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Full text of "The American naturalist."

v. 7 



AMERICAN NATURALIST, 



AN ILLUSTRATE MA(,\Z[\i; 



NATURAL HISTORY. 



A. S. PACKARD, Jk. ani> F. \V. PUTNAM. 



^ijrs 



SALEM, MASS. 

PEABODY ACADEMY OP SCIENCE. 

1873. 



CONTENTS OF VOLUME VII. 



Notes on the Right and Sperm Whales. By Prof. N. S. Shaler, 

Our Poisonous Plants. By W. W. Bailey. Illustrated, 

A Glimpse at Colorado and its Birds. By C. E. Aiken, 

Harvest Mites. By Prof. C. V. Riley. Illustrated, . 

On the Genetic Relations of the Cetaceans and the Methods 

involved in Discovery. By Theodore Gill, M. D., Ph. D., 
Colors of Vegetation. By Prof. D. S. Jordan, 
On the Limits of the Class of Fishes. By Theodore Gill, M. 

D., Ph. D., 

Notes on the Habits of Certain Crawfish. By Charles C 

Abbott, M. D., 

The Rattle of the Rattlesnake. By Prof. Samuel Aughey, 
Colossal Cuttlefishes. By A. S. Packard, Jr. Illustrated, 
On the Pottery of the Mound-builders. By J. W. Foster, 

LL. D. Illustrated, 

Controlling Sex in Butterflies. By Mrs. Mary Treat, . 
The Flying Squirrel. By Prof. G. H. Perkins, .... 
Indian Netsinkers and Hammerstones. By Charles Ran. Illus- 

The Fossil Mammals of the Order Dinocerata. By Prof. 

O. C. Marsh. With two plates, 

Notes on the Vegetation of the Lower Wabash Valley. By 

Robert Ridgway, 

The Gigantic Mammals of the Genus Eobasileus. By Prof. 

E. D. Cope, . 

A Viviparous Fly. By Rev. Samuel Lockwood, Ph. D. Illut- 

The Prairie Birds of Southern Illinois. By Robert Ridgway, 
Occurrence of Implements in the River Drift at Trenton, 

New Jersey. By Charles C. Abbott, M. D. Illustrated, 
Comparison of the Glacial Phenomena of New England with 

those of Europe. By A. S. Packard, Jr., .... 

The Cotton Caterpillar. By Lewis A. Dodge. Illustrated, . 
On the Genus Tinoceras and its Allies. By Prof. 0. C. 

Marsh, 

The Winter State of our Duckweeds. By Prof. T. D. Biscoe. 

Tnr Influence of Insect-agency on the Distribution of 
Plants. By T. Buchauan White, M. D., 

Relics of a Homestead of the Stone Age. By Charles C. Ab- 
bott, M. D., . 



New Flams ok Northern Arizona and the Region Adjacent 

By Sereno Watson, . 

On the Dates of Professor Cophs Recent Publications. By 

Prof. 0. C. Marsh, 

Tinoceras and its Allies. By Prof. 0. C. Marsh 

Some United States Birds, New to Science, and Other Things 

Ornithological. By Dr. Elliot Coues, U.S.A. Illustrated, . 
The Conservation and Correlation of Vi i ai. Force. By J. T. 

Rothrock, M. D., 

The Game Falcons of New England. The Pigeon Hawk. By 



. J. Beal, 

r Moths. By A. S. Pa 



stematic Zoology. By The- 
By Prof. C. E. Bessey, '. 



bl-tion oe Birds. By Rol 



Farther Observations on m 



: Scales of Lepisma saccharina. ByC 



REVIEWS AND BOOK NOTICES. 

Archnoological Collations h, America, p. 29. Revisk 



BOTANY. 
Past Vegetation of the Globe, p. 44. Seeds as Projectiles, p. 45. How 
the Buffalo Grass Disappears, p. 46. Hepaticae Cubenses Wrightiame. p. 
46. A Grand Herbarium, p. 46. Second Growths in Trees, p. 111. The 
Horse Disease, p. 167. The Cretaceous Flora of North Greenland, p. 167. 
v heat in a Bone Cave. p. 168. Cultivation of California Roots 
and Bulbs, p. 232. On Drought in its Relation to Winter-killed Trees, p. 
234. Influence of Foreign Pollen on the Parent Plant, p. 236. A Blue 
Anagallis. p. 309. Epigtea repens. p. 310. Dimorphic Flowers of the 
Ipecac Plant, p. 310. Iodine in the Determination of Fungi, p. 310. A 
New Fly-trap. p. 311. Coloring and Drying of Natural Flowers, p. 365. 
The Influence of Colored Light on Assimilation by Plants, p. 365. Micro- 
scopic Photography of Vegetable Tissues, p. 366. Effect of Coal-gas 
upon Trees and Shrubs, p. 366. Plants New to Gray's Manual, p. 366. 
Supposed American Origin of Rubus Idams. p. 422. Botanical Notelets. 



- 






Nardosmia palmata. p. 480. The Uses and Origin 
ents of Leaves in Plants, p. 481. The Fertilization of 
1 Propagation of Lichens, p 562. Cleis- 
togenous Flowers in Viola striata, p. 563. Sphagnum and Hypnom Pert. 
p. 563. Flowering of Aplectrum. p. 627. A Yew Flowering in Winter, p. 
628. Variations in Medeola and Uvularia. p. 629. A New Ballast Waif, 
p. 629. Perforation of Gerardia pedicularia by Bees. p. 689. The Con- 
necticut Valley Botanical Society, p. 690. Herbarium Paper, p. 691. 
Lithospermum longiflorum only L. angustifolium. p. 691. Rhexia Vir- 
ginia L. p. 692. Cleistogenous Flowers, p. 692. Sensitiveness of the 
Leaves of Diona^a and Drosera. p. 737. Variety in the form of Flowers 






. 739. Ne- 



sa?a verticillata. p. 739. Calycera balsamatifolia. p. 740. Perforation of 
Gerardia by Bees. Illustrated, p. 740. 

ZOOLOGY. 
Cemiostoma again, p. 47. The Slaughter of the Buffalo, p. 113. A 
Partial Comparison of the Conchological Faunas of Portions of the Atlan- 
tic and Pacific Coasts of North America, p. 114. Collurio Ludovicianus. 
p. 115. Raccoon Fox. p. 115. The Spike-horned Muledeer. 169. Does 
the Pelican Feed its Young with its own Blood? p. 170. Nest, Eggs and 
Breeding Habits of the Vermilion Fly-catcher, p. 170. Distribution of 
the Helicidse in the Sandwich Islands, p. 171. Harlan's Hawk and the 
nnorant. p. 172. Note on the Dates of some of Prof. 
Cope's Recent Papers, p. 173. The Sound Produced by the Death's Head 
Moth p. 173. Mode of Increase of the Long Bones, p. 174. Meadow 
Lark with Four Legs. p. 175. When is Sex Determined? Illustrated. 
p. 175. A New Species of Butterfly from Florida, p. 177. The Rib- 
bon Seal of Alaska, p. 178. A New Species of Sparrow, p. 236 In- 
stance of Sagacity and Affection in a Dog. p. 237. The Food of Diptera. 
p. 238. Note on Cassin's Pyrrhula. p. 239. Hyla Pickeringii in Winter. 



p. 239. Application of the Darwinian Theory to Bees. p. 239. The 
Thick-billed Guillemot, p. 240. Prof. Cope's Cave Crustaceans, p, 
244. A Four-legged Rock Lark. p. 311. Births of Animals in the Central 
Park Menagerie, p. 312. Phosphorescence, p. 313. The Game Birds of 
the Northwest, p. 814. A Remarkable Monstrosity. Illustrated, p. ?,C7. 
Swarming of a Brood of Winged Ants. p. 369. Habits of the Cut Worm, 
p. 372. Composition of Salmon, p. 372. The Diminution of Pood Fishes. 
p. 423. The Young Animal and Protection, p. 425. The White-fronted 
Owl in Canada, p. 427. Variation in the Tarsal Envelope of the Bald 
Eagle, p. 429. The Colorado Potato Beetle Varying its Food. p. 430. 
The Senses of Sight and Hearing of the Wild Turkey and the Common 
Deer. p. 431. The Ant-lion. p. 432. Classification of the Coleoptera. p. 
432. Do Rattlesnakes Climb Trees? p. 433. Destruction of Dragon-flies 
by Birds, p. 433. Bees and King-birds, p. 434. Color of the Eggf of 
i nae. p. 434. More Monsters, p. 435. The Depths of Mid 
Ocean, p. 436. A Cat's Jump. p. 436. CEstrus hominis in Texas, p. 437. 
Agricultural Ants. p. 437. Metamorphoses of Butterflies, p. 437. Spon- 
taneous Division in Starfishes, p. 481. Habits of a Species of Sorex. p. 
483. Aleutian Cephalopods. p. 484. Criticism on an Observation of Prof. 
Thomson on Certain Sponges, etc. p. 485. Embryology of the Lepidop- 
tera. p. 486. The Purring of the Cat. p. 487. The " Willow Wands " 
from Burrard's Inlet, p. 488. Absence of Eyes in Crustacea, p. 489. 
Ocelli in Butterflies, p. 490. On a Habit of a Species of Blarina. p. 490. 
Births at the Central Park Zoological Garden, p. 491. Generation of 
Eels (Anguillae). p. 492. Anatomy of the King Crab. p. 492. The Rose- 
breasted Grosbeak, p. 493. Canaries Nesting, p. 493. An Aquatic Bom- 
bycid Moth. p. 493. The Education of Apes. p. 494. Faulty Instinct in 
a Cat. p. 494. Variation in Dentition, p. 495. How to Clean the Eu- 
plectella. p. 496. Woodpeckers Tapping Sugar Trees, p. 496. The 
White-rumped Shrike, p. 497. Tadpoles in Winter, p. 497. The 
Golden-winged Woodpecker, p. 498. Ornithological Queries, p. 498. 
Mode of Egg-laying of Agrion. p. 498. Habits of Monohammus dentator. 
p. 498. The Painted Bunting, p. 500. New North American Hymenop- 
tera. p. 500. Centronyx "ochrocephalus" Aiken, p. 564. Who first De- 
termined the True Position of Hyalonema? p. 565. Passage of Specific 
Characters from one Genus to another, p. 566. Occurrence of the Rock 
Wren in Iowa. p. 566. The Preservation of the Lower Animals, p. 630. 
The Avi-fauna of Colorado, p. 631. Malformations, p. 632. The 
" Willow Wands " from Burrard's Inlet, p. 633. The Kingfisher, p. 634. 
The "Horned Toad." p. 634. The Black Snowbird breeds on the Gray- 
lock Range, p. 634. Addition to the Avi-fauna of America, p. 634. 
Notes on some of the Rarer Birds of New England, p. 692. On the Mi- 
gration of Certain Animals as influenced by Civilization, p. 693. Notes 
on two little known Birds of the United States, p. 695. Discovery of a 
Tardigrade, p. 740. Discovery of the Basal Joint of the Legs of Trilo- 
bites. p. 741. Ancon or Otter Sheep, p. 742. Crows and Ravens, p. 
743. A Note Personal, p. 744. Occurrence of a Deep Sea Floridan Coral 
near Cape Cod. p. 744. The Missouri Skylark, p. 745. Range of the 



e. p. 745. Snowbird, p. 745. Influence of Localit 
Colors of Birds and Animals, p. 740. Mimicry in Snakes, p. 
tice of a Eare Bird. p. 748. Insect Galls, p. 749. The Olive- 
catcher, p. 7,10. Another Monster, p. 750. Range of the 
Calitbrmaims. p. 751. The Caribou on Lake Superior, p. 751. 
Swallow; Change in Place of Nesting, p. 751. 







GEOLOGY. 








Probos. 


Jidians of the A 


merican Eocene.— Correctk 




p. 49. 


Retur of 


the Yale 


College Expedi 


tion. p. 49. Notice of a } 


e\\ 






Fossil Bit 


•d. p. 50. Knowledge of Petroleum In Pen 


!]<y: 




in 1771. p. 


50. On a 










• 


p. 51. On some of Prof. Cope's Recent Investigation 


s. ] 


). 51. 


Discovery 



aves, Settle, Yorkshire, p. 52. On 
t New Sub-class of Fossil Birds (Odontornithes). p. 115. Fossil tjuad- 
'ntnaiia in the Kocmk of Wyoming, p. 179. The Eobasileus a-ain. p. 
80. On the Tusk of Loxolophodon cornutus. p. 315. Glacial Fossils in 
daine. p. 373. On a Few Mineral Localities which are not mentioned in 
he Books, p. 635. The Glades of Maryland, p. 030. Bowlders, p. 030. 
riie Fossils of Colorado, p. 752. Paucity of Life in Oceanic Areas, p. 
53. The Connecticut Valley in the Helderberg Era. p. 755. 

ANTHROPOLOGY. 
Change in the Form of Skulls with Age. p. 117. Are They Twisting 
Stones? p. 180. Collections of Swiss Lacustrine Relics, p. 182. An- 
iquity of Man in America, p. 245. Existence of Man in the Miocene. 
i. 315. Prehistoric Culture of Flax. p. 374. Indian Netsinkers in New 
ersey. p. 375. Antiquity of Man in America, p. 370. An Indian Carv- 
Bg. BlustoraUd. p. 438. Discovery of a New Human Skeleton of the 
'aheoiithic Epoch in Italy, p. 439. Note on a Collection of Skin Scrapers 
mm New Jersey. Itlu^nded. p. 500. The Age of the Famous Guade- 
r>upe Skeleton, p. 036. Indian Rope and Cloth, p. 755. An Error Cor- 





MICROSCOPY. 


y at the Vien 


tna Exposition, p. 52. A New Accessory Stage. 


). 53. Magn 




l pellucid;-, by 


Moonlight, p. 55. The Study of Lichens, p. 55. 








A Field-stage for Clinical Microscopes, p. 118. 




le Binocular, p. 118. Under-corrected Objec- 


8. Microscc 


jpy in New Jersey, p. 119. Determination of 




d Microscope, p. 119. Sections of Insects, p. 








p. 120. The Horse Disease. Illustrated, p. 120. 


l Chicago Dri 


nking Water, p. 123. Pine Pollen in Lake Mich- 




the Organs of Hearing, p. 183. Probable Nature 


i Current, p. 


184. Insects' Feet as carriers of Dirt. p. 186. 



AMERICAN NATURALIST. 

Vol. VII.-JATTCTABY, 1873. -No. 1. 
NOTES ON THE RIGHT AND SPERM WHALES. 



The following notes on the habits of the right whale were taken 
down in a conversation with Captain John Pease of Ed-artown. 

and clear statement I have rarely known equalled. As far as 
possible these statements have been collated with those of other 
experienced whalers. 

All of the south latitude right whales are without calves up to 
July 1st ; the females are found in the bays about this time. 
The calves all come at once, it being but two or three days be- 
tween the bearing of the first and last calves. None are found 
with the herd up to the 1st of July and every female has her calf 
by the 3d or 4th of the month. 
. The right and humpback whales are very fond of their young, 
taking no care of themselves in their efforts to save it ; the sperm 

be determined by their behavior. 

Sperm whales have leaders of the herd which they follow with a 
certain olMimmy ; these leaders seem to give the alarm to the 
others. No such subordination can be observed an: 



males of the right whales seem to have no conflicts with each 
other, Captain Tease had seen males struggling with each other 
and often for, ,; < 1 with the imprints of the rival's 

teeth; the scars showing their origin very distinctly l.y their 

of the teeth. The great superiority in the size of the males 
among the sperm whales is just what would be expected in a 

u'cnorally limitcl in land animals within pretty narrow bounds. 
There are probably no land animals where the male is double the 
weight of the female, yet the male sperm w) ale would seem to 
excel the female by more than this proportion. This extreme 
development of the males occurs also among the Otaridae as well 
as among many groups of fishes, so it would seem as if there was 
some reason why the influences tending to limit size were less 
active in the sea than on the land. The reason for the greater 
freedom to acquire size in the sea is undoubtedly to be found in 
the less weight of bodies in that element, the effect of which is 
shown as well in the structures of man as in the structures of 
nature ; the ship exceeds all vehicles for land transportation for 
the same re: ing like the same proportion that 



even noticeable under water, lie >t«mt!y 

seen fragments of squid, where the whales had cut them in two, 

exposing the cavity of the body, whieh was as large over as the 

head of a forty gallon cask. In one ease he saw the head of a 

e believes to. ha i is _ 3 a sug 

scraped with a knife so as to remove the superficial parts, there 






) grow very a - longer, the ultimate 



shales a 

descendants of our murine earnivora we should expect them 
preserve something like the same growth rates, for this featu 
seems to be tolerably permanent in any group of related animal 
The rate of growth, deducible from the observations of the pn 
tical students of the whale, coincides pretty closely with what 1 

were descended from some ancestor like the marine carnivora. 

The great decline of the whale fishery in all countries seer 
likely to deprive us of the i] 9, which naturalh 

have long had, of making themselves acquainted with the habi 
of the greatest of the mammals. There are many questions whi 
should be discussed and settled before the class of clear head 
and observant whalemen has passed away: else we may rema 



OUR POISONOUS PLANTS. 



the eliiiibiiiii forms 1 



any. Maoype 

• the harmless ^ 



o. wrapping lar ge trees with it. snaky hranel.es. It is said s 
times to invest trees so closely as to cause their death. I 
ever that may be, I have seen its foliage entirely replace tin 
some lofty elm, now dead, and dependent alone for its be 
upon the plant the growth of which it had assisted. 

A more dangerous plant, yet one of the most beautiful 1 

Fig. ,°>). It has from seven to thirteen leaflets on a common si 
an odd one terminating the series. Its autumn coloring is mac 
cent, passing from given through a bright vellow. to crimson 
scarlet, the mi ntensered Tho 



mention ot the system rendering those susceptible who usually 
my hands, and never avoid the tree when it lies in my way, 



vV 




have as yet experienced no consequent suffering. Tin 
i property of these plants appears to reside in the re 
and maybe removed by boiling and evaporation. 



e not absolutely pois 



zris is especially 
Drying appears to 







Fatal mistakes haye occurred when persons have 
f the monkshood {AconUum Napettm) in early 



to the 11. < 
The pa 



s in the coramo 


n carrot {Daucus carota). The flowers i 


f this plant, o 


r of the parsnip or parsley, will serve 


the whole or 


der, to which belong many of our m 


plants as well 


. as wholesome vegetables. The speci 




y and the minuteness of the inflorescen 


cult to disfm< 


push and in consequence it can not 


iiflirined how 


many are injurious. Tliey arc determii 



This, like the hi-t. N a -u-pieious order, the more so. p<-rhap-. 

of quite freqiK-nt ( ■<■,■'!;■•,•. ■!!!•(', ■-•; vi. Our na- 

■■.'. ;r 



I" - ■ - ■.-.:•.■■.. : ■ ■■■.- ' ■ - ' ' ' ' ; 



their troublesome politicians, and if this were not a serious article 
I might perhaps grow facetious. and -uuge-d its use at the present 
time. It is now employed to some extent in medicine. Its name 
"hemlock" is an unfortunate one, as it is shared with that most 
elegant s[inii'c. the Ah!i-x C \u> mlr,,*;*. and I have known nervous 
people to avoid the latter for the sins of its fearful namesake. It 




tx Longs i" thi- Family 

and grows wild in Kngland s. in its native state, dangerous for 
food, and is only made palatable and innocuous b v the process 
of bleaching to which it is subjected. The active principle can 

The night . Vain> both edibh and 

poisonous plants. The potato (»W<//< > •> '/■ ; - r<>*>t,i> t . the egg-plant 



u ' l,:ltt1 ' 11 ' ' l,x '" l !l mt ■>' ! In- "i- [".nance. The 
bright Line, showy flowers hear a strikinir re<emManee to those of 
potato. The thorn-apple (/;.//,„■„ »•,•„„..,„;.,„,) always f.„iinl 
growing in wa-te places um he known h\ its inorninn-U"rv-like 
flowers, white, shaded with a iolet, its large," spiny seed pods, and its 
most offensive odor. As with the potato, the hitter-sweet, and 
other members of the genus Solarium, the leaves are always found 
perforated by insects. The seeds are said to have been used by 
the Delphic priests to excite their mad ravings, which the Greeks 
understood as prophecies. 

In the order Liliaeeae, we have the American white hellebore 
( Vvmh-nm rlrhh ), the root of which is a deadly poison. The 

roots, and elegantly plaited leaves, which in earlv spring maybe 
seen by the banks of streams, generally in company with the 
^kuiik-! hi Lie. from whieh. however, it is ea-ih distimrui-hable. 
The latter throws up its curiously painted, shell-like spathe in 
early April or even in March, the flower preceding the leaves, 
while the hellebore blooms in the summer, and has a tall upright 
spike of greenish flowers, in no respect resembling those of its 
neighbor. The active principle contained, is the alkaloid veratria, 

The jack-in-IIu-pulpit (.!,•/,„ ,„., t.-^hulJu,,, ) U found in similar 
localities and. although not strictly a poison, its root is very acrid 

■■■■■■'■■ -' - : :; : '. : _ ■ ■ ■_ - ' 



tigation have discovered to their cost. The disgusting odor of 

the skunk-cabbage (Si/mj>lor,i,-j>"s /<, fi<hi* ) mn>t always preclude 
similar experiments. Both of these plants belong to the order 

Certain of the iig-worts (SrrnjJmJuri'i, ■<:<>) are nareotic poisons, 

well to be careful, although, so far as I am aware, our two pretty 
species need not be avoided. They have a milky acrid juice, as 
do the Euphorbias to which the same remarks apply. In the 
( Urtkaceoi) we have the hemp (Cannabis sativa) which, in the east, 
yields the well known drug called hasheesh. In our climate, I 
believe this poison is not developed. The nettles belong to the 
same family but i! is unnecessary to point out the eminent pro- 
priety of handling these with gloves, as some of them are provided 
with stinging hairs. According to Scott, they are when young 
used as greens in Scotland and cultivated for that purpose. (Rob 
Roy, Chap. 8). 

The Indian tobacco so much used by quacks, is Lobelia inflata, 
a common little plant in open fields, with light blue flowers and 
inflated pods. The blossoms are very much smaller than those of 
the cardinal flower (Lobt/in rar'b'.inH.s). but of the same general 
All the lobelias arc poisonous, and are much too 
recklessly employed by those who have little knowledge of their 
power. It is said by Darlington that the quacks give the name of 



GLIMPSE AT COLORADO AND ITS BIRDS. 



Early this morning, the 17th of October, as I was riding past 

through portions of El Paso. Fremont and Puebla Counties, my 

tribe in an enclosure on the creek bottom. As there seemed to 
be an unusually large congregation of species for this season of 
the year. I dismounted from im p<,n\ . and k-aning upon the cotton- 
wood rail-fence, I watched the birds for m rly au hour, n ting the 
different vai ',■ - of each. 

Immediately in front of me was a low, d< 

stripped of its leaves ; and it seemed this n, >rning as though t>a< li 
fallen leaf ha 1 l>een n phua 1 with a littlr teathwvd songster. At 
least a dozen species wore represented; but the white-crowned 

tering of these it was. that first dre* my attention. 

Beyond this thicket, a thrifty growth of cottonwood extended 
along the banks of the creek from right to left, from the midst 
of which the songs of numerous robins, and of one or two other 

of the trees had their trunks encased in wild grape or hop-vines, 

clothed in a. bright yellow foliage relieved the monotony and beau- 
tiiii-l tin: vh-w. A hi-h, rockv, barren ridge that formed the west 



vail of the creek caiion extended across the background. At my 
ight hand was a small stubble-field in the midst of the tangled 

i clump of differently tinted red, green or yellow bushes, completed 
lie landscape. Imagine now the whole enlivened with birds and 



note. The low oak bushes that are so abundant in the foothill 
are the chosen haunts of these birds, and they are never found : 
any great distance from them. A magpie in the cotbmwoo 
grove, espying me, came over directly to satisfy his euriosih 



alighted on the top of a fence-stake wil 
giving his beautiful, long, glossy tail a je 
impertinently, he uttered a harsh, bold no 



Another noticeable bird iraa 
These were to be seen everywhere, among the bushes, on the 



keep themselves cor 



settled among the topmost twigs of the thicket, : 
several purple and house finches that occupied i 
about them. These little beauties are the last 



plumage, and appear at a short distant 



achat among its 


; branches, but as I have r 


lot observed anyo 


f these 


birds for a mor 


ith, I was probably mistal- 


:en. Then a flock 


of six 


or eight bluebirc 


1s (Sialia arctiea)'. probah 


ly an old pair wit 


li their 


young, passed o 


n their way southward, ai 




rower's 


blackbirds that 


seemed to have no desth 


lation in particula 




a short halt neai 


• by. Then a flock of thir 


tv or forty noisv, e 




MaximUlian's ja 


ys settled down on the 


stubble-field wher 


e they 


remained until < 


>ne of their number, seeir 


.g me, gave a caw 


, when 



with a great n 


Lcket they all rose 


together like a flock of 


blackbirds 


and returned 


to their haunts ar 


uong the cedar- far up 


the canon. 


For some time 


a pair of mallard ducks had been circling about as 


though looking 


I for a place to a 


light, and finally they 


selected a 


bend in the ci 


■eek just in front 


of me. Above the ridge beyond 


the creek, a to 


rkey buzzard was 


floating listlessly in the morning 


sun. apparent 1 


y without the leas 


t exertion on his part. 


I watched 


him carefully 


for several momei 


its as he circled about. 


but could 


not detect the 


slightest motion ii 


i his wings. 




One other I 


)ird I saw here tc 


i which is attached a good deal of 


interest, the 1 


vhite-necked crow 


r (Corvus cryptoleucus) 


i. I have 


found these bu 


■ds common along 


the base of the Rocky Mountains, 


from Cheyenn 


e at the north, to 


Trinidad at the south ; 


and from 


the Snowy Range, to a point thii 


■ty miles out on the plai 


n, yet Mr. 


Ridgway write 


}s me that these 


birds -are entirely oi 


it of their 


previously knc 


■wn range." I st 


rongly suspect that thi 


s bird has 


been mistaken 


by naturalists, wl 


10 have ornithologized i 


n this sec- 


tion, for the c 


ommon American 


raven (Corvus earn i corns), since 


it seems to nv 


e impossible that 


any one should n-emair 


i here any 


length of time 


without seeing it 


; still the Western blue 


■bird (,S7a- 


lia Jlexkana), 


and several other 


birds which are equally 


- abundant 


here, are in th 


e same predicarm 


snt. The raven is said 


to be com- 


mon in Colora 


do, but during a y 


ear spent in collecting i 


n different 


parts of the 


territory, I have i 


seen but a single pair! 





HARVEST MITES. 



,- the ••American Ento 



the head-louse (P,<lh-»1„ 
cuius wvi'calis Linn.), 
the human bot-fly (CEs 






ierent genera. Therefore, as it is important that such com- 

anl , tiny a.o so for only known in tl, X] .' ' , 

I any futuiv .•irarhnoh.jrist Irani the true life history of either, 

' and is found more frequent h upon children than upon 

T itself in the flesh, but sim'ph ! nVn' t J H," -mtorioi pari 
.o<h justumlei the skin. therein , mimus int.-n., ini ti.m 



oly while the anima 



The Irritathui Harvest .nVe* (L^t,,* h'rltous. a. sp. 1m-. 56). 

This is the more troublesome and, perhaps, better known of the 

two, causing intense irritation and swelling on all parts of the 

body, but more especially on the le.-s mid around the ankles. 

the MississiDoi anv- 



He may, foi 



• himself fortunat 
tenacious, in thes 









d is fortu- 
enters, the part soon 
>r two. three or four 



iNt-ir. on 



juices of plants 


. and the love of Mood prove- i 


individuals who 


<M :i chance to indulge it. For 


chigoe the fern 


ale of which deposits egsrs in 


makes, these hai 


■ve-t bugs have no object of the 


not killed at th 


e hands of those thev torment. 1 



Till-: HEXF/riC IiFLATIO 



> of the Cetaceans, 



20 THE GENETIC RELATIONS OF 

the olfactory organ and of the nasal bones, depart less titan they 
frora the typical forms. It would therefore seem probable that 
the Dentkete (Toothed whales) have become differentiated, as now 
recognized, little or not at all in advance of the MtjxtkatP (Whale- 
bone whales), or in other words that the latter are not offshoots 
from the former, bnt both from one original stock." 

Dr. Brandt of St. Petersburg, to whom we are indebted for so 
many valuable memoirs in various departments of zoology, in a 



recent memoir on the classification of the ] 


Balaenoi 


cete), has misunderstood the tenor of these 


remark 


that I meant that the Balamoids (or Mysi 


dcete) ; 


(or Denticete) were differentiated and dev< 


■loped i 


donts in the Tertiary epoch, has expressed 


his diss 


Such an interpretation illustrates the dii 


ftculty i 


that there shall be no ambiguity. In view 


of my 


the interpretation in question struck me 


with i 



with friends, and in public discourses. 1 have insisted upon the 
inadequacy of the pakeontological record, and the absolute neces- 
sity, in view of our knowledge of I he radical differences between 
the various types of animals, of extending the phylum of the 

nite past. I have even incurred the censure of geologists for in- 
sisting that the mammals, for example, must have been developed 
in a far earlier epoch than we have |>aheont< ogical evidence of. 
and that even the palaeozoic might not be too recent for their birth. 
The absurdity of the idea, that the specialized Denticetes and Mys- 
ticetes of the Tertiary epoch could have originated in that epoch 

me that it cd i,igt. much 



: 



ladrupeds) arid the i \i-ii:nr ( i-t:i'-i an-, that i>. they are more 
ke the former than are the latter. 



\i _ i .1 y i ret .. .1 |.i Livnito sot tin Denticete^ and Mys- 
ticetes. Whether the restricted characters which might be applied 

tures and teeth attributed to the suborder in mv a'rticle is. I think. 



.n opinion one way or the other. It seems v< 
in view of the relations of the extinct faunas 

those of our own, to assume that it could not In 

! the Cretaceous epoch. 

■called intermediate forms. — Dr. Brandt, in coi 
subject in question, has taught us how the gene 

ould and should not be sought. " The hypothesi 



But if it is really meant that the so-called intermediate forms 
o in no wise indicate the line and mode of descent of the more 
pecialized types, I must for the first time differ, and differ decid- 
lly. from my eminent critic. Do the Prosimians afford no hint as 

■ nehiiheriids. and the Pakeotheriids for the Horses? None, 

le Oreodonts and the Anoplotheres, for the Ruminants? None, 

>c M :1 r~upm!s and Monotremes for the mammals? None, the 

• for the Birds? None,\ho. Dipnoans for the Batra- 



that tin- t«M-t . 



... ' us the solo 



the want of teeth in the v*h ■ mic whales as a d 
acter. And thus I find myself still on the same pis 
Brandt as to prs appears to differ 



want of tooth is only < 
trophy of the canines 



the incisors are also only of ft 
gulates the want of (upper) in 
distinction for one group (Ru 
coclucrids) scarcely specific d; 
developed, their structure and 



the latter, have dese< 



Mystieetes and D« 



26 THE GENETIC RELATIONS OF THE CETACEANS. 

tained. The Donticetes haw alm-M u.ii\e^ally been consider 
as entitled to that rank, and if the form of the jaws and t 
teeth are alone considered, such would seem to be undoubtet 



ons of the fronta 



superseded, may be followed. It may be that 






thenwdve-.. . 



> offsets to such 



,. tl„. -.,,,,„,.,, 



I— »»■ I > — I 



I shall only add that I h: 
etness of this representa 
rial and subject to the i 



ous degrees of : 
(although not e 



N mi- p.ittornists. 

', on Dr. Brandt's classification. — A few words 

: and on the subfamilies of Mysticetes may b( 



the name Mysticete, and the inference conveyed thereby. 
his language, would be that I was responsible for the introc 
of the name. As to the name itself. I perfectly agree \vi 
Brandt that it is objectionable and I hesitated Sometime 
adopting it. It was, however, the first introduced (by G 
864 f) and for that reason and that alone. I have emplo 
It seems strange that Dr. Brandt should have been igno: 



do I consider it necessary to protest against every inapt or un- 

grammatieal name thus adopted/or found in the works of others, 
such, for example, as K : i,,h, ,!,„!,: ,,„ and other- adopted by Dr. 
Brandt. § 

As to the subfamilies. Dr. Brandt has suppressed those admitted 
by myself and others among the Balamopterids adding, however, 



REVIEWS AND BOOK NOTICES. 



visions to the sit 






in oneway or another marked with tlit 
distant parts of the United States, and h 






:irly the 
of p:ir- 



- ■ 
which they were formed." 

In recording the collection made by Mr. Dunning from the 

ralist, Prof. Wyman says : 



id reached 
top. The 

"below the floor of the c 

close I. lr was five feet long, 

two high and three und a half broad, and built of unhexyn stones, 






the Choctaws and Waxsaws 
the Catawbas, according to M 
interesting to know that we 

a skull which Dr. Jones obt 



formerly bo Le in giving unques- 






Though these estima 



in this country, numbering over two hundred specimens, and 
comprising the entire suites of the Smithsonian Institution, 
Museum of Comparative Zoology, and Mr. Lawrence's collection, 
and an examination of the types in the collections of the Boston 
Society of Natural History and the Academy of Natural Sciences 
of Philadelphia, together with numerous specimens from other 
sources. In this paper Dr. Coues has adopted the '* synthetic* 
method of investigation instead of the "analytic" which, up to 
the present time, lias been so generally followed, especially by 
American ornithologists. It is hence a paper of unusual interest 
as fairly initiating a •■new departure " in American ornithology. 
Dr. Coues here takes the "arbitrary" but apparently justifiable 
basis of predicating u " species 'i upon specimens presenting any 
definite, consl ters whatsoever, that do not, so 

far as it appeals, grade into the characters of other species;" of 
_ •■ • varieties ' upon specimens presenting indefinite and 
inconstant yet tangible characters that are seen to grade into 
the characters of other specimens ;" of predicating "'synonymes' 
upon specimens presenting indefinite, inconstant, and intangible 
characters, due to individual peculiarities, or to age. sex. season 
or locality; as well as upon specimens presenting no special char- 
acters at all." His investigation of the genus has led him to the 
belief " that there are only four forms (sic) of Myiarchus that do 
not intergrade. and that an dim r< ntiated from a common original 
stock to such degree, or in such maimer, that we cannot account 
for their re-i > according to highly probable laws 

of geographical variation depending upon differences in food, 
climate, etc." He finds that the specimens examined by him " rep- 
resent nine species, two of which present < i<-l three tangible varie- 



istead oi two hondred, I should not be able to estab- 
lish as many species as are here allowed." 



ig. 6. M. Lawrem 


ei of Mexic 


o and Ci 


igriceps, of Central j 


md northern 


l South A 


tie species, regarded 


as" simply , 


i geograpl. 


M. Lawrencto." 8. 


3L stolidn* 


. a hVxihl 



Domingo and Ilayti: Pho.ho. Cuba and Bahamas: .-L</<7e/™»i, 
Porto Rico and Tobago, the Porto Rican form being very strongly 

marked. ( J. 3L fn'xf/'s. Jamaica. Not only have all these "varie- 
ties" ranked hitherto as species, but others reduce d in this paper 
to synonymes have currently held similar rank. 

Preliminary to a revision of the species, the leading features of 

genera. It proves to be a not sharply deiincd group, " the genus 
so called" resting "upon no structural characters, while its syno- 
nymes are among the vagaries of ornithology." A few species 
usually relegated to other genera are shown properly to belong 
here, and the genus as thus ■;- 

erably definite u ii[mw L *. 15 '<>>. proreediiui to an analysis of 

announces several pn.p.-iti.,n> to whi. li he imiu- prions consid- 
eration. The importance of some of these will warrant their 
repetition here as being an exposition of important facts and 

- ■' .:...._' :•;':■... .:■:■■■■:■■_■-. • 

capable of wide application. 



"Then. 


Drmal inherent va 


rial.ilitv. 


in size, of thi 


rd and 






elve per 


cent, of the mean. (1 


Luis is 


















the latitude of the bi 


ceding 












"Sizeo 


f peripheral parts 




wed with total size, vs 






:io with the latit 






Allen, 


Bull. Mas. 


Comp. Zool. IT, ] 


). ^^ i ). - " 






tni—md'' 


humidity of the 




direct ratio with the te 


'wever" 




color more than 




Tdily tones down colo 




than cold. 


Birds from hot 




», therefore, are paler, 




purl/jus. tl 


ian birds from m 








tenip.-nihii 


re. (Cf. Allen, o 


l>. clt., p. 


'239)."" ^^ ° r C ' tU 








with ;ig< 












Li<-:d distr 


ibution 












Other pi 


•opo-itions are announced 


relating to variations d 


lepend- 


('lit Upon ;i 


ge and sex in the 


group e 


specially under eonsidt 


•ration. 



■opositions relating to geographical variation, thong 
5 the more thoroughly they are tested the more fully 1 



f the SriiENiscrD.i..* — In this important memoir 
es we have one of the most valuable contributions 
of the Spheniscidae that has yet appeared. It 



m of the ski 
)f the specie 



that the go, 



with more especial reference, however, to the mem 

bone of the skeleton in several respects, and the 01 



1 thickness ante; 
I the only case c 
% the composit 



distinct metatarsals." These memhral and cranial features are 
illustrated I iy severed figures drawn by Prof. Morse. 

Part III treats briefly of the geographical distribution of the 
species. The penguins are not only confined to the southern 
hemisphere, but range northward only to latitudes 10° south on the 
Pacific coast of South America and to 8° south on the Atlantic 
coast of the same continent ; on the African coast only to 25° 



:ralia. The Falkland Islands 


appear to be the geograph- 


itre of the family, where no 


ies than half the species 


They range southward, ho we 


ver, as far towards the pole 


gers have yet penetrated, j 


["he species have usually a 


lge, several of them being circ 


umpolar ; of none does the 



f,;v ' r: ''- - 1 '' <"i.s where t ! 1 1 ■ \ commonly remain for but a short 

Part IV gives a list of the species, with their synonymy, and 

Latin diagnoses. The specimens examined are enumerated, and 
generally each is described more or less in detail, with special 
reference to an elucidation of the various stages of plumage each 
species presents. As we have already indicated, only twelve 
species are recognized, as follows -. — Aptenrxbjtes Patarjonica, A. 
Joft'jlroxtris, Pygorelis b.vniata, P. aarjirr, P.untaMk-a, P. antipodes, 
EiubjpttiH rutarracles, E. rhn/wome. E. ehnjsolophu. E. (h\uh mnta, 

Hyatt's recent catalogues of the fyheinsri,ht>* and must form for 
many years u standard work of lvfVivuce for the <jroup. Besides 



of plumage during the perk 

rf C0NSFECTU8.t- Lists of ] 



c synonymy of the 
ivledge of the oste- 



. 



flight. Prof. Blasin 





JOl.Id 1 


>e rem 


cmbered tha 


1 thl8 


• 






tuZ 


; and furth< 


!nr!,n 


kilaneing 
B, if Dr. 


, Bias 


illlV'tl 


mben 

lal Ki 




3: 


S3 



but there is no doubt of its very general acceptability. 

Much may be said in general terms, in favor of the classifica- 
tion of this brochure, although we cannot endorse it throughout. 
We protest, as other writers have, against the " fissirostral" 
association which places swallows alongside swifts and goatsuck- 
ers ; we see no grounds for the uniting of American Tr •"'" with 

the old world J/^v/,77^7^, nor the propriety of putting the nine- 



woodpeckers in a u.oup Z.,,,,,1 „>.,',. vj. ilh pi.bniiii: Huxley's 
definition of the Coceygomorphs. In the matter of nomencla- 

names to Ray, Gesner, Willoughby and Aldrovandi, to say nothing 
of the comparatively late Brisson and Moehrins ; but this is 

[We take this occasion to request ornithologists to favor the 
Naturalist with a copy of any paper they may hereafter publish ; 
intending to devote reasonable space to the respectful considera- 
tions.- Eds.] 





able and creditable 


u'lion 


■,'V.t in<-r. 


T' m ~ 


i'l'-ibil 


s of nni 


™7!r 


oies of 


' which coraparatn 


,ely 


little w;i- 


i bef< 


,) V \ iUi 


>wn : an 


,d" "'iveS 


good descriptions of va 


lions 


nests ai 


id po- 


gs. '1 


'lie info 




respect 


ing most of the la 


nd hi 


ids obsei 


red i 


a quit* 


- full am 


1 appar- 


ently j 


•erfectly reliable. 


The 


species < 


jiven 


numb 


er one 1 


mndivd 


and si. 


sty-four, which is 


prol 


• ably abo 


ut In 


c-sixths of the whole 


avi-fan 


na of the regions < 


ixpk 


red. As 


the a 


uthor < 


3onfines 


himself 


to his 


own personal obs 


enaf 


ions and 


thos 


e of a 


few ge 


ntlemen 


who ha 


ve worked in the s 


lame 


or contig 


nous 


local it 


ies, the 


paper is 


notabl; 


f free from misst; 


itcim 


?nts of f 


act, : 


dthoiii 


di some 


of the 


C"y!' 


We are unable tc 




>e with 31 


r. Mi 


lynard 




;ogether 


tain i'} 


catchers which he 


disci 


issos at b 


,„„,], 


. He 






under 


a misapprehensioi 


i (sh 


aivd. we 


und- 






; ,'x,.J 


Englai 


id ornithologists) 














bird, u 


hich appears to be 


■ h:u 






.W-w I 







tinct from Traill ii 



twocn which Mr 



■ 



ducted on a more scientific basis than ever before in this country. 

UNDERGROUND TREASURES; HOW AND WHERE TO FlND TlIEM.* 

The design of this little book is to make every farmer and land- 
owner his own mining engineer, and when hi- knowledge is ex- 
hausted to induce him to go to some professional mining engineer 
for advice. Perhaps the recent diamond swindle demonstrates the 
need of j list such a guide as this, The plan seems well carried 
out, the descriptions of minerals, ores and gems being terse and 
clear, and the hints as to how to find them are practical. After 
describing the eighty minerals which out of two hundred and 
forty-four found within the United States are of practical use, 
the author gives chapters on " Pros|,eeting for Diamonds, Gold, 
Silver, Copper, Lead and Iron," "Mineral Springs," " Artificial 
Jewelry— How Made and How Detected," -Discovery of Gold in 
cl a concluding one on the "Discovery of Silver 



BOTANY. 

he Globe. — Nine years after the public 



tion of Brongniart's "Tableau" Dr. Paterson discc 
minous shale near Edinburgh, Pothocites Grantont 


, which has I 


plant. It can therefore no longer be asserted that i 
period the higher Phanerogams were absent. Nc 


onous flowe 
in the Palffic 
>r can it be < 


said that, amongst Phanerogams, Pothocites be 
primitive type. The condensation of its inflort 




gone less differentiation. Indeed, for anyth'n 


ig that cai 



ated than tin 



opt Mr. S 

the Lias 

In the 



example, more confined ranges, and often repre 


sent on oceanic 


islands, apparently because the exaltation of then 


r stature has had 


less to struggle against, orders which elsewher« 


! comprise only 


herbaceous plants. Probably in every group the i 


irborescent habit 


has been a subsequent development. — W. T. 


rillSELTOX DTER 


in The Academy. 




Seeds as Projectiles.— Editors of Naturalist 


: Allow me the 


favor to correct the phra-enh.gy I. by some unaec 


ountable slip of 


the tongue, employed in referring to the Hainan: 


ielis seed. It is 


the contracting of the horny tndocarp not the he 


,rny -albumen," 


which projects the seeds.— Thomas Meehax. 





How the Buffalo Grass Disappears.— Prof. Mudgc in an iute- 
r in the " Kansas Farmer" on northwestern Kansas, 

ives some interesting facts as to the gradual disappearance of 
ae buffalo grass and the incoming of other grasses before the 



steadiness and r< 


>gularity of this change is interest! 






Hit' Manhattan, bi 






st visited the forks of the Solomon. 




)t close to the river bank. Two ye 




possession of half the bottom. N 




rely left the latter ground, and is i 


ig from the high ] 


prairie. In November, l*i;o, we visi 


and Phillips eoun 


ties, then unsettled, and found buii 


>f one-half in the b 


llth'iirimdTL^all'Lits-l^lKHrL'i',: 



tin- Middle Fork, we foi 



Hepatite Cui>[:nsks Wi : i.,iiiia\ v.. — Under tickets with 
heading Mr. Charles Wright has distributed a few sets (vary 
from two hundred to one hundred and lifty species) of Hrqxu 



college through the liberality of . 
invaluable one of Dr. John Tore 



IOOLOGY. 






ithocolletis and i 



!XtZ^T^ l] i\J 


inner'!!, 


££! 


g 6 c 




; l : 


hese genera' is the po 


sition oi 


f the 

5 spot 


is in, 


n it. that 


when the 


is familiar with the < 


:eims k, 






•e where t 




ted ; just ns Mr. Mann 


knew i 


it one. 


5 fron 


i my de>e 


rinti^ithe 


tion of the spot in C. 


nlMla, 


.■dtliol 


igii In 


■ had nev( 


■r seen the 


ies and although I c 


ailed it. 


for ! 


nevit : 


r , and nc 


>t through 



description of C. aMa, because it is connected with the 



ment that '■'•behind it at the h<>*<- <>/ th. rilin is a fuscous si 
showing that the "apical spot" was not at the extreme apex 
C. susinella, C. coffeella and C. albella are evidently very 
allied, if they are not in fact different names for the same sr 
All of Mr. Mann's figures in his last plate will answer for 
specimen of albella, especially the figure of the cocoon, 
mode of pupation is the same, and I have been able to 
no differences in the larva. C. albeUa and C. susinella mi 
leaves of poplars, and albella also mines those of willows ; w 



Europe, and therefore may be a littl 
al ed. Mr. Stainton's bri 

sumVk'iit data for a comparison with 



ented, as I infer, by the la-,t two s" 
; and susinella and coffeella therefore 
* ; but in albella the first of these 1 



GEOLOGY. 






. the Cretaceous 



will soon be described by Professor Marsh. 

Notice of a New and Remarkable Fossil Bird.— One of the 
most interesting of recent discoveries in palaeontology is the skel- 
eton of a fossil bird, found, during the past summer in the upper 
Cretaceous shale of Kansas, by Prof. B. F. Mudge, who has kindly 

an aquatic bird, about as large as a pigeon, and differing widely 
from all known birds, in having biconcave vertebra;. The cervical, 
dorsal and caudal vertebra-, piv-i-rvi-d. all show this character, 
the ends of the centra resembling those in Plesiosaurus. The 



Knowledge of Petroleum in Pennsylvania in 1771. — On 

the fact that petroleum was known to exist in Pennsylvania in the 
last century, and the date given was about 1789. I have in my 
library •• Kalm's Travels in North America" in which is a map 
'•published according to act of Parliament, March 7, 1771," upon 
which I find marked ••petroleum" on the Alleghany River about 
« J. t i 1 above the mouth of French Creek. The locality is 
marked with a little cross (+) on the east bank of the river, which 
would put it very nearly opposite to the mouth of Oil Creek as 
now known. I also find on the same map, in what is now Ohio, in 
the vicinity of the present location of New Philadelphia in Tusca- 
rawas County. -'Coals and whetstones:" and on the Hocking 
River near the southern portion of the state is found the word 



er coals or petroleum in these 

If travel so far to the west, but 

ished in 1771 shows 



-Professor Cope 



and throe to Eocene strata. No fossil LemuikUe have yet been 
discovered ; the fossils as yet found in S. America belonging 
to the Platyrrhini. -till peculiar to the Neotropical region. All 
the rest belong to the Catarrhini, and some to the anthropomor- 
phous genera; these have all heen found in the old \vorl<l. 1 > 1 1 1 
while some occurred in India, others inhabited France. Germanv, 
Greece and England. — A. W. B. 

On Some of Professor Cope's Recent Investigations.— In 

the Natltiaust for November last (p. 000), Prof. E. D. Cope has 
a paper on the "Coal Beds of Wyoming." in which he claims to 
have made the discovery that these strata are of Cretaceous age. 
This, however, was already known to every one familiar with the 
geology of that region. The existence of Cretaceous coal in 
various parts of the Green River basin had previously been es- 
tablished by Mr. Meek, Messrs. King and Emmons, and myself, 
although Professor Cope makes no reference to our researches. 
Any one wishing to consult the recent literature on this subject 
will find it cited in the " American Journal of Science " for De- 
cember 1872, page 489. 



In the December Naturalist (page 773), there is another papa 
by Prof. Cope on the " Proboscidians of the American Eocene." 
The discoveries here claimed rest on an equally unsatisfactory 
basis. The species mentioned had apparently all or nearly all 
been previously described by Dr. Leidy and myself, the type spe- 
cies, Tinoceras anceps Marsh, dating back to June, 1871. Some 
of the characters given by Prof. Cope, e.g., the large upper incisors 
and absence of canines, do not, indeed, apply to the species I have 
described ; but I feel quite sure that Prof. Cope's haste has unfor- 
tunately led him to mistake canines for incisors. On several 
other points, especially the position of the horns and structure of 
the skull, I believe Prof. Cope to be equally wrong. The animals 
described evidently beloiie; to the order which i have called l)in.o- 

ters and all'inities. I propose soon to discuss fully elsewhere. — 



present. 

of about twenty fee 



MICROSCOPY. 

Microscopy at tiif Vikxxa Kxi'osrnox. — The Expositk 

i fiord microscopies a i ire oj portunits to exhibit to the worl 



T. B. Van Buren \> C'oi 
and President F. A. P. 
mittee on Group XIV. 



m.. ,,_ 



■■■.. ■■■ ■ 

source of light, for both of whicl 

available. The eoinp irative -j 4 
the object will also ] 



'er to obtain extremely oblique 
directly (unmodified) from the 
this arrangement is especially 

ity of the thin glass cover over 



I'la 



pleasure I have followed the preliminary 



uniform nomenclature of the value of :i<-hrom:Uie objectives for 
the microscope, to which the foremost microscopists of our coun- 
try and abroad have advanced their contributions. 

The problem is a complicated one, and the following will by no 




mean- diminish the practical ditlinilties, but will only add one 
more which has not been brought into consideration. 

Undue importance is given to the optical centre of a lens, or 
combination of lenses, by the different writers upon the subject, 
Fig-g# while the great importance 

of the conjugate centres of a 
lens has been entirety neg- 
lected. The conjugate foci 

lenses, are in no way depend- 
entirely on the conjugate cen- 




if we prolong A ami A . they will meet at C, the cei 

foci, or the relation between the size of object and ir 
to compare the triangle K("E . with the triangle A' 
case the sum of the conjugate foci is equal to tl 
object and image, phis the distance from C to C. 

delphia, Sept. 25th, 1872. 
Amphipleuea Pelixcida by Moonlight. — Many 

have had the curiosity to u«e the beautiful white 1 1 jc 
moon as a source of niieroscopical illuminatioii. hut 
have tried it upon the more difficult objects. Prof. 



first trial. 
The Study of Lichens.— The explanation of the peculiar double 
ature of the lichens has lateh Ucm,i< tin - u je<-t <>i miu-h ilis- 

re to be found two quite distinct classes of elements. By one 
Lass the lichens are allied with the fungi, by the other with the 

xactly identical with certain fungi, while scattered through the 



substance are green granule- or eel!-, called uonidia; these bear a 
strong resemblance to certain kinds of algae. 

The same double nature of the lichens is evinced in their iVueti- 

The complete identity of fruit (apotheeia and spermagona) pro- 
duced by hyphen threads of lichens with fruit of the division 
Ascomycetae of the fungi has been well known, and has even led 
to the classification of this division of fungi with the lichens (by 
Schleiden in 1842). But what astonishment was created when, in 
1867, Famentzin and Baranetzky showed that the gonidia also, in 
favorable circumstances, produced fruit identical with the zoo- 

The question presses home more and more, whether the lichen 
is a single individual whose development follows these two diver- 
gent paths, or whether two distinct individuals out of different 
natural classes have combined together to live a united life. 

On the former supposition, the complete agreement of the goni- 
diaof lichens with certain alga;, and the fact that gonidia freed 
from the lichen threads in winch they lie embedded possess the 
power of independent life and development (hi which state they 
cannot be distinguished from algae) : these two considerations 

of algae (as supposed) are undeveloped or, it maybe, abnormal 
states of lichens. Famentzin and B ranetzky hav» lately adopted 
this theory. On the other hand, De Bary (18C6) has pointed out 
the possibility that in the case of the " jelly-lichens" (Gallert- 
sh have assumed the 
form of lichens I.ecai.M- parasitic fungi (of the family Ascom- 
ycetre) have united themselves with them. 



classed in the genera P(<><'rorn<-r»s. (' : i<-.>- ■>,-<-ns. (;h>r,,i'>ist!x, etc. 

2nd. Continuous i n\-t-l i_rn t ;»>ii on the gonidia contained in the 
thallus oi' ;tii regard to their development 

pear. The question win! her among the great number of green 
gonidia. inhabiting lichens, there may not be more numerous types 
than has i : with the inve-tiga- 

tions suggested above on the free living forms of algae ought 
be kept clearly in mind. The case of the occurrence of different 
forms of gonidia in one and the same lichen deserves special 

3d. The carrying on of repeated "cultnre-from-spore" experi- 
ment- with lichens from different f; nili - with and wit! .ut the 
presence of the algae that are supposed to be the nourishing plants. 
This should be especially done with lichens containing chloro- 
ronidia. 

The work may be presented in German, Latin, French, English 
or Italian. Important points of investigation must be illustrated 
by drawings, and the presentation of preparations (microscopic) is 
advisable. 

The time for sending in the papers is fixed at the first of March, 
1875. Real names are to be sent in sealed envelopes. The prize 
is one hundred ducats. — T. D. B. 

Misnaming Objectives.— [Mr. Wenham has made public the 
following brief reply to Mr. Stodder's communication on this 
subject in the August number of the Naturalist. This contro- 
versy, having already vailed sufficient attention to the points 
at issue, would be fruitless if still further prolonged.] I should 



58 

not have taken time to notice the long comment on my short 
letter, appearing on page 234 of the " Monthly Microscopical 
Journal" for May, 1872, but for the remark that my loiter was 
written with " evident loss of temper ! " Quite the reverse ; it 
was penned in a spirit of " chaff," and Mr. Bicknell, in his brief 
note in reply, seems to have caught the vein ; at which no one, 
perhaps, laughed more heartily than myself. On the other hand, 
it has drawn C. S. out of his shell, with horns erect, in his proper 
name or color. I have nothing further to say on the question, 
which leads to no scientific discovery, ami is one to be settled 
between the makers of object-glasses and purchasers, who are now 
sufficiently warned. Xo particular reform can he anticipated by 
pages of controversy having for its very basis such full scope for 
personalities, of which this and the above may be taken as a 



mentis <uch as those a lopte 1 by the C'ontiii aital makers would per- 
haps partly meet the difficulty ; but I believe that no English opti- 
cian would consent to name his glasses this way. — F. II. Weniiam. 

New York Uxcixulje.— Mr. Charles H. Peck has communi- 
cated to the Albany Institute a synopsis of the New York (State) 
Uncinate, described seven species as occurring in the state in 
addition to two described by Dr. E. C. Howe. Only three species 
are credited to Great Britain, whose mycology has been well inves- 
tigated. Our species are systematized as follows. 

Appendages to the conceptacles thirty or more. 



- less than tin 



Dr. Howe's species are r, Americana { U. vpiralu E 

but not described by Berkeley, winch is near U. ah 
has appendages few, longer and colored ; and U. luc, 



• and longer . 



welcomed the members, and gave an account of the rise and pres- 
ent condition of the museum. Of the twenty-eight papers read 
there were presented thirteen relating to geology and zoology, 



Professor Agassiz read a paper on " Three Different Modes of 
Teething among Selachians." He said that in former years he 

_'■:'.■ • 
the present i ite insufficient. It was not known 

what change* took [.lace with age. So he had determined upon 



the voyage of the Hassler to make the collection of Selachians a 
principal object. He had been richly rewarded for his efforts. 
Since his return he had made careful examination of the collec- 
tion, comprising sometimes two hundred specimens of one species. 
The result of this examination was that while in their adult condi- 
tion the Selachians present characters which are very constant 
among specimens of the same age, there- are *uHi change-, - AU \<,wj; 
them that even genera have been founded on the difference of 
age. Professor Agassiz then illustrated from abundant specimens 

of different ages from the embryo to the adult. In conch, linir he 
alluded to the relation which the facts of variation he ha 1 pre- 



iney may appear to fall in their c 
there would be some ground for the i 
Geologists ought to be as careful i 
physicists. He thought that there w 



tion in scienc i deduce on 

first be proved geologically that there is su 
nection. The facts show, indeed, somethin 
overlooked, viz. : that there is thoaghl in 
proved that thoughts are derived one from 
admit that the similarity of two objects p 



both in Europe and flu- [ nin- 



from the evaporation of which <jreat ai 
But he would ask those who entertaii 

or less outspoken ainonir geologists t< 
greater extension of glaciers in a fori 



men;: and t;i - 



ciation on the southern hemisphere as we 
that the trend of the southern ice sheet ; 
bowlders would be reversed. Instead o 

from the south northward, and the accu 

ward. He could say that he had seen 



sphere all that he had expected to find. The occurrence of these 
phenomena on a large scale in the southern hemisphere tended at 
once to establish the fact that the glacial phenomena were cosmic 
phenomena, and were not owing to local geological occurrences. 
He contended that the ability to recognize glacial phenomena de- 
pended in a great measure upon thorough familiarity with it. there 
were so many elements to be taken into account. Yet the track of 
the glacier could be detected as certainly as the hunter detects the 
track of his game. Causes of deception in interpreting the glacial 
phenomena were pointed out in detail. He showed the distinction 



ice ; that the whole range of the Ro 
ice, with only a few prominent pe: 

fields of ice. lie thought that the < 



: Geologist of & 



Prof. Aga 
ing the geolc 



least three hund 
polypes prior to 



another and uith iho<c- of the Vertebrates. 



T. C< 



George Catlin the well known In Han painter ami stii'leiit ol' 
Indian character and customs, died at Jersey City, on December 
•23d, in the seventy-sixth year of his age. 

A reprint of the late Dr. Clemens' papers " On the Tineina of 
North America," with notes by the editor, H. T. Stainton, Esq., 
has just been published by Van Voorst, London. 



Mr. Edward Wiiymper has arrived at Copenhagen from his 

Professor Agassiz has recently been elected a foreign associate 
of the French Institute (Academy of Sciences). It may be re- 
membered that the niiinlur <>i' f'nn'i^ii a^u.-iatc* of the Academy 

We are glad to learn that Mr. Charles Stockier has saved from 

telescopes, microscopes, and microscopic objectives. Work in the 
shop will go on. and all orders filled as usual. 



