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Full text of "The American naturalist."

THE . A4?7 

/fa /7c 
AMERICAN NATURALIST, 



POPULAR ILLUSTRATED MAGAZINE 



NATURAL HISTORY. 



.. S. PACKARD, JR., ] 



^V 



SALEM, MASS. 

PEABODY ACADEMY OF SCIENCE. 



CONTENTS OF VOL. III. 



Shell Money. By R. E. C. Stearns, 

The Botany of Central Illinois. By E. L. Greene, 

The Chimney Swallow. By Augustus Fowler, .... 

The Structure of the Pitcher Plant. By J. G. Hunt, M. D. 

With Illustrations, . 

The Compressed Burbot or Eel-pout. By William Wood, 

M. D. Illustrated, 

Salt and Fresh-water Clams. By E. S. Morse. With a plate, 
The Senses of Sight and Smell. By Hon. J. D. Caton, . 
The Fauna ©f Montana Territory. By J. G. Cooper, M. D. 

(Continued from p. 600, Vol. II), 31, 73, 

An Afternoon in Nicaragua. By William H. Dall, . 

The Aboriginal Mound Builders of Tennessee. By Dr. 

Joseph Jones, 

The Fossil Reptiles of New Jersey. By Prof. E. D. Cope. 

(Concluded from Vol. I, p. 30.) With a plate, .... 
Insects Injurious to the Potato. By Henry Shimer, M. D. 

A New Species of Hare from the Summit of Wind River 
Mountains. By Prof. F. V. Hayden. Illustrated, 

The Sand Martin. By Augustus Fowler, 

The White-footed or Deer Mouse. By Hon. J. D. Caton, . 

The Flora of Palestine and Syria. By Rev. George E. Post, 

The Flowers of Early Spring. By. Rev. J. W. Chickering, jr., 

The Fresh-water Aquarium. By C. B. Brigham, . 131, 207, : 

Hints on Taxidermy. By Charles A. Walker. With Illustra- 
tions . 136, 189, i 

Bitterns. By William E. Endicott. Illustrated, .... 

The Mule Deer. By W. J. Hays. With a plate, ... 

The Naturalist in California. By J. G. Cooper, M. D., . 182. 

A Fish Farm. By E. Dexter. Illustrated ! 

Sea-side Ornithology. By T. M. Brewer, M. D ! 

Notes on the Argonaut. By W. H. Dall, J 

On the Parasi i a. By Prof. A. E. Verrill. 



The Haliotis, or Pearly Ear-s 



iu« 



•"t<-'h 



VOL. III. 
By Kobert E. C. Stearns. 



A Chapter on Cuttle Fishes. By Lucie L. Hartt 
Something about Crabs. By Rev. Samuel Lockwood, 
Shell Dredging. By E. S. Morse. Illustrated. With a 
Rambles in Florida. By R. E. C Stearns, . . 21 
Monstrosities among Trout. By A. Co'olidge, M. D. 



The Cow Blackbird. By T. Martin Trippe, 


Notes on the Fauna of the Upper Missouri. 
Cooper, M. D., 


By J. G. 


The Lilies of the Fields, of the Rocks, and of t 
By Prof. G. Hinrichs. Illustratrd, 


he Clouds. 


On the Preservation of Extomulogk \l Cabinets. By John 

L. LeConte, M. D., 

A True Story of a Pet Bird. Hy Robert Ridgeway, '. 
What is a Desmid? By Prof. Arthur Mead Edwards. With a 


Sea-side Homes: And what lived ,n them. By Dr. Elliott 

Coues, U. S. A., 

The Sage Brush. By W. W. Bailey, 

The Drivers. By G. A. Perkins, M. D Illustrated, '. ' 
A Chapter on Mites. By Dr. A. S. Packard, jr. Illustrated 

With a plate, 



» Montana. By J. G. Cooper, M. D., 

-WIXGKI) Wonrn'FX'KKii. 

:vixgs. By Prof. A. M. Edwards. [IV; 
' Bryce M. Wright, jr. Illustrated, . 



By E. S. Morse. Ill us . 



ginlv Partridge. By August us Fowler, . 




eat Auk. By Prof. James Orton. Illustratrd 




a Examined Microscopically. By Prof. A. M. Edwards 








gertng Admirers of Phrenology. By Prof. Cleland 








pper Rail. By Dr. Elliott Coues. 17. S. A. 




Eggs and Young. By F. W. Putnam. Illustrated 




3 Bathybius? By Prof. W. C. Williamson, F. R R 




Popular Science Review), 


65 



CONTENTS OF 



Travels in the East Tudia Archipelago, p. :;:>. p,ee Keeping, p. 40. The 
Extinct Flora of North America, p. 41. Parasitic Worms in the Brain of 
a Bird (Illustrated), p. 41. Scientific Opinion, p. 43. Fauna of the Gulf 
Stream at great depths, p. 43. The Geoluirieal Survey of Illinois, p. 44. 
The Ancestry of Insects ; Fossil Insects and Crabs in Illinois, p. 45. The 
Book of Birds and the Book of Beasts, p. 46. Cecil's Book of Insects, p. 
46. List of the Lepidoptera of North America, p. 46. Catalogue <>r 
North American Grasshoppers, p. 47. The Progress of Zoology, in 1867. 
p. 47. The Pampas and Andes, p. 100. One Thousand Objects tbt the 
Microscope, p. 101. A Guide to the Study of Insects, pp. 101, 1.12. ;!7!>. .146. 
The Record of American Entomology, p. 101. Appleton's Illustrated Alma- 
nac for 1868, p. 101. The Origin of Genera, p. 147. An Illustrated Wort 
on the Butterflies of New En-land. pp. 148. 212. The Kingfishers, p. 149. 
Bulletin of the Essex Institute, p. 150. The Craneflies of North America, p. 
151. Revision of the Large, Stylated, Fossorial Crickets, p. 151. The 
Noxious Insects of Missouri, p. 151. LeNaturaliste Canadien, p. 152. 
Teratology, p. 152. Monograph of the Trichopterygidae, p. 213. Insects 
Injurious to Forest Trees, p. 214. Review of the Scandinavian Contribu- 
tions to Natural History in 1867-8, pp. 214, 275. The Harris Correspond- 
ence, p. 323. Pictures and Stories of Animals, p. &S 

Waters, p. 324. The Mississippi Valley, p. 325. The Injury done to For- 
ests by Insects, p. 377. Hand-book of Economic Zoology for Agricultur- 
ists, p. 378. Record of American Entomology for 1868, p. 378. A Lepidop- 
terist's Guide, p. 379. Report of the Peabody Museum of American 
Archaeology and Ethnology, p. 379. Report of the Peabody Academy of 
Science, p. 379. The Metamorphosis of Crabs (Illustrated), p. 432. The 
Canadian Entomologist, p. 435. The American Entomologist, p. 435. 
The Development of Insects, p. 490. The Generations of Worms, p. 494. 
Florida and the South, p. 494. Annals of Bee Culture, p. 494. Huxley's 
Classification of Animals, pp. 543, 607. Origin of the Big Mound of St. 
Louis, p. 547. The Sheffield Scientific School, p. 612. New Echinoderms 
and Corals, p. 612. The Rules of Zool p. 613. Re- 

sults of Deep Sea Dredging between Cuba and Florida, p. 662. Fossil 
Crinoids of Ohio and Kentucky, p. 666. Monograph of the I 
p. 666. Monograph of the Kingfishers, p. 667. Monograph of the Cap- 
itonidse. p. 667. The Geology of Alaska, p. 668. 

NATURAL HISTORY MISCELLANY. 
Botany. —Double Flowered Sarracenia. p. 48. Botanical Notes, p. 101. 
The Cedars of Lebanon, p. 102. Lake Superior Plants compared with 

ecimens, p. 155. A New Fragaria, p. 221. Table-mountain 
Pine, p. 326. Variation in the Sarracenia. p. 327. Double Early Saxi- 
frage, p. 327. Corema Conradii (Torrey), p. 327. 
328. Rare Moss, p. 329. Flowering of Posoqueria, p. 380. A White 



Vi CONTENTS OF VOL. III. 

Arethusa, p. 381. Abnormal Forms of Plants, p. 381. Double Thalic- 
trum anemonoides, p. 382. Botanical Notes, p. 382. Is the El< 
Plant? p. 382. Tendency of Floral Organs to Exchange Offices, p. 494. 
Herbarium of the late Dr. Walker- A rnott, p. 495. New Locality of Aspi- 
tum (L) Sw., p- 495. Geography of Pinus pungens, p. 548. 
Artificial Preparation of Substances found in Plants and Anima 
Maple-seed, three winged, p. 613. Spontaneous Motion of Protoplasm, p. 
668. Strawberries, p. 669. Another White Variety, p. 669. Botanical 
Specimens, p. 669. 

Zoology. — The Breeding Habits of Birds, p. 48. The House Wren, p. 
49. Destructiveness of the Larva of the Goldsmith Beetle, p. 49. The 
Lyc.*a Spider and its Young, p. 50. The Cattle Tick, p. 51. S 
for Pollen for Honey Bees, p. 52. Hive Bees devoured by Hornets, p. 52. 
Variation in the Skeleton of Whales, p. 52. Eggs of Yam., 
wo rni for sale. p. 53. Transportation of Living Fish from South of the 
Equator to Europe, p. 53. Deep Sea Dredging, p. 53. Ma.Mipial ] loirs, p. 
53. The Belted Kingfisher again, p. 53. The Crow a Bird of Prey, p. 102. 
How to collect Myriapods, p. J03. On the Drumming of the Buffed 
Grouse, p. 105. Hatching of the Seventeen-year Cicada, p. 106. Prepa- 
ration of Birds Eggs, p. 106. The Vision of Fishes and Amphibious Rep- 
tiles, p. 107. Flight of Birds, p. 107. Deep-sea Dredging north of Scot- 
land, p. 108. Honey Bees killed by Pollen, p. 109. Lingula I 

■ >. p. 109. Glycerine for Preserving Natural Colors of Marine 
Animals, p. 156. Does the Prairie-dog require any Water ? p. 156. Breed- 
ln - ]i ' " J ^ l! ' "tiers and Frogs, p. 157. The Biter Bitten, p. 158. 
Citation of Authorities, p. 159. The Loggerhead Shrike, p. 159. Case 
-trated), p. 160. New Salamander, p. 222. Breeding of Bare 
BinK p. — . r, ,„i, .„■« WarM.-r, pp . 222, 331, 496. Perching of Wil- 

le, p. 277. The Coral Snake, p. 278. 
NorUl * PP. 278. 383. Hearing of Crabs, p. 

278. A Box Turtle in Winter, p. 279. A Doe with Horns, p. 279. Famil- 
Alhino Robins, p. 279. Food Plants of New 
' terflies, p. 330. Papilio (var?) Calverleyi. captured in Flor- 
ida, p. 332. A Remarkable New Jelly-fish, p. 332. The 8w< 

-. p. 332. Note on the "Blowing " of Whales, p. 
'l.dowlauain. p. 331. F u^it. . of Am idiaus p. 383. Lab- 

N.'W York, p. 384. Preparation of 
li . : ' I ■■r*. p. 384. On the Early Stages of Brachi,.pods Uln-Tat, d\ 
p;>) s ' °P\vlhi Pulex) penetrans, p. 386. Birds' Eggs, p. 387. Hab- 
,ts ' T ' ™>. I '- Hon,-, ,, i ! V m ', s , ,il.-„ P 

388. Another r>n„V„, K ^. p . :> , ; „.,. ,., ,,,, 



!l.),p. 390. The S It Lake Kphyd i. p. 391. 1 
p. 391. Variation of Bluebirds' Eggs, p. 391. A I. 
i, p. 495. The Golden Winged Warbler, p. 497. Cor 



CONTENTS OF VOL. III. Vl'i 

p. 497. The Black Vulture in Maine, p. 498. Does with Horns, p. 548. The 
Egg of the Great Auk (Alca impennis),p.550. The Cow Bunting, p. 550. 
The House Fly, p. 550. A Singing Mouse, p. 551. Natural S,;, , ri,,,,, ,| 
Modern Instance, p. 552. Lilies of the Rocks, p. 553. Sagacity of the 
Purple Martin, p. 554. The Capture of Centronix Hainiii a~t Ij-u .,•!, v 
554. Prolific Snakes, p. 555. The Haliotis or IVarly Kar Sh, II. p. :,;,-,. 
Cow Devouring the Placenta, p. 555. The Worm Katini; WarM. r p :.;,n 
Fall of Shell-fish in a rain storm, p. 556. Nyctsie ftlblfrona, p. 566. A 
Fi.Ml.-r-crab with two large hands, p. 557. Kinship of Asciilians and 
Vertebrates, p. 613. House Wrens, p. 614. Deep Sea Dlt 
British Isles, p. 614. The Kingfisher's Nest, p. 615. Spectrum of the 
Fire-fly, p. 615. Occurrence of an American Land Snail in Knghuid. p. 
669. Answer to " Zoologicus," p. 670. 

Geology. — Kjoekkenmceddings in Iowa, p. 54. Rheumatism in Pre- 
historic times, p. 55. Fossil Plants from Greenland, p. 55. The Earliest 
Plant, p. 55. Prehistoric Pictures of the Cave Horse in France, p. 109. 
The Plains of Kansas, p. 162. Fossil Jelly-fishes, p. 279. New Species of 
le in Mexico, p. 392. The Eozoon in Essex County, p. 498. A 
Fossil Tubularian, p. 616. Evidences of the Gulf Stream in High Lati- 
tudes, p. 671. 

Miceoscopy. — Amoeboid Movements in Eggs, p. 110. The Molecular 
Origin of Infusoria, p. 110. Chicago Microscopic Club, p. 111. A New 
Process of Preparing Specimens of Filamentous Algse for the Microscope, 
p. 164. Type-plate of Diatoms, p. 222. Method of Preserving Animal 
Specimens for fine dissection, p. 498. 



lluable Library for sale, p. 503. Death of B. D. 
Walsh, p. 615. Museum of Comparative Zoology, p. 670. Professor 
Agassiz, p. 670. Death of Michael Sars, p. 670. 

Proceedings of Scientific Societies. — Historical Society of Passaic, 
N. J., p. 56. American Association for the Advancement of Science, pp. 
223, 335, 435, 499. The Worcester Lyceum and Natural lli-toi v A — ida- 
tion, p. 280. Conchological Section, Academy of Natural Sciences of 
Philadelphia, p. 556. Chicago Academy of Sciences, p. 557. 

Answers to Correspondents.— Pages 56, 111, 167, 223, 280, 336, 392, 
448, 503, 560, 616, 672. 

Books Received. — Pages 56, 112, 224, 336, 448, 504, 560, 616, 672. 

Corrections and Errata. — Pages viii, 392, 448, 647. 

List of Plates and Cuts, p. viii. 

List of Contributors to Volume in, p. 673, 674. 

Glossary, p. 675, 676. 

Index, p. 677. 



ILLUSTRATIONS. 



LIST OF PLATES 



. Salt and fresh water Clams, eight 



. i 



v Jersey, . J4 



LIST OF WOOD-CUTS. 



new of a Dredge, 









> Vol. in.— Page 3, I 



Plate 10 is marked F 



Page 531, line 7 from bottom, f 



THIS 

MERICAN NATURALIST. 

Vol. III. -MARCH, 1869. -No. 1. 



SHELL-MONEY, 



To the numismatist the love of money is not fraught 
with evil ; his love- is not the worship of Mammon or the 
miser's greed, but rather the ardor of the philosopher or the 
enthusiasm of the naturalist ; he glorifies his coins, not for 
their commercial value, but for their antiquity or historical 
associations. As he ponders over his collection, a panorama 
of past centuries unrolls before him ; he sees a long proces- 
sion of great events, the rise and fall of nations and of men 
whose emblems and effigies, embossed upon their money, 
have outlived the national life. More eloquent than written 
history are these speechless coins. Though silent, they tell 
of epochs in the lives of the nations they represent, and of 
eras in the history of the human race. 

Notwithstanding the importance of money from an historical 
point of view, it is not probable that its invention was due 
to any other cause than commercial necessity ; although <■. ins 
for money are the offspring of civilization, yet the conven- 
ience of some medium, less bulky and more durable than or- 
dinary merchandise, by which the differences occurring in 
transactions of trade or barter may be adjusted, has been 
recognized by barbarous tribes as well as by civilized people. 



The knowledge and use of peculiar narcotics and alcoholic 
beverages by portions of the human race, both civilized and 
barbarous, unacquainted with and widely separated from each 
other is a well-known fact. Analogous to this is the use of 
some form of money or a medium in trade by isolated and 

The earlier coins of ancient Rome appear rude and gro- 
tesque when placed side by side with the exquisitely wrought 
coins and medals of Napoleon the First. But what a degree 
of civilization and knowledge of the arts do they proclaim 
when compared with the barbarism of those wild tribes of 
Africa and America, whose utter ignorance of the arts has 
led them to use as a substitute for metallic money, the shells 
of the ocean ! 

Mr. J. K. Lord, naturalist to the British North American 
Boundary Commission, during the years 1858-62, mentions 
the use of shells as money by the natives of the North-west 
coast of America, as follows : 

"It is somewhat curious that these shells (Dentalia) 
should have been employed as money by the Indians of 
North-western America ; that is, by the native tribes inhabit- 
ing Vancouver's Island, Queen Charlotte's Island and the 
main-land coast from the Straits of Fuca to Sitka. Since 
the introduction of blankets by the Hudson Bay Company 
the use of these shells, as a medium of purchase, has to a 
great extent died out, the blankets having become the 
money, as it were, or the means by which everything is now 
reckoned and paid for by the savage. A slave, a canoe or a 
squaw, is worth in these days so many blankets ; but it used 
to be so many strings of Dentalia." 

Mr. W. H. Dall, who has recently returned from Alaska, 
and whose opportunities for observation have been ample, 
informs me that the Dentalia are used by the native Alaskans, 
and that the furs purchased of the Indians by the fur com- 
panies, or their agents and traders, are still, at least in part 
paid for with these shells. This is still farther confirmed by 



SHELL-MONEY. 3 

the facts that the larger European species of Dental ia are 
imported especially for this trade, and I have myself seen in 
the fancy goods stores in San Francisco, strings of these 
shells displayed for sale with beads and other Indian goods. 

It is undoubtedly true, as stated by Mr. Lord, that the 
use of shell-money has, in a groat measure, ceased at the 



and visitors at the principal towns on the coast, as far north 
as Sitka, has somewhat familiarized the natives with the 
manners and customs of civilized people, which their natural 
shrewdness would lead them to adopt so far as it might he to 
their advantage. 

As proof of the "cuteness" of the "untutored savage" in 
this latter respect, it may be interesting to state that at or 
about the time of the purchase by and transfer to the United 
States of the territory of Eussian America, attended as it 
was by the visit of a considerable number of adventurers 
and others at Sitka, the prices of venison and other game, 
was, in the language of traffic, so far "marked up" that gold 
or its equivalent, to the amount of one dollar a piece was 
charged for salmon, a most exorbitant price, not justified hv 
any greatly increased demand, or by any unusual scarcity of 
this wonderfully abundant fish in that country. 

In the year 1861, during a visit of a month's duration upon 
the coast of California, at Crescent City, in Del Norte County, 
I found that in barter between themselves, the Indians used 
for money the shells of Dentalium pretiosum Sowerby, a spe- 
cies that is found all along the North-west coast of America 
and which, either the shells or the shell-money, is called by the 
Indians, if I remember correctly, Alli-ko-cheek (orthography 
not warranted correct) , and the longer the shells the greater 
the value, which was reckoned by measuring the shells by the 
finger joints. I am quite sure that the same species were 
used by the Indians who live in the Klamath River country 
in the next county to the south, and who get their name from 
the river, being known as the Klamath Indians. 



4 SHELL-MONEY. 

Aside from the use of Dentalium pretiosum as money, I 
saw at Crescent City a medicine man belonging to some of 
the tribes of the neighborhood, who had perforated the griz- 
zly partition which separates the nostrils, and having thrust 
into the hole thus made two of these shells, point to point, 
one from each side, for half the length of the shells, per- 
fected this nasal ornamentation by thrusting the feathers of 
some wild fowl into each of the hollow shells, producing an 
effect somewhat resembling a mustache. 

At Bodiga, much farther to the south on the coast of Cali- 
fornia, and near the old Russian settlement in Sonoma 
County, a place visited by me in the month of June, 1867, 
I was informed by some of the residents that the Indians of 
that neighborhood, living, however, somewhat back from the 
coast, used pieces of the bivalve shell known as Saxido- 
mus gracilis* for money, but why they should use this shell 
instead of the lustrous and pearly Haliotis rufescens, which 
is fully as abundant, it is impossible to discover. 

The use of shells or pieces of shell by the aborigines of 
North America, was well known and recorded years ago. 
By reference to the Massachusetts Historical Collections, it 
will be seen that the early settlers of New England found 
that shells, or strings of shells, were used by the Indians, 
both for money and ornament, and were called by them 
Wbmpompeage or Wampum. 

The natives of some of the islands of the Indo-Pacific 
region use the shells of Litorina obesa, and they also make 
very pretty work by evenly fastening these shells to pieces 
of bark, which, when made, they use for personal ornament. 
In other of the islands, I have been informed that the banded 
variety of Nerita polita is used for the same purposes. 

Cyprata annulus is used by the Asiatic islanders to adorn 
their dress, to weight their fishing nets, and for barter. Speci- 
mens of it were found by Dr. Layard in the ruins of Nim- 

l, second edition, p. 233. 



THE BOTANY OF CENTRAL ILLINOIS. 5 

The money cowry, Cyproea moneta, a native of the Pacific 
and Eastern seas, is used as money in Hindustan and many 
parts of Africa. They are chiefly brought from the Mal- 
dives, and are an article of trade at Bombay. Many tons 
weight are annually imported to this country (Great Brit- 
ain) , and again exported for barter with the native tribes of 
Western Africa. In the year 1848 sixty tons were imported 
into Liverpool, and in 1849 nearly three hundred tons were 
brought to the same port.* 

Eeeve mentions in the second volume of the " Conchologia 
Systematica," that "a gentleman residing some time since at 
Cuttack, is said to have paid for the erection of his bungalow 
entirely in these cowries (C. moneto). The building cost him 
about 4000 rupees sicca (£400 sterling), and as sixty-four 
of these shells are equivalent in value to one 'pice,' and 
sixty-four 'pice' to a rupee sicca, he paid for it with above 
sixteen millions of these shells." 

It will be seen, therefore, that shells have been and are 
still used as money by a considerable portion of the human 
race, and it would be quite difficult to point out any other 
natural production that would be more appropriate or con- 
venient, when size, shape and substance, are considered. 

The money of the wild tribes of America, Africa and 
Asia, one may look for in vain in the drawers of the coin 
collector. It must be sought for in the museums of natural 
history, or the cabinets of the eonehologist. 



THE BOTANY OF CENTRAL ILLINOIS. 



In a region of extensive prairies, the monotonous uni- 
formity of the landscape affords none of the conditions fop 
a flora rich in species. Although the soil of these vast 



6 THE BOTANY OF CENTRAL ILLINOIS. 

natural meadows is of almost unparalleled fertility, and its 
vegetation is always abundant and of luxuriant growth, the 
number of species is small. While many of the natural 
families of plants are wholly wanting, and other large ones 
but feebly represented, two or three for the most part clothe 
the prairies. These are the Composite, the Cyperacese and 
the Graminese ; or, to use plain English, the compound flow- 
ers, the sedges and the grasses. 

Let us take a glance at our prairie herbal and notice some 
of the blanks. First, we find the whole order of the Ra- 
ounculacew represented only by Anemone Pensylvanica and 
A. cylindrica, if we except Ranunculus Purshii, an aquatic 
rarely found in ponds on low prairies. Of the pretty family 
of violets we find only Viola cucitllata, and that only occa- 
sionally in the low moist places. Passing to the heath tribe 
(Ericaese) , one of the most delightful natural orders in all 
oar North American flora, we find not one growing on the 
prairies of Illinois. And even if we leave the prairie and 
search the woods and river bluffs ever so thoroughly we still 
find none. 

The Indian Pipestem (Monotropa uniflora) will be found 
rarely in low woods, and is the only species of the order 
which the writer has observed during two years of botanical 
research in this section of the country. 

There is another still more interesting family, the Orchids. 
Of these only three are found on the prairies, namely : the 
White-flowered Ladies' Slipper (Gypripedium candidum) , a 
Spiranthes of doubtful species, and the so-called Prairie 
Orchis (Platanthera leucophea). Why the last mentioned 
plant has received the popular name of Prairie Orchis we can- 
not conjecture, for it looks, when growing on the prairie, 
like a half starved and homesick foreigner to one who 
has seen its luxuriant growth by hundreds in the tamarack 
marshes of Wisconsin. 

"Well," says some New England friend, "your Illinois 
prairie must be a rather dry field for a botanist in May or 



THE BOTANY OF 

June. These families of plants which you have mentioned 
as nearly absent from your flora are the very ones which fur- 
nish our spring with all her glories." And we must admit 
that the loss from our vernal list of the Kalmias, Azaleas, 
and less gorgeous but more lovely members of the same 
family is almost an irreparable one: nevertheless if our bo- 
tanical confrere of the East will favor us with a visit next 
spring we will gladly satisfy him that we are not without our 
share of vernal beauties. Although the composites are more 
especially the flowers of the prairie, and Ave are obliged to 
wait for the intense rays of the summer sun to call them 
forth, yet there are a few charming ones among them, the 
brilliant Phlox maculate, which is, as it deserves to be, a fre- 
quent tenant of the gardens at the East, also the pretty Hous- 
tonia purpurea, equally as long as its congener of the New 
England meadows, H. cerulea. 

But we shall not take our guest to the prairie for our first 
excursion. We shall prefer a visit to yonder belt of timber, 
which we see a few miles in the distance. There we shall 
doubtless find a running stream with shady bank, and beyond 
a tract of what is called in western parlance "bottom land," 
which is simply an open plain, slightly elevated above the 
low banks of the stream, surrounded by and sometimes cov- 
ered with timber, and which has a flora different from that of 
the prairie. 

From the moment we enter the timber we find a profusion 
of flowers. Scattered over all the shaded slopes grows the 
graceful but odd ! - ■ _ ria. We say odd 

looking, because the shape of the flower is so remarkably 
similar to the outline of a common house fly. Nestling close 
beside some decaying log we may, perhaps, find Bicentra 
Canadensis with its pure white heart-shaped flowers, not less 
interesting than its more common sister species. Yonder we 
see an extensive patch of Mertemia Virginka, which with 
its nodding clusters of richest blue presents a picture of sur- 
passing beauty. 



8 THE CHIMNEY SWALLOW. 

Raising their heads above the foliage of that miniature grove 
of wild mandrakes are a few specimens of the Yellow Ladies' 
Slipper {Cypripedium pubescens) , and below them in stature, 
but of superior beauty, we find the Showy Orchis ( Orchis 
spectabilis) . In the groves of the "river bottom" are to be 
found our New England violets and buttercups, and other 
species of the same genera which are peculiarly Western, and 
with them are Phloxes, Erythroniums and other plants equally 
worthy to be mentioned, but their names would occupy too 
much space. The elegant Collinsia verna must, however, 
not be omitted, nor the flaming Red-bud, which is now clothed 
only with its garlands of purple flowers, and rivals in its 
dazzling splendor some of our choicest exotics. 

In August the prairies put on their gold and purple when 
the Rudbeckias, Helianthuses, Silphiums and other allied 
genera, appear in flower in about eighteen different species, 
all having purplish or purple disks and yellow rays. In con- 
trast with these, the purple Cone-flower, Echinacea, displays 
its long drooping purple rays, and more showy than these are 
the long purple racemes of several species of Liatris. Suc- 
ceeding these come the Asters and Eupatoriums of different 
hues, and the Solidagos or Golden-rods and kindred compos- 
ites of about twenty-five species. Finally in November the 
Geradias and Gentians close the season of botanizing on the 
prairies of Illinois. 



THE CHIMNEY SWALLOW. 



This bird arrives at the eastern part of Massachusetts 
usually between the twenty-fifth of May and the first of 
June, departing for the South in the latter part of August. 
og until the season has far advanced, it is, conse- 
quently, the last of the family of swallows to visit its breed- 



THE CHIMNEY SWALLOW. 9 

ing place. After their arrival they visit some unoccupied 
chimney or hollow tree, which a great number use as a tem- 
porary residence during stormy weather, and to roost in. 
In this as it were aimless gathering-place, they do not long 
remain, but soon begin to select their companions, and at 
such times they may be seen high in the air, especially in 
the middle of an extremely warm day, chasing each other in 
circles upon extended wings, but without that quick vibrating 
motion they employ when in pursuit of their prey, uttering 
the while their peculiar notes ; their choice of mates being 
made they commence building their nests. They are usually 
placed in a chimney, in which a number of pairs breed, for 
they colonize the same place to the number of three or four 
pairs, and sometimes to fifty pairs, more or less. The nest 
is constructed in a singular manner : it is made of small dry 
twigs, broken from some dead branch of a tree by the bird 
flying swiftly against it, and then carried to the spot and 
fastened to it with a strong viscid substance supplied by 
their large salivary glands. Each stick is laid near the other 
and some crosswise, and there glued by the bird until the 
nest is finished, which is done by spreading over the entire 
surface of it, as well as the sides of the wall to which it is 
attached, a coat of the same tenacious gum. It resembles a 
shelf, containing only a small cavity to receive the eggs, and 
lacks the soft lining that characterizes the nests of other 
species of swallows. 

In the month of May (1868; a chimney was taken down 
in the village called Putnamville, in Danvers. It was a large 
chimney connected with a shoe factory, that had not been 
used for four or five years. During the time of its disuse a 
large colony of chimney swallows occupied it to breed in. I 
had a good opportunity to examine their nests, to take their 
dimensions, etc., and not one of the many which I saw (and 
the number of nests were upwards of two hundred) were 
"lined with a few feathers and straws." 

Although their visit is short, they raise two broods in the 



10 THE CHIMNEY SWAIXOW. 

season. The first nest being built, the female lays usually 
four pure white eggs, which measure thirteen-sixteenths of 
an inch in length, by seven-sixteenths of an inch in breadth, 
and is assisted by the male in the process of incubation. A 
few days after the young appear, the male takes them in 
charge, while the female builds again, as she is seen in the 
last of June obtaining materials to build or to repair another 
nest, and thus we see young birds in the same chimney of a 
different size and age ; it therefore requires all the energies 
of the parent birds to supply their offspring with a suffi- 
ciency of food, and claims their labor through the day and a 
greater part of the night. Some species of the family of 
finches conduct their family affairs in like manner. 

Mr. Audubon, in speaking of the habits of the song-spar- 
row, remarks : "among the many wonders unveiled to us by 
the study of nature, there is one which long known to me, is 
not the less a marvel at the present moment. I have never 
been able to conceive why a bird which produces more than 
one brood in a season, should abandon its first nest to con- 
struct a new one, as is the case of the present species ; while 
other birds, such as the osprey and various species of swal- 
lows, rear many broods in the first nest which they have 
made, which they return to after their long annual migra- 
tions, repair and render fit for the habitation of the young 
brood to be produced." "There is another fact which ren- 
ders the question still more difficult to be solved. I have 
generally found the nests of these sparrows cleaner and more 
perfect after the brood raised in them have made their de- 
parture, than the nests of other species of birds, mentioned 
above, are on such occasions, — a circumstance which would 
render it unnecessary for the song-sparrow to repair its 

The first nest of the sparrow is occupied by the first brood, 
and are tended by the male, while the female sparrow has 
built a second nest and is setting, and by the time the first 
brood is cast off by him, to care for themselves, he finds 



THE CHIMNEY SWALLOW. 11 

another brood ready for his care ; thus all the season is occu- 
pied by them in building nests, in incubation, and in rearing 
their young, until the moulting season arrives, which is 
about the twenty-fifth of August. The pigeon family breed 
in a similar manner, except that the young are fed from the 
crop of the male, and it is truly a greater wonder in nature, 
that there should exist a sympathy between the male pigeon 
and his offspring, and that at their appearance his crop 
should undergo so great a change. The rapacious birds 
return annually to their old nests, and by repairing them, 
make them suitable receptacles for their eggs. There is an 
unfitness in the structure of birds of prey which makes it 
inconvenient for them to build a nest with the facility of 
some other families of birds. The white-headed eagle selects 
some dead branch of a tree, and by hooking her bill on it, 
with her weight breaks it off. In its descent, she swoops and 
grasping it with her claws carries it away to make her nest; 
she pounces upon bunches of hay, sods of earth or any heap 
of rubbish, and carries it to the already accumulated heap of 
such substances. There is no artistic skill displayed *in its 
construction ; the top of it is merely a horizontal plane, with 
a shallow cavity to receive her eggs. Some families in this 
order of birds build better nests, but they show the same 
unhandy and awkward way in doing it, and there are some 
species of other families in this order which build no nest. 

There are other birds, also, such as "the swallows, whose 
forms are ill-adapted for good nest builders ; with small feet 
and short weak legs it is toilsome for them to gather mate- 
rial for a nest from off the ground. Now observe all those 
birds whose structure is similar to that of the swallow family. 
Not one species of the family Caprimulgidse builds a nest. 
The whippoorwill lays her eggs on the ground in the woods : 
the night-hawk on the naked rock, or the bare ground in 
open pastures. Look at the belted kingfisher, whose form 
is similar to the above mentioned birds ; how ill-adapted he 
is to gather materials from the ground to form a nest. Al- 



12 THE CHIMNEY SWALLOW. 

though a bird of strong pinion, yet deprive him of the use 
of his wings, and place him on the land, and he is almost 
helpless. 

In the different species of the Picidse, or Woodpecker 
family, are as many instances that the structure of birds de- 
termine whether those of certain forms build a nest or not, 
and if they do, they return to it annually to render it fit 
for a home for themselves and family during the breeding 
season. 

It is a tedious task for the chimney swallow to procure the 
material for its nest; it requires energy, skill and strength to 
perform the work. Flying with force, they grasp the point 
of the twig with their bill, and often try several times before 
they succeed in breaking it off. The female visits her former 
breeding place, and examines her nest ; if it needs repairs, 
she adds more twigs and gum to it, and it is all right again. 
Thirty years ago this species of swallow was rarely found 
breeding in Essex County ; now many pairs breed in almost 
every village where they find an unoccupied chimney. 

The Chimney Swallow ( Cypselus pelasgius) does not pos- 
sess the easy and graceful motion when on the wing that is 
shown by the Barn Swallow (Hit-undo rustica) in his flight, 
but moving more swiftly and vigorously, they must destroy 
an innumerable number of insects in a season. It not unfre- 
quently happens that their nest is dislodged from its place, 
and falls in consequence of rain or damp weather. When 
such accidents happen, the whole brood is precipitated to the 
bottom of the chimney. If its members are of sufficient age 
and strength, they will climb up again and remain clinging 
to its sides, until fledged and able to care for themselves. 

There are occurrences happening to them which are of 
greater moment. Sometimes having selected a flue in the 
chimney leading to the bedroom, and having there brought 
forth their numerous young, and their cares consequently 
increasing so as to require their labors in the night, the 
rushing whirring noise of their flight as they pass up and 



THE STRUCTURE OF THE PITCHER PLANT. 13 

down the flue may so disturb the nervous sleeper that he is 
determined to be rid of such an annoyance ; he accordingly 
prepares in the habitation of these birds a fire of straw ; the 
parents of the unfledged young flee in dismay, and rise above 
their smoking tenement and wheel about in terror, then dive 
down near its top as though they would rescue their suffo- 
cating brood from a death so awful. At last their courage 
gone they turn and soar away above the scene, while their 
young drop one by one in the fire below, and the parental 
feelings of the old birds induce them to linger about their 
desolate home for many days. To obviate this inhuman 
practice, a board placed on the top of the chimney before 
they commence breeding is all that is necessary. 



THE STRUCTURE OF THE PITCHER PLANT. 



About twenty species of the genus Nepenthes are known 
to botanists, and while some are natives of swamps in 
Africa and China, most of the species are found on Mount 
Kinau Ballou, in the Island of Borneo, growing at an eleva- 
tion of from three to eight thousand feet above the sea. The 
species whose minute anatomy we partially describe, is the 
Nepenthes distillatoria, found growing in China and at the 
Cape of Good Hope. This plant often attains the length of 
ten or twelve feet, generally lying prostrate, or partially 
supported by other plants. It bathes its roots in the hot 
swamps near the coast, but cannot lift its flowers very high 
in the sunshine, because its branching stem which bears 
many long and partly clasping leaves, and also its precious 



14 THE STRUCTURE OF THE PITCHER PLANT. 

burthen of watercups, is too feeble to support the weight. 
Seldom does the stem exceed two inches iu diameter, being 
long and flexible like a rope. 

»w, as all readers of the Natu- 
ralist may not be botanists, we will 
3 that the plants in question bear 
' on the ends of their leaves peculiar 
appendages not unlike pitchers in 
form, and hence they are commonly 
known as pitcher-plants. Like the 
pitchers we use for domestic pur- 
poses, they are often colored with 
many gorgeous tints, and fashioned 
into graceful shapes, often with a 
capacity to hold more than a quart 
of liquid. As nature is seldom out- 
done by art, these forest cups have 
the ability to till themselves, thus 
differing in an important respect 
from the pitchers we use. 

For a long time it has been a 
question where this liquid came 
from, and our knowledge of the 
subject is still too limited to say 
from what part of the plant it is 
poured out, though it is probable 
special glands have been set apart 
to perform that function. To de- 
ckle this question, certainly, would 
require close observation on the liv- 
ing pitchers, and that would be very 
their early stages of growth they are 
curious lids at the top, and in the young 
>st rapid and copious. 

drawing made (half size) from a 
pitcher that had been rendered transparent in order to show 




difficult, because in 

tightly closed by the 

state excretion is m< 

Fig. 1 is 



THE STRUCTURE 



its venation, and the position of both i 
dots, commencing at the bottom and e 
mark,* represent the position and nni 




litied eighty diam- 
s) of these glands, also ren- 
dered transparent, so that their anatomy may be seen at one 
view. They are depressed below the inner surface of the 
pitcher, and have, extending over nearly half the diameter 
of each, a projection of the epider- Fig . 3 

mis like many little roofs, so that i 
stream of water poured in at the I 
top would reach the bottom of the | 
pitcher without touching a gland. 
The fine reticulation marking 
surface of each, is caused by the 
ends of long columnar cells making 
up the gland structure, and these 
columnar cells rest on others of j 
larger size, shown in the draw 
All the parts just described are best I 
seen by a perpendicular section (Fig. 
3, magnified one hundred and sixty 
diameters), and it may also be ob- I 
served that each gland lies imme- ' 
diately over large isolated and spiral cells, which have no 
vascular connection with the ordinary spiral structure of the 
plant. 

In. a description, without illustrations, of this series of 
glands, published in the "Edinburgh New Philosophical 

♦Crossing the middle of the pitcher; the dots are omitted in the figure. 




16 THE STRUCTUKE OF THE PITCHER PLANT. 

Journal" for 1832 and 1833, by Treviranus, he says the 
cuticle does not cover the glandular surface ; it is, however, 
very easy to demonstrate that it is reflected down over each 
o-land, and whatever liquid is excreted must filter through 
this cuticular covering before it falls into the pitcher. 

By referring again to Fig. 1, it will be seen that a thick- 
ened margin or frill surrounds nearly the entire top of the 
pitcher. Now, embedded in this fleshy frill, lie many elon- 
gated, cylindrical glands, like guns on a fortification, all 
opening on its inner side by minute ducts which lead up to 
Fig. 4. the glands. The size of these 

very peculiar organs varies, as 
shown in Fig. 4 (magnified 
eighty diameters), and some- 
times they are united at the 
ends, though this can be re- 
garded only as a curious malfor- 
mation. The drawing shows the 
union of the ducts with each 
gland, and also their cellular 
structure, better than many 
words could describe it. In a 
iew of one of these glands, w^e see it is somewhat 
crescentic in shape ; the orifice of the duct is apparent, and 
also the position of the gland with respect to the epidermis 
which covers the frill. This second series of organs lies 
embedded in a tissue, made up chiefly of large, isolated, 
spiral cells, developed to a degree not found probably in 
any other plant. Treviranus seems not to have been aware 
of these upper glands in Nepenthes, nor have we seen them 
noticed by any authority before. 

In describing the structures alluded to in this paper, we 
have used the term gland for want of a better one, but we do 
not therefore assume any speciality of function. This is a 
point about which we arc ignorant. The structure of an 
organ will not enable us to predict its function, though it 




THE COMPRESSED BURBOT OR EEL-POU1 



the Nepenthes. We allude to it now only to express our 
intention, if opportunity should offer, to illustrate its singu- 
lar structure, as well as that of others of these remarkable 
plants, which nature seems to have appointed to set their 
traps anion- the swamps, hut for what purpose, perhaps, we 

.Mary Peart and Miss Emma Walter, and the drawings were 
made from specimens in our possession. 



THE COMPRESSED BURBOT OR EEL-POUT.* 



_^L 



Of the genus Lota, there are several speeies. The Eng- 
lish Burbolt (Burbot), as described by Yarrell in his work on 
British fishes, and bv Couch, belongs to this genus, yet prob- 
ably is a different species from any in our lakes and rivers. 
Couch savs. '"the Burbolt (Burbot) is the only one of the 



isive family of tl 
water, where it 



I of 



18 THE COMPRESSED BURBOT OR EEL-POUT. 

the manners of the eel, by which it has obtained the name 
of the eel-pout." 

In this country, according to DeKay, we have three spe- 
cies : the Plain Burbot {Lota inornata) which is rare, the 
Spotted Burbot {Lota maculosa) which is abundant in our 
lakes, and the Compressed Burbot {Lota compressa) which 
is very rare.* DeKay, when he published the Fauna of 
New York, in the Natural History of that State, says, "the 
onhf tiro specimens described are from the Connecticut Eiver 
and its tributaries. I know it only through the descriptions 
of Lesueur and Storer." 

This species was first described by Lesueur from a speci- 
men taken at Northampton, Mass. The second description 
was by Dr. D. Humphreys Storer, of Boston, from a speci- 
men taken in the Ashuelot River. In his report on the Fishes 
of Massachusetts, page 134, published in 1839, he says, 
"the only specimen I have been able to see was sent me 
from Iveene, N. H., taken in the Ashuelot Eiver." In the 
Catalogue of the Fishes of Connecticut, by Rev. James H. 
Lindsley, in the American Journal of Science and Arts (Yol. 
47, page 71) he says, "I obtained a fine specimen {Lota com- 
pressa), taken a few years since in New Canaan, Conn." In 
Dr. Storer's article on the tishes of Massachusetts, published 
in the Memoirs of the American Academy of Arts and Sci- 
ences (new series, Vol. 6, part second, page 360, published 
in 1858) he says, "the one from which this description was 
taken, was brought from the Connecticut River by Thomas 
M. Brewer, M. D., of Boston." If Dr. Storer refers to two 
specimens in his reports of 1839 and 1858, we have four 
specimens described ; if to but one, only three specimens 
have ever been described so far as I can learn. 

The specimen which I have before me was taken in Scantic 



Color.— The back and sides are yellowish brown, with 
irregular patches of a darker color, marked somewhat like our 
pickerel, only a shade darker; the gill covers and snout are 
dark brown, the belly is of a light color in place of the yel- 
lowish on the sides ; the first dorsal tin is lighter than the 
body; the second dorsal and caudal fins are dark at the base, 
yellowish in the middle, with the edge margined with black or 
dark brown; the anal fin is similarly marked, though a little 
lighter; the black margin is not as wide as on the dorsal. 

Description.— The body is shaped very much like an eel, 
being cylindrical; the abdomen rather more prominent than 
in' the eel. The head measures one and three-quarter inches 
in length and is compressed above. The sides begin to be 
compressed at the tip of the pectorals, and continue to be 
more so until it terminate- in the caudal tin. whirl) appears 

at its longest point. The first dorsal is quite small, amf is 
two inches from the head. The second dorsal is situated a 
quarter of an inch back of the first dorsal, and terminates at 
the base of the tail, and is rounded at its posterior extrem- 
ity. The anal fin commences an eighth of an inch lower 
down than the dorsal, and terminates in the same manner. 
The ventral fins measure seven-eighths of an inch in length, 
and are composed of two free rays, one ray measuring live- 



BOT OK EEL-POUT. 

eighths, the other one-fourth of an inch. These free rays 
are used by the fish as feelers, in the same way as the barbel 
on the chin. The pectoral fins measure one and an eighth 
inches in length, and have one very minute free ray. On 
the chin is one barbel half an inch in length. The nostrils 
are double ; from the back of the anterior nostril is a minute 
barbel. The eyes are circular, and three-quarters of an inch 
apart. Both upper and lower jaws arc armed with minute 
teeth. The whole surface is covered with exceedingly small 
cup-shaped scales, which are not plainly visible except by the 
aid of a magnifying glass. 

In the description given by Lesueur, Storer, Lindsley 
and DeKay, no mention is made of the free rays of the ven- 
tral fins. They are as distinct and noticeable as the barbel 
on the chin, and more so whin swimming. 

It is thought by some that Lota compressa and Lota macu- 
losa are identical. I am not sufficiently versed in ichthyol- 
ogy to be a dictator or judge in the matter, yet the habits 
and dimensions of the two are so dissimilar as to lead me to 
suppose that they are two distinct species. The Lota macu- 
losa is two feet in length at maturity. The largest Lota com- 
pressa ever known was the one described by Lindsley, — 
eleven and a quarter inches. The Lota compressa probably 
visits the salt water, as it is taken in ascending the Connec- 
ticut or its tributaries in the spring of the year, in company 
with fish from the salt water ascending to spawn. So few 
have been taken that it may not be wise to be positive in 
this assertion, yet I have no doubt, in my own mind, that it 
is a fact. Four have been taken to my knowledge within six 
miles of my office, within a few years, and all have been 
taken in the spring. Three of them were taken in company 
with the Lamprey eel (Petromi/zon Americanus), in pots 
set for them, and the fourth (the one in my possession) was 
caught in a fine net with a promiscuous collection of fish. 

The Spotted Burbot, on the contrary, lives exclusively in 
fresh water. 



As I have called the attention of the fishera 
vicinity to the rarity of this fish, I shall probabl 
mens that would otherwise have been thrown 
hope to gain farther information respecting this 
species. 



SALT AND FRESH- WATER CLAMS. 



We choose these two animals for description since they 
are accessible to all. The inland student may rake from the 
pond or river the fresh-water clam, or mussel, in quantities, 
while the sea-side student lias only to step into the market 
and order the salt-water clam by the bushel. 

In presenting such descriptions for study, it is always best 
to cite as examples those forms which are most abundant, so 
that whatever statements are made can be quickly vorilied 
by an examination of the object described. A general 
knowledge once attained of the common animals, prepares 
one to enter farther into the study of zoology, and enables 
him, through the facts already garnered, to use his informa- 
tion in the prosecution of new investigations. We commence, 
then, with the description of an animal, about which little has 
been said except in books professedly scientific : an animal, 
however, long and well known from the cheap and excellent 
food it affords, and from its no less importance in providing 
bait for our fishing fleets. 

" That the daintiness of the clam for food was known to the 
aborigines of this country, is well attested by the huge piles 
of broken clam shells scattered along our eastern coast, 
and now buried beneath a foot or more of soil. Mingled 
with these piles the archaeologist reaps a rich harvest of In- 
dian relics, such as implements made of bone, fragments 
of pottery, etc.* These are the only evidences of by-gone 



22 SALT AND FEESH-WATER CLAMS. 

tribes which have left their records in the remains of their 

From an old book published in London in 1636, entitled 
"New England's Prospect," etc., it would appear that the 
squaw performed the hard work then, as now, and that, 
unimpeded with trailing skirt, she waded over the mud-flats 
in search of clams for her indolent master. From this book 
we make the following extract, more quaint than elegant, 
og the "kinds of shell-fish." 



The shells also came in good use as table utensils, 
from a work published about the year 1676, entitled " 
England's Crisis," by Benjamin Thomson, the prologue 
mences thus: 



Thus much for its historical interest ; and now let 
once enter into an examination of the animal itself. A cla 
as we find it in the market, does not certainly present 
very inviting appearance. The two bluish white shells hold 
within an unintelligible yellowish mass, while projecting 
from one end is a wrinkled blackish lump, that upon bring 
irritated withdraws within the shell, throwing ou 
same time a stream of water, the shells meanwhile shutting 
together tightly. To appreciate the natural appearance of 
the animal, we must place it in its natural element— the 
water. Be sure and get a dish long enough for its 
stretch. A shallow pan twelve or fifteen inches in lei 
will be sufficient. Having filled the pan with fresh 
water and immersed our clam in it, we wait patiently 
leave it for a while, perhaps half a day ; but finally" the 



FRESH-WATER i 



e of them, and as steadily flowing 


out of 


rrents are produced by the tremul 


Ions nu 


le minute hairs, or cilia, which 


line th 


imal. 




The clam has no power to seek it 


s food, 


burrow in the sand or mud. Its 


food c. 



nourishment is carried to it. While the water conveys tend 
to the mouth, it is also charged with oxygen to revivify the 
blood; for the clam has blood, and a 'heart . and vessels to 
circulate it. What admirable uses do we see alreadv in the 
so-called head of the clam. Lying buried as it is to a con- 
siderable depth in the mud, these tubes are thrust to the 
surface to conduct the pure water laden with nourishment for 
the stomach and gills. The water, as it passes out through 
the other tube, carries with it all exerementitious matter and 
other waste from the body. 

In the "Annals and Magazine of Natural History/' Messrs. 
Alder and Hancock describe the appearance of these cur- 
rents. From their account we extract the following : "We 

its native haunts, and watched the play of its siphonal cur- 
rents under very favorable circumstances. This species, at 
the mouth of the Tyne, buries itself to a depth of six or 
eight inches in a stirb-h clay, mixed with shingle; and in 
shallow pools left by the tide the tubes may be seen just 
level with the surface of the muddy bottom in full action. 



24 SALT AND FKESH- WATER CLAMS. 

The mud lies closely packed against the walls of the tubes, 
so that nothing is seen but the expanded lips of the siphonal 
orifices fringed with numerous tentacles. When it happens 
that the surface of the water is only a little above these ori- 
fices, a strong current can be distinctly seen to boil up from 
the anal siphon, and another, with a constant steady flow, to 
set into the branchial one." 

On plate 1, tig. 2, is represented a clam in its natural 
position in the mud, showing the extent to which the tubes, 
or siphons, can be extended; and in Fig. 1 a clam is repre- 
sented with one of the shells— the left shell— removed. As 
we remove the shell, we are forced to separate two muscles 
which hold the shells, or valves, as thev are called, together. 
The valves arc forced apart by an elastic substance that oc- 
cupies the little tongue-shaped tooth of the shell near the 
hinge, and in order to keep the valve together, the clam has 
to exert a constant force by contracting I he muscles. The 
moment the muscles relax, the elastic substance forces tin; 
valve., apart, acting as a piece of India-rubber would act if 
placed within the hinge of a door, and the door closed against 
it. Fig. 4, plate 1, represents a section of the valves of a 
clam, showing the elastic substance, l, and the transverse 

Having opened the clam, we find lining the shells within 
a thin membrane called the mantle. Its border which fol- 
lows the edges of the shell, is thickened and united, except 
a small slit through which the so-called foot projects. This 
organ ha- the power of excavalinir a hole in the mud. Ac- 
cording to one writer, it assumes a variety of shapes while 

ing tool, a hook, a sharp wedge." 

The abdomen occupies the centre line of the body, and 
forms the principal edible portion of the clam. It contains 
the ovary and liver, — the liver being recognized bv its dark 
color. (For the different parts see plate 1, and explanation 
of the plate.) The mouth of the clam is directly under the 






forward transverse muscle. ] 
of the mouth, that the so-calle 



abdomen, passes along the back, going directly through the 
heart, and terminates above the posterior muscle. Pig. 7, 

plate 1, represents the heart as seen from above. This con- 
side, which takes the blood from the -nils. The plls are two 
in number, and hang from below the back, on each side of 
the abdomen. The thickened portion of the base of the 
tubes, commonly called the shoulder, are muscles to draw in 
the tubes. Space will not allow us to enter farther into the 
anatomy of the clam. We may add, however, that nearly 
all bivalves are organized in a similar way. We give a 
transverse section of a fresh- water mussel to show the vari- 
ous organs. (See the plate and explanation.) 

The clam is Used for food in Europe, Asia and America. 
Jeffrey says, "it forms one of the numerous articles of 
Chinese diet, being brought to market after having been 
boiled for a long time, and cooked with a seasoning of which 
onions are a base. The people call it Tsega." Fabricius 
states that in Greenland the clam is eaten by the walrus, 
Arctic fox, and birds. 

In the fresh-water clam, instead of two long tubes covered 
by one sheath as in the sea-clam, we have two short tubes, one 
only being separate, the other merging into the mantle, whi^h 
is open throughout; though by reference to the plate it will 
be seen that the tubes bear a general resemblance to those of 
the sea-clam. In the fresh-water clam the elastic substance 
opening the shells is outside, and pulls them apart when the 



26 SALT AND FRESH-WATER CLAMS. 

muscles relax (PI. 1, fig; 5). While the sea-clam lies buried 
in the mud, head downward, with but little power of loco- 
motion, the fresh-water clam has the faculty of moving 
through the mud or sand in which it lies partially embedded. 
Fig. 6, plate 1, represents the natural attitude of the Unio, 
or fresh- water clam. It will be seen that the tubes are 
above the level of the sand. The foot is very large, and 
with it the Unio is enabled to move along slowly, the shell 
wedging its way through the sand, leaving a groove or fur- 
row along the river bottom, and often the collector takes 
advantage of these tracks in finding them. 

But little is known regarding the development of the sea- 
clam, or Mya, as it is technically termed, but it is similar to 
that of the Unio. In these the eggs issue from the ovaries, 
and find their way into the cavities of the outer gills. There 
they develop until they are furnished with a little triangular 
shell, large enough to be recognized by the unassisted eye. 
At this stage they are discharged by thousands into the 
water, and are left to take care of themselves. It has been 
ascertained that they attaeli themselves by a little thread to 
the river bottom, thus preventing them from being swept 
away, though it is probable that not one in a hundred ever 
reaches maturity, as fishes and other aquatic animals feed 
upon them. Fig. 8, plate 1, represents the shell of the young 
Unio. 

Many of the common fresh-water clams produce pearls, 
though the black mussel, with a white pearly interior, often- 
times produces pearls of considerable clearness. These pearls 
are caused by particles of sand or other irritating" substance 
getting in between the mantle and shell. This irritates the 
animal, and this irritation causes the animal to deposit upon 
the particle layer after layer of pearl. In China, the natives 
taking advantage of their knowledge of the way in which 
pearls are formed, have shown their ingenuity by making 
flat lead castings of their little idols. These they insert in 
a species of fresh-water clam, by first wedging the shells 



apart, and then slipping the idols in between the mantle and 
the shell. After a lapse of time- they collect the shells and 
open them, and adhering to the interior of the shells, they 
find the little lead images coated with a layer of pearl ; these 
are neatly cut out from the shell, and are worn as charms. 

It is a matter of wonder that some enterprising Yankee 
has not had recourse to this, as a novel mode in getting up 
shirt studs and sleeve buttons. 

All these shells increase in size by depositing lime around 
the margin of the shells, and the concentric lines upon the 
outside of these shells indicate successive periods of growth 
and repose. 

For additional information regarding another species of 
bivalve, the salt-water mussel, the reader is referred to Vol. 
H, p. 243, of this Magazine. 



Fig. 1. Sea-clam, Mya < 



verse muscle, technically anterior addueto 


p o, posterior 


adductor ; 


F, foot; o, opening in the mantle 




This figure represents the clam with it- bac 




the anteric 


r end turned to the left. 




sj. 2. Sea-clam in 


its natural position in the mud, 




showing t 


le tubes extended to the surface of 




?. 3. Ideal transve 


rse section of fresh-water clam, U 






ventricle ; a, auricle ; g, gills ; m, 






ection of Mya, showing the position 


of the spring to 


open the shell, m, muscle ; l, ligament. 








of the spring to 


open the shell, iff, muscle ; l, ligament. 






lam. Vni , ■• .•<'-. i 


ing. The 


anterior end is depressed, and t 


he foot is seen 








?. 7. Heart of clam 


seen from above, v, ventricle ; a a, 


auricle ;gg, line 


of gills. 






?. 8. Young of Unio. 





THE SENSES OF SIGHT AND SMELL OF THE WILD 
TURKEY AND THE COMMON DEER. 



It is claimed for the wild turkey that it has the quickest 
and most accurate sight of any known animal. It is a say- 
inir among old hunters that it can detect the human eye 
looking through a knot-hole from the inside of a hollow 
tree. I once observed an incident illustrative of its remark- 
able power of sight, and tending to show that its apprehen- 
sion of scent is correspondingly dull. 

In December, 1847, I was hunting deer on the Vermilion 
River, ami had been following one from daylight till three 
o'clock in the afternoon, over the breaks and bl nil's of the 
Vermilion River, through six inches of dry hard snow, 
almost as difficult to walk in as dry corn-meal. When near 
the foot of the bluff, not far below the mouth of Deer Park, 
some distance off, I saw a flock of wild turkeys crossing the 
river on the ice, and coming directly towards me. My am- 
bition immediately fell from a deer to a turkey. I concealed 
myself in a very dense thicket of underbrush, and soon heard 
the turkeys approaching with that contented quit, quit, in 
which they frequently give expression to a happy sense of se- 
curity. My pointer, which was as good at following a deer as 
a grouse, stood at my feet without moving a muscle, though 
his eyes shone like balls of tire when he scented the turkeys 
and heard them pass by. They passed, I should judge by 
the noise, not more than fifty or sixty feet from me, with- 
out taking the least alarm. About fifty yards distant there 
was a bare spot of considerable extent, near the brow of the 
bluff to which their course would evidently take them, where 
I promised myself a sure shot. I rested my gun against a 
small tree that I might make no perceptible motion before 

(28) 



looking at me, for the instant his head appeared he stared 
fixedly towards me, and gave the loud quick note of alarm. 
In a second or two he took wiiur, followed by the rest of the 
flock. I still think he was in a little doubt, else he would 
not have remained an instant after seeing me, and when he 
did fly, instead of going directly away, he passed near 
enough over me to satisfy his doubts. 

The eyes of the turkey are so situated as to embrace 
within the range of vision a very large field. Here we see 
the sight was very quick if not absolutely certain. Although 
they had passed very near us, the sense of smell had given 
them no intimation of our presence. 

While I stood there, my gun still resting against the tree, 
deeply chagrined at what I supposed the last chance for 
game that day. for I was too much fatigued to track farther, 
I heard the brush crack, and in an instant the largest buck 
with the largest horns I ever saw, stopped not more than 
thirty or forty feet from me. While I could distinctly make 
out his form, the bushes were too thick to allow the hope that 
I could reach him with a ballet. My only chance was to 
wait till he should pursue his course, which would bring him 
through a short space where the bushes were lower, and I 
might get a shot on the bound when his body would be 
above them. He stared at me some seconds, as if something 
told him of danger ; but at length he seemed to become re- 
assured, and bounded along in his original course as if he 
was iu somewhat of a hurry, but not in manifest alarm. As 



30 



SENSES OF SIGHT AND SMELL. 



I anticipated, on his third or fourth bound he gave me a 
chance, and I tired as he was descending. His heels flew 
into the air with a snap as if his hoofs would flv off, and he 
fell all in a heap. There was something in the size of the 
deer and of his horns, the way in which his hind legs, as 
quick as lightening, stretched almost perpendicularly in the 
air, and the mode of his falling, which produced a thrill of 
delight which I have never before or since experienced. I 
reloaded as quickly as possible and approached the spot 
where he fell. The first sight told what was the matter. He 
aad raised himself on his forefeet, and was looking fiercely 
aio,n„l tor an enemy, every hair on his shoulders and neck 
standing forward, and his eyes glaring with the ferocity of a 
demon. All behind his shoulders appeared quite inanimate 
and as wilted as a rag. His backbone was scveml j„.t 
behind his shoulders. It took another shot in the head to 
induce him to let me bleed him. By the time this was done, 
a little old man, with a rifle on his shoulder, made his way 
through the bushes to where I stood, and looked at my 
trophy in a most disconsolate way. At length he remarked, 
without taking the least notice of my salutation, "Well you 
have got him." To this manifest truth I assented, and asked 
him to help slue the deer around that he might bleed the 
better, as he was rather heavy for one to handle. "Excuse 
me " said he, "I have been following that rascal ever since 
daylight. I am a good way from home with no time to 
^are ; and away he hurried before I had time to offer to 
divide the venison with him. Probably that is not the only 
mstence in which one has lost a supper by.being in too great 

Although the deer had his attention arrested by the scent, 
and in full view of my entire form, and of the dog standing 
at my feet, yet from not seeing the least motion, he could 
not make us out. 



THE FAUNA OF MONTANA TERRITORY. 



Richardson's Pewee (Gontopua Richardsonii). 

Flycatchers (Empidonax pusiftas. ofwHnis. and mini- 
mus). These being the species found at Fort Bridges, I 
suppose one or more of them to have been amono- the small 
flycatchers I saw in the mountains. They wore exceedingly 
shy, and though I shot one or two I did not find them, as 
they fell or hid among thick bushes. 

Swaixson's Thrush {Tardus Swaimonii). I heard the 
low call note of this bird in the early morning and evening 
throughout the mountains, but rarely saw it. as it was very 
shy and watchful,— more so than T. ustulatus on the west 
coast. Its note and habits were otherwise similar, but I 
heard no song from it on account of the late season. They 
were migrating south in September, and common at Coeur 
d'Alene Mission up to the 22d. Near Fort Colville I also 
saw this or T. ustulatus still later. 

Robin Thrush (T. migratorius) . Not abundant, but seen 
all along the route except in the dense forests. At Milk 
river I found a nest, with eggs, built in a split trunk of a 
half fallen tree. 

Oregon Robin (T. ncevius). I found this beautiful thrush 
common near the summit of the Ccbui- d'Alene Mountains 
about September 10th, frequenting the exceedingly dark and 
damp spruce forests, which seemed to be its favorite summer 
residence as at the mouth of the Columbia river. I was 
surprised to find many of them about Fort Vancouver as 
early as October 28th, where I did not see them in 1853 
until December. There had been an uncommonly early fall 
(31) 



;>2 



THE FAUNA OF MONTANA TERRITORY . 



of snow on the Cascade Mountains, which probably drove 
them down. 

Eastern Bluebird {Sialia sialis). I noticed this species 
at the mouth of Milk river, and as this is within sight of the 
first range of mountains, their base may be considered as its 
western limit. I saw it also near Fort Laramie in 1857. 

Arctic Bluebird {8. arctica). I saw a few of this species 
on the eastern slope of the Eocky Mountains only, and at a 
high elevation. I have no doubt, however, of its also fre- 
quenting some parts of the western slopes, and Nuttall savs 
that he saw it at Fort Vancouver in the winter. It is more 
shy and silent than either of the other species. 

Western Bluebird (S. Mexicana) . None of the West- 
ern Bluebird were seen until reaching Spokan river, north 
and west of which it is found wherever there are trees, shun- 
ning only the dense forest. 

Eusr-CROWNED Wren {Regulus calendula) and Golden- 
crowned Wren (fi. satrapa). Seen in small nnmbers 
throughout the Rocky Mountains. 

Water Ouzel (Hydrobata Mexicana). I was surprised 
to find this Ouzel scarce in the Rocky Mountains, having 
seen none myself, and only one being observed by Capt. 
Floyd Jones, whose attention was attracted by its peculiar 
habits. This was just east of the Cceur d'Alene Pass. 

Macgillivray's Warbler (Geothlypis Macgillivrayi) . 
Young birds and old ones in fall plumage were common all 
across the Rocky Mountains, even near the summits, hut I 
saw none in the dense forests of the Coenr d'Alene Range, 
which they seem to avoid as they do those of the- (cast 
Range in Washington Territory. 

Water Thrush (Seiurus ITovceboracensis? No. 70). Hell 
Gate river, August 24th.* Though smaller than the average, 
this specimen agrees closely with some in Baird's Report from 
Pennsylvania and Florida. I found it pretty common in the 



Rocky Mountain*, though not <ccmi down the Misso 
The specimen preserved is larger than any meai 
recorded by Baird. 

Babn Swallow (Mr-undo horreonnn). The B: 
low occurs in small numbers entirely across the Ch- 
oi' Nebraska, but seems to limit its summer res 



Benton in July, and in some parts of the Rocky Mountains 
afterwards. 

Cliff Swallow {H. lunifmns). Swarms of this species 
occurred at every suitable cliff along the Missouri, and across 
the Rocky Mountains fo Cceur d'Alene Mission, where they 
remained until September 18th. 

Swallow (H. bicolor or ihalassinaf). I saw a flock of 
one or the other spe( i- - flying over Bitterroot river, about 
September 1st, and remarked them because! had not seen 



34 


THE FAUNA OF MONTANA TERRITORY 






any spe 


cies for several days in that t 


lick-* 


ooded 


-alley 


(near fl 


e crossing), and supposed all the 


Swall 


»ws had 


gone 


South. 


Though both of these probably 


nhabit 


that re 


gion. 


I am n 


ot sure that those seen were of 




r speci 


s, as 


they hud a strange look, and flew too 1 


igh t 


> be si 


ot or 


closely 


)bserved. They were white hem 


ith, a\ 


th the 


tail a 


little foi 


ked, and may possibly have been 


Hank 


Swallows. 


Ceda 


r Bird (Ampelis cedrorum) . Tl 


o <V<1 


«• Birds 


were 


very ab 


mdant in the open pine woods < 


f the 


main 1 


tocky 


Mounta 


ns, and evidently had nests in A 




as tiny 


were 


seattere 


1, and commonly seen searching 


for i 


iseets *{ 


mong 


the pin 


i foliage, etc. Also common at 
saw nothing of tin 1 linger Wax 


Co-ur 


d,H,"'i 


Mis- 


since found as far South as Fort Moha 


e, \. 


\\\, Ja 


inary 


10th, 1861. 








Towa 


send's Flycatcher ( J/y,W,,/,,v 


Town* 


win). 


I saw 



base of the pass over the Cceur d'Alene Mountains. It was 
there pursuing insects from bush to bush in a small prairi< 
or "opening," silent, and in every respect resembling th* 
Pewee and other birds of that family in habits. I have re- 
marked the same of Phainqpepla nilens of Southern Califor- 
nia, a bird closely related to this, and in habits very unlike 
the Waxwings, at least in winter. The Shrikes, however, 
resemble these birds more than the Waxwings or the Vireos, 
with which Baird associates them. The tarsal scales v 
remove both, and the Waxwings also, from the ord< 
Oscixes, and I never heard them sing. (No. 103 is in 
mage apparently young, and undescribed.) 

Shrike (CW>/rio <-ynir>t<, >■>,'<<}<■*> or >U^,u „.</). !',<, 
1853 and this year, I saw Shrikes on the Columbia Vh 
October, which seemed to me to be* quit* 1 different fro 
boreaHs, and to resemble C. excubitoroides which ab< 
through the plains of Nebraska and across Oregon to 
fornia. They were so wild that I could not get near them, 
and in habits, flight, etc., resembled the latter. C. elega 



attacking .lays and Ma-pics, drivin; 
did not kill any birds while- J observ. 
Vireo (Vireo olivaceus? V. J Jo 
found this species quite common fr< 
the Rocky Mountains to that of the 
in habits found it exactly like the 

very probably, as Rami suggests, of 
ially since this is found unchanged a 
Wabbling Viueo (V.gilvus). ] 
the preceding in the Rocky Moimtaii 
west of the Cascade Range. I not 
habits. — To be continued. 



AN AFTERNOON IN NICARAGUA. 



When the agent of the Central American Transit ( onipany 

announced to us, that on account of the low water, we might 
be detained a day or two at Greytown, we did not consider 

was quickly organized, and, after partaking of fried plan- 
tains and "tortillas." with a cup of coffee from the hands of 
a senorita very much the color of the beverage just men- 
tioned, each one started out prepared to make the best of 
the six hours of daylight remaining, by dispersing into the 
bushes in search of specimens of all kinds. Previous, how- 



36 AN AFTERNOON IN NICARAGUA. 

ever, to our departure, a person showed us a bottle of whis- 
key, which he asserted contained the most poisonous reptile 
extant. On examination it proved to be a specimen of a 
very beautiful snake, banded with red, black, white and 
cream-color, and of a genus (JElaps? euryxanthus Ken.) 
which is perfectly harmless. In vain we pointed out the 
jaws, totally destitute of fangs, and almost toothless, and 
were again assured that it was the far-famed "coral snake," 
of which the bite was inevitably followed by a bloody sweat, 
and death in most awful agonies. Not wishing to waste 
time in discussing the point, we separated, each striking 
into the heavy growth of bushes back of the town, or follow- 
ing the sandy beach to the entrance of the lagoon, now no 

I pushed into the jungle by a narrow foot-path winding 
among the trees, which, with the vines and even the grasses, 
appeared each one to vie with all others in the production ot 
hooks, thorns and prickles. The mosquitoes, too, were by 
no means idle. The path soon brought me to the edge of 
a small lagoon, surrounded with trees and vines, and pre- 
senting a most beautiful scene. Here and there on the sunny 
side of a log, were small lizards with their sides brightly 
banded with metallic blue or green, chestnut and black. 
Everything was quiet, but a mellow humming told of insect 
life hovering among the green leaves. 

The most noticeable among the many plants which were 
growing in the water, wn> a gigantic Sagittaria. rising above 
the water six or eight feet ; its beautiful pointed leaves and 

Arrow-head of the Massachusetts ponds. Rich crimson 
orchids were to be seen growing in the branches of the 
higher trees; but, after considerable exertion, having dis- 
lodged one .of them, I was disappointed by finding it coarse 

aceous plant, like our yellow pond-lily, but no flowers, were 
seen on the surface of the water. 



,vcry direction fVir 



-olden hue. Aluekvsh 



while .-till another (jB. .w/ 

the richest velvety maroor. 

It was grrowing rather 



and one, a dark-c< 



deseribed by Mr. Lawrence as 
Reaching the edge of the wood, I found a sn 
tween me and the sand. The banks being li 
ered for several rods on the farther side, wit 
plant of the order Portulacacece , with round 
half an inch in diameter. I noticed little well 
about one inch wide, running all through this 



i stopped to discover if possible what made them. Some 
■e wider than others, and on one of these I soon discov- 
d a foraging party of ants. They were of two species, 
being a rather small black ant, with weak jaws or nip- 
s, and the other nearly twice that size, each 1 tearing a 
nidable pair of prolonged mandibles or jaws, and as near 
I could see there were no two with jaws of exactly the 
le size or shape. The small ones were evidently slaves. 
jy were marched between two rows of scouts, and if a 



contrary direction to the main body. Following the train 
for a rod or two, I came to the brook just where it had made 
an abrupt bend, with an eddy in it." Here the banks were 
rather high, a moderately brisk sea-breeze was coming from 
the shore, and just here a small tree about two inches in 
diameter had fallen across the brook. On this pole were 
myriads of ants going in different directions. Those above, 
each with a leaf in his mouth, were crossing to the wooded 
side. Those on the underside were empty-handed (or 
mouthed), and were coming from the woods. Here I no- 
ticed a curious thing. The leaf, being larger by far than its 
bearer, acted as a sort of sail to catch the wind, and I saw 
many an unfortunate slave-ant, after struggling with all its 
might to save its precious load, finally let it go in self- 



homeward; and,p 
I walked briskly 



REVIEWS. 

plank in search of land she 



through the window, and the .me before mentioned reaehim 
the loft over head, in a -reat hurrv, seized an empty l>«,tth 
(there were plenty of them there ),' and adjured me in forei- 
ble language to depart and take the snake with me. on pair 

the efficacy of argument in the premise,. I consigned the 

table, where it afforded us a fund of amusement for the 
evening, and was by no means the most disagreeable remi- 



REVIEWS. 



metimes accompan • and drawings of 



REVIEWS. 

"The men have but a few e 
generally pull out with a pair ( 



Java is the; Cuba of the East [ndies. "In each there is a grea 
chain of mountains. Both shores of Cuba are opposite small 1 






- '.mhs of, and direci 



REVIEWS . 
ging bees in the section bee-hive. embra< 



BiKD.f— One of the i 



REVIEWS. 



— and a pale green. Blue was only se< n in -. sum]] , , in , _ . , , ],.'. 
What proportion of light reaches a certain depth we shall 



in the same geological horizon. 

States where coal is so easily 
capital as in the Illinois Coal-f 



Horse-shoe Crab ; and several insects are described 
the name of Miamia Dnncr, and Ch<>tol<s l,, r i,h-a , ; , 
illu-d to Miamia : dso part of a ( oekroach, and a Hi 
long-legs. allie- t lie spiders, wit 



The Book of Birds and the Book of Beasts.* — From a 
tion of their contents we do not hesitate to say that they torn 

addition to our popular-science literature. The en g ravings 

ner. and with the typography and binding, form elegant volui 

Cecil's Book of Insects.-^ — A very pleasantly written l>o< 
ing chapters about Ants, Bees, Spiders, Dragon-Hies. Wasp 
Mosquitoes, Beetles and Butterflies. The illustrations are 
very good, and the stories about insects are reliable and \vH 
to interest the \oiing. and indure them to observe the habit: 
and form collections of them. 

List of the Lepidoptera of North America. J — The Air 
tomological Society, which has issued six volumes of Proceedii 
entered on the second volume of Transactions, all beautifully 
and indispensable to the study of our insects, and we may ack 
i Parts, a list of our But 
Moths, by Messrs. ( _', rote and Kobinson. The present Part ei 
species of Sphinges, JEgerians, the Thyridaj, Zygeenicla}, and 
cids. or silk-worm family, found north of Mexico. The cata 
the most important synonyms, and when finished, will be ai 
book of reference to students of this group of insects. 

We should here speak of the remarkable energy shown by t 

of this young society, which was incorporated in ls02. With 

:• it started at once under very adverse circuim 

established a printing otlice in its own hall, and issued annual 

Entomological Societies of London, Paris, Berlin and Vi 
content with this, its members edited '-The Practical Km 



REVIEWS. 

publications for want of moans. The Socio! 



NATURAL HISTORY MISCELLANY. 

BOTANY. 

Double Flowered Sarracenia. — In the summer of 1867, I found 
specimen of the Sarracenia purpurea, double, in East Hampton. Mass. I 
the summer of 1868, I found a specimen of the Gentinx,,, uiumh //„„, wit] 
all the parts of the flower of a pure white. — E. S 



"n: i'i:i-:i I'iMi H msits of Birds are subject to so great 
that it is not safe to give the practices of a few individuals a 
Its of the species. Any one who has given much s 
"' J subject, must be convinced of thi>. boil, (,-.., 



that of others who have x 



nbjeet. 



doubt that the apparent discrepancies of writers a 

of founding conclusions upon insufficient data. Take the Hngflsbe 
example. In a number of cases which have come under my obsen 
the passages leading to the nests were invariably straight, 80 thai 
was no difficulty in reaching the extremity of the excavation i 
straight stick. This agrees with Dr. Wood's experience as given 
September numberof the Naturalxst. Mr. Samuels. i„ u. ..„„, 80 
England, 'says they excavate a "winding hole." Mr. Fowler an 



■ 

nests which I have fot 

:ted pellets of the bird ; 



- «-i UMUBT , uescnoe uiem as being <4n the form of an 
rhite all these descriptions are doubtless correct, is it cor- 
general terms that the passage is in the form of an elbow, 
h;rt this is the invariable, or even general form ? One of 
bottom covered with fish bones, the 



etion a set of Long-eared Owls' eggs, 
•mate enough to find another nest, but t 

usually laying sj x eggs, I should prol 



wrong impression. 

" - ' • _ 

coast of Cape Charles, Va. I found a 
crepitans) hunt \u a <,^„ 
many nests of this .peeies. but that is 
known the bird to r. 
and wet, and liable 
bird's departure fro 



C. M. Jonm. 
The House Wbkn.— The mischievousaesB of the House Wren (Tro 

house wrens, who coveted their neighbor's house, entered it in the a 
senee of the martins, and coolly picked up their eggs one by one, carrii 

impudent business, the nmrtins ivtunied. :uid while going in atone < 



5 of young hopefuls during the sum 



i beetle state, per- 



Monmouth County. X. J.. 



n." The plants were dead on the surface £ 
s being eaten oft* below. It 1 



HISTORY MISCELLANY. 

sented the worst appearance were all of the same kind of plant ; that 
known as Wilson's Albany Seedling. Besides this there were nine other 
varieties under culture : Barne's Mammoth, Schanck's Excelsior, the 
Agriculturist, Triomphe de Gand, Cutter's Seedling, the Jucunda, Pine 
Apple, Early Scarlet, and Brooklyn Scarlet. While the Wilson stood 

in vigorous plant growth. Hence, while every kind was more or less af- 
fected, the other varieties seemed saved by their own growth and energy 
from a destruction so thorough as was that of the Wilson. These patches 
were all planted in the spring, and all received the same treatment, the 
ground being kept open and free from weeds. The amount of the spring 
planting was seven and a half acres. Of the Wilson's there were three 
different patches, in places quite separated from each other, and on not 
less than five different kinds of soil. These patches were among and con- 
tiguous to those of the other varieties. While all suffered more or less, 
the chief injury befell the Wilson's, of which not less than two acres were 
irretrievably ruined. 

An examination turned up the depredator, who was none other than 
the larva of the Goldsmith Beetle, now engaged in the first one of its 
allotted three summer campaigns of mischief. These grubs were from 
the eggs deposited in June, in the well tilled and clean soil, which, I have 
said elsewhere, I thought the Cotalpa preferred to meadow or grass 
lands. Compared to others, the larva of this beetle is sluggish and easily 
captured. The black grub of the spring, which is such a pest, attacking 
— riminately the early tender plants, inflicts its injuries chiefly 
the exception being that of dull and cloudy days. The night's 
at early dawn. Knowing this 
s farmer is in search of it at an early hour, ere the warmth of the 
js it warning to retreat. But the Goldsmith grub can be taken 
iour^of the day simply by scratching away the earth from around 
I whose dark shrivelled leaves tell of the enemy's 
his devastation might have been spared 
f labor, of which, under proper direction, 

a strawberry crop for the ensuing summer, worth scaivHy h ■-< than si* .-.00 
for, from this same farm the cropof a single acre has been sold lor M r,no; 
Then, however valuable such labors are in immediate results, that is hut 
a fraction of their worth as respects the future. These I 

r mischief, had not more than a third of their ultimate sis*) 
hence their real ravenousness is yet to come. Besides what a prospect 
of increase of numbers, should even a moderate share of them reach 
maturity? Why should not onr farmers seek to know something about 
their insect enemies, and when practicable put forth some energy to 
meet them as such? — Rev. S. Lo<jkwood. 

The Lycosa Spider and its Young. — On the 27th of June I saw a 
spider descending the trunk of a tree. At a distance of six feet it ap- 






NATURAL HISTORY MISCELLANY. 51 

peared the size of a pigeon's egg. As soon as it observed me it stopped. 
Approaching it gradually I could see it crouch, evidently aware that it 
was noticed. I sharpened a long stick and stuck a pin through the end, 
and made a strike to empale the body and missed it. What was my aston- 
ishment when I beheld a mass of life uniformly <li*tri!,u!< d over the .spi- 
der; it was all alive. I knocked the spicier from the tree to a flat rock 
beneath ; the jar seemed to shake from its abdomen what I soon saw 
were young spiders, as the rock was black with the young ones for a 
space of six inches in diameter around the old spider. The parent spider 
did not attempt to run but crouched, and the young began to gather upon 

and the moment it was inserted into the spider's body, the young left at 
once and dispersed upon the rock. I soon perceived the floating webs 
passing from the rock to spears of grass on which spiders were quite 
thick. I should say, at a pure guess, that there were two hundred young 
spiders, but from the long legs they spread out, they seemed even more 
numerous. I next noticed spiders upon my coat, hat and collar, and ex- 
perimented myself with the spider throwing out the floating web. When 
about six to ten feet from the rock, I saw in the sunlight two webs float- 
ing aside of each other, about one foot apart. I saw that the terminus of 
these webs were but a short distance from my face, and at each end a 
spider. They moved slowly before the wind, and I watched them for 
several feet, mounting upwards until lost to view. — G. W. Peck. 

[Several species of the genus Lycosa are known to have the habit of 
carrying their young about with them. — Eds.] 

The Cattle Tick.— The perfect insect found in Texas, gorged with 
blood and ready to give birth to its young, is much like Fig. 1 e of the 
Moose Tick (Naturalist, Vol. II, p. 659). They drop from the cattle in 
the woods, and more frequently along the cattle paths. How long before 
they appear as "seed ticks" I do not know. It was a prevalent notion 
among the people that they burst open, nearly the whole interior being 
composed of the young. These, probably, soon after birth, ascend to the 
tip of the nearest twig or culm of grass, where they form into a little 
mass, with their legs extended ready to seize upon any passing animal. 
When taken off by one they soon commence operations, and in three or 
four days, I should think, gorge themselves and fall off. Theyare then, 
except as to size, much like the full-grown gorged inseci. How long a 
time is required for them to become depleted, or to regain their flattened 
form, I do not know ; but when ready for a new meal or a new trans- 
formation (now called "yearling ticks"), they again ascend bushes, but 
not in clusters ; or they crawl over fallen leaves and attach themselves 
again to animals as chance may offer. They again gorge themselves and 
fall off as before, to become lean a second time. A third time they fasten 
to horses, cattle, hogs, dogs, man, and other animals. This seems to be 
their last time, and, when full, they fall off and become converted to seed 
ticks. This was the common belief, and may be more or less erroneous 



NATURAL HISTORY MISCELLANY. 



In Cuba I started from St. Jago, with two horses, to ff o to Havana. 


Before I had travelled half the journey 


one of the horses became infested 




Every day while resting at noon, 


with a knife I scraped off all the ticks I 


could see or feel. Notwithstand- 


ing all my efforts, the ticks gained up 


on me so far as regards the horse, 


but none attached themselves to my pei 


■son, though I camped most of the 


nights during the journey, sleeping on the same spots upon which the 


horses fed. Around the larger ticks were generally found one or more 


small ones, sometimes many of the latt 


er. I have seen something of the 


kind in the coast prairies of Texas. 




served anything of the kind in the woi 


>dland districts of Texas, and the 


above mentioned ticks of Cuba were th 




the timbered parts. — Ciiaki.es Wuioiii 




Substitutes for Pollen for Ho; 


sky Bees. — My bees carry into 



arry 

tneir tn\ e» tr one hundred to one hundred and fifty pounds of rye meal 

every spring, (luring the occurrence of a few warm davs before flowers ap- 
pear. After their appearing in an abundance, the bees will no longer take 
11 p rh " ;lL As a consequence of this early and free supply of a mate- 
rial for bee-bread, the queen is stimulated to unusual activity in deposit- 
ing her eggs, and strong swarms arc; ready to come out. nn t.hf> hlpnk 
shores of Lake Erie by the middle of May, — ai 



- 



not hap|>< uiug 



also ground linseed 



when the meal 

or oil-cake may 

bees, and is perhaps the cheapest. A handful of clean straw should be 

placed in an open box, standing in the middle of the apiary, and the meal 

should, be scattered over the straw; otherwise many of the bees will get 

fatally swamped in the meal.— J. P. Kirtland, East Hockport, O. 

Hive Bees devoured by Hornets. -The Paper Hornet (Vespa macu- 
lata) often enters my nucleus hives, when I am rearing Italian queen 
bees, and captures the young queen in the midst of her little colony; 
usually just after she has commenced her first laying. I have seen this 
depredator enter the small hive, drag out the queen, and fly away with 
her to the woods.— Jared P. Kirtland. 

Variation ix the Skeletons of Whales. — M. VanBamheke has 

been studying the skeletons of whales, and finds -rearer variation amomr 

them than cetologists seem to believe. The syrnmetrv of the head is 

rarely complete, since the two sides are generally unlike. There are 

dual differences than usual in other vertebrate animals, and 

cies. There are, however, some naturalists for whom any modification, 
however small it may be, suffices for the creation of new specie* The 
Tursio described by M. Van Bambeke, has thirteen ribs on one side, and 
fourteen on the oth<-t, like the skeleton of the Mysticei us. at Hm^'is. In 



NATURAL 
i Globiceps with ten 



& Cap.), a small fish (Chiasmodon niger Johnson), and a 
(Keratoisis Grayii Wright). — Annals and Magazine of j 
December, 1868. 

Marsupial Dogs. — Of all mammals there is perhaps 
which is so truly interesting, so deeply significant of tli 
development and g ton of mammals, i 

dog. There are two Tasmanian species of this genus, 
of which is called the greyhound, and the other the b 



lg it a supply 
cut of a rail- 
I have found 

nore generally 



04 NATURAL HISTORY MISCELLANY. 

about six feet. Frequently the excavation makes a rather abrupt bend, 
in the form of an elbow, but I have often found it straight to the end. I 
believe the termination is a little higher than the entrance. The "nest 
^ '^ Iwaye in a sort of oven-shaped chamber, near the end, the bottom 
te lower than the floor of the tunnel." I have never found any 
elaborate nest, the eggs in a majority of cases lying on the bare earth. On 
two occasions, however, I have found a bed of broken fragments of craw- 
fish shells, and fish-bones; but never to my knowledge any sticks 01 
straws, or, indeed, feathers except those from the body of the owner. 
I have never found the bird sitting on less than six, or more than seven 

sexes incubate, as I have caught both male and fema 
Robert Ridge way. 



i eggs.- 



GEOLOGY. 
Iowa. — In November last, Mr. J. J. Kinersly 
of Keosauqua called my attention to some aboriginal relics In- had discov- 
ered upon the bank of the Des Moines River, near that place, while the 
workmen were cutting the bank for a road to a newly established ferry, 
and digging a hole for the post which supports the ferry-rope. In dig- 
ging this hole they passed about four feet through a layer of silt-like 
te shells of Unios, before they reached the original 
surface. The^e shells are of the same species that now inhabit the 
stream, among which were recognized TInio plicatus, U. rectus, U. metan- 
evra, U. crassus, etc. The locality is just above the mouth of a small 
creek, which has cut into the accumulation by the shifting of its channel, 
and leaves it without that symmetry of outline it would doubtless have 
possessed if it had not been disturbed. The heap is not above the reach 
of the highest floods of the river, and has evidently been largely com- 
posed of the silt brought down by the river and creek at the times of 
high-water. Mingled with and composing a large part of its bulk, are 
the shells which were brought from the bed of the river when the water 
was low— the only time they are accessible— and the mollusks were 
evidently cooked and eaten upon this spot during many years. The bed 
of the river opposite this spot is broad and gravelly, and an excellent 
the mollusks, while both above and below the bottom of the 
river Is not so favorable for their growth. 

No other shells besides Unios were found, although a few others may 
yet be discovered. Very few other kinds are to be found in the river 



Th- ' 






marrow bones always being split open. Pieces of the carapace and other 
bones of the fresh- water turtle were also found. Among th< 
found by the slight excavation mentioned, are one hatchet of • ■■ n S* 
hornblendic rock, some flint arrow-heads and sharp-edged flints probably 
used for skinning animals, and fragments of crude pottery. Some frag- 
ments of the latter bear evidence of having been burnt in « 



NATURAL OISTOBT MISCELLANY. 

nic matter, and were probably broken and spoiled while being u 
coking purposes. Fragments of charcoal were frequently found s< 
1 through the mass. 



logical Society of London, Mr. Bush exhibited some specimens of patho- 
logical fossils. He exhibited a bone of a fossil rliinoe.Wwlm-h had been 
afflicted with rheumatism. He also exhibited a bone of a cave-bear, with 
a consolidated fracture, which had been broken ju-t before the animal bad 
hibernated; and another bone, of the same species of bear, which had 

. Disease also appeared among the reptiles of the Cretaceous formation 
of New Jersey, for Prof. E. D. Cope writes us : -'I have just discovered a 
remarkable ally of Mosasaurus, which has a permanent functional disloca- 
tion of the ramus of the mandible. It has an articulation behind the mid- 
dle, which has lateral and some vertical motion." 

Disease is more common among t ; . Is usually sup- 

posed. Prof. J. Leidy has exhibited to the Philadelphia Academy of Nat- 
ural Sciences, pus globules from an abscess in the muscle of an oyster. 
— Editors. 

Fossil Plants from Greenland.— Mr. Whymper has brought from 

common to the European deposits of the Miocene Tertiary. Anion- the 
specimens are the cones of the magnolia, and the flowers and fruit of 

The Earliest Plant. — The discovery of Eozoon in the Laurentian 
rocks of Canada was of great interest. One of the most important dis- 
coveries recently made in palaeontological science is analogous with it. 
It is the detection of what appears to be the remains of a terrestrial 
flora in certain Swedish rocks of Lower Cambrian age, — the supposed 
equivalents of our Longmynd rocks. A peculiar interest attaches to this 
discovery, inasmuch as it carries back the appearance of terrestrial vege- 
tation upon the earth's surface throng • . do land- 
ing previously been known older than the Upper I 
The Swedish fossils now discovered appear to be the stems and long 
parallel-veined leaves of monocotyledonous plants, somewhat allied to the 
grasses and rushes of the present day. These plants apparently grtw on 
the margin of shallow waters, and were buried in sand and sil 
it is probable that several species, and even genera, may occur in the 
sandstone blocks which have been examined. They are pro, is 



56 PROCEEDINGS OF SCIENTIFIC SOCIETIES, ETC. 

eluded in a single species, to which the name of EopTiyton Linnceamw 
been given. Eophyton, therefore, stands by the side of Eozodn,- 
one being, in the present state of our knowledge, the earliest land-p 
as the other is the earliest animal organism. — Quarterly Journc 



PROCEEDINGS OF SCIENTIFIC SOCIETIES. 

zed March 28th, 18(17, and held' its first field meeting July loth, 1868, 
i <rlacial marks were discovered upon the rocks near Little Falls, run- 
in a south-easterly direction. 






'iiyZ.aMeElroy, ! 



THE 

AMERICAN NATURALIST. 

Vol. III. -APRIL, 1869. -No. 2. 
THE ABORIGINAL MOUXI) RFILDEUS OF TFWFSSF 



Wiien the first Anglo-American pioneers, about the mid- 
le of the last century, explored the eountry east and north 



of the Tennessee River 



bnllalo. Hocks of wild tur 

on the Sciota and Miami 
the Little Tennessee on 

the warriors of the Miami 



tribes, this section of country, which, tor its tortile soil, nu- 
merous rivers and abundant supply of fish and game, was 
admirably adapted to the settlement of savage tribes, ap- 
peared to have been reserved from permanent occupancy. 
That this country, in common with other portions of the 



58 THE MOUND BUILDERS OF TENNESSEE. 

great Valley of the Mississippi, was inhabited in ancient 
times by a comparatively dense population, who subsisted 
by the arts of husbandry, as well as by the chase, is evident 
from the numerous depositories of the dead in the caves and 
along the banks of the streams in the fertile valleys, and 
around the cool springs which abound in this limestone re- 
gion. ;ii)(l from the imposing monumental remains and exten- 
sive earthworks. 

A considerable portion of the city of Nashville has been 
built over an extensive Indian graveyard,* which lav along 
the valley of Lick Branch. A large portion of these' graves 

this ..eetioi. of the eitvl saw a number of th.-s,. !,!„. o,' 1V es. 



equented by the Indians for game and the manufacture 
lit. 

Extensive fortifications, several miles in extent, enclo: 
vo systems of mounds and numerous stone graves, lie al 
ie Big Harpeth, about sixteen miles below Old Towi 



general surface. It is evident from these facts that a chain 
of fortified towns extended in ancient days all along liig 

they were all erected by the same race. One of the most 
remarkable aboriginal remains in Tennessee is found in the 
fork of Duck River, near Manchester, and is known as the 
Stone Fort. The walls of the fort have been formed of 
loose rocks and stones gathered from the bed of the river. 
The gateway of the fort, which opens toward the neck of 
land between the two branches of the river, is ca.vfuilv ,,m- 






e and forty feet in height, and the labor of eolleci 
epositing the loose rocks by hand must have been c 



It would be impossible for us upon the present occasion i 
liter into a minute description of the mounds of Tennesse< 



They are found upon the Cumberland, Little Tennessee, Big 
Tennessee, French Broad, Elk River, Harpeth, Duck and 
Stone Rivers. As a general rule these mounds are erected 
upon rich alluvial bottoms, and are either surrounded by ex- 
tensive earthworks, or are located in the neighborhood of 
these fortifications, which mark the site of towns. The 
mounds vary in number and size, in a measure, with the 
extent and richness of the valleys and the size of the earth- 
works. The smallest are not more than a few feet in height, 
and about thirty feet in diameter, while the largest attain a 
height of seventy feet, and cover an acre or two of ground. 
Many of the smaller mounds were used for the burial of the 

burning of the dead, while the largest pyramidal mounds 

houses of the aborigines. 

The ancient inhabitants of Tennessee also left singular 
paintings upon the rocks, representing the sun and moon, 
these paintings occupy the face of perpendicular cliffs on 
the Harpeth, Tennessee, French Broad, Duck and Cumber- 
land Rivers. The paintings are executed with red ochre, 
upon high, inaccessible walls of rock overhanging the water, 
and were, without doubt, devoted to sacred purposes, and 
were emblematic of the sun, the god of the aborigines. The 
paintings of the sun on the rocks on Big Harpeth River, 

from Nashville to (Wlotlc'can J's,' JnTr •, XVn^of 



the ancient trail of the buffa 
faloes is painted upon the c 



i the spring of the yeai 

miles from MeMinnvill 



l'he flesh of these pe 



seven feet in length. The whole of the ligaments thus 

tunning a body of about one-eighth of an inch in thickness. 

from the strand to which they were routined. Its appear- 
ance was highly diversitied by green, blue, yellow and black, 
presenting different shades of color when reflected upon by 
the lighten different positions. The next covering was an 
undressed deer-skin, around which was rolled in good order 
a plain shroud manufactured after the same order as the one 
ornamented with feathers. This article resembled very much 
in its texture the bags generally used for the purpose of 
holding coffee, exported from Havana to the United States. 
The female had in her hand a fan formed of the tail feathers 

of these mummies wa> >!tii i< ads. and 



62 



his march in 1539 and 1540, saw great numbers of similar 
feathered mantles ; the Mexicans at the time of the Spanish 
conquest were clad in similar garments. 



The tribes , 
called by the 






Valley of the Mississipv 
, Florida, Alabama. Missi 



Potosa, Florida, he was furnished with seven hundred In 
den bearers. In Ocute, Georgia, he was supplied with t\ 
hundred of these Indian servants, and at Cafeque, in the 
same State, four thousand more transported the effects of hi 



id Alabama. The 



out of the invasions, still farther reduced their number* 
The towns were surrounded with walls of earth and j 
sades, and had towers of defense. Entreurhme.it* ami 



THE MOUND BUILDERS OF TE 



low rich laud, by the side of some stream, or in the neigh- 
borhood of a large never-failing spring, they first erected a 

flat on the top. The habitations of the chief and his family 
were erected upon the summit. At the foot of the eminence 
a square was marked out around which the principal men 
placed their houses, and around them the inferior classes 
erected their wigwams. Some of these mounds had stair- 
ways upon their sides, and were so steep as to be accessible 
only by the artificial way. They were thus rendered secure 
from the attacks of an' Indian enemy. Mounds were also 
erected over the chiefs after their death, whilst others were 
formed by the slow accumulation of the dead through jiges. 
The aborigines, at the time of De Soto, worshipped the 
sun, and erected large temples, which were also receptacles 
of the bones of the dead. The natives worshipped the sun, 

stars. When the Indian ambassadors crossed the Savannah 
to meet De Soto, they made three profound bows toward 
the East, intended for the sun ; three toward the West for 
the moon, and three toward De Soto. Upon the eastern 
bank of the Mississippi all the Indians approached him with- 
out uttering a word, and went through precisely the same 
ceremony, making to De Soto, however, three bows much 



THE MOUND BUILDERS 

ential than those made to 



On the inside beautini 
extended along the sic 
entered by three gate: 






THE MOUND BUILDERS OF TE> 

ions barks of trees, and a sp 






the' extinction of the mound builders, will be still farther 
sustained by the remarkable discovery which we have made 
during the progress of these investigations, of the cross, em- 
blems of the Christian religion, and especially of the Trin- 
ity, the Saviour and the Virgin Mary in the mounds of Ten- 
nessee. We believe that the preceding conclusion is based 
upon incontrovertible facts and evidence. 

of burial practiced by the aborigines of Tennessee, as shown 
by their sacred and sacrificial mounds and stone graves. 

* The ancient race of Tennessee buried their dead in rude 
stone coffins or sarcophagi. coiMrurted of liar pieces of lime- 
stone or slaty sandstone, which abounds in Middle Tennes- 
see. Extensive graveyards are found in Tennessee and 
Kentucky along the river courses, in the valleys and around 
the springs, in which the stone coffins lie close to each other. 
These graves, although justly regarded as rude fabrics, 

and are standing memorials of the regard in which the an- 
cient race held the memory of the dead. 



66 THE MOUND BUILDERS OF TENNESSEE. 

The manner of burial appeared to have been thus: An 
excavation of the proper size, according to that of the body 
of the dead, was made in the ground, and the bottom care- 
fully paved with flat stones. Long flat stones, or slabs of 
limestone and slaty sandstone, were placed along the sides, 
and at the head and foot of the grave. The body or skeleton 
was then placed within the rude coffin, and the top covered 
with a large Hat ruck, or with several flat rocks. When ;i 
number of coffins were constructed together, the side rocks 
of the first coffin frequently constituted the side of the sec- 
ond, and so on. Many of the -rave, are unite small, only 



cap; 



dUla 



a bo i 






about twelve feet in height, which I opened, about 
from Nashville, on the banks of a small stream an 
and which contained perhaps one hundred skele 
stone graves, especially towards the centre of th< 
were placed one upon the other, forming in the hiu 

graves were of the small square variety, while tho- 
upon the summit, were of the natural length and 
the skeleton within. 

In this mound, as in other burial places, in 

skeleton, others contained fragments of two or m< 
tons mingled together. The small mound now in 
sideration, which was one of the most perfect in its 



ered with a flou 
sions of their 
appeared to ha\ 
spring which hi 
of bones were « 



to the long stone coffin of eight feet. 


Some hav. 


that these little graves enclosed a rao 


b of pigmies 


careful examination of many, at vari 


ions localitio 


covered that they were simply the gr 


*ves of the J 


we found the teeth in all stages of < 


levelopment 


toothless child, through the period i 


af dentition, 


appearance of the wisdom teeth. So 


me of the an 


contained the hones of small anima 


Is, apparent 1, 


rabbits, squirrels and wild cats, and of 


birds, such ; 



Till: MOUND BUILDERS OF TEN 



turkey. These animals were 1 


juried 


Some of the burial mounds we 




sacred and religious purposes, anc 


I were 1 


tion as the resting place of royal 


families 


mound which I explored, about 01 


ic him< 


ter and about ten feet high, on the 


j easteri 


berland River, opposite the city 01 


f Xashv 


from the mouth of Lick Branch, at 


the loo 


which had been apparently used a 


i> a resi 


the following interesting remains: 





formed of split canes, and the leaves of the cane the impre^ 
sions of which were plainly visible upon the outer B urfac< 
The circle of the vase appeared to be almost mathematical! 
correct. The surface of the altar was covered with a layc 
of ashes, about one inch in thickness, and these ashes ha 
the appearance and composition of having been derived fro. 
the burning of animal matter. The antlers and jaw bone o 
a deer were found resting upon the surface of the altar. Th 

were carefully laid over the layer oi\m 'h' >!' aud 'the'uh'.Vl 



as from the care with which 
structed, we judged that thi 



the 



of the sun, and at the foot of the grave of a 
Indian, seven feet in length, and of great age, 
by the loss of teeth, and the absorption of the 
•ious small black idol was exhumed. The fea- 



70 THE MOUND BUILDERS OF TENNESSEE. 

tares of this image resemble those of the Aztec, or i 
Mexican sculptures. The figure is kneeling, with the 
clasped across the breasts (forming a cross) in the a 
of prayer. This image is formed of a mixture of bla. 
and powdered shells, and is exceedingly hard, with a s 
polished surface. The under jaw of the old Indian, 
grave lay near this idol, was of remarkable size, ai 
only one long, sharp fang, like the tooth of a wild : 
On the left of the grave of the priestess of the sun 1 



found on the southern slope of 

hand of the woman was a be: 
vase, painted with regular bla< 
of the male skeleton lay a spl< 
entire handle and ring, at the ei 
compact green chloride primitn 
extended around the inner cir 
as radiating from the altar. Tl 
circle lay at right angles to the 
were at the feet of the more 
dead. In the outer graves no 



»\as kept, 
tendants around at th< 



others are represented with li.il round ton-heads: and it 
still further worthy of notice that the hair of the head of tL 
idols is represented in a very different mode from that i 
which the nomadic tribes of North American Indians no 

or "waterihir behind, while in the male idols it is boim 
into a cue behind, like the hair of the Chinese. These n 
markable sculptures in hard sandstone, limestone and po 
phyrv, correspond in features and mode of hair dress wit 
the inhabitants of Central America, at the time of the Spai 

Herera, in describing the inhabitants of Yucatan, says 



hols of the Catholic religion in the stone -raves and mounds 
of Tennessee. In a stone grave in a small mound within an 
extensive fortification on the hanks of Big Harpeth River, 
two and a half miles from Franklin, on the plantation of 

resting upon the skull of an old Indian. The copper had 
stained the bones of the cranium of a deep green color. In 



72 THE MOUND BUILDERS OF TENNESSEE. 

their general outlines two of these crosses presented the 
general contour of the human figure. The crosses appear 
to have been stamped upon the copper plates with a die. 

This grave also contained a remarkable vase, fashioned of 
a light yellow clay and crushed river shells, upon the sides 
of which were painted in black, three crosses, surrounded 
with three circles and three crowns. The rounded body of 
the vase was accurately divided into three portions, by the 
black pigment disposed in three black bands, uniting at the 
lm>e and neck of the vase, thus leaving three circular spaces, 
upon the rounded sides, which were ornamented with the cen- 
tral cross, an outer circle around each cross, while this circle 
was again surmounted by the crown. Each crown had ten 
prominences or points. The superior portion of the neck 
of the vase was arched and so turned as to form the mouth 
horizontally. The summit of the vase terminated in a well' 
shaped nipple. 

In a similar burjal mound within the same enclosure, 
amongst other most interesting relics, we discovered two 
large vases, marked in a similar manner, with three divisions, 
three central crosses, three circles around the crosses, and 
three crowns. In these large vases the points of the crowns 
were drawn out so as to resemble spikes and thorns, and in 
one of the vases the ends of the thorns, or those portions 
which would form the circle of the crown are represented as 
it' plaited together. Two vases of similar construction were 
also exhumed, one with the head of a Spaniard, with a hel- 
met upon the crown. The resemblance of the features to 
those of a Spanish Cavalier is wonderful. This small vessel 
was used as a paint bowl, and still contains the red ochre. 
The other black vase is fastened on the summit after the 
manner of a hood. Another small idol fashioned of white 
clay, found in Middle Tennessee, painted with the same 
hlack pigment, and dr.-scd in what appears to represent a 
woven garment, has the sign of the cross upon both shoul- 
ders. The idol found 



"i.iT upon the pn.l.al.lr date «,f the mounds an-1 temples •„„] 
grave* in which they are found, and in tin- proof whirl, .1,,-v 
afford, that the inhabitants of America, have, at various 

Europe, even before the recognized era of the discover and 
exploration of the American continent. 

In several of the crania, the os-Incae, characteristic of the 
Peruvian skulls, was observed. That this ancient race were 
descended from the Toltees, and were probablv a branch of 
the Natchez, is rendered probable, not only from the confor- 
mation of the crania, but also from the historv of this once 
powerful, but now extinct nation of the Natchez. 



TIIK FAUX A OF MONTANA TKIMM I'« >U\ . 



Cat Bird (Mimus OamUnensi*). I was surprised to find 
the Cat Bird common entirely across the Ro.-ky Mountains to 
Coeur d'Alene Mission, almost on the border of the Columbia 
Plains. It has the usual cry and habits of the species. I 
thought I saw Oreoscopies montanu* along the Hell Gate 
River, but may have been mistaken. 

Rock Wke.v ( Salpinctes ob*ole/us). I observed this bird 



74 THE FAUNA OF MONTANA TERRITORY. 

occasionally through the main Eocky Mountain chain, to 
near the crossing of the Bitterroot, but less common than 
among the cliffs and rocks of the barren plains along their 
eastern slope. Though neither Dr. Suckley nor myself 
found it in the western part of Washington Territory, I have 
no doubt that it frequents parts of the rocky canons of the 
Columbia Plain, and Nuttall says that he saw it at the "low- 
est falls" (Cascades) of the Columbia (Manual, second edi- 
tion, Vol. I, p. 492). A nest with nine eggs was found in a 
log cabin below Fort Benton. 

Winter Wren (Troglodytes hyemalis). Seen only near 
the summit of the Cceur d'Aleue Mountains, in September. 

Creeper (Gerthia Mexicana). Rather common, especi- 
ally in the dark spruce forests of the Cceur d'Alene Range. 
Habits and note exactly as in the eastern bird (C. Ameri- 

Long-billed Nuthatch ( Sitta aculeate) and Red-bellied 
Nuthatch (8. Canadensis). Both common in the Rocky 
Mountains as in the Cascade Range, but rare in the dense 

Pigmy Nuthatch (JS. pygmcea). Flocks of this little 
bird were met with at intervals from the eastern base of the 
Rocky Mountains, in August, to the Spokan River and Fort 
Colville, frequenting the open woods of pine (JFVnttt ponder* 
osa), and were more gregarious, lively and noisy, than the 
preceding, constantly chirping like young chickens, and like 
them seeking insects more among the leaves than in the • 
bark. It has also at times a harsh call much like the others. 

Northern Titmouse (Parus septentrionalisf, var. albe- 
scens) . I obtained a specimen of this bird on the bank of 
the Missouri within the mountains, and as it is found at Fort 
Bridger, have little doubt of its crossing into Washington 
Territory, though I did not again recognize it among the 
many Pari I saw afterwards. The cries and habits of all 
these black-capped species are so nearly similar, that it re- 
quires a very near approach to distinguish them. 



THE FAUNA OF MONTANA TERRITORY. 75 

Western Titmouse (P. occhlentalis) . Common in the 
Rocky Mountains, associating with the Mountain Titmouse. 

Mountain Titmouse (P. montanus). Rather less abun- 
dant than the last, but alike in habits; call-note rather 
harsher. Both of my specimens arc larger than more west- 
ern ones. Seen with the last named at Fort Dalles, Oregon. 

Rufous-backed Titmouse (P. rufescens). I met with 
this only in the dense forests of the higher Cceur d'Alem- 
Mountains, along with Tardus ncevius, Trogl. hyemalis, etc., 
the same group most common in the similar forests of the 
Coast Mountains in this Territory. It there seemed to have 
all the business of Titmice to itself, and in notes is easily 
distinguishable from any of the preceding, though similar in 
habits. I saw it nowhere else east of the Cascades. 

Horned Lark (Ereyuophihi cornnta). Abundant in the 
more open prairie districts everywhere. I found many of 
its nests along the Upper Missouri. 

Evening Grosbeak (Hesperiphona vespertinci). During 
my residence west of the Cascade Mountains, in 1854, I 
often heard a call uttered by some bird flying above the tops 
of the highest trees, and audible for a mile in still weather. 
I heard the same among and near the Cceur d'Alene Range, 
and saw the birds, but too high to distinguish the species. 
They made the cry only when flying from one tree to an- 
other, and when feeding among the top branches of the 
highest trees Avere so quiet that I never could even see them. 
I always supposed them to be the Evening Grosbeak, which 
they resemble in size, and Townsend's observations of its 
habits and notes agree closely with these remarks. (Xuttall, 
Manual, 1840, VoL I, p. 620). 

The habits of the Black-headed Grosbeak are quite differ- 
ent, as it lives commonly among bushes, or near the ground 
in open woods, and has no such cry. The birds seen may 
possibly, however, have been Pine Grosbeaks, which belong 
to the same long-winged group of arboreal finches, and were 
collected in th< - iter by Mr. Hildreth. 



76 THE FAUNA OF MONTANA TERRITORY. 

Purple Finch (Carpodacus) . I saw none throughout 
the journey. 

Yellow Bird (Chrysomitris tristia). I saw this bird at 
the eastern base of the Rocky Mountains, and as it occurs 
also along the lower Columbia it is probably to be found in 
summer throuirh nearly the whole territory. Nuttall found 
its nest on Lewis' (Snake) River. (Vol. I, p. 595). 

Pine Finch (C. pinus). Common throughout the moun- 
tains. 

Red Crossbill (Curvirostr a Americana var.? Mexicana). 
Common throughout, and very abundant in the spruce forests 
of the Coeur d'Alefie Mountains, where it is remarkably fa- 
miliar, feeding and dusting much on the ground, especially 
about the few log cabins built there. Among large numbers 
closely observed,' I saw very few of the white-winged spe- 
cies. The male sometimes uttered a few musical notes much 
in the style of the Yellow Bird (C. tristis), but louder. The 
specimen preserved is much larger than those I collected on 
the west coast in 1853, with the bill also larger, and the pro- 
portions are even greater yet than those of Strickland's L. 
Mexicans from the City of Me> 



Crossbill (O. leucoptera). 
i shot from a flock of the com 
of the Coeur d'Alefie Mounta 



few more there and o 
•Vashington Territory 



THE FAUNA OF MONTANA TERRITORY. 77 

ness of the season, I suspect that it breeds in these regions, 
migrating to the coast tor the winter, when' I found it from 
October to May, in 1854. In habits it resembles the other 

Lark Finch {ChwulesteA f/rammaca). Common near Fort 
Benton, and occurring in small numbers on the prairies in 
and west of the Rocky Mountains. 

White-crowned Sparrow {Zonotrichia Gambelii, or Z. 
hucophrysf). I found this species only in the Cceur d'Alefie 
Range, from which circumstance I suppose it to be the Z. 
Gambelii. The young specimen preserved had brown feet, 
while the adult has them yellow in summer, but brownish in 

Oregon Snowbird (Junco Oregonus). I saw T no Snow- 
birds until September 1st, after which migrating flocks were 
common. I could only distinguish this species among them, 
though I saw some of a paler hue about the head, probably 



Chipping Sparrow (Spi.dla .soda J is). Common through- 
out the journey, and nests were found on the Upper Missouri. 

Brewer's Sparrow (S. BreweHi). I found flocks, appa- 
rently of this species, on the eastern slope of the mountains 
only, migrating South in August. Two which I shot I took 
for the young of 8. sodalis, and did not preserve them, but 
I now think they were of this species. They frequented the 
open pine woods, which the former rarely does, preferring 
prairies. 

The distinction of this from S. pallida is like that of young 
birds of the genus generally, and the lists of specimens given 
by Baird show that all may have been young birds, judging 
from the period of the year they were collected in. 

Western Song Sparrow (Melospiza rufina). This Song 
Sparrow was common in the Rocky Mountains, and appeared 
to me to resemble M. rufina of the Pacific Coast in every 
respect. 

Blue Linnet (Oyanospiza amcena). I saw this bird on 



78 THE FAUNA OF MONTANA 

the eastern slope of the Eocky Mountains, but not among 
them, though it probably occurs there sparsely. 

Lincoln's Finch (M. Lincolnii). Eather common in 
flocks along the Bitterroot Eiver, migrating in September. 

Arctic Ground-finch (Pipilo arcticus). I observed 
specimens which I supposed to be of this species, entirely 
across the Eocky Mountains, and preserved one from each 
side. In habits they resembled the eastern and west coast 
species, and I observed little difference in their notes at that 
season from those of P. Oregonus. I also preserved a nest 
and eggs of this ( ?) from along the Missouri Eiver. 

Bobolink (Dolichonyx oryzirorus). At several points in 
the valley of the Bitterroot Eiver, I heard and saw at a dis- 
tance what I took for the Bobolink, the flight and flying- 
call exactly resembling that bird's. At Cceur d'Alene Mis- 
sion I again met with it, but could not get near enough to 
shoot it or determine the species, though they frequented a 
wheat-field for several mornings. I know no bird likely to 
ho mistaken for it. and having been found at Fort Bridger, a 
few probably go north to latitude 47° 30', as they go to 
latitude 54° east of the mountain-, according to Richardson. 
The Cahnnospiza, which is common near Fort Benton, I saw 
no farther west, and its notes and habits are quite different. 

Cow Bunting (Molothms pecoris) . I saw this bird only 
once near Fort Benton, but as it abounds along the Platte 
Eiver and follows trains of wagons, cattle, etc., besides being 
found at Fort Bridger and Sacramento, Cal., I should be 
surprised if it did not occur in the present limits of Wash- 
ington Territory, at least along Snake Eiver, and possibly 
follow emigration as far as the Cascade Mountains. I see no 
reason why it should not also emigrate to the open regions 
north of the Columbia ; and Townsend has it in his list of 
* Oregon" birds (1834). 

Eed-winged Blackbird {Agelaius phceniceus) . Common 
at Cceur d'Alene Mission, Fort Colville, and Bitterroot 
Valley. 



THE FAUNA OF MONTANA TERRITORY. 79 

Western Lark (Sturnella neglecta). Found on every 
prairie throughout the Rocky Mountains. 

Western Grackjle {Scolecophagus cyanocephalus) . Com- 
mon in all marshy meadows of the Rocky Mountains, except 
at a very high elevation. 

Raven (Corvus carnivorus). A constant attendant at 
camp, especially when about to be broken up. 

Eastern Crow (C. Americanus) . At Sun River, east 
of the Rocky Mountains, I saw several of this species, and 
noticed no peculiarities as to flocking, note, etc. 

Western Crow (O. caurinus). The first crows I saw 
west of the dividing ridge were a distant flock, at sixty 
miles, and again at a camp about twenty miles above the 
junction of Hell Gate with the Bitterroot River, where a 
flock of about one hundred flew over at dusk, probably to- 
wards a roosting place. Their gregariousness at that season 
(August 25th), and unusual noise, struck me as peculiar; 
and on other occasion- farther down the valley I saw some, 
but most of them probably live near the settlements of the 
St. Mary's Valley. 

At Cceur d'Alene Mission I again found large flocks of 
crows, and on comparing one with the plates and descrip- 
tions contained in the Natural History of Washington Terri- 
tory, I found it to agree with C. caurinus in the form of the 
bill, but to be intermediate between it and C. America)) us in 
size, though nearest the former. I am inclined to think it 
was caurinus, but, like several other Rocky Mountain speci- 
mens collected by me, larger than those of the same species 
from the coast. Its habits were different from those of C. 
Americanus, and as it occurs at the Dalles, it could easily 
cross the intervening country. It cannot, however, be much 
°t a "fish-crow" in these mountains. 

Clarke's Nutcracker (Picicorvus Cohtmbianus) . I 
found this bird from the first pine forests east of the Rocky 
Mountains entirely across, but more rare in the spruce for- 
ests, as it is in those west of the Cascade Mountains, evi- 



dently because it feeds chiefly on the seeds of the Yellow 
Pine (P. jponderosa), which is either wanting or scarce 
among the spruces. I noticed large flocks flying in very 
loose order, with a steady, pretty rapid motion like a Jay, 
not in the least "by jerk-, in the manner of a Woodpecker," 
as described by Townsend (Nuttall, Manual, 1840, Vol. I, 
p. 252). 

