and some- 
times fissile, which, bv Edward Hitchcock were regarded as 
igneous. These were "found to be identical with the rocks des- 
ignated by Matthews and Bailey, feldspathic quartzites ana 
siliceous and porphyritic slates, which form the chief part oi 
the Lower Coldbrook or inferior division of the Huronian series 
in New Brunswick. The petrosilex es of Massachusetts were, 
after careful examination by the writer, described by him in 
1870, and in 1871, as indigenous stratified rocks forming a part 
of the Huronian series. He subsequently, in 1871, studied the 
similar rocks in southeastern Missouri, and, in 1872, on tbe 
north shore of Lake Superior, but was unable to find them m 
the Green Mountain belt, or in its southward continuation, 
until, in 1875, he detected them occupying a considerable area 

in America and Europe. 275 

in the South Mountain range in southern Pennsylvania. The 
stratified petrosilex rocks of all these regions were described in 
a communication to this Association, in 1876, as apparently 
corresponding to the hdUeflinta rocks of Sweden, and, having 
m view their stratigraphical position both in that country and 
in New Brunswick, they were then " provisionallv referred*' 
•'to a position near the 'base of the Huronian series." Their 
absence in the Huronian belt in western New England, and in 
the province of Quebec, as well as at several observed points 
of contact between the Laurentian and the well-defined Huro- 
nian in the northwest, led to the suspicion that these halleflintas 
might belong to an intermediate series. 

C. H. Hitchcock has pointed out that the characteristic Hu- 
ronian rocks do not form the higher parts of the Green Moun- 
tam range in Vermont, which he conceives to belong to an 
older gneissic series, a conclusion which the writer regards as 
premature. Hitchcock, however, in his final report on the ge- 
ology of New Hampshire, in 1877, adopts the name of Huro- 
nian for the crystalline rocks of the Altered Quebec group of 
Logan, which niakes up the chief part of the Green Mountain 
range in Quebec, is largely developed along it in Vermont, and 
appears in a parallel range farther east, which extends southward 
into New Hampshire. In his tabular view of the geognostical 
groups in this State, Hitchcock assigns to these rocks a thick- 
ness of over 12,000 feet, with the name of Upper Huronian ; 
while he designates as Lower Huronian the petrosilex series of 
eastern Massachusetts, already noticed, where these rocks are 
of great, though undetermined, thickness. The similar petro- 
silex or lialleflinta rocks in Wisconsin, where they have lately 
been described by Irving as Huronian, have, according to this 
observer, a thickness in a single section, of 3,200 feet. They 
nere sometimes become schistose, and are interbedded with 
unctuous schists, and rest in apparent conformity upon a great 
mass of quartzite. The general high inclination both of this 
series and of the typical Huronian, renders the determination 
of their thickness difficult. The maximum thickness of the 
Huronian (excluding the petrosilex series) to the south of Lake 
i^uperior, may, according to Major Brooks, exceed 12,000 feet, 
while the estimates of Credner and Murray, respectively, for 
'bis region, and for the north shore of Lake Huron, are 20,000 
and 18,000 feet. 

As regards the Laurentian, there exists a certain confusion 
01 nomenclature which requires explanation. As originally 
described, it includes, as already said, a basal granitoid gneiss 
Without limestones, which the writer has elsewhere designated 
the Ottawa gneiss, and of which the thickness is necessarily 
uncertain. Succeeding this is the Greuville series of Logan, 

276 T. S. Hunt— History of Pre- Cambrian Rocks 

having for its base a great mass of crystalline limestone, and 
consisting in addition to this of gneisses, generally hornblendic, 
and quartzites, interstratified with similar limestones. To this 
series, as displayed north of the Ottawa, Logan assigned an ag- 
gregate thickness of over 17,000 feet, though the later meas- 
urements of Vennor, in the region south of the Ottawa, give to 
it a much greater volume. The geographical distribution of 
this limestone-bearing Grenville series gives probability to the 
suggestion of Vennor that it rests unconformably upon the 
basal Ottawa gneiss. 

These two divisions constitute what was designated by Logan, 
in his Greological Atlas, in 1865, the Lower Laurentian, the name 
of Upper Laurentian or Labradorian being then, for the first time 
given by him to a series supposed to overlie unconformably the 
former, of which it had hitherto been regarded as constituting 
a part. This third division has already been referred to as 
characterized by the predominance of great bodies of gneissoid 
or granitoid rocks, composed chiefly of labradorite or related 
anorthic feldspars, and apparently identical with the norites of 
Scandinavia. With these basic rocks are interstratified crystal- 
line hmestones, quartzites and gneisses, all of which resemble 
those of the Grenville series. This upper group, for which the 
writer in 1871 proposed the name of Norian, was supposed by 
Logan to be not less than 10,000 feet thick. 

For farther details of the history of these various groups of 
pre-Cambrian rocks, and their distribution in North America, 
the reader is referred to a volume published in 1878 by the 
Second Geological Survey of Pennsylvania, being Part I of the 
writer's report on Azoic Bocks, intended as an historical intro- 
duction to the subject 

III.— The History of Pre-Cambrian Rocks in Great BRirAiN. 

In an address before this Association in 1871, in which the 
writer maintained the Huronian age of a portion of the crys- 
talline schists of New England and Quebec, he further ex- 
pressed the opinion, based in part upon his examinations at 
Holyhead in 1867, and in part upon the study of collections in 
London, that certain crystalline schists in North Wales would 
be found to belong to the Huronian series. The rocks m 
question were by Sedgwick, in 1838, separated from the base 
of the Cambrian, as belonging to an older series, but were 
subsequently, by Delabeche, Murchison and Ramsay, described 
and mapped as altered Cambrian strata, with associated intru- 
sive syenites and feldspar-porphyries. , 

In South Wales, at St. David's in Pembrokeshire, is another 
area of crystalline rocks, which the geological survey of Grea 

in Amet^ica and Europe. 277 

Britain had mapped as intrusive syenite, granite and felstone 
(petrosilex-porphyry) having Cambrian strata converted into 
crystalline schists on one side, and unaltered fossiliferous Cam- 
brian beds on the other. So long ago as 1864, Messrs. Hicks 
and Salter were led to regard these granitoid and porphyritic 
rocks as pre- Cambrian, and in 1866 concluded that they were 
not eruptive but stratified crystalline or metamorphic rocks. 
After farther study, Hicks, in 'connection with Harkness, pub- 
hshed in 1867, additional proofs of the bedded character of 
these ancient crystalline rocks, and in 1877 the first named 
observer announced the conclusion that they belong to two 
distmct and unconformable series. Of these, the older consisted 
of the granitoid and porphyritic felstone rocks, and the younger 
of greenish crystalline schists, the so-called Altered Cambrian 
of the official geologists ; both of these being overlaid by the 
undoubted Lower Cambrian (Harlech and Menevian) of the 
region, which holds their ruins in its conglomerates. To the 
lower of these pre-Oambrian groups, Hicks gave the name of 
iJimetian, and to the upper that of Pebidian. The last, with a 
measured thickness of 8000 feet, he supposed to be the equiva- 
lent of the Huronian, and compared the Dimetian with the 
Upper Laurentian of Logan. 

The similar crystalline rocks of North Wales, already noticed, 
were now studied by Professor T. McKenny Hughes of Cam 
bridge, who described them in 1878. These include in Carnar 
vonshire and Anglesey the greenish crystalline schists whi^ 
t^ie writer in 1871 referred to the Huronian (pre-Cambrian . 
Sedgwick, and Altered Cambrian of the geological survey), 
certain granitoid rocks formerly described as intrusive syenite, 
and also a reddish feldspar-porphyry which forms two great 
I'Jdges in Carnarvonshire. This latter was by Professor Sedg- 
wick regarded as intrusive, and is moreover"" mapped as such 
by the geological survey, though described in Ramsay's me- 
"joir on the geology of North Wales as probably the result 
of an extreme metamorphism of the lower beds of the Cam- 
brian. The pre-Cambrian age of all these rocks was clearly 
shown by Hughes, who however considered that the whole 
"ligbt belong to one great stratified series; while Hicks, from 
an examination of the same region, regarded them as identical 
with the Dimetian and Pebidian of South Wales. 

I>r. Hicks continued his studies in both of these regions in 
1878,— being at times accompanied by Dr. Torell of Sweden, 
Professor Hughes and Mr. Tawney of Cambridge, and the 
writer— and was led to conclude that beside the chloritic 
scbists and greenstones (diorites) of the Pebidian, and the 
older granitoid and gneissic rocks, there exists, both in North 
and South Wales, a third independent and intermediate series. 
Am- Jour. Sci.-Thied Series, Vol. XIX, No. 112. -April, 1880. 

278 T. S, Hunt— History of Pre- Cambrian Rocks 

to which belong the stratified petrosilex or quartziferous por- 
phyries already noticed. These are sometimes wanting at the 
base of the Pebidian, and at other times form masses some 
thousands of feet in thickness. At one locality, near St. 
David's, a great body of breccia or conglomerate, consisting of 
fragments of the petrosilex united by a crystalline dioritic 
cement, forms the base of the Pebidian. For this intermediate 
series, which constitutes the great quartziferous-porphyry ridges 
of Carnarvonshire, Dr. Hicks and his friends proposed the 
name of Arvonian, from Arvonia, the Roman name of the 

This important conclusion was announced by Dr. Hicks at 
the meeting of the British Association for the Advancement of 
Science at Dublin, in August, 1878. The writer, previous to 
attending this meeting, had the good fortune to examine these 
various pre-Cambrian rocks in parts of Carnarvonshire and 
Anglesey with Messrs. Hicks, Torell and Tawney. He subse- 
quently, in company wiih Dr. Hicks, visited the region in South 
Wales where these older rocks had been studied, and was 
enabled to satisfy himself of the correctness both of the obser- 
vations and conclusions of Dr. Hicks, and of the complete par- 
allelism in stratigraphy and in mineral composition between 
these pre-Cambrian rocks on the two sides of the Atlantic. It 
may here be mentioned that Dr. Torell, who, during his visit 
to America in 1876, had an opportunity of studying, with the 
writer, the petrosilexes of New England and Pennsylvania, 
which he regarded as identical with the hallefiinta of Swe- 
den, at once recognized them in the Arvonian series of North 

Of the many areas of these various pre-Cambrian rocks 
which the writer was enabled to examine in company with Dr. 
Hicks, may be mentioned the granitoid mass of Twt Hill in 
the town of Carnarvon, and the succeeding Arvonian to Port 
Dinorwic, followed, across the Menai strait, by the Pebidian on 
the island of Anglesey, near the Menai bridge. Farther on, the 
Pebidian was again met with near the railway station of Ty 
Croes, in the southwest part of the island, succeeded by a large 
body of Arvonian petrosilex, and a ridge of granitoid gneiss, 
fragments of which make up a breccia at the base of the 
Arvonian series. The Pebidian is again well displayed at 

In South Wales, the similar rocks were examined by him at 
St. David's, where three small bands of an impure coarsely 
crystalline limestone are included in the Diraetian granitoid 
rock, wliich is here often exceedingly quartzose. It may oe 
remarked that the Dimetian, as originallv defined at this, its 
first recognized locality, included a great mass of Arvonian 

ui America and Europe. 279 

petrosilex, the two forming a ridge which extends for some 
miles in a northeast direction, fianked by Pebidian rocks, 
which are sometimes in contact with the one and sometimes 
with the other series. At Clegyr bridge was seen the base of 
the Pebidian, ah-eady mentioned as consisting of a conglom- 
erate of Arvonian fragments. Another belt of the same crys- 
talline rocks was also visited, a few miles to the eastward of 
the last, and not far from Haverfordwest, forming, according to 
Hicks, a ridge several miles in length and about a mile wide. 
Where seen, at Roch Castle, it was found to consist of Arvo- 
nian petrosilex, with some granitoid rock near by. The ridge 
is flanked on the northwest side by Pebidian and Cambrian, 
and on the southeast by Silurian strata, let down by a fault. 

On the shore of Llyn Padarn, near the foot of Snowdon in 
North Wales, the porphyritic petrosilex of the Arvonian is 
again well displayed, while in contact with it, and at the base 
of the Llanberis" (Lower Cambrian) slates, is a conglomerate 
rnade up almost wholly of the petrosilex. This locality was 
supposed by Prof. Ramsay and others to show that the petro- 
silex is the result of a metamorphosis of the lower portion of 
the Cambrian, the conglomerates being regarded as beds of 
passage. The writer, after a careful examination of the locality, 
agrees with Messrs. Hicks, Hughes and Bonney that there is no 
ground for such an opinion, but that the conglomerate marks 
the base of the Cambrian, which here reposes on Arvonian 
rocks, and is chieflv made up of their ruins. In like manner, 
according to Prof. Hughes, the Cambrian in other parts of this 
region includes beds made of the debris of adjacent granitoid 

These petrosilex conglomerates of Llyn Padarn are indistin- 
guishable from those found at Marblehead and other localities 
near Boston, Massachusetts, which have been in like manner 
interpreted as evidences of the secondary origin of the adjacent 
petrosilex beds, into which they have been supposed to grad- 
uate The writer has, however, always held, in opposition to 
this view, that these conglomerates are really newer rocks made 
^p of the ruins of the ancient petrosilex. He has found sim- 
ilar petrosilex-conglomerates at various points on the Atlantic 
coast of New Brunswick, of Lower Cambrian, Silurian and 
Lower Carboniferous ages, all of which have, in their turn, 
been by others regarded as formed by the alteration of strata 
of these geological periods. The evidence now furnished m 
South Wales of still older (Huronian) beds of petrosilex-con- 
glomerate should be noted by students of North American 
geology. From observations near Boston, made by one of 
^y former students, I have for some time suspected the exist- 
ence of petrosilex-conglomerates of pre-Cambrian age. 

280 7! .S: Hunt— History of the Pre- Cambrian Rocks 

To the eastward of the localities already mentioued in Wales, 
are some other small areas of crystalline rocks, including those 
of the Malverns, and the Wrekin and other hills in Shropshire, 
all of which appear as islands among Cambrian strata ; also 
those of Charnwood Forest, in Leicestershire, which rise in like 
manner among Triassic rocks. The Wrekin, regarded by Mur- 
chison as a post-Cambrian intrusion, has been shown by Cal- 
laway to be unconformably overlaid by Lower Cambrian 
strata, and consists in part of bedded greenstones, and in part 
of banded reddish petrosilex-porphyries, closely resembling 
the Arvonian of North Wales and the corresponding rocks of 
North America. The geology of Charnwood has within the 
past two years been carefully studied by Messrs. Hill and Bon- 
ney. The ancient rocks of this region are in part crystalline 
schists (embracing, in the opinion of Dr. Hicks and of the 
writer — who have seen collections of them — representatives 
both of the Pebidian and the Arvonian of Wales) and in part 
eruptive masses, including the granitic rocks of Mount Sorrel. 

• There is not, so far as known, in the British localities already 
mentioned, any representative either of the Taconic or Itacol- 
umite group, or of the white micaceous gneisses, with mica- 
ceous and hornblendic schists, which I have designated the 
Montalban series. I have, however, found the latter well dis- 
played in Ireland, in the Dublin and Wicklow Hills. The prob- 
able presence both of this series and of the Huronian in the 
northwest of Ireland was pointed out by me in 1871. I 
have there lately seen the Huronian on Lough Foyle, and also in 
Scotland in various parts of Argyleshire and Perthshire, as 
along the Crinan Canal and in the vicinity of Loch Etive and 
Loch Awe. From collections sent me by Mr. James Thom- 
son, of Glasgow, it appears that both Huronian and Lauren- 
tian rocks occur in the island of Islay. 

The crystalline schists of Charnwood offer, as was pointed 
out by Messrs. Hill and Bonney, many resemblances with parts 
of the Ardennian series of Dumont in France and Belgium- 
These, which have been in turn regarded as altered Devonian, 
Silurian and Lower Cambrian, were, as shown by Gosselet, 
islands of crystalline rock in the Devonian sea, and in one part 
include argillites with impressions of Oldhamia and an un- 
determined graptolite. These rocks have latelv been described 
in detail in the admirable memoir of de la "'Valine Poussm 
and Renard. The writer had the good fortune, in 1878, to 
visit this region, and in company with Gosselet and Renard to 
examine the section along the valley of the Meuse. The crys- 
talline rocks here displayed greatlv resemble those of the 
American Huronian, in which may be found most of the types 
described by the authors of the memoir just mentioned. It 

would be easy to extend further this review of late advances 
made in the study of the ancient crystalline rocks, but the 
writer has preferred to confine himself to those regions which 
he has lately examined. 


1. The Pebidian of Hicks has both the lithological charac- 
ters and the stratigraphical position of the Huronian of North 
America, to which he has already referred it. 

2. The Arvonian is, in like manner, identical with the 
Hall eflinta group of Sweden and with the Petrosilex group of 
North America, which I had provisionally included in the 
lower part of the Huronian, and which Hitchcock subsequently 
called Lower Huronian. The fact that there is in Wales a 
stratigraphical break between it and the overlying Huronian, 
will help to explain the frequent absence of the Arvonian at 
the base of Huronian in many of its American localities. 

3. The Dimetian, including the granitoid and gneissic 
rocks with limestone bands, so far as can be seen in the limited 
outcrops, is indistinguishable from parts of the Laurentian of 
North America. It was from a misconception that Dr. Hicks 
in 1878 provisionally referred the Dimetian to the Upper Lau- 
rentian, a name at one time used by the geological survey of 
Canada to designate the Norian series, which in some parts of 
North America overlies unconformably the Laurentian. Hicks 
at the same time designated as Lower Laurentian the gneiss of 
the Hebrides (Levvisian of Murchison), which he believed to be 
distinct from and older than the Dimetian. These two appar- 
ently correspond to the Ottawa and Grenville divisions of the 
proper Laurentian in Canada, and perhaps to the Bojian and 
Hercynian gneisses of Giimbel, in Bavaria. 

[I^e following is : 

a partial list of publications 

.relating to then 

)cks noticed in 

part III of this paper 


1 following papers on these rocks 
Davies. Feb., 1878, p. 147, and 

May, 1878, p. 153 ; Hughes & Bonney, Feb., 187i 

?,p. 137; Hicks & Davies, May. 

1879, p. 285 : Hicks 

& Bonney, ibid., p. 295; Bonney, ibid., p. 3 

09; Bonney^& 

Houghton, ibid., p. 8: 

21 ; Hughes, Nov., 1879, p. 

also Hicks, rocks of 1 

'Narrlli;t^"i;.iel'''voi H 

1. fawney, Oldei 

r Rocks of St! 

Davids: Proc. Bristo 

part 2, p. 110. 

187^9, p. 643. 





Charnwood Forest, in the 

same journal, Hil 

11 and Bonney, 

ciSrd^;Xi^l Essays, pp. 34, 269, 

270, 272, 278, 

e sur les Roches dites I 

1877. Also Go3selet and Malaise, 
Silurian des Ardennes, Bull. Acad. Roy. de la Belgique (2) No. 7, 1868 ; 
le. Terrain Cambrien des Ardennes, Ann. Soc. Geol. de la Belgique, torn, 
and farther, Hunt, Chera. and Geol. Essays, p. 270.] 


Since the above paper was read the author has received (No 
vember, 1879) a private communication from Prof. L. W, 
Bailey giving his latest results as to the pre-Cambrian rocks of 
southern New Brunswick, which confirm what has already 
been said about that region. Bailey separates the Huronian 
into a lower division, for which he reserves the name of Cold- 
brook, consisting chiefly of petrosilex rocks, and an upper 
division, the typical Huronian, called by him the Coastal group. 
He adds that there is between the two a marked physical break, 
which is indicated by a strati graphical discordance, and by the 

presence in the lower part of the Coastal group of < 
^ up from the ruins of the Coldbr 

This corresponds to the break between the 

glomerates made up from the ruins of the Cold brook < 

similar Arvonian and Huronian in South Wales. 

At the meeting of the British Association for the Advance- 
ment of Science at Sheffield in August, 1879, Dr. Hicks read 
a paper on the Classification of the British Pre-Cambrian 
Eocks, which is published in the Geological Magazine for Oc- 
tober, 1879. He concludes that the Pebidian is " a group of 
enormous thickness, which is largely distributed over Creat 
Britain, where it has a prevailing strike of N.N.E. and 
S.S.W., or from this to N.E. and S.W." In addition to the 
localities which we have already mentioned in Great Britain, 
he notes its occurrence in Shropshire and in Charnwood 
Forest, and also in the northwest of Scotland, where, as else- 
where, it enters largely into the Lower Cambrian conglom- 
erates. The group is concisely described by him as consisting 
"for the most part of chloritic, talcose, feldspathic and mica- 
ceous schistose rocks, alternating with slaty and massive green- 
stones, dolomitic limestones, serpentines, lava-flows, porcel- 
lanites, breccias and conglomerates. It is also traversed fre- 
quently by dykes of granite, dolerite, etc." 

The conglomerates at the base of the Huronian in Wales 
derived from the Arvonian, 

„. most of the points exammed, 

unconformable." This Arvonian series, Hicks regards as iden- 
tical with the great Halleflinta group of the Swedish geologists 
and with the Petrosilex series which the writer has made 
known in America. In addition to the localities already men- 
tioned of it in the British Isles, Hicks notes its occurrence m 

in America and Europe. 283 

the Harlech Mountains and the Orkneys, and probably also in 
the Western Islands, and in the Grrarnpians of Scotland. Its 
strike in the regions examined by him is generally about N. 
and S. 

As regards the gneissic Dimetian group, the strike of which 
IS N.W. and S.E., or from this to N. and S., Hicks adds to the 
locahties in Wales, already noticed, its occurrence in the Mal- 
vern chain, especially in the Worcester Beacon, and cites Dr. 
Callaway as authority for its existence in Shropshire. Hicks 
further notes its presence at several points in the northwest 
Highlands of Scotland. From this series of li^ht colored 
gneisses, often very quartzose, with limestone bands, he sepa- 
rates, as we have seen, under the name of Lewisian, proposed 
by Murchison for the ancient gneisses of Lewis and others 
of the Hebrides Isles, these, and similar reddish and dark- 
colored hornblendic gneisses which are found in parts of the 
Malvern chain, in the northwest of Ireland, and possibly also 
m Anglesey. This series, according to Hicks, is unconform- 
ably overlaid by the Dimetian, brecciated beds which hold 
fragments of the older Lewisian gneiss. The strike in these 
older gneisses "is usually E. and W., or some point between 
that and N.W. and S. E." 

Dr. Hicks concludes the above paper by remarking that the 
chief part of these ancient rocks in Great Britain "wen 
recently supposed to be either intrusive masses, or altered sedi 
ments belonging to tolerably recent times," and adds, 
becoming more and more an acknowledged fact that the meta- 
morphism of great groups of rocks does not take place so 
readily as was formerly supposed, but that some special condi- 
tions, such as do not appear to have prevailed over this area 
smce pre-Cambrian times, were necessary to produce so great a 

The reader in this connection is referred to the abstract of a 
memoir communicated bv the writer to the British Association 
at Dublin in August, 1878, on The Origin and the Succession 
of the Crystalline Rocks of North America, which will be 
round in the Geological Magazine for that year (page 466), as 
well as in Nature, vol. xviii, page 443. 

Montreal, February, 1880. 

E. Verrill — Cephalopoda of North America. 

Art. XXXIV. — Synopsis of the Cephalopoda of the North- 
eastern Coast of America ; by A. B. Veerill. Brief Con- 
tributions to Zoology from the Museum of Yale College. No. 
XLYI. With Plates XII to XVI. 

The recent increase in the number of Cephalopods known to 
belong to this fauna is remarkable. Up to the year 1871, 
only three species were recorded. In 1872, an undetermined 
Rossia and Octopus Bairdii V. were discovered. Since that 
time fourteen additional species have been added, mostly by 
the writer, so that, at the present time, eighteen species are known 
from this coast. Four of these have been first discovered by 
the dredgings carried on by the U. S. Fish Commission, in 
charge of the writer. Six have been brought in by the Glou- 
cester fishermen, from the Bank fisheries, among their valuable 
contributions to the collections of the XJ. S. Fish Commission 
and National Museum. 

In several former articles in this Journal,* the writer has re- 
corded the occurrence of fourteenf American examples of the 
gigantic squids belonging to this genus, and apparently repre- 
senting two species. Since the last of these notices, eight 
additional specimens have been found on the coasts of New- 
foundland and Nova Scotia. In a somewhat extended article 
on the large cephalopods, recently published,:}: the author has 
given all the available facts in relation to the later discoveries, 
and has redescribed, in much greater detail than before, and 
with numerous illustrations, the various specimens formerly 
noticed, of which portions, more or less important, have been 
preserved. In the present article, the recent specimens are 
enumerated in order to complete the series of notices for this 
Journal. Since the capture of the fine specimen of J., princeps, at 
Catalina Bay, in 1877 (our No. 14, see Plate XII), which was 
preserved nearly entire in the New York Aquarium, the 
following have been recorded : 
No. 15. — Hammer Cove specimen, 1876. 

In a letter from Eev. M. Harvey, dated Aug. 25, 1877, he 
states that a big squid was cast ashore Nov. 20, 1876, at Ham- 

* This Journal, vol. vii, p. 158, Feb., 1874; vol. ix, pp. 123, 177, Plates Il-^r 
i. p. 2.36.1876: vol. xiv. p. 425, Nov., 

213, Sept., 
>rican Natui 

i be cancelled. 

A. K Verrill— Cephalopoda of North America. 286 

mer Cove, on the southwest arm of Green Bay, in Notre Dame 
Bay, Newfoundland. When first discovered "by his informant 
It had already been partially devoured by foxes and sea-birds. 
Of the body, a portion 6 feet long remained, with about 2 feet 
of the basal part of the arms. The head was 18 inches broad ; 
tail, 18 inches broad ; eye-sockets, 7 by 9 inches ; stump of 
one of the arms, 3-5 inches in diameter. 
No. 16.~Lance Cove specimen, 1877 {Architeuthis princeps ?). 

In a letter dated N( 
count of another specir 

Lance Cove, Smith's Sound, Trinity Bay, about twenty miles far- 
ther up the bay than the locality of the Catalina Bay specimen 
(No. 14). He received his information from Mr. John Dufiet, 
a resident of the locality, who was one of the persons who 
found and measured it. His account is as follows : " On Nov. 
21, 1877, early in the morning, a ' big squid ' was seen on the 
beach, at Lance Cove, still alive and struggling desperately to 
escape. It had been borne in by a ' spring tide ' and a high in- 
shore wind. In its struggles to get off it ploughed up a trench 
or furrow about thirty feet long and of considerable depth by 
the stream of water that it ejected with great force from its 
siphon. When the tide receded it died. Mr. DutFet measured 
It carefully, and found that the body was nearly 11 feet long 
(probably including the head); the tentacular arms, 33 feet 
long. He did not measure the short arms, but estimated them 
at 13 feet, and that they were much thicker than a man's thigh 
at their bases. The people cut the body open and it was left 
on the beach. It is an out-of-the-way place, and no one knew 
that it was of any value. Otherwise it could easilv have been 
brought to St. John's, with only the eyes destroyed and the 
body opened." It was subsequently carried off by the tide, 
and no portion was secured. 

l7.~~Trir,i(y Bay specimen, 1877. 

Mr. Harvey also states that he had been informed by Mr. 
Duffet that another very large ' big squid ' was cast ashore in 
October, 1877, about five miles farther up Trinity Bay than 
the last. It was cut up and used for manure. No portions 
are known to be preserved, and no measurements were given. 
No. IS.—Tliimhle Tickle specimen, 1878. Architeuthis princeps {?). 

The capture of this specimen has been described by Mr. 
Harvcv, in a letter to the Boston Traveller, Jan. 30, 1879: 

"On the 2d dav of November last, Stephen Sherring, a fish- 
erman residing in Thimble Tickle [near Little Bay Copper 
Mine, Notre Dame Bay], not far from the locality where the 

I happy tl 

286 A. M Verrill— Cephalopoda of North America. 

other devilfish [No. 19] was cast ashore, was out in a boat 
with two other men ; not far from shore they observed some 
bulky object, and, supposing it might be part of a wreck, they 
rowed toward it, and, to their horror, found themselves close to 
a huge fish, having large glassy eyes, which was making des- 
perate efforts to escape, and churning the water into foam by 
the motion of its immense arms and tail. It was aground and 
the tide was ebbing. From the funnel at the back of its head 
it was ejecting large volumes of water, this being its method 
of moving backward, the force of the stream, by the reaction 
of the surrounding medium, driving it in the required direc- 
tion. At times the water from the siphon was black as ink. 

" Finding the monster partially disabled, the fishermen 
plucked up courage and ventured near enough to throw the 
grapnel of their boat, the sharp flukes of which, having barbed 
points, sunk into the soft body. To the grapnel they had at- 
tached a stout rope, which they had carried ashore and tied to 
-ent the fish from soing out with the tide, 
ught, for the devil-fish found himself effect- 
) the shore. His struggles were terrific as he 
fluDg his ten arms about in dying agonv. The fishermen took 
care to keep a respectful distance from fhelong tentacles, which 
ever and anon darted out like great tongues from the central 
mass. At length it became exhausted, and as the water re- 
ceded it expired." 

The body measured 20 feet from the beak to the extremity 
of the tail. The circumference of the body is not stated, but 
one of the tentacular arms measured 85 feet in length. 

According to these measurements, this was the largest speci- 
men yet found, it being nearly twice as large as No. 14. 
iVo. 19.— Three Arms specimen, 1878. Archiieuthis princeps if)- 

Mr. Harvey has also given an account of this specimen, in 
the same letter to the Boston Traveller, referred to under No. 
18. This one was found cast ashore after a heavy gale of 
wind, Dec. 2, 1878, by Mr. William Budgell, a fisherman 
residing at Three Arms, South Arm of Notre Dame Bay, near 
Little Bay mines. It was dead when found, and was cut up 
and used for dog-meat. Mr. Harvey's account is as follows: 

" My informant, a very intelligent person, who was on a visit 
in that quarter on business, arrived at Budgell's house soon 
after he had brought it home in a mutilated state, and carefully 
measured some portions with his own hand. He found that 
the body measured 15 feet from the beak to the end of the 
tail ****** T^g circumference of the body at 
its thickest part was 12 feet. He found only one of the short 
arms perfect, which was 16 feet in length, being five feet longer 

A. F. Verrill— Cephalopoda of North America. 

than a similar arm of the New York specimen [No. 14J, 
describes it as thicker than a man's thigh." 

No. 20.- 

i specimen, 1879. 

This consists of the terminal part of a tentacular arm, which 
was taken by Capt. J. W. Collins and crew, of the schooner 
"Marion," from the stomach of a large and voracious fish 
{Akpidosaurus ferox), together with the only specimen hitherto 
discovered of the remarkable squid, Histioteulhis Collinsii V. 
The fish was taken on a halibut trawl-line, N. lat. 42° 49'; W. 
long. 62° 57', oS Nova Scotia, Jan., 1879. This fragment, after 
preservation in strong alcohol, now measures 18 inches in 
length. It includes all the terminal club, and a small portion 
of the naked arm below it. 
No. 2%~-Brigus specimen, 1879. 

Mr. Harvey states that portions of another large squid were 
cast ashore near Brigus, Conception Bay, in October, 1879. 

Two of the short arms, each measuring eight feet in length, 
were found, with other mutilated parts, after a storm. 
No. 2^.~James's Cove specimen, 1879. 

From Mr. Harvey I have also recently received an account 
of another specimen, which was captured entire about the first 
of November last, at James's Cove, Bonavista Bay, N. F. 

"Mr. Thomas Moores and several others saw something 
moving about in the water, not far from the stage. Getting 
i'lto a punt, they went alongside, when they were surprised to 
f?ee a monster squid. One of the men struck at it with an oar, 
and it immediately struck for the shore, and went quite upon 
the beach. The men then succeeded in getting a rope around 
It, and hauled it quite ashore. It measured 38 feet altogether, 
ine body was about 9 feet in length, and two of its tentacles 
or horns were 29 feet each. There were several other smaller 
porns, but they were not so long. The body was about 6 feet 
'n circumference." 

This seems to have been a fine and complete specimen, about 
the size of theCatalina Bay specimen (No. 14). Unfortunately 
toe fishermen, as usual, immediately destroyed it, and probably 
'lo portion was preserved. 

-^rchiieuthis Harveyi Verrill. (Harvey's giant squid). 
Trans. Conn. Acad v p 197 Plates liii to xvio, Dec , 1879. 
^mloteuthis harveyi Kent, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1874, p. 178. 
""-' - -' -riU. this Journal, vol. ix, pp. 124, 177, PI. ii, m, it, 

288 A. E. Verrill — Cephalopoda of North America. 

Plate XIII. 

The principal diagnostic characters of this species, so far as 
determined, are as follows: Sessile arms unequal in size, nearly 
equal in length, decidedly shorter than the head and body to- 
gether, and scarcely as long as the body alone. Tentacular 
arms, in extension, about four times as long as the short arms : 
about three times as long as the head and body together. 
Caudal fin small, less than one-third the length of the mantle, 
sagittate in form, with the lateral lobes extending forward much 
beyond their insertions ; the posterior end tapering to a long 
acute tip. Jaws with a smaller notch and lobe than in A. 
princcps. Suckers of the sessile arms (so far as seen) mostly 
with numerous acute teeth all around the circumference, all 
similar in shape, but those on the inner margin smaller than 
those on the outer, and sometimes obsolete in certain suckers. 
Sexual characters are not yet determined. 
Architeuihis princeps Verrill. (Giant squid). 

Architeufhis princeps Verrill, this Journal, vol. ix, pp. 124, 181, Plate v, 1875; 
American Naturalist, vol. ix, pp. 22, 79. figs. 25-27, 1875 : Trans. Conn. Acad., 

Plate XII. 

This species is distinguished from the preceding by the 
length and inequality of the short arms, of which the longest 
(ventral or subventral) exceed the combined length of the head 
and body by about one-sixth ; by the denticulation of the suck- 
ers of the short arms, of which there are two principal forms, 
some having very oblique horny rings, with the outer edge 
very strongly toothed with broad, flat, acuminate teeth, and 
the inner edge slightly or imperfectly denticulated ; the others 
having less oblique rings, with the acuminate denticles sim- 
ilar in form all around, though smaller on the inner margin ; 
by the stronger jaws, which have a deeper notch and a more 
elevated tooth on the anterior edge ; and by the caudal fin, 
which is short-sagittate in form, with the posterior end less 
elongated than in the preceding species. 

Sthenoteuthis megaptera Verrill. (Broad-finned large squid). 

Trans. Conn. Acad., v, p. 223, PI. xxi, fiffs. 1-9, Feb., 1880. 

Architeutkis megaptera Verrill, this Journal, vol. xvi. p. 207, 1878. Tryon, 

Manual of Conchology, vol. i, p. 187 (description copied from preceding pap«r;- 

The original specimen was found thrown ashore near Cape 

Sable, N. S. To this species is doubtfully referred a beaK, 

taken on Sable I. Bank, in 280-300 fathoms, by Gapt. Ceo. A. 

Johnson and crew, of the schooner "A. H. Johnson." 

A, E. VerriU — Cephalopoda of North America. 289 

The genus Sthmoteuthis, established to receive this species, 
differs from Ommasirephes, to which it is closely allied, in hav- 
ing, like Architeuthis, numerous small, smooth-rimmed suckers 
alternating with tubercles, on the proximal part of the 'club,' 
for the mutual adhesion of the long tentacular arms. The lat- 
eral arms are provided with very broad, thin marginal mem- 
branes. The caudal fin is very broad. Besides the type it 
also includes S. Bariramii {Loligo Barlramii Les.) from the 
tjulf Stream region, and probablv S.piempus (Steenst. sp.)from 
the Mediterranean and Bermuda> 

Ommastrephes illecehrosa VerriU. (Short-finned squid). 
LoUgo illecehrosa Lesueur, Journ. Phil. Acad. Nat. Sci., li, p. 95, Plate x, figs. 

18-21 (incorrect figures). G-ould, Invert. Mass., ed. I, p. 318, 1841. 
Ommastrephss sagittatus (pars) D'Orbig., Ceph. Acetab., p. 345, Plate 7, fig. 1, 

(after Lesueur). Binnej, in Gould's Invert. Mass., ed. II, p. 510, 1870 (exel. 

ayn.) Plate xxvi, flg 341-4 [341 is inperfect], not Plate ixv, fig. 339. Tryon 

(pars) Man. Conch., I, p. 177, PI. 78, fig. 342 (very bad, after Lesueur), PL 79, 

fig. 343, 1879 {not Plate 78, figs. 341, 345). 
^mastrephes Ulecehrosa VerriU, this Journal, vol. iii, p. 281, 1872: Report on 

Invert. Viney. Sd., etc., 1873, pp. 441, 634. 

