(navigation image)
Home American Libraries | Canadian Libraries | Universal Library | Community Texts | Project Gutenberg | Children's Library | Biodiversity Heritage Library | Additional Collections
Search: Advanced Search
Anonymous User (login or join us)
Upload
See other formats

Full text of "The American naturalist."

AMERICAN NATURALIST, 



POPULAR ILLUSTRATED MAGAZINE 



NATURAL HISTORY. 




JVNll 



% 



^£nlibq 



>?> 



CONTENTS OF VOL. 



'olyzoa. By Alpl 



The Recent Biui 
The Habits of ti 



By G. D. Phippen. Illustrated, . 

By P. W. FeUowes, .... 
Texas. By G. Lincecura, M. D. Illustratet 
Pau North. By J. T. Rothrock, . 
d its Young. By Rev. S. Lockwood. Illm 

Jelly-fishes. By Edward S. Morse. Wit 



zoxa. By Dr. Elliott Coues, U. S. A., 281, 

.331, 393, 531 

Enemy. By G. A. Perkins, M.D., . 293 



iv CONTEXTS OF VOL. I. 

Fisn Culture. By Charles G. Atkins, p. 20G 

The Dragon-fly. By A. S. Packard, jr., M. I). With a Plate, 304 
The Phosphorescence of the Sea. From G. H. Lewes. Il- 
lustrated, 316 

The Geysers of California. By G. L. Goodale, M. D., . . 337 
The Encampment of the Heron-. By W. E. Endicott, . . 343 
Artificial Oyster (Vi.tivatidn in France. ByF. W. Fellowes, 346 
The Home of the Bees. By A. S. Packard, jr., M. D. With 

a Plate and Illustrations, 3(34, 596 

The Chignon Fungus. Hardwicke's Science Gossip. Illustrated, 379 
The Awakening of the Birds. By T. Mar . i"i 

Agency of Insects in Fi imiu/im, Plants. By W. J. Beal, . 403 

The Tarantula. By G. Lincccum, M.D., 409 

The Hand as an Unruly Mi mui r. By Burt G. Wilder, M. D. 

With two Plates and Illustrations, .... 414,482,631 
The Clothes-moth. By A. S. Packard, jr., M. D. Illustrated. 423 
Modern Scientific Investigation: its Methods and Ten- 
dencies. By Prof. J. S. Newberry, 449 

Desmids and Diatoms. By Prof. L. \Y. Bailey. With a Plate, 505,587 
A Botanical Exclusion in my Office. By Prof. H. C. Wood, 

jr., M.D. Illustrated, 517 

in Maine and Massachusetts. By Prof. J. Wymau, M. D. 

With two Plates, 561 

The Chicadee. By Augustus Fowler, 584 

The Fossil Insects of America. By S. II. Scudder. With a Plate, 625 
The Southern Muscadine Grape. By D. H. Jacques. Illus- 

A Vacation Trip to Brazil. By C. Fred. Hartt, A. M., . . 642 
Notes of a Fur Hunter. By Henry Clapp, . . . .652 

REVIEWS. 
On the Lysianassa Magellanica. By Prof. L. W. Lilljeborg, p. 48. 
Contributions to the Knowledge of Crustacea, found living in Species 
of the Genus Ascidia. By T. Thnrdl 49. On the Polypes and Echino- 
derms of New England, with descriptions of New Species. By Prof. 
A. E. Verrill, 49. The Myriapoda of North America, By Prof. H. C. 
Wood, jr., 49. Natural History of Animals. By Prof. S., and Mrs. A. 
A. Tenney, 50. On the Young St igeg of a few Annelids. By Alexander 
Agassiz, 50. Preliminary Report of the Geological Survey of Kansas. 
By G. C. Swallow, 101. Annual Report of the Smithsonian Institution 

tions upon the Cranial Forms of the American Aborigines. By J. A. 



CONTEXTS OF VOL. I. V 

Meigs, M. D., 152. A Treatise on some of the Insects injurious to 
Vegetation. By T. W. II/rris. 31.1).. 153. Prodrome of a Work on 
the Ornithology of Arizona Territory. By Ei/iutt Cow:*, 31. D., 201). 

America, etc. By S. II. Scudder, 209. On the Parallelism between 
the different stages of Life in the Individual, and those in the entire 
group of the molluscous order Tetrabranchiata. By Alphcus Hyatt, 
270. American Educational Monthly, 271. Ornithology and Oology 
of Xrw En-land. By Edward A. Samuels, 318. The Cretaceous form- 
ation of the Environs of Sioux City. etc. By Jules 3Iarcou. 320. 
Lepidopterological Notes and Descriptions, I, II, etc. By Aug. 11. 

II. Sylvester, 321. The American Agriculturist. American Pomology. 
By Dr. John A. Warder, 321. An Elementary Treatise on American 
Grape Culture and Wine Making. By Peter B. 3Iead, 387. Annual 
Report of the Trustees of the Museum of Comparative Zoology, Cam- 
bridge, 387. The American Bee Journal and Gazette, 388. The De- 
velopment of Chloeon (Ephemera) dimidiatum. By Sir John Lubbock, 
428. Revision of the Eossorial Hymenoptera of North America. By 
A. S. Packard, jr., 31. D., 431. Manual of the Botany of the Northern 
United States, including the District East of the Mississippi and North 
of North Carolina and Tennessee. By Prof. Asa Gray, 491, 548. Enu- 
meration of Hawaiian Plants. By Horace Mann, 547. The Glacial 
Phenomena of Labrador and New England. By A. S. Packard, jr., 
M. D., 610. The Quarterly Journal of Science, 611. The Naturalist's 
Note Book, 613. Quarterly Journal of Psychological Medicine and 
Medical Jurisprudence, 672. 

NATURAL HISTORY MISCELLANY. 
Botaxy. — Theory of the Origin of the Anther of Flowers, p. 51. 
Physiological effects of the Calabar Bean. 51. Skeleton Leaves, 51. 
The Tertiary Flora of Broguon, France, 103. Drying Plants by Heat, 
— two methods, 103. The May-flower, 154. Parthenogenesis in the 
Weeping Willow. 154. The Agency of Insects in Fertilizing Plants, 



55. The annual i 



the circumference of Tre( 



Flower, 155. The Lotus, 210. Rottenness of Fruits, 271. Tenacity 
of Life amongst the higher Plants, 322. Remains of Plants and Ani- 
mals in a brick taken from the Pyramids of Egypt, 322. A supposed 
new Columbine, and a new Ox-eye Daisy, 38s! Change of Color in 
Flowers placed under glasses of different colors, 390. Herbarium for 
sale, 432. A Fern new to our Flora, 432. Thornless form of the 
Honey Locust Tree, 433. Monstrous Roses, 433. Identification of 
Lichens by a Chemical Test, 434. Botanical Notes and Queries, 493. 



VI CONTENTS OF VOL. I. 

May-apples in Clusters, 494. Invasions of Foreign Plants, 495. A 
variety of the Ox-eye Daisy, 496. Botanical Notes and Queries, 673. 
Saboia Kali -rowing inland, 074. Robinia Hispida, 674. 

Zoology. — The Edible Crab in Salem. Mass., p. 52. Mimetic 
Forms among the Butterflies, 52. Fertile Workers among the Honey 
Bees, .12. A Black Variety of the Red Squirrel, 53. Flights of But- 
terflies, 104. A new Insect Box, Illustrated, 156. Parasites of the 
Humble Bee, 157. Habits of Carpenter Bees, 157. Mimetic Forms 
among Insects, 155. Artificial Nests of Insectivorous Birds in Swit- 
zerland, 211. The Eed-legged Grasshopper, 271. Fish Culture, 322. 
Biscuit made of Fish, 323. The Pelican in Cayuga County, N. Y., 323. 
Curious mode of Gestation in Fish, 324. Habits of the Bittern, 325. 
The Stuffed Whale in the Swedish Museum, 390. The Eggs of the 
Dragon-fly, 391. Eapid Change of Color in Fish, 391. The Bittern, 
434. Eggs of the Indigo Bird, 435. A Snail-like Caterpillar, 435. The 
Horned Corydalus, Illustrated, 436. Breeding Place of the Pelican, 436. 
Generic and Specific Names, 438. Analogy and Homology, 438. The 
Aquarium, 438. Teaching of Natural Science in Public Schools, 439. 
Method of obtaining a new Queen Bee from Worker-grubs, 430. Novel 
way of Shooting Eagles, 439. The Breeding Habits of Birds, 496. 
Change of Color in Fish, 497. Common Objects of the Country, 549. 
The Tiger-beetle, Illustrated, 552. The Dodo, 614. Singular Variety 
of the Field Sparrow, 614. The Gigantic Birds of the Mascarene 
Islands, Illustrated, 615. The Eagle a Fisher, 614. 

Geology.— Discovery of a Human Jaw in a Belgian Bone Cave, 
p. 53. A Lizard-like Serpent from the Chalk-formation of England, 53. 
Discovery of Chalk in Colorado and Dacota Territories, 53. The first 



The Absence of the Northern Drift Formation from the western coast 
of North America, 157. Advance of Geological Science, 212. The 
two earliest known Races of Men in Europe, 272. The Miocene Ter- 
tiary Flora of North Greenland, 325. Origin of Life on our Globe, 
439. The Crinoidal Banks of Crawfordsville, Indiana, 554. 

Microscopy.— Test Objects, p. 15S. Diatoms, 158. Method of 
teaching Science. l.",:». The Microscope in Medical Jurisprudence. 
213. The Polycystina, 213. The Volvox and its Parasite, 276. Phos- 
phorescent Entomostraca, 325. Preparation of Snail's Tongues, 440. 
The movements of the Diatomaceae, 441. The Surface Fauna of Mid- 
ocean, 555. Student's Microscope, 616. 

NATURAL HISTORY CALENDAR. 
Ornithological for March, p. 54. New England Reptiles in April, 
107. Ornithological for April, 109. The Insects of Early Sprin<*, no! 



Ornithological for May; The Insects of May, Illustrated, 160. The 
Insects of June, Illustrated, 220. The Insects of July, Illustrated, 277. 
The Insects of August, Illustrated, 327. Insects in September, 391. 

Correspondence. — On the Winter L'lumage of the Guillemot, p. 53. 
Wasps as Marriage Priests to Plants, Illustrated, 105. Good Books on 
Natural History and Taxidermy, 160. The Trichina spiralis, Illustra- 
ted, 214. The Study of Science and the Classics, 219. The False- 
Scorpion, 220. Preparation of Snail's Tongues for the Microscope, 
326. Works on North American Lichens. 326. The Aquarium, 327. 
About Snails, 441. Essay on Classification, 441. Works on Entomol- 
ogy, 441. Comb-like formation on Birds, 498. Fern, 498. Proceed- 
ings American Association, u-h. <;v obtained, 556. Works on Entozoa, 
556. Snake Charming. 55''.. Gordius, 556. Exchanges, 556. 

Scientific Explorations, p. 159, 213, 216. 

Proceedings of Scientific Societies, pp. 55. 56, 112, 164, 166, 
167. 168. 224, 270. 2S0. 330, 331. 4 12. 144. 447. l',is. 556, 559, 674, 680. 



LIST OF PLATES 



LIST OF WOOD-CUTS. 






ILLUSTEATIOXS. 



IATA, VOL. 






AMERICAN NATURALIST. 



Vol. 1.-MAECH, 1867.-NO. 1. 



INTRODUCTORY. 

In laving befoiv our readers this first number of a pop- 
ular scientific monthly, wo commence a publication in 

The rapidly increasing interest in the study of the va- 
rious departments of Natural History invites the establish- 

of scientific study, and thus serve as a medium between 
the teacher and the student, or, more properly, between 
the older and the younger student of nature. 

If the reader, however slight his intercourse with 
nature may have been, shall find something in these pa- 
ges to stimulate his zeal, and direct his mind to the right 

concerning the haunts and habits of his favorites of the 
wood, the lake and the seashore, the great aim of this 



2 INTRODUCTORY. 

journal will be accomplished. Should it do no more than 
to bring naturalists, both young and old, into an active 
cooperation and sympathy, and promote good fellow-hip 
and amity between the great brotherhood of enthusiasts, 
as all true naturalists are, we shall gain a most important 
object. Tin; value of our Magazine will depend more on 
its power to awaken the ateorbing interest invariably ex- 



of natuiv. The value of the - 






nth for the truth's sake, let us not tor^t 
which interest alike the philosopher and the 
turalist in all facts concerning the origin of 



INTRODUCTORY. 

life and of specific forms, whether by dir 
in- seoondarv laws as claimed by the folio* 

or Darwin. In his work "On the Oriir 
Darwin -atlu-rs nianv of his most inmmt-n, 



aa respecting the 

ered in onr eol- 



Sneh. then, shall be the leading object of the journal— 
to amuse the reader, perhaps decoy him within the temple 
of nature ; and, if he be a willing student, instruct him in 
some of its mysteries. 



The matter offered to our reader's acceptance will be 
mostly drawn from original sources. Occasionally Ave 
shall extract from the pages of our contemporaries. The 
most recent discoveries of general interest will be gleaned 
from the English, German, and French reviews and jour- 
nals,— for science is cosmopolitan. Thus, following My 
Lord Bacon's bidding, we shall "prick in some flowers 



of this our Naturalists' Companion and Solace. 

The editorial responsibility seems great, and nothing 
but the boundless wealth of nature spread out before us 




THE LAM) SNAILS OF MAY KNOLAXD. 



the Land Sua 


ils of New Engl: 


md, wi 


th til 


e iul 


tention of 


carefully figur 


tag every 


spech 


•s of L 


md i 


mail 


known to 


occur within 1 


he prescr 


ibed b 


oundar 




We 


shall also 


giveageueral 


history ot 


' the gr 


oup, 111 


entioi 


ling 


the hiding 


places of dim 


■rent spec 


ies, an 


d whal 


:ever 


tact- 


i we may 


think of interc 


st to the o 


general 


reader 








Certainly a 


more unas 


sumimj 


[ subjoc 


•t con 


id Q< 


)t well be 


studied, for a 


side from 


the , 


oothing pie 


asurc 


i of lying 


down, dorsal i 


vgion upp 


ermost 


, in -so 


me s 


eclud 


ed grove, 


and hunting fc 


1 r half ad; 


iv anio 




deca\ 


ing 1 


eaves, up- 


turning the different lay 


era of 


success 


ive ai 


itum 


ual depos- 


its of wither** 




even a- 


5 the g( 


"Olugi 


st th 


rows open 


the different pages of the 


S "Gre 


at Ston 


e Bo« 


>k," 1 


he earth's 


crust, in que* 


ft of matt 


•rial fa 


r stud, 


v.— a 


side from this 


quieting pursu 


it, we hav 


e no st 


irring i 


ncide 


nts ii 


i their life 


to contemplate 


s, no frant 


ie hop 


>, skip- 


*, and 


jum 


ps of the 


insect tribe, in 


) terrible 1 


>ites to 


dread. 


or p 




ous stings 


to shrink from 


, no euem 


v of Ol 


ir hnsb 


andn 


• (e* 


•ept oocar 


sional injury 


from the 


garden 


. slug) 


to h 


aril... 


no giant 


stride or rapid 


L speed to 


womle 


r at ; t 


brth« 


a sob 


il is pro- 


vorhially slow 


in every r 


espect. 


AVhc 


n dis 


turbe 




not, like many 


other animals, s1 


niggle 


yiole 


mly 


to escape. 



shell. Even the heart, which in 
tated, pulsates with increasing t 
similar excitement, throbs with i 



b THE LAND SNAILS 

we do believe that the careful study of a common snail will 
reveal the wonders of God's Providence in as forcible a 
manner as the history of the higher forms of animal life. 
Before presenting an account of the different species of 
land snails to be met with in New England, we must 
first learn something about the habits and anatomy of the 
group in general. Land Snails arc universally distributed 
throughout the world, occurring under stones in open 
pastures, beneath the dead leaves and prostrate trees of 
the forest, in the interstices of bark, clinging to shrubs and 
spears of grass, lurking under damp moss, and occupving 
other positions of a similar nature. As they are depend- 
ant on the presence of a certain degree of moisture for 
their perpetuation and increase, they are more abundant 
in warm and damp regions, and are therefore found in 
greater numbers on island., while in dry and desert places 
they are scarcely known to occur. 

The land snails attain their greatest size and beauty in 
the tropics; the species diminishing [ n number and size as 
we approach the poles. Certain South American species 
attain the length of six inches, and the young when first 
hatched from the egg (which is as large as that of a pig- 

We turn however with relief from the gaudy colored 
shells of the Equator, to our more humble representatives 
of the North, both modest and unpretending in size and 
color. The species native to the Ignited States are essen- 
tially inhabitants of the forest, ami there, dwelling un. Im- 
material for our study. 

Figures 9, 10, and 11, plate 1, represent the com- 
mon large snail of our woods, the white lipped snail or 
Helix albolabris. This snail is distributed throughout all 



with a.s much oerti 



lotion of all these hi 
the disk, or surface u 
nv, or viscid substanc 



formed on the stick, and the 
This provision to guard aga 



ly a ball of mucus will be 
nt finally rendered smooth. 
such conditions, fairly ex- 



8 THE LAND SNAILS 

hausts the snail in its attempts to pass the barrier, for the 
more abundant the secretion, the greater the entangle- 
ment, and finally the snail dies from exhaustion. Protec- 
tions of this kind would be of no use in rainy weather, as 
the sand adheres together, and the snail can then pass 
over it very easily. 

Certain species of slugs (Fig. 13, Plate 1), that is, 
snails having no coiled shell, but alike in other respects, 
have the singular power of lowering themselves from some 
projecting point by means of this mucus, which they 
throw off from the posterior end of the creeping disk ; and 
we have seen a common slug (a species occurring abund- 
antly in our garden and fields) , lower itself from the back 
of a high chair to the floor. They have no power, however, 
like the spider, to retrace their course. They will often 
hang suspended in mid air for sometime, apparently for 
no other purpose than to enjoy themselves. 

The snail has no power to leave its shell as many sup- 
pose. The shell is as much a part of the animal, as is the 
hard crust of a beetle a component part of the insect. And 
not only this, the snail is attached to the shell by a per- 
manent muscular attachment, and cannot be withdrawn 
from it alive. In order to clean the shell of its contents, 
it is customary to scald it in boiling water, when the mus- 
cular attachment becomes separated from the shell, and 
the soft parts can be easily removed. The finding of 
empty shells in the woods, has oftentimes been cited as 
a proof that the snail can leave its shell, and the occur- 
rence of certain species of snails which have no visible 
shell, has served to strengthen a belief in this error. 
When the creature dies, the soft perishable parts are soon 
decomposed, or else devoured by insects, leaving the more 
enduring shell as a monument to its memory. On the ap- 






As the snail as i 



ned in this way, one behind the other, allbnlinu a 
e protection against the inroads of cold and water, 
>arentlv of heat as well, since they always do this 

this partition p:.rtakes of a cah a.vous nature, and 
i.rds a more enduring barrier. In the spring time 



,iv hatr|„,l t 



irh the mutual union of two individuals is necessary to 
lize the eggs. They lay from fifty to one hundred 

s in color, and resemble homeopathic pills/ If the 
itions are favorable, the young issue from the eggs in 



the course of two or three weeks, furnished with a shell 
composed of one whorl and a half. The shell is increased 
in size by the addition of calcareous matter round the 
margin of the aperture. The successive lines of growth 
can be easily traced on the shells of most species. They 

The number of eggs produced by an individual varies in 

animal : tlm> in the common sluir. Lnnur. and allied gen- 



fingers. In this dried rendition they have been kept fo: 
long time, and yet a single hour's exposure to humidity a 
warmth, has been sufficient to restore them to their ore 



almost invisible minuteness, yet in oven- interval have 
they regained their original bulk in a moist situation. In 
all these instances the young have been developed, in the 
same manner as other eggs not subjected to this ex- 
periment. (Bimiey. ) This wonderful vitality extends to 
the snail in all stages of its existance. We have seen cer- 
tain species frozen in solid blocks of ice, and yet regain 
their activity when subjected to the influences of warmth. 
Their dependence on moisture naturally places them in 
moist situations, yet we have seen certain species attached 
to leaves, where the sun had shed its scorching rays for 



n.l iKikimr lli.> irnniml as ilrv 






The shell may bo broken, and even portions of it removed, 
and yet ifiera certain lapse of time the injured parts will 
be repaired by a deposition of shell v matter at the frac- 
tured parts. We have thus far examined briefly the gene- 
ral history of the snail. Let us now proceed to examine 
more minutely its anatomit-al eharacters. 

Figure 10, on plate 1, represents the common large 
snail of the woods, the white lipped Helix, or technically 



12 THE LAND SNAILS 

speaking, Helix albolabris. It is represented as crawling 
and consequently extended fully from the shell. The tw< 
larger and two smaller "horns" projecting from the head 
are respectively called the upper or superior, and lowe 

est, and stand uppermost ; at the tips of these are founc 
the eyes, little black specks, though large enough to b. 

gression, appears to depend entirely on the tentacles a 
feelers to guide the wav. While tliev crawl, the tentacle; 



t smell is enjove.l by the snail h;i 
I they will oftentimes travel som 
food for which thev have a par 



fondness ; the exact seat of this sen* 
been a disputed question. An emin 
believ.es it to bo seated at the exti 
tentacles. A magnified drawing is 
1,) of the end of the larger tentacle, 
of the nerves supposed to be the ne 
olfactory nerves, (o, Fig. 1,) these 
threads or branches terminating at th 
bnlb-like tentacle. In this figure the 
the optic nerve, (e. eye, op. optic 
tentacles are retractible, that is, the 
withdrawing within the head, tin 
first, as a glove finger disappears 

smaller, or inferior tentacles, have n< 



i, and the 
y teeth as i 



its course, from the mouth to the stomach, owin<r to 
translucency of tlie snail's body. The lower tip is 
furnished with a plate, but just within the mouth tber< 



14 THE LAXD SNAILS 

spread a membrane, very appropriately called the tongue, 
or lingual membrane, as the snail uses it in lapping its 
food. This membrane is quite long and broad, and is 
. covered with minute silicious denticles, or teeth, as they 
are called. 

As an object for the microscope, it will repay one the 
trouble attendant on dissecting this membrane from the 
mouth of a snail. A magnilied figure of the entire tongue 
is given on plate 1, fig. 6. Xothing can exceed the 
beauty and regularity in the form and arrangement of the 
denticles. These are pointed and turn backwards, thus 
forming a series of little claws and hooks, and are admira- 
bly adapted to perforin the rasping function allotted to 
them ; fig. 1, plate 2, gives a side view of a few of these 
teeth to show their hooked character. The number of den- 
ticles on the tongue is very great. Some species, the 
white-lipped Helix, for instance, having nearly twelve 
thousand denticles. It is dithVult to conceive the minute- 
ness of these particles, when we consider that the mem- 
brane on which they rest is not a quarter of an inch long, 
and only, half as wide. The denticles are arranged in reg- 
ular longitudinal and transverse rows. Figure 3, plate 1, 
represents two transverse rows of these denticles, and fig. 
4 a central tooth, with lateral teeth more highly magnified 
to show their form. It will be noticed that the central 
denticles are symmetrical in form, having the two sides 
alike, while those on each side are not symmetrical. In 
illustrating the dentition of a species, it is only necessary 
to draw one half of one transverse row, including the cen- 
tral denticle, at the same time mentioning the number of 
transverse rows on the membrane ; thus in the white-lip- 
ped Helix, a specimen of which we examined, we found 
eighty-nine denticles in a transverse row, that is, one 



central denticle, flanke 



of denticles in each species varv. as we shall show here- 
after. 

In looking for the breathing hole of the snail, those 
ignorant of ils structure might refer to the mouth as the 

idea that insects breathe through the mouth, because the 
higher animals do so. Now insects breathe through little 
perforations on the sides of their bodv. and the snail has 



a pulsating heart composed of two chambers,. an a, 
' and a ventricle, separated by a double valve. 'J 
art's pulsations can be distinctly seen through the to 



back from the animal, exposing the heart. Fig. 12 repre- 
sents the heart and lung of a common slug. It would 
lead us too deep into the anatomy of the snail, were we 
to indicate the character and position of the liver, kidney. 
and many other organs which Combine to make up the 
complicated structure of our apparently simple snail. Suf- 
fice it to say, that however insignificant many of the lower 



16 THE VOLCANO OF 



animals appear to the common observi-r, yet a d<.-><_-ription 
of their minute anatomy alone would form many a chapter 
of surpassing interest to those who delight in contempla- 
ting the perfection of God's works. 

In our next paper we shall commence the description 
of the different species of land snails to be found in New 
England. 



Magnified 



THE VOLCANO OF KILAUEA, HAWAIIAN 
ISLANDS, IN 1864-65. 



Soon after one o'clock we came upon the brink of the 
great crater. From below us steam and vapor rose in a 
sluggish column, but we saw no fire and heard no noise : 
the conflagration had, as it were, left nothing but smoking 
ruins to mark the scene of its triumph. The deep plain 
before us was surrounded with steep rock-walls, from 



Geysers of California, with great 

The steam had no smell of sulphur, 

ing luxuriantly over the openings, 

■inking wafer in this tire-searched 



we found on our left a ridge of reddish earth, from which 

ces. This was the western Sulphur Bank, and in its cracks 
were forming the most beautifully delicate crystals of sul- 
phur, almost mosslike : and here and there a blue crystal 
of sulphate of copper, and greenish masses of sulphate of 
iron. The earth, which is formed by the decomposition 
of the lava, was quite hot, and we found some natives 
cooking fern stalks in the steam. 

While we were examining the sulphur deposits, our 
men came up with our blankets, and we at once engaged 
an old kanaka who lived near by, to guide us down into 
the crater. Two other kanakas went with us to carry 
water and bring back specimens. The descent was at iirst 
quite steep, down the hard grey walls ; and then the path 
wound along on broken shelves, under a grand precipice 
two or three hundred feet high, quite perpendicular, and 



18 THE VOLCANO OF KLLAUEA, 

looking as if built of regular blocks of stone. Small shrubs 
grew by the way, and we pieked berries (vaeciiiium) in 
abundance. At last after a rapid descent on a steep grav- 
elly bank, we stepped into the fresh black lava of the 
crater floor. This floor looked quite smooth and level 
from above, but we found it was very rough and uneven. 
The fresh lava we first met had broken up during the last 
winter and overflowed all the end of Kilauea, and it was 
piled in twisted masses and broken slabs and bubble. 



Hal 



their V<iti 



ore thickly covered with Pc 
av^dashairainst the walls. 



often 
aking 



since six o'clock in the morning, ami ho 
the night when the tires would be more 

by, went to sleep a few rods from the 
o'clock I waked, and as the niirlit air was 
to the very edge of the crater to warm 
the magnificent fireworks. The moon ^ 
full, but her light was dull beside the (h 



■yself, and enjoy 
is up and almost 
iqf.Pele; Find- 



HAWAIIAN ISLAXDS, IX 1*64-65. 21 

and shake them roughly. When they at last reached the 
edge the action had greatly diminished, and in a few 
minutes more the dark crust covered the central portion, 
extending rapidly to the sides, and after watching the last 
crack close, we "all went to sleep again. I was glad to 
see such distinct flames, as their existence has been denied 
in volcanoes. They were bluish-green, and shot up in 
tongues or wide sheets a foot long. 

In the morning we found it very misty, and the mist 

the hole in the top. Wo could see that it was white-hot 
within, but we were unable to excite it, although we threw 
in pieces of scoria, and poked it with our sticks. On the 
other side of the path was a cone, long and irregular, with 
many pinnacles from uhi.-h K'uHi -hkI.' i->uod. We got 
quite wet in climbing up the bank, and at seven o'clock 
were eating our bivakfast in the grass house on the upper 
ledge. 

A year afterwards I again went to Kilauea. Many 
changes had taken place. Lua Pele was much larger, and 
two new pools had opened during the winter. The place 
where I slept last August had 'melted away, and I was 
obliged to camp in another place. The superstitions of the 
natives have always been greatly excited while in this cra- 
ter, and I saw many reasons for it. As we walked towards 

men walking to and fro on the brink, and asked my guide 
what strangers had been down into the crater. " "Aole 

spirit) said the old man, so solemnly that I was startled. 
As the steam moved in the wind, it opened and brought 
to view the black cliffs beyond, and this we had taken for 



moving men, not reflecting that the forms must have been 
gigantic at such a distance from us. In ancient time- the 
bodies of the chiefs who worshipped Pele were committed 
to this pit. 

As we were sitting on the brink, a shrill shriek broke 
through the night air. We could see the black walls of the 
crater all around us, and between us and the pathway leading 
out, a line of wateMres, and I was quite as much impress- 
ed as my natives with the direful stories they had been 
telling me. The shriek was repeated, and it was evidently 
the utterance of a human being in great agony. Lighting 
the lantern we had brought for any emergency, we went 
slowly towards the place, until the shriek was littered at 
our very feet. We hastily examined the cracks and call- 
ed, but there was no answer, and all was still. We looked 
everywhere, finding no one, and turned to go back, think- 
ing some poor kanaka, venturing down in the dark, 
i into some crack, and at last died. 

We had gone but a few rods when the shriek was repeat- 
ed. The natives clung to me in mortal terror, but I in- 
sisted on going back, and placing the lantern on a rock, 
we sat down to await developments j it seemed as though 
the question, "are there any spirits present ?" was quite 

and I could feel the poor fellows tremble as they sat close 
up to me. Then the shriek was repeated, but we saw the 
spirit that made it, — a jet of steam — and my hoys were 
encouraged. 

The smaller lakes were close to- the surface, and 1 could 
put my stick into the melted mass. It was strange to see 
how soon the lava cooled on the surface. As soon as it 
had ceased bubbling, I threw a small perfectly dry stick 
of wood into it, and it was more than fifteen minutes be- 
fore it smoked much. 



tlnor of this vnst pit 

at times has been quit 



Tl IK FOSSIL RFITlLKs < >F \F.\V .IF.KSFY. 






the lH.mi.la 






elude the remains of those ereatures that have died near the 



24 THE FOSSIL REPTILES 

shore and been washed into the sea, or have died in the 
ocean. "With a continued sinking, including now the red 
sandstone, The newer deposits reached in time the level of 
its summits: and during the subsequent and long contin- 
ued rise, a succession of sea beaches gradually extended 
the area of the land to the south east. Abundant vegeta- 
tion clothed the shores, which supported insect life and 
large herbivorous animals, which were in turn fed upon 
by smaller and larger carnivorous forms. The period dur- 
ing which the deeply buried strata at the side of the red 
sandstone was deposited, is called by geologists that of 
the Lower Cretaceous; while that which forms the surface 
resting upon the last, and extending from the red sand- 
stone over nearly half the remainder of the state of New 
Jersey, is the Upper Cretaceous formation. During the 
deposition of the former, extensive beds were being laid 
down in various parts of the earth, especially western 
Europe, which entombed similar animal and vegetable 
types. With the Later Cretaceous of New Jersey also, 
corresponding strata were deposited in the far west of 
North America, and Europe, including in England the 
well known white chalk rock. At the close of this epoch, 
New Jersey, most probably, had accomplished in its -outh 
eastern section a very extended and considerable eleva- 
tion, and at the same time vast changes in other regions 
of the earth caused a great change in the temperature; so 
great as to destroy all animal life then existing. It is 
also certain that the south eastern extremity of the region 
underwent a second gradual descent, and was again cover- 
ed with water to a coast line running north east and 
southwest, dividing the present land between the south 
western bend of the Dele ware and the present coast line 
into two nearly equal areas. Then began again the deposi- 



The beds of 
upper Cretaceoi 



which inhabited delicate, almost microscopic shells, cc 
posed of numerous cells. After their death the chaml 
of the cells became filled with the fine mud formed 
dissolved clay, oxide of iron and other substances, wh 



port on the Geology of Xe 



liar color from the protoxide of iron. 

The valuable properties of this niarl, as a ,„ 

vegetables and animals formerly duelling in the 
on the neighboring shores. The numerous fos 



valuable Ke- 
en the l,eds 

■ft only the 
Hence the 

ig its pecu- 



hggings, have sup} 



art this material. Most of 



FOSSIL REPTILES 



merous Brachiopoda and Cephalopoda, or Cuttle-fish. Of 
the unsynnnetrical univalves, or Gasteropoda, compara- 
tivelv few specimens occur in the Cretaceous marl of New 
Jersey. 

OfVertebrata, or those animals provided with a back 
bone, or vertebral column, numerous species, large and 
small, dwelt on the land and in the water. Their number 
has been so considerable, especially in the region opened 
by the diggings of the New Jersey Marl Company, as to 
materially alt'ect the richness of the marl in phosphate of 
lime. Of cartilaginous vertebrates, such as the Sharks, 
we have found remains of the genera Otodits, Lamna and 

rous but attained a great size, and were of ferocious 
habits. There were also Saw-fishes closely allied to those 
of the present day. Fewer remains of the bony fishes, 
such as the Perch and Cod, have been procured from 
these pits ; while in other neighborhoods Sword-fish and 
long fanged Sphyraina type, have occurred. 

In huge reptiles the region has been especially prolific. 
Through the cure of Superintendent Voorhees, the remains 
of seven of the larger species have been exposed and pre- 
served during the excavations. Four of these belonged to 
the group of Crocodiles ; namely : — 

Thoracosaurus JSTeoccesariensis DeKay ; carnivorous. 

Thomcomurnx ohscurus Leidy ; 

Bottosaurus Harlani Meyer; 

Macrosaurus laevis Owen; ? 

Ilypomurus Rodger si Owen; ? 

These were probably dwellers by the shore, and de- 
vourers of the large fishes and of any luckless reptiles 
strolling on the beach. A gigantic precursor of the still 



OF NEW JERSEY. 



Lacertilia (Lizards) was probabl 
and though not equalling these i 



the large Thoracosaurus. 

Another group of animals, the I )rnns<tvria, while np- 
proaehing in some respects the mammals and birds, pre- 
sented more of the features of the reptiles. Many of them 
were the giants of the land of the Cretaceous time, as 
well as of its waters. Those whose remains have been 
found in the Company's pits, are Lcelaps aquilunguis 
Cope, which was carnivorous, and Hadrosaurus Foulkii 



The last 


was the 


most bulky 


quadruped 


of the 


period 


yet known: 


; a femur 


, or thigh b« 


me, discovc 


■red near Had* 


donficld, m 


easuivs n 


early four f< 


jet in lengtl 


i. The 


animal 


is estimate* 


I hv Prof 


cssor Leidy 


to have be 


en twei: 


tty-live 


feet long. 


The La 


slaps has b 


cen found ] 


rcpresei 


ited in 


the Compa 


ny's pits, 


only by rei 


mains suffic 


•ieirt to 


ensure 


its identic 


•ation, a 


few small i 


neces fr«»m 


the nei 


ghbor- 


hood of F 




described b 

ed, or doub 


y Professor 

tfullv to th 


Leidy. 


'..!" l !! 1 f 



As the former constitute the most complete indication of 
any individual of a carnivorous Dinosaurian hitherto dis- 
covered considerable interest attaches to them. The 

fragments, but th.-y have Ihtu gathered from many diffi- 
reiit localities ; Dinodon is known only from its teeth, 
and Euscelosaurus, of the South African beds, by a femur 

The lightness and hollo wness of the bones of the Lcelaps 



28 THE FOS 

arrest the attention of one accustomed to the spongy, .solid 
structure in the reptiles. This is especially true of the 
long bones of the hind limbs ; those of the fore limbs have 
a considerably less medullary cavity. The length of the 
femur and tibia render it altogether probable that it 
"was plantigrade, walking on the entire sole of the foot 
like the bear. They must also have been very much 
flexed under ordinary circumstances, since the indications 
derivable from two humeri, or arm bones, are, that the 
fore limbs were not more than one-third the length of the 
posterior pair. This relation, conjoined with the massive 
tail, points to a semi-erect position like that of the Kan- 
garoos, while the lightness and strength of the great femur 
ami tibia are altogether appropriate to great powers of 
leaping. The feet must have been elongate, whatever 
the form of the tarsi ; the phalanges, or finger bones, were 
slender, nearly as much >o as those of an eagle, while the 
great claws in which they terminate*! were relatively larg- 
er and more compressed than in the great birds of prey. 
There was no provision for the retractibility observed in 
the great carnivorous mammalia, bat they were always 
■■>. ith .-heath- and crooked points of bone. The 
toes may have been partially webbed, and it is not im- 
probable that the hind legs may have occasionally- been 
most efficient propellers of these animals along the coast 
margins of the Cretaceous sea. 

The hind foot could not have been straightened in line 
with the tibia, owing to a most anomalous structure which 
has only been once before observed, and then in a species 
clearly referred to its type. The distal head of the fibula, 
or small bone of the leg, appears to have embraced and 
capped the tibia like an epiphysis, and to have given at- 
tachment to the bones of the tarsus, by a eondvle directed 



plained. The whole hind leg could not have hern less 
than six feet, eight inches in length. 

Fragments of the jaws indicate a face of very con>ider- 
ahle length, showing shining saw-edged, knife-shaped 
teeth ; hut anv nearer idea of the beast's expression can- 
not now he attained. If he were warm-blooded, as Prof. 
Owen supposes the Dinosauria to have been, he Undoubt- 
edly had more expression than his modern reptilian proto- 
types possess. He no doubt had the usual activity and 
vivacity which distinguishes the warm-blooded from the 
cold-blooded vertebrates. 

We can, then, with some basis of probability imagine 
our monster carrying his eighteen feet of length on a leap, 
at least thirty feet through the air, with hind feet ready to 
strikehis prey vaili fatal gra<p, and his enormous weight 
to press it to the earth. Crocodiles and Gavials must have 
found their bony plates and ivory no safe defence, while 
the Hadrosaurus himself, if not too thick skinned, as in the 
Rhinoceros and its allies, furnished him with food, till 
some Dinosaur! *ed the refuse off to their 

swampy dens. 

This carnivore, then, is an interesting link between 

In the first, all four limbs are equally developed, and sim- 
ilarly employed as weapons of offence ; in the last, the 
functions of the anterior pair are altogether different from 
those of the hind limbs, which are alone armed for the 
capture of food. In the Dinosaur, the hind limbs appear 
to have served the same purpose as in the Raptorial bird, 
while the fore limbs are simply miniatures of the same, 
and chiefly of service in carrying food to the mouth. 

It will readily occur to the pala?ontologist, that the ex- 



30 



THE AMERICAN SILK WORM. 



istence of creatures of the form of Lselaps, Iguanodon, 

:ii!-l ILidrosaur.w, would amply account for the well known 
foot-tracks of the Triassie Red Sandstone of the Connec- 
ticut Valley. The arguments adduced to prove that these 
were made by birds are equally applicable to their indica- 
ting the presence of Dinosaurians ; and as the latter have 
been found very much more ncarh approximated in time 
— as SrdhJostumis in the Jurassic formation — the latter 
-is is altogether the more probable of the two in 
the estimation of the writer. 



THE AMERICAN SILK WORM. 




The insect fauna of North America contains several gi- 
gantic species of moths belonging to the Lepidopterous 
family Bombycidae. This family has long been known 
to spin when in the larval, or caterpillar state, a cocoon 
which produces a large amount of silk, with a fibre of the 
most delicate texture, of great strength and of the most 



Tin: 



beautiful lustre. Every one is familiar with the beautiful 
and delicate fabric made from the fibres spun by that 
crawling repulsive creature, the silk worm. 

Our country alone has eight or ten species of silk 
worms. Two of these, Callosamia Promethea and C. an- 

strongly gummed, lint I have failed in all n.v attempts to 
reel the silk from the cocoon. These coJoons resem- 
ble very much those of Samia Cvnthia, or the Ailan- 
thus Silk Worm, recently introduced into Europe from 
China, but the cocoon is of a looser texture. Platvsamia 
Euryale, P. Columbia and P. Cecropia feed upon many 
different species of plants ; they make a large cocoon, 

form ; but as the larva in spinning the cocoon, leaves one 
end open for the exit of the moth, this prevents the reeling 
of a continuous thread. The silk, though quite strong, has 
not much brilliancy, and the worm is too delicate to be 



moth with the long tail-like expansion of the hind wings, 

an oval cocoon, which however is so frail and thin, and 
the fibre so weak, that it is impossible to reel it. 

Practically, however, the larva of Telea Polyphemus is 
the only species that deserves attention. The cocoons of 
Platvsamia Cecropia may be rendered of some commercial 
value, as the silk can be carded, but the chief objection as 
stated above, is the difficulty of raising the larva. The Poly- 
phemus worm spins a strong, dense, oval cocoon, which is 
closed at each end, while the silk has a very strong and 
glossy fibre. 



32 THE AMERICAN SILK WORM. 

For over six years I have boon ensured in raiding the 
Polyphemus worm, and here present the following imper- 
fect sketch of the progre-s made from year to year in pro- 
pagating and domesticating these insects from the wild 
stock. 

In 1860, after having tested the qualities of the co- 
coons of the different species of American silk worms, 
I endeavored to accumulate a large number of the cocoons 
of the Polyphemus moth, for the future propagation of 
this species. At first the undertaking seemed very sim- 
ple ; but who will ever know the difficulties, the hardships 
and discouragements which I encountered. This worm 
having never been cultivated, of course its habits were 
entirely unknown, though all success in my undertaking 
depended very much upon that knowledge. However I 
was not discouraged by the diriirulties of the task. The 
first year I found only two caterpillars. The. chance of 
their being each a male and female was very small, and it 
was another question whether the two sexes would come 
out of the cocoon at about the same time for the fecunda- 
tion of the eggs. So success was very doubtful. Spring 
came, and with it one of the perfect insects ; it was a male, 
one, two, three days elapsed, my poor male was half 
dead, the wings half broken, the other cocoon was not 
giving any signs of an early appearance; imagine my 
anxiety ; it was a year lost. The male died on the sixth 
day. The other moth came out more than a fortnight 
after; it was a male also. During the summer of 1861, 
I found a dozen worms, knowing then a little about their 
habits. In the spring of 1862, I was fortunate enough to 
have a pair of these insects that came out of the cocoon at 
the proper time, and I obtained from their union three hun- 
dred fecundated eggs. The pair which gave me these eggs 



or nin< 


■ months 


impri: 




from i 


ts long torpor 


, and signs c 


the n| 


)id motic 


).lofit 


s abdomen. 


ton, tli 


o carlies 


t date 


at which I h 


is the 1 


wentietl: 


i erf Ms 


lv. Fromt] 


of Jul 


y, the m 


OtllS «,< 


>ntinue to « 


The e< 


3C0011 1)( 


■in- p, 


■rfeetly elos 


resinoi 


is substj 


mee u 


niting its si 


ther, il 


; is quite 


lianl J 




teeth, : 


nor insti 


•iinicnt 


of any kin 


the ho 


oked fr< 


•t are 


far too feel 



But the moth must have some moans of exit from the co- 
coon. In fact they are provided with two glands opening 
into the mouth, which secrete during the last few days of 
the pupa state, a fluid which is a dissolvent for the gum 
so firmly uniting the fibres of the cocoon. This liquid is 
composed in great part of bombycic acid. When the in- 
sect has accomplished the work of transformation which is 
going on under the pupa skiu, it manifests a great activ- 
ity, and soon the chrysalis-covering bursts open longitu- 
dinally upon the thorax ; the head and legs are booh dis- 
engaged, and the acid fluid flows from its mouth, wetting 



34 THE AMERICAN SILK WORM. 

the inside of the cocoon. The process of exclusion from 
the cocoon lasts for as much as half an hour. The insect 
seems to be instinctively aware that some time is required 
to dissolve the gum, as it does not make any attempt to 
open the fibres, and seems to wait with patience this 
event. Whe 
the pupa 



len the 
contra,- 

llui.l U 


liquid h 
ts its b. 
nished 

•s the lie 


as f u 
i Ay. 
with 

hard 


and 
Tittl. 

and t 
the 


anetrated the cocoon, 
pressing the hinder 
j hooks, against the 
ids its body; at the 
i the fibres and a lit- 

repeated many times, 

inally the fibres sepa- 
moth. In an instant 


has 1km 


out, aiu 
m brok( 


Ithei 
ML tl 


i the 
ley 1 


whole body appears ; 
lave only been sepa- 


rve the 


so phen, 


omen 


a, 11 


lad cut open with a 



make it solid and air-light : through the transparent mica, 
I could see the movements of the chrysalis perfectly well. 
When the insect is out of the cocoon, it immediately 
seeks for a suitable place to attach its claws, so that the 
wings may hang down, and by their own weight aid the 
action of the fluids in developing and unfolding the very 
short and small pad-like wings. Every part of the insect 
on leaving the cocoon, is perfect and with the form and 

and elongated abdomen, which still gives the insect a 






leformed forev< 
>ping, the afflin 
be wing swell i 



tollowiiu: 



< the extremity of :in.>;ik leaf. Why hr ivinain> there 
g I could not a.scertaiu. The female continues to fly 



about the bushes, and though a virgin, she lays eggs which 
are, however, of no use for the propagation of the species; 
she continues so doing for two or three hours, and then 
rests all night attached to some plant, probably waiting 
for her mate, who during this time has either remained 
motionless, or has been feeding on the sweet exudation of 
the oak leaf. Soon after the female moth has laid these 
useless eggs, the males become very aetive, and ily in 
search of their partners, whom they soon discover, espe- 
cially if there be a slight breeze and the air loaded with 



plants which the 



blunders, and is not so infallible a guide as has beei 
posed. 

The incubation of the eggs lasts ten or twelve da; 

through the shell of the egg ; sometimes the young- 
comes out of the egg tail foremost, as the hole in tin 
is large enough to allow of the exit of the tail, but 
large enough for the head to pass through, so the w* 
condemned to die in the egg. As soon as it is fairly '. 
ed out, the larva continues for sometime eating tin 
shell, and then crawls upon a leaf, going to the end 
where it rests for two or three hours, after which it 1 
to eat. The hatching-out takes place early in the 
ing, from five till ten o'clock ; rarely after this tinu 



s it- skin' live times during its larval life The moulting 
akes place at regular periods, which come around about 



four o'clock in the afternoon : a little before this time the 
worm holds its body erect, grasping the leaf with the two 
pairs of hind legs only; the skin is wrinkled and detached 
from the body by a fluid which circulates between it and 
the worm ; two longitudinal white bands are seen on each 
side, produced by a portion of the lining of the spiracles, 
which at this moment have been partly detached ; mean- 
while the contractions of the worm are very energetic, and 
by it the skin is pulled off and pushed towards the poste- 
rior part ; the skin thus becomes so extended that it soon 
tears, first under the neck, and then from the head. When 

and now the process of moulting goes on very rapidly. 
By repeated contractions the skints folded towards the 
tall, like a glove when taken off, and the lining of the spir- 
acles comes out in long white filaments. When about one- 
half of the body appears, the shell still remains like a 
cap, enclosing the jaws, then the worm as if reminded of 

is attached to the fastening made for the purpose. Once 



out of its old skin, the worm makes a careful review of the 
operation, with its head feeling the aperture of every spir- 
acle, as well as the tail, probably for the purpose of re- 
moving any broken fragment of skin which might have 
remained in these delicate organs. Not only is the outer 
skin cast otf, but also the lining of the air tubes and intes- 
tines, together with all the 'chewing organs and other appen- 
dages of the head. After the moulting, the size of the 
larva is considerably increased, the head is large compared 
with the body, but eight or ten days later it will look small, 
as the body will have increased very much in size. This 
is a certain indication that the worm is about to moult. 

period is about sixteen days. 



-To be continued. 



\VI\TKi: XOTKS OF AX ORNITHOLOGIST. 



Meadow Lark, 



Of the tone or typical Fak 



that a careful observer will ordin:: 



40 WINTER NOTES 

first of these, the dreaded I Mick Hawk, is frequent along 
the sea border and larire open rivers where abound the 
aquatic birds that form his chief prey. The celebrated 
White Hawk or Jer-Falcon (Falco candicans Gm.) is 
larger and more powerful even than the Peregrine, but it 
comes to us so rarely from its remote arctic home, as; to be 
justly considered but an accidental wanderer. 

Of the hawks, properly so called : namely, the >hort wing- 
ed and "ignoble" birds of prey, the majority are migrato- 
ry in the more northern sections of the Union, going south 
in winter. One, however, the Gos-IIawk ( Asftir atrica- 
pillus Bon.) is a winter visitor, and subsisting upon rab- 
bits, partridges, jays, and such other birds and poultry as 
fall in his way, is a bird of considerable celebrity for his 
strength and boldness. Formerly his European ally of 
the same name, and with which the earlier ornithologies 
. was held in great esteem in 
hawking, and according to Pennant, was considered of 
unequalled value among the short winged hawks for the 
purposes of falconry. It is, moreover, when mature, ot 
beautiful plumage, the white under surface being elegantly 
pencilled transversely with waved ashy-brown lines, and 
with broader longitudinal stripes of a dark ferruginous 
hue. The young are more plainly colored, and differ for 
several years so widely from their parents, as to be hardly 
recognizable as belonging to the same species. I once 
found a wing of this bird, which had been dropped in the 
woods by some bird of prey ; the flesh had been torn 
from it, leaving only the bones of the upper and fore 
arm, and the primary quills, showing that even such ty- 
rants of the air are not exempt from enemies more pow- 
erful even than they. Possibly it was the Duck Hawk 
that in this case was the destroyer, since its representa- 



^ The well known - Hod-tail," '< Buteobnrealis Tim.) from 
on the poultry. Several kin,], of large and sluggish hanks 



Ma.sh Harrier (<■,>,/*//„,/*„„/,* 
idly over the snowy fields in o* 



White-headed, or Bald Eagle (llalhvtus hucocephalus 
Savig.), most inappropriately chosen for our national 
emblem. The Golden Eagle (Abulia Canadensis Cass.) , 






the north. The resident kinds of mo 
■nee are the Mottled Owl, (Scons ash 



.irds of night" 
mid, though in 



(tfy 


at Owl (B, 


ibo Virgin* 


71*2 


.), the Barn 
ort-eared Owl 


( Brc 






' Brew.), 'a 


ndthe L( 


mg-eared Ow 


I ( OfH 


ir//, 


fonianus Lc 


jss. ) Of t 


he migraf 


ray species th 


e mos 


eunn 


non and be* 


it known is 


the Snow; 


rOwi<JVycte 


a -nivc 



Owl (SyrniuM cinereum And.), one of the largest 
most handsome of the American Owls, pavs us a 



from his home in the Canada* and sub-aivtic regions. In 
northern New England the semi-diurnal Hawk Owl (&>•- 
niaulula Bon.) is comparati\ ely common, and lurking 
near the hunter profits by the pieces of game which he 
throws away, or now and then captures wounded birds. 



restless and impa 


1. In the 


Belling with the J 


ays, which 




i hot pursu 


trembling with ft 

In winter all ( 


■ight. 


to™*; perhai * n 


less Iron 



tl Inn i it! e Kii 



Our winter field birdi 

family, or Friiurillida». 
Bunting (IVectrophanes 
gest, and when whirling 

flocks, their white, wing.- 
one of the most attrae 
commonly appearing ali< 



the mountain, or migrate hundreds of miles to the north- 
is the Yellow Bird (Chrymmitris fr/st)* Rom. ) . hut so 
changed in appearance in his plain winter suit of drab 
that he is scarcely recognised as the beautiful Gold- 
finch we so much admired in summer. Feeding on the 






44 WINTER NOTES 

abundant supply of nutritious seeds furnished by the 
weeds that rise above the snow, as well as on the seeds of 
the hemlock, the spruce, the larch, the alder and birch of 
the swamps and thickets, he never lacks for food, even in 
the severest weather; roving in flocks, social and joyful, 
he seems the very ideal of contentment. One of his more 
common associates is the Pine Finch, or Northern Siskin, 
{C.pinus Bon.) ; though rather more partial to the for- 



ests tL 


ian he, they grcatl 


y rcseml)] 


e each otto 


■r in their 


notes i 


md general habits 


"; but the 


latter, fron 


i its more 


point cm 


L wings and slendc 


t form, is 


swiftest in 


flight, and 


its nut! 


;es milder and mo 


re wiry n< 


•tes, often h 


card while 


e of the members of 


■thislnrgc 


family, such 


.as the two 


specie 


of Crossbills, depc 


nd so miK 


h for food c 


ai the eon- 


ifcrou* 


forests as to be s 


cldoin sec 


n far away 


from their 


border 


s. The Common 


or lied ( 


rossbill (( 


Jtn-virostra 


Ameri 


Bona Wilson), tho 


uuh parti; 


illv resident 


is of ele- 


sulton 


r habits, and is nev 


er coillllln 


nlv seen. e> 


:cept when 


the pi 


ne woods, their u 


sual home 


, are well ! 


Laden with 


cones. 


The White-wii 


.iged (C. 


lew-opera 


Wilson), 


its sm 


aller but more be 


•autiful co 


ngener. and 


an innate 


itant o 


f the northern fore 


■sts of the 


Old World 


as well as 


of An 


icriea, we only see 


at irregul; 


m intervals, 


, eommon- 


ly yea 


i-s apart. The wi 


iAter of 1 


859-60 is : 


memorable 


with 1 


jird collectors for 


their gr< 




ice in our 


spruce 


and larch swamps, 


, as well a.< 


5 for the occ 


urrencc of 


a very 


unusual number oi 


; other northern stran< 


rers. The 


Crossl 


)ills, by the great si 


trength of 


' their max 


illary mus- 


cles, i 


md their strong < 


ippositelv 


curved mar 


idil)ies,aro 


able to pry open the tii 


:h;l\ ;ij»jir 


i>ssed scales 


of the fir 


cones, 


and to extract a1 


pleasure 


the oily sc 


eels, which 


other 


birds equally fond ( 


>f have to 


wait for tb 


u elements 



locally distrib 
few species il 



chard and 
ofthee-e;s 



Aud.), despised 



:o the 



plyof -ml» and other n<»xi„us insect larv; 
liberally, and their labors thus contrihu 
welfare of the tanner. Capable of withstanding the de- 

of our ]ar-er birds, he needs but little encouragement to 
beeome one of our most familiar and useful birds. 

ding the rasorial kinds, or the Grouse and their allies, 



4fj WINTER NOTES 

and others of e pial interest with those already mentioned. 
we have but space to notice very briefly some of our win- 
ter water-fowl. Those found at this season inland or re- 
mote from the sea, arc so exceedingly few as scarcely to 
attract attention. They arc confined exclusively to the 
tribes of Ducks and Grebes. The Whistle-wing or Gold- 
en-eyed Duck (Bucephala Americana Baird) , the Goos- 
ander or Sheldrake (Mnyus Americanm Cass.) and the 
Hooded Merganser {Lophorbjte* cmullatm Reich.), arc 
occasionally seen on the rivers about open water, being 
much more common at the beginning of the season or 

however, are found iium-rous repr—nt .lives, many of 
which are visitors from more norfi.ru regions. and nearly 

far inland. These by their numbers serve most agreeably 
to enliven our bleak coast. Such are the Gannets and 
Shearwaters, Jager Gulls and Terns, with the Eider 
Duck, Puffin, Auks and Guillemots. 

The number of common species of winter birds is less 

seasons; while the difference in the total number of indi- 
viduals is even much greater, a scarcity of birds being 
eminently, in our latitude, one of the characteristics of the 
season of winter. 

In reviewing carefully a complete list of our Winter 
Birds, we are forcibly struck with the small proportion 
of species that can be considered as regularly common. 
Thus, out of nearly sixty species of inland birds that are 

find but fourteen that we can hope to meet with at all 
frequently ; the remaining seventy-six per cent, falling 
into the class of rare, though regularly occurring, migrants 



of irregular visitor- to the regular, i- perhaps well exhib- 
ited bv the subjoined tabular resume: 



The following table fur 
presented, and the numbe 
the number resident and i 



Falconidse (Hawks) . 



The whole number of families represented, as maybe 
seen from the above exhibit, is eighteen ; only five (Fal- 
conidse, Strigida-. FriiuriHida-. Anatid;e. ( olymbida?) have 
each more than three speeies, and excepting those of one 
family (Fringillida?), are all to be reckoned among the 
rarer kinds. The Fringillidre, or Finch family, has the 
greatest number, and probably in individuals outnumbers 
all the others together; it has. however, but a single resi- 



dent species (the Yellow Bird ), and on.lv two (the Yellow 
Bird and Tree Sparrow), that can he counted as regularly 



,e species furnished l»y each, all, as already ohser 
i rather rare species. 



group, behiu- tluvc 



Transactions of the Uoyal Academy of Sciei 



Natural History of Animals. By Prof. Sanborn Tenney and Mrs. 
Abby A. Tenney. New York, 18G6. Scribncr & Co. 12mo. 
This little work, as tin; title indicates. presents in a general way the 



and more j 



Ox the Young Stages ok a ei:w Anne 
From the Annals of the Lyceum of 1 
Vol. viii., p. 303. June, 18GG, G plates, j 
In this Interesting article we find accom 
of our common marine worms. Though 1 
the difficulty of obtaining these creatures 



able. The young Is provided with two 

grade course of development in the c!a 



NATURAL HISTORY MISCELLANY. 



■ 



WTKAL HISTORY 



ZOOLOGY. 

The Edible Crab in Salem. — A lan,<v speeime 
Edible Crab of the Southern markets, Ln;><( <U<:<u 
the Millpond duriiiic the past winter. With the e> 
specimen found on Phillips' Beach, it has not bel 

■■■ salt.— (."'. ('< 



drones from ot 



04 NATURAL HISTORY CALENDAR. 

NATURAL HISTORY CALENDAR. 

Ornithological Cai.f.xdau foil m uicii. — In this Calendar we have 
endeavored to indicate the average time of the arrival and departure 
of the migratory birds in the State of Massachusetts for this month; 
in years when the cold of winter ceases earlier or later than the aver- 
age opening of spring, as well as in districts north or south of this 
State. When the dates are found to be respectively too early or too 
late, the difference increasing in the latter, cease with the increase of 
the difference in latitude. Thus, some birds wintering in the Southern 
States, reach Washington, D. C, in their northward migration three 
weeks earlier than they do Massachusetts ; in Southern Pennsylvania 
two weeks, and Southern New York nearly one week earlier ; while 
the same species commonly reach the middle of Maine some ten to 
twelve days later than they do Massachusetts. 

1st to 10th.— Blue BinR Son- Sparrows, Robins, Purple Grakles, 
Red-winged Black Birds,Rusty Grakles and Cow Birds begin to arrive. 

10th to 20th.— The preceding become more common. Meadow 
Larks, Bridge Tewees or Ph,ebe s Snow Rirds and Purple Finches, 









individuals, as the Marsh, Red-tailed, Red->hould< 

in numbers by arrivals from the South. The Goshawks, Snowy Owls 

northwards. 

20th to 31st.— All those previously arrived receive new accessions 
to their numbers, and become generally distributed. Grass Finches, 
Mourning or Carolina Turtle Doves, Passenger Pigeons (of late, uncer- 

{Anas obscura), Cana la and Branr („ , ,. . ( ,, M ,„ all(1 , ^ or sheldrakes, 
Whistle-wings or Golden-eyes, Wood and Pintail Ducks. Red-breasted 
and Hooded Mergansers, Divers, and several species of Grebes be°in 
to frequent the rivers and open ponds, as well as i he coast. Some°of 

Gulls, and Guillemot-,, return northward-;; other kinds as the Red- 
headed, Canvas-back, Ruddy. Surf Duck-. Sen r-. Kin-, Kider-. Kitti- 
wake and Bonaparte's Gulls. Arctic Tern, and other" species of the 
Duck and Gull tribes begin to arrive fro in the South: Snow r,mitin."s 



• ill, the Arctic Three-toe, 
>er Redpoll, leave for the n 
Such early breeding spec 
luring this m 



Vhite-headed Eagle, Duck Hawk 



PROCEEDINGS OF SCIENTIFIC SOCIETIES. 



mh!i:iv or -VuiKu. Hi>toky. .r«,,i<.n;j'2, 1867.— Mr. Ho- 
?xhibited a lanrc panoramic i-hoto-niph Q f the crater on 

. of Ilak-akala. the mountain oC Ea-i Maui, Hawaiian I>- 



ea. Its depth 

is about 2.000 lV'ft. and the comparatively level plain which forms 
its floor, therefore, at an elevation of 8,000 feet. The whole cir- 
cumference of the crater is thirty or thirty-five miles, it being one of 
the largest in the world. 

Mr. Winwood Reade, of England, who was present as a visitor, read 
to the Society a paper upon the habits of the Gorilla, the result of his 
pergonal invest igai ion in the Gaboon region. 

Section of Entomology, Jan. 23.— Mr. Scudder remarked on a small 
collection of ius>il insects obtained by Prof. William Denton, in the 
Tertiary, probably Miocene, beds of Green River, near the boundary 
line of Colorado and Utah Territories. The number of species amounts 
to about fifty, though they are so imperfectly preserved as to be diffi- 
cult, it' not impossible, to identify. 



Tipulidse. There are 
Among the larvae are t 
longing to species of v 



A paper \ 



THIS 

AMERICAN NATURALIST. 

Vol. 1.— APRIL, 1867.— No. 2. 

THE MOSS-ANIMALS, OR FRESH WATER 
POLYZOA. 



bed, than tin 


■ M(,SS- 


Animal, 


,"t1h-^ 


i carefully e 


*,.». 


flowers may b 


e found 


in con 


inutilities, 


expandin" 


ih.-ir 


shadowv plum 
tached to the 


mider'ti 


• darkei 
ide of i 


r reeesses 


slicks, logs 




stones. 












Figures 1, : 


>. and 3, 


, in the 


plate, sh< 


w three of 


these 



.'11 the eulonv is ,li, 



little nap outside of the nn 
:ure. The two exceptions I 



as their marine relatives, the Gymnolaemata, or Polyzoa 
with unguarded throats. Notwithstanding their harsh 
scientific name, the Phylactolaemata are light, elegant, 
mossy growths, and, when placed under a low power 
of the microscope, are even more beautiful than the 
flowers they resemble. 

Their plant-like aspect, however, is a mere semblance, 
notwithstanding the branching mode of growth. If Ave 
examine any one specimen of the genus Fredericella, we 






with tli. 


B main 1 


cell '(tig 


. 4) i^a ' 


and mus 


clis of on 


to other; 


S and so : 


munitv. 


that it c: 


individ.i 


al. An 


followin 


IT the bent 


itself an 


isolated, 



although situated outside of the mouth (fig. 5, 1"), it sec 



the innumeral. 
themselves, at 


l little thread, eause. 


il by the movements of 

in. The hairs, or cilia, 


uity, but the v 


raves thev make in t 




seen. So man, 


7 thousands of these 


cilia are simultaneously 


moving upwai 


d on the outer sid< 
>n their inner side 


•s of the threads, and 
B, that they force the 



till." The thousands of sleepless cilia are day and nijK 
constantly in motion, drawing into the throat' an endless 

thus all the organs work harmoniously! like machinery 

food, which, when assimilated, supplies the waste Occa- 
sioned by the great activity of these parts. The threads 



or tentacles, also \)v> 




in many , 


other ways. 


They 


any objectionable i 


vitl. in,-al< 
minitil w\ 


ailal)le nq 


►idity, bani 


X". 


sitiou to pry into t 
bend over and eject 
need a little cleaiiii 


••into the 


its nay d( 
stomach 


; or, if the 


' itself 


clin-ino- to the side 


3. They 


are most 8 


.musi,,-. ho< 


,VV.T 



1-. 4, G). Rrtuven I 



like projection of the . 
"lass, uhich takes the , 



o the pellucid tube, just 
id not lhr from the mouth 












walU 






■-■ 



sion, forcing it first to one end, and then back again to 
the other, from which it entered, until the particles arc 
all crushed and reduced to a pulp. These violent con- 
vulsions also serve another purpose ; they squeeze the 
nutritious matter, resulting from digestion, out through 
the membranes of the stomach into the cavity of the tube 
and cell, where it becomes mingled with the blood, and 
is carried off to give health and strength to the body. 

We have spoken of the plumes beinir withdrawn, in 
one of the colonies figured, and, though it has been 
only casually mentioned, this lial.it is the greatest obstacle 
to the observer while endeavoring to study their form. If 
the table be shaken ever so lightly, every unfolded crown 
vanishes, and often half an hour or more elapses before 
continued quiet allures them forth. 

All the finely proportioned, transparent parts are bal- 
anced upon a fold of the wall of the tube (fig. 5, B), 
which is retained in its place inside of the cell by many 
muscles, like fine hairs, attached by one end to the fold, 
and by the other to the cell wall (fig. 4, N, N', fig. 5, N). 
A continuation of the fold-membrane carpets the whole 
interior of the cell (fig. 4, 5, E), and to it are attached, 
near the lower end. the muscular fibres which drag the 
crown and the more del ieate external parts into its shel- 
ter, at the approach of dnnirer (fig. 4, M). The muscles 



branches. Thes 


te brai 


tches are art: 


iched 


to the « 


4oma 


ch, 


throat and disc 


near ( 


lie mouth aj 


id 01 


te of then 


Q to 


»h«' 


wall of the tube 


not 1: 


ir from the h 




£ the vei 


1 iiln 


. L 


M,M',M"). i 


'h«-v ar 


e diaphanous 


, but 


their del 


ieate 


as- 


pect is no met 


tsure 


of their stre 


nirth. 


They .. 


jerk 


the 


crown and outer 


• tube i 


vithin the eel 


! qui, 


;ker than the < 


,ye 



till keep up 
bundles of m 



closely togeth- 
be, which has 



esence of an enemy, the 
ously follows, halts a mo- 
olds its circlet of sentient 



:m many more highly organized animals. 
surprU,. us by actions which exhibit 
uiiii'i- to a remarkable extent, and imply 
leation in their relations, both social and 
physical, which the simplicity of the organization, and the 
united sphere of its exercise render doubly interesting 
to the philosophical observer. 

lhc wonders revealed in the structure of these lovely 
dwellers in the perennial shadows of our fresh waters, 
tempt one to linger, but the history of their circulatory 






Fig. 4. Magnified vir.v 
ectocyst; E, pellucid m 
funiculus; M, M', M", i 

ingof the endocyst, th- 

calyx; H, the threads. 

Tig. 5. Outline of the in 



anus; I. disc, the lophopho 

the mouth; S. nrwo-nuiss. 

Fig. 6. Side view of the top o 



Fig. 7. View oft 

Fig. 8. Front view, showing upper branches of the retractors which 






i attached to the > 



THE FERTILIZATION OF FLOW 



ERING PLANTS. 



tare's in,. 



tact. In 






Hie fiist 2T( 



find inside the corolla, arc the stamens ; while the yellow 
powder, so frequently found inside of the swollen ends 
(anthers), is the pollen or male element. In the centre 




. 



OF FLOWERING PLANTS. 65 

of the flower we usually find one or more organs, called 
the pistil or pistils. The end or edge of this organ is 
called the stigma, which is generally more or loss viscid. 
It is upon this viscid stigma that the pollen falls, or is 
conveyed by inserts, the wind, or other agents. Soon a 
small tubule shoo;- out from the pollm grain ; this tubule 
grows down through the stigma and style, into the ovary, 
where it comes in contact with the unfertilized ovule, 
which is then fertilized, and becomes capable of develop- 
ing in its cavity an embryo that in time, and under favor- 
able conditions, will become a perfect plant. In by far 
the greater number of flowering plant-, we find both the 
male and female element in the same flower, or, in other 
words, such plants arc hermaphrodites. One would nat- 
urally suppose that there could be but one object in thus 
placing the sexual elements in such immediate juxtaposi- 
tion, namely, that each pistil might be fertilized by its own 
pollen or male element. Late researches have, however, 
made it evident that often even among plants, the nup- 
tials cannot be c< I bra* d with > it the im Tvontion of a 
third party to act as a marriage priest, and that the office 
of this third person is to unite the representatives of dif- 
ferent households. To be specific, seed capsules are most 
productive when their ovules are fertilized by pollen from 
another plant, or flower of the same plant. "Breeding 
in and in," can anient, be proven to pro- 

duce a degenera! ■ oif-primr in the v.-iivraMe kingdom, no 
less than in the event of a marriage between first cousins 
in the human race. 

Now the marriage priests who officiate in the vegetable 
kingdom are insects in search of honey ; the winds, or 
sign, may carry the 
How often do we 



hear our agricultural friends complain, that they cannot 

tables, in consequence of the pollen from some common 
stock being wafted or carried to the pure variety, and thus 
contaminating it? Mr. Darwin has lately proven in the 
case of the genus Linum, or Flax, that though the stigma 
of a flower be completely dusted over with its own pollen, 

ital experiment." Though the impoteu.-y of pollen when 



(Kahnki). We ivmumiiImt. .,].,„, that when in bloom, it 
shows us a waving sea of beautiful, rose-colored flowers, 
growing so closely together as to almost hide the leaves 
from view. When the flower first opens, we may observe 
that there is one small pocket in each angle of the flower, 
and that toward cadi of these pockets is bent backwards a 



Every stame 



I allude to the so-called dimorphic 

Mine species presents two distinct 
stamens and short pistils ; the other 

nd loiur pistils. Xow it has been 
the Flax, and of the Primrose, that 

i is that which results from the im- 

<?-stylcd forms by the pollen of the 



toting at length, tho 
's paper. '"On the £ 
' Lythrum salicaria. 



ma of one form 
of the other form, almost drives 

M-VJ-.1 a .p,,ri,.. - 



05 THE FERTILIZATION 

"InLythrum salicaria (Spiked Loosestrife) three plain- 
ly distinct forms occur ; each of these is an hermaphro- 
dite ; each is distinct in its female organs from the other 
two forms ; and each is furnished with two sets of stamens 
or males, differing from each other as much as if they be- ^ 
longed to different species ; and if smaller functional dif- 
ferences are considered, there are five distinct sets of 
males. Two of the three hermaphrodites must co-exist, 



md the pollen be carried by insects reciprocally f 
;o the other, in order that either of the two should 


!„■ fully 


fertile; but, unless all three forms co-exist, there 


will be 


i waste of two sets of stamens, and the organizatic 


,n of the 


species as a whole will l.<- imperfect. On the oth 


or hand, 


when all three hermaphrodites co-exist, and the { 


,ollen is 


carried from the one to the other, the scheme is 


perfect; 


there is no waste of pollen and no false co-adapta1 




short, nature has ordained a most complex mar] 


■ia"e ar- 


rangement, namely, a triple union between three h 


moaph- 


rod ites, each hermaphrodite being in its female org 


,m .jiiih' 



It fart h . , the 1< >nir< -' 

fertilize the longest pistils, the middle stam 
pistil, and the shortest stamens the shortes 



Mr. Seott has led us to adopt a 
itific creed, and one. 



pus.uni „y tne same agents m many Orchids. 

Wo mast refer those who wish to go into the details 
of fertilization, as it is brought about in this gorgeous 
family, to Mr. Darwin's interesting volume on "Fertili- 
zation of Orchids by Inserts." They will there find the 
subject treated of by a master mind in such inquiries. 

elsewhere, is too great, and we should be surprised at 

ourselves if we passed the subject entirely by. Among 

pollen, in place of being loose, or at the most sli-htlv 
coherent, ts lure neatly done up in two small decauter- 
shap.'d packets, which are connected at the top of the 

humble bee, for example, happening to be out in search 
of the material from which to got its store of honey, 
alights on one of these Orchids. Standing, perchance, 
on the large lip (so prominent among these flowers), it 
dips its head down to the bottom of the flower in search 
of nectar. The chances are ten to one that its forehead 
strikes directly upon this viscid gland connecting the two 



70 THE FERTILIZATION 

packets of pollen. By the' time the nectar is exhausted 
the gland has become adherent to the bee's head, and as 
it (the head) is withdrawn, the two pollen masses are 
extracted from their pockets, and now stand oil' in front 
like a pair of horns. The bee, most likely, flies to another 

this species of plant he broad, or possibly separated almost 

surely diverged so as to be the exact width of that surface 

we shall find that the packets have 'come dose together. 
In either case when the bee's bead bobs down into the 
next flower, it will almost certainly happen thai the* 
same pollen masses will be left sticking :»n the stiirma 
when the bee leaves, or at least part of the pollen will he 
left. These masses of pollen have long since been 
frequently observed on the bee's head, but, until quite 
lately, no meaning had been attached to it. Some ento- 
mologists, I believe, have even been guilty of describing 
these as natural appendages to the bee's head. So mani- 
fest are these adaptations for the purpose of cross fertil- 
ization among Orchids, that we may be well nitrh sure 



our American plan 
i the pen of Prof. 



pias obtusifolia ( Wavey-lcaved Milkweed), that we often 
find honey bees unable either to withdraw the packets, or 
loose their feel from the -land, and thns they become 

There exists yet another class of dimorphic flowers, in 

fertile than those of the other form, whirl, are arrested in 
their development, and are fertilized in the bud. Hugo 

Such flowers have been happily termed precociously fer- 

Oxalis, Spccularia and Impatiens. that nature is he-re 
specially solicitous to secure close breeding, or that each 
flower shall be fertilized bv its own pollen. He calls 
attention also to the fact, that in the larire anthers of the 
smaller form of Oxalis aectosella, not more than two 



placed in con, 

that our list oi 
ler, under the 



flower in so tight an embrace that outside fertilization 



72 THE FERTILIZATION OF FLOWERING PLAN: 

was a thing not to be thought of. Dr. Hilde 
forms us however, that though the stigma of 
cava be completely dusted over with pollen from 
flower, yet no seed will set if insects be exch 
carrying pollen from flower to flower. This 
will be observed, another illustration of Mr. Dai 
of prepotency of pollen taken from one flower, ai 
to another. Professor Gray also (-ills atrenti< 
"effectual activity of so large an insect as the hi 
in fertilizing our Corydalismirca" (Golden Corj 

plant of high order is found to produce perfect 
without the ovules having been previously for 
cording to the known method. In the Kew 



Spurge 


faj 


nih 


-, which fur 


nisi 


ies this 


one 


example. 


Dr. 


Hooker 


w 


rite> 


3 to Ilumbc 


»l.lt 


coneen 


ling 


it. as lol 


lows: 


"Our C 


a-le 




yne still flo 


wei 


•s with r. 


HvV.I 


tlier at Ke 




well as 


in 


the 


Garden of 


th< 


3 Horti( 


•ultu 


ml SoeioU 


. It 


ripens 


its 


seei 


Is regularly 




I have : 






oined 






it With i 


:-m-< 


3, bi 


nt have nev( 


u- I 


>een abb 


) to 1 


liscover a 


pene- 


tration 


of 


poll 


en utricles 


int. 


> the sti_ 


i-nia 


nor any 1 


■ races 


of their 


pr< 


■sen 


ce in the lat 


ter 


or in the sty 


le." This 


plant 


belongs 


to 


the 


old Linnteai 


1 cl 


ass Dice< 




It is unisc 

wn) the ft 




and as 


th 








) far as 


kno 


male 



been found. We may still f 
this as an example of parthc 



INSECTS AND TIIEIH ALLIES. 




appearance to the body. 
3, etc.) and in the 
l earthy salt, called , 
■come so hardened, 1 J^ )t 
.nd dry, it readily T *Jt? 



al kingdom, their myriad 
pie, ideal, typical ligure : 



:.--:, 






as well as the differences in the number 
selves, and afco in the changes of form 
ires, i. e., the feet, jaws, antennae and 
ious forms of Articulates are produced. 
;es the long, tubular, alimentary canal 
i of the body ; above it lies the "heart," 



74 INSECTS AND 

or dorsal vessel, and below, upon the under side, rests 
the nervous system. The breathing apparatus, or "lungs," 
in Worms consists of simple filaments, placed on the front 
of the head; or of gill-like processes, as in the Crustacea, 
which form simple expansions of the legs; or, as in 
the Insects, of delicate tubes (tracheal), which ramify 
throughout the whole interior of the animal, and connect 
with breathing pores (stiymata) in the sides of the body. 
They do not breathe through the month as do the higher 



apparen 


.try, over 


the 




erior of the body 


. not b 


eing 


confinec 




igle 


region, ; 


as in the lungs of 


• the v< 


■rte- 


brate ai 


limals. 












Thus 


it is by o 


I,SC1 


■ving the 


general form of 


' the 1) 


ody- 


walls, a 


ndthe -it; 


iatk 


>n of the < 


litlerent anatomic 


■al syst< 


ems, 


both in 


relation t 


ill 


emsclves 


and the walls of 


" the b 


ody, 


or crust, which * 




muds anc 


1 protects the mi 


>re del 


k-atc 


organs 






ro arc abl 


le to find satisfacl 


oryrlK 


irac- 


ters for isolating 


:, in 


our definitions, the artic 


ulates 


from 


all othe 


;■ :;;':'.:> i~ 












Fig. 2. 


We s 


hall 


perceive 


more clearly the 


differe 


nces 




« between 


i tlu 


• three cl; 


isses of articulate 


5S, or j 


oint- 




*o INSECTS AND 

uted to each zoological element, or ring of the body ; 
single part of the body is much honored above the rest, 
is to subordinate and hold the other parts in subscrvie 
to its peculiar and higher ends in the animal economy. 
But when we rise in the scale of articulate life, we 
it once the action of a new principle. First in the Ci 
acean appears a broad distinction between the front j 
Dosterior end of the body. The rinirs are now armn 




transferred in some de- 
gree towards the head. 
a. cephaiotuorax ; b. abdomen. The organs performing the 

functions that distinguish animals from plants, such as 
locomotion and sensation, all reside in the front region ; 
while the vegetative functions, or those concerned in the 
reproduction and nourishment of the animal produced, 
are mostly carried on in the hinder region of the body 
(the abdomen). 
The Crustacean cannot be said to have a true head, in 
t'vnm a thorax bcariu- the orpins ,,f locomo- 



Sometimes the jaws become remarkably like claws; 
the legs resemble jaws at the base, but towards their 1 

tothefoot-j u-s. u.dthus, ",!!, .M^ml-'j/li. li 
in the introduction to his great work on the Crustacea 
the United States Exploring Expedition, the typical Cr 



taceado not have a distinct head, but rather a "head- 
thorax" (cepkalo^horax). 

When we rise a third and last step into the world of 
fosed forms, we see a completion and final development 



at in the two lowest classes, the Worms and Crustacea. 

Here we first meet with a true head, separate in its stni,- 

ture and functions from the thorax, which, in its turn, is 

clearly distinguishable from the third re-ion of the body, 

the abdomen, 01 hind-body. These three regions, as 

«*•* seen in the wasp, are each provided with 

: three distinct sets of organs, each having 

distinct functions, though all are governed 

phiianthus rentuabris a great measure gathered up from the pos- 



l).lo 



raeterixe the \V< 



well illustrated in the thorax of the Wasp. In reality ' 
thorax of this insect consists of three rings, with a sup 
numary one— the first and basal ring of the abdomer 

rings. But all arc so iniimateh united into an aim 
spherical, rounded mass, which is due to the unequal s 
of the parts composing the rings, some bein- enlar* 
and others either diminished in size, or whollv wanth 
that it needs the saucily of a Latreille, or an Audou 

of the elemental rinas. 



Th 



maxilLe with their palpi (or touchers), and 
and next to the thorax, the labium, or under 
palpi. Before the larva leaves the Qgg, the* 
of appendages are much alike in form, bud 
simple tubercles, and their relative position an 



tve been abl 



THEIR ALLIES. 






tromes. On this principle the zoologist clas- 

\>y their greater or less resemblance to the 

Thus among Articulates, the Worms are 

i form, and in all respects the lowest. The 

sects topping the scries. In classifying the 
f the class of Insects, we observe the same 

locating an Insect in what seems to us its 



like form, for the more the body is developed hm<hr ar <U 

May-nies { Eph^em ). the Panorpa, or Forceps-tail, and 
the Spring-tails ( Podnra and L^mma). In these forms 
the body is slender and wormlike, and the head is many 
tink- smaller than the rest of the body. In the Honey 
bee however, which is the highest among all articulates, 
the head is but little smaller, and yet very distinct from 



OU INSECTS AND 

the thorax ; which again, is but a little smaller than the 

F *- 5 - abdomen. In the Bee, more than in 

p other insects, the rings, or parts of 

rings remaining after the growth of 

the animal has been completed, are 

more equally developed than in the 



■n„ra , M,v Flv. %• Tl 



these insects, and their allies, the Ants, are to adap 
themselves to new and untried circumstances, all Be 
keepers and entomologists are well aware. 

parchment-like crust of the Insect. We shall then bette 
understand what has been said of its complexity. W< 



THEIR ALLIES, 

body of the caterpillar. Wl 



while the side-pieces 


are meres 


ised in 


a still greatei 


■ ratio. 


as seen in the Wasp, 


which wa 


Iks anc 


[ also tlies wit 




The side, or limb-be 
larg< t in tlie i in i 


,. i llM ,,. t , . 


t of ti 


lie Beetles, of 


which 


Gambits, the Groun 


d-bce.tle, i 


is a tA 


;pe. On the 


other 


hand the dorsal (or t 


. vjnl piec 


a, the 11 


•lore technical 


name, 


since the word dors: 




approj 








limals wiT 


kbone) part 


of" the 


riii- is quite Miiall i; 


11 the Dr; 


i<r.m-il\ 


i and its allic 


s. In 


tlu-e insects, which 


sea reel v 


ever 


walk, merely 


using 


their lege in clingi] 


:ig to pla 


at. wh, 


m testing froi 


n their 



To the side pieces all the appendages, such as the legs 
and wings, are attached. In order that the legs may 

of minute *niu>eh- within the leg-.'th.-e side pieces are 
subdivided into several smaller sections. Were this not 
so, and the crust forming the exterior of the insect un- 
broken, thus forming a continuous series of cylinders, 
we should have the poor victims of this stern law of 
morphology enclosed in jackets of the straightest sort I 



OZ INSECTS AND 

Whence comes, then, all the grace and perfect freedom 

fly and Butterfly? It lies in the fact that the whole outer 
crust is subdivided into portions which are finely hinged 
together by a tough membrane, forming points of attach- 
ment to thousands of little muscular fibres within, and 
thus giving the otherwise rigid crust a surprising degree 

the side-ph-ce (opistcrnum, Fig, C, ,.>)', as seen in the iig- 

(Fig. (J, km) and the tergum (Fi-. !;'. t ). The body 
of all known inseets consists nonnallv of twentv of 
these cylindrical rings, each of whieh is theoretically sub- 
divided in the manner we have shown ; but towards each 
extremity of the body, as in the rings composing the head 

remaining portions have, during the development of the 
animal, either while still in the eg-, or during its growth 

appeared. In the head of all insects there are, as a rule, 
seven such rings, in the thorax three, and in the hind 



ckroach to 
idea of tin 



nun^n^'V'sava^ 


s*fl "dug out" to the "Great Eastern " 


Cathedral of Milan. 
The Gorman Natl 

inquiries, said in his 


rude wigwam of an Indian to the 

iralist Oken, who in his writings has 
the results of subsequent laborious 

aphoristic style when discoursing of 


insects: "Every fly 
then by chan-iu- ii 
lastly,^ perfect \v. 


creeps as a worm out of the egg; 
lto the pupa, it becomes a crab, and, 
" The motions of these worms and 


crabs to which he i 
young fly, will show 


aptly compares the two stages of the 
a farther analogy, though to many it 


Worms wriggle aloi 


ig as they move. Now wriirriinir is 
arms of locomotion. The waddling of 



i<-d in the rising scale. Xow the Crus- 
md their allies', all move by jerking, 
scopic Cypris or larger Cyclops, in its 
ation of a drop of water. It moves 
oracic legs, and by the locomotive 



84 INSECTS AND THEIR ALLIES. 

power of its abdomen or hind-body, as it swims through 
its little "world of waters" by jerks. So also the Am- 
phipod, a crab-like being, higher in the scale than the 
water flea, darts from weed to weed in the clear cool 
water- of tidal pools, by most gracefully jerking its 
abdominal rings. So also the clumsy crab clambers 
cautiously obliquely backwards over the pebbles by a 
jerking sort of gait; and the lobster carelessly bends its 
tail beneath its breast, and like a flash, lauds softly a 
fathom away, in its course leaping the Laminaria swaying 
to and fro in the ebbing tide. 

Compare with these stiff and clumsy motion-. 
of a swallow-tailed Butterfly, as it emulates all the mo- 
tions of an eagle in its majestic flight over forests and 
through sequestered glades. The lowest of butterflies, 
the small dun colored Hesperiadu.-, or Skippers, yvk as 
they fly. Or compare again the swift, vivacious, inquis- 
itive motions of an Ichneumon fly, just as it has alighted 
upon a leaf. See the intensity of life in every movement 
of its open, restless wings ; the hcml turning this way and 
that, with the vibrating feelers and threadlike waving 
antennas prompted by the nervous energy within ; its 
arching abdomen directing each incessant and swift dart- 
ing movement of its ovipositor, while running from leaf 
to leaf in its anxious search for some unlucky caterpillar 
in whir!) to lay its egirs. In this tiny insect is a special- 
ization of motion in every limb and section of its body, 
to which no lower articulate can attain. 

Thus we see a certain degree of correspondence be- 
tween the various modes of locomotion of the different 
groups of animals and their position in nature. 



THE AMERICAN SILK WORM. 



thirty days old it Will have consumed 
of food; but when fifty-six days old 

1 has consumed not less than one hun- 




•m in fifty -six days equals in weight eighty-six thou 
d times the primitive weight of the worm. Of this 
at one-fourth of a pound becomes ex- : 
tor; two-hundred and seven grains arc assimilate* 
lover five ounces have evaporated. What a destructioi 
leaves this simile species of insect could make if only i 
-hundredth part of the eggs laid came to maturity ! 1 
years would be sufficient for the propagation of a num 



8b THE AMERICAN SILK WORM. 

When fully grown, the worm which has been devouring 
the leaves so voraciously, becomes restless and crawls 
about the branches in search of a suitable place to build 
up its cocoon ; before this it is motionless for some time, 
holding on to the twig with its front legs, while the two 
hind pair are detached ; in this position it remains for 
sometime, evacuating the contents of the alimentary canal 
until finally a gelatinous transparent, very caustic fluid, 
looking like albumen, or the white of an egg, is ejected ; 
this is a preparation for the long catalepsy that the worm 
is about to fall into. It now feels with its head in all 
directions, to discover any leaves to which to attach the 
fibres that are to give form to the cocoon. If it finds the 
place suitable, it begins to wind a layer of silk around a 
twig, then a fibre is attached to a leaf near by, and by 
many times doubling this fibre and making it shorter 
every time, the leaf is made to approach the twig at the 
distance necessary to build the cocoon; two or three 
leaves are disposed like this one, and then fibres are 
spread between them in all directions, and soon the ovoid 
form of the cocoon distinctly appears. This seems to be 
the most difficult feat for the worm to accomplish, as after 
this the work is simply mechanical, the cocoon being 
made of regular layers of silk united by a gummy sub- 
stance. The silk is distributed in zig-zag lines of about 
one-eighth of an inch long. When the cocoon is made, the 
worm will have moved his head to and fro, in order to 
distribute the silk, about two hundred and fifty-four thou- 
sand times. 

After about half a day's work, the cocoon is so far 
completed that the worm can hardly be distinguished 
through the fine texture of the wall ; then a gummy 
resinous subst m< ■ , sotm tim< - of a li_dn vn color, is 



id fi^Uy another coating is 8] 
xxxxm is all finished and c 
►re diminishes in thickness as 



•gs and abdon 

h. The wings only, arc 

es they grow to about half 



u, ^ or mo aixlomm. The legs of the chrysalis, at 
feast the tarsi, are enclosed in the articulated leg of the 

larva, the wings are foM„l under tin- .kin of the second 
and third segments, and the antenna; are rolled up in the 
lobes of the cranium. When the chrysalis comes out, 
every part is detached and free, and if then put in alcohol 
they will remain so ; but when left to its natural course it 

wi"le°lrvlal!s! v^ Knt L^Ztb GnVel ° Pe ""*** . th * 



,.-mM,. 



n>-ti> contained in 
by its tegument, and 



88 THE AMERICAN SILK WORM. 

now resembles an Egyptian mummy. If before the shell 
of the pupa has become hard, an antenna, a leg or a wing 
be changed from the position that the insect has given to 
it, that part of the body which would otherwise have been 
covered by the part removed out of place, will remain of 
a different color and of a thinner consistence, and an insect 
thus treated will not generally live to arrive at the imago 
state. 



as a stone. It is only when the warm spring days come 
that life awakens, and the pupa is transformed into a 
perfect insect. 

If a worm be opened longitudinally, even when half 
grown, there will be found in the female a vast num- 
ber of little globular white bodies attached to a fine tube 
on each side of the stomach. These little bodies are the 
eggs of the future female moth, as yet in a rudiment- 
ary state. This is the only method of distinguishing the 



the silk reservoir-. The trans 
i is the silk, as yet in a liquid , 
sels be taken out ca 



cess of obtaining the gut is very simple ; it consists in 
preparing worms ready to spin by putting them in strong 
vinegar for eighteen hours ; a transverse opening is then 
carefully made on the under side and about the middle of 
the body, taking care not to injure the silk reservoirs 
which are very distinct. The glands, or reservoirs, are 
then taken out and stretched parallel to each other on a 
board, and dried in the shade for several days. 

The Enemies of the Silk Worm. Birds are the most 
3 foes to the silk worm, especially the Thrushes, 




dangerous foe is the Ichneumon fly. A Tachina-like 
fly also deposits its eggs in the body of the larva. 
The Ichneumon flies can be seen in summer flying about 
bushes in search of caterpillars in which to deposit 
their eggs, and I have observed them often Hying for an 
hour among shrubs where no worms were feeding, for 
which they searched carefully, peering under almost every 
leaf. When an Ichneumon detects the presence of a worm, 
she flies around it for a few second-, and then rests upon the 
leaf near her victim ; moving her antenna; very rapidly 
above the body of the worm, but not touching it, and 
bending her abdomen under the breast, she seizes her 
ovipositor with the front legs, and waits for a favorable 
moment, when she quickly deposits a little oval white 
egg upon the skin of the larva. She remains quiet for 
sometime and then deposits another egg upon the lar- 
va, which only helplessly jerks its body every time an 
egg is laid on it. She thus lays some eight or ten eggs 
which adhere so firmly to the skin, that it is very difficult 
to take them off. After several days these egg^ hatch • 
out, and the small white larvae may be seen at work 
as soon as they are out of the eggs, digging their way 
under the skin of the worm, on whose fatty portions 
they feed. The caterpillar, however, continues to cat 
and grow, and lives long enough to make its cocoon, 
but when once enclosed in it, the parasites which prey 
upon it have already eaten the fatty portions, and now at- 
tack the vital parts of the larva, which they speedily eon- 
sume, and finally the one that outlives the others makes 
a cocoon within that of the Polyphemus larva. But it is 
a remarkable fact that here the maternal instinct of the 
Ichneumon fly make, a terrible mistake. Several of the 
Ichneumon larvae have entered the worm, but only one 



six rows of protul 




>ch side, and the obli 


i.Mie lines 


lateral tubercles HI 


itin.ir the 



lion of the Moth f LwHja) see the Synopsis 
. by Dr. J. G. Morris*, only observing 
at least six varieties : the yellow, the fer- 
own, the greenish, the pale .ream color, and 
with the black lunuleon the secondaries 
Jcrm-inou. spot. The male can be easily 



92 THE AMERICAN SILK WORM. 

distinguished from the female by its lighter form, and by its 
smaller abdomen, which is not so highly coloured as that 
of the female ; but the most striking difference is in the 
antennse; those of the male are pectinated, broad, and 
like two feathers adorning the head, while those of the 
female are narrow and very much smaller. 

Description of the Egg. The egg is about one-tenth of 
an inch in diameter, almost cylindrical, with the two ends 
convex. The cylindrical surface is brown, with a narrow 
white spot about one-half the width of the egg ; the two 
convex parts are white. One hundred of them weigh on 
the day they are laid, eight grains, but an evaporation 
of the fluid contents of the body takes place, and on 
the day the young hatch out, the same number weigh only 
six and two-third grains. One hundred and ten empty 
shells weigh one grain ; about six thousand worms are 
. Ut to one ounce. I will now proceed to 
give some instructions as to the rearing of the worm. 
They will be easily understood, if I have been clear 
enough in explaining the natural history of the Polyphe- 
mus Silk Worm. 

Selection and preservation of Cocoons intended for Stock. 
The cocoons' intended for the propagation of the species 
for the following year, should be carefully selected. As 
a general rule the female larva is larger than the male ; so 
the cocoon of a female is aU> larger than the male cocoon. 

within healthy, when it is heavy for its size, and resists 
well the pressure between the fingers, not being de- 
formed by it. About one-half of the number intended 
for propagation should be selected from among the lar- 
gest; very probably the majority will be females. The 
other haw ted, not among the largest, nor 



AMERICAN SILK WORM. ib> 



should be taken 
room, us the tin 
appear out of its 
inthelmtching-i 


ic approa 

prison. ' 

■oomtola 


dies \vh 
Tables „: 
y the co< 


ddleofMa> 
and put int< 
en the perf 

r shelves sh< 


i the pupa to 
r, the cocoons 
j the hatching 
Bet insect will 
wild be placed 
They should 






3 upon the 


other, as the 
ice with diffi- 



o'clock in the afternoon. One should watch the process 
of exclusion, in order to help the insects when they do 
not readily find the net. or doth to cling to, and also to 
remove those which disturb others whose wings are al- 
ready expanding. The rays of the sun should not fall 
directly upon the cocoons, as the heat would cause a rapid 
evaporation, which would certainly kill the chrysalis. 



94 THE AMERICAN SILK WORM. 

Towards the evening of the day on which the moths 
leave their cocoon, an equal number of both sexes should 
be placed in the same cage, and after pairing, the females 
should be kept until they die, which will occur in four or 
five days after their union. The eggs which are stuck to 
the cage with gum, should be scraped off with a wooden, 
or whalebone knife, and then spread in a large pasteboard 
box to dry thoroughly. A ticket, with the date stating 
when the eggs have been laid, should be put upon the 
box, so as to indicate the day the worm will probably hatch. 

The length of the period of incubation depends entirely 
on the temperature, but in June, the incubation generally 
lasts twelve or thirteen days, while in August the period 
is two days shorter. Eight or ten day- after the eggs 
have been laid, they should be placed in the hatching box, 
which should be made of tin, and about three inches long, 
two inches broad, and one and a half inches deep. In 
the middle, a narrow longitudinal band of tin should be 
soldered, and bent so as to form a hook by which the box 
may be hung to some twig or branch. The box should 
be painted, and before it is dry sand should be sprinkled 
over it, so as to make a rough surface upon which the 
worm can crawl with ease. 

The larvae hatch out from five to ten o'clock in the 



different, species of oaks, maples willows, p( 
<. hazels, birches, blueberry and other plants, 
affecting the quality of the silk.— Concl. in Ma, 



more natural to present first a chapter on the classification 
of the animals to he considered, hut we think it better 
that our readers should lirst hecome acquainted with the 
forms to be elassitied, that they may the better understand 

familiarity must be acquired on the general and special 

comprehend its classification. 

It would be proper that the slugs, or those snails without 
external shells, should first engage our attention; owing 

figures, we prefer waiting till the spring opens, and an 
opportunity is afforded to examine fresh specimens, be- 
fore presenting a chapter on this group. In order that the 



■■;-.. inehuies the twists, or 
whorls of the shell, excepting the Inst 
or outside whorl, which is called the 
lo<hj vhorl. r,w. The spire is said to be 
elevated, when the apex and whorls rise 
above the body whorl, and depressed 
when the whorls do not rise above each oth< 



96 THE LAND SNAILS 

Apex, a, is the beginning of the spire, or the part 
first formed. 

Base, is that region of the shell opposite the apex. 
A shell rests on its base, when the apex is uppermost. 

Suture, s, is the seam, or line of division between the 
whorls. 

Umbilicus, u, is a cavity left in the central axis of the 
shell, around which the whorls revolve. The umbilicus is 
seen from the base of the shell. The umbilicus is said to 
be open when a distinct perforation appears in 1 he base 
of the shell; closed, when a portion of the lip extends 

species), owl absent, when the whorls revolve so closely 
as to leave no central space. 

Lip, 1, is the border of the aperture. When the edge 
of the aperture is sharp, the lip is said to be simple. 
When produced into a flange, it is called a reflected lip. 

The columella is that portion of the aperture nearest the 
centre of the shell. 

Strice, st, or lines of growth, are minute lines, ruining 
parallel with the border of the aperture, and indicate the 
successive enlargements of the shell. 

Nearly all shells have an outer coating of animal mat- 
ter, called the epidermis. After the death of the animal 



ending over the 



he ordinary diameter of tin. 1 shell is one inch, though 

'his species occurs throughout the United States, with 
exception of the Pacific coast and the extreme Southern 
:es. They are found in well wooded districts of oak, 
>lc and beech, and oftentimes occur in <rreat numbers 
slands. They can be easily kept in confinement, and 



and 



IHng to the depth of tw« 

lie woods. p] :l co a few bi 
nder. It is well to imita 






baire or lettuce, of which they arc very fond. The vounjj 
can be easily raised from the e-n bv observing the above 
conditions. Th.- eirir>. from thirty to fifty in number, 
are laid in early spring, and hatch in the space of three or 
four week>. The snail when first hatched from the egg„ 




98 THE LAND SNAILS 

is quite unlike its parent. They attain their complete 
growth, in from two to three years. 

Helix thyroides Say. (Fig. 3). The shell of this spe- 
resembles very much that of Helix albolabris, but 
differs in being smaller, slightly more 
globose, and in having its umbilicus 
only partly covered. The chief point of 
difference lies in the prominent tooth-like 
process on the inner lip. The shell is 
color; whorls five, finely striated with 
lines of growth; aperture bordered by a broad white lip; 
inner lip furnished with a white tooth; umbilicus only 
partly closed ; diameter three-fourths of an inch. Dr. 
Gould says that, though by no means common, this shell 
occurs in nearly all parts of Massachusetts. It must be 
considered a rare shell in Xew England, though it is a 
very common species in New York, the Western and some 
of the Southern States. 

Helix Satii Binney. (Figs. 4, 5). This species was 

n*s. 4. 5. named by Dr. Amos Binney, in honor of 

*■ Thomas Say. The shell is depressed and 



brown, with the tentacles d 
generally distributed throw 
the United States, is by no 
land. It has been found 



the following from Binncy's Monograph of the Land 
Snails of the United States, p. 181 : "On the third day 
of July, 183(>, I discovered an individual of this species in 
the act of laying its eggs, in a damp place under a log. I 
* transferred them, with the animal, to a tin box filled with 
wet moss. The eggs were not much more than half as 
large as those of II. albolabris Say; they were white, ad- 
hering together very slightly, flaccid, and apparently not 
entirely tilled with fluid. During the succeeding night the 
number had increased to about fifty, and in a few hours 
they became full and distended. As the Snail now began 
to devour the v^l:>. I was obliged to remove it. On the 
twenty-ninth of" July, all the eggs were hatched: the 
young snails had one whorl and a half; the umbilicus 
was open ; the head and tentacles were bluish-black, and 
the other parts whitish and semi-transparent. They im- 
mediately began to feed, and made their first repast of the 
pellicles of the eggs from which th< 
just emerged. They grew rapidly, and 
before the middle of October, when they ' 
went into winter quarters, they had i 
ed their bulk four or five times, beyond 

Helix dextifera Binney. (Figs. 6,7). 
Shell with spire flattened, convex below, 



C~* 



100 THE LAND SNAILS OF NEW ENGLAND. 

whorls five, with delicate oblique striae ; the aperture is 
flattened towards the plane of the base. The lip is 
broad and white, inner lip having a prominent tooth; 
diameter three-fourths of an inch. The animal is gray- 
ish on the sides, with the back darker. This species 
may justly be considered rare, as wherever it occurs, 
it is generally found sparingly. Dr. Binney found it on 
the eastern slopes of the Green Mountains. They were 
at one time numerous in the town of Stratford, Ver- 
mont. Four specimens only have been found in Maine, 
and these were discovered either on the slopes or sum- 
mits of mountains. It has never been collected in Mas- 
sachusetts to our knowledge. It occurs in Ohio, New I 
York and Pennsylvania. 

It will be hardly necessary for me to state, that the de- 
scriptions already given, and those which are to follow, 
are mainly intended for those who are forming, or wish to 
form collections in this pleasing branch of Natural His- 
tory. To such we feel that no apology is needed for the 
necessary dryness of specific descriptions, and wo know 
that the figures will be acceptable, as the works in which 
these species are illustrated are rare and expensive, and 
many of them have not heretofore been given with any 
approach to accuracy. We hope that no little interest 
may bo excited in those not directly interested in the 
subject, as illustrating a group of animals but little known 
to general readers, and affording them some conception of 
what may be found under the dead leaves, and rotten 
bark, crashed beneath the feet while rambling in the 
woods and fields. — To be continued. 



couraged in their studies, either by the private correspondence or 
published works of the Smithsonian Institution. How many young 
naturalists, and we speak from personal experience, scattered over 
the country, away from libraries and the stimulus of scientific inter- 
course, owe to this Institution, founded by the bequest of James 
Smithson, of England, }« for the increase and diffusion of knowledge 
among men," a great part of their success in investigating natural 
phenomena ! 

economical management of it> fund.-, done so much for the advance- 
ment of all departments of science. This has been accomplished by 
the wide and generous distribution of its numerous publications, the 
nse of its large and unique library of scientilic periodicals, its dupli- 
cates from the Museum of Natural History, ami its loan, necessarily 
guarded, of meteorological instrument-,, together with its ready aid to 
those conducting original investigations, and by its general sympathy 
with the highest scientific culture. 

The present volume, printed and distributed as a Congressional 
document, contains beside the annual statement of the accounts and 
doings of the Institution, articles of general interest. Among such 
are the eulogies on General Joseph G. Totten, the conchologist 
and eminent military engineer, and on Ducrotay de Blainville, the 

Jardin des Plantes. There is also an account of the Aurora Borealis 
or Polar Light, by Professor Elias Loomis ; an article on the Senses, 
translated from the German periodical Aus derXatitr; lectures on 
Electro-Physiology- by Professor Carl Matteuci, of Turin, and a very 
full account by Professor E. Desor, of the "Palaflttes, or Lacustrian 
Constructions on the Lake of Keuchatcl," an article of great inter- 
est at present owing to the discussions on the antiquity of Han. 
Throughout the text are distributed numerous cuts illustrating the 
implements of the age of Stone, of Bronze and of Iron. The report of 
this able and cautions r.ives: i\rator brings out clearly the fact "that it 
was the same people who inhabi < d ■ r -<• ! -v. itz< rl :iu\ ] during the 



lmericax Journal of Coxcnoi.OGv 

Philadelphia. Published quarterly 
The second volume of this Journal, 



NATURAL HISTORY MISCELLANY. 



.-<: Fr.«»%vi-Ks BY ElK.vr.— Twenty y •> ago. when botany was 

fl very .-mutual in preserving colours. I borrowed a tin drip- 

- iust the size of my sheets of blot- 

<r. In this I laid the produce of the day's excursion between 

i Mutting-paper in the usual way. and when the pile was coni- 

covered it over with a layer of common scouring sand half an 

• ared to be -imply full of sand. I 

?ed it on the kitchen fender, or on the hob, or in the oven if 

lot too hot, and in three or four hours the whole batch of spe- 

ttle care to take them out 

jht moment, when they were baked just enough, and not too 

■he success of the plan was perfect. 

mj herbarium bear witness to the superiority 

- ver the old method."-**. T. M. Loborough. 

\er Method.— "I have adopted the plan of drying flowers by heat 

' Mend. With some plants 



NATURAL HISTORY MISCELLANY. 
(11, but not with others. Much depends 



doing it. It should be done gradually, 
My friend told me that he had taken nea 
plant, but he found himself well rewar 



markabl.- Iii-ht> of swarms of butterflies ; I 

ces of " flights of these delicate creatures, 
yellow hue, apparently miles in breadth, i 
tension as to occupy hours and even da 
passage" : — 



GEOLOGY. 