Black-billed Magpie (Pica Hudsonica). No Magpies 
appeared along the Missouri River in June, until we had 
entered the "Bad Lands," where it cuts through the first 
mountain range, and pine woods began to appear. Thence 
they continued common throughout the route westward, and 
on reaching Vancouver, October 30th, I found them for the 
first time about there. 

Steller's Jay (Cyan urn 8teHerii). I saw no Jays my- 
self until- we crossed the Bitterroot River, when they became 
common in the spruce forests. Dr. Suck ley, however, 
found this species at St. Mary's Valley, in October 1853. 

Canada Jay (Perisoreus Canadensis). This bird appeared 
near the crossing of the Bitterroot, and was also common in 
the spruce forests of the Cceur d'Alene Mountains, these 
being its favorite summer residence as they are near the 

Band-tailed Pigeon (Columba fasciata) . I saw but one 
bird, which I think belonged to this species, near Cceur 
d'Alene Mission, at the base of the most western range of 
mountains. It seems to leave the Rocky Mountains almost 
entirely to the next species, though a few have been obtained 
farther south, along their eastern base, by Say and Peale. 
(Nuttall, Manual, Vol. I, p. 753.*) 

Passenger Pigeon (JEctopistes migratoria) . The Passen- 
ger Pigeon, like the Cat-bird, astonished me by its frequency 
in the Rocky Mountains, as. although I saw no very large 
flocks, I saw some almost every day until I passed the Spo- 
kan Falls, just north of the Columbia Plain-, where Lieut. 



81 

A. V. Kautz shot two. It thus seems to pass round to the 
north of that plain, and occasionally to cross the Cascade 
Range, as mentioned by Dr. Suckley in 1853. 

Along the Missouri I often saw small flocks, and noticed 
quite a number of their nests in small trees between Forts 
Pierre and Berthold. I found one sitting June 7th, and 
heard that many build farther south, near Sioux City. 

In the mountains they fed, in August, chiefly on the Ser- 
vice-berry (Amelanchier ahiifolia), which, along the Hell 



Gate, attains a size and flavor unequalled by any I 


have 


seen elsewhere. 




Dove (Zenaidura Carolinensis) . I did not see this 


1 bird 


anywhere in the mountains, though I found it above 


Fort 



Union, on the Missouri. 

Dusky Grouse (Tetrao obscurus). This Grouse was shut 
at the very beginning of pine woods on the east base of the 
Rocky Mountains, and I often killed them afterwards all 
the way to Fort Colville, but none in very good plumage 
up to October. 

Franklin's Grouse (T. FranMinii). The first specimen 
met with was shot through the head with a pistol ball, by 
Lieut. L. R. L. Livingston. It is much smaller than num- 
bers 123 and 124, which were trapped by the Indians near 
Fort Colville, three weeks later. I did not see any alive 
myself, but was told that in winter they are common south 
to Spokan River, and very stupid, standing by the roadside 
to be shot, having doubtless descended from the mountains, 
where they were unmolested. They are also common in 
summer near the pass, 5100 feet above the sea, on the Cceur 
d*Ale U e Range. 

I now believe that two young specimens, one killed in 
Kliekatat Pass. Cascade Mountains, in August 1853, the 
other near Spokan River, in October 1853. and mentioned in 
my Ueport aa T. obscurus, " running through the snow," were 
of this species. In their immature plumage I then supposed 
the red mark over the eve to be mcrelv a character of the 



82 THE FAUNA OF MONTANA TERRITORY. 

young. The "Small Brown Pheasant" of Lewis & Clark ( ?) 
ii probably the immature Lagopus leucurus, which inhabits 
much more Alpine districts than any wo traversed. 

Sharp-tailed Grouse (T. Columbianus) . This Grouse 
occurs abundantly at most of the prairie regions passed 
through, on Sun Eiver, Deer Lodge, Bitterroot (St. Mary's) 
and Spokan prairies, probably finding its way down around 
the valley of Clark's Fork, and reaches Fort Colville in small 
numbers. I saw none, however, in the higher prairies of 
the Kocky Mountains, over 4500 feet above the sea. 

Sage-fowl (Centrocercus urophasianus) . I saw nothing 
of the Sage-fowl, which Col. Vaughan, who had a specimen 
killed near Fort Benton, says is very rare there. None were 
seen by our party on the Columbia Plains, north of Snake 
Eiver, where they were common in 1853. 

Ruffed Grouse (Bonasa Sabinii var. ? umbelloides) . I 
shot several specimens of this Ruffed Grouse from the east 
base of Mullan's Pass to Fort Colville, most of which were 
young or moulting, but showed more or less brown in their 
plumage, thus connecting the above named variety (?) with 
the other two forms, which it entirely resembles in habits, 
etc. I saw a much grayer one near Fort Colville in 1853. 

Gray Crane ( Grus Canadensis) . Only two observed in 
the Rocky Mountains, and none elsewhere, except a tame 
one near Fort Colville, which followed our horses for some 
distance apparently for the pleasure of a race, running with 
wings spread until it was passed, then flying ahead and cir- 
cling round to meet us again. It refused a piece of bread 
thrown to it. 

Blue Heron (Ardea herodias). I did not see this, nor 
any other species of Heron, west of Fort Benton. Lewis 
and Clark, as well as Dr. Newberry, speak of seeing White 
Herons below Snake River. 

Mountain Plover {Aegialitis montanus). Rare along 
the east base of the Rocky Mountains, usually about the 
Prairie-dog villages, and might be expected to cross the 



THE FAUNA OF MONTANA TERRITORY. 83 

items as it does farther south. I do not recollect, how- 
having seen any of the small waders anywhere in the 
, though I noticed the Field Plover (Actiturm Bar- 
tramius) at the eastern base of Mullan's Pass, a bird never 
yet obtained west of the mountains.* 

Wilson's Snipe (Scolopax Wihonii) was seen at Cama, 
Prairie Creek, on the eastern border of the Columbia Plains, 
about the end of September. 

Esquimaux Curlew (JVumenius borealis) breeds near 
Fort Benton, where young were oaughl in July, still downy, 
but I have seen no Curlew on the Columbia Plains, though a 
species is said to abound near Fort Dalles, Oregon, in the 

Swan ( Cygnus Americanos?). Swans were seen in large 
flocks on the Columbia River, in the Cascade Canon, as early 
as October 29th, this year (1860), and their migration 
southward seemed generally early. I saw them, however, 
on lakes of the Columbia Plain about the same time iu 
1853. 

Canada Goose (Bernicla Canadensis). Great numbers 
of this goose breed along the Missouri, where we saw broods 
every day from Fort Leavenworth up to Fort Benton. 
They are said to lay in nests, on trees, probably deserted 
nests of some other large bird. I saw two at Spokan River, 
Washington Territory, September 25th, which were proba- 
bly summer residents there. 

Mallard (Anas boschas) . Common in summer in the 
valleys of the Rocky Mountains, where it breeds. 

Green-winged Teal (Nettion CaroUnensis) . Common at 
St. Mary's Valley in August, and probably breeds in the 



Rocky Mountain Golden-eye (Bucephala Islandica?). 
saw some dark headed ducks, perhaps this species, which 
as so long supposed to be peculiar to the Rocky Mountains, 



84 THE FOSSIL REPTILES OF NEW JERSEY. 

high up the Little Blackfoot River, but did not succeed in 
killing one. 

Sheldrake (Mergus Americanus) . I shot a female bird 
of this species at the highest camp on the Little Blackfoot 
River, near where it doubtless had raised a brood, as they 
seek such clear rapid streams for thai purpose in the Cascade 
Mountains. 31. sermtor. the female of which is so much 
like this, has probably never been obtained tar from the 

Western Grebe (JPodiceps occidentals) . I found this 
Grebe on the Alkaline lakes of the Columbia Plain, October 
■Nth, about the same time of year that 1 obtained the tirst 
known specimen from near Walla Walla, in 1«53. Its breed- 
ing place may be on the shores of these lakes. — To be con- 
cluded. 



REPTILES OF NEW JKl.'SKV. 



While grim and monstrous Dinosaurs ranged the forests 
and flats of the coast of the Cretaceous sea, and myriads of 
Gavials basked on the bars and hugged the shores, other 
races peopled the waters. The gigantic Mosasaurus, the 
longest of known reptiles, had few rivals in the ocean. 
These Pythonomorphs were the sea-serpents of that age, 
and their snaky forms and gaping jaws rest on better evi- 
dence than he of Nahant can yet produce. 

beds of the United States, of which six have been found in 
New Jersey. Two others occur in Europe. In relative 
abundance of individuals, as well as of species, New Jersey 
is much in advance of any other part of the world where ex- 
cavations have been made. 



THE FOSSIL REPTILES OF NEW JERSEY. SO 

These creatures have been referred to the neighborhood of 
the Varanidra or Lace-lizards, which now haunt the shores 
of rivers in the tropics and southern regions of the Old 
World. Cuvier, Owen and others, have expressed this 

light of the abundant material discovered in various parts 
of the United States. The lizard-like affinities are, it is true, 
to the Varanians rather than to any others. 

The Mosasaurus was a long slender reptile, with a pair of 

pointed head. The verv Ion- tail was flat°and deep, like 
that of a irroat eel, forming a powerful propeller. The 
arches of the vertebral column interlocked more extensively 
than in other reptiles except the snakes, presenting in a 
prolongation of the front of one, which enters beneath that 
immediately in advance of it, a rudiment of that extra 
articulation called the r 'zygosphenal." In the related genus 
Clidastes, this structure is as fully developed as in the 
serpents, so that we can picture to ourselves its well known 
consequences: their rapid progress through the water by 
lateral undulations ; their lithe motions on land ; the rapid 
stroke ; the ready coil ; or the elevation of the head and 
vertebral column, literally a living pillar towering above 
waves or brush <>f the shore swamps. While the construc- 



quadratum. the su 
y movable and fas 
uch shorter than i 



86 THE FOSSIL REPTILES OF NEW JERSEY. 

them. But there was a remarkable arrangement to obviate 
any inconvenience arising from these points. While the 
branches of the under jaw had no sutural connection, and 
possessed independent motion, as in all serpents, they had 
the additional peculiarity, not known elsewhere among verte- 
brates (except in a few snakes), of a movable articulation a 
little behind the middle of each. Its direction being ob- 
lique, the flexure was outwards and a little downward-, 
greatly expanding the width of the space between them, and 
allowing their tips to close a little. A loose flexible poueh- 
rotilcl then receive the entire prey, swallowed be- 
tween the branches of the jaw; the necessity of holding it 
lonu' in the teeth, or of passing it between the short quad- 
rate bones would not exist. Of course the glottis and tongue 
would be forwards. The physiognomy of the reptile, with 
apparently dislocated jaws and swollen throat, as he passed a 
(himara to his internal laboratory, could scarcely be prepos- 

The Clidastes and Macrosaurus were the more slender of 
these heteroclite beings, while Mosasaurus embraces the most 
gigantic. The Clidastes iguanavus could not have been 
shorter than thirty feet, and presented a reduction of the 
length of the paddles, consistent with its thoroughly serpent- 
like vertebral column. Macrosaurus validus considerably 
exceeded this length. Mosasaurus Mitchell Hi and M. Mia** 
riensis propelled sixty feet of length through the waves, 
while no portion of these have been found to equal the M- 
maximus, which have recently been exhumed. 

The reptilian whales of those troublous times, were the 
Cimoliasaurs and Elasmosaurs. These were the Plesiosaurs 
of Cretaceous life, and probably had a great range over the 
earth. Portions of them have been found in England and 
North America to our far western regions. Cimoliasatirus 
appears to have resembled Plesiosaurus in general, while 
Elasmosaurus added to its type an enormous and flattened 
tail, relatively as long as that of the Mosasaur, or the modern 



OF NEW JERSEY. 87 

Iguana, but not so flat as in the former ; perhaps it were 
more as in the Crocodile as to compression, while relatively 
still longer. But both of these types present one strange 
feature. The processes which connect the arches of the ver- 
tebrae, are related to each other in directions the reverse of 
that which prevails among vertebrate generally, being per- 
haps the same as the zygosphen of the serpent and Clidastes, 
without the usual accompaniment. But the more probable 
explanation is, that they are the usual "zygapophyscs" with 
the articular faces somewhat altered in direction. They are 
very oblique, turned a little over from the perpendicular, 
which latter position is sometimes more or less approached 
by these processes in other animals. 

The Elasmosaurus orientalis rests on the evidence of but 
few remains, but these are like those of its better known 
congener E. platyurus. The vertebra? are nearly as large as 
those of an elephant, and indicate a totally different type of 
reptile from the Mosasaurus. The bulk was whale-like, the 
neck long and flexible, while short paddles and the serpent- 
like tail, sped this most colossal of our sea-saurians on his 
destructive career. The skull was light, and with a long nar- 
row, and very flat muzzle ; the nostrils or spout-holes were 
near the orbits; the teeth long and cyliiulric and much 
sharper than those of the Mosasaurus. The most ravenous 
fish — the Enchocli, or great barracudas of the Cretaceous, 
were his food, and few we might suppose could escape the 
plunge from the elevated position whence he scanned the 
waters for prey. Cimoliasaurus magnus is more abundant 
in New Jersey. In bulk it was little inferior to the last, 
but it was apparently abbreviated and depressed behind, and 
so must have presented a very peculiar form. Precisely what 
that was and whether it supported a caudal fluke, we must 
determine hereafter. Elasmosaurus platyurus was forty-live 
feet in length. 

While the crocodiles are most numerous in individu A- m 
the deposits of this period, the turtles exceed them and all 



88 THE FOSSIL REPTILES OF NEW JERSEY. 

other orders in the number of species. There have been 
twenty found in the Cretaceous of New Jersey, and three 
additional ones are known from the Tertiaries of the same 
State. The Cretaceous turtles may be arranged under four 
heads, viz., true Emydes or fresh water forms ; Chclydrine 
Emydes, or snappers ; Trionychidse or soft shells; and Hy- 
dra>j>idi(he, a type now confined to the Southern Hemisphere, 
which throw the head round the side of the shell, instead of 
drawing it in. It will be observed that all of these forms 
occur at the present day in fresh water only, and that true 
marine turtles are not found in this part of the Cretaceous 
formation. Add to this the fact that the crocodiles are rather 
estuary and river animals : that the Dinosaurs .are terrestrial; 
and that by far the most abundant shells of the same region 

of occasional separation from the high ocean, by seaward 
bars and islands, or even by occasional considerable strips 
of dry land. 

The Emydiform turtles all belong to the genus Adonis of 
Cope, and were often of the size of our large gulf species, 
but generally of far more massive structure. The snapper- 
like forms are more numerous; they have been taken to be 
marine types, and indeed their fore-limbs appear to have been 
more paddle-like than those of the species of our modern 
rivers. They are represented by nine species, which per- 
tain to five genera. These forms* differ much in the relative 
union of the shield of the carapace, and its marginal pieces. 
In the genus Peritresius of Cope, the margin was largely 
separate, and the shell covered by a thin skin : in Li/tohnna 
Cope the margin was also distinct, except in front and rear; 
and the carapace was covered by heavier shell-like dermal 
plates. Propleura Cope contained one large species — P. 
scpita, where the margin was broad and Hat, and free as in 
the last, except that it had a broad union with the disc in 
front. Finally Osteopygis Cope, was solidly knit fore and 
aft by suture between disc and margin. Of its three species, 



THE FOSSIL REPTILES OF KE^\ 

notches between, at the same parts of t 

the snappers and prob;d,ly conmu.nly iv:i 
feet. An ally, the fluctuates phf/i/op*. 
been found, presented a broad, massi 
apparently for crushing, rather than tli 
hooked bill of the raptorial snapper. I 
shells for food. The Lytolomu unqusta C 
type of jaws. In the Euclastes, the skn 
foot in length, and eight inches in width, 
immense temporal muscles, which indie; 

More elegance and less strength char; 



Imt Ave ki 
Of the 01 



out, we know both the flexure 
of the pelvis, and the struct 
esult of the law of correlati 



NEW JEKSET. 

which holds ' roi gh long series of forms, but must be care- 
fully modified for other series, and in some points cannot be 
read at all. 

In Prochonias, as in the modern genus of lira/.il. Ihiilro- 
medusa, the ileum is fastened by a great suture to the shell 
above, right on the line of junction of two rib bones. But 
the bones of the front of the carapace, are quite diiferent 
from those of Hydromedusa. In Taphrosphys the structure 
is more poAvoiful. The rib bones are united into one, and 
rise up round the sutural scar, leaving it at the bottom of a 
deep pit. T. molops was a powerful swimmer, and perhaps 
what he lost in mass, was gained in speed. The bony shells 
of both this genus and the last, are sculptured with netted 
grooves (P. s,ih-at>is and 1\ Htrnmus) or ribbed lines (P. 
jprinoeps, and T.molopx), and they were probably covered 
with a thin skin instead of dermal scales. J\ prineeps was 
large and massive, equalling some of the snappers. 

The more beautifully marked "soft-shelled" forms, the 
Trionyches, are represented by three species. Their posi- 
tion shows that they lived at an earlier period than in Eu- 
rope. The Trionyx of our Miocene (T. lima Cope) was 
large and rough, with narrow sharp ridges. Its remains 
occur with Dolphins and .Porpoises, but it may have been 
floated or washed from the mouth of a fresh-water stream 

The Crocodiles of the modern period are characterized by 
the hollow crowns of their teeth, and one <t<. nu - of the Creta- 

Most of the Miocene species of both Europe and America 
possess, on the contrary, solid crowns, composed of closely 
concentric cones, as we see in Mosasaurus and some other 
reptiles. Some of them have been on this account mistaken 
for Mosasauroids, but none of the latter are known above 
the Cretaceous. In this country the Miocene forms of this 
kind are ga vials, of even larger size than those of the Cre- 
taceous. They belong to the g< (Ope. of 



TNSECTS INJURIOUS TO THE POTATO. 91 

which T. sericodon was first discovered by Dr. H. C. Wood 
in Southern New Jersey, and T. sicaria by Philip T. Tyson 
in Southern Maryland. In both localities their remains are 
mingled with those of Dolphins and Whales, and their car- 
cases have all floated together on the ocean currents and tides 
to their present resting places. In Europe there are some 
species of the same genus, while allies of the true crocodilian 
form represent the Plerodon of Meyer. The gavials of the 
Cretaceous present a similar character of teeth, and approach 
remarkably near to the Thecachampsa\ when we consider 
the great hiatus between the life of the two great periods in 
other departments. The gavials of the Miocene differ in but 
a few important points from the Thoraeosauri of the Creta- 
ceous. The latter were very numerous in individuals, and 
appear under five specific forms. 

In the plale accompanying this article, the artist has 
attempted an ideal representation of a few of the subjects 
which haunted the shores of our country, when our prairies 
were the ocean bottom, and our southern and eastern borders 
were far beneath the Atlantic. Lmlaps aquilunguis occupies 
the foreground on a promontory, where his progress is inter- 
rupted he the earnest protest of an Elasmosaurus. Moxaxmt- 
rus watches at a distance with much curiosity and little good 
"will, while Osteopygis views at a safe distance the unwonted 
spectacle. On the distant shore a pair of the huge Hadro- 
sauri browse on the vegetation, squatting on their haunches 
and limbs as on a tripod. Thoracosaurus crawls up the banks 
with a fish, and is ready to disappear in the thicket. 



INSECTS INJURIOUS TO THE POTATO. 



Of the several distinct species of potato bugs, the Colo- 
rado Beetle {Doryphora 10-lineata Say, Fig. 13 ; a, eggs ; b, 



92 INSECTS INJURIOUS TO THE POTATO. 

young and fully grown larvae : <\ pupa ; d, beetle : 




the potatoes in August ; then in the following year farnn 
might plant about the first of July, and take them up aft 
the frost kills the vines. By this bourse of treatment the 
potato bugs will be without food during the first fall, ai 
many will perish, while those that remain in the ground ov 
winter will come up in May, and be without food more thi 
a month in the spring, and thus perish. This plan rigid 

To this argument some may reply that the potato bug w 
feed on other species of the natural botanical family Solan 
cea?, such as the tomato, thorn-apple, etc. It is true that tin 

grown lame, but I have observed carefully, and never 
this region saw the young potato bugs developing from ti 

Early in the last spring a sufficient number of matu 
potato bugs appeared on "the potato vines to cause sor 
apprehensions of trouble, though much less than in the pi 

toes were partially trimmed In them, from which I inferr 
that the second brood would do a good deal of damage 
July and August. 

About the^middle of July I saw potato bugs in Minn 
sota, as far north as St. Paul. They were quite abundai 
the larvae stripping the vines as they had done in Illinois la 

the potato bugs on the same grounds that were entirely ove 
run by them last year, and found very few. At the last < 
August, I searched in the potato patch, on these san 
grounds, and found but two mature bugs and one smt 
bunch of eggs. Here is a remarkable and unexpected d 
crease of bugs, instead of the usual increase, that makes the 
very destructive in August. How are we to account for ii 
The various known heteropterous enemies, and Lady-bird 



i)4: INSECTS INJURIOUS TO THE POTATO. 

(Fig. 14, Coccinella 9-notata and pupa; fig. 15 , Hippodamia 
13-punrtata; a, larva; b, pupa) without doubt destroyed 
some, but as I could not find them more numerous than usual, 

\y _ J of this almost perfect extermination of potato 
bugs. Moreover the larv* in June were sunl- 
it ciently numerous, in propor- Wj.* 
W^ tion to the number of beetles^ fo 
JWk observed in the spring, and M 
yet in July and August the beetles failed W ' 
to appear as expected. We can only look W ^ 



to climatic causes as the principal means that pin 
spring brood from maturing. 

The weather here was uncommonly hot as wel 
hence the pupae were exposed to the burninir drv 
this doubtless was the efficient cause of the death o 
naked, delicate pupa?. The only object that they 

hot dry atmosphere of summer and the cold frosts 



during the sei 
these insects i 


a room. 


as I p, 
id rep 


■0V(M 


but this time i 


he grouiu 
t tailed t< 


I usual 


ly fi 

the] 


I have ofte 
perish from e: 


^posiirc t 


ed tha 


mu!' 


of the various 

not develop s<: 


) well in i 


rers h 

l papel 


owei 






of the pupa I have often noti< 



INSECTS INJUEIOUS TO THE POTATO. 95 

in attempting to breed the Maple Worm {Dryocamjvt ruhi- 
cunda). The larva n't ires to some cool moist place beneath 
a board, stone, or anything it can tind on the ground, where 
it will not be exposed to the dry atmosphere, i'or the chrysa- 
lis is naked. Now take this same chrysalis and put it into 
a dry box, and it most likely will perish, and fail to perfectly 

vicissitudes. This, I believe, is not only to protect them 
from the rain, if it is at all for this purpose, as entomolo- 
gists often suppose, but to protect them from the far more 
injurious influence of evaporation 'luring- the long time they 
take no liquid nourishment. It is for this purpose also 
that the Ceeidomyian larva cements its spun cocoon with a 
gummy fluid, as I have shown in the "Transactions of the 
American Entomological Society," for October, 1867. We 
therefore And here another example of climatic causes, pro- 
ducing disease and death among insects in a wholesale man- 
Entomological writers usually represent cannibal insects 



the power that man can exert in controlling injurious inserts. 
While we may not despise these measures of protection, es- 
pecially the former— for without the Ichneumon fly, the Syr- 
phus fly, the Coccinelhe, etc., Ave would doubtless be overrun i 
l>y swarms of caterpillars, plant-lice, and other noxious depre- 
dators—let us not forget the great truth, that climatic 
causes, producing death by epidemic diseases and various 
other means, are infinitely in advance of most other natural 
means of exterminating noxious insects (for my extended 
views :m d observations on this topic, see an address before 
the Northern Illinois Horticultural Society, and published 
in the first volume of the Transactions of that body, and my 
Report of a remarkable epidemic disease observed among 



Vb INSECTS INJURIOUS TO THE POTATO. 

Chinch-bugs, ill the Proceedings of the Academy of Natural 
Sciences of Philadelphia, for May, 1867). 

Fig. 10. In the case of the Chinch-bug, the conditions 

ring its development and health are entirely 

reverse. It was during the unusually wet 

weather of l.S<>:> that the -rent epidemic ivferivd 



to pi 



tiplied as favorably as it could des 
but this year was one favorable to the developm 
of the Chinch-bugs, and true to nature, they h 

I observed this failure of development among 
potato bugs, I have looked carefully for them 
roll) and parts of the adjoining counties, and s 
patch with any bugs. At this date the early 




// JIl \ V SjLf sl, PPly of food he- 

/ * \ V^ Jb X tion of the bugs if 

le next autumn should be nearly as pleasant as the last. 

Of the Blistering Beetles {Canthandw), I have observed 
lis year the Striped ( antharis ( L,,ft<, vUtuta Fabr., Fie 16) 



Mm 



Fig. 17, < 

•is { L,,n„ 
eets. A s, 



INSECTS INJURIOUS TO THE POTATO 




INSECTS INJURIOUS TO THE 



X & f 






ckinir the bugs by hand, as in reality tl 






.■:■■.'...■.'. 



NATURAL HISTORY MISCELLANY. 



102 NATURAL HISTORY MI 

growing a few feet from the edge of the i 



were colored like the others, but were somewhat smalh r in size. — S. N. 
Cowles, Otisco, N. Y. 

The Cedars of Lkbaxox. — Dr. Hooker makes the following interest- 
ing communication to a recent number of the "Gardeners' Chronicle" : — 
••The Rev. M. Tri-Tain. V. L. S.. informs me of a most interesting discov- 
ery lately made in the Lebanon, viz., of several extensive groves of cedar 
trees. ), v \[ r . .Tessup. an American missionary, a friend of his own. to 
whom he pointed out the probable localities in the interior. Of these 
there are five, three of great extent, east of 'AinZabulteh,' in the southern 
Lebanon. This grove lately contained 10000 trees, and had been pur- 
chased by a barbarous sheikh, from urki-h gov- 
ernment, for the purpose ot trying to extrae! }>itch from the wood. The 
experiment of course ("ailed, and tiie Sheikh was ruined. I.uit several thou- 
sand trees were destroyed in the attempt. One of the trees measured fifteen 

great rigor. He also found two small groves on the eastern slope of 
Lebanon, overlooking the Buka'a, above El Medeuk; and two other large 
groves containing many thousand trees, one above ElBaruk, and another 
near Ma'asiv. where the trees are very large and equal to any others: all 
are being destroyed for lirewood. Still another grove has been discov- 
ered near Duma, in the western slope of Lebanon, near the one discovered 
by Mr. Tristram himself. This gives ten distinct localities in the Leba- 
non, to the south of the originally discovered one, and ii 
one on the north of that I 
thence northwards the chain is unexplored by voyager or naturalist." — 
Quarterly Journal of Science, London. 



ZOOLOGY. 
The Crow a Bird of Prey. — In confirmation of what Mr. 

ias stated in regard to the crow as a "bird of prey," Mr. H. G. 
>f Silver Spring. Lancaster County, stated ln-fore the Linincan 
if Lancaster City, at its January meeting, that in his neighbor! 



when they have had I 



row Roost" on 
les south of Lancaster ('it 
; learned that 



§1 .a,,,.:.:,,;-,, .;,*... 




and rotten bark, enclosing the mouth of the phial with 



NATURAL HISTORY 

3 specimen secure, and i 



ven you a pretty j 






g of the Seventeen-year Cia 

>ung. by keeping branches containing eu^s in their stuc 



time. In the brood c 



bers, by half a dozen o 



they r. 


quire the moisture con 


ained in livin 


g wood 












preset 










the palm of mj 




of the young Cicadas 


the egg 


-kin b 


fore it is broken. 


— S. S.Kathi 




PlU'.l 


u:atio> 


of Bird's Eggs 


.-The seaso 








d, and it may be 








method of preparing the > 2- i\ 




in this 


journal (Vol. II. p. 1*7 






subject 


I will 


only add the mor 








Histo 












ach end, or two holes in the sid 




p. 4*7. 


Vol. II. 












side. This is t 






lectors 


By placing the hole c 






Ionian 


cTtaK 


it is still better, f 


sTi.lM he'll! 





vpipe, the inside passes out around the instrument. If tne 
3 no larger than the point, by forcing air into the egg, and 



NAT! \l\l. iri>T()in MI>< va.l: 



Ellsworth suggested 1 



flapping his 


win- , u 




and that 










The follow-in- su—estioiis 


have be 


rise above 










rel. The 














momentum gained by 
























e ships. 


Tli"- n 





MISrKLL.VXY. 



rnliirlit..'ii us? — John D. Pa: 



3ISTORY MISCELLA 



lex.— In an art 
d by Silk-weed ] 

actually I.»inii 



the pollen masses are attached to a cleft gland. When the ins 
flower to secure its honey, of which there is an abundance, 

becomes fast. To free itself the insect must pull out the gli 



states that out iduals of the cave 

when alive, neatly cut on the sm h Mirfare »i a rib of the same s] 

have been discovered by the Vicomte de Lastic St. Jal, in 1863, 
cavern at Bruniqu i nuWv cimmi- n< -which indisputably show 
work to have been done by one of the tribe of men Inhabiting the c 
WKJ slaj tag the wild horses of that locality and period forfood.-Sc 
Opinion. 



DORY MISCELLANY. 

MICROSCOPY. 

Amoeboid movements in Eggs.— Prof. E. Van Beneden, in some very 
important researches on the development of the eggs of the lower Crus- 
tacea, states that there is no vitelline membrane in the egg as it lies in 
the ovary. He proves it. lirst. by the aimebohl movements already known 
of other eggs, ami which he has observed to be particularly active iu 
these Instances; secondly, by the very interesting fact, of his own discov- 
ery, that the egu> at t;;i- stage, like ti : . infusoria, swallow, so to speak, 
globules of carmine. The same fact has been recorded with regard to 

ilood corpuscles and other young cells." — Schwann, 
Opinion. 

The Molecular Origin of Infusoria. — The doctrine of Heterogeny, 

R. Owen has declared in favor of it, and Dr. J. H. Bennett, the eminent 
pathologist of Edinburgh, advocates it in the "Popular Science Review" 
for January, under the title given above. He states that animals and 
plants are developed from ova or seeds, or by parthenogenesis, of 
by heterogenesis, i. e., from molecules which compose the scum or pelli- 
cle seen on the surface of an infusion of any vegetable or animal sub- 
stance. These molecules "constitute the primordial mucous layer of 
Lcle of Pouchet. These molecules en- 
large, and may be seen here and there strongly adhering together in twos 
and fours, so as to form a little chain." They continue to unite until 
they form a short staff, or filament — bacterium. These bacteria become 
longer l>\ uniting v. ith -.tin t>, and have a serpentine movement whereby 
they are propelled forward in the fluid, forming a vibrio. These bodies 
disintegrate, and thus a second molecular mass is produced. "In this, 
rounded masses maybe seen to form, which strongly r<tv 
unlike pus corpuscles, or the colorless corpuscles of the blood. These 
so.. n in -in to move with a jerking motion, dependent upon 
cilitim attached to one of their extremities — Monas lens. In a clay or 
two other cilia are produced, the corpuscle enlarges, is nucleated, and 
swim> through the fluid evenly. Varied forms may now occur in the 
molecular mass, dependent on the temperature, season of the year, ex- 
posure to sunlight, and nature of the infusion, all having independent 
movements. They have been denominated AmceboE, Paramecia, Vortt- 
a ties, Kolpoda, Keronce, Glaucoma, Trachelius," etc., etc. "At other times 

malcules, gives origin to minute fungi," such as Torula, PeniciUi ><.,>. etc. 

roan preexisting cells or larger bodies, but always from niole- 

"That the infusoria originate and are developed in the molecular )»• '''' 
cle which floats on the surface of putrefying or fermenting 
been admitted by all who have carefully watched that pel 






M. Pasteur at their head, tha 



varied condition.-. -\u-h a- temperature, li^lit. ehemieal exchange-, den- 
sity, pressure, and composi-ti-on of atmospheric air. and of the fluid, etc.. 
the molecules by their coalescence, produce the lower forms of vegetable 

Chicago Microscopic Club. — We have received the Const i 
By-laws of this new society, and the Proceedings of the meeting held 
January 2i;tli. when Prof. Freer exhibited human blood cells showing the 
cell as a bi-concave disc, with a nude <•< in the 

centre ; most microscopists having denied the existence of a nucleus in 
the human blood disc. 



3WERS TO CORRESPONDENTS. 



BOOKS EECEIVI 



• 



AMEEICAN NATURALIST. 



Vol. III. -MAY, 1869. -No. 3. 

A NEW SPECIES OF HARE FROM THE SUMMIT OF 
WIND RIVER MOUNTAINS. 






In the summer of 1860, the U. S. Exploring Expeditioi 
under the command of Capt. William F. Raynolds, U.S.A. 



114 A NEW SPECIES OF HARE. 

crossed over the Wind River Mountains into the valley of 
the Columbia River. The writer was connected with that 
expedition as Geologist and Naturalist. May 30th, we 
camped at the foot of the eastern slope of the mountains, at 
the source of Wind River. It was a beautiful locality, and 
at this time the spring had fully come. Myriads of flowers 
covered the valley, and the trees and shrubs were clothed 
with foliage of the peculiar bright yreen color character- 
istic of this mountain scenery. On the north side of this 
valley were the rugged basaltic ridges of the western end of 
the Big Horn Range, where it united itself with the Wind 
River Range, and on our left were the forest-covered, gently 
descending slopes of the Wind River Range. Fine spring- 
issued t'roin the -ides of the mountains everywhere, and all 
the little branches were full of trout. 

On the morning of May 31st, we ascended the eastern 
slope, and gradually the vegetation dwindled down in size, 
so that it presented an Alpine character, and before reaching 
the summit, we were pushing our way through ten or fifteen 
feet of snow. Upon the summits of these mountains quite 
huge areas are covered with perpetual snow, portions of 
which melt away in midsummer. Every few moments the 
clouds dropped down rain or snow, and then the sun shone 
out as bright as ever. We were obliged to spend several 
days on the summit of these mountains. So far as I could as- 
certain the fauna on the west side of the Wind River Moun- 
tains is quite distinct from that on the eastern side. One 
day I noticed a group of singular tracks on the snow which 
seemed different from any I had ever observed in the West. 
and they appeared to belong to an enormous species of hare. 
Descending the western slope about a third of the way from 
the summit, we saw a number of these animals in the little 
patches of pine forests, and succeeded in capturing several of 

previously observed by me, and most probably unde-cribed. 
The following is a brief description of this hare : 



A NEW SPECIES OF HARE. 115 

Lepus Bairdii Hayden, Baird's hare. — Summer dross : 
General color gray, glossed behind, especially on the rump, 
with sooty black; feet and tail, and the e.l-v> of the ear, 
white, the latter not darker at tip. Nape sooty. In winter 
pure white. Length to base of tail about sixteen inches (tail 
mutilated). Ear three inches high ; hind feet six inches long. 

This interesting new species of Alpine hare, as far as our 
observations extend, is confined to the Wind River Moun- 
tain-, where it is by no means rare, and forms a charac- 
terise feature of the landscape, its unusually broad feet 
expanding with each step, forming a set of veritable snow- 
shoes, enabling it to pass rapidly over the surface of the 
snow without sinking. It is readily distinguished from 
Townsend's Hare, or the Missouri Jackass Rabbit by its 
smaller size, much shorter ears, and different colors. It is 
considerably larger than X. sylvaticus and artemma, with 
disproportionately large feet and sooty nape, being neither 
chestnut nor reddish. In some respects it resembles Lepus 
campestris of the Hudson Bay country, which, however, is 
more like L. sylvaticus, although much grayer, and like L. 
Bairdii, with a sooty nape. It is, perhaps, with the true 
Polar Hare (Lepus glacialis) that it is to be compared the 
most properly. Its summer dress is much the same, but it 
ls much smaller, and lacks the black tips of the ears. The 
hind feet are, however, of nearly the same size. 

This hare seems to be restricted to a comparatively small 
area on the summits of these mountains, near Fremont's 
Peak, about longitude 110°, and latitude 43°, so far as our 
present knowledge extends : and its natural habitat appears 
t( > be among the perpetual snows, from which it descends at 
pleasure to the little open spots on the slope for its food. If 
it w,re widely distributed it could not so long have eluded 
the observations of so manv travellers who have crossed these 
°WMinteins before and since 1860. But at this immediate 
locality it appeared to be abundant. It subsists on grass, 
J fond of the bark, buds and leaves of small 



but 



116 THE SAND MARTIN. 

shrubs, especially the pine buds. Its meat is very white and 
tender, affording the most delicate food for the traveller. 
For tenderness and fineness of fibre, the meat of this hare 
not only differs from, but surpasses all others of the West. 
It holds a similar position among the hares that the Dusky 
Grouse does among the Western Grouse ; both have white 
and very delicate meat, and prefer to obtain their food from 
the pine shrubs. 

Descending the western slope of the mountains into the 
valley of the Snake Fork, we were again surrounded with 
all the indications of spring. The trees were clothed with 
fresh green foliage, and myriads of flowers were in bloom, 
and all signs of winter had passed away. In the course of a 
single day one may ascend to the region of perpetual snow, 
and descend again to that of spring and summer. 



The Sand Martins (Hlnnelo riparia) visit their accus- 
tomed breeding-places in Essex County. Mass 
usually the first week in May, in companies sometimes to 
the number of fifty pairs. They select the bank of some 
river, or the sides of any large excavation, in which they 
dig a hole from one to three feet below the surface of the 
ground in a straight, horizontal direction. The holes are 
usually from two to three feet in length, and often within a 
few inches of each other; the entrance and passage-way to 
the nest being of an elliptic form. They prefer the most 
perpendicular banks, with a stratum of sandy loam heloW 
the soil. They live together in the most social maimer, and 
unlike the White-bellied Swallow {Hirundo bicolor) are sel- 
dom seen to quarrel with each other. If at any time one of 
them should, in digging his hole, intrude upon the passage 



of another already excavated, he leaves it and begins a new 
one in some other place. After having completed their 
burrow they deposit at its farther extremity a small quan- 
tity of soft dried grass, so adjusted that the largest part of 
the material is placed towards the passage-way. and then 
line it with a few large white downy feathers. I say white 
feathers, because I have always observed they prefer the 
whitest they can get for the purpose ; it shows a proper taste 
in the birds, a fit symbol of their innocence, and I should 
be surprised to find a swallow's nest of this species lined 
with black or even dark-colored feathers. In the nest thus 
formed the female deposits from four to six eggs, which are 
pure white, with a very thin transparent shell; they are 
six-eighths of an inch in length, and one-half of an inch in 
breadth. Nature has not bestowed on this bird that graceful 
motion when on the wing that the Barn Swallow exhibits, 
but she has given it the most amiable disposition of all our 
swallows. 

I have noticed an instance of the sense and reflection of 
these birds, for if reason did not influence them in their oper- 
ations, it seems as if there never was evidence of its exist- 
ence in animals. There is in the town of Beverly a bank, 
formed by the removal of clay for the purpose of making 
bricks, which is every season occupied by twenty or thirty 
pairs of these birds. Above the clay there is a stratum of 
sandy loam, from two to three feet in depth: in this they 
burrow from two to three feet. There is likewise in the 
town of Danvers a bank which swallows occupy, in which 
the layer of loam is mixed with gravel or small stones. 
They excavate this bank to the length of five, seven and even 
nine feet. For two or three seasons it was undermined. 

Why should there be such a difference in the length of the 
burrows made by the same species of birds, in situations not 
more than a mile distant from each other? In one bank, 
after examining a number of their holes where the earth was 
of a fine sandy loam, easily perforated, it was noticed that 



118 THE SAND MAETIN. 

from the entrance to the extremity, the burrows did not 
exceed three feet in length, while in the other bank, with 
harder loam to work in, one burrow was found which was 
nine feet in length ; and after examining six different holes, 
of nearly the same length, it appeared that these little l»irds 
had sufficient reason for extending their labors so far in the 
earth; in every instance where they met with a spot of loam, 
free from stones, they finished their burrows ; if they met a 
stony soil they showed great care for the welfare of their 
eggs or young in avoiding a catastrophe so great as would 
befall their treasures if hy accident a stone should fall upon 
them ; for this reason they excavate to the great depth above 
referred to. As with man so it seems with them ; reason 
appears to teach them what effects certain causes will pro- 
duce ; hence the care the} T exhibit in depositing their eggs in 
a place free from danger of harm. 

After they arrive at their breeding-places, they seem to 
spend a few days in consultation with regard to the organi- 
zation of their little colony; at such time-, numbers of them 
will be seen clinging to the bank, keeping up a low twitter- 
ing, while others may be seen circling and wheeling around 
with much apparent joy, passing each other with that grace- 
fulness and ease that are characteristic of no other birds ex- 
cept those belonging to the swallow family, not however 
without a friendly greeting in a low chatter, with a little 
variance of cadence. No party of beavers are more regular, 
or swarm of bees more formal, than are the colonies of these 
birds. 

In watching their operations, while some were perforating 
the bank and others leaving it, in search for or returning 
with materials to construct their nests, it is noticeable that 
at a given signal, a short time before sunset, they quit their 
labors simultaneously, and in a few moments not an indi- 
vidual is seen near the bank, but over some pond, or field, 
or high in the air hunting their food. And when the colony 
returned it was in the same manner, all in company ; they 



THE WHITE-FOOTED OR DEEH MOUSE. 119 

would then hover awhile about the bank, and one after an- 
other dive into their burrows and disappear tor the night. 

Another interesting period in the life of this bird is when 
their young begin to fly. No mother looks upon the first 
steps of her child with more interest and pleasure than do 
these birds seemingly upon the first flight of their offspring. 
For a few days the young appear at the entrance of their 
burrow, watching the old birds tl flit they pass 
-•'nd repass, mid stopping now and then to leave them food, 
and are at last induced to leave the bank and try their wings. 
when they are followed by their parents until they are safely 
perched upon some object, to receive in a chattering way. 
their praise and congratulation for the success in their first 
attempt in flying. The young are fed for a few days upon 
the wing, and when abandoned to seek their own food may 
be seen in pairs or small parties, two or three miles from 
the place of their nativity, skimming over the field- and 
pastures. Their food consists entirely of insects. 

Among the festal days observed by the Greeks, there was 
one called "the Welcome of the Swallows," when the chil- 
dren would march through the streets with garlands of roses 
and with music to receive presents,. and as this swallow is 
one of those interesting "guests of summer" which always 
visits us, and as there is not even a suspicion that he is 
harmful to man, let us welcome him. 



THE WHITE-FOOTED OR DEER MOUSE. 



This species of the Mm family has been noted for two 
characteristics, not confined to it alone but still rare. One is 
that it is an active tree-climber, and very frequently makes its 
ne st upon or in trees, sometimes at a considerable distance 
from the ground ; and the other is its mode of transporting 



120 THE WHITE-FOOTED OR DEER MOUSE. 

its young, which, as usually observed, is by the latter ad- 
hering to the teat of the mother, who drags them along iu 
her flight from danger. 

In October last I observed a bunch of sticks and twigs in 
a thorn bush, about thirty inches from the ground, about the 
size of one's head and rounded on top, with no appearance 
of ever having been occupied by a bird. When the axe-man 
struck the root of the tree, a White-footed Mouse (Mus leu- 
copus) rushed from the nest with two of her young family, 
fully half-grown, attached to her. She coursed up and down 
the limbs, and from one limb to another, dragging her heavy 
load after her. Occasionally both would drop down on either 
side of the limb along which she was dragging them. Some- 
times when she would reach a lateral branch, the young 
hanging its whole length below it, she would yank the infant 
with a force truly surprising, which must have been a severe 
test upon the hold of the little oue. 

Two observations interested me particularly : First, the 
young were not adhering to the teat, which has been sup- 
posed to be the universal habit of this mouse, but were ad- 
hering to the outside of the thighs. In this observation I do 
not think I could have been mistaken, as I was struck wnli 
this peculiarity, and stood within a yard of them, and she 
stopped in plain view several times in apparent doubt as to 
which way to go, and once on a limb about an inch in diam- 
eter, and with one of the young hanging down on either 
side, which gave me the best possible chance for an accurate- 
observation. The young, though large enough to have fled 
much faster than the mother could drag them, made no effort 
to assist in the flight, but contented themselves with pas- 
sively hanging on. Second, the young were of a dull blue 
or lead color, darker than the common house-mouse, and 
showing no white on the feet, belly or sides, which is always 
observable in the adult. 

• My desire to secure them as specimens was overcome by 
my sympathy for the afflicted mother, and I allowed them to 



FLORA OF PALESTINE AND SYRIA. 121 

escape. This was done after haying once retreated to the 
nest, and left it again upon a new alarm, when she run out 
upon a limb as far as she could, and jumped to the ground, a 
distance of full four feet, the young still adhering to her. 

I did not, as I should have done, examine the internal 
arrangement of the nest. If she had taken possession of an 
abandoned bird's nest, she had completed the structure by 
adding to it till the top presented a full convex form. 



THE FLORA OF PALESTINE AND SYRIA. 



Palestine and Syria embrace four distinct botanical re- 
gions : 

I. The sea-coast plain and lower slopes of the hills, with 
the deeper valleys, which run far into the heart of Lebanon 
and the hill country of Galilee. The climate of this region 
is subtropical, and fosters the development of the banana, 
the palm, the sugar-cane and the orange. In this region 
frost is almost unknown, snow is quite rare, being seen only 
once in ten or fifteen years, and the hot sun of summer pour- 
ing on a soil made humid by irrigations, develops a luxu- 
riant vegetable life. 

II. The mountain sides, from 1000 to 4000 feet above the 
sea, with the valley of Ccele Syria, and the plain of the 
Orontes. Here the flora changes. The palm will no longer 
nourish. The banana refuses to fruit. The orange and the 
lemon cease to be productive, and their place is taken by the 
oak and the willow, and the pine and the maple. The olive 
and the mulberry are equally productive in this and the 
foregoing region, but in this form almost the only orchards, 
while on the plain they share the attention of the farmer 
with the before mentioned trees. In this region wheat and 

AMER. NATURALIST, VOL. III. 16 



122 FLORA OF PALESTINE AND SYRIA. 

barley flourish, and the vine attains the most perfect devel- 
opment. The herbaceous flora of these two regions is simi- 
lar in type, except that as we rise on the mountain sides the 
Tetragontheca and Stachys, and Squill and Pancratium of 
the plains begin to yield to the thorny mountain species of 
Astragalus, and Tragaeanth, and Eupigium, and the aro- 
matic Origanums and Teucriums. 

III. A third region comprises a small part of Ccele Syria, 
near the head waters of the Litany and Orontes, with the 
plain east of Damascus and Hums. The soil of this region 
is thin, being fit only for the production of grasses and 
thorny herbs, the scanty pasture of the Arab's flocks and 
herds. Here grow Centaurea dv nodosa, and Ih-lphiiiltim 
anthoroides, and many Astragali and other Leguminosse, 
while not a solitary tree, or even shrub, enlivens the dreaiy 
landscape. It is the type of those great waterless plains, 
which, for a short space, interrupted by the fertile district 
of Mesopotamia, extend eastward through Persia to the 
great desert of Cobi. 

IV. The fourth of these regions is from the height of 4000 
feet on Lebanon and Hermon, to their snow clad summits. 
Here the scanty remains of their once extensive forests of 
cedar and oak, and pine, end at an elevation of 6000 feet 
above the sea, and for the remaining 4000 feet of naked 
rock, we have left such treelets as the Cotoneaster, and Pru- 
nus prostrates, and Daphne olazoides, while the herbaceous 
flora is represented in the lower regions by Astragalus lana- 
tus, Alyssum montanum, and Ranunculus demissus and 
Viola ebracteolata, and higher up by hemispherical bogs of a 
species of Astragalus, Onobrychys tragacanthus and Acantho- 
limon Libanoticum, while on the extreme summit of Lebanon 
we find Ucia canescens, and of Hermon, Pyrethrum densum. 

A fifth region might be enumerated, viz., the plain about 
Jericho, in which, owing to the depth of its surface below 
the sea, about 1300 feet, and the reflected glare of the sun 
from the mountains and surface of the Dead Sea, the heat 



FLORA OF PALESTINE AND SYRIA. 123 

mounts to equatorial degrees, ami a flora is found roembling 
that of Lower India. More than twenty species are found 
here and around Engedi, which are not found again until we 
cross the Himalayas. 

Thus it will be seen, that while on the summit of Lebanon 
there is a plant, Oxygia reniformis, belonging to the Arctic 
flora, in the valley of the Dead Sea we have representatives 
of the vegetation of the torrid zone, and this in the midst of 
a region with a temperate climate, by a special arrangement, 
seemingly designed to extend the range of human thought and 
observation within limits almost microcosraical. For while on 
any high mountain in the tropics we may have the near con- 
junction of these diverse forms of vegetable life thus answer- 
ing the ends () f variety and comparison, yet the general sur- 
face of the country in such cases would be torrid, and hence 
ill-adapted to the development of a hardy independent race. 
■•Mich as inhabited the mountains of Palestine and Syria. In 
the Holy Land, however, the end is gained by sinking a 
small section down to a tropical level, leaving the rest of the 
country more favorably situated for the support of vigorous 
life, and the development of individuality of national char- 
acter. 

A single observation more is in place here. It is that in 
'\vria all plants necessary to life, or conducive to health, are 
either indigenous or flourish under cultivation in the open air. 
and that the indigenous materia medics supplies types of all 
the leading groups of remedies used in the healing art. This 
statement is illustrated by the fact that in the gardens of 
•\vria grow the potato, bean in all its varieties, Indian corn, 
egg-plant, squash, pumpkin, artichoke, cucumber, onion, 
tomato, turnip, cabbage. , aulirlower. spinach, carrot, beet. 
a nd many other vegetables, and the lemon, orange, citron, 
pomegranate, apricot, plum (in all varieties), peach, apple, 
cherry, blackberry, mulberry, banana, fig, date, grape, and 
other kinds of fruit; the walnut, pistachio, filbert, almond 
and other nuts; the squill, castor oil plant, elaterium, scam- 



124 THE FAUNA OF MONTANA TERRITORY. 

mony, colocynth, salep, acacia, galls, poppy, Conium macu- 
latum, aloe, various Euphorbias, madder and many other 
medicinal and economical plants. 



THE FAUNA OF MONTANA TERRITORY. 



(Concluded from page 84.) 
III. REPTILES. 

Horned Toad {Tapaya Douglassii Gir.). A single speci- 
men was obtained at Fort Benton. Though found on the 
Columbia Plains this species does not seem to cross the 
mountains at this point, but probably does so by the head 
of Snake River. 

Rattlesnake (Crotalus confluentus Say, possibly also C 
Lucifer B. and G. ) . I saw but two rattlesnakes in the Rocky 
Mountains, which were on a prairie along Hell Gate River. 
Expecting to find more I did not preserve them, but as speci- 
mens were probably obtained by Lieut. Mullan, I mention the 
localities of this and other reptiles which I did not preserve. 
All kinds were very scarce in the mountains, and this, which 
is so abundant along the Platte, is rather rare near Fort Ben- 
ton. I mention this as the species seen on the west slope, 
because the Bitterroot Mountains are a far greater obstacle to 
the migration of the Q.Lucifer eastward, than the main divide 
is to that of this, and I killed some of C. confluentus, proba- 
bly, as high as 5000 feet above the sea on the east slope. 

Pine Snake (JPituophis). I also got a Pine Snake at Fort 

Green Racer (Boscanton vetustus B. and G., or B.flavi- 
ventris?). I saw one dead specimen of this snake along Hen 
Gate River in August. 

Wandering Gartersnake {Eutainia vagrans B. and G.)' 
l along Hell Gate and Bitterroot River. 



THE FAUNA OF MONTANA TERRITORY. 125 

Toad (Bufo Golumbiensis B. and G. ?). A large toad was 
occasionally observed along the Hell Gate and Bitterroot 
Valleys, but was not very common. 

Spotted Frog {Rana halecina Kalm) . I saw this frog 
on the Missouri among the mountains, which it probably 
crosses, being found at Fort Dalles by Dr. Suckley. 

IV. FISHES. 

Lewis' Trout {Salmo Lewisii Girard). This fine trout 
abounds in the headwaters of the Missouri, up to their sources 
on the eastern slope of the mountains, and a few were taken 
at and near Fort Benton by the soldiers, all of them large 
ones. They bite readily at almost any artificial fly ; also at in- 
sects, meat, pork, and even leaves and flowers, after they had 
been tempted with grasshoppers. Officers and men, nearly 
all who were not on duty, would crowd to the banks of the 
beautiful mountain streams, and catch as many as the whole 
command of three hundred men could eat every day, and 
with tackle of all kinds, from a rude stick with a piece of 
common twine and a large hook, to the most refined outfit 
of the genuine trout-fisher. The form differs very much from 
the figure given in Dr. Girard's Report, and in the Natural 
History of Washington Territory, being, as the specimens 
show, much more elongated, like most other species. I also 
took specimens of small size across, to compare with those 
on the western slope, and am very doubtful whether these 
can be considered a distinct species, though a comparison of 
larger specimens may prove them to be so. If distinct, t he 
trout of the western slope is exceedingly 



ally abundant down to the crossing 



■ the Bitterroot, 
but less so in the streams on both sides of the Coeur d'Alene 
Range, probably from their excessively shallow and rapid 
current. I saw no difference, however, in those taken at 
Cceur d'Alene Mission from those of the Little Blackfoot. 
The differences noticed between these and those of the 
Missouri were as follows :— Evidently fatter and in better 



126 THE FAUNA OF MONTANA 

condition, from which, I suppose, arose the deeper tint and 
greater extent of the rosy tint on their side and belly : back 
paler olive ; spots fewer and chiefly near the tail, where they 
assumed a more stellate arrangement, but this was not con- 
stant. Very young specimens, four to five inches long, were 
barred on the sides. I saw none so small on the east slope. 

No. 61, Little Blaekfoot River, August 17th. No. 69, near 
crossing of Bitterroot River, September 2nd. Length, 14.75 
inch; olive, below silvery with rosy tints towards sides: 
spots black; operculum, etc., bronze gilt ; chin-mark orange. 

tSalmo sp. — A single specimen of a species of trout was 
caught by Lieut. A. V. Kautz, U. S. A., on September 25th, 
just below the ferry across the Spokan River, at Antoine 
Plant's. Its very dark 1 1 m ■ corresponds to the color of the 
stream, which is often the case in fish of the same species 
found in different localities, but it otherwise differs very much 
from the preceding. There is a high fall of the river belov 
this point not passed by the salmon, so that this species cannot 
be a hybrid with them or anadromous either. No. 121, dried 
skin ; colors when fresh were very dark olive above ; belly 
dull white (no rosy marks) ; chin-mark reddish purple ; oper- 
culum coppery, with a deep purple tint, this continuing as a 
broad streak along lateral line. Form of head very obtuse.* 

Sticklers Salmoxtrout (S. Suckleyi Cooper, nov. sp.). 



THE FAUNA OF MONTANA TERRITORY. 127 

Salmontrout of the Kalispelm or Lake Pend d'Oreille ; Suck- 
ley, Report on Natural History of Washington Territory, un- 
der S. Gibbsii(?).* The first of this splendid salmontrout 
we met with were at the mouth of St. Regis Borgia crock, 
which Hows down the east slope of the Conir d'Alcnc liange, 
and joins the Bitterroot, where the road crosses and leaves 
that river. The large specimen was brought to camp by 
Indians. An old mountaineer who keeps the ferry, said that 
they could be caught with a hook baited with a small fish, 
but these two had evidently been speared. We saw several 
of them in this stream, but all refused to bite at a fly or any 
common bait. Those caught in the Cceur d'Alefie, on the 
west slope, seemed to be identical, and I preserved a small 
one (No. 110, in alcohol). No. 95 was evidently about 
spawning, the ova being as large as peas, like those of the 
large salmon. Its colors were pale olive above, with irregu- 
lar greenish patches ; sides yellowish, beneath silvery white : 
fins and tail tinged with red; spots on back carmine, largo 
and few ; tail a little emarginate ; length 29£ inches. The 
other was slightly smaller, otherwise like this. No. 110, 
young, W as darker above, and colors brighter. 

Bog Salmon (Salmo canis Suckley). Below the forks of 
the Spokan, the Indians were catching myriads of this sal- 
mon, and curing even those washed ashore, in their ex- 
hausted, diseased condition, without scales, and presenting 
•'11 the appearances described in our report of 1853, rela- 
ting to the salmon of the Upper Columbia. 



THE FLOWERS OF EARLY SPRING. 



There is perhaps a nearly equal charm about the notes of 
the first robin, and the sight of the first Mayflower. It will 
be the object of this article to enumerate, with a few notes 
upon each, some of our earlier floral visitors, in wood and 
meadow, in New England. 

The list opens, not very attractively, with a plant well 
known to all, under the mal-odorous name of Skunk Cab- 
bage (8ymplocarpus foetidus) , but whose flower is by no 
means so familiar, save to the observing botanist, and even he 
must be on the alert to obtain this first gift of Flora, in full 
perfection of color and aroma. Early in April, or even in 
March, almost before the ice is fairly melted, may be found 
in low marshy ground, this flower, clumsy in form, repulsive 
and snaky in color, dark purple with yellowish blotches, 
and disgusting in odor ; soon to be followed by the clump of 
large fleshy leaves, conspicuous during the rest of the sum- 
mer. Like Stramonium, and most other noxious and un- 
sightly weeds, it has been tried as a remedy for asthma, and 
with about as much effect. 

In very pleasing contrast comes next Epigwa repens, or 88 
it is sometimes miscalled Trailing Arbutus, better and more 
;tj imv.jumtely known throughout New England as the May- 
flower. 

This, among the very earliest, is also the choicest gift that 
Flora has in this latitude to offer us, alike for its beauty of 
form and color, its delicious fragrance, and its chavniinii 
habit of peeping out, almost from the edge of the retreating 
snowdrifts. To find the first bunch of Mayflowers is the 
ambition of many a boy and girl, as well as not a few child- 
ren of larger growth. The finest specimens ever seen by 
the writer were from a mountain in Camden, Maine. It h as 

(128) 



THE FLOWERS OF EARLY SPRING. 129 

also been used as a medicinal agent, but with no better nor 
worse results than many others. It is a true wild flower, 
resisting all attempts at domestication. Closely associated 
with this is found the Hepatica, in its two forms of triloba 
and aculiloba, one with rounded, the other with pointed 
leaves, probably merely varieties. The little clump of 
flowers pushes its way through the ground, often in advance 
of the leaves, and with the varying shades of pink, blue 
and white, seen in different plants, is a welcome ad. lit ion 
to our spring bouquet, though lacking the fragrance of the 
Mayflower. 

About this same time the southern aspect of rocky hill- 
sides begins to whiten, with the cheerful, though not spe- 
cially graceful or showy flowers of the Early Saxifrage 
{Saxifraga Virginiensis) , and in forest marshes the incon- 
spicuous little Golden Saxifrage, with a name longer than 
itself ( Chrysosplenium Americanum) . Soon in the meadows 
the carpet of living green is embroidered with the golden 
flowers of Oaltha palustris or the English Marsh Marigold, 
improperly called Cowslip, and whether correctly or not, 
associated with creamy milk and yellow butter, while a lit- 
tle later are seen in the morning sun, the white stars of the 
Bloodroot (Sanguinaria Canadensis), as fragile as they are 
beautiful, generally lasting but for a day. Its orange-colored 
juice is much used in medicine as an emetic, an expecto- 
rant, and a liniment. This plant readily bears transplant- 
ing, increases in size under cultivation, and becomes one of 
the most attractive ornaments of the early flower border. 
In some parts of the country is found a somewhat similar 
flower, the Twin-leaf, or Rheumatism Root (Jefersonia di- 
phylla), also well repaying cultivation. 

Meanwhile the pastures are beginning to whiten (last year 
remarkably) with the modest little Houstouia, or Innocence 
(Oldenlandia ccerulea), while a host of violets are making 
their appearance. Viola blanda, a wee, white, sweet-scented 
species, in the woods ; cucullata, with its large blue flowers 



130 THE FLOWERS OF EARLY SPRING. 

and hood-shaped leaves, with their curious palmate variety ; 
rotundifolia, with yellow flowers and shiny leaves ; and on 
the hillsides and in the pastures the widely varying sagittata* 
Olaytonia Virginica, well named Spring Beauty, must not 
be neglected in its moist and generally shady bed. 

Along streams in open woodlands, we may find the Spring 
Cress (Cardamine rhomboidea) , with large, white flowers; 
and just shooting up its green stalk, its first cousin the Win- 
ter Cress (Barbarea vulgaris) . 

Nor should the floral efforts of trees and shrubs be disre- 
garded. Among the earliest indications of spring the Hazel- 
nut (Oorylus rostrata) shakes its long catkins along the 
roadsides, before any signs of swelling leaf-buds are visible, 
while the Willows (Salix), whose name is legion, begin to 
burst their warm wintry covering. The Savin (J 
Virginiana) is covered with its curious little flowers. The 
Hemlock (Abies Canadensis) is early in flower, as also the 
American Yew (Taxus baccata). All these require close 
examination to detect their inflorescence, but well repay it. 
The two maples, Acer dasycarpum (the Silver Maple) and 
Acer rubrum (the Red Maple), hang out their showy pen- 
dants very early. The Sweet Gale (Myrica Gale), along 
the edges of swamps, and the Sweet Fern (Comptonia asple- 
nifolia), whose dried leaves are the basis of juvenile at- 
tempts at smoking, are now in flower; and Dirca palustris, 
well named Leather-wood from the marvellous toughness of 
its bark, such that it is frequently used in default of leather 
or twine in repairing broken harnesses or sleds, hangs out 
its little yellow bells in advance of any leaves. 

We close the list with the fragrant Sassafras (8. offici- 
nale) , well known by its aromatic bark and curiously lobed 
leaves, not so well by its early clusters of yellow flowers, 
somewhat resembling those of the Sugar-maple ; and the 
Spice-wood, or Fever-bush (Benzoin odoriferum) , also highly 
aromatic, and possessing, like the Sassafras, medicinal value 
as an aromatic stimulant. Such are the earliest flowers, 



THE FRESH-WATER AQUARIUM. 131 

which in forest, field or fen, invite the search of the botanist 
and the lover of nature. 

Perhaps subsequent articles may give some notes upon the 
flowers of later spring, summer and autumn, with a floral 
calendar, and possibly an enumeration of some plains and 
shrubs well w T orthy of a place in garden or shrubbery, but 
hitherto neglected. If this shall succeed in leading any to a 
closer study of nature's beauty, and the goodness and glory 
of the Creator, its object will be answered. 



THE FRESH-WATER AQUARIUM. 



The art of preserving water animals alive and in good 
condition, as pets or as objects of study, is not of recent 
date ; but the principles of what is now commonly known 
as the aquarium, were not until lately brought into general 
notice. The Romans had their tanks of game fish, the 
English and French gardeners their vessels for the growth 
of tender water-lilies or other valuable aquatic plants, yet 
the happy thought of uniting the two, — fishes and plants, — 
so that the one should balance the other, each aiding in the 
others support, making withal a collection of such propor- 
tions as to be conveniently kept indoors, is the production 
of comparatively late years. 

Dr. Johnstone, of Liverpool, has the reputation of having 
been the first to apply practically the principles of the aqua- 
rium ; he made experiments with the Corallina offi 
Starfish, Conferva, and some small plants of the Uha Jatis- 
*ima, and found that they flourished for eight weeks without 
being disturbed ; this led him to try some fresh-water fishes 
and larvae, and they succeeded even better than the salt- 
water specimens. Since then Gosse, Hibberd, Warington 



132 THE FRESH-WATER AQUARIUM. 

and others of England, and the late Mr. Cotting, of Boston, 
have done much towards forwarding the interests of the 
aquarium. The whole secret of the success of the aquarium 
lies in the exactness with which we imitate nature in arrang- 
ing and disposing our collections ; but let us understand first 
of all that what is meant by the term an aquarium is a col- 
lection of water plants and animals, so arranged in suitable 
ratio that it shall be perfectly self-supporting. We do not 
expect, then, that the water will have to be changed until 
after long periods, if at all ; the plants and animals should 
flourish as well as if in their native locality. 

How then is this balance of forces to be attained ? This 
leads us to examine the philosophy of the aquarium, which 
is simply this : The element in water which the fishes live 
on by breathing is free oxygen, which, as the water is fanned 
through the gills or lungs of the fish, comes in contact with 
the walls of its vessels, and arterializes the blood ; all water 
contains a certain amount of this oxygen, sufficient to keep 
a fish alive for a short time, but if no means are taken to 
ereate a fresh supply, it will become exhausted sooner or 
later, and an escape of carbonic acid will render the water 
poisonous to the fish. In plants on the other hand we have 
an agent taking up the carbonic acid in the water, and re- 
solving it into carbon and oxygen, the former of which it 
converts into its substance, while it expels the latter from 
every part of its tissue, especially from the leaves in the 
form of minute bubbles, plainly seen in healthy plants, and 
so often compared to drops of quicksilver in appearance. It 
is true that plants absorb oxygen also as fishes do, but they 
give out so much more than they absorb, that this is of sligW 

Another oxygen producing agent, as was shown by Liebig? 
is to be found in the almost microscopic forms of animal life 
which abound in water which has stood for some time ex- 
posed to the air. These animalculae seem to form another 
link in the chain which binds together all kinds of animal 



THE FRESH-WATER AQUARIUM. 



133 



life of higher or lower order, however apparently diverse 
they may be. This extra supply of oxygen adds greatly to 
the support of the aquarium, aud is no doubt the reason 
why a large number of fishes can be supported with a seem- 
ingly small proportion of plants. It would indeed be an 
interesting experiment to try, were we to place a small fish 
in a large tank, and see if, from the oxygen of these infu- 
sorial animalcule alone, life could be sustained. 

It must be the aim of him who wishes to establish an aqua- 
rium to see that this balance of plants and fishes is effected, 
for it is indispensable. Starting then with some idea of 
what we wish to accomplish, the first inquiry is about the 
kind of tank we are to use. This is an affair of more than 
mere fancy, convenience, or economy, for it is important for 
the growth of many plants that they should have the great- 
est amount of light possible, and this is especially true with 
fresh-water plants ; so that where a washbowl or a tub would 
make an excellent tank for a salt-water collection, the same 
might fail of success in One with fresh-water. Besides there 
are many specimens which we wish to examine sidewajn. 
and obtain that view which it is not possible to have in 
nature, namely, that of a vertical section of a pond. The 
requirements of a good vessel or tank for an aquarial eok 
lection, are strength and sufficient transparency ; these we 
have in a moderate decree in the inverted bell-glasses, or 
cake covers, of confectioners. If, however, the glaea In- 
comes cracked and broken from any cause, and it is surpris- 
ing how easily it is broken, the whole collection of specimens 
is in great danger of being lost, especially if the ac.-Mfc.it 
happen in the night-time. Another disadvantage which the 
cake covers have is, that through them the specimens are 
sometimes magnified, and irregularly too, so that what has 
been put into the tank as a very small and finely shaped fish, 
in an instant becomes a giant more or less deformed. Ihia 
kind of tank is the usual one adopted by those «n,..to 
making an aquarial collection for the first time, and it 



134 THE FRESH-WATER AQUARIUM. 

answers many purposes admirably ; it is sufficiently trans- 
parent, moderately strong, and quite cheap. One having a 
diameter of twelve and a half inches, with a depth of eight 
inches, and of good thickness, can be bought for two dollars 
and a half; the knob on the top will prevent its standing 
steadily, and to obviate this difficulty a stand can easily be 
turned from a block of wood, with a hole cut in the centre 
large enough to admit the knob, and allow the bottom of the 
glass to rest upon it as a support. If properly taken care 
of, a tank of this sort will last for years, and be a great 
comfort to its possessor, but an untimely accident will before 
long induce him to try something more substantial. 

Perhaps the best tank for the aquarium in use is what is 
called a rectangular tank, having the four sides of glass, and 
the base of some hard material such as stone, iron or wood. 
The glass is held in place, and supported at the four corners 
by as many pillars of iron or wood, which are held together 
on top by strips of a similar material connecting them. Of 
the three materials for the base and pillars, iron is by far the 
best for a fresh-water tank, if we can have but one material 
alone ; it is lighter than stone, and the little it rusts from 
time to time does not amount to anything ; the water does 
not ooze through it as it does through some kinds of stone, 
and it does not warp, as wood is so apt to do if the tank is 
left without water for a length of time. To prevent rusting 
a layer of cement may be spread on the bottom of the tank 
inside, and a plate of thick strong glass placed upon it ; and 
in the same way a narrow strip of glass can be cemented to 
each of the pillars, so that the iron shall be prevented from 
coming in contact with the water at every point. A tank, 
haying a base of slate and pillars of iron protected by glass, 
as just explaiued, is the best kind of a tank to own, as it can 
be used for either salt or fresh water as we require. The 
shape of a tank, too, is of some importance, that of a double 
cube being the best for this reason, that it allows more of a 
clear surface on the long sides for inspection after the rock- 



THE FRESH-WATER AQUARIUM. 135 

work and plaiits are introduced, than a tank whose shape is 
square ; it also gives a better chance for the light to strike 
upon every point inside. 

The facilities for procuring tanks already made are so 
great nowadays, that while once it was an object to know 
how to construct a tank for one's self, now one has only to 
make a choice from several patterns. The most important 
thing to look after in selecting a tank, next to its material 
and shape, is the kind of cement which has been used ; all 
sorts of putty are to be rejected as worthless ; if we cannot 
be sure that the cement is good and not injurious to fishes, a 
few weeks trial, or even less, will convince us of its value. 
Another point to be attended to, is that the cement be quite 
hard before the tank is filled with water, as there are some 
kinds of cement used that never harden ; of course, in these 
cases there is danger of having a leaky tank to contend with. 
Of the other kinds of tanks, either those made wholly of 
clay, or of glass, or those with one side at an angle of 50° 
with the base, so as to form a beach, after the pattern of the 
Warington tank, or those with all the sides of slate, in 
imitation of a rock pool, or those of an oval or hexagonal 
shape, each has its advocates. Some tanks have beeu lately 
made in New York, with the base and pillars of a composi- 
tion which is silver-plated ; they are wonderfully light and 
beautiful, but there seem to be doubts as to their durability, 
More or less ornament can be displayed on the pillars and 
base of the tank, according to the taste of the owner, but it 
seems as if simplicity and neatness were full as requisite 
here as elsewhere, and that the ornament of the tanl 
be the collection inside. As to the size of the tank, it very 
much depends on the place one has to put it in. These 
three sizes I have found from experience very useful : 

No. 1, Length, 18 in. ; depth, 10* in; width, 12 m. 

No. 2, Length, 24 in. ; depth, 14 in. ; width, 14* m. 

No. 3, Length, 28 in. ; depth, 13* in. ; width, 18 m. 
Number three is, perhaps, the best size of all, and it is by 



136 HINTS ON TAXIDERMY. 

far the prettiest shape. Tanks can be purchased, generally, 
at the bird or plant stores of large cities ; the prices range 
from six dollars upwards. Sometimes a stand for the tank 
is made in connection with it, or of a similar material. It is 
well to remember in selecting a stand, the enormous weight 
which it will have to bear when the tank is filled with stones 
and water. — To be continued. 



HINTS ON TAXIDERMY. 



Equipment for the travelling collector. — The travelling 
collector should equip himself with a double-barrelled gun 
(and a rifle when large animals are sought for), ammunition, 
including shot for small birds and mammals (numbers 2, 6, 
8, and 10,— the latter should never be omitted) ; dissecting 
instruments, scissors, needles and thread, preservative drugs 
and preparations, and alcohol about 80 per cent, in strength; 
tin cans of various sizes for containing alcoholic specimens, 
since glass bottles and jars are liable to be broken during 
transportation; cotton and tow for stuffing the skins of 
birds and mammals ; fishing lines and hooks, casting net, a 
seine for catching fishes in small streams, the two ends of 
which should be secured to long wooden handles, which art 
held in the hands of two persons upon opposite banks : IB 
this position it can be drawn both up and down the stream. 
He should also carry with him a geological hammer and steel 
chisels for collecting fossils and rock specimens, and small 
pocket vials and cork-lined boxes for insects. 

Preservatives. — Common powdered arsenic should be em- 
ployed for skins to be mounted at once, instead of arsenical 
soap, as it has a tendency to dry them quickly. It may be 
applied dry, or mixed with alcohol until it is of the consist- 



HINTS ON TAXIDERMY. 137 

ency of syrup ; in the former case it should be dusted upon 
the skin by means of a small sieve : in the latter it is neces- 
sary to apply it Avith a brush. Arsenical soap should be used 
only upon skins which are intended to be kept for a long 
time before being mounted. It is composed of the following 
ingredients: powdered arsenic £ lb., camphor li lb., salts 
of tartar 3 oz., powdered lime 1 oz., bar soap & lb. 

The soap should be cut into very fine slices, put into a tin 
dish with warm water, and stirred over a moderate lire until 
thoroughly dissolved ; the powdered lime and salts of tartar 
should then be added and mixed with the soap. The prep- 
aration should next be removed from the fire, the pow- 
dered arsenic, and lastly the camphor (powdered and dis- 
solved in a little alcohol) added, stirring the mixture all 
the while. The whole should have the consistency of flour 
paste ; if it be too thick add a little water, taking care not 
to hold it over the fire after the camphor has been added, 
as heat will cause the latter to evaporate speedily. After 
cooling it place it in a jar with a brush passing through 
the stopper, and label the jar "poison." In extreme cases 
when the above preparations cannot be obtained, the skin 
should be rubbed with salt or with alum, or filled with spices 
and strong smelling herbs. These are by no means a sub- 
stitute for arsenic, and are to be used only when the latter 
cannot be obtained. The skins of larire animals should be 
soaked in a solution of alum, arsenic and salt, or in weak 
arseniated alcohol for several days. 

Directions for preliminary work.-^When a specimen has 
been killed the mouth should be opened, cleaned and filled 
with cotton or tow ; the nostrils and vent, and any wounds 
should be treated in the same way to prevent blood or other 
secretions from exuding. It is essential to remove the skin 
as soon as possible after death. Should this be inconvenient, 
the internal organs should be taken out and the cavity filled 
with powdered charcoal if it can be had, if not, salt should 
be used. Previous to removing the skin, an accurate meas- 



L°»s 



TAXIDERMY. 



subject in the 



urement should be taken 
dicated below.* 

The color and general character of the hair, as well as any 
change of the same at different seasons of the year, the sex, 
and any other peculiarity known should be carefully written 




down and preserved. Skins should never be packed for 
transportation until thoroughly dry; they should then be 
placed in a box containing plenty of camphor, having i- 
sides and joints perfectly closed with pitch to prevent the 
invasion of insects. It is well to saturate the inside of the 
box with benzine before placing the skins within. Never 
allow a box containing skins to be placed in any damp 
place. 

Instrument* and material* used. — Of instruments and 
materials useful to the taxidermist in mounting mammal 8 ! 
birds, fishes and reptiles, the following are needed : A scalpel 



. . ■ . 



i:V.) 



(Fig. 30, a) ; a pair of pincers for bending wire (c) ; a pair 
of wire cutters (6) ; a pair of small forceps for stuffing the 
necks of small birds and mammals and arranging feathers 
(e) ; a pair of larger ones, at least fifteen inches long, for 
stuffing the necks of large birds and mammals (//) ; a pair of 
<li — t-riin^- sris>or« tor oiiuini: ih'Ai mid ligaments during the 
process of skinning (d) ; another larger and stronger pair for 
cutting tow: a l.-irgo knitting needle inserted into a handle 
and sharpened at the end, for perforating the tarsi of birds 
previous to the insertion of the wires (i) ; a tin sieve with a 
cover for dusting powdered arsenic upon the skin (g) ; a wide- 




mouthed jar, with a brush passing through the stopper, for 
holding arsenical soap (/) ; tow for stuffing small birds and 
mammals (the finest quality being used for filling the necks) ; 
also hay, dried moss, etc., for those of larger size: needles 
for sewing up incisions ; thread for winding ; a large fish- 
hook with the barb filed off, for suspending specimens while 
skinning them. Annealed iron wire of various sizes, vary- 
ing from 10 to 26,— No. 10 being used for supporting large 
specimens, No. 26 for humming birds, warblers, etc. A flat 



■ Of !■, 



l coarseness for pointing ^ 



i set of Aiken's 



140 HINTS ON TAXIDEKMY. 

tools, containing various sizes of bradawls ; a small gouge, 
chisels, etc., will be found very useful. 

Method of shinning a mammal. — When an animal is 
ready for skinning, the mouth, nostrils and shot holes, 
should be filled with cotton or tow. Place the animal upon 
its back, take the scalpel in the right hand and with the left 
separate the hair to the right and left in a line from the front 
of the pubis quite down to the vent, so that the skin beneath 
can be plainly seen. Make a longitudinal incision along the 
course, directed in as straight a line as possible, taking caw 
not to cut so deep as to expose the intestines. The skin 
should then be turned back on either side with the aid of 
the scalpel, working downward toward the back. When the 
thigh has been laid bare sever it from the pelvis at its junc- 
tion with the femur or thigh bone. Layers of cotton or tow 
should, from time to time, be placed between the skin and 
body, as it will prevent the hair from being soiled. This 
operation should be repeated with the other side. Next the 
intf-tinal canal should be cut off a little way above the aims 
and the tail separated close to the body. The skin should 
then be loosened from the back and l.iva-t until the toning 
are visible. Sever these at the shoulder joint or the base 
of the humerus. Remove the skin from the neck and the 
back part of the skull will appear. In skinning over the 
skull, care should be taken to sever the ears as close to it 
as possible; also not to injure the eyelids or cut too close 
to the lips. The carcass should next be separated from &* 
skull at the first vertebra?, or the junction of the skull and 
neck. The next operation is to remove the tongue, eyes. 
and all the muscles attached to the head. Through an opeu- 
ing in the occipital bone, carefully clean out the brain. >'* xT 
the legs should be skinned quite down to the claws of the 
feet, removing all muscles, but leaving the ligament-- sow 
tendons of the knees. The hind legs should undergo the 
same operation. Lastly, skin the tail as far back as the 
first three joints of the vertebras, and to this stump fix a 



HINTS ON TAXIDERMY. 141 

stout cord, which should be fastened to a hook or other pro- 
jecting object on the wall. A strong piece of wood is then 
prepared, flat, and sharpened upon both edges. This should 
be introduced- between the skin and the vertebrae, and by 
working it around the latter, the attachments will be severed 
and the vertebra; within can be easily pulled from the envel- 
oping skin. In skinning the tail of the beaver an incision 
should be made upon the under side, running lengthwise 
from the base to the tip. The skin should then be loosened, 
beginning upon either side of the incision, until the flesh is 
entirely free, when it can be removed, the arsenic added, the 
skin restored to position, and the incision sewed up. 

The foregoing method is practiced only upon the smaller 
quadrupeds ; with the larger mammalia a different course is 
pursued. An incision is made from beneath the under jaw, 
hi a straight line to the aim- : transverse cuts are also made, 
running down the inside of both lure and hind legs. These 
being made upon the inner side will render the seams less 
conspicuous after the specimen has been mounted. To de- 
tach the hoofs, place them upon a stone and strike them 
repeatedly with a mallet ; they will soon loosen and can be 
separated from the bone. After the operation of skinning 
has been completed, every part of the skin should be a- 
nointed thoroughly with arsenical soap. Turpentine applied 
to the nostrils and lips will prevent the approach of noxious 
insects. When the skin is too large for the application of 
the soap, it should be thoroughly saturated with a solution 
of "alum and water." The different bones left in the skin 
should all be thoroughly anointed with the preservative, 
and the eye-sockets and cavity of the brain filled with cottou 
or cut tow before replacing the skull in its natural position. 
If the animal be not too large the carcass should be pre- 
served, as it will greatly aid the operator in his work of 
modelling a body. If immersed in alcohol, it can be kept 
any length of time. 

To mount the skin; for instance thai of a squirrel— First 



142 HINTS ON TAXIDERMY. 

provide yourself with tow, cotton, thread and twine ; also, 
the stuffing forceps, a pair of pincers, tile and wire cutters. 
With the aid of the forceps supply the various muscles of 
the face and head, by inserting cotton both through the 
mouth and eyelids. Take annealed wire of the proper size, 
and cut from the coil six pieces : No. 1, two or three inches 
longer than the total length of the body ; Nos. 2 and 3 for 
the forelegs ; Nos. 4 and 5 for the hind legs ; each of these 
should be two, or even three inches longer than the limbs 
they are to support ; No. 6, for a support to the tail, of the 
same proportionate length as the others. With a large 
pair of scissors, cut fine a quantity of tow, and with this 
and the aid of the long forceps, stuff the neck to its natural 
dimensions Taking wire No. 1, bend in it four small rings, 
the distance between the two outer representing the length 
of the body taken from the skin (Fig. 31, a), leaving one 
long end for a support to the head and neck (6). Mould tow 
about that part containing the rings, and l>v winding it down 
with thread, form an artificial body, resembling in form and 
size the 

taken from the skin. 
Sharpen the project- 
ing end to a fine ' 
point with the file, 
and insert it up through the cut tow in the neck, and thence 
through the skull; the skin should then be pulled over the 
body. Wires Nos. 2 and 3 should then be placed in position, 
by inserting them through the soles of the feet, up within the 
skin of the leg, and through the body of tow, until they ap- 
pear upon the opposite side. With the pincers bend over the 
end of each, forming a hook ; the wires must then be pulled 
backwards, thus fastening the hooks firmly into the body. 
The loose skin of the limbs should then be stuffed with cut 
tow, taking care to imitate the muscles of the living subject. 
Nos. 4 and 5 can be fixed in position after the same manner, 
except if the animal is to rest entirely upon its tarsi (as in 



HINTS ON TAXIDERMY. 143 

the case with the squirrel when feeding) , then the wire must 
be inserted at the tarsal joint instead of the sole of the foot. 
If any depressions appear in the skin they must be stuffed 
out with the cut tow. Wire No. 6 should now be inserted 
at the tip of the tail, and forced down within the skin, 
hooking it into the body in the same manner as the leg 
wires. Stuff the tail to its proper dimensions, with cut 
tow. and carefully sew up the incision along the abdomen. 
Having prepared a board about three-quarters of an inch 
thick, pierce in it two holes at a proper distance apart for 
the reception of the leg wires (four holes would be needed 
if the animal were to stand upon all extremities) ; these must 
be drawn through upon the under side until the feet of the 
specimen rest close upon the upper surface, then they should 
be clinched, taking care that the wire does not protrude 
above the surface of the board as it renders the support 
unsteady. The different joints of the limbs can now be 
imitated by bending the wire at the proper points ; also, a 
curve can be given to the back, and the tail can be set into 
proper position by simply bending the wires into the re- 
quired shape. The eyes should now be placed in their 
position, a little putty having been previously inserted 
within the eyelid to serve as a cement. Care should be 
taken in arranging the eyelid, for the expression depends 
altogether upon this point. Clip off any superfluous wire 
which may extend above the head with the wire cutters. 
The specimen should then be placed in some locality free 
from moisture and allowed to dry thoroughly, when it is 
complete for the cabinet. 

In mounting quadrupeds of large size the following for- 
mula should be pursued :— Procure a bar of wood, an inch 
thick and two inches broad, of a length equal to the dis- 
tance between the shoulders and thighs; this should be 
placed within the skin, three holes having been previously 
made at one end, and two in the other, with a gimlet, 
for the reception of the various wires. This is used as a 



1 u 



substitute for the central wire or body support. Having 
sharpened a piece of wire large enough to firmly support the 
specimen, force it down through the skull and neck, passing 
it through the gimlet hole at a (Fig. 32) ; when it appears 
on the under side bend the end into the form of a hock with 
the pincers, and drive it tirmly into the wood. Next, the 
foreleg wires, well sharpened, should be forced up through 
the soles of the feet, and fixed into the bar of wood at b and 
e, in the same manner as the head support. Do the same 



with the hind leg wires, fastening them at the lower part of 
the bar, as at d and e. Lastly, the tail support should be 
placed in position, fastening it to the wooden bar at the 
point/. This completes the framework. A quantity of hay 
or moss should now be procured, and it is of the utmost 
importance that it should be thoroughly dry, otherwise the 
specimen is liable to mould. Commence filling the neck, 
keeping the wire in the centre of the material, and stuff 
downward to the forelegs; these should then be restored to 
form, taking care to imitate the muscles of the shoulder. 
In working down the body place the hay or moss between 
the bar of wood and the skin to avoid all stiff appearance ; 
always place the stuffing material evenly within the skin» 
and never use pressure, as a fresh skin can be easily ex- 
panded far beyond its natural dimensions. Having reached 
the hind lcg^. imitate faithfully, by stuffing, all the natural 
muscles. When this part has been completed, sew np the 
attention should be paid to separating the 



HINTS ON TAXIDERMY. 145 

hairs, and not to take any of them in along with the thread. 
Imitate the joints of the limbs by bending the wire at the 
proper points, and place the specimen upon the board, draw 
the wires through the holes with the pincers, and clinch 
them upon the under side. The specimen will then assume 
an erect position. The orifices of the eyes, mouth and ears, 
should be filled with qotton saturated with the preservative, 
and the artificial eyes put in while the eyelids are yet plia- 
ble. The lips can be secured in their proper position by 
means of pins, and the nostrils distended to their natural 
size, with pellets of cotton inserted within. In the larger 
mammalia the orifices of the head should always be a- 
uointed with spirits of turpentine. If any irregularities ap- 
pear in the skin, they must be pressed down and modelled 
into shape with the hand. The muscles of the various parts 
of the body can be exactly imitated by ma king casts of 
plaster of Paris, and fitting them within the skin in lieu 
of other stuffing material. 

Those gigantic beasts which roam about the forests of 
tropical countries, such as the elephant, giraffe, etc., have 
to be mounted upon wooden models. Perhaps the method 
cannot be better illustrated than by giving an account of the 
manner in which an elephant was mounted at the Jardin du 
Roi, at Paris, as related by Capt. Thomas Brown, F. L. S., 
in his work entitled "The Taxidermist's Manual:" 

"The dead elephant being extended on the ground, the dimensions 
" Vl l '' a"l taken and correctly noted at the time. M. Lassaigne, cabinet- 
maker to the establishment, invented a large rule for that purpose, which 
was somewhat like a shoemaker's size-stick. The different curves of the 
back, belly, neck, etc., were taken by bars of lead, of three-quarters of 
thickness. This metal is much better adapted than any other 
f or that and similar purposes ; as it has no elasticity it retains any shape 
into which it is put. M. Demoulins made a drawing of the animal from 
these measurements, on the wall of the workshop where the model was 
constructed, of it. natural size. The elephant was placed upon its back 
*>y means of four-corded pulleys fastened to the platform. An incision, in 
the form of a double cross, was then made in the lower side, the central 



14b HINTS ON TAXIDERMY. 

illy opened on its under side: the soles of the feet were naw 
taken out to within an inch of their edge, and the nails allowed to remain 
attached to the skin. This was effected by the aid of a chisel and mallet, 
and was one of the most difficult operations of the whole. Several per- 
sons wrought at a time at the operation of skinning, ami four days were 
necessary to effect it. When removed from the carcass, the skin WM 
weighed, and found to be five hundred and seventy-six pounds. It was 
extended on the ground, so that the cutaneous muscles of the head and 
other parts might be cul r. The skin was then put 

into a tub, and covered six inches deep with water which had been satu- 
rate d with alum. The model which was to fill the skin was made as per- 
fect as possible in its shape. To insure this, models were ma 
the head in plaster, as also a fore and hind leg. This structure was made 
of linden wood, and so ingeniously constructed by M. Lassaigne, that 
almost the whole parts could be separated. He opened a panel on one 
side of the body, whereby he introduced himself into its interior, so that 
he might make its parts more perfect within. Even the head and pro- 
boscis were hollow, which rendered this stupendous model so light that 
it could be moved from one place to another with comparative ease. The 
model being completed, the alum water, in which the skin had been all 
the time immersed, was now taken out and made boiling hot, and in that 
state poured on the skin, which was then allowed to soak in the warm 

placed upon the model, which was accomplished with somi 

But judge of their own mortification when it was found that the model 

was rather too large. To diminish the woodwork they foresaw would 

run the risk of putting its parts out of proportion. It then occurred to 

them that the best thing to be done under these b 

was to take off the skin again, and reduce its thickness with knives ; 0O9 

removed all the internal thickenings which came in their way. in thi* 

operation five men were occupied for four days, during which time they cut 

out one hundred and ninety-four pounds weight off the internal surface. 

Daring this process the skin had dried, and required again to be immersed 

in cold soft water; after allowing it to remain twenty-four hours to soak, 

it was then put on the model, and found to cover it completely ; the edges 

were brought together and secured with wire nails, deeply driven home, 

and large brads. Except at the eclires. the nail> and brads were only 

driven In half way, to keep the skin down to the different sin 

hollows until dry, when they were again all pulled out. The alum with 

which the water was saturated gave the skin an ngly graj 

from crystallization. But this was soon remedied, by first rubbing the 

skin with spirits of turpentine, and afterward with olive oil. By the 

been mounted with all the appearance of life, which, with a little atten- 
tion, may resist for ages the influence of time." 
[To be Continued.] 



The Origin of Gf.nkra.*— In this essay the author does not consider 
that generic and specific characters are identical. He divides animals into 
numerous series, specific, generic and so on, in which the lower members 
of each form the progressive steps, with the exception of course of the spe- 
eilic series. ''The lowest or most generalized' terms or genera of a number 
of allied series, will stand to each other in a relation of exact parallelism. 

alized genus, the latter together will form a series similar in kind to each 
of the sub-series, i. p.. each genus will be identical with the undeveloped 
of 1 i,u v, Inch progresses the farthest, in respect, of course, to 
8w characters which define it as a series." Cases of exact parallelism 
are accounted for by the law of "retardation and acceleration." which is 
■■acMii:iiiii:,| rmudin- l.ii.-kwanK of the ^uce.^ive steps 
' : ' Individual development, so that the period of reproduction" "falls 
■ ' r ' '' :U1 '1 later in the life history of the species, conferring upon its off- 
spring features in advance of those possessed by its predecessors." 

i e here points out a parallel between the development of the 
and of the genus of great interest and novelty. " As one or 
■ ids in the life of every species is characterized by a greater 
rapiditj of development (or metamorphosis) than the remainder, so in 
proportion to the approximation of such a period and the epoch of matu- 
rity or reproduction, is the offspring liable to variation. During the 
periods corresponding to those between the rapid metamorphosis, the 
- of the genus would be preserved unaltered, though the period 
irould be ever approaching." "As the development of the in- 
■ the development of the genus. We may add so the develop- 
ment of the whole of organized beings." 

After stating that as a rule animals exhibit in c 
tain specific, before they do generic, characters. 



;, ' ! i! ' ! "• Kin lis which liav. u >r assumed it. If suppos 
01 Origin be, however, a test of specific difference, we sha 
contend with the paradox of the same species belonging t 
genera at one an reral instances th< 



• time a series is formed i 



iriginal genus are reduced to a larval 
condition, but the original genus still continues to "accelerate" its own 
development, though more slowly, and finally reduces its orig 
teristics also to a larval condition, and acquires in the adult state differ- 
ent characteristics from the first series. 

This, with other confirmatory evidence, renders it probable I 
changes mm - •ace in a number of species without 

the loss of tie -•!<•-• and in the same way ».-n. ra may 

be simultaneously transferred from one suborder to another wit lout tin- 
loss of their g ft. The development of generic char- 
.... . 3 be governed by a law which is not dependent 
physical surroundings. Species on the other hand, though they 
"exhibit a proportion of characters which are the successive stages of 
that our which progresses farthest," yet "the majority of specific charac- 
ters are of divergent origin, — are "morphic as distinguished from devel- 
opmental.* Thus specific characteristics are essentially adaptive, and 
therefore due mainly to natural selection. The author's conclusions are 
gjhren in six propositions, from which we quote the two given below: 

I. Species have developed from preexistent species by an inherent ten- 
dency to variation, and have been preserved in given directions and re- 
pressed in others, by the operation of the law of Natural Selection. 

II. Genera have been produced by a system of retardation or accelera- 
tion in the development of individuals ; the former on pre 

1 projected in accordance with the law of acceler- 
hey have been limited, modified and terminated 



An Illustrated Work on the Butterflies of New Englanp-- 
Mr. Samuel H. Scudder will publish during the coming winter, a large 
and expensively illustrated work upon New England Butterflies. He 

sjkm es during even .t a -, of its exStene. tables and descriptions of 
genera will be introduced, together with a preliminary chapter upon the 
general structure of butterflies, which will serve as a guide to their 
careful study ; their geographical distribution, both in and out of Ne* 
Eng m d vs , he I t l> l\ dis usmm n 1 n,< . >k virtually form a manual 
for all the Northern rir.t.-d States; it will be generously illustrated by 
colored plates of every species, done in the highest style of the art. 

To make the work as complete as possible, the author \u\ it. - the assist- 
ance of entomologists in ohta'ming living .»r fr.-h spe--. 
larvae and pupae, for illustration and study. Without such aa 
would be impossible, in a single summer, to obtain all the requ 
rial. Full credit will be given in the book for every item ol 

The success with which Mr. Saunders, of Canada, has real 
flies in their earlier stages, ought to encourage our friends to simfi aI * 



REVIEWS. 149 

efforts. Mr. Saunders' method is to confine each female butterfly in a 
small, dark box, — a pill box for example, — in which she is obliged to 
deposit her eggs ; he endeavors, before the eggs are hatched, to notice 

and, in many instances, successfully reared. 

As careful descriptions of these larvae and pupa; cannot be prepared 
without many specimens, and as we have so little accurate' kiiowle.l.ire 
of the earlier stains of our native butterflies, our friends need not fear 
to send Mr. Scudder all the specimens they can find. If possible, they 
should be sent alive, so as to secure good colored drawings of each spe- 
cies; the larvae should be accompanied by fresh, moistened leaves of their 
food plant for nourishment on the journey, and forwarded by mail in small, 
light, but strong boxes (tin is preferable), to S. H. Scudder, Boston Soci- 
ety of Natural History, Berkeley street, Boston, Mass., marked Id 
Insects. This latter precaution is necessary, because, in case of a tempo- 
rary absence from the city, Mr. Scudder will leave directions to have boxes 
thus marked, sent at once to his artist. The specimens should be accom- 
der,and, when known, the name 
feeds. When it does not seem 
, they may be sent in small bottles of 
aiy. erine. or in a mixture of one part pure carbolic acid (Squibb's prepara- 
tion), and twenty-four parts water. In this case also they should be sent 
at once and by mail, that the colors may be seen before they fade. When 
neither of these methods is possible, spirits may be used, but the colors 
will soon be lost. If any one obtains a number of eggs and is able to raise 
them, it would be best to forward, from time to time, two or three speci- 
mens both of the e«^ ami chrysalids, and the same number of each moult 
of the larva; the butterfly which has laid the eggs should always be pre- 
served, and forwarded with the larva-, etc.. for - i- - 

If any one is in doubt about the food plant of some insect which he has 
found, it would be best to write a letter of enquiry to Mr. Scudder, who 
will be glad to answer any questions. 

Those willing to a— i*t in this work should commence at once to trace 
the history of the Thecla? and Lycaenae, of which almost nothing is 
known. The former feed upon various trees and shrubs, such as the oak. 

• - 
member that he mu-t -1. p. nd s.l-olut. Iv upon them for information con- 
arlier stages of those insects which are very rare in New 
England, but common with them. Any assistance that they can render 
him will be most gratefully received. 

The Kingfishers.— \ monograph of this beautiful family of Birds is 
nowbein SI , ity of Lon- 

don, it will be issued* in twelve to fourteen parts, imperial 8vo, each part 
to contain eiu khographic plates. All the species 



150 REVIEWS. 

of Kingfishers known (about one hundred) will be described and figured, 
and Dr. Marie will furnish a chapter on the anatomy and osteology of 
the family. Only two hundred copies of the work will be printed : three 
part.-, are already issued. The price to subscribers will be about $5.00 a 
part, delivered in this country. The work is worthy of support by the orni- 
thologists of this country, and we should be happy to take subscriptions 

Bulletin of the Essex Institute.*— This new publication of the 

to the formation of the Peabody Academy of Science, and the transfer 
of the Scientific Museum of the Institute to the charge of the Academy. 
In great part the "Bulletin" will take the place of the "Pro. , 
Communication*" of the Institute, which will be discontinued after the 
publication of Volume six (now in press), which will bring the Proceed- 
ings up to the month of January, 1869, at which date the "Bulletin" com- 

The "Bulletin" will contain an account of the proceedings at each meet- 
ing of the Institute, and the lists of donations, etc., made to the library 

of the Institute, and to the Museums of both the Institute and the Acad- 



uplicate books offered for sale and i 
by far the greater part of each number will be devoted to the short 
•ions read at the meetings, and of general interest, while the 

Collections," an I the | . 

Academy for publication in its Memoirs. It will thus be notic 

"Bulletin" will take the place of the "Proceedings," while the Memoirs 

of the Academy will correspond to the former "Communications" of the 

Institute. 

The first number of the "Bulletin" contains, among other interesting 
papers, the remarks made by Prof. A. M. Edwards at a recent meeting, ""' 
Guano, in which Prof. Edwards advances tin; theon that guano is not the 
droppings of birds, as has generally been supposed, but is the deposit of 
the remains of dead animal and vegetable matter at the bottom of the 
ocean, which, as the coast rose, had been so lifted as to appear on the 
crests of the islands formed, and from the chemical changes 
gone, had become guano. Among other facts brought forward to prove 
his theory, he mentioned that an island had risen at the Cnii 
which contained guano on its summit at the time of its uprising, lb- ^ 
alluded to the fact that the droppings of birds would be quit. 
to supply the vast amount of guano found, and that such droppings were 
eheunealh distinct from guano. 

The first and second numbers of the "Bulletin" contain obituary notices 
of our late associate, Horace Mann, and of the distinguished ornitholo- 
gist, John Cassin. 



REVIEWS. 151 

The Crane-flies of North America.* — Another of the useful ento- 
mological works issued by the Smithsonian Institution, is Baron Osten 
Sacken's elaborate Monograph of tin- North \ no-ri. on I'ipulida- i^or Crane- 
files • with short palpi, comprising the smaller species of the family; the 
true Tipuli.ls comprising the well-known crane-flies so abundant in onr 
gardens and fields. This work, destined, we judge, to be a classic in 
American entomological literature, is useful not only as containing de- 
scriptions of all our known crane-flies, but as a model of the mode of 
monographing a group of animals; and for patient research, thorough 
treatment and the new mode of illustration heliographs l>\ Kglotf-tein's 
patent) is one of the most important works on insects published during 
the past year in any language. It will be noted at greater length in the 
"Record of American Entomology" soon to be published. 

Revision of the Large, Stylated, Fossorial Crickets. — In the 
first number of the Memoirs of the Peahruh, J. „,h ,.,,, ,,t s,inre.\ Mr. S. H. 
Scudder has brought under review all the species of the palmated crick- 
eta known to him, with the exception of the smaller forms. The de- 
scriptions of the species are carefully prepared, and each description is 
accompanied with a full table of measurements of several specimens. The 
plate contains a full-sized figure of Gryllot^ixi australis, from New Hol- 
land, a species never before figured ; and thirty-seven details of forelegs 
and wing-covers of the different species. 

The author has prefaced his own descriptions with a full list of the 
i'ers on the group, with remarks on the species mentioned by 
each. The Mole Crickets which are furnished with but two dactyls on 
the fore tibia, he places together as forming a new genus, to which he 
gives the name of Scapteriscus, while for those having four dactyls, he re- 
tains the old generic name of Grvllotalpa. 

The Noxious Insects of Missouri. {—This first report of the State 
la exceedingly creditable both to the author and the State 
which has so liberally fostered the study of economical entomology. 
he country will find it a very readable 
lj,,l 'k. and entomologists will glean many new facts from its pages. The 
chapter on Cutworms, Bark-lice, the Plum-curculio. the Seventeen-year 
Cicada, the Potato-beetles and the Bot-fly of the sheep, are of especial 

We learn that the State of Missouri has acknowledged the value of the 
Tactical entomology, by the appropriation of #3000 to pay the 
le present year. In such a liberal provi- 



sion for the diffusion of entomological knowledge, Missouri not only leads 
all the States in the Union, but shows that she regards it as an economi- 
cal measure to induce every farmer to be his own entomologist. 

Guide to the Study of Insects.* — The sixth number of this work 
is out, and contains accounts (not before published) of the transform* 

notices of the < iotheV Moth. ( .m«-i Moth. < , rain Mot,,. :li. Vngomnois 
Grain Moth. etc.. wit.li full directions for collecting the smaller moths. 
The chapter on Diptera is begun, and gives accounts of the Mosquito, the 
Wheat Midge. Hessian Fly and Gall Flies. The number contains a steel 
plate figuring forty different objects, and titty-seven cuts in the text. We 

grape seed; it rolls up the leaf when about to transform, but does not 
feed upon it. Lines eight and nine from the bottom, on page 336, may 
therefore be deled. 

Le Naturaliste CANAMBN.f— A capital journal for the popt 
of natural history among the French Canadians. It is edited with much 

Teratology. — M. C.Dareste has given us in the "Annates des Sciences 
Naturelles" a resume of his remarkahe ;i we trans- 

late a few paragraphs as nearly word for word as possible : 

5 Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire had 
srticaUy or partially varnished to arti- 



. 

in which the eggs were heated in one of the artificial ' couvenses,' which 

have served for my experiments. I have theref 

doned the use of varnish, and the vertical position, in order to employ 

only a single cause of modification, the use of which I con 

control." When the egg is covered with varnish or other gi. 

partially excludes the air, the embryo can develop, but Una 

when the aliantois is formed "when the needs of 



venses). In this apparatus the contact of the egg Vfitn tne 
it takes place by only one point. Now if in place of directly 
culminating point of the egg, the point which the cicatrix 
ies at the end of the development, a r*>int of the egg situated 
istance from the preceding one be heated, the development is 




allowing for the primitive eccentricity <•• Tor 
and giving to the egg a certain position wit 
heat, this excess of development of a part < 
directed where it is desirable, either to the left or the right of the embryo, 

either above its head or at its caudal extremity." 

frequently monstrous. I cannot say in what proportion however, since I 
am often obliged to study them at an epoch anterior to the appearance of 
a monstrosity, and I cannot therefore predict what would have taken 
place if incubation had been continued. However this may be, I have 
thus been able to observe almost all the types of simple monstrosities 
at different epochs in the formation of the embryo, and consequently to 
bring together the materials of teratological embryogenesis. 

"And, first, I have established a very general condition of the formation 
of the greater number of monstrosities, of those at least which pro- 
foundly modify the organ 1/ 1 m r - hart e\ ippear early, and during 
that period of life when the embryo is reduced (reduit) to a homogeneous 
matter, when the general form of the body, and the special form of each 
organ is sketched out before the app . logical ele- 

ments." "Celosoma, Exencephalus and Ectromelia, so different in \ap- 

condition ari , lopment of the amnios, which does 

not complete itself always in front, leaving thus the umbilical opening 

more or less open, and which -the amnios completing itself only slowly 

"■ 

the embryo, which it submits to constant pressure. From this there 

results a certain number of deviations and atrophies in the regions of the 

body submitted to pressure. 

" Symelia, which has been hitherto considered inexplicable, results from 
M wrest in development of the caudal hood of the amnios which forces 
the posterior members, at the moment of their appearance, to reverse 
to come in contact with each other by their exter- 
nal edges, and to unite themselves in this universal position. Anenceph- 



! beginning hydropsy 



lich are t 



This hydropsy is found equally i 



, indeed, in 



- 



1 general oedema, the result of a peculiar state of t 



154 REVIEWS. 

blood which is completely colorless, and contains only very few globule* 

The want of globules in the blood has its rise in an arrest of develop- 
ment of the vascular area, which is only very imperfecth furnished with 
canals, and which presents the blood _ In the isles of 

Wolf (ilea de Wolf). 

" The inversion of the viscera results from the unequal development of 
the two cardiac blastema-, which, as I have discovered, precede the for- 
mation of the heart. In its normal state the right cardiac blastema is 
more developed than the left, and determines ulteriorly the incurvation 
of the cardiac arch more to the right of the embryo than the returning of 
the embryo (heart) upon the left side. During inversion, the left cardiac 
blastema develops it-elf more than the rigid, from which results the in- 
curvation of the cardiac arch to the left of the embryo, and the return 
of the same upon the right side. The existence of two hearts, an anom- 
aly unknown to Geoffroy Saint Ililaire. which M. Panum described some 
years since, and which 1 have had occasion to observe several times, re- 
sults from an arrest of development which prevents the junction of the 
two primitive cardiac blastema-. Cyclopia results from an arrest of de- 
velopment which prevents the two ocular blastemse, primitively in con- 
tact, from separating themselves. This arrest of development is very 

>. consequence of an arrest of development of the c< 
of the amnios; but I have not yet been able to establish this last fact 
with certainty." In fact I have seen that the inversion of tin vNcera 
may be obtained when, in one of the malformations of the blastoderm 
pre\ touBly indicated, the left region of the vascular area is more developed 
than the right, and when, also, the temperature of the centre where incu- 
bation is effected, is relatively low. I have otherwise- accumulated nume- 
rous indications which will soon permit me, according to all appearances, 
to produce at will other anomalies. 

" I have made, also, many experiments in order to study the manner in 

mal temperature of incubation. The high temperatures accelerate W 

ismus. The low temperatures, on the contrary, considerably retard the 
progress of development, and do not permit the embryo to exist (depas- 
ser) beyond a certain period. 
"It is also a remarkable consequence of my studies that they expio 
itrosities in certain - 

Thus the absence of the 
xreat number of defornii- 



NATURAL HISTORY MISCELLANY. 

BOTANY. 

Lake Superior Plants compared with Eastern specimens. — Not 

Ion- ago 1 1 iv attention was called by a friend, a distinguished botanist at 
,1m ' E«8t, U>1 aid robust development of sonic of m\ 

found in the New England States. This is particularly observable in the 
plant- of the earlier part of the season, where one would be led least to 
expect it, Anion- the most remarkable are the Caria.-s. most of which 
are in full perfection by the early summer. Of these I would specify 
the following, a few out of many, as worthy of note in the above res- 
pect :— Carex Backii Boot. C. vuria Muhl.. in its many forms. C Howjh- 
tonii Ton-., C. la.njlura Lam., and C. I,>hticn!«ris Michx. The Graminese, 
however, exhibit this condition in the most extraordinary degree. The 
Mountain Rice n,y = „ r sis »*,,. rifolii Michx. I found in flower and about 
two feet high by the latter part of May. The Holy-grass (Merochloa 
borealis Roem. and Schul.). in flower early in June was over two feet 
high, the leaves, stalk, panicle and its component parts, proportionately 
large. This fragrant grass the Indian women weave into baskets and 
fancy articles, which they dispose of to travellers. Ka-hrui rri*>r:>t<i Pers., 
ttdj woods along rivers, flowered in July, and was rank and 
tall, often over five feet in height. Several species'of uhjceria and Poa 
are also worthy of mention as singularly luxuriant. Tritirum violation 
Hornem., I found on the northern shore of the lake, on the few gravel 
bea. hes. where it attained a height of over four feet, having an extraor- 
dinarily robust culm. The grain was well formed by the latter part of 
An-iisf. and up to the early part of September the plant was untouched 
by frosts. This is peculiarly interesting as connected with our cereals, 

the same genus. 

The large amount of snow which falls in the region of Lake Superior. 
-lid lies upon the land, a great warm blanket several feet thick, undis- 

it disappears the ground has not the delay of getting thawed out as else- 
where. I have frequently found snowdrifts in the woods from one to 
two feet deep, which remained well into June under the shade of the 
cedars, and this when it was unpleasantly warm in the openings. The 
sun, too, has a greater power there than commonly supposed, almost 
eomn. rb i ,, , i„g tl e shortness of the summer. Violets, which I found 
in May ( Viola hl.„„l > Willd . V >• II V/ u Pui-h et. . had evidently been 
blossoming during the winter, which corroborates what an old resident of 



156 NATURAL HISTORY MISCELLANY. 

Lake Superior told me, viz., that any time during the winter violets could 
be obtained by digging away the snow. Adenocaulon bicolor Hook., I 
found in June, three feet high, in full blossom, and having almost a tropi- 
cal luxuriance: and toward-, the middle of that month Lathyrus ochroleu- 
cus Hook., twined its elegant wreaths of cream-colored or pale-yellow 
flowers in graceful profusion. Instances might be multiplied did space 
permit. — Henry Gillman, JJctma. Mir It. 



ZOOLOGY. 

Glycerine for Preserving Natural Colors of Marine Animals. 

—While collecting on the coast of Maine last summer I made numerous 

experiments with glycerine, most of which were eminent)} • 

perfectly preserved and nearly as brilliant as in lite. Anion;.' these are 
many kinds of CruMace.i. Mich as shrimp and Prawns II! rr ,lyi . < fo.i- 
<!>>», Paln-uion. .V//.--/.S. etc. , Amphipods and Entomostraca; also many 
species of Starfishes, Worms, Sea-anemones Ah- you urn. AsciO'tan*. etc.). 
The Starfishes and Crustacea are particularly satisfactory. The internal 

either by alcohol or -lycerine. The only precaution taken was to use 
very heavy glycerine, and to keep up the strength by transferring the 





i red almost 


nstantly ii 


alcohol. 


pecimens of vari 


jus Lepi- 






o well pr< 








The exp 




regarded 




ion to the use 


The best and strongest 




Jit at about 81 per pound, bu 




I have be 










per pound 


which is cut 








by evapo- 








1 preserved, if merely cov- 






■ for smal 








much mor 


than for alcohol. — A. E. Verrill, 


Yale College. 




Does te 


e Prairie-do 




ANY WATI 


r?— Prairie-dog 


towns on 


the Plains 






away from 




n be dis- 


covered on the surface 


It is th 


general b 


lief among those 


who are 



NATURAL HISTORY MISCELLANY. 157 

■dog, that he does not require any 
more water than is contained in the grass roots on which he feeds. Gen. 
Marcy, in his "Army Life on the Border," expresses this belief. When 
the grass is growing, and the mots are tender and full of sap, it is easy 
to believe that this is the case. It is. however, ditlicult to understand 
how sufficient moisture could be contained in the food of the prairie-dog 

cess of digestion dining the months of September, October and Novem- 
ber. At this season of the year it is not unusual for from fifty to sixty 
days to pass without a drop of rain falling. There is no dew, the air is 
extremely dry, and the - the only thing which 

grows on the highlands where tie jr i e-dot; villas - are commonly 
found . becomes completely dried down to the roots, while the roots, 
being but two or three inches underground, become hard and dry. 

In attempting to flood dogs out of their holes for the purpose of ob- 
yoimg ones for pets, I have found some holes that could be 
filled to the brim with two barrels of water, and from these holes have 
ung dogs. In other holes I have emptied three or four barrels 
in immediate succession, and instead of tilling the holes, have heard the 
water last poured, continue running with a rumbling noise, deep in the 
ground, for a minute or more after my supply was exhausted. These 
holes it seems to me must be deep enough to answer the purpose of 
I can conceive of no other object that could induce the dogs 
to burrow so deeply, than that of obtaining water. They are generally 
of greater diameter than other holes, and go clown straight from the en- 
trance instead of obliquely as do others. While they show signs of 
being constantly resorted to by the dogs, they do not have the same 
appearance of excrement of the dogs 

does not lie around them in -urh abundance, and the grass near has not 
been so extensively rooted up for food. 
The prevailing belief among frontiersmen, that prairie-dogs, rattle- 



h °me in deserted holes. — Gi.ou.h: II. Sternberg. 

r<i:rn.[x, ; Harms of Raj oiaxders ax» Frogs.— There is still a 
great deficiency in our - 'he breeding habits of 

these animals, v^,!, ,„am v,„mg nam .IN> r^idinu- in the country 
ought to make an effort to supply this spring. I 

upon any of our frogs, recording the first appearance, the time and place 
the eggs, the form and appearance of the egg-clusters and how 



108 NATURAL HISTORY 

attached, the duration of the laying period, etc., are all worthy of record, 
u Lb also the history of the development of the young, but specimens 
of every species of which the habits are noted should be preserved in 
alcohol, so that the species may be accurately determined. The young 
should be reared, and a full series preserved, with dates. 

Concerning the breeding habits of our Salamanders little is known. 
Mr. Putnam and others have observed the eggs of the i. 

rotten wood, etc., in moist places, and 
are cared for by the mother, who also broods the young when hatched. 
The young very quickly loose their external gills, and pass rapidly 
ed a species of Desmogna- 
thus which wrapped the eggs around its body, and remained in a moist 
place until they were hatched. Our common ZJes;m>i;iiia//i!is fusrus, or 
Painted Salamander, was observed by me in Maine, where it lives under 
stones in cold brooks and springs. It attaches its large i\or\ -white egn- 
in patches upon the under sides of stones. The young retain their exter- 
nal -ills until they are marly full grown, and at least three inches long in 
some cases. The eggs of the common Water Newt (Df< mi* ■■ 
cens) were observed by Mr. S. I. Smith and myself at .Norway, Maine, in 
1863 and '64, Where they were found asses, two or 

three inches in diameter, and resembling frogs' eggs, on the stems of 
water plants growing in ditches in a meadow. The eggs fl 
5th, and the young were reared by Mr. Smith. They were hatched May 
I fth, and by the first of October had become one and a half inches long, 
with rath''! - ads. and -rill retain, d t 

experiment U a< then discontinued, but the specimens were all preserved. 

In this species the male, at the hived in- -< - 
around the body of the female just behind her forelegs, and from the 
fart that a -at were often 

seen in tins position, it is probable that it commences breeding very 
early in tin- -pring. Under -exual exeitem. nt the colore and appearance 

and a black callosity forms on the inner sides, which aid- in giving nrni- 
ness to his grasp. These characters soon pass away after the egg- are 
laid. In salamanders and frogs the egg- and the milt are discharged 
simultaneously, and the eggs are fertilized in the water. So far as I 
know nothing ha- been published concerning the egg- or hn t ding habits 
of any of our other species, several of which are very common. — A. E. 
Vkkiuix. Yale College. 

The Biter Bittex. — Two or three year- ago a student, 
Stone, while on an excon miles from New H«W*i 

- 



NATUKAL HISTORY MISCELLANY. 



- 
. Possibly he took the Copperhead at a disad- 



Joold for P.dvMi e synonym JP. ao- 

■aptwmHald. (Proc. Acad. Nat. Sri.. July, lsll). the latter being the first 
o give the proper genus. If a painter were to copy a figure of Adam 
rom Angelo, and of Eve from Dubufe, this rule would make him the 

Pitiflium fihrvptnra of ju .'. u .> < iv,-n-d in October, in the words "Pm- 

Some authors cite Prof. Baird for the Bluebird (a Linnean species, fiffa- 
'" si'ili* (Pacific R. R. Reports, Vol. 9, p. 222, October, 1858); but if the 
'Pedes is notLinne's, it is mine, because I mentioned it fifteen years pre- 
viously as "The familiar niuebird shilbt »i<ili*>." in a chapter on the 
Zoology of the State, in Trego's Geography of Pennsylvania, 1843. p. 77. 



been more than half devoured. Sitting < 
r by, I determined to keep watch, but had not remained there 



i behind some 



1AL HISTORY MISCELLANY 



piece, again new away. I saw this repeated next day, 



' in pools is acquainted wit 1 
■-worms, which walk over the bottom like n 
inimated sawdust, or minute pebbles when 






spondent in the Middle States. It is a species 
,-che, and was by some conchologists (I. Lea, 
i American Philosophical Society, ISoi. p. 101) 



Zeitung, 1864, p. 130, as Hclicopsyche glabra Hagen, from a specimen re- 
ceived from the collections of Prof. Dunker, labelled y„h;ihi unuif>f 
Lea, North America. The Valmta arenlpra Lea, from Tennessee, Cum- 

scribed (Zeitung. p. 129, No. 8) from Mexico, are perhaps identical. 