Long Inland Sound (VerriU) to Cumberland Gulf (Kum- 
lein). Abundant from Cape Cod to Newfoundland. Saybrook, 
Conn. (U. S. Fish Com.) Vineyard Sd., Mass., large in winter, 
snfiall in May (V. N. EdwardsV 

Ihe Mediterranean form, usually identified with the var. h, 
of Loligo sagittata Lamarck, 1799,t is closely related to our 
species, but if the published figures and descriptions can be re- 
hed upon, it can hardly be identical. The American form has 
a more elongated body, with a differently shaped caudal fin, 
which IS relatively shorter than 0. sagittatus, as given by Euro- 
pean authors. The figure given by Verany is, however, an ex- 
ception in this respect, for in that the body is represented about 
as long as in some of our larger specimens.:!: 

Of our species, I have measured large numbers of specimens, 
preserved in different ways, and also fresh, and have found no 
great variation in the form and relative length of the caudal 
un, among specimens of similar size, nor do the sexes differ 

* A specimen from Bermuda is described in detail in Trans. Conn. Acad., vol. v, 
P- 228, but it lacked the -clubs.' 

t It seems more probable, however, that Lamarck's description applied, in part, 
^0 Bartramii (Les. sp.) of the Gulf Stream region. Blainville thus applied it. 

the body too small and short in proportion to the size of the fin, and the fin wrong 
tiona of the arms ar"ais™erroneoud. But Lesueur explains these defects by his 
statement that the figures were hasty sketches made for the sake of preserving 

eiches were published withe 
f one of Lesueur's, though n 

A. E. Verrill— Cephalopoda of North America. 


the largest specimens are usually males, though equally large 
females do occur. In 31 measured specimens, in alcohol, 
from various localities, and of both sexes, the average length 
from tip of tail to dorsal ed^e of the mantle was 6-96 
inches; from tip of tail to insertion of fin, 2-59 ; average pro- 
portion of fin to mantle-length, 1 : 2-68. Among these the 
Eroportions varied from as low as 1 : 250, in some of the 
irger ones, (with mantle above 8 inches), up to 1 : 2*85, in the 
smaller ones, (with the mantle about 4 inches long). The cau- 
dal tin is about one-third broader than long, and its breadth is 
usually rather less than half the length of the mantle. In 
fresh specimens the tentacles can extend back beyond the base 
of the caudal fin. The portion of the tentacles bearing suck- 
ers is always less than half the whole length. The relative 
size of the suckers varies greatly in both sexes, perhaps in 
connection with the renewal of their horny rings, periodically. 
In the male of our species the left ventral arm is strongly 
hectocotylized, nearly as in Loligo. Toward the tip the suck- 
ers of the outer row, for some distance, have their pedicels 
larger and longer, with swollen bases, while the suckers them- 
selves gradually become smaller till they nearly or quite dis- 
appear, and then, close to the tip, they again become normal. 
Taonius pavo Steenstrup. (Peacock squid). 
Loligo pavo Lesueur. Journal Acad. Nat. Science Phila., ii, p. 96, Plate, 1821, 
Loligopsis pavo Ferussac and D'Orb., C^ph. Acet., p. .321, PI. 4, figs. 1-8, (after 
Lesueur). Binney, in Gould. Invert. Mass., ed. II, p. 309, (but not the figure, 
PI. xivi). Tryon, Man. Conch., i, p. ]63, PL 68, fig. 252. 
1879, (fig^r"" — '"^ *■ ^ " ^"^ ' ^ 

Sandy Bay, Mass. (Lesueur). Newfoundland (Steenstrup). 
No instance of the occurrence of this oceanic species on the 
New England coast has been recorded since the original speci- 
men was described by Lesueur, in 1821. 
Taonius hyperhoreus Steenstrup, (Goggle-eyed squid). 

Leachia hyperhoreus Steenstrup, Kongelige Danske Yidensk. Selsk. Skrifter. 6te 

Rsekke, iv, p. 200, 1856, (sep. copies, p. 16). 
Taonius hyperhoreus Steenst., Oversigt Kgl. Danske Vidensk. Selsk., Forhandim- 

ger, 1861, p. 83. Verrill, this Journal, xvii, p. 243, 1879. . 

Loligopsis hyperhoreus Tryon, op. cit.. p. 162, (inaccurate translation, al 

Near the northern edge of the Gulf Stream, W. long- 55°, 
Jan., 1879 (Thomas Lee), Greenland (Steenstrup). 
Histioteuthis GolUnsli Verrill. (Webbed squid). 

This Journal, xvii, p. 241, March, 1879. Tryon, op. cit., i, p. 166, 1879, (copied 
J4, Plates xxii and n^*- 

from preceding). Verrill, Trans. Conn. Acad., 

Plate XIV. 

The only specimen known was obtained from the stomach of 
a large fish {Alepidosaurus ferox), taken by Capt. J. W. Collins 
and crew of the schooner " Marion," in "deep water off Nova 
Scotia, N. lat. 42° 49'; W. long. 62° 57'. 
Eossia HyattiYerrm. (Hyatt's bob-tailed squid). 

This Journal, vol. xvi, p. 208, Sept., 1878. Tryon, Man. Conch., i, p. 166, 1879, 
(description compiled from preceding). 

Platjs XV, figures 1 and 2. 

This species has been taken in numerous localities, by the 
dredging parties of the U. S. Fish Commission, in 1877, 1878 
and 1879, off Cape Cod ; in Mass. Bav; off Cape Ann, in the 
Gulf of Maine ; off Cape Sable, N. S! ; and off Halifax, N. S. 
It occurs in 40 to 150 fathoms. Its relatively large eggs are 
laid in small clusters in the large oscules or cavities of several 
species of sponges. It has also been received through the 
<iloucester halibut fishermen, from the Banks, off Nova Scotia. 

This species has a strong general resemblance to R. gUmcopis 
Loven, as figured in the admirable work of G. O, Sars, but the 
latter has shorter lateral arms, and the suckers of the sessile 
arras are in two rows, while they are four-rowed in our species. 
Rossia suhlevis Verrill. (Smooth bob-tailed squid). 

Rossia suhlavis Verrill, this Journal, zvi, p. 209, 1878. Tryon, Man. Conch., 
i. p. 160, 1879, (description compiled from preceding). 

Plate XV, figure 3. 
Taken by the dredging parties of the U, S. Fish Commis- 
sion in the trawl-net, at numerous localities, in 1877, 1878 and 
1879, in 50 to 140 fathoms, off Mass. Bay ; in Mass. Bav ; off 
Cape Cod ; oflT Cape Sable, N. S. ; and off Halifax. Also 
recently brought in by the Bank fishermen, of Gloucester. 
Stpiola hucoptera Verrill. (Butterfly squid). 
Sepiola leucopiera Verrill, this Journal, vol. ivi, p. 378, 1878. Tryon, Man. Conch., 
>, p. 158, 1879, (description copied from preceding, with remarks.) 

Plate XV, figures 4 and 5. 

Three specimens were taken bv the U. S. Fish Com., in the 
trawl-net, 30 miles east from Cape Ann, Mass.. 110 fathoms, 
August, 1878. One specimen was taken off Cape Cod, 123 
fathoms, with the bottom temperature 41° F., August, 1879. 

The last named specimen, (Plate xv, fig. 5) when fresh was 
about 3 !«>» long, exclusive of the arms. In this the head, above, in 
front of the eyes, was wliite : back and the base of the fins thickly 
spotted witi'i brown ; posterior part of the back with an emer- 
aW-green iridescence Sides of the boilv. below the fins, and 
posterior end of the body,silverv white. A large shield-shaped 

292 A. E. Yerrill— Cephalopoda of North America. 

ventral area of brown, with a bright blue iridescence, and 
bordered with a band of brilliant blue, occupies most of the 
lower surface. Fins transparent, whitish, except at base. 
Lower side of head, siphon and outer bases of arms, light 
brown. Eyes blue above, green below. The fins are large, 
nearly as long as the body. 
Loligo Pealei Lesueur. (Long-finned squid.) 

Journ. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philad., vol. ii, p, 92, Plate 8, 1821. 

Ferussac and D'Orbigny, C^ph. Acet., p. 311, PI. xi, flgs. 1-5, PI. xx, figs. lT-21. 
Binney in Gould's Invert. Mass., ed. 2, p. 514, PI. 25, fig. 340, (figure errone- 
ously referred to 0. Bartramii). Terrill, Report on Invert. Vineyard Sd., 
pp. 440, 635 (sep. copies, p. 341), PL xx, figs. 102-105, 1877. Tryon, Man. 
Couch., I, p. 142, PI. 51, figs. 134-140, (figs, from Fer. and D'Orb.) 

Loligo punctata Dekay, Nat. Hist. N. Y., Mollusca, p. 3, PI. 1, fig. 1, 1843, (young.) 

South Carolina to Massachusetts Bay. 

This is the common squid from Cape Hatteras to Cape Cod. 
In Long Island Sound and Vineyard Sound it is very abun- 
dant, and is taken in large numbers in the fish-pounds and 
seines. It is comparatively scarce north of Cape Cod. Large 
specimens were taken in the pounds at Provincetown, Mass- 
August, 1879. As in all other squids, the length of the caudal 
fin, in proportion to that of the body (mantle), increases with 
age, even after maturity. For this species, in specimens hav- 
ing the mantle from 4 to 5 inches long, the ratio of the fin to 
the mantle usually varies from 1 : 1-80 to 1: 1-90 ; with the man- 
tle 6 to 7 inches long, the ratio usually becomes 1 : 1'65 to 
1:1-75; in the largest specimens, with the mantle 10 to 13 
inches long, the ratio varies from 1 : 1-56 to 1 : 1-70. This varia- 
tion is independent of sex, and is due mostly to the ordinary 
changes by growth. The ratio of the breadth of the caudal 
fin to the length of the mantle, in the larger specimens, ranges 
from 1:215 to 1:2-40, varying considerably according to the 
mode of preservation. The suckers in the two central rows oi 
the tentacular club, are large and remarkably high ; the rim is 
closely and sharply denticulated, one or three minute denticles 
alternating with the larger ones. 

Var. horealis Yerrill. Four specimens, taken in 1878, at 
Annisquam. Mass., on the north side of Cape Ann, and sent 
to me by Professor A. Hyatt, diff'er so decidedly from the 
typical ones that it seems desirable to give the form a distinctive 
name, as a variety or geographical race. Two are females, filled 
with eggs. When a larger series can be examined it may even 
prove to be a distinct species. They have the general form ana 
appearance of the pale-colored L. Pealei, with the caudal nn 
broaderthan usual. Ratio of fin-length to mantle, 1 : 1-62; of hn- 
width to mantle-length, 1 : 1-82. Length of mantle, above, in one 
female. 7*30 inches ; of caudal fin, 4-5 ; to end of longest sessile 

A. R Verrill— Cephalopoda of North America. 293 

arras, lO'T. The anterior dorsal lobe of the mantle-edge is larger 
and longer than usual, and the 'pen,' while having the general 
form of that of L. Pealei, tapers more gradually anteriorly, and 
has a narrower, more tapered, more acute and stiffer ante- 
rior tip. But the most obvious peculiarity is the unusual 
smallness of the suckers, both of the tentacles and short arms, 
which are little more than half as large as those of typical L. 
Pealei of the same size. The largest of the median suckers of 
the tentacular club are only 2°"° in diameter of aperture; the 
largest of those on the 3d pair of arms, 1-5'"'°. The rims of 
the suckers are white, and their denticulation is similar to that 
of the typical form, but finer. 
Loligo pallida Yerrill. (Pale long-finned squid). 
Beport on Invert. Viney. Sd., in Rep. U. S. Com. Fish and Fisheries, i, p. 635, 
[341], PI. XX, figs. 101, 101a, 1873. Tryon, op. dt. p. 143, PL 52, flga. 141, 
142, (des. and figs, copied from preceding). 
This is closely allied to L. Pealei, and may finally prove to be 
only a geographical variety of it, but among the very numerous 
specimens, of both forms, that I have already examined, I have 
not found intermediate ones. The principal difi'erences are the 
larger and flatter median suckers of the tentacular clubs, which 
also have darker colored and more strongly denticulate rims ; 
the larger suckers of the sessile arms ; a stouter body in both 
sexes ; a larger and broader caudal fin, the ratio of the breadth 
of the fin to the mantle-length, in the larger specimens (with 
mantle 7 to 9 inches long), being from 1 : 1-80 to 1 : 1-95, while 
in L. Pealei, of corresponding size, the ratio is 1 : 216 to 1 : 2-30. 
This form has been received, hitherto, only from the western 
part of Long Island Sound, where it is abundant, with the 
schools of menhaden. 
Parasira catenulata Steenstrup. 

Octopna tuberculatmmBS0{7). Hist. nat. de I'Eur. merid., iv, p. 3, 1826 (t. D'Orbig.) 
Octopus cateniUatus Ferussac, Poulpes, PI. vi, bis, ter., 1828 (t. D'Orbig.) 
i'hilonexis tuherculatus Mr. and D'Orbig., Ceph. Acet., p. 87, PI. vi, bis, ter. 

A fine specimen of this interesting species was taken in 
Vineyard Sound, Mass., by Mr. Y. N. Edwards, in 1876.* It 
^as not known previously from the American coast, and has 
been regarded as peculiar to the Mediterranean. The total 
length of this specimen is 8 inches ; of mantle, 2 ; circumfer- 
ence of bodv, 6 ; length of dorsal arms, from eye, 64 ; of 
second pair,"' 3-7; of third pair, 3-80; of fourth pair, 5'30. 
^olor, above, deep violet ; beneath, yellowish. The remark- 

*Thi3 is the same specimen that was referred to under Octopus granulatus, in 
Ills Journal, xvi,p 210 1878 The specimen had been mislaid, and at that time 
J^J. «ot to be found. It' was recorded from memory, and only an imperfect eiam- 

^M- Jour. Sci.-Third Series, Vol. XIX, No. 112.-Afkil, 1880. 

294 A. E. Verrill— Cephalopoda of North America. 

able tubercles of the ventral surface, mostly have five ridges 
converging to each, rarely six. In all other respects it agrees 
with the figures of Ferussac and D'Orbigny. According to 
Targioni-Tozzetti, P. calenulata is distinct from P. tuherculata. 
If so, our species should bear the former name. 
Octopus Bairdii Yerrill. (Baird's Octopus.) 

This Journal, vol. v, p. 5, Jan., 1873; American Naturalist, vol. vii. p. 394, figs. 
1874. ' G. O.'Sars, MoUusca Regionis Arcticae Norvegiaj, p. 339, PI. 33, figs. 
1 to 10, ( S ) PI. xvii, figs. 8» to 8-1 (dentition and jaws), 1878. Tryon, Man. 
Conch., i, p. 116, PI. 32, figs. 37, 38 (description and figures from the papers 
byA. E.V.) 

In addition to the localities previously given, this species has 
been taken in numerous localities off the coasts of Massachu- 
setts and Nova Scotia, by the dredging parties of the U. S. 
Fish Commission, in 187?; 78 and 79. It is common in 50 to 
150 fathoms, both on muddy and on hard bottom. Both sexes 
occur, the females less frequently. The sexes show but httle 
difference, except the hectocotylized third right arm of the male. 
The Gloucester fishermen have brought in several specimens 
from the banks, off Nova Scotia and Newfoundland. 

Professor G. O. Sars has taken it, off the Norwegian coast, m 
60 to 800 fathoms. 

Two specimens of this species, both females, have been ob- 
tained. The first was from LeHave Bank, off Nova Scotia, 
120 fathoms, taken by Capt. John Mclnnis and crew, of the 
schooner "M. H. Perkins,''* Oct., 1879; the second was taken 
by Capt. David Campbell and crew, of the schooner "Admiral, 
near the Grand Bank, in 200 fathoms, Dec, 1879. 

This species resembles 0. Gronlayidicus, of which the males 
alone have been described, and may prove identical. 

One male, taken in 160 to 300 fathoms, east of Sable Island, 
N. S., by Chas. Ruckly, of the schooner "H. A. Duncan." 
Octopus lentus Yerrill. (Soft Octopus.) 
This Journal, vol. xix, p. 138, Feb., 1880. 

One specimen only, a female, presented by Capt.^ Samuel 
Peeples and crew, of the schooner "H. M. Perkins." It was 
taken near LeHave Bank, N. S., in 120 fathoms. 

Plate XVI, 
n specimen of 
N. lat. 48° 54'; W. long. 58° 44', about i 
3t. Mel 
* Sept., 1879. 

The only known specimen of this 


Plate XII. 

y. (No. 14). General figure; from the recently preserved 

caught specimen ; A natural size. ° DrawnTy the autho^ 

Plate XIII. 

Figure l.~Architeiithis Harveyi (No. 5). Head and arms, ^ natural size, from a 

photograph of the specimen when freshly caught. The back of the head rests 

reversed position. The diameter of thrLthingTub "was 38-5 inches: a, left, 
and a', right ventral arms; h, left, and h'. right arms of the third pair; c, left, 
and c', right arms of the second pair ; d\ right dorsal arm, mostly concealed be- 
hind the others ; e, left and e', right tentacular-arms, folded several times over 
the oar ; « to iv, the ' club' ; i to ii, the ' wrist' ; ii to Hi, the part bearing large 
^ suckers ; Hi to iv, the terminal division ; o, the beak. 

figure 2.— Part of the body and caudal fin of the same specimen, ^ natural size, 
" at the same time with the preceding ; u, mantle cut 
fht and I, left lateral lobes of caudal fin. 
Plate XIY. 

Figure l.~Eossia HyaUi. Dorsal view, enlarged l\. 
^ figure 2.— The same. A young specimen, enlarged If 
figure Z.~Rossia subUvis. Ventral view, enlarged 1|. 
figure 4..~Sepiola Jmcoptera. Young, ventral view, enlarged 3 diameters. 
Figure 5.-The same. A larger specimen, taken in 1879, enlarged n. 

Plate XVI. 
Figure l.-Stawroteuthis syrterms. Dorsal view. tV natural size, 
figure 2.— The same. Lower side of head ; s, siphon ; e, eye ; a, the pore. 
Figure 3.-The same. The siphon, tnmed back. 
J^igures4 and 5.— The upper and under jaws of the same, enlarged 2| diam< 

Art. XXXV .—Notices of Recent American Earthquakes. No. 
9 ; by Professor C. G. Rockwood, Jr., Princeton, N. J. 

In these notices, as heretofore, those based upon single news- 
paper items, and which could not be otherwise verified, are 
printed in smaller type, and the source of the information is 

I niust again express my indebtedness for information re- 
ceived, to J. M. Batchelder, Esq., of Boston, to the U. S. 
Monthly Weather Review, and also to President J. W. Dawson 
01 Montreal, Professor F. E. Nipher of St. Louis, and Professor 
^- A. Rice, of Burlington, Vt. 

—Recent American 

1878, June 9. A shock at Granada, Nicaragua, at 4.30 p. m., 
direction N.W. to S.E., duration seventeen seconds. This is evi- 
dently the same shock already reported at San Jos6, Costa Rica. 
— Ili;xvii, p. 160. 

June 16. Two severe shocks at Cerro de Pasco, Peru. 

June 17. A slight shock at Granada, Nicaragua, at 11.15 a.m., 
direction N.W. to S.E., duration eleven seconds. 

June 19, A severe shock at Cerro de Pasco, Peru at 1.30 a. m. 

Oct. 31. At San Jose, Costa Rica, a very feeble shock at 9.30 

Nov. 3. At the same place, a feeble shock at 5.30 p. m. 
Nov. 8. At the same place, a feeble shock at 8.15 p. m. 
Nov. 23. At the same place, a quite strong shock. 

Nov. 18. For additional notices of the earthquake on this day 
in Missouri, (already reported, III, xvii, p. 162), see vol. xvii, p. 

Nov. 26. A brief shock at Alajuela, Costa Rica, at 1.40 a. m. 

Dec. 9. A severe shock at Red Bluff, Cal., at 3.20 p. m., lasting 
fifteen or twenty seconds. 

Dec. 17. A slight shock at Yuma, Arizona, at 4 p. m., lasting 
eight seconds ; felt also at Campo, Cal., where two shocks were 
repoited, lasting about two seconds, direction from S. W., with 
rumbling noise. 

Dec. 24. A slight shock at 9 p. M. at Flushinj?, N. Y., from N. to S., with rum- 
bling noise.- fT. S. Weather Review. 

Dec. 28, A slight shock at Schoharie, N. Y., at 9.32 p. m. ; felt 
also in other towns north of there, to a distance of 15 miles, 

1879, Jan. 9. A severe shock at Arequipa, Peru, at 11.50 p. m. 

Jan. 12. At Iquique, Peru, a long and violent shock about mid- 
night, with subterranean noise. 

Jan, 12, Apparently simultaneous with the above, a severe 
shock was felt in northern and central Florida. It occurred about 
11.45 p. M. and affected the country bounded on the north by a 
line joining Tallahasse and Savannah, Ga., and on the south by a 
nearly parallel line from Punta Rassa on Tampa Bay through 
Okahumpka in the interior, to Daytona on the Atlantic coast. 
At most places two shocks were noticed, lasting altogether about 
thirty seconds. The statements of directions are very discordant, 
with however an apparent preference for N,W. and S.E. This 
direction agrees pretty well with the statements of time, which 
vary from 1 1.40 and 11. 45 at Lake City and Jacksonville, to 1 1.50 
at Savannah and Daytona, 11.55 at St. Augustine and Gulf Ham- 
mock, and 12 p. M. at Okahumpka, thus roughly indicating a 
progress from N.W. to S.E. The reports are not sufficiently 
exact to form a basis for any estimate of velocity. 

G. G. Rochivood, Jr.— Recent An 

Feb. 4. A shock at Visalia, Cal., at 0''-8"' a. m,, lasting five 
seconds, with rumbling noise, and seven seconds later a second 
heavier shock lasting nine seconds. The motion " appeared to 
come from the S.E. or E.," and was felt in the surrounding coun- 

Feb. 12, 18, 26. At San Jose, Costa Rica, feeble shocks on 12th 
at 10.46 p. M. ; on 18th at 3.10 a. m. ; on 26th at 6.00, 6.10, and 
6.30 A. M., with a stronger one at 4.40 p. m. 

Peb. ]9. A shock at San Francisco, Cal., a few minutes aiter 5 A. M. — ^JV. T. 

March 18. A strong shock at Alajuela, Costa Rica, at 0.15 a. m. 
and at San Jose at 0.17 a. m., oscillations E. to W., lasting ten 

March 25. A shock was felt about 7.30 p. m, along the Delaware 
Hiver below Philadelphia. It extended from Chester, Pa., to 
beyond Salem, N. J., a distance of about 30 miles, being felt most 
strongly on the east side of the river, where it was accompanied 
by a noise resembling thunder. 

April 9. At San Joso, Costa Ricn, two shocks at 11.15 and 
■^^•^^^•M., the first and stronger one lastinp; :il>ont twenty sec- 
onds. The same shocks were reported from Ahijuela at 1 1.07 and 
11.25 A. M. 

April 14. A shock at Norfolk, K Y., at 1 1.15 a. jr., from W. to 
E., lasting about forty seconds. 

May 16 or 17. An earthquake in the morning at Vera Cruz, 
Mexico, and inland to Cordova and Orizaba. I have this from two 
sources differing in the day, although evidently referring to the 

May 25. At 5.30 P. M., a rather heavy shock at St. Georges, 
Bermuda ; felt also about the same hour in the islands of Porto 
Rico, St. Croix and Tortola, the nearest part of the Antilles. 

May 26. Slight shock at Princeton, Cal., at 8.40 P. M-— P! -?. Weatfm- Review. 

May 29, 30. On the night between these days, at 6.30 p. m. and 
1.30 A. M., severe shocks occurred in Costa Rica, destroying some 
houses at San Jose, Alajuela and Grecia, and felt more lightly at 
Aspinwall, Panama and other places. 

June 3. At 9.32 A. m. on Atka Island, Alaska, eight sharp shocks 
in rapid succession, lasting about two seconds each, dii-ection S.SE. 
to N.NW. 

June 11, 12. A light shock at 10 p. m. felt at Montreal and east 
and southeast from there as far as Waterloo and Frelighsburg. 
At Montreal it is described as "loud rumbling, slight shock and 

C. G. Rnckwood, Jr. — Recent American Earthquakes. 

June — . The Sacramento (Cal.) Union of June 28, speaks 
recent earthquake at Virginia City," (Nev.) which was fe 
he suriace but not in the deeper mines. No more exact ace 

, lasting ten seconds, the second about 11 p. m., lasting 
leconds. They were accompanied by a slight rumbhng 
direction S.W. to N.E. The damage to property was 

July 26. A shock at Cairo and Mound City, 111. at 11.45 a. m., 
lasting three seconds. Motion N. to S. 

July 30. A violent shock at St. Thomas, (West Indies) at 11.35 A. M., lasting 
forty seconds. — Nature. 

Aug. 1. A sharp shock at St. Thomas, (West Indies).— J. M. B. 

Aug. 10. A severe shock was felt at Dominica, (West Indies), 
"at 1.20 a. m., and at intervals until 1.52 there were tremulous 
movements of the earth." A noise accompanied the first shock, 
after which " there was an interval of perfect quiet until 1.30 when 
subterranean noises like the booming of distant guns attracted 
attention ; and then at intervals varying from two to five minutes, 
six of these discharges were counted, and following each there 
came a gentle tremulous movement." Dominica is stated to be 
" essentially of volcanic origin and contains three active geysers." 
— From a letter in Nature^ xx, p. 431. 

Aug. 10. At ].15 p. M. a very light shock at Los Angeles Cal.; 
stronger and followed by a tidal wave at St. Monica 13 miles 
west ; and quite severe at San Fernando about the same distance 

Aug. 18. A shock at Fiske's MlUs, Sonoma county, Califomia.-j: M. B. 
Aug. 21. The country between Lakes Erie and Ontario was 
severely shaken about 3 a. m. The earthquake was reported from 
Buffalo, Lockport and Niagara, on the New York side, and from 
various places as far west as Beamsville and Welland on the Can- 
ada side. At most places an explosion was heard and at St. Cath- 
arines the shock was strong enough to cause the church bell to 
make two taps. The time stated at Buffalo and Lockport is " 1.30 
to-day." If not an error, this would indicate another shock. 
Inquiry failed to remove the uncertainty. No report mentioned 

Sept. 24. A violent shock occurred in the southern part of Ice- 
land, being most severe near Krfsuvik. Slight local earthquakes 
had frequently occurred at Krlsuvlk during the previous eighteen 

G. O. Bockioood, Jr.— Recent American Earthquakes. 299 

where " the sound appeared to be in the S. W. and the vibration 
to travel to the K" 

Oct. 2. A sharp shock at 6.30 A. m., felt at Oakland and other 
places around San Francisco Bay. 

Oct. 2. A strong shock in the morning at Arequipa. Peru, lasting thirty seconds. 
-tr.S. Weather Beview. 

Oct. 24. At New Haven, Conn., at 6.12 p. m. two slight shocks, 
felt also at Bridgeport. 

Oct. 25. Two shocks at 10.30 p. m. at Peterboro, N. R.—J. M. B. 

Oct. 26. A slight shock at Winsborough, S. G.— U. S. Weather Review. 

Nov. 3. A slight shock at Contoocook, K H., at 1.15 a. m. 

Nov. 13, 14, 15, 16. Numerous shocks in Valparaiso, GhiM— London Times. 

Nov. 18. A slight shock at 10.40 A. M. in Costa Rica.— K S. Weather Review. 

Nov. 25. A slight shock at Boise City, Idaho, lasting about two 
seconds, vibration E. to W. ; felt also at Idaho City, 35 miles north, 
where another faint shock was noticed on the 26th. 

Dec. t. A slight shock at Loa Angeles, Cal., at 8.15 p. M., lasting about two 
seconds.— U. S. Weather Review. 

Dec. 12, 13. Two distinct shocks from W. toE. at 7 p. m. of the 
12th, and 2 A. M. of the 13th, were felt at Charlotte, S. C, and in 
the surrounding country within a radius of eleven miles. 

Dec. 21. In the district of San Salvador, C. A., was felt the first 
of a series of earthquakes which continued with greater or less 
violence up to and after Jan. 1, 1880. Shocks of especial severity 
occurred on Dec. 27, and at La Libertad at 7.30 p. m. on Jan. 1. 
Fears were entertained for the safety of the capital and other 
towns in the interior. Fuller details are hoped for in due time. 

Dec. 29. A shock at Yankton and Fort Sully, Dakota, at 
12.30 A. M. with rumbling noise. 

1880, Jan. 9. A shock about the Bay of Monterey, Cal., felt at 
Santa Cruz, Gonzales and Hollister, about 5.45 a. m., lasting 15 to 
20 seconds, direction N.E. to S.W, 

Jan. 22, 23. Severe shocks were felt at Key West, in Havana 
and the western part of Cuba and in the Isle of Pines. The prin- 
cipal and most widely felt shocks occurred about 11 P. m. of the 
22d and 4 a. m. of the 23d ; with others more local in character 
about 9 p. M. of the 23d, 4 a. m. and 1 p. m. of the 26th, and on 
the morning of the 29th. No damage was done at Havana, but 
at Vuelta Abajo and San Christobal, twelve miles distant, many 
omldings were thrown down and some lives lost. The direction 
of motion was S.W. to N.E., and a subterranean roaring was 

a T. Sherman— Height of Land and It 

Abt. XXXYL—Olservations on the Height of Land and Sea 
Breezes, taken at Coney Island ; by O. T. Sherman. 

The following observations were taken at Coney Island with 
the captive balloons of the American Aeronautic Society, S. 
A. King, aeronaut in charge. Captain Howgate furnished the 

With the exception of the hotels, no height rises to inter- 
rupt the flow of the wind. We might expect, therefore, to 
find the sea breeze and its counter current undisturbed. The 
standard thermometer employed was of the Signal Service 
pattern, made by James Green, and carefully tested by the 
observer. The aneroid barometers were kept compared with 
a standard mercurial instrument at the surface. The ane- 
mometer, of Eobinson's pattern, furnished by James Green, 
was used to measure the velocity of the wind at the top of the 
ascent, and also at the bottom. In the other cases, the forces 
were estimated. 

The record was commenced as the balloon left the earth 
and continued without interruption till the balloon attained its 
highest point. At the top, the velocity of the wind was 
recorded by a "five minute " observation. On the descent the 
same plan was followed. 

From the barometric readings, reduced to the mercurial 
standard, the heights were deduced by Loomis' table as given 
by Guyot. A comparison of these heights with those deduced 
from the length of the rope in use showed a close agreement. 
The thermometric readings reduced to the standard thermome- 
ter were then plotted in a curve whose ordinates were heights, 
and the abscissas, the degrees of the thermometric scale. The 
ascent and descent giving somewhat discordant values, a free 
hand curve was drawn between them. The positions of the 
curve are given in the annexed table. The force of the wmd 
was treated in a like manner. The observed directions were 
then plotted opposite the heights. When discordant at one 
height, they were referred to that one of the sixteen equal divis- 
ions of the compass which lay between them. The whole vvas 
then referred to the mean of the times of leaving and regain- 
ing the earth, an interval of about fifteen minutes. Kew York 
time was employed. The results are given on the following 

A slight inspection of the return rates of change shows that the 
return current has influenced the temperature of the air around 
it to a noticeable extent. 

We may consider the observed wind as composed of the 
wind produced by a great storm in progress, and the sea or 

0. T. Sherman— Height of Land and Sea Breezes. 



i h 



302 0. T. Sherm 

-Height of Land and Sea Breezes. 

> the ( 

land breeze. The sea breeze blows perpendicular 1 
or about southeast. To obtain the storm wind, I examined 
the 7-35 A. M. maps of the Signal Service, but since the obser- 
vations were taken almost directly under areas of maximum 
pressure, the examination gave no useful results. I therefore 
adopted a method based upon the following considerations. 
Of all those directions and velocities which combined with the 
direction of the sea breeze can produce the resultant, the storm 
breeze is that which remains when the sea breeze vanishes; 
the fact that the sea breeze vanishes is shown by the other 
component remaining undisturbed. For example, on August 
13, the observed wind was S.S.E., velocitv 7-5 miles. This 
might be produced either by S. 4-5, S.E. ; S.S.W. 4, S.E., 
S.W. 3, S.E., etc., but of these, S.W. 3 most nearly satisfies 
the condition that it shall be observed by itself. The surface 
breeze therefore ends at about 650 feet from the surface of the 
sea, while above 700 feet a current from the land evidently de- 
flects the breeze toward the northwest. Proceeding with each 
of the other cases in the same way a mean may be taken. In 
this manner we have drawn up the following table. The values, 
though necessarily approximate, gain much from our inability 
to launch the balloon save on calm days. The sign < implies 
that the given value is probably too high. 







10 16 A.M 

<375 feet 

About 750 

Augiist 1 

200? feet. 


'9 1 a-'m 

<200 feet. 

the highest 

point reached. 


1 19 p'.u 

<500 feet 

< 900 feet 

<1100 feet 

5 42 I'.i. 

None. ■ 



2 10 P.M. 

<825 feet. 

<900 feet. 

10 50 A.M. 

<800 feet. 

<650 fSt 

<700 feet 


1 42 P.u. 

<300 feet. 

<400 feet. 

It becomes evident that both current and counter current are 
low in the atmosphere. They will perhaps serve to explain 
a fact often noticed, that though we could plainly see the 
steam from the locomotives as they whistled, yet could hear no 
sound though nearly above the track. 

J. K Lockyer—Neio Method of Spectrum Observation. 303 

In anticipation of my report on the Methods of Mapping 
Spectra, which I have been requested to prepare for the Solar 
Committee, I beg to present to them the following account of 
some recent work which has been suggested during the prepa- 
ration of that report. 

In the Philosophical Transactions for 1873 (p. 254) I gave an 
historical account showing how, when a light source such as a 
spark or an electric arc is made to throw its image on the slit 
of a spectroscope, the lines had been seen of different lengths, 
and I also showed by means of photographs how very definite 
these phenomena were. It was afterwards demonstrated that 
chemical combination or mechanical mixture gradually reduced 
the spectrum by subtracting the shortest lines, and leaving 
only the long ones. 

On the hypothesis that the elements were truly elementary, 
the explanation generally given and accepted was that the short 
lines were produced by a more complex vibration imparted to 
the " atom " in the region of greatest electrical excitement, 
and that these vibrations were obliterated or prevented from 
arising by cooling or admixture with dissimilar atoms. 

Subsequent work, however, has shownf that of these short 
lines some are common to two or more spectra. These lines I 
have called basic. Among the short lines, then, we have some 
which are basic, and some which are not. 

The different behavior of these basic lines seemed, therefore, 
to suggest that not all of the short lines of spectra were, in re- 
anty true products of high temperature. 

I hat some would be thus produced 'and would therefore be 
common to two or more spectra we could understand by ap- 
pealing to Newton's rule: " Causas rerum naturalium" non 
plures admitti debere quam quae et vera5 sint et earum pbas- 
nornenis explicandis sufficiant, and imagining a higher disso- 
ciation. It became, however, necessary to see if the others 
would also be accounted for. 

I have already given to the Royal Society a preliminary ac- 
count of the extraordinary, because unexpected, phenomena 
^nd changes observed in the spectra of vapors of the elemen- 
tary bodies when volatilized at different temperatures in vac- 
^uni tubes. Many of the lines thus seen alone and of sur- 
passing brilliancy, "are those seen as short and faint in ordinary 

304 J. N. Lockyer — New Method of Spectrum Observation. 

methods of observation, and the circumstances under which 
thev are seen suggest, if we again appeal to the above rule, 
that many of them are produced by complex molecules. 

In this case the appeal lies to the phenomena produced when 
organic bodies are distilled at varying temperatures ; the sim- 
plest bodies in homologous series are those volatilized at the 

or more liquids to distillation, at the beginning a large propor- 
tion of the more volatile body comes over, and so on. 

At any particular heat-level, then, some of the short lines 
may be due to the vibrations of molecular groupings produced 
with difficulty with the temperature employed, while others 
represent the fading out of the vibrations of other molecular 
groupings produced on the first application of the heat. 

In the line of reasoning which I advanced a year ago,* both 
these results are anticipated, and are easily explained. Slightly 
varying fig. 2 of that paper, we may imagine furnace A to 
represent the temperature of the jar spark, B that of the Bun- 
sen burner, and C a temperature lower than that of the Bunsen 

J. N. Lockyer—Ktw Method of Spectrum Observation. 305 

quired direction by adopting a method of work with a spark and 
a Bunsen flame, which Col. Donnelly suggested I should use 
with a spark and an electric arc. This consists in volatilizing 
those substances which give us flame spectra in a Bunsen flame 
and passing a strong spark through the flame, first during the 
process of volatilization, and then after the temperature of the 
name has produced all the simplification it is capable of pro- 

The results have been very striking ; the puzzles which a 
comparison of flame spectra and the Fraunhofer lines has set 
us find, I think, a solution ; while the genesis of spectra is 
made much more clear.* 

To take an instance, the flame spectrum of sodium gives us 
as its brightest, a yellow line, which is also of marked impor- 
tance in the solar spectrum. The flame spectra of lithii 

potassium give us, as their brightest, line ' ^' ^ -"-■ 

not any representatives among the Frai: 

other lines seen with higher temperature are present. 

Whence arises this marked difference of behavior ? From 
the similarity of the flame spectrum to that of the sun in one 
case, and from the dissimilarity in the other, we may imagine 
that in the former case — that of sodium — we are dealing with a 
body easily broken up, while lithium and potassium are more 
resistant ; in other words, in the case of sodium, and dealing 
only with lines recognized generally as sodium lines, the flame 
has done the work of dissociation as completely as the sun it- 
self. Now it is easy to test this point, for if this be so then (1) 
the chief lines and flutings of sodium should be seen in the 
flame itself and (2) the spark should pass through the vapor 
after complete volatilization has been effected without any vis- 
ible effect 

Observation and experiment have largely confirmed these 
predictions. Using two prisms of 60° and a high-power eye- 
piece to enfeeble the continuous spectrum of the densest vapor 
produced at a high temperature, the green lines, the flutings re- 
corded by Roscoe and Schuster, and another coarser system of 
actings, so far as I know not yet described, are beautifully seen. 
A say largely, and not completely, because the double red line 
^nd the lines in the blue have not yet been seen in the flame, 
either with one, two or four prisms of 60% though the lines are 
seen during volatilization if a spark be passed through the flame. 
Subsequent inquiry may perhaps show that this is due to the 
aharp boundary of the heated region, and to the fact that they 
represent the vibrations of molecular groupings more complex 

* I BUude more especially to the production of triplets, their change into quar- 

?^uSiS4"rs' "■■ """ 

306 J. N. Lockyer~New Method of Spectrum Observation. 

than those which give us the yellow and green lines. The vis- 
ibility of the green lines, which are short, in the flanoe, taken in 
connection with the fact that they have been seen alone in a vac- 
uum tube, is enough for my present purpose. 

With regard to the second point, the passage from the heat- 
horizon of the flame to that of the spark, after volatilization is 
complete, produces no visible efiect, indicating that in all proba- 
bility the effects heretofore ascribed to quantity have been due 
to the presence of the molecular groupings of greater complex- 
ity. The more there is to dissociate^ the more lime is required to 
run through the series^ and the better the first stages are seen. 