The First Appearance op Man on our Planet.— "Although per- 
haps more interesting in an ethnological than in a geological point of 
view, we cannot altogether exclude from our notice the phenomena 
attending the first appearance of Man on our planet. The discoveries 
of the last few years have satisfactorily shown that the opinions for- 

the now extinct races,, ('.Mammalia dwelt in our liind.and the first ere- 



partly composed of calcareous >par and serpentine. >o abundant in the 
vicinity of the graphitic beds of Schwarzenbach and Mu<rerau, to be 

in the crystalline limestones of Bavaria." — Q:i irterly Journal of the 

The Eozobn is the earliest form of animal life known; it belongs 
to the lowest type of animals, the Protozoa, and has only been found 
in the oldest rocks on the globe : i. e.. the Laurent ian System, consist- 
ing mostly of gneiss, limestone and syenitic rocks. It was first dis- 
covered in Grenville, Canada, by the Canadian Geological Survey, and 
- 



CORRESPONDENCE. 

ARRIAGE-PltlESTS TO PLANTS— "A 




j spines upon the tarsus, that nearly of a was P s le S 
e b rn these appendages, which have been brok 
are now without them. The terminal lobe of t 
ight green, while the enclosed granules (or cells) a 



106 NATURAL HISTORY MISCELLANY. 

darker. Westwood (Classification of Insects, vol. ii 
figures from Savigny* a probably s 
pus of one of the Larridae, i 

From the general appearance of 1 
on all of the tarsi, and on all of i 

examined by me, I do not think they result from disease, but are cha- 
racteristic of the insect."— T. Chambers, Covington, Ky. 

The wasp is evidently allied to Tachytes, one of the Larridse. We 
trust our correspondent will, during the coming season, secure speci- 
mens for accurate identification, and renew his observations on a point 
so interesting alike to the Entomologist and Botanist. 

We sent Mr. Chamber's drawings to Mr. Horace Mann, of Cam- 
bridge, without stating that the insect had been seen on the Ascle- 
pias, who thus writes : 

"I received your note, with the very interesting sketches in it, last 
evening. The masses which have attached themselves to the wasp's 
leg, are, as you suppose, pollen, that of some species of Asrlcpias, the 
Milkweed or Silkweed. By referring to (J ray's Manual of Botany you 
will find the structure of the flowers described on p. 351, and by refer- 
ring to his Systei Botany you will see it figured 
on p. 459. I showed the drawings to Dr. Gray, who was very much 
delighted with them, and begs, as I do, that you will have a wood-cut 
made of the small one, to show what a quantity the wasp managed to 
pick up in his perigrinations. A cut reduced to half the size of the 
drawing would answer every purpose, and be very interesting and in- 
structive to Botanists." 

In our specimen of Tachytes, there are four pollen masses attached to 
the spines on two of the legs. They evidently adhered to the spine 
by the viscid base of the pollen mass. They agree well with the draw- 
ing of Mr. Chambers, of which we give a wood-cut reduced one-half. 

In regard to works on the Hymenoptera, or bees, wasps, etc., of this 
country, you will find many species described in H. de Saussure's 
great work on the Vespidae (Monographie des Guepes Sociales, Paris 
et Geneve, 1853-58, 3 vols., 8vo). You will also find the Catalogue of 
Hymenoptera in the British Museum, by Frederic Smith, London, 
12mo., vols. 1-4, to be an indispensible work. Many are also des- 
cribed in the new edition of Say's "American Entomology " and his 
other works edited by Dr. LeConte and published by Balliere Broth- 
ers, New York. Other papers describing many of our most common 
le Elite 



NATURAL HISTORY CALENDAR. 1U< 

Society of Philadelphia, the Proceedings of the Essex Institute, the 

Natural Hilary of New York.— Eds. 



NATURAL HISTORY CALENDAR. 



;)ot where the little revel- 

• .:•. Hark! 



[y there, and you will see u little 
! and we return home gladden- 

le woods, instead of Turtles, as 
;h, the Little Tree Toads (Hyla 



: floating vege- 
in strings or in lsses, a is the case with all our other 
>gs. In about twelve days the young are hatched, and 
•ther advanced in the tadpole state, than in our other 



ul arc. therefore, more perfectly adapted to their p. 
[rom the first. 

in temporary pools .if water. In a few days their 



damp and shady woods. The eggs are hatched in »l> 
and the tadpoles, rapidly developing, attain the form 
the time the temporary pools are dry. 
Thu Common Toads (B,,f» A.nn-imnus Le Conte) u 

notes are heard in every direction for a month or tw 
Their eggs are laid in long double strings, from aboi 
April to the middle of May, and often even as late as 
probably, to the great distance many of the Toads hav 
order to reach the water. The tadpoles are commonl 

The Spade-fbo'ed Toads (Snephiopus Ilolbrookii Bail 



isachusetts do nol 



much to the lively chorus of Spring. They are the Spotted Frog, 
Marsh Frog, or Pickerel Frog (Rana palustris Le Conte) ; the second 
species of Spotted Frog, Marsh Frog, or Field Fro:* (Rana haJecina 
Kalm) ; the Green Frog (Rana clamita?is Daudia) ; and the Bull Frog 



KhigiMier. th< . 

Hawks commonl; ppearance. Snow Birds. Sons, 

Fox-colored and Tree Sparrows are more abundant than at any other 
period of the year. The last • retiring. Geese 

and Ducks are passing in flocks to the northward. 

10th to 20th.— During this time appear the Hermit Thrush (Turdus 
t>ie <i'»ldfti-\vinu'ci Wood- 
pecker or Wakeup. Chipping, Field and Savanna Sparrows arrive j 
also, the Willet ; the Tell-tales ; the Least, Semipalmated, Solitary and 



110 NATURAL HISTORY CALENDAR. 

Spotted Sandpipers, Wilson's or English Snipe, Golden and Field 
Plovers. The Fox-colored and Tree Sparrows, Snow Birds, Pine 
Finches and Shore Larks mostly disappear, passing northwards. 
Robins, Song Sparrows, Carolina Doves, Meadow Larks, the Crow, 
and the smaller Hawks pair. 

20th to 26th.— The Wood Thrush (Turdus mustelinus Gm.), the Pur- 
ple Martin, Brown or Tit Lark, White-throated and White-crowned 
Sparrows, Virginia and Comiii - >otyand Wilson's 

Terns, the Green Heron and t : some of them 

25th to 30th.— The Chewink or Towhee Bunting, Barn Swallow, 
Chimney Swift, Cat Bird, Black and White Creeper, Yellow-bellied 
Woodpecker, Least Flycatcher, Warbling and Solitary Vireos and the 
Whip-poor-will begin to arrive ; not usually becoming common until a 
week or ten days later. Blue Birds, Robins, Grass Finches, Field 
and Song Sparrows, and Kingfishers are now nesting, or have occa- 
sionally even commenced ineubatdon.— J. A. A.. Sjirhnj Jhlri, Muss. 

scrape and wash thoroughly all his fruit trees, so as to ml) off the eggs 
of the Bark Lice which hatch out early in May. Many injurious cater- 
pillars and insects of all Y 



eggs of the Canker Worm and ih< American Tent 



sit. The "ca 

id be looked f 

promptly arrested. Its 

:i ranee of the 






HISTORY CALE> 



- ■ ■■ ■., - • 



PROCEEDINGS OF_SOENTIFIC SOCIETIES. 

Boston Society of Natural History. Jan. 16, 1867— Mr. W. Win 
rood Reade, referring to his own remarks at a previous meeting, stat 



still did not believe it possible that it coul 
and considered the question still unsetl 



low fence, leaving a small opening on 
tice the Elephants, by scattering food c 
fond, and by supplying them with food : 

the Elephants could otherwise with. mi 

the climate, and who themselves, accc 

m.Th ,..,„„ (Vuinthr "l,ush,"orinterioi 



TIE! IE 

AMERICAN NATURALIST. 

Vol. I. -MAY, 1867. -No. 3. 

SOME ERRORS REGARDING THE HABITS OF 
OUR BIRDS. 

There are few who have written upon the habits of 

our birds that have not inadvertently committed errors. 
There are none of us, certainly no ornithologists, who, 
with all the care tiny may have taken to be right, and 



ited in the annals 



all w Hud " 



At the same time, however charitable we may be, how- 



in 



SOME ERRORS REGARDING 



that apparently might have been avoided, we should also, 
all of us,' never hesitate to expose and to correct whatever 
we know to be wrong. We all know but too well, that 
when a grave error has once been deliberately given as 
a fact by a distinguished authority, how hard and appa- 
rently impossible it is to stop its currency as truth, and 
to correct the mistaken belief it has caused, and is con- 
tinually causing. 

Take for instance the statement made by one of the ear- 
liest explorers of the natural history of our Pad fie shores, 
that the egg of the California Vulture (Calharte.s Calif or- 
nianus) is jet black. However conflicting with all infer- 
ence by analogy this statement must have ever appeared 
to every one familiar with Oology, it has found its way 
into nearly every work on American Ornithology pub- 
lished during the present century. 

In no department of natural history is extreme accu- 
racy so absolutely indispensable as in that to the study of 
which the writer has given his chief attention, the nest- 
ing and eggs of birds, which, for convenience, is called 
Oology. As the writer, if he lives long enough to 
publish the completion of his labors in this depart- 
ment, will have to confess himself not an exception to 
the rule— to which he can find none— and must retrace, 
amend, and, if he can, efface, it will become him to be 
especially lenient in his allusions to the mistakes made 
by the greater lights of American Ornithology. 

Among our writers on these subjects, few enjoy or de- 
serve a higher reputation for intelligent observation, great 
care and general accuracy in his descriptions, than the dis- 
tinguished pioneer of American Ornithology, Alexander 
Wilson. The discoverer of many of our rarer birds, he 
was also a very close observer of their habits, and many oi 



THE HABITS OF 



his 
full 
Yet 


descriptions of soi 
and accurate, thai 
eren Wilson, in e 


IK- Of 

: they 


tag 


about birds that 




peri 


been able to verif> 


iption: 
1 espe, 
:. W 



these instances. 

Let us first take the common American Goldfinch ( Car- 
duel is trislis), so widely distributed, so familiar to every 
one, and read what Wilson writes in reference to its nest 
and eggs : "They build a very neat and delicately formed 
little nest, which they fasten to the twigs of "an apple 
tree, or to the strong, branching stalks of hemp, cover- 
ing it on the outside with pieces of lichen, which they 
find on the trees and fences ; these they glue together 
with their saliva, and afterwards line the inside with the 
softest downy substances they can procure. The female 
lays five eggs, of a dull white, thickly marked at the 
greater end ; and they generally raise two broods in a 



The explanation is not easy, nor shall we try to suggest 
one. We wjll only state, that, without exception, wehave 
ever found the egg unspotted, of a uniform white color, 
which, when not blown, has a slightly bluish shade. The 
nest is neat, but "delicate" is far from being an appropriate 
expression. It is not to be used in reference to the nest of 
this bird, as we should apply it to the nest of the Hum- 



116 SOME ERRO 

ming Bird, or to that of the Blue-Gray Flycatcher. It is 
not a "little" nest in view of the relative size of the bird, 
and we never saw one that was ever covered on the out- 
side with lichen. With us this bird, so far as the writer 
knows, never builds its nest until as late as the middle of 
Jul}-, and never raises more than a single brood in one 

To the question : To what bird did the nest described 
by Wilson us that of the Goldfinch In-long? we will in 
Yankee fashion reply by asking another. Could he by 
any possibility have had in view the nest and eggs of 
the Polioptila cwrulea? This is what Wilson says in 
regard to the nest and Qg<x of this last-named bird : "It 
arrives in Pennsylvania, from the South, about the middle 
of April, and about the middle of May builds its nest, 



times 


at the height of ten feet from the ground, some- 


times 


fifty feet high, on the extremities of the top of a 


high 


tree in the woods. This nest is formed of very 


slight 


; and perishable materials, the husks of buds, 


stems 


. of old leaves, withered blossoms of leaves, down 


from 


the stalks of ferns, coated on the outside with grey 



o Live, or who 



THE HABITS OF OU] 

>ithet ho would think of a; 



wim sou our strongly ielted walls, a great depth of cav- 
ity, so that there is no danger of the eu-s ever rolling or 
being thrown out by the motion of the branches, or of 
being broken. 

Here let us make a suggestion. Some of our birds, 
like the Humming Birds, the Panda Americana, and 

finish them afterward... Sometimes 'the Vmale b^-in*7o 
deposit its o<r<r S before the nest is half finished, and while 



clover, suspended by two twig., one passing up'eaehside : 



118 SOME ERRORS REGARDING 

and is composed outwardly of flax, and lined with fine dry 
grass. I have also known it to build in the hollow of 
an apple tree. The eggs, generally five, are blue, with a 
blotch of purple at the great end." 

To this we must add the negative evidence, that we 
have never found this bird breeding as above described, 
and, so far as we know, the eggs are invariably white, 
with only a very light tinge of blue, and they never have 
purple markings at the greater end, nor have they any 

One more remarkable case of incorrectness on the part 
of Wilson, and we pass to consider other writers. Speak- 
ing of the nest and eggs of the Black-throated Bunting 
(Euspiza Americana), he says, "They seem to prefer 
level fields covered with rye grass, timothy, or clover, 
where they build their nest, fixing it on the ground, and 
forming it of fine dry grass. The female lays five white 
eggs, sprinkled with specks and lines of black." 

The position of the nest and materials is, in most cases, 
as stated j but the eggs are not white, and are unspotted. 
They are of one unvarying shade of green, strongly tend- 
ing to blue. Occasionally the nests are built more elab- 
orately than others, and on low bushes or tufts of grass 
a foot or two above the ground. 

Mr. Nuttall, of all our writers who have written so 
much, ha,s, perhaps, the least to correct where he gives his 
own personal experiences. Of course he has copied or 



Mas.ach 
l the Bai 



the past, and consider ho 
Catcher was to Mr. Nutt 

The error made by AVilso 
of the E. Acadicus, may 
to prevent the discovery 



llW 



ERRORS RI < 



ing near his house. He was unaware that the a 

Acadicus, and that he and they had different c 
view, the habits of which were so different as 

specific distinctions. 

Of Mr. Audubon's inaccuracies, I will not he 
at any length, nor am I willing to be suspect* 



will take only one instance. 

In his account of the common Black-Poll Warbler (Dm, 
droica striata), we find the following eloquent picture of 
the delight with which he first discovered the nest of this 
bird: "One fair morning, while several of us were 
scrambling through one of the thickets of trees scarcely 



i lover of ornithology devoted himself 



HABITS OF OUR BIRDS. 

eh Of 



tiou has supplied the material tor his conclusions, and 
that they had but little foundation in reality. 

We will not dwell here any further upon the state- 
ments occurring in Mr. Audubon's writings, not consis- 
tent with the tacts, as now known to us, for our limits do 
not permit, and the instance given above will sufficiently 
answer as an example of the mistakes into which his over- 
sanguine temperament occasionally led him. His errors, 
we are sure, are never intentional : his statements of facts, 
when he tells us they are his own, we can rely upon : but 
when he accepts the information of others, or draws infer- 
enees from insufficient data, it is then that his accounts 
must be reeeived with more caution, and that he exposed 
himself to the unkind and bitter attacks, in which those 

too intolerant of what are, after all, only venial faults, 
spots on the face of a great luminarv, have too often in- 
dulged. 

A few words on our own shortcomings, and we will 
close these desultory remarks. The Oology of North 
America, Part I., gives several illustrations 'which sub- 
sequent investigations show to have been not so well au- 
thenticated as they were supposed to be when published. 
They are : The egg given as that of the Goshawk (Astur 



122 SOME ERRORS REGARDING 

atricapillus) , on the authority of a Western naturalist; 
that given for the egg of the Western Rough-Legged 
Hawk (Archibuteo ferrugineus) , on the authority of the 
late Dr. Heermann; that of the Pigeon Hawk (Falco 
columbarius) , the grounds for which supposition were 
given in full ; and that of the Violet-green Swallow 
( IFJi-uiubt iJiahisxina), on the authority of the late Dr. 
Webb. 

Subsequent discoveries of well-authenticated eggs of all 
these birds, quite different from thus,, figured, seem to 
show that in each instance there is an error in regard to 
their identity. 

The egg figured for that of the Goshawk is, possibly, a 
very faint specimen of a Red-tailed Hawk's. The Swal- 
low's egg may be that of Hirundo lunifrons, and that taken 
for the Pigeon Hawk's, that of a Cooper's Hawk. The egg 
given by Dr. Heermann as that of the Western Rough-leg, 
cannot now be determined. It evidently is not what it 
was supposed to be. 

Without seeking to conceal the fact that four of the 
eggs figured in the Oology, appear not to belong to the 
places in which they are found, nor to wholly absolve 
the writer from so much of the responsibility as belongs 
to him, of having been led into errors by the i 
of others, he may here state that in regard to the egg 
of the Falco columbarius, it was given as such at the 
time, with the full expression of grave doubts as to its 
authenticity. All the facts, all the contradictory evi- 
dence, were given with all possible care, and to the reader 
was given all the data in the writer's power, to enable 
him to form his own judgment. An English traveller, 
who was so fortunate as to procure specimens of undoubt- 
ed eggs of this bird, has seen fit, in the waives of the 



) that you ire right. While there 

of, save by positive knowledge 



THE FOOD OF THE COMMON SEA-URCHIN. 




Though this creature* is so common on the north-eastern 
coasts of North America, the nature of its food docs not 
seem to be generally known. In dissecting sonic speci- 
mens collected at Tadoussac, Canada, last summer, I 

proved to be made up of the minute eonfervoid sea-weeds 
that grow on submerged rocks, mixed with many diatoms 
and remains of small sponges. It would thus appear that 
the curious apparatus of jaws and teeth possessed by this 
creature is used in a kind of browsing or grazing pro- 
cess, by which it scrapes from submarine rocks the more 
minute sea-weeds which cling to them, and forms these 
into solid balls, which are swallowed, and in this state 
passed through the intestinal canal, where they may he 
found in all stages of digestion. The sea-urchin is thus a 
kind of submarine rodent, in so far as its habits are con- 
cerned. From these pellets the microscopist may. after di- 
gesting them in nitric acid, obtain great numbers of bcau- 

with the Infusoria), which are collected by the animal with 
its food, and whose silicious crusts escape the digestive 



AMI I.I K> OF TLANTS. 125 



ibundanee, 
m.l similar 



THE ROYAL FAMILIES OF PLANTS. 

Those who study plants divide them into groups which 
they call families. ' This arrangement both expresses very 
closely the system of nature, and commends itself to the 
student as being at once pleasant to contemplate and easy 
to understand. 

These families of plants are in one respect like those of 



for the diadem, whoso claims are to be adjusted only 1 
and among themselves, no competitor from without beii 



126 THE ROYAL FAMILIES 

political science, it is enough to observe, that these "royal 
families" have always attains! their eminence, no doubt, 
through some high qualification of wisdom, courage, en- 
terprise, or wealth. Som> tit m of a strong 
trait has compelled an acknowledgment of prerogative 
from the popular mass, and this advantage the recipients 
have been extremely careful to maintain. 

On looking over the families of plants, we find royal 
ones there also. There are four relationships of this kind 
that tower above all the ho-i thai -urroiind them. 



Perforce, we must call them royal. The chief of the 
four is the family known as the Composites, or, as we pre- 
fer to call them, the Asterids. 

The eminence of this vast group was very early recog- 
nized. The sagacious Ray had, by the year 1700, come 
to see its greatness so clearly, that, instead of a mere fam- 
ily, or order, he was willing to call it one of the primary 
divisions of the great Vegetable Kingdom. Xo other re- 
lationship unites such an enormous number of plants. 
Lindley, in 1853, reckoned the distinct species at nine 
thousand, and these as making one thousand and five sec- 
ondary sets or genera. His estimate for the total of all 
known plants of every sort, is ninety-two thousand, nine 
hundred and thirty, so that, practically, we shall find just 
about one of these plants in every ten we may gather, 
taking the world over. There is no other case that af- 
fords any comparison with this. These plants are met 
with all over the globe, excluded neither from the tropics 
nor the arctic valleys, and taking rank and position, it 
seems, very much as suits them, irrespective, of latitude. 
In Sicily, Presl found more than oue to everv other plant, 






aifofllu- whole. Tin 



They possess every variety of stature and form. They 
are annuals, biennials, and perennials; the Daisy and 
Dandelion have no true stems at all,' the Chamomile and 
the Cudweed are not two hn h. - high, w hile the Composites 
of St. Helena are chiefly trees. The Hcmpweed climbs 
over bushes, and the Sweet Golden Rod lies flat on the 
ground. They take possession of all soils ; the Marsh 
Fleabane demands the daily drenehings of the sea, the 
Dwarf Dandelion affects the dry shelves of rocky uplands, 
and the Sweet Everlasting is equally pleased with both. 
Among those of any given division, there is yet no re- 
striction or fetter, for if we look at our garden annuals, 
we find the Golden Crepis making a mat upon the earth, 
and the great Sunflower, the most immense of annuals, 
throwing up its tree-like stem full of enormous flower 
heads, till, without a figure, "the fowls of the air may 
lodge in the branches thereof/' 

But how is this royal order to be recognized by the 
vulgar? How may the common, unbotanical eye. detect 
the badge of such a vegetable nobility? Not without 

enough. They are called "Composites" or compound 
flowers, and this gives the strong point in the case in a 
word. A Pink or a Potato-bloom is one flower. It has 
only one set of organs composing it, and its fruit, wketh- 



128 THE ROYAL FAMILIES 

er pod or berry, is one and indivisible, though it may 
contain many seeds. So of the Apple flower and the 
flower of the Oak, and in short of every other flower 
whatever, except those of these Asterids. These reverse 
this rule entirely. What appears as one simple blossom 
in the Sunflower is really an assemblage of several hun- 
dreds. Every seed produced in the autumn had its sep- 
arate and individual little flower, complete in all its parts;., 
for no one of these originates more than one seed, and 
besides, there are some at the centre that never ripen 
their seeds, and also a row of broad-leaved, showy yellow 
ones round the margin that form no seeds at all. 

Xow these two features — the gathering together of 
many small flowers in one head, surrounded by a few 
green leaves, and the production by each flower of one 
seed and one only — these are two of the three marks that 
will identify this family everywhere. The third is rather 
more minute. In all perfect flowers, of every kind, there 
are two kinds of organs concerned in fertilization, and 
known as stamens and pistils. The latter always stand in 
the centre of the flower, and however numerous they may 
be, nothing is found interior to them. The stamens, on 
the contrary, are always more or less in a circle, imme- 
diately surrounding the pistils. A stamen consists, usual- 
ly, of a knob more or less lengthened in its form, termed 
an anther, and borne on a thin stem called its /lament. 
The reader need remember no more definitions just now. 
The third character of the Asterids then is, that in every 
one of their small flowers the five long anthers of as many 
stamens grow together round the one pistil, into a straight 
tube through which the pistil reaches : while the filaments, 
below the anthers, are wholly distinct. 

So, then, the most unpra.-u-'.L hau<! may identify the 



OF PLANTS. 








ost royal family 


l.vlh 


ese 


three I 


1 into b componi 


[1*1 h< 

mthe 


■ml. 


xowkt 


three other families wl 
I them With these. Tb 
than the thick lip of tin 
the Lobelids grow toget 


s Ilapsl 
her jus 



The live anthers of 

way described, hut their flowers are never in heads, and ' 

their pods have many seeds. The Dipsaeids, or Teazles, 

other throughout. Then there is a remarkable little fam- 
ily of herbs in South America, known by no common 
name at all, but we will call them Calycerids. They have 
small simple flowers in heads too, and single seeds, but 
the anthers are separate, or nearly so, while the filaments 
grow together instead. So there is very little need to 
mistake any of these several orders for the true royal line. 
The only plant that commonly meets us with any such 
delusive tendency is the Scabiosa, or Mourning Bride, of 
the gardens, which belongs with the Teazles. It grows and 
appears a good deal like a Composite ; but if one looks in 
the centre of one of the small separate (loners, he sees the 
live stamens all perfectly distinct, and the thing is settled. 
A very notable cireni aa family, and 



g stro: 


agly to prove it. 


i royalty, i> th 


at its whole 


■ serie 


- produces hardly any food i 


for man or 


Lettnc 


e, Dandelions, ar 


id Artichokes j 


ire the very 


■an dc 


i in this way ; ol 


f less account 


are Chicory 


ify, ha 


rdly food at all, < 


iither of them. 


There are 


- regal 


houses that boas 


t of less utility 


- Medicines 


wanth 


lg among them; 


1 Arnica, Won 


nwood, and 



130 THE ROYAL FAMILIES OF PLANTS. 

Thoroughwort have a good reputation, and Chamomile 
flowers have scented the saddle-bags of every village doc- 
tor since the days of the Pilgrims. We will not forget, 
besides, that excellent oil i- obtained from some ; such a 
plant is largely raised, in India for this purpose, where 
they call it Ramtil. Sunflower seed produces oil, it is 
said, but a species of Madia seems, according to experi- 
ments in Europe, to have great superiority as an oil- 
bearer. Pasquier informs us that it gives as much oil to 
the acre as Poppies, twice as much as Olives, and thirty- 
two parts where Linseed yields only twenty-one. 

To those who love floral display, however, for its beau- 
ty alone, caring little for the degree of more material use- 
fulness that may be found in connection, the great family 
of the Asterids is a perfect treasure-house. They swarm 
in every garden, they shine in every green-house, and no 
bouquet is complete without them. The Sunflower and 
Marigold bring their "barbaric pomp and gold," the 
Dahlia, a hundred hues and all splendid, forever tempting 
the gardener, and forever disappointing him ; the Asters 
have piquant sprightliness, and the Daisies and Fever- 
fews a pure and lovely modesty. Then we have Gaillar- 
dias, Pyrethrums., Humeas, Rhodanthes, Cacalias, Gaza- 
nias, Centaureas and ( 'atamauehes, some of which have 
common names, and more have none, all replete with 
beauty, and sure to be favorites wherever flowers aiv reck- 
oned with the beloved. Nor must there be forgotten, at 
the end of all, just as "hale, concluding winter conies at 
last, and shuts the scene," the sterling Chrysanthemums, 
ever choice with the florist, ever grateful for the garden- 
er's care, ever heedless of frost and chilly wind, and 
ready to bind a fresh wreath round the brow of the eldest 
December. 



THE MOSS-ANIMALS. 131 

Thus much for the greatest of the Royal Families of 
Plants. Of the others we may speak hereafter. Their 
importance is not less than we have ascribed to these, mid 
in some respects they far outvie the great division before 
us. From the study of their extended ranks we can but 
gain instruction ; from their wonderful involutions there 
will still shine out a new light on the workings of that 
Spirit at whose bidding "the earth brought forth grass, 
the herb yielding seed, and the tree yielding fruit after 
its kind." 



THE MOSS-ANIMALS, OR FEESH WATER 
POLYZOA. 



The blood of the Phylactotemata is colorless, resem- 
bling in this respect that of most of the lower animals. It 
is composed of the liquid products of digestion, which 
exude through the membranes of the stomach, diluted 
with water drawn in through innumerable pores perfor- 
ating the wall of the tube. The water is the medium 
of conveyance for the gelatinous, nutritious liquid, prob- 
ably facilitating its carriage to remote parts. 

There is no organ resembling a heart to keep the blood 
moving, and there are no closed channels, such as arteries 
and veins, to conduct it among the tissues of the bodv. 
The absence of the first is supplied by cilia, which cover 
the interior of the tubes and cells with a dense, velvety 
nap, and by their unceasing vibrations sustain a healthy 
circulation. The course of this may be traced by the 
numerous floating parasites, beings of the simplest or- 



132 THE MOSS-ANIMALS, 

ganization, consisting either of a single cell, or of larger 
cells containing many others, the cycle of whose lives is 
passed within the polyzoon, feeding upon its juices. These 
indicate the passage of a common stream up the branches, 
and a return current along the free side, which flows into 
each tube. 

Our Polyzoon, also, has no breathing organs, neither 
lungs or gills to bring the blood in contact with the air, 
of which element there is always more or less in water, 
serving there as upon land, for the respiration of animals. 
The tentacles are supposed to be more especially devoted 
to this purpose, and the water admitted to the interior 
mast necessarily purify the blood by the air it brings in, 
but nothing more definite is now known with regard to 

The Moss-animals have two modes of reproduction, 
one by buds, the other by eggs. The former occurs in 
two ways, by free buds or statoblasts, and by sprouting 
buds, which develop only in summer. 

The statoblasts are destined to carry their burdens of 
vitality safely through the hardships of winter, and to per- 
petuate the race by founding new colonies in the spring- 
They appear at first in the shape of b-ad-like swellings 
from the centre of an organic cord, which connects the 
stomach with the cell (plate 3, fig. 4, and plate 4, fig. 1), 
passing between the bases of the muscles, which retract 
the tube. They begin as single cells, but these soon 
separate into two, then into four, and so on, indefi- 



nitely. The accumulated mass 



pra 



outer surface of the cord, and 
thick, homy, brown envelope (plate 4," figs. 2 & 3, w'), 
falls off at last into the cavity of the body. This horny 
sheath in som avs a solid rimr, or an- 



OR FRESH WATER POLYZOA. 

inlus (plate 4, figs. 2 & 4,w"),and in others, for i 

d Pectinatella (plate 4), may have tin- edge of 
Tiiamented with delicate spines furnished with h< 



increases in bulk, until it splits the sheath apart, and 

vanced when" this takes place, and the tube has already 
acquired its adult habit of retracting the plumes upon the 
slightest provocation. Its youth is a sunny holiday passed 

which clothe the outer surface, but the sides of the stato- 
blast are finally separated so widely, that they drop off, 
and the wanderer seeks a resting-place under some old 
log or stone. Here a Utile gelatine, which subsequentlv 



(plate 1, fig. '), Y). The throat and stomach are derived 
from the transverse division of the minute sac into two 
portions, but it remains to be ascertained whether the 

by the division lengthwise of the throat. The tentacles 



Ldl THE MOSS- ANIMALS, 

arise from the thickened rim, and draw out between them 
a web, which afterwards receding externally, becomes 
the veil, and the wall of the tube is merely an elongation 
of the membrane connecting the rim of the sac with the 
parent. 

The cell-bulb does not protrude externally until these 
organs are mapped out. The young one, though still 
very imperfect, begins to stretch forth its arms as soon as 
the cell, or ccencecium, as it is more appropriately called, 
is well extended, and long before the characteristics reach 
perfection, gives other evidences of its natural precocious- 
ness in the statoblasts and regular buds, which spring up 
in their respective places within the coencecium. At in- 
tervals two buds will sprout in different directions, orig- 
inating new branches, and thus a dendritic colony is 
gradually built up, which owes its origin entirely to one 
animal. Consequently the outer branches are the young- 
est, and often, as in plants, these are vigorous and quick 
with life, while the parent trunk is but an empty case, 
frequently with nothing left to indicate its position but 
the decaying ccencecia, or their faint tracery in the slime. 

The second mode of reproduction, by eggs, takes place 
only in the newly established colonies during the earlier 
summer months. These eggs are little colorless vesicles, 
developed internally from a bead-like swelling on the free 
side of the wall, near the orifice. When ripe they are 
dropped into the cavity of the coencecium, and there meet 
with the fertilizing filaments which have been developed 
from a similar bud upon the organic cord. We perceive 
from this that our polyzoon is " physiologically speaking, 
neither male or female, but of the collective gender, an 
hermaphrodite, combining the reproductive powers of 





OR FRESH WATER POLYZOA. 




The eggs 


eventually attain the size of 


a statob 


about one-4 




lave an c 



there is none, and that they force their way into the 
world directly through the walls of the body. In fact, 
Air. Albany Hancock, an English naturalist, has observed 
a full-grown egg, which obtained its liberty by press- 
ing through the closed orifice of the cell, rending and 
dot roving the parent in its course. 

The coenoecia, composing the trunks of the older colo- 
nies, are always empty, as previously stated, in the au- 
tumn, and it is not improbable that they are the remains 
of the unfortunate parents whose death was caused earlier 
in the season by their restless offspring, since all, even 

forth " 11 " 



and 


produce 01 


m- sta 


,t„l. 


VUur 

c tin 


coming fort! 
i with abun 
s.also, after 


mfficie 
i like 
danf i 
a time 


th 



>cck s some uismai ivtreat. glues its.-It to the surface, 
d becomes the progenitor of a new colony. 
All Polyzoa, both marine and fresh water, in common 
th other attached and branching forms, such as the 
rals among the Eadiata, hare been called Phytozoa, or 



plant-animals, but, like all others of this kind, their 
young, born from the egg, are free. 

Although thus resembling corals, they are widely sep- 
arated from them by their structure. Each little ani- 
mal, when reduced to its typical form, is a simple sac 
containing the stomach, and is allied to the clam, the 
oyster, and the snail, all of which have the same plan of 
structure. The coral, as may be seen by looking closely 
into any one cell, has a number of thin plates all pointing 
from the rim toward the vacant centre, like the spokes of a 
hubless wheel, and is, therefore, related to the star-fish, 
jelly-fish, and others, which have the parts arranged in a 
star-like or radiatimg maimer. Thus, while by a^pn>.-ess 
of budding, animals may be grouped into shrub-like colo- 
nies, with an external resemblance to each other and to 
tlio_ plants, with which the older naturalists classed them, 



their internal 



structure may show that they belong not 



only to animals, but to very distinct branches of the^ 
mal kingdom. —Concluded in next number. 



-a.vation ov plate 4. Pectiiwtj-lln -u>, ,,,,.;<;, , i>i,lv. 
- *d View of one polygon, situated on the end 

tt-'etinatella (see \ . ■> D f this Marine is,, 

cavity of this lobe; D, mass of gelatine beloA 
id tube; J, brown stripes in the stomach, the 
muscles for withdrawing the tube, retractor: 
lol'h ^vhi.-h in this sncrios is verv narrow. 



wall of this lobe i 
tic folds; M', M' 



American Naturalist. 




HYATT ON THE MOSS 



THE TARANTULA KILLERS OF TEXAS. 







An investigation of the extensive family of Mud Daubers 
would be an interesting and instructive study. It would 
necessarily include that of the various types of Spiders, 
from the great hairy Mygale Hentzii, down to the small- 
est, almost microscopic species ; for nearly every type of 
Spiders has its special enemy among the Mud Daubers. 

The large, red-winged "Tarantula Killer" (the Pompi- 
lus formosus of Say) is, as far as I know, the largest of 
the dauber group. It takes its prey by stinging, thus 
instantly paralyzing every limb of its victim. The effects 
of the introduction of its venom is as sudden as the snap 
of the electric spark. The wasp then drags it, going back- 
wards to some suitable place, excavates a hole five inches 
deep in the earth, places its great spider in it, deposits 
an egg under one of its legs, near the body, and then 



covers the hole very securely. A young Tarantula Killer 
will be produced from this egg, if no accident befalls it, 
about the first of June of the ensuing year. 

This large and conspicuous insect is everywhere in 
Texas called the Tarantula Killer, and is over two 
inches in length ; the head, thorax, abdomen, and long 
spiny legs are all black, while the wings are some- 
times of a bright brown, with black spots at the tips. 
It is armed with a formidable sting, which it invaria- 
bly uses in taking its prey. This sting docs not kill 
the Mygale, but paralyzes it— suspends all animation— 
and in this state, in a dry place, and at the proper temper- 
ature, it is in a condition to resist decomposition a long 
time. The entire group of Mud Daubers possess the 
power of paralyzing their victims, and in that condition 
they store up their spiders, caterpillars, and other in- 
sects, which are to serve as food for coming generations. 
The Tarantula Killer puisnes several other species of 
the large ground spiders, but the Mygale Ilentzii, or 
Tarantula, is his favorite. 

I have sometimes found under shelving rocks, and 
other sheltered places, dauber's nests that were doubt- 
less several years old. In some of the cells, where the 
egg had proved abortive, the spiders were there, still 
limber, with no signs of decomposition about them. They 
did not seem to be dead, but looked as if they could 
almost move their legs, and were perhaps not uncon- 
scious of their deplorable condition. I should be fright- 
ened at the prospect of being stung by any of the larger 
types of this group of insects. I have, however, known 
but a single instance of this kind. Several years ago 
a person was stung by a common black dirt dauber on 
the shoulder near the neck; he complained of numb- 



OF TEXAS. 139 

ness in the part for a distance of some inches around the 
wound, but of no pain. Its effects lasted about twenty- 
four hours. I think it quite probable that the largo 
Tarantula Killer would produce a more serious inconven- 
ience, and perhaps paralyze the whole system. The 




Pompilus, however, is a good-iiaturod in-ect, showing no 
signs of pugnacity, except when she has a fine fat Ta- 
rantula in hand, and then she only threatens violence by 

spreading out her red wings, and running a little way 



140 THE TARANTULA KILLERS OF TEXAS. 

towards the intruder. She is quite tame, and will come 
familiarly in and about one's yard and house, dragging 
the prostrate Mygale under the floor, where she hides it 
from the intrusion of other Tarantula Killers, who would, 
if they could lind it, take out the egg and put one of their 
own in its place, as they are remarkable for such thieving 
propensities. 

The Mygale Ilentzii, on the other hand, sometimes suc- 
ceeds in capturing his great enemy, as I once noticed. 
When first observed, the Mygale had the Tarantula Kil- 
ler, still alive, in his mouth, holding it by the back. The 
Tarantula seemed to be greatly elated at its success, 
which it manifested by capering about, and performing 
various other antics, such as running suddenly at any thing 
or person that came near it, holding on to his victim all 
the time. The Tarantula Killer appeared to be conscious 
of her condition, and was, as far as I could discern, fully 
resigned to her fate, remaining perfectly quiet. I regret- 
ted that I could not wait to witness the finale of this af- 
fair : such cases do not often occur. 

The Tarantula Killers have severe fights with each 
other. It occasionally happens, when one of them suc- 
ceeds in capturing a Tarantula, that another one, or 
more, flying around in that vicinity, and smelling the 
odor that arises from the Tarantula Killer when she uses 
her sting, which resembles the odor of the paper-mak- 
ing wasp (Vespa),only much stronger, takes the scent 
like a dog, tracks the Tarantula, following it up closely, 
and makes a violent effort to get possession of the para- 
lyzed spider.. A fight ensues, which occasionally termi- 
nates in the death of both parties ; at other times the con- 
test lasts but a little while, as the stronger party drives 
off the weaker, and takes possession of the prey. 



THE BIRDS OF 



The Tarantula Killer fivds upon the honev and pol- 
len of the flowers of the Elder, and of Viiis ampelopsi^ 

taken from the blossoms of AseU-pias quadriibliuin. This 

Tarantula Killer seems to know the locality of every 
plant. If one finds on the prairie a plant of Aselepias 
quadrifolium in bloom, and watches ten or fifteen min- 
utes, he will be almost certain to see a Tarantula Killer 
come to it. This insect requires considerable food, as its 
period of life extends from the first of June until Novem- 
ber, or till the frost destroys all the flowers, when it seems 
to die for want of food, as it is often seen at this time 
crawling about in a very feeble state. I do not think 

■ i\ June. 



THE BIRDS OF 



The arrival of our birds during the spring is by no 
means uniform; a certain numbi.-r coming one week and 
an equal number the next, either in the accession of spe- 
cies or individuals : nor is the increase regular and un- 
interrupted. At first the comers are uncertain, both as 
regards number and the time of arrival. The few that 



142 THE BIRDS OF SPRING. 

appear in March would scarce attract attention if ap- 
pearing with the hosts of May, while now the animation 
they afford our fields and roadsides is in agreeable con- 
trast with the dearth of bird life in winter. April brings 
larger additions, and May bursts upon us with such a 
profusion of species, that on all sides wo are greeted with 
fluttering, restless wings and lively notes. But the in- 
crease has its intermissions; the first genial period at- 
tracts a few, but through the succeeding colder weather 
their numbers for weeks may scarcely increase, perhaps, 
indeed, if the cold prove quite; seven-, actually decreasing, 
while a following unusually mild term hastens on many 
that seem to have been awaiting a favorable opportunity. 
A cold norther occurring early in May, impedes for days 
the thousands of Warblers and Flycatchers that are ac- 
customed then to migrate. The storm perchance closing 
at nightfall, a mild night ensues, and with the next day's 
sun the woods ,.: is insect hunt- 

ers, that the day before the most prying observer would 
fail to have detected ; they increase with the advance of 
the day, and towards night the collector finds some spe- 
cies common, that he had looked in vain for in the morn- 
ing, and the hedges suddenly become vocal with their 
notes. 

Our limits would not allow us even to enumerate all 
the insectivorous species, — the friends of the orchardist, 
the gardener, the farmer, in short, of our race, — and much 
more to describe their pleasing colors, their inspiriting 
songs, and their hundred interesting peculiarities of habit 
and mode of life ; how some hunt their prey, creeping 
among the foliage, others pursue it in the air, or suddenly 
dart upon some unlucky insect as it passes their perch. 
Among the woodland species the very names of the 
warblers, — the Black-throated Blue, the Black-throated 



THE BIRDS OF SFRIXG. 143 

Green, the Chestnut-sided, the Bay-breasted, the Yellow 
Red-poll, the Black-poll, the Nashville, the Cape May, 
the Golden-crowned, the Orange-crowned, the Blackburn- 
brief period in May, — are suggestive of all that is beauti- 
ful in birds : gay plumage, useful habits, and sweet warb- 
ling notes. 

Among the more common and well known later emi- 
grants, we welcome the Bobolink to our meadows, which 
he alone would render attractive. Brimful of animal 
spirits, he gaily riddles away all the da}- long, perched on 
some tree or fence in his favorite bogs and meadows, or 
indulges in coquettish gambols in the air, meeting us in 
our walks as we approach his grounds with a confident 
outburst of tinkling drollery, so varied and fanciful we 
half imagine it to represent personal allusions of either 
flattery or derision. We welcome the gorgeously colored 
Oriole, and the chaste-robed Yireo to the orchard, where 
the loud trumpet notes of the former, and the soft, sooth- 
ing warble of the latter, render them as agreeable as their 
services arc valuable to the fruit-irrower. We also welcome 
the Red Mavis, or Brown Thrush. to the hedges, the clear- 
voiced Yeeryto the swamps and moister woodlands, the 
twittering swallows to their homes under the eaves and in 
the barn lofts. Xot least valued by lovers of the pictu- 
resque is the Whippoor will, which, from the roof, the well- 
curb, the door-yard fence, or the remoter precincts of 
the woods, is heard during morning and evening twilight. 
or at intervals throughout the moonlit night. 

During the spring months we have with us nearly every 
species of bird that ever visits us during the entire year, 
embracing of course all the resident kinds, as well as all 
xcept a few transient winter visitors ; 



144 THE BIRDS OF SPRING. 

even the greater part of these latter may be found, if not 
every year, at least occasionally during the early part of 
March. The migratory species constitute two classes, 
according to their range in the breeding season, viz. : 
those species that spend the summer with us, and those 
that altogether pass farther north. Compared with the 
birds of winter, they embrace a very much greater pro- 
portion of common species, while nearly all are regular, if 
not abmidant visitors. The proportion of rare species is 
but thirty-five and one-half per cent., instead of seventy- 
six per cent, as m winter. The number of rapacious 
species has hardly increased, but the insectivorous, in- 
stead of being extremely few, now constitute, taking only 
those strictly insectivorous, fully one-half the whole, and 
the diet of this remaining half (especially among the land 
birds) is mainly composed of insects. 

Such are some of the changing phases of bird life in our 
varied climate. In the following tabular statement we 
give a further summary.* 

Whole number of species (in Spring), . ... 280 

Migrant, » « '.'.'.'. 250 

Resident, « « .... 30 

Mi-r.nit^ that s P ,>n,i the summer in ) Land Birds, 136 
Southern New England, . . j Water " 36 

172 

hat pass the summer farther ) Land Birds, 28 



Fireos, Wrens, etc., 



Finches, Ori.. 
Pigeons and Grouse. 
Herons, Plorers 







FEMALE OF THE AMERICAN SILK WORM. 




THE AMERICAN SILK WORM. 



Rearing of the larva in the open air. There are differ- 
ent ways of raising the wild silk worms. I have for two 
years cultivated them in the open air. I had about five 
acres of woodland enclosed by a fence eight feet high ; a 
net was stretched over the bushes, which were of six or 
eight years' growth. This net, supported upon posts, 
was intended to protect the worms from the depredations 
of the birds. The eggs were put upon the bushes in the 
httle hatching-box, so that after this, there seemed -but 
very little to do. But it was not so : over so large a 
space, it was impossible to keep the net in good order, 
and the birds managed to get under it; the small ones 
could go through the meshes', and the larger ones through 
some holes in the old net, so I was obliged to chase them 
ah the day long, as when pursuing them on one side they 
would fly to the other and quietly feed, until I again re- 
appeared. Thus, besides the insect enemies enumerated 
above, many of the caterpillars fell a prey to the birds. 

Hearing them under a shade. This year I made a 
shade open on all sides, protected by a roof to keep out the 
hot rays of the sun, and boards were arranged so that they 
could be raised up from the roof to give more light when 
the sun was behind the clouds, and also at morning, even- 
ing, and at night. This shade h id ;i very fine net around 
1 j so that it was impossible for the bird- to get through 
«* meshes. In this way an oak branch can be kept 
fresh for four or five davs; a branch is placed in every 
<^o holes, so as to leave a vacant one between any two 
branches. When the foliage of one branch is nearly eaten 
U P> a fresh one is put into the vacant hole, and small 



seending upon the table. When the worms are attached 
for the purpose of moulting, they should not be disturbed 

could not so easily change their skin. Three times a day 
the excrements should be swept from the table. In warm 
days some water should be sprinkled with a watering-pot 
upon the leaves, as the worms are fond of drinking water. 
The worms should be handled as little as possible, and 
only when it is absolutely necessary. The space that re- 
mains open between the branch and the table should be 
filled with paper or hay, so that the larva may not crawl 
under the table, as they would be drowned in the water 
contained in the bottle. 

For cultivating Silk Worms upon a large scale, it 
would be very well to seleet a place with a brook running 

table,' in reservoirs, where the branches eould always dip 
in fresh water : as the water put in the bottles is BOOK 



Ten or twelve days after, they 
maybe placed in' baskets, and 
above. 

ide on our Silk Worm snow how 
asiest of all the silk worms to 
lids were put into a tin box, 



THE AMERICAN SILK WOE3I. 147 

which was placed in another box containing ice and salt ; 
the temperature soon descended to four degrees below 
zero. They were allowed to remain in this refrigerator 
for half an hour. When taken out, the chiysalids were as 
hard as a piece of ice ; they were immediately put into 
a cold room. Several days after this, the temperature of 
the room being above the freezing point, the chiysalids 
gave signs of life by moving the abdomen. Some years 
ago, wanting to keep a cocoon in my collection, I thrust 
a pin through it, and it passed through the body of a liv- 
ing chrysalis inside of it ; this was done in the month of 
October. Nine months after, in June of the following 
year, I was astonished to find a great commotion in one 
of the boxes of my collection ; all the specimens were 
broken, and I found the cocoon which had been pinned in 
the box, detached and open at one end, and the antenna?, 
head and legs of the moth projecting out of it ; the insect 
' still living and could not come out, as the pin passing 



' 



sfixed the cocoon. Thi 



insect had been thrust, for nine months, a pin covered with 
verdigris, and yet had not been killed by it ! Naturalists 
state that it is very important, when transporting cocoons 
in a box, to pierce the box with holes so that the air may 
penetrate it, as if air was needed for a chrysalis inside 
the cocoon. Having observed how close and air-tight the 
cocoon of the Polyphemus seems to be, I could not con- 
ceive that air was needed for it to breathe. Desirous of 
ascertaining whether my idea was correct, I took three 
cocoons, and at two different times I covered them care- 
fully with a thick coating of starch, allowing the first 
coating to dry before putting on the second one. After 
this the cocoons were covered at three different times 
with a heavy coating of shellac varnish ; thus the cocoons 



were made pcrieetly air-t.-j 
dry room all winter. In . 
fectly healthy, the fluid the 
having perfectly dissolved 
these insects had been nine 

accomplished their transfo 



id varnish. So 
n, and thev had 



> the 



It seems to me that when once enclosed in the cocoon, 
the pupa is in a transitory state. The process of assim- 
ilation, at least during the cold days, seems to have 
ceased. In the stomach of chrysalids can be found an 
albuminous, greenish substance;* probably it is a food 
which can be assimilated, or at least transformed into 
some of the liquids which are discharged by the perfect 
insect when coming out of the coeoom If "there is any 



THE AMERICAN SILK WORM. 149 

month than in July and August, the larvae did not grow 
so rapidly, and the moulting did not take place so regu- 
larly. The first moulting took place on the fourteenth 
day, the second the twenty-third day, the third the thirty- 
sixth day; on the first of November, or fifty-six days 
after their birth, they had not accomplished the fourth 
moulting. I could not continue the experiment, as I left 
for Europe the second of November ; but they had frozen 
several times, and the leaves were very hard, in fact I do 
not believe that the second brood would have come to ma- 
turity. I do not see that it would be of any advantage to 
obtain two broods, as the moths do not all come out of 
the cocoon at the same time, but sometimes there are two 
months between the first and the last ; so the process of 
rearing can go on permanently all summer, which is equal 
to having two broods. 

Cocoons can be retarded in hatching out by being put 
in a very cold room — an ice-house, for instance ; in this 
way they can be made to hatch another year, or nearly 
twenty-one months after they have been in the cocoon. 
In fact, the time of their appearance ran be put back for 
an indefinite period, as life is nearly suspended. Keau- 
mur states, that, at the time he was writing, he had in liis 
cellar pupte. which had been there for five years, which 
were still living. I have myself kept pupse of sphingidae, 
or hawkmoths, for three years in my cellar. At the time 
I went to Europe, they were still living, but on my re- 
turn I found that the rats had eaten them. 



THE LAND SNAILS OF NEW ENGLAND. 



Helix tridentata Say. (Figs. 8,9.) The shell of this 
secies is depressed, and of a yellowish horn color ; whorls 
Figs. 8, 9. five or six, slightly convex. Aperture con- 
tracted by the reflected lip, which has two 
teeth, and with a curved tooth on the inner 
lip forms a trilobed aperture. The whorls 
are obliquely striated, and the umbilicus is 
open. Diameter about one-half an inch. 
The animal is of a dark bluish slate color. 
This species is widely distributed throughout the Unit- 
ed States, but is not common in New Euglaud. It has 
never been found in Maine, or New Hampshire, or in the 
eastern part of Massachusetts, and occurs only rarely in 
the western part of the last-mentioned State. Dr. Bin- 
ney states that he has most commonly found it under lay- 
ers of wet and decaying leaves in forests. 

Helix i-alliata Say. (Figs. 10, 11.) Shell depressed, 
dark brown or chestnut color, covered with minute stiff 
rhichgive the surface a roughened ap- 
ice. Whorls five, flattened above ; ap- 
) three lobed, much contracted by the 
lip and teeth. Lip widely reflected, with 
two projecting teeth on the inner margin ; 
■ one at the base long and slightly prom- 
' the one above acute and prominent ; 
lip having a broad white tooth pro- 
jecting downward from the shell ; umbilicus covered by a 
white callus, being an extension from the lip. Diameter 
nearly one inch. Animal blackish slate color. It is found 
in Vermont at Copperas Hill, and is common in the 




THE LAND SNAILS OF NEW ENGLAND. 151 

"Western, South-western, and Atlantic States, with the ex- 
ception of New England, as far south as South Carolina. 

Helix monodon Rachett. (Figs. 12, 13.) Shell light 
russet in color; whorls live or six, closely revolv- Figs. 12,13. 
ing; aperture flattened, contracted by a deep (f*^§\ 
groove behind the lip. The lip is narrow, and \**jf 
turned back, partially or wholly covering the mn- ^=N 
bilicus. On the inner lip there is a long white %^ 
tooth at the aperture, and within the aperture, projecting 
from the umbilicus, a shelly partition called the fulcrum. 
The shell is covered with numerous minute hairy projec- 
tions, which give the surface a velvety appearance. The 
diameter of the shell is usually three-eighths of an inch. 
Animal yellowish-brown, darker on the head and back. 
In some parts of New England this species is quite com- 
mon. Found in forests and also on hill-sides in pastures, 
under bits of bark and stones, a situation in which it is 
unusual for other snails to occur. Two or three individ- 
uals are generally found together. 

Helix iiiiisuta Say. (Figs. 14,15.) Shell nearly glob- 
ular, brownish in color, covered by numerous Fi g3 .i4,i5. 
rigid hairs. Aperture contracted, and nearly / ^j 
closed by a long narrow tooth on the body w\ 
lip narrow, turned against the outer whorl. On ^gK 
the inner margin of the outer lip, at the base of *^ 
the aperture, is a deep notch. Ordinary diameter one- 
quarter of an inch; umbilicus closed. Animal whitish, 
head and tentacles slate colored. In the New England 
States this species has been found west of the Connecticut 
River, though not common. It is common in the Middle 
and Western States. — To be continued. 

... - :.:-- 



By J. Aitkm M-iys, M. 



ATi:i:vn>i:„v.MMi:.)i.- .in: rvs,:,-rs is.irumvs m Vegetatiox. By 






NATURAL HISTORY MISCELLANY. 

BOTANY. 
Tite "May Flower."— Among all that beautiful family o 
Heaths, there is none that has such strong claims upon ou 
.he lowly .May Flower, and none more likely to have its el 



Pilgrim ship • 


'May Flower." 


This humble shrub 


tifulh :ir mn.l 


Plymouth, and ii 




along the N< 


>w England coasl 


;. Its "starry love 






ntion of our worth 






play of sentii 








, as much of a s 


in, if the young Pi 












' some Mary or Ma 






eary perhaps with 






i on the pulpit, — i 








In the hoc 


.ks, this plant is 




otherwise as 


the Trailing Arb 


utus, May Flower, 



isperings of joy to the 3 



the Weeping v 



KATURAL HISTORY MISCELLAXY. 

3 for an indefinite period by agamogenesis (or birth without a 
is union of the male ami female elements). This tree, "whic 
1 propagated throughout Europe, does not seed in Europe." 
* the Period and Ratio of the Asmal Increase in 
3Umference of Trees. — "The Carolina Poplar (Populus n 
I Ait.) was selected on account of its rapid growth, enabling i 



The Agency of Insects in Fertilizing Plants. — I have made 

mous Plants, showing that in the genus Kalmia, and other genera 
also, insects are necessary to carry pollen from flower to flower in or- 
der to fertilize pistils. 

I have found, also, that of many plants which produce perfect flow- 
ers, in some the stamens discharge all this pollen before the stigmas 
of the same flower are exposed; while there arc others in which the 
pistil is fertilized before the pollen of the flower is discharged. In 
these two ways they act as though they were monoecious plants. — TV. 
J. Beal. 

Curious Flower. — One of the most singular flowers growing in 
this pretty garden (of the Panama Railway Company) was an orchid, 
called by the natives "Flordel Fspiritu Santo," or the "Flower of 
the Holy Ghost." The blossom, white as Parian marble, somewhat 
resembles the Tulip in form; its perfume is not unlike that of the 
Magnolia, but more int. us, . N. ith. r its beauty nor fragrance begat 

placed in its centre. Gathering the freshly-opened flower, and pulling 
apart its alabaster petals, there sits the dove; its slender pinions 

bowed in gentle submission, brings the delicate beak, just blushed 



Mimetic Forms among 
Cked by insects are the predaceoiis species, from which it is the inte 

- ■ " - 







glued. The pup 




S^<JLf<SS 








of the box be of 




into it. It is th 


as firmly 



box.— E. S. Moi 



' paper and bottom 



NATURAL HISTORY MISCELLANY. 157 






?ical Survey of California hare 



< pi-fv.-iil-i in NVv.kl.-i and i 



K ist< rn S ites (1 1 i ir tin lihn ial i poch. — Proceedin 
nia Academy J66. Vol 3, part ii 



' 



Prof. J. W. Bai 



ag the Infusoria. 



NATURAL HISTORY MISCELLANY. 159 

Their hard silicious shells are characterized by being marked with 

whether salt, brackish, or fresh. Their hard shells are preserved un- 
der bogs, where they form layers, resembling fine white silicious sand, 
and also in guano. They also occur fossil at Bermuda, Oran in Alge- 
ria, and Richmond, Va. 



1 where it is not possible for the 
umens, good models, drawings, and 
supplied. It is the duty of every 
:ate knowledge most easily and most 



■his plan myself, and have round that it work- admirably. I am able 
to demonstrate from ei^hr to twelve microscopical specimens to a 



, : ■ 






Museum of Comparative Zoology, at Cambridge. 
1 _ Mr - J - F. Allan, of Spriu-tield. Mass., author of a series* 
ie Naturalist, and all 



NATURAL HISTORY CALENDAR. 



ll iu this field, he intends to push < 
.Mountains, and collect in that region. 



186G: 



NATURAL HISTORY CALENDAR. 

lendar ion Mat.— The first half of May 



lie close of the 



IAL HISTORY CALKNDAR. 



1 Bank Swallows, King Bird, Goldea-crowned and 
the Black-throated Green, Prairie, Blue Yellow- 
ille Warblers ; the House Wren and Marsh Wrens 
'is and C. stellar is), and the Summer Yellow Bird, 

I the preceding become abundant, while the Bobo- 
:l Orchard Orioles, Rose-breasted Grosbeak, Scar- 

Hawk. Maryland Yellow-throat, Veery, or Wilson's 
the Spotted C'ana i lilack-< .j d B i< k ! i 1111 m 
^k-throated Blue, Chestnut-sided, and Cape May 
-•k-billed and Yellow-billed Cuckoos; the Red-eyed, 

'How-throated Air.-,.-,: the Indigo Bird. Swainsou's 
.11, Great-crested. Traill's, and Olive-sided Flycatch- 
iring. Ueil-headed Woodpecker, and Humming Bird 

■ 



_i*tnto21st._ Wood Pev t. and Black Poll 

W arbler arrive. The woods and thickets, as well as the orchards and 
shrubbery of the garden, -warm with D> inlruioa or Wood Warblers, 
and with other species of Sjlvi<-o7i>i<e and Flycatchers. 

21st to 31st. — Towards the close of the month, the various species 
n arblers and their allies, that pass farther north to breed, retire 
tlnthor and to the highlands. The Black Poll Warbler and Swainsou's 
Inrush are (a few stragglers of other species still remaining) the only 
irds which remain in numbers, that pass north of central New Eng- 

All the summer visitors and vernal passengers have now arrived. 
-lany oftbe ( . ady breederSj as the Blue Bird) Pcwee> Robin, Song aud 
i u Id sparrows, etc., have, at the close of the month, nearly full-fledg- 
Chewink, Cat Bit inged Blackbird, 

Meadow Lark, Brown Thrash, Blue Jay, Chickadee, Swallows, Whip- 

arblmg. and other Vireos, and several Flycatchers and Warblers, 
su C ' ithtr '""^ Ul buildin -» or are pairing and selecting nest sites. In 

ort, with one or two exceptions, ail the birds have ceased roving, 
a 'id choosing their summer homes, have entered upon the important 



IS}! NATURAL HIS 






he finest and most delicate parchment, may be 



«IP of our mo-- 



NATURAL HISTORY CALENDAR. 163 

le Kalraia, Rhodora, and wild Cherries are in bloom, many 
>st beautiful butterflies appear ; such are the different species 
, Thecla, and Argynnis. At this time we have found the 
of Melitaea Phaeton, clot lied in the richest red and velvety 
ling daintily upon the Hazel Nut, and tender leaves of the 
d. In June, it changes to the chrysalis state, and early in 
mtterfly rises from the cold damp bogs, where we have 

ill, when the Lilac blooms, and farther south the broad- 
mia, the gaily-colored Humming Bird Moth (Sesia), visits 
i in company with the Swallow-tail Butterfly (Papilio Tur- 
twilight, the Hawk- - -lessly through 

ts, as soon as the Honeysuckles and Pinks and Lilies are in 

the Flies (Diptcru), Mosquitoes now appear, though they 



Of the Beetles (Coleoptera), those wl 
specially active. The Squash Beetle (Phytic 
thica vittata, fig. 2) now attacks the Squash 
plants before they are f; 
the Pl umb Weevil (Omntradiolus ' nnnt- 
P*«r, fig. 3. From Harris) will sting the 



ujllobro- Tig. 3. 

T abound, , -J£& \ ^9^ \ 
epositing f 1 ^ / \ 



Sing the seeds and fruit, and depositing 
r eggs just under the skin. So immense are 

ch m * the air and enliven the tiekls and woodlands. ju> 
*s in, that a bare enumeration of them would ov 

word, however, about our Water Insects. Late in th 

'-''> \E,,I„ u,r.i appear, often rising, in immense m 
surface of pools and sluggish brooks. In 



Tll <" Case v, .. now to i cave their portal 

I of pieces of leaves, or sticks and fine gravel, and 

- -: ' ver mging trees. 

- uit.) Hawks, or Dragon Fl . - TJhrUuhi^. herald t 
a™"^ ° f the sum raer brood of these 1 
Agriculturist. During their whole life belc 



164 PROCEEDINGS OF SCIENTIFIC SOCIETIES. 

logical Herods have slain and sucked the blood of myriads of infant 
mosquitoes and other insects; and now, in their new world above the 
waters, with still more intensified powers of doing mischief, happily. 
however, to flies mostly obnoxious to man, they riot in bloodshed and 

nearest brook, gather a sprig or two of the Water Cress, which 

(Limnea, Planorbis, and Valvata). Caddis Flies, and Water Beetles, 
together with the gatherings from a thicket of Eel Grass, or other sub- 
merged plants, being rich in the young of various flies, Ephemeras, 

Dragon-flies, and Water-fleas (EntmHostrar.i), which last are beau- 

"feel at home," and the aquarium will be swarming with life, af- 
fording amusement and occupation for many a dull hour, by day or at 
night, in watching the marvels of insect transformations, and plant- 
growth.— A. S. P. 

PROCEEDINGS OF SCIENTIFIC SOCIETIES. 






3Ir. W. T. Brigha n oerally believed net 



Essex Ixmtittk. Salem, Ffe&raary 4.— Mr. F. W. Putnam c 
far specimen of the Horned Pout (Fi lodus t* 

' ,i ( , „ , m. < - ure.lln I'l R IVkmn, of 



OF SCIENTIFIC I 



is. by Dr. Mitchell. Dr. Torrey, Mr. 



Central Park, an blished in Bruce's 

ll Journal. De Witt Clinton \v,i- a contributor to the An- 
.yceum, and Audubon, De Kay, Lucien Bonaparte, Cooper, 

mmunications to the Society. There have only been three 
.uring the fifty years of the existence of the Lyceum, Dr. 
. Torrey, and Major Delafield. The latter declined a re- 



i DLur.il->. On • . • 



PROCEEDINGS OF SCIENTIFIC SOCIETIES. 1G7 



croscopical Obse; 






' Prof. H. L. Smitl 



testing the Trou 



""" 1 " slral 






AMERICAN NATURALIST. 

Vol. I.-JOTE, 1867. -No. 4. 

THE KECENT BIRD TRACKS OF THE BASIN 
OF MINAS. 



Almost in the very heart of Nova Scotia is the Basin of 
Minas, a beautiful sheet of writer communicating with the 
head of the Bay of Fundy by a narrow strait. It is 
triangular in shape, the longer, or northern shore being 
about sixty miles in length, running nearly east and west, 
skirting the Cobequid hills. The western or shortest 
side runs about north and south, along the edge of 
the fertile New-Bed Sandstone district of Cornwallis, 
known as the "Garden of Nova Scotia," or "Corn-and-po- 
tatoes-wallis." At the southern angle of the triangle enter 
two rivers, or, more properly, estuaries ; the Cornwallis, 
which comes from the west,' and the Avon, which enters 
from the south-east. Between the mouth of these two 
rivers is the Grand Pre, the home of Evangeline, ren- 
dered celebrated by the delightful poem of Longfellow. 

The scenery of this part of Nova Scotia is very pictu- 
resque and beautiful. Almost at the mouth of the Corn- 
wallis is the pretty little village of WolfVille, the seat of 
^gjfo^Hegg. From the cupola of that Institution we 

«erk4 e 6fflce C o?the Y ) k "* IXSTITUTE ' ,n the 



THE RECENT 



with f: 


■ins 


and farn 


-houses, 


and b 


•YO.UI 


the North 


mounta 


lis 


hat bordei 


the whc 


le southern 


5 hore of the 


Bay of 


Fin 


ly like a 


wall, brt 


aking 


lown 


abruptly on 


the Wes 


mi 


shore of tl 


e Basin 


af Mina 


s, fori 


ling a noble 


promoii 


orv 


Cape Bloi 


lidon, w 


hose bright r 


.I sandstone 


cliffs an 


I 1V( 


wuinjrtni! 


-crags :u 


e not le 


^s o-r; 


Qd than the 


Palisa-L 


s of 


the Iluds, 


n. We 


see the 


high 


ridge of the 


Cobequ 


ds s 


tretehing a 


ong the 


northe 


n sh« 


re eastward 


as far a, 


tin 


eye can 1 


each, wl 


lie just 


east 


>f the Avon 


are the 


'arl 


oniferous 1 


ills of C 


heveri. 


, and 


on our right 


and aim 


>st 


it our very- 


feet is the Grai 


id Pri 




AtH 


lith 




g the At 


antic s 


ore t 


f Nova Sco- 


tia, the 


ide 


rises but a 


few feet 


but, a 


v\or\ 


one knows, 


the rise 


at t 


le head of 


the Bay 


of Fun 




omits some- 


times t< 


sev 


enty feet. 














at Halifax 






take 


the cars to 


Windsor, a 


little towi 


on the 


Avon, 




miles above 


its mouth, \i 


hence a sn 


all steal 


er plie 


to St 


John, New 


Brunsw 


ck. 


We arrh 


e two o 


r three 


hours before the 


steamer 


is e 




There 


is a cr 


owd on the wharf, 




and we 


go 


town to se< 


what is 


the matter, b 


Lit to our as- 


tonishm 


mt we see a wi 


de, deep 


valley, 


like j 


great mud 



ditch, and no water, except a narrow >tream, excessively 
turbid, which meanders over the expanse of soft choco- 
late-colored mud and sand at the bottom. At the foot of 
the wharf, which is some twenty or more feet high, a bank 
of soft mud, scored with trough-like depressions made by 
the keels of vessels, slopes off ten feet further to the bed 
of the river. Vessels lie high and dry at the wharves, 
and — Where is the water? 



OF THE BASIX OF MINAS. 171 

Below Windsor, one looks clown the river some dis- 
tance,, and then the view is shut off by an eastward bend. 
By and by we see something white making its appear- 
ance at this point. It is advancing up the stream, and 
there is a gleam of water behind it. Some one who has 
also been on the lookout exclaims, "Here comes the 
tide !" We see it coming steadily up the channels, with 
a line of foam* along its front. It rushes swiftly by us, 
passes under the long bridge that spans the Avon just 
above the town, and is out of sight. Meanwhile the 
whole bottom of the depression is flooded, and the water 
up the edges 
sand sweeps 
dy fronds of 



is pouring in like 


a r 


iver. It 


creeps visibl 


of the mud banks 


, ga 


ins the bases of the pit 


out higher and ye 


t'hi 


gher the i 


mil-dried, nn 


the coarse, knotty 


-Ie;i 


ived fuci, 


that hang he 


pier. As we wat 




the flood t 


'ddviiiir and 


the sides of the 


wl 




ini'mr >teadi 


in height every 




unit, we 


can" scared 


question, Where 


will 


I it stop? 


But a littL 


looked down the 


rivi 


■r and sa 


w it as a «tc 


ditch. Now it is 


a 


broad ex] 


)anse of wat 


** beautiful, Avert 


■ it 


not that 


its waves a 


tui-lmi^and of a c< 


.tfe, 


3, or rathe 


r elioeolate. 


'»g strangely with tli 


e green m 


eadows and . 


s, <"'* that border 


it. 


There is 


a little fleet 


^at is being bom 




i on the ci 


irrent, and \ 



ti the current, and presently some 
°»e cries out, " Here she comes !" There is a long black 
h »e of smoke issuing from beyond the elms on the point, 
a »d in a moment the little bav steamer makes her ap- 
P ear anco, and is soon blowing off steam alongside of the 
£!!!l^eamvhn e the tide has risen s o as nearly to fill 



172 THE RECEOT BIRD TRACKS 

the channel. An hour afterwards, when the boat leaves, 
the marsh meadows are overflowed, and all the bordering 
flat lands would be deluged, were they not protected from 
the flood by a line of embankments, called "dykes." 
Away goes the steamer with the turn of the tide, a few 
little vessels drop down on its current, and five hours af- 
terwards little boys wade across in the mud above the 
bridge to avoid paying the toll. 

The northern and southern shores of the Basin of Minas 
are bordered by bluffs of Lower Carboniferous sandstone 
and shale, and soft, bright-red beds of clayey sandstone 
belonging to the "New-Red" or Trias formation of geol- 
ogists. The western shore is wholly composed of this 
latter rock. 

One w T ould expect that the action of tidal currents, 
such as we have described, comhined with the amount of 
surface exposed to wave-action, between high and low 
water, would cause a great wear of the coast; and such is 
the case, both in the Bay of Fundy and the Basin of Mi- 
nas. Frosts heave oil" every year great masses from the 
trap cliifs of Blomidon, or the shale and sandstone bluffs 
of the coast of the Basin, and every year sees them more 
or less completed removed, bv the joint action of currents 



ic whole bay.* During the intervals 
low, when the waters are stationary, 
; deposited forms extensive banks, cr- 
ests along the shores at low tide. Each 
to these banks and sloping shores, 
[ceedingly thin film, at others, espec- 



OF THE BASIN OF MINAS. 173 

ially after stormy weather, amounting to a quarter of an 
inch or more. The layer formed by a night tide is said 
to be thicker than that deposited by a day tide. The 
mud banks, as well as the flat marsh-lands bordering the 
Basin, especially in Horton and Cornwallis, are composed 
of this material. Where large tracts had reached such a 
height as to be covered by only a few feet of water at 
high tide, the inhabitants, to whom the French Acadians 
set the example, have dyked them in, and as the "marsh 
mud" forms a very fertile soil, these dyked lands are 
very valuable. A little island lay a couple of miles from 
the southern shore of the bay, between the mouth of the 
Avon and Cornwallis. Mud accumulated between it and 
the main land, and as the deposits increased, it at last 
formed a marsh joining the island to the shore. The 
French Acadians dyked this in, and the great meadow 
thus formed was the Grand Pre, where Basil toiled in the 
forge and paid court to Evangeline. 

It is a beautiful day in June : let us pay a visit to 
the Cornwallis River, near Wolfville. The dyked land 
here, planted with oats ax 
narrow strip bordering th 
ing the regularly kid-out ditches used to collect the sur- 
face water, and carry it off by sluices through the dykes, 
which is merely a mud wall a few feet in height, sufficient 
to keep out the waves at high tide. Outside this wall we 
find a flat area, in part bare and muddy, partly sedge- 
drained off, and at their bottoms we see immense num- 
bers of coarse black-looking little shells (Xassa obsoleta 
Say) crawling about. We And also a great many speci- 
mens of a kind of mussel, with a furrowed shell (Modiola 
pUcatula Lamk.), half buried in the mud. Occasionally a 



THE i:i.CEXT BIRD TRACKS 

b ii]) (Mya armaria Linn. ). and perhaps i 



teresting by and by." By dint of wading through the mud, 
leaping across ditches, an exploit rendered somewhat diffi- 
cult owing to the tenacity of the mud, which makes jump- 
ing out of one's boots something easy to accomplish, we 
reach a sedgy tract, and this crossed, we are by the side of 
the river. The tide is out, and a scene like that we wit- 
nessed on the Avon, at Windsor, meets the eye . The bank 
slopes rather steeply from its top to the bed of the river. 
The warm sun has dried and cracked the mud on the sur- 
face along the upper edge of the bank, and it is divided 
into polygonal pieces by a network of cracks, like that or 
a dried up mud-puddle j and the upper layers are curled 
up a little so as to be partially separated from those un- 



del 


neath. This 


crack 

e whol 
elow h 


,,',, 


und and see 


a" spoi 


of 


moke from h 





mot far off, the blue wivat 
iece fast drifting over the dyke, whil 
in immense flock of "Marsh Peeps" {Triruja minuta), i 
(rhirling around him, now almost invisible, now flashing 
ip like a cloud of snow-flakes, as they take a differen 
;ack, exposing their white breasts. In certain season 
if the year this little bird is verv numerous on this shore 



OF THE BASIN OF MINAS. 175 

together with several other species of waders, and large 
flocks of them may be seen running busily about over the 
mudflats, searching tor worm-, crustaceans, etc. 

The baked mud of the upper zone is at present too hard 
to retain the impressions of their footsteps, while that 
near the bottom of the slope is too soft. The middle 
zone, with its smooth, glossy, partially dried surface, is 
eminently fitted to receive and retain the most delicate 
impressions, and it is covered all over with the long zig- 
zag lines of their little three-toed tracks . AVe distinguish 
readily the tracks of other species of birds that have run 
over the same surface. Here is the large three-toed im- 
pression of the foot of the Great Blue Heron, which we 
frightened away when we came up, and which is now 
wading about leisurely along the edge of a sand-bank in the 
middle of the river. Here are also tracks of crows and 
dogs, and here, the deep, brokenly-cut hoof-prints of a 
cow. There are tracks both of booted and barefooted gun- 
ners. See ! these impressions were made by a person walk- 
ing leisurely, but if you will follow them on a little you 
will mid that they begin to be suddenly farther apart, and 
the too becomes more deeply impressed. A sportsman has 
stolen quietly up to a flock of "Peeps," fired, and then run 
to pick up his game. Here we find great numbers of 
tracks made by the flock into which he fired ; and we see, 
also, the long grooves made by the shot. There are feath- 
ers lying about, and we can tell from the different direc- 
tions in which he ran, that he has shot and picked up 
half a dozen birds. 

Let us now go up the slope a little further, to where 
the mud is dry and cracked. On this hardened surface 
we find the tracks of birds that ran over it a couple of 
hours ago, when it was still soft. V.'e scale off a few 



BIRD TRACKS, ETC. 



same kind on the next layer underneath. On a previous 
day the birds ran about over the mud as to-day, leaving 
the impressions of their feet ; these hardened in the sun ; 
the tide came up softly and flowed over them, depositing 
a new layer of mud upon them, thus preserving them. 
This layer is pitted with little pear-shaped impressions. 
"Why! these must be rain prints,'" suggests our compan- 
ion, who has begun to be interested in mud-studies, "and 
the storm must have come from the west too, because the 

tion in which the small end of the impression is turned, 

besides, the shower could imt have lasted long else it 
would have made the mud too soft, and none of the prints 
would have been preserved. By the bye, we had a 
slight shower this morning, just a little while after the 
tide was full. I'll venture that near high tide mark we 
shall find some record of it. Yes ! here they are, and 



of which are directed to the point of the compass from 
which the wind blew." Shells, bones of fish and other 
animals become buried in these beds, together with the 
remains of plants, leaves of trees, pine cones, or other 
fruits ; but it is an exeeediiurlv rare thin- to find on these 
flats a dead bird, unless it is one which has been killed by 



THE HABITS OF THE GORILLA. 



New Englaxd has the honor of having discovered this 
celebrated ape. The first specimen was brought to 
Boston by Dr. Savage. It was discovered by Professor 
Jeffries Wyman, and named by him after the wild men 
(fformoB) which Hanno mentions. 

Professor Wyman, however, advanced no hypothesis as 
to their identity. It has recently been suggested, and 
even asserted, that the gorilla of Haimo, and the gorillas 
of the present day are the same. Bat that is a conjecture, 
not impossible indeed, but incapable of anything like 
proof. 

Haimo, a Carthaginian, made an exploring voyage 
down the west coast of Africa. His log, or Periplast has 
been preserved. He records the number of days occu- 

seribesthe features of the coast sometimes with minute- 
ness. The two great authorities upon the Periplus are 
Gosselin {Geojrcqihie ties Anciens) and Rennell {Geog- 
raphy of Herodotus) . The former, a sceptic, will not al- 
low that Haimo sailed beyond the limits of the Barbary 
coast; an hypothesis to be rejected: while Eennell, evi- 
dently desirous of taking him as far as he can, fixes the 



Allowing that lie did reach the equator, and that the 
'kanic peak of Fernando Po was the Currus Deoram, 
he flames of which seemed to touch the sky," another 



178 THE HABITS OF THE GORILLA. 

difficulty remains to be disposed of. He says that the 
gorilhe defended themselves with stones, and escaped 
over the precipices. Now there are no precipices on the 
coast of the gorilla country, and the gorilla of the nine- 
teenth century is not in the habit of throwing stones. 
The northern limit of its habitat I ascertained to be 



have not pen 



its southe 



limit. bu 


it is probably Loango. Nt 


good reason can be 


assigned 


vhy the gorilla should not 


be found wherever 


the chim 


xmzee is found ; but speci 


nens of the former 


have not 


yet been procured from the 


.nckwnods of Sierra 


Leone ai 


d Liberia, where the latter 


ape is met with fre- 


quently 


nough. How far east the 


o-orilla country ex- 


tends is 


of course unknown. The F 


,ns are the most in- 


land tribe at present known east of 


the Gaboon. They 


told me 


that in the distant counti 


y to the north-east 


whence 


hey came, the gorilla {ngi 


was more common 


than in 


the Gaboon ; so common tL 


at they could some- 


times he 


ir his cry from their towns. 




Theg 


>rilla moves from place to 


place, but is almost 


always found in the thickest part o 


f the virgin forest. 


His migi 


ations, if they can be so call 


d. are probably de- 


terminer 


by the food seasons. He 


s very partial to one 


or two k 


inds of fruit. I was also sh 


own a kind of grass 


growing 


in small tufts ; wherever that grass grows, the 


gorilla i 


found. 




Waterton says that the monkeys 


have no home. This 


is certai 


ily true of the gorilla and of the other anthropoid 



ape-. 



is this which rende 



them in a country which is one 



itl: L.-i 



loworamar.li. The imrilla builds a nc-t. it 
not as a residence. The male arranges this 
houghs when the female is pregnant; she is 



THE HABITS OF THE GOEILLA. 179 

confined on it, and it is then deserted. Possibly a gorilla 
might be detected sleeping in one now and then, as birds 
often roost in old nests, but it is not made for that pur- 

The gorilla is partly terrestrial in its habits. It moves 
on all fours, sometimes assuming the erect position, but 
with difficulty, and only for a short time. As it goes 
along it breaks the branches of trees on either side; 
sometimes it ascends a tree to feed upon the fruit. The 
plantations of the natives are usually at some distance 
from their villages ; the gorilla frequently visits them to 
eat the plantain and the sugar-cane, especially at mom 
and eve. At night it chooses a large tree to sleep in. 

it is a kind of bark, or short, abrupt roar. It does not 
attack man without provocation. When assailed or 
wounded, it charges on all fours, seizes the offensive ob- 
ject, bites it, and immediately retreats. 

The gorilla is polygamous, and the male is frequently 
solitary ; in fact, I have never seen more than one track 
at a time : but there is no doubt that both gorillas and 
chimpanzees are also found in bands. The males are 
said to fight with <»ne another in the rutting season. The 
dung is like that of man, but notched in a peculiar man- 
ner. There appears to be little difference in the habits 
of the gorilla and the chimpanzee. The former ape is 

chimpanzee is said by the natives to be more intelligent, 
and less ferocious. They also, though feeding on the 
same kind of food, appear to prefer different sorts; for 
Which reason it is, probably, that they are found in dif- 
ferent lo,alities. 

I have seen one young gorilla in a state of captivity ; it 



180 THE MOSS-AXIMALS, 

was as docile as the young chimpanzee, which I also saw. 
It has been asserted, however, 011 good authority, that 
the young gorilla is sometimes perfectly untamable. All 
the authorities upon the habits of the gorilla are cited by 
Professor Huxley in his "Man's Place in Nature," with 
the exception of a curious passage in Monboddo's "Origin 
and Progress of Language " (vol. i. p. 281) . M. Du Chail- 
lu, in his "Journey to Ashaugo Land," also gives some 

what was previously known, than as throwing any new 
light upon the subject. 

In tact, there is nothing remarkable in the habits of 
the gorilla, nothing which broadly distinguishes it from 

which also builds a nest, which also assumes the erect 
posture now and then, and which also charges when 
wounded or hnmirht to bav. 



THE MOSS- ANIMALS, OR FRESH WATER 
POLYZOA. 



inHT.u Frederirella has been more particularly re- 
to in the preceding Articles, they are, with one ex- 
l, almost equally applicable to all of the Phylacto- 
... This exception is the round disc, or lophophore, 

(Compare Plate 3, fig. 4, with Plate 4, fig. 1.) 
$e four have, like the Frederic-el la, very eupho- 
names, Plumatella, Pcctinatella, Lophopus, and 

ella; and, while preserving a general identity, vary 



OR FRESH WATER POLYZOA. 181 

extremely in the details of their anatomy and habits of 
life. 

The Plumatella? abound near the shores of our ponds, 
close to the surface, and are generally found with Freder- 
icella. Better fitted, however, to endure the sun's rays, 
they sometimes seek places more exposed to their iniiu- 

One sultry summer day. while searching for Polyzoa 
under the shelter of a bridge, my attention was drawn to 
the long water-grasses farther out in the stream, where, to 
my surprise, I found a specimen of Plumatella Arethusa, 
its tiny branches and living crystalline flowers glittering 
m the light as they swayed in the current unprotected 
from the heat. 

The colony is like that of Fredericella, and in some 
species the unpractised eye would not detect the differ- 
ence until the hursi'shiH'-like discs were discovered. In 
others, however, such as Plumatella vitrea, the outer en- 
velope remains gelatinous and transparent in the adult as 
iu the young, and the tubes, or polypides, are in groups 
of two and more, counting sometimes twenty plumes. 

The colony is dendritic, but the branches are always 
creepers along the surface, and there are no constrictions 
between the polypides, the branch being merely an elon- 
gated, undivided sac. It approximates, in this respect, to 
the next genus, Lophopus, and would belong to it, but 
that the state-blast has the plain, oval annulus of its com- 
patriots among the Plumatellse, which ranks it with them. 

Lophopus has, also, lobiform branches, but they are 
supported in an erect posture by the ectocyst, a lump of 
clear jelly in which they are buried. The whole colony 
is very minute, the polypides are all gathered at the ends 
of the branches, and no longer occupy separate cells as in 



182 : 

Fredericella and most of the Flumatellse. In the United 
States, Lophopus is very rare, only one specimen having 
been found in the Schuylkill River, near Philadelphia. 
In Kngland, it is abundant upon the stems of floating 
duck- weed (Lemna) and other fresh-water plants. 

My first introduction to Peetinatolla and Oistatella took 

one of the smalle.-t of the I i< j ni< 1 gems adorning that State. 
Induced by the representations of a scientific friend, I 
visited the pond late in September, and its unexpected 
treasures kept me a willing loiterer for several succeeding 
weeks. The season was charming, full of haze and color, 
with an occasional l.-uf drifting through the still air, to re- 
mind one that the funeral cortege of the summer was pass- 
ing down the year. Our way to the pond led us through 
a tortuous, shallow channel, studded with the blackened 

overshadowed the spot where we now floated. I learned 
that earlier in the season this channel was much deeper, 
wholly submerging the shattered stumps, which were 
covered by luxuriant growths of Pectinatelke, hanging 
over them like ivy over ruined towers. At this season, 
however, they were bare, the Polyzoa having sought the 
cooler depths of the pond. 

Passing under a picturesque bridge, we entered the 
main lake, a long expanse with undulating shores, more 
like a river than a lake. One could readily imagine it 
winding on to the distant hills, dosing the view to the 
northward, and the old logs which here and there lifted 
their sun-baked heads above the autumnal-tinted waters, 
half reclining with the current, added another river-like 
feature to the scene. We selected the oldest of these as 
most likely to furnish us with the objects of our search. 



OR FRESH WATER POLYZOA. 183 

It was firmly imbedded, but when we finally succeeded in 
bringing the under side in view, the rich harvest of speci- 
mens amply rewarded our labors. 

No marine or fresh-water animals of our northern cli- 
mate excel the Pectinatelhe in beauty, or equal them in 
the tropical profusion with which they grow. The clus- 
ters, some as large as our heads, others broad and flat, 
were covered by hexagonal figures about an inch in diam- 
eter, traced by the plumed tubes of thousands of Polyzoa. 
Each hexagonal pattern, and there were hundreds in 
some settlements, was a separate colony. The deep, 
amber-color of the gelatine beneath shone through their 
central spaces, and each thread of the dense fringe sur- 



Ine cause of so many being assembled on one common 
deposit of jelly, is not the least curious fact in the history 

ony of Pectinatella is little more than a hollow case, dis- 
tended by the fluids within, which prevent the soft walls 
from collapsing, and support the polypides protruding 
from the upper side in radiating lines. When this hollow 
case, or coencecium, attains the length of an inch, or an 
inch and a half, a crease shows itself as if a cord had been 
drawn tightly about the soft walls. This, deepening, 
ni dly cuts the colony into two smaller ones, and these, 
as they grow, divide into four, which in turn divide into 
sixteen, and so on. Where this increase is very rapid. 
e interior colonies are forced to expand upward, and, 
adding to the gelatine as they rise, build up, in some in- 
stances, clusters several feet in diameter, and eight or 
^ore inches in thickness. 



w 



MOSS-ANIMALS, 



Side by side with these, occurred thin patches of gela- 
tine covered with what at first appeared a different spe- 
cies of Pectinatella. The central spaces of the colonies, 
however, were long and narrow, and much less brilliant, 
being surrounded by tawny-colored fringes of Polyzoa. 
This genus discards even the remnant of a branch which 
we mentioned in the lobes of the Pectinatella, and is a 
hollow sac flattened into a disc below, by which the wholo 
colony move upon the gelatine or ectocyst as one animal. 

In Fredericella, the hard, parchment-like condition of 
the ectocyst was owing wholly to the age of the colony ; 
in the young, it was gelatinous. 

*\Ye have seen, also, that Lophopus was buried in 
its own ectocyst, which remained gelatinous throughout 
life, and that the Pectinatella, though firmly attached, 
simply rested on theirs. And we now see Cristatella 
making the last step in this process, becoming entirely 
independent of its ectocyst, which is only a transient se- 
cretion thrown off from the creeping disc, like slime from 
the foot of a snail, to smooth the path over which it 
crawls. In large settlements the colonies lie closely to- 
gether, but it is not infrequent to meet with a stray one 
wandering by itself. Locomotion is accomplished by a 
complete net-work of muscles within the sac. These, with 
perhaps other muscles in the walls, enable them to ex- 
pand the disc in any direction, and then secreting gela- 
tine, and holding to what they have thus gained, draw up 
their remaining portions. They move so slowly, how- 
ever, that minute colonies require a day to get over an 
inch on the side of a smooth glass dish, the larger colo- 
nies progressing even more sluggishly. In Plate 5, the 
outline of a single polypide is given, with a portion of the 
net-work of internal muscles. 



OR FRESH WATER POLTZOA. 185 

Cristatella is no exception in the animal kingdom ; 
there are many instances in which compound animals 
move and act in unity. But here there is some hope of 
solving this mysterious diversity of number, with unity 
of will and purpose. 

The nervous system, wherever it is present, whether in 
the distinct form of brain, nerve-mass, or ganglion, is es- 
sentially the medium of sensation and of motive power. 

Now if the nervous system among the Polyzoa is a 
compound system, having a common trunk with branches 
leading off into each Polyzoon, a sensation in the main 
body could be conveyed to each individual, and thus the 
will of every minute tube be brought into harmony with 
all, causing the whole to move like one creature. 

Fritz Muller, a German naturalist, has actually ascer- 
tained that in one of the marine species of Seriolaria, the 
nerves followed up the hollow trunk and branches of the 
colony like the dark wood in the heart of a tree, supply- 
ing each animal with a nerve. He noticed that if the 
trunk of the colony was irritated, that all the Polyzoa 
withdrew their plumes as if alarmed, and this led him to 
investigations, which resulted in such important discov- 
eries. 

Whether all the polypides in a colony of Cristatella 
unanimously resolve to move, or whether the majority 
rule and. drag the minority at will, or whether again the 
desire to move is excited in the central nerve-trunk by 
external causes, has not yet been determined. 

One thing, however, seems probable, that the unanim- 
ity of action in the little republic is due to the union of 
the various individualized nervules into branches, and 
nnally into one grand trunk, otherwise parts of the mov- 
able sac might be travelling in opposite directions at the 



, from the sides as well as from the ends, and 
be broad and sedentary, instead of long, nar- 



Fig. 1. Magnified view of one r«)lyi)i(lf.is(ji; 



THE LAND SNAILS OF XEW ENGLAND. 



Qity of last whorl rurved toward the aperture. 
Lip sli-htlv reflected, white, and having a 
thickened margin within the shell ; the re- 
flected condition of the lip disappearing at 
the base of the shell. Aperture rounded ; umbilicus ab- 
sent. The base of the shell is quite convex. Specimens 

brown; creeping disc inky; i.-xtreinity lirty flesh-color. 



OF NEW ENGLAND. 

This species has been found in the 



187 



lower parts of Cape Cod and Capo Ann, as well as in 

with the European species, and is supposed to have found 
its way to this country through commercial intercourse, 
though it seems strange that, while in the old country 
it is found near the habitations of men, in this country it 
occurs only upon the most uninhabitable islands. 

In England, this sperms is very abundant, and forms i 
favprite food for the thrushes and blackbirds. Ealpl 
Tate, the author o 
fresh-water mollus 
try walk one 
by fracture* 



.and form 

d blaekbi 

very readable book on the land and 

of Great Britain, says : "In a coun- 

3 may frequently see a largo stone surrounded 



,,_„s; these 
/hereon the poor snail « 
fare of our son-ist ts and the 



blocks w 
fare 
shell; 
tibfi b 



II. 



principal mas. „f t] n > 
»t of the last whorl." \ 
of fooc 

2LIX ALTERXA1 



* young 
sally broken. 



the slaughtering- 
tor the wel- 
enies. The 

is to expose 

eommence- 



Say. (Figs. 17, 18.) She 



Mat- 






ds and spots arranged 
uoiiquely across the whorls. Aperture, 
^iien viewed from below, nearly cireular. 
Lip simple and sharp. Whorls six in full- 
?nwn shells. In vouri! r specimens the 



is keeled or angulated, instead of round 
ea ~ The base of the shell is lighter in 
color than the upper surface. Colorless shells 
times found. Diameter about one inch. 




188 



This is one of the most common species of snail in New 
England, though occurring only in certain localities ; it 
generally occurs in great numbers. It is found in forests, 
and sometimes in open fields in damp situations. On 
islands they often occur in the greatest profusion. When 
in captivity, they lie buried most of the time under the 
moist earth, and appear to suffer more from the want of 
moisture than other species. — To be continued. 



PARASITIC PLANTS. 



To persons familiar with the 
principles of cultivation, and 
with more or less knowledge of 
our native plants, the fact that 
there are tribes of plants in 
other regions of the earth, that, 
without iniy attachment what- 
ever to the soil, grow and pro- 
duce flowers of the most novel 
form and brilliancy of colors, 
seems wonderful in the ex- 
treme. Such are the Epi- 
phytes, or air- plants of the 
tropics, whose seeds, lodging 
on the branches of living or 
decayed trees, or even upon 
the very rocks, readily vege- 
tate, and draw from the surrounding atmosphere the con- 
stituents of their growth. 

This is accomplished chiefly through their roots, as in 




NTS. 189 

other plants ; and as they are found to increase with much 
greater luxuriance in the recesses of the forest, by the 
banks of streams, in a sultry, humid atmosphere, we see 
less difficulty in comprehending the possibilities of their 
growth and the economy of their being; indeed, their na- 
ture is now so well understood, that they are cultivated 
with ease in our conservatories. 

We do not, however, intend to write of air-plants, as 
our country produces none ; but we have, among our na- 
tive plants, those whose methods of growth are perhaps 
scarcely less novel and wonderful; such as our parasites, 
which derive their nourishment from other living plants 
to which they adhere, — depending upon the leaves and 
roots of such plants for the necessary contact with the 
atmosphere and the soil. 

The name Parasite is of great significance, for such 
plants are robbers in the fullest sense, and live solely at 
the expense of their neighbors. 

The most mark.'*! example in this region of such anom- 
alous plants is the Dodder. Our species, the Cuscuta 
Gronovii (Q. umbrosa Torrey, or O. vulgivaga Engle- 
mann) is as strongly marked, and more widely distributed 
than either of the other American species. 

The genus Cuscuta has generally been appended to 
the Convolvulacete, or the Convolvulus tribe, which con- 
sists chiefly of twining plants, and have regular monope- 
talous pentandrous corollas, and two to four-celled cap- 
sules, with large seeds. This order is well represented by 
the Cypress vine mil the Morning-glory. 

none ; all the necessary functions of leaves, as has been 
stated, being performed by the leaves of other plants on 
which they grow. They have, however, a few minute . 



190 PARASITIC PLANTS. 

scales ill alternate succession, which are in place of leaves, 
and from their axils spring the branches. (Sec Fig. 1.) 
Although so anomalous as these plants are supposed to 
be, yet the right of being perfect plants must be conceded 
them, and they are properly assigned a place with other 
Convolvuli. 

Eight or nine species grow freely in this country, tAVO 
of which are found in New England. 

G. epilinnm, or the Flax Dodder of the old world, 
mentioned by Gerard and more ancient writers, is natu- 
ralized here to some extent. It is said to grow only upon 
flax, to which it is a great pest, spoiling large quantities. 
It was noticed by Dr. Cutler as being destructive in his 
time ; but as that useful plant is now seldom cultivated in 
this region, the Flax Dodder is but rarely detected. A 
monograph of the American species, prepared by Dr. 
George Englemann, of St. Louis, can be found in Silli- 
mans Journal, vols. 43, p. 333, and 45, p. 73. 

Under the name Q. Americana, the various native spe- 
cies were for a long time confounded. The botanical 
text-books tell us that the seeds of this strange plant 
germinate in the earth in the ordinary manner, throwing 
downward a root into the soil, by which for a short time 
the tender plantlet is sustained, until it elongates its 
thread-like stem sufficiently to reach some foster-plant, 
around which it immediately twines, and into whose 
tender bark it thrusts aerial roots, which feed upon its 

the soil, the primitive root withers away. 

After many times plucking the cord-like stems of 
this plant, and noticing the decisive development of 
its flowers and seed (for they are as perfect as upon 
leaf-elad plants), we resolved to prove, with our own 



NTS. 191 

eyes, its double nature and singular method of growth. 
Accordingly we procured some perfect seed of which the 
wild plant produces an abundance, and of a size by no 
nn s hn utive, and planted them in a bed with other 
seeds, in small rows, each ipp opriat. !\ tallied, and all 
designed for transplanting, in due time, to suitable places 
in the border. In a very few clays after planting, the Cus- 
cuta-seed uncoiled its feeble embryo, and erected its sim- 
ple yellow thread into the sunshine and air ; but while 
we waited for further de\ elopnieuts, the spring winds and 
the warm suns of noon quickly withered them away. 

Thus our first attempt at cultivation utterly failed, and 
solely for the want of some older plants in sufficient prox- 
imity for the young seedlings to cling to, but which at 
the time escaped our reflection. Mouths elapsed before 
the experiment was again tried, which was done within 
doors and in mid-winter with perfect success. The seed 
readily germinated as before, and when the young plants 
were about an inch in height, they were taken separately 
from the earth, and placed here and there on the axils of 
the leaves of plants near at hand, such as Fuschias, Ge- 
raniums, and sundry hanging plants. 

With the instincts of their nature ( if it he pardonable to 
use that term), they in a few days attached themselves to 
these plants, particularly to the Fuschias ; and as the 
spring advanced, they grew with great luxuriance and 
flowered freely, but, as might be supposed, to the mani- 
fest detriment of the plants about which they twined. 
This, however, was overlooked in the satisfaction arising 
from success ; for had their yellow stems been gold, and 
their clusters „f flowers pearls, the Batisfection would 
hardly have been greater. Those placed on the hanging 
Plants, although they adhered, made but feeble growth. 



192 

One seedling placed upon a plant of Dielytra xpeduhilis 
did not twine or extend itself with much freedom, but, 
taking a turn or two near the extremity of one of the 
branches, it there expended its strength in perfecting 
a large conglomerate cluster of one hundred or more 
bells of unusual size and purity of color. In the process 
of transplanting from the earth to their aerial abode, we 
at first attempted to convey a ball of earth with each 
seedling, but this was soon found to be worse than use- 



C. On 


movii, the species under consideration, is found 


in low (1 


lamp places, and by the side of brooks and 


ponds, tv 


.-ining and climbing over such plants as the Wil- 


low and 


Cephalanthus, Decodon and Lythrum, Solidago 


and Impi 


.tiens, to which it attaches itself by "tuberculous 


processes 


or ''radicating papillse," as its roots or suck- 


ers, undo 


r the partial knowledge of their nature, have 


hitherto 


been called. This plant grows often to the 


length o 


f five or six feet, with its branching, leafless 


stems, <•<! 


msiderably resembling tangled cord, and are of 


a deep j 


rellow or orange color, being thickly studded 


with evil] 


Lose clusters of small white bell-shaped flowers, 


somewha 


t like those of the Lily of the Valley, but much 


more din 


dnutive. We have seen thb plant growing on 


the bank, 


i of Ipswich River and its brooklets, in great lux- 




stretehing tar over the water upon the deeply- 


immerso( 




Fig. 2. 


This species of Cuscuta does not appear 






NTS. 193 

stamens inserted between the lobes of the corolla, upon 
peculiar scaly fringes, not visible in the drawing, which 
are an expansion of the filaments of the stamens. 

The seed contains a filiform embryo, without cotyle- 
dons, lying spirally coiled in fleshy albumen, and is dis- 
tinctly discernible while the seed is in a green state ; and 
here we see written, in the spiral form of the dormant 
embryo, a prediction of the character of the future plant. 
In the process of germination this Fi s- 3 - 

embryo simply uncoils itself; one 
end as a radicle strikes downward - 

into the soil, while the other, as a f) (} 

plumule, risea from the earfli, first n }( // 
breaking ground in the form of a «> * J — ^~~ 
loop, then when the point becomes disengaged resem- 
bling a fish-hook, and finally appearing quite straight in 
its effort to reach some friendly support (Fig. 3). 

It is generally represented in plates as rising in a spi- 
ral form, as also are the branches of the older plants, but 
tais form is not manifest while the unsupported thread is 
stretching upward for succor, as if attracted by some 
neighboring object ; it is only when the stem is obstruct- 
ed, or when it reaches the coveted prop, that the spiral 
form is assumed, and then it becomes very quickly ap- 
parent. This is probably true of all twining plants. ^Ye 
lave SCGl1 ta <3 tendril of a squash vine rolled into a per- 

■--.uiarity of whose surface it in vain tried to grasp; 
while others upon the same plant, not meeting with ob- 

radicle, which is club-shaped, is often turned up 
! n form like a boot ; it never increases in size, or ramifies 
m tho ground, but is sufficiently absorbant to keep the 



194 PARASITIC PLANTS. 

add materially to its primitive development. If at this 
time a young plant be pulled from the earth, and laid 
upon its surface, or placed upon some other plant, it will 

wise provision of nature, adapted to the peculiar circum- 
stances in the infancy of the plant. 

Generally, on the fourth or fifth day after the feeble 
seedbim- has been placed upon its guardian branch, it will 
make one turn around the stem, and the tubercles will 
immediately appear on the inner side of the twining part, 
and. after a few mere days have passed, the work of ab- 
sorption will commence. These tubercles, as they grow 
quite near together along the stem, bear a superficial re- 
semblance to the feet of caterpillars. (See Fig. 1.) Under 
th«- mieroscope each one, in its early stages of develop- 
ment, appears to be composed of a circle of smaller promi- 
nences, which finally unite in forming one root or sucker. 
As the plant continues to twine, these papillae rapidly 

from contact. After passing many of these papillae un- 
der the microscope, we at last detected the manner of at- 
tachment and the character of the union. 

From the depression in the centre of the above-de- 
Fig. 4. seril)C(1 rilvh . of MVol i, n e eHs, a very 



— ^_^ M 


id inserl 


:s itself into the tissues of 


Where the - 

far beyond the cuticl 




unites with it (Fig. 4). 
succulent, this root plunges 
into the very pith of the 



PARASITIC PLANTS. 195 

plant, and soon forms a perfect graft (Fig. 5). The cells 
of the parasite can be traced deeply imbedded, until lost 
at the margin, among the cells of the Fi s- 5 - 

guardian plant, which is thenceforth 
compelled to support the vine to frui- 
tion, — expanding its flowers, and j>er- 
fecting its numerous progeny of seeds. 
Though these aerial roots (which are the only true roots 
the plant has) , are thus seen to penetrate to a consider- 
able depth, their union is of such a character, and the 
absorption and assimilation of the two classes of cells 
so gradual and complete, that no manifest swelling of 
the tissues of either plant in contact is visible. 

When grown within doors, the plant is somewhat 
green, and does not take on that deep orange color, so 
general in its native state. 

feuch are a few observations that this humble plant has 
afforded. It merits farther investigation, and, in the 
economy of its nature, is as worthy an object of study 
as the venerated oak, or the tree that yields us fruit. 

Among our wild plants are to be found many others 
of a parasitic nature. With but a passing allusion to the 
hchens, fungi, and mosses, many of which grow by at- 
tachment to other plants, and are more or less Epiphytic 
in character, we proceed to notice a peculiar tribe of ab- 
normal plants, that however much they may resemble 
fungi in certain aspects „f their being, yet, as they have 
flowers and fruit conformable to those of the highest 
organization, will ever maintain a place among true 
Phaenogamous plants, such as Beech Drops,— Epiphegus, 
and different species of Orobanehe— whose seed are said 
to germinate only in contact with the roots of beech, or 
other favorite of the particular species. In the subdued 



196 OYSTER CULTURE. 

light of the forest, these verdureless plants elevate their 
brown and yellow stems, covered with scales instead of 
leaves, but having perfect flowers. 

The Monotropa, — Indian pipe or Pine-sap, — more 
fungus-like still, hold, a rightful place among the Pyro- 
laccw, or Heaths, and with its clusters of white or tawny 
stems, each crowned with a large distinct flower, grows 
from the decayed roots and leaves of the oak and pine. 

It has also been found that sundry leaf-bearing genera, 
situated at no great remove from the Orobanchie are more 
or less parasitic upon the root- of other plants; and it is 
probably from this cause that the Castilleja, or painted 
cup, the Gerardias, and Pedicularis are so diflicult, or so 
nearly impossible to cultivate. We have often transplant- 
ed them from their native wilds to the garden, and have 
as often met with disappointment. An English species of 

fascicles of flowers remind one of diminutive bunches of 
white lilacs, is also said to form parasitic attachments 
upon the roots of trees. 



OYSTEPv CVLTCUI-:. 



Beyond dispute or miction, the French govei 
has taken the lead of all the world in the scientific 
gation and skilful culture of the oyster. For the V 
years, the great discovery by the distinguished '. 
savan, Professor Coste, of the mode of reproduct 
this mollusk, has been converted to practical use ; 
suitable localities on the western coast of Fram 



197 

been put into successful operation. Many hundred mil- 
lion of these delicious bivalves (they are sold in France 
by the hundred, or count, and not by the bushel as with 
us) now flourish and fatten in shallow havs and basins, 
where, a few years since, not a solitary specimen could bo 
taken, owing to the thoughtless and improvident, industry 
of the fishermen, who captured and sold every oyster 
they could find, regardless of season, size, or condition. 
As a natural consequence the native growth was exter- 
minated, and it seemed probable that a source of profit- 
able labor was gone forever from a very considerable 
number of the fishing class on the seaboard, who, in over- 
populated France, could ill afford to lose one chance of 
earning their few sous a day ; while, on the other hand, 
the tables of the rich were likely to be deprived of one of 
their favorite and most esteemed luxuries. 