ANSWERS TO CORRESPONDENTS. 



AMERICAN NATURALIST. 

Vol. VII. -FEBRUARY, 1873. -No. 2. 
COLORS OF VEGETATION.* 



The coloration of plants is due to the presence in the cells of 
minute globules, which are usually u'lven in the herbaceous parts. 
the leaves, sepals, etc., and of various hues in the flower-. :in«l 



unequal proportions of these two ingredients which 
ixed in the leaf cells would account for the absolute 
i color. Thus in the bluish-green leaves of the pea 



66 COLORS 

family the blue substance should be found to predominate, and in 
the yellowish-green leaves of the hickories the yellow substance 
should be in the ascendant. Indeed it has been found that, in the 
outer leaves of the cabbage, the phyllocyanin or blue substance 
exists in much greater proportion than in the inner leaves which 
have been deprived of sunlight. 

Now as to the phyai ng differences of inten- 

sity. In the dark shining leaves such as those of the laurel, 
prince's pine, partridge berry, etc., the depth of color is due to 
the closeness with which the cells arc packed together. Each cell 
contains a globule of chlorophyl, and it is evident that, other 
things licini! equal, liie smaller the cells and the more compact 
their arrangement, the darker will be # the color of the leaf. 

And as to the differences in vividness of color. In the young 
leaves of the horse-chestnut, the cuticle is very thin and the cellu- 
lar substance of the leaf is very transparent ; hence the green of 
the globules of chlorophyl dious brightly through. On the con- 
trary, in the Ca-sundra or leather loaf, the cellular tissue is of a 

The blue coloring substance in leaves is much less stable than 
the yellow. It rapidly decomposes or is transformed in the 
absence of sunlight. You have all noticed what a yellow hue the 
foliage of trees wears in wet and cloudy springs, and even in 
summer, a week or two of sunless weather will often make a 
peiceptibk' difference in the color of the woods. Always the 
lower and inmost leaves of a tree are paler than the rest and of a 
yellowish hue, like the complexion of boys "brought up in the 
house." Cold weather bleaches chlorophyl and vegetable coloring 
matters generally. The further north we go the more liable do 
inism or loss of color. Flowers of Arctic or 
mountainous regions are always paler and more delicate in hue 
than those of warm countries and they are far more subject to 
white varieties. Linmeiis says that •■ there is not a single blue or 
red flower in Lapland that has not it- white varieties." The yel- 
low coloring matter is much less easily a tfected by absence of light 
and other causes and yellow flowers rarely exhibit any striking 
variations in hue. Many plants are entirely destitute of chloro- 
phyl. These are parasites and as they depend for their nutrition 
on the sap ffting plant they have 

no need of chlorophyl. The cells may be filled with orange-purple 



or tawny coloring substances or they may be empty, leaving a 
white plant, like the Monotropa and mushroom. Lichens and 



are to know what particular diet the maiden fed on." However, 
in a general way. we say that the bright colors of leaves in the 
fall are caused by the oxidation of the chlorophyl. This is really a 
process of ripening. A brilliant autumn leaf is not dead but 
mature. « Flowers are but colored leaves, fruits are but ripe ones. 
The edible part of most fruits is the parenchyma or fleshy tissue 
of the leaf of which they are composed." The ripening of a 
maple leaf and a red astrachan apple is precisely the same process. 
In both cases it is an absorption of oxygen and a chancre of the 
blue substance of the chlorophyl to red. The yellow substance 
is not easily acted upon, hence the prevailing color of autumn 
foliage is scarlet, which is a mixture of yellow and red. 

M. Chatin has a different theory as to the production of scarlet 
lea. es He claims th it the entire mass of chlorophyl is oxidized 
first to yellow and then to red, and that red leaves contain yellow 
chlorophyl in the inner cells which has not yet been oxidized". He 
thinks that yellow leaves in autumn are those in which the process 
has been arrested at the yellow stage before they arrive at red- 
ness. But the leaves of the oaks become crimson without passing 
through any intermediate stages of yellow or scarlet. This theory 
also appears improbable in the case of the hickory, aspen, etc., 
whose bright yellow autumn foliage shows no tinge of red. Be- 
sides such a change as he imagines would be inconsistent with 
the theory of the compound nature of chlorophyl. 

It seems to be pretty well established by the experiments of 



M. Cloez and others on the different varieties of hyacinth and 
bachelor's button (Centaurea eyanus), thai oxygenation or acid- 
ification changes vegetable blues to red. and that the two colors 
are chemically identical and chemically distinct from the yellow. 
Inordinary leaves, wo lind the blue and yellow substances nearly 
in equilibrium, but in the colored parts of the flower, one or the 
lominates. Thus flowers are naturally divided bv their 
colors into two great classes, according to whether the cyanic or 
xanthic principle is in the ascendant. 

Desvaux, one of the most painstaking of observers, lias studied 
for ten years the gradations of color in the twelve hundred varieties 
which have been produced of the kidney bean. IJo divides the 
colors of flowers into two series. 

1st. The cyanic series, those having blue for their type and 



which is the absence of all color. 

Thus the tulip w&B originally yellow. All of its varieties 

was a blue tulip, primrose or dahlia. The genmiums, { 
verbenas, etc., vary throughout the cyanic series, and a 
geranium or phlox is unknown. 

Different species of the same genus sometimes belong 



olor just hoioro it withers. The ray flowers of Xerantliemi 



. Is the most 
owers of Arctic regions. 
cid fruits ; bright red is r; 



'O COLORS OF VEGETATION. 

seen in early spring flowers and in the autumn it also disappears. 
But in June and July, the flowering time of the roses, laurels and 
azaleas, it is one of the most abundant colors. Yellow is more 
properly an autumnal color, and it often characterizes large groups, 
as the goldeu rods, sunflowers and buttercups. Blue is a summer 
color, but it runs throughout the year from the hepaticas of the 
hue of the March sky above them, to the fringed gentians and 
asters of the November woods. 

Numerically, yellow flowers are far the most abundant: next 
comes white, then red and blue. Red is very often the hue of the 

common among the grasses, some of which brighten into a purple 
mist as intense in color when seen at a little distance, as the most' 
brilliant patches of laurel or meadow beauty. 

" In most plants," says Thoreau, "the co»llaor calyx is the part 
which attains the highest color and is wie most attractive ; in 
many it is the sec] vessel or fruit, in others still it is the very 
culm itself which is" the blooming part." 

In conclusion we come to the question, what is the use of the 
colors of vegetation? In a strictly utilitarian point of view they 
seem unimportant. There arc some plants, chiefly orchids, which 
require the aid of insects to secure fertilization and which attract 
them by their bright colors, but these plants are very few and 
most flowers could accomplish their destined purpose just as well 
were they clad in the drab of the veriest Quaker. 

The flowering time is the nuptial season, the honeymoon of the 
plant, and it is the nature of flower and beast, of bird and man to 
" spruce up," to put on his brightest colors at pairing time. 



ON THE LIMITS OF THE CLASS OF FISHES. 



jtliers in still more comprehensive groups. But, 
a Investigation was directed to the structure of 
found that the preconceived ideas respecting the 
various forms to the media which they inhabited, 
ns the correct expressions of the relations of such 
ral features. The recognition of this fact resulted 



idea of a certain relation between form and habitat still prevailed 
to a greater or less extent, and the vertebrates, in the earliest 
days of systematic zoology, were instinctively divided into quad- 
rupeds, or animals especially fitted for progression on land ; birds, 
especially adapted for flight and fishes, destined for life in the 

as reptiles, bats, etc., were slurred over or forced into combination 
with the others on account of some points of real or supposed 
agreement. Soon, however, the distinction of the cold-blooded 
quadrupeds from the warm-blooded ones (mammals) aAd the affin- 
ity of the former and the serpents were recognized, and the class 
of "reptiles" constituted. It was long before it was fully and 
generally acknowledged that the latter was a heterogeneous assem- 
blage of forms having very diverse relations, part of them being 
closely related to birds, and the others almost [indistinguishable 
from fishes. Such recognition has now become practically uni- 
versal, but, at this point, the progress of zoological taxonomy as 
exhibited in the appreciation of the subordination of tvi.es has 






froy St.-Hilaire * had, in 1852, separated from the class of fishes 
as the type of a new class (Myelozoa) the genus Branchiostoma or 
Amiiiiiox ;• (a species v, liieli was originally <!< scribed by Pallas as a 
member of the molluscan genus Limax), rediscovered and first 
referred to the class of fishes by Costa in 1834. Bonaparte, at the 
same time, proposed to withdraw from the invertebrates the genus 
Sagitta ((.luoy invl Gaimard) :md elevate it to the rank of a 
class ( Aphanozoa) of the Vertebrates.! 

In the elevation of Sagitta to the rank of a class Bonaparte 
has anticipated Professors Carus and Huxley (who also elevated 
the same form to class rank, retaining the name Cluetoiinatha, 

But his views respecting its pertinence to the branch of verte- 



should be separated also from the ordinary fishes," He fin 
" 1st class ; Myzontes with two orders, Myxinoids and Cyc 






in a group (Sub- 



phylum Leptocardiaor A 


era!! 


ia ) opposed to all the rest of the ver- 


tebrates (Subphylum Pa 


chyc. 


ardia or Craniota) ; and under the 


latter opposing the (1) < 




istoma in a '-cladus" or superclass 


Hauptk!asse Monorrhina 

ming reptiles), and Ba 

In IMJ.s, Prof. Cope,+ 


and 


irdinate with (2) another (Anamnia) 
:usta," " Halisauria" (extinct swim- 
lians, and (3) a third (Amniota) 
mammals, f 
suggestive article on the doctrine of 


Teleostei (including Cia 


Lopl 


r«f«"s"ST««TD^rtot* 


groups coordinate with 1 


he i 


Jatrachia. Reptilia. Aves and Mam- 


malia and therefore class 


ea :§ 


in a subsequent memoir, he reiter- 


ates more distinctly the s 
Avea, Keptilia, and Bat 


racki 


opiniou, remarking that "The classes 
a are those over which the present 


review extends. The do 


"" 


of vertebrata not included are : the 


" w '\- ' 




,Na> lIINt..ryof t!l ,i ateel States of Amer- 


"-I 1 . ! ^,i . !>. n!';." ( .1.' V 


V ; 


', l,.'. .„ n ' 2 VI-.nnemeLnt^-uk- 



Dipnoi, Pisces, Elasrnobranchii, Dermopteri, Ler_ 
Mammalia.* 

Subsequently, in a most important special men 
fication of fishes, Prof. Cope f (if I understand 
nized (as classes) six "'roups of Vertebrata ; Mi 
sida (birds and reptiles), Batrachia, Pisces, 
Leptocardii. After enumerating these groups, 1 
six classes of Vertebrata appear to be well establi 

Three classes among Fishes.-— After a careful su 
the author had iudopen-'leutiy. several years ag< 
same conclusion as Prof. Cope respecting the oli 



uncalled for t 
Prof. Hackel 
Pisces, the re 



any contiguous c 



nission of 

form t- 



obstacles. and although 
looked hitherto, it is nol 



obvious ones. All the hat radiians haw a scapula ( in the broadest 



developed and with no lower jaw. Paired 



NOTES ON THE HABITS OF CERTAIN CRAWFISH. 



In the course of a day's fishing during the past month of Sep- 
tember, my companion and myself caught a large number of 
those lobster-like eriistareans. known everywhere as •■ Crawfishes :" 
and by zoologists, ;is either Cambarns or Astaeus, the former 
differing from Astaeus in having a more elongated body, "by the 
absence of the gill on the fifth pair of legs," and other slight dif- 



the surface of the 



>1IL ' ,:U '; u1 ' thi> i, ^ :llit y- We have found in the deep ditches, with 

respects, accords with the species called Cambarus Barton!! Fabr.. 

i'V Dr. Hagen. on page 75 of his Monograph. 

. ^ *' luiV ;' lH"-|...-elx .aid •• in !,],,[ respects," inasmuch as there 

hat we have collected. Dr. Hagen says ol tin. cnn >h r'-is 
(he most variable species; as yet I cannot find stable and constant 
characters for dividing them into three or four species, as Mr. 

11 is this species, we doubt not, that Dr. Godinan found near 
-juid has referred to. as follows, in his » Rambles of 

' Aat Iist " * " ' ,1 " '"''' Pointed with the second volume of 

his "American Natural History." third edition: Philad.. 1842. 
Dr, Godman says,— «I now returned to the little brook and, seat- 
ing lnv.M.-lf on a -tone, remained for some time unconsciously ' 
pizmg on the fluid which gushed along in unsullied brightness over 
its pebbly bed. Opposite to my seat was an irregular hole in the 
bed of the stream into which, in an idle mood, I pushed a small 
pebble with the end of my stick. What was my surprise, in a few 
seconds afterwards, to observe the water in this hole in motion, 
and the pebble I had pushed into it gently approaching the sur- 
face. Such was the fact ; the hole was the dwelling of a stout 



little crawfish or fresh-water lobster, who did not choose to be 
incommoded by the pebble, though doubtless lie attributed its 
sudden arrival to the u>ual accidents of the stream, and not to my 
thoughtless movements. He had thrust his broad lobster-like 
claws under the stone, and then drawn them near to his mouth, 
thus making a kind of shelf; and as he reached the edge of the 
hole, he suddenly extended his claws, and rejected the encum- 
brance from the lower side, or down stream. Delighted to have 
found a living object with whose habits I was unacquainted, I 
should have repeated my experiment, but the crawfish presently 
returned with what mi^lit lie called an armful of rubbish, and 
threw it over the side of his cell, and down the stream as before. 
Having watched him for some time while thus engaged, my atten- 
tion was caught by the considerable number of similar holes along 
the margin and in the bed of the stream. One of these I explored 
with a small rod, and found it to be eight or ten inches deep, and 
widened below into a considerable chamber, in which the little 
lobster found a comfortable abode. Like all of his tribe, the 
crawfish makes considerable opposition to being removed from 
his dwelling, and bit smartly at the stick with his claws: as my 
present object was only to gain acquaintance with his dwelling, 
he was speedily permitted to return to it in peace." 

There are some points in this pleasing description of the haunt 
of a burrowing crawfish that differ from the results of our own 
observations. It will be noticed that the principal 
is of a " burrow" or hole in the bed of the stream, i'acii •j. : gainst 
the current. This is more in accordance with what we have 
noticed of the habits of Combarvs injiiiis. which species, however, 
appears mereU to take shelter under stones; and the burrows of 

been in the banks of the smaller streams and meadow ditches 
(and occasionally, a colony of burrows in the river bank, where 
peculiarly favorable), a little below the usual water line. 

The crawfish that we have found inhabiting such burrows, 
located as we describe, besides showing anatomical specific defer- 
ences, will thrive admirably, we find, in an aquarium, where the 
water is, of course, quiet ; while both the others die very soon 
after being taken from their natural habitats. This fact, we think, 
is of itself quite sufficient to show a decide! difference between a 
burrowing and a running water species, even if no anatomical vari- 
ations could be traced. 



83 

Dr. Hagen refers to the quotation from Dr. Godman, speaking 
of the crawfish, of which the hitter writes, as Cambarus IHou-i-neaes 
Girard, and considers it to be the same as C. Bartoiui Fabric-ins: 
although it seems to bear some resemblance to C. obesus Hagen, 
a southern and western species. One fact is certain, at least, 
that the specimens observed by Godman were in a stream near 
Philad slphia, a locality familiar to Girard. We have found no 
specimen about Trenton, New Jersey, that could be identified with 
C. obesus Hagen, although we have made very careful search, 
hoping to find more than the three species we have mentioned. 

Crawfish are strictly omnivorous animals but, although excellent 
scavengers, do not feed wholly upon decayed animal and vegetable 
matters. We have frequently noticed that 0. Bartonii in an 
aquarium breaks off the short stems of the common river-weed, 
and eats the main stem, after stripping it of its minute leaves. 
So too C. affinig, from beneath Ita sheltering flat stone, and C. 
Bortontf, in its safe burrow, will seize the minute young Cypri- 
nokls, that pass up and down near the stream in such myriads, 
ever and anon peeping into the various little indentations in the 
banks. Such little fish when once fairly caught by the big, but 
by no means clumsy, " hands" of a Cambarus, have no chance of 
escape, and are soon torn in pieces and devoured. 

Etheostomoids, or '-darters," that habitually rest upon the 
bottoms of the streams they frequent, will usually take shelter 
underneath* a stone, if one be near, when they are disturbed either 
by larger fishes, or by man. When a crawfish happens to have 
taken up lfi s abode under such a stone, it is seldom that the 
frightened "darter" escapes. Often have we seen the common 
Bohosoma Olmstedi take refuge as we have described and found, 
on examination, a Cambarus quietly resting underneath 'the stone, 
v "-» the luckless "darter" in his claws. 



. 



r attention particularly called t 



during the past month of September only, 
noted nothing of their breeding habits ; but the very great num- 
bers of very small specimens half an inch to an inch and one 
balf i u length that we have found, seem to indicate that the 
animal is of slow growth during the firs! summer of its exis- 
";■' ' : i!l, l on the other hand, we have failed to find any specimens 
j«C. acutm more than four inches in length, the maximum size 
bei ng six and three-tenths inches, as given by Dr. Hagen. 



Dr. Hagen mentions six specimens from Essex (Co.?) New- 
Jersey, however, that were smaller than the above figures quoted 
from his work, being, to use his own words, " Long. corp. 8 ad 4 
inch." He thinks it quite possible that these may " belong to a 
different species (viz., Cambarus Blandingii), a §outh Carolina 

The young Cambari, in September, seem to be fully as active as 
the adults, but do not frequent any given class of localities, as 
they wander about the beds of streams, creeping forward in a 
slow, awkward manner, and swimming backwards, when disturbed, 
with wonderful rapidity. 

It has seemed curious to us, that we have found no d< 
mens of crawfish. In what manner their unattractive bodies are 
disposed of after death we cannot imagine. We have tried, too, 
in vain, to find out their enemies ; but have failed to do so. We 
1 upon, it must be when they are 
but a few weeks old. But what becomes of their adult dead? 
Do they, as birds are asserted to do, seek some hidden nook? or 
do they dig their own graves deeply in the mud, preparatory to 
the appro;; d 1 is near at hand? 

The precise number of species of this crustacean, inhabiting the 
streams of New Jersey, we do not doubt, will prove to be more 
than the three that we have mentioned ; but as yet these are all 
that we can among the many dozens that we 

Lav.' gathered in our immediate neighborhood. The differences 
that mark these species, according to Dr. Hagen, are found to be 
coexistent with our separation of the specimens, in accordance 
with the different classes of localities where found; we can there- 
fore scarcely think that there is any error in asserting that the 
crawfish found in the neighborhood of Trenton, New Jersey, are 
respectively, Cambarus amtw, the first, a 

plant-loving species : the second, a deeper water, stone-haunting 
form ; the third, a burrower in the muddy banks of ditches, small 
streams and, occasionally, of the river itself. 



THE RATTLE, OF THE RATTLESNAKE. 



I wish to contribute my observations on the rattlesnake, having 
been specially favored in opportunities for the study of this rep- 
tile. 

Of all the articles that have appeared on the subject in the 
Naturalist that by Mr. Putnam* appears to me to present the 
most satisfactory theory concerning the use of the rattles. I am 
satisfied that one of their uses is to bring the sexes together. 

^ In July, 1869, I was engaged in surveying along the Logan 
nver in Wayne County, Nebraska. After completing my con- 
tract I devoted a day to investigating the natural history of the 
neighborhood. While washing a collection of unios at the water's 
edge, I heard the familiar rattle of the Massasauga (Crotalophorus 
'' ''■'■ " "'" w). I quietly crept up the bank and cautiously looking 
over the level bottom I saw, at the distance of about thirty feet, a 
rattlesnake coiled up with head erect and gazing in an opposite 
direction from my position. Every three or five minutes the snake 
would cease rattling for a minute or more and then commence 
again. In about half an hour from the time that I first saw the 
snake I observed another ratth-nafc.' approach the first one. 
Closer and closer the second one approached, until at length they 
met and indulged in a sexual embrace. I watched them for at 
least an hour and left them at last without disturbing them. 

The next year at the Bow river in the same state I saw the 
same thing repeated under similar circumstances. In neither case 
could I ascertain whether it was the male or female that gave the 
call. 

I am satisfied that" the theory | that the rattle resembles the noise 
made by the Cicada, and that it is employed because of this resem- 






otrap birds, etc., is a mistake. 1 have been accustomed 



to the sound of the Cicada and the rattle of the rattlesnake 
m y youth, and soon learned to distinguish them, although there is 
betimes a striking resemblance between them. My familiarity 
with them was gained in my native state amid the Alleghanies of 



v- 



Pennsylvania. In the last week of June, 1869, 1 was on the Mis- 
souri flood plain in a d use timber in Cedar County, Nebraska. At 
the time there were many Cicada' and multitudes of birds in the 
timber. One day I was sitting on a log. classifying a collection 
of flowers and plants. Suddenly I heard the well-known rattle- 
snake rattle. The snake was not more than forty feet from me. 
I could not have been the cause of its alarm as a large log lay 
between us and I had been quiet for nearly an hour. Even the 
Cicadje were alarmed and disappeared, and soon not a bird was to 
be seen, but the rattling continued. Unfortunately, on the impulse 
of the moment, I killed the snake without waiting to see or learn 
the purpose of its rattling. Again I have noticed that the Mas- 
sasauga, at least in Nebraska, is by far the most abundant far 
away from the timber, where the Cicada- are rarely if ever seen. 

These observations seem to me to point to the theory that tin- 
rattle calls the sexes together. In July, 1871, I was in the timber 
on the Missouri in Dakota County. Nebraska. I got sight of a 
Baltimore oriole (rare in Nebraska) which I was following as it 
flitted from twig to twig. As it swept near the ground a rattle- 
snake struck his highest notes and seemed to paralyze the oriole 
with fear. This snake was a Crotalus. The poor bird hovered 
near the snake and fearing that it mighl fall into its jaws I shot 
the reptile. This experience suggested the theory that perhaps 
an additional purpose of the rattle was to frighten its victims 
into submission and to protect itself by the terror it inspires from 
its natural enemies. However that may be, is it not a mistake to 
limit such a pcculiai org hi to ; 1 \ one singh purj ose? What is 
needed to determine definitely the natural history of the rattle- 
snake Is closer and more accurate observation over a wide area, 
and by persons who are fitted by nature and education for such 
work. Unfortunately for science, the almost universal custom has 
been to kill the rattlesnake as soon as found, without waiting to 

Once in the Dakota Nebraska timber 1 saw an a! tack of hogs on 
a rattlesnake. In a few minutes after the snake commenced rat- 
tling, three others made their appearance. They apparently came 
i of the first one, but all were killed by the hogs 
ites. Seven hogs were more than a match for four 
Here evidently the rattle was used to call for help. 
These belonged to the genus Crotalophorus. 



COLOSSAL CUTTLEFISHES. 



There is a prevalent opinion amon^ seamen that tin largest 
being that swims is a colossal squid or cuttlefish. As a matter of 
fact there are immense squids which range the high seas, often 
forming the food of the sperm whale. It is these gigantic animals 
which luive on rare occasions been seen by fishermen and others. 
which have given rise in past ages to the stories of the kraken. 
This animal was supposed to be large enough to form islands in 
the sea, and the well-known hoax of Denys Montfort represents 
a vt kraken octopod " in the act of scuttling a three-masted ship. 
The first authentic records of these colossal squids will be found in 
a forthcoming memoir by Professor Steenstrup, the distinguished 
Director of the Zoological Museum of the University at Copen- 
hagen. From the proof-sheets and copy of the first plate ilhis- 
:nvd in my hands, 1 find several 
authentic cases of the occurrence of gigantic squids on the Euro- 
pean coast. In the middle of the sixteenth century (1549) there 
was found at Malmo. in Sweden, a large squid, called monk fish or 
sea monk (sdmunk), and designated by Cesner as Mou<v:hux 
marinus. We shall refer to this animal again. 

In 1630, 179* and 18.33, specimens of gigantic squids, now pre- 
served in the museum at Copenhagen, occurred on the north coast 
of Denmark, and in 1062 another animal of this sort, the Ommato- 
strephes pteropus of Steenstrup, portions of which are in Prof. 
Steenstrup's collection, was found on the coast of Holland. 

The specimen found in 1853, on the shores of the Cattegat, was 

in length (about the size of the beak figured on page 93). This 
is described by Prof. Steenstrup under the name of Architeuthis 
monachus. 

The most interesting discovery, however, was from the neigh- 
borhood of the Bahamas, in latitude 31° X.. and longitude 70° W. 
Specimens of the horny jaws, hooks, arms, sucking dusks and 
other parts of a cuttlefish over eighteen feet long, were brought 



to Copenhagen by Capt. Hygom from this locality in 1855. This 
species was named by Prof. Stee.nstrup ArcJiiteuthis dux* 

This kind of cuttlefish, called the hooked calmary, is found 
swimming on the high seas, being solitary in its habits, not going 
in schools as the common squid. The end of the body and an 
arm of one of these hooked cnlmaries, thought by Prof. Owen to 
have belonged to an individual -ix foot long, are preserved in the 
museum of the College of Surgeons in London where, owing to 
the kindness of Prof. Flower, we had an opportunity of seeing it. 
The arms of this calmary are provided with large hooks arising 
from the centre of the suckers, which must add a peculiar horror 
to the slimy monster. It was found by Banks and Solander, the 
naturalists of Cook's first voyage, near Cape Horn. It was 
named by Prof. Owen Onychoteuthis BanTcsii. 

The French naturalists Quoy and Gaimard, as reported by 
Woodward in his " Manual of Mollusca," found a dead cuttlefish 
in the Atlantic under the equator, which must ' ave weighed two 
hundred and twenty pounds when perfect. It was floating on the 
ad was partly devoured by birds. To the same excellent 
authority we are indebted for the statement that a kind of sipiid 
called the " sea arrow," used extensively for bait in the codfishery 
of Newfoundland grows nearly four feet in length. This possibly 
belongs to the genus G,ai,ui!nMreplies. 

We are indebted to "The World of the Sea" by M. Moquin 
Tandon, for the following stafc je cuttlefish. 

Pliny notices an enormous cuttlefish which haunted the coast of 
Spain devouring all the lish. and destroying the fishing grounds. 
It weighed seven hundred pounds, and its amis were more than 
thirty feet long. Aristotle speaks of a great calmar more than 
ten feet long which was taken in the Mediterranean. In modern 
times Zl. Verany speaks of a calmar a yard and a half long, and 
which weighed twenty-four pounds. One was caught near Nice, 
weighing fifteen pounds. An equally large one was found in the 
Adriatic, and its body is still preserved in the museum at Trieste. 
Over twenty years ago a calmar six feet long was caught off the 
south coast of Fiance ; it is still to be seen in the collection of 
the Faculty of Sciences at Montpellier. Peron, a French natural- 
ist, met in the Australian seas a huge cuttlefish with arms more 



than eight feet long. Rang, in the same part of the world, met a 
cephalopod with a reddish body, which was the size of a ton cask. 
Swediaur reports that some whalers took out of the mouth of a 
whale pieces of a cuttlefish which were twenty-five feet long. On 
the 30th of November, 1861, the steam corvette Alecton, while 
cruising between Teneriffe and Madeira, encountered a monster 
cephalopod floating on the surface of the water. It was sixteen 
or eighteen feet long, irrespective of the eight long arms. The 
body was fusiform and weighed upwards of four thousand pounds. 
It is doubtful whether this creature was a true cuttlefish or not, 
but as its body is said to be fusiform and terminated in two fleshy 
lobes or fins, the two long arms may have been eaten off. The 
poulpes or octopods have no fins, and the body is a rounded mass, 
as seen in the adjoining figure, which represents a true octopus (a 




Brazilian Bpe< cuttlefish. 

I have been informed by Capt. J. Hammond of Salem, who has 
■sailed for forty-one years between that port and the East Indies, 
that once, while off the Cape of Good Hope, he saw the remains of 
squid from eight to t* n • ibi< t< et in size, th it n_ on tin - .1 * e. 
The animal had apparently been attacked by whales and dolphins, 
and the arms and head devoured. 

At a late meeting of the Boston Society of Natural History, 
Hon. N. E. Atwood related the fact that he had seen pieces of 
squid ten inches in diameter vomited up by a sperm whale, and 
that sperm whales were known to devour giant squid. I have re- 



" Provincetown, December 16, 1872. 
Dear Sir: — Your letter, asking me some questions about the 

meeting of the Boston Society of Natural History, was duly re- 
ceived. In regard to the lar<ro squid seen l>y whalers in every 
ocean where sperm whales are found. I would say that 1 think 
some of them are very laruv. I have made 1 >ut one whaliiu: vmv^t. 
and that was in the Athmtir. when 1 was a boy fifteen year- old. 
I have not seen a piece of lar-e squid since. ' I think I did then 
see some head, that were at h ot ten inches in diameter. Some 

whaling say they have seen them much larger' than ten inches, but 

me anything definite in regard to their size. 

neighbors (wh<". an made a vova-e in a 



instance that I have ever heard of sperm whales eating anythi 
but squid. 

I refer you to Lieut. Maury's •• Sailing Directions," in which 
records several letters from whaling captains who have had mn 



face, and is from two to tluve feet in length; the larger ki: 
which probably have their haunts deep in the sea, must be 

only food which sperm whales ever eat. are often found in sh 
water; there is, however, a species of this fish, the exact size 
which is not known, but it i> presumed to be large, as wha 
in the agony of t t'omi their stomach pie 

that the assertion of the n *i i , m~ th-.r il., v.hale. thmigh 
largest of animals, is one of the smallest eaters, is untrue. Lai 
pieces of squid are often seen floating on the sea. which whal 



bottom of the sea, and is never seen upon the 



when torn up l>v the whale. 1 have seen it in lruae pieces float- 
ing upon the surface. I have seen a dying whale vomit it up. 
I have opened the stomach of a whale and seen it there in 
pieces, which convinces me that the animal is very large also, as 
well as small; and that the spwm whale almost always when in 
want of food goes to the ocean l>ed.' Captain Rose, of the hark 
Dove, writes under the date of June 1. 1804, as follows : 'Fifteen 
years ago I might have agreed with Captain Roys, that sperm 
whales' fed [;.,'. squid] Lived or grew on the bottom of the sea, and 
it may live there : hut as to it- never heingseen unless torn up by 
whales. ! know and can .-upport the assertion that in some seasons 
and places it is seen on the surface of the water both alive and 
kicking. I have seen them often on the southeast coast of Arabia, 
mostly in the morning, dodging across the bows and in the wake 
of the ship.' 

The above extracts will show y 
have had much experience, give 

In confirmation of this and otber statements to the same effect, 
we may cite a similar statement from an old whaler, given in Prof. 
Shaler's article on the " Habits of the Sperm Whale," on page 3 
of the present volume of this journal. 

It now remains for us to notice briefly the facts regarding the 
colossal squid that have come under our own notice. In the 
autumn of 1871 appeared a statement in the " Cape Ann Adver- 
tiser " that the crew of a Gloucester fishing vessel, while upon the 
Crand lianks. found a • which measured fifteen 

feet in length and four feet six inches in circumference, the longer 
arms measuring ten feet. On writing to the editor, and inquiring 
bow far this statement could be relied on, he kindly wrote in reply 
as follows : — 

"The account of the squid, as published in the "Advertiser," 
is correct, and is vouched for bv Mr. James G. Tarr. of the firm 
of Dodd, Tarr & Co.. of East Gloucester. The squid was picked 
up atloat (dead) at the place mentioned, and was $, 
they had to take their tackh to -ret it aboard the vessel. They 
cut up one-half to bait their trawls, and caught with it one hun- 
dred quintals of tMi. The skeleton might have J ecu brought in 
as well as not ; but sailor-like, they did not think of it." 

From Mr. Tarr 1 also received the following letter, giving more 
precise details : — 

"East Gloucester, January 4, 1872. 

Your note of the 22d ultimo came duly to hand. In reply I 
in Campbell of the schooner B. D. Haskins, 



CUTTLEFISHES. 

at anchor cm the Grand Banks on or about the 20th of 

October, discovered something ttoal :■.•_ on tlie water, perhaps a 
. gun-shot from his schooner. The weather being fine an. I 
'"' order, i tin Ik.;. i low. I. ur.d sent two men to learn what it 
might be; they returned reporting Hie object to be a mass of 
mown to them. The Captain then 
in and gaffs and more men went to investigate ; he found 
it quite dead, each end ater, only the centre on 

its surface. After towing it alongside the schooner, he took his 
- i o hoist the monster out of water, and on see- 
ing its head, declared it to be a eq n eard of squid 
se, but never saw the like before. After it was got on 
board, the second hand or mate informs me he mea 
body with a rule and found it fifteen feet long, four feet eight 
inches round. The long arms were badh eaten; judged they 
might be nine or ten feet long ; two were shorter than the former, 
perhaps two or three feet; did not measure the arms, but judged 
them twenty-two inches round; al*o judged its weight to be two 
I would fill eight or ten barrels. The biggest 

r hand you the size or form of one of its beaks or bills. The 

in the hands of one of our workmen who declines to 

it. I learn from sonic - years ago 

large squid were often taken on the Grand Banks, and whalers 

have often seen them in northern oceans of immense size, larger 

than any whales. One old gentleman has s< en an arm 

a capture* 1 \ ogth. I think the 

is often buind iu the northern oceans." 

Learning from Mr. Tarr that one of the crew had the horny 
jaws of the monster in his possession, I offered him a fair price for 
it for the museum of the Peabody Academy of Science, but he 
would not part with it. Through the kindness, however, of Mr. 
Tarr. I was enabled to obtain an imperfect photograph of it. The 
beak had been split open and spread apart, and photographed in 
this position. I took a photograph of it to Prof. Steenstrup who 
kindly spent some time with me in endeavoring to identify it from 
the specimens in the unrivalled collection of decapodous cephalo- 
poda in the museum of the Royal University. He decided that 
in all probability, bo far as could be decided from such imperfect 
data, the beak must have belonged to the Architeuthis monachus 
Steenstrup. This is the "sea monk" which we have previously 
noticed as having occurred on the coast of Cattegat in 1853, and 
which was also known to the naturalist Gesner, who wrote in the 
middle of the sixteenth century. I also showed Prof. Steenstrup 



the proof of the accompanying cut (Fig. 10), of the beak of a 

was presented by Hon. N. E. Atwood to the Essex 

Institute several years ago. It is four and a half inches long, the 

cut being of the natural size. The specimen was taken from the 



stomach of a sperm whale, captured in the North Atlantic, and is 
now in the Museum of the Peabody Academy of Science. Judging 
by this cut, Prof. Steenstrup ventured the opinion that it belonged 
to Architeuthis dux which, as we have stated above, has been pre- 
viously found near the Bahamas. He also suggested that the 



smaller figure (natural size) in the cut. illustrated the beak of an- 
other small squid, the Gonatus Fnbridi. A beak of this squid 
was presented by Captain At wood at the same time with that of 
A. dux, and we suppose it may have come from the same sperm 
whale, but there is no statement to that effect. These specimens 
will all be sent to Prof. Steenstrup for accurate determination. 
When his memoir appears we hope to be able to present our read- 
ers with a more satisfactory account of these, until lately almost 
fabulous, monsters of the deep. I may however not be trespassing 
on the kindness of Prof. Steenstrup if I say that I had the pleas- 
ure of examining a -quid, perfeetly preserved in spirits, with arms 
about twelve feet long ; the body as well as I can remember being 
between two and three feet i 

announced in Danish jonrnals. 

We have said nothing of colossal Octopi, or poulpes. We pub- 
lished an account of one, however, in the last number of the Natu- 
ral!, r (page 772) which had been found at the Bahamas. The 

probably be made for the statement. Prof. Brewer, of Yale Col- 
lege, tells me that he has seen them measuring fourteen feet from 
tip to tip of the expanded arms j„ the San Francisco markets. 
Accounts of colossal species of Octopus are not uncommon. They 
occur in the mid-Indian, Atlantic and Pacific oceans, and.seeni to 
be as large and much more common than the ten-armed squids. 



OX THE POTTERY OF THE MOUND -BUILDERS. 



In the specimens of pottery which have been recovered from 
the mounds, there is displayed a skill in the selection of the mate- 
rials, and in the moulding of them into artistic forms, which far 
surpass the specimens which are characteristic of the Bronze Age 
of Europe. The commonest forms represent kettles, drinking 
cups, water-jugs, pipes and vases in the nature of sepulchral 



uvns. The Mound-builders, not content with i 


ilain sun 


•tees. oft. 


decorated the exterior of the vessels with sc 


rolls, eh- 


3vrons ai 


indents 


ions ; they even went further, and modelled tin 


s effigies 


In'irU; 


t^rt'utenslls^such a^t^Tc., wd! 


ere grav. 


■Uvns oft 


introduc 


ed, was finely tempered, so that it did 


not wail 


> and era 


in burni 


ng, — the utensil when completed ha' 


nng a y 


ellowish 


grayish 


tint. Most of their pottery was un 


glazed ; 


but in o 


instance 


, hereinafter to be described, the ad 


Iditional 


process 


glazing 


was resorted to. 






Wate 


r-jugs. — These utensils are quite ab 
variety of forms. Being unglazed, 
> permeate slowly through the pores, 


Sz 


and appc 


ration, v 


)roduce a temperature below that of 1 


he surro 


unding a 


— a de^ 


rice resorted to, at F 


te.li. 




this day 


. in tropical climates, ^^ 




VI 


to keep 


water cool. \ J 




1 


The s 


ubjoined figure rep- J 
ts two water-jugs, 




I 


which a 


Li-e similar in shape 


^ 


' --\ 


to the 


decanters formerly /* 


, f 




furnished the guests 


1 




hotel, before the dr. 


' %6fi 


. 



- 
etery in Perry County, Missouri, and were found occupying a 

position near the head of a corpse. Height, 8 inches. 

Figure 12 represents a fine specimen of ancient modelling. The 
body consists of a compressed globe, surmounted by a human 
head. The orifice in the region of the occiput, is about half an 
inch in diameter ; the height of the figure is 8£ inches. 

When we examine this head critically we are convinced that 
the unknown artist had the skill to impress upon the plastic clay 
the features of his race. Those features are not characteristic of 
the Red man. The facial angle is not as obtuse as in the Euro- 
pean ; the eyes have not the obliquity of the Indian ; the jaws are 
not extraordinarily prognathous, and altogether, the contour of 
the face is indicative of intelligence. The head is covered with 



i nothing grotesque ; but there is a displa; 

iiUl impress upon the clay whatever type 



Figu 


re 13, on t 


he next p. 


igc, represents a 


profile and back vie 


a statuette. His head is c 


;overed with sev 


eral plaits 


of cloth; 


eyes ar 


e closed ; 


his face i 


s contorted, as i 


f in pain ; 


his arms 


I'ihi' >1U 


d with a i 


strong cor 


d ; the bones ar 


id muscles 


of his si 


tiers ar 


e brought out in strong relief ; ar 


id while th( 


:>so point* 


well dc 


ilineated, 


the lowe 


r extremities a 


re grossly 






are may have been designed to commemorate the capture 
dangerous enemy, or some notorious malefactor ; or, as 
v pretty well ascertained that the Mound-builders offered 
in sacrifices, it may represent a victim prepared for the 
rhere is an opening at the top of the head, and the marks 
ouge with which the superfluous clay was extracted are 
isible. Height, 8 inches. 

two vessels last described were exhumed by the late Syl- 
>exton, of Chicago, from a low mound in Mississippi 



County, Missouri, about seven miles from the hi-itU- gro 
Belmont. There was also found a plain water-jug, of abc 
cnpticity of that described as Figure 12, Statuettes of a 




enty miles above the mouth of this stream, on the Indiana 
ore. there is a high bluff, the site of an ancient cemetery, in 

en unearthed by the excavating power of the river. Among 



to that from Mis 



is difficult in this figure to det 
2jned to represent, but the ne 
tribe would hi' the hornt 1 i 



me hi'i eiseiy *■ 
t approach among the feath- 
The'eyes are large and 
the beak is 



■■■:■-.• i ■■ -. 

be taken for tufts of 

! yet to the 

cheeks are attached the 

of human 




by William J. H 
by the present 

Indianapoli 



ncuanapous, ior mis musirauon. xms ^^B 

ttachmcnt is common in the ancient pot- |> I 
ery of Mexico and Central America. 

For the purposes of comparison, I intro- h J 

luce the figure of a vessel from San Jos6, jstll"^ 



» Cfiga 
cient Pottery, belonging to tin 



( -/r 



i'iu\ 



It 



- moulded, and is of a uniform reddi-h / . '^^^■■P'^K'A 
:■, which would indicate' that it was '^-^ ^*^J WS/r 
ied in an oven, rather than in the open Water-jug from near Bei- 
What ia ble, in 

of what I shall state hereafter, is the series of chevrons, or 
ll triangles, with which the rim is decorated. This chevron 



' of dec* >;■; 


s to have 1 


>een widely pre 


valent, and 


confined to this hemisr 


)here. The 


most beautiful : 


specimen of 


mt pottery of the Mo 


unddmilder 


epoch, which 1 


: have ever 




d from a 






bank on the borders 


of Grand 


* ig '^- 




', Louisiana, by Dr. E 


mngan, of 


^iSSHHHi 




eret's, and deposited ii 


i the col- 


A': ' 






sademy of j 


. 




lees, illlt !■■:. 


destroyed I 


- 




te memorable fire of C 


)ctober 8, ! 


r. " 






1 in form, 


■\ :"-' 




-laze,! with a pigment 


of a rich 


^punKS 




>er color, except wh 


ere orna- 


^jr~**msQgi 




ed, in which the gr 


oundwork 




reddish. This is the 


only in- ' 


war Mexico. = \. 




■e of yhwd pottery, wl 


lieli. to my 


knowledge, has 


been found 


ie Gulf coast. In the 


accuracy o 


f detail and in the graceful 


Fig. 17. lines of 


the contoi 




minded me 




7 of the bi 


est specimens o 


f Japanese 


/ nament, 


of the pres 


ent day. The i 


im was or- 




same system o 


f chevrons 


^F » 


the preceding specimen, v, 
hat below the line defining 


Mluswork 


tery of the Bronze thei " e WJ 


is :i sci -i.il-l ike border of 1 




'-■ outline. 


At first 


I was disposed 


to regard 


similarity of marking : 


is a signal 


fact demonstrating a (Uni- 




tion between the 



100 ON THE POTTERY OF 

My found that precisely the same device was used by 
the people of the Bronze Epoch of Switzerland, as will appear 
from the a.-.. ,n (Fig. 17). which is a repro- 

duction of figure 27 «, as given by M. Desor, in his paper on the 
"Palafittcs of Lake Neufchatel." 

Drinking Cups.— These relics often display much taste in form 
Figure 18 is a representation of one found in 




the 



lVr: 



Mi 


referred to. It will 


be 


seen that there i 


sa flat lip at- 


tached to the rim. am' 


l that the han- 


dk 


; is surmounted by 


a female head. 


In 


the occipital reg 


ion there is a 


SID 


all orifice leading t 


o a larger cav- 


ity 


which, at the time 


of the discov- 


en 


-. was tilled with pellets. These, 


tin 


■ discoverer suppos 


ed to be pills. 


Th 


lis is one of the 


most beautiful 


- of antique 


pottery which 













' ; '"'" ; : J ::. ; •'"'■' 



q the Mounds near Laporte, J 



[letter's wheel. The general form is graceful, and the i 
is far from being a caricature. 

Pipes. — Under this head I give an example (Fig. 19). by way 
nan counte- 
nance moulded with some degree of artistic skill: In the stone 




ON THE POTTERY OF THE MOUND-BUILDERS. 101 

sculpture-:, representing this ela — , of implements, we have the 
highest type of the Mound-builders' art. The narrow, receding 
forehead, the broad cheek bones, caused by the outward sweep of 
• the zygomatic arches, and the projecting jaws. — characters which 
appertain to the inferior races— are here represented. This is 
about the only instance of an obscene F|(r & 

figure (the posterior extremities are o 
ted) which I have observed. 

Sepulchral Urns. — These are quite \ 
numerous, and are often graceful in form, 
and elaborately decorated. Not unfre- 
quently there is found at the bottom of 
them a dark carbonaceous matter which 
may be the residuum of the food which 
they contained when placed at the head 
of the corpse. I give three illustrations Urecnu| ' c oulltv ' K > = l 
(Figs. 20, 21 and" 22) of this class of utensils, taken from the 
mounds near Laporte, Indiana, by Dr. Higday. In one the mate- 
rial is a finely tempered clay, and the thickness of the walls is so 
uniform, that I have be 11 1 o t to tl e I el et tl at it was 
turned on a potter's wheel. The other two are of a coarse text- 
ure, and the ornamentation is less skilfully accomplished. The 
Fig. 2i, a. Fig. 2-t, 6. curved lines appear to have 

been traced by as! 
instrument, and the indenta- 
tions to have been punched 
by a square-pointed one, when 
the clay was in a plastic state. 
The urn, represented in fig- 
ure 23 is in Professor Cox's 
:; Collection, and was taken from 

mouth of Big Sandy River, Greenup County. Kentucky. It differs 
from the others represented in having handles, and the ornamen- 
tation consists of a series of corrugated lines, vertically di-posed. 
Kettles. — On the borders of the Saline River, Gallatin Co., 
Illinois, according to the manuscript notes of Professor Cox, 
Director of the Geological Survey of Indiana, and kindly placed 
-al, there issues a salt -['ting which was resorted to in 
the earliest settlement of the country by those of European de- 





; ; ' - 



yet such relics are found at Merom. Indiana (Fig. i»l, <,), in tin 
respect resembling the pottery collected bv Prof. Cox, west of th 
Rio Crande in New Mexico (Fig. 24, b). In both instances th 
fragments are marked by broad stripes of black around the rim 
while the body is ornamented with circular spots ; with this differ 
ence, however, that in the one instance, the effect is produced b; 

Professor Cox informs me that th Indians of Xew Mexico colore, 
their pottery black, by u>ing the gum of the ,//. :^'//V. which ha 
much the appearance and properties (•[' gum arabic. and then l>ak 
ing it, by which the mordant became set. Much of the potter 
from the Colorado Chequito is colored, the prevailing tints bein; 



(Fig. 20). ' mU ' 

the region of the confluence of the Ohio and the Mississippi : 
the supposed centre of the Mound-builders' empire, the pottery 
composed of much finer-tempered materials, is distinguished by 
greater variety of form and outline, and the artistic conception 
of a far higher range and iidciily of execution than are to 1 

regions of Wiseon-in. X-.nh, -n In ha,, ., :.nd Northern Ohio. 



opinion is founded N eunHinJl in the il 1^1 rations which I h: 
given. While the inhabitants of the European Bronze Age w 

Chevron-like markings, the Mound-builders adopted not only 
bold swell of the scroll-like ornamentation, but grappled with 

mitted, from the examples submitted, that they soared far ab< 

mere caricature. — that they imprinted upon the plastic clay 



EEVIEWS AND BOOK NOTICES. 

The Embryology of Fossil Cephalopods.*— This essay con- 
tains some of the results of several years' study of the rich collec- 
tion of fossil Cephalopods contained in Hie Canibridge museum. 
The special investigations recorded here were made for the purpose 
of ascertaining the limits of the cnihryologic: 1 period among the 
typical Ammonites. In order to do this the author made sections 
of the shell and worked out the form of the embryo or young ani- 
mal just after being hatched. This may he detected l.y breaking 

which represents the shell in its first stage. This" sac may be 
found in Ammonites and Goniatites, but in the shell of Nautilus it 
is not retained, though "traces of its former existence are appar- 
ent on the apex of the first whorl in the form of a scar or cicatrix. 
Into this sac opens the first whorl of the shell ; other whorls are 
added, until they form a long series coiled up closely, as in the 
Ammonites so familiar to geological students." As is well known 
to paleontologists there are all grades of form from the " straight 
( hlhoceras to the coiled Nautilus, and inversely, among Ammo- 
noids from the closely coiled Goniatites and Ammonites to the 
straight Baculites ; the general morphology being readily and ac- 
curately expressed as a coiling up of a straight cone, and the 
ncoiling of the same at later stages of the earth's 
history. The shells are almost universally classified in accordance 
with this coiling and uncoiling, with which also the structure of 

series of forms is epitomized in the life of the individual Nautilus 
or Ammonite. The young in these Cephalopods are at first un- 
coiled like some genera, and the different degrees of coiling np find 
a permanent expression in the genera of Ammonoids. 

He figures the embryos of certain Goniatites, and from the dif- 
ferences presented by them, a succession of forms is detected which 
accords with what we know of the morphology of these Cephalo- 



.l..-y. isy 



- The range of form has been an 

straight Orthocoratite through intern 

Such being the case, if there is any 
lution, we must expect to find some 

of the parent Xautiloid stock in the 



nring the earlier stages of development. equivalent to 
riiiii- among the adult form.-, of Xautiloids from Ortho- 
.tuites. We find in this a perceptible acceleration in the 
nt of the you '. uate to the estrange- 

jr in time or in adult organization, of the .' 



There arc evidently 



ties. and in the ,li f, i >nt m <-i. s ,,f the later Goniati 
itself in the mvua'.r eon- ^i the voung of Gonial 
and others of ti die closer, thouc 



involution, is decidedly pre 


.gressive, increasing in power to the 








lization. Here, as will be shown; the 




ains central in the first whorl, and the 




re abdominal eell. an 1 simply concave 


lateral lobes, as in tluTXauti 


loids. 


The form, however, of the 


first whorl of the Ammonoid is like 


Goniatites. the shell similar 


, and the second septum has the inva- 






-jmp|,-r adi 






- Vi\.- no proptr hit. ral 


oils, hut only'l Uan-i d 






, , • • • . . ■ .\ . -.-:;.!! 



opment of the septa, a 



r* 99 *** :in '' w « velopment of the same par 

i very nim-h ouiekem-d or aeeel-M-ated in tlu> typical Ammonite. 



- of Xautiloids a 



eries. As bearing upon the questi< 
refer to the observation that the above 



He also indicates t 



'< '-' M nh 1 ,.l | _ i II ,,,, _„„,„ ol 

tl( ' '-<«"V :i ■> -ii d ir. :.i 1 I- th dm- j ,•■ !. :l bl\ to the s m , ,m>,. 

owth." 

As an example of Cope's law of " retardation " in accounting 
for the origin of dwtinel f<>rm<. Prof Hyatt cites the case of the 



but is not the cau-o ol" its decay and death one almost as into: 

Since the present essay was published the author has o-on 
Germany to study the collections of fossil Cephalopoda in 
museums of Hanover. StuUuari. Tubingen, etc. From a re 
letter we take the liberty of quoting some remarks which con 
the conclusions of his first paper on this subject,* and of the 1 

He took as a tost of the whole order the family of Ariet 

which are contined to one formation, the lower Lias. 



posit i, 



nor formations of the lower Lias are 

e fauine. They are the smallest die 



and why also the 



lv " ilr !,; teory, and must be so, if we can 

fomjuin the growth of tin individual { .tin- progressive existence 
of a species or a group in time. To do this, however, m\ old : ge 






; of the life of a 
ly to the life of I 



Another point of in 
was the discovery of 
Cephalopods. Such a form he is disposed to think occurs in 
Endoeeras. Giving his reasons in full he concludes that "it is in 
this group, therefore, or in some closely associated genus, that we 
must look for the ancestors of the Tetrabranchiate Cephalopods." 
The genus is a subdivision of Orthoceras (belonging to the group 
Vaginati), a straight-shelled Cephalopod figured in all the text- 
books. Barrande's opinion is also cited. That distinguished 
palaeontologist has also "settled upon Ascoceras as the proto- 
type, regarding the Vaginati as the nearest allies of Ascoceras." 

We may safely say that this is one of the most thoroi 
ontological essays that have appeared for many a day. The 
author seems to have had unusual facilities for study, as he ac- 
knowledges his indebtedness to the liberal views pervading the 
management of the museum by which he was allowed to break up 
valuable specimens in the course of his investigations. The four 
lithographic plates illustrating the present Bulletin are exquisite. 

Life Histories of our Butterflies and Moths.* — These are 
carefully elaborated accounts of the metamorphoses of some of our 
common moths (Sesia th\rfi, t ;.<. s. /;.,•;:,/,/■„.,/.... Tf i; /reus Abbotii, 
Arhehion, Snie.-iiithnxyemruatiis, Daremma undulosa, 
Plufarrtui Parihenos, Euprepia Americana, Euchoties egle, Lagoa 
cn.-<i»(hi. n>q><_'r<:htf<u. In, K,i,-h .< uupc'lolh. and Aio'sota senatoria) 
which in some cases were raised from the egg. We find many 



s on the habits of these insects, their mc 
>coons and the food plants of the caterpi 

es quite fully two sexes of the larva o! 
is " peculiarly interesting from the fact 



upil on the black ocellated spot of the se 
ce of this variety is peculiarly interesting 
n specimens differing from the type of 8. 



II , 11 / M > i cup • 



Collectors will find some useful hints regarding field work. We 
quote the following passage : — 

gauze net is used by him, of so deiicate ■) fcxiurc that the cap- 



is usually done I 
I have found i 

hollow screw stc 



the study of the Fungi. c^pr-iaily their mierose. 
to the frequent inquiry for some compact and tru 
of this somewhat puzzling class of plants. Mi 
known as an enthusiastic and experienced author 



ugh the cork. When the 
if turned out on the palm 
lined, without taking ; it as 



- 



his home researches. References to 
largely given, and the measurements 
, Fries, Berkeley, Smith, etc., added to 



ve seems to have taken hold of the < 
- have worked with decided views of 



The spore measurements, a delicate hut necessary matter, 
been well done. It may be added, that since the appearance 
lis work Mr. Cooke, in company with Mr. C. II. Peek of 

ny, Xew York, has hecn engaged in the study of the Krysiphei 

Vmerican botanist.— K. C. B. 



BOTANY. 

D Gkowths in Trees. — A matter which has not received 

more during- the same season. Some, like the horse 
, make but a single -r^wth. when tin- upper leaves are 
to perfect bud scales; and although there is, probably, 
i of the embryonic parts of the next year's leave-, and 
beneath these scales for sometime afterwards, to all 
ice growth ceases for the season. Others, as in the 
audi sycamore maples, gradually decrease in the size of 
ives as midsummer appro < .a - ; ti : hit modes occupy 

less space, but before anally taking on the condition of 

•re the final fall resting comes, they have nearly reached 
of those of the early summer time. The English oak 



' these two, the leaves of the second, growth are much larger 

>f growth. I have often set myself to the study of the 
of this varying growth force, without feeling satisfied that 
comprehend them clearly. In some way it would seem to 



it is onhy the most vigorous 



: but on the other hand I have seen two trees of 

■ ■■> r tor about twenty years, one 

:■ .■.■.- 

tage in size over the other. Again, in the ease of the horse chest- 
nut, if the leaves be picked off before the terminal bud i- quite 

manner if the leaves of most trees be taken off before the cycle 

has been quite completed, most of the axillary buds. 

■ • 

will at once push into growth. If the leaves have to aid in the 

which I am sometimes led ha 

their loss, seems rather to aid more than full i 



>n. The variety //<'/<-r<. 7 <,W/w, wh 



ZOOLOGY. 113 

terminal,— that is to say the flowers terminate one or the other of 
these growth cycles. If the shoot makes but one of these efforts, 
the flower remains terminal; but if after forming these buds, 
it "concludes" to go on again with another growth, the flower 
is of necessity poshed aside, and then the cone becomes lateral. 
In other words, there is no such thing in Pinus as a lateral cone 
when there is but a single cycle of annual growth, and therefore 
1 he division of Dr. Engelman is founded on an accidental rather 
than an organic difference. I think however that what are known 
as the terminal floweivd group never make a second growth, ami 
therefore Dr. Engelman's division is excellent, only changing the 
description into "Pines which never make a second growth" and 
" Pines which generally do." The gray pine can then stay where 
it i- without the creation of an intermediate group as suggested 
by Mr. Oilman. 

In the suggestions I have made here, there is nothing new. They 
have appeared at various times during the past six years in the 
"Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadel- 
phia ; : ' lint I suppose the mission of the Naturalist is to extend 

knowledge, as well as to record the discovery of new facts. 

Thomas Meehan. 

ZOOLOGY. 

The Slaughter of the Buffalo.— The destruction of this 
noble beast was carried on during the past year with a rapidity 
entirely unprecedented, although it has been a matter of regretful 
comment for years. I have authority for the assertion that one 
firm in Leavenworth received thirty thousand hides per month, 
while two others m Kansas City received Jiftoen thousand each in 
the same time. This is at the rate of two thousand slain per day. 
The immense piles or stacks of hides, to be seen at all the stations 
along the line of the Kansas Pacific railroad, hear witness to the 
slaughter. Prof. Mudge of Manhattan. Kansas, who is well in- 
formed as to the economy of the plains, places the number killed 
at one thousand, a number sufficiently high to insure the early 
extinction of the species. 

It is to be greatly hoped that Congress will early take action for 
the preservation of a reduced herd of buffalo, in a reservation set 
apart for the purpose, or enact protective laws. Such might 
impose penalties on persons found in possession of any part of 



the animal during certain months, a snlficient time being allowed 
for their increase. At present, this finest of our wild animals 
ranges over territory which will long remain unsettled, owing to 
its want of water. While the river bottoms of Kansas, Nebraska, 
Colorado, etc., will soon be taken up, the high plains of those 
regions will be utterly void, unless occupied by nature's tenants, 
the buffalo, prong-horn, elk, etc. Artesian wells for irrigating 
these tracts are still in the far future. 

The government of China has preserved several species of ani- 
mals from extinction in the impel i! parks and preserves. The 
C/ar of Russia has protected the European bison from destruction 
in the old forests of Lithuania. Our own government preserves 
the beauties of the inanimate creation in the Yellowstone park. 
How much more should it keep for the instruction of future gen- 
erations a full representation of those higher works of creative 
mind, the living beings that characterize our eontineut. — E. D. C 



A partial Comparison of the Conchological Faun.*: of por- 
tions of the Atlantic and Pacific Coasts of North America. 
— A distinguishing feature in the concholcgical fauna of that 
portion of the Pacific coast included between the Straits of Fuca 
and San Diego, and which is called the Californian and Oregonian 
Zoological Province, when compared with the Atlantic coast of 
North America, from the Arctic seas to Georgia, is the prepon- 
derance in the former province over the latter of those forms of 
molluscan life included in the order Seutihranchiata. 

The total number of marine molluscan species and well-marked 
varieties, so far as known and determined, in the ( alit'ornian and 
Oregonian Province, is in round numbers G30, of which about 200 
are bivalves, and of the remaining 430, 123 arc included within 
certain Seutihranehiate families. Of this 123, no less than 40 
belong to the Chitonidse and as many more to the Trochidse. 