"H. glabra is mentioned in a -Note on Certain Inject larva-sacks, de- 
scribed as species of 1 ',Irata"i from Trov, N. Y.) bv Mr. Th. Miami. Lye. 






NATURAL HISTORY MISCELLANY. 

ked that Frauenfeld (Wiener Zoolo-iscl 



1>»;1. 






ot a Helicopsyche, as supposed by me from a spe 
Fig. 33. of the celebrated coucliolo.irist. Trot'. Di 

Maine^y Eev. E. C. Bolles. The 1 
conical sandy tube, supported t 

We do not know the adult : 

Fi- 34 (larva and < 




162 NATURAL HISTORY MISCELLANY. 

GEOLOGY. 

The Plains of Kansas. — Six companies of the 10th U. S. cavalry 
marched from Fort Riley, Kansas, on the 15th of April, 1868, under orders 
to encamp for the summer near Fort Wallace. The route is along the line 
completed to 
s Smoky Hill 

It is very generally believed that the plains are level prairies like those 
of Illinois ; but this is not so. By the plains, frontiersmen mean the 
country west of the settlements, to the base of the Rocky MonntaJM. 
Along the line of the Smoky Hill River, the country is rolling and con- 
stantly broken by ravines. My notes commence at Fort Harker. This 
post i< situated on the Smoky Hill, eighty-five miles west of its junction 
with the Republican, and two hundred miles from the Missouri River. 

The soil in the river valley is deep and rich, as is also that of the nu- 
merous creeks flowing into it. The bluffs are mostly unsuitcd for cultiva- 
tion, being formed of gravel and clay, covered with a soil but a few inches 
thick. The buffalo grass, with which the high ground is covered, does 
not grow more than three or four inches high, but is very sweet and nu- 
I is preferred by animals to the longer grasses found in the 
river bottoms. It is said by those who have been on the plains for many 
year-, that as the buffalo is driven westward, the buffalo grass is replaced 
by others of more vigorous growth, especially by the blue-join' gr»8*i 
which reaches a height of two or three feet. I was led to beliove this 
true by persona: ohs, rvati >n. ami it is probable that as the ground be- 
comes covered and shaded by grasses of more luxuriant growth, and as 
forest trees obtain a more extensive foothold, the climate will be bene- 
fited, and there will be a more equitable fall of rain throughout the year. 
Very little rain falls from July to March, and a large proportion of that is 
carried (»ff within a few hours by the numerous creeks, which are dry at 



protected from prairie fires by the ab 

The principal varieties of timber about 



of oak and other hard wood, 
srs is the Prairie-pea (Astragahts Mexicanus)- 
i of a green gage plum, and is very abundant, 
rt eaten. It tastes like the pod of the common 
nsipid and rarely eaten. A wild Hyacinth is 
I the Poppy -mallow (Malva Papavef), which a 
3 found in extensive beds, with its purple blos- 
s, forms one of the most brilliant figures in the 



HISTORY MISCELLANY. lbd 

prairie carpet. The blue flowers of the Spiderwort are scattered over 
the bluffs, and a variety of Sida, with rose white flowers, form bright 
patches on the buffalo wallows. Along the steep banks of the creeks ami 

however, till late in May. The blossom is unique and beautiful. It is a 

a silken tassel, the anthers tipping each thread with gold. The Prickly 
Poppy (Argemone) looks now like a common thistle, but in July ii will 

The rock about Fort Harker is a sandstone of the Cretaceous period. It 
varies from a soft white stone, that may be broken up into sand by the 
liaiul. to a hard dark red stone, according to the amount of oxide of iron 
it contains. Where it has the right proportion of iron it is easily worked 
and makes an excellent building stone. The quarters at Fort Harker are 
built of it. While the quarry was being worked a large number of im- 
pressions of leaves of trees of existing species were found, the willow 
and oak most abundantly. Near the mouth of Wilson's Creek, twenty-two 
miles west of Harker, is a bed of lignite, which is being worked by a 
joint stock company, i was not able to v isit it. but saw some specimens 
of the coal, and doubted if the sanguine expectations of the stockholders 
would be realized. At Fossil Creek, fifteen miles from Wilson's Creek, 
there is exposed a stratum of limestone, filled with a large fossil eonchi- 
fer unknown to me. At Big Creek, near Fort Hays, we found antelope 
and buffalo abundant, and several buffalo calves have been caught and are 
being raised on cow's milk. They soon become quite tame. 

I have had a serenade every morning and evening from a m< 
which has located himself in a large elm tree in the rear of my tent, the 
only morking-bird i ] iaY e heard in this State. There are beaver dams all 
along the creek, and numerous trees, recently cut down by sharp teeth, 
show that they are still plentiful. 

A variety of wild mustard found here in damp places, makes excellent 
grass. l n addition to those found at Fort Harker. there are a variety of 
Anemone with white and blue flowers, and a delicate pink Verbena. A 
variety of Penstemon (P <,, , Mora nil V Di < s m found u 1 'it 

giving out a delightful fragrai 






. 



■ 



about Hays is a soft chalky marl, unfos ' "'"• 

On the 25th of May we resumed our march westward, on the second 
ig through" a swarm of grasshoppers, extending about two 
miles. These plains are, doubtless, the breeding places for the immense 
■Wanna, r east. We 

encamped the 29th near Castle Rock, forty-nl 

? h, and about three hundred in circumference. It 
about one third of the 



Ib4 NATURAL HISTORY MISCELLANY. 

way up, and above this of a light yellow compact marl. It was evidei 
at one time, continuous with some bluffs of the same character a i 
south of it. The 30th we encamped at Monument Station, which 
ceives its name from a number of columns of the same character as Ca 
Rock. There is a company of Infantry stationed here under commaru 
Brevet. Lt. Col. Cunningham. As I rode up in front of Col. Cunn 
ham's quarters, the first thing that met my eye was a pile of fossil 
tebrae, and the jaw of an immense Saurian. The jaw is over three 
long and is well preserved. The Colonel has already dug out sixty v« 
brae. He estimates the length of the reptile at thirty feet. He was 1; 
in a stratum of brick-red clay, below which is the shale and above 
marl, which is described as forming Castle Rock. By hunting in the s 
locality I succeeded in finding a large number of shark's teeth, and 
tooth of a Saurian. On the day following I found a place where the s 
I have spoken of was uncovered, and on its surface picked up a quai 
of fishes vertebrae, and some teeth. I found also the jaw of some s 
reptile, and just as I was returning, stumbled upon a 
about two bushels of fragments of fossil bone. The bones were badly 
broken up, but still sufficiently preserved to show that some unfortunate 
Saurian had been buried there. Between this place and Fort Wallace I 
obtained numerous specimens of fishes' vertebrae, and three vertebrae of a 
smaller Saurian. I am informed by Ass't Surgeon Turner, U. S. N., that 
he has forwarded to the Museum of the Academy of Natural Sciences, at 
Philadelphia, a very perfect specimen of a Saurian, which he estimates to 
have been fifty feet long. It was found in the blue shale of which I have 
spoken. Fort Wallace is situated near the extreme western bi 
Kansas, within two or three miles of the Colorado line. The post is 
built of alight yellow marl, which may Ik- readily saw. .1 into blocks with 
a common hand-saw. A variety of S] is very abun- 

dant here, and is now in bloom, as is also the Mammilaria macromeris, 
• i beautiful rose colored blossom, and the prickly-pear is begin- 
ning to put forth its large yellow blossoms. 

We have in camp three young antelopes caught upon the march. They 
have become quite tame. The black -tailed deer is found in t 
which is about as far east as it ranges. I have slighted the centipedes 
and the rattlesnakes, but it is not because they are scarce. One of the 
officers shook a large centipede from his boot the other morning, and 
nearly every one can produce a handful of rattles as proof that rattle- 
snakes are becoming scarce. — Dr. G. M. Sternberg, U. S. A. 



MICROSCOPY. 

A new Process of Preparing Spi-:< imkns <■; Fh.vmentous AlG^S 
for the Microscope. — The working microscopist well knows how littl* 
really valuable information, of a practical character, is to be found in 
books professing to treat of the subject of preparing and mounting 
specimens of the lower families of Algas, so as to exhibit in a - 



NATURAL HISTORY MISCELLANY. 165 

s which distinguish them in a generic or specific 
manner. This remark also applies, although with not so much force, to 
other branches of microscopic manipulation, as there are really many 
valuable hints to be found in the books descriptive of preparing woods, 
bones and other hard tissues, and the subject of injecting has received 
much attention, so that the labors of the student are very materially 
lightened by the perusal of the works of the German, English and Wrench 
is. But in microscopic botany our information is woefully 
deficient and old. The microscopist is therefore driven to the neees.-i;y 
of experimenting, and, as a consequence, discovering for himself. As the 
students of the lower families of plants are at the present time some- 
what numerous, the result has, of course, been the development of many 
extremely valuable processes tending to simplify their study; but it is to 
be regretted that, whether from extreme modesty, or perhaps from some 
other cause, such as the fear that their processes are not new, or would 
not be appreciated, these gentlemen have, unfortunately, failed to publish. 
It cannot be denied that this mode of action is wrong, and that no one 
has a right to withhold the knowledge he may possess on such points. 
For my part I have taken every opportunity of publishing, or otherwise 
making known, any little point in manipulative microscopy which I have 
found of value, and which I have thought would in any way be of use to 
others. 

For years I have been engaged in the study of the lower families ol 
Algae, more especially the Diatomaceae, and for the purpose of elimina- 
ting their characters, I have at different times experimented upon the 
Preparation and preservation of these beautiful forms, so as to be ena- 
M*d at any future time to exhibit them in the best manner for showing 
their peculiarities. I have already published processes for obtaining the 
Ii- « of Diatomaceae from guano, and also several modes of 
reparing and mounting for the microscope these organisms. 
It is now my intention to make known a process 1 have contrived by 
means of which the filamentous forms of Diatomaceae, Desmidiae and Con- 
fervae, can be preserved and mounted so as to show many of their charac- 
ters, although, as is always the case, something has to be sacrificed. 
However, it is in my opinion the best process that has been as yet made 

of drawing from others records of their modes of manipulation, so that 
searchers after truth, like myself, may learn something of value to them 
ln their investigations. 

It is well known that the Desmidiae and the filamentous Algae, generally 
found growing in fresh water, have never been preserved 
manner, and this has arisen from the fact that th 
Posed of a substance of a perishable matter, and wl 
Diatomaceae, which is siliceous, bear boiling in con 
remove the always readily decomposable cell-content*, and , 
he Diatomaceae, after such t; 



166 NATURAL HISTORY MISCELLANY. 

they are presented in such a state that the finest sculpture of their sili- 
ceous epidermis can be observed, and they are at the same time held 
within a preservative substance which does not permit of their move* 
ment and consequent danger of fracture ; the Desmidise and the filamen- 
tous Algae in general cannot be preserved so, and several means have >u< u 
devised to keep them, all of which have been to a certain extent unsat- 
isfactory. Resides there are some Diatomacese which grow in chains. 
as the Fragillaria, the frustules of which are united by means of a sub- 
stance that will not bear the contact of acid necessary to remove the cell- 
contents; and again there are others, as the Gomphonema, which MM 
attached to submerged substances by means of a flexible stalk called a 
Btipe, which would dissolve under the same circumstances. Such Diato- 
macese have been generally merely placed in a cell formed of «ement or 
other suitable substance, and preserved in a preservative solution con- 
creosote, cam- 
phor, or other substance possessing antiseptic properties. And the same 
plan has been followed with the filamentous Desmidise and other Algffi, 
but such specimens become, after a short time, unsightly. It is true that 
the general outline is preserved, but the cell-contents either contract or 
form and color, so as to injure the appearance of the specimen, 
or the same effect is brought about by the colored matter generally ac- 
companying gatherings of such organisms. 

My plan then is essentially as follows : Supposing I have 
consisting for the most part of a filamentous Desmid, as Demi«K«" 
SmrUsii, which is a common species around New York city at certain 
periods of the year, I place a small quantity of it in a test tube, and pom 

called "chloride of soda," which I prepare for the purpose in the follow- 
ing manner. Those, however, who have not the facilities for doing so, 
or do not desire to prepare their own solution, can use that sold by the 
apothecaries under the name of " Labarraque's Solution of Chloride of 
Soda," which is, however, rather weaker than it is best often to use. My 
solution I make by adding to the water a large excess of the common 
chloride of lime of the shops, which is fresh and has not stood for * 
time in an open vessel exposed to the air, by means of which much ot if 
becomes decomposed an 



I the white precipitate of carbonate of lime, or cha 
to form. The clear solution is now poured off preferably through a good 
paper filter, and preserved in a well-corked bottle, away from the ligW- 
This is my solution of chloride of soda. The Alga is now boiled for a 
lew minutes in the solution, but not so violently or for such a length of 
time as to break up the filaments, and then well and thorou.i 
with pure filtered or distilled water. It can thereafter be preserved in 



CORRESPONDENCE . 1 i 

drops of creosote have been added. Thus the growth of fungi is pre- 
vented, which would otherwise mar the appearance of the object very 
materially. 

To mount such bleached specimens, I proceed as follows. Those which 
have been set aside in creosote water may be, of course, put up permanent ly 
e been preserved in spirits, I prefer to 
mount in creosote. A cell is procured of any suitable substance, as black 
ramteh, gold size, marine glue, or other cement which will withstand the 
action of water, and a fragment of the Alga being placed in it in the usual 
manner, water is added, and a tine glass rod or stick of wood just mois- 

water becomes sufficiently impregnated with the preservative to insure 
its antiseptic action. The coveMs then put on and cemented down. 
Thus we have a specimen of the Alga in a transparent condition, all colors 
w>ich interferes with the observation of many points of structure being 

and found it to answer admirably. The camphor water I make by using 
distilled water, and just before placing on the cover, putting in a grain of 
gum camphor, which then remains in the cell, and if near the edge does 
not mar the appearance of the object in any way. Specimens can also be 
mounted in the glycerine-jelly of Mr. Lawrence, which preservative I find 
to be excellent for all kinds of Algse and vegetable preparations gener- 

as easy as that of balsam, and air bubbles, those torments of 
are the exception and not (as is the case for a long time generally after a 
- mounting microscopic objects) the rule. Oftheoseol this 
jelly, or rather a modification of it, I shall at some future time have more 
to say — Arthur Mead Edwards, New York. 



ANSWERS TO CORRESPONDENTS. 






CORRESPONDENCE. 









AMERICAN NATURALIST. 



Vol. III. -JUNE, 1869. -No. 



Mast persons are repelled by scientific nomenclature. 
Let not such, however, turii away from this article when I 
say that the name of the genus I write of is Botaurus, for 
the English term "bittern" i> the same word, only in a dif- 



, and comes from the Latin Botaurus (/. e., boa 
), through the French tutor, or Spanish bitor 



170 BITTERNS. 

ceived are nearly all from the same characteristic : these are 
Stake-driver, applied to our own bird, and Mire-drum, Bull 
of the Bog, Butter-bump and Bog-blutter (». e., bleater), ap- 
plied to the European species. 

Australia is a land of anomalies ; a kingfisher lives there 
which avoids the water, dwells in arid wastes, living on 
lizards and snakes, and has his home in a tree : and possibly 
some unknown species of bittern may belong there which 
flutters about the upland fields and lives on seeds, and will 
be held in high repute as a warbler when he shall, hereafter, 
be found, and will be kept in a gilded cage with a cuttle-tish 
bone. That would indeed be a sight worth going half-way. 
around the world to see. I dare prophesy, however, that 
that island's vast unknown interior will produce no such 
wonder, but that all unknown bitterns will be found to agree 
in character with the known. What that character is, how 
it <liil*ers from our supposed songster, let us now consider. 

The prophets use it- name in tion. Says 

Isaiah, of Babylon, "I will make it a possession for the bit- 
tern ;" and Zephaniah says of Xiuevah, "The cormorant and 
the bittern shall lodge in the upper lintels of it." Hear also 
what Mudie, who was not a prophet, says of the European 
species. "It hears not the whistle of the ploughman nor 
the sound of the mattock: and the tinkle of the sheep bell 
or the lowing of the ox (although the latter bears so much 
resemblance to its hollow and dismal voice that it bus given 
foundation for the name) is a signal for it to be gone. Places 
which scatter blight and mildew over every herb more deli- 
cate than a sedge ; which are the pasture of those loathsome 
things whi.h wriggle in the ooze, or crawl and swim in the 
putrid and mantling water-; places which shed murrain over 
the quadruped-, or chills winch eat the flesh off their bones: 
places from which even the raven, lover of disease and bat- 
tener upon all that expires i Med, keep* 

aloof (for 'the reek o' the rotten fen' is loathsome even to 
him), are the chosen habitation, the only loved home of the 



bittern. He is a bird of the confines, beyond which we 
imagine nothing but utter ruin." 

This picture is, I think, somewhat overdrawn ; morec 
no naturalist ought to speak of the waste places of Na 

in that disapproving way. We might pardon a more 
lector for writing so of bogs and wilds, he knows no bel 
to him, a natural history store, where he may buy his e 

the swamps he must struggle through, the thickets he i 
thread, the plains he must traverse, and the sandy or mil 



fowl, of which Mudie thus speaks, that appeals .strongly to 
tb<- imagination is not to be denied; but the bird is, nev- 
ertheless, a reputable bird, although he is the one which 
ignorant peasants in the old countries know by the name of 
"night raven," believing that disaster or death must needs 
follow when they have heard his voice booming over the fens 
on a warm cloudy night, as they staggered their drunken 
way home from the ale-house. Terrible as the voire sounds 
to their dull senses, it is sweetest music to the bittern s mate, 
fitting among the grasses below him. or with him circling 
the sky just under the cloud. 

On this side of the Atlantic we have no superstitious fear 
of the fowl, and do not think the swamps accursed by his 
Presence. He is a lovely bird in unprejudiced, discrimi- 
nating eyes; he has no 'gaudy colors, but his blacks, his 
browns and yellows, of many shades, all of them pleasing. 
are so blended as to produce a beautiful, harmonious effect. 
He loves waste places, for they furnish him safety and food; 
satety. because his enemy man is fond of a dry foot; and 



172 BITTEBNS. 

food, for frogs and snails and snakes and mice, all prime 
delicacies with our hermit, abound there, and, with an occa- 
sional minnow. supply all his wants. And yet his safety is 
not perfect, for the prying naturalist, for whom mud and 
water have no terrors, sometimes comes across his home and 
family; and the wanton gunner, starting him up from his 
fishing and frogling, never spares him, but shoots him at 
sight; and what man, with an arm and a leg broken and 
body pierced with a dozen bullets, will make as good a fight 
as does our bird when the destroyer goes to pick him up? 
As long as life is in his wrangled body, he never ceases to 
lunge and thrust at his murderer's eyes with his spear-like 
bill, scorning to yield to either pain or fear. 

He comes to us from Mexico, Central America, and the 
West Indies (the European species winters in Africa) early 
in the spring (I bought one, freshly killed, in the latter part 
of March. 18l*>S. though that was very early indeed), and 
probably takes up his abode in the same swamp which last 
year he frequented. The "tinkle of the sheep bell" does 
not banish the bold bird; he and his mate live in their five 
or ten acres the whole summer through, although just out- 
side their bushy quagmire the whire->hirted haymakers may 
whet their scythes and shout to their horse's, and the loco- 
motive with his thundering train may go tearing by almost 
every hour in the day. It seems that the raven avoids the 
bittern's domains, because he don't like the "reek o' the rot- 
ten fen." Very well, let him -lay away if lie likes, the beau- 
tiful yellow-throats and swamp-sparrows, and. if there is a 
rotten stump, the chickadees, make his place good and more 
than good. With their company and with surroundings oi 
purple-blossomed Kalmia, glossy-leaved Smilax and pink 
Calopogon, quiet cedars, nodding -edges, and rustling 
grasses, Old Sooty', absence will be little mourned. 

Some speak of finding the bittern breeding in colonies in 
trees. Good observers say so, and I believe them ; but I 
think that all such cases are owing to accidental circum- 



stances, such as the inundation of their marches. Certain it 
is that I have never found them so associated. "Le butoiy' 
says M. Hulandre, "est tres sauvage, farouche, solitaire." 

pair of bitterns to a bog seems to be the rule. 

In the place where I have found them, there is retired 
feeding- ground for a thousand, dense cedar swamps exten- 
sive enough foi as many nests if they only chose to congre- 

two they live, their next neighbors nobody know- how tar 

among 'low laurel, tufts of grass, or, as in the case of the 
first nest I ever found, at the foot of a swamp huckleberry 
(from which the four callow young, unable yet to stand, 
tried to drive me away by repeated tumbling charges, mena- 
cing me by clumping their .soft mandibles, and by sending 



I 


have been surprised to find the gei 


,eral uneertai 




i pervades ornithological works, upoi 


t the subject 


the c 


olor of the bittern's eggs. These rea 


11 v are of a d 


drab 
of In 


color in the case of our own bird a: 

een these two species when examining 
)th, which I was enabled to do by the 


3 well as of 


Sami 


iels. I have not been able to find am 


,- variation in 


color 


of those of our species, though I hav< 


, inspected e; 



bittern's nest." nor, apparently, did he ever see 
he says nothing of them. Xuttall writes, "the 
to lay cinereous green i'^ii:>.' f ^ ilson, they 
son's Bay in swamps, and lay four cinereous 
we are informed:' Richardson, "they lay, 
Mr. Hutchins, four eggs of a cinereous green 
tham, "breeds at Hudson's Bay, and lays f< 



174 BITTERNS. 

green eggs." Peabody, "eggs of a green color." Thump- 
sou, "six eggs, of a dark, bluish-brown, clay color." Find- 
ing the venerated authorities determined that the eg_ ■ 
have green on them of some shade or other, I made a fresh 
examination, thinking 1 might have been mistaken. 1 studied 
them long and carefully in every light, and give them full 
consideration, but it was all in vain. I did once think 1 had 
detected a glancing greenish reflection, but found the color 
came from a window blind. I have stated that the eggs of 
the American and the European species are just alike. Let 
us see what European authors say : Selbv says, pale green; 
Bewick, greenish white ; Fleming, olive green ; a writer for 
the London Tract So< ict\ , pal( gre< aish-ash ; Mudie, greeu- 

tham, pale ash-green; Goodrich, pale green; M. Holandre, 
blanc-verddtre ; Naumau and Buhle give a figure much too 
dark. It is hard to be obliged to say of so many well known 
men that their statements are unreliable ; but seeing is be- 
lieving, and the truth is the truth, and the color is as I have 
said. Mr. Samuels gives the true state of the case with 
regard to our bird, and Yarrell in regard to the European 
species, and Hewitson and Atkinson, the former of whom 
borrowed the specimen he figures from Mr. Yarrell, both 
give accurately colored plates. When writers will say such 
things of the European kind, we need not be surprised, 
however incredulous, when Latham tells us that a Cayenne 
species lays "round whitish eggs, spotted with green." Be- 
sides all these errors, the author of the article "Bittern," in 
the "New American Cyclopaedia," says that the bird "builds 
in trees, like the herons, ordinarily rearing two young." a 



itz 


t about as incorrect as it e< 


mid be. 


Mudi 

"Anon 




3 laughter breaks upon yon 


l, gratin 




nwontet 


1 and odd that it sounds s 


is if the 


voices 


ud a In 


>rse were combined ; the fo 


nner br. 


-aking 


>ellow fa 


3 suit the neigh of the latti 


er in m« 


..eking 



the sky." "When the bittern booms and bleats overhead 
one certainly feels as if the earth were shaking." Gold- 
smith's description of the bittern's voice is one of his most 
pleasing passages. Many of the poets speak of the bird's 
strange voice, and even in the time of Thompson (Thomp- 
son of the Seasons) it was thought that the bill was thrust 
into the mud in mnkinir it. Chancer speaks as follows in 
The Wife of Bath's Tale : 



Another notion was that the bill was put inside a reed to 
increase the sound; the truth is, of course, that the bird 
uses no means to produce its bellow but its own organs ot 
voice. Our own bittern has no such roar, but, as its name 
in most parts of the country denotes, makes a noise very 
much like driving a stake with an axe. It has also a hollow 
croak at the moment of alarm. 

These remarks apply to the American and European spe- 
cies ; the geographical range of the former is from latitude 
60° north, to Central America and the West Indies, having 
never been found, I believe, south of latitude 10° north. It 
is of rare occurrence west of the Rocky Mountains, though 
not uncommon in other parts of the United States. Many 
specimens of this bird have been shot in the British Isles, 
particularly in Ireland. The first recorded capture was in 
IWonshiro, England, in October. 1804; the prize was by 
some regarded as a new species. All such specimens have 
been killed in the fall, so that there can be no doubt that 
they were blown out to sea in their autumnal migration. 

The European species has a wider range. Selby says it 
Js confined to Europe, but such is not the case; it occurs, 
™<>ugh rarely, in Norway, Russia and Siberia, up to latitude 
<>5° north, and is found breeding at the Cape of Good Hope, 
*» latitude 3o° south. In the other direction it extends from 



176 BITTERNS. 

the Atlantic to the Kiver Lena, in Siberia, and is found, 
though spal in. It is very rare in the Brit- 

ish Islands, owing, probably, to drainage of bogs; so rare in 
fact, that some naturalists have thought it worth their while 
to give date and place of the killing of all specimens they 
have seen. In England it is said to breed only in Lincoln- 
shire, Cambridgeshire and Norfolk. In old times the bittern 
was held in high esteem for the sport it afforded when pur- 
sued by trained falcons. Both birds would mount in spirals, 
oftentimes out of sight; the bittern straining every nerve to 
keep above the hawk, the hawk doing his best to rise above 
the bittern so as to make the fatal pounce. The bittern, 
being of weaker flight, rarely escaped, but often in his death 
involved his enemy's ; for as the cruel falcon came down with 
rushing wings, exalting in his fierce soul, the bittern, in his 
dire extremity, thrusting up his sharp beak, empaled tin- 
triumphant savage, and hoth came tumbling from the clouds 
together, striking the earth with a thump which drove the 
last breath from both. A lesson to tyrants not to push the 
weak to despair. 

On account of its furnishing such excellent sport to the 
humane of former times, rigorous laws for its protection 
were passed in the reign of Henry VIII, and of Edward VI, 
which imposed a tine of eight pence and a year's imprison- 
ment for every egg taken or destroyed. There was something 
like protection. The long hind claw was a most excellent 
toothpick, for, besides its functions as such, it had, if the 
wisdom of our ancestors was infallible, the highly merito- 
rious property of preserving the teeth from decay. It ap- 
pears, moreover, that the fowl had then the power of display- 
ing a brilliant light from the centre of its breast, which 
attracted fish to it in great shoals, so that the satisfying of 
its hunger took but a small part of the night, and much time 
was left for other pursuits, one of the most cheerful of which 
was to soar above the hovel of the British ploughman or 
hedger or ditcher, and rouse him from his lethargic sleep 



or struggling nightmare with a doleful noise, portending 
certain death to Hodge, or Joan, or some one else ; and this 
prediction was always fulfilled to the letter, for in the course 
of the next twelve months some one was sure to die in that 
county or the next. The flesh of the prophet, however, 
was very good, provided his skin was stripped off before 
cooking, thai il might not impart a muddy odor and taste. 

Thus it will be seen that our bird was a strange compound 
of good and evil, besides having some magical properties 

which has" changed everything for good or ill has had its 
effect upon the bittern. He can no longer preserve our 
■teeth, nor can he cast a murrain upon our cattle, nor even 
foretell somebody's death; even his magical light is gone, 

good nor ill, and asking only to be let alone. As to the 
bitterns of less civilized countries, their manners and dis- 
appear not to differ much from the American and European 
species, except that the lineated bittern of Cayenne is said 
by Latham to be capable of domestication, and to be then an 

The bitterns are all much mottled in plumage, and may 
be divided by this mottling into three groups, viz. : First, 

The Riyed Bitterns, in which the mottling takes the form of 

are the Botaurus stdlaris («. c, the starry) of Europe and 
Africa; B. lentirjinosus (i. e., the freckled) of North Amer- 
ica, and B. pceciloptila (variegated feather) of Australia; this 
last is now thought to be identical with B. Austral is. Sec- 
ond, the Spotted Bitterns, such as Ti'jrisoma ti'jrina (tiger- 
bodied, tiger-like) of Cayenne, and the Javan B. Umnqphi- 
laz (pool-guard, a name which reminds one of Hood's hues: 



Third, the Pencilled Bitterns, such as Ti\/nxoi,w nidonoh- 
pha (black necked) of Ceylon and Burmah, and probably 
of the Malay peninsula; Zebr/'/us uitdtdatu* (wavy) of Gui- 

black, thickly and delicately pencilled with white and rufous; 
primaries, dark slate ; crown, clear bright, and nape clear 
dark rufous. In front alone does the bird resemble our own, 
and even there the colors are brighter and more clearly de- 
No part of ornithological research is more fascinating than 
the study of feathers ; the more we examine them the more 
we must be lost in admiration of their beauty. I have never 
seen more beautiful feathers than those of the American 
Bittern. The ones I am at present examining, though they 
have been plucked from the bird more than a year, retain 
a beautiful gloss, hardly inferior to that they More in life. 
Both webs of the primaries, and the anterior one of the 
secondaries, have a lovely bloom of a most delicate ashy 
blue. There is a very regular gradation in texture, colora- 
tion, position of the shaft in the vane, and in most particu- 
lars of shape, from the first primary to the last tertial, the 
former being very dense, strong, of a clear unflecked slaty 

angled, with the shaft very near the anterior edge ; the latter 
very loose in texture, so weak that a mere touch serves 
to tear its fibres apart ; in color slaty brown, most finely 
marked with wavy lines of rusty brown, and not only very 
downy three-fourths of the distance to the tip, but furnished 
with a very soft accessory plume, three inches long and two 
wide: the tip widely rounded, and the shaft at the very 
centre. Besides these differences, there is also observable 
a certain indefinite youthfulness, if I may so express it, of 
color, which distinguishes the tertials from the secondaries; 
and the seei>ndari»-» again have an immature, diffident ap- 
pearance of texture, as compared with the primaries. No 



words can ex[iiv>> the extreme delicacy and downy softness 
of some of the body feathers, particularly those of the lower 
part of the breast,' one of which now before me measures 
a T \ inches in length, and 3-^ in breadth. Our species, like 
the European, has a black-lead colored patch on the sides of 
its neck, the feathers of which are very unlike common ones, 
being little more than shafts with parallel hairs arranged 
along their sides. 

I have given no close descriptions of the various species, 
because, though such may serve to identify a bird in the 
hand, they seldom give any vivid idea of an unseen one in 
the bush. As to size I may remark that B. JBraziliemis 
is the largest species, and Zebi-ilu* umhilatiix the smallest, 
standing less than half as high as our bird. 

There is a series of small waders found, one or more spe- 
cies in every country, called "small bittern," "least bittern," 
etc., which I leave out, because I believe they are much 
nearer the herons, for the following reasons : The bitterns 
are all thickly mottled ; the herons are colored in spaces of 
clear color, — so are most of the "little bitterns." The char- 
acteristic color of the bitterns is brown of different shades ; 
<»f the herons, different shades of ash, — as is the case with 
most of the "little bitterns." The bittern's feathers stand 
out so that the bird, particularly about the neck, looks thick 
and even clumsy ; the heron's feathers are so arranged as to 
give an elegant look to the wearer of them,— so are the "little 
bittern's." The bittern's egg is of the color I have said ; the 

heron's is of a clear, li-lit oreen, so is the "little bittern's." 

In fact the night-herons bear a much greater resemblance to 
the bitterns than do the small series we have been 



would say tha 



■ndeavored to 



make this article correct throughout, but that it is very likely 
that it has its error, and omU< ions. I shall be glad to have 
the former corrected, and the latter supplied. 



Till". .Ml I.K DKKU. 



The Mule Deer* (Plate 3) was first mentioned by Lewis 
and (lark in the report of their journey up the Missouri 
River. They gave it the name of Mule Deer on account of 
the length of its ears ; the length of the ear, however, varies 
with individuals. I have one head which I procured on the 
Upper Missouri, the ears of which measure nine inches from 
tin* head, and one from the Platte with ears only seven inches 
in length; these measurements are from adult males. The 
description of Mr. Say gives ten inches. Mr. Say first de- 
scribed it and gave it the name of Gervus macrotis. 

This deer is much coarser and less graceful than the Cer- 
vus Virginianus; its limbs arc thicker and longer, although 

mon deer found in the Adirondack Mountains. 

The color in summer is a dull grayish brown, and in win- 
ter a silvery gray on the body, a line of black on the back 
and on the breast between the fore legs ; the legs are a bright 
brownish yellow, the upper part of the inside white. The 
forehead is covered with dark brown hair extending down to 
a line a little below the eyes. The upper lip and chin are 
white ; there is a band of dark brown running into black, 

black band is not so well defined on the lower jaw as in the 
common deer. The inside of the thighs up to the tail is 
white ; there is also a slight indication of white under the 
neck. The belly is a yellowish brown, almost as bright as 



THE MULE DEER. 

the color on the legs. The tail is seven 
round, and covered with short white hair, 
pointer dog: the extreme tip, for about a 
hair of about two inches in length. The t 

The metatarsal gland (whicn in the com 
an inch long) is six inches 
two inches in length. The ears have a line of brownish 
black on the edge, and are lined with long whitish hair. The 
horns spread wider, some measuring twenty-four inches be- 
tween the tips in front, but otherwise have the general form 
of those of the common deer, but the points are bifurcated ; 
and sometimes have as many as three and four branches. 
The hoofs are black, and not so sharp or pointed as the com- 
mon deer, resembling more in form- the hoofs of the Wapiti. 

This description is made from specimens in my possession 
and from those that I have seen on the Plains, and differs 
somewhat from that of Prof. Baird. I am inclined to think 
that his description of the hoof was made from a specimen 
that had become dry and contracted at the base, or else of a 
young animal. 

This deer is found from the north of New Mexico to the 
Saskatchewan, and from the Missouri to the Cascade Moun- 
tains. Its flesh is very fine eating, esteemed by many supe- 
rior to that of the common deer. 



Height at shouk 
Girth behind sho 
Length of fore 1 
Length of hind 1 



gland, • • • 

Length of fore hoof, 

" hind hoof, 

Greatest width of for 


e hoof, 



THE NATURAI 


>isr IX C 


ALIFORNIA. 


Angelas Plains.— 


In Decern! 


jer, 1860, I f 


Los Angelos, uncle 


r orders to 


report at Foi 


!o Valley, as soon i 


«s practical. 


le. I thereto 



supplies to the Fort, mounted on a mule, and well supplied 
with material for collecting in that little known region. 

The southern part of California, even near the coast, was 
still brown and barren looking from the effects of the long 
dry season, although some rain had fallen t 1 th past 

There is very little tree growth except along the streams, 
and most of 'these sink in" the dry season before reaching the 
sea, so that the nearly level plain bordering the coast for a 

garb „f the „„m l.eautiml -r^m varied n ith' myriad, of 
pretty flowers. Already the "lower grounds along the river 
bed are commencing to revive, and flocks of geese (Anser 
hi/prrbnreus and Bernida Gambelii) begin to enliven the 
scene; the Kill-deer (^EgiuUtis roci/em*) . a constant resi- 
dent where water is permanent, and occasionally flocks of 
other waders are seen. 

But the route leads away from the haunts of these semi- 

Cajon IV., and although animals of all kinds are |e^ abun- 
dant there now than in the moist spots, they are more dis- 
tinct from those of the Atlantic States. Ground Squirrels 

every little elevation, and the - -. which do 

not hibernate here, may be seen running in all directions or 
sitting erect near tic vine; a very near ap- 



enemy. But occasionally a Squirrel Hawk (Archibuteo ferru- 
gineus) is seen sitting on the ground devouring one of these 
audacious burrowers. The White-headed Eagle and various 
smaller hawks, are also on the watch for these and any other 
small animals they can catch, such as Gophers (Thomomys 
umbrinus), Jumping-mice (Dipodomys agilis and Perogna- 
thus parvus), Wood-mice (Hesperomys Sonoriensis) , Hares 
{Lepus Californicus and Audubonii) , besides such birds as 
fall in their way. 

About the gardens are the omnipresent House Finch ( Oar- 
podacus frontalis), the Black Pewee {Sayomis nigricans), 
Raven and Western Crow (Corvus carnivorus and caurinus). 
The Western Flieker ( Colaptss Mexicanus) was the only one 
of its tribe observed in this nearly woodless plain. Largo 
flocks of Gambol's Finch (Zoxotrichia Gambelii), and other 
species, flitted among the hedges, while the Golden-crowned 
Wren and Audubon's Warbler wore the only insectivorous 
species that could glean a subsistance at this season among 
the dry willows. The Song Sparrow ( .\[<d<>*piza Heermannii) 
hke its eastern representative enlivens the early morning 
witU a » occasional song, while the Rock Wren {Salpinctes 
obsoletus) and Cactus Wren (Campylorhynchus brunneica- 
pillus) chirrup loudly from the tiled roof or dense thickets. 
Flocks of Quails (Lophorty.c Caiifvrnicas) become common 
as we get farther from the town, and the little Burrowing 
Owl (Athene cunicuTaria) is often seen sitting sleepily at 
the mou th of an old squirrel burrow. Meadow Larks and 
Horned Larks, us well as the little Pipit, are so numerous 
111 P^ces on the bare plains as to almost darken the air when 
the y %, and the curious Mountain Plover (Podasocys mon- 
ta «w.s) run in scattered flocks over the driest tracts, or wheel 
ln swift columns around the sportsman, their white under- 



hasty journey 



J-O-l THE XATUUALIVl IN CALIFORNIA. 

season, but nothing very peculiar to this part of the State 
occurred. Two tine specimens of the Red-tailed Black Hawk 
(Buleo calurus) would not allow of a very near approach, 
and the first specimen collected was a Cassin's Kingbird 
( Tyra units vociferans) , which I could scarcely believe a win- 
ter resident, although J have since found it to be so, even as 
far north as Santa Cruz, while its closely allied relative, the 
T. verticalis, leaves the State entirely in winter. 

Approaching the mountains at Cajon Pass, extensive thick- 
ets of shrubbery, with occasional low trees, give promise of 
a new and more varied fauna in the spring, but at this sea- 
son few animals were seen besides those mentioned. A 
CoA'ote ( Cants latrans) dogged our steps in hopes of some 
scraps to be left at camp, and at night the dismal barking 
howl of these animals was our constant serenade. Nests of 
the Wood-rat {JSTeotoma Mexicana) were common, consist- 
ing of twigs, bark, etc., piled up three or four feet high 
among the bushes. 

Hares became so numerous that I saw more than twenty 
during the day while riding along the road, and a new bird 
appeared in pairs, or small families, running on the ground 
with much the appearance of Snow-birds. This was Bell's 
Finch ( Poospiza Bellii), one of the more southern group. I 
also shot a black-tailed Gnat Catcher {PolioptiJa melanura), 
the most peculiar of the three allied species found in this 
State, which was hopping among the low bushes, scolding 
like a wren. 

The weather here was warm and pleasant by day, but 

for mollusca, though several fine snails arc found on the 
neighboring mountains where limestone abounds. As I am, 
however, only giving my observations on that particular 
journey, I omit for the present to mention these and many 
higher animals, which I have since found to be inhabitants 

Large groups of Live Oak (Quercus agrifolia), seen at a 



IN CALIFOKXL 



observed along the route traversed. 

Cajon Pass—The pass is entered quite abruptly from the 
plains by a picturesque canon, usually narrow and rocky, 
through which Hows a dashing mountain stream, clear and 
fold, but not observed to contain fish. Along its banks 
grow Live Oaks, Buttonwoods {PTatanus Mexicanus), and 
various Willows, while a few Pines (Pinus Sabiniana?), Firs 
(Abies Douglassii) and Nut Pines (P. monophyUus) strag- 
gle down from the neighboring mountains. The slopes of 
the nearest mountains are, however, covered chiefly with 
low shrubs. Among these the loud ringing trill of the Wren 
Titmouse (Chamcea fasciata) was the chief bird-music at 
this season. Other birds observed Avere a nock of Pigeons 
(Columba fasciata?), Lawrence's Goldfinch (Chnjsomityis 
Lawrencii), and the Western Bluebird (Sialia Mexicana), 
none of which frequent the bare plains below. Just below 
the summit, where we camped December 7th, I shot the first 
seen of the Shining Flycatcher (Phainopepla nitens), a spe- 

attract attention from its habit of flying upward from a bush 
n. great height, in a zigzag manner, in pursuit of insects, 
somewhat like Pewees, which it much resembles otherwise. 
I have heard of the Mountain Quail {Oreorhjx pktus) as oc- 
curring in this spot. The Pass being only about 4000 feet 

treeless, does not offer so good a field for a collector as 
*ould be the San Bernardino ran-e, which rises over 8600 



-December 8th, is an index of the greatest cold ever ex- 
erienced here, though the summits of the highest mouu- 
toa in sight are often white in patches the entire summer. 

As we are now about to enter on a new natural region, 



that o 


f the in 


erior 


deserts, 


I m 


v a 


we] 


digres 


s a 


little 






)f tra 








te o 






inials 


I l.av 


• obsen 


,1 w 


«st of t 


lis n 


i-o. 


and 


north « 


f la 




34° 3 


)', a reg 


on w 


lich I ha 


ve c; 


ll.-d 


the 


"South 


■rn 


•oast- 


slope" 


of California 


extend 


HIT IK 


rth- 


>ast 


nd soul 


h-wi 


st for 


about 


one hundred 


and fo 


rty m 


les. 


and 


fifty ii 


br( 


adth. 


Besid 


s the n 


lammalia mei 


tioned, t 


e ( 


>ast F( 


x(l 


'ulpes 


littoralis) , if r 


eally 


distinct 


from 


the 


Gra 


y, does 


not 


oeeur 


norths 


yard. I 


>eer 


[Cervua 


Ook 


lUhh 


nus 


and C 


. M 




nus?) 


are not 


unc 


mmon. 


and 




am 


11 felin 




inials 


( F< /;. 


eyra?) 


vith 


ong tail 


, are 


-aid 


to CM 


cur. T 


he. 


iguar 


( /•'. , 


U-iOhto 


1)0011 


reported, but 


all 


othe 


manin 


ala t 


xeept 



Skunks {Mephitis occuU-ntu/is and M. hh-olor) are rare. 

The Couguar (Felis concolor), Grizzly Bear (Ursus hori- 
bilis), Raccoon (Procyon Hernandezii) , Badger (Ta.rklea 
Anwnanu,), Wild C.ii ( L'/n.c m/n, h lir;,v > (J uirrel (Sciu- 

tain Sheep (O /. I >,,„„, occur mor, oi h ~ dumdanth 

them are limited to particular spots, and are mm 

The most peculiar birds not yet mentioned are the Con- 
traband Hawk (Buteo zonocerais), which I found but once 
near San Diego, in February; the Rock Swift (Punyptiki 
melanoleuca) , a few of which breed in some cliffs near the 
same place; the Texan Xighthawk (Cftordeiles Tezentts), a 
summer visitor, the Little Vireo( \ln-u f n>.si/h>s) and Hooded 
Oriole {Idem* cucuflatus). also migratory: the Long-tailed 
Mocking-bird (Mimus caudattis) and Long-billed Sparrow 
(Ammodromus rostratus) , the latter confined to the seashore. 
These, as well as the White-bellied \uk (Urnrkyramphus hy- 
poleucus) , have not been found farther north, though the land 
species mostly occur farther east. Altogether I have noticed 
forty-eight species of mammals, and two hundred and forty- 
eight of birds, in this region. Of the birds thirty-two are 
summer ; . ihe rest resident. 



Ihlhwlli 



Hock Swifts flew 
i»g notes ; the Vi 
trees; the Mocki 



and broke the eggs before I saw it. Brilliant flowers 
abounded, and though the dry season was commencing in 
the plains, the mountains were so inviting that I much re- 
gretted my inability to spend a month or two there before 
going to the military post at San Diego. 

The Desert. — The whole country between the mountains 
and the Colorado Valley may be called desert, although only 

"laps, being nearly level and almost as barren of vegetation 
as the sea-beach. The route to Fort Mojave passes over an 

of the San Fr:mi-i<-.. .Mnuntai.K.'wheiv it rises over 5000 

lm e flats, sand-hills <„• bare rocks, while the higher support 

to? w) and Xut-pincs ( . oV er a few of the highest points, while 

groves. Many spe.-i< s „f ( Vt-uva_>. and other desert plants, 
for m the m, takon elsewhere. 



188 THE NATURALIST IN CALIFORNIA. 

abound, and those found ;uv chietly stragglers from more 
favored tracts, but still there are some of much interest. De- 
scending the eastern slope we find Harris's Squirrel (Sper- 
mophihi* Ilan-Ull) scarce at 'this cold season, but common 
on our return in June. This little animal has much the ap- 
pearance and habits of Tamias, but is nearly white. I saw 
also tracks of the Sage Fowl (Centrocercus urqphasiamts) 

it lives, and have seen a specimen killed near here. 

The only peculiar bird known is Leeonte's Mock-thrush 
(Tfu-porl^nchus Lecontei), which is also of a pale -ravish 
brown, like a faded specimen of the coast species (//. redi- 
vivus), but is admirably colored for concealment anion- the 
thorny bushes growing on the sand-hills it inhabits. Both 
of these animals having dark colored representatives in less 

explained by the influence of the climate and country they 
The road for nearly one hundred miles eastward follows 



common California.! birds were rather fre.pient here, but 1 
found none of interest at that season. On returning in June 
I found here the Purple-throat Humming Bird, the Little 
Vireo, and various other summer species. Fresh water 
shells of the genera L'jmii^j. P/;>/*a and Planorbis occurred, 
also two species of Succinea, in the more elevated cool parts 
of the valley. 

It is in the class of reptiles, and especially lizard-, that 
the fauna of the desert excels. Although none were visible 
in December, and I had not time to collect many on my re- 
turn in June, I have ascertained that sev. 



been obtained chiefly in this region by various naturalists. 
principally those of the Mexican Jionudury and Pad tic Pail- 
mad Surveys. One which they seem to have overlooked, 
although the most remarkable, perhaps,' because inhabiting 
such a desert region, 1 described, after my return, as Agas- 
siz*s Land-tortoise (Xerobates Agassizii). In size it is 
about equal to the species of the Gulf Coast, but differs in 
color and other particulars. The Indians hunt for them on 
the mountains among cacti and other fleshy-leaved plants, 
on which they probably feed, rarely or never descending to 
the valleys. A Water-turtle (Actinemt/s maruwrata) also 
lives in the Mojave River. One small Cyprinoid fish (^1?- 
ganseajbrmom) has been found by Dr. Heermaun in this 

Towards the sink, or "Soda Lake," which rarely contains 
water, the sand becomes very dry and almost hare ot vege- 
tation. A few trees {Ohilopsis linearis) of small size grow 
there, and among them I saw a flock of the Arctic Bluebird 
{Sialia arctica). The only other bird of interest seen east 
of this was the pretty Black-throated Finch {Poospiza bilin- 
eata), which is pretty common in the shrubby tracts. 



HINTS ON TAXIDERMY. 



The method of collects 



sprinkle the spots with dust, sand, powdered chalk, or any 
other similar substances. These precautions being observed, 
all stains caused by blood or internal secretions will be pre- 



»m. The parcel 
space tilled with 









f the bill to the end of the 

total length of the bill, r 
. on the forehead, following 
the tip, or from the ang 



HINTS ON TAXIDERMY. 191 

the mouth in a straight line to the tip ; the length of the tail 
fathers from the extremity to their insertion in the coccyx, 
together with their number; the length of the tarsus, from 
the centre of the metatarsal and tarsal joints ; length of toes; 
length and general character of the nails; the distance be- 
tween the tips of the wino-swhen spread out to their full 



turn of skinning has Inn, completed, by making ai, incision 
in the side, near the vertebne, and exposing the inner surface 
<>f the 'small of the back.' The generative organs will be 
fou,ia ^ly bound to this resriou (nearly opposite to the 
l«*t ribs). and separating it from the intestines. The testicles 
of the male are two spheroidal or ellipsoidal whitish bodies, 
trying from the size of a pin head to that of a hazel-nut, ac- 
'■';i-ding to the season. The ovaries of the female, consisting 

s »n. will be found i u the same region."* All of the above 
"tatemeuts should be plainly written upon slips of parchment 
,,r pasteboard, with ink, and attached to the corresponding 
specimen, or recorded in a blank book, with a number cor- 

^Vhen practicable, nests and eir«rs should be preserved 
with the birds to which they belong, and all information 
eo iwerning dates and places where they were found. Draw- 
"igs of specimens will also be useful, both in mounting and 
as a source of reference. Many may consider the above 

'/H'ortam.,. ,'„, If'^hl T\^ ', ' 'r'n. ill observed and prae- 
tl ^d, the value of the collection will* be greatly enhanced, 



collector should bo provided with a li-ht double- 
■d ffU .,, the best of powder, and shot of various 
So. 10 being used for killing small birds, as it is 
ijurious to the pluimge. Hu 11 <* I 1 I should be 

the best periods of the day for procuring birds. If 

'. It is also the time when the birds are seen and 

llyso tame, that they can be easily approached and 
ttle skill ; a sufficient number can be killed in the 
>f two or three hours, to occupy the collector during 
nainder of the day. It is- a S ood rule never to kill 
pevimens than can be preserved durim, the day. In 
>:irts of tropical America. ILummiicr IVirds, Creeper>, 
her small birds are shot with blow-pipes by the na- 



ect 


knowl 


edge oi 


: the 


whe 


n the 


operatic 


,n is 


poi 


-sible a 


ud free 


from 


nice: 


to mo 
I or mu 


nut a 


si 




Inch it 


may be 


Q6C- 






these si 


K.uld 


h- 




s better 


than 



should always he taken no 

Before proceeding to work, provide yourself with a 
of Indian-meal, cotton, needle and thread, scalpel and 
servative. In the first place examine the bird, and if 
>pots of blood be discovered, sprinkle them with Inc 
'»eal, and rub it back and forth with the fingers, suppl, 
fresh meal from time to time ; this will remove it entii 
If the blood be dry, apply a little warm water with a spo 
and wash the spot gently. In this manner I have cle: 



HllL 


• A pic 


ce of small but strong t 


wine should now be 


pa> 


M'd from 


one nostril through the 


other on the opposite 


>id 


, and bri 


iging the ends downward 


tie them beneath the 


hm 


er mandil 


le, leaving them a little 


onger than the neck 


of 


he bird. 


This will aid the operat 


or in turning the head 


bac 


* to its 


latural position after the 


operation of skinning 


lias 


been tiiii 


hed. Now take an aecur 


ite measurement from 


the 


tip of tht 


bill to the end of the tail; also the girth of 


the 


body bel 


hid the wings. The bird 


is then ready for the 




ration. ] 


Pacini? it upon its back w 


th the tail turned to- 


wa 


ds your 


igbt hand, with the left 


separate the feathers 


bo 


n the Iom 


er extremity of the brea 


tbone. quite down to 


the 


vent, lav 


ng them to the right an 


d left so that the skin 


Dei 


eatb is vi 


ible. Place the scalpel 


upon the lower tip of 


!- u ' 


breast boi 


e and cut the skin from this point in a straight 


111!. 


to the v 


ent, taking cave not to S€ 


ver the thin muscular 




ue which 




mid this have become 


acc 


dentally 


cut. tberelty exposing t 


10 intestines, remove 


the 


■» at once 


that they may not soil tl 


e feathers. The skin 


lilii 


t now be 


separated from the flesh 


on either side of the 


IDC 


sion in- , 


assing the flat portion of the scalpel handle be- 



rAXIDERMY. 

It will be found that son 
nidi closer to the flesh tha 
meats; these must be severe 

i, and the thigh laid bare, tt 



suspended by 


neans 


of a larire 


risk-hook 


with the 


hail 


tiled 


off, and attad 


ed to 


a strong 


cord, whi 


L-h will a 


d gi 


eatly 


in removing t 


ie re t 


lainiiur pai 


t of the 


kin ; but 


if it 


is a 


small one, it g 


hould 


be placed 


upright u 


pon its bi 


■ast. 


with 


the head lyin 


g bacl 


ward. In 


this posi 


ion the s 


.ill s 


iould 


be removed fr 


urn the 


back and 




using th 


' bae 


k of 


the scalpel a 


5 stated before, 


mtil the 


wings are re 


ched 




es. 1 


hose are t 


o be seve 


red from 


the 


body 


at the should 


r-join 


. It Will 


be found 


to be m 


ieh 


asier 


to unjoint th 




cutting b 


•neath in 


,tead of 


ibov 


the 


joint. The n 


>ck hi 


ving been 


reached. 


must be t 


irne 


1 out 


until the back 


part » 


f the skull 


is laid 1 


ire. Ha 


■ing 


separ 


rated the cervical 


vertebra, o 


r the vei 


tebne of 


the 


leek, 


close to the 1m 


ad, re 


move the e 


ir bv separating th 


tbii 


skin 


by which it i 


bom 


d to the e 


ar-socket, 


beimr en 


jtioi 


s not 


to injure it 


iv tea 


inn or eu 


ting. K 


r close e> 


ami] 


at ion 


it will be seei 


that 


the eyelid 


is bound 


to the edge < 


r the 


socket by a t 


lill Sk 


n : this si 


ould be 






ered, 


thereby freei 


Ig til. 


lid from 


its attachments. 


The 


eyea 



[Y. 195 

blade of the scalpel 

lors contained within 
jugh the eyelids, soil 
•ut away the tongue, 
unlihio ami upon the 



.large 
,'nhout 



the hack of the head, large enough to permit the passage of 
the skull, and this should then be cleaned in the same mau- 
1H 'i' as stated above. Ducks, woodpecker-, flamingoes, ma- 
caws, etc., come under this rule. After the preservative 
has been applied to every part, and the cavitie of the brain 
and eye filled with cotton, restore it to position, being care- 
fid to sew up the incision neatly. The wings should next 
tur «ed out, exposing two joints. The humerus may then be 

Places. This, I think, should be a rule in preparing dried 
sk "is, as the wings retain their position better ; but when 
a skin is to be mounted at once, I remove the humerus, and 
^en find it much easier to set them. It is also a practice 



pli. 


d with the sifter; but if not, 


use the a 


senieal 


soap, 




use it can the 


n be softened in 


re readily 






for 


nounting, Fi 




and cavit 


r of the 


skull 


wit 


cotton. Rest 


ore the leg and 


wing bone 


s to po 


it ion. 


To 


iccomplish the 


latter, take hole 


of the tip 




. and 


pul 


ng them from each other, tl 


ev will ea 


<ily slq 


into 


phu 


e." In turning the head hark 


, take hold 


of the 






•h is fastened t 


o the bill, pullii 


g it gently 


and stc 


idily, 


Will 


dug with the fingers when nee 


■ssarv. taki 




care 


not 


to stretch or 


tear the skin o 


the' neck. 


Smoo 


h the 


teat 


lers upon the 


various parts of 


the skin, a 


nd the 




mei 


is ready for u 


ounting. 








The method of mounting a bird. 


-Having fi 


rnished 


your- 


self 


with tow, cott 


ou, needle and tl 


read, anne 


ded iro 


wire 


of ; 


size proporti 


onate to that of 


the bird to 


be mo 


nted, 


and 


the necessary 


instruments, incl 


uding the 1 


rge and 


small 


ton 


eps, tile, pince 


rs, wire cutters, 


scissors, et 


i 1 ., proe 


ed to 


cut 


fine a quantity 


of tow sufficient 


to till the 


neck. 


With 


the 


long forceps se 


izc a small bunci 


of this an 


1 insert 


it op 


Urn 
tak 


;:££: 


th the lower nn 


der the bill 

ndible dow 


; in thie 

i to the 
o place 


fr 


eve 


lly. Next cut 


three pieces of 


wire; one 


a third 


onge* 


thai 


the total leng 


h of the body, f 


>r the mai 


l suppo 


t. the 


oth( 


r two three in 


hes longer than 


the united 


length 


)f the 


tara 


is and fibula, 


for the leg sui 


ports; also 


four s 


nailer 


Olir' 


five inches in 


length, for setti 


ig the wing 


s and w 


□ding 


pur 


)Oses. Sharpe 


n each of these 


with the 


tile to 


x fine 


poil 


t. Take the 


longest piece and bend in 


it three 


>H):ill 


rim. 


s, the distance 


between the two 


outer one 


representing 


the 


length of the 


carcass of the bird, leaving 


one Ion 


j- ami 


one 


short end, in 


the same manne 


as reeomn 


ended i 


stuf- 


fing 


small quadru 


)eds. Tow sho 


ild be woi 


id aboi 


t the 



of the body. This beiim- romph-red. plare the longest pro- 
jecting i-nd within the skiu at the base of the neck stuffing- 



HINTS ON TAXIDERMY. 1!'< 

lead of the bird in the left hand, letting 



•loin- yen may displace the stuffing, but rather twirl the 
wire between 'the thumb and fmvlin-er, when it will be 
found to penetrate easily. The skin must then be drawn 
over the artificial body, and the leg wires placed in position. 

of the foot, and forcing it up" through the tar- Fi - 3T * 
sin. between the skin and the bone, until the gk V/ 
l'oiut has reached the first joint. The leg bones X^V \j 

*ill appear as in Fig. :J7 .v,'")r! ' It should then jj\ jj \* 

semble the form of the flesh, which has been removed, and 
1,( 'und about with thread to prevent it from slipping (Fig. 
3'B,Z). The whole may then be turned back into its proper 
Place. Now hold the protruding point against the side of 

and force the wire through transversely, until it appears upon 

Miliar lmld () f the protrudin..- wire at the sole of the foot. and 
filing it towards yourself, "the hook will be lirmly fastened 
Illtf) the body. The incision should now be closed up, by 

lotion with common pins; with ducks and larger birds it 
K necessary to sew up the lips of the incision. The legs are 
*** brought towards each other, bending the wires close to 
the body until thev are parallel. The joint of the fibula and 
fcll ' s ^ should also be imitated. The bird is now ready to 
l i]:lw upon a pedestal. All perchimr and climbing species 
s "oukl be mounted upon stands formed like the letter T ; the 



€\ 



<^y%K i '" si,i "" ,,s when 
fT ^ ) ::-:t;:v;i:: 









HINTS ON TAXIDERMY. lii 

ed each in its proper place by means of the small fo: 
i. If the eyes are not sufficiently plump a little cottc 
be inserted through the eyelids, with a small quantit 
nitty, by which the glass eyes will be more firmly fixet 
latter operation should receive much care, the eye shoul 
J its natural fulness, and the eyelids should be we 
ided. The bird should then be bound with threa< 
ad about the various protruding wires. This operatic 
me to keep the feathers in place until they are tirml 
1. A bird should not be allowed to dry too quickly, i 
skin is then liable to shrink, but it should be piace 



Taxidermist 


.as; 


genert 


1 thing 


are apt to overstuff 


specimens, ant 


the 


beginn 


?r sho 


ild strive to avoid 


There are sev 


ral i 


ttitudes 


assun 


ed by birds in the 1 


state, which ca 




•opied with ad 


vantage. To repres 


kwi in the n } 
fil r as possible, 


Lng | 




its wi 


, u > should be extend 


the t 


Ml pla. 


m1 hori 


,ontal and well expai 


^e neck stret 


bed 


orward 


and tl 


e legs drawn up cl( 


** breast, with the 




sed. 




W means of j 


oim. 


1 wire> 


insert 


;d from the inside o 


1)c %, up throt 


gh t! 




bene; 


th the skin, as far a 


C:u 'pus, or fore 


arm 


The 


wire l 


an also be inserted 


^e outside ne 
the wi„g betwc 


r the 


joint o 


• the c 


rpus, and he forced c 


en the ski 


Uld th 


. hone, and thence t 


^Psely throng 


i the 


artirici 


d bod. 


, into which it is fast 


lj v means of a 


look 


Thes 


' wire* 


should be inserted b 


the leg wi 


ire p 


aced i 




on, and boo 


ar tificial body, 


as ii 


the former c 


ise. An i. 



tudc is when a bird is about to take flight. In this position 
the body should incline forward, and the wings be slightly 
raised ; this can be accomplished by means of external wires 

To express this, the one foot must be stretched forward and 
the other drawn up near the body, and considerably bent. 
The body must be thrown to one side, with the wing on that 
side much elevated and spread out, while the other is placed 
lower and less diffuse; the tail must be expanded, thrown 
down at the point, and much arched ? the neck should he 
stretched upward, and the head inclined towards the foot, 
which is drawn up ; the eyelid should also be well rounded. 
The eagle can be placed in the position of seizing its prey, 
with wings and tail expanded, head thrown backward and 
erest erect, gazing upward. The vulture should have droop- 
ing wings to portray it- sluggish habits. Such descriptions 
are endless, and indeed needless to a student of nature in 

Remarks vpon preparing, relaxing, and mounting dried 
skins.— The bird should be skinned in the ordinary manner, 
Leaving all the bones of wings in their places, and the skin 
thoroughly anointed with arsenical soap. The neck should 
then be stuffed with chopped tow or cotton to its natural 
dimensions. The upper points of the humeri should be 
tied together at a distance from each other equal to that of 
the same when tixed in their sockets, otherwise the distance 
between the shoulder joints. The skin should next be tilled 

turned inwards, crossed, and tied in this position, with ^ 
label atta< lied containing descriptions. 

One of the most efficacious methods of relaxing dried 
skins, is that employed by the ingenious .Mr. Bullock. A 
box is made of convenient" size, the top of which is free to 
he sides, top 



HINTS ON TAXIDEKMT. 201 

Paris, two or three inches thick. When any skins are to be 
relaxed, till the box with water, and in this condition allow 
it to stand over night; in tin 1 morning any water i- 
can be poured off, and the skins placed within. The lid of 
the box, being grooved, wall shut close, and the wooden sides 
will prevent evaporation from going on. The box should be 
>et in some damp situation. In twenty-four or forty-eight 
hours the skins will be sufficiently soft and pliant for mount- 
ing. It is necessary before placing the -kins within the box, 
to render the feet and the bill pliable, that these parts should 
be enclosed in dampened rags or tow. Before moistening, 
the I.ody should be opened and the inside stuffing taken out 
with the forceps. Another method is to till the skin (the 
former stuffing having been previously removed) with cot- 
ton or rags saturated with water, enveloping it with a damp 
cloth, having wrapped the bill and feet as above stated. The 
former is preferable, as the latter does not relax all the parts 
equally. In some cases, however, especially with those of 
T '' ! aquatic families, it is necessary to prepare them after the 
Itttei plan, and in this condition to place them in the box 
described above. 

The general method pursued in mounting dried skins is 
the same as that practiced upon fresh specimens. Difficulty 
is often experience.] in placing the leg wires in position from 
the dry and shrivelled condition of the tarsi: this maybe 
overcome by perforating them with the awl used for that 
Purpose (recommended in the former article upon niannna- 
Iiu ) previous to inserting the wires. With many of the skins 
of South American birds, prepared by the natives, a proper 
a, V)'i>tment of the wing- is found to be impossible. In this 
•»se it is necessary to cut them off close to the body, and fix 
tQ em anew. In replacing the wings the scapulars should be 
C;ll '^lly arranged to effectually conceal the joining of the 
wil »gs. Any feather disarranged in the operation should be 
Properly adjusted with the small forceps.— To he continued. 



A FISH FAR] 




The Fish-hatching establishment at West Barnstable was 
begun in the spring of 1868. The experiments have as yet 
been confined mostly to trout, of which we have hatched this 
year some 60 000, as well as 2000 salmon ova which wore 
procured in New Brunswick by the State Commissioners of 
Fisheries, by whom they were presented to us. As the pro- 
cess of hatching goes on during the transport of the eggs IB 
wet moss, we lost several by their hatching on the way in 



the 



the 



The place selected for building the ponds to contan 
parent trout, was a swampy piece of land at the head ot B 
brook of considerable size, running into the salt water after 
a course of a mile and a half or two miles, and containing ■ 
half dozen or more pure springs, the waters of which formed 



A FISH FAEM. 203 

the fountain head of the stream. Two ponds have thus far 
been made by excavation, each about forty feet long by 
twenty feet wide, and from three to four and a half feet 
deep. They are connected together, the same water being 
used for both ponds. The supply of water is about eighteen 
yi-M-e inches, and is taken from tanks made of plank, vary- 
ing in size from ten to fifteen feet in length, and from four 
to ten feet in breadth, sunk in the soft mud at the points 
where the springs came to the surface, and as deep as was 
necessary to reach the substratum of sand, which was gen- 
ially about five feet. These 'tanks have no bottom planks, 
and the water wells up through the sand at the bottom, form- 
ing reservoirs of living water of even temperature, summer 
and winter, and not subject to freshet or variation in quan- 
tity. The temperature of the springs varies but little from 
48° throughout the year. 

There are now about seven hundred parent trout in the 
two ponds, ranging from three-quarters of a pound to three 
Pounds in weight. It is calculated that the first pond will 
sustain over 2000 fish of the larger size, while in the second 
three times that number of smaller fish will thrive. This is 
lowing one large fish or three of the smaller size to the 
<-*ul>ic foot. 

They are fed daily with live minnows and shrimp caught 
011 the adjacent salt marshes, or, when they cannot be con- 
veniently obtained, with chopped liver, the roe of codfish, 
, ' tl • The ponds are stoned, and one of them which was 
j* 11 " ui low wet land, is cemented on each side of the stones. 
Having learned by former experience that trout will spawn 
in the pond, and the ova thus be lost if its bottom is sandy 
,; gravelly, we covered the bottom, where its nature seemed 
my ite the fish to this operation, with flat stones, thus 
obviating the difficulty so far as we have observed. Aquatic 
P la »ts, mosses, etc., were introduced and now cover the bot- 
tom , not ( >nly providing a large amount of food in the form 
0t cr »stacea, snails, etc., but also supplying to the water 



204 A FISH FARM. 

the necessary chemical elements which are being constantly 
exhausted by the respiration of the fish. 

The water enters each pond through a plank trough, the 
sides of which arc sunk nearly to the level of the ground. 
These troughs are fifty feet long and three and a half feet 
wide, and are filled to the depth of six inches with coarse 
gravel, over which there are six inches of water flowing with 
a slight current to the ponds. As it is the habit of the trout 
to seek shallow running streams to spawn, they eagerly re- 
sort to these spawning ways when ready, and are taken by 
closing the bottom of the way. and driving the fish into a 
bag net at its entrance into the pond. They are then re- 
moved in tubs of water to the hatching house, for the pur- 
pose of taking the ova from the female and impregnating 
them with the milt of the male fish. The modus operandi 
is as follows : The female fish is grasped with one hand by 
the back and shoulders, the vent being held under the sur- 
face of the water in a tin pan or other vessel partly tilled, 
while with the other hand the abdomen is gently rubbed op- 
pressed toward the vent. If the ova are mature and ready 
to be shed, a slight pressure is sufficient to extrude them. 
The same operation is then gone through with the male ; it 
his milt is mature, it will flow in a smalt quantity into the 
vessel. A few drops are sufficient to impregnate thousands 
of eggs. The milt and the ova are then gently stirred to- 
gether, and allowed to remain undisturbed for five or ten 
minutes. The water is then poured off, new water is gently 
admitted to wash the eggs, and they are ready to be placed 
in the hatching troughs. 

It may be as well to state here that the spawning time 
for trout is from October till M spawning 

months being November and December. It is generally caV- 
- culated x\. podnce 1000 

eggs ; the larger and smaller ones in the same general pro- 
portion. I have known, however, during the past season, a 
trout of less than half a pound in weight, to deliver 1000 
eggs by actual count. 



The first requisite now is a supply of pure sprint] water 
for hatching the eggs, — neither too warm nor too cold. 
From 45° to 50° is the best. Every degree warmer or 
colder will make from six to eiirhi d;iys diil't rciicc in the 
time of hatching. From 37° to 54° is considered the limit 
within which to hatch trout. By a calculation in Mr. Nou- 
ns' book ("American Fish Culture"), it will take one hun- 
dred and sixty-five days with water at 37°, and thirty-two 
days with water at 54°. 

The hatching house in the establishment we have spoken 
of is a wooden building twenty feet long by twelve feet 

Fig. 40. 




, —J which water is admitted about three fee 
the level of the floor, from springs immediately in t 
enclosed in sunken tanks as before described, and 
so as to be out of reach of cold or heat, To em 
water to be brought in at this height from the fl 
house is sunk three feet in the ground, and the bo: 
covered with a heavy coat of pitch inside and out, to 
above the level of the surrounding ground to preve 
rotting. The amount of water now used in the 1 
what will flow throiiLdi two faucets, one inch in di 



°t' the buil 

' 7 ').whi,h 



'» from whi 



206 A TISH FARM. 

The hatching troughs (Fig. 40, c) are placed at right an- 
gles to the others, and are sixteen feet long, fifteen inches 
wide, and eight inches deep, and are six in number with cov- 
ers upon hinges, the top of them being about fifteen inches 
from the floor. They are lined with slate, one-half of an 
inch thick, upon the sides and bottom, with transverse sub- 
divisions ; every two feet made of the same material and two 
inches in height. A fungus growth, very detrimental to the 
ova, is unavoidable when wood only is used. The bottom 
of the troughs is covered with about one inch of moder- 
ately line gravel, and over it flows a constant stream of 
screened spring water about an inch deep, the lower end 
of the trough being depressed two inches. On thU gravel 
the impregnated ova are placed in a single layer. In about 
three weeks the eyes can be seen in the impregnated eggs, 
appearing simply as two black specks; the blood-vessels of 
thf future fish may also be seen, and from this time its de- 
velopment may be traced daily in the shell. With the tem- 
perature of the water at 48°, we may look for the hatching 
of the ova from the forty-fifth to the fiftieth day. A trout 
just hatched is about three-eighths of an inch in length, and 
has attached to it an umbilical sac of several times its own 
bulk, which sustains the young fish for about forty days, 
when it is absorbed. The young fish may now be let out 
into the waters it is desired to stock. They will thrive if 
placed in a brook even at this early age, such waters sup- 
plying an abundance of minute particles of food. If reared 
in confinement, however, they must be fed with raw liver 
chopped to the consistency of blood and mixed with water, 
with the yolk of eggs grated very fine and treated in the 
same way, or thin sour curds. The latter food is perhaps 
the best as it sinks more slowly, and trout seize their food 
in transitu, paying little attention to it after it reaches the 
bottom. 

We have sought only to give guch a general description 
of a fish breeding establishment, and of the habits and treat- 



THE FRESH-WATER AQUARIUM. 207 



ment of the fish, as would give some idea of the practical 
parts of the art of pisciculture. There are many details con- 
nected with the subject which we have not touched upon. 
They can be found very thoroughly treated of in any of the 
modern works on pisciculture^of which Norris' "American 
Fish Culture" is the latest and most practical. 

In the above all general considerations have been avoided. 
It would, perhaps, have been as well to have stated that the 
arguments in favor of artificial hatching of eggs is based on 
the small proportion of them that are hatched when deposi- 
ted in a stream, by the fish following the course of nature, 
and the very large proportion when hatched by artificial 
arrangement. The many enemies of fish spawn (other fish, 
water insects, birds, rats, not to speak of sediment, fresh- 
ets, ice, etc., etc.) reduce the number of the eggs sadly. It 
has been calculated by English pisciculturalists that not one 
salmon reaches the proper size for the table out of every 
thousand eggs deposited in the stream. As the salmon 
migrates to the sea when weighing only a few ounces, it 
would, however, be more subject to casualty than the trout. 



THE FRESH-WATER AQUARIUM. 



*V*e have seen that the aquarium is to be distinguished 
from the common fish-globe by its self-supporting character. 
We have examined in a general way the philosophy of the 
a qnarium and concluded that the rectangular tauk was the 
most ^eful one to have. Let us now look for a situation 
. tae tank before the specimens are placed within it. It 
j S durable that the sun should shine upon the tank for at 
ast au hour during the day ; an eastern or southern aspect 



208 THE FRESH-WATER AQUARIUM. 

then is the best for this purpose. This is especially true in 
the winter time, while in summer a northern aspect would 
be preferred, as the water in the aquarium is apt to be over- 
heated by the sun during the hot months. One trouble 
which arises from too much sun is this : that the small green 
plants of conferva grow very rapidly upon the glass and 
stones, obstructing the view of the inside of the tank, and 
rendering the stones very hard to clean when taken out. 
These confervre do not injure the water at all ; they even 
give out oxygen as other plants, and it seems as if it were a 
provision of nature, that they should render the glass opaque 
so as to protect the inmates of the tank from injury. This 
conforvoid growth is not essential to the welfare of the tank 
if it is properly stocked with other plant-, and it is desira- 
ble to have as little as possible of it. To effect this, a wide 
screen, or a simple sheet of brown paper, so placed as to 
shut out the sunlight from the tank will answer the purpose ; 
ot by pulling the window shade down when the sun shines 
upon the tank; or, what is best, by placing a row of plants 
with full foliage between the tank and the window, we have 
other means of obviating the difficulty. 

Whether the sun shines upon the tank or not, a fresh-water 
aquarium should have all the daylight it can get, both for its 
own welfare and for our own convenience in examination. 
1 am convinced that this is correct from my own experience, 
although Mr. Hibberd, a good authority on aquarial matters, 
says, to the contrary : "A full flood of daylight is more harm 
than good, a frequency of sunshine destructive, and the ten- 
ants of an aquarium are seen to better advantage in a vessel 
lighted from above only." Before any specimens are intro- 
duced into the tank, it should be thoroughly washed out and 
the glass cleaned on all sides, as this is the only time When 
it can be done to advantage. We are sure then that no im- 
purity of any kind will thus far hinder the success of the 
aquarium. The tank then is ready for the rock-work. This 
rock-work is useful : first, as a shelter for the animals, some 



THE FRESH-WATER AQUARIUM. 209 

of them being averse to the light if it is strong ; second, as 
a means of concealing the sediment which, without doing 
any material injury, so mars the beauty of an aquarium; 
third, as a means tor anchoring in their proper place the 
plants we put in ; fourth, and lastly, to make the effect of 
the aquarium more like nature. 

It is generally thought that most water-plants, to do well 
in an aquarium, must have soil to grow in as well as land- 
plants, and that a layer of earth or sand must be spread over 
the bottom of the tank for the roots ; this is found by ex- 
perience to be a mistake. No earth nor sand is required 
for the plants which grow best in the aquarium. Either is 
very apt to spoil the water after remaining in contact with 
it a short time. Coarse sand is, to be sure, sometimes used 
when we have animals in the tank whose nature it is to bur- 
row, but even then only in a small quantity placed near a 
corner of the tank. Some of the small lilies grow better if 
they have a cubic inch of peat attached to their roots. This 
Wttlli quantity does not injure the water, however long it 
may remain in it, and is often very useful. In general, 
however, if the plants are placed right side up, among small 
stones about the size of a fresh pea, they will grow to any 
extent, seldom throwing out roots of any kind. 

We want, then, a layer of small stones on the bottom, 
ab °ut an inch in thickness ; this will be sufficient to bury the 
ends of the plants in, and to conceal all the sediment which 
ma y collect, at the same time giving depth enough for the 
mussels to burrow in. The stones used with tar for the tops 
of houses are about the right size for this layer, and on the 
to P of it some larger ..tones about the size o( an almond 
m ay be scattered here and there. As to the color of the 
^ones this may add greatly to the effect. If we can have 
the Patience to pick out for ourselves the white and varie- 
gated .tones from the beaches, we shall be amply repaid by 
Jheir appearance in water. White stones give a brighter 
lo<J k to the inside of the tank than dark-colored ones, and 

AMF.R. NATURALIST, VOL. III. 27 



210 THE FRESH- WATER AQUARIUM. 

they show oif the green plants much better ; but they also 
.show the green coufervoid growths growing upon them much 
sooner than dark stones, and are much harder to clean after 
they have once become green. This difficulty of cleaning 
can be remedied hy having two sets of stones, one being 
buried in damp sand while the other is in use. Were the 
beautiful stones of almost fabulous brilliancy which cover 
the San Mateo beach, near San Francisco, as common on our 
shores, we should have a famous groundwork for the aqua- 
rium. After the layer of small stones has been evenly 
spread upon the bottom of the tank, we may arrange the 
rock-work in the centre in the following way, which seems to 
be a good one, because by it we avoid using cement, which 
makes a tank look altogether too artificial, and we get a 
strong piece of work giving sufficient shelter to the animal-. 
and one that will not be likely to fall down and injure the 
glass of the tank. It consists, essentially, of a series of 
three stone bridges, the one above being smaller than the 
one below. If the tank is small one or two bridges may be 
all sufficient. We take then two or more pieces of stone, 
having very rough edges so as to look more natural, and 
place them about a foot apart if the tank will admit of such 
a width, making a height of about two inches. Upon the 
tops of these pillars of support we place a thin flat stone, 
large enough to rest firmly on them, and even lap over an 
inch or so on each side; then upon this flat stone we pl«* 
the pillars of another bridge, having the next flat stone 
somewhat smaller than the other, and so on until we have 
made so many bridges that the top one will just rest upon 
the -urface of the water. The distance between these flat 
stones may vary according to the fancy of the builder. The 
top stone makes a littb island, and gives a chance for sneh 
animals as tritons and turtles to come out and sun them- 
selves or take the air. Another use which this top stone 
may be put to is this, — to support a small collection of 
marsh pla ornament to the aquarinm- 



seem especially adapted tor this purpose. If we take the 

seems to do best when taken up with the buds just appear- 
i»g* «nd it will last long enough in flower to repay one for 
all the trouble of transplanting it. Various other means of 
beautifying the top stone may be adopted. If we wish a 

may cover them with a glass shade and have a diminutive 
ardian-case, forming a part of the aquarium. 

Wielfe, or of coral, in the eentre of the tank; besides being 
dangerous to the water from the difficulty of getting them 
perfectly clean, they seem quite out of place, not only be- 
that th e aquarium should be a place tor living, not for dead 
specimens. It is far better to avoid putting in any shells, 
however beautiful they may be in the cabinet. Having com- 
peted the rock- work, and washed every stone carefully as it 
ls Put in, the plants are next to be attended to. In fresh- 
**ter plants we have for the most part to deal with the dif- 
ferent shades of green, while in salt-water plants the colors 
ai 'o varied and brilliant. There is, however, this advantage 
|u fresh-water plants, that almost all of them will grow well 
1,1 a properly mau^vd aquarium, while only the very green 
ones of the salt-water plants are likelv to flourish under the 



■nil 



,ssC 



, found mostly in cold springs and their brooks will 
with water starwort {CalUtriche verna), a plant 
in a similar situation, if the water in the tank is 
a low temperature ; but at a moderately high one 

ong and rank, and finally decays. So again many 

ned to be constantly moved by a current, when 
[ii the still water of an aquarium inevitably mould 
- To be continued. 



. and although a day upon their journey 
I condition ; those who live near Bostor 

res. In attempting to obtain eggs for th 
select the freshest butterflies, as their eg 

les usually appear about a week before 






I the different species of Hesperia on poplar, scrub 
d various herbaceous plants. 



, of the fishes of Finmarke 



e the continuation of Prof. Kinbergs -Characteristics of Annulata" 
borate descriptions to be given in the report of that voyage, published 
J Amphinomeae (the other higher groups were treated in previous voi- 
ces of papers also belongs Kinbei-'s curious observations of an anne- 
Itycarcttu), repro interior body segments. Prof. 






ations. Dr. Ljungman's des 



•alocystis rribraria), of the tribe Ex 
and a new operculated species of 
3us discovery of true operculata 



EE VIEWS. 

• northern countries, where liche 



; left behind: n< 



Sw, 


dish . 


Academy of 


Science" which has reached us 




sixth „f t'he 








or 1865-66; it would therefore 




v fall behind 






of this revi 


ew; but as it bears the year 186 










I presume 










367, and I there* 


are shall briefly state that this i 












a Salicum, by Prof. Andersson 






s 


:!;: 


FSs 


reputation will recommend his 


•■',V '• 














.he subj et. 


Sir. 












del) 


. To 


Durir and 


Xordenskjold we owe contribu 




, the geoirra- 



d profiles), and LincNrr.'mi ha* « 
■ acquainted with Dr. Paykull's 



Possibly be said on the subject to s 
byKinberg; insecta, by Bohemam 






REVIEWS. 219 



■ published in tilt; '• ISotaniski Not iser," lSl 
Fries, at Upsala), I must cite Prof. Anders 
. especially its northern species: Dr. Goes' 



er rhe direction of Prof. Krdmauu. tw. 
The editor has also published a volu 

Sweden" (with fourteen charts. prorile,- 



i-elf ;" « a Monograph of the SyrpMci (a family of 



REVIEWS. 
Inavia and Finland"; " a Revii 



NATURAL HISTORY MIS CELL A 

Miiklin has published an elaborate monograph of l 
«f the late Prof. Norclenskjold, the celebrated niinei 

Society of Seienee" 1'rof. I llldl). 1- has pi.hlHi. il - 
™1 papers,/.''., "On a New Species of Pim*1h P. c 



NATURAL HISTORY MISCELLANY. 

BOTANY. 



ew Fragaria. — The Frs 



- - 



222 NATURAL HISTORY MI8CELU 



MICROSCOPY. 



PROCEEDINGS OF SCIENTIFIC SOCIETIES. 






Farther inform lit , n ivl itinii to ih. \ iatimi < in I 

ln g the Local Secretary, F. W. Putnam, Salem, Mass. 



TO CORBES1 






Pulmonata geophila. By "V 



AMERICAN NATURALIST. 

Vol. III. -JULY, 1869. -No. 5. 



-SIDE ORNITHOLOGY. 



The ornithology of our New England seaboard at the 
present day is very far from presenting either the interest, 
the variety or the sources of excitement, which, even within 
a single generation, were, from Long Island to Grand 
Menan. features so characteristic. If we go back yet far- 
ther, though only to a period within the recollection of that 
very respectable individual, "the oldest inhabitant," the 
ehanges from that recent period to what is now witnessed 
are yet more remarkable, and make our present poverty 
toth striking and painful. Then wild-ducks are said to have 
nested on the outer Brewsters. Then, probably, the now 
exterminated AIca impennis was a bird of New England, as 

was at some period. prohahlv inure distant, one of Mas- 
^•Imsetts also. Then all our salt marshes and our low- 
1;ill,U near the sea swarmed, tliirinir ih«' spring and autumn 
months, with plover, snipe, godwit, tatler, curlew, and 
fading birds of various forms and plumage. Then all of 
our estuaries, inlets, coves, bays, rivers and creeks along 
the entire coast, abounded in sea-fowl during y the entire 
nly difference being that at certain seasons of 
'. the resident species were driven by the ice and 



the year, _ 

NATURALIST, VOL. m. 29 



SEA-SIDE Oir- 






(■option* are so very few that they only prove the too gen- 
eral rule. Here and there a few remote uninhabited islands 
aside from the haunts of fishermen, and remote from tin 1 
tracks of commerce, afford to a solitary species of gull, and 
to the decimated terns a precarious i.iroit. where, late in 
the season, a few succeed in rearing their young, and thus in 
postponing the dav of the final extermination of their race. 
For, so long as the Solons of our General Court encourage, 
by their legislation, their unchecked and wholesale destruc- 
tion, the day cannot be far distant when these graceful and 
harmless birds will have become wholly, as they are now 



m- tin 



with the ceaseless activity with which every island is ran- 
sacked by the insatiate "toilers of the sea," the distinctive 
characteristics of our maritime ornithology has become very 

ject loses nearly all the claims it would have presented half 

In speaking of what is left to us of the sea-side ornithol- 
ogy of New England, four or live groups suggest themselves 



SEA-SIDE ORNITHOLOGY. 


227 


s still distinctive features. These are: the L 


irds of prey 


hiefly found about the sea-coast; the smalle 


r laud-birds 


lat are also maritime in their partialities ; si 


ore-birds or 


•aders ; sea-birds or swimmers ; and occasioua 


and winter 


isitants. As we do not propose to prepare sir 


h an article 


s Prof. Lowell would call "nothing if not a cat 




ur limits do not permit an exhaustive sketch, a 


e shall onlv 


ricfly speak of those we regard as the most d 


stin^ui^hiulr 


laracteristics of our seaboard, mentioning onlj 


a few that 






The birds of prey that seem to belong to o 


ur seaboard 


re not many, either in their variety of speeh 


s or in the 


nnber of the individuals. Even the Fish-hawk 


. so marked 



s »°ivs an uncongenial or an unprofitable field, and is seldom 
Been from Cape Cod to Cape Elizabeth. A few occur on both 
shores of Long Island Sound. From thence until we come 
to the mouth of the Kennebec, they are entirely wanting. 
The same is very nearly true of the White-headed Ea<rle. 
On the coast of Maine both of these birds abound, and their 
wge and conspicuous nests, surmounting the tops of the 
loftiest pines, often in full view of the highway, are a notice- 
able feature in the landscape. 

In the latter part of the summer and in the early fall, 
when the southward flight of manv of the small birds has 
hegun, the Barred Owls station th. mselves in ambush on the 
coast and among the inner islands, as it' to forestall the gun- 
ners, who show them no mercy if thev chance to meet them. 



from their rival hunters. The flight < 
and the young of the terns are their eh 
times to the sea-shore. 



Rough-legged Buzzard. Th( 



228 SEA-SIDE ORNITHOLOGY. 

the marshes and the edges of ponds in the lowlands near the 

peared to hunt, by preference, tor frogs, Held-mice, and the 
smaller quadrupeds, and, more rarely, the smaller birds. 
For some unexplained reason their visits are now compara- 
tively very rare. The Black-hawk, by some supposed to be 
only' a darker race of this species, and once occasionally to 

The Great-footed Falcon, though by no means confined to 



with the ever increasing diminution of these attractions, this 

falcon now only pays us angel visits, except on the eastern 

In enumerating the conspicuous and characteristic fea- 
tures of our coast scenery, the crow must not be forgotten. 
Wherever muscles or clams can be dug at low water, or 
wherever a storm has thrown upon the shore an unusual 
accumulation of garbage, we find these sagacious wreckers 
on the alert, eager to gather their full share of the flotson or 

this invaluable but unpopular race are among the first to 



The entire family of swallows, except the Purple Martii 
are eminently sea-side birds-, and most so. the Wlrite-belliet 
In the eastern portions of Maine, and in all the islands t 
the Bay of Fundy, the abundance of this swallow is vei 

near the coast than in the interior." The Barn Swallow hi 

porches, and eaves of houses for a nesting-place, yet we cs 

their primitive and natural breeding-places. The Cliff Swa 
lows, since 1839, have become more and more abuuda; 
on our coast. The Sand Martin has ever been content 



EA-SIDE 

nient cliff, 



long the shoves of Connecticut and Rhode Hand, and 
sionally on those of our own State, two interesting little 
injdmnnAhe sharp-tailed, and the sea-side Fhn-/,/>s, — &o 
d, in our poverty of terms to properly designate Amer- 

are intended to represent. — are species peculiarly ehar- 
•istie of the sea-shore and peculiar to our own continent, 
1 being two Atlantic and one Pacific varieties. Their 
latcd and slender bills distinguishing them from all 
i- American sparrows, their long legs extending in the 
ed specimen beyond their tail leathers, their short lat- 
elaws, their rounded wings and wedge-shaped tails com- 

icteristie of sea-side life, and such as typify, only in a 

ts they are not very unlike the true wader in many re- 
:s. Like them they feed upon marine insects and the 
lev crustaeea, keeping about the water".- edge, walking 
i the floating weeds and other substances raised by the 
preferring this mode of life to a more inland residence, 
only resorting to the uplands to feed upon grass and 
i" seed when food fails them at the water', edge. They 
' once quite common on our northern shores, but, so far 

other summer shore-birds, probably driven away by the 



ill sunken places in the ground, often on 
under cover of a projecting portion of tl: 
habits they resemble the Son-- Sparrow 

Another land bird, as yet quite rare am 
the Yellow-bellied Flycatcher,* so far as 
affecting the sea-side. In the low m 
Halifax, on the islands of Grand Mena. 
edge, and on the banks of the St. Croix, i 



•es. enlivens the sea-sid( 
.tonal habits, and his lou 
the land forms that are 

e regarded as belonging 
nglaud. Of the Heron 



SEA-SIDE ORNITHOLOGY. 231 

marshy woodlands that skirt the ocean, and fish along the 
edges of creeks, in the more shallow water and pools of 
the marshes, or in the flats left bare by the receding tide. 
These are the Green, the Night, and the great Blue Herons, 
the Least and the Common Bittern. Three others, the 
smaller Blue Heron, the Snowy Egret, and the larger White 

tempted to visit our coast. They are, however, only vagrant 
and adventurous individuals, and their visits are rare^ieci- 
ucntal, and irregular. Nor are our resident species very 

wood-, near the seaboard is not favorable to their protection 
or increase among us. 

-Lu the niar.-hes and low swampy islands near the coast, 
occur in more or less abundance the Common Sora or Caro- 
ls* Hail, the Virginia Kail, the American Coot, and the 



Florida ( 


Jallinule. The last two ai 


re not com 


moi 


i, but b 


oth 


am pe 


rsuaded breeds with us, th 


e evidence 


of 


which will 


ooner oi 


• later be made to appear 


by the ac 




discov. 


in-y 


f their : 


nests and eggs. The youn 
i our marshes in midsumnu 


<? of both 
>r, and the 


] z 


rida Ga 


lli- 


ule has 


also been obtained near Bo 


ston in mic 


hvii 


iter. 




Of the 


true plovers only one, the 3 


L'ipim.' PIoi 


rer | 


^E./n'l, 


Ites 


lelodus) 


, is common to our sea-beaches during 


:• tin 


> breed i 


ng 


eason. 


The Killdeer is found on 


lv in a t'ew 


inl; 


.ml low 


iii- 


ies. The Golden, the Black-bellic 


•d, and the 


Bii 


ug Plov 


er, 


re only 


spring and autumn visitant: 


5 to our co 


as! : 


and YY 


il- 


Mi's Plo 


ver, if found at all, is only 
tempted to stray into a 


strange re< 


rini'l 


derer tl 
. It d< 


mt 



232 SEA-SIDE ORNITHOLOGY. 

more common than in the least frequented portions of Cape 
Cod. Although living in pairs, they are also a very social 
bird, and where undisturbed, several pairs usually select the 
same locality and live in friendly companionship, uniting 
in the fall with their vouni>-, in small floeks of twenty or 
thirty. They are found exclusively on sandy shores and low 
islands, and are never met with inland. They nest directly 
on the sand, relying directly upon their resemblance to it in 
the color of their plumage for their own safety and that of 
their eggs. Their young can run with remarkable celerity 
the moment they appear. -At the approach of danger, or 
at the sound of an alarm-note from their parent, they will 
squat, in the most amusing manner, upon the sand, as still 

suffer you to tread upon them before they will move. In the 
meanwhile tin- mother bird will be resorting to every imagi- 
nable form of lameness, or pretence of wounded disability, 
to draw you away from her young fledglings. 

The common Spotted Sandpiper, though equally abundant 

motions of its tail and body, and its sonorous outcries of 
jpeet-iceet, peet-weet. 

The Turnstone is, with us. onlv a rare and occasional visi- 



The 



We pass, with mere mention, the Woodcock, the Upland 
Jver, and the Solitary Tattler, as properly upland and 
and birds, and the wind.' famih of Trnxj Mm, or Sand- 



SEA-SIDE ORNITHOLOGY. 233 

pipers, Tatlers and Snipe, all of which are only autumnal and 
vernal visitants of the sea-coast. The time was when these 
constituted a much more marked feature of the maritime 
legion than they now present, when the marshy ground, at 
certain seasons, seemed all alive with their countless flocks. 
But in these respects the times are sadly altered, never, in 
all probability to be improved. One species only deserves 
special mention, alike for its peculiar habits and its excep- 
tional character. The Willet, the only representative of the 
genua Symphemia> is found along our entire coast, as far to 
the north, certainly, as Halifax, N. S., where I have met 
with it breeding, finding its nest and eggs. Mr. Audubon 
was mistaken when he stated it was never met with east of 
Boston. It is a very shy and wary bird. Even when breed- 
appeared. Then it becomes as remarkable for its clamor, 
and vociferates its loud cries of ptlkwtll-vritt-wilkv with 
?reat emphasis and distinctness. The Willet breeds in the 
B«ndy marshes of Nantucket and its neighboring islands, 

( ',~~'>. quite large for the bird, are sharply pointed at one 
end, and are always placed with this end turned towards the 
ceiltre °f the nest. After the close.of the breeding season 
they resume their shy and silent habits, and are sometimes 
known among sportsmen as "humilities." Their egirs. when 
b'csh.are esteemed a irivat luxurv where they are sufficiently 
common to be well known, as near Norfolk, Va. 

Of the sea-fowl that now spend the warm season on our 
sea-coast, the list is not large and but little need be said. 
V *gue traditions are all that' now assure us that some six or 
Seven species of sea-ducks once bred among the islands of 
Massachusetts. Except the Dusky Duck, which is an occa- 
sional exception, none of these now remain with us : only at 
portions of Maine, the Eider Duck and 



the Red-br 






EA-SIDE ORNITHOLOGY. 

)lundered nests. The 



The Herring Gulls have all beei 
samamioddy. Only the Black-hea 



Terns still breed on the islands oti' our coast. This -ull 
(Xema atriciUa ) was formerly quite abundant along our en- 

now chiefly found on a few islands off Connecticut, near 
Nantucket, and on the eoast of Maine, near St. Geonre. It 
visits our coast late in May or early in June, and leaves us 
early in the fall, upon the first appearance of cool weather. 
Some twenty-nine or thirty years since two or three pairs 
were still breeding on Egg Rock, near Nahaut, in company 
with the Wilson's Tern, but long since they have entirely 
disappeared. This gull, when its nest is disturbed, is very 

ha, resembling loud peals of derisive laughter, are very re- 
markable and even startling in their singularity. 

The Least Tern, the Arctic Teru, Wilson's Tern, and the 
Roseate Tern, still breed on our coast, and, except the last, 
along the entire coast of New England. The Roseate is 
chiefly confined to the neighborhood of Nantucket, and the 
southern coast of Connecticut. It once bred on islands near 
Beverly. The eggs of all these species are much sought for 
by the fishermen, and as they are rarely permitted to rear 
their young, the day of their final extermination cannot be 

After midsummer our waters are visited for a few weeks 
by two species of Petrels, or Mother Carey's Chickens (Tha- 
howidroma Wilsonii and T. Leachii). They are outsiders 
altogether, never visiting the land except during the breed- 
ing season. Where the former breed is still shrouded in 
mystery. They appear in our waters early in August, but 
where they come from, or where they remain eleven months 
in the year, "nobody mentions for nobody knows." The 



SEA-SIDE ORNITHOLOGY. 235 

other species, Leach's Petrel, breeds off the coast on nearly 
all the islands from Cape Elizabeth to Newfoundland, ap- 
pearing in May and leaving in September. 

Later in the season the open waters are visited by flocks 
of ducks, inosl of them known to the fishermen as "Coots." 
Then- ;uv twelve or ti flee n varieties, more or less common, 
which our exhausted space will not permit us to enumerate. 
Numerous as these may at certain seasons seem to be, they 
come now in decimated numbers, and are so severely hunted 
on their feeding grounds that but very few remain with us 

In midwinter the outer waters of our coast are frequented 
by several remarkable forms of sea-birds, combining several 
of the peculiarities of the albatros, the gull, and the petrel, 
and presenting a very singular and striking union of the 
more noticeable characteristics of each. They never appear 
With us near the land. They can therefore be only observed 
at a season of the year least favorable for marine explora- 
tions. Our knowledge of them must be therefore largely 
derive,] f rom trje observations of unscientific persons who 
meet them in their winter fishery. They are classed by Mr. 
Lawrence in the tribe of Longipennes. Three belong to the 
family of Procellaridge, namely, the Fulmar or Fulmar Pe- 
frel, and at least two species of Shearwater Puffins. Others, 
wll,,( l Skua Gulls, or Jagers, are placed among the Lurkhc. 
TlHil " habits are. however, as well as their forms, very dif- 
f'-rt'iit from those of the true Gulls. Four species of these 
Jagers, in company with several species of Gulls, spend their 
winter oft' our coast, and are to be met with there at no other 
time. The study of their habits, no doubt replete with as 
much of interest as of novelty, is still reserved for those 
students of science for whom the difficulties and the dangers 
°f their investigations may give an added claim to their un- 
- Certainly we know of no species of our Atlantic 
coast-birds whose history is so much involved in doubt, or 
which promise more of interest in their investigations. 



NOTES ON THE ARGONAUT. 



The Argonaut, or Paper-sailor, is familiar to all who live 
in seaports ; its elegant form and delicate texture making it 
deservedly a favorite ornament for table or mantel ; and cer- 

of one of the larger species. It is of a snowy whiteness, 
with delicate undulating ridges, and the keel ornamented 
with a regular series of conical projections or tubercles, 
which near the spire are lightly touched with black. Per- 



These animals are true cuttle-fish of the eiirht armed type. 
The male Argonaut is an insignificant shell-less creature, fond 
of retirement, solitary and rarely seen. When the tender 

from female society, he does not go in search of a wife, but 
with Spartan courage, detaches one of his eight hands (or 
arms) and consigns it to the deep, in the hope that some 
tender hearted individual of the other sex will fall in with 
it and take it under her protection. Thus for a long time 
the male Argonaut was unknown, the arm (which does not 
die when detached, but lives an independent worm-like life) 

(236) 



THE ARGONAUT. 237 

Was, when found in the gill-chamber of the female, supposed 
to be a parasite, and was called Hecto-cotylus. 

The shelly matter is secreted by the first pair, or dorsal 
arms, which are broadly expanded towards the ends, and 
also by the sides of the body, which are more closely con- 
nected with the shell than many naturalists have supposed, 
but there arc no true muscular attachments as in other mol- 
lusca, of the animal to the shell. 

I have seen fine specimens of Argonauta in the cabinet of 
Mr. Arnold, of Worcester, collected by himself; showing 
where the shell had been broken and repaired, the new 
layer in some places having been deposited by the sides of 
the body from the inside of the shell, and in others by the 
expanded arms from the outside. The anterior edges of 

secreting calcareous matter, as the fractures toward the spire 

than shelly. 

The cuttle was, in more modern times, long supposed to 
haw stolen its shell from some mollusk resembling I'ari- 
iiaria, known as the glassy Nautilus. The shell of Carinaria. 
ls very similar, taken by itself, to that of Argonauta strait- 
ened out, but it serves a totally different purpose. The 
Argmmut. separated from its shell, was described by Rati- 
ll <*'iue as Todarus, he having described at the same time one 
of the large naked cuttles^ as Oc\thoe. According to his 
<>wn account, his description bein- short and careless, the 
two were confounded. He savs that the Sicilian fishermen 
call the Argonaut "todaru"; that the apex of the shell is 
! >hi<-kened by a dark liquor which it emits, although it has 
»ot the ink-bag of the Sepias ; and that the color of the eg-s 



taut of its own shell, though they described it with 
f *ney, as sailing in pleasant weather on the surface, 
broad arms as sails, and the others as oars, and ^ 



238 THE ARGONAUT. 






sky became overcast, storm threatened 


or hi 


?li wind 


as drawing in its sails and seeking safet 


' IX'IK 


ith the \ 


It was the original "Nautilus," the pearl 


vXau 


ilosbei 


The Argonaut swims rapidly by eje 


cting 


rater tl 



This tube is placed just above the keel of the shell, and the 
large broad arms are always closely applied to the shell 
though they can be slightly contracted. If the animal is 
removed from its shell, it cannot get into it again. It proba- 
bly cannot form a new one for reasons already mentioned. 
Deprived of its protection, it beats itself about blindlv till it 
dies. 

The eggs have been said to be deposited inside of the 
spire. I think that this is a mistake. In the specimens I 
have seen, they are agglutinated to the outside of the apex, 
inside of the last whorl, as represented by M. Ran-. (See 
Woodward's Manual, fig. 32.) 

I believe the Argonauts are of limited distribution. Some 
extend over larger areas than others, particular! v the Pacific 
species. But it is probable that when our knowledge of the 

we "shall rind that these' beautiful creatures have' t heir "boun- 
daries, outside of which they may rarely or never be found. 

resemble one another. Arqoaauta an/o has been reported 
from the Mediterranean, to which it is strictly eontined : 
from the Indian Ocean. Philippines, and even from Califor- 
nia ! For the last species I have proposed the specific name 
of I->„cr/rca, as a comparison with Mediterranean specimens 
shows that, aside from the question of distribution, the shells 
differ. As an example of the probably limited distribution 
of these mollusca, I note as follows : 

In 1819, M. Xoury. captain of a French frigate, obtained 
a new and very distinct and beautiful Argonaut, from the 
w'nding grounds off the coast of Peru, in Lat. 10° south. It 



PARASITIC HABITS OF CRUSTACEA. 239 

described by M.Lorois in the "R6vue et Mag. de Zoolo- 
" in 1852, as A.JSTouryi. Mr. Conrad, in his" monograph 
he genus, mentions that Capt. O. Swain, of Nantucket, 
850, obtained a number of this species in the same vicin- 



ti li- 



mpidity over the surface. Approaching then with great 

, well known as an indefatigable collector, sent to the 
hsonian Institution two fine specimens captured in Lat. 
outh, Long. 90° west, almost the same spot whence they 
originally obtained by M. Xonrv. So far as I am able 






olor and very 
3 spire, as pre 



A *-£< it 1 it, d velopment, was published by a lady 
Madame Power, who made her observations in the Mediter- 
ranean, having a sort of marine enclosure made, where sht 
kept these animals and observed their habits from life. 



OX THE PARASITIC HABITS OF CRUSTACEA. 

There are few subjects pertaining to the study of animal 
more curious and interesting than the various phenomeni 

connected with the parasitism of certain species upon others 
This subject is also one that has many important practical 

check mainly bv insert parasites, f. edimz" either on the eggs 
^e lame, or the mature insect. < >ur domestic animals also 



PARASITIC HABITS OF CRUSTACEA. 

ulrupeds, birds and fishes used as food, ar 



which. 


like the Trichina spirally often muse painful .lis- 
nd even death. But the subject has also a peculiar 


mti'ivs 


, when philosophically considered in connection with 


the vai 


ed phenomena of life and the theories of the origin 


Of Spe< 


ies. But at the present time it is our purpose merely 


to call 


ittcntion to some curious tacts concerning the habits 


of Cru 


tacea. hoping that it may induce the readers of the 


Natur 


ilist to study more carefully the habits of this class, 


which. 


in this respect, is still very imperfectly known. 


It 18 


certainly singular that a very great majority of all 


animal 


parasites' bclon- to the Articulate division of the ani- 


mal ki 


gdom, while very few are found among the Filiates. 


Mollus 


Da, and Vertebrates. 


The 


three great classes of Articulates each have numerous 




C representatives. The external parasites of land 



mostly Crustacea, while their internal parasites are both 
Crustacea and Worms. 

The class of Crustacea is naturally divided into three great 
groups, or subclasses. The highest, known as Decapods, 

footed. The lobsters and crabs are good examples. The 
next great group have seven pair of legs, or are fourteen- $ 
footed, hence their name Tetradecapods. The pill-bugs and 
sow-bugs are familiar laud species. The lowest division, 
known as Entomostraca, have fewer mouth organs, and the 
legs are irregular in number and position, while the abdomen 

the Limulus. 01 Ilo^esh , ( , ih. which is a huge repre- 
sentative of the group, while most of the other species are 
quite small. 



PARASITIC HABITS OF CRUSTACEA. 241 

Although many of the Entomostraca, like Cyclops, Cy- 
pris, etc., are active and free swimming little creatures, 
which swarm in our ditches and ponds during summer, there 
are a great many forms that are true parasites, mid infest 
fishes and other aquatic animals. These are mostly low and 
degraded species, in which the females become enormously 
developed, as compared with the minute males, and take on 
very singular shapes, losing, in many cases, by the progress 
of growth, all resemblance to their original form. In fact 
in some cases when mature they would scarcely be taken 
for Crustacea at all, had not their development been ob- 
served. Among these singular forms are a great number 
of genera which adhere to the external surface of fishes, and 
others to the gills and the membranes of the mouth. Lernea, 
■ad allied genera, are common upon various marine fishes. 
Penella, with its long quill-like body, lives on fishes. Cla- 
vella, which has also a very elongated form, lives upon the 
halibut ; Trebius and Pandarus infest sharks, etc. ; Caligus 
has numerous species which live on various marine fishes, 
and Argulus is common upon fresh- water fishes, and is also 
found on tadpoles. Prof. Dana, who many years ago care- 
fully studied a species of Caligus* that lives upon the cod, 
atatea that it does not suck the blood, as had been supposed, 
and thinks that it feeds upon the mucus, as its mouth-parts 
are well adapted for that purpose. But Lernea, Penella, 
and their allies, adhere only by their proboscis, which is 
embedded in the skin, and often barbed with hooks, and 
probably serves to suck the blood. Some forms of Ento- 
mostraca allied to these, are internal parasites of serpents. 

A very singular genus called Splanchnotrophus, lives as 
true internal parasites in various naked marine mollusca, on 
the British coasts. S. brevipes infests Doto coronata and 
Edlis rufibranchialis, while S. gracilis is found in Doris 
pihsa and Idalia aspera. Since some of these mollusca 
inhabit also the coast of New England, we may expect to 



242 PARASITIC HABITS OF CRUSTACEA. 

find these or similar parasites. The male lives free in the 
visceral cavity, but the female is much larger and stationary, 
and as the ovaries develop, the clusters of eggs and tip of 
the abdomen project through the integuments of its victim. 
Another Entomostracan genus,- Doridicola, contains small 
active species which are external parasites on the gills of 
similar mollusca. 

The Tetradecapods are' not so often parasitic as the Ento- 
mostraca, yet many curious parasites of fishes, etc., belong 
to this division. The Isopod order, including the pill-bugs, 
and many aquatic species having a similar depressed form, 
contains more parasitic species than does the Amphipod 
order, which includes the compressed species. 

Among the parasitic Isopods we find some curious species 
which live parasitically in the mouth of fishes, usually ad- 
hering firmly to the roof of the mouth by means of their 
numerous strong and sharp claws, and in that situation often 
grow so large as to almost entirely fill the mouth, causing 
no doubt a great amount of suffering to the helpless fish, 
and, perhaps, eventually its death by starvation. Such are 
the habits of certain species of Livoneca and allied genera, 
while other similar species live upon the exterior and in the 
y, both of marine and fresh-water fishes. I have 
recently found an allied form in the stomach of a toad-fish 
from Florida, where it appeared to be truly parasitic. It 
was nearly an inch long and half as wide. Nerocila, Anilo- 
cra, and Cymothoa, are allied genera, including numerous 
species, all of which are parasitic on or in fishes. These 
genera have a more or less, oval or oblong, broad, stout, 
depressed body, with short crooked legs beneath, armed 
with sharp claws. Some of these species become three 
inches long and nearly an inch broad, and must be very 
annoying. 

Another related group of Isopods includes Bopyrus and 
Jone, with allied genera, which are parasitic on other Crus- 
tacea. In these the males are small, and have the ordinary 



PARASITIC HABITS OF CRUSTACEA. 243 

IsojhkI form, but the female by excessive growth becomes 
five or six times as large, deformed in shape, and firmly 
adherent in the gill-cavity of its host, where it produces a 
deformity and enlargement of the carapax, looking like a 
large tumor. Jone thoracicus infests a species of Calianassa ; 
Bopyrus squiUarum victimizes a species of Squilla ; and B. 
Hippolites infests various northern species of Hippolyte. It 
was observed last season by Mr. S. I. Smith and the author, 
at Eastport, Me., on H. Sowerbyi. Several other species 
are known having similar habits. 

Among the Amphipods we find Themisto and Hyperia, 
parasitic on the large jelly-fishes of our coast, especially 
Cyanea and Aurelia. Hyperia is very common, and may 
he known by its large head and eyes and swollen body, 
which is usually of a dull reddish color. They live and 
breed in cavities that they themselves form in the disk of 
the jelly-fishes, by eating away its soft substance. They 
also live among the mouth-folds and ovarial lobes, often in 
large numbers and of all sizes ; but they occasionally leave 
their victim for a time and swim freely in the water. Mr. 
Smith has reared our native species by feeding them on 
fragments of jelly-fishes, and ascertained that they undergo 
considerable changes, the antenna? becoming shorter at suc- 
cessive moults, showing that some of the nominal species, 
based on the length of these organs, are merely stages of 
growth of one species. Several other parasitic Amphipods 
were observed by Mr. Smith and the writer, at Eastport. 
One small species with bright golden eyes lived in the in- 
terior of Modiolaria laevigata. Another pretty, pale-pink, 
smooth, red-eyed species was found repeatedly living par- 
Witically in the stomach of our large Red Sea-anemone 
ilrfk'ina crassicornis) , but was seldom seen until the Urti- 
cina had been placed in alcohol, when several would often 
come forth and move about for a short time, but occa- 
sionally they were observed to come forth voluntarily, and 
after swimming about for some time would suddenly dart 



244 PARASITIC HABITS OF CRUSTACEA. 

into the mouth again, as if for protection ! Nor did they 
seem to suiter any harm when caught and held for a long 
time in the grasp of the large tentacles of the anemone, as 
often happened, but when finally released were as lively as 
ever, and quite as ■ ,v enter the mouth. 

And yet the tentacles of Urticina are covered with myriads 
of powerful stinging organs, by means of which it can almost 
instantly kill various other larger crustacea, mollusca, fishes, 
etc. which are also quickly digested in its capacious stom- 
ach. The immunity that this species of Amphipod enjoys is 
evidently similar to that of Hyperia, which revels among 
and consumes the very powerfully armed, stinging tentacles 
of Cyanea, which so quickly kill most other small marine 
animals, and even severely sting the human skin. A pink- 
colored species of Anonyx was observed in immense num- 
bers upon and in a species of sponge, upon which it appears 
to be parasitic, at least while young. The various species. 
of Caprella. remarkable for their long slender bodies and 
legs, and their curious loopiug gait, recalling the motion of 
Geometric! larvas, appear to be parasitic on Hydroids and 
sponges. The Whale-louse (Cyamus) is allied to these, but 
has a short and broad body, with stout legs and claws, by 
which it clings to the skin in the manner of Cymothoa and 
other fish-lice. 

The Decapod Crustacea afford, however, some still more 
curious instances, though they are seldom true parasites, if 
by this term we designate parasites that obtain their food at 
the expense of another by sucking its blood or absorbing 
its digested nutriment. But among the Decapods we find 
many species that are parasitic in or on other animals for the 
sake of shelter and protection, while in other cases there 
are such is formed between two or more 

different species, that it becomes difficult to tell which is the 
host and or whether it may not be an 

...lit for mutual benefit. Most persons have no 
doubt seen the little crab, with a smooth, rounded body, 



ITS OF CRUSTACEA. 245 

that lives in the interior of the shell between the gills of the 
oyster, and is often cooked with that excellent bivalve. This 
is the Pinnotheres ostreum (Fig. 41), and is doubtless para- 
sitic in the oyster merely for the sake rfc- «• 
of shelter, and probably does not in- 
jure the oyster unless by the irrita- 
tion that its motions might cause. But 
it is doubtless an unwelcome guest, 
though the ancients had a notion that 
a similar species inhabiting the Pinna aeted as a sort of sen- 
tinel by giving notice of danger, and thus warned the Pinna 
when to close. Hence its name, which signifies Pinna-guar- 
dian. 

Another species, P. maculatum, lives in mussels (Mi/tlh^) 
upon our coast. Another lives at Panama in a species of 
Lithodomus, a shell allied to Mytilus, but which is itself 
parasitic, and lives in holes which it excavates in other -hells 
and corals. There are many other species of Pinnotheres, 
and allied genera, having similar habits. One fiue species* 
lives in the Pearl Oyster (Marge mtophora Jiiuhriatd) of the 
Bay of Panama. It often shares its secure pearly retreat 
with a curious slender fish, and with two other genera of 
Crustacea, very different from itself, resembling craw-fishes 
or miniature lobsters in form. The most common of these is 
a new species of Pontonia,f a genus previously known to be 



246 PARASITIC HABITS OF CRUSTACEA. 

parasitic in the shell of Tridacna, of the East Indies, and in 
the large Pinna of South Carolina. Another genus, Phmixia. 
allied to Pinnotheres, has two Carolina species. P. c>/h'n- 
drica Say, lives in the tubular burrow of a large worm, 
Arenicola cristata; the other, P. Chcetopterana St., lives 
in the strong tube of another largo worm, Chcefojiferu* per- 
gamentaceus St. Another allied form, remarkable for its 
nearly globose body and hairy legs, Pinnaxodes GhQensk 
Smith {Fabia Chilensis Dana) , lives upon the coast of Peru 
and Chili in the shell of a small species of Sea-urchin (JEhh 
ryechinus imbecillis Verrill), which it causes to grow out of 
shape. It appears to enter the anal opening when quite 
small, and retaining its position until fully grown, causes 
the intestine to dilate into a sort of cyst, and the anal area 
and upper part of the shell to become deformed. When 
fully grown it often fills nearly a third of the body of its 
host, and yet has but a small external orifice, out of which 
it probably cannot come, but the male, being much .-mailer. 
may readily enter. From the fact that nearly all the speci- 
mens of this Sea-urchin found thrown upon the beach, 
amounting to over one hundred, had this parasite, it is prob- 
able that it eventually weakens or kills its host by the irrita- 
tion it produces. 

Another very singular genus, Uarpalocarcinus marsupi- 
alis St., lives among the branches of Pocillipora ccespitosa, 
at the Hawaiian Islands, and by its consta 



spot causes the coral to grow up 






itself so as to form as perfect and secure a residence as could 
be desired, while openings are left to admit water and food. 
I have observed similar cavities on Pocilh'jjora elongala 



PARASITIC HABITS OF CRUSTACEA. 247 

from Ceylon, which are probably made by another species of 
the same genus. The genera Trapezia and Tetralia include 
small, smooth and polished, usually bright-colored crabs, 
which live free among the branches of Pocillipora and Ma- 
drepora. For this mode of life they are well adapted, both 
by their smooth, flat bodies, and by their peculiar feet, which 
are blunt at the end and furnished with sharp stiff spines to 
aid them in climbing among the coral branches. Domecia 
hispida has the same habits. 