Just at this time, in 1858-9, Professor Coste settled a 
long-mooted point in natural history, namely, that the 
oyster — in common with many of the lower order of aceph- 
alous animals — is hermaphrodite, combining both sexes 
in the same individual, and his theory of its generation 
is substantially as follows :— 

Possibly the second year, but certainly the third year, 
the oyster reproduces its kind. During the summer, 
at seasons varying with locality and temperature from 
April to July, many hundred thousand ova are simul- 
taneously produced in capsules provided for them; 
these ova are fecundated at an early period of their 
growth, long bafore their increase of size and weight 
causes them to burst the ovarian capsules, and com- 
mence their existence in the milky fluid which is pre- 
pared for them at this time. The ova are especially en- 
veloped and protected by the branchial folds of the 



iy« OYSTER CULTURE. 

mother oyster. By an admirable provision of nature, 
this milky fluid now begins to dry up and thicken, form- 
ing a paste which deposits upon the ova exactly what is 
necessary to form a delicate shell in a few hours, when 
brought into contact with the salt water by expulsion 
from the shell of the parent oyster. No sooner is one 
brood thus sent out into the world of waters to shift for 
itself, than this process is immediately repeated, and it is 
known that an adult oyster produces between two and 
three million of young during a season. 

Although the oyster is so remarkably prolific, the 
"spat" or "spawn" has so many enemies who feast upon 
it, and there are so many chances against its safely finish- 
ing the second year, — when it is tolerably safe, — that 
an average of less than one-tenth is permitted to attain a 
merchantable size. 

The spawn does not escape of its own accord from the 
mother oyster, but is expelled (lance) with considerable 
force, forming at first a grayish cloud which soon dis- 
perses and disappears by motion of the water and by in- 
dividual action, as each young oyster— gifted with slight 
filial affection — seems eager to remove as far as possible 
from its parent and the place of its birth, and fearlessly 
swims away, henceforward to take care of itself and find 
its own means of existence. These independent little 
ones are provided with a special locomotive apparatus, — 
which is at the same time an organ of respiration, and 
perhaps of hearing and of vision,— by means of which 
they disperse themselves at the proper time in search of 
some hard and solid body like a stone, a branch, or a 
shell to which they can attach themselves and "settle 
down" for life. 

"Xothing is more curious and more interesting," says 



OYSTER CULTURE. 199 

M. Davaine in his "Recherches sur la generation da hui- 
tres," than to see, under the microscope, these little rao- 
lusks travel round the portion of a drop of water, which 
contains them in vast numbers, mutually avoiding one 
another, crossing each other's track in every direction 
with a wonderful rapidity, never touching and never 

This curious motive power consists of a great number 
of hair-like filaments, called cilia, which take their rise in 
a dark-colored fleshy mass that emerges from, and over- 
laps the valves of the oyster on the edge opposite to, and 
farthest from the hinge, and operated by powerful mus- 
cles, can be at pleasure drawn entirely within the valves. 

If the young wanderer meets with any hard substance, 
it clings to it, and in a few hours — as it is at this time 
rapidly making its shell — -a calcareous deposit fixes it 
there, and, in due course of time, the cilia drop off. But 
even if no such suitable object presents itself, these wan- 
derings must certainly soon come to an end. 

The base of the locomotive apparatus gradually nar- 
rows, this organ becomes more and more prominent, un- 
til it is only attached by a single slender membrane to 
the oyster,— which still continues to travel with it.— 
when, at last, it entirely detaches itself from the oyster, 
which at once sinks, incapable of farther motion, while 
the cilia keep on swimming ; but, like a vessel without a 
helm or pilot, their motion is undirected, they roll over 
and over on themselves, colliding with everything in 
their course, and, though they can hardly be said to die, 
soon cease to move. 

As soon as the cilia are removed, the oyster com- 
mences life in earnest : lips to seize its food, and a stom- 
ach to digest it, are developed ; branchice, or 



200 OYSTER CULTURE. 

orpins appear: the heart reveals itself and begins to beat ; 
all the functions necessary for existence are set in motion 
in good working order ; and if fortunately placed for 
obtaining infusorial and vegetable nourishment, in three 
or four years this embryo "Cove" or "Millpond" or 
"Shrewsbury" will become a delicate mouthful for the 



Though there are many other enemies of the modest 
and inoffensive oyster, there are three which are specially 
feared, and cause the greatest loss to the planter in Amer- 
ican waters, namely, the "Starfish" (Asterias arenicola 
Stimpson), the "Drill" {Burcin >i>h jjl irosiua-Gouldi) , and 
the "Winkles" (Pyrula canallculata and P. carica). 

All are familiar with the appearance of the Starfish, 
though few, even of old oystennen accustomed to annual 
losses from this five-fingered pest, are acquainted with the 
maimer in which it is so destructive. Even writers upon 
the oyster, whoso general information upon this subject 
should have taught them better, have fallen into the same 
error of supposing that the taper fingers are introduced 

and devour the contents. 

The Starfish is provided with an extensible mouth, sit- 
uated in the middle of the underside, and can only injure 
an oyster of a certain size relative to its own. If the 
oyster is small enough, it is swallowed shell and all ; the 
body is digested, and the shell ejected. But if its victim 
is a little too large for this operation, Xature has provid- 
ed this scourge with the power to turn its stomach inside 
out, envelope the unhappy oyster, and absorb the dainty 
flesh within by means of gastric juice. A. Agassiz, in 
"Seaside Studies," speaks of this peculiarity as follows : 
"These animals have a singular mode of eating; they 



place themselves over whatever they mean to feed upon, 
as a cockle-shell, for instance, the back gradually rising as 
they arch themselves above it : they then turn the digest- 
ive sac, or stomach, inside out, so as to enclose their prey 
completely, and proceed leisurely to suck out the animal 
from its shell." 

When nothing more within the shell remains to be 
eaten, the stomach is turned back again, and. gifted with 
a constant and insatiable appetite, the Starfish is ready 
to recommence its filthy feeding upon the first oyster 
within its reach. The countless suckers on the under- 
side of this animal are used only for locomotion, just as 
the fly walks upon the ceiling by means of a similar con- 
bet. The general belief that the Starfish 



i nourishment in some mysterious way by i 
consequently an 



takes i 

they have no opening* at the ends, and do 
M»y way with the stomach. 

The Drill is a troublesome and destructive intruder 
upon the oyster-bed, the more so that, from its small size 
and rapid multiplication, it is difficult to eradicate from 
a locality when it has once colonized in force. Whole 
beds are sometimes taken up and transplanted, to avoid 
this detestable little thief. A slightly different species of 
the Drill forms no small item of cheap food for the French 
peasants. They call it the Bigorneau (Murex tarentinus) , 
and, when boiled, the meat is picked out with a large nee- 
dl e. Its flavor is excellent, though it is repulsive in ap- 
pearance, being of a dark green color, and having a de- 
cided spiral tail, which renders it anything but inviting 
to a person about to eat it for the first 'time! 

The Drill has a dark, ridgy, conical shell, about an inch 
1(j ng, and by the help of a broad, flat, fleshy foot, with 



which it is provided, fixes itself exactly over what is 
commonly called the eye of the oyster, and by means of 
a rough file-like tongue, which it moves forward and back, 
over the chosen spot, soon drills a round hole through the 
shell, and sucks out the life and juices of the oyster at its 

The Winkles are a much larger species of the same 
tribe, and destroy the oyster in a similar manner, only 
not being so numerous, they cause less damage, and are 
not so much dreaded by the oyster planter as the little 
Drill. 

The oysters to be found on the carte of any good res- 
cents per dozen ; the Ostend, price thirty-live cents per 
dozen; the Marennes, or green, price thirty-five cents per 
dozen; and the Imperial, price forty cents per dozen. 

Each variety has a peeuliarity, audits special admirers. 
The last three, during the winter months, arc fat and full- 
flavored, though small ; the Ostend and Imperial being 
English born, but cultivated and manipulated in France. 
The French oyster-shell is more round and flat than our 
own, the body lying in a sudden deep depression close up 
to the hinge, while a considerable space of the interior of 
the shell is unoccupied by anything except the mantle. A 
dozen of either of the last three varieties is a better appe- 
tizer to commence a dinner with, than any kind known in 
this country ; while for cooking in every form, the much 
larger size of the American oyster renders it by far 
superior. 

The French lay great stress upon having the shell of 
this oyster extremely clean (bien nettoyc). A gentleman 
at Marennes, who cultivates the green oyster, has recently 
erected a tide-mill — for which he has a patent — for the 



double purpose of smoothing the roughness and perfectly 
cleansing the outside, and of wearing off enough weight 
of shell by trituration to save a dollar freight on the rail- 
way carriage to Paris, of a ponii-r containing a thousand. 



SCORPION OF TEXAS. 



The scorpions of Middle Texas, so far as I have investi- 
gated the subject, do not extend beyond a single species. 
There may be others, but I 
have not observed them. The 
species we have is viviparous. 
carrying its young, eight in 
number, on its back, until they 
are three-fourths of an inch in 
length. When first seen, cling- 
ing on the back of the mother 
scorpion, they are so small that 
it requires a microscope to ex- 
amine them satisfactorily. They 
are white, and look as if they 
were very tender. They cling 
tenaciously, and when by vio- 
lence they are separated from 
the mother, she shows manifest signs of distress, running 
about till she comes in contact with the lost ones, when 
they immediately climb up and cling again closer than 
before. At this early period, they seem already to be 
well versed in scorpion tactics, wielding their nimble tail, 
and its recurved weapon, with dexterity and swiftness. 

Scorpions pass the winter in close quarters, and gen- 




204 

orally in a torpid state. They are seen early in warm 
weather coming out at nights, and sometimes during 
warm damp periods in winter. They are altogether noc- 
turnal in their habits, and are carnivorous, subsisting on 
insects of various kinds, and even small lizards. As a 
speciality, they prey largely on crickets. They dwell 
under old logs, rocks, in old stumps, under the bark of 
dead trees, under old fences, between the shingles on 
house-tops, and particularly about the jambs and hearths 
of fire-places. In temper they are hasty, and will employ 
their weapons on slight occasions. The pain occasioned 
by their venom, when injected into one's flesh, is very 
quickly felt, and quite severe, giving the idea of a burn- 
ing-hot fluid thrown into the system. It does not last 
long, nor does it swell much, and is not so painful, nor 
does it produce so much inconvenience as the sting of the 
honey-bee. In countries where they abound, people do 
not regard them with much terror. Chickens are very 

Hud. 

I once found a mocking-bird ( Mtnvi* polyglottvs) which 
by some awkward stroke in his rapid flight, had fractured 
his right wing. It was running on the ground, and had 
become quite liiinirry and light. After dressing and se- 
curing the little songster's wing, I turned over some old 
rails in search of something for him to eat. There were 
plenty of crickets ami scorpions concealed under the 
rails, for the latter of which he showed the greatest pref- 
erence. He would peck at them, and by bruising and 
thus stunning them a little, readily swallow them whole. 
After he had swallowed seven of them, I thought, as I 
had volunteered my services as surgeon and physician for 
him, it would not be prudent for me to suffer him to in- 



A NOTE FROM THE FAR NORTH. 205 

dulge farther at this time ; so I placed him in a large 
cage with some canary birds, where he remained feasting 
on nine scorpions a day, until he had recovered the use 
of his wing, when I set him free. 

Scorpions are generally found two or three together, 
sometimes in larger numbers. They shed their skins 
without a rent, coming out at the mouth, like the snakes. 
They moult when they are about half-grown, and again 
when they come to maturity, and 1 do not know that they 
ever again cast their skin during tin' remainder of their 
life. They live through two winters, as I can testify, and 
may exist many years. They arc not possessed of much 
intelligence, making no nests or preparation for winter, 
beyond crawling under rocks and other dry and sheltered 
places. Their principal cerebral developments are ama- 
tiveness, alimeiitiveness, and cautiousness. 



A NOTE FROM THE FAR NORTH. 



Early in the year 1865, the writer of this scrap eagerly 
embraced an opportunity afforded him of visiting the less 
known parts of North-western North America. The 
region travelled over lay between the Coast Range and 
the Rocky Mountains, and from latitude 50° north to 61° 

From latitude 50°, as fir north as Fort Youkon (a post 



NOTE FROM THE FAR NORTH. 



true, did manage to fill up the blank in a wonderfully in- 
accurate way, just as they used to — 



Even of the upper waters of the Fraser, Nasse, or Skeua 
Rivers, no trust worthy chart existed. Much less could 
we expect those of the Pelly or Liard to be accurate. 

At Fort St. James, on Stuart's Lake, latitute 54° 44', 
longitude (approximate) 124° 48', the unknown country 
may be said to begin. Here for the first time we notice 
the outlying peaks of another set of mountains, which 
completely fill the valley (a degree further north) be- 
tween the Coast Range and the Rocky Mountains. 

These mountains, though known by name to geogra- 

Near Stuart's Lake they are as high as three thousand 
feet above the general level of the lakes. At Lake Tatlch 
they rise to five thousand feet. At Bear Lake, about lati- 

sand, and near Lake Toutah tiny ri.e often as high as ten 
thousand feet. These altitudes ftrfl rmlv -riven «« :1 Wn 



they attain no mean elevation above the sea lock Per- 

of the country around Lake Toutah. than to state that the 
land rises into a plateau, about 3,500 feet above the sea 
level. This plateau, lying between the Coast and Rocky 
Mountains, is dotted over with peaks of the above-men- 
tioned heights. Sometimes neighboring peaks are joined 
hy their bases; often one finds them completely isolated. 
Nature seems to have set at defiance all law and order, 



NOTE FROM THE FAR NORTH. 



plateau at their I 



enough, but the northern slopes almost invariahl; 
you from 1,500 to 2,000 feet of sheer precipice at 

trees, whose limbs are festooned with the long gray 
eaten by the Caribou, or now and again a stray c 
wood may present itself. So thickly are the peak 
tributed over the country, that the original plateau i 
"lily jus a narrow and almost treeless valley, w 
about between the peaks. Yet by following these \ 
one may reach the waters of the Liard without cros 

The storms which sweep through the passes m. 
times, be fearful. I rememb »r seeing a tree (the 1 
( »ic indeed which I noticed at this elevation) full tro 
in diameter, that had been twisted off by the win* 
carried two hundred feet away from the stump. 

Near the top the peaks are bald, and offer no 
inducement to the adventurous botanist than a fev 

the winter months, but is blown away into the v 
'"■low, mid into the gulches which streak the decli 
Hence, during the winter, when the valleys are 1 
beneath twelve or fourteen feet of snow, the Cariboi 
the mountain tops to eat the lichens. The vallej 



MS A NOTE FROM THE FAR NORTH. 

these mountains lies Lake Toutah, a beautiful sheet of 
water, full sixty miles long. At certain places the moun- 
tains come jutting down to the very water's edge, and at 
others recede so as to allow a beautiful open prairie to 
stretch along the edge. This lake is the head of Finlay's 
Branch of Peace River, which in turn empties into MeKen- 

;he Skena River, 



Its son 


them ei 


id rises a tribu 


ffhich | 


anpties 


into the Pacitic ( 


The 
loth, ii 


1 latitude 


m of temperatu: 
i 56° N., the ther 



r stood at 6 o'clock, 

a. m., at 15° Far., at 2 o'clock, p. m., at 83° Far. After 
the avalanches and solar heat have carried off the snow 
from the mountain sides and valleys, the vegetation again 
starts up with a rapidity that would astonish even a native 
of the tropics. Hardly a fortnight elapses after giving up 
the snowshoes, before one finds the lower and more fertile 
spots covered with verdure, and blooming as a garden. 
Among these early flowers we find a Kardosmia, Calypso 
borealis, several species of Violets, a Polenionium Vale- 



The Indians are, as a rule, friendlv, and no n 
nary courage need to be deterred through fear 
where he lists. To the young, active adve 
wishes to make a name for himself as an t 
more promising field than the one we have 
present itself. 



SAL HISTORY MISCELLANY. 



NATURAL HISTORY MISCELLANY. 



NATURAL HISTORY 



led they are formed i 


tito large bundles, and 


le villages, where the 


y are dried in the sun, 






Albert Nyanza. 




*>. 




ZOOLOGY. 





ca »ed to the tlii.-vhi.' n-,. r „.Ti,. of this bird -At a meeting o 
this Society, held April isth. Dr. Charles Pickering called attentio 
o the recent introduction of the House sparrow of Europe into thi 
country. As it threatens great evil, preventive measures should b 



212 NATURAL HISTORY 

! led. Proof* of its drsi 



intermediate links, 



NATURAL HISTORY MISCELLANY. I. 

ceedings of the Geological section during the following week. Nev< 
probably, did the authors of papers, or those who took part inthed 
cushions which they elicited, appeal so little to convulsion, cataclys 
or catastrophe.— (jw.wti rhj Jmtrnal of Science, London. 





MICROSCOPY. 


The Microscope i 




Jurisprudence. — In a case of poi- 


soning by means of 


corrosive s 


iublimate maliciously substituted for 


the proper medicine, 


and in which there was a doubt of the utmost 


importance to remov 




source of the poison, rendering it un- 






ness, or otherwise, ] 


VIr. Deane, 1 


ay the aid of the microscope, deter- 



mined, in the most unequivocal manner, that the poison was derived 
from a small parcel of the same substance, kept in a piece of rag in the 
house of the child's parents, where it died, thus rendering it quite 
certain that the death of the child wa> premeditated, and at the same 
time removing every trace of suspicion from innocent parties, whose 
care and common sense had been called in question. — Address of the 
President, James <;/«;*/„,: nf tin M><-r< ■«■,,,.;,:,,■ >*.,riety, London. 

The Polycystic. — In a paper on the structure and affinities of 
the Polycystina [one of which, Podocyrtis Schomburgkii, is figured on 
the left side, at the bottom of the title-page of the Naturalist], Dr. 

family of the Protozoa, and a classification based, as he believes, on 
the only constant characters it exhibits, viz., those involved in the 
mode of development and growth of the sUldous framework within, 
and around which their soft part, or sarcode, is sustained.— lb. 



EXPLORATIONS AND WORKS IN ] 

The Lyceum of Natural History of Williams College, propose to 
send out early this expedition to South Amer- 

ica. It will be under the charge of Prof. James Orton, of the Univer- 
sity of Rochester. The d< Big " of tw f lve ' f ° 
collect specimen- - '• *« laical geology 
of the Cordillera- M of their operations. Spe- 
cial observations will also be made on the physical geography of the 
region, particularly the nature and altitude of the volcanic cones. 

This active soc'iet\ has alroadj sent out five expeditions; two to 
Nova Scotia, one to Newfoundland, one to Florida, and one to Lab- 
rador and Greenland. Subscriptions to aid the expedition are desired. 



214 NATURAL HISTORY MISCELLANY. 

Dr. T. M. Brewer is engaged in preparing for the i 
and last part oi' the .W//< Ami-rinm oology, the first 
appeared in volume seven of the Smithsonian 
eggs and nests of about one (ran ill be described. 

The illustrations will consist of about one hundred figures, in five or 

We have received some advance sheets of a work on the Ornithology 
and Oology of New England. By Edward A. Samuels. Nichols & 
Noyes, Boston. We shall u;i\e a farther notice of it hereafter. It 
will contain over five hundred 8vo pages, and be illustrated by twenty- 
three plates of Birds, four plates of Eggs, and a large number of 



t by a well-known authority uii 
in is the cause of a serious and c 
t is produced by eating the ties! 



this head are developed one after another the joints which make up 
the body of the tape-worm. The first formed or oldest joints, or 
proglottides, when sexually mature, escape from the intestinal canal 
of their host. ami. being eaten by swine, the ova they contain are set 
free. During digestion, the eggshells ; 

tape- worm Is called Cysticercus cellulosae. 

The Trichina spiralis, on the other hand, does not belong to this 
order of Cestoidea or encysted worms, but to the Nematoidea or 
round worms (of which the pin-worm is an example), and its develop- 
ment is much less complicated. If trichinous pork is examined by the 
microscope, the muscular fibres will be found occupied by minute 



NATURAL HISTORY MISCELLANY. 

cysts varying in size, from l-30th to 1-G0th of an inch in length 




has found its final resting-place. In this qui- 



NATURAL HISTORY MISCEIJ.AN V. 

i (ilivt- for main years 



• presence in man \ eug 

f development. A1 

Afterwards debility, fevei 
)ainful, and sensitiveness c 
cles on pressure. Lastly, great inflammation of intestines with bloody 
stools, increased muscular pain-, partial paralysis of muscles of de- 
glutition, speech, and respiration, and finally death from exhaustion. 
If only a small qua Bfi pork be eaten, the symptoms 

will be mild, and in all cases they will disappear when the worms have 

The history of the trichina is interesting, and may be briefly told as 
follows. Many years ago it was found in the muscles of man after 
death, and described by Owen. Subsequently Leidy found it, also 
encysted, in the flesh of the hog, and since then it has often been no- 
ticed in dissecting-room subjects, giving a sanded aspect to the red 
muscular tissue. It was always considered harmless, however, and 
in 1855 Kiichenmeister published a theory that it was only the imma- 
ture form of Trichocephalus dispar, a minute thread-like intestinal 
worm. Experiments conducted by Virchow and Leuckart, however, 
in 1859, by feeding animals with trichinous flesh, demonstrated the 
error of this opinion, and also the important facts that the encysted 

that living embryos were developed within them, which escaped to 
wander in the muscular tissues of the same host, or might be trans- 



Ibres, not, as had been supposed by some observers, within the capil- 

These results pointed unmistakably to the manner in which man 
ilso became infected, but they were still considered of no patholog- 
cal consequence until early in 1860, when a servant girl died in the 
lospital at Dresden, after a month's sickness, with symptoms like 
;hose above mentioned, and on tth Zenker found 



ie of fresh in; 

leath. A microsc 

vealed the presence of numerous mature tri- 

e females still containing living embryos. For- 



NATURAL HISTORY MISCELLANY. 217 












NATUEAL HISTORY MISCELLANY. 

s, for it has been found impossible to reproduce them 

appointed by the Imperial Society of Physicians, at 
■t presented a report on trichinosis, in which it is stated 

-seven percent, of the rats examined were found trichi- 
Mivirons of Vienna about ten per cent., and in Lower 
• portion was not more than tour per cent. The com- 



great quantity, ami such persons, nc 

- 



similar interval. I 




also be 


possible tl 


lat portions of trichinous 








an intestim 


















-, :,, ... 
























y may discharge 










t- p.mhilly' 












m: and 






*ible ti 




may infect each oth 














Trichinosis is no 














undoubtedly as old i 




<■ halut o 


f pork eatir 


. 


onh i 


. 


to recognize it. In 






of Europe where raw 






eaten iu the form of 














and their keepers a 




Jt very unlike, there 




oppnrt 





I outbreaks, in nearly i 



NATURAL HISTORY MISCELLANY. 219 



EMSTORY CALENDAR. 

L little study will give one enough 



NATURAL HISTORY CALENDAR. 



222 NATURAL HISTORY CALEN 



m 



- 




caterpillar will ravage 



y, the Halesidota 



PROCEEDINGS OF SCIENTIFIC SOCIETIES. 



AMERICAN NATURALIST. 

Vol. I. -JULY, 1867. -No. 5. 



THE SEA-HORSE AND ITS YOUNG. 



' c Sir," said an aged fisherman, "there is nothing on the 
Land that is not in the Sea !" The old i 
ness forestalled the 
philosophic die 
the poet,— "Whether 
we live by the sea- 
side, or by the lakes 




of the life 

universally dispersed." Among these forms is a re- 
markable Order, .all. ■. I !>v svstrmatists the Lophobranehs, 
which stand apart from the others by two well-defined, 
and very curious distinctions. They differ from other 
fi sbes in the pmiliar structure of the gill arches, by 



226 THE SEA-HORSE AND ITS YOUNG. 

which the gills are arranged in little tufts on each side 
of the head under the "cheek" bones or gill covers. 
Hence the name Lophobrauch, which is derived from the 
Greek, signifying tuft-gilled. But, perhaps, more curious 
is that distinction drawn from their mode of repro- 
duction ; a trait so strange, as to suggest the seemingly 
abnormal habits of the Marsupials, — the Opossum and 
the Kangaroo, — although the eccentricity of the fish 
is far greater than that of the land marsupial; for, in 
the latter, it is the female whose pouch receives the 
immature young, and which are therein nourished to 
complete their development. The parental relation of 
the female Lophobrauch, however, is restricted to the 
simple emission of the unimpregnated eggs. Beyond 
this, maternity she has none. The male is really, and 
literally, father and mother to the progeny; and so far as 
the reproductive instincts are concerned, it would seem 
that the female manifestation is summed up and exhausted 
in the one solitary and singular act of a formal consign- 
ment of the ova to the embryonal sack of the male. 

Though the species of the Lophobranchs are quite nu- 
merous, they are all referable to three principal groups 
or families, of which the Flying Dragon {Pegasus), the 
Sea-horse (Hippocampus), and the Pipe-fish (Syngna- 
thus) are types. The following observations were made 
upon the Hippoahnpnx /n/ilsoiiot* I >*■ Kay, or the common 
Sea-horse of the Atlantic coast of the United States. 

A sea-side residence favoring the design for the past 
ten years, I have let no opportunity slip of studying the 
habits of the Sea-horse, hoping to get at some of the 
necessarily interesting farts which must stand connected 
with its peculiar mode of reproduction. Owing to diffi- 
culties too tedious for detail, nothing like gratifying sue- 



THE SEA-HORSE AND ITS YOUNG. 227 

cess was attained until the autumn of I860. Nearly a 
year had passed without obtaining a single living speci- 
men, when a waterman brought me two full-grown ones, 
and to my great joy they proved to be "gravid" males. 
Alas ! my oft-repeated experience returned ; for, owing to 
the shock produced by the ordeal of acclimation, they be- 
gan to involuntarily emit their young. None but a work- 
ing naturalist can appreciate the anxiety I then suffered. 
The next. day one of my Hippos died, having from de- 
bility first set free all its immature young, which were 
sufficiently developed to indicate plainly their family 
relation. My estimate was that they were twelve-day 
embryos. I now redoubled my efforts to invigorate and 
save the remaining adult, by solicitously watching every 
circumstance of temperature, aeration, and light. In spite 
of all, the emission of the young went on, until instinct, 
prompted by increasing debility, led the parent to expel 
the rest by voluntary effort. How this was done was a 
great point gained. Except a few floating fronds of Ulva, 
other than the fish, there was no object in the water. And 
here the structure of the Sea-horse's tail should be borne 
in mind, so unlike that of any other fish, covered with 
an envelope, consisting of bony scales ; four-sided, and 
suggesting a small square file; in faculty, prehensile, 
like that of some monkeys ; and of considerable length. 
Bending this appendage upwards like an inverted crook, 
thus imparting to it muscular rigidity, the animal pressed 
it against the bottom of the embryonal pouch, which 
occupied the lower part of the abdomen, thus pushing its 
contents upward, and forcing them out of the opening on 
the top of the sack ; the creature all this time sustaining 
its normal, erect position in the water. The extruded 
young immediately perished. Relieved of his charge, 



228 THE SEA-HORSE AXD ITS YOUNG. 

my Hippo soon recovered strength, and became for sev- 
eral months a very interesting pet. 

September 7. To-day fortune smiled and brought me 
another "gravid" male Hippocampus. This also, under 
the weakening effects of acclimation, began excluding the 
young, having emitted a full dozen. Circumstances favor- 
ing, and profiting by a varied experience, 1 was enabled 
to carry my new Hippo safely through the dreaded or- 
deal. Most anxiously was he watched day by day. To 
my astonishment no enlargement of the embryonal sack 
could be detected. I supposed that as the young increased 
in size, the distension of the pouch would go on equally. 
Again my apprehensions were aroused, — now I feared 
that the foetuses were dead ! 

September 21. A red-letter day I To-day near noon 
I observed three young Sea-horses swimming about. 
They had just made their debut. Very minute creatures 
they were ; but, to my great joy. nearly perfect. From 
that hour the JP«(i;'-ui>ifr>r kept busy setting his progeny 
adrift. At the bottom of the vessel was a broken Winkle- 
shell, put there for the attachment of the animal's tail, 
when fatigued by swimming, as the Sea-horse is very 
easily tired, and 'this, monkey-like, is its favorite mode 
of taking rest. The Winkle afforded real help in the 
labor of extruding the young, which is in no sense 
a parturient process, but on the contrary is entirely me- 
chanical, and in the present ease was effected in the fol> 
lowing manner. With its abdomen turned towards the 
shell, its tail attached to the under part of it, the body 
erected to its full height, the animal, by a contractile 
exertion of the proper muscles, would draw itself down- 
wards, and against the shell, thus rubbing the pouch 
upward, and in this simple, yet effective way, expelled 



THE SEA-HOESE AND ITS YOUNG. TIM 

the fry at the opening on top of the sack (See Fig. 1). 
It was said above that the Sea-horse is soon wearied, 
with even moderate exertion ; hence, probably, it was, 
that these repeated acts were each followed by a few 
minutes of rest. Indeed, the extrusion of its young lasted 
for nearly six hours, from three to six individuals being 
set free at a time. 

The scene that followed was one of singular and lively 
interest. I was nervous with delight, and wished that 
every Naturalist could see it for himself. I am sure there 
is no student of nature but will excuse the enthusiasm 
which prompted me to write at once to a friend, that "he 
must not set the minister down as a horse-jockey, on 
being informed that he was now the proud possessor of 
the most numerous drove of colts ever owned by one 
man the whole wide world over." Using my best judg- 
ment, — for, owing to the mazy motion of this tiny throng, 
counting was out of the question, — I set the number 
down as not far from a thousand. Each measured from 
five to six lines in length. Very minute creatures, truly, 
when one considers how large a portion is taken up by 
the tail, which organ was of but little more than thread- 
like dimensions. We might suppose it would require a 
few days for the young Hippo to find out the remarkable 
monkey-like endowment of its tail. Not so. Only look 
at what my* own eyes beheld many a time, when a "stam- 
pede" of these little colts was going on, although they 
were but one day old. There come two little Hippos, 
each swimming in a direction at rigW angles to that of 
the other. Just at the point of passing, one, lasso-like, 
whips his caudal extremity round that of his fellow, who, 
of course, in like manner, returns the caudal compliment, 
which, to speak technically, arts as a "double look." Of 



230 THE SEA-HORSE AND ITS YOUNG. 

course both pull, and, by a natural law, the force is ex- 
erted in exactly opposite directions, and the right angle 
is resolved into a straight line. It is but poor head-way 
they make, nor does it mend the matter much, that a 
third little fellow comes giddily on, and, switching his 
tail, takes a hitch at that precise point in space where the 
other two met. Now a triple force is exerted, and the 
effect is, with two straight lines to project three obtuse 
angles. And so the three toil on, obtusely laboring in 
statu quo. But a droller sight is that of yonder juvenile 
Lophobranch, who seems to be of somewhat belligerent 
proclivities, as he is leading by the nose a weaker member 
of his own species, having with his caudal extremity 
noosed him on the snout. These funny antics, though 
oft repeated, are of short duration, as the parties soon 
have to rest, from sheer fatigue. 

On the fifth of October the last of my little Hippos 

In the matter of fetal sustenance, I find a remark- 
able marsupial analogy in the Hippocampus. The pouch 
of the Kangaroo and the Opossum contains teats, with 
which, by true lactation, the young are nourished until 
fully formed. Nor is the embryonal sack of the Sea- 
horse a mere receptacle, or nest, for the hatching of 
the eggs, — the fish does, in and by the pouch, supply 
nourishment to the growing young. The mass of fry on 
the day of its extrusion is certainly in bulk several times 
greater than that of the original egg-mass. We know that 
the bear during hibernation lives upon the fat acquired the 
previous season. During a journey that requires abstinence 
from food, the well-conditioned camel will subsist on the 
absorption of its fattened hump. The tail of the frog, 
which has just completed its last metamorphosis, does not 



THE SEA-HOESE AND ITS YOUNG. 231 

pass off by atrophy, but is really a wise provision for the 
creature's support by absorption, during the few days 
which constitute the most critical period of its life. 

This fact I have demonstrated elsewhere by obser- 
vations from the spawn to maturity. But in these and 
similar cases, the animal is simply nourished by some 
superabundance in itself. Ruling out lactation, and the 
placental phenomena of gestation, is there any instance in 
which, as a normal fact, the young feeds upon the parent ? 
This fact, seemingly ><> anomalous, I assert for the Hip- 
pocampus, although its physiology I may not be able to 
explain. The male Sea-horse not only hatches the eggs 
in the embryonal pouch, but also feeds the young by al- 
lowing them to absorb a portion of himself. This is done 
during the embryo's consumption of the placental yolk, 
and also, especially and more rapidly, after that source of 
food is all exhausted. Of course, upon receiving the ova 
the pouch might be supposed to be considerably distend- 
ed. This distension is really very trifling. And during 
development the enlarging of the sack might be expected ; 
but it is inappreciable. At the time of receiving the 
spawn, the wall of the pouch is not less than three lines 
thick, and well stored internally with fat. At the time of 
expulsion of the developed fry, the same sack is not half 
a line thick, and hangs flaccid on the animal, a mere thin 
membrane. In due time it becomes again thick, firm, 
and fat as before, and in such state has been mistaken by 
me for a gravid condition. This interesting fact of a true 
marsupial nourishment, and of so unique a character, 
although suspected, was not accepted, until established 
by dissection, and observation of a male that had gone 
through the course described. Moreover, I believe in 
part may be thus explained the impulse to that forcible 



232 THE SEA-HOKSE AND ITS YOUNG. 

eviction of the immature young, which has been already 
described. The debility caused by the consumption of the 
parent, together with the weakening of acclimation, seems 
to have impelled to the act. 

But with the exclusion of the young, the marsupial like- 
ness stops in the Sea-horse, though the young Pipe-fishes 
are said to reenter the pouch on finding themselves in 
danger. It is my belief that with the Sea-horse the ter- 
mination of development is the end of their solicitude for 
the young. 

As to the moral relation of the sexes in this apparently 
abnormal creature, I must regard it, on the instinctive 
side, as but little superior to the relation of a pistillate to 
a staminate plant. The emission of the ova by the one is 
a simpler matter, all the facts considered, than the seeding 
of the other. Certainly the love emotion, if any, must be 
very simple, scarcely more than the poetic figment of the 
loves of the flowers. Is not the fertilization of the spawn 
performed by the male after its reception into the embry- 
onal pouch? Besides, that which is usually normal in the 
female, is in this instance wholly wanting, namely, affec- 
tion for, and even the knowledge of the young ; for she 
never sees them. "Whereas the male, even though pressed 
by hunger, will not molest his offspring, — a remark- 
able fact, when we reflect that generally fishes have no 
scruples against devouring any fry, even their own. Tins 
trait of the male Sea-horse is found in the male Stickle- 

be, owing to his organization \ but the latter is highly so, 
even to vindietiveness, as I have seen him severely pun- 
ish the female in his anxiety for the safety of the spawn. 
There are other undetermined, although interesting facts, 
connected with this question of sexual relation. What is 



THE SEA-HORSE AND ITS YOUNG. 233 

the numerical proportion of the sexes ? Does the male 
incubate the ova of more than one female at a time ? 

Allusion has been made to the Stickleback. It was to 
the two-spined species (Gasterosteus biaculeatus) . This 
species breeds in the months of March, April, and May. 
Much depends upon the season. Generally the whole 
matter is over by the last week in April. My experience, 
from the examination of many gravid specimens, indicates 
that the Sea-horse breeds in August and September. 

Fig. 2, though drawn without the proper aid from the 
microscope, is intended to exhibit some of the foetal 
phenomena, and represents the premature Fi s- 2 - 

young, which I have supposed to be twelve H\ flS® 
days old from the commencement of incu- ^ Or 
bation. Fig. 3 is one of the same magnified, and pre- 
sents the following particulars worthy of note. First, 
the tail is round, instead of quadrangular ; Fig 3- 

second, the dorsal tin is set farther back 
than in the adult ; third, the pectoral fins 
are also farther buck on the nape than in 
the adult (though not to the same extent, 
yet facts two and three I have seen in 
foetuses much older) ; fourth, the extreme 
shortness and great width of the muzzle. 

The Sea-horse, when taken fresh from his native home, 
though almost laughably grotesque, is a very pretty crea- 
ture. Its general color is ashen gray ; at first glance, an 
exceedingly sober suit. But if examined more closely, it 
will be found thicklv stud. led with tiny spangles of me- 
tallic silver. Add to this its rich armature of daintily 
carved plates, like a coat of mail, its body always pertly 
erect, and, bent forward, it looks like the steed of a 
knight-errant in quest of adventure ; and those pretty, 




234 THE RECENT BIRD TRACKS 

golden, yet queer little eyes, chameleon-like, independent 
of each other, intently gaze two ways at once. Then as 
to that dorsal fin, in oddity and beauty it has no com- 
peer among its ichthyic rivals, so tastily fringed with a 
neat border of delicate yellow, precisely like the yellow 
tipping of the tail of the Cedar-bird (AmpeJis cedrorum). 
In truth, this dorsal tin is cruelly libelled in every engrav- 
ing we have ever seen. In nature it is an exquisite tan, 
in form, size, and ornament, worthy the hand of Queen 
Mab. Thus our Sea-horse, though anomalous in form 
and habit, has beauty united with its strange features, and 
grace with its eccentricity. In fine, as we look at his 
equine appearance, and think of his monkey faculty, and 
his opossum traits, and that queer blending of innocent 
oddity with patriarchal dignity, we have to accept the old 
fisherman's proverb,— "There is nothing on the Land that 
is not in the Sea." 



THE RECENT BIRD TRACKS OF THE BASIN 
OF MIXAS. 



Sir Charles Lyell, who visited Nova Scotia in 1842, 
first called attention to the recent bird tracks of the 
Basin of Minas, and Dr. J. W. Dawson, the distinguished 
Nova Scotian geologist has treated of them in his interest- 
ing little volume, "Acadian Geology." 

The mud flats of the Minas Basin are made up to a very 
large extent, some entirely, of these thin layers of mud, 
deposited by the successive tides. The deposition of the 
layers does not of course go on equally everywhere, but 



OF THE BASIN OF MINAS. 235 

only in localities sheltered from the action of too strong 
currents. In these accumulations there is thrown down 
a layer for each tide, those deposited by the night tides 
being thicker than those formed during the day. During 
a long interval of repose thin layers only are deposited, 
while just alter a heavy storm that stirs up the whole bay, 
the deposits are much increased in thickness. Nor are 
these accumulations confined to the shoals laid bare at 
low tide ; but they extend over the bottom of the Basin, 
though they must naturally be much thicker near the 
shores whence the materials were originally derived. Dr. 
Dawson says that "these layers are thicker on the edge of 
the flats than near the shore; and hence these flats, as 
well as the marshes, are usually higher near the channels, 
than at the inner edge. From the same cause, the more 
rapid deposition of the coarse sediment, the lower side of 
the layer is arenaceous, and sometimes clotted with films 
of mica, while the upper side is fine and shining, and 
when dry has a shining and polished surface. The tailing 
tide has little effect on their deposits, and hence the 
growth of these flats, until they reach such a height that 
they can be overflowed only by the highest tides." 

It is to the zone embraced between high and low-water 
marks that the subaerial tracks, such as we have described, 
are confined, the only markings made on the submerged 
layers being entirely those of aquatic animals, tracks of 
crabs and other crustaceans, trails of shell-fish and marine 
worms, or scratches made by fishes ; but markings of this 
kind may extend over the whole part reached by the tide, 
while low tide is the lowest limit at which tracks of land 
animals can be found. 

The Tringce and other waders visit the shores of the 
Basin only in the summer, so that through the whole 



236 THE RECENT BIRD TRACKS 

series of layers formed during the winter, none of these 
tracks occur. In the winter months the shores are en- 
cumbered with masses of ice and snow, and are quite de- 
serted. The floating ice scores and ploughs up the banks 
in exposed localities, and the regularity of the deposits 
must be very much broken during that time. The ice 
forming on the shores and floated off at high tide carries 
away an immense amount of shingle and loose material, 
often large boulders, and drops them over the bottom of 
the whole Basin, and one sees blocks of trap from Bloni- 
idon lying on the flats about Horton and Cornwallis. This 
annual drift phenomena must leave its record in the 
boulders and coarse material distributed through the finer 
material laid down during the winter, while the summer 
layers would be entirely free from them. 

It will be readily seen that the mud deposits can 
only accumulate in the quieter parts of the bay, and 
that as we go from these to points where the tidal cur- 
rents increase in velocity, we shall pass from mud de- 
posits to those of sand and gravel, while the shores will 
vary in the character of their beaches according to the 
kind of rock exposed at the water's edge. Thus under 
the red sandstone cliffs of Cornwallis and Blomidon, we 
have sand beaches in exposed localities, muddy shores 
where the waves are shut out, while trap-shingle is strewn 
along the shores of Blomidon. 

The Strait of Minas is very narrow, and one can read- 
ily imagine that the immense mass of water which twice 
a day is poured into the Basin, and twice a day drained 
off again, must cause tremendous currents setting through 
the strait, and that wherever these are felt, only the 
coarser deposits are to be looked for. 

These mud banks, these accumulations of sand, gravel, 



OF THE BASIN OF MDJAS. 237 

and shingle really form a great diary of the life of the 
Basin, and we see that the history that is daily written 
upon them is readily to be translated. Well, we have got 
our boots and pants well covered with mud, we have 
gathered a handful of specimens of bird tracks and a 
pocket full of muddy shells, and we have learned some- 
thing of how Nature writes down in her great Stone Book 
the history of the world. Before us are the last few pages 
of the manuscript, and we have watched in the tracks 
left by the running bird, the pen gliding over the page. 
Aye, we too have added our lines to the history. Will 
the coming tide respect them and seal them up forever, 
or will it blot them out as unworthy of a place on the 
page ? Behind us and around us in the hills are volumes 
written long ago by the same ever-recording pen ; but 
Nature makes jxili/jtjmtts, as did the scribes of the middle 
ages, and writes over and over on the same page. See, 
yonder at the mouth of the Avon is a range of cliffs called 
Horton Bluff, formed of layers of the lower coal measures. 
They form a chapter in the geological history of the Prov- 
ince, and are written all over with quaint old records of 
ancient forests of coal-plants, and of antique mailed and 
spine-armed ganoid fish; but the scribe, wanting mate- 
rial on which to record the history of the present, is de- 
stroying the old manuscript, spreading out its leaves anew, 
re-prepared for the more modern characters in which the 
chapter of to-day is being written. After all our scribe 
is but a chronicler, like old Froissart. Geologists are 



»ut ask the why and the whe 

the detached tacts of the & 



entitled to be called a geologist, than a translator of Frois- 
sart can claim to be a historian. 

If you were to examine the beds of Horton Bluff, you 
would occasionally find one on whose surface are mark- 
ings, such as we observe nowadays being made on the 
sea-shore ; some of the layers are ripple marked evident- 
ly by the waves, or by shallow agitated water. All these 
beds were deposited under water in the shape of sand and 
mud. The late Dr. Theodore Harding, of Windsor, dis- 
covered on the surface of one of these layers, the tracks 
of a kind of reptile. The animal had evidently walked 
about over the rock when it was soft, and its footprints 
were preserved just as the recent impressions of birds' 
feet are now being preserved on the shores near the bluffs. 
Tracks of worm- are sometimes found on the same beds, 
and at Parrsboro' we have found what appear to be the 
tracks of some large crustacean. 

Tracks of animals have been formed, of course, ever since 
the world has been inhabited, and these are preserved in 
rocks of all ages wherever the necessary conditions ob- 
tained, from the Lower Silurian "Lingula flags"* of St. 
John, New Brunswick, to the deposits now forming. 

Many years ago, Dr. Deane found on the surface of 
slabs of sandstone, quarried in the Connecticut valley, the 
tracks of a three-toed animal which he took to be a turkey ; 
but Professor Hitchcock, of Amherst, having examined 
them, showed that they were not made by that fowl, but 
by some bird-like animal long since extinct. Attention 
being called to the subject, it was found that these and 
other footprints were scattered through a great thickness 
of these sandstone beds, and Professor Hitchcock, before he 
died, described over one hundred species of animals from 



OF THE BASIN OF MINAS. 239 

their tracks found in the Connecticut River sandstone. 
There cannot be the slightest doubt that during the Trias- 
sic period the valley of the Connecticut, from New Haven 
to a point about one hundred and twenty miles north of 
that city, and with an average width of about twenty 
miles, formed an estuary, to which the sea had imperfect 
access, and that the sandstones and shales which now fill 
it, were therein deposited, under circumstances exceed- 
ingly like those under which the mud deposits are now 
accumulating in the northern estuaries of the Avon and 
Cornwallis, though there was there a slow submergence 
going on which gave an opportunity for the distribution of 
the tracks through hundreds of feet of beds, a thing which 
would otherwise have been impossible. In this estuary 
were extensive mud-flats and sand-banks covered by high 
tide, and left bare when the tide was out, and these were 
the resort of great numbers of animals whose footprints 
are alone preserved. The majority of these animals were 
reptiles, but others were probably birds. Huge fellows 
were some of them, making tracks about two feet in 
length. Yet, though these footprints are very abundantly 
handed down to us, the rocks themselves hold scarcely a 
vestige of animal remains. Besides a few fish, a shell or 
two, and an insect, only a few broken bones have been 
discovered thus far, and these last enable us to form only 
a suspicion as to the character of the animals to which 
they belonged. It would be very unlikely that the re- 
mains of land animals, which only frequented the shores 
between the tides, should be found in the deposits there 
forming, and we have already remarked how rare it is to 
find a dead bird on the Horton shores. 

Some of the shale-beds of the Connecticut valley resem- 
ble very closely, both in color, texture, and composition, 



the dried mud-layers of the Basin of Minos 
fore me now a slab from one of the tiner-gr; 
the Connecticut valley. Except that it is : 
could not easily he distinguished from a wel 
men of the Minas mud. Its surface is mark 



is on one side an incipient crack, like the gash < 


)f a knife 


where the mass in shrinking had begun to 'tear i 


ipart, but 


had not separated sufficiently to form a complete 


crack. 


From these studies we must see that the pi 


lenomena 


going on around us must be the Rosette stoi 


ie, which 


shall furnish us with the key for the decipherh 


lg of the 


hieroglyphics of the Stone Book, and that we sh: 


ill uuder- 


stand the results of the forces which acted in th 


e past, in 


proportion as we correctly understand their acti< 


an in the 


present. 




Let us now see what was goin<r on ''down e: 


ist" when 


the Connecticut valley was an estuary. Nova S 


eotia had 


at that time very much the same appearance as a 


t present. 


but the land was more sunken, and the range of 


hills that 


skirts the Bay of Fundv, the Xorth Mountain 


s, did not 


then exist. The bay washed the northern slo 




South Mountains, and the Basin of Minas formed 


! the head 



strait at 

' Fundy. 



Within the wh„lc bay thick beds of red sand were de- 
posited, and similar strata were at the same time accumu- 
lating in the Gulf of St. Lawrence, off the northern coast 
of Nova Scotia, and especially over the area now occupied 
by Prince Edward Island. These beds now form a 
coarse friable red sand-tone which is almost entirely bar- 
ren of fossils, for it had afforded only a few reptilian 
' remains in Prince Edward Island. Acadia must at 
that time have been peopled with animals, and covered 
with vegetation : but the conditions for the preservation 
of the remains of either were very unfavorable. The bay 
was then open to the full sweep of the tide, which may at 
that time have acted with even much greater force in the 
region of the Basin of Minas than at present, because the 
tidal wave, not being obliged to pass, as at present, 
through the narrow Strait of Minas, would have had an 
opportunity of exercising its full force, rising higher and 
higher as it rushed up the ever-narrowing head of the 
bay, but it may have been that at that time the isthmus 
Which unites the peninsula of Nova Scotia with the main 
land was submerged, in which case the extraordinary tidal 
phenomena of the Bay of Fuudy could not have resulted. 
The sandstone beds show, in their oblique lamination, 
the action of strong and shifting currents. There was not 
the same opportunity presented for the preservation of 
such footprints as may have been left on these sands, as 
existed in the quiet estuary of the Connecticut, or the 
present Basin of Minas. At intervals during the deposit 



242 THE RECENT BIRD TRACKS 

of the Connecticut Eiver beds, there were volcanic dis 
turhances, attended by the formation of dykes, and th 
spreading out over the beds of thick musses of lava. Th 
New-Red Sandstone period \va> attended in Nova Scotia 1> 
similar phenomena. Just after the formation of the sane 
stone beds in the Basin of Minas and Bay of Fundy, sul 
marine \ olcanic action broke out along the line of th 
present North Mountains, and immense quantities o 
melted matter were thrown up from beneath, and sprea 
over the New-Red Sandstone strata, either in liquid, mo 

until' these beds had acquired a great thickness. Simih 
eruptions took place at the sune time at the Two, Fiv< 
and Partridge Islands, Capes cVOr and Sharpe, and at tli 
Isle Haute. It is very probable that all these now is< 
lated trap masses may Live been at that time continuous 
The land was then 'elevated so as to tiring all their bee 
in the Basin of Minas, and along the shores of the Bay o 
Fundy above water, and as the red sandstone beds had 
slight dip to the northward alon- the southern coast, tl 



To the north, the 



n Blomidon to Briar Island. At the ti 
of the New-Red Sandstone beds, the 



THE BASIN i 



21 o 



las, as well as a large portion of the Bay of Fimdy, 

! occupied with them ; but they have since been largely 
loved, except where overlaid by trap deposits, or 

Twise protected, and only .-small remnants are now 
fringing the shores of Nova Scotia and .New Uruns- 
k. Prince Edward Island made its appearance with 
rise of the land, and it must at first have been of much 
iter extent than at present, perhaps even having been 




eptiles and birds of the New-Red Sandstone pe- 
1 have passed away, and the earth is peopled by a new 
ition. In that period the world had reached that 
;e in its development when it was fitted for the rule of 
brute force of giant reptiles. To-day mind rules. 
I's other creations signed their mark on the pages of 
logical history. 



SOMETHING ABOUT JELLY-FISHES. 



The loiterer by the sea-side may have noticed in his 
rambles on the beach, certain gelatinous substances left 
by the retreating tide. An interest excited by so strange 
a sight may have prompted a closer examination, and 
yet recognizing nothing tangible or definite in the struc- 
ture of these shapeless bodies, a desire has been really 
awakened to know something about them. We will try 
to satisfy this curiosity, by giving a brief account of a few 
of our more common Jelly-fishes; for these shapeless 
lumps of jelly, seen stranded on our beaches, are really 
animals, assuming the most graceful and symmetrical 
forms in the water. 

The Jelly-fishes, or Medusae, have long excited the at- 
tention of naturalists from their singular structure, and 
the wonderful changes occurring .luring their growth. 

While in the higher expressions of animal life the anat- 
omist may puzzle over the intricacies of a complicated 
organization in the Jelly-fishes, he is at first more per- 
plexed to find anything like organization in their parts, 
though they are really highly organized compared with 
animals .still lower in the scale. So transparent are some, 
that one can hardly detect their presence in the water, 
and so largely does the sea-water enter into their com- 
position, that certain kinds when dried lose ninety-nine 
one hundredths of their own weight. 

Peron and Lesueur, two distinguished French natural- 
ists, who, in the early part of this century made a voyage 
around the globe, thus summed up the results of their 
combined observations on these animals. " 



of a Medusa is wholly resolved, by a kind of instanta- 
neous fusion, into a thud analogous to sea-water; and yet 
the most important functions of life are effected in bodies 
that seem to be nothing more, as it were, than coagulated 
water. The multiplication of these animals is prodigious, 
and we know nothing certain respecting their mode of 
generation. They may acquire dimensions of many feet 
in diameter, and weigh, occasionally, from fifty to sixty 
pounds ; and their system of nutrition escapes 'us. They 
execute the most rapid and continued motions ; and the 
details of their muscular system are unknown. 

"Their secretions seem to be extremely abundant ; but 
we perceive nothing satisfactory as to their origin. They 
have a kind of very active respiration ; its real seat is a 
mystery. They seem extremely feeble, but fishes of large 
size are daily their prey. One would imagine their 
stomachs incapable of any kind of action on these latter 
animals : in a few moments they are digested. Many of 
them contain internally considerable quantities of air, but 
whether they imbibe it from the atmosphere, extract it 

are equally ignorant. A great number of these Medusae 
-re phosphorescent, and glare amidst the gloom of night 
li-e globes of tire: vet' the nature, the principle, and 



Professor Richard Owen quotes these "lively paradoxes" 
to show the progress made since then in clearing up many 
points that were obscure at their time, and to show that 
even the skilful naturali>t. with abundant material at hand, 
tt^y plod on with uncertainty unless aided by the higher 
Pavers of the microscope. Recent works published by 



246 SOMETHING ABOUT JELLY-FISHES. 

Professors Agassiz and Clark, and Mr. A. Agassiz, have 
detailed very fully the anatomy and classification of our 
native species. 

The Jelly-fishes of our coast are represented by nume- 
rous globular and disk-like animals of a gelatinous tex- 
ture, more or less transparent, having certain appen- 
dages consisting either of longitudinal bands of vibrating 
fringes, as in one order; or, as in another order, having 
appendages surrounding the mouth, and others, thread- 
like, hanging from the margin of the disk. The parts 
most conspicuous within the body are the ovaries, or egg- 
sacks, the stomach, and certain tubes running from the 
stomach to the periphery of the body. 

These animals are apparently radiated in their struc- 
ture ; at all events, it is diihVult in certain groups to dis- 
tinguish a right and left side, and for this reason they are 
called Radiated animals, and form one of the three classes 
of the branch Kauiata. 

The Jelly-fishes of our coast are common in our har- 
bors and inlets, where the water is fresh and pure from 
the ocean. A very ready and convenient way to collect 
them is to moor your boat on the shady side of a wharf 
where the reflected rays of the sun are avoided, and, as 
the tide sweeps gently past, to dip them as they are borne 
along by the current. Some little practice is necessary 
to discern the smaller kind-, tor many species are very 
minute, and other species, though of good size, are never- 
theless hard to distinguish on account of their extreme 
transparency. They may be dipped from the water with 
a tin dipper, though a wide-mouthed glass jar is better 
for this purpose. As they are secured, they may be 
poured into a wooden pail for assortment and examination 
at home ; or, better, a large glass jar, carried on purpose 



ABOUT JELLY-FISHES. 247 

to hold them, may be filled at once, as too frequent 
changes destroy them. 

Some species are very hardy, and may be kept alive 
for weeks, while others live only a few hours, gradually 
dim i nishing in size till they appear to melt away in the 
water. 

Among the more common forms met with on our coast 
is the Pleurobrachia (Plate 8, Fig. 8). Words fail in 
describing the beauty and singularity of this Jelly-fish. 
Conceive a globular body the size of a walnut or larger, 
but perfectly transparent, having eight bands of rapidly 
vibrating fringes surrounding the body, running from one 
pole to the other like the ridges on a walnut, and two 
thread-like appendages, festooned with hundreds of shorter 
threads, trailing out behind the body like the tail of a 
comet, and you have a general idea of this Jelly-fish. 

The zones of vibrating fringes act like so many little 
oars, and impel the body through the water. At times, 
only the fringes on one side are in motion, and then the 
body rotates in the water like a vital globe. Anon, the 
different zones alternate in action, and the body describes 
a spiral course in the water. The most beautiful pris- 
matic hues are exhibited when these fringes are in 
motion, and these brilliant changing colors often lead to 



ol the structure of this Jelly-fish. They are lined with 
hundreds of smaller threads\vhich start at right angles 
from the main threads, and are all of the extremest te- 
nuity. The distance these appendages can be projected 
from the body, the instantaneous manner in which they 
aie drawn within the body, and the perfect control the 
auinial manifests in their movements seems incredible, 



JJ4« SOMETHING ABOUT JELLY-FISHES. 

until the movements have been actually witnessed. When 
contracted, these appendages occupy a space of exceeding 
minuteness, and when projected from the body seem to 
run out as a cable inn- from a ship. We have sought in 
vain for any definite solution of the function of these 

own observations. Beside the locomotive power derived 
from the longitudinal zones of fringes, the body will be 
seen to oscillate to and fro, this motion being produced 
by the alternate contraction and relaxation of these 
threads, the resistance offered to the water by the sudden 
contraction of the expanded thread- being sufficient to 
oscillate the body. The Jelly-fish in question, unlike 
most members of the class, swim with the mouth upward, 
and the appendages start from the pole opposite the 
mouth; and since the mouth is unprovided with any or- 
gans whereby to grasp food, the month has the power of 
sweeping back and forth in the water by the oscillations 
of the body, affording greater chances of coming in con- 
tact with their food. It has the power of seizing little 
shrimp-like animals, and a singular sight it is to see this 
Jelly-fish, with its repast perfectly visible within its 
Iran-parent body. 

There are two other forms of Jelly-fishes not uncom- 
mon in our waters, which have the zones of locomotive 
fringes, but have no trailing appendages, as in the species 
just described. One of these forms is called Bolina, and 

and the larger end divided into two lobes which surround 
the mouth. These lobes have the power of expanding 
and contracting, and the contour of the animal is mate- 
rially altered by their movements. They may sometimes 
be seen gaping wide, disclosing the mouth, and ready to 



entrap its food, and again so contracted that the mouth 
is quite hidden. 

Another form called Idyia is long and cylindrical like a 
tube rounded and closed at one end, the other abrupt and 
open ; the open end constitutes the mouth. In fact, it is 
hardly more than a locomotive stomach. This Jelly-fish 
has more consistency than those heretofore described, and 
is quite opake. At certain seasons of the year they are 
pinkish in color. An individual of this species, when 
confined with Pleurobrachia, soon manifests its carnivo- 
rous propensities by attacking, and often swallowing the 
Pleurobrachia whole. It does not appear daunted if its 
victim proves larger than itself, but slowly, patiently 
engulfs its victim ; and a curious sight it is \o see the 
Idyia directly after this feat is performed, presenting the 
appearance of a tight skin drawn around the innermost 
Jelly-fish, though in a short time its food is digested, and 
the Idyia resumes its normal shape, and not in the least 
augmented in size. It probably requires a dozen or 
more of such game for an ordinary lunch. This state- 
ment will not be wondered at, if the experiment is tried 
of drying a specimen of Pleurobrachia on a white card, 
and finding nothing left but a few crystals of salt. The 
vitality of these Jelly-fishes is remarkable : they can be 
cut in several pieces, and yet each piece will remain 
'■ for a longtime in the water: and one naturalist. 






Idyia in half longit 



one half to enfold, and digest another Jelly-fish. 

The three forms thus far described axe common repre- 
sentatives of an order of Jelly-fishes called Ctenophorce, 
or Comb-bearers, the fringes or paddles having been com- 
pared by some writers to the teeth of a comb. These 
fringes form a distinguishing trait of the order. The 



250 SOMETHING ABOUT JELLY-FISHES. 

members of this order are reproduced directly from 

We will now consider another order of Jelly-fishes 
called Discophorce, or disk-like Jelly-fishes, since the 
form of many species present a disk-like appearance. 
Members of this order are very conspicuous in the water, 
owing to their large size, their opacity, and the distinct- 
ness of their egg-pouches. They have no zones of loco- 
motive fringes, but hanging below the disk and surround- 
ing the mouth are numerous appendages, and surrounding 
the border of the disk is seen a delicate fringe of threads 
interrupted at regular intervals by little dots called eyes. 
These Jelly-fishes swim in the water by successive ex- 
pansions and contractions of the disk, making a motion 
something like the motion made by the partial closing 
and opening of an umbrella. This motion is very leisurely 
performed, and the animal appears drifted by the currents 

Our most common species, the Aurelia (Plate 8, 

vast multitudes. When full-grown they measure from 
twelve to fifteen inches in diameter. 

Another form, called Cyanea, often attains an immense 
size. Mr. A. xVgassiz give- an account of one that meas- 
ured seven feet across the disk, and whose appendages 
stretched out to the length of one hundred and twelve 
feet; their average size, however, is about one-third the 



SOMETHING ABOUT JELLY-FISHES. 251 

der-skinned bathers. With its broad, tawny, festooned, 
and scalloped disk, often a full foot or more across, it 
flaps its way through the yielding water.-, and drags after 
it a long train of riband-like arms, and seemingly inter- 
minable tails, marking its course when the body is far 
away from us. Once tangled in its trailing 'hair,' the 
unfortunate, who has recklessly ventured across the 
graceful monster's path, too soon writhes in prickly tor- 
ture. Every struggle but binds the poisonous threads 
more firmly round his body, and then there is no escape ; 
for, when the winder of the fatal net finds his course im- 
peded by the terrified human wrestling in its coils, he, 
seeking no combat with the mightier biped, casts loose 
his envenomed arms, and swims away. The amputated 
weapons, severed from their parent body, vent vengeance 
on the cause of their destruction, and sting as fiercely as 
if their original proprietor itself gave the word of attack." 
Peculiar oval cells, each containing a little filament capa- 
ble of protrusion, have been supposed to be the seat of 
this nettling sensation. These are called urticating cells, 
and the whole class of Jelly-fishes are called Amkphs, or 
Sea-nettles, from this peculiar property. These stinging 
cells cover the surface of the body and appendages, 
though, strange enough, there are many species possessing 
these cells that produce no stinging sensation whatever. 

The strangest feature in the history of certain Jelly- 
fishes belonging to the order Diseophorse, as the Aurelia, 
tor instance, is their wonderful mode of reproduction. It 
would require too long a time to detail the successive 
steps made before the whole truth was known regarding 
the development of these Jelly-fishes. How the succes- 
sive stages were described by different zoologists as en- 
tirely distinct animals, until at last it was proved that 



202 SOMETHIXG ABOUT JELLY-FISHES. 

they all represented the different stages of growth of ono 
animal. The Aurelia, for example, gives origin to little 
locomotive eggs; these, swimming in shoals, finally effect 
lodgments on the rocks, one end becoming attached, and 
the other throwing out little tentacles as in Fig. 1, on 
Plate 8. In this condition they resemble miniature Polyps. 
Gradually they increase in length, and little transverse 
seams, or constrictions, appear on the sides of the body, 
these constrictions deepening, and their edges becoming 
scalloped. (See Plate 8, fig. 2.) Finally, the seams have 
deepened to such an extent that their appearance have 
been compared to a pile of saucers, and at last they be- 
come separated one after the other, each turning upside 

they are called Ephyra, and are entirely unlike their 

parent in appearance. By the tall they will have attained 

their adult form, and a diameter of twelve or more inches. 

Figs. 3, 4, on the Plate, represents Ephyras in dif- 

tlie stalk. In spring time the water is alive with them. 

By far the greater number of our smaller Jelly-fishes 
belong to another order called Hydroids, and pass through 

counted. The limits of our paper will allow only a few 
words on this group. On the rocks at low water, and 
on floating weed, little moss-like tufts will be found in 
abundance. This plant-like growth, when examined un- 
der a lens, will be seen active with life. The ends of 
the little twigs and offshoots appear as little bell-shaped 
cups, with tentacles studding the free ends like the plates 
of a flower; these are the fixed individuals, and are the 
purveyors of the community. In the spring time little 
capsules will be noticed on the twigs, within which are 



SOMETHING ABOUT JELLY-FISHES. 253 

to be seen minute globular bodies, to be finally set free 
by the rupture of the capsule, as free swimming Jelly- 
fishes. (See Plate 8, fig. 12 : a, fixed individual ; b, 
capsule containing young Jelly-fishes.) Others bud di- 
rectly from the twig and drop off singly, as in Cort/ne. 
(Fig. 7, buds forming from Hydroid stalk; Fig. 6, adult 
Cory ne.) These are found by thousands in spring time. 
Not only do these free Jelly-fishes bud from fixed com- 
munities, but in one species young ones bud from the 
Jelly-fish itself, as in Lizzia (Fig. 10), and certain others 
where the young bud from the stomach. All these Hy- 
droid Jelly-fishes produce eggs, which again give rise to 
plant-like communities. At another time we hope to de- 
vote a chapter to the structure of Jelly-fishes, and illus- 
trate more fully the character of the Hydroids, of which 
we have scarcely touched in this paper. 



. Early condition of Aurelia, — after Agassiz. 
Older condition of same, showing individuals about to 
arate, — after Agassiz. 

lia, a short time after freeing itself, — original. 
Advanced stage of above, — original. 

0>n/, w ,„n:ii,ilis Ag.,— original. 

Hydroid community of Coryne magnified, showing Jelly- 
fish buds about to separate, — after Clark. 



Showing one twig of Eucope with fixed individual A, and 
reproductive capsule B, containing a number of young 
Jelly-fishes, — after A. Agassiz. 
Fig. 13. Eucope, in adult condition, magnified, — original. 



AGENCY OF INSECTS IN FERTILIZING PLANTS. 



Mr. Charles Darwin and other botanists have proved 
beyond a doubt, that some flowers, in which the pollen 
may easily gain access to the stigma of the same flower, 
are sterile unless fertilized by pollen borne from other 
flowers, while many are much more productive by a cross 
fertilization. 

For information concerning the peculiar manner in 
which fertilization is effected in the Balsam, Wood-sorrel, 
Violets, Dicentra or Dielytra, Corydalis, Mitchella or 
Partridge-berry, Oldenlandia or llnustonia, Primrose, 
Barberry, Lysimachia or Loosestrife, Orchids, Dutchman's 
Pi£e, and others 7 consult the observations recorded by 
Mr. J.T. Rothrock in the second number of the Natural- 
ist, Mr. Darwin's work on the "Fertilization of Orchids," 
and seven articles by Dr. A. Gray in the "American Ag- 
riculturist," beginning in May, 18G6. 

With the fact that insects are necessary to fertilize some 
plants, and the ' 1 by crossing, 

Ictus see how this is accomplished in plants which may 
not seem to require' the aid of the wind or insects. Plants 
are very rarely found in which the pollen may not, occa- 
sionally at least, get to the stigma of another flower of the 
same, or an allied species. Then if the pollen is "pre- 
potent" or most effective on stigmas when thus transferred, 

comes in contact with the stigma of the same flower. Dr. 
Gray, acquainted with these facts, and familiar with the 
structure of the Iris, saw that insects must be needed for 
the fertilization of this plant also, and without seeing the 
bees upon them, shrewdly pointed out the manner in which 



they must car 


T y the polle 


n from one flowe 


r to another. 


We verified h 


is theory by 


■ observations ma 


Lie two 


years 


ago, and fount 


1 it to be tru 


le in the essential 


parti ml; 


ITS. 


Without gii 


ring a scient 


itic description of 


the Hov 


rer, if 


is enough for 


our present 


purpose to say, t 


hat the 


parts 


consist of thre 


b curved tub 


98, each just about 


large ei 


lough 


to admit a common hone^ 


'-bee, being a trit 


le large. 


■ than 


There i^r 


howy crest, < 


>r attractive platfo: 


rm.proj. 


,-ting 


at the outer 


end of eacl 


1 tube upon wine 


Ii the be 


c first 


alights. WTu 


>n goino- inl 


so the flower for 


the first 


time 


during the d 


ay, she is free from pollen. 


She l)i 


•ushea 


against a lid v 


diich hangs 


from above, not unlike ai 


i old- 


fashioned swii 


lging door of a cat-hole, as sc 


imetime 


3 seen 


about barns or corn-cribs 


. When farther i 


n beyoi: 


id the 


lid, she comes 


3 against the anther, which 01 


ily disci 


larges 


pollen on the 


side next to 


the bee's back. 


After getting 


what nectar 


she can at 


the lower end of the tube, she 


backs out ag 


ain, pushing 


• the trap-door in 


the op 


posite 



direction. The outside of this door is the only part of 
the stigma upon which the pollen will produce any effect, 
so upon visiting the first tube no pollen adheres to the 
sensitive side of the stigma, although the bee leaves the 
place with her back well powdered. Calling at another 
tube, she dives in as before, this time dusting the outside 
of the lid with pollen which was brought from the tube 

Flag (/W.s versicolor Linn.) at different times during the 
day, and always succeeded in seeing the bees at work 
while their heads and hacks contained an abundance of 
Pollen. In wilted flowers, and in some that were fresh, 
I saw bees occasionally get in and out at the side of the 



2,»G 



AGENCY OF ] 



tube, without touching the stigma at all. Sometimes 
they went in the tube as first described, and then slipped 
out at the side instead of backing out. Several went on 
top of the flower and tried to find other ways to get at the 
sweets below, but in every instance they failed, and soon 
left that position. 

At the Botanical Garden, Cambridge, Mass., I noticed 
bees on several foreign species of Iris, in some of which, 
as Irispseudocarus of Southern Europe, the tube is more 
nearly perfect, so that it is impossible for them to find a 
side entrance or egress. 

The corolla of Andromeda floribunda Pursh, is nearly 
urn-shaped, hanging with the open end or entrance down. 
The ten long anthers open at the apex by two round 
holes, and each anther is supplied with two horizontal 
or reflexed awns on the outside next the corolla. The 
stigma is just at the narrow mouth of the corolla. . Bees 
in abundance visit the flowers, thrusting their long tongue 
or proboscis against the awns or horns of the anther, as 
they reach in for nectar which is secreted farther on. By 
hitting the awns the anthers are disturbed, and the holes 
brought close against some part of the bee's probos- 
cis, which is well sprinkled over with pollen, as well as 
the other mouth parts hanging below the flower. Bees 
were examined, and found to have the parts mentioned 
covered with the four-grained pollen which is peculiar to 
a few plants. 

I cannot see how pollen alights on the stigmas of this 
plant, for in falling out in the natural way it must pass by 
to the ground. But the insect puts the material in place 
every time as effectually as a mason can stick mortar on 
the ceiling of a room. The Blueberry ( Vaccinium) is 
similar in structure to the Andromeda, except that the 



IN FERTILIZING PLANTS. 257 

awns are wanting. Probably most flowers which droop 
or hang down are fertilized by insects. For otherwise, 
how can the pollen find the tip of a stigma, when the 
style is suspended ? 

The mode of fertilization in the American Laurel (Kal- 
mia) has already been well described in the Naturalist, 
but I may be excused for adding my testimony concern- 
ing this beautiful and interesting plant. 

When the anthers are liberated from the pockets in the 
corolla, the stamens .-mldenk >r m i-hton and throw jets 
of pollen often for a foot or more, "acting," as Professor 
Gray used to say, "like a boy's pea-shooter." 

Many times when the dew was on, I have seen the 
common honey-bee and other Hymenoptera about these 
flowers. When tHe bee alights on a flower, the style 
comes up between the legs where they join the body, or 
sometimes farther back against the abdomen. 

In this position they turn around, as though they were 
balanced on a pivot, generally inserting the tongue out- 
side of the filament, and, while doing this, pull the sta- 
mens with their legs towards the centre of the flower, re- 
leasing them and frequently receiving the shots of pollen 
on their own body. A single visit from an insect is suf- 
ficient to release all the anthers. By noon it was a diffi- 
cult matter to find a flower which had not been visited in 
this way. Insects seem to be absolutely necessary for 
the perfect fertilization of Kalmia angustifolia and K. 
latifolia, for I tied small nets over some flower-clusters 
(corymbs), and found that when the bees were kept away, 
the flowers withered and fell off, most of the anthers still 
remaining in the pockets, and the filaments so decayed 
that their elasticity was entirely gone. The very few an- 



258 AGENCY OF INSECTS 

thers liberated were probably brought out by the shaking 
of the bushes by the wind. 

Considerable pollen was found stuck on the corollas by 
the nectar, which was uncommonly abundant, as no in- 
sects of much size were allowed to remove it. The wind 
might have carried some of this pollen to other flowers, 
or it might have dripped from those above to flowers be- 
low in drops of water (there were two showers during 
these experiments); but I infer this was not the case in 
the examples mentioned, because the flowers, especially 
the stigmas, remained fresh much longer than those 
which were left exposed to the visits of insects. 

The flowers of several Honeysuckles, of the Mustard 
Family (Cruciferce), of the I'dadder-nut (Staphylea tri- 
folia L.) were noticed, and in each case the conclusion 
reached was, that the chances are better for cross fertil- 
ization than otherwise. 

The long cylindrieal. bell--. haped corollas of the Purple 
Foxglove {Di,(i>f'ii;.< i»>rp>irea ) are much visited by bees. 
The flowers are mostly obliquely suspended, and in all 
thus situated, the stamens ami style are close to the up- 
per side of the corolla. The insects alight at the opening 
of the corolla, on the side opposite the stamens. This is 
generally the lower side as the flowers hang, then reach- 
ing above, they catch hold of the style and stamens, and 
crawl in with the back down, brushing the whole length 
of the underside of the body, tir-t against the stigma, 
and. firth i ■■... \i iin>t the anthers. 

They seem unable to get into the flower without catch- 
ing hold of the stamens, and it is often with considerable 
difficulty that they enter at all, for they are obliged to 
hold on to the edge with the hind legs until they can 
catch the stamens with their fore legs. 



IN FERTILIZING PLANTS. 259 

In the Evening Primrose (Oenothera glauca Michx., 
Oe. Missouriemis and linearis Michx.), the stigmas pro- 
ject beyond the anthers, and the flowers vary from an erect 
to a horizontal position. There are tour large stigmas tor 
each style, spreading in the form of a Greek woe*; 

The pollen, slightly held together by delicate threads, 
is collected in the morning by great numbers of small 
wasps, about two-thirds the size of honey-bees. I have 
often watched them while coming down on, or just over, 
the stigmas, leaving pollen as they went in, and after col- 
lecting what they could, fly out at the side without touch- 
ing the stigma. On one of these plants, at two different 
times, a wasp was eagerly trying to pick up the pollen 
which had been left on the stigmas ; the more they tried 
to collect, the more they scattered pollen about on the 
glutinous surface, until, as if discouraged or disgusted, 
they rapidly cleaned their legs of all the tangled mass, 
and flew away, leaving that cluster of flowers entirely. 

In the flowers of the Pea, False Indigo, Yellow-wood 
(Cladastris), Red-bud or Judas-tree, Re_d and White 
Cloyer", Locust, and others of this large and important 
family (Legwninosce) , the anthers surround the stigma, 
and are closely covered by the corolla. This certainly 
looks like a very clear case for self-fertilization, but I 
doubt not the reverse is very often the ease. Many 
of the flowers, as the Pea and Locust, have one petal 
nm.h larger than the rest, called the" standard or banner. 
Opposite this is another part composed of two petals 



banner-petal. To enable them to do this, they kick 
the keel and side petals (wings) with their hind legs, 
and push them back so that the anthers and stigmas 



260 ICE-MARKS AND ANCIENT GLACIERS 

come out from their concealment and meet the underside 
of the insect where pollen may be left or received. Why 
the style should be so uniformly curved upward, and all 
should be brought against the abdomen of insects, I can- 
not well conceive, unless it be of some use to the plant. 

Lupine, another species in this family, has a remarkably 
long keel which makes a close sheath for the inside parts. 
On the style, just below the extremity, is a circle of long 
stiff bristles. As the keel is pushed down, only the stig- 
ma, with the bristles below, appears outside, and this 
pushes out a mass of pollen which generally hits some 
part of the insect. When left, the flower resumes its 
former position again. 

For about six times pollen can be pushed out in this 
way, when the supply becomes exhausted. Insects begin 
on the lowest flowers, and so go up the spike to others 
which are higher and younger. No experiments have 
been made on Lupine to show whether it will produce 
more seeds when visited by insects than when protected. 



ICE-MARKS AND ANCIENT GLACIERS 
WHITE MOUNTAINS. 



During a visit last autumn to the White Mountains, 
we found ice-marks in the valleys of the Saco, Ellis, and 
Androscoggin Rivers. These grooves, and other signs of 
give the clearest evidence, that, during the 



Mountains were covered by a 
ch discharged local glaciers into 
ting from the central peaks. 
Like the glaciers of the Alps, of the mountains of 



Glacial Period, the Whi 
central mer-de-glw 



IN THE WHITE MOUNTAINS. 261 

Norway, of the Himalaya Mountains, and the mountains 
of Now Zealand, the Andes, and the polar regions at 
the present day, these rivers of ice flowed down the val- 
leys, like a plastic mass of frozen and refrozen snow and 
ice. We learn from the writings of geologists that in 
former times the Alpine glaciers, which now cling to 
the mountain peaks far up the valleys, descended dining 
a period of great cold, when the Polar Bear, Reindeer^ 
and other arctic animals were spread over Southern Eu- 
rope, and extended far out upon the broad plains of Italy 
and Germany. Such must have been the scene in New 
England during the time of intense cold, known as the 
Glacial Period. But before theorizing, let us present 
the facts which seem to us new, and to confirm the opin- 
ions, that have been before expressed by some of our 
geologists, that the principal valleys of the White Moun- 
tains have been filled with these rivers of ice. Our ob- 
servations only relate to the eastern part of the mountains. 
J-<et us first explain what is meant by ice-marks or 
glacial scratches, strice, grooves, and moraines. The 
rocks and ledges in all the Alpine valleys are grooved 
and fluted by nearly parallel marks made by gravel and 
pebbles frozen into the bottom and sides of the slowly- 
moving mass of ice. The glacier thus grinds down, 
polishes, and scratches the rocks over which it moves. 
steady and uniform is the motion of these immense 



rkuUy 



bodie 

uniform 

Sometimes a huge ledge projects into the valley. Around 

this the glacier sweeps, and the marks are curved at this 

point. Where the glacier debouches on to a broad plain, 

the ice-marks tend to radiate outwards, fan-like, from the 

mouth of the valley. 



262 ICE-MARKS AND ANCIENT GLACIERS 

Moraines are formed of the debris or loose refuse mat- 
ter accumulated either upon the surface, or crowded be- 
neath the ice. The material derived from the latter 
source forms masses of clay, sand, and rounded stones, 
the latter of which are often found to be striated on one 
or more of the sides, like the surface of the solid rock 
beneath. On the top of the glacier rest long rows or 
trains of more angular blocks which have fallen from the 
cliffs above. These windrows of stones are called "Literal 
moraines," because they are found on each side of the 
glacier. When such a glacier melts away, a great semi- 
circular heap or hillock of stones and dirt forms what is 
called a "terminal moraine." We would naturally ex- 
pect to find the finer, clayey portions with rounded 
stones, grooved and scratched pebbles, and boulders 
at the bottom of the rude mass, while the more angular 
stones would remain upon the top. From the melting of 
the ice arise rivers whose turbid and swollen waters rush 
out from beneath the end of the glacier, and further aid 
in rounding the stones. Such torrential streams are the 
sources of the Aar, a branch of the Rhine, of the Rhone, 
and of other rivers which spring out from under the gla- 
ciers of the Alps and of Norway. 

Our route to the mountains lay up the valley of the 
Ossipee River, in which Ossipee Lake, Six Mile Pond, 
and numerous other ponds lie. Looking from the village 
of Ossipee up the broad valley at the head of which 
rises the majestic Chicorua, and beholding on all sides 
lateral moraines thrown up in hillocks of partially strat- 
ified gravel and pebbles, and the beautiful glacial lakes 
embosomed in the gently swelling hills of this delightful 
valley, it was not difficult to imagine that old Chicorua, in 
former times, shook off from its icy dome streams of ice 



IN TILE WHITE MOUNTAINS. 263 

which crowded far up, and even overflowed the sides of this 
valley, and when all had melted away, left as witnesses 
of the floods these placid lakes. These sheets of water, 
however, are not scattered at random over the face of 
New England. In this valley and the neighboring parts 
of Maine, they are arranged in a general north-west and 
south-east course, following that of the rivers. This 
direction is probably due to the fact that the valleys 
cut across the general north-east and south-west course 
of our mountain ranges, which compose the Appalachian 

We had no time to search for glacial scratches in the 
Ossipee valley, but cannot doubt that on examination they 
will be found poinlinir toward- Mount Chieorua, where, 
according to Dr. C. T. Jackson,* they follow the gene- 
ral north-west course of this valley. 

Riding up the Conway valley, with Kearsarge on our 
right, and the Mote Mountains on our left, up through 
Bartlett to Jackson, we observe moraines innumerable 
rising high up the sides of the valley, and covered 
with boulders, revealed more distinctly in all the cleared 
lands. Above these moraines rise rounded and embossed 
rocks, while the evenly terraced valley, over which the 
road passes, shows that at a former period (though long 
after the close of the glacial epoch) the river, then a se- 
ries of broad lakes, rearranged and resorted the confused 
materials composing the mounds left by the melting 
glacier, into finely, evenly stratified fresh-water deposits, 
which now form the arable land of the plains, over which 
are scattered the picturesque villages and hamlets so fa- 
miliar to the White Mountain tourist. 

Ice-marks were first noticed at Jackson , on Thorn 

* Beport on the Geology of New Hampshire. 



aiu, a [teak lying just south of Tin Mountain, and 
ted by Prof. Guyot to be 2,500 feet high. Here 
ooves are well marked, and point directly towards 
Washington, their course being north 25° west. 

) is smoothly polished and finely striated. On re- 
■' the soil from the surface of the rock a part of the 

mining in the 
On Mount 

Kearsarge, three miles distant, which hears south 25° east 
from Thorn Mountain, Dr. Jackson states, in the Geology 
of New Hampshire, that part way up the mountain the 

ral north-west and south-east course the valley here as- 
sumes. In hastily ascendin- this mountain on the north 



side from 


Jackson 


., we were 


not fortunate enou 


igh t 


o dis- 


cover any 


grooves 


in the re 


»eks. Half way iq 


i the 


side, 


however, 


we foim, 


1 a bo ukl 


.er of a peculiar n 


lira 


slate. 


containing 


; large i 


•rystals o 


f st an ro tide, or cross-: 


stone. 


which mi 


ist have 


been bon 


le down on the ba 


ck C 


>f the 


glacier fr 


om Mou 


nt Washii 


igton, as thick bee 




f this 


rock oceui 


l- near tb 


3 limit of 


trees, a little over : 


four 


thou- 


sand feet 


up that 


mountain. 


Similar boulder; 


i (XX 


lurred 


on some o 


fthe hill 


s below. 








On an 


adjoinin: 


y hill nea 


r Goodrich's Falls, 


, are 


very 


distinct i 


re-mark^ 


i. Here 


we found a huge 


; ai 


ignlar 


boulder < 


»f many 


tons W( 


sight, which had 




q ap- 


parently < 


letacheil 


from the 


! parent rock ben 


,eath 


. and 


moved a 


few rods 


to the » 


Dtith-east ; for to 1 


be i 


lorth- 


west are 


polished 


surfaces 


and grooves whicl 


i hae 


1 evi- 


dently bet 


■U made 


by this l :l 


rge, slowlv-movino 


:' m:i 


ss of 


rock whe 


ii frozen 


into the 


bottom of a glaci 


er. 


The ' 



', m;l 


i poli 

A-hirh 


shed 


rVi- 


..kin- 


";::! 



surface of the reddish sienite hac 
smooth as porcelain, as seen in litt 
survived the centuries of weathering 
which has effaced most of the slig] 
action in our mountain regions. I 
ed north 30° east. There were a] 
the rocks, called lunoid furrows, whit 
depressions in the rock, with the < 

wards the north. The origin of these lunoid furrows 
have been thus explained. It is known that the glacier 
is in constant motion, advancing a few inches in sum- 
mer, and then contracting in winter. Now imagine a 
stone frozen into the ice^ and thus acting a* a gouge. 
Pushed onward and then withdrawn by the powerful 
hand of the ice-king, it soon wears this peculiar 
shaped hole, then turns over out of the rut, and catches 
again in some inequality of the rock, and makes another 
lunoid furrow, or perhaps a series of four or five, often 
very regular in form, though the distance between them 

Crossing over the range of mountains north of Mount 



Ivrar 



: 



'^t-gv into St„we, Maine, we descend 



alley of the Cold River. This is a branch of 



the Saco, and, though now comparatively 
must in future attract many travellers. We pause at 
the entrance of Evans' Notch, a mountain pass of great 
interest, and f ur surpassing Pinkham Notch in grandeur, 
reminding us rather of the White Mountain Notch. The 
gate of the pass is guarded on the west by Mount Royce, 
on the east by Speckled Mountain, whose nine spurs ra- 

wte into the towns of Stowe, Albany, and Stoneham. 

n the broad, flattened, glaciated summit of Speckled 
fountain ice-marks abound, pursuing a course north 15° 



266 ICE-MARKS AND ANCIENT GLACIERS 

east, following the course of the valley at this point, 
and pointing towards a higher peak situated a little to 
the northward. 

In one place a beautiful beryl, in fine crystals of which 
the coarse granite abounds, has been sliced off by the 
abrading agent, and polished even with the surface of the 
feldspar matrix. There are broad surfaces of rock planed 
down by ice, both on the north-western and north-eastern 
slopes, showing that the ice must have slid down in both 
directions from the reservoir of snow which rested on the 
water-shed between the two valleys. Here, also, occur 
numerous lunoid furrows, pointing in the same general 
direction as the straight fine grooves. In the fields, at 
the bottom of the mountain, are several parallel trains ot 
boulders, formerly lateral moraines, which lie ten or fif- 
teen rods apart. We wow informed that these windrows 
of boulders stop the plough, and it is only possible to 
turn the sod in the intervals between them, which are 
entirely free from boulders. 

On Mount Boldface, which lies about three miles 
west of Speckled Mountain, and is composed of a pale 
fine sienite, with an unusually perfect rift, enabling it 
to be split into long thin slabs for building purposes, 
the glacial marks assume quite, a different direction, run- 
ning north 10° to lo° west. On the north-east face, per- 
haps five hundred feet below the summit, may be seen 
strhe and lunoid furrows in abundance, running over a 
smoothly glaciated spur, on which the stria; run north 10° 
west. Here the lunoids were quite abundant. Some 
were very large, measuring from one to three feet in 
diameter. 

On the summit of the mountain rest several angular 
boulders of a peculiar porphyritic sienite, containing 



IN THE WHITE MOUNTAINS. 2(37 

curious oblong crystals of albkie feldspar. Our guide 
to their source— the trusty ice-grooves— point to Peaked 
Mountain, a peak lying perhaps half an hour's walk 
in a direction north 10° west. Under their guidance, 
and by occasionally following the paths amide by bears 
through the stunted growth of spruce, we find (lie parent 
rock from which they had been torn, on the summit of 
Peaked Mountain, which is composed of this peculiar 
porphyry. 

Passing through Evans' Notch into the valley of the 
Androscoggin, in the town of Gilead, we find marks on 
a ledge near the river, which follow a general north-west 
and south-east direction. This is the general course of 
the Androscoggin Eiver at this place. Following this 
river to its mouth, where it empties near the sea-shore into 
the Kennebec River, the traces of glaciers observed at 
Bethel, Lewiston, and Brunswick show that a stream of 
ice once filled the valley throughout its whole length, 
from the mountains to the sea. 

the Androseoolin daeier!' a< Snlyr'illk, It'th^'junc- 



roa.l. glacial grooves which point down the Peabodv 
valley. 

Thus we see the traces of five distinct ancient glaciers, 
filling as many river valleys, descending from the higher 
Peaks of the White Mountains. In rounding off the tops 
°f the mountains, scooping out the valleys, and levelling 
*"& their moraines the deep depressions in the surface 
°f the earth, they were important agents in preparing the 
way for the advent of man, who should till the soil they 



268 ICE-MARKS AND ANCIENT GLACIERS. 

have borne clown from the mountains and spread out in 
fertile plains. 

Such are the lessons to be learned of drifted boulders, 
ice-marks, and moraines. Now looking back through th.6 
past, perhaps even hundreds of thousands of years, when 
an ice-dome capped these mountains, then probably rising- 
much higher above the sea. and sending a glacier down 
each broad valley into the ocean, where their huge icy 
cliffs were laved by the waters of a frozen sea, we have 
to imagine ourself as if on the present coast of Greenland 

peak upon the coast, behold a vast sea of ice with jagged 
peaks rising up through the broad expanse, cleaving and 
throwing aside the slowly, imperceptibly moving currents 
of this inland sea of ice. Near the sea, partly warmed 
perhaps by the remote influence of the Gulf Stream, 
whose powers upon the coast of Xew England were 
greatly lessened during this period of intense Arctic cold, 
were sunny valleys, carpeted with moss and sprinkled 
sparingly with lovely arctic flowers,— whose descendants 
still linger upon the summit of Mount Washington.— half- 
hidden beneath the snows, or clinging to the cl'ni's as if 
shrinking from the icy embrace of" the glacier. Here the 
Reindeer and the Bison* met in herds,' the arctic Foxes 
barked, and the arctic Hare nibbled the short summer's 
growth; while upon the drifting ice-cakes the Polar Bear 
sat watching 'for some stray seal, and the Mammoth, 
found fossil over the northern part of both hemispheres, 



■•!■■■ '.■- 



REVIEWS. 269 

stalked over the plains. The Gare Fowl, or Penguin of 
the north {Mca impennis) , probably reared its young, 
fattening them on the Caplin, which has been found fossil 
in our clay-beds; and the smaller Auks, the Gannet, 
the Puffin, and Eider Duck filled air and water with their 
hosts. Through the waves, schools of Xarwhalos may have 
disported and waged war with that Bull-dog of the north- 
ern seas, the Killer ; while the Walrus and Greenland Seal 
thrust their half-dog, half-human face above the waves, 
and with angry bark, crowded and jostled each other off 
the smooth-backed skiers skirting the coast. 

Did man gaze upon this scene? Did the forefathers 
of the Mound Builders or of the ancient Copper Miners 
of the Great Lakes ply these waters in their kayaks, 
aud build their winter huts of snow amid these arctic 
scenes ? 



i:i:i:i> traces of Fossil N'ei iku'tf.koi s Insects in Xouth 
erica ; with Remarks ox the difference of Strfctfrk in 
J Wings of Living Nefroptera. By S. IT. Sr U d<h<r. From the 
moirs of the Boston Society of Natural History. Vol. I. pp. 20, 

s study of the fossil remains of insects is attended with great 
ilty. Indeed less is known, perhaps, of the Insect Fauna of 
r soolo-ieal periods, than of most other clas.es of animals, with 
xception of the worms an From the 

ents of winss, !,-s. and other hard parts of the insect crust, the 



ts nith their allies of the 

it day. just as Cnvier re-s ' the Paris Ba- 

r by pieces of bone and disjointed parts of the skeletons, in some 



REVIEWS. 

e complete, discovered by the quarrymen of Mont- 



i in limiting the different groups of the Neuroptera irene- 
ich the Dragon Fly, Forceps-tail, and Ephemera are ex- 

■ of a ••synthetic 



s the Garpike, which retains the more essential characters of the 
ishes. while mimicking the scaly reptiles. 
The plates contain partial restorations, one of the right upper 

jther i Mamia Br i ntie Ooiydshw, 



or period of decline, 



ollective life of this or 
eological periods in wh 
ndthen declined and we 



j collective life of the e 



NATURAL HISTORY MISCELLANY. 



- Quarterly Journal of 



272 NATURAL HISTORY 

fasting and prayer were appointed" 
calamity. 



iges ot this well-known grasshopper r. 
e grasshopper exposed to the attack- oi 



the spring), of collecting locusts and their c 



e, and fricassee 

e>e drove- of e 

.per Festivals, ; 



Thus the study of prehistoric man belongs with the study of fossil 
can only be measured relatively in the geological scale, not by recorded 



NATURAL HISTORY MIX'ELLANY, 

years. Thus Palaeontology fades mto Archaeology, 
ancient or prehistoric man; and Archa-ology graduat 
which comprises the oral or written accounts of man. 

Though the subject is still in a crude state, the 
presented result from the careful observation of fact 
received by the soundest geologists and archu-ologNt- 



''tone age, when stone alone, not metals 


;, was used in the 


f implements; second, t 


he Bronze age, characterized 


tyle of art, and the use 


of implemei 






n age, when such implements 






ructed largely of 


eriod is a step towards a 


higher civil 


lization. From b 


avage. living singly or in small trib 




carcely able to hold his 01 


.vu against tl 


ie gigantic wild h 



successive steps of nmu's intellectual and physical elevuti 
his relations our ideal man, representing the human species 
shows a constant progress upwards. 

Races of gigantic mammals, such as the Megatherium, 
and Mastodon, two species of Rhinoceros, the Cave Bear, Lion, Irisl 
Elk, a large species of Beaver, and the Aurochs, have passed away be- 
fore his attacks. The rudiments of the art of sculpturing and printim 
appear at a distinct period, the domestic animals are introduced, th< 
cereals and implements tor converting them into food appear, some 
thing like national unity binds together hordes of savage men, wher 
History lifts the veil. During this long period of more than Cimme- 
rian darkne.--, | _ one great changes 
It was probably just emerging from the Glacial Period, when tin 
climate of northern Europe and America was much like that of 
Greenland at the present day, though the extremes of the climatf 



European wri 

broad estuaries and chaii 



3 Terrace or Lake Period of ge- 
ich the Glacial Epoch overlapped. 
:ing article in the London " Quarterly Journal of Sci- 
- and Condition of the Two 



274 NATURAL HISTORY MISCELLANY. 



.'ATI HAL IirsTOEY MISCELLA 






the Esquimaux, or allied r. - tar south as the 

Alps or Pyrenees. 

The differences between these two races are also borne out by other 
pakeontologieal evidence. With those of the Flint Folk occur remains 
of the-' Sabre-toothed Lion (or Tiger), the Elephas Antiquus,the Ilip- 
P"potanuis. and the Woolly and Leptorine Rhinoceros," which with the 

the Pliocene." In the refuse "heaps of the Reindeer Folk, however, 



I natural m>roia- miscellany. 

iest known assemblage of domestic animals, the horse, pig, goat, 

^P, and ox," and the cakes and seeds found in t heir dw< Min-- pn>\ c 
; they were acquai ; l^iih i-ri.-ulture. Nearly contemporaneous. 



l they largely fed on 
le habits of this ra 
x del Fuego at the pi 



rithinit, but unfortmmt. ly tlu: wat. r 1< akiui ' 



stately revolutions as though thuy 



NATURAL HISTORY CALENDAR. 




L'li.VL IILSTOItY 



thin-walled cell of mud to the stems of plants, is, acc< 
Dr. T. W. Harris, known to store it with canker-worms, k 
the mud-dauber, is now building its earthen cells, plasterin 



The Selai, 


•■h-li vitis attacks the v 


ine, while Selandria r 


osce, the Kose- 




■es the rose. The disgusting Pear Slug-woi 






twenty to thirty on a le 


laf, eating the parench 






aving the blighted lea 


f. Tlie leaves shoulc 






xture of whale-oil soap 


and water, in the proportion of two 




soap to fifteen gallons of water. 






the Butterflies, MslUasa 




i, and M. Har- 




he north, is sometimes 




ood of Colias 


Phlln,Ur.P, 


the common sulphur-] 






Lsits turnip-patches. It 








all-grown, dark green, 1 




The last < 








second br 


ood of the larva of Chrysophanus Aider lean us 












The lar 


vse of Pyrrarctia Isabella 


hatch out the first we> 




the snuff-colored moth enters our 






a host of: 


night-flying moths. Th 


.-«■ lai-e moths, man; 


v of which are 




to crops, are commonly 


thought to feed on clothes and car- 


Fig. 






Fig. 3. 






ute species, which 


\___y 




J J flutter noiselessly about our apart- 


^w^ 




' y ments. Their na 


rrow, feathery wings 


V 




yjl are edged with 








L*^ and almost the 


slightest touch kills 


M: 




ti Among Beetles 








J P^Mn^mdflyl 


7&ZZZZ1SZ? 


;"; a ™.,"^ 










gnllr-rirs i 


nto the trunk and branch 


Fig - *• 





PROCEEDINGS OF SCII 






Ami, ^m 




Among other beneficial insects belonging to the Neuroptera, La 1 

inimcn.se family of LiU-lhill.l.v. or Dragon-flies, of which Dij'hix Be, 
"'"■• Drury ( Fig. .",). i- u tine representative. The Forceps-tail, or 1 
norpa, P. )■«/,.«■,«. (Fig. C . is f,. un .l in bushy fields ami shrubbei 

ity of the body with an enormous forceps-like apparatus. — A. S. P. 



PROCEEDINGS OF SCIENTIFIC SOCIETIES. 



, v. procured near Bahia. 

he Hump-back Whales of sailors. 

>ited a number of plates of a forthcomir 



been found in this country. Dr. Leidy replied that no evidence ex- 
isted of the animal, though Mr. J. A. Conrad had at one time a tooth 
^hich he considered to have belonged to the Hippopotamus. 
April 2.— Mr. Thomas Median presented a paper "On Dioecious 



280 PROCEEDINGS OP SCIENTIFIC SOCIETIES. 

ent ranges of temperature in the Provinces adjacent to the Unit* 
States." He also spoke upon "The rise and fall of the floor of tl 
Pacific Ocean, and the resulting geological phenomena." 

Boston Society of Nauual History. March 6, 1867.— Dr. J. i 

Jararaca. the most, poisonous of Brazilian serpents; it was broug. 
from Brazil by Mrs. Agassi/,, ami was presented to the Society by b 
Cotting. TheGu :. seeds of the Vaulli>ti<i so 

bills, which are roasted, ground, mixed with water, moulded, ai 
dried hard in an oven. It contains a larger quantity of eailine th; 



pent, as in the specimen exhibited. 

Dr. T. M. brewer remark.-, I upon the Wood-warblers of 1 
America, a group of birds which unite in a remarkable degree tin 
its of the tree-creepers with those of the fly-catchers. In some si 

almost entirely creepers, others almost exclusively tly-catchers. 

yellow red-poll warbler is the only one of this gn ■ 

to breed upon the ground, or to be at all terrestrial in hab 

seeking its food on the ground its motion is graceful and easy. > 
prompting of necessity. 

Entomological Society of Canada. Toronto, March 1, M 
The Secretary announced that Mr. Saunders, the Curator of the 
don Branch, was having published for the Society a list of Can 
Coleoptera, which would include about eight hundred species, 
meeting then proceeded to the examination ami discussion of 
diau V'"", ;,l, t: , the subject appointed for the evening. The ca] 
in 1866, of Philomj,, h-s s.it.-llitht Linn., for the first time in Ca 
was announce,!. Dr. Saiigstor exhibited a number of rare and 
i-. and the Uev. 0. J. S. Betlunie an undetermined S 
captured at Grim-by. C. W. Prof. Hincks made some remarks 



AMERICAN NATURALIST. 

Vol. I.— AUGUST, 1887. — No. 8. 

THE QUADRUPEDS OF ARIZONA. 



The wild and primitive region which constitutes the 
Territory of Arizona exhibits a remarkable diversity of 
surface in its mountain ranges, grassy plains, and desert 
wastes; and its Fauna and Flora are varied in a corre- 
sponding degree. The traveller meets, at each successive 
day's journey, new and strange objects, which must inter- 
est him, if only through the wonder and astonishment 
they excite. In every department of Natural History 
there is ample field for observation and study; and even 
at this late day, opportunities for discoveries in Zoology 
and Botany. First in importance, as they are also in 
general interest to the observant traveller, are undoubt- 
edly to be ranked the quadrupeds of the country ; and 
so savage and unreclaimed is its condition, that they are 
there to be seen in what is truly a state of nature. Their 
habits, and even their numbers have been as yet scarcely 
subjected to modifying influences by contact with civili- 
zation ; and he must be stolid indeed, who, under such 
rarely favorable circumstances, does not look about him 



282 THE QUADRUPEDS OF ARIZONA. 

with interested attention, and learn something of the 
strange animals !>y which he i- surrounded. 

The number of specie^ resident in Arizona is not very- 
great; but nearly all our North American families are 
represented, and some very fully, which gives to the 
country its full share of variety in its mammalian forms. 
At the same time, the individuals of many species occur 

region in an economic, as well as scientific point of view, 
from the destructive agency. of some, or the value of 
others as furnishing food and clothing. About seventy 
species are accredited to the Territory ; though this esti- 
mate must be regarded as merely approximate, since our 
most accomplished naturalists are comparatively unfa- 
miliar with the full richness of the Fauna. Of this num- 

their size, habits, and general importance often brought 
to the notice of other than professed naturalists. A still 
larger proportion, though common enough, are very incon- 
spicuous on account of their diminutive size and retiring 
disposition, and, therefore, are but slightly known. But 
they should not, on these accounts, be considered less 
interesting and attractive. The shrew, the mole, the rat, 
rightly estimated, afford as wide a field for investigation 
and reflection as the bear, the deer, or the buffalo ; and 



in that true spirit of i niiirhn :u .1 inquiry, which - 
he possessed by one who woul<i 

The following pages are prepared m 
note- taken by the writer during his residence 



■KTPEDS OF 



Territory. r 


rho prcdomi 


nant tea- 


Fauna are n 


oticed. ;ind 


Mil the sj 


under his o 


iv n observat 


ion, or i 


him as inhal 


tritants of 1 


Arizona, 


But the limi 


its of an ar 


tide like 



Order Cheiroptera, the Bats. Of this remarkable and 
interesting order two groups are represented : one by a 
single species, the other by numerous forms. The i*ti- 
qphora, or Loaf-nosed Bats! are so called from having a 
curious membranous expansion of the snout, of a fancied 
foliaceous appearance, in which the nostrils open. This 
group is represented by the Macrotus Calif amicus, the 
Long-eared Bat of California, described and figured by 
• Professor Baird in the Zoology of the Mexican Boundary 
Survey. The type specimen was obtained at Fort Yuma, 
at the extreme south-west corner of the Territory, and 
was the first indisputable instance of the occurrence of 
the group i n the United States. I have not met with it 
personally, and am not aware that any account of its 






sjxtWth,* Allciu. first 



■Hilarities, which separate it gem 
its index finger has two phalang 
- towards the characters of an 



284 THE QUADRUPEDS OF ARIZONA. 

tirely different family. This Bat is, as its name indicates, 
much lighter and paler in color than most of our other 
species ; and it has also a peculiar physiognomy, more 
repulsive and forbidding than is usual even in this family, 
none of whoso members have remarkably prepossessing 
features. Its naked muzzle has a peculiar livid hue in 
life. The species is very abundant at Fort Yuma, where, 
during the hot months, it becomes a decided nuisance. 
Numbers take up their abode in the chinks and crannies 
of the officers' quarters ; and the proximity of these re- 
treats actually becomes offensive from the multitudes 
crowded together. During the daytime a continual 
scratching and squeaking, as of so many mice, is heard 
in their retreats, and at night they are even more annoy- 
ing, by fluttering in scores about the rooms. They are 
accused of harboring about their bodies quantities of those 
nocturnal pests, the bed-bugs: but whether justly or not 
I cannot say. When caught or disabled, they have a 
harsh squeak ; and if incautiously handled, bite with vigor 
and considerable effect. 

The well-known little Brown Bat ( V. subukitus Say) 
is generally and abundantly distributed throughout the 
Territory. 

In the Colorado Desert, near Fort Mojave, I procured 
a small Bat, much like the preceding species ; but which 
my friend Dr. Allen, who kindly c.vimiuod it, considers 
as probably a new species, and has named VespertiUo 
macropus.* It chiefly differs from VespertiUo suhulatus in 
the degree of the attachment of the wing membrane to the 
foot. When shot, it was industriously capturing insects 
over a small pool, in broad daylight. 



THE QUADRUPEDS OF ARIZONA. 285 

Other Arizoniah Bats, which I have not personally met 
with, but give on Dr. Allen's authority, are Lasiurus 
cinereus, Vespertilio lucifugus, V. evotis, and V. nitidus. 

Order Insectivora, the Insect-eaters. Arizona, so far 
as is known, is remarkably deficient in small insectivo- 
rous mammals, such as the Shrews and Moles. I have 
never met with a single species, nor am I aware that any 
have been brought to the notice of naturalists from within 
the actual limits of the Territory. These animals, how- 
ever, are very inconspicuous, from their diminutive size, 
and peculiarly retiring habits ; and, therefore, easily escape 
detection. It is extremely unlikely that none exist ; and 
most probably future investigations will bring to light 
several species already known from other localities, and 
some new to science. 