Of the 247 marine gasteropods enumerated by the late Dr. Stimp- 
son in the Smithsonian Institution check-list, from the Arctic 
seas to Georgia, 32 only, or less than one-eighth, come within the 
order referred to ; of this number, 14 belong to the Trochida?, 7 
to the Chitonidse, and not a single specimen of Haliotis has been 
found as yet within the limits named, and only a single individual 
of very small size has as yet been reported from any point on the 
Atlantic coasts of the two Americas, and the solitary specimen 



referred to was dredged by Count Pourtales in the Florida Gulf 
Stream a few years ago. When the shells of Florida are sufficiently 
Investigated, so that a check-list may be made, it may somewhat 
affect this comparison, but other Scutibranchiate species may be 
found on this coast, so that it is highly probable that the above 
comparison will remain substantially correct. — R. E. C. Stearns. 

Collurio Ludovtciaxus. — A male in fine plumage, now in my 
possession, was shot in West Newton, Mass., Oct. 21, 1872, by Mr. 
Joseph S. Maynard. Allowing the existence of two varieties, 
if not species. I think this specimen approaches nearer to Lxidovi- 
o<in»s than exrubitoroides. is not this the first recorded instance 
of the authentic occurrence of this southern and western bird in 
the coast states, or at least near the coast, north of Virginia if 
not the Carolinas ?-— H. A. Purdie, November, 1872. 

Raccoon Fox. — In the June number of the American Natu- 
ralist (page 362), I find a notice that one of these little ani- 
mals had been killed, and another seen in Fairfax County, Ohio, 

the specimen obtained was furred instead of haired. The'ramxe 
of the Ba Maris astuta is muc 
supposes, unless there be tw 
genus. They are found, I bel 
north as the Klamath River. J 



's Natural History of Washington Territory, etc., p. 
rrespondent will find a reference on my authority to 

ains, parallel of 42° X., form a geographical boundary 



GEOLOGY. 

On a new Sub-class of Fossil Birds (Odontornithes). — The 
emarkable extinct birds with biconcave vertebrae (Ichthyornidce) , 



116 GEOLOGY. 

recently described by the writer from the upper Cretaceous shale 
Of Kansas,* prove on further investigation to possess some ad- 
ditional characters, which separate them still more widely from all 
known recent and fossil forms. The type species of this group, 
Irhthijonnx (I /spar Marsh, has well developed teeth in both jaws. 
These teeth are quite numerous, and implanted indistinct sockets. 
They are small, compressed and pointed, and all of those pre- 
served are similar. Those in the lower jaws number about twenty 
in each ramus, and are all more or less inclined backward. The 
series extends over the entire upper margin of the dentary bone, 
the front tooth being very near the extremity. The maxillary 
teeth appear to have been equally numerous, and essentially the 
same as those in the mandible. 

The skull is of moderate size, and the eyes placed well forward. 
The lower jaws are long and slender, and the rami are not closely 
united at the symphysis. They are abruptly truncated just behind 
the articulation for the quadrate. This extremity, and especially 
its articulation, is very similar to that in some recent aquatic 
birds. The jaws were apparently not encased in a horny sheath. 

The scapular arch, and the bones of the wings and legs, all 
conform closely to the true ornithic type. The sternum has a 
prominent keel, and elongated grooves for the expanded coracoids. 
The wings are large in proportion to the legs, and the humerus 
has an extended radial crest. The n etacarpals are united, as in 
ordinary birds. The bones of the posterior extremities resemble 
those in swimming birds. The vertebrae are all biconcave, the 
concavities at each end of the centra being distinct, and nearly 
alike. Whether the tail was elongated cannot at present he deter- 
mined, but the last vertebra of the sacrum is unusually large. 

This bird was fully adult, and a >out as large as a pigeon. With 
the exception of the skull, the bones do not appear to have been 
pneumatic, although most of them are hollow. The species was 
carnivorous and probably aquatic. 

When the remains of this species were first described, the por- 
tions of lower jaws found with them were regarded by the writer 
as Reptilian ; the possibility of their forming part of the same 
skeleton, although considered at the time, was not deemed suf- 
ficiently strong to be placed on record. On subsequently removing 
the surrounding -huh. the >kull and additional portions of both 



ANTHROPOLOGY. 117 

jaws were brought to light, so that there cannot now be a reasona- 
ble doubt that all are parts of the same bird. The possession of 
teeth and biconcave vertebra?, although the rest of the skeleton is 
entirely avian in type, obviously implies that these remains cannot 
be placed in the present groups of birds, and hence a new sub- 
class, Odontomithes, is proposed for them. The order may be 
'•ailed Tchthyornithes. 

The species lately described by the writer as Ichthyornis celer, 
also hud biconcave vertebra', and probably teeth. It proves to be 
generically distinct from the type species of this group, and hence 
may be named Apatornis celer Marsh. It was about the same size 
as Mthyomis dispar, but of more slender proportions. The geo- 
logical horizon of both species is essentially the same. The 
only remains of them at present known are in the museum of Yale 
College. 

The fortunate discovery of these interesting fossils is an im- 
portant gain to palaeontology, and does much to break down the 
old distinctions between birds and reptiles, which the Archaeop- 
teryx 1ms so materially diminished. It is quite probable that that 
bird, likewise, had teeth and biconcave vertebras, with its free 
metacarpals and elongated tail. — O. C. Marsh, reprinted from 
advance sheets of the American Journal of Science and Arts for 
Feb r terry, 1873. 

ANTHROPOLOGY. 

Change in the Form of Skulls with age.— The hypothesis, 
at one time so universally held, says Virchow. that all longheaded 
skulls were Celtic, may now- be taken as an example of how easy 
it is to overstep the mark, and of the caution that should be exer- 
cised in anthropological inquiries. Any conclusions that maybe 
drawn from the forms of skulls of early times are quite open to 
question. The influence of culture has hitherto been too little 
considered. Schart'hausen has observed that the growth of the 
skull continues to a later period than was formerly supposed, and 
that it increases in breadth in old age. This explains how it 
happens that so many more of the long and narrow skulls have 
been traced to earlier times, and that the proportion of the broader 
epoch. In the case of the broad 
skulls the brain has usually attained fuller development, while the 
most remarkable long and narrow skulls are to be met with among 



MICROSCOPY. 

A Field-stage for Clinical Microscopes.— Dr. R. H. Ward 

ution at the Dubuque meeting of the American Associ- 
ation, to a contrivance by which he is able to employ in field 
work the ordinary form of clinical microscopes. Such micro- 
scopes are but little available for opaque objects, the small open- 
ing sometimes made through the tube just above the stage being 
ol.jcrti.mable in respect to focussing and being nearly useless for 

■_ purposes by ordinary daylight. The new field-stage i> 

a perforated brass stage-plate occupying the position of the object 

and bearing a contrivance by which the object is carried at the 

:i out an inch lower down. In the instrument shown 

to the Association, which was home-made and could be made by 

from the brass stage-plate, bent so as to form a recta ng 
on which the object-slide or compressor could rest, and then bent 
back to the stage-plate again. It was attached to the stage-plate 
by being bent at right angles and soldered along the sides of tin- 
plate to its under surface. The ol this acces- 
sory stage by slender wire springs also soldered fast. With this 
new stage the clinical microscope becomes available for low pow- 
ers and opaque objects. 

Pigott's "Searcher" in the Binocular.— Dr. John Barker 
exhibited to the Dublin micro-copieai club a one-inch objective 
employed as a "searcher," as suggested by Dr. Pigott. His 
object was to propose its application to the binocular microscope 
thus attain in 
connection with stereoscopic vision, the high amplifying power of 
such arrangements. 

Under-corrected Objectives. — Objectives considerably under- 
corrected as to color are now furnished by a variety of leading 
makers and are general 1\ preferred b\ critical microseopi-ls. 
They not only work better for photography and with monochro- 
ition. but they excel for ordinary work those lenses in 
which the ion are sacrificed for the 

sake of a more perfect achromatism. Powell and Lealand, Tolles 



MICROSCOPY. 119 

and Gundlach are prominent examples of those makers who seem 
to have adopted this policy of under-correction for color. 

Microscopy in New Jersey.— Mr. E. Gundlach, the celebrated 
proprietor of the Optical Institute at Chariot tenburg. Prussia, has 
removed his residence to this country. lie is now living at Hack- 
ensack. New Jersey, where he proposes to devote his attention 
exclusively to the manufacture of first-class objectives. 

Determination of Powers in the Compound Microscope.— 

plest plan, and one familiarly employed by' many niicroscopists. 
was advised by Mr. S. J. Mclntyre who ascertained the, apparent 
size of the field of view, and reduced it to thousandths of an 
inch, and divided that number by the number of divisions of a 
stage micrometer (ruled to thousandths of an inch), included in 
the field of view. Thus if the apparent field of view with a cer- 



includes twenty-five divisions of a sta«-e micro 


meter ' 


ruled to 


thousandths, then the power of the microscope as 


i thus 


arranged 


will be 5 aoo_ 200# WUh another ob jective it im 


iv inel 


ude four 


divisions, and the power will be 5O ^° = 1250. Thi 


i r ,i 


is suffi- 


ciently accurate for practical purposes, and is, on 


the « 


hole, the 


easiest method in use. 






Sections of Insects.— Mr. Henry N. Moseley ad 


[vises t 


O harden 


the insects by immersion for about a week in at 


•solute 


alcohol. 


They are then, or any time afterward, to be embe 


dded i 


a a mix- 



razor wetted with absolute alcohol. The section- arc t<> 
diately floated off on to slides, stained with carmine, trc 
absolute alcohol and then with oil of cloves, and mount* 
J'da liaMin or dammar varnish in the usual manner. I 
jH'cimens are thus prepared, showing the gen 
omy of the insect. Instructive objects are obtained b\ 
' ,:i -- - through ti eyes. e>pe ialh if carried at the s 
through the cephalic ganglia. The eyes of the molluscs 

Staining Tissues.— Dr. R. L. Maddox has been stu< 



120 MICROSCOPY. 

tissues of the frog's tadpole's tail, with special reference to the 
distribution of the nerves, and relates his method of preparing 
tin 1 tissues in tin.' •• Mont !ii\ M h ■].-<-. .pi< -a I Journal." Beautiful re- 
sults were obtained by placing the tadpoles for about five minutes 
in a mixture of three drains of chromic acid solution (one-fourth 
per cent.) and twenty drops of sweet spirits of nitre ; then wash- 
ing repeatedly in pure water, immersing for about three minutes 
in ammoniated water (four drops strong liquor ammonica to three 
drams of water) , washing off the epithelium in pure water with a 
camel's hair pencil and rewushing repeatedly in pure water ; then 
staining for about five minutes in tincture of logwood diluted 
with pure water to a sherry color, or in a purple aniline solution, 
and finally mounted in a nearly saturated solution of acetate of 
potash slightly acidulated with acetic acid. After staining with 
logwood an improved result was obtained by washing in the usual 
iron developer with acetic acid employed for developing photo- 
• ing medium, 
but seemed inferior to the acetate of potash. 

Preparing Palates of Mollusks. — The plaa 
palates by boiling in liquor potasso\ in-had of by dissection, pro- 
posed by Mr. Hennah and published eight years ago in the " Intel- 
lectual Observer" has recently been inadvertently claimed as a 



Mounting Entomostraca.— Mr. O. S. Westcott, after exp 
menting with various substances, has concluded that a cart* 
acid solution, exceedingly dilute is the best mounting medium 
the preservation of these minute animals. 

The Horse Disease.— I have 
seopieal examinations of the mf 
suffering with the epizootic influ 



and pus corpuscles, ". I 

the spores of three species of cryptogamous plants. The spores 
are all of a brown color, and occur to the extent of thousand- in a 
single drop. One kind, figure 26, are supposed to be spores of 

Vrr^olnri'i srr>n><>.xt a specie- of lichen : these were in every stage 
of developm g . ndreda of the fragments of the stem 



MICROSCOPY. lZl 

(Fig. 26, a), in a drop. The second kind (Fig. 27) were echinu- 

IaU> spores, probably of some species of AspenjiU»* ; an.l they, as 
well as the others, gave evidence of propagation and growth. 




Ihe third kind (Fig. 29 
unknown. A few confer 
and also some other orsai 



number 



% ® 



number of sproul tug from one spore in differ* 

directions, giving visible e\ i growth taking pla 



M J 



j 



To ascertain if tbese organisms were also present in the air, '. 
exposed some clear glass slides to the external air fur a few days 



NOTES. 123 

and on examination with the microscope hail the satisfaction of 
finding many of them. It seems to be proved then that the spores 
are floating freely in the atmosphere, and arc inhaled into the air 
passages. The heat of the animal and the moisture of the mucous 
surfaces favor their germination and growth : and it seems to 
me possible that the. epidemic catarrhal horse disease, and similar 
difficulties of man. may be caused by these vegetating spores, the 
greater or less prevalence of this (.-lass of diseases being governed 
by the relative numbers of the germs in air at different seasons, 
some seasons being more favorable to their development than 
others.— G. W. Morehouse, Wagland, Xeio York. 

Organisms in Chicago Drinking Water.— Mr. H. H. Babcock 
discusses this subject in a paper read at the Dubuque meeting 
of the American Association. His former suspicions are con- 
firmed, that these forms are not at home in the southern end of 
the Lake, but are brought down from the north by a surface current 
along the western side of the Lake. The existence of such a 
current he finds further proved by the vegetation upon the shores, 
as he observed at least eleven species of plants established in 
isolated and evidently accidental positions on the shores near or 
below Chicago, but which belong at the northern end of the Lake 
or in the region of the sources of its water. 

Pine Pollen in Lake Michigan.— At the Dubuque meeting of 
the American Association, Dr. E. IT. Ward made a report on a 
specimen of viscid-looking water from Lake Michigan, near Racine. 
The water of the lake was similarly thickened for miles and was 
generally believed by the neighboring residents to be of an infuso- 
rial character. It contained no infusoria worth speaking of; but 
was almost filled with pine pollen which was interesting from its 
enormous quantity, and from the fact that its source could not 
have been near by, but must have been in the pine forests far to 
the north, the pollen being brought down by the southerly cur- 
rent along the western shore of the Lake. 



at a meeting of the I of Sciences held Octo- 

ber 7, 1872, Mr. W. II. Dall presented a portion of the husk and 
inner shell of a cocoanut picked up on the north side of the Island 



124 NOTES. 

of Oonalashka, especially interesting as showing the direction of 
the ocean currents in that region. 

Capt. C. M. Scammon, U. S. R. M., submitted a description of 
a new species of whale, Balainoptera Davidsoni, the geographical 
range of which is from Mexico to Behring Straits ; the specimen 
from which the description was made was taken in Admiralty 
Inlet, Washington Territory. It was a female twenty-seven feet in 
length and contained a fetus five feet long, thus correcting a 
prevalent error among the whalers who have generally regarded 
this small species as the young of the "finback" of the coast; 
this animal and its habits will be fully described in the volume 
now being printed on the " Cetaceans and other Marine Mammals" 
by ('apt. Scammon. 

Prof. George Davidson read a paper entitled "Suggestion of a 
Cosmical Cause for the great Climatic Changes upon the Earth." 

" Disliking theories and hypotheses, I must characterize as a 
suggestion what I have to state upon this subject. 

So far as I am aware, geologists have failed to indicate any 
reasonable or rational existence of a cause for the subtropical fossil 
flora ami fauna found within the Arctic- Circle, find for the great 
ice-sheet— the universal glacier— which doubtless covered nearly 
the whole land from the poles toward the tropics at a compara- 
tively recent period. To mention is to condemn the extravagant 
hypothesis of the changing of the direction of the earth's axis, as 
it involves changes in the gyration of the earth necessarily of 
greater relative amount than the motions of a boy's top. Partial 
upheavals and great changes of the surface of the earth are insuffi- 
cient to account for the phenomena. 

The palaeontologist has roughly indicated by his zones of fossil 
floras and fossil faunas that the pole of the earth has not changed 
its direction, and the astronomer utterly rejects such a change. 

My suggestion is that we must look to a cosmical cause for 
these phenomena; and that cause is in the material or materials 
burning upon the surface of the sun. 

The spectroscope has made known to us the connection between 
sudden outbursts or storms upon the sun's surface, and the exhibi- 
tion of magnetic or electrical phenomena on the sun. There has 
been established a correspondence between the eleven year period 
of the solar spots and certain other magnetic phenomena. This 
revealed to us a sun wherein a sudden outburst of 



luminous hydrogen 1ms increased the brilliancy of a star from the 
ninth to the second magnitude, and its comparatively slow return 
to its former condition. 

It appears to me that herein we strike the key-note of the causes 
at work to solve our problem of short or long periods of varying 
climate upon the earth. If the above phenomenon is possible in 

suns around us; and of course in ours. That sueh an eruption 
of burning hydrogen affects the planets revolving around that 
sun. we can not for one instant doubt. To our instruments it was 
an exhibition of force lasting but a few months, and its effect upon 
probable planets around that sun we can never know. Doubtless 
all new star- thai have Middcnh appeared with meat brilliancy 
were the exhibitions of similar forces. If sueh forces are possible 
for short periods, they are possible, and to my mind more probable, 
for comparatively long periods. In our sun the forces are appar- 
ently evolved in irregular, and also in moderately regular periods 

the earth and of the other planets. Even in this year of excep- 
tional heat over the earth, we have the results of the spectroscope, 
revealing an unusual development of incandescent magnesium over 
the sun's surface. 

If these forces of the sun exhibit themselves in short and long 
periods, we can comprehend how periods of almost universal flood, 
of earthquake and volcanic action, of a climate to develop a sub- 
tropical fauna and flora, even within the Arctic Circle; of a great 
ice-sheet spreading from each pole, over the land, toward and 
even embracing the Equator, may be not only probable, but place 
the latter two in full accord with the astronomical dictum, that no 
violent change of the direction of the earth's axis is admissible. 

The, spectroscope is the present means of gathering observations 
to test my suggestion, or to develop the law underlying these 
changes ; and as we observe the exhibitions of the forces upon'the 
surface of our sun, and note the effect upon the earth, we can also 
watch the changes upon Mars and the other near planets. But we 
cannot hope to determine the law of connection within a short 
time, unless some wonderful event happened in our sun similar to 
the sudden outburst of luminous hydrogen in the star in the 
Northern Crown, to show us in an hour the effect such great 
cosmical changes have upon the earth and other planets of our 



tal means far beyond the 
sed to show minute connec- 
tions between changes on the sun's surface and limited periods of 
phenomena on the earth, such as years of o T oat heat, and earth- 
quake and volcanic activity, perhaps even years of pestilence. A 
long cycle of years may be required to demonstrate whether a law 
lies at the base of my suggestion. 

their measures to determine the 
d' continental shores, we may not 



Like t 


le observers wl 


gradual c 


levation or sub 


learn the 


result, but we 


by the ne 


xt generation.' 


Mr. W 


H. Dall subm 


from the 


northwest coas 



ously described; this paper includes a < 
of Voluta of the group Scaphclla, parti 
the first of this family from so high a n 
Island) though allied forms have lorn 
the Straits of Magellan. To this spe 
being over four inches in length, Mr. 

V'>I»l,i Sh-if,,*;;. Bm-Hnnui A7„„,V„,' 



described in this paper a 
Professor Davidson ca 



rica from the Arctic 



H.M.S. "Challenger" corvette, of 2306 tons, Commander G. S. 
fares, has been despatched by the Admiralty on a circuiunavi- 
ation of the globe, for the purpose of dredging, sounding, and 



otherwise scientifically investigating the .loop sea. The scientific 
stall' consists of Prof. Wyville Thompson, Director; Mr. J. J. 
Wild, of Zurich, artist and piivate secretary ; Mr. J. Y. Buchanan. 
chemist ; Mr. H. N. Mosely, Mr. John Murray, and Dr. von 
Willemoes Suhm, of Munich, naturalists. The expedition is ex- 
pected to return in April 1876. They will visit Madeira, Cana- 
ries, Porto Rico, New York, Azores, Cape de Verde, Fernando 

Crozets, Kergnelen's Land, Melbourne, and possibly sail round 
New Zealand, thence round North Australia, follow Wallace's 
hue up to the Philippines, touch New Guinea. Japan, Kanits- 
chatka, Behring's Straits, Vancouver's Island to Valparaiso ; 
thence through the Straits of Magellan to Rio, and so home. 
Though no botanist is attached to the staff, it is understood 
that Mr. Mosely will collect plants on every possible occa- 
sion. • 



Bishop Mountain and finding diamon 
been scattered over the soil by another 
a gigantic and disgraceful swindle. 



purchase, the publications of our own as well as fon 
on Geology, Palaeontology, and Natural History gei 
in the formation of a library of reference, for the use 
of which he has charge. The reports of surveys 
charts, and sections, transactions of societies, or the 
of individuals engaged in scientific studies, are mu 
works of reference. Parties who may look favora 
above proposition can send all packages, through the 
Institution, to the address of Dr. F. V. Hatden, U. 
Washington, D. C. 



BOOKS RECEIVED. 



AMERICAN NATURALIST. 

Vol. VII.- MARCH, 1873. -No. 3. 



CONTROLLING SEX IN BUTTERFLIES. 



drolled in butterflies, I think I have demon- 



' this purpose, I placed the larva on a fresh stem of 
1 removing it from the book, I found its feet were 

■ ilk. and that it was in po-iti<»u i'.»r a chrysalis, but 



;i number ,,f larvae shutting them away from food. Some of the 
1'U-Vio that 1 deprived of food in this first experiment died, but all 



hem with the best 



130 

set in a large box partly filled with earth, the whole being cov- 
ers! with :: ting. Heat and moisture seemed 

favorable to health and rapid growth. 

On the 25th of June one lot of eggs hatched, on the 10th of 
July they were chrysalides, and on the Isth of the same month the 
butterflies appeared, only requiring twenty-three days for the com- 
plete transformation. On the other hand. I have had this same 
Asterias butterlly eleven wionths in coming to maturity; some 
larva- that hatched in August, 1871, I fed eight weeks, but the 
nights were cool and some days were absolutely cold, when 
the larvae would not eat. These chrysalides I preserved during the 

room in which the larva 1 grew so rapidly, and they were in 
this room some two weeks before the first larvae of this season 
were hatehed ; and strange as it may appear, some half dozen 
butterflies of this year's brood came out before these last year's 
chrysalides produced butterflies. 

Very soon after the last moult. I shut a number of the larva; 
away from food, putting them in paper boxes, from five to ten in 
a box, carefully labelled. If, at the end of two or three days, the 
larva; were still wandering about, I led them sparingly; in this 
way I did not lose a single specimen in the larva state by shutting 
away from food ; a few of the chrysalides died. 

It was with the most intense interest that I watched the coming 
forth of the butterilios. which began to appear in about eight days 
after assuming the chrysalis stage. Thirty-four males came from 
my male boxes, and then a rather small female mad,' its appear- 
ance. Out of seventy-nine specimens that I labelled males, three 
females were produced. On the other hand, those that I fed up, 
keeping them on a good supply of fresh food, I labelled females, 
and placed them in separate boxes. Out of these boxes sixty- 
eight females came and four males. 

There were some boxes that 1 marked doubtful, which I do not 
include in the above figures. For instance, I took five larvae that 
were eating vigorously; if let alone they probably would have 
eaten a day or two longer, but I wished to try them in all stages 
of growth, and these were of quite a large size ; out of these five, 
four were females. 

Soon after the last moult, I took twenty larvae and shut them 
away from food for twenty-four hours. At the end of that time I 



CONTROLLING SEX IN BUTTERFLIES. 131 

replaced ten on a good supply of food, watched them carefully, 
and kept them eating until they attained a large size ; they be- 
came chrysalides within a few hours of each other, and emerged 
as butterflies eight days after. One of these chrysalides was ac- 
cidentally crushed; the remaining nine were females. Of the 
starved ones, eight males came out; the remaining two chry- 
salides died. 

The butterflies, as fast as they made appearance, were killed 
and pinned up, the males arranged on one side, the females on the 
other — a most brilliant display, covering a much larger space 
than one would be apt to imagine. 

It would seem, then, as the result of the whole experiment, that 
sex is not determined in the egg of insects, and that the female 
requires more nourishment than the male. Nor does this appear 
strange, when we consider the reproductive nature of the female. 
It has frequently been said to me, " if your theory is true, it makes 
the female higher in the scale — superior to the male." I believe 
it has always been admitted that the female gives birth to the 
young. If this is considered superiority, then the female is supe- 
rior ; but if beauty of form and color is taken into account, then 
the male insect is superior, the same as with birds and the higher 
animals. Carry the analogy further — up to human beings—and 
still we find the principle holds good. To which sex belong all 
our great inventors, statesmen and philosophers? I believe 
woman is physically incapable, other things being equal, of> 
becoming as profound a philosopher, as deep a thinker, as man. 
I do not wish it understood that I deem woman inferior to man ; 
there is no inferiority, no superiority. If this matter were better 
appreciated, we should hear less of » woman's rights," and equality 
of the sexes, and woman would quietly take her place bv the side 
of her brother, with no contention for rights. 

But to return to some corroborations. Toward the last of May, 
some twenty half-grown larvae of Vanessa Antiopa were brought 
to me. I placed the branch on which they were feeding in a jar 
of water, turning a wooden box over them, and thought no more 
of them for over a week, when I uncovered them and found the 
branch had fallen from the jar, and the leaves were so dry I could 
powder them in my hand. More than half of the larvae were 
dead; eight poor, starved-looking specimens were alive, and 
completed their transformations. With this butterfly it is difficult 



132 THE FLYING SQUIRREL. 

to distinguish the sex by the marking on the wings, so I dissected 
them and the result proved them males. 

Again, I found a larva new to me, feeding on the soft maple. 
I obtained thirty-three good specimens. I was very anxious to 
rear these, sol watched them closely, and plied them with fresh 
good food ; if one fell or wandered from its food I replaced it, 
and continued this treatment until they would eat no longer. 
They went into the earth to undergo transformation, and in ten or 
twelve days thereafter, the rare, beautiful moth, Dryocanqxi mhi- 
cunda, made its appearance. Of these there were twenty-nine 
females and two males. The remaining two either escaped or 
died in the earth. 

About the time these moths came out, another lot of the same 
Dryocampa caterpillars was brought to me, but these were pur- 
posely neglected. I found them more than once wandering about 
the box in quest of food ; some of these were killed by a parasite, 
others died from lack of food, so that the result proved only seven 
males, and no female. 



THE FLYING SQ1 



Over 


a year ago, I bought of som 


e boys in central Illinois 


pair of flying squirrels 


(Pterotin/s volucella Des.). 


They were 


nly a fe' 


kv weeks old bul 


; were already 


r quite tame ; i 


ndeed they 




rbeen otherwise 


i for they wer 


e taken before 


they could 


un from 


the nest and so were taught 


to be tame at 


the outset. 


;heir ha 


bits have been 


very closely watched si nee 


I have had 


hem. in 


my possession, f 


or so amusing 


; and interesting are they 


hat it is 


quite difficult to bo in the ro< 


>m where they 


are without 


- 


their movement 


s. I have no 


ticed some facts in regard 


o them 


which I do not 


find mentioned in any aec( 


>unt that I 


lave see 


n. Intense acti 


vity characterizes them at all 


times, but 


t is raort 


i intense at some 


I times than at 


others. In wj 


inn weather 


heir mo 


ueh longer than i 
their habits thai 


nerally quicke 


r and their ex 


"HZ- 




.Vttther^eas, 


immer they are 



:i!i "lining :U tlic top. jilU-.l with tow and cotton. Win 
to retire they plunge head foremost into this filling and, b; 
from side to side, quickly bury themselves so completely 
top of the nest is left smooth and even, and gives no sig 
beneath so long as the inmates are asleep. If some in 
hand pulls off the material covering the squirrels, they a; 
at the very bottom of the nest, each rolled into as compfc 
as possible, with the broad, feather-like tail curled around 



tag tones, or a blow or two from s 
-till further disturbed, one or two 
die-like teeth, which, however, are 



with their sprightliness of ac 
tout the cage a little, they sit 



elude that they are all ready, out pop their heads, each to be 
followed by the rest of the body, after a glance on all sides with 
the glistening black eyes* and now all drowsiness has disappeared 
»nd an activity more incessant and intense than can be described 
takes its place. All night long, often with only the briefest rest 
now and then, these little animals are in vigorous motion, jump- 
in g. bounding, c.'ipciiniv. running wit ii cvci \ aryim: movement and 
astonishing energy. Everything they do is done with all their 
might. It would seem to anyone watching them that the exer- 
cise of the first few minutes must wholly exhaust their powers, 
but, on the contrary, the more their muscles are used, the more 
capable of use they seem, and great as is the energy of their move- 
ments at first, they usually increase in vigor and speed until after 
midnight and scarcely grow less before morning. Nothing aifords 
them so much -'ratification as a large wheel which is placed inside 
the cage. Into this wheel they jump whenever aught disturb* or 
pleases them, and even when quite hungry they often find it neces- 

exercise they draw tin m-elv< - into a bunch with the tail over the 
hack after the manner of squirrels, and set briskly to work on the 
nut or other food which they may have received. They are almost 
as fond of riding as of running and work their passage by run- 
ning till the wheel is in rapid motion and then clinging to its wires. 
and so are carried around and around, the pure white of the under 
side of the body contrasting prettily with the soft brownish-gray of 
the bark and sides as each comes into \ iew. When both are in the 
wheel one often rides while the other turns the wheel, the latter 
bounding over the other as each turn brings him around, and. no 
matter how rapidly the wheel turns, these movements are executed 
with perfect exactness and gracefulness. Being desirous of know- 
ing with some degree of accuracy how rapidly the wheel moved, I 
made some experiments for that purpose and found thai the usual 
rate of revolution was trom sixty to over a hundred and twenty 
times i min 1 nd. as th< * ieel U forty-foui inches in circumfer- 
ence, when its rate is the latter of the two numbers named, the 
squirrel turning it must travel four hundred and forty feet a min- 
ute, or about five miles an hour, a distance requiring a great many 
steps when they are so short as squirrels must take. The sides of 
the wheel are formed of spokes radiating as in any wheel, those 
spokes are only five inches apart at the circumference and of 



e that the eve can scarcely follow thci 
''1 on a shell' at the opposite end of t 



so powerful th t the Uxh can, >ilv h h, -I horizontal In them 
the feet clinging to a wire of the cage as the only support of the 
whole. Inmost rodent animals the front legs are comparatively 
weak and are used mainly for holding food, and when the animal is 
> seem rather to move in response to the pushing force 
of the hind legs than to aid very much in propelling the body. 

nmg as other animals would, but sometime- they change this for a 
series of short leaps, or leap- which again may change into hounds 
of considerable length; and very graceful are these latter, so light 
and easy do they appear. Indeed, it is impossible for them to be 
awkward or clumsy in any of their movement-. Though u-ually 
very quiet they are not always di-plcased with noi-e.' if it be a 



-ea th< 



sooner had I left the cage than they pat it 

about as if performing a Avar dance, and this they repeated oyer 

>>ow and then the freak takes one or the other to leave the wheel 



ver-.jiioyant feelings ■■• 



sets with j that would excite the envy of the 

most skilful acrobat. They always turn backward, going com- 
pletely over and alighting almost exactly upon the spot from which 
they started. Now they run a few steps before going over, and now 
stop and turn round and round as if a spit ran through the centre 
of the body on which it turned. These gyrations are often ex- 
tremely ludicrous, especially, when turning side by side, they seem 
to be racing. Their heads appear to be wholly ignorant of dizziness 
or other unpleasant sensations that come from an inverted position, 
for it never makes much difference with them whether the head is 
up or down, sometimes taking food hanging head clown, and almost 
always drinking in this position ; as they might, when wild,, drink 
from a stream while clinging to the end of an overhanging 1. ranch. 

position, as they drink by hipping up the water as a cat would. 

not always being ready to leave the cauv when it is opened to allow 

which they are kept and they are quite fond of running over the 

furniture, leaping into chairs and oil' the hacks, running over pict- 
ure cords and the like, being better pleased as they climb higher, 
and when as high as they can get, off they "■ fly '' to the farthest 
corner of the room. It is hardly necessary to say that this so 
called " flying " is in no sense true flight. The extension of skin 
between the front and hind limbs is not capable of motion like 
that of a wing of a bird,, nor can it raise the body from any sur- 
face, but it is simp!; ■ :.. so that the animal 
can leap from:.' hi^h position and >>; a <_r\ bu id -> ent reach the 
ground. So efficient is this support, that in the woods these little 
' fee to a buds several hundreds 
of feet away. They always choose a bush or branch upon which 
to stop if possible, and even in a room, when descend i 
bookcase, tie \ vays uitt.it possible, ma chair or a person's 
shoulder rather than upon tic iioor. Not only when 

are liable to fall they partly extend it. When fully expanded it 
makes the outline of the bo ly roger than 



> along the edge, 



THE FLYING SQUIRREL. 

ie body is most beautifully flue and soft. Like the 
juirrels, those of tlir species under consideration are 
id unusually prominent, standing from the head like <. 
jads. They seem to be useful 1 »otli hy day and nig- 
ral if it be quite bright, does not seem to l>e an inc< 



and all. They are v 
of the whole 'body is ; 



their rapid and noiseless llittiug about the cage they remind one of 

it with brisk chuck-chucks, at the same time shaking all over in 
their anxiety to seize it. More rarelj thej utter another sound, 
a clear musical note usually melodious and pleasant but occasion- 
ally shrill. This sound very closely resembles the chirp of some 
birds, so much so that when the windows are open and birds sing- 



iugnearth. bvays is deceived as to its source, 

thinking it caused by the birds outside rather than by the squirrels 
inside. They keep up tins noise for perhaps ten minutes, perhaps 
half an hour, for no discoverable reason. They are exceedingly 
inquisitive, prying into everything that comes in their way : and. if 
watched and fearful le>t they are to be interrupted, they assume a 
most impudent and reckless nir. glancing out of one eye. and shak- 

then returning to their investigations with renewed energy, pulling 
away desperately at anything that can be laid hold of. and if any- 
one starts towards them to drive them away, they wait till the very 
last minute, when, with a twinkle of the eye, a toss of the head 
and jerk of the tail, they are oil" and across the room in a trice, 
perhaps stopping to chntier their disapproval of the whole pro- 
ceeding as soon as safely out of reach. It is difficult, if not im- 
possible, to so conceal nuts or corn that they do not immediately* 
discover them and dig and pull and posh at whatever contains them 
till they get them. It must be by the aid of their keen scent that 
they are thus able to detect the food when closely covered in a bos. 

where they have found it, how- 
ray it off to some other place of 
:r own choosing. One evening they carried over sixty walnuts. 
n a box in which they were kept, across the room and by climb- 
the handle of a feather duster reached a bracket on which 



their mi ertaking and tin necessity of soberness 

assumed for the occasion, for their eyes, and indeed their whole 
body, are all the time expressive of mischief, and the little rogues 



HAMMEK STONES. 

are never so sedate that they do not seem to be bubbling 
■with fun and to be ready at a moment's notice to engage in 
mischief that may occur to their scheming little heads.* 



INDIAN NETSIXKKRS AM) IIAMMERSTONES.f 



The two kinds of 3 tits which form the sub- 

ject of this article are by no means remarkable for skilful work- 
manship, and therefore, probably, have thus far attracted little 
notice in this country. In archaeology, however, every object that 
can serve to illustrate the former condition of a people is of sig- 
nificance, and it matters not whether that object is elaborately 
finished or has suffered but little alteration by the hand of man. 
I place netsinkev-, :n ,d hamuierstones together, because the speci- 
mens in my possession, wh'ch form the basis of my description, 
"'ere derived from the same locality, namely, both banks of the 
^ii><y,H -harma river near the small town of Muncy, in Lycoming 
County, Pennsylvania. I possess a great number of the above- 
named implements of all shapes and sizes, which were sent to me 
by Mr. J. M. M. Gernerd, a resident of Muncy. To this gentle- 
man I am also indebted for the communication of the details which 
enable me to furnish the following account. 



Xetsinkers and hamnierstones are found in various localities < 

the United States; but I am not aware that they occur in an 

other place as frequently as in tin- i n-:!_* ! 1 ■ h >rl i o< .,1 ..i' Muney. Xel 

-inker- have been taken away from there by the hundred, and ye 

■•■ .■!■ is not e\hau-ted : iernimersfones. however. ;;lt le >n_i' 

tions of primitive art, whieh always iud'u-ite the former preseuc 
of the Indians, such as stone t<>iii:iha'.\ ';-. wedgc-haped -ton 
implements. Hint arrowheads. fragments of coarse pottery, etc. 
are also found in the environs of Muncy. 

The netsinkers in question are Hat pebbles of roundish or angn 
lar (generally indefinite) shape and of •> 




on two opposite points of the circumference an inden" 
notch, more or less deep, and produced by blows. Be: 
notches, which facilitated the attachment to the nets, thosi 
have not i. human ages 

their manufacture, therefore, required but little labor a 
. diameter an 
only half an ounce ; my largest one, a flat stone of irreg 
line, is eight inches wide across the broadest part and wt 
pounds and fourteen ounces. I must mention, however, 
. ' :. 



L'he original of Fig. 80 is in the middle five-eighths of 
liickness, that of Fig. ol is about seven-eighths of an 
Sinkers with four notches also occur near Muncy, 
ery frequently, and in these eases the notches are so 




y 



what compressed or flattened form, presenting in theij 



the outline of a more or less elongated ellipse. Their only arti- 
ficial alteration consists in two small pits or cavities, so placed as 
to form the centres of the opposite broad sides of the pebble. In 
these cavities the workman placed the thumb and middle finger of 
the light hand, while the forefinger pressed against the upper 
circumference of the stone. Figure 32 (two views) is a half-size 
drawing of one of these harnmerstones, and may serve to repre- 
sent their general character. The original of Figure 32, however, 
is one of the larger specimens, measuring a little more than five 
inches in longitudinal diameter, and weighing one pound and ten 
ounces. Most of the harnmerstones are smaller and lighter, aver- 
aging al>out a pound in weight. My smallest specimen, almost 
circular and with a diameter of two inches and three-quarters, 
weighs only half a pound. Concerning the cavities on the oppo- 
site sides, I will state that the makers evidently chiselled them out, 
as it were, with a tool of hard stone, doubtless a pointed flint, for 
which reason they sometimes appear rough and irregular. In the 
more finished specimens, however, they exhibit regular cup-like 
concavities, obviously produced by grinding. In some instances 
the depressions are so shallow that they almost escape observation. 
while they reach in other cases from eight to nine millimetres into 
the stone, and thus afford the hand a firm hold. Yet quite a num- 
ber of the harnmerstones under i of the cup- 
shaped cavities, on the opposite broad sides, roi'/jhl;/ ground faces, 
sometimes several inches in diameter, and answering well the 
purpose of allowing the hand a secure grasp of the stone. Many 
of the harnmerstones bear the distinct traces of use, being '< atb i 'd 
and crumbled at the circumference: and a few of the specimens 
in my possession are even burst as far as the centre by the force 
of the blows dealt with them. The material of the harnmerstones 
of Muney is a tolerably hard stone consisting of rounded quartz 
grains, apparently a metamorphic quartz, or quartzite. 

In Europe, it is well known, similar harnmerstones occur, which 
have been called Till* »</,/, <,•>•/< n<; by Danish archaeologists.* Prof. 
Nilsson has minutely described these implements, and tried to 
prove they had been used in chipping weapons and tools of flint. 



HAMMERSTONES. 143 

It is not my intention to enter here into a discussion concerning 
the views of the meritorious Swedish archaeologist: I will merely 

state my opinion in regard to the probable use of the hammer- 
stones from the Susquehanna valley. That these latter were em- 
ployed as hammers cannot be doubted, since thev show the m<»t 



.- iNot even the rude notches in the 
l produced by their immediate application 



i I - i,:',.Mii 






tools in the manufacture of flint implements. Mr. Ca 
nployed by the Apaches and other 



described the i 



of flint 1 



)ints for arrows and spears. The work, he 
two persons, one of whom holds the piece 
upon in the left hand and places with the 
anch (made of a tooth of the sperm-whale) 
^es of the flint, which are to be removed, 
ikes the chisel on the upper end with a 
nd thus flakes off the projecting points, 
d until the article has acquired the desired 



mentioned by Catlin. 

Yet while I doubt the immediate applies 

altog. Uier improbable that they were directly 
chippiug certain rude implements of graywac 
Mate, which occur in nival: abundance in 
Money. These implements are of various s 
like in form, and are sometimes quite large. 



ation. One held the pebble, its narrow side upward, firmly in the 
hand ; the other placed a piece of flint of suitable shape and 
strength at the spot when' the notch was to be cut out, and gave 
the flint wedge a heavy blow with the hammerstone, thus effect ing 
the indentation. In thi> manner a. great many .--inkers could be 

From the great number of netsinkers found near Muncy, it may 

be deduced that the Indians were much engaged in fishing at this 

the river was obstructed by dams. Salmon is still sometimes 
caught. Formerly, however, fish were still more abundant, and 
the locality, therefore, afforded the aborigines great advantages as 
a fishing-station. When the first white settlers penetrated to this 
region, they found on or near the present site of Muncy a village 
of the Minsi or Munsey Indians, the Wolf tribe of the great Leni- 
Lenape or Delaware nation. The name "Muncy." indeed,, perpet- 
uates the tribal designation of those aboriginal predecessors, whose 
scanty descendants now dwell, far from the home of their fathers. 

ments described in these pages. 



ted to keep them from slipping from their 
eld by withes.of cedar firmly twisted and 



woven into the foot-rope of the net. The nets vary in size from a 
hundred feet long to a hundred fathoms, or six hundred feet, and 
from seven to sixteen feet deep." * ' 

Fishing-nets may be counted among the utensils invented at 
very early periods, on the spur of necessity, by men in various 
parts of the world. That they were already in use in Europe at a 
remote time of antiquity is proved by their remnants preserved in 
an almost marvellous manner in the Swiss pile-constructions of the 
stone age, as, for instance, those of Robenhausen and Wangen. 
In the earliest works on North America the fishing-nets of the 
Indian- are mentioned, but not described. Cabe<;a\le Vaca, the 
first European who gave an account of the interior of North 
America, refers in various places, though in a transient manner, to 
the nets of the natives whom he met during his long wandei ings.f 
Garcilasso de la Vega and the anonymous Portuguese gentleman, 
called the Knight of Elvas, the two principal authors who have 
left accounts of De Soto's expedition (1539-43) are likewise 
deficient in all such details as might serve to illustrate the 
original character of Indian nets. The latter relates, however, 
that the Spaniards, while at a place near the Mississippi, called 
Pacaha (Garcilasso lias it •■ Cnpaha"), caught fish in a lak. with 
nets furnished by the Indians.? This establishes at least the fact 
that the tribes of the Mississippi valley employed fishing-nets, 
when first seen by Europeans. The Indians of the present New 
Engl; 11 1 States made strong nets of hemp. For this we have the 
authority of Roger Williams, who gives also the word a*I, ',, v Uich 
signifies a net in the language of the Narragansetts.§ Yet it 
appears that the Indians of the Atlantic Coast (and others) prac- 
tised more the "spearing" of fish than their capture in nets. Some 
were also killed by arrow-shots. |j According to Van der Donck,^ 



146 F0S-11. MAMMALS OF THE OR 

the Indians in the neighborhood of Xew Amsterdam (now New 
York) employed, during- the middle of Hie seventeenth century, 
various kinds of nets; but this author does not state whether 
these nets were oiiginal Indian iiiM-nthm*., or adopted from the 
Dutch colonists. The Natchez, on the Lower Mississippi, made 
their nets from the bark of the linden tree, and knitted them quite 
iu the European fashion.* 

Reverting, in conclusion, once more to netsinkers, I will men- 
tion that in the United States there also occur some provided 
with a perforation, instead of being notched. I had occasion to 
examine in the collection of Col. Charles C. Jones, of Brooklyn, 
a number of the perforated kind, which the owner had found in 
Eastern Georgia, at the confluence of the Great Kiokee Creek 
with the Savannah river, a spot where Indian relics abound. The 
material of these sinkers is the talcose stone commonly called 
soapstone. They consist of flat smoothed pieces, of indefinite bat 
mostly rounded outline, which are an inch or less in thickness, and 
measure from three to six inches in diameter. The holes are usu- 
from two sides, and therefore narrowing in the middle, 
where they are about half an inch wide. Col. Jones will figure 
and describe tl , c Indi in imph m uts iu his forthcoming work on 
the antiquities of the State of Georgia. 



THE FOSSIL IU 



in the Tertiary of the Rocky Mountain region, none, 
more remarkable than the huge mammals which have 
described from the Eocene beds of Wyoming. It 



skull, however, presents a most remarkable eoml.ma 
of horns; The top of the skull is concave, and on it 



by the writer in June, 1871, under the nam. 
ancejjs* In the following year Professor Cope 
LoxvhqMon somh^H,^ io a single premolar 
baps, belongs to this group, and may prove to 



probably of the same animal, on the supposition that it per 






148 FOSSIL MAMMALS OF THE ORDER DINOCERATA. 

certainty the nature and affinities of this most singular group of 
animals, and the more important characters are here mentioned. 
Moal of the cranial characters 
are derived from a very perfect skull of Dinocera* minthii;*. ha ired 
in the accompanying plates. 

The skull is unusually long and narrow. The three pairs of horn- 
cores, rising successively above each other, and the huge crest 
around the- deep concavity of the crown, together with the large 
decurved trenchant tusks, unite in giving a most remarkable ap- 
pearance to the entire head (Plates I, II), which differs widely from 
anything known among living or fossil forms. 

The structure of the skull presents many features of interest. 
The supraoccipital is greatly developed, and, after rising above the 

-' 
ward beyond the condyles. This crest is continued forward on 
either side, each lateral portion sloping outward, and overhanging 
the large temporal fossa. This portion of the crest is formed 
largely of the parietals. The posterior paii of horns rise from 
this crest, which is thickened below on the inner side to support 
them. In front of these horns, the crest descends rapidly, and 
sulfides nearly over the centre of the orbit. These posterior 
horn-cores are higher than those in front, and have obtuse summits, 
flattened transversely. (Plates I, II.) The frontal bones have no 
postorbital process, and the orbit is not separated from the tem- 
poral fossa. The latter is very large posteriorly. (PI. II, fig. 1.) 
The squamosal forms the lower portion of the temporal fossa, and 
sends down a massive post-glenoid process. It likewise sends 
forward a zygomatic process, which resembles that of the tapir. 
The malar completes the anterior portion of the arch, which is not 
the case with any known Proboscidian. The lachrymal is large, 
and forms the anterior border of the orbit, as in the rhinoceros. 
It is perforated by a large foramen on its facial surface. Over the 
orbit, the frontal sends out laterally a prominent ridge, which 
I ul protection to the eye in the combats of these ani- 
mals with each other. On this ridge there is a small protuberance, 
which closely resembles a diminutive houn-core, but its position, 
immediately in front of the lateral crest, renders it probable that 
it did not support a true horn. 

The maxillaries are massive, and quite remarkable in supporting 
a pair of stout, conical horn-cores. The bases of these cores 



FOSSIL MAMMALS OF THE ORDER DINOCERATA. 149 

ximate, and their summits are obtuse and nearly round. 

W I, II.) Below these horns are the huge deeurved" canines, 

:tremityof the fang being implanted in the base of the horn- 
Behind the canine, there is a moderate diastema, followed 
small premolar and molar teeth. The crowns of the molars 

>rmed of two transverse ridges, separated externally, and 

V prolonged anteriorly. In front of the z3^gomatic arch they 
ct, and form the inner inferior surface of the maxillary horn- 
as well as an elevation between them. From this point for- 
to the anterior margin of the suture with the premnxillarv, 
acrease slightly in width, and then contract to the end of 

r the anterior extremity of the nasals, there is a pair of low 

femaxillaries are without teeth, and quite peculiar. They 



The upper branch is closely united with 



little compressed, 
lower extremitV of ' 



' 



•oehanter. The distal end of the femur is i 
rsely than in the elephant, and the condj 



■ticular face- of t 






greatly elongated nasal bones. 10th, The premaxiHaiie* do 



ine norns ol the Duvwrai.i were :! remarkable feature. Those 
on the nasal hones were probably short, dermal weapons, some- 

the maxillaries were conical, much elongated, and undoubtedly 

were the largest, and their tlattened core, indicate that they were 
expanded, and perhaps branched. All the horn-cores are" solid, 
nearly smooth externally, and none of them show any indication 
of a burr. Whether both sexes had horns, cannot at present be 

decided, but this was probably the case. 

The remains on which this description is based were found in 



'HE OKDER M\ii< T.UAI \. 

cates that these specimens are the posterior horn-cores 

species. Many of the characters given by Prof. Cope i 

script!, i of tin se anim ils d . not indee 1 apply to the otli 

species, but it is evident he has made several serious m 

his observations. lb' ha- likewi>e been e-i 

attributing to the Dinocerata charac 

and hence his conclusion, that all i 

cidea, and possessed a proboscis, is quite erroneous.* In his 

references and dates, also. Professor Cope has shown the same in- 

has marred bis scientific work. It is . 
therefore, that his mistakes on these subjects should be promptly 
corrected, especially such errors as the following: What Prof. 



that there are large incisor tusks, but no canine? 


», should be re- 


versed. 2d, the stout horns he described are not < 


nt the frontals, 


but on the auxiliaries. :3d, The orbit is not belc 


>w these horns, 


bi ehind them. 4th, The occiput is not vertical, 1 


>ut oblique, the 


occipital crest projecting behind the condyles. 5th 


, The temporal 


fossae are not small posteriorly. 6th, The great trc 


•chanter of the 


fei i ec ved, although Professor Cope says 


not. 7th, The 


spine of the tibia is not obtuse, but wanting, fi 


;th, The nasal 


bones in the Dinocerata are not exceedingly short, 1 


rat much elon- 



1872, Professor Cope being preset 
"exceedingly probable that the tusk < 



Professor Cope distinct' 
buxrijnfus tiie genera It 
as I have already shown 
Cope states, moreover. 



t will turn out an orthodox member of the Dinocerat 



[I. — Tire WOODS AND PKAIIMES OF THE UPLAND PORTIONS. 
The woods which extend back from the river bluffs toward the 
rairies are derMedly diiiV'ivni in their eliarac-tor from those of 
le alluvial bottoms. The trees are of a lighter growth, though the 



is the larger trees, this mixed 
lmon'rmmj and, more or less g 



Wt-T. iiin.1 travel tV.r 



> hit ju -n\ ■ 

>re is seen only tho well- 
rd of the freshest green. 

i.ie.l l»y a 



156 i 

The "Barrens "* arc sections covered with a scrubby wood of 
small but growing trees, their growl li ehoke.l with a nearly im- 
penetrable jungle of varied dirubhery. Comparatively few years 
ago they were all open grassy prairie, but as soon as the country 
became settled the young trees began to sprout up. until gradually 
they have become entirely clot hei 1 with thick young forest. Twenty 
years from now, they will have lost their present character, and 

Many former prairies of often ten miles or. more in breadth are 
now entirely overgrown with a dense scrub of hazel (Corylus 

America,,!), sumac ( /{},»* — several species), blackberry (Rubus 
villosus), wild plum (Pnuvi* Americana and P. ehicamf), crab 
apple (/';//■"* roronaria) -queen of the prairie"' {Spinca hhata). 



contribute each a variety of speci< 
The prairie. , , „in 



same region. uivW the Election of Prof. F. V. Ili.y.lcn^ 



follows the canine, 



iiu' :t \'->h:i[)C(l surfuci.- on tii'.' ure- 






ered on the disti 
a foot long, verj 



species of that genus, licinjr unite emial to the mastodons' h 



locality in Southern Wyoming, and bones of a 
found by the expedition. 



ie Philadelphia Academy of 



result fn.in the ost 



Proboscidea and s 



esence of canine teeth and horns had been stated by 
Marsh as characteristic of a new order. Neither of 
e regarded by Professor Cope as sufficiently important 

n interpretation, since in Artiodactyles, and even in the 
division, we have every variety of condition in both 
its; Jfoschiihi*, C^halophns and H^lropotes were horn- 
some of these and some deer had canines. The wart 
impound molars, no lower incisors and huge tusks. But 
mce in this point from elephants he thought would dis- 
as was probable, the tusks of elephants should prove to 

is enclosed between the maxillary and premaxillary, 
tot the case with the outer incisors. 



REVIEWS AND BOOK NOTICES. 
The Geology of the Ska Bottom.*— This is a vei 



o especially how materially the geology <>f the shores of 
• basins, ami of submerged rocks subject to the art ion 
aves, influences the mineralogical constituents of the de- 
nned at any one point. 
iaps which accompany this volume are the results of the 

id, or thrown on the shores by the action of the waves, or 
from the decomposition of the cliffs along the coast line, 
nks of the rivers forming the different hydr. 'graphic basins, 



bottom 


of the sea into which the b; 


isin drains car 


t-fully 


noted. 


The 


effect of the atmosphere in 


carrying dust 


in sag] 


pension, of 


the din 


action of the prevailing wii 


ids, especially 


on the 


- 


leading 


to the formation of dimes. 


and the effect 


produced by the 


unequal 


distribution of rain as an 


erosive agent 


in th 


c different 


hydrogi 


•aphic basins are very ftccow 


ttely consideret 


1. The 


amount of 


materia 




nsion in the rii 


-ers of 


France is 


shown t 


:o be enormous and to depe 


•nd of course 


mainh 


- upon the 


geologi, 


al composition of the rock 


s of the diffen 


■lit hji 


Irographie 



course thai 

agent in the rearrangement and final distribution of the materials 
brought down by the rivers. 

The action of internal agents prudncod by eruptions, though 
undoubtedly yory powerful, is unfortunately inaccessible and we 

nomena as the submarine volcanoes of the Mediterranean, the 
Caspian sea, and remember that many of the phenomena which 
produce instant visible changes on the surface of the globe must 
be acting with equal or greater ellicioncy and as frequently on the 
bottom of the sea. 

The agency of organisms in determining the constitutions of the 
bottom of the sea is only introduced as far as the action of the 
invertebrates of the coast of France can throw any light upon 
the subject, and no attempt has been made by the author to do more 

of the coast. He indicates the dependence of special forms or cer- 
tain lloras upon a sandy or rocky bottom, or a gravelly shore, or 
the different features presented by a muddy shore. This is per- 
haps the most unsatisfactory part of the work, and it is a great 
pity that the description of the agency of animal life upon the 
formation of the sea bottom should have been limited to the com- 
paratively uninlhieiitial agencies at work at the present time on 
the coast of France, and that only slight allusion -I; 



eral topography of France during the su 
periods, and to give a succinct history of the 



>unt for the alienee of reference 



guish with 11 t 1 s tl c 



.he claims of species to r 
lies whicli each should bca 



164 REVIEWS AND BOOK NOTICES. 

visitants, with concise and precise statement of the part each 
plays in the bird fauna. These classes are found to embrace two 
hundred and sixty species, out of a total of three hundred and 
ninety-five recognized as British: the remaining one hundred and 
thirty-five, or rather more than one-third, being considered as 
" rare or accidental visitants." To these last, Part II of the work, 
no inconsiderable portion of the whole, is devoted, and we partic- 
ularly admire the way these stragglers are handled. While the 
author is lavish of references throughout the work, citing his 
authority as a rule for all special occurrences, this portion of the 
volume is almost entirely composed of references to recorded cases 
of capture or observance of the species noted. For instance, 
twenty-four observed occurrences of the snowy owl are noted, 
each accompanied by n citation of the published record. Another 
portion of the work gives a nominal list of British birds, in which 
the indigenous species and the stragglers are printed in parallel 
columns. We do not see how more information of the sort that 
the author volunteers to supply could be brought within the same 
compass, nor what more convenient, and consequently useful, 
method could have been devised for holding up the the whole sub- 
ject in the strongest light. 

For ourselves, we are naturally most interested in the cases of 
those North American birds which enter the list as stragglers.* 
The author enumerates over forty of them, a few however with 
doubt. " It is extremely difficult to belh 



l-aquatic species in this list have journey 



ed across the 



Atlantic, and performed a voyage of at least seventeen hundred 
nautical miles on the shortest route, via Newfoundland; but that 
most of them have actually done so seems proved by the fart that 



one of them, with the exception of Agelce 
urred half a dozen times. This plainly she 
nee on this side of the Atlantic is the met 



ious on the credibility of published records. While we speak in 
nnqualified terny* of the success we believe Dr. Hurting has attained 

culture o{ even the comparatively few species he treats, more 
stably than his predecessors in the same field. The plain truth is. 
we are all at sea now in this matter; for the simple reason that 

of making others mind what we say. A law is'no law that hinds 
only those who choose to be bound. If it be urged, that in such 
case an appeal to good sense should suffice, it might be replied 
(borrowing a simile from our author), that good sense is a "rare 
and accidental visitant " of average humanity, by no means " in- 
digenous " even to ornithologists ; and consequently can seldom be 
Hivoked with reasonable expectation of any tangible result. — E. C. 

The Birds or Florida.— The first part (4to, pp. 32) of Mr. C. 

•I. Maynard's work, the "Birds of Florida." having come to hand, 
"'' are enabled to judge somewhat better of its scope and general 

some time since with the prospectus. Fifteen species are described, 

and nearly through the Paridce. Though nominally a work on the 
birds of Florida, it embraces many biographical and other details 
based upon observations .made in New England, thus giving quite 






tho specimen numher. are very creditable productions.— J. A. A. 

the app ; ,ralu~ ul.u-h it <h-eril.- ^ill he found ..'f great service to 
those who are .leprous of illustrating- opticnlh (by duiiiTUins. pie- 

tory. Mr. Miim^ s. ...pti, -n will Mipph : .n excellent means of 



for this purpose, 









BO T 


ANY 


The H« 


>RSE DlSE 


ASE. 


— Refei 


•ring to 


Fclirunry 


number- ( 




1 20-1-2:) 


). ;1 > M 


many of t 


he organisms 


he repr< 




the stable. 


i he should 


1 no' 




the <1U\ 


possible e 


'" 


,;';: 


Au^ur 


;;:_;;:; 


the result 


of this 


the 


whole 


import:! 


depends. 