The Hermit or Soldier Crabs, are interesting in their 
habits, and well known to all sea-side naturalists. They 
always occupy the dead shell of some spiral Gasteropod, 
which they carry about on their backs, and into which they 
retreat when alarmed, holding it firmly by means of the 
long, spirally-curved abdomen, and by its hook-like appen- 
dages. But some species are apparently not satisfied with 
even this protection, and consequently induce certain species 
of Sea-anemones to dwell upon the shell they inhabit. The 
beautiful Sea-anemones belougiug to the genera, Adamsia 
and Calliactis, are rarely found except in this situation. 
Adamsia maculata, of the European coast, attaches itself to 
the shell occupied by Eupagurus Prideauxii, near the inner 
hp, and spreads out its base laterally on each side until the 
lobes thus formed meet around the aperture and coalesce so 
as to form a complete ring, through which the crab emerges 
and retreats. The base of this Adamsia also has the unusual 
power of secreting a thin but firm pellicle, by which it ex- 
tends the edges of the aperture of the shell, thus giving the 
crab more room, as it grows larger, and obviating the ne- 
cessity of changing the shell, as other less-favored hermits 
are obliged to do. Several specimens of Calliactis usually 
occupy the same shell, and are not known to be capable of 
extending its aperture. All the species are very beautifully 
colored, and inhabit tropical seas. In the West Indies G. 
focolor and G. tricolor are common, and one species occurs at 
Florida, while G. variegata occurs at Panama. Gereus sol 




248 PARASITIC HABITS OF CRUSTACEA. 

has the same habit, and occurs on the Carolina coasts, On 
our own shores the shells occupied by Hermit Crabs are 
usually completely covered by a beautiful little pinkish 
Hydroid (Ifylrurthria poh/dina Agassiz), which at times 
extends the lip of the shell by its basal expansions. A still 
more curious instance of this kind is afforded by the Gem- 
Americana Verrill* (Fig. 
42), a Zoanthoid polyp, allied to 
the Sea-anemones, but capable of 
budding from basal expansions, 
by which means it completely 
covers shells occupied by Eupa- 
gwrus pubescens. After thus covering the shell, it is not 
only capable of extending the aperture by its own growth, 
but has the power of entirely dissolving and absorbing 
the substance of the shell so that no trace of it can be 
found, though the form is perfectly preserved by the some- 
what rigid membrane of the polyp. This species has been 
found in deep water, off the coast of New Jersey, and in 
Massachusetts Bay. 

Another still more remarkable case occurs in the China 
Sea. A Hermit Crab (Diogenes Edicardsii St.) found there 
has upon the outside of the large claw a circular, smooth 
space, upon which there is always found a small Sea-anemone 
(Sagartia Paguri Verrill). This appears to be an associa- 
tion for life, since very young crabs carry a very minute 
Sagartia, no larger than a pin's head, and large crabs have 
a large Sargartia. In this case when the crab retreats into 
its shell and folds down the large claw over the aperture, 
the Sargartia would appear to be attached within the aper- 
ture, and thus conceal and perhaps protect the crab. In all 
these and other similar cases, the advantage of association 
is doubtless mutual, for while the Sea-anemones, by means 
of their outspread tentacles, armed with stinging organs, of 
which fishes and other voracious animals have a wholesome 



PARASITIC HABITS OF CRUSTACEA. 24l> 

dread, serve to protect the crab, the latter can more effect- 
ually travel about and seek food, and while tearing its prey 
into small pieces, many choice bits doubtless fall to the lot 
of its companion. 

There is another group allied to the Hermits, the species 
of which often carry a valve of some bivalve shell upon the 
back for protection. At Florida and in the West Indies, 
Hypoconcha arcuata St., is found carrying a valve of Venus, 
or some similar shell, while at Panama H. Panamensis 
Smith* carries a valve of Pecten ventricosus, holding it on 
by means of the two posterior pair of legs, which are bent 
up over the back, aided by the posterior part of the body, 
which fits into the cavity below the hinge. An allied genus 
contains a species found from Florida to Brazil, Dromidia 
Antillensis, which carries upon its back, according to Dr. 
Stimpson, either a compound Ascidian or a Zoanthoid Polyp, 
hut all the specimens in the Museum of Yale College carry 
a peculiar fleshy sponge, which tits upon and entirely covers 
the back, but is held in position by the four posterior legs. 
A peculiar genus of crabs, Dorippe, found on the coast of 
China, though not very nearly related to the two preceding, 
agrees with them in having the carapax broad and depressed, 
and in having the two posterior pairs of legs twisted up over 
the back, as if to hold on a bivalve shell, which may be 
their usual habit; but one of the species, D.facchino, was 
dredged at Hong Kong, carrying upon its back a beautiful 
Sea-anemone, Cancrisocia expansa St.,f which completely 
covers the back of the crab, and, like Adamsia, secretes 
from its base a thin, firm pellicle, to which it adheres, and 
by which the crab holds it in position with his four posterior 




250 THE HALIOTIS, OR PEAELY EAR-SHELL. 



legs. It appears that when very young the crab holds over 
its back a minute bit of shell or gravel upon which the Ane- 
mone lodges, and afterwards, by expanding its basal prllirle 
as the crab grows, provides it with a permanent protection. 
This Anemone was never found except upon the crab's bark, 
and the crab was not found without it. A very different crab 
found at Panama, Hepatella arnica Smith,* carries upon its 
back Sagartia carcinophila Verrill, but in this case the con- 
nection is probably less intimate, and not so permanent. 



THE HALIOTIS, OR PEARLY EAR-SHELL. 



There is a family of Mollusca whose beautiful shells are 
frequently seen ornamenting the parlor mantel or centre 
table, the admiration of all on account of the brilliant colors 
and iridescence of their pearly interiors. 

These shells arc popularly called Sea-ears, but the scien- 
tific name is Haliotis, from the Greek hallos, marine, and 
otis, ear. In the different countries where these shells are 
found, there are local names by which they are known. In 
i the people call them Abalones,. while they are 
called "Meerohren by the Germans, Telinga maloli or Bia 
sacatsjo by the Malays, and Hovileij by the Amboynese," 
according to Adanson. "The Eolians gave it the pretty 
name of Venus's Ear. It is the 'Mother-of-pearl,' or 'Nor- 




THE HALIOTIS, OR PEARLY EAR-SHELL. 



2*1 



man-shell' of old English writers ; r Ormier' (contracted from 
omUe-de-mer) of the French, ' l Lapa burra' of the Portu- 
guese, • Omxhiale' of tire Italians, and 'Patella reale' of the 
Sicilians." The Cherbourg fish-women call it, according to 
Jeffreys, "Si ?"e«" (six yeux), from an idea that the orifices 
in the shells are real eyelets or peep-holes. 

The shells of Haliotis are, through ignorance, frequently 
confounded with those of the Meleagrina margaritifera , or 
pearl-bearing oyster, which is the true mother-of-pearl shell, 
from which are obtained the beautiful pearls used in the 
manufacture of various articles of jewelry. The Melea- 



two pieces or valve.-, as is the case with the common oyster, 
scallop and clam, while the Haliotis has an univalve shell, 
complete in one piece or valve, without joint or hinge. 

The Haliotides belong to the class Gasteropoda (garter, 
belly, pons, feet), whielTcomprises species of Mollusks that 
are characterized by their creeping upon, or by means of a 
muscular expansion of the body, called a foot. They belong 
to the order of Scutibranchiata (scutum, a shield, bi-auchke, 
gills), the gills, or lung, being protected by a shield of 



SielK- 



The shells of Hi 
outline, the form of 



the 



externally though brilliant within. 
The shell of Haliotis (Fig. 43) may / / c 




y or basal whorl, depressed, 
slightly elevated spire, com- 
un as regards form, it holds 
t with Turbo that Couch 



ru f-.l 



I into the Geophila, 
Liforni land species. 






252 THE HALIOTIS, OR PEARLY EAR-SHELL. 

The animal (Fig. 44 ; a, tentacle ; b, eyes ; c, holes in 
the shell for the passage of the tentacles, d and /; e, foot) 
adheres to the rock like the Patellas and Fissurellas. To 
the latter genus it is somewhat allied through its anatomy ; 
the arrangement of the teeth upon the lingual ribbon is said 
to be like that of Trochus. Cuvier found that every indi- 
vidual he examined had an ovary, and therefore concluded 




that the Haliotides were hermaphrodites.* Swainson con- 
sidered them as occupying a position among the 
gous, or vegetable eating gasteropods, analogous to the 
Volutidte among the Zoophaga, or carnivorous mollusks; 
the analogy being r by a comparison of 

ILtliutis with the Melo group of the Volutes. 

The chief peculiarity of these animals is, that their shells 
are perforated with a regular series of holes for the passage 



THE HALIOTIS, OR PEARLY EAR-SHELE. 253 

of the sea- water to the respiratory organs, analogous to the 
single vertical and nearly central hole in the shell of Fissu- 
rella, The holes in Haliotis are placed in a row nearly equi- 
distant from centre to centre, upon the left side of the shell, 
parallel with the columellar lip, and being required only in 
that part of the shell which covers the branchial cavity, 
those nearest the apex are closed or grow up as the animal 
advances in growth. The holes furnish a passage for slender 
tentacular filaments which the animal can protrude at pleas- 
ure ; the hole or notch for the passage of the anal siphon is 
situated at the posterior margin of the shell. The animal 
of Haliotis, according to P. P. Carpenter, "has two gills and 
two auricles, instead of one, as in the top-shells." Its head 
is blunt and terminates in a short muzzle, with two subulate 
tentacles and two stout eye peduncles at their bases. Upon 
the upper extremity of the foot it has a rudimentary opercu- 
ligerous lobe, but no operculum. The foot is very large, 
rounded at the ends and fringed with thread-like tentaeula?, 
which, when the animal is protruded from the shell, below 
the surface of the water, are gently swayed with a some- 
what vibratory motion. "The muscular attachment, instead 
of being horseshoe shaped as in ordinary univalves, is round 
and central, as in the oyster." (Carpenter.) 

In adult shells in many of the species, the roughened por- 
tion of the interior indicates the area of the muscular at- 
tachment, while in young specimens the impression of the 
muscle is not shown. 

The Haliotides are sedentary in their habits, as one would 
suppose, being both vegetarians and conservatives, and 
though capable of locomotion, they move but little and 
quite slowly ; their structure, as seen in the powerful mus- 
cular foot, shows it is made for adhesion. They attach 
themselves to the rocks with the greatest tenacity, and I 
have often found it exceedingly difficult to remove them, 
though using a stout trowel, of a shape similar to the kind 
u sed by bricklayers. 



2." I 



THE HALIOTIS, OR : 



The animal of Haliotis is exceedingly 
have frequently removed it from the shell by means of a 
sharp knife, and by throwing it, minus the shell, back into 
the water, it would at once descend and place itself in its 
normal position upon a rock, to which it would adhere with 
apparently as much tenacity as before it was deprived of its 
shelly covering. 

"The brilliant and highly colored interior of these shells 
producing sometimes an iridescent effect, has been attributed 
by Sir David Brewster, Dr. Carpenter, and others, to minute 
strife, or grooves, on the surface of the nacre, which alter- 
nate with others of animal membrane. The color is pro- 
duced by the nature of the lamina?, which decompose the 
light in consequence of the interference caused by the re- 
flection from two sides of each film, as may be seen in soap- 
bubbles. The nacreous laminae, when magnified, indicate a 
minute cellular structure. The cells are of "a long oval form, 
and their short diameter is not above T ^ JTJ of an inch." (Jef- 
freys.) The animal of Haliotis is mentioned by Athenseos 
as being exceedingly nutritious but indigestible. "The mari- 
time negroes of Senegal esteemed one species a great deli- 
cacy. . . . Ef. tubercidata is habitually eaten by the poor 
in the north of France and our Channel Isles, where it is 
occasionally cooked and served at the tables of the rich. It 
requires a good deal of beating and stewing to make it ten- 
der." (Jeffreys.) 

In New Zealand the animal of H. iris is eaten by the 
natives, and is called "Mutton-fish." Another species is 
eaten in Japan. In California the animals of the two most 
abundant species, H. rufescens and IT. Cracker odii, are fre- 
quently eaten by the Americans residing along the coast, and 
are a common article of food with the Chinese, who collect 
them in large quantities at Monterey, and other favorable 
localities north and south of that place, remove the animals 
from the shells, and dry the former for future use or for ex- 
port to their native country. 



THE HALIOTIS, OR PEARLY EAR-SHELL. 255 

The shells are also shipped from San Francisco to China 
and Europe in considerable quantities. In the former coun- 
try they are used for inlaying in connection with the lacquer- 
work for which the Chinese are so famous, while in Europe 
they are used in the arts, and many are polished and treated 
with acid, to be returned to the United States and sold for 
card receivers or ornamental objects. 

Their beauty has not escaped the eye of the savage, as 
pieces of the shells are worked into a 'variety «.f tonus and 
worn to ornament the person, by the Indians of north-west 
America. They are also esteemed by the Indians living in 
the interior of the continent. My friend, Dr. Edward Pal- 
mer, recently informed me that when he was in the Indian 
Territory he saw a horse purchased with an Abalone shell. 
They are still held in esteem, but are not so highly prized as 
formerly. 

Jeffreys says that in some parts of Guernsey the ormer 
was used for the purpose of frightening the small birds from 
the standing coin; tlnee or four shells are strung loosely 
together and suspended from the top of a pole, so as to 
make a clatter when moved by the wind. Formerly they 
were used there to ornament the plastered exteriors of cot- 
tages, the plaster being studded with them. 

In some places in California I have seen the shells of 
Haliotis rufescens suspended beside a sink, or placed upon a 
toilet-stand for holding the soap. They are quite conven- 
ient to the collector for holding or carrying smaller speci- 
mens in while searching along the shore, a purpose for which 
I have frequently used them. Sometimes the naturalist is 
Wel1 repaid by the examination of the back of large speci- 
mens of the roughly sculptured species ; for, besides the 
miniature forest of marine vegetation, corallines, algae, etc., 
^hich furnish an abiding place for diatoms and other minute 
forms, in the crevices of the shell can be found numerous 
i 8 mall species of mollusca that would otherwise be seldom 
obtained. 



256 THE HALIOTIS, OR PEARLY EAR-SHELL. 

The value of the exports of the Haliotis or Abalone shells 
from San Francisco was, in the year 1866, $14,440, being 
1697 sacks, each of two bushels capacity ; and in the year 
1867 the export had increased to 3713 sacks, worth $36,090. 

Jeffreys, in remarking upon the sale of the European spe- 
cies, H. tuberculata, says that the importation into England 
of the Meleagrince, or true mother-of-pearl shells, from the 
South Seas, has interfered with the sale of the "omier" 
at Guernsey, although he was informed that one merchanl 
. . . purchased from four to nine tons annually, paying 
seven shillings and sixpence per hundred weight, equal to 
about thirty-seven and one-half dollars per ton, American 

- The geographical distribution of the Haliotides is widely 
extended ; it is remarkable however that not a single species 
is found upon either coast of South America, or upon the 
east coast of North America, while no less than five or six 
species* are found on the west coast of North America, be- 
tween the Gulf of California, northerly to, and including a 
part of Alaska. 

Species are also found in Japan, China, Australia, New 
Zealand, Tasmania, and many of the smaller islands of the 
Indo-Paciric waters ; the Canary Islands, Africa at the Cape 
of Good Hope, and the Atlantic Coast of Europe. 

The length of this paper prevents my treating at this time 
of the uses made of the Haliotis shells in the arts by civil- 
ized peoples, or the purposes to which they are applied by 
the ruder races of mankind. 




A CHAPTER ON CUTTLE-FISHES.* 




. 


- first v 


Wit 


to Br 


azil, that on 


e day, while 


gaged in ( 




■Tv 


e foil 


' at a little 


town on the 
in a shallow 


, park,-,! a 


w.-iv in 


th« 


- crevi 


ce of the re 


ef, which ex- 


curiosity. 


I eoi 


ild 


seem 


.thing hut a 


pair of very 


t-s; l.ut. c< 


mclndii 


, lg 


that the eyes had 


I an owner, I 


almiUMlt 


..have 


ton 




that all th< 


inhabitants 


mi are not 


hannl 




I 1 


>ut my han< 


1 down very 


5 as not tc 


► ruffle 


the 


watei 


-, when, sud 


denly, to my 


it was sei: 


zed wit 


h a 


pre* 


;U re far too 


ardent to be 


■, and I wa 


s held 


fast 


. I 1 


:u2£e«l hard 


to get away. 



*> strong a hold on the rocks as he had on my hand, and 
was not easily to be persuaded to let go of either. At last, 
however, he became convinced that he mu>t choose between 



258 A CHAPTER ON CUTTLE-FISHES. 

us, and so let go his hold upon the rocks, and I found cling- 
ing to my right hand, by his long arms, a large octopod 
cuttle-fish, resembling the one figured at the head of tliis 
article, and I began to suspect that I had caught a Tartar. 
His long arms were wound around my hand, and these arms, 
by the way, were covered with rows of suckers, somewhat 
like those with which boys lift stones, and escape from them 
was almost impossible. I knew that this fellow's sucking 
propensities were not his worst ones, for these cuttle-fishes 
are furnished with sharp jaws, and they know how to use 
them too, so I attempted to get rid of him. But the rascal, 
disengaging one slimy arm, wound it about my left hand 
also, and I was a helpless prisoner. In vain I struggled to 
free myself, — he only clasped me the tighter. In vain I 
.-.limited to my companion, — he had wandered out of hear- 
ing. I was momentarily expecting to be bitten, when the 
"bicho" suddenly changed his mind. I was never able to 
discover whether he was smitten with remorse and retired 
with amiable intentions, or whether he only yielded to the 
force of circumstances. At any rate he suddenly relin- 
quished his hold upou my hands and dropped to the sand. 
Then raising himself on his long limsy arms, he stalked 
away towards the water, making such a comical figure, that 
in spite of my fright I indulged in a hearty laugh. He 
looked like a huge and a very tip-y -pider, -taggering away 
on his exceedingly long legs. 

The cuttle-fish belongs to the Mollusks, a branch of the 
animal kingdom distinguished for its members being built 
on the plan of a sac, and to which Mr. Hyatt has applied the 
more appropriate name of Saccata. The cuttle-fishes are 
heel from all the other Mollusks, such as snails, 
clams, etc., by having a large head, a pair of large eyes, and 
a mouth furnished with a pair of jaws, around which are ar- 
a circle, eight or ten arms furnished with suckers. 

In the common cuttle-fish or squid of our coast, the body, 
which is long and narrow, is wrapped in a muscular cloak 



or mantle, like a bag fitting tightly to the back but loose in 
front. It is closed up to the neck, where it is open like a 
loosely fitting overcoat, buttoned up to the throat. Attached 
to its throat, by the middle, is a short tube open at both 
ends. This tube, or siphon as it is called, is fastened to its 
throat, and can be moved about-in any direction. 

The animal breathes by means of gills, which are attached 
to the front of the body inside the cloak and look like the 
ruffles of a shirt bosom. By means of these gills the air con- 
tained in the water is breathed, and they answer the same 
purpose for the cuttle-fish that our lungs do for us. 

In order to swim, the animal swells out the cloak in front 
so that the water flows in between it and the body. Then it 
closes the cloak tightly about the neck so that the only way 
the water can get out is through the siphon. Then it con- 
tracts very forcibly its coat, which, it must be remembered, 
is a part of the animal, and the water is driven out in a jet 
from the siphon under the throat, and the body is propelled 
in the opposite direction ; that is, backward like a rocket 
through the water. This siphon is flexible like a water-hose, 
and can be bent so as to direct the stream not only forward, 
but sidewise and backward, so that the animal can move in 
almost any direction, or turn somersets with perfect ease, 
and so rapidly do some cuttle-fishes swim that they are able 
to make long leaps out of the water. Usually, however, the 
animal swims backward, with its long arms trailing behind. 
Our common cuttle-fish of this coast has, in addition to its 
ei ght arms, two long slender tentacles which may be with- 
drawn into the body. The tail is pointed, and furnished 
with a fin on each side. 

The Octopods, to which the Brazilian cuttle-fish (Fig. 45) 
belongs, have round purse-like bodies, and eight arms united 
at the base with a web, and they swim by opening and shut- 
ting their arms like an umbrella ; in this mode of swimming 
tn ey resemble the jelly-fishes. 

The paper Nautilus is nothing in the world but a female 



260 A CHAPTER ON CUTTLE-FISHES. 

cuttle-fish that builds a shell. There was a very pretty story 
told of her habits, by Aristotle, the old Greek naturalist, 
which every one believed until quite lately. He said that 
she rode on the top of the waves, seated in her boat-like 
shell, and spreading her broad arms to the winds for sails. 
But unfortunately the story has no foundation in fact. She 
either crawls about on the bottom of the sea, or swims quite 
like any other cuttle-fish, shell foremost, only occasionally 
coming to the surface. Strangely enough she holds the two 
broad hand-like extremities of the arms against her body, 
and it is the inside of these arms that secrete the paper-like 
shell, which is only a sort of cradle for her eggs. Not so 
with the pearly Nautilus, which is furnished with a beautiful, 
coiled up, pearly shell, formed on the outside of the animal. 
This shell is divided into numerous chambers, and the ani- 
mal living in the outer one builds a partition across the back 
part of it as the shell grows. 

Cuttle-fishes are sometimes used for food by the Brazil- 
ians, and different species may be seen in the markets. 
where one frequently finds them still alive. Sometimes, as 
he stoops to examine one, its body is suddenly suffused with 
a deep pinkish glow. Before he has time to recover from 
his surprise this color fades, and a beautiful blue takes its 
place as rapidly as a blush sometimes suffuses a delicate 
cheek. The blue, perhaps, is succeeded by a green, and 
then the whole body becomes pink again. One can hardly 
conceive anything more beautiful than this rapid play ot 
colors, which is produced by the successive distention ot se B 
of little sacks containing fluids of different colors, which are 
situated under the skin. 

The cuttle-fish is also furnished with a bag containing an 
inky fluid, which, when the animal is attacked or pursued, 
it ejects into the water, thus completely blinding its adver- 
sary and effectually covering its retreat. It is from tins 
fluid that the color sepia is made. Beside carrying an ink- 
bottle, some species of cuttle-fish are provided with a long, 



SOMETHING ABOUT CKABS. 261 

delicate, horny pen, which forms a sort of stiffener to the 
back. In some species the pen is hard, thick and broad, and 
the cuttle-fish bone of commerce is a pen of this kind. The 
species found in our waters is very small, and not at all 
dangerous, being barely large enough to draw blood from 
the hand : but in the tropical seas they are very large, pow- 
erful and dangerous. 

The cuttle-fish is the original of Victor Hugo's devil- 
fish, so vividly described in the "Toilers of the Sea." 
If the devil-fish were a beneficent creation, I should be 
sorry to destroy your faith in it; but as it is, I believe 
it will be rather a relief than otherwise to know that in 
some important respects, Victor Hugo's story of it is a 
fable. The Kraken was a mythical cuttle-fish of fabulous 



SOMETHING ABOUT CEABS. 



Well do we remember our boyish sport catching crabs. 
A stout string, a piece of fresh offal, a hand-net, and another 
boy with us and a good place on an anchored raft,— then for 
fun. The meat was dropped to the bottom ; the cancerous 
varmint took hold, and kept hold ; then we slowly drew the 
bait up, and, when within a few inches of the surface, chum 
adroitly slipped the scoop-net under. But would'nt "spider- 
legs" run up the sides of the net ! It needed all our alert- 
ness to secure the prey. What a luxury those crab dinners ! 
But what was that pleasure compared to the delight of our 
riper years, when we made the acquaintance of the inner life 
of these entertaining people, Lupa, Libinia, Pagurus, and 
others. We have spent many health-giving days with them 
at the "watering-places," and many hours in the drawing- 



262 SOMETHING ABOUT CRABS. 

room, they affording us abundant refined entertainment in 
return for our aquarian hospitality. 

A wonderful thing, so considered, is told in the court 
journals of the Empress Eugenie on public days ; how that 
she appears in sumptuous array, and then will disappear 
and in an incredibly short space of time reappear in an en- 
tiro and elaborate change of dress. Her admirers gaze as 
if it were magical. But suspended from the ceiling of the 
boudoir, garment within garment is the awaiting suit. The 
Empress has but to doff, and then to don, while many zeal- 
ous and tasteful fingers are busy all around— a little read- 
justment of her coiffure, and presto ! all is done ! and the 
changed creature is again among her astonished admirers. 
But suppose an old knight could put off as one unbroken 
suit his iron encasement, with not so much as the unlacing 
of his gear, and then on the nonce should appear in a new 
suit of mail of high finish and faultless fit,— would not this 
man in iron beat my dame in silk? And yet the knightly 
and the queenly feat are nowhere when we instance the ex- 
uviation and redressing of Mrs. Lupa dicantha, the common 
edible crab. During the first year of its life, this crab puts 
off its hard shelly encasing several times. That is to say, 
when a youngster, it requires several new suits. After the 
first year until it gains the fully matured age, an annual Bttfl 
suffices. When fully grown, its case is permanent. "We knew 
some years ago an old crabber, wholly illiterate, but whose 
intelligence was above the average. He had "crabbed" 
for the market many years. Often when supplying our 
family with fish, has he been closely questioned by us about 
the crabs, and always have his statements tallied one with 
another. In our noies occur the following in the fisherman'* 
own words : — "I hev ketched soft crabs for market many a 
year. The crab sheds every year, chiefly in early summer. 
At that time the he one is mighty kind to his mate. When 
she shows signs of shedding, the he one comes along and 
gits on the she one's back, quite tenderly-like, and entirely 



SOMETHING ABOUT CRABS. 263 

protects her from all enemies, whether of fishes, or of their 
own kind. She is now getting ready to shed, and is called 
a %hedder. Soon the back begins to burst nigh to the tail. 
She is then called a buster. The he one is then very anxious 
to find a good place for her, either by digging a hole in the 
sand or mud, or else looking up a good cover under some 
lea- weed. Here he brings her, all the time hovering nigh, 
and tl«.ing battle for her if anything comes along. She now 
— and it only takes a few minutes — withdraws from the 
old shell. And she comes out perfect, every part, even to 
the inside of the hairs, eyes and long feelers, almost like the 
whiskers of a cat. At the first tide she is fat, and the shell 
is soft, just like a thin skin. She is then called a soft shell, 
and it 's the first-tiders that bring the high price. At the 
second tide she is perfectly watery and transparent, and is 
called a buckler; but she is not worth much then. At the 
third tide she is again a hard shell, just as she always was, 
only bigger." 

"Have you seen all this with your own eyes?" we asked. 

"Lor, sir, yes, hundreds and hundreds of times." 

For the sake of contrast with these observations of an 
illiterate man, let us give the gist of an entertaining passage 
from Gosse : 

"Peering into a hole I saw a fine large crab. Though he 
made vigorous efforts to hold fast to the angles of his cave, 
I pulled him out, and carried him home. I noticed that 
there came out with him the claw of a crab of a similar size, 
but quite soft, which I supposed might have been carried 
n» there by my gentleman to eat, or accidentally washed in. 
After I had got him out— it was a male— I looked in and 
saw another at the bottom of the hole. Arrived at home I 
discovered that I had left my pocket-knife at the mouth of 
the crab-hole. I returned, the crab had not moved. I drew 
lt out, as I had done the others. But lo ! it was a soft crab, 
t] ie shell being of the consistence of wet parchment. It was 
a female, too, without any sign of spawn, and had lost one 



264 SOMETHING ABOUT CRABS. 

claw. I carefully put the helpless creature into the hole 

"What then are we to infer from this association? Do the 
common crabs live in pairs? And does one keep guard at 
the mouth of the cavern while its consort is undergoing its 
change of skin ? If this is the case it is a pretty trait of 
cancrine sagacity, and one not unworthy of their acute in- 
stinct and sagacity in other respects. I have no doubt that 
the claw of its mate was unintentionally torn off in its efforts 
to grasp some hold when resisting my tugs in dragging him 

See, then, the beautiful parallel — the simple remark of 
the illiterate observer, and the learned queries of the prac- 
tised naturalist. 

Not a little interest have we felt in an individual known to 
us as the "Sea Spider," or "Spider Crab." Wishing to make 
a good introduction for our friend, and as some who have no 
desire to know Mrs. John Smith might perhaps feel flattered 
if presented to the lady of Johannes Smythius, Esq., so we 
would say, that by Spider Crab, we mean no less a person- 
al:'!' than Libinia canaliculata. She is regarded by some 
as a pest on the oyster beds, and is accused of eating the 
oyster spat or young. How much truth there may be m 
this is to us unknown. At any rate we have never seen the 
slightest evidence to sustain the charge. We have regarded 
her appetencies as omnivorous. But, as our acquaintance 
has been chiefly in the drawing-room, it may be that there 
her tastes became fastidious. One peculiarity of habit is all 
that we have time to describe. The Spider Crab will grow 
as large as one's hand. A pet that we had a long time 
was only an inch wide across the shell. We must tell the 
truth, and say that her aspect was not the most tidy or even 
cleanly. Her back looked much as if she had taken a glue 
bath, and then, like a chicken, a dust bath afterwards. 
Through this agglutinous coat sundry small sharp spines 
appear. She does not covet society, and so withdraws to 



OUT CRABS. 265 

a cozy grotto, whose walls are green with the tender little 
fronds of the young sea-lettuce, the Ulva latissima, and the 
delicately crimped ribbon leaves of the Enieromorpha intes- 
tinalis. It did not please us much to see the pert Libinia, 
with her nippers like little shears, snipping off the velvet 
lining of the cave. Being indulgent we did not interfere, 
but left her to her own enjoyment. When we returned, out 
came Mrs. Libinia in full dress to greet us. On every spine 
of her uncouth carapace was a green ribbon, — all gracefully 
waving as she strutted in the open grounds of the establish- 
ment. What a sight to look at ! And what a lesson in ani- 
mal psychology ! What was the mental process ? Was it a 
device,— "n moving grove," like Macduff's, in order to de- 
ceive its prey? If so, what intelligence! Or, was it her 
vanity? Done just for the looks of the thing ! If so, what 
inexplicable caprice ! This fact we have seen ; and an intel- 
ligent aquarist friend assures us he has seen it a number of 
times. The English naturalists tell the same of their Sea 
Spider (Maia squinado). And one of them (Harper) even 
makes us almost believe that when this humor is upon it, it 
will even dance, or at least exercise a certain rythmic move- 
ment at the sound of music. Query ; has it that hardihood 
when it hears the refrain : 

If so, Madame Maia, may your gayety never be your rum. 
We can only introduce one more of these curious little 
creatures, and that must be the little Hermit Crab, the Pa- 
gurus longicarpus, so common on our shores. Though a 
recluse, for he lives in a vacated sea-shell all alone, yet of 
hermit gravity he has none. In fact he is constitutionally 
a funny fellow. This crab has his two hands, or claws, 
greatly larger than the others ; and of these, the right one 
is much stouter than the left. The next three pairs of claws 
behind are tipped with simple hooks, which having a con- 
siderable leverage power, are really efficient grapnels with 



^00 SOMETHING ABOUT CRABS. 

which to pull himself along when he travels, carrying his 
house on his hack; while the claws of the fifth or fast" pair 
are very diminutive, and yet have a beautiful structural 
relation, as they enable the animal to perform the small 
amount of movement needed by the body inside the shell. 
Behind all these limbs the body is entirely naked, hence the 
necessity of an empty sea-shell with which to cover it. On 
the extreme end of the naked body is an apparatus for tak- 
ing firm hold of the little column in the upper part of the 
shell. 

There is a queer monkey-like drollery in the looks of the 
Little Hermit. We had in our aquarium one of rather large 
size, and which occupied a shell of the required capacity. 
Of this specimen we were very proud. The shell on its 
upper part was ashen white, with a fine colony of Hvdrac- 
tinia, like tiny sea-daisies. And mystic beings they were; 
for by that strange law of parthenogenesis, they were the 
great-grandparents of those huge and splendid creatures, 
the gorgeous Acalephs ! We had also a little Hermit in a 
small JVassa obsoleta. And what about this young scape- 
grace, whom we soon almost wished obsolete? On he came, 
and climbed right up into this pretty parterre, and having 
secured himself with his grapnels on top of his neighbor's 
house, most deliberately, now with the right claw, and now 
with the left, he pulled off my weesome pets, stowing 
them into his ugly mug with a movement so regular, that it 
seemed almost rythmical, and yet so cruelly comical, that it 
made me most laughably mad. 

But the Hermit grows, while the sea-shell which he occu- 
pies does not. Hence like many bipeds, he has his "first of 
May." So he goes house-hunting. This must be under- 
stood literally. He finds a shell. Will it do? First then 
is it really "to let." He will "inquire within." This he 
does, if not the most courteously, very feelingly. Satisfied 
on this point, the next question is, will the house suit. He 
turns it over, then turns it around. You see the weight of 



SOMETHING ABOUT CRABS. 267 

one's house is quite an item in the reckoning to him who 
has to carry it on his back. One inspection more. How is 
it inside? Is it entirely empty, and is it of the right size? 
Up goes one of the long slender limbs of the second pair. 
and the interior is thoroughly explored. All right ! Just 
the house he is after. His mind is now made up to move. 
Look at him ! Quick ! or you'll miss it ! Out comes the 
body from the old house, and pop it goes into the new one ! 
The resolution to move was taken, the surrender of the old 
house was made, and the occupancy of the new was effected, 
and all within a fraction of a second of time. 

Sometimes this matter goes on less pleasantly. Two 
house-hunters may find the same tenement. Should both 
desire it then comes the tug of war. Live together they 
neither can, nor will. The affair is settled by a battle, in 
which the stronger usually proves, his claim right by the 
Garlyleian logic and morals, viz., might. Quite often from 
these encounters a terrible mutilation results. 
^ To us it is a sad sight to see the Little Hermit, when "his 
tune has come," and he knows it; that is when Pagurns 
must die. However droll his career may have been, the 
Little Hermit is grave then. Arid what a strange fact it is ! 
Who can explain it ? The poor little fellow comes out of 
his house to die ! Yes, in order to die. To us humans 
home is the only right place to die in. But for Pagurns 
home has no attraction at this solemn time. Is it because 
he feels encoffined that he comes out* that "his feet may be 
111 a wide place?" Poor fellow, with a sad look and melan- 
choly movement, he of his own will quits the house for 
^hich he fought so well. Those antennas, or feelers, that 
often stood out so provokingly, and were so often poked 
into everybody's business, now in a feeling manner lie prone 
111,1 harmless. The eyes have lost their pertness. There lies 
the houseless Hermit on that mossy rock, stone dead ! 

The human side of these lowly creatures, as unfolded by 
close observation of their habits, is much better understood 



ABOUT CRABS. 

in England than with us. Our naturalists seem to be chiefly 
occupied with the study of structure. When their habits are 
better understood we shall doubtless learn something which 
as yet are only known of foreign species. One of these we 
would instance in closing. 

The Hermit, as its name imparts, loves solitude so for as 
the occupancy of its shell is concerned. There is an English 
species, Prideaux' Hermit, that seems to take Patrick's view 
of seclusion : "Its very nice to be all alone by one's self, 
especially if one has his sweetheart with him." So this 
Hermit believes in having for a companion the dressy Cloak- 
let Actinia ; nor will he live without her. And if form and 
color be considered, remarkably recherche is this Sea-ane- 
mone. Her form adapts her to surround the shell mouth 
like a frill, while her disk is of waxy white, and the rest is 
elegantly varied with reddish-brown, rose-purple and scarlet. 
This gorgeous creature adheres around the entrance of the 
Hermit's shell, so that his lookout is from a mantel richer 
than any field of cloth-of-gold. But when the Hermit has 
outgrown his house, and moving-day comes, does he leave 
his beautiful though helpless companion? No, a better gal- 
lantry is his. He causes her to loose her long adherence to 
the shell's mouth, and to cleave to the underside of his tho- 
rax. In this way he carries her with him to their new home. 
And what then? Most tenderly he places her in position, 
and holds her there until a good adhesion of the base takei 
effect, when she with* her protector, is snugly domiciled 
again. These facts are given in pleasant detail by Gosse, 
from whom we quote the following : 

"Is there not here much more than what our modern phys- 
iologists are prone to call automatic movements, the results 
of reflex sensorial action? The more I study the lower 
animals, the more firmly am I persuaded of the exi 
them of psychical faculties, such as consciousness, intelli- 
gence, will and choice ! and that, even in those forms in 
which as yet no nervous centers have been detected." 



SHELL DREDGING. 269 

Thus ends our history of these cancrine Crustacea, as the 
naturalists call them, namely, the crabs. Our hope has been 
that the reader does not regard it as crusty, cancer-ous, or 



SHELL DREDGING. 



A strong arm and an immunity from sea-sickness are 
among the important requisites of a good dredger. To one 
who has pulled up a well-filled dredge from fifteen or twenty 
fathoms, the necessity of a strong arm is obvious, especially 
if this act has been attended with the not unusual accompa- 
niments of a rough sea, and a cold breeze which stiffens the 
fingers while grasping the wet rope. One can only pity those 
who are sea-sick, for they are helpless. 

In dredging one oftentimes enjoys the keenest pleasure, 
attended with the greatest bodily discomforts. The miseries 
we will not mention. The delights come when the contents 
of the dredge are sifted, and there lies before you the only 
treasures of the deep ; treasures that can be obtained in no 
other way. It is true that many deep-water species of shells 
are obtained from the stomachs of the haddock, cod and 
other fishes, particularly from the haddock, which seems to 
live principally on mollusks. Specimens procured from this 
source are generally impaired by the action of the juices of 
the stomach. The beauty of dredging consists in getting 
the objects in their living condition : and then you may keep 
them alive in sea-water for some time, and see them crawl 
about and watch their singular ways. 

A dredge should not be too large, perhaps sixteen inches 
across the mouth. The frame is made of a flat bar of iron, 
an inch in width and an eighth of an inch in thickness, one 
edge of which should be hammered sharp and turned out, to 



form the scraping edge, as represented in the cut at the close 
of this article. The other edge must be drilled with small 
holes an inch apart, to which a stout cloth bag is to be 
sewed. It is well to have the sides of the bag made of 
netting so that the water may drain from it quickly. The 
iron shanks are to be fastened to the dredge, as shown ill 
the figure. A dredge of this shape, however it falls, when 
drawn slowly along, is sure to scrape up the mud. It 
is well to have for a rope a good strong one of manila- 
hemp, and this should be well secured to the dredge. It is 
necessary to have the length of the rope more than twice 
the depth you intend to dredge in ; thus, if you were to 
dredge in ten fathoms, you should be provided with at least 
twenty-five fathoms of rope, as it is necessary to give the 
dredge sufficient "slack" in order that it may drag properly. 
Should the dredge meet with any obstacle, it can generally 
be liberated by retracing the track passed over, 
the dredge in an opposite direction. It is well to add that 
a row-boat is best to dredge from, that is for light dredges, 
as you want to move very slowly through the water. A fine 
sieve is necessary to sift out the mud, a few pails in which to 
empty the contents of the dredge, and some large-mouthed 
vials in which to save the animals alive. 

After a little experience in dredging you will notice that 
certain species live on certain "bottoms." Thus, if your 
dredge comes up filled with mud, you must sift the mud 
carefully, and from it you will find certain forms different 
from those you may dredge from a sandy bottom. It is well 
to examine your sieve often, that the smaller specie- may 
not be washed away. Sometimes the dredge will come up 
filled with stones ; do not throw these away in disgust, but 
examine each stone carefully, and clinging to them you will 
find several species of shells found in no other way. One 
species, called Cemoria Noachina (PL 4, figs. 2, 3), is like 
a very small limpet, with a little hole in its top from which 
radiate little ribs, giving the shell a very elegant appearance 



SHELL DREDGING. 271 

under the magnifier. Then there are certain species of 
shells (Chiton, PI. 4, fig. 1) which cling to the stones, limpet- 
like, but instead of having a shell of one piece covering 
their Lack, the shell is compose] of eight transverse pieces, 
one lapping over the other. When detached from the rock 
they often roll up like a pill-bug. On the eastern coast of 
Maine there is one large species which can be taken from 
the rocks at low-water mark. The species dredged in Mas- 
sachusetts Bay are generally small ; one or two of them are 
brightly colored with shades of red. 

Two other species called Velutina (PL 4, figs. 4, 5) are 
often found adhering to the rocks brought up in this man- 
ner. By for the most beautiful and interesting animals are 
contained in the little cells which often cover the rocks from 
deep water. They are arranged in little patches like mats, 
some species making a perfectly circular figure, others cov- 
ering the rocks in irregular patches. These belong to the 
lowest gnmp of mollusks, and are called Polyzoa. " Under 
the microscope the mass is seen composed of little cells, 
arranged like the stones in a pavement. Each one of these 
cells has a little opening protected by a small lid, which 
opens to allow the animal within to protrude a tuft of minute 
feelers. It would require too long a time to show the affin- 
ity of these animals to the clam and oyster, yet they are 
among the lowest forms of this group. There are many 
f coast, some of which have been described as 






tilar to Bri* 



^Ve figure on Plate 4 several species of shells one is likely 
to dredge on our Xew England coast, though representing 
bat a small portion of the species that may be found, 
and we may mention here, with propriety, that the State 
°f Massachusett with that liberality that has always char- 
acterized the acts of its legislature— has now in preparation 
a new edition of "Gould's Report on the Invertebrate ani- 
mals of the State." This book, when published, will contain 
carefully engraved figures of all the species of shells found 



272 SHELL DREDGING. 

within its limits, and the marine species alone (containing 
all the animals that belong to the branch of mollusca, though 
many have no hard calcareous shells) number three hundred 
and sixteen. Several of these are cuttle-fishes, and there 
are many mollusks which have no shells, the branchia or 
gills being naked; hence they are called Nudibranchia. 
They comprise the most beautiful animals in the branch of 
Mollusca, for certain species are very brilliantly colored. 

The species figured on the plate are among the few that 
the collector is likely to bring up while dredging in our bays 
and inlets, in depths of from ten to fifteen fathoms. Should 
he be ambitious to throw his dredge into depths of fifty or 
one hundred fathoms, many other species will be secured 
that he could not get in water of less depth. 

The outlines given will be found sufficiently accurate to 
enable the collector to identify the species represented. Fig. 
1 represents Chiton albus; the shell is not quite half an incn 
in length ; it is generally a dead white color. Figs. 4 and 5 
represent Velutina haliotoides and V. zonata, the latter dif- 
fering from the former in having a more solid shell, and 
in having the shell marked with bands of brown. Fig. 6 is 
the JVatica immaculata, a pure white shell of the size repre- 
sented; very common. Fig. 13 represents another species, 
Mztica clausa; color from a white to a dark reddish brown. 
The little lid that closes the aperture of most marine shells 
is in this species white and shelly, and not of the horny 
consistency characterizing the opercula of most shells in our 
region. Pandora trilineata (Fig. 24) is easily distinguished 
by its white pearly color, and the manner in which the valves 
are pressed together. Lyonsia hyalina (Fig. 20) has a very 
fragile translucent shell covered with radiating wrinkle*. 
Thyasira Gouldii (Fig. 18) has a delicate white shell, along 
one margin of which is a deep fold. The shell of Astarte 
castanea (Fig. 22) is quite solid, aud chestnut-colored. I* 
is found abundantly in Provincetown harbor at low water. 
Astarte sulcata (Fig. 25) is known by its strongly marked 



SHELL DREDGIXG. Z i 6 

concentric ridges. t The color in young specimens is very 
light-brown ; in old ones the shell is of a brownish olive 
color. Cardita borealls (Fig. 28) has a brownish shell with 
the ribs crenulated. Cardhnn pinmdatum (Fig. 33) has a 
dingy white shell, ornamented with about twenty-five ribs, 
each of which has a series of little scales. Toldia UmatmU 
(Fig. 30) has a beautifully polished shell, of a light green 
color. The hinge is complicated by a number of long sharp 
teeth, so closely interlocked, that it is difficult to separate 
the valves without breaking them. Tellhm tenera (Fig. 31) 
has a white iridescent shell. Sum!., tenuis (Fig. 27) is 
smooth and green in color. Sucula delphinodmta (Fig. 29) 
is brownish green. All the Nuculas have the same peculiar 
hinge of numerous interlocking teeth. Orenetta glandula 
(Fig. 26) has a brownish vellow shell, marked with minute 
radiating lines. IWchraHdhut septerdnonalts (Fig. 32), 



though appar. 


sntly 


related to 


, the other b 


ivalvcs, is 


widcly 


different from 


then 


i and belo 


ngs to anothe: 


r order; t 


lie shell 


is secured to 


the 


bottom, ge 


nerally on st 


ones, by ; 


i fleshy 


peduncle whic 


h pa.- 




rh a hole in 


the uppei 


• valve. 


Derdalhim sir 


iolath 


>.m (Fig. 9 


) has a shell like a long 


curved 


tapering tube, 


. Scalaria Grt 


ridaiidka (Fi: 


jr. 12) has 


a shell 


that looks moi 


re life 


p a tropical species than 


a denizen 


of our 


cold northern 


wate 


rs. The j 


shell is very a 


[tractive, - 


with its 


turreted spire 




ded by pr 




It is rel 


ated to 


the foreign s 






ilv called the "Wentle 


trap," 


which formed 


v bro 


il-lit fabul- 


>us prices am 


long shell collee- 


tors. Margu 


rita i 


indxdata ( 


Fig. \i\) is one of our most 


beautiful mari 


ine -i 


lells. Th< 


; color of the 




n fresh 


is rose-red w 


ith a 


pearly lu 

'•inerea ( Fi 


stre. Another species 


of this 


geuus, Marga 




ig. 17), is asl 


iv white. 


There 


ai'e several sf 




on the cos 

isily identi 


hvi. an cy/c/» 


■*so charac 
ut alba (F 


v"*), 


is bluish white 


■• 1 


\irriteUa ei 


•o,a(Fig.H) 


has a pale 


brown 


shell, and Odostomx 


'a producta (Fig. 10) In 


t s a light 


brown- 


colored shell. 


Bela haqmlarh 


a (Fig. 7) is b 


rowmsh m 


i color, 



and fif'ht tim-kitla (Fig. 8) is thin and pure white. Trito- 
nitim j)i/;/rmeititt (Fig. 14) is yellowish white. Athuete viri- 
dula (Fig. 15) is white. Trichotropis borealis (Fig. 21) is 
yellowish in color. Aj)on-/«tt'x occideufoh's (Fig. 19) is one 
of the most singular shells that we have. It is rare on our 
coast, but is common towards Newfoundland. 

We must bear in mind that the species mentioned nrc a 
few among the many that most likely will be collected in 
dredging on our coast. 




Literature in 1867- 



imme of the Unh Ei >r 1868, by Prof, 

ume, for 1867, of the Proceedings of the Society of Sci- 

egian Metropolis the first named of which is of unusual 

ny valuable works with which Prof. Sars has enriched 

y one of the most preeious. and justly so from the great 
to this topic, partly from the great, one might say, 

I structure in th -eribed. He has 



Hiy,dis 


over. 


d by the younger Sars in the abysses of 




(68° north latitude), and 


now described under the name of Rhi 




!■•>/•*' usi,: Four e 


vcell. 


ltly engraved plates are devoted to the illus- 


Nation of the elabo 




escription. The memoir is written en 


irely in 






re, perhaps, be thought superfluous to 








the more as it will be easily accessible through 




Univ 


rsity of Christiania, to all societies, etc 








with this eminent institution. But as 




Perhaps be desirabl 




the knowledge of the discovery of so 




a ble an animal shot 


< l r 


t, referring for a more coini 


mmi. 1 


excellent work of tl 


e learned author itself. This crinoid has pri 


■ 






rom one hundred to three hi 




the locality stated a 




vhere it appears to live socially. A sin;. 


le dead 






or to the south, in the bay of Trondje 




found -f • elghty * 




. Carpenter and Wyville Thomson ha 


ve al>o 



Irawn. There are no "pinnules ovules.'' In a - - 
lowermost "pinnulse" showed the Incipi 



NATURAL HISTORY MISCELLANY. 

1 accordance with that of Antedon. The s 



le enlightenec 
"Proceedings 



capable of _• . 

to the geology of Norway ( 
% the discovery of gold and 
l however apparently not un 



to., and a ili>< 



ions of a Serie 
remains." The 

the Clyde dist: 



from this side of the Atlant 
- Copenhagen. 



NATURAL HISTORY MISCELLANY. 



ZOOLOGY. 
Finner Whale. — The Academy o 
>d the perfect skeleton of a whale fro 
mer, of the genus Sibbnhlius Gray, a 



-Edward D. 



larpenter and Prof. "\ 



■ . and r wow'. 



RAL HISTORY 3IISCELI 
' placing a shrl 



)ung man recently shot a deer of splendid 



.. 7 



Si5£;2£ 



w-, itye, N. Y. 

Jelly-fishes. — M. Hseckel has described some fossil 
tonging to the groups DNeophora and Rhizostomida. fn: 

1 Robins. — Two albinos of the robin were presented to th 

v. 



PROCEEDINGS OF SCIENTIFIC SOCIETIES. 



th an able corps of officers. 
SPONDENTS. 



AMERICAN NATURALIST. 

Vol. III. -AUGUST, 1889. -No. 6. 
RAMBLES IN FLORIDA. 



Florida, the "Land of Flowers," the enchanted ground 
wherein it has been said Ponce de Leon sought for the 
"fountain of perpetual youth," is not far away ; the fountain, 
quite likely, is as remote as ever, but the land which it was 
said to bless with its everflowing and rejuvenating waters, 
can be reached after a journey of a few days from New 
York, by steamship if the traveller is not uupleasautly 
affected by a sea- voyage, or, if the apprehension of "rough 
weather off Hatteras" should make a different route prefer- 
able, then by rail to Charleston, thence by steamer over 
waters generally smooth to Fernandina, stopping on the way 
at Savannah just long enough to look about and obtain a 
general idea of the place. 

Fernandina, situated on Amelia Island, is the principal 
Jown upon the east coast of Florida, and of - importance, 
bei "g the eastern terminus of a line of railway which con- 
nects the Atlantic Ocean with the Gulf of Mexico. Its pop- 
nation is not far from fifteen hundred. At first sight it is 
messing, but a walk about the place reveals many 
b «ildings of pleasing architecture hidden among the trees. 



Within a small enclosure not far from the la 
. . . forefather of the hamlet sleeps." Upc 
stone ma}' be seen the name of 



Senor Fernandez, it is presumed, never found the fabled 
fountain, or, drinking of its waters they were powerless to 
avert the inevitable doom of man. The morning was pleas- 
ant; the sun shone brightly ; it lighted up the cross and gave 
roundness to the skull and bones that are carved above his 
name. From an oak near by the Spanish moss hung droop- 
ing midway to the ground, casting a filmy shadow, and 
hiding a choir of mocking-birds,* who filled the air with 

Leaving the grave of Fernandez and following the streets, 
a careful search in the loose sand of which they are com- 
posed will disclose fragments of pottery of the size of a 
penny, perhaps a part of the debris of some aboriginal tribe 
once camped hereabout, the souvenirs of a race, of whose 
history how little is known If Farther on is an ancient 
mound of large size, nearly three hundred yards in circum- 
ference. Undisturbed ten years ago its surface was as the 
builders left it, but its slopes and summit were so changed, 
through the military purposes for which it was used during 
the recent civil war, that its original proportions are de- 



About a mile from the town towards the ocean is the 
lighthouse, built upon somewhat elevated ground, forming 
with the adjacent buildings and moss-festooned oaks, a bit 
of highly picturesque and pleasing scenery. 

Between the lighthouse and the road to the beach, not far 
distant, is another mound in the centre of an ancient camp- 
ing ground, the latter covered with bleaching shells, the 
remnants of unrecorded clam-bakes and oyster-feasts. This 
mound is much smaller than the first, only about one hun- 
dred yards in circumference and about fifteen feet in height ; 
it was covered with trees and shrubs,* the largest of the 
former being perhaps nine inches in diameter ; their roots 
penetrating the loose material of which the mound is com- 
posed, and in their ramifications wound and twisted among 
the skeletons of unknown men whose decayed bones crum- 
bled at a touch. Stone implements were found, and in the 
iWToniidbg field fragments of earthen- ware less perishable 
than the hands that made them. 

From here to the ocean the path lies through a low and, 
in some places, dense growth of Saw-palmetto, f interspersed 
with one or more species of Cactus. The leaf-stalks of the 
former have sharp points along the edges, hence the name ; 
aud the prickly Cactacece may be considered the porcupines 
and hedgehogs of the vegetable kingdom. Though painful 
to the touch and dangerous to the apparel they should not be 
denounced; many of the Cacti, as well as of the Pahnacece, 
to which family the Saw-palmetto belongs, bear delicious 
fruit, and some species of Cacti are the feeding parks of the 
insect,! from which the celebrated scarlet dyestuff, known as 
cochineal, is derived. 



284 RAMBLES IN FLORIDA. 

Without enlarging upon the merits of the Palms and 
Cacti, which would require a volume, we will consider the 
species we have encountered as unworthy representatives of 
noble families, and proceed upon our way. 

It is hard work tor cither man or beast toiling through 
shifting Bands, but pressing on we soon achieve the summit 
of the mimic mountain range, which the wind and sea 
always pile up on the landward side of the shore. Descend- 
ing the slope we are nice to face with old ocean, whose maj- 
esty, whether in storm or calm, is ever impressive; the sea* 
is smooth, the surf beats gently on the beach. We pause 
a while to admire the glories of sky and water ; to ponder 
upon the mysteries of life and form that dwell within the 
broad blue bosom of the deep ; to peer into the hazy beauty 
of the atmosphere which hangs like a curtain at the remote 
horizon, implying hidden and greater beauty beyond; to 
note the distant sails of coming or departing ships ; or watch 
the gulls riding upon the ripples like tiny shallops at anchor ; 
to recall how in the north the wintry winds nipped us on 
New Year's day, only a week or two ago, and how bland 
and genial are the breezes here ; to behold at our feet as we 
follow the more recent drift-rows, the rejected treasures 
which the sea has cast aside, forms different from any that 
we have elsewhere found, and each curious in its way. 

There are but few sea-weeds (algce) on the beach, and not 
many species of shells ; of some of the species, however, 
many individuals can be obtained. Here are numerous 
specimens of the Fan Mussels (JPinna). What is written 
of the lilies of the field, "they toil not, neither do they 
spin." dues not apply to them; for these submarine weavers 
spin a byssus, or beard, by which they attach themselves 
to the bottom of the sea : the byssus serves as a mooriug 
cable, and its fibres are tubular, like human hair. When 
fresh and flexible, gloves and stockings can be woven from 
it, and at Tarento it is manufactured into articles of wear 
"According to Verany the byssus is a successful remedy 



RAMBLES IN FLORIDA. 285 

for the earache, but he does not say in what manner it is 
applied."* Pinna rudis, an English species, is sometimes 
eaten, and Henry and Arthur Adams also mention that 
some species are used for food.f 

A dead fish, half eaten by the birds, is not an attractive 
object; it is in an unsavory state, but doubtless its scales 
would, under a microscope, astonish us with many linos of 
beauty. The butterflies, so unlike the fishes in form and 
habits, also have minute scales, hence the metallic lustre 
and brilliancy of their coloring ; impalpable to the naked 
eve, their tiny scales resemble the pollen of flowers. Co- 
lumbus "gave a new world to Castile and Leon :" but think 
of the world of enchantment, of the precious treasures that 
the microscope has opened to all. 

A thin slice cut from a spine of the Sea-urchin (Echinus) 
that we have just picked up, if magnified, would furnish a 
Partial insight to the wonders of its plan of structure. 

We find the oblong pouch-like egg-cases of a species of 
okate (Raid) quite common. The texture and color of these 
pouches are such, that a person not knowing would sooner 
suppose that in some way they rather belonged to the sea- 
weeds, perhaps the pod of a species of Alga, than pertain- 
ln g to the fishes. If we were strolling along the shores of 
California or Europe we should meet with the same queer 
forms. In England the people call them "pixy-purses," 
"feiry- purseS) » etc> A S p ec i es f Dog-fish (ScijUium) makes 
a similar purse-like egg-case, with long strings at the cor- 
ners. The Skate-fishes are eaten in England, and appear in 
of the Italian fish-market in San Francisco, the 
Californian species may generally be found, but they are 
eaten only by the foreign population. The common English 
. kate sometimes attains the weight of two hundred pounds ; 
lfc is used by the fishermen for bait. 

♦Jeffreys. 



The skates and dog-fishes are not the only marine animals 
that make curious egg-cases. We have here three species 
of univalve shells, called by the Floridians. Concha* (Busy- 
con\), which also make egg-cases. Each case is round and 
flat, about one-half to three-fourths of an inch in diameter, 
and one-sixth of an inch in thickness ; the edge of each flat 
case is coarsely ribbed or milled, and numbers of them are 
strung together, only they are immovable upon the string. 
which is situated upon one side or edge, instead of being 
central as in a bead necklace. These egg-chains are some- 
times two feet in length, and the cases are frequently bored 
into by different species of carnivorous mollusks to obtain 
the contents for food. These Couch animals were probably 
eaten by the aborigines, as we find the shells quite numerous 
in their Kjiekkenmu'ddings ; they are now sometime- eaten 
by both the whites and negroes of Florida, but from appear- 
ances they must be tough chewing, and as indigestible as a 
rubber boot. 

At the edge of the beach, rolling in the surf-ripples, i 
large fleet of Ark shells is coming ashore ; these prettily 
ribbed bivalves look like the Cockles (Oardium), but the 
animal and the hinge are quite different. The velvety epi- 
dermis which generally covers the surface has been worn on 
by the friction of sand and water in the surf, exposing the 
clean white fabric of the shells ; lighted by the sun they 
look like a squadron of little dismasted hulls. Two of 
the three species that we have here obtained are widel} 
di-iributed. and may be picked up near Galveston, on the 
Gulf of Mexico. Some of the family may be found in 
every sea, and many species are used for food. The ani- 
mal of Area grandis, which is found in the Bay of Panama- 
is eaten by the natives : a single valve of this giant Ark 



RAMBLES IN FLORIDA. 287 

sometimes weighs two and a quarter pounds. Odd valves 
of the Ark shells are found in the shellheaps, but are not 

A mile and a half from where the road enters the beach 
are the remains of two wrecks ; the planking of the decks 
and sides has long ago been broken up and swept away by 
the sea, and the timbers projecting from the sands resemble 
the ribs of some gigantic mammal. No vestige of name is 
left ; their wooden skeletons tell of fierce storms, when wind 
and waves, acting in unison, hurled ships and shells, and 
sea- weeds, like weightless bubbles, upon the beach. A 
wreck is a sad sight, but the crevices of au old hulk are a 
fine field for the naturalist, for many forms of marine life 
have a home therein. Here we found a tiny species of Mus- 
Bel (MytUus cubitus), and a new species of Siphonaria, a 
univalve shell shaped like a small shield, with elevated lines 
°r ribs radiating from centre to circumference. 

Without farther enumerating or explaining the prizes that 
are ours through the bounty of old ocean, we must retrace 
our steps towards the road, for the sun has so nearly set 
that its level rays are shining in our eyes. With baskets 
and pockets packed and full we jog along, stopping occa- 
sionally to pick up a fine specimen of a white bivalve shell, 
Dosinia discus, which is very abundant, thanks to a storm 
which threw them high and dry above the reach of ordinary 
tides. The Fish-crows ( Coitus ossifragus) and a large spe- 
cies of Blackbird ( Quiscalus baritus) are running over the 
wet sands, stooping sometimes to pick up some tit-bit for 
their suppers. Bidding them good-bye, we hurry on, and 
after a weary walk of what seemed many miles, made longer 
b y the toilsome tug through sand and chapparal, we reach 
our haven; tired as dogs (at times are said to he) we gladly 
cast aside our packs, and after a refreshing wash, rush to 
supper, with appetites as keen as hungry wolves ! 

The evenings here are chilly, amf a fire of the Pitch-pine 
wood (Pinus palustris Linn.) is pleasant, aside from the 



2S.S 



MONSTROSITIES AMONG TROUT. 



warmth, for its bright flames fill the room with a cheerful 

% h * How glorious is sleep after a day 

of toil ; of toil, yet still of pleasure. How gently it de- 
scends upon us, how quietly we yield to its embrace; it 
touches the drowsy eye, and we feel that 



MONSTROSITIES AMONG TROUT. 



The egg of a fish consists of an enveloping membrane 
conl in 1 the yolk or vitellus. The first step in the devel- 
opment of the egg is the formation of innumerable cells on 
the surface of the vitellus, which are closely packed together, 
and form a new membrane or layer surrounding the vitellus. 
The next sign of organization is the thickening and conden- 
sation of one spot of this new layer. The thickened part 
has an elongated oval shape, and in its centre, running longi- 
tudinally, is a delicate line or furrow. 

This is the first beginning of the fish. The backbone of 
the fish is formed around this furrow. The anterior extrem- 
ity spreads to become the cavity of the brain, and the tail 
grows from the posterior end. The yolk remains enclosed 
in the new layer as in a sac ; as the fish grows this sac be- 
comes constricted, so that the upper part of it is taken up 
into the body of the fish, while the lower part remains hang- 
ing out, and is called the umbilical vesicle, and it is in this 
condition that the fish is hatched. He is attached to the 
upper part of the umbilical vesicle, which being too heavy 
for him to move, he remains anchored by it, as it were, at 
the bottom of the stream, wriggling only his head and tail. 
The fish is fed by the absorption of "the contents of the vesi- 



MONSTROSITIES AMONG TROUT. 289 

which decreases every day as he grows larger. After 
3 days he is large enough to swim about with the vesicle 
a- him, and at the end of forty to fifty days the sac is no 
er to be seen, and the fish swims freely about. 
II fish, however, are not perfect and oftentimes deformed 
are met with. Sometimes, instead of there being one 
only attached to ail umbilical vesicle, there are two; 
two separate ones, but two heads attached to one body, 



Mown m 1 igs. 47 and 48. This curious r§\f\ f\ 

partial duplication of the fish takes place \ |\L J I 

111 the egg long before it is hatched, and \ i \ !<£*! 

is due, probably, to a bifurcation of the \ ? . j 7^ 

furrow around which the backbone of the ^\W I ¥ 

&* is formed. The cells of the thick- U U \| 

ened oral spot, instead of forming one A/1 

straight furrow, for some reason or other ^ I 



As far as has been observed it is always the anterior part 
hich is duplicated. No one bodv with two tails has been 
,U »<1. The tail remains sin-le while the head and body are 
™bled; and this duplication varies from a partial division 

the head only to two nearlv complete fish, with different 
*«», and hearts, and stomachs, and whose hearts do not 
'en beat together, though the circulation in the tail must 
1 con ""on to both. On the other hand the head alone may 
j»* signs of duplication. One young fish was found in 

om this had extended only to the partial division of the 
ad - Of the four eyes the two middle ones were not com- 
ply separated ; they looked something like a figure of 8 
1 lts side - Generally one of the half fish is larger and 
* 011 ger than the other, as seen in Fig. 48, and carries the 
laller one off wherever it will, notwithstanding the appa- 
Ut effort of the smaller one to go somewhere else. 






proved that the egg 



her on the end of a stiek. Her eggs "were kept apart, and 
out of about two thousand there were sixteen deformed fish, 
or one to one hundred and twenty-live eggs. Certain fish 

these monstrosities, and were we to ask for the cause of this, 
we should probably have to look for it in some anomaly of 
the ovary of the fish which produces the eggs. 

A deformity more common than the double fish is an 

apparent curvature of the spine. The fish instead of being 

straight, with the umbilical ve.-dcle under him, is curved 

Fig. «►. roimd so that its tail turns mi(] er, and sonie- 

/ ^ 2 ^%. times touches the under surface of the sac 

(V^U ^Oe^^brM 4 Th^^obli"ed 
^ G to swim oHhc^sIX !'att tuZ 'round 'aid 



in his "Fish Hatchin-." He il.. r- ^^-i- thai hump^acK^ 
deformity may have been caused by pressure during then- 
above, however, there was no transport, the ova being taken 
from the fish on the spot. 

Out of two thousand salmon ova hatched at Messrs. Dex- 
ter & Co's fish-farm, there were no deformities, but in another 
lot of about the same number there were two double-headed 
specimens just hatched out. 



THE COW BLACKBIRI 



Parasitic animals are, for the most part, confined to the 
lower grades of life. Among the Articulates they constitute 
whole groups; they are less numerous in the Radiates and 
Mollusea, and when we arrive at the Vertcbrata we tind very 
few animals of this nature. As a general rule, the parasit- 
ism in these higher types is less complete than in the lower 
species. Of parasitic birds there are very few examples, 
Wth America possessing but a single species, the well- 
known Molothrus jpecoris, whose history we shall briefly 
sketch. 

The Cow-bird, as it is generally called, is spread over the 
whole continent, from the Atlantic to the Pacific, and from 
Mexico to Hudson's Bay. It winters in the Southern States, 
ii'oui Virginia southward into Mexico, frequenting the old 
coin and rice fields, or gathering in small flocks around the 
cattle in pastures. About the middle of March it begins to 
appear in the neighborhood of Xew York, at first only a few 
appearing in company with the Eed-winged and Crow Black- 
oil 'ds. hut by the end of March or beginning of April, as 
soon as the spring becomes somewhat settled, they become 
a ,,,n id ant. They are now seen in numerous small flocks of 
from five to twenty, of which the females comprise at least 
two-thirds. These small flocks, or parties, continue in the 
neighborhood of New York until about the middle or end of 
June, according to the season, after which time none are 
seen except, perhaps, a female or two. Towards the early 
part of September they reappear in numerous flocks of from 
fi % to five hundred individuals, or even more. They now 
scatter themselves over the fields, frequenting for the greater 
Part of the time the pastures, where they feed upon the 
swarms of inserts that are constantly to be found in the 

(291) 



292 THE COW BLACKBIRD. 

vicinity of herds of cattle. Later in the fall they some- 
times associate with the Red-wings, which have now also 
gathered into flocks. About the middle of October they 
leave us for the South. 

Like the European Cuckoo, the Cow Blackbird lays its 
eggs in the nests of other birds, never building one for 
itself. It usually selects the nest of a bird smaller than 
itself, and never forcibly drives away the rightful owners in 
order to take possession itself, but waits until they are 
absent, and then secretly and (piiekly deposits the egg. 
Among the birds who are thus victimized are the Red-eyed 
and White-eyed Vireos, the Maryland Yellow-throat, the 
Bluebird, Indigo-bird, Chipping and Song Sparrows, Yellow 
Warbler, Golden-crowned, Wilson's, and Wood Thrushes, 
Blue-gray Flycatcher, Yellowbird, Towhee Bunting, Black 
and White Creeper, Purple Finch and Bay-winged Bunting. 
The favorites are the Maryland Yellow-throat, the summer 
Yellowbird, and the Vireos. 

The egg of the Cow Blackbird is of a dirty white, thickly 
sprinkled with spots and dashes of reddish brown. Some 
of these spots are darker than others, and different eggs 
often show some slight variations in color, as is generally 
the case, indeed, with all tted eggs. 

One egg is the most ordinary number in the same nest, 
but occasionally there are two, one of which, Audubon ob- 
serves, usually proves addled. I never heard of more than 
two instances where there were more than two eggs of the 
Cow-bird in a single nest. Prof. Baird and Dr. Brewer 
once found three eggs in a nest of the Black and White 
Creeper, and I once had the good fortune to discover a nest 
of the same bird containing five eggs of the parasite, to- 
gether with three of her own. In the latter case, incubation 
had begun, and all of the eggs contained embryos. 

The young Cow Bunting usually breaks the shell a short 
time before the other occupants of the nest, who, from this 
and the fact that they are smaller and weaker 



THE COW BLACKBIRD. 293 

than their intruding nest-mate, almost always perish. In the 
latter part of May, and during Jtme, the young Cow-birds 
may be seen flitting through the woods and orchards; but at 
this time of the year they do not frequent the open fields as 
the adult birds do. They do not entirely disappear until 
July, when most of the small birds have raised their first 
broods. In September they return in flocks along with the 
old birds. They do not attain their full plumage until the 
following spring. 

It is not often that the Cow-bird lays her egg in an empty 
nest, but I have known of one or two instances of the kind. 
In such cases the owner always, as far as I can learn, deserts 
her nest. But if, as is almost always the case, she has laid 
one or two eggs before the parasite has deposited her's, she 
will generally remain, though often with apparent reluc- 
tance. Some birds, however, will often desert their nests 
even if they have laid in them first, as the Song Sparrow 
and Wood Thrush. At times some birds show great inge- 
nuity in getting rid of the intruding egg, by building a 
second floor to the nest, above the egg, thus completely 
covering it up. The Yellow Warbler, a frequent victim of 
the Bunting, often adopts this method of freeing herself 
from the annoying parasite; and I have known the Song 
Sparrow to adopt the same plan. An instance is on record 
in which a Yellow Warbler, having built a second floor to 
her nest over an egg of the Cow-bird, found another egg of 
the same bird laid upon her second story, whereupon she 
went to work again and built a third floor over the second 
egg. I have known the Cow Bunting to lay her egg on the 
second story of a nest, but the bird, in this instance, de- 
serted her nest, 

The notes of the Cow Blackbird are not many in number, 
n or musical in tone. When flving, the male utters a whist- 
% sort of note, composed of two syllables. At other 
times, when perched upon a tree, he utters his love-song, 
wi "eh is composed of two loud preliminary notes, which 



a medley of low gurgling notes. On a warm 
April the males will sit upon the tops of th( 
apple trees in the pastures and orchards for 
time, repeating at short intervals their jingling 
intense satisfaction, apparently, of themselvc 



The food of the Cow Blackbird consists principally of in- 
sects, especially flies, grubs, beetles, etc. They eat also the 
seeds of various plants, and at times join the Red-winged 
and Crow Blackbirds in plundering the cornfields ; but the 
injury that they thus inflict is very slight, and is far more 
than overbalanced by the good they do in devouring vast 
numbers of noxious insects" Hence they deserve the pro- 
tection of the farmer ; but as they are often found in sus- 
picious company, viz., with Crows and Red-winged Black- 
birds, they frequently suffer the penalty of associating with 



NOTES ON THE FAUNA OF THE UPPER MISSOURI- 



In May, eight years since, I was attached to a mum 
expedition on its way to the Pacific Coast, via the Misso 
and Columbia Rivers, which had just been connected b; 
military road constructed by Capt. John Mullan, U. S. 
It was chiefly for the purpose of trying its practicability t 
the party of about two hundred and fifty men and seve 
officers, under the command of Major G. M. Blake, was si 
by this new route instead of by the Isthmus of Panama. 



OF THE UPPER MISSOURI. 29 

Of the two months spent in ascending the Missouri to 
Fort Benton by steamboat, I will not write very fully, al- 
though the tediousness of the trip was enlivened by many 

numerous specimens of small mammals, birds and eggs. 
These I packed and directed to the Smithsonian Institution, 
but they were never received there ; the eggs were all col- 
lected west of Fort Union. I will briefly enumerate the 

the summer range of our birds. The valley of the Missouri, 

from the bluffs. 

June 17th, I found the nest and eggs of Empldonax pusil- 
lus (probably) , on a low tree in a dense dark thicket, built 
in a sharp crotch ; 18th, the nest of the Western Red-tailed 
Hawk (Bulen montanus), with two eggs partly hatched, on 
a small oak at a distance from the river; also, two eggs of 
the Dove (Zenaidura Carolinensis) , and one, said to be that 
of an eagle (?), were brought in by the men. The Wild 
Pigeon (Ectopisfes mif/mtoria) also breeds here. I found 
the nest and four eggs of the Lark Finch ( ChondeMes gram- 
mam), situated as usual on the ground, and one of some 
Uncertain sparrow. The next day I obtained that of the 
Shrike (Colhjrio exeubdoroides), with six eggs; and one of 
the Shore Lark (Ere.nophila comuta). 

A leak having opened in the boiler we were delayed 
"ear this place the third dav aUo. and I found it a perfect 



nu ^ery of birds, the * 

nests of the Redstart ( 

of the Chat (Ictena vu 


nests. I obtained 
Setopharja rutkiUa) 
•idis), with four egg 


>rth bank being 
there also eight 
, with e™s ; that 
s; of theBlack- 


beaded Grosbeak (Gm 

Thrush (Tardus Sn:ai 

Is | f anc ] two 


nsonii?) ; of the 
of the Chippy (Spiz 


i ; of some small 
at Bird (Mimas 

■ellasockdis). 1 



ZVb NOTES ON THE FAUNA 

saw also species of Vireo, {Pipilo arcticusf), Dendroka m- 
tiva, Oolaptes (auratusf) , Geothypis trichas, and Certhia 
Americana, whi I nests near there. The 

locality is about fifty miles by the river west of Fort Union. 

The absence of shrubbery, except close to the river, con- 
fines most of the small birds to a narrow range, and makes 
it easy to find their nests, none of the trees being large. It 
will be noticed that at least two species peculiar to the west- 
ern half of the continent breed so far east, and it is possible 
that the Empidonax, Pipilo and Colaptes, were also of the 
western types. The rocky bluffs which border the river 
above the Great Bend, and are often high enough to appear 
like mountains, although only the escarpment of the Great 
Plains, apparently favor an extension eastward of the Moun- 
tain fauna to this point ; the Mountain Sheep ( Ovis montana), 
Woodrat {JSfeotoma cinerea), and perhaps other mammals 
coming down in company with the birds, etc. At the same 
time it is remarkable that all the eastern birds mentioned 
extend in this latitude entirely across the Rocky Mountains, 
though most of them do not even reach the mountains north- 
ward, and seem, therefore, to follow the Missouri River 
westward, in their spring migrations. 

On June 22nd I obtained eggs of the Brown Thrush (Bar- 
porhynchus rufus) which is common to the Rocky Moun- 
tains. I noticed some species of Swift (Chastura?) with a 
white throat, but too high to shoot. We reached the north 
of Milk River, where large herds of buffalo were passing 
towards the South, very few having been seen below that 
point. That pretty and musical bird of the high plains, 
the Lark Bunting (Calamospiza bicolor), also occurred near 
there, and extends east to Fort Union. 

The bluffs from Milk River to Fort Benton are higher and 
more rugged, with groves of coniferous and other trees at 
intervals, being spurs of the Black Hills, which form the 
first range of the Rocky Mountains. I had little oppor- 
tunity for collecting along this interesting portion of the 



OF THE UPPER MISSOURI. 297 

route, and obtained only the eggs of some unknown warbler ; 
of a Pipilo; of the Robin (Turdus migratorius) , which had 
its nest built in a split trunk of a fallen tree ; eight eggs of 
the Rock Wren (Salpinctes obsoletus), found in a log-house 
which was torn down for fuel ; two nests and nine eggs of 
the Shore Lark (Eremophila cornuta) ; and one of a Night- 
hawk, probably Chordeiles Henryi, which. I found on the bare 
gravelly bluff. I noticed here the first' Magpies (Pica Bud- 
sonica) and a strange Woodpecker. 

Arriving at Fort Benton July 2nd, we remained in camp 
there until August 7th, and this being the worst season for 
collecting specimens I obtained but few. The country near 
the fort is also too flat and bare to be productive of a great 
variety of animals, being exactly in the middle of the wide 
valley lying between the Black Hills and Rocky Mountains, 
while there are few trees or bushes along the river. The 
river, however, furnishes quite a variety of fish, including 
Pike (Esox sp.), Catfish (Pimelodus olivaceus and Noturus 
flavus), Pike Perch (Stizostedion boreus), Grunter (Amblo- 
don grunniens) , Carp (Carpiodes damalis), and several other 
Cyprinoids which furnish much sport, and some of them good 
eating. Dr.Hayden's "Report of Explorations in Nebraska," 
for 1859, gives full lists of these and other animals found by 
him during several years collecting in this region. 

At and above the Great Falls, thirty miles higher up the 
river, we also found trout abundant (Salmo Lewisii), and 
also a Coregonus, and other species of fishes apparently new. 
It is somewhat singular that the fresh-water Mollusca which 
I found here were all different species from any obtained by 
Dr. Hayden in the lower parts of the Missouri and its 
branches, except Unto luteolus and Physa heterostropha, 
the rest being Limncea palustris, bulimoides and desidiosa, 
Sphmrium striatinum, Margaritana (margaritifera var?) 
falcata, while Dr. Havden obtained thirty other species in 
Nebraska. The above, also, are nearly all found west of 
the Rocky Mountains, or represented there by closely allied 

AMER. NATURALIST, VOL. III. 38 



298 NOTES ON THE FAUNA, ETC. 

species, and one or two are circumboreal. (See Annals of 
the New York Lyceum, Vol. vii.) 

I do not undertake here to enumerate nearly all the spe- 
cies of animals seen or collected, as Dr. Hayden has made 
a much fuller collection of them than I could do in so hasty 
a journey. 

Rattlesnakes (Crotalus confluentus?) , some small Lizards 
(Sceloporus and Plestiodon), and the curious Horned Toad 
(Phrynosoma Douglassii) were all the reptiles observed in 
this dry season, though several others doubtless occur m 
spring. 

Young Curlews (Numenius longirostris) and Field Plovers 
(Actiturus Bartramius) were common on the plains. The 
Mountain Plover (^Egialitus montanus) appears on the driest 
plains among the villages of the Prairie-dog (Cynomys Lu- 
dovicianusy I also shot some immature Buntings (Plectro- 
phanes), of which three species are found in Nebraska, aiid 
confined to the Great Plains east of the Rocky Mountains. 

Near Sun River, which is a clear swift mountain stream, 1 
observed some middle-sized Squirrels (Spermophilu* Frafc 
liniif), but they were so exceedingly shy that I did not suc- 
ceed in getting any. Here the Rocky Mountains became 
fully visible, and mountain trees line the banks of the river. 
I noticed here the first of Lewis' Woodpecker {Melanerpes 
torquatus), which never leaves the neighborhood of the 
mountains. On the east side of the Missouri high ranges 
are also visible, and the road now commences to ascend over 
rolling and often rocky hills, with pine woods on the higher 
parts. August 13th two eggs of the Night-hawk were foun 
nearly hatched, laid as usual on the bare ground. At 
mouth of Prickly-pear Creek the Dusky Grouse (Tetrao^ 
obscurus) was first found, in company with the prairie-loving 
Sharp-tail (Pedicecetes phasianellus) , which we had found a 
along the Missouri River. 

Going up the valley of this creek we passed over hig 
and thickly wooded ridges, where I saw Clarke's CroW 



THE LILIES OF THE FIELDS, ETC. Zi'iJ 

(Picicorvus Columbia nv s) , the Clay-colored Sparrow (Spi- 
zella pallida), and obtained a specimen of the loi _ 
Chickadee (Pants septentrionalis var? albescens Baird). The 
Red Crossbill ( Curvirostra Americana) and Pigmy Nut- 
hatch (Sitta pygmcea) were also common, with other species 
which scarcely ever leave the mountain forests. August 
17th we encamped only three miles from the summit of 
Mullans Pass, and nearly six thousand feet above the sea, 
where I observed a large Marmot (Arctomys fiaviventer) and 
a Weasel (Putorius longicauda?) . I also shot the first 
Oregon Grouse (Bonasa Sabinii), and saw MacGillivray's 
Warbler (Geothlypis MacGillivrayi). 



THE LILIES OF THE FIELDS, OF THE ROCKS, 
AND OF THE CLOUDS. 



These beautiful words and their promise are familiar to 
all of us; but we are perhaps less conversant with the beauty 
°f form here referred to. The season of flowers is now 
w »th us ; we have, therefor, each and all, abundant oppor- 
tunity to consider or behold the plants in their own glory. 
A few words of explanation, and a few examples from the 
w °rld of flowers may, perhaps, be an additional incentive to 
took upon the flowers themselves; and it may also prove 
interesting to show that there are objects deeply buried in 
foe rocks, and also high up in the sky, which contain the 
same essential elements of beauty so much admired in the 
J'lies of the field. 

To the botanist the lilies comprehend a very large group 
f Plants. A great number are distinguished for the bril- 
lla ncy of their colors; as the numerous tulip-varieties and 




and the 



the lilies proper. The lily of the valley (Fig. 50) is of I 
pure white ; henee its beauty caimot be sought in its color, 
rfe.so. but must principally be clue to its 

• form. In the lily family the 
form of the flower is perfectly regu- 
lar ; the three leaves of the calyx are 
succeeded by three leaves of the co- 
rolla ; then follow the six stamens. 
and in the centre of the flower we 
find the three pistils. These parts : 
ognized in*the figure of the open f 
Scilla here added (Fig. 51). 
In the Iris family — of which I 
a section of the flower, bud 
and pod is illustrative — we 
notice also that the parts are 
all threefold ; here, even the | 
stamens are three in n 
ber, and not six as in the ' 

and regul; 

the Date-palm (Fig. 52), the leaves 
of which are the Palms ot 
Scripture ; and even micros- 
copic parts of the flower, 
like the pollen grains, often 
show a similar regularity. 
(Fig. 53.) 

That color cannot be the 
most important element ot 
the beauty of these flowers, 
we may conclude from the 
fact that even the imp* '--; 
uncolored figures here given are not destitute of beau V- 
Again, the form of the petals is as changing as their color; 
so that the particular form of any of the parts of these 
flowers cannot either be considered as the most essen » 





THE LILIES OF THE FIELDS, ETC. 301 

ement of their beauty. We conclude, then, that the form 
plan of the flower, which is the same in all, is the element 

Inch above all others influences the beauty of these objects. 

lis plan is here represented in a diagram (Fig. 54) wherein 

e leaves of the calyx are marked a; those of the corolla, 
the stamens, c; vig.u. 

the pistils 




ties superposed and 
ingrafted upon the 
general plan. We 
S ^'C from this dia- 
gram better still than from the figure of Scilla,that the calyx 
does not merely consist of three equal leaves, but that they 
are so placed around the axis, or stalk of the flower, that 
t^y, two and two, include the same angle between them, so 
08 to produce a triangle (a, a, a), the sides of which are of 
equal length; such a triangle is called an equilateral one. 
The same is true in regard to the next series of three leaves, 
^ h > 6 > constituting the corolla of the flower ; but not only 
do the calyx and the corolla form equilateral triangles but 
th ey are so placed that the leaves of the one fall exactly mid- 
days between those of the other. If the calyx be repre- 
sented by a triangle, with its vertex upward, the corolla will 
** a triangle with the vertex downward. But both trian- 
gles ' on account of this peculiar relative position, perfectly 



302 THE LILIES OF THE FIELDS, ETC. 

harmonize with one another, so as to produce a new regular 
form embracing them both as simply equal halves ; this more 
general form is the regular hexagon (six-sided figure), a 6, 
ab,a b, in the diagram. The reality of this hexagon is in 
the lilies represented by the six equal stamens, c. Finally, 
inside of these we have the pistils, three in number, corres- 
ponding in position with the corolla. 

The regular hexagon, or simpler the equilateral triangle, 
thus constitutes the foundation of the beauty of the lilies; 
the form of the petals and the shape of the other parts, as 
well as the colors, are merely accessories, capable of height- 
ening the beauty of the flower, but not necessary to it. 

The six figures of snow-crystals (Fig. 55), selected from 
about two hundred different forms observed by Mr. Franke, 




in Dresden, Saxony, in 1845-46, and published in the trans- 
actions of the society "Isis" of that city, show that the 
snow-crystal may rightly be termed the "lily of the sky- 
The first of the snow-crystals here given is almost identical 
with the hexagon, formed jointly by the calyx and corolla o 
many a lily of the field, while the second snow-crystal pre- 
sents the same appearance as the six stamens of the li J • 
Just compare these snow-crystals with the figures of Sci a 
or the general diagram of the lily-flower ! 



THE LILIES OF THE FIELDS, ETC. 606 

The snow-crystals in the annexed figure (Fig. 56) are 
lore common. Many of these forms may be observed on 
ny calm winter day, Fig .56. 




e crys- 
tals found in 
caves and erev- 
ices deep in the earth, there is no essential difference. 
Pare the figure of the Emerald (Fig. 57), partialis 
lower figure representing a Russian emerald, as set 



Com- 
]y the 
t from 



604: THE LILIES OF THE FIELDS, ETC. 

above, with the tabular snow-crystals just referred to ! It 
exhibits first the regular hexagoual form in its outline, and 
also the two regular triangles corresponding as it were to the 
leaves of calyx and corolla in the lilies of the field 1 The 
emerald, therefore, is built upon the same fundamental plan 
on which the temple of beauty is erected in the lily ; but the 
material, though beautiful, apparently did not admit of the 
graceful windings exhibited in the more yielding, but also 
less permanent body of the lily of the field. The emerald 
possesses all the beauty of form and color which can be ex- 
pressed by uniformity of 
laterial; and if the lily 
of the field surpasses the 
emerald in graceful modi- 
fication of these forms, and 
in variety of color, it lacks 
the lustre of the emerald, 
and even in this very va- 
riety carries the germ of 
speedy decay. There are 
many substances which m 
their crystalline form exhibit the same trinity characteristic 
of the lily, the snow-star and the emerald. The well-known 
quartz, or rock-crystal, exhibits this form, and so does the 
beautiful mineral Alexandrite, represented in Fig. 58. This 
mineral was discovered in the Russian 

the very day on which the present emperor Alexander be- 
came of age. It has furthermore the remarkable peculiarity 
of appearing of a very beautiful green during the day, wane 
in the evening (that is by lamp or gas-light) it. appears oi ■ 
pure red color ; but red and green are the Russian colors. 
Hence the new mineral was named Alexandrite. 

Even in the animal frame several structures have been 
discovered built upon the same principle, particularly the 
microscopic structure of the retina in the human eye. Ac- 
cording to the discovery of the Dauish microscopist, &*? 




1 Fig. 59. 

I 



THE LILIES OF THE FIELDS, ETC. 305 

Hannover, the interior of the eye is as if paved with very 
minute hexagonal blocks, put closely side by side. So also 
the plates covering many aquatic animals, particularly the 
body of many fossil crinoids, excellent figures of which may 
be found in the geological reports of the great Aineri. 
paleontologist, James Hall, of Albany, 
the figure of one plate from Archceocidaris | 
Agassizi. (Fig. 59.) 

It is evident from the few examples selected I 
from among thousands, that the regular hexago- 
nal form, or the division of the circle into three 
"i" >ix equal parts is a grand natural fact, alike ' 
manifest in the inorganic and organic world; this same fact 
is the glory and beauty of the lilies of the field, the lilies of 
the rocks, and the lilies of the sky. 

oo general a fact must be the consequence of a general 
law, and although this law may be deeply hidden in the 
mysteries of the vegetable and animal lite exhibiting these 
torms, it may be more accessible in the lilies of inorganic, 
" r so called inanimate nature. The question as to the cause 
w the form of the lily of the field may be premature, but 
may we ' not ask physical science for the cause of the form 
of the crystals of the rocks and of the sky ? Or, to make 
the question still more precise, may we not ask the physi- 
cist, chemist and mineralogist — who each and every one are 
ting these subjects — for the explanation of the won- 
derful form of the snow-crystal? That there is a cause for 
this form is manifest to every one who even merely glances 
^ a few snow-crystals occasionally caught on our clothing 
°n a winter's day ; bat as yet science has not been able to 
travel the mysterious origin of the crystalline forma which 
adorn every nook and corner in the material world, and 
which we see forming under our very eyes in the laboratory 
of the chemist, 

In my work called "Atomechauics, or Chemistry a Me- 
chanics of the Panatoms," published in 1867, and distributed 



306 THE LILIES OF THE FIELDS, ETC. 

among the scientific institutions at home and abroad, this 
question appears to be solved simply and completely. It is 
to be hoped that the intellectual inertia, always to be over- 
come by new aud startling ideas, however plain and well 
founded, may not seriously retard the spreading of the 
answer to the question here raised : How is a snow-crys- 
tal built? 

We cannot conclude this little sketch with more appro- 
priate words than the description of the snow-crystal given 
by Prof. Tyndall, in his fourth lecture of the admirable 
work, "Heat as a mode of motion." The great philosopher 
of the Royal Institution says : 

"Snow, perfectly formed, is not an irregular aggregate of 
ice-particles ; in a calm atmosphere the aqueous atoms ar- 
range themselves so as to form the most exquisite figures. 
[See the figures given in the preceding parts of this article.] 
The snow-crystals formed in a calm" atmosphere are built 
upon the same type : the molecules arrange themselves to 
form hexagonal stars. From a central nucleus shoot six 
spieuhe, every two of which arc separated by an angle of 
60°. From these central ribs smaller spicules shoot right 
i 1 I ft th unerring fidelity to the angle 60°, and from 
these again other smaller ones diverge at the same angle. 
The six-leaved blossoms assume the most wonderful variety 
of form ; their tracery is of the finest frozen gauze, and 
round about their corners other rosettes of smaller dimen- 
sions often cling. Beauty is superposed upon beauty, as it 
nature once committed to her task took delight in showing, 
even within the narrowest limits, the wealth of her resour- 



,1 



ON THE PRESERVATION OF ENTOMOLOGICAL 
CABINETS. 



I have tried at various times many experiments for the 
preservation of collections of insects, but with such limited 
success that I did not think the results obtained worth pub- 
lishing. For the sake of deterring others from pursuing 
these different lines of unsuccessful attempts, it would be 
useful, perhaps, to give a brief account of my failures be- 
fore describing a process recently devised, which seems to 
be both simple and effective. 

Corrosive sublimate and various preparations of arsenic 
have been recommended by several high authorities. The 
former, even when most diluted, will finally render the pin 
brittle by the amalgam developed ; the latter, when used in 
a very weak alcoholic solution so as to leave no efflorescence 
on the specimens, will preserve them well, but is trouble- 
some to apply, as the insects must be thoroughly soaked 
with the fluid before being placed in the cabinet. Biuar- 
seuiute of potassa being deliquescent, suggested itself to me 
as a material that mi-ht b,- applied in greater strength, and 
many years ago I prepared two boxes of specimens with it. 
They had a good appearance for some time, and have never 
been attacked, but eventually a considerable deposit or efflo- 
rescence came on, the surface, so that the specimens required 
cleaning before they could be used for study. 

Painting the interior of the boxes with afsenious acid was 
also only partially successful ; I have seen, though not often, 
living larvae of Tro>/odermo in boxes thus prepared. 

Having thus failed in rinding any satisfactory mineral poi- 
son I then tried the vegetable alkaloids. 

I soaked specimens in moderately strong alcoholic solu- 
tions of strychnia ami pierotoxia. dried them, and put them 

(307) 



i 



308 PRESERVATION OF ENTOMOLOGICAL CABINETS. 

into' pill boxes with Trogoderma larvae. After some weeks 
the specimens were partly eaten, and the larva? transformed 
into perfect insects. 

The effects of benzine and carbolic acid are powerful, but 
only temporary. The former is preferable on account of its 
less disagreeable odor, and may be used by pouring about a 
teaspoonful in each box; it must be renewed every four or 
five months. 

Packing the collection in chests painted with coal-tar has 
been also recommended, and would certainly be efficient, but 
troublesome, and renders the collection, practically, nearly 
useless for study on account of the difficulty of access to the 
boxes. Surgical art has, however, given to us an instru- 
ment by which a poisonous liquid can be rapidly and most 
effectively applied to the entire surface of large numbers of 
specimens as they stand in the cabinet boxes, without the 
trouble of moving them. I refer to the Atomizer. 

Opinions may vary as to the nature of the liquid poison to 
be used, but after several trials I have found the following 
formula to be quite satisfactory ; it produces no efflorescence, 
even on the most highly polished species, while the odor is 
quite strong, and persistent enough to destroy any larva? or 
eggs that: may he already in the box: — 

Saturated alcoholic solution of arsenious acid, eight thud 
ounces; Strychnine, twelve grains; Crystallized carbolic 
acid, one drachm; Mineral naphtha (or heavy benzine) and 
strong alcohol, enough to make one quart. 

I have • there are 

some varieties of light petroleum in commerce which dis- 
solve in alcohol only to a slight extent. These should not 
be used. The heavier oils which mix indefinitely with alco- 
hol are the proper ones, and for the two pints of mixtoW 
ten to twelve fluid ounces of the naphtha will be sufficient. 

Care should be taken to test the naphtha on a piece of 
paper. If it leaves a greasy stain which does not disappear 
after a few hours, it is not suitable for this purpose. 



< 



STORY OF A PET BIRD. 309 



The best form 6f atomizer is the long, plated, reversible 
tube; it should be worked 1 with a gum elastic pipe, having 
two bulbs to secure uniformity in the current. The ato- 
mizing glass tubes *nd the bottle which usually accompany 
the apparatus are unnecessary : a common narrow-necked 
two ounce bottle will serve perfectly to hold the fluid. 

I trust that the use of the means here indicated may ren- 
der the preservation of insect collections less troublesome 
than heretofore, and thus increase the interest of amateurs 
who frequently become disgusted with the science of ento- 
mology, by seeing the results of years of active and intelli- 
gent labor destroyed by a few months of inattention, or by 
carelessness in introducing infected specimens. 



TRUE STORY OF 



V\ hile attached, during the past year, in Nevada, to the 
U. S. Geological Exploration of the Fortieth Parallel, under 
Mr. Clarence King, I had a pet bird of the species known 
a « the Arkansas Flycatcher (Tyrannus verticalis), which is 
closely related to the common Kingbird or Bee Martin in 
form, but differs in having the back olive gray, and the 
under parts yellow, except the throat, which is ashy. It is 
to be met with over the entire western portion of the United 
States, from the high plains west of the Missouri River to 
the Pacific, and in the vicinity of settlements is well known 
to every one. 

Our pet, familiarly known to the party as "Chippy," was 
obtained about the middle of July, from the Indians, who 
ha d just taken it with three others, all fully fledged, from 
the nest. We carried it to our camp near by, and fed it with 



». 



310 A TRUE STORY OF A PET BIRD. 

grasshoppers and flies until he was able to catch them for him- 
self, which he learned to do about a week after he could fly. 
The little fellow appeared to be always hungry, and during 
the day followed me about, continually teasing me for grass- 
hoppers until he had eaten enough, after which he would re- 
main quietly upon my shoulder, or my hat, or fly off to his 
favorite perch— a rope running from the top of the tent to 
a stake in the ground. At night "Chippy" roosted upon a 
rope inside the tent, or frequently under an umbrella, which, 
for the purpose of shading a thermometer, hung at the corner 
outside. When wishing to go to sleep, however, he would 
seldom roost in these places voluntarily, but alighting upon 
my shoulder would hop up close to my neck and settle 
cosily down, and repeated removals were necessary to induce 
him to remain upon the perch provided for him. In the 
morning as I lay wrapped in my blankets, generally the first 
thing that awoke me would be Chippy fluttering about my 
head, for he would invariably select me from the dozen per- 
sons who lay around upon the ground. 

Chippy soon became a general favorite, and every one fed 
and caressed him. First among his many peculiarities was 
his almost insatiable appetite, which excited the greatest won- 
der and comment, and many were the conjectures as to the 
number of good-sized grasshoppers he could dispose of m 
one day. It was finally agreed that this should be settled 
by an experiment ; each person was to keep account ot all 
he fed Chippy, and in the evening, upon comparing notes, it 
was found that during the day he had made away with the 
almost incredible number of one hundred and twenty fat 
grasshoppers, all however, with their legs pulled off. 

Our little pet possessed scarcely a trace of timidity, and 
even soon learned his own name. At least, when he was 
wanted we had but to call "Chippy, Chippy," and he imme- 
diately appeared, even if out of our sight, joyously twitter- 
ing as he approached, and alighting upon the shoulder of 
the person who called him. He soon began to catch insects 



A TRUE STORY OF A PET BIRD. 311 

himself, after I had taught him by carrying him around 
upon my finger and placing him up close to any fly or gnat 
I found perched upon the wall of the tent. When fully 
grown he passed most of the day sitting upon the top of the 
tents, occasionally darting after a passing insect, or, if the 
weather was particularly warm, perching upon the edge of 
the table, or any suitable place, under the "fly" of the~tent, 
in the shade. 

Once, when starting on horseback up the mountains after 
birds, at about one hundred yards from camp, I was sur- 
prised to hear Chippy coming towards me, playfully twitter- 
ing, when he alighted upon my shoulder and accompanied 
me up the canon. Occasionally he would leave me to catch a 
butterfly or other insect, upon securing which he immediately 
returned, alighting upon my hat, against which he beat the 
captive until in a condition to be swallowed. Frequently 
on seeing other birds of his species, he would join them, 
and after sporting with them awhile return to his seat upon 
to pommel of the saddle, my shoulder or hat, his playmates 
following to within a few yards, when they would stop, and 
perching upon a dead branch curiously watch us, wonder- 
!!i - probably why their little friend was so fearless of me. 
Chippy accompanied me thus some three or four miles from 
camp. Having proceeded as far up the caiion as possible, I 
there tied and unsaddled my horse ; the sun being very hot, 
and the bird disposed to be inactive, I placed him in the 
shade of my saddle. I then climbed up the hillside over 
the rocks, until out of sight of my horse, on my way occa- 
sionally shooting a bird, and wandering some distance from 
where I left Chippy ; but upon my return I found him folio w- 
*ng after me, having discovered my absence by the report of 
m Y gun, and started in search of me. We then returned to 
camp as we had left it. 

Our pet bird soon began to attract others of his species to 
the camp which became quite familiar. They could not, how- 
ler, persuade Chippy to leave us, he evidently preferring 



312 A TRUE STORT OF A PET BIRD. 

our society to theirs. He was at first perfectly unmindful 
of the report of a gun, even sitting upon my shoulder when 
I fired, or often perching upon the gun-barrel when I carried 
him with me in my rambles. One day, however, wishing 
to secure one of these flycatchers which flew about our 
camp, and intending if possible to drive them away, I shot 
at one of three which were sporting together in the air, 
thinking that Chippy was sitting upon the tent ; fortunately 
I missed the bird I shot at, which proved to be our pet, he 
flying in great consternation to the camp, having probably 
been touched by one of the shot, although not at all injured. 
His disregard for a gun was now at an end, and the mere 
picking up of this instrument of death was suflicient to 
cause his immediate retreat, retiring with terror depicted 
upon his countenance, the feathers lying close to his body, 
his crest elevated and neck outstretched, removing to another 
perch each time I advanced. The moment, however, I laid 
the gun aside, all his fears were over, and upon approaching 
him, when I reached out my hand he would hop upon my 
finger with perfect confidence. Although I might carry him 
in this way all about the camp, if I approached the gun, 
which leaned against the tent, he made a precipitate retreat. 
We carried Chippy with us, from camp to camp, f° r 
nearly two months longer. Everywhere we went he excited 
the curiosity and wonder of all persons, the Indians included, 
and we had not the least fear of losing him. One morning, 
however, in the latter part of September, we missed his 
familiar awakening twitter, and when we arose from our 
blankets he could not be found. Search was made through- 
out the day but without success, and a large hawk having 
been seen early in the morning hovering about the camp 
seemed to explain the cause of his disappearance. He was 
never afterwards seen. 



In the language of science, as put upon paper by one of 
its most zealous devotees, Desmids, or as they are more 
correctly designated, Desmicliacefe, are "fresh-water, figured, 
mucous and microscopic algae, of a green color." This 
author also tells us in similar language that the character- 
istics of these fresh- water forms are "transverse division 
mostly complete, but in some genera incomplete. Cells or 
joints of two symmetrical valves, the junction always marked 
by the division of the endochrome, often also by a constric- 
tion. Sporangia formed by the coupling of the. cells and 
union of their contents." 

We have here then, in brief, what a Desmid is, and now 
let us see if we can make this very concise, scientific and 
correct definition and reply to our question, plain to unsci- 
entific minds. 

The difficulties attendant upon the study of these Desmids 
have perhaps, tended to frighten away even professed natu- 
ralists from a field of enquiry teeming with promise of re- 
sults of the greatest interest and profit. At least then we 
have arrived at the knowledge of one fact, and that is, that 
a Desmid is a plant, or a member of the vegetable kingdom. 
This point, it is true, is all but universally acknowledged by 
every one who pretends, to any acquaintance whatever with 
these creations, and therefore for the time being we will 
take it for granted that such is the case. In fact it is true 
that there is no one essential point in which they differ from 
the other minute plants which have been included under the 
designation of Protophvtes ; this name having been applied 
to them on account of the simplicity of their structure, 
ranking them as first plants in the vegetable system. But, 
although the name Protophyte was first bestowed for this 



lone, there seei 


os to be goo* 


3 for suppos 


has been very 


aptl) 


applied, for 


naturalists 


of opinion th 


t tin 


first forms of 


vegetable 


ade their appea 


ance 


upon the surface of the gl< 


1 to this group 




we see them at 


he present < 


g as the harbing 


.'l-S o 


more complex 


plants in pa 


ds, on rocks a 




j road-sides. 


"he amount 


at has been be 


sto\v< 


d upon the De 


smids is rea 


2at, but it has been 


>y a special ch 


ss of observ 


e been in the ha 




not trusting U 


the revelati 


unassisted eyes 


but 


lave called in tl 


e aid of all 


nees of modern 


no. -h. 


nical skill as eu 


ibodied in t 


instrument of r 


■scan 


h, the achroma 


tic rnierosco 


students we ar 


e ass 


ired that in no 


respect do tl 


jproaeh the ani 


nal 


ringdom. Man 


v arguments 






is true, have been from time to rime advanced in support ot 
their animal affinities, but these have all been determined, 
now that their life history and that of many other undoubted 
and undisputed plants have been better understood, to be 
but strongly indicative of their vegetable nature. But the 
very fact that for a long time they continued to be bandied 
from one kingdom to the other, now plants and then animals, 
only to become plant- again, indicates the difficulties atten- 
dant upon their study, and ilie uncertain tenure with which 
they, even now, hold the position they by courtesy are per- 
mitted to occupy. 

Ehrenberg, the great German microscopist, asserted that 
one of the Desmid's, known by the name of Closterium, pos- 
sesses true organs of motion, which it protrudes throug 
apertures in its extremities, and keeps in continual action. 
Unfortunately, however, more recent investigation has re- 
vealed the fact that this statement is wanting in accuracy- 
No such organs of propulsion are to be seen now that we 
are possessed of much better microscopes than the Prus- 
sian philosopher was wont to use, therefore we can » 11 
ascribe the "feet" of his Closterium to defective methods 



nervation. Many if not all of the Desmids, it is true, 
5S the extraordinary power of slowly changing their 
so that in time, varying with the particular forms ob- 
1, they approach the side of the bottle in which they 

it many appear to have a continual but steady progres-* 
lode of motion, as when viewed by means of the mi- 
>pe they are observed to traverse the field of view 
the eye of the observer. Yet it cannot be said that 

milar parts f many plants move about in an extremely 

ise. Motion is not and cannot at the present day be 
lered as indicative of au-ht else but change, physical 



about upon the surface of a glass of water, be classed an 


ong 


Doubtless many persons who see the question place 


1 at 


the head of this article have noticed some bright pcx 


1 of 


fresh water, by the road-side or in a field, upon a sprin 


% or 


summer's day, and observed that it was either filled 


with 


a seemingly gelatinous mass of light green matter, or 


had 


patches of darker green floating upon its surface. This 




an indication that Protophytes or simple plants were pre 


ert, 


and. although there are chances that such an accumulate 


1 01 


vegetation contains, or even entirely consists of, other 01 


gan- 


isms, yet in a number of ca.es hardly any tiling but Des 


lida 


will be there found. To collect these little wonders we 




various methods suited to their mode of occurrence, ai 


1 it 


will be well to indicate them. 




First, then, they are inhabitants of fresh water, and in 


fact 


of the freshest kind of water only, decaying animal m: 


tter 


which would cause the water to become foul, even in a 


er J 


-light degree, being sufficient to kill these tender plants 


and 


cause them to be replaced by forms of much greater 


im- 


plicity. Certain braekUi and marine organisms, which v 


ere 



at one time supposed to belong to this family, have been 
since proved not to be members of it. It has been said that 
hardly a specimen of fresh water can he found that does not 
serve as the habitation of Desmi 1 1 it *u 1 i i t *ti th 
the case, although it is true that they are very widely dis- 
tributed, and one intending to study them should have no 
difficulty in procuring specimens for examination. In clear 
pools, iii open exposed situations, they occur in the greatest 
abundance, the largest species being generally found nearest 
the bottom. Sometimes they are to' be found adhering in 
large quantities to some of the submerged aquatic plants 
that grow in such localities, terming investing films of a 
bright green color, which can be removed from its support, 
or is best gathered along with it. At other times they rest 
as a thick coating upon the bottom, or float in the form of a 
bright green scum upon the surface ; but the last mode of 
occurrence is by no means common, the green-colored film 
seen so frequent upon pools not being Desmids but mem- 
bers of a group into which have been placed the Protococ- 
cus, Euglenia, and the so-called "Eed-snow." Of these we 
may have something farther to say hereafter, as they are 
possessed of wondrous characteristics, and present subjects 
well worthy the study of any one having a microscope. The 
brownish scum which is so commonly seen in marshes and 
ponds does not consist of Desmids either, but is mostly made 
up of myriads of plants very nearly related to them, and 
familiarly known as Diatoms. These, again, are of extreme 
beauty, and at the present day hundreds of microscopes are 
turned towards them endeavoring to fathom their mysteries, 
and the optician's skill has been brought to bear upon the 
construction of lenses specially for the purpose of studying 
their life, history, and structure. 

The Desmids, Desmidiece, or, more correctly speaking* 
Desmidiacece, have had this designation applied to them 
from their form, that is to say, on account of their being 
made up of two symmetrical halves, united together by 



WHAT IS A DESMID? 317 

means of a band or bridge, so to speak. They are very 
striking and beautiful objects when examined bv means 
oi sufficiently powerful m;i-;iii\ in- J i-s •-. main of them 
requiring for the elucidation of their structure to be ampli- 
fied at least five hundred diameters, or two hundred and 
fifty thousand times -uoeriiehdly : miero.^copists being in the 
habit of speaking of the magnification of an object in diam- 
eters, that having been found to be the most convenient 
method of expressing the fact, the number of times which 
the object is amplified superficially, being, of course, formed 
by squaring the diameter. But a power much less than five 
hundred diameters, say about two hundred and fifty, is often 
sufficient to exhibit the general characteristics of most of 
the Desmids and their allies, the other Protophyta. Thus 
examined they present most striking objects, and at once be- 
fi'iiie favorites with the amateur microscopic on account of 
their very marked peculiarities, great beauty, and the variety 
of forms which they exhibit in outline, as well as the mathe- 
matical symmetry of their markings and appendages. The 
mos t disti tic which they at once present 

is the bilateral structure of their so-called fronds. In the 
more complex water-plants, or alu'a*. the term frond is used 
t{ » designate the whole plant, which in that case is of some 
degree of complexity, but here is extremely simple, and yet 
the same name must be made use of, as the entire individual 
| s enclosed in one envelope and constitutes but a single cav- 
ity- As such cavities are called cells the Desmids are 
hence known as unicellular plants. The individual plant 
a »i"ng the Desmids and their near relatives, the Diatoms, is 
often spoken of as a frustule, as the frustule of Closte- 
ri um, a frustule of Navicula, these being the distinctive 
nanif ^ given to two groups, or genera, of Desmids and 
diatoms respectively. So in the organisms under consider- 
ation, the frustule is said to be a single cell, and this is 
shown to be the case by the fact that when a fracture takes 
Place of the investing membrane, at any one part, the whole 



318 WHAT IS A DESMID? 

contents escape therefrom. In a few instances this appa- 
rent bilateral symmetry is not so evident as in others, or 

it will still be seen to be present, for the constriction in the 
outer coat, which is made of the substance called cellulose, 

were, into two parts. External warty or spinous protuber- 
ances, or processes, are very commonly present, and then 
the outline of the plant is of great beauty, the green cell- 
contents, made up for the most part of the -ame material a? 
constitutes the coloring matter of the leaves of larger plants, 
and there called chlorophyl, but in the Desmids known as 
endochrome, causing them to appear almost like brilliant 

cases no such external projections are present, but yet the 
outline of the cell is, nevertheless, extremely graceful. In 
the Diatoms the cell-wall is strengthened and supported by 
having deposited within it a mass of silicious material which 
then becomes marked with wonderfully fine tracings and 
sculpturiugs, but in the Desmids no such stony and inde- 
structible substance is present, stiff cellulose only eonstitut- 
the skeleton of the plant. Hence we do not find f 



remains of these organisms 


occurring fossil 


zed in the 


old< 


strata of the globe as is v 


ery commonly t 




th tl 


Diatoms. It is true that 


in some of the 


flints, hon 


stout 


and cherts, certain curious 


forms have bee 


n detected 


whh 


have been supposed to b 


3 the remains 


,f Desmu 


s, bi 



petent authorities has tended 
to prove that such is not the ease, but that these are most 

not identical with, the sponges. The true cellulose charac- 
ter of the cell-wall of the Desmids is proved by the action 
upon it of iodine assisted by sulphuric acid, in which ca&e 
it is colored blue. In all cases this tough membranous ma- 
terial is surrounded by a perfect and distinct, although not 
always readily seen, sheath of a gelatinous character, which 



WHAT IS A DESMID? 319 

some cases, is very broad, but in others is extremely 

The outline of the Desmicls, although always preserving a 

ore or less perfect bilateral symmetry, varies very greatly. 

id one at the same time which includes a great number 
species, the general form is a round tube, more or less 
)inted at both ends, and with the apices both bent over in 

aped, or more like two cows' horns united base to base, 
hen Closterium is examined with care by means of a good 
lcroscope, it is found to have its bright green cell-contents 
ranged longitudinally in seeming uncertain bands, which 
alesce more or less, and hence are not always to be dis- 
iguished. But at the ends of the frustule are to be seen 
parent organs of wondrous characters, and whose office 
s not as yet been determined. And the extreme minute- 
ss of the whole plant presents great difficulties to its 
oper study, so that it is hardly to be wondered at that the 
notions of its integral parts should not be thoroughly com- 
ehended. These seeming organs are spaces or vacuoles 
parated from the rest of the cell-contents, and generally 
a spherical form, transparent and colorless. Within 

roed of a material of different density, as is shown by 
?ir effect upon light. And these are continually, in the 
»lthy individual, in motion, moving about with a trem- 
ng and seemingly excited action, putting one in mind of 
i swarming of a crowd of bees, and hence it is often spo- 
il of as swarming. Besides this, however, there is still 
other kind of motion to be seen within the Closterium 
1-wall, and one at the same time perhaps of greater won- 
r and perplexity than that already mentioned, as the mode 

ion or rotation of much of the liquid contents of the in- 
idual Desmid ; more espo< ot :mcl color - 



320 WHAT IS A DESMID? 

less portion which lies just within the membranous cell- wall 
and its lining tissue, called by the German naturalists the pri- 
mordial utricle, and overlying the more solid green mass of 
endochrome and starchy matter; for it has been found that 
these wonderful little plants contain starchy matter very 
much after the maimer of their gigantic fellows of the field 
and forest. Members of the genus Closterium have been 
found to afford the best subjects for witnessing this phenom- 
enon, but the use of a good microscope, and a very careful 
,i of the focus of the lens, are always necessary to 
display it in a manner at all satisfactory. Some observers 
assert that they have observed this circulation of fluid, not 
only within the primordial utricle, but between it and the 
cellulose covering; however this must be a difficult thing to 
see, as these membranes are very closely united in most 
cases. Along the convex edges of the cell, when a magni- 
fying power of about tour hundred diameters is employed. 
it is not very difficult to see indications of this, what may be 
called "sap-motion" first spoken of, especially if the speci- 
men under examination be one in a vigorous state of growth. 
Then there may be seen broad streams of fluid flowing over 
the whole surface of the endochrome, passing from the ends 
towards the centre and back again ; and these streams seem 
to detach and carry with them, from time to time, little oval 
or globular bodies, which, on account of their action upon 
the light, doubtless resulting from their peculiar chemical 
composition,' are readily seen, and any of them may he 
singled out and its whole course from one part of the frus- 
tule to another traced. Some observers state that these 
minute granules, which seem to be starchy in their compo- 
sition, are thus carried on to the chambers or cavities at the 
end of the Closterium, and there join the bodies which are 
in trembling motion, as has been described ; but my expe- 
rience has been that such is not the case, as the number of 
the terminal granules does not increase, as would certainly 
be the case if this addition took place. On the contrary I 



WHAT IS A DESMID? 321 

have often watched a single such granule caught in and car- 
ried along by the current of the flowing sap, up towards the 
cavity at the end, and down again towards the centre, which 
it reached only to again pass on up, or was arrested in its 
course and stopped by the way. Again I have often ob- 
served that whilst those granules were in themselves passive, 
and appeared to be but carried along by the stream, and 
were at the same time all but colorless, the unea>y little dots 
at the ends of the frustule were in themselves motive, and 
usually more or less colored, generally of a light brown 
tint. However this may not be always the case as we can- 
not, for certain, reason as to what would take place under 
particular circumstances in the vegetable kingdom, from 
what we see occurring during the prevalence of peculiar 
conditions. The current within individuals of Closterium, 
and its allied genus Penium, as they have been observed by 
me, would seem to be from the middle towards the ends 
externally, or against the primordial utricle, and then turn- 
ing upon itself down a-.dn beneath or interiorly against the 
mass of endochrome in and along the lighter colored inter- 
spaces of that mass, which cause it to assume the coarsely 
banded appearance so very commonly to be seen. 

One observer, named Osborne, has thought that this cir- 
culation of fluid within the Desmids — for it is by no means 
peculiar to Closterium or even Penium, but can be observed 
in several genera, although not so markedly as in these two 
— is caused by the waving about of little hairs, or cilise, 
as they are called, from their resemblance to eyelashes, 
set upon the frustule both within and without its cell-wall; 
D «t hardly any one else has been able to see any such 
cilia. 1 , and an excellent authority upon the microscope, Dr. 
Carpenter, says, "although the circulation is an unquestion- 
able tact, yet I have no hesitation in regarding the ap- 
pearance of ciliary action as an optical illusion due to the 
Play of the peculiar light employed among the moving par- 
ticles of the fluid: the appearance which has been thus in- 



ment of the iUumination, but being undiscoverable when 
the greatest care is taken to avoid sources of fallacy." Mr. 
Osborne also thought he had detected external apertures 
in the cell-wall of Closterium, at about the locality where 
Eluvnberg had placed his "prehensile organs," or "feet," 
which, of course, were necessarily present, whilst he con- 
sidered the Desmids as animals. Dr. Carpenter says with 
re-ard to this, "I must confess to a similar scepticism re- 
specting the external apertures said by Mr. Osborne to exist 
at the extremities of Closterium; for whilst their existence 
is highly improbable on a priori ground, Mr. Wenham 
(than whom no observer is entitled to more credit) states 
that 'not the slightest break can be discovered in the lami- 
nated structure that the thickened ends display.'" My ob- 
servations coincide exactly with those of the last gentlemen, 
and in fact the same is the opinion of all competent and un- 
prejudiced observers at the present day. Most, if not all 
the Desmids, have the power of changing their place by 
sailing slowlv it is true, through the water, though not ex- 
hibiting the liveliness so evident in the Diatoms. But 

some mud, and then coveriug them with water in a saucei, 
and placing them where the direct sunlight, or even UgM 
reflected from the sky, can fall upon the surface, when. ^ r 
a time, it will be seen to become given, and the Desmids are 
found to have congregated at the point nearest the lighf 



•we kntf 



this respect exhibiting their vegetable natur 
that plants love the light and will tend towa 
they can do so. 

An individual of Closterium is represented in Plate 5, 
fig. 10, and the vacuoles at the ends containing the motile 
granules are there seen, as well as indications of I 
lation of the cell-contents spoken of. The mode of growth 
and reproduction of the Desmids are very remarkable M*| 
of great interest, but we must leave the consideration oi 



ome future time, only now referring to our plate, 
?ral forms of these beautiful plants are represented 
' the grace and - 1 in these sim- 



Fig. 2. Desmidium, side view. growing. 