Let us now turn to lithium. 

Seeing that the red line is absent while the violet lithium 
line is strong among the Fraunhofer lines, we may imagine that 
the flame has not done the work of dissociation in the case of 
lithium as completely as the sun does it, so that (1) the other 
lines of lithium should not be visible, even with the tig"^ pre- 
cautions, in the flame spectrum, and (2) a passage from the 
heat-level of the flame to that of the spark after volatilization 
should produce the other lines whicb we know to exist in the 
spectrum of the metal in the orange, blue and violet. 

Experiment and observation have also confirmed this result, 
so far as the yellow and blue lines go ; that in the violet is 
difficult of observation.* 

We next come to potassium. 

The potassium lines usually recorded as not seen in a flame, 
but which are observed with a spark, are not very brilliant : 
nor are they strong among the Fraunhofer lines. Seeing, 
therefore, that a high temperature does not greatly develop 
them, we may expect to find them in the flame. They are al- 
most all there when they are looked for with proper precaution^ 
but those in all probability present in the sun are brightened 
J spark, showing apparently that the flame vola- 
isome difficulty the molecule which gives the linem 

The flame spectrum of magnesium perhaps presents us best 
* The way in which the lines in the flame are unaffected by the spark at''^'^^^^^^ 
lines can in general be divided, according to their appearance, into two classes ; the 
one sharply defined and tolerably deep black, the other by no means so aecidemy 
their appearance, very happily characterized by the opinion expressed oto a^fo^ 
mer occasion, that the former, t^f^tLT oftht'ain^^gr'oS onVS^^ 

i of the former class almost all proceed from 
the iron-lines are abstracted, belong to xne 
iromium, etc."-(" Angstrom and Ib^^''?^"^ 
a Dia-ram of the Violet Part of the -o 

J. N, Lochyer~New Method of Spectrum Observation. 307 

with the beautiful effects produced by the passage from the 
lower to the higher heat-level, and shows the important bear- 
ing on solar physics of the results obtained by this new method 
of work. 

In the flame the two least refrangible of the components of 
b are seen associated with a line less refrangible, so as to form 

^ onents of h 
replaced by a narrow 
! form, the two lines of h being common to both, 

When the line in the blue disappears on passing the spark, 
two new lines are seen. The spark lines are in the sun, but 
the less refrangible member of the wide triplet and the blue line 
seen in the flame are absent. 

i- he following are the details of some of the experiments 
wbich have been made on the above points :— 

J^xperimeni No. 7. —Two pieces of platinum wire were sup- 
ported in a Bunsen flame at a distance from one another of 
about three millimeters. They were then connected with a 
-tioltz machine, in order that the spark might be passed inside 
the flame. 

An image of the platinums 
the spectroscope by means of 
nad two dense flint prisms of 6' 

A piece of charcoal soaked in solution of sodium chloride was 
put into the base of the flame first, and then just below the 
platinum, and the spectrum observed ; it consisted simply of 
the yellow line D. The spark was passed and the spectrum 
agam observed ; it now consisted of D plus the lines of hydro- 
gen and some air lines, the red and green Na lines and the 
green flutings being still absent 

. fxperiment No. //.—Same arrangements, except that a large 
induction coil was substituted for the Holtz machine. The 
same results were obtained with the sodic chloride. 

Experiment No. ///—Metallic sodium was next tried. It 
^as found that when the metal was put into the flame just 

808 J. N. Lockyer—New Method of Spectrum Observation. 

below the platinums the green line and the fiutings were seen 
without the spark, that is, at the ordinary temperature of the 
flame. On introducing the sodium into the lower part of the 
flame, the green double (^ 5687-2 and 56814) and the ilutingg 
were not seen, either with or without the spark. 

Experiment No. IV. — Same arrangements as No. II, with 
metallic sodium, and with a small blowpipe instead of Bunsen. 

In this experiment the flame spectrum showed, besides the 
yellow line (D), the green double (A 5687-2 and 5681-4), and 
also the flutings in the green, those in the red being absent. 
As soon as the spark was passed, the green double (A 5687*2 
and 5681-4) became brighter, while the flutings vanished. 

In these observations the sodium was put into ihe flame just 
helow ihe platinums. When put into the bottom of the flame, 
the D line was seen alone. 

Experiment No. V. — A glass tube ^ inch in diameter ' 
' es in length, having two platin 
of four inches from each other, 
bulb was blown at each end. so that the spectrum might be 
examined with the tube end-on. A piece of sodium was put 
into the tube, and the latter exhausted with a Sprengel pump. 
An Argand burner was placed at one end of the tube, in order 
that the absorption of the vapor, as well as its radiation, might 
be observed. The metal was then very gradually heated by a 
Bunsen flame. 

After the heating had gone on for about twenty minutes the 
absorption line of D appeared ; this gradually increased in 

On passing the spark along the tube, the bright lines of 
sodium appeared, the green double (A 5687-2 and 5681-4), being 
distinguishable after D had been seen for a little time alone. 

The temperature was now increased and the absorption spec- 
trum again examined. The flutings in the green gradually 
made their appearance, D increasing in intensity, the green 
line being invisible. Afterwards the flutings 'in the red 
came in. 

On passing the spark the absorption spectrum, consisting of 
the red and green flutings disappeared instantaneously, and the 
green double was seen very bright ; after the passage of the 
spark D dark was much increased in breadth. 

The quantity of hydrogen given off during the change pre- 
vented the passage of the spark, and the observations had to be 
discontinued. A's soon as some of this had been pumped out 
the same observations were repeated with the same results. 

Experiment No. F/.— An experiment was made with lithium 
chloride in Bunsen flame, with the same arrangement as m 
Experiment No. 1. 

J. N. Lockyer — New Method of Spectrum Observation. 809 

The flame spectrum with the dispersion emuloyed showed 
no Li line except the red one {X 6705 -2). On passing the spark 
from the Holtz machine, the yellow line {X 6102-0) and the 
blue line {X 4602-7) appeared as bright as the red line. The 
same results were obtained on repeating the experiment with 
the large induction-coil. 

Experiment No. F77.— Potassium nitrate was tried by the 
method previously described in Experiment No. 1. 

The flame spectrum consisted as usual of the red lines (.i 7697 
and 7663) and the blue line {X 4045), very faint. 

The effect of the spark was to bring out the yellow lines {X 
about 5800), those in the green {X about 5840), and the red 
double (A 6946 and 6918) out of the flutings visible in the red, 
the double at 7697 and 7663 not being affected. The experi- 
ment was repeated with the induction-coil, and the same obser- 
vations made, with the additional one that the spark also 
slightly intensified the blue line. 

Ex2xriment A^o. VIII.— On repeating the experiment with 
metallic potassium, the same phenomena were more markedly 
observed, the lines about X 5800, and other lines more refrangi- 
ble, were visible as very faint objects in the flame; thej were 
much strengthened, however, by the passage of the spark. 

Experiment No. IX. — Some potassium was volatilized by the 
spark in front of the slit of the sun-spectroscope and compari- 
son of the positions of the lines with the Fraunhofer lines 
made. It is believed that /1 5829-0, 5802-0, 5782-5 are all 
reversed in the solar spectrum. The less refrangible member 
of the red double (^l 6946) was next compared, and was un- 
doubtedly absent from the sun. These observations, however, 
are rendered extremely difficult on account of the fluted appear- 
ance of the yellow lines, and must be repeated with a stronger 
sun and the electric arc. The spectroscope employed had three 
prisms, one of 60° and two of 45°. 

Experiment No. X. — The flame spectrum of magnesium was 
examined, a green triplet was observed which was at first sight 
taken for /;. Measurements of the lines, however, showed that 
the less refrangible member was less refrangible than 6, and 
had a wave-length 5209*8, and that the other two members 
were h' and 6' respectively. A fresh charge of magnesium was 
put into the flame and the spark passed ; the original triplet 
was now no longer visible, the line at 5209-8 having vanished, 
but h' was now seen forming with h' and h" a triplet of simdar 
form on a smaller scale. 

According to Thalen, there are three blue lines of magne- 
sium at w.l. 4481-0, 4586-5, and 4703-5. These lines were 
looked for in the flame with and without the spark. Without 
tbe spark only one line was visible in this region ; its position 
Am. Jour. Sci.— Third Series, Vol. XIX, No. 112.— Aprit-, 1880. 

310 J. N. Lockyer — New Method of Spectrum Observation. 

was found bv comparison with the solar spectrum, to be at 
w.l. 4570 8, and coincident with no Fraunhofer line. The 
passajre of the spark abolished this line, at the same time 
bringing in the two line:^ given bj Thalen at w.l. 4481-0 and 
4703-5, both of which are reversed in the solar spectrum. 

No line was seen at Thalen's w.l. 4586 5, the nearest approach 
to which was the line seen at the temperature of the Bunsen 
flame at w.l. 4570-3, a difference of. more than sixteen divisions 
of the scale. 

I am now preparing maps showing the phenomena observed 
at various heat-levels. I think it is not too much to hope that 
a careful study of such maps, showing the results already 
obtained or to be obtained, at varying temperatures, controlled 
by observation of the condition under which changes are 
brought about, will, if we accept the idea that various dissocia- 
tions of the molecules present in the solid are brought about 
by different stages of heat, and then reverse the process, enable 
us to determine the mode of evolution by which the molecules 
vibrating in the atmospheres of the hottest stars associate into 
those of which the solid metal is composed. I put this sugges- 
tion forward with the greater confidence, because I see that 
help can be got from various converging lines of work. To 
some of these I may briefly allude here : — 

1. We have the lines present in the solar spectrum and 
absent from it. 

Example. — The red potassium line present in the flame is 
absent from the sun ; some of the other lines are present 

2. We have the varying thicknesses of the lines of any one 
element in the sun to compare with the thicknesses produced 
at different temperatures in the laboratory. 

Example.— The various lines of magnesium, notably &, tl^e 
most refrangible line given by Thalen and the other blue line. 

3. We have the remarkable behavior of metals vaporized ui 
a vacuum at the lowest temperatures. 

hkample.—^od\\xm gives us D, potassium gives us the triplet 
in the green-yellow; calcium gives us the line in the blue; 
thus separating those lines from all the others of those metals. 

4. We have the remarkable behavior of the same vapors un- 
der like circumstances, the temperature alone being changed ; 
when this is increased lines visible under ordinary conditions 
are brought in, and are seen in different parts of the tube, so 
that each line in turn (and therefore, I presume, each molecule 
which produces it) is separated from those with which it is 
generally seen in company. 

Exaraple.~By increasing the temperature we get the green 
line of sodium without D, and some of the magnesium hnes 
have been seen separated from the others. 

J. K Lockyer — New Method of Spectrum Observation. 311 

5. We have the power of determining the lower states by 
means of absorption phenomena and then of observing the ra- 
diation of the vapors produced bj the passage of a feeble cur- 
rent of electricity. 

Example. — The fluted spectrum of sodium described by 
Roscoe and Schuster is instantly abolished by this means and 
a brightening of the green and a considerable thickening of 
the dark yellow lines is seen. 

6. May we consider the existence of these molecular states as 
forming a true basis forDalton's law of multiple proportions? 
if so, then the metals in different chemical combinations will 
exist in different molecular groupings, and we shall be able by 
spectrum observations to determine the particular heat-level to 
which the molecular complexity of the solid metal induced by 
chemical affinity corresponds. 

Examples. — None of the lines of magnesium special to the 
flame spectrum are visible in the spectrum of the chloride 
either when a flame or a spark is employed. The facts re- 
corded in my papers, printed in the Philosophical Transactions 
some years ago, on the spectra of salts and mixtures, seem all 
explained in this way. 

I think then that the method of mapping, to be complete, 
should not only show the metallic lines as produced at various 
temperatures compared with the Fraunhofer ones, but that for 
each metal investigations should be made and recorded for as 
many heat-levels as possible, and for various chemical group- 

Cr.O, Fe 


to give examples, with a view of investigating the facts, to see 
whether we can trace a molecular evolution in each case. 

Further, the "basic lines recorded by Thalen will require 
special study with a view to determine whether their existence 
in different spectra can be explained or not on the supposition 
that they represent the vibrations of forms, which, at an early 
stage of the planet's history, entered into combination with 
other forms, differing in proximate origin, to produce different 


312 H. Carmichael— Presentation of Sonorous Vibration 

Art. XXXVIII.— TAe Presentation of Sonorous Vibrations by 
means of a Revolving Lantern; by Henry Carmichael, 
Ph.D. (Gotiingen). 

At the meeting of the American Association for the Ad- 
vancement of Science at Hartford in 1874, a paper was read by 
the author on " A new method for the presentation of sound 
waves," in which was described the arrangement represented 
in fig. 1. 

The principal novelty of this consists in a small lantern con- 
taining a coal-gas flame connected with a Konig's manometric 
capsule, the upright lantern being so placed at the end of a 
horizontal arm that it could be rapidly revolved in the hori- 
zontal plane. 

'zu ///m 

The frequent destruction of the glass cylinder forming the 
lantern led to the advantagi 
der. The cylinder O is open at both ends, and on being 
slightly inclined backward from the vertical of the plane of 
revolution it effectually screens the flame which would be 
otherwise immediately extinguished. 

The lantern arm T'is bent in to the vertical axis of revolu- 
tion, and by an enlargement" at this place it is made to slip oy el- 
and form a gas-tight joint with the right-angled tube N, which 
is firmly fastened in the base block E. The rotation of the 
lantern is conveniently maintained by a small water-wheel L 
attached to the vertical shaft. The water enters the case at b 
and escaoes at B. That the lantern may run smoothly the 
moment of the lantern O is counteracted by the adjustable 
weight P. 

Flexible tubing connects N with Konig's manometric cap- 
sule. When no sound enters the capsule a smooth band 
of light appears, which, on the introduction of sound, is 
broken into a series of teeth, large or small, simple or coni- 
pound, according to the nature of the sound. The peculiari- 
ties of this flame-band can be seen from the most distant parts 

of a Revolving Lantet^n. 


Although the performance of this instrument was highly 
satisfactory, it was exceeded in the following modification, 
(fig. 2), which, though hitherto unpublished, has been publicly 
used by me during the last three years. 

The advantages of a sensitive flame, which is made to re- 
volve in the vertical plane, must be obv 
the teeth representing the sound 
waves brought within the field of 

Not only are all 

the teeth upon either side avoii 
but by the introduction of oxygen 
into the lantern the brilhancy of 
the flame is greatly increased. It 
is important that the lantern and 
other moving parts be made as 
light as possible. The thin mica 
cover of the lantern is conveniently 
brought into shape by placing it 
upon a sheet of thin metal some- 
what larger than itself, the whole 
central portion of which within a 
centimeter of the edge has been 
removed. The thin metal is folded 
over the edges of the mica which 
are to be brought into contact, and 
they are then held in place by a 
narrow strip bent traversely upon 
itself until it has the section of the 
letter C (fig. 3). The mica is thus 
readily bent without cleaving or 


nd of the cylinder 
'o wverea with a perforated disc t""^— — • 

like the top of a pepper-box, and to the disc are fastened 
two wire springs, RR, by which the cylinder is q^^kly and 
firmly secured to the flange at the opposite end. The well- 
made steatite tip N should have such an internal diameter that 
the coal gas under full head will send the flame to the top of 
the lantern. 

The central gas supply-tube is bent at right angles into the 
axis of revolution, and by means of a leather washer is made 
gas tight in the socket O. Commencing just below the gas-tip, 
the oxygen supply-tube is made concentric with the former, 
^intil, being bent at a right angle, it leaves it to form with it the 
shaft of the instrument. The joints at C and E are made gas- 
tight with little friction by the slight inward spring of the iron 

'. Carmichael — Presentation of /Sonorous Vibratic 


The lantern is revolved by a multiplying wheel, or by a 
powerful clock-work, when a uniform motion is required. Fig. 
4 shows the general arrangements of parts. 

When the oxygen is difuted with two measures of air it is 
more easily regulated as a supporter of combustion. The bril- 
liancy of the flame is considerably increased by conducting the 
coal gas through a sponge saturated with "gasoline." 

By regulating the flow of gases and giving the flame a rapid 
rotation, a continuous brilliant ring is produced, which is 
broken up into saw-like teeth, characteristic of the pitch, in- 

tensity and quality of the entering sounds. A shrill whistle 
produces teeth so fine that they are barely visible at a distance 
of thirty feet. A loud low sound of the human voice affords 
teeth of the height of the lantern, three or more inches long, 
with one or two harmonic teeth surmounting the fundamentals. 
A rough roar yields large jagged teeth, exceedingly compli- 
cated and curious. 

On turning down the flame the teeth are reduced to brilliant 
dots, with smaller dots between them if the harmonics be 
present. It is curious to observe that no trace of flame can 
be seen between these dots, which may be three inches or more 
apart. It is not to be presumed, however, that the flame is ex- 
tinguished, as it is possible to arrange the flow of gases so that 
the flame is invisible during a complete rotation, and yet be 
restored by simply altering the proportion of the inflammable 

For investigating the motions of sonorous bodies an attacn- 
ment is substituted for the manometric capsule, which may 

S. L. Penfield— Chemical Composition of Ohildrenite. 316 

be called the manometric pad, which is represented in fig- 
ure 6. This consists simply in a wooden funnel, the mouth 
of which is covered with thin rubber, and the neck con- 
nected with two flexible tubes, one of which brings the sup- 
ply of coal gas, and the other conveys the sonorous vibra- 
tions to the revolving lantern. On placing the manometric 
pad distended with gas in direct contact with vibrating strings, 
bells, tuning-forks, etc., their movements are readily studied 
in the flame band. By sliding the pad over the sonorous 
body the node and vibration segments are readily located. 
The interference and extinction of sounds may easily be pre- 
sented by this apparatus. 

The revolving flame was designed primarily for the elucida- 
tion of the principles of sound, and this it renders simple by 
the clearness and brilliancy of its phenomena, as well as the 
direct view of the vibrating flame, which it gives instead of 
the image usually seen. 

For purposes of research the lantern is given a uniform rate, 
and the length of the flame band made a simple multiple of the 
wave length. There appears to be no limit to the velocity of 
rotation, although when the radius is made shorter or the velocity 
made greater than has been found as yet necessary, it will 
probably be preferable to introduce the jet at the outer end 
of the lantern, as only thus can the heated gases of combus- 
tion flow, as the force of rotation would impel them. A lan- 
tern upon the end of a long wand, to which a thin flexible 
tube leads, is easily constructed by any one, and when waved 
back and forth gives only less eifectually the phenomena of 
the revolving lantern. Owing to the brilliancy of the flame, 
there is presumably no difficulty in the way of the direct pho- 
tography of it. 

After the publication by Messrs. Brush and Dana* of their 
paper in which the new species, eosphorite, was described and 
shown to be closely related both physically and chemically to 
cbildrenite, they proposed to me to make a new investiga- 
tion of the composition of the latter species with a view to de- 
ciding the uncertainty in regard to its true formula. Professor 
Brush very kindly placed at my disposal a suitable specimen 
from Tavistock out of his collection. From this the ma- 
terial for the following analysis was taken. The crystals were 
small, of a yellow-brown color, and were very carefully picked 
♦This Journal, July, 1878. 

816 S. L. PenfieU— Chemical Composition of Childreniie. 

from the siderite and oxide of iron with which they were asso- 
ciated. Only lustrous crystals were accepted, and any doubt- 
ful material was discarded. Between eight and nine tenths of 
a gram were thus obtained. Analysis I is a complete analysis 
made on a little over half a gram'; it was conducted with the 
greatest care and a special test was made for alkalies, so that 
they might be determined quantitatively if present. As Church 
in his analysis found iron sesquioxide present, the remaining 
three tentli's of a gram of the mineral were tested quantitatively 
with potassium permanganate; the result indicated 26-08 per 
cent of FeO, varying only 0-12 per cent from gravimetric de- 
termination of iron protoxide in the same portions ; so that we 
may conclude that the mineral really contained no iron sesqui- 
oxide. After titrating- with potassium permanganate the solu- 
tion was reserved, and P,0„ Al.O^ and FeO determined in it 
gravimetrically (analysis II) as a control on the other analysis. 


The above ratio corresponds closely to the following: 

P,0,: A1,0, : RO : H,0=1 : 1 : 2 : 4 (R==Fo, xMn, and Ca), 
and to the empirical formula R,A1,P,0,„, 4H,0, which may be 

"'"rP.0.+2R,0H).+.a, o. ^,.pO. 1 +^K(OH,. | ^,,,, 

or the same as that made out for eosphorite. 

The formula in this case corresponds to the following percen- 
age composition : P,0, 30-80, Al^ 22-31, FeO 26-37, MnO 4-87 
T^,^^^ .^„ .. ^ satisfactorily with analysis I. 

In our former paper, to which Mr. Penfield refers, we showed 
that childrenite and eosphorite were crystallographically closely 
homoeomorphous. Thus the axial ratios for the two species 

We showed also that the two species were related in chemical 
composition, although there was a wide variation between the 
results of analysis in the two cases, the formula of eosphorite 
being clearly established, while that of childrenite was still in 
doubt The analysis of Mr. Penfield seems to set at rest the 
latter question and to show further that the two species have 
the same formula, but differ in this: that childrenite contains 
cliiefly iron (26-54 FeO, 4-87 MnO) and eosphorite chiefly man- 
ganese (7-40 FlO, 28-51 xMnO). Eosphorite then should be con- 
sidered merely as a sub-species under childrenite, related to it in 
the same way that the lithiophilite from the same locality is to 
tripbylite. The points of difference between the two minerals 
in physical characters and mode of occurrence have been men- 
tioned in our former paper, and need not be here repeated. 

Art. XL. — Observations on the Planet Lilaea ; b 
C. H. F. Peters. (Communication to the Ed 
Litchfield Observatory of Hamilton College, Clir 

1880. Ham. Coll. i 

The observ 
besides, the cc , 

planet appeared of the IJth magni- 
tude. It has received the name Maea. 

L Physics. 

Mr. W. Hr....!N- ii 

1. Phot.o,,rar>hs of Star Spertra.-Mv. 
to the French Acad'cmv givos seme result 
tions on stellar spectra.' T" 
nwiTor; and tlie siKcti-.-.-.. 

318 Scienti'jic Intelligence. 

image of the star upon the slit during the time of the exposure of 
the negative. The slit was also made in two halves which 
made it possible to photograph the solar spectrum, or that 
from any source of light, just above the spectrum of the star 
under examination. The photographs obtained were only O'^-OIS 
in length from G to O in the ultra violet ; but the definition 
was so perfect that at least seven iine lines between H and K 
in the solar spectrum could be counted. The measurement of 
the lines was made by a microscope provided with a micrometer 
and the wave lengths were determined by a graphical method by 
the aid of Cornu's map of the ultra violet rays of the solar spec- 
trum, and Mascart's table of wave lengths of the cadmium lines. 
Six spectra obtained belong to the white stars of the type of 
Vega. All the stars of this type give spectra of essentially the 
same type. The typical lines consist of twelve very large lines 
nebulous at their edges. The two less refrangible lines of this 
group coincide with the hydrogen lines A=:4340 (near G) and 
Ar=4101 (A), the third line with H of the solar spectn 

attributed to its vapor. It is important to notice, however, that 
another pair of more refrangible lines of calcium, A=:3736'5 and 
A=3705-5 on Cornu's map do not coincide with the strong lines 
in these stars. The relative position of these twelve lines are in 
a certain sense symmetrical. Each pair of lines nearing each 
other the more refrangible they are. They seem, therefore, to 
belong to one body. Mr, Huggms' note contains a table of the 
wave lengths of these twelve typical lines. He finds that in the 
most typical stellar spectra the continuous spectrum can be traced 
beyond S ; but there are no lines more refrangible than A=3699 
to be seen. As the star approximates to the solar type, the 
' " ' aller and less nebulous at their 

elves and the line, which corres- 
the' solar spectrum, becomes large and nebulous. 
In the spectrum of Arcturus, however, the line K is larger than m 
the solar spectrum, and the whole extent of the photograph of the 
spectrum is full of fine and broken lines. The photographic 
spectra of Jupiter, Mars and Venus give no evidence of change 
due to the atmospheres of these planets, and the photograi)h8 oi 
portions of the Moon's surface under different conditions of illum- 
ination also give the same negative result. Mr. Huggins is about 
to apply his method to the spectra of gaseous nebulae and to 
different parts of the solar spots. — Comptes Eenchis, No. 2, Jan., 
1880, p. 70. J. T. 

2. Direct measure of the work of Electrical Induction.— ^^e^^ 
A. VON Waltenhofen, guided by the principle that the work 
which a current of electricity, from a battery, afibrds in a con- 
ductor must be equal to the work which it is necessary to exert 

Geology. 319 

in order to produce the same current by means of induction, has 
been led to a determination of the meebanical equivalent of heat. 
He made use of the magneto-electric machine of constant current 
of Siemens and Ilalske, which is described in the twelfth volume 
of Carl's Repertorium. A dynamometer for estimating the work 
done in rotating the armature of the machine is descrfbed by the 
author at some length. It is found that O'lS mkg (in round 
numbers) is the value of the induction work per second in order 
to produce the electromotive force of one Daniell cell in a circuit 
of 1 S.E resistance. To produce the electromotive force of one 
Bunsen cell, 0*4 7nJaj is necessary. Reckoning a horse power at 
'75 mJcg, the expression 0-0053 — represents the induction work 
necessary to produce an electromotive force of n Bunsen cells, 
through a resistance of w S.E. To this must be added the use- 
less work. According to W. Thomson and Jenkin, a Daniell 
cell in circuit of one unit resistance affords in each second a 
quantity of heat represented by the number 0-00030633 ; by com- 
paring the value 0-13 mkg or more exactly O13309 mkg with 
this result, Von Waltenhofen finds 427-94 for the mechanical 
equivalent of heat. Under other conditions of work, the numbers 
421-21 and 420-6 are obtained.— ^««a/m der Physikund Ghemie, 
No. 1, 1880, p. 81. J. T. 

3. Mechanical Equivalent of Seat. — In the proceedings of the 
American Academy of Arts and Sciences, Part I, 1879, is an 
exhaustive memoir upon thermometry and the mechanical equiva- 
lent of heat, by Professor Rowlaj^d of the Johns Hopkins Univer- 
sity, Baltimore, Maryland. No treatise on the measurement of 
heat has appeared which is more valuable than this. The results 
obtained by I^rofessor Rowland for the mechanical equivalent of 
heat differ from those of Joule only one part in 430. The inves- 
tigation also showed a decrease in the specific heat of water as 
the temperature rises. Complete details are given of the appara- 
tus employed. J. t, 
A Dispersion I'hotometer.— Messrs. Perry and Ayrton 

describe a new photometer for measuring very strong iignt. i ne 
light is made to pass through a concave lens and is thus dispersed 
at a short range over a large surface. The authors believe that 
the amount of light absorbed by the lens can be accurately esti- 
mated, and think that measures can be made more accurately in 
this way than in the methods of measuring lights from a great 
distance.— P/a7. Mag., Feb., 1880, p, 117. J. t. 

M.A., Wood- 

^ardian Professor of Geology, Cambridge. (Read before the 
Victoria Institute, 1879). — The following paragraphs, discussing 
'he evidence as to Man's existence in or before the Glacial era in 

320 Scientific Intelligence. 

Europe, and the remarks succeeding, by Professor Dawkins, s 
cited from a paper bearing the above title. 

We may dismiss at once the '""" '^"^" 

reported Irom the Dardanelles, 
said to be of Miocene age. The descriptions* prove that it was 
not given on the authority of one competent to judge in such a 
case, and it never has been confirmed. 

In beds said to be Miocene, at Thenay, near Pontlevoy, the 
Abbe Bourgeois found flints whicli be supposed were dressed by 
man. These flints are now exhibited in the Museum at St. Ger- 
mains, where I saw them with Sir Charles Lyell several years 
ago, and again with others since. Some of them seemed entirely 
natural, common forms, such as we find over the surface every- 
where, broken by all the various accidents of heat and frost and 
blows. A few seemed as if they might have been man's handi- 
work,— cores from which he had struck off flakes such as we know 
were used by early man, of which I show examples. Yet this is 
not quite clear, for, had the evidence been good that they were 
found in place there still would have been a doubt whether they 
were man's work. But when wo came to inquire about the evi- 
dence that they occurred in beds of Miocene age, we learned that 
only those that we put down as natural were found by the Abbe 
himself; the others were brought in by workmen, picked up, we 
may suppose, upon the heaps turned over by their spades, and so 
perhaps just dropped down from the surface. 

Next in the Crag the teeth of sharks, bored througli, as if for 
wear, were found,t part of a string of ornaments such as com- 
monly are worn by savages. Of these I give e.\ainple^: one a 
boar's tusk, from the lake dwellings of Switzerland ; another, a 
tooth from a deposit of palaeolithic ago, in n <-ave ju^t above the 
miraculous grotto of Lourdes in the Pyrenees. J have examined 
fragments of bone and teeth [from the'("niii| of various si/cs and 
shapes, and found them marked over tfie siicImcc uith many a pit 
or deeper hole, or even perforation irregularly plac<Ml, not as i 
by design, but accident. There they were in every stage, ail 
over, yet of one type. One sawn across explains the whole. The 
chamber of a shell which bores its way into the solid I'ock oi 
softer shale was clearly shown. When' the mass lay erabeddea 
in the mud it was but touched here and there. If it was thm 
the animal bored through into the s:in<l or clay below, lVf"?-^'"JJ 
the tooth quite through — a perfectly well-tiirucd and finishot^ 
work, so good it was thoiight to l»c mair'-. I'm if th<' mas^ ^Yj''^ 
thick and near the surface, the iiltie inn[iu>-U \\\\u\v a lionic fiitiH^ . 
within it, and its shell often rnn.iin- thru', and r<\r;iK tlu' l'.i-ti>r> 

v^orkedbymin, but this 

ttc r 

uav dismiss on the 

sime sr 


those bcforoipfencd to jvntn 

on the 

>a!ne lutho) 

itv * 

Another case b.ouirht 


ard ho 

m abioxd I 

)ut lecenth 

found much favo, here a 

s there t A 

lound the 

Lake ot 


thee are left traces of 

M.t Hke= 


It hiirhc 

A bed of clay below witl 

i^ghual ston 

es, a bed of 



clij mo 

Mine like or 

tlK time uhetrXip^inTi 
touched upon the like, 

rept fat 

ther do^n 

' tlK h'l 



no^^ less encioiehii 

these beds the pe xty mas 


icjnite I 




largeU dug for fuel 1 h i\ e w oi ked i long t 
see the evidence mvsdf The S(C|uence of tlie beds is clear 
recently two Mviss piofessois ha\c juodiimtd that the> 
obtauied proofs inconte<;t ible that m m was theio and wc 
basket, fragments of which were found imong the diiited p 
which foimed the coil The^e ii ailments, it is said, cons 
pointed sticks, shirpencd icross the gi un, not tapcung natui 
and a cioss set of binding withes ill now pn«sed md ch u 
bnt bj such charxeteisietcrndto work of man Now I 

decomposed and wavewcnn till the} weu cut to x ]. mt obh 
to the giain, is then descnbe the Dumt.n ^ti N V.n.vs 
Irignients often others fell, and when tIh uh h ^^ )s tli n 
pie^«;edwhitwondci if tin v left i mxik . 1 n.ltU i i 1 . 
^ork? and the whole miss hi^Mitncd Ml li u il n.-m 

bove the valleys, and are tapped 
, the rain which falls upon the hi 

322 Scientific Intelligence. 

other evidence has since been found, conclusive as to this, I can 
but criticise that which has been adduced ; but I will say that it 
such has been found and been so long withheld, while there are 
so many deeply interested, and so many who would like to verify 
at once and on the ground the statements made, then I do hold 
that there has not been shown that love of full investigation 
which is the soul of science. 

In many countries where rocks of limestone tower in clifls and 
pped below- by undermininof 
;he higher ground is lost in 
cracks and joints, and carries off the rock dissolved in water, 
which contains a little acid caught by the falling rain or drawn 
from decomposing plants. The fissures thus enlarged into the 
gaping chasms called "swallows' holes," the " katabothra" of the 
Greeks, admit a copious torrent, carrying stones and sand which 
grind and bruise and open out the jointed rocks into great caves 
and subterranean courses. These, w^hen tapped at lower levels, 
are soon left dry, and offer to prowling beasts of prey a safe 
retreat, and often man availed himself of them, as testify the 
Adullamites and Troglodytes of every age. 

From such a cave up in the crags of Craven some evidence is 
adduced that man existed far back into Glacial times, and this, 
perhaps, is the best case that has been urged.* There a large 
group of animals, such as occur elsewhere along wnth man, and 
more doubtfully traces of man himself, were found in beds 
overlapped by Glacial clay which had sealed up the mouth of the 
vast den in which these relics lay. This excavation I have 
watched myself at intervals from the commencement, and I hold 
that as the cliff fell back by wet or frost, and limestone fragments 
fell over the cave mouth, with them came also masses of clay, 
which, since the Glacial times, had laid in hollows in the rock 
above. We dug and found such there, and, more, I observed 
that the clay lay across the mouth as though it had thus fallen, 
and not as if it came direct from Glacial ice that pushed its way 
athwart the crag in which the cave occurs. It seemed to have 
fallen obliquely from the side where the fissured rock more readily 
yielded to the atmospheric waste, so that it somewhat underlay 
the part immediately above the caNe. On the inside the muddy 
water which collected after flood, held back by all this clay, faUea 
eveiy crevice and the intervals between the fallen limestone 
rock, while still outside was the open toliis of angular tiagments 

been referred to Glacial or inter-Glacia 

• Tiddeman, Brit. Assoc. Reports, 1870-8. 

Geology. 323 

Remarks on the paper of Professor Hughes hy Professor W. 
Boyd DawUns, F.R.S.—l' entirely hold with Professor Hughes 
in the view which he takes relating to the antiquity of man, and 
the necessity of looking narrowly into facts bearing on the ques- 
tion. All the alleged cases of the existence of man before the 
Palaeolithic age, otlthe Continent, seem to me on a careful inquiry 

to be unsatisfactory. If the flints found at Thenay, and supposed 
to prove the existence of Miocene man, be artificial, and be derived 
from a Miocene stratum, there is, to ray mind, an insuperable 
difficulty in holding them to be the handiwork of man. Seeing 
that no existing species of quadruped was then alive, it is to me 
perfectly incredible that man, the most hiirhlv specialized of all, 
should have been living at that time. The flints shown in Paris 
by Professor Caudry appear to ue aitificial; ^\liile those in the 

natural, some of the former, from their condition, luuinir been 
obviously picked up ou the surface of the ground. The cut- on 
the Miocene fossil bones discovered in several other localities in 
France may have been produced by other agencies than the hand 

-iNorthern Italy, and supposed to be of Pliocene age, was ass, > 
oiated with an implement, according to Dr. John Evans,, <>( 
Neolithic age. Some of the cut fossifbones discovered in vaiious 
parts of, .-niil .'ojisideied by Profes.sor Capellini to be 

tion of the spocinuMis h.ues nu n<. reason for doubt. I do not, 

Pliocene age; and the fact, that only two species of quadruped 
now ali\e then dwelt in Europe, renclers it highly im])robable that 

me insuperable. 

The only other case wliich demands notice is that which is taken 
to establish the fact that man was living in the Inter-glacial aire, 
i» Switzerland. The specimens supposed to offer irround for this 
hypothesis consist of a few pointed sticks in Professor Kiitimcyer's 
collection at Ha'^le. of the shape and si/e of a rather thin cigar, 

i leistoceiie age, when most 
•||i\c, and when mammoths, rlr 
t'lks^ lions, hyjenas, and bears 1 
don, and were swept down bv 
fc-nth and Cray ford. 


324 Scientific Intelligence. 

2. On the Age of the Brazilian Gneiss Series. Discovery of 
Eozoon ; by Obville A. Derby, M.S., Rio de Janeiro.— The late 
Professor Hartt has shown in his work entitled " the Geology and 
" Brazil," that the whole Brazilian plateau 
„ ■ " ' '^■l".^^^ 

whole Atlantic coast, from the Province of Rio Grande 
do Sul, to Maranhao. In the provinces of Sao Paulo, Rio de 
Janeiro, and Minas Geraes, this series forms two detached and 
parallel chains, separated by the valley of the Parahyba river, 
and known as the Serra do Mar and Serra da Mantiqueira, which 
rise to the height of 6,000 feet or more, the latter range being 
somewhat the higher, the culminating point and highest moun- 
tain in Brazil, the Pico de Itatiaia, having a height of 8875 feet. 
The Serra do Mar, as represented in the Organ Mountains, at 
Heresopolis, is, according to Professor Agassi z, a sharp anticli- 
nal ridge, the almost vertical beds dipping on each side of the 
center of the range, an observation which has since been verified 
by Professor Hartt and myself. Farther west, where crossed by 
the Dom Pedro II Railroad the same Serra is described by Prof. 
Hartt as a monoclinal ridge, the beds dipping at a high angle to 
the northward or toward the Parahyba, there being most proba- 
bly some repetition in the beds, owing to reversed folds or faults. 
The Mantiqueira range, according to Professor Hartt's observa- 
tions at Itatiaia, and my own along the railroad near Barbaceua, 
in Minas Geraes, is also a monoclinal ridge, the beds dipping at a 
less angle than in the Serra do Mar to the southward or toward 
the Parahyba. The valley of this river appears, therefore, to be 
a great synclinal. 

The succession of the Brazilian gneisses is, according t_o the 
observations of Pissis, Hartt, Liais and myself, (1) Porphyritic or 
granitic gneiss, with red feldspar ; (2) fine-grained gray gneiss, 
(leptinite of Pissis and Liais), often garnetiferous and schistose ; 
(3) fine-grained schistose gneiss, passing to mica schist, with sub- 
ordinate beds of quartzite, and an abundance of mineral veins not 
found in the lower parts of the series. This last, the upper or 
metalliferous series of Pissis and Liais, prevails in the Mantiqueira 
range, while the lower divisions predominate in the Serra do M:^r 
and Parahyba valley. 