'lant. llhuv" 
The Cketac 



sented by many species, among which Poclozaim'tcs lfohe,)<'j{i< r> is 
notable, as likewise occurring in the Wernsdorf beds of the North- 
ern Carpathians. Monocotyledons are rare, and only exist as 
fragments in the rolleelion. uhile ttu- Dii-utyh'.loiis also are only 
represented by a few fragments of leaves, most probably belonging 
to Populus. Such a flora, with a preponderance of Coniferce, 
Cyro.(le<t.\ and FHiros. and ah-n-hmni, l[anitH<.f :<>«>, Dlctnplnjlhna, 
and Ci/wden? in abundance, must he counted a subtropical one. 
To judge from the presence of Pmhr.<i ,»!!< < Ib,h ,„*,,,, ri. and £oft- 
;v'o/( i>r:,,u<jif,u>inu the deposit probably represents the Wernsdorf 
beds belonging to the Urgonien. This flora has a diiferent climatic 
character from the Miocene flora of Greenland, in which respect 
it agrees with the Lower Cretaceous flora of Central Germany. 
Similar Mark shales have also been found at the south side of the 
Noursoak peninsula, near Atane, and at about eight hundred feet 
below the well-known Miocene bed. Here also the shales contain 



ence between the Atane beds and those of Koine < 
in the great preponderance of DieotyUdones in the 
as in the Upper Cretaceous of Germany, are pres< 
variety of types. A point of great interest is th 
these beds of a beautiful species of fig tree with k 
attached. In Central Europe Dicotyledones make th 



chen geologischen 



ZOOLOGY. 






possession of one of my sons for a long time and were known 
him to belong ton Mark tail door. No oik has boon shot or 
en at this post or this side of the Saline (over twelve miles dis- 

The association with a doe of the black-tatted species adds 
eatly to the probable correctness of the determination. 

is species, in possession of Mr. Prentice of Topeka, Kansas. 









inches in length, fourteen inches in diameter at the base and s 



rated three inches fro 



nth the flamingo. A pair of these 



over the Cariamas and, with a gulp, rais( 
fluid from their throats and disgorge it < 
their throats and even over their backs 
proved to consist of blood corpuscles, in 
with crystals, supposed to be principal! 
Bartlett, the superintendent of the Garc 



by the hornbill, an African bird with a huge bill, o: 

the male bird is in the habit of walling up the feinal. 
on her nest in a hole of a tree, so as to imprison h< 
leaving only the head and neck exposed. He ther 

creted from its walls and the whole is then broughl 
and fed to the captive.— S. F. B. 



•ecent number of 



found in the Sandwich Islands. The : 



twist, giving it 
lated tooth revc 


the appearance of being armed with a lamel- 
•lving within the shell. The singular fact is that 


most of the gei 
to a single islai 


lera and all the species are restricted, not only 


Oahu, an island 


sixty miles long and fifteen broad, there is the 


Achatinellinie, m 


imber of one hundred and eighty-five species of 
one of them (with scarcely an exception) found on 


any other of the i 
even of this area. 


slands and no species occupying a large proportion 
. Most of the species are confined to the forests of 


mountain region 


s; and where, as on Oahu and Maui, there are 



foun< 


i on one moi 


intain range, an 


^ connect 


very 


minute grae 


lations of form 


and col 


genu 


son different islands are n< 


>t so con 


term. 


jdiate forms 


. The family i 


s divided 


Of g< 


uiera. The 
i, Bulimella, 


first group co 
, Helicterella, ] 


Portulina 


and 


Auriculella ; 


these are all 


arboreal 


eithe 


r sinistral, or both dextral : 


illlil sini. 


tin" 


■ mostly live 


on the'grouiu 


r.m'l Mr 


hypo 


thesis of ev 


olution, Mr. (i 


llliek is 



"Catalogue oft 
" Florida Cormo 



-The "Proceedings of the American Philosophical Soc 
. xii, No. 89, just issued (February 6, 1873), conta 
:>mmunications by Professor Cope on Vertebrate Fossi 



held Friday. August 16th, at whirl] three only of these papers 
were read by title, or entered on the records. At the nest regular 
meeting, September 20, 1872, five papers by Professor Cope were 

ceedings," four of these purport to have been read September 

publication of these papi-r*. by distribution, is of .■n Iir >, » distinct 
matter, and the evidence is conclusive that none of them were so 



thorax, the expiration of air through the proboscis, special organs 
attached to the abdomen, vibrations of the thoracic rings, and 
vibrations of the wings in rapid motion. A very complete and 



by the proboscis, the note being formed at a narrow slit-liko 
ing at the base of the trunk, and being modified by passage tl 
the proboscis, and by vibrations therein set up. — A. W. B. 



and diameter, have been called in question by Wolff and \ olkmann 
in papers recently published ; and MM. l'hilippeanx and Yulpian's 

authority of Duhamel, Hunter, and I'lomvus, and -em rally ac- 
the extremities in the form of new layers between the shaft or 
the 'periosteum on the 



outer surface of the bone. M. Wolff, 
that the growth of bone is interstitia 




\ fnj the difference between 

U; a ceived. In the flies 



excluded from the egg." (Die 
Dipteren, p. 133.) 






tlie . 



the 1 



■ ';. vol. v. pp. 4 7. 48). 
een in the adjoining cut (Fig. 33) the rudiments (imaginal 
, t) of the ovipositor of the female are indicated at the same 
as those of the legs (I) and wings(/) of the adult iehneu- 

ay. 

Platygaster, Ganin says, "-the earliest indication of the sex- 
lands appears, as we shall see below, daring the time when 
-st larval form passes into the second. With the first indi- 
i of the ovary that of the seminal glands agrees in all its 
cms. Both appear as small roundish structures arising out oi 
mbryonal cells. For a long time (in the course of all the 
stages) these germs of the sexual organs remain in an unor- 
ed state." It should be remembered, however, that the first 
stage of this egg-parasite which lives in the body of the 
of all gall flics (Cecidomyia) is not a true larva in the usual 



e of the word, like tl 
l the egg with organs 






• Nvltl, < 



formed larva, having no organs of respiration (Trachea 1 ), no com- 
pletely organized alimentary canal, nor any vascular system. When 
compared with the freshly hatched larva of the fly or bee, it rep- 
resents an early embryonic stage of the latter, and thus we feel 
warranted in supposing that in the bee, the difference between the 
sexes appears early in its embryonic life. 

In these cases we may observe that the external sort 
and food of the larva seem to be identical. 

In the larva of the humble bee when about half grown, if our 
memory is not at fault, we have observed the rudiments of the 
ovipositor of the female, and the corresponding external male 
organs. In the fully grown larva they are easily seen. 

In forming an opinion on this question, it should be borne in 
mind that the sex of the honey bee is decided at the time the egg 
is laid, as it is well known that the unfertilized eggs of the queen 
produce female- (workers and queens), while the eggs destined to 
hatch drones are fertilized by the queen «t h< r n-Hl, since she 
relaxes the muscles guarding the opening of' the spermatheea. al- 
lowing the spermatozoa to escape and impregnate the egg when 
she wishes to lay a drone egg. Thus from the researches of 
Dzierzon and von Siebold, it is a matter of fact that the sex of the 
honey bee is decided at the time the egg leaves the oviduct. 

How early sex is determined in other classes of the animal 
kingdom would be a most interesting subject of investigation. 
We believe I ■ been the most thoroughly discussed 

by those who have studied the embryology of insects. In man 
the sexes can be distinguished towards the end of the second 
month of foetal life, according to Kolliker.* — A. S. P. 

A New Species of Butterfly from Florida. — Key West 
abounds in lepidopterous insects even in winter. The southern 
section of the island is covered w ' "u, among 

which spots have been cleared for plantations. Many of these 
have been abandoned and allowed to grow up to weeds and 
shrubs which are generally covered with flowers. These old fields 
are, on this account, the favorite resort of many butterflies and I 
have caught several species there in a few moments. 

The shores are also open and many flowering plants may be 
found there. An immense number of butterflies are always 



178 ZOOLOGY. 

hovering over them during the cla} T , and towards evening they all 
collect on the shrubs, or small trees, in groups of from ten to fifty. 
They will select the leeward side of the tree and all 
the leaves i. , position if 

undisturbed through the night. They are exceeding 
when thus roosting and I have taken as many as thirty with a 
single sweep of my net. Each group will be composed of a single 
species, but there are three kinds which usually gather in this 
manner, viz: — Danais berenice, Agraulis vanilla* and Pu-ris 

The paths through the scrub are good collecting groun 
smaller ones (Thecla, Lycarna, etc.), and I raptured many of 
them. Among these I found a species of Lycrena which I think 
undescribed. It is of plain color and retiring habit, frequenting 
the edges of the bushes, generally keeping in the shade of the 
foliage. On this account I propose to name it the modest Lycsena 
(Lii<:<"iia modesta ) . The following is a description of this but tertiy. 

Above ashy-brown ; darkest on the outer edges of the prima- 
ries, and becoming pearly on the secondaries. There are two 
triangular spots of black on the outer margins of the latter, and 
- of a third. These are preceded on the outer edge by a 
band of black, which is slightly margined with white. Tail black. 
(Judex side ashy with a band of nearly confluent spots near the 
outer edges, which an edged with white on th outer sides. There 
is a narrow black line on the margin of the wings, preceded b\ 
ashy. Between the bar and line there are a few dusky triangles. 
also a few dusky spots near the costal border. A few black Bpoti 
edged with white on the secondaries near the body. These are 
preceded by a bar of partly confluent black spots, margined on 
the outer side with white. Then come two bars of dusky spots 
. white on the inner side. The wing is terminated with 
an ashy lino, which is preceded by a bar of black, edged on the 
inner side with white. There is a crescent of red near the middle 
of the outer side which encloses a black spot. On the lower 
angle is a black spot preceded with reddish. Body ashy; anten- 
nae black, tipped with reddish-brown. Expands about one inch. 
— C.J. Matnard. 

The Ribbon Seal of Alaska.— This species of seal {FhocA 



1 79 



Alaska. 



- 



the museum of St. Petersburg. In the Smithsonian collection, 
there are two skins, obtained by Dr. Dall from Cape Romanzoff, 
but no skull or other parts of the skeleton. The species is re- 
markable for color as well as for structural peculiarities. The 
male is at once recognizable by the color ; this may he said to be 
a chocolate-brown except (1) a band of whitish-yellow, bent for- 

same color on each side, encircling the Jure feet, and passing in 
front just before them, and (:)) another band, also bent forwards 
above, behind the middle of the trunk. There is considerable 
variation in the extent of these bands, and sometimes the peri- 
brachial rings are more or less confluent with the posterior band. 
The females are simply whitish-yellow, or have very indistinct 
traces of the postmedian band ( tide Von Schrenck'). 

The structural (and especiallv dental) characters of this species, 
according to Von Schrenck, indicate a generic distinction from all 
the familiar forms of the subfamily Phociwu. The molars (except 
the first) are two-rooted as in the typical Placing, but in external 
form are simply conic or have rudimentary cusps, thus resembling 
Ha lieh. i rus. The genus may be named Histrioplwca. 

The special object of this communication is to call the attention 
o; travellers in Alaska to the species, and skeletons (especially 
sku!i>) and skins are earnestly asked for. The species has been 
found also in Kamrsch: tk ;. and at the mouth of the Kamtschatka 
nvcr in March and April, arriving there later than the other seals 
named. 

One of the skins in the Smithsonian collection has been peeled 
off from the animal almost entire, and by a cross slit below and 
between the fore feet, and, being tied in front, has evidentiv been 
used as a bag. — T. Gill. 

GEOLOGY. 

frossiL Quadrumana in the Eocene of Wyoming. — An exami- 
nation of more complete specimens of some of the extinct mammals 
already described by the writer from the Eocene deposits of the 
Rocky Mountain region, clearly indicate that among them are 
several representatives of the lower Quadrumana. Although these 
einains differ widely from all known forms of that group, their 



them. The genera Limnotherium, Thinolestes, and Telmatolestes, 
1 S of the skeleton much as in some 
of the Lemurs, the correspondence in many of the larger bones 
being very close. The anterior part of the lower jaws is similar to 
that of the Marmosets, but the angle is more produced downward, 
and much inflected. The teeth are more numerous than in any 
known Quadrumana. Some of the species have apparei 
teeth, arranged as follows: Incisors f ? canines |, premolars and 
molars { . A full description of these interesting remains, the first 
of the order detected in this country, will be given by the writer at 
an early day. — O. C. Marsh, in the American Journal of Science 
and Arts, Vol IV, Nov., 1872. 

The Eobasileus Again. — I have just received a paper " On the 
Gigantic Fossil Mammals of the Order Dinocerata, by Prof. O. C. 
Marsh," which contains a formidable catalogue of errors which the 
author appears to suppose I have committed in describing animals 
of this type. All this is explained by the fact that Prof. Marsh 
has never seen the genus Eobasileus Cope, and erroneously sup- 
poses it to resemble Uintatherium Leidy (Dinoceras Marsh.) 
The descriptions which I have given are correct, as will presently 
appear, as well as the fact that I have anticipated the Professor in 
the description of some of the allied species. — E. D. Cope, Jan- 
uary 31st, 1873. 

ANTHROPOLOGY. 

Are Thet Twisting Stones ?— Associated with the various 
forms of stone implements and weapons found upon the surface of 
the fields in New Jersey are certain flat, quadrangular y.kit^'* of 
stone of varying density, having one, two or more holes drilled 
through them. The outlines of these stone plates vary consider- 
ably, as may be seen by the reference to the i 

specimens given by Squier and Davis, in " Ancient Monuments of 
the Mississippi Valley," p. 237, Fig. 136 ; and the position of the 
holes will also be seen to vary to a considerable extent. Of the 
two-holed specimens found by the writer, in the neighborhood of 
Trenton, N. J., the majority are about six inches in length by one 
and one-half inches in breadth : - - are in most 

instances about an inch from either end. Such specimens as 
these are by many archaeologists considered "twisting stones,' 



or "for condensing the raw hide or sinews used as bowstring." 
We have, however, looked upon them as "breast plates;" using 
that terra not to designate a protective covering, but as an orna- 
ment that was suspended by a cord so as to rest upon the breast ; 
or by the perforations, sewed or fastened securely to the skin 
mantle of the red man. 

We have considered this to be the case, because in the " sur- 
face" burials — that is, graves originally on the surface, and now 
but little beneath it — which we have frequently discovered, we 
have found these perforated stone--, of various shapes, lying upon 
the strip of black mould which once was a human body, ahntys in 
such a position as to show that, whatever the object's use, it was 
placed upon the breast of the dead man, when the burial took 
place, or was one of the ornaments about him during life, and so 
was buried with him ; and it seems strange, that if such a stone 
had been used solely as a " twister," that it should be placed 
upon the breast, instead of at the feet where the domestic imple- 
ments are found, or at the right side, where we find the arrow- 
heads, an axe or two, spears, knives and lanceheads. 

Very many of these perforated stone relics, too, have but a 
single hole drilled through them, and being of such small size, 
and variously outlined, it is no stretch of the imagination to set 
them down as ornaments for suspension from the nose and ears. 
These single-holed specimens run into the others, as it were, just 
as the spear and lancehead are but large arrowpoints. Again, 
there are other specimens of this class of relics, which have more 
than two holes, sometimes as many a-> seven : a- though the stone 
had been drilled again, when coming into the possession of another. 
At the ends of these many-hole. I i v. there is 

often found a series of well-cut notches, too small and closely set 
for any special use; but it seems to us very suggestive of a 
record that the owner of the stone has kept ; and if so, the use 
of the stone as an ornament, worn at the breast, becomes the more 
probable, the specimen having additional value given it by the 
record, if such it was, that is engraved upon its margin. 

Mr. Evans, in his work, " Ancient Stone Implements of Great 
Britain," figures, on pages 380-1 , specimens allied to those we have 
described, but having the holes drilled in pairs, at each end. They 
differ further from the American forms, by being usually "round 
on one face and hollow on the other ;" while as a rule, at least in 



182 

New Jersey, they are flat upon each side, with more or less bevel- 
ling of the edges. 

With reference to the use of these plates, Mr. Evans quotes 
Rev. Canon Ingram, as suggesting " that these British plates were 
bracers or guards, to protect the left arm of the wearer against 
the blow of the string in shooting with the bow." Had this been 
one of the uses to which some of the American forms had been 
put, would it not have been retained by the Indians until now? 
Ami dues any trihe of oui aburigin* s use -mdi a. guard win n hunt- 
ing or fighting with the bow? There seems to be much reason, 
indeed, to believe that those plates were "bracers," in England, 
and it may be that many of the American forms were used in 

many in graves, in the position we have described, we cannot but 
think that the vast majority were m fcal purposes. 

— Charles C. Abbott, M.D. 

Collections of Swiss Lacustrine Relics. — The present notice 
is written for the benefit of gent! 
archaeology, who may be desiroi ion of relics 

from the ancient lak - . I obtained myself 

a pretty good series of those objects through Mr. Jacob Messi- 
kommer, the well known owner and 
work of Robenhausen, on the shore of Lake Pfiiftikon, Canton of 

of the lake-villag is it present oceup'u 1 b a tbrn it ion of peat, 

phase of existence of those lake-dwelling people. Among the 
objects hi my eolle< tion I will mention -tag's horn in a natural or 
work* I state, freipieutlx m ek in! >o< s ! holding hatchets; 
bone awls a implements, 

scrapers, arrow and spearhead* of flint; stone axes and chi-eK 
i -, whetstones; pieces exhibiting the method em- 
;;■"•'■ - .:;■■•■..■■. 

.•'■•' 

vessels ; arti< lea of i 

etc. Of pai the specimens of cloth, woven from 

flax, and perfectly preserved, owing to the carbonized state in 
which they occur. In the same condition are the numerous vege- 
table remaius found in the peat around the piles. The most im- 



183 

portent, of course, are those that served as food; for instance, 
ears of wheat and barley, and agglomerations or lumps of grains 
of these cereals. Millet was likewise found, but no rye. Even 
pieces of wheat-bread, in which the grains can.be plainly seen, 
have been preserved. There are small apples cut in halves, hazel- 
nuts, beechnuts, raspberry-seeds, stones of the wild plum, and 
other eatable productions of the vegetable kingdom. Flax some- 
times occurs in fibres already prepared for spinning. 

The fauna of that period is represented by a great number of 
animals, the osseous remains of which Mr. Messikommer obtains 
in large quantities from the peat. Some of these animals differ 
from the species now existing. The bones found at Robenhausen 
are always examine.! and chiselled by Professor Riitimeyer, one of 
the best osteologists of our time. The pile-work in question be- 
longs to that remote period in which the use of metals was not yet 
known, and articles of bronze, therefore, are not found at this 
place. Mr. Messikommer, however, is in constant communication 
with the archaeologists of Switzerland, and is thus enabled to 
procure by exchange the objects of bronze occurring in the Pala- 
fittes of later periods. He informed me some time ago that he is 
now prepared to furnish the typical objects of bronze, such as arrow 
and spearheads, knives, sickles, fish-hooks, ornaments, etc. His 
prices, of course, vary according to the character and eon lition of 
the specimens ; but I can state from personal experience that they 
are low, considering the great labor and time it requires to obtain 
these remarkable tokens of the past. Mr. Messikommer is a 
gentleman of well established character, and the objects offered by 
him may be relied upon as being perfectly genuine. I will with 
pleasure give more detailed information to collectors who wish to 
enter into communication with Mr. Messikommer. — Charles Rau, 
New York, February, 1873. 

MICROSCOPY. 

Sections of the Organs of Hearing, r— The following hints, 
abstracted from the papers of Mr. II. N. Mo.seley and Dr. U. Frit- 
chard in the "Quarterly Journal of Microscopical Science." will 
be of use to beginners, not only in preparing the organ referred 
to > but in dealing with man;, cases involving some of the same 
difficulties. A guinea-pig is the most desirable subject, though 
the cat, dog, rabbit, rat, or other animals may be used. The ani- 



mal is killed, the head removed, the lower jaw disarticulated, and 
the two tympanic bullae exposed. One of these is opened and the 
cochlea, projecting into its cavity, removed and immersed in a half 
per cent, solution of chromic acid in water. The acid should be 
changed twice a week, and in about two weeks the soft tissues will 
be sufficiently hardened, and the bony parts may be softened 
enough for slicing with a razor. If not, one two-hundredth part 
of nitric or muriatic acid is to be added to the solution, and in 
from one day to three weeks, according to the hardness of the bone, 
the sections can be made. To support the internal parts while 
cutting, the cavity must be filled up. For this purpose inject the 
cavity with a hot solution of gelatine ; or immerse it in a mixture 
of wax and cocoa butter melted together, and exhaust the air 
under a receiver of an air pump so that the melted wax can run 
in ; or soak it, for an hour or two, in a thick solution of gum ara- 
ble contained in a paper bag, and then put the bag in absolute al- 
cohol for a day or two when the water will be sufficiently extracted 
to leave the gum in a tough state (methylated spirit may be substi- 
tuted for the absolute alcohol). The whole organ thus prepared is 
to be imbedded in the mixture of wax and cocoa butter, — or wax 
and sweet oil, — or lard one part, spermaceti two parts, and paraf- 
fine five parts, melted together over a water bath,— and sections 
cut with a very sharp razor. The sections are to be floated off, 
stained with carmine, and mounted in glycerine or in acetate of 
potash (acetate of potash two ounces, hot water one ounce, dis- 
solve and cool ; add spirits of camphor thirty drops, and filter) ; 
or transferred through water, absolute alcohol, and oil of cloves to 
dammar varnish or Canada balsam. 

Probable Nature of the Nerve Current.— Dr. L. S. Beale 
discusses this question in the " Monthly Microscopical Journal," 
and furnishes some very interesting speculations which are es- 
pecially valuable from the author's eminent familiarity with the 

The active part of the nerve fibre distributed to the peripheral 
organ which receives the impressions is described as consisting 
invariably of a pale, very transparent, faintly granular, but in the 
natural state perfectly invisible cord. Between this and the cen- 
tral origin, in man and the higher animals, intervenes a more or 
less extended system of nerve cords through which impressions 



MICROSCOPY. 185 

pass with great rapidity. The part of these nerve cords capable 
of transmitting nervous impressions is generally conceded to be 
the axis cylinder, a thin, thread-like cord of extremely simple 
structure, never resembling the terminal network, and always sur- 
rounded by the medullary sheath, a white, fatty, albuminous sub- 
stance of at least ten times its diameter, which seems calculated 
to insulate and protect it. This medullary sheath, or white sub- 
stance of Schwann, is also little permeable to aqueous or albumi- 
nous solutions, and would preserve a uniform degree of moisture 
in the axis cylinder. The axis cylinder seems almost like an 
elongated band of white fibrous tissue. But little structural pecu- 
liarity has been demonstrated in it, and it is probably most re- 
markable for the perfect continuity of its parallel strata. The 
author believes that whatever changes take place in it might occur 
in other forms of tissue ; indeed that such changes do occur in all 
tissues, but that only here are they so insulated that their varia- 
tions become evident. If the axis cylinder could be replaced by 
a long filament of ordinary fibrous tissue, he would feel almost 
justified in expecting the nerve current to be as well conducted as 
by the axis cylinder itself. 

That the nerve current is some unknown form of energy, dif- 
ferent from heat, electricity, etc., but correlated with them, is men- 
tioned as the prevalent belief of physiologists. It is deemed 
unphilosophical to explain phenomena by some conjectural force 
rather than by those we know something about ; and the excellent 
opportunity for the author's favorite tilt at the physicists is taken 
advantage of with undisguised enthusiasm. 

The chemical theory of the nerve current is still less admissible. 
The axis cylinder is a firm, tough, fibrous-like band, evidently of 
slow growth, little prone to rapid change, and only in imagination 
capable of rapid disintegration and reconstruction. Its action 
cannot be performed by chemical decomposition of its particles, 
especially as it is surrounded by ten times its thickness of myelin 
(medullary sheath) one of the least permeable substances in the 
body, and one of the least suitable media through which to take 
up new material or get rid of products of decay. 

The vibratory theory is equally inconsistent with the structure 
of the axis cylinder, which is not well calculated to propagate 
motor impulses and which varies greatly in different parts of its 
course. The thickness of the medullary sheath, and its greater 



,it where nerves run p-,r: ll.-l to one another are men- 
tioned by the :uitlior as ineoini ■ vy ; though it 
is not inconceivable that such insulation should be as essential 
to other vibrations as to electrical movements. 

That nerve fibre is a peculiarly vital form of tissue, pervaded 
by some exceptional form of force nowhere else present, seems en- 
tirely to want confirmation. 

That the nerve curree; v. transmitte 1 through 

the beautifully in - il ito 1 axis c binder, though not proved, is con- 
sidered more t i n pi >habl< . n >t el 1 t m I ug tl - >m< what in on- 
gruous result obtained by rough expt riments. such as transmitting 
more powerful currents through mutilated nerves, or through 
nerves and other tissues after the post mortem changes, or at a 
rate slower than through copper wire, no allowance being made for 
the less perfect conducting power of a moist fibrous cord. No one 
has d provi 1 tl i electri .1 i haracter of the nerve current, while 
well deter- 
mined facts, especially those connected with the electrical organs 
of some of the lower animals, where electricity is set free in special 
orgaus rich in nerves but not essentially different from other nerve 
organs. 

How the course of the electrical current is directed and varied, 
and how subjected to the control of the will, are independent 
questions not yet answered. 

Insects' Feet as Carriers of Dirt. — Prof. W. Kletzinsky, 
of Vienna, has detected with the microscope an abundance of for- 
[iea ha 1 sb | p< I and 
from which they had succeeded in free in £ themselves ; tli h vindi- 
cating the belief that flies may become carriers of contagious 
diseases. 



in Insects. — Mr. R. King read an interesting 
paper on this subject at the Da: ■ American 

Association. By a microscopical study of inse 'ts bmrin : ;•■ ..■ -is 
of dormancy or hibernation, some forms of hn va\ especially. 
being so transparent that the microscope gain- a perfect view ot 

V.< ;.■'■..,.■ - ' - . : : ■.•.:.■•■: - ' ! 

that there is no circulation while tl ' rest, ana 

that the ordinary circulation in insects is entirely the result of the 
voluntary muscular activity of the creatures. 



- The 

' closing address " before the Oldham Microscopical Society, by 
its retiring President. Mr. James Nield, alludes to the white cor- 
puscles of human blood, their chemical composition, their ever 
' ''"'- ■■; form, their use in the economy of the body, and their 
nearly complete identity in form and chemical composition with 
the corresponding corpuscles in the blood of all the other verte- 
brate animals. lie admits the conviction that these peculiar 
bodies are links connecting the humble rhizopods with the highest 
a^m ihs, in the former case floating in water and in the latter drift- 
ing in the plasma of the blood. He considers the naked amama 
and the Barcode of the foraminiferous shell only free members of 
a family which are aggregated and communistic in the higher creat- 
ures from the sponge to man. 

Markings of Battledoor Scales. — Mr. T. W. Wonfer as- 
s,iivl /■'' Brighton arid Sussex Natural History Society that while 
; these scales with reference to Dr. Anthony's idea that 
the markings were tubercles on the ribs, he succeede l'in obtaining 
u ^v of some scales standing on edge, in which cases he could 
see the tubercle, standing out distinctly from the ribs. The scales 
should be examined from freshly killed insects, as they tend to 
become flattened in drying. 

Structure op Infusoria. — Prof. Edward Van Beneden ques- 
tionb the pleuncellular nature of the Infusoria. The belief that 
they' were unicellular beings was generally abandoned as soon as 
their complex nature-became known ; but he has found the Gre- 
garinse, monocellular organisms, to attain a high degree of com- 
plication, and he conceives that the same may be true of the 
Infusoria. 

The Goniometer Stage. — The glass sliding-stage, moving 
upon a circular plate having concontn.- and -ra luated rotation, 
has become, and is still more becoming, so important a contrivance 
in microscopy that its origin is a question of some importance. 
This stage seems to be known in Europe as Naehefs invention, 
un ' ] - * is doubtless from his new style of Students' Microscope 
that it was adopted by the London makers. Mr. Joseph Zent- 
' of Philadelphia, who had made the plain glass stage long 
constructed in the spring of 1859, 



before 



of New Fork, a revolving glass stage which would be 



188 NOTES. 

minutely and quite accurately represented by Dr. Carpenter's de- 
scription (The Microscope, London, 1868, pp. 68 and 69). He 
continued to make these stages, and in the year 1864 furnished 
one to Prof. Edwin Emerson, then of Paris, who took pains to 
show the American stand to those interested in microscopes and 
especially to the makers. In October of the same year Mr. (now 
Dr.) W. W. Keen of Philadelphia exhibited one of these stands, 
with a similar stage, to Nachet, and the following spring placed it 
in his hands for safe packing for return to this country. These 
goniometer stages were certainly substantially the same as those 
now made, and were probably equal to any of the latter in deli- 
cacy of adjustment and finish ; and it would seem that the publici- 
ty then given to them should guarantee to their maker the credit 
for their invention, unless some other person should claim to have 
arranged, and in some way published, an identical contrivance at 



NOTES. 
In the construction of new cases for the birds in the museum of 
the Boston Society of Natural History, we learn from the report 
of the custodian, Prof. Hyatt, "that extraordinary precautions 
were taken in order to render these cases absolutely insert-tig lit. 
The lumber was very carefully selected and kept heated while the 
work was going on, all joints were tongued, grooved -and glued. 
The tops, bottoms and sides, were built into the plastering, the 
sashes grooved and tongued and locked by wedge-shaped bolts. 
The latter were invented in order to draw the sashes up tightly 
and firmly against the tongues at the top and bottom, and com- 
pletely close the fronts of each case. Morse's patent brackets 
were used to suspend the shelving, which hangs upon the wall, and 
has no connection with the fronts. The success of these precau- 
tions is shown by the air-tight condition of the cases. By sud- 
denly opening or closing a sash, one could readily crush in, or 
burst out, the neighboring glass panes. The resistance of the air 
is so great that it has to be overcome by a steady slow pressure 
as if one was working the handle of a piston. With the excep- 
tion of the method of bolting, and some other details, this plan is 
similar to that which has been successfully adopted by the Smith- 
sonian Institution for the preservation of their valuable collection 
of birds, and was recommended to us by Professor Baird. 



"The entire collection of Coleoptera has been placed in insect- 
proof boxes by Mr. Sprague, and he has begun to secure the 
Harris collection in a similar manner. I desire, however, to call 
the attention of the society to the boxes upon the table. These 
are experiments upon the methods of mounting and ill 
the typical collection of insects, and will probably be adopted 
throughout that department. The difficulties that were overcome, 
and amount of study and labor expended by Mr. Sprague in 
making these pattern boxes, can only be rightly appreciated by 
those who have watched their progress. One of them exhibits the 
ventral and dorsal aspects of a large beetle, showing all the parts 
appropriately named. This is to be the type of the order. The 
other boxes contain the types of several genera and two families. 
The enlarged outlines of these small insects are given from the 
dorsal and ventral sides, accompanied by specimens having a 
similar position. On the right hand side of the box in each case 
are the charact. rUrk p:irt<. lik'.-ww mvatly enlarged, so as to be 
readily seen, but each figure accompanied by its corres] 
section. The characteristics of the family and genus are written 
opposite, so that the visitor sees at one glance the animal, its parts, 
:l I tin i mih aini'i ierk- < mracteristics. The outlines are drawn 
with the camera lucida, and corrected by the most careful study, 
so that they are as accurate as it is possible to make them." 

Prof. Shaler of Harvard College at the last meeting of the 
American Educational Association followed with an address upon 
"The Method of Teaching Natural History." This, he said, as 
practised by him, embodied the same leading principles as had 
just been suggested by Prof. Pickering, the aim being to give the 
student a practical quite as much as a theoretical knowledge of the 
science. No text-book served as the basis of teaching, as it was 
quite insufficient for thorough instruction. A student in the first 
course is directed as his first lesson to go forth into nature and 
catch some kind of a living creature for study. It was no matter 
what he caught, whether a fly, a bird or a serpent. Having made 
a capture, the student is told to observe the creature and note 
down his observations. No matter what he observes, nothing can 
be too trivial, the point being to teach him to use his eyes. His 
notes are reviewed by the teacher comment and 

suggestion made with regard to further inquiry. It was a trait of 



■ . ■•■ ' 

us. Living things are always interesting. . The student accord- 
ingly begins with these, and this experience has almost invariably 
the effect to awaken his ^'niiine interest nr enthusiasm in the 
; of nature. This is the second point gained. With 
• ■ ■ ' ' 
l&ws of organi b these can be taught. 

Following upon this the practice was to take up some one of the 
great sequences of nature as ob» kingdom; 

such a- is given by the series of the actinoid polypes. The highest 
class had • > with a course holding 

up to view what is known upon the most pressing question of the 
times, namely, the origin of the human species. The essential 
features of this method was first brought into use in this country 
by Agassiz, tin onl\ changt toeing such as were required to make 
it applicable to large numbers of students and to extend it to a 
course of several years of required work in the university. 

The London "Journal of Botany" for January contains an 
.biographical sketch of Friedrieh Weiwitsch, the emi- 
nent botanist and discoverer of the singular plani wire h !•> ars his 
name. He was born in Germany in 1807, but spent a portion of 
his life in the employment of the Portuguese government as su- 
nt of various gardens, while he paid much attention to 
the fungi and algae, especially of Portugal. But his chief work 
was in elaborating the immense collections of plants male in the 

;;,■■:; ' ;! 

years. "It was during his residence at San ire that Dr. Weiwitsch 
made the acquaintance of Dr. Livingstone, then (October, 1854) 
on his way to Loanda. having t \vl i tin nliole distance from 
Cape Town. The two travellers lived together for some time, and 
the meeting had the effect of determining Dr. Weiwitsch on re- 
in idea he bad previously entertained of endeavoring 
to make his way across the continent to the Portuguese posses- 
sions on the east coast — a task which, as is. well known. Living- 
stone succe-- two following years." 
As the result of these diilicult and dangerous journeys he formed 
the best and most extensive herbarium ever collected in tropical 
Africa. He was the author of several botanical papers of a high 
order of merit. 



NOTES. 191 

Mr. W. H. Seaman of Washington sends us the following note : 
"I send you by mail a small tin box containing minerals, which 

are specimens of an incrustation, forming on parts of the northern 
tare of the Washington monument in this city. It is about two 

Pei'fi'.^ >lu'd <>i hoards. The walls .,,<■ gneiss r :1( M wit h marble, 

formed by the water percolating from the top of the wall through 
the joints, and dissolving a part of the mortar which is deposited 
"1 «>n its , u, ,- snrfjlC0 . T ,„, deposits always commence at a joint 

se y^' ra] square feet, usually firmly attached to the marble. The 

the Capitol, states that a similar incrustation forms on the inside 
of the arches, under the capitol steps, hut it is scraped otf every 
year." It is certainly interesting as an example of natural de- 



^ e are glad to inform our readers that the tax on alcohol, so 
grievous to museums, is to be removed when used for scientific 
purposes. According to the Boston "Journal" Prof. Agassiz's 
,,i; l- as if is called, to remit the excise duties on alcohol used for 
scientific purposes, which was passed by the House on the 23d, 
was i ass, ,i r, :,,,,, ,. v2ih 1)V {he Senate, and will soon become a 
law. The bill provides that the alcohol can be withdrawn from 
bond by the Presidents or Curators of scientific institutions or 
colleges, for the sole and exclusive purpose of preserving speci- 
mens of anatomy, physiology or of natural history, or for use in 
any chemical laboratory of such institutions; and if any alcohol 
thus obtained shall be used for any other purposes than those 
specified, then the officers of the institution or their sureties shall 
v on the whole amount withdrawn from bond, together 
with a like amount as a penalty in addition thereto. 



Prof. F. B. Maury, the 
author of the "Physical Geography of the Sea" and of "Sailing 
Directions" for seamen. 
The Government has appropriated 675,000 for the continuance 
r of Prof. Hayden's geological survey of the public lands, 
the reports of Mr. Powell's 



192 ANSWERS TO CORRESPONDENTS. — BC 

Dr. 0. Nordsted describes in the sixth part of the " Ofversigt " 
of the Stockholm Academy of Sciences for 1872 the Desmidiaceee 
collected by the Swedish expeditions in 1868 and 1870 to Spitz- 
bergen and Bear Island. Fifty species are enumerated, nine being 
described as new, and carefully figured. — Journal of Botany. 



ANSWERS TO CORRESPONDENTS. 



BOOKS RECEIVED. 









'■'■-■■]■) 



AMERICAN NATURALIST. 



Vol. VII.- APRIL, 1873. -IS 
A VIVIPAROUS FLY. 



casuistry it' all hens produced their chirk,,!- ready made. And 
there is a great deal of difference between the fly that lays simple 

that what we beheld on the loth day of June had for us all the 
novelty of a new sensation. The day was very warm, and I was 
ahout leaving my study, when my attention was. drawn to a peculiar 
looking fly on the window. As it was quite large, it occurred to me 
that it would make a nice morsel for the tree toad in the fernery ; 

to my pet with goggle eyes, but an open countenance, when a sud- 

peared what I took for eggs of an elongate form. My pocket lens 
at once showed me that these were not eggs, but real, live mag- 
gots, each about .06 of an inch in length : and there, righl under 

these little squirming things. 'JChe fly continued emitting the 

lituI.-. ahno-t without re--atii.ii. in numWrs varying from one to 



ire number of -rub> emitted was 
■Mblv have been more, as I coulc 



any had been lost during the act of capture. I put the parent fly 
and about half her progeny into spirits. They were quite active in 
the strong 95 per cent, alcohol, and lived a good while, although 









>rant of the habits of this curious fly, I resolved to make 
to raise the remaining larvae. They were now three hou 
the little things were becoming less active because of t 




■ <-tv. There wa 
so I took a flower-pot, and filled it with porous or sandy earth, 
and set the pot in a saucer with- sufficient water to make it a little 
moist. Next a bit of fresh kidney fat was put on the earth. On 
this flesh I laid the tiny grabs, and was soon gratified with seeing 
the most vigorous of them instinctively recede into the folds of the 
fat. and thus disappear. A glass tumbler was next put over all. 
and the arrangement was complete. 

Four days' absence from home, and no observations. The larvae 
were now a little over five days old and, with the exception of one, 



had all entered the ground. This one, which lay between the flesh 
and the earth, was the straggler of the company. Perhaps it was 
weak, as it was making ineffectual efforts to follow its companions 
in their search for proper places for their pupa sleep. But why 
should it be weak? It certainly was as large — it seemed; I 
thought, even larger than any of those that had successfully retired. 



rfeed? Whatever the tarts ma 



suggested 



parallel instance-, wherein i.iprd;il u.-urniands had : 

cult to get away from the relics of the feast, although all else were 

comfortably off to their dormitories. 

I now carefully examined the earth in the flower-pot, and found 
the larvae of large size and in holes reaching nearly to the bot- 
tom of the pot. They are now six days old, and have Fiff M 
left the flesh just half a day. Measuring one of these 
white maggots of the average size, its length 
of an inch was .50 and the breadth w.-i, .:>.->. 




cases, ai 


id pretty tin 


ngs they are, of a cylin 


clrical form. 


J^not 


with an i 


erect little fri 


nge at the posterior ene 


[, something 


Flesh Fly° 


like the 


crown on a i 


vhortleberry (Fig. 35). 




All three 


of these 


white grubs 


that have not yet taken 


on their pupa 


change. 


These, t 


hough rather 


lively when disturbed 


, like other 




people. ] 


must be regs 




ill that, and 


so were 


taken ou 


t and devotee 


:1 to experiment. One was immersed 


in clear 


riirpentii 




irsenie. and t 


he third 


m essenc 


e of pepperu 


lint of full strength. Repeating the ] 


- 


experimt 


ait the result 


8 stand thus : 






A fhllj 


•grown larva 


six days old in 95 per e 


ent. alcohol w 


as quite 


active f,,i 


r 84 minutes, 


and lived I-'U minutes 


; of the fulb 




l fl T -T sei 


ren days old 


, the one in 


spun rapidb 


j in the 



196 

u kept up motion for 70 minutes; the one In Fowler's 
solution only ceased motion at the end of 53 minutes. 

In the light of such facts, what reprobation is too severe upon 
the useless and cruel practice of drenching horses with violent 
medicaments for the bots ? The ailment thus known is due to the 
presence in the animal's stomach of the larvae of the bot-fly (Gas- 
trnphUn* equi Fabr.). By its formidable mouth-hooks this larva 
clings to the walls of the stomach. Now it must be evident that 
by such methods of treatment, either to kill this parasite, or detach 
it from its hold would require medicines in such quantity, and of 
such power, that death to the poor animal would become inevitable 
before even its tormentors had been materially affected. Scarcity 
of specimens limited the experiments. I had meant to try the 
effect of suffocation, by immersing them in some one of the animal 
oils, for it is possible that herein may be found a simple remedy 
for that malady in horses.* 

July 6th. — The glass on the flower-pot has been carelessly dis- 
placed several days. I noticed certain depressions in the earth, 
uch as are made when little holes are filled up by the crumbling 
of their sides. The sight was ominous. Imagine the feelings 
which prompted me to exclaim suspiciously, "The imagines are 
gone." Alas, it was so ! From the dryness of the depressions. 
and other indications, I was satisfied that the perfect flies had 
.1 on the Fourth of July — thus, in a way against which 
no despot could demur, they had entered on their freedom on Inde- 
pendence Day ! All this was very tine : but believing that patri- 
otism should not extend to flies, the whole transaction did violence 
to my scientific instincts. In chagrin I slowly removed the earth 



be raised to let out a captive bird. 

So each having made for itself a little coffin had lain therein 
ju>t thirteen days. " Thirteen days." whirred a friend, a little 
superstitious about that number. ''Thirteen days! The fault o\' 
their escape is not yours at all. It is a clear case of bad luck." 
Well, my good friend, your theory is charitable at the least. But 
in my humble and penitent judgment, it does not condone the 
blunder which at the auspicious moment allowed the prize to fly 
away. Nature, like the Oracle, exacts of her inquirers watchful 



THE PRAIRIE BIRDS OF SOUTHERN ILLINOIS. 



Having familiarized the 


readers o 


f the Natui 


salist to some 


extent with the general ch* 


iraeter am 


I appearance 


i of the prairies 


of Southern Illinois in our a 


rticle on ■■ 


■The Woods 




the Upland Portions," I sh: 


til now gr 


re an aecoun 


t of an ornitho- 


logical reconnoissance of F 


>x Prairie 


, in Richlam 


I county, made 


in the summer of 1871 A 


s this rec 


onnoissance 


resulted in the 


discovery of several species 


of birds 


new to the s 


tate,* a few de- 


tails concerning it may not 


be unintei 


resting to oui 


r readers. The 


field of our observations w 








lying about four miles to 1 


the westw 


ard of the t 


own of Olney, 


on the Ohio and Mississippi Railroa< 


.1, and is me 


rely one of the 


numerous arms or bays of 


the (.ram! 




3h extend east- 


ward into the forest region c 


►f the Wal 


)ash valley. 




My companions and I arri 


ved at it i 


i little before 


noon, and saw 


before us the usual model 


•n prairie 


prospect. . 


A. rolling plain 


spread away from us, the ft 




s bounded bj 


f the border of 


timber, while the prairie it 


^■lf «:,. ! 


reeless, except where some 



stream was followed by a narrow line of thickets with a few large 
trees interspersed. Around us were the tangled thickets which 
we have before described, while the small, but growing trees 
which sprang up among them gave plain evidence of the gradual 
encroachment of the woods upon the original prairie. The herds 
of horses and cattle which dotted the gently undulating surface of 
the prairie, and an occasional neat frame farmhouse, with its 
attendant fields and orchard, made us realize that we were yet 
within the bounds of comfortable and advanced civilization. Just 
before us the prairie was intersected by a ravine through which 
ran a small stream whose narrow valley was filled with a thicket 
of varied shrubbery, and the brook itself bordered by a few large- 
sized trees, which were chiefly the white elm, several kinds of 
oaks, and an occasional cottonwood. 

The day was a delightful one ; the sky without a cloud, and, 
though the heat ranged above 80°. the fresh prairie breeze tem- 
pered it to a delightful mildness. As we rested in the shade of a 
large -elm tree in the hollow, and reclined on the cool soft sward, 
our ears were delighted by such a chorus of bird-songs as we have 
heard nowhere else. Among the leafy branches overhead the 
orioles {Icterus Baltimore) whistled their mellow flute-like notes, 
and the little greenlets ( V>'reos>jh'ia gilva and V. olivacea) cheered 
us with a softer warble or richer chant. The birds of the meadow 
were chanting their several ditties all around us on the open 
prairie, while the frequent soft refreshing prairie breeze wafted to 
us from the groves the songs of the woodland species. 

In the tangled thickets and scrubby jungle near the border of 
the woods the finest songsters were found. There the mocking 
birds {Mhmis pn1>f,jh,ttit.s) fairly Idled the air with their rich med- 
ley of inexhaustibly varied notes, the singers leaping in restless 
ecstasy ft om branch to branch, with drooping wings and spread 
tail, or flitting from thicket to thicket as they sang. The brown 
thrasher ( If<i ,-;,<, rlnim-li »s nif„s) poured forth a sweet and ceaseless 

vine-canopied tree — a contrast in bearing to the restless, sport- 
be straining himself to produce the oddest and most unusual notes 
he could invent, the singer often going through grotesque and ex- 
travagant mth Slitting u- i . and then ie-c, , ding by jerks, 



his wings and tail raised and legs dangling — the whole time 
ringing with all his might. Mingled with these, the loudest songs, 
were heard the sweet sad chant of the little field sparrow (Spizella 
pusilla), the pleasant cheerful notes of the ground robin, or " che- 
wink" (Pipilo erythrophthalmus), the rich whistlings of the car- 
dinal grosbeak (Cardinalis Virginia mis), and the glad "bob-white" 
of the quail (Ortyx Virginianus). During a lull in the chorus we 
heard, from the depths of the thicket, a very curious gabbling, or 
sputtering song, which was entirely new to us. We hastened to 
the thicket, and, entering it a* Car as possible, lav in wait for the 
strange songster to resume his vocal performance. In a few min- 
utes a little grayish bird carefully approached. Hitting cautiously 
from twig to twig, now and then halting, and. after uttering the 
peculiar notes which had attracted our attention, would stretch 
out his neck and eye us with great curiosity and evident suspicion. 
After observing him carefully to our satisfaction at a distance of 
hardly a rod, we found that 'he was Bell's green let {Vireo Jkllii), 
a species of the plains east of the Rocky Mountains from Texas 
northward, and not before detected east of the Mississippi river. 
After we had become satisfied of his identity we shot him : but 
upon attempting to secure our prize we found the briery under- 
growth too intricate and powerful to allow a passage through it. 
In nearly all the thickets others of the same species were fre- 
quently heard, so that it appeared to be common in that locality. 
The little white-eyed greenlet ( V. Noveboracensis) was also com- 
mon in the same thickets, and was easily distinguished by his 
well-known notes, an attempted translation of which gives it the 
local name of " chickty-beaver bird." As we remained patiently 
watching for the specimen of Bell's vireo, spoken of above, other 
little birds would now and then hop cautiously near us, or flit 
through the undergrowth before us. Among these were recognized 
the chestnut-sided warbler (Ik-mlmca Pensylcau tea), the golden 
winged warbler {Helmi„thophwj<i ,>hry*optera), and a pair of 
mourning warbler- ( r r ,„//„>/.s Phihuh Ij.hiu ). The first two spe- 
cies represent in the scantily wooded portions the cserulean 
warbler (D. ccerulea) and the blue-winged yellow warbler (II. 
pro**) of the fore-ts of the bottom-lands. 

In the open groves at the border of the timber, the usual wood- 
land species were noticed ; and among them, the vermilion taua- 
gers (Pyranga optica) frequently warbled their robin-like, but 



200 PBAIRIE BIRD < 

vigorous and well-sustained song, the blue jays (Cyanura cristata) 
squalled and chattered as they prowled among the branches; while 
the red-headed woodpeckers (Melanerpes erythrocephalus) frolicked 
among the trees. The most abundant bird besides the foregoing 
species was the tufted titmouse {Lophophanos bicolor), which 
nearly mimicked the jays in both habits and notes. 

On the open prairie the birds were all entirely different, The 
meadow lark (Sturnella magna — the true magna, and not at all 
approaching S. neglecta, in either manners, notes or plumage ! ) 
was the most conspicuous, from its size and the plaintive sweet- 
ness of its song. The "dick sissel" {Euspiza Americana) was 
perhaps the most abundant bird, and the males were perched upon 
the tall coarse weeds all around us. chanting their vigorous but 
rude ditties. Henslow's bunting ( C>,h, n,ir ,d,is Ib-ushm-i) and the 
yellow-winged bunting (C. passer inns) were scarcely less abun- 
dant, and, like the dick sissels were perched upon the tops of the 
weed-stalks, uttering their simple, abrupt lisping songs. Though 
we had never met with Henslow's bunting before, we found it to 
be much more common here than the C. passerinus, and in a little 
while easily succeeded in securing seven fine specimens. At the 
edge of a pond we saw what we thought to be the Passerculus 
•s'v /•</„„,/. but the bird escaped by running into the grass after we 
had crippled it. Over the surface of the pond were flitting and 
hovering a couple of black terns {Rydrochelidon fssipes), while 
among the rushes and sedges of its border the red-winged black- 
birds (J,,,-hr,is r l, l , „;.<■„.-<). and both species of marsh wrens 
(Telmatodytes pains/ ,-is and Cistnfhoms stellar is), were nesting ; and 
when away from the pond, we were certain that we heard the harsh 
grating notes of the yellow-headed blackbird (Xanthocephalus 
irtt'rocvphahis), well known to us, but we did not see this species 
there. In the grassy portions of the prairie the field plover 
(A'.-tituri'x Bartramius) was more or less common, and, except the 
kill-leer (./w /„////„■ ,■<„■;/<.,■„*), was the only other species of the 



PRAIRIE BIRDS OF SOUTHERN ILLINOIS. 201 

tional trill in various parts, and such beautiful rising nn d filing 
cadences, in addition to its other pleasing qualities, tli.it we con- 
sl(lor !l unequalled in these respects among all the numerous 
songsters of the United States. A frequent companion 
of this species was the indigo bird {Cyanospiza cyanea), and more 
''are one, the grass, or bay-winged limiting (7W-,Wr,s am min>>is). 
Besides the species named, but few birds were noticed that day, 
and these were the more generally distributed species, which arc 






( Galeoscojjtes Carolii 



rhsix), red-bellied woodpecker ( Cmturii.t Cam!;,,,,*), flicker (Colap- 
tos an rat u.s), and such species as are seen every dav in nearly all 
localities. 0„ce a pair of croaking ravens (Corvus carmvorns) 
made their appearance, and after circling about over the border of 
the woods for a few minutes, left for the heavy timber of Fox 
Creek bottoms. The red-tailed and red-shouldered hen hawks 
(Buteo borealis and 13. Unoatnx) were occasionally seen, while now 
and then one or two swallow-tailed kites (Xawlerus forficatus) 
would be noticed (loafing about in broad circles in the clear blue 
-l\v. usually accompanied by the Mississippi kite (Ictinia Missis- 
*>i>i->"u<sis). The little sparrow falcon {Tiiunnx'uhtx sjiarvr-r; ,/„■<), 
the sharp-shinned and Cooper's hawks (Accipiter fuscus and A. 
Cooper ii), completed the list of birds of prey which we observed 

Early in August of the same summer we visited this locality a 
second time, and found its entire aspect changed. The season of 
severe drought having passed, we found a profusion of flowers 
giving a gay and varied color to the prairie, which before was 
••"i.. 1 .:„-:itivHy brown and sober in the appearance of its vegeta- 

,ii,i ' ! ' l "> from those noticed at our former visit. The mocking 
•m-ds, brown thrashers and chats, were silent, while a few of the 

only active being, during the sultry noontime of that cloudless 






attention. Numbers of exquisitely graceful swallow-tailed kites 
or "snake hawks" (Nauclerus forjicatus, also locally known as 
" fish-tail hawk") were seen sailing about in every direction; we 
were completely transfixed by the beautiful spectacle they pre- 
sented as they floated about in graceful circles, while they were so 
unmindful of us as to pass repeatedly within a few yards of us. 
Soaring gracefully above them with a similar flight were smaller 
numbers of the ■■ blue kite" i /.-//„ /,* .l//™;^,,,/.-,,*;*), which, more 
suspicious, seldom approached so near. The latter birds, though , 
far less striking in appearance than the swallow-tails, were never- 
theless superior to them in power of flight, for they had a very 
interesting habit of suddenly pitching downward from a great 
height almost to the ground, and again ascending by a steep angle 
nearly to the level from which they started ;' the whole perform- 
ance accompanied without a single flap of the wings, which in the 
descent were merely extended at the elbows and inclined inwards 
at the tip, and the rapid fall checked by suddenly extending the 
wings, which were thus held motionless as the bird mounted again. 
Frequently two or three would pass each other at different angles 
as they performed these beautiful evolutions, and presented, a 
sight pleasing and interesting in the extreme. The power of 
flight of these kites may be better appreciated by the fact that they 
frequently appeared and passed rapidly and easily by the turkey 
buzzards (Cathartes aura) which happened to be sailing majesti- 
cally in the same direction. The swallow-tails were never noticed 
■_n for ease and grace their buoy- 
ant, floating flight: certainly cannot be excelled. 

The swallow-tails were so numerous and tame that once, when 
half a dozen or so were sailing about, we killed one with each 
barrel of our gun, in quick succession. A couple of full-grown 
young of this species were seen upon a dead tree along the stream. 
and while we were watching them the parent bird approached, evi- 
dently with food for them, for tluy commenced dancing up and 
down upon the branch, and whistled impatiently, when she hovered 
over them. The Mississippi kites would never approach us near 
enough for a shot, so that we found them far more difficult to shoot 
than the swallow-tails. The three specimens obtained we secured 
by stratagem : our most successful plan being to approach them in 
our wagon. These kites were frequently observed resting upon 
the tops of the dead trees along the stream, and by approach- 



ing with the team until we were conce; 
intervening underwood, I would jump ( 



to steal through the thk 
In this manner I succeed 
the day. 



perched upon a dead tree in ;i budiv ravine. We approached it 
as described above, and as we drew nearer, we noticed something 
in its appearance which cruised us to see that it was not an Mluia. 
We were almost near enough to shoot from the wagon, when it 
flew, and began circling about, when it \va> immediately assaulted 
by two or three Ictinias. that continued to annoy it. When im- 
mediately overhead I shot at it, but without serious effect, for it 
immediately flew straight into a large elm tree in the ravine, and 
alighted among the branches. As it soared about above us I im- 
mediately recognized it a- the J.x'.//-;„/# r lagiata, a species which 
i> so strongly marked in all it- • _c especially, 

that no other hawk could po-dbly he mistaken for it by one at all 
acquainted with this family. I succeeded in getting another shot 
at it, but the distance was so great that the bird escaped. 

In this article I have named the more abundant and character- 
istic birds of the prairie portions ^t' southern Illinois. Future 

two trips. The number of species actually observed in the local- 
ity, numbered about ninety-five on each occasion : while the species 
breeding in the immediate neighborhood are about one hundred 
and fbrty. a very rich avi-fauna for a restricted locality, when the 
fact is taken into consideration, that of this number only about 
twenty-five are water birds — the remainder of one hundred and 
fifteen species of laud birds being, perhaps, as large a number of 
regular summer residents as any single locality in North America 



The discovery of unquestionable river-drift implements in this 
country has been an occurrence of great rarity, in comparison 
with the extensive unearthing of such implements in Europe and * 



W 




uk>;v o-pooially in Franco. Then' doe-, not sot 

.implements as have I icon found \>\ 
and St. Acheul,* France, and therefore the occ 



spec'men of strangely shaped -tunc, thai appears to tir an '• imple- 
ment" may be looked upon perhaps, very doubtfully, as estaMish- 
ing the facts that it is a stone that has been so shaped by human 
hands; or if so that it is of the same date as the containing bed 
of river drift. Such doubts, we confess, passed through our mind 
as we dug out from a gravelly Mull' or hillside, then lieing re- 
moved, the specimen to which we would lir>t call attention, but 
before describing it we will mention the characteristic features of 
the gravel bank itself, as it was when this specimen was found. 

The physical geography of the locality is very nearly as follows : 
The south bank of the Assunpink Creek, where the stream empties 
into the river, was originally a high gravelly bank, having its 
greatest elevation at the mouth of the stream, and gradually dis- 
appearing as it extended up the stream, or in an easterly direction, 
almost, at this point, at right angles with the river. The northern 
shore sloped gradually to the creek ; the high ground being a full 
half mile from the stream. 

As we pass down the river shore, on the New Jersey side, we 
find the same gravelly bluff reappearing at the river side, after a 
stretch of lower and meadow-like land, now all built upon; and 
this river side bluff, after extending a distance down the stream of 
half a mile, suddenly leaves the river, trends east ward, and leaves 
between it and the river, the extent of meadows that is indicated 
by the dotted portion of the map. 

On this meadow, and in the uplands above (see map), and also 
in the graves in the hillside dividing the two sections of meadow 
Mid upland, are found the thousands of "relics" such as we have 
described somewhat in detail in vol. vi, of this journal. The 
specimens that are more particularly described in this paper were 
found in the bluffs, at those points where the word " bluff" is 
printed on the map. At these two points, the river on the one 
hand, and " city improvements" on the other, have exposed the 
i'l made such sections of them as enable the observer 



to see their geolog al a glance. This 

is in each case alternate layers of fine sand and gravel, the latter 
being far in excess of the former ; and we have designated the 
specimens here figured as " drift implements," and consider them 
as wholly different from the rude implements already referred to. 
inasmuch a- gravel at great depth, 

and all beneath un<li*hu-l>i <l hi'j< ,■■• of fine sand. 

Figure 36 represents the first of the three "drift" implements 

. in drift gravel. It was brought to light in September. 

1872, in removing the steep hillside that formed the east side of 

Cooper street, near Factory street, in the city of Trenton. The 

specimen itself, when discovered by us, was lying in situ, sur- 



rounded by gravel, and there were two layers of undistm 
of one foot and twenty inches respectively in thickness above it : 
between these sand strata was a heavy stratum of fine gravel : 
above them another; and the loam above that. The stratum of 
gravel in which the specimen was found was three feet in thickaesa 
above the specimen, which was about two feet above the level of 
the street. The depth from the surface of the ground to the speci- 
men, wlm-li was ascertained before the removal of the i 
from it> lied, was .sixteen feet. The specimen was lying in a hori- 
zontal position, in fine gravel, and attention was drawn to it by 
the cutting edge projecting from the face of the hillside or Mtrff* 
We were assured by the men who were carting this gravel, \&*& 
the week previous they had met with two slabs of stone, a foot or 



deeply into them." We failed 
nor only as we heard it. For 
) of such stones, but the 
" queer figures " may not have been of human origin. The imple- 
ment which we represent in Fig. 36 is a mass of reddish brown 
stone, compact, laminated and susceptible of a high polish. It ap- 
pears to have been a hatchet with the handle -'nil in one." The 
end of the blade has been extended bej-ond the back of the imple- 
ment, one inch and a half, giving the specimen a very knife-like 
appearance. The handle is three and one-quarter inches in length, 



and has been formed by cutting through one of the layers of the 
Stone, thus making it much thinner than the rest of the implement 
along the "back" of the cutting portion. The specimen meas- 
ures, handle and blade included, along the back, nine and one-half 
inches; along the front or edge, eleven and one-quarter inches. 
The cutting-edge has undoubtedly been chipped, and although the 
specimen is now much water-worn, the flaking can still be seen 
extending along the whole edge. Had this specimen been found 



upon the i 
'relic;" and found where ; 



► one would question its being c 



■'drift implement," because of this very chipping of its cutting 
edge. It is inconceivable to us that any amount of water action, 
or rough and tumble existence with moving gravel, or even any 
action of a glacial nature, could produce this chipping along the 
edge, and conveniently add a handle to an accidentally produced 
cutting implement. 