Order Camivora, the Flesh-eaters. As might be ex- 
pected from the unreclaimed condition of the Territory, 
the native carnivorous animals are still to be found in 
scarcely diminished numbers. Eepresentatives of all our 
North American families arc furnished, and some of them 
exist in L:Tt-at abundance. 

Of the family Felidce, the Cats, first in size and general 
consequence, if not in point of numbers, is the Cougar 
(Felis concolor Linn.). 'With hardly the exception of 
the Jaguar (F. onza Linn.), this is the most powerful of 
all our digitigrade carnivores. It was formerly distrib- 
uted quite across the continent, and to high latitudes; 
hut, like most large Ferce, it has been gradually driven 
westward by the progress of civilization, till its occur- 
rence in the East is rare, and only known in the most 
mountainous and unfrequented regions. Few animals 
have a greater variety of local names than this one. Its- 
common appellation, "panther," generally becomes "pain- 



2>r, 



PEDS OF AMZOXA. 



ter" in the phraseology of backwoodsmen. Its proper 
English name is probably a modification of "Cuguar," a 
word which, as suggested by Dr. Schott, may have been 
formed after the same model as "Jaguar,'' and bestowed 
from some fancied resemblance in sound to a common cry 
of the animal. Another English name is "Puma." The 
Californians call it "lion," and the Mexicans "leon," and 
the Apache's "yutin." Though generally distributed, and 
particularly in the wooded and mountainous portions of 

a somewhat protracted residence in the Territory, I never 
met with one, or heard its peculiarly mournful, though 
terrifying cry, which has been so fancifully interpreted 
by different writers. Mr. Audubon doubtless comes 
nearest the truth, when he ascribes to it a variety of 
sounds, dependent upon age, sex, season, and other vary- 
ing circumstances ; though nothing to be dignified as a 
roar has ever been attributed to it. Authors agree better 



nth the sharp stor 



Two other species of true long-tailed cats may possibly 
dst. particularly in the south-eastern portions. These 
•e the Ocelot (F. partialis Linn.), and the Jaguar (F. 
12a Linn.). Within the limits of the United States, 
3wever, they have as yet only been found in the valley 
t the Rio Grande of Texas. 



<>l UM.'CPEDS OF ARIZONA. 

,yiix (L. rufus var. maatlatus) 



y differ in the absence of one upper molar tooth 



'<"' very common m the mountainous portions 
Near Fort Whipple, a small stream is known 






or suffered to dangle, the wl 



Tin* Apnehr. arrows 



purpose , BKinmug uie aummu 

the family Cankhe, the Dogs, 



ZOO THE QUADRUPEDS OF 

stands foremost among the carnivora, though the family is 
represented by only two species of Wolves, and perhaps 
as many of Foxes. The word "wolf" is seldom heard in 
Arizona, even among the whites, who have completely 
anglicized the Mexican appellations, which are "lobo" for 
the larger species, and "coyote" for the smaller. The 
Spanish for Fox, "zorro," is less frequently used. 

Of the many varieties into which the Gray Wolf of 
America {Lupus occidentalis Rich.) runs, I met with but 
one, the griseo-albus, which is perhaps the commonest race 
throughout the greater portion of the West. The re- 
markable variations of color, which, though chiefly local, 
seem to mark races, as they are transmissible from parent 
to offspring, have caused great confusion among writers, 
and great uncertainty as to how many species really exist. 
Wolves may be found from nearly white to pure black, 
through every gradation of gray, rufous, and dusky ; and 
these diverse colors exist in such varying proportion, and 
present such an unbroken chain from one extreme to the 
other, that it seems impossible to consider them as indi- 
cating more than remarkable variations to which a single 
species may be subject, arising from differences in food, 
climate, and other circumstances. 

All the large wolves I saw in Arizona were of the 
grizzled grayish- white variety. In winter they are very 
light colored, appearing from a distance almost white ; 
but along the middle of the back, and down the shoulders 
and flanks, the light color is mixed with slaty or grayish- 
black. I met with no winter -kins showing any brownish 
or tawny. At this season their pelages were thick and 
heavy, and a good many of the animals were killed with 
poison for the sake of the fur, which made very beautiful 
robes. They were common enough about Fort Whipple, 



ARIZONA. 289 

though shy and wary, and seldom making their appear- 
ance by day ; and notwithstanding their size and imposing 
appearance, the part they played was insignificant com- 
pared with that of their smaller relatives, the Coyotes. 

This latter animal, the Prairie or Barking Wolf (Canis 
latrans Say), is by far the most abundant carnivorous 
animal in Arizona; as it is also in almost every part of 
the West. Practically, the Coyote is a nuisance ; theo- 
retically, he compels a certain degree of admiration, 
viewiug his irrepressible positivity of character, and his 
versatile nature. If his genius has nothing essentially 
noble or lofty about it, it is undeniable that few animals 
possess so many, and so various attributes, or act them 
out with such dogged perseverance. Ever on the alert, 
and keenly alive to a sense of danger, he yet exhibits the 
coolest effrontery when his path crosses ours. The main 
object of his life seems to be the satisfying of a hunger 
which is always craving ; and to this aim all his cunning, 
impudence, and audacity are mainly directed. 

Much has been written concerning the famous polyglot 
serenades of the Coyote, by those who have been unwil- 
ling listeners ; but it is difficult to convey an adequate 
idea in words, of the noisy confusion. One must have 
spent an hour or two vainly trying to sleep, before he is 
in a condition to appreciate the full force of the annoy- 
ance. It is a singular fact that the howling of two or 
three wolves gives an impression that a score are engaged, 
so many, so long drawn are the notes, and so uninterrupt- 
edly are they continued by one individual after another. 
A short, sharp bark is sounded, followed by several more 
in quick succession, the time growing faster, and the 
pitch higher, till they run together into a long-drawn 
lugubrious howl, in the highest possible key. The same 



THE QUADRUPEDS i 



of the pack, T 
melancholy I >:i \i uir of the more wary loho breaks in, to 
add to the discord, till the very leaves of the trees seem 
quivering to the inharmonious sounds. It is not true, as 
asserted by some, that the Coyotes howl only just after 
dark, and at daylight. Though they may be noisiest at 
these times, when the pack is gathering together for a 
night's foraging, or dispersing again to thefr diurnal re- 
treats, I know that they give tongue at any time during 
the night. They are rarely, if ever, heard in the day- 
time, though frequently to be seen, at least in secluded 
regions. Ordinarily, however, they spend the day in 
quiet, out of the way places, among rocks, in thick 
copses, etc., and seek their prey mainly by night, col- 
lecting for this purpose into packs, as already noticed. 

The Coyote, although a carnivore, is a verv indiscrim- 
inate feeder, and nothing seems to come amiss, which is 
capable of being chewed and swallowed. From the nature 
of the region it inhabits, it is often hard pressed for food, 
particularly in the winter season. Besides such live game 






mal food, and is thus made frugivorous 
Particularly in the fall, it feeds exten- 
ds, " which are the juicy, soft, scarlet 



THE QUADRUPEDS OF . 

fruit of various species of Prickly '. 
in the winter upon berries of varic 
those of the Juniper {Juruperus paa 



ingenuity in the Way of traps. The most certain, as well 
as the easiest method of obtaining them, is by poisoning 
the carcass of a dead animal, or butcher's offal, with 
strychnine. There is no doubt, also, that the odor of 
assafcetida is attractive to them, and a little of this drug 
rubbed into the poisoned meat greatly heightens the 
chances of their eating it. Since, after taking the poison, 
they suffer greatly from thirst, it is well to place a tub of 
water conveniently at J lly keeps them 

from making off for water, and so being lost, There is 
considerable difference in the fur, both as to quality and 
color, according to the season. In the winter it is fuller, 
thicker, and softer than in summer, and has much less 
tawny or rufous about it, being almost entirely black and 
grizzled grayish-white. 

Except under certain circumstances, there is a chronic 
feud between our domestic dogs and these dog-wolves. 
A good-sized dog will easily whip a Coyote, though he 
may not come off unscathed from the sharp teeth and 
qnick snaps of the latter. I have known a smallish 
terrier even to kill a Coyote, of which he caught a throat- 
hold, enabling him by vigorous shakes to beat m the 
wolf's skull against some boulders between which the 
conflict took place. Notwithstanding, there is abundant 



ZVZ THE QUADRUPEDS OF ARIZONA. 

evidence that the Coyote will cross and bear fertile off- 
spring with the domestic dog ; and I believe the female 
of either will take the male of the other. During the 
season of heat, which is in spring, I have known dogs to 
disappear for several days, and return in such a dilapi- 
dated condition as to leave no doubt they had been 
decoyed away by some female Coyote, and received hard 
treatment from her or her relatives. The hybrid is said 
to possess the bad qualities of both parents, and the good 
ones of neither, as usual with bastards ; and to always 
remain snappish and intractable, spite of severity or 
kindness. The gestation of the species, as is well known, 
does not differ materially from that of its allies. It brings 
forth in May or June, in secluded places, usually under 
or among rocks. Five or six puppies are ordinarily pro- 
duced at a birth. A variety of absurd stories regarding 
its reproduction pass current, among even the best in- 
formed backwoodsmen ; many affirming that the pups are 
born shapeless, inchoate masses, to be afterwards licked 
into proper shape by the mother. 

Among the quite numerous Foxes of North America, 
but one, the Gray Fox ( Vuljpes Virginianus) , is known as 
an inhabitant of the Territory. Two others, however, 
the Prairie Fox ( V. macrourus), and the little Kit or 
Swift Fox ( V. velox) , may possibly occur. The Gray 
Fox itself, though generally distributed, does not seem to 
be abundant. I procured a number of fine skins from the 
Indians, who use them as articles of dress, for pouches, 
and a variety of other purposes. I believe they are 
always skinned in ordinary hunter fashion, by cutting 
from chin to tail, which latter is left attached, though the 
greater part of the legs are removed. — To be continued. 



THE COCKROACH AND ITS EXEOT. 



The instinctive habits of insect* furnish no small pro- 
portion of the interest which attaches to the study of that 
class of the animal kingdom. The wasps furnish their 
full share, and the student of nature never tires of inves- 
tigating the different methods by which they arrive at the 
same end, — each species following out the law impressed 
upon it by the Creator with its very being. 

The various species of Vespa deposit their eggs in a 
paper cell, and feed their young, in a larval stage, with 
insects, which they chew, and partially digest for this 
purpose. Another genus (Pompilns) excavates a hole 
in the sand in which she deposits numbers of flies, 
spiders, etc., and with tln-m an egg, and, burying them, 
leaves the larva to select its own food from these ma- 
terials. • Others, such as Pelopoeus, the Mud-dauber, 
places the same materials in euriously constructed cells 
of clay, and closes them up with the same masonry. 
Others still, not content with such small game, select the 
body of one of the larger insects, and deposit in it the 
germ of their future offspring. 

Of this latter class is a beautiful trig little species 
{Ampulex Sibirica Fabr.), very common in Western 
Africa, and whose polished metallic body, shining like 
burnished steel, is familiar to all dwellers on that coast. 
The Ampulex selects the body of the gigantic Cockroach 
as the receptacle of its egg, and it is not a little amusing 
to see in what a business-like and determined manner she 
sets herself to the task of capturing her victim, and serv- 

(293) 



294 THE COCKROACH AND ITS ENEMY. 

ing her writ of habeas corpus upon the doomed roach, 
full a dozen times her size. 

The wasp enters the apartment, and instantly a great 

name is legion in the tropics): frantic with fear, they 

rush into the very danger they seek to avoid ; for, should 
the keen eye of the wasp light upon them, the case is a 

the roach should know of the presence of the wasp, and 
we can only conjecture tint it- keen perception may dis- 

of its enemy, as the larger animals are said to in the roar- 
ing of the lion.) The wasp Hies like a furv at the roach, 
and a severe struggle takes place; both using legs and 

the wasp, seizing its victim by the head, or front of the tho- 

the nearest part, and the roach, who a moment before was 



the inside of a door-lock. The cockroach walk 
up the door to the key-hole, led by the wasp, 



much pulling on the part of the was 
the interior. After being; out of sight 
was,, returned, took several nails from 



lock was taken oil' carefully, and six four-penny nails 
found covering the body of the roach. 

Not the least angular feature in the case is, that the 
sting of the wasp does not kill the cockroach, but only 
stupefies him, so that the roach, when he walks to his 
final resting-place, may certainly be said to go to his own 
funeral as chief mourner/ 

The bodies of this species of cockroach are often found 
with the empty cocoon of the wasp occupying the cavity 
of the abdomen: the voting was,), bavin- been hatched 



earthen pitcher, and watched the result. The wasp at- 
tempted to lead the roach out of the pitcher, to which 
move the cockroach made no objections, and walked up 
the inclined side of the pitcher as tar as his feet would 
permit him, but not being furnished with the little pads 



296 FIS H CULTURE. 

or suckers with which our common fly and many other 
insects are provided, he found it out of his power to com- 
ply with the requirements of his master, and on attempt- 
ing to continue his walk, fell to the bottom. The wasp 
again led him up, and again he fell. This was repeated 
for the space of three hours, the wasp, in some of her 
attempts, nearly sustaining the whole weight of the roach. 
After being convinced of the impossibility of her accom- 
plishing the feat, I liberated the pair, the wasp soon 
storing her prize away under a bookcase. 



FISH CULTURE. 



Nearly all of our common fishes are oviparous, which 
term, as distinguished from viviparous, we may apply to 
those species of animals which are reproduced by eggs 
laid in an undeveloped state. In most cases not only 
are the eggs extruded from the female fish before their 
development, but also that contact of the male element 
which impregnates them, and without which no develop- 
ment is possible, is effected after their extrusion. 

The operation of spawning, or depositing and impreg- 
nating the eggs, as performed by the parent fishes, is 
essentially as follows. At the spawning season, mature 
fishes of both sexes repair to a suitable locality: and, 
having selected a place, the female extrudes her eggs, 
which sink to the bottom among the pebbles, or, if gluti- 
nous, adhere to sticks, weeds, and stones. At the same 
time, or immediately afterward, the male emits the milt, 
the fecundating element, which, diffused through the 



FISH CULTURE. 297 

water, comes in contact with the eggs and impregnates 
them. In due time, nourished by the water in which 
they are deposited, and quickened by its heat, they de- 
velop and hatch into living fish. 

Now a little examination into circumstances will make 
it evident that a great waste must here occur. A multi- 
tude of greedy creatures hover around, ready to devour 
the eggs as soon as they are left by the parent, or are 
swept within reach by the current; a portion fails to 
come in contact with the milt ; others are destroyed by 
noxious sediment or parasitic fungi. <>r buried deep be- 
neath the shifting -Mini- which the floods may bring down 
upon them. Should a portion of the eggs escape these 
dangers, the newly-hatched and defenceless young are 
eagerly hunted out by all the carnivorous tribes of the 
water. In the end, comparatively few of the eggs laid 
result in mature fish; it is perhaps impossible to ascertain 
the proportion with precision, but one per cent, would be 
far more than sufficient to maintain and increase the 
numbers of any species, so enormously fecund are they. 
Indeed, a rough calculation shows that were one per cent, 
of the eggs of a salmon to result in full-grown fish, and 
were they and their progeny to continue to increase in 
the same ratio, they would in about sixty years amount, 
in bulk, to many times the size of the earth. Nor is the 
salmon among the most prolific species. I have counted 
hi a perch (iVm jhtr,;sr,., t *). weighing three and a half 
ounces, 9,043 eggs; and in a smelt ( Osmerus viridescem) , 
ten inches in length, 2.3,141. Some of the larger fishes 
produce millions at each spawning. 

Now if in some way the eggs can be protected from 
these various dangers that threaten them when abandoned 
by the parent fish to the ordinary course of nature, it will 



298 FISH CULTURE. 

at once be seen that a great gain will be made in the 
number hatched from the spawn of each mother; and if, 
farther, the young fish can be protected from their ene- 
mies until they have acquired size, strength, and agility 
sufficient to care for themselves, another gain will be thus 
effected. These two problems are among the most im- 
portant with which Pisciculture has to deal, but have, we 
think, been satisfactorily solved. 

An interesting experiment was made in Sweden in 
1761, by Charles Frederick Luncl. He obtained some 
breams, perch, and mullets, with mature spawn, and 
placed them in large submerged or floating wooden boxes, 
in which he had placed quantities of pine boughs. In 
these boxes the fish were kept several days, until they had 
completed the process of spawning ; they were then re- 
moved. The eggs had adhered to the boughs. These 
species hatch quickly, and in a short time multitudes of 
young fish emerged from the boughs. In this way he 
obtained from fifty female breams, 3,100,000 young; 
from one hundred female perch, 3,215,000 young ; and 
from one hundred female mullets, 4,000,000 young. 
These are certainly wonderful results. They were placed 
in the Lake of Rrexen, and dismissed to care for them- 
selves, hi a similar way those species, like the trout, 
whose eggs fall free from each other to the bottom of the 
stream, may be mule to spawn in places where it will be 
convenient to protect them by enclosures from maraud- 
ers ; and, with a suitable arrangement of small ponds 
and streams, the young fry of all species may be sepa- 
rated from the old ones that would devour them. 

But the crowning discovery in Pisciculture was that of 
artificial fecundation. This discovery was made during 
the last century, but was turned to no practical account, 



FISH CULTURE. 299 

and was hardly practised except in laboratories, when it 
was re-discovered in France a few years ago, under cir- 
cumstances that brought its economic bearing promi- 
nently before the attention of learned men. 

Since the operation of extruding the eggs and milt is 
essentially mechanical, it can be as well performed by 
man as by the fish, and, once extruded, the milt performs 
its own office upon the eggs, and fertilizes them, with no 
other interference than suffices to bring them into con- 
tact. Nay, man can do better than the fish : be can 
express the eggs into a vessel where none of them will be 
swept out of reach of the milt, or into the maws of the 
expectant throng of bystanding fishes ; he can then press 
the milt into the same vessel, and, by stirring them to- 
gether, insure that the milt shall reach every egg. This 
is artificial fecundation. But let us examine the method 
employed. 

The operations of Pisciculturists, who have practised 
artificial impregnation, have been mostly confined to a 
few species of the family of Salmonidse. The processes 
pursued will therefore apply ouly to a limited extent to 
the members of other families. 

Perhaps salmon and trout have received the mostatten- 
tion. Both these species always seek clear, running, 
shallow water, and spawn in the autumn or early winter. 
A female and male, both ripe and ready to spawn, seek a 
proper place, and on a gravelly bed, swept clean of sand 
for a small space, the female deposits her eggs, and the 
male his milt. The operation is described with great 
minuteness by European writers, but I think that our 
brook trout {Salmo fontinalis) has not been observed suf- 
ficiently to ascertain whether its habits are precisely those 
of the European trout. 



300 i 

All fishes, when spawning, are so intently engaged upon 
it, that they take very little notice of anything else. 
Trout can be captured with the greatest ease at this time, 
— not unfrequently they can be taken with the hand. 
The following is the artificial process as described by a 
practical breeder of the brook trout. 

The trout, male and female, must be taken with a net, 
or ill some manner that will not injure them, just at the 
time they arc preparing to spawn, and placed in baskets 
standing in the water in some convenient place. A pan 
or pail with three or four inches of water in it is brought 
near the baskets containing the trout. All things being 
ready, a female trout is taken out of the basket with one 
hand, and with the other the abdomen is gently rubbed 
from the gills downward, whereupon the spawn flows in a 
continuous stream into the vessel. The rubbing is con- 
tinued until the spawn is wholly extruded, and the trout 
is then quickly replaced in the water. This operation 
must not continue more than one minute if possible. On 
one side of the egg is a small white speck; this is where 
the impregnat ion takes place. This side of the egg being 
lightest, it always falls uppermost. A male trout is now 
taken, and in like manner the milt is expressed ; it falls 
through the water, and settles upon the eggs. All the 
trout in the baskets are served in the same manner. The 
spawn and milt are then placed in shallow vessels, and 
deposited in water, where they are allowed to remain an 
hour or more. (Other operators find a few minutes suf- 
ficient to insm I at the end of that time 
rinse the eggs thoroughly.) 

The manner of proceeding with salmon and other 
species is essentially the same. 

The eggs, being thus artificially impregnated, may be 



FISH CULTURE. 



place. The temperature, quality, and state of the water 
are the main conditions. Some species spawn in fresh 
water, and some in salt ; some in rapid streams, and some 
in lakes and ponds ; some in winter, and some in summer. 
The temperature required by trout is about forty-one 
degrees Fahrenheit, ranging, however, from several de- 
grees below this, to about fifty degrees; while some 
species of summer— jnv.nin^ ti-h require a temperature 
higher than sixty degrees. - The time required for de- 
velopment varies with different species, and is much 
affected by temperature. Some species hatch in five 
days, while the trout is rarely less than fifty days, and 
at thirty-seven degrees of heat requires one hundred and 

Ih* 1 apparatus employed in artificial incubation is of 
various kinds. A metal box, with many holes to admit a 
free circulation of water, was one of the first employed ; 
this is immersed in the water. Troughs of stone, vessels 
of earthenware, willow baskets, and wooden boxes have 
all been used with success in the incubation of salmon 
and trout. 

A favorite form of hatching-box for trout is a long 
wooden trough, its bottom inclined sufficiently to cause a 



302 FISH CULTURE. 

gentle flow of water through it, and covered with a layer 
of gravel; the whole covered in by a lid. The eggs are 
deposited in the gravel or sand, and a stream of water, an 
inch or two deep, led through the trough. 

At the French Piscicultural establishment at Hunin- 
gue, and at the Stormontfield salmon-breed i tig ponds, 
the hatching apparatus consists of a series of horizontal 
troughs, arranged side by side like the steps of a stair- 
way, through which a stream of water falls in succession 
from the uppermost. 

After the eggs are deposited in the hatching-boxes, a 
proper supply of pure water must be kept up until they 
hatch. They must be frequently examined to remove 
diseased eggs, and guard against the collection of sedi- 
ment. It is better that they be kept in darkness, for 
light encourages the growth of a parasitic fungus. 

When trout hatch they have still a large portion of the 
egg attached to the abdomen ; this is gradually absorbed, 
and while it remains they require no food. It is the 
"yolk-sack." Upon its complete absorption the young 
trout begins to feed, and must be placed where he can 
find his own food, or must be regularly supplied with 
such as is adapted to his infantile condition, and will 
attract his attention, and tempt his appetite. 

The whole process of producing iish, by artificial im- 
pregnation and incubation, is in practice remarkably suc- 
cessful. More than. ninety per cent, of the eggs become 
living fish. Mr. Ains worth, the authority quoted above, 
has this year obtained twenty thousand trout from twenty- 
one thousand eggs, being more than ninety-five per cent. 

In another point of view this process is of vast impor- 
tance. It facilitate, the transportation of species from one 
' water to another. Salmon eggs, fecundated, were carried 



FISH CULTURE. 303 

from Scotland to Australia, in 1865; were successfully 
hatched in the River Plenty ; and, having returned from 
their first migration to the sea, may now be considered as 
established there. In a similar maimer the Merrimao 
River has been sown with salmon-eggs brought from New 
Brunswick, and a harvest may be expected therefrom. 

The rearing of fish in artificial ponds and reservoirs, 
and then bringing them into marketable and eatable 
condition by regular and systematic feeding, has been 
successfully carried out, and it is found to be quite prac- 
ticable as an industrial occupation, bringing better re- 
turns, when trout arc reared, than the growing of any 
other kind of animal food. Yet to determine with cer- 
tainty what are the conditions of success in this branch of 
Pisciculture requires further experiment. 

Pisciculture is not a new art. It was practised among 
the ancient Romans ; yet not as an industrial pursuit, but 
leu of wealth and leisure, 



or to supply with delicacies the tables of a gluttonous no- 
bility. In Catholic countries, since the establishment of 
monasteries, fish preserves have been commonly attached 
to those institutions, to supply the devotees with food 
during their frequent religious fasts. There is no reason, 
however, to suppose that they had any knowledge of 
artificial impregnation. In China, it has long been an 
important branch of industry, and although we know very 
little of the process that they employ, it is certain that 
they succeed in making fish an abundant and cheap article 
of food. 

Since the awakening of the public mind to this subject 
in Europe, government establishments have been put in 
operation in France and Germany, and private opera- 
tions of great importance have been carried on in the 



;jo ! 



DRAGON-FLY. 



British Isles. It is thought that primitive abundance 
may be restored to their now exhausted rivers, and not 
many years hence an acre of .water shall be made to 
produce as much food for man as an acre of land. In 
America many persons have engaged in pisciculture as an 
experiment, and some attempts have been made to carry 
it farther; but as nothing has been done on a large scale, 
no great results have yet been attained. 



THE DRAGON-FLY. 



Were we to select from among the insects a type of all 
that is savage, relentless, and bloodthirsty, the Dragon- 
fly would be our choice. From the moment of its birth 
until its death, usually a twelve-month, it riots in blood- 
shed and carnage. Living beneath the waters perhaps 
eleven months of its life, in the larva and pupa states, it 
is literally a walking pitfall for luckless aquatic insects; 
but when transformed into a fly, ever on the wing in pur- 
suit of its prey, it throws off all concealment, and reveals 
the more unhlu>liiiigry its rapacious character. 

Not only does its horrid visage and ferocious bearing 
frighten children, who call it the "Devil's Darning- 
needle," but it even distresses older persons, so that its 
name has become a byword. Could we understand the 
language of insects, what talcs of horror would be re- 
vealed! What traditions, sagas, fables, and myths must 
adorn the annals of animal life regarding this Dragon 
among insects ! 







11 



THE DRAGON-FLY. 305 

To man, however, aside from its bad name and its 
repulsive aspect, which it- gay trapping do not conceal, 
its whole life is beneficent. It is a scavenger, being like 
that class ugly and repulsive, and holding literally, among 
insects, the lowest rank in society. In the water, it preys 
upon young musquitoes and the larvae of other noxious 
insects. It thus aids in ni; iiiuinii:- tin balance of life, 
and cleanses the swamps of miasmata, thus purifying the 
air we breathe. During its existence of three or four 
weeks above the waters', its whole life is a continued 
good to man. It hawks over pools and fields and through 
gardens, decimating swarms of musquitoes, flies, gnats, 
and other baneful insects. It is a true Malthus' delight, 
and, following that sanguinary philosopher, we may believe 
that our Dragon-fly is an entomological Tamerlane or Na- . 
poleon sent into the world by a kind Providence to pre- 
vent too close a jostling among the myriads of insect life. 

We will, then, conquer our repugnance to its ugly 
looks and savage mien, and contemplate the hideous 
monstrosity, — as it is useless to deny that it combines 
the graces of the Hunchback of Notre Dame and Dickens' 
Quilp, with certain features of its own, — for the good it 
does in Nature. 

Even among insects, a class replete with forms the very 
incarnation of ugliness and the perfection of all that is hid- 
eous in nature, our Dragon-fly is most conspicuous. Look' 
at its enormous head, with its beetling brows, retreating 
face, and heavy under jaws, — all eyes and teeth, — and 
hung so loosely on its short, weak neck, sunk beneath its 
enormous hunchback, —for it iswofully round-shouldered, 
—while its long thin legs, shrunken as if from disease, are 
drawn up beneath its breast, since our fiend of the air is a 
Poor pedestrian. 

AMERICAN NAT., VOL. I. 39 



Its gleaming wings are, however, beautiful objects. They 
form a broad expanse of delicate parchment-like mem- 
brane drawn over an intricate network of veins. Though 
the body is bulky, it is yet light, and easily sustained by 
the wings. The long tail undoubtedly acts as a rudder 
to steady its flight. 

These insects are almost universally dressed in the 
gayest colors. The body is variously banded with rich 
shades of blue, green, and yellow, and the wings give off 
the most beautiful iridescent and metallic reflections. 

During this month, the various species of Libellula and 
its allies most abound. The eggs are attached loosely in 
bunches to the stems of rushes and other water-plants. 
In laying them, the Dragon-fly, according to Mr. P. B. 
Uhler's observations, ''alights upon water-plants, and, 
pushing the end of her body below the surface of the 
water, glues a bunch of eggs to the submerged stem or 
leaf. Libellula auripennis, I have often seen laying eggs, 
and I think I was not deceived in my observation that 
she dropped a bunch of eggs into the open ditch while 
balancing herself just a little way above the surface of the 
water. I have, also, seen her settled upon the reeds in 
brackish water with her abdomen submerged in part, and 
there attaching a cluster of eggs. I feel pretty sure that 
L. auripennis does not always deposit the whole of her 
eggs at one time, a§ I have seen her attach a cluster of not 
more than a dozen small yellow eggs. There must be 
more than one hundred eggs in one of the large bunches. 
The eggs of some of the Agrions are bright apple-green, 
but I cannot be sure that I have ever seen them in the 
very act of oviposition. They have curious habits of 
settling upon leaves and grass growing in the water, and 
often allow their abdomens to fall below the surface of the 



THE DRAGON-FLY. 



r,07 



3 they fly against the surface, but I never 
saw what I could assert to be the projecting of the eggs 
from the body upon plants or into the water. The English 
entomologists assert that the female Agrion goes below 
the surface to a depth of several inches to deposit eggs 
upon the submerged stems of plants." The Agrions, 
however, according to Lucazo Duthiers, a French anato- 
mist, make, with the ovipositor, a little notch in the plant 
upon which they lay their eggs. 

These eggs soon hatch, probably during the heat of 
summer. The larva is very active in its habits, being 
provided with six legs, attached 
to the thorax, on the back of 
which are the little wing-pads, 
or rudimentary wings. The large 
head is provided with enormous 
eyes, while a pair of simple, mi- 
nute eyelets {ocelli) are placed 
near the origin of the small bris- 
tle-like feelers, or antennae. Seen 
from beneath, instead of the for- , 
midable array of jaws and acces- 
sory organs commonly observed 
in most carnivorous larvas, we 
see nothing but a broad, smooth ^^ 
mask covering the lower part of x 
the face ; as if from sheer mod- 
esty our young Dragon-fly was under 6 ide^fhea^of f Wptev^to 
endeavoring to conceal a gape. ed!.*a£ x>^ ^ the.to-ee sub- 
But wait a moment. Some Un- mWilla!, or second pair of jaws. 

wary insect comes within striking distance. The battery 




jaws 



unmasked, and opens upon 



the \ 



ThU 



mask (Fig. 1) is peculiar to the young, or larva and pupa 



of the Dragon-fly. It is the labium, or under lip greatly 
enlarged, and armed at the broad spoon-shaped extremity 
(Fig. 1, x) with two sharp hooks, adapted for seizing 
and retaining its prey. At rest, the terminal half is so 
bent up as to conceal the face, and thus the creature 
crawls about, to all appearance, the most innocent and 
lamb-like of insects. 

Not only does the immature Dragon-fly walk over the 
bottom of the pool or stream it inhabits, but it can also 
rig. 2. l ea P f° r a considerable distance, and % fc 

' by a most curious contrivance. Bi 
-ringe-like apparatus lodged ii 
the end of the body, it discharges i 
stream of water for a distance of tw< 
three inches behind it, thus pro- 
pelling the insect forwards. This 
apparatus combines the functions of 
locomotion and respiration. There 
are, as usual, two breathing pores 
(sttijtuata) on each side of the tho- 
rax. But the process of breathing 
seems to be mostly carried on in 
the tail. The trachea? are here collected in a large 
mass, sending their branches into folds of membrane 
lining the end of the alimentary canal, and which act like 
a piston to force out the water. The entrance to the 
canal is protected by three to five triangular horny valves 
(Fig. 2, 9,10, 2 a, side view, 2 b), which open and shut 
at will. When open, the water flows in, bathing the 
internal gill-like organs, which extract the air from the 
water. This is then suddenly expelled by a strong mus- 
cular effort. 

In the smaller genera, Agrion (A. murium, Plate 9, fig- 



THE DRAGON-FLY. 309 

7. Fig. 2 b, side view of false-gill, showing but one leaf), 
Lestes and Qal.oph-rt/x, the respiratory leaves, called the 
tracheary, or false-gills, are not enclosed within the body, 
but form three broad leaves, permeated by trachea?, or 
air-vessels. They are not true gills, however, as the 
blood is not aerated in them. They only absorb air to 
supply the trachea?, which aerate the blood only within 
the general cavity of the body. These false-gills also act 
as a ladder to aid the insect in swimming. 

It is easy to watch the Dragon-flies through their trans- 
formations, as they can easily be kept in aquaria. Little, 
almost nothing, is known lv^inlinir their habits, and any 
one who can spend the necessary time and patience in 
rearing them, so as to trace up the different stages from 
the larva to the adult fly, and describe and figure them 
accurately, will do good service to science. 

Mr. Uhler states that at present we know but little of 
the young stages of our species, but 
"the larva and pupa of the Libellulidas 
may be always known from the uEsch- 
nidas by the shorter, deeper, and more 1 
robust form, and generally by their 
thick clothing of hair." 

The pupa scarcely differs from the 
larva, except in having larger wing- 
pads (Fig. 3). It is still active, and 
as much of a gourmand as ever. When 
the insect is about to assume the pupa 
state, it moults its skin. The body 
having outgrown the larva skin, by a 
strong muscular effort a rent opens pupaof jsschna. 
along the back of the thorax, and the insect, having 
fastened its claws into some object at the bottom of the 




310 THE DRAGON-FLY. 

pool, the pupa gradually works its way out of the larva- 
skin. It is now considerably larger than before. Imme- 
diately after this tedious operation, its body is soft, but 
the crust soon hardens. This change, with most species, 
probably occurs early in summer. 

When about to change into the adult fly, the pupa 
climbs up some plant near the surface of the water. 
Again its back yawns wide open, and from the rent our 
Dragon-fly . slowly emerges. Tor an hour or more, it 
remains torpid and listless, with its flabby, soft wings re- 
maining motionless. The fluids leave the surface, the 
crust hardens and dries, rich and varied tints appear, and 
our Dragon-fly rises into its new world of light and sun- 
shine a gorgeous, but repulsive being. Tennyson thus 
describes these changes in "The Two Voices" : — 

To-day I saw the Dragon-fly 



Through croits ami pa<ture< wet with dew 
A living flash of light he flew. 

Of our more common, typical forms of Dragon-flies, we 
figure a few, commonly observed during the summer. 
Libellula trimaculata of Count De Geer, a Swedish ento- 
mologist, of which Fig. 1, Plate 9, represents the male, 
is so-called from the three dark clouds on the wings of 
the female. But the opposite sex differs in having a dark 
patch at the front edge of the wings, and a single broad 
cloud just beyond the middle of the wing. 

Libellula quadrimaculata (Fig. 2, Plate 9), the four- 
spotted Dragon-fly, is seen on the wing in June, flying 
through dry pine woods. 

The largest of our Dragon-flies are the "Devil's Darning- 



THE DRAGON-FLY. 311 

needles," ^Eschna heros and grandis, seen hawking about 
our gardens till dusk. They frequently enter houses, 
carrying dismay and terror among the children. The 
hind-body is long and cylindrical, and gaily colored with 
bright green and bluish bands and spots. 

Mr. Uhler informs us that the pupa of sEschna, figured 
above, from a drawing by Mr. F. Gr. Sanborn, is per- 
haps that of ^Esc/ma constricta, or JE, clepsydra. 

One of our most common Dragon-flies is Diplax rubi- 
cundula, the ruby Dragon-fly, which is yellowish red. It 
is seen everywhere flying over pools, and also frequents 
dry sunny woods and glades. Another common form is 
Diplax Berenice of Drury (Plate 9, Fig. 3 male, Fig. 4 
female. The accompanying cut represents the pupa, prob- 
ably of this species, according to Mr. Uhler.) It is black, 
the head blue in front, spotted with yellow, while rig. 4. 
the thorax and abdomen is striped with yellow. U@p 
There are fewer stripes on the body of the male, /f&\ 
which has only four large yellow spots on each r(t=3j~\ 
side of the abdomen. Still another pretty species ; E3 S 
is Diplax Elisa of Dr. Hagen (Plate 9, Fig. 5). Y 
It is black, with the head yellowish and with ^; )f 
greenish yellow spots on the sides of the thorax and base 
of the abdomen. There are three dusky spots on the 
front edge of each wing, and a large cloud at the base 
of the hind pair toward the hind angles of the wing. 

Rather a rare form, and of much smaller stature is the 
Nannophya bella of Uhler (Fig. 6, female). It was first 
detected in Baltimore, and we afterwards found it not 
unfrequently by a pond in Maine. Its abdomen is un- 
usually short, and the reticulations of the wings are large 
and simple. The female is black, while the male is 
frosted over with a whitish powder. Many more species 



of this family are found in this country, and for descrip- 
tions of theru we would refer the reader to Dr. Hagen's 
Synopsis of the Nenroptera of North America, published 
by the Smithsonian Institution. 

The Libellulidae, or family of Dragon-flies, and the 
Ephemeridae, or May-flies, one of which is figured in our 
second number, are the most characteristic of the Neu- 
roptera, or veiny-winged insects.. This group is a most 
interesting one to the systematist, as it is composed of 
so many heterogeneous forms which it is almost impos- 
sible to classify in our rigid and at present necessarily 
artificial systems. We divide them into families and 
sub-families, genera and sub-genera, species and varie- 
ties, but there is an endless shifting of characters in these 
groups. The different groups would seem well limited 
after studying certain forms, when to the systematist's 
sorrow here comes a creature, perhaps mimicking an ant, 
or aphis, or other sort of bug, or even a butterfly, and for 
which they would be readily mistaken by the uninitiated. 
Bibliographers have gone mad over books that could not 
be classified. Imagine the despair of an insect-hunter 
and entomophile, as he sits down to his box of dried neu- 
roptera. He seeks for a true neuropter in the white ant 
before him, but its very form and habits summons up a 
swarm of true ants ; and then the little wingless book- 
louse (Atropos) scampering irreverently over the musty 
pages of his Sy sterna JVaturce, reminds him of that closest 
friend of man— Pediculus vestimenti. Again, his studies 
lead him to that gorgeous inhabitant of the Mediterranean 
shores, the butterfly-like Ascalapkus, with its gorgeous 
wings, and slender, knobbed antenna? so much like those 
of butterflies, and visions of these beautiful insects fill his 
mind's eye ; or sundry dun-colored caddis flies, modest, 



THE LAND SNAILS OF NEW ENGLAND. 313 

delicate neuroptera, with finely fringed wings and slender 
feelers, create doubts as to whether they are not really 
allies of the clothes moth, so close is the resemblance. 

Thus the student is constantly led astray by the wanton 
freaks Nature plays, and becomes sceptical as regards the 
truth of a natural sysinn. though there is one to be dis- 
covered; and at last disgusted with the stiff and arbitrary 
systems of our books, — a disgust we confess most whole- 
some, if it only lead him into a closer communion with 
nature. The sooner one leaves those maternal apron- 
strings, — books, — and learns to identify himself with 
nature, and thus goes out of himself to affiliate with 
the spirit of the scene or object before him, — or, in 
other words, cultivates* habits of the closest observation 
and most patient reflection, — be he painter or poet, 
philosopher or an insect-hunter of low degree, he will 
gain an intellectual strength and power of interpreting 
nature, that is the gift of true genius. 



THE LAND SNAILS OF NEW ENGLAND. 



The snails thus far described represent a natural group 
having, generally, a stout, heavy shell, and usually a re- 
flected lip to the aperture. The jaw is heavily ribbed, 
and the teeth are short, and, on the extreme border of the 
membrane, serrated. The jaw and teeth of Helix albo- 
labris, figured in the first number of the Natukalist, 
represents well like characters of the group. The species 
now to be considered have smooth or polished shells, the 



. lip simple or sharp, and the teeth are claw-shaped ; the 
jaw being devoid of ribs, having, however, a central pro- 
jection, as shown in Fig.. 19,— (jaw of Helix inornata.) 

Vitrina limpida GouU. (Fig. 20.) Shell globular, 
very thin and fragile, transparent and shining. Whorls 
f^_ two to three, the last, or body whorl, very 

/^^_^\ large and expanded ; no umbilicus ; diam- 
ine, eter nearly one-fourth of an inch. Animal 
CO CsP^N fe 1 ' ^^' or nearl y black, and large com- 
^ M V_J pared to the size of the shell. The mantle 
extends from the aperture of the shell covering the back 
of the animal to the base of the tentacles, a portion ex- 
tending backward covering the spire. The animal is 
always very moist, and appears cdvered with water. 

This species is probably carnivorous in its habits, as in 
confinement it has been noticed to feed on dead and even 
live earth-worms, while vegetable food has been rejected. 
It has been found in northern Vermont, in northern 
Maine, and near Portland, .Mo., quite abundant. Outside 
of the limits of New England this >peries occurs in the 
North-western Territory, and the northern parts of the 
United States bordering on Canada. It is generally found 
in open ground or low underbrush in damp places. 

Helix inornata Say. (Figs. 21, 22.) Shell depressed, 
yellowish horn-color, smooth and shining- 
Whorls five ; lip simple and sharp, the lower 
part reaching to the umbilicus, which is small. 
Within the lip there is a thick, white shelly 
deposit which tends to strengthen the fragile 
aperture. Diameter of shell less than three- 
fourths of an inch. Animal bluish black, disk whitish. 
At the termination of the tail tin- re is a -land from which 
the mucus pours freely when the animal is in motion. 



OF NEW ENGLAND. 315 

This shell is recorded as being found in Vermont by 
Professor Adams, though it cannot properly be regarded 
as a New England species. It is common at the West. 

Helix fuliginosis Blnney. (Figs. 23, 24.) Shell thin, 
flattened above, nearly chestnut-color, sometimes a green- 
ish horn-color. Whorls four and a half; y\?<. ■>.■„ 84. 
last whorl veiy large, suture slightly in- 
dicated. Aperture large, nearly circular, 
within pearly. Lip simple, brittle, 
Slightly thickened within by a testaceous 
deposit. Umbilicus not large. Diame- 
ter an inch or more. Animal blackish, , 
or bluish black. On the tail there is a 
slit from which the mucus pours freely. 
This shell resembles somewhat that of 
Helix inornata, but differs in being much larger, and 
always having one whorl less. The umbilicus is larger, 
and the aperture is more circular. 

This species occurs in nearly all the States east of the 
Rocky Mountains. It is extremely rare in New England, 
having been found only in the extreme western limits. 

Of the species thus far described in these papers, only 
three of them can be considered as really common in New 
England, namely. //' 7 , and alter nata. 

The others are rarely to be met with. It is difficult for 
the collector to obtain more than ten or twelve specimens 
of the larger species in a day's ramble, though at the West 
they may be found by hundreds. The cause of this dis- 
parity iu numbers is attributed to the abundance of lime- 
rock at the West ; this rock favoring the multiplication 
of shell-bearing mollusks, while in New England, granitic 
formations prevail, and the soil from such rocks retards 
the increase of these animals. — To be continued. 




THE PHOSPHOKESCENCE OF THE SEA. 

The JVoctilucoB are little crystal balls of about the size 
of a pin's head, which, under the microscope, present the 
appearance here figured. The transparence of its struc- 
ture permits an easy investigation. 
Not a fibre is to be seen, unless, with 
De Blaiuville, we consider the trans- 
rkings of the tail in the light 
of muscular fibres, a supposition 
which is very questionable. In the 
*■ neighborhood of this tail there is 
food, or the indigestible remains of 
food. Not that we are to look for a stomach in this 
animal,— nothing of the kind exists; but in lieu thereof 
we find, as in Infusoria, a number of vacuolce, or assim- 
ilating cavities, which appear and disappear, according 
to need, formed out of the contractile substance which 
is seen radiating in filaments all through the substance 
of the animal, and which M. Quatrefages likens to the 
sarcode described by Dujardin. In this curious animal, 
not a trace has been discovered of vessels, nerves, 
senses, or indeed of any "organs" whatever. It is a 
mass of animated jelly, with a mobile tail. Its mode 
of reproduction has been variously expounded, but the 
observations of Quatrefages and Krohn seem placed be- 
yond a doubt by those recorded in Mr. Brightwell's 
paper, proving that they multiply by spontaneous sub- 
division. No one has yet observed anything like repro- 
duction by means of ova. 

To these JVbctilucce the sea owes much of that brilliant 
phosphorescence which at all times has been the marvel of 

(316) 



THE PHOSPHOKESCEXCE OF THE SEA. 317 

travellers. Place your vase in a darkened room, and 
strike the glass, or agitate the water, and you will be 
delighted with the spectacle presented. From every part 
brilliant sparks appear and disappear, until at length no 
agitation of the water will produce more ; their power is 
exhausted, as that of the electric eel is exhausted, after a 
few shocks. You want to know the cause of this phos- 
phorescence? Unhappily the point is still sub judice. It 
is only since the beginning of this century that the atten- 
tion of naturalists has been fixed upon the JToctilucrc as 
sources of the phosphorescence, in all times observed, and 
in former times attributed to the presence of decaying 
organic substance, to electricity, to "an absorption of 
solar light disengaged in the dark." The investigations 
of M. Quatrefages led him to the following conclusions : 

There are two different kinds of phosphorescence 
observed in the sea. The first is of very brilliant but 
isolated sparks, and is due principally to Starfishes, 
Crustaceans, and Annelids. The second is of a general 
luminous tint, over which are strewed isolated sparks, 
aud is due to the .Noetilucse. These Noctilucae have no 
special organ which produces the phosphorescence, as the 
other animals have ; but the light emanates from the 
whole substance of their bodies. Every irritant, no mat- 
ter of what nature, produces this phosphorescence in them. 
The phenomenon is not, as in insects, one of combustion; 
but is intimately connected with the contraction, spon- 
taneous or provoked, of their substance. It is indepen- 
dent of all secretion, and it is probable that the sparks 
are due to the rupture and sudden contraction of their 
sarcodic filaments ; while the steady light they emit in 
%ing, results from the permanent contraction of this 
sarcodic substance. — From Lewes' Sea-side Studies. 



t as one long needed, and trust that it will 
prove the forerunner of a large series of similar ones in the various 
departments of Natural History. The demand for books on this and 
kindred subjects is now quite laru<\ and faM increasing, and we only 
regret that the price nt' tin proem \ <»in me may put it above the reach 
of the large number of persons who would advantageously peruse its 
pages, if within their means. May we not hope that the enterprising 
publishers of the work, who deserve great praise for their present un- 
dertaking, will issue a cheaper edition, that it may become accessible 
to all? 

The volume is gotten up in fine style, and no expense has been spared 
on the typography and paper. The four plates containing the illustra- 
tions of the eggs* are perfect gems of the art of wood-cutting in this 
country, and show to what perfection it can he carried. It is greatly 
to be regretted that the fifty or sixty illustrations of birds were not 
executed for the work with the same care, for they only serve to 
mar the beauty of the book, and are, with few exceptions, of very 



■ 



copied trom the best authnr>. for which full credit is given. In fact, 
the author has, so far as we can judge, been honest with all his quo- 
tations and clippings from others, and in writing such a work original- 
ity in all its details would be almost an impossibility, and in the 
present state of ornithology wholly uncalled for. That part relating 
to the habits and nesting of our birds contains much of original ob- 
servation and research. The practical bearing of many of the obser- 
vations of the author renders them of great value to the farmer and 
fruit --rower, and will serve to remove many prejudices that have 
mparative benefit and injury derived from the 
of our gardens and woods. Thus, while the 



REVIEWS, 
habits of the "Poor Crow" 



' Cuba. By An>j. ll. <jr«t<\ 
ClBA. Ji'j Atuj. II. Urate. 



of Sew York, art- ascriptions of new ami interesting forms of our 
native moths, accompanied by admirably cxemtcl lithographic plates, 
wherein are figured many of the rarer species, either new or previously 
described. 

The authors have delineated many of the forms of that beautiful and 



REVIEWS, 
interesting group of moths, the Bombycidse 



such iutciv* 


ing results as the 


e, isolated description 


certainly dry 


reading aud of lit 


le immediate profit to 


The Taxidermist's Manual. 


Third Edition. By 


Middleboro 


, Mass. lCmo, p 


.29. Price §1.00. 










and mammals, wi 








gs, and mounting ins 


matioo given 


is too scanty, and wood-cut- should 


_ 


he methods described. The price of th 


altogether to 


> high. 




The Ameiuc 


K Agriculturist 


Orange Judd & Co., 


. We . cauuot 


speak in too high praise of the Natural 



-i-ous illustrations of animals and plauts, drawn with fidelity, and 
graved with the utmost skill. The generous manner in which this 
anch of science is treated, renders the journal alike valuable to the 

iemcax Pomology. Apples. By Dr. John A. Warder. 29 Illus- 
-rations. New York, Orange Judd & Co., 41 Park Bow. 12mo, 1867. 
1 carefully prepared and well-printed volume, which must prove of 

at value to all fruit-growers. While the book i- intended for read- 
• in all parts off : > the wants of 



,e number of pages (fifty -five) devoted to 1 1 

>le, of which over eighty species are noticed, with short descrip- 

m, notes regarding their habits, and remedies against their attacks, 

ich contain many practical suggestions. 

■he chapters on the History of the Apple, Propagation, Dwarfing, 

I Ureases, must interest all scientific h 



NATURAL HISTORY MISCELLANY. 



Imperial Academy of Sciences, at Vienna, a paper on the vegetable 
and animal remains ami relics of manufacturing art. contained in a 
brick taken from one of the Egyptian pyramids. He examined a brick 

which it is composed, animal and vegetable remains so perfectly pre- 



ZOOLOGY. 

Fi>n Ci-LTriiE.— In the International Exposition of the Produce 
ind Implements of Fisheries, at Bergen, were collections of young 
(322) 



MIM'KI.LWY. 



^isb.. — Professor Rosing, of Aas, France, has in- 
lour made of fish (farine de poisson), prepared 

< as rich in albuminoid substances as beef, four 



Pelican l> U >,>ns> r>j hmrl> : irkx* < rmelin), in good c 
ts wing* measured fully eight feet from tip to tip. 
• Baird, of t 



324 NATURAL HISTORY MISCELLANY. 






am or Pumpkin-seed, 
ire also the remains of 






I of Science, London. 



HISTORY MISCELLANY. 325 

Habits of the Bittern.— I notice some statements respecting the 
breeding i, a Mts of the Bittern (Botaurus lentiginosus) in the lately 
published work of 31 r. Samuels, on the Ornithology and Oology of 
New England, which are entirely at variance with my experience. He 



a dozen or more nests being often found in the .-pace 

he few eggs that I have found have all been on the ground— the 
a ground — am.- _. on the " Fowl Meadows,** 

J to find more titan one ne-t on ten acres, though I have searched 
it carefully. I make these re I bo part of the 



GEOLOGY. 
The Miocene Tertiary Flora op North Greenland.— Differ- 
ent royagers have, from time to time, brought from Greenland, and 

of fossil plants, all of which have been submitted to Professor O. Heer, 
a Bwiaa Naturalist. They were all found 1,080 feet above the sea, on 
a steep hill, at Atanekerdluk, opposite the Isle of Disco, in lat. 70° N. 
A total of sixty-six species have been recognized, and from them and 
their associated facts, the author infers that they must have grown 
where they were found; that they belong to a Miocene flora rich in 
species, at least some of which extended to still higher latitudes ; that 
in the Miocene epoch the climate of North Greenland was warmer than 
it is at present by fully 16° C., or 28' 8° E. ; and he thinks that "we 
could not by any rearrangement of land and water produce for the 
northern hemisphere a climate which would explain the phenomena in 
a satisfactory manner." " We must admit," he adds, "that we are face 
to face with a problem who-,- solution in all probability must be at- 
tempted, and we doubt not completed by the astronomer."— Quarterly 
J °»rnal of Science, London. 



MICROSCOPY. 

Phosphorescent Entomostrac.v. — Minute Crustaceans, belonging 
this order and allied to the genu- Cypridina, were discovered in 



MISCELLAXY. 

, while in the United £ 



CORRESPONDENCE. 
Pennsylvania, asks for information regarding the prepara- 
snail's tongues for microscopical objects. They are generally 
I in Canada balsam, using a thin piece of glass as a cover to 



which can be phi la ,,,.. The incision is made 

glass slide. With the microscope, the portion containing the tongue 

All other fragments are then wiped from the slide, and the membrane 
* can be then separated by gently pulling apart the fragment into 

numerous pieces, and a-ain cxaminim-- with the -lass, removing as 

With considerable care and patience the tongue may be removed 
entire. During this work the preparation must be well moistened; a 
drop of water is sufficient. — E. S. M. 

E. L., Illinois.— The following works have been published on North 
Vmori. m Lichens _ v Synopsis ,,t tin Li, n-us <>t Vw 1 nuland the 
other North American State., and British America." Ev Edward Tuck- 
erman, A. M.. Cambridge, 1848. 1 vol. 8vo, 93 pp. « An Enumeration 
of North American Lichens. u ith a Preliminary View of the Struc- 
ture and General History of these Plants, and of the Friesian System," 
etc. By Edward Tuckerraan, A. M. Cambridge, 1845. 8vo, pp. 59. 

W. H. S.. Mhu,, .,,:.,. _y,„ l wil] lil|(1 Shirley Hibbard's Book of the 
Aquarium, published in London, 1856, the cheapest and best manual 



NATURAL HISTORY ( 

For fresh-water aquaria, use glass jars and dishes. 



L. Q., Pennsylvania. —We can scarcely tell from your drawing what 
the object can be. It is probably a Polyzoon, and possibly a species 
i, mentioned in the June number of the Naturalist, and if 



NATURAL HISTORY CALENDAR. 



The Insects of August. — During this month great multitudes of 
bags (Hemiptera) are found in our fields and gardens ; and to this 



nm tneir long stickers. Their c 
J wither and blight. 
The grain Aphis, at certain yea 



f-hoppers, Tetti<io»;>> and r, ,-, ,--/. aDouna on me 
Uu frequent 



d*° NATURAL HISTORY CALENDAR. 

damp, wet, swampy places. A very abundant species on grass pro- 
duces what is called "frog's spittle." It can easily be traced through 
Fig. i. all its changes by frequently examining the mas 




lies belong 
largely oi 
(Fig. 4), 



• half, and its legs 
being formed for i 
' over the surface in pursuit of insects. 
r (Fig. 1, from Sanborn) i 



Sanborn). It is li 

, with a long respiratory 
which it raises above the 




large family of very useful 

and noxious insects. Such i 
species. It is an ally of Eedmius personatus, a 



NATURAL HISTORY CALENDAR, 
valued friend to man, as in Europe it destroys tl 



Phymata erosa (Fig. i 



Parent, differing from the perfect insect, in having* bra 

lice (Petlicxlm restim ati, and P. <;> r /t;,i), to which the lai 
has the closest affinity. Some Cimiee> are parasite*, intv- 
swallows, etc., in this way also showin" their near loea 



i rent races of m 



330 PROCEEDINGS 


OF 


SCIENTIFIC 


! SOCIETIES. - 




During this month the 


ran 


iges of grasshoppers are, in t 


he West, 








from .Major F. Hawn, of 


Leavenworth, Kansas, a most : 


interesting a< 


:count of the Re 


■d-h --v.; 


Locust (Caloptenutfihi «/■-/•■ 




»). "Theyc 




ing their 


ter part of An 




, which are fusiform, slightly 




and of a buff-color. They 




placed about 










ctmass around a vertical axis 




obliquely up and outward, 








■ther, the 


whole presenting a cylindrical i 


structure, not 


unlike a small c 


■artridgo. 



They cnimii, i, it requires a r 

ature above 60° F. to bring them to maturity, and d 
ditions they become fledged in thirty-three days, and 

live days after, they enter upon their migratory flight. 



areas. In their progress tney 
int. In those excursions they 



PROCEEDINGS OF SCIENTIFIC SOCIETIES. 



Lyceum op Natural History. X ,r y,,,-!-. April 22, 1867.— Pro* 
Newberry read a paper on the "Ancient Vegetation of North Araet 
ica." In this paper the Professor briefly reviewed the records wit! 



the present time. Of this sketch the most im 
as follows: — 

First, —Vegetables only have the power to i 
stances in nature, the animal kingdom being \ 
vegetable for its substance, and could not i 



Second,— The first 1: 



PROCEEDINGS OF SCIENTIFIC SOCIETIES. 331 



Ol' mx huinlreil .- 



mergence producing a succession of vegetable deposits, one above 



ized. The atmosphere was also more highly carNm:. 
Dr. Newberry exhibited drawings of some of the 

!v I 1 nits in 1 [V lits oi tin ( >al p riod. v> nil in u < l 



The most conspicuous plants of this tiora were the cycads, — now 
represented, by the Lagopalene, etc., — which had no existence before, 



332 PROCEEDINGS OF SCIENT 



their first appea 



Ninth, —The Miocene flora of America has been very fully illustrated 
he mouth of Frazer River, on ; Disco Islmd, off 



: Miocene being apparent \y Uk-n 
cene epoch, the European and : 



Third,— That at a subsequei 



334 PROCEEDINGS OF SCIENTIFIC SOCIETIES. 



. Stearns submitted, on behalf of Mr. J. Eowe; 
new species of Pisidium, a genus of fresh-watei 
ngel Island on the occasion of the late escu 



n is from Forest Hill. El Dorado [l'l; 
, equal to nearly l£ carats ; color 
rical than the iirst. The third *pe 

county. It is smaller and h-ss p.-rf 



PROCEEDINGS OF SCIENTIFIC SOCIETIES. 335 

gold. In reply to a question if there was not some familiar test by 



BOOKS RECEIVED. 

OhHerwtinn* upon ti„> C f „„hil Forms of the American Aborigines. 
By J. Aitk.n Mei-s. M. I). Philadelphia, 18GG. pp. 39, 8vo. 
American P<mwl»,nj. Apples. By Dr. John A. Warder. 290 illustra- 

n.nuhrny* Sri*,,.-,. i.i xsip. London, May, 18G7. London, R. Hard- 



«n<l Gazette, Vol. 2, Nos. 11, 12. May, 
Third Edition. By S. H. Sylvester. 



Builders of Ohio. By ( 



be Ovide Brunet. Quebec, 1866. 8vo. pp. 16. u 
talogue des Vegetans Lip,,, as <ln < './„,,;,/„. l' ;ir [/Abbe Ovide Bru- 
Quebec, 1867. 8vo, pp. 64. 



AMERICAN NATURALIST. 



1867. -No. 7. 



THE GEYSERS OF CALIi 



The Geysers of California are situated in lateral ra- 
vines of Pluton River, a tributary of Russian River. 

The picturesque journey from San Francisco to the 
Geysers has been truthfully described by many tourists ; 
hence most of our readers are doubtless familiar with the 
sail over the bay and through the Tule marsh, the ride up 
the White-wine valley, the slow ascent of an outlying 
crest of the Coast Range, and the perilous drive down into 
the canon. It is proposed to embody in this paper some 
observations based upon studies at the Geysers during 
the last week in May, 1866. 

It is, therefore, necessary to pass over, without re- 
mark, the interesting journey thither, and occupy our- 
selves with a description of the Avernus rather than the 
facilis descensus. The Avernus of the JEneid seems to 
have been a watering-place of some repute, which was in 
such immediate proximity to the lower regions, and pre- 
sented such great attractions on account of being upon 
the most desirable route thither, that the name came, at 



;;:;s 



: 



last, to be applied as much to the sulphurous depths be- 
low as to the oak-shacled lake above. Various points of 
interest in this occidental Avernus have received appel- 
lations suggested by the surroundings ; and while some 
other localities on the Pacific coast have been named for 
public officials, it has not been considered complimentary 
to attach modern proper names to anything in the vicinity 
of the Geysers. For this reason the classics have been 
laid under contribution. The stream into which the main 
cafion opens is called Pluton River, the gorge is known 
as the Devil's Canon, and a sulphurous grotto has been 
long named for Proserpine. 

In gaining a clear idea of the California Geysers, it 
will be necessary to forget the geysers of Iceland, with 
their columns of water and capitals of cloud. Upon ap- 
proaching those upon Pluton River, your first impression 
is that there has been a great conflagration, and that the 
fire engines are blowing off steam preparatory to going 
home. The gorge is lined with masses of smouldering 
ashes, from which hot steam is being drifted by the wind, 
and, in some places, you can imagine that the embers are 
ready to relight. In the bottom of the canon, turbid and 
blackened water, from which vapor slowly lifts, is run- 
ning among the* discolored rocks. Here and there, es- 
caping steam hisses, and, in some places, roars like the 
"exhaust" of an engine. 

In other smaller canons and depressions on an irreg- 
ular table land, there are like appearances of chemical 
activity. The rocks in the vicinity are mainly sandstones 
and silicious slates, which are highly metamorphic. The 
intermediate varieties are innumerable, all belonging to 
the Cretaceous Series,* which is largely represented in 



THE GEYSERS OF CALIFORNIA. 339 

the northern Coast Range of the State. Two belts of 
eruptive rock have been observed in this part of the 
State, one lying thirty miles south, and the other found 
between the Geysers and Borax Lake, twenty or more 
miles away. Both are on the line of former volcanic 
activity, and near both we find many thermal springs. 

Besides hot springs, incrustations of sublimed sul- 
phur, pumice, and the light lavas are regarded as traces 
of volcanic action. These are found in many places in 
California, and in Nevada. The writer has observed 
these indications near the summit of the extinct volcano, 
Shasta. In all cases they point to former igneous activ- 
ity. Therefore, the steam-springs and the Solfataras may 
be considered, for all practical purposes, as the poor re- 
lations of volcanoes in reduced circumstances. Such are 
the Geysers. 

Upon the 28th of May there had been a slight fall of 
rain. The morning of the 30th was quite cloudy, the 
thermometer ranging at eight o'clock from 60° to 62° 
Fahr. The temperature of the water in Pluton River, 
immediately above the confluence of the stream from the 
Devil's Canon varied from 65° to 70°. At the mouth of 
the canon the temperature of the water was 90°, and 
upon walking up the bank of the stream the different 
temperatures of 95°, 97°, and 100°, were noticed. A 
light vapor was rising from the surface of the water. 

The first spring where ebullition was observed had a 
temperature of 135°. There was a free escape of sul- 
phydric acid from the cloudy water, and here the hot, 
stifling moisture began to make the walk one of discom- 
fort. Upon the right hand several small springs of 190°, 
all giving off sulphydric acid, were boiling violently, and 
at the edge of a queer i 



340 THE GEYSERS OF CALIFORNIA. 

there was a furious little cauldron seething at 200°. Sev- 
eral of the springs had low forms of cryptogamic vegeta- 
tion growing upon the walls of the basins, and, in some 
instances, confervas were observed thriving in water of a 
temperature of 145° Fahr. Seventy or eighty rods from 
the mouth of the canon, there is a jet of escaping steam, 
and a little farther on there is an escape-pipe, nearly ten 
inches in diameter, through which steam is forced out 
several feet. Part of the steam condenses at five feet 
from the orifice, the rest ascends as light vapor, and is 
borne away by the wind. The greatest degree of tempera- 
ture observed was 206° Fahr., where there was, of course, 
as in the other cases mentioned, apparent ebullition from 
escape of gases. In no instance was the temperature of 
500° noticed, which Mr. Bowles* speaks of in his en- 
tertaining "Across the Continent." Obviously, this is a 
slip of a flying quill. 

Upon the east and west sides of the canon, at this 
point, the ground is made up of decomposing rocks of 
clayey consistence, and of various colors dependent upon 
metallic oxides ; each little locality seeming to be a labo- 
ratory for the decomposition of silicates. Wherever the 
light soil was dry, there was no vegetation whatever ; 
wherever there was a good degree of humidity, confer- 
void growths were scattered. Near springs, a few rods 
farther east, a species of grass, Panicum, was seen grow- 
ing ; and, in one instance, at the water's edge where the 
panicle was bathed in slowly-rising vapor. This species 
is abundant near fumaroles, which are little natural blast 
chimneys, lined with crystalline needles of sublimed sul- 
phur. 



THE GEYSERS OF CALIFOROTA. 341 

This leads next to the subject of incrustations, which 
for our purpose we may divide into three groups, namely : 
silicic acid, sulphates, and sulphur. The first comprises 
the crystals of quartz, which are found upon slates embed- 
ded in the soil. They are minute, but very perfect. 

The sulphates, such as crystals of ferric and magnesic 
sulphate, and the alums were not seen in their best es- 
tate. The rain of May 28th had dissolved the largest 
ones, and while we regretted this loss, we consoled our- 
selves with the thought that the rain, which had robbed 
us of our jewels, had added intensity to the chemical ac- 
tion going on around and below. It is stated upon good 
authority that the action is more intense during, or at 
the close of the rainy season, which is the winter of Cali- 

The sublimed sulphur presents the two prevailing 
forms; namely, that which has crystallized with free 
access of air, and resembles the obtuse oblique rhombic 
prisms of sulphur familiar to chemists ; and that which is 
produced under pressure, and has a slight inclination of 
the vertical axis. 

In some limited localities there are effloresced salts, 
and pale, faded carbonates. At one spot, a light green 
cupric carbonate was partially covered with a darker 
green confervoid growth, and each shaded into the other 
like colors on a palette. 

But the salts just referred to are those which have been 
left by the heavily charged water. Imagine , therefore, the 
variety of dissolved salts which must have been formed, 
by the over-heated steam and sulphur acids, from the 
rocks which are being so rapidly leached under pressure. 
The solutions are, almost in every case, acidulated by a 
high sulphur acid ; free sulphur floats in the water, and 



342 THE GEYSERS OF CALIFORNIA. 

sulphydric acid escapes with violent ebullition. It must 
be supposed that in these acidulated solutions, the iron 
exists as a ferrous salt, since sulphydric acid has this re- 
ducing power. 

In one spring, which is very nearly neutral, the iron 
has been incompletely precipitated and is suspended, in 
the agitated water, with other insoluble sulphides. 

Another spring is strongly acidulated, and contains 
only the merest trace of the sulphydric acid, which every- 
where fills the atmosphere. The rationale of the reac- 
tions observed at the Geysers is not obscure, but so far 
as the writer is aware, no eaivfcl analyses of the waters 
and sinter have been made upon the spot. The scrupu- 
lous care with which the geological survey of California 
is being conducted, warrants the conclusion that trust- 
worthy examinations will be published in due time. 

The writer is unwilling to conclude this imperfect 
sketch of one of the wonders of California, without bear- 
ing his personal testimony to the value of the labors of 
Professors Whitney and Brewer, and the hard-working 
corps. 

The first volume upon geology has been read and ques- 
tioned in the presence of the Coast Range and Sierra, 
from Point Concepcion to the Oregon line, and it has, at 
all times, proved a reliable guide. 



Xi.lK. 



a very interesting article by Professor F. Shep- 
"Silliman's Journal" for September, 1851, when the spriugs 
less easily accessible than now. 



THE ENCAMPMENT OF THE HERONS 



An account of an encampment of the Herons may not 
be uninteresting to such as have never seen one. The 
herony in question was in Norfolk county, Mass., until 
the present year; the birds have now, however, taken up 
their abode elsewhere, because of the almost ceaseless per- 
secution they have suffered. The species was the Night- 
heron or Quawk {Nyctiardea Gardeni). The bird is by 
no means as graceful as the other herons in figure, being 
thicker, with a larger and clumsier neck ; as to color, how- 
ever, it is quite handsome, being white, slate, and lilac. 
It has the long nape feathers characteristic of the herons, 
rolled, as usual, into the likeness of a tube. The place 
in which they have hitherto bred is a swamp, wet, and 
difficult of access, with no turf to set foot on, owing to 
the shade of the swamp-cedars with which the quagmire 
is covered, whose slippery, mossy roots furnish a doubt- 
ful footing in some cases, and a formidable obstacle in 
others. The certainty of "slumping" through the moss, 
thereby going into the thick slime above the knees, the 
probability of missing one's footing, and going down, full 
length, on breast or back, and the prospect of hard and 
disagreeable work in climbing to the nests, are among the 
allurements to the herons' paradise. The birds undoubt- 
edly built there in 1861, though they were not found 
until June, 1862, when a gunner, breaking in upon their 
fancied security, shot over twenty for sport, threw them 
into a pile, and left them. 

All, of course, who cared for natural history, who were 
fe W; the idlers, who were more; and many who had 

" (343) 



344 THE ENCAMPMENT OF THE HERONS. 

never killed anything larger than a robin, and now were 
all agog to cover themselves with glory by shooting a 
quawk, frequented the spot nearly every day during that 
summer. The first thing which called the attention of 
the explorer was the whiteness of the ground, owing to 
the excrements of the birds ; the air, hot and close, was 
loaded with its keen, penetrating odor : the fine particles 
of it, floating in the air and coming in contact with the 
perspiring body, made one smart all over. There was 
also a smell of the decaying fish which lay around, some 
dropped by accident by the old bird- ( who, 1 believe, never 
stoop to pick tin ni up again), and much more disgorged 
by the young when their tree was assailed. These fish 
were mostly such as could not be obtained in the ponds 
and rivers. I once saw a piece of a pout, and once a 
fragment of a pickerel, but most of the remains were 
those of herrings. On the branches of some of the trees 
I have seen eels hanging with their heads digested off. 
The rough nests were al way.- built itr;iinst the trunks of 
the trees, six or eight feet from the top ; and sometimes 
two, three, or even four might be seen in one cedar. The 
light-green eggs were usually four in number, but I have 
seen rive and six repeatedly, and, once, seven in a nest. 
The young are downy, soft, holnies- things at first, but 
soon gain strength enough to climb to the upper branches 
where they hang on with bill and daw-, and are fed by 
their parents till nearly full-grown. Two broods are 
often reared in a single year, and it is no uncommon 
thing to see four or five of the first brood sitting on the 
tree-top, while the nest below contains as many more of 
their younger brothers and sisters ; both lots, of course, 
to be fed by their parents. They climb clumsily, and 
seem, at every step, to be in immediate danger of falling* 



THE ENCAMPMENT OF THE HERONS. 345 

yet it is very difficult to dislodge them. When they 
strike the ground they set off at full speed, and might 
easily escape did they not croak unceasingly as they run. 
The first year many of the young were carried away as 
pets. I kept one several weeks. No confinement was 
needed, for he had no more idea of running away than 
my hens had. Early in the morning, and for an hour or 
two after sunset, he would walk away into the lowlands, 
but would come back to his perch regularly. He was 
unable to forage to his complete satisfaction, however, 
and would sometimes try to catch my young chickens. I 
then took to fishing for hirn, and then, to my sorrow, 
I found out what a heron's appetite is ; and thought, with 
pity, of the poor parent-birds in the swamp with six or 
eight such maws to fill. Five bream, as large as my 
hand, were not too much of a meal for him. He would 
catch them, all alive, out of the tub of water by the mid- 
dle of the back, toss them up until he got them into the 
right position, head first down his throat ; then he would 
swallow them by dint of great exertion, his neck present- 
ing a curious appearance, as the fish, four inches broad, 
passed slowly down, making occasional convulsive at- 
tempts to struggle; a proceeding which seemed to en- 
hance the pleasure of the bird. I once gave him a dry 
dead fish which he got half-way down, where it stuck;: 
he tried and tried in vain to swallow it ; then he made 
equally futile efforts to disgorge ; then he turned his eye 
on me reproa. ingly, so I was fain to 

take him between my knees, and tip up his bill and pour 
water down over the fish with a spoon, until the dried-up 
slime became again moistened, when, with a long pull 
and a strong pull, the bird engulphed him, gave me an 
ungrateful peck, and stalked off with a "q-u-a-w-k." 



ARTIFICIAL OYSTER CULTIVATION IX 
FRAXCE. 



In a previous article having briefly described the gen- 
eration of the oyster, the writer will, in the present one, 
give an account of the cultivation of this favorite mollusk 
as practised in France, and notably at the imperial, or • 
model pares in the bassin d'Arcachon. 

This bay was apparently intended by Xature for an 
oyster farm, and its rich, firm, muddy bottom has always 
yielded them in vast quantities until about 1840, when, 
to the regret and astonishment of the fishermen (who had 
mercilessly dredged them up at all seasons, and had 
killed the goose that laid the golden eggs) , their mine was 
found to be exhausted ; fine, full-flavored oysters that had 
been heretofore bought for three or four sous the hun- 
dred, now readily sold for three francs and upwards, and 
even with these prices the oystermen were starving. 

In 1859, Professor Coste, by order of the emperor, 
passed the summer at Arcachon, and studied the then 
unknown subject of oyster cultivation, located the now 
flourishing and successful pares, and addressed a report 
to the emperor urging tnting of these 

exhausted beds. The following year his suggestions and 
plans were carried out under the immediate supervision 
of this naturalist, with surprising and satisfactory results. 
Here are nearly two thousand acres of excellent bottom 
for growing oysters, uncovered by the tide for an average 
of two hours at each low-water, and with the mild winter 
climate of the southerly coast of France, this circum- 
stance is of priceless value, as it enables the laborers to 



ARTIFICIAL OYSTER CULTIVATION IX FRANCE. 347 

work among, and even handle the oysters at will and 
renders the term "oyster farm" specially applicable to 
this locality. • 

A pare is regularly laid out like a market garden, into 
squares of say two hundred feet, a path goes all around 
and through them, a post is fixed on the corner with the 
number of the lot painted on it, and a record is kept by 
the superintendent of what size, quantity, and quality of 
oysters are planted on each, and his books and stock are 
inspected at stated intervals. Common curved tiles of 
baked clay, costing less than a sou a piece, have— after 
experiments with various contrivances — proved to be 
the most practical method of catching the drifting "spat."' 
These tiles, or tuiles as they are called, were used at first 
just as they came from the kiln ; but it was found that so 
large a proportion of the "spat" followed with its young 
shell the inequalities of the surface, grew so firmly to it, 
and were destroyed in separating them from the tile, 
that another ingenious plan was adopted. The tiles are 
dipped into a kind of cement containing sand and hydrau- 
lic lime, which, drying in a few minutes, coats them with 
an evenly rough surface in every way attractive to the 
"spat." When it is desirable to remove the oysters, a 
chisel, fashioned to follow the curve of the tile, is easily 
introduced between it and the oyster, which drops off un- 
injured. 

About the middle of May these tiles are arranged in 
Piles, ten feet long, five feet high, and five feet wide, 
which structures are called ruches or les ruches t utile*. 
These tiles are piled in various ways ; usually they are 
placed with the concave roof uppermost, each layer run- 
ning transversely across the layers beneath it. The sides 
oi the tiles do not touch, but are separated by about 



d4» ARTIFICIAL OYSTER CULTIVATION IN FRANCE. 

three inches of space, and often, though not always, adult 
oysters are laid along in these spaces. When the ruche 
is otherwise completed, heavy stones are placed upon the 
top to make the mass more solid and safe to resist the 
action of the stormy waves. Oysters are strewn all 
around these ruches, which are regularly separated from 
each other by a space of fifteen feet. Between the ruches 
bundles of faggots, or fascines, bound together in the 
middle with galvanized wire, are suspended about one 
foot from the bottom, by a cross piece made fast on two 
low posts. When the drifting "spat" is ready to adhere 
to a suitable object, a very large proportion of it is 
caught by, or seeks refuge in one or the other of these 
friendly asylums, and safely grows to the usual merchant- 
able size. 

One of Professor Coste'> early experiments was with a 
box a yard square, perforated with holes, containing two 
shelves with bottoms of coarse wire-cloth. Sixty adult 
oysters were placed on these shelves and on the mud on 
the bottom. The sides and top of this box — made in 
pieces to take apart — were roughed up with an adze to 
attract and secure the "spat," but this plan was abandoned 
for two reasons; first, the unavoidable expense, and, 
secondly, it was found that the "spat," when first evolved, 
is not ready to adhere to anything, however suitable, but 
must swim about for a few days ; and so the enormous 
quantity of little ones, given out by the mother oysters in 
the box, escaped through the holes and located themselves 
elsewhere. The tiles and the faggots are now in uni- 
versal use. By the middle of August the oysters have 
finished their reproductive labors, and begin to fatten 
again, having become very poor during the summer, but 
the tiles and faggots are not taken up until a month later. 



AETIFICIAL OYSTER CULTIVATION IN FRANCE. 349 

By that time, all the "spat" has located itself, and the 
ruches are carefully taken apart, each tile being laid down 
in the same position as in the ruche, side by side in Ion" 
furrows or ditches prepared for them. 

There they are allowed to remain until the following 
summer, when the oysters on the upper side of the tiles 
are removed and planted in beds, hollowed out about 
three inches deep, running the length of the pare; while 
the tile is then turned over with the roof-side down- 
wards, and the oysters on the other side are left to grow 
as they at first fixed themselves, unless, being too much 
crowded, they grow upon each other, and in irregular 
shapes; in this case they are thinned out, The writer 
saw many thousands of tiles in rows, with oysters three 
years old, and of handsome size, still growing where they 
first were "set;" but usually they are all removed to the 
beds the second year, and the tiles, after being redipped 
in the cement, are again piled as before. 

The faggots are taken to some enclosures, which are 
called claires, which are made of solid mason- work, 
water-tight, where the water can be admitted and ex- 
cluded at pleasure, and where the waves can have no 
power, and are there unbound and left to themselves to 
grow until large enough to be separated from the branch- 
es, which is usually six to eight months, when they are 
treated like those grown upon tiles. 

At the end of the third year, the oysters have attained 
the most desirable size, and are ready for the market. 
Those grown in the imperial pares are not sold, but are 
consumed by the emperor, presented by him to crowned 
heads and friends, either for use or to stock their private 
pares, or abandoned to the poor fishermen, who on a cer- 
tain day are allowed to gather them. 



350 ARTIFICIAL OYSTER CULTIVATION IN FRANCE. 

The princess Batichiochi, a near relation of the empe- 
ror, has a largo farm in the bay of Quiberon, and sells 
oysters to supply the Paris restaurant* and others, hi large 
quantities ; and, though her farm was only in its third 
year, it was, as the superintendent remarked with pride 
and pleasure, m >r< ti an j ty'inu < xpenses ; but next year! 
"metis Vaunce pwchaine nous few as des belles afj'aires, 
allezJ" 

The sale of the yearling seed is made a special business 
by some oystermeu, and they bring from four to six 
francs the thousand. They are put up in round baskets 
with a small hole in the top, and are kept, at the season 
of sale, suspended from scaffoldings erected over the 
water for the purpose, so that the baskets are never above 
the surface. 

The French oyster-growers are very particular that the 
oysters taken up for market shall lie for five or six days 
in the daires, before forwarding them to the consumers ; 
this is done in order that all mud and impurities shall be 
washed out in the pure sea-water, and the oyster is cer- 
tainly wliiter-and handsomer for this clean bath. 

The Marennes, or green oyster, is colored by being 
placed hi da ires when the tidal water is let out at certain 
intervals ; a confervoid growth is induced which gives the 
highly prized color and flavor, and doubles the value of 
the oyster. 

The Ostende oysters are placed in wooden vats, and are 
frequently tossed and tumbled about by women with 
rakes, thus breaking olf the thin edge of the new growth 
of shell, and forcing it to grow more round and deep. 
Labor, in this country, is much too high to make a re- 
munerative cultivation of the oyster in this manner prac- 



THE QUADRUPEDS OF AEIZONA. 351 

Oyster-growers recognize their own tailes by a sort of 
trade-mark, which, by French law, it is forgery to imi- 
tate. After the tuile is moulded, and while still soft, a 
hole is punched in the top, either round, square, trian- 
gular, or of any d.^iivd >\\w\k- : th'n private mark is re- 
corded in due form, and wherever a tile bearing it is 
found, it is the unquestioned property of the one who 
has, so to speak. \>\\\ \\U -igu manual upon it. Our own 
laws protecting the oyster-grower need considerable al- 
teration and improvement, especially in the State of Con- 
necticut, where the oyster interest is a very large one ; 
but our legislators, when the subject is properly put be- 
fore them, will no doubt see the justice of giving the 
same protection to the marine, as to the cereal farmer, 
when each invest their money, and conduct their business 
equally in accordance with the law. 



THE QUADRUPEDS OF ARIZONA. 



Family Viverridce, the Civets, etc. The very curious 
animal which forms the sole North American represen- 
tative of this family, containing numerous species in the 
old world, has been found in so many localities contig- 
uous to Arizona, that beyond a doubt it should be in- 
cluded here, though I am not aware that it has actually 
been taken in the Territory. The Ring-tailed Civet Cat 
(-Bassaris astuta) is a queer animal, combining in itself 
the features of several distinct groups. Thus it has the 
ringed tail of a raccoon, the pointed snout and cunning 



352 THE QUADRUPEDS OF ARIZONA. 

look of a fox, and the habits, at least in semi-domestica- 
tion, of a house cat. It is well known to the hunters and 
miners of California, and by them highly prized as a pet. 
It is indifferently called "Mountain Cat," "Cat Squirrel," 
and "Raccoon Fox" ; is easily tamed, and makes an inter- 
esting pet, as well as a useful one, from its dexterity in 
catching mts and mice. In a state of nature, it is said to 
be chiefly nocturnal, and to show spirited fight when at- 
tacked. It is about as large as a house cat ; above, is 
yellowish or brownish-gray ; below, white ; and its tail is 
annulated alternately with black and white. 

Family Mustelidas, the Martens, etc. I am not aware 
that either of our two North American species of the 
genus Mustela occur so far south as Arizona. Of the 
Weasels, composing the allied genus Putorius, the species 
most likely to occur are the Bridled (P.frenatus), or its 
Californian representative, P. xanthogenys. The common 
American Mink (P. vison), of so very general distribu- 
tion, may also occur. Hunters have several times de- 
scribed to me an animal they called the "Carcajou,"— 
which is the Wolverine ( Gido luscus) , —and their accounts 
seemed quite pertinent, though I do not venture, upon 
such doubtful authority, to assert that it is an inhabitant 
of Arizona. Its existence has not been demonstrated 
farther south than Salt Lake City. The whole sub-family 
Martinas, composed of the three preceding genera, is by 
no means so well represented as the Melinw, comprising 
the Badgers (Taxidea), and the Skunks (Mephitis). 

The family is chiefly developed in Arizona in these 
last-named animals, which have attained so unenviable a 
notoriety from their peculiarly disagreeable odor, be- 
lieved to be the most powerful and noisome animal stench 
known. With this drawback, they are certainly beautiful 



THE QUADRUPEDS OF ARIZONA. 353 

animals, both in form and colors. The latter are always 
pure black and white, at least so far us North American 
species are concerned; and there is a great similarity 
between them all in this respect. Dr. C. B. R. Kennerly 
obtained a Skunk at Pueblo Creek, which he says was 
intermediate in size between M< i>h>tl< „n ■ pliitira, and 31. 
bicolor. It probably belonged to the former species. 
Others, well known to occur" in Texas, New Mexico, etc., 
and therefore likely to occur in Arizona, are 3f. bicolor, 
the little Striped Skunk ; 31. variant, the Texas Skunk : 
and 31. mesoleuca, the White-barked Skunk. The first 
named of these extends across the Territory into Califor- 
nia, and quite to the Pacific coast, where I have myself 
known of its occurrence. It is the smallest of all our 
species, and the only one which is spotted or streaked. 
The last is a most beautiful species, well figured by Au- 
dubon and Bachmau, though under the erroneous name 
of M. macroura. It belongs to a different sub-genus 
(Thiosmus) from the rest, being distinguished by hav- 
ing one less upper molar, and a peculiarity in the position 
of the nostrils. 

Concerning the occurrence of the third sub-family, 
Lutrinas, I am unable to speak positively. It is most 
probable, however, that Otters do exist in the Territory, 
and they may be referable to that species described by 
Dr. Gray as Lutra Californica, which Professor Baird 
has considered to differ in some appreciable points from 
the common L. Canadensis of the Eastern States. 

Family Ursidce, the Bears. The two North American 
genera of plantigrade carnivora are represented by the 
Raccoons and the Bears. The former, Procyon, dif- 
fers from Ursus, which comprehends the true Bears in 
dentition, and in many external characters, among which 



O04 THE QUADEUPEDS OF AEIZONA. 

the most notable are its small size, and elongated tail. 
I met with no Raccoons in Arizona, and it is doubtful if 
any exist ; though Procyon Ilernaivlezti, or that variety 
of it which Professor Baird has called P. Mexicana, from 
Sonora, may possibly occur. 

Bears of at least two species are found, and are not un- 
common, at least in all the wooded, and particularly the 
mountainous portions of the Territory. The vicinity of 
the San Francisco and Bill Williams Mountains was for- 
merly noted for the numbers of these animals found there, 
though they appear to have somewhat decreased of late. 
The southern Rocky Mountains, and the ranges of Cal- 
ifornia, seem to be particularly the home of the huge 
Grizzly (IT. hombilis), which becomes less numerous 
farther north. A variety, characterized as U. horriceus, 
extends into Mexico. The common Black Bear (V. 
Americanus) also includes Arizona in its very extensive 

Order Marsupiata, the Marsupials. A single family 
and genus {Bidelphys) represents this remarkable order 
in North America. The Opossum of the Pacific slope 
is the D. California, which differs from D. Virginiana 
in several respects. It is smaller, and darker colored, 
especially about the head and feet, which parts are almost 
dusky ; besides which the ears are black, blotched with 
yellow ; and the tail also is particolored. 

Order Rodentia, the Gnawers. This extensive order 
embraces animals which, by their individual numbers, and 
their great diversity in form and habit, always constitute 
a marked feature in the fauna of any country which they 
inhabit. It is remarkably well developed in Arizona, 
which has more species of Rodents than of all other or- 
ders taken together. If the part these animals play be 



THE QUADRUPEDS OF ARIZONA. 355 

less prominent and conspicuous than that of the large 
carnivores or ruminants, it is not on that account the less 
interesting. And even in an economic point of view, it 
is scarcely less important; for the commercial value of 
the fur of some species, and the destructive agency of 
others, in field or in warehouse, gives them a consequence 
to a degree surpassed by no other animals. Aside from 
these practical considerations, the naturalist finds in this 
extensive group large room for study and investigation ; 
and the diversity in form and structure and variety in 
habit exhibited, cannot fail both to please and instruct. 
The transition from the graceful, vivacious, arboreal 
squirrels to the clumsy, inactive, terrestrial marmots is 
great; but no inu-i iii. r in are wanting, 

and each one is curiously wrought and chased, with a 
story of its own to tell. Space will allow me to notice in 
detail only some of the more prominent rodents ; and of 
the others I must perforce "make mere mention." 

Family tiditrhht , the Squirrels, etc. The most char- 
acteristic, as well as most abundant species of Squirrel, is 
the Tuft-eared ( Scittrus Aba-til), discovered by Dr. Wood- 
bouse in the San Francisco .Mountains. It is one of the 
largest, and certainly the very handsomest of all our 
North American species. Besides very beautiful and 
harmonious colors, it rejoices in the possession of long 
pointed ear-tufts, extending an inch or more from the 
edge of the conch of the ear, which give it a peculiarly 
sprightly and truly elegant appearance. But it is not 
the case, as generally believed, that these ornaments are 
constantly present. I do not know what regulates their 
growth or fall ; but certain it is, that under some circum- 
stances, or at certain seasons, they are wanting, either 
wholly or in part. I have even shot specimens on the 



356 THE QUADRUPEDS OF ARIZONA. 

same day, in some of which they were fully developed, 
and in others wanting. They may possibly be a sexual 
distinction. Their absence is the main diagnostic point 
of a 8. castanonotus, described by Professor Baird, — a 
supposed species most probably identical with S.Abertii, 
as that eminent naturalist himself now believes. 

The pine-clad mountains of northern and central Ari- 
zona are the chosen home of this Squirrel ; and it rarely, 
if ever, quits these woods for other situations. It is there 
a resident species, breeding in abundance, and braving 
the rigors of winter. Its food is chiefly pine and other 
seeds, particularly pinones, the fruit of Pinus edulis, to- 
gether with acorns' of the several species of oaks which 
grow plentifully in the openings among the pine forests. 
Considering how seldom it is molested in those wild re- 
gions, it is a shy and wary species, and when it discovers 
an intruder, leaps with great celerity to the top of the 
pines, whose size and dense foliage in a great measure 
screen and protect it. It is also a very vigorous and 
muscular animal, requiring to be "hard hit" before it can 
be dislodged from its stronghold. Even when mortally 
wounded, it clings with surprising pertinacity, and for a 
long time, to its perch. Its cries are much like those of 
a Fox Squirrel. If wounded and captured, it shows de- 
termined tight, and can inflict a severe wound if incau- 
tiously handled. 

Near the eastern limit of the Territory I one day ob- 
served a small squirrel, about the size of our chickaree, 
running among some rocks and bushes. Unluckily I 
failed to secure the specimen ; but have little doubt that 
it was the rare and slightly known 8. Fremontii Aud. 
and Bach. If this identification be correct, the locality is 
the southernmost as yet on record for the species. 



ARIZONA. 357 

It is just possible ih;ii a western Fox Squirrel (S. Lu- 
dovicianus Custis, or S. limitis Baird) sliould extend into 
eastern Arizona ; or that 8. fossor Peale, of California, 
should reach the Colorado Kiver. These, however, are 
rather speculative than demonstrated assertions, and 
await proof. 

In addition to the preceding, a true Gray Squirrel in- 
habits Arizona, which I am inclined to think is a species 
new to science. It must be quite rare, as I never saw 
or obtained but a single one, — a female, shot December 
20, 1865, at Fort Whipple. In general appearance it is 
similar to the common Eastern species, with which it 
agrees closely in the colors of the body;, but it is 
smaller, and at the same time the tail is both relatively 
and absolutely longer, as well as much broader. It is 
possible that this may be the species alluded to by Pro- 
fessor Baird, page 263 of his "Mammals of North Amer- 
ica," as "Sciurus Carolinensis??", from Santa Catarina, 
N. M. But his description applies only approximately 
to my specimen, v tu-h 1 >!i ill describe as new.* 






60$ the quadrupeds of arizoxa. 

Of the Striped Ground Squirrels, or "Chipmunks," 
composing the genus Tamias, only one species is common, 
which is the Gila Chipmunk (T. dorsalis Baird) . It is 
a beautiful little animal, rather larger than the common 
Eastern one, and conspicuously different in the character 
of the dorsal stripes. It was first described from the 
deserts of Southern Arizona, but I found it abundant at 
Fort Whipple, and it may extend considerably farther 
north. Unlike most others, it is a rock-loving species, 
and rarely quits its favorite resorts. Among masses of 



from side to side. It is a shy and suspicious animal, 
though so rarely molested, and scarcely exhibits the fa- 
miliarity of disposition shown by its Eastern congener. 
When alarmed, it hurries precipitately to the mouth of 
its retreat, where, as if conscious of security, it sits and 
chatters an angry defiance at the intruder. It is a per- 
manent resident around Fort Whipple, but hardly seen 
during the winter, which it passes in its burrows, in 
which an abundant supply of food, in the shape of nuts, 
acorns, and seeds, is laid up during the fall for winter 

I think that one other species of Tamias— possibly T. 
Townsendii— occurs rarely, but I cannot speak posi- 
tively on this point. I have no knowledge of the exist- 
ence of any Flying Squirrels (Pteromys) in Arizona. 

The genus Spermophilus, comprising the true Ground 
Squirrels, or Squirrel Marmots, is well represented by 
quite numerous species, though none of them occur in 
such multitudes as to form the colonies for which some 
are so noted in other countries. 

One of the smallest and the most beautiful of our 



THE QUADRUPEDS OF ARIZONA. 359 

Spermopliiles is the elegant little S. Hirrisii of Audubon 
and Bachnian. It is only about as large as a Chipmunk ; 
has stripes which make it look very much like one, and 
many habits in common with it. The Arizonian species 
particularly resembles the Tamias dorsalis in general ap- 
pearance, as viewed in life, and frequents precisely tbe 
same sort of localities. Though still very rare in collec- 
tions, it is common enough in Western Arizona, and in 
fact in the greater part of the desert region about Fort 
Mojave, on both sides of the Colorado River. I saw a 
great many at different times in the autumn near Beal's 
Springs, where I found them in the most rocky and pre- 
cipitous places. It was difficult to procure specimens, 
not only from the nature of the region, but on account of 
their extreme agiliiy, and their unwillingness to venture 
at any time far from their secure rocky retreats. 

The common and notorious California Ground Squirrel 
{8. Beecheyi) ranges eastward across the Colorado val- 
ley, though in Arizona it is by no means so abundant as 
in California, where it forms colonies approaching those 
of the prairie dog in extent, and is a great pest to the 
farmer. In the vicinity of Los Angeles, I had an excel- 
lent opportunity of studying its habits. On the flat or 
slightly rolling dry plains which stretch between that 
town and the sea-beach, it is exceedingly numerous. The 
burrows occur usnallv in clusters, and upon little mounds 
or hillocks of dirt formed by the soil heaped up during 
their excavation ; but single ones are scattered in every 
direction. Upon these "earth- works'' the animals may 
be seen at all times, sitting upright, and motionless as 
statues, their fore-paws drooped, and their eyes intently 
fixed upon the passer-by ; or, when no suspicious object 
appears, lying and basking in the sun, or playing merrily 



°UV THE QUADRUPEDS OF ABIZOXA. 

with each other upon the ramparts of their citadels. I 
have no doubt that the subterranean passages intercom- 
municate, and that each animal does not have its own 
entrance, though he may possess private apartments be- 
low. In the vicinity of large encampments, the grass, 
herbage, and in feet everything green is so closely crop- 
peel, that the ground is almost bare ; and it becomes a 
matter for wonder that so many animals can contrive to 
fill their stomachs. As is the case with those of the 
prairie dog, the villages are inhabited by a species of 
burrowing owl, which takes possession of deserted holes. 
Over the dry plain the graceful mountain plover courses 
swiftly along; while overhead, or resting upon the 
ground, is the great squirrel hawk, on the look-out for 
its prey. 

The general manners of these animals call forcibly to 
mind the prairie dogs. Like them, they hardly venture 
far from their burrows, to which they hasten precipitately 
on the first sign of an alarm. Reaching the entrance, 
they stop a moment in a squat attitude, or rise on their 
hind-quarters, the better to reconnoitre, venting their 
displeasure and suspicion by a sharp, chattering bark. 
They are tough, muscular animals, and must be hard hit 
to be killed; and even when mortally wounded, will 
make use of their convulsive death-struggles to reach 
their burrows, into which they at last drop exhausted, 
and may be thus lost to the collector. 

The Line-tailed Spermophile (S. grammurus Say), is 
another common species, especially of the southern por- 
tions, whence it extends into Mexico. It has a peculiar 
appearance, produced mainly by its tail, calling to mind a 
true Sciurus; so much so, that it has been placed in that 
genus by some writers, although a true Sjpermo^Mlus. 



THE QUADRUPEDS OF ARIZONA. 361 

Observers agree in according to it decidedly arboreal 
habits. It is both a rock and woods-loving species, and 
Mr. J. H. Clark, who found it abundant at the copper 
mines, says it seems to choose its abode mainly with refer- 
ence to a supply of food, making its burrow indifferently 
in loose soil, under rocks, or in hollow trees. 

The Round-tailed Spermophile (8. lereticauda Baird) 
is a little known species, first described from specimens 
taken at Fort Yuma, whose precise extent of range re- 
mains to be determined. I have not met with it, and 
believe that no information concerning its habits has been 
put on record. The chief peculiarity lies in its tail, which 
is disproportionately long for this genus, cylindrical in 
shape, and very long-haired. It is among the smaller 
species, being only about six inches in length of body ; 
is above of a light yellowish-brown, finely grizzled, and 
below of a soiled yellowish-white. 

In addition to the preceding, several Mexican species 
may very likely extend into the Territory from Sonora. 
Such are 8. 3fexicana, 8. spilosoma, and possibly 8. Cou- 
ch ii. The common little 8. tridecemlineatus, of the Mis- 
souri region, has been found so far south-west as Fort 
Thorn, N. M., and possibly should also be included. 8. 
lateralis, a species closely allied to j3. Harrisii has been 
found in the Des Chutes Basin, and may extend as far 
south as Arizona. 

A step further from the true squirrels brings us to the 
Prairie "Dogs," as they are called; formerly classed with 
the Spermophiles, to which they are closely allied, but 
now more properly placed in a distinct genus ( Cynomys). 
They mainly differ from the true Spermophiles in the ex- 
treme brevity of the tail, the very rudimentary cheek- 
pouches, and some dental and cranial peculiarities. Tha 



362 THE QUADRUPEDS OF ARIZONA. 

species are strictly terrestrial, and eminently gregarious, 
being noted for the large colonies which they form. Long 
as they have been known, and much as has been learned 
about them, there are many points of their social and in- 
dividual economy which remain very obscure. Such are 
those relating to their migrations, their supplies of food 
and water, their gestation, and their relations with the 
owls and rattlesnakes found among them. The common- 
est of our two species, C. Ludovicianus, is mainly confined 
to the great central plains. A second species occurs in 
Arizona; the short-tailed Prairie Dog (C. Gunnisonii 
Baird), named in 1855 from specimens brought from 
Coachetope Pass by Capt. Beckwith. It is distinguished 
from the other by its smaller size, somewhat different 
colors, and still shorter tail, which is not tipped with 
black. I was so fortunate as to secure a specimen of this 
rare animal, near the San Francisco Mountains, in July 
of 1864. A colony had settled in one of the little open 
grassy glades which are scattered like oases through that 
wild and broken region. No owls or rattlesnakes were 
to be seen, though a species of horned toad (Phrynosoma 
Douglassii) was extremely abundant. Their cries, move- 
ments, and general manners were much like those of the 
common species. 

Passing over the marmots proper (Arctomys), of which 
I have no knowledge as Arizonian animals, there only 
remains to be noticed one more member of the Sciuridm, 
—the Beaver {Cantor Canadensis Kuhl).' This animal 
differs in so many essential features, both external and 
anatomical, as well as in habits, from the family types, 
that naturalists doubt the propriety of retaining it in its 
present position. It is found abundantly on all the 
streams of the Territory. Judging from the accounts of 



THE QUADRUPEDS OF ARIZONA. 363 

old trappers, its numbers seem* even to have increased 
of late ; owing, doubtless, both to the diminished value 
of its fur, of which so many articles now take the place, 
and to the Indian difficulties, which prevent the penetra- 
tion of the hunter to its abodes. Particularly upon the 
Rios Salado and San Francisco is it very abundant ; and 
its dams occur, in some places, every few hundred yards. 
The almost unbroken seclusion of these retreats gives the 
animals such a sense of security, that they are less strictly 
nocturnal in working or playing than in most localities. 
I have frequently seen them swimming about in broad 
daylight.' 

An Indian name of this animal, which I do not recall, 
signifies "little brother," and is given in recognition of 
that sagacity, or instinct, or reason, as it may be called, 
which is displayed in its social and domestic economy. 
But as one writer has well remarked, all that has been 
said concerning the wonderful intelligence, or even appa- 
rent "forethought" of the Beaver, only argues an instinc- 
tive knowledge to a degree possessed by a multitude of 
other animals; and far outrivalled by that required for 
the construction of many a bird's or insect's nest. Even 
the humble and despised muskrat builds habitations re- 
quiring almost as much constructive dexterity; and, in 
many of its habits, evinces a "forethought" quite equal 
to that of the Beaver. The keen pursuit of the Beaver 
for its money value, and the conspicuousness of some of 
its works, are the main causes of its unusual notoriety, 
and of the admiration with which it is always mentioned 
in trappers' narratives, and naturalists' embellishments of 
them — To be continued. 



THE HOME OF THE BEES. 



The history of the Honey-bee, of : 
stincts, its elaborate cells and complex economy, have 
engrossed the attention of the best observers, even from 
the time of Virgil, who sang of the Ligurian bee. The 
literature of the art of bee-keeping is already very ex- 
tensive. Numerous bee journals and manuals of bee- 
keeping testify to the importance of this branch of agri- 
culture, while al >].- iiutliciiiMtifians have studied the mode 
of formation of the hexagonal cells,* and physiologists 
have investigated the intricate, and, as yet, unsolved 
problems of the generation and development of the bee 
itself. 

In discussing these difficult questions, we must rise 
from the study of the simple to the complex, remember- 



and not forget to study the humbler allies of the Honey- 
bee. We shall, in observing the habits and homes of the 
wild bees, gain a clearer insight into the mysteries of 
the hive. 

The great family of bees is divided into social and sol- 
itary species. The social kinds live in nests composed 
of numerous cells in which the young brood are reared. 
These cells vary in form from those which are quite reg- 
ularly hexagonal, like those of the Hive-bee, to those 
which are less regularly six-sided, as in the Stingless-bee 



THE HOME OF THE BEES. 365 

of the tropics (Melipona), until in the Humble-bee the 
cells are isolated and cylindrical in form. 

Before speaking of the wild bees, let us briefly review 
the life of the Honey-bee. The queen bee having- win- 
tered over with many workers, lays her eggs in the 
spring, first in the worker, and, at a later period, in the 
drone-cells. Early in the summer the workers construct 
the large, flask-shaped queen-cells, which are placed on 
the edge of the comb, and in these the queen larvae are 
fed with rich and choice food. The new queens form 
new swarms. The new-born queen takes her marriage 
flight high in the air with a drone, and on her return 
undertakes the management of the hive, and the duty of 
laying eggs. When the supply of queens is exhausted, 
the workers destroy the drones. The first brood of 
workers live about six weeks in summer, and then give 
way to a new brood. The queens, accordiug to Von 
Berlepsch, are known to live five years, and, during their 
whole life, lay more than a million eggs. 

In the tropics, the Honey-bee is replaced by the Meli- 
ponas and Trigonas. They are minute stingless bees, 
which store up honey and live in colonies often of im- 
mense extent. The cells of Melipona are hexagonal, 
nearly approaching in regularity those of the Hive-bee, 
while the honey cells are irregular, being much larger cav- 
ities which hold about one-half as much honey as a cell 
of the Humble-bee. "Gardner, in his travels, states that 
m any species of Melipona build in the hollow trunks of • 
trees, others in banks ; some suspend their nests from the 
branches of trees, whilst one species constructs its nest 
of clay, it being of large size." (F. Smith.) 

In a nest of Trigona carbonaria, from eastern Australia, 
Sfr. F. Smith, of the British Museum, found from four 



366 THE HOME OF THE BEES. 

hundred to five hundred dead workers, but no females. 
The combs were arranged precisely similar to those of 
the common wasp. The number of honey-pots which 
were placed at the foot of the nest was two hundred and 
fifty. Mr. Smith inclines to the opinion that the hive 
of Trigona contains several proliiie females, as the great 
number of workers can only be thus explained, and M. 
Guerin found six females in a nest of Melipona fulvipes. 

At home, our nearest ally of the true Honey-bee, is 
the Humble-bee (Bombus), of which over forty species 
are known to inhabit North America. 

The economy of the Humble-bee is thus : the queen 
awakens in early spring from her winter's sleep beneath 
the leaves or moss, or in deserted nests, and selects a nest- 
ing place generally in an abandoned nest of a field-mouse, 
or beneath a stump or sod, and "immediately," according 
to Mr. F.W. Putnam,* "collects a small amount of pollen 
mixed with honey, and in this deposits from seven to 
fourteen eggs, gradually adding to the pollen mass until 
the first brood is hatched. She does not wait, however, 
for one brood to be hatched* before laying the eggs of 
another, but, as soon as food enough has been collected, 
she lays the eggs for a second. The eggs (Plate 10, Fig- 
2), arc laid, in contact with each other, in one cavity of 
the mass of pollen, with a part of which they are slightly 
covered. They are very soon developed ; in fact the lines 
are nowhere d'Min-t'.y drav. n between the egg and the 



larva, the larva and pupa, and again between the latter and 
the imago ; a perfect series, showing this gradual trans- 
formation of the young to the imago can be found in 
almost every nest. 

"As soon as the larva? are capable of motion and com- 
mence feeding, they eat the pollen by which they are 
surrounded, and, Lrradualh >< parating, push their way in 
various directions. Eating as they move, and increasing 
in size quite rapidly, they soon make large cavities in the 
pollen mass. When they have attained tjieir full size, 
they spin a silken wall about them, which is strengthened 
by the old bees covering it with a thin layer of wax, 
which soon becomes hard and tough, thus forming a cell. 
(Plate 10, Figs. 1, 2.) The larvae now gradually attain 
the pupa stage, and remain inactive until their full devel- 
opment. They then cut their way out, and are ready to 
assume their duties as workers, small females, males or 
queens. 