The gneiss series was referred by Professor Hnrtt to tlie 
Archsean, on account of its position beneath the other IJrazin;^" 
strata, and the striking resemblance with the Laureiitiun sern'S <> 
Xorth America, this ojnnion being confirmed by Di"- Sterry llunt 

Hartt. At that time no fossiliferous rocks ohhr than the Cret.i- 
ceous were positively known in the empire. Since tlien, liow<'\ cr, 
the labors of the members of the (ieoiouical Coniiiiis^ioii ii^i^'' 
shown that the coal-bearing beds of ;> 
at first supposed, ' ' '" ' 

ponf ormably, not on the g 
ites superior to it. 

In southern Brazil, at least, limcptones are extremely ra 
frneiss series. The only bed definitely known is a thin oi 
Parahyba valley, well exposed at the r,ana do Pirahy, 
was examined by Professor IJartt and mv^vK Tlie n^ 
above and below Barra, flows along the strike oi' the bed 
IS very regularly X. (JO^^ K., the limestone appearing at 

do 3Iar, above the city of 
miles. xVbout 30 miles above 


tho line of strike, limestone is reported near Barra 

It ih i-emarkable that about 100 miles farther to the southwest- 
ward, limestone in the gneiss series is reported by l^ath near 

of the 'line of strike from Barra. 

The bed at Barra is about fifty feet thick, enclosed in schistose, 

of Sta^Anna de Pirapit ing:., tlie iarfia..t point to tiic nortlieast of 

A. de S;uiI(4'wl!!!''';.:!lhM'\ny'^anriiti(Ui''t^^ it.*' Thi- bed here hks 
almost pi'(.cisrl\ the >ann' tIiiVkn>->, position and lithological char- 
<*f-tt-Ts as ;it Haira, and, luin-- on I lie line of strike of the bed at 

}>;ive no «K)ubt of the i<lcntitv oi' tlie bed. The surfaces exposed 

l"'ints throunhout limited portions of the bed. Specimens of this 
'■'"'^ jH.Jivhril and treated with acid, present various appearances 
'''-• lilud l.\ Dr. Duwson as characteristic of Eozoon. 

^"M.. -Mine writing the above, Mr. Derby, in the course of 
'"^I'hiration-; alono- the Rio Sao Francisco, has discovered a bed of 
=^''n'i''itiiu. linu-Moiu-, in the uu'tamorphic -orii-s of the S,.rra rla 
<':'i-auna, Provin.a- of Ah^'-oaN ucar tlie falN of I'aulo Affon^o, 

326 Scientific Intelligence. 

Dawson, of Montreal, who kindly furnishes for publication, the 
following notice regarding; their organic contents. — K. Rathhix. 

3. Note 071 Limestone from the Gneiss Formation of Brazil ; 
by J. W. Dawson, LL.D., F.R.S.— The specimens submitted to 
me by Mr. R. Rathbun, from the collection of Mr. Derby, are as 
follows : — 

No. 1. Small specimen, which has been etched with acid, and is 
stated to be from Sta. Anna de Pirapitinga. This specimen con- 
sists of dolomite and calcite, white and crystalline, with grains of 
olive-colored serpentine. It shows some obscure forms which 
may be organic; but nothing which can be affirmed to be 
Eozoon. The specimen is, however, too small and imperfect to 
afford any defin 

No. 2. This is a limestone apparently similar to the last, and 
presumably from the same formation. It is said to be from the 
Serra da (Jarauna, Province of Alagoas. As there were several 
small fragments of this limestone, it was carefully etched with 
dilute nitric acid. On examination it showed in a few spots 
groups of canals similar to those of Eozoon Canadense, filled 
with dolomite. These probably represent fragments of Eozoon. 
There is no appearance of lamination, and the rock seems to con- 
sist of limestone and dolomite intermixed, and with grains of 
pale olive serpentine. The rock and its contained fragments of 
Eozoon resemble those of some layers of the limestone of Petite 
Nation, and also the limestones of Chelmsford, Massachusetts, and 
of Warren county, New York. I have no doubt that this lime- 
stone is of Laurentian age, and partly composed of fragments of 
Eozoon, and think it probable that more extended search may dis- 
cover in it entire masses of the fossil. 

4. Geological Survey of Alabama; Report of progress for \^1i 
a7id 1878 ; by Eugene A. Smith, Ph.D., State '(Jeologist. 140 pp. 
8vo. Montgomery, Alabama, 1879. — Dr. Smith coininenccs bis val- 
uable Report, with a general sketch of tlic lectures and geology of 
the Basin ofthe Tennessee, in Northern Aliih.iina, wlaiv the coaj- 
measures are the uppermost beds, witli tlie exception of tlie strati- 
fied drift of the valleys. Then follow cliaptcrs on the Geology 
of the Counties which belong to tlie Tenntssc e IJasin ; an account 
of Brown's Valley, which covers parts of Jackson, Marsliall, Cull- 
man and Blount Counties, and geological descriptions of parts ot 
the Warrior Coal-field Basin. The Warrior Coal-field Basin is a 
southwestern portion of the Cumberland Table-land, so conspien- 
ous a feature in the eastern half of Tennessee. In this basm i"> 
Jefferson County, along a ridge in Jones' Valley, dividing it longi- 
tudinally, there occurs one of the great faults of the Appahi^'''^' 
ans, so well marked at the east foot of the Cumberland Table- 
land in Tennessee. The strata of the Upper Silurian, Devonian 
and Sub-carboniferous, are brought up by it to a level with a 
nd, besides, there is an overturn, 
erlying, with conformable east- 
, with the SulM-urboniiVrous beds 

u>,>hro.Slhn-la„, and from th- J[a„oUon unO 
Ions of the ]}<-i'onld„, in Canada mid the 
•:oi{(;e Jknv,n,.s Hyde, Iwi., F.Ci.S., with 

tliaii, the teeth 
those, ot the >h 
was in PahiH)/.',! 
Fillies ;,su| the 

getlicrthi- |.n)l,:il)ilii 

Scientific Intelligence. 

9. Remsion of the Palmocrinoidea. Part L The families 
Ichthyocrinidm and Gyathocrinidce; by Charles Wachsmuth 
and Frank Spbinger. 153 pp. 8vo, with two plates. Philadel- 
phia, 1879 (from the Proceedings of the Academy of Natural 
Sciences, Nov. 4, 1879). — A very important contribution to the 
department of Fossil Crinoids, 

10. Descriptions of New Species of Crinoids from the Kaskas- 
kia Group of the Suhcarhoniferous; by A. C. Wbthebby. Ibid., 
October, 1879.— Professor Wetherby, in these papers, describes 
in detail from excellent specimens the genus Proterocrinus, and 
several species of the remarkable crinoids referred to it. The 
author states that the Bichocrinus cornigerus aad D. 6-lobatns 
of Shumard cannot be referred to the genus as has been proposed, 
and that its nearest alliance is with Eucdlyptocrinus. Four spe- 
cies, P. hifurcatus, P. acutus, P. spatulatus and P. parvus are 
beautifully figured on one of the plates. 

III. Botany and Zoology. 
Soluble Matter of Soil retai?ied by Vegetation.— ^oi\ 

clover soil contained 48-1 • grains of solid 
gallon ; the other 220. The author concludes that rain removes 
much more matter from an uncropped than from a cropped soil.-— • 
Chem. Soc, Jan. 15 ; from Nature, Jan. 22. 

2. Seeds endure &dreme Cold — CxsiuiR DeCandolle and 
Raoul Pictet, of Geneva, have continued and extended some old 
experiments upon this subject, the results of which are reported 
in the Arch. Sci. Phys. & Nat. for Nov. 1879. Seeds of mus- 
tard, cabbage, and grains of wheat, without previous desiccation, 
enclosed in sealed tubes, sometimes mixed with metal filings to 
ensure complete and rapid refrigeration, were exposed to a tem- 
perature of from -50° to -80^ centio-nulo. for from two to six 
hours, the cold produced by the cvaponuion ..f liquid sulphurous 
acid; the seeds were allowed to n-ain tlic (.nlinary temperature 
of the air without delay; then, on lu'lng sown, they germinated as 
promptly and well as corresponding seeds not so treated, a. g. 

3. The Genus Ginkgo, now represented by the single^ J^P*"' 
ese species, first appears (according to Heer, in Arch. Sci. I^"?*' 
& Nat., Dec. 1879), in a single species, in a deposit between tne 
Jurassic and Triassic, and in the Jurassic counted nine species, 
two of which extended from England to Spitzbergen, while toe 
other seven along with one of the former inliabited eastern 

Siberia, one of them reaching Japan, the present home of all that 
survives of the genus. One or two species are known in the 
Wealden, and two others in the Tertiary. One of these, known 
from northern Greenland and from Sachalin, is so near the extant 
species that it may be united with it. In the Jurassic this genus 
was accompanied by four other Taxineous genera, one of which 
(Haiera) was continued into the Cretaceous formation ; in the 
Tertiary also by another (Feildenia), recently discovered by Nor- 
denskiold in Spitzbergen. Cordaites carries the Taxineous type 
back to the Carboniferous and the Devonian ; so that this group 
of plants contains the most ancient Phgenogams. a. g. 

4. The Floral Development of Helianthus annuiis, by W. H. 
GiLBBEST. — A paper in the Journal of the Quekett Microscopical 
Club (Oct., 1878), with a plate. The two points of interest relate 
to the morphological nature of the pappus and of the ovule. 
The latter develops as if it was the termination of the axis. The 
two scales of the former, both as to development and struc- 
ture, should be regarded as foliar (not trichoraes), and therefore 
as answering to calyx ; but their development is much later than 
that of the corolla. The paper is a neat one. a. g. 

5. Morphology of Vegetable Tissues, by W. H. Gilbrest. — A 
paperrepriiitedfrom the" Journal of the Royal Microscopical So- 
ciety, read Oct. 8, 1879, with two plates, treating the histology of 
the Cambium, in several Dictyledonous trees and shrubs ; summed 
up by the author thus : 

. . . . "It ap|K'ars that the cambium layer is not a portion 
of the proeaiiihium remaining over after the differentiation of 
the primaiv phlcrm and xvlera, but a special and new tissue 

develo}>ed from it That the cambium is composed of 

prosenchymatous cell-groups; .... on the phloem side paren- 
chyma is produced by the rounding off and sometimes by the 
further division of the individual cells, and prosenchyma on 
the xylem side by the absorption of the transverse septa; wood- 
parenchyma being simply those cambium cell-groups in which 
such absorption has not taken place. That the vessels arise by 
fusion of certain cambium cell-groups, which are arranged verti- 
cally, and the oblique septa separating the groups being partly 
absorbed, and the transverse ones entirely so. That absorption of 
the oblique septa appears to commence with the formation of 
sievp-plates, the pores of wliieli enlarge and coalesce till there is 
either oin' laro-c circular aperture through the center, or the banils 
divMino- tlic sTeve-plutes remain, forming the scalariforra septa of 

ji. An>i,le<,i Jfa.rhH/7irfNr,^, <lk, <iuf der Heise Sr. Majestdt rks 
J^Hisers 3Iaxb))llum /, vuich Jirasilim gesammelten Aronger- 
wachse nach handschriftUchen Aifzeichnungen von S. Schott 
heschrieben von Dr. J. Peykitsch. (Wien: Gerold's Sohn, 1879.) 
—This is an imperial folio volume, sumptuously illustrated with 
forty-two plates of new Aroidece, and a frontispiece of Aroideous 
Vegetation, done in chromolithography. It is the best chromo- 

330 Scientific Intetligence. 

lithography wc have seen. The copious details, most admirably 
drawn, are also printed in colors and are very effective. The 
letter-press is equally superb. It was in part prepared by Scliott, 
the first monographer of the Aroide'p, who died in 18G5, was 
then taken in hand by Kotschy, who died soon after, and by 
Fenzl, whom we have recently lost, and is now coni])k'ted by Dr. 
Peyritsch. This magnifu-ent'book is the hitest and ])n)bably tlie 
last of the fruits of the voyage to Brazd (in 1859-01)) of tlie un- 

1. Naturalized Weeds and other Pli'ints of South Australia, 
by Richard ScuoMBL'K<iK, Ph.D., etc. .\'d(laide, 1.^79. 4to 
pamphlet.— It was a good thou^lit lo ninkf a record of the 

as far as possible tho dates and n.iiticuhir ( ircum-tances of their 

introduction, and thus to gi\e >nvi 
of comparing the future xvilh tlie p 

•(■(<lino n 

m.lilion. It will be 

interesting to know whether tlie ^l 
this time will continue predominant, 
lose their exceptional xiuor or be 

one. 3Iost of the introduced weed's 


^'tothe V 
came fro 

^t aggressive up to 
her {liey may either 
lit Icnoth bv other 
^vift, if'lt be" a long 
ni Europe. The fob 

many of them came in by 
Cornpositfe, and are mainly 
IJathurst Bur or XdHthimn sp 
Aconthiniiu and Inula siutr< 

said of the Leguminosm, which are Clovers, Melilots, and Vetches, 
A glance at the list of weeds throughout does not favor the 
idea that they owe their predominance in any perceptible degree 
to self-fertilization. Oxalis cernua propagates by its bulbs, and 
so may be ranked with self-fertilized plants by analogy ; but the 
blossoms have provision for cross-fertilization. AW except the 
grasses and four or five Dicotyledons are coroliferous, and most 
of them insect-visited. a. g. 

8. Canadian Timber-trees, their Distribution and Preservation; 
by A. T. Drummond. — An instructive pamphlet, published at 
^lontreal in 1879, being a Report to the Montreal Horticultural 
Society, accompanied by a map (by Dr. Bell and Mr. Drummond) 
marking the northern limit of the principal forest trees of Canada 
and J^ova Scotia. There are sixty-five species of trees in this dis- 
trict ; but only the most important ones are specified. More 
stringeiit laws are recommended for the prevention of forest fires, 
which in Canada, as elsewhere, are the ciying evil. The fact that 
3 jutting headlands of Lake Superior have a semi-arctic vegeta- 




g distric 

t to the northward has the common 


temperate flor 

a is 


It is attribi 

ited to the moist, 


l>ut equable at 


)Iiere, re 

suit in 


>resence of such a 


■ body of <lee, 

X here the 

veiretation of an 



\\\\\ t 

lie sv 

av,> of wi. 

.ds, keeping back 

the forest, mav als( 



Indian Corn 

.• l.v 

K. 1.1- 

i! Kii.\ \\r 

, M.D. A^paper 


nted to the .^ 

York State Agri- 

oultural Society, . 


;irv In/ 

•r ai 

Ml rei'.rinte 

d from its 38th 



^iu- 1 



.ize is detailed with consider- 
ded that the plant may have 

.ed Kurup,. by 


. brougl 


the Xorthm 

en in the eleventh 

.ry, an.l l>v tin 

■ni h 

ave bee 

n tiinsferred to 

the Levant. But 


seenis to "be 

roof tlij 

It th( 

} plant had 

before the time of Coh 



principal v 

arieties of Indian 


^-ati(m are enui 


ted and the v 


ordinary cultiva- 

u-e classified. 



• of n 


1 on the cob vary 


• all are 

in ex- 

of rows; but odd 

Scientific Intdligence. 

Granunmn ^Itlioiiizli until icodith hi- -tiidu^ m botany Avcre 
pui sued in the piecaiious ^ntcl^alsof m ictne piolc^^sionil hte, 
necessitating tuquent ch inges ot abode iindci widtlv (htidcnt 
ohinatts, he liad mastcicd his iaAonte dtpattmont, so that no out 
living knew glasses so A\ell, or was so conijxttnt to ti( it tlie 
-whole Older systematically Of indei)cn(knt ])ul)lu itioii In li i«l 
done little, except to bung out a nionogriph ot tht bamboo tube, 
which shows what he a\ as capable of "Hut upon the retutnuiit 
fiom active se.vice, with honoib well eaiiiul by iiduous ukI 
bpkndid seiMce, he devoted the rcmaindei ol his lift to a levi^iou 
of all grasses, vUuch was to foim two volumes of DcC mdolU -, 
MonoqraphHP Phcnoyamarum AUs, it w is too 1 itc But per 
haps the monooi-xph of the P(mi66(e miyliavc been neirlycom 
ph ted Yt t the gieit desichratum of botanists len) uns, and then 
hopts aie dished on the eve of expected fulhllmcnt Peisonilh, 
Gen Muniowab greatly le-spccttd, trusted, and bt-loved The 
very distinct genus which commeme)rites his botanie il fctiviee-, 
Ifunroa sgt^arrom of Toirey, is one of the liiiftalo giasbes of oui 

11 C)H^taceaofMencoa?id Central l>>,o /m —Mission Vicii 

di/Muiistre dc'rinsniut'ion Publupu'' rV/!s'sm) Vx^p/>o^int. 
ft /(>•> Cr>i9ta(fs (7e la Jltyion Mertt ann ^ ]> \ M \\\ iion-i ^^^'J^^ 
Edvvvtds 4to, Pans 4Mivriison, ],]> !J'-lsi ') pi ites, l^Th, 
5^ et Oe hvraisoiis, pp 185-2t)4, 10 p!»1(- ls7<» — Die eului 
parts of this mignifieent vvoik \\( i< iiotKc liiivol \i ol lhi>^ J<"it 
nal (p 329, 1876) Tn the h-t thuc ] .Ms th( u ( ouiit ot th» 
Maieuelea IS completed and th vt ot the ( iii< i< n 1 1 < _ii i thi I >uitii 
part contains the last ol the Mithii(nM,th Muippiiu iilminit 
Amathine, Lpialtmas, PutlKuopiiu (nu hi IniL (Iffn") md i>»it 
of the Leptopodnue , the filth put con)]>leUs tlu 1 1'-t 1 m iK i" ' 
with a shoit supplement, the Maioiele I, iiid Ix.mstlu Poituint'i^ 
which are completed and the Caneciunv vmII b(<,iin in the -i^^i) 
part Though, upon tlie groups ot whieh it tu its ihe ulv bv t u 
the most extensive and important work appemng withm tWLllt^ 
years, it seems thus far to have escaped notiee m the Zoological 
Record It deserves a inoie extended notice than the space at 
my disposal m these pages peimits 

The nine fundus of ()xv.hvn<ims (Muoidei) mcluele ^8 gemra 

ny arid Zoology. 333 

siderably modified from that adopted by the s 

rlv the same as used by Stimpson. Callinectes i 
"" ' " ^ •' M)Y Ord way are reduced t( 

thor in his monograph of the group published in 1861. 

! described 

varieties of a single species and a number of new varieties arc 
described. The old name diacanthits is restored for the polymor- 
phic species thus constituted, but the varietal names are printed 
in the same way as the specitic, so that under the species " Cal- 
Imcctes didcaitthiis'''' we ]ia\e the variety '■'■ Callinectes diacnnthiis 
(Ordway)," which is certainly confusing. Cronius is adopted, 

^ The platen arc admirable and arc crowded with most, excellent 
figures, of which several are usually given for each species. Some 
of the plates on which the larger of the species are represented 

the great majority ot the plates 

12. U. S. Cotnmissiov of Fish and Visheries. lieport of the 
Commission for J 877. Fart V. Washington, 1879. 8vo. 981 

of Professor S. F. Baird, the Commissioner, a statement of the; 
residts accomplished both in the way of exploration and in the 
propagation and introduction of food'-fishes, and the participation 
of the Commission in tlu- Fishery Convention at Halifax. Several 

hadcn ami iIh" lislu lies and manufiictories dependent upon it, bv 
Mr. (;. Brown (^oodr. Amon.-- tlie other papers is one by Karl 
Dambeck, on the di^tril.uti*.n of the cd familv ; on the c<m1 fi^h- 

Fisherits. A History of the Menhaden, by (i. 
'ith an account of the Ayricidtural Uses of Fish : 
ITER. 8vo. 529 pp., 30 plates. New York: 
npany, 1880.— This is a separate edition of Mr. 
the preceding, with additions bringing 

the subject down to date. 
H. The Vhinrh Hug {. 

IS Zencopterm): Its history, charac- 
of destroying it or counteracting its 
Fh.I). With a map showing the 
u^ton, 1879 (U. S. Entomological 

Miscellaneous Intelligence. 


1. Vesuvius.— \x^ Nature (xxi, p. 351), Mr. G. F. Rodwell sum- 
marizes the history of the volcanic action of Vesuvius in the last 
year. During 1879, small streams of lava appeared at intervals 
on the sides of the great cone, and on December 17, a stream 
reached to the Atrio del Cavallo. On January 13, 1880, he as- 
cended the cone, although with difficulty on account of the violent 
and cold wind which prevailed. The small inner cone had in- 
creased since his ascent of the previous year, and now reached 
more than fifty feet above the rim of the great crater, which 
moreover was almost tilled up by lava and scoria:;. 

The cone of November, l«78,'was giving off dense volumes of 
steam and smoke and seemed to be full of lava. Near its ba?e 

which there had been recent outflows, and ^hile he was watching 
it, a stream ol" lava issued forth, whicli >(>.)n after llowcl over the 


sor A. Heim of Zinicli, Secietarv, with Professors Amsler, For^^'i 
Ilagenbach and S.Hvt. and M. fji^willer, has perfected a sch.Hlul'; 


neous Intelligence. 


Further, the whole country 

r is divided 

into seven regions, one 

being ussig 

ned to each member of the 

ted lists oV 

>|- an earthquake 

in his sectic 

in, will at once send prin- 

ird to it to 

all persons likely 

to give 



11 of course 

become matter of 


If this well- 

■laid plan is oarri 
e information in 

ed out, it is 

likely to aftbrd ex 


and valuabl 

regard to S 

and to 

aid greatly 

in the general study of the 

subject.— J ^.s?mc 


the Figure of the Enrth. — In a ])aper by Colonel A. 
on the figure of the earth, published in the J'hilosophi 
e, for January, ls78 (p. 81), the following values ! 

4. mtnlhn'n^i :'^\hf'}r^^^^^^^ fr<nn /h'h- oren; 

^>>yToiix Pkk'cV, M.D., F.KS., He. s;h'.r .nn'l (^,>h}. Tart L 

336 Miscellaneous Intelligence. 

(104 pages). This last section covers only the Mexican or patio 
process as practised in Mexico and South America. The second 
part of this volume, a portion of which is already in type, will be 
awaited with interest, as it will contain a discussion of the pan- 
amalgamation as practised in the United States, and complete the 
metatlargy of silver and gold. It will be remembered that Dr. 
Percy's volume on Lead contained much relating to the metallurgy 
of silver. 

5. An historical sketch of Henry's contribution to the Electro- 
magnetic Telegraph; with an account of the origin and develop- 
ment of Professor Morse's invention, by Willtam B. Taylor. 
103 pp. 8vo. Washington, 1879.— This pamphlet is reprinted 
from the Smithsonian Keport for 1878. It contains a well-digested 
account of the successive steps in the development of the electric 
telegraph, from the middle of the eighteenth century, down. It 
has special reference, however, to the very important contributions 
of Professor Henry toward its practical establishment and final 

6. Bulletins of the United States National Museum. The fol- 
lowing are the contents of numbers recently issued : 

NO. 12. Contributions to North American Ichthyology, No. 3; A: On the 
distribution of the Fishes of the Alleghany Region of South Carolina, Georg)a, 

and A. W. Brayton ; B : A synopsis of the Fau..^ — ■ - a 

Jordan. 237 pp. Washington, 1878. NO. 13. The Flora of St. Croix and 
the Virgin Islands, by Baron FT. F. A. Eggers. 133 pp., 1879. NO. 14 Cata- 

of the United States, prepared under the direction of G. Brown Goode. 3ol 
pp., 1879. NO. 15. Contributions to the Natural History of Arctic America 
made in connection with the Howgate Polar Expedition, 1877-78, by Ludwig 
Kumlien, Naturalist of the Expedition, 179 pp., 1879. 

7. Transactions of the Connecticut Academy of Arts and 
Sciences, Vol. V, Part T, 257 pp. 8vo, with 24 plates, ^ew 
--- — -' ■ '■ " ^^ ' ' i follows:^ 

1880. The contents of the volu 

^Synopsis^of Jhe^Pycnogonida of New Englan( 

plates 1 to 7 ; The Stalk-eyed Crustaceans of the Atlantic Coast of North Amenc 
north of Cape Cod, by S. I. Smith, with plates 8 to 12 ; A list of the BraziuaD 
Echinoderms, with notes on their distribution, etc., by Richard ^3*^^,"°' ,f7,f 
Comet of 1771: investigation of its orbit, by WiUiam Beebe; The Cephalopoas 
the Northeastern coast of America, by A. E. Verrill, with plates 13 to 25. 

Reports on the Results of Dredgir^ under the supervision of Alexander Agassiz 
in the Gulf of Mexico, 1877-78, by the U. S. Coast Survey Steamer ±5ia^«j^ 
Lieut. -Commander C. D. Sigsbee, U. S. N. commanding. V.— General conciufe ^ 
[nation of the raoUusca, by W. H. Call. (Bulletin of tW 
f Comparative Zoology at Harvard College, Cambridge. Mass., vo . . 


Akt. XLI — On the Efficiency of Edison's Electric Light ; by 
Professor H. A. Eowland of the Johns Hopkins University, 
and Professor George F. Barker of the Univ. Pennsylvania. 

The great interest which is now being felt throughout the 
civilized world in the success of the various attempts to light 
houses by electricity, together with the contradictory statements 
made with respect to Mr. Edison's method, have induced us lo 
attempt a brief examination of the efficiency of his light. We 
deemed this the more important because most of the informa- 
tion on the subject has not been given to the public in a 
trustworthy form. We have endeavored to make a brief 
but conclusive test of the efficiency of the light, that is, the 
amount of light which could be obtained from one horse power 
of work given out by tbe steam engine. For if the light be 
economical, the minor points, such as making the carbon strips 
last, can undoubtedly be put into practical shape. 

Three methods of testing the efficiency presented themselves 
to us. The first was by means of measuring the horse power 
required to drive the machine, together with the number of 
lights which it would give. But the dynamometer was not in 
very good working order, and it was difticult to determine the 
number of lights and their photometric power, as they were 
scattered throughout a long distance, and so this method was 
abandoned. Another method was by measuring tlie resistance 
of, and amount of current passing through a single lamp. But 
the instruments available for this purpose were very rough, 
and so this method was abandoned for the third one. This 
method consisted in putting the lamp under water and observ- 
ing the total amount of heat generated in the water per minute. 
J^or this purpose, a calorimeter, holding about 1^ kil. of water, 
was made out of very thin copper: the lamp was held firmly 
in the center, so that a stirrer could work around it. The tem- 
perature was noted on a delicate Baudin thermometer graduated 
to 0°1 C. 

As the experiment was only meant to give a rough idea of 
the efficiency within two or three per cent, no correction was 
made for rac^iation, but the error was avoided as much as pos- 
sible by having the mean temperature of the calorimeter as 
near that of the air as possible, and the rise of temperature 
small. The error would then be much less than one per cent. 

338 Rowland and Barhr— Fjfjrimqj of Edisoyi's Ehdric L 

A small portion of the light esonpod through the aperture.-^ in ,.,■. 
cover, but the fimount of energy must have been \erv uiinutr. 
In order to obtain the amo'unt of light and eliminate all 
changes of the engine and machine, two lumps of nearly equal 
power were generally used, one being in the calorimeter while 
the other was being measured. They were then reversed and 
the mean of the results taken. Tlic" ai)paratus for measuring 
the light was one of the ordinary 13iin>en instruments used for 
determining gas-lights, with a sinirle caudle at ten inches dis- 
tance. The candle's used were the ordinarv standards burning 
120 grains per hour. They were wcighe.l before ami after 

light was given out in a direction perpendicu 
than in the plane of the edge. Two observf 
of the photometric oower. n'tip in n dii-pptirui 
the paper, and th 

uuLi^iucuic power perpendicular lo me pa[)er, auu 6 ui; 
Ige, then the average X will evidently be very nearly 


"arly; hence /=|L near 

809 " " 154 " 

817 fiber large 87 " 

The capacity of the calorim(>ter was obtained bv ; 
to the capacity of the water, the copper ui the caKu-imei 
the glass of the lamp and thcnuouiettT. 'j'h,- cjiloriiiK'i 
cover weiii-hed 0-l()3 kil. a!id tl,c lamtw ;d...ut \y^Y.\:) kil. 

First experiment, No. 2i)i in cnlorimctrr ;ind Xc r>N)i 
tometer; capacity of calorimeter = rio3 + '0(>9+'<AW = 
kil. The temperature rose from 18° "28 C. to23°-llC. 
minutes, or l°-75 F. in one minute. Taking the mecl 
equivalent as 775', which is about right for the degrees 
thermometer, this corresponds to an ex])enditure of 34J 
])0unds per minute. Tlie phoLometric power of No. o 
17-5 candles maximum, or 13-1 mean, ;.. 

Rowland and Barker— Efficiency of Edison^ s Electric Light 839 

When the lamps were reversed, the result was 3540 foot 
pounds for No. 5b0, and a power of 13-5 or 101 candles mean. 

The mean of these two gives, therefore, a power of 3513 foot 
pounds per minute for 11-6 candles, or 109 '0 candles to the 
horse power. 

To test the change of efficiency when the temperature varied, 
we tried another experiment with the same pair of lamps, and 
also used some others where the radiating area was smaller, 
and, consequently, the temperature had to be higher to give 

We combine the results in the following table, having calcu- 
lated the number of candles per indicated horse power by 
taking 70 per cent of the calculated value, thus allowing about 
30 per cent for the friction of the engine, and the loss of 
energy in the magneto-electric machine, heating of wires, etc. 
As Mr. Edison's machine is undoubtedly one of the most efficient 
now made, it is believed that this estimate will be found prac- 
tically correct. The experiment on No. 817 was made by 
observing the photometric power before and after the calori- 
meter experiment, as two equal lamps could not be found. As 
the fiber was round, it gave a nearly equal light in all direc- 
tions as was found by experiment. 


Photometric power 




















The increased efficiency, with rise of te 
shown by the table, and there is no roasc 
bons can be made to stand, why the nu 
horse power might not be greatly inci-Cii 
amount which can be obtained from the 
1500 candles per horse power. Pr<)vi<U 
made either cheap enough or durabU? 
reasonable doubt of the practical success 
pomt will evidently require much furthc 
tne light can be pronounced practicable 

In conclusion . ,i i. >r 

entire establishr 

: thank Mr 

Professor William T. Rceppee of Bethlehem, Pennsylvania, 
died on the eleventh of March at the age of seventy. Pro- 
fessor Rcepper was born in the village of Peilau, near the 
Moravian settlement of Gnadenfrei, in Lower Silesia, Germany, 
March 7th, 1810. In early life he qualified himself for service in 
the Moravian Church, and for several years taught at different 
church schools. He came to America in 1840, at the request of 
the authorities, to engage in the financial work of the Moravian 
Church, and was employed in this until 1869, residing most of 
the time at Bethlehem. At the opening of the Lehigh University 
in 1866, Mr. Roepper was appointed Professor of Mineralogy and 
Geology, and curator of the museum. PTe retained the professor s 
chair only three years, discharging his duties with marked success 
during that time, but he remained curator of the museum until 
1871. The latter years of his life were spent in the scientific and 
historical studies in which he was so much interested. 

In the death of Professor Rapper the science of his adopted 
country has met with a real loss. Independent of his scientific 
attainments, he was a man of unusual culture, a thorough scholar 
in the classics and in history, and an accomplished musician. It 
was to mineralogy, however, that he especially devoted himself, 
and in this branch of science he occupied a high position. 
The mathematical relations of the forms of crystals was a subject 
to which he gave much study. He was not less diligent in the 
chemical investigation of minerals, and his thorough knowledge 
of the practical side of mineralogy caused his o]>iiii(in asan expert 
to be frequently sought by those enuaged in the mining and 
smelting of ores. The discovery bv li'itn' «.i' (U'pDsits of zinc ore 
in the Saucon Valley, Perm., was one whieh did much to benefit 
the town in which he resided, but from which he uained uotliuiii 
himself. He contributed several paj.eis on minenilogical sul.jocts 
to this Journal; one of these deserves especial mention because :i 
mineral species there described, an iron-niangunese-zinc chrysohte 
from Stirling Hill, N. J., is now called lUepperlte after bun. 
Those who knew him well will appreciate that, as the result ot 
his patient work, his contributions to scientific literature mighf- 
have been much more numerous but for the delicate modesty and 
lack of desire for outside reputation which characterized him. 

Professor Rcepper was a man of most genial and attractive 
personal character, who will be long remembered by all who had 
the privilege of his intimate acquaintance. 



Art. XLlI.~Tke Outlet of Lake Bonneville; by G. K. Gilbert. 

Some of the readers of the Journal will remember that the 
name " Lake Bonneville " has been applied to a great body of 
water which formerly covered the desert basins of Utah. Its 
ttiost conspicuous vestiges are its shore lines, and from them it is 
Known that the ancient water surface was more than ten times 
as great as that of Great Salt Lake, and the ancient water level 
was about one thousand feet above the modern. 

It was early surmised that the ancient lake was freshened by 
overflow, but the point of discharge was for a long time undis- 
covered, and it may be said to be still in controversy. The 
present paper takes up the subject of the outlet where it was 
ieft nearly two years ago. 
In this Journal for April, 1878, the writer maintained that 
■^'•^^ -^ utflow was Red Rock Pass, Idaho, at the north 
I descended 
the Pacific 

'-'cean ; and that, flowing over soft material at first, it gradually 
excavated at the Pass a channel more than three hundred feet 
deep, and lowered the lake level by the same amount. In the 
-^une number of the Journal, Dr. A. C. Peale controverted my 
conclusion, declaring, first, that the original altitude of Red Rock 
-t'ass was considerably below the' highest level of Lake Bonne- 
^i^Je; second, that the ancient shore line exists iu Marsh Valley 
at the north of the pass, just as in Cache Valley at the south; 
and finally, that the real point of discharge, when the water 
stood at the Bonneville level, was about forty-five miles north 
of Red Rock Pass. 

342 G. K. Oilhert— Outlet of Lake Bonneville. 

Dr. Peale treats, in the same article, a question of priority 
and other matters of purely personal interest, and his re- 
marks thereon invite reply, but I have a strong distaste for 
personal controversy, and I am confident that the readers of 
the Journal — not even excepting Dr. Peale — will cheerfully 
excuse me if I refrain. I shall therefore confine myself to the 
question of outlet. 

Within a few months I have revisited Marsh Valley and 
Red Rock Pass, and have examined the lower canon of the 
Portneuf. My observations do not serve to diminish materially 
the disparity between Dr. Peale's conclusions and my own, but 
they throw light on some of our contradictions in matters of ^ 
simple observation. These contradictions depend in part upon 
a misinterpretation of certain terraces, and will be better under- 
stood after a brief enumeration of the characters by which 
terraces of diverse origin may be distinguished. 

The term terrace is applied in topography to a level surface, 
or one of very gentle slope, limited on one side by a surface 
which descends at a greater angle, and usually limited on the 
other by a surface which ascends at a greater angle. Where 
the limiting slope is steep it is called a scarp. A scarp may 
stand above a terrace, rising from its inner edge and facing 
toward it, or it may lie below it, falling from its outer edge and 
facing from it. Most terraces are margined by scarps on one 
edge or the other, and some on both. 

Terraces are produced in at least five different ways, namely: 
by dif^^'erential erosion, by streams, by waves, by differential 
deposition, and by displacement. 

Terraces by Differential Erosion arise wherever a series of 
dissimilar strata lying nearly horizontal are subjected to rapid 
erosion. The soft strata are destroyed more rapidly than the 
hard, and the latter, where they overlie soft beds, are under- 
mined so as to break oflF by vertical fracture. A stair-like 
system of terraces and scarps is thus formed, in which each 
terrace marks the outcrop of a soft rock and each scarp the 
outcrop of a hard one. 

These terraces are distinguished from all others by the con- 
stant relation of form to stratigraphic structure. 

A Stream terrace is produced whenever a stream, which has 
for a long time, flowed at one level, is induced by changed con- 
ditions to excavate a new ch'annel at a lower level. While 
flowing at the upper level the water forms a broad flood plain. 
By the subsequent excavation this plain is in part destroyed, 
and what remains becomes a terrace. A scarp of even height 
•^^oarates the terrace from the new channel of the stream or 
from a new flood plain. 

G. K. Oilberi— Outlet of Lake Bonneville. 343 

It is characteristic of stream terraces that they slope in the 
direction of the stream that carved them. 

Wave terraces are found on the shores of all bodies of 
water. The action of waves, combined with that of currents, 
carves away the land on all salients. The direct action is con- 
fined to a few feet above and below the water-level, but what- 
ever is undermined bj the waves is thrown down by gravity 
and brought within their reach. The results of the erosion 
are, first, a broad terrace lying under shallow water and sloping 
gently from the shore ; and, second, a sea-clifF or scarp spring- 
ing from the water's edge. 

It is one of the chief characteristics of a wave terrace that 
Its upper edge, where it joins the scarp, follows a water line. 
In the ease of Lake Bonneville the water has long since disap- 
peared from the terraces, but the horizontality remains as a 
conspicuous feature — subject only to slight modification by 
orographic displacement. 

Delta terraces are produced by differential deposition. Where 
a stream enters a lake or other body of deep water, the chief 
part of the detritus it transports is deposited at its mouth. 
The effect of this is to extend its bed on the side toward the 
deep water. As the mouth protrudes a deposition takes place 
along the bed, so as to maintain a constant declivity of chan- 
nel, and soon the bed is so raised that the water finds a lower 
way at one side and leaves it. By a repetition of this process 
the mouth of the stream is shifted from point .to point, and the 
delta is made to encroach on the lake along its whole face. 
The form eventually produced is that of a terrace sloping 
gently down to the shore and there limited by a submerged 
-- ^ - - "the coarseness 

_ deposited. The declivity of the terrace is 
identical with that of the stream which formed it. The con- 
tour separating the terrace from the scarp is a curve convex 
toward the lake. 