Figure 37 represents an implement of opaque yellowish quarts 
that bears more resemblance to the European forms of drift imple- 
Kg.aa, ments than does the 

preceding. In Reliquiae 
Aquitanicse,* there is 
figured a " large broad 
flake, worked into a lan- 
ceolate form by careful 
chipping along the edges 
of the outer face,"' which 
specimen is quite similar 
to the one we have fig- 
ured. The specimen. 
figure 37, has evidently 
been broken off from a 
boulder, and subse- 
quently chipped idonir 
its edges. It is irregu- 
le in form. 



Although both faces are 
now equally water and weather-worn, it is shown by the speci- 
men's concavo-convex shape, that the latter is the cuter or natural 
surface of the stone. It is slightly darker in color, and more irreg- 
ular, as though the stone had been somewhat chipped before the 
flake itself was detached. 

This chipped flake was found in the same gravelly bluff, as the 
preceding, but at some distance from it, being the point previ- 
ously referred to as immediately facing the river, as shown in the 
map by the word " bluff." It, too, was found by the 




t, that very many p 



and one-half 



) the rude implements we frequently liud on the surface, and 
hich are popularly called " turtle backs." They are either fin- 
heel implements or " cones," from which flakes for arrowheads 

This drift implement (Fig. 38) was found within fifty yards of 
ie first specimen we described, but above it geological v. bavins 



other. ; 
pie wh, 



During a hurried tour through the Alps and Norway, I endeav- 
ored to observe marks of ancient glaciers in those countries in 
order to compare them with the phenomena to be observed in our 
northern states. The impression made on my mind, and I doubt 
not on that of other Americans who have travelled in the Alps 
and Scandinavia, was that the evidences of the former presence of 
glaciers, in valleys at the heads of which are glaciers now exist- 
ing, were scarcely more distinct than in the valleys of the White 
Mount;;!!!-, ot' tiit' Adi ion<laeks and even the coast of New Eng- 

As one approaches the Alps from the valley lea* ling from Muuioli 
up to Kempten, it could bo readily soon that near the lower moun- 
tains the valleys were flanked by rounded moraines, clothed with 
pines and firs, and no better marked than those in the valley of the 
Saco about Conway. Their presence was revealed by the clearings 
he forests in the same manner as in the White MotmtaiiM 
and the Adironclacks. In one important feature the marks were 
less apparent, as one does not see in the Alps the broad trains of 
boulders so common in New England, since they have been artific- 
ially removed * during centuries of occupation of the country. 

Alpine \ alleys than I had imagined from the accounts of Alpine 
geologists and travellers. 

It was wonderful how nature has sought as it were to conceal 
the work of the ice period, through atmospheric agencies, in re- 
modelling the materials of moraines, in reducing their former pro- 
portions and covering them up by the rapid growth of forests. 
The same process has gone on in northeastern America, and it is 
not improbable that about the same amount of time has been con- 
sumed in the work ; namely, the ice period was contemporary in 



both continents. During a stay of nearly three weeks in Switzer- 
land, several days of which I spent on foot in crossing the principal 
passes, 1 was unable to liud among the specimens. I had endeavored 
to obtain for the museum of the Peabody Academy, a boulder 
scratched and polished sufficiently to be a fair sample of such work. 
Those that I did obtain i.e. small boulders, samples of glacial mud 
and --ravel, could easily he mistaken lor similar specimens from a 
glacial moraine at the mouth of the Peabody river at Gorham, 
New Hampshire. In all respects, this last named moraine is, in 
its glacial characters, the exact equivalent of the moraines at the 
edges of Alpine glaciers. 

It is not until one crosses over by the great Scheideck Pass 
into the valley of Hasli that he sees the most magnificent examples 
of polished, and grooved rocks, and on a scale perhaps exceeding 
anything in America. It was not to be wondered at, however, I hat 
geologists had been slow to realize that so large a portion of 
Switzerland had been glaciated. 

In Sweden, but especially in Norway, where there are large 
glaciers and very extensive mers de glace on the summits of some 
of the mountain ranges, the ice marks are everywhere present, 
but scarcely more apparent than in the White Mountain valleys. 
At one place on a low rocky point projecting into the Sogne 
Fjonl. there was a magnificent display of deeply grooved and fur- 
rowed rocks. But even with the marks at this locality, the 
enormous grooves on a hill within the city limits of Salem would 
compare favorably. I u Norway, I was not able, so hasty was my 
journey over the country, to secure any samples from moraines 
recent enough to compare with moraines in the White Mountains. 
In Wales the glacial phenomena are on a diminutive scale compared 
even with the White Mountains, but in walking through the cele- 
brated Pass of Llanberis the polished rocks, boulders and mo- 
raines, from one of which I was able to secure samples of glacial 
gravel, were of the same character as is to be seen in the White 
Mountains, and scarcely better marked. 

Another point • ■?' much interest was the comparison of \ 
marine beds of Sweden and Norway with those of New England. 
While, as is well known, the life of the glacial epoch is almost 
identical in the two cuiintries, the fossils found at Uddevalla in 
Sweden, as long since pointed out by Lyell. so exactly repeating 
the characteristic forms found by Bayfield in the clays of the river 



212 GLA< 

St. Lawrence, and the few species peculiar to each deposit are 
migrations from the south — it was interesting to see that the lith- 
ological characters of the formation were the same in both. Ap- 
proaehing the Baltic coast of Sweden, and nearing the city of 
Stockholm, the train carries the traveller over extensive beds 
of clay with exactly the scenic features and color of those of the 
coast of Maine, presenting long slopes bounded by hillocks of pale 
gray clay with furrowed sides, worn into the same peculiar shapes 
by the rains. At the fine museum of the national Geo|ogir;d Sur- 
vey, under the direction of Professor Torell, T was enabled to see a 
typical collection of the fossils of these clays. It was interesting 
to see the Lethi tmurnta (L. Portlandica) so abundant in Maine 
beds, and the Toldia pygmcea not infrequent in the Maine glacial 
beds. The abundance of this arctic Leda in deposits on both 
sides of the Atlantic shows how much more uniform was the ma- 
rine life at that time. Changes in the level of the land, and conse- 
quently in its temperature, in the ocean currents, slight though 
they were, have brought about the changes in the distribution of 
life in the New England seas. Many arctic species and arctic va- 
rieties of species, though still living on our coast, are now to be 
sought in the abysses of our seas. 

The explorations under the auspices of the United States Fish 
Commission, in the Coast Survey Steamer Bache last autumn (see 
Prof. Verrill's report in the Amer. Jour. Science, 1872), show how 
vividly we may restore the ancient marine life of the shores of New 
Enida . i and the St. Lawrence river below Montreal. Here, at a 
depth of 85-150 fathoms and over, were found living the Area pee- 
tinieiiloklrs, so abundant in the glacial beds of Norway, though it 
has not been found in our glacial deposits. The discovery of this 
and other animals so near our shores, as well as the results of Count 
Pourtales' researches, and Mr. Whiteaves' dredging* in the Gulf ot 
St. Lawrence, shows that the belt of arctic life as developed on the 
coast of Finmark at the present day extends southwards in all the 
deeper parts of the Atlantic ocean north of the West Indies, with 
its outliers in the Gulf of St. Lawrence. During the glacial pe- 
riod, when the sea stood two or three hundred feet deep over the 
present coast line of Maine, and still higher over that of the 
shores of the St. Lawrence Gulf, and Labrador, this belt of life 
was continuous up to the shallows and estuaries of the 1 
the period of the deposition of our clay beds. This fact should 



stimulate us anew to prosecute with still greater ardor deep-sea 
dredgings off our coast, particularly the northeast extremity of 
the St. Georges Banks, with the hope of finding that now strangely 
interesting shell, Leila trunnita. which ha- been bronghl homo from 
"the seas of Greenland in a recent state by arctic voyagers : and <>u 
the other hand, to investigate the clay beds of the coast of New- 
England, and Canada and Labrador with the hope of finding the 
Area jwctitvcnlohles, which we can now with some degree of safety 

found on the northeastern end of St. Georges Banks, and which 
proved so remarkably rich in molluscan ami vermian life, was a 
sandy mud, much like that of the richest fossiliferous beds in our 
glacial formation. 

We have but glanced at the identical features of the glacial phe- 
nomena of the Alps, Scandinavia and northeastern America, a mat- 
ter which our geologists have doubtless each observed for them- 
selves, and which struck Prof. Agassiz when he tirst arrived in this 
country after his years of exploration in the Alps, and journeys in 
Scotland and Wales, but which will perhaps suffer repetition in a 
popular journal of this character. As Humboldt early in this cen- 
tury expressed his delight at finding identical rocks in the New and 
Old World, the student of the superficial depo-its that cover these 
rock- cannot restrain his delight at finding them almost identical 
in both hemispheres. Indeed it may be a comfort to the American 
student of glacial phenomena to know if he is debarred from visit- 
ing the glaciers of the Alps or Norway, or even those of the Rocky 
Mountains, that in the northern states, their mark- arc as freshly 
preserved as in the Old World, except at the very edge of the 
glaciers themselves when photograi :- '■ ill supply the place of 



THE COTTON CATERPILLAR. 



There are two kind- of in-ect- which feed upon and destroy the 
cotton crop. The boll worm (Fig. 39, caterpillar and moth) eats 
only the bolls or pods containing the unripe cotton lint. It confines 



214 THE COT 

its ravages to the bolls alone and does not trouble the foliage on 
the cotton plant. The first brood of boll worms always appears 
in the corn fields, where it feeds on the silk and leaves of the 
more tender corn until it is large enough to attack the tough cotton 
pods, eating into them just as the apple worm eats into the apple. . 
But the insect which we dread, and which we call the caterpillar ' 
(Fig. 40, moth and caterpillar), eats only the leaves on the cotton 
Fig .39. plant. The boll worm 

sometimes attacks the 
long-staple cotton, but 
only as an attendant on 
the caterpillar, complet- ' 
ing what the latter had 
We have twice 
had our cotton fields 
eaten out completely 
since the war and conse- 
quently have been com- 
Boii worm. pelled to learn something 

about the habits of the caterpillar. In appearance and size it is 
at first like the canker worm, but towards the latter part of Octo- 
ber it becomes much larger and more active. 

In one respect it differs from the canker-worm — when you touch 
one, it jumps away three or four inches ; (but ordinarily it" crawls 
about from leaf to leaf. When first dis- 
covered — about the last of July — it is 
very small, not much larger than the 
head of a pin and was eating holes 
through the leaves of the tenderest cot- 
ton from the under side. It soon disap- 
peared and in about two weeks we found 
a new brood which increased in size and 
numbers much more rapidly than the 
first. This second brood was confined to 

spots in the fields, eating ill th< fid _r< wherever it began. After 
eating for about two weeks they began to roll up in the cotton 
leaves in the form of cocoon- mid diorth turned into moths, which 
flew in every direction over the si i eiigs fi»r 




Fig. 40. 



the third brood. Each female moth is said to lay at least five hun- 
dred eggs, so any one can judge how rapid is the increase. 

Thus the caterpillars keep on multiplying into new broods till 
near the middle of November, when the frost kills them off. The 
common belief among the negroes is that the caterpillar knows 
when the frost is coming, and takes to the woods, where it sleeps 
till the next spring, but I have never verified their belief. As the 
cotton plant gets older and the leaves tougher, the caterpillar in- 
creases in size and activity and eats from morning till night. Of 
course, as the plant loses its leaves, it dries up and the fruit bolls 



mated that from one-half to three-fourth^ of the yield has been cut 
off. We have this year about three hundred acres planted in cot- 
ton. At the lowest calculation of price and yield per acre, this 
ought to turn us in a $16,000 crop ; but if the caterpillars get into 
it, we shall be lucky to get $8,000 out of it. 

hi..,-. i>lands to Florida and thence spread up along the coast.* 
But I suppose they came just as the canker and currant worms 

opment depends much on the state of the atmosphere. Dog-day 
weather seems to be favorable to their increase and spread, while 

and tough. Before the war, they did not appear oftener than once 






soil and kill all grubs and eggs deposited under the 
Le darkey also has his reason, which perhaps is as good 
issigned. He says the guano brings the caterpillar, 



216 



CATERPILLAR. 



first, this having attained its luxuriance through the nppli.-ition 
of guano. He says the Yankees are so much in a hurry to make 
money that they use more guano than they ought. Yankees, 
guano, eak-rniUnrs ami carpet-baggers are all associated together 
in his mind. He will not steal guano for this same reason, that 
he believes it breeds the caterpillars. 

We have tried several methods of checking them, but none did 



the moths, bi 


it they did nc 


* seem much incline 


id to ( 


jommit sn 


ncide. 


We hired ha 


nds to exam 


ine the plants and 


pick 


off the leaves 


having eggs 


on them, bn 


t it was a slow an 


d use 


dess job. 


^Ye 


heard that insect s could i 


lot endure the smel 


1 of t 




bean 


plant and so 


planted rows 


of them through th< 


- held 


s, but it i 


lid no 


good ; on the 


contrary, the 


sy rather liked it. I 


u fact 


; the only 


effec* 


tual remedy \ 


vas by pickin 






es. tlms't. 


:heck- 


ing their spr< 


;ad. But oik 


i hundred hands pii 


-king 


all day i 


.vouhl 


not gather ir 


lore than tlr< 


:> or three barrels. 


ami 


at night 


there 


seemed to be 


just as main 




i the; 


1' increa.- 


e was 


evidently less 


ened. Perns 


ipsyou say "why no 


t appl 


y earboli. 


• acid 


to the plants 


?" We hav( 


j tried that too, but 


yon 


might a- 


, well 


attempt to p 


ut out a burr 


Ling house with a pocket 


syringe, 


as to 


sprinkle a fiel 


d of a hundr< 


3d acres. How to k 


eep tr 




to destroy them after they 


have come, has not . 


yet been discos 


ered. 



devastation they commit. We 



worms. 


They are be 




i devoa 


r and most faithfully do they 




their'niission. 


WI 


leu tlKM 


j are in full blast, the air in a 


and I 1 


leld is filled wi 
iave thought I 
g. I have see 


dit< 


':B, 


°the noise of their eating and 
;ot deep for miles, filled to the 


top wit 


h drowned wor 


ms, a 


ad in < 


me instance the wagon rut for 


eight m 


iles or more w; 




of a w 


riggling mass of them. Dogs, 



ox l in; <;i:m s iin.k i.ras and 



additions to the list 
number (p. 151). 
Dubuque Meeting < 



is equally true of the appen 
rately, and has just been re 
" Proceedings of the Philad 



lection with renmins of Dinocerata in the Wic Museum, show 
lively that Prof. Cope has. from the first, mistaken many 

iclusions in regard to the group to which they belong. His 
on this subject, therefore, should be corrected on the fol- 
points, as well as on those 1 have already mentioned :— 1st, 
ame Kohi^h-na Cope, is a synonym of Tinoceras Marsh, 
antedates it (p. 152). and the name of the family, Tinoce- 
, likewise has priority ovei Kob .Hilda*, which Prof. Cope has 
v introduced. 2nd. The name Loxolophodon Cope should 



obabilities are against it, 3d, The spe- 
ope appears to be the same as Tinoceras 
first described. The species E. furcatus 
, of supposed nasal bones (which Prof. 
(217) 



218 THE GENUS TINOCERAS AND ITS ALLIES. 

Cope has since called frontal bones), has at present no authority, 
the specimens described being evidently the posterior horn-cores 
of other known species. Judging from the description, the name 
E. pressicornis Cope, has no better foundation. 4th, The genus 
Dinoceras Marsh, is distinct from Uintatherium Leidy, although 
perhaps nearly related. 5th, The mammals of the above genera 
cannot be placed in the order Proboscidea, but constitute a sepa- 
rate order, Dinocerata. 6th, The presence of a proboscis does not 
directly result from the osteological characters of this group, but 
is inconsistent with them ; and hence the evidence is strongly 
against it. 7th, The skull in the Dinocerata presents no distinct- 
ive Proboscidian features, and the subordinate resemblance in the 
limb-bones, I pointed out before Prof. Cope wrote anything on the 
subject. 8th, The presence of canine teeth and horns, alone, was 
not stated by me to be characteristic of a new order, but other im- 
portant characters were mentioned (p. 150). 9th, The canines of 
the Dinocerata do not correspond to the tusks of the elephant, and 
the latter are not enclosed between the premaxillary and the max- 
illary, but are inserted in the former bone. 10th, The nasal bones 
of the Dinocerata are much elongated, and do not have their free 
extremities extremely short, or deeply excavated. 11th, The fron- 
tals do not extend in front of the premaxillaries ; their extremi- 
ties do not form bony projections like shovels, and they do not 
support horns or processes at both extremities. 12th, The ante- 
rior horn-cores are on the nasal bones, and not on the frontals, and 
they are not composed externally of the maxillaries. 13th, The 
middle pair of horn-cores are not on the frontals, but on the max- 
illaries. their inner inferior margin alone being formed of the na- 
sals. 14th, The tarsus and foot are not strictly Proboscidian in 
character, but show strong Perissodactyl features, e.g., in the ab- 
sence of a hallux, and in the articulation of the astragalus with 
both the navicular and cuboid bones. 

The species of Dinocerata at present known with certainty are 

the following : — Tinoceras anceps Marsh, Tinoceras grandis Marsh, 

rob "St nut Leidy, I ti ,«•<•<■ ras mirnbiUs Marsh, and 

Dinoceras laeustris Marsh. To these should probably be added 

Megacerops Coloradensis Leidy. 



REVIEWS AND BOOK NOTICES. 

Caliban : the Missing Link.* — This curious volume of Dr. 
Wilson's, can nowise be compared with his former works, espec- 
ially the " Prehistoric Annals of Scotland." Indeed, doubts con- 
tinually arose, during our perusal of it, whether it really could 
be classed among the many works that of late have appeared, 
scientifically discussing the question of the ape-descent of man. 
This volume consists of fourteen chapters, all quite brief; and but 
eight of them really touching upon that " missing link," that he 
assumes the evolutionist to consider as the bridge that crosses the 
chasm now existing between man and his nearest pithecoid ivla- 
tive. This link is curiously interwoven, as it were, with Caliban 
of Shakespeare's Tempest ; and we have in the two hundred and 
seventy-one pages of the book, a double essay on evolution and 
poetry, certainly very novel and entertaining, if nothing more; 
" the object aimed at in the following chapters," being, according 
to their author, " to place the conceptions of modern science in 
relation to the assumed brute progenitor of man, alongside of 
those imaginative picturings, and of the whole world of fancy and 
superstition pertaining to that elder time ; while also, the literary 
excellences, and the textual difficulties of the two dramas of 
Shakespeare chiefly appealed to in illustration of the scientific ele- 
ment of inquiry, 'are made the subjects of careful study." Dr. 
Wilson has, indeed, placed the conceptions of modern science 
alongside the whole world of fancy, but in doing so bas, we think, 
misinterpreted modern science in making the Caliban of Shakes- 
peare's fancy the embodiment of the former's sum total of results. 

At the very outset, the author continually refers to the " miss- 
ing link," the Caliban of Darwin's fancy, a mere hypothetical being 
to make good that writer's theory ; but the evolutionist does not 
intimate that one, but many, links are gone ; a whole section, if you 
will, in the great chain of "being. We doubt not for one moment, 
that Dr. Wilson himself would claim that the Bushman and the 
European were far different genera, had some geological cataclysm 
destroyed the intermediate races ; and would deny their former ex- 
istence. So it is just as reasonable, and no more, to 

1873. Umo.Bp.in. (219) 



more human apes have existed, as in the supposed case ; and no 
Caliban, we admit, could have filled that intermediate state which 
thousands of years and many generation- must have done. Could 
not time have accomplished this result? And what of the argu- 
ment that the " commencing " man would be too helpless to sur- 
vive? Are the more anthropoid apes in greater danger during 
int'aiH . than II - - ' . i ys thai thrive so well in the 

tropical forests? Dr. Wilson seems to confound the scmi-hmnan 
and the idiot, but between them we can find nothing in common, 
and wonder that « the half human intellect," is to him so difficult 
a matter to realize. Natural selection places all other life — or 
other agencies, if you will, effect it — in positions favorable to 
growth and increase, and why not an ape. less brutish than the 
goi la. and even le>s human than tin Hushm in d< s< ribed b\ Licli- 
tenstein as pre-enting •• the true physiognomy of the small blue 
ape of Caffraria." (Quoted by Lubbock, in Origin of Civilization. 
London, 2d edition, p. 8). 

While making many references to various savage races. Dr. 
Wilson argues really that man is man, of the calibre and ability of 
the great discoverers, rather than a -pecies of mam races, or a 
being of several species. Mere denial goes but a little way on 
this assumption. Tie overlooks that really but a mere handful, 
as it were, of the human species have effected that advancement 
which simply benefits the whole. China could never produce a 
steam engine except as a copy ; and the Algonquin Red Indians 
of this continent area- permanently bunting tribes, and nothing 
more, as the moon to Caliban was the » lesser light " in compari- 

bre of the monkeys, which evolution could alone have brought 
about; and the Kumbekephali, that Dr. Wilson so ingvniou-ly 
brought to light from their hoary graves in Scotland, gradually 
evolved all those capabilities .vliich the relics of the graves have 
shown, as interpreted by the learned author of " Prehistoric An- 
nals of Scotland," that they were finally possessed of. 

The third chapter, entitled -Caliban's Island." is again an equal 
mixture of ethnology and the drama ; but the conclusion, leaving 
Shakespeare's home of Caliban at rest, takes up the question of 
the home of those hypothetical apes that in their own onward 

■ man. Dr. Wilson cannot see in Borneo an island 



, process, and denies that such an " Eden " i 



l, elucidated by Dr. Wilson's ingenious pages, we 

at the greater difficulties in the way of absolute 
been touched upon by the author of " The Missing 
A. 

f or the West.*— Our notice of Mr. Allen's article 
idably delayed, and even now we can do little more 
itiou to one of the most important of the year's 
o North American Ornithology — a telling paper, 
jding the author's "Florida." As Director of a 
iition from the Cambridge Museum, Mr. Allen ex- 
iter portion of four territories, collected some two 
nens of over two hundred species of birds, besides 
terial, and made extended observations, especially 



- a mm various inter- 
esting biographical notes. 

Questions of variation in specific character according to extrinsic 

impartiality and abilitv. The observed faets receive, on the whole, 
what we believe to be their true interpretation. We have no space 
to occupy with del s, foi which we must simply refer to the 



222 REVIEWS AND BOOK NOTICES. 

memoir itself ; but some points of general moment may be briefly- 
noticed. Mr. Allen describes or otherwise records, but without 
naming, "several well-marked geographical races not previously 
chronicled;" and claims, as unquestionably he may, "a confirma- 
tion of all the general conclusions arrived at in my [his] recent 
paper on the 'Winter Birds of East Florida.'" Most of these 
varieties hang upon the law, which we believe Mr. Allen was the 
first to apply to our birds, if not the first to announce, that, other 
things being equal, intensity of coloration varies directly with the 
mean annual rainfall. Its extreme manifestation, in the bleached 
forms of the American desert, have before been noticed ; but its uni- 
versal operation seems to have been hitherto unregarded. Color- 
characters of birds are thus correlated with the three leading surface 
conditions— forest, prairie and desert — and proven due to the 
same meteorological causes. We believe this law to be one of the 
soundest and broadest ever applied to the study of birds. Vari- 
ation in the size of peripheral parts inversely with latitude is a 
second proposition Mr. Allen has elucidated and sustained by 
numerous observations ; its full bearing is probably yet to be deter- 
mined, since for the present it lacks the stability and unequivocacy 
of the other. We find that most of the " new " geographical races 
noticed by Mr. Allen depend upon one or both of these laws. 
One of the most noticeable, and, its authorship considered, one of 
the most unexpected, features of the present paper is the recog- 



heartily endorse. As many of our readers know, ever since Mr. 
Allen applied the entering wedge in the locally famous case of 
Tardus Alicia}, he has ma.le variation lii> -|>»-<-i.i!ty, and lost no 
opportunity of showing intergradation of forms once considered 
specific. It is undeniable that, spurred by enthusiasm of discovery 
and zeal of earnest conviction, he occasionally overshot the mark 
— indeed, this present paper shows he is himself aware of this, for 
lie has already taken apart some of the crude synonymieal lists 
that marred "Florida," and given a "name" as well as a "local 
habitation" to many varieties he formerly ignored. We believe 
him to be now treading on sure ground, with far less to regret for 
'iian is the common lot of the advocates of innovations 
that mean iconoclasra. The past year has witnessed changes in 
American Ornithology unprecedented since Baird recast the Audu- 
bonian model, if not since Wilson took the subject from European 



writers to himself — changes not only involving nomenclature and 
the rest of the machinery, but also profoundly affecting methods of 
study. It is too early to decide whether the modification was sim- 
ply the inevitable swinging back of a pendulum that has readied 
its limit, or whether it was effected— at any rate, hastened— by 
Mr. Allen's instrumentality. In the latter event, and if the late 
revulsion proves to be. as it apparently is, a real reform. Mr. 
Allen's conspicuous connection with the progress of the science at 
that particular time is to be regarded as singularly fortunate.— 
E. C. 

Intermembral Homologies.*— Since it is not reasonably pos- 
sible to do justice to this remarkable paper within the limits to 
which we are confined on this occasion, we must be content to in- 
dicate its nature and scope. This restriction is perhaps the less to 
be regretted because, as some few of our readers may be aware, 
our own studies of the same subject have run too nearly parallel 
with Prof. Wilder's for us to have entirely escaped a bias of judg- 



ment unfavorable to impartial criticism : 






3 seize an opportunity that the office of reviewer affords 
of arguing in favor of views that both the author and ourselves 
desire should be left to stand or fall upon their own merits. Search- 
- n can only be expected from those who differ, not those 
who agree. We are satisfied of the soundness of Prof. Wilder's 
main views of the vertebrate homologies ; and if we are at present 
unprepared to go with him as far as he has gone, this is chiefly 
because he appears to have pushed past a certain Rubicon that 
separates the safe logic of observation from the possibly fallible 
results of speculation. If we were urged to specify what we be- 
lieve to be a misconception under which our learned friend labors, 
we should say it were this, as gathered from his collateral writings ; 
that no mental abstraction, whether moral, aesthetic or purely 
intellectual, can be formed, unless a corresponding material em- 
bodiment exi-ts ; and that consequently conception of an idea 
implies that it has some real physical expression. But there is 
reason to believe in the existence of a class of ideas, o ;- 
designated as fanciful, to which this hypothesis has no proven 
application. One of the clearest and strung. * t points of the paper 



is that made on pp. 15 and 17, where, in the hope of closing "the 
first century of this [the homological] controversy by proposing ;i 
view embracing the best elements of both the two great partitas, 
syntropists and antitropists," the author says: " it is probable 
therefore, that for a final solution of the problem we must combine 
the visual method of Huxley, as based on the facts of position in 
the embryo and lower animals, with the intellectual method of 
Wyman, as based upon a great law of organization." 

The " historical sketch of the question " with which the article 
opens is a valuable contribution of the literature of the subject. 
meriting a more pretentious name, since it is a critical summary 
of most that has been done in this field — one than which few bare 
been more harrowed with so little cultivation. The author con- 
tinues with a revised nomenclature of parts and of ideas — a bold 
attempt to furnish some new tools of thought and sharpen others, 
the success of which can only be surmised, since this depends 
more upon acceptability than adaptability. Such words as meros, 
talus and genu strike one peculiarly, while such as pendant it ropy 
and hypsesyntropy demand crystallization of the ideas they fore- 
shadow to command general recognition. Much original evidence 
of the morphical insignificance of numerical composition is ad- 
duced in another portion of the treatise ; while several general and 
special problems are presented for future research. May we not 
confidently look for their solution by an author who has proven 
himself an earnest, impartial and meritorious investigator? A 
chronological list of works hearing on the subject, invaluable for 
reference, closes an article of signal pertinence and acceptability. 
which becomes at once indispensable to students pf philosophic 
anatomy, and which may not improbably lie hereafter recorded as 
one marking an important period in the progress of that study. 
— E. C. 

Revision of the Echini.* — This superbly printed and lavishh 
illustrated work is another of the series of Illustrated Catalogues 
issued by the Museum of Comparative Zoology. It is a general 
work on the living species of Kchini, and from the evident care in 
its preparation, combining the results of the study of the type* 
of most of those who have written on this'orcler scattered through 



.irope as well as our own 

The first pair <■• mtain> the bibliography, followed by a chapter on 
" Nomenclature, which will greatly interest special students in zo- 

Mr. Agassiz finds that the value of the genera usually recognized. 
"when tested l>y our present knowledge of the changes they un- 
dergo seems limited almost to convenient headings or keys for the 
more ready identification of species, (ienera, as we recognize 

era! ami permanent value, hut. on the contrary, upon features 









the different forms o 



of the Atlantic." 

Mr. Agassiz thinks that we now have a very W-ir n 
of the littoral Echini of the world, and as recent explorations 
indicate that we have hitherto inadequately mapped out the prob- 
able distribution of life at great depths, he would wait for the 
results of such explorations before discussing the subject. He 
finds that the distribution of sea urchins agrees remarks >b with 
the " great belts of temperature first mapped out by Dana ;" and 
copies them on the seven susrs-estive maps bound in before the 



The second part consists of descriptions of the Echini of the 
Eastern coast of the United States, with a report on those col- 
lected by Pourtales in the deeper parts of the straits of Florida. 

The forty-nine plates are lithographs, Woodbury types and 
Albertypes, and each is used with great success in delineating these 
forms so difficult to render, and expensive, hoth :i- r- 
and money. For such objects as Echini photography proves in- 



subject will welcome this as a very convenient and useful volume, 
the entire reliability of which is assured by the author's evident 
familiarity with the birds treated, as well as by the able critical 
editorship of his manuscripts. It is likewise a comprehensive 
treatise, four hundred and twenty-eight species being included. 
Specimens of nearly all of these have been reexamined and identi- 
fied by Mr. Gurney, to whom we owe their nomenclature and ar- 
rangement. as well as the technical portions of the work, Mr. 
Andersson's portion being that of a naturalist in the field. The 
complete title of the work, below quoted, sufficiently shows its 
plan and scope, while general praise of the mode of execution 
would be entirely superfluous. A point of interest for American 
ornitlinlMiiUK is the authentic record of 7V/,* ; /./ 7^/,v///t a> a bird 



New Species of American Moths.*— Mr. Grote is still supply- 
ing us with descriptions of our moths, which will make their study 
all the easier for students. "We cannot agree with him in placing 
(after Lederer's example) the species of Ilypena and indeed all the 
"Deltoids" among the Noctuids, believing that they run into the 
true Pyralids, whether we consider the larval or adult characters. 

Unfortunately for lepidopterists the second paper we notice is 
but a fragment. It is a mere outline of an extended memoir in 
Which all the North American species known to the author as be- 
longing to the genus Catocala were fully described. This paper 
was lost in transportation. This beautiful genus, says Mr. Grote, 
"seemed to have its largest representation in North America, and 
to attain with us its fullest development." Fifty-four species are 

Illustrations of North American Entomology^ — We have 
hefore alluded to the beautiful and useful plates which Mr. Glover 

before us is one of the most important works on entomology that 
has appeared in this country. On the thirteen large plates are 
crowded admirable colored tigures of every kind, of grasshopper 
and allied forms that Mr. Glover has been able to obtain, either 
from his own cabinet or those of his friends. They arc authenti- 
cally named, according to Stickler's catalogue, and need scarcely 
any letter-press to enable them to be determined by the young 
entomologist. 
The text accompanying these plates, besides giving full expla- 



these insects, and an alphabetical list of the vegetable and animal 
substances injured by them. 

It will be of great use to agriculturists, and when the author 
feels tempted to issue an edition for the public (the present edition 
of fifty copies is intended for distribution among entomologists 
and entomological societies only) we are sure that the work will 
be highly valued. 

Mr. Glover proposes to "publish yearly, or from time to time, 
additional plates, etc., of the same size and in similar style, of any 
new or rare Orthoptera which may be added to our list by the ex- 
peditions or by private enterprise, as likewise, eventually to illus- 
trate all the other orders of insects in a similar manner." 

The Forms of Water.* — Prof. Tyndall leads off in the admi- 
rably projected " International Scientific Series," which we owe to 
the earnest efforts of Prof. Youmans, and the energy and liberality 
of the Messrs. Appleton. We are so late in noticing the present 
attractive volume that probably most of our readers have bought 
it. Those who have not seen it have a rare treat in store, as it 
fully equals Tyndall's other works in the lucidity and interest of 
its style, and is of special value as giving in a simple, condensed 
form the views of the pioneers in glacial studies. The series com- 
prises a large number of subjects to be treated by the leading sci- 
entists of the old and new world, and when completed will form an 
admirable library of science. 

Physics and Politics-! — This little volume, consisting of six 
essays, may fairly claim, we think, to be considered a valuable 
addition to anthropological literature. It certainly is strictly 
scientific throughout, and commends itself, by its clear statements 
of facts, to the intelligent reader. It is not merely an outline of 
the works of others, or an attempt to popularize the history of the 



Mr. Bagshot takes up the subject of the very early condition of 
lankind, and while viewing him in a light quite different from that 
ither of Lubbock or Tylor, yet draws the same conclusions : and 



REVIEWS AND BOOK NOTICES. 229 

brings forth more facts for the theory, now established, that man's 
original condition was one of barbarism — one, in which, the bes- 
tial predominated. This theory, in fact, needs no further demon- 
stration, and may be said to be accepted by the scientific world. 

The essence of the argument of the first two essays is that man 
early secured a modicum of law, as shown in selecting one as a 
leader ; and as that tended to bind together each little community, 
so it became powerful and warred successfully with the neighbor- 
ing men, who were held in no restraint, by the natural selection of 
one of superior parts, who would be a leader, by the admiration 
he caused among his fellows.* 

When this " law" was powerful enough to make men mere fac- 
similes of other men, progress was at an end — the imperfectly 
developed ci <i. " Progress," he says " is only 

possible in those happy cases where the force of legality has gone 
far enough to bind the nation together, but not far enough to kill 
out all the varieties and destroy nature's perpetual tendency to 

This argumentation is carried out more fully in the following 
chapters on " Nation making " and the "Age of Discussion ; " and 
as the author never loses sight of the theory of evolution, " which, 
if it be not proved conclusively, has great probability and great 
scientific analogy in its favor," it is interesting and instructive to 
the scientific reader to see these principles, whicl* are so gener- 
ally applied to mere genera and species, successfully, we think, 
handled in the elucidation of some puzzling anthropological prob- 
lems.— C. C. A. 

Popular Science Monthly. |— After carefully reading this jour- 
nal, since its first appearance nearly a year ago, we can say that 
it la doing a good work for science in this country by commending 
the labors of scientific men, and raising the minds of the laity into 
the scientific atmosphere. Scientific thought is something distinct 
from the average thought of our age and people, whether expressed 



230 REVIEWS AND BOOK NOTICES. 

in our commercial, literary or religious papers. It is the mental 
air that Galileo, Goethe, Newton, Kant, Linmeus, Cuvier, Rum- 
ford, and the scientific lights of our own day have created : and 
nothing but sound mental health, a hearty love of truth, and 
greater happiness will result from breathing such air. Science is 
the expression of the common sense of all ages. It tends more 
than any other study to develop common sense in the individnal. 
This journal does not cultivate a special department of science 
but aims at persuading men that science is to be cultivated not 
only for its own sake, but as directly increasing human health and 

The only fault we have to find is that the papers, most of which 
are selected from the scientific thinkers of Fngland. do not per- 
haps fairly represent American thought, for certainly we have 
men of as much ability as the authors of many of the papers that 
have been reprinted in tli is journal, could they be induced to write. 
Again in the department of Reviews is an excellent opportunity* 
of which due advantage is not taken, of eliciting the best thought 
of our working chemists, naturalists, geologists and astronomers. 
American scientists have a duty to perform in impressing the value 
of science upon our politicians and rulers. We believe in the 
Platonic marriage of Science and the State. 

Half Hour Recreations in Popular Science.*— This admira- 
ble series of reprints contains papers entitled " Strange Discover- 
ies respecting the Aurora and recent Solar Researches," by^ R. A. 
Proctor ; "the Cranial Affinities of Man and the Ape," by Prof. R. 
Virchow; "Spectrum Analysis Discoveries." by the editor ;" Neb- 
uhe. Meteoric Showers, and Comets : and Unconscious Action of the 
Brain, and, Epidemic Delusions." by Dr. Carpenter. Prof. A. Win- 
is in press. This series is to be followed by the publication of 
"Half Hour Recreations in Natural History," to consist of several 
volumes, entitled "Half Hours with Insects, with Birds, Wild 
Animals, Domestic Animals, Reptiles, Plants, Trees, and Fishes. 
Each volume I- to :m expert. We are 

glad to have such works freely disseminated. They are popular 
in style and will be found to be very readable by persons not 



;y of the Origin of Species.* 
;ive of the general principle, t 
' great problems of modern sci< 
lii'e of details. The author has 



of the scale of work 

\\ a producti »ll seieli- 



ereative power, is only a form of the old 1 
and is not a developmental theory in an 
evidence in support of it ; in fact, he < 

tency of his belief in the development o 
evidence of this he cites the argument 
known European authors, with referenc 
less to more perfect, exhibited by elassit 

no acquaintance. Occasionally, novel 
are made ; e. g., " The Icthyosaur is beti 
and the crocodile!" "In this era the i 
appearance in the MegalicMkys hibbertii 
as " a three lobed animal, in general 1 
wood-louse." The Mosasaarus " a hn<; 
long " is referred to the Eocene format 

knowledge of American paheontology w 
blunders. The early part of the paper 
of the popular sort against descent by ge 

the apes, forgetting that the canary's bra 
that his pen may in future find abundant 



a book zoologist. Work in the shop (which we hope he will un- 
dertake) will correct his views and give him a place among his 
friends, American zoologists. In the meantime let him look up 
the orthography of the words carnivorous and herbivorous. — 
E. D. C. 

BOTANY. 

Cultivation of California Roots and Bulbs. — In a climate 
like ours, clearly discriminated by a wet and long dry season, we 
find theee bulbs located say about six to ten inches deep ; the vital 
fibres, or true roots, shoot downwards ten inches to a foot below 
this point, in search of food and moisture : thus radiating from the 
leading germinal end of mostly oblong scaly bulbs — the respec- 
ts vs -!y dormant fibres that have "closed in" serving as stays, etc. 
Is it not evident, then, that such bulbs require a flower pot at least 
eighteen inches deep? Hence, ordinary pots must: be utterly useless, 
cramping the plant, or inadequate to meet its primary natural in- 
dications. Let any one take an improvised five-gallon kerosene 
or alcohol tin can, or the like, which is good enough, not to say the 
best, cut out one end and nail narrow slats around the upper 
margin to add symmetry, avoid unsightly /tents, and for conven- 
ience in hand limr : and if one slat is dressed, paint the name, to 
avoid annoyance of displayed labels : paint rudely inside and out, 
to preserve ; punch say at least three large holes in the bottom ; 
plant, as in nature, in any good soil well composted, and set your 
can, keg or crock, in a shailon: L ,an of water . You will soon have 
the pleasure of seeing a stout stem, of the size of your thumb, rising 
up and "rejoicing as a strong man to run a race." and flowering 
gorgeously. Let it generally be observed here, once for all, that 
rom beneath, 
is the requisite rule or law to be observed, especially in their ad- 
vanced stage of growth. Many California plants are not only 
injured bo th our California sun. 

To illustrate these principles, let us take a few other examples, to 
show that if a plant spends its vital force searching for requisite 
food or moisture; <>r, if the law of supply be reversed, efforts 
balked, or attained at too great an expenditure, little or nothing 
else can be accomplished. Abmnia are nana, as the specific name 
indicate*, grows in sand. If found on deep sand-drifts of the bay 
shore of San Francisco, or inland. tout fusiform 



BOTANY. - 233 

root of indefinite length ; but often poor and pimy is the top, that 
creeps not far from the crown, with perhaps few flowers and little 
fruit. But mulch a moist, black, brackish, cracky soil, with only 
six or eight inches of sand, and it will go down to, or a little into it, 
spreading abroad its forked subdivisions and fibres, almost or quite 
horizontally ; the crown-sprouts now run riotously, mantling the 
sand with vines, full of pink flowers in fruitful umbel.* unnumbered. 
Often one spray of water above will kill it entirely ; or, the root 
remaining, it will sometimes come up and flourish again if surface 
irrigation is neglected, even two yean afterwards. A similar short 
horizontal spread of root is si-en with . Vui'/", on tide or land- fairly 
shaking and rocking with a peaty carpet ; and so of a thousand 
roots, otherwise exceedingly deep, and prone to delve. The legiti- 
mate practical inferences we leave to the good sense of every 
enlightened stock-raiser, farmer and cultivator. 

Florists are apt to complain that many of our bulbs ere they 
bloom lose one essential beauty of plans-, namely, their rmHrle 
leaves, which, they say, "dry up. and leave the stems looking 
naked and bare. They are frequently found upon exposed hills 
. and slopes, rocks, etc., descending down dry and very hot valleys, 
into debris and alluvial bottoms, where sand or loam with under- 
ground idolnffire abounds. The very same plants are seen to rejoice 
best where they find some shade and shelter ; otherwise, they be- 
speak a struggle for existence, i. e., their leaves prematurely or 
naturally dry up early to save exhaustion. In half shades, along 
-. with adequate subsoil 
moisture, we see Oyclobothra alba, with lone- and beautiful glaucous 
leaves, say an inch and a half wide and eighteen inches to two feet 
in length, accompanying the flowers, ten to twenty in number; the 
golden C. pulcheUa and most others tolerate more sun and drought, 
with their companions the manzanita {ArctoumphyJos glauca), oaks, 
etc., near whose shades it is wont to linger ; but its best forms love 
rich, rocky, half shady drains — leaf and flower companions to the 
close. Witness Seubertia laxa, two to four feet high; the same 
Dichelostemas and Brodiwas, with ten to fifty flowers, and green 
leaves in similar grace and completeness of beauty. The list might 
be extended beyond the reader's patience ; what we desire to say 
and impress is, that the same plants exposed are barely one 
quarter as large, and with no green leaves at all, or at best a poor 
apology for them ; and so of numberless others. 



Erudite and complex recipes relative to proper mixtures of soils, 
and common management may well be left to the knowledge and 
judgment of those who believe in them. With such a wealth of 
sunlight and heat above as falls to the lot of California, and no 
lack of the commercial medium, moisture, below, I see no reason 
why we may not allow Nature, under human hands, to grow her 
fragrant white Lady Washington lily six or seven feet high, with 
ten to thirty or more flowers, just as we see it wild. L. Bloomeri- 
anum, too, is a perfect giant among lilies, when at its best — a 
right super-royal display — the Divine Teacher himself being 
judge. Nor why L. mperbuw in a southern bog should be eight 
feet high, with the best part of a hundred flowers, as we have seen 
it there, and still the marvellous beauty is ever new as we retrospect. 
Even our little orange L. parvum, I found at the Sierra summit over 
five feet high and fifty flowers — carefully counted— but the plant 
was sheltered and shaded by an old emigrant water-tank stilted 
up, now dry and long ago abandoned, but its roots found a fair 
supply of water from beneath. — Dr. A. Kellogg, in the California 
Horticulturist. 

On Drought in its Relation to Winter-killed Trees. — I was 
pleased to note how near Prof. Shaler, by a single season's observa- 
tion (see Vol. vi, p. G71), came to a correct theory of arborescent de- 
struction in winter, which it took me -oine years to discover after 
a comparison of numerous facts, — namely, that trees commonly 
hardy, when they are killed in winter, are destroyed by evaporation, 
in the same way that they are by drought in a dry summer. 

In my younger horticultural days, if any one had given thought 
at all to the process of destruction, it was to believe that frost 
expand, d the sap in the cells which consequently became ruptured, 
just as frozen liquid splits a bottle. It fell to my lot to combat 
this view, and to show that it was evaporation and not expansion. 
I need not. here detail the facts on which this law has been founded. 
The readers of the •■ ( .ardener's Monthly" are familiar with them, 
and a reference to the Index of the past twelve volumes will 
readily direct others who have been outside of the horticultural 
pale, for it is essentially a field for the observing horticulturist to 



BOTANY. 235 

quite in accordance with the fact in* his suggestion that it was after 
the frost left the roots that the injury began. If Prof. Shaler will 
remember that there is an enormous evaporation going on from 
plants exposed to a dry atmosphere, and that this lakes place 
whether there be frozen soil about the roots or not, he will 1 think 
understand how a plant may become exhausted of itself, without 
waiting for the thaw. If there be a very dry atmosphere, and the 
roots nearly all encased in frost at the same time, it is still more 
difficult to supply this waste. The deeper the frost the greater 
tlie difficulty, and the more evaporating surface, as in evergreens. 
the greater the risk. 

The destruction by drought and not by the absolute degree of 
frost being conceded, there remains nothing but to apply the law 
to general science as Prof. Shaler suggests; a dry atmosphere 
becomes a destructive agent as well as frost, and those plants 
which part with their moisture the most readily, as a climate 
passes from moist to dry, must be the first to disappear. In my 
grounds I had large quantities of American hornbeam side by side 
with the English species. These last were all killed to the 
ground, — the others uninjured. This shows that the American 
species can resist evaporation better than the European. It is 
difficult to decide from an evolutionary point of view which of 
these two very closely allied species had the priority of origin. If 
We accept tl - oing of plant 

life, we mi'_ • ut has been in the direction of 

natural selection the American is an otiMioot from the European. 
In my grounds al-o the Liriodendmn suffered terribly. I had ten 
thousand from one to five feet high killed to the ground, but all 
above this were uninjured, as their roots were deep in the ground, 
and could supplv the waste of sap without much destruction from 
the frost. But the fact of the younger ones drying up so easily. 
shows that this tree was not created for a dry winter climate. 
We must infer that they are either immigrants, or that the climate 
has changed since their first appearance. And then again arises 
another suggestion. Suppose the future seasons should regularly 
repeat the last, would "natural selection" be sufficient to produce 
some less liable to loss by evaporation, as we have supposed may 
have been the case with the hornbeam? Would this change to a 
aridity, if continuous, give rise to a new species of 
Liriodendron? 



236 ZOOLOGY. 

These are some of the thoughts suggested by Prof. Shaler's 
paper. They are mere " speculations " it is true, but the imagi- 
nation, under proper control, is a great aid to investigation. If 
we suspect something we may be led to look for the evidence ; and 
thus learn long before those who wait to stumble on the truth.— 
T. Meehan. 

Influence of Foreign Pollen on the ^Parent Plant:— Pro- 
fessor Gray adds (Amer. Journ. Science and Arts, Dec, 1872) 
another to the already numerous instances, says the "Academy," 
which have placed this mysterious phenomenon beyond dispute. 
An apple (Spitsbergen) produced a fruit half of which was (at 
least as to the surface) Spitzenberg, the other half russet. A tree 
of the latter fruit stood about two hundred yards off. The division 
into two exactly equal parts is quite unexpected ; as the styles and 
carpels were five, we should have expected the division to be into 
fifths. Moreover, the action of the pollen in this case is, morpho- 
logically, on the calyx, not on the pericarp. 

We have been told on excellent authority that apples have been 
raised in II .pkiuton. M;t->., which were half sweet and half sour, 
the line of demarcation being very distinct, so that the distinction 
in this case was more than skin deep. 

[The apple in question was received from the Smithsonian 
Institution, with an account of its history, and a statement that 
one or more similar apples had been already received at the Agri- 
cultural Department, Washington, and preserved in wax models. 
Although the external line of demarcation was perfectly distinct, 
we are bound to add that, on cutting it up and distributing por- 
tions among the members of our botanical class, about half the 
tasters pronounced the morsels to be russet which w ei 
the Spitzenberg side of the apple, or vice versa. But the fruit was 
hardly ripe enough. — A. G-.] 



ZOOLOGY. 

A New Species of Sparrow.— Ornithologists will be interested 
to learn of the recent discovery of a sparrow belonging to the 
genus Centronyx, a genus heretofore represented in collections only 
by the unique type of C. Bairdii collected in 1843 by Audubon. 
The sparrow in question has been minutely examined and com- 
pared with the above mentioned type of C. Bairdii by Mr. Robert 



Though evidently closely related to C. Bairdii, this bird seems 
to differ specifically in quite different proportions, and also ap- 
parently, in different coloration, though the type of C. Bairdii is 
in such worn and faded plumage, that its perfect dress cannot be^ 
ascertained satisfactorily. 

The differences of form and proportion between the two species 



Of the habits of the bird, I can at present say but little ; the 
single specimen obtained, was found on the dry open plains, many 
miles from timber. lt< actions appeared to resemble those of 
Coturniadus passe ri mis. — C . E. Aikkn. F>>r,iiain, Colorado. 

Instance of Sagacity and Affection in a Dog. — On the after- 
noon of January 4th, Mr. F. W. Crosby of this place, while walk- 
ing along the bank of Clear Creek, observed two dogs. A black 
Newfoundland dog (male) and a small white dog (female) playing 
together on the ice in the creek. While Mr. Crosby's attention 
was diverted for a moment the white dog disappeared from sight, 



having fallen through a hole in the ice, and the black dog was 
working with might and main to make a hole through the ice 
several feet below where his mate fell in. 

The creek at this point is shallow and quite rapid, so the dog 
was carried down stream but a few feet and lodged against I 

Mr. Crosby not realizing then the true condition of things, or 
that he could be of any assistance to the drowning dog, passed on. 

Returning by the same place in about half an hour, he noticed 
that the black dog had succeeded in making a hole through the 
ice, had drawn his then dead companion from the water, and stood 
over her, as if trying to warm the lifeless body. The ice where 
the dog made the hole was one and one-half inches thick and 
strong enough to bear a man. The dog worked with such energy 
as to cut his feet and mouth quite severely. 

This occurred about 5 p. m. The next morning the dog was 
still on the ice walking slowly back and forth near the body of his 
companion, and he had evidently remained there during the whole 
night, although it was very cold and stormy. — W. O. C. 

^ The Food of Diptera. — That certain kinds of flies, espec- 
ially many belonging to the order of Syrphidre, live to a great 
extent on the pollen of plants, was first pointed out by Dr. Herm. 
Miiller of Lippstadt (see Naturalist for July, 1871. p. 390), who 
described the process by which they accomplish the chewing of the 
pollen-grains and the severance of the threads by which they are 
frequently held together, by means of minute denticulations at the 
end of the proboscis. This statement is in opposition to the views 
of many entomologists, who hold that, not being provided with 
mandibles, the Diptera must depend mainly or altogether on fluids 
for their nourishment : but it has recently been confirmed by the 
observation of some English naturalists. Mr. A. W. Bennett has 
examined under the microscope the contents of the stomachs of 
several Syrphida\ especially Enxfufi* ti'inu: and S : iq>hus arbusto- 
nun, and linds them loaded with pollen-brains belonging to some 
composite plant, presumably an Aster; and one of the first Eng- 
lish entomologists Mr. Edward Newman, states in the "Entomolo- 
gist" for January that u Kristalis t\>v>U ehielly on pollen, and most 
of the Syrphida; follow its example; the common house-fly eats 
various solids, and masses of these substances may be found in 



passing through the i 
proboscis." — A. W. B. 

Xotk on" Cassin's PyitRiiuLA. — Ornithologists have general ly ac- 
cepted the P ; jrrh>il<i <\',issnn' Baird from the Yukon region, Alaska, 
as a valid species, the essential character consisting in the absence 
of red on the part of the male, and the elongated white spot on the 
outer tail feather. In a communication presented at the eighteenth 
meeting of the German Ornithologists' Association. Dr. Cabanis 
referred to a Pyrrhula from Lake Baikal, having very much the 
character of ( '•>.-<*;,,; ,• an<l ai a tin < tin" of the society held in Berlin, 
on the 3d of June, 1872, this determination was re-alhrmed by 
Cabanis, in the strength of three specimens lately received from 
Baikal precisely like the Alaska species, previously described. 
The bird is said, indeed, to be quite abundant, and its occurrence 
in Siberia, therefore, removes the difficulty which wa- felt in assent- 
ing to the existence of a purely American species of 
is eminently characteristic of the Old World. 

In the same communication by Dr. Cabanis. it is stated that 
Cassin's Bulfinch was also to be accounted as a bird of Europe, since 
reference is made by Wickevoort Cromtnelin. in the Archills Xeer- 
landaises, to a bird, killed in a Mock of Pyrrlmk' cnf'jarls in Nov., 
1866, which differed from the rest in having an elongated white 
spot on the inner edge of the outer tail feathers. (Cabanis' 
Journal, 1871 ; 318 ; & 1872 ; 315.) — S. F. B. 

Hyla Pickekixoii in Winter. — Mr. .Samuel P. Fowler, of 



d be put on record. 
plication of the DARWINIAN Theory to Bees. — Hermann 

ty of the Prussian lihim ian 1 . • 1 We-tj i." an elaborate 

of about a hundred page* octavo, under the above caption. 
;iv^ alrvadv u.iven in the Xafi u.vij-i the ex 

the Italian version, with notes 
iws us at present to briefly notice 



the chief points made in this second longer article. The ohject of 



the present memoir is to show 



i bees a comparisc 



those peculiarities of organization which have marked them as 
useful in aiding the bee in seeking flowers, give us a certain clew 
in seeking for the ancestry of bees, and the branching out of their 
genealogical tree." 

The memoir is divided i 



sections, with the following 



1. Bees differ from the fossorial wasps only through such 
ol plants and making honey. 

2. The above stated peculiarities of bees, which adapt them for 

- 
isoria] wasps, offer but a slightly 
bed series of modifications from thos. 
Bfferences, to those w\ tion scarcely 

differfrom fossorial wasps. 

3. The bees have thereby so branched out as independent fami- 
lies from the fossorial wasps, that certain species are cin 

>ney and pollen. When 
■ a hereditary trait, there began a differ- 
their posterity, and so extensive opportunity for the 
firm establishment of manifold adaptations for the most advan- 
tageous mode of collect 

the series of s . s have hereby become i - 

through the adoption of new habits relating to the care of their 
young. 

4. The branching off of the bees from the fossorial wasps, and 

n of the family of bees into special branches, have re- 
sulted merely from the modifications in the stnn un f the n-mnles. 
Importance of secondary sexual differences for the reeoj 
connection by relationship of genera and species. Preliminary 
view of the same. 

5. Numerical relations of males and females. Qualifications of 
the males which aid them in seeking the females. Peculiarity of 
the male antennae. Why the antenna- are to be regarded as organs 
of touch and hearing. Peculiar kinds of motions of males. 

6. In former times the efforts to effect sexual union brought 
about secondary sexual peculiarities." 

The Thick-billed Guillemot. — A specimen of Una arra 
Pallas was shot on the Lamoille river, at Fairfax, Vt., about the 
middle of last December. The bird was nearly full-grown and in 
good condition. So far as I know this is the first instance of the 
capture of this bird in New England, except along the shores of 
the northern portion. — G. H. Perkins. 




ticed; also the r; di>h v.v< vil i L-'ig. 45 from Curt 
different stages of the European Canto :h>.,.. -In a i 
thought that an example (Fig. 46) found about 






Arrhopuju, Mmhwns (Fig. 51) while a new borer of elm trees' 
has been discovered by Mr. G. D. Smith in the larva of Physocne- 

Pkofessor Cope's Cave Crustaceans. — Dr. Hag-en in the last 
volume of the Xattkalist. p. 40 t. has called attention to the blind 
crawfish described by Prof. Cope in the article on Wyandotte Cave 

, peculiar characters of the other crustaceans described in the same 

paper. As Prof. Cope's article, with its figures, has been copied 
in -Nature " and republished without change in the last "Annual 
Report of the Geological Survey of Indiana." and very likely in 
other places, it seems quite time these remarkable animals should 
be noticed. 

The "Gammaroid crustacean-' bom Mammoth Cave (Sl^nhm- 



mdivided like that which precedes it." The 
of the posterior pair of caudal stylets, and 
ib " and " that which precedes it " must refer 



. to be implied that 



t!i-.' inaudible was furnished with a palpus, which i- not the case in 
the family lh>h'i<hp as usually understood. As figured and de- 
two primary groups of Crustacea, and it is strange Prof. Cope 
should not have seen in it " the type of a peculiar group of high 
rank." On account of the interest this little animal must excite, 
it is to be regretted that it was not more fully described, but it is 

Tliis is perhaps the most important sentence in the description. 
The parasite of the blind lish, a Lermcan, described and figured 
with egg-aeks similar to those of the species just mentioned, is 

CVr idotea. Has not the damaged Isopod been carelessly restored 
with some of the Lermcan's appendages, instead of having retained 



ANTHROPOLOGY. 

Antiquity of Man in America. — In the December number 

of this journal we made an abstract of a paper printed by the 

I'liih hdphia Academy, in which Mr. Bcrthoud gave an account of 
the relics of an early race of men. As the geological position 
of the relics has been questioned, further information is very 



MICROSCOPY. 

-Mr. \Vm. II. Waimsley has been using for 





•ycon 




snt an 


d useful dryiu: 


gj case. This case is espe( udly 














mad* 


a of ti 


n, he 


ated 1 


nth hot water 


and well ventilated, capable of 


dryii 


tg one 


hun 


dred s 


pecimens at o: 


nee, and able to retain its heat 


for e 


ighl 1 


IOUK 


i with 


out attention. 


Microsco] lists can obtain it 


from 


Jame 


s W. 


Quee 


a & Co. 





tue concentric glass stage, is extremely satisfactory for 
nig mounted specimens, but not equally good for other wo 
is unsuitable foi a large -tage plate, or for a heav\ trough < 



246 

pressor unless moving too stiffly for ordinary use. ami unavailable 
where ol jtcts are to be dissected and afterwards drawn with the 
camera or examined with high power- without risk of losing the 
object. Hence, for a working instrument. Prof. Iiiscoo prefers to 
discard the object carrier altogether and place the slide or other 
support directly on the stage. This is held in position, if the in- 
strument should be tipped, by a brass sliding bar held by two 
cranked arms capable of being instantly made to move more or 
less stiffly by means of screws with milled heads. Should it be 
desired to place the instrument horizontally, for camera work or 
hy.an extra piece of brass clamps the object in place. 