Fig. ?,. Ih-s.aidurm. front view. Fig. 7. Mn'.tstrri«*, subd 



•rangium Fig. 9 Fedi 



REVIEWS. 

>ence.* — Well do we remember the delight 



loiay. Heutz, Leconte and i 



324 REVIEWS. 

steel, and four steel plates of moths, caterpillars, beetles and their larvae, 
with forty-six cuts in the text, we first open upon a memoir of Dr. Har- 
ris, by Col. T. W. Higgiuson. Then follows Harris' Correspondence 
with Hentz, Melsheiraer, Doubleday, Herrick, Leconte, Miss Morris, and 
shorter communications from Say, Zimmerman, and others. An Appendix 
contains numerous descriptions of larva?, republished papers, his contri- 
butions to entomology in the "New England Farmer," extracts from 

with the greatest care and fidelity to the memory and fame of Dr. Harris, 
and is a work that every one who wishes to be an entomologist should 

and unwearying devotion to truth that were among the prime charac- 

.s.* — These works will uwmestinu- 

unt of information which they con- 



children or younger pup 


ils in the rudiments of 


Natural Hi," 


Fishing is Amekican 


Waters.! — That Genial is the nat 






















«, are sandwiched tog 






ler throughout the 


entire work. The au 








st man who fears God, loves his 




a fishing." 








fly-fisher, and, as is 










he fashion, -'wash his 1 






orms, grubs and flies, and affect to despl 




Goths and Vandals, but honestly acknowledges 






. in bait-fishing, aw 






for 1 


:he benefit of those 


i benighted heathens, i 


.vho, as yet. : 



j History department of the book is, he 

'• I may also state my conviction that a whale is a fish 
Joise is also a fish, though the members of this genu 
suckle their young, of which they usually have but on< 
the parent mammal guards with jealous care." ; n. 25.) 



Again (p. 41) he gi ssification of the 

Ishes as follows : First, Mammalia ! '. ! ! Second, the genus Salrao. Third, 
ill other oviparous fishes. 
Again (p. 353), " Spallanzani proved the possibility of impregnating the 

hem with the semen of a male frog." Surely all is fish which comes to 






The grotesque initial letters are capital, the figures 
means new ; with half a dozen exceptions those in tl 



NATURAL HISTORY MISCELLANY. 
BOTANY, 



Tuu.r-MorxTAiN Pink. -The 









arely west of the Blue Ridge, Georgia to I 








sville. and southward." In 1863, he adds, o 


authority of Prof. Porte 


r, -the mountains of Pennsylvania, etc." It 


COVPrpH hv Thnmn. Hf „, 


a new locality near Reading, Pa., which wa 



t of Prof. Porte 



found it ranging from the banks of the Juniata River, in Mission County, 



NATURAL HISTORY MIXKI.L V 
> Perm's Valley, in Centre County. Pa. In the 



• 



NATURAL HISTORY MISCELLANY. 



dunes, a R w aown as "Tin 

cxiriiuiiiLr along the bonier between Burlington and Ocean 
Lnnir Ni.uid should also offer some favorable points for its oc 
—J. H. Bedfikld, Philadelphia. 

Fragaria Gillmani. — In the Naturalist (p. 221) Judge Cli 
scribes a new Fragaria, from Mexico. With specimens before 

plant. It is found not only all over Europe but through the who 

tain ran-v ; to the south of Mexico, : 



liaractcr. I 
paratively lov 



' species t 



kinds (F. IUi!)o<nsis Gray). Iu F. *nni*r- 
the plant sometimes produces no stolons, 

ted of a few single-flowered peduncles with 
ing out roots as a living plant. When it 



NATURAL HISTORY 



■ 

ig shoots. Sometimes the runner "party" will so get the upper 
at the pistils will be entirely suppressed, in which case the run- 
)h out with so much enthusiasm as to crowd down and frequently 
their floriferous neighbors. In fact, just in proportion as the 
■comes truly fruit bearing, and with a tendency to produce a suc- 
of fruit on the same stock, is the tendency to produce runners 
. But even this is subject to modification, for they may produce 
>rt peduncles, although bearing full crops of fruit; they will in 
B wait till the bearing is pretty well over and then run (Wilson's 
, or they may produce a few long scapes, and bearing a heavy 
once and done with it, then push out with great vigor in the run- 
e (see New Jersey Scarlet). 

■esult of my observation of plants in a state of nature is, that 
•ibe or genus of plants has its own peculiar law of variation, that 
u- variations form around this great central law, and that unless a 
;r of species is able to recognize this law, the time will come 
- will he considered incompetent to perform his undertaking. 

the effort to produce flower spikes out of stolons, therefore, no 

r (Iran-,) from <}hr<>rhnj fnrms of stolons 

:■ thrown in these general views to excuse Judge Clinton, who, in 
one before him, and many more will in the 



>e made of Buxbaumia aphylla and Tetraplodon australis. 



NATURAL HISTORY 3I1SCKLLANT. 

ZOOLOGY. 



. 



' ''"':'" 'i ■'• "'"* A,,.*,*:,,,,,*, sorrel and dock. C. Thoe, r _. rfC 
Epixanihe, probably buckbean, water-dock, or some kind of sorrel; possi- 

PohjouiuK'tus Porspnna, probably arrow- wood, eld 



J >" * » -oApocynum. 

Limemtis M t ' L rra „ 7a> scrub oa k, gc 

berry, wild cherry. V :l . , , a . quince , fcawtb 

hornbeam, i. ^rtAmfc, thorn. L. Proserpina, probably some specit 

Annjtnus Mnlia, A. Cybele. A. Atlantis, A. Aphrodite, probably vio! 
some of them possibly eat Hedysamm, Polygonum, or Rubus. A. M* 
™ ld v,ok ' ts aml cultivated pan-y. .1. ja ,.-.,. .,. probably violets. 
/W/oh r, probably violets: also raspberry? 

if '' 5 tei*, plantain? sunflower. J/. Ifarrisii, Diplopappus 
bellatas. V. Tharos, plantain? 3f. Phaeton, Chelone glabra, hazel; 



1AL HISTORY Mix I l.l.vW. 



i of Gilead. V. J-album, 1 



P, r*!u*, X. Iirk-o 



6 ' te> - -"• J/'ff^#<. m-:.-. //, o .',, //. > , t. If. Vial;*, probably 

grass. H. 31,-tm, coar^- an.! lim- ltji»os ; probably also Panicum. 2T. 
•Wanoco, probably grass. H. manna, Glycine? grasses? H. Fanoquin, 
probably grass, H. 1/, s., ; „,-.. grass? iT. Delaware, H. Logan, Panicum 






332 NATURAL HISTORY 



Papilio (var?) Calverleyi, captured in Florida. — While in Florida 
last April it was my good fortune to capture a female specimen of Papilio 
var. Calverleyi Grote, which in some respects d i iters from Mr. G rote's 
type (a male), the I IV '• Proceedings of 

the Entomologic il Society of Phihuh Iphia," vol. ii. and which, till now, 
was unique. The differences are chiefly as follows: Anterior wings 
wanting the yellow marginal spots; emarginations very slight; the lour 
yellow patches nearest the internal angle suffused with orange, particu- 
larly the basal third. At the extremity of the discal cell is a conspicuous 
yellow band, bounded apically by the nervures. On the under side this 



the discal cell, the ( 
Tails black without 



is, however, more yellow in color, the large complicated ovaries hanging 
down below the disk being light orange, and the long frilled mouth ap- 
pendages bright lemon-yellow. The tentacles are about eighty in nun> 
ber, arranged in a nearly continuous circle, - and may extend fifteen or 
twenty feet in large specimens. They are also very remarkable in being 

whfch are margined with white, producing a very beautiful appearance. 
The whole body and tentacles give a white phosphorescent light. The 
largest specimen was eighteen inches in diameter, and secured among the 
wharves of Eastport, at noon. It is remarkable that so conspicuous an 
animal has so long escaped observation. It belongs to a family pl- 
under the name of CaUinnnaornata.-A.E Vii:i,.il. 
The Swedish North Polar Expedition of 18G8.— This is the fourth 

all fruitful in results to geology and other branches of science. After a 
thorough exploration of Beeren Island on the way, Ice fjord in Spitz- 
bergen, was reached on the thirty-first of July. Ice had already been 
met with at South Cape, and it increased as they approached the Thousand 
Isles. The intention was to pass to the eastward of Spitzbergen, but the 



NATURAL HISTORY 

The geology of Ice fjord was carefully 



travel over from Nova Zerabla. They tl 1 1 t p et t,e to 

Greenland along the eightieth parallel of latitude, but impenetrable 
masses of ice, tending north-east and south-west, rendered this impas- 
sable. Turning then to north and north-east, they reached 81° 16' north 
latitude. Here the ocean was sometimes covered with a thin coating of 
ice, and the old i< .the temperature 

siuking to 21° F. On the 29th of August the "Sofia" entered Liebde 
Bay, in Northern Spitsbergen. The deep-sea soundings revealed the 
niiercMii,£i fact that .sj.it /ber-en was connected with Scandinavia by a 

North and west of Spitsbergen the sea deepens to 2000 fathoms and 
more. At the greatest depths animal life was found. At 2C00 fathoms 
■toraminifera were brought up. Liebde Bay was now for the first time 
explored, both in its topography and geology ; its climate was mild and 

vain attempt to reach (lilies' Land, the "Sofia," on the lGth of Septem- 
ber, made a final endeavor to penetrate the ice to the northward, suc- 

reached by a vessel, Scoreby's farthest (in 1806) being 81° 30' ; and Parry's 



ice to the northward of this was broken, but so closely packed that no 


«ven a boat could pass forwan 




°f Greenwich) the limit of this 


impenetrable ice came down to 79°. A 








ri-k was run of finding t hems, -Ives blnekei 


U P in the morning. After ret 


- 


announcing their intentions, they made another last push for the nortl 


°Q the 1st of October, but whei: 








W the vessel's side. Wirli -r, it d;!Vuliy they regained the land, th« 








he "Sofia" returned to Norn iy._ .> i< ■ 


f$*0 Opinion. 




x °te ox the "Blowing" o 


f Whales. — The celebrated Norwegian 












. The popular idea has been, and is op- 


Posed to this. While cruisiii.iT " 


in the North Pacific, and B 


Paid particular attention to th 


is point. I was very fortunate in seeing 



NATURAL HISTORY MISCELLANY. 

t close quarters, particularly a small speci 



iced in the September number (vol. 
ion from Dr. Wood, concerning the 



PROCEEDINGS OF SCIENTIFIC SOCIETIES. 66d 

care they were entrusted, becoming tired of her charge, turned them out 
of the cage in which they had thus far been kept. At first they seemed 
to exult in their new-found freedom, keeping away from the house, and 
during the greater part of the night answering one auother from the 
trees in the garden, but after a trial of several days, finding themselves 
unable to procure food, they came back and ventured by degrees into the 

larly returned with the twilight, entering through an open window or 
door, and after flying noiselessly about the room, settling on the edge of 
a table, or the back of a chair. Early in September they moulted, and 
in their second plumage still retained their distinguishing colors. They 
remained with us till the latter part of October, when they both suddenly 
disappeared. — William Brewster, Cambridge, Mass. 



PROCEEDINGS OF SCIENTIFIC SOCIETIES. 



I Cape Ann, with its picturesque environs and pi 



1 the geology of Essex and Sussex Countj \ most 
'emely interesting study, and one as yel 



336 CORRESPONDENCE. 

geologists. Going from Lower Silurian rocks to the clays and gravels 
of the Quaternary Period, which immediately overlie them, we find these 
beds resting upon gneiss rocks polished and scratched, often with great 

residence ; in Boston Street in Salem ; a mile from Salem towards Lynn, 



i- <hip-ro. k n I) uiv. rs 1'h.- hri<-] j u 1 . lays, which ii 
arthy olays composing most of the arable lands of th 



-- ; !1 



'•—that puzzle in Quaternary geology. The studen 


t of ethuology 




or Kjcekken- 






heanS. and bones of various animals, especially at 


Ipswich and 


nm Island, and many other points, specimens of 






Science. The 


/.»,..-.., will eagerly explore the rocks and tic 


lal pools and 



' Northern and Southei 



BOOKS RECEIVED. 



TIHCIE 

AMERICAN NATURALIST. 

Vol. III. -SEPTEMBER, 1869. -No. 7. 



SEA-SIDE HOMES : AND WHAT LIVED IN THEM. 



Mile after mile of sloping sea-beach occupies the front 
of a low island on the Carolina coast, and contends, along 
a foamy line, against waves that ceaselessly advance, to be 
continually repulsed; a sea-front flanked with sand-works 
blown by the wind into tumuli over the trenches, where lie 
buried countless shells that will only come to light again as 
fossils, when the books of to-day, and those who wrote them, 
have become indistinguishable dust ; beyond which there is 
a vast bed of oozy mire hidden by the rank growth of reeds 
that rustle and surge with every breath of wind. Among 
the sand-mounds, defended by these buttresses alike from 
the open violence of the sea and the insidious approach of 
the marsh, are sequestered spots, bestrewn with shells, car- 
peted with slender grasses whose nodding spears trace curi- 
ous circles in the sand about their roots, with here and there 
a half-buried vertebra of a stranded whale, or the rib of 
some ill-fated vessel, telling a tale of disaster by sea,— spots 
so secluded that the measured cadence of the wave-beats, 
confused by this and that avenue of approach, only enters 
with an inarticulate murmur. Here is the chosen home of 






338 SEA-SIDE HOMES: 

two beautiful birds that come and pass the summer months 
together; a peaceful home, secure, it would seem, from 
danger of whatever sort: a house that falls not when the 
raiii descends, and the floods come, and the winds blow, 
though it is built upon the sand. Alas ! that even were it 
founded upou a rock, the gates of ornithology should pre- 

It is late in May— the last week of a month that is not, 
in this warm climate, "a pious fraud of the almanac," as it is 
in New England— and the birds are busy now. Six weeks 
ago they came from their winter retreat in the far South, to 
this well-remembered spot. The Least Terns came dashing 
along high in the air overhead, their pearly white forms 
wavering between the blue water and the bluer sky, ruling 
both and uncertain which to choose ; and saw, with cries of 
exultation, the end of their long journey. As swiftly, yet 
more secretly, the Wilson's Plovers flitted along the shore, 
half concealed by colors that repeat the hue of the sand, 
from one headland to another, across gulf and river's mouth 
iu succession, till they too greet their homes with joyous 
notes. Separated for a long interval, or at most little heed- 
ing each other, the Terns and the Plovers are to come to- 
gether again, and rear their young under the shadow of each 
other's wing. While they are flashing through the clear air, 
or skimming lightly over the mirrored beach, and occupied, 
after mutual recognition, each in their own way with the 
preliminaries of the great event of their lives, let us see 
what manner of birds they are. Then, when we come to 
look iu upon their homes we shall not be visiting strangers- 

The Least Tern is, as its name implies, the smallest bird 
of its kind in our country ; but it has several near relatives 
in other parts of the world ; cousins so nearly alike that 
they have often been mistaken for each other. They form a 
race, or "subgenus," as the naturalists call it, that is dis- 
tinguished from other Terns by diminutive size and dainty 
form, even among a class of birds all of which have ex- 



AXD WHAT LIVED IN THEM. 339 

quisitely moulded shapes, and by a crescent of pure white 
on the forehead, sharply defined in the jetty I .lack of the 
rest of the crown. They are delicate pearly-blue above, 
with snowy-white under-plumage, that has an indesrril.ablv 
soft and silky lustre; the long-pointed outer primaries, that 
cleave the air so deftly, are black, silvered with a hoary 
gloss of exceeding delicacy ; the bill is bright yellow, tipped 
"ith I .lack; the feet are of the same coloi", and are likewise 
tipped with the black claws. The little bird of our country 
WWWering to this description, has a variety of names in and 
out of the books. In many places it Is called "Striker." 
from the way it has — after hovering in the air, its slender 
]) M Pointed straight downward, its" clear eyes intently sur- 
veying the water below, and at length fixing upon some 
unlucky shrimp or minnow— of dashing impetuously down 
to secure its prey beneath the water ; and just possibly, its 
><-•'< Mitic name, Memo, as well as the English derivative. 
-Stern, or Tern, may be traced to a classic root (seen in 

Iw ™ it- origin in this same habit. A more apt and elc-ffant 
Agnation is that of "Sea-swallow." bv which this and other 
>lK'cies are universally known. Thev arc all. indeed, swal- 



'the 



eplacing over the } 



of «io land, and having man 
lai ; language has, as usual, caught the i< 
points of resemblance, and ca«?ed it in 
mm the written history of this bird's m 
uiterest ; for a study of the various wore 
human thought. Thus our forefathers i 
*e bird the Least Tern (Sterna mintd 
»ot know it was different from the Euro 
name ; but it is, nevertheless, for the pea 
^e tail instead of being confined to the 
«* size of the bill, and of the white c 
same m the two species. Xuttall giv< 
ei *u (8. argentea) ; a pretty name, and 



340 SEA-SIDE homes: 

but founded upon the wrong premise, that our species is 
the same as one that lives in South America. When Dr. 
Gambel found out that it was different from both these spe- 
cies, he bestowed upon it the title of the Bridled Tern (8. 
frai'/fa), another very distinctive name, that would be well 
applied, were it not for the fact that M. Lesson, a French 
ornithologist, had previously called it the Antillean Tern 
(8. antillarum), because it is found in those islands in the 
winter. So we have no choice in the matter of a scientific 
name, in which there is not the same license as in the case of 
our common designations. But let the latter be as various 
as they may the little bird is always the same. It spends 
the winter in Central America and about its islands ; when 
spring opens it courses northward to visit us ; a few ex- 
tend along the Pacific Coast, some up the Mississippi and 
its tribuaries, almost to their very soCrces ; and more along 
the shores of the Atlantic. Some of the latter go as far as 
New England, but there are attractions all along, and de- 
tachments drop off by the way, stopping here and there, till 
the ranks are fairly decimated before the most adventurous 
birds make their final halt. But "their tricks and their 
manners" are pretty much the same under all circumstances, 
and what these are we shall presently see. 

A very different bird is Wilson's Plover ; a wader, not a 
swimmer ; • as they say, in words as long as the bird's legs, 
a . grallatorial, not a natatorial, species; which simply means 
that the little bird is content to run along the sand and 
dabble with bill and feet, in the wavelets, instead of boldly 
dashing in among the breakers, like a Tern, for instance. It 
belongs to a genus well-named ^gialitis, which signifies a 
"dweller by the sea," and has never been known to forfeit 
its right to the name. We have several other species of the 
same group. The commonest and most widely diffused of 
these is the "Killdeer," that everybody knows throughout 
the length and breadth of the laud ; the Ring Plover and 
Piping Plover are two others, familiar to all New England- 



AND WHAT LIVED IN THEM. 541 

ers. Wilson's is characteristic of the South Atlantic coast : 
it only incidentally, as it were, strays northward as far as 
Massachusetts, and is, consequently, the least generally 
known of the four kinds ; but once seen it can never be 
mistaken afterward. It is smaller than the Killdeer, but 
larger than either the Ring-necked or the Piping Plover, to 
which it is very similar in coloration, if not in the precise 
tint. The under parts of all three are white; the upper 
parts of Wilson's are much darker than those of the Piping, 
and yet a trifle lighter than those of the Ring Plover. A 
collar of pure black crosses the white of the breast ; a cres- 
cent of black occupies the crown between the eyes, sepa- 
rated from the bill by the white forehead ; on the nape and 
sides of the head the grayish brown merges into a clear 
warm buff. This, it must be remembered, is only the nuptial 
Plumage, and of the male bird; the latter, at other seasons, 
and the female at all times, have these black bands replaced 
by buffy brown ; and this is the plumage in which the bird 
is oftenest described. But the greatest peculiarity remains 
to be noticed. Wilson's Plover has a very large entirely 
black bill, while both the Ring and the Piping have a very 
small bill, orange yellow at the base, tipped with black. For 
the rest it wants the bright-colored circle around the eyes, 
formed by the margin ofthe lids, that the other species dis- 
play during the breeding season. Its eyes are clear brown ; 
its legs livid flesh colored, and longer than those of the 
others ; it is not half-webbed like the Ring Plover— only 
about as much so as the Piping. Its large black bill gives it 
r expression, and undoubtedly corresponds to some 
difference in the nature of its food, if we could only find out 
exactly what. Such is the bird that hurries along the coast 
from the South in April. Upon their arrival they gather in 
small flocks, of from half a dozen to a score or more, and 
^mble over both the clean sea-beach and the muddy flats in 
search of food, sometimes straying into the adjoining salt- 
meadows if the grass be short and scanty enough not to 



342 SEA-SIDE homes: 

impede their way. They are naturally gentle and confiding 
birds, thinking no evil, and prone to take others to be as 
peaceable and harmless as themselves ; but they have only 
too often to learn wisdom In saddest experience of broken 
limbs and maimed bodies, and to oppose treachery by wari- 
ness and caution. In the spring, if not at other times, they 
have a note that is half a whistle, half a chirrup, and sounds 
very different from the clear mellow piping of either of their 
nearest relatives. After a little while spent in recuperating 
their energies after their long flight, in putting on their 
perfect dress, in sham fights and ardent pursuits along the 
strand, more pressing duties call them from the water's edge 
to the recesses of the sand-hills. There we shall find them 
"at home;" no longer in flocks but in pairs, and keeping 
house with the Sea-swallows. 

The spot is indicated by the fleecy cloud of the Terns 
flecking the air overhead. We toil on over beds of loose 
dry sand, in which our feet sink and slip backward, and gain 
the recess among the mounds. The ground is here more 
firm and even ; the wind has swept it clean of superfluous 
sand, and piled up the sweepings here and there in odd 
nooks; the rains have packed it tight and washed every 
shell and pebble clean. The most careful housekeeper in the 
world could make her home no more tidy than the wind and 
ram have made this .belly dwelling-place of the Terns and 
Plovers. As we walk on, we see that other visitors have 
been before us, each one leaving its "card" engraven on the 
fine sand. Here goes a curious track straight up and over a 
sand hillock, as if half a dozen little animals had ran a race 
one after the other, on stilts, the points of which pricked 
into the sand and formed a band of indentations four or five 
inches broad. These are the footprints of only one creature, 
however, — the sand-crab, a curious little fellow, with a 
square body, and eyes upon the ends of two poles that stick 
straight out when wanted for use, and shut into the shell 
like the blades of a pocket-knife, when their owner goes to 



AND WHAT LIVED IN THEM. 343 

sleep, — a singular crab indeed, mounted upon a wonderfully 
long set of eight legs (to say nothing of two claw-nippers), 
all of which he contrives to move at just the right moment, 
as it he were playing a tune upon piano keys, and so plays 
himself sidewise over the sand with marvellous ease and 
celerity, the only wonder is that he does not forget a leg 
in his haste. He is a very grallatorial crab, and lives in the 
holes in the sand we see all about, just like a prairie-dog. 
There is a tortuous trail along the sand, where a water- 
snake, perhaps a Xerodia sijtedon, crawled out of his pool 
in the marsh beyond, to enjoy the sun's rays, or possibly on 
an i^'Snvs expedition like ourselves. Here is a fainter line, 
straight as an arrow, looking just as if a pencil had been 
drawn along a ruler's edge,; it is the mark left by the long 
slender tail of the little striped lizard, and if we look closely 
we shall see it bounded on either side by a succession of 
faint clots where the creature's toes barely disturbed the 
gvains of sand. There again is a curious track, a pair of 
rounded depressions, side by side, and hardly more than an 
i,U; li apart, outside of which, in the intermediate distances, 
are another pair, wider apart, and much longer. It is 
clear that a Marsh Rabbit has passed this way, planting his 
fore-feet straight downward, and drawing his hinder ones 
leisurely after, half squatting at each step, as he loped out 
of his home in the bushes to nip the beach grass for a change 
of diet. And so we might go on reading signs as plain as 
Print ; but the birds are by this time alarmed as they never 
were by former visitors. They know by intuition that we are 
not one of them, though among them, and that our coming 
Wles no good, however much we may affect to care for 
them in an abstract way. So in a moment all is changed. 
:Ul( l confusion reigns where were peace and quiet. The 
quick-witted Terns were the first to sound the alarm ; they 
had watched our approach, and straightway changed their 
heedless and joyous cries to notes of anger and fear ; at 
the signal the sitting birds had arisen from their eggs and 



344 SEA-SIDE HOMES: 

joined those already overhead. The male Plovers, off fora- 
ging for insects and minute sea-creatures, surprised at the 
noise, had come hurrying home, only to have their worst 
fears confirmed, and be met half-way by their terrified 
mates, who had stolen quietly from their nests when the 
Terns deserted theirs, instinctively looking for comfort and 
protection where it had never been denied before. It is a 
strange sight, and a mournful one, already too painful to be 
wholly interesting, and the tragical end has not come yet. 
The Terns seem not to know what fear is ; they dash about 
our heads, plunge as though to strike us, recede a little, ap- 
proach again, always keeping in a cloud above us ; and from 
every throat come notes of anger and fear and beseeching 
combined ; a very Babel of tongues . The Plovers are more 
timorous ; they are flitting to and fro, low over the sand, at 
a little distance, in anxious groups of three or four, with in- 
describably touching appeals for mercy to spare their homes ; 
now alighting and squatting in hopes they are still undis- 
covered, and again running swiftly along, too frightened for 
a moment's rest. A dark day indeed for the poor birds ! 
Bird's-nesting is a sad business, at best ; it makes little dif- 
ference to the birds, it is to be feared, whether their eggs 
are stolen by school-boys, to be played with and forgotten 
before the Saturday afternoon is over, or by grown up peo- 
ple to make books with, and be kept thereafter in cabinet 
drawers. What difference there is, seems to be that the 
boys let the old birds off altogether, and are satisfied with 
robbing the nests ; while the larger children rob and then 
shoot the parent birds, to "authenticate the specimens." 

Where are the eggs? Here, there, and everywhere about 
the sand lie the Tern's, till we are in danger of treading on 
them unawares. There are not so many of the Plover's, 
though still plenty for our purpose; but both kinds are 
nearly of the same color as the sand, and their markings 
conform to the unvarying variegation of color of the shelly 
strand, so that it is an easy matter not to see them, even 



AND WHAT LIVED IN THEM. 345 

when looking straight at them. Here is a set of Plovers' 
eggs, and there, not a yard off, one of Terns'; we may sit 
down and examine both together. It may be best, however, 
after noticing carefully the nests and their surroundings, to 
gather a lot of each kind of egg, and carry them home with 
us for more particular examination. 

Properly speaking there are really no "nests" in either 
case. Neither the Tern nor the Plover has any architectural 
instinct, because none is needed. Both lay their eggs in a 
slight hollow in the sand, about four inches in diameter ; but 
even this hollowing is sometimes scarcely appreciable, and 
the eggs seem as if dropped by accident on the ground. It 
is probable that at first no hollow, or only the slightest one, 
is made; and that subsequently the depression becomes 
better defined by the movements to which the eggs may be 
subjected, and the weight and motions of the parent birds 
or young. In some instances there is a difference between 
the two kinds of nesting-spots, happening thus : the Plovers 
sometimes lay in a scanty tuft of slender straggling grass, 
which was not done by any of the Terns, at this breeding- 
place ; and again, the Terns frequently line the depression 
with little flat bits of shell, which the Plovers have not been 
observed to do. Sometimes the pieces of shell seem to have 
been lying there before, and thus only to have been used as 
a nest-lining by accident as it were ; in other cases the regu- 
lar disposition of the fragments in a circle, leaves no doubt 
that they were carefully arranged by the birds. This method 
of making a shell-nest is just like that of the Auks and 
Guillemots, that breed in cracks in the rocks, and raise a 
little platform of pebbles to keep their eggs from the wet ; 
a ud is, doubtless, for the same purpose,— to defend the 
eggs from whatever moisture might be in the sand. Still, 
of two Terns' nests, side by side, one may have the shells, 
and the other be without them, or at least not have them 
specially arranged. Neither bird uses any dried grasses, 



346 SEA-SIDE HOMES ! 

sea-wood, or other soft pliable substances, in this particular 
locality at least. 

The number of eggs deposited must next claim our .atten- 
tion ; and in this matter, as seeing is believing, we must 
ditlor with some very respectable authorities. It is a com- 
mon belief, circulated from one writer's book to another's, 
that Terns generally lay three eggs, and the little Sand- 
pipers and Plovers always four. The belief is true enough, 
as a general rule ; but every rule has its exceptions, and 
here are two notable ones. The Least Tern, breeding in 
North Carolina, generally lays Wo eggs; sometimes only 
one; rarely (if ever) three; and never four; at any rate, 
we have not found more than two in any instance, and our 
experience may count for something, seeing that we have 
just explored a tolerably extensive breeding place. Still it 
would be injudicious for us to proclaim that the bird may 
not lay three in other localities. But as for four eggs from 
one Lea->t Tern at a single laying we flatly refuse to believe 
it till we see it. If any one is inclined to object to the 
assertion thai the one egg, found in some instances, would 
have been succeeded by another, we can discountenance the 
assumption by replying that the solitary eggs in question 
were nearly hatched when found. Again, Wilson's Plover 

tions have gone, with respect to nests actually found. The 
suggestion that the fourth one would have been laid in due 
time is combatted by what has just been advanced in the 
other case, namely, the mature condition of the embryos. 
Yet we know the bird sometimes lays four, because we have 
killed females just going to lay, finding one egg in the ovi- 
duct, almost ready to be expelled, and the three others in a 
highly developed state, still attached to the ovary. The time 
of lay hi- van. > :l great deal, in the cases of both the birds. 
They may deposit eggs at any time between the second 
week in May and the first in June; the greatest number lay 
about May 20th. Some of the Terns may even commence 



AND WHAT LIVED IN THEM. 347 

earlier, as young birds, already quite strong of wing, are to 
be seen flying about by the 20th of June. Early in the 
latter month, nearly fresh eggs, eggs nearly hatched, and 
newly fledged young, of the Plover, may all be observed. 
These little nestlings are very pretty and very curious speci- 
mens of early birdhood ; they can run quite cleverly over 
the sand as soon as fairly dry from the egg, if not "with 
half a shell on their backs," as is popularly supposed to be 
the ease with young partridges ; and are rather difficult to 
And, from their knack of hiding, like their parents, by 
squatting closely on the sand. Their legs seem dispropor- 
tionately long, like a young colt's. They have black bills, 
like their parents, from the moment of birth. They are cov- 
ered all over, except a little space on the neck, with woolly 
down, that is white below, and beautifully variegated with 
hlack and bully brown on the upper parts. The newly 
fledged Terns are very different from the old ones, being 
curiously mottled above with diflereut colors, in which the 
pearl-blue scarcely shows; without a black cap, the head 
being white, except some slaty feathers over the ears and 
nape ; the bill blackish, and the feet dull-colored, and the tail 
much less forked. They cannot be mistaken for any other 
species, however, for there are none so small as they. 

We have now only to examine the eggs we have collected ; 
and here again we must give the specimens themselves pre- 
cedence over authorities. If Xuttall, for example, had had 
ours before him when he wrote of the Least Tern, we should 
not now read in his Manual, that "the eggs, three or four 
in number .... are about one and a half inches, 
by three-quarters of an inch in breadth." Ours, we see, 
are considerably smaller than this, and of a different shape 
from that implied by these dimensions, averaging only 1.25 
inches long, by just 1.00 in breadth. The longest and 
most pointed one is 1.30 by 1.00, the shortest and round- 
est 1.20 by .98; these measurements probably representing 
very nearly the extremes of variation. The ground color 



d48 SEA-SIDE HOMES: ETC. 

varies decidedly; the differences may be reduced to two 
kinds, in one of which the color is very pale clear greenish- 
white, and in the other pale-dull drab or olive whitish, the 
latter apparently due to the mixture of a little brownish in 
the green. These colors are speckled all over with small 
splashes, irregular spots, and dots, of clear brown of several 
shades; and others of a paler, illy-defined, somewhat lilac, 
hue, appearing as if it were brown in the shell, instead of 
on the surface. The markings are often very evenly dis- 
tributed over the whole egg, but more frequently, perhaps, 
tend to form a circle, at or around the larger end, particu- 
larly in those cases where they are large and splashed. The 
point of the egg is often free from markings, or with only a 
few small dots. 

The Plover's eggs are of the same general pattern of 
coloration as the Terns', but are larger, and otherwise con- 
spicuously different. The variation, both in size and shape, 
is very considerable ; thus one measures 1.45 by 1.05, and 
another only 1.22 by 1.00; a variation not only of absolute 
size but also of relative length of the long and short axes, 
resulting in a very decided difference of shape. All agree 
in having the greatest short diameter near the large end, as 
usual among birds of the order, and the difference is mainly 
due to a greater or less elongation and pointedness of the 
smaller end. The shorter axis varies only within narrow 
limits ; but even in eggs taken from the same nest a differ- 
ence of .15 may be observed in the lengths of the long axes, 
with, of course, a corresponding discrepancy in contour. 
Tic ii round color is difficult to name ; it may be called pale 
olive-drab, more decidedly inclining to a greenish hue in 
some, and to a brownish in others. The eggs are thickly 
marked all over with brown so dark as to be almost black ; 
the markings are in irregular, sharply defined spots, small 
splashes, and fine dots. In some specimens the markings 
show a tendency to run into fine lines, and in these are 
smallest, darkest, most numerous and most sharply outlined ; 



RAMBLES IN FLORIDA. 349 

but ordinarily the distinctive splashed character is main- 
tained. Commonly the markings are rather larger, and, 
consequently more thickly set on the larger part of the egg, 
where there is also some tendency to run together, though 
scarcely to form a ring around the butt ; but in none of the 
specimens examined was the pointed end free from spots. 
Here and there may usually be observed a few pale obsolete 
spots, as noticed in the Terns' eggs, but they are fewer and 
much less conspicuous, and in fact are hardly to be detected 
without close scrutiny. 



RAMBLES IN FLORIDA. 



The trip across Florida, from the Atlantic Ocean to the 
Gulf of Mexico, is made by railroad. Rising with the birds 
and eating an early breakfast, a ten minutes walk takes us 
to the depot, which is about a mile from the hotels. There 
is no commotion or hustling, no noise of many hackmen nor 
crowding of passengers, neither any difficulty in finding a 
seat ; a single car is sufficient to accommodate the few persons 
that have occasion to travel. Of the small number, probably 
one-half will stop at stations by the way ; the principal busi- 
ness of the road is the transportation of freight, and were it 
not for the extensive business in the forwarding of merchan- 
dize, consisting of cotton, rosin, sugar, lumber, etc., on ac- 
count of the steamship connections which form, together 
with this road, a through line from New Orleans to New 
York, by which much time is saved compared with the other 
routes, it would, doubtless, prove unprofitable to its propri- 
etors. 

The ride from the Ocean to the Gulf absorbs nearly a day, 
for it will be supper time when we reach Way Key. The 



350 RAMBLES IN FLORIDA. 

landscape is exceedingly monotonous, and the journey some- 
what tiresome : nevertheless, it affords an opportunity for ob- 
servation, and a very fair idea of the general character of the 
eonntry can be obtained. There are no pretty villages with 
neat houses and bright garden patches to please the eye ; a 
few shabby towns are passed through, or stopped at "for a 
moment to discharge 1 freight or to allow a brace of passen- 
gers to get off or on. Away from the sad looking villages, 
an isolated cabin or a cluster of huts occupied by tar and 
rosin makers are passed by. The forest scenery has neither 
tropical beauty nor the grandeur of the pineries of Maine, 
Michigan or California,* which so impresses the beholder; 
the prevailing timber is the Pinus palustris , or pitch-pine ; 

apart: hundreds may be seen whose sides are defaced by 
the rough scars or notches made by the ruthless axes of the 
pitch gatherers, and some trees have many of these wounds. 
At one place there is an extensive establishment for the dis- 



by their fruits, furnish the chi 
>f men in the valley of the Oi 












the globe are indirectly supplied with their daily 



RAMBLES IN FLORIDA. 

food through the generous bounty of the p 
any other of the forest tribes ; yet, perhaps, tl 
beauty of the palms has inspired the poetic m 
quently than the sedate bearing and sturdy 
noble pines ; the Artocarpus incisa is no more 
bread" to the naked natives of the South Sea 
is the pine tree to a greater number of civilized 
people. But cadi is glorious in its way ! 

The sallow and sickly faces of many of the 
strongly of fever and ague. The small size , 
shows that the country is overstocked, or that i 
is limited and poor ; the milk used in the so ca 
the condensed milk from the North ; the butter 
and the beef is stringy and dry ; most of the c 
least m this part of the state, is brought from 
the country does not produce the wheat that the 
sume. Few fruit trees are seen from the car • 



occasional orange 


or 


peach tree is theref. 


re noticed. 


are in 


ormed tha 


tin 


- is not a fruit lvirio 


i, but that ii 


vicinit 
the or 


vof the St. 


Job 


i*s River, and in that 


part of the b 


shards are 1 


trgt 


and numerous. 




The 


stranger i 


im 


pressed by the genei 


al flatness of 


count] 


v: nothing 


ike 


kment or ai 




the iii 


e of the roa 


dej 


n be seen. The surf 


ice is never i 


than i 


cry slightl 


' u 


_-. and is co^ 


ered with s 


except 


h 1 


ices 


as are wet or swamj 


y. After a 



Bvery depression becomes a pool or lake, to be in tunc 
swbed by the sand or evaporated by the sun; as the el 
tion of the land is but little above the sea, the proces 
draining the surface by the sinking of the water must 
exceedingly slow. The topography may be better un 
stood, perhaps, when we consider that South Florida is 
a succession of beaches piled up by the sea, a superst- 
ore of shore debris resting upon ancient coral reefs.* '- 



352 GAMBLES IN FLORIDA. 

is confirmed by the outcroppings of the old reefs,. that, pro- 
jecting from the ground, are visible at various points by the 
side of the road. In addition to the accumulation of sands 
portions of the state have undoubtedly been, and perhaps 
are still being gradually elevated. 

Agassiz estimates that not "less than seventy thousand 
years have elapsed since the coral reefs already known to 
exist in Florida began to grow."* What the area of the 
state may be seven hundred centuries hence we can only 
conjecture. The same agencies are still in active operation. 
It will, probably, extend much farther in a southerly direc- 
tion, and the southern part of the state will be greatly 
widened toward the west. Those insignificant (so far as 
size is considered) but persistent workers, the reef-build- 
ing masons, the Astrceans, the Meandrinas and the Pontes, 
are cooperative workers at the present time as during the 
centuries that have passed. f Deep in the sea the founda- 
tions of future reefs are being laid, upon which the more 
ornamental coral-workers, the Madrepores, will attach their 
snow-white shrubbery, fringing the surfaces and edges with 
beautiful forms, an elaborate and graceful finish to other- 
wise substantial structures.^ 

The few tree Palmettos or Cabbage-palms (Chama>rops 
palmetto) that we have already met, indicate that we are 
approaching the Gulf; as we move along the number in- 
creases, and numerous fine specimens are seen. 




2L0EIDA. 353 

Here the road runs through wot; and swampy ground, with 
lagoons and stagnant water upon the right aud left. The sun 
jade us "good night" nearly an hour ago, and objects not 
listaut are indistinct in the dusk of the twilight. Presently 
;he train moves more slowly, and looking out we see the 
winkling of lights; like a boy travelling in a lonesome 
Jlace the locomotive whistles, but with the vim of a thou- 
sand fifers, and then conies to a halt. Out we get into the 
Iarkness aud look around : sand is under our feet, and a 
icanty show of vegetation, principally coarse wiry marsh 
jrass, is about us, and the air is chilly. With a benediction 
ipon the inventor of overcoats, we wrap ourselves closely, 
likI realize that a fireside would be more comfortable than 
he open air; so with a negro for a guide we start for a 
Hiblie house, to await the dawning of another day before 
urthor spying out tin- pride or nakedness of the land. 





outli 


le, and 




the most 




■ plat 


es mart 


hy 


and w 


et. 


ilr 


»ad c 


nipaiiv 


ha 




de 




rtioi 


of a h 




tr, ig 




fo 


r the 


accomr 




ition 


of 


e to and 


from X 


ew 


( >ri,:, 




b 


lildin 


, 8j no t 


re 


iarka 


>le 


lai 


ship. 


in«l the 


hot 


els ar 


3 a 




From 


the end 


of 


the r 


tl- 


fl 


dton 


•an enj. 


y ! 




>r- 



ved from the long wharf, is attractive ; 
near. The "old 



' . ■ ; 



rectly opp< 

.easant appi 


jsite from the principal 
larance ; beyond is the li; 


wharf, and presents a 
irhthouse, situated upon 
i-horscs are, probably, 


10 only hor- 


ses in or about Ceo 


lar Ke 


ys, for at Yi 


'ay K, 


y the 


de beast of 
m,* which, 


burden, at the til 
, harnessed into a 


dray, 


our visit, 


to d 


o the 


mling for the place. What 
gard for the sex made us nidi 


prise ( 

gnant 


mentary up. 
at beholdin 


i)ii the 
•• the (" 


Our 

iegra- 


ition of the 


patient brute. 










At the south end of Way Ke 


■y thei 


e is a grour 


. of mi 


>unds 


' unusual si 


ze and elevation ; 


the h 




most , 


lOUth- 


•ly presents 
ally du- :u , 


an abrupt face to 
'ay. Its height, a: 


the beach, havim 


? been 


par- 


5 far from 1 
isturbed, n. 


at less than thirt; 


vXt 


; but this, 


.. Wl 


3 11 as 


hers of the 


i group was, like the larg 


er mound n 


ear 1\ 


irnan- 


ina, used fo 


; r military purpose 


sdurh 


lg the recer 


it war. 


The 



aggregate thickness of the shell strata with the intercalated 
seams of ashes, upon the southerly side of the principal 

and composed principally of the valves of Oysters (Ostrea 
Virginia*), while on the north side of the same mound the 
shell deposit is somewhat less in thickness, and largely com- 
posed of the valves of Scallops {Pecten dislocatus?) . But it 
must not be understood that the above are the only species 
of shells found here, for numerous specimens of the mam- 
moth Fasciolaria (F. gvj ft „tr,,). and others of the same 
family are represented. Large <\ lv 1 1 s of Uu.^con perversion, 
and fragments of Quahaug valves (Men-fuwria Mortoni Con- 
rad), are quite abundant. Without a farther enumeration 
of the species contained in this, the largest of the Way Key 
mounds, we will hastily glance at others near by. Just 



RAMBLES IN FLORIDA. 355 

north of the above is the second in point of size, but the 
shell deposit, composed of the same species, is not as thick 
or deep, while at the north-east is a third mound of exceed- 
inglv regular form, also composed of shells ; this latter has 
not been materially defaced, though a house of considerable 
size has been erected upon its summit. Between the two 
largest mounds, and connecting them, is a piece of flat or 
slightly uneven ground, which was used apparently for 
burial purposes, for here can be obtained human remains 
undoubtedly aboriginal, and fragments of pottery of large 
size may be picked up. At other places in the vicinity 
human bones may be found, but there is no certainty that 
they are aboriginal. During the war this island was the 
asylum for deserters and refugees, and the yellow fever 
and cholera carried off great numbers. They were buried 
carelessly, and the unmarked graves are scattered over the 
higher land of the Key. 

In examining this part of the island, which is covered 
with various forms of shrubbery, the visitor frequently 
stumbles over the hidden resting-place of some poor victim 
of pestilential disease. A few trees may be seen here and 
there growing out of the sides or summits of the mounds ; 
the latter are so crossed and defaced by the embankments, 
ditches and rifle-pits, that it is difficult or impossible to de- 
fine their original forms and proportions. Before leaving 
this extensive and interesting cluster of mounds, we as- 
cended to the highest point to obtain a view of the sur- 
rounding scenery." Immediatelv below, and but a few yard* 
from the base of the elevation, a sloping shelly beach runs 
gradually down beneath the placid waters of the Gulf; the 
white sail of a boat, hardly moving in the bland and gentle 
breeze, and the whiter wings of -the circling gulls, with 

is sawed into blocks of convenient size for the use of the 



manufacturers of lead pencils, and in the neighborhood are 
rude shanties, cabins and houses, that, viewed with the trees 
and mounds and water, furnish pretty sketches for the draw- 
Not many species of shells can be found upon the beach, 
though much of interest maybe dredged in the deeper water 
of the channel a few hundred yards from the shore. Upon 
an old wreck, reached at low tide by means of a boat, a 
species of Murex (M. rufus) may be collected, and the very 
common Littorina (/,. irrorata) may be gathered in quan- 
tities, sticking to the marsh grass just above the mud. 

The steamer from New Orleans that is to carry us far- 
ther South having unexpectedly arrived, we were prevented 
from making an examination of the adjoining islands, or as 
thorough an investigation of the mounds as their importance 
demanded. Early in the afternoon we were "all aboard," 
and soon after the hawsers were cast loose and the steamer 
was under way ; slowly feeling the course through a crooked 
and insufficient channel an hour passed away before we were 
in water deep enough to admit of greater speed. The water 
is so shallow that vessels are compelled to keep a long dis- 
tance from shore, and the land being fiat, but little can be 
seen from the deck. The mildness of the temperature, the 
clear sky and smooth sea, made it a delightful trip; and we 
shall ever remember with pleasure the down voyage from 
Cedar Keys to Tampa Bay. 



THE SAGE BRUSH. 



In every account of Western travel we meet with this 
name. It is as common in the vernacular of Nevada and 
Utah as the word grass is with us, and for the like reason 
that the plant to which the title is applied is everywhere 



THE SAGE-BRUSH. 35 i 

present. Headers at the East generally have an entirely 
incorrect idea of the shrub. If they think of it at all they 
are misled by its popular name, and consider it synonymous 
With, or nearly related to the common sage {Salvia) of the 
gardens. The title, however, is not bestowed upon it on 
account of any actual relationship to that genus of the mint 
family (Labiatce), but merely from its similarity of odor. 
This is evolved in consequence of any friction, such as re- 
sults from rubbing the leaves between the hands, or riding 
among the bushes. Indeed the plant emits its characteristic 
aroma even when undisturbed, but not in so exaggerated a 
degree. It is the scent of "wormwood," which is the true 
English title of the so called wild sage. Its botanical name 
is Artemisia, bestowed in honor of Artemis or Diana. 
There are many species found upon the Great Plains and 
in the Interior Basin (filifoUa, cana, tndentata, etc.). The 
species tndentata is what I purpose to describe. The spe- 

to the dentatecl apex of the wedge-shaped leaves. 

The plant belongs not to the mints, suggestive of cooling 
beverages and savory sauces, but to the composites, or great 
order in which we find the dandelion, the asters, and the 
sunflowers. The inconspicuous blossoms are densely pani- 
cked. The leaves are not green, but silvery or ashy in 



u-ge and wide-sprea 


din- roots. These roots are 


listed il i vel 


, as^ it were, like the strands 


They are much us 


ed for firewood in this barren 


here little other f 


,el presents itself. They ma 


Sre, but bum much 


too rapidly. As the supply, 


a inexhaustible, thi 


, fault is of no great conseqiu 


re even used at ti 


nes m mills and smelting wc 


r careful inquiry I 


am led to the conclusion tha 




sage brush. Even the most c 


sttler becomes invo 


lved in his account when pei 



358 THE SAGE-BRUSH. 

ently questioned, and cannot tell when or where he noticed 
the phenomenon. All the specimens met with, and their 
name is legion, look as it' they had been produced, not only 
mature, but aged ; as if they were coeval with the moun- 
tains and plains upon which they are found. To the defi- 
ciency of chlorophyl in the plant is to be attributed its 
generally wretched appearance, which is increased by the 
tendency which the brittle twigs evince to break into snags 
and prickles. 

Where the plant grows to a height of from six to ten feet, 
as it occasionally does, it is indicative of good soil, and gen- 
erally of water or moisture present at certain seasons. If it 
is then uprooted, and vegetables planted in its place, they 
thrive most abundantly. All that is wanting to much of the 
apparently sterile soil is the necessary rain to refresh it. 

recovered the desert and caused it to "blossom like the 
rose." The artemisia scorns the alkali flats, and in such 
localities is succeeded by the wretched grease-wood (Obione 
canescens), and various chenopodiums and other salt loving 
plants. Some of these are most uninviting and indescriba- 
ble in appearance. To the traveller they are the synonyms 
of abomination. 

The sage brush grows in clumps, usually separated a tew 
feet from each other. Often it surmounts a mound of sand 
five or six feet in height. These elevations, rising above the 
general surface of the plain, dot it in every direction, and 
one may ride among them for days together. It would ap- 
pear that the plants mark the original level of the plateau, 
and that the earth around has been eroded where it was 
not bound by their interlacing roots. Whether the wind 
or rain, for it does rain here at times, has been the most 
potential agent in producing this effect, I am not prepared 
to affirm. In any other country one would nnln 
declare in favor of the latter. Here, however, the wind is 
almost equally powerful in transforming the face of nature. 



THE SAGE-BRUSH. 359 

In early spring many herbs, and even delicate flowers, 
may be found among the sage brushes. Some of these plants 
are exceedingly curious in appearance. Among them are 
numerous species of the difficult genus Erioganum; Astra- 
galus and Dalea are also frequent, with Bigelovia, Linosy- 
ris, and other species of composite. Beneath the artemisia 
burrow innumerable frisky lizards, chipmunks, and rabbits 
(Lepus callotis) . The latter have the uncomplimentary ad- 
jective, "jackass" prefixed to their name, which is a pointed 
reference to the length of their ears. Then there is the 
cowardly coyote, always semi-translucent with hunger. Be- 
sides these four-footed creatures, the sage hen is frequently 
seen, one of the dainties of the traveller's table. One never 
recovers from his surprise that there should be so much life 
where apparently there is so little to support it. It is said 
that the animals live upon each other ; but there must be 
unity to start (Void, and what that unity finds to sustain it 
is most questionable. 

The artemisia covers the greater part of the Interior 
Basin between the Sierra Nevada and the Rocky Mountains. 
It is found from Idaho and Montana to the confines of Mex- 
ico. It grows, not only upon the plains and lowlands, but 
upon the mountains to an altitude of seven or eight thou- 
sand feet. In travelling one is rarely out of sight of it. 
Above is the clear sky; below, and on all sides, the omni- 
present sage. 

The uses of the plant it must be confessed are limited. 
Its first and most obvious purpose is to serve as a substitute 
for fuel. The word substitute is used advisedly. It cannot 
be dignified by the name of fuel, but does very well in the 
absence of anything better, and is pined for when, as often 
happens, there is nothing as good. Rough fences are some- 
times made of the uprooted shrubs, or miry places in the 
highway filled up with them and then covered with earth. 
Stock will feed upon it when nothing else is obtainable, as 
doubtless will the Indians, who are not at all particular as 



diet. Whatever may be its actual purpose in nature's 
Diiomy, it has a good effect whether intended or not, viz., 

cause an appreciation of the '"greenwood tree." After 
ing amidst the sage for a year, an elm or an oak becomes 

;cence, which < i. i. m h ,s m id, i' mili; i to us from child- 
od, becomes suddenly a mystery, and ever afterwards we 
>rish all trees with especial fondness, and are thankful to 
J kind fortune which illots us i home with other sur- 
mdings than the forlorn artemisia. 



the tropical regions of 
esirable familiarity with 



any other land. Their name here is legion. They are 
everywhere ; out of doors and in doors ; in your food and in 
your bed, determined to share both. They are of all sizes ; 

common muslin, and even insinuate themselves into your 

au inch in length. The habits and food of the different spe- 
cies differ greatly. Some, as the Termites, called White 
ants (which however are not true ants, but Neuropterous 
insects), eat vegetable matter exclusively, destroying our 
houses, furniture and clothing; others are carnivorous; 
others feed upon sugar or the sweet juices of plants. Any 
one of the many species, found in so great abundance, 



mid furnish sufficient material for months of study for th 

It is of one species only that 1 propose to speak, the Dri 
rs (Anomma arcens of Westwood? Fig. 00) ; an inset 
lose life history is yet very imperfectly known, Fi ,., ;0 . 



.glossy jet-!, lack color, with a large head armed 1 i 
with exceedingly sharp, branching forceps, or / \ 
mandibles, with which they seize and cut up their prey. 
Thoy do not appear to have any fixed habitations, as do the 
Termites, but excavate the earth from between the roots of 
trees, and in the cavity thus formed lay their eggs and rear 
their young, and from "which they issue in incredible num- 
bers (literally millions of millions) to go upon their raids. 

The night is chosen for their foraging expeditions. In 
the midst of social enjoyment the stirring announcement is 

trie shock, all are on the alert to escape a personal attack. 
Lanterns and bamboo torches are lighted, and a search made 
about the house to learn the direction taken by the assail- 
to them entirely for hoars. And still more unwelcome at 
the hour of midnight i. the bh.ting of ^liocp. and cackling 
°f liens, in the enclosure. "All hands" are awaked from 
their slumbers, and the whole yard lighted : the animals are 
Pleased from confinement and left to take care of them- 
selves ; the fowls removed to a place of safety, if one is to 






362 THE DRIVERS. 

sternation, aucl seek safety in flight. Centipedes, Cock- 
roaches, scorpions, etc., etc., leave their hiding-places, and 
are seen seeking places of greater security, only to fall at 
last into the clutches of their relentless foe, from whom 
there is no escape. 

An invading army could not exhibit a higher state of dis- 
cipline than is seen in the movements of these insects. 
They enter a house usually at one point, where a strong 
guard is stationed to defend the pass; they then branch off 
right and left, and again divide, and subdivide, till the 
whole ground is completely covered; not an inch is left 
unexplored, and every crack- and cranin is entered, giving 
but little hope of escape to any creature that may be found 
secreted there. Attacking their prey they plunge their for- 
ceps into it, regardless of the size or strength of their an- 
tagonist. Nothing will cause them to relax their hold. The 
animal or insect writhes and twists under the pain, but his 
case is rendered more hopeless every moment by additions 
to the number of his assailants; at length, when com- 
pletely exhausted by struggling, he yields to his fate, and 
is dispatched at the victors' leisure. 

The attack goes on simultaneously, in different parts of 
the house. Animal substance being almost exclusively the 
food of the Drivers an immense number of The -mailer ver- 
min that infest our dwellings are consumed by them, and 
some of the larger animals when confined are also destroyed 
by them. They have been known to attack a human being, 
when rendered helpless by disease, and cause his death in a 
few hours. It is interesting to see a band of these midnight 
marauders returning home from the scene of plunder on the 
approach of day. Issuing from the same place they entered 
they are each seen bearing away some trophy with them ; a 
joint of a cockroach's leg, the body of a spider, or the larva 
of some insects, etc., are the various spoils. As the labor- 
ers pass on with their loads they are guarded by a large 
body of soldiers which are stationed along the sides of their 



THE DRIVERS. 



gh a place of 
red passage, 1 
[ their forcep 



one to another evidently giving command. The retreat is 
made in good order; not one individual is ever left behind. 

across their path, by inning in large numbers upon a flexi- 
ble plant on one side "of a stream, until their weight causes 
it to bend to the other side. For courage and activity the 
soldiers have no equal ; they know no fear, and when on 
duty they stand with their shiny black heads erect and 
forceps open, ready to seize on' any passing animal. No 
horse, donkey, or dog. can be induced to cross their path, 
seeming to have an instinctive dread of them ; and woe be 
to the individual, man or beast, who gets among them at 
night. If a twig is drawn through their ranks they instantly 
close their forceps upon it; and others in turn close upon 
their bodies and legs, till a mass of them is seen at the end 
°t the stick looking like a bunch of curled hair. 

These insects have no eyes, but their sense of smell is 
very acute, for if the breath be blown on them from the dis- 
tance of some feet, they are instantly in motion, running to 
and fro with the greatest speed, evidently aware of the ap- 
proach of some living being. Though at times they are of 
great service in ridding our houses of cockroaches and other 

to get rid of them, though often with but little success. 
When they are in lanre numbers in a small space, scalding 

other combustible material upon them, and suffering them 
to overrun it (which thev quickly do), they may then be 
destroyed by applying a match to the mass. Gunpowder, 



364 A CHAPTER ON MITES. 

also, is sometimes used in their holes ; hot ashes, spirits of 
turpentine, and other articles of the same kind, are useful to 
turn them from their course. When a live coal is dropped 
in their way they immediately attack it, though hundreds 
may perish in doing so. They are very sensitive to the 
light of the sun, which is fatal to them. They seldom move 
during- the day, and then only during cloudy days, choosing 
then the dark woods or thick grass. Their rate of progress- 
two yards in a minute, and in their journeys 

have seen a stream of Drivers crossing an open'path at six 
o'clock in the morning, and at six at night their number was 
undiminished. Mow long they had been passing before I 
saw them, or how long it continued, I am not able to say. 
Their path, from constant travel, became quite worn and 
smooth. The natives are very careful to remove all grass 
from the vicinity of their houses, as a means of keeping off 
these pests. 



A CHAPTER ON MITES. 



But few naturalists have busied themselves with the study 
of mites. The honored names of Hermann, Von Heyden, 
Duges, Dujardiu and Pagenstecher, Nicolet, Koch and 
Robin, lead the sn^ll number who have rmblished mners 



peak too irreverently — pauses from his "diatomaniacal" 

bject," to be classed in his miero<>Taphie Vade Mecum 
rifh mounted specimens of sheep's wool, and the hairs of 
ther quadrupeds, a distorted proboscis of a fly, and podura 
cales, we read but little of mites and their habits. But few 



readers of our natural history text-books learn from their 
pages any definite foots regarding the affinities of these hum- 
Mr creatures, their organization, "and the singular metamor- 
phosis a few have been known to pass through. We shall 
only attempt in the present article to indicate a few of the 
typical forms of mites, and sketch, with too slight a knowl- 
edge to speak with much authority, an imperfect picture of 
their appearance and modes of living. 

Mites are lowly organized Arachnids. This order of in- 
sects is divided into the Spiders, the Scorpions, the Harvest- 
men and the Mites (Acarina). They have a rounded oval 

and* abdomen, obsen d.Ie in spiders; the head, thorax, and 
abdomen beino- 'mer-ed in a single mass. There arc four 



■ Lcode* aWij 
a pair of n 



> (6), often cover 







is of the mites are interesting to the 
, since the young of certain forms are 
jmarkably different from the adults, and 
ihing the perfect state the mite 
through a metamorphosis more 
[king than that of many insects. The 



i the 



3 of the Ixodes albi- 



kalist (Vol. ii, p. 559). Sometimes, however, 
case of the larva, as we may call it, of a Kuropea 
T./phhOromus pyri (PL 6, fig. 4), the adult of 
cording to A. Seheuten, is allied to Acarus, and li 
the epidermis of the leaves of the pear, there ar< 
pairs of legs present, and the body is long, cylin 

of another species of Typhlodromus. 

We have had the good fortune to observe the 

Acari and Sarcoptes, or Itch-mite. On March 6t 
Cooke called my attention to certain little mites ( 
1) which were situated on the narrow groove he 
main stem of the barb and the outer edge of the 
of the feathers of the Downy Woodpecker, a 
quently we found the other forms indicated in Phi 
2 and 3, in the down under the feathers. These In 



:■ 

vwn the 
Mr. C. 






vpiv- 



' Woodpecker at 
t the growth of 



A CHAPTER ON MITES. 367 

The larva (though there is, probably, a still earlier hexa- 
podous stage) of this Sarcopticl has an elongated, oblong, 
flattened body, with four short legs, provided with a few 
bristle-like hairs, and ending in ;i -talked sucker, by aid of 
which the mite is enabled to walk over smooth, hard sur- 
faces. The body is square at the end, with a slight median 
indentation, and four long bristles of equal length. They 
remained motionless in the groove on the barb of the 
h ithei, md when removed seemed very inert and sluggish. 
A succeeding stage of this # mite, which may be called the 
pupal, is represented on Plate 6, fig. 2. It is considerably 
smaller than the larva (all the figures of this sarcoptid being 
drawn to one scale by Prof. A. M. Edwards, and magni- 
fied 115 diameters), and looks somewhat like the adult, the 
body having become shorter and broader. It is perhaps the 
pupa, or nymph. The adult (PI. f>, fig. 3) is a most singu- 
lar form, its body being rudely ovate, with the head sunken 
between the fore legs, 1 which a re considerably smaller than 
the second pair, while the third pair are twice as large as 
the second pair, and directed backwards, and the fourth 
pair are very small, not reaching the extremity of the body, 
which is deeply cleft, and supports four long bristles on 
each side of the cleft, while other bristles arc attached to the 
legs and body, giving the creature, originally ill-shapen, a 
haggard, unkempt appearance. The two stigmata, or breath- 
ing pores, open near the cleft in the end of the body, and 
the external opening of the oviduct is situated between the 
largest or third pah- of legs. No males were observed. 
*" the 



« a species of Acarus {Ty 


■off! ,/p/ms) , somewhat like 


Cheese-mite, which we have 


alive at the time of writin^ 


a box containing the remai 


is of a Lucanus larva, v> 


they seem to have, consume 


1, as both young and old 


swarming there by myriads, 


the young are oval and 


the adults, except that they 


are -ix-lenii'ed, the fourth 


growing out after a succeedin 


g moult. 


Such is a brief summary 


of what has been genei 



368 A CHAPTER ON MITES. 

known regarding the metamorphoses of a few species of 
mites. But a French naturalist, C. Robin, has recently 
observed in certain bird sarcoptids, to which the parasite 
of the Downy Woodpecker noticed above is allied, a still 

dicated as follows: (1) the egg, on issuing from which the 
animal has the form of (2) a hexapod larva, followed by 
the stage of (3) octopod nympha [four-footed pupa], with- 
out sexual organs. (4) From some of these nymph® issue : 
a, sexual male*, after a moult which is final for them; b, 
from others issue females vifhout external sexual organs, re- 
sembling the nymph®, but larger, and in some species fur- 
nished with special copulatorv organs. Finally, after a last 
mc It f 11 og copulation, these females produce (5) the 

the ovary of which eggs are to be seen. No moult follows 
that which produces males or females furnished with sexual 
organs; but previously to this. the moults are more numer- 
ous than the changes of condition." "The larva undergo 
from two to three moults before passing to the state of 
nymph®." These latter also undergo two or three moults. 
(Annals and Magazine of Natural Historv. 1868, p. 78.) 

In some other species of mites no males have been found, 
and the females have he, n i-.l.-.t.-d afo v i,iu- hatched, and 



houses, s( 


) as 


to 


be ve 




annovmo-. 


Mr. 


J. H. 


>f MarbMi. 
!, fig. 6 (m 


-ad. 


Mi 


IBS., hi 

! 60 d 


i-n 


bund the 


™ u f !; 




ds of the c 


abb: 




whicl 




suck- dilrv. 


, ' This 


; is an 


; form and 


m 




S to b 


eloi 


lg to the 


irenus 




is of rnedii 




size 


. and 




ecially not 


icoabk 


. from 



A CHAPTER ON MITES. 369 

the tripartite palpi, which are divided into an outer, long, 
curved, clawlike lobe, with two rounded teeth at the base, 
and two inner, slender lobes pectinated on the inner side, 
the third innermost lobe being minute. The beak termi- 
nates in a sharp blade-like point. 

We will now give a hasty glance at the different groups 
of mites, pausing to note those most interesting from their 
habits or relation to man. 

The most highly organized mite (and by its structure 
most closely allied to the spider) is the little red garden 
mite, belonging to the genus Trombidium, to which the 
genus Tetranychus is also nearly related. Our own spe- 
cies of the former genus have not been "worked up," or in 
other words identified and described, so that whether the 
Liu .pi in T. holowiccum Linn, is our species or not, we 
cannot tell. The larva? of this and similar species are 
known in Europe to live parasitically upon Harvest-men 
(Phalangium), often called Daddy-long-legs; and upon 
Aphides and other insects. The European Tetranychm 
t&ariua Linn., or web-making mite, spins large webs on 
the leaves of the linden tree. Then succeed in the natu- 
ral order the water mites, Hydrachna, which may be seen 
running over submerged sticks and on plants, mostly in 
fresh water, and rarely on the borders of the sea. The 
young, after leaving the eggs, differ remarkably from the 
adults, so as to have been referred to a distinct genus (Ach- 
lysia) by the great French naturalist, Audouin. They live 
" parasites on various water insects, such as Dytiscus, Nepa 
and Hydrometra, and when mature live free in the water, 
though Von Baer observed an adult Hydrachna concha rum 
living parasitically on the gills of the fresh-water mussel, 
Anodon. The species are of minute size. 

Collectors of beetles often meet with a species of Uro- 
poda attached firmly to their specimens of dung4nhabiting 
or carrion beetles. It is a smoothly polished, round, flat- 
tened mite, with short, thick legs, scarcely reaching beyond 



370 A CHAPTER ON MITES. 

the body. We now come to the Ticks, which comprise the 
largest mites. The genus Argas closely resembles Ixodes. 
Gerstaecker states that the Argas Persicus is very annoying 
to travellers in Persia. The habits of the wood ticks, Ixo- 
des, have been already referred to in the Naturalist (Vols. 
ii, p. 559 ; iii, p. 51). Travellers in the tropics speak of the 
intolerable torment occasioned by these pests, which, occur- 
ring ordinarily on shrubs and trees, attach themselves to all 
sorts of reptiles, beasts and cattle, and even man himself 
as he passe* by within their reach. Sometimes cases fall 
within the practice of the physician, who is called to remove 
the tick which is found sometimes literally buried under the 
skin. Mr. J. Stauffcr writes me, that "on June 23d the 
daughter of Abraham Jackson (colored), playing among the 
leaves in a wood, near Springvill<\ Lancaster County, Penn., 
on her return home complained of pain in the arm. No 
attention was paid to it till the next day, when a raised 
tumor was noticed, a small portion protruding through the 
skin, apparently like a splinter of wood. The child was 
taken to Dr. Morency, who applied the forceps, and after 
considerable pain to the child, and labor to himself, ex- 
tra, ted a species of Ixodes, nearly one-quarter of an inch 
long, and of an oval form and brown mahogany color, with 
a metallic spot, like silver bronze, centrally on the dorsal 
region." This tick proved, from Mr. Stauffer's figures, to 
be, without doubt, Ixodes unipunctata Pack. (PI. 6, fig- H> 
enlarged). It has also been found in Massachusetts by Mr. 
F. G. Sanborn. 

Another species is the Ixodes bovis Riley (PL 6, fig. 10) » 
the common cattle tick of the Western States and Central 
America. It i> very annoying to horned cattle, gorging 
itself with their blood, but is by no means confined to them 
alone, as it lives indifferently upon the rattlesnake, the 
iguana, small mammals, and undoubtedly any other animal 
that brushes by its lurking-place in the forest. It is a red- 
, flattened, seed-like creature, with the body 



A CHAPTER ON MITES. 371 

oblong oval, and contracted just behind the middle. When 
fully grown it measures from a quarter to half an inch in 
length. We have received it from Missouri, at the hands 
of Mr. Riley, and Mr. J. A. McNiel has found it very 
abundantly on horned cattle on the western coast of Nica- 
ragua. We now come to the genus Acarus (Tyroglyphus), 
of which the cheese and sugar mites are examples. These, 
and their allied forms, are among the most lowly organized 
of the Arachnids, and seem to connect the spiders with the 
Crustacea, the sea-spiders (Pycnogonids) hearing a remark- 
able resemblance to certain mites. Some species of Acarian 
mites have been found in the lungs and blood-vessels, and 
even the intestinal canal of certain vertebrate-, while the 
too familiar itch insect lurks under the skin of the hand and 
other parts of the body of uncleanly human bipeds. 

Many people have been .startled by statements in news- 
papers and more authoritative sources, as to the immense 
numbers of mites {Acarus sacchari, fig. Fi - a 

63) found in unrefined or raw sugar. 
According to Prof. Cameron, of Dublin, 
as quoted in the "Journal of the Frank- 
lin Institute," for November, 1868, "Dr. 
Hassel (who was the first to notice their 
general occurrence in the raw sugar sold 
in London) found them in a living state 
in no fewer than sixty-nine out of sev- 
enty-two samples. He did not detect them in a single spec- 
imen of refined sugar. In an inferior sample of raw sugar, 
examined in Dublin by Mr. Cameron, he reports finding 
five hundred mites in ten grains of sugar, so that in a 
pound's weight occurred one hundred thousand of these lit- 
tle creatures, which seem to have devoted themselves with 
a martyr_lik e zeal to the adulteration nf sugar. They appear 
as white specks in the sugar. The disease known as gro- 
cer's itch is, undoubtedly, due to the presence of this mite, 
which, like its ally the Sarcoptes, works its way under the 




CHAPTER ON MITES. 



I of the hand, in this case, however, of cleanly persons. 
Cameron states that "the kind of sugar which is both 
thful and economical, is the dry, large-grained, ami 



hue DeGeer, as 


its nam 


e indicates, is found in 


or species have b 


een kuc 


»wn to occur in ulcers. 


insect (Sarcojjfcs scahie 


i DeGeer, PI. 6, fig. 7) 


scognized by an 


Arabia] 


11 author of the twelfth 


the cause of the diseas 


e which results from its 


'he body of the i 


insect is rounded, with the two 


)f feet rudiment; 


iry and 


bearing long hairs. It 


f in the skin on 


the moi 


•e protected parts of the 


by its punctures 


maintai 


ns a constant irritation. 


er species are kn 


own to i 


infest the sheep and dog. 


>ther singular mi 


tc is th 


e Demodex folUculorum 


5. 64), which wa 


.8 discf^ 


Tend by Dr. Simon, of 


lin, buried in tin 


■ diseas. 


ed follicles of the wings 


he nose in man. 


It is £ 


l long slender worm-like 


1, with eight shoi 
logs. This singu 


Irfni 


md in the larva state has 
1 is the lowest and most 


■aded of the ord< 


■rof A, 


•achuids. We figure on 


discovered by > 
ee, and described 


,'ewport 
by him 


\,,VVh!" bodv of a larva 
under the name of llete- 



retains the elongated, worm-like nppoaran< 
the higher mites, such as TyphlodronHi 



THE FRESH-WATER 



ship to the Tardigrades and the Pentastoma, the latter being a 
degraded worm, living parasitically within the bodies of other 
animals. 



Fig. 2. Pupa (?) of the same. 

Fig- 3. Adult female of the same. 

Pig. 4. Larva of Typhlodromus pyri Scheuten. (From Scheu 

Fig. 5. Larva of another species of Typhlodromus. " 

Fig. 6. Chelytus (probably undescribed) . 

Fig. 7. Sarcoptes scabiei DeGeer. (From Gervais.) 

Fig. 8. Seteropus ventricosus Newport, fully-formed female. 

Newport.) 

Fig. 9. Seteropus ventricosus Newport, gravid female. (Froi 



THE FRESH-WATER AQUARIUM. 



(Continued from page 212.) 

The question is often asked what kinds of plants are the 
best for the aquarium, and where are they found? Most 
writers on this subject give long lists of plants, which are 
useless to those who are unacquainted with the botanical 
names. To the majority of people not even the common 
names of most water plants are known, and to such it be- 
comes very perplexing to make a selection from a list bare 
°f any description. Although it is insisted by some that the 
tank should not be filled with every kind of plant that the 
collector can obtain, yet it seems as if there was no sound 
reason why all the plants that flourish in the aquarium should 
n °t be placed therein. In a properly managed aquarium 
there are very few water plants which will not do well ; the 
tew exceptions being found in the lilies, which require a 



374 THE FRESH-WATER AQUARIUM. 

deeper soil than is convenient in the tank, and in those 
plants accustomed to a lower temperature of the water than 
is easy to maintain. Apart from these take any of the green 
plants found in ponds, and placing them in the tank, watch 
their growth, and a few weeks' trial will determine their 
value whether they are of use or for ornament. It is hardly 
practicable to arrange the plants in the tank in botanical 
order, the room is so limited. A better way, if we wish 
such an arrangement, w T ould be to devote a separate tank to 
each variety. This could easily be done in what is called 
the cabinet aquarium, which will be noticed hereafter. An 
affair of this sort enables one to have a large collection of 
plants, changing the light or temperature as the case re- 

Before giving the names of a few of our native plants 
which are favorites in the aquarium, it may be well to say a 
few words as to the locality in which most are found, for to 
one who takes a real interest in the aquarium, it will not 
suffice to pick out a few plants here and there from the col- 
lections of dealers in specimens, which by the way are not 
numerous. Half of the pleasure, to say nothing of the profit 
in having an aquarium, is in hunting for one's own specimens, 
and in realizing that there is much more life in the waters 
of a pond than w T e before imagined. To those who pass 
some time during the year in the country, there will be 
ample means for collecting specimens in the ponds near 
by ; but to residents of cities the task will not be so easy, 
although it will depend a good deal upon the facilities for 
getting into the country. Take for example the two cities 
of Boston and Worcester. A ride of fifteen minutes in the 
steam cars will take one from the former place to Fresh 
Pond, in Cambridge, which is rich in aquarial specimens. 
The brooks in the marshes, near what is called the "Glacia- 
lis," abound in larva, fresh-water snails, and the smaller 
specimens, while Fresh Pond itself contains nearly all our 
common water plants. Tritons, or fresh-water newts, are 



THE FRESH-WATER AQUARIUM. 375 

not to be found there, but not so with small turtles, which 
at certain seasons of the year, especially in the fall, are 
quite common. There is, I believe, no place equally near 
Boston, which has so complete a collection of aquarial speci- 
mens as Fresh Pond. Worcester offers great advantages to 
the collector in its beautiful Long Pond, or, as it is recently 
called, Lake Quinsigamond. The pond itself has few plants 
on account of its depth, but if we follow it up to the river 
which helps to form it, and then to the other pond above, 
near the place where a few years ago the old mill house 
stood, we shall mid all the specimens we could wish for. In 
this upper pond the plants, instead of growing with the 
various kinds, mingling recklessly together as usual, are 
found in a general way, with each kind in a large patch by 
itselt as if some one had planted them so, making as it were 
an aquatic botanical garden. We may go in the opposite 
direction down the pond, a few miles below the bridge which 
crosses it, until we come to the dam which separates Long 
from what is called Half-moon Pond. If it is midsummer, 
and early in the morning, we shall find ourselves surrounded 
by acres of water-lilies, beneath which are the desired speci- 
mens. All along from this dam, towards Graftou, a chain 
of shallow ponds connected by rivers invites our attention, 
and the scenery alone would be a sufficient inducement to 
bring the naturalist to the spot. The three kinds of plants 
which are the best suited for the aquarium, of all our na- 
tives, are Geratojphyllu?n demersum; Utrkidaria vulgaris, 
inflata, and minor; Potamogeton natans, Claytonii, and 
others.* 




376 THE FRESH-WATER AQUARIUM. 

Besides these plants the floating Duckweed (Lemna tri- 
sulca) is a very valuable addition to the collection. Water- 
lily plants are not only difficult to make grow, but their 
leaves are apt to be ill-proportioned to the size of the tank. 
In duckweed both these troubles are done away with, for we 
have a plant which is easily grown, and one which gives to 
the aquarium the appearance of a miniature pond. It is 
found in brooks at the roa W ponds, espec- 

ially in the autumn season. The Limnocharis Humboldtii, a 
lily sometimes grown in tanks in greenhouses, is also a good 
plant for the aquarium, where, if care be taken, it will blos- 
som freely. There is a moss-like plant of bluish green 
color, found growing on stones in brooks, and under bridges 
in shady places in the water. It is called Fontinalis antipy- 
retica, and it is one of the few brook plants that will do well 
in the aquarium. The water buttercup, Ranunculus aquati- 
Us, has only its beauty to recommend it, for it hardly sur- 
vives the winter in the tank. A plant of the Frog's-bit 
family, Anackaris Canadensis, is another excellent one for 
the aquarium. It gives to the fresh-water aquarium an ap- 
pearance similar to that which the Viva latissima gives to 
the marine tank. 

Having made a collection of plants, and thoroughly 
washed them, the next thing is to arrange them in the 
tank. This arrangement must be according to the taste of 
the collector. One way, perhaps as good as any, is to make 
four bunches of plants of suitable size, and place one in each 
corner of the tank if it is rectangular ; they do not then ob- 




struct the view of the tank ; they take up the room which is 
the least valuable of* any, and yet can be seen to great ad- 
vantage. As the plants grow the tops of the branches meet 
and form an arch of green on all sides of the rockwork in 
the centre. They may be held in position, as was suggested 
by a friend, by fastening to them, by a thread or fine pun; 
of string, a small stone of sufficient weight to anchor the 
plants and keep them in place. If this is not done, and 
the plants left to themselves or with the ends of their stems 
Bimply held down by a stone placed over them, we shall mid 
them coutinually being turned upside-down by the mussels, 
turtles, or other live stock of the aquarium. — To be con- 



The Injury done to Forests by Insects.* — Before giving our read- 
ers an idea of the contents of these volumes, we must first express the 
delight and wonder we have felt at the industry and skill exhibited in this 
magnificent work. It is a thorough monograph of the natural history of 
the forest insects, and the injury done by them to forest trees in Germany, 

Forest Insects (Die Forstinsecken, 1839-44), has, more than any other 
writer perhaps in Europe, built up the science of economical entomology. 
It is of the class of works to which Audouiu's superb, and now very rare, 
volume on the insects of the Vine, Curtis' Farm Insects, Boisduval's 
entomology, and Harris' Insects < 



chusetts injurious to v 


_ 


nCOmOlOgy, aim nan m j 

n, are examples. Such w 


rorks as these are 


an honor to any state o 




y, and do more to bring £ 


ibstract scientific 




the masses, demonstrating the di 








;, than any other class c 




elaborate and beautifully executed plates that enrich 






.1 rhe r: 




irest, gnarled and 


distorted by one set of insects. 




;urned yellow, or 


re Q> by the attacks of 




with certain branches 


stripped by still 


others ; and not only i 


tre certain trees and shrubs thr 


is represented in 


colors, but some of thi 


a plates 


represent parts of a forest, showing the 



378 REVIEWS. 

illustration, from among the fifty-seven plates contained in the two vol 
umes, plates five and six contain twenty-one figures, showing the injur 
done by the Bombyx pini and B. monacha to the pine, and the changes ii 

foliation, and the after growth of different branches depending on th 
different degrees of injury, with transverse sections of the twigs, am 
microscopic sections illustrating the pathological anatomy of the tree 
all the points being illustrated in the figures and discussed in the tex 
with a minuteness and care that are almost incredible for one man to hav 



not often been so impressed by the labors of a single man, wno nas 
already published so much. It will irivt n n<\\ impetus to economical 
entomology, and we hope the work will meet w T ith a wide circulation in 
this country, where the same injuries are produced by analogous insects, 
and perhaps greater losses are sustained from the attacks of insects than 
even in Europe. Such a work on fruit trees, field and garden vegetables, 
is now demanded, before the whole subject of economical entomology will 
have been thoroughly discussed. 

Hand-book of Economic Zoology for Agriculturists.*— Another 
book, by the same author, for still more general circulation, is, as its title 
runs, " the forest-destroyers and their enemies, or a description and illus- 
tration of injurious forest insects and animals generally destructive to 
forests, with advice as to the means of their extermination, and for the 
protection of their enemies. A hand-book for foresters, gardeners, etc." 
It is perhaps the most comprehensive work on economic zoology yet pub- 
lished, and a perfect treasury of information regarding all the varied re- 
lations of animals (especially insects) destructive to forests. 

Record of American Entomology for 1868.f— After unforseen de- 
lays this long promised year-book has appeared, and we trust that ento- 
mologists will feel inclined to purchase a copy, if for no other reason 
than to aid in the establishment of a yearly record of their labors, which 
cannot fail to develop new students of entomology, and stimulate those 
already at work. The Editor has been assisted by Mr. S. H. Scudder, 
Baron Osten Sacken, Dr. J. L. Leconte, Mr. P. R. Uhler and Dr. H. 
Hagen. The present "Record" contains, with two exceptions, no re- 
ferences to papers published in European Scientific journals, as copies 
were not obtained in time to be noticed. It is therefore in this respect 
imperfect, but such papers will be noticed in the "Record" fttfthe suc- 
ceeding year. The Editor, therefore, in his preface requests 
entomologists to send, promptly, separately printed copies 



Mass., that their labors may be recorded, and the " Record" be made 
more complete. Four hundred and two new species are described from 
North (including Central) America, and Dr. Hagen briefly describes four 
new false scorpions. The "Record" refers to notices and articles by 
forty-five different writers. 

A Lepidopterist's Guide.* — This is a very comprehensive and com- 
pact guide for the study of butterflies and moths, and with but few 
changes would answer for the use of collectors in this country. We ad- 
vise every lepidopterist to provide himself with a copy. 

Guide to the Study of iNSECTS.f— The eighth part of the "Guide" 
has appeared; two more parts will finish the work, and the ninth part 
will appear in August. The tenth part (completing the work) will con- 
tain a glossary, a calendar of the appearances of insects, and a full index. 
The present part nearly completes the chapter on Coleoptera, and is illus- 
trated by 114 wood cuts, about half of which represent the early stages 
of beetles, some of which have not before been published. 

The Peabody Museum of American Archaeology and Ethnol- 
ogy.J— Prof. Wyman, the curator, reports that the collections have been 
increased by the addition of from four to five thousand specimens. It is 
a matter of congratulation that two very valuable collections of Euro- 
pean antiquities have been bought and are now in the possession of this 
museum. The first is that of I iade in France, and 

that of Wilmot J. Rose, made in Denmark. The first illustrates the early 
condition of the human race in France, with objects belonging to some 
of the analogous periods from other countries, especially Switzerland 
and Italy, and comprises about 3000 specimens, mostly representing the 
Age of Stone, and the Age of Metals. The Rose collection "comprises 

and the rest of stone, mostly flint." The Curator remarks, "with the 
acquisition of the collection just referred to, from Denmark, the Mortfflet 
collection from France, and the Clement collection from Switzerland, the 
Peabody Museum has accomplished one of its more important objects, 
viz., the gathering of the means for making direct comparison between 
the implements of the Stone Age of the old world and the new." 

The Peabody Academy of Science. §— This report contains the his- 
tory of the organization of the A< 
ment of the Museum, formed by t 



380 NATURAL HISTORY MISCELLANY. 

Institute and the East India Marine Society, and the Director of the 
Museum (F. W. Putnam) gives a description and plans of the arrange- 
ment of the Hall and cases, and of the arrangement of the different 
classes of specimens both on the floor and in the galleries. The report 
of the proceedings of the trustees is followed by a report of the Council, 
containing reports of the Director and Curators, with an appendix, en- 
titled "List of Hymenopterous and Lepidopterous Insects collected by 
the Smithsonian Expedition to South America, under Prof. James Orton, 
by A. S. Packard, jr." The Formicidse enumerated are named by Mr. 
Edward Norton. Mr. E. S. Morse, in the appendix to his report on the 
condition of the Mollusca, describes Actinobolus (Cyclocardia) Nbvanglue 
as an Essex county shell, which he separates from Cardita borealis, and 
illustrates the difference, by wood cuts. There is also appended a report 
by Mr. J. A. McNiel on his expedition to Central America, and the Direc- 
tor and Curators report a proposed plan of operations for the Academy, 
(prepared by Mr. A. Hyatt), in which is suggested a Survey of the Phys- 
ical and Natural History of Essex County. The following votes by the 
Council are recorded : 



NATURAL HISTORY MISCELLANY. 

BOTANY. 

Flowering of Posoqueria. - In the October number of the 
lalist (1868), was given on page 437, and following, an acconnl 
ihenomena displayed in flowering by a species of Posoqueria 



ira Muiier, in the island of Santa Catarina on tin 
e slightest essential difference can be discovered fc 



- conducted by h 



Bower, and has given me the 
rach there be, at the point indicated 
tickled the upper filaments at the cur 



NATURAL HISTOKY MISCELLANY. 381 

the progress of the flower from expansion towards decay, as they always 
do sooner or later, whether through the aid of an insect or not. I feel 
perfectly convinced that the titillation, by the legs of small or even large 

anther mass. On the other hand abundant experiments have shown that 
a slight pressure upon this mass is effectual, and uniformly so to the dif- 
fusion of the pollen. 

In a short time we shall have more flowers, and we would be pleased 
to show it to any who take an interest in such phenomena; and we will 
be more than pleased if any one skilful in such matters will make a thor- 
ough anatomical examination of the mechanism by which it is effected. 
—Charles Wright. 

A White Arethusa.— June 6th, '69, a friend sent me from Plymouth, 

pure white one. The specimen, which was an unusually fine one, was 
found growing in the open sunshine in a swamp covered for an acre in 
extent with the usual high-colored ones. I myself found the same freak 
of nature at Lexington last year, and carried the plant to Dr. Gray, who 
told me it was the first white Arethusa he had ever seen, though he often 
met albinos of other families of plants on his botanical rambles. — C. A. 
B.; Cambridge, Mass. 

Abnormal Forms op Plants.— As much enquiry has of late been 
directed to variation in plants, particularly in those growing in a wild 
state, removed from any influon. «M contribute from 

my own observations the following facts on the subject: 

A remarkable form of Frarjaria Virm'dnna var. imnoensis Gray, was 
found by me last summer, in abundance, in two localities on Lake Superior, 
remote from culture. The petals had changed, or were partially altered 
to stamens, in most instances the transformation being complete. The 

mg case for a Darwinian, as it would appear that this plant, not satisfied 
with the variation it had previously accomplished, was still demonstra- 
ting its inclination to progress ! I inclose a specimen. A strange form 
of Viola blanda Willd., which I found growing on wooded mountain 
slopes, was of unusually large size, the great reniform leaves were mat- 
ted with dense hair, which also clothed the petioles, peduncles, etc. A 

variety of V. SelAi,-/,.; l'm> id . . having the leaves less hairy, and 

with a pale grayish with purple streaks and with 

more white than usual, grew not unfrequently with the ordinary form m 
open woods. Trifolium repens Linn. , flourished in open patches on moun- 
tain slopes, having its leaves often from four to. six-foliate. This was 
casting the four-leaved shamrock into the shade. Deep in the forest I en- 
conntered Mitchella repens Linn., with. in nv.my «.••■> >• ; '^ '"■'''■ A "~ ;x '" 
seven-lobed. I also discovered a single instance of Bob 
cum Swartz., with a second perfect though smaller fertile frond rising on 
an independent stalk from the centre of the largest primary division of 



382 NATURAL HISTORY MISCELLANY. 

its sterile frond. The smallest divisions of the sterile frond were, a few 

that a smaller, delicate form of B. lanceolatum Angstrom, having the 
sterile segment less dissected, appears to me a decided variety. I have 
collected both forms on Lake Superior. 
The remarks in the February number on Onoclea sensibilis var. obtusi- 

sous ago on the banks of the Bloody Run, Detroit. To my observation 
it is quite rare. Mr. Crittenden's plant does not seem to me to differ 
essentially from mine, in which some of the segments of the pinna? are 
much contracted and revolute, though most of them preserve the folia- 
ceous character, particularly at and towards the summit of the frond. 
Intermediate states and partially developed forms would naturally be ex- 

To the white varieties, or albinos, which I have already noticed, I 



Michx., abundant in 1868, and the rare Arethusa bulbosa Linn., and Galop- 
ogon pulchellus R. Brown, in former years.— Henry Gillman, Detroit. 
Double Thalictrum anemonoides. — Enclosed is the photograph of a 
double flower of the Thalictrum anenionoides Michx. I found it in the 
woods at "Cedar Ridge," a locality known to all readers of the Natural- 
ist who have been in Poughkeepsie. It was growing in the midst of 
other plants of the usual form of T. anenionoides. Every stamen and 
pistil was transformed, so that the flower was completely double ; and 
both for its exceeding and exquisite beauty, and the rarity of a double 

Botanical Notes.— The mention of certain species in your botanical 
notes has reminded me of an individual of Trillium erythrocarpum gath- 
ered here, having the parts in fours, viz. : four leaves, four sepals, four 
petals, and eight stamens. I have never met with another, and do not 
know whether such variation is common or not. Also of the occurrence 
of Sazifraga aizoon and several other northern species on Kennebeckasis 
Bay. Altogether, we know of the occurrence in this Province and in 
Eastern and Northern Maine, of twelve arctic and subarctic species, sixty 
boreal or high northern (ranging by Lake Superior to the Arctic Circle) 
and sixteen western or continental species, rare or wanting in the Uni- 
ted States, east of New York. — G. E. Matthews, St. John, N.B. 

Is the Elder a Native Plant ? — Looking over the Naturalist for 
March, 1868, I find that an enquiry has been made whether Sambucus Can- 
adensis is a native plant. If the question is not already settled it may not 
be useless to state, even at this day, that both that and S. pubens,ov their 
Western representatives, are common in Washington Territory and Ore- 
gon, and that one of them, if not both, extend as far South at least as 
Humboldt Bay, California, where I have seen a tree as large round as a 
man's thigh. — George Gibbs, New York. 



• 



ZOOLOGY. 

North Atlantic Dredging Expedition. — On page 278 (paragraph 
next to last) of the July number of the Naturalist, reference is made to 
deep sea-dredging by Dr. Carpenter and Wyville Thompson, of England, 
a government steamer having been placed at their disposal for the pur- 
pose. Upon the back of a letter recently received from my friend Dr. P. 
P. Carpenter, of Montreal, he writes that "Buccinum undatum was found 
living at a depth of 1300 fathoms ! ! by my nephew and J. G. JefTreys, on 
H. M. ship Porcupine." The donkey-engine was used to hoist the dredge. 

The deep-sea dredging operations of the late Prof. Edward Forbes, of 
Sars, and MacAndrew, disclosed facts entirely inconsistent with the 
theory that prevailed previous to their investigations, in reference to the 
depth below the surface of the sea at which animal life could exist. With 
the data already in our possession, it is highly probable that farther in- 
vestigations will show still inor* surprising results, and that life will be 
found to exist at depths greatly exceeding that mentioned by Dr. Car- 
penter. Humboldt, found flies buzzing around him 
at a height of over 18 000 feet, and scientific research may yet show life 
from an equal depth below the sea-level.— R. E. C. Stearns. 

Parasites of Ascidians. — In the Ascidians of Northern Europe a 
great number of pai-asiti, < ni>t t. . i mostly small Entomostracas, have 

try very little attention has been devoted to this subject. In dissecting 

Maine recently, I found in the interior an interesting amphipod Crusta- 
cean, not yet determined specifically. Its length is about a quarter of an 
inch. Doubtless many other species of Crustaceans might be found by 
carefully searching this and other common Ascidians. Dr. Stimpson, in 
his "Shells of New England," p. 12, observes that in Europe the species 
of Crenella (Modiolaria) have n, !l the test of Asci " 

dians, while on this coast the same species do not have this habit. We 
found, however, at L i tport last season, a specimen of Ascidia callosa, 
with a small specimen of Modwlana distort completely embedded in its 
test.— A. E. Verrill. 
Labrador Duck. -In the August (1868) Naturalist, A. R.Y. mentions 



Labrador duck, was shot on Long Island ] 
obliged to A. R. Y. if 1 
i full-plumaged males, i 



know if the 



very interesting bird to the naturalist, from the fact of its being so rare, 
and I had almost begun to think the bird had left us, as I had not heard of 
a f«U-plumaged male being taken for ten years. I have been shown two 
Which were taken for the young, but one was a young albino Scoter and 
the other I did not know. Not many years ago it was a common bird all 
fjong our coast, from Delaware to Labrador ; and in the New York marke 



NATURAL HISTORY MISCELLANY. 

5 very interesting to know where they have gone. Though 

i learned of the distribution, summer and winter homes 

abits, line of travel north 

3 who have gone to Labrador, 




I clumsy Alca impennis (Great Auk), 
naged bird, or knows where 
the Naturalist, would interest 
:, Milltown, Me. 

Winter Birds of New York.— I send you the following list of birds 
seen in the vicinity of Utica, N. Y., throughout the winter of 1868-'9:- 
Pihe Grosbeak (Gory thus enucleator), have seen several flocks in the 
streets of the city. Barred Owl (Syrnium nebulosum), very common. 
Mottled Owl (Scops asio), not uncommon. Snow Bunting (Plectrophanes 
nivalis), very common after a snow storm. Lapland Bunting (Plec- 
trophanes Lapponica), not common. Snow Bird (Fringilla Hudsonica), 
common, in severe weather becoming half domesticated. Common 
Crossbill (Loxia curvirostra), common, though seldom seen out of the 
coniferous forests. White-winged Crossbill (Loxia leucoptera); this 
species, though often seen, is much rarer than the former. Cedar Bird 
(Bombycilla Carolinensis), not common. Lesser Redpoll (Linaria minor), 
abundant during autumn and winter. Downy Woodpecker (Picus pubes- 
cens), very common. Hairy Woodpecker (Picus villosus), not very abun- 
dant. White-breasted Nuthatch (Sitta Carolinensis), very abundant. 
Black-cap Tit (Parus atricapillus), the commonest of our winter birds. 
American Crow (Corvus Americanus), common. Blue Jay (Gorvus cris- 
i Jay (Corvus Canadensis), uncommon. Ruffed 
t becoming rarer every year. 
Duck ( 




my method?— Baldwin Coo- 



NATURAL HISTORY MISCELLANY. 

Early Stages op Braciiiopods. — The writer made i 

stages of a species of Brachiopod (Terehratnlinn §eptenti 
) abundant in those waters. As little has been known 1 

rest, as settling beyond a doubt their intimate relation 

Association, only the more important features will be 

• The eggs (Fig. 65) were kidney shaped, and resembl 
s of Fredericella. No intermediate stages were seen be 

i represented in Fig. 
oportions Megerlia or Argiope in 

d in the large ] 




386 NATURAL HISTORY MISCELLANY. 

ined under high powers for this purpose, the intestine of the adult being 
repeatedly ruptured under the compressor without showing any evidence 
of an anal aperture.— Edward S. Morse. 

SARCOpgrixA (Pclex) penetrans.— Having had some personal ac- 
quaintance with the doings of this insect, allow me to make a few obser- 
at o e ted by the account of it in the "Guide to the Study of 

Insects," p. 390. "The best preventatives (Webster gives preventives) 
against its attacks are cleanliness, and the constant wearing of shoes or 
slippers when in the house, and of boots when out of doors." 

As I was not in the habit of going entirely barefooted, I cannot say 
whether I would have been more troubled by the nigua (Spanish)— or 
jigger (Florida), or chigoe or chique (French); bicho is applied to 
almost any sort of bug— than with shoes, or with shoes and stockings; 
and as I never wore boots I am not sure how much protection they 
would have afforded in either case. I imagined too that I was not un- 
mindful of cleanliness— in general. By this it is not to be understood 
that I was not at times hardly presentable. I may even confess that I 
was sometimes dirty— yea, very dirty. I went into the woods among the 
bushes and tall grasses often dripping with water. Sometimes I slid or 
rolled down the hills, or slipped up in the muddy roads. I had to climb 

their very tops. I waded in ponds of very dirty water and in creeks clear 
as crystal, till my feet were soaked, even parboiled; yet the niguas woaw 
penetrated my fingers, 
rere habitually unclean, 
t jiggers entered 
i fact that uncleanliness is favorable to their entrance. 



to neglect. It may be that they take more ™ ««»« 
persons than to others, as vermin generally are said to do ; though this, 
again, is attributed to uncleanliness in the parties so affected. At all 
events it seems certain that some persons are less sensitive to these 
pests, or that they are less or not at all attacked by them. Some per- 
sons say that fleas do not get upon them. They may be of the hard- 

The male "nigua" looks like a small flea, but does not jump, only 
runs. These may be often seen in places much frequented by swine par- 
ticularly, and in the mills for hulling coffee, much like old-fashioned cider 
mills, the area of which is dry and trodden to dust by the oxen which 
draw the wheel. I have seen them also where a pet deer was accustomed 



NATURAL HISTORY MISCELLANY. 387 

of the abdomen is alwaj - te surface. Thus respira- 

tion Is carried on, I suppose. The sensation is a dull itching; and if the 
person is much occupied the entrance is very likely to be effected unper- 

may, perhaps, elapse before any considerable annoyance is felt. This 
consists of a tenderness about where the insect is, with an itching there 
or thereabouts. The nigua may be in the great toe, and you will rub or 

wad the itching be felt at the root of the nail. This is one of the pecu- 
liarities of the irritation caused by this almost invisible pest. Another 
peculiar effect of the puncture, or lodgment, of the nigua is, that, after 
it is completely extracted the irritation continues the same for a day or 

be neglected very likely it may not be felt again till after several days, 
and when it has become nearly or quite gravid, when a slight soreness or 
a tenderness is sure to be experienced. 

It is exceedingly rare that any ill-effect results from the extraction of a 
single nigua, or of a few, ilcl be peculiarly predis- 

posed to disease. The reason why the negroes are so much troubled by 
heir own neglect, stupidity, laziness, or the toughness of the 
H combined. Their feet frequently are in a most disgusting 
condition, and the extirpation of the animals is not unattended with dan- 
ger of ulceration, sometimes resulting in lockjaw. — Charles Wright. 

Birds' Eggs.— I will give a few hints taken from Mr. Wheelright and 
others. The utmost importance is to be placed upon the proper identifi- 
cation of the specimens. To every bird's leg attach a label noting sex 
( ? for female, $ for male), date of capture and locality. Blow the eggs 
with a blow-pipe. Make but one hole and that on the side. Above the 
hole write the initials of the collector, and under it the number. (It is 
Well also to put Baird's Smithsonian number on each). All the eggs in 
one nest should have the same number. 

Jay, 15th March, : 



I mark all three eggs, sa 


No 


5, and keep a small note-book ru 


edthus: 


Date. 


Name. 


E°™° S n 


Remarks. 


Apmao. 


Canada Jay, 3 eggs. 


6 


D Tl^eTc yaUdaUPartlCUl 





,f the bird, looks very neatly. In the 
e the nests, as they are often more in- 
3 themselves. All the eggs 

y get mixed) is very 



NATURAL HISTORY MISCELLANY. 



embryo : Make a little larger hole than usual in the side, pick out as 
much of the young bird as you safely can, and then blow water into the 
egg with a blow-pipe ; let it stand for some days in a dark drawer or 
box ; keep repeating this process about every third day, gradually blow- 
ing more water into the shell, and picking a little out, till the whole of 
the embryo has decayed and is removed. This is a safe and sure way for 
a rare and valuable egg. I often put large eggs where the Cabinet-bug 
(Dermestes) can g«t into them, and clean out any foreign matter adhering 
to the shell. — G. A. Boardman. 

Habits of Earthworms.* ---Last spring (and this) I was led to watch 
the common earthworms in my garden, and on the plot of grass saw their 
manner of feeding. I was within ten inches of their bodies. I saw one 
prepare to feed on a young clover leaf from a clover stock ; he fcept his 
tail secured to the hole (as a base line, in the ground, by which he re- 



came again. Within a few inches of my eye the pointed head of th< 


worm changed, and the end was as if cut off square. I then saw it wai 




action of the rings of the whole body drew the leaf and one inch of th 




the whole stock of young and tender clover towards him, and when al 


the substance was sucked out he let the plant go and it (the stock) flev 


back to its former place. . entire, but looked a: 


though it had been boiled. I then laid a small piece of cold muttoi 


down, and he appeared to feasl a, dragging then 




been held like the clover leaf. I also find that when the male an< 


female are together they appear as one worm of double the size.— E. P 


Knight, PhilacMph ia. 


Honey Bee killed by Asclepias pollen.— I found Bidens frondox 


in Morris County, N. J., in the summer of 18G7, constantly with petals 




of fertilization of Asclepiads, I repeatedly found honey bees entangled 


or rather entrapped by the glands. I found them dead ; starved to death 


I suppose, or exhausted with their efforts to escape. At other time: 


they either got free themselves or with a little help. I found them mos 


abundantly m the neighborhood of p,-. k-ki !. X. V . being much assistef 


in my search by Rev. Mr. Mun'i-. and hi- bn.th.Ts. of Lake Mohegan 


No insect of any size was found thus entrapped, and only a very fe* 


small diptera, which I looked upon as interlopers, or accidents. Tb< 


bee having the pollen mass on he flower, and as h 


draws his leg up. in r.-a.-ldiiir «-v.-r to the" other side, brings the blad< 


of the pollen mass into the stigmatie cleft, where it adheres, separating 


rV " ' '^' k -^'« i -t 1 ,- lehed to the insect's leg. Thi 



NATURAL HISTORY MISCELLANY. 
i groove of the gland, and dra 



'pollinia. Passir. 

itn I believe, which had drawn out tl: 



■ 



>een accidentally introduced in the cases recorded, and found 
a favorable one?— Quarterly Journal of Science, London. 
'logical. -In the September (1SG8) Naturalist Mr. Kedzie 
□stance of the " breeding peculiarities - ' of the Golden-winged 

e eggs from one of their nests, and calls upon any of the read- 

pring of 1865, while in Maryland, I obtained twenty-two eggs 



from the nest of 


' our conn 


non House Wren(2>< 


■-..■.. 










































not equal to tin 












' ! 


am a little i 






La-t spring, w 


' - .'. I . 


>rida. I f.uin 


d the Blue 


nn me whether it has ever 


been found bree< 


ling so fa: 


r South befc 


>re? — C. H. Nauman, Lancaster, Pa. 


Kkgexekatiu: 


* OF LlM] 


3S. — M. Milne-Ed wai 


■ds has coinm 








ts of 31. Philippeaux's experiments 


















of a newt be cut off, the 




being lef 






ill be reproduced, but that 










oduced. He has now been 








• 


is is true. I 


>f a fish be cut 


off they 


will be reproduced: 


: but if the pal 



and Makmot (Arctomys monax Gmel.), more popularly 
locality by the common name of "Groundhog," is still 
:lant in the southern , str ts of Lancaster County, Pa.; 
:w they were so prolific, at least I have seen nothing on 
iicates anything female specimen 

imore Township, <. This subject, 

killed, brought forth tiv. naked <:u >s. tnd afterwards our 

fere all entirely nude — not a particle of hair on any of 
sort of film over their eyes. They may have been prenw- 



NATURAL HISTORY 



was immersed In c irs without destroy 

were fully three inches in length, and I should judge fr< 
weighed about an ounce and a half. — S. S. Ratiivon, Lane- 
The Salt Lake Ephydra. — In the April number of 
Science-Gossip," is figured an " animal from Salt Lake," wh 

of Ephydra, of which the fly and puparium have been 
Naturalist, Vol. II, p. 278. and a short account given of t 
of other species in the salt-works in Germany, the Equal 
Gallatin County, Illinois, the salt Lake Mono, California, 
of Labrador and Massachusetts, where it lives in salt or b 
-A. S. P. 

The Spider and Mud-wasp. — Mr. Thomas Affleck, of ] 
sissippi, in a letter to the late Dr. T. W. Harris, dated J 
and preserved in the Library of the Boston Society of Ni 



large spider was attacked by one of the small blue 
daubers, not half irs size, and on the ground. The 
in! managed to fend off his antagonist a: 
Pace, doubling and winding Tin wasp s< < m< 1 to 1 
eral seconds, but presently it circled ron 

windings of the spider, o 
repeated two or three til 

a capital figir st a minute. 



again, evidently selecting a smooth path, along 
much difficulty his bulky prey. The moment he 
dropping the spider, he circled round again, 
smooth path. Where did instinct cease, and re 



m OF BlUEMRD 

p<e iiai tlat 



r carefully, and a 
over, tearing away I 



eggs was pure white. I also noticed that, unlike ri 
bottom of the cavity was well bedded with grass ; 



CORRESPONDENCE. 



ive seen hundreds of bluebirds' eggs. I have no 

ither egg in my collection which is a nondescript 
of a very light bluish-green, sprinkled all ovt 
•own and many other obscure specks ; globular, 
rcl's nest, which had besides its full complement o 
) near Monroe, Michigan. That was in 1867, and 
l since I have seen nothing 
m such. The n 



GEOLOGY. 
Species of Fossil Horse ix Mexico. — Prof. R. Owen has de- 
fy deposits of the valley of Mexico. "It is unlikely, seeing the 

with whici, the Indians of the Pampas have seized and subjugated 
ay descendants of the European horse*, introduced i 

)f the multitudinous progeny of those war horses at the present 
nit any such tamable equine should have been killed off or extir- 
by the ancestors of the South American aborigines." Owen also 

whether the fossil contemporaries of this horse (7; 
and its allies, the Eqiuis Tau Owen (from the same locality), and 
curti'Uns, etc., and also the Megatherium, Mylodon, Toxodon. >e- 

Macrauchenia, Glyptodon, and Mastodon, were rendered extiuct 



VEKS TO CORRESPONDENTS. 



r Ftjelt, read Hjelt. Page 5 



AMERICAN NATURALIST. 

Vol. III. -OCTOBER, 1869.-NO. 8. 
THE RED-TAILED HAWK. 



This bird is generally known as the Hen-hawk (Buteo 
borealis) . It is so seldom taken in this vicinity that when 
captured the hunters will tell you that they have killed "one 
of the real old-fashioned hen-hawks." 

Having recently had the young of the Red-tailed Hawk 
brought to me as something new and rare, and as there is 
such a dissimilarity between the adult and the young that no 
one except a naturalist would recognize them as the same 
bird, I will give a description of the bird in its different 
plumage, with an account of its habits. 

On the Pacific the Red-tailed Hawk is supplanted by a 
closely allied species {Buteo montanus). It is peculiar to 
America, and in its adult plumage is easily recognized from 
any of its genus. It is extremely shy, and not easily taken 
unless approached in a wagon or on horseback. The flight 
of this bird is strong and firm, often sailing to a great dis- 
tance without any apparent motion of its wings. Occasion- 
ally several of them will be seen very high in the air, sailing 
about in circles, sometimes rising in spiral turns, and then 



di'4 THE RED-TAILED HAWK. 

descending rapidly, uttering :i clear shrill cry of lap, fate, 
l-ae, several times, and often continu g it 8 m I t 
These gyrations occur more commonly in the spring ; per- 
haps it is a nuptial ceremony, or a bridal pilgrimage. This 
bird does not always live in that domestic peace and har- 
mony after rearing its young as is proverbially true of birds 
of prey, often fighting over some game that it would most 
. toil to procure for its companion and little ones 
during breeding season. An amusing instance of this kind 
occurred to my knowledge. One of these birds caught a 
snake and flew high into the air; its mate followed and tried 
to force its companion to give up the coveted morsel. For 
a time I did not know but that they would have to settle it 
as did the two snakes, each of which had hold of a leg of 

pated dainty repast, the largest snake not only swallowed 
the toad but also the smaller snake attached to his portion. 
(Query— Which got the toad?) 

In their bill of fare snakes form quite an item in the 
spring and summer months, but in the winter months the 
wild game of our woods and the poultry -yard, satisfy 
the cravings of hunger. It is from the fact of its making 
Buch frequent inroads among our domestic fowls that it de- 
rives the name of hen-hawk. When capturing snakes they 
sometimes "wake up the wrong passenger." A farmer living 
in this vicinity, while putting up a fence around his pasture, 
noticed a large hawk on the ground some forty rods from 
him, sometimes rising up two or three feet, then dropping 
down. Supposing him to be devouring some game lie paid 
but little attention to it at first, but from its continuing in 
the same place, and keeping up the same manoeuvring for a 
long time, his curiosity was excited, and coming near the 
bird he discovered that the tail ot a large black snake was 
coiled around the hawk's neck, and that the head and a 
part of its body was in a hole in the ground ; the hawk 
was nearly exhausted. With a blow of his axe the farmer 



THE RED-TAILED HAWK. 

severed the snake, and brought the haw k to his barn wli 
he kept him alive for some time. The part of the sn 
attaehed to the bird measured three feet, which was. pre: 
bly, about one-half of its length. The hawk evidently sei 
the snake when lie was partly in his hole and was nnabh 
draw him out, and when found, the serpent was endeavor 

that don't work both ways/' This was the adult Ked-tai 
Hawk. 

In procuring food for their young they frequently act 

will dive at it while the other poises itself ready to seiz 
if it dodges to the other side to evade the grasp of the i 
hawk. From the two there is no escape. Grasping it tin 
by the neck the assailant practicably demonstrates the v 
sibility of garroting its victim, when the ill-fated squirre 
carried to the eviw. and torn in pieces to satiate the cravi 



ither sunning itself or watching for gai 



eye. In sailing over fields, if it 
either grasp it by a side stroke, 



When wounded, like all rapacious birds, it wil 
its back and defend itself with its claws and bill 
a stick presented to it so firmly as to be raised 
ground and carried some distance before relinqu 

strength and tenacity of its grasp. A sportsnui 



390 THE RED-TAILED HAWK. 

Avinged one of these birds his dog ran up to it, when his 
nasal appendage was firmly seized by the enraged bird. 
Smarting under the chastisement he howled and yelled, sha- 
king his antagonist with force enough, apparently, to dislo- 
cate every bone in its body. This was continued sometime 
before its claws were disengaged, when my informant said 
"that the dog's nose looked as though it had been chawed. 1 " 

They formerly nested here, but I have not been able to 
find a nest for the last fifteen years. The nest is large and 
somewhat flat, composed mostly of sticks and twigs, and 
generally located where it is almost impossible to get at it. 
According to our writers on oology they lay from four to 
five eggs. This is a larger number than I have found ; from 
two to four has been the usual number. They are dull 
white, sparsely covered with brown and dark-brown spots. 
Both birds assist during incubation. Its length is from 
nineteen to twenty-four inches, and the expanse of the wings 
from forty-five to fifty inches. The female is considerably 
larger than the male, as is the case with all our rapacious 
birds. The head of the adult is largo and flat ; the tip of 
the bill much incurved, with the entire upper parts brown, 
with, fulvous edging on the head and neck. The tail is 
bright rufous, tipped with white, and a little rounded, with 
the sul terminal band of black. The throat is white with 

white with longitudinal brown spots. The under tail-coverts 
are yellowish white, the legs are yellow, and the iris, hazel. 
In the young the upper parts arc lighter brown than in the 
adult, with more white and fulvous spots ; the tail has some 
nine or ten transverse browni>h black bands and is tipped 
with white ; the subterminal band is about an inch wide ; the 
under parts are white with large ovate spots of brownish 
black ; the under tail-coverts are spotted with brown. The 
smaller wing-coverts, from its flexure to the body, are rufous, 
and similar to the Red-shouldered Hawk, only not as bright 
rufous. 



RAMBLES IN FLORIDA. 397 

The only resemblance between the adult and young is in 
the general form of the head, bill, legs, and claws. It is no 
wonder that naturalists considered them different species. 
Nuttall described the young as the American Buzzard (Fako 
Buteo), Pennant as the Great Hen-hawk (Buteo vulgaris), 
and Wilson named it the Falco Zeverianus. He says, 
however, "it is with some doubt and hesitation that I intro- 
duce the present as a distinct species from the Buteo borea- 
lis. My reason for inclining to consider this a distinct 
species is the circumstance of having uniformly found the 
present (Falco Leverianus) , two or three inches larger than 
the former (B. boreolis) . 

Ornithologists at that time were not generally aware that 
the young of many of our birds of prey were longer than 
the adult. This is very marked in the Goshawk and Bald 
Eagle. This seeming absurdity is easily explained. After 
moulting the long feathers never attain their former length. 
If Wilson had been aware of this fact he never would have 
introduced the young of the Buteo borealis as a distinct 
species. 



RAMBLES IN FLORIDA. 



From Cedar Keys to Egmont Key is eighty-five mile 
The latter is situated at the mouth of Tampa Bay, and 
forty miles from the town of Tampa ; upon it is a ligl 
house whose friendly flame shone far across the waters < 
the Gulf as we steamed along in the early gray of the mot 
i"g- We had arranged to land at Egmont, wind and wv 
permitting, as it is good working ground tor the naturalis 
but a rough sea compelled a change of plan, and we kept ( 
for Tampa. 



398 RAMBLES IN FLORIDA. 

Tampa Bay is divided at its upper portion, or head, into 
two -smaller bays, one known as Old Tampa Bay, from the 
town of "Old 'Tampa," the other as Hillsborough Bay,* 
which receives a river of the same name. It is upon the 
southerly bank of the latter that the new or present town 
of Tampa is located. A very narrow and crooked channel 
and an insufficient depth of water prevent vessels, excepting 
very small craft, from reaching the wharves, consequently 
the steamer was anchored someffour miles below the place. 
Viewed from the deck the scenery is attractive, though the 
shores, as elsewhere, are quite low. As you face the town 
upon the left hand, and half a mile off, is Ballast Point, f an 






di-.-Iv 



the quiet air, or flutter like tattered battle-flags when 
by a passing breeze. The post is built upon a slopin 
whose margin is washed by the waters of the bay; i 
of the trees is the parade ground, in the centre st 
symmetrical flag-staff, from the top of which, far alof 
the national flag. 



safely in a four-ton sloop, and seated ourselves upon the top 
of the cargo like statues upon a pedestal. The lines were 
"let go," and after beating in a light wind the sloop was at 
the wharf by noon. 

tain number of strokes on the Court House bell : hence the 
crowd at the wharf. Friends met us as soon as we landed, 

an unemployed negro ; the former was at once hired for a 
camp, the latter for a commissary and quartermaster.* In 

ing. Elated with this wonderful dispatch, in the fulness of 
our joy we thought the millennium not more than "two 
blocks off," and rashly named our quarters "Camp Delight;" 



but we had unwisely crowed before we wer< 


i out of the 


woods, as will presently be seen. 




The population of Tampa is variously stated 


at from eight 


hundred to one thousand (people), of all size 


s and colors ; 


but this does not include the million (of fleas] 


. that nightly 


met in mass-meeting at Camp Delight, and c 


ompelled us, 


both in sorrow and in anger, to change the m 


tme to Camp 


Misery. The fleas of California, the black-flies 


of the Lake 


Superior swamps, the mosquitoes of the Ohio 1 


f alley, all of 


these we had met on their own ground and B 




but the fleas of Tampa proved invincible. W 


e thought of 


the savins of a German poet, "God made the w 


orld, but the 


devil made the flea." 




The appearance of the town creates a favor 


able impres- 


sion, for it is well planned, the streets being wi 


de and regu- 


lar and the buildings comely ; many of the stre( 


>ts and yards 


are ornamented with trees ; in some of the lattei 


■ the bananas 


were just shooting up new leaves to replace thr 


>se that were 


cut down at Christmas time by an unusual and 


severe frost. 


A large specimen of the American aloe {Agave 


Americana) 



400 EAMW.ES IN FLORIDA. 

standing in the Post Office yard perished from the same 
cause, though a rosebush near it was loaded with red flow- 
ers.* Many of the orange trees were full of fruit, which 
was ruined by the fatal blast, and bushels were rotting on 
the ground. In some sheltered spots or warm places on the 
shore of Old Tampa Bay they were untouched, and we had 
many a feast upon the golden fruit from that neighborhood. 
The Florida oranges we consider superior to the Mediter- 
ranean, Mexican or Tahitan ; they are of large size, good 
color and fine flavor. The Shaddock (Citrus decumana) 
also grows iu the vicinity of Tampa, and very fine speci- 
mens of the fruit were purchased by us at the stores. It is 
extensively cultivated in the West Indies, and many people 
prefer it to the orange ; it is slightly bitter, and the juice, a 
mild acid, is cooling and healthful. It is called Grape Fruit 
by the Floridians. Not far from our camp is a grove con- 
sisting principally of pines of the species Pinus pahtstris, 
also called the pitch-pine, and long-leaved pine, and P. tmda, 
known as the loblolly pine, and many may be seen in the 
streets and elsewhere about the town ; they sometimes attain 
a height of one hundred feet, but we have as yet seen none 
that exceeded seventy feet. The Chamcerops serrulata, or 
Saw Palmetto, here, as everywhere in South Florida, grows 
luxuriantly in the sandy soil, and just outside of the town 
it seems to have crowded out all other shrubbery. 