A chief characteristic of a delta terrace is that its lower 
edge, where it joins the scarp, follows a water line and is hori- 
zontal. In the delta terraces of Lake Bonneville the horizon- 
tality remains though the water has disappeared. 

Terraces by displacement are usually produced by faulting. 
A fault traversing a surface of gentle slope drops down the 
portion at one side or lifts the portion at the other, and sepa- 
rates the two by a scarp. The scarp is the only feature added 
to the topography, but by its addition the raised portion of the 
slope becomes a terrace. 

Whatever is characteristic of the terrace by displacement 
pertains to the scarp. A fault scarp usually holds 
aeight for long distances. ^^ --;— • -— 

344 G. K. Gilbert— Outkt of Lake Bonneville. 

straight, course across the country, ascending and descending 
slopes without change of direction. It is only by accident 
that it is ever horizontal. 

Wave terraces and delta terraces are associated phenomena 
of shore lines. They agree in the essential character of hori- 
zontality, and by that are distinguished from all other terraces. 
They have no such relation to rock structure as have terraces 
by differential erosion. Their scarps are not of even height 
like those of stream terraces. Their course across the country 
has the sinuosity of a contour, and not the directness o^ a line 
of orographic displacement. 

Returning now to the consideration of the outlet of Lake 
Bonneville, let us glance a moment at the general features of 
the vicinity. Cache Valley and Marsh Yalley are parts of the 
same trough-like depression, separating two mountain ranges. 
The general trend of the trough and of the ranges is a little 
west of north. Marsh Valley lies to the north of Cache Val- 
ley. It is thirty-five miles long and has a maximum width of 
fourteen miles. Cache Valley is fifty-five miles in length and 
eighteen in width. At the north end of Marsh Valley the 
trough is ended by the junction or close approximation of the 
bordering ranges. At the south end of Cache Valley it is in- 
terrupted^by a low cross range. At Red Rock Pass, where the two 
valleys adjoin, the trough is restricted by spurs from the two 
ranges, and a few protruding crags show that there is a low 
cross ridge of limestone buried by more recent deposits. On 
the west side of Cache Valley there is a low interval in the 
bounding range— so low that the Bonneville flood overtopped 
it and made Cache Valley a bay of the great lake. At this 
point Bear River has cut a narrow gorge, through which the 
draipage of the entire vallev finds its way to the basin of Great 
Salt Lake. Bear River and several other streams enter Cache 
Valley from the east by canons traversing the bounding range. 
In like manner the Portneuf cuts through the eastern range to 
enter Marsh Valley, and then passes from it at its extreme 
northwestern angle by a deep cut valley of erosion, opening to 
the great plain of the Snake' River. , 

According to Dr. Peale, the Bonneville flood filled Cache and 
Marsh Valleys to the same level. Red Rock Pass was only a 
point of stricture of the lake, and the outlet was at the north. 
He mentions terraces in Marsh Valley and gives their altitudes, 
impliedly regarding them as shore terraces. According to my 
own observations, Cache Vallev was occupied by Lake Bonne- 
ville, and Marsh Valley was nJt so occupied, but was traversed 
from south to north hy the stream which overflowed at the 
north end of Cache Valley. There are no shore terraces nor 

G. K. Gilbert— Outlet of Lahe Bonneville. 345 

other lake phenomena of the Bonneville epoch in Marsh 

In revisiting Marsh Yalley I traversed it from end to end 
and made careful search for ancient shore terraces. The most 
favorable position from^ which to detect such vestiges is one 
which brings the eye in the same horizontal plane with them. 
The apparent distortion which arises from perspective is thus 
avoided, and all the little modifications of surface wrought bj 
the waves, being brought into one straight line across the land- 
scape, appeal to the eje by their ensemble. The most favoi-able 
light for the observation is one which throws the scarps into 
shadow or deep shade, and thus contrasts them with the ad- 
joining terrace faces. In examining Marsh Valley I gave par- 
ticular attention to the selection of stations and of light, and I 
considered my inspection of no part of the margin complete until 
I had viewed it from the proper height and in a favorable 
hght I ascended to a level corresponding to that of the Bonne- 
ville beach at ten different points, and the series of views thus 
obtained omitted no portion of the valley. I saw stream ter- 
races and displacement terraces of considerable magnitude and 
a few inconspicuous terraces due to unequal erosion, but no 
wave terrace and no delta terrace. 

If Marsh Valley had really been filled by the lake, as Cache 
Valley was, there could be no difficulty in finding evidence of 
the fact. The water would have been eight or ten miles broad 
and 400 feet deep, and the waves raised by the wind on a bay 
of such dimensions would leave most conspicuous monuments 
of their force. Arms of Lake Bonneville two or three miles in 
width and less than 100 feet in depth have elsewhere been 
traced out by means of their distinct and well-characterized 
shore lines, and this under conditions of slope, etc., similar to 
those existing in Marsh Valley. 

But if Marsh Valley contained no lake, of what nature are 
the terraces adduced by Dr. Peale in support of his conclu- 
sions ? The question is easier proposed than answered, but I 
think a partial explanation can be given. 

The first locality he mentions is "two miles north of Red 
Rock Pass, on the "east side of the valley." At this place there 
Js a conspicuous stream terrace at about the right altitude to 
personate a delta terrace of the Bonneville series. Its surface 
is part of an alluvial cone formed by Marsh Creek before the 
Bonneville epoch, and its scarp is one wall of the channel worn 
by the outflowing river during that epoch. The river pared 
away the margin of the sloping plain spread by the creek and 
left the remainder as a terrace. The edge of this terrace, is, at 
its highest point, 50 feet higher than the nearest trace of the 
Bonneville beach, two miles away ; and it descends northward 


, K. Gilbert— Outlet of Lake Bonneville. 

until it passes below the level. On top of the terrace and 
about half a mile back (east) from its edge, there is a second 
scarp from 10 to 20 feet in height, and due to displacement 
This fades out to the northward and at the same time descends 
with the general slope. Dr. Peale's observation probably refers 
to one or the other of these scarps, and in either case fails to 
take account of the lack of horizontality. 

His second locality is " six miles west of Red Rock Pass. 
The only terraces I found at that point are stream terraces, 
sloping so conspicuously to the KE. and N.W. that it is hard 
they were mistaken for beachc! 

beyond there i 

I fault 




the old freight road which ascends to 

Malade Pass it has very nearly the altitude appropriate for the 
Bonneville Beach. Its true character, however, cannot be mis- 
taken when it is critically examined. 

His third locality, " twenty-six miles from Red Rock Pass 
on the west side of the valley," was not identified. 

O. K. Oilhert— Outlet of Lahe Bonneville. 847 

Passing now from the subject of the general position of the 
outlet to the question of its precise location at the time of the 
commencement of the outflow, I find myself able to make a 
concession to Dr. Peale. I at first supposed that the divide 
originally lay between Red Rock and Hunt's Butte, just as it lies 
to-day, and I so described it. A careful reexamination of the 
locality has convinced me that I was in error, and has led me 
to assign it a position two miles north of Red Rock. Dr. Peale 
placed it about forty-five miles north of Red Rock, so that my 
new determination is nearer to his than my old was. 

With the aid of the accompanying map I hope to make the 
chief topographic features of the locality, and the history of 
the outflow, clear to the reader. 

At the point of greatest orographic constriction, that is, where 
the mountains bordering the general trough, approach nearest 
to each other, there is evidence of a connecting ridge of lime- 
stone. This ridge is so low that only a few peaks of its serrated 
crest project through the superficial deposits. To it belong 
Red Rock (R), Hunt's Butte (H) and the hills marked L, L, L. 
Just north of the ridge Marsh Creek issues from the moun- 
tains at the east. It flows south westward for three miles, 
makes a sharp turn about Hunt's Butte, and then flows 
northward to Marsh Valley, occupying the old river bed 
all the way from Hunt's Butte. It is the largest stream of 
the vicinity of the pass, and has thrown so much debris into 
the river bed that it has determined the modern divide at the 
point of its accession. It is contained by high banks all the 
way from its mountain canon to Hunt's Butte and has no free- 
dom to shift its course over its own alluvion until it enters the 
river bed. Before the Bonneville epoch,— before the river bed 
was cut, the creek had dug no deep channel outside the moun- 
tain caiion and was free to roam at will. It distributed its 
debris equally in all directions, building a fan-shaped alluvial 
plain (A) with its apex at the mouth of the canon. All parts of 
this plain radiated with equal slope from its apex, and its sur- 
face was part of a low-crowned cone. In brief it was an allu- 
vial cone. It extended westward until it met the foot-slopes of 
a spur of the western range and that point of meeting (x), which 
was about two miles north of Red Rock, was the divide between 
Cache and Marsh Valleys. When the brimming waters of Lake 
Bonneville were discharged across it, a river channel was slowly 
excavated, and the margin of the alluvial cone was cut away. 
The edge of the surviving slope is fifty feet higher than the 
Bonneville beach at Hunt's Butte and therefore fifty feet 
higher than the original divide. As the channel of outflow 
deepened by wear, the lake level was lowered and its shore 
retreated southward. The head of the outflowing stream fol- 

348 G. K. Gilbert— Outlet of Lake Bonneville, 

lowed the retreating shore until, at the Prove stage of Lake 

When the lake dried away, the 
divide was left at that place, but Marsh Creek has resumed 
control of it by constructing an alluvial cone in the old river 
bed at Hunt's Butte (a) and building it higher than the level of 
the last discharge. 

The Bonneville water line, so far as it survives, is represented 
by the heavy lines B, B. Its restored continuation and the 
restored banks of the outflowing river are represented 
by heavy broken lines. The margins of the water at its 
lowest, or Provo stage, when the point of outlet was at y, is 
shown by lighter broken lines. 

While Marsh Creek was building its ancient alluvial cone, it 
ran in turn overall parts of it At times it passed south of the 
divide and flowed to the Great Basin. At other times it passed 
north of the divide and flowed to the Portneuf river. When 
the outflow of tbe lake was initiated and the water level began 
to be lowered by the deepening of the channel of outflow it 
chanced that the creek was running over the southern part of 
its cone, and discharging into the lake at Hunt's Butte. The 
lowering of its point of discharge caused the creek to cut away 
its bed instead of building it up and it ceased to shift its chan- 
nel. As the river bed grew deeper, so did the channel of the 
creek, and the latter now flows several hundred feet below the 
top of its old cone. When, by the building of its new cone in 
the abandoned river bed, the creek recovered possession of the 
divide, it resumed its ancient practice of discharging alternately 
to the north and to the south. To-day it is a tributary of the 
Portneuf. The next freshet may clog its channel with debris 
and divert it to the drainage of Bear river. 

After the publication of my former article, Ilearned that the 
outlet had been independently discovered by my friend, Mr. 
Gilbert Thompson, and I am glad of this opportunity to give 
him credit. Mr. Thompson is not a professed geologist, but he 
is an expert topographer, and his close study of the natural 
forms, which it is his work to delineate, has more than once led 
to observations valuable to the geologists with whom he has 
been associated. I quote the following from his letter dated 
April 10, 1878: 

''Thanks for your brochure, 'the Ancient Outlet of Great 
Salt Lake.' The past season I was along the northern limits 
of the ancient lake, between 111° and 112^ 22' 30" and was 
absolutely ignorant of vour examination in 1876 and its re- 
sults I was very much interested in the general 

subject of its limits and also of its outlet .... Toward 

T. S. Hunt— Chemical Relations of the Atmosphere. 349 

the last of the season, as I surveyed from the north the 
road through Eed Rock PasH, after noting the remarkable topo- 
graphical features of Marsh Creek, and keeping a close run of 
the profile as given by the aneroid, I was delighted at Red 
Rock to see unmistakable evidences of the ancient outlet of 

Great Salt Lake Thus you may have the gratification of 

knowing of an independent and entirely unbiased verification 
of your determination of this point; and it is nowhere else in 
the limits I have mentioned." 

Questions concerning the condition of the terrestrial atmos- 
phere in former periods of the earth's history, and its geological 
relations, have occupied the attention of naturalists, physicists 
and chemists. Bronguiart long since suggested that the abundant 
vegetation of the Coal-period indicated the existence of a large 
proportion of carbonic acid in the air at that time. Ebelmen, 
however, appears to have been the first to clearly understand 
the great geological significance of the atmosphere, and in his 
two remarkable memoirs on the decomposition of rocks, pub- 
hshed in the Annales des Mines in 1845 and 1847,t treated the 
subject in its atmospheric relations with much research and 
philosophic breadth. Starting from the chemical changes of 
crystalline silicate rocks, he considered both the conversion of 
feldspars into kaolin, and |he decay of protoxide-silicates, such 
as amphibole and olivine. The sub-aerial decomposition of the 

feldspars had already been shown by Berthier to result in the 
separation, in a soluble form, of the protoxide-bases, t( 
With a portion of silica, from an insoluble aluminous sili 

composition. The analyses of Ebelmen now estab- 
hshed the fact that the protoxide-silicates just mentioned, lose, 
under similar conditions, the whole of their lime and magnesia, 
and nearly the whole of their silica, leaving little behind save 
the higher oxides resulting from the fixation of atmospheric 
oxygen by the ferrous and manganous oxides of the silicates ; 

August, 1878, before \hr British Association for the AdvaneernDnt of Science. 
August 29, 18787voffviri%. 4° 5.) The principal conclusions of the memoir are 

Sciences, and published in the Comptes Rendus of September 23, 1878 (vol. 
^^^3rvii, page 452.) They will also be found set forth in the preface to a second 
f<liUon of the writer's Chemical and Geological Essays (pages ix-xix) published 
in the spring of the same :year. 
Receuil dea Trav. Sclent, de M. Ebelmen; Paris, 1855, vol. ii, pp. 1-79. 

350 T. S. Hunt— Chemical and Geological 

the soluble bases being in all cases removed by atmospheric 
waters in the form of carbonates. Such a decomposition of 
these silicates shows that the removal of silica in soluble form 
does not depend on the intervention of alkalies. 

The atmosphere of our earth at a pressure of 760 millimeters 
has a weight of 10,333 kilograms to the square meter, of 
which the oxygen equals 2,376, and the carbonic dioxide (if 
we take Boussingault and Lewy's determination of four and a 
half parts in 10,000 parts by weight) 4*64* kilograms. The 
alkali of 100 parts of orthoclase would require for its neutrali- 
zation 7*8 parts of carbonic dioxide, so that a cubic meter of 
this silicate, of specific gravity, 2*5, would, by the calculation of 
Ebelmen, fix, in the process of decay, 195 kilograms of the 
gas. From this it results that a layer of orthoclase over the 
earth of 0-0238 meter, or one of less than I'O meter over 
one-fortieth of its surface, would, in its decomposition, absorb 
the whole amount oi this gas now present in the atmosphere. 
Ebelmen further calculated that the formation of a layer of 
kaolin by this process, 500 meters in thickness, would require 
an amount of carbonic dioxide equal to many times the weight 
of the present atmosphere. 

We have repeated and extended these calculations, with re- 
vised equivalent weights, and with the following results : A 
cubic meter of orthoclase, with a density of 2*5, and containmg 
theoretically 16-9 per cent, of potash, equivalent to 7-89 of 
carbonic dioxide, would absorb in kaolinization 197-3 kilo- 
grams of this gas, while a cubic meter of albite of density 2-6, 
containing 11-8 of soda, equivalent to 8*37 of carbonic dioxide, 
would require not less than 217*6 kilbgrams of the same. The 
figure of 195 kilograms, adopted by Ebelmen, was thus below 
the truth, and we may, in view of the considerable proportion 
of soda-feldspar in the oldest crystalline rocks, conveniently 
assume 200 kilograms as the amount of carbonic dioxide 
required to unite with the alkali from a cubic metre of ortho- 
clase or albite, and form therewith a neutral carbonate. 

In such a decomposition, 100 parts of orthoclase give theo- 
retically about 46-5 parts of kaolin, so that 1-0 meter in thick- 
ness of orthoclase of the above densitj- should yield 0447 
meter of kaolin of density 2-6. If we assume this process to 
have consumed for a cubic meter or 2500 kilograms of or*"^' 
clase, 200 of carbonic dioxide, we find that a layer of 51-66 
meters of orthoclase, or its equivalent of quartzo-feldspatbic 
rock, in undergoing the same change, would absorb 10,335 
kilograms of this gas, equal to the entire weight of the present 
atmospheric column, and would vield a layer of pure kaolm 
23-7 meters in thickness. The "production of a stratum ot 

Relations of the Atmosphere. 351 

kaolin 500 meters 

globe, would thus 

equal to more than twenty-one times the entire weight of > 

present atmosphere. 

The absorption of this gas in the decay of silicates like 
hornblende, pyroxene and olivine is far greater. If we assume 
for convenience a hornblende containing 20-0 per cent of mag- 
nesia, and 14-0 of lime, with a density of S'O (which figtires 
are not above the average) we find that it will require 33-0 
per cent, or in round numbers one-third its weight of carbonic 
dioxide to convert these two bases into neutral carbonates; so 
that a meter-cube of hornblende, weighing 3000 kilograms, 
would consume not less than 1000 kilograms of carbonic 
dioxide. In other terms, the decay of 10^ meters of such 
hornblende (or its equivalent in hornblendic rock) would 
absorb 10,333 kilograms, or a whole atmosphere of this gas, 
being five times as much as is taken up in the kaolinization of 
the same volume of orthoclase. 

The hornblendes in question are seldom without several 
hundredths of iron as ferrous oxide, which is peroxidized in 
the process of decay, and, with a little silica, is the chief 
insoluble residue in the case of non-aluminous hornblendes. 
In this connection we revert to a farther calculation by Ebel- 
nien, who pointed out that the conversion of 21,357 kilograms 
of ferrous oxide into 23,750 kilograms of ferric oxide would 
consume the whole of the 2,373 kilograms of oxygen con- 
tained in the present atmosphere ; so that if we suppose the 
existence over the whole earth of 1,000 meters of sediments 
derived from the decay of crystalline rocks, and containing 
only one per cent of ferric oxide thus formed, this amount 
would equal 25,000 kilograms per square meter of surface, 
requiring for its production from ferrous oxide the absorption 
of a quantity of oxygen more than equal to that now contained 
in our atmosphere."^ ' 

Ebelmen, at the same time, referred to the well-known 
deoxidation of carbonic dioxide by growing vegetation, and 
also to the reduction, by decaying organic matters, of sulphates 
to sulphids, with reproduction of carbonic dioxide, through 
which the generation of metallic sulphids in nature gives to 
the atmosphere, in union with carbon, a portion of the oxygen 
previously combined with sulphur and with the metals. 

The following calculations may serve to bring still more 
fully before us the great geological significance of these atmos- 
pheric changes. The weight of a layer of pure carbon, with a 
density of 1-25 and a thickness of 07 meter, would require for 
its conversion into carbonic dioxide the whole of the oxygen 
of our present atmosphere. The separation of such an amount 

352 T. S. Hunt— Chemical and Geological 

of carbon by the process of vegetable growth must therefore 
have liberated the same volume of oxygen ■ Again, a stratum 
of carbonate of lime of specific gravity 2'7, covering the earth 
with a thickness of 8-69 metres, (or one of dolomite of sp. gr. 
2-85, and 7-68 meters thick) would contain an amount of car- 
bonic dioxide equal in weight to the present atmosphere.* 

It was in view of these processes that Ebelmen declared, in 
1846, that " the decomposition and the reproduction of certain 
mineral species very abundant on the surface of the globe cor- 
responds to important modifications in the composition of the 
atmosphere." He farther said, " Many circumstances tend to 
prove that in ancient geological periods the atmosphere was 
denser, and more rich in carbonic acid, and perhaps in oxygen, 
than at present. To a greater weight of the atmospheric en- 
velop would correspond a stronger condensation of the solar 
heat, and atmospheric phenomena of amuch greater intensity."! 
Similar conclusions with regard to the physical relations of a 
denser primeval atmosphere were subsequently announced by 
the late Edwin B. Hunt, in an essay on Terrestrial Thermotics, 
presented to the American Association for the Advancement 
of Science, in 1849, and published in its Proceedings for that 
year, page 135. 

We may get a clearer notion of the problem before us by 
inquiring into the probable amounts of carbonic dioxide which 
have, in, past ages, been abstracted from the atmosphere. In a 
communication to the British Association for the Advancement 
of Science, in l877,:j: Mr. J. L. Mott concludes, as the result of 
calculations, that the average amount of unoxidized carbon to 
a square mile of the earth's crust cannot be less, and is proba- 
bly manv times greater than 3,000,000 tons; while a layer of 
0-7 meters of carbon of density 1-25, (about that of coal) which 
we have calculated to be equal to the total atmospheric oxygen, 
would weigh only about 2,200,000 tons to the square mile. 
Mr. Mott rightly argues that the presence in the atmosphere of 
so great an amount of carbon in the form of dioxide would 
imply a condition of things incompatible with the existence of 
animal life, and at the same time concludes that its deoxida- 
tion would yield an excessive amount of oxygen. He is hence 
led to assume the existence in the earth of a constant amount 
of carbon, which is subject to an annual subterranean oxida- 
tion equal to the amount of carbon annually removed by vege- 
tation ; the source of the original amount of carbon being, m 
his hypothesis, left unexplained. 

* T. Sterry Hunt on the Primeval Atmosphere, Proc. xVmer. Assoc. Adv. Science, 
1^66, and Can. Naturahst, II, iii. 118. 

t Ann. des Mines, IV, vii. 65; also Receuil des Trav. Scient. de M. Ebelmen, 

Relations of the Atmosphere. 353 

While some have imagined an inorganic origin to the carbon 
found in the form of graphite, and even to petroleum and to 
coal, sound reasoning is, we think, on the side of those who, start- 

ing irom me conception oi an originally oxidized globe, see no 
evidence of any process of deoxidation therein which does not, 
directly or indirectly, depend upon vegetable life, and hence 
assign an organic origin to all carbons and hydrocarbons. 
When we take into account the vast amounts of these, from the 
graphite of Eozoic times to the coals, lignites and petroleums 
of the Tertiary, we can scarcely doubt that the total amount 
of carbon which has been reduced from carbonic dioxide is 
equal to many times the equivalent of the oxygen now present 
in the atmosphere. Whether the great excess of oxygen thus 
liberated may perhaps have been absorbed in the production 
of ferric oxide, as above indicated, is a part of the problem be- 
lt may here be noted that in addition to the fossil carbon- 
aceous bodies already mentioned, the rocky strata of the 
earth include great thicknesses of pyroschists, which are argilla- 
ceous sediments more or less impregnated with hydro-carbon- 
aceous matters allied to coal in composition. To give a single 
example, Newberry estimates the proportion of such matters 
diffused through the 300 or 400 feet of Devonian black shales 
which underlie the eastern half of Ohio, to equal fifteen per 
cent, and to be equivalent to a layer of coal fiftv feet in thick- 
ness over the whole area.* 
In this connection it must be considered that the chemical 
ion of the various hydrocarbonaceous fossil substances 
deoxidation not only of carbonic dioxide but of wa- 
"-er. rne amount of liberated oxygen from the latter would 
equal, for the different coals and a'sphalts, from one-eighth to 
one-fourth, and for the petroleums, one-half of that set free in 
the deoxidation of the carbon which these hydrocarbonaceous 
Dodies contain. 

The amount of carbon removed from the atmosphere in a 
deoxidized form by vegetation is, however, small when com- 
pared with that which has been absorbed during the decom- 
position of silicates, and is now fixed as insoluble carbonates, 
chiefly in the form of limestones and dolomites. That both 
the alkaline carbonates liberated in the decay of feldspars, 
and the magnesian carbonate set free in like manner from 
Qiagnesian silicates, must decompose the chlorid of calcium 
contained in the primitive ocean, thereby giving rise to 
alkaline and magnesian chlorides on the one hand, and to 
carbonate of lime on the other, is a consequence which seems 
to have escaped Ebelmen, and was pointed out by the present 
* Geology of Ohio, vol. i, page 162. 


354 T. S. Eunt—Ghemieal and Geological 

writer in I'SSS. In 1862, however, there was opened a sealed 
packet which had been in 1844 deposited bj Cordier with the 
French Academy of Sciences, and was found to contain views 
as to the origin of limestones and of sea-salt similar to those 
just stated.* Thus, in the present state of our knowledge we 
conclude that all carbonates of lime, whether directly formed 
by the decay of calcareous siHcates, or indirectly through the 
intervention of carbonates of magnesia or alkalies, derive their 
carbonic dioxide from the atmosphere. The same must be said 
for the dolomites, magnesites and siderites. 

We have already shown that a weight of carbonic dioxide 
equal to more than twenty-one times that of our present atmos- 
phere would be absorbed in the production from orthoclase of 
a layer of kaolin extending over the earth's surface with a 
thickness of 500 meters, an amount which evidently repre- 
sents but a small proportion of the results of feldspathic decay 
in the sedimentary strata of the globe. The aluminous sili- 
cates in the oldest crystalline rocks occur in the forms of 
feldspars and related species, and are, so to speak, saturated with 
alkalies or with lime. It is only in more recent formations, 
that we find aluminous silicates either free or with reduced 
amounts of alkah, as in the argillites and clays, in micaceous 
minerals like muscovite, margarodite, damourite and pyrophyl- 
lite, and in kyanite, fibrolite and andalusite, all of which we 
regard as derived indirectly from the more ancient feldspars.f 
It has been shown that the disengagement of the carbonic 
dioxide from a layer of limestone covering the earth's surface 
with a thickness "of 8-69 meters, would double the weight of 
the atmosphere. The existence of vast formations of lime- 
stone and dolomite, often many hundred meters in thickness, 
throughout all geological periods, will, it is believed, justify 
the conclusion that the carbonates of the earth's crust are 
equal to a continuous layer of limestone 869 meters thick, and 
probably to more than double this amount. From this it would 
follow that the earth contains, fixed in the form of carbonates, 
a quantity of carbonic dioxide, which, if liberated in a gaseous 
form, would be equal in weight to one hundred if not to two 
hundred atmospheres like the present. A considerable portion 

* Hunt, Chem. and Geol. Essays, pp. 2 and 20. 

f These considerations, and their stratigraphical bearings, first set forth m 
18G3 (Chem. and Geol. Kssays, pp. 27 and 28). will be found further developed in the 
writer's report on Azoic Rocks, 2d Geol. Survey of Penn., 1878, p. "'" ''* '" ** 

3 or less completely decayed feldspars 

ferous amphiboles, with the non-ali 

various magnesian minerals, a 

[istory of some pre-Cambrian Rocks, € 

Relations of the Atmospk& 

of this was doubtless absorbed £ 

torj of our globe, since the li 

great thickness, and those of more recent times have been in 

part formed by the solution and re-deposition of portions of 

these older limestones. 

The question now arises, whence came this enormous vol- 
ume of carbonic dioxide which, since the dawn of life on our 
planet, has been fixed in the form of carbon and carbonates ? 
The presence of even a small proportion of it at any one time 
m the terrestrial atmosphere is evidently incompatible with the 
existence of vegetable and animal life, and it may be added 
that the pressure of a column of this gas less than the mini- 
nium of 100 atmospheres which we have supposed, would suf- 
Qce, at ordinary temperatures, for its partial liquefaction; the 
tension of liquid carbonic dioxide at 30^'7 0. being, according 
to Mareska and Donny, but eighty atmospheres. We are 
therefore forced to the conclusion that this gas was gradually 
supplied from a source either within the earth or bevond our 

The difficulties of this problem were not overlooked by 
■c^belmen, though he apparently failed to recognize their full 
weight He takes care to remark : " I do not pretend that this 
immense proportion of carbonic acid ever made part, at any 

one time, of the terrestrial atmosphere I see in volcanic 

phenomena the principal agent which restores to the atmosphere 
the carbonic acid which the decomposition of rocks removes 
from it." He then inquires whether the carbonic acid (car- 
honic dioxide) evolved from the earth's interior, comes from 
the decomposition of carbonates at great depths and high tem- 
peratures by reactions with silicious matters, or whether we 
niay imagine, with Elie de Beaumont, the existence of an im- 
niense reservoir of carbonic acid dissolved in the supposed 
liquid interior of the earth as oxygen is held in fused litharge 
or in molten silver. In either case, remarks Ebelmen, the ces- 
sation of volcanic phenomena would be followed by the re- 
moval from the atmosphere of the last traces of carbonic acid, 
a process which would entail the extinction of all vegetable and 
animal life. 

. Of these two suggested sources of the terrestrial carbonic 
^^oxide, a little reflection will show that although the first is 
doubtless a true one, and will serve to account for that which 
IS so often disengaged from the earth, both in volcanic and non- 
volcanic regions (having a similar origin to the chlorhydric, 
sulphuric and boric acids evolved under analogous conditions— 
namely, the decomposition of saline compounds of aqueous 
origin),* it by no means meets the requirements of the problem. 
* Hunt, Chem. and Geo!. Essays, pp. 8 aud 111. 

366 T. S. Hunt— Chemical and Geological 

As preceding calculations have shown, it is not a question of a 
snaall amount of carbonic dioxide alternately removed from 
our atmosphere by sub-aerial reactions and restored to it by 
subterranean processes, but of a vast quantity of this gas 
which, at one time or another, has existed in the terrestrial at- 
mosphere, but is now removed from the aerial circulation and 
locked up in the form of carbonates. 

As regards the second source of carbonic dioxide, suggested 
by Ebelmen after Elie de Beaumont, it is, unlike the last, 
purely hypothetical. That the globe has a molten interior is, 
in the present state of our knowledge of terrestrial physics, 
very improbable, and if such exists, the notion that it inter- 
venes directly in volcanic phenomena is still more so. The 
suggestion that such a molten interior might hold dissolved a 
great volume of carbonic dioxide appears, moreover, to be in- 
consistent with what we know of the behavior of furnace- 
slags, which, though formed in atmospheres highly charged 
with this gas, do not, as shown by their behavior in cooling, 
hold it in solution. The tendencies of modern geological 
thought and investigation, it may be said, lead to the conclu- 
sion that the seat of volcanic phenomena is to be found in sedi- 
mentary strata,* and that although the earth's interior inter- 
venes as a source of heat, the carbonic dioxide disengaged 
from its crust is derived, as in the first hypothesis mentioned 
by Ebelmen, from the decomposition of carbonates previously 
generated by sub-aerial reactions. 

The problem still before us is then to find the source of the 
vast amount of carbonic dioxide continuously supplied to the 
atmosphere throughout the geologic ages, and as continuously 
removed therefrom, and fixed in the form of carbonaceous 
matters and limestones. We have shown reasons for reject- 
ing the theory which would derive this supply either from the 
earth's interior or from its own primal atmosphere, and must 
therefore look for it to an extra-terrestrial source. The new 
hypothesis, which we here advance, starts with the assumption 
that our atmosphere is not primarily terrestrial but cosmical, 
and that the air, together with the water surrounding our earth, 
(whether in a liquid or a vaporous state) belongs to a continu- 
ous elastic medium which, extending throughout the inter- 
stellary spaces, is condensed around attracting bodies in amounts 
proportional to their mass and temperature. This universal 
atmosphere (if the expression may be permitted,) would then 
exist in its most attenuated form in the regions fartherest dis- 
tant from these centers of attraction ; while any change in the 
gaseous envelope of any globe, whether by the absorption or 
condensation, or by the disengagement of any gas or vapor 
* Ibid, pp. 59-67. 

Relations of the Atmosphere. 857 

would, by the laws of diffusion and static equilibrium, be felt 
everywhere throughout the universe. 

The precipitation of water at the surface of a cooling globe, 
and Its chemical or mechanical fixation there, would thus 
dimmish the proportion of gaseous water throughout all space, 
ihe oxygen liberated in the growth of terrestrial vegetation 
would be shared with the remotest spheres, while the condensa- 
tion of carbonic dioxide at the surface of our own or any other 
planet, would not only bring in a supply of this gas from the 
atmospheres of other bodies, but by reducing the total amount 
of It, would diminish, pro tanto, the barometric pressure at the 
surface of this and of all other worlds. 

The hypothesis here advanced is not wholly new. Sir 
William R. Grove, in 1842, suggested that the medium of light 
and heat may be " a universally diffused matter," and subse- 
quently, in 1843, in his celebrated Essay on the Correlation of 
-Physical Forces, in the chapter on Light, concludes, with regard 
to the atmospheres of the sun and planets, that there is no 
reason why these atmospheres " should not be, with reference 
to each other, in a state of equilibrium. Ether, which term we 
may apply to the highly attenuated matter existing in the 
interplanetary spaces, being an expansion o( some or all of these 
atmospheres, or of the more volatile portions of them, would 
thus furnish matter for the transmission of the modes of motion 
which we call light, heat, etc., and possibly minute portions of 
these atmospheres may, by gradual accretions and subtractions, pass 
from planet to planet, forming a link of material comroAinication 
between the distant monads of the universe:' Subsequently, in 
his address as President of the British Association for the 
Advancement of Science, in 1866, Grove further suggested 
that this diffused matter might become a source of solar heat, 
inasmuch as the sun " may condense gaseous matter as it 
travels in space, and so heat may be produced." 

This bold speculation of a universally diffused matter, con- 
stituting an interstellary medium, though thus repeatedly in- 
sisted upon bv Grove,, has passed almost unnoticed. It seems 
to have been^unknown to Mr. W. Mattieu Williams, who in 
1870 published his very ingenious work entitled "The Fuel of 
the Sun,"* which is based on a similar conception, without 
citing in support of it the high authority of Grove. The solar 
neat, according to Williams, is maintained by the sun's con- 
densation of the attenuated matter everywhere encountered by 
that body in its motion through interstellary space. The 
irregular movements impressed upon the sun by the varying 
attractions of the planets, stirring up and intermingling the 
* See also Williams on The Eadiometer and its Lessons, Quart. Jour. Science, 
^. JODB. Soi.— Thibd Sbkies, Vol, XIX, No. llS.-JttAT, 1880. 

358 T. S. Bunt—Chemical and Geological 

different strata of the solar atmosphere, and producing the 
great perturbations therein of which the telescope affords 
evidence— are, in his hypothesis, the efficient agents in this 
process. The diffused matter or ether, which is the recipient 
of the heat-radiations of the universe, is thereby drawn into the 
depths of the solar mass ; expelling thence the previously con- 
densed and thermally-exhausted ether, it becomes compressed, 
and gives up its heat, to be, in turn, itself driven out in a 
rarified and cooled state, and to absorb a fresh supply of heat, 
which he supposes to be in this way taken up by the ether, 
and again concentrated and redistributed by the suns of the 
tiniverse. (Loc. cit, chap, v.) 

Neither Grove nor Williams has considered the hypothesis 
of an interstellary medium in its geological relations. Dr. P. 
Martin Duncan, however, in his address as President of the 
Geological Society of London, in May, 1877, without noticing 

; priority of Grove, has adopted it from Williams,* but 

ad of supposing, with these, that tbe atmospheres of i 

bodies are in equilibrium, conceives the sun, in virtue of i 

greater mass, to be slowly attracting to itself the < 
restrial envelope. He thence proceeds to deduce therefrom 
important geological considerations, maintaining that from the 
greater height of the terrestrial atmosphere which, according to 
this view, must have prevailed in former ages, there would 
have resulted a higher temperature at the earth's surface, more 
aqueous vapor, and a more equable climate. From a more 
abundant precipitation would also follow greater sub-aerial de- 
nudation, while the formation of ice, though it might occur in 
elevated regions, would be impossible at or near the sea-level. 
The correctness of all these deductions by Duncan from the 
condition of a denser terrestrial atmosphere appears to be indis- 
putable, and, as we shall endeavor to show in the sequel, they 
are in harmony with the geological record. But, while admit- 
ting that changes in the earth's atmosphere conducing to such 
results have taken place, we maintain, in accordance with the 
principles already laid down, that these changes have not been 
due to solar attraction and absorption, but to the chemical and 
mechanical processes going on at the surface of the earth and 
other bodies in space, whereby the atmospheric elements are 
condensed in the forms of liquid and solid water, or fixed as 
hydrates, oxides, carbonates and hydrocarbonaceous matters. 

The changes which have thus been produced in the terres- 
trial atmosphere are, by our hypothesis, reduced in amount by 
being shared with other worlds, and the consequences which 

eTa^original and independent 

Relations of the Atmosphere. 359 

Ebelmen, and others after him, have deduced with regard to 
the temperature of the earth's surface in former geological 
periods, would seem, at first «ight, to be invalidated. Tyndall, 
however, in 18G1, fiom a con^deration ot the great power of 
abboibing heat pobbe!>sed alike b> aqueous \apor and bv cer- 
tain gases, such as citbonic dioxide, and the consequent cttects 
of small quantities of the'^e in the atmosphcie on toiiestiial 
tadiation, and thus on climate, was led to lemark, "it is not 
theiefoie nece^sai \ to assume alteiations in the density and 
leight of the atmospheic to account for difleient amounts of 
heat being pi cscixtd lo the caith m d ittei en t times , a slight 
chanoe m us n amble constituents ma> have pioduced all 
tbe mutation- of cliinatt which the leseaiches of geologists 
icveal * Thus, although ihe amount of caibonic dioxide 
^^iHch, in past geological ages, has been, b\ chemical pioce&ses 
at the suit ice ol oui o\\n and othei woiKK ab-ti acted fiom 
tlieumvcisal medium, mav not have sulhced to dimmish bv 

'logical hv 
tied. Flo 

n 111 ill n^ 




d il..U..I. 

I lul^ in t 
i than ll 




*''' lo ll^Ol's. 
rho (hiiMtic 

Eoelnicn, K 

Hunt and 


d I 

~ u/ 1 


giadual cha 


nposit.on ol 


pheie implv a 

slow piogie 


m ol \\h nu 



of the cat th 

1 su 

iface. Til 


1- 1 

n ( nil 

1 ,!haioiiwith 

file hxpothesis , 

)( btcalar 


ot t 

he ca 

tuie, due to 

)nomical c 

au.e., and g, 


penods cha 


iized b\ 

oeneial glac 


>n, and leads us to 

inter. ogate< 

)ri th 

1.S point 

the geologic. 

d lecoid. 