In Zentmayer's new form of students' microscope the glass slid- 
ing stage or object carriei I- r< ph c - 1 by a glass sliding-bar. which 
simplifies the work and reduces the expense as well as secures 
some of the above advantages. 

Some object carriers are arranged, and all should be, except in 
either mechanical stages or very cheap work, so that the sliding 
movement can be easily controlled by the pressure of milled-head 

Nobert's Lines. — Nobert has made for President Barnard a 

two hundred dollar test plate, twenty-band, which claims to reach 
•22 1. 000 lines to the inch, being twice as line as the finest lines on 
the nineteen-band plate. This puts him far ahead of the opticians, 
and he claims to be prepared to do still better when they overtake 
him. Who will make the lirst leu ; capable of resolving the twen- 
tieth-band? Or will those who believe they are able to resolve 

Resolving-objectives.— The editor of the "Cincinnati Medical 
News" draws very strongly, not too strongly, the distinction 
between resolving-objectives and those suitable for other work. 
He has a Powell & Lealand's one-sixteenth which he finds quite 
useless except for resolving diatoms. We mainly value, at pres- 
ent, the resolution of the famous tests as showing the achh venient 
of a nicety of correction which can be, and should be, applied to 
the lower-angled working lenses. 

Microscopic Writing. — This hitherto xaie cariosity is now 
available to all microscopists, both as an elegant toy and as a use- 
ful test for the optical qualities of their lenses. TL 
account, from a pap. i lead I efure the < Jueckett ( lub. gives a view 



of Mr.Wm. Webb's unparalleled -mec-ess in inioro-writingon gin: 
The specimens thus produced arc regarded by Mr. Webb as dec 

Kdinuud Wheeler of London. 



next of the series being at the 


rate of a million h 


the next two millions, the ne? 


ct three, and the : 


letters to the inch. Having re; 


iched this point, at 


and New Testament together c 




and sixty-six thousand four h 


mid red and eight 1 




I say the lastly ei 


at the rate of one Bible to the 




the rate of another Bible to tin 


a inch, and go on 



be seen in 


different aggregati 


feetly till*- 




s 4 uare of 


the line, the five 


thousand 


millionth ; if at th 




i atom is the one hu 


I now C ( 


3me to the most ii 


interesting part of the subjec 




r this purpose I mi 




le letter as the five 


milliou%.- 


ven hundred and t 








(ear as the breadth 


I moum 






Mints his justly eel 


thus open 


up a wonderful n 




afford the power 


hlaekeiied 


lines become invis 



'ay that Monsieur 



When viewing the bhiek line-, ordinarv direct illumination is 
•tit when _ examining the unMa< : kened lines it becomes 

from every part to it- yen apex, both r« 

:i:"-l - > i «' light from th .u \_ , th ,„ _ „ai „] | . nd 

-*— i of the glass refract and reflect i " " v 



Mid forwards ; again.' 






ntTthe^, 


.- ' 


produce the climax wi 






cut as the light of the 






■lit of a e 


andle. 




By testing by blackened and by 




'laekened letters, it will 


be found at what point 






objectives c 


en.es to he 


chVniYo v ■ 








lle-t Lord"- 




'1. that is. I 
















■ ,'„ detin. 




vened. ' More than 1 




dl I kllOW 


the exact spot that i 


t occupies, ; 




: the spot v 


ith an In- 


ring before it 


leave- thei 








1 have never i p. rhaps 












the line, bu 










and twenty- 




ters of the 




tests, although they h, 


icome perfec 


tly distinct when blac 


k." 


As a test of distort 


ion, Mr. W 


ebb rules 


line black 


lines upon 


two i»ieces of glass, a 


nd places o 


ae upon t 


he stage am 


.1 the other 


upon the di 


i the ocular. 









iimalcules in Buttermilk.— The "Pacific Me r 



NOTES. 249 

covered in poisonous buttermilk by Dr. J. P. Browne, of Gait, 
Ontario, were developed in the milk after it had been taken from 
the cow, instead of being introduced into the cow's system with 
the food and Qndiifg their way fch the milk.- 



When TV; - ; -> opening lecture in the Muse- 

um of Comparative Zoology at Cambridge in 1860, he said that 
American students had been forced to visit Europe, if they were 
desirous of making any extended study in the natural sciences, 
but that he intended to reverse this and compel European students 
to visit America; and by his judicious purchase of type collec- 
tions abroad j thanks to the liberality of citizens and our State) he 
has made his promise good. 

Professor Henry A. Ward of Rochester. New York, formerly a 
student of Professor Agassiz, and since Professor of Geology and 
Zoology in the Rochester University, has, under humbler auspices, 
long been working toward the same end. His large cabinet of 
geology and mineralogy at Rochester is well known to many of 
our readers. He long ago felt the necessity of bringing before 
the American student examples of those larger and rarer fossils 
known to geological science, of which only single specimens ex- 

For this purpose he visited Eur« shed work- 

men and commenced the foundation of a collection of casts. With 
untimm patience and sagacity he secured the moulds of nearly 
everything of importance, at enormous expense, carrying his work- 
men from one museum to the other, and taking moulds of the 
choicest specimens, for a period of three years. 

The difficulties encountered in some of his experiences would 
form an interesting chapter. After -many dilliculties. he managed 
to secure moulds of the rare Megatherium, Glyptodon, Deinothe- 
rium, Diprotodon, Sivathcrium. ( olo^ochelys. Mosa>anrus, l'lesi- 
many other unique specimens in European museums. 
Thorough and methodical in all his work, he felt that this 
collection of casts should be symmetrical and complete, as an 
educational collection, and so was commenced the famous Ward 
collection of casts. Thousands of dollars were spent in buying 
especially choice specimens of the ob' a ii .'le forms -oleh for the 



the < 



ish Museum, the Jardin des Plantcs, and other foreign muse 
. besides a representative collection of" nil that is needed tc 
trate geological history. 

oni this important beginning, Professor Ward has gone on en 
ng the usefulness of his work by adding to his stock, skim 
skeletons of animals, (bsdls and minerals, and alcoholic sped 



accurately labelled and arranged, without sending abr.. 

With the capital invested in so large an enterprise, r 
must Ijc etlected. and one not familiar with the scienti 
ments of Professor Ward, an } the - »le desire that aniinai 
spread far and wide the typo collections so important 
tional purposes, might confound his occupation with t 

ble exceptions, the dealers otter simply the fortuitous j 



material. 

Ic man should visit Professor Ward's pla 



des Ph 
the dii 

prepar- 



geological collection, particularly ri 

other remains of the remarkable Dim 
todon and other mamma! remains, a 



ding is Professor Ward's 

•operty. containing- type 
carefully labelled and is 



»f the rare Glyptodon, the gigai 



ai value, now that so mi issess them. 

This series of originals is of intense interest, and will alone give 
tone and character to any geological cabinet in whieh thev may 

various models of geological import; many of these are familiar to 
College professors through the descriptions and figures given in 
Ward's ■■ Illustrated Catalogue." At the time of our visit he was 
packing n series of easts for the Syracuse L'niversity, and a Mega- 
therium was being cast for Dartmouth College. A cast of the 
skeleton of this latter huge animal may be seen in the Geological 
Hall of the Smithsonian Institution at Washington, where it was 
placed by Professor Ward, and copies of it are already in several 
other museums together with other of his specimens. The series 
of casts have been invaluable in ; Ivan ■> j th : study of geology. 
-- : <>n i- ju-t as impoitan* t<> :'< ■ in^truetor in this 
! . as the possession of the manikin and skeleton is to 



bis correspondents all over the woi 
ft ''->m them most varied and rare n 
he had just finished the pi-cparatio 
height, and was unpacking boxes c 
Scotia, a caribou from Maine, a b< 



skhig-shark from the Atlar 
be mounted for the Camhr 



lion>, tigers, sloths, ant-eaters, ;; ?, deer, elk, 

moose, giraffe immense col- 

lection of si; ■:■:. Wombat. Tasma- 

ttian dei il, ( a : :>-. Some 

huge alligators, turtles and other reptiles completed the 
In an adjoining room ta 

mens in alcohol; among these are Lepidosteus, Amia, Menopoma, 
isrliiis. A-pidoneete-, find oilier American 

■.■'•'■■'' " 

devoted exclusively to the preparation of skeletons ; these are re- 
ceived with the ilesh dried upon them, ami are subjected to a long 

receive them. These vats are a red. and 

tilt; most painstaking care is , ,ry bone, so 

that each specimen may be perfect. Custom work is combined 
with all this ; and hundreds of specimens are received from the 
museums of Cambridge, Boston, Salem, Philadelphia, Albany, 
and many of our colleges, for the purpose of being properly pre- 

Wc have dealt thus 



iiMiiaiitied endors< ment of the leading nat- 
g devotion to the work, and the immense 
lould be widely known among those who 



NOTES. 253 

Rochester Establishment, and of seeing his important collections. 
One point which Professor Morse has failed to notice is the work 
done by Mr. Ward in the matter of blocks, labels, shields, and 
other appliances for the arrangement of cabinets. He has not 
only planned, but has gone on and constructed the cabinet cases 
in Vassar, Alleghany and Pittsburg colleges, in the Orange Judd 
Hall of Science at Wesleyan University in Middletown, Conn., 
and in the new Syracuse University. At the time of going to 
press we are informed that Mr. Ward has luvn engaged to con- 
struct the cabinet cases in the new Geological hall — two hundred 
feet long— of the Smithsonian Institution.— F. W. P.] 

on Penekese Island, Buzzard's Ray. next summer. From present 
appearances we may predict every success in its administration. 
A rare opportunity, such as we believe no country has heretofore 
afforded, will be offered to those anxious to study the biology, chem- 
istry, and physics, of the sea. Experts will carry on their explo- 



stiu 


mlus of their 




, be able to lean 


i how to colh ■ 


and 


study marine 


■ animals 


and plants. If 


-u« . - ~full} carri* d out. 


this 


school will 




e, we believe, i 


i new system of public 


m>t 


ruction, and c 


jxert the 


happh t fl c 


■<■ uii the future progress 


of g 


icience in this country. 


. which depends 


more than ever on mak- 


Kio- 


original inves 




Without furthe 






lers with a co] 


oy of the 


programme, add 


ing that those who wish 


to ; 


Lvail themseb 


res of tin 


:• privileges of 


the school may address 


Pro! 


t Agassiz, or 


the editors of this journ 


al: — 


Programme of j 


i Course 


of Instruction 


I ix Natural History, 




O BE DEEIVE] 


u-:i. i;y t. 


eie Seaside, ix 


Uuzzaisd's [Jay. iukixg 



.. The terms of admission, and the day of opening the course, will 
iation concerning board, etc. It is hoped 



that the liberality of 


friends of education n 


offer this course* free 




number of aquarium 




deep water will be p 


rovided. : 


States Coast Survej 


' and the United St: 


Fisheries have promi 




ability, without intei 








others, may spend tt 




school, with a view o 





lections with which they may t< a<-h cja> -cs at home. 
It is but ju-dice t » Pmi\ -,.,,,'■ xh-der to -,-,y that t' ', 

InbelwU mo f 

Comparative Zoology in Cambridge, Mass. 

We are happy to announce that Penekese Island, together with 
the sum of SoO.ouo to form a p« rmai ent endowment of the school, 
has been generousl}- pr 

New York interested in science. Buildings will at ore.- be erected, 
and the school opened early in July. We shall give further par- 



The annual meeting of the California Academy of Sciences waa 
held on Monday evening, January 6, 1873. The following gentle- 
men were elected Officer l.» lhiM'1- M) 4 \wl! :_/Vw7i „>. (ieo! lie 

Davidson; Vice-PrewUnL John Hewston ; ZVeasttwr, Elisha 
Brooks; Corresponding Secretory, Henry G. Hanks; J?ccnnitn</ 
Secretary, C. (i. Yale"; hlrerlnr „f f/, 3r»«<-»„i. II. (I. Bloomer ; 
Librarian, C. N. Ellinwood, M.D. ; Trwafees, T. P. Madden, D.D. 
Colton, Robert E. C. Stearns, Oliver Eldridge. The President. 
Tiva-mvr and Recording Secretary, :nv aNo Trustees. { .,--uii}l-n,. 

in the objects of the Academy is manifested by the public, and 

that the cuming year is likely tu he one of material interest in the 
aifairs of the Academy. 

A regular meeting of the California Academy of Sciences was 
held Feb. 18, 1873, in which General Hewston announced to the 

a deed to a piece of property on Market street, adjoining the 
premises of St. Ignatius College on the east. The dimensions of 
1hl ' 1 lot \\i re pjghh {'. t fn \ l 1 ■ r.fy-iive feet 

in depth., being one hundred vara lot No. 120. The conveyance of 
lllc ' 1 'pi-it;, i- ~uh\ t t< \ivbm- t<>ii.Ht:».ii-. the purport of which 



or religious purposes in any way. It further devolves 
Academy to secure the fund requisite for the erection of 
■e specified v. . r. years, and to prose- 

project to completion within a reasonable time. The 
he building contemplates among its principal apartments 
, museum and lecture room. The announcement of this 

'evident remarked thai r the time to 

:he sense of the Academy in fitting terms. The Trnstees, 
lering the project of securing accommodations for the 



256 

Academy, had never thougt 
$25,000. But this site alone, 
judges, exceeded in value $li 
will be held to-day, when the 
ally, and expn ss the th ink j 
gift. 



Professor David-, w, iv:id a j.jspcr. which embodied 
laborious research, on the probable periodicity of 
illustrated with diagrams. He believes in a law of r 
the problem of establishing it was art intricate 1 one, 
been developed by the observations of a century. 

conclusions. 

Dr. Hewston read an exceedingly interesting p ;) p 
of the marine animal, a species of Limnoiia, wliicl 

threatening the certain and si) ;-i-dy destruction of th 



spection of the Academy, un 
Mr. Dall read a paper on t 



C.* Perkins, of Ne* 
Academy of Scien 
and astronomical i 



9 




Laxolop/wcton camu/ti& fb/jt 







Loxofop/todon con t alas (a/jr 



AMERICAN NATURALIST. 



Vol. VII. -MAY, 1873. -Wo. 5. 



N'TER STATE OF OUR Dl"< U 



Ik the autumn of 1871, I brought home a bottle full of duck- 

• [ k, hi rrli !'.<>) and cmi >t i<'< 1 it into a tumbler of water 

Within a few days the Lemnie all turned white and died, and 
the fronds seemed to decay. I kept the algae in the tumbler all 

tion. I saw no more of the duckweed till the last of the winter, 
when on. day. to m\ gn t surprise, then ippoared floating on the 
water a group of fronds that were certainly Lemnee, and a few days 
after I noticed another frond. What had they grown rom? I 
turned out the water into a basin and found about fifty little disks 
*Mch Beemed to answer the description of autumnal or winter 

Lemme? Where was the growing point? Where were the roots 

- 
•itUc dUks? Should 1 tind anything corresponding to buds about 

Some of these queries I have answered and others are still un- 
solved. 

I propose jo give a >k>n account of my failures and successes, 
and of the methods of investigation by which I tried to reach the 
knowledge sought; and hope that my trials may be of service to 



some who often desire to make additions to the store of botanical 
morphology but who hardly know how to proceed. 

It is best to select some definite question concerning the case 
that one wants to study, and then with knife, needles, chemicals 
and microscope, compel it to yield an answer. It will give clefinite- 
ness and precision to one's work. I started with this one: 
" Where is the growing-point of this winter frond? " 

By Figs. 1 and 2, it will be seen that the object is almost 
exactly of the shape of a shallow plano-convex lens, the flat side 
being the upper side ; as I found some weeks after, when they rose 
and floated on the surface of the water. 

The outline is often slightly kidney-shaped, and at the sinus 
there is a scar on the edge, Fig. 2s. Sections show that the edge 
is here more obtuse than elsewhere. 

Around that point, on the flat surface, there was traced a small 
semicircle. That was all that could be descried on the exterior. 
The disk was not at all transparent, so that all knowledge of its 
interior must be obtained by dissection. 

Laying the frond on the end of the forefinger, and holding it in 
place by a gentle pressure of the thumb, I made three or four slices 
lengthwise (that is in the direction of the lines a-o, b-b, etc., of 
Fig. 2). From the tip three-quarters of the way to the base (as I 
shall call the scar end) all these sections were composed of simple 

a tissue « where cells i re of i 
in all directions), whose cells were packed with starch grains. But 
the quarter next to the base presented very different views in the sev- 
eral sections, and appeared quite complex (Fig. 53). Two regionSi 
Fig. 4 a and 6, attracted attention because of the fineness of the 
Fig. 53. tissue composing them. The cells 

in these parts were not more than 
an eighth the diameter of the reg- 
ular cells of the frond ; neither were 
they filled with starch grains, but 
were well supplied with protoplasm, 
with considerable chlorophyl. 
Here evidently was the place to search for my " growing-point.' 
In that one of these regions furthest from the base, Fig. 1 "• ^ lul 
on the convex or under side of the frond, are one, two, or more oval 
bodies whose axes of growth were nearly at right angles to the 
length of the frond. I took them for young buds. In each section 



one was larger than the rest. I took it for the main bud, and sup- 
posed that its extremity was the growing point of the plant, To 
get a better view of its tip, that I might make out the plan of cell- 
division at the point where the cells were first formed, I made 
some new sections in the same direction, much thinner than tbe 
first. On examining these I recognized the cell arrangement pe- 
culiar to the extremity of roots ; there plainly enough was the root- 
cap, Fig. 4 d, and tile " summit" cells or region, Fig. 4 c, where by 
cell-division the new growth is produced. These were surely the 
rudiments of young roots. I must look elsewhere for the plumule 
with its growing point. But one thing had been learned ; my little 
disk contained roots, and I knew where they were. 

The other spot where the cells were small and tinged with green 
seemed without tiny regular shape. ( >ne section showed one thing, 
another quite a different thing ; while in another there would be. 
nothing but a hole where the fine cells ought to be. 

See the differences in the five sections of Fig. 53. These sec- 
tions were made through the lines marked a-a, b-b, etc., of Fig. 2. 

As the next step I made some sections at right angles to the 
former in the directions a-a, b-b, etc., of Fig. 2 (see Fig. 5), and 
got one new idea at least. Instead of there being one body in the 
place occupied by " b," Fig. 4, there were two, one on either side 
of the median line of the frond, and the two were very unequal in 
size, though somewhat similar in form. But. although diligcntly 
comparing the views presented by the two sets of sections, I could 
not form any satisfactory idea of these portions. The two sections 
D and E, of Fig. .}, showed «piito clearly the number and position 
of the young roots. The darker spot which appeared in tbe last 
three sections, marked " s" in " D," Fig. 5, was a new mystery. I 
must have sections in the third plane also, that is, the plane pass- 
ing parallel with the surface of the frond. 

Aud just here let me say a word about making sections of deli- 
cate vegetable tissue. I have found it much better in all cases, 
except where the position and structure of the protoplasm are in 
question, to soak the specimens in glycerine, fir-t in diluted and 
finally in strong. One advantage is this; when making sections 



of soft i 



danger that a thin e 



on the blade of the razor will dry up and be spoiled, while i 
1; Qg to the piece on one's finger, which ought to be taken off immedi- 
ately and laid in water. Or if one first cares for the section on the 



razor, then the piece from which it is cut may be spoiled. But 
when the object is in idycei inc. plenty of time can be taken to care 
for both without any injury coming to either. I have found a good 
razor the very best thing to cut with, much better than any lancet 
or small dissecting knife. 

Let the thumb-nail of the left hand be cut short enough that the 
blade of the razor may rest against the flesh of the end of the 
thumb, while the object to be cut rests on the forefinger and is held 
in place by the thumb. You can then draw the razor very evenly, 
it being steadied by the thumb. The thickness of the slice can be 
by pressing the razor less or more against the yielding 
flesh of the thumb. Especially is this the case when several sec- 
tions are made one after the other by as many drawings of the 
razor, each time pressing it a little more against the thumb-end. 
In this style of cutting, the hand should be so held that the surface 
of the forefinger, on which the object is laid, should be horizontal : 
but when a thin object is to be split pandlel with its surface, I 
have found it best to turn the hand, after the object has been placed, 
as before, between the forefinger and thumb, so that the surface of 
the finger on which the object is lying should be vertical : you see 
then the edge of the object to be split. The edge of the razor must. 
of course, be also a vertical line. It is essential, in this case, that 
the object be placed far enough back from the ends of the finger and 
thumb that the razor blade may come between them and be guided 
and .steadied by its contact with them. 

Having brought the edge of the razor in contact with the object 
to be split, draw the razor downward, bringing at the same time the 
heel outward (towards the right) and the point inward, making 
the part resting between the thumb and finger the centre of this 
slight rotation. 

During this operation I have found it best so to hold the hands 
and head that the eye sights right down the edge of the vertically 
held razor, for then the razor edge can be placed very truly against 
the exact portion of the object to be split that you desire. 

Resuming now our investigation of the duckweed ; — I sliced the 
frond into three or four sections parallel with its surface, and. 
placing them under the microscope, order seemed to be emerging 
out of chaos. To the right and left of the middle line of the frond 
were two cavities, one of them almost filled with one of the small 
celled bodn-. 1 ig « rb. whih t u othei was not more than one- 



261 

third tilled, Fig. 6 lb. The middle line, Fig. 6 st, was distinguished 
from the rest of the frond by the shape of the cells composing it. 

and also by the fact that they were empty. At one end was the 
scar, Fig. 6 sc, and at the other a snarl of cells out of which radi- 
ated five or six veins or ribs, Fig. C v, consisting of woody fibre 
with spiml cells; besides, there was a single line of spiral eells 
turning hack into each of the two small-celled bodies. This centre 



marks the place where it separated from its parent fro 

I began then to understand the other appearances 

the young buds by which Loinna propagates itself im 

of seeds. Each one of these would o T ow into a eomnleti 



x ne cavuy in which the larger l.ud givu <c.-mcd of a rectangular 
rm, with rounded corners from the lower of which the bud stalk 

The young bud on the right, though as yet without any ribs of 
>ody fibre, showed plainly where they were to be, for in the lines 
at they were to occupy the cells were compact, with no inter- 
Uular spaces, while in the rest of the bud between these rudimen- 



r holds in regard to the 1 



tse, was a little protuberance 
st generation. But, though 
> clear what their form might 



be, or how far they had advanced in Living the rudiments of the 
organs possessed by the mature frond. Here began the difficulties 
of the investigation. My desire was to trace back the frond to the 
Stage in which it was represented by a single cell, or at least by a 
small group of homogeneous cells, on which there was no sign of 
any organ ; and then to be able to see both where and in what shape 
each new part was produced !>\ changes in the growing point and 
the tissue adjacent thereto. 

Of the two budlets, the one on the left, next to the main stem, 
was the most developed, and I studied it, rather than the other. 
Figs. 6 and 14 present the views obtained when the razor just 
grazes the upper surface of the buds. ZS'ear the upper edge of the 
bud was a most delicate line, Fig. 6 m, which could hardly be traced 
with a I inch objective. A J objective and T \ objective showed 
that it was the edge of a membrane consisting only of one layer of 
cells in thickness. The cells, Fig. 55, were irregularly shaped and 
had crinkled walls. I could follow the line most to the edges of 
the bud, but not quite. The budlet, Fig. 14, was, like the bud, of a 
rectangular outline nearly, and grew out from the corner of its 
cavity. I could make out the following particulars ; " a " a fine 
curved line which it took close observation to see at all; *« d" a 
double line at the hack of the budlet ; " c " and " e " two swellings 
of the outline of the budlet " b; " "/" an edge of tissue two cells 
thick coming to a point where it reached the frond at " i; " " h " 
the least developed budlet ; and ~g" a small protuberance of cells, 
which I have not thoroughly studied and shall therefore be obliged 
to omit in my descriptions. What it may grow into, if it grow at 
all. I cannot say. 

Horizontal sections had helped greatly, but vertical sections 
seemed now to offer the only hope of increasing my knowledge of 
the bud and budlet. After making many. I was no better off, be- 
cause it was impossible to tell exactly in what direction, as regards 
the axis of the bud, the sections went. I then split a frond through 
so as to reveal the upper surface of the bud without touching it 
with the razor or loosening it from its attachment. 

Then with the camera I sketched its outline as seen with a j 
and was then ready for the delicate work of slicing it up. (Fig. 7 
gives such an outline.) Taking the frond on the forefinger I eat 
one section as nearly as possible in the direction which I had 
decided would give a longitudinal section of the bud, as Fig. 7 e-e. 



As soon as the cut was made the piece taken off was laid on a 
slide in a drop of glycerine, and the slide numbered " No 1." Next 
the frond, from which the cut had been made, was put under the 
microscope and the direction and position of the cut observed and 
its place recorded on the camera drawing, and numbered " 1." The 
frond was then laid on the finger and the second cut made, as thin 
as possible, and as near parallel to the first as might be. I could 
not succeed in getting the series of cuts as nearly parallel to one 
another in this way, as by cutting all the sections at once without 
removing the razor from its rest against the end. of my thumb. 
But generally the deviations from parallelism were not so great as 
to interfere seriously with the usefulness of the sections, considered 

After each cut, the section was placed on its separate slide and 
numbered and the remainder of the frond placed under the micro- 
seope and the position of the cut marked. In this way I sometimes 
got a series of fifteen^or twenty sections, extending from one edge 
of the bud to the other. Of these from three to five would pass 
through the budlet. 

Next was the study of these sections one after the other in order, 
comparing them with each other, and with the surface view of an 
uncut bud, attempting to construct mentally the complete form of 
which the microscope gave me i 






good sections, in 



then could not tell from what part they came and so had been- un- 
able to form a connected satisfactory idea, or model*, of the whole. 
One such set shed light in a given direction, but others were 
needed. Some eight sets of vertical sections in various directions 
g:ive all that could be expected of them, and yet the matter was 
not quite clear. I wanted the budlet sliced in a direction parallel 
with its surface. The plane of the bud is not quite parallel with 
that of the frond, so that I could not get just the right sections by 
the method of splitting the frond between the thumb and fore- 
finger. I could imbed a frond in a mixture of gum and glycerine ; 
but that took so long to harden that, if several fronds were prepared 
for cutting, I was very apt to forget just where the cut should be 
made in each, and so run the risk of spoiling the specimen. Some- 
thing was wanted that would set and harden in a few minutes. I 
thought of collodion, and on trial it proved to be just what was 
wanted. When the specimens ai erine, and 



placed on the end of a little stick of pith, I drop a single drop of 
collodion over them, which hardens in about two minutes, and 
without sticking to the specimen makes a complete socket for it. 
From fronds mounted in this way I succeeded in getting sections 
so thin that it took three of them to make up the thickness of the 
budlet. 

In order to test the correctness of the opinions formed from the 
comparison of these different sectional views, I wanted next to dis- 
sect out a budlet free from the bud, and in an uninjured state, and 
turn it over and over while in the field of view of the microscope. 
T have accustomed myself to the use of dissecting needle- under 
the compound microscope without the help of an erector, and so 
was able to have the advantage which the binocular gives for such 

I should advise, from my experience, that any one using a binoc- 
ular, who has much occasion for dissecting, should learn to handle 
the needles under the microscope without an erector. It is not dif- 
ficult to train one hand, though when it comes to using both I 
acknowledge that one will need a good stock of patience. 

The powers used for this work were 80 and 115 diameters. The 
needles found most useful were those which had been ground with 
an exceedingly slender taper and the shortest" possible piece of the 
tip bent at an angle of about 45°. 

The budlet when obtained free measured about 10 3 00 of an inch 
in length and half that in breadth and thickness. To observe it to 
advantage one-must use powers of £ and upwards. 

Having placed it in a drop of glycerine, cover with a rather large 
cover, and let there be enough of the fluid to prevent the cover's 
pressing it on the slide ; then with a needle gently push the cover 
in one direction or another till you have your object rolling over 
and over fast or slow just as desired. 

Now let us gather up the facts we have obtained by the methods 
described. Figs. 10, 11. 12. and 1.3, give specimen sections taken 
in as many different directions through the bud as shown on the 
plan, Fig. 7. 

The dotted lines in the bud of Fig. 7, show what would be seen 
when the lower surface of the bud is tbcussed instead of the upper. 
I drew them in the same figure in order that their relation to the 
upper surface might be plainer than if I had given them a separate 
drawing. In Fig. 10, we have a section passing parallel with the 



stem of the bud, but a little to the left. It crosses both the lines 
in the upper part of the frond, it goes through one of the dotted 
oval bodies, and also through the budlet to the left of its stem. 
The section shows that those lines on the upper part of the bud, 
Fig. 7 urn, and Im, one above and one below, are the edges of two 
membranes that nearly enclose the bud between them, the one on 
the upper surface only one layer of cells, the lower several layers 

The oval body of Fig. 7 is here seen in the angle between the 
lower membrane and the body of the bud. It shows itself to be 
the. beginning of a root. The swelling " d," Fig. 10, is the section 
of that projection of the body of the bud over the budlet whose 
edge shows in Fig. 14 as the double line "c?." As this projection 
grows more and more, it shuts over the budlet, reaching down as far 
as the point "/," Fig. 10, and becomes in the frond the lip or cover 
"&," Figs. 4 and 8. The line "a," Fig. 14, is shown "a," Fig. 
10, to be the edge of a ridge starting out from the budlet which as 
it grows will become the membrane " urn " of the bud. The sec- 
tion shows us the thickness of the budlet " 6," and explains that 
the double row of cells "/," Fig. 14 r just below the budlet is the 
optical section of the upper membrane where it bends "round to its 
attachment on the under side of the bud. One cannot help recog- 
nizing i„ the - nm " of the bud, Fig. 10, the •• urn" of the frond, 
Fig. 4. which shows itself as the semicircle of Fig. 2. 

Turning next to Fig. 11, which also passes through the budlet, 
but nearer to its stem, and at an angle with the stem of the bud, 
we find two or three new features. First ; we pass through the 
rigkt hind one of the three oval bodies of Fig. 7, and find it im- 
bedded in the base of the lower membrane, instead of occupying 
the angle ; second, the budlet has a thick horn » n" on its under 
Bide, and none on its upper. The outline of this membrane is, I 
think, that indicated by the dotted line, Fig. 14, "«," on the budlet, 
out I have not been able to satisfy myself just where that outline 
does run. Again, in this section, we see the budlet united with 
the bud, whereas before, the section, Fig. 10, passed out to the left 
of the stem and showed that, by lying entirely separate from the 
bud. Fig. 12, which shows a section riearlv parallel with the axis 
of the budlet, gives a view of both horns " a " and " n" at once, 
and Bhowing one root, allows the others r and r" to shimmer 
through the tissue, though out of the focus. 



Fig. 13 shows the three roots at once, though with the middle 
one out of focus. The left hand part of this section is a puzzle 
to me that I am not sure I have rightly solved. Till I came to it 
I did not suppose there was any membrane on the lower side like 
" z" In every other section, out of forty, perhaps, that ran through 
here was no projection of the lower membrane 
toward the left, but the tissue passed continuously from the roots 
round into the base of the upper membrane, as in Figs. 10, 11, 12. 
I think there may be a narrow lappet or lobe of the lower mem- 
brane at* just this part, while below the tissue may be as in the 
other sections. I do not think that the part marked " x " is part 
of the budlet, but of the bud. 

Now to take one step more : has the budlet the beginning of a 
budlet of the next generation? Yes, at the point " e," Fig. 14, 
there is :i slight protuherunee just :il»< mt where the upper mem- 
brane » a," Fig. 14, comes to the edge of the budlet. And this is 
what will grow into first the budlet, then the bud, and finally the 

When the budlet was dissected out ami examined with a T V 
(Hartnack's No. 10), the protuberance showed nothing but a group 
of half a dozen to a dozen cells all alike with no sign of any organ 
of any sort. This then was the growing point which I set out to 
find. Now how are the different parts of the frond produced from 
it? As the first stage we have the budlel : it differs from the- 
growing point only in this that a ridge or lappet has been formed 
on the upper and under surface, which in the sections shows as 
two horns as " a " and " ?i," Fig. 12. These two ridges are really 
one continuous ridge as I could see when rolling a free budlet over 
and over. It can be traced from " e," Fig. 14, in a slanting curved 
line to the back of the budlet near its tip, then down the thickness 
of the budlet till it joins the ridge of the under side. As our next 
step, we see in the bud our ridge grown int.. those two membranes 
(as we have called them) which a eareful examination shows to be 
still continuous at the back edge of the hud aboul as fur out as 
the point "p," Fig. 7. Also three roots, Figs. 7, 10, 11, 12, have 
made their appearance near and in the base of the lower part of 
the membrane. Also the tissue of the bud is preparing for the 
five or six veins that the frond is to possess, and the stern pos- 
sesses a single fibre of spiral cells. Now, lastly, what more do we 
find in the frond? The edge " d," of Figs. 14 and 10, has grown 



THE WINTER STATE OF OUR DUCKWEED^. 267 

out over the budlet ; and, as the section, Fig. 4, shows, forms the 
cover « k n of the cavity in which the bud " b," Fig. 4, lies. The 
body of the bud, having grown much faster than the membrane, 
has left the latter as the semicircle seen at the base in Fig. 2. The 
_ is true of the lower membrane which now only forms a 
border to the enlarged roots. 

The books speak of Lemna as a plant entirely destitute of 
leaves, but it seems to me that an exception must be made in the 
case before us, for this membrane on the upper and under side- 




position and formation to the sheathing 

I noticed the peculiar form of the cells of the semicircular lobe 

of the leaf (?) on the upper side of the frond, and made a draw- 
ing of them, Fig. 54, and also a drawing of the same organ in the 
bud state, Fig. 55. It was this peculiar form of cell in the two 
eases which first led me to think that they were the same thing in 
different stages of growth. In Fig. 56 I have presented a surface 
viewer the epidermis of the frond, together with the underlying 
cells of the frond. Two of the latter cells are nearly filled with a 
large crystal in each. What is the cause of the brown color of 
some of the cells of the upper lobe of the leaf as shown in Fig. 



KXI'LAXATIOX OF PLATE. 



! ofFig 7 »"r-r» 
5 of Fig. 7." For ' 



I* urging botanists to study the influence that insect agency has 
l of plants (see vol. x., p. 334), Mr. Bennett 



a very interesting subject t.-i in\. 

iders of the Journal will not lose sight of it. 

•x Conrolaili is the chief agent in the fertilizr 



notably Pe&rna ami honeysuckle. Though Sphinx Omvolvuli oc- 

< >rkney). yet it is most especially a southern insect, and perhaps 

(at least in my experience) of Cony<>h-uhiH sophim in Scotland. 

DiantJicecia (a genus of night-flying moths) must exert a great 
influence upon the fertilization (and consequent abundance) of 
Silene and Lychnis. In fact, the perpetuation of the race of these 
moths depends* upon the fertilization of the plants, since the larva? 
feed only upon the unripe seeds. This is a case somewhat similar 
to, though by no means so extraordinary as, that mentioned by 
Professor Riley at the last meeting of the American Association 
for the Advancement of Science. Professor Rilej showed how the 
fertilization of y»<-<--> depended on the agency of a moth, the 
female of which collects the pollen and places it on the stigma., for 
the express purpose that the larva?, produced from the eggs which 
she deposits on the ovary of the plant, may have a supply of un- 
ripe seeds to feed upon. In regard to Lyelntix and .s/W. it is 
possible that if there were no hianthoecke the plants might be more 
numerous, since other moths visit the flowers, though the Dian- 
thceeim are the chief visitors. SUene rAaritima is the most fre- 
quented species (it is, perhaps, worth remarking that it has also 
the largest flowers, and is. perhaps, the most numerous in indi- 
viduals) of course, in proportion to its restricted usuallv maritime 
habitat; Lyclnus Flos-wli is more especially visited by Dian- 
th'ffcut Cuenbalt ; and SUene Otites a plant of the eastern counties, 
by Dianthf.'dn irrerjidariT. On the Continent this insect frequents 
Qyp*otfkUa pankidata. I know of no insect visitors to Silene 
"'•'""V.s and Lychnis <dp>stris. Possiblv. if Lyc/mis olpe* f ri* had 
more insect visiTors, it might be more abundant on our mountains, 
though the peculiarities of the locality (in Forfarshire, at least) 
have doubtless something to do with its restricted range. 



It is probable that insects are the agents in the production of the 
i hybrids that occur between species of the genus Carduus, 
t horizontal top of whose heads various species of Lepidop- 
tera may often be seen. The downy bodies of these moths would 
readily convey pollen from one plant to another, and, when the 
plants wer< difler» il sp< ties, i the result in 

a genus the species of which seem so liable to that phenomenon. 
Carduus Carohrum, which is supposed to be a hybrid between 
C. pulujitris and C. hetemphyllus, may have been produced by the 
agency of Trichina fasciatus (a beetle belonging to the family 
Cetoniadas), whose thorax and underside are very shaggy, and 
which loves to bury its head and shoulders in the head of a thistle. 
This beetle is rather rare in Britain, but is not uncommon in the 
district where Carduus Carolorum was found. 

The species of Meligethes (a genus of small beetles) inhabit. 
flowers. M. Brisout, in L' Abeille (vol. viii.. January, 1*7:.') points 
out the flowers in which the various species are generally to be 
found. Among these are (;r,,,\i,i. (,,ii:„ m . /',■»« >'j spinosa, Sym- 
phytum officinale, Mercurialis peri-nnh, Tn'fufium medium, Solatium 
ro, Melilotus, Cyanoglossum officinale, Lotus and other Leg- 
uminosce, L > t >sis, Mentha, Marrubium culgare, 

Nepeta Cataria, Ballota nigra, Te> ^r i"m Smmdonia, s, '__>>•. ind 
■■'"■. Many species affect only one kind of plaid each. 
and in going from flower to flower cannot fail to carry pollen with 
them. Teucri>nu Sr<,rod<>ui<, is a great favorite with many noc- 
turnal Lepidoptera, and this, perhaps, parth accounts foi tin great 
number of individuals of this plant. Moths usually abound in 
places where the Teucrium grows. 

Many flower-frequenting night moths have more or less strongly 
developed crests of hairs on the thorax. Many flowers frequented 
by these moths have blossoms with mouths directed to the horizon 
(**. e. neither drooping nor facing the zenith), and stamens more or 
less exserted and ascending ; styles also more or less exserted. 
When a moth visits such a flower it either hovers in front of it and 
plunges its haustellum into the corolla, or else rests on the flower 
and does the same. In either case it brushes the stamens with itt 
thorax, and carries off unwittingly a supply of pollen to the next 
flower visited. Now, it is worth noting that some of the moths 
which hover (e. g. the Plusiidce* and Cucullia) have very strongly 



RELICS OF A HOMESTEAD OF THE STOKE AGE. 271 

developed thoracic crests, and that some flowers which are especi- 
ally favorites with them have long, exserted, ascending stamens 
ami styles (y. tj. Ei-lmim cu/yon- and Loitinm PeHchjmenum). If 
the stamens in tkeseplants were short, thtTpollen would have little 
chance of being brushed off by the thorax of the moth, and it does 
n<-'t readily adhere (as the sticky pollen masses of the orchids ,lo) 
to the haustellum, and if the thorax of the moth were smooth the 
pollen would not be so liable to be brushed off, even though the 
stamens are exserted ; whereas with exserted and ascending stamens 
in the flower and crested thorax in the moth, we have every condi- 
tion necessary to insure a greater or less quantity of pollen being 
conveyed from one plan.t to another. In the Labiatce the stamens, 
though so few, seem to be especially arranged in many species, so 
that every chance may be afforded of pollen being carried. In 
Ajuga reptans and Teucrium Scorodonia the stamens are exserted 
and ascending, and are four in number — two long and two shorter. 
An insect therefore in plunging its head into the corolla would al- 
most necessarily brush all the four stamens. These plants are 
much visited by moths.— Journal of Botany. 



RELICS OF A HOMESTEAD OF THE STONE AGE. 



ahe interest that centres in every isolated arrow point or rude 
stone axe that we chance to come upon, as it is lying in the field — 
the train of thought that such relics excite in every intelligent 
observer, absorbing as it is, pales into a commonplace occurrence, 
when we happen to meet with a series of stone implements of many 
forms, that epitomize, in their individual and collective characters. 
the habits, and occupations of their Stone Age owners ? and to a 
far greater extent is this the case, when these collected relics are 
seen lying in the very spot where their ancient owners left them : 
the corn-mill and its crushing-stones by the hearth, still black with 
ashes ; the hatchet near by, that was used to split the marrow 
hones of animals ; the polished horn-stone skinning knife, and skin 
dressers; and back from the tire-place, in separate piles, the battle 
ax e, spears and arrows of each inmate of that household. 



272 RELICS 

In about such positions, each rude relic telling its own story as 
plainly as ever do the contents of a carefully opened grave, we 
lately had the good fortune to find a "deposit" of stone imple- 
ments, numbering in all, about one hundred and seventy specimens. 

The discovery of this deposit was made on the removal of the 
brow or face of a low bluff, and filling up of a shallow valley, thai 
a more level road might be run through the property. A little 
brook, almost dry in summer, rippled through the valley ; which 
stream was no doubt of much greater volume when the aborigines 
dwelt upon its banks. 

The relics of this " find " were met with in a circumscribed spot 
of about thirty feet in diameter, and some twenty inches below the 
surface of the ground. The floor of this " homestead," as we 
have called it, was very hard and compact ; the soil being of a 
darker color than the superincumbent earth, and well mixed with 
small oval gravel stones, of a noticeably uniform size. At one 
side of the nearly circular spot was a well ilelined lire-place, marked 
by a circle of oval white stones, six to eight inches in length, and 
half that in thickness. Within this circle was a layer of ashes 
and charcoal, seven inches deep in the centre, and three at the 
margin of the fire-place. This coal and ash deposit showed, on 
careful examination, a considerable percentage of minute Mo- 
ments of mussel shell, and of small fragments of bones, too much 
splintered to identify, but apparently the long bones of wading 
birds and of the larger fishes. 

Of the stone implements, the most noticeable specimen, on ac- 
count of size, was the large " corn-mill ; " a heavy quartzite ( ?) 
stone, some fifteen inches in length by ten in width. It was lying 
in a shallow depression in the floor of the homestead, at the right 
hand side of the fire-place, and within a foot of the row of white 
stones that marked that feature of the » find." The mill had but 
a slight depression on its upper surface, not a quarter of an 

dently been but little used. Lying near it, were two crushing 

"mill." It is a flat, nearly circular pebble, about four and one- 
hair inches in diameter. One surface is merely levelled off, by 
constant rubbing, rather than pecked first and then ground. The 
opposite side has been pecked over the greater part of its surface, 
and the centre of the levelled surface has been somewhat hollowed 



1 querns," grain mills, that are in even re-pert iWentiea 
lint :is ;i Hass they may !.>o larger and mure elaborate in I 
Near the mill audit- aeeomjKmying stones, just tleser 



-nation-. A ■ 
fully as ru< 



" the very finest wrought stone 
a puzzle to know what the fash- 



274 RELICS OF A HOMESTEAD OF THE STONE AGE. 

ioners of these latter could want, or do, with what, at best, are 
merely broken stones. 

There were a No throe well marked hammer stones of the common 
pattern. Flat, oval pebbles, well battered at the ends, and side 
depressions for the thumb and second linger, the forefinger being 
curled over the hammering end not in use; as both extremities 
show that they have been each well used. These hammer stones 
are identical in form with those found in Great Britain, as will he 
seen on reference to Mr. Evans' work, pages 214-20. 

There was also found with these hammers, half of a very pretty 
hone, which long usage has worn down to very smooth surfaces. 
The specimen, if broken in halves, has been about five inches long, 
and is one and one-quarter inches in length, by scant half an inch 
in thickness. The two sides are both perfectly level to within a 
short distance of the edge, when they slope off at a slight angle. 

Hones of this character, and others with curved sharpening or 
polishing surfaces, are met with on the surface, where The com- 
moner forms of relics are found, but they are not abundant. 



mould, and contained no pebbles, it is not likely that either 
or the "pestles" got within the "find,'" and became assoch 
with the unquestionable relics, by mere accident. 

One naturally expects to find those cl tipped flints that are 
versally known as "scrapers," in every considerable "find 5 
stone implements ; nor were they here wanting ; two specimen 

scrapers and lance-heads ; the specimen has the appearanc 

by an unlucky blow, subsequently chipped into its present si 
and made to answer as a scraper. 

The two genuine scrapers that were found, are of unusual 
terest, in being strictly of the European form, and not in any 



similar t<> i ... ; ; are so abundant on 

ih«' surface, ami which arc helie\ed also to have been scrapers. 

The two scrapers found measure about three inches in length, by 
one and three-quarters in breadth. They are irregularly oval, with 
the under surface, in each case, being nearly the plane of a single 
cleavage. They are both chipped from the same block or core of 
stone, a bluish grey jasper, of which many of the finest arrow- 
heads were made. 

The larger of the two scrapers bears a remarkable resemblance 
to a Bridlington scraper, figured in Mr. Evans* work, page i'7i>. 
fig. 218 ; but is about double the size. • 

An implement was found near the scrapers, that we will next 
refer to. 1 . ■■»< proper: the -peeimen being a 

ish. This fine " celt," as it would be called in England, measures 
but three inches and one-quarter in length, and has a cutting edge 

but most care has been taken with the cutting qualities of the 
instrument, ami the edge and sides adjoining it have received a 
polish that we have never seen excelled in any stone implement. 
The material looks Pike a conglomerate of quart/, and agate. 

The only other domestic implement was a rough gouge, made of 
serpentine and with the edge well preserved. The specimen 
measures seven inches in length ; the edge and a distance there- 
from of about one and one-half inches is entire and this portion 
is quite well polished, while the remainder apparently never has 
been. The edge, which is very slightly curved, measures one and 
""> -lialf inches in width ; the corners of the blade being protected 
by a narrow ridge, which gradually widens as it recedes from the 

ptesent on the spot; for most thorough search was made, under 



ids being the most prominent portion of th 
sve will first give a hurried enumeration ot 
pes. Jlineralogically. tins lot of arrowheai 



_, ill showing a good deal more than usual variation in 
the materials used. The minerals being quartz, purple, yellow, and 
brown jasper, hornstone, slate, sandstone, and a peculiar conglom- 
erate containing mica, not often met with in the shape of relies. 

Considered in the matter of types, we found there were sixteen 
stemmed arrowpoints, of large size, excellent workmanship, and 
all of jasper, of the various colors in which this mineral occurs. 
Six of these specimens were barbed and stemmed, the others had 
simply a projecting tang. Four were flat, thin and sharply edged : 
the others mostly with a median ridge. 

quartz point that was pentagonal, approaching thus the leaf-shaped 
form, which was noticeably absent in this find. 

The white quartz arrowpoints numbered forty-four specimens. 
and as a rule were small, and of less finish than specimens of this 
mineral are apt to be. Twenty-nine were stemmed; five were ot 
the u lozenge" pattern, and ten were tri; ngular specimens, these 
latter all having the concave base. Of the stemmed specimens 

Of what might be called common specimen-, there were forty- 
eight that could be separatt 1 into six t\ pt s. as follows : seven were 
lozenge-shaped points, and excellent example- of this form: ten 
were triangular points, four with concave bases, live with straight 

specimen ; two were true leaf-shaped points ; and one of this pat- 
tern, but stemmed also, being a form not often met with : ten wen 
excellent h«rl»<l arrowpoints. thai is. with the corners of the bhuh 
sharply pointed and making the base of the biade much wider than 
the stem; eleven specimens were of the •• notched bast-" pattern. 

only by a semicircular notch or indentation: seven were phun 
stemmed points, a form that is not readily distinguished from the 
lozenge shape, as we recognize that pattern among the specimens 
gathered by us. Indeed, the plain stemmed arrowpoint graduates 
readily into the true leaf-shaped form. 

Of spearheads there were but five specimens ; two short stemmed 



pod pattern; a blunt harbdike widening 
v from that form a little, the stem or has 
before noticing the collection of knives, a; 

of the above. One is a roughly chippef 



dit he secured. It is much less finished and finely fiaked 
I" r lanceheads we have so frequently met with on the 

1 in graves. The second of these three specimens is a 
chipped jasper specimen, that appears to have been a 

led spear, which, being broken near the base, has had the 
rechipped. As the specimen now is, it is 

dies wide. It may be looked upon as a knife made 

chipped oval knife ( ?) blade, noticeable as having been 
: a mineral not often used except for arrow- 



sable series of 



As a 


class, thev ma 
Bd by Mr. Eva, 


y be said to i 
tis, on page 3] 


ipproaeh 
15 of his 


pi, .. 
i flint 


nts of Great ] 


Jritain. Thev 


call be 



278 RELICS OF A HOMESTEAD OF THE STONE AGE. 

bases, and consequently are leaf-shapecl arrowpoints of a larc 
size. In no one specimen is there any distinct notching of tl 
sides, near the base, to facilitate the fastening of a handle ; ar. 
for this reason we have thought that they may have been knivc 
rather than spenrpoiut- or :ut<>\\ points ; but it is possible th 

inserted in the shaft ; so that the person shot could not di 



interesting as the presence of; 
the absence of two common 

; no specimen of the former or 
ywhere about the limits of tin- 



THE GEYSERS OF MONTANA. 

The first detailed account we have of these wonders of geology 
was published by Mr. N. P. Langford, who was one of an 'explor- 
ing party under < ieneral Washburn, sent out in the summer of 1870. 
His article was published in •' Scribner's Monthly," while the official 
report to Congress was written By Lieutenant Doane, U. S. A. 

1871 we take the following still more extended account of these 

geysers, and are indebted to him for the use of the accompanying 

The geyser basin of Fire Hole river is near Yellowstone lake, 
the source of the Yellowstone river, of the wonders of which we 
give some account elsewhere in this number. 

In the course of their wanderings in search of the Fire Hole 



"»;g- an. I an average of ha 

bed of the stream is lined i 
'looks like an alkali fiat. < 



Entering the Fire Hole basin, the party visited one of th'e i 
remarkable mud-pots in the valley (big. 57). "The dian 







larger is style, 
twt high, and 
The stLu i,> 



r,[' tlii, wo 



,-fll tVoi 


Mli 


i high point, ex 
iv here tlie white 
,- springs that arc 


n'tT^i 


;::'; 


*£>ra 


T,i 


• tlu-i- group- ui 



hakmg the ground in every direction, and soon a column of steam 

■urst forth fmm a erater near the edue of tlie east side of the river, 
-ollowmg the steam, an.se l.y a succ^sion of impulses, a column 



'K-Xm 

fefer 







tinctly visible 



the sun, the gleams of which 
er and spray with myriads of 
nntly changing — dipping and 




ing the sun's i 
upon the column, could be seen a I 
the colors of the prism, and rests., 

:■■■'■-• :■■-■..■■■-;., .' . '• . , 



fill eruptions occurred 


durinir tlu 


twentv- 






■y. Tins 


geyser we named -Ti 


? (Mantes* 




Another fine geyser 


is -Old 


'aithfuP 


(Fig. 63), as it was cli 


istened h 


Messrs. 


Langford and Donne 


It shoe 


ts up a 


column of water abou 




n diam- 


eter to the height of 10 


to 100 i\ 


et, -and 


by a succession of ii 


lpulses si 


emed to 


hold it up steadily for 


the space 


f lift ecu 


minutes, the great ma 


ss of wate 


r falling 


directly Lack into the 


basin, ani 


flowing 


over the edges and do\ 




in large 


streams. When the 


ict ion ce: 


ses, the 


water recedes beyond 


sight, and 


nothing 


is heard but the occ 


asional e 


cape of 


steam until another ex 


lihitiun o( 




Fig. 64 is an ideal section of 


portion 


of the Upper Geyser 


'alley she 


ched by 


Mr. Klliott for the pu 


pose of c 


nv eying 


a "clearer conception 


f the way 


in which 


we may suppose the 


aters of 


many of 


the springs reach the s 


urface. T 


ic lower 


portion of the section 


s basalt, then lake 


or local drift deposit 


, and thi 


dly the 









on the surface. According to Hansen's 
chronologica.1 succession takes place 
gas.es. The sulphurous acid acts first, 
where rising sulphur vapor comes ii 



.listed. 


and s 


Ulph 


llivtted 1. 


- the i 


of tl 






<x\Z 


pi^lueeddhssok^l 


rth. m 


-I thu 


Txu 






vhich 






Suu>« 1. 


. rejc. 


■tin. 


r the ant 



alkaline reaction. Silica, chloride of -odium. 

of -ulphuro is .,,-id th. 
observed in these springs. 

The rocks, from which the silicious hot-sprh 
land einc thai - . u i! tes m \ ih, lit 

mg seventy and more per cent, of silica ; white 



foeland •. frith fifty per cent, of 

silica. an- • -;.-d acted upon and Lixiviated by 

the hot water. By the gradual cooling of the volcanic rocks under 
the surface of the earth in the course of centuries the hot springs 
also will gradually disappear ; for they too are but a transient 
phenomenon in the eternal c.-hai uvnt' evcrvthiu- civ; ted." — (Hoch- 
stetter's " New Zealand," English translation, p. 432.) 

Bischof in his " Researches into the internal heat of the globe," 
thus discourses on the origin of the Geysers of Iceland : — 

" No doubt can be entertained respecting the nature of the agent 
by which the waters of the geyser, the Strokr, and other less con- 
siderable springs, are thrown to such an immense height. It is, 
as in volcanoes, a gaseous body. | - \ apor. We 

may, therefore, very fairly agree with Krug Von Nidda, and con- 
sider volcanoes in the same light as intermittent springs, with this 
difference only, that instead of water, they throw out melted 
matters. 

" He takes it for granted that these hot springs derive their 
temperature from aqueous vapors rising from below. When these 
vapors are able to rise freely in a continual column, the water at 
the different depths must have a constant temperature, equal to 
that at which water would boil under the pressure existing at the 
respective depths ; hence the constant ebullition of the permanent 
springs and their boiling heat. If, on the other hand, the vapors 
be prevented by the complicated windings of its channels from ris- 
ing to the surface ; if, for example, they be arrested in caverns, the 
temperature in the upper layers of water must necessarily become 
reduced, because a large quantity of it is lost by evaporation at 
the surface, which cannot be replaced from below. And any cir- 
culation of the layers of water at different temperatures, by reason 
of their unequal specific gravities, seems to be very much inter- 
rupted by the narrowness and sinuosity of the passage. The inter- 
mitting springs of Iceland are probably caused by the existence of 
caverns, in which the vapor is retained by the pressure of the 
column of water in the channel which leads to the surface. Here 
this vapor collects, and presses the water in the cavern down- 
ward until its elastic force becomes sufficiently great to effect a 
passage through the column of water which confines it. The 
violent escape of the vapor causes the thunder-like subterranean 
sound and the trembling of the earth which precedes each' eruption. 
The vapors do not appear at the surface till they have heated the 
water to their own temperature. When so much vapor has escaped 
that the expansive force of that which remains has become less 
than the pressure of the confining column of water, ten | 
restored, and this lasts until such a quantity of vapor is again col- 
lected as to produce a fresh eruption. The spouting of ti 
is therefore repeated at intervals, depending upon the capacity of 



the cavern, the height of the column of water, and the heat gen- 
erated below." 

With this work and the admirable series of photographs by Mr. 
Jackson (both in sheets* and stereoscopic form, published by Prof. 
Hayden) of some of the finest views in the National Yellowstone 
Park and Colorado Territory, the reader can obtain a very clear 
idea of the Geyser region, of the springs in course of eruption, 
and of the falls and basin of the Yellowstone. We see by the 
papers that it is proposed to open road- into the National Park, 
and erect hotel* at the Geysers for the convenience of the public. 



OF PROF. MARSH'S CRITICISMS. 



I have already (in " The short-footed Ungulata of the Eocene 
of Wyoming;" Naturalists' Agency, Salem, Mas*.) shown, by fig- 
ures and descriptions, the absence of foundation for Professor 
Marsh's recent animadversions, and though these latter present 
internal evidence of idiosyncracy which almost disarms reply, yet 
as some of the readers of this journal may not see the above 
essay, I make a few specific contradictions of some of his state- 
ments which may be regarded as serious. 

In an article "On the Gigantie Fossil Mammals of the Order 
Dmocerata," he writes as follows : 

"(1) What Prof. Cope has called incisors are canines, etc" 
I had determined and stated them to be canines, in the American 
Naturalist, previous to the appearance of this criticism. 

" (2) The stout horns he described are not on the frontals but 
on the maxillaries." I was the first to determine these bones to 
be nasals, a unpose the inner face 

of the horns to the apex, while the maxillaries form the outer 



5H'S criticisms. 291 

" (3) The orbit is not below these horns but quite behind them, 
mid has over it a prominent ridge on the frontal." In L> >.r<>loj >!,<>- 
tin,, ronaifi's the nasomaxillary horn is largely above the orbit. 
and there is no superciliary ridge of the frontal. 

"(4) The occiput is not vertical, but extends obliquely back- 
ward, the i': >;_' i vl bid the condyles." Prof. 
Bfarsh has been perhaps led into this error by the imperfection of 
the occipital condyles in his specimen. He does not appear to 
know that in life- the head was directed oblhpiely downwards, so 
that the occipital crest was vertical as I described it in Loxolopho- 
<l"n and in Uintatherium robustum. 

" (5) The temporal fossa is not small posteriorly but unusually 
large;" and "(7) the spine of the tibia is not obtuse but want- 
ing," are frivolous : ,■:<!<■ my descriptions, I. c. 

" (6) The great trochanter of the femur is recurved, though 
Prof. Cope says not." It is flat, as in the elephants. 

"(8) One of the species named by Prof. Cope, EobasUeus f»r- 
catus, is based on what he regards as portions of the nasal bones. 
The description, however, indicates that these specimens are 
merely the posterior horn-cores of well-known species." In the 
location of these cores Prof. Marsh may be correct, but demon- 
stration is yet wanting. How "well-known" these species are 
to Prof. Marsh, will be evident shortly ; and how they could be 
to anybody else, may be determined by reference to 
his brief notices of a few of them published to the date of his 
writing. 

Omitting notice of sundry insignificant questions raised in a 
postscript to the paper, as well as those which are more or less 
is already made, 1 pass to his denial of the 
possession of a proboscis to these animals. I retain my belief 
that they had such an organ, and refer to my essay above cited 
for the proofs. Leidy has suspected its presence in Megaceratops. 
He then says "(7th) the malar bone does not form the middle 
element of the zygomatic arch, but the anterior as in the tapir." 
It forms the middle element in Loxolophodon, as may be seen 
from my figures. Below, its maxillary support forms one-third of 
the zygoma, at the side a little less, and above, a narrow lamina 
of the malar extends nearly to the lachrymal. 

" (9) The nasal bones arc not deeply excavated at their ex- 
tremities." They are excavated, etc., as I have described. 