Without enumerating the many botanical forms that are 
met with in this section of the country, a few of the promi- 
nent species worthy of mention are the Sweet Bay (Magno- 
lia glauca Linn.), which grows to the height of twenty feet, 
with highly perfumed flowers and shining leaves (an iso- 
lated colony of this species sheds its fragrance on the colder 
air of the north, being found in the vicinity of Gloucester, 
^lass.); the Southern Buckthorn (Frangula Caroliniana 
Walt.), a species of Hawthorn; the Cakdpa, or Indian- 



RAMBLES IN FLORIDA. 401 

bean; also the Persea Carolinensis, or Alligator pear,* 
sometimes called the Red Bay. 

The banks of the Hillsborough River at the water's edge 
are muddy, with a growth of tall coarse grass. The bivalve 
shell, Cyrena Carolinensis,^ may here be obtained; also 
the pretty little river snail, Neritina redivata. From the 
wharves, at the proper tide, many fish are caught, principally 
Sheep's-head (Sargus) and Mullet (Mugil), both of which 
are good eating. The supply, however, is quite irregular, 
and the market therefore cannot be depended upon. Oys- 
ters ( 0. Virginica) of excellent quality abound in the bay, 
and can usually be purchased from boats at the wharf. 
During a portion of the period of our stay at Tampa the 
market was well supplied with venison (Cervua Virginia* 
nus) of good quality, thanks to the energy and skill of an 
one-armed hunter residing a few miles away. The hens of 
Florida deserve favorable mention, if not a diploma, for 
their daily dividends were too important to be forgotten. 

Stalking along the muddy margin of the stream may fre- 
quently be seen the Blue Heron (Florida cceruk-a Baird), 
and the White Heron (Herodias egretta Gray). There is a 
California species that much resembles this last. The White 
or Whooping Crane (Grus Americamis Ord.) and the great 
Blue Crane (Ardea herodias Linn.), and the Egrets (Demi- 
gretti Pealii Baird) with white plumage, and another (I), 
rufa Baird) of a reddish color, are found in this part of the 
state around the shores of the bay and gulf. Many others 
of the long or stilt-legged bipeds, of the feathered tribes 
belonging to the Grallatores, or waders, are met with when 
rambling through the marshes or exploring the bends, inlets 
or sloughs of the river, or are seen by us from the boat while 



402 RAMBLES IN FLORIDA. 

rowing up or down the stream. With a scoopnet rigged 
with a long pole, an important and at many times an indis- 
pensable implement for the collector, we dipped up from 
the bed of the stream a small white bivalve shell (Tellina), 
and a single dead specimen of the fresh-water Mussel, 
Unio* Jewettii Lea. The Floridian Unios have much lighter 
shells than most of the species found in the tributaries of 
the Ohio and Mississippi Rivers. f The once famous British 
pearls were obtained from a species of Unio ( U. margari- 
tiferus) found in the mountain streams <>f Great Britain, and 
the fishery was continued till the end of the last century in 
Scotland, where the mussels (Unios) were obtained in the 
River Tay by the peasantry previous to harvest time. The 
British pearl fishery has long ceased to be remunerative. 

this vicinity, and in fact fur manv miles on the western side 



of Florida, for we found none living m 
of the mounds and shell-heaps that we < 
tuguese and Spanish narrators of the e 
have given absurd accounts of the quan 


examined. The! 
xpeditionof Del 
tities of pearls in 


possession of the natives. It is highl 
Indians inhabiting Georgia and Alabani; 
prior to the invasion of De Soto, lived 


y probable that 
i, at the time of 



ning pearls is so small ths 
"the Portuguese narrator 



KAMBLES IN FLORIDA. 

obtained fourteen bushels of pearls"* from a certain s 
clire. and as can be found at another place in the text t 
common foot soldier, whose name is given as Juan Te 
had "a linen bag in which were six pounds of pearl.- :"j 
elsewhere, that everybody, Spanish and Indian had p< 
and "as lar^e as filberts f ; either the sources from wl 
the old historians derived their information were unroll 
or the Unios which are probably as abundant in the vivt 
heretofore, have, to a very great extent, ceased to man 
ture these much valued concretions. The latter ca 
hardly i 

would be as large as a filbert. § 

Between Camp Misery and the river, in wet or spring 
places upon the under side of pieces of boards or chip; 
many snails (IMix vohoxis Pareyss) can be collected, an 
the Coffee-shell (Melampus caffea) is close at hand. It 
also found in the West Indies. Just outside of the fenc 
that encloses the reservation of Fort Brooke, to the soutl 
is a good place for obtai rtcata, a specif 

of snail with a shell of a pink color, sometimes three inch* 
long. It looks much like one that is found in Nicaragc 
(G. rosea). The Glandinas are carnivorous, and our Fh 

morse the small, r >nail. //• //.. >-"h-ozis. The eggs of Glai 



404 RAMBLES IN FLORIDA. 

always capturing some. Upon one occasion, in addition to 
several Glandinas, two specimens of a beautiful lizard re- 
warded our search. 

We had heard at sundry times marvellous stories of num- 
berless snakes of divers species, and of assorted sizes, that 
lay in wait to swallow, crush or poison unsophisticated 
strangers. These fearful tales led us to keep a sharp look- 
out when on the tramp. Either the snakes snuffed danger 
from afar and "hunted their holes," or else they are scarce, 
as we failed to secure a specimen, though two or three were 
seen. We concluded that our informants had in some way 
deceived their eyes by using the fusil oil which hereabouts 
is sold for whiskey, one dram of which would cause the 
drinker to see not only snakes but an entire menagerie. 
From the time when the serpent made mischief for the 
human race through the beguilement of its original mother, 
down to the present day, the snake family have had a bad 
reputation, and stories illustrating their wickedness, how- 
ever preposterous, are readily believed. 

Near the town, and in the immediate vicinity of the spot 
where Glandinas "most do congregate,*' stands an ancient 
mound, in shape a flattened hemisphere, with the plane 
side down. Its position is such as to furnish a delightful 
out-look upon the bay and a fine view of the surrounding 
scenery. It is not of large size, being only one hundred and 
>ixtv paces in circumference and fifteen feet high ; it was 
formerly more nearly semicircular in perpendicular outline, 
as the rains of centuries have washed it off at the summit, 
thus reducing the elevation, and consequently increasing the 
circumference of the base. 

The mound was covered with grass, and many stately 
trees are near it whose graceful proportions form, by con- 
trast with the general flatness of the ground, a conspicuous 
and charming feature in the landscape. From the investi- 
gations made by our party it Mas undoubtedly devoted to 
burial purposes, and but few shells were used in its con- 



THE SYLVA OF MONTANA. 405 

struction. Six species of the common marine shells of 
the neighborhood were collected; also stone implements, 
and pieces of crumbling bones, — portions of the skeletons 
of men. This mound* may have been the "artificial emi- 
nence near the shore," upon which stood the dwelling of the 
cacique, Hirrihigua, who bravely opposed the adventurous 
but cruel Pamphilo de Narvsez in his expedition *o Florida, 
in the year 1528; and the meagre remnants of a human 
form whose sepulchre we had rudely violated, may have be- 
longed to the outraged and vindictive chief, who, stung by 
the remembrance of his wrongs, replied to the overtures of 
DeSoto with words of scorn, t 



THE SYLVA OF MONTANA. 



The following notes comprise an enumeration of the trees 
of the Rocky Mountains, etc., from Fort Benton, Nebraska, 
to Fort Colville and Fort Dalles, Oregon, with remarks on 
their distribution. 

Smooth Sumac {Rhus glabra?). No species extends 
along the Upper Missouri above Fort Union, and I am 
therefore inclined to think that the species of the Columbia 
Plain, which extends north to Fort Colville, is distinct 
though nearly allied to this. In Walla Walla valley it be- 
comes fifteen feet high, and may attain, farther south, to the 
size of a small tree. It grows also in the Yakima valley, 
and west to Fort Dalles, Oregon. 

Ash-leaved Maple (JVegundo aceroides). The Box 
Elder reaches the Rocky Mountains at Fort Benton, but 
does not cross them there, no species reaching the Columbia 



406 THE SYLVA OF MONTANA. 

river, though the climate is so much milder than that of the 
Upper Missouri. This is an additional reason for consider- 
ing the western species (of California, etc.) distinct from 
the eastern, though that of Utah and Western Texas may 
very probably be the latter. The Bhus shows a distribution 
the reverse of this, as compared with the eastern It. glabra. 

Smooth Maple {Acer glabrum). This commences to 
appear at the eastern base of the Rocky Mountains, and 
grows entirely across to Fort Colville and the east slope 
of the Cascade Range, becoming fort}' feet high and a foot 
in diameter. A. trijutrfi/mn Nutt., is merely a young or 
dwarfed form of it in dry soil. 

Choke-chebry (Oerasus Virginiana?) .* A tree, appa- 
rently this species, grows all the way across the mountains, 
extending to the Bitterroot Range, and growing thirty feet 
high and six inches in diameter. A small cherry tree, or 
rather a shrub, grows about the borders of the Columbia 
Plain, apparently the same in leaf, but I think the fruit is 
larger. I have never seen the flowers. 

Cherry (Cerasus mollis?). I found a shrub at the Cceur 
d'Alene Mission and westward, which I took for this from 
the leaves. It is stunted in that latitude. 

Western Mountain-ash {Pyrus fraxinifolia? vel Amer- 
icana?). The Mountain-ash of the western mountains, 
scarcely distinct from that of the north-east, first appeared 
on the east slope of the Cceur d'Alene Range, and extends 
in small numbers to Fort Colville, scarcely "deserving to be 
called a tree anywhere. I did not find it with fruit on this 

River Hawthorn (Cratcegus rivularis). A hawthorn 
with black berries, and otherwise the same every way, ex- 
tends from the east base of the Rocky Mountains, west to 
the Cascade Range ("Willamette River," Nutt.), forming a 
shrubby tree fifteen to twenty feet high. It is finest along 
the Spokan River. 



Eed Hawthorn (C. sanguinea?) 
rows sparingly from Walla Walla 



d (Fmngula Purshiana). This species 
on both slopes of the Cceur d'Aleiie 
farther east. With it occurs a low 



of each co 




together. 










Oregon 


Seuv 


ICE-BERRY 


(AmeJancld 


er al 


nifolia). Imu 






^tinet fron 


l A. Cc 


rnuih 


-»*;« 


of the east, b« 


cause it preserve: 


3 its peeul 


iaritics 


of h 


■af. - 


growth and frui 


from the e 


astern 


base of th 


o Rock 


y M< 


>unta 


■ins to the Pacit 


coast, thrc 




mch varie 




■lima 


te a i 


id soil, diiTerin 


only in hei 


lu'ht in 


the drier 


'loealiti 


es. 


It a 


ttains its great© 


luxuriance 


'ami e 


xcellence 


of fruit 


in 1 


:he v 


alley of the He 


Gate river 


, when 


3 our whol 


e comn 


land 


least 


ed on the berrh 


for several da vs. 












Green 


DOGWi 


30D (Corn 


us pubescent 


')• 


It was first see 


near the ( 


•rossin 


5 of Bitterroot ri 


ver, 


and 


extends at inte; 


vals to The 


west ( 


joast. 










Westei 


:x 8u< 


^AR-BERRY 


(Celtis 


retic 


uhtto 


r). This tree 


strictly lin 


lited t 


oward the 


north-west 1 


:>y S 


nake and Colun 


bia river, 


as Oh: 


served in 


1853. 


It i 




iree along thei 


and grows 


i only 


about thii 


,-ty feet 


higl 


i, with a short trun 



Oregon Oak (Que reus Gm 

of the Yakima river, on this si 
Columbus river to Fort Union, on the Missouri, nea 
place is found Q. macrocarpa . No ash grows in a 
interval, though one extends to Milk river on the M 
Oregon Ash (Fraxinus Oregona). This first ap] 
the Dalles. 



408 THE SYLVA OF MONTANA. 

Western Pogue-birch {Betida occidentals). This birch 
forms a shrubby tree, from Sun river through the Rocky 
Mountains to the Coeur d'Alcne river, where it becomes of 
large size, sometimes two feet in diameter and sixty feet in 
height, of handsome appearance, and with a laminated bark 
of which the Indians make canoes. The color of the bark 
is of a pale coppery yellow, dark on the branches, and the 
leaf is always quite small. It is common at Fort Colville, 
where I took it for B. papi/r[feru , when leafless, in 1853, 
and the dwarfed form, growing aloni: streams of the Great 
Plain to the Cascade Mountains, is the B. resinosa of my 
report. I saw it at Fort Walla Walla, but not at Fort 
Dalles. 

Green Alder (Alnus viridis? or new species (perhaps 
rubra of Bengard Veg. Sitch.). This alder has a range sim- 
ilar to that of the western birch, and attains a similar size 
•toward the west. Its bark is less white and its leaves finer 
toothed than those of A. Oregona near the coast, which I 
first saw at Fort Dalles. 

Willows (Saltx). The willows were only to be had in 
leaf, and if determinable, will probably prove to be &. Fend- 
leriana, Hooker iana, and longifolla, but I cannot give ac- 
counts of their respective distribution, as these trees need 
long acquaintance to distinguish them by the leaves only. 

Narrow-leaved Poplar {Popidus angustifolia) . This 
peculiarly western poplar does not extend east of the base 
of the Rocky Mountains at Forts Benton and Laramie. It 
varies much in the leaf, even on the same tree, some being 
four inches wide ; and though I believe it to be the most 
common speeies in the mountains, I was often in doubt 
whether this or P. bahamifera was the most so, as I could 
not always distinguish between them at a little distance. 

Balsam Poplar (P. bahamifera). This seems to be the 
prevailing species of "Cotton Wood" along the Missouri 
above Fort Union, and across the Rocky Mountains, and 
to the west coast. The tree seems dis- 



THE STLVA OF MONTANA. 409 

fcinguishable when leafless by its yellow twigs. I doubt 

whether P. monilifera grows so far north in the mountains. 

Aspen (P. tremaloides) . The aspen occurs at intervals 

throughout the mountain-, usually about gravelly ponds, but 

Twisted Pine (Pinus contorta). I first met with this 
pine at the east base of Mullan's Pass, where a single tree 
<>t unusual size seemed to me at first distinct from this spe- 
cies. It was two feet in diameter, and fully sixty in height, 
the branches crowded with cones of all ages, but west of the 
pass I found the more usual form abundant, which indicated 
this to be only a luxuriant specimen. It is the most preva- 
lent tree of the higher Rocky Mountains, as far down the 
west slope as Deer Lodge prairie. It then becomes rare in 
the valley until reaching the crossing of the Bitterroot,when 
it again becomes .r ves by itself on poor 

sandy or gravelly soil exactly as on the coast. Towards the 
rainy summit of the Cceur d'Alefie Mountains, however, it 
U scarcer, being the seventh in abundance of the trees ; it is 
still rarer on the west slope, but at the Mission rather com- 
mon, though not observed much farther west. Its growth 
seems like that of most other trees more dependent on a cer- 
tain degree of moisture than on temperature. 

Pitch Pine (P. rigida). This eastern species is common 
on the eastern spurs of the Rocky Mountains, in the upper 
"Bad Lands" of the Missouri, from Milk to Judith river, 
and on the "Black Hills" near Fort Laramie, but I did not 
find it west of the Rocky Mountains or of Fort Benton. 

Yellow Pine {Pinus ponderosa) . The Yellow Pine is 
the prevailing species in most parts of the Rocky Mountains 
traversed, though much less common than others in the 
Coeur d'Alene Range. It presents the same appearance from 
^e east base of the Rocky to that of the Cascade Moun- 
kuas, bei n g unmistakable as far as it can be seen. On the 
Hell Gate I saw the largest, some fully four feet in diame- 
kr, and it grows in the" driest sandy soil, where no other 



410 THE SYLVA OF MONTANA. 

tree can exist. P. Banksiana and P. resinosa have been re- 
ported to grow along the Spokan river, but I am sure none 
occurred at parts I have visited, and think this and the pre- 
ceding have been mistaken for them. 

Western White Pine (Pinus monticola) . I found scat- 
tered trees of this beautiful species on the highest parts of 
the Rocky Mountains, but from the east base of the Coeur 
d'Alene Range to its summit it rapidly became one of the 
most abundant and luxuriant trees, again disappearing grad- 
ually, but faster, as we descended their west slope. It at- 
tains a diameter of four feet, and a height, probably, near 
one hundred and fifty, resembling the eastern White Pine 
(P. strobus) in habit, but with finer grooved bark (like that 
of Carya tomentosa, Mockernut), more slender and shorter 
leaves, and much larger cones. The wood is very fine- 
grained and soft. The specimens, from stunted trees in the 
Bad Lands at Little Rocky Mountain creek of the Missouri, 
are so different as to seem distinct in species, or at least a 
very marked variety, probably the latter. 

Black Spruce (Abies Menziesii) . This Black Spruce is 
as abundant on the higher parts of the Cceur d'Alene as on 
the coast, and presents exactly the appearance described in 
my former report. It is perhaps less in size, but has the 
same drooping, dense twigs and foliage that give so sombre 
an appearance to the coast forests. I saw it nowhere else 

Oregon Yellow Fir (A. grandis and amabilis). From 
many specimens of cones and leaves, together with observa- 
tions on the trees, I am strongly inclined to consider these 
the same species, not varying more than several others. The 
lower white and smooth-barked form, with dense growth 
and foliage, appeared moderately common on the east slope 
of the Coeur d'Alene Mountains, and across the summit. 
On the west slope it gradually became taller, more open in 
branches and foliage, the cone larger and with broader 
scales, the bark grooved more and more, and darker in 



THK STLVA OF MONTANA. 411 

shade until in the rich moist bottom-land the tree is one 
hundred and fifty feet high and over four feet in diameter. * 
This is the true A. grandis, and the same as grows along 
the Lower Columbia, while a middle form occurs sparingly 
about Puget's Sound, and was referred to by me in a former 
r<T<>rt as possibly being the true A. taxifolia, for which see 
the notes on Abies Douglassii. The dense growing, white- 
harked variety (amabilis), attains three feet in diameter, 
and one hundred feet in height, on the east slope of the 
above-named mountains. 

Douglass, or Red Fir (Abies Douglassii). This spruce 
exhibits nearly as much adaptability to all circumstances 
as Plntis jwnderosa, which it accompanies throughout the 
Rocky Mountains, but is much less abundant in the drier 
situations than that, and more so on the moist Coeur d'Alene 
Range. It varies in the color of the bark, length of cones, 
leaves, etc., as might be expected in so many localities.* 
The young shaded tree, growing in the moistest spots, has 
1( av(s an inch and a half "lomr, shining, and the bark smooth 
and white, so that only the single arrangement and more lax 
growth distinguish it from young trees of A. grandis. This 
is doubtless the true A. taxifolia, as before suspected, and 
loses its distinctness of character with age. This form, with 
very long slender leaves and cones, prevails mostly on the 
^ T est slope of the Cceur d'Alene, Cascade and Coast ranges, 
Where there is most rain. The largest Rocky Mountain trees 
do not quite equal some of those on the Lower Columbia. 
Ifc »a the only spruce I saw from Fort Colville to the Spo- 
kan river, where its range is stopped by the Great Columbia 
Plain. It reappears at the Dalle-, and probably also on the 
Bine Mountains. 

After observing these conifers, and other trees also, for 
some time, the eye learns their general habit so well, that 
*ere i s usually no difficulty in distinguishing species at 
>'?ht, and at a considerable distance off. 



412 THE SYLVA OF MONTANA. 

Williamson's Spruce (Abies Williamsoni) . This fine 
spruce is abundant on the summits only of the Cceur d'Aleue 
Mountains, where it grows three feet in diameter, and one 
hundred feet in height, with a ragged gray bark much like 
that of the eastern Sassafras. The general habit is like that 
of the Hemlock Spruce, but rather stiffer, and the foliage is 
denser, forming several imperfect rows on the twigs. The 
cones are two and a half inches long, pendant from the 
highest branches only. None of them contained ripe seed 
at the time of my visit. The wood appears much like that 
of the Hemlock Spruce. The closeness of its limitation to 
the dividing ridge is remarkable, since, although found at 
the base of this ridge, it there grows only from three to 
six feet high, and produces no cones. I took these at first 
for some species of Juniper. Newberry's figure represents 
it as being too rigid, like A. Douglassii. It is far more 

Merten's Spruce (A. Mertensiana*) . I have long con- 
sidered this distinct from A. Canadensis, though the differ- 
ence, if any, is only in its larger growth, and perhaps in 
the glands of the seed, which I have not compared with 
those of the eastern tree. There is however a wide interval 
in their range, A. Canadensis not growing north or west of 
Lake Superior. I first met with this on the west slope 
of the Coeur d'Alefie Mountains, only a few dwarf fruitless 
specimens growing on the east side, and none on the sum- 
mit. It ceases west and north of the Lake on the route I 
followed. 

Western Larch (Larix occidentalis) . I found this fine 
Larch first near Bitterroot valley, whence it becomes rather 
common throughout the route to Fort Colville, holding a 
middle place in relation to the moisture and temperature of 
the various portions. It is about equal to Pinus ponderoaa 
in size, but has very short branches, as they break off from 
the brittleness of the wood as it grows high. The bark is 



THE SYLVA OF MONTANA. 413 

reddish like that of the pine, but only an inch or two thick 
instead of four or five, and of course less deeply furrowed. 
The pale, elegant foliage, is easily distinguishable where it 
forms groves on the mountain slopes, but it is more scat- 
tered in its distribution than most conifene, never, as with 
the eastern L. Americana, growing in swamps. 

Western Arbor-vit,e {Thuya gigantea). Scarce along 
the lower part of the Bitterroot, this enormous tree becomes 
fully developed only on the west slope of the Cceur d'AIene 
Range, where a cedar swamp occurs, the trees, perhaps, 
even larger than near the coast. They range from six to 
eight feet thick, and a dozen of these giants often grow in 
a space of five or six rods square, so that Lieut. Mullan's 
party could not find room to pass between them, and had to 
cut down some, the road going over the stumps ! Nothing 
compares with this in tree growth except perhaps the Taxo- 
dium swamps of the Gulf States, and here the cedars seem 
to have grown from sand and water only ! 

Red Cedar {Junijperus Virginiana). This grows large 
and abundant along the Upper Missouri, and more scattered, 
though still a tree, entirely across the Rocky Mountains, 
following the rivers around the Cceur d'AIene Range to Fort 
CohiHe, and south to the Spokan river at least. I was told 
that a large grove of it (or possibly occidefiVdis) grew on 
the north-west border of the Great Plain of the Columbia, 
but could not determine which those are which grew near 
Fort Dalles. I was very much puzzled to determine whether 
this or J. communis was the species sometimes seen on the 
Upper Missouri, of a tree form, but with large berries. It 
may be a hybrid, or perhaps J. occidental™, with which it 
agrees in the colorless wood. J. communis, in its low pros- 
trate forms, is very common along the Upper Missouri, but 
I did not see it farther west, and the dwarf form of the Cas- 
cade Mountains, found in 1853, may belong to J. occiden- 
to&'s, though Dr. Newberry found farther south on these 
fountains what he considers J. communis. 



414 THE SYLVA OF MONTANA. 

Oregon Yew (Taxus brevifolia). The Yew, first met with 
on the east slope of the Coeur d'Alene Mountains was there 
low and prostrate like T. Canadensis, hut became larger oil 
the west side, attaining two feet in diameter and sixty feet 
in height, exactly resembling that of the coast. It does not 
pass Luke Coeur d'Alene. The elevation of the east slope 
of these mountains is much greater than of the west, which 
accounts for the dwarfing of this, as well as of Abies Me* 
fens uina and A. grandis. 

DISTRIBUTION OF THE FORESTS, ETC., WITH FACTS RELA- 
TING TO PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY. 

The configuration of the country traversed, as well as its 
productions, climate, etc., naturally divide it into four sec- 
tions, which have limits closely connected with those of the 
geological formations. A closer exploration would perhaps 
also separate these into a larger number, but I propose now 
to speak of them chiefly in connection with the distribution 
of the forests, which everywhere indicates to a great extent 
that of the smaller plants and animals also. 

Hesperian Region*— From the Rocky Mountain summit, 
east to Milk river, the country, although the prairie vastly 
predominates, is crossed by the easterly ranges of the Great 
Cordillera, upon which are found several trees peculiarly 
western, with some eastern species commingled. Though 
low where the Missouri breaks through, the mountains rise 
to a great height in the distance, and are said to be well 
wooded on mauy portions. Of this we had evidence in the 
large quantity of coniferous timber covering the rocky hills 
and blurts, from above Milk river nearly to the Judith. f Its 
growth was limited only by the prevalence of fires wherever 



the grass grows well, and therefore trees became very scarce 
when we entered the "Cretaceous formation No. 1," which 
is of a porous character, not retaining moisture in its strata 
like many parts of the Tertiary farther down, though covered 
with a very close growth of grass. As usual throughout 
the route it is the slopes facing the north that have most of 
the woods on them. The species met with were the eastern 
Pinus rigida and Juniperus Vinjiniana, the boreal J. com- 
munis, the western Pinus monticola and Abies Douglass/' i. 
If any other occurs it is, probably, Pinus ponderosa , which 
grows in the Black Hills toward the south-east, according to 
Dr. Hayden. 

Along the rivers a different group, the deciduous trees 
found in that situation throughout the plains of the Missouri 
basin, reached a little above Milk river, nearly all, however, 
teasing at the point where the mountain woods begin.* 
Above here only Populus balsamifera occurs in scattered 
spots with stunted shrubs of Nt ad Prunus 

Vtiy/'iuaaa, so that for several days below Fort Benton, 
one hundred and seventy-five miles by the river, the boats 
could scarcely obtain enough wood for fuel, and there is 
almost none to be seen. Populus angusti/nUa also begins at 
Maria's river, and is the prevailing species along the upper 
branches of the Missouri. The same destitution of wood 
continues from Fort Benton to the "Gate of the Mountains" 
along the Missouri, though its branches are better supplied 
with the same trees. Thus the influence of the soil belong- 
ing to "Cretaceous No. 1" is the same throughout its limits, 
but I believe is due to the causes above mentioned rather 
than to its Cretaceous nature, since ou the lower Missouri 
it la much more productive of timber than "No. 4" of Dr. 
Hayden's section, or his "lignite tertiary basin," probably 

•Those seen below only (above Fort Union) were Fraxinm Americana (° r * am *"£ 



416 THE SYLVA 

Though we merely skirted the northern limits of the Hes- 
pcrian region it shows, even there, sufficient distinctness of 
products to separate it from the "Ducotun" east of Milk 
river. Even its woodless plains differ materially in vegeta- 
tion, having a better < 1 th f gi d me very 
sandy tracts, presenting the shrubby forests characterizing 
the whole "Rocky Mountain Province." It evidently runs 
into the "Saskatchewan" region to th- north, which is truly 
a "Campestrian" one. Farther explorations will doubtless 
reveal more spurs of the Rocky Mountains near the one 
hundred and seventh meridian, with the western trees cover- 
ing them, and the fall of the Missouri, with- its lofty cliffs 
throughout this region, plainly shows that even the plains 
form an elevated plateau, or basin, from which the descent 
to the "Dacotah" plains is by a sort of step, often sudden, 
or marked by the protrusion of lower rocks above or near 
to the surface. I have generally found that the base of a 
mountain range formed a stronger limit to the range of spe- 
cies of trees than the summit, and this fact is illustrated in 
the present case by the change occurring above Milk riYer 
at the first mountain range. The rule extends also to other 
plants and to animals, as all explorers will testify. 

At the eastern base of the Rocky Mountains proper, 
where the Missouri literally cuts through them, the fact is 
repeated, and there I found the following western trees, 
whirls will probably be found also to reach the more eastern 
ranges: Acer ghibruiu (tripartttum is a variety), Betula oca- 
dental Is, Abuts viridis or rubra? (viridis is a boreal species) 
and Populus angustifolia. Amelanchier alnifolia, although 
a tree on the west side, is but a shrub on the east slope 
of the mountains, from the influeuce of a drier climate. It 
is said to extend to Lake Superior. P< 7 
also a boreal species, occurring in the mountain.- everywhere 
above a certain elevation. Some other boreal species have 
been found by Dr. Hayden to straggle to the Black Hills, 
such as Pinus Banksiana, Abies nigra (and alba?). Though 



THE SYLVA OF MONTANA. 417 

I did not find them I have no doubt of their identity, hav- 
ing seen the specimens. It is somewhat singular that all 
the fresh- water mollusca I found in the Missouri, above Fort 
Benton, were distinct species from those obtained by Dr. 
Haydun in the streams east of the mountains (except Unio 
Jitteolua and Physa heterostrqpha) , thus showing that the 
limits of the region apply to animals as well as plants. The 
rest were Limncea palustris, bulimoides and desldiosa, Splm- 
r'tutn sti-iatimuii and Jfaiyarifruta < fahxtta Gld. Dr. llayden 
found thirty other species in Nebraska. 

Kootenay region. — My observations last summer confirm 
the propriety of this division of the north-western province 
(Caurine), being defined towards the south essentially as I 
marked its limits in the Smithsonian Report of 1858. It 
consists, south of latitude 49°, chiefly of the elevated basin 
of Clark's Fork, with the mountains which surround or 
traverse it, nearly all being more than 2000 feet above the 
sea (about 4000 feet where we crossed the Bitterroot), and 
from that extends up to perpetual snow at probably a level 
of 10000 feet. 

Though, as shown by the accompanying notes, the western 
rim of this basin presents many marked differences from the 
Portion east of the Bitterroot crossing, analogous to those 
between the Coast and Cascade Ranges farther west, I can- 
not now consider them distinct regions, but as united by the 
common character of being almost completely wooded. This 
character must also annex to it the lower country along 
the Spokan and the Columbia above that tributary, most of 
which is, however, so mountainous as to reach as high as the 
basin of Clark's Fork. The woodless portions of this region 
were small in extent along our route, being limited to the 
Porous, dry tertiary and alluvial basins of Deer Lodge and 
St. Mary's valley, with small tracts in the valleys connecting 
and branching from them. The most extensive prairies aie 
south of our route, towards the heads of these valleys, with 
a connected valley toward the north on Flathead river. So 



generally are these prairies limited to the porous strata 
of the later formations that T believe some tracts of high 
prairie on the western slope of the Rocky Mountains indi- 
cate the presence either of tertiary or deep beds of drift, 
which latter cover the prairie summit of Mullan's Pass. It 
must be remembered, however, that this relation to ditleivnt 
strata is the only one depending on their porosity, and that 
where rains are more abundant this ceases to prevent the 
growth of trees. Strata resembling the Cretaceous of Ne- 
braska in density are on the west side thickly wooded, so 
that there is no indication of their nature from the absence 
of trees. The impervious rocks and thin soil of the Cceur 
d'Aleiie Range evidently assist the more rainy climate in 
producing a moisture fitted for the peculiar group of trees 
characterizing it, and there is a more marked difference m 
its opposite slopes than in those of the Rocky Mountains, 
more striking, however, on account of the greater number of 
species of trees found there. The contrast is most impor- 
tant between the west slope of the western rim and the east 
slope of the eastern. 

Many facts show that the trees are more dependent on a 
certain supply of water than on temperature, as will be seen 
by comparing the profile of the route with the distribution 
of the species. Thus on the Rocky Mountains Flnus con- 
torta grow* only between 5000 and 6000 (or more) feet of 
elevation, an altitude just sufficient to catch the moisture 
passing over the general summits of the Cceur d'Alene 
Mountains, in which the pass we went through is 5100 feet 
high. It reappears at the east base of the latter range, be- 
cause of the impervious rock there, and the increased mois- 
ture deposited on that rim. The various relations of other 
trees to the influence of moisture are shown briefly by the 
following facts of th"ir distribution and growth : 

Cerasus Virginiana?, Amelanchier alnifolia, Populus 
angustifolia and JPinus ponderosa are distributed entirely 
across, but are most highly developed along the Blackfoot 



THE SYI/7A OF MONTANA. 419 

and Hell Gate valleys, forming the lower half of the east 
side of the basin, where there is, probably, a moderately dry 
and warm summer. 

Acer glabrum (ami var. frijntrtitum), Betula occidentalism 
Alnus rubra? Abies Douglassii and Crataegus rivularis grow 
throughout but thrive most at the west base of the Coeur 
d'Alene Mountains, where there is much more rain and hot- 
ter summers (being 2000 feet lower in elevation). 

Populus balsamifera and Pinus contorta are almost equally 
wide-spread ; they are probably finest on the east slope of the 
Coeur d'Alene Range, where there is a comparatively rainy 
and cold climate which also favors the variety of Abies 
grandis, called amabilis. 

Populus tremuloides and Junipsrus Virginiana are so 
scantily distributed that no part of the mountains seems to 
suit them well, though found at intervals in gravelly soil 
where there is not much shade. 

Larix occidentalis is mostly limited to the western rim, 
and is finest on its western slope. 

Gomus pubescens and Thuja gigantea merely struggle up 
the Bitterroot river to the crossing, but are finely developed 
at the west base of the western rim with Acer glabrum, etc. 

Pinus monticola is very scarce on the eastern rim and 
slope ; it is a magnificent and abundant tree on the western, 

Frangula Purshiana, Pyrus fraxinifolia? and Abies 
grandis are found over the whole western rim, but are 
chiefly developed on its western slope and base. 

Abies Menziesii is limited to its higher parts above 4000 
feet elevation. A. Williamsonii to those above 4500 feet. 

Abies Mertensiana and Taxus brevifolia just straggle to 
its eastern slope, but are large and numerous on the western 
between 2000 and 4500 feerelevation. 

Finally, Crataegus sanguinea and Cerasus mollis are con- 
fined to the lowest and warmest portions. 

Thus while nearly all are found on the western rim, and 



420 



SYLVA OF MONTANA. 



most of them grow largest on its western slope, only half 
of them reached the eastern rim along our route, and sev- 
eral of these were merely stragglers. This accords with the 
general rule that the most trees, both in number and species, 
grow where the most heat and moisture are combined. The 
forests of the western rim are far denser than those of the 
eastern, though the soil cannot be considered generally so 
good on account of the kinds of rocks from which it is dis- 
integrated. 

An exactly parallel case is presented by the Cascade and 
Coast Ranges, as described in the Natural History of Wash- 
ington Territory (Pacific R. R. Reports), but there the spe- 
cies, though mostly the same, are somewhat differently ar- 
ranged to correspond with differences in climate, consequent 
on the much lower elevation of those ranges and their near- 
ness to the ocean. Yet we there find Pinus contorta, Thuja 
gigantea, Abies Menziesii, A. Mertensiana and Taxus brt vi- 
folia among the prevailing species at the level of the ocean, 
while here they do not occur lower than 2000 feet above it, 
showing that they require moisture rather than coolness of 
climate, for at the coast the rains are heavier while the mean 
temperature is far more mild than here. But Pinus pon- 
derosa, Acer glabi-um, Betula occidentalis, Crataegus riruhi- 
ris, Larix occidentalis, Pinus monticola, Pyrus fraxinifolia 
and Abies Williamsonii, here characteristic trees, scarcely, 
if at all, cross the Cascade Range, while Abies Douglami, 
and several peculiar species not found here, replace them 
between that and the Coast Range. 

It is therefore much safer to assume a similarity in the 
moisture of the climate and soil of two regions thus widely 
separated, from comparison of their forests, than similarity 
in temperature. I urn here comparing portions of two re- 
gions included between the same degrees of latitude, but 
according to another rule dependent on the climate of the 
western regions, all the above species of Rocky Mountain 
trees are found, or probably will be found to reach the coast 



either north or south of these parallels, wherever they find 
the proper amount of rain and heat as combined in these 

Shoshonee region.— The Great Columbia Plains show their 
peculiar features in prairies extending through the valleys 
on the route north to Fort Colville, which are, however, so 
small in extent compared Avith the forests, as not to be sepa- 
rable from the Kootenay region. Just north of the Spokan 
are the first extensive plains on the uplands, and to the 
south these become rapidh spread to the entire exclusion of 
forest, so that for days together not a tree is seen except 
shrubby willows on the banks of streams. Even the Blue 
Mountains show but a narrow strip of timber just along 
their summits in latitude 46°, which is said to disappear 
farther south, though the upper waters of the rivers flowing 
from them are pretty well wooded with deciduous trees. 
The only new ones that occur, and these only as stragglers 
from the south, are Rhus glabra?, Celtis reticulata and, per- 
haps, Crataegus sanguineaf, if more than a variety of C. 
rivularis. On the Walla Walla river are also found Populus 
angustifolia, P. rmniUfera, AJnus rubra? and Betula occi- 
dentalis. Some of the willows are, probably, also distinct 
from those of the mountains, but being undeterminable from 
leaves alone, I have omitted them throughout these remarks. 
(See notes on the trees observed, p. 405.) 

A brief comparison of this with the plains of regions east 
of the Rocky Mountains, will show how little connection 
exists between soils or rocks and the growth of trees, how 
much depends on a proper amount of moisture. 

The entire plain is underlaid bv basalt, covered thinly 
with a tine dusty soil, which I believe to have been also vol- 
having been poured out with lava in the 
In parts this has been blown into high 
ri( lges, while in others it is washed entirely away, leaving 
Uie bare rock at the surface. This makes no difference 
however i n regard to the trees, and little to other vegeta- 



forin 



422 THE GOLDEN- WIN< 

tion. This soil, on some ridges north of the Spokan where 
there is not much rain, is the richest I saw on the whole 
route, and produces fine crops near Antoine Plant's prairie. 
To the south it is covered with grass, etc., and where natu- 
rally irrigated by streams, other plants grow luxuriantly. 
There is then nothing unfavorable to trees in the soil, and 
indeed, west of the Cascade Range, almost the whole coun- 
try is basaltic and covered with dense forests. We must 
look therefore to dryness as the cause of their absence, and 
so far the observations of the Medical Department, U. S. A., 
at Fort Walla Walla, Dalles, and Sincoe, show a remarkably 
small amount of moisture. For particulars, however, I must 
refer to the "Report on Statistics," etc., of Surgeon General 
Lawson, for 1860, prepared by Dr. Richard H. Coolidge, 
U. S. Army. 



THE GOLDEN-WINGED WOODPECKER. 



This is an exceedingly valuable bird, especially if it re- 
sides near lauds of a light or sandy soil. Its food is almost 
wholly composed of insects, of which ants form the princi- 
pal living of the young fledged birds. These insect pests 
form themselves into colonies, and excavate, a little below 
the surface of the soil, one or more chambers, with galleries 
leading to them, bringing the soil from around the roots ot 
the grass, leaving them to a free circulation of air, that sooii 
causes them to wither. The Woodpecker sits by the mounds 
of dirt thrown out by the insects, and as one appears creep- 
ing from his den the bird draws him into his mouth with his 
tongue, and swallowing him, continues to do so until he has 
destroyed the whole republic. I have examined the birds 
at such times and have found their stomachs distended to 
their fullest extent ; indeed it seemed as if they could not 



The sagac 


ity i 


3f these 


birds is 


wonderful 


in determining 


the locality c 


/.11 


i insect 


that is c 


oncealed in 


the branches of 


trees, or in 


the 


solid tr 


link of : 


i sapling. 


Instances daily 


occur of the 


bet 


lefits of 


the Wo 


odpecker it 


l extracting the 


borer from ti 


;ecs 


, and so 


nicely dc 


>es he deter 


mine their exact 


locality that 


his 


first eff 


brt to se 


cure his pri 


ize is successful. 


The bird all 


irht> 


! on the 


trunk of the tree ; 


the fact that a 


borer is gnav 


\ in- 


; at its h 


eart is e 


vident to hi 


m, and he hops 


around and c 


low, 


i the tre 


e, giving 


j it a few ta 





then slowly ascending and continuing the strokes lightly, 
when suddenly he stops and strikes a few successive strokes 
in the same place. He stops longer at that spot than at any 
other; he moves up the tree and taps there, but descends 
immediately to his last position. He has determined by the 
sound the locality of the worm and prepares to take him 
out. Fixing himself firmly on the side of the tree he throws 
bis head back, and with a powerful stroke drives his chisel- 
pointed bill quite through the bark and into the solid wood 
of the tree. Stroke succeeds stroke in earnest repetition 
until he strikes upon his victim, and then thrusting his long 
barbed tongue into his body draws him out and devours 

The Golden-winged Woodpeckers are, in some instances, 
Permanent residents in New England; the larger part of 
them, however, migrate South, and return from the middle to 
the 1:1 *t of March. C After bavin- returned and selected their 
mates they soon be-in to look up a place for a residence. 
The tree b 



■» then immediately widen it to about seven 
;ht inches in diameter, and extend it abou 
> a depth of from eighteen to twenty inches 
'd. The chips they make in excavating i 



*Z4 THE GOLDEN-WINGED WOODPECKER. 

few of the finest, are mostly thrown out of the entrance on 
the ground, which reveals their nesting place. 

In the few chips remaining in the hole the female makes 
a slight hollow, and lavs from six to right semi -transparent 
and highly polished white eggs. They measure 1& of an 
inch in length, by | of an inch in breadth. While incuba- 
tion is going on, the male, when he relieves the female from 
setting, flies to the tree and alights near the entrance, and 
emits the notes resembling in sound the syllables "flicker, 
flicker," and peeps around the tree at the entrance; to see 
when the female leaves. On hearing him she quits the nest, 
when he immediately takes charge of the eggs until she re- 
turns. When the young are large enough they leave the 
cavity and creep to the top of the tree, locating themselves 
on different parts of it, and are fed by the old birds until 
they can fly quite well, when they are taken to the fields and 
pastures or woodlands, where they soon learn to provide for 
themselves. Although the usual number of eggs laid by 
these birds for a brood are from six to eight, yet they will 
sometimes lay a hundred, when they are taken from the nest 
Trials 



as often as they a 


•e 




, leai 


ing one 


for 


i nest 


have been made c 


f 


he 


mini! 


er of eggs they we 


one setting. A c 


oz 


m 


,f egi. 


s were 


ake 


i from 


one, and then th 








allowed 


to 


ay the 


for a brood ; thei 
added, and the b 


nl 


tl 


jse th 


ed setti 


•th 


In di 




d, 




.1 wl 


en the 






enough to creep 


al 


.ut 


the 


tree, it 




Hy Z 



these birds sutler exeeedimrlv from the depredations of 
the Mottled Owl. I seldom find the breeding-place of this 
owl without finding the wing-feathers of the woodpecker 
scattered about it in <>- 1V ater ouantitips thin those of any 



of woodpeckers 



THE GOLDEN-WIXGED WOODPECKER. 425 

Woodpecker (Picus pubescens) is a no less interesting bird 
than the Golden-winged Woodpecker {Colaptes auratus). 
They are equally beneficial and much more familiar. They 
breed in the orchard and in the trees about our dwellings 
with as much confidence as in the forest, and visit us in all 
seasons of the year, and are especially welcome in winter. 

This bird receives the opprobrious name of "sap-sucker," a 
reproach which none casts upon him but the ignorant, who 
condemn him as mischievous without investigation, and then 
wickedly execute their judgment without mercy. In the 
otter part of September, and in all the months of October 
and November, this bird enters the orchard and selects those 
trees which have the smoothest bark and are the healthiest, 
and begins to pick small holes about one-quarter of an inch 
in diameter, quite through the bark, and from half an inch 
to an inch apart, in parallel lines around the trunk of the 
tree, which circles of holes are from one to two inches 
above each other. These lines of holes are extended up the 
whole length of the trunk of the tree, and sometimes around 
the larger limbs diverging from it. 

It is well known that some of the insects injurious to fruit 
trees deposit their eggs in the latter part of summer and in 
the autumn, laying them under the bark and in crevices 
about the tree, in fact in any secret place they find. As they 
ascend the tree, perforated by the woodpecker, they are not 
at a loss to find a suitable place for their purpose. If they 
Pass the first, second, or third tier of holes, there are others 
above them as well adapted to their wants, and in them they 
may deposit their eggs, and cover them with a covering in- 
>le by the weather. Others find in them a retreat 
f rom daylight and from storms, and in them some other 
insects lie dormant, shrouded in their silken cocoons. In 
this we see the wisdom of the Creator who supplies the 
Wants of all his creatures. He teaches the ant, the squirrel, 
and the bee, to hoard and gather for themselves a sufficiency 
°t food for winter ; but to the Downy Woodpecker he has 



426 THE GOLDEN-WINGED WOODPECKER. 

given quite a different instinct. He has taught it to be a 
hunter, and has taught it also to know the habits of its 
game, and when, and where, and how to set its traps. How 
often do we see in winter and early spring, the Downy 
Woodpecker followed by a troop of Chickadees, visiting 
every tree in the garden, especially those that have been 
perforated by itself, searching every hole and crevice for 
insects and their eggs. It shows no disposition to quarrel 
with its company, but rather seems to take pleasure in 
directing their course through the forest and orchard by the 
notes of its shrill clarion voice. It admits the Nuthatch 
and Brown Creeper to its society, who join it with the 
full assurance of its friendship, and they roam with it in 
storm and in sunshine over a vast territory, destroying in 
their course millions of vermin in the embryo state. The 
insect-eating birds that visit us in the spring and stop a few 
months, retiring in autumn, are very beneficial to the horti- 
culturist, but their services are not to be compared to those 
of the resident bird* which feed upon insects in every stage 
of their life. 

The Downy Woodpecker perforates decayed trees, or their 
branches, for their nesting places. When they select a hori- 
zontal branch, as they often do, they make a cavity in the 
limb to the extent of from ten to fifteen inches, towards the 
trunk of the tree, having the entrance leading to it on the un- 
derside of the branch ; in such cases their nests are difficult 
to find. When they select an upright branch, or the trunk 
of a tree, it is dug out to the depth of from eight to twelve 
inches, and in the bottom of the hole, on the chips left for 
the purpose, the female deposits four or six pure white eggs, 
which measure in length six-eighths of an inch, and in breadth 
five-eighths of an inch. 

To show what diligent and persevering birds they are, I 
will state a fact. A pair of Downy Woodpeckers selected 
a branch of a chestnut tree, which was broken off about 
four feet from the trunk of it, and about ten feet from the 



NATURAL CARVINGS. 



ground. In it the birds had determined to make their 
home and began their operations. It was a piece of wood 
dried and thoroughly seasoned, without the least sign of de- 
cay. In the first day's labor, which was chiefly done by the 
male, they succeeded in penetrating the limb about one and 
one-half inches. The hole was conical in shape, the outer 
circle being finished or made large enough to admit the 
birds ; then it gradually tapered to the smallest point. The 
second day they commenced to beat out the hole of suffi- 
cient size and depth, which was slowly executed, as hardly 
a particle of wood could be seen to fly off before their bills"; 
yet they persevered, and in eleven days they succeeded in 
completing it, by digging four inches below the aperture. 
Although it cost the birds much time to procure this tene- 
ment they had the satisfaction of knowing it was a good 
one. There was no smell of rotten wood about it, but was 
dean, dry, and smoothly finished. In this nest were reared 
hve young woodpeckers. The male was mostly seen about 
the premises, and I think he did the most labor in preparing 
their abode. When the young appeared he was also dili- 
gent in procuring their food. 

*n winter the Downy Woodpecker sometimes digs a hole 
ln some rotten tree for a retreat in stormy weather, and to 



NATURAL CARVINGS. 



Many of our readers have doubtless often admired and 
pondered at the exquisite carved ivory work sent forth 
b y that strange, industrious, and ingenious people, the 
Chinese. N Q examples of their manipulative skill have 
attracted more attention, perhaps, than those balls within 
al ' s > each one more elaborately decorated than the other, 



428 

which, at one time, were by no means common out of 
China, and, therefore, brought very high prices. Of late 
years, however, the natural result of such a demand has 
been a plentiful supply, so that what were once rarities 
are now rather common ornaments in many houses. And 
although travellers in those foreign parts have come back 
and endeavored to dispel the mystery that has ever hung 
around these strange examples of a strange people, by tell- 
ing us that they are not made from one piece of solid ivory, 
but carved separately and then moulded one over the other, 
yet they still remain objects of great interest and beauty. 

What will the admiring collector say, however, when we 
tell him that there exist objects almost the counterpart of 
these Chinese ivory balls, the substance of which is glass- 
like, consisting of pure silica, or the same material as rock- 
crystal, but which are thus formed and fashioned by animals? 
And shall we increase his wonder by informing him that the 
beauty of these objects is very materially heightened by the 
fact that they are of minute dimensions, so small in fact, 
that they can only just be seen by the unaided eye, but 
when examined by sufficiently powerful magnifying glasses, 
exhibit a much greater variety of contour and sculpture 
than even the most fantastically formed oriental handiwork I 
These are known to scientific observers as Polycistinew, and 
it is our intention to say a few words respecting these ob- 
jects, concerning whose life-history, it is true, very little is 
known, but which form beautiful subjects for examination 
by means of the microscope. 

In Plate 7 are represented a few of the many varied 
forms presented by the Polycistineas, and what is with cer- 
tainty known concerning them, we give as follows. First, 
however, so as to make the subject readily understood, we 
must say something with regard to two other classes of very 
simple animals, which, in the modern system of 
tion, are placed first in the list. These are the Gregarinida 
and RMzopoda. 



NATURAL CARVINGS. 429 

The Gregarinida, so called from a Greek word meaning 
a flock, on account of the mode of congregating together 
which these creatures possess, "are among the simplest 
forms of animal life of which we have any knowledge. 
They are the inhabitants of the bodies of other and larger 
creature?, and are commonly to be found in abundance in 
the alimentary canal of the common cockroach, and in earth- 
worms. They are all microscopic, and any one of them, 
leaviug minor modifications aside, may be said to consist of 
a sac, composed of a more or less structureless, not very 
well-defined, membrane, containing a soft semi-fluid sub- 
stance, in the middle, or at one end, of which lies a delicate 
vesicle ; in the centre of the latter is a more solid particle." 
■this is the whole of the anatomy of these creatures, no 
mouth nor organs of any kind being apparent, so that they 
are placed at the point where it may be said that animal life 
dawns 

Next to the Gregarinida, in the scale of being, stand the 
Rhizopoda. "It seems difficult to imagine a state of organi- 
zation lower than that of the Gregarinida, and yet many of 
the Rhizopoda are still simpler. Nor is there any group 
of the animal kingdom which more admirably illustrates a 
very well founded doctrine, and one which was often advo- 
cated by John Hunter, that life is the cause and not the 
consequence of organization ; for, in these lowest forms of 
animal life, there is absolutely nothing worthy of the name 
°« org anization to be discovered by the microscopist, though 
agisted by the beautiful instruments that are now con- 
ducted. In the substance of many of these creatures, 
nothing is to be discerned but a mass of jelly, which might 
be represented by a little particle of thin glue. Not that it 
corresponds with the latter in composition, but it has that 
texture and sort of aspect : it is structureless and organless, 
and without definitely formed parts. Nevertheless it pos- 
sesses all the essential properties and characters of vitality ; 
lt is produced from a body like itself; it is capable of assim- 



430 NATU 

Bating nourishment, and of exertii _ 
more, it can produce a shell ; a structure, in many cases, 
of extraordinary complexity and most singular beauty." 
With the JRhizopoda, however, we have not to do at present ; 
at some future time we shall take the opportunity of pre- 
senting our readers with some figures illustrating the grace 
exhibited in some of their hard tissues, or skeletons, as we 
may rightly term them. 

Our Polycistinege belong to a class of animals very nearly 
allied to those we have just been speaking of, and named by 
naturalists Radiolaria. This name has been given to them 
on account of the radiating arrangement of their parts, 
such parts being grouped, generally, around a common cen- 
tre. These simple forms of life consist of microscopic 
masses of the semigelatinous substance we have already 
spoken of, and which is known as sarcode, meaning matter, 
as it were, on the way to become flesh, or protoplasm, from 
words designating the first form of matter. This term, how- 
ever, is more commonly applied to the primitive tissue of 
the embryo or egg, out of which all subsequent organs are 
formed by a peculiar process, termed differentiation. From 
this mass of sarcode, constituting the whole mass of the 
animal proper of the Radiolarian organism, are protruded 
filaments, which are often extremely long and slender, and 
have been named pxeudopodin. from two words meaning 
false feet ; for these projections act as feet to the creature 
which throws them out, serving not only as organs of propul- 
sion but to secure its prey and convey its food into the posi- 
tion for assimilation, and the building up of new tissues. 
This sarcode is such a peculiar kind of substance that the 
pseudopodia, as they are thrown out, may remain single or 
unite so as to form reticulations, or even coalesce into one 
mass around any particle of nutrient matter which they come 
in contact with. Scattered throughout it, generally, are 
to be found numerous yellow corpuscles, which multiply by 
fission, as it is called, or division, and to these parts a skele- 



431 

ton may be added, consisting merely of fine pin-like masses, 
or spicula, and these may be loose or united into a solid 
shell of great beauty of form and sculpture, as our Plate 
shows, or the skeleton is au assemblage of stout rods meet- 
ing in the middle of the creature, where a sac is found, and 
pointing in all directions. Here we see the applicability of 
tl ne g \ ;n to the class of Radiolaria. No reproduction, 

by means of a true sexual process, has been as yet observed 
in any Radiolarian, and therefore here is opened a very 
promising and attractive field of research for the naturalist. 
For the most that is known of the Polycistinete, in their 
living condition, we are indebted to Prof. Miiller, a cele- 
brated German naturalist; but their remains, or shells, 
which are preserved in certain rocks in different parts of 
the world have been investigated and figured by the great 
micio copi t of Berlin, Ehrenberg. He first discovered them 
in the mud brought up from the bed of the river Elbe, at 
Cuxhaven, and afterwards he found them in similar collec- 
tions made in the antarctic seas. Prof. Bailey, one of the 
first and most enthusiastic American naturalists, also ob- 
served them, accompanied by other organisms, both animal 
and vegetable, in soundings, brought up by the lead from 
the bottom of the Atlantic Ocean, at depths of from 1000 
to 2000 fathoms. So, also, the sea-bottom which has been 
procured from the Gulf of Mexico, off the coast of Florida, 
m some quantity, by means of a peculiar apparatus specially 
constructed for the purpose, is seeu to be extremely rich in 
some of the more exquisite forms of these glassy shells. The 
microscope has thus revealed the existence of an universe 
of life at the bottom of the ocean. Of course the soundings 
made previous to the laying of the Atlantic Telegraph cable 
told the same story ; here, as elsewhere, the sea-bed is over- 
laid with a carpet of the silicious remains of these beauteous 
atoms. During some past geological periods, however, it 
would seem that the Polycistinese existed in much greater 
numbers than at the present time, for certain strata of con- 



432 REVIEWS. 

siderable thickness are found, on examination, to be made 
up almost entirely of their silicious skeletons. Thus in the 
chalks and marls of Sicily and Greece, Ehrenberg detected 
vast numbers of forms : and at Oran, in the north of Africa, 
is an extensive stratum made up of the remains of Polycis- 
tineie and similar organisms, both animal and vegetable. 
The famous infusorial strata of the States of Virginia and 
Maryland on our Atlantic coast, and of California on the 
Pacific, have, mixed with the minute plants known as Diato- 
maceae, many very fine species of Polycistinere, as well as the 
remains of sponges. The most remarkable deposit, how- 
ever, of this character is that which makes up the greater 
part of the island of Barbadoes. This rock is, in many 
places, almost entirely formed of these glassy shells. The 
materials which led to this discovery, in the year 1846, were 
furnished by the geological researches of Sir. K. H. Schom- 
burgh. hence one of the most beautiful species has been 
named after him. 

. The variety of form and outline which the Polycistinew 
assume is very great, and always of great beauty and grace, 
while their minute dimensions make them, if possible, -till 
greater sources of admiration to the student of nature who 
thus finding strata of rocks, of considerable thickness, made 
up of their delicate remains feels the truth of the words of 
the poet, when he says,— 




i us aPvciiouonk. 
sample, and it is only by going up the 
relationship of tl 



PROCEEDINGS OF SCIENTIFIC SOCIETIES. 



of the internal organs is more complex. At the end of the body, now- 
much elongated, is a pair of short feet, ending in several bristles. This 
is the Zo6a stage (Fig. 74, enlarged forty-five diameters) and corresponds 
to the Zoea of the Crab, Carcinas mamas (Fig. 75; a, natural size), dis- 
covered by Thompson. 

The Canadian Entomologist completed its first volume in July. The 
Editor, Rev. C. J. S. Bethune, Credit. CaiKKl.i. announces that the publi- 

increased from eight to at least twelve, and, if sullieie 
sixteen, while the annual subscription will be iucre: 



Canadian entomology. 

The American Entomologist. — The August mnnbei 
us in an attractive cover, is the last of Vol. i. The Edit 
hereafter each an .;, ty-two pages I 



for information regarding c 



PROCEEDINGS OF SCIENTIFIC SOCIETIES. 



American Association for the Advancement of Science. — The 
Eighteenth Annual Meeting of the Association was held August 18-25, at 
Salem, Mass. From the great number of papers presented, their high 
scientific character, and the large number of members present, the meet- 
ing was judged by many to have been, both in a scientific and social point 
of view, the most brilliant and successful one that has been held for many 
years. About two hundred and seventy-five members were present and 
°ne hundred and sixty-three papers were presented. A great deal of 
business * is *s of ttw Aaaoetattoii 

so closely ad , - from various -...-Mies in Boston 

a nd Cambria . ,,f Boston, and other places, were re- 

luctantly refused in order that each paper should have a hearing. One 
•y) was given up to the enjoyment of a steamboat excursion 
, given by the city of Salem. 



ction B, viz.: Archeology and Ethnology; and Microscopy. 
*e was also held during the session a microscopic convention which 
d very successful and interesting to microscopists, and as the stand- 
f instruments made in the United States is not surpassed by those 



4<5b PROCEEDINGS OF SCIENTIFIC 

of England, France or Germany, we hope this 
flourish and increase in influence and important 
facturers of microscopes, and observers, to still 

» repr 

jut we should say that its meetings were this 
a the numerous papers on the recent eclipse 
which were presented. 

The American Association dates its origin as far back as 1840, when 
some eighteen gentlemen, connected with the geological surveys then in 
progress, met in the hall of the Franklin Institute. Philadelphia, and or- 
ganized an association under the name of "The Association of American 
Geologists." At the meeting held in 1842 the name was changed so as 
to read "The Association of American Geologists and Naturalists." and 
in 1847 its sphere was enlarged and its present name adopted; thus em- 
bracing every department of science. 

The meetings were suspended during the years 1861-65, but since the 
war they tun i ,1 the number of those in attendance, 

1 
i fully accords with the genius of our people and ii - 
and that as promoting good fellowship and harmony among BcleotiftC 
men, and placing them in a more direct relation with the people, the 
value of these annual reunions cannot be too highly estimated. 

An important change in the Constitution was proposed, which, if 
adopted at the next meeting, will greatly facilitate business, and will 
place all the Sections on an equal footing. The change proposed is as 
follows : Rule V to read 



•-T and Botany; 



±z was voted that the next meeting be held at Troy, N. Y., on the first 
Wednesday in August. 

Officers present at the Meeting: J. W. Foster, President; F. W. 
I'liNoi. Acting Permanent Secretary; O. C. Marsh. General Sea 
J. W. Fostkr, F. W. Pl-txam, O. C. Marsh, B. A. Gould. Louis 
Agassiz, J..., ,.„ H: sl: , 1; . v . roiIV Peirce> Jonv ToRKEY , T . Stebkt 

Hunt, J. S. Newbkeuy, Alexis Caswell. W. C. Kike. 5 Ung C - 

-srs. Ilt.Hii,. Layering. Elwyx, Rockwell and Wiiiitlesey 

Section B. (Natural History) -Prof. L. Agassiz, Chairman; Prof. T. 
Sterry Hunt and Rev. G. A. Leakin. N, ntarit*. Subsection C (Arch- 
eology and Ethnology) -Dr. E. G. Squiek and Prof. Arnold Guyot, 
Wxuaxu IL Dale, Secretary. Subsection D. (Microscopy) — 
J. E. Gavitt, Chairman; E. Bickxell, Secretary. 



PROCEEDINGS OF SCIENTIFIC SOCIETIES. 437 



1 M ' 












, ■' ;i .■ _- •' '.' ; '■ ■• ■ ' :-. ' ■ \ 7 *' ' "' "" 



438 PROCEEDINGS OF SCIENTIFIC SOCIETIES. 




tion of the 1 

probable, governed the production of t 

flowers of Norway spruces were always on the most vigorous branches ; 

they lose the power of producing females and produce males only. But 
the Larch afforded the best illustration. As shown last year the most 
vigorous shoots have the leaves adherent with the stems. What we 
call leaves are only foliaceous awns. The true leaves only appear when 
the axial growth is arrested, the verticils or spurs bearing the true 
leaves. When the reproductive age commences the Larch can only bear 
flowers from these weakened spurs ; only the strongest of these produce 
female flowers, and only after two or three years of weaken ti - 
by the shade afforded by the increased growth of branches, <! 
flowers appear. So low is vitality when these male flowers appear that 

production the whole spur dies. The long, dead. a\ ;■■ 
on Larch shoots are what have been male flowers. The same law can be 
traced more or less through all Coniferm. In Amentace<z the same law, only 
in another form, prevails. In Quercus, Juglans, Carya, and <> 
flowers appear with the opening leaves of spring, evidently formed during 
expiring vegetative force the fall before : the female only after growth has 
grown vigorously on the apex or culmination of the greatest vigor. In 
Corylus, Cat-pinus, and allies, the male flowers were also on the weakest 
parts. There were in some plants several waves of growth in the most 



PROCEEDINGS OF SCIENTIFIC SOCIETIES. 439 

vigorous shoots ; for instance Pinus inops, P. pungens, P. mitts, P. rigida, 
and some oaks. In these cases the first wave was the most vigorous, the 
last the weakest, but the female flowers are not on the apex of the shoot, 

lar illustrations. Vigor is only one form of high vitality. Power of 
endurance is another. The Norway spruces, and those species gener- 

•peciea, had greater powers to produce female flowers. Not so easily seen, 
'•lit yet evident was the law in hermaphrodites as in monoecious plants. 
In many hermaphrodites there was known a tendency to become unisexual, 
sometimes in the male, sometimes* in the female direction. A general 
follows the male in such cases, and increased vitality the female. 
n ''• Fr<ujari,i. and other instances were given in favor of the latter 
P'»int. and double flowers, variegated plants, etc., as instances of degen- 
eracy to male weakness. The conclusion drawn from the facts given 
was, not to establish the theory, but to excite investigation whether 
it was not the highest typet take on the female form? 

He concluded with the bare suggestion that the same laws might prevail 
in the animal world. 

He also read a paper "On the Nature of the Leaf-glands in Cassia and 
Acacia." Dr. Asa Gray says in the fifth edition of the "Manual" that 
the glands on CW , Wa 11 „./;. „ are near the base of the petiole. This 

near the base up to the first pair of leaflets. This shows it is not a part 
of the leaf system as it then would have its regular position. It must 
be an accident. In a neig fseflfo) we find two buds 

are formed above each li the other just above, and 

usually forming a stunted branch or spine. The lower bud produces the 
growing shoot. In another allied genus, Gymnocladus, two or three buds 
are formed one above another, very few of which ever push at all, but 
when this does take place, it is only the upper bad which forms a shoot. 
The lower bud is generally about the centre of the dilated base of the 
Petiole. Thus we have a class of allied plants, with two or three buds 
one above another, in some case- two inclined to push freely, although 

' : - 
11, the upper one, and on the other side of Gledits- 
tower bud absorbed by the petiole, and 
thus forming the gland. 
w - H. Dall read a paper "On the distribution of the native tribes of 
t territory." After reviewing the works of Baer, 
itlon obtained daring personal explo- 
ration by himself and his companions. 

The North American natives are divided into two great groups, In- 
ttans, and, another for which there being no general term, he proposed 



44U PROCEEDINGS OF SCIENTIFIC SOCIETIES. 

the name Orarians (from ora, a coast), in reference to their universal 
coastwise distribution. 

Various points of interest in regard to the several tribes were noted, 
and their comparative relations were shown by a table of twenty-foor 
dialers, and a colored map showing their geographical distribution. 

Prof. Arnr.iM S. UicKMoiiE read a paper "On the Distribution of Coal, 
Iron, Mercury, Tin, and the precious metals, in China. Prof. B. showed 
that coal occurs from place to place over the whole of China proper, and 
that iron Ls found in the north of China, especially in the Province of 

facture of razors, knives, etc., is made. Mercury, or " Water-silver" as 

i'- in Shansi in small quantities. Tin is reported 

lViuu various localities. Petroleum was not only known but used in 

lamps more than 1G0 years ago. The Chinese name for it, "Oil of Stone," 

Prof. C. H. Hitchcock stated in his paper "On the Ai 
Fi.UK- that this area begins near Bellows* Falls, and e 

i.nac river. It was at first referred to the Quebec 
group, but he thought the rocks distinct. The gold was found in 1864 in 
'■''" rocks, by Mr. Henry Wurtz, at Lima, N. H. The rock is a black clay 



: Rocky Mountain Alpine Region," 



Dr. C. C. Parry in his pa 
stated that the wooded be 

-and ; . - above the sea. This belt acquires its densest growth. ; 
hibits the greatest number of distinct species, at an elevation of b 
7000 and 9000 feet, and terminates by an abrupt well-marked lint 
average height of 11.300 feet. 
The limit of upright tree growth is marked with a singula 

posing that the so called timber line marks the 
extreme point of minimum winter temperature, below which no exposed 
can exist. All that survives above this point 
does so by submitting to a winter burial of snow, beneath which protect- 
'o maintain its torpid existence. The usual char- 
habit of growth, a late period of flowering, and early seeding, the forms 
being almost exclusively perennial. 

ne flora is represented by thirty-four natural orders, of which 

belong to phenogamous plants, the remaining three include 

the higher orders of Cryptogams ; of the latter the ferns are represented 

y a single species {Cryptogramna acrostichoicles U. Br.), not exclusively 

alpine. Mosses are numerously represented, but are still comparatively 

ZlZ b " e Ilcllens * re most abu °" Mt a " d ■»"> the ■*— — "» ° f 



JJl /US"™ W* »«™° *. thirty. 






PROCEEDINGS OF SCIENTIFI 



lie Larval Characters of iiu- l/r 



PROCEEDINGS OF 



ninunication "On New Species of Fishes 
5 Valleys of the Maranon and Napo," con- 
ty-flve species collected by Prof. Orton, 



fly Academy, he sugges 






well defined cry* 


rfals of staurot 


g unexpectedly i 






ick, near the Uj 




rs offered son* 


>able age of the 


schists, granit 


'ranite ridge of 


southern New 


t Calais, and is 




ieiss (composed 




et in diameter, 








entian, and a m 


ass of red, we 



lies, or Lower Mispeck beds. 
s indicated by Prof. Hitchcocl 
th of Baring as lying in a b 



?rc societies. 445 

ied. Its interest and eonnec- 



446 PROCEEDINGS OF 



iod of 1 pc 1 1 i od 



nlar notion of the sea serpent, beiug sometimes Bei 

"On the Flora and Fauna of the Miocene Tertiary Beds of Oregoi 
Idaho." Prof. Newberry ,xL - ,,: fossil plant* 

lected by Rev. Mr. Condon of Dallas City. Oregon. These plants 

Basin hi Nevada, Idaho and Oregon, and were of special interest 
from their geological position and botanical character. They were 

which once existed in the area lying between the Rocky Mountain 



societies. 447 

. California and Oregon, Prof. New- 



Dedicatiov of tiii- Mirror of tiii- Pnuo 



, which adjourned 



T ZE3I IE 

AMERICAN NATURALIST. 

Vol. III. -NOVEMBER, 1869. -No. 9. 



Do sponges belong to the animal or vegetable "kingdom 
seems to be the first question which presents itself to our 
mind in investigating these curious organisms, and this 
question involves a definition of a boundary line between 
the two kingdoms, which, of all the most perplexing queries 
that can be found for an unlucky naturalist, perhaps is the 
most difficult. Eminent zoologists have, at various times, 
ranked them as belonging to the class of Zoophyta, but 
others equally clever have disputed this right, and have 
claimed them as belonging to the vegetable kingdom. In 
the celebrated work of Dr. Johnston on British Zoophyta, 
Q e disposes of them in a very summary manner. The fol- 
lowing extract deserves attention : "if they are not the pro- 
duction of polypes, the zoologist who retains them in his 
province must contend that they are individually animals, 

no animal structure or individual organs, and exhibit no one 
Unction usually supposed to be characteristic or" the animal 
kingdom. Like vegetables they are permanently fixed; 
ike vegetables they are non-irresistiWe ; their movements, 
lke tQ ose of vegetables, are extrinsical and involuntary; 



450 SPONGES. 

their nutriment is elaborated in no appropriated digestive 
sac, and, like cryptogamous vegetables or algae, they usually 
ramify and grow in forms determined by local circum- 
stances, and if they present some peculiarities in the mode 
of the imbibition of their food, and in their secretions, yet 
even in these they evince a nearer affinity to plants than to 
any animal whatever." This argument is certainly very 
favorable to their classification with plants, but there are 
other arguments by zoologists equally clever ill favor of 
their ela.--itieation with animals. Linmeus seems to have 
changed his opinion several times respecting them. In the 
commencement of his great work he considered them as 
plants, or at all events as very doubtful animals; but hi a 
later edition of his "Sy sterna" Nature," he seems to have 
admitted them along with the zoophytes in the animal king- 
dom. In the opinion of Pallas, deBlainville, and others, 
they are intermediate organized bodies, without any deter- 
minate form, and with little susceptibility of feeling, but 
presenting an absorbent surface, and nourished pretty nearly 
like vegetables by the surrounding medium.* 

Sponges consist of a framework, or skeleton, coated with 
gelatinous matter, and forming a non-irritable mass, which 
is connected internally with canals of various sizes. The 
ova are very numerous, and present in appearance the form 
of irregular shaped granules derived from the ii 
matter, which grow into ciliated germs and falling at matu- 
rity into the small canals, are then expelled by the orifices. 
When alive the body is covered by a gelatinous film, which, 
being provided with cilia cause* a current of water to pass 
in at the smaller pores and out at the larger apertures, the 
sponge probably assimilating the nutritive particles which 
enter into the water. Papers have been written from time 
to time endeavoring to prove that the pores palpitate, hat 
this has been stoutly denied, and perhaps the cause of their 



SPONGES. 451 

being moved in such a manner as to give rise to this discus- 
sion is in consequence of the action of the water in passing 
through them. According to the analysis of sponges by 
Hornemann, they consist of a substance "similar to osma- 
sone, animal mucus, fat oil, a substance soluble in water, a 
substance only soluble in potash, and traces of chloride of 
sodium, iodine, sulphur, phosphate of lime (?), silica, alu- 
mina, and magnesia." The quantity of silica which consti- 
tutes the structure of sponges is remarkable. It generally 
occurs in the form of spicuke in considerable quantities, 
embedded in the substance or body of the sponge. In the 
species of Halichondria, the silicious spiculse are pointed at 
the extremities, whilst the spiculae of some are pointed at 
one end only, and are round at the other ; sometimes they 
appear cylindrical, curved, or straight. The spiculse of the 
genus Pachymatisma are often sharp at one extremity and 
at the other expand into two points ; some are sharp at one 
end and expand at the other into three points ; the P. John- 
stonice can be taken as an example of the latter.. The genus 
Tethea possess silicious spicuke having hooks at both ends, 
M»d amongst the genera Grantia, Geodia, and in the Levant 
Sponge, the spicuke are very large and radiate into three di- 
rections like a three pointed star. When properly mounted 
they form very beautiful microscopic objects. The spicule 
of the Grantia nivea show them to be of the triradiate, or 
three pointed, star shape, those of the Halichondria Griffithii 
in the form of pins, whilst those of the common sponge, 
from the Philippine Islands, are sometimes in the shape 
of crutches or stars. In the common Madrepore Sponge 
{Bactylochalixpumieea) the silicious element is fully devel- 
oped as the whole mass is composed of this extremely hard 
substance, which is disposed in tubular and radiating canals. 
°ne of the rarest, and I may say most beautiful of the sili- 
cious sponges, is the Euplectella* speciosa Gray (Fig. 76). 
!t U described in the < ; Transactions of the Zoological Society 



SPONGES. 453 

of London," by Prof. Owen, as the Euplectella aspoyiUuw, 
from the fact of its being in shape like the common Asper- 
'jiUum Juvanicum of Java. "Mr. Cuming" says Prof. Owen 
"has entrusted to me for description one of the most singular 
and beautiful as well as the rarest of the marine productions, 
with which his researches in the Philippine Inlands have en- 
abled him to enrich the zoological collections of his native 
country." The first specimen of this remarkable sponge was 
purchased by Mr. Cuming, the celebrated conchologist, at the 
death of Mr. William J. Broderip, who had formerly given 
the sum of £30 to become the possessor of this then unique 
Euplectella. This specimen, the only one known for a great 
many years, is now in the possession of the authorities of the 
British Museum, in England, by whom it is greatly prized 
in consequence of its possessing the gelatinous film in its 
natural state. It certainly is one of the most curious and 
extraordinary combinations of fibrous and silicious structure 
which the bed of the ocean has ever yielded up to the re- 
searches of the naturalist. It differs materially from any 
sponges with w T hich w^e are acquainted, being regular in its 
form. It is of cornucopia shape, and has a horny skeleton- 
hke network, composed of large silicious fibres running from 
the base to the head, surrounded by smaller fibres, forming 
square open meshes resembling a net or basket-work. It 
ranges in height from six to even fifteen inches. At the 
lower extremity, or root, it averages about an inch in thick- 
ness, but its size gradually increases as it approaches the top, 
where often it is two inches wide. It is surmounted by a 
"dge about quarter of an inch wide, and is closed at the 
forger extremity by a delicate open lace work of fibres pos- 
sessing no particular pattern. It is on this light and. pretty 
structure that the fibrous gelatinous substance rests, resem- 
bling in texture the common sponge, but in this instance dis- 
posed in an irregular foliated pattern, over which the usual 
fill » of the sponge is laid during life. The base or root 
attaches itself to almost anything which may serve as a sup- 



454 sponges. 

' port ; some being fixed to rocks, others to shells, and indeed 
any submarine objects which may present a surface strong 
enough to answer the purpose required. It is remarkable, 
bur nearly all the specimens I have examined of this sponge 
have had enclosed in them a common hermit or soldier-crab. 
How this pugnacious member of the crustacean class be- 
comes imprisoned it is difficult to conceive. Dr. Gray, of 
the British Museum, in speaking of them in "Land and 
Water," a London periodical, says that "the natives of .the 
Philippine Islands deny that they are sponges, but say that 
they are formed by the crabs that are usually found in them, 
and that a pair of crabs form two close together. Hence 
they regard two specimens, as we should call them, a single 
individual." They consist of pure silica,, and Mr. C. G. 
Brewster, naturalist, Boston, to whose courtesy I am in- 
debted for the u'eompanyinii * hful en 2 ivi ir. has several 
specimens which, having lost their outer covering or film, 
have been cleaned by being placed in a weak solution of 
chloride of lime, and afterwards exposed to the action of 
the atmosphere. The Euplectella is found principally near 
the island of Zebu, one of the Philippine's, where the first 
specimen was obtained by the late Hugh Cuming. 

The forms of sponges are very irregular, some being 
branched, others round or pear-shaped, and others resem- 
bling a cup, like the well known "Neptune's cup" of the 
Indian Seas. During life they are extremely beautiful in 
colors, possessing tints which it would be impossible to 
describe, and which I do not think have ever been faithfully 
represented in consequence of their beauty departing im- 
mediately after life ceases. Dr. Johnson states that the green 
color of the fresh-water sponge (Spongilla ftuviatiUs) de- 
pends upon the action of light, as he has proved by experi- 
ments which showed that "pale-colored specimens became 
green when they were exposed for a few days to the ligM 
and full rays of the sun ; while on the contrary, green speci- 
mens were blanched by being made to grow in darkness or 



RAMBLES IN" FLORIDA. 455 

shade. All sponges are aquatic, and with few exceptions 
marine. They attach themselves to all manner of objects 
which may present a point of support, whether floating or 
fixed; some select their abode on very unexpected objects. 
In one case recorded in the "Natural History of British 
Sponges," by Dr. Johnson, a specimen belonging to the 
genus Halichondria, a sponge not uncommonly found on 
some of our coasts, was discovered growing from the back 
of a small live crab, — "a burden" says the learned Doctor, 
"apparently as disproportionate as was that of Atlas,— and 
yet the creature has been seemingly little inconveuienced 
with its arboreous excrescence." The fresh-water sponge 
(AlcyoncUa stagnorum) is frequently to be met with floating 
in docks attached to logs of timber. It is very interesting 
to observe that these low organisms even seem to be at- 
tracted to each other, as it were in family groups. The 
Alct/oneUce live in groups of from ten to fifteen, and some 
sponges are so intimately connected as to be inseparable. 
Respecting their geographical distribution they are to be 
met with in all seas, and although they abound to a much 
greater extent in the tropics, even on the coast of Great 
Britain a great many species occur, nearly forty having been 
reckoned to belong to one semis alone. 



TART IV. 

!t was nearly noon of a delightful day in February when 
leaving the City of Tampa we crossed the Hillsborough 
River to the opposite bank for the purpose of visiting Rocky 
Point, which is situated upon old Tampa Bay ; the route, for 
the greater part of the distance of seven miles, is through an 



456 RAMBLES IN FLORIDA. 

open forest of pines, of the species previously met with ; the 
lack of undergrowth afforded pleasant and shaded vistas in 
every direction. In following the sandy road Ave waded 
through broad and shallow pools, miniature lakes made by 
the recent "rains, in which we dipped our cans, and drinking 
found it more palatable than the water from the muddy 
springs we had just passed. 

Upon both sides of, and a few rods from, the road are 
small deep ponds, covering perhaps an acre, surrounded with 
gaunt and leafless cypresses, Taxodium distich unu standing 
grim and naked in the midst of the forest ; hoary, speech- 
less giants, whose gnarled limbs seem to clutch at, while 
they sustain long drooping tufts of pendulous moss, that, in 
the sombre light, looked more like funeral emblems than 
living vegetation. Over these glassy lakelets the 

" * * * towering boughs of the cypress 



many specimens of various species of which were seen slowly 
marching with solemn strides, like veteran soldiers, guarding 
the solitude of the forest. 

Seating ourselves upon a fallen pine we halted to rest 
awhile, for walking is warm work on such a day. There 
are no wild flowers, and in many places no grass, for a lire, 
which the last rain only partially extinguished, burned even 
the scanty sod. 

Again we started, and moving forward had proceeded but a 
few rods when up flew a wild turkey (Meleagris gallo-pavo 
Linn.), the only specimen yet met with by us in Florida, and 
farther on, but out of range, a flock of quails, Ortyx Virgin- 



This 



species is quite pretty; 



quails are tidy-looking birds, but the Californians,* 
their plumed heads, rather lead the others. 



RAMBLES IX FLORIDA. 457 

The small hillocks of sand, of which we have seen at least 
a hundred since we left Tampa, are made by a species of 
Gopher {Geomys jpinetus Kaf.). The people call them Sala- 
manders. The propriety of the name is not perceptible. 
Three or four species of Geomys arc found in the Pacific 

We have arrived at the edge of the timber; the road 
no farther winds beneath the shade of the forest, but lies 
broadly open to a burning sun. It follows for a short dis- 
tance through a sedgy marsh, with a rank growth upon either 
side and terminates at a cluster of cabins, which stand upon 
the sandy margin of the bay. 

The small rudely thatched buildings, are occupied by a 
number of workmen engaged in the manufacture of salt. 
Their apparatus is of the simplest description. It consists 
of a few kettles, or evaporators, made by cutting in halves, 
inally, the shells or outer ejdinders of small steam 
boilers, which are rudely set in masonry of stone and mud. 
Into these kettles the salt water is pumped by hand from 
a well-hole, a large pit dug in the sand, into which the water 
seeps, or flows. The evaporation is produced by means of a 
fire under the kettles; the inflammable pitch-pine making an 
admirable fuel for this purpose. The thatched cabins f of the 
salt makers were quite a novelty to us. They are fifteen to 



twenty feet square, and about six feet high at the eaves, and 
the roof is sharply pitched so as to shed the rain rapidly. 
The frame is made of small poles or saplings, upon which 
the leaves of the palmetto are tacked or tied, course after 
course, overlapped like shingles or weather-boards upon a 
common house. Sometimes a floor is laid and a board door 
hung to the frame. An excellent shelter for a warm climate 
is thus made, sufficiently close for protect 1 g t 1 
nary storms, a good screen from the sun, and open enough 
to admit of ventilation. Exceeding caution in the use of tire 
i* requisite, and cooking must be done outside, and at some 
distance away. 

W e were kindly furnished with food and lodging by our 
host, an old Scotch sailor, with a bushy beard which rivalled 
the Spanish moss in color and in length : 



After boxing around the globe for a quarter of a century 
he finally drifted into this out-of-the-way corner of the 
planet. With a palmetto cabin, plenty of oysters, game and 
fish, he lives a free and easy life, with few luxuries and fewer 
cares : his gun and clog, his boat and fishing gear, supply 
both food and recreation ; like most sailors and sportsmen, 
he is a good cook ; as to his knowledge of the culinary art, 
inquiry is best answered by the repeated sorties made by us 
upon the well cooked rations. "Actions speak louder than 

From the salt works a trail leads across the sands, then 
through a bit of trampled marsh, over the sands again to 
shell-heaps large and small. There is only one of the heaps 
of sufficient size to be dignified by the name of mound ; this 
latter covers an area of half an acre and is fifteen feet in 
height, at the highest point; it is composed entirely of 
shells; and the mound and heaps and ridges of shell, are, 



RAMBLES IN FLORIDA. 459 

perhaps, the remains of many feasts here enjoyed and cele- 
brated by the tribe of which Hirrihigua * was 'chief. From 
a well-hole that was dug to the depth of eight feet in the 
principal heap, arrowheads of chalcedony, a sinker of "coral 
stone,'" and a spoon-shaped implement f made from apiece 
of a large conch-shell, Busy con perversion, were obtained. 
Fourteen species of shells were collected of which nine are 
the same as found at the Cedar Keys Mounds, and include the 
■pecies that are living most abundantly at the present day, 
a»d Which were generally sought for as food by the aborig- 
ines ; the other five species f are small shells, too small to 
be collected for the above purpose and were probably carried 
to the heaps, from their being attached to the shells of the 
edible mollusks. No fragments of pottery were detected, 
and nothing to indicate that the mound or "any of the heaps 
were used for burial purposes; the ground outline of this 
series of heaps is quite irregular, and it appears rather to 
have been the result of accident than in conformity to any 
plan. 

From the shell-heaps to the end of Rocky Point, is at least 
a mile; the road or trail follows along the ridge, which con- 
sists of beach rubble and debris upon the top of an ancient 
coral reef; at many places as well as at the end of the point, 
the coral-rock crops out, and in some localities it is daily 
hashed by the tide : at the water's ediio are mangroves, and 
along the sides of the ridge are pines, palmettoes,§ and but- 



4 GO RAMBLES IN FLORIDA. 

tonwoods, and specimens of the Spani-li bayonet {Yucca) 
trees frequently occur. Logs of the Pencil Cedar, that have 
drifted away from rafts, are lodged along the shore, or have 
been carried higher up by wind and tide ; we turned many 
of them over and found numerous tine specimens of snails, 
Helix volvoxis and Heiicina orbiculata, and a living scorpion. 
The spaces between the roots of the mangroves were filled 
with oysters which had also fastened to the roots, and a 
species of Modiola, closely resembling the common one, of 
the Atlantic coast, M. plicatula, but with somewhat finer 
sculpture, was abundant. The small oysters that are so 
common everywhere along the shore, growing near the high- 
water line, are not generally eaten except by the raccoons, 
hence the common name for them of "coon oysters." On the 
under side of detached lumps of these we found many rare 
little shells,* and several of the larger species of mollusksf 
especially the thorny conch, Melongena corona, may be seen 
prowling around, or half buried in the sand, at the edges of 
the oyster bars. The last named species is a famous oyster 
eater; but the law of compensation here intervenes, for the 
animal of the thorny conch is in turn eaten by many kinds 
of fish, for which it is an excellent bait, and it is therefore 
much used by the fishermen ; the gulf trout also collect them 
on their own account, and it is quite common to find large 
shells of this species in their stomachs. 

The position of the sun told us that it was time to return ; 
the heat was excessive, and constant tramping and stooping 
had made us tired. 

Cutting a bunch of palmetto leaves to use as a screen for 




RAMBLES IN FLORIDA. 461 

way between the latter and the point, there is a narrow 
lagoon with dead mangroves standing along its edge; here 
we found tin 1 screw-shaped shell, Oerithidea scalar i form is,* 
and the fine Littorina angidifera}, the latter on the man- 
groves high above the reach of the water; and on the grass, 
or slowly creeping on the surface of the wet sand, the coffee 
shell, Melampus coffea.% The Cerithidca is also found near 
the salt works, and LKtorina trrorata can be gathered in 
quantities within a stone's throw of the buildings. On our 
way across the sand from the shell-heaps, an army of fiddler 
crabs hobbled aside, opening ranks to let us pass. After a 
hearty dinner we bade "ye ancient mariner" farewell, and 
making a straight wake, were at camp by dusk. 

Remaining in Tampa for a few days awaiting the arrival 
of letters, and to complete our reconuoissance of the country 
in the immediate vicinity, we finally abandoned our head- 
quarters, and bidding adieu to Camp Misery and its number- 
less fleas we placed our equipment on board of the schooner 
"Santa Maria, of St. Marks/' a vessel of sixteen tons meas- 
urement, and cast loose from the wharf at Tampa at noon 
of a pleasant Monday in February, en route for Cedar Keys, 
to stop at such islands and points on the way as might be of 
interest. Proceeding down the bay we anchored near Bal- 
last Point, and grappled up a goodly supply of oysters for 
the subsistence department, at the same time adding two 



462 RAMBLES IN FLORIDA. 

species of shells* to our collection, which were found ad- 
hering! to the oysters. 

From Ballast Point a few hours sail in a light breeze 
brought us to Piney Point, or Point Pinalles, the latter being 
the common name with the people here. Off this point there 
is comparatively deep water and a fair harbor; this place is 
believed by many to have been the anchorage ground of 
De Soto's $ fleet, three hundred and thirty years ago. 

The historian says : "His squadron consisted of eight largo 
vessels, a caravel and two brigan tines, all freighted with 
ample means of conquest and colonization ;§ besides the 
ship's crew his force numbered one thousand men with three 
hundred and fifty horses." 

The fleet arrived at the mouth of Tampa Bay on Whit- 
sunday, the twenty-fifth day of May, 1539; three hundred 
of his men disembarked on the following Saturday, and the 
remainder of the force landed on the succeeding day. 

To the bay, De Soto gave the name of Espiritu Santo ; 
the first detachment met with a rough reception, for on the 
morning after it landed the savages broke upon the Span- 
iards who were carelessly lying around, and with deafening 
yells drove them in confusion to the water's edge; the latter 
were speedily reinforced from the vessels and soon dispersed 
their foes. 

."dostomiaimpressa Say. 



■!.;;: 



At Piuey Point are numerous shell-heaps and mounds; 
they are covered with a dense vegetation; climbing over 
prostrate trees, or crawling upon hands and knees, through 
■ tangled growth of vines and shrubs, we forced our way as 
best we could, from mound to mound, over ground rich with 
historic interest and upon a spot which had received the foot- 
prints of as brave and adventurous a band of men as have 
t'ver walked the earth. "If at times our feelings revolt at 
the outrages committed by them upon the poor Indians, and 
by their wrongs towards those native chieftains who fought 
and fell so heroically in the defence of their homes, yet our 
indignation passes away and is forgotten in the melancholy 
fate of the invaders. Scarce three years had elapsed from 
the time of their embarkation at Tuba, when nearly the 
whole train of youthful cavaliers had passed away; horse 
and rider alike had perished, and their bones lay bleaching 
midst the savage wilds of America P* 

The mounds are crowned with magnificent specimens of 



the palmetto; in I 
^"■oluuana or Wild Orange"; 
Various flowering shrubs and vi 



be 






of , 






,f tic 



,i. :■■ 



unable to obtain a sufficiently extended view b} 
could form an idea of the relation of heap to hea 
to mound, or ascertain whether any general pla 
pursued in their construction ; the Floridians, r< 
the neighborhood, believe them to be defensive 
Were erected by De Soto ; but we could perceive : 
this belief, as the structures separately viewed are 
the same as others we had examined. f 

"Irving'sConqtH 



e Cerasus 
md pines. 
t the time 
We were 
which we 
i or mound 
had been 
sidents of 
vorks that 

essentially 



464 K AMBLES IN FLO 

The account of the landing and 
thereafter does not show that be remained at or near the 
place of debarkation, save but for a short time, for the 
purpose of giving his men a few days rest after the confine- 
ment of shipboard. If he had made this a base or point 
of support for subsequent operations it is probable that he 
would have caused earthworks to have been erected, but 
otherwise it would have been unnecessary and useless labor ; 
as above stated there is nothing in the character of the 
mounds and heaps that show any difference from similar 
structures elsewhere met with by us. 

This locality was undoubtedly the site of a populous 
Indian town ; the ground in the neighborhood is rather above 
the average height, and the position such as to make it par- 
ticularly healthful in the summer and autumn. The waters 
abound with fish at certain seasons, and the neighboring 
islands furnish abundance of oysters and other mollusks 
that were apparently considered edible by the Indians. Near 
this place, and inside of the keys, we gathered for our use 
as food, quantities of Quahaugs (Mercenaria Mortonii Con- 
rad), of mammoth size and excellent quality; a pair of the 
empty valves sometimes weighing between three and four 
pounds ! At low tide can be collected the reversed Couch 
(Busycon perversum) and the Horse Conch (Fatciolaria 
gigantea), of which it is supposed the Indians mack' their 
war-trumpets.* Here also abound not only many smaller 
molluscous animals of sufficient size to be important for 
food, but the Thorny Conch (Melongena corona) elsewhere 
alluded to. The bleached shells of the species named are 



RAMBLES IN FLORIDA. 465 

found in all of the Kjoekkcnmcedclings on the western coast 
of Florida, as far as we explored. 

On some of the smaller islands the pelicans, gulls, and 
other maritime birds deposit their eggs, and on the larger 
keys raccoons and deer are abundant. The occasional visit 
of a Puma (Felis concolor) sometimes arouses the slumber- 
ous quietude of the isolated settlements ; a quietude at the 
present day undisturbed by the war-whoop of the savage, and 
seldom broken except by the music of the mocking-birds, or 
the noisy screeching of the parrots (Co?iurus Carolinensis 
Kuhl). The great requisite for the sustentation of large 
numbers of barbarous people exist here now as they did 
centuries ago. Along the base of a ridge of shells, which is 
situated so near the edge of the bay as sometimes to be 
Mtshed by its waves, we picked up several arrowheads and 
small fragments of pottery. About half a mile below a new 
settler had just planted his stakes and was building a cabin , 
hs nearest neighbor resides two miles above. Driven from 
his native state by the rude and chilling breath of the north 
Wl ud, and suffering fVuin pulmonary troubles, he here seeks 
and will measurably find what Ponce de Leon sought, the 
fountain of health," provided he does not succumb to the 
*ever and ague, of which there is a chance. Near his new 
home there is a creek where alligators (A. Mississippiensis 
Gmy) watch with jealous eyes the invasion of their domain. 
As the presence of the huge reptiles frightened the children 
**»» they went to the creek for water, one of our party 



Proceeded to the 


spot 1 


nd slaughtered 


- 


i some ten 


f <*t in length. 


We w, 


re told of cases 


where 




Patients -with one foot 


n the grave" a 


nd one 


li md up >n 


the door knob, e 


vadod . 


ternitv, at least 


for a te 


■m, by eat- 


m S alligator meat ; and 


alligator oil we 


were a 


ssured is a 




If the 


oil of the 


las any 




on with its pow 


r of extending the 


*»*. we have no 


doubt 


a moderate dose 


might 


enable the 


m °st despondent 


• 


to grin. Qf o 


le fact a 


re are cer- 



466 RAMBLES IN FLORIDA. 

tain, they have no ear for music. A young living speci- 
men, two feet long from snout to tip of tail, upon which we 
expended sundry vocal performances of a high order, mani- 
fested not the slightest appreciation, and we were never 
encored. Chagrined at the apathy of the audience we de- 
liberately insulted it by reciting aloud, and in the most sar- 
castic manner, the following verse : 



But the voracious beasts not only "welcome little fishes in, 
but frequently attack dogs and pig-, and instances are known 
of their attacking children and men. 

We remained within two or three miles of the mound 
i t t several clays collecting along the shore, or in 

the lagoons and marshes. Provided with well greased long 
boots we waded for miles, and at low tide could have crossed 
from the main land to the opposite keys, so shallow is the 
water, had not a narrow but not deep channel prevented. 
Sometimes at night we slept by our camp fires ashore, or, 
according to the caprice of the moment, on board of the 
schooner, during the twilight spinning yarns or relating ad- 
ventures in other places, or listening to the serenade of the 
drum-fishes swimming alongside, until sleep, "the giver of 

From Point Pinalles it is but a short sail to Long Key. 
Upon the easterly side of the latter we found many speci- 
mens of Fastiolaria tulipa and F. distans, but much hand- 
somer shells of these species may be obtained upon the 
outer shore of the key ; those from the inside are covered 
with a confervoid growth that is somewhat difficult to re- 
move, and when clean the shells retain a green stain. The 
southerly end of this island is the best collecting &OW* 5 
the beautiful Winged Conch (Strombus alatus Gmel.), the 
great Cockle (Cardium magnum Bom.), the heart-shaped 
Cockle (Cardium isocardia Linn. i. a curious thorny Oyster 



{Chama ardneUa L; 
of interest and bee 



met with on the shore of the main land. While walking 
near the edge of the water the surf rolled up a tine living 
specimen of the odd-looking trigonal Trunk-fish (Lado- 
phrys camelinus DeKay), sometimes called Cow-fish, a pro- 
file view of the head much resembling that of a cow ; and 
along the drift rows a few specimens of a Sea-cucumber 
{Holothuria), which look like an empty bead purse. There 
is a large species found in Puget Sound that is eaten by the 
Indians, and the Holothurh edulis is regularly collected by 
the Malays in great quantities, dried, and sold to the Chi- 
nese who regard it as a delicacy. We prefer broiled quails. 
Specimens of the switch-like Gorsconia {Leptogorgia virgu- 
hta M.-Edw.) are mixed in with the drift; and attached to 
foe bases of many of the specimens is the queer Ark-shell 
(4rcaiVocBLiim.), called Xoah's Ark ; here also are large 
gouges, shaped somewhat like a vase. The business of 
sponge collecting is quite profitable. At the present time 
there is an increased demand for the coarser species, as, 
alter proper preparation, it makes a most excellent filling 
f °r pillows and mattresses. The sponges furnish numerous 
microscopic forms of wonderful beauty, and fossil sponges 
ar e found in many of the geological strata in Great Britain.* 

ant stay upon Long Key we again got under way, and early 
* the afternoon of a mild winter day we came to anchor in 
the pass at the end of Pine or Piney Key, and soon after 
went ashore. This little island is one of the most delight- 



4b« RAMBLES IN FLORIDA* 

the water's edge. It is encircled by an outer growth of 
mangroves. Pressing through these, and crossing to the 
opposite side of the key, we passed through successive zones 
of palmettoes, buttonwoods, etc., and intervals, where the 
rank grass is from three to four feet high ; in one of these 
we made a camp, and all hands went vigorously at work 
cutting and hauling the boughs of dead fallen trees for our 

indents the shore so as to resemble a huge drumstick with 
the knob or head inland. At low tide this knob or head is 
separated from the other portion, or handle, by an oyster 
bar, from which we obtained a great quantity of delicious 
oysters of large size ; here also we found many other spe- 
cies of mollusca, some of which arc quite rare, including a 
beautiful cone-shell. The sandy part of the oyster bar, as 
well as the narrow beach, was closely dented with the hoof- 
prints of deer, and the footprints of "coons." In many 
places sturdy thistles, and cacti of large size, furnish a 
hiding-place for the snails, Helix cereolus andiF; uvulifera, 
and the dense undergrowth a nesting-place for the birds. 
As the sun had sank so far below the tree tops as to shade 
our camping-ground we started our evening fire. Tramping 
and the salt sea-air gave a keenness to the appetite that 
caused the supper of stewed and roasted oysters to disap- 
pear in a marvellous short time. Having finished our repas 
we tilled our pipes and from time to time piled fresh fuel 
on the tire and watched the flashing flames. 

It was a brilliant night, serene and cloudless, and the 
moon was near the full. The buttonwoods and palmettoes 
glistened in the silver light which descended from above, 
and were tinged by the ruddy glow of our huge camp-fire 
which lighted them from below, making each tree in t e 
foreground distinct in vivid lines of beauty ; the dark re- 
cesses of the denser growth occasionally illuminated by a 
flame which streamed up for a moment and disclosed colon- 
nades of pines and palms, standing equidistant and rego ar 



as if placed by human hands. It required no flight of the 
imagination to transform these charming forest vistas into 
the long, dim, aisles of cathedrals ; the trunks of the trees 
forming the pillars, and the graceful leaves of the palmetto, 
overarched," forming a roof. 



We sat up late, enjoying the glories of the night, the last 
f our out-door camping in Florida. Early the following 
lorniug we "broke camp" and prepared for the return trip 
J Cedar Keys. Hoisting the anchor with a cheerful "heave 
o," the sails of the Santa Maria soon tilled, and we were 
oineward bound. We gave a farewell look by way of a 
wting salute to Piney Key, as it stood out bright and beau- 
*ul in the purple light of the morning : 



Arriving at Cedar Keys after a pleasant voyage, we pro- 
ceeded homeward over the same route by which we came. 

The winter climate of Florida is not only healthful but 
delightful; in the summer there is danger of contracting 

The climatic advantages to the invalid are at the present 



anli. 






exceptions to the last objection, but they are rare.' The ex- 
make a journey to Europe or California, ot the same dura- 
tion for the same cost, and live infinitely better in bed and 
board. 

In an agricultural point of view Florida offers no induce- 
ments to the emigrant or settler that are not surpassed by 
^anv other sections of the country, whether quality of soil, 

rie ty or capabilit red ' An eml " 



4<U NATURALIST IN CALIFORNIA. 

gration of enterprising and industrious people, in sufficient, 
numbers so as to exercise a controlling influence, would in a 
few years effect a great change for the better, and place the 
State in the line of progress. The average Floridian of 
to-day understands only one thing, and that is "how not to 
do it." Emigration should be by clonics, and should in- 
clude some mechanics, and \,r well provided with all neces- 



THE NATURALIST IN CALD 



The Colorado Valley in winter.— 1 arrived at Fort Mo- 
jave, after a journey of sixteen days from Los Angeles, 
on December 19th, 1860. This post is situated close to 
latitude 35°, where the boundary line of California strikes 
the river, and although on the Arizonian side, has, probably, 
no species of animals not also living on the west bank of 
the river, unless Lejnis callotis be an exception. This, the 
Texan hare, I found common there, while L. CaVfornkus 
is the prevalent, if not the only large species westward. 
The valley of the Colorado at this post is, probably, ten 
miles in width, and formed of a succession of gravelly tor- 



NATURALIST IN CALIFORNIA. 4 

not over a mile wide. The whole upland has a most ban 
and desolate aspect, the only vegetation being low shrubs 
the fetid Larrea Mexkana, with cacti and other tlioi 
ill ta I ieath. The bottom laud, however, supports 
vigorous growth of cottouwood, willows, and mesqui 

robla <jlanduh.su and Stroudtocarpn pt/U-^cens. Dense shri 
bery and coarse grasses cover most of the ground, ev 
under the darkest shade, though spots are sometimes t 
alkaline for any vegetation except a few sea-shore plan 
and in places the winds keep up a rolling waste of sa 

can wade across with their heads above water, and is 
muddy as to fully deserve its name. 

After my desert experience, I gazed with delight on t 
broad flashing stream, with its fonCt-dad banks, even thou 
the trees were then bare, and the whole country nearly 
the same brown tint as the river, for I knew that the ve 
barrenness of the surrounding regions must drive most. 
the animal life to the river^banks, one class in search , 
vegetable food the other to prey upon the former, whi 
such as loved water must neeessarilv seek it here. An 
With the exceptions mentioned as desert animals in my lb 
mer article, nearh all of the hi-her animals are confined 
this narrow belt of timber, stretching along the course ( 
the Colorado from its Great Canon, thirty miles higher U] 
down to its mouth. Those livimr permanently on the in 



4 «^ NATURALIST IX CALIFORNIA. 

on several occasions during January. The elevation of the 

land is inundated nearly every summer. The distance by 
the course of the river from its mouth is 400 miles. 

The fauna of the valley naturally partakes much of the 

It is too limited and too liable to inundation for many land 
mammalia to nourish in it, except such as are common to the 
neighboring deserts and mountains. A second species, at 
present known no farther west, is the Leaf-nosed Bat (Ma- 
crotm CaU/omicm) from Fort Yuma. This bat, like the 
birds, is independent of floods, and is probablv migratory 
southward in winter, like two species I obtained at Fort 
Mojave— the Pale Bat (Antrozou* pallkhus), and a small 
species of Vespertilio which did not appear until March loth, 
though the climate was warm enough for weeks before. 

On walking out with my gun I was .-truck with surprise 
at the great numbers of Abert's Finch (Pijpilo Abertii) 
frequenting the grove, the flocks flitting before me like dry 
leaves before the wind, their color exactly resembling the 
prevailing hue of the foliage covering the ground, and now 
densely coated with brown dust, It recalled the observation 
I had often made as to the prevalence of this brown hue in 
so many birds of California, of different genera and fami- 
lies, but agreeing in their habit of living in low shrubbery 

months of the year. The loud call 'or alarm note of this 
bud was strikingly different from the notes of its more 
silent cousin near the coast, the P. fuscus (or crissaUs), but 
I soon noticed another strange fact, namely, that this note 
was also uttered by two other very distinct birds of dissim- 
ilar habits, the Shining Flycatcher and Gila Woodpecker 
(Cent unt.s urop^jldlU), both of which were abundant and 
Ceding together on the berries of the mistletoe, parasitic 
on almost every tree. These birds were my first specimens, 
together with the common Grass Finch {Pocecetes grami- 



IN CALIFORNIA. 473 

news) and Chipping Sparrow (Spizella socialis), which were 
w t o- there in small flocks. 

Aext day I was disgusted to find my specimens damaged 
by mice, and, on setting a trap, soon secured some which 
I cannot distinguish, except by a lighter hue, from the 
common woodmouse of California (Hesperomys Gambellii). 
These, with several other rodents, had taken up their resi- 
dence in the thatched roofs of our adobe quarters. On 
Christmas eve a little ice formed in the valley, but next 
morning the Brown Thrush (Harporhynchus ci-issalis) of 
this regi on was singing melodiously, and exactly in the style 
°i its cousins east and west, so well known as "False 
Mocking Birds." It is another of the dead leaf-colored 
birds of the western regions, and is as strictly limited to 
the groves as its pale sandy-hued relative, II. Lecontei, is to 
the desert shrubbery.* 

The end of the year was cold and stormy for this latitude, 
so that no additions, except more northern migrants, were 
obtained among the birds, the most notable being the Ore- 
gon Snowbird (Junco Oregonus) , and a few of the Meadow 
Lark {Sturnelhi negk-cfu), with several species of ducks and 
geese. In January, Swans ( Cygnus Americans) also ap- 
peared for a few days. On Jan. 10th I was both surprised 
a nd pleased to obtain a beautiful specimen of the Bohemian 
^axwing (Amjwh's garrulus), which had wandered so far 
from the mountains north-eastward, where the species 
:il,( miuls, and, probably driven by storms, had sought a tem- 
porary refuge in this far southern latitude. It was a solitary 
straggler, and even its cousin, A. cedrorum, never appeared 
there during my residence. 

°n the 16th a solitary Mexican Flycatcher {MyiarcJats 
Maeieanus), evidently almost starved, gave a specimen of 
the summer group of migrants lingering in the valley 



474 NATURALIST IN CALIFORNIA. 

through the winter. Vegetation was just commencing to 
bud forth now, and I observed a few Doves and Cow-birds 
(Jfoln/hrus pecoris), apparently attracted by the opening 
spring, as none appeared before. I cannot enumerate all 
tiif species of vertebrates which now amounted to over 
fifty, as I collected them, but must notice only the more re- 
markable. The resident species not found westward of this 
valley were the Ladder Woodpecker (Picus scalaris) , the 
White-bellied Wren (Thriothorus leucocjarter), Gambol's 
Quail (Lophortyx Gambellii), the Arizona Song-sparrow 
{Milospha fallax),t\\Q lead-colored Gnateateher (Polioptila 
plumbea), Malherbe's Flicker (Colaptes chrysoidet), and the 
Yellow-headed Titmouse (Auriparus Jfaviceps). Besides 
these, most of the species before mentioned are resident, 
and also many common to the coast regions. Frosty mgfata 
throughout January seemed to prevent the appearance of 
any new birds. Even in February the new comers were 
only such as I know winter in more northern parts of Cali- 
fornia near the coast, though the thermometer rose to 80° 
on the 20th. 

February 27th, a few Bank Swdllows {OotyU riparia, 
or serripennis* ) and bicolored Swallows (Ilirundo bkolor) 
appeared. Even these last winter near the coast much 
farther north, to latitude 37°. It appears that there is little 
along this valley of the species common m sum- 
mer near the coast, as they have to cross the desert-, am 
prefer a more western route. Some of the irinlei' residents 
however became more scarce, probably seeking the moun- 
tains or high lands not more than a hundred miles distant, 
while the strong-winged hawks and swimmers may have 
gone even to the arctic regions. 

Spring.— By March 2d, the poplars ("cotton wood") were 
in nearly full leaf, and beautiful flowers covered the richer 



■ 



NATURALIST IN CALIFORNIA. 475 

and warmer spots, chiefly in the ravines of the neighborim: 
mountains. A cluck was seen by an old resident on the 
river, which he said was very rare there, and from descrip- 
tion was probably the long-legged Tree-duck (Dendroc>/<jna 
fuha), since found to frequent the Sacramento Valley for 
nine months of the year, and to breed there; one of the few 

necked and Williamson's Woodpeckers (Bphyrapunut nucha- 

Us and WtUiamsonU), the only ones seen, and probably 
stragglers from the north. 

I had been ten weeks at the post before I saw a single 
Burrowing Owl (Athene cunicularia) , and then found only 
one pair, several miles distant, inhabiting a burrow evidently 
freshly dug by themselves. In the absence of the large bur- 
rowing squirrels, or other animals of similar size, they are 
sometimes compelled to burrow, but do not seem to increase 
in numbers in such localities. The general hardness of the 
soil on the upland is also an obstacle to their digging. 

On March 10th I observed the first Hummingbird (prob- 
ably Atlhis costce, which Dr. Kennerley found in February 
1854, in the warmer valley of William's Fork), and the 
&ame day saw large docks of geese migrating north. The 
first Rattlesnake (Crotcdux atrox) was killed this day, and I 
obtained the first Horned Lizard {Doliosaurus plat >/ rhinos). 
The weather now being very warm, flocks of cranes, swal- 
es, and various winter residents were seen going north- 



ward daily. ( 


3n the 


15th I sav 


r the 6 


rst Bat and Western 


^ hippoorwill. 


, and on 


the l l Jth 


Bhot 1 


mother Mexican Fly- 


catcher, prolx 
dently a const; 


ibly als. 




-ard of 


the winter residents, 


but apparently 
On March 2 


2d I obtained the 


first se 


en of the Pale Spar- 


row (SpizeJla 


pallida* 


E ), which 


seems 


to go farther south to 



476 NATURALIST IN 

winter than the 8. socialis, but the first birds which I could 
consider as probably the leaders of the summer migration, 
were, as it happened, of a new species, viz., Helminthophaga 
Zucice, or Lucy's Warbler, which I shot at first sight on 
March 29th, the two first being males, and attracting my 
notice by their notes, as their small size and concealment in 
the dense mesquite thickets, which were just leafing out, 
would have otherwise prevented their discovery for a long 
time. They may even be winter residents in the valley like 
the allied //. aetata. 

The first nest I found with eggs was that of a Shrike 
(La nut* excubiloroides) on the l ( Jth, and on the 26th ob- 
tained the first eggs of the Quail, of the Yellow-headed 
Titmouse (which builds an extraordinary closed nest of 
thorny twigs, like the mamno's in miniature), and of 



Burnm 


s were not i 


mcommon which ma 


y have been 


made 


by Foxes 


: or by the 


Badger (Taxidea 


Americana) 


i . On 


March 30th, visiting 


a steel trap which 


I had set fo 


r l»ur- 


rowing a: 


nimals I wa.- 


s surprised to find 


in it a Swift Fox 


( Vulpes 1 


velox) caugfa 


t by the toes. Ha 1 


ring no way 


of -e- 


curing it ; 


dive, I was 


obliged to make a d 


!ead specinie 


u of it 


at once, f 


2aring it mi 


ght tear itself awaj 


T. This is i 


one of 


the mamn 


nilia which ] 


has not yet been d< 


I'teeted west 


of the 


Colorado, 


though it u. 


exists there, and is 


indeed 


but a dwa 


rf variety oi 


I the common Eed I 


fox. Other 


mam- 


mals whic 


h I had obt: 


lined were Gambel'i 


s Woodmouse, be- 



fore mentioned; Audubon's Hare (fur finer than near the 
coast, approaching Lepus artemisice) , Coyote (Canis la- 
trans), killed by the dogs while running through the camp 
one moonlight night in January; Brush-tailed Kat (Perog- 
nathus penicillatus) , quite common in the thatched roofs; 
Dark Woodmouse {Hesperomys austemsf), before found 
only in Washington Territory, but undistinguishable by de- 
Wriptions ; Boyle's Woodmouse, probably a mere long-tailed 
variety of Gambel's ; the Mexican Woodrat (Motoma 31ex- 



antelope, of which herds were seen on the neighboring 

A Wild-cat {Lynx rufus) was often seen at dusk about the 
post garden, where I attempted to shoot it but failed for 
want of light. My inquiries about the Californian Opossum 
found along the Mexican boundary, did not indicate its ex- 
istence in this valley, though it will be found there if any- 
where in California, nor did I learn of any other carnivo- 
rous mammals. Beavers are quite common in the river and 
grow to an enormous size ; Gophers ( Thomomys fidvus) are 
also common. 

Compared with Kcnuerley's collections, in 1854, and 
Cones', in 1865, at Fort Whipple, the first quarter of 1861 
must have been unusually cold. April proved to be the 
mouth for the arrival of the great body of summer birds, 
although a week before I saw what I took to be a Fork- 
tailed Flycatcher {Milvidus forficatus?) , a species never yet 
obtained west of the Rocky Mountains, and a Scarlet Fly- 
catcher (Pt/rocephaltM Mexicanus), which is a rare summer 
visitor, about which I could not be mistaken, though neither 
would allow of a near approach. I obtained the following, 
usually as soon as observed: April 2d, Attku costa; 3d, 
Bullock's Oriole (Ictem* Bullocld!) : and saw an Empidonax, 
Bam Swallows, and Summer Yellow-bird ; a ground Cuckoo 
(Geococcyx Califvniamis) laid an egg in its cage. 11th, 
shot an Obscure Flycatcher (Empidonax obscurus). 17th, 
Texan Niffhthawk (Chordeih* T^e,ms) . and saw the first 
eggs of Orioles. 24th, McGUHvray's Warbler {Geothlypis 
McGilUvrayi), Yellow-breasted Chat (Icteria mrtdis, not 
long-tailed), Arkansas Kingbird {Tyrannus verticahs). 



478 NATURALIST IN CALIFORNIA. 

25th, found the eggs of Common Doves. 26th, shot a new 
species of Owl (Micrathene Whitneyi) in a dark thicket. 
28th, Summer Red-bird (Pyranga (Estiva). 29th, found a 
nest and two eggs of the .Shining Flycatcher. In this month 
I saw an unknown species of Oriole in the high trees, like 
Icterus Parisorum Bonap. 

On April 6th I trapped a squirrel, of a species which 1 
had not before observed, a third larger than Harris', and 
dark-brown instead of gray, but with proportions and mark- 
ings so exactly like the desert species, that, remembering 
the varieties of the Four-striped Tamias, I did not dare to 
consider this distinct. It was all I saw of the kind, which 
may be common in the wooded mountains of Arizona. On 
the 13th I obtained the first Pale Bat, before noted. 

Reptiles had now become common in the valley, and were 
mostly distinct species from those of the deserts. Besides 
those mentioned, a large Fence Lizard (Sceloporus ma- 
gisterf), eight inches long, began to frequent the trees 
March 20th, and on the 23d, three young of my new Land 
Tortoise {Xerobates Agassizii) were brought from the moun- 
tains by Indians. The Thirsty Lizard (Dipsosaurus dor- 
salis) became common in the ravines near by, far from 
water. On the 30th I caught Graham's Salvadora (S. Gra- 
hamii), a pretty harmless snake living in the grassy valley. 
April loth, Woodhouse's Toad* first appeared on the drier 
banks; 17th, Churchill's Bull-snake {Pituophis bellona) ; 
26th, Boyle's Milk-snake {Lampropeltis Boylii) ; 29th, the 
Coppery Whip-snake I Mustkophix te»tacens) , and some very 
swift lizards (Crotaphytus sp.) which I did not succeed in 
catching, appeared on the desert plains. 

On May 1st I shot the Little Flycatcher (Empidonax pu- 
sillus), which I then mistook for E. TrailUi, but find by my 
notes that this one differed from a true specimen of the lat- 
ter, shot on May 20th, in having the lower mandible brown- 
ish instead of yellowish and in proportions. It was lost, with 



NATURALIST IN CALIFORNIA. 479 

a valuable collection sent by the "Golden Gate," on the way 
to "Washington, but I happened to reserve the other one, 
about the occurrence of which west of the Rocky Mountains 

May 6th, shot the first Blue Grosbeak (Guiraca ccerulea) ; 
14th, the Blue-headed Greenlet (Vireo solitarius]), which 
Dr. Cones omits from the birds of Arizona, supposing it to 
be his V. plumbeus, which however is quite distinct, and one 
I did not obtain.* 

May 19th I found a nest of the Yellow-breasted Chat 
containing thm- eggs, bisi<U- one of the parasitic Cow-bird ; 
on the 8th a nest of the House Finch, or Red Linnet (Car- 
podacus frontalis) , with eggs, and on the 19th that of the 
Song Sparrow (Melospiza fallax).§ May 20th I first saw 
the Blue Linnet (Cyanospiza amcena), and shot Hammond's 
and Traill's Flycatchers (Empidonax Hammondii and E. 



T)'(tillu'); also, Richardson's Pewee (Contopus Richard- 
mnil) and Black-cap Warbler (llyhiUorte* jmsiUit*)* The 
only i til I It ned were a small Bat ( Vespertilio Tur 

mophile. shot some miles from the river on May 28th, the 
day I started to return to the coast. The reptiles added 
were the Colorado Toad {Bufo cdvarius), an enormous 
seiniaquatic species nearly as smooth as a frog; and several 
others on the way westward which do not appear to inhabit 
the valley. 