We may in 

quire (J) wl 


1, since the appeal anoe 

of t( 

-1 1 csti 

lal \ egetation, 

the mean an 



aieof the cm 


has e 

vol bcLU less, 

and (2) w he 


It has eve, 



Jurassic, and Lower Cietaceoub peuods, and that the lefnger- 
ation appaient in the Upper Cictaceous gradualh augmented 
^P to the Phocene, the cold of \\hich has continued till now. 

860 T. S. Hwit— Chemical and Geological 

readily accounted for by changed geographical conditions. 
Such changes of sea and land are, however, inadequate to ex- 
plain the elevated temperature which, according to the observa- 
tions of ISTordenskidld, prevailed in the Carboniferous age, 
when the arctic climate permitted the development, over a great 
area of land, of a vegetation not unlike the Carboniferous 
flora of the inter-tropical regions. It is not easy to conceive 
that, with an atmosphere like that of the present time, any 
geographical conditions could maintain during the long polar 
winter the mild climate required for such a vegetation, even in 
insular regions, and still less over a continental area within the 
polar circle. 

We are thus led to the conclusion that geographical changes, 
though adequate to explain the greater refrigeration of certain 
areas since the beginning of Pliocene time, are not sufi&cient to 
account for the warmer climates of previous ages, and to find 
the explanation of these in the different relations of the earlier 
atmosphere alike to solar and to terrestrial heat. 

It is, however, obvious that, with such an atmosphere as we 
have supposed, the more elevated portions of the earth's sur- 
face might, as is now the case in inter-tropical lands, be lifted 
into regions where glaciation was possible, while a warm 
climate prevailed everywhere at the sea-level. Neither the 
glacial periods of more recent times, nor those of remoter 
geological ages, of which evidence is not wanting, necessarily 
depend upon any diminution in the earth's mean annual tem- 
perature at the sea-level. Glacial periods are, in this view, 
as has been well said by J. F. Campbell, not celestial, but 
local and terrestrial,* while, on the contrary, the warmer polar 
climates of Paleozoic and Mesozoic times are to be regarded 
as evidence of a generally elevated temperature at the earth s 
surface depending on atmospheric conditions, as already set 

In a note in the Comptes Eendus of the French Academy of 
Sciences, for Oct. 7, 1878, criticising my previous one of Sept. 
23 "Sur les relations geologiques de ratmosphere," already 
referred to at the beginning of this paper, Mr. Stanislas Meu- 
nier has argued in favor of the terrestrial origin of the atmos- 
pheric carbonic dioxide, the source of which he supposes to be a 
subterranean oxidation of a primitive store of carbon, a view 
which seems unsupported by any facts or analogies in nature. 
He opposes to the hypothesis which I have advocated, the fact 
of the absence of an atmosphere from the moon, while he 
asserts the existence of an abundant one around both Mercurv 
and Venus. The evidences of such an atmosphere around 
the latter planet are well known, but the observations of recent 
* CampbeU on Glacial Periods; Quart. Jour. Oeol. Soc, 1879, vol. xxxv, p. 98. 

Relations of the A imosphere. 361 

astronomers leave it doubtful, on the contrary, whether Mer- 
cury possesses a perceptible one, while, as regards our satel- 
lite, the conclusion, as stated by Newcomb, is that the lunar 
atmosphere, if it exist, is not equal to more than one four- 
hundredth that of the earth. 

A little reflection will, however, show that the absence of 
any apparent atmosphere from the moon in no way militates 
against our hypothesis, since a completely refrigerated globe, 
such as our satellite must probably be, would long since 
have absorbed mechanically into its interstices, its share of 
the universal gaseous medium. It was many years since pointed 
out by S^eraann* that, as a consequence of the progressive 
refrigeration of our planet, the ocean and the air which surround 
It must one day disappear from its surface. The total vol- 
ume of our atmosphere, at the density which it has at the 
sea-level, is, according to his calculation, less than four thou- 
sandths of that of the earth, the volume of the ocean being 
very much less. There is no known mass of cooled rock 
which has not a greater porosity than is represented by these 
figures, so that the conclusion seems inevitable that, with the 
complete refrigeration of the earth which must come in the 
course of ages, its atmosphere, following the ocean, will have 
so completely sunk into the pores of the cooled mass that 
Its tension at the surface would be very small. Such a con- 
dition of things, Ssemann supposes to have been already at- 
tained in our satellite, a view which may be, with equal 
probability, extended to Mercury. 

^he hypothesis that interstellary space is filled with an 
attenuated matter which, in a more condensed form, constitutes 
the atmosphere and the waters of our own and other worlds, 
which we have already discussed in some of its chemical and 
geological bearings, assumes a new interest in connection with 
recent speculations as to evolution in the stellar universe. In 
considering the increasing chemical complexity revealed by 
the spectroscope in passing from nebulee to white, yellow and 
red stars, Prof. F. W. Clarke, of Cincinnati, was led in 1873t 
to suggest the possibility of a generation of the higher from 
simpler forms of matter by a process of cosmical chemistry. 
A. similar view was a few months later advanged by Mr. 
fjockyer, who reiterated and enforced these suggestions, show- 
ing that the chemical elements make their appearance in the 
cooling stars in the order of their vapor-densities— and more- 
over connected these considerations with the conjectures of 
-Dumas as to the probably compound nature of the so-called 

362 T. S. Euni— Chemical Relations of the Atmosphere. 

elements.* Mr. Lockyer has since extended this inquiry by 
his ingenious and beautiful spectroscopic studies, the results of 
which are embodied in his " Discussion of the Working Hy- 
pothesis that the so-called Elements are Compound Bodies," 
communicated to the Royal Society, Dec. 12, 1878.t In his 
first note, of 1873 (which is embodied in the later paper) he 
suggested that we see in the stars evidences of a celestial^ disso- 
ciation under the in^uence of intense "heat, which, continuing 
the work of our furnaces, would break up the metalloids, and 
leave only the metallic elements of low equivalent weight 
which are found in the hottest stars. In his later_ memoir be 
further suggests that as there may be no superior limit to tem- 
perature, so of dissociation there may be no end. 

With these may be compared the views enunciated by the 
present writer in a lecture before the Eoyal Institution, May 
31, 1867, wherein, discussing the problems of stellar chem- 
istry, he declared that the "dissociation of elements by intense 
heat is a principle of universal application," and with regard 
to the chemical elements, that their " further dissociation in 
stellar or nebulous masses may give us evidence of matter still 
more elemental than that revealed by the experiments of the 
laboratory, where we can only conjecture the compound nature 
of many of the so-called elementary substances.":}: In 1874, 
while discussing the speculations of Dumas, Clarke and Lock- 
yer, he further suggested that the green line in the spectrum 
of the solar corona, which had been supposed to indicate a 
hitherto unknown element, may be a " more elemental form 
of matter, which, though not seen in the nebulse, is liberated 
by the intense heat of the solar sphere, and may possibly cor- 
respond to the primary matter conjectured by Dumas, having 
an equivalent weight one-fourth that of hydrogen."g Regard- 
ing this supposed element in the solar atmosphere. Prof. C. A. 
Young remarks that it must be of excessive tenuity, "a cear 
relative, so far as gravity is concerned, to the luminiferous 
ether, and to the Urstoff" of the German speculators." | In 
this connection it should be mentioned that Hinrichs, in 186b, 
put forth an argument^ in favor of the existence of such a 
|3rimitive matter or Urstoff from a consideration of the wave- 
lengths in the spectra of the various elements.** 

§ A Century's Progress in Theoretical Chemistry, by 
dress delivered on the Centennial of Chemistry, at Nort 
31, 1874; Amer. Chemist, vol. v, pp. 46-51, and Pop. Science Monthly, vii, ■ 

i This Journal, IL ilii, 350-368. f This Journal, III, i, 319. 

before the Literary and Historical Society of Quebec in January, 1870, by J 

A. Oeihie—Archcean Rocks of the Wahsatch Mis. 363 

Lavoisier long since suggested that hydrogen, nitrogen and 
oxygen are, with heat and light, the simpler forms of matter 
from which all others are derived, and when it is considered 
that the first two of these are the only elements of which we 
have yet any certain evidence in the nebula, it will be seen 
that the speculation of Lavoisier is really an anticipation of that 
view to which spectroscopic study has led the chemists of to-day. 
The three elements named by him are those which, in the forms 
of air and watery vapor, make up nine hundred and ninety-nine 
thousandths of the atmosphere which, in accordance with our 
hypothesis, constitutes the interstellary medium. It was in 
view of all these considerations that the writer in 1874 ven- 
tured to say that " the nebulae and their resultant worlds ma.y 
be evolved by a process of chemical condensation from this 
universal atmosphere ; to which they would sustain a relation 
somewhat analogous to that of clouds and rain to the aqueous 
vapor around us."* Such a speculation, which seeks for a 
source of the nebulous matter itself, is perhaps a legitimate 
extension of the nebular hypothesis. 
Montreal, Feb. 14, 1880. 

AiiT. XLIY.— On the Archcean Rock^ of the Wahsatch Mountains; 
by Archibald Geikie, RRS., Director of the Geological 
Survey of Scotland, and Murchison Professor of Geology 
in the University of Edinburgh. 

The complete physical break between the crystalline schists 
and the overlying sedimentary groups in the Eocky Mountains 
and other ranges of the west has been clearly described by 
Grilbert, King, Hayden, Emmons and other writers. It is quite 
possible, however^ that in these regions there may have been 
subsequent protrusions of granite and accompanying metamor- 
phism ; so that we ought not to decide that a mass is necessa- 
rily Archaean merely because it consists of schists and granites. 
Yet I am not sure that this assumption has not to a certain 
Douglas, Jr., then President of the Society, and one of the Canadian Expedition 
the spcctroseopie observations made during the eclipse, he refers to tliose of Pro- 

therefore belong t> 
Jike the hvno<;hflti, 

J^ojfajis. With regard t 

3 hypothetical ether7fiTrs space ?" To this he adds t 

' '"' ' ■ I the auroral light of our own heavens, and 

3 hypothetical gas luminous." D^ans. Lit. a 

's Progress, etc., cited above; also Chem. 

364 A. Geihie—Arclman Rocks of the Wahsatch Mts. 

extent influenced the observations of some of the able geologists 
to whom we owe our acquaintance with these western ranges. 
In a recent visit to the Wahsatch Mountains I was strongly 
inclined to doubt the correctness of the interpretation of the 
central and so-called Archaean portion of the chain given in 
the Eeports of the Geological Exploration of the 40th Parallel. 
And I am disposed to offer the results of my visit for the con- 
sideration of those who are much more familiar than myself 
with the geology of that part of the United States. 

Let me begin by expressing my unqualified admiration of 
the geological prowess shown by Mr. Clarence King and his 
associates, Messrs. Hague and Emmons, in their great survey. 
Having traveled over many hundreds of miles with their works 
in my hands I can bear testimony to their remarkably clear 
and accurate delineation of the broad geological features of the 
country. It is perhaps somewhat presumptuous in one who 
has only made a single journey through the region to offer any 
criticism of work which occupied years of continuous toil. 
Yet I am sure these writers, with the feeling of true scientific 
brotherhood, will themselves be the most desirous to give me a 
bearing, and will not require any assurance that my remarks 
are called forth by no spirit of fault-finding. 

According to the Reports of the Exploration of the 40th 
Parallel, the Wahsatch Mountains consist of a central core of 
Archaean rocks, composed partly of granites and partly of vari- 
ous quartzite, schists, and other crystalline masses. These rocks 
are represented as having formed an island in the Paleozoic 
sea; and Mr. King asserts that the island must have presented 
to the west an almost precipitous face of 30,000 feet, or upwards 
of 6| miles— an altitude exceeding that of any modern moun- 
tain chain.* Kound this lofty Archsean island the whole of the 
Paleozoic and Mesozoic sediments are said to have been depos- 
ited to a depth of from 30,000 to 40,000 feet, in one continuous 
uninterrupted series. Subsequent terrestrial movements, acting 
along the line of the original island, have upraised the surround- 
ing sedimentary masses, and the ancient crystalline rocks have 
once more been revealed by denudation. 

Now the fact of the existence of a cliff more than 5^ miles 
high would require to be established by very carefully collected 
and convincing evidence. It was with very considerable cun- 
osity therefore that I paid a visit to the Cottonwood district, 
where the evidence was said to be most complete. I must 
frankly own that I failed to observe any grounds on whicb the 
assertion appeared to me to be warranted. One would natu- 
rally expect that if a mass of strata 30,000 feet thick had been 
laid down against a steep slope of land, its component beds 

*Geol. Exploration of 40th Parallel, vol. i, p. 124. 

A. Geikie—Archcean Rocks of the Wahsatch Jits. 365 

ought to be fall of fragments of that land. Each marginal belt, 
representing an old shore-line, should be more or less conglom- 
eratic ;_ at least, there ought to be occasional zones of conglom- 
erate, just as at the present day, we have local gravel beaches 
on our shores. But I could find no trace of pebbles. It would 
of course be presumptuous in me to assert that they do not 
exist ; but they are not mentioned by Mr. King, nor by Messrs. 
Hague and Emmons, and yet, as their evidence would be so 
important, we can hardly suppose that these writers observed 
them and made no reference to the fact. 

But not only have no pebbles of the Cottonwood granite 
been recorded as occurring in the overlying Paleozoic rocks, it 
is admitted that these rocks become metamorphosed as they 
approach the granite. The natural inference to be drawn from 
these facts, one might suppose, would be that the granite is 
later in date than the rocks overlying it. Mr. King admits 
that the granite had been undoubtedly the center of local raet- 
amorphisra, but this change he regards as "strictly mechanical 
and not to be mistaken for the caust" ' ... 

the same ultimate effect he does not explain. Had he not been 
firmly convinced that all the granite must be Archsean he 
would hardly, I venture to think, have penned that sentence. 
Two pages farther on he admits that round the granite mass 
the Carboniferous limestones have been invaded by igneous 
dikes, and these rocks (named granite-porphyry by Zirkel), he 
asserts to be "middle-age porphyries, not to be confounded 
with the Archaean crystalline rocks." (p. 49). But why should 
they be " middle age," or rather on what grounds are we to 
separate them from the neighboring granite? Not a single 
reason is given save the obvious one that when a geologist has 
made up his mind that a granite is Archsean he cannot of 
course admit that it sends out ramifications into overlying Pale- 
ozoic rocks. Yet the natural tendency of any unbiased ob- 
server must, I should think, be to connect these surrounding 
dikes with the main granite mass inside. Curiously enough, 
Mr. King himself, in another passage, admits that they are "in 
all probability a dependence of the granite." (p. 46). But 
surely the occurrence of intrusive dikes twenty feet broad 
penetrating limestones that have been converted into marbles 
is something more than a " strictly mechanical " ph( 

by Mr. King for the antiquity of the 
granite is that il does not send out dikes into the overlying 
rocks, (p. 48). But, as he himself is no doubt well aware, the 
veins or dikes which penetrate the rocks around a granite boss 
are not always themselves granite. They very commonly take 
the form of his "granite-porphyry." 

A. Oeihie — Archcean Rocks of the Wahsatch Mts. 

I submit, therefore, that the facts taken bj themselves and 
without reference to any preconceived opinion or theory, are 
these : 1st. A large mass of granite* on the Wahsatch Moun- 
tains ascends with an oblique or transgressive boundary line 
from certain schists and quartzites across the Paleozoic series 
up into the Upper Carboniferous horizons. 2d. The rocks as 
they approach the granite manifest increasing metamorphism ; 
the limestones pass into white granular marble, and other rocks 
have assumed the character of schist. 3d. Among the Car- 
boniferous limestones and other rocks around the main mass of 
granite, there occur, in different places, dikes or veins of granite- 
porphyry, like those usually met with in a similar position. 
The conclusion which I would draw from these facts is that 
the granite is intrusive, and is later in date than the Upper 
Carboniferous rocks which have been metamorphosed 

Archaean date. I could observe no reason i 
subdivision in the granite mass. The son 
arrangement in certain portions of the granite is 
toward the periphery and even within the central portions of 

The section across the Wahsatch range, placed below map 
No. Ill (east half) of the Geological Exploration of the 40th 
Parallel, seems to me to bear the strongest evidence agamst 
Mr. King's own reading of the structure of the mountains. It 
the granite there shown as underlying the highly tilted Pale- 
ozoic rocks be regarded as anterior in date to these rocks, as, 
in fact, the land surface against which they were laid down, 
the .section, I submit, involves a series of physical impossibili- 
ties, or at least of such glaring improbabilities as to demand 
full and incontrovertible proof in its support For, in the first 
place, it requires us to believe that the cliflf against which the 
Paleozoic sediments were deposited, must have been at least 
twelve miks high ! that being the horizontal length of the plat- 
form of granite into which the rocks dip. In the next place it 
necessitates the admission that this stupendous precipice was 
subsequently turned over on its hack, carrying with it the adher- 
ing later rocks. In the third place, it demands an amount ot 
denudation to which there would be no parallel anywhere m 
the region, for the highly tilted strata must then have been 
worn down till nothing but a cake of them was left upon tbe 
granite. If, how^ever, this granite be younger than the overly- 
ing rocks, the section expresses sufficiently well the structure 
of the ground. That the latter is the natural interpretation oi 
* There can be little doubt that though partially interrupted at the surface by- 
overlying fonnations it is really all one granite mass. 

S. L. Penjield — Apatites containing Manganese. 867 

the section will, I feel sure, he admitted bj ^ny impartial geol- 
ogist in whose hands the map is placed. 

I venture to put forward these views with diffidence, and 
because it appears to me to be a matter of great importance 
not merely in regard to the geological structure of the West, 
but to questions in dynamical and physiographical geology, 
that the true structure of the Archaean nucleus of the Wahsatch 
Mountains should be correctly interpreted. Mr. King, in his 
great memoir, has treated that area as a kind of type, and has 
based upon it much of his speculation regarding the form of 
the Archaean land, and the nature and effects of subsequent 
fractures of the rocky crust. I confess that it was with con- 
siderable incredulity that I read in his interesting chapters 
reiterated assertions that the Archaean land was so stupend- 
ously mountainous, that some of its peaks rose more than 
5|- miles into the air, and remained above water during the 
whole of Paleozoic and Mesozoic time. I asked myself how 
much loftier and broader these mountains must really have 
been at first to have been able to outlast such a vast period of 
denudation. For the dimensions assigned by Mr. King must 
on his own showing be a minimum, reckoned after all these 
ages of ceaseless waste. But if I am correct in regarding the 
Wahsatch granite as of post -Carboniferous date, then we are 
relieved from the uncomfortable incubus of these primeval 
mountains. We are not required to believe in the existence of 
a cliff 5|- miles high, which maintained its- position and steep- 
ness during the greater part of all geological time. And we 
are spared the necessity of a colossaffracture of 30,000 feet on 
the west side of the Wahsatch Mountains. The view which I 
ana inclined to adopt regarding the structure of this range 
differs from that proposed by Mr. King ; and perhaps I may 
be permitted to communicate it on another occasion in the 
pages of this Journal. 

Art. XLV. — Analyses of some Apatites containing Manganesp. ; 
by Samuel L. Penfield. (Contributions from the Sheffield 
Laboratory of Yale College, No. LIX.) 

In their description of the mineral locality at Branchville, 
Conn, (this Journal, July, 1878), Messrs. Brush and Dana 
naentiou the occurrence of a green manganiferous apatite 
accompanying the other manganese minerals. Apatite occurs 
there of many shades of color, from those which are white and 
transparent to those which are dark green, and still others of a 
bluish shade. The green varieties occur in flat crystalline 

368 /S. L. Penfield — Apatites containing Manganese. 

masses imbedded in feldspar; occasionally the form of the 
short prism is distinct. The white variety is usually in crys- 
tals ; these crystals are short prisms combined with the pyra- 
midal and rough pinacoid planes. The prismatic planes have 
a fibrous appearance, although they are polished and very 
smooth, and the pinacoids are found on close inspection to 
give numerous reflections from their surfaces, when looked at 
obliquely and turned, showing that the crystals are made up of 
bundles of minute hexagonal prisms of the same length, each 
with a small pyramidal termination. There have also been 
found there a few transparent and very highly modified crys- 
tals. All the varieties examined contain manganese, as the 
following analyses will show, 

I was led by the discovery of manganese in the apatite 
from Branchville, to examine the same mineral occurring at 
Franklin Furnace, New Jersey ; manganese was also found to 
be present in it. This apatite occurs in crystals of a light 
apple-green color imbedded in calcite, from which they are 
readily separated. 

The material employed in the four analyses, given below, 
was as follows :— Analysis 1 was made of a dark green variety 
from Branchville, the darkest that was found. It has a vitreous 
luster, appearing black by reflected light, but a beautiful dark 
green by transmitted light. Only clear transparent fragments 
were accepted. 

Analysis iJ was made in the Sheffield Laboratory by Mr. 
Frederick P. Dewey, of a green variety from Branchville, 
lighter in color than the one just described. Analysis 3 was 
of the white crystallized variety from Branchville. Great 
care was taken to select only the crystals which have been 
described before as having the rough pinacoid planes. Analy- 
sis 4 was made of the crystallized variety from Franklin Fur- 
nace, K J. The whole amount employed was taken from one 
large crystal. It readily separated from the calcite in which it 
was imbedded, and although the analysis shows the presence 
of carbonic acid, it was from no external admixture of calcite. 

No. 1. Specific gravity., 3-39. 

, L. Penfield — Apatites containing Manganese. 

N'o. 3. Specific gravity, 

Specific gravity, 3*22 

The above ratios coincide very nearly with that required by 
the accepted formula of the species, viz : 1:3: 0-33 : 0-67. 

These analyses are the first that show the presence of notable 
quantities of manganese replacing calcium in apatites. It is 
also to be noted that these apatites are essentially fluor- apatites 
containing only a trace of chlorine. 

In closing, I wish to express my thanks to Professor George 
J- Brash, who has kindly provided me with the material for 
carrying on this investigation, and to Mr. Frederick P. Dewey, 
whose analysis I have quoted. 

370 W. E. Hidden— Meteorite from Gklerne Co., Alabama. 

Art. XLVI.— .4w account of the finding of a new Meteorite in 
Gleberne County, Alabama; by W. E. Hidden. 

When in eastern Alabama, during last autumn, carrying 
forward some mineralogical investigations in the interest of 
Mr. Thomas A. Edison, I learned from Ex-Governor W. H. 
Smith of Wedowee, of the existence of a supposed mass of 
native iron, which he believed might perhaps be a meteorite. 
The account which he gave me of it, in his own words, is as 
follows: "Sometime in 1873, while the Eev. John F. Watson 
was plowing on a newly cleared piece of land, near Chulafin- 
nee, in Gleberne county, Ala., he turned up a heavy mass of 
metal. He supposed it to be a rich specimen of bog iron ore, 

the r 

tlie village 

forge, a piece of about 3^ lbs. was cut off and wrought into 
horseshoe nails and a point for a plow. The fact of its mallea- 
bility tended to set at rest the various local theories about the 
origin of the mass, and it was there agreed to be a specimen of 
native iron. The mass was then deposited in the office of the 
Noble's Brothers' Iron Works at Anniston, Alabama, and re- 
mains there now unsuspected of being a meteorite, and will in 
all probability get into the furnace sooner or later." 

Through the kindness of Governor Smith, the specimen was 
secured and forwarded to me. On January 21st, 1880, it was 

T. S. Runt— Quartz and SUicification in California. 371 

received at Menlo Park, N. J., and was at once recognized as an 
iron meteorite. A letter from Mr. Watson informs me, further, 
that the mass was originally thickly encrusted with scales of 
rust of a red-brown color, and which fell off while being heated 
in the forge. 

It now weighs 32^ lbs. (= 14-75 kg.), is somewhat triangu- 
lar in shape (see cut) ; its three diameters being about 25*=°' ; 
its average thickness Q"^. 

An analysis by J. B. Mackintosh, E. M., shows it to be of 
the usual iron-nickel alloy variety, with small percentages of 
copper, phosphorus and carbon.* The Widmannstattian fig- 
ures are well developed on this iron. They are shown in figure 
2, which is of exact natural size. This meteorite is one of 
three discovered by the writer in the Southern States last 
year. Descriptions of the others will be given later. 

January 29th, 1880. 

Art. XLVIL- 

At the meeting of the American Institute of Mining Engi- 
neers in New York, Feb. 19, 1880, Professor George W. Mayn- 
ard exhibited a remarkable specimen lately obtained by him 
from the mines of the Gold Run Hydraulic Co. at Dutch Flat 
m California. It consisted of a mass of milky vitreous quartz, 
in which a recent fracture had disclosed an imbedded fragment, 
about half an inch in diameter, of the characteristic so-called 
Uue gravel oi\X\Q region, holding in its paste a worn and rounded 
piece of gold of several grains', weight. Portions of a similar 
blue gravel adhered closely to certain parts of the mass of 
quartz. Remarks were made on this specimen by Professors 
Silliman and Egleston, and by Dr. T. Sterry Hunt, all of whom, 
after examination of it, were satisfied of the correctness of the 
opinion expressed by Professor Maynard, that the quartz had 
made part of a vein formed in the auriferous gravel subsequent 
to the solidification of the latter. 

upper and altered portions of the depo^^il. As rejr; 
It is not, I think, necessary to sunDOse the intiltrati 

eoessary to suppose the intiltratioti ( 

372 T. S. Hunt— Quartz and Silicification in California. 

Dr. Hunt, in commenting upon this occurrence, remarked 
that it is in accordance with what we already know of the re- 
cency of some of the quartz of this region, and cited the micro- 
scopic studies of John Arthur Phillips, who has shown that a 
great part of the siliceous deposit from certain thermal waters 
of Lake County, California, and from the Steamboat Springs of 
Washoe County, Nevada, is of the nature of crystalline quartz. 
Dr. Hunt then gave an account of some observations made by 
him at the Blue Tent placer mine, in Nevada County, California, 
in 1877, showing that the process of depositing quartz is there 
going on in the auriferous gravel of the region, independent of 
thermal waters, and is connected with the sub-aerial decay of 

of the debris of the 
including much greenstone or diorite-rock. The gravel below 
the drainage-level is greenish or bluish in color, and contains 
disseminated pyrites, together with trunks of trees in the condi- 
tion of lignite, while the feldspar and hornblende of the green- 
stone are undecayed. Above the drainage-level, however, these 
silicates are more or less decomposed, the greenstone pebbles 
becoming earthy in texture, rusty in color, and exfoliating, and 
hile the lignite is 
;imes converted into aga- 
tized masses, often with drusy cavities lined with quartz- crystals, 
and at other times only penetrated or injected with siliceous 
matter which has filled the pores of the exogenous wood, the 
vegetable tissue of which still remains, often incrusted with 
crystals of quartz. In still other cases, a slow subsequent decay 
of the latter, in coniferous woods, has left these siliceous casts 
in the form of bundles of fibers which have been mistaken for 
asbestus. The various specimens from this locality illustrate 
perfectly the theory of silicification of vegetable structures, set 
forth by the speaker in 1864,* based on his own microscopic 
studies conjoined with those of Goppert and of Dawson. 

The silica by which the tissues are thus successively filled 
placed is, according to the speaker, that which is set free 
' ' ^ " m in the decay of the silicates in the gravel. The 
undecomposed and unoxidized portions of this 
which lie below drainage-level is, as yet, unsilicified. Dr. Hunt 
acknowledged his obligations to Mr. D. T. Hughes, a member 
of the Institute of Mining Engineers, in charge of the mine m 
question, and a skilled and careful observer, who had called his 
attention to the facts just set forth. 

Professor W. C. Kerr stated that his recent and as yet un- 
published observations on the fossil woods found in ancient 
gravels in North Carolina were in accordance with those de- 
scribed by Dr. Hunt 

* See Can. Naturalist, New Series, vol. i, p. 46; also Hunt's Chem. and Geol. 
Essays, p. 286. 

and repla 
in a solul 

i:ii:i:i):m ! r. i ' "louiiii'iniMirTr ^ i i:r : won' 'wrw 'ii'i'i:i:i:i:i;;i; i :f :i:^^ 

Map of Photographic Spectra of Seven Stars 

Photographic Spectrum of a Lyne. 

Art. XLVIIL— On the . 

presented, in December, 1876, a preliminary 
ibject of this paper, toget' 
if Vega compared with thi 

The author refers to a paper by Dr. William Allen Miller 
and himself in 1864, in which thej describe an early attempt 
to photograph the spectra of stars. 

Other investigations prevented the author from resuming 
this line of research until 1875, when a more perfect driving 
clock, by Grubb, enabled him to take up this work with greater 
prospect of success. 

The author describes the special apparatus and the methods 
of working which have been employed. 

In consequence of the very limited amount of light received 
from the stars, it was of great importance not to spread out the 
spectrum to a greater extent than was necessary for a sufficient 
separation of the principal lines of the spectrum. The spec- 
trum apparatus finally adopted consists of one prism of Iceland 
spar and lenses of quartz. The length of the spectrum taken 
with this apparatus is about half an inch, from G to in the 
ultra-violet. The definition is so good that in photographs of 
the solar spectrum at least seven lines can be counted between 
H and K. 

Though there is considerable loss of light in the employment 
of a slit, still, for the great advantage which it affords in obtain- 
ing spectra of comparison, a narrow slit one-three-hundred-and- 
fiftieth (^^) of an inch in width was alwavs employed. 

This slit is provided with two shutters.' By means of these 
through one-half of the slit a solar or other spectrum may be 
taken on the same plate for comparison, and for the determina- 
tion of the lines in position in the spectrum. This apparatus 
was adapted to a Cassegrain reflector with a metallic speculum 
of 18 inches aperture. The small mirror was removed and the 
slit of the spectrum apparatus placed at the principal focus of the 
mirror. A simple but perfectly successful method was adopted 
by which the image of a star could be brought exactly upon the 
sbt, and retained there during the whole lime of exposure, sorae- 
tmies for more than one hour, by a system of continuous super- 
vision, and instant control by hand wben necessary. 

Various photographic methods were tried, but the great 
sensitiveness which may be given to gelatine plates, together 
with the special advantages under long exposure of dry plates 
led finally to the exclusive adoption of this method. 

* Abstract of p.-,per by W. Huggins, D.C.L., LL.D., F.R.S., read before the 
«oyal Society, December 18, 1879, with additions by the SiVXhoT.— Nature, Jan. 22. 
Am. Jour. Sci.-Thiud Series, Vol. XIX, No. 118.-MAr, 1880. 

374 Photographic Spectra of Stars. 

The photographs were examined and the lines measured by 
means of a micrometer attached to a microscope of low power. 
These measares were reduced to wave-lengths by the help of 
solar and terrestrial spectra, use being made of M. Cornu's map 
of the ultra-violet part of the spectrum, and of M. Mascart's 
determination of the wave-lengths of the lines of cadmium. 

Photographs have been obtained of the stars Sinus, Vega, 
a Cygni, a Yirginis, tj Ursse Majoris, a AquiliB, Arcturus, 
^ Pegasi, Betelgeux, Capella, a Herculis, Kigel, and a Pegasi. 
Also of the planets Jupiter, Yenus, and Mars, and of different 
small areas of the moon. 

The spectra of Sirius, Yega, a Cygni, a Yirginis, rj Urs» 
Majoris, a Aquilaa and Arcturus are laid down in the map on 
the scale of M. Cornu's map of the ultra-violet part of the solar 
The stellar spectra extend from about a to O in the ultra- 
Six of these spectra belong to stars of the white class. In 
1864 the author pointed out the features in common in the 
visible spectra of these stars. These photographs present a 
remarkable typical spectrum consisting of twelve strong lines 
(seven only of these were given in the preliminary note in 
1876). The least refrangible of these is coincident with the 
hydrogen line {y) near G. The second with h, also a line of 
hydrogen. The third with H. K, if present at all, is thin and 

These lines, H and K, are coincident with lines in the cal- 
cium spectrum, and are usually attributed to the vapor of this 
substance. Now there is another pair of strong lines in the 
spectrum of calcium, which in M. Cornu's miap have the wave- 

" """" " ■ are no strong lines in the 

nes. A glance at the map 
will show how remarkable is the arrangement in position of 
these twelve typical lines. They form a great group in which 
the distance between any two adjacent lines is less as the 
refrangibility increases. It is at once suggested that they are 
connected with each other and represent probably one sub- 
stance, and two at least belong to hydrogen. . 

It should be stated that the continuous spectrum extends in 
the photographs beyond S, but no lines can be detected beyond 
the twelfth line at ;i 3699. For the sake of convenience ot 
reference the author distinguishes these lines by the letters 
* The author refers to Mr. Lockyer's paper, Proceed. R. S., No. 168, 1876, m 
which he suggested that photographs of the spectra of the brighter stars mig 
show modifications of this character of the lines of the calcium spectnim, anu 
that such modifications would confirm his views on the dissociation of this sud- 
stance. Reference is also made to Proceedings E. S. December, 1878, ng- ^< 
where Mr. Lockyer gives a fuller statement of his views on tliis and other points 

of the Greek alphabet in the order of refrangibilitj, begii 
with the first line beyond K of the solar spectrum. The ^ 
lengths of these lines are as follows : — 

Hydrogen near Hydrogen near 

In all these stars the line K is either absent or very thin as 
compared with its appearance in the solar spectrum.* In the 
spectrum of Arcturus, which belongs, to the solar type, this 
line exceeds in breadth and intensity its condition in the solar 
spectrum. The white stars may, therefore, be arranged in a 
series in which the line K passes through different stages of 
thickness, at the same time that the typical lines become nar- 
rower and more defined, and other finer lines present them- 
selves in increasing numbers. Arcturus seems to present a 
spectrum on the other side of that of the sun in the order of 
changes from the white-star group. 

The spectra of the planets were taken on the plan suggested 
by the author in 1864, in which the planet's spectrum is 
observed or photographed together with a daylight spectrum. 
These photographs show no sensible planetary modification of 
the violet and ultra-violet parts of the spectrum of the planets 
Venus, Mars, and Jupiter. 

Numerous spectra of small areas of the lunar surface have 
been taken under different conditions of illumination, and dur- 
ing eclipses of that body. The results are wholly negative as 
to any absorptive action of a lunar atmosphere. 

The author is preparing to attempt to obtain by photography 
any lines which may exist in the violet and ultra-violet spectra 
of the gaseous nebulse. He also points out the suitability of 
the photographic method of stellar spectroscopy, first inaugu- 
rated by his researches, to some other investigations, such as — 
differences which may present themselves in the photographic 
region in the case of the variable stars, the difference of rela- 
tive motion of two stars in the line of sight, the sun's rotation 
irom photographic spectra of opposite limbs, and the spectra 
of the different parts of a sun-spot. 

In the hope of throwing light on many physical questions 
suggested by the stellar photographs, the author has taken for 
comparison a number of terrestrial spectra, especially of hydro- 
gen and calcium, under different physical conditions. As he 
IS still pursuing: this inauirv, he reserves an account of this 
part of his work^ 
chL^*^^" °®^^'' ^"'^ Liveing have found in their experiments similar relative 

«ige8 of intensity of the lines of calcium corresponding to H and K in the 

The Uranometria Argenti 

Art. XLIX. — The Uranometria Argentina. 

It is now nearly ten years since Dr. Gould arrived in Buenos 
Ayres on his way to Cordoba, under appointment by President 
Sarmiento to establish there a national observatory for the 
Argentine Confederation. It was more than two years after 
his arrival before he was able to mf)unt his meridian circle and 
begin regular observations with it. This interval was not 
allowed to run to waste, and Dr. Gould began a series of obser- 
vations with the purpose of doing for the southern stars what 
Argelander had done so well thirty years before, in the Urano- 
metria Nova, for the stars of the northern sky. 

Th results of this undertaking are now published in a quarto 
volume of 386 pages, and an atlas of 14 large maps of stars. 
The Uranometria Argentina will probably always be the 
standard of reference for the southern stars visible to the naked 
eye. Any information about it will therefore be acceptable to 
the readers of the Journal. 

The quarto volume is printed in parallel columns of Spanish 
and English. It forms the first volume of the Eesullados del 
Observaiorio Nacional Argeiitino. It is beautifully printed by 
Coni at Buenos Ayres. 

It consists of eight chapters. The first contains the history 
of the work. In the second, on Standards of Magnitude, Dr. 
Gould explains the several steps in forming standards for a 
symmetric and continuous series of gradations of brilliancy 
expressed in tenths of magnitudes, such that the round units 
tberaselves should coincide as nearly as possible with those of 
Argelander in his Uranometria Nova. A zone of stars 10° in 
breadth was selected, whose altitude was the same at Bonn 
and at Cordoba, in which 722 stars were selected as types. 
This series of standards was, in the end, minutely compared 
with the corresponding determinations of Argelander, and those 
of Heis in his Atlas Coelestis Novus, also with the magnitudes 
given in the Durchmusterung and in the zones of Lalande and 
Bessel. Some of the stars had been observed at Albany by 
Dr. Gould in 1858. A table of these type stars is given with 
their magnitudes as stated by these several authorities, pov 
stars brighter than the sixth magnitude, the adopted scale 
ranges lower by an insignificant amount than that of the 
Uranometria Nova. Dr. Gould's comparisons of scales ol 
magnitude in this chapter and in the fourth chapter are en- 
tirely independent of the like elaborate comparison by "«>- 
lessor C. S. Peirce in the ninth volume of the Annals of the 
Harvard Observatory. j i, > 

The third chapter is devoted to the constellations and their 

The Uranometria Argentina. 877 

nomenclature. It opens with a history of what was done by 
Bayer, who first broke away from the traditional catalogue and 
figures of Ptolemy, by Lacaille, Bode, Sir John Herschel, Baily 
and others in thei'r attempts to arrange the stars of the southern 
sky in constellations, and give the stars distinctive names in 
them. The principles which Dr. Gould has finally acted upon 
are expressed in six rules. 

The first of these is that the constellations of Ptolemy and 
Hevelius, together with those adopted or introduced by Lacaille, 
are to be retained, and no others, Argo disappears nominally^ 
being replaced by Carina, Puppis and Vela. 