"It is apparent that the irregular disposition of the 
cells is due to their being constructed so peculiarly by 
the larvae. After the first brood, composed of workers, 
has come forth, the queen bee devotes her time principally 
to her duties at home, the workers supplying the colony 
with honey and pollen. As the queen continues prolific, 
more workers are added, and the nest is rapidly en- 
larged. 

"About the middle of summer, eggs are deposited, 
which produce both small females and males." . . . "All 
eggs laid after the last of July produce the large females, 
or queens, and, the males being still in the nest, it is pre- 
sumed that the queens are impregnated at this time, as, 
on the approach of cold weather, all except the queens, 
of which there are several in each nest, die." 



368 THE HOME OF THE BEES. 

While the Humble-bee in some respects shows much 
less instinct than the solitary bees mentioned below, it 
stands higher in the series, however, from having work- 
ers, as well as males and females, # who provide food for 
the young: The labors of the Mason-bees, and their 
allies, terminate after the cell is once constructed and 
filled with pollen. The eggs are then left to hatch, and 
the young care for themselves, though the adult bee 
shows greater skill in architecture than the Humble-bee. 
It is thus throughout nature. Many forms comparatively 
low in the scale of life astonish us with certain charac- 
ters or traits, reminding us of beings much superior, phy- 
sically and intellectually. The lower forms constantly 
reach up and in some way ally themselves with creatures 
far more highly organized. Thus the fish-like seal re- 
minds us strikingly of the dog, both in the form of the 
head, in its docility and great intelligence when tamed, 
and even in its bark and the movements of the head. 

The parasites of the Humble-bee are numerous. Such 
are the species of Apathus, which so closely resemble 
the Humble-bee itself, that it takes long study to distin- 
guish them readily. Its habits are not known, other than 
that it is found in the nests of its host. It differs from 
the Humble-bee in having no pollen-basket, showing that 
its larvae must feed on the food stored up by their host, as 
it does not itself collect it. The mandibles also are not, 
like those of Bombus, trowel-shaped for architectural 
purposes, but acutely triangular, and are probably not 
used in building. 

The larvoa of various moths consume the honey and 
waxen cells ; the two-winged flies, Volucella and Conops, 
and the larvae of what is either an Anthomyia or Tachina- 
like fly, and several species of another genus of flies, 



THE HOME OF THE BEES.' 369 

Anthrax, together with several beetles, such as the Meloe, 
Stylops, and Antherophagus prey upon them. 

The power of boring the most symmetrical tunnels in 
solid wood reaches its perfection in the large Virginian 
Carpenter-bee {Xylocopa Virginica) . This bee is as large, 
and some allied exotic species are often considerably 
larger than the Humble-bee, but not clothed with such 
dense hairs. We have received from Mr. James Angus, 
of West Farms, N. Y., a piece of trellis from a grape- 
vine, made of pine wood, containing the cells and young 
in various stages of growth, together with the larva? and 
chrysalids of Anthrax sinuosa, a species of fly parasitic 
on the larva, which buries its head in its soft body, and 
feeds on its juices. (Plate 10, Fig. 5, tunnel containing 
pollen and young; 6, the larva; 7, the pupa, of Anthrax 
sinuosa. 

Mr. Angus thus writes us regarding its habits under 
date of July 19 : "I asked an intelligent and observing 
carpenter yesterday, if he knew how long it took the 
Xylocopa to bore her tunnel. He said he thought she 
bored about one-quarter of an inch a day. I don't think 
myself she bores more than one-half inch, if she does that. 
If I mistake not, it takes her about two days to make her 
own length at the first start; but this being across the 
grain of the wood may not be so easily done as the re- 
mainder, which runs parallel with it. She always follows 
the grain of the wood, with the exception of the entrance, 
which is about her own length. The tunnels run from 
one to one and a half feet in length. They generally run 
m opposite directions from the opening, and sometimes 
Other galleries are run one above the other, using the same 
opening. I think they only make new tunnels when old 
ones are not to be found, and that the same tunnels are 



370 *THE HOME OF THE BEES. 

used for many years. Some of the old tunnels are very 
wide. I have found parts of them about an inch in diam- 
eter. I think this is caused by rasping off the sides 
to procure the necessary material for constructing their, 
cells. The partitions are composed of wood-raspings, and 
some sticky fluid, probably saliva, to make it adhere. 

"The tunnels are sometimes taken po>-ession of by other 
bees and wasps. I think when this is the case, the Xylo- 
copa prefers making a new cell to cleaning out the mud 
and rubbish of the other species. I frequently find these 
bees remaining for a long time on the wing close to the 
opening, and bobbing their heads against the side, as if 
fanning air into the opening. I have seen them thus em- 
ployed for twenty minutes. Whether one bee or more 
makes the tunnel, that is, whether they take turns in 
boring, I cannot say at present. In opening the cells, 
more than one are generally found, even at this season. 
About two weeks ago, I found as many as seven, I think, 

The hole is divided by partitions into cells about 
seven-tenths of an inch long. These partitions are con- 
structed of the coarse dust or chippings made by the bee 

■: ■• . ■ . . . , • . . • • 



THE HOME OF THE BEES. 371 

in eating out her cells, for our active little carpenter is 
provided with strong cutting jaws, moved by powerful 
muscles, and on her legs are stiff brushes of hair for 
cleaning out the tunnel as she descends into the heart 
of the solid wood. She must throw out the chips she 
bites off from the sides of the burrow with her hind legs, 
passing the load of chips backwards out of the cell with 
her fore-limbs, which she uses as hands. 

Th» partitions are built most elaborately of a single 
flattened band of chips, which is rolled up into a coil four 
layers deep. One side, forming the bottom of the cell, 
is concave, being beaten down and smoothed off by the 
bee. The other side of the partition, forming the top 
of the cell, is flat and rough. 

At the time of opening the burrow, July 8th, the cells 
contained nearly full-grown larvae, with some half devel- 
oped. They were feeding on the masses of pollen, which 
were large as a thick kidney-bean, and occupied nearly 
naif the cell. The larvae (Plate 10, Fig. 4) resemble 
those of the Humble-bee, but are slenderer, tapering 
more rapidly towards each end of the body. 

The habits and structure of the little green Ceratina 
ally it closely with Xylocopa. This pretty bee, named 
oy Say Ceratina dupla, tunnels out the stems of the 
elder or blackberry, syringa, or any other pithy shrub, 
excavating them often to a depth of six or seven inches, 
and even, according to Mr. Haldeman (Harris MS.), 
bores in acorns. She makes the walls just wide enough 
to admit her body, and of a depth capable of holding three 
or four, often five or six cells (Plate 10, Fig. 11). The 
finely built cells, with their delicate silken walls, are 
cylindrical and nearly square at each end, though the free 
end of the last cell is rounded off. They are four and a 



372 THE nOME OF THE BEES. 

half tenths of an inch long, and a little over one-third as 
broad. The bee places them at nearly equal distances 
apart, the slight interval between them being filled in 
with dirt. 

Dr. T. W. Harris* states that, May 15, 1832, one 
female laid its eggs in the hollow of an aster-stalk. Three 
perfect insects were disclosed from it July 28th. The 
observations of Mr. Angus, who saw some bees making 
their cells, May 18th, also confirms this account.* The 
history of our little upholsterer is thus cleared up. Late 
in the spring she builds her cells, fills them with pollen, 
and lays one or more eggs upon each one. Thus in about 
two months the insect completes its transformations ; 
within this period passing through the egg, the larval and 
chrysalid states, and then, as a bee, living a few days 
more, if a male ; or if a female, living through the winter. 
Her life thus spans one year. 

The larva (Plate 10, Fig. 10) is longer than that of 
Megachile, and compared with that of Xylocopa, the dif- 
ferent segments are much more convex, giving a serrate 
outline to the back of the worm. The pupa, or chrysalis, 
we have found in the cells the last of July. It is white, 
and three-tenths of an inch long. It differs from that of 
the Leaf-cutter bee in having four spines on the end of the 
body. 

In none of the wild bees are the cells constructed with 
more nicety than those of our little Ceratina. She bores 
out with her jaws a long deep well just the size of her 
body, and then stretches a thin delicate cloth of silk drawn 
tight as a drum-head across each end of her chambers, 
which she then fills with a mixture of pollen and honey. 

>te in MSS. deposited in the Library of the Boston Society of 



THE HOME OF THE BEES. 373 

Her young are not, in this supposed retreat, entirely 
free from danger. The most invidious foes enter in and 
attack her young. Three species of Ichneumon-flies, two 
of which belong to the Chalcid family, lay their eggs within 
the body of the larva, and emerge from the dried larva 
and pupa skins of the bee, often in great numbers. The 
smallest parasite, belonging to the genus Anthophorabia, 
so called from being first known as a parasite on another 
bee, Anthojphora, is a minute species found also abun- 
dantly in the tight cells of the Leat-cutter bee. 

The interesting habits of the Leaf-cutting, or Tailor- 
Bee (Megachile) , have always attracted attention. This 
bee is a stout, thick-bodied insect, with a large square 
head, stout, sharp, scissors-like jaws, and with a thick 
mass of stout dense hairs on the under-side of the tail for 
carrying pollen, as she is not provided with the pollen- 
basket of the Honey and Humble-bee. 

The Megachile lays its eggs in burrows in the stems of 
the elder (Plate 10, Fig. 9), which we have received 
from Mr. James Angus ; we have also found them in the 
hollows of the locust tree. Mr. F. W. Putnam thus 
speaks of the economy of M. amO'iici'lori.-*, our most com- 
mon species. "My attention was first called, on the 26th 
of June, to a female busily engaged in bringing pieces of 
leaf to her cells, which she was building under a board, on 
the roof of the piazza, directly under my window. Nearly 
the whole morning was occupied by the bee in bringing 
pieces of leaf from a rose-bush growing about ten yards 
from her cells, returning at intervals of a half minute to a 
minute with the pieces which she carried in such a manner 
as not to impede her walking when she alighted near her 
hole." We give a figure of the Leaf-cutter bee in the act of 
cutting out a circular piece of a rose-leaf (Plate 10, Fig. 8) . 



374 THE HOME OF THE BEES. 

She alights upon the leaf, and in a few seconds swiftly runs 
her scissors-like jaws around through the leaf, bearing off 
the piece in her hind legs. "About noon she had proba- 
bly completed the cell, upon which she had been engaged, 
as, during the afternoon, she was occupied in bringing 
pollen, preparatory to laying her single egg in the cell. 
For about twenty days the bee continued at work, building 
new cells and supplying them with pollen. . . . On the 
28th of July, upon removing the board, it was found that 
the bee had made thirty cells, arranged in nine rows of 
unequal length, some being slightly curved to adapt them 
to the space under the board. The longest row contained 
six cells, and was two and three-quarters inches in length ; 
the whole leaf structure being equal to a length of fifteen 
inches. Upon making an estimate of the pieces of leaf in 
this structure, it was ascertained that there must have 
been at least a thousand pieces used. In addition to the 
labor of making the cells, this bee, unassisted in all her 
duties, had to collect the requisite amount of pollen (and 
honey?) for each cell, and lay her eggs therein, when 
completed. Upon carefully cutting out a portion of one 
of the cells, a full-grown larva was seen engaged in spin- 
ning a slight silken cocoon about the walls of its prison, 
which were quite hard and smooth on the inside, proba- 
bly owing to the movements of the larva, and the con- 
sequent pressing of the sticky particles to the walls. In 
a short time the opening made was closed over by a very 
thin silken web. The cells, measured on the inside of the 
hard walls, were .35 of an inch in length, and .15 in 
diameter. The natural attitude of the larva is somewhat 
curved in its cell, but if straightened, it just equals the 
inside length of the cell. On the 31st of July, two fe- 
male bees came out, having cut their way through the 



THE HOME OF THE BEES. 375 

sides of their cells." In three other cells "several hun- 
dred minute Ichneumons (Anthophorabia megachilis) 
were seen, which came forth as soon as the cells were 
opened." 

The habits of the little blue or green Mason-bees 
(Osmia), are quite varied. They construct their cells in 
the stems of plants and in rotten posts and trees, or, like 
Andrena, they burrow in sunny banks. An European 
species selects snail shells for its nest, wherein it builds its 
earthen cells, while other species nidificate under stones. 
Curtis found two hundred and thirty cocoons of a British 
species ( Osmia paretina) , placed on the under side of a flat 
stone, of which one-third were empty. Of the remainder, 
the most appeared between March and June, males ap- 
pearing first; thirty-five more bees were developed the 
following spring. Thus there were three successive 
broods, for three succeeding years, so that these bees 
lived three years before arriving at maturity. This may 
account for the insect years, which are like the "apple 
years," seasons when bees and wasps, as well as other in- 
sects, abound in unusual numbers. 

Mr. G. R. Waterhouse, in the Transactions of the En- 
tomological Society of London, for 1864 (3d series, vol. 
2, p. 121), states that the cells of Osmia leucomelana 
are formed of mud, and each cell is built separately. 
The female bee, having deposited a small peliet of mud in 
a sheltered spot between some tufts of grass, immediately 
commences to excavate a small cavity in its upper sur- 
face, scraping the mud away from the centre towards the 
margin by means of her jaws. A small shallow mud-cup 
is thus produced. It is rough and uneven on the outer 
surface, but beautifully smooth on the inner. On wit- 
nessing thus much of the work performed, I was struck 



with three points. 1st, the rapidity with which the in- 
sect worked ; secondly, the tenacity with which she kept 
her original position whilst excavating ; and thirdly, her 
constantly going over work which had apparently been 
completed. ... The lid is excavated and rendered con- 
cave on its outer or upper surface, and is convex and 
rough on its inner surface ; and, in fact, is a simple repe- 
tition of the first-formed portion of the cell, a part of a 
hollow sphere." 

The largest species of Osmia known to us is a very 
dark-blue species.* We are indebted to a lady for speci- 
mens of the bees with their cells, which had been exca- 
vated in the interior of a maple tree several inches from 
the bark. The bee had industriously tunnelled out this 
elaborate burrow (Plate 10, Fig. 12), and, in this respect, 
resembled the habits of the Carpenter-bee (Xylocopa), 
more closely than any other species of its genus. 

The tunnel was over three inches long, and about 
three-tenths of an inch wide. It contracted a little in 
width between the cell, showing that the bee worked in- 
telligently, and wasted no more of her energies than was 
absolutely necessary. The burrow contained five cells, 
each half an inch long, being rather short and broad, with 
the hinder end rounded, while the opposite end, next to 
the one adjoining, is cut off squarely. The cell is some- 
what jug-shaped, owing to a slight constriction just be- 
hind the mouth. The material of which the cell is com- 
posed is stout, silken, parchment-like, and very smooth 
within. The interstices between the cells are filled W 
with rather coarse chippings made by the bee. 



THE HOME OF THE BEES. 377 

The bee cut its way out of the cells in March, and lived 
for a month afterwards on a diet of honey and water. It 
eagerly lapped up the drops of water supplied by its 
keeper, to whom it soon grew accustomed, and seemed to 
recognize. 

Our smallest and most abundant species is the little 
green Osmia simillima of Smith. It builds its little 
oval, somewhat urn-shaped cells against the roof of the 
large deserted galls of the oak-gall fly {Diplolepis conflu- 
entus) , placing them, in this instance eleven in number, 
in two irregular rows, from which the mature bees issue 
through a hole in the gall (Plate 10, Fig. 14. From speci- 
mens communicated by Mr. F. G. Sanborn) . The earthen 
cells, containing the tough dense cocoons, were arranged 
irregularly so as to fit the concave vault of the larger 
gall, which was about two inches in diameter. On 
emerging from the cell the Osmia cuts out with its pow- 
erful jaws an ovate lid, nearly as large as one side of the 
cell. 

In the Harris collection are the cells aud specimens of 
Osmia pacifica Say, the peaceful Osmia, which, according 
to the manuscript notes of Dr. Harris, is found in the 
perfect state in earthen cells beneath stones. The cell is 
oval cylindrical, a little contracted as usual with those of 
all the species of the genus, thus forming an urn-shaped 
cell. It is half an inch long, and nearly three-tenths of 
an inch wide, while the cocoon, which is rather thin, is 
three-tenths of an inch long. We are not acquainted 
with the habits of the larva and pupa in this country, but 
Mr. F. Smith states that the larva of the English species 
hatches in eight days after the eggs are laid, feeds ten to 
twelve days, when it becomes full-grown, then spins a 
thin silken covering and remains in an inactive state 



378 THE HOME OF THE BEES. 

until the following spring, when it completes its transfor- 
mations. 

In the economy of our wild bees we see the manifes- 
tation of a wonderful instinct, as well as the exhibition 
of a limited reason. We can scarcely deny to animals a 
kind of reason which differs only in degree from that of 
man. Each species works in a sphere limited by physi- 
cal laws, but within that sphere it is a free agent. 
They have enough of instinct and reason to direct their 
lives, and to enable them to act their part in carrying out 
the plan of creation. — To be continued. 



1. A cell of the Humble-bee ; natural ! 

mass built upon the top. 

2. End view of the same cell, showing t 



5. The nest containing the cells of the same, with the parti- 

tions and pollen masses, on which the young larva is 
seen in the act of feeding ; natural size. 

6. Young larva of Anthrax sinuosa ; side view. 

7. Pupa of Anthrax sinuosa ; side-view; natural size. 

8. The Leaf-cutter Bee (Megachile), on a rose-leaf, in the act 

of cutting out a circular piece. 

9. Cells of Megachile, in the elder; natural size. 

10. Larva of Ceratina dupla, the little green upholsterer Bee ; 

11. Cells of the same in the stem of the elder ; natural size. 

12. Cells of Osmia lignivora, new species, the wood-devouring 

Mason-bee, excavated in the maple ; natural size. 
, 13. Cells of Osmia simillima, the common green Mason-bee, 
built in the deserted gall of the Oak-gall Fly. 
A single earthen cell of the same ; natural size. 
Pollen mass, or bee-bread of Osmia lignaria; natural size. 
It is made up of distinct pellets of pollen, which are 
probably stuck together with saliva. 




PACKABD'B HOME OF THE BEES, 



THE CHIGNON FUNGUS. 



Nothing could more clearly have shown the amount of 
ignorance of the natural history of minute life abroad 
amongst the public, and the little trouble people will take 
to make the most trivial use of their common sense, when 
a novelty, embellished by plausible description, is pre- 
sented to them, than the rampant nonsense which has 
been penned and believed in regard to the so-called gre- 
garinae infesting certain varieties of false hair. The 
"chignon controversy" has been one of the most wide- 
spread, but at the same time transient sensations of the 
age : started abroad, it soon reached England, where it 
bewildered the fashion worshippers of the day. The im- 
mediate cause of this hubbub was the appearance in the 
Hamburg paper Der Freischutz, of the 7th of February, 
1867, of an article based upon the account given in the 
"Archiv der Gerichtlich Medicin und Hygiene," and in 
which we are informed that "Mr. Lindemann professes to 
have discovered and observed a new microscopical para- 
site, to which he has given the name of Gregarine. He 
reports, according to his observations, that the gregarine 
—a protozoic animalcule — is of the lowest order of de- 
velopment of the animal organism, and is found parasit- 
ically within the animal and human body, where it floats 
about with the blood, by which it is nourished. The 
aiost striking instance of the parasitism of the gregarine 
w said to be its existence on the human hair. The gre- 
garinous hair, however, differs in no way from the sound 
hair. Only if one looks very closely, little dark brown 
knots, which are generally at the free end of the hair, 

(379) 



380 THE CHIGNON FUNGUS. 

may be distinguished even with the naked eye. These 
are gregarines. Out of thirty samples of hair procured 
from a hairdresser in Nishni Novgorod, gregarines were 
found in seventy-five per cent. And it is well known 
that the hair used for the chignons of the better half of 
Russia is bought of the poor peasant women, who are 
proverbially of dirty habits. Pursuing his inquiry, Mr. 
Lindemann has discovered that almost every louse has in 
its interior an enormous number of gregarines, and he 
convinced himself by further experiments that the grega- 
rines on the human hair are deposited there by lice. He 
observes that the most favorable conditions for the growth 
of gregarinee are light, increased temperature, and a moist 
atmosphere ; and he declares that in the ballroom these 
are not without their influence on the parasites when they 
exist on false hair, for they at once revive, grow, and 
multiply, get disseminated in millions, and in consequence 
of the increased respiration produced by the exertion of 
dancing, are inhaled freely into the lungs, reach their 
specific gregarine nature, and after a while induce disease 
in the body." 

In these quotations prevalent fashions were depicted as 
sources of danger, inducing discomfort and disease. A 
writer in one of the daily papers ("Investigator") assert- 
ed that he had witnessed from direct observation the 
development of gregarine into lice, an assumption that 
implies a liberty with Darwinism that its most zealous 
and radical devotees would at the present time hesitate to 
suggest. It is only just to say that the Lancet, which 
first noticed the matter, and confined itself to a mere 
mention of the facts, urged its readers to accept the state- 
ments put forth, with the gravest caution. Lindemann s 
assertions are very startling to scientific men, because 



THE CHIGNON FUNGUS. 381 

they are wholly in antagonism with observed facts. 
Whilst scientific research has as yet afforded little insight 
of the habits of the lower forms of animal and vegetable 
life, the revelations of the microscope within the last few 
years are pregnant with significance as regards their 
ubiquity, and teach us that we are not to be astonished if 
we find living forms in unexpected sites, undergoing the 
most manifold variations in aspect when brought under 
the play of different influences. At the same time we 
have the amplest experience to caution us against the 
acceptance of now species without the keenest criticism. 
What, then, is the truth in this matter? In my devotion 
to the subject of diseases of the skin, it has lain in my 
way during the last ten years to investigate the whole 
subject of diseases of the hair connected with the devel- 
opment of vegetable parasites, and I think no one has 
made a larger number of microscopic observations. I 
have never seen a true gregarina in connection with the 
hair; but I have recently found a vegetable growth on 
false German hair answering in naked eye appearances to 
that described by Lindemanu as little dark specks sur- 
rounding the hair towards its end. Gregarime, according 
to Lindemann, are made up of cells, which he states to be 
vegetable, and it is possible that that which I have found 
may be identical with his gregarinse. I cannot help 
thinking that many bodies totally dissimilar in nature 
have been classed with gregarinas, which my friend Kay 
Lankester, than whom no higher authority on the point 
exists, declares to be truly animal. The growth I have 
found I now proceed to describe. 

If you take a hair on which the parasite exists, and hold 
it between yourself and the light, towards the outer half 
you will see one or more, perhaps half a dozen, little dark 



knots the size of pin-points, surrounding the shaft of the 
hair ; they are readily felt on drawing the hair through 
the fingers ; they are somewhat difficult to detach. If a 
hair be placed under the microscope with a quarter-inch 
objective, the mass will be seen to be made up of cellular 
bodies surrounding the hair, such as are seen in Fig. 1, 
rig. i. kindly drawn for 

me by Dr. Braxton 
Hicks, F. R. S. 

It will be seen 
that the mass has 




a fungus growth, 
of which two dis- 
tinct forms are here 
present, viz., mycelial or filamentous, seen in the central 
part of Fig. 1 ; and sporular or cellular, seen in Fig. 2, 
which is the outer part of Fig. 1. 

The hair is apparently healthy, and if the slide be 
pressed the mass will break away from 
the hair on either side, bringing away 
with it more or less of the cuticle, and 
leaving behind a healthy shaft. The _ 
cells are seen to be of various shapes and ^ c , 
gives a good representation of them ; they are from t 
mo inch; many are like the torula 
cells developed from Penicillium. 
Others are larger, undergoing divis- 
ion very actively ; they may be sub- 
divided into two, three, or four parts, 
or much more freely. This indicates — 
the assumption by the parasite of an algal condition. In 
watching the mass on the hair carefully, it is evident that 




THE CHIGNON FUNGUS. 383 

a number of cells become detached from the outer or 
sporular form, and at once move actively about. These 
small cells indicate an active growth by subdivision, and 
a fruitful source of propagation ; they subsequently be- 
come the cells seen in Fig. 3. Certainly this variety of 
fungus so far described is the most active growth I have 
come across in my researches, and I have been enabled to 
germinate it most successfully, so as to set all questions 
as to its nature completely at rest. Placed under favor- 
able circumstances in water, the spores (Fig. 3) enlarge 
considerably, and the mycelial filaments increase also ; but 
there is at this time to be observed a very remarkable 
occurrence, though not in all cases. Some of the large 
cells in Fig. 1 , have become filled with smaller cells ; and 
in others, in addition to these, processes have been put 
forth from the circumference of the walls in a radiating 
manner ; in other cases the enlarged cells have two long 
cilia attached to them, by which they move about rap- 
idly, whilst a part of the hair, previous to this free from 
the fungus, has become dotted all over by minute cells 
similar to those seen in the in- rig. 4 

terior of the larger ones. All 

But more than this, I have 
observed most distinctly large 
cells filled with smaller cells, 
furnished with exceedingly deli- 
cate radiating processes and put- 
ting forth pseudopodia. One of these cells of large size 
is represented in Fig. 5. 

It will here be seen to have assumed the features of an 
amaeboid body. Nothing could have been more distinct 
to myself, and those who were observing with me, than 





3*4 



this peculiar form ; and it seems to me that we have here 

a pretty complete history of the life of this fungus,— 

namely, the sporular subdividing and assuming an algal 

Fig. 5. form, which in turn 

becomes amoeb i- 

form. and furnishes 

ciliated cells that 

supply the earliest 

condition of the 

fungus, as seen in 

Fig. 4, scattered 

over the hair. 

But not satisfied 
with these results, 
I set to work to grow the fungus in sugar and water, 
under constant observation. A rapid enlargement of the 
sporular cells took place, as in the former case, and in 
some of the larger cells the most distinct circulation of 
the granules around the inner circumference of the parent 
cell was witnessed by myself and my friends, and a beau- 
tiful object it was. Finally, I obtained a result similar to 
the former one. 

Fig. 6 represents the appearance of the fungus at the 

cud of fourteen days, seen with an 1 inch object-glass. 

Fig. 7 is a portion of the mycelium, taken from the 

part over the hair, more highly magnified with a 1-I2th 

object-glass. 

The ends of the filaments seen in Fig. 8 are analogous, 
in fact identical with those forms which I have figured in 
my work oil parasitic diseases of the skin as resulting 
from the growth of oidium. The globose head contains 
spores, and is an early stage. The double cell figured in 
the centre was of a green color like many others. 



Accompanying these 
: s — filled with 



were, as in the former 
cells and granules in ac- 




tive motion— furnished with cilia, and bodies undergoing 
the "amoeboid" transformation, as seen in Figs. 9 and 10, 
with 1-12 inch Powell and Lealand. 

Here, again, we have the growth taking on an algal 




I 



Phase in one direction, and fructifying into a perfect fun- 
gus on the other hand. The drawings I have given were 
&iade on the spot from the microscopic objects, and I 



dOb THE CHIGNON FUNGUS. 

must do the artist credit to say he has most faithfully and 
cleverly portrayed the actual appearances presented by 
the parasite. The observations now recorded are in com- 
plete harmony with those of Dr. Braxton Hicks on the 
Volvox, and De Bary in his work published in 1864, at 
Leipsic, "Die Mycetozoen, Ein Beitrag zur Kentniss Der 
Neidersten Organismen," and are completely confirmatory 
of the opinion before advanced by myself, that the fungi 
found upon or within man belong to one genus, and un- • 
dergo an infinity of variations under different circum- 
stances. In the present case the fungus approaches to 
the character of Torula rather than any other. There 
are many most interesting questions that cannot be dis- 
cussed here. The only one I need refer to is the influ- 
ence which this species of parasite has in the production 
of disease. In the immediate condition in which we find 
it on the hair it need cause but little anxiety ; but the 
minute form as seen in Fig. 4, transplanted to a suitable 
soil — and the scalp of delicate children best furnishes it 
— would produce disease of the scalp : of that I have no 
doubt. Luckily, the tissues of adults, namely, those who 
wear chignons, are not prone to the more severe forms of 
diseases produced by vegetable parasites; and as the 
mass of false hair used in England is free from the fungus 
described above, the total danger, on the whole, is slight. 
— Hardwicke's Science- Gossip. 



Greek, meaning "false-feet;" they are the organs of locomotion, being 
mere extensions of the side, or walls of the body of Infusoria. la 
Fig. 5 they radiate like hairs from the body of the plant. Amoeba is 



An Elementary Treatise on American Grape Culture and Wine 
Making. By Peter B. Mead. Illustrated with nearly two hundred 
engravings, drawn from nature. New York, 1867. Harper & Broth- 

This is a carefully prepared work, and we are informed by those 
who are specially interested in Grape Culture that it contains much 
valuable information. Mr. Meade has certainly shown that he was 
well prepared for the task before him. Besides the several chapters 
on Climate, Location, Soil, Manures, Laying out and Planting a Vine- 
yard, Training on the various Systems, Planting and Propagation, 
etc., etc., there is a full chapter devoted to the Diseases and Insects to 
which the Vine is subject, with figures of the various species of in- 
sects. The article on " Mildew" treats of some of the causes and the 
prevention of this destructive fungus-disease in a comprehensive man- 
ner. The chapter on Wine-making also contains much of scientific 
interest, with an account of Pasteur's experiments, by which he 
shows that "souring," " acetiflcation," "mould," etc., are each pro- 
duced by a different vegetable parasite or fungus, which, if allowed to 
go on to mature growth, will spoil the wine, but which is prevented by 
heating. This heating does not injure the wine, but actually, according 
to M. Pasteur, has the effect of hastening its ripening, and bringing 
forth in a few hours those fine qualities that have heretofore only 
been secured by long and careful keeping in good cellars. 
Annual Report of the Trustees op the Museum of Compara- 
tive Zoology, Cambridge, together with the Report of the 
Director, 1866. Boston, 1867. 8vo, pp. 37. 
This Report of the Cambridge Museum is mainly taken up with an 
account of the Thayer Expedition to Brazil, under the charge of Pro- 
fessor Agassiz. The additions from this source consisted largely of 
Ashes and reptiles. "Of fishes alone, no less than 50,000 specimens 
were actually counted, representing over 2,200 species, the majority 
of which, say 2,000, are probably new to science and to our collections. 
This estimate does not include the smaller specimens, less than two 
inches in length, which also number many thousands." The reports of 
the assistants, Messrs. A. Agassiz, P. R- Uhler, J. G. Anthony, and N. 
S. Shaler, show that good progress had been made in their depart- 



IHSTOEY MISCELLANY. 

Acalephse, by Mr. Alexander Agassiz, has been printed and distributed. 
The third number will contain Professor Agassiz's Eeport on the Coral 
Reefs of Florida, originally prepared for the use of the Coast Survey, 
the latter part of which will be finished by Mr. Theodore Lyman. 

Collections of several classes of animals have been sent to natural- 
ists, abroad and at home, for study and identification, many of which 
were sent from the Brazilian Expedition, though unfortunately lost. 

The practice of scattering among naturalists the material for study, 
a system now pursued by nearly all museums, public and private, 
illustrates the mutual dependence of museums, and those engaged in 

and not in one country alone, but throughout the scientific world. 
Thus, a large museum carried on in the interests of the highest edu- 
cation, must do much towards uniting all men in interpreting the 
marvels of creation. 

Already in this country the value of maintaining large museums is 
widely felt. We cannot afford to stint any of our educational insti- 
tutions. We cannot have too many scientific schools, or too many 
museums, and money applied to their endowment will surely tend to 
enrich the nation, as well as advance good learning and the broadest 

The American Bee Journal and Gazette. Edited and published 
monthly, by Samuel Wagner, Washington, D. C 8vo, #2 a year. 
With the July number this important journal begins a new volume, 
and in an improved dress. It has been steadily gaining in interest 
— lent value. No bee-keeper, or sti 
s work. We hope the circulation \ 
i growing interest ii 
keeping will enable it to b 



NATURAL HISTORY MISCELLANY. 

BOTANY. 

A Supposed New Columbine, and a New Ox-eye Daisy. — On 

the 15th of May, 1866, I found on the heights west of the Hudson and 

opposite the city of Poughkeepsie, N. Y., a cluster of wild Columbine 

(AqnitPfjia), with all the flowers of a delicate yellow color. I pre- 



URAL HISTORY MISCELLANY 



red or purph 


i was wholly absen 


t.- On 


I found the 


same variety agaii 






Is it probable tl 






species? I shall 






ie X AIT KAt.IST sha 




Meanwhile I call it the yellow-fl 




Columbine (. 


Aqnihijinjkn-ijttira 




On the 8t 


h of June, 1867, 




specimens o 


f a new form of 


Ox-eye 




DaiM h-Hcanthemm 
in the fields of Hon. Matthew Vassar, 
of Poughkeepsie, N. Y., two of which 
were kindly sent to me. At first I 
■: the plant could be noth- 



f nature ; and when 
[ half expected 



forms in any observed case— a 
i same root, although 
<r promiscuously together, 



m the common one. H;n 
tiuu ,,f rids form in botanical works, and believi 
science, I have ventured to name it L 

Yesterday, June 13th, I revisited the locality . 
brought home specimens enough for 
1 hun dred in number. I would only add, that I ha 



from Professo 



ay, to whom I sent specimens of the daisy, in whi 
fc while he does not regard it &s a new species, ] 
ito his Manual of Botany as a variety, adopting t] 



390 NATURAL HISTORY MISCELLANY. 

Change of Color m Flowers placed under Glasses < 

experimental green-houses and hot-l 
the plan to be adopted in their 
pose of the physiologist. "A building, such as I propose, would allow 
of light being passed through colored glasses or colored solutions, 
and so prove the effect of the different visible and invisible rays which 
enter into the composition of sunlight. M. Von Martin placed some 
plants of Amaranthus tricolor for two months under glasses of various 
colors. Under the yellow glass the varied tint of the leaves was pre- 
served. The red glass impeded the development of the leaves, and 
produced, at the base of the limb, yellow instead of green; in the mid- 
dle of the upper surface, yellow instead of reddish brown ; and below, 
a red spot instead of purplish red. With the blue glasses, which al- 
lowed some green and yellow to pass, that which was red or yellow 
in the leaf had spread so that there remained only a green border or 
edge. Under the nearly pure violet glasses, the foliage became almost 
uniformly green. Now that plants with colored foliage are becoming 
fashionable, it may interest horticulturists to know that by means 
of colored glasses, provided they are not yellow, they may hope to 
obtain, at least, temporary effects as to the coloring of variegated fo- 
liage. Nothing would be easier than to create in the experimental 
hot-house an atmosphere of carbonic acid gas, such as is supposed to 
have existed in the coal period. Then it might be seen to what extent 
our present vegetation would take an excess of carbon from the air, 
and if its general existence were inconvenienced by it. Then might 
be ascertained what tribes of plants could bear this condition, and 
what other families could not have existed, supposing the air had 
formerly had a very large proportion of carbonic acid gas."— Qwr- 



ZOOLOGY. 
The Stdefed Whale in the Swedish Museum.— Professor Lill- 
jeborg describes, in a letter to Dr. J. E. Gray, how this species of 
whale (Balceoptera) was stuffed, which we translate as follows. The 
skin of the same was divided into several portions, and then stretch- 
ed over a model made of wood of the exact form and size of the ani- 
mal itself. The epidermis is preserved on the skin, and it is still 
but slightly torn. The layer of blubber is without doubt very thin, 
otherwise the skin (epidermis) would have been filled with rents and 



"wrinkles, which, however, i 



NATURAL HISTORY CALENDAR. 391 

The Eggs of the Dragon-fly. — Since printing the article on the 
Dragon-fly in our last number we have had an opportunity of seeing 
the eggs collected by a friend at Haverhill, July 3d, at the first field- 
meeting of the Essex Institute. The eggs are laid in immense num- 
bers in long ropy, gelatinous masses, nearly one-half an inch thick, 
attached to an aquatic grass. When folded together, the entire mass 
was nearly the size of a hen's egg. 

The new-born larvae looked like small spiders swimming in the 
water, as the abdomen is very short, and the legs remarkably long, 
the hindermost pair being one-half longer than the body. The body 
is very transparent, and through the thin wall can be seen the blood 
coursing rapidly through the dorsal vessel or heart, and returning 
along the side of the body, as also the smaller currents thrown into 
and returning from the legs. The little < 



We shall speak at another time oi 
goes before hatching. The eggs are only two and one-half hundredths 
of an inch long. It is probable that they are the young of Diplax, as 
they bear a close resemblance to the pupa (fig. 4) figured in our last 
number. 

Rapid Change of Color in Fish.— I caught the other day in 
fishing for shells, a small "horned-pout," about two inches long, in- 
tensely black in color. I put him in a white bowl to examine him. In 
half an hour he had turned white, so clear and pretty in color, that 
you could see the circulation under the skin of the body. Only his 
"feelers" and eyes remained black, and he is now, three days after 
capture, lively, healthy, and well bleached. Do these fish usually 
change their color in this way?— E. C. Bolles, Portland, Me. 



NATURAL HISTORY CALENDAR. 

Insects ln September Few new insects make their first appear- 
ance for the season during this month. Most of the species which 
abound in the early part of the month are the August forms, which 
live until they are killed by the frosts late in the month. From this 
cause there is towards the end of the month a very sensible diminu- 
tion of the number of insects. 

^_ The early frosts warn these delicate creatures of approaching cold. 

5 whole insect population is busied late in the month in look- 

r quarters, or providing fo 



m g out snug v 



392 NATURAL HISTORY CALEND 



species. Warned by the cool and frosty nights, multitudes of cater- 
pillars prepare to spin their dense silken cocoons, which guard them 
against frost and cold. Such are the " Spinners," as the Germans call 
them, the Silk-moths,- of which the American Silk-worm is a fair ex- 
ample. The last of September it spins its dense cocoon, in which it 
hybernates in the chrysalis state. 

The larva? of those moths, such as the Sphinges, or Hawk-moths, 
which spin no cocoon, descend deep into the earth, where they lay in 
rude earthen cocoons. 

The wild bees may now be found frequenting flowers in consider- 
able numbers. Both sexes of the Humble-bee, the Leaf-cutter Bee, 

One's attention during an unusually warm and pleasant day in this 
month is attracted by the clouds of insects filling the air, especially 
towards sunset, when the slanting rays of the sun shine through the 
winged hosts. On careful observation these insects will prove to be 
nearly ail ants, and, perhaps, to belong to a single species. Looking 
about on the ground, an unusual activity will be noticed in the ant- 
hills. This is the swarming of the ants. The autumnal brood of 
females has appeared, and this is their marriage day. 

The history of a formkarium, or ant's nest, is as follows : The 
workers, only, hybernate, and are found early in spring, taking care of 
the eggs and larvae produced by the autumnal brood of females. In 
the course of the summer these eggs and larvae arrive at maturity, and 
swarm on a hot sultry day, usually early in September. The females, 
after their marriage flight, for the small diminutive males seek their 
company at this time, descend and enter the ground to lay their eggs 
for new colonies, or, as Westwood states, they are often seized by the 
workers and retained in the old colonies. Having no more inclination 
to fly, they pluck off their wings and may be seen running about wing- 

The autumnal brood of Plant-lice now occur in great numbers on 
various plants. The last brood, however, does not consist exclu- 
sively of males and females, for of some of the wingless individuals 
previously supposed to be perfect insects of both sexes, Dr. W. I- 
Burnett found that many were in reality of the ordinary gemmipa- 
rous form, such as those composing the early summer broods. 

The White Pine Plant-lice. seen laying their 

long string of black oval eggs on the needles of the pine. They are 
accompanied by hosts of two-winged flies, Ichneumons, and in the 
night; by many moths which feed on the Aphis-honey they secrete, and 
which drops upon the leaves beneath. — A. S. P. 



AMERICAN NATURALIST. 

Vol. I.-OCTOBER, 1867.-NO. 8. 
THE QUADRUPEDS OF ARIZONA. 



(Continued from p. 363.) 

Family Saccomyidm, the Pouched Rats. This is a 
curious and interesting family of Rodents, represented in 
Arizona by quite numerous species. Its several genera 
differ to a remarkable degree in external characters, but 
agree in the possession of very large cheek pouches, open- 
ing outside the small mouth, and capable of enormous 
extension ; and in numerous anatomical features. Two 
subfamilies exist in North America, — the Geomyina, 
and the Saccomyince. The former includes the "Gophers" 
or "Salamanders" or "Pouched Rats," as they are vari- 
ously styled in different sections. They are clumsy, 
thick-set animals, with large heavy heads, short thick 
necks, small inexpressive features, short tails, and very 
strong muscular legs, armed with large claws, eminently 
fitted for digging. They are also wholly nocturnal, and 
live in subterranean galleries which they excavate. The 
Saccomyince, on the other hand, are elegant in shape, of 
pleasing colors, and graceful motions; and though par- 

AMER1CAN NAT., VOL. I. 50 (393) 



394 THE QUADRUPEDS OF ARIZONA. 

tially subterranean and nocturnal, often come abroad in 
the daytime. They are known in the vernacular as 
"Kangaroo" or "Jumping" Rats and Mice, and are en- 
tirely confined to Transmississippian regions. The larg- 
est species is about as big as a third-grown rat, while the 
smallest is among the most diminutive of all our animals, 
unless some of the shrews are still less in size. These 
animals have well-formed bodies, very large and muscu- 
lar thighs, small hands, large rounded ears, full protu- 
berant eyes, and very long tails, often tufted at the end. 
Their fur is peculiarly soft and lustrous. 

The two genera of the Geomyince, though very similar 
to each other, are distinguished, among other features, 
by the absence in Thomomys of the deep central longitu- 
dinal grooves in the upper incisors which exist in Geo- 
mys. The latter is hardly known west of the Rocky 
Mountains, nor the former to the eastward of them. 
Though two other species may occur in Arizona {Thom- 
omys bulbivorus from California, and T. umbrinus from 
Sonora), only one, the Red Sand-rat (T.fulvus) is at all 
common. It was discovered by Dr. Woodhouse in the 
vicinity of the San Francisco Mountains, where it is ex- 
ceedingly abundant. It lives mainly in light sandy or 
loamy soil, such as may be readily excavated. The soft 
soil of grassy hill-sides, or sloping meadows, especially in 
the vicinity of oaks, or clumps of nut-bearing trees, are 
favorite resorts, as it finds there an abundance of acorns, 
seeds, and grasses, upon which it feeds. The succulent 
stems and roots of many herbs also furnish it with food. 
Wherever it takes up its abode, little piles of fresh moist 
earth may be seen in every direction, sometimes scores 
within a radius of as many yards. These are especially 
noticeable in the morning, for the animal is strictly 



THE QUADRUPEDS OF ARIZONA. 395 

nocturnal, never working, and rarely venturing from its 
burrow in the daytime. During the night it is very 
industrious, both in collecting food and in enlarging its 
galleries; and the amount of fresh earth visible one 
day, where none had been the day before, is sometimes 
astonishing. Should Arizona ever become a cultivated 
region, this gopher would be wellnigh as great a pest to 
the farmer as the T. bulbivorus and Spermophilua Beecheyi 
are in California. We were much annoyed by their dig- 
ging around, and partially undermining our tents, causing 
the canvas flooring to slump in when trodden upon. 
Pouring water in their holes, or plugging them up with 
sticks, seemed to take effect mainly as a provocation 
to them to dig others. Though thus daily "bored" — 
literally and figuratively — by these . beasts, I never saw 
one in a state of nature, and only procured two specimens 
in as many years. It is notorious that a person may live 
surrounded by them for years, and never see one, so 
timid and retiring are they, and so strictly nocturnal. 

The Pouched Kangaroo Eat (Bipodomys Ordii) is the 
main representative of its subfamily in Arizona, and ex- 
tends also over New Mexico, Texas, and part of Mexico. 
A closely allied species (D. Philippii) replaces it in Cali- 
fornia. It is one of the most abundant of the Rodents 
about Fort Whipple, where it more nearly takes the 
place of the house rat and mouse than any other native 
species, except an Hesperomys, to be presently noticed. It 
is beautiful in form and colors, and its motions are agile 
and graceful. Above, it is of a clear fawn color, deepen- 
ing along the middle of the back into brownish gray ; the 
^hole under parts are pure silvery white, which color 
also forms an artistic contrast to the fawn, by striping 
the head and thighs. The long tail, tufted near the end, 



396 THE QUADRUPEDS OF ARIZONA. 

is mouse-gray above and below, and pure white on its 
sides. The fur is peculiarly soft, smooth, and lustrous. 
It chiefly inhabits loose sandy soil, like a gopher, though 
its "sign" differs greatly from that of the last named; 
but it is not entirely subterranean in habit, as it may be 
found living in piles of brush, fallen logs, etc. Though it 
labors at its domicile, and collects food mainly by night, 
it should not be called a nocturnal animal, any more than 
a House Kat, though the latter is liveliest and most 
plaguey after dark. 

Since the erection of buildings in the interior of Ari- 
zona, the Kangaroo Rat has in a measure taken up its 
residence about them, showing the same adaptability to 
semi-domestication that the House Mouse exhibits. Many 
used to live in our storehouses and granaries at Fort 
Whipple, and even brought forth their young there, in 
just such nooks as the common mouse would select. Par- 
turition occurs in May or June, though more than one 
litter may be produced in one season. The young are 
for some time much darker and grayer than their parents. 
Although sullen, and apparently much cowed when first 
caught, these rats soon become familiar, and make agree- 
able pets. I have frequently seen them enter my tent 
at night, when all was still, and search about for food. 
They ordinarily move on all-fours, with a motion not 
unlike that of a rabbit when leisurely moving about. The 
body is alternately strongly arched and extended; the 
long hind feet rest on the ground to the heel, and the 
heavy tail trails straightly after. If frightened, this easy 
motion is changed to a succession of astonishingly vigor- 
ous leaps. Perhaps the most beautiful features of these 
animals are their eyes, which are round and full, glossy 
black, and softly brilliant. 



THE QUADRUPEDS OF ARIZONA. 397 

Another genus of Pouched Mice (Perognathus) occurs 
in Arizona. Its species much resemble those of Dipo- 
domys in general appearance. Prominent amongst them 
is the P. penicillatus, also discovered by Dr. Woodhouse 
on the San Francisco Mountains. It is the largest species 
of its genus in the United States. Two others known to 
occur are P. fiavus and P. parvus, both of which are 
among the most diminutive of all our animals. Little is 
known of these comparatively rare animals, though it is 
presumed that their habits are in general similar to those 
of Dipodomys. 

Family Muridce, the Rats and Mice. A species of this 
extensive family — the Jaculus Hudsonius — is also called 
the "Kangaroo" or "Jumping" Mouse, but must not be 
confounded with the preceding. It belongs to the same 
subfamily (Dipodince) as the Jerboa (Dipus sagitta). It 
has no cheek pouches, and is otherwise conspicuously dif- 
ferent from any member of the Saccomyince. It is of very 
extensive diffusion throughout North America, though I 
believe its actual occurrence in Arizona requires confir- 
mation. 

Exclusive of the Dipodince, the Muridce are represented 
in North America by two subfamilies: the Murince, or 
true rats and mice, and the Arvicolince. The latter is 
composed of the Meadow-mice (Arvicola), the Musk-rats 
(Fiber), and the Lemmings (My odes). The first sub- 
family is usually divided iuto the Mures, or "Old World 
Rats," as they are called, and really were originally, 
though they are now cosmopolite ; and the Sigmodontes, or 
"New World Ruts," embracing such forms as the Cotton 
Rats (Sigmodon), the Bush Rats (Neotoma), and the 
Field-mice (Hesperomys) . I am not aware that any 
"Mures" have as yet made their way into the central and 



398 THE QUADRUPEDS OF ARIZONA. 

unfrequented portions of the Territory, though the usual 
number of them exist at our various footholds on the 
Colorado River. In the interior, the indigenous species 
hold full sway, or at least did so two or three years 
ago, — the time of which I write, — though since then 
the Brown Rat (Mus decumanus) , and the House Mouse 
(Mm musculus) may have migrated all over the Terri- 
tory, or been transported wherever the white man has 
settled. 

The genus Hesperomys is, perhaps, the best represented 
of the Sigmodontes. At least one species {H. eremicus 
Baird) is very abundant, both along the Colorado valley 
and the interior of the Territory. I found it very nume- 
rous at Fort Whipple, where it in a great measure seemed 
to abandon its primitive habits, and take up its residence 
as a veritable house mouse in buildings, particularly our 
granaries and store-rooms. It was sufficiently numerous 
to become quite an annoyance, sharing the plunder and 
comfortable home with the Kangaroo Rats. It ordinarily 
lives in bushes, brush-heaps, scrubby trees, etc., where 
it builds a somewhat bulky nest, of a globular shape, of 
grasses compactly matted together, and warmly lined. 
Another species (H. 8onoriensis) which I have never per- 
sonally met with, occurs in the southern portions of the 
Territory. Mr. Clarke says that it seems to live, as cir- 
cumstances may determine, either in the ground or in 
hollow trees. The species (or perhaps only variety of 
H. leucopus) called H. Texensis by Dr. Woodhouse, may 
also occur in South-eastern Arizona. 

The genus Eeithrodon (of which the little Harvest- 
mouse of the Southern States (Reithrodon humilis) is a 
typical species) is very similar to Hesperomys, but the 
upper incisors are longitudinally grooved instead of being 



THE QUADKITPEDS OF ARIZONA. 309 

perfectly smooth. Those species most likely to occur are 
Reithrodon montanus Baird, of which the type is from the 
Rocky Mountains in latitude 39° ; and B. megalotis in 
the regions contiguous to Sonora. They must either be 
quite rare, or of very inconspicuous habits. 

The Bush Rat (JVeotoma Mexicana) is abundant 
throughout the Territory, and forms no small item in the 
economy of the Indians. Not only the numerous tribes of 
the Colorado, but also the various branches of the Apache 
family, make great use of them as an article of food. 
After the destruction of Apache "ranokerias," we always 
found, among other implements and utensils, numerous 
sticks, about as big as walking-canes, one end of which 
"was bent in the shape of a hook, hardened in the fire, and 
a little sharpened. These, I was informed and have every 
reason to believe, were used to probe holes and poke 
about brush-heaps for rats, and to drag them out when 
discovered. 

This statement may be doubted by those who know 
of the Bush Rat only as an arboreal species, building 
a compact globular nest of grasses and sticks in mez- 
quite and other low thick trees. While this is cer- 
tainly the case, there is no doubt that, under different 
circumstances, it may live underground, among rocks, 
or in brush-heaps. I have seen many heaps of rushes, 
sticks, and grasses, which could have been the work of no 
other animal, and formed either the nest itself, or the 
"vestibule" of a subterranean abode. I have also been 
informed to the same effect by several hunters and good 
observers. Dr. Kennerly has found it living under stones. 
It shows no tendency to modify its primitive habits by 
taking up its residence with man. 

The food of these rats is entirely vegetable, and ob- 



400 THE QUADRUPEDS OF ARIZONA. 

servers agree in noting their particular fondness for mez- 
quite beans ; both the long straight pods of the Algarobia 
glandulosa, and the curious spirally-twisted fruit of the 
"screw-mezquite" (Strombocarpa pubescens) . As might 
be expected from the nature of their food, their flesh is 
excellent eating. 

The idea of eating rats i- doubtless disgusting to most 
persons — not Chinese nor Indian ; but all such must re- 
member that they take their notions from the House 
Rat, which is a dirty beast, feeding upon sewerage, 
garbage, and any decaying animal or excrement it ions 
matter which may come in its way. The Bush Rat's food 
is as cleanly as that of a hare or squirrel, and there is no 
reason why its flesh should not be as good, as in truth I 
can assert it to be, having eateu it myself. 

Arizona seems remarkably deficient in Meadow-mice 
(Arvicola) . I am not aware that any species has been 
recorded from within its limits. At least one exists, 
however, as I know, having taken some fragments, too 
much mutilated for identification, from the stomach of a 
large hawk. 

The Musk-rat, or Ondatra (Fiber zibethicus), so ex- 
tensively diffused over North America, finds a place in 
Arizona, and is common on many of its streams. It is 
said that this animal and the beaver cannot live harmo- 
niously together, the one harassing and finally dislodg- 
ing the other ; but I cannot vouch for the truth of the 



The Indians make considerable use of Musk-rat skins 
for quivers, a number of them being sewn together, 
though a single skin of some larger animal, as a lynx, is 
usually preferred— To be concluded. 



THE AWAKENING OF THE 



To those who are in the custom of studying the habits 
of our native birds, their awakening, and early songs are 
very interesting. It is in the early morning that birds 
are in the highest spirits ; then it is that they appear to the 
best advantage ; and then it is that their songs are sweet- 
est. When summer comes on, and the days grow hot 
and long, and the singing of the birds ceases nearly alto- 
gether, early in the morning, ere yet the sun has wanned 
the cool air, the birds sing with all their former vivacity, 
and seem the same merry-hearted heaux that they were in 
spring. The early morning has always been a favorite 
time of mine for studying Natural History, and especially 
Ornithology ; and I always learn more in one horn.- then, 
than in three or four in the middle of the day. 

Some birds rise much earlier thau others. As a rule, 
those that live in the fields are much earlier risers than 
those dwelling in the woods ; and, per contra, the field 
birds go to bed earlier than the wood birds. 

The Robin is our earliest songster. While the stars 
still twinkle, and the first gray streaks of dawn have but 
just appeared, the Robin wakes from his sleep, and pours 
forth his matin hymn. From all sides the songs proceed, 
—from the orchard and garden, from the edge of the 
neighboring woods, and from the trees that fringe the 
brooks and ponds, you hear the joyous, ringing strains of 
this delightful songster. After singing for ten minutes 
or so, Robin descends from his perch, and seeks his 
breakfast with an appetite sharpened by the morning air ; 
yet you hear him throughout the morning, but not so 



402 THE AWAKENING OF THE BIRDS. 

often as in the early dusk. Then he puts forth his finest 
effort ; and if you would fully appreciate his song, you 
must listen to his matinee which he gives in the earliest 
light. 

While the Robin is yet singing, the two Pewees awake, 
and mingle their mournful notes with the Robin-concert. 
These notes, though so sad aud plaintive, have, never- 
theless, a pleasing effect ; and the common Pewee espec- 
ially is welcome. Long after you have ceased to hear 
him in the broad glare of day, or even in the quiet even- 
ing, you may listen to him in the early morning, the 
fresh air of which seems to have an electric effect, not 
only upon him, but upon all the other birds besides. 

Shortly after the Robin has finished his song, or rather 
while he is still singing, the Bluebird is heard "saluting 
the morn with his soft notes." You seldom hear him 
during the hot summer days of June and July ; but here, 
in the early morning, he is the same gallant and musical 
fellow that he was in March and April. Simultaneously 
with the Bluebird the Chipping Sparrow awakes, and is 
soon heard chanting his simple cricket-like song from the 
I lawn. 
But now, as the light increases, and the clouds in the 
east give evidence by their crimson hues that the sun is 
nearing the horizon, birds of all sorts begin to awake. 
The sharp "sphack" of the Least Flycatcher comes from 
the orchards ; the King-birds make the fields noisy with 
their notes, and the songs come so thick and fast, that it 
is next to impossible to tell which was the earliest. The 
Song Sparrows and the Indigo-birds sing sweetly from 
their accustomed haunts, while the Vesper Sparrow de- 
livers his delightful strains from the broad open pasture- 
lands. This latter bird seems to take a fancy to singing 



AGENCY OF INSECTS IN FERTILIZING PLANTS. 403 

in the dusk, for, although one may hear him at all hours, 
still he prefers the dim morn or the quiet twilight. The 
Bobolink is an early riser too, and his jolly, jingling notes 
add much to the chorus of bird-voices that now chant so 
sweet a concert on every side. 

The forest birds are now awake, and from the dark, 
distant woods come the faint bell-like notes of the Wood 
Thrush, our prince of songsters. The Veery, and the 
Rose-breasted Grosbeak join in with him, and the woods 
soon ring with the notes of these three birds, who are 
unquestionably our finest songsters. The Vireos, who 
have been awake some time, lend their sweet voices to 
swell the choir ; and as the sun rises in the sky, the con- 
cert each moment grows louder and louder. The Golden- 
crowned Thrush begins his hurried, ecstatic song; the 
Wrens, Catbirds, Orioles, Warblers, and Sparrows, all 
add their notes to the sylvan concert; and by the time 
the sun has lifted himself well above the horizon, all the 
birds are awake and in full song. 



AGENCY OF INSECTS IN FERTILIZING 
PLANTS. 



There are two other peculiarities among certain plants 
by which a cross-fertilization is made most probable, and 
even very sure in some cases, notwithstanding the flowers 
are all perfect and of one form. 

In some of these the stigmas come out and are fertil- 
ized before the anthers of the flower burst open ; while in 



404 AGENCY OF INSECTS IN FERTILIZING PLANTS. 

others the anthers are in advance, and discharge their 
pollen before the stigmas appear. In either case the 
flowers act as though they were monoecious. 

These peculiarities have been termed dichogamy by 
Sprengel, who made the discovery many years ago. Of 
the first kind, in which the stigmas are in advance of the 
anthers, I examined the young flowers of several species 
of Spiraea, just before any of the anthers had opened, and 
in all I found the stigmas quite plentifully covered with 
the yellow powder. Many stigmas were dry and with- 
ered, while some of the anthers were still full of fresh 
pollen. Similar observations were made upon False 
Solomon's Seal, several species of Potentilla, Plum, 
Cherry, and others. One of the best examples of this 
kind was pointed out by Dr. Gray, in the case of the 
Plantain or Ribgrass (Plantago lanceolata Linn.), a 
troublesome plant which is Too rapidly finding its way 
into meadows and waste places. 

These flowers, in arrangement, somewhat resemble a 
short tapering spike of Timothy or Herd's-grass. The 
long hairy stigmas come out first at the base of the spike, 
and are quite withered and dead before the stamens of the 
same flowers appear in sight. By the time the long 
thread-shaped stamens of the lowest flowers hang out their 
anthers, the stigmas of other flowers higher up the spike 
are exposed and ready to receive the fertilizing element, 
So new pistils continue to come forth, keeping in advance 
of the stamens. The long filament raises the anther so 
high that it is brought near the stigmas of younger flow- 
ers farther up the spike. This plant, like most of the 
large Grass-family, is not visited by insects, as it secretes 
no nectar, but each anther is hung on a mere point (ver- 
satile) and every slight motion of the air keeps it flutter- 



AGENCY OF INSECTS IN FERTILIZING PLANTS. 405 

i n g- % applying a low magnifying power, the pollen 
was seen with its long tube thrust into the stigma before 
anthers had shown themselves above the calyx. While 
within the calyx the filaments are folded upon themselves, 
which accounts for their great length as soon as they come 
forth. 

The Broad-leaved Plantain {Flantago major Linn.), so 
common about door-yarHs, resembles the one above men- 
tioned as regards its mode of fertilization. 

On the long spikes of flowers of the False Indigo and 
Lead-plant (Amorpha fruticosa Linn., and A. canescens 
Nuttall) , the bees and wasps were seen beginning at the 
base on the older flowers, and so passing up, visiting 
those above in which the anthers were still young and 
enclosed by the corolla. Here, as in the Plantain, the 
pistils are a day or two in advance of the stamens, 
and the insects are a means of affecting a cross-fertiliza- 
tion. 

The common Dandelion (Taraxicum dens-leonis Desfon- 
taines) is a good example of the other kind of dichogamy, 
in which the anthers discharge the pollen before the stig- 
mas are ready to receive it. This belongs to a very large 
family called Composite^, which contains from one-eighth 
to one-tenth of all "the flowering plants in this part of the 
world. Each yellow head in the Dandelion is a cluster 
of small flowers packed closely togetFer, and not one 
large compound flower as the name implies, which was 
given by the early botanists. Each pistil bears two long 
slender stigmas surrounded by the anthers which are 
united by their edges, forming a tube {syngenesious). 
The stigmas are covered on the outside with small hairs, 
having their tips pointing upwards, like the beards on a 
head of barley. 



40. J 



IN FERTILIZING PLANTS. 



Imagine a head of barley much lengthened and split 
in two down the middle, and you have a good represen- 
tation of the stigmas of a Dandelion. When the tips of 
these are just above the apex of the anthers, the pollen is 
discharged and carried up on the hairs by the style which 
grows very rapidly at this time. 

The stigmas are closely pressed together until clear 
above the anthers, when they begin to spread and roll 
back, exposing the inside surface which alone is sensi- 
tive to the action of the pollen. Several kinds of bees, 
flies, and smaller insects visit these flowers and brush the 
pollen off the outside of the style, and leave some on the 
inside surface where it can take effect. Were it intended 
for close, self-fertilization, as a superficial examination 
would seem to indicate, the style should be shorter, and 
the stigmas a little separated, so that pollen would meet 
the proper surface before the stigmas leave the surround- 
ing anthers. Or else the surface, which is sensitive 
to pollen, should be on the outside instead of on the in- 

I have examined Coreopsis, Fall Dandelion {Leonto- 
don), and Succory, and many more of this vast family, 
which showed these same peculiarities mentioned above. 

In Sweet Coltsfoot (JVardosmia) , a rare plant of this 
order growing north of this latitude, some of the little 
flowers are sterile, i. e., the imperfect pistil bears no 
seed, but the top of the style has a tuft of little hairs 
which push up the pollen from the anther-tube that it 
may reach the stigmas of other flowers, and so not be en- 
tirely lost. 

At the suggestion of Dr. Gray I examined some half a 
dozen or more species of Bellflower, or Campanula. The 
one most carefully noticed was" CampanufiTrapunculoides. 



AGENCY OF INSECTS IN FERTILIZING PLANTS. 407 

It has five anthers which stand up close together, although 
not joined by their edges into a tube as in the dandelion. 
In three other respects it resembles this plant ; namely, 
in having the style covered with hairs or short bristles on 
the outside, and in having the sensitive part of the stigma 
on the inside. In the same way also the style nearly 
doubles in length after the pollen is discharged. 

The pollen begins to discharge very soon, so that by 
the time the corolla is fairly open, the anthers wither, 
and are coiled up at the base of the flower. After the 
hairs on the style have nearly all disappeared, and the 
pollen which they held has been removed, or has turned 
brown in decay, the stigmas separate at the top, and ex- 
pose the sensitive surface. For each flower to be self- 
fertilizing, this plan is a perfect failure. 

Bees are willing agents here, as in other instances, 
alighting first on the stigmas of the oldest flowers, which 
are farthest down the stem, and then passing up to others 
which are younger. Besides collecting nectar at the bot- 
tom of the flower, they collect the pollen by scraping 
the? style upon each side with their legs, and, when call- 
ing at the next flower, first strike the exposed stigmas, 
leaving a few little morsels as tribute for their bountiful 
supply. 

The flowers of the Mallow Family have numerous sta- 
mens, joined into a column or tube (monadelphous) , 
through which the stigmas are protruded. My observa- 
tions on this family have been rather limited, but in the 
High Mallow (Malva sylvestris Linn.), the anthers all 
burst, and very little pollen remains about the flower, 
when the stigmas first come to the light, as brides too late 
for the marriage, for the bridegrooms have been carried 
away by the priests, and perhaps wedded to others. 



408 AGENCY OF INSECTS IN FERTILIZING PLANTS. 

The fact once well established, that insects are : 
sary to fertilize plants, brings up some other 
inquiries in reference to the origin of animals and plants. 
Some would probably say that plants, which now require 
the agency of insects, have arrived at their present form 
by a long series of gradual changes, and that before the 
proper insects were created they were capable of self- 
fertilization. Others may say that the plants of this 
structure were created later than those capable of self- 
propagation, and upon which the insects could subsist for 
a time. Another plan can, however, be devised, as they 
are alike useful to each other. "As the bow unto the cord 
is," they may have been called into existence at the same 
time, the flowers to secrete nectar for the insects, and the 
insects to fertilize the flowers. 

Were Dr. Watts again alive, and should some one tell 
him these facts of science, he might well exclaim, as the 
Queen of Sheba did* to King Solomon, "Behold the half 
was not told me." He gave us but half the story, and 
that the one which teaches the least instructive lesson. 
It is now over two years since some one, I wish I knew 
his name, rung the change, — 



The bees go buzzing through the air visiting flower after 
flower, not only to get their daily bread, but render an 
essential aid in perpetuating the existence of the very 
same plants which furnish them food. 

This furnishes another pertinent illustration of the 
mutual dependence of the animal and vegetable king- 



THE TAEANTULA. 



This very large hunter-spider makes its appearance in 
Texas some years as early as the twenty-fifth of May, 
generally, however, not earlier than the first days of June. 
They dwell in the ground in a hole, which they excavate 
themselves, about one inch in diameter, and six or eight 
inches deep, widening a little at the bottom. They make 
their nocturnal hunting excursions for some distance from 
the hole, returning to it early in the morning, and are 
occasionally seen walking out of evenings, and also in 
cloudy days. They would probably hunt their prey alto- 
gether by daylight, were it not for their dread of the 
great Pompilus formosus, or Tarantula Killer, their natu- 
ral enemy. Towards sunset, about the first of June, 
the Mi/gale Hentzii, or Tarantula, is often seen creeping 
along the narrow paths in the grassy woods, or in the 
prairies, searching for some kind of small game, — worms, 
grasshoppers, small lizards, anything they can kill, upon 
which they leap with great violence and wonderful agil- 
ity. I discovered one of their holes several years ago in 
my garden, and, looking into it, could see the eyes of 
the Tarantula glittering like coals of fire. I procured a 
large fat grub, and holding it near the mouth of the hole, 
the Tarantula instantly rushed out, and seized the grub 
with such violence as to startle me. I fed it daily for 
two weeks, and it consumed two large grubs each day. 
It became quite tame and much more decent in taking its 
meals from my hands. 

On going into the garden one evening, I met our large 
red-winged Pompilus — it was also one of our pets,parad- 



410 THE TAEANTULA. 

ing about the house and yard — dragging my murdered 
Tarantula, which was as limber as a rag, out through the 
gate. She dragged the paralyzed victim to the dwelling- 
house, distant about fifty yards, and entombed it in her 
great cemetery under the floor, where she had already 
deposited many of its kindred. 

I have been observing this spider as closely, consider- 
ing its nocturnal habits, as I could during the last twenty 
years. I have seen no nests, no webs, no eggs, nothing 
but a roughly-made hole seven or eight inches deep, car- 
ried down not quite perpendicularly, and widened a little 
at the bottom. I have examined many of these holes, 
and, except an occasional dead grasshopper, saw nothing 
in them that suggested the idea of a nest. These holes 
seem to be fortifications only, to protect them while they 
sleep from the incursions of their diurnal enemies. 

I have seen their young many times, always sticking 
among their stiff hairs, and clinging to their legs and 
body ; but where these young ones come from I am not 
prepared to explain, nor can I with my present experi- 
ence say, whether the Mygale Hentzii is viviparous or 
oviparous. Its habit is to carry its young on its back 
until they are large enough to capture small insects for 
themselves, when it turns them off in some good hunt- 
ing-ground in such numbers that they would soon, if they 
could all come to maturity, monopolize the entire privi- 
leges of spiders on this little green globe. 

Some of the ground spiders carry their eggs in a sack 
attached to the tip of their abdomen. One species makes 
nests with a trap-door to them. They are rare in this 
country. I have never seen any such contrivances about 
the hole of the Tarantula, nor have I ever seen it carrying 
an egg-sack. It may be possible that they keep such a 



THE LAND SNAILS OF NEW ENGLAND. 411 

sack at the bottom of their hole, and, when the young 
hatch out, take them on their back and carry them 
about, as I have often seen them. I have, however, never 
discovered any such egg-sack, tbtfogfa I dug out many 
of their holes. It may be that I did not dig them up at 
the proper time to find their eggs. They are too filthy 
when confined, or I would ^end you a live one. 

Two or three species of Mygale carry a sack well filled 
with eggs, attached to the tip of their abdomen ; and 
when the young ones hatch out. they take them on their 
backs and carry them like the Mygale Hentzii. There 
is one species of the family that constructs an exceedingly 
curious gossamer nest in a hole in the ground. It first 
digs the hole about six inches deep, and then lines it 
thickly to the bottom with a very fine white web, finishing 
it with a cunningly wrought and very neatly fitting trap- 
door, having hinges and a string to fasten it on the in- 
side. This type of spiders is very rare in Middle Texas. 



THE LAND SNAILS OF NEW ENGLAND. 



We continue our descriptions of New England Land 
Snails, with a species very common in certain portions of 
the West and South, though of very rare occurrence in 
New England. 

Helix sufpkessa Say. (Fig. 25.) Shell thin and 
pellucid ; yellowish horn-color, polished ; 
spire flat. Whorls 
suture distinct ; lip s 
is- Base of shell rather convex; near the aperture 



risn norn-coior, pousueui *•» — 

-Is six, closely revolving ; g r "™>\ 

lip simple , thickened with- ^^^^Z 



412 THE LAND SXAILS 

opaque, and yellowish white. Umbilicus absent, or 
hardly apparent in adult specimens. Within the aper- 
ture on the outer lip are one or two long thin teeth. 
Diameter of shell about one-fourth of an inch. Animal 
bluish black, upper tentacles long and delicate. A mi- 
nute slit on the extremity of the body exudes mucus 
freely when the snail is crawling. 

This species can at once be distinguished from all the 
others to be described, by the peculiar teeth in the aper- 
ture. Common in the Middle States and Ohio. It has 
been found in the extreme western part of Connecticut. 
Mr.W. G. Binney states that he has generally found them 
in open fields at the roots of grass, and not und,er decaying 
stumps and rotten bark. 

Helix concava Say. (Figs. 26, 27.) Shell de- 
pressed, whitish horn-color. Whorls five, flattened 
rigs. 26, 27. above, rounded below; suture very dis- 
tinct. Umbilicus wide and deep, reveal- 
ing all the volutions to the apex. Aper- 
ture rounded, slightly flattened above. 
Usual diameter one-half an inch. Animal 
grayish, disk dusty white, with reddish dis- 
colorations. Found in nearly every State 
l the Union ; quite rare in New England. 
This species is peculiar in its habits. It lives in the 
dark woods, and is a regular cannibal in its propensities. 
Its body is long, slender, and worm-like. Its jaw has a 
sharp projecting point to cut and tear its prey, and the 
teeth on the tongue are unusually long and pointed, and 
well adapted to subserve its rapacity. It lives on the 
flesh of other snails. With its long and slender body, ■ 
insinuates its head into the aperture of the shell, the 
inmate of which it is about to devour. The victim with- 



413 

draws far within the shell, but in vain. Its enemy slowly 
approaches, and the hapless victim having no barrier to 
interpose, nor any line of retreat open, is actually de- 
voured bit by bit. We remember collecting a lot of rare 
snails in the backwoods of Maine. Wishing to study 
them, they were unsuspectingly placed in a box of moist 
earth containing a few specimens of our cannibal snail. 
Imagine our astonishment and indignation on examining 
the box a few days after, and findiug our special rarities 
completely destroyed, only a few empty shells remain- 
ing as tokens of the cannibal feast. We could almost see 
the murderers smacking their slimy chops and begging 
for more. 

Other species are known which possess this desire for 
animal food, and the collector in France oftentimes se- 
cures a goodly number of specimens by placing a piece 
of fresh meat in the woods, the odor of the meat attract- 
ing certain species ; for snails apparently possess, in a 
considerable degree, the faculty of smell, and will, with 
nice discrimination, select from a parcel of leaves those 
most succulent and agreeable. 

Helix indentata Say. (Fig. 28.) Shell flattened, 
thin, pellucid, highly polished, whitish, sometimes pink- 
ish. Whorls four, rapidly enlarging, Fig. 28. 
with regular impressed linos radiating ^ Q ""^N 
from the suture, reaching nearly to the X S V -^=<_J ) 
base of the shell. Lip simple, extending to the centre 
of the shell at its base. Umbilicus absent, though its 
region is indented. Diameter of shell nearly one-fifth 
of an inch. Animal bluish black. Inhabits deep woods 
in the Northern, Middle, and Western States. This beau- 
trful species is not common. It can readily be distin- 
guished from allied species by its closed umbilicus. 



414 THE HAND AS AX UNRULY MEMBER. 

We refer our readers to the early papers on this sub- 
ject in this Magazine, where an explanation of the terms 
used in these descriptions may be found. 

The brevity of these papers is owing to their being 
intended principally for v those who are making, or wish 
to make collections in this entertaining branch of natural 
history, and are offered as guides to them. Hopes are 
entertained that others may be led to form collections, 
from the brief hints thrown out respecting the hiding- 
places of these almost obscure animals. Many who spend 
their leisure time in solving illustrated riddles, and de- 
rive, as the result of their labor, simply an answer, would 
find that the expenditure of half the brain-work, if ap- 
plied to the identification of the fruits of a day's ramble 
in the woods, would furnish not only a healthier intellec- 
tual enjoyment, but, with proper training, lead to an 
endless pleasure in the contemplation of the boundless 
wealth of creation. 

St. Augustine has truthfully written that "every species 
of animal has beauties peculiar to itself. The more man 
considers them, the more they engage him to adore the 
Author of Nature, who has made everything in wisdom, 
who has subjected everything to His power, and whose 



THE HAXD AS AN UXRULY MEMBER. 



Natural History is not now the simple thing it was 
century ago. Leaving out of view the two great dcpart- 
lents of Botany and Mineralogy, it then consisted ot a 



THE HAND AS AN UNRULY MEMBEK. 415 

limited and superficial acquaintance with the habits and 
external appearance of the few known animals ; how few 
these were, as compared with those we now know, may 
be seen from this, that, in 1748, Linnseus enumerated two 
hundred and eighty different kinds of fish ; at the present 
time, the Museum of Comparative Zoology at Cambridge, 
Mass., contains over nine thousand species of that class, 
about twenty-tin > Ln,, <!,■>, I of which were collected in the 
late Thayer Expedition to Brazil. 

So impossible is it for any one person to gain a thor- 
ough knowledge of all animals, that we find men devoting 
years, their lives almost, to the study of si single species ;* 
while it is daily becoming more and more apparent, that 
in order to advance or even to keep up in modern sci- 
ence, each must devote himself principally to a few 
branches of Natural History. 

To show how far this division of labor has already ex- 
tended, take the single department of Comparative Anat- 
omy, which embraces the following lines of study: 1. 
The anatomy of a single species considered by itself; 
as Anthropotomy, or human anatomy; Hippotomy, the 
anatomy of the horse, etc. When this kind of study is 
extended to the microscopic investigation of the struc- 
ture of tissues, it is called Histology. 2. One or more 
species may be traced in their development and growth 
from their beginning as an egg to the adult condition, 
—this is Embryology. 3. We may enlarge our concep- 
tion of the plan of creation, by comparing with the ani- 
mals which now live the fossil remains of those which 






416 THE HAND AS AN UNRULY MEMBER. 

existed in past ages, this constituting the science of Palae- 
ontology. 4. Then comes Physiological Anatomy, which 
treats of organs in reference to their functions; and, 
lastly, there is what is called Homology, in which parts 
and organs are considered, not according to their size, 
or shape, or the specific functions which they perform, 
since these vary greatly in different species, but accord- 
ing to their essential structure and their connections with 
other parts ; these last are called morphological charac- 
ters, and they alone are sufficiently constant to serve as 
the basis of zoological classification. This branch of 
anatomy is generally followed with a view of determining 
and comparing corresponding or homologous organs in 
different animals, but the same methods may be employed 
in another way, which has been in existence for hardly a 
century, and for which no name has yet been fully ac- 
cepted ; it consists in the determination and comparison of 
corresponding parts in different regions of the same indi- 
vidual. 

To illustrate the distinction between these two kinds of 
Homology, by reference to familiar objects, the former 
would compare the foremast of one ship with that of an- 
other, and note their difference in the size and proportion 
of the various pieces ; while the latter would compare the 
foremast with the mainmast of the same ship, pointing 
out their resemblance, and the differences in the length 
of the various pieces. 

It is to this latter kind of anatomy that I propose 
to call attention, and have chosen for a subject an organ 
which, though small, is most comprehensive, gathering 
within its grasp far more than can be illustrated in this 
short article, — the Hand. 

It is a time-honored theme, and he stands in great dan- 



THE HAND AS AN UNRULY MEMBER. 417 

ger of repetition who takes for his subject a part of our 
corporeal frame, concerning which there has been written 
by men of science, preached by divines, and even sung by 
poets, more than of any other organ, excepting, perhaps, 
the eye. He would indeed be most presuming who should, 
without the reputation and consciousness of most pro- 
found knowledge, undertake to more than express his 
concurrence in what has been already said concerning the 
beauty of form, the complexity of structure, the marvel- 
lous skill, and the wonderful diversity of function which 
characterize the human hand. 

There is, however, a view of the subject to which little 
attention has been paid by those who have treated it, but 
a correct idea of which is really essential to the fullest 
appreciation of the wonders so eloquently set forth by Sir 
Charles Bell,* and by anatomists generally,— a view in 
which the human hand, while furnishing to the student of 
final causes, to the teleologist, his most perfect illustration 
of the adaptation of means to desired ends, becomes to the 
morphohgist, to the student of unity of type under diver- 
sity of form and function, a fruitful source of anxiety, 

So widely spread and so deeply rooted is this error, and 
so almost wholly is it due to the peculiar structure and 
endowments of the hand, that we are justified in drawing 
a comparison between it and that other organ whereof the 
Apostle wrote,— "Even so the tongue is a little member. 
• ■ . . It is an unruly evil, full of deadly poison." 

Kow it is evident that by tongue in this connection is 
by no means indicated the mere anatomical organ which 
all vertebrates carry in the floor of the mouth, composed 
of certain muscles, supported by cert ain bones, and sup- 



418 THE HAND AS AN UNRULY MEMBER. 

plied with nerves of motion and of sensation. We are 
indeed right in applying the name tongue to the fleshy 
pad in the mouth of the fish, to the prehensile fly-catcher 
of the chameleon, to the barbed harpoon of the wood- 
pecker, and the glutinous snare of the ant-eater, thus re- 
cognizing in a cold, scientific way, their anatomical or 
morphological identity with the corresponding organ in the 
human body. But this last alone is used as a synonym 
for language ; it alone is the facile medium of ideas, as 
well as of sensations ; it alone has entered the service of 
an immortal soul, and is characteristic of man. 

So with the hand. We recognize the same bones 
which form our upper limb (Fig. 1) in the foreleg of 
the quadruped (Fig. 2), in the wing of the bird and of 
the bat (Fig. 3), in the flipper of the seal (Fig. 4), and 
still more strikingly in the so-called arm of the ape (Fig. 
5) ; and though the forefoot of the bear is merely si paw 
when supporting his ungainly bulk upon the earth, yet 
when it is flourished in the air as he sits erect upon his 
haunches, we are glad to escape the blow of what is then 
admitted to be a tolerable imitation of a hand.* And yet 
it is not really such ; for if the presence of a thumb, capable 
of being opposed to the tips of any or all the fingers, is the 
distinguishing feature of a hand, we shall look for it in 
vain throughout the whole animal kingdom below man ; 
for even in the gorilla the first digit, though strong, is 
short, and reaches only to the knuckle of the forefinger 
(Fig. 6) , while in many of the lower monkies it is alto- 
gether wanting, and when present in quadrupeds is so in- 
timately connected with the other digits as to have no 
independent motion. 

We may assume, then, that the tongue and the hand, 



THE HAND AS AN UNRULY MEMBER. 419 

not in the anatomical or morphological, but in the func- 
tional or teleological sense, are the really characteristic 
organs of man, corresponding with his peculiar endow- 
ments of rationality in thought, and freedom in action; 
and so it is not a little significant that to these same or- 
gans alone, which, being the most capable of good, are, 
by perversion, the most potent for evil, can the term un- 
ruly properly be applied. For they are, either singly or 
together, the chief ground of discussion as to "man's 
place iu nature," showing him to be a most unruly mem- 
ber of the animal kingdom ; they are the agents of the 
individual in becoming an unruly member of society, and 
they are, or represent, those regions of the body whose 
relations to other parts have ever caused the greatest 
trouble among the students of Philosophical Anatomy.* 

Leaving to the zoologist, the moralist, and the histo- 
rian, the consideration of their respective claims to the 
"bad preeminence," and confining our attention to one of 
them, it may also be said that not only is the hand, as 
a whole, the main element in the discussion to which I 
have referred, but that the very heat and fierceness of 
the strife has always centred upon the most character- 
istic part of this characteristic organ of humanity,— the 
thumb. 

But it is asked, What is this terrible discussion all 
about, and what is the matter with our hands, and espec- 
ially with our thumbs ? 

In brief, a careful study of the anterior limbs of verte- 
brate animals having shown that all are built upon one 
general plan, but varied in form and proportion to suit 



420 THE HAND AS AN UNRULY MEMBER. 

the special needs of man, of the beast, the bird, and the 
reptile, and a like survey of the posterior limbs having 
shown the same to be the case with them (Figs. 7, 8, 9), 
so that they all present different degrees of homology or 
morphological relationship, our anatomical pioneers have 
conceived that a similar correspondence prevails between 
the anterior and posterior limbs themselves; so that not 
only is the shoulder, at one end of the body, merely a 
repetition of the pelvis at the other, but the arm as far 
as the elbow is seen in the thigh with the knee, the fore- 
arm in the leg, the wrist in the ankle-joint, and the 
hand, alas, in the foot, — "Pes altera manus."* 

But here, in extremitatum extremis, humanity rebels. 
Science has gone far enough in proving that, for purposes 
of rational comparison and anatomical inquiry, man must 
assume a horizontal position on all-fours like a beast, so 
that his arms and legs become mere "anterior and poste- 
rior extremities ;" after which degradation he can indeed 
arise and resume the attitude proper to the lord of crea- 
tion. But to his upper and nobler parts this last com* 
parison is most odious. They entreat us with clasped 
hands, they threaten us with clenched fist; they would 
flee from the threatened contamination ; they would sit in 
sullen scorn at the degrading fellowship: but neither 
active or passive resistance is possible without the aid of 
the despised member, and so by slow degrees it is grant- 
ed that the ilium (Fig. 7 i) does look very like a scapula 
(Fig. 1 s) ; that the femur, or thigh-bone (f), bears a 
wonderful resemblance to the humerus, or bone of the arm 
(h) ; that the knee-pan (p) is quite as exposed a part as 
the elbow ; and that, perhaps, the taper forearm is only a 
■ ; -, ; 



THE HAND AS AN UNRULY MEMBER. 421 

better view of the "calf" of the leg; but as for admit- 
ting between the hand, — 



any equality whatever with the foot, which is so ugly that 
here, as well as at the antipodes, the bootmaker's skill 
and our own endurance are taxed to their utmost to force 
it into proper shape; this is too much, and not to be 
allowed. 

And here it may be added that the foot presents, in 
this respect, a contrast with the hand, not only physical, 
but, as it were, metaphysical ; for it is plain, honest, and 
inoffensive, and, though much abused, shows no dispo- 
sition to become an unruly member. In ancient times, 
indeed, warriors did cut off the great toes as well as the 
thumbs of their captives, but the toes are the only part of 
the body thrown into disuse by modern civilization, while 
the fingers are cherished and exalted to the highest de- 
gree. The foot is the hand's poor relation, and, though 
not ambitious to share its high offices which nevertheless 
it has often shown itself capable of discharging to an as- 
tonishing degree, yet claims, and justly too, its right in 
the t'nniiy name. 

But no ; the haughty hand heeds not the humble foot, 
and at length, with the single warning, that, in case any 
remote cousinship is proved between them, the thumb has 
sworn to admit into his society only the great toe, which, 
like himself, has but two joints, and in the ape (Fig. 10) 
does bear him some slight resemblance, distressed hu- 
manity resigns the whole affair to the comparative anato- 
mist. And now, after a hundred years of controversy, 



*^ THE HAND AS AN UNRULY MEMBER. 

comparative anatomy presents her report, admitting with 
shame, that, in spite of their meagre number, scarce two 
of her votaries can agree upon any one point, and that 
only two or three have ventured to disregard the above- 
mentioned threat on the part of the thumb. It will 
be seen, however, that while thus heeding the wish of 
that powerful constituent of the more aristocratic mem- 
ber, there has been a general though tacit recognition of 
the good conduct and sobriety displayed by its humbler 
representative, so that, with one notable exception,* the 
lower limb has been left unmolested, while the more pre- 
tentious arm has suffered all the pangs of dislocation, 
misplacement, twisting, and compound fracture, as the 
consequence of the thumb's stubborn pride. 

A brief sketch of such portions of the controversy as 
best illustrate the unruly character of the hand, it is my 
purpose to lay before the reader in succeeding articles. 



In all the figures, S denotes the Scapula, or shoulder-blade ; I. the 
shin or chief bone of the pelvis; H, the Humerus, or bone of the upper 
arm; F, the Femur, or thigh bone, the corresponding bone of the leg; 
O, the Olecranon process, which forms the tip of the elbow; P, the 
Patella, or knee-pan ; U, the Ulna, or inner bone of the forearm ; T, the 
Tibia, or inner bone of the leg ; R, the Badius, or outer bone of the fore- 
arm, which supports the thumb when there is one ; and Fi, the Fibula, 
or outer bone of the leg. The hand and foot are easily distinguished 
in aU the limbs ; but Po, indicates the Follex, or thumb, and Ha, the 
Hallex, or great toe. 

Fig. 

Pig. 



. •_-, | ,; 



Pig- 3. Wing of the Bat. The scapula is very small, but the other 



THE CLOTHES -MOTH. 

bones, especially the fingers, are very long and slender, 

Fig. 4. Foreleg or "flipper" of Seal; the bones are 
trast with the last, but the same parts are represented. 

Fig. 5. Arm of a Monkey, which has no thumb. 

Fig. 6. Hand of the Gorilla ; the thumb smaller than ii 

Fig. 7. Leg of Man. 

Fig. 8. Hind leg of Tapir. 

Fig. 9. Hind leg of Alligator. 

In these three figures it is easy to te- 
as in Figs. 1, 2, 3, and 4. 

Fig. 10. Foot of Gorilla; the great toe very large, and standing off 
from the others like a thumb. 

By comparing Figs. 1, 2, and 4, with Figs. 7, 8, and 9, one can 
hardly fail to see that not only are there corresponding segments 
in the fore and hind limb, but also that, except in case of the hand 
and foot, these corresponding segments point in oppot 
so that the three figures on one side are, to those on the other, as 
three right arms to three left arms ; they a 



THE CLOTHES-MOTH. 



For over a fortnight we once enjoyed the company of 
the caterpillar of a common Clothes-moth. It is a little 
pale, delicate worm (Fig. Fig.s. *%.«. ng.i. 

1), about the size of a a B 
darning needle, not half an M g| 
inch long, with a pale horn- Jm I 
colored head, the ring next Ml 
the head being of the same l^ fj 
color, and has sixteen feet, B 

the first six of them well developed and constantly in use 
to draw the slender body in and out of its case. Its head 
is armed with a formidable pair of jaws, with which, like 
a scythe, it mows its way through thick and thin. 



424 THE CLOTHES -MOTH. 

But the case is the most remarkable feature in the his- 
tory of this caterpillar. Hardly has the helpless, tiny 
worm broken the egg, previously laid in some old gar- 
ment of fur, or wool, or perhaps in the hair-cloth of a 
sofa, when it proceeds to make a shelter by cutting the 
woolly fibres or soft hairs up into bits, which it places 
at each end in successive layers, and, joining them to- 
gether by silken threads, constructs a cylindrical tube 
(Fig. 2) of thick, warm felt, lined within with the finest 
silk the tiny worm can spin. The case is hardly round, 
but flattened slightly in the middle, and contracted a 
little just before each end, both of which are always 
kept open. The case before us is of a stone-gray color, 
with a black stripe along the middle, and with rings of 
the same color round each opening. Had the caterpillar 
fed on blue or yellow cloth, the case would, of course, 
have been of those colors. Other cases, made by team 
which had been eating "cotton wool," were quite irregular 
in form, and covered loosely with bits of cotton thread, 
which the little tailor had not trimmed off. 

Days go by. A vigorous course of dieting on its feast 
of wool has given stature to our hero. His case has 
grown uncomfortably small. Shall he leave it and make 
another? — No housewife is more prudent and saving. 
Out come those scissor-jaws, and, lo ! a fearful rent along 
each side of one end of the case. Two wedge-shaped 
patches mend the breach, — caterpillar retires for a mo- 
ment; reappears at the other end; scissors once more 
pulled out ; two rents to be filled up by two more patches 
or gores, and our caterpillar once more breathes freer, 
laughs and grows fat upon horse hair and lamb's wool. 
In this way he enlarges his case till he stops growing. 

Our caterpillar seeming to be full-grown, and hence out 



THE CLOTHES -MOTH. 425 

of employment, we cut the end of his case half off. Two 
or three days after, he had mended it from the inside, 
drawing the two edges together by silken threads, and, 
though he had not touched the outside, yet so neatly were 
the two parts joined together that we had to search for 
some time, with a lens, to find the scar. 

To keep our friend busy during the cold, cheerless 
weather, for it was in mid-winter, we next cut a third of 
the case off entirely. Nothing daunted, the little fellow 
bustled about, drew in a mass of the woolly fibres, filling 
up the whole mouth of his den, and began to build on 
afresh, and from the inside, so that the new-made portion 
was smaller than the rest of the case. The creature 
worked very slowly, and the addition was left in a 
rough, unfinished state. 

We could easily spare these voracious little worms hairs 
enough to serve as food, and to afford material for the con- 
struction of their paltry cases ; but that restless spirit that 
ever urges on all beings endowed with life and the power 
of motion, never forsakes the young Clothes-moth for a 
moment. He will not be forced to drag his heavy case 
over rough hairs and furzy wool, hence he cuts his way 
through with those keen jaws. Thus, the more he travels, 
the more mischief he does. 

After taking his fill of this sort of life he changes to a 
pupa (Fig. 3), and soon appears as one of those delicate, 
tiny, but richly variegated moths that fly in such num- 
bers from early in the spring until the fall. 

Very many do not recognize these moths in their per- 
fect stage, so small are they, and vent their wrath on 
those great millers that fly around lamps in warm sum- 
' mer evenings. It need scarcely be said that these large 
millers are utterly guiltless of any attempts upon our 



426 THE CLOTHES -MOTH. 

wardrobes, they expend their attacks in a more open 
form on our gardens and orchards. 

We will give a more careful description of the Clothes- 
moth which was found in its different stages June 12th 
in a mass of cotton-wool. The larva is white, with a 
tolerably plump body, which tapers slightly towards the 
tail, while the head is much of the color of gum-copal. 
The rings of the body are thickened above, especially on 
the thoracic ones, by two transverse thickened folds. It 
i> oiu'-rifth of an inch long. 

The body of the chrysalis, or pupa, is considerably 
curved, with the head smooth and rounded. The long 
antennae, together with the hind legs, which are folded 
along the breast, reach to the tip of the hind body, on the 
upper surface of each ring of which is a short transverse 
row of minute spines, which aid the chrysalis in moving 
towards the mouth of its case, just before the moth ap- 
pears. At first the chrysalis is whitish, but just before 
the exclusion of the moth becomes of the color of varnish. 

When about to cast its pupa-skin, the skin splits open 
on the back, and the perfect insect glides out. The act 
is so quickly over with, that the observer has to look 
sharp to observe the different steps in the operation. 

Our common Clothes-moth, Tinea flavifrontella (Fig. 
4), is of an uniform light-buff color, with a silky irides- 

Fig.4. cent lustre, the hind wings and abdomen being 

k^ a little paler. The head is thickly tufted with 

- and is a Utile tawny, and the upper side 

of the densely hirsute feelers (paljn) U dusky- 

The wings are long and narrow, with the most beautiful 

and delicate long silken fringe, which increases in length 

towards the base of the wing. 

They begin to fly in May, and last all through the sea- 



son, fluttering with a noiseless, stealthy flight in our apart- 
ments, and laying their eggs in our woollens. 

There are several allied species which have much the 
same habits, except that they do not all construct cases, 
but eat carpets, clothing, articles of food, grain, etc., and 
objects of natural history. 

Successive broods of the Clothes-moth appear through 
the summer. In the autumn they cease eating, retire 
within their cases, and early in spring assume the chrys- 
alis state. 

Careful housewives are not much afflicted with these 
pests. The slovenly and thriftless are overrun with them. 
Early in June woollens and furs should be carefully dusted. 
shaken, and beaten. Dr. T. W. Harris states that "pow- 
dered black pepper, strewed under the edge of carpets, is 
said to repel moths. Sheets of paper sprinkled with 
spirits of turpentine, camphor in coarse powder, leaves 
of tobacco, or shavings of Russia leather, should be 
placed among the clothes when they are laid aside for 
the summer ; and furs and other small articles can be kept 
by being sewed in bags with bits of camphor wood, 
red cedar, or of Spanish cedar ; while the cloth lining of 
carriages can be secured forever from the attacks of 
moths by being washed or sponged on both sides with a 
solution of the corrosive sublimate of mercury in alcohol, 
made just strong enough not to leave a white stain on a 
black feather." The moths can be most readily killed In- 
pouring benzine among them, though its use must be 
much restricted from the disagreeable odor which remains. 
The recent experiments made with Carbolic acid, how- 
ever, convinces us that this will soon take the place of 
all other substances as a preventive and destroyer of nox- 
ious insects. 



The Development of Chloeox (Ephemera) dimidiatum. By Sir 
John Lubbock. Parts I. II. From the Transactions of the Linnsean 
Society, London. Vol. XXV. 4to, 1866. 

One of the most interesting discoveries in 'entomology is the fact 
that the May-fly, or Shad-fly, during its development from the time of 
leaving the egg up to maturity, moults its skin nineteen times before 
leaving the water, and once afterwards on arriving at the winged 

All the books teach that there are three distinct states of the in- 
sect's life after hatching from the egg, namely, the larva, pupa, and 
imago ; but there are many species belonging to different suborders of 
the six-footed insects, in which these stages graduate almost insen- 
sibly into each other. The terms larva and pupa are but relative, and 
not fixed and absolute. In the beetle or butterfly, the grub or cater- 
pillar certainly seems very distinct from the chrysalis. But we have 
in the collection of the Essex Institute a series illustrating the trans- 
formations of the caterpillar into the pupa or chrysalis, which show 
several successive changes of form most remarkable and interesting 
to the student. There is also a gradual change of form from the pupa 
to the imago or perfect state, which most observers have not noticed. 

The writer has shown* that the Humble-bee, before reaching the 
winged state, moults at least ten times, and probably a greater num- 
ber. The bee-state is reached by a very gradual change of form. The 
newly hatched larva differs but slightly in appearance from the mature 
embryo just before hatching. The worm-like larva merges gradually 
into the pupa. Scarcely does the larva stop eating and gain its full 
size, when, on removing the loosening skin, the tegument of the half- 
formed pupa can be detected beneath, with the rudiments of the 
mouth-parts, antenna;, and wings, together with the ovipositor, which 
have begun to assume the shape of the same parts in the mature bee. 
They are, however, rudely shaped and but partially formed. So also 
the pupa merges into the bee state by insensible gradations, so that it 
is almost impossible to say absolutely which is pupa and which imago, 
from the inspection of specimens before us. Thus metamorphosis is 
but a growth and evolution of parts, intensified, so to speak, at certain 
'e. In those 



insects uirieh are active in the preparatory stages, and have the same 
habits in maturity as in the larva and pupa stage, such as the grass- 
hopper and its allies, the changes are slow, and the metamorpho- 
sis slightly marked. In the butterfly and bee, however, whose life 
is so distinct in the perfect state, from the caterpillar or grub, the 
changes are rapid, though gradual, and strongly marked. They are 
not perhaps due so much to immediate physical agencies, as to the plan 
of life originally marked out for the insect by the creative mind. 

In the present state of science we would prefer to think that struc- 
ture is correlated to the mode of life, rather than that it is dependent 
on physical agencies. We feel scarcely prepared to believe with our 
author that the "actual form" of the caterpillar "is mainly due to the 
influence of the conditions in which it lives."* 

We must look deeper than the agency of physical causes in the pro- 
duction of the various forms of life. In endeavoring to solve the 
lifestations, man may advance in knowledge 

mggested by Lamarck or Darwin, or 
, though so stimulating to scientific 
thought, are yet not satisfactory, and do not go to the bottom of the 
matter. We must still wait patiently, and meanwhile observe, experi- 
ment, and reflect, and thus continue to question nature until she yields 
a willing reply. 

We extract the following interesting remarks on the metamorphoses 
of insects, with the author's general conclusions : — 






/ 



EVISION OF THE FOSSIL Hy.MENOPTERA OF NORTH AMERICA. I. Cra- 

bronidce and Nyssonidce. By A. S. Packard, Jr., 31. D. From the 
Proceedings of the Entomological Society. Philadelphia, 1866-67. 

This work treats of the classification of a large group of the fosso- 
rial or digging wasps. It contains descriptions of nearly all the genera 
and species known to inhabit North America. The species, as well as 
the genera of the digging wasps, are difiicult to identify ; but with the 
detailed descriptions of the genera here given, and the synoptical 

parati\ elv easy. The names of species not seen by the author are 
added, so that it gives a complete list of all the known species, which 
amount to two hundred and seven, comprised in twenty-five genera, 
of which one new genus and fifty-eight new species are described. 
The family characters are discussed at length, and there are a few 
introductory pages devoted to the general classification of the group, 
their zoological characters, and geographical <j=— •"" 



NATURAL HISTORY MISCELLANY. 

BOTANY. 
Herbarium for Sale. — The collection of the Swiss botanist, the 
late M. Gay, is now offered for sale at the Jurdin cles Plantes, in 
Paris. This collection is of inestimable value, and embraces the 
whole European Flora. The author has worked upon it with rare pa- 
tience and fidelity, adding to the description and analysis of each 
plant a complete I; i> it has been described; it 

contains ninety thousand different specimens. Dr. Henri de Saussure, 
from whom this information is derived, believes the Herbarium to be 
placed at the low price of 30,000 francs. Propositions from those 
wishing to purchase would be gladly entertained. Parties may 
address (post-paid) Dr. Henri de Saussure, Genthod, pres Geneve, 

A Pern new to our Flora. — I enclose a specimen of a fern 
found in July, in shaded rocks at Berlin Falls, N. II., which I judge to 
be Aapidium fragrant Sw. (Gray's Manual, p. 598). As this fern is 
mentioned as occurring only in Wisconsin or high northward, the 
locality is perhaps new and worth noting. It occurs in the crevices of 
a perpendicular cliff a little below the falls, on the east side of the 
river ; this cliff is plainly visible from the other bank. It is somewhat 



found Asf/.U'im 'n;,h,,tiu;i in a place called "the Gulch," about 
r miles from Gor!i;u:i village; ! >;it tins 1 believe has previously been 
nd in the mountains. This g place, where ice 



I was engaged chiefly in looking for lichens, and I found, at Ber- 
lin Falls, an interesting plant, Biatora lucida, which is probably 
new to the White Mountain region. This pretty lichen is quite com- 
mon on stones in walls in this vicinity (New Bedford). Professor 
Tuckerman, to whom I communicated it, at first pronounced it Arc- 

caria marrjacea, whi< h was found bj Mr. Tuckerman last season in the 
White Mountains I found this summer at Clyde River Falls, Vermont, 
near Late Memphremagog. At the base of •« Owl's Head," on this lake, 
there is a cliff, the face of which is covered with Placodium elegans in 
large patches, giving it a very lively a 



NATURAL HISTORY MISCELLANY. 433 

lieve, does not usually occur so far from the coast. "— H. Willey, Xew 
Bedford, Mass. 

Mr. H. Mann, to whom we referred the specimen, says, " The fern 
lAtfidivm fragrana Sw.) which Mr. H. Willey sends, is from quite a 
new, and therefore interesting locality, bringing it for the first time 
within the borders of New England. I believe it has not been found 
before on this side of the Saguenay River (where it is quite common), 
three hundred miles farther north." 

A Thorxless Form of the Honey Loci/st Tree. — I have been 
for the last three months watching a cluster of four Honey Locust 
trees on my farm that have no thorns. I thought that probably the 
thorns had been broken off by a large flood we had last September, 
and that new wood that might grow this spring would have thorns 
the same as others. There is now a fine growth of new wood, but 
no thorns on it. It is new to me, and others that I have had see 
them. Is it something unusual, or are they sometimes thornless?— J. 
Hughes Hunt, Harrison Junction, Ohio. 

A very obscure form without thorns, which by some is supposed to 
be a new species, has been known to exist in the Western States.— 



3 receptacle from 

xne middle of the flower. This column, after running up straight for 
ban" an inch, branches off and bears buds, which develop into small 
roses later than the first rose uolow. These "rosettes," or little roses 

instance, I counted seven little roses growing from the centre of a 
single flower. Another plant, in the same yard, this year produced a 
monstrosity a little different from the one above mentioned. The cup 
Was very shallow and of thin texture. The points of the calyx were 
more leaf-like than common, one of the sepals having five leaflets, 
another four, another three, another two, and the other only one. In- 
side this calyx or whorl of leaves were plenty of petals, a few sta- 
mens, but the pistils were united into a column about half an inch 
long, nearly as large as the stem below the flower. This column had 
small prickles on two sides, and towards the top were some petals, 
colored on one edge, and green on the other, with fringes imitating 
leaflets on the green edge. At the top of the column appear five 
leaves, with stipules and leaflets in perfect condition. These are ex- 
amples going to prove that "the blossom is a sort of branch, and its 



434 NATURAL HISTORY MISCELLANY. 

the stem." See Gray's Botanical Text-Book, p. 230. — W. J. Beal, 
Union Springs, N. Y. 

Identification of Lichens by a Chemical Test. — The Rev. W. 
A. Leighton continues his series of papers on this subject in the 
"Annals." He has lately given a notice of the AbbS Coeraan's essay 
on the Cladonia of the herbarium of the tl 1 1 t Acharius, 
and the results of the application to his own herbarium of a chemical 
test, as a means of deciphering species of Lichens. The reactiou, 
which is found so useful, is that of hydrate of potash, which in certain 

only a Blight Tumescence. In no case, says Mr. Leighton, is the reac- 
tion of greater utility than Id the difficult tribe of Cladonice, that crux 
of lichenologists, where its application enables us, with admirable pre- 
cision and exactness, to determine the various species, 1 
the confounded species, and to refer to their proper systematic pi 
the innumerable varieties and forms which may resemble each o 
Ln external character.— Quarterly Journal ■■/ Science, London. 



The : 

t, in which 

the habits of the American Bittern (Botaurus lentiginosus), page 405, 
Ornithology of New England. 

I am perfectly familiar with the meadows which Mr. Endicott refers 
to, have lived for eleven years within two or three miles of them, and 
have hunted them times innumerable. I never saw more than two 
Bitterns there in the area of a hundred acres, and doubt if any other 

September, about the time of Snipe-shooting, and doubtless are then 
on the passage from the north. So I do not think it strange that Iff. 
Endicott has never met with many of the nests. But we cannot 
establish the habits of a species from individual cases, we must geiie- 

The Bittern, as a general thing, in New England, judging from the 
observation of the majority of my friends and correspondents, and my 
own, oftener nests in bushes than on the ground, and in some locali- 
ties it gathers in communities, scattered and detached if you will, but 



NATURAL HISTORY MISCELLANY. 460 

bushes or scrubby alders, usually overhanging the water. Sometimes 
a nest is found placed on the ground, or rather in a tussock of grass, 
but in such instances the meadow or swamp is comparatively dry, and 
not subject to inundations. 

We cannot be too deliberate in forming conclusions on the habits 
of any animal, and our decisions must be made from numerous obser- 
vations. What would Mr. Endicott say if I should affirm that the 
Dusky Duck (Anas obscura) — which is notoriously a ground nester— 
builds in high trees? yet Mr. George A. Boardman found one with 
her nest full of eggs in such a position ; or that the Chipping Sparrow 
(Spizella socialis) nests in bushes ? I have known it to ; or that the 
Ruffed Grouse (Bonasa umbellus) lays in deserted crow's nests? I 
have heard of three instances ; or that the Towhe Bunting (Pipilo 

Toronto. He would say, and so would any one, that I should not judge 
from one or two occurrences. — E. A. Samuels, Boston. 