292 somi 

Now it is easy to see by an examination of Professor Marsh's 
figures of U%\ where all this blundering criticism 

comes from, and I have pointed out to him that this is the source 
of error. But Professor Marsh evidently desires no such consid- 
eration from* my hands, but repeats his statements, as though 
hw were a Rosinante, and the ninth commandment a 
wind-mill. 

There is no inaccuracy in my statement of dates of pa 
of Professor Marsh's genera. I have never stated that the name 
Tinoceras was proposed August 24th, but that it was referred to 
the Proboscidia at that date. This name was published in an 
erratum on August 19th, but was never described until September 
21st and then only by implication in the description of a species. 
Loxolophodon and Eobasileus were described August 19th and 
20th, with separate diagnoses. 

I am charged with giving an erroneous date to his communica- 
tion of December 20th before the American Philosophical Society. 
This will also be found to be correct by reference to the report of 
my communication (Proceedings Academy Natural Sciences, Jan- 
uary 14th, 1873). 

Having already gone into the discussion of the affinities of 
these animals, I run rapidly over the characters assigned by Prof. 
Marsh to a supposed new order Dinocerea (which he now spells 
as corrected, Dinocerata). Those from the first to and including 
the fourth are entirely trivial; the last, which denies air cavities 
to the cranium is moreover untrue, as they exist in the squamosal 
region as I have stated. The fifth is not true of all the genera. 
The definitions from the seventh to the eleventh are of no weight 
whatever. As the twelfth, he gives ** the very small molar teeth 
and their vertical replacement." This is precisely the state of 
things in the proboscidian Dinotherium, a form which Prof. Marsh 
has overlooked. The 13th and 15th, " the small lower jaw," and 
" absence of hallux" are of no weight if true ; but the lower jaw 
has marked proboscidian features in the symphysis and teeth, and 
it is probable that some of the species had a hallux. The 16th, 
" absence of proboscis" is probably an error, certainly so for two 
of the genera. I have passed over the (6th) " the presence of 
large postglenoid processes," and (14th) " the articulation of the 
astragalus with both navicular and cuboid bones," as of some value. 
They are, indeed, the only characters of any wide systematic sig- 



293 

nificance adduced by Prof. Marsh, since they point bud 
to the Penssodactyla and are common to all of the Eobasileidce. 
Nevertheless they form but a slim basis of support for an order 
of mammals, especially when compared with the uniform testi- 
mony of proboscidian affinity derived from the cranial expansions, 
cervical vertebrae, sacrum, pelvis, hind leg, hind foot, scapuhi. tV.ro 
leg, fore foot, and the concurrent evidence derived from dorsal and 
lumbar vertebras, dentition and proboscis. 

If Professor Marsh wishes to see an equal or greater degree of 
variation in dentition in an order of mammals, let him compare 
Equus and Rhinocerus among Perissodactyla, or Bos, Moschus, 
Hippopotamus and Phacochoerus in the Artiodactyla; in the length 
of the nasal bones, Delphinus and Squalodon among Cetacea, or 
Homo and some of the lemurs ; in the number of toes, Felis and 
Mustela, Ursus, etc., all members of the same orders. 

I should be glad, on the principle of Be mortuis nil nisi bormm, 
to commend our critic's remarks on the relations of this supposed 
order. But Professor Marsh's ideas on classification are derived 
from unusual sources. The absence of incisor teeth no more re- 
lates these animals to the Artiodactyla than it relates the sloth to 
the same order. The presence of paired horns no more consti- 
tutes affinity to the ruminants than it does in the case of the 
"horned-toad." 

They are simply an analogous development on a proboscidian 
basis. The few affinities which this group exhibits outside the 
Proboscidia, are to the Perissodactyla, as I was the first to show, , 
and among these, to Pa fservs. As to the name 

" Binocerata," I have been induced to use it in the sense of a 
suborder, but am now satisfied that even this use is uncalled for, 
and shall employ the family name Eobasileidce instead. On equally 
good bases the camel and Tragulus should be erected into new 

* An explanation of the origin of this new order is probably to 
be found in the system of Mammalia proposed by Prof. Dana, 
some years since in accordance with his theory of "Cephalizft- 
• tion." While I have been able to see beauty in Professor Dana's 
conception, the least that can be said is that the application to 
the Ungulata has not been the correct one. The system has not 
been adopted, and is in the opinion of the best mammalogists, 
entirely untenable. 



Another critic not so courjigTt.ii> ti< IV..:'. Marsh, since he is 
nonymous, has attacked (Am. Jour. Sci. Arts, 1872, 489) my 
tatement of determination of the Cretaceous age of the Bitter 
'reek coal, citing five authorities as having previously made the 
amc determination. I have shown (Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 
an. 14, 1873) that but one of these references relates to the region 
l question, and that the critic was ignorant of the geography or 
terature of the subject, or both. lie. however, repeats (loc. cit., 
873, 231) that Mr. Meek •• referred Dr. Hayden's collection from 



as from Coalville and 



to all his 


Coalville 


to Cardia 


and two 


ic quest io 


n. More 


•I'itic that 


the two 



iot tell us all that he knows. He knows perfectly 
scriptions antedate hi> by a month and more, and 
erior to Dr. Leidy, by two months at least. He 
strong enough to state the nomenclature accord- 
savors to prove something else. In order to do 



this, he is willing to write (An 



Marsh is not CE 
its, tha 



men of the printing establishm 
question were issued, and from : 

| them : — 






i -omo of the person- to wiiom tm 
although I consider this part of 
!. that \\ hich has gone before being 



2:«o 



sufficient as to the date of publication. It is indeed not 1 
pected that persons will generally remember the exact 
which printed matter has been received. Nevertheless 
days after making inquiry I received the following : — 



I have also received lettejs from Principal Dawson of Montreal 
and Professor Mudge of the State Agricultural College, Kansas, 
stating that they received the papers, but did not keep exact ac- 
count of the date of reception. Among many others in the United 
States to whom they were sent, I may mention Prof. Davidson, 
President of the San Francisco A< acea. They 

were also sent to Professors Seeley, Huxley, Gegenbauer, Peters, 
Hyrtl, Du Bocage and others in Europe, and Messrs. Gotch and 
Eijgersma in Australia and the West Indies respectively. 

I also add that they were received at my address at Fort Bridger, 
and mostly forwarded to me promptly after the dates of distri- 
bution. 

The little that interests students in this matter is the dates of 
publication of the essays in question. The dates of reading are 
of secondary importance and have been abandoned by ni 
generally as furnishing basis for nomenclature, so that Prof. 
Marsh's able criticism of the dates on the cover of the American 
Philosophical Society's proceedings for 1872 may be regarded as 
purely antiquarian. The papers iu question were, in fact, issued 
independently of the society, and almost always in advance of the 
time at which they were read before it. But lest our bibliophile 
again charge me with fraud, let me here correct an error in the 
report of the proceedings of that society for August, 1872, in 
"Nature" for 1873, p. 335. Here it is stated that my first note 
on the Proboscidians was read on August 16th ; I hasten to say 
that this is an error [ q fehe wording of the 

note as published on August 19th, in which it was stated (without 
my knowledge) that " The Secretary announced that he had re- 



SOME OF PROFESSOR ] 



297 



ceived from Prof. Cope," etc. This could only have referred to 
the last meeting preceding (on the 16th) ; but, in fact, it was not 
read until the meeting following (September 20th). In the mean 
time it had been published (on the 19th), and two other papers i 
describing the species and genera in more detail were published 
on the 20th and 22nd respectively. An account embracing the 
same facts was also read by Prof. Winchell before the American 
Association for the Advancement of Science, which opened its ses- 
sions at Dubuque on August the 21st (or 23d), of which an 
abstract has, after great delay, appeared in the American Natu- 
ralist for March, 1873. Finally a description of EfobaaUeia ap- 
peared in the scientific column of the "New York Independent" for 
August 22nd, 1871. The papers published in Philadelphia were 
issued without my revision, and hence contain a few typographical 
errors which Prof. Marsh finds of great use to himself. But under 
the circumstances the number is surprisingly few. 

I now present a table of the nomenclature of the three genera 
of Proboscidia, synonymy being in italics : — 



MOXTH 






Leidy. 


Cope. 


Marsh. 


JL 




; b ~f! 


2SSW* 



Though Prof. Marsh has pub] <h<-il the pnp rs find six notes on 
these animals, but one of his species has been so far partially 
described as to be of any use to science. Publishing of bare 

present case the dates are too late. Hence the trouble. " Heu 

In one of Prof. Marsh's late catalogues, he asserts that. Lo.rolo- 
phodon conndus and Tinoceras gramUs are identical. If this he 

and Tinocrras be withdrawn from the synonymy of Uinhttherh.'hK 
where it might well remain so far as his description characterises 
it. But if so, his statement that there are five superior molar- 



never described. t This ho ha< attempted in the case of the fos 

by the writer over a year sooner than by him. At the latter d 
this species was discovered to have been called M. altus Mar 
some months prior to my description, but without any allusion 

descriptions, he might refer to Bronn's •• Letluea Geognostic 
and other works, where he will liud all such names consigned 
the rubbish of synonymy so soon as it can be ascertained to w 
they refer. 

To sum up the matter, it is plain that most of Prof. Mars 
criticisms are misrepresentation-, hi- -y-tematic innovations 
untenable, and his statements as to the dates of my papers 
either criminally ambiguous or untrue. I might now proceed 



icli proceedings in ill li nil' terms, 
little eh.-mge of scene Hie author 
them in oblivion as is the writer 



HON OF PLATES. 



o!' California, by Mr. Ferd. Bischoff 
:>n of Lieut. G. M. Wheeler, Corps of 

:. - 



vhile accompanying her brother, Maj. Powell, ii 

genera hit s ". ■; •-* upon : 



. Thompson), on dry 



rell-marked form. 



.nched; pubescence short, silky, den 



late teeth about equaling the tube 



:ubby, low (6' high), i 



pedicela aa long or longer; seed concave, 



K£TI 



• : ■« . r.ji-r. x 






During the past year Dr. Lri.lv, IV., r. ( ope. and iny<idf have 
been investigating the fossil vertebrates of the Eocene of Wyo- 
ming, and our material has not an L the same 
species. Our descriptions have usually been published as sep- 
- i>Mied In advanet oi the journals containing them. 
To prevent, if possible, any question about priority of publication 
I agreed with each of these authors in March, 1872, that we should 
send to each other, on the day of publication, any papers on the 
above subject we might issue, the date of publication to be either 
-Printed or written on each pamphlet. This would ordinal -iiy se- 
cure the receipt of the papers on the following day, and we agreed 
to accept this receipt, so far as we were individually concerned, as 



publication. This agreement Dr. Leidy has scrupulously observed, 
and I have myself carefully kept it. 

Between July 22d and October 8th, 1872, I published a series 
of fourteen papers on vertebrate fossils from the West, and in every 
instance mailed copies to Prof. Cope and Dr. Leidy on the day of 
pul ilicMt ion, and, of the more important papers, a second copy by 
a subsequent mail, as we had also agreed. Believing, with most 
naturalists, that publication of a paper by means of advance cop- 
ies can be fairly clone only by making these copies accessible to 
those working in the same department, I likewise sent copies of 
each of my papers, on the day of publication, to the principal 
scientific centres in" this country which are especially interested in 
this subject, namely : Professor Baird of the Smithsonian Institu- 
tion ; the Museum of Comparative Zoology in Cambridge ; the 
Boston Society of Natural History ; the editors of the American 
Naturalist ; the editors of the American Journal of Science; the 
Academy of Natural Sciences in Philadelphia and the American 
Philosophical Society. I also promptly placed these pamphlets on 
sale at the Naturalists' Agency in Salem, and sent early copies to 
palaeontologists in Europe, and to various scientific journals. 
That these papers were duly received, the records of the above 
societies, and the reviews and notices in several periodicals, as 
well as letters from correspondents, afford ample testimony. The 
papers subsequently appeared in successive numbers of the Amer- 
ican Journal of Science, from August to November, 1872.* 

During this period of over three months, in which these various 
papers were being published, I received nothing of the kind from 
Prof. Cope. An intimation from a friend finally led me to think 
that this author might, perhaps, have published something which 
had accidentally failed to reach me, and, as it was important to 
have this settled, I made inquiries at each of the above points in 
this country where I had sent my papers, and soon ascertained 
definitely, that no publications by Prof. Cope, issued subsequent 
to July 1st, 1872, had been received. The inquiry was diligently 
extended, also, among American naturalists, especially those who 
would be most likely to know of such publications, but no evi- 
dence of a single copy could be obtained. This was the case up 
to October 8th, 1872, when the last paper of my series was pub- 
lished, and I started for the West. 



lis, or November 5th, 
3d at New Haven, am 


1872, five papers 


veiled New Haven. December Itli. Is 72, 
my return a few days later. In these 
re mostly uncorrected proofs, several 
h;id described three months before, are 
The papers, moreover, bear dates from 



pate part of my descriptions, in some cases only by a single day. 
These papers purport to have been read before the American 
Philosophical Society, but the official records of that Society show- 
that they were not even presented until long after the dates 
claimed for them. They have since appeared in the Proceedings 
of that Society, Number 89* (published February 6th, 1873), 
more than three months after my last paper had appeared in the 
American Journal of Science. 

On learning of the distribution of these papers by Prof. Cope, 
I renewed my inquiries about their true dates of publication, and 
t copies were first received, October 29th, 1872, by the 
iia Academy of Natural Sciences, of which Prof. Cope 
is secretary, and that apparently none were distributed at an 
t'arhei date. Wishing, if possible, to avoid bringing this matter 
lJ) b> public notice. 1 informed Prof. Cope, personally, that I could 
find no evidence of any copies of his papers being distributed 
before October 29th, 18,72, and requested him, if he claimed an 
earlier publication, to inform me where any of these papers had 
been sent. He at first declined to do this, but finally mentioned 
«*e addresses in this country and Europe, to which the papers in 
question had been duly forwarded, during his absence, by the 
person entrusted with their distribution. I have since learned 
from two of these places that nothing definite is known of these 
Papers, and from the other three I have a positive assurance that 
none of them were received. 

It thus becomes evident that these papers by Prof. Cope were 

not published at the time claimed, and I protest against the dates 

they bear being accepted as authentic. Publication of scientific 

r "-a;ts means ,,vik;,,<j thn,> k>mtr U , c-peciallv to those interested, 

, results are so careftii] 



that no record of them can be found by diligent inquiry. The few 
species at stake in the present case are comparatively of little 
consequence, but the principle involved is all important, and if 
dUiv-irded, scientific nomenclature will become worthier, and 



TIX<)( T.RAS AXD ITS ALLIES. 



Since the article on page 217 of the April Naturali 
printed, another pamphlet by Prof. Cope on the same subj 
been received (March 20th). In this paper, which is dated 
14th, 1873, and illustrated by four plates, Prof. Cope has 

adopted nearly all my views as to the characters and aflin 



""mi giving credit in either ease. Lnl'ortiimitrly. he 
still misinterprets the structure of this group on several points. 
and most of his dates are incorrect as before. On nearly every 
page of the paper, moreover, new errors may be detected, a few 
only of which can be corrected here, for want of space. 

1st. Prof. Cope, is wrong in assigning only three sacral verte- 
bra* to the Dinowruta, as Diuocems, the type of the group, cer- 
tainly has four, and the other genera probably as many. 2d. The 
neck in Tinoesras fjmndia Mar-h (Or ? Tnmr, run rrrnintus) was 

in the Yale Museum clearly prove. 3d. Prof. Cope is entirely in 
error in saying that the muzzle in this species could not reach the 
ground by several feet ; the animal really having no use for the 
long proboscis which Prof. Cope persists in putting on him. 4th. 
The specimen described a> AV,.<.,,v, „. s ,„,,„,,,, „-.,„ f„p v adult, as 
the teeth show, and the differences between it and the type of Ti- 
noceras grandis may be due to age. 5th. The nasal bones in this 
genus do not form the inner half of the middle horn-cores, but 

the maxillaries. 6th. The anterior extension of the malar bone 
is not in Dinoceras much less than in Perissodactyls. 7th. The 



l ope s paper are i 



^ lii^uiauj which seems inseparable from 1'rof. Cope < work i 
een in the explanation of the plates of this paper, where two ser 
us mistakes occur in the first line. 
Prof. Cope concludes with some remarks about nomenclature 



-'"' absurd, an. I wouM not he accepted by any scientific an 
His precepts about describing genera may be fitly cornpar. 
his practice, without going beyond the Dinocerota. Th 

LoxnJnphoilnn Cope was first u'iveii. without description, to 
which Prof. Cope now rejects, and when again applied. ..- 

VII, p. 



*>o;, there is a report, written by Prof. Cope, of various meetings 
of the American Philosophical Society. This report, which was 



tioned existed 
In a late ni 
335), th 

lilosophical Society 

^authorized l,y the society, contains several important mis." 
uents. Under the meeting of August 16th, 1872, it is stated 
'A communication from Prof. Cope was read on his discovc 
"roboscidia in the Wyoming Eocene,' * * * a new irenus. I 
■ix'u.s, was described." The official records of this society 

ater, or September 2iith. This misstatement is a serious 

bus antedated'. The description ot ••/•'.,/,„>//.,/*" as ,, U ott 
^ report is quite different from that given in the paper < 
published (February 6th, 1873), in the Pro. 
the Society, Vol. XII, p. 485. This makes at least 
ne this genus has been antedated, and its supposed eh 
1 by Prof. Cope within as many months. 



read, or ; 



A circular has lately 



Prof. Cope requesting sig- 



ires from those who received his papers, the dates of whit 
» questioned. This circular quotes from my note on page ] 



but the quotation 1- ilicom < 1. 'II,. I I o] V. Y- ' V( \ d T. Ill '. . 111- 

ing from the original. A signature to this circular can have no 

weight in tlit 1 present discussion, as the document is so worded 
tlnit it calls for no definite information whatever in regard to the 
real date of publication of any one of the doubtful papers. In 
this respect, and in its inaccuracy, the circular resembles perfectly 
Prof. Cope's other publications which I have recently criticised. 



REVIEWS AND BOOK NOTICES. 

A Text-book of North American Ornithology. — Suitable 
manuals of zoology, treating of single classes of animals, have 
hitherto been desiderata in our zoological literature. The subject 
of the present brief notice — Dr. Elliott Coues' "Key to North 
American Birds"* — is a work unique in its conception, and the 
first of a kind one may well hope to see soon supplied for each 
class of our native animals, and especially for the several classes 
of the vertebrates. In these classes the number of species is small 
ison with the number of species of insects and of plants, 
and can be readily comprised in a volume of convenient size for a 
hand-book. Gray's admirable series of botanical text-books fat- 
nish guides to our flora that render accessible to the ordinary stu- 
dent and amateur a general knowledge of our plants, but until now 
we have had no similar handbook for any department of zoology. 

The character of Dr. Coues' work, so far as fidelity of treatment 
and scientific accuracy are concerned, is sufficiently endorsed by 
iiaracter of his various special memoirs and monographs, 
and his high standing as an original investigator. The value of 
his "Key" as a text-book of American ornithology may be re- 
garded as two-fold ; first, its clear exposition of the latest and most 
generally approved views of the subject treated, and, secondly, it- 
scope and the arrangement of the subject matter itself. A general 
"Introduction " treats of the leading principles of ornithology, and 
describes j„ detail, aided by suitahle illustrations, the external 



parts and organs of the bird, with full explanations of the techni- 

>% Introduction" which precedes it, the "Key" enables him without 
any species of bin! occurring in North America, north of Mexico. 
"Key," and which forms the chief hulk of the volume, are given 
our birds, with indications of their geographical range. The 

sification adopted is probably the one most generally approved by 
!<■ ' ling ornithologists. Ihc diagnoses uc illustrated b\ up* uxfs 

fication. Following the general synopsis of the living forms, is a 
concise account of the fossil species, twenty-nine in number, which 
l»«* the great merit not only of being the work of the highest au- 
thority on the subject, but of bein-_ . .■ i expo- 
sition of this department of American ornithology. 

1,1 lei Lis, it is a work not only especially designed for stu- 

'i'^ts and amateur ornithologists, but one well calculated to meet 
"<• end in view, and a> such entities the author to the gratitude of 
all beginners and even somewhat advanced students of American 
ornithology .—J. A. A. 

BOTANY. 






EpiCt.ka i;i:ri£Ns. — This plant deserves a more careful examina- 
tion than it has yet received. Tlie infrequency of the occurrence of 
fruit has been explained in dim rent ways, but no satisfactory ex- 
planation has yet been offered. In the "Botanical Register," vol. 

are frequently found to he sterile ; and, according to Michaux, it 
would appear that the species was diiccions. the flowers being 

has called attention t<» the great decree of variation which occurs 






,,, ac Plant.— Prof. Ba! 
1 Society of Edinburgh, 
n in the flowers of G 



Rubiaceaz. This 



Mr. Phillips gives some facts re 
iture of iodine for this purpose. 

tincture of iodine, diluted to one 
' this is placed on a glass slide l 
im and subjected to a slight pre 



P. vitdlina Pers., tips of 



uny, in 


tii 


e examin 


ation of a speck 


:s of Tuber, 


us .was 


gix 


en as a | 


:viu -ri'- appellation. 


— Prof. 




3r A. Braun, in a commit 


mication to 


bag bri 


<fh 


r describ. 


ed a new form of vegetable 


eitiuig. 


Se 


pt. 20, ] 


1872). The pla 


mt referred 






;ea, Desmodium triqwlrt 


im DC. 


siiZ 


7\ 


:o the fli 


Die feels rough t 


o the touch, 
touched it. 


light o 


n ■ 


the leaf, 


are held by a 


n invisible 


ueitecti 




struggle; 


3 to free themsel 


vis from it. 


x or ei 


:gh 


t flies fa 


stened in this 


way to the 


blade; 


If, 


s often, ; 


and more widely 


- scattered, 






•hieh act 


thus are distri 


buted over 



■ beset t 



ZOOLOGY. 

3UR-LEGGED ROCK LaKK.— Oil Noi 

the seashore in the vie'min • >!' I'l 



'/■" in the shape of a rock lark {An thus r e- 
trosus) that I ever saw in my life. It had four legs and no tail 
(at least where the tail should have been), but that appendage was 
placed just above the left eye, and sticking out behind like a long 
depressed crest, —indeed it was a perfect " nightmare " of a bird, 
Buch a one as you might dream about — the extra legs were dang- 
ling from the extremity of its body. It was feeding on a heap of 
decayed seaweed on the shore. Unfortunately, I had no gun with 
me or I could have shot it a hundred times over, but as T had a 
field glass with me I could examine it as distinctly as though I 
had had it in my hand. The next day I returned to the spot with 
my gun and had a shot at it at once, but the gun " hanging fire " I 
did not quite kill it, and some children running to the spot before 
I could load again, it managed to flit away where I could not 

A "lusus" is not so wonderful in a bird just hatched, but 
seldom lives long, whereas this was a lively full-grown rock lark. — 
J. Gatcombe, Plymouth, England. 

Births of Animals in the Central Park Menagerie.— Puma 
(Fells concolor). Two cubs were born August 24. 1872 ; period of 
gestation, thirteen weeks ; - spotted ; born blind, eyes open on the 
eighth day ; very playful. The puma lias seldom more than two 
at a birth. 

Leopard {Felis leopardus). Two cubs were born October 28, 
1872; period of gestation, thirteen weeks; markings similar to 
that of the mother ; born blind, eyes open on the eighth day. 

Spotted Hyaena {Hyena c,v,c,/„). Two cubs were born, one 

soft hair half an inch long, of a uniformly black color, no indica- 
tion of spots ; born with eyes open. Weight of cub, 3 j- pounds. 
length from nose to tip of tail 224 inches ; tail slender and taper- 
ing ; height at shoulder 9 inches; canines £, incisors §; conch of 
ears lying flat to the head : bald internally, outside covered with 
hair. Supposed to be the first hyrena bred 'in this country. 

Camel (Camel n.-i droinedarins). ( hie calf was born .January M>, 
1873 ; period of gestation, twelve months, in this case twelve and 
a half months. About three hours after birth the calf was held 
up to suckle, the next day was able to get on its feet and nurse 
itself.— N. A. Conklin, Director Central Park Menagerie. 

Canaries and Hyacinths. — A lady visitor remarked that one 



as be terms them, cm.-i-t of <. iuht -cordoni Inmi 

These threads (cordoni) arc principally composed 
uilt up of vesicles or cells and possessing all the char: 
albuminoid cells are likewise met with in it. This 



ligations of the phosphorescence of ol 



• their slow oxyda- 



e. In the sp. 
phosphorescent 



m>rth\ 


vest 


seem in : 


i fair way 


to be th 


..roil: 


•h!y 


looked up. 


We 


notice 


aci 


reuhirfroii 


a Dr. Couei 


<. publisho-l 1,\ 


■ com 


mand of Gei 


icral 


Terry, 


of 


the Depar 

S Of sUTiv; 


■ving in th 

.1 ami ,lep ; 


S 


VV 


n of 


te work of a 

leathered g 


■ n of 


This if 


5 tO 


be ineorp< 


>rated in ;i 


report oi 


. the 


-Oi 


•nith'ology of the 


Xortln 




," to be i 


mblished 1 


»y the d, 


■pari 


meat 


of the lute 


rior. 


and fo 




ig one of 


the series 


issued h\ 


•the 


1. S. 


. Geoloiru-al 


Snr- 


reyof 




Territorie 


VVVa;; 


e of Dr. I 


\V. 


Hayd 


len. The in 


ider- 
























of his worl, 




Wit] 


'.no 


|! 'V '■ '• 


'■ ■;;y;; 1 ;- 


■iVkm.lv 


;;•;;; 


larg* 


(lie (;,„„, J 


tirite 


inlinhit 


:ing 


the n-io 


i. drruncd I 


>,v the M : 


:S,u 


ririv 




■ibu- 



. IhihA.i Territory. 

GEOLOGY. 



■ios. placing- that of the loft silo on the right, etc. This statement 
s not true, as I have carefully distinguished the sides in my de- 
icription (Short-footed Ungulate, etc., p. 10). In my plate 2d the 



its it in the same position.— E. D. Cope. 
fTHEOPOL OGY. 



Mr. Busk and Mr. Gwyn Jeffreys were good 

> for me. He has now met with a fragment of a 

,1|. .'!;),,■ (.jth, . Ma-tOMOU. 



lj O ( lv, straight fore le-s and Una 1 feet." There are a!->. h 
traees of .even or eight other figures, which, however, are 
obliterated. He informs me that in the same stratum he h 
foi »id a flint Hake, and several l>one< broken as if for the < 



316 MICROSCOPY. 

This discoveiy would not only prove the existence of man in 
Mux-one times, l»ut of man who had already made some progress, 
at least, in art. Mr. Calvert assures me that he feels no doubt 
whatever as to the geological age of the stratum from which these 
specimens were obtained. 

Of course I am not in a position myself to express any opinion 
on the subject ; but I am Bare that the statements of so competent 
an observer as Mr. Calvert will interest your readers.— Sir John 

MICROSCOPY. 



srture as invoiced by Mr. Stodd 
s I think the objective is corre< 
extreme open point it is a gc 



mserver to focus through specimens, 
ght and the J ff the resolution of Ami>h>pkum}K'l- 
■ than I have before seen. Using ordinary daylight 
leria, etc., are wel . when a Kelner 

it and the ammonia-sulphate of copper cell, Suri- 



e and remarkable plai 



Wenham's par; 
either the para 









of April Mr. An 

ese, together with i 
ol of Natural Ilisl 



for two two-story buildings, each one hundred feet long and 
twenty-five feet wide. The lower floors are intended for laborato- 
ries and working rooms. The second story will contain sleeping 
rooms, and rooms for the preservation of specimens. The deed, 
makes Professor Agassiz president of the board of trustees and 
director of the school, with the sole control of the method of in- 
struction, and the appointment of teachers. The school will be 
called "The Anderson School of Natural History." and will be 
opened early in July. 

the remarks made at the banquet lately given in New York to 
Professor Tyndall just before he sailed for England. Many of the 
leading scientists of the country, with those eminent in all pro- 
fessions in New York, met him at Delmonico's. Perhaps this is the 
first occasion of the sort when in this country science has, through 
her followers and through those engaged in quite different pursuits, 
received due consideration. The after dinner speeches, with one 
or two exceptions, were animated with the true spirit of devotion 
to truth, which is but another term for the scientific spirit. 



ami delightful 
and concluding 
itnd industrial 



'those ii laments of genius v 



cry in Kn L 
hen the sp 



;d to copy withoi 
, wiser than then 
. Nature. 






U1,,,v r!1 '' l-'Udh- eye— as to shut out from view those workers wl 
are engaged in the profounder business of discovery." 

After quoting De Tocqueville on the supposed unfavorable infl 
Tyndall says :— 



-ik'ss of private men tc 
.rpo<e* requires hut wise direction t 
d void the prediction of De Tocqu 



there. Take all 1,1,1, .■ ■■■-- ■:;, iii:i .-■■ liinonts out of its way. Yc 

better account than by asking you in turn to remember that th 
lecturer is usually the ; - I wealth amasse 

by better men. It is not as lecturers, but as discoverers, that yo 



speech: — 

"To no other country is the cultivation of ( 



Lis kind. I think, m 

. °Making use as fa; 
lire be founded, suf 

tion would feel then 



tures, though mainly ly the eoutiib! n- <■! ts mmi 1 i -, and the 
bequests of its friends. But the main feature of its existence —a 
feature never l.M >i-lit of by its ni^e and iiom.n.ble Board of ' 
Managed i- i t s ,.| 1( . > <eovery. And 



freedom, accompanied by a never-failing sympathy 

the great men who preceded me. that has given 
Institution its imperishable renown." 



tho education of young philosophers in Germany." We learn from 
Appleton's" Popular Science Monthly." that this surplus amounted 
to $13,000. This sum has been conveyed, by an article of trust, to 
the charge of a committee, of which Prof. Joseph Henry is chair- 
man, and which is authorized to expend the interest in aid of 
students who devote themselves to original researches. This is 
certainly, the Journal add-, a noble example, and deserves to be 

The eminent French naturalist Pouchet died Dec. 6, 1872, aged 
73. He was the original advocate of the theory of spontaneous 
generation in its modern form. 

We have been obliged to defer several reviews and miscella- 
neous articles until the next number, and beg the indulgence of 
our correspondents whose articles have been unavoidably crowded 
out for two or three months past. 

t of "Books Received," which we 



TH IE 

AMERICAN NATURALIST. 

Vol. VII.— JUNE, 1873. — No. 6. 



[Based on manuscripts and collections of Lt. C. Bendire, U. 8. A] 
No sooner has the press closed upon the " Key to North Amer- 

doenbed. But since a new bird * has lately been discovered in 
Massachusetts, ransacked by ornithologists for half a century, it 
is not surprising that the comparatively untilled fields of the west 
should still yield novelties ; and we may rest satisfied that North 
American ornithology will not crystallize till it has simmered for 
another generation or so. During the year just closed my es- 
teemed correspondent has been diligently collecting near Tucson, 
Arizona, and has frequently favored me with interesting com- 
- and specimens. Some of his earlier notes have al- 
iV; >'l,v been published in this Magazine;! and now I have a fe^v 
m ore I am equally pleased to offer. Besides the two species of 



birds, most of the nests and eggs to be noticed are new, at least 

The Rufous-winged Sparrow * is a homely little bird, not par- 
ticularly remarkable for anything I can discover, excepting the 
bright bay patch on the bend of the wing. It looks at first sight 
much like a field-sparrow (Spizello jn/sf/la), that had curiously 
enough put on the wings of a bay-winged bunting (Pooecetes gra- 
miii('nK) ; but on sharper scrutiny is seen to be peculiar in other 
points besides. I suppose it goes in the genus Peuccea, and stands 
next to P. ruficeps; though, for that matter, our sparrows are split 



SOME UNITED STATES BIRDS, NEW TO SCIENCE. 323 

into so many " genera" that nobody could sort them out it' they 
were once mixed up ; it is only by the peculiar process, known to 
ornithologists, and others, of falling a -path' an agricultural imple- 
ment, that they are perpetrated and perpetuated. Lt. Ben-lire says 
this sparrow is very common where he is, and that it stays there 
all the year ; that he generally finds it in company with the Mack- 
throated finch (Poospiza hii;,»ettta), the habits of the two being 
much the same, and the nest imj; quite alike. The rufous-winged 
sparrow builds in a small mezquite or sage bush, often close to 
the ground and rarely over four feet from it. The nest is made of 
fine dry grasses and roots, with slender tops of "sacaton" (rye 
grass) and sometimes a few horse-hairs; it is quite deep, let down 
into a fork or crotch. The eggs are said to be almost exactly like 
those of the following bird, only a trifle larger, and four or five to 
a clutch, instead of three or four. 

The Black-throated Sparrow (Poospiza UHneata) is a much 
prettier, jaunty-looking bird, with a jet black throat and face set 
off with pure white stripes. It is common on and near our south- 
western border. I frequently saw it in New Mexico and Arizona, 
at different seasons, but never found a nest, and do not know who 
was more fortunate until Lt. Bendire gathered quite a large lot. 
One of them now lying before me is composed of fine grass-stems 
mixed with much more of very soft-fibred inner bark of some plant 
I do not recognize, and lined with a little horse-hair. It is marked 
"Sept. 14th. 1872 :" and I may as well mention here as elsewhere, 
tmir the laying ^a-on of several Arizona birds besides this one is 
protracted through September.* A set of eggs, taken August 25, 
numbers three; size, -73 X '58, '74 X "58, and -72 X '57, respec- 
tively. These are perfectly plain, white with a faint bluish cast: 
but occasionally— Lt. Bendire says about one set in twelve — the 
eggs are sparsely speckled with reddish. He continues : — " This 
bird is plentiful about here, and resident. It prefers higher ground, 
two hundred to five hundred yards from the creek bottom, though 
seldom further out on the plain. The nest is placed in a small 
mezquite, thorn or sage bush, seldom over four feet high, often 
almost on the ground. The clutch is usually three, rarely more. 
^ wo if not more broods are raised each season. I found fresh 



324 SOME UNITED STATES BIRDS, NEW TO SCIENCE. 

eggs Sept. 3. The usual note is zib, zib. zib and a twitter, some- 
thing like the sound of a coin spinning on a table." 

Abert's Towhee (Pipilo Abertii) and the Canon Towhee (Pipilo 
fusrns of Swainson, not of Cassin : P. mesoleucus of Baird ; Key, 
152) are two large species related to our chewink, but dull colored 
(grayish, etc.) instead of black, white and chestnut. They inlial.it 
the Colorado valley and its vicinity, though Abert's, at least, seems 
closely confined to the river itself and its tributaries. Both are 
abundant, and they live together ; Abert's is the bigger, and the 
eggs are readily distinguished. A clutch of P. Abertii eggs con- 
taining three, taken September 4th, measure -95 X "78 ; -94 X "77 ; 
and -95 X '77 ; they are plump eggs, broad for their length, little 
smaller at one end than at the other. The color is bluish-white, 

- ! • 

form a splashed area, not a ring), with dark reddish-brown ; some 
of the markings are very fine speckling, others are short, sharp 
zigzag lines ; the general tone of the markings is very dark, as 1 
have said, but some of the spots arc quite light reddish, while 
others (in the shell, and consequently overlaid with its ground 
color) are neutral tint. The egg is deeidt-dly peculiar, as compared 
with that of the other species, and recalls some of the least varie- 
gated samples of red-winged blackbird eggs, though still the mark- 
ings are mostly spots, rather than streaks. — Two eggs of P. fuscus, 
taken Sept. 3. measure -9"> X '72. and -93 X -70 : thus being as long 
as those of Abertii, but very noticeably narrower, and more pointed 
at one end. The ground color is pale bluish ; the whole surface is 
marked — thickly at the large end, where the spots tend to a ring, 
more sparsely elsewhere — with light brownish-red; a few of the 
(heaviest) spots are darker brown, and many others are neutral 
tint, or lavender. The marks range in size from mere points to 
moderately large spots; -till they are all s}»>ts. nom 
into lines, as is the case with those of Abertii. 

The Ground Cuckoo {Geococcyx Californianus) is a large species 
of singular aspect and peculiar ways, noted for its swift-footed- 
ue-s. inh • . Territories and California, and 

abundant in Southern Arizona. An e^' of this bird that Lt. Ben- 
dire sent me, and the first one I rememher to have seen, measures 
1-55 X 1-25, being thus broadly ellipsoidal ; the greatest diameter 
is near the middle, and hardly any difference in size of the two 
ends is appreciable. It is plain dull white, and looks something 



rg. My correspondent has noted, he says, a curious 

>veral birds lay more eons toward the close of the 



i the present 

species. lie never found more than three eggs in April and May 
clutches ; but four, five or six in July and August sets. He thinks 
it may be accounted for by the greater abundance of food after the 
midsummer rains. 

The Painted Flycatcher (Setophmja picta) allied to our com- 
111011 ivdstart, is a beautiful black, white and carmine species 
which Lieut, Bendire has the credit of first finding in the United 
States ( Am. Nat. vi, 436 ; Key, 110). Since last spring, when he 
■secured and forwarded the first specimen, he has seen two others 
(Sept. 12) ; they were foraging for insects in a mezquite tree, and 
seemed to be on their way home to Mexico, from the mountainous 
part of Arizona, where, it is presumed, they passed the summer 
breeding. 

The nest and breeding habits of the beautiful little Vermilion 
Flycatcher {Pyrocephatus rubineus var. Mexicanus) have lately 
been described in this Magazine by Lt. Bendire himself; but here 
I wish to notice another nest, since received from him. It was 
despoiled April 27, 1872. It is a low flat structure, which was 
middled close down on a large horizontal fork, as I see by the 
impression of the boughs. Outside and underneath there are some 
quite large but light plant stems, two or three inches long ; the 
substance of the nest is an inextricably mixed mass of very slender 
-''<-. Hi itty inner bark, dried moss, horsehair, and white sewing- 



thread ; the 1 

[ think from the breast of a male Carolin 



the brin 



f.-ather 

clove. The nest is only 
* inch deep, though it measures outside three inches across 
for the few sticks, and some of the ragged 



rttfps, it might be called exquisitely light and delicate. 

Nuttall's Whippoorwill (Antrostomus NuttaUii) is a beautiful 
* ■ •■• interesting species, abundant in many parts of the West, from 
the Missouri region into Mexir,,. replacing the emmou Ka<t.-rn 
species (A. vociferus). It is smaller than the latter, and somewhat 
"lored. with a nearly square instead of much rounded 
tai1 - It does not cry « whip'-poor-will" like our species, but 
« r <>ps a syllable, saying "whip'-poor" or " poorMvill" as the 
anc y of the hearer may interpret. But the most singular cir- 
cumstance is, that it lays white or creamy-white eggs, entirely 



unmarked — a thing before unknown in this genus. The eggs are 
two in number, laid in a mere shallow depression of the bare 
ground, usually at the foot of a bush — Lt. Bendire found them so, 
August 2, 1872. When he informed me of this I could not help 
!v was some mistake about it; but on communicating 
with Prof. Baird on the subject, he replied : "Nuttall's whippoor- 
will is unique in the genu- for laying white eggs. We have several 
sets of them, ami ha\e established the fan beyond question." 
This is equally novel and interesting ; but how about Dr. Selater's 
generalization.' which 1 ado;. fed without lUialitication in the Key 
(p. 180), to the effect that all the Caprimulgince lay colored eggs? 
I think it is easier to stand corrected in this instance than to dis- 
turb the bird's position. 

The presence of a sharp horny spur on the shank (tarsus) is I 
very common character of gallinaceous birds, well illustrated in the 
case of the barnyard cock ; and in some birds of this order there 
are a pair of spurs, one above the other, on each leg. The turkey 
gobbler {Meleagris gallopam) is well known to possess a pair, and 
this is supposed to be a constant character of the males of the 
genus Meleagris. Such, however, proves to be not always the ease. 
" The males do not all have spurs ; in fact, I thought at firsf 



ariety of turkey 






have been so informed by Mexicans and Indians. But I killed 
two gobblers myself a few days ago. and both wen- spurred ; though 
the largest bird I ever killed, a male weighing twenty-eight pounds, 
had no spurs." {In epist., Dec. 29, 1872). 

Almost every one knows the Brown Thrush, or Thrasher 
( Ihiri'^rlnjncjitis rtifiis) of the Eastern United States — an abun- 
dant and familiar inhabitant of shrubbery, and a spirited songster, 
with some talent for mimicry. It belongs to the mocking-thrudi 
group (Jftmiwce) all of which are famous for their vocal powers: 
the cat-bird, and the princely mocking-bird itself, are near relatives. 
The aeeoim ' thrasnef 

in the act of singing. There is a Texan and Mexican variety of 
this bird, very similar, but longer billed, darker colored, and more 
heavily streaked underneath. The genus H«i-}>orli>f>i"hns (which 
means "bow-billed") contains several other species, equally in- 
teresting, and seeming to us the more remarkable on aeconntol 
the extras- rature of the bill. A 



habit our southwestern border ; they are mueh alike in color, differ- 
ing from ,mr rich foxy-red thrasher very nearly as the homely gray 
pipilos of the same region differ from the smartly-dressed ehcwink 
— being pale dull brownish or grayish, with few or no definite 
markings, except in one instance. Let us pass them in review, 
so as to be better able to judge of a certain new species I am going 
to describe. I will first mention the St. Lucas Thrush (//. ciner- 
(-»*): it agrees with the thrasher, and di Iters from all the rest, in 
being thickly speckled with brownish-black over most of the under 
parts. It is dull brownish-gray above ; the shape of the bill is 
shown in figure 70, beyond. ^Yc shall have to look at this spe- 
cies again, presently. Next, we have the California!! Mocking- 




thrush i //. redirh-us. Fig. 66). Its points i 
''ill : dark olive-brown color, paler below, gi 
''usty-l.rown on the belly and to rustv-white o 
streaked ear coverts, but no maxillary strir 
] >reast ; length eleven inches or more, wing four or less, tail five 
0r m ore, bill and tarsus, each, about 1£ inches. This is the dark 
California coast form. In the arid Colorado river region, there is 
v, form and pattern of 
coloration, but extremely pale-colored, as if really bleached with 
tlu ' heat and dryness of the desert. It is apparently very rare; 

enough to shoot myself, and only know of two others, which Dr. 
Cooper secured when he was at Fort Mojave. This is Leconte's 



Mocking-thrush (H. redivtvus var. Lecontei) ; I did not think it 
necessary to make a drawing of it, because an uncolored cut would 
show precisely like fig. 66. Next comes the Red-vented, or Crissal 
Thrush (H. crissalis) ; also inhabiting the Colorado and Gila 
valleys. It is fully as large as redivicus or var. Lecontei, with the 
tail even longer, and the bill, if not larger, at least slenderer and 



\ erts rich chestnut < Id 
is quite as great), and by the pres< 
iry line bounding the definitely wl 
the first good biographical 




(Am. Nat. vi, 370) ; the eggs are 1-10 X -80, large, 
unmarked. Again, we have the Curved-billed Thrush (//. curf* 
rostris) in which, notwithstanding its name, the bill is much less 
curved than in either of the last two ; the shape is shown in fig- 
68. This bird is about as large as redouts ; its peculiarities, aside 
from the bill, are, the duller coloration, pale fulvous under tail- 






ill the Key, p. 851, from Lt. Bendire's 
Bidgway's then unpublished name, " Pal- 
r to be the same as those of crlssalis; both 
I other low bushes, and their eggs are of 
; of Palmer's thrush, however, is not like 



thru>h 




i color 


, being dull pa 


lie greenish, 


over w 


ith 


brown: 


Lsh-red. 






bregoii 


ig, 


there 


is another kind 


of r 


nocking 


itherto 


ins 


known 


to naturalists. 


Soon after I 


cimena 


of 


rar. Pi 


ilmeri, Lt. Bendire se 


ntmea 



, saying it was the female of his var. Palmeri. 
I knew of no such sexual differences in this 
i presented in comparison with var. Puhneri ; 

> rest on what he told me, though I was dis- 

penning p. 351 of the Key, with the specimen be- 

n alluding to the (supposed) female of var. 

o await developments. I w 




> Lt. Ben- 



of both sexes of a 



ill alike different fro 
be appropriately na: 



differently shaped bill ; and it is, L 
ferently colored. The relationships 






ralhcr tlum the eolorat 
thai //. lhn,i;r,;\* not 



and other powers, more or less unknown, not only may be con- 
verted, the one into the other, hut that their exact equivalents may 
be stated in infallible mathematics. This had been dimly fore- 
shadowed long ago, but its final proving belongs to our day. Vital 
force, however, from its very essence is more intractable, and over- 
rides mathematical restrictions, willing (so far as we can now see) 
to acknowledge similar relations of the most general character 

There is no denying that the most sublime mental endowments 
may in the same individual be associated with the most hopelessly 
ridiculous, and we are hence prepared to accept as true, or at least 
as not improbable, that the •• greatest, wisest" of mankind could 
also be the " meanest." Indeed, second thoughts may convince us 
that surpassing intelligence in one direction, implying unbroken 
devotion to a given line of study, almost of necessity, entails a 
corresponding ignorance in other lines of mental activity for which 
no leisure hours can be found. 

But whilst we are foiled in any attempt at estimating the exact 
amount of vital or purely mental force in excess in one direction, 
which it will require to compensate for a deficiency in some other, 
we may nevertheless, with some degree of certainty atlinn that 
such relations do exist. 

Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire not only recognizes the existence of this 
principle of compensation, but has drawn largely upon it in his 
teratologic^ studies. 

De Candolle, after granting the relation between excessive 
growth and atrophy, states that it is often exceedingly difficult to 
decide whether the former determines the latter, or the con- 



333 

It is, then, with no claim to originality that this is written. I.ut 
rather to call for the more general recognition of a law already 
noted by the more observing ones. We may he unaMe to explain 
it. or. what is still more damaging to it- chances of acceptance, he 
unable to show how it is to chime in directlv with any form of evo- 
lution ; for to this' we have all now come :' still it remains a law. 
as active as any other, even though it be less sharply defined. 

If called upon to express what I believe concerning it. 1 would 
say: that all organic things, plants or animals, have a certain pro- 
portionate amount of developing force, actual or predestined, and 
that this synergy is under the direction of inherite 1 tendencies: 
which being at times misdirected, one organ or set of organs may 
take on excessive growth. Should this occur, there will be a cor- 
responding atrophy in some other organ or set of organs. Now 
against this statement of what I conceive to be underlying all 
growth, many instances can be adduced. Still the facts in its 
favor, when fairly marshalled, seem to me so preponderating as to 
make them more than mere coincidences. 

The scope of this paper allows me to cite but a few out of the 
many instances I could give. Among plants, take as an illustra- 
tion Larrea Meaeicana Mode, the creosote plant of the southwest. 
It is a representative of the bean-caper family. Inside the base 
of each filament (which is filiform) is a large two-cleft scale con- 
spicuous enough to attract attention. It is not unusual to find 
filaments whose bases are not filiform, but are broadly expanded. 
Ero<lh, m T> .,;r in ,„i Gray is a capital example of this. Besides, 
ttua same plant has an outer circle of five stamens which are 
milll,s their anthers, a fact which I might turn to account in my 
Ugkkwent did space permit. 
Noff morphology would settle the question concerning the es- 

aomological equivalents of the stipules we usually find on the right 
:u "; i'-i't sides of the petioles of leaves, and more or less intimately 
h them, only in this case instead of being lateral they 
>lar, i.e., between the petiole and the axis of the plant. 
Just as the stipules are occasionally found. To this explanation 
no exception can be taken, in so far as it goes. But the question 
still remains unanswered, why it is, when most plants have neither 
these scales nor the broad bases to their filaments, in the example 
1 have just given, where a decided tendency to cell proliferation 



334 CONSERVATION AND CORRELATION OF VITAL FORCE. 

exists, this proliferation should manifest itself in one direction 
only, i.e., either as scales or broad bases to the filaments, but not 
both in the same plant? 

Gaura, again, furnishes an example of the scales associated with 
slender filaments, and many more like cases could be brought for- 
ward. After some examination I am now unable to find a distinct^ 
uiirquirocftl contnuHrti,,,, to the principle 1 have enunciated. I 
am not prepared to affirm some do not exist. Indeed I should be 
surprised if they did not. 

The typical anther of our conception is possessed of two cells. 
Sometimes, however, there is but one, which may often be ex- 
plained by the partition wall being obliterated, and so causing the 
confluence of these usually separate cells. In Salvia (sage), how- 
ever, there is but one cell where two might certainly have been 
expected. One has gone, entirely, or at most a mere knob of 
cellular tissue may remain to suggest the missing cell. Interposed 
between the perfect and the imperfect cells is a connective, unduly 
elongated, which from its very length and association with the sep- 
arated halves of the anther serves to explain the want of develop- 
ment in the one. In other words the connective is vigorous and 
lusty at the ex] irished cell. 

Or take that illustration, almost too familiar to be alluded to 
here, the transformation of the stamens of the wild rose into the 
petals of the cultivated. It is a simple change of direction given 
to vital force, but, in so far as I can see, is no superadded power of 
development. Cultivation may turn the energies of the savage 
into a new channel, perhaps a higher one in some respects, but it 
does not follow that it is therefore, because higher in this sense, 
any indication of greater vitality or force of development. It is 
simply evidence of a transfer of power, and nothing more. 

I have now in my possession an ear of Indian corn on which the 
grains have failed to develop, the chaff surrounding the grains 
being on the other hand enormously overgrown. If this instance 
stood alone I should be willing to admit that the failure of the 
grains to grow simply allowed room for their envelope to take on 
so unusual a size. I could, however, were I disposed, cite a long 
list of cases in which so mechanical an explanation would fail. I 
will quote a few, freely translated from Moquin-Tandon. 

"M. Duval has observed flowers of verbaseum, in which the fil- 
aments of the stamens took on an unusual growth, and at the 



same time lost the usual hairs."* "In certain excessive develop- 
ments of the parts of the vegetable the hairs abort incompletely, 
or entirely." f » Mr. Joseph de Caffarelli has given to me a some- 
what dwarfed branch of bitter-sweet, which is covered with an 
enormous number of small hairs." + "In Phleum Boehmori the 
interior palet of the flower is dilated sometimes beyond measure; 
the edges then are soldered together at the base ; at the same time 
the superior palet, and the pedicel of the rudimentary flower, abort 
entirely." § 

"I have observed a monstrosity of Faba vuh/aris, the stipules 
of which had taken on an enormous increase ; they were changed 
into oval, foliaceous limbs, half arrow-shaped and slightly sinuous ; 
at the same time the limbs of the ordinary leaves had disappeared 
entirely." j| 

"In a monstrosity of Muscari comosum, all the flowers had 
aborted ; at the same time the peduncles had become longer." f 

;ated to the Societe d' Agri- 
e of corn which presented a 
curious example of this last balance ; all the flowers were found 
in a normal condition except one, of which the calicinal envelopes 
b«d taken on a growth almost double their natural size ; the sur- 
face of this flower was covered with a thick coat of hairs, and its 
:t PP<?arance resembled much that of a flower of the "folle avoine."** 
'"In some flowers the atrophy of the stamens coincides with the 
'hy of the pistils. For example, in certain individuals of 
f-lfhlaus ili.nra the male organs are found dilated, so that the pis- 
tils are represented by small, gland-like bodies ; but in the other 
• flowers the female organs are much developed, so that the stamens 

• i"'-"o Am urns, and in Snhim RhodiokiS'Ti In this last quotation 
w e have plants associating themselves with such as our Hviistonia 
ttBTKfea in which, (belonging to hermaphrodite genera) there is a 

anifest tendency to assume that higher sexual or_ 
where the individual shall be prepotently either male or female, 
a s the one or the other set of organs takes on unusual growth. 
ids, it seems to be a good illustration of the principle 
"' v;:; " compensation applied to function as well as to structure. 

Mr. Thomas Meehan has furnished us a case directly in point 



in Fnif/an'a vesca L. I quote him almost verbatim. "When it 
does not produce stolons, the number of flower spikes is increased, 
and, as they cannot run as stolons, they make up for this by con- 
tinual axial production, bearing a succession of flowers through 
the whole season." 

"Sometimes the runner party will so get the upper hand that the 
pistils will be entirely suppressed, in which case the runners push 
out with so much enthusiasm as to crowd down and frequently 
destroy their floriferous neighbors. In fact, just in proportion as 
the plant becomes truly fruit bearing, and with a tendency to pro- 
duce a succession of fruit on the same stock, is the tendency to 
produce runners checked." He then gives a modification of the 
above, but which is still a case in point.* 

The same journal contains, a description of a douhle early saxi- 
frage with a small panicle, tlouhl<> ih, ><■<-,-* and i»> tnu-p of either 

The animal kingdom would furnish us with still more striking 
• ■ns. A fact I had long suspected concerning hydroceph- 
alic children met lately with a most unexpected confirmation in 
the liisiii many of one of the most distin- 

guished living pathologists. "The process of enlargement in 
these cases is often one of simple growth, and that indeed to 
a less extent than it may seem at first sight; for it is very rarely 
that the due thickness of the skull is attained while its bones are 
engaged in the extension of their superficial area. Hence the 
weight of an h>/(lr'>cr r h,ili. sk"/l is not much, if at all, greater than 
that of a heajth;, one ; a large parietal bone, measuring nine inches 

nreighs only lour ounces, while the weight of an ordi- ■ 
nary parietal bone is about three ounces." \ 

In his admirable text-book on "Diseases of Children," 2d edi- 
tion, page 298, Dr. J. Lewis Smith under head of "Anencephalie 
Children," writes :— "The vault of the cranium is absent. There 
is a deficiency of the frontal, parietal and occipital hones, except 
those portions which are near the base of the cranium. These por- 
tions are very thick and closely united as if there were the nsiad 
amount 0/ osseous substance, hut instead of expanding into the 
arch, it 1::: . ■• ma- at the ha*e of the era- 



Quoting again from the same author we are told: — "Hy- 
pertrophy of the brain is associated with rachitis, and stunted 
growth."* Under rachitis, he informs us that, "while in the 
first and second stages, there is an arrest of ossification and a 
deficiency of calcareous salts in the system, there is often in the 
third stage, as Lebert has stated, an exuberance of ossili.-ation 
and a superabundant deposit of the salts of lime, so that the re- 
constructed bone is stronger and firmer than the normal bone."f 

Here then it would seem as though the compensation might 
extend over different intervals of time, one period being marked 
by a plus quantity, another by a minus:— a happy illustration 
of what John Hunter called the " body's memory." For this we 
are not entirely unprepared. The " stale" condition of overtrained 
pugilists is us nmch due,. after all (some things lead us to sup- 

dissipation ; and the early break down of so many of our best col- 
lege gymnasts is but another fact in the same category. Overdraw 
your bank deposit at one time and you are left a debtor at another. 

I'ailure of the long bones to properly develop in thei 
dnial direction under certain conditions of disease is connected 
with undue thickening of the same bone. 

Turning now to the domain of surgery proper:-- it is probable 
that the vast majority of new growths will be found to occur in 
advanced age. 01 at leasi after the "prime of life." I exclude 

So commonly do we find scirrhus tumors of the breast asso- 

• 'eliniuLi year-, that age is always made an element 

of the diagnosis. The testimony of Paget on this point is most 

explicit. His table of the frequency of cancer at the different 

periods of life is 

Between 10 and 20 years 6-9 



great between seventy and eighty years as at ten years of age. 

Does it not seem as though the still unused strength, lacking 

■ . ■ - > ■ • : ■ ■ .. 

the development of a low grade of cells whose vitality was 

ufficient for their own stability? This however is but a poor 
hypothesis to account for a well proved fact. 

Be all this as it may, however, of this there is no doubt :— that 
after the removal of an external, malignant growth at an advanced 
stage of development, the chances of disease of the same character 
attacking an internal organ are greatly increased : hence prolon- 
gation of life is seldom gained by a surgical operation.* 

Mr. John Simon gives an explanation of some of these facts I 
have derived from medical literature. I quote him, as they pos- 
- antagonism 
effected through the general circulation, there probably are antag- 
onisms of a local character; and parts which arc respectively 
supplied by different contiguously-rising branches of one arterial 
trunk seem specially able thus to antagonize each other. For 
assuming the flow through an arterial trunk to remain the same, 
one branch, or set of branches can only transmit more blood, if, 
simultaneously, another branch or set of branches transmit less ; 
and we may well conceive it to be an important function of vaso- 
motor nerves to provide for the adjustment of this antagonism, by 
establishing such inter-. >r the relative opening 

of one branch shall determine the relative closure of another."! 
If not too mechanical and in contravention of vasi-motor function, 
I would venture to suggest that the relative closure of one branch 
might determine the opening of another, by forcing more blood 
through the latter. This would only account for those instance* 
of the organic balance in which the plus and minus were in 
organs supplied from the same arterial trunk, i.e., anatomi 
tives. On the next page however the same author takes a more 
comprehensive view of his subject and says : — -Ttxtnral excitabil- 
ity perhaps is not so exclusively local but that in this respect also 
these may be conditions of inter-textural balance ; the total excita- 



bility of the body at any given moment being perhaps of fixed 
amount ; so that with regard to excitement, just as with regard to 
blood-supply, plus in one organ would imply minus in another."* 

I am unable to say just what views were entertained on this 
subject by Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire : — not having access to his 
writings. Milne-Edwards gives the following clear statement of 
his own opinion. "The principle of connection of organs regu- 
lating the place occupied by each; a tendency to an organic bal- 
ancement, equipoise, or compensation when the development of an 
organ acts, as it were, injuriously upon others, as if the amount of 
vital force were restricted and limited.! '* 

Finally, I quote the following at second hand from Meckel. It 
seems almost too strange to be true, but as the authority is above 
reproach we can only accept it as a fact. Let it be observed that 
here, however, " this antithesis extends over different children of 
one and the same mother. A girl had on each extremity a super- 
fluous digit, and one hand of her sister wanted four, being the 
number of digits which her sister had in excess, reckoning the four 
extremities together. J " 

These are a few out of the immense mass of similar illustrations 
I might bring forward in support of my belief in an absolute law 
at the bottom of these correlations of structure, and may I not 
add : — often of function ? 

There are many facts on the other hand, which seem to militate 
against it. But it appears to me most likely that as we more 
thoroughly understand the principles of biology, in the same meas- 
ure will our exceedingly vague ideas on this subject become more 
determined and absolute :— in fact the evidence must almost of 
necessity, like that in favor of the theory of gravitation, become of 
• character. Any other supposition would imply a 
belief in the ancient idea of a lusus naturce, which is opposed to 
the most firmly grounded dogmas of modern science. 

Any decided deductions in the v. sitions con- 

cerning this law are as yet premature, but the following may 
find some support in the cases I have already given :— 

1st. That organs anatomically or physiologically related tend 
to compensate among themselves for any aberration of structure 
or function. 