The other rules refer principally to the names of the stars 
and the constellations, except the third, which is perhaps the 
most important. 

" The boundaries must be so arranged that the constellations 
shall include all stars denoted by Greek letters which were 
assigned to them by their authors (unless such arrangement 
has been superseded by later accepted authority), together 
with all others as bright as the sixth magnitude, which are 
referred to them by general usage. The boundary lines are to 
be formed, wherever possible, by meridians of right-ascension 
and parallels of declination for the mean equinox of 187o-0. 
When this is not feasible they should consist of regular curves 
as near as may be to great circles, and their positions be 
defined by points of intersection with meridians and parallels." 
. Dr. Gould has described boundaries for the several constella- 
tions up to the parallel of 10° of N. Declination, where the 
catalogue terminates. In approaching this limit he says that 
he has kept in mind the possibility of some future attempt to 
establish an analogous system in the northern hemisphere, and 
adds that this is clearly not to be thought of at present, but 
niay at some not distant day be regarded as desirable. 

_ The notation adopted for the stars in each constellation is 
given at length in the carefully prepared notes to the several 

This fixing of the boundaries of the constellations, in the 
southern skv, is a subject of great importance. Would it not 
be well for the Astronomische Gesellschaft, or some other author- 
ity in astronomy, to consider Dr. Gould's boundaries, and, if 
thev are approved, urge their acceptance by all astronomers ? 

The fourth cliapter explains the determination of the magni- 
tudes of the stars from tliose of the type belt, and gives a com- 
parison of the magnitudes adopted with the magnitudes of 
Argelander, Heis, Lacaille, Behrmann, Lalande, Bessel and 

The fifth chapter contains the catalogue of the stars arranged 
by constellations. Only those stars are included that are 

378 The TJranometria Argentina. 

brighter than 7'1 magnitude, and are within 100° of the south 
pole, in all 7730 in number. The stars bear current numbers, 
in order of R A., and the synonym in other catalogues, and 
the magnitude, together with the R A. and declination are 
given for each star. Of the number mentioned, 6733 belong 
to the southern heavens, and 997 to the belt of 10° in width, 
north of the equator. They belong to QQ different constellations. 

About 100 pages are occupied with the sixth chapter, which 
contains notes to the catalogue. Most of these are devoted to 
the magnitudes of stars, with special reference to their being 
possibly variable. This property of variability Dr. Gould 
believes to be much more frequent than has been hitherto sup- 

Chapter YII describes the atlas, which "consists of thirteen 
special charts, together with a fourteenth or general one, which 
presents at a single view the whole region included in our 
work, and serves as an index map both for the others and for 
the constellations." 

These charts are drawn upon the stereographic projection, 
and correspond to a sphere having a radius of one meter. The 
stars are represented by circular black dots, having their areas 
proportional to their respective amounts of light ; and upon 
the map there is given a scale to half magnitudes, but the 
actual drawing shows the separate stars to a nearer approxima- 

"The names and distinguishing letters of the stars have 
been omitted, and the names of the constellations been placed 
in a compact form in those positions least likely to distract th| 
attention of the observer" in order to have the real aspect of 
the sky as nearly reproduced as possible. . , 

The practical inconvenience entailed by this condition oi 
not having the stars' letters given in the first thirteen charts, is 
lessened by having the principal ones lettered in Chart XIV. 

The charts themselves are sumptuously lithographed on 
heavy paper and in excellent style throughout. Perhaps 
nowhere is the artistic skill of the lithographer, Mr. Julius 
Bien, better shown than in the beautiful representation he has 
given of the Milky Way. Dr. Gould, after referring to the 
labor expended on the mapping of this part, goes on to say, 
" To astronomers dwelling near the level of the sea, or in the 
neighborhood of large cities, or where, for any other reason, the 
meteorological conditions are not especially favorable to trans- 
parency in the atmosphere, the brilliancy of the Milky Way as 
here depicted may seem excessive. But this is not so in any 
of those impressions which I have personally examined ; none 
of them exaggerating in general its brightness as seen at Cor- 
doba under favorable 

The Uranometria Argentina. 879 

Chapter YIII, which is a dissertation on the distribution of 
the stars (occupying 85 pages), opens with a table showing " the 
number of stars, of each grade of brilliancy from T'^'O upward, 
which are to be found south of the parallel of ten degrees north 
declination." The results of this table are :— 

Putting 2"^ to represent the total number of stars contained 
in the catalogue to the mih. magnitude inclusive, he finds 

:S„=0-54896 (3-911 !)"• 
to be a near approximation to the number of stars of each mag- 
nitude contained within the limits. Then follows a careful and 
somewhat elaborate comparison between the numbers of stars 
assigned to the several magnitudes in the Durchmusterung, the 
Uranometria Nova and the Atlas Coelestis of Heis. Dr. Gould 
sums up the result of his extremely interesting investigation 
(p.^ 368) as follows: 

"1. There is in the sky a girdle of bright stars, the medial 
hne of which differs but little from a circle, inclined to the 
galactic circle by a little less than 20°. 

2. The grouping of the fixed stars brighter than 4'"'1 is more 
systematic, relatively to that medial line, than to the galactic 
circle ; and the abundance of bright stars in any region of the 
sky is greater as its distance therefrom is less. 

3. The known tendency to aggregation of faint stars toward 
the Milky Way is according to a ratio which increases rapidly 
as their magnitudes decrease, and the law of which is such that 
the corresponding aggregation would be scarcely, if at all, per- 
ceptible for the bright stars. 

. 4. These facts, together with others which have been stated, 
indicate the existence of a small cluster, within which our sys- 
tem is eccentrically situated, but which is itself not far from 
the middle plane of the galaxy. This cluster appears to be of 
a flattened shape, somewhat bifid, and to consist of somewhat 
oiore than 400 stars, of magnitudes from the first to the seventh, 
their average magnitude being about 3-6 or S*?. 

5. The general distribution of the fixed stars according to 
magnitude does not appear capable of being well represented 
Y any simple algebraic expression. Yet by adopting the data 

ties, we obtain for each class of magnitudes a number, which 

880 The Uranomeiria Argentina. 

being subtracted from the observed number in the sky, leaves 
a system of distribution which may be represented by the ex- 
pression I^=ah'^ within the limits of the errors of observation. 

6. The accordance thus obtained holds good for the stars of 
both hemispheres down to the lowest limits of magnitude for 
which trustworthy enumerations exist ; and this whether we 
employ the numbers of the Durchmusterung, of Argelander's 
and Heis's Uranometries, or of this present work. 

7. The form of the expression I^=ah'^ is that which corres- 
ponds to the hypothesis that in general tiie stars are distributed 

requisite for its applicability that their distribution be equable 
■ "" ■>• ■• , . , ^j^^j. ti^eir number be proportional 

cal shell within which they are con- 

the difference in the data being in every case, represented by 
differences in the coefficient a. The value thus obtained for J, 
corresponds to the ligbt ratio 04028 for descending, or 2-4827 
for ascending, magnitudes." 

Then follows a description of the parts of the Milky Way, 
with its rifts and ramifications, and the gradations and contrasts 
of light. With this is a careful determination of the medial 
points and the breadth of the stream, the position of the 
galactic circle, and the numbers of stars on the two sides of 

" Inferences of some cosmological importance are deducible 
from the tables just given. It cannot escape notice that the 
part of the Milky Way which lies between 160° and 225° of 
galactic longitude, or from &" to 8*^ of right-ascension, is much 
the broadest of all ; this corresponding to the region of widest 
separation of the branch-circles in the undivided portion of the 
stream. Moreover the narrowest parts are from Z^ to 5^^ and 
from lOi^ to 12^ of right-ascension, or, roughly, in the galactic 
longitudes 105° to 150° and 255° to 270°. These regions, 
which are also of preeminent brilliancv, correspond approxi- 
mately to the place where the circles of" the branches intersect 
each other ; in short, there are sundry indications that the whole 
phenomenon of the Milky Way may become simplified oy^ 
treating it as the resultant of two or more superposed galaxies. 


-Ivanpah Meteoric Iron. 

Art. L.— 0/1 the Ivanpah, California, Meteoric Iron; by Chas. 
Upham Shepard, Emeritus Professor of Natural History iu 
Amherst College. 

For my knowledge of the discovery of this meteorite, I am 
indebted to Mr. C. C. Parry, of the Academy of Science of 
Davenport, Iowa, and to Mr. W. G. Wright, Naturalist at San 
Bernardino, California, from each of whom 1 received a few 
weeks ago, communications upon the subject, accompanied by 
small fragments from the mass, tor my examination and analysis. 

Before proceeding to the description of these, I may state 
the circumstances connected with thi " ' 
The locality is situated in a region 

Basin, within eight miles of Ivanpah, which place is about two 
hundred miles northeast of San Bernardino in Southern Cali- 

The mass was discovered very recently by Mr. Stephen 
Goddard, who in returning one evening to his camp after a 
prospecting excursion, as he was crossing what is there called 
a wash, had his attention arrested by a singular looking bowlder. 
On striking it with his pick, he was still more surprised at the 
ringing sound produced by the blow. These observations led 
him to return the day following with a wagon, and to remove 
It to Ivanpah. From thence it was taken by Mr. Heber Hunt- 
ington to San Bernardino, where it was placed for some time 
on exhibition at the store of Mr. Craig. From thence again, it 
has lately been transported to San Francisco, and deposited 
with Mr. Henry G. Hanks, the State Geologist; and will, in 
all probability, be preserved in the future geological collection 
of California. 

Description of the Meteorite. 

It is oval in shape, having one of its sides somewhat flattened. 
Its surface is entirely covered with depressions or dents, " as if 
it had been patted all over with pebbles" or clam shells, while 
yet soft or plastic. The size and shape of these concavities 
are various, from one to four inches across; and in addition, 
there are three round holes an inch deep as if made by the 
little finger.* The weight of the mass is supposed to be one 
hundred and twenty pounds. Its dimensions are fourteen 
inches in length, by nine in breadth and seven in thickness. 

The fragments in my possession (the largest weighing five 
grams) show a highly crystalline and homogeneous iron, requir- 

3 Orange River 

382 J. P. Cooke — Atomic Weight of Antimony, 

ing no aid of etching to reveal the Widman figures; and 
prove, that it must belong to the order Megagrammic of my 
class of Siderites. Indeed it seems highly probable, that the 
crystalline structure of the entire mass is in conformity with 
that of a single individual. The cleavages, as most usual in 
these bodies, are octahedral ; and reveal rather a coarse lamina- 
tion. The schreibersite separating these thick laminae (as 
brought into view by polishing and etching) is very thin ; and 
runs in perfectly straight lines, dividing the polished surfaces 
off into rather broad, triangular and oblique angled spaces, 
whose areas again, are beautifully covered by very small irreg- 
ular dots and characters, themselves distributed in parallel 
rows, but among which, continuous straight lines appear to be 
wanting,— the boundaries of the larger, triangular and quad- 
rangular spaces only, consisting of rectilinear lines. There 
would therefore seem to be two varieties of schreibersite pres- 
ent ; one in flat leaves, the other in wavy, semi-cylinders or 
irregular prisms. The latter may be the rhabdite of Reichenbach. 
Both kinds, however, are equally taken into solution by long 
digestion in aqua regia. Specific gravity = 7"65. 


Iron 94-98 

Nickel 4-52 

Phosphorus ._ 0'07 

Graphite O'lO 

No sulphur was present. For want of material, no examina- 
tion was made for the metals, often detected in small quantities 

Charleston, S. C, March 12, 1880. 

Art. lA.~The Atomic Weight of Antimony^- Preliminary Notice 

of Additional Experiments ; by JosiAH P. CooKE. 
[From the Proceedings of the American Acad, of Arts and Sci., Mar. 10, 1880.] 

In our previous paper on this subject,* we gave our reasons 
for the opinion, since fully confirmed, that the bromide of anti- 
mony is the most suitable compound of this element, as yet 
known, for determining its atomic weight ; and the results ot 
fifteen analyses of fiv • different preparations of the bromide 
were published, which gave for the atomic weight in question 
the mean value 12000 with an extreme variation between 
119-4 and 120-4 for all the fifteen analyses, and between ll^'o 

* This Journal, HI, xv, 41, lOY, 1878. 

J. p. Cooke~AU)mic Weight of Antiviony. 383 

and 120-3 for the six determinations in which we placed most 
confidence. The antimonious bromide used in these determi- 
nations was purified first by fractional distillation, and secondly 
by crystallization from a solution in sulphide of carbon. In 
the crystallized product thus obtained, the bromine was deter- 
mined gravimetrically as bromide of silver in the usual way. 
Although it seemed at the time that the results were as accord- 
ant as the analytical process would yield under the unfavorable 
conditions, which the presence of a large amount of tartaric 
acid m the solution of the bromide of antimony necessarily in- 
volved ; yet it was obvious that the agreement was far from 
that which was desirable in the determination of an atomic 
weight, and our chief confidence in the accuracy of the mean 
value— independently of its remarkable agreement with pre- 
vious resalts— was based on the fact that the known sources of 
error tended to balance each other. Hence our conclusions 
were stated with great caution, and the hope was expressed 
that after a more thorough investigation of the subject we 
might be able "to return to the problem with such definite 
knowledge of the relations involved as will enable us to obtain 
at once more sharp and decisive results than are now possible." 
iJnfortunately this investigation has been delayed by causes 
beyond our control. 

paper, we described a simple apparatus 

which we devised for subliming iodide of antimony ; and 
note to the paper we stated that we were applying the £ 
process to the preparation of the bromide of antimony, 

'' It promised excellent results. Our expectations in 1 
spect have been fully realized, and the product leaves nothing 
to be desired either as regards the beauty or the constancy of 
the preparation. The fine acicular crystals are perfectly color- 
less, and have a most brilliant silky luster. With ordinary 
precautions they can be kept indefinitely without change, and 

1 easy therefore to determine the weight of the material 

■ IS easy therefore to determine t 
Qalyzed to the tenih of a milligram 
We have carefully studied the c 

a^aly_„ ^ ,,,,^ ^, , ..„.g,a... 

3 have carefully studied the causes of error involved i 
the analytical process of determining bromin 
solution of bromide of antimony and tartaric acid by the usual 
gravimetric method. These causes we propose to discuss in a 
luture more extended paper. In this preliminary notice, we 
have only space to state that we have satisfied ourselves that 
the small differences between the results previously obtained 
arose wholly from the analytical process, and not from any 
want of constancy in the material analyzed ; and further that 
tbese sources of error are to a very great extent under control. 
Moreover, we have found that the volumetric determination of 
bromme by silver was not materially affected, if at all, by the 

884 J. P. Cooke— Atomic Weight of Antimony. 

same causes. We have thus been led to devise a mode of test- 
ing the atomic weight of antimony, which, while it has all the 
advantages of the gravimetric method previously employed, is 
free from its sources of error. 

If the atomic weight of antimony were 122 00, it would re- 
quire 1-7900 grams of pure silver to precipitate the bromine 
from a solution of 2-0000 grams of antimony bromide, 
while if the atomic weight of antimony were 120*00 it would 
require 1-8000 grams of silver. Now" it is easy to estimate 
volumetrically -^ of this difference with great certainty. We 
therefore prepared with great care a button of imre metallic 
silver, which we annealed and rolled out to a thin ribbon. We 
then weighed out from two to four grams of bromide of 
antimony, prepared by sublimation as described above, and dis- 
solved this salt in an aqueous solution of tartaric acid, which 
we then transferred to a liter flask atid diluted to about 500 
cubic centimeters. We next very accurately weighed out a 
quantity of silver slightly less than that which calculation 
showed was required for 'complete precipitation. This silver 
was dissolved in nitric acid, and the solution having been 
evaporated to dryness over a water bath, the silver salt was 
washed into the flask containing the bromide of antimony. 
As soon as the supernatant liquid had cleared, the small 
additional amount of a normal silver solution required to pro- 
duce complete precipitation was run in from a burette, and 
measured with the usual precautions. We used no extraneous 
indicator, because it was important not to introduce any possi- 
bly new disturbing element into the experiment, and in the 
titration of bromine with silver the normal and familiar phe- 
nomena, which mark the close of the process, furnish a very 
sharp indication. The details of one of the determinations 
were as follows : — 

The weight of the bromide of antimony used amounted to 
2-5032 grams. To precipitate the bromine from the solution 
of this material 2-2404 grams of silver would be required it 
Sb = 122-00 and 2-2529 if Sb = 120-00. We weighed out, with 
as much accuracy as if we were adjusting a weight, the smaller 
of these two quantities of metallic silver, and after dissolving 
the pure metal in pure nitric acid, evaporating the solution to 
dryness and redissolving in water, we added at once the whole 
of this silver solution to the liter flask containing the solution 
of bromide of antimony, in the manner described above. ^^ 
was then found that 12^4^ cubic centimeters of a normal si ver 
solution (one gram of silver to the liter) were required to 
complete the precipitation. It will be seen that the weights oi 
the bromide of antimony and silver used could be thus deter- 
mined with the most absolute precision, and we have the 

J. p. Coohe— Atomic Weight of Antimony. 385 

greatest confidence in these values to the iV ^f a milligram. 
Moreover, it will be noticed that the volumetric method is only 
used to estimate the diflference in the atomic weight which has 
been in question, and that if the method were only accurate to 
the -^ of the quantity to be measured it would give us the 
value of the atomic weight within ^^ of a unit ; while if, as we 
had reason to believe, the process was accurate within one per 
cent, it would fix the atomic weight within j^ of a unit. 

By the method just described, the following results were ob- 
tained : The letters a and b indicate different preparations. 

Wt. of SbBrs Total wt. of Ag Per cent of Br 

taken. used. Ag=108 Br=80. 

a 3. 2-6512 2-3860 66-6644 120-01 

b 4. 3-3053 2-9749 66-6696 119-98 

b 5. 2-'7495 2-4745 66-6653 120-01 

Mean value, 66-6651 120-01 

xMean ^alue of fifteen gravimetric de- I 7ZZ7Z ' 

terminations previously published, f ^^^ ^^^^ 
Theory Sb. 120 requires 66-6666 

" Sb. 122 " 66-2983 

control the work, we collected the 
I the last two determinations, wash- 
which experience had 
> be necessary, and determining its weight, first, after 
drying at 150"* C, and, secondly, after heating to incipient 
fusion. In 6 6 there was a loss of ^ of a milligram ; in b 7 
a loss of -^^ of a milligram only at the second weighing. 
This is an absolute' proof that there could be no sensible occlu- 
sion of any tartaric acid or any tartrate by these precipitates, 
and, as stated in our original' paper, the same test was fre- 
quently applied, although not always, in our previous determi- 
nations. It is also evident that these last experiments give us 
two essentially distinct determinations of the atomic weight, 
although the materials employed were identical with those of 
* 4 and 6 5. 

Wt. of SbBr, Wt. of Ag Br Per cent at Br Corresponding 

Lastly, it is obvious that these gravimetric determinations, 
aken in connection with the corresponding volumetric results, 
Jive us the most conclusive evidence of the purity, both of the 

386 J. L. Smith— DaubrSe's Experimental Geology. 

metallic silver used, and also of the bromide of antimony, 
which is the basis of this atomic weight investigation. By 
comparing b 6 and b 7 with b 4 and b 5 respectively, we obtain 
the following data : — 

1. 2-9749 gram of silver gave 5-1782 gram bromide of silver. 

2. 2-4745 " " " 4-3076 " " 

Hence it follows that, as shown by these experiments, the 
proportions of the silver to the bromine were respectively : — 

1. 108-00 Silver to 79-99 Bromine. 

2. 108-00 " " 80-01 " 
Mean value, 108-00 " " 80-00 " 

This is the ratio of the atomic weight of silver to that of 
bromine, and corresponds to the second decimal place with the 
determinations of Stas as well as with those of Dumas. 

In conclusion it gives us pleasure to express our obligations 
to Mr. G. De N. Hough and Mr. G. M. Hyams, two students of 
■ - ' experimental 

AUt. LIL—Baubree's Exj^erimeiUal Geology: Part II, Expen- 
menial Study of Meteorites icith reference to certain Cosmical 
Phenomena; noticed by J. Lawkence Smith. 

ifetudes Synthetiquea de Geologic Exp6rimentale ; par A. Daubree, Deuxieme 
partie—application de la methode experimentale a I'etude de divers phenomenes 

The first part of Professor Duubree's valuable work on 
experimental geology appeared several months, since.* The 
second part, embracing about 350 pages, is exclusively devoted 
to an experimental study of the structure and genesis of 
meteoric minerals, and to the bearing of the facts on the consti- 
tution of the universe. 

The first chapter of the part before us is devoted to the 
study of the phenomena attending the fall of Aerolites and to 
their classification. The statement is reaffirmed, " that the two 
months, August ^nd November, remarkable for showers of 
shooting stars, have no particular prominence over other 
^ ^ nberoff " " • . -" T. 

months as regards the r. 

is important that this fact should be clearly stated and reiter- 
ated, since many scientists are disposed to connect these two 
classes of phenomena ; until shooting stars and meteoric stones 
are treated of wholly independently, no approach will be made 
to a correct theory in regard to the origin of the latter. 

* This Journal, August, 1879, p. 1 

J. L. Smith — Dauhree's Experimental Geology. 387 

The composition of meteorites is reviewed, and the well- 
established fact that but few minerals enter into the constitu- 
tion of these bodies, however different tbej may be in physical 

The metallic iron, forming either the entire mass or dissemin- 
ated in small particles through the stones, is invariably a nickel- 
iferous iron, containing a little cobalt and a trace of copper. The 
stones commonly consist almost entirely of bronzite* or ensta- 
tite (sometimes with magnesia as the only protoxide element) 
and olivine in various proportions, with particles of iron in 
smaller or greater quantity disseminated through the mass. 
The next most abundant non-metallic mineral is anorthite, 
which is found in that class of meteorites called eukrite. 
Besides these, a few other minerals are more or less constant, 
but usually in small quantities and some of them in minute 
proportions, such as troilite, schreibersite, chromite, daubreelite, 
etc. Other well-known physical and chemical characters are 
referred to in the same chapter. 

The most interesting part of Professor Daubree's labors 
relates to the fusion of meteorites and their artificial imita- 
tion. In the first class of experiments the results show that 
the fusion of meteoric stones does not alter materially the 
character of the minerals contained in them, except that the 
crystals of the minerals become better characterized, as seen by 
examination under the microscope. 

The fusion of the eukritic meteorites present some remark- 
able features; " they yield a product wholly different from the 
other magnesian meteorites, namely : a vitreous mass sometimes 
striped by a commencement of devitrification, but without 
crystals of olivine or enstatite." " In the same experiments, a 
substance is obtained that does not appear to have been seen 
in the magnesian meteorites; this is titanium (in the state 
of carbo-azotide) recognized by its characteristic color and by 
Its not being attacked by acids. 

The imitation of meteorites by the reduction of terrestrial 
rocks was successfully made by fusing rocks consisting prin 

pally of pyroxene (a mineral "closely related to enstatite) and 
olivine. In operating upon olivine and Iherzolite in large 
quantities, by fusing them in a crucible imsr/we, buttons of ii 

were obtained giving regular figures when etched, and c 
ing nickel and cobalt. In another series of experiments, hydro- 
gen instead of carbon was used as the reducing agent on Iher- 
zolite and pyroxene, and the decomposition was effected at a 
low red heat. The oxide of iron was reduced to metallic iron, 
and the phosphates to phosphides, the products having a close 

J. L. Smith — DauhrSes Experimental Geology, 

found in meteorites. A portion 
ntains a minute description of the 
San Catharina meteoric iron, which possesses mucli interest 
and is worthy of a still more extended study. 

In the second chapter, the deep-seated rocks of our globe are 
compared with meteorites. There is much that is interesting 
in the statements in regard to olivine and the transformation 
of serpentine into olivine. In this connection, Professor Dau- 
bree makes some interesting statements with reference to the 
association of platinum with serpentine. The presence of 
metallic iron in native platinum is a distinguishing characteris- 
tic and would lead us to infer some connection between the 
rock matrix of platinum and meteorites. 

Daubree's observations and experiments in regard to the 
cosmic bodies from which meteorites are derived is of consider- 
able interest, embracing as they do the supposable conditions 
under which the minerals were formed. In regard to what he 
considers minerals of reduction— as the iron and schreibersite— 
he is inclined to attribute their reduction to an atmosphere of 
hygrogen acting on the rocks at a more or less elevated temper- 
ature; how high the temperature was it is impossible to decide. 
He says: "It was without doubt an elevated temperature, 
because the anhydrous silicates, as olivine and pyroxene, are 
the products; yet at the moment of solidification and crystal- 
lization, the temperature ai)pears to have been inferior to that 
which I employed in my previous experiments [those of fusing 
the meteorites]. Two facts would lead us to this conclusion. 
;' The elevated temperature, produced in the laboratory, resulted 
in the formation of distinct and large crystals, such as are never 
found in meteorites. It is worthy of note that the siliceous 
substances which compose ordinarv meteorites are always in 
small confused crystals, notwithstanding the extreme tendency 
of the minerals to crystallize. Beside this production of small 
confused crystals, there is a manifest tendency for them to 
assume a globular form." . , 

The author compares meteorites with the rocks of our globe 
and brings out the contrast in a striking manner, showing 
their entire dissimilarity with our sedimentary rocks ; and a so 
with granite, gneiss, mica schist and other rocks of this family, 
whose minerals, as tourmaline and other silicates, are never 
present in meteorites. It is only below the granites that we 
encounter rocks at all analogous to meteorites ; and in tbese 
occur all the elements and many of the minerals that are to d 
found in them. This, in connection with what the spectroscope 
has developed, points to a unity in the origin of celestial bodie 
and in the constitution of the universe, a fact illustrated m 
various lights by the author. 

./. L. Smith— Dauhree's Experimental Oeology. 389 

He observes : " Whatever their origin and orbits, the 
meteorites that fall on our planet show us one of the great 
methods of change carried on in the universe, consisting in the 
distribution of the fragments, derived from the destruction of 
certain stars, planets or asteroids, among other suns and planets. 
Such occurrences are not accidental or exceptional phenomena, 
but facts under a law of the universe. In establishing a close 
relation between meteorites and the deep-seated rocks of our 
globe, we not only unravel remote phases in the histoiy of our 
own globe, but establish the intimate relation that exists be- 
tween the different parts of the universe." "It is thus that 
geology, taken in its broadest sense, has an intimate relation 
to physical astronomy, for if it receives light, it also con- 
tributes light." 

The second section of this part of Professor Daubree's work 
treats of the mechanical phenomena connected with meteorites. 
Under this head are included the globular structure which 
characterizes many of the minerals, the polyhedral forms of 
meteorites, and the pitting on their surface. This last charac- 
teristic is treated at great length, and is attributed to sudden 
heating in connection with great gaseous pressure. Numerous 
examples are given of experiments on stone, iron and steel with 
gunpowder and dynamite ; and over forty pages of the work 
are devoted to the details connected with them. 

In the application of this part of the subject. Professor Dau- 
bree says : " Those meteorites, which have a fragmentary struc- 
ture and are very often polyhedral in form, exhibit on their 
surface the effects of the action of compressed and heated gases, 
the indentations affording evidence of a wearing action by air 
in a cyclonic movement." When meteoric masses have been 
isolated from each other after entering the atmosphere their 
surface, during their course, has been exposed to compressed 
and incandescent gases, from the time that they became lumin- 
ous to that when they have exploded, at which time the 
incandescence ceases. The track of a meteorite while thus 
incandescent is often over one hundred and twenty-five miles, 
and takes several seconds. During this time, it certainly can- 
not preserve, in the midst of powerful erosive action, its poly- 
hedral form, with well defined angles and edges." These 
deductions are certainly reasonable. It is evident that the pow- 
erfully compressed air*'is the cause of their frequent explosions 
attended with rupture of the mass ; for the compression of the 
air may be supposed to reach 1000 atmospheres, and the bolides 
are turned and twisted in every direction in the midst of this 
condensed gas. 

In the latter part of this work the other peculiar physical 
characters of meteorites are considered : the black veins, the 

t. JouB. Sci.— Third Series, Vol. XIX, No. 118.— M 

390 Allen and Comstock—Bastndsite and Tysonite. 

marbled structure of the coating of some of them, and also the 
pulverulent variety of meteorites, or, as it is sometimes called, 
meteoric dust, etc. 

I have thus given a statement of some of the prominent fea- 
tures of this most admirable work on the mineral and geologi- 
cal study of meteorites, embracing not merely descriptions, but 
also the results of well directed experiments, and comprehen- 
sive philosophical conclusions. We have nothing like it in 
our scientific literature; and being the result of the labors of 
so distinguished a geologist as Professor Daubree, one who 
has devoted much thought and labor to the subjects of which 
he treats, it deserves the closest study. The first part of the 
work I have not referred to, for it has been made known to us 
briefly in a former notice in this Journal, and quite fully m 
Professor Dana's recent edition of his Manual of Geology, which 
work cites many of the facts and conclusions, and some of its 
excellent illustrations. 

In the preparation of both parts of this volume, the publisher 
has done his part most thoroughly, the paper and typography 
being such as are rarely equalled in scientific publications, and 
the illustrations in the text, which are very numerous, being of 
unusual beauty. The work is one that should find its way to 
the library of 'every geologist. 

Art. 1111.— Bastnasite and Tysonite from Colorado ; by 0. D. 
Allen and W. J. Comstock. (Contributions from the 
Laboratory of the Sheffield Scientific School. No. LX.) 

The material for the investigation, the results of which are 
here given, was received from Messrs. S. T. Tyson and H. ii. 
Wood, to whom our thanks are due. 

The first mineral examined was found by careful qualitative 
analysis to contain only the metals of the cenum group, fluorine 
and carbonic acid, with a trace of iron. Its characters are as 
follows: Hardness=4-4 -5. Sp. gr.= 518, 5-20. Luster vitreous 
Color reddish brown. Streak light yellowisb 

gray. Infusible. Is very slightly attacked by hydrochloric 
acid, without perceptible evolution of carbonic acid. Strong 
sulphuric acid dissolves it with evolution of carbonic ana 
hydrofluoric acids. Strongly heated in a closed tube shows 
scarcely a trace of moisture. The direct results obtained oy 
analysis are : . ^jngsite 

Allen and Co m stock— Bastnasite and Tysonite. 391 

By converting a known weight of the mixed oxides of the 
mineral into anhydrous normal sulphates, the joint atomic 
weight of the metals was found to be 140-2. If from the car- 
bonic acid obtained, an amoant of the bases is calculated suffi- 
cient to form normal carbonate, the remainder of the bases 
calculated as metals and the fluorine estimated by difference, 
the mean becomes : 

R.O, : R : CO, : Fl=l : 1-01 : 3 : 2-'72, 
corresponding to the formula 

R,F1,+ 2R,(C03)3 
in which R=Ce, La and Di. If the atomic weight of R=140-2, 
as found in the present case, the formula requires : — 

{Ce, La, Di),03 = 49-94 

This mineral corresponds to that from Sweden described by 
Hisinger* under the name of Basiskfluorcerium. It was later 
re-investigated by A. E. Nordenskiold,t who first ascertained 
Its correct composition and called it bamartite. Huot had, how- 
ever, previously called the mineral baslnasite, after the locality. 
Nordenskiold's analysis is given above for comparison. 

Associated with hastnasite occurs a mineral which proved to 
be an anhydrous normal fluoride of cerium, lanthanum and 
didymium, which we have examined with the following results : 

H. = 4-5-5. Specific gravity = 6-14, 6-12. 

Luster vitreous to resinous. Color pale wax yellow. Streak 
nearly white. B.B. blackens but does not fuse. In closed 
tube decrepitates, the color changes to a light pink, and shows 
slight traces of moisture. Insoluble in hydrochloric and nitric 
acids, but dissolves in concentrated sulphuric acid with evolu- 
tion of hydrofluoric acid. Qualitative examination showed only 
the presence of fluorine and the metals of the cerium group. 

Quantitative analysis gave the following results : 

392 Allen and Comstock — Bastndsite and Tysonite. 

From which is obtained the ratio 

The formula (Ce, La, Di),Flg appears therefore to express 
the composition of the mineral. As this mineral differs essen- 
tially in chemical composition and physical properties from 
any mineral hitherto described, it should be regarded as a new 
species. We propose for it the name Tysonite. 

The process of analysis used for both minerals was as follows: 
a solution was effected by strong sulphuric acid. After remov- 
ing the excess of sulphuric acid the sulphates were dissolved 
in water. The bases were precipitated with ammonium oxalate, 
the oxalates ignited in air and finally in hydrogen in order to 
remove the slight amount of oxygen which Di A takes upon 
ignition in air. The cerium in the mixed oxides was deter- 
mined volumetrically by Bunsen's method. The COj was 
determined by ignition in a combustion tube with lead chromate 
mixed with a little fused potassium di-chromate. A trial of 
this method with pure calcium carbonate mixed with calcium 
fluoride gave satisfactory results. 

Locality and mode of occurrence. — The material first furnished 
to us by Messrs. Wood and Tyson came from a locality at that 
time unknown to them, and consisted of a few grams of frag- 
ments of crystals of bastnasite, to some of which were attached 
portions of the tysonite, readily distinguishable by its lighter 
color and perceptible cleavage, which is wholly lacking in the 
bastnasite. Mr. Tyson, having recently succeeded in reaching 
the locality, which is near Pike's Peak, has just placed in our 
hands for examination all the specimens which he could obtain, 
about a dozen crystals and fragments of crystals, the largest of 
which are upwards of an inch in diameter, mostly free but m 
some cases attached to feldspar. 

The crystals are hexagonal in form, the only planes observed 
being 0, 1 and v2. On a single crystal can be seen the remains 
of pyramidal planes, but so rounded by abrasion that any 
measurements would be useless. The crystals are prismatic m 
habit, the smaller ones slender and somewhat elongated, the 
larger ones short and thick. 

These specimens show an interesting relation between the 
fluoride and the fluo-carbonate. The smaller crystals consist 
wholly of fluo-carbonate ; in the larger crystals, however, 
a portion occupying the interior, about equally distant from 
the basal planes, usually about half an inch from tliem 
and extending nearly to the lateral planes, consists of t"^ 
fluoride. The thickness of this band varies with the lengtn 

I the oxides used being known (and its state o 

■ ■ " - inum and didymium may be caicu 

such experiments gave the num 

J. p. Cooke — Argento-Antimonious Tartrate. 393 

of the crystals from a few lines to half an inch. The line 
of demarkation between it and the fluo-carbonate is quite 
distinct. This mode of occurrence of the two compounds, 
being such as is often seen in crystals which have undoubtedly 
undergone partial changes of composition, leads to the conclu- 
sion that the bastnasite of Colorado was formed by a change of 
a fluoride into a fluo-carbonate. In the fluoride a distinct but 

vidence of cleavage. 

Art. lAY.— On Aryento-antimonious lartrate {Silver Emetic); 
by JosiAH P. Cooke. (Contributions from the Chemical 
Laboratory of Harvard College). 

As stated by us in our paper on the atomic weight of anti- 
mony,* this compound was originally obtained by Wallquist 
by precipitating nitrate of silver with tartar emetic, and was 
analyzed both by him and by Dumas and Piria. These chem- 
ists obtained respectively 27-31 and 28-05 per cent of oxide of 
silver. They appear however to have prepared the substance 
only in an amorphous form. As stated in the paper just cited, 
we first noticed the formation of crystals of the compound in a 
concentrated solution of antimonious chloride and tartaric acid, 
to which had been added an excess of argentic nitrate, and 
from the circumstances of their formation we were led to form 
a somewhat erroneous inference in regard to their relation to 
water. We find that the substance is far more soluble in this 
solvent than at first appeared. We have found from further 
investigation that one part of silver emetic dissolves completely 
m one hundred parts of boiling and in somewhat less than five 
hundred parts of water at 15° C. In one determination made 
by evaporation, a saturated solution, which had stood a long 
time at a temperature of 15°, we found that 1000 parts of water 
bad dissolved 2-76 parts and in another 2-68 parts of the salt. 
There is obviously therefore no danger of the formation of this 
product in the precipitation of chlorine, bromine or iodine from 
solutions of the antimony compounds of these elements in 
tartaric acid, unless the excess of silver nitrate is larger and 
the solutions concentrated ; and although we have most care- 
fully looked for it in the precipitate we have never discovered 
It, except under the peculiar conditions described in our former 
paper, and our fear that it might be occluded by these precip- 
itates was wholly unfounded. 

It is evident from the above experiments that the solubility 

* This Journal, p. 382. 

394 J. P. Goohe — Argenio-Antimomotis Tartrak. 

of silver emetic in water like that of cream of tartar and other 
salts of tartaric acid is very greatly increased by heat, and we 
were easily able to obtain good crystals of the compound in 
large quantities by dissolving the precipitate, obtained as 
Wallquist describes, in boiling water, and allowing the solution 
to cool. The crystals are colorless and have a very brilliant, 
almost an adamantine, luster. 

From the reaction by which silver emetic is formed we 
should infer that the composition of the salt would be ex- 
pressed by the symbol 

Ag, SbO, H^ ^ O, ^ (C,Hp J . H,0. 
This compound would theoretically contain 26-34 p. c. of silver, 
and, as a mean of three analyses, we obtained for the amount 
of silver in the crystals 26-30 per cent, as previously stated. 

The crystals of silver emetic rapidly blacken in the light and 
are very easily decomposed by heat. This decomposition takes 
place at about 200° C. with' a slight explosion. A very fine 
carbon dust is blown out of the crucible and a residue is left 
^^^^__...^^^ behind, which under the microscope is 
^„.^^^^^><^iii^ seen to consist of spangles of metallic 
silver mixed with an amorphous powder. 
Almost the whole of the powder dissolved 
easily in a solution of tartaric acid, and 
it evidently consisted of Sb,0,. In one 
experiment we weighed the silver emetic 
and the product, and found that 0-8460 
gram, of the salt left 0-5304 gram, of resi- 
due. If the residue consisted solely of 
silver and SbjO,, theory would require 
0-6200 grams, and it can be seen from this 
""^"^-^ how perfect the decomposition was. It 

is obvious therefore that were this compound occluded as we 
at first feared, it would have made itself evident on drying the 

Mr. W. H. Melville, assistant in this laboratory, has made 
the following crystallographic measurements of the crystals 
„u„.„ r .: .T ,• J ^g ^^^^ described. 