Eggs of the Indigo Bird. — Dr. T. W. Brewer, in the Natural- 
ist for May, doubted that any spotted eggs of the Indigo Bird 
(Cyanospiza cyanea) have yet been found. I have several specimens 
in my own collection, and have heard of others being found marked, 
decidedly, with spots of reddish brown. The following extract from 
a letter recently received from Mr. L. E. Ricksecker, of Nazareth, Pa., 
"Will furnish an instance: "I found a few days since the nest of an 
Indigo Bird, with four eggs, which are sprinkled with fine dots of 
pale-red, particularly at the greater end, where they form a circle. 
Being puzzled at first, I thought it might be a species new to me, 
Whereupon I took my gun and shot the female as she was leaving the 
nest. She proves to be an Indigo Bird. I looked into your book to 
compare the eggs with your description, when I found that I had be- 
fore sent you some specimens marked in a similar manner. I think 
the present set is rather more sprinkled than any I ever found." — E. 
-*•• Sa.m[;lt.s, Boston. 



A Sxake-like Caterpillar.— The mos 


t extraordinary instance of 


imitation I ever met with [on the Amazo 


n] was that ol 




caterpillar, which stretched itself from a 


imidst the foliage of a tree 


which I was one day examining, and start 


led me by its 


resemblance 


to a small snake. The first three segments behind th 


e head were 


dilatable at the will of the insect, and had 




i large black 


Pupilated spot, which resembled the eye of the reptile ; 


it was a poi- 


sonons or viperine species mimicked, and i 






bme snake ; this was proved by the imitat 


ion of keeled I 




cr<»wn, which was produced by the recumbent feet, as tl 


le caterpillar 



4db NATURAL HISTORY MISCELLANY. 

threw itself backward. The Rev. Joseph Greene, to whom I , 
a description, supposes the insect to have belonged to the fa 
Notodontidce, many of which have the habit of thus bending tl 
selves. I carried off the caterpillar, and alarmed every one ii 
village when- I was then living, to whom I showed it. It unf< 
nately died before reaching the adult form.— H. W. Bates, Linn 
Transactions, 1862, p. 509. 

Tin: Boknbd Cobydaujs.— One of the largest and most fonr 
ble looking, though perfectly harmless, insects we have, is the (. 
(hilus cnrnittus. Its large size, its broad net-veined wings and - 
stupid flight, a: - many other eharaeteris 

place it very low in the scale of insect lite. ' Insects like this i 
Characteristic of the Coal Period, probably breeding in the mar 
and fens of Carboniferous times. It is probable that the SiaHdat 
family to which this insect belongs, were much more numerou 
those early ages of the world's history than now, as there are ^ 
gaps between the genera, which, were the geological record c 
plete, we could undoubtedly fill up. 

7 how many eggs are laid by the parent, or 1 

l a sudden point, i 




which the artist has not represented in 


oiirii-mv. 


It is very fierce and active in its hahi 




over the bottom of pools, and preying 


■ on other 


insects, which it seizes in its powe 


rful j.-nvs. 



living, and makes an earthen 
n which the inactive pupa un- 
its transformations. Our figure 
l Sanborn) of the perfect insect r< p- 
are nearly as long as the 
, and much like them in form, being very slender. 
Breeding Place of the Pelican. — In your August number ap- 
pears a statement of Mr. Beal in regard to the White Pelican captured 
a Cayuga county, in which he copies the following extract from Pr- 
essor Baird's account of the bird, in reference to its breeding habits : 



MISCELLAXY. 437 




N-.VTl.-KAL HISTORY MISCELLANY* 



north. Now this bird breeds abundantly on the sand-bars opposite 
New Pound Harbor, in Indian Eiver, Florida. They lay their eggs 
about the middle of May on the bare sand, making no nest whatso- 
ever — Charles H. Nauman, Lancaster, Pa. 
Generic and Specific Names.— The scientific name of an animal 

given in Latin, as being, by universal consent, the most convenient 
medium between naturalists of. UilV-n nt nations. Thus the scientific 
name of the Lion, is Fdis leo Linn. Felis is the name of the genus, 
and leo is the name of the species. Linn, stands for Linnaeus, being 
either the founder of the entire name, or the first one to describe the 
species scientifically. So also with the name Helix albolabris Say. Mr. 
Say was the first author to describe our common White-lipped Snail 
belonging to the genus Helix, and species albolabris. 

Analogy and Homology.— Analogy is a resemblance in function 
between parts differing anatomically, and constructed on wholly dif- 
ferent types. Thus the wing of the butterfly is analogous to the wing 
of a bird. In this sense must be understood the comparison made by 
Oken, between the pupa, or chrysalis, of an insect, 
such as the Shrimp. 



apparent to many to enable the two things to be thus compared. 

The term Homology indicates an identity between the structure of 
certain parts, though the functions they perform may be quite differ- 
ent. Thus the arm of man and a bird's wing are said to be homolo- 
gous, since their anatomical structure is fundamentally the same, 
though their uses are so different. 

The Aquarium.— In the matter of cementing aquaria, I have had 
considerable experience. I have always found white lead of any kind 
bad. I sent to England and paid a good price for a "secret" cement 
of one of the leading dealers, but found it useless, as it contained 
white lead or litharge. The best cement is applied hot. Murine glue. 
when it can be got, would answer capitally ; but I have found a mix- 
ture of pitch, tallow, and umber melted and poured on good. I prefer 
to cover the corners and bottom with glass, and use an iron frame and 
bottom. Thus we have a strong and light-looking affair, which can 
be scrubbed with sand internally, as is sometimes desirable. By ft* 
the best aquaria I ever saw were made by the well-known bookseller, 
C. E. Hammett, of Newport, II. I. — A. M. Edwards, New York. 



tl::al hi. stout miscella 



i ■ - 



-In a . 



I i"i"iv tin- lJritisli A>v»ciaii..n. Kc-v. W. Farrar "expressed his 
-iction of the necessity ami durability of extensive education in 
deal science." Dr. Hooker ■•considered chemistry as too ri.irid a 

■erly opened to them. The habit of verification by experiment. 
acters to implant in the mind ; but this could only be done by a 



.■ means of which 



matter to shoot the Bald Eagles, which are occasionally found in win- 
ter along the shores of Cayuga Lake. They approach the birds on 
horseback, to within fifteen or twenty yards, and then slide from the 

GEOLOGT. 
Oeigix of Life on our Globe.— With regard to the origin of life 
on our globe, M. Figuier does not dogmatize : — Did plants precede 
animals, we cannot tell, but such would appear to have been the order 
of creation." Our globe, he thinks, during the Cambrian and Silurian 
Periods, was not yet mature enough for the existence of the higher 
organisms. "A pale sun struggled to penetrate the dense atmos- 
phere of the prim la dim aud imperfect light 
to the first created beings as they left the hand of the Creator, organ- 
isms often rudimentary, but at other times sufficiently advanced to 
indicate a progress towards most perfect creations." The absence 
of organisms more advanced in the zoological scale than were the 
Trilobites, is no proof that more highly organized animals did not 
exist on the globe during the Cambro- Silurian period. Those who 



440 



xat;;;:al iii-t;.i;y y. 



think the Darwinian theory approximates to the truth, and especially 
those who hold the "complete" theory, will of course believe, that 
animals, classed as high among the Vertebrata as the Trilobites and 
Cephalopoda of Lower Silurian rocks are among the Annulosa and 
Mollusca, existed at that time in regions of the globe from which the 
ocean, perhaps, forever excludes the inquiring palaeontologist from 
verifying his conjectures. The discovery of the Eozoon Canadense in 
the Laurentian rocks, and the existence of beds of limestone in the 
same system, seem to confirm the views of those who regard the 
whole of the sedimentary rocks, from the Silurian and Cambrian up- 
wards to the latest Tertiary beds, as including but a partial and frag- 
mentary record of the past life of the globe, — impressions of thelasb- 
fornied links of the great chain of organic life on our planet,— a few 
of the last chapters in the book of "Ancient Life."— Quarterly Journal 
of Science, London. 



MICROSCOPY. 

Preparation of Snails' Tongues. — I present a plan devised many 
years ago, for such small forms as Littorina and the like, whose lin- 
gual ribbons are extremely tender, and difficult to see as Well as han- 
dle. I use a rather strong solution of caustic potassa, the strength of 
which I cannot exactly specify, as it must vary with the species under 
manipulation, some having ribbons of such strength that they will 
bear the very strongest solution, while others will be injured by im- 
mersion in a comparatively weak liquid. Into this solution in a test 
tube or other convenient vessel, plunge the whole animal ; in the case 
of the smaller creatures, shell and all. The specimen may be fresh, 
or preserved in alcohol, but on the former the potassa will act most 
vigorously. I have found that one good way is to let the animal 
stand in the shell until it dies and begins to decompose, when it can 
readily be removed, and falls in pieces. The lingual ribbon, as a gen- 
eral thing, is not easily decomposed. Now either set the potassa 
solution, with the animal in it, aside for some days, or boil it at once. 
Yon will then find that almost everything dissolves and becomes 
"soap," except the shell and operculum, a few shreds of muscular 
fibre, and the prized lingual ribbon. Frequent washing with fresh 

v preservative fluid whirh 
o alcohol to be kept until 
; from the spirit, and without 
drying plunge it in pure spirits of turpentine, in which it should be 
boiled for a short time to drive off some of the alcohol. It cau now 



NATURAL HlSToIiY MIXKLLAXY. 441 

be mounted in Canada balsam, when it shows all its beauties in a re- 
markable manner, and, at the same time, shows its effects on polarized 
light. I would say, that the potassa cleans the shell and operculum 
beautifully.— A. M. Edwards, New York. 

The Movements of the Diatomace js. — The movements of the 
Diatomacese still continue to puzzle microscopists, and various expla- 
nations of this phenomenon have been advanced. Professor Schultze 
has carefully studied a number of species, F/< nr<n<;>iuni <ru>iul«lum, 
Meitrnstfjmafusi-iolrt, Nitgchia sigmoids, Surirdla bifrons, and others, 
making various experiments and observations upon them. He is led 
from these researches to conclude that a glutinous organic substance, ' 
which is concerned in rapid movement, is spread over the external 
surface of the Diatomaceae. It is by this protoplasmic sheath that the 
Bacillarice become adherent to one another. Professor Schultze does 
not consider that this view affects the question of the animal or plant 
nature of diatoms. He considers that they must be left with some 
other unicellular beings, as of "uncertain kingdom," until we know 
more of what constitutes the boundary, if there be any, between plants 
and animals. — Quarterly Journal of Microscopical Science. 



ANSWERS TO CORRESPONDENTS. 
J- T. M., Grand Isle, Vt. — The land snails sent for identification 
are as follows: The "largest, No. 1," is Helix concava Say. The 
"horn-colored, No.-." i>iiW,,- ,-/,. rsina Say. The "small reflected 
bpped,No.3," is Helix minuta Say. The " light-colored conical-shaped, 
°- 4," is Pupa pentodon Say. The late fall months will be found a 
very favorable time for collecting, as the leaves, having fallen, no 
longer obstruct the light, and the snails can be easily detected by turn- 
ing up the clamp layers in hard-wood growths. 

D -S. C, Rockport, 111. — "Essay on Classification," by Professor 
Agassiz, was published separately in London; Longmans & Co., 1859. 
i ou can undoubtedly obtain it by ordering of any prominent bookseller 
in New York. The cheapest form of cabinet for geological specimens 
is an upright case of shelves, like a bookcase. The shelves to be in- 
clined, or to have separate steps on each shelf. For a conchological 
case, make a set of shallow drawers, 18x24 inches, and from two to 
fiv e inches deep. For exhibition, nothing is better than a horizontal 
show-case, though this takes up a great deal of room. 

E - L. M., New York.— Besides the works on Entomology already 
mentioned in the Naturalist, you need the works on American 



PROCEEDINGS OF SCIENTIFIC SOCIETIES. 



Entomology, published by the Smithso 
D. C. Send for its list of works for January, 1866, witn tue pnc 
attached. We intend hereafter to publish in the Naturalist an € 
tended list of the most important works on Insects. 



PROCEEDINGS OF SCIENTIFIC SOCIETIES. 

f Science.— The 



Sixteenth Annua I ft I .niont, commenc- 

ing on Wednesday, August 21, and continuing until Monday night, 
August 26, 1867. 

In September, 1847, the "Association of American Geologists and 
Naturalists" resolved itself into the " American Association for the 
Advancement of Science." The new organization held its first meet- 
In- at Philadelphia, September, 1848. The objects of this Association 
are the holding of annual and migratory meetings, to promote inter- 
course between those who are cultivating science in different parts of 
the country, and to give impulse, system, facility, and wider usefulness 
to the labors of scientific men. 

About seventy-five members from various parts of the country were 
in attendance during the five days' session at Burlington, and many 
interesting papers were read and freely discussed during the meeting. 

The Association held its meetings in the rooms of the City Hall, the 
Court House, and the vestry of the Third Congregational Church, under 
the auspices of the Local Committee. Each morning there was a gene- 
ral meeting for business, and then the members adjourned to Section 
A,— Mathematics and Physics; or to Section B, —Natural History and 
Geology, as their tastes inclined. 

On Friday evening, the President, Professor J. S. Newberry, of 
Columbia College, New York, gave an address on Modern Seb *tfr In- 
vestigation— its Methods and Tendencies. His address applied to the 
whole range of the sciences. It was comprehensive, profound, and ably 
written, and gave great satisfaction to the members present. This ad- 
dress will be published in full in the next number of the Naturalist. 

On Saturday, after a short session in the morning, the Association 
and their friends accepted the invitation of the Champlain Transpor- 
tation Company, and made an excursion to the An Sable Chasm, in 
Keeseville, New York, a singular and very beautiful chasm in the 
Potsdam rocks, through which the Au Sable Kiver makes its way 



PROCEEDINGS OF SCIENTIFIC SOCIETIES. 443 



In our next we shall endeavor to give abstracts of the various papers 
read before the Natural History Section, only having space in this 
number for tbeir titles. 



•' 



OF SCIENTIFIC SOCIETIES. 

' Prof. 0. C. Marsh, of 




This Resolution was unanimously adopted, and the chair appointed 
the following committee:— Prof. J. D. Dana, of Yale College ; Prof. 
Jeffries Wyman, of Harvard University ; Prof. S. F. Baird, of the 
Smithsonian Institution; Prof. Joswh Lkidv, of the Philadelphia 
Academy of Natural Science ; Prof. J. S. Newberry, of Columbia Col- 
lege; Prof. J. W. Dawson, of McG ill College, Montreal; Dr. Wil- 
liam Stimpsox, of the Chicago Academy of Science; S. H. Scudder, 
of the Boston Society of Natural History ; and F. W. Putnam, of 
the Ebsex In titute. 

Dr. Henry Wheatland, Secretary of the Essex Institute, offered a 
resolution, which was unanimously adopted, tendering the thanks of 
the Association to George Peabody, Esq., for his munificent dona- 
tions, amounting to over four million of dollars, for the increase of 
science and education in the United States. 

The President was requested by the Association to forward a copy 
of the resolution to Mr. Peabody. 

After the adjournment of the meeting on Monday night, the mem- 
bers met at the house of Dr. Wm. C. Hickok, and passed the few last 
hours of their stay in Burlington most pleasantly. 

On the following day a number of the members accepted the invita- 
tion of W. H. II. Bingham, Esq., to visit Mt. Mansfield, where they 
were most cordially entertained. 

The next meeting will be held at Chicago, commencing on the first 
Wednesday of August, 1868. 

The following are the officers for the next meeting: — 

President, Dr. B. A. Gould, Cambridge. Vice President, Col. Chas. 
Whittlesey, Cleveland, Ohio. Permanent Secretary, Prof. Joseph 
Lovering, Cambridge. General Secretary, Prof. A. P. Rockwell, 
New Haven. Treasurer, Dr. A. L. Elwyn, Philadelphia. 

The Association were invited to hold the meeting of 1869 in this 
city (Salem), and should they accept, as we earnestly hope they wffl. 
we know they will be most cordially welcomed by our citizens. 

Boston Society of Natural History. March 20, 1867.— Mr. A. 
L.Fleury, of New York, read an essay entitled : "Rocks In Nature ma 
in the Arts," treating of the physical and chemical properties of 



PROCEEDINGS OF SCIENTIFIC 

quartz, and the theories proposed to account for its origin. Observ- 
ing that in nature quartz-rock is often dissolved in water by the for- 
mation and subsequent decomposition of sulphide of silicum, either 
with or without alkaline agency, he showed how we might follow the 
path thus indicated, and prodm . irtifidally. a liquid hydrate of 

The Secretary read a paper by Col. Whittlesey, of Cleveland, on the 
weapons and military character of the Race of the Mounds. The au- 
thor brought to notice the curious fart, thai while extensive fortilica- 
tions built by the Mound race remain scattered over the plains of 
Ohio, no weapons formed exclusive!} it warfare have yet been dis- 
covered, nor are there any indications that the defences have ever 
been attacked. lie concluded that the weapons were probably made 
of wood, and that the fortifications were abandoned on the approach 
of the foe. He also remarked that while in Europe ethnological 
writers distinguish the progress of mechanical arts among men as the 
ages of Stone, of Bronze, and of Iron, in tbe Western States the an- 
cient inhabitants did not follow this order of progress, but rather 
retrograded. He believed that the European age of Bronze corre- 
sponded to the age of Copper in this country, to which the age of 



April i, 1867. — Mr. James G. Swan presented a paper on the Meteo- 
rology of Cape Flatten-. Washington Territory, the result of personal 

Dr. Andrew Garratt exhibited a bony mass taken from the interior 
of the heart of a right whale ; it was attached by two knoblike pro- 
jections to the base of the valves, and hung free in the cavity of the 
heart. On examination. Dr. J. C. White had found it to be composed 
of an external shell of fibrous tissue, dense and glistening like parch- 
ment, and an interior spongy mass of a brownish and somewhat fatty 
substance ; it seemed to be a coagulura of fibrine, or possibly a patho- 
logical growth from the valves of the heart. 

At the last meeting of the Section of Entomology —records of which 
were read at this time — Mr. S. II. Scuddcr exhibited drawings and 
specimens of fossil insects from the Devonian rocks of New Bruns- 
wick. Six tolerably well-preserved specimens had been obtained by 
Mr. C. F. Hartt, all belonging to the Neuroptera, or lace-winged flie*. 
hut differing greatly from any now living. They were the earliest 
traces of insect life 
known having been found ii 



44 b PROCEEDINGS OF 

Mr. Scudder exhibited a photograph of another fossil wing, found 
in the Carboniferous rocks of Cape Breton. It was simple in struc- 
ture, of gigantic size, and probably belonged to the May flies. 

Some notes of a visit to the Pinjrapal, or animal hospital of Bombay, 

the heart of the city was enclosed, and divided into wards, for the 
ception of sick - ; cattle, deer, dogs, goats, n 

keys, and i/vm tortoises, had all their separate abodes; fish, too, 
cued from impending death by the pious Hindoos, whose religion 
bids the destruction of animal life, swam unmolested in their pn 
tanks. No surgical aid seemed to be given, but the animals were ' 
fed and cared for by a large staff of attendants or nurses. There are 
several of these establishments in India, supported by the donations 
of wealthy Hindoos. 
April 18, 1867. — Dr. Jeffries Wyman gave an account of an excur- 

purpose of examining the Indian antiquities of that region. His atten- 
tion was especially given to the shell mounds. These mounds are of 
two kinds ; those on the sea-coast, made up of marine shells, as at 
Fernandina and St. John's bluffs, and those found inland, which are 
composed entirely of fresh-water shells. Twenty-eight of the latter, 
situated between Pilatka and Salt Creek, were examined. Although 
they have not hitherto been attributed to the aborigines, there is 
abundant evidence that Indians lived upon them from their commence- 
ment up to the time of their completion : pottery, bones of edible ani- 
mals, such as deer, wild turkeys, ducks, soft-shelled turtles and cat- 
fish were scattered throughout their whole extent. Beds of charcoal 
were found at various depths resting on calcined shells, and near them 
were fragments of burnt bones. Ornaments and flint implements were 
very rare, but a few miles above Pilatka, a worked flint was discov- 
ered in the sand under a shell mound eight feet high. The shells 
were principally univalves of the genera Ampullaria and Paludina, 
with some fresh-water mussels, Unionidce. 

The age of these mounds was not determined, but the occasional 
occurrence of live oaks five feet in diameter proved that the mounds 
had not been materially increased since the advent of the white man, 
more than three centuries ago. 

There was a marked variety in the fragments of pottery belonging 
to different localities. Specimens from the upper portion of the river 
were slightly ornamented by square and regular indentations; those 
from the neighborhood of Lake Munroe were marked by complicated 
figures, traced on the clay wis . t, while near the 



PKOCKEDI.M.S OF SCIENTIFIC SOCIETIES. 



Academy of Sciences. Chicago, June 11, 1867.— The Secretary 
presented a paper entitled " Contributions to Comparative Geography," 
by Dr. Herman Haig, accompanied by a letter from the author, in which 
he stated that he had submitted the same to Humboldt shortly before 
his death, but that the paper had been returned unopened. He now- 
desired to lay it before the Academy in the hope that his discoveries - 
would meet with public recognition through their means. On motion, 
the paper was referred to a committee of three, consisting of Dr. 
Rauch, Professor Stimpson, and Professor Daniels. 

A paper was presented from Charles A. White, M. D., and O. H. 
St. John, entitled, "Descriptions of New Subcarboniferous and Coal 
Measure Fossils, collected upon the Geological Survey of Iowa, to- 
gether with a notice of new generic characters observed in the species 
ofbrachiopods." 

July 9.— The Secretary read abstracts of a couple of papers by 
Professor T. H. Saftbrd, one on the motion of the solar system in 
space, and the other relative to observations on nebulae with the large 
reflectors of the Dearborn Observatory. The papers were referred to 
a special committee, composed of Dr. Blaney and the Secretary. 

Dr. Blaney then made some remarks on the spectral analysis, the 
manner of using it, and the purposes for which it was employed. 

The presiding officer spoke in reference to the continued discover- 
ies of silver in Colorado. 

Dr. Blaney reported that he had assayed some chips taken from the 
bottom of a well in Canada, dug down three feet deep in the rock, 
and got out $9 in silver. The well had been dug under spiritual guid- 



Remarks were made by t 



Academy of Naturae Sciences of Philadelphia. 
Prof. E. D. Cope presented to the Academy a young s 
Whale, known as the Bahia Finner, procured near Ba 
length was twenty-one feet. It was shown to belong 
Megaptera Gray, the Hump-back Whale of saUof s. 

Dr. Leidy exl 



448 BOOKS RECEIVED. 

ono representing an almost complete skull of an animal, whicl 

characterized under the name of Afiriochcerus latifrons. 

Prof. Ennis inquired whether remains of the Hippopotamus 
been found in this country. Dr. Leidy replied that no evidence 
isted of the animal, though Mr. J. A. Conrad had at one time a to 
which he considered to have belonged to the Hippopotamus. 

April 9, 1867. — Professor H. C. Wood, jr., presented a paper 
titled, "Description of New Species of Texan Myriapoda." 

A paper was read from Isaac Lea, LL. D., on two new mint 
(Uxhnjitt and Pah rsmufr), from Chester county, Pennsylvania. 

Professor Ennis spoke of the "Geological Changes resulting I 
the rise and fall of the Ocean level ;" also upon the "Natural His 
of Man." 

Professor Cope exhibited several vertebras of a new species 
Gavial (Thoracosaurus brevispinus Cope), from t 
Burlington county, New Jersey. 

April 23, 1867. — Mr. J. Cassin read a paper en 
of the Icterida; — Sub-family Icterime. 



BOOKS RECEIVED. 






Philadelphia. By Aubi 



AMERICAN NATURALIST. 

Vol. I. — NOVEMBER, 1867. — No. 9. 



MODERN SCIENTIFIC INVESTIGATION : ITS 
METHODS AND TENDENCIES.* 



Gentlemen of the American Association for the Advano 
ment of Science: Every day of our lives we hear th; 
this is an age of progress ; and that it is so we rind ev 
dence at every turn. The rapidity with which effec 
follow causes in human events, the celerity with whit 

experience of one of the present generation the praetie: 
value of a lifetime in ages past. Much labor has bee 
expended on the exposition of the causes of the ment: 
activity of the present age. and of the grand achievement 
which have attended it ; and yet, the key to the who! 
enigma is to be found in the universal adoption ot th 
comparatively new system of inductive reasoning. J 
would be foreign to my purpose to attempt to illustrat 
or defend this "proposition, and I must therefore trust t 
its acceptance without argument, while we pass to cor 



4oO MODERN SCIENTIFIC INVESTIGATION: 

skier that branch of the subject which more immediately 
Although the progress of the age to which I have re- 
students of humanity and civilization, many of OUT best 
men have been somewhat alarmed and dizzed by it ; and 
while accepting the achievements of modern industry and 
thought as full of present good and future promise, they 
are not a little concerned lest our railroad speed of pro- 
gress should lead to its legitimate consequences, a final 
crash— not of things material, but of those of infinitely 
more value— of opinions and of faith. As often as it is 
boasted that this is preeminently an age of progress, that 
boast is met by the inevitable "but" (which qualifies our 
praise of all things earthly) "it is equally an age of seep 
ticism." For the truth of this assertion the proof is 
nearly as palpable as of the other ; and in view of the 
ruthlessness with which the man of the present removes 
ancient landmarks and profanes shrines hallowed by the 
faith of centuries, it is not surprising that many of the 
good and wise among us should deplore a liberty of 
thought leading, in their view, inevitably to license ; and 
mourn over this wide-spread seepticism as an evil and in- 
scrutable disease that has fallen upon the minds and hearts 
of men. 

Now for every consequence there must be an adequate 
cause; and while confessing the fact of this modern lack 
of faith, I have thought that a few moments given to an 
analysis of it, and an attempt to trace it to its source 
might not be wholly misspent, — might possibly, indeed, 



ITS METHODS AXD TENDENCIES. 451 

If the wheels of time could, for our benefit, be rolled 
back, and we could see in all its details the civilization 
of Europe three or four hundred years ago, we should 
find that our so much respected ancestors, who fill so 
large a space on the page of history, were little better 
than barbarians. Among the English, the French, the 
Germans, Spanish and Italians we should find a phase of 
civilization which, excepting that it included the elements 
—as yet but imperfectly developed— of a true religious 
faith, is scarcely to be preferred to that of the Chinese. 
Aside from the vast difference perceptible between the 
civilization of that epoch and ours, as exhibited in the 
political condition of the people, in their social economy 
and morals, the general intellectual darkness of the period 
referred to could not fail to impress us both profoundly 
and painfully. Out of that darkness and chaos have 
come, as if by magic, all our modern democracy with its 
individual liberty and dignity, all our civil and religious 
freedom, all our philanthropy and benevolence, all our 
diffused comfort and luxury, most of our good manners 
and good morals, and all the splendid achievements of 
our modern scientific investigation. 

It is unnecessary for me here to describe in detail the 
origin and growth of modern science. That has been so 
well done by Dr. Whewell that all men of education are 
familiar with the steps by which the grand, beautiful, and 
symmetrical fabric formed by the grouping of the natural 
sciences has acquired its present lofty proportions. 

Previous to the period when the Baconian philosophy 
was accepted as a guide in scientific investigation, but one 
department of science had attained a development which 
has any considerable claim to our respect. Mathematics, 
both pure and applied, had been assiduously cultivated 



402 MODERN SCIENTIFIC INVESTIGATION: 

from the remote-? aniiqiiity. nml with a degree of success 
which has left to modern investigators little more than 
the elaboration of the thoughts of their predecessors. In 
Metaphysics — which had claimed even a larger share of 
the attention of the scholars of antiquity — little progress 
had been made. Perhaps I am justified in saying little 
progress was possible, inasmuch as in the light of all 
the great material discoveries of modern times the meta- 
physicians of the present <I;iy are debating, with as little 
harmony of opinion, the same questions that divided the 
rival schools of the Greeks. Each successive generation 
has had its two parties of idealists and realists, who have 
discussed the intangible problems which absorbed the 
great minds of Plato and Aristotle with a degree of enthu- 
siasm and energy — and it may be of acrimony — which 
seems hardly compensated by any expansion of the human 
intellect or amelioration of the condition of mankind. 

Of the physical sciences we may say that, except As- 
tronomy, no one had an existence prior to the time of 
Bacon. There were men of vast learning, and much that 
was called science in the mass of reported observation 
that had been accumulating from century to century, 
until it had become ''nulls imlif/estaque mole*:' in which— 
though it constituted the pride of universities, the intel- 
lectual capital with which the savant thought himself rich, 
and that on which the professional man depended for suc- 
cess—there was far more error than truth, and of which 
the study was sure to mislead and likely to injure. In 
these circumstances the task before the scientific reformer 
was one far more difficult than that of clearing the Augean 
stables ; no less, in fact, than to seat himself before this 
great heap of rubbish, this mass of truth and error,— « 
the sublimest philosophy with the wildest fiction, — to pa- 



nowin-'il' 


il ,1 ;.H,i l 


W^ld^ 


that which had l 


aZ 


siu-LVss to'; 




r true science of 1 


:he period?— tha 


A Hie 


mathcuiatk 


•al tout 


:hstone should b 


e the test by \ 


rtlich 


every grai 


u was 


tried? And sue 


>h precisely was 


i the 


course pur 




jerhaps we may c 


>ven Bay the onb 


r one 


practicable 


. Pro\ 


ided with this to 


st, the' reformer 


was 


compelled 


to re ji; 


idge npon its me 


rite every propos 


ition 


submitted i 


;o him, 


and accepted only 




•oul.l 


be demons! 


rated. 


The materials wl 


lich composed th. 


? sci- 


ence to be : 


reforme 


d naturally fell into several categories. 


First,— Th 


at whii 


3h had been den, 


iomtrated to be 


fcrue. 


Second, — ' 


rhat wl 


!iich was dermnsi 


ruble. Third, — 


That 


which was 


l)foWj/, 


5. Fourth,— Thf 


it which was post 


«Ve, 


and Fifth, - 


-That } 


vhieh was impossii 


ble. Of these he 


sys- 


tematieally 


reject© 


:l all but the firs 


t and second cla 


8S es. 


And this, i 


n few 


words, has been 


the method ado] 


>ted, 


not only in 


the pui 


•ilicationofoldsci 


once, but in the i 


•iva- 


It Will b€ 


' seen a 


t a glance, that in 


this process all that 


was contra- 


ty to the order of nati: 


tre (supernatura 


1 or 


spiritual) TV 


r as necc 


sssarily excluded ; 


and it was takei 


i for 


granted tha 


t the i 


nathematical or 1 


onfical faculty of 


' the 


human mint 


1 was c 


apable of solving 


; all the problem 


- of 


the material 


. univei 


ree. Sir William 


Hamilton and others 


have demoi 


t guide 


the inadequacy , 


m and a' mom. 


pro- 


thought will 


I show , 


as that our boast© 


J intellect is inc 


apa- 


hie of gr as 


ping d 


ren all the mate] 


rial truths which 


are 


plainly p re: 


rented 


to it. To illustrate : as we scan 


the 



454 MODERN SCIENTIFIC INVESTIGATION: 




heavens of a clear evening, we recognize the fact thai 


;we 


stand :i^ it were on a point in space, where our iiek 


I of 


vision is limitless ; the heavenly bodies stretching a 




into the realms of obscurity, and becoming invisible < 


>nly 


through the imperfection of our organs of vision. Br; 


ing- 


ing to our aid the most powerful telescopes, we are appa- 


rently as far as ever from reaching the limits of 


the 


universe ; and when we endeavor to conceive of sue 


•h a 


limit, the reasoning family iind- it-elf incapable of grasp- 


ing either of the two alternatives offered to it, one or 


the 


other of which must be true. The universe must 


he 


either limited or limitless. But no man can eonceiv< 


3 of 


a universe without a limit ; and if it be regarded as 


ter- 


minated by dolinite boundaries, the imagination strive 


s in 


vain to till the void which reaches beyond. In fact 


: we 


stand here face to face with iniinity, and recognize 


the 


fact that the infinite exists without the power to compre- 


hend it. 




The same is true of time. We cannot conceive oi 


- its 


beginning or its end. All things which come within 


the 


scope of our senses are limited in duration and circ 


um- 


scribed in space, and though we prate flippantly of 


the 


infinite, the pretence that we can grasp it is simply 


idle 


talk. 




Conducted on such a plan, it was inevitable that sc 


irll- 


tific investigations should be narrow and matcrialisti 


e in 


their tendency. No matter how strong the probabilit 


v in 


favor of the truth of a certain proposition, — though 


the 


wuole tabric ot society were based upon its aeeepta 




and it formed the foundation of civil and moral laws,' 


con- 


trolling the actions of the philosopher himself,— if 


nut 


proved consistent with nature's physical and material 




it must be rejected as unworthy to enter into the 





ITS METHODS AND TENDENCIES. 

i of tlu- edifice ho was erecting. In 1 



Divine super 



selves from time-honored errors, they necessarily pros- 
tituted the liberty they gained to seliish or sensual pur- 
poses. On the contrary, the most important advances 
which the human intellect has made within these later 
centuries have been due to the efforts of men of the 
purest and most conscientious character : men whose lives 
were devoted with the utmost singleness of purpose to 
determine what is truth,- men who, knowing that all 
truth must be consistent with all other truth, were willing 

omitting the "weightier matters of the law," it is also true 
that in no other way could the material laws of the uni- 

the subjects of an absorbed and undivided attention. And 
it is not true, in any sense, that these devotees of science 
have lived in vain ; for to them we mainly owe the fact, 

he is better and happier. It would be as just to impugn 



456 MODERN SCIENTIFIC DH 

the motives and decry the merits of the maker of our 
almanacs because his mathematical calculations were not 
interlarded with mora] maxims, as to reproach the student 
of natural phenomena because he did his work so well, 
and left to others the coordination of the results of his 
efforts with the accepted dogmas of religious faith. 

In justice to the man of science we must go still farther 
than this, and claim for him the position of co-laborer 
with, and indispensable ally to the philanthropists and 
moralists : for from no source have they drawn richer 
lessons, stronger arguments, or more eloquent illustra- 
tions than from his discoveries. 

And yet while conceding conscientiousness and purity 
of motive to the vast majority of our men of science, and 
acknowledging the contributions they have made, and are 
making to human happiness; compelled by my sense of 
justice to defend their spirit, approve their methods, ad- 
mire their devotion, and assert their usefulness, I cannot 
deny that the tendency of modern investigation is decid- 
edly materialistic. All natural phenomena being ascribed 
to material and tangible causes, the search for and analy- 
sis of these causes have begotten a restless activity and 
an indomitable energy which will leave no stone unturned 
for the attainment of their object. But while this is 
apparent, and, indeed, inevitable, as has been seen from 
the sketch of the growth of modern science, I am far 
from sharing the alarm which it excites in the minds of 
many good men. Nor would I encourage or excuse that 
spirit of conservatism — to call it by no harsher term — 
vhich for the safety of a popular creed, would by any 



and all m« 
tions tin, 



repress, and. it' possible, arrest investiga- 
may possibly become revolutionary and dan- 



ITS METHODS AXD TEXDEXCIES. 457 

Such opposition, in the first place, must be fruitless. 
All history has proved that persecution by physical co- 
ercion or obloquy is powerless to arrest the progress of 
ideas, or quench the enthusiasm of the devotees of a cause 
approved by their moral sense. The problems before our 
men of science must be solved in the manner proposed, if 
human wisdom will suffice for the task. In every de- 
partment of science are men actuated simply by a thirst 
for truth, whom neither heat nor cold, privation nor op- 
position will hold back from their self-appointed tasks. 
We may, therefore, accept it as a iinality, that this prob- 
lem will be carried to its logical conclusion. 

In the second place, if possible, the arrest of scientific 
investigation would be not only undesirable, but an infi- 
nite calamity to our race. As has been so often said, 
truth is consistent with itself. If, therefore, our faith in 
this or that is based on truth, we have no cause for fear 
that this truth will be proved untrue by other truths. 
And more than this : it seems to me, that, in the reach 
and thoroughness of this material investigation, we may 
hope for such demonstration of the reality of things imma- 
terial as shall produce a deeper and more universal faith 
than has ever yet prevailed. 

Through this very spirit of scepticism which pervades 
the modern sciences we are compelled to exhaust all ma- 
terial means before we can have recourse to the super- 
natural. When, however, that is done, and men have 
tried patiently and laboriously, but in vain, to refer all 
natural phenomena to material causes, then, having proved 
a negative, they will be compelled to accept the existence 
of truth not reached by their touchstone, and faith be re- 
cognized as the highest and best knowledge. 

That such will be the result is the confident expecta- 



458 MODERN SCIENTIFIC INVESTIGATION: 

tion of many of the wisest of the scientific men whose 
influence is looked upon with such alarm by those 
who, in their anxiety for their faith, demonstrate its 

Already, as it seems to me, scientists have reached the 
wall of adamant — the inscrutable — that surrounds them on 
every side, and, erelong, we may expect to see them re- 
turn to that heap of chaff from which the germs of modern 
science were winnowed, with the conviction that there 
were there left buried other germs of other and higher 
truths than those they gleaned; truths without which 
human knowledge must be a dwarfed and deformed 
thing. 

A few illustrations from the many that might be cited 
will suffice to show the materialistic tendency of modern 
science. In "Pure Philosophy," — as the students of 
Psychology are fond of styling their science,— the names 
alone of Compte, Buckle, Herbert Spencer, Mill, and 
Draper will suggest the more prominent characters of the 
school they may be said to represent. The most con- 
spicuous feature in the "Positive Philosophy" of Compte 
is the effort it exhibits to coordinate the laws of mind 
with those of matter. Spencer is a thorough-going men- 
tal Darwinist, who considers the highest attributes of the 
human mind, the loftiest aspirations of the soul, as only 
developed instincts, as these were but developed sensa- 
tions. Mill, more guarded, more fully inspired with the 
spirit of the age,— which believes nothing, and is a foe to 
speculation,— leaves the history of our faculties to be 
written, if at all, by others ; takes them as they are, but 
reasons of conscience and free-will with an independence 
of popular belief that savors more of the material than the 
spiritual school. Buckle wore himself out in a vain chase 



ITS METHODS AND TENDENCIES. 

after an ignis fatuus, an inherent, inflexible law . 
velopmentist, but not a Darwinian. With hiir 



etc , as to lender it difficult to say whether the rule or 
the exception has. in his judgment, greatest potency. If 
he were a consistent Darwinist, the accidents of develop- 

Among the students of "Social Science," — a new and 
important member of the sisterhood of sciences, — as in 
most of the other departments of modern investigation, 
two groups of devotees are found ; one patiently and con- 
scientiously studying the problems of social organization, 
inspired with the true spirit of the Baconian Philosophy, 

having for their object that noblest of all objects, the in- 



id laws and penalties rc^nlcd simply as relics 
io despotism. The dreary soul-killing creed of 
dists is fortunately so repugnant to the reason 
ngs of the majority of men, that there is little 



VESTIGATION : 

danger that their efforts will reach their legitimate con- 
cl 1 1 u m throwing society into a state of anarchy and 
chaos. 

In Theology or Biblical Science the tendency of modern 
investigation is so distinctly felt, that I need only refer to 
it. The spirit of iiu I [> udeut crii u-\>n\. s<> noticeable else- 
where, is still more conspicuous here ; assuming some- 
times the form of derisive scepticism, but oftener of cold, 
passionless judgment on the reported facts of sacred his- 
tory, or the psychological phenomena of religious faith, 
studied simply as scientific problems. 

The names of Strauss, Kenan, and Colenso, will suggest 
the results to which men, possibly honest, are led by this 
so-styled "enlightened and emancipated spirit of enquiry" ; 
while "Ecee Homo" and cognate productions may be 
considered as the fruit of thi> r-pirit. tempered by a very 
liberal but apparently sincere faith. 

Aside from these more marked examples of the decided 
"set" in the tide of mod i >ns, we every- 

where see evidences that no part of the religious world 
is unmoved by it. In every sect and section an impulse 
is felt to substitute for abstract faith, the "faith without 
works," rather a characteristic of the religion of our 
fathers, and not unknown at present — that other faith 
which is evidenced by works. In other words; in our 
day more and more value is being attached to this life, as 
a sphere for religious effort and experience. With what 
propriety, I leave to the individual judgment of my audi- 
tors ; the faith of every sect and man is coming to be 
respected and valued precisely in the ratio of the purity, 
unselfishness, and active sympathy in the life produced 
by it. 

While, therefore, we have less now than formerly of 



► TEXDEXCIES. 461 

the self-centred and fruitless piety of the old deacon 
whom I chanced to know, who excused his avarice by 
proelaiming that "business was one thing and religion 
another, and he never allowed them to interfere"; in 
place of that we have many an Abou Ben Adhem, and all 
the splendid exhibitions of modern philanthropy. 

Though the golden mean displayed in the life and 
words of Christ is tar better than either extreme, I cannot 
but think the present religious condition of the world is 
better than any which has preceded it. 

So tar as regards the facts of sacred history, it is well 

those of Levard. \l ,u s, .. md Hi i\- imong the Assy- 
rian inscriptions; of Champollian and Lepsius, in Egypt, 
have confirmed in a remarkable manner the accuracy of 
the historical books of the Bible. 

In Ethnology — the piv-historic history of the human 
race — the researches of the large number of investigators 
who are devoted to its study have made interesting and 
important additions to our knowledge: but it cannot be 



lose of the i 

olid foundai 



reation or by developme 



462 MODEEX SCIENTIFIC I 

Among those who have accepted the theory of a special 
creation, and have differed only in regard to the number 
of species and their places of origin or centres of creation, 
there has been such a diversity of opinion that all confi- 
dence in their reality and value of the bases of their rea- 
soning has been lost. Among the advocates of a multi- 
plicity of species and diversity of origin we have from 
Blumenbaeh to Agassiz almost every number between 
fifteen and three as that of distinct species of the human 

ber. We may, therefore, very fairly infer that the tacts 

very clear and unmistakable character. 

The subject of the origin of the human race brings us 
into the domain of zodloirv, and opens the wide question 



race were gathe 




g wi 


th 


so much industry, 


ing with so muc 




i'lo.pi 


en< 


je the 


proofs of a 


f origin, the Dai 


rwi 


nian 


1>> 


•pnthe: 


sis comes in 


not only all the 1 




nan i 


'am 




it all classes 


and plants, to an 


, ii 


iitial 


V : 


lint in 


a nucleated 


be impossible fa 








to disc 


aiss, in a fair 


*ent manner, the 


gi 


vat < 


me 


ition ■ 


of the origin 


in anything less 


;;; 


il we 


i bi 


ilky v 


olume. The 
to it at the 



present time. Although the appearance of Darwin s 
book on the Origin of Species communicated a distinct 
shock to the prevalent creeds, both religious and seien- 
tiiic, the hypothesis which it suggests, though now for 



ITS METHODS AND TENDENCIES. 463 

the first time distinctly formularized, was by no means 

velopment theories of Oken, Lamarck, I)e Maillot, and 
the author of the "Vestiges of Creation." There was this 
difference, however, that in the developmental theories of 
the older writers the element of evolution had a place ; the 

growth. or tendency, such as produces the evolution of the 

the beautiful symmetry and adaptation which we see in 
nature is simply the form assumed by plastic matter in 

Although this Darwini in h.\ p >t!K-i> U looked upon by 
many as striking at the root of all vital faith, and is the 
bete noire of all Those good men who deplore and condemn 

purity of life of the author of the "Origin of Species," his 

and acumen whi« i hav< mark. I »is res< u-ches, the candor 
and caution witi^vhich his ,ugge>tions have been made, 
all combine to render the obloquy and scorn with which 
they have been received in many quarters peculiarly 
unjust and in bad taste. It should also be said of Mr. 
Darwin, that his views on the origin of species are not 

Revelation ; and that many of our best men of science 
look upon his theory as not incompatible with the relig- 
ious faith which is the guide of their lives, and their 
hope for the future. To these men it seems presumption 
that any mere man should restrict the Deity in his man- 
ner of vitalizing and beaut living the earth. To them it is 
a proof of higher wisdom and greater power in the Crea- 
tor that he should endow the vital principle with such 



potency that, pervaded by it, all the economy of nature, 
in both the animal and vegetable worlds, should be so 
nicely self-adjusting that, like a perfect machine from the 
hands of a master maker, it requires no constant tinker- 
ing to preserve the constancy and regularity of its move- 
ments. 

This much I have said in view of the possible accep- 
tance of the Darwinian theory by the scientific world. I 
should have said, in limine, however, that the Darwinian 
hypothesis is not accepted and can never be fully accepted 
by the student of science who is inspired with the spirit 
ot the age. From the nature of things it can be proved 
only to a certain point, and while we accept that which is 
proven,— and for it sincerely thank Mr. Darwin,— that 
which is hypothesis, or based only upon probabilities we 
reject, as belonging in the category of mere theories, to 
disprove or purify which the modern scientific reform was 
inaugurated. Much, too, may be said against the suffi- 

observations made upon the phenomena of the economy 
of nature. Necessarily, the action of the Darwinian prin- 
ciple must be limited to the individual, literally and 
purely selfish ; and if it can be proved that a broader in- 
fluence pervades the created world, that something akin 
to benevolence enters into the organization of the indi- 
vidual, something which benefits others and not himself, 
one single fact establishing this truth would hurl the en- 
tire Darwinian fabric to the ground, or rather restrict it 
to its proper bearing upon the limits of variation, and the 
mooted question of "what is a species." One of the most 
potent influences in the perpetuation of species is fecun- 
dity in the individual, whereas we see in social insects 
the economy of the community is best served by a total 



ITS METHODS AND TENDENCIES. 

loss of this power in the great majority of the i 
which compose it. This objection will perhaps 
the Darwinians with the assertion that the com 



those individui 


Us who have no post 


:eritj ; to 


inherit th 


peculiarities of 
The Honey 


Ants of Mexico offer 


addition 


al difficult* 


Among them a 
the abdominal 
and these indi 


, portion of the comm 
cavity until they re 
viduals, during the 1 


ir. 


rete honey 



in succession to furnish food for the other members of the 
colony. How, by modified descent, is this honey-making 
faculty transmitted, when those who possess it are sys- 
tematically destroyed? 

A still harder nut for the Darwinians to crack is fur- 
nished in a fact stated by Dr. Stimpson, that among the 

proportion of the individuals of a numerically powerful spe- 
cies pass their lives as neuters, or undeveloped females. 

sight suggests an objection to the Darwinian theory, is 
that of beauty, which affects others far more than the pos- 
sessor. This is considered by the Darwinians simply as 
an attraction to the opposite sex, but as a fact we find 
that in the larval condition of some insects— a condition 

and combinations of color exist which appeal to our sense 

of beauty scarcely less forcibly than in the perfect insects. 

Again, the origin of life is left completely untouched 



466 MODERN SCIENTIFIC INVESTIGATION : 

by the Darwinian hypothesis, and so long as the vital 
principle resists, as it has done, all efforts of theorists and 
experimenters to bring it within the category of material 
forces, so long we must regard the world of life as includ- 
ing elements not amenable to the laws which control sim- 

Upon this question of the origin of life so much is 
being done and said that you will expect a word of refer- 
ence to it at my hands, yet little more can be reported as 
the result of all modern research than that the origin of 
life is as great a mystery as ever. You will all remember 
how, a few years since, we were startled by the announce- 
ment of the discovery of the generation of the Acarus 
Crossii; and, while our original distrust of the accuracy 
of the observations of Mr. Cross was strengthened by the 
failure of all subsequent experimenters to reproduce his 
results, our unbelief is further confirmed byt&e unanimity 
of all the more modern and intelligent devotees of spon- 
taneous generation in the assertion that life can only origi- 
nate in its simplest form, that of a unicellular organism. 
There is no Darwinist who will concede the possibility of 
an animal a- highly organized ;i ~ an Awrux, with body, 
head, limbs, digestion, and senses, all more or less corn- 
not the result of slow and gradual development. 

Still farther; it is known that the animal kingdom rests 
upon the vegetable as a base. Animals being incapable 
ot assimilating inorganic matter could not exist without 
plants. Plants must therefore have preceded animals, 
and the fruit of spontaneous generation must be a proto- 
p by t e and not a protozoan . 

As I have said, the materialists have so far utterly 
failed to coordinate the vital force with those which we 



ITS METHODS AND TENDENCIES. 467 

designate as material. The beautiful and important dis- 
coveries which have followed researches into the correla- 
tion and conservation of forces by pointing to a unity of 
all the forces in the material world have naturally prompt- 
ed efforts to centralize, with electricity, magnetism, and 
chemical affinity, that which we know as vital torn*. But 
a moment's reflection will show us how far removed is this 
vital force from all others with which it has been com- 
pared. 

The nicest manipulations of chemical science will prob- 
ably fail to detect a difference in composition between the 
microscopic germs of two cryptogamoiM plants. Each 
consists of the same elements, carbon, nitrogen, hydrogen, 
and oxygen, in nearly or quite the same proportions. 
Both may be planted in a soil which laborious mixture 
has rendered homogeneous, and subsequently supplied 



s l>«-nnatozoa of the mouse and the elephant. Indeed 
the phenomena which attend the reproduction of spec 
;l '*'»' totally at variance and incompatible with those whi 
mark the action of material laws. Why, in physical e 

plant or animal so closely copying the parent? and when 
this tenacity of purpose in the germ which reproduc* 
through a long line of posterity, the trivial charaeterist 
of a remote ancestor. Even within our limited obsen 
tion we have been struck by the reappearance in t 
grandchild of the voice, the gesture, the stature, the ft 
tnres, or some other marked peculiarity of his grandsii 
Whence comes the force of the axiom that "blood w 



468 MODERN SCIENTIFIC 

tell" ? — and how incomprehensible that, by the action of 
only material laws, mental force, or, it may be, moral in- 
firmity is transmitted from generation to generation, in 
spite of the system of infinitesimal dilution through which 
it passes ! 

Strange as it may seem, there are to-day men, respecta- 
ble by their numbers and attainments, who are believers 
in spontaneous generation ; but with this proviso which 
leaves the mystery as great as ever, that only from or- 
ganic matter can organisms be produced. So that to the 
original aud primary appeanmee of life upon the earth, 
modern science has given us not the slightest clue. 

And now, even with this hurried and sadly imperfect 
exposition of the tendency of modern science, the time 
at our command has been consumed. Before leaving the 
subject, however, I crave your indulgence for a word to 
those who, wholly absorbed in the study of the laws 
which regulate the material universe, are so deeply im- 
pressed with their universality and potency, that they 
forget that law is but another name for an order of se- 
quence, and has in itself no force. These are they who, 
in their pride in the achievements of the human intellect, 
fail to realize that the universe furnishes conclusive prool 
that all our philosophy, all our logic, all our observation 
are utterly inadequate to solve the problems that are pre- 
sented to us ; inadequate not simply from the limited na- 
ture of our powers of observation, but because the human 
mind, though forced to confess the existence of the infi- 
nite, is utterly unable to grasp it ; and that while the logic 
of reason and the logic of numbers suffice for a qualified 
understanding of the manner in which material forces 
work, of the origin and nature of these forces we are and 
must ever remain ignorant, unless gifted with higher 



ITS METHODS 



powers than we now possess. As lias been stated, s 


ecu 


from the stand-point of our modern materialists. ; 


Hid 


judged by th." criteria which they have adopted, spirit 


ual 


existence and supernatural phenomena, even if as all-j: 


icr- 


vading as the most devout religionist believes, must, fr 


iim 


a priori considerations, be utterly ignored. Of th 


ose 


whose regard for the dignity of material laws leads th 


em 


to reject the idea of a creative and overruling Deity 


, I 


would ask, Is not man himself a disturbing elemeut 


in 


your universe? Whatever may be said in regard 


to 


man's free-agency, and however confidently it may 


be 


asserted that his will is but the resultant of the vark 




motives that operate as distinct forces upon it, conseio 




ness lies at the bases of all reasoning ; and the conduct 


of 


every man proves that he accepts this axiom. As 


he 


issues from his door he is conscious, beyond all ar< 




ment, that it is in his power to turn to the right or to 1 


he 


left; and while he holds himself responsible for his vc 


> I i - 


tion, he cannot blame us if we ascribe to him free-agen. 


-}'■ 



m independent power in the universe. 
tes. The locomotive is as truly his cre- 
ashioned from the dust of the earth and 



THE KOYAL FAMILIES OF PLANTS. 

No. II. 

The second of the royal lines in the vegetable world 
affords a view greatly different from the first. That, it 
will be remembered, consisted of the composite flowers, 
or the Family of the Asterids. Now wc will contemplate 
for a while the family of the second degree of botanical 
importance. It is familiarly known to us in the Pea and 
Bean. It has long been called by students the Legumi- 
nosce; that is, the Leguminous Plants, or those bearing 
a legume, or simple pod, for a fruit, Lindley thought 
proper, in arranging the "Vegetable Kingdom,*' to call 
this family the Fabacece, from faba, a bean ; but if the 
reader please, we will employ a title for them here shorter 
and more convenient, and derived from the group that 
best typifies the family, which the bean does not. We 
will term them the Pistils, from pimm, or the Pea. 

The royalty of these Pisids is quite different from that 
of the Astevids. Those challenge admiration by their 



he emigrant over the 
remarkable for sitting 



nitios in their original possessions, as sell-sat islied as the 
old grandees of Spain. Thus there are species in Aus- 
tralia that no other country can furnish ; for they have 
never travelled from the island y<t, whatever they may 
be tempted to do hereafter. So with those found at the 
Cape of Good Hope ; and even of the European genera 
there are some that never have penetrated into either 
Asia or Africa more than a very little way. Yet, in one 
form or another, they are met with almost everywhere ; 
in fact, Ave hear only of two spots entirely without them, 
namely, the islands of St. Helena and Tristan d'Acunha ; 
and perhaps it detracts nothing from the royal wisdom of 
these plants that they have kept themselves clear of two 
such Heaven-forsaken places. 

Before, however, proceeding too warmly into the ad- 
miration of this grand order, we should give the reader 
some simple means of recognizing it when he meets it. 
In these familiar views of natural families, we like to 
bring luminously before the eye of the untechuical lover 
of plants the few constant marks that we hold to exist in 
every such family somewhere, as the true key to all their 
mutual relationships, and the fit signs by which they may 
be readily and definitely known. Xow, as we had three 
marks whereby certainly to know an Axterid, so we 
have three that as certainly indicate a Pisid; but whereas 
in the other case all three are always present, here one 
may be absent, but never two, and one never disappears 

Get the first pea, bean, or locust flower you see. A 
large flower is easier to study than a small one, and these 
are the largest we have. The Sweet Pea is, perhaps, 
best of all, but the bean-flower has some obscurities to 
the common eye. Turn the flower face to face with you. 



472 THE EOTAL FAMILIES OF PLANTS. 

All flowers, or at least the great majority, are made up of 
five leaves or petals ; and so is this, if you will believe it. 
But you can hardly see any such structure; it merely 
looks like a miniature lady's head in a high-front bonnet 
of the year 1838. Or perhaps it suggests the idea to you 
that it has to scores of others, who for years have likened 
such flowers to butterflies. Hence these plants are often 
called Papilionaceous, from papilio, a butterfly. Such 
notions are all fanciful ; but the structure of these flowers 
is quite decisive. As you now hold it, the large, showy 
top leaf or petal is one only, and, we might say, about as 
large as it should be. Below it, right and left, are two 
more, mated like your gloves ; these have been called the 
wings. They are considerably reduced, usually paler, 
and sometimes of a very different color from the large 
one above, which we may call the banner. This makes 
three petals. Next, between the wings, wrapped up in 
them closely in some cases, is what does not look much 
like a petal or leaf of any sort ; but is really the fourth 
and fifth, very little developed, and grown together by 
the edges. They make what has always been called the 
heel. This is the structure of the Pea-flower the world 
over. It never appears outside of the Royal Family of 
Pisids, and it is present there iu a vast majority of eases. 
It is one of the three badges of their regal character. 

Next, take a pea or bean-pod, just fit to shell. It is 
one-sided in its form ; that is, the point farthest from the 
stem is on one side more than the other, so that of the 
two seams at the edges of the pod one is nearly straight, 
and one very much rouuded. Now split this pod cau- 
tiously along the straight side. The seeds lie within, and 
if you have done the thing nicely, you have laid the pod 
open flat, with each half claiming the alternate seeds, so 



THE ROYAL FAMILIES OF PLANTS. 473 

that ia a well-filled pod of peas, about four are found 
growing on one side, and as many on the other. This is 
the structure of the legume, or simple pod. Possibly it 
appears, in some instances, outside the royal family; but 
very rarely, indeed, if ever. It is not like the pods of the 
Mustard and Gilliflower, for they have a partition running 
through them flatwise, and the seeds hang upon both 
seams instead of one. The pods of the Milkweeds are 
very different, again, being mere bags in which the seeds 
are enclosed without the least attachment to any part, but 
grow upon the end of the stem where it passes into the 
interior. The simple pod, or legume, then, is the second 
mark of the Pisids, and any one can tell it at a glance. 

The third mark is simple, curious, and infallible, to the 
highest degree. The family most likely to be confounded 
with these is that to which the Hose and the Apple be- 
long ; in fact, though we might not expect it, the two run 
so closely together, that only this third mark is decisive 
as between them. And yet, all-important as it is, it 
seems the merest trifle. Look at the bottom of the Pea- 
flower, outside. There are five small, green, pointed 
leaves surrounding it, that together are called the calyx, 
and severally are termed sepals. Now find a flower that 
grows pretty low down on the stem, — from the angle of 
a leaf perhaps, — and carefully lift it up against the stem 
without giving it any twist one way or the other. Thus 
you bring the real top of the flower to the stem. Notice, 
now, that if you have worked fairly the stem comes, not 
against one of the green sepals, but into the notch or 
space between the upper two of them. The odd sepal, so 
to speak, is on the outer or lower side. If we had taken 
a rose or an apple-blossom or the flower of a Spiraea, and 
so examined it, we should have met just the reverse ; the 



474 THE EOYAL FAMILIES OF PLANTS. 

odd sepal will always be found at top, or next the stem. 
The invariability of these facts is really wonderful. It is 
one of those great little things whose discovery sheds 
such lustre on the genius of Robert Brown, the man 
whose eye pierced more keenly through the vegetable 
millstone, than any other man's before or since his time. 
Recapitulate then. The marks of the Plsids are, — 

1. Butterfly, or better, pea-flowers. 

2. Legumes, or simple pods, for fruit. 

3. The odd sepal turned away from the stem. 
True, these are not all the marks that are useful in dis- 
tinguishing this family. But they are the most simple 
and certain at once. Almost all have compound leaves, 
such as are found on the Locust, Clover, and Acacia. 
But we cannot be entirely safe in depending on this ; for, 
not to speak of exotics, the Woodwaxen contradicts the 
point at our very door. But the Woodwaxen has the 
three great marks all very plainly, and therefore is a true 
Pisid, belonging clearly to the royal Hue, hate it as we 

In this great family there are three sets, or, as we 
might say, cousinships. They are each marked by some 
distinctive properties, and each varies in certain degrees 
and manners from the typical structure which belongs to 
all. 

First. We have a set with perfect pea-flowers and 
mostly true pods; but in some, as the Tonka-bean, 
and the Ground-plum of the West, the pod grows thick 
and fleshy, and closely resembles a drupe, or stone-fruit 
of some sort. In this tribe we meet with nearly all the 
species that afford valuable food to man or beast. We 
hardly need to cite examples. 

Second. We find a set with flowers quite indefinite in 



THE ROYAL FAMILIES OF PLANTS. 475 

form; some nearly perfect by the type, and others almost 
as regularly five-petalled and (.-uvular as an apple-bloom. 
But here the pod keeps as close to the normal stylo as 
the flower departs, so that we never lose our guide. In 
this set are the chief medicines and drugs that the family 
produces. We see examples of this tribe in the Wild 
Senna and Honey Locust. 

Third. A set remains in which the pea-shape is wholly 
obsolete, the tlowei'.s being as completely regular as any to 
be found. The pods, however, so far as we are informed, 
preserve the simple form, and our marks are fully vindi- 
cated. We have no indigenous plaut that belongs here ; 
the greenhouse Acacias are those most familiar. The 
peculiar properties appear in the abundant production of 
gum and tannin. 

Like princes true, these plants take up nearly every 
variety of stature, habit, and soil. In regard to size, 
their range is perfectly enormous. In the gardens are 
species of Lotus that the gardener loves, and species of 
Medieago that he hates for the wretched weeds that they 
are, and neither of them is an inch high, but they creep 
on the earth like a carpet. There are perfect plants of 
the Pussy Clover that will go into an ounce vial with 
little crowding. Then, per contra, take the great Locusts 
of Brazil, described by Von Martius. Fifteen Indians, 
with outstretched arms, could just encircle the base of one 
of them. Some were measured and gave eighty-four feet 
in girth at the ground, and sixty feet where they first 
became cylindrical in form. This reliable observer made 
careful calculations on the age of these trees, and carried 
it back, in some cases, to the time of Homer, and, by all 
probability, beyond the Christian Era. The style and 
habit of these plants vary quite as much. The Honey 



47G THE EO 

Locust, especially where at all stunted or neglected, is a 
tree that a cat can hardly climb, bristling and horrid, a 
perfect chevaux-de-frise of thorns ; and the Hog Peanut 
glides over and round the bushes, where it climbs with a 
stem hardly strong enough to bear its own foliage, a half 
invisible thread of green. The Bauhinias bind themselves 
round the great South American trees like ropes of wire ; 
the Wistarias climb and revel in the Chinese thickets like 
grape-vines; while the Sensitive Briar creeps timidly 
among the herbage of the Carolinas, and the graceful 
little Tare intrudes in northern fields, presuming on its 
good looks for a chance of renewed impertinence. They 
are hardly as partial to maritime situations, yet the Beach 
Pea loves no place so well as its "home by the deep, deep 
sea," and the Wild Bean equally delights to hang its 
wanton herbage over bluffs where it can hear the scream 
of gulls, and see the fisherman casting his lines, hardly 
more twisted than its own. 

As hinted already, the nobility is very different from 
that of the Asterids. That family surprises us by its 
inutility ; this overwhelms us by its wonderful wealth. 
There is hardly a thing of any use to man that is not, 
somewhere or other, produced by this family. The other 
was the royalty of blood and self-complacency; this is 
that of profusion, extrava-i ui.v, iibiindance without limit 
or stint. We are not writing a volume, and so will not 
try any enumeration of the thousand products here to be 
found ; but do we desire line timber? We may take our 
choice of Rosewood, West India Locust, Itaka-wood, 
Purple-heart, Acacia-wood, Mora-wood, and a score of 
others, not forgetting our own Locust, whose fibre defies 
almost every destroying agent but the borer. 

Or would we prefer dyes? Logwood and Indigo, Gum 



Lac and Dragon's Blood come at call, with Brazil-wood, 
Brasiletto, Camwood, Sappau-wood, and Ked-sanders. 
Besides, in India, there are tine yellow dyes from several 
Buteas, and in Japan from a large tree (nameless to us), 
while we may have almost as good from the Woodwaxen. 
If we seek perfumes we shall not go far astray. Tonka- 
beans, Lign-aloes, Calambac, Balsam of Peru, Balsam 
Tolu, and Acacia-flowers, are ready representatives in 
this department. The tanner needs little help from any 
other tribe if he only have this. The Acacias, Bauhinias, 
and Cassias give their bark, aud Prosopis its pods for 
his purpose, and they fairly dispute precedence with the 
Oak aud Sumach. In gums they rule the world. Gum 
Arabic, Tragacanth, Senegal, Animi, Brazilian Copal, 
and Kino attest this. And yet in drugs their precedence 
is greater still. Liquorice comes here, with Manna, Sen- 
na, Cowhage, Fenugreek, Copaiva, and Catechu, and 
perhaps a hundred more might be added. If we like to 
study poisons, we might get a large selection of speci- 
mens here ; in fact, there is a suspicious character, a kind 
of royal treachery, underlying the whole group. The 
beautiful scarlet seeds sold in the shops for beads, and 
called by the children "Black-eyed Susans," are reported 
as highly poisonous ; certain wild plants of this family 
once killed whole flocks of sheep in the Swan River Col- 
ony; and others are common fish-poisons in Jamaica. 
Indigo is by some pronounced to be deadly, but others 
dispute the point seriously. There are not, perhaps, 
many of these hurtful products that appear as known 
drugs, but they are none the less present. The seeds of 
various Sweet Peas have been used in Europe during 
famine, with such evil effect that they had to be inter- 
dicted by government. The Coronillas, common in gar- 



478 THE ROYAL FAMILIES OF PLANTS. 

dens, arc likewise condemned; and the seeds of the 
Laburnum have done serious mischief. 

IV.it despite some poisonous and hurtful tendencies, 
there is a noble excellence in the royal race. They fur- 
nish food unmeasured to thousands of hungry dependents. 
We may begin with the Peanut, indispensable every- 
where, from the Yankee town-meeting hall and circus, to 
the negro-huts of Seucgambia. The quantity of these 
consumed for food the world over is probably far greater 
than generally supposed. As to Peas and Beans, not 
only does the soldier of the Rebellion fully know their 
value, and every New Englander who loves his Sunday 
breakfast bear witness, but the world admits ii. all nnee 
the time when Daniel and his three friends grew fatter 
upon pulse than on the Kings meat. The sacred writer 
does not say they changed their diet from the "King's 
meat" to the very flesh of royalty, but so it really was. 
The Tamarind is the cheerful friend of the convalescent, 
and Shenstone says of a drink skilfully made from it,— 



There are several sorts, produced by related plants, and 
known as Brown Tamarinds. Velvet Tamarinds, and Tam- 
arind Plums, all highly prized. The Carob-tree has a 
pod in which the seeds are buried in a dry, mealy pulp, 
very nutritious, and eaten freely by horses in Spain and 
the Levant. It is supposed to be the tree which furnished 
the "locusts," or locust-pods, that fed John the Baptist 
in the wilderness. The West India Locust affords some- 
thing very similar, and as readily eaten. The Parkia, an 
African tree, furnishes seeds of which the natives make a 
sauce for meat, in cakes like chocolate, eating also the 
pulp found in the pods. The famous drink of Central 



i I'.unLiF- < 



Anieri 


ca, the Chica, deserves mention, as prepared from 


the su- 


eet pods of a Prosopis ; but the maimer of making 


it is s 


uch as would forever sicken any one not well hard- 


ened ii 


1 savage life. 


Ofc 


ourse these are not all the points of wealth in this 


noble 


family. Their treasury never is bankrupt. The 


Baulm 


lias have tough bark that makes good ropes. We 


have ii 


i Xew England a plant called Rattle-pod ; and ano- 


tl 


: this same genus in India produces the Bengal 


Hemp, 


very useful for cheap bagging. Some are effectual 


to desl 


:roy vermin, and others yield a juice much em- 


ployed 

the pn 


in the manufacture of Indigo in certain parts of 


The 


beasts fare no worse than their human guardians. 


At the 


head of the list stands Clover, so acceptable in its 


green i 


state to the horse, that it is said that he will eat it 


till he 


bursts. Closely related to this are the various 


species 


of Lucern and Medick, and sundry Trefoils, all 


sweet a 


ud nourishing to every flock and herd. Saintfoin 


and Sr: 


rradilla stand in the same line of usefulness. In 


the uri. 


1 daserts of the East grows a stunted bush, the 


tend,r 


character of whose herbage has, in those wastes, 



astured in the British Isl; 
r produce little save the prit 



iofbcauty 
■ respects. 



480 THE ROYAL FAMILIES OF PLANTS. 

to be the Amherstia nobllis, a grand ornament of the 
Turkish gardens. There also the Cercis, or Judas-tree, 
lifts its head in purple magnificence ; while its plainer, 
but still charming co-species, the Red-bud of the Canadas 
and Northern States, is glowing through the woods in the 
pride of its early bloom. All New Holland is golden 
with a wealth of Acacia-flowers ; and other species, with 
red instead of yellow, put the most charming blush on 
the forest-cheek of Mexico. Europe is rich in hue La- 
burnums ; and South America is all aglow with splendid 
Ingas and Mimosas. The Californian has brought from 
New Zealand the Glory-pea, and given it a home by his 
own door, that suits as well as its own. Our own country 
is full of beautiful plants of this kind; Lupines and 
Locusts, Hoary Peas, Wistarias and Prairie Clovers, Tick- 
trefoils and Yellow-wood. Partridge-peas and Ground- 
plums, all showy and lovely. And whosoever will pene- 
trate the conservatory, and study the floral wealth there 
displayed by these pea-flowered princes, will find these 
thoughts well sustained and illustrated. 

And yet we have only just come to the most interesting 
trait in the character of these most royal plants. In them 
does vegetable life reach its acme, and attain a grade that 
lacks but the merest step to equal the vitality of animals. 
The Joint-vetch, of the Virginian river-banks, is some- 
times sensitive, and shrinks from the touch, closing its 
leaflets. Another step, and we have the Sensitive Briar, 
common through the South, and showing this sensibility 
in a much higher degree. Then going to Central and 
South America, we have Mimosas endowed with every 
degree of this power, till some will hardly bear the hu- 
man breath upon them, even though they may bear the 
beating of wind and weather. Great numbers of Piskls 



THE ROYAL FAMILIES OF PLANTS. 481 

keep careful watch of storm and sunshine, however, as 
well as of clay and night, and close their leaves promptly 
when unfavorable conditions arise. This is but a small 
matter ; other plants do the same ; but no other tribe 
shows such tenderness of feeling in the foliage. Nor do 
they stop here. In the East Indies grows the strange 
plant, Desmodiuhi ;/>/mn^. It may be compared, perhaps, 
in appearance, to our Wild Indigo, but its leaves are 
more like those of the Rose. The leaflet at the end only 
folds up at night and opens by day ; but the side-leaflets 
are always moving, the two sides alternately up and 
down with a jerking motion, as one says, like the second- 
hand of a watch. The touch arrests it, or so does cold 
or narcotics. But left to itself it soon begins again. 

Now this, seeing there are here no bones, joints, mus- 
cles, or other machinery to execute such movements, is a 
most astonishing tiling. Nearest of anything the world 
affords does it come to showing the Abstract Life work- 
ing independently, without mediate agency, and challeng- 
ing all our skill to grasp it, or account, in any satisfactory 
way, for the presence that we so unequivocally recognize. 
Electrical and chemical action are called to explain it, but 
they fail. We leave it, as one of Nature's mysteries. 

This hasty glance gives but a superficial notion of the 
real grandeur of this most kingly of these Royal Orders. 
From these considerations, however, we may probably 
gain sufficient evidence to prove the great importance of 
these plants in the economy of nature, as related both 
to man, to the animal kingdom in general, to the great 
Principles of vitality and development, higher and broader 
than all. A further illustration of these ideas may be 
had from the study of the other of these families, which 
will engage our future i 



THE HAND AS AN UNRULY MEMBER. 



In the first part of this article, taking for granted that 
all readers of the Naturalist are aware that the mam- 
mals have two pairs of limbs, of which the hinder are gen- 
erally called legs, while the anterior are either legs or 
wings or flippers or arms, according to the use their 
owners make of them, I made the following statements : 
1. That, in spite of great differences in appearance and 
in the movements which they perform, there is a close 
anatomical resemblance between the human arm and the 
foreleg of beasts, the wings of birds, the flippers of seals, 
etc. 2. That there is a similar resemblance between the 
leg of man and the hinder limbs of animals. All this is 
now generally admitted, and, however distasteful may be 
the actual comparison between the limbs of the bear or of 
the monkey and our own, we cannot help seeing, that 
when we get upon all-fours like the one, or stand semi- 
erect like the other, our limbs really occupy partly the 
same position in regard to our back-bone as do those of 
the creatures first mentioned : and I might add, that there 
is a time in the early stages of growth of all vertebrates, 
when the limbs are just beginning to form, and are mere 
little fleshy buds or pads projecting from the sides of the 
body. (Fig. 6, Plate 12.) 

This kind of comparison between the fore or hind limhs 
of different species is called the study of Homologies, 
and formerly constituted the whole of Comparative Anat- 
omy. But I also stated that within the past century there 
has arisen a new kind of Comparative Anatomy, whieb 
has for its object the comparison, not of corresponding 

(482) 



THE HAND AS AX UNRULF MEMBER. 483 

parts in different animals, but of corresponding parts in 
one and the same animal; in short, the human arm is 
compared, not with the foreleg of a quadruped, but with 
the human leg : and in like manner the fore and hind legs 
of a beast are compared with each other. 

And, lastly, I stated that it is now pretty well agreed 
that in this comparison the shoulder and pelvis repre- 
sent each other ; that the humerus and femur are sim- 
ilar parts in the two limbs ; that the elbow and the knee, 
the forearm and the leg do in some way correspond with 
each other ; and that, finally, the foot is, as a whole, the 
humble representative of the hand. Yet there is a very 
wide difference of opinion as to whether or not the great 
toe is the counterpart of the thumb ; and this because 
the rotation which takes place in the forearm allows the 
thumb to come into two different positions. 

If you will take the trouble to place your hand upon 
the table, the palm downward, and the fingers pointing 
forward, you will see that the thumb comes upon the 
inner side of the hand, that is, toward the middle line of 
the body, as does the great toe in the foot ; but if you 
*&nate the hand and place it on the edge of the table so 
that the fingers point backwards, the palm facing down- 
ward and forward, you will see that the thumb now comes 
on the outer side of the hand, and is opposite the little toe. 
You will say at once and truly, that the former is the 
easier and more natural position, and coincides more 
nearly with your previous ideas respecting the thumb and 
the great toe, and it might perhaps do very well if the 
hand and the foot were the only parts concerned ; but un- 
fortunately the arm and the leg must also be taken into 
consideration, and whatever principle we adopt for the 
former, ought to apply equally well to the latter. 



484 THE HAND AS AN UNRULY MEMBER. 

Now what idea is suggested when we compare the hand 
and the foot in the manner first described? The whole 
foot points forward, and the sole faces downward and 
backward ; the hand and fingers also point forward, and 
the palm faces downward and backward : at once we say 
the corresponding parts point in the same direction, they 
are parallel with each other ; and if the hand and foot are 
parallel, why, of course, the other corresponding parts in 
the two limbs are or ought to be so too. 

But here comes the difficulty. The other segments of 
the limbs are not parallel, but the contrary ; the thigh 
points forward, and the upper arm backward ; the con- 
vexity of the knee looks forward, while the elbow pro- 
jects backward ; the forearm and the leg likewise point, 
not in the same, but in exactly opposite directions. 

The upper parts of the limbs, then, suggest antagonism 
or oppositeness; the hand and the foot suggest parallelism. 

Which shall yield to the other? Shall the upper seg- 
ments of the limbs be so turned or twisted or viewed as 
to conform to the idea of parallelism, or shall the hand be 
supinated and the fingers made to poiut backward so as 
to be in antagonism with the foot? This, as was sau , 
brings the thumb on the outer side, and so into relation 
with the little toe. To this, the thumb objects, and the 
whole controversy rests between those who favor it ex- 
clusively, and those who are willing to pay some regar 
to the other portions of the limbs. 

The former lay great stress upon the functional supe- 
riority of the thumb, upon its size and strength, and upon 
its constant usefulness at every age, from infancy to 
time when the man has leisure to reflect upon its wonder- 
ful powers and the prominent part it takes in all the ope- 
rations of the hand ; and in view of all this, they urge 



THE HAND AS AN UNRULY MEMBER. 485 

that the thumb should be allowed to associate iu this com- 
parison with the largest and strongest of the foot's fingers, 
at any sacrifice on the part of the upper and less conspic- 
uously useful segments of the arm. But the latter believe 
that the above considerations do not apply in this kind of 
comparison, and offer facts and arguments (which will be 
given in another place) to show why the thumb should 
not be the only part thought of in this conuection, and 
even that it ought to content itself with whatever position 
as regards the toes may be most convenient for the upper 
portions of the limb which supports it. 

The former uphold one organ against many, and might 
for that reason be styled the aristocratic party, bat ft* 
the somewhat incongruous fact, that at the present stage 
of the controversy, they far outnumber the more demo- 
cratic members of the other party, who believe in more 
equal rights for all the parts of the limbs. 

So more appropriate titles may be derived from the two 
ideas which we have found to be suggested, as the thumb 
is or is not the first part considered in comparing the hand 
with the foot. If it is, then Parallelism is the idea, and 
its advocates are the Parallelists. If not, then Antago- 
nism is the idea, and its advocates are the Oppositists. 

Among the Parallelists the more prominent in this dis- 
cussion are Vicq d'Azyr, Bourgery, Cuvier, Flourens, 
Cruveilhier, Turenne, Owen, Maclise, Martins, Huxley, 
Hivart,* and Cleland ;f to which list might be added the 
names of as many more anatomists, who have declared 
themselves more or less decidedly in favor of one or ano- 
ther of the views advanced by those whose names are given. 

Those who have more or less completely adopted the 



48 G THE HAND AS AN UNRULY MEMBER. 

idea of Antagonism are Oken,* Gerdy, Agassiz,f Hum- 
phrey, Wywm,% Foltz,§ and Dana,* with which small 
number the writer has the honor to be associated. 

The Parallelists. The ancient anatomists contented 
themselves with pointing out certain obvious correspond- 
ences as to general appearance, as those between the 
bone of the upper arm and that of the thigh, between the 
knee and the elbow. Their prudent example is still fol- 
lowed by those who do not care to involve themselves in 
a controversy, ami who find it easier to adopt, unques- 
tioned, the opinions of a predecessor; and, in spite of 
errors and inconsistencies, this method had generally the 
merit of non-interference with Nature, and may, in medi- 
cal language, be styled the expectant plan of treatment. 
But a large and distinguished majority of investigators 
seem to have made up their minds beforehand that some- 
thing was out of the way, and, in their endeavors to 
rectify the supposed disordered state of the limbs, have 
pursued a more heroic course of treatment which, from 
the various methods employed, may be divided into dislo- 
cation and reversion, fracture and torsion; or, as their 
advocates might say, since in their opinion the Creator 
had already inflicted the above-named injuries upon their 
unhappy patients, reduction, setting, and untwisting. 

Dislocation with reversion and substitution. The first to 



ff resolutely undertake and seriously discuss the problem 
of the comparison between the extremities in man and 



animals, " was Felix Vicq d'Azyr, who published a me- 
moir upout the subject in 1774, four years prior to his 
election as the successor of Buffon, iu the French Acad- 



He began his comparison by detaching the right arm 
(Fig. 2) from the shoulder, and placing it by the side of 
the leg (Fig. 1). He does not specify the position of the 
hand in this first comparison, but we must conclude that 
it was pronated so as to lace the palm backward like the 
sole, and to bring the thumb (Po) upon the inner side op- 
posite the great toe, both because this was the universal 
method of viewing them, and because otherwise the idea 
of parallelism would hardly have suggested itself at all. 

Perceiving the resemblance of the elbow (O) to the knee 
(Pa), and thinking that, being similar parts. they must face 
in the same direction, he turned the arm around so that 
the elbow pointed forward, the hand being left as it was 
(Fig. 3) ; the two bones of the forearm (U aud E), be- 
fore crossed, became parallel with each other, the thumb, 
of course, remaining opposite the great toe. 

But although the lower portions of the two limbs were 
thus in harmonious agreement, the anatomist, on exam- 
ining their upper ends, perceived that, while the smooth 
articular surface (Fig. 1, Hd) of the thigh-bone was look- 
ing inward and toward the middle line of the body, the 
corresponding surface (Fig. 3, Hd) of the humerus, by 
which it is attached to the shoulder-blade, was looking in 
exactly the opposite direction. 

What was to be done? If he left things as they were, 
then the heads of the two upper bones set their faces 
against his idea of parallelism in the most uncompro- 
mising manner ; while if he restored them to their original 
condition, the elbow and the knee came into direct oppo- 



48 S THE HAND AS AX UXRULY MEMBER. 

sition with the idea and with each other at the same time. 
To avoid both horns of this dilemma seemed at first im- 
possible ; but suddenly it occurred to him to drop the 
unconformable arm, and to try its fellow of the opposite 
side ; and now, upon placing the left arm (Fig. 4) by the 
side of the right leg, and turning it as before so that the 
elbow pointed forward like the knee, the two bones of the 
forearm remaining parallel with each other, he was re- 
warded for his ingenuity by seeing the articular surfaces of 
the humerus and femur both looking inward. With this 
very artificial arrangement he seems to have been satisfied, 
and dismisses the subject with the remark, that "the corre- 
spondences of the fingers with the toes are so evident that 
it is unnecessary to enumerate them" ; either not perceiv- 
ing or caring that though the fingers pointed forward 
like the toes, yet the thumb was now upon the outer bor- 
der of the limb, and was thus made to correspond with 

We shall, I hope, be convinced that, in spite of the fact 
that the thumb and great toe have only two joints, the 
above is really the true relation so far as concerns them 
alone; but Vicq d'Azyr had no reason for thinking so, 
since the opinion upon this matter which, then as now, 
was nearly universal, is well expressed in these words 
of a later writer, "il est evident pour tout le monde que 
le pouce est Panalogue* du gros orteil." Vicq d'Azyr 
seems rather to have been loth to enter into particulars, 
and really ignores the hand altogether ; for it was doubt- 
less the apparent parallelism between the foot and the 
hand in its ordinary state of pronation that induced him 
to force the whole limb into a similar relation by turning 



THE HAND AS AN UNRULY MEMBER. 489 

the elbow forward ; but when he is obliged to take the 
arm of the opposite side, he seems to have lost all faith in 
the hand, and leaves it in a position which, though cor- 
rect in so far as the thumb i> made to correspond with 
the little toe, is inconsistent with his own theory, and 
inadmissible on account of the displacement of the whole 
limb. And here was his error, in supposing that a ra- 
tional comparison of the limb involved not merely a dis- 
location and reversion of the arm, but a transposition to 
the opposite side of the body, the right arm being thus 
made to correspond with the left leg, and the left arm 
with the right leg. And while we honor the great anato- 
mist, who, in attempting a comparison between different 
regions of the same individual, really originated a new 
kind of Comparative Anatomy, which is destined to till 

the method he employed, a method repugnant alike to 
common sense and the respect we ought to entertain for 
the relations God has established between the different 
parts of the animal frame. And it is doubtless to this 
pernicious example of Vicq d'Azyr that we must ascribe 
the extraordinary liberties which some of his successors 
have taken with the limbs, forcing upon them their pre- 
conceived ideas, as if each had said, "if the facts do not 
accord with my theory, why, so much the worse for the 
facts." 

It is hard for us to believe that the great Cuvier, whose 
masterly demonstrations of corresponding parts in differ- 
ent animals constituted an era in anatomical science, and 
at the same time furnished the basis for a true classifica- 
tion, could have been so blinded by his exclusive devotion 
to Final Causes, and by his dislike for the transcendental 
theories of St. Hilaire as, during at least the greater part 



490 THE HAND AS AN UNRULY MEMBER. 

of his life, to have attached little value to the comparison 
with each other of parts of the same body ; but we could 
wish that he had ignored the subject entirely, rather than 
that in 1835 he should have lent the weight of his author- 
ity to the views of Vicq d'Azyr, as is shown by the fol- 
lowing passage : "C'st la droite d'une paire qu'il faut 
comparer a la gauche de l'autre."* 

Blandin, like Vicq d'Azyr and Cuvier, let the hand and 
fingers alone, the thumb still remaining opposite the little 
toe ; but, in 184G, this inconsistency was pointed out by 
Turenne, who, desirous of making all things as harmo- 
nious as possible, in imagination, cuts off the two hands a 
little above the wrist, and (rauxpOHe-* flam, which of course 
brings the thumb on the inner borders, and opposite the 
great toe (Fig. 1 and 5) ; nor is it, perhaps, surprising 
that he should have regarded this as an improvement upon 
the proceedings of Vicq d'Azyr, and we ought rather to be 
gratified that, after putting the left arm in place of the 
right, and again changing the hands, he did not see fit to 
invert the entire limb, fasten the fingers upon the shoulder- 
blade, and declare the end of the arm-bone to be homolo- 
gous with the great toe. Indeed, the whole proceeding is 
so extraordinary, that, but for the gravity with which it is 
proposed, one would incline to regard it as a burlesque, 
intended to bring the original view into ridicule, let 
only ten years ago, the doctrine of Vicq d'Azyr was 
again, though we hope for the last time, revived. 

The errors in this view consist in the assumptions : 

1. That the thumb corresponds with the great toe. 

2. That the two limbs arc parallel. 3. That it is either 
necessary or proper to compare the arm of one side with 
the leg of the opposite side. 



1 he bones of t : ,-, ; n Plate 11. ¥, Femur, or 

thigh bone; T, Tibia; Fi, Fibula; Pa. Patella, ov knee-pan; Ha, Hal- 
lex, or great toe; H, Humerus, or arm bone; O, Olecranon pm,;,s of 
elbow; U, Ulna; B, Badius ; Po, Pollex, or thumb; lid, Head of IIu- 



Fig 


1. Bones of human leg, right side; the knee looks forward. 


Fig. 


2. Bones of human leg, 


right side; in the p 




Vicqd 


Azyr began his comparison; the elbow look 




the forearm is in pronation, the radius being crossed 






ave the thumb on the inner side. (This and t 




ing figures are to be supposed behind Fig. 1, in order 




with i 








Fig, 


3. Eight arm turned ha 


If way round so as to 


face the elbow 




d like the knee ; the ban 








untwisted, or supinated. 


The head of the Humerus now faces 




opposite direction to tha 






Pig. 


4. Bones of left arm; all 


the parts agree with tl 




rhumb 


which now comes on t 


he outer side: this is 


as Vicq d'Azyr 



I. This illustrates the comparison o 
' the limb are of the left arm as in ] 
t off and replaced by the right hand as 
. Diagram of human foetus, showing t 



Manual of the Botany of the Northern United States, in- 
cluding the District East of the Mississippi and North of 
North Carolina and Tennessee. Arranged according to the 
Natural System. By Asa Gray, Fisher Professor of Natural UN- 
plates, illustrating the Sedges, Grasses, Ferns, &c. New York: 
Ivison, Phinney, Blakeman, & Co. Chicago : S. C. Griggs & Co. 
1867. pp. 701. [Not including the Mosses and Liverworts, nor the 
"Garden Botany."] 

This new edition of the "Manual of Botany" is the result of the 
author's continuous desire to improve and make more perfect an early 
one (published in 1848) "hastily prepared to supply a pressing want." 



402 EE VIEWS. 

Iii the second edition, which appeared in 1856, 2,426 species of Flower- 
ing Plants, and the higher Cryptogams, or flowerless plants, were de- 
scribed. In the third and fourth editions species new to science, or 
newly discovered within our limits, were given in addend t, with such 
alterations in the stereotype plates as were possible. The present 
edition (almost entirely rewritten) is printed from new stereotype 
plates, aud in it are described 2,634 plants of the Phamogamous and the 
higher Cryptogamous series : an increase in number of 20S. In account- 
ing for so great an increase, we find that 308 out of the whole number 
are introduced species, being t i in the former edi- 

tion; thirty or forty have hitherto been considered as varieties (or as 
included in other species), or are new species, and the remainder have 
been newly discovered within the geographical limits of the work, 
and, as might be supposed, occur mostly on the borders of the area 
treated of. * 

The most important changes which we notice are the combination 
of Nelumbiacece, Cabombacece, and Nymphceacece proper as suborders of 
IVymphxaceoe ; Arenaria is understood as comprising the (sub)genera 
Ilonkenyi, Alsine, Mcehringia, and Arenaria; Limnanthaceas, Balsam- 
inacece, Oxalidaeece and Geraniacem proper are now considered as sub- 
orders of Geraniaceae ; Saxifragacece is made to include Grossulariaceas 
and Parnassiaceoe ; Holoragece, previously merged in Onagracew, now 
takes rank as a distinct order; and Loganiacece has been removed 
from Ruhktce<B to its place between Gentianacece and Apocynacem. Cal- 
luna vulgaris is regarded as a native plant. Our species of Cuscuta 
are described for the "Manual," by Dr. George Engelmann, of St. 
Louis, Mo. ; the name Lindera has to be substituted, by the inexora- 
ble rule of priority, tor the familiar one of Dnizuin; the genera Calli- 
trichp and Euphorbia have been carefully reelaborated, as to our spe- 
cies, by Dr. Engelmann, for this < di i-m : Hi ■ ' ' ■,■■'"/■ ''•>' ;lutl /; tulacex 
have been thoroughly overhauled ; tb.3 genus Lemna has been care- 
fully revised wlti i bated by Mr. C F. Austin, and 
the genus Wdtfi t (represented by W. Colnrahianatf is now for the first 
time indicated in a Handbook of Botany, as found in America, though 
discovered many years ago by Dr. Robbins, who has now monographed 
anew our species of Potamogeton. Habenaria is now introduced as 
including all our species of P tenia; Spirantket 



I 



identified only on the western slopes of North America, where it was 
long ago found by Chamisso, and at the single station of Bantry Bay, 
Ireland, is found to be present in the northern part of our region. 
Liliacece now includes M-iaidhac-a- and TriJli '/>■,, v. and the genus Xir- 
thecium, and the Junci have undergone a careful and critical revision 
at the hands of Dr. Engelmanu. Mu -!i laborious study has t> -en given 
to the Cyperacece, and we see the number of Carices raised from one 
hundred and thirty-two to one hundred and fifty-one ; the Ferns have 
been contributed by Professor D. C. Eaton, of Yale College, who has 
introduced a few changes which we. are glad to see, as with Pdlcea 
and Allosorus, Polypodia,* and Ph<;j<,pt>iris, and the species of Botry- 
chium. The account of our species of Isoetes has been contributed by 
Dr. Engelmann, who has given them much careful study, and who 
characterizes within our area seven species, while there are two more 
in the Southern, and three more in the Pacific States. 
. We are glad to see the promise of a •• simpler and more elementary 
Work," which will include the ■•Garden Botany" of the last edition, 
and more, and "designed especially for school instruction, and for 
those interested in cultivation, — entitled Field, Forest, and Garden 
Botany." We shall also look with eagerness for a supplementary 
volume, to contain the Moss. .>■ and Lir>rworts, newly elaborated we 
suppose, and the "Lichens, if not all the other orders of Lower Cryp- 
togamia." Above all we congratulate Botanists that there is a pros- 
pect of the issue, before many years, of a somewhat similar Flora of 
the whole national domain. 

The addition t>i • irable workman- 

ship of Mr. Isaac Sprague), of the genera of Cyperacece, is an impor- 
tant item to the beginner, and even to those more thoroughly versed 
in Botany. Every one will be pleased with the slight changes in the 
il execution and am 



NATURAL HISTORY MISCELLANY. 

BOTANY. 
Botanical Notes and Qveries. A recent number of the Bevue Hor- 
ticole (Aug. 16, 1867) calls in question the native country of Samhu- 
cus Canadensis Linn., our common Elder, not only regarding it as 
a mere variety of the European S. nigra,— which it well may be,— but 
doubting if it be really indigenous to this country. The same doubt 
had been raised in my own mind. Can any of the numerous readers 



HISTORY Mist -r:i r.w\ . 



tion, the American ori-in of Li,.i.;,.;„ hi.«,.n„, the common Rose Aca- 
cia, and conjectures that it is an extraordinary form of the common 
Locust. This more unlikely opinion is based on the fact that this 
shrub sets no fruit either in the old world or the new; also that, on 
inquiry, no one seems to know it away from cultivation. This year, 
however, some pods are forming in France. Has any one seen pods 
and seeds in this country? The inquiry is in this case particularly 
addressed to Southern correspondents. There are in cultivation 
forms singularly intermediate between E. hispida and the B. Pseuda- 
eacia, or common Locust, but these are more likely hybrids. The 
Rose Acacia is said to be indigenous to Georgia, apparently with good 
reason. But definite indications of ir. and fruiting specimens are de- 

As the above-mentioned number of the Revue Horticole gives a 
figure and description of that; eliarmin- liDt-lioiise climber, Cleroden- 
dron Thompsons, 1 may take this occasion to refer to the curious, and 
perhaps as yet unnoticed, arrangement of its stamens and pistils, so 
as to favor, if not to secure, cross-fertilization.. The long and slender 
filaments and style in the flower-bud are rolled up in an incurved coil, 
after the manner of the genus. When the crimson corolla opens, set- 
ting these organs free, the filaments straighten at once into nearly a 
horizontal position, and their anthers opening are covered with fresh 
pollen ; while the slender style is strongly recurved, carrying the 
forked stigma downwards and backward far under the flowers. After 
about twelve hours, say at sunset when the blossoms have opened in 
early morning, the filaments begin to curve downwards, and the style 
to straighten ; and before the next morning the filaments are rolled up 
into a spiral coil the reverse of that in the bud, placing the anthers 
under the tube of the corolla, while the style has risen to the hori- 
zontal or Slightly ascending position, so placing the stigma where 
the Bothers were the day before. Evidently there is only a short 
period during which a moth, or such insect, visiting the flowers can 
brush any pollen from the anthers to their own stigma; but the pollen 
of freshly opened flowers will, in the progress of the insect from 



n Clusters. — In the new edition of the ' 
Botany of the Northern States," it is too briefly r 
phyllum has been found in Ohio, by W.C. Hampton, with t 
I would here add, that, on a visit to the Agricultural Coll* 



NATURAL HISTORY MISCELLANY. 41 

sylvama last summer, my friend. Professor ]]. J. Clark (whose an; 
original observations I have frequently had to record . showed 1 
several clusters of well-grown fruits of Podophyllum, of three or fo 
upon one stalk, and evidently from one flower; and I think he 1 



i 
Kt now and then a similar m.m-i rosity in Jeffersonia ; 
r has a certain botanical interest beyond the mere ci 
ing.— A. Gkay. 

Invasions of Foreign Plants.— The prepotency of forei 
iuinal vegetation, especially in the New World, in 
istralia, etc., has of late attracted attention and i 
reign weeds should usurp the cleared soil in this part < 
liich was originally forest-grown, is only what would 



to take after r 
they follow. 

These remarks are suggested by a recent instance of the sort, 
the part of a Chinese or Japanese leguminous plant. , 
Hook, and Am., which has got an introduction, nobody can teH ho 

uiiil'iiplyhrj: at a wonderful rate. I first received it a year airo. 1 
Professor Darby informs me that he detected if about ten years ;n 
at tin* railroad station in Altooua. Georgia, and lie lias lately met w 
it in all the adjacent States. "Now," he adds, --it covers thousan 
of acres, and is rooting out everything, even our Bermuda Grass 
«-]fa foreigner). "When I first came to this place [Auburn. Ge( 

[native] lis . — ssion. Now. this Lesped 

has conquered them both." The newspapers have lately mention 

the Southern States. This is probably the thing. If itbeadece 
forage plant, as it well may be, this intruder, which takes such 
liking to the poor soil of the South, will prove a real blessing to t 
country. — A. Gray. 



relation to tl 


tlie Xaitualist for Septerabe 
le form of the Ox-eye Daisy, 




gh this form may be new to s 




described, yet this is certainh 


been detected 


. Within a period of fifteen j 




• four times, I think ; and I ne 1 


thing but a el 


lance variety of LeuoiidlK-iiiuu, 



irs past, L have found it 
r suspected it to be any- 
■ul'/arn. In the Miinmer 
of 1865, it was brought to me from a spot close by my bouse, agreeing 
in all respects with the description by Professor T.j and wishing to 
try the effect of cultivation upon it, I transplanted a good root to my 
garden, but it was afterward destroyed by accident, before the result 
could become known. I cannot believe it to be speciiically distinct 
from the common L'-iK-HHthi-.uvn,), or anything more or less than a va- 
riation, through accidental causes, from the normal state of the spe- 
cies. To my mind it stands in the same line with the petaloid form 
of Penthorum, or the « Peloria" condition of Linaria vulgaris; and 
many other genera might be cited as furnishing instances of like de- 
partures now and then from the ordinary and natural style. — CM. 
Tkacy. 

ZOOLOGY. 

Tire Breeding Habits of Birds.— Tn reading the lately published 
work of Mr. Samuels, on the Ornithology and Oology of New Eng- 
land, I noticed some statements regarding the breeding habits of some 
of our birds, which are at variance with my own observations. 

Of the Belted Kingfisher he says: -The birds on arriving corn- 
winding hole, of about three Inch< - and a half In diameter at the en- 
trance, and gradually larger to the end, at which the nest, composed 
of grasses, leaves, and feathers, is built, — or laid, which would, per- 
haps, be the better term. This hole is sometimes as much as six or 
isi tally from four to six, in length." Page 12G. 

My experience in regard to the breeding habits of the Kingfisher 
is entirely at variance with the above. Of two burrows fouud 
last spring, one measured thirty-four, and the other thirty-five inches 
in length ; they were excavated in the form of an elbow. The pas- 
sage leading from the entrance in one of them was sixteen inches 
in length; and then turning to the right, lead to a cavity of about 
ten inches in diameter, the bottom of which was three-fourths of an 
inch below the bottom of the way leading to it, and four and a half 
inches in height, being in the form of an oven ; including the cavity, 



NATURAL HISTORY 
the length of this part of the burrow v 
their burrows, and have yet to find one 

Again he says : "The Mottled Owl s, 
of May, in the latitude of the middle 



[ have .shown your letter to Mr. G. A. Boardman, and have 
rery satisfactory explanation from him of the purpose and i 
u formation" in question. It is used by the birds to clean th 



PROCEEDINGS OF SCIENTIFIC SOCIETIES. 



or the Advancement of Science. - 
iky Section. BxrUwjton, 17., August 21-26, 186T 
! relating to the Climate of the Glacial Epoch in Nortl 
oft — > r i:. Lluugcribid. The special object of this pa 

snow and ice as the glacial hypothesis supposes tc 

ailed attention to the extremely broken condition of 
rder of the continent, and to the probable effect of I 



very extended upward movement of the continental I 



PROCEEDINGS OF SCIENTIFIC SOCIETIES. 499 

The paper then entered upon a discussion of the direct frigorific 
effects of such an immense plateau, composed of such material, con- 
tracting it with a similar plateau of ban- earth, and applying to it, 
various meteorological considerations, all tending to show that in the 
interior of such a plateau an intensely cold climate would continue 

Application was made of these considerations to the question of a 
simultaneous motion of a continental glacier in one determined direc- 
tion. Extreme cold operates adversely to glacial motion, aud ground 
was taken against the probability of such a general simultaneous 
movement, Ju such a ■ i>e of the country. 

cial action, are ascribed to a motion always sustained along the 
southern or seaward margin of the -lacier, where a milder climate 
would prevail. The glacial front itself furnishes the slope, and heavy 

try is twice scoured over,— once during the growth, and ouce during 

ported over limited distances. For the remote transportation of 
drift, the agency of icebergs and ire-rafts is necessary. This latter 
point is discussed in the paper on the Eipton Sea-beaches. 

"The Ripton Sea-beaches," by Professor E. Hungerford. This pa- 
per gives a somewhat detailed description of a series of terraces, 

pass from Ripton to Hancock. They are elevated 2,11)6 feet above the 
ocean. Drawings were exhibited in whieh tin- distinct terrace forms 
Were displayed, extending up the gorge which forms the pass. Evi- 

the true boulder drift of the region, and that they thus constitute a 
modified drift deposit, worked down by waves and currents into their 
Present position and form. The configuration of the country being 
regarded as unfavorable to th< '-'' body of fresh 

of other evidence, thai this region baa >uffe red a depression of at least 
2,000 feet beneath the sea since tin ghu-i : < . ch proper. 

The author of the paper took occasion to concisely present his 
views in regard to the cau>es operating to produce the drift phenom- 
ena. The geological events enumerated succeeded each other in the 
. -der:— 

1. The formation of a continental glacier to whose partial move- 
era or seaward m irg.n. ,u dm t.a n-uMve phenomena, and the trans- 
portation of the drift over limited areas. 



500 PROCEEDINGS OF SCIENTIFIC 

2. A depression of the continent, bringing the ocean into contact 
with the long glacial border, which, on its retreat, sends otl'ieebergs 
and iccrafts into the ocean. To these are attributed the further trans- 
portation of detritus and boulders. 

8. Emergence of the continent, — the higher beaches marking the 
earlier, and the Chnmplaiu terraees the later stages of this process. 

"On the Geological Relations of the Mastodon and Fossil Elephant 
of North America," by Professor James Hall, of Albany. Professor 
Hall "spoke of the geological position in which remains of the niasto- 
don had been found. These remarks chiefly applied to those speci- 
mens found in the State of New York, especially describing the 
location and position in which the skeleton was found at Cohoes last 

their scattered position by the melting of a glacier. He considered 

the glacial epoch. The paper stimulated so lively a discussion that 
the time of the session was extended three-fourths of an hour, when a 
farther discussion was postpone. I till the next day. During the discus- 
sion Professor O.C. Marsh, of Vale College, said that he had seen mas- 
todon bones from Kentucky scratched and furrowed like glacial boul- 
ders. Remains of two or three species are found in North America. 
one of which found in the upper Mi--<>uii region lived in the Tertiary 

It is known that the mastodon lived in Europe ami in India previous to 
the glacial epoch, and he showed that the American facts perfectly co- 
incided with foreign observations. He noticed that remains of an 
elephant, identical with the one found in Siberia, were numerous in 
Russian America, and he suggested that the day might conic when 
fossil ivory would become an important article of export from that 

" Considerations drawn from the Study of the Orthoptera of North 
America," by S. H. Scudder, of Boston. This paper gave a general 
account of the Orthopteran (grasshoppers, crickets, and the like), 
fauna of North America compared with that of Europe; showing the 

climatic influences. It was followed by a more detailed notice of the 
groups which are characteristic of one continent in contrast wit 
those forming the essential features in the fauna of the other. 

" On recent Geological Discoveries in the Acadian Provinces of Brit- 
ish America." By J. \V. Dawson. EE.D., F.R.S., Principal of McGiU 
University. The object of the paper was to notice some recent dis- 
coveries, which, though of interest, might have escaped the notice of 
members of the Association. 



PROCEEDINGS OF SCIENTIFIC SOCIETIES. 501 



Billings as of the age 






502 PROCEEDINGS OF SCIENTIFIC SOCIETIES. 

Professor Hall and Sir W. E. Logan, so remarkably distinguished by 
the predominance of mechanical sediments, and by a development of 
the lower rather than the upper members of the bower Silurian. 

To ascend from these rocks to the Carboniferous. — recent labors 
of Mr. Davidson, Mr. Hartt, and the author, had led to the division of 
the Lower Carboniferous into successive subordinate stages, and to 
the determination of most of the marine fossils, and also to the expla- 
nation of the curio p ilous fact that some forms 
allied to Permian species actually exist in the Lower Carboniferous, 
under the productive coal-measures. These researches had also shown 
that no distinction between Sub-carboniferous and Carboniferous 
proper, can fairly be made in Nova Scotia, notwithstanding the grand 
development of the Carboniferous in thickness. 