2nd. That an organ over-developed in one direction will be 
under-developed in some other : e.g., the case of the long bones, 
already cited. 

3rd. Thai time may be an element in this compensation : i.<\ 

in rachitis deficient deposit of 1 y material may be followed 

later in the disease by an excessive deposit of it in the same 



This daring and spirited little hawk (Fako columbarius) , which 
is peculiar to this continent, is found more or less common all 
over the United States and extend- its migrations beyond the 
limits both north and south. Dr. Eichardson says " it is not 
uncommon in 57° north latitude." Cassin says "it is found both 
on the Pacific and Atlantic coast and its locality may be stated as 
the whole of temperate North America." Audubon found them 
quite abundant in Texas " where he shot five in a short time." I 
am somewhat at a loss to know what interpretation to put upon 
the word abundant as used by Audubon. If it is received ac- 
cording to the common acceptation of the word, it is wholly at , 
variance with my experience, and with that of my collectors, and 
of those with whom I exchange. The fact of shooting five in a 
short time proves nothing as to its abundance. They may all 
have belonged to one brood. Allen, in his ornithological notes on 
the birds of the Great Salt Lake valley, says that " the pigeon 
hawk and duck hawk were both frequent." This is I think the 
most that can be said of the abundance of this hawk anywhere. 

rare. Nuttall says, "It is, I believe, never seen in New England." 
For many years I believed that he was correct in this assertion, 
for, having used my gun quite frequently in Vermont, Massachu- 
setts and Connecticut for twenty-three years prior to 1859, 1 had 



never shot a ore, from 1847 to 1859, 

many, and probably most, of the hawks shot in this vicinity were 
brought to me, as it was known my museum was free to all, and 
consequently every one was interested to increase the number of 
specimens and enhance the attractions and value of my cabinet. 
and during this time not a single specimen of the pigeon hawk 
was brought to my office, although it was generally known that 

more specimens brought to me that the ^portsnien called pigeon 
hawks, consisting mostly of Cooper'-, sparrow, and sharp-shinned 
hawks, mostly the latter. Dr. Crary, of Hartford, who was several 
years my senior in collecting, had not shot or received a single 
specimen from New England prior to this time. With these facts 
before me I was prepared to endorse the assertion of NuttalL 
The habits of some of our birds were not as well understood then 
as at present. We are now aware that oftentimes there is a lapse 
of several years between the times of visitation. Thus it has 
been with the pigeon hawk. In 1859 they were as common as any 
of our Rapacia. In 1860 they were less common, and since that 
time I have only occasionally received a specimen — one in 181 1* 
and none the past season. They probably have left again for an 
indefinite period. 

This bird when sitting on a tree so closely resembles a pigeon 
that it will oftentimes deceive the most expert hunter. One of the 
specimens brought me was shot for a pigeon, and the mistake waa 
not discovered until the bird was picked up. It is from this strik- 
ing similarity that I suppose it derives its name. Its flight is very 
rapid, and the daring spirit that it exhibits is not surpassed by any 
''ii'd of its size, for it will not only attack birds larger than itself, 
bat it 1 en been known to seize birds suspended in cages 
beside the house. When shot at and not wounded it will fly in 
circles over the head of the sportsman uttering short piercing 
shrieks. The little corporal hawk of Nuttall, and the Fcdco 
temerarius of Audubon, are one and the same bird, and are now 






■ 



far as is known to ornithologists it 
may take several years. It would seem from the testimony of 
Cassin to be at least three years. He says, " There are three well 
defined stages exhibited in a large number of specimens before 



me." "Of these the adult i- i and is very 

nearly as figured by Audubon under the name of Falco temerariu*, 
but of the other two plumages we cannot at present determine 
which is the more mature." This hawk is culled by some the 
bullet hawk on account of its rapid flight. It is one of the most 
destructive of our rapacious birds. Says Samuels, "As he strikes 
his prey he almost alwajs, instead of clutching it as it falls, 
alights after it has fallen, in the same manner as the great-footed 

There seems to be some doubt about its nesting in New Eng- 
land or New York. Says Dr. Brewer, " I have inquired into the 
matter for the past forty years, and I have yet to know of the 
first instance of the nest and eggs of the pigeon hawk having 
ever been found in any part of Massachusetts. That it inay 
breed in some mountainous and wild region is of course possible, 
and my inability to trace it is only negative testimony." Says 
G. A. Boardman of Maine, " I have never found the nest of the 
pigeon hawk, but have no doubt it breeds here, as I shoot it all 
summer and winter ; it probably nests in some thick trees not easily 
•seen. It is not a very common hawk with us." Says Samuels, " It 
is not improbable that it breeds in New England, although I do not 
remember of an authenticated instance." Says DeKay, " It is not 
uncommon in this state (New York). It does not so far as I have 
ascertained breed here." I have for thirty-six years used my gun 
in Vermont, Massachusetts and Connecticut, having resided in 
each of the above named States. I have followed the valley of the 
Connecticut river to its mouth — have followed the Green moun- 
tain range from Vermont into Connecticut without finding the nest 
of the pigeon hawk. For the last twenty years I have employed 
collectors in New England to gather birds and eggs for me, and 
have not received an egg of this bird. (The same can be said of 
my collectors in other parts of the United States.) Notwithstand- 
ing all this negative testimony I am of the opinion that they nest 
in 1859 I received six specimens 
of this bird shot in May. June mid August, and it seems improb- 
able that six should remain here through the ne-ting season and 
not breed. In May, 1860, a gentleman who resides some five miles 
hawk came almost every day and 
carrie d off a chicken for him — that it never missed, for it went so 
like lightning that there was no escaping its grasp. He said that 



it always came in the same direction from a tract of woods near 
his house. Thinking from his description that it must be either 
the sharp-shinned, sparrow, or pigeon hawk, and believing that 
it must have a nest near, and wishing to obtain the eggs, I drove 
out. Accompanied by my friend, we carefully searched the woods 
without finding anything except the nest of the red-shouldered 
hawk. The next day the same little hawk returned and was shot, 
and is now in my collection, a beautiful representative of the pigeon 
hawk. I have no doubt that it had a nest al >< >ut there, as it was the 
season for nesting, and it always came from, and .went to the same 
piece of woods and in the same direction. If it had not young, it 
must have been carrying food to its mate while incubating. If a 
mere straggler, it would come and go without any definite place 
of resort. Our inability to find the nest was not strange, as there 
were some sixty or eighty acres of .heavy -timbered oaks and pines 

There seems to be some diversity of opinion as to where they 
nest, as well as to the color and number of eggs. Hatching informs 
us that it nests in hollow rocks and trees about Hudson's Bay- 
making its nest of sticks and lining it with feathers, and laying 
from two to four white eggs marked with red spots, while Audubon 
says "that in Labrador he found three nests placed on the top 
branches of the low fir trees, composed of sticks slightly lined with 
moss and featln rs. and th t ea< 1 m ~t < < ntained five eggs of a dull 
yellowish brown color thickly clouded with irregular blotches of dull 
'dark reddish brown." He also found another nest with five young 
in it. Nuttall says •• that it chiefly inhabits and rears its young in 
the southern states." Dr. Brewer says Nuttall is probably mis- 
taken, as "The pigeon hawk i> distributed in the breeding season 
throughout the northern part of North America It breeds as far 
to the south as Maine on the Atlantic coast, and California on the 
Pacific." « In every instance when I have heard of the pigeon 
hawk as a summer resident south of Maine it has proved to be the 
sharp-shinned hawk {Accipiter fuscus) ." And furthermore he says, 
in alluding to its nesting in hollow trees, "This is a condition in 
which the nest of the pigeon hawk is never found, and one in which 
no other hawk than the sparrow hawk is ever found." Dr. Abbott 
of New Jersey claims to have found a nest with young in it in a 
hollow sycamore tree near Trenton, in May, 1863, and to have found 






How are these differ- 



ences to be reconciled? Further investigation alone can settle 
them. The egg in ray cabinet was taken in Labrador and is well 
represented on plate first, figure first of Samuels' Ornithology. 
Long diameter 1 T ^ ; short diameter 1 T %. 

As I have only one egg, and as the number of specimens I have 
seen has been quite limited, I cannot -peak authoritatively upon 
the subject. I will only say that the markings are almost exactly 
like those of the duck hawk described in my previous article on 
the game falcons of New England. They look like diminutive 
iv's eggs. 

In this as in all birds of prey, so far as I have investigated the 
subject, the female is the largest and most powerful bird. Fe- 
male—length, 12 to 14 inches; alar extent, 24 to 27 inches. 
Male — length, 10 to 12 inches ; alar extent, 23 to 25 inches. 

The adult male is seldom taken here, perhaps one in twelve or 
fifteen specimens. As the description of the three stages of plu- 
mage is given so accurately by Mr. Cassin, and corresponds with 
my observations, I will give each stage as described by him. 

Adult male. "Entire upper parts bluish slate color, every 
feather with a Mack longitudinal line: 1'oi'ohcad and throat white. 
other under parts pale yellowish or reddish white ; every leather 
with a longitudinal line of brownish black; tibia? light ferru- 
ginous with lines of black. Quills black, tipped with ashy white ; 
tail light bluish ashy, tipped with white and with a subteruunal 
band of black, and with several other transverse narrower bauds 
of black ; inner webs nearly white ; cere and legs yellow ; bill 

Younger. Entire upper plumage dusky brown, quite light in 

row stripes of dark brown and ferruginous, and in ^.ome speci- 
mens many irregular spots and edgings of the latter color on the 
other upper parts. Forehead and entire under parts dull white, 
the latter n , g Q f light brown ; sides and flanks 

light brown, with pairs of circular spots of white ; tibue dull white, 
with dashes of brown : tail pale brown, with about six transverse 
bands of white, cere and legs greenish yellow. 

Young. Upper plumage brownish black, white of the forehead 

and under parts more deeply tinged vh . re ii-h yellow : dark 

icr than in the preceding; sides and Hanks with wide 

transverse bands of brownish black, and with circular spots of 



In 1859 I finished the manuscript of a geological map of the 
earth, which appeared two years after al Wintertliiu-. Switzerland. 
in eight sheets, on a scale of ? j.„- J (J ., M . The map. prepared 1 >y the 
learned geographer, my friend M. J. M. Ziegler. on Mercator's plan, 
although defective as regards certain details of execution resulting 
from my departure from Zurich to Boston, has, however, been re- 
ceived with favor by geologists as filling a desideratum in science. 
Some reductions and translations, with my consent, have been 
made in German, French and English, f 

I have now just finished the manuscript of a second edition, 
intended to be placed in the International Exposition of Vienna, 
in May, 1873. 

Not only have I carefully reviewed all the materials used in pre- 
paring the first edition ; but also profited by numerous and impor- 
tant additions published during the past fourteen years, and have 
had in my hands a certain number of inedited geological maps and 
observations, which have been very liberally furnished by geolo- 
gists who have explored and inhabited different countries remote 
•^ difficult of access. Let us pass in review very succinctly the 
more important of these new materials. 

In the Arctic regions several expeditions have enabled us to 
color geologically a part of the islands of Spitzbergen, of Green- 
land, and to modify the geological age of the coal deposits of the Is- 
lands of Disco. Princi Patrick and Bank's Land. M. Nordenskiold 



346 

has published at Stockholm a "Sketch of the Geology of Spits- 
bergen," where he recognizes the crystalline rocks, the Palaeozoic, 
Carboniferous, Triassic. Jurassic and Tertiary. But the most un- 
expected discoveries, in latitudes so high, are those of terrestrial 
lloras. dating at the miocene tertiary epoch, when, according to 
Professor O. Heer, all the northern polar region was covered with 
a vegetation analogous to that which to-day exists in the south- 
ern part of the temperate region of the northern hemisphere. 

The geological survey of the kingdom of Norway directed by 
Prof. Kjerulf, besides some important modifications in the geo- 
graphical distribution of rocks of the southern part of this country, 
has discovered a coal field of great interest from its geog 
position, in one of the isles of the group of Loffoden, the island 
of Ando, as well as its geological age. which dates from the Juras- 
sic epoch, as the coal bed of the coast of Yorkshire. 

The great geological map of the entire Austro-llungarian mon- 
archy, published by M. F. R. von llauer. has enabled us to rectify 
and to give more precision to the geology of the Eastern Alps, of 
Carpathia, of Dalmatia and Hungary. General Helmerseii pub- 
lished at St. Petersburg, in 1863, a new edition of the _ 
map of Russia, based on that of Messrs. Murchison, Verneuil and 
Keyserling. But the most important modifications have been 
made in Russian geology by the researches of Messrs. Ladwig, 
Barbot de Marny, V. de Moller and Wagner, who have demon- 
strated the existence of an enormous Triassic formation, extend- 
ing over a considerable extent of country, and which had been 
confounded and comprised by Sir K>i ri.k Murchison and his 
collaborators with the Zechstein ami Rot hi icgemlr. under the im- 
proper name of the Permian system. This question of the Rus- 
sian "Dyas and Trias," raised by me in 1859, has received a defi- 
nite and entire solution in the sense of my views, in the important 
work "Dyas" by Dr. II. B. Geinitz, Leipzig, 1862, and in "The 
Geological Map of the Western Slope of the Ural " by Vah'rien de 
Moller, St. Petersburg, 1869. 

The geology of Egypt and Palestine has been especially modified 
by the researches of my friend Dr. Oscar Fraas. who has kindly 
sent me besides his journey entitled "To the Orient," a manuscript 
geological map of those regions. The English military expedition 
to Abyssinia has been of the greatest advantage to geology, and 
Mr. W. T. Blanford, of the Geological Surv. \ of In i.n. who accom- 



347 

panied the expedition, has published a geological map of the route 
traversed by the English army. For along time geologist- have 
di-agreed as to the age of a great sandstone formation designated 
generally under the name •• Nubian Sandstone," and in the first 
edition of the "Geological Map of the World," I have referred 
these sandstones to the New Red Sandstone (Dyas and Trias) 
by basing my conclusions on the lithology and on a piece of fossil 
wood found in Egypt, and described by Professor I'nger. -M. 
Louis Lartet, jr., after a journey in these regions, believed that lie 
had discovered a complete and exact solution of the age of these 
sandstones ; and in his work entitled " Essaj T on the Geology of 
Palestine, Egypt and Arabia," Paris, 1869, as also in a note in- 
serted in the " Bulletin of the Geological Society of France," vol. 
xxv. p. 400, under the title of "On a Special Formation of Red 
Sandstones in Africa and Asia" he refers them not only to the 
Cretaceous formation, but even the horizon of the Gault and of the 
an chalk ; and on a geological map he shows this forma- 
tion extending from Lebanon, by Sinai, to the Cataracts of As- 
souan as far as Karthoum. Mr. Plan ford has indicated these 
Nubian Sandstones, which he has named Adrigat Sandstone, under 
some fossiliferous limestones containing a Jurassic fauna and 
which he has named " Antalo Limestone," and he is led to regard 
the .Nubian Sand-tones as of the age of the New Red Sand-tone 
(Dyas and Trias). As regards Sinai, two English observers, 
Messrs. Wilson and Holland have shown in these Nubian Sand- 
stones the presence of some carboniferous fossils, or at least of 
fossils of the age of the Dyas. Thus the determination of the 
epoch of the 'New Red Sandstone for the Nubian Sandstone ap- 
pears to be confirmed. 

The geology of India has continued to be the object of very im- 
portant lesearches on the part of Thos. Oldham and his assistants 
in the geological survey of this vast empire. My friend Mr. Old- 
ham has kindly sent me a manuscript map which modifies greatly 
the results which I had accepted for the first edition of my map. 

In China, we have had some data quite exact on several points, 
thanks to the researches of Messrs. Kingsmill. the Abbe David. 
Pumpelly and Bickmore. Professor E. Beyrieh has published a 
work on the Island of Timor, and M. Jules Gamier has given a 
geological map of New Caledonia. 

Kew Zealand, thanks to the researches of Messrs. Ferdinand Von 



348 THE GEOLOGICAL MAP OF THE WORLD. 

Hochstetter, Julius Haast and James Hector, is to-day completely 
known, and I owe to the kindness of the two last named savants. 
a manuscript geological map of these isles, which ha just ap 
peared at Wellington under the title of "Sketch Map of the Ge- 
ology of New Zealand." 

No country has made so much progress in geology during the 
last twelve years as Australia. The discovery am I search for gold 
have certainly contributed to it, and the different colonies have 
devoted considerable sum-, towards sustaining geological surveys 
and mining statistics. The colony of Victoria especially has shown 
the example in the construction of a good geological map by 
Messrs. Selwyn, Brough Smyth, Ulrich, Henry Y. L. Brown, etc. 
From Tasmania I have received a manuscript map of all of Van 
Diemen's Land by Mr. Charles (lould, who fur several years has 
directed the Geological Survey. In New South Wales the Rev. 

eralities on this part of the Australian Continent; and Mr. K. 
Daintree has just published a •■Sketeli Map of the Geology of 
Queensland" (Quart. Journ. of the Geol. Soc. of London, vol. 
xxviii, p. 271, 1872.) Finally, during these last two years Mr. 
Henry V. L. Brown has made a geological reconnoissance of West- 
ern Australia. 

Mr. AltVe pveii in grand outlines the general 

characters of the island of Madagascar, wl i. h at hears to have 
almost nothing in common with s,,irl, An- a. Mule it possesses 



ially since the discovery of the diamond mines, been" the object of 
geological researches, which allow us to trace with considerable 
exactitude the principal lines of its geognostical constitution. 
The geological map of the colony of Xatal has been published by 
Mr. C. L. Griesbach. and the irreat formation of the Karoo Sand- 
stone, analogous to and probably identical with the Nubian Sand- 
stone, has been studied with care by Messrs. G. W. Stow, G. Grey, 
Atkerstone and Evans. Messrs. Jones and Huxley have coordi- 
nated and expressed general views on researches made on the same 
localities ; and I owe to the friendship of Professor T. Rupert 
Jones a manuscript map reviewing all that has been done in this 
southern portion of the African continent. 

In the New World Messrs. Musters and F. de Pourtales have 



OF THE WORLD. 349 

discovered a group of extinct volcanoes between the River Gal- 
legos. Cape Virgins and the eastern entrance of Magellan Straits. 
in Patagonia. Professor Burmeister, Director of the Museo Pub- 
lico of Buenos Ayres, has sent me a manuscript geological map of 
the Argentine Republic, and Mr. David Forbes has published a 
new geological map of a part of Bolivia and Pern, which slightly 
modifies the most complete and detailed one of the late Alcide 
d' Orbigny. 

In Brazil some great modifications and corrections have been 
introduced by the researches of Messrs. Hartt, Coutinho, Clnmd- 
less and Orton, especially in the basin of the Amazons, and on the 
shore of the Atlantic Ocean. The Devonian and Carboniferous 
formations have been traced to Mont Erere and to the first Cat- 
aract of the River Tapajos ; the Cretaceous formation is found in 
upper Puvus, and the Tertiarv formation near Pebas on the River 
Maranon. 

Mr. Charles B. Brown has sent me a manuscript geological map 
of Knglish Guiana, the geological survey of which he has directed 
for several years. The same savant published several years ago, 
in collaboration with Mr. J. G. Sawkins, a detailed geological map 
of Jamaica. 

Venezuela and the United States of Columbia, or New Granada, 
have been explored by Messrs. Rogias, Uricoechea and Dr. Maaek, 
all of whom have very kindly communicated to me their interest- 
ing and difficult researches. The republics of San Salvador and 
of Guatemala have been explored by the late August Dollfus and 
M. E. de Montserrat. who have given a geological map of them. 
Finally, Baron F. von Gerolt, for a long time Prussian minister to 
Mexico, has published in New York a geological map of a part 
of the vast plateau, principally of volcanic origin, which extends 
between Puebla, Guerrero, Guanujuato and San Luis Potosi in 
Mexico. 

The United States and the British Provinces of North America 
have continued to be the object of numerous researches and geo- 
logical publications. I may signalize especially (1) in Hudson's 
Lay Territory the explorations of Messrs. J. Hector, Kennicott. 
Hind, Bell and Richardson ; (2) the numerous journeys and stud- 
ies of Dr. Hayden on the Upper Missouri ; (3) the r 
discoveries of Dr. Newberry in Arizona and New Mexico, of 
Messrs. C. King, Remond de Corbineau, H. Engelmann, S. F. 



OOO THE GEOLOGICAL MAP OF THE "WORLD. 

Emmons, Marsh, Cope and Gilbert in California, Nevada, Utah, 
Wyoming, Colorado and Sonora. 

I have preserved the same classification of rocks and the same 
colors, except for the pliocene formation, which I have taken out 
of the tertiary formation to place it with the quaternary and 
ifHr.U'i'ii ;'...:. ;i . ]U1 , ]V nihilities. 






-H2Ss£l—» 



The classification of stratified rocks is merely provisional, and it 
is really accurate but only for the northern temperate zone, and even 
in that zone it is limited to the basins of the Atlantic Ocean and 
of the Mediterranean Sea. However, as we go from these limits, 
and as we arrive in India or on the Missouri and in California, 
then we em- i;1 t have been noticed and treated 

of quite plainly by most observers, which are obstacles which ran 
not be passed over in silence nor yet avoided. For a stronger 
reason when we leave the north temperate zone, we find some 
anomalies and ilitficulties which, far from tending to be cleared up 
with time, on the contrary prove more and more the insufficiency 
of our classifications and the slight value of so-culled paheontc- 
logmal laws. Let us cite some summary examples : — 

In the Punjab, on the southern side of the Salt Range, near 
Jabi, Dr. William Waa-rn has just found some "Goniatites, 
Ceratites and Ammonites all together in a limestone bed of about 
one foot and a half in thickness, associated with unmistakable 
Producti, Athyris, etc." (See : On the Occurrence of Ammonites 
associated with Ceratites and Goniatites in the Carboniferous 
deposits of the Salt Range, "Mem. Geol. Surv. of India," vol. 
ix, art. 4. That is to say that there occur in the same beds, fossil 



forms which in Central Europe indicate Carboniferous. Triassic 
and Jurassic formations. 

In the Valley of the Missouri the forms of fossil Brachiopods, 
which in Europe charach -ri/.i- the Mountain Limestone, such as 
Product!, Athyris, Spirifer, etc., are found in some beds which 
contain at the same time some other fossils, of which the forms 
Allorisma, Solemia, Schizodus and l'leurophonis, indicate in 
Europe the Dyas (formerly improperly calh'd lVrmian). Thus 
several geologists have ignored the existence of the Dyas in 
Nebraska, in Iowa, and in Illinois, and have sought to substitute 
for it a formation of passage that they name Dyaso or Permio- 
Carboniferous. 

In California the forms of Tertiary and Cretaceous fossils are 
.mixed together in such a way that some refer some groups of rocks 
to the Cretaceous formation, while others regard them as of the 
Tertiary epoch. 

In Australia, some beds containing Carboniferous Brachiopods 
are found placed beneath and even alternately with coal containing 
a flora regarded in Yorkshire (England) as Jurassic. Finally in 
New Zealand, the formations called Secondary seem to be entirely 
obliterated ; and it has been necessary to unite some rocks in the 
same groups under the bizarre name of upper Palaeozoic or lower 
Secondary, ignorant to which of the two to refer them ; and of 
the upper Secondary or lower Tertiary. 

These examples show that our classifications and our laws are 
still imperfect, and also the progress there remains to be made in 
order to thoroughly know the history of the earth. The attempts 
at classifications of eruptive and stratified rocks ; those, not less 
numerous, of the relative ages of interruptions in the deposits of 
stratified rocks ; the study of the breaks and dislocations which 
have taken place on the surface of our planet, and of the relations 
Which may exist between the one and the other, are all premature 
attempts, and of doubtful value. Having a knowledge, not even 
very profound, of some localities, theorizers have launched into 
the midst of generalities the value of which is very debatable even 
in the interests of geology. But as it is a qua 
of always wishing to theorize and to go from the particular to the 
general, and as we are always fond of simple explanations and a 



■A\\ mil 



for all 1 



unveil and render themselves masters of the I 



nature, and who expose them in certain brilliant mathematie laws, 
enhanced by the attraction of difficulties overcome, and of secrets 
unveiled. Vain efforts ! They are only deceiving mirages. Ten, 
twenty, thirty years of observation dissipate them, and demon- 
strate their insufficiency and falsity. It is observation alone. 
Observe ! Always observe ! Do not leave a single corner of the 
globe without the minute observations of travelling and of resi- 
dent geologists ; and then we can generalize, and the mysteries of 
our planet will be unveiled and systematized in a synthesis, solid, 
logical with facts, well bah losophical. 



REVIEWS AND BOOK NOTICES. 

Geology of Montana.* — Full of interest as this volume is to 
naturalists and geologists, it also forms the most authentic account 
we have of the youngest of our territories ; and as such, with its 
fully illustrated accounts of the hot springs and geysers of the 
YeHowstone and it.- tributaries, the graphic description of the 
wonders of the Yellowstone lake and falls, and of the Yellowstone 
National Park, together with the results of Messrs. Lesquereux 
and Cope's pabeontologieal discoveries, will make the work excel- 
lent reading for any one not specially versed in science. 

The White Mountain hot springs on Gardiner's River, will first 
engage our attention. They are not so numerous nor so wonderful 
as those of the Yellowstone valley or Fire Hole basin, but are 
much more accessible, and were, at the time the party surveyed 
them, frequented by a number of invalids, especially those suffer- 
ing from cutaneous diseases. We quote Prof. Hayden's account. 

"We pitched our camp at the foot of the principal mountain, by 
the side of the stream I „_ legated waters of the 

hot springs above, which, bv the time tin- 

iently cooled for our use. Before us was a hill 200 feet 
high, composed of the calcareous deposit of the hot springs, with 
a system of step-like terraces which would def'v any description by 
words. The eye alone could com- 
the mind. The steep sides of t ited with a 



Villi tile n|- 



o.j 4 



with sides from 2 to 8 feet hi<rh are form 
designs proportionately coarse, hut when .... 
myriads of the little basins are formed. ..n 
a kind of irregnlar system, as it niiulit he <-. 




"Liberty Cap (Fig. 71) is un- 
says our author, " the remains of an extinct geyser." 
K-as forced up with considerable power, and probably 
amission, building up its own crater until the pressure 
s exhausted, and 1 1 osed itself over at 



the height of '2 to -4 feet. But it is to the wonderful 
exquisitely delicate colors that this picture owes the n: 
its attractiveness. The little orifices from which the 
issues are beautifully enamelled with the porcelain-like 
around the edges a layer of sulphur is precipitated. A 
flows along the valley, it lays down in its course a pave 
beautiful and elaborate in it- adornment than art has e\ 

vegetation, tint the whole with au illumination of which 

tion-painter has ever dreamed. From the sides of 

out at different I groups of the s< 

We will then follow our party to the basin of the Y 

"The area of this basin is about forty miles in length. Fron 

summit of Mount Wa-ddmrn. a bird"s-eye view of the entire 1 

may be obtained, with the mountains surrounding it on every 

without any apparent break in the rim. This basin has been e; 

probable that din in- t! I'li«>i u<- p« -d th.- entire country « In 

oi" as great vol. anie activiU as that of any portion of the g 
It might be called one vast crater, i 

volcanic vents audi tissures. out of which the thud interior o 
earth, fragments of rock, and volcanic du>t were poured in 

10,000 to 11,000 feet above the sea. Mounts Doaae, Lang 
Stevenson, and nion than; luiud 

any high point on either side of the basin, each of which f->i 
a centre of effusion. Indeed, the hot springs and geysers ,,; 
region, at the present time, are nothing more than the ck 
stages of thai ?i " u that ! "- : 

Tertiary times. In other words, they are the escape-pipes ,,-• , 

continually dying out." 



The celebrated Falls of the Yellowstone (Fig. 73) i 
two pitches, one 1 10 feet, mid the other a quarter of a n 
where the river plunges down a distance of 350 feet, hit 
whose walls are 1200 to 1500 feet high, and ••decorate. 




lutiful colors that the human eye ever saw, with the re 
id into an almost unlimited variety of forms." ... I 
ar more beautiful, though not so grand or impressive 



loftv range of mountains now surrounding'it formed 


the rim. 




period -■!' 




•('. though 


limit-. perhaps, could not now In' ea-ily deliued : b 




later period inclosed within the rim. The basis r< 








surface is exceedingly irregular, and tilling up these 


> irregular 










the time of the drainage of this lake, were deposite 




volcanic clays, sands^ sandstones, and pudding-: 




reach an aggregate thickness of son to 1,000 feet 




Upper Falls the Yellowstone Hows over a hard, ha 


-altic bed 






transition from the hard basalt to the more yield! 





- ,'Lm 


lic-h it is m< 




- 


LdeTof't 





; --■ - '. :: ■:....-■.,, . . ' : . ^ ■ 

; -.■":"...■■•■ " ■■■■--■ ■> v.; ..- 

or canon, it is simply I 
age of the old lake-basin." 

The Yellowstone lake is described in glowing terms. It is 22 
miles long from north to south, averaging 10 or 15 miles in widtn 
from east to west, with a depth of 300 feet. " It is fed by the 
snows that fall upon the lofty ranges of mountains that surround 



it on every side. The water of the lake has at all seaso 
the temperature of cold spring-water." 

Happily this wonderful basin, or Yellowstone Park, ha: 
gress been set apart as a National Park, and thus its ai 
will remain forever free to all, and we trust safe from injury by 
curiosity venders et id omne genus. 

Before leaving Prof. Hayden's report we may call attention to 
the soda springs at the bend of Bear river, describing them in the 
words of the report. 

"At the bend of Bear river is located the most interesting -roup 
of soda springs known on the continent. They occupy an area of 
about six square miles, though the number is not great. At this 
tune they may be called simply remnants of former greatness. 
Numerous mounds of dead or dying springs are scattered every- 
where, and only a few seem to be in active operation. So far as 
the manner of building up the calcareous mounds is concerned, it 
does not differ from that of the hot springs in the Yellowstone 
valley, and it may bo that they were boiling -pring- ;i f some period 
in the past. At the present time they are not usually much above 
the tempera' --water. In one or two instances 

the active springs were found to be lukewarm. Nearly all the 
-prings were in a constant state of more or less agitation from the 
bubbles of gas that were ever escaping In a few cases the water 
is thrown up 2 to 1 feet. One spring with a basin 10 feet in diam- 
eter, with the surface covered over with bubbling points from car- 
bonic acid gas escapinu.ii d , temperature of i;i ' : another bub- 
bling spring, 65°. The Bear river cross-cuts a number of the 
mounds, thus revealing the secret of their structure. The mound- 
vary from a few feet to twenty . r up, in the 
same way as the hot spring cone-, by overlapping layers. There 
are many of these mounds, which -how. by the steepness of the 
sides, the amount of \\\ dro-tat ic pro— me. ' .Main of the chimney- 
are nearly vertical, with the inner surface coated" oxer with a sort 
of porcelain." 

The second, third and fourth parts of the reports contain valua- 
ble contributions from Messrs. Thomas. Les 4 uereux. ( ope, Leidy, 
Meek, Horn, Uhler, Edwards, Porter and Beaman. 

Mr. Lesquereux gives the following summary of his views de- 
duced from the study of our Tertiary and Cretaceous flora. 
"1st. The Tertiary flora of North America is. by its types, in- 



more distinct ami more numerous in the Tertiary 
origin of our actual flora is, like its fades, truly No 

3d. Some types of the North American Tertiary I 
flora appear already in the same formations of On 
bergen, and Iceland ; the derivation of these typ 
apparently from the arctic regions. 

4th. The relation of the North American Tertiary 
of the same formation of Europe is marked only fo 
can types, but dues not exist at all for those whic 
resented in the living flora of this continent. 
European Tertiary flora partly originates from N 



tiary form; ti m- of the arctic r< -.ions and of 0111 coiitim nt ind;c: te. 
in tii,- mean temperature intluencin- uv.._ -., 

vegetation, a diiference. in -4-. e M ual to about 5° of latitude for the 
Tertiary and Cretaceous epochs. 
_ 7th. The same kin-1 of observations on th. _ 

times differences of temperature a< - <> ' _ t" I ' *' '> • '" ' - '- 
to what is remarked at our time by the characters of the southern 
and northern vegetation." 

We quote with much satisfaction the conclusions of so able a 
paleontologist as Mr. Lesquereux that the European Tertiary flora 
partly originated from arctic North America. We may be par- 
doned for referring to our own view expressed in 1865. From a 
study of the quaternary fossils of Labrador and New England, we 
ventured on general grounds, though not a botanist, to dissent 
from the view of Dr. J. D. Hooker, that the flora of northeastern 
arctic America was essentially Scandinavian in its origin.* 

Dr. Horn discourses on the distribution of the Coleoptera col- 
lected on the plains of the Rocky Mountains and the i 
Oregon and Montana. The species, coving to the variatl 
tnde, temperature, and the food plants, vary in a corresponding 
ratio. He remark- on this subject as follows : — 

-'■FMnd.x nJ,sr t ,ra S:u" attonls a beautiful illustration of the ex- 












Say. which 



ferent specie-. In the -onus <>,,, - tli most mu- h \ M-ulpiurod 

. ritorv {<>. //■ ■■;,.„,;:; iridic). :md 

•■- ("■ ''''"'''-' Horn) ('run! i U .;ir Ykaiia. ( alifornia. The 

Object of the preceding remarks k to explain what appears to he a 

e-:in limliipl < tku „f ^ , , ., . dieters, to 

Species everywhere in our fauna appear to be distributed on 
lines of cod ^ihle similar meteoro- 

into Californi . » d lly s,.,-kin u a hi-h.-r i mt i h il.it t is the 
region iHH-oiae, wanner. Two - 

Ilarrisu and /' / , N ; s . jjotli i\',i I • 

from Maine to ( lifornia. following the eooki re-ions westward 
from Maine th o. _ lt h, ( ill; „i , lt \ j> [ !; v 1V oion, thence 
irh to Sitk i. ] roni tk latter | ,, nl >outh \ ird to 
Oregon both occur at t!ie ordinary level, and ri^inu' us a more 

occui only a short distant l.elou tk snowdine. I 1 ; titud. oi' 
from ten to twelve thousand feet. 
From Sonl [< 9 have extended along the des- 

mv l )1Vx< ' ' -' '/ ' .-//"'''"'•• 

;i . !l!l -' ; ■>/--. Speek. ad\ i„i ,,i_ i!,,in tin le-ion ja-t 

O - . ":'. ; ■ •..- • •- 

sierra Nevada k ivached. It has not vet 
oototred in California proper." 

The volume concludes with important papers on the Ilemiptera 

by M:. 1 filer, and an extended e.s>ay on th< Orthoptora by Prof. 
Thomas, illustrated by two plates. 



sent to Dr. T. M. Brewer fur UN private us,.. and by hha commu- 
nicated to the Boston Society of Natural History. From his in- 
made "in summer," and Mr. Aiken's "between November 1, 
1871, and May, 1872. The exact locality, however, is left in doubt, 
but we are led to infer from Mr. Holden's remarks which follow, 
that this gentleman's observations were made chiefly about Sher- 
man " in the immediate vicinity of the Black Hills," near the boun- 
dary of Wyoming and Colorado Territories. Mr. Aiken's notes, 

from private sources), were made in El Pa-. County, Colorado 
(most of them near Fountain), some two hundred miles south 
of Sherman and about two thousand feet less in elevation. The 
two localities thus diifer greatly in climatological and other gen- 
eral features atlecting the distribution of species. The whole 
number of species given in the list is one hundred and forty, of 
which but twenty-seven are common to the two localities. Only 
fifteen are mentioned by Mr. Holden that are not noted by Mr. 
Aiken, while the latter reports ninety-eight that are not given by 
the former. The whole number mentioned as occurring in the 
vicinity of Sherman is hence forty-two, while one hundred and 
fourteen were ob.sen-i near Fountain. The primary value of faunal 



better, doubtless, not to have combined in a single list the n< 
made at such distant localities, and under such diverse topogra 
These observations, however, as 1 



given, are extremely in 
dently been carefully m 
hitherto scarcely explor 



lists of the birds of South Park and of the region at the base of 
the mountains between Denver and Colorado City,* being the only 
special reports relating to the birds of the region embraced within 
or com iguous to the districts explored by Messrs. Holder, and 
Aiken. 

The country about Sherman is one of the most barren and for- 
bidding of any of the inhabited portions of the great central pla- 
teau of the continent, and the small number of species observed 
there by Mr. Holden fairly indicates its poverty, ornithologically 
considered. On the other hand, the region about Fountain, in 
the valley of the Upper Arkansas, is in a far milder and more fer- 
tile district, and the much larger number of species reported by 
Mr. Aiken indicates nearly its proportionately greater richness in 
avian life. Neither of these lists purports to be complete or ex- 
haustive, yet they probably embrace all the more common and 
characteristic species of the two localities. 

The whole number of names given is one hundred and forty-two, 

the Troglodytes aedon of Holden's list and the T. Parkmaid of 
Aiken's as identical, both undoubtedly referring to the same race 
{T. r,;:,lo,), var. Park ma ni) of T. aedon and not to two species, 
even if it be assumed that T. Parkmani and T. aedon are specifi- 
cally distinct. In like manner the Scolecoph<.«j><* j. rr>»jn,> ■•* '■ of 
Holden's list has been regarded as S. r^nuH-^thnhia of Aiken's, 



learned that f-Jri^^r ll.,,,,! !, ■ d,-u!d re 

Mr. W. D. Scott has given a -Partial List 

of Kenawha County, West Virginia."! The 

months of field-work (from the middle of J* 

of August, 1872)." and embraces eight v-six 

paining notes indicate the relative alum 

observed, and embrace occasionally short i 

is of the first or nesting plumage ■ 

where such stages had not been previously w 

The avian fauna of Kenawha County con 



species more or less distinctive of the Alleghanian :m<l Carolinian 
fauna 1 , representatives of tin- former prevailing in the highland-, 
and representatives of the latter in the valleys. The capture of a 
pair of Daxlrixca Dnhu'mWii* reported. — a species whose north- 
ern limit of distribution has generally been supposed to be the 
lowlands of the South Atlantic and Gulf States. Mr. Scott calls 
especial attention to the fact that certain species which range over 
a wide area in latitude differ appreciably in color at this locality 
from their representatives from more northern or southern locali- 
ties, being more intensely colored than those from points to the 
northward, while thev are less so than those found further south. 
Thniothor.is Ludocickmus and Ortyx Virgimamts are cited as 

valuable data concerning the summer distribution of the birds of 
the Atlantic States. 

Mr. T. Martin Trippe has published « Notes on the Birds of 
Southern Iowa,"* based on "the author"- observations during a 
period of nearly two years in Southern Iowa. . . . One year was 
spent in the southwestern part of Mahaska County ; the other in 
the northeastern part of Decatur County, the latter point being 
fifty or sixty miles southwest of the former." Mr. Trippe states 
that although these localities are so near each other, and similar 
in their physical features, there are quite marked differences in 
their avian fauna;. In Mahaska County, for instance, the War- 
Mora are much more abundant than in Decatur County, while sev- 
ere not seen at the other. Among these are Zonotrichia rjuerula, 
V;. '/., /-///A/.,, y; ,-,.,, n,n; and Salpiwtei oh**eto8, birds whose 
range is chiefly westward and southward. V-' "" l" lV! ' ] " N 1 ,, '"1'- 
ei 'lv a lard of the plains, and Solplnrt^ nbsoletus has not been pre- 
viously reported much to the eastward of the Rocky Mountains. 
Several pages of remarks descriptive of the locality and its fauna! 
l'Wiliarities introduce the list, and add much to the value of the 
paper. 



The 1 



t presented as 



!ts author to pretty fairly repress 

of the region in question. Of the one hundred and sixty-two 
species mentioned, ninetv-two were oWrved breeding, or in such 
"umbers dmin^ summer as to leave no doubt of their breeding 



two points. Although perhaps surprising at first sight, when 

taken in connection with the fact of the considerable differences 

miles in latitude, it finely illustrates certain general laws of geo- 
graph'u-al distribution, namely, that difference in longitude has />-■,• 
•e, almost nothing to do with the limitation of habitat, while a 
slight difference in latitude, being necessarily accompanied by dif- 
ferences of temperature, is a powerful modifying cause. In other 



distance merely, Mr, Trippe's list is accompanied with valuable 

of the species. — J. A. A. 

New Avian Subclass.* — The recent discovery of Ichthunm't* 
dispar, and Apohyrnis celer, is one ranking in interest, and impor- 
tance with that of the A,; };■:_, ,;;t, ■,•,;.,' ; an important gain to paloeon- 
1 "'•"-■> "im-h. as Prof. Mardi observes, •• does much to break down 

h'fi/s has so materially diminished." With j'u-t appreciations 
of the value of the characters presented, the writer proposes for 

the birds an order H,th>i'„;>;n„ s. and a subclass O'loatomith':*. 

compressed, pointed teeth, distinctly socketed, in both jaws. It- 
Prof. Marsh's surmise, that the A c-Un;,^. .,-.,,■ likewise had teeth 
and biconcave vertebra-, should prove true, a q.a-non of synony- 



allocation of Iddltvonn's (i 
among ordinary natatorial t 



i of the di 
pres* 

K. ( 



BOTANY. 
Coloring and Buying of Natural Flowers. — Mr. Muir gives 

J. ecv. 31)1-2.) The [lowers are placed in a glass funnel, which 






time a high mechanical intensity. Solid chlorophyll shows the 

solution of chlorophyll, because the white lidit which passes be- 
tween the interstices • - nsually forms a con- 
tinuous spectrum over the absorption hands, and so dims or wholly 
obliterates the paler ones, whilst the hand i suffers only a slight 

' ' ■! itio ii iitei -it % . 1 he tin >r\ ot th th u is supj >rted 

Heidelb. 1871) and by the following experiment. 

Two similar bean-plants were placed in frames, the sides and 
top of the first of which were composed of a combination of blue 



3G6 BOTANY. 

be distinguished from a similar plant kept in diffused daylight. 
This experiment -hows that the middle red rays above can support 
the growth of a plant, whilst the outer red rays are unable ; and 
also that assimilation is dependent on the quality of the rays and 
not on the intensity of the light. 

W. Pfeffer (in Pogg. Ann. cxlviii, 86-99) interprets Lommel's 
experiments as only showing that more growth takes place under 
the influence of the middle red rays, than under that of the outer 

Au abstract of Prof. Draper's interesting experiments in the 
same field will be given in our next number. 

Microscopic Photography of Vegetable Tissues. — Mr. Pedler 
makes the following synopsis of this sketch, by L. Erkmann. 
(Zeitsch. Anal. Chem. xi, 395.) The section of the plant or other 
tissue is to be placed, for a night, in a solution of aniline red, not 
too concentrated. On washing the tissues sv i t h water the non- 
nitrogenous tissues are left uncolored, whilst the nitrogenous tis- 
sues remain colored, there being also a considerable amount of 
shading. From a negative thus .prepared, a positive may be 
oUuim I in which the nitrogenous -u 1 stances are dark and the 
non-nitrogenous light. 

Effect of Coal-gas upon Trees and Shrubs.— A series of 
experiments was tried in Berlin in order to determine the amount 
of damage done to the roots of trees and shrubs by gas escaping 
from pipes through the soil, and thus coming in contact with them. 
It was found that even so small a quantity as twenty-five cubic 
feet per diem, distributed in one hundred and forty-four square 
feet of ground, and at the depth of four feet (that is, through five 
hundred and seventy-six cubic feet of earth), killed in a short 
time the rootlets of trees of every kind which came in contact with 
it. and that this damage was sooner done, the firmer and closer the 
surface of the ground above. (Ding, polyt. Journ. ccvi, 345, 



Plants new to Gray's Manual.— Three years ago, Miss 
Furbish of Brunswick collected at Boothbay, Maine, specimens 
of Odontites rubra. This is a pretty Eupkrasioid plant easily 

shed from the White Mountain Euphratia 
Last summer the same plant was collected by Prof. Eockwood, at 



locality. It bad 



ica, formerly called Hieracium 
idjoining a nursery, where it is t 



ZOOLOGY. 






M.. 



The subject, or subjects, are a pa 
lie anterior abdominal, thoracica 

axidermy having been resorted 



. to ( 









ir conjoint bodies present 
the appearance of two individuals stand- 
ing face to face, being in juxtaposition 
above the umbilicus, with arms extended 
at right angles. Below the inferior point 
of union both are perfectly normal; 
above this region the front side * resem- 
bles the inferior part of the thorax of a 
normally formed hog. The back side 
presents the same thoracic appearance, 



(the , 



■top 



! region posterior and between 
ears in a normally formed hog) with t 
ears in juxtaposition at their point of 
junction with the head, situated in the 
median line, one and one-half inches posteriorly i 
ated in the normal position. 

Their external appearance, size, form and color are the i 
Both are of the male sex. The head, anteriorly of the coi 










region of the normally situated oars than is common 
tin: anterior superior our l.eing situated between tb 



region, the int. to, imrt.rd, n, tin luiuhai region. 

lung :of each pig occupying tin left id. of th. tl >raci « vity of 
the'othcr. ami the left lungs being situated in the light sides of the 
respective thoraxes. The anterior trachea was connected with the 
lung situated in the left side of the right hog, and the lung situated 
in the right side. of the left hog ; the posterior trachea exhibiting 



ing taken place in it, the - 






occipital, which had two openings for the spinal nerve, each side 
of the median line, and proce—e-, for muscular attachment. The 
optic cavities were imperfectly formed. The eyes were not devel- 
oped, a bundle of fascia with some nerve substance occupying 
their place. 

The subject having I toon frozen and reiVozen several times be- 
fore it came into my possession, I wa< iiuahle to pursue the anatom- 
ical investigation of the several structures to the extent that 
I desired, such processes having destroyed the cranial ganglia 
and nervous system, the microscope revealing the disorganized 

These hogs evidently had their origin in one ovum, with two 
nuclei or germinal centres situated equidistant from one another, 

cally commingled in the course of their development. — T. W. 

Du'.iaxG. 31. ]).. Ij.i r,,i /i-nrfh, Kansas. 

Swarming of a Brood of Winged Ants.— On the afternoon of 



; filled the air, and appeared t 



orable position near the nuns, as they 
ground, up the blades of grass and stems 
i, we noted, first, that they seemed dazed, 
eir movements, save an ill-defined impres- 
somewhere. Again, they were pushed 

I that they were wholly ill at ease. 



Once at the end of a blade of grass, they seemed even more 
puzzled us to what to do. If not followed by a fellow ant, as was 
usually the ease, they would invariably crawl down again to the 
earth, and sometimes repeat this movement until a new < omer 
followed in the ascent, when the aJ would be 

forced to use his wings. This night would he inaugurated by a 
very rapid buzzing of the wings, as though to dry them, or prove 
their owner's power over them; but which, it is ditlieuli to say. 
After a short rest, the violent movement of the wings would re- 
commence, i r, as it were, the ant would let go 
ass and rise slowly upwards. It 
could, in fact, scarcely bo called Might. The steady vibration of 
the wings simply bore them upwards, ten, twenty or thirty feet, 
until they were caught by a breeze, or by the steadier wind that 
was moving at an elevation equal to the height of the sn 
pine and spruce trees. So far as we were able to discover, their 
wings were of the same use to them, in transporting them from 
their former home, that the "wings" oi i 1 .. si Is are. in scat- 
tering them; both are wholly at the mercy of the winds. 

Mr. Bates, in describing the habits of the Saiiba Ants ((J-Jcoih- 
ma cephalotes) says,* "The successful debut of the winged males 

: ■ '- 

see the activity and < t'fl nest when 

clear the roads of exit, and show the most lively interest in their 
departure, although i! i- highly improbable that any of them will 
return to the same colony. The swarming or exodus of the winged 
males and females of the Saiiba ant takes place in January and 
February, that is, at the commencement of the rainy season. 
They come out in the evening in vast numbers, causing quite a 
commotion in the streets and lanes." We have quoted this 
passage from Mr. Bates' fascinating book, because of the great 
ad dissimilarity in the movements of the two species 
at this period of their existence. Remembering, at the time, the 
above remarks concerning the South American species, we looked 
carefully for the worker, in this instance, ami failed to discover 



could fin. I Imt com;) u N in the nest, and could 

detect no movements on their parts that referred to the exodus of 
winged individuals, then going on. 

On the other hand, the time of day agrees with the remarks of 
Mr. Elites. When we first noticed them, about 4 P. M. they had 
probably just commenced their "flight." It continued until nearly 
seven o'clock P. M., or a considerable time after sundown. The 
next morning, there was not an individual, winged or wingless, to 
be seen above ground; the nest itself was comparatively empty: 
and what few occupants there were seemed to be in a semi-torpid 
condition. Were they simply resting after the fatigue and excite- 
ment of yesterday ? 

It was not possible for us to calculate what proportion of these 
winged ants were carried by the wind too far to return to their old 
home ; but certainly a large proportion were caught by the sur- 
rounding trees ; and we found, on search, some of these crawling 
down the trunks of the trees, with their wings in a damaged 
condition. How near the trees must be for them to reach their 
old home, we should like to learn; and what tells them, "which 
road to take?" Dr. Duncan states,* "It was formerly supposed 
that the females which alighte 1 at a great distance from their old 
nests returned again, but Huber, having great doubts upon this 
subject, found that some of them after having left the males, fell 
on to the ground in out-of-the-way places, whence they could not 
possibly return to the original nest !" We unfortunately did not 
note the sex of those individuals that we intercepted in their 
return( ?) trip ; but we cannot help expressing our belief that, at 
least, in this case, there was scarcely an appreciable amount of 
"returning" on the part of those whose exodus we have just 
described ; although so many were caught by the nearer trees and 
shrubbery. Is it probable that these insects could find their way 
to a small underground nest, where there was no "travel" in the 
vicinity, other than the steady departure of individuals, who, like 
themselves, were terribly bothered with the wings they were 
carrying about with them?— C. C. Abbott. 

"Vv"e have noticed that those females that do not return to the 
ol d nest found new ones. In Maine and Massachusetts we have 
f or several successive years noticed the swarming of certain species 



Habits of the Cut Worm. — I venture to send you an item 
iu regard to the common cut worm (Agrotis or dart-moth) which 
is new to me. A friend recently related to me the results of some 
extended observations which were corroborative of some another 
friend made not long before. He found that the cut worms would 
come out of I nine o'clock in the evening ; they 

did nut van main minutes iV*.»ta that time in all the observations 
he made. He used to watch them for hours, by the liiiht of a 
lantern. 

Sometimes he would put a tin or wooden box around the plant, 
just to see what they would do, and then occurred what seemed to 
me the most singular part of tin ,ri t . .',, nance. The worm would 
craw! tuv - :,,«. to the box. then it would fol- 

low along the side of the box to find an opening, and if none were 
found, it would ascend the side of the box — whether of tin or 
wood — to the very top ; reach around in rx^vy direction, and. if 
nothing could be felt, would turn and go back, down the outside 
of the box (never on the inside), and go into the ground. Some- 
times he would bend the leaf of the cabbage plant >o that the worm 
could touch it, when it ce to the plant, follow it 

down till it came to the root, and then commence its work, ('.<?., 
gnaw the stem off, and feed on the central portion of the same. 
The manner in which the worm feeds upon the grape was observed 
to be thus :— The worm would come out of the ground at its usual 
time, ascend the vine till it came to a new shoot, gnaw that off, 
and fasten itself to the stump of the branch so gnawed, and >mk 
the sap of the vine till it was s > full it >eei te I : lmost ready to 
burst, then descend to the ground and bury itself out of sight. — 
N. Colkmax, Grand It a pals. Michigan. 

Composition cf Salmon. — Prof. Sir E. Christison lately eom- 
to the Royal Society the results of a chemical analysis 
of clean salmon (i.e., those in good condition) and of the same 
species when exhausted or " foul." A mean of several trials gave. 
for the clean salmon, oil ]>-.";] p t > r cent., nitrogenous matter 19*70 
per cent., saline matter 0'88 per cent., water CO'80 per cent. : lor 
the foul salmon, oil 1-25 per cent., nitrogenous matter 17-07 per 



GEOLOGY. 



series of N. N. E.-S. S. TV. 
en them. As the land rose 
xlimentation seems to have 

tve boon abundant, while the 



cn l'l'ea with glacial detritus, and in t 



lmense quantities of fine clay (Ik 
it colored gneisses and schists). 
the bottom rock by a little more o 



is>. l ne clay is found to contain small branches of siiicified 

i the town of Nobleboro, twenty or twenty-five miles from the 
t, in the valley of the Damariscotta River (Lincoln Co.), the 
iions of these strata are well shown by a cutting of the Knox 
Lincoln Railroad, which has now, I believe, a station about 
r rods southwest of it. Nobleboro village is a mile south, 
cut is twenty or thirty rods long through a hillside and is 
>'-nine feet deep in the middle. Between the hill (which 
is off to a swamp,) and the station, there is a ledge of striated 
ivater-worn gneiss, rather lower than the railroad grade. In 
ut above the grade level are— 

6. Sand and gravel curved over the lower strata par- 
allel to the top of the hill. 
5. Pebbly gravel, i>-4 feet from top of hill. 
4. Sand and gravel. 

3. Gravel and clay merging and alternating. 
2. Brown clay sandier and drier than No. 1. 
1; Blue clay several feet deep. 



No. 1 contained decaying blades of eei grass quite abundantly ; 
and the remains of several kinds of shells which were much 
decayed and generally mere casts ; the first two kinds only have 

cemcostatus (8); Pecten (two species; one P. idandicus) ; Ser- 
ripes Gro'nhindica (10) ; numerous specimens of Mya arenaria 
and Mytihts echdis (3) ; Leda, a few small decayed valves, possibly 
of Macoma ; also what appeared to be the shell of a small crus- 
tacean, not an inch long. 

In No. 3, the pebbles were conglomerated with oxide of iron in 

water, held many broken and worn shells of clam, mussel, Ma- 
coma fusca and Leda Jackson!. 

No. 6 seems to mark the emergence of the beds, showing a 
change in the water courses produced by the elevation of some 
higher land than at this point, from the water. — Paul Shee- 



ANTHROPOLOGY. 
Culture of Flax.— Dr. Oswald Heer, the eminent 

ure and history of fossil plants, publishes an article upon flax and 
its culture among the ancient-, e<p* eialiy th ■ prehistoric races of 
Kurope. His memoir may be summarized as follows : First. Max 
ha- ln'cn < i';ve thousand years and that it 

was and is one of the most generally diffused plants of that coun- 

'■.:'■ ' 

tine, and on the Black Sea. It. occurred in Greece during the 
period, and at an early date was carried into Italy, 
while it- cultivation in S ] the Phc»- 

niciana and Carthagenians. Second, it is also met with in the 
oldest Swiss lacustrine villages, while, at the same time no hemp 
nor fabrics manufactured from wool are there to be found. Tins 
is considered a remarkable fact, since the sheep was one of the 

The impossibility of -hearing the tl, ■•»■< e by means of stone or 
bone implements is supposed to have been the reason why woollen 

fabrics were not used. It is thought probable that the -kin. with 



attached wool, was made use of for 
•d, the lake dwellers probably received 



■]ur<>ne. although Dr. I leer • 



• flax we 



leaved variety was first introduced and after that the Roman, and 

loss ar]4 ' u fi ' om the cultivation of the narrow-leaved, while the 
Roman winter flax and the J J, -mm nmhUpn.m constitute the inter- 
mediate stages. The original home of the cultivated flax was 

■<^ng the shores of the Mediterranean. The Eg\].tians 
;■" cultivated it. and from them its use was doubtless 

ted. It is possible that the wild variety and the winter 

variety had long since driven them out of use in Egypt.- X't ;•« . 

•■Ixmax Netsinkers" in New Jerset. — Both the netsinkers 
ierstones,as described by Mr. Ran, in the March number 



kers," litera 

' l -d and about the shores of Watson's Creek, Me 



.-, by hundreds. Tl 



uno M less one of 

iape or size attracts our attention. The collection from 

■ made by the writer, and now in the museum of the Pea- 

■ v. s 1 ,„, Ma-., contains many specimens identical in 

The remarks, Mr. Ran 



1\, il- 



i-hood of Trenton, Nc 
collecting goes, thes< 



battered ends, which are as well marked in these specii 
similar batterings and finger pits are in the typit 
stones.— Charles C. Abbott, M. D. 

Antiquity of Max in America. —In the Decembc 
this Journal we made an abstract of a paper printed t 
delphia Academy, in which Mr. Berthoud gave an accou 
the relics of an early race of men. As the geological po 
of the relics has been questioned, further information i> 
desirable. 



MICROSCOPY. 

A New Slide for the Microscope.— At a recent meeting of 

the Optical Section of the Franklin Institute, there was described 

signed by Mr. I). S. Ilolman, a member of the section, whose life 
slide recently attracted >o much attention and comment. The 

designed to afford the microscopist the opportunity of observing 

and studying the constitution of the blood and other organic fluids 
with much greater ease and precision than it has heretofore been 

serve to make the description of its const met ion and ..perati.n 

This is furnished at equal distances from its centre with two well 
polished shallow cavities of circular form, which are connected 
with ear!) other by one or more capillary channels. These chan- 
n is art i kt . >, i ,IU 1. nd to permit of a greater field in 



eel 


I, and a thin cover 


-Ins* 




a 11 


mment with the ha 


nds, 1 


:he air 


dig 


•htly rarified, and 


the 


cover g 




lospheric pressure 


as to 


require 


u-: 


loval of the finger: 
s is occupied with 


"i lm 


■ill i»o r 




circumference, as 


3 well 


aa Um 

rig.: 




Placed beneal 
upon the con 






to flow beneath the object gla-.s ; remove the finger, and the direc- 
tion of the current is reversed. The current is caused by the 
expansion of the air bubble in the cell, in consequence of the heat 
radiated from the finger : and its rapidity may be controlled to a 
nicety by regulating the proximity of the finger. So sensitive is 
tn e apparatus, that even with the highest powers, a corpuscle, 









►scopist; and while the eye 
f the objects beneath it, the 



mind ia i hfl which these 

motions are controlled. In the cell here described, no foreign 

liquid is added to the material under examination. Moreover, if 
each cell be entirely filled, but with liquids of different densities, 
the cell holding the denser liquid being placed slightly uppermost 
upon the rotating stage of the microscope, the action of gravity 

will cause two currents to flow in opposite directions through the 
communicating channels, and in this way the phenomena of trans- 
fusion, crystallization, etc., may be observed for a considerable 
length of time, which otherwise are brought to sight only with 
difflcnlty. At the conclusion of the description, the ingenious and 
useful device was highly praised by those members present, who 
were best able to appreciate its value, and its exhibition beneath 
the microscope was the occasion of much interest. 

Aerial Stage Micrometers.— Dr. Pigott has called the atten- 
tion of the Royal Micros.-opieal Society to a