Fish seemed to be scarce in this muddy river, and I only 
obtained three species of cyprinoids : a large one called Col- 
orado Salmon (Ptychocheilus hiciux), a Gila (G. robnMa?), 
and one allied to the Suckers (Catostomus) . Mollusca were 
equally rare, and a few specimens of the remarkable Physa 
h)(,,i<ins<! and Phnoii)L< amnion were all I found. My col- 
lection of vertcbrata made at Fort Mojave numbered 100 
species, and 250 specimens. 

I might enumerate many other species tlwit have been ob- 
tained in the Colorado Valley by other collectors, but it 
would be too long a list. I have, altogether, counted up 
twenty-three species „f mammals, one hundred and nine- 
teen birds, and ten reptiles, as found there at various sea- 
sons, some of which I heard of as visiting Fort Mojave 
later than my stay there. By May 15th the spring rains 
were over and the short vegetation of the mesas was drying 
up. About this time also the river was rising rapidly, 
bringing down cold water from the mountains, and moder- 
ating the heat which had been as high as 116° in the shade 
on April 20th. The summer wind began to blow from the 
south, and would, probably, bring some of the latest birds 
with it, while others would come after the floods to seek the 
food left by the subsiding waters. Among these have been 
seen the strange Vulture-eagles (Pohjborus Audubonii and 



HINTS ON TAXIDERMY. 481 

Craxirex unicinctus), the little Ground Dove, and the quaint 
Wood Ibis, called there "Colorado Turkey" {Tantalus locu- 
lator). 

My object has been to give merely a sketch of the pro- 
gress of the faunal seasons, as I saw them. 



HINTS ON TAXIDERMY. 



The method of skinning and mounting tortoises and turtles. 
— By examining the exterior covering of this order it will 
be seen that it consists of two horny plates or shields, which 
are closely united at the sides, forming a protection to the 
soft parts of the body ; the upper one is called the carapace, 
and the lower one the sternum or breast bone. Before com- 
mencing the operation of skinning it is necessary to sepa- 
rate these two plates by means of a strong knife, chisel, or 
other similar instrument, or a fine saw, taking great care to 
make the separation at the suture, as far as possible, and 
to avoid cracking the shell. After this operation has been 
finished remove all the flesh adhering to both the upper and 
«nder plates. The arrangement of the bones and muscles 
differs so essentially from that of the other orders of verte- 
brates that attention should be given to this point in remov- 
ing the various parts. The fore and hind legs should be 
tamed out, and all the flesh adhering to them removed, 
taking care not to separate these various parts from their 
attachments to the upper shell; also, the neck and head 
should undergo the same operation, the brain and eyes being 
removed. The inner surface should now be thoroughly 
cleaned by means of a stiff brush, and the preservative ap- 
plied to every part, after which they may be restored to 



482 HINTS OX TAXIDERMY. 

position, having previously filled the eye sockets and cavity 
of the brain with cotton. In stuffing, commence by re- 
storing the neck to its natural form with cut tow. A wire 
(the body support), well pointed, should next be inserted at 
the top of the head, upon the outer surface, and passed 
down through the cut tow within the neck, across the space 
previously occupied by the body, and thence through the 
tail until it protrudes at the tip of the same. The other 
wins, or leg supports, should be inserted at the soles of each 
foot, up within the skin of the legs, and secured firmly to 
the main body support. The adjustment of the wires is 
essentially the same as recommended in the mounting of the 
larger mammalia. The various muscles should now be imi- 
tated with cut tow, and the upper and under plates joined. 
This maybe accomplice.! by bringing them together, and 
boring four small holes with an awl, two at one end, the 
one above and the other beneath the suture, and the same 
at the other end, uniting them by means of fine annealed 
wire. Cement may also be used with advantage in this oper- 
ation. The carapace may be cleaned with a weak solution 
of nitric acid and water, washing it freely; afterwards it 
may be oiled and rubbed with a piece of flannel. 

Of crocodiles and lizards in general. — All of the smaller 
species should be preserved in spirits, of about 75 per cent 
strength. The larger of this group are skinned in the same 
manner as a quadruped; especial care is, however, required 
in skinning the tails, as they are very liable to break. But 
little preservative is needed, the skins being of a dry nature. 
They may also be stuffed in the same manner as a quadruped. 
and little skill is required to get them in shape. 

Of serpents. — With the larger specimens, such as cannot 
be readily preserved in alcohol, the following method should 
be adopted in removing the skin. Open the mouth to its 
utmost capacity and insert therein a stick to retain it in this 
position. With the aid of the scalpel sever the body from 
the head within the skin, leaving no attachments whatever. 



483 

Grasp the body with the pincers and pull it out through the 
mouth, and fasten it to a hook. The body is now to be 
pulled from the enveloping skin ; to accomplish this it is 
necessary to avoid all strain, that the scales upon the outside 
may not he disarranged, using the scissors and scalpel to 
sever the ligaments which bind the skin to the carcass. 
There is no necessity of turning the skull, but the brain 
should be removed through an opening at its base. The 
muscles within the mouth, and the eyes, should also be 
taken away. The whole should then be anointed with the 
preservative, and the skin reversed to restore it to its natu- 
ral position. Before stuffing, suspend the skin in a vertical 
position, with the head uppermost. The form can now be 
restored with sawdust ; this may be run through a tunnel, 
using a slender stick, from time to time, to lay it evenly. 
Having reached the mouth insert some putty to keep the 
sawdust from spilling out. The specimen may now be 
wken down and bent into any position wished, being sup- 
ported by a wooden framework until thoroughly dry. In 
°«ler that the specimen may be free from the attacks of 
noxious insects it is well to soak the sawdust in a solution 
°f carbolic acid and water previous to placing it within the 
ski 'i ; and it should be thoroughly dry, otherwise the skin is 
Hable to mould. Sand can also be used to imitate the form, 
but the chief objection is its great weight. 

Of the method of skinning and mounting fish. — This class 
°f animals possess many beauties, which, when thus removed 
from their native element, vanish forever, and it is in vain 
for the taxidermist to try to imitate those iridescent tints 
v ' lji,:!l characterize the living specimens. The best he can 
*° is to preserve in form and general outline those charac- 
teristics by which he may be able to recognize his subject. 
Before proceeding to describe the operation of skinning it 
ma y he well to state that the scales, as well as their color, 
m }' ne preserved to a certain degree by applying tissue 
P a Per to them, which, from the natural glutinous matter 



4st 






which covers the scales will adhere firmly; this being 
allowed to remain until the skin has dried may he easily 
removed hy moistening with a damp cloth. All small Ssh 
should be mounted in section, while the larger varieties may 
be preserved entire. Suppose the fish to be of such a ma 






r that it 
died it ( 



he allowe 


d to commence. Lay the fish 


cover the 


side uppermost with tissue papi 


also extei 


d the fins by means of the sai 


to remain 


a few moments until they becoi 


this will 


)e a protection to the fins and 


process o 


f skinning. Having provided 




body removed. All the flesh having been taken from t 
skin, and the eyes removed, the inside must be wiped o 

the caution not to use anv 'unnecessary strain that will 1 
liable to distend the skin." The skin should now be till* 
with cotton or tow, and this must be laid so evenly th 
there shall be no prominences upon the outside of the sain 
When filled it should be laid with the open side down, np< 
a board of proper dimensions previously prepared, and ta= 
ened to it by means of small tacks, commencing at the hea< 
and fastening the edges (as at a, Fig. 77) downward towai 



HINTS ON TAXIDERMY. 485 

the tail. It should then be set aside in the air to dry, care 
being taken not to expose it to the rays of the sun. When 
dry the paper which covers the exposed side and with which 
the ravs are distended, may be removed in the manner pre- 
viously stated, and the glass eyes inserted with a little 
putty. As the glass eyes used by taxidermists are generally 
too spherical, and polished, it is well to manufacture them of 
wood, using common paint to restore the color, avoiding the 
use °f varnish. Finally the skin should receive a coat of 
thin colorless varnish, after which it is ready for the cabinet. 
hi sharks and large fishes an incision should be made below 
the head at its base, along the ridge of the back, following 
to either side of the dorsal fin down to the tail. The skin 
«n then be separated on each side, and by severing the ver- 
tebra? at the head and tail, the entire body may be removed. 
J- he tail having been skinned, the head should be pushed 
"wards and the skin passed over it, when all the cartilage 
can be freely cut away. In stuffing these large species it 
becomes necessary to use a body support, and a bar of light 
woh.1 may l.,e n.srd tor ihi- purpose: this should enter the 
Bkttll, thereby being more easily kept in position, and extend 
t( » the base of the tail. Hooks can be fastened to this bar, 
••uid by means of wire the specimen can be suspended from 
above. The body should then be stuffed with hay, and the 
"^ion upon the back carefully sewed up. If the first coat 
°* varnish is observed to rise in scales it should be removed 
wi th a solution of nitric acid and water, and the skin allowed 
to dry, wrjen a S( , ( . (l!ul application of varnish will ever after- 
*»rd s remain quite solid. 

^'e may state in conclusion that with the exception of 
' -■' t'n-ties. alligators and their allies, large sharks and a 
f ^v other fishes of great size, stuffed specimens of the two 
cla * s <* of reptiles and fishes are very unsatisfactory to the 
n ;' lt »i-ilist, and that whenever it is practicable to preserve 
t!l " specimen in alcohol that method should be adopted in 
#** of skinning and stuffing. 



THE FRESH-WATER AQUARIUM. 



It is useless, even were it possible, to give the exact 
amount of plants that are necessary to keep an aquarium in 
order. A very few pieces will be sufficient to purify the 
water, but as some water-plants are very beautiful, it may 
be desirable to have the maximum rather than the minimum 
amount of them in the aquarium. The fishes should have 
space enough to move around freely, and at the same time 
to be seen to advantage. Bearing this in mind my own 
taste would be to have as many plants as the tank would 
allow. As the water in the tank is changed from time to 
time the plants can be thinned out and the decaying stalkfl 
cut off. 

The live stock of the aquarium is generally selected from 
fishes, lizards, snails, and mussels. One word as to the 
propriety of having many kinds of fish together in one tank. 
Some fish, such as sticklebacks or pickerel, are so voracious 
that cither the other fish are wholly eaten up by them, or 
else their fins or tails are so maimed that they become ob- 
jects of pity instead of amusement. Again, in selecting a 
stock of fish we should try to have them of a size propor- 
tioned to the tank they are to be put in. It is a great mis- 
take to have in the tank a fish so large that it can hardly 
turn about; as a general rule, in our common sized tanks, 
the smaller the fish the better. At the same time we thus 
have a chance of having more specimens without diminishing 
too much the supply of oxygen. It is often very difficult to 
get small specimens of some kinds of fish, such as perch or 
eels. At certain seasons in the year it is the custom, in 
some places in the country, to draw off the water in the mill- 



pond and make repairs ; if such i 



FRESH-WATER AQUARIUM. 487 

the time for the lover of the aquarium to enjoy himself, for 
as the water is left iu small, shallow holes, here and there, 
we shall find in these places multitudes of specimens only 
waiting to be preserved, — small perch in great numbers and 
many rare larvra among the plants. At such a time too, we 
can make a choice of mussels, selecting for their beauty 
those whose shells are raved with the darker shades of 
green. Very young bream are easy to catch in the net. Not 
so with those an inch or more long, and now is the chance 
offered to get as many as we wish. Perch and bream both 
need a good deal of care to make them live the year round 
m the tank, but they will repay a little trouble, as they be- 
come so tame if properly cared for. Speaking of the tame- 
less of fishes it seems to be more a question of food than 
anything else ; if fishes are fed at certain times, and are 
compelled to come to the top for the food they soon get 
into the way of coming up whenever one is near by, and will 
even jump out of the water at the bare finger. There is a 
Kttie fish, found mostly in slowly running" streams, called 
the roach ; it is a very interesting fish for the aquarium on 
account of its peculiar shape and habits ; it has two large 
side fins just behind the head, which it always keeps fully 
extended, looking as if it had an old-fashioned collar on. 
It remains motionless for the most of the time on the bot- 
tom of the stream, occasionally starting off, perhaps in 
search of food, only to sink down again to its former quiet 
position ; it is easy to keep this fish in good condition in the 
aquarium. Young pickerel are desirable fish to have in 
the tanks if one can afford to keep only that kind of fish ; 
Placed with larger fish they do very well and constantly rec- 
ommend themselves for their elegant movements, but with 
small fish, such as minnows, they live in constant war. In 
°ne of my tanks twenty-four minnows were killed within 
a week by a pickerel about an inch and a half long, and this 
While giving the pickerel a regular course of feeding on 
be ef. Minnows have always held a high rank among the 



400 FRESH-WATER AQUARIUM. 

fishes to be selected for the aquarium ; collecting together in 
schools, tame, hardy and lively, they have qualities which 
few aquarial specimens possess. The stickleback ( Gasterot- 
teus) of which there are several varieties, is hardly a fish 
for the general collection ; although of exquisite form, it is 
so fierce, especially in the breeding season, that it inces- 
santly attacks the other fishes in the aquarium, and in a 
short time deprives them of more or less of their tails, mak- 
ing the unfortunate victims literally top-heavy, swimming 
with their tails, or rather what were once tails, much higher 
than their heads. 

Sticklebacks should have a tank devoted exclusively to 
them and this especially if we wish them to build a nest, 
one of their peculiar accomplishments. Early in the 
spring the sticklebacks may be found in great numbers in 
the small ditches which drain the salt-water marshes. The 
male is easily distinguished from the female by its deep red 
color around the gills and its blue eyes, while the female has 
only the silvery scales. A pair taken at random usually 
live peaceably together; if it is in the right season they 
will soon look about for materials for a nest, taking bits of 
water-plants and even coming to the surface for small pieces 
of straw and sticks; with such materials they build a 
round nest about as large as a small English walnut, hollow 
in the centre and having two holes large enough to admit 
the fish on either side ; the nest is built upon the branches 
of some of the water-plants. While the female is laying 
the eggs the male acts as guard, fiercely driving away any- 
thing coming within a certain radius of the nest. When 
the eggs are laid they resemble small globules of wet sago 
more than anything else. The female will be seen to fan 
these 1 1:^ quite often with her fins; this is probably to give 
them t'n-h water ami to prevent any sediment from collect- 
ing upon them. After a fortnight or so, instead of eggs, we 
see in different parts of the tank what at first look most like 
very minute gold spangles as large as the head of a small 



FRESH-WATER AQUARIUM. 489 

pin. On closer examination we find that they are the eyes 
of a very small fish. Their growth is so slow that in order 
to preserve them it will be well to remove them to a small 
tank by themselves, where they can be fed by placing a 
piece of raw beef on the end of a string, and hanging it over 
the edge of the tank into the water until it is turned white, 
when another piece can be introduced. The stickleback, as 
aLo the minnows, is easily accustomed to fresh water by 
freshening the salt-water gradually until it is quite fresh and 
then introducing the fish into the tank. The stickleback is 
not the only fresh water, nest building, fish. Wood men- 
tions a curious fish found in tropical America, called by the 
natives the hassar; a fish which builds a nest as carefully as 
the stickleback, though one "not placed in the water but in 
a muddy hole just above the surface." Whether we have 
gold fish or not in the aquarium, is a matter of taste, some 
persons thinking that they give the aquarium a common fish- 
globe look. It seems to me if we can get some small ones 
°i a brilliant color, and of good proportions, we should be 
glad to receive them into the tank. The great trouble with 
gold fish is that they are apt to be so deformed, some with 
tta gaunt look of a starved fish, others with a hump on the 
ack or a larger or smaller number of fins than usual. 
Gold fish would be worth keeping in the aquarium for their 
remarkable color alone if for nothiug more. 

Small eels and homed pouts add to the variety of fishes 
in the aquarium, but both are so uneasy and so very vora- 
cl ous that they are not pleasing inmates of the tank ; wan- 
dering up and down the sides of the tank, they seem diseon- 
tented and ill at ease. Young alewives are so beautiful that 
011e is tempted to try them in the aquarium ; rarely do they 
flourish in it. 

One of the most interesting animals for the aquarium is 
th e triton, or water-newt; these tritons are often found in 
what are called, in the country, pond holes, seldom in brooks 
0r Ponds ; they are perfectly harmless and will remain on the 



warm hand as long as one has patience to hold them ; they 
come up to the surface to breathe, and therefore do not con- 
sume much oxygen ; they are perfectly hardy and easy to 
keep alive, eating small pieces of beef eagerly; they occa- 
sionally change their skins, bringing the old skin over their 
heads and then swallowing them just as toads do. Their 
odd motions in the water, often poising themselves on the 
end of the tail or on one toe, are very amusing. They lay 
their eggs in the early spring either on or between the leaves 
of water-plants. By the middle of August the young are 
nearly two inches long ; they breathe at first with gills, but 
by September they come to the surface for air, as the older 
ones do. These tritons outlive all the other specimens in 
the tank, and they live so peaceably with their companions 
that they are invaluable as aquarial specimens. — To be con- 
cluded. 



The Development op Insects. — Naturalists are now paying in- 
creased attention to the embryology of the articulates. After Ratkke, 
Herold, and i their memorable works, there was an 

interval of twelve years between the publication, in 1842. of Kolliker"s 
celebrated tract, entitled in Latin. '-Observations on the first Genesis of 
Insects," and Zaddach's "Researches on the Development and Structure 
of Articulated Animals ; Parti. The Development of Phryganidan Ku--" 
which appeared in 1854. Then followed Leuckarfs -Propagation and 
Development of the Pupipara, from observations on Melophagus ovinia;" 
;ticle in the Linnaean Transactions, on the "Reproduction ami 
Morphology of Aphis ;" and Lubbock's essay on the -Ova and Pseudova 
of Insects," in the London Philosophical Transactions for 1859. Clapa- 
rede, in 1862, published his splendid n d prize essay 

on the "Evolution of Spiders," and a Mowed with 

don of brilliant works on the "Embryology and Anatomy of 
Diptera," which are in many respects the most important essays on the 
embryology of the hexapodous insects that have yet appeared, while the 
illustrations, very copious and detailed, are the most elaborate we have 
yet seen. Of great importance also is Mecznikow's "Researches on the 



491 

Embryology of the Hemiptera (Aphis, Aspidiotus, Corixa), and Siraulium, 
and the viviparous Cecidomyian larva," which were printed in Siebold 
and Kolliker's Journal, in 1866. 

At the meeting of the American Association, in August, 1867, the writer 
presented a paper on the Development of a Dragon-fly (Diplax), an illus- 
■h appeared in the Naturalist, vol 1, p. 070. His 
studies did not embrace the earli- - r only those 

observed after the rudiments of the head and appendages appeared. In 
1868 Dr. Alex. Brandt presented to the Imperial Academy of Sciences. 
of St. Petersburg!!, a paper entitled "Contributions to the Developmen- 
tal History of the Libellulidse (Calopteryx and Agriou) and Hemiptera, 
with especial reference to the Embryonal integument" (blastoderm). 
With these two papers, the latter relating to the earliest changes in the 
eggs of Dragon-flies, and the former to the later stages in the life of the 
embryo, we have quite a complete account of the evolution of this re- 
markable family of insects. Dr. Brandt also gives the developmental 
history of certain Hemiptera (Corixa, Hydrometra, Lecanium and Aphis). 
and shows the remarkable identity in the embryology of these insects 
with the neuropterous insects mentioned above. A few other articles 
have appeared by Newport, Van Beneden, and others. We have already 
m the present volume of the Naturalist, quoted from the abstract of 
Robins' paper on the "Development of Mites," quoted from the " Comp- 
tes Rendus" of the French Academy. 

We would now notice the last work on the embryology of insects, that 

<<', entitled "Studies on the Acarina," and published in Sie- 

hold and Kolliker's Journal of Scientific Zoology, during the present 

year. Claparede has observed in Atax Bonzi, which is a parasite on the 

- it r muss. i>. th it out of the »i -in ilh dd c gg (PI. 8, fig. 

3, embryo of Tyroglyphus siro, which closely resembles the earliest stages 

le gs. Fig. 4, front view of the same; r, beak; p, maxillae), not a larva, 



egg-shaped form hatches, whic 


h he calls a ''deutovum." (P 


bursting of the egg-shell into tvv> 




dm, hatches out ; md, mandible.' 


, : i,u. maxillae; p'", third pair 


\ body cavity; sp, common begi 


aning of the alimentary canal 



nervous system; amb, lnemabceba, 



titute a vicarious circulation. Fig. 
i from the first egg-shell ; lettering same as in Fig. . 
'"uiments of the simple eyes; r, beak, h h', rudimentary stomacl 
liver). From I Is not the "amnion" of insect 

developed a six-footed larva Tin- larva } i s. r " ^ < - '' : ' 

f orm, the "second larva" (the "nymph" or pupa, of Dujardin and K< 
; mite. The pupa differ- i -m th ad 
nstead of ten genital clasping cups 



and then bore into the substance of the gill to undergo their next trans- 
formation. Here the young mite increases in size, and becomes round. 
The tissues soften, those of the different organs not being so well marked 
as in the first larval stage. The limbs are short and much larger than be- 
about like a rounded mass in its enclosure. Indeed is this process not 
(thou-h Claparede does not say so) a histolysis of the former larval tis- 

insect beneath the larva skin where the pupa is formed? A new set of 
limbs grow out, this time there being four instead of three pairs of legs, 

whi ■ In .. . irval >k n i> Mil < uibi iced u i in tin im ml 

the second larval round ma>s. Soon the body is perfected, and the pupa, 

The "second larva" after some time undergoes another change ; the 

limbs grow much shorter and are folded beneath the body, the animal 

■ the whole body assumes a broadly ovate foliH, 

and looks like an embryo just before hatching, but still lying within the 

within the puparimn. (Compare Weismann's account of this process in 
Mu-ca. in our "Guide to the Study of Insects," pp. 63, 64.) This period 

pupal mite throws „tf its larval membrane, like an adult butterfly, or 



morphoses similar to those of such insects as have a complete metamo 

metamorphosis in the spiders, is paralleled by the incomplete metamo 
phosis of the orthoptera and many neuroptera, which reach adult life I 
simple moultings of the skin. 

In the genus Myobia there is not only a deutovum, besides the origin 
egg, but also a tritovwm- stage. The eggs of this mite are long, oval ar 
conical at the posterior end. The embryo with the rudiments of limbs 
represented by Fig. 5 of Plate 8. The little tubercles md and mx, repr 
sent the mandibles and maxillje, while the three pairs of legs, p'p'p 1 
bud out from the middle of the body : Ic represents the head-plate. Tl 
maxillae and mandibles finally i 



peculiar tooth-like process (Fig. 7, d.) is developed. Claparede thinks thi 
by means of this the anterior end of the egg-shell is cut off, and the en 
bryo protrudes through, when (as in Fig. 7) it is seen to be surrounded t 
a new membrane, the deutovum (dt), equivalent to that of Atax. Tl 



REVIEWS. 493 

front pair of legs (p') have grown larger and stand out in front and on 
utovnm, and the oval end of the egg protrudes 

also l '. v tin.- deutovular membrane and the original eggshell, the last two 
having lost a small portion of the anterior end. During the tritovum- 
stage the fore pair of feet become curved In like claws, and the beak 
sinks down into the body. 

Now the six-footed larva (Fig. 8) breaks through the shell, and closely 
resembles the adult (Fl. 8, Fig. 9). The first pair of feet modified for 
Piping the hairs of the field mouse, on which it is a parasite, take the 
place of the maxillje, which have been arrested in their development, and 
the mandibles (pr) assume a style-like form. After one or more moultings 

Myobia to the Tardi- 
gracles (Echin 

from the study of Claparede's figures and descriptions, that this compar- 
ison is very significant, and this has led us to consider the Tardigrades 
as a family of mites, related to Myobia and Demodex. 

The developmental histoiy of Tetranyi bus is fully given, and he shows 
that, in regard especially to the mouth-parts, it passes through an Ixodes- 
like stage, the beak of the young closely resembling that of the tick. 
Also, in less complete form, that of a species of Tyroglyphus, in which he 
shows that the genus Ih i, ,; .... vt hi. h strongly resembles Gamasus, is the 

like males he states should be separated from the true Tyroglyphi under 
the name of Hypopus. He also gives the developmental history of Hop- 
lophora. Since many Oribatidse pass through an Acarus-like stage, he, 
with Gervais, places them next to the Acarida. He likewise describes 
Myocoptes muscvlimis (Koch) a form allied to our Dermdleichw piei-pvba- 
centis (see PI. 6, Figs. 1. 2. 3.) The work is very fully illustrated with ten 
- 
The author concludes with a short chapter entitled " Fur Darwin." He 
considers that many points in the organization of the mites, in rela- 
tion to their moth- troth of Darwin's theory of the 
origin of species. He cite* ■ morgans attached 
to the legs, by which thev are enabled to grasp the hairs of their host. 
and instances the alternation in form and position of the first pairof^ legs 
mice on which tl . ! -es of Hypopus, 
&> which, as described by Dnj" mler edge ° f thC 
abdomen, two scoop-like lips by which they cling to the hairs of their 



494 XATTJRAL HISTORY MISCELLANY . 

The Generations of Worms.*— Our readers are already ftun 
the stranuro alternations of generation observed in many of the lower in- 
testinal worms. Like successions of forms differing remarkably from the 
parent, probably occur even in the most highly organized annelids. In 
the present Journal Dr. Malmgren, known by his elaborate works on the 
Annelids of the Northern and Arctic Seas, cites what he supposes to be 
another case, referring the species of " Heteronereis " (which had been 
considered by earlier observers as a good genus, and may be found swim- 
Labrador), to certain species of the genus Nereis, which live iu the mud 
or swim at the bottom. The actual connection has not been yet traced, 
but the author is strongly of the opinion that it will be found that the 
Nereids are the parents of the Heteronereis md also of the species of 
Iphioereis, another genus allied to the former. 

Florida and the SouTH.f — Travellers and naturalists in Florida will 
find in this little book a reliable guide to its hunting grounds and sani- 
tary retreats, by one already well known as a writer on the history of 
Florida. The traveller should also take with him the articles on the 
shell-mounds of Florida, by Prof. Wyman, published in our second vol- 
ume, and those of Mr. Stearns, which are now appearing in the Nat- 
Annals of Bee CuLTrRE.J — We should judge that this annual was a 
very timely production. The articles, mostly written by the Editor, are 
such as must interest and instruct bee-keepers, and we gladly hail every 
publication which has for its aim i 
ence of bee-keeping. The Editor p 



NATURAL HISTORY MISCELLANY. 

BOTANY. 

Tendency of Floral Organs to Exchange Offices. I have befoi 

change offices. It is a staminate spike of corn well developed, and < 
normal growth for some five inches from its insertion on the stem, bi 
bearing on its apex a well defined little ear of grain, as regular in stru 
ture as those which were born in their accustomed place. I do not kno 



NATURAL HISTORY MISCELLANY. 495 

Herbarium of the late Dr. Walker- Arxott. — The herbarium be- 
agiDg to the late Dr. Walker- Arnott has, since his death, been acquired 
the Glasgow University. Included in thi> i- his magnificent collection 
Diatomaceaj, which is contained in three large cabinets, and consists 
fully ten thousand specimens, all mounted upon glass slides, ready for 
animation by means of the microscope. The specimens put up in 
ses, from which slides can be prepared, will most likely be acquired by 
'• Eulenstein, the well known German diatoraist, who will thus be 
ibled to push forward, it is to be hoped, the new edition of Pritchard's 
fosoria, upon which he has been for some time engaged. The herba- 
m is a very large one, being contained in twenty cabinets, each of 
nch holds at least four thousand specimens. The botanical library 
es with the herbarium, and thus will be stored in a safe resting-place, 
! results of the labor of fifty years in the life of this eminent botanist. 

^ew Locality of Aspidium aculeatum (L.) Sw. This fern, though 
fcly distributed over the globe, is rare in the United States, being 
a ° n ed to a few mountains and high valleys in New England and New 
■*• It has been collected in the White Mountains of New Hampshire, 
lr the summit of Mt. Willoughby, and in the Notch at the north-eastern 
^of^ft. Mansfield, Vermont— and among the Adirondack mountains, 
Stony Clove," Catskill 



Mountains, N. Y.,- where the writer found it in 
growing abundantly 
field Notch. Thisir 



locality is one hundred and fort\ miles farther soutl 
any previously known in our country. — Jonx H. Eedfield, Phila. 



ZOOLOGY. 

A Remarkable Echixoderm. — At the meeting of the Scandinavian 
naturalists at Christiania in 1868, Professor Loven laid before the Zoo- 
°gical section the figures and description of a very remarkable Echino- 
erni from the Torres Straits (off Cape York), termed Ilyponome Sarsi. 
" forms, in a new and very unexpect ed manner, a link between the palse- 
°zo,c and the recent animal life. It is, strange to say, most nearly allied 
Cystidea, especially to Agelacrinus, and will, no doubt, when its anat- 
my shal l be known, give us a full clue to the comprehension of this 
enigmatic zodlogh : - not to have lived 

fa stened to the bottom of the sea) resembles a star-fish, with fine short 
* n d thick, but dichotomously branching arms; it had no stem. Five 
«noulacral furrows are present, giving off branches to the branches of 
ne arms, and farther to several small club-like swellings of the skin, 



4»0 NATURAL HISTORY MISCELLANY. 

vaulted galleries, converging towards the central, but exteriorly fnriMl!^ 
mouth. I his covering up of the ambulacral furrows was effected bj means 
of tin- limiting plates joining each other altogether from both sides; but 
that the food i- picked up in the open parts and conveyed to tie 
mouth, is demonstrated by the fact, that small heaps of small Crustacea 
and other minute animals were found in them. With the exception of a 
• smooth, triangular space on the back, with a group of small pores in the 
centre (we do not yet know whether these pores are genital outlets or 
perhaps, play the part of a " madreporite ") the whole dorsal and ventral 
surface is covered with small irregular calcareous plates; but in one of 

boscis." evidently quite analogous to the anal tube of Antedon, Fenta- 

tiie li:!i- known Holopus) to the "pyramid" of Agelacrinus, Caryocrinus 
and Cystidea generally, and to the short or long proboscis of most palffi- 
ozoic Crinoids, with a hard, tessellated cover of the calyx. It has been 
a great puzzle, that a mouth, separate from the anal "proboscis" could 
not be detected in most of the palasozoic Crinoids, now we know where 
to find it. Mr. Billing's discovery of subterminal ambulacral channels, 
or vaulted galleries, situated quite below the unbroken perisome, and 
from the arms towards the central part of the disc, shows 
clearly, when elucidated by the analogy of the half open, half closed 

was i, >, ni „i h,;j,h ■. ,,. ,; ,„, ,\ I ;, I , , and that the « pro boscis" had nothing 
to do with it, but was simply the excretory part of the digestive system 
as pointed out already in 1866 by Dr. Schultze, in his excellent Mono- 
graph of the Echinoderms of the Eifel. —Dr. C. F. Lutken, Copenhagen. 
The Tennessee Warbler. — I was much surprised at the statement 
of Mr. Boardman in the June number of the Naturalist, that the Ten- 
nessee Warbler is a common species in Maine during the spring. In the 
ill ' ti( - 1 ' to winch h. refers. 1 stated that it was rare in X.-w r.n-'l=" ! ; 
rath. !• on the authority of writers on ornithology than as the result of 
my own observations. Audubon says that the Tennessee Warbh i' > s 
rare, and that it extends northward only as far as New York. Wilson 
met with but three specimens. Nuttall makes no mention of it among 
•;' New England. Girard never met with it on Long [aland; 
y says it is rare iu the State of New York. I, myself, have 

It is a very curious fact that this bird should be so rare in New York, 



States. Either the Tennes-, «■ with extraor- 

rMptdity, thus escaping detection, or else it must pursue a more 
rblers, turning eastward only when i* 
ace north.— T. M Trippe, Orange,!?-*' 



portions. On page 214 of Mr. Samuels' work, I stated 
1 it occurring sparingly in .May tor se\ oral seasons. Since 








'ucu-i'tut, Ei-ythrolamprns. Ophibolus, Oxyrrhopus, 










ut.-d by thos 


e species with species of Elaps, according to 








ays in Greytown, Nicaragua, an alcoholic spec- 




coral " snake and regarded as extremely poi- 




:-ollection by a resident. Under the direction 






al years to ti 


ie study of reptiles, we examined the snake in 






-tied that it 


, V:IS quite harmless notwithstanding the ab- 


.inch were r, 


elated of it. I afterward brought in one of 



498 NATURAL HISTORY 3 

agree with in gener I the ease in question to the 

same category. A second glance would hardly have seen either bravado 
or tbolhardiness in the capture of a snake of which an alcoholic specimen 

borhood) a good specimen of the Black Vulture (Cathartes atratus), the 
first one I ever knew so far east ; and also a line specimen of the Purple 
Galliuule (Gallinula martinka). — G. A. Boardman, Calais, Me. 



MICROSCOPY. 

Metiioii of Preserving Animal Specimens for fine dissecttow.— 
Microscopist* will r< ad v> it.li inti r< st a v. ry simple metl) -\ of ; ' "•' '" "'- 
animal specimens for fine dissection. It is described by Dr. Alcock. The 
advantages of the plan are very perfect preservation; no necessity for 
closing up, so that the specimen cannot be got at; no fear of losing a 
■ /tion from accidental evaporation, as when spirit is used; 
lastly, cheapness. The method adopted is to prepare a sati r 
of corrosive sublimate in alcohol, and when a dissi ction in water is in 
progress, a small quantity — half a teaspoonful — of the solution is to be 

• ' 
served, but no more of it : and DV tlie 

time the dissection \s c a 
from the union of the corrosive sublimate with the tissues, ai d it ma? 

Quarterly Journal of Science, London. 



the bottom of the sea, capable of secret ig < d »rcous 
hus forming small chambers or cells, the interior o^ 

overy, resulting from a visit of Prof. T. St. ".'< H" nt "\ 
neighborhood, will exciti new interest n our limestmit 
larry among geologists, and throw additional light upon 

;knell (Preparator of the Peabody Academy of Science, 



OF SCIENTIFIC 

son of M 

icovery. 

specimen is Eozoon, the N< 

PROCEEDINGS OF SCIENT] 



errill read 


a paper "On the 


comparison 


of the Coral 


tlautic and Pacific Coasts of the Isthmus c 


f Daricn, as 


supposed former connection 






' a former connection between the Atlantic and Pacific, 


aus of Dari< 


m, has very import 




>oth in Zodl- 


y. With in: 


iny geologists it ha 
















allow the Gulf Stre 








ies not necessarily f 




! Gulf Stream 


the Pacific, 


for a current in the 


: opposite direction might 



" ■ ' 

from Geology is quite insufficient to et 

^-llum, inmost cases proved nnreli 

^nly the occurrence of identical at 

s 'des. Thus of mollusca about fifteen hundred species occur upon the 

west tropical coast, of which Dr. P. P. Carpenter enumerates thirty-five 

s Pecies as identical upon the two coasts; thirty-four as doubtful, but pos- 

s »°ly identical ; and sixty-seven tha in cl »>el\ illied, but evidently dis- 

thein - a ^ong wli,. ramon West Indian shell, 

Which has recently been received with (".'.'/./■' H^rino from the Gulf of 
California, by the Museum of Yale College. Dr. Mimi-m admits eight 
or ten species of Crust u a . - . ,, uti. il. ml: ■ ■-!' Mr. Ordway has 
"*?™ te , d the Callinectes of tIie west coast satisfactorily, there pother 
r the large c 



of Yale College, through Mr. Bradley and < 

• -"S species 

from both coasts Dr. Gun 
lowever, separate I 



fe ctly identical, not showing even varietal (inferences. 
of marine fishes from both coasts Dr. Gunther re< 
Wentlcal. J 



500 PROCEEDINGS OF SCIENTIFIC SOCIETIES 



the Pacific, with the exception of Po 



Halcyonoid Polyps we fl 



PROCEEDINGS OF SCIENTIFIC 

Mr. G. L. Vose read a paper entitled "Compression as an a 

Geological Metamorphism; with Illustrations of Distorted Pet 

s." The metamorphic regions are compressed i 

Compression produces heat, and changes not only the outward f 



ate of the feather, illustr 
Miss. Liavisin lH-r'-TW'hts on the St 












the group. A succession of 



ards the perfection of its t 



■ediiin- through the Lampreys and the extinct al 
Lepidosirens, thence through Proteus and its c 

and Salamanders, and thus to the Mmiotrem 



PROCEEDINGS OF SCIENTIFIC SOCIETIES. 
I law. Along the axial line there is a tendency t 



i; 



re.-sion upwards towards man. and many on r war 
ry of the branching classes. In t! 



3 proper 1< 



fluence of man. The 



"'"' s !u> uu lthl luimlyofth. parrots is passed. Here a rudimei 
thl \ " l ■'' '"■'~ ,a ls found. In the annual kingdom the uncreated man 
lstin - ""0 11! .■uiinial creation 



mUi " ,! " ' ' u ' * I t» hud d /, „t u.d that the classes < 
I aw to separate ther 

Mm Li;wi. II. M.,|. i:vN , ;uv ;l ,■„,,?, .-tiirai explanation of the Uses c 

t»e Embankments of the M I r„ i„ rs Ml Mor-an considered the 

as the bases (built for defend .\, s or villages e 

that race of men. 

Mr. Porter C. Bliss then read a paper upon a New Classification c 
« e «n! Uth AmedCaD Indiaus u P° n tlie basis of Philology. Mr. Bliss gav 



the aborigines of t 
the discovery that t 



Argentine Republic. Bolivia. Paraguay 
nber of stock languages wit 



as oeen exaggerated tenfold, and | f one hundred 

nd fifty or more as has been loosely stated by the Jesuits and other later 
enters, but twelve or thirteen - Southern half of 

■• Of all these he had collected vocabularies. 
Mr. Bliss proceeded to point out on a large map of South America, the 



t» the two ins of Chile, 

Icntilicl with the lVhuonchos, Iluilliclies and Aucas of the 
Buenos Ayres, the Abipones, Tobas, Mocobis, Ocoles, Mata- 
Machicuys of the Gran Chaco or region between Paraguay 






- 



b-ic radicals, it is quite as polysyllabic as most other IndL 

. Morse's paper " On the Early Stages of Brachiopods " was r 

I" *t.'pt-< inber number. 
C. Marsh read a paper on the " Discovery of the Remaii 



Salk. — The Library of the late Dr. B. F. 



- 



CORRESPONDENTS. 



AMERICAN NATURALIST. 

Vol. III. -DECEMBER, 1869. -No. 10. 



NOTES ON SOME OF THE RARER BIRDS OF 
MASSACHUSETTS.* 



The Natural History of any portion of country cannot, 
°f course, be too fully known; and the few ornithological 
notes at this time presented I feel sure will be acceptable to 
those who are interested in the study of the New England 
Wrds. While a large portion of the facts now communi- 
cated are of my own observing I am greatly indebted to 
the kindness of other persons for many of the interesting 
; *** that, during the last five years, have been aecumu- 
wfcng in my note-book. As the authorities upon which the 
observations not my own in the following pages are commu- 
nicated are always indicated, I have here but to return 
thanks to my numerous ornithological correspondents and 
friends who have .so generously favored me from time to 
t'rae with their valuable contributions. Only by knowing 
the fauna of a locality can the subsequent changes 
111 it, induced by its becoming more densely settled, or by 



506 NOTES ON SOME OF THE 

other causes, be traced. As is well known, the mammalian 
and bird faun® of all the older settled parts of the United 
States are vastly different from what they were two hundred 
years ago. These changes consist mainly in the great de- 
crease in numbers of the representatives of all the larger 
species, not a few of which are already extirpated where 
they were formerly common ; a few of the smaller species of 
both classes have doubtless increased in numbers. Two 
causes operate unfavorably upon the larger ones ; the disfor- 
esting of the country and the sporting propensities of the 
people, everything large enough to be shot, whether useful 
or otherwise, being considered as legitimate game. The 
former destroys the natural haunts of many species, while 
the latter destroys and drives away others that would other- 
wise remain. Many of the water-fowl that are now only 
transient visitors, as the Canada Goose, the several species 
of Merganser, Teals, Black Duck and Mallard, undoubtedly 
once bred in this State, as did also the Wild Turkey and the 
Prairie Hen. Several of the Gulls and probably some of 
the Tringce have been driven, like the Ducks and Geese, 
to seek more northern breeding grounds. In comparatively 
recent times, geologically speaking, probably other causes, 
as climatic, have been operating to effect a gradual north- 
ward migration, in certain species at least. These changes 
are of great interest, not only generally, but in a scientific 
point of view, and we shall be able to trace them and their 
causes only by comparing, from time to time, exhaustive 
faunal records of the same localities. 

In a district so little diversified as that portion of Massa- 
chusetts lying east of the Connecticut Efiver, it is perhaps 
a little unexpected that marked discrepancies should occur 
in the observations made at adjoining localities by equally 
competent naturalists, in respect to the relative abundance 
of certain species. As every experienced observer must 
have noticed that the birds of passage, as many of the 
Warblers especially, vary greatly in numbers in different 



RARER BIRDS OF MASSACHUSETTS. 507 

years, and in the time occupied by them in passing a given 
locality, it is less surprising that at different points they 
should vary in abundance the same year. Among the birds 
that regularly breed in the district in question, there are 
some that are not equally common at all points. The Savan- 
nah Sparrow (Passerculus savanna), for instance, that along 
the coast and on the islands is one of the most common 
species of its family during the summer, is almost unknown 
at this season in the interior of the state, although a species 
that at different seasons of the year is found throughout 
nearly the whole continent. The Swamp Sparrow (Melo- 
zpiza palustns) is likewise locally restricted, for while a 
common summer bird in many of the larger swamps in the 
Eastern part of the state, as the Fresh Pond marshes in 
Cambridge, it has thus far escaped the detection of very 
expert observers in the interior and western part. The 
Yellow-winged Sparrow (Coturniculw passerinus) is like- 
wise partial to peculiar localities, preferring apparently 
sa «cly plains and dry open pastures ; while it is one of the 
most numerous summer sparrows about Springfield, on Cape 
^od and at Nantucket, it is generally much more rarely 
observed in the eastern counties of the state, where at some 
localities it is deemed rare. The same remarks apply to 
°ther species, as the Solitary and White-eyed Vireos {Lani- 

' [ ;;/ miis and Vireo JYovceboracensis) , etc. The Prairie 

W" arbler (Dendrceca discolor) is much more at home in old 
pastures partially grown up to barberries and cedars than 
elsewhere. The Song Sparrow (Melospiza melodia), gen- 
ei 'ally so numerous everywhere, I found lust year was one 
of the rarest sparrows on the islands and extreme coast 






the Sai 



Birds, as probably other animals, are not quite so 
a1 >le in their habits as has been commonly supposed, 
the precise character of their notes and songs, or the 
tlo n and materials of which they compose their nests. 
0Q e should not rashly question the accounts given by i 



508 NOTES ON SOME OF THE 

reliable authorities, because in particular instances they do 
not accord with their own observations. Neither should 
differences in habits, in song, etc., be taken as infallible 
evidence of a difference of species. It is Ave 11 known that 
in Massachusetts the Brown Thrush (Harporhynchus rufus) 
is not uniform in the location of its nest, as about Spring- 
field it almost invariably builds on the ground (in the many 
scores of nests that I have seen there I have met with but a 
single exception), white in other localities it as invariably 
places its nest a little above the ground in bushes. At 
Evanston, 111., I once found one in an oak higher than I 
could reach; the locality, hoAvever, AA\as swampy. How 
universally the Chipping Sparrow (Spizellu social is) breeds 
in trees, and generally at an elevation of several feet, is well 
known, but several authentic instances of this bird's nesting 
on the ground have come to my knowledge, one of which I 
myself discovered. Variations of this character in other 
species are of occasional occurrence, examples of which have 
doubtless been met with by every experienced collector. 

The materials Avhich birds select in the construction of 
their nests are well known to vary in different localities: 
the greater care exhibited by some species to secure a soft 
warm lining at the north that are much less precautious 
in this respect at the south, is already a recorded fact. 
Aside from this, the abundance of certain available materials 
occurring at only particular localities gives a marked char- 
acter to the nests there built, Avhich serves to distmgnisb 
them from those from other points. Some of the Thrushes, 
for instance, make use of a peculiar kind of moss at some 
localities that elseAvhere, from its absence, are compelled to 
substitute for it fine grass or dry leaves. At Ipswich, on 
Cape Cod, and perhaps generally in the immediate vicinity 
of the sea, the Purple Grackles"( Qmscalus versicolor) and 
Red-winged Blackbirds (Agelceus phamiceus), and in tact 
numerous other species, in building their nests often use 
little else than dry eel-grass or "sea-wrack," which results in 



RARER BIRDS OF MASSACHUSETTS. 509 



nost-structures widely different in appearance from those of 
their relatives residing in the interior. Every egg-collector 
is aware of the wide variations eggs of the same set may 
present, not only in the markings and in the tint of the 
ground color, but in size and form, and especially how wide 
these differences sometimes are in eggs of different birds of 
the same species. Also how different the behavior of the 
bird is when its nest is approached, in sumo cases the parents 
appearing almost utterly regardless of their own safety in 
their anxiety for their eggs or helpless young, while other 
patvnts of the same species quietly witness the robbing of 
their nest at a safe distance, and evince no extraordinary 
emotion. Those who have witnessed this, and have also 
watched the behavior of birds when undisturbed in their 
quiet retreats, will grant, I think, the same diversity of 
disposition and temperament to obtain among birds that is 
seen in man himself. 

In respect to the songs of birds, who that has attentively 
listened to the singing of different Robins, Wood Thrushes 
or Purple Finches, has not detected great differences iu the 
vocal powers of rival songsters of the same species? Dif- 
ferent individuals of some species, especially among the 
Jfarbiers, sing so differently that the expert field ornitholo- 
gist is often puzzled to recognize them ; especially is this so 
i» the Black and White Creeper ( M^wfUtn voria) and the 
Black-throated Green Warbler (Dendneca virens). But the 
strangest example of this sort I have noticed I think was the 
case of an Oriole (Icterus Baltimore) that I heard at Ipa- 
Wich last season. So different were its notes from the com- 
mon notes of the Baltimore that I failed entirely to refer 
ftem to that bird till I saw its author. So much, however, 
did it resemble a part of the song of the Western Meadow 
Lark (Sturnella magna; S. neglecta Aud.) that it at once 
not only recalled that bird, but the wild, grassy, gently un- 
dulating primitive prairie landscape where I had heard it, and 
wi th which the loud, clear, rich, mellow tones of this beau- 



510 NOTES ON SOME OF THE 

tiful songster so admirably harmonize. This bird I repeat- 
edly recognized from the peculiarity of its notes during 
my several days stay at this locality. Aside from such 
unusual variations as this, which we may consider as acci- 
dental, birds of unquestionably the same species, as the 
Crow, the Blue Jay, the Towhe and others, at remote loeal- 
ites, as New England, Florida, Iowa, etc., often possess 
either general differences in their notes and song, easily 
recognizable, or certain notes at one of these localities never 
heard at the others, or an absence of some that are else- 
where familiar. This is perhaps not a strange fact, since it 
is now so well known that birds of the same species present 
certain well marked variations in size according to the lati- 
tude and elevation above the sea of the locality at which 
they were born, and that they vary considerably, though 
doubtless within a certain range, in many structural points 
at one and the same locality. In other a 1 e t 

known that all the different individuals of a species are not 
exactly alike, as though all were cast in the same die, as 
some naturalists appear to have believed. 

Certain irregularities in the breeding range of birds have 
also come to light. It is perhaps not remarkable that a pair 
of birds of species that regularly breed in northern New 
England should now and then pass the summer and rear 
their young in the southern part, as has been the case in 
certain known instances in the Snow Bird (Junco hi/emails), 
the Pine Finch {Chrysomitris pinus) , and the White-throated 
Sparrow (Zonoh-Mna ulhkollis) ; but it is otherwise with 
the Snow Bunting (Plectraphanes nivalis), which rarely 
breeds south of Labrador, of which there is a single well 
authenticated instance of its breeding near Springfield. The 
casual visits of northern birds in winter, which we may 
suppose sometimes results from their being driven south by 
want of food or the severity of the season, are also less 
remarkable, it appears to me, than the occurrence here of 
southern species, as of the two Egrets, the Little Blue Heron 



BARER BIRDS OF MASSACHUSETTS. 511 

{Florida ccerulea) the Galliuules and other aquatic species, 
which never, so far as known (with one exception perhaps), 
breed so far north. In the latter case they are generally 
young birds that reach us towards fall in their chance wan- 
derings. 

It may here be added that the cause of the migration of 
our birds still offers an interesting field for investigation. 
Observers are of late noting that in the case of some north- 
ern species that reach us only occasionally in their winter 
migrations, young birds only are at first seen, but if the 
migration continues the older birds appear at a later date. 
But sometimes young birds only are seen. This frequently 
happens in the case of the Pine Grosbeak {Pinicola eneucle- 
«tor). The cause of their visits is not always, it is evident, 
severe weather ; the last named species appearing sometimes 
in November, — weeks before severe cold sets in — while at 
other times it is not seen at all during some of our severest 
winters. The probable cause is more frequently, doubtless, 
a short supply of food, as last w . ; >le in this 

state for its mildness and for the great number of northern 
birds that then visited us. It has repeatedly been observed 
that on their first arrival these unusual visitors are generally 
very lean, but that they soon fatten ; an argument in fav-or 
of the theory that their migration was compelled by a scarc- 
ity of food. 

Probably fewer birds are actually permanently resident at 
a given locality than is commonly supposed, for species seen 
the whole year at the same locality, as the Blue Jay, the 
Titmouse, the Brown Creeper, and the Hairy and Downy 
Woodpecker, etc., in Massachusetts, are represented, not by 
the same, but by different sets of individuals, those seen 
here in summer being not those seen in winter, the species 
migrating north and south, en masse, with the change of 
season. We are generally cognizant of a migration in a given 
species only when the great "bird wave" sweeps entirely 
Past us either to the north or south. Some species, how- 



512 NOTES ON SOME OF THE 

ever, seem actually fixed at all seasons, and are really essen- 
tially non-migratory, as the Spruce Partridge, and Quail 
(Ortyx Virginianus) are in New England. But only a small 
proportion, doubtless, of the so-called non-migratory birds 
at any given locality are really so.* 

In connection with this topic of migration, the fact that 
some of the young or immature individuals of our marine 
birds, as the Herring Gull (Larus argentatus) and other 
species of that family, and several of the Tringse, linger on 
our coast during summer, while the adult all retire north- 
ward, is -one of some interest. Mature and strong birds 
only, in species that breed far to the north, evidently seek 
very high latitudes. Birds of the first year also appear to 
roam less widely than the older. In different species of the 
(mil family it is generally only the mature birds that in 
winter are seen far out at sea, though in the same latitudes 
the young may be numerous along the coast. All observant 
collectors are well aware of the fact that those birds that 
first reach us in the spring, of whatever species, are gen- 
erally not only very appreciably larger, but brighter plum- 
aged and in every way evidently more perfect birds than 
those that arrive later: and that in those species that go en- 
tirely to the north of us there is a much larger proportion of 
paler colored and immature birds, especially among the Sfahir 
colklce, or warblers, towards the close of the migrating season 
than earlier. Hence the presence here of a few individual- 
in summer of species that usually go farther north is not 
always sufficient evidence that the species breeds with us. 

In reference to the notes which follow, they may be consid- 
ered as forming a supplement, as already stated in a foot note, 
to a "Catalogue of the Birds of Massachusetts" published 
by me five years since. In the present paper seven species f 



RARER BIRDS OF MASSACHUSETTS. 513 

are added to the list then given, four of which are entirely 
new to the fauna of the State, and the others have not before 
been fully established as occurring within it, though supposed 
to from their known general distribution. Two, the Barn 
Owl {Strix pratincole! ) and Varied Thrush (Turdus ncevius), 
have only been previously given in Dr. Coues' Addenda to 
his "List of the Birds of New England."* 

The latter occurs only as a straggler from the far interior 
and western portions of the continent. Another noAV added, 
the Baird's Finch (Centroni/x Bairdii), discovered by Mr. 
C. J. Maynard at Ipswich (see notes beyond for farther 
partiiidars), is another similar example equally remarkable, 
it having been previously known only from near the mouth 
of the Yellowstone River. A few errors in that Catalogue 
are also now corrected, with the design of making that and 
the present paper a fair exposition of the omit] 
fauna of the State, so far as it is at present known. Three 
species f there included are now stricken out. Numerous 
unrecorded instances of the capture of rare specimens within 
the State are also chronicled, as also the breeding of a few 
not before positively known to breed here. There are re- 
marks also on a few species, for obvious reasons, that are not 
to be regarded as among the rarer species of the State. 

The whole number of species of birds now known to 
occur in Massachusetts is three hundred. 

Gerfalcon. Falco sacer Forster. (F. candicans et Is- 
hndicus Auct.) A specimen in the speckled plumage was 
taken near Providence, E. I., by Mr. Newton Dexter, during 
the winter of 1864 and 1865. Its occurrence so far south 
appears to be wholly accidental. 

The suspicion many authors have had that the F. candi- 
cans and F. Islandicus were but birds of the same species in 
different states of plumage, my own examination of speci- 



TArchibuteo S 



511 



NOTES ON SOME OF THE 



mens of both, in the Museum of the Boston Society of 
Natural History and elsewhere, has led me to believe is 
actually the fact. Sabine, so long ago as 1819, I think has 
fully shown this in his remarks on Falco Islandicus in his 
Memoir on the Birds of Greenland.* According to the 
late lamented Mr. Cassin, sacer is the specific name which 
has priority for this species, f 

Duck Hawk. Falco peregrinus Linn. (Falco anatum 
Bon., and F. nigriceps Cass). I stated in my Catalogue, 
published five years since, that the eggs and the young of 
this species had been taken at different times from Mount 
Tom, and that the young had also been obtained from Tal- 
cott Mountain in Connecticut. A few months later I had the 
pleasure of giving a full account of the eyrie on Mount Tom, 
with a detailed description of the eggs, and some general 
remarks on the distribution of this interesting species in the 
breeding season. { These eggs were the first eggs of the 
Duck Hawk known to naturalists to have been obtained in 
the United States, the previous most southern locality whence 
they had been taken being Labrador ; but the species had 
previously been observed in the breeding season by Dr. S. 
S. Haldemau as tar south as Harper's Ferry, Virginia. One 
or more pairs of these birds have been seen about Mounts 
Tom and Holyoke every season since the first discovery of 
the eggs at the former locality in 1864. Mr. C. W. Bennett, 
of Holyoke, their discoverer, has since carefully watched 
them, and his frequent laborious searches for their nest have 
been well rewarded. In 1866 he took a second set of eggs, 
three in number, from the eyrie previously occupied. Iu 
1867 the male bird was killed late in April, and this appar- 
ently prevented their breeding there that year, as they prob- 
ably otherwise would have done. At least no nest was that 



v England, Proceedings o 



RARER BIRDS OF MASSACHUSETTS. 515 

year discovered. In 1868 hawks of this species were seen 
about the mountains, and although they reared their young 
there, all effort to discover their nest was ineffectual. The 
present year (18(39) they commenced to lay in the old nest- 
ing place, but as they were robbed when but one egg had 
been deposited, they deserted it and chose a site still more 
inaccessible. Here they were equally unfortunate, for during 
a visit to this mountain, in company with Mr. Bennett (April 
28th), we had the great pleasure of discovering their second 
eyrie, and from which, with considerable difficulty, three 
freshly laid eggs were obtained. Not discouraged by this 
second misfortune, they nested again, this time depositing 
their eggs in the old eyrie from which all except the last set 
of eggs have been obtained. Again they were unfortunate, 
Mr. Bennett removing their second set of eggs, three in 
number, May 23d, at which time incubation had just com- 
menced. The birds remained about the mountain all the 
summer, and from the anxiety they manifested in August it 
appears not improbable that they laid a third time, and at 
this late period had unfledged young. 

The first set of eggs and the female parent, collected 
April 19th, 1864, are in the Museum of Natural History at 
Springfield, as also a male killed subsequently at the same 
locality in April ; the second set, collected in April, 1866, 
are in the cabinet of Mr. E. A. Samuels ; the third and 
fourth sets, collected April 28th and May 23d, 1869, are in 
that of Dr. William Wood, of East Windsor Hill, Conn. 
Although in each set the different eggs sometimes varied con- 
siderably from each other, neither of the three last present 
that remarkable range of variation exhibited by the first.* 
ft is probable that some years more than one pair have 
nested on Mount Tom, but only one nest-site had been 
discovered before the present year. I learn from Dr. Wood 
that this bird is every year seen also about Talcott Mountain, 
and that it probably regularly breeds there. The young 



516 NOTES ON SOME OF THE 

obtained from it in 1862 Dr. Wood kept till the following 
fall, when they were sent to Professor Baird, and died at the 
Smithsonian I n.-=t ir utiou the succeeding spring. Mr. G. A. 
Boardman informs me that the Duck Hawk in summer keeps 
about the islands in the Bay of Fuiidy, and "breeds upon the 
high cliffs all along this bay.*" 

As stated by me elsewhere, f the Duck Hawks repair to 
Mount Tom very early in the spring, and for a month or six 
weeks, as Mr. Bennett informs me, carefully watch and de- 
fend their eyrie. They often manifest even more alarm at 
this early period when it is approached than they do later 
when it contains eggs or young. 

Sparrow Hawk. Falco sjparverius Linn. In reference to 
this species, Dr. Wood communicates the following interest- 
ing fact. "A few years since; a pair of Sparrow Hawks 
attacked and killed a pair of doves and took possession of 
the dove cot and laid four eggs. Being too familiar with the 
farmer's chickens they were shot, and I had the good fortune 
to obtain two of the eggs." 

Goshawk. Astur atricapillus Bon. This species vanes 
most remarkably in the number of its representatives seen 
in different years, and also in the same season at localities 
in Southern New England not 1'tr .(part. Some winters 
the only season at which it is usually seen in Massachusetts 
— it is extremely rare, while the next it may be one of the 
most numerous species of its family. In years when it is 
generally common some of our most careful observers do 
not meet with it. Dr. Wood writes me, under date of 
October 22d, 1868, that with him "it has been a very rare 
winter visitor until the last winter, when they were more 
common than any of our rapacious birds. I mounted hw 
specimens and sent away several for exchanges. I think 
twenty were shot within a radius of five miles. I ha ve 
resided at East Windsor Hill twenty-one years, and have 



RARER BIRDS OF MASSACHUSETTS. 517 

known only three specimens taken here prior to 1867." At 
Springfield, less than twenty miles in a direct line north of 
East Windsor Hill, and at nearly the same elevation above 
the sea, I have known them to be quite common during 
several winters within the last ten years. Mr. J. G. Scott 
says it was common at Westfield in 1867, and not rare 
during the three or four winters immediately preceding. 
When numerous this species is very destructive to the Ruffed 
Grouse, which forms its principal food. In some localities 
they sometimes hunt them almost to extermination. 

Mr. C. J. Maynard informs me that he is confident that 
this species sometimes breeds in Massachusetts. He says he 
once observed a pair at a locality in Weston until the latter 
part of May ; after this time he had no opportunity of ob- 
serving them, but he feels sure that they bred there. This 
is not improbable, since its usual breeding range embraces 
the greater part of northern New England, and probably the 
mountains of Western Massachusetts. 

Dr. Wood mentions in his letters another interesting feet 
respecting this bird, which I think all careful observers are 
apt to notice, not only in this species but as a general fact ; 
namely, that the birds in immature plumage are often larger 
than any specimens obtained in mature plumage. Dr. Wood 
observes, "the young are very unlike the adult both in size 
and markings ; the young is the largest until after moulting, 
when the wing and tail feathers never again acquire their 
former dimensions. The same difference is observable in 
the Bald Eagle between the young and the adult."* I have 
myself observed it in Ardea herodias and other Herons, in 
Thrushes, and in Lams argentatus, and other species of 
Laridce. This difference in size between the adult and the 
young has also been reported to me by Messrs. Maynard 
and Bennett. 

Red-shouldered Hawk. Buteo lineatus Jard. This spe- 
cies was placed in the list of "Summer VkitaDte" instead of 



518 NOTES ON SOME OF THE BARER BIRDS, ETC. 

among the "Resident Species," as it should have been, in my 
Catalogue. At Springfield, I have rarely observed it in 
winter; but I learn from Dr. Brewer, Mr. Maynard and 
others, that it is in some sections of the state a quite com- 
mon species at that season. 

California Hawk. Buteo Coojperii Cassin. A specimen 
of this species was shot in Fresh Pond woods, Cambridge, 
November 17, 1866, by Mr. William Brewster, of Cam- 
bridge, in whose collection it was detected a few months 
since by Mr. Maynard. It seems to be the first specimen 
yet reported from east of the Rocky Mountains. It is one 
of the most characteristic of the Buteones of this continent, 
and there seems to be not the slightest reason to question its 
capture in Cambridge. 

Rough-legged Hawk. Black Hawk. Archibuteo lago- 
pus Gray. (A. lagopus el 8ancti-Johannis Auct.) Gener- 
ally not uncommon in winter in the Connecticut Valley. 

Dr. Wood is of the opinion that the Rough-legged Hawk 
and the Black Hawk are the same. "I have," he says, "all 
shades of color from the light to the black, and I am unable 
to find the dividing line ; both have the same measurements, 
the same claws and bill, the same habits, come and leave at 
the same time, and hunt together. I have them almost 
black with the faint markings of the lighter bird, showing to 
my mind that the lighter markings become extinct as the 
black increases, or as the bird increases in age. Those who 
claim that they are distinct say that in some localities the 
Rough-legs are common and no Black Hawks are to be 
seen. This proves nothing. The young of the Red-throated 
Diver are very common in Long Island Sound, yet the adult 
is never seen there. So it is with the Crested Grebe ; the 
young are found here in winter — never the adult."* 

On another occasion, when writing on this point, Dr. Wood 
expressed his views still more strongly, as follows : "The 
Rough-legged Falcon and Black Hawk are the same. I have 



TROUT FISHING IN THE YOSEMITE VALLEY. 519 

taken and examined, I presume, forty specimens. They are 
the same bird, but not of the same age. The black is the 

adult The differences in markings between them are 

not as great as in many birds, as, for example, in the Bald 
Eagle, the Golden Eye, Sheldrake, etc. I have taken them 
from those with the lightest markings to jet black, with all 
the intermediate varieties in color. So gradually do they 
become more and more black till jet black is reached, that I 
will defy any one to draw the separating line. It would be 
as difficult as to tell when the 'pig becomes a hog.'"* 

The late Mr. Lucius Clarke, of Northampton, I have been 
informed, had a similar series, and that from an examination 
of a large number of specimens he had arrived at the same 
conclusion. I have not yet had an opportunity of comparing 
a very large number, but from a study of those I have seen, 
and of the accounts given by authors, I believe the view 
taken by Dr. Wood and Mr. Clark to be the correct one. 



TROUT FISHING IX THE YOSEMITE VALLEY. 



Br far the hardest day's work the tourist has in "doing" the 
wonderful valley is the visit to the Vernal and the Nevada 
falls, where the Merced River makes a clear leap of three 
hundred feet over the first, and seven hundred feet over the 
second. Our guide, Mr. Cunningham, assured me that not 
a fish of any kind is found in the river, or any of its tribu- 
taries above the first or lower fall. Below these falls several 
varieties occur, the most interesting and the most abundant 
of which is the Speckled Trout {Salmo iridea Gib.). It 
Offers materially from its cousin, the Speckled Trout of the 
Eastern States (Salmo fontinalis) , especially in habit and 



O^U TROUT FISHING IN THE TOSEMITE TALLET. 

coloring, and is more sluggish in movement and less vora- 
cious in appetite. Its spots are all black, less regular in size, 
form and arrangement, and it has a coppery stripe running 
along the lower part of either side. It was the unanimous 
verdict of our party that its flesh is inferior to that of the 
eastern brook trout, though it was highly relished by all. 
The waters of the river are almost as transparent as the 
atmosphere, and are as cold as it is safe to bathe in. The 
trout were so abundant that usually several were in view to 
the observer standing on the river bank, but so shy that one 
would rarely remain within forty feet.* The Indians 
daily brought in large strings taken with the hook, which 
they sold to Mr. Hutchings, our landlord ; but it was said, 
that with one exception, no white man had ever taken one. 
The bait always used by the natives is the angle-worm, which 
Mr. Hutchings assured me was found abundant in the valley 
by the first white visitors. I may pause here to say that this 
statement interested me much from the fact that none of 
these worms were ever found on Lake Superior till they 
were planted there ; ten years ago those who used them for 
bait were obliged to take them along. I planted the first at 
Eagle River, seven years since, with worms taken from 
Ottawa, Illinois, and they have flourished finely since. 

After nine hours of travel on a very hot day, we re- 
turned from viewing the falls to the hotel. While the rest 
of the party sought rest on beds in their rooms, or on robes 
or blankets under the oaks, I determined to try my hand 
with the trout. I overhauled my satchel and found a few 
flies and some naked hooks, and a very indifferent line. 
Mine host loaned me a Chinese rod, which answered well 
enough. I first essayed with artificial flies, from behind 
a bunch of willows, by which I was entirely concealed. 
They simply laughed at all my efforts at deception. They 
seemed as indifferent to any fly which I had as they would 



TROUT FISHING IN THE YOSEMITE VALLEY. 521 

be to a willow leaf. I stopped fishing, and observed them 
for nearly an hour from my concealment. They were con- 
stantly rising to the surface for something floating on the 
water, though not with the dash and vim of an eastern trout, 
but with a staid and dignified pace which seemed to say they 
were quite indifferent whether they caught their victims or 
not. It was clear then that with a proper fly and the laziest 
possible mode of handling it would persuade them. I now 
resorted to the angle-worms.* I fished in deep water and 
m shallow, in the rapids and in the eddies, with every mode 
and motion I had ever found successful with trout. It was 
of no use. Sometimes one would approach in a sluggish 
way and smell of the bait, but would never touch it. I then 
tried them as if fishing for black bass, but with no better 
success, f and in that deep gorge hemmed in by vertical walls 
four thousand feet high, it already seemed as if night was 
u Pon me. Still as the Indians often take them in the night 
with the same bait, I thought I would try another mode. I 
went at them now as if I were fishing for black pike in the 
Illinois or Fox River. I threw the bait into the swift 
current well above me and allowed it to float till it grounded 
as far down the stream as the line would allow. Here it 
was allowed to remain for perhaps five seconds, and then 
w ith a moderate but steady motion it was brought up stream 
and towards the surface. The secret was solved. It had 
not been raised from the bottom more than a foot, when it 
W; is met by a trout about twelve inches long, but I did not 
m ake sufficient allowance for his sluggish habits, and struck 
before he had well taken the hook, and he fell back into 
the water close by the bank. Several succeeding casts were 
unsuccessful. Soon, however, a stranger came along, and 
w as deceived by my unprofessional practices, and took the 
°ait as it was rising from the bottom in a way that seemed 

* With which a juvenile « Lo.» had snrmlied me for a dime. .... 



522 THE ESQUIMAUX DOG. 

to say, "I don't much care whether you escape me or not." 
I however gave him plenty of time and then landed him. If 
I had been too quick with the first, I was too slow with this, 
for the hook had quite disappeared, so that a knife was 
necessary to disengage it, and my prize was so much dis- 
figured as to spoil it for a specimen. It was now nearly 
dark, and without another cast I hastened home, where I 
found my party busily engaged discussing a comfortable 
dinner. Senator H. suspended his gastronomic occupation 
and carefully examined my prize, and then deliberately 
surveyed the captor, and at last profoundly remarked, 
" this should be considered no exception to the rule of this 
valley that the trout will not bite a white man's hook. The 
fish should be pardoned, for the mistake was most natural." 
And then the whole party, with a spirit only known in a 
jovial excursion party determined to make the most of every 
incident, struck up "so say we all of us." I forgave the 
ladies at least, for nearly all had excellent voices and were 
always ready to use them on the least provocation ; but I yet 
owe the senator one. 



THE ESQUIMAUX DOG. 



The study of the domestic animals of a barbarous nation 
or tribe is chiefly interesting as throwing some additional 
light upon their physical and intellectual status, and is there- 
fore a fit adjunct to the study of their ethnological and 
historical relations. When, however, the species are, as it 
were, unique in this capacity, or when through domestica- 
tion any very remarkable variation from the usual type ap- 
pears to have been produced, they then become of m° re 
general interest. Under this latter class we may placo the 



THE ESQUIMAUX DOG. 523 

Esquimaux Dog ; and, although it may require more of faith 
m the Darwinian hypothesis than every one feels obliged to 
possess, to acknowledge it as a distinct species from the 
"curs of low degree" which infest our civilization, no one 
Will fail to concede that it is a sufficiently well marked 
variety. Being thus remarkable, it has received more or less 
notice from nearly every voyager on the more northern 
coasts of our continent ; and notwithstanding that the subject 
is therefore not entirely new, I venture to add a few obser- 
vations of nvy own, made during a residence of about a year 
on the coasts of Alaska, near Behring's Straits. 

There is no necessity of going into detail as to the general 
appearance of our subject, in this place, as descriptions are 
sufficiently numerous and accessible in works of travel, 
cyclopedias, etc., the habits and peculiarities iii other re- 
spects, affording sufficient grounds for remarks. Suffice it 
merely to say, that with his heavy, but even coat of hair 
fil 'i'ig up and rounding off the hollows and angles of his 
body, his bushy tail cm-ling over his back, erect ears, and 
the generally intelligent expression of countenance, the 
Esquimaux Dog may be called a rather handsome animal, 
■the average size appears to me to have been overestimated 
m some of the descriptions, although the breed may attain 
,w ger dimensions in other regions than that in which I 
observed it. A few individuals were seen which approached 
or equalled in size the Newfoundland dog, but by far the 
greater number were decidedly smaller, some appearing 
1 ''"' "■' diminutive in comparison; still, however, preserving all 
tli(l characteristic marks «>t' the variety. In color they vary 
from white to black through the different shades of gray and 
Jr own, a very large proportion being piebald. Some of 
these variations in size and color may perhaps be owing to a 
sl 'ght admixture of foreign blood, as there are among the 
A1;l ^a Esquimaux a large number of mongrels, with the 
Indian dogs of the interior, the Siberian dogs introduced by 
tn e Russians, and doubtless with various forms of the dogs 



524 THE ESQUIMAUX DOG. 

of civilization, even down to the familiar "yellow dog," of 
which variety one or two quite typical specimens were seen 
during my stay in the country; in these instances, must 
probably introduced by winders. The Siberian dogs them- 
selves, as seen in Kamtchatka are not always very different 
from the Esquimaux type, and the dogs of the sedentary 
Tchuktchi, or Asiatic Esquimaux, are, if not the same as 
those of the American coast, a very nearly allied variety. 
From the regular traffic which has been carried on from time 
immemorial across the strait-, we may inter that a vwy con- 
siderable mixture has been made between the dogs of the two 
continents. The natives frequently take their dogs with them 
in their summer trips by water ; and a full loaded oomiak 
under sail, with its lading rising a foot or so above the gun- 
wale amidships, and kept from falling overboard by sticks 
stuck up on each side, one or two kayaks carried athwart- 
ships over all, or towing astern, and with its full complement 
of male Innuits. squaws, papooses and dogs, is rather aston- 
ishing to one's preconceived idea- of Esquimaux navigation. 
The external coating of long hair is underlaid in the 
Esquimaux dog by a denser mat of closely interwoven fibres, 
which, though coarse, seem to have sufficient length and 
toughness to allow of its being spun out into thread. I have 
seen, indeed, a blanket, brought from the Mackenzie's Kiver 
District of the Hudson Bay Territory, which was said to 
have been woven from dogs hair, probably of this, or a 
closely related variety, the Hare Indian dog. In the sum- 
mer time this wool may be easily pulled off in large patches 
provided the animal is kind enough to allow the handling. 
which is not invariably the case. This, with the dense cover- 
ing of shorter hairs on their legs and feet, appears to make 
them indifferent to almost any degree of cold, as they fre- 
quently and habitually pass the bitterest nights and fiercest 
storms of the arctic winter, with no other shelter than is 
afforded by the lee side of a native hut, and sometimes 
without even that. Nor do other apparent sources of dis- 



THE ESQUIMAUX DOG. 525 

comfort appear to trouble them much. I remember seeing 
at St. Michael's, during one of the coldest days of December, 
one of the Fort dogs comfortably asleep on the steps leading 
to the door of a store-house, with his hinder quarters at the 
top, and his head near the bottom, his whole body some 
twenty or thirty degrees out of the horizontal. Another 
advantage of their heavy outer covering, and not an incon- 
siderable one, is that it enables them the better to undergo 
the disciplinary ordeal of the whip, enough in some in- 
tances, it would seem, to make raw hide thongs of an 
ordinary dog skin. 

The Esquimaux dog does not bark, and this, together with 
the short quick snap of his bite, is the most wolfish trait 
which he retains from his supposed ancestry. There is, 
however, no lack of voice, or the exercise of it; he howls 
most dismally whenever the spirit moves him. Those who 
have had experiences of wolves and coyotes on the plains, 
can form but a faint idea of what it is to have two or three 
dozen Esquimaux dogs howling in concert within a few feet 
of one's head. The noise will go through two or three log 
partitions, and then be altogether trying to human nerves. 
There are times, nevertheless, when it is rather comical than 
otherwise; as, for instance, when they exert themselves in 
this direction in starting on a journey. As soon as the sled 
is brought out, and while the load is being adjusted upon it, 
the dogs gather around, and, fairly dancing with excitement, 
Wise their voices in about a dozen unmelodious strains. 
There are often one or two who have to be dragged up to 
their duty by a whip-lash around their necks, and they add 
their peculiarly lugubrious, half strangled notes to the 
general discord. This kind of row is renewed every time 
they start, until travel and hard work have taken the spirit 
out of them, when they go to their work in a dogged, busi- 
ness-like manner without any particular uproar. 

Erom five to seven dogs are generally used together in a 
team, though the poorer natives often make shift to get along 



r,2<) 



THE ESQUIMAUX 



with a less number, a single dog being sometimes made to 
do duty alone. On the other hand the Russian traders, and 
more rarely the Esquimaux, occasionally put eight and nine 
dogs in a single team. The pups, as soon as they are able 
to travel, are fastened up with the older dogs, and learn their 
business very rapidly. Once in a while one breaks down on 
a journey, and is then often inhumanly abandoned where he 
drops; but they generally get along marvellously well, 
allowing for their tender age. 

The Alaskan Esquimaux sled is a rather heavy looking 
affair, nine or ten feet in length by about two in breadth, 
with thick, strong runners, often shod with pieces of solid 
whalebone. To the front of this is attached a strong raw- 
bide thong or rope, eleven or twelve feet in length, to which 
the dogs are fastened by a simple harness, consisting in its 
most elaborate form, of a breast band and another strip 
passing over the back, and underneath the dog immediately 
behind his fore legs. The continuations of the breast band, 
passing backward on each side, join over the back, and from 
this junction is continued a short trace, by which the dog is 
fastened to the above mentioned rope, usually in equal num- 
bers on each side, and one at the end. By this arrangement 
a great deal of the strength of the dog is wasted in side 
draft ; notwithstanding this, it is probably the best that can 
be made, since it allows of no such irremediable snarling of 
the lines as would inevitably result were any more compli- 
cated arrangement adopted. A team of dogs will frequently 
stop when under full headway to engage in a general fight; 
and on being brought to order by an energetic use of the 
whip, both lash and stock, will jump to their places and 
proceed as before, without any confusion or entanglement 
whatever. 

The amount of load carried on these sleds varies of course 
with the number and condition of the animals, but perhaps 
seventy-five pounds to a dog is a little above, rather than 
below the average. The greatest feat of this sort which came 



THE ESQUIMAUX DOG. 527 

under my observation was performed by one of the fort 
teams of eight dogs, all, with perhaps one exception, of 
pure Esquimaux breed, but the finest of their class, several 
of them fully equalling in size a Newfoundlander. They 
travelled about forty miles in a single day, part of the dis- 
tance through freshly fallen and drifted snow, drawing, on 
one of the before mentioned heavy native sleds, nearly eight 
hundred pounds of reindeer meat; the whole, with the sled, 
probably approaching a thousand pounds in weight. I never 
heard of any team of Esquimaux dogs excelling this, but 
was informed by the late Major Kennicott that the Hudson 
Bay Company traders with a peculiar breed of introduced 
dogs, somewhat resembling the Danish mastiff, load their 
light sleds with an average allowance of about one hundred 
pounds to each dog. 

The art of guiding the team by the whip and voice 
appears to be almost unknown among the Alaskan Esqui- 
maux ; it is customary w r ith them to keep a man running 
ahead of the sled to show the way, the dogs following him 
instinctively. When, however, the route has been often 
travelled over before by the same team, or when there is 
a previously made sled track for the dogs to follow, the 
runner is sometimes dispensed with. In the sled teams of 
the Russian traders, and n6t so invariably in those of the 
natives, the leading dog is always the same, and often 
becomes so habituated and attached to this position, that he 
will resent being put in any other place in the team. These 
leaders are generally selected for their willingness to work ; 
pluck and sagacity also being considered. Strength and 
size, though valuable in this position, are of secondary 
importance ; a small plucky dog will sometimes achieve and 
hold this preeminence by sheer moral force, and a first-class 
leader holds it in his ordinary intercourse with the other 
dogs as well as when fastened up with them in harness. 
Much is trusted to the sagacity of a good leader, in the way 
°f picking out the route, avoiding obstacles, etc. In fol- 



528 THE ESQUIMAUX DOG. 

lowing a previously made sled track he does not always 
follow it blindly, but will frequently cut across short turns 
and show a considerable exercise of judgment in other ways. 
Iu the winter of 1865-66, a small party of Russian traders 
and Esquimaux employees, some half a dozen persons alto- 
gether, while travelling with dogs and sleds, between the 
mouth of the Yukon River and Fort St. Michael's, on Norton 
Sound, were caught in a very severe snow-storm near the 
southern point of St. Michael's Island, a flat marshy region, 
very much intersected by water channels winding in every 
direction. The driving snow completely obscured all the 
landmarks, and the early nightfall of these latitudes coming 
on about the same time, they became confused and lost their 
way entirely. Having in the party no compass or other 

call in the runner °and trust to the intelligence of one of the 
leaders, an old dog which had been tried in similar emergen- 
cies and had not been found wanting, to bring them out of 
their peril. The plan succeeded; and under his guidaace 
they arrived safely at their destination, a result which they 
all admitted could hardly have happened had they been left 
to their own direction. I give this story on the authority of 
the members of the party ; the dog in question was unani- 
mously praised for his knowingness. I can myself testify 
to his general sagacity. If his finding the way must be 
accounted for, I should attribute it to his previous knowledge 
of the country, rather than to instinct or power of scent, 
which does not appear to be very remarkably developed in 
this variety. 

Most travellers have mentioned the voracity of these dogs 
in times of general scarcity. There appears then to be no 
limit to their appetite ; nothing is safe from them ; they will 
devour old boots, rawhide ropes, and have even been known 
to tear up and swallow cotton cloth and old rags. The 
dogs belonging to the natives undergo such periods of star- 
vation pretty regularly, and many succumb nearly every 



THE ESQUIMAUX DOG. 529 

winter to the combined effects of want of food and hard 
work. There is also an epidemic disease which is very de- 
structive some years, and is undoubtedly the same as that 
described by Dr. Haves as occurring amongst his dogs on 
Smith's Sound during the winter of 1860-151. As in the 
cases related by him, the symptoms closely resembled those 
of hydrophobia, but the disease does not appear to be so 
communicable by the bite. There seems also to be some 
connection between the disease and the nature ami quantity 
of the food, as it was mostly confined in its ravages during 
the winter of 1865-'66 to the poorly and irregularly fed 
dogs of the natives, while the better cared for animals of 
the Russian traders suffered in a much less proportion. 
Genuine hydrophobia does sometimes occur ; a most unmis- 
takable case of it was observed during the summer of 1866. 
During the summer months, from May to September, the 
dogs are fed only irregularly by most of their owners, and 
are sometimes left entirely to themselves to find their own 
living. In spite of this they usually manage to grow fat 
during this season, and to make up all they have lost in 
strength and substance during the winter. They supply 
themselves with fresh game, not only the smaller quadrupeds 
and grouse, but also occasionally running down a deer. Their 
instincts are so strongly developed, that while trav- 
clling in the winter, it a reindeer or even a fox or rabbit is 
in sight, it is quite difficult to keep any control over the 
dogs, and the mere utterance of the word tung tuk (Esqui- 
maux for reindeer) is often effectual to enliven a lagging 
team. Many dogs wander off after deer in the summer and 
are lost to their owners; and as comparatively few stray 
dogs are picked up, it appears that the greater number of 
these either revert to the wild state, or are destroyed by 
wolves and other beasts of prey. Wolves sometimes attack 
and carry off dogs from trading posts and villages. In the 
spring of 1866, a wolf attacked some twenty or thirty dogs 
just outside of the stockade at St. Michael's. The uproar 



530 OUR COMMON FRESH-WATER SHELLS. 

brought the whole force of workmen to the rescue, otherwise 
he would certainly have made way with one or more ; for 
ix dogs in almost any number, are no match for a 
northern wolf. 

Of the other breeds of dogs which are used as draught 
animals in the north, I have already mentioned the large 
dogs of the Hudson Bay Company's traders, which are 
known to me only by description. The Indian dogs appear, 
for the most part, like a very degraded variety derived from 
the wolf. A peculiar variety, of unknown origin, but prob- 
ably from Europe or Siberia, was used to some extent by 
the Russians. In appearance it resembles the shepherd dog, 
but stands as high as a Newfoundlander. Its shape is slen- 
derer than that of the native breed, and the hair is shorter, 
the colors are usually black or dark brown and white or tan, 
with a yellow spot over each eye, as in some of the terriers. 
They appear to be quite as hardy and serviceable as the 
native variety. I have known a team composed chiefly of 
dogs of this breed to travel with a light load over a well 
marked track, between sixty and seventy miles in a single 
day. 



OUR COMMON FRESH-WATER SHELLS. 



In this and a few succeeding papers we intend to give a 
brief outline of several groups of fresh-water mollusks 
common to the United States. 



ake them useful to the young 



z col- 



lector in enabling him to determine the generic names of the 



common shells he may have in his collections, 






give him some idea of their habits and structure. He wi 
also become acquainted with the specific names of th 
common shells he meets with. Nothing more than 



t brief 



OUR COMMON FRESH-WATER SHELLS. 531 

sketch will be attempted. In one sense the papers will be a 
compilation from the treatises of Prime, Binuey, Bland, and 
others, published by the Smithsonian Institution, through 
whose liberality we are enabled to illustrate this and the 
papers which are to follow. 

A shell common in most of the streams and ponds of Xcw 
England, a figure of which is here given, Fig. 78, belongs to 
• group of mollusks that is distributed Fig.rs. 

throughout the northern hemisphe 
They are usually found in muddy streams 
or ponds, either grovelling an inch or so 
in the mud or among roots, or crawling 
along over the sand. 

The creeping disk is quite long and 
broad. The little snout, on each side of 
which may be seen the tentacles, with 
eves at their liases, projects beyond the i 
in front, while behind the shell, and attached 
part of the tail may be seen a semi-circular corneous plate 
called the operculum, Fig. 79. In PI. 9, fig. 2, another spe- 
cies is represented in the attitude of crawling, showing the 
position of the operculum. When the animal retires within 
its shell the head and forward part of the foot 
first, followed by the tail with the operculum, which rig. 79. 
answers as a lid, or door to close the aperture of /^s 

the shell. In Figs. 1 and 3 of the plate, the appear- 
ance of the operculum is shown within the aperture 

of the shell. As the shell increases in size, by the 

addition of tiny particles around the margin of the aper- 
ture, the operculum increases likewise by the addition of 
the corneous substance around its margin, and the little 
concentric furrows seen in the figure of the operculum 
indicate its successive rates of increase. Most marine 
Gasteropoda (the name of the class to which all those mol- 
lusks belong that have a broad creeping disk) are furnished 




532 OUR COMMON FRESH-WATER SHELLS. 

with opercula, though they vary greatly in composition and 
shape. Some are strengthened by the addition of lime, and 
are quite solid ; of this kind is the eye tone, so called ; some 
arc claw-shaped, circular, or very irregular in form. In 
most species the operculum fits the aperture of the shell 
very closely ; in others the operculum is rudimentary. In 
Strombus, or the conch-shell, it is long and sharp, projecting 
some way beyond that portion of the foot to which it is 
attached, and the animal uses it by thrusting it into the sand, 
and then by a quirk muscul.-ir i.-ontnirtion throwing its whole 
body forward. While most mollusks lay eggs, some in a 
glairy mass, as in the air-breathing water snails, or in a 
series of pods like the whelk, the group of which we are 
now treating, bring forth the young alive, but the young are 
simply hatched from the egg, before the egg leaves the 
parent ; hence they are called ovo viviparous, On breaking 
open the shell of a female in spring time, the young ones 
may be found of various sizes within their globular eggs. 

The species figured above, and also in Pi. 9, fig. 11, is now 
known as Melantho decisa, and is the only species found in 
New England. The shell is quite solid, having four or five 
whorls ; though the first two whorls, forming the tip of the 
shell, is always absent from erosion. In young specimens a 
perfect one may be found ; but adult shells are always imper- 
fect, as shown in the figure. The color of the shell varies in 
being a light or dark green, and shiny. Within the aperture 
the shell is bluish white. 

Those who have the first volume of this magazine will 
recall the description there given of the tongue of a land 
snail, in which it was stated that the floor of the snail's 
mouth was lined by a membrane covered with many rows 
of minute spurs, or teeth, and that the snail used this tongue 
in rasping its food. Now these minute teeth furnish admi- 
rable characters in the classification of these minor groups 
of mollusks. Thus the air breathing snails which have no 
operculum have the tongue lined with rows of very nil- 



merous teeth; while those air breathing snails which have 
an operculum usually have a long slender tongue and have 
only seven teeth in a row, and in this feature they resemble 
the group now under consideration. Fig. < s represents one 
row of teeth taken from Melantho decisa. This species con- 
tains about forty rows of teeth, and as these teeth always 
hook backward they act admirably as a rasp in licking up 
their food. The members of this family found in the United 
States represent four well marked gen- Fig. so. 

era containing about twenty species. >^<C\%^ 
The two principal ones are Vivipara and ///' ^^^ 

Melantho. In Yivipara the shell is gen- 
erally thinner, more globose, the lingual teeth are always 
strongly notched; see Fig. 81. (Compare this with the 
teeth of Melantho decisa, Fig. 80). The disk of the animal 
does not project beyond the snout. See Plate 9, tig. 2. It 
will be noticed that there are two distinct folds, one on each 
side of the aperture of the shell, and these form regular con- 
duits for the water to enter and bathe the gills for respira- 
tion ; the water entering by the right opening, and finding 
egress by the left one. rig- si. 

(See Plate 9, fig. 4). /^^/^^\/^ 

In Melantho the shell i 
not so globose, but i 
more solid, and the lin 
glial teeth are smooth,/ 
or only slightly serrated. 
The foot also projects far beyond the snout, as in the figure 
of Mthnitho decisa, and the folds which conduct the water 
to the gills do not form regular tubular conduits as in 
Vivipua. AVe will now mention briefly the more prominent 
species, figures of which will be found in the plate. 

Vivipara intertexta Say, Plate 9, figs. 2, 3, 4, has a very 
globose shell, yellowish green or brownish horn color, hav- 
ing aumerotia nearly obsolete revolving lines. The species 
has been found in Louisiana, South Carolina and Iowa. 17- 




064: OUR COMMON FRESH-WATER SHELLS. 

vipara subpurpura Say, Plate 9, fig. 8, has an oblong, 
subovate shell, olivaceous in color, with a tinge of purple. 
Figs. 9 and 10 represent younger specimens. Mr. Binney 
says he has traced this species from Texas through Louisiana 
and Mississippi to Key West, Fla., and in the Western 
States of Indiana, Wisconsin, and Missouri. 

V. contectoides W. G. Binney, PL 9, figs. 5, adult ; 6 and 7, 
young. The shell of this species is ornamented with four re- 
volving bands, is quite smooth and shiny, and the umbilicus is 
open. The shell closely resembles a common European spe- 
cies. Found in nearly all the Southern and Western States. 
Yirqmra Georgiana Lea, Plate 9, figs. 1 and 15, oper- 
culum. This species inhabits Florida, Georgia, South Caro- 
lina and Alabama. There are 
other species of this genus in 
the United States, but it was 
our intention to mention only 
tluiM' that were more eharac- 




Of Melantho we have sever- 
al well marked species, among 
which Melantho ponder osa Say 
(Plate 9, figs. 14 and 16, 
young; figs. 19 and 20, adult), 
is the largest. It is a heavy solid shell an inch and a half in 
length, greenish horn color. It has been found in Ohio, 
Indiana, Illinois, Michigan, Tennessee and Alabama. Fig. 
82 shows the shell with the animal extended. The creeping 
disk is bent upon itself. The operculum may be seen on 
the hinder portion of the body, and the tentacles and eyes 
are seen near the aperture of the shell. 
^ Melantho decisa Say, Plate 9, fig. 11, represents the spe- 
cies common to the New England States. Some specimens 
are very smooth and bright^green in color. They are all 
devoid of an apex, and this is a characteristic feature. 



• 



twists the other 



the shell is found reversed; that is, the spire 






THE VIRGINIA PARTRIDGE. 535 

Melantho Integra Say, Plate 9, figs. 17, 18, 21 and 22. 
This shell is abundant in the Western States. Mr. Binney 
is inclined, from an examination of a large number of speci- 
mens, to believe that it is the same species as the one just 
mentioned, and he may be right, but the weight of authority 
is against him. The differences between the male shell, 
Fig. 22, and the female shell, Fig. 21, are quite marked. 

Melantho coarctata Lea, Plate 9, figs. 12 and 13, occurs in 
South Carolina, Alabama, Mississippi and Arkansas. There 
are other species of this genus in the United States, but 
it was our intention to enumerate only the more prominent 
species of each genus presented. It would be of the highest 
interest for the collector to diligently seek for specimens of 
this group from all localities, and compare them to see where 
the lines may be drawn between the species. We suggest 
this, since there is so much variance of opinion between 
writers on this subject. Mr. Binney to whom we are much 
indebted for the work which has been so generously pub- 
lished by the Smithsonian Institution, has brought together 
a vast amount of material, and while he may have been too 
conservative, we prefer this, to the lamentable* practice of 
many, in describing from a single specimen. In the speci- 
mens mentioned above we have relied on the accuracy of 
the figures in identifying the species, and for this reason 
the descriptions are either brief or wholly wanting. 



THE VIRGINIA PARTRIDGE. 



The Ortyx Virginianus is a resident bird, and was more 
common in former years than at the present time. Thirty 
years ago a covey of from five to thirty of them could be 
flushed on almost anv farm in Essex County. Now one of 



536 THE VIRGINIA PARTRIDGE. 

them is seldom met with. It is not in the clearing away of 
our forest and the cultivation of the land, nor the increase 
of population, that makes the decline in their numbers, for 
they are birds whose habits do not lead them to the retire- 
ment of the deep forest, hut rather to the cultivated fields, 
to small patches of woodland, and to bushy pastures; in 
fact, in winter they not unfrequently visit the hay and corn 
rick and barnyard of the farmer, and are sometimes so 
familiar as to come from the fields and feed with his poultry. 
The great inducement which leads to the destruction of the 
Partridge is the delicious flavor of its flesh ; and the most 
common modes used to take them, are traps that secure a 
whole covey at one time. Many of them are taken by means 
of the gun ; not so many fall by it, however, as are captured 
by the snare or trap ; although a good gunner can secure a 
flock if he selects the right kind of a day, in the right 
season of the year. The best season to hunt the Partridge 
is in the winter, on a snowy day ; and the faster it snows the 
more sure is he of success and of good sport. On such days 
the birds usually leave the more open lands and resort to 
sheltered situations, such as small pine woodlands, if any 
such are in their vicinity. The sportsman enters the woods. 
Not a sound is heard. The fall of his footsteps are as silent 
as the fall of the snow around him ; no rustling of leaves, or 
the crackling of dried sticks beneath his feet is heard to dis- 
turb the stillness. He walks silently on, with his mind 
prepared for a surprise shot; as yet the silence prevails, 
when, sudden as thought, up rise before him a covey of 
Partridges on loud whirring wings, and fly in different direc- 
tions ; he selects the one which flies directly before him and 
fires; by being prepared, and not excited by the sudden 
springing of the birds, he brings her down. Although they 
separate when flushed, they are gregarious and are fond of 
each other's company ; and when they are thus separated, 
their well known call-note is sounded for a reunion. 

The hunter stands in his tracks, and soon hears the notes 



537 

of one sounding loud and clear through the snowy air, and 
immediately directs his steps to the spot from where the 
sound came ; after advancing a short distance, he stops and 
waits to hear the call-note again ; soon it is heard louder 
than before ; he now proceeds with certainty, and sees the 
bird perched on a rotten branch, beneath the snow-bent limb 
of a pine tree, and cautiously getting within range of him, 
he fires ; having reloaded his gun he hears another bird in a 
different part of the woods; this one he may find on the 
ground near the roots of a tree, whose wide spreading 
branches and thick foliage bear many snows. He may pro- 
ceed in like manner until he has secured them all. Such a 
day's sport, as a sportsman could have a few years ago, is 
. now of rare occurrence ; he may enter the coppice or small 
woodland and find the stillness there, but will not see the 
whining game springing before him, nor hear their loud, 
shrill, clear whistle. I know that many flocks of the Part- 
ridge succumb to the rigors of our northern winters ; roost- 
ing as they do on the ground, they seek some sheltered spot 
from the coming storm, such as the lea of a bunch of gray 
birches, barberry bushes, or ferns, and if the snow comes 
deep and heavy, or a crust forms upon its surface in the 
night, they are sure to die. They have not the energy and 
strength to extricate themselves from their situation, and in 
spring their remains, such as the feathers and bones of a 
whole covey, are found in such places. But the greatest 
cause for their decrease is capturing them in nets, when 
whole flocks of them are taken at a time; and, unless laws 
are enacted, and at once enforced, for their preservation, not 
only for the Partridge but for all the game birds throughout 
the country, we shall have cause to regret our delay in not 
suppressing the indiscriminate slaughter that is now carried 
on among them. The male Partridge has not the proud 
mien of the Ruffed Grouse, but his step is stately and his 
manners in the breeding season resemble those of the do- 
mestic cock. The female usually retires by herself, and is 



538 THE VIRGI 

seldom, though sometimes, accompanied by the male, and se- 
lects the spot for her nest, which is under a tuft of grass, or a 
bush, or something that affords both shelter and concealment, 
tea it of dried grass or of such material as lies about 
the spot, and then lays from fifteen to twenty pure white 
eggs, which measure one and four-sixteenths of an inch in 
length. Iiy liftcon-sixteenths of an inch in breadth; they are 
very pointed at the smaller end, and are put in such nice 
order within the nest that if taken out it is difficult to place 
them as they previously were. The young leave the nest 
soon after they are hatched, and follow their mother, who 
shows great anxiety for their welfare and will defend them 
when in clanger at the cost of her life. When surprised 
with her brood she makes use of the same artifices with 
the Grouse and other birds which build upon the ground ; at 
such times she will flutter along on the ground in the great- 
est disorder only a few feet in advance of a dog, and yet 
elude every attempt he may make to seize her, until she has 
led him a sufficient distance from her young ones, and then 
rasing in the air by a circuitous route returns to them. I 
was once passing over a cart path that led between a wood- 
land and a field from which barley had been lately harvested, 
and saw an old Partridge coming through the stubble with 
her numerous family towards the woods. I stopped to let 
them piss before me, and I soon saw by her movements that 
I was not discovered by her, and concealed myself as well 
as I could. As they approached the young ones were heard 
to call incessantly for their mother to stop and cover them. 
After she had cleared the stubble, she stood a moment upon 
one foot in the hard beaten track, and looked earnestly about, 
and apprehending no danger, she partly squatted down, and 
as the young emerged from the damp grass, with wet legs 
and thighs, they eagerly sought the warmth of her body by 
crowding under it, and although they were young and small, 
they jostled her considerably until they became settled. 
After brooding them for a time she led them into the woods. 



THE GREAT AUK. 539 

Friendless bird ! How is it possible for her to rear such a 
numerous family, when surrounded by so many enemies. 
Not only does man contrive many schemes to entrap them, 
but many of the rapacious quadrupeds and birds are ever 
ready to make them their prey. The mink follows them in 
the woods with as unerring skill as does the setter dog, 
while the red-tailed hawk hunts them in more open ground. 



THE GREAT AUK. 



The recent addition of a specimen of this rare bird to the 
Smithsonian Museum, is an event worthy of record. There 
are now three specimens in the United States ; the one just 
mentioned, another in the Academy of Natural Sciences, 
Philadelphia, and a third in the Giraud Cabinet in Vassar 
College. The last is the most perfect specimen, and cer- 
tainly possesses the greatest historical value, as it is the one 
from which Audubon made his drawing and description. It 
was caught on the banks of Newfoundland. 

The Great Auk or Gare-fovd,* fortunately for itself did 
not live long enough to receive more than one scientific 
name — Alca impennis. It was about the size of a goose, 
with a large head, a curved, grooved and laterally flattened 
bill; wings rudimental, adapted to swimming only, ap- 
- in this respect the penguins of the southern 
hemisphere. The toes are fully webbed, the hind one want- 
ln g5 the plumage is black, excepting the under parts, the 
tips of the wings, and an oval spot in front of each eye, 
^hich are white. It was an arctic bird, dwelling i 



540 THE GEEAT AUK. 

the Faroe Islands, Iceland, Greenland, and Newfoundland.* 
"Degraded as it were from the feathered rank (said Nuttall), 
and almost numbered with the amphibious monsters of the 
deep, the Auk seems condemned to dwell alone in those 
desolate and forsaken regions of the earth." But it was an 
unrivalled diver, and swam with great velocity. One chased 
by Mr. Bullock among the Northern Isles, left a six-oared 
boat far behind. It was undoubtedly a match for the 
Oxfords. It was finally shot, however, and is now in the 
British Museum. "It is observed by seamen," wrote Buffon 
a hundred years ago, "that it is never seen out of sound- 
ings, so that its appearance serves as an infallible direc- 
tion to the land." It fed on fishes and marine plants, and 
laid either in the clefts of the rocks or in deep burrows a 
solitary egg, five inches long, with curious markings, resem- 
bling Chinese characters. The only noise it was known to 
utter wa> a gurgling sound. Once very abundant on both 
shores of the North Atlantic, it is now believed to be entirely 
extinct, none having been seen or heard of alive since 1844, 
when two were taken near Iceland. f 

The death of a species is a more remarkable event than the 
end of an imperial dynasty. In the words of Darwin, no 
fact in the long history of the world is so startling as the 
wide and repeated extermination of its inhabitants." What 
an epoch will that moment be when the last man shall give 
up the ghost! The upheaval or subsidence of strata, the en- 
croachments of other animals, and climatal revolutions— -by 
which of these great causes of extinction now slowly but 



THE GUEAT AUK. 



IB 




542 THE GREAT AUK. 

incessantly at work in the organic world, the Great Auk 
departed this life, we cannot say. We know of no changes 
on our northern coast sufficient to affect the conditions neces- 
sary to the existence of this oceanic bird. It has not been 
huuted down like the Dodo and Dinornis. The numerous 
bones on the shores of Greenland, Newfoundland, Iceland 
and Norway, attest its former abundance ; but within the last 
century it has gradually become more and more scarce, and 
iiually extinct. There is no better physical reason why some 
species perish than why man does not live forever. We can 
only say with Buffou, "it died out because time fought 
against it." From the Liayula prima to the Auk, genera 
have been constantly losing species, and species varieties; 
types and links are disappearing. 

Still more mysterious than the extirpation of species, but 
equally interesting, is their coming into being. We must 
not expect this event to be conspicuous. We suppose that 
the ushering in of the puny sloth was &s quietly and inap- 
preciably done as the annihilation of its gigantic prototype, 
the Megatherium. We are rather compelled to believe in 
the continual formation of "incipient species" to take the 
place of those that have expired. But how? By transmu- 
tation or special creation? We will not decide ; but we must 
hold to one or the other, or else believe there are far fewer 
>pecies now than when man was added to the world's fauna. 
For how many animals which figure in Pleistocene strata are 
missing in the Recent Life! "That a renovating force, 
which has been in full operation for millions of years, should 
cease to act while the causes of extinction are' still in full 
activity or even intensified by the occasion of man's de- 
stroying power, seems to me in the highest degree iui- 



Huxley's Classification of Animals.*— This is not a new work, but a 
republication, without revision, of the six lectures on the classification 
6* animals, which form the first part of Professor Huxley's "Lectures on 
the Elements of Comparative Anatomy," published in 1864. It is perhaps 
the most compact, clearly written and modern text book of zoology, from 
the side of comparative anatomy, that is in the market, and we recom- 
mend it for study to be consulted with Agassiz and Gould's Principles of 
Zoology, and Milne-Edwards' Zoology. A large number of the admirable 
wood-cuts are original, the book is beautifully printed, and to us the 
perusal of the work has been a great treat. The author's style is clear 

strongly the personality of his 
tor reaching and penetrative oft 

The author first gives the characters of the twenty-seven classes of 
animals recognized by him, which occupies one-half of the book. In a 
succeeding chapter lie <; ■■ . .. mt into larger groups, 

namely, the subkingdoms [branches, or types]. The branch of Verte- 
brates is retained as Cuvier left it. As regards the branch of Articulates, 
the author is disposed to break it up into two branches, i.e., the As- 
nulosa (Insecta, Myriapoda. Arachi le Annelida); 

and the Annuloida (Echinodermata and Scolecida). Cuvier's branch of 
MnlhiM-a is subdivided into the Mollusca and Molluscoida (Ascidians, 
Brachiopods and Polyzoa). The branch of Radiata is subdivided into 
1 (klkn i rkata . Aeulephs aii.l Polyps), while the 
Protozoa, the fifth subkingdom, added since Cuvier's tune, are subdivided 
iuto Im i sokia and Pkotozoa. Thus out of the wilderness of classes 
illy presents 
us with a hasty view of eight branches, or subkingdoms, of the animal 
kingdom. All the lower subkingdoms he considers as the equivalents, 

at to its last term the tendency of 



of powers of generalization and combination as to 
improved methods of study, which many claim make 
necessary. We are glad to see such iconoclasts arise, i 



544 REVIEWS. 

over classifications usually accepted, and groups of facts broken up and 
scattered, be! Humboldt's, or Cuviert, 

the number and succession of the grand types of the animal kingdom. 

Not agreeing with the view of Huxley, who would split up the Mollusca 
into two branches (believing that though degraded, the Ascidiaus, Brachi- 
opods and Polyzoa are true mollusks) nor in the •■ subregnal distinctions of 
the Ccelenterata," which Frey and Leuckart have attempted to demonstrate, 
let us examine the author's views regardini; the classification of the 
Cuvierian Articulata, and seek the reasons of his adopting Siebold's view 
that the Vermes (in the Linnaean sense) should be separated as a distinct 
subkingdom, equivalent to the Vertebrates for instance, and thus the 
Cuvierian branch of Articulata be demolished. In the arrangement of 
the classes of th< Articulates, the author retrogrades nearly a quarter of 
a century, and in that of the Insects, more than that time. This is due 
perhaps to his having studied the members of this type less than the 
others, and being consequently dependent on the labors of other natural- 
ions, or classes, according as the body is worm-like, i.e., a simple cylin- 
s. as in the Worms; or 

Insects, is founded upon a much broader and more comprehensive prin- 
ciple in the classification of tin se articulated animals than any the author 
•sugirests in this work. The body of the typical articulate is i 

distant segments, and the form and relative position of the internal or- 
gans are subordinated to this articulated, or segmented, plan. This struc- 
ture is shown in the higher Annelids, as well as in the Insects and Crus- 
tacea, and though less frequently in the lower worms, yet in the tape 
wormthebody is distinctly segmented md t:h. furbellai i are too closely 
allied to the segmented Leeches (Discophora) to be placed in a separate 
i by a series of negative characters such a- the author pro- 
poses. The My rt a >>t ml Vrach da in i >n- 1 n-d i-< ^ms, equivalent 
to tf "-' Iii-«cta and Crustacea. The direct homology of the adult forms 



ubdivides his subkingdom " Annulosa" into the Arthropoda (a 
>osed by Siebold in 1848) and Annelida, for which we could ne\ 
;ood reason ; both Insects and Crustacea in their retrograde gei 
imes assuming worm-like forms, a proof of the unity of type it 






in tlie arrangement ot the insects we are led back some thirty, 
more, years to the times of Kirby and Spence, and Leach, though 
author is probably imi - I largely to <ier>taccker"s classification. 
Peters and Cams' Handbook of Zoology, representing, perhaps, the Eri 
son and Siebold school. 

The Coleoptera are placed at the head of the Insects, and the Hym 
optera, Lepidoptera and Uiptera arc interpose.! between the beetles i 

orders, and the Orthopt. ra and Xenroptera. in the structure of the ima, 
Beyond the Hem Qty and confusion, and the tojl 

entomologists for the last thirty years seems in vain, as our author clii 
to the obsolete classifications of over a quarter of a century back. Pi 
Huxley -till retains the old orders •■ Stivpsipiora" for the Coleopterc 
family Stylopidae, in spite of the opinion of the ablest and most phi 
sophical coleopterists- of the present day ; his characters defining 1 
group being mostly negative. 

The strangest, and him mely speaking saddest feature of his class 
cation is recognizing the S - sieidae.asan "ordc 

(Trichoptera), when their affinities to the Panorpidae are so well ackno^ 
edged by the best neuropterists. Why the Neuroptera (in the sense 



The Orthoptera, according to Huxl 
tera (Cockroaches, Mantides, Le£ 
Locusts) ; b, the Dermatoptera (Forficularias) ; 






546 REVIEWS. 

cidse are not mentioned by the author) ; d, the Perlarise ; e, the Ephemeridse, 
and /, the Libellulidae. Three groups remain, " which do not fit well into 
any of the preceding assemblages," — a, the Physnpuda (Thrips) [which are 
simply degraded Lygaeid Hemiptera] ; b, the Thymnura [which are un- 
questionably degraded Neuroptera], and «, the Jfalluphaga, or bird-lice 
[which again are degrad. .1 H mipo-i i and are so recognized by many 



(Scorpio, Chelifei 



(of which not a word Is sai certainty? 

We imagine the author treats that strange form. Sngitta. much as 
- ire disposed of. because it does not •'lit well* 
into some other order or class, not agreeing, forsooth, with the ordinary 
"definitions" of such order or class (these "definitions" are the bane of 
zoology studied as a science.) It is, indeed, thrown into a separate class, 
the Chcetognatha of Rudolp between the vrornwawl 

Crustacea. Would it not be as philosophical to wait until the embry- 

eitherthe Crustacea for it may turn out to be a Copepodous crustacean 
allied to Penella. as Prof. Ag i^iz ha- -n--, st, d, or the Annelida, where 
the weight of authority perhaps locates it. 

This book, so interesting and suggestive, yet so unsatisfactory, marks 



be demolished, do let us have a reasonable classification substi 

s the tendency of the book. — To be concluded. 
Guide to the Study of Insects. * — This work, which has been • 
year in going through the s rs, has at lengtli 

completed and issued from the Naturalist's Book Agency. It coin 
700 octavo pages, with 651 wood-cuts, and eleven plates, illustrating 
1.-.08 objects. It is accompanied by a glossary of entomological t 



Regarding the classification adopte 






agricultural schools as a tex 



study of practical 



r would in any high place. 



NATURAL HISTORY MISCELLANY. 

BOTANY. 



' and they are probably 



Horns. — The doe with horns, mentioned in the July nura- 

example of the imperfect development of sex which some- 
and has been found by natural i>t> in all branches of the 
om. I saw a few years a^o a doe with a pair of horns; it 

en<-losure%vas a buck of the same aire : the horns of both 

' others that hav, 



that I saw did h 



the perfect winter and summer plumage of the drake 



HISTORY MISCELLANY. 549 

; females of which always have- horns, though smaller than those 
mile. Many instances are mentioned, however, of exceptions to 

t\ Todd savs : •• Amonir i i maN a >iini- 



ows Itself as an effeel both ol tion of the sexual 

gans, and also in consequence of the cessation of the powers of repro- 

rved to become provided, at puberty, with the horns of the stag, and 
ch animals are generally observed to be barren, probably in conse- 
ence either of a congenital or acquired morbid condition of their 
aries or other reproductive organs. This o 



i kind mentioned by .Mr. Hay. and which, he be 
d any young, one of the ovaries, on dissection 
3 be scirrhous. The animal had one horn resi 



section, were found to be diseased." "On the other hand, 
mals it is notorious, that the secondary sexual characters 
re more or less completely lost when they are subjected to 
' If this operation is performed on the cock, he does not 



I have had an opportunity of studying tour cm - 

has never ng upon it, and a succes- 

n-ere castrated in Septembei severa years l2 o vh heir horns were 

t herwis ha\ < - un Tanna \ or February. The horns 

immediateh ! never oeer east, the velvet has re- 

mained on ever since, while the form - - ' - M - r - 



: >kuli : 



cnstratocl. They are in the velvet, are heavy and thick, and the branches 
instead of being pointed a a ions being seven inches 

broad on some of the branches. It is to be hoped, that as public parks 
Sfical collections are being made throughout the country, more 
attention will be paid to these subjects in this country, and better oppor- 
tunities afforded to the naturalist than can be had in the woods while 
hunting. — W. J. Hays. 

The Ec.g of the Gkeat Auk (Alca impennis).—T>r. Baldamus announ- 
ces as the result of recent in\c^t g-ttion* th it but four eggs of this spe- 
cies are to be found in Germany (one belonging to the Grand Duke of 
Oldenburg, one to Count Rddern in Breslau, and two to the Eoyal 
Museum in Dresden), none in France, two in the Copenhagen Museum, 
and about sixteen in England, making twenty-two. The Academy of 
Natural Sciences in Philadelphia had two specimens, but, with praise- 
worthy liberality, has recently presented one to the Smithsonian Institu- 
tion. So far as positively known, therefore, less than thirty specimens of 
the egg of this probably extinct species, are now preserved. The exact 
number of preparations of the bird itself we are not at present prepared 
to give. Only three, however, are to be found in America, one each in the 
Museums of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, of Vassar 
College, Poughkeepsie, and of the Smithsonian Institution. Of the Skele- 
tons only two are known, one in the British Museum, and the other in 
the Cambridge Museum of Comparative Zoology. Detached bones are, 

Denmark and other parts of Europe, and of the New England and Nova 



On the 15th of May, 1868, I found a nest of the White Crowned Spar- 
row (Znnotrichia leucophrys), of two stories; containing, in the under, a 
single egg of the Cow Bunting, and in the upper, two more of the same, 
together with three of the rightful owners. These were being sat upon 
at the time by the female bird, and on blowing proved to be pretty well 
advanced in their incubation. Again, this last spring, in the month of 
May, I found a common Pewee Flycatcher's nest, containing, with three 
of its own, also three of the Cow Bunting's eggs. One of these last was 
so forced down into the bottom of the nest as to be almost covered up. 
This nest I have now in my collection. — H. 8. Kedney, Potsdam, JS T . Y. 

The House Fly. — Years ago I had hundreds of house flies. I think 
that the perpetuity of the race is provided for in the larval and pupa state 
over winter, and not by hibernating as adult flies. I have seen the great- 
! of pupa? late in autumn, when I am confident they did 



NATURAL HISTORY MISCELLANY. 
Mouse. — Within the last year I have seen 



" had been caught in different 



It was in September, 1866, at Newburgh, N. Y., I had noticed in one of 
the rooms occupied by my family, for several evenings, a fine, chirping 
sound, so persistent and monotonous as to be annoying, and had sup- 
posed it to proceed from one of the small cicadse that, at that season, bad 
full possession of the shade trees that surrounded the house. Several 
times I endeavored to find the insect, but ineffectually, the noise seeming 
to come from different parts of the room, sometimes high in the wall, 
sometimes on the floor, and ceasing altogether while I was endeavoring 
to localize it, only to break out afresh the moment I resumed my seat and 
the room was quiet. This continued more or less for a week, without 
my being able to learn whence the sound proceeded. At last it invaded 
my bedroom, which adjoined the other, and for an hour or two together, 
on one particular night, made sleep impossible. It chanced next raorn- 
ning as I was dressing, the same note issued from an enclose i 
the doors of which were open. It struck me as odd that an 
as I supposed the musician to be, should sing by daylight. Upon the 
floor of the verandah were several trunks, and I traced the sound from 
one to another, till, on lifting gently the lower edge of the canvas cover 
of one of them, I saw the tail of a mouse protruding. He scampered 
away to another hiding place, from which forthwith the same notes came. 
I left the mouse in peace that day, but devised means to entrap him the 
night. And sure enough, somewhere about midnight. I waked 
to hear the same continuous chirping, and presently heard the click of 
the trap. In the morning the children were greatly excited, and soon 
found an old dormouse cage, brought from London years ago. 
a squirrel cage with wheel and sleeping box, but all on a scale suitable 
for mice or dormice, which are alike feeble folks. The captive seemed 

and regular;: irying tune at all hours. 

He warbled after the manner of a minute bird, the throat swelling and 
vibrating, the mouth closed or nearly so, and the lips in incessant rapid 
motion, like those of a rabbit. There was nothing like the imitation 
of any particular bird. We might possibly have fancied otherwise if 
there had ever been a canary in the house. Nor was there any 
ewM >trictly be called a song. The sound was thin, sharp, but slightly 



y. After a few days he became much less restless than at first 
isibly getting fat and lazy, would not take a run in the wheel t 
riven to it. and spent a good part of the day sleeping in his little i 
a this he hoarded his food in such quantity as to seem to the chi 



NATURAL niSTORY MISCELLANY. 

le, and therefore he occasionally had to be ejected 
and all made clean. At this 

manifest his displeasure by thine across the cage into the whe 
he would make spin, emitting all the while his peculiar note w 
shrillness and rapidity. And when admitted again after the hoi 
ing. he would be in a state of exasperation, scolding ineessan 
busy rearranging things to suit his own mouse ideas. Several 

i the cage, but was as often retaken, as his noise a 
trayed him, until at last, after he had been with us six weeks, h 
once too often and we saw him no more. We supposed he had 
way through the open door into the garden. This mouse wa 

ise-mouse, but of a species which frequents barns c 
the fields, and which was common in our own barn. It was < 



n the open air. <>r even n 

would have a certain distinctness, bu 

- > decided and modulated a 



singing mouse. Its song is plaintive, sweet and continuous, and 
dently proceeds from the throat. The notes are those of a canary 1 
and on questioning the man, I found that one of these birds had 1 
kept in the room in which the mouse was trapped?"— W. H. Edwarb 
Natural Selection, a Modern Instance. —I am a frequenter of 
Adirondacks, having hunted there for twenty-one years. The com: 
American Deer (Cervus Virginianus) abounds there. About foun 
years ago, as nearly as I can remember, I first began to hear of " Sp 
horn Bucks." The stories about them multiplied, and they evide 
became more and more common from year to year; About five years 
I shot one of these animals, a large buck with spike-horns, on L 
Lake. In September, 1867, I shot another, a three years old buck < 
spike-horns, on Cedar Lakes. These Spike-horn Bucks are now freque 
shot in all that portion of the Adirondacks south of Raquette Lake 
presume the same is true north of Raquette Lake, but of this h 
region I cannot speak from personal observation, having visited it 



The spike-1 



>KY MIMELLA 



pagated the peculiai 






554 NATURAL HISTORY 

- 
Contiguous plates; the number of angles they may have when fully grown 
being determined by the number of other plates they impinge against. 