Angles between normals. 
(Ill) A (100) 70° 19^ 
(111) A Oil) 70° 17' 
a : b : c=\ X 1-386 : 0-57 

111 A 110 54° 51' 54° 54' 

The pinacoid planes were irregular and the anglei 
be regarded as approximate. 

0. C. Marsh — Sternum in Dinosaurian Reptiles. 395 
Observed planes -f % j 

Acid tartrate of rubidium 0-695 
Acid tartrate of potassium 0-737 

Art. LY.—The Sternum m Dinosaurian Reptiles; by Professor 
O. 0. Marsh. (With plate XVIIT). 

The presence of a sternum in Dinosaurs has long been in 
doubt, as hitherto this element has not been found in position, 
or identified with certainty among the known remains of the 
group. The evidence in favor of an ossified sternum in these 
reptiles rests mainly on a single bone, found, in the Jurassic of 
England, with the remains of Ceieosaurus, and described by 
Phillips.* Owen subsequently accepted this determination, 
and reproduced the original figure of this supposed sternum.-f 
A few other specimens have been referred, with doubt, to the 
sternum of Dinosaurs, but apparently without any particular 
reason for the reference. 

The Yale Museum has recently received a nearly com- 
plete skeleton of Brontosauriis excelsus, one of the largest 
known Dinosaurs. This huge skeleton lay nearly in the posi- 
tion in which the bones would naturally fall after death, and 
fortunately the entire scapular arch was in excellent preserva- 
tion. The coracoids were in apposition with their respective 
scapulae on each side, and between them lay two flat bones, 
that clearly belong to the sternum. This discovery, as inter- 
esting as it was unexpected, removes the main uncertainty 
about the scapular arch of Dinosaurs, and likewise indicates a 
pew stage in the development of this structure, not before seen 
m adult animals. 

These two sternal bones are suboval in outline, concave 
above, and convex below. They are parial, and in position 
nearly or quite joined each other on the median line. The 
anterior end of each bone is considerably thickened, and there 
IS a distinct facet for union with the coracoid. The posterior 
end is thin, and irregular. These bones are shown in position 
* Geology of Oxford, p. 268, 1871. 
f PalBeontographical Society, p. 31, 18T5, 

396 B. A. Gould— Southern Comet of February, 1880. 

on Plate XVIII, figure 1, and one of them is more fully illus- 
trated in figure 2. The inner anterior margin of each bone is 
smooth and rounded, and gives no evidence of union with an 
episternal element, which the vacancy there suggests. The 
amount of cartilage between these two sternal bones, or pos- 
terior to them, is not indicated by the present specimens. They 
were evidently separated by cartilage from the coracoids. 

The nearest analogy among living forms to this double ster- 
num may perhaps be found in immature birds. A close resem- 
blance is apparent in the scapular arch of the young American 
Ostrich, represented on the same plate, figure 3. If the ossifica- 
tion of the sternum were permanently arrested at this stage, it 
would aiford almost precisely the structure seen in the genus 
Brontosaurus ; and this is evidently the true explanation of the 
fossil specimens here figured. 

It is more than probable that, in many Dinosaurs, the ster- 
num long remained cartilaginous, or so imperfectly solidified 
that it is not usually preserved. Several specimens of the 
genus Camptonotus, found nearly in their natural position, were 
apparently destitute of an ossified sternum. The large size, 
and doubtless great age, of the specimen of Brontosaurus 
above mentioned may perhaps have been the cause of its 
more perfectly developed sternum. 

Tale College, New Haven, April 11, 1880. 

On the evening of February 2nd, before the twilight was 
fully past, my attention was drawn to a remarkable streak of 
light in the southwest, which extended through about 18°, at 
an angle not much inclined to the vertical. Its lower ex- 
tremity was perhaps 20° above the horizon, and the brightness 
was in no part much, if indeed any, greater than that of a star 
of the 5| magnitude. It seemed to taper in both directions^, 
fading away at each extremitv, and to be between 1° and 2 
wide in the middle. A moment's reflection assured me that 
what I saw must be part of the tail of a comet, the lower por- 
tion being obscured by haze and its nucleus being below the 
horizon, which was concealed bv a bank of clouds. No time 
was lost in preparing for an accurate drawing of its position, 
but the mist and clouds obscured it completely within a very 
few minutes, before any delineation could be made. Messrs. 
W. G. Davis and C. W. Stevens did, however, plot from 
memory upon the index-map of the Uranometry a sketch of its 
position and form, which seemed correct to both. 

B. A. Gould— Southern Comet of February, 1880. 397 

Inquiries the next morning showed that the same phenom- 
enon had been observed on the evening of February 1st, by sev- 
eral persons, and one assured me that he had noticed it on the 
evening of Saturday, January 31st. All had supposed it to be 
connected in some way with the burning of grass or bushes, 
an occurrence which is here so frequent as to attract little 
attention, but which caused me useless labor and inquiry on 
more than one occasion during the first year of my residence 
iu this country. 

In the evening the ray or streak was about 30° long, and a 
little brighter than on the previous night, and it had moved 
laterally northward. Still, a careful search, beginning immedi- 
ately after sunset, failed to discover the head, or indeed any 
increase of brightness in the vicinity of the horizon, although 
the direction of the tail seemed toward the position of the sun. 
Careful drawings were independently made, on this and each 
subsequent evening during its visibility, by Mrs. Gould and 
Mr. C. W. Stevens ; the maps Nos. 2 and 3 of the Uranometry 
aftbrding an excellent means for very minute delineation. 

On the 4th I saw the head for a few moments in the twilight. 
It scarcely seemed brighter than Encke's comet appeared under 
similar circumstances at its last perihelion ; but it was much 
larger and had a coarse and undefined aspect No nucleus 
was visible. There was no opportunity to discover any com- 
parison-star, before it was lost in the mists of the horizon ; but 
a rough position was obtained by means of the setting circles 
of the equatorial. This gave, for b^ 27°' 55* of Cordoba sidereal 
time, K.A. 22'^ 24"^ 10^ Decl. -31° 29'-l. The altitude of the 
comet having been less than 2° 42', no great reliance can be 
placed on this determination, which was moreover crude in 
other respects. 

On February 5th, I obtained tolerably good comparisons with 
an undetermined star, the approximate position of which is 
n^ 41°' 40^ -32° 27' for the mean equinox of ISSO'O; and 
from that date to February 19th, there were but two evenings 
on which observations were not secured, the sky having been 
especially propitious during that period. The tail, which I 
think was brightest Februarv 6th or 7th, although then not 
more brilliant than the Milky Way in Taurus, maintained its 
inordinate length of from 35° to 40° until it faded from view, 
which took place only five days before the head became 
invisible in the llj inch equatorial. Indeed it was with the 
greatest difficulty that I was able to observe it on the 19th, 
when it was only to be recognized as a slight whiteness in the 
field, unnoticeable without special attention. No nucleus was 
visible at any time during the whole duration of its visibility, 
nor was there any definite form or even perceptible outline to 

398 B. A. Gould— Southern Comet of February, 

the head, excepting on on 
the series of observations 
form, somewhat rounded at its anterior margin, and shading 
away to form the tail, which was but little inferior in bright- 
ness, and seemed lost from view in the telescope in consequence 
of its lateral expansion almost as much as by any defect of its 
total light. On the 20th, the comet could not be detected in 
the telescope, although ray ephemeris was so accurate as to 
leave no doubt concerning its position in the field. 

The positions of the comparison-stars employed on the 7th, 
8th and 11th cannot be sharply determined for several months. 
The observations on other days 
which are uncorrected for parallax 

The excessive length of the narrow tail, its lack of gradation 
in brilliancy, and the relative faintness of the head, formed 
very notable characteristics. But, to my astonishment, on 
computing a parabola from the observations of February 6tb, 
9th and 12th, I found reproduced the orbit of the Great Comet of 
1843. The almost incredibly small perihelion distance suggests 
m each case the origin of the huge tail ; but the other elements 
were almost equally similar. A second orbit, from observa- 
tions embracing the twelve days' interval from February 6th 
to 18th, proved equally similar to the orbit resulting from 
Hubbard's unsurpassed discussion of the Comet of 1843; and 
leaves no doubt whatever in my mind as to the identity of the 
two bodies, notwithstanding that an ellipse of 532 years was 
found to afford the best representation of the series of observa- 
tions in 1843 as a whole. The elements now obtained are 
these : which are expressed in Washington mean time, and 
referred to the mean equinox of 1880-0. 

T 1880, Jan. 27'i-40479 

This result leads, however, to a yet more remarkable infer- 
ence. At the time of apparition of the Comet of 1843, its 
identity with that of 1668 was very generally discussed and 
credited. Only the circumstance that Hubbard found the total 

B. A. Gould— Southern Comet of Fehruary, 1880. 399 

series of observations to be more satisfactorily represented by an 
ellipse of much longer period served to weaken this belief to 
any extent. Nevertheless Hubbard showed that the corres- 
ponding diminution of the major axis was compatible with a 
probable error of only d=ll"-32 for a single observation, in 
place of ±8"-44 to which this value would be reduced by the 
adoption of his final elements. The similarity of the comet's 
appearance to that of 1702 also attracted attention. The orbit 
calculated for that comet by Struyck in Amsterdam bears no 
similarity to the well-determined one of the comet of 1668; 
but Cassini, who observed the former, believed the two to be 
identical. The same opinion was maintained by Cooper in 
1843. The tail in 1702 was 40° long, and its path was chiefly 
in the southern hemisphere, both which facts favor the sup- 
position of identity. Nevertheless, while a computation by 
Petersen, using for 1702 the orbit of the Comet of 1843, 
showed that the roughly given geocentric path might thus be 
somewhat roughly represented, Schumacher considered that 
the resultant places were compatible neither with the position 
of the tail March 2, 1702, as described by Maraldi, nor with 
the observation of the ship-captain Brouwer, cited by Struyck. 
The interval between the perihelion-passages of 1668 and 
1702 differs from 34 years by only a few days ; that between 
those of 1843 and 1880 is but a month less than 37 years. If 
these three apparitions belong, as I am convinced, to one and 
the same comet, we have the singular phenomenon of a rapidly 
increasing period, for the interval from the perihelion of 1702 
to that of 1843 is just 141 years, which gives 36| years for the 
average length of the four intermediate periods. The assump- 
tions that the increase of the period has been systematic and 
that no other important perturbations have atfected the times 
of perihelion-passage give for the successive returns to peri- 
helion the following dates :— 

1702 Feb. 23. 1771 June 6. 1843 Feb. 27. 
1736 July 12. 1806 Dec. 12. 1880 Jan. 27. 

The second Comet of 1806 appears to have passed its peri- 
helion on December 28th of that year. The latest determina- 
tion of its orbit is that by Hensel in 1862, the resulting 
inclination being essentially the same as that of the present 
comet. His other elements, however, are completely discor- 
dant, the form of the orbit being hyperbolic and the perihelion- 
distance large. It remains to be seen whether the observations 
could be represented by an orbit of different form and dimen- 
sions. There are other recorded apparitions which seem likely 
to have been returns of the same comet, such as those of the 
.years 1633, 1468, and perhaps 1264 ; but I have not here the 

J any 

perhaps 126 
careful opin 

400 B. A. Gould— Southern Comet of February, 1880. 

It might perhaps be supposed that no appearance of so 
impressive an object during the last two or three centuries 
could have failed to be recorded ; but it does not seem so to 
me in the case of a comet whose orbit lies almost exclusively 
to the south of the ecliptic, so that it would in all probability 
be noticed in our northern hemisphere only in the northern 

The wonderfully small, and apparently diminishing peri- 
helion-distance affords an explanation of the increasing period; 
for, according to the present elements, this distance is but 
0-00549, while the sun's own radius is 0-00466. It seems im- 
possible that one side of the coma should not suffer actual 
friction against the body of the sun, to say nothing of its 
traversing the densest portion of his atmosphere through a full 
semi-circumference. The mechanical resistance thus interposed 
must have acted to diminish the perihelion-distance; and we 
find this accordinglv to have been 0-005538 after the passage 
of 1848, and 0-005487 after that of 1880. Yet, while this 
resistance and the lateral friction must during their continuance 
be causing a diminution of the radius- vector, it would appear 
that they have not diminished, but, on the contrary, increased, 
the major axis. This is a delicate and in some respects a 
difficult question ; and since I have at present neither the 
requisite time nor books of reference at my dfsposal, I will not 
here enter into any of its details, but will confine myself to 
the statement that so far as I am able to form an opinion, the 
observed facts do not appear to conflict with theory. 

A most interesting question arises regarding the densest 
portion of the tail. There is no reason to doubt that this 
pointed southward before the perihelion, as it did afterward. 
Now the comet's center of gravity passed from one side to the 
other of the sun, describing an arc of 180° in true anomaly m 
about 2^ 8" ; and indeed described 141° 42' in a single hour. 
If the tail in general consisted of the same particles before as 
after the hour of perihelion, it must have been actually severed 
by the body of the sun, surrendering of course a considerable 
amount of its material. 

In conclusion, I append the dimensions and position of the 
tail for each night of its visibility, given by means of the 
declinations of the intersection of its axis with the principal 
meridians upon the chart, and the width at these points of inter- 
section. They are derived from the drawings of Mr. Stevens, 
and confirmed by the absolutely independent and accordant 
ones of Mrs. Gould. The positions of the head are as measured 
from these drawings, made upon map 2 of the Uranometria 
Argentina, without any reference to the ephemeris ; but the 
ephemeris from the elements already given accompanies them. 

, Gould— Southern Comet of February, 1880. 401 

degree, upon the clearness of the nigh; 

Noon and mean Equii 

>s as measured from the draicings. 
Feb. 2. Feb. 3. Feb. 4-. Feb. 5. Feb. 

Width r45' 

t 23h20» S. Dect. 54°10' 
Width VW 
» S. Decl. 
S. Decl. 
S. Decl. 

Scientific Intelligence. 

Head R. A. 

S. Dec 

End R. A. 

Width ' 

t 2h20"i S. Decl. 46° 1( 

Width 1°4( 

t 2'>40«' S. Decl. 47° ( 


I. Chemistry and Physics. 
1. On the Formation of Ozone by the Slow oxidation of 
Phosphorus.— Some doubts having been expressed as to the 
actual production of ozone by the slow oxidation of phosphorus, 
McLeod has made a series of qualitative experiments to ascer- 
tain whether it is so produced or whether hydroxyl is the pro- 
<luet. Oxygen ozonized by the spark in a Siemens tube was 
passed through a IJ tube containing solutions of sodium carbon- 
ari, of potassium dichromate and sulphuric acid, and of potas- 
sium permangan ' 
tubes even whei 

the other hand, .^ .^„...,j ^^^^^^.. „^ 

cially at 100°, transforms chromic into perchromic acid and evolves 

romate and sulphuric acid, and oi po"^*" 
The ozone passed readily through these 
)unded by boiling water. Hydroxyl, on 
ily decomposed by sodium carbonate, espe- 

Chemistry and Physics. 403 

oxygen with permanganate. The air in which pliosi)]iorns was 
slowly oxidizing was then passed through the same V \u\k\ ami 
then into a solution of potassium iodide and starcli. Tliis solu- 
tion became blue in all cases, when the U tube was cold as when 
it was heated to 100°. The addition of a second tube containing 
pumice saturated with sodium carbonate did not alter the result. 
To test the effect of heat, an apparatus was used consisting of a 
large IT tube containing pumice and sulphuric acid, a narrow U 
tube, which could be placed in a test tube, a weighed tube con- 
taining pumice and sulphuric acid and a flask with potassium 
iodide and starch solution, acidified. From one to five liters of 
gas were drawn through the tubes very slowly, the narrow tube 
being cold, plunged in boiling water or in a paraffin bath at 150° 
to 200°. The second U tube was weighed after each experiment, 
and the starch solution was decolorized by a deei-normal solution 
of sodium thiosulphate. The maxirauiir increase in wciirjjt in 
twenty-four experiments was -0035 gram, in an exjK'rirncnt at ordi- 
nary temperatures, the decolorization requiring ;VO.j c.c. of the thio- 
sulphate. At 200° the sulphuric acid increased in weight OUUti 
gram, the decolorizing solution used being 1-8 c.c. Since one 
c.c. of this solution corresponds to '017 gram hydroxyl, which 
would yield on decomposition by heat -009 gram water, and at 200° 
at least half the hydroxyl would be destroyed, an increase of -016 
gram instead of "0006 gram might have been expected liad 
hydroxyl been present. . Moreover, contact with strong sulphuric 
acid did not render the gas inactive. Hence the autljor's couchi- 
sion that the gas formed during the slow oxidation of plios])lioius 
IS actually ozone.— ^ Chem. Soc, xxxvii, 118, Feb., 18su. 

2. Mcplosion of a Platinum Alembic nsed for concentrating 
Sulphuric acid. — Kuhlmanx (fils) has communicated to the 
Chemical Society of Paris the particulars of the explosion of a 
platinum still used in his factory at Lille, for concentrating sul- 

^rge production ofheat. Aceonlinix to data 
ilbermann and othei-s. one kilourain of arid 

404 Scientific Intelligence. 

quantity of water, evolves 148 calories. Consequently the forty 
kilograms of acid would have evolved heat enough to give rise to 
■ ' s production of t ■ '' ' ' "' ■ '- 

vapor ; a quantity quite sufficient to burst a platinum vessel of 300 
" s capacity whose walls were only two or three millimeters thick. 

experiment had been . -i - -^ i -^ 

using glass vessels. The 
lence provided the water was at least ten molecules for each one 
of the acid. Pfaundler, using a considerable quantity of the ma- 
terials, in the ratio of one molecule of acid and 1'20 of water, has 
obtained an evolution of 181 calories. The experiments were 
made, however, at 18°, and the author is examining the production 
of heat when the mixture takes place at higher temperatures.— 
Bull Soc. Ch., II, xxxiii, 50, Jan. 1880. g. f. b. 

3. On the £Jquivalence of Boron, — In an investigation of the 
phenyl derivatives of the nitrogen series, Michaeli's had shown 
that the free equivalence of a chloride appears distinctly if a 
phenyl group replaces chlorine. Thus phosphorous chloride, 
which unites difficultly with bromine, combines easily if an atom 
of phenyl replaces one of chlorine. So monophenylarsenous 
chloride takes up chlorine readily, while arsenous chloride does not 
combine with it. In connection with Becker, Michaelis has 
now studied monophenyl-boron chloride, hoping to obtain the 
same result, and to obtain a chloride in which boron is a pentad. 
By the action of boron chloride upon raercury-diphenyl, in sealed 
tubes at a temperature of 1 80° to 200°, monophenylboron chloride 
is obtained as a colorless liquid, easily becoming reddish, boiling 
at 175°, and solidifying at 0°. When this is placed in a freezing 
mixture and chlorine passed over it, it is absorbed and the mass 
liquefies. In the experiment the increase of weight was noted ; 
and it was found that 3-9 grams had absorbed 1-3 grams of chlo- 
rine, theory requiring for the two atoms of chlorine absorbed, TV 
grams. The authors think that these results render probable the 
existence of a phenyl-boron tetrachloride C,H,BC1, which breaks 
up easily into boron chloride and monochlorbenzene. Conceding 
this, boron is quinquivalent.— 5er. Berl. Chem. Ges., xiii, 58, Jan., 
1880. G. F. B. 

4. On the Direct Union of Cyanogen and Hydrogen. — Beb- 
THELOT has succeeded in causing cyanogen to unite directly with 
hydrogen under the influence of heat. The pure and dry gases, 
mixed in equal volumes and passed slowly through a narrow tube 
heated to 500°— 550°, combined to an extent of two or three per 
cent. But if the action be prolonged, the mixture being con- 
tained in a sealed tube and heated to the above temperature tor 
several hours, the two combine in equal volumes forming hydro- 
gen cyanide free from cyanogen, only one-seventh of which is 
transformed into paracyanogen. The phenomenon differs from 
the synthesis of hydrogen chloride only in its greater slowness 
and the more elevated temperature required, which is that at 
which hydrogen unites directly with oxygen, with ethylene, etc. 

Chemistry and Physics. 406 

If the temperature be lower, there is an excess of uncombined 
hydrogen ; if it be very high, free nitrogen is produced. The 
hydrogen cyanide formed, however, remains intact. Experiments 
were then made with the metals, and it was found that cyanogen 
unites directly with them. At 300° zinc, cadmium and iron 
form cyanides of these metals. Zinc is attacked even in the cold 
after several days ; at 100° in three or four hours. Copper and 
lead yield a trace of cyanide at 500° to i^bQ°. Silver and mercury 
do not combine directly with cyanogen at any temperature ; 
probablv because the temperature of the reaction is also the tem- 
perature of decomposition.— .Sw^;. Soc. Ch., 11, xxxiii, 2, Jan., 

-5. On Cellulose o 

. the following 

reasons for the former view f (1) Alkalies Vithdraw variable 
quantities of nitryl forming nitrates ; (2) Sulphuric acid even in 
the cold, expels all the nitryl in the form of nitric acid, a sulplio- 
ether resulting ; (3) Toward ferrous sulphate and chloride, these 

them with sulphuric acid over mercury, they act like nitrates, all 
the nitrogen being evolved as nitrogen dioxide ; (5) Reducing 
agents as potassium sulphydrate, sodium stannite, ferrous acetate, 
ftc, convert them into ordinary cellulose. Hence the pyroxylins 
are nitrates of cellulose and have the general formula C,,Hj^_„0,„_„ 
(().NOJ„, the formula of cellulose being C,JI,„0,„. The author 
has also examined the definite compounds formed by the action of 
nitric acid on cellulose. When the perfectly dry cotton is placed 
in a cooled mixture of three volumes pure concentrated sulphuric 
acid (1-845) and one volume nitric acid (1-5) for twenty-four 
hours, and after washing and drying, is treated with a mixture of 
three parts of ether and one part of alcohol until everything 
soluble is removed, there is left a compound having the compo- 
sition of cellulose hexanitrate, and yielding about 14 per c^^^t ^f 
nitrogen. By using less concentrated acids, definite comp 
less nitryl ; the pentanitra 
; nitrogen, tbe tetranitfate with 11 '41, the 
(evident., ._ „ 

All these are soluble 
ether and alcohol except the first given, the hexanitrate. The 
mononitrate was not obtained. — Ber. Berl. Chew. G-es., xiii, 169, 
Feb. 1880. <;. F. a 

isomeric amidophenols with excess of' iiuthyl iodide. When to a 

whole is allowed to stand, an acid reaction appears after some 
Am. Jocb. Sgi.— Third Sekie8, Vol. XIX, No. 113.-Max, 1S80. 

were obtained containing less nitryl ; the pentanitrate giving 
12-57 per cent nitrogen, the tetranitfate with 11 '41, the trinitrate 
with 10-12 per cent (evidently containing tetranitrate) and the 

406 Scientific Intelligence. 

time. This is made alkaline again, and the operation is repeated 
■ as long as the solution becomes acid. On distilling off the 
methyl alcohol, the liquid solidifies to a mass of yellowish colored 
crystals of orthotrimethylphenolammonium hydriodate. The 
base is obtained from this by treatment with silver oxide, in well 
formed prisms, having the formula C^Hj^NO, or ^eH4< I „ 

Several salts of this ne^fr ammonium are described, beside the plati- 
num double salt. By treating paraamidophenol in the same way, 
paratrimethylphenolammonium results.— ^er. Berl. Chem. Ges., 
xiii, 246, Feb., 1880. G. f. b. 

v. Photographs of Spectra.— U. W. Vogel has photographed 
the spectra of oxygen, hydrogen and quicksilver, by means of the 
sensitive gelatine bromide of silver plates, introduced by Wrat- 
ten and Wainright, which Vogel regards as fifteen times more sen- 
sitive than the most sensitive wet plates. With an exposure of 
two hours a spectrum from the green to the violet could be 
obtained by ordinary induction sparks, without the use of a Ley- 
den jar. Full tables' of wave-lengths of the lines, with^ descrip- 
tions of their character and list of their coincidences with solar 
lines, according to different authorities, are given. Vogel con- 
firms the result previously obtained by Wiedemann, that if quick- 
silver and nitrogen are heated together in a Geissler tube the 
lines of nitrogen disappear when the tension of the quicksilver 
increases to a notable extent. From the fact that the US line 
appears in the Geissler tube at a pressure of 2™™ when single 
induction sparks are discharged through it, Vogel concludes that 
their existence is not due alone to very high temperatures, as 
Lockyer assumes. It was noteworthy that in the spectra in tubes 
the strong mercury line A=:4046 was entirely absent, while weak 
lines were present which were not seen with the employment of 
strong pressure and strong discharges: also by rarefaction and 
the consequent lowering of temperature, one of the brightest, and, 
according to Lockyer, longest lines disappears, while many 
weaker and less refrangible lines remain. Further, not all the 
lines increase in brightness, but many disappear. The assertion 
of Lockyer, that with diminishing pressure the shortest lines dis- 
appear first, is therefore not true in general. — Ber. d. Berl. Ak.j 
1879, p. 586. J- T-. . 

8. The limits of the Ultra Violet in the Solar Spectrum at dif- 
ferent heights. — UoRNU has made some spectroscopic tests on the 

of wave-length is about :i niillioiitb of a millimeter for 700 meteis. 
The Ihnit at the Kitfel w:vh reached at a wave-length of 293-2, and 
at Visp at 295-4.— 6'ow/>?e5 liendus, Ixxxix, p. 80H, 1879. J. J- 

9. Atmospheric Polarization and the influence of Terrestrial^ 
Magnetism upon the Atmosphere. — The apparatus of Becquere^ 
consisted essentially of a Savart polariscope mounted upon a divi- 


Chemistry and Physics. 407 

ded circle. This divided circle is supported by a horizontal axis 
whicli is also capable of turning about a vertical axis. Two other 
divided circle? measure the motion in azimuth and in declination, 
and allow the polariscope to be directed in any direction, and sjive 
also the coordinates of the ])oint of observation. The method of 
observation was to obtain upon the same divided <Mrclo the ))()sition 
of the plane of ])olarization of the sun and the trace of the plane 
of the sun. An ingenious metho<l of accomplishing this is detailed 
in the author's memoir. The conclusions reached are as follows: 

(1) The existence at one point of a variable angle between the 
""lo plane of polarization of the atmo.sphere. 
iation in this angle, which has a maximum 
he day. This phenomenon appears to be 
connected with the variable 'conditions of illumination of the at- 
mosphere due to the height of the sun. 

(3) The manifestation of the magnetic influence of the earth 
upon the atmosphere, to which influence can be attributed a small 
deviation of the plane of polarization of the Xx^^A.—Annales de 
Chemie et de Physique, Jan., 1880, p. 90. ' j. t. 

10. Measurements and law in Electro- Optics. — Dr. Kekr con- 
tinues his experiments upon the effect of electric tension on the 
transmission of light through dielectrics, and enunciates this gen- 
end law:—" Tlie intemU*/^ of electro-optic action of a yiren die- 
I'rirJr^ [or the difference of retardations nf tit. <'r<t!H'ir>/ .n,d >.vtra- 

'In-'^-fh/'as the square of the residtant dc-'frn' f .,■■•> " Tiu' dielec- 
ific ii-rd by Dr. Kerr 'was carbon disulphidr, and was cuitained 
ill a cell of peculiar construction, which alloudl the lay.'r of the 
dielectric to be submitted to ])()weri"ul electric "^tir^s. A beam of 
light was passed through a Nicol prisni and thcii thnuigh the layer, 

Jamin's com 

pensator wa; 

5 aK( 


between the 

layer and 


ocular Nicol 

. Thomson' 

s Ion. 

." clectronieter 

was emplo. 


to measure the electrostatic ettects.^ 

The author - 


Faradav's and (^lerk-Ma- 


s vieM 

^s in relation t 

the action of 

a dielectric i 

n the transm 


of electrostatic force, and the st 


of moleculai 

hat i> 

iated with and 

is essential 


ire.— Wkn. Btr. 

ikieniijic Intelligence. 
Density of the Halogens at very high temperatures. — Profes- 

; of the temperature too high. In experimenting, 
however, with free chlorine he obtained values corresponding to 
the normal density of CI,. 

More recently Victor Meyer has published additional experi- 
ments on the same subject, which indicate that while chlorine 
does not assume the abnormal condition corresponding to f CI, be- 
low 1200 degrees, iodine vapor passes into a similar state at 1000 
degrees. He confirms also the results of Crafts in regard to the 
density of chlorine gas, which had been previously prepared and 
introduced as gas into the heated flask, finding that under these 
circumstances the density corresponded approximately to CI, at 
the same temperature at which the chlorine formed in the flask 
from PtCl^ assumed the lower density corresponding to f CI..,. The 
old term nascent is applied to chlorine in the last condition, and 
it is suggested that the difierence between chlorine gas in these 
two states of density corresponds to the diiference between oxy- 
gen gas and ozone at the ordinary temperature of the air. Vic- 
tor Meyer has further determined the vapor density of bromine 
under tlie same condition as chlorine and iodine. He finds that 
PtBr^ can be easily prepared, and that the bromine vapor formed 
by its decomposition " in statu nascenti" assumes at the high tem- 
peratures employed in these experiments the value 3-64, corres- 
ponding to |Br,. Experiments to determine the density of free 
bromine vapor formed by droppina: liquid bromine into the heated 
flask did not give acconlant or satisfactory results. Meyer has 

density of water and'other volatile liquids at a white heat, which 
he attributes to a mechanical cause, depending on the very sud- 
den conversion of the liquid into vapor, which at such high tem- 
peratures takes place with explosive violence. '' ' " ^" 

I Chemical Society for March 8th, pp. 391 

vVstigation still in prog- 


■ dissocia 


ously only prelimir 
ress. The idea tha 

appears to be no longer 
tained, and the anomalous densities observed, so far as th 
real phenomena, are probably the result of allntroi>i(' n^*' 
tions of the elementary substance similar to \\w>(- iiIi'^k'.- 

13. Use of the Heliotrope for telegraphic purpos> ■< in lr"iiiii"(''- 
ti07i. Letter to J. D. Dana, from Capt. C. P. Pali iokson, >npei- 
intendent of the Coast Survey, dated Washington, :Mar. "20, 1 ^'»J'^ 
— Having noticed in Nature several references to the use ot i 
Bun for telegraphic purposes, I beg to say that the heliotrope 

Chermsiry and Physics. 409 

mirror with directive mounting — has been one of our regular field 
instruments in triangulation for forty years, and has been used on 
lines from 20 to 192 miles in length. 

As a matter of interest, I send you the following extract from 
the annual report of Assistant George Davidson, in charge of the 
most important portion of the triangulation on the Pacific Coast. 
The stations named are along the western crest of the Sierra 
Nevada Mountains, along the crest of the immediate Coast Range, 
and Mt. Shasta, at the head of the Sacramento Valley. 

I notice that M. Perrier, in charge of the triangulation in Alge- 
ria, in making his connections with Spain, failed— on account of 
the state of the atmosphere I presume — to obtain satisfactory 
results from the heliotrope (the distance being as nearly as can be 
learned 165 miles), and was obliged to have recourse to electric 
lights, requiring engines of 6-horse power. With these his suc- 

[ExTRACT.] — Heliotrope Spectra. 

My former experience of the decomposition of the heliotrope 
image of the sun after passing through many miles of the atmos- 
phere was fully verified. The heliotrope images were seldom 
decomposed on the lines under seventy miles in length, but they 
were, as a rule, decomposed on all longer lines, and ranged 

Blue Blue Gre^n Green 
through the formula White Yellow Yellow Orange, the last 

Red Red Red Red 
being the less frequently seen. The peculiar sparkling character- 
istic of the bright heliotrope image does not announce itself in 
the spectrum image ; the colors give a steady, soft image, which 
is generally slightly higher than broad ; frequently twice as high 
as broad ; and upon some occasions it reaches a height of 60 sec- 
onds with a breadth of 10" to 15", 

In nearly all cases the red is the most marked and is certainly 
the most persistent ; the blue will fade away, the yellow or orange 
is not in sufficient contrast with the white field to be observed 
upon. The color of the red is that of the spectrum at the B line. 
Frequently the red will exist with a sharply defined nucleus of 
light orange, or even white ; but it is doubtful if this exists when 
the spectrum is formed. 

The column of spectrum light sometimes undergoes the most 
uncea^ing apparent interoliango of the colors, as if the rapid 
changes in \ertical refraction suddenly shortened and lengthened 
the coluimi; and \ct tr^t^ thiliMl to --huw that any part of the col- 

ally very brill 

I Oransfe, and then it was i 

) predict 

its visibility to the unassisted eye. 

From Mount Lola we have frequently seen the heliotrope 
images with the naked eye over the longest lines ; and at Round 
Top Mountain, with lines reaching 160 miles, we saw the Snow 
Mount heliotrope very plainly with the naked eye upon several 
occasions. I am satisfied that the Mount Helena heliotrope would 
have been seen with the naked eye from Mount Shasta, 192 miles, 
in favorable weather. Although the spectrum on such occasions 
is very vivid, the naked eye did not detect the colors. 

In a former paper I have referred to this phenomenon as a nor- 
mal condition of the heliotrope image, but particularly exhibited 
in long lines. On short lines the difference of density of the stra- 
tum of air traversed by the ray of light is too small to decom- 
pose the white light ; but on long lines the strata of different 
densities through which the line passes act practically as a prism 
by which the ray of white light is decomposed by the different 
refractive powers into the spectrum. 

Heliotropes. — The heliotropes I use are of the pattern which I 
devised in 1851, except that now a square mirror is adopted as 
affording more light for the same sized box for transportation. 
It could be made a parallelogram, but would be less steady in a 
heavy wind. ^ The larger ones have a screen attached to a lever 
for transmitting Morse telegraph letters as heretofore. 

The ordinary amalgam-backed mirrors become whitish and 
opaque in a few days' exposure, but the fine silver deposit on the 
glass retains its brilliancy unimpaired. 

I have established the following sizes for heliotropes, and have 
practically tested them up to 192 miles. I feel certain that the 
i may be carried to any practicable line on the earth's 

























5-6 too weak. 

6- weak. 









6- v.weak. 

















Ch emistry an d Physics. 411 

Having established by experience the best size for a heliotrope 
upon a line of a given length, 1 obtained the following formiila, 
based upon the general law" of optics, for determining the size for 
any required distance: a?=:ff X"002], where x is the area of the 
required heliotrope in square inches, d the given distance in miles. 

In the smaller heliotropes the amount of light cut off by the 
skeleton vane bears an undue proportion to the si:^ of the mirror, 
and this must therefore be taken into consideration. I use the 
smallest skeleton vanes compatible with stiffness. If for any 
cause a larger heliotrope is needed on a given line, and under 
favorable circumstances the image appears too bright, the area of 
the mirror may be readily reduced upon a preconcerted signal, by 
affixing an open frame of tin or even of paper upon the outer 
edges of the mirror. 

14. On the Artificial Formation of the Diamond.— T\iq last 
number of the Proceedings of the Royal Society (No. 201), 
contains a preliminary notice by Mr. J. B. Hannay of the process 
by which he seems to have succeeded in obtaining crystallized 
carbon identical with the diamond. The following is an extract. 

" When the carbon is set free from the hydrocarbon in presence 
of a stable compound containing nitrogen, the whole being near 
a red heat and under a very high .■> -> 

upon by the nitrogen compound t 
transparent form of the diamond. The great ditliculty lies in the 
construction of an inclosing vessel strong cnnuuh to withstand 
pressure and high leniperature, tubes constructed 
on rne gun-Darrel principle (witli a wrought iron coil), of only 
half an inch bore and four inches external diameter, being torn 

" The carbon obtained in the successful experiments is as hard 
as natural diamond, scratching all other crystals, and it does not 
affect polarized light. I have obtained crystals with curved faces 
belonging to the octahedral form, and diamond is the only sub- 
stance crystallizing in this manner. The specific trravity i^ as 
high as 3-5. The crystals burn easily on thin platinuni-loil over 
a good blowpipe, and leave no residue, and after two days' im- 
mersion in hydrofluoric acid they show no sign of dissolving. 

Scientific Intelligence. 

II. Geology and Mineralogy. 

1 . Sketches of the Physical Geography and Geology of Nebras- 
ka; by Samuel Aughey, Ph.D., LL.D., Professor of Nat. Sci. in 
the Univ. of Nebraska. 326 pp. 8vo. Omaha, Nebraska, 1880.— 
These " sketches" contain a well-arranged and carefully prepared 

description of the region of Nebraska, as regards its topography, 
climatology, drainage and geology, and a general account of its 
flora and fauna. We cite the following facts from it : 

The State has a length (maximum) from east to west, of 413 
miles. The average elevation of the eastern half is 1,700 feet, of 
the western 2,612 feet. The mean elevation of the State is 2,312 
feet. The ascent for 100 miles west from Omaha is 5| feet a 
mile; for the second 100, 7 feet; the third 100, 7^ feet; the 
fourth, 10^ feet. 

The increasing size of the streams and the increasing number of 
springs during the past fifteen years indicates an increased rain- 
fall. Professor Aughey attributes this greater amount of rains to 
the turning up of the soil for cultivation, which has rendered it, 
on an average, nine-fold (by his experiments) more absorptive of 
the water from rains. The water that falls on the hard original 
soil of the prairies mostly flows off into the canyons and streams ; 
while the broken soil, like a huge sponge, takes it all in. At the 
time of the first settlement of the state the average rain-fall was 
20 inches and the part absorbed probably not more than 5 inches ; 
now it is 32 inches, and not less than 24 are absorbed. The great 
thickness of the soil— of all depths to 200 feet in the loess regions 
— gives this sponge its great magnitude and power. 

Professor Auejhey discusses well the facts relating to the Icess 
and its origin. He shows that Richthofen's wind-drift th