After noticing the large advances made in the fossil botany of Nova 
Scotia and New Brunswick, the paper referred to the discovery by 
Mr. Barnes of two new species of insects, and to the discovery by the 
writer of a new pulmouate mollusk, described by Dr. P. P. Carpen- 
ter, as Cuuulus priMiu. There are thus in the coal formation of Nova 
Scotia a Pupa and a r„„ nhto or Zv.iite*, generically allied to living 
pulmonates, and representing already in that early period two of the 
principal types of these creatures.* 

Specimens of the* so specimens and a 

W. E. Logan. Special attention was drawn to the specimen recently 
found by the Canadian Survey at Tudor, which shows this organism in 
a state of preservation comparable with that of ordinary Silurian fos- 

" On the Distribution of Radiata on the West Coast of America." By 
Professor A. E. Verrill. In this paper the author has endeavored to 
present all the facts hitherto published in regard to the geographical 
distribution of tin Radiates tloim u entin i'acitii < >ast of America, 
as well as many new observations upon those found in the tropical re- 



by a peculiar assemblage of species mid gen ra. 
restricted to each province, while 

imperature was shown to be the principal pfljs*" 
:ing the distribution of species, but 

' water probably has a direct influence on certain 



PROCEEDINGS OF X [F.VI iFIC SOCIETIES. 503 



>rthern (listril)urion. Each of the other province was compared 
ith the adjacent ones, and with the parallel provinces of the Eastern 
luerieau coast ami the coast of Europe, most sinking resemblances 

tcii.lin-ou rh Vtlmtic c »i>t Hon Tl nidi to Hn/il md inducing 
e West Indian Islands. Very few species of Radiates are recorded 

urians. and therefore doubtful. The Polyps :l ,id Corals are remark- 



DIM PROCEEDINGS OF SCIENTIFIC SOCIETIES. 

else that they have descended from common ancestors, becoming 
gradually different by natural selection or otherwise, and pointing to 



Prof.O.C. .Marsh exhibited some remarkable fossil Sponges from the 
Lower Silurian of Kentucky, for which he had recently proposed the 
new genus Brachiospongia. The type of the genus Avas B. Razmerana, 
and several other species have recently been discovered. These forms 

scientific interest. A full description of them will soon be published. 
"On certain Effects produced upon Fossils by Weathering." By 
Professor O. C. Marsh. Certain peculiarities in some fossil shells, 
which had been a puzzle to the German geologists, were very clearly 
explained by Professor Marsh as due to the action of the elements, the 
parts of the shell being differently composed and of different degrees 
of hardness. This has been uio-t frequently noticed in fossil Cepha- 

different genera on the same specimen. This is very often the case 
with Ceratites no f G erman v. 



s devoted largely 



OBITUARY NOTICE. 



li i- <>ur painful duty to announce the death <>f tin- President of the 
Essex Institute, which took place at his residence in Salem, on 
Thursday evening, October 31, 1867. 

Joseph Peabody, an eminent merchant of Salem during the close of 
the last and the beginning of the present century. Soon after leaving 
school he made an excursion to Russia and Northern Europe, and on 
his return settled in Salem, wh lide until his de- 

cease, except during occasional visits to Europe. He was early in- 
terested in the study of chemistry and the kindred sciences, and their 
application to the useful arts. He was the first President of the Board 
of Trustees of the Peabody Fund for the promotion of science and 
useful knowledge in the County of Essex ; a member of the American 
Academy of Arts and Sciences, and other institutions. 
In November, 1827, the Essex Lodge of Free and Accepted Masons, 

course of Literary and Scientific Lectures ; about the same time the 
Salem Charitable Mechanic Association appointed a committee to 
provide for the delivery of lectures before the members and their 
families. Before both of the ab.^c-named in-titutions Mr. Peabody 
delivered several lectures on the Steam Engine, Electricity, Galvan- 
ism, Heat, and similar subjects. At the organization of the Salem 
Lyceum in January, 1830, Mr. Peabody took a leading part, and was 
on the first board of management, and delivered several lectures ou 
scientific subjects. These several institutions may be considered as 
having made the first movement in the general introduction of pop- 
alar and instructive lectures, which have been so universally adopt- 
ed in this country. 

About 1826 Mr. Peabody engaged in the manufacture of white lead, 
which business he pursued until 1843. During that period he was also 
interested in the manufacture of paper and linseed oil, and owned es- 
tablishment* fnr tho r^finino- nf snerm and whale oils. From that 



time, until his decease, he engaged extensively in commercial enter- 
prises, in connection with one of his sons, and had recently erected a 
mill for the manufacture of gunny cloth on new principles. 

Mr. Peabody had a very active and inventive mind, and was always 
interested in the conducting of experiments in the Physical Sciences, 
or in the invention of machinery useful in the arts. He had always 
been an efficient and zealous member of the Institute, and in May, 
1865, was elected its President ; during his official connection with 
that body he contributed very largely for the promotion of its objects. 

The decease of the President will not only be a great loss to the 
Institute but to the community in which he had spent an active and 
useful life. His memory will long be cherished for his many virtues 
and his great interest in all worthy undertakings. 



At a meeting of the Essex Institute, held on Saturday, Nov. 2, 1867, 
Vice-President A. C. Goodell, jr., in the chair, the following Resolu- 
tions, offered by Henry Wheatland, were unanimously adopted : — 




T IK IE 

AMERICAN NATURALIST. 

Vol. I.-DECEMBER, 1867.-NO. 10. 
DESMIDS AND DIATOMS. 

It is the purpose of the present article to present in a 

the DE8MIDIACEJ2 and Diatomacejc, and to suggest a 
few reflections upon their habits and economical value, 

and at the present time, in modifying the physical fea- 
tures of the globe. 

Without entering into the facts of the discovery and 

s ".v that thev were ori-inallv included, together with two 
other very interesting- -roups, the Polvgastriea or Many- 
stomached animate, and the Rotatoria or Wheel-animal- 
cules, by the Prussian naturalist. Ehrcnberg, under the 
common name of Infusoria. It is much to be regretted 
that a systematic classification, embracing numerous sub- 

Httle was really known of the true position of these organ- 



50b DESMIDS AND DIATOMS. 

isms, and that names devised to represent their supposed 
characters, but calculated to lead into constant error, 
should thus have been perpetuated. The name of Iufu- 



variable presence of these bodies in all infusions of decay- 
ing animal and vegetable matters. It is to their rapid ap- 
pearance and development under circumstances calculated 
to remove or destroy all germs of organic life, that the 
doctrine of spontaneous generation, still maintained by 
many able observers, owes its origin. Into the character 
and habits of the Infusoria proper, or Protozoa, as they are 
now called, as well as those of the Rotatoria or Wheel- 
say, that the two remaining families, the Diatoms and Des- 

other, are now universally admitted into the 'department 
of the botanist, and can realiy have nothing in common 
with that of the zoologist. 

The Desmids and Diatoms were grouped together by 
Ehrenberg, under the single name of the Bacillarne, from 

as applied to the whole family, including as it does a 

By naturalists of later years the two arc included as co- 
ordinate suborders of the minuter Cryptogamia, termed 
Algaj by botanists. 

The Desmids, or Desmidiaeese, so called from the par- 
tial division of the single cell of which they consist into 
two by a deep constriction in the middle, which is highly 
characteristic of the whole family, are pseudo-unicellular 
alga- of a beautiful green color and great variety in size 
and outline. Unlike the Diatomacefe, they are confined 



green tint to the water. Only the most qnie 
purest water seem favorable to their growth, 
streams, braekish inlets, the turbid waters so p 
of the minuter forms of animal life, seem wholl 
for these delicate organisms. As a general rule 
much less numerous than the Diatoms, the 
exceeding them in families, genera, and specie* 
as in the number of individuals- Their outlii 



but 



iding to divide the original cell into a number of 
aller ones. Many of them have in general a circu- 
outline, but still marked with deep constrictions 
i Mcmsterias, PI. 13, fig. 4), others are lengthened 



I Mai 



»r concatenate ; and yet other 
ong and waving graceful tila 



like the D 



showing the affini- 
omacea; a second 
eluded within the 



former, and containing within its cavity the "endochrome," 
or green coloring matter, which seems to be analogous to 
the chlorophyl or leaf-green of the higher plants; and, 
lastly, a thin hyaline membrane enclosing the two former, 

macea?. The surface of the cell thus enclosed is often 

genera a singularly beautiful appearance. In the interior 
of this cell may sometimes be seen a curious movement 
of the cell contents, which has given rise to much discus- 
sion among the students of these forms. Some assign 
the circulation thus witnessed to ciliary action, others to 
the spontaneous movement of enclosed zoospores : but as 
this is still a debated point, I shall not at present dwell 
upon it. The same is true of the motion quite commonly 
observed of the whole Desmid through the medium in 



nal "cilia," either in fches 
>edingly improbable. Lik 

rked tendency to travel 1 



The multiplication of the Desmids is ac< 
two methods : by self-fission, or the dividin 

contents into two portions, as is commonly 



Before dismissing the subject 
ty that they are exceedingly c 
■acts, abounding in exposed 



Lastlv, the Di'smi. 
fact, that, notwithstr 



Dovonian eras.*' To this fact allusion 
in the discussion cf the o-eological rel, 



The close analogy existing latwo 
mode of growth of "the Desmidiacese 



the iii j i U of observers I will assun 


ie their 1 


tures in their structure and mode of grcr 
like the Desmids, unicellular Alg», com 


wth. 


depressed, connected together by a bar 


id or ho< 


with the circumference of the valves, and 


o and c( 

. eiK-losin 



ed with the most unlimited pro! 
lentation, are everywhere pies 



i few disco ids fresh water, but the distinction is a con- 
venient one, and sufficiently characteristic to apply to the 



PI. 13, tig. 8), those whose frustules, as the separate 
individuals are termed, are adherent by the base, and 
which produce fan-like clusters, or even star-shaped ag- 
gregations (as in Synedm, tig. 33; Astenonella, tig. 17; 
and" Licmophora, tig. 20) ; those with the individuals 
adherent by the sides, and producing lengthened fila- 
ments (tig. 18), which if one end of the cell be smaller 
than the other, will give rise to spirals (as in Mention, 

sort of gelatinous envelope or cushion (as in Mastoghia, 

ners and producing zigzag chains (as in Duitoma, tig. 16; 
Qmmmatqphora f &g. 30 ; Tabellaria, fig. 13) ; or, lastly, not 
included in either of the above divisions, but still having 
a certain general resemblance to the typical straight line 
(as Cocconema, Gomphonema, etc.). These are by no 
means natural or scientific divisions, but aid in fixing in 

other and the second great class of circular or discoid 

*ibly posing into the other. The latter, or discoid forms, 
which, as I have said, are mostly but not exclusively 

hunJuVin.'cn'idtv 't !.''vnrr;il rule the >urtace of their 
valve, is more or 1< ~ brok. n into numerous dots, depres- 



512 DESMIDS AXD DIATOMS. 

sions, or elevations, and frequent areolations, circular or 
hexagonal. This is a very general character of all the 
Diatoniaceie, and is due to the deposition of layers of 
silex variously disposed within or between the different 
membranes which enclose the cell, and which, remaining 
persistent and retaining all their delicate sculpturing after 



•nine fossil 


and which, < 


■veil 


in reo 


■nt gather 


ings. 


hief fcatur 


es used for 


the ( 




lination o 


f the 


Frequent] 


y several dit 


lerenl 


modi 


\s of orna 


nien- 


s visible u 


ipon the sail 


le >!i 


ell, ai 


id are pos 


sibly 


IV.V^uc 


rent layers. 


Th< 


I the 


t position 


f the 




subjects of c 




sion i 


imong the 


stu- 



dents ot these forms. The presence of this silex, how- 
ever, is the fact of most interest in their structure, 
whether they be regarded in a strictly scientific, or in an 
economical point of view. 

Among the discoid forms may be enumerated those 
with a circular outline, and circular or hexagonal areo- 
lations (such as Coscinodiscus, PI. 13, fig. 34; Cmspedo- 
&8CU8, etc.), those with a circular valve divided into 
partitions by radiating lines (as Amchnodiscus, fig. 29), 
those with a simple disk, but united into continuous fila- 
ments (as Podosira, fig. 25 ; Mdcmra, etc.), those with a 
more or less circular outline, but with the surface pro- 
jecting into spines or processes which seem to connect 
adherent frustules (as in Biddnlphm, fig. 31; Eupodis- 
cus, etc.) ; or, lastly, of forms not truly circular in out- 
line, but really modifications of the circle, and approach- 
ing that shape by insensible gradations (as Tncendhun, 
fig. 27 ; Amjrftitetras, fig. 36 ; Campt/lodtscus, tiurirella, 
etc.). As a rule, the circular forms may be compared to 



The m 


ulliplica 


tion of the Diatoms, 


like tl 


!iat of the 


Desmids 


and oth 


it unkvllular AIga\ t 


akes ph 


ice accord- 


fflg to 01 


le or tl: 


le other of two mode: 


5, either 


by simple 


td'l-multi 


plicatioi 


t, the original frustule 


dividim 


r into two 



cess, and the formation of Sporangia. The tirst method 
is exceedingly common, so much so, indeed, that we can 
scarcely find a specimen in which the process is not just 
ended, or in some stage of advancement. This multi- 
plication takes place by the gradual enlargement or 
widening of the "connecting membrane" before alluded 
to. (See PI. 13, figs. 31 a, and 23 a.) Nearly at the 
beginning of this process the contents of the cell are di- 

braiie of the parent cell becomes doubled inwards in an 
annuhu- ring about the whole ■ ircumference along the line 
of division. This infolding membrane continues to ad- 
vance, until a nearly complete division has taken place 
°f the old cell into two new ones, the two new contiguous 

AMERICAN NAT., VOL. I. 65 



>ecoming impregnated with silex before they have 
In this way a complete septum is formed, the 



These new cells, which 
terpart in size and struc 
thus enclosed, but moi 



If adherent side by side, the etlect is to produce a length- 
ened filament, either straight (PI. 13, tig. 18), or spiral 

star-shaped figure is produced (tig. 17); if at alternate 
corners, a zigzag chain (fig. 16). Frequently processes 
of greater or less size are developed at the corners, which 
serve as means of adhesion between the two (fig. 23). 

else, entirely live, swim slowly through the medium hi 
which they live (figs. 9, 10, 2$, 32, etc.). 

Of the contents of the cells or "frustules," their chem- 

unnecessary now to speak. Suffice it to say, that the ex- 
istence of the so-called stomachy organs of locomotion, 
etc., which Ehrenberg asserted that he had detected m 



authors. Tl 
of a differei 






other respects their 



true plants 



doubted that they, too, are of the same nature. 

One of the greatest obstacles to a belief in the vegeta- 
ble nature of the Diatom- haa always bom the wonder- 
fully curious motions which nearly all of them exhibit in 
their living state. This is not a merely mechanical mo- 
tion, due to light or other external agents, although they 
share this property with other known plants, but they 

peculiar to themselves. They may constantly be seen 
swimming through the water, with a motion slow, to be 

nitied, yet certainly as rapid as that of many undoubted 
animals among which they dwell. As a general rule 

interposing obstacle being pushed aside, but not avoided ; 
at other times, the motion is a slow rolling from side to 
side. In one species, however (the Bacillaria pamdo.ca, 
(PI. 13, %. 18), so singular are the movements exhib- 
ited, and so unlike anything that occurs either in the 
animal or vegetable kingdom, that they never fail to ex- 
cite astonishment in those who, for the first time, behold 



spun glass, is at first quite motionless. Slowly detaching 
become apparent throughout its entire length. Each 



it. But the change is transient. When the 


! Who) 


has thus unfolded, as it were, it begins to 


si owl 


again. Each plant or bar resumes its forme: 


i-placi 


he ribbon-like band airain hangs motionles 


a tVoi 


3 leaf. 




3 cause of these motions has been severally a 


->ig!H 


J action of minute vibratory cilia, to an und 


niatoi 


n of the outer membrane, and to the mee 




s resulting from the absorption or disc ha 


rge * 




email 




BAILEY ON DESMIDS AND DIATOMS 



BOTANICAL EXCURSION 



A BOTANICAL EXCURSION IN MY OFFICE. 



Probably most of the readers of the Naturalist have, 

least been interested in aquaria. If what happens in 
Philadelphia mav he' taken 'as an index, many such ob- 
servers of water-life have been pestered by a minute 
growth, which seems to flourish alike on plant or stick, 
on the living and dead. Last winter and spring the 
writer of this article had a small aquarium, which, as 
far as plants were concerned, was stocked chiefly with the 
C«wU t ph;Uvm, or hornwort, which, as is well known, 



9 a TSI 


?t abundance 


of 


tin. 


';'";;;, 


ing one ds 
sse little cyl 


ind 


• lt . 


careeh 


r to be perc< 


>ive 


d e 


shine 


through the 


ve: 


«sel 


- fling. 


b, this nebulo 


►USj 


-an 



518 A BOTANICAL EXCURSION IN MY OFFICE. 

of these little twigs, place it on a o-lass slide put 



the object on the stand, adjust the light ; 
ow peer through the eye-glass, and lo ! on 



ntered upon,— a • 
ever was dreamed of by Eastern 
romance. It has not only a vastly diversified flora, but 

If time and space would allow, we might watch the 
little groups of Vortieellas, making, by' their rapidly- 

maelstrom was to ocean wanderer ; for down in the centre 
of each miniature whirlpool lurks their destruction, to- 
wards which the current resist lessly forces them when 

hydra might be found lurkinir in the thickets, or the jelly- 
like, formless mass of an Amoeba writhe itself into ever- 
varying shapes before us. But we must pass by rotifers, 



looking at. 

The secret of the intense interest excited by these 
microscopic objects in any naturalist who has once fairly 
entered upon the study of them is the fact, that here we 



BOTANICAL EXCURSION IN MY OFFICE. 519 

lit. as it Mere, face to face with the greatest of 



tory studies, one of form and relation, 


but rather is it 


the study of life. 




The seope of this paper is not sueh 


as to allow any- 


thing more than an entrance into this 


subjeet just far 


enough to glance at the beautiful prosper 


ct beyond. ^ The 


plant itself is one of those simple form; 


3 which prefigure 


some variety of vegetable tissue, as seen 


in higher plants. 


It is composed of a number of cells 




placed end to end (Fig. 1), so as 




together to form a filament. 




Let us pause a moment here to 




learn what a vegetable cell is, if we 




do not already know. The micro- 




scopist has given the name of cefl 




cylinders, or some other hollow %% 




forms, which his investigations have ™ 








Mayhap the reader of this article ha 


s, at some time 



02JU A BOTANICAL EXCURSION IX MY OFFICE. 

they are the same. That scarcely perceptible speck on 
the quartz is a vast assemblage of 'little plants, composed 
each of but a single vesicle or cell ; whilst the oak that 

cells united into a single plant. 

All plants, from the lowest to the highest, then, consist 
of cells, which are essentially the same throughout the 
ble kingdom. Let us take a cell of the plant 



■ciblV 



In the first place, on its exterior we find a dense, but 

rently structureless. Examine it with our highest pow- 
ers, and still it is structureless, a homogeneous, perfect 
membrane, without pores or any interruptions whatever. 
Yet it is easy to prove that water and various fluids can 
pass through it. Place the cell in a dense syrup, and the 
water will be drawn out of it so rapidly, that the contents 
will shrivel up. Again ; the contents of the cell are, as 
we shall know directly, composed largely of a substance 
which shrinks and hardens under the action of various 
substances. Put a plant in diluted acid, or strong alco- 
hol, and see how the contents gather themselves together; 

the change of color in the most central part betrays the 
presence of that element. Such experiments as these 
prove that although the cell wall is absolutely homoge- 
neous, destitute of all pores, yet fluids can pass through 

of life's processes, osiuos<'.s, as it is technically called; but 
we must pass it by. 

Let us try a little microscopic chemistry. Put a fila- 
ment on u dean slide, and allow a watery solution of 



•al i:\cri:>i( 






I made to take the form of tvthtf^e. 

Within the cell, lying immediately as 
•all, is a thin, gelatinous, scarcely pel 
hieh is colored brown by iodine, and 
-ndered more apparent by alcohol, gulp 



deferent at different times. The assent* 
protoplasm and chhrophyl The former 



ts and compound? of the earth and 



522 A BOTANICAL EXCURSION IN MY OFFICE. 

air, mid changing them into organic principles capab 
life. But to do this, Jhjhi is necessary ; it is only 1), 

aid of that force that the chlorophyl can awaken inn 
the clod, and breeze. Without liirht, — 



Somewhere in the protoplasm is generally to be found 
a spot of great refractive power, the >wrl<?m; in the cell 
before us mayhap we can tind it close to the wall, may- 
be it is absent. The lindens is nothing more or less 
than a little solid protoplasmic ball. Much importance 
is assigned to it by most authorities, and in fact it, when 
present, plays a very important role in the life-history ol 
the cell. But in these alga; it is often absent, and the 
truth seems to be, that the primordial utricle, nucleus, 
and general protoplasm are identical in constitution and 
formative powers. In other words, that they are differ- 
ent manifestations of the same substance. 

Now let us place one of our filaments under a high 
power and examine it closely. Under a 1 objective, 

going on inside of some of the cells. Notice among the 
general semifluid contents a number of minute dark 
specks or dots; these are minute granules of protoplasm. 
See! they are in active motion,— some are busy travel- 
ling from one end of the cell to the other, and all along it 
they are passing one another. But the mass of them are 
collected in two groups at the ends of their cells ; all of 
them busy bustling about in all directions amongst them- 
selves, reminding one of a hivt* of bees about to settle. 

>Ve have thus in our little plant had a sight of a pro- 
cess, which, variously modified, is probably present in all 



vegetable c 


ells during som 


' P« 


•iod of their « 


To these p 


rotoplasmic mw 


erne 


its the name of 


has been g 


iven. Among 




igher plants, t 




ens of the Trad 


srun 


ia Virginica, oi 


wort, arc favorite subjects t 


>r th 


■ study of Cvcl( 


It is well 


known, that, in 


mr ( 


•dinarv flowering 


there are tv> 


o distinct metho 




continuing the 


In the one 


mse, there is a p 


eculi 


ir system of org 


tided, whicl 


1 are in a measui 




agonistic to the 


of the indh 


idual, and whic 


i pr< 


dure seed, litth 


capable of r 


enewing the life 






case, certain 


portions of the 


ordi 


lary nutritive oi 


plants are sc 


t apart to repr 


due. 


the species. 


our commoi 


potato, by m 


ans 


of the flower, ^ 


stamens and 


pistils, seed is 


pro, 


need ; but, at tl 


time, portio 


is of the undei 


_t<>u 


id stem becoim 


houses of vit 


d force and stai 


■!). t 


) serve as matt 


of which tha 


force may obta 


n its 


building stores. 


familiar inst 


ances of this el 


angi 


ig of the destin 


part, are see 


n in the so-calle 


1 !.i! 




aerial bulWe 


s of the Tiger-li 


v.— 


allofthemnoth 


ordinary lea 
made the dej 


f-buds gorged * 


ith 


in order to sun 


death of the 




erp< 


uate the species 



e-T p[ 



ation ; the broader we extend our studies, the often 

We find the same ideas mil cropping in different torn 

lu the little confervoid growth under eonside 

then, there are two distinct plans by which the sp« 



d. The ft 
ordinary nutritive pai 

Valuation of a peculn 



g apart ot c 
the other the 



224 A BOTANICAL EXCURSION IN MY OFFICE. 

Let us study the former of these. Imagine < 
under the microscope, just as some one or mo 
cells are to be saeririced tor the production of a 
Watch that cell. See the endochrome, or green < 

densed mass at the distal end of the cell. Now 
tiou is evidently taking place between this cell 



high power, the 



mtinues, : 


however, to advan 


last it h 


i out of the cell i 


ocean art 


pundit, (Fig.l.) 


now reei 


yvers very quickly 


shape, ai 


id is a bright gre 


globular 


or oval mass, \ 






Let US kee[ 

ng is nearly 

roek withoul 



inovinir hither ^ d V(,n - 
a slow laterally rolling 





A BOTANICAL EXCURSION IN MY OFFICI 


motion 


The plant has given birth to an offi] 


s,s>in U 


apparently the peculiarly animal powe, 






our lit 


le moving body, and in a moment moti 


—we 1 


ave killed it ! 


Let 


is now carefully arrange our light, illumi 


stag.;- a 


little obliquely, put on our ± objective 


for the 


glass cover, and see if we cannot die 


cause ( 


f the motion. Do you not see a circle 


of Ion- 


, lax, streak-like particles attached ai 


bright 


transparent space before spoken off. 


cilia, f 


ne threads of condensed protoplasm. 


life on, 


of these motive bodies is placed in a 1 


taming 


very line particles, as a dilute solution 


ink or 


gamboge, and watched, constant curren 



rapid motion that they' cannot be otherwise det 
It is, then, by virtue of the constant lashing of the 
that the little body moves, just as a boat moves by 
of the scull. The movement of the cilia themsei 

movements, of which cyclosis is one type. 

Let. us take our motive body, killed by means , 
iodine, and add sulphuric acid to it: if cellulose be 
ent, a bluish or purplish color will be produced. 
there is none. In other words, our little body is com 
simply of protoplasm and chlorophyl ; it is a cell w 
a wall. To these moving bodies the name of zoosr. 
given. If you watch a living zoospore, in a Utile 
its motion ceases, its cilia drop off, and it surr 
itself with a cellulose wall. 

In most plants allied to the species under consider 



SIGN IX MY OFFICE. 

i (Fig. 2) there grow 



The cell, having acquired a wall, and thus perfected 
itself, now begins to elongate; by and by it undergoes 
cell division, and thus divides itself in its length into two 
cells, which grow and divide, and by repetitious of this 

first. This plant belong, to the genus (Edogonium, the 
species of which are arrangeable iuto three sets ; first, 
those iu which the single filament produces both male and 
female organs ; secondly, those in which male and female 
organs are produced in distinct filaments ; thirdly, those 
in which the female filaments produce, besides the regu- 
lar zoospores, others which, in germinating, grow into 
peculiar dwarf plants, in which are formed the male 
germs. These three sets are known respectively as mo- 
ncea'ous, dioecious, and lants; the term 

androspore being given to the zoospore, whose function is 
to grow into the little dwarf male plant. The CEdogo- 
nium of the aquarium belongs to the gynandrosporoiis 
division. 

Besides these zoospores the (Edogonia produce, by means 
of a specialized reproductive system just alluded to, a spore 
or seed which is known as a resting spore. In our plant 
this is produced as follows : a cell in the main filament 
begins to enlarge, and, at the same time, a communica- 
tion is opened between it and the next proximal cell, 
whose endochrome is emptied into it. The two consoh- 

About this time several of the androspore* (Fig. 3) attach 







r powers of loco- 

irome has motion. 

About the time 
ltlolimie " that they are per- 
fected, there is formed a lateral open- 
ing in the proximal or lower part of 
the sporangium of the resting spore. 
Through this orifice one or more of 
these spermatozoids enters and im- 
pregnates the endochrome, which con- 
tracts itself still more, and matures 
into the fully formed resting spore. 
During its maturation its green color Tou 

acquires two coats, the outer of which £S 
is very thick and provided with a cu- !|, 
nous spiral band or marking. (Fig. 5.) n« 
which germii 



tion 



of the resting spores takes place in the genus 



Bulbochceta, the rei 
into zoospt 



■will find it terminated by a long, exc 
ing delicate, bristle-like hyaline p 
composed of cells whose walls are so 



very high powers, and at the enc 
rently consisting simply of pri 
utricle, though I confess never to 1 
curately determined this by mien 
ical tests. Again, if we look a 
of the large cells of the filament . 
we will find near their distal ei 
two, three, or more streaks sum 
them like so many collars. Let 
!y. Why ! such cells evidently ha 
e first streak or line thickened, in t\ 
ends little caps, as it were, the line 
The causes of these two phenoiiu 






tile j 



ethods 



vth of the CEdc 



division. Cell multiplication by division is almost the 
only way in which all vegetable growth takes place. 
The process, as it ordinarily occurs, may be outlined in 
a few words. If a cell, about to undergo it, contains a 
nucleus, the first change takes place in that nucleus; 
a constriction can be seen encircling and increasing in 
depth, until the nucleus is divided into two. When this 
has taken place, a doubled reflection from the primordial 



secrete, each an, mid itself, a cellulose Avail. 
is formed a number of perfect cells, en- 
closed in, but independent of, the original 
cell, by whose dissolution they are tinallv 
setfree. 

But let us return to our little plant and 
observe together a cell about to divide. 
The first noticeable change is the appear- I 

ance of a dark streak around the cell near d |J 

the distal end. At the position of this Tm JrJL fhm, 
streak outgrowths take place from the |>n 

divide the old cell into two parts, the up- 



■ V'vj. 



»v atching the dark streak just spoken < 
i« a little while it begins to widen into 
trench, and still continues to widen ; ti 



elongation of tin- primordial utricle at the liue of separa- 
tion of the two parts. As the primordial utricle grows, 
!t bears the old cellulose Avail, like a cap upon its end ; 
and, when it secretes its own proper cellulose wall, the 



A BOTANICAL EXCURSION IN 3 


IY OFFICE. 


tcr is of course inside of this. 


Whe 


i the n 


ewlyforr 


1 has attained its full size, it 


recommences 


th. l.r. 


**■ :. again. The dark lint 


now 


ippeare 




/ the edge of the old ca 


..and 




/ edge of the second cap, that'of th 


> termer 


( maining apparent as 


a dai 


k line. 


Again 


process is gone thro 


igh, a 


nd a third ca! 


formed, the margins 


of the first 


ind see 


persisting. And so r 


spctiti 


on afte 


repetiti 


until a cell is formed 


beari 


lg on it 


s end a 


which is ringed with 


mlf a 


dozen 


dark Hi 


and composed of as 


nunv 


layers 


)f cellule 


The dark rings of con 


se in; 


rk the 


■diTes of 


successively cut off ei 


ds of 


cells. 


If there 


i six such lines, cell di 


ision 


has 


FigjS. 



taken place six times since the 

I original was formed. (Fig. 6.) 

Whilst the cells near the base 
are thus lengthening the fila- 
ment by their increase, the end 
cell seems to grow by a sort of 
out-pushing of the primordial 
*nMhvwi»g utricle fr° m tne central part of Perferte ^" 
hyaiiie po'at" the fore end. This makes * JJ 
little cylinder, which is soon cut off from its 
by a partition, secretes a cellulose coat, and 
out a new shoot from its free end. just i 



rd. lb 



th:. 



THE QUADRUPEDS OF ARIZOXA. 



Family Eystritidce, the Porcupines. The yellow- 
haired Porcupine {Erethizon epimnthus) is a large and 
handsome species, which replaces the common one in the 



he last, there arc differences 


in the color of 


the haii- 


Hid quills, and some pcculiaritii 


s of the cranial I 


ones. I 


><-'li.'ve nothing has been obse 


•ved regarding i 


ts habits 


vhereby it differs from the Et 


stern species (J 


\ dorsa- 


*m). It is particularly abnn 


lant along the 


'olorado 


'lii'iuit., River, and nearly all <» 


r explorers have 


obtained 


ne or more specimens in that i 


dcinity. 




Family Leporidce, the Hares. 


Two species of 


the fam- 


v are very abundant, and irene 


■ally distributed 


over the 


xa-ritory/ These are the Crea 


t "Jackass" Hare 


(Lepus 


'Hotis), and the Sa-e Rabbit 


L. artemitia). 


Certain 


ther species, as L. CaHfornhus 


, in the Colorado 


Valley, 


r L. ctnuptMfri*, in Northern 
ccup; but the two first name 
nd characteristic ones. 
The Jackass Hare includes in i 


Arizona, may 
d are the only 


- nearly 


I the great Western prairies c 


xtending into To 


xas and 



— « -uex.co, an.l is, m places suite-. ro irs wains, a - 
abundant animal. In some desert regions it and the Co 
are almost the onlv animals of any size to be found, 
h i> difficult to ima-ine how thev derive nourishment f 
such forbidding localities. It must feed largely u 
*age-brush, grease-wood, kreosote-plant, young mimo 
and the like ; for these constitute the main feature, 

(531) 



THE QUADKUT 


EDS OF AEIZONA. 




ra over large tract, 


<, where grasses and 


suei/ule 


ure mostly wanting. 


Its flesh is said t< 


> derive 


taste from this sort 


of food ; though I h 


ave eat 


aires from various 


regions without noti 


[ring :l 


ice in their quality. 


At Fort Whipple, tl 


ie speci 


' common the year 


round, and almost c 


'very s< 


lity is frequented 1 


>y them, though the 


y chie 



rth. 


lumps of t 
The gulel 


«>ur 


of mount: 


iVOOt" 


I {Oblone 


«d i 


nueli upon 


-s tl 


trough patcl 






'eedi 


i.g at their 



Although so timid, lik 

it ot a very dose appn 



THE QUADRUPEDS OF AKIZOX 

in its form; though it hardly squats so 

account of its size. Trembling at heart, y 

all doubled up! as it were, the head diu 

touch it, when, with a great hound, it s 

It has a Ion- swinging gallop, and pert'.: 

the air. its feet all drawn to-other and d« 
now on the -round, which it touches and 



the culminating , 



THE QUADRUPEDS OF ARIZONA. 

the upper surface of the tail ; the under su 



their postmen- margin, pure white, and their bro 
pure black for an inch or more. This parti-cc 
heightens the conspicuousness which their siz 



Sair, Uabbit (7 t 
the Jackass-rabbit; and. 



MUsouri region into M 
other desert shrubs arc 

rieh. grassy, and well- 






br..k.-i 



precipitous places, such 



shunned by the larger species, though the two are often 
found side by side. It burrows in "the ground, and also 



although slow 



Fort Whipple I procured one in Janua 
very long, thick, and soft, and withoi 



THE QUADRUPEDS OF ARIZONA. 535 

which, on various parts, particularly the belly and limbs, 

Order Ruminant ia, the Iiuniinauts. Both naturalists 

called the Black-tailed and the White-tailed. Of these 



macrotis of Mr. Say ; and is also called the ' 
from the length of its ears. A novice, on 
the first time, i-uii.iiiiir d i. vet lv from him, ^ 
think to call it "black-tailed," but rather the 
black exists only on the upper surface of 
near the end ; and, as this member is ordim 
and vibrated from side to side as the animal 
only the white of the under surface and neigl 
is exposed to view. This deer forms no si 
the food and clothing both of the Indians ai 
tiers. The former "have as vet not genen 
nre-arms, and in the chase resort to a peculia 

lope. That their artifice is ordinarily succes.- 
dantly proved by the numbers of buckskins 



them very perfectly 



t those of the Vi 



of the Columbian Deer. At their roots t 



than the other. The whole amount of curvature of the 
main stem of the antler is rather less than in some other 
species. The horns iiro shed in the spring and the new 



or anmilatcl with lb 
there is much of a l>r. 
any parts. The fawi 



July, eithe 

•f a light n.,Llish-l,n 









thirty feeding t 


Ogotll 


2Jta*i«Jl 




pere ; hills and 
well as those pi 


aces I 



ide among thiol 
mtions. Thinh 



specie^ called < '. Mr. 



eve and patient labor to distinguish them with any degree 
of certainty ; and I believe it is a question with some, 
whether they all are not merely loeal races of one com- 
mon stock. 

Though the dry plains of Arizona are not frequented by 
deer, still they are not wanting in inhabitants among the 
beasts "that cleave the hoof." Over them the Prong- 
horned Antelope (Anfifoaipra Americana), the swiftest 
animal of America, runs races with the winds, making 
the long miles shrink into mere spans at the touch of his 

form embodies. As on the land-sea of the Great Plains, 
so on every land-lake of Arizona he is at home: for home 
to him means the irrassv surface of the earth, where his 
food is under and around him, and water may be reached 
by a bagatelle eanter of a score or so of miles. 

Every one has heard of that strange trait of the Ante- 
tope's character, which leads it irresistibly 
any unusual object which it cannot make ou1 
view of the thing which so forcibly excites 



ich 



538 THE QUADRUPEDS OF ARIZOXA. 

ment as to overcome its natural timidity. This remark- 
colored piece of cloth," while thev lie concealed close by, 
rifle in hand. The shallower the artifice, the more it 
seems likely to succeed ; a handkerchief fluttering from 
the end of a ramrod, or even the hunter himself standing 
on his head and gesticulating with his heels, have com- 
passed the death of many an antelope. But the Indians 
seem rather to surpass the white man in ingenuity, or 
rather in a sort of instinctive sagacity, perhaps horn of 
necessity: and take advantage, not only of the common 
weaknesses of the species, but of that emotion or rather 
passion which at times absorbs all others, as it should, 
since on it depends the maintenance of the species, while 
the rest affect the life of an individual alone. They 
skin the head and neck of a buck antelope, and stretch 
the skin, after proper stalling and drying, upon a light 
framework, the bottom of which is a hoop which fits their 
own heads. The horns are scraped or shaven, until they 
are thin and light, though still preserving their shape. 

antelope's head, which at a little distance is very perfect, 

son. Concealing their bodies, the hunters expose the 
false mask, and imitate the motions and noises of the now 
pugnacious and easily excited buck. The latter, flushed 



not to notice the fiery zeal of her lord. The bowst 
twangs, and the feathery shaft docs its bloody work 



VIM 



rizoxa. 539 



im ; while she bounds off, with terror and regret, and 
oon solaces her ad lutf-rlm woe with another conquest. 

This animal takes its common name from the peculiar 
liape of its horns, which have a single somewhat trian- 



J ! "' 



shaft, and sometimes flattened or somewhat bent like a 
scroll. But the position of this prong, as well as its 
shape and size, varies greatly; while the length and 
apical curvature of the" main .shaft is equally variable. 
Scareelv any two pair of horns are precisely similar in 
these points', and a second species has even been charac- 
terized upon these differences alone. The curious reader 
will find a meat variety figured in Plate XXV. of Profes- 
sor Riird-s work. A pair which I obtained in Arizona 
were of very unusual shape. They were most like Fig. 

then/tips bent over till they pointed directly downwards, 
iu a direction quite parallel to the axis of the shaft, which 
is a degree of curvature rarely seen. It is scarcely 
necessary to add, that the Antelope's horns are not decid- 
uous, like the antlers of the deer, but permanent, like the 
horns of rams and bulls. 

Arizona has woods and plains which are roamed over 
by the deer and antelope , but a great portion of her 
territory is unfitted for either of these, being upheaved 
into lofty mountain ran-vs and precipitous cliffs, or rent 



-h \\v- 



•egions, rarely visited by man, or inaccessible to him, and 



'. 



amid scenes that are terriblv -rami in their frowning 
desolation, is the favorite home of the Rocky Mountain 
Sheep ( Ouis montamt ) . Fearless and intrepid, fully trust- 
great picture whose background may he a mountain or 
the sky itself. He stands a fitting headstone for the 
graves of the Titans, now quietly slumbering beneath 
the mighty monuments they erected to their own memory 
with their last convulsive throes. 

The Mountain Ram has a very extensive range, which 
includes nearly all the elevated mountains and broken re- 
gions from our northernmost Territories into Mexico. In 
Arizona it has been formerly much more abundant than 
now, for though it still exists in the more inaccessible 
portions, it is rarely to be seen. But its great horns may 
be found scattered about the bases of nearly every cliff 
and precipice. 

There is abundant evidence that the Buffalo (Bos 
Americcmus) formerly ranged over Arizona, though none 
exist there now. The habitat of this "monarch of the 

gradually diminishing. Like the' Indian, the buffalo 
seems doomed to disappear before the overwhelming tide 



ct,— with them for bare existence, with 
V,— they cannot hold their own. Sad 



vet in >tri. 



THE LAND SNAILS OF NEW ENGLAND. 541 



numts, but com,.! i, 



THE LAND SNAILS OF NEW ENGLAND. 



whose thin poli-dnd >Ij«-1N limiM. m distinguishing char- 
actor. //,//., ;,„/™*tftf , described in the October number, 
belong to this -roup. We promise that those who may 
have become interested in these papers will mid the task 
of identification -.Towm- more and more difficult as we 
proceed, as with Few exceptions the shells have very tow 
distinguishing murks, and the differences are only promi- 

,K n^ 1 "^ 20.) The shell of 

this species is flattened; spire depressed, shining ; whorls 
five, thickened within at the base; color pale Fip .2o. 



: ^' iKaierallv confined to cellars and gardens, their eggs 






542 THE LAND SNAILS OF NEW ENGLAND. 

the writer collected a great many, stated that the snails 
annoyed her by crawling into her pans of milk. We can 

able to dredge specimens from the bottoui~of his coffee- 

Another species, a true native however, though much 
resembling an English species, is Helix arbokea Say.* 

^t^-^ New En-land, and there is hardly an old 

v4*l^_) lo - ]> y tlir i " o:,,lsi,]o lmt that 8hcltcrs thcm ' 



Helix electeixa Gould (Fig. 31) resembles the last 

species somewhat, being of the same size, though its color 

Kg. si. is darker, and the whorls rapidly en- 

G\ C^>\ lar s e - In this lattcH t * aracter lt re " 
^ ^to<_J semblea Helix indentata, though differ- 
ing from that species by its dark smoky horn-color, and 
its open umbilicus. It occurs in damper situations, often- 
times under leaves near stagnant pools of water. 

Helix Blvnevaxa Morse (Fur. 32) resembles//.*"- 



II. iwhutata is white, ^ 
tinge. The differences are very marked 

crox-opicitl cluiracti'i's of the animal. 



.-{;) 



'O 



— -o 



Helix multidextata Binney. (Fig. 33.) This is c 
of our most beautiful species. The shell is less than 
eighth of an iuch in diameter, the whorls 
are six, very closely revoking, and at the 
base of the shell within are seen two or 
more rows of teeth radiating from the umbilicus. The 
shell is of a very light horn-color, and the animal is often 
rosy white. It is extremely rare, having been found 
hut sparingly in Maine, Vermont, New Hampshire, New 
York, and Ohio. 

Another charming shell, when viewed under a micro- 
scope, is Helix exigua Stimp&m. (Fig. 34.) The shell 
has four whorls, banded by numerous F ^ 

sharp ribs, and the spaces between marked 
with waved lines running parallel to the 
whorls. The umbilicus is very wide, and the color of the 
shell a decided greenish white. Diameter about one- 
tenth of an inch. This species occurs in nearly all the 
Northern States : in gome places quite commonly. 

Helix mixuscula Binney . (Fig. 35.) About the 
size of the last-named species, having four whorls ; suture 
quite deep ; umbilicus large ; color white. Fig. ■■',->. 

It is common in the West, but extremely (^^^^K 
rare in the Eastern States. It is said to & 
be very common in grass in the gardens of Cincinnati, 
Ohio. Rev. E. C. Bolles has recently found a number 
°f specimens in the State of Maine. 

Helix milium Morse (Fig. 36) is a very minute spe- 
cies ; the whorls rapidly enlarge : umbilicus quite large. 
The upper surface of the shell is reticu- y] -j^ 

Iated by slightly raised ribs, and wavy @ CZT^ 
revolving lines. The under surface is ^-> ' 

shiny; color greenish-white. Diameter one-twentieth 



di>rovered in Ma»ael 



and the other from the Sierra \evadas, .howii;- an 
ally wide distribution. 

lix ferrea Morse (Fi<r. 37) is slightly larger than 
S; 37 - //. milium, and has a "stool-gray tinge, 

^~jK and an outline more like 77. dertrina. It 
-^^CJ l^is been found in Maine, Massachusetts, 



The shells of the following- group are not smooth and 



fleeted lips. They are all quite small, and variable in 
form, certain species having an elevated spire, while 
others are' quite flattened. The denticles on the tongue 
are not claw-shaped as in those previously described, but 
are notched like a saw.* All the specios'aro very eharac- 

Helix mixlta Hay (Fig. 3i>) has a little white, 



of an inch; animal whitish. This species 
to />//.,■ pair}, ,11,,, of Kmopc ami l.vmnii 



Helix stiuatklla .1^/Wy. 
pressed, convex, thin ; light ho, 



Kngland in hard-wood irrowths. and under chips and 1, 
by the country roadside. The shell is .pucklv reco-ni; 
by its satin lustre, and the distinct striations upon 
surface. 

minute, conic, apex obtuse ;. brownish horn-color. Suti 
distinct; whorls six, with well-marked ribs , -,,.. 41 , ,, 
following the lines of growth. Lip thick- yf^. 
ened, reflected ; base flat ; umbilicus small. /£===\ 

Three of these are on the body whorl, one ^^ <• 
on the umbilicus region, and two at the 
base of the aperture. Under the micro- 
scope, the three ribs on the body whorl are seen to 
anned at intervals with numerous sharp-pointed procc 
ses, pointing towards the aperture. Diameter of sh< 

nearly every State in the Union. 



546 THE LAND SNAILS OF NEW ENGLAND. 

to Helix chersina described above, though differing in 
the coarse ribs, the reflected lip, and the peculiar teeth 
within the shell. The young shell ( Fig. 42) is quite 
flat, with the outer whorl "sharp. 

Helix astemscus Morse. (Fig. 43.) Shell minute, 

having four rounded whorls banded by twenty-tire to 

Fig .«. thirty thin transparent prominent ribs. 

Jpireflat, suture deeply impressed; lip 

discovered in Maine b V the writer, has since been found 
on the Hudson Rivcr,"x. Y. ; on the northern shores of 
Lake Superior; Gaspe, C. E. ; and in the vicinity of 
Salem, Mass. Rev. E. C. Bollcs has found it plentifully 
near Portland. It is a rare shell, and seems confined to 
wet and boggv ground, where spruce and pine is inter- 
mixed with alder! 

Helix lineata Say. (Fig. 44.) Shell very small, 

discoidal, light greenish in color. Whorls four, equally 

Fig. 4i. " visible on both sides of the shell, having 

' — * ' the whorls. ''Finbilicus wide; aperture 
narrow, on the outer wall of which are two pairs of 

its all the Northern Man'", thou-li not common in the 
West. In Xew England, a very common species along 

Helix mixutissima Lvi. (Fiir. 4o. ) This is the 
smallest land shell in the country, measuring only six- 
hundredths of an inch. The shell is subglobose, spire 



found. The writer has separated this into a distinct 
genus, from the fact that the jaw is composed of sixteen 

For reasons already given, the species are described un- 
der their old generic names.— To be continued. 



NATURAL HISTORY MISCELLANY. 



NATURAL HISTORY 




554 NATURAL IIIsTOIiY MI>< KI.LWY 



GEOLOGY. 

unty.oi which Cnuvt<ml>ville is the county sent, belongs to the Sub- 
3 Indiana ami Illinois <-oa!-ii»-M>. A lar-c part of the country is cov- 



answers to cuki:i:si'o\i>i:.\ts. 









and in moist earth. 



PROCEEDINGS OF SCIENTIFIC SOCIETIES. 



iy. and oth.ii- valleys -ft! 






:l;ici:Ts :ls well a 



It is universally admitted that the 



558 phocf.f; dings 



OF SCIENTIFIC 



CIETIES. 559 

imearea. If one-fifth 



560 PROCEEDINGS OF SCIENTIFIC SOCIETIES. 

he had received from Dr. Cantield. of that place. The peculiar! 
the specimens consisted in their being hybrids — a cross betweci 
two species known to eoncholo-ists as //. < rarherodii and //. > 

UnJintvhr. Dr. Coopei follow ,1 M, St, irns nid remark, I up. 
geographical distribution of this genus of mollusca. 

A paper was read by Dr. W. P. Gibbons, of Alameda, in whic 
resumed the subject of the extinct forest of redwood on the ( 



evidently the second generation of the i 
3,0OU years, at least, have passed by si 
commenced on the Coast Range. But 



this indicates the de; 



The mass of wood ontai 



BOOKS RECEIVI 



AMERICAN NATURALIST. 



Vol. I. -JANUARY, 1868. -No. 11. 



AN ACCOUNT OF SOME KJCEKKEXMCEDDINOS, OR 
SHELL-HEAPS, IX MAIXE AM) MASSACHUSETTS. 




strange city, to examine the rubbish in Its suburbs a 

streets, and carefully collect and compare the fragmei 
of pottery, pieces of cloth, of paper, cordage, the bot 
of different animals used as food, worked pieces of stoi 
wood, bone, or metal, misrht gain some insight into t 



562 WYMAN ON THE SHELL-HEAPS 

modes of life of the inhabitants, and form a fair concep- 
tion of the progress they had made in the arts of civiliza- 
tion. Even after a city has become a ruin, and centuries 
have passed by, such examinations have been attended 
with fruitful results. A savage tribe, dwelling for a long 
period on one and the same place, would inevitably leave 
vestiges of the manner in which they lived, though these 
would, of course, be fewer in kinds just in proportion as 
the people were nearer to a primeval condition. 

The former dwelling-places of the Aborigines of the 
United States are nowhere more plainly indicated than 
along the seaboard, where some of the tribes passed a 
portion, at least, of each year, in hunting and fishing J 
some no doubt living there permanently, while others, it 
appears, made visits only at stated periods.* The clam, 
the quahog, the scallop, and the oyster, entered largely 
into their food, and the castaway shells of these, piled up 
in many years, have not only become monuments of their 
sea-shore life, but have largely aided in the preservation 
of the bones of the animals on which tiny fed, and also 
of some of the more perishable implements used in their 
rude arts. 

The shell-heaps on the Atlantic coast long since at- 
tracted notice. Dr. C. T. Jackson, and afterwards Pro- 
fessor Chadbourne, visited the remarkable one at Dania- 
riscotta, in Maine; Sir Charles Lyell has particularly 
described another on St. Simon's Maud, in Georgia,! 
and quite recently Mr. Charles Rau, of Xew York, N* 
given a full and instructive account of the examination of 
another at Key port, Xew Jersey.} We have ourselves 



coast 


of Maine 


and 


Massarlmset 


s during th 


summer 


and a 


itnmn of 


the 


year just pa 


st. Of the 


localities 


where 


these are 


siti 


ated, and of 


the structu 


•e of the 


heaps, 


we shall 


spo; 


k as briefly 


as possible; 


but shall 


enter 


somewhat 


fully 


into details, i 


l connection 


with the 


iniple, 


Hiits and 


the 


emains of ai 


imals found 


in them. 


It is t 


o be unde 


>tOO< 


1, however, tl 


at the heap 


here de- 


scribed are only 


a ver 


v small portio 


n of those t 


l be seen 


along 


the coast 


of these two Stat 


es, and whie 


i offer an 


ample 


reward to 


any who will take 


he trouble tc 


examine 


them. 












Fre 


ichman's Bay. 


Mount Desert is the large 


st of the 


island. 


on the i 


lah-n 


ed coast of 


Maine, and 


orms the 


westei 


i shore of Fi- 


mchmans Ba 


v. Many si 


ell-heaps 


are sea 


ltered ove 


• thi 


and the ad 


>inimr is'lam 


s and the 




ind. Will 




n,* without p 


u-ticularlydt 


-ignating 


them, 


Mentions the e 


dstence of se 


veral from o 


ie to two 


acres i 


1 extent, i 


nd st 


ites that "a 1 




of trees 


was f< 


mid upon 


them by the first 


settlers." 


We have 


cxamii 


ed two. 


The 


first of these 


is in Goulda 


boro\ on 


the , n: 


in land, a 


id lu 


ar the water' 


edge on th 


■ eastern 


shore < 


f the bay. 


It 


s said to covt 


r an acre of 




being 


Jiider cultivatio 


n was examii 


ed only new 


its bor- 


der,'w 


lere a pi 


was 


sunk shown 


g a deposit 


of Chin- 


shells 




feet 


in thickness 


Among tL 


ese were 


found the bones 




eral animals, 


including the 


se of the 



5I.J4 



deer, elk, and beaver, but no implements of any kind. 
Stone implements have, however, been found by those 
who have cultivated the soil of this neighborhood. 

A more complete examination was made of a second 
deposit on one of two small islands, neither of which are 
named, about a mile west of the place just mentioned.* 
This heap is seen on a bank, at a height of about six feet 
above the high-water mark, varies in thickness from a few 
inches to about three feet, and extends along the shore 
about two hundred and fifty feet, and from thirty to forty 
feet inland. A section through the heap at its thickest 
part showed that it belonged to two different periods, in- 
dicated by two distinct layers of shells. The lowest, a 
foot in thickness, consisted of the shells of the clam, 
whelk, and mussel, all much decomposed, and mixed with 
earth. Above this was a layer of dark vegetable mould, 
mixed with earth and gravel, and from six to eight inches 
in thickness. Above this was a second layer (/shells, of 
the same species as those just mentioned, but in a much 
better state of preservation, and with less intermixture of 
earth ; this deposit was in turn covered by another layer 
of earth and mould, and these now sustain a growth of 
forest trees, but none of them of large size. From the 
state of things just described, it would seem that the 
place had been reoccupied, after having been once aban- 
doned long enough for a vegetable mould to be formed, 
and a layer of earth from some neighboring source to be 
deposited over it. Charcoal was found in considerable 
quantity, scattered among the shells, and the remains of 
an old fireplace were uncovered. The bones of animals, 
and the various kinds of implements (PI. 14, figs. 3, 4, 



5; PI. 15, figs. 10, 11) obtained during the excavations, 
will be described in another page. 

Casco Bay, about fifteen miles Dorth-east of Portland 

The whole island is at present covered with a growth of 
spruce trees (Abies nhjra), excepting a narrow strip on 
the seaward side, and on this, at the southerly end of the 
island, are several shell-heaps of different sizes. The 

length, forty in width, and varying in thickness from a 
few inches to nearly three feel. Considerable portions 
have been washed away, and the contents scattered along 

here and there are raised into small knolls, and all are 
covered with turf. This deposit has been carefully ex- 
amined by Mr. C. B. Fuller, of Portland, by whom large 
collections have been made, and a portion of which were 
unfortunately destroyed by the great fire of 1 »(?(>. Mr. 
Edward 8. ilorse lias more recently made a partial exam- 
ination, and obtained manv valuable specimens, which 
will be mentioned farther on. 

Our examinations* were beirun on the bank and carried 



(JWfen ffumicostattix), Lariro Mu>sd (J/v 
Cockle (Purpura lapilhix), Beach Snail ( 
Whelk (Burnnum nndatvru). Periwinkle 



Obb WYMAN ON THE SHELL-HEAPS 

rails) ; and also the following, for which there 
common mimes: JVassa obsoleta, Xatica triseriai 
Muvoma fusca. The following land snails were al 
with: Helix ulhohihns, Sat/if, ulternatu, lineata,st> 
iittlmfota, mvltidentata, Zua lubrkoides, and S 
Toiteniana." 



"The 1] 


leaps were almost entirely ( 


■ompos 


ed of the shells 


of the co 


mmon clam, which appear* 


Ml lolio 


;cr and roughei 


in texture than that now dug near 


' by. 


In some of the 


heaps th 


e shells of the quahog 


were 


abundant, and 


marked for their size and solidity. 


This : 


species, though 


no longe 


r found in the same cove 


with 1 


he heaps, may 


be had i 


n the neighborhood of Go 


ose Isl; 


md, but locali- 


ties in w 


hich it lives are quite rar 


8 nortl 


i of Cape Cod. 


The com: 


tnon mussel, whelk, cockl 


e, and 


scallop, were 


probably 


used as food, while the 


other 


species were 


doubtless 


carried there by accident. 


The 


presence of so 


many spe 


cies of land snails would t 


seem t< 


) indicate that 


the island 


was once covered with hai 


•d-wooi 


1 trees, among 


which these animals alone flourish. 


The 


occurrence of 


the little 


snail, Zua lubrkoides, is 


ineoiis 


istent with the 


view that 


it is an introduced species. 






The sh 


ells were deposited in two 


different layers, very 




on the island in Frenehm; 


m's B; 


ty already de- 


scribed. 




from tl 




deposit In 


■- a thin stratum of earth, e 
n-tion of the heaps. Pie* 
everywhere among the shel 


xtendu 


ig through the 


the larger 


quantity and the blaekenet 


1 earth 


showed where 


fiiv,ha<lli 


een made. The number ot 


the fa 


igmentsofthe 


than tiftet 


m^p^ 


manv' 


bones of other 


species, bone implements (PI. 14, fi< 


p. 1,2 


! ; PI. 15, figs. 



OF NEW ENGLAND. 

6, 7, 8, 9, 12, 13), and pieces of bone from which poi 
had been sawed off were found ; no implements of 
were exhumed, though Mr. Swan found a small pestle 
-Mr. Morse a chisel lying on the surface near the shor 
A third deposit was examined at Eagle Mil, in 
wich. Massachusetts, situated on the borders of a ci 



neighboring region cc 


msists of a s 




hills of 


gravel, some of them 


covered with 1 


boulders, but 


entirely 


destitute of forest tret 


js. A few b 


asswood trees 


{Tilia 


Americana) have been 


known to ex 


ist there withi 


n a few 



years, but otherwise those hills do not appear t 
been wooded within the memory or traditions of tl: 
ent inhabitants. Several shell-heaps are reported 
ist in the neighborhood, but the only one examin 
on the easterly side of the hill mentioned above, 
consists of several disconnected deposits of shells, 
are in part spread out into a uniform layer, but ii 
instances form small knolls from eight to ten 
diameter. Near the water's edge the shells are e 
by the washing away of the bank, but elsewhc 
covered with mould and turf, and. in some places, c 
the knolls, with a laver of gravel. In the mor 



n to covering up. The shells, forming the; 
almost exclusively those of the commc 
re still found here in great quantities, ai 



Uiem. Large piles of recently dug si 
along the neighboring shore, and notice 
those from the Indian shell-heaps, in 



less rough in their texture. Shells of the oyster and the 
Muctra were found, but few in number. Somewhat ex- 
tensive excavations* yielded bones of the deer, beaver, 
dog, birds, among these the bones of the turkey, and of 
fish ; but only a single implement of stone, which was 
spherical in shape, with a groove around the middle of it. 
This was found by Mr. Putnam Jim beneath the surface. 

struments, and a few pieces of wrought bone were found, 
three of which are represented in PI. IT), tiirs. 15, 16, 17. 
Two distinct fireplaces, indicated by hard-wood charcoal, 
ashes, and blackened earth were found, resting on the 
earth and beneath the shells. 
In the town of SalMun/, Massachusetts, a series of heaps 

of the shell of the clam. They are 'about a mile from the 
left bank of the Merrimack Pivcr, near its mouth, and sur- 
rounded by a series of sand-downs, some wooded, others 
naked; these last constantly chan-in- from the action of 
the wind. They vary in size from about twenty to more 
than one hundred feet in diameter! but the shells form a 
layer of only a few inches, and arc largely mixed with 






than five 



■ scatter 
vere pic 

burned day mixed with coar-e 
'-"--t'Mn'imal. uhidiudghth: 



large numbers tit' .-tone hnploi 


lent* of various kinds have 


been carried away ; but as th 


place is in the neighbor- 


hood of a large town, and is 


frequently visited by those 


in search of such relics, they a 




Cotuit Port is in the town o 


f Barnstable, on the south 


side of Cape Cod, and on the 




^•;J|. i "^'^: neill ' to . thG ] sc 


- butpr0t3CtedfrDmitt ^ 


across the bay at its mouth. 


Within the distance of a 


few miles, a large number of 


shell-heaps are met with, 


and have been estimated to 


cover hundreds of acres, 



formerly found in the bay in much larger quantities than 
at present, and doubtless formed one of the chief attrac- 
tions which drew the Indians to this place. Our exami- 
nations were confined chiefly to one of the larger deposits, 
about a mile to the eastward of the village, situated on a 
sloping surface with a pleasant southerly exposure. Ex- 
near the shore, and at various point- inland, and brought 
to light the shells of the oyster, clam, scallop, and qua- 
bog, in large numbers, but 'quite unequally distributed; 
the clam being plentiful in some places, the quahog in 
others, and the scallop in others, while the oyster 
abounded everywhere. 

Two species of Pyrxda, viz. : P. carka and P. ecmolicu- 
lata were found, the first in considerable numbers. 
Neither of these species was found in any of the other 
heaps. Dr. Gould states that they are not known to exist 
north of Cape Cod. The largest specimen of the P. 

spire having been broken oil', and this, according to Dr. 



570 WYMAN OX THE SHELL-HEAPS 

Gould, is their maximum size on the Coast of Massachu- 
setts. It is, however, in remarkable contrast with a shell 
of the same species from one of the shell-heaps in Florida, 
which measured nearly fourteen inches in length. 

Of the remains of vertebrates, the bones of the deer 
were the most abundant ; but those of the seal, the fox, 
the mink, of birds, including those of a duck and the wild 

former examination of this locality bv Air. Geonre G. 



and also some fragments from which portions had been 
sawed off. The tine of a deer's antler, from which the tip 
had been sawed off, is represented on PL 15, tig. 14. 
About two-thirds of the metatarsal bone of the great toe 
from a human foot was found, in company with the bones 
of the animals already mentioned, and is the only portion 
of the skeleton of man which we have discovered while 
examining the heaps here described. The writer would 
express bis obligations to Mr. George G. Lowell for the 
opportunity of examining the locality at Cotuit Port, 



intimately associated 



* the method of the geologi; 

line the period when a given ai 






back to a period when their geologic 
somewhat different from what the 



and exposure, the 

teg-rated and trial 
while those of th< 



^ 72 VmUJS OX THE SHELL-HEAPS 

that there has been in all the localities, except at Salis 

bury, a disintegration of the shores, the sea underminin; 
and destroying the deposits. There can be no doubt tha 
these were once much more extensive than now, and tha 
the water has worked its wav into their places. Lastly 



ate contain the 


111 1 1 i tl 3 


own at present t 


exist to the eastward of the 


Mountains ; of tl 
New England; 
till live on Bom 


lie wild turkey, now virtually 
and of the great auk, which, 
e of the small islands to the 


wfoundland, has 


receded almost, if not quite, 


• regions. 




Nevertheless, in 

Bgetable mould, 
.pes above on tc 
mposition of she 
lenudationsofth 


-e certainly signs of the lapse 
the absence of any positive 
I is necessary for the accunui- 
or for the washing of earth 
i the heaps below, or for the 



r <7;\ 



made by, or derived from the white man, nor did we 
obtain any evidenee that these particular heaps had been 
materially added to since the European has occupied these 
shores. Had intercourse with Europeans been once fairly 
established, it were a reasonable presumption that we 
should have found at least a glass bead, a fragment of 

of the fact, especially when wo bear in mind that it would 
be in just such places, where the savages collected around 
their tires and seething-pots to cook and eat, that such 
objects might be expected to be broken or lost. Finally, 
if the statements of Williamson on the authority of John- 
son be correct, viz., that "a heavy growth of trees was 
found on them" (the deposits of clam-shells near Mount 
Desert) "by the first settlers," Ave have something like 
satisfactory evidence that their age could not have been 
less than between three or four centuries. 

Remain* of Animals. Human remains have not been 
found in the shell-heaps of Denmark, except in the case 



modern date. The same absence of hun 


mn remains marks 


the shell-heaps we are describing, with i 


i single exception. 


At Cotuit Port an unequivocal metatar 


sal bone from the 


great toe of the human foot was disc( 


wered. No other 


bones were found with it, except thos 


;e of animals. It 


was so deeply buried, and its appearai 


ice was such, that 


no doubt exists that it was of the same : 


ige as the heap it- 


self; we have therefore assigned it a pla 


ce in the following 


table, which gives a list of the species of 


animals uncovered 


and identified by their bones, or shell; 


3, in the different 


heaps, and shows their relative distribut 


ion through them. 




i table shows wha 



what animal an Indian would absolutely refuse to oat, 
is impossible to say. Although the kinds of moat use 
wore in the main palatable, the natives certainly did nc 

themselves to the taste of civilized people. Jossdyii 
who, of all the earlier writers, has given the most com 
plete account of the animals found on the coast of Xoa 
England, states that "the Indians, when weary with trav 

hare hands, laying hold with one hand behind their head 
with the other taking hold of their tail, and with thei 
teeth tear oil' the skin of their backs, and feed upon then 
alive, which, they 



iis.l- 



vcrcd by the largest amount of flesh, 


or contain the 


>st marrow. Not one of them was wh 


ole, all having 


en broken up for the double purpose of 


' extracting the 


lrrow, a custom almost world wide amor 


iff savages, and 


3 size of the vessel in which they were < 


'ooked/^n 


3 phalanges of the toes were treated in tfc 


tc same way. 


The bones of the bear, t\ "1 1 
're similarly broken np, and in two inst 


less numerous, 
ances had been 


rbonized by contact with the tire. Am 


ong the speci- 



576 WYMAX ON THE SHELL-HEAPS 

mens collected by Mr. Morse in his first visit to Crouch's 
Cove, was the last molar from the lower jaw. The crown 
was somewhat worn, but the ridges were not all effaced; 
it was of small size, measuring- 0.55 inch in length, and 
0.46 in breadth. The average size of eight specimens of 
the same molar in the black bear was, length 0.60 inch, 
breadth 0.47, while that of two specimens from the polar 
bear was, length 0.54 inch, breadth 0.45. The tooth 
from the shell-heaps, therefore, as regards size, more 
closely resembles the last-mentioned species, as it docs 
also in the shape of the crown,— but it would be unsafe, 
from a single specimen of the molar in question, to at- 
tempt to identify them. The former existence of the 
polar bear, on the coast of Maine, is rendered quite prob- 
able by the fact that the tusk of a walrus has actually 
been found at Gardiner.* Sir Charles Lyell obtained a 
portion of the cranium of another at Gay Head, Martha's 
Vineyard. f It was found by a fisherman who supposed 
that it had fallen from a cretaceous bed in the cliff above. 
Perhaps it may have been of a more recent date, and a 
contemporary of the Great Auk. 

The presence of the bones of the dog might be account- 
ed for on the score of its being a domesticated animal, but 
the fact that they were not only found mingled with those 
of the edible kinds, but like them were broken up, sug- 
gests the probability of their having been used as food. 
We have not seen it mentioned, however, by any of the 
earlier writers, that such was the case along the coast, 
though it appears to have been otherwise with regard to 
some of the interior tribes as the Hurons. "With them, 
game being scarce, "venison was a luxury found only at 



\Z\ 



OF K 

feasts, and dog flesh was 
found any marks of cutt 
with the bones found by 
Denmark, and from whk 



teem."* We have not 
p in the shell-heaps of 



many 






4 whole left half of the lower jaw of a xV/'was found 
Mount Desert, measuring 7.-3 inches in length, making 
strong contrast in size, with a similar half from a dog 
md at Crouch's Cove. This was more curved, and had 
■ngihofa little less than five inches. 



. like those 
•oken, but 



the 



..ken. 






Mil-- i 



th,, 



Steenstnip having observed the same fact in the remai 
from the Danish shell-heaps, suspected that they we 

ment, having kept some of these animals on short die 
gave them various bird bones to eat. He found, as 1 
had anticipated, that they ate the ends, rejecting tl 
shaft. He explains their choice by the greater sponu 
ness, and easier digestibility of the former as compart 
with the dense middle portion of the latter. No foul 

flesh, tendon, and ligament, which would usually remai 
adherent to the ends, after the portions ordinarily eatc 



578 WYMAN ON THE SHELL-HEAPS 

had been removed. On looking over the specimens of 
our collections, marks of teeth of animals were frequently 
noticed, some of them of such size as might be made by 
dogs, but others by a much smaller animal, as a cat or 

Of the remains of birds, by far the most interesting are 
those of the Great Auk (Alca impennis) , which formerly 
had a much wider geographical distribution than now, for 
having followed the glaciers in their retreat, at present it 
is confined to the arctic and subarctic regions. In Europe 
it formerly existed, as appears from the evidence of the 
shell-heaps, on the shores of Scotland, the Orkneys, and 
it has recently died out in Iceland. In the United States 
we have the authority of Steenstrup and Prof. Baird for 
its former existence as far south as Cape Cod. There can 
be but little doubt that the last survivors lingered till 
after the arrival of the Europeans. The description of the 
"Wobble," by Josslyn, as far as it goes, applies to the 
Great Auk, "an ill-shaped bird, having no long feathers in 
their pinions which is the reason they cannot fly ; not much 
unlike a penguin."* 

There are various traditions along the sea-coast of its 
having been seen at a much later date. Audubon, how- 
ever, in his voyage to Labrador saw none in the Straits 
of Belle Isle, but was told that they still bred on an island 
north of Newfoundland. 

The remains of the Great Auk in the shell-heaps of 
Maine, were in sufficient numbers to show that it must 
have been common, since seven specimens of the humerus 
alone were found, besides fragments of the cranium, jaws, 
and sternum. The specimens of humerus differed re- 
markably in condition from the same bone of other birds 



found with them, in not being mutilated : for of the seven 
specimens, four were whole, and the fifth had lost but one 
end, while of the humeri of the other kinds, scarce one 
was whole enough to enable one to identify the species. 

are characterized by their much flattened shape, thick 
walls, narrow cavity, and the absence of an opening for 
the entrance of air. Well-preserved specimens of the 
coracoid bone were also found entire. 

The catalogue we have given of the animals found in 
the shell-heaps shows that the elements of variety in food 
certainly existed, especially if we add to these the maize, 
beans, squashes, and various kinds of roots Indians are 
known to have used. From the testimony of eye- 
witnesses, soon after the settlement of the country, it 
appears that while sometimes the Indian contented him- 
self with maize roasted, or with this and beans made into 
a pottage, he often, when the necessary materials were 
at hand, made what might well be called a hodge-podge. 
G-ookin gives a full account of the manner in which this 
was concocted. In a word, it consisted of a mixture of 
fish and flesh of all sorts. " Shad, eels, alewives," ; ' venison, 
beaver, bear's flesh, moose, otters, raccoons, or any kind 
that they take in hunting," are cut into pieces, bones and 
all, and stewed together. "Also they mix with said 
pottage several sorts of roots, as Jerusalem artichokes, 
and ground nuts, and other roots, and pompions, and 
squashes, and also several sorts of nuts or masts, as oak- 
acorns, chesuuts, walnuts. These, husked and dried and 
powdered, they thicken their pottage therewith."* 

Father Easiest expresses his disgust at their style of 



580 WYMAN ON THE SHELL-HEAPS 

cooking and eating, and Wood evidently had a poor 
stomach for "their imoat-mealcd broth, made thick with 
fishes, fowles, and beasts, boyled all together, some re- 
maining raw, the rest converted by overmuch seething to 
a loathed mash, not half so good as Irish boniclapper."* 
When visiting the English, if offered food, Wood informs 
us they ate but little, "but at home they will eat till 
their bellies stand forth ready to split with fullness."* 

Worts of Art. Pottery is poorly represented, only small 
fragments having been found. Like those from other 
parts of the United States, the pots were made of clay, 
with or without the admixture of pounded shells, and were 
imperfecta burned so that the walls are both friable and 
porous. The ornamentation, when it exists, is of the 
rudest kind (PL 14, fig. 18), consisting of indentations 
or tracings with a single point, or, as in some cases, with 
a series of points on one and the same instrument. Both 
at Crouch's Cove and Cotuit Port, specimens were found 
in which the lines in the surface had been formed by 
impressing an evenly twisted cord into the soft clay (PL 

n various positions. 

ecial interest, since 

distant pla!ir l VVe^iav! ' Mu, I Ink i specimens on the 
banks of the St. John's in Florida ; there are others 
from Illinois, presented to the Peabody Museum by J- 
P. Pearson, Esq., of Xewburyport, and others have been 
noticed in the ancient barrows of England. f This kind ot 
ornament has given rise to the belief that the pots were 
moulded in nets, which were removed after the vessel was 
finished. All the specimens we have seen are wanting in 



resented. 

exception of the shell-heaps at Salisbury, all of those here 
described yielded so few articles made of stone. At Mount 

Mr. Swann found a pestle, ami Mr. Morse a rude chisel, 
both picked up on the shore, but probably washed out 
from among the shells. At Eagle Hill, Mr. Putnam 

Cotuit Port not a single piefee of worked stone was dis- 
covered. In regions adjoining the different shell depos- 
its, especially at Cotuit Port, an abundance of stone im- 
plements have been found, and those who have preceded 
us have occasionally obtained some from the heaps. In 
the Danish heaps, they seem to have been quite common, 
and Mr. Baa found them so at Keyport. 

dant, as were also fragments of bone showing the marks 

and of such tli. r«- was a , ..h-id.-raUe variety. Some of 



breaking th 
the elk and 


I 1 ,- 


' w : V 


d others, as th 
split lengthwise 


on each sid< 
the division 


bv' 


irly to 


, the marrow c; 
re. The rougl 


the groove, 
stone, and 


and 
not 1 


We 


idulating coon 
as the instrui 
have found bv 


mode of w 


orki 


og bo 


ue does not pi 



*>&% WYMAN ON THE SHELL-HEAPS 

as it might at first sight seem to be, and with care have 
succeeded in splitting in two, lengthwise, in the course 
of an hour, a piece of human ulna seven inches long, by 
means of a flint "chip" held in the hand. This, of course, 
involves a large expenditure of time, but it must be re- 
membered that an Indian's time was not valued. The 
work is rendered very much easier by keeping both the 
instrument and bone wet. It has been objected to the 
opinion, that certain implements from the European 
heaps were used as saws, that having wedge-shaped edges 
they would soon become "choked" or "jammed." Prac- 
tically this does not happen, for we have uniformly found 
that the roughness of the sides of the flint is sufficient to 
widen the groove as fast as the edge deepens it. 

Implements of bone made by the Indiana dwelling in 
New England have rarely been mentioned, and are sel- 
dom seen in collections, but if one may judge from the 
number of specimens we have obtained, must have been 
m quite common use. The inhabitants of the North-west 
Coast, and the Esquimaux, are largely dependent upon 
this material, and Messrs. Squier and Davis found a few 
bone instruments in the mounds of Ohio. The accom- 
panying figures, drawn by Mr. Morse, represent the forms 
of the more important ones discovered in the different 
heaps, which form the subject of this paper. Except the 
first, which is reduced one-half, linear measurement, all 
are represented of the natural size. We are unable to 
assign any uses for the larger part of them, and of the 
others can only offer a conjecture. 



: 



y'i 




1 1 

m ■ 

f I) 



r 



i 



[r 1 



OF NEW ENGLAND. 583 

portion is not seen in the figure, as the piece is represented as seen 
edgewise. It is obliquely truncated at the lower end, so as to give it 
a chisel-shaped edge, and shows the effect of having been hacked by 
some dull tool. Attn. In d to a handli it mi-ht be used to dig with, or 
might serve for the purpose of a head-breaker, or " casse-tete," as 
described by Father Rasles.* From Frenchman's Bay. 

Fig. 2. A flat-pointed instrument, 3| inches long, and 1£ wide. 
This is made of the dense exterior portion of an antler, and at the 
lower end has a thin sharp edge as in Fig. 2 a. From Crouch's Cove. 

Fig. 3. A piece of one of the branches of the antler of a deer, from 
which the tip has been cut off. The sides near the pointed end have 
been worked down so as to present four faces, two of the angles 
uniting them being quite acute. The detached piece having a deep 
notch would be provided with two points or barbs, and would be 

the aborigines, and we are informed by Winslow. that when the Pil- 
grims were making their fir>t explorations on the shore at Cape Cod, 
previously to landing at Plymouth, some of the arrows shot at them 
had the kind of point just described. t From Cotuit Port. 

Fig. 4. An artilieiaih pointed fragment. From Crouch's Cove. 

Fig. 5. An artirieialh pointed fragment of bone, suitable for the 
purpose of an awl. From Crouch's Cove. 

Fig. 6. A fragment of a bone of a bird, obliquely truncated and 
artificially sharpened. From Crouch's Cove. 

Fig. 7. One of the lower incisors of a beaver, ground to a thin, 
sharp edge, which last is formed by the enamel on the inner, or flat 
side of the tooth. From Crouch's Cove. 

Fig. 8. A well wrought and polished spindle-shaped instrument, 
the lower end of which is flattened, and has a sharp edge ; the upper 
portion is rounded with the end broken off, but appears to have been 
worked to a sharp point. From Frenchman's Bay. 

Fig. 9. A slender piece of bone, smoothly wrought and pointed. 
From Frenchman's Bay. 

Figs. 10 and 12, from Frenchman's Bay, and 11 and 13, from Crouch's 
Cove, are all made of flattened pieces, each being cut from the walls 
of one of the long bones, and showing the cancellated structure on 

Fig. 15. From Eagle Hill; the serrated edge is quite sharp, but 
from this the bone rapidly increases to one-third of an inch in thick- 



THE CHICKADEE. 






ik"%^J Jfe. 



THE CHICKADEE. 



The Chickadee (Panes afrkrqnllm) is a common resi- 
dent, familiar alike in the woods and the duellings of 

summer. Cautious yet hold, cunning though seemingly 
simple, he averts all suspicion of the whereabouts of his 
nesting-pkee, and, when discovered, scolds the intruder. 

oth gliding snako .urpriM- dim in hi- nest. In 






vhen danger approaches, the 



THE CHICKADEE. 



before unseen, sallies forth and instantly appears before 
the intruder, hopping from branch to branch, keeping but 
a short distance from him, and remaining silent until he 
fears their retreat may be discovered, then he sounds the 
alarm. At the noise the female peeps out of her abode, 
and quickly dodges back to wait the issue. If their 
nesting-place is not seen, or the male has artfully drawn 
the person away, the pleasing notes, Phe-be, P/te-be 
are heard ; but if the nest is disturbed, and the female 
routed, they are clamorous in reiterating the notes, Pe- 
dee-dee-dee. If their nest is destroyed, .they linger about 
a day or two, then go in quest of another suitable place 
to build again, such as a rotten stump or decayed up- 
right limb of a tree or post, which is easily perforated, 
and dig a hole in it to the depth of six to nine inches, 
with a diameter usually of two and a quarter inches. 

They are often mam days in preparing their tenement. 
Their labors are commenced in the morning of each day, 
both male and female working, and they work until about 
the middle of the forenoon, when they stop, and are 
seldom seen about the premises until the next morning. 
It seems as though the task before them would depress 
their spirits and discourage them in their undertaking, 
but energy and perseverance will accomplish much : bit 
by bit of rotten wood is taken out of the hole and carried 
by each bird ten or fifteen feet from the tree and dropped 
on the ground. There is no delay in their work except 
what arises from the difficulty of detaching the particles 
of wood from the sides or bottom of the cavity ; for each 
bird, after dropping its light load, flies back to near 
the entrance and waits for the other to appear, when it 
enters the branch instantly. When the hollow is finished 
the bottom is concave, as usual in birds' nests. 



00 O THE CHICKADEE. 

There is usually in the vicinity of the nest a hollow 
tree, or cavity made on purpose for the male to roost in 
during the time of breeding ; such retreats are also occu- 
pied by them in severe stormy weather in winter, in 
which they sometimes remain three or four days in suc- 
cession. They make their nests of different materials ; 
sometimes it is entirely of cow's hair, at others entirely 
of wool ; usually it is composed of various materials, such 
as those named, together with line grass, the fine dried 
roots of the willow, etc., and lined with some soft mate- 
rial. Its inside diameter is one and three-fourths inches ; 
its depth one and one-fourth inches. The eggs, which 
are commonly eight in number, measure in length nine- 
sixteenths of an inch, and in breadth eight-sixteenths of 
an inch. They are marked with reddish-brown specks 
over the entire egg, more thickly at the larger end; 
sometimes, however, the spots are thicker on the smaller 
end of some of the eggs of the same brood. They raise 
two broods in a season. The Chickadee, when compelled 
from necessity to take up his abode in a cavity not made 
by himself, selects one with an entrance not much larger 
than his body, so that he is not so liable to become the 
prey of the Mottled-owl, as are the Golden-winged Wood- 
peckers, and Blue-birds. There are no species of birds 
that suffer so much from the depredations of the owl as 
the Golden-winged Woodpeckers. The deadliest foe to 
the Chickadee is the Great American Shrike, or Butcher- 
bird. Seated upon some prominent object the Shrike 
watches the movement of the little troop as they are 
busily engaged seeking their food in a variety of posi- 
tions, unconscious of the sure death that awaits one of 
their number. While listening to the squeaking notes 
of the Brown Creeper which usually attends them, or 



^*7 



the shrill clarion voice of the Downy Woodpecker, you 
hear a noise like a falling stone through the branches of 
the tree ; it is the shrike : he has struck his victim, and 
if he does not devour it upon the spot, it is hung on the 
crotch of a limb to serve as a meal at some future time. 



DESMIDS AND DIATOMS. 

THEIR GROWTH AND GEOLOGICAL IMPORTANCE. 



In descending from the study of the higher to that of 
the lower forms of life, nothing is more remarkable than 
the manifold and often varied means by which that life 
is multiplied and perpetuated. In all four departments 
of the Animal Kingdom this is found to be the case, the 
higher groups in each producing for the most part a lim- 
ited number of offspring, which, however, they nurse with 
proportionate care, while, as we pass to those occupying 
a lower grade, Nature seems to guard against the extinc- 
tion of a species by vastly augmenting the reproductive 
power of the individual. So strikingly is this the case, 
that fishes, worms, the moss-like mollusca and the polyps, 
the lower groups under their several types, have been 
well styled the Embryonic or Eeproductive Classes. Nor 
is this observation true only within the limits of a single 
department. It is equally the case when one of these 
classes is compared with another, the difference, however, 
now appearing not so much in an inequality in the number 
of actual offspring, as in the introduction of new modes of 



588 DESAIIDS AND DIATOMS. 

multiplication, other than the development from eggs. It 
is true that the numbers of possible young contained in the 
roe of certain fishes far exceeds anything to be found in the 
case of either of the classes just alluded to, but of these 
comparatively few reach maturity ; while, slightly among 
the worms, still more among the flower-like mollusca,aud 
in a most remarkable degree among the coral-polyps, a 
new mode of reproduction is introduced, by which not 
mere immature undeveloped individuals only are brought 
forth, but individuals fully formed, perfect in all their 
organs, ready to assist at once in the labors of the com- 
munity of which they form a part. 

Hence it is, perhaps, that the lower forms of life have 
been and are of ineomparahly more importance than the 



gation. Were this the case, i 
etation but a single individ 
would be that individual's eha 



DESMIDS AND DIATOMS. 589 

is not a single indivisible being, but a community of indi- 
viduals, each of them a potential plant, living, it is true, 
in intimate connection with others of its kind, but equally 
capable of living alone, when, with proper care, its con- 
nection with these latter is severed. Every plant, as it 
buds in spring, is but reproducing hundreds or perhaps 
thousands of new individuals, similar in every respect to 
that which originally sprung directly from the seed. Un- 
like what is seen in the Animal Kingdom, the higher as 
well as the lower orders share equally in this peculiar 
mode of growth ; with this difference, however, that while 
among the higher groups the newly formed parts retain 
their connections, and become a portion of a compound 
structure, in the humbler groups they often separate as 
soon as formed, and acquire a distinct and independent 
existence. 

Let us now observe some of the results of this process, 
as illustrated in the minute forms of vegetation to which 
this paper is more especially devoted. 

In the last number of the Naturalist it was shown, 
that, among the Desmids and Diatoms, though " conjuga- 
tion" and the formation of seed-like bodies or spores is a 
normal mode of reproduction, yet here, as among higher 
plants, multiplication by this method is comparatively 
unimportant, by far the greater number of individuals 
arising from the self-division or fission of a single cell. 
So true is this, indeed, that the former mode, although 
probably true of all, has as yet been observed in but very 
few, and those the least remarkable species, while the 
process of budding or self-division is universal. Indeed, 
it is scarcely possible to examine a recent gathering of 
Diatoms, in which individuals will not be found illustrat- 
ing all the different stages of development, from those in 



0JU DESMIDS AND DIATOMS. 

which the "connecting membrane" has merely become 
slightly enlarged, to those in which it may be seen to 
contain two new individuals ; these latter ready, by the 
disruption of the membrane, to acquire a separate exist- 
ence, or, as is more commonly the case, to still maintain 
some slight connection with the parent cell, thus forming 
new members in a compound community. 

The rapidity of this budding process is something 
astounding, and goes far to explain the geological impor- 
tance of these organisms. Ehrenberg, the great micros- 
copic observer, in alluding to this subject, observes that 
"the silicious infusoria (Diatoms) form, in stagnant waters 
during hot weather, a porous layer of the thickness of the 
hand. Although more than 100,000,000 weigh hardly a 
grain, one may, in the course of half an hour, collect a 
pound's weight of them ; hence it will no longer seem im- 
possible that they may build up rocks;" and Professor 
Smith, the author of a standard work on these organisms, 
has calculated, as the progeny of a single diatomaceous 
cell, the amazing number of one thousand millions in a 
single month. These facts are certainly calculated to 
awaken our astonishment, yet wonderful as they are as 
illustrations of the reproductive power, they are but a 
repetition of what actually occurs throughout the whole 
vegetable kingdom. Take for example the century plant 
of our conservatories. An excellent authority tells us 
that, shooting forth its flower-stalk at the rate of a foot 
in twenty-four hours, it actually produces no less than 
twenty thousand millions of cells in a single day; and 
many other plants, in a greater or less degree, illustrate 
the same fact. In both cases the new cells are micro- 
scopic, but while in the higher forms they remain aggre- 
gated to produce a close and compact structure, of a more 



DESMIDS AND DIATOMS. 591 

or less limited duration, among the Diatoms the new cells 
become new individuals ; and though, as living forms, their 
duration is brief, yet incorporating as they do into their 
tissues the almost indestructible element, silica, to a 
greater extent than in any other group of organisms, they 
become as it were petrified, even while still alive, and at 
death leave behind relics, minute indeed, but imperish- 
able, the most perfect oi' fossils, in which every groove 
and marking of their former selves is accurately and 
beautifully preserved. 

We have, then, only to reflect for a moment upon the 
almost universal distribution of the Diatomaceae, to un- 
derstand how, by rapid growth and the formation of 
indestructible remains, they may readily become of great 
importance in a physical and geological point of view. 
They are found alike in fresh, salt, and brackish water ; in 
moist earth and in tidal muds ; in hot springs and in river 
ice, from the poles to the equator, coloring vast tracts of 
the surface of the sea, as well as composing the great 
bulk of the ocean's bed. Even in the lava and cinders 
of volcanoes their presence has been recognized, and 
they form a large portion of the dust-showers and "blood- 
rains" formerly so dreaded, and which cover at times with 
powder the sails of ships at sea. Mr. Roper, an English 
microscopist, tells us, that, excluding coarse sand, one- 
fourth of the finer part of the residuum of the mud of the 
Thames is composed of the sOicioufl remains of the Diato- 
maceie, and expresses his belief that their silicious shells 
"have a perceptible influence in the formation of shoals 
and mud-banks." Dr. Hooker, again, in speaking of the 
results obtained by the Antarctic Expedition, observes that 
they abound in the newly-formed ice of the Polar Seas, 
producing by their death a submarine deposit of vast 



°V* DESMIDS ,LN1) DIATOMS. 

dimensions, occupying probably an area of 400 miles long 
by 120 wide, resting in part upon a glacier 400 miles in 
length, and in part upon the submarine flanks of Mount 
Erebus, an active volcano 12,000 feet in height ! Finally, 
Ehrenberg considers that at Pillau, in Germany, "there 
are annually deposited from the water from 7,200 to 14,- 
000 cubic metres of fine microscopic organisms, which, in 
the course of a century, would give a deposit of from 
720,000 to 1,400,000 cubic metres of Infusory-rock or 
Tripoli-stone." 

So much for the rapidity of growth and the physical 
importance of the Diatoms in our own era ; let us now 
glance for a moment at earlier periods, and see whether 
these minute organisms were then too at work, producing 
results at all comparable to those which we witness at the 
present day. 

To begin with the more recent geological epochs. 
Every tyro in microscopic inquiry lias, among his other 
curiosities, obtained at least one slide with the label 
"Fossil Infusoria." These are Diatoinacea, and the de- 
posits from which they are derived may be found in all 
parts of our country, cropping out on the borders of 
ponds, or underlying layers of peat. It is, however, 
often a matter of doubt, especially in the former case, 
where the forms of the deposit and those still living in 
the water are apparently identical, how far these may 
really be entitled to the designation of "fossils." That 
they are so in many cases, and almost always when un- 
derlying beds of peat, is shown by the entire absence in 
these latter of certain species (especially JSfitschia and 
Synedra) , while these species are growing in the waters 
of the same locality in the greatest profusion. The period 
of the introduction of these species, then, must constitute 



one epoch in the geological history of the Diatoms, and 
more attentive study will yet reveal the occurrence of 
similar special epochs in the case of other species, even 
though we may not be able to directly synchronize these 
epochs with those determined from other data.* But 
leaving the region of uncertainty, there are numerous 
deposits, the great antiquity of which is placed beyond a 
doubt. Among these we may first enumerate a deposit 
in which were found imbedded, in 1843, the bones of a 
Mastodon, in Orange county, N. Y., and which, from its 
peculiar connection with these bones, was undoubtedly of 
eontemporaneous origin. Being unaffected by severity 
of climate, it is probable that the Diatoms continued to 
exist through the whole Post-tertiary Period, affording, 
by the entire absence of marine species, another confirm- 
ation of the much-disputed Glacier theory of Professor 
Agassiz. Again receding, the next deposits of which the 
age may be considered as definitely fixed, are those of 
Virginia and Maryland, the most celebrated of all diato- 
maceous earths, from the extreme variety and beauty of 
their forms and the extent of the beds containing them. 
These beds, where they underlie the city of Richmond, 
are not less than twenty feet in thickness, and consist 
entirely of marine remains ; while deposits, similar in 
character, and probably contemporaneous in origin, are 
found at many localities as far as Piscataway, in the State 
of Maryland. They are referred by their discoverer, 
Professor W. B. Rogers, to the Miocene Tertiary. One 
cubic inch of the earth has been calculated to contain not 
less than several millions of individual shells. Many 
similar deposits have been observed both in America and 

. *Fov an inteivrtmir article on < ' t ' " S °"J? Sf^S? 

■ 
- 



^4 DESMIDS AND DIATOMS. 

Europe, but little has as yet been done in determining 
their precise age, or in accounting for the conditions 
necessary for the local accumulation of such vast quanti- 
ties of material. Among the most remarkable in this 
respect are those of our western coast. I have now before 
me a block of pure diatomaceous earth, a foot and a half 
long by half a foot in depth, of chalk-like whiteness, sent 
by Mr. W. P. Blake, from Monterey (the entire weight 
of which is only about six pounds), and other similar 
beds are found at many points in Mexico, California, and 
Oregon. One of these, discovered by Colonel Fremont 
on the Columbia River, surpasses :ill other known depos- 
its, being not less than 500 feet in thickness, and covered 
by at least 100 feet of compact basalt and other volcanic 
products ! 

It is probable that the Mexican and California beds, 
like those of Richmond, are of Tertiary age, though some 
of them may prove to be Cretaceous. That those of 
Monterey and San Francisco are far more ancient than 
the present physical features of California is proved by 
their being purely marine deposits, and by their differing 
wholly in character and species from other deposits, also 
of considerable thickness, from the eastern side of the 
Sierras, which I have lately had an opportunity of exam- 
ining. These latter are fluviatile or lacustrine, and con- 
tain many species identical with those of the ordinary 
subpeat deposits of the Eastern States. 

In passing from the Tertiary to earlier formations, the 
evidence of the existence of the microscopic Algae be- 
comes less evident, and for a long time none were 
believed to exist of more ancient date than those above 
alluded to. Certain peculiar organisms termed Xantbidia 
were, however, observed as of frequent occurrence m 



the flint-nodules of the chalk formation, and within a still 
more recent period similar forms have been observed in 
the analogous hornstones of the Devonian and Silurian 
ages, associated in this latter case with unequivocal Dia- 
tomaceous shells. As regards these Xanthidia, which 
have usually been regarded as remains of Desmids, it is 
certainly singular that, while all recent Desmids are 
purely fresh water, these should occur in marine deposits : 
and secondly, that, destitute as they are for the most part 
of the silicious shell of the Diatoms, they should occur in 
a fossil state at all. Yet the resemblance is certainly a 
striking one, and their occurrence with the kindred Dia- 
tomacese throws some degree of plausibility upon this be- 
lief. However this may be, the existence of one group 
at least of thoc organism- bring e^iablishod for these 
early periods, we can scarcely doubt that their numbers 
were as great then as in the seas of our own day, and 
that they have been present through all the great geolog- 
ical ages, even though metamorphism and other agencies 
have for the most part obliterated all traces of their beau- 
tiful but fragile shells. It is highly probable that accom- 
panying the lower forms of animal life, these humble 
types of vegetation were among the first introduced upon 
the globe, performing then, as their representatives now 
do in the arctic seas and at great depths, where the 
higher forms of vegetation are wanting, the part of puri- 
fying the waters, as well as of contributing food for the 
sustenance of the different forms of animal life with which 
they were associated. 

Thus we see that the lower no less than the higher 
forms of life have their appointed place, each fulfilling its 
own part, and each worthy of the admiration and the 
study of the observing mind. 



THE HOME OF THE BEES. 



While the Andrena and Halictus bees, whose habits 
we now describe, are closely allied in form to the Hire- 
bee, socially they are the "mud-sills" of bee society, 
ranking among the lowest forms of the family of bees, 
or Apidce. Their burrowing habits ally them with the 
ants, from whose nests their own burrows can scarcely be 
distinguished. Their economy does not seem to demand 
the exercise of so much of a true reasoning power and 
pliable instinct as characterizes those bees, such as the 
Honey and Humble-bet.', which possess a high architectu- 
ral skill. Moreover they are not social ; they have no 
part in rearing and caring for their young, a fact that 
lends so much interest to the history of the Hive and 
Humble-bee. In this respect they are far below the 
wasps, or Vespidce, a family belonging next below in the 
system of Nature. 

A glance at Mr. Emerton's admirable drawing (Fig. 1) 
of a burrow of A/idi-rao vidua Smith, reveals the econ- 
omy of one of our most common forms. Quite early in 
spring, when the sun and vernal breezes have dried up 
the soil, and the fields exchange their rusty hues for the 
rich green verdure of May, our Andrena, tired of its idle 
life among the blossoms of the willow, the wild cherry, 
and garden flowers, suddenly becomes remarkably indus- 
trious, and wields its spade-like jaws and busy feet with 
a strange and unwonted energy. Choosing some sunny, 
warm, grassy bank (these nests were observed in the 
"great pasture" of Salem), not always with a southern ex- 
posure however, the female sinks her deep well through 

(596) 



THE HOME OF 



;V.IT 



the sod from six inches to afoot into the sandy soil beneath. 

She goes to work literally tooth and nail. Reasoning from 

observations made on several ^ife'- 

species of wasps, and also from > y^W^ » I 

studying the structure of her U| \jM- * Xw^^jU^ 

jaws and legs, it is evident that > • 

she digs in and loosens the soil V^ ^ I |j^j£3L 

with her powerful jaws, and ||j 

then throws out the dirt with J— 

herloffs. She uses her forelegs 



like 
of dir 






that he never saw a bee in t 

then she left off after a f< 
strokes. He also says, v th 
are harmless and inollensn 
On several occasions I ha 
laid on the crass near th 



npted to sting me; and 
a taken between the fin- 
, they make but feeble re- 

o enter somewhat into de- 



.-Mtll.T 



, obse 



■ations of Mr. Emerton (who 
tas carefully watched the hab- 
ts of these bees through sev- 
asons) the following 
of the economy of An- 






eras 



098 THE HOME OF THE BEES. 

drena vicina. On the 4th of May the bees were seen dig- 
ging their holes, most of which were already two inches 
deep, and one six inches. The mounds of earth were so 
small as to be hardly noticed. At this time an Oil-beetle 
(Meloe) was seen prowling about the holes. The presence 
of this dire foe of Andrena at this time, it will be seen in a 
succeeding paper on the enemies of the bees, is quite sig- 
nificant. By the fifteenth of May hundreds of Andrena 
holes were found in various parts of the pasture, and at 
one place, in a previous season, there were about two hun- 
dred found placed within a small area. One cell was dug 
up, but it contained no pollen. Four days later, several 
Andrenas were noticed resting from their toil at the open- 
ing of their burrows. On the twenty-eighth of May, in un- 
earthing six holes, eight cells were found to contain pollen, 
and in two of them a small larva. The pellets of pollen 
are about the size of a pea. They are hard and round 
at first, before the young has hatched, but as the larva 
grows the mass becomes softer and more pasty, so that 
the larva buries its head in the mass, and greedily sucks 
it in. When is the pollen gathered by the bee and 
kneeded into the pellet-like mass? On June 4th, a cell 
was opened in which was a bee busily engaged prepar- 
ing the pollen, which was loosely and irregularly piled 
up, while there was a larva in an adjoining cell nearly 
half an inch long. It would seem, then, that the bee 
cornea in from the fields laden with her stores of pollen, 
which she elaborates into bee-bread within her cell. 

When the bee returns to her cell she does not directly 
fly towards the entrance, since, as was noticed in a 
particular instance, she flew about for a long time in 
all directions without any apparent aim, until she finally 
settled near the hole, and walked into her subterranean 



retreat. On a rainy day, May 24th, our friend visited 
the colony, but fouud no bees flying about the holes. 
The little hillocks had been beaten down by the pitiless 
rain-drops, and all traces of their industry effaced. On 
digging down, several bees were found, indicating that on 
rainy days they seek the shelter of their holes, and do not 
take refuge under leaves of the plants they frequent. 

On the 29th of June six full-grown larvse were exhumed, 
and one about half grown. On the 20th of July the colony 
seemed well organized, as, on laying open a burrow at 
the depth of six inches, he began to find cells. The upper 
ones, to the number of a dozen, were deserted and filled 
with earth and grass roots, and had evidently been built 
and used during the previous year. Below these were 
eight cells placed around the main vertical gallery, reach- 
ing down to the depth of thirteen inches, and all contain- 
ing nearly full-grown larvae of the bees, or else those of 
some parasitic bee (JSfomada) which had devoured the 
food prepared for the young Andrena. 

About the first of August the larva transforms to a 
pupa or chrysalis ; as at this time two pupse were found 
in cells a foot beneath the surface. As shown in the 
cut, those cells situated lowest down seem to be the last 
to have been made, while the eggs laid in the highest 
are the first to hatch, and the larvse disclosed from them 
the first to change to pupae. Four days later the pupae 
of JVbmada, or Cuckoo-bees, were found in the cells. 
No Andrenas were seen flying about at this time. 

On the 24th of August, to be still very circumstantial 
in our narrative, though at the risk of being tedious, 
three burrows were unearthed, and in them three fully 
formed bees were found, nearly ready to leave their 
cells, and in addition several pupse. In some other cells 



600 THE HOME OF THE BEES. 

there were three of the parasitic Nomada also nearly 
ready to come out, which seemed to be identical with 
some bees noticed playing very innocently about the 
holes early in the summer. 

On the last day of August, very few of the holes were 
open. A number of Oil-beetles (Meloe) were strolling 
suspiciou 1\ about in the neighborhood, and some little 
black Ichneumon flies were seen running about among the 
holes. 

During midsummer the holes were found closed night 
and day by clods of earth. 

The burrow is sunken perpendicularly, with short pas- 
sages leading to the cells, which are slightly inclined 
downwards and outwards from the main gallery. The 
walls of the gallery are rough, but the cells are lined 
with a mucous-like secretion, which, on hardening, looks 
like the glazing of earthen-ware. This glazing is quite 
hard, and breaks up into angular pieces. It is evidently 
the work of the bee herself, and is not secreted and laid 
on by the larva. The diameter of the interior of the cell 
is about one-quarter of an inch, contracting a little at the 
mouth. When the cell is taken out, the dirt adheres for 
a lino in thickness, so that it is of the size and form of an 

The larva of Andrena (Fig. 2) is soft and fleshy, like 
that of the Honey-bee. Its body is flattened, bulging out 
prominently at the sides, and tapering more rapidly than 
usual towards each end of the body. Seen sideways, the 
thoracic rings are quite prominent, giving a serrated out- 
line to the body. The skin is very thin, so that along the 
back the heart or dorsal vessel may be distinctly seen, 
■ about sixty times a minute. 

Our cut (Fig. 1) also represents the pupa, or chrys- 



THE HOME OF THE BEES. 

alis, as seen lying in its cell. The limbs are 
close to the body in the most compact way po: 
On the head of the semi-pupa, »*. e. a 
transition state between the larva and 
pup;t, there are two prominent tubercles 
situated behind the simple eyes, or ocelli; 
these are deciduous organs, apparently* 
aiding the insect in moving about its 
cell. They disappear in the mature 
pupa. 

To those accustomed 1 



and o 


f stages i 


larva 

stated 




Of fol 


m, thougl 


off of 

by >1, 


ting appai 
the oute 




Ltly of a mere sloughing 
skin, are yet preceded 
-gradual alterations of *};;.,;; ,'• i-™ l s 
tissues, resulting from the growth ot 
cells.* An inner layer of the larva-skin ^ ;'. f 
separates from the outer, and, by changes i'» "•■' 
in the form of the muscles, is drawn into different 
tions, such as is assumed by the pupa, which thus 
concealed beneath the larva-skin. But a slight alter 
is made in the general form of the larva, consisting m 
of an enlargement of the thoracic segments, which is i 
overlooked, even by the special student, though of < 



t><JZ THE HOME OF THE BEES. 

interest to the philosophic naturalist. Special attention 
has been drawn to this "semi-pupa" state by fiatzbmg, in 
his "Development of Footless Hymenopterous Larva," 
and by Professor Agassiz, in his "Classification of Insects 
from Embryological Data" (Smithsonian Contributions), 
wherein he refers to the changes of the caterpillar of a 
butterfly (Uudamus Tityrus), just before assuming the 
chrysalis or pupa state. 

From Mr. Emerton's observations we should judge, 
that the pupa state lasted from three to four weeks, as 
the larvae began to transform the first of August, and 
appeared during the last week of the same month as per- 
fect bees. 

Andrena vicina is seen as late as the first week in Sep- 
tember, and again early in April, about the flowers of the 
willow. It is one of the largest of its genus and a com- 
mon species. 

Having, in a very fragmentary way, sketched the life- 
history of our Andrena, and had some glimpses of its 
subterranean life, let us now compare with it another 
genus of solitary bees {Halictus) quite closely allied in 
all respects, though a little lower in the scale. 

The Halictus jparallelus Say, excavates cells almost ex- 
actly like those of Andrena ; but since the bee is smaller, 
the holes are smaller, though as deep. Mr. Emerton 
found one nest in a path a foot in depth. Another nest, 
discovered September 9th, was about six inches deep. 
The cells are in form like those of Andrena, and like them 
are glazed within. The egg is rather slenderer and much 
curved ; in form it is long, cylindrical, obtuse at one end, 
and much smaller at the other. The larva (Fig. 4) is 
longer and slenderer, being quite different from the rather 
broad and flattened larva of Andrena. The body is 



THE HOME OF THE HEES. 603 

rather thick behind, but in front tapers slowly towards 
the head, which is of moderate size. Its body is some- 
what tuberculated, the tubercle aiding the grub in mov- 
ing about its cell. Its length is nearly one-half (.40) of 
an inch. On the pupa are four quite distinct conical 
tubercles forming a transverse line just in front of the 
ocelli ; and there are also two larger, longer tubercles 
on the outer side of each of which an ocellus is situated. 
Figure 3 represents the pupa seen from beneath. 

Search was made on July 16th, when the ground was 
hard as stone for six inches in depth, below which the soil 
was soft and fine, and over twenty cells were dug out. 
" The upper cells contained nearly mature pupte, and the 
lower ones larva? of various sizes, the smallest being 
hardly distinguishable by the naked eye. Each of these 
small larva} was in a cell by itself, and situated upon a 
lump of pollen, which was the size and shape of a pea, 
and was found to lessen in size as the larva grew larger. 
These young were probably the aflfepring of several 
females, as four mature bees were found in the hole." 
The larva of an English species hatches in ten days after 
the egg> are laid. 

Another brood of bees appeared the middle of Septem- 
ber, as on the ninth of that month (18(54) Mr. Emerton 
found several holes of the same species of bee made in a 
hard gravel road near the turnpike. When opened, they 
were found to contain several bees with their young. 
September 2d, of this year, the same kind of bee was 
found in holes, and just ready to leave the cell. It is 
probable that these bees winter over. 

We have incidentally noticed the presence in the nests 
of Andrena and Ilalictns of a stranger bee, clad in gay, 
fantastic hues, which lives a parasitic life on its hosts. 



6 °4 THE HOME OF THE BEES. 

This parasitism does not go far enough to cause the death 
of the host, since we find the young of the parasitic 
Nomada, or Cuckoo-bee, in cells containing its young. 

Mr. F. Smith, in his "Catalogue of British Bees," says 
of this genus : "No one appears to know anything beyond 
the mere fact of their entering the burrows of Andrenidce 
and Apidce, except that they are found in the cells of the 
working bees in their perfect condition : it is most proba- 
ble that they deposit their eggs on the provision laid up 
by the working bee, that they close up the cell, and that 
the working bee, finding an egg deposited, commences a 
fresh cell for her own progeny." 