>i- to have mx. Inn many others upon the same 
had a different number and their angles were often u 
the same plate. The hexagonal outline of the microscopic bodies in the 
retina is uniform in all because they are uniform in size and consistence. 
The plates of Radiates are not uniform because their points of calcifica- 
tion are usually located at unequal distances. By this it will be seen that 
the number of angles any plate receives is essentially accidental and bears 
no relation whatever to the fundamental plan upon which the animal is 
constructed, which is that of five rays and not six, the number necessary 
to make it harmonize with the crystalline structure of snow-flakes, etc. 



This spring (1869) the birds again built in the box, and 1 

his eggs, ray friend concluded to preserve a specimen of t 



NATURAL HISTOBY MISCELLANY. 555 

the Mud-turtle (Chnjxi.najs picta Gray) differing in the 



this locality as the " Blower," or •• Blowim 
Township. From a wound in her side, ov< 






rous," as it is sometimes called. - S. S. Eathvox, Lancaster, Pa. 
The Haliotis or Pearly Ear Shell-Id an article, with the above 

cal distribution of the Ihdiotides. I have stated as a remarkable fact, that 
although several species are found upon the West coast of North Amer- 
ica, not a single species had been found upon the East coast of either 
North or South America. In the latter part of August, upon the occasion 
of a brief visit to the Museum of Comparative Zoology at Cambridge, I 
was kindly shown by Count Portales, among other material, a specimen 
of Haliotis (some one and one-half inches long) dredged, living, by him in 
the Gulf Stream between Florida and Cuba; this is the first instance of 



The Worm-eating Warbler.— In looking over the description of the 
Worm-eating Warbler (Ilelmitherus vermicunts). in the "Birds of New 
England" by Mr. Samuels, I see he describes it as nesting in bushes from 
bur to nine feet from the ground, and making its nest with the blossoms 
>f hickory and chestnut trees. I should like to know if these are the 

On the 6th of June, 1869, I found a nest of this species containing five 
?ggs. It was placed in a hollow on the ground much like the nest of the 
hen bird {Snmrus aurorapiUus), and was hidden from sight by the dry 
eaves that lay thickly around. The nest was composed externally of 
lead leaves, mostly those of the beach, while the interior was prettily 
ined with the fine thread-like stalks of the hair moss (Folytritfuum). Al- 

>wner was habitually a ground-nester. The eggs most nearly resemble 
hose of the White-helited Nut] itch (> < h ufis), though the 






lifficulty by placing my hat 



Fall of Shell-fish in a rain storm. — Mr. John Ford exhibited 1 

specimens of Gemma gemma, remarkable as having fallen accomp 
nied by rain, in a storm which occurred at Chester, Pennsylvania, t 
the afternoon of June 6th, 1869. The specimens were perfect, but vei 

breadth. Though most of the -pecinn r,» which fell were broken, y 
many perfect ones were collected in various places, sheltered from tl 

Y. S. Walter, editor of the •■Delaware County Republican," assured M 



Storm." A very tine rain fell rapidly, veiled In- 
slower and with a whirling motion. Judi:imi from 
matter attached to some of the specimen-, to-eth 



i ago a live i 



f Buffalo, by George L. New 
.. and presented to the Society of Natural Sciem 

Society. — Charles S. Linden. 



PROCEEDINGS OF SCIENTIFIC SOCIETIES. 557 

OS recently been presented to the Museum of Yule 
College, by Mr. W. C. Beecher, who collected it near this city. It does 

■i. The left cheliped is exactly like the larger cheliped of 
ordinary specimens, while the right one differs only in being a very little 
1 in having the fingers slightly more incurved at the tips. In 
this character of equal cheliped* it agrees with the genus Helcecius. The 
specimen was very lively, and used both hands with equal facility. — S. I. 
Smith, New Haven, Conn. 



PROCEEDINGS OF SCIENTIFIC SOCIETIES. 

Chicago Academy of Sciences. Meeting of October 12th, 1869. -The 
President exhibited some implements of stone and shell, forming the 
of an Apache Medicine-man, killed in a recent skirmish with 
United States troops. The stone implements were all of carbonate of 
lime cut from a beautifully striped stalagmite. Four of them apparently 
constituted a set of tamponers, the slender flattened ones being used for 

y of the A the idea that 



■: " ::: 



- 



oi tne stones is probably a .harm, as it represents an animal, probably 
the Texas Armadillo, and it is ingeniously cut. so that the bands of color 
correspond to the transverse rows of scales. The shell is a large Oliva 
from Lower California, perforated and suspended by a string. 

months, upon a solution of carbolic acid as a substitute for ale,,!,,,] i„ the 
preservation of wet specimens. The results had been gratifying, and 

zoological museums. He found that deliquesced crystals of the acid «li~- 
•«<uved in forty times its bulk ,,f water gave a fluid which equalled alcohol, 
in its preservative qualities, at less than one-twentieth the cost, with the 

original condition, as to the color, etc. And very curiously (this is. how- 
ever, not enumerated among the advantages) the peculiar smell of the 
fresh fish is retained in specimens of trout which had been kept for 
several weeks in the fluid. The qualities of the substance (more properly 
an alcohol than an acid), which is a great enemy of all protozoic and 
life, depend upon its powerful action in destroying the germs 
associated with, if not the cause of, decomposition. In a solution of 



ng endosinosis. Flu 



' alcohol, and must be strengthened before being used again, 
ens have been corn; th the solution, say 



lengcn 01 tin; urns of decay. A fluid coin 

half per cent, of the acid will probably be found sufficiently strong for 
the permanent preservation of specimens previously prepared in the 
stronger solutions and kept in tightly closed jars. The freezing of the 
fluid may be prevented by the addition <»f one-eighth part of alcohol, 
which will be found sufficient for the extreme of temperature to which 
museum rooms are ordinarily subject in this country. If the smell of the 
carbolic acid, which is very slight in the weak solutions, should be 
objected to, the addition of a minute quantity of the oil of wintergreen 
will cover it completely. 

Carbolic acid will be found valuable on expeditions for zoological 
purposes, where the transportation of the necessary alcohol has hereto- 
fore formed a heavy item of expense. A few pounds of the cryatate 

etc., should be injected with the fluid in the mouth, intestine and cavity 
of the abdomen, and if possible in the larger blood-vessels. Inferior 
qualities of the acid may be obtained at a low price, and a clear solution 
n from by altering. The solution is an excellent thing for 
filling up old specimen jus from which the alcohol has nearly evaporated. 
All germs of mold are instantly killed, and the specimen needs no other 



_ the preservative qualities c 

1 "' ! '' 1 Parti liar! those of Tampa Bay, which he had examined during 
the past winter and spring. These mounds were of great extent, some 
covering many acres of ground, and reaching a height of forty or fi~ 
feet. Some of them were distinctly Gratified, which characteristic I 
probably misled the only gcienl c writer* v.. has as yet mention 
them, and caused them to be regard* d as of natural formation. 



,•> from that of Lii 



iom a dirt-bed 
This bed was 
sidence of the 



CORRESPONDENTS, ETC. 

coast, and in the purer waters of the open gulf. These islands, doubtless, 
at the epoch of the building of the mounds were of smaller extent, and 

Major Powell then gave a brief account of his recent exp.l 
the grand Canon of the Colorado River, and of the language of the Ute 
Indians, promising a more derailed account at some future meeting. 

Dr. Durham exhibited under the microscope the tongues of several 
species of aquatic gasteropods found in the vicinity of Chicago, and de- 
scribed the habits of the animals. 



BOOKS RECEIVED. 



AMERICAN NATURALIST. 

Vol. III. — JANUABY, 1870.— Wo. 11. 



SHAVINGS EXAMINED MICROSCOPICALLY. 



The examination of any organic tissue, be it animal or 
vegetable, by means of the modern achromatic microscope, 
reveals such a world of beauty, and so much material for 
wonder, that the novice in such pastime is for a while very 
much puzzled what to observe, and what to leave unseen. 
Although life, that mysterious manifestation of Divine will, 
appears to be most strikingly is imaJ exist- 

ences, yet the grass of the iield and wood of the oak tree 
present materials attractive to him who will patiently read 
aright the lessons they inculcate. It is my intention, in the 
present article, to point out to the young student of nature a 
path that may be traversed with great profit and lasting 
pleasure. I have taken as my subject the structure of wood, 
the hard tissue of plants, as exhibited in the shaving which 
the carpenter peels off with his jack-plane. Let the embryo 
microscopist collect a number of such, the thinner the 
better, and I warrant he will have enough to do when look- 
ing at them through the long winter's evenings. 

All plants, it has been discovered, great and small, tie 
monarch of the woodland and the violet of the plain ; aye, 
all, with the exception, perhaps, of those doubtful little 



562 SHAVINGS EXAMINED MICROSCOPICALLY. 



organisms that puzzle and delight the students of atomies, 
and which are grouped under the great collective head of the 
ProtOjphyta, are constructed after the same general plan, and 
consist of the same chemical substances, congregated to- 
gether after similar types, varying only in degrees of com- 
plexity. And what is an equally, if not more remarkable 
fact, those substances which go to make up the bulk of the 
vegetable organism are found also in the animal, coi 
the elementary components of its body likewise. 

However it is not our intention, at the present time, to 
enter into the consideration of the chemical constitution of 
vegetable tissues; interesting as that branch of vegetable 
physiology is, we must forbear, and, assisted by the micro- 
scope, proceed to the examination of those tissues them- 
selves. The general structure of all plants consists of a 
substance known to chemists under the name of cellulose, 
the wall-matter of cells, so to speak ; cells being the most 
important part of plants, as we shall see presently. It is 
this cellulose that we are so well acquainted with under so 
many different forms and names and constituting vegetable 
fibre, bark, the great mass and harder portions of all leaves, 
flowers, fruit and stems ; and, although in special cases we 
find it somewhat modified, it is always to be recognized from 
its possessing certain unmistakable characteristics, familiar 
to all in the substance of paper, and, therefore, of course, 
in the linen or cotton, the wood or the straw from which the 
paper was made, so that we say that about all the paper we 
see is composed of cellulose in almost a pure condition, 
there being but little used which is manufactured from 
animal tissues, such as wool and silk. The rice-paper of 
the Chinese is not, as is generally supposed, made of rice, 
but of the light and porous pith of a plant which has been 
cirt in the form of a broad strip, around and around the mass 
of the tissue, as is plainly seen when a small piece is exam- 
ined by means of a magnifying glass, when the little cells or 
cavities which made up the pith are very evident. Woody 



EXAMINED MICROSCOPICALLY. 563 

tissue is made up for the most part of this cellulose, arranged 
in different forms, all, however, derivable from the simple 
sac or cell, which is the basis and foundation, morphologi- 
cally, of the whole vegetable kingdom; being found in its 
simple and uncomplicated form in the Proiophyta, or first 
plants, we have mentioned, and modified in outline to a 
greater or less degree in the different parts of the tree, 
stem, leaves, and flowers. There is a doubt, however, in 
the minds of some physiologists as to whether the hard 
parts of plants are made up of this substance cellulose, or a 
modification of it termed "lignine." This point is one which 
we will not consider, as it is extremely doubtful if either of 
these two compounds has been obtained pure and separate 
from the other. 

If a slice be made with a very sharp knife of some ripe 
fruit, as an apple or an orange, it will be observed on view- 
ing such a section by means of the microscope, that it is 
made up of almost symmetrical and equal sized little sacs 
or cells, as they are called ; and such simple tissue is known 
as cellular tissue. But if a similar slice be made of such 
bard matter as w T oocl, a very different appearance will present 
itself to our eyes. First, however, so as to make ourselves 
acquainted with the manner in which such simple cellular 
tissue (where the elementary sacs merely (ouch eaeh other 
with very little mutual pressure) passes into the more com- 
plex woody tissue, take a similar slice from the stem or 
young rootlet of some herbaceous plant, as the garden 
rhubarb or other common vegetable. Such a slice, made as 
thin as possible, is now placed in a little water upon a glass 
slide," and, with a thin "cover" over it, examined by means 
of a microscope which does not magnify too strongly. We 
now see that the tissue in this case is cellular, as well as that 
in the fruit, but that the individual cells have become much 
altered in appearance from mutual pressure, which in some 
cases has been equal upon all sides, in others greater in cer- 
tain directions than in others. So they have been crowded 



004 SHAVINGS EXAMINED MICROSCOPICALLY. 

upon each other until they have lost their almost spherical 
outline, and Hat sides have made their appearance. We may- 
illustrate the form of vegetable cells by blowing soap-bub- 
bles with a tube. As long as we bloAv but one bubble at a 
time, they remain spherical in form and represent the simple 
Protojyhyta, but if we blow one after another until a string 
of them renijii pendant from the tube Ave have a represent- 
ative of the slightly more complex plants growing submerg< d 
in water and known as algre. By placing the tube beneath 
the surface of the soapy liquid contained in a bowl and 
blowing we form a number of bubbles, which, on account 
of their being confined within the bowl, press upon each 
other almost equally and become many sided. The form that 
thus results is found on examination to be of a more or less 
perfectly geometrical outline, and such a mass very strik- 
ingly represents the cellular tissue we are examining, but to 
make it look still more like our section, we press a glass 
plate down upon the mass of bubbles, and thus we have the 
cavities cut across. But one other fact will be noticed 
through the glass plate, and that is that the bubble sections 
are for the most part six-sided, and such is also the case 
with the plant cells. This is the result of cutting through 
the regular geometrical form always caused by the mutual 
equal pressure of many spheres. In honeycomb we have 
another illustration of this fact ; there the pressure has ap- 
parent Iv been unequal, and the cell has become elongated 
into a six-sided prism. A precisely similar mode of aggre- 
gation is to be observed in vegetable tissues, and may be 
made evident by cutting two sections at right angles to each 
other. Such slices are known to microscopists as longitu- 
dinal and transverse sections ; the first, in the case of wood, 
being taken lengthwise of the stem or branch, and the other 
across it. As the pressure is generally very unequal, perfect 
forms of the cells are the exception, and therefore the variety 
of outline of cells in vegetable tissues is very varied, that 
which is hexagonal being the most common. As a plaa* 



SHAVINGS EXAMINED MICROSCOPICALLY. 565 



grows, the number of cells is multiplied, and as the growth 
is faster in one direction than in others the resulting cells 
arc elongated ; in fact we find in woody tissues that the so- 
called wood cells are more or less fibrous, so that such 
tissue is known as woody fibre. These wood-cells' are 
pointed at both ends, in fact are fusiform. Some of the 
cells, however, become united by the absorption of then- 
contiguous walls, so that continuous tubes are formed. 
These tubes are for the purpose of transporting the life-blood 
of the plant (the sap), which like the blood of the animal, 
is the source of the new tissues which are built up from its 
matter. As these tubes are of such importance in the 
economy of the individual, it becomes necessary that they 
should be protected from injury, and such injury is most 
likely to be a crushing from without and a consequent stop- 
page of the flow of the sap. If we were to stop the flow 
of the blood in the arm, for instance, by tying a ligature 
above the elbow, we should find that disorganization of the 
tissues in the fore-arm and hand would result ; they would 
mortify and death of the parts would follow. The same 
thing we can readily understand would take place in the 
plant, should the sap-flow be arrested in any way. To pre- 
vent such a disaster these long tubes arc strengthened in a 
very remarkable manner, namely, by having a deposit of 
tough lignine formed within their walls, and arranged in the 
form of a spiral. The same mode of structure is to be seen 
in the tubes called trachete, which convey the air to and 
from the lungs of animals. Insects exhibit this structure in 
a very striking manner ; the tracheae of a caterpillar of some 
kind, most commonly the silk-worm, is a favorite micro- 
scopic object. The spiral arrangement at the same time 
permits of a certaiu amount of elasticity in such vessels, as 
is to be seen in a very common illustration of such structure. 
I allude to the flexible tubing used to convey burning gas 
from a chandelier to a burner upon the table. Such spiral 
ducts, as they hare been named, are to be seen in most cross 



566 SHAVINGS EXAMINED MICROSCOPICALLY. 

sections of wood, and in our plate are represented by the 
largest openings. In some of the succulent plants, however, 
they are to be seen in a more striking manner. It is only 
necessary to tear a stalk of rhubarb or celery apart to find 
that fine fibres appear which are the last things to be ruptured ; 
these are the spiral ducts, and constitute the "stringiness" 
of old specimens of vegetables. In our wood shavings we 
also observe other points of interest, more especially if the 
sections be cut across the "grain*' or direction of the main 
growth. First let us examine the upper of our figures (PI. 
10, fig. 1), which represents such a slice cut from a stick of 
oak. This has been taken from a common kind of wood 
and well representing the grand group of plants to which it 
belongs, that is to say the JExogens, or outside growers. 
Our lower figure, on the other hand, represents a section of 
a stem of sugar-cane, showing. the mode of growth of an 
Endogen, or inside grower. And these two names at once 
designate the point upon which we wish to dwell ; the mode 
of growth of woody stems as shown by means of the micro- 
scope. These figures have been carefully drawn from pho- 
tographs taken for the purpose, and are, therefore correct 
representations of the objects. Looking now at our cross- 
grain shaving of oak, we notice first, scattered somewhat 
unevenly all over it, large openings, which are the spiral 
ducts ; in some parts they appear to be more closely congre- 
gate! together, forming, as it were, rows which are contin- 
uous after the manner of rings, increasing in dimensions 
from the centre of the stick towards the circumference. 
These show us how the wood grows. At first, when it is but 
_. there is very little woody tissue present, as is 
evidenced from its fragility, and the moss of it is made up 
of simple cellular tissue. This constitutes the pith of the 
stem, and varies in dimensions in different plants; in the 
elder being very large, in the oak of small size. Through 
the large spiral ducts the sap freighted with matter for the 
building up of new tissues, is carried upwards to the leaves; 



EXAMINED MICROSCOPICALLY. 567 

here it is brought in contact with the sunlight and air, and 
certain chemical changes take place in its composition. 
Downwards, through another set of ducts, it is carried just 
inside the bark, and here through its instrumentality, woody 
fibre is deposited, one fibre upon the other externally, and 
thus the twig grows by outside growth, becoming thicker 
and thicker each year. This addition of substance goes on 
during the spring and autumn months, the plant doing very 
much the same as human beings, that is to say, resting dur- 
ing the hot season. But when winter comes its growth is 
arrested entirely, and like the hibernating animals the tree 
sleeps. Now in animals the blood is carried by a set of' 
vessels, known as arteries, to the lungs, where it comes in 
contact with the air inhaled, and has its composition so 
changed that it can build up new tissues. The same thing, 
essentially, we see, takes place in the tree, the leaves repre- 
senting the lungs, or oxygenating organs. Now as the tree 
sleeps during the winter months here is an arrest of growth, 
and therefore when we examine such a cross-section of a 
piece of wood as we have given, we find a number — less or 
greater, according to the number of winters it has existed — 
of these rings of arrested growth, and by counting them we 
can arrive at the age of such a stick of wood. So we see 
how the microscope assists in acquiring such a knowledge; 
and of course we shall find similar structure in all outside 
growers or Exogens. With inside growers the case is very 
different ; for here the new matter is not deposited exter- 
nally in regular rings ; and, in fact we can, from a considera- 
tion of the facts we have related, readily understand why the 
Endogens are mostly confined to such portions of the globe 
where there are no cold mouths to arrest the growth. How- 
ever, even in such climates, Exogens grow and rest also 
during a part of the year. We have given the two sections 
represented to show the very marked difference in these two 
modes of growth as illustrated by microscopic sections, and 
those who desire to verify our illustrations can readily do so 



568 NOTES ON SOME OF THE 

by cutting a slice of some green stem, when the sap is in 
the wood and it is therefore the more readily cut, and also 
taking a slice of some JEJndogen, the garden asparagus being 
an excellent plant for that purpose, and after placing them 
on a glass "slide" and moistening them with water, covering 
them with a piece of thin "covering glass," and then exam- 
ining them with a microscope; even an ordinary pocket lens 
will often show these points of structure very well. Thus 
will the student of nature find instruction and amusement, 
knowledge and pastime, even in a shaving of wood cast off 
from a carpenter's jack-plane. 



tug. i. section of oak wood cut transversely a 
Fig. 2. Transverse section of sugar cane. 
Both magnified 25 diameters. 



NOTES ON SOME OF THE RARER BIRDS OF 
MASSACHUSETTS. 



Golden Eagle. Aquila chrysaetos Linn. (^4. Canadensis 
auct.) A specimen was killed near Munson in November, 
1864, and another near Deeriield, December 14th, 1865. 
The latter, a female, is said to have weighed thirteen and a 
half pounds, and to have measured seven feet and six inches 
in alar extent. It is now in the Springfield Museum of 
Natural History. Mr. J. G. Scott informs me that two speci- 



RARER BIRDS OF MASSACHUSETTS. 569 

Osprey. Fish Hawk. Pandion haliaetus Sav.* (P. 
Carolinensis Bonap.) It seems at first a little strange that 
this noble bird should not be found breeding anywhere on 
the Massachusetts coast, but when we recall the peculiar 
situations usually chosen by it for its eyrie we cense to be 
I. At present there are here no heavy forests Dear 
the sea, with lofty dead trees spreading their broad whitened 
arms to receive its bulky and conspicuous nest. All who are 
acquainted with this bird's breeding habits must have been 
struck with its marked predilection for such nesting sites. 
While it breeds abundantly on the New Jersey coast, on 
portions of Long Island, on the coast of Maine and about 
the large lakes in the interior, it is now only seen in this 
state, so far as I can learn, during its migrations. It un- 
doubtedly nested here before the thorough disforesting of 
the seacoast ; a former nesting site near Ipswich being still 
remembered by some of the older residents there. The 
present puny second forest-growth affords it no suitable 
breeding places, aud this is no doubt the reason of its being 
now but a transient visitor here. 

Hawk Owl. Surnia ulula Bon. Mr. A. L. Babcock of 
Sherborn, has a specimen which he took a few years since 
ftt -Yitirk. Dr. Brewer informs me he once obtained it 
near Roxbury. Mr. Scott writes that five specimens were 
taken at Westfield, near the village, in the autumn of 1867. 
In my Catalogue this species, though mentioned incidentally 
ag occasionally along the Green Mountain 
ranges in the western part of the state, was not reckoned as 
a Massachusetts bird. Dr. Emmons says it has been ob- 
served in that section in autumn. t and from what I now 
know of its distribution I doubt not it is a somewhat regular 
winter visitor there. 



570 NOTES ON SOME 



Great Gray Owl. Syrnium cinereum Bon. I mentioned 
the capture of several specimens in this state in my Cata- 
logue. Dr. Brewer has since informed me that about 1839 
he obtained two for Mr. Audubon that were shot near Bos- 
ton, — a fact which does not appear to have been previously 
recorded. There is also a specimen in the Museum of the 
Peabody Academy, taken in Salem, November 10th, 1866, 
by Mr. E. S. Waters. 

Great Horned Owl. Bubo Virginianus Bon. There 
are three specimens of this species in the Museum of Com- 
parative Zoology, all from Eastern Massachusetts, that 
represent Mr. Cassin's three varieties Bubo Virginianus 
Atlanticus, B. Virginianus Pacificus, and B. Virginianus 
Magellanicus. The first of these he supposed to be re- 
stricted to the Atlantic slope of North America, the second 
to the Pacific slope, and the third to the extreme southern 
parts of this continent and to South America. Mr. Cassin 
remarks, "this fine species is either subject to coi 
variation in the color of its plumage, or there are several 
species, some of which have been named by naturalists, as 
cited above, in our synonymes."* The first of these alter- 
natives it seems to me is the true state of the case. 

Barn Owl. 8trix pratincola Bon. As already stated by 
me in the "Addenda" to Dr. Coues' "List of the Birds of 
New England," the first specimen of this species known to 
have been captured in this state was taken near Sprin.irticlJ, 
in May, 1868. Dr. Wood informs me that he has a speci- 
men in his cabinet that was shot "at Sachem's Head [Ct.,], 
October 28th, 1865." The capture of another at Stratford, 
Connecticut, is recorded by Mr. Linsley.f These three are 
all thus far known to me to have been taken in New England. 

Yellow-billed Cuckoo. Coccygus Amerieanus Bon. 
No other of our birds seems to be so variable in numbers in 



BARER BIRDS OF MASSACHUSETTS. 571 

different years as this. In my Catalogue it is mentioned as 
"extremely rare" at Springfield, but as occurring frequently 
in the eastern part of the state. Since then a number of 
specimens have been taken at Springfield, and others at 
Westfield, Chicopee and Holyoke. Dr. Wood says that it 
"has been very uncommon at East Windsor Hill, except in 
1867, when it was as common as the Black-billed. I ob- 
tained," he adds, "three sets of eggs during that season ; 
have seen none this year."* I think it was in 1867 that it 
was so unusually common at the other above-mentioned 
localities, but it was also taken at Springfield in 1866. Mr. 
Scott says he does not think it "extremely rare," as he 
has obtained four or five specimens without special effort. 
In the eastern part of the state I find it is not gener- 
ally so numerous as I had supposed. It seems to be common 
here only at irregular intervals, when it sometimes appears 
to be as numerous as the Black-billed species, but sometimes 
it is scarcely observed for several seasons. Mr. Mavnard 
says it was common about Newton during 1866, when the 
lied was rare, but that it has not been so since that 
year, while the latter has been abundant. If the very large 
collections of birds from a considerable number of localities 
in New England in the Museum of Comparative Zoology can 
be taken as any index of their relative abundance in the 
Eastern States, the Black-billed species may be considered 
as, on the average, a hundred fold more numerous than the 
other. 

Yellow-bellied Woodpecker. Sphyrajpicus varius 
Baird. As observed by Dr. Cones, | this bird may be com- 
mon in summer at many Idealities in Xew England. But in 

that portion east of the Connecticut, and generally seen only 
in the fall. Not so, however, to the westward and north- 
ward ; but I doubt its being any more numerous in Rhode 



Lslau I ;ii; - ni Eastern Massa- 

chusetts. 

Pileated Woodpecker. "Log Cock." Bt/Iotomas pi- 
leatus Baird. The capture here of a bird so nearly extir- 
pated in most parts of Massachusetts as is this, is a fact 
of interest. Mr. J. G. Scott informs me that he has taken 
three specimens mar Westtiidd. Dr. Wood wrote me in 
1864 that one was killed about" five years before at East 
Windsor Hill, and that he had also seen it about twenty 
miles to the westward of this locality. 

Black-backed Three-toed Woodpecker. Picoides orc- 
ticus Gray. Mr. Scott took two specimens, male and female, 
of this northern species at Westfield in 1867. 

Banded Three-toed Woodpecker. Picoides hirsittus 
Gray. I learn from Mr. George O. Welch, of Lynn, that he 
took a pair of these birds some years since not far from that 
town. Dr. Brewer also gave it in his additions to the " Cata- 
logue of the birds of the state" given by Dr. Hitchcock,* 
but it has not usually been numbered among the birds of the 
state, and doubtless occurs only as an accidental winter 
visitor. 

Yellow-bellied Flycatcher. Empidonax Jktvivea^ii 
Baird. As remarked by Dr. Coues in his "List of the Birds 
of New England," this species is probably less rare than the 
collectors usually suppose. It seems to prefer woods and 
thickets, and its close resemblance to E. minimus when a 
few yards distant tends to prevent its more frequent capture. 
I generally meet with quite a number each year in May. 
sometimes several hi a single excursion. Mr. Maynard 
informs me that he took eight specimens in a few hours May 
31st, the present year. It has been observed in the breeding 
season as far south as Washington, D. C, by Dr. Coues. 

Varied Thrush. Turdus ncevins Gmelin. As already 
recorded in Dr. Coues "Addenda," this western species has 
at last beeu taken in Massachusetts, a specimen having been 



RARER BIRDS OF MASSACHUSETTS. 573 

shot near Boston (at Ipswich) in December, 1864. This 
seems to be the first known instance, as the specimen men- 
tioned by Prof. Baird as having been obtained here was 
killed in New Jersey.* 

Robin. Tardus migratorius Linn. Generally this well 
known bird is not met with in Ma-saehu.-etts in winter except 
at particular localities : it seems more frequently to occur at 
this season in the eastern part of the state than elsewhere. 
It is not seen every winter, hut sometimes occurs in consid- 
erable abundance. In the severe winter of 1867-'68, they 
were seen in Cambridge at intervals all winter: they were 
more numerous in January than in December, and were still 
more abundant in February, when they appeared in quite 
large flocks. They disappeared on the approach of warm 
weather, leaving for the north or for the interior before the 
arrival of their brothers from the south, which this year first 
appeared about March 10th. It does not seem to be an un- 
usual mildness of the season that causes them to linger, as 
they are as often seen during the severer winters as in the 
milder. 

Hermit Thrush. Turdus Pallasi Cab. Although the 
southern limit of this species in the breeding season is nearly 
coincident with the southern boundary of the Canadian 
fauna,| straggling pairs breed in various parts of Massachu- 
setts. It has been taken at Springfield in June,} and last 
year I saw young just able to fly at Hyannis, July 3d. Dr. 
Brewer informs me he found it breeding in Roxbury, in 
1837. In the more elevated western districts of the state, 
as in the elevated and northern parts of New England gen- 
erally, it breeds regularly and in large numbers. 

Olive-backed Thrush. T Cab. As is 

well known, this is not a rare species in this state. 



574 






In my "Catalogue of Massachusetts Birds" I first advanced 
the opinion that the so-called Tardus "Alidce" Baird, or 
Gray-cheeked Thrush, was but the paler form of this species. 
To this view other writers have taken exceptions. Prof. 
Baird, in his "Review of American Birds" (p. 21), summa- 
rily disposes of the matter by presuming that I had not seen 
what he called T. AUcice. Dr. Coues, in his "List of the 
Birds of New England," in referring to my remarks on the 
subject, says they "illustrate very fully the well-known sea- 
sonal and other variations to which T. Swainsonii and T. 
fuscescens arc subject,*' and adds that I appear to have been 
"autoptically unacquainted" with T. AUcice at the time of 
writing them. Since that time I have still farther considered 
the subject, and have had large series of authentic specimens 
of both T. Swainsonii and AUcice (mostly so labelled at the 
Smithsonian Institution) for comparison with Massachusetts 
specimens, and after five years of additional experience I am 
now more than ever convinced that the opinion there ex- 
pressed is correct. Some years the Alicioe type is quite 
common; again more rare. Generally, however, the ma- 
jority of the specimens range between the forms considered 
as typical respectively of T. Swainsonii and T. AUcice* 

Mocking Bird. Mimus polyglotlus Boie. Several in- 
stances of the occurrence of this southern species in the 
vicinity of Springfield other than those previously recorded 
have come to my knowledge during the last five years, and 
also one of its occurrence in the eastern part of the state. 

Connecticut Warbler. Ojiorornis agilis Baird. Con- 
cerning this species Mr. C. J. Maynard writes : "Perhaps not 
as rare as is generally supposed by collectors, especially in 
autumn. A specimen was shot by Mr. L. L. Thaxter in New- 
ton Centre, September 16th, 1867. Another was taken by 
myself in September, 1868, in a thick swamp near Newton."f 



RARER BIRDS OF MASSACHUSETTS. 575 

Tennessee Warbler. Hehninthophaga jperegrina Cab. 
This species, generally rare here, appears to have been 
much less so this year than usually. Mr. Maynard took five 
at Newtonville during May 18th to the 23d,— the first, he 
says, he had seen. He informs me that his friend Mr. 
William Brow-tor procured at about the same time two near 
Mount Auburn. I have taken it repeatedly at Springfield, 
where I have always esteemed it rare ; but Mr. Board man 

Golden-winged Warbler. Hehninthophaga chrysoptera 
Baird. This beautiful warbler has been taken, so far as I 
can learn, but a few times in the western part of the state ; 
it seems to be more common in the eastern, where it breeds. 
I saw it once in July at Springfield, and Mr. S. Jillson in- 
formed me some years since that it was quite frequent at 
Bolton, where it spends the summer and undoubtedly broods. 
I am not aware that its nest has been found in the state 
prior to the present year, when it was discovered by Mr. C. 
J. Maynard, June 12th, near Newtonville. This gentleman 
says that for the last three years he has soon this Warbler 
in swampy thickets near Newton in June, and felt confident 
that it bred there. This year he observed a female so anx- 
iously chirping from a small elm that he felt sure she had a 
nest in the vicinity, and quietly watching her he soon saw 
her fly down into the weeds. Approaching the spot carefully 
he discovered her sitting on her nest. This he describes as 
situated on the ground, in a tract of coarse weeds and 
ferns near a swampy thicket, and but a few rods from a 
public highway. It was placed entirely above the surface of 
the ground, and the birds seemed to have made no special 
effort to conceal it. It was composed externally of dried 
oak leaves and the bark of the grape-vine, and rather 
roughly lined with fine grass and a few horse hairs. He says 
it is large for the size of the bird, and somewhat reminds one 



576 NOTES ON SOME OF THE 

of the nest of the Maryland Yellow-throat. It is a little 
smaller at the top, where the internal diameter is less than 
two inches, while in the middle it is two and a quarter. The 
eggs were five in number, including a Cow Bunting's egg 
that these watchful parasites had introduced. The Warbler's 
eggs are thus described by Mr. Maynard : 

"No. 1 is regular in form, thickly spotted and blotched with dark 
brown at the larger end and sparsely at the smaller, on a white ground. 
Length, sixty-six one-hundredths of an inch; diameter, fifty-five one- 
*. No. 2 is like No. 1, only it is less thickly spotted. Length, 
>i.\i\->ix one hundredths; diameter, fifty-three. No. 3 is least spotted 
of the four, it being but sparsely so on the larger end and not at all on 
the smaller. Dimensions same as those of No. 1. No. 4 is more elon- 
gated, and much the most spotted, the spots forming a broad band around 

Mr. Maynard adds : "It is a curious fact that although I 
have seen and collected quite a number of males of this 
species, this is the first female that I have seen, although I 
have made diligent search for them." 

Swainsox's Warbler. Helmitherus Swainsonii Bon. 
Although this species is recorded by both Audubon and Pea- 
body as having been taken in Massachusetts, and on these 
authorities given in my Catalogue, there is some reason to 
doubt its having been captured" here. Both notices doubt- 
less refer to the same specimen, as well as to the same 
authority,— Dr. Brewer. But this gentleman informs ine 
that the record is erroneous and the result of a misunder- 
standing; the specimen referred to he says was not this 
species at all. Dr. Brewer knows of no instance of its occur- 
rence here, and it should doubtless be stricken from the list 
of Massachusetts birds. Dr. Coues says he has never seen 
it so far north as Washington, D. C. * 

WoRxt-EATiNG Warbler. Helmitherus vermivorus Bon. 
Mr. Peabody states, in his "Report on the Birds of Massa- 
chusetts," that the nest of this species had been found in 
Cambridge, which statement I repeated in my Catalogue. 



RARER BIRD; OF MASSACHUSETTS. 577 

I have since been informed by Dr. Brewer that the nest 
referred to by Mr. Peabody as above "was, without doubt, a 
Nashville Warbler's. I do not think it occurs," he adds, 
"nearer than the Hudson River."* Prof. Verrill, however, 
in his list of the birds of Norway, Maine (p. 21), gives it as 
rare in the southern part of Maine. From its range being 
generally southern, its occurrence in New England can only 
be accidental. 

Small-headed Flycatcher. Wilsonia minuta Bon. This 
rather apocryphal species is given by Peabody as having been 
met with at Ipswich by Dr. Brewer, and in Berkshire County 
by Dr. Emmons (Rep. Orn. Mass. p. 297). Dr. Brewer 
writes me that in 1834 his cat caught a specimen of this 
species in Roxbury, which he sent to Audubon, though as 
Dr. Brewer observes, he (Audubon) makes no mention of 
it. Dr. Brewer remarks: "This was the only one I ever 
knew or heard of. Ipswich I ignore" Compare with this 
Dr. Coues' remarks on this supposed species in his "List of 
the Birds of New England." f 

Long-billed Water Thrush. Seiurus LudovicianusBon. 
The first and only specimen thus far known to have been 
found in Massachusetts I captured April 28th, the present 
year, on Mount Tom. There is another in the Museum of 
Comparative Zoology, taken by Irving Frost, at Norway, 
Maine, in May, 1865. These two I believe are all the speci- 
mens known from New England, its actual occurrence in the 
Eastern States being now for the first time reported 4 

Blackburnian Warbler. Dendroeca Blackburnice Baird. 
Mr. Bennett found the young of this species this year near 
Holyoke that were scarcely able to fly. This establishes its 
breeding in Massachusetts. This fact I had already inferred, 
as in 1863 I shot it in Springfield, June 24th. Mr. J. G. 
Scott also shot it in Westfield, late in June, 1866. Some 






578 NOTES ON SOME OF THE 

seasons they are extremely abundant at some localities, and 

commonly are not rare, except in particular .situations. Mr. 
Scott observes that for several weeks in May, in I860, he 
could remain at a single place in the woods and shoot ten to 
twenty per hour. 

Bay-breasted Warrler. iJcndwa cuMcnwa Baird. 
This species I find is esteemed to be rare by most collectors 
in the eastern part of the state, but in the Connecticut valley 

abundant. I found it very numerous in 1866 in Spring- 
field, and it seems to have been equally so the same year 
in Westfield. Mr. Scott writes, "I could easily have shot 
a bushel-basket full of them without very greatly chang- 
ing my position." He says it was scarce in 1867, but 
not very rare in 1868. In 1866 he obtained a partial al- 
bino. Mr. Maynard, however, considers it to be very rare 
about Xewtonville. He has known only a few specimens 
taken there, as follows : June 19th, 1867, May 22d, 1868, 
and May 27th, 1869. 

Prairie Warbler. Dendroeca discolor Baird. In par- 
ticular situations a more or less common summer resident. 
In the eastern part of the state, especially in the breeding 
season, it is much more common than in the western. Old 
pastures partially grown up to cedars and barberry bushes 
seem to form its favorite resorts. 

Cape May Warbler. Perissoglossa tigrina Baird. This 
species, like most of the warblers, varies greatly in abun- 
dance in different years and at different places. Generally it 
seems to be very properly regarded as rather rare. Speci- 
mens, however, are taken almost every year in different 
parts of the state, but generally they altogether number 
very few. Mr. Maynard tells me it has been found near 
Boston, by Dr. Bryant and others, to be some years quite 

Summer Red Bird. Pyranga cesliva Vieill. Mr. A. L- 
Babcock, of Sherborn, has a specimen taken in Framinghani 



ACHTJSETTS. 

i this state. Tw< 
■ Mr. S. Jillson.* 





in Cambri 


(l-O. i 


»v Win. 


Lan 


ivireo aoUt 




Bon. I 


> be 1 


nore propc 


rlv a 


spring a 


aer c 


esidont. so 


ems 


to brood 


hies. 


Dr. Brei 




lys it is ; 



eastern part of the stato than in the western. Like some 
other speeies, it is much more common during some years 
than in others. Dr. Wood has found three nests at East 
Windsor Hill during the last ten years, but ho considers it 
rare there. Mr. C. W. Bennett obtained the first specimen 
I have known found in Western Massachusetts in May, 
1807, at Holyoke. I killed a pair the last week in July in 
Springfield, in 1868. These I believe are the only ones 
as yet known from that portion of the state. In 1868 it 
was quite common in and about Cambridge, but this year 
I have not observed it. 

Loggerhead Shrike. CoJlurio Ludoviaanus Baird. 
(Loniwexcubitoroiilex and L.eh-<jan* Swain). Tins species, 
as observed by Dr. Coues,f was formerly given as a bird of 
New England, but deeming the authority to be highly ques- 



580 NOTES ON SOME OF THE 

tionable, I omitted it from my Catalogue. As Dr. Coues re- 
marks, New England is beyond its usual range ; the nearest 
point heretofore given where it regularly occurs is Hamilton, 
C. W., where, according to Mr. Charles Mcllwraith, it is not 
a very rare summer resident.* Mr. Charles Linden informs 
me that he has this year obtained the birds and a nest con- 
taining six eggs at Buffalo, N. Y. Its occasional occurrence 
in New England hence becomes more probable. 

On several occasions the so-called Collurio exciibitoroides 
has been confounded by local observers with the Collurio 
anus, and with very good reason, since they are 
undoubtedly the same. Specimens from the upper Missis- 
sippi valley, where the habitats of the two supposed species 
join, are with difficulty referred to the one rather than to 
the other. In habits and every particular, except in some 
minor differences of coloration, the two are quite alike. In 
fact no one seems to have insisted very strenuously on the 
specific distinctness of C. Ludovicianus and O. exciibito- 
roides (or of C. elegans from the latter) though they have 
usually been presumed to be distinct. I have collected the 
birds in question in Western Iowa, Illinois, and in Florida ; 
according to authors those from the first two localities should 
belong to C. exciibitoroides and those from the latter to C 
Ludovicianus. The differences between them are exceedingly 
slight. Specimens of the so-called C Ludovicianus from 
the South Atlantic states differ from others from California 
and Iowa called G. exciibitoroides not more than specimens 
of the latter from New Mexico do from Iowa ones, or than 
the two supposed species do in the average, and less than 
specimens from near the assumed line of junction of their 
respective habitats. Audubon, it seems to me, very properly 
regarded them as a single species. It seems to be rare 
in the Atlantic states north of Washington, but in the 
interior reaches the Saskatchewan valley, and extends west- 
ward to the Pacific, and south to Mexico. In avoiding the 



BARER BIRDS OF MASSACHUSETTS. 581 

North-eastern states it resembles the JEremojphila alpestris, 
or Horned Lark (in the breeding season), Myiarchus cri- 
nitus (Great-crested Flycatcher), Centunis Carolinus (Red- 
bellied Woodpecker) , Melospiza Lincolnii (Lincoln's Spar- 
row), Zonotrichia leucophrys (White-crowned Sparrow), 
and some other species that extend iniirli farther north in the 
interior than on the Atlantic coast. The Horned Lark is not 
known to breed regularly on the coast much, if any, south 
of Labrador, but in the interior it breeds abundantly on the 
prairies as far south as Missouri, and even in Texas. Some 
of the other species mentioned above do not extend farther 
north on the coast than New Jersey, except as stragglers, 
although in the interior they reach the Saskatchewan. The 
climate there is certainly not warmer than that of Southern 
New England, and some other cause must be sought to 
explain such an unusual distribution. 

Red-bellied Nuthatch. Sitta Canadensis Linn. The 
known instances of this bird's breeding in Massachusetts are 
very few. Five years since, when my Catalogue was pub- 
lished, I knew of none, and gave it as a winter visitant, 
having then seen it only during the colder portion of the 
year. Mr. Jillsou has informed me that he found its nest a 
few years since in Bolton. Dr. Brewer also informs me that 
he saw it on his place in Hiugham, in July, 1867, but was 
unable to find its nest. Many experienced collectors of 
birds in Southern New England have never met with it here 
in summer, but it is known to breed (perhaps only among 
the Alleghanies) much farther south. 

Pine Grosbeak. Pinicola enevdeator. (P. Canadensis 
Cab.). This northern bird has occurred within the state sev- 
eral times within the last five years. During the last two 
winters they were quite common at certain localities, but 
were not generally distributed. As usual, they were chiefly 
young birds. It seems to be of late a more regular visitor 
than was formerly supposed. 

Purple Finch. Carpodacus purpureas Gray. Common 



582 NOTES ON SOME OF THE 

in summer in many parts of the state, and the number that 
breed here seems to be increasing. They usually select 
evergreens for their nests, and appear to more often build 
in the cultivated shrubbery of the towns than elsewhere. 
They are almost as unsuspicious as the proverbially familiar 
Chipping Sparrow (Spizdhi socialis) , they often placing their 
nests in the hedge-rows that border frequented walks. I 
learn from Mr. 13. P. Mann that he has repeatedly found 
their nests in such situations, and Mr. R. B. Hildreth has 
observed the same fact at Springfield. This familiar habit 
in the Purple Finch of California has obtained for it the 
name of House Finch, and it was supposed to differ greatly 
in this respect from the Purple Finch of the Atlantic states, 
before the breeding habits of the latter were so well known. 
Ir differs in this respect not apparently from the eastern bird, 
nor in any other way to any essential degree, specimens from 
California in the Museum of Comparative Zoology being 
quite indistinguishable from others from Massachusetts. 
Hence its distinctive name of frontalis becomes properly a 
synonym of purpureas. 

For the past two winters I have observed individuals of 
this species at frequent intervals in Cambridge, and Mr. 
Bennett has observed it at the same season about Mount 
Holyoke. By far the greater part, however, go farther 
south at this season. 

Xearly all observers in Southern Xew England that I have 
met remark that this bird has greatly increased there during 



:n. Chnjsomitvis pinus Bon. But a single in- 
ne breeding of this bird in Massachusetts has 
' knowledge — that mentioned in my Catalogue. 
year, however, they were quite common in Cain- 
;he last of June, and on two or three occasions I 
mi during the first half of July. I felt sure at 
tat they would breed here, but if they, like the 



RARER BIRDS OF MASSACHUSETTS. 583 

Yellow Bird (Antra yet timix trivtis), breed very late in the 
season, they may have retired in July farther north for this 
purpose, as I did not meet with them later in the season. 
This is very probably the fact, since Mr. William Brewster 
found this species breeding in August this year at Gorham, 
New Hampshire. 

Red-poll Finch. JEgiothus linaria Cab. During the 
past five years this little northern visitor has been several 
times very numerous in Massachusetts. It was especially so 
during the winters of 1866-'67, 1867-M38, and quite so in 
18G8-'69. 

A series of skins in the collection of the Museum of Com- 
parative Zoology, collected in this state by Mr. C. J. May- 
nard, represent four of the so-called species of this group 
recently recognized, — the common JE. linaria, the sup- 
posed larger Mealy Redpoll, JE. canescens Aud.,=-^. epi- 
lipes Coues, the uE. rostralus, and the ^E. fuscescens, 
described as a new species by Dr. Coues.* From a careful 
examination of many specimens, from the far. north, as well 
as from Massachusetts, I cannot consider these forms as dis- 
tinct species, since the diiferences on which they are based 
are very inconstant, and connected by endless intermediate 
stages. The extreme forms to which these several specific 
designations have been applied are quite different from each 
other, and if the differences were constant might -well be 
regarded as distinct species. But. a- already stated, the dif- 
erences are not constant, and it is almost impossible to draw 
a separating line between these several so-called species, f 
Red Crossbill. Cum' rostra Americana Wilson. This 
bird, as is well known, is very irregular in its visits to this 
state, not only in respect to numbers but in regard to the 
season of its appearance. It is generally most numerous in 
winter, but is sometimes more or less common throughout 



584 NOTES ON SOME OF THE 

the year ; at other times very few are seen for a considerable 
period. Concerning this species I have received from Mr. 
Maynard the following very interesting note. He says that 
in 1868 these birds appeared in Massachusetts "early in Sep- 
tember, in very immature plumage, which seemed to indi- 
cate," he thought, "that they were raised in the states. But 
upon visiting Oxford county, Maine," he continues, "Octo- 
ber 12th, and not seeing a single specimen of this bird (al- 
though after the 21st the White-winged species was common) 
I was induced to inquire of the farmers respecting them, 
when I was informed that they passed through that region 
early in August, in large numbers, doing great damage to 
the oat crop. This shows that the unusual occurrence of this 



bird 



_■ 



to the early migration of northern raised birds, 
probably, by an insufficient supply of food, which I think 
regulates the migrations of all northern birds ; hence the ir- 
r- gularity of their visits. The species in question passed 
entirely south of Newton (Mass.), as upon my return from 
Maine, November 13th, not a specimen could be found, but 
C. leucoptera was abundant. From what I have seen of 
these two species I think the latter is generally much more 
boreal in its habits."* 

Specimens of the Red Crossbill have been received at the 
Museum of Comparative Zoology from Massachusetts so 
young that it seems highly probable that they were raised 
here. Among them are specimens collected in Weston, in 
May, 1862, by the late Mr. Horace Mann. Some were so 
young that their bills were not fully grown, while the plu- 
mage also indicated great immaturity. It is hardly possible 
that they could have been born far from where they were 
collected. The condition of the specimens collected by Mr. 
Maynard, alluded to above, seems to indicate that they also 
have not been long from the nest, though they may, as he 
supposes, have come from Maine. These facts seem to 



RARER BIRDS OF MASSACHUSETTS. 585 



indicate that this species breeds at irregular times, since the 
eggs obtained near Milltown, Maine, by Mr. G. A. Board- 
man,* were, as he has informed me, found in February, and 
birds hatched thus early would probabK moult their nesting 
plumage early in summer. Mr. Maynard's specimens must 
have been hatched at least as late as June, and probably in 
July, else in respect to the time of moulting the first or 
'liunage of this species is strangely anomalous, f 

Since the above was put in type I have received from Mr. 
Boardman farther information respecting the breeding of the 
Crossbills, as follows : "They breed all the season, from 
the middle of February till into May, and perhaps later." 

White-winged Crossbill. CurciroMra Uucoptem Wil- 
ton. This species is much less frequent in its visits than the 
preceding, it being, as Mr. Maynard bas observed, much 
more boreal, and is generally seen only in winter. Last 
winter they were quite numerous in the eastern part of the 
state, when, as he has stated above. Mr. Maynard observed 
them as early as the middle of November. They remained, 
according to the same authority, till the first of June, they 
-erved by him in flocks during the last week of May. 
He also informs me that he shot a male in fine breeding 
plumage the 13th of June. In the summer of 1866 he 
found their stomachs filled with canker worms. 

Lapland Longspur. Centrophanes Lapponicus Kaup. 
This is a very rare' winter visitor in the interior of the state, 
but rather common, according to Mr. Maynard. at Ipswich, 
where he has taken half a dozen in a day, and seen many 
more. It associates with the Snow Bunting (Plectrop7ianes 
nivalis), and is probably more or less common in winter 
alone: the whole coast of the state. 






THE LINGERING ADMIRKRS OF PHRENOLOGY. 



To slay those that arc already slain may be excellent sport 
to employ the courage of a Falstaff, but the reader perusing 
the title of this article may perhaps i„. disposed to ask why 
the pages of this review should be occupied with the discus- 
sion of so dead a doctrine as Phrenology. The answer is, 
that although phrenology never had much countenance from 
scientific men, and has long since been banished by them, 
with one consent, to the limbo of exploded chimeras, yet 
among educated men and women not physiologists, and not 
pretending to know anything about anatomy, it still holds its 
grounds wonderfully, and counts considerable numbers of 
people who believe in its miraculous skull maps; while, be- 
side.- these, there is a far more numerous ela-s of persons, 
including, undeniably, a certain proportion of scientific men, 
who, admitting that the minute division of the cranial vault 
into organs is untenable, yet profess belief in a largei nap- 
ping, and have no hesitation in relegating the reasoning 
faculties exclusively to the forehead, and the moral senti- 
ment- and volitionary powers to other parts of the brain-pan. 

This state of matter does not exist without a sufficient 
reason to account for it, Long before the time of Gall and 

and much more fre.pienth half uncon.-ciou-U , ot gauging 
the intelligence and moral qualities of their neighbors by 
their personal appearance generally, and more particularly 
ot estimating them according to .'rude impressions derived 
from the shapes of their heads. They judged rightly enough 
that there was some connection between brain and mind. 
Much of the evidence that the brain is the organ of the mind 
is so palpable that it could not remain Ion- hid. The effects 



ADMIRERS OF 


rm.-i 


iNOLOGY. 


&81 


of the brain ir. 
the higher thai 
especially its i 


, disti 


irbing the 


intelli- 

eat do- 



seemed, though vaguely, to point out that a scrutiny of the 
amount of tin- brain and shape of the cranium was likely to 
afford an index of the strength and qualities of the mind. 
Gall propounded his theory that different portions of the 

according to the size of those different parts of the brain, so 
the mental qualities varied : and making continual observa- 
tions on the heads and characters of those with whom he 
came in contact, he covered the surface of the cranial vault 
with a map, which at once professed to indicate the correct 
analysis of the mental faculties, aud to assign to each of 
these its proper habitation. The psychological difficulties 
of their pursuit do not seem to have weighed heavily on 
either Gall or his followers ; and as for the exceedingly great 
obstacles in the way of estimating the proportions of even 
large masses of the brain by observation of the surface of 
the skull, not only did the phrenologists strangely ignore 
them, but we are constrained to sav that even anatomists 



588 THE LINGERING ADMIRERS OF 

merely pointing out that the system is certainly a blunder ; 
and their hearers have gone away impressed with the con- 
viction that it is impossible for the uninitiated to argue with 
experts, yet saying in their hearts that they are sure there 
is a mistake somewhere, and unwilling to part with all their 
beautiful theories and get nothing in exchange. Iconoclasm 
is not popular : when an image is thrown down it is well 
that its destruction should make way for a flood of light suf- 
ficient to satisfy the eye in its stead. This is an achievement 
not easy to accomplish, but actuated with the laudable 
motive of attempting it, the writer will try, not only to 
reiterate the reasons why phrenology cannot possibly be true, 
but to give some idea of what is positively known 
the brain and its functions, and to point out in what direc- 
tion speculation may be still legitimately indulged. 

Let us begin at the beginning and try and form some gen- 
eral notion of what the brain is as it is known to the anato- 
mist, before we dogmatize about the functions of the parts 
which happen to come in contact with the upper and lateral 
walls of the skull. 

If a chick be examined in a hen's egg which has been 
allowed to hatch for twelve hours, or if the embryo of any 
vertebrate animal be examined at a similarly early period, it 
will be seen to exhibit a long open furrow, the walls of which 
are the first portions of the animal to be formed. The most 
superficial layer of substance entering into the construction 
of this furrow may be described as a long ribbon, consisting 
of two symmetrical parts separated by a longitudinal groove : 
this is the embryo i. constituting on© 

continuous structure, the cerebrospinal axis. The parts 
which support the ribbon form in like manner the cranium 
and the spinal canal, primarily undUiinruishablc one from 
the other. The edges of the furrow rise up and become 
united, so that the open furrow is converted into a closed 
cylinder; and similarly the ribbon within it has its literal 
edges brought together, so that the brain and spinal cord 



OF PHRENOLOGY. 589 

at an early period of their development, form one continuous 
tube. The walls of the tube so formed become ultimately 
much thickened and exhibit two kinds of texture, which, 
from their color, are distinguished as the gray and the 
white. In the case of so much of the tube as lies in the 
spinal canal and is afterwards termed spinal cord, the devel- 
opment proceeds very regularly ; white matter is deposited 
on the outer wall of the cylinder, and gray matter on the 
inner wall, until it appears solid. A minute canal, however, 
the central canal of the spinal cord, continues to traverse its 
whole extent throughout life, and is the remains of the orig- 
inal hollow of the tube. Towards the lower part of the cord 
in birds there is even a space called the sinus rhomboidalis, 
where the cylinder is never completed, and the central canal 
is open on the dorsal aspect. Now, however different the 
brain may be in the adult condition from the spinal cord, 
it is extremely interesting to note that it is the anterior por- 
tion of the same cylinder, but that the cylinder undergoes 
some bendings, its walls are greatly thickened in some 
places and imperfect in others, and the continuation of the 
central canal is in some places greatly dilated, and in others 
contracted. 

As respects texture, there is much in common between the 
brain and spinal cord. They are similar in appearance, and 
both consist of true nerve tissues, with a fine reticulum of 
supporting substance in which those more important ele- 
ments are embedded. The proper nerve tissues are two in 
number, nerve fibres and nerve corpuscles : the nerve fibres 
are long threads which have the property of n 
along their course a certain change of condition which con- 
stitutes nervous influence, and which, it may be mentioned, 
is a purely physical action, not electrical, but involving in its 
operation electrical changes. Nerve fibres transmit this 
influence, but have no power of originating, directing, or 
modifying it: they are simply conductors, and such nerve 
fibres are" the essential elements in all the nerves throughout 



PHRENOLOGY. 



in the gray substance. It is quite plain, t 
iversally recognized, that the white substano 

as containing channels of connnunication bet' 



ord impressions aloni; the nerves so adjusted 

existence the mind is utterly ignorant, which 
effect the required result. ' But it is always 
of stimulus, the nervous influence, wherever 



THE LINGERING ADMIRERS OF PHRENOLOGY. 591 

ues from, which acts upon the cord. Thus, for example, 
l the cord near its upper part is severed from the brain 

m in the parts supplied by it below the place of lesion, 



' the inh-.nm.nt still so 



th< 


»se parts 


; but i 


irritatioi 


GUI 


•rent as 


before 


to the 


tri 


bated by 


the corpuscles 


ini 


ra-ain b\ 


t the mi 


i>tor ner 


of 


muscles! 


This 




of 


the phei 


lomeno 


n terme 



probably tlir simplest possible c 
hysiologists retlex 



entured on this extremely cursory and general 
spinal cord, the simplest portion of the cere- 



brosp 




order that the general reader may form 




conception of the kind of 


mechanism which extends 


throu; 


[>h the more 


obscure and 


intricate portion, the brain. 


To e: 


.plain fully 


the extremely 


complex structure of the 


brain 


would require much greate: 


r detail than is allowable in 


an art 


icle like this, 


but a general 


idea of the most important 


facts ' 


ivill best be 


arrived" at by 


pursuing the account of its 


earlv 


development. 


, which we h&i 


e already begun. 


Th< 


3 cylinder wl: 


lich we have 1 


raced in the embryo, so far 


as the 


spinal cord i 


s concerned, i 


s immediately on its closure, 


expan 


ded in its era 


nial part into 


a series of three primordial 


vcsicl 


es, and imme 


diately afterw; 


uxls two little hollow buds, 


called the hemispln 


:re vesicles, [irojeet laterally from the fore- 


most i 


of the series. 


Without tra 


cing the history of the pri- 


mordi 


al vesicles, it 


; is sufficient 


for our present purpose to 


point 


out that the 


cerebellum is 


originally a part of the hin- 


dermc 


>st, projecting 


r upwards as 


a hollow pouch, and that it 


isquii 


te certain, frc 


m the experiu 


lents on lower animals, that 




lseiousness w 


hatever reside 


s in any of the parts devel- 


pped 


from that ve 


side; also it 


is equally certain that not 


more 


than the ver 


y feeblest con 


sciousness resides in those 


parts 


into which the walls of the 


two other primordial vesi- 



592 THE LINGERING ADMIRERS OF PHRENOLOGY. 

cles are developed. These parts are devoted to the carrying 
on of obscure functions connected with the sensibility and 
movements of the body strictly comparable with the func- 
tions of the spinal cord, and entirely of a physical descrip- 
tion : the organs of the mental faculties are the developed 
hemisphere vesicles, and these only. The hemisphere vesicles 
rapidly enlarge and extend backwards over and around the 
other parts of the brain, so as to reach to the cerebellum 
behind, come in contact with the whole roof and sides of the 
skull and a large part of its floor, and press one Bg 
other in the middle line of the whole length of the skull for 
an average depth of a couple of inches ; and early in embry- 
onic life they are already much the most bulky parts of the 

The gray matter which lines the whole length of the cere- 
brospinal cylinder fails to be developed in the hemisphere 
vesicles, except at one part placed at the neck of the vesicle, 
and called by anatomists the corpus striatum, but of which 
we know nothing in respect of function, and can only note 
that it is traversed by the whole mass of fibres joining the 
hemisphere vesicles with the cord and cerebellum. The 
whole of the rest of the hemisphere vesicle, or, as it is 
termed, the cerebral hemisphere, consists of an enormous 
mass of white matter, with a superadded layer of gray 
matter on the outside. The cerebellum has the same peculi- 
arity of having its gray matter on the surface, and it is 
curious to note that both the gray matter on the cerebellum 
and that on the cerebrum, while differing one from the other 
in minute structure, differ still more from the gray matter 
which is found elsewhere, and the function of which is, as 
we have seen, in a general way, well understood. Also the 
cerebellum and cerebral hemispheres resemble each other in 
being thrown into numerous elevations and depressions, in 
order to expose a larger extent to the vascular membrane on 
their surface, which sends its minute branches into them. 
Th'ese circumstances might plead a little for the doctrine that 



OF PHRENOLOGY. 593 

the cerebellum is connecting with a psychical faculty, what- 
ever that might be, but its totally different source of origin 
is clearly opposed to such a notion ; and we are not left 
merely to speculate on the subject, for both disease in the 
human subject, and experiment on animals, teach us that 
when the cerebellum is destroyed, the power of combining 
movements so as to regulate and guide them is lost, the 
limbs being still capable of being moved, but walking and 
handling being impossible. Thus it is certain that the func- 
tion of the cerebellum is totally different from what the 
phrenologists hold it to be. 

Examining the cerebral hemispheres in different animals, 
and proceeding from the lower to the higher form-, a pro- 
gress in development is found, similar to the progress made 
iu embryonic life. Thus in fishes they are represented In- 
very small parts in the fore part of the "brain ; in birds they 
have not extended sufficiently backwards to be in contact 
with the cerebellum, and their bulk is due almost entirely 
to the corpora striata : in rodent animals their surface is 
smooth ; and, as one passes to the higher groups of mam- 
mals, more and more complicated convolutions of the sur- 
face are met with; while in man by far the greatest com- 
plexity is found. 

Whatever the particular cerebral charge-, may be which 
accompany and are necessary for thought, there can be no 
question that they occur in the gray matter, and that the 
white matter is only useful bj it parts of 

end which it accomplidn - very thoroughly by its ■ 

I til direc- 
tions. Judging, then, from comparative anatomy, and even 
on phrenological principles, one would expect that, among 
men, the greater the amount of gray matter of a given qual- 
ity the more effective would the hemisphere be for the 
exercise of the mental faculties ; and this, there is good 
reason to consider, is to some extent actually the case. But 



OlM THE LINGERING ADMIRERS OF PHRENOLOGY. 

the quantity of gray matter varies according to other circum- 
stances besides the size of the skull. The vertical depth at 
any one spot, from the surface of the gray matter down to 
the white, differs in different brains ; and what is probably 
more important is, that the complication of the convolutions 
varies greatly. Complex convolutions are probably more 
important than the thickness of the sheet of gray matter, 
because it is obvious that not only quantity but activity of 
texture will be an advantage; and complexity of convolu- 
tions involves increased surface of vascular membrane, send- 
ing its blood-vessels into the gray matter, and furnishing its 
elements with the means of activity. In harmony with this 
supposition, the simplest condition of the convolutions has 
been found in the brains of the lowest races of humanity, 
and Wagner's comparisons of the brains of various persons 
of ability with others from persons of supposed limited in- 
telligence show more complicated convolutions in the former 
than the latter, although at the same time exhibiting appa- 
rent exceptions to that rule. It may be noticed in this con- 
nection that if two skulls of the same cranial capacity be 
one long and narrow and the other short and broad, the long 
and narrow one is that which has the greatest amount of 
surface, and is therefore most favorable for a large propor- 
tion of gray matter ; so that, ceteris paribus, the loug skull 
has probably an advantage over the broad skull ; while, on 
the other hand, there is no doubt that, with a given model 
of skull to start from, the tendency of expanding hemi- 
spheres is rather to increase the breadth than the length. 

Turning now to the fundamental doctrine of phrenology, 
that different parts of the cerebral hemisphere are the organs 
of different mental faculties, we feel assured that no physi- 
ologist will hesitate in giving it a distinct and emphatic 
denial. It is true that the convolutions of the hemispheres 
are so constant that they are named ; but the existence of 
the convolutions is not for the sake of dividing the hemi- 
spheres into parts, and does not do so, but only affords, as 



THE LINGERING ADMIRERS OF PHRENOLOGY. 595 

has been said, facility for vascular supply ; and, at all events, 
the convolutions have not the smallest correspondence with 
the phrenological organs which cross them, cut them up, and 
combine them in the most regardless fashion. 

But the fatal objection to the doctrine of different func- 
tions in different parts is to be found in the teachings of 
experiment and pathology. An animal will bear to have its 
cerebral hemisphere- irradually sliced away ; and the slicing 
may be done in any direction with the same result, namely. 
gradually increasing stupidity, but with no change of char- 
acter according as one or other phrenological organ is re- 
moved. 

So also, persons have often recovered from wounds from 
which portions of the brain have protruded and been ampu- 
tated, but it makes no difference what part of the hemisphere 
is injured ; nor, in cases of tumors destroying portions of 
the hemispheres, is it at all possible to state the position of 
the tumors from any alteration in the mental constitution 
of the patient. The symptoms are perfectly irrespective of 
the part of the hemisphere affected. 

Not only, however, are the hemispheres not divided into 
organs, but, supposing that such organs existed, it would be 
impossible to tell their size by the phrenological method. 
The bulging of any portion of the cranium vault does not 
indicate an increased thickness of the gray matter at that 
part, or give any clue to the degree of development of the 
convolutions opposite to the spot. Indeed, the shapes of 
skulls indicate differences of form in the central white mat- 
ter of the hemispheres, rather than local differences of 
development of the gray matter on the surface. The sheet 
of gray matter is disposed with tolerably even thickness over 
great tracts, and always reaches its greatest complication of 
structure in the same region — namely, towards the back 
part. 

It is not necessary to dwell at length on what has been 
discussed, ad nauseam, long years ago, — how one-half of the 



596 

surface of the hemisphere, namely, the part looking to the 
middle line and to the base, is beyond the reach of all phren- 
ological observation; and how the most minute organs have 
been crowded by phrenologists over a part of the skull whose 
configuration is certainly not in the slightest degree affected 
by the form of the brain, namely, the line of bone immedi- 
ately over the nose and eyes. But the aceompam ing tiguie 
speaks for itself. It has been obtained by tracing from a 
horizontal section of a skull, made half an inch above the 
orbit, dividing the phrenological organs of individuality, 
size, weight, color, and order, as indicated by Spurzheim, 
and passing quite above three still more nonsensical organs. 
viz., that of form, lying on the nasal cavity; calculation, 
which is never anything but the solid external orbital process 
of bone ; and language, the so-called large size of which is 
an appearance of the eye dependent on want of projection 
forwards of the face bone on which it rests. 

Turning now to the less special but more generally dif- 
fused notions respecting localization of different faculties in 
different parts of the skull, a few words may be said about 
fine foreheads. It may be freely granted that a handsome 
forehead is a beautiful feature, and one frequently, though 
by no means always or exclusively, met with in persons of 
talent; but a spacious and well-shaped forehead by no means 
necessarily indicates preponderance of the frontal lobes of 
the hemispheres over the others. This, with some other 
interesting points, will best appear by considering the gen- 
eral shape and mode of growth of the cranium. The cranial 
cavity, as has been already said, is originally the upper part 
of a long cylinder, the remainder of which becomes the 
spinal canal; and it may be regarded, even in its adult state, 
as a cylinder much modified and distorted. At an early 
embryonic period it is in all animals curved remarkably 
downwards on itself. Examining it, however, in adults, the 
total curvation of the cranial cylinder is seen to differ much 
in different species, becoming greater the higher the position 



ADMIRERS OF PHRENOLOGY. 597 

of the animal. This increasing curvature is accompanied 

with increasing expansion of the roof bones of the skull and 
arrest of the basal hones : thus in the human subject the roof 
bones are expanded far more than in any other animal, while 
the basal bones are crowded and oven fused together by their 
position in the concavity of the curve of the cylinder. The 
human curve is not complete in infancy : for, as the present 
writer has elsewhere shown, it goes on increasing for several 
years after birth: it is also greater in the higher than in the 
lower races of mankind. This curvature is an important 
means of increasing the space for the cerebral hemispheres, 
b\ lengthening the roof; and it does so most effectually when 
accompanied with the other means which Nature uses to 
expand the cranium, namely, increase of vertical and trans- 
verse diameter of the cylinder. 

Farther, before returning to the question of foreheads, it 
must be pointed out that the position in which the head is 
articulated with the neck differs in different persons, accord- 
ing to the weight of the fore and back parts, so as to pre- 
serve balance. This is best seen in the process of growth, 
for the forehead and face have the smallest proportional de- 
velopment in young children; and as they become large, the 
head is tilted farther and farther round on the top of the 



point of : 


support, to bala 


nee 


the weig 


ht in front: and this 


tilting takes pla 


ce to a nr 


uch 


greater e 


xtent in men than in 


women, 1 


>eeaus 


c in won 




the face 


and forehead remain 


proportio 


nally 1 


ighter. 








From the for* 


jgoing eonsid 


erations it 


must be apparent to 


every on< 


a that 


loftiness 


of 


forehead 


results fron 


height of 


the w 


hole skull 


, an 


d that the 


apparent form of the 


forehead 


is vei 


•y dependent 


both on 


the amount of total 


cranial cm 


irvatuv 


e and on 


the 


balance ol 


f the head on the ver- 


tebral col 


num. 


The dec. 


■ P ti 


veness of 




ance may 


. perh: 


ips, be be 


■st i 


llustrated 


by noting how people 



speak of the large foreheads of children. The frontal 



598 THE LINGERING ADMIRERS OF PHRENOLOGY. 

nences of the child project forwards, and the head arches 
boldly above them, giving the appearance of a large fore- 
head ; but, in point of fact, the forehead of the child is pro- 
portionally very small and undeveloped; and its apparent 
prominence is due partly to the shallowness of the orbits, 
giving a comparative prominence to the frontal eminences, 
and partly to the whole skull being so set on the top of the 
spine that the forehead and face bones are turned more 
downwards than in the adult. The arch of the upper part 
of the child's forehead is afterwards lost, because it is turned 
back to lie more level on the roof of the head. So also, in 
the female, the head being not so much tilted up, there is a 
persistent upward arching of the roof of the skull, as it is 
traced backward, which is peculiarly feminine and graceful. 

With regard to development of the back part of the skull, 
it has been justly remarked by some good observers, that 
fulness of that region appears to be quite as important as a 
full forehead ; and it is instructive to note, that if a sketch 
be made of a head in profile, a change of < 
from almost idiotic weakness to great strength of character, 
may be produced by varying the outline of the lower occip- 
ital region and back of the neck without altering any other 
portion. But the alteration of that line indicates not a mere 
addition to the posterior lobes of the brain or subtraction 
from them, but a change in the anatomy of the whole inte- 
rior of the head, affecting the cerebral hemispheres through- 
out their extent. 

So, also, those anatomists who have written as if the char- 
acteristic posterior lobes of the brain in man and apes were 
so much matter added to the back of the hemispheres, are 
really mistaken ; for the hemispheres of a sheep rest against 
precisely the part of the cerebellum corresponding to that 
which they rest against in the human subject ; but the human 
brain diners from that of the sheep in the vastly increased 
curvature and greater diameter of the cranial cylinder. 

In bringing these cursory remarks to a conclusion, it i s 



THE LINGERING ADMIRERS OF PHRENOLOGY. 599 

only necessary to add, that the reader is not to imagine, 
because it has been argued that different faculties are not 
localized in different parts of the cerebral hemispheres, that 
therefore it follows that there is no connection between the 
shape of the head and the mental character. Let the reader 
who still preserves a lingering fondness for judging men by 
their appearance continue to take the skull into account, if 
he pleases ; but let him be assured that whatever connection 
really exists is to be explained, not by the plnv: 
dogma, but as he would explain why massive chins are often 
conjoined with strong wills, different types of hand with dif- 
ferent types of mind, well-built frames with healthy mental 
tendencies, and rickety bodies with eccentric, though often 
keenest-witted natures. The explanation is physiognomical. 
While, however, this is probably the case with regard to the 
shape of the head, it is obvious that the relationship of the 
amount of brain to the mental faculties is more than physi- 
ognomical. Possibly « drawn between the 
brain and a galvai ic battery, and im i< ; se of the gnu matter 
of the one be correctly compared with addition to the cells 
of the other ; but as in an electric instrument the working is 
dependent on the delicacy and fitness of the arrangements 
quite as much as on the strength of the current which sup- 
plies them, so in the case of the mind the result is depend- 
ent on the distribution and balance of the faculties and 
is, and on other circumstances, none of which are 
proved to have auy connection with the mass of cerebral 
substance. Certain it is that, although there are probably 
mental characters peculiar to large and small brains respec- 
tively, the size of the skull is, as any observer may easily 
satisfy himself, no good guide to the mental endowments. 
— Popular Science Review. 



THE CLAPPER RAIL. 



The Clapper Rail, otherwise called the Salt-water Marsh 
Hen, is a sea-side bird, inhabiting the marshes along our coast 
within reach of the tides, and rarely if ever straying inward. 
It goes as far north as Massachusetts, but only in summer, 
ai 1 i frequent or rare beyond the Middle States. Further 
south, however, it is one of the most abundant and character- 
istic of the maritime species. On the coast of North Car- 
olina, for instance, it breeds in countless numbers, and 
remains nearly all the year — only becoming less numerous 
in winter, or perhaps disappearing altogether for a short 
time during the coldest weather. I presume that the reader 
is so familiar with the appearance of the bird, from seeing 
stuil'il specimens, that 1 need say nothing on this score. 
But it may not be so generally known that the young birds, 
in the downy plumage, are jet black, with a faint gloss of 
green, looking, much like newly-hatched chickens, except 
that the bill, and especially the feet, are longer. The former 
is flesh colored, the latter are dusky. And perhaps still less 
is known of the habits of this, as well as of other rails, 
which are particularly difficult to study satisfactorily. Rails 
live hidden in the marches , and are not very often seen ex- 
cept when they fly up; so that how they live becomes a 
matter of some interest, as perhaps I may be able to show. 
We will begin with the ejrgs— omne vivum ex ovo, says 
Linnaeus. 

I have sometimes thought that the pains oologists fre- 
quently take to measure eggs in hundredths of the inch, and 
describe their shape with mathematical exactitude, might be 
spared for something more profitable. I was never more 
struck by the fact that birds' eggs vary more than is usually 

(GOO) 



^L;; ! :v r :v:;:::r:::■;:; l :, l . i; ;:r;»a^" ss,ll ' 


, and two-i 


long, by an inch and one-tenth broad; nam 


mly or br 


oval; narrowly or broadly elliptical, or m 


,arly spho 


The ground color ranges from a dull opac 


pie white 


creamy or pale buff. They are rather sparse 




thickly, marked with spots evenly or very 


irregularis 


tributed over the surface ; the spots varying t 


'nun mere' 


to large splashes, both on the same, or on 


ditieivnt 


But when the markings vary in size an the 


same egir 


are always largest and most numerous toward 


s or at the 


where also they are apt to run together ; wh 


ile they U> 


remain distinct on other parts of the shell. 


But it i: 



these are of a diifeivnt character. The former are us, 
roundish, with a distinct contour; the latter have no det 
shape. In color the markings are always reddish brc 
whether paler or darker, they have the rusty or red 
tint, and are never pure brown. There arc a numbei 
other spots, more obscure than either of the foregoing, 
pearing as if in the shell instead of on the surface ; t 
are some shade of lavender, lilac, or very pale purplish. 



602 THE CLAPPER KAIL. 

The number of eggs deposited varies ; I never found more 
than seven in one nest, though I have been assured that 
eight or nine may be laid ; six or seven is the average num- 
ber, however. The laying season commences (here in North 
Carolina, at any rate) the last week in April, and continues 
until the middle of June, or later, as two broods are fre- 
quently raised. I found perfectly fresh eggs June 12th ; and 
have seen barely fledged birds in August. But the second 
and third weeks in May are the great times for laying. 
Then, when the season is at its height, some idea of the 
countless numbers of rails in the marshes may be gained 
from the fact that baskets full of the eggs are gathered by 
the boys (and men too) and brought to the Beaufort market, 
where they sell for about five cents a dozen. When per- 
fectly fresh they are very good to eat. 

We occasionally read in books, scientific and otherwise, 
accounts of the nests of rails and coots being floated off by 
the tide without going to pieces, and the parent bird contin- 
uing to incubate, with undisturbed peace of mind, during 
the whole voyage. I suppose such a thing may have hap- 
pened ; at any rate, a lively imagination is well enough, and 
it is a pity to spoil a good story by asking impertinent ques- 
tions. But I must say I never saw a rail's nest substantial 
enough to hold together for any length of time floating 
on the water; and, moreover, that a good deal that has 
been said about their being skilfully moored to tussocks of 
grass, rising and falling with the tide, etc., may be taken 
with much salt, In fact, destruction of numberless nests, 
addling of eggs, and drowning of newly-hatched young, are 
foregone conclusions from every unusual rise of the tide, as 
during a severe storm. A great tragedy of this sort hap- 
pened at Fort Macon, on the 22d of May, 1869, when, and 
tor two or three days afterward, the marsh, ordinarily in 
greatest part above water, was flooded— only here and there 
a little knoll breaking the monotony of the water. There 
was a terrible commotion among the rails at first, in prospect 



THE CLAPPER RAIL. 603 

of the common calamity; and the reeds resounded with their 
hoarse cries of terror. But as the waters advanced, and 
inundated score after score of homes, the birds became silent 
again as if in unspeakable misery. Driven from their 
concealment, anxious or terrified, as the case might be, 
they wandered in listless dejection over beds of floating: 
wrack, swam aimlessly over the water, or gathered stupefied 
in groups upon projecting knolls. Few of the old birds. 
probably, were drowned, but most of the young- must have 
perished. A dark day for the rails ! 

rails generally build their nests around the margins of the 
marsh, or in elevated and comparatively dry spots in its 
midst, just about at the usual high water mark. The 
nest is always placed on the ground, in a bunch of reeds or 
tussock of grass, or clump of little bushes. It is an artless 
flimsy structure, made of dried grasses, or reed stalks broken 
Iw'ttoii) into pieces three or four inches in length, 
laid crosswise and matted together, but scarcely intertwined. 
It is simply a platform of such materials, say a foot in 
diameter, and two or three inches thick, .-lightly hollowed in 
Sometimes it is barely thick enough to keep 
the eggs from the wet; sometimes quite a heap of materials 
is made ; this seems to depend in great measure upon the 
comparative dryness of the situation selected. But in any 
case the nest is so frail and so bulky that it is difficult or 
impossible to lift it up without its coming to pieces. 

The rail is not a natatorial bird properly -[.caking. It 
has only a very slight basal web, and no vestige of a mar- 
ginal fringe or lobe along the toes. Nevertheless, it swims 
very well, at least for short distances. I have often seen 
the birds take to the water by choice, not from necessity ; 
and noticed that they swam buoyantly, if not very fast, and 
with perfect ease ; much like coots, for example. In couse- 
quence of the compressed shape of the body, they rest 
rather deeply in the water; but carry the head well elevated, 



604 THE CLAPPER RAIL. 

the neck drawn hack, and the tail cocked up. They are 
poor flyers, as every one knows ; so poor, it seems, that it is 
somewhat a matter of surprise that some of the family 

a thing not easy to effect, except at high tide, they fly up 
in a remarkablv weak, va-ue way, flap hurriedly a little 
distance, and settle suddenly again,\vith a peculiar motion of 
the wings, as if simply letting themselves drop. This cir- 
cumstance make- these and other kinds of rails— they are all 
alike in this respect — the very easiest of all birds to shoot on 

people are fond of rail-shooting. The birds in fact are 

point is walking. As walkers, they have "few equals and 
no superiors." A glance at their Ion- strong legs is suffi- 
cient to establish this fact, without the trouble of going into 
a marsh, and observing how every square foot of soft mud 
is marked with the impress of their feet — all the impres- 
sions made of course since the last tide. The rails' attitudes 
are not easily learned ; when seen, the birds are generally in 
too much of a hurry for this, but some of their poses are 
extremely graceful. Audubon has caught them best of any 
one who has attempted their delineation. As any one will 
notice, who has an opportunity of seeing a rail leisurely 

between the muscles of the tail and legs. With every step 
there is a corresponding jerk of the tail, apparently invol- 
untary, and regular as clock-work. The same movements 
are repeated by the head and neck, as in most birds ; they all 

of gravity, as this is thrown now over one. now over the 
other leg. The remarkable compression of the body, that 
enables the birds to pass between close-set reeds, need not 
be enlarged upon. The expression "thin as a rail," refers, I 
take it, to these birds, and not to what fences are made of; 
at least, if it doesn't, it might. 



fill: < I.A1TER RAIL. 



able to watch rails when the birds are security and dicing 
of their prey, he will see that they do it much after the 

But the rails rare after their meals more than herons do; 
there is less patient lying i„ wu it, and altogether less 
"action" in the final blow. 

Rails arc among the most harmless and inoffensive of 
birds. All that they seem to want is to be let alone. But 
when wounded and caught, they make the best tight they can, 
and show good spirit. The bill is too slendered weak to 
be much of a weapon, and they scarcely attempt to use it; 
relying rather upon their sharp claws, which they employ to 
considerable effect. 

A colonv of rails, -oes tar towards relieving a marsh of 



nianv startled throats. The 
rinoles on the water at the phi 



upon the slightes 



reckless, and their jovial, if unmusical, notes resound till the 
very reeds seem to quake. It is as if some irresistible joke 
was going the rounds, making every bird laugh outright as 
soon as it was told. With scarcely a change of name, in 
fact, the Clapper Kail's nature, and function in bird-society, 
is perfectly expressed. It should be spelled in French style 
— claqueur. Unobtrusive, unrecognized except by a few, 
almost unknown to the uninitiated, the birds steadily and 
faithfully fulfil their allotted parts ; like claqueurs they fill 
the pit, ready at a sign, to applaud anything— or nothing— 
that may be going on in the drama of life before them. 

I do not wish to be tedious ; but I have a story that I can 
vouch for as being something new. It is "another rail-road 
accident ;" when will public opinion force the companies to 
be more careful? Suppressing an obtrusive pun upon iron 
and other rails, for it is unbecoming to joke over a melan- 
choly case of suicide, I will merely say that a rail was found 
lying «_Uad upon the track that divides two pieces of marsh 
at Fort Macon. Now we have all read certain singular sto- 
ries, perhaps in "Orel's Wilson," to the effect that rails are 
subject to remarkable spells of fear or anger, or something 
of that sort, that throw them into epileptic fits. I thought 
at first, here was a real case in point ; for the bird was dead, 
yet without a sign of external violence, even so much as the 
ruffling of the plumage. Stooping to pick him up, however, 
I found that he had got both legs wedged fast in the crack 
between the ends of two contiguous rails ; he was in fact so 
firmly caught that I had some little trouble in liberating his 
dead body. He had evidently tried to walk between the 
rail- Instead of stepping over them; but how he ever man- 
aged to "put his foot in it" so effectively I cannot imagine, 
f*>r there was not a fourth of an inch of space. Still the 
ins. In the inquest held upon this unlucky rail- 
victim of the "blind decrees of fate," as the novelists say— 
I discovered abundant cause of death, without falling back 
upon any hypothesis of mental emotion. He had beat him- 



REVIEWS. 607 

self to death against the iron. Both shoulder blades and 
one coracoid were broken ; the other coracoid was dislocated ; 
there was a double fracture of the merry-thought, and a 
crack in the keel of the breastbone ; while all the muscles 
of the breast were terribly bruised, and full of blood-clots. 



Huxley's Classification of Animals. Continued from Page 546. — 
Professor Hir - forth the characteristics of the group, 

or Subkingdom, of Vertebrata, and as plainly indicates the three Prov- 
inces into which it is divisible, viz : I. The Ichthyopsida, comprising the 
Fishes and Amphibians ; II. The Sauropsida, comprising the Reptiles and 
Birds ; III. The Mammalia. These three groups are certainly well marked, 
and the affinities of their members have for a long time been noticed and 
agreed to. No one can doubt the close relationship existing between the 
Fishes and Amphibians (Salamanders, Frogs, etc.,); and since the dis- 
covery of the remarkable fossil form of Archaeoptenjx, which has been 
placed alternately in the classes of Reptiles and Birds, the characters of 
these two classes have been so thoroughly sifted as to prove their 
close affinity; neither can the distinctive characters of the class ui Mam- 
malia be questioned, though as has often been pointed out, and as Prof. 
Huxley also insists upon, the Mammals, Birds and Reptiles, or the Abran- 
chiate Vertebrata, have & 

them from the equally well defined group of Amphibians and Fishes, or 
the Branchiate Vertebrata. 

as characterized by the reproductive organs, especially those of the fe- 
male, Prof. Huxley states that he does " not mean to assert that M. de 
Blainville defined these different groups in a manner altogether satis- 
factory, or strictly in accordance with all the subsequently discovered 
facts of science, but his great knowledge and acute intuition led him to 
perceive that the groups thus named were truly natural divisions of the 
And the enlargement of our knowledge by subsequent inves- 
ts to me, in the main, only to have confirmed De I 
views." These primary divisions, or subclasses, are the Orn '* 

i hvnchus and Echidna; the Didelphia, 
or the Marsupials; and the Monodelphia, embracing all the rest of 
the orders of the class, which, from "placental" characters, he places 
in five groups. Without either endorsing or attempting to disprove 
1 of the Mam- 



malia, w< will simply compare the results of Ms system with the 
the equally carefully considered one of Owen published ten years b 

Both arc stri.-. .; >1 , far !ls t!l i„ilatiii.ir tli«- v 



differently undersi 



groups c 

priiK-ipa 



Class II. RgPTiLBfi (2fcj 






610 REVIEWS. 

In this classification of fishes Prof. Huxley has simply followed the 
groups of Miiller, given twenty-three years ago, but has lowered the rank 
of the groups from subclasses, as they were considered by Muller, to 
orders. These groups are undoubtedly well founded, but their equality 
ol' rank may be questioned. The /< m in many 

of their characters, and the typical • Lilian in some 

of theirs, both am'eeinir, however, in much that is important in their 
-ned by Huxley to Dipnoi 
■ i ;• sis charaet< w are 
either of an aberrant or embryonic nature). The Elasmohrancktt are 
equally an aberrant group, with affinities to the higher classes of Birds 
and Mammals. The Marsipuhraw hii an low . d< gradational, or embryonic 
forms, v.:.: n n lativ< Ij coi Bid • d with the other groups of the class; 
and the single genus oft is of so low an embryonic 

type that it must be considered as representing a distinct subclass, unless 
the embryology of the lower Marsipobranchiates shall prove it to be the 
lowest order of that subclass. The Teleostei are the most fish-like of 
^ ■ eing more nearly with the Ganoidci than with the other 
groups. Are these six groups of equal value? and if so do they rank as 
subclasses or as orders? and what is the rank of the groups into which 
all but the Dipnoi and Pharyngobranchii are most naturally subdivided? 
If the same considerations used to discriminate the orders among Mam- 
mals, Keptiles, or Amphibians be applied to the fishes, will not the sec- 
ondary divisions of the groups Teleostei, Elasmobranchii, Ganoidei and 
mchii by force be considered as orders? On these consider- 
ations we agree with Prof. Gill, who in 1861, in a discussion of the sub- 
ject of the higher groups among fishes (Proc. Philad. Acad Nat. Sci.), 
united the Dipnoi with the subclass of Ganoids, considering them only of 
equal rank with his other three orders of the subclass. The Pharyngo- 
branchii, which Prof. Gill considers as an order of the Mai> 
we keep as a distinct subclass, subject to change on farther knowledge 
of the embryology of the Marsipobranchiates. 

Our views of the higher groups might be expressed thus : — 



sss ourselves much disappointed in that part of the work which 
he Molluscs. Though the g I details of 

iy are clearly stated, no notice is taken of the plan or arche- 



KE VIEWS. 611 

typal characteristics of the branch, which were admirably defined by Car- 
penter in 1854, and by Dana in 18G3, and Mr. Morse in 18G5,* I 

he embryology of either the animals or the shells, omissions 
which are unpardonable in an essay on classillc tion 

The subdivision of the branch into Mollusca and Molluscoida also ap- 
pears to us objectionable. If Prof. Huxley had drawn his dividing line 
nchs and Pteropods we should have had an emi- 
. of the Mollusca, but in placing the line between 
the Lamellibranchs and the Ascidians he repeats a common error. 

The Pohv , have to the 

tive relati >n < >m • t d ]. to that win l tin invertelmita have to the 

i: they are, when contrasted with the la-t thre< chides, as a 

whole, without a special cephalized extremity. All the three higher 

or cceucecial region, whereas in all the lower classes the organ- of this 
region are buried in the mantle, or i pt among the 

Polyzoa, where they are distinct from the ccenoecial region, and may be 
extended in the higher genera, but th - lined only by 

elevating the cephalic organs to the posterior pole of the body. 

The close si the Polyzoa and Brachiopoda are no- 

ticed ; the two divisions are placed in their correct sequence, and their 
relations to the Ascidia are defined with equal precision and correctness : 
but the author fails to see the close affinity of the latter to the Lamelli- 
. Nevertheless the differences between the structure of the 
? chs and Ascidians are no greater than those existing between 
the structure of the Polyzoa and the E homologies 

existing between the Ascidia and the Polyzoa are of a much more general 
! 

The Polyzoa and Brachiopoda together may be considered as one 
anatomical type, and defined as a sac closed at one end by a disc, sur- 
rounded by » rated by an edentulous mouth from 
■ 

Among tie 'adnata on the other hand the tenta- 

th this membrane form either an open or closed pouch per- 
forated at its lower end by the mouth, from which hangs the alimentary 

The atrial chamber has but one aperture in an invaginated Polyzoon or 

a Brachiopod, whereas with the Ascidia and Lamellibrauchiata there 

are two. The muscular systems of the Brachiopoda and Polyzoa are 

sd and homologically similar, as shown by several writers, 



REVIEWS. 



NATURAL HISTORY 



NATURAL HISTORY MISCELLANY. 
BOTANY. 



of Phallusia th 




ral tube as not merely 


mt as prolonged 








Lie uotocliord or axis 


. He pron 


aises full de- 


o be able to re' 




to this mo 


st important 


lad the pleasut 


e of 


being acquainted with 




L'ral years. The 




il they have beet 








them. They ha 












u-iny singular 


bullet-pouch uj 








30th of these p] 


aces 


the bints ; 





NATURAL HISTORY MISCELLANY. 

t touching the startling vertebrate features of the ear' 
■ iuvcrtebrata. He reserves for the present the details about tl 
t formation of the nervous system, but quite confirms the fact of tl 
ence of a notochord. He says: "At this stage one could not in 
) a more beautiful model of a vertebrate embryo, with the neur 
on one side of : liier." He, mon 



among others, 



wooden stirrup of a saddle hanging in a shed, 

birds did not prosper, as the saddle was often used. They 

dry twigs and other rub - of steel wire, dried 

m« i-un t 1 ng Tl ■ . ntir< < i\ it;, i \< ■ [ t a i r 

with tVathers. where they laid seven or eight eggs'. I also noticed their 
superior instinct, if not reason, whilst building in a box near nu kitchen 
door. The hole in the box would not admit -An h-nu' '~ - 
tried to get in. and they fell to the ground. After many efforts and fail- 
ures the wrens concluded by makb . y succeeded 
in doing bj » the ends pro- 
ject out of the hole; then they pn rag twigs on 
getting into tfc< bos tn< I j Bliding the long 
twig endwise until the end came opposite the hole, they pulled it in. I 
was amused to see one trying to carry a large nail hea< ier than itself. 
'• ■ 

produced by anything so small. — Wm. J. McLaughlin, Cuitralki, Kan. 

Deep Ska Dredging off the British Isles. — Our Adm 
instance of the Royal Society, placed a war steamer at I - 

: — ' _• . _ ■ ..■■.-■:', '...■■. :■■.•:;■; - ■ 

• e middleofMay; «dl 

- of the expedition for the first cruise of two months. Prof. Wy- 

d four hundred and thirty- 
five fathoms, everywhere getting moll 



NATURAL HISTORY MISCELLANY. 615 

brate animals, in a living state. This expedition embraced tin: Atlantic 
Coasts of Ireland, the Hebrides, and Shetland. There was not any trace 
ton of the Gulf Stream, but on the contrary, a northern fauna 
even as far south as Ushant. Many novelties occurred. — J. Gwyn Jef- 
freys (in a letter to one of the editors). 

The Kingfisher's Nest. — I he • tv-t all that 

to see if my experience would be justitied l>y that of any other observer. 

This has been nearly accomplished by Mr. Jones in the March number. 

On the 18th of March, 1SG8, 1 collected eggs from two nests built near 
a mill-pond, in the excavation for the dam. Each hole was three feet 

eggs, in the other seven ; all fresh. Each nest was composed of dry fish 
scales and small dry fish bones mixed with small pebbles of the size of a 
small pea. The scales and bones were free from smell, and were white 
and pure, and in each nest amounted to a fair handful. 

About the first of June irslon on one 

of our small lakes, I observed what I took to be a kingfisher's hole in a 
sandbank on the shore. While my bait and tackle were being loaded. I 
took a paddle and began to dig it our. The sand was soft and I proceeded 
five feet very rapidly, when the bird came rushing out. I went on dig- 
ging u it a l -even feet, when the paddle was no 
longer available for insufficient length, and 1 abandoned the job.— D. 
Darwin Hughes, Marshall, Mich. 

Spectrum of the Fiue-fey.— The spectrum given by the light of the 
common Fire-fly of New :- perfectly continuous, 

ibovc Fraunhofer - s line C. in t to a 1 t ue. gradual 

fading nut at the extremities. It is noticeable that precisely this portion 
of the spectrum is composed of raj s 

than any others affect the organs of vision, produce hardly a 
or actinic effect. In other words, very little of the energy expended in 
the flash of the Fire-fly is wasted. It is quite differ, nt with ,<uv artificial 
methods of illumination. In the case of an ordinal} gas ! ; :_V the best 
- -how that not more than one or two per cent, of the radiant 
' . 
ism; that is to say over ninety-eight per cent, of the gas is wasted in 
producing rays that do not help in making objects visible. — C. A. Young. 



Death of B. D. WALsn.— We regret to record the death of Mr. B. D. 
Walsh, the State Entomologist of Illinois, and the Senior Editor of the 

" im. ti. in Ent im -loglst," and former Editor of the "Practical Ento- 
mologist." For these duties he was admirably fitted. As an ei 
and thorough naturalist the small band of entomologists in this country 



616 ANSWERS TO 









TO CORRESPONDENTS. 



AMERICAN NATURALIST. 

Vol. III. -FEBRUARY, 1870. -No. 12. 



SKATES' EGGS AND YOUNG. 



It is an interesting fact that while the class of bony, or 
time Fishes, both fresh water and marine, are, with very few 
exceptions, oviparous, and lay immense numbers of eggs, 
the Selachians, or sharks and skates and their allies, are, 
with equally few exceptions, viviparous, and bring forth but 
few young at a time. One of the exceptions to the rule of 
viviparity among the Selachians is the genus Raja, to which 
our common species of skates and rays belong. Though 
the fact that skates lay eggs has been known for centuries, 
still to this day there is probably no class of objects picked 
up by the wanderer on the sea beach that excites curiosity 
so much as the egg cases of the several species of skates, 
after he has found out what they are. On being seen for the 
first time, and before close examination, I venture to state 
that the majority of persons regard them as some vegetable 
production, and pass them by as the supposed "bladder" of 
the seaweed with which they are often so closely connected 
by their tendrils as to have the appearance of being part of 
the plant, which they also greatly resemble in color and 
general appearance. 

Some sharp eyed fisherman long ago, ascertaining that the 



SCiurcSTin theClerifa Office of the ifTstrfctCW ofti 



618 skates' eggs and young. 

queer shaped things which he found on the beach were in 
fact little pockets, or sacks opened at one end, not knowing 
what else they could be, concluded that in some way they 
must be connected with the "maids of the ocean ;" and what 
more natural than to suppose them to be the purses to hold 
the pearls and other valuables of the mysterious maids ? and 
what better name than "Mermaid purses" could be desired? 
From this first christening, and following the common rule 
adopted for such cases — that of keeping as far away as pos- 
sible from the real nature of the object — they have been 
called, and are generally known as "sea purses" and "sailor's 
purses." The only popular name bearing on their real origin 
is that given to them on some portions of the English coast, 
where they are called "skate barrows," from their resem- 
blance in form to a hand-barrow, and the knowledge of the 
christener that they were produced by the skates. 

As common as these egg cases are on our beaches, it is 
very seldom, and only at certain seasons, that they are found 
containing the egg or embryo. When fresh and filled by the 
embryo they are plump and swollen and of a much lighter 
olive color than when empty, dry and shrivelled. As long 
as the embryo is in the case no opening to the pouch can be 
detected, until just at the time when the young skate is to 
make his way into the world and commence his struggle for 
existence, consisting principally in keeping himself from 
going into the ever ready mouths of his own kin of fin, to 
whom he forms a tempting morsel. Just as incubation 
comes to a close, then, the substance at one end of the case 
softens and the upper and under layers are pushed apart by 
the young skate who "noses" his way out; the two layers 
then spring back into place and the case on drying shows no 
sign of an opening, unless it is again softened and the layers 
carefully separated. 

We do not yet know the breeding season of our species, 
but Pennant in his "British Zoology," states that the "skates 
generate in March and April, at which time they swim near 



skates' eggs and young. 619 

the surface of the water, several of the males pnrsuinur one 
female; and adhere so fast during coition, that the fishermen 
tr< ijiiently draw up both together, though only one has taken 
4he bait. The females begin to cast their purses in May. and 
continue doing so till September. In October they are ex- 
ceedingly poor and thin, but in November they begin to 
improve, and grow gradually better till May, when they are 
in the highest perfection. The males go sooner out of season 
than the females." 

We extend this quotation from Pennant to take in that 
part of the paragraph relating to the condition of the fish 
purposely, in order to call attention to the great waste of 
food on our New England coast. Here, to tell a person that 
a skate is good eating is about the same as to tell him that 
the horse is good eating. His reply will be, "you may eat 
it if you wish but I would rather have something else," 
and yet the skate and the horse are good wholesome food, 
which we should probably enjoy after we got used to it. In 
many parts of Great Britain and France, to say nothing of 
China, skates of a tender age, i.e., about half grown, when 
they are called "maids," and also many sharks are consid- 
ered good and wholesome food, and are regularly sold in 
the markets. Our Celestial friends on the Pacific coast have 
brought skates and sharks into demand in that region, and in 
time we shall have the benefit of their custom here, when 
skates and sharks will be caught for other purposes than the 
making of "pure Cod liver oil ;" but until the Celestial ele- 
ment predominates over the Celtic, salt-cod and herrings 
will hold sway over the poor Selachians now condemned to 
die for their livers sake alone. 

Another clause in the quotation from Pennant leads us to 
say a word or two, before turning again to our skates' eggs. 

The male skates and sharks have appendages to the ven- 
tral fins which have been called claspers, from their supposed 
use in the act of coition. These appendages are in reality 
sms of the male, and what were called 



the legs of the monster shark exhibited about the country 
during the last two seasons, and familiar to every one from 
the newspaper descriptions and figures as "the great un- 
known animal, half fish, half quadruped," captured off East- 
port, were simply these organs. 

The skates and rays and the genus Scyttium, or spotted 
sharks, and their near allies, all lay eggs, contained in and 
protected by the singular horny cases, or shells. These 
cases are of various sizes and shapes according to the species 
of skate or shark by which they are laid. Their general 
form is that of the skates' figured in this article, but others 
are much larger, and those of the sharks are longer and nar- 
rower than the skates. On the coast of California a very 
large case is often found which always contains more than 
one egg, generally three. I remember one, received at the 
Museum of Comparative Zoology about twelve years since, 
that was several inches in length and contained three nearly 
developed embryos. 

All these egg cases are provided with a more or less de- 
veloped horn at each of the four corners. These horns are 
h«'llow, and are in fact tubes for the passage of water to the 
inside of the case aud its exit at the other extremity of the 
sack. By this means the egg and tender embryo while pro- 
tected by the horny covering or case, is furnished with a con- 
stant supply of water during its development. On the side 
of the case are numerous tendrils or filaments, by which the 
case is firmly fastened to seaweed, and hence it is that it is 
only after a violent storm that fresh cases are to be found on 
our beaches. 

A few interesting questions which have not yet been fully 
solved, are : How do the cases become attached to the sea- 
weed? Are the tendrils fastened by the mother skate in 
any way, or are they, when soft and fresh, so arranged that 
they naturally twine around the seaweed as soon as they 
come in contact with it? Does the skate when about to 
deposit her eggs go to a spot where seaweed is abundant, or 



skates' eggs and young. 621 

does she cast thorn at random and trust to the cases drifting 
to some suitable place for attachment? 

That the mother when about to deposit her eggs selects a 
proper pla<«;' for their attachment, just as other species go to 
regular spawning grounds, is, I think, proved by Mr. 
Thompson in his "Natural History of Ireland," who even 
asks the question if it is not probable that, like certain 
species of birds, the same fish (in this instance one of the 
spotted sharks) may return time after time to the same spot 
to deposit her eggs. This query arose from the fact that 
there were sent to him in December, 1843, two plants of the 
tangle (Laminurt'a ilijj/'tnta) dredged together from a depth 
of between two and three fathoms, to one of which was at- 
tached fourteen of the large ova and to the other twelve. 
"Of the fourteen six were very old [and empty], six of mid- 
dle age [and empty], and two quite fresh [i.e., with unde- 
veloped eggs] . Of the twelve on the other plant, four were 
very old, four of middle age, and four were fresh." Now 
if this does not prove that all these eggs were deposited 
at three different seasons by the same fish — which, with 
Mr. Thompson, I believe is probable — it certainly proves 
that the fishes seek a proper place for the attachment of 
their eggs and do not leave them to the mercy of tide and 

In January, 1864, Professor Jeffries Wyman communi- 
cated the results of his "Observations on the Development 
of Raid batis" to the American Academy of Science and 
Arts, and the article is printed in the Memoirs of the 
Academy for that year. These "Observations" contain all 
that is known relating to the development of the common 
skate of our coast, and should be read by every one inter- 
ested in the subject. 

Professor Wyman has granted me the use of the woodcuts 
illustrating his article, and rather than rewrite, abstract, and 
otherwise pilfer from his paper, I shall, with this acknowl- 
edgment, make extended quotations from his Memoir, and 



skates' eggs 



add the explanations to the figures which he ] 

placed :il im disposal for this article. 




SKATES' EGGS AND YOUNG. 



«52:J 



object of it is not apparent, unless it be 1 
age, by the entanglement of its filaments v 
surfaces. 

In a single instance, in the dissection of skates, an imperfect egg-case 
wus found in each oviduct, the de' 




624 


SKATES' eggs and young. 


• 
below. The 

the surface o 


ut is nearly spherical, though somewhat flattened above ai 
cord has the length just mentioned only temporarily, ai 

f the yelk (figs. 91 and 93). The two omphalo-mesenter 
aon tc 11 e tel t tl 1 lo 1 1 tl embryo 1 



EGGS AND YOUNG. 




embryos sufficiently 



- 



have found them l the outer edge 

branchial arch < tins. K» and 90), and at that time in no way cou- 
with the branchial fissures. In the sk t tl fl t 1 e euth 

ad no fringes at any period, and of the five which had thera, the 




DATES' EGGS AND YOUNG. Gl 

which are r 

gills. They i 

gans of respiration, lor their lungs are too imperfect a 
to have much physiological importance. In frogs, toa< 
ders, the external gills are replaced by internal ones, a 




gh stages analogous 
• . .. • . . __ . 

The other changes which the fissures pass through before the skate 
acquires its permanent form are as follows. The seventh fissure is closed 
up at a very early period, about the time that the dorsals are beginning 
to be formed. While the first arch bends and is drawn forward M ai- 
rlbed in connection with r. ws, it at the 

same time becomes broader, so as to widen the distance between the 
mouth and the first fissure, or the second, after the first is partially closed. 



thrown to the upper, and the latter ro 
the under surface. The unclosed portion of the first branchial fissure is 
thus converted into the spiracle. 
The transformation thus described is of very great interest when com- 

Dg vertebrates, and enables us to establish an unexpected 
homology. Reichert, in his most important investigations of the devel- 
opment of the gill arches ('visceral Bogen') of the pig, has g 
in this animal the first fissure is gradually separated from the others by 
the widening of the second arch, and for a time, even after all the others 
ate closed up. forms a direct opening from the side of the neck into the 
pharynx. Afterwards it is divided into an outer and inner portion by a 
membranous septum; the former being the external auditory canal and 
the latter the Eustachian tube and the cavity of the tympanum. It will 
thus be seen that the spiracle is not only a true branchial fissure in the 
first place, but that in the end it is homologous with the Eustachian tube 
and the outer auditory passage before these are separated from each 
other by the membrane of the tympanum. 

Professor Huxley, in a series of lectures on the Vertebrate Skeleton, in 
uhi -h the homologies and development of it are discussed with great 
ability, sets forth a somewhat different view with regard to the formation 
of the external ear, and maintains that the first step is similar to that in 

the integument. Professor Huxley's observations were made on the 
rl] irk. and he arrives at the same conclusions as Remak, leaving us to 
infer that the auditory passage and Eustachian tube have no connection 
with the branchial fissures. We have gone over the same ground in the 
pig, and have found Reichert's observations, as mentioned above, fully 

The relation of the spiracle to the branchial fissures is still further 
shown by the fact that in some species, as in Scylliura and Lsemargus, it, 
like the others, is provided with respiratory fringes. In the skate this 
is not the case, but in the adult a comb-like fold, resembling, and prob- 
ably having the functions of, a gill, is found just within the spiracular 
opening." 

For a description of the development of the mouth and 
nostrils, and some other details which have been omitted in 
these extended quotations, the reader is referred to Profes- 
sor Wy man's Memoir. 



OME OF THE RARER BIRDS OF 
MASSACHUSETTS. 



Baird's Sparrow. Centronix Bairdii Baird. Mr. C. J. 
Maynard while collecting Loni, r -spurs and Snow Bunting <>n 
the Ipswich sand-hills, December 4th, 1868, had the good 
fortune to shoot the first specimen* of this species thus far 
obtained east of the Missouri, so far as known. No other 
at least is yet on record, and but one other specimen seems 
to be extant. This is one of Audubon's types collected near 
the mouth of the Yellowstone, in the summer of 1843, and 
now in the Museum of the Smithsonian Institution. Mr. 
Audubon is the only naturalist who has previously met with 
it. He reports it as common at the locality where he dis- 
covered it, where he obtained both males and females and 
its nest.f But very little is known respecting its migrations 
or its distribution. Its discovery in Massachusetts was quite 
unlooked for. Mr. Maynard thinks he saw others, but sup- 
posing it to be some other species he made no especial 
efforts to obtain them. In his notes kindly communicated 
to me he remarks : "I saw other specimens, and am confident 
that I detected it the preceding season, 1867. It is probable 
that it is a regular winter visitor from the north, accom- 
panying the C. Lapponicus and P. nivalis, for it does not 
seem probable that it sho.uld occur regularly so far from its 
usual habitat — the distance being some over sixteen hundred 
miles— and not be found in the intermediate space." As he 
further observes, his specimen somewhat resembles the Bay- 
winged Sparrow (Pooccetes gramineus), with which inex- 
perienced ornithologists might easily confound it. It is 



632 NOTES ON SOME OF THE 

certainly nearer this than the Savannah Sparrow, with which 
it has been compared. "My specimen," he says, "also differs 
in size [from Audubon's*]. I give measurements of both 
for comparison, remarking that mine was measured from the 
!. while the other was from the skin." 



It differed in color as well as in size from the specimen 
described by Prof. Baird. The former difference is doubt- 
less due to the different seasons of the year at which they 
were collected, and the latter to the fact of the Ipswich 
specimen having a more northern birth-place. That there 
might be no mistake, the specimen was transmitted to Pro- 
fessor Baird for examination, who kindly compared it with 
the type in the Smiths and reports that he 

found them identical. 

Savannah Sparrow. Passer-culus savanna Bon. Rather 
rare in the interior at all seasons, and, so far as I can learn, 
only seen there during its migrations. On the coast, how- 
ever, it is one of the most common sparrows throughout the 
summer, where great numbers breed. I have seen it from 
Ipswich southward all along the coast to Nantucket Island. 
On the islands off the coast it is often the most numerous 
species of bird. The Song Sparrow, on the contrary, is 
more numerous in the interior, it being comparatively scarce 
on the islands and on the coast close to the sea. 

Henslow's Sparrow. Coturnimlus Henslowii Bon. This 
species must still be considered a rare summer visitor, 
though it proves to be more common than was supposed a 
few years since. Specimens are taken in the eastern part of 
the state nearly every year, where also several of its nests 

•See Baird's Birds of North America, p. 441. 



RARER BIRDS OF MASSACHUSETTS. 633 

have been found. The first nest found in this state was dis- 
covered by Mr. E. S. Wheeler, in Berlin, and the fact is 
recorded in the seventh volume of the Proceedings of the 
Boston Society of Natural History (page 137). This species 
was at first urom/h identified as Peucea Backmanii Aud 
(=P. aestivalis Baird), and as such stands recorded in the 
sixth volume of the same Proceedings (p. 21). The mis- 
take was corrected, however, on p. 74 of the same volume, 
so that Peucea aestivalis has never been included nor referred 
to as a bird of Massachusetts in any of the lists of the birds 
of the state, or of New England. 

In respect to C. Ilensloivii, Mr. Maynard informs me it 
has been confounded with C. passerinus by a number of 
collectors, and that it seems to be more common at some 
localities in the state than the latter. 

White-crowned Sparrow. Zonotrichia leucophrys Sw. 
Rare in all parts of the state, and thus far not known to 
breed in Massachusetts, though it may do so among the 
mountains in the western counties. Though mentioned by 
Dr. Cones as "usually common, but of somewhat irregular 
occurrence" in New England,* the score or more of collec- 
tors with whom I am acquainted all look upon it as one of 
our rarest species in Massachusetts. Some have never met 
with it. More to the westward, however, it is quite com- 
mon. In Wayne comity. Xew York, I found it as numerous 
in May, 1867, as the White-throated Sparrows usually are 

White -throated Sparrow. Zonotrichia alhicoUis Bon. 
A pair of these birds, probably the same pair, has been ob- 
served by Mr. R. B. Hildreth at Springfield during the last 
three summers. 1 (i < igh In ha> not . succ. i< I in discovering 
their' nest, he this year observed them feeding their scarcely 
fledged young. He reports that they have become very 
answer his call. Though breeding nu- 



634 NOTES ON SOME OF THE 

merously in Northern New England, Springfield is consider- 
ably south of their customary breeding range. 

Sharp-tailed Finch. Ammodromus caudaciitas Swain. 
Some half a dozen nests and as many pairs of the birds were 
obtained the present year, by Mr. H. W. Henshaw in the 
Charles River marshes in Cambridge. These are the only 
recent instances known to me of the finding of the nest of 
this species in Massachusetts. None of the Seaside Finches 
were observed, though they were formerly known to breed 
in the Chelsea marshes, and probably do still. 

Tree Sparrow. Spizella monticola Baird. I mentioned 
in my Catalogue that a nest of this species was found in this 
state in 1855 by Mr. E. Samuels, there being a record to 
that effect in the fifth volume of the Proceedings of the Bos- 
ton Society of Natural History (p. 213). I have sinc§ 
learned from Mr. E. A. Samuels that this was a case of 
malidentifieation, the nest and eggs being really those of the 
Chipping Sparrow {Spizella socialis). Dr. Brewer confirms 
the latter account, and says he has the nest in- his possession. 

Lincoln's Sparrow. Melozpiza Lincolnii Baird. The 
first record of the occurrence of tins species in Massachusetts 
is given in my Catalogue, at which time I had taken three 
specimens at Springfield. It has since been taken by Mr. S. 
Jillson, at Hudson, — one specimen in May, 1867, and 
another in May, 1868. In 1867 I took it in May in Wayne 
County, N. Y., when it appeared to be not uncommon, and 
in Northern Illinois the same year I found it numerous. 

Swamp Sparrow. Melospiza palustris Baird. In the 
" Addenda" to Dr. Coues' "List of the Birds of New England" 
I stated I had never met with this species in the breeding 
season. I have since learned that it is not at all uncommon 
at that season at several localities in the eastern part of the 
state ; some years it breeds quite numerously in the Fresh 
Pond marshes. 

Black-throated Bunting. Euspiza Americana Bon. 
Since the publication of my Catalogue, Mr. C. W. Bennett 



RARER BIRDS OF MASSACHUSETTS. 635 

has taken this species at Holyoke, — a single specimen in 
May, 1866. Dr. Brewer informs me he has found it breed- 
ing at Hingham. The species is still known, however, as 
only a straggler from the southward. 

Cardinal. Red Bird. Cardinal;* Vtrginianus Bon. 
Four specimens of this bird were taken near Springfield in 
October, 1866. Mr. W. H. Niles observed it at Belcher- 
town the last week of October, 1868, and at Southampton 
May 5th, 1869. As these form all the recent authentic in- 
stances of its occurrence in the state, it can only be regarded 
as an accidental visitor. It has been questioned whether in 
the previous instances of its capture here the specimens 
taken were not birds that had escaped from cages. In all 
probability they were, however, wild birds. 

European House Sparrow. Passer domestica Leach. 
The few pairs turned loose in the Boston Common a few 
years since seem to be slowly increasing in numbers, and bid 
fair to be of great service in checking the ravages of several 
species of caterpillars that now greatly injure the foliage of 
the shade trees. These interesting birds are now frequently 
observable both on the Common and in the Public Garden. 

European Goldfinch. Carduelis elegans Steph. Feb- 
ruary 28th, 1865, 1 saw a single male on Quincy street, Cam- 
bridge, that had probably escaped from a cage. It was 
feeding on the seeds of the larch and appeared fully at 
home. Its notes first drew my attention to it, which, while 
so much resembling those of our common Yellow Bird, yet 
differ from them in surpassing in sweetness the pleasant 
warble of that favorite bird. I doubt not that if a consider- 
able number of European Goldfinches should be introduced 
into New England the species would soon become acclimated 
and generally distributed. 

Serin Finch. Serinus meridionalis Brehm. A specimen 
of this European species was taken near Springfield in No- 
vember, several years since. It may have been a cage bird 
that had escaped. 



636 NOTES ON SOME OF THE 

Yellow-headed Blackbird. Xanthocephalus icteroce- 
phalas Baird. The wings, tail and feet, of a specimen of 
this species taken in Watertown, in October, 1869, were 
shown me a few weeks since by Mr. C. J. Maynard. Al- 
though the whole bird was unfortunately not preserved, its 
identity could be readily determined. This is the first 
known instance of the occurrence of this species in New 
England, but Mr. Cassin* states that several have to his 
knowledge been taken near Philadelphia. Its usual eastern 
range, as ornithologists well know, is the vicinity of Chi- 
cago, it being essentially a prairie species. 

Boat-tailed Grackle. Quiscalus major Vieill. I now 
seriously question the occurrence of this southern species in 
Massachusetts, or anywhere in New England, as even an 
accidental visitor. I gave it as such in my Catalogue, but a 
reexamination of the evidence has led me to my present 
opinion. I think the cases cited by Peabody f and LinsleyJ 
(under Q. baritus) as well as that of Mr. Samuels, refer only 
to the common Crow Blackbird or Purple Grackle. 

Spruce Partridge. Oanace Canadensis Bon. The oc- 
currence of this northern species in the hemlock woods of 
Gloucester in 1851 was recorded by Mr. F. W. Putnam. || 
This instance is cited in my own Catalogue, and by Dr.