He has, however, found two specimens of JVbmada sex- 
fasciata in the cells olEveera fonyicornis, the Long-horned 
bee. He also states, that while some species are constant 
in their attacks on certain Ilalicti and Andreme, others 
attack different species of these genera indiscriminately. 
In like manner another Cuckoo-bee (Codioxys) is para- 
sitic on Megachile and Saropoda; Stelis is a parasite on 
Osmia, the Mason-bee ; and Melecta infests the cells of 
Anthophora. 

The observations of Mr. Emerton enable us still far- 
ther to clear up the history of this obscure visitor. He 
found both the larva and pupa, as well as the perfect bee, 
in the cells of both genera ; so that either both kinds of 
bee, when hatched from eggs laid in the same cell, feed on 
the same pollen mass, which therefore barely suffices for 
the nourishment of both ; or the hostess, discovering the 
strange egg laid, cuckoo-like, in her own nest, has the 
forethought to deposit another ball of pollen to secure the 
safety of her young. 

Is such an act the operation of a blind instinct? Does 
it not rather ally our little bee with those higher animals 



THE HOME OF THE BEES. 605 

which undoubtedly possess a reasoning power ? Its in- 
stinct teaches it to build cells, and prepare its pollen mass, 
and lay an egg thereon. Its reason enables it, in such an 
instance as this, when the life of the brood is threatened, 
to o'uanl against any such <ian:rer by means to which it 
does not habitually resort. This instance is paralleled by 
the case of our common Summer Yellow-bird, which, on 
finding an egg of the Cow-bunting in its nest, often builds 
a new nest above it, to the certain destruction of th ■ un- 
welcome egg in the nest beneath. 

In the structure of the bee, and in all its stages of 
growth, our parasite seems lower in the zoological scale 
than its host. It is structurally a degraded form of 
Working-bee, and its position socially is unenviable. It 
is lazy, not having the provident habits of the Working- 
bees ; it aids not in the least, so far as we know, 
the cross-fertilization of plants, — one great office in the 
economy of nature which most bees perform, — since it is 
not a pollen-gatherer, but on the contrary is seemingly a 
drag and hinderance to the course of nature. But yet 
nature kindly, and as if by a special interposition, for 
which the Devclopmentists will find it difficult to account, 
provides for its maintenance, and the humble naturalist 
can only exclaim, "God is great, and His ways myste- 
rious," and go on his way studying and collecting facts, 
leaving to his successors the more difficult task, but 
greater joy of discovering the cause and reason of things 
that are but a puzzle to the philosophers of this day. 

The larva of Nbmada may be known from those of its 
host, by its slenderer body and smaller head, while the 
body is smoother and more cylindrical. Both sexes of 
Nomada imbricate and JV. puhhella of Smith were found 
by Mr. Emerton, the former in both the Andrena and 



bOb THE LAND SXA1LS OF SEW ENGLAND. 

Halictus nests, and both species were found in a single 
Andrena nest. 

The interesting history of the Oil-beetle (Meloe) and 
its wonderful transformations, and of the Sty lops and 
other bee-parasites, cannot now detain us. We hope to 
lay an account of them before our readers at some future 
time. 



THE LAND SNAILS OF NEW ENGLAND. 



The genus Succinea, of which we have three marked 
species in New England, i- furnished with a thin, trans- 
lucent, and elastic shell. The soft parts resemble those 
of Helix, but the erecpiui: disk is quite short and broad, 
and the tentacles are short and swollen at their bases. 
The shell is entirely unlike Helix, being ovate-conic, and 
not rolled in a plane. 

Succinea Totteniana. (Fig. 46.) Shell ovate, amber- 
colored, thin, translucent, shining. Whorls about three, 
Fur. 46. tne ^ as * ve ry large ; spire not prominent, su- 
ture distinct. The aperture is three-fourths 
the length of the shell, and so open that the 
animal when contracted within the shell is plainly 
visible. Length of shell from | to f of an inch. 
The animal is of a salmon-color, and the shell is 
sufficiently translucent to reveal the color of the viscera 
within. This species appears to be confined to New Eng- 
land and the Provinces. It is represented in the Western 
States by S. obliqua, a heavier and larger shell. It 
occurs in woods and fields. Sometimes found in great 
numbers in the roadways after a heavy dew. 



THE LAND SNAILS OF NEW ENGLAND. 607 

Succinea avaka Say. (Fig. 47.) The shell of this 
species is smaller than the preceding, being- only a quar- 
ter of an inch in length. The spire is quite long, Fig . i7 
and the aperture is only half the length of the shell, a 
The whorls are three in number, very convex, sep- &% 
arated by a deep suture. The color is greenish ^ 
or grayish straw. The surface of the shell is usually 
covered with a coating of dirt, accumulated by the fine 
hairs that stud its surface. This character alone is suffi- 
cient to distinguish the species. Common in damp woods. 

Succinea ovalis Gould. (Fig. 48.) Shell very thin, 
pellucid, pale horn-color, polished, elongate. Spire 
short ; aperture expanding in front. Length less Fig ^ 
than half an inch. The shell is quite elastic, and X 
so translucent that all the organs are plainly visible, W% 
and the pulsations of the heart are distinctly seen. ^ 
The animal is amber-eolored, mottled with black dots. 
Inhabiting the Northern and North-eastern States. This 
species appears to be confined to the margin of pools in 
wet grass, and is often found clinging to the leaves of 
aquatic plants in ponds. 

The following species belong to a genus of which there 



species. 



belonffinsr to tin 



the other to the old world. The two resemble 
each other very much, and are regarded as the 
same species by many. 

Zua lubricoides Stimpson. (Fig. 49.) Shell 



smoky horn-color, 
five or six, rounded. Length T 3 ir of an inch; aperture 
oval; lip thickened; animal bluish-black. The shell 
is about the size of a grain of wheat. Its usual haunt 



is beneath decaying leaves in forests, though it is found 
in grass, and under stones by the roadside. In some 
places the species occur in great numbers. 

It is distributed throughout the Northern, Middle, and 
Western States. 

The next species forms another genus under the name 
of Zoogenetes. It was first described as a Helix by Say. 

Zoogenetes hakpa Say. (Figs. 50, 51.)* Shell ovate 
conic, light horn-color, very thin and clastic. Whorls four, 

Figs, so, 5i. convex, the last two marked by thin prom- 
0~\"h\ inent ribs 5 suture distinct ; aperture nearly 

Kggyi. circular; lip sharp. Length £ of an inch, 

tBBSSSs animal slate color, mottled with light dots. 
^^ This species forms one of the few ex- 

ceptions among land snails, in which the 
young are brought forth alive. They are 
hatched from eggs, but the eggs are re- 
tained within the parent when this pro- 
cess takes place. The adult never contains more than 
four or five at a time, and it is a curious sight to break 
open this tiny shell under the microscope, and find 
within several young ones, those more advanced with 
little shells already formed. It is found in various parts 
of Maine, and is quite common in the vicinity of Portland 
in hard-wood groves. L. L. Thaxter has found, it a fc 
Ascutney, Vt. It was first discovered in the North-west 
Territory, and between these two regions has rarely been 
met with. 

The next group of species to be described have long 
cylindrical shells, and are among the smallest of our land 



first that we .hall describe is Pupilla ba 
. (Fig. 52.) The shell is oblong, cylindri* 

faintly striated, aperture nearly circular: /p 
is thickened. Length 3 of an inch. Prof. §T 
first described this species from Lake fe 
ain, and stated that the aperture con- 3^ 
l tooth on the l)odv whorl. Specimens from Ma 
» such character. Mr. C. B. Fuller first disc. 



ilS MH 



Ma 



places in the vicinity of Portland. Mr. W r . C. 
aid has found it on Oak Island. Chelsea. Mass. 
>ecics is also ovoviviparous, that is, it brings forth 

ilv fall ax. Say. (Fig. 53.) Shell oblong, hav- 

,- „,v« \ \vh iris,' which" taper from the base to the 



; color light brc 
t|of an inch; ai 
long and slend< 



<r and slender. wuiiu« c m — v \ ^ 

Middle, and Western States, aU- 

,]ina. This can hardly be considered W 




nont, and Mr. Thaxter has found the dead s 

Woburn, Mass. 
j who have collections of minute land shells, tv 

to provide themselves with a good magnil 
4th the help of which they would be able to i 

species from the figures given. 



REVIEWS. 

Observations on the Glacial Phenomena of Labra: 
Maine, with a View of the Recent Invertebrate I 
Labrador. By A. 8. Packard, Jr., 31. D. With 1 
Plates. (From the Memoirs of the Boston Society of Natural His- 
tory, Vol. I. Part 2.) pp. 94, 4to. Boston, 1867. 
The author gives a sketch of the topography and geology of the 
coast of Labrador, followed by a special account of the drift or glacial 
phenomena in Labrador and Maine, describing four epochs in the his- 
tory of the post-tertiary, or quaternary period : — 

1. The true glacial epoeh. during winch Labrador and New England 
hu°e flTC hUn(lrPCl ° r feK h,U " ' ' ! ' ' ' '-=' '' ban at present, and 
New England and Labrador, in other u.-.nK |.r.-.-uted along their sea- 
shores "a nearly solid front of glacial ice, at least rivalling in height 
and breadth the enormous glacier 1.000 feel thick, and 540 miles long, 
discovered by Sir James Ross, in the antarctic lands." 

2. The Leila Clay, or our common brickyard clays, during which 
epoch the land slowly sank, and the glaciers retreated up the valleys 
of the various •. I1(1 them the tMck depos j t f 
clay, gravel, and boulders which now covers the surface of New Eng- 
land. ^ "During the slow and gentle submergence of the land ushering 
m this epoch, the crude moraine matter (heaps of stone and gravel 
borne upon the surface of the glaciers) was sorted into beds of reg- 
ularly stratified clays one hundred to three hundred feet in thickness." 

the low snow-line, and the flora and fauna w hich are now found only 
on our Alpine heights, or in cold, isol U spots oi the coast of Maine 
and the Northern lakes, then peopled the surface of New England and 
Canada." 

3. "Period of n ■„. Sands), during which the 
land emerged to its present elevation, and the fauna and flora assumed 
their existing relations. The close of this period witnessed the sur- 
face of New England covered by broad lakes and ponds, with vast 

line. Its scenic features must have resembled those of Labrador at 
the present day." 

4. The Terrace Epoch marks the period subsequent to the more 
general recession of the sea during the preceding period, when the 
estuaries and deep bays were contracting to their pr 



EE VIEWS. 611 

[gland, it is inferred that the distribution of marine animals on 
res of North-eastern America " was governed by the same laws 
! present day. In going southward from Labrador to New York 
s became warmer the more they came in contact with the 
vaters of the Gulf Stream, whose influence was evidently ex- 
1 the coast of New England during t'nr dlacial Period." The 
• of New England was not purely arctic, like that of Greenland, 
' subarctic like that of Labrador, while now it is much 

! studies on surface geology have attracted and always will 
much attention. Especially interesting is the occurrence of 
fossils in our claj I we beg our readers to care- 

fully preserve all shells and bones and other remains which may be 
found in making excavations for roads or wells. We are liable to dis- 
cover in these deposits the bones of the mastodon, the elephant", the 
walrus, bison, and various species of whales. It is not improbable 
that the horse will be found to have lived in New England during the 
Terrace Period, immediately succeeding the disappearance of glaciers, 
and in fact every thing is to be determined regarding the distribution 
of life doting th ceding or accom- 

ie appearance of man on the earth. 
The work closes with a catalogue of the marine animals dredged 
along the coast of Labrador, with descriptions of over twenty new 
species. The plates are beautifully e» - trl -d. id tstrating rare and in- 
teresting fossils from the Leda clays, and li\ ing f. >rms of shells, worms, 
and crustaceans, with a geological map of that portion of the coast 
visited by the author. — A. H. 
The Quarterly Journal of Science. London. October, 1867. 

We run hastily through the October number. Mr. Alfred Wallace, 
in "Creation by Law," reviews the Duke of Argyll's "Reign of Law." 
A. very attractive plate represents an imaginary species of Hawk- 
moth (Sphinx) fertilizing by moonlight the flowers of an orchid 
growing in the forests of Madagas u\ wl - long, slender nectary 
hangs down twelve inches. V splendor of the 

humming-birds, is directly connected with their very existence." 
The most gaily-colored males are preferred by the more homely fe- 
males, "which wo oak s° adorned having more 
than the average number of offl ' ! ' • Darwin has 
lately arrived at the wond 



ben a flower i 



•f Collins wood writes on the Luminosity o 
their Aims, Objects, and Work, notices th 
hich have but recently started into grovvtl 
jland, as the Essex Institute in its summe 

s diffusion of a taste for Natural Iliston 
meetings should bear in mind that -'til 

ions of incipient naturalists." The Liver 



ind have done much to populai 
[uarian research. 



rest in the •• Glass Rope controversy," r 

ave been an a , has been bei 

e alleged discovery of a European Ibjaloiumn, or 'C 



REVIEWS. 

'Portugal.— Dr. Pigeai 



fuk-ons and liawk 



Bee keepers will < 



NATURAL HISTORY MIS< 



NATURAL HISTORY MISCELLANY. 

ZOOLOGY. 
TnE Dodo.— Mr. George Clarke, of Mauritius, has discovered a 
large deposit of bones of the Dodo in the swamp known as the " Mar- 
caux Songes." By tJiis now celebrated discovery the whole skeleton 
of the Dodo has been made known, excepting the end of its wing; 
whereas before the head and foot at Oxford, the skull at Copenhagen, 
the foot in London, and the beak at Prague, were all the specimens 

Sixgitear Variety or the Fleed Sparrow. — On the 12th of Octo- 
ber, I shot a very singular variety of the Field Sparrow (S r !zdla 
pusilla) Baird. It was precisely similar to tin ordinary form of that 

ever, of the second and third exterior fathers, which were of the 
usual color. So marked a variety in a bird that generally presents 
very slight variations in color is so remarkable, that. I consider it 
worthy of especial notice. — T. Martin Trxppe, 



TORT MISCELLANY. 

The Gigantic Bikds of the Mascakexe 
were associated a large Parroquet, the Solil 
gigantea Schlegel), and the Porphyrio (Not 
nis?) ccerulescens Schl., which last is as la 
as a full-sized goose, blue, with the 
feet red. It could not fly, but ran with great 

We figure from Schlegel's account in the 
French Annals of Natural Science, 1866, the 
'■(leant," so called by its discoverer, Leguat, 

it h:is disappeared. It is allied to the Water 
Hens, and was six feet high; its body was as 
large as that of a Goose, white, with a reddish 
spot under the very small wings. 

These singular birds characterizing the land 
fauna of these islands, of which " 
the largest, seem like the gigantic birds of 
New Zealand, as Schlegel remarks, to have 
replaced the mammals, of which tl 
groups of islands are destitute, and thus ex- 
plains why these most i 

so peculiar in their size and structure. These 
birds were destroyed as early as 1700 by the 
European settlers, the cats and dogs, and the 
maroon Negroes. The Dodo and Solitaire are ^ u ^.^ „ ^ ^ 
figured in Dana's Manual of Geology. natural '-,, u ' 

The Eagle a Fisher. — The American bald eagle (Jlaltaftns Icuco- 
cephalus) belongs to the group of fishing-eagles, as might be inferred 
from the name of the genus, which is derived from hals (sea), and 
a-et-os (eagle) ; whence Hcl-i-a-et-us (and less properly in science, the 
poetic form Haliaeetus), a name applied to the osprey by the Greeks. 
The spelling "Haliaetus" and the pronunciation "Haliaetus" are erro- 

The East Indian H. ponticerianus is known to be a fisher, and the 
South African H. vocifer is called " the fishing-eagle " at the Cape of 
Good Hope. 

The mode in which the bald eagle pursues and robs the fish-hawk is 
well known from the description of Alexander Wilson, which has been 
often quoted, as in the fourth volume (p. 92) of Harper's School and 
Family Readers, by Marcius Willson, who, however, has interpolated 




Eeaders" (1864) I state that the bald eagle, " with wings nearly closed, 



Chere was an eagle's nest high 



. 



MICEOSCOPY. 
Microscope. — We call the attention of f 
ment of the Students' Microscope, mannfa 



Diptera. They are very necessary tor the; completion of his work on 

tution. He will mm h r\ i . -. . ■ mens of European Coleoptera to 
any Entomologist who will furnish specimens of Diptcra in exchange. 
Packages may be sent through tlie Smithsonian Institution, Wash- 

EXPLOEATTONS. 
Mr. W. H. Ball, of the Sck-ntittc Corps of the Western Union Tele- 



NATURAL HISTORY 
just past, I have pac 



STSWERS TO CORRES 



'a. — The shells a 
• Case-worm (Phn 






PROCEEDINGS OF SCIENTIFIC SOCIETIES. 

American- Association for the Advancement of Science.— 
Natural History Section. Burlington, Vt., August 21-26, 1867. 
"On the Zoological Affinities of the Tabulate Corals." By Professor 
A. E. Verrill. Coral-like forms were stated to be formed by various 
kinds of animals, and also by some plants. Thus we have Protozobn 
corals (Euzodn, PAytrema, stony sponges, etc.); Molluscan corals 
{Bryozoa) ; Hydroid corals (Sertularia, etc.-) ; Polyp corals (Gorgonia, 
Tubipora, Madrepora, etc.) ; Vegetable corals (XulUpora, Corallina). 

Although there are still some doubtful groups of corals, the nature 
of most forms is now well known. The most important doubtful 
groups are at present the Cyathophylloid corals (fiugosa Edw.), and 
the Tabulate corals. Nearly all authors place both these great groups 
among the true Polyps, but a few advocate the Molluscan affinities of 
some of the Cyathophylloids, and certain genera of the Tabulata ( Cfux- 
tetes, etc.), the former being compared with Ilippurites, etc., and the 
latter v.irh Bryozoa. 

Professor Agassiz has, however, referred both these groups to the 
Hydroids, placing them, therefore, in the class of Acalephs. As both 
are abundant in the Silurian rocks, this generalization carries the ap- 
pearance of the Acalephs back from the Jurassic to the Lower Silurian 
period. Therefore this becomes a question of importance both In 
Geology and Zoology. The Cyathopln 11- -id < oral. b< in- entirely ex- 
affinities may, perhaps, long remain in doubt. The 
•epresented in tropical seas by several 



Tabulata, however, 



oiessor ura-oiz examine, i llepora several 

's ago ar Florida, and in his '•Contributions" lias figured and de- 
>ed them, showing them to be genuine Hydroids, the different- 
i cells being occupied by different sorts of individuals, compara- 



aroids. From these o 
concluded that all other Tabulate corals, living and fossil, are also 
Hydroids. In the hope of throwing some light upon this question, 
Mr. F. H. Bradley was requested, while collecting at Panama for the 
Yale College Museum, to examine, if possible, the living animals of a 
species of PociUipor" found at that place, a coral belonging to the 
Tabulata, but to a family ; /•-.. •.,.■-■< / \ A \\\. di't.-ring in many char- 
acters from Milleporidae. According to his descriptions and drawing. 
the animals of Pocillipora have all the external appearances and struc- 
ture of a true Polyp, closely resembling those of Pontes. They are 
(618) 



PROCEEDINGS OF SCIENTIFIC SOCIETIES. 

('li oxp-.nded. and ha\ e twelve equal cylindrica 



i- >n willi irrc it dill, mav- 
is necessary to refer the former to the Ih droids, while 
remain with the true Polyps. It is probable that Fun 
other extinct tabulated irenera belomr with P»ritli]><> 

ulate structure as a character of secondary iinportaii 
ficial group of Tabulata must he dismembered. 

"On the Coal Measures of Illinois, with a vertical 
Strata." By A. H. Worthen, State Geologist In the 
the Geological Survey of Illinois, it seemed desirable 
coal-seams with those of the Kentucky section, masmi 
nois and Kentucky coal-field was known to belong to t 

was made by Professor Lesquereux, and the results wt 

show ,1 that the CMii.-l i-i. n- arm.-, it in regard To tli 



hat section was correct, no paral- 
e coal-seams of the two States. 



■ 



3f workable coal-seams nearly doubled. 
This vu w of the case is strengthened by the fact also of a gei 



ie equivalent of beds to which die t 
>l>liod by himself and Dr. Hayden in t 



: \ ' ■::- [-..- 



, F.rown Ibniatite Beds of A 



the solid ore-bed is t 



PROCEEDINGS OF SCIENTIFIC SOCIETIES. 621 



H.vC. II. Ilitchcork. Li this paper 



\% PROCEEDINGS OF SCIENTIFIC SOCIETIES. 

" The Geology of Vermont." By C. H. Hitchcock. A large ge 

owledge of its rocky structure since the publication of the aut 



ited: 


most of them w 


en- unlike any 


Lhiu: 




inul int! 


,i- con 


ntry. 


Dr 


. Wyman further 
















t>ers of the society to shell-he 






,n Coos 


e Islai 






The objects e: 






-ib 






se found; 


M..111 


it Desert, and cl 


escribed by Dr. W 


















: ar 


parently 


of the 


Great Aid 


















•O 


. EdwaiM S.Morse called atten 


ti..n 


to 


the evld 


ence*. 




] '7t 


JeVel'ofbro '""" 




llX 


'i-h 1 









taken place since the formation of the dep 
fact. Mr. Morse observed one place where the 

sufficient time had elapsed to erase nearly 
hard rock. He also remarked that the shell-] 



PROCEEDINGS OF SCIENTIFIC SOCIETIES. 623 






■ 






water, the felspathic *elay, broken quartz grains and mica crystals 



shore. The speal 
Bahia, some fish rei 
cretaceous by Profess 



ew ground, and would certainly afford some new and 
icts to science. He announced that it was his intention 

he hoped would be fitted out l>\ the n n N itur il K> ory 
J Cooper Institute. 






AMERICAN NATURALIST. 

Vol. I. -FEBRUARY, 1868. -No. 12. 
THE INSECTS OF ANCIENT AMEEICA. 



Until within a very few years not more than four or 
five kinds of fossil insects had been found on this conti- 
nent. Indeed, little thought had been bestowed upon 
their possible discovery, and while hundreds of eager 
students had carefully examined the living insects, few 
turned to the ancient representatives of this class upon 
the globe. New and interesting di.seoveries have thrown 
some light upon the insect-life of Ancient America, but 
even now, the known species, occurring in many local- 
ities and in various deposits, will not number one hundred 
different kinds. 

The discovery of the oldest insect remains in the world 
is due to Mr. C. F. Hartt. While collecting fossil plants 
in the Devonian slates near St. John, New Brunswick, 
he first perceived faint traces of insects' wings. Few per- 
sons would have noticed these insignificant relics, but Mr. 
Hartt having discovered a single insect, thoroughly ex- 
amined all his rock specimens until six other fossils were 
brought to light. In the more carefully gleaned fields of 



OJb THE INSECTS OF ANCIENT AMERICA. 

Europe, a few species have been found as low down as 
the Carboniferous rocks of Wetterau, Saarbriick, etc., 
but these fossils from the Upper Devonian carry the first 
appearance of insect-life back to a previous epoch, and 
make their advent in North America synchronous with 
that of land plants. 

The specimen- obtained by Mr. Hartt are intrinsically 
interesting; although they are all fragments, broken gen- 
erally from the centre of the wing, enough distinctive 
parts remain to determine the character of the fossils. 
They are all Neuroptera, or Lace-winged flies, and, with 
the exception of one or two Ephemerina, or May-flies, 
represent families which are now extinct. One of them 
is provided with a few veins forming concentric rings near 
the base of the wing; these rings bear such a striking 
resemblance to the stridulating organ of the green grass- 
hoppers, that I am inclined to believe there were chirping 
Neuroptera in those days ! 

Similar in interest are some specimens of Neuroptera 
from the Carboniferous beds of Morris, Illinois; they 
occurred in small flattened iron-stone concretions, like 
the clay-stones in clay banks of the present day. These 
Neuroptera also represent families distinct from any now 
living, and, like many of the Devonian insects, are syn- 
thetic in character ; that is, combine in one and the same 
form features which, in after ages, are distributed among 
the members of different families. In this case the syn- 
thesis unites families belonging to different sections,— 
some to Neuroptera proper, others to Pseudo-neuroptera. 
The Neuroptera proper include those families where the 
pupae are inactive, and the limbs are folded against the 
body; such as the Sialina, Hemerobina, Mantispadffi, 
Panorpina, and Phryganina (Caddis-flies). In the Pseu- 



THE INSECTS OF ANCIENT AMERICA. 627 

do-neuroptera — classed by some naturalists with Orthop- 
tcra — the pupje are active and are provided with rudi- 
mentary wings ; otherwise they di Her but little from the 
larvae : among them are the Termitina (white ants) , Pso- 
cina, Perlina, Ephemerina (May-flies), and Odonata 
(Dragon-flies) . Had these insects of former days active 
or inactive pupoe ? 

Two other remains were found in these iron-stone con- 
cretions ; they appear to me to be those of worms, but 
naturalists have described one form as a centipede, the 
other as a caterpillar of a moth ; the caterpillar was re- 
ferred to the family of Arctians, to which our woolly 
caterpillars belong. The last, if true, would be a most 
interesting discovery ; for in Europe only one moth, and 
that of the lowest family, the Tineids (of which the 
clothes-moth is a member), has been found as low down 
as the Jurassic period. 

Dr. Dawson, of Montreal, has been quite fortunate in 
discovering various kinds of insects in the coal-beds of 
New Brunswick and Nova Scotia ; traces of the mining 
of larvae were found on the leaf of a fossil fern, and this 
was the more remarkable because ferns in our day are 
peculiarly exempt from attack by mining insects. Among 
the fossil remains were numerous fragments of Myria- 
pods, which had secreted themselves in the trunks of 
decayed trees ; coprolites of the reptiles which had sought 
shelter in the hollow trunks proved that the animals fed 
partially, at least, upon insects,-they were filled with 
comminuted fragments of the bodies and limbs of Orthop- 
tera and Neuroptera of large size, and, m one instance, 
Dr. Dawson found the eye of a dragon-fly. 

Professor Marsh, of New Haven, has also obtained an 
insect's wing at the Joggins in Nova Scotia; he thought 



528 THE INSECTS OF ANCIENT AMERICA. 

it similar to a cockroach's wing found by Professor Les- 
quereux in the Carboniferous rocks of Frog Bayou, Ar- 
kansas, but it was put away at the time of its collection, 
and has never since been examined. Mr. Barnes has just 
discovered a wing of a similar kind in the coal formation 
ofPictou. There has been but one other instance— and 
that of very recent date— where a fossil insect has been 
found in the Carboniferous rocks of this country ; it was 
the case of a single wing, gigantic in size, peculiarly 
veined, and probably allied to our May-flies, which oc- 
curred in the coal-beds of Cape Breton, Nova Scotia. 

Professor Hitchcock, in his examination of the foot- 
prints in the New-Red Sandstone of the Connecticut Val- 
ley, described and figured some small tracks which he sup- 
posed to have been made by insects ; but the footprints of 
insects have been little studied, and the whole subject is so 
difficult in its nature, that it would be an arduous task to 
prove whether the tracks were made by insects or not. In 
the shales accompanying the New-Bed Sandstone, however, 
quite a large number of insect remains have been found, 
all of which belong to the larva of a single species. Pro- 
fessor Hitchcock believed them to be neuropterous, but I 
think they should be referred to the Coleoptera, or bee- 
tles. The species must have lived in the water, since the 
specimens are comparatively numerous ; on a small slab 
I have counted more than twenty individuals. 

Professor William Denton has obtained the largest col- 
lection of fossil insects which has yet been made in this 
country. The specimens were brought from an unin- 
habited region beyond the Rocky Mountains, near the 
junction of the White and Green Rivers, Colorado,— a 
deposit probably far richer than that of CEningen, in 
Switzerland. Professor Denton was able to obtain but 



THE INSECTS OF ANCIKNT AMKKICA. i)2'J 

few specimens while passing rapidly through the country, 
but he describes the shales in which they occur as a 
thousand feet thick, varying in color from a light cream 
to inky blackness, and crowded with the remains of in- 
sects and leaves of deciduous trees. Between sixty and 
seventy species of insects were brought home, represent- 
ing nearly all the different orders ; about two-thirds of 
the species were flies, — some of them the perfect insect, 
others the maggot-like larvae, — but, in no instance, did 
both imago and larva of the same insect occur. The 
greater part of the beetles were quite small ; there were 
three or four kinds of Homoptcra (allied to the tree-hop- 
pers), ants of two different genera, and a poorly preserved 
moth. Perhaps a minute Thrips, belonging to a group 
which has never been found fossil in any part of the 
world, is of the greatest interest. At the present day, 
these tiny and almost microscopic insects live among the 
petals of flowers, and one species is supposed by some 
entomologists to be injurious to the wheat ; others believe 
that they congregate in the wheat, as well as in the 
flowers, in the" hope of finding food in the still smaller 
and more helpless insects which congregate there. It is 
astonishing that an insect so delicate and insiginheant in 
size can be so perfectly preserved on these stones; in the 
best specimens the body is crushed and displaced, yet the 
wings remain uninjured, and every hair of their broad, 
but microscopic fringe, can be counted. 

The specimens came from two localities about sixty 
miles apart, called by Professor Denton Chagrin Valley 
and Fossil Canon; these two faunas are apparently quite 
distinct: the ants, the moth, the thrips, nearly all the 
small beetles and the greater part of the flies come from 
Fossil Canon, while the larvre are restricted to Chagrin 
Valley. 



b£JU THE INSECTS OF ANCIENT AMERICA. 

While no definite conclusion can be drawn concerning 
the age of the rocks in which these remains occur, there 
can be little doubt that they belong to the Tertiary epoch. 
Professor Denton believes them to be at least as old as 
the Miocene. 

The species of fossil insects now known from North 
America, number eighty-one : six of these belong to the 
Devonian, nine to the Carboniferous, one to the Triassic, 
and sixty-five to the Tertiary epochs. The Hymenoptera, 
Homoptera, and Diptera occur only in the Tertiaries ; the 
same is true of the Lepidoptera, if we exclude the Mor- 
ris specimen, and of the Coleoptera, with one Triassic 
exception. The Orthoptera and Myriapods are restricted 
to the Carboniferous, while the Neuroptera occur both in 
the Devonian and Carboniferous formations. No fossil 
spiders have yet been found in America. 



Fig. 1. Miamia Bronsoni. A neuropterous insect found in iron- 
stone concretions in the Carboniferous beds at Morris, Illinois. The 
figure is magnified one-third, and has all its parts restored ; the dot- 
ted lines indicate the parts not existing on the stone. Reduced from 
a figure in the Memoirs of the Boston Society of Natural History, 
Vol. I. 

Tig. 2. Archimulacris Acadica. "Wing of a Cockroach observed by 
Mr. Barnes in the coal-formation of Nova Scotia. 

Tig. 3. Platephemera antiqua. A gigantic May-fly obtained by Mr. 
Hartt in the Devonian rocks of New Brunswick. 

Fig. 4. Xtjlobius sigillarice. The Myriapod (or Gally-worm) found 
in the coal-formation of Nova Scotia, by Dr. J. W. Dawson. Copied 
from a figure in Dr. Dawson's Air-breathers of the Coal-period. Mag- 
nified. 

Fig. 5. Lithentomum Hartii. A neuropterous insect, the specimen 
first discovered by Mr. Hartt in the Devonian rocks of New Bruns- 
wick. This fossil, and those accompanying it, are the oldest insect- 
remains in the world. 

Fig. 6. Three facets from the eye of an insect, considered by Dr. 
Dawson a Dragon-fly. It was found in coprolites of reptiles in the 



^ 



C7" 



THE HAND AS AN UNRULY MEMBER. 631 

rocks containing the myriapod, represented in Fig. 1. Copied from 
Dr. Dawson's figure, greatly magnified. 

Fig. 7. Homothetusfossilis. A neuropterous insect from the Devo- 
nian rocks of New Brunswick ; it was discovered by Mr. Hartt. 

Fig. 8. II(j)lophU hi i ,i D trn> .-<'/". A curious neuropterous insect, of 
large size, probably allied to our May-flies ; taken by Mr. Barnes from 
the coal of Cape Breton. 

These figures, with the exception of 1, 4, and 6, are of life size, and 
borrowed from the new edition of Dr. Dawson's Acadian Geology. 



THE HAND AS AN UXRULY MEMBER. 



Fracture or Crossing. This is the name given to a 
view of the limbs, which, under various modifications, 
has been entertained bj four celebrated anatomists, Bour- 
gery, Cruveilhier, Flourens, and Owen. Its essential 
feature is the pronation of the forearm so as to bring the 
thumb on the inner side, opposite the great toe ; but this 
has the effect of crossing the radius upon the ulna, so that 
its upper end is to the outer, while its lower end is to the 
inner side of that bone. This condition of things, though 
contrary to the relation of the corresponding parts in the 
leg, is accepted by Owen* and Flourens, who simply 
seek to show that the front of the arm really corresponds 
to the front of the leg, and vice versa, so that the concav- 
ity of the elbow is made to represent the convexity of 
the knee ; but the other two anatomists try to explain the 
crossing of the bones, upon an idea which was distinctly 
enunciated by Cruveilhier, in the following propositions : 

"1. Neither bone of the leg is represented by a single 
bone of the arm. 



632 THE HAND AS AN UNRULY MEMBER. 

"2. In each bone of the leg we find characters which 
belong, partly to the ulna, and partly to the radius." 

The practical result of this view is to cut the two bones 
across the middle, and reunite the upper half of the one 
f%. i. with the lower half of the other ; a convenient 
rjoT) and ingenious, but unjustifiable mode of pro- 

\\ f cedurc. 

Torsion. This last of the three principal 
theories adopted, or rather invented, in sup- 
port of the idea of parallelism, was first pro- 
posed by Maclise, in 1849. Like all the rest, 
he assumes that the thumb corresponds with 
the great toe ; that the hand points forward 
like the foot, and that the limbs are, or ought 
to be, parallel : but he saw that his prede- 
cessors had been unable to fulfil these three 
conditions without pronating the hand, and 
so crossing the radius upon the ulna, which 
crossing he could not reconcile with the fact, 
that the corresponding bones in the leg (Plate 
12, fig. 1)* were parallel with each other, 
lie then perceives that the front of the fore- 
arm really corresponds with the back of the 
M leg, and vice verm ; whereas, according to the 
idea of parallelism, the front of the one ought 
to correspond with the front of the other, as 
believed hy Owen and Flourens. To recon- 
cile this new fact with the old theories, he reminds us 
that "anatomists haw long since iv marked upon the sin- 
gular twisted form of the humerus," and then says, "this 



THE HAND AS AN UNRULY ME3IBER. 


633 


fact of torsion in the shaft of the humerus I c 


onsider as 


fully explaining the above-mentioned peculiar! 


ties which 


distinguish the upper from the lower member ; 


while (in 


idea.) I untwist the humerus by bringing its b 


iick to the 


front, I at the same time unravel the gordiar 


i knot of 


that problem which has so long existed as a m 


ystery for 


the nomologist." 




But, before accepting this ingenious soluti. 


on of the 


problem, you may be inclined to ask how it is, t 


hat, if the 


humerus is really twisted, anatomists have never 


observed 


and described the various stages of the operatio 


11. instead 


of simply commenting upon the twisted ajijieara. 


nee of the 


bone. This very reasonable question is thus ans 


iwered by 


a French anatomist, Martins, who in 1857, ai 


id appar- 


rently unacquainted with the views of Maclise, 


proposed 


this very same theory of torsion. 




Martins admits as a "metaphysical difficulty/ 


' the fact 


that the humerus never undergoes the actual ope 


'ration of 


twisting at all, and that in the earlier stages o 




not the slightest traces of torsion exist; but asseri 


[s. ncver- 


theless, that "a virtual torsion docs take plat 


e during 


growth, and that this produces the same erfec 




were real." The chief indication of this is tl 


ie raised 


line for the attachment of muscles, which runs 


obliquely 


upward, from the outer side of the lower end oi 


F the un- 


merus, and is lost upon the posterior surface. | 


living to 


the lower part of the bone the appearance of hw 


-ing been 


twisted. But it may be seen that the posterio: 


p surface 


of the thigh bone presents a similar raised line,e 


i- en more 


strongly marked, so that there is quite as much r 


eason for 


untwisting that bone, which would leave matt 


ers rela- 


tively just as unconformable as at first : and i 


t is well 


known that both these lines are solely for the at 


tachment 



634 THE HAND AS AN UNR1 

of muscles, that they do not exist in young or feeble indi- 
viduals, and that in some animals, as in the ant-eater, and 
even in the horse, they form prominent ridges which can 
never be accounted fear by any twisting of the bones. 

There is really a fourth theory of parallelism, modifi- 
cations of which are entertained by three eminent English 
anatomists,* and which is, in many respects, the most 
plausible and the most difficult to refute. According 
to this view the limbs are supposed to stand out at right 
angles from the side of the body, the elbow being moved 
forward and outward, and the knee backward and out- 
ward into a position which nearly corresponds with the 
condition of the limb in many reptiles, and also in the 
early stages of growth of the higher animals ; and in view 
of the great weight which is now deservedly attached to 
the facts of embryology, it will be evident that such a 
view must not be rejected without very good reasons. It 
will be noticed, too, that this view does little violence to 
the limbs, although the limbs of mammalia would be 
placed in rather uncomfortable positions, in order to con- 
form to it. I feel sure, nevertheless, in spite of the 
apparently natural arguments, and in all deference to its 
distinguished advocates, that it is based upon a partial 
consideration of the subject, and I wish that it w^ere pos- 
sible in this connection to ofl'er my reasons for dissenting 
therefrom. But it involves so much, and would require 



o many still controverted points, that I 
should be obliged to present in full the grounds upon 
which my own opinion is founded, which would far ex- 
ceed the limits of an article like this.f 



THE HAND AS AN UNRULY MEMBER. 635 

And to do this was by no means my object, but sim- 
ply to give an idea of the trouble which has been given 
philosophical anatomists by the hand ; for, as has been 
shown, the hand suggests an idea of parallelism which it 
is very difficult to overlook, so that the majority of those 
who have treated this subject, have made more or less in- 
genious attempts to apply the same principle to the upper 
portions of the limbs. 

These various attempts have been briefly, though I 
think fairly stated. What seem to me their fallacies have 
been brought more prominently into view and criticised 
as severely as possible, partly on the abstract ground that 
a great step in our investigation of truth is the full recog- 
nition and rejection of error ; and partly, in accordance 
with the purpose of this paper, to show what strange and 
widely diverse opinions have been entertained by those 
who have regarded the Hand in its ordinary position, and 
with the common estimation of its value. 

The space allotted to me will permit only the briefest 
presentation of the grounds upon which is based the other 
view, that, namely, of a symmetrical or antagonistic rela- 
tion between the fore and hind limbs ; the principal point 
is, that instead of beginning with the hand, and forcing 
the rest of the limb to conform to it, we should re- 
cognize that the hand is a peripheral organ and subject 
to variation ;* and that its morphological value is by no 
means equal to its teleologies! or functional value ; and 
that, finally, the attitude which it has in most animals is 



636 THE HAND AS AN UNRULY MEMBER. 

in consequence of the necessity for the extremities of both 
pair of limbs to strike the ground so as to propel the body 
in the same direction : but if we begin with the upper parts 
of the limbs, Ave shall perceive an idea of antagonism which 
maybe easily traced in the hands when they are put in 
what maybe termed their normal position (Fig. 2) ;* and 
although this brin-- tin- ihiinib mi the outer side. and thus 
opposite the little toe, yet if we recollect that in most 
animals the thumb is rather sm'illr,- than the other digits, 
instead of larger as in man, and that therefore its assumed 
superiority is really contincd within a very narrow limit, 
we may conclude, when the question comes, Shall the 
thumb force the arm and the forearm into parallelism, or 
shall it conform to the idea of antagonism which they sug- 
gest, that the latter is the fairer and more philosophical 
view of the matter. 

It sums up thus. Begin your studies of the limbs at 
the periphery, with the hands and the feet, and assume a 
correspondence of thumb and great toe. you will then see 
an apparent parallelism as to the extent of which no two 
investigators can agree, and by which they have been 
led to twist, to fracture, and to "dislocate the limbs in a 
maimer most unjustifiable ; and to regard the body as a 
structure with but one end and no centre, a geometrical 
absurdity. 

But commence at the centre, at the middle of the ver- 
tebral column, and regard the body as having not only 
two sides but two ends, antagonistic in position and in 
function; then you will see that the limbs which are given 
off from the two poles of this longitudinal axis, are like- 



THE HAND AS AN UNRULY MEMBER. 

wise antagonistic in every part but the terminal segme 
while even these disagree only in what is the natural ; 
tude of the hand in the forward moving animal, i 
into a proper anta^mii-tie ivlation in what maj 




MUSCADINE GRAPE. 

sidered its normal position. To all this, the thumb is the 
only objector ; but mighty as that is in all matters of com- 
mon life, you must already have perceived, by a kind of 
"reductio ad absurdum," that the less it, and, indeed, the 
whole hand are regarded in our morphological compari- 
son, the less liable shall we be to fall into such extraordi- 
nary and fantastic notions as some of those we have been 
considering. Fortunately, however, man can but inter- 
pret Nature ; he cannot change her. His errors die with 
his interpretation, while the facts belong to God, and are 
safe from the interference of man. 



THE SOUTHERN MIM ADLXE GRAPE. 



Climbing the tallest trees, covering and almost smoth- 
ering the smaller undergrowth, hanging over rail fences, 
hiding pine stumps and brush-heaps, or, for want of other 
support, trailing on the ground, one may see almost 
everywhere in the South, from the seaboard of Georgia 
and Florida to the mountain slopes of North Carolina, 
the graceful vines of the Southern Muscadine, and, in its 
season, the ripened fruit, with which many of these vines 
are laden, will allure the traveller at every turn from the 
dusty road. Few who have once eaten this fruit, in its 
perfection, will be able to resist the temptation to dis- 
mount and eat the tempting clusters. 

As this grape is not found (I believe) north of the 
southern slopes of the Alleghany Mountains, and is little 
known, and often erroneously described, a brief notice of 
it may not be out of place. 



THE SO STE GRAPE. bdV 

The Southern Muscadine, otherwise called Bullace, 
Bull, and Bullet-grape is the Vitis Botundifolia of Mi- 
chaux (F. Vuljnna Linn.), and is very distinct from all 




other species. Its light-brown slender wood, its innu- 
merable small branches, thrown out tree-like rather than 



liuuei- of other grape-vines, and its small, w 
green shining leaves, give it a peculiar and singularly 
beautiful appearance. The following is a correct descrip- 
tion of it :— Stem smooth, light-brown dotted with white, 
lithe, tough, and without pith ; branches minutely ver- 
rucose, numerous, slender; leaves small, cordate (but 
somewhat rounded, whence Michauxs name) ; dentate, 



640 THE SOUTHERN MUSCADINE GRAPE. 



obscurely tkree-lobed, glabrous, shining on 
both surfaces ; flowers in racemes, composed of numerous 
small umbels ; polygamous, yellow ; berries large, black, 
musky sweet, with a tough skin ; flowers in June ; first 
ripe in September. 

The Southern Muscadine produces its fruit in clusters 
of from three to eight berries, on small branches put out 
from all parts of the vine, and, if the soil and other con- 
ditions be favorable, is often very prolific. The berries 
vary in size, from half-inch to an inch in diameter. They 
are brown-black and shining when commencing to ripen, 
but a dull-black, dotted and sometimes blotched with red 
when fully ripe. They vary much on different vines, 
being sometimes hard and sour, but often tender and de- 
liriously sweet. In the best specimens the pulp finally 
dissolves, and the skins become literally bags of wine. 
The fruit generally falls from the vine soon after it be- 
comes ripe, but I have seen some vines on which the 
berries have clung with as much tenacity as in any other 
species. I have gathered bushels of these grapes during 
the present season, out of a portion of which I have made 
some excellent wine. 

Professor Asa Gray, in one of his Botanical Text-books 
(see "Manual of Botany of the Northern United States," 
page 78), describes the Muscadine as the parent of the 
Catawba and the Scuppernong. The former is a variety 
of the Vitis Labraxca, or Northern Fo.v-grape. In regard 
to the latter he is correct. 

The Scuppernong is a seedling f the Muscadine, and 
was found growing wild on the banks of the Scuppernong 
River in North Carolina. The wood is a shade lighter 
than that of the parent, but dotted like that, and the 
foliage and habits of growth of the plant are mainly the 



THE SOUTHERN MUSCADINE GEAPE. 641 

same. The fruit is a pale green when fully ripe, and 
dotted with brown. It is large, — often an inch in diam- 
eter, — very sweet, less musky than the common Mus- 
cadine, and with a thinner and tenderer skin, and is a 
delicious table grape. For wine, it is superior to all 
other native varieties, being emphatically the wine-grape 
of America. Unlike other cultivated grapes, it is per- 
fectly free from all diseases, no rot or mildew ever infect- 
ing wood, leaves, or fruit. 

Flower's Grape is a black variety of the same species, 
and is thought by some to be equal, if not superior, 
to the white or green variety. It is sweet, juicy, and 
fragrant, and makes a fine wine of any desired shade of 
red. It ripens about a month later than the Scupper- 
nong, and does not fall off like that variety. Both are 
enormously productive, so much so that I hardly dare to 
state how many bushels of fruit a single vine may bear ; 
but from 2,000 to 3,000 gallons of wine per acre is con- 
sidered a moderate estimate for a vineyard in full bear- 
ing, in which all the arbors are fully covered,— that is, 
when the whole ground is completely canopied with vines. 
The vines are planted from twenty to forty feet apart, and 
trained on arbors made with posts notched on the top, 
and supporting a layer of common fence-rails. This 
arbor is extended with the growth of the vine, till the 
ground is covered. The vines require no pruning, ex- 
cept for the removal of dead branches, or to improve 
their symmetry. A Scuppernong vineyard is worth a 
journey from Salem to Savannah to see. 

Such is the Muscadine of the South and its offspring. 



A VACATION TRIP TO BRAZIL. 



Mu> York to Para. 

On the 22d of June, 1867, I left New York in the 
steamer "Havana" to spend my vacation on the Brazilian 
coast, my especial object being an exploration of the coral 
reefs of the vicinity of the Abrolhos Islands, and the 
study of the geology of such parts of the Province of 
Bahia as might be accessible to me. Nothing of note 
occurred on the voyage to the Island of St. Thomas, 
where the steamer was delayed a day to take in coal, and 
where I had an opportunity to make a good collection of 
corals, etc. A long account of my day's examinations 
having already appeared elsewhere,* I propose in this 
series of articles to take up my description of some of 
the more interesting results of my voyage after leaving 
the West Indies, and to offer a closing article on St. 
Thomas and the Windward Islands, in which I will incor- 
porate new mat n il coil ■<■••■•[ on my return home. 

Steamships have robbed the sea of half its poetry, and 
a voyage by steam is often very barren in incidents ; so 
with this voyage, we have had no storms, no accident to 
break the monotony of our life at sea, so that our journals 
have not been much enriched by any very interesting ex- 
periences when out of sight of land. To be sure we have 
fished up gulf- weed, and collected the delicate little ani- 
mals found growing on it, and we have watched the flying- 
fish and porpoises and whales : but one sees about as much 
of these things from a steamer, as he does of the cattle 
of a country he travels through by rail. 



A VACATION TRIP TO BRAZIL. 643 

A word about the flying-fish. Of these there are many 
different kinds, not only belonging to different genera, hut 
different families of fishes. The common flying-fish of 
the Atlantic belongs to the genus SJxocostus, a name given 
to the Mediterranean species by Aristotle, because it was 
currently believed by the ancients that the fish, spending 
the day in the water, flew out at night and slept ashore, 
whence the name which signifies a sleeper out. ' The com- 
mon flying-fish somewhat resembles a pickerel, with a 
squarish head and body ; but its pectoral or forefins are 
very long, and capable of being expanded like broad 
wings. The abdominal, or ventral fins, are rather large 
and irregularly fan-shaped. In the water the fish swims, 
as most other fish do, with the tail, the long fins being 
folded against the body. But, not satisfied with swim- 
ming, it seeks to imitate the birds, and ever and anon it 
leaps into the air, and takes short flights, sustained on its 
broad pectoral fins. Ordinarily the fish are seen to rise 
from the water near the ship, and glide off diagonally, 
almost in the direction she is going, and very often right 
against the wind. They rise at a very low angle, and 
keep close to the water. On rising, the tail is seen to 
quiver, sometimes beating the water for several yards, 
leaving a wake behind, and at the same time there is a 
very perceptible tremulous motion of the fins ; but when 
once fairly in flight, the fins, both pectoral and ventral, 
are fully extended. The latter are held obliquely down- 
wards, while the position of the former seems to vary 
very considerably. Usually the forefins are inclined a 
little upward, while the body is carried with the tail a 
little lower than the head. If there is a heavy sea running, 
the fish is seen to rise and fall over every wave without 
touching the water, and this is done apparently with as 



TEIP TO BRAZIL. 

much ease as if it were a bird. I have observed that the 
vertical inclination of the "wings" is varied considerably, 
and the vertical undulations of its flight appear to be 
directed by these fins. It has evidently no power of di- 
recting its lateral motions, although one might rather look 
for the use of the tail for that purpose. If the fish darts 
right against the wind, its flight may be in a straight line, 
ending by its pitching plump into the water, but if the 
course be oblique to the wind, it is soon blown aside. Of 
the thousands of flying-fish I have observed, I have never 
seen one tack up into the wind, unless it plunged into a 
wave and took a fresh start, as is not infrequently the case, 
when it darts into the water and out again, like an arrow 
shot through a wave. I have spoken of the flapping of 
the fins on rising ; during the rest of the flight this is 
ordinarily not observed, their only motion being the 
gentle variation in inclination ; but if the animal finds 
itself settling before its flight is finished, as soon as the 
tail touches the water, that fin is agitated, while there is 
a fluttering seen of the pectorals : should the fish rise 
again, the fluttering ceases. The fish seen rising near the 
ship are evidently frightened by her approach. Looking 
over her bows when the waves are not disturbed by 
minor undulations, one may see shoals of them darting 
irregularly about in the water. Sometimes they spring 
up suddenly in clouds. The bonito, sharks, and other 
fish prey on the flying-fish, and the latter, when attacked, 
leap out of water to elude their enemies. One day we 
saw a school of bonitos which were ever and anon leaping 
out of the water. Before them the flying-fishes were 
flying away like clouds of grasshoppers in advance of one 
walking through a grass field. Overhead whirled some 
large, graceful, white, long-tailed tropic birds {Phaeton), 



A VACATION TRIP TO BRAZIL. 645 

which were engaged in catching the flying-fish as they rose, 
so that the poor little animals found themselves safe no- 
where. 

The distance flown by one of these fishes varies greatly, 
and depends much on the wind. They frequently go two 
hundred to three hundred feet without moving the fins, 
but the little ones never fly far.* In these cases, the fish 
glides through the air with an initial velocity, obtained by 
the action of its tail-fin before leaving the water, and the 
flight is no more like the flight of a bird, than is that of 
the flying-squirrel, or the Galreopithecus. I have had a 
few opportunities of witnessing the flight of flying-fish 
during calm weather, when I have then repeatedly seen 
the common Exoccetus fly more than a hundred yards. and, 
in two or three instances, I have seen what appeared to 
be a different species fly at least a thousand feet in a hori- 
zontal line, with a perfectly well seen continuous move- 
ment of the fins like a bird. The first specimen I saw I 
took to be a little bird, and I should never have known it 
to be a fish had I not seen it disappear in the water, and 
soon afterwards seen others rise near the ship. These 
observations were made near Barbadoes, and at the time 
there was not a ripple to disturb the glassy surface of 
the ocean waves. This flying species seemed to me to 
'»g quite different from the common Exoccetus, having 
broader and darker-colored fins; but I did not see it 
sufficiently clearly to enable me to speak confidently of 
other than its general appearance, as my attention was 
occupied with its flight. Was it not a Flying Gurnard, 
or Seafiobin? (Dactylopterus). 

When but a short distance north of the Amazonas, on 



646 A VACATION TEIP TO BEAZIL. 

the present voyage, I was surprised at seeing not far from 
the ship that the blue color of the sea turned abruptly to a 
bottle-green. We wen * ge of a current, 

whose boundaries were as well defined as if the blue ocean 
water through which it flowed had been solid land. This 
was probably the outer edge of the current flowing north- 
ward along this coast. We struck it immediately, and 
soon entered it, when to my delight I found the difference 
in color was owing to an immense number of little jelly- 
like animals which swarmed there so as to destroy the 
transparency of the water. Just on the edge of the cur- 
rent these were collected together in the most astonishing 
quantities, but in the blue water a foot from the edge I 
did not see a single one, so sharply defined was the line 
marked. This line ran about E.S.E., and extended to 
the horizon on both directions, while the opposite side, if 
there were any, was not visible. Half the circle of the 
sea was ultra-marine, half bottle-green. As soon as pos- 
sible I had a bucket lowered, and after many trials some 
of the animals were captured ; I found them to be Salpa, 
a low kind of mollusk, with small, gelatinous bodies, 
almost perfectly transparent, and growing in compound 
communities, which <\\ im !>y taking wator into the cavity 
of the body, and propel themselves by the reaction caused 
by the expulsion of this water, in the same way as the cuttle- 
fish swims. There is a very interesting law which obtains 
among many of the lower animals, called the alternation 
of generations, according to which the offspring is unlike 
its parents, but like its grandparents. These salps are 
good examples of this law, for one generation consists of 
compound communities, and the next of single individ- 
uals. Some of the chains were three or four inches in 
length, and the individuals of which they were composed 
of the size of a gooseberry. 



A VACATION TRIP TO BRAZIL. 647 

On the surface of this current floated hundreds of beau- 
tiful "Portuguese men-of-war" (Physalia) , and we saw in 
eddies on the edge of the current two or three fleets of 
several hundreds each, looking like beds of large pink 
flowers, on a smooth green lawn. They drilled thiekly 
by us, their brilliant floats careening on the wave. Kow 
and then they were overwhelmed in the great foam sheet 
that broke from the steamer's bow ; but their upset barks 
soon righted themselves, and floated away on the foaming 
waves astern. As I looked down on their airy, bubble- 
like forms, anchored deep in the green water by their 
numerous cables, how I wished I could capture one, but 
from the high deck of the steamer it was hopeless to at- 
tempt it. 

Fancy now a light bubble-like float, of a semi-transpa- 
rent membrane, blown plumply out with air, and shaped 
somewhat like an egg laid on its side, with the upper 
part flattened into a sort of a crenulated, or, to use a mil- 
liner's term, "pinked" crest. Tint this float of a rosy hue, 
deepening it toward the crest, and color the lower part a 
warm violet, and you will have a faint idea of the beau- 
tiful float of the "Portuguese man-of-war," one of the most 
interesting members of the class of jelly-fishes. But this 
is not all; this is really only the float or swimming sac of 
a colony of animals which hang from the lower part down 
into the water, like gelatinous cords. Agassiz tells us 
that in this colony the sack is one animal developed for 
the special purpose of sustaining the colony in the water, 
and that of the others some are constructed for one pur- 
pose and some for another ; some catch the food, but it 
is, figuratively speaking, to please the palate of others, 
while what one eats goes to nourish the whole colony. 

Sailors will tell you that the animal is poisonous, and 
burns the hand. Every one who has been on the sea-shore 



648 A VACATION TRIP TO BRAZIL. 

has seen a common jelly-fish, and some may know that some 
species have the power of stinging. Talk about nettles 
and stinging ivy ! The first specimen of the Physalia 1 
ever collected, I found one evening at dusk on the shore 
of Porto Seguro. It was half-buried in the sand, much 
wilted, and I took it to be a shell, lanthina. I picked it 
up, and while examining it, the long tentacles slipped 
through my fingers, and brought very forcibly to mind 
that they were very plentifully armed with minute cells, 
in each of which was coiled an cxeeedingly fine thread, 
which, thrown out on the bursting of the cell when it is 
touched, penetrates the hand, and immense numbers thus 
wounding the nerves produce a very intense burning sen- 
sation, which, sometimes extending itself up the arm, as 
it did in this instance, causes acute suffering. He who 
once takes a living Physalia in his hand will not be likely 
to pick up another. 

On the 10th of July we arrived off the mouth of the 
Para river, the southern mouth of the Amazons ; but as 
it was impossible to enter the river and pass the shoals in 
the night, we stood across the mouth for the light at 
Salinas, on the southern bank of the river. We were to 
sight the light at eleven o'clock, p. m. At half-past ten 
the engine was slowed, a man was in the fore-top on the 
lookout, and with a friend I remained on the bow peering 
anxiously into the darkness ahead, as the steamer plunged 
cautiously over the big swell. A dim light, like the first 
ray of a rising star, is seen. "Two points on the weather 
bow!" cries the man on lookout. A moment after and 
the light flashes brightly out and disappears. It is the 
realization of a saudade,* and the heart is glad ! 

All night we killed time steaming up and down, wait- 



A VACATION TRIP TO BRAZIL. 649 

ing for the morning. Day broke with the land in sio-ht, 
no grand blue serras lying cloudlike on the horizon, but a 
long, low stretch of trees level as the line of the sea. 
Here we are in the mouth of the Para, but only one side 
can be seen, and from the middle neither side is visible, 
for it is here thirty-three miles in width. 

There are a number of extensive sand-banks in the 
mouth of the river which make it difficult to enter. The 
main channel lies between two of these banks, over which 
the waves break sometimes fearfully. This channel is not 
more than two miles in width. An experienced pilot of 
the Para is attached to the steamer. We passed up the 
channel early in the morning against the tide, with a fine 
view of the breakers on each side. Hitherto there has 
been nothing to mark this channel, but lately two buoys 
have been placed at the entrance. What is much needed 
is a lightship, for at present the entrance is impracticable 
by night. Steaming up the river we soon left the brack- 
ish water, and came into the turbid waters of the Ama- 
zonas, finding ourselves on what seemed to be a fresh- 
water sea. The water is very muddy, and of a light 
milky brown. This is the color of the main river of the 
Amazonas. When one looks at the mighty flood pouring 
steadily out of the mouth of the Para, and strives to cal- 
culate the amount of solid material it is bearing down 
from the land to the sea, he cannot but be amazed at the 
work the giant river is doing towards cutting away the 
continent, and in spreading it out anew over the bottom 
of the Atlantic. About one hundred miles from the 
mouth of the Amazonas, a small stream flows off south- 
ward, when it meets with the Anapa, Pacajos, and the 
great Tocantins, which last is sixty miles wide at its 
mouth, and swells into the Para, which Agassiz rails one 



650 A VACATION TRIP TO BRAZIL. 

of the mouths of the Amazonas, though apparently it 
receives only a small part of its waters from the main 
stream. 

By and by the opposite bank of the river makes its 
appearance, and we have on each side a long level line of 
trees rising from the water. Looking both up and down 
stream, a water-horizon is seen; still farther up large 
wooded islands .come in sight, and these like the shores 
are flat, and only slightly elevated above the water level. 
Looking up among the islands, it appears like looking- out 
to sea from a large bay. The banks are very heavily 
wooded. There are no clearings of any size visible, and 
there are only a few little huts seen nestled in among the 
trees. On the projecting points along the southern bank 
of the river are stations from which arc displayed signal 
flags, to give notice at Para of our arrival. At length, 
ahead on the water-horizon gleams a white object, which 
seems to be a ship; but the opera glass shows it to be 
the tower of a church, and the pilot tells us that it is the 
cathedral of Para, but it seems out at sea. Soon other 
towers rise above the turbid horizon, and ere long there 
gleam in the afternoon sun the white buildings of the city 
of Para, the capital of the province of Gras Para. It 
seems like the work of enchantment. With the city in 
view, we run along close to the southern shore, passing a 
few fazendas, some tile-making establishments, a church 
or two, all backed by the dense Amazonian forest, that 
sheet of vegetation, which, almost unbroken save by 
rivers, covers the whole Amazonian valley like a sea, to 
the very foot of the Andes. At a distance the forest 
resembles our own hard-wood forests, only it is denser 
and more luxuriant. Once in a while a large round- 
topped tree is seen, blushing deeply with blossoms like 
the top of a thunde. - ,vd evening sun- 



A VACATION TRIP TO BRAZIL. 651 

light; but the only feature that strikes the uninitiated 

eye as tropical in this scenery is the occasional slender, 
graceful curved stem of a palm, with its beautiful leaf and 
crown. The breeze comes to us warm and fragrant, and 
one breathes it in in long draughts. But now conies a 
clearing, and a low projecting tiled roof is seen nestled in 
among the heavy foliage. In front is a long line of cocoa 
palms. One sees the large, deep oiec 1 «■ leaves of 
the Jaca, or bread-fruit (Artocaiyus integrifolia) , two spe- 
cies of banana and orange trees, and would never dream 
he was anywhere else than in the tropics. There is one 
palm seen here {Mauricea) which I do not remember 
having seen elsewhere in Brazil. It is a large palm, with 
immense ragged-edged, fan-shaped leaves. There are 
numbers of them on the shore just below Para. Mean- 
while that we have been sweeping the shore with an 
opera glass, watching the little Chinese-looking boats, 
with their leather-colored cotton sails, or a little Brazil- 
ian side wheel steamer, outward bound, we come up with 
a little fort, an old-fashioned, circular structure, built on 
a tiny island a few miles down the river. Over the para- 
pet appears the mouth of an enormous speaking-trumpet, 
that hides the head of the officer who hails the ship : — 

"D'onde vem?" (Whence come you ?) 

"New York," answers the Captain. 

w Quantos diets ? " (How many days ?) 

"Nineteen." 

"JPara onde vai?" (Where are you going?) 

"Rio de Janeiro." 

K Boa Vtagemf" 

At five o'clock we are anchored off the city, having 
consumed the day in ascending the river, a distance of 
seventy miles, for all the morning we had to stem the 
strong outflowing tide. 



NOTES OF A FUR HUNTER. 



[When exploring the slate-bearing region of Maine last fall. I had 
occasion to employ as guide Mr. Henry Clapp, of Brownsville, Pis- 
cataquis county, of that State. His home is at the foot of the Ebeeme 
Mountains, which form the southern portion of a mountainous dis- 
trict, extending away north to, and including Mount Katahdin. a dis- 
trict well watered by the Penobscot and Upper Kennebec, and their 
streams, dotted with smaller lakes, and including also Moosehead 
Lake, Chesuncook, Joe May, and other huge sheets of water. It is 
) grow up and live in. lu Mr. Clapp I found 



" 



! an enthusiast i 






the mammalia of Maine, and one day when we were storm-staid, I 
took the following notes from his statements. I could easily rearrange 

cipal value from the fact, that they are a record essentially as given 

observations.— J. E. M.] 

Panther, or Catamount (Felis concolor Linn.). I 
never saw a Panther, or Catamount. One night I found 
a deer bitten through the back. There were many tracks 
(not of deer) right about him, but I could not find any 
leading off from the spot. I think the beast jumped on to 
the deer from a tree. I heard his shrill screech, like that 
of a woman in distress. I heard the same screech and 
saw the same track again not far off. I think the animal 
was a catamount. 

Lynx, or Loup-cervier (Lynx Canadensis Raf.) . The 
Loup-cervier lives upon partridges, deer, rabbits, etc. It 
can climb trees. I have seen one in a tree. I have had 
one carry my trap with a heavy clog into a tree, and 
found him dead with it in the limbs. The animal is about 

(G52) 



NOTES OF A FUR HUNTER. 

two feet or more high. They 
here : one man caught nine wi 
They are easily killed by a blow with a slick. I once 
found a fox's tail in a rabbit-path, with Loup-cervier's 
tracks about. I judged that the fox was going one way 
in the rabbit-path, and the Loup-cervier the other way, 
and the Loup-cervier sprang upon the fox and ate him, 
leaving his tail. They often go in families, live and six- 
together. I met four one bitter cold day. They came 
on to the ice, not in single file, but right and left, and 
from four to six rods apart; and from examining their 
tracks, I judge this to be their habit. I think they travel 
in this way to scare up more game. 

Wild-cat (Lynx rufus Raf.) . The Wild-cat is not quite 
so large as the Loup-cervier. It has black rings around 
its legs ; its fur is not so long as a Loup-cervier's ; its foot 
is more like a dog's or house-cat's, the bottom of it being 
bare, while with a Loup-cervier it is covered with fur. 
Its leg is quite dark or black toward the foot. Its skin 
is not worth so much as that of a Loup-cervier. 

Wolf (Oanis occidentalis Each.). I know little about 
Wolves. I have seen them, but never killed one. They 
often kill deer on the ice of the lakes ; more on the ice, I 
think, than in the woods. I found one deer, which they 
had killed and skinned in such a way that I got a pretty 
good skin from it. They stripped it off so that it clung 
to the legs. It seemed to have been torn open along the 
belly. The meat was taken off, leaving only skeleton 
and skin. 

Bed Fox ( Vulpes fulvus, var. fuhus) . The Red Fox 
does not weigh as much as he appears to. His weight is 
about ten pounds. I have found but one that came up to 
eleven pounds, but have found a number that weighed 



654 NOTES OF A FUR HUNTER. 

nine pounds. He lives on mice principally, also on beech- 
nuts, fowl, and rabbits. House-cat meat is good bait for 
them, so is honey, cheese, and pork scraps; and hog's 
liver is excellent. I make a bed as large as a cart-wheel, 
strew on ashes and chali'. and then get the foxes familiar 
with the place. I go there often myself, until they get 
so familiar with my track, {hiding il brings them no harm, 
that it does not scare them. A strange track, or mine, if 
I stay away a little while, would keep them off for a night 
or two. I cover my trap with ashes, which seems to 
prevent them frdm smelling it. I attach a grapple to 
my trap, so that when the fox runs off with it, it will 
catch and hold him before he goes far. I don't fasten it 
to the bed, because the digging of the fox caught would 
frighten away others. The fox is not so much afraid of 
the iron as of the man who handles it, and, therefore, I 
avoid touching the trap with my hand. If I have a dead 
horse, or other carcass, I throw it into a hollow where 
the snow will cover it. When the foxes have made a 
path to it, I set a trap in the path, covering it with snow 
from the carcass and the fox path, and making new tracks 
over it with a fox's foot if I have one. I don't touch any- 
thing about the trap with my hand, but use a wooden 
shovel. Sometimes I smear the trap with a mixture of 
tallow and fox dung. 

Red Foxes are plenty about here. In 1865, I bought 
thirty-seven skins taken in the neighborhood. One Sil- 
ver-gray Fox ( Viilfx* Vlr'htu'iiiu* Riili.?), was caught 
in Brownville or Milo, three or four years ago, and was 
sold for $35.00. I have seen one skin of the Black Fox 
(Vulpesfulvus, var. argentalusf). It was from Sanger- 
ville. There is also a kind called Cross-gray ( Vulpes 
fulvas, var. decussates) , on account of a cross made by 



NOTES OF A FUR HUNTER. G55 

dark color and gray. In 18G5, Red Fox skins were worth 
$4.50 to $5.00. Last winter I paid $2.50 for them. I 
think they will be lower this year. 

Fisher, or Fisher-cat (Mustela Pennantii End.). 
The Fisher is much like the sable, but larger, weighing 
six times as much, say from eight to ten pounds, some 
more than this. They live on rabbits, partridges, squir- 
rels, and berries, especially berries of the mountain- 
ash; they are also very fond of porcupines, the skins 
often having quills stuck in them, which, however, do not 
enter far into them. They also eat beechnuts. The Fisher 
runs with a "lope" and a jump; I never saw one trot. 
He leaves but two tracks, one a little farther forward than 
the other, thus, \ '. , as do also the mink and sable. 
Sometimes they leave more, but the habit is to leave two. 
The color is dark-brown or gray. He nests in hollow 
pine stumps and ledges, I think. They are not very plenty 
about here. I caught seven last fall, and one this fall. 
The trap was set with bear's meat. I also caught a fox 
in the trap. 

Sable {Mustela Americana Turton). The Sable is of 
about the size of the mink, a little larger, and with longer 
legs. Its color is red or yellowish. It lives on mice, 
squirrels, partridges, rabbits, beechnuts, aud mountain- 
ash berries. It don't like porcupine meat as well as the 
fisher. It will eat fresh fish, but I don't think it catches 
fish. I catch them in a "dead-tall" trap, sometimes in a 
steel-trap. I catch them in the mountains north of here. 
They nest in hollow trees. I never saw a sable swim ; I 
once thought I saw one swimming, but when I caught the 
animal, I found it to be a mink, with the sable's color. 
They are never very plenty about here. Price of skins 
last winter, $2.25 to $2.50; year before last, $3.50 to 



05G 



NOTES OF A FUR HUNTER. 



Weasel (Putorius) * The Weasel lives principally 
upon mice ; is said, I don't know bow truly, to kill hens 
and partridges. Once I found that some duck feathers 
I had left in a camp had been draped into a barrel of 
hard-bread by a weasel, for lining to a nest. I have had 
them so tame in the camp, as to come into my lap and 
eat fresh fish and partridge. They are brown in summer, 
and white in winter. 

Mink {Putorius v&on Rich.). The Mink is a sly, thiev- 
ish creature. They eat fish and frogs. I have seen 
where they brought the frogs in to theiryoung. The nest 
was under the roots of a tree. The color is black or 
dark brown ; when shedding their coat, they are a little 
more reddish. We catch them in both "dead-falls" and 
steel-traps, baited with fresh fish ; though they will take 
also muskrat, partridge, and red squirrels. They are not 
very plenty about here. Their skins are worth $5.00 to 
$6.00. 

Otter (Lutra Canadensis Sab.). I estimate the weigh* 
of a good-sized Otter at thirty pounds ; their average 
weight is twenty-five to thirty pounds. They live on fish 
and muskrat. They dive down, and then rise into the 
passage way of the muskrat house, so as to push their 
jaws into the house and catch the muskrat, unless, as is 
sometimes the case, the muskrat has a second passage to 
escape through. The otter has no house, but lives in 
holes in the banks of streams, and in hollow logs, and 
under roots. His hind-foot is partially webbed ; I don't 
remember about his fore-foot. He dives and chases fish 
under water. I saw one do this, and then shot him. He 
seems to like to slide instead of walking down a slope. 
He seems to have certain places for voiding his excre- 



NOTES OF A FUR HUNTER. 657 

ment. Color, dark-brown or black. Legs very short; 
body and tail very long. He is a roving animal. The 
skin sells for from $6.00 to $8.00. 

Skunk {Mephitis mephitica Baird). The Skunk lives 
on locusts and crickets principally ; will eat chickens and 
suck eggs. They are plenty about here. The skin is 
worth ten to fifteen cents, and has been worth fifty cents. 
I bait them with meat. 

Eaccoon (Procyon lotor Storr). The Eaccoon is very 
rare about here. I have caught them in a "dead-fall," 
baited with fish. I have known them to go into the corn- 
fields and eat corn. The skin is worth from half a dollar 
to a dollar. 

Black Bear ( Ursus Americanus Pallas) . I don't think 
there are two species of bears in the country here, but the 
single species varies exceedingly in color and size and 
disposition. I had at one time two tamed, which I caught 
with their mother when they were cubs. One was what 
is called the "Eanger" Bear, that is, it was long-legged 
and long-bodied, and not so black, and with a little 
coarser fur than the other variety. The other was what 
is called a "Hog Bear," and was shorter-legged and 
blacker. So I am sure the Hog Bear and Eanger are 
of one species. I have seldom foimd two alike. I have 
caught a great many, as many as sixteen in one year, , 
from May 1st to July 1st, around Schoodic and Seboois 
streams, a few miles east of here. I caught seven the 
last summer. The larger of the two tamed ones I had 
was of a milder disposition, and would learn more tricks 
than the other. Both were females. They had a dispo- 
sition to prv into everything. One of them got into the 
pantry once, and upset the flour barrel and went to eating 
the flour. When she got her mouth so full as to be 



658 NOTES OF A FUE HUNTER. 

clogged, she would clear it out with her paws. She threw 
the sieve and breadboard out into the kitchen very hand- 
ily. Another time she got in and took the eggs. They 
like milk, and honey, and molasses. One of mine would 
drink milk from a dipper, holding it in her fore-paws. 
One of my tame ones, if she got loose, would find every 
lien's nest in the barn and eat the eggs. In the woods 
they feed on berries and beechnuts and acorns and roots ; 
and they will eat meat of any kind, and will take bear's 
meat for bait; they will eat fresh fish, corn, and pump- 
kins, and are fond of oats ; in the spring they are fond 
of the ofial left where moose are dressed. 

They strike their enemy and try to throw him down, 
and then bite and tear him. I never saw them hug, and 
don't believe they do it. They can climb small trees as 
well as large ones ; I have seen where one climbed a 
cherry tree not more than three inches in diameter. I 
kept one of my tame ones till she was six years old, and 
have time and again seen her climb a pole four inches 
through. She climbed with the ends of all her claws 
touching the pole: would climb nVlibi ;•: !cly, and a hun- 
dred times a day for gingerbread, apples, etc. She would 
walk hand over hand along a horizontal pole with her 
body hanging under it. They climb the tallest of beeches, 
and break off limbs two inches through, and throw them 
down, and then come down and eat the nuts. If the 
limb wont break, they bite it with their teeth, and then 
pull it toward them and break it. They also gather a 
part of the top of the tree together, and eat the nuts 
there. 

Bears hibernate, going from three to four months with- 
out eating ; sometimes during December, January, Feb- 
ruary, and March, sometimes during January, February, 



NOTES OF A FUR HUXTER. G59 

March, and April. This year there are no beechnuts, 
and they will probably disappear early. As soon as 
they begin to eat in the spring, a plug comes away 
from them, black, shining, and hard, resembling gum, 
so much so, that some say they eat gum to form it ; but it 
is not so, for the same came from the tame ones in my 
barn, where they could get no gum. I think it is from 
the mucous in the intestines. In the barn they covered 
themselves with straw all over, excepting their ears. 
Their paws were brought forward around the nose, which 
was dropped forward and downward. They don't sink 
their paws. When I spoke to the tame ones in my barn 
during the winter, they would look up very bright, but 
would run out their tongue, gape, and drop their heads 
forward and down between their paws again. I could 
see the motion of their hreathing. and in a cold day could 
see their breath condensing. I noticed this particularly* 
because I have heard it said that they did not lava! lie 
when hibernating. In the woods they make for winter- 
quarters a nest of leaves and cedar bark, and I have 
sometimes seen cedar and fir boughs in their nest. I don't 
think they get enough of the material to cover themselves 
as completely as the tame ones did in my barn. 

Bears bite fir and spruce trees, and tear down the bark, 
and when one has bitten a tree, others are apt to do the 
same, and thus their ranges or lines of travel become 
spotted as it were. They follow their ranges year after 
year. The skin of a bear is worth from $3.00 to $12.00. 
Gray Squirrel (Sciurus Carolinensis Gmelin). Have 
seen a few Grav Squirrels this year; never saw but one 
before. 

Red Squirrel (Sciurus Budsmim Pallas). The Red 
Squirrel deposits his winter store in several places. The 



660 NOTES OF A FUR HUNTER. 

bear often finds the half-pint of beechnuts hidden by the 
Red Squirrel under the leaves and eats them. 

Striped Squirrel (Tamias striatus Baird). The 
striped Squirrel deposits his winter store in a single 
place. 

Woodchuck (Arctomys monax Gmelin) . The Wood- 
chuck lives in holes in the ground ; is partial to beans, 
but lives principally on grass. I think it hibernates. 

Beaver {Castor Canadensis Kuhl.). I have caught 
seventy Beavers. Have killed seven from one house, 
and left one or more. I killed five from another house, 
and opened the house, which was about four feet across 
on the inside, and two feet high. It was oven-shaped. 
There was but one room to it, and I never saw a house 
with more. The houses are sometimes round, some- 
times oblong. The house is made of brush thrown into 
a pile, and covered with mud and sticks. The room is 
eaten out of the brush ; that is, the brush is in a pile, 
and the room is made by gnawing out a part of it. The 
passage way is a ditch passing downward and forward 
into the water, and is covered with brush and mud. 
Eight on top of the house is a part of the roof where 
there is no mud on the sticks, thus leaving the wall open 
enough there for ventilation. 

The Beaver makes his pond to enable him to bring 
and store his food, which is the bark of white birch, yel- 
low birch, mountain ash, swamp maple, poplar, and wil- 
low, and perhaps some others. They throw their brush 
over their passage way, so that the top of it is in the 
water ; that is, the butt of the bush is over the passage 
way, and the twigs of the top in the water. They cut 
down the trees, which are for food, and stick the butts 
under the brush, leaving the tops to float. If the tree is 



NOTES OF A FUE HUNTER. 661 

larger than one and a half inches, or two inches at far- 
thest, the beaver cuts off the top, and drags it and the 
stems to his house separately. I have seen the wood as 
large as five inches, and three or four feet long. Have 
seen a white birch felled by them four inches in diame- 
ter. In the winter they come up under the ice and gnaw 
their bark there. Gradually in such places air collects 
under the ice, which is, I think, what they breathe out 
when they are there. I have seen one stay under water 
seven and one-half minutes by the watch, and have heard 
from a reliable man of their staying twelve to fourteen 
minutes. The Otter will kill young Beavers. I don't 
know of anything else that destroys them except man. 
Their meat is excellent, and the meat from their tail is a 
delicacy. 

The Dam. — I will describe one dam. It was lately 
built. It w T as six rods long; not straight across the 
stream, but the middle was further down stream than 
each end. The groundwork was of small alders, cherry 
trees, and bushes. Nearer the top, trees from one to one 
and a half inches in diameter were placed on, the butt 
being hauled over so as to rest on the bottom of the stream 
below, and the top woven into the dam. On the up- 
stream side it w T as covered with moss, mud, gravel, and 
rocks, and some of the rocks I judge would weigh fifteen 
to twenty pounds. The water dripped over the dam 
evenly the whole length. The dam flowed the pond 
above, which was a mile long. It was not at a narrow 
place in the brook. It had been built the summer before, 
and in the fall while I was there, I caught six beavers 
there, and think I caught them all. There were seven 
houses in the neighborhood, but only one of them was 
new. I drove them from this to one of the old ones, and 



OOZ NOTES OF A FUR HUNTER. 

then to another. This last was a mile from their clam. 
They began to haul wood to it. I caught none at the 
new house, but two at the first old house they fled to, and 
four at the second. I frightened them from the new 
house by paddling around it in my canoe. It was on an 
island. They work on their house, putting mud and 
sticks on it, till freezing weather. 

I will describe another dam and settlement of Beavers, 
on the Eestigouche River, in the northern part of New 
Brunswick. The pond flowed was a mile long. At the 
foot of the pond was a dam five feet high. Four rods 
below was a dam three feet high which flowed back to the 
first dam, raising the water against it one and one-half 
feet. Three rods farther down the brook was a third 
dam, not more than two feet high, also flowing back to 
the dam next above. A rod or two below was a fourth 
dam, not more than one and a half feet high, which 
flowed the water back to the third dam. There were two 
beaver-houses on the pond. The new one, which was the 
one inhabited, was one-quarter of a mile above the clam. 
The old one was fifty to sixty rods farther up. I killed 
seven beavers here that winter (1852 or 1853). I cut 
the second and third dams down a little at the middle so 
as to have a running, open stream, and caught four otters 
there during the winter. 

I never saw more than one passage way to a beaver- 
house, but it was said that there were several to this 
house. It was, by outside measurement, twenty-one feet 
across at the base ; and we judged it to be ten feet high, 
but it had the appearance of being two houses joined to- 
gether. The men who opened it said it had but one 
room, and nine beavers were in it. I don't think the 
beaver uses the tail much in swimming, but it makes 



NOTES OF A FUR HUNTER. 6G3 

much use of it in diving. In trapping, we take cure not 
to drive the beavers away from the pond before it freezes : 
after it freezes they leave very reluetautly. We bait with 
swamp maple or mountain ash. We tie the trap to a dry 
spruce stake, which they will not gnaw. 

The beaver weighs from twenty-five to sixty pounds ; 
the latter weight is very large. A good beaver-skin 
weighs from one to three pounds; price now $2.-30 a 
pound. 

I think the beaver gets the oil from the "oilstone" on 
to his fur by letting it out into the water around, whence 
it is caught on the fur. I use the "castors" to attract the 

Muskeat (Fiber zibethicus Cur.). The muskrat lives 
in hollows iu banks of streams, and also in houses. Eats 
roots, grass, and clams. 

Poecupine (Erethizon dorsatus F. Cuv.). The porcu- 
pine lives in winter on bark. It eats grass ; will eat green 
corn when it can get it ; it is very fond of salt ; will even 
gnaw through pork barrels to get the salt. It has been 
known to get into the cellar and take milk. It is destruc- 
tive to boots and rigging and tools, where any salt has 
been left on them. 

Moose (Alee Americanus Jardine) . Moose move over 
but a small district in a winter's day, four or live miles ; 
sometimes in a thaw they move farther. When their 
tracks are obliterated by the snow, I often track them in 
this way : I notice the side of the tree from which they 
have taken the bark. This was the first side of the tree 
they came to ; they then moved on and took the bark 
from the first side they come to of another tree, and thus 
left a "blaze" behind them. Sometimes when the old 
cow lies down, the calf will eat the bark all around the 



664 NOTES OF A FUR HUNTER. 

tree, but this is not the rule. They seem to tear the bark 
up with the teeth of the lower jaw. Sometimes they may 
be found in the spring not more than a mile away from 
where they began in the fall. 

They like best the bark of moose wood (the small 
maple with dark striped bark), mountain ash, and swamp 
maple. They take the bark of the mountain ash more 
than of any other tree ; but they browse the twigs of the 
swamp maple most. They will also browse fir and willow 
and moose bush, and sometimes cut the bark of poplar. 
They also frequent ponds for the pond lily and the yellow 
lily. 

The largest herd I ever saw had nine in it, but they 
more often live in herds of four or five. The female 
brings forth two calves, and they stay with the old cow 
the summer and winter following. The males more often 
yard by themselves, but are sometimes found with the 
female. The sexes come together about the last of Sep- 
tember or the first of October, say from September 20th 
to October 20th. 

Moose are not now very plenty about here, but ten 
years ago they were plenty. I killed two in one August 
night in Lower Ebeeme pond. They come into the ponds 
to feed on the lilies. I have seen them in the pond the 
first of June, with the water half way up their sides, 
reaching down and taking up the roots of the yellow lily. 
They come out on very soft bog with no trouble ; they 
drop their body so as partly to swim and partly to wade 
till they come to shore, then they put their nose on the 
shore, if it is soft, then raise their forelegs, and then 
their hind legs one at a time. When swimming undis- 
turbed, I have seen a moose settle down under the water 
entirely for three or four rods, and then rise and snort 



NOTES OF A FUR HUNTER. 665 

and go down again. Whether he did this to get the flies 
from his ears, or whether it is his habit, I don't know. A 
young man who hunted moose with me had seen the same 
thing, and spoke to me of it. When undisturbed they 
move, on land, slowly and quietly, but when startled, 
are all alive. Their principal gait when not walking is a 
trot, while the deer jumps. In the season for the coming 
together of the sexes, I have seen the male standing on a 
log, and heard him grunt at intervals ; at other times I 
have heard them low aloud. Sometimes we call them by 
imitating the low of the male by sounding through a roll 
of birch bark. The males answer this cry, and come to 
it ; and as they draw near we place the mouth of the 
trumpet near the water, or, if on land, near the ground, 
which makes the sound seem farther off, and leads the 
moose to rush on. When he gets pretty near, it don't do 
to keep up the deception ; then we dip up and pour out 
water, which brings him right out ; or, instead, make a 
kind of "splash" with the paddle, or any noise that will 
sound like the stepping of a moose in water. Care should 
be taken to keep to the leeward of the moose if possible. 

A common way of hunting them is to watch in summer 
nights at places where they come down for lily-pads, and 
shoot them there. Another way is to hunt them down in 
winter when there is a crust. 

The average weight of a moose's meat after it is dressed 
is four hundred to five hundred pounds. I have killed 
one which I think weighed, meat and hides, one thousand 
pounds. I weighed the meat of one which weighed six 
hundred and thirty pounds. Moose meat is worth say 
ten cents a pound, and the skin has been worth from five 
to twelve dollars since the beginning of the war; I don't 
know what it is worth now. 



66Q THE LAND SNAILS OF NEW ENGLAND. 

Caribou (Ranrjlfer Caribou Aud. and Bach.). Caribou 
are quite plenty a little north of here, about Ragged 
Lake, Black Brook, etc. Caribou live principally on 
moss, but eat some twigs. It is faster, I think, than either 
deer or moose ; of these two, the deer is the faster. The 
meat of a caribou when dressed weighs, I judge, from 
two hundred and fifty to three hundred pounds. 

Deer (Cei-vus Virginianus Boddaert.) Deer are not 
very plenty about here. They browse "moose-bush," fir, 
cedar (Arbor vitaa), willow, swamp maple, and lynois 
bush; in summer they like lily-pads, leaves of trees, and 
moose, the deer generally 



[We have introduced the scientific names of the animals n 
by Mr. Clapp, and would refer those of our readers who wish for in- 
formation regarding tin ir <:la>siuYatiou and distribution to the com- 
prehensive and invaluable work of Professor Baikd, on the "Mam- 
mals of North America.-' running the eighth volume of the Pacific Kail- 
road Reports, published by order of Congress in 1857. — Editors.] 



THE LAND SNAILS OF NEW ENGLAND. 



The following species, though minute, are very char- 
acteristic, and with the aid of the engravings, but little 
trouble will be encountered in identifying them. For- 
merly included under the old genus Pupa, they are now 
separated under a distinct genus called Leucochila. But 
slight differences are noticed between the soft parts of the 
species to be described, and those given previously. 

Leucochila contracta Say (Fig. 54) is an oval, 



conical, whitish shell, having live convex whorls; the 
spire tapering to a somewhat pointed apex. Fig. 51. 
The aperture is quite large, and is bordered by / ^=K 

a widely reflected lip. The aperture is nearly /£ \ 

closed with four tooth-like folds, and one is ( -\ 

inclined to wonder how it is possible for 1 1 
animal to protrude and withdraw his bo<h 
within the shell. The shell has a distinct urn- ° ^§^ 
bilicus. Length one-tenth of an inch. Animal blackish 
above ; disk light gray. Almost universally distributed 
throughout the United States east of the Kocky Moun- 
tains. It is not a common species in New England. 
Found in beech groves under bits of rotten bark. 

Leucociiila armifera Say. (Fig. 55.) This is a 
much larger species than the preceding one. The shell 
is cylindrical oblong, of a waxen-white color, Fig. 55. 
having from six to seven smooth convex whorls. /z\ 

Apex rather obtuse ; lip reflected, nearly sur- J[ } 
rounding the aperture. Within the aperture CSS 
are four or five projecting teeth, the largest ^ xL/ 
being bifid, and starting from the body whorl ; in others 
projecting from the walls of the aperture, and deep seated. 
Shell slightly umbilicated. Length T % inch; diameter 
half the length; animal black. This species appears to 
be plentiful "in many of the Middle and Western States, 
extondin<>- as far east as Vermont, where it has been found 
on the shores of Lake Champlain. 

Leucociiila pextodon Say. (Fig. 56.) Tins 
sixvirs is ;1 third hu:iI!<t than L. rontracfa. being 



It L 










O0S THE LAND SNAILS OF NEW ENGLAND. 

several minute teeth, the longest one projecting from the 
body whorl. The number and size of these "teeth vary 
greatly in this species, but the shell is quite characteristic 
when once determined. It is found in very wet places, 
under bits of wood by watery ditches. Found in nearly 
till the States this side of the Eocky Mountains; common 
in New England. 

In the following species the lower tentacles are absent, 
and the head has lappets on each side, and when viewed 
beneath seems partially separated from the creeping disk, 
more like the fresh-water air-breathing snails. As they 
are best known as Vertigo, we describe them under that 
head. As the species are very minute, we have given 
not only magnified figures of the entire shell, but a still 
more magnified figure of the aperture, as the characters 
of the species lie mostly in the contour of this portion of 
the shell. 

Vertigo ovata Say (Figs. 57, 58) has an ovate, 
dark, amber-colored, and highly polished shell. Within 
«*■*■ the aperture are seven or 
eight teeth; these vary 
j^X greatly in different speei- 

"W\ \SS -J This is the largest of 
'^ X0I New England Vertigos, 
V^ though measuring only A 
of an inch in length, and ^ 
of an inch in breadth. It is more globose than the species 
to follow, and has more teeth within the aperture. This 
species is almost aquatic in its habits, livinir under bits of 
wood and stones, in wet and so-rzv places. Inhabits all 
the Western, Middle, and Eastern States. 
New England. 








THE LAND SNAILS OF NEW ENGLAND <>(>!) 

Vertigo Gouldii Binney. (Figs. 59, 60.) This spe- 
cies is smaller than V. ovata; is not so broad compared 
to its length, and is not polished, 
but distinctly striated. The teeth 
within the aperture are five in 
number, that on the body whorl 
very large. Length of shell & 
inch, breadth n V inch. It occurs 
in woods and groves under leaves. 
It appears to be common in New England. 
found in some of the Middle and Western S 

Vertigo ventricosa Morse. (Figs. 61, 
line the shell resembles that of V. ovatt 
always been confounded with that Fig. 6i. 

species. The shell is much small- 
er, however ; has one whorl less, 
and has only five teeth within the 
aperture. Length fhs mca - ^ is 
not a common species, though I 
have received it from New 1 ork, 
New Hampshire, Massachusetts, and Maine. 

Vertigo Bollesiana Morse. (Figs. 63, 64.) This 
species has been heretofore confounded with V. Gouldii. 
It has a small shell, lighter colored, 
polished and translucent. The teeth 
are five in number, but less promi- 
nent. Length T gu inch. Found in X^C 
hard- wood growths, in company 
with the smaller snails. It is not a common species. 

Vertigo milium Gould. (Figs. 65, 66.) Despite the 
intiuitessimal character of the species described above, 
this species is much smaller than any of the others, being 
only T U inch iu length, and weighing but T »fe* of a 




THE I.AM) SX.UL> OF 



jram! and this tiny shell 
t lung, stomach, liver, and 



ver, and all the organs we find in the 
larger snails. The shell has six teeth 
within the aperture, those on the lower 
portion of the aperture being long 
ridges running for within the shell 
Ky o ^& This species is found under decaying 




ture is entirely devoid of teeth, 
and has a sharp lip. Length 
T V of an inch. Found in all the 
New England States, Xew York, 

and some of the Western States. 

Vertigo decora Gould. Mr. L. L. Thaxter has found 

this species at Ascutuey, Vermont. We learned this fact 

that it is something like V. Gouldii, though twice the 
size of that species, and darker colored. It was first dis- 
covered in the region of Lake Superior, and one specimen 
has been identified from (mat Slave Lake. 



The following group 
phibious in their habit* 

tacle.s, with no power to 



tho 



THE LAND SNAILS OF NEW ENGLAN 

-white shell, with five convex whorls, taper 



tains 

1 



in nearly all the States east of the Rocky Mountains. 
Alexia myosotis Drapanaud. (Fig. 70.) Shell ovate, 

whorls, making a short, elevated, pointed spire, rig. 70. 
Aperture long and narrow, having on the mm 
margin two or more thin white teeth. Length -■ 
inch. Found in the crevices of old wharfs and sea-walls, 
below high-water mark. It is never found away from the 
salt water, and if it breathes air like the rest of the group, 
it must take in a supply at low tide. 

Melampus bidentatus Say. (Fig. 71.) Shell ovate, 
conic, whorls five, the last one three-fourths the length of 
the shell. Apex short : aperture having two folds Fi „ ;i . 

In adult specimen- the shell is whitened from ero- Q 
sion. Verv voumr specimens are oftentimes or- V 
namented l>v dark, revolving bands. Length not quite 
half an inch. Inhabits the salt-marshes of our coast, 
where thev mav be found by thousands just below high- 
water mark. It is found all along the coast to Florida, 

^'vhV',!^ ^"V"'".^"!! "' 1'. "<i -' np-,^; <,/the Land 
Snails of W Kn,iand ^ ,,ntinued arti.-les. In a future 



672 REVIEWS. 

uralist, we would say that the terms used in describing 
the different species are explained and illustrated in the 
April number, and that a general account of their habits 
be found in the March number.. 



■ Journal of rsYcnnr.ocrcAr. M>:i>i<;r\E and Med- 
ited by William A. Hammond, 31. D. Vol. 
I. Nos. 1, 2. July, October, 18G7. Quarterly, 8vo. A. Sampson & 
Co., New York. 

Our notice of this journal, which fills an important gap in medical 
literature, has been long delayed. It will also interest many of our 

cially physiologists, are most interested. The three leading articles 
are contributed by the Editor. The article On Instinct, its Nature 
and Seat, gives an excellent summary of the views of various writers 
on a subject on which much has been written without reaching satis- 

The author's views may be summarized thus : Animals perform 
three sets of actions ; 1st, reflex, such as eating, breathing, respira- 
tion. "The new-born child does not breathe because of a 'natural 
blind impulse' to do so, but because the placental connection with its 
mother, by which its blood was oxygenated, having been severed, and 
the stimulus of atmospheric air having been applied to its skin, an 
impression is conveyed to the nervous centres, it is reflected to the 
respiratory muscles, and breathing Uik<-> place."' This is a reflex 
action of the nervous system. It is not instinctive or an act of the 
reason. 2d, instinctive, which are "the result of impressions received 
from within." "Instinct is that innate faculty which organic beings 
possess, by which they are enabled or impelled to perform acts with- 
out being prompted by the intellectual powers, and even in direct 
opposition thereto." Dr. Hammond, from whom we have quoted, 
further states that "instinctive acts are not the result of instruction 
or experience. This is one of the most prominent points wherein the 
actions in question differ from those which are the result of intelli- 
gence and reason." 3d, rational. These are, as the author states, of 



NATURAL HISTORY MISCELLANY. 673 

"eccentric origin, due to impressions conveyed to the mind through 
the senses and nerves." 

Instinct is strongest in the lower animals, and the new-born of the 
higher. The young acts first by instinct, until experience and contact 
with the outer world awakens the dormant reason. 

The author thinks that instinct is capable of improvement, that it 
can be educated through a series of generations, so that "the intelli- 
gence of former generations becomes converted into instinct in the 
descendants." Instances of the aberration of instinct are also com- 
mon ; it is not unerring. All organized beings have instinct. "Plants 

planted originally in the seed, which impels them to the performance 
of actions, calculated to preserve their existence, or secure their well 
being." 
We refer the reader to the article itself for facts in illustration of 



NATURAL HISTORY MISCELLANY. 

BOTANY. 
Botanical Notes and Queries. — Is Tillandsia usneoides, the 
"Black"or "Long Moss" of the Southern States, strictly an epiphyte, 
or in some sort a parasite ? I was once informed by a very intelligent 
person, that in Florida, where the Tillandsia is used by lumbermen 
as fodder for cattle, the plant always withered and died when the tree 
that bore it was cut clown, showing that it is not merely epiphytic 
upon the dead surface of the bark. The point is worth investigating. 
My attention is recalled to this point by a paper on The Iitlation of 
Lichen-growth to the health and value of Trees, read by Dr. Lindsay 
before the last meeting of the British Association. Noting that arbo- 
riculturists generally regard Lichens as detrimental to the trees they 
grow on, Dr. Lindsay adduces, in confirmation of that view, the fact 
that Lichens of the sort, such as Usnea, Eamalina, etc., contain silica, 
alumina, lime, potash, phosphates, etc., which could not have been 
derived from the atmosphere, but must have come from the foster- 
tree. It does not certainly follow, however, that the Lichen is para- 
sitic, as Dr. Lindsay is disposed to think, for the thallus may as well 
take up those earthy elements from the dead and decaying bark, and 
be without conn, i — 

general opinion of nurserymen and tree-growers is, th 



i Lichens feed 



0/4 PROCEEDINGS OF SCIENTIFIC SOCIETIES. 

Salsola Kali growing inland.— Everv summer, for the last five 
years, on botanical excursions. I haw found at Xewburgh (sixteen 
miles from this place) the Salsola Kali, growing quite abundantly on 
the Erie railroad near that city. All the works on Botany that I have. 
designate this as a maritime plant, and give no other habitat for it. 
Those specimens which grow most vigorously are found covering the 
side of an embankmeDt (formed of dry, loose sand) facing the south, 
and consequently exposed to the scorching rays of the sun 'all summer. 
The material in which the plants are rooted is not one from which I 
should suppose that they could derive any of those saline matters that 

his, and direct t< 



lantic Southern States. Dr. M. A. Curtis lias fniitin- specimen 
lectedon the summit of Table Rock, North Carolina (a conclusiv 
tion as to nativity), and thinks that it fruits in the lower counl 
well — A. Gray. 



PROCEEDINGS OF SCIENTIFIC SOCIETIES. 



L History Section. Burlington, I 
lsect Fauna of the Summit of Mount 
it of Labrador." By A. S. Packard, . 



rut of Mount Wa^liin-tni 

■<■>. ;iLTrcrv j n its climate 

«-«.a>t of No 



PROCEEDINGS OF SCIENTIFIC SOCIETIES. 

ing of plants is much the same. Such was observed in 



dea flies late in July and early in August, in ; 

hill-tops of the Labrador coast. Their 

summer, both on the extreme summit of Mount Washington and the 

exposed hills of Labrador. 

Most is known of the Lepidopterous fauna of Alpine and arctic re- 
gions, both in America and Europe, and our data will be drawn from 
this group of insects. In Europe, Thunberg, Zetterstedt, Duponchel, 
Boisduval, Staudinger, and Wocke. have studied the circumpolar lepi- 
dopterous fauna; Mdschler and Christoph, Clemens and Scudder and 
the writer, have . , - •- nd Messrs. Scud- 

der, Shurtleff, and Sanborn have explored the insect fauna of Mount 
Washington, and other Alpine summits. 

According to Dr. Staudinger, out of sixteen butterflies found in 
Fini ll t \o only (Erebia JLti - > and .1,. n, ,■ - Thore) occur in the 
Alps, and also in Siberia. But one butterfly. Chionobas Aello, so far 
as we have been able to learn, is peculiar to the Alps. Of 122 species 
of lepidoptera inhabiting Labrador. ^1 are t<»und only in Labrador, and 
arctic America, while thirty-one are circumpolar, namely, occur on 
both sides of the Arctic Ocean, trie, Iceland, and 

the mountains of Norway ; six species inhabit the summit of Mount 

Swiss Alps. Two of the European Alpine species are found on Mount 

Was _ , yew II nap-hire. 

Certain genera among Insects, as among Mollusca, are almost ex- 
clusively arctic. Such are Chionobas and Anarta, which are paralleled 

Two species (Folyommatua I ; "^) abounding 

in Labrador and the polar regions have not yet been found on Mount 
Washington. This is paralh led by the occurrence of certain mollusca, 
e. g. Leda truncata, in the high arctic sea-, which have become ex- 
tinct in the seas southward, where they are now found fossil ; so that 
the d stnl at on of the arctic insect fauua seems to be paralleled by 

abysses and banks swept by the arctic currents are peopled by outliers 
of an Arctic marine fauna, so the Alpine elevations or atmospherical 
abysses, rising out of a temperate into an Arctic climate, seem peopled 

arctic fauna, that during the early part of the Quaternary period, i. e. 
the Glacial Epoch, peopled the surface of the temperate zone. 



<;:.; 






"We cannot suppose a special ere 

Alpine summits. < '/<■■■ 

the summit of Mount Washington, 

k where it now occurs. 




)f a Dragon-fly, Diplax." By A. S. Packard, 
eggs observed, the blastoderm had been 
nsequently the blastodermic cells had disappeared, and, 
us a clear space about what is probably the ante- 
vhere the head i- eventually to be developed. 
(Fig. 1) the head is partially sketehed out. with 
1 mouth-parts ; and the sternites or ven- 
tral walls of the thorax and of the two 
3 of the head appear. The an- 
t of the head, the so-called 
" procephalic lobe "' overhangs and con- 

ntenna;, mandibles, and maxillae 
group by themselves, while the 
maxilla? (or labium) are very 
much larger and turned backwards, be- 
ing temporarily grouped with the legs. 

There are traces only of the two basal 

sterna of the abdomen. This indicates 

that the abdominal segments -row in 

from the base of the abdo- 

at the extremil 



The development of the hinder or 
post-oral rings of the head, together 
with the antennal segment, i. e. the first 
one in front of the mouth, at this time 
accords with that of those of the tho- 
rax, so that the process of development 
of the two regions and their appen- 
dages are identical throughout. 

3. In the next stage (not figured! the 
yolk is completely walled in, though no 

granules fill the entire cavity of the body 

*. The head has enlarged, the remaining 

abdominal lobe or 





s staae (Vis. 3 


\ is eh 


.-.ra< 


ter- 


he dittVrentiati 








ophthalmic rii 


ig, ore] 






e. and the supraclypea 






eus. together w: 












the 


aow situated in 


the middh 


B Of 



LI>L\G> i.)F M'iENTIFIC SOCIETIES. 







PROCEEDINGS OF SCIENTIFIC SOCIETIES. 



slimvsquit.-c.mrlusivflytlia 
era. arc embryonic forms^ 
of Neuroptera, and should' 
therefore be considered a 

Seen laterally, the body 
gradually tapers from the 
large head to the pointed 
extremity. The body is 

flat 1 1 -in -t 1 i'r< >in above down- 



8. The Larva (Fig. 5). The head is now free, and the antenna? 
stand out free from the front. The thorax has greatly diminished in 
size, while the abdomen has become wider, and the limbs very long; 
and the numerous minute tubercles seen in the preceding stage have 
given origin to hairs. The dorsal vessel can now, for the first time, 



050 PROCEEDINGS OF SCIENTIFIC SOCIETIES. 

be seen. The resemblance when in motion to a spider is most 
striking. Fig. 6 represents the pupa of Diplax. 

Essex Institute, March 4, 1867. — Mr. E. S. Morse spoke of the 
Cephalopods, and alluded to the many fallacious stories regarding the 
Cuttle-fish, citing Victor Hugo's description of the Devil-fish, in which 
the characters of two entirely different animals were mixed. 

Vice-president Goodell called the attention of the meeting to the 
recent donation of one hundred and forty thousand dollars, by Mr. 
Peabody, for the Promotion of Science and T.'s./hJ K.u.vh.hj, \„ th, 
County of Essex, and read the letter and instrument of trust from Mr. 
Peabody, and the reply of the Trustees. 

F. W. Putnam, Superintendent of the Museum, introduced the fol- 
lowing Resolution: — 

Dr. George B. Loring seconded the Resolution with appropriate 
remark.-, and it was unanimously adopted. 

A committee of seven members of the Institute was appointed to 
confer with the Trustees of the Peabody Fund in regard to the co- 
operation of the Institute. 

May 8. Annual Meeting. — Reports of the officers were read; seven- 
1y-seveu resident, and sixteen corresponding members have been 
elected during the year, and notices of the death of five resident, and 
four corresponding members have been received. Five field meetings, 
one social meeting, and the regular evening meetings, have been held 
during the year. A course of five lectures on zoology, by Mr. Morse, 
has been given by the Institute. The delay that has occurred in the 
publication of the Proceedings and Historical Collections, it is hoped, 
will not occur again, now that the Institute has established a printing 
office. It is believed that the establishment of Mr. Bicknell as a ] 
parator of microscopical slides and similar work will prove instrun 
tal in the promotion of some of the objects of the Institute. The fa 
expenditure during the year whs s2.4!>1.1 I. reo.-i 
thousand and eighty-six volumes, and parts of volumes, pamphlets, 
etc., were received during the year, from two hundred and nil 
tributors- Thirteen thousand specimens have been added 
Natural History Department, by two hundred and eighty-eight dona- 
tions; and sixty-six donations have been made to the Historical De- 
partment. Over four hundred zoological specimens have been pre- 
g the year. 



GLOSSARY. 


















, 



speak of a Phanerogamous or Crypto- 
Foraminifera. The shell-making Rhizo- 

r \ 



ofButterflies aP 






,'■■'■ 



riumerus. The thigh-bon( 

■ - ' ' J .' 









GLOSSARY. 












. cicida). A genus 

• .'-livelier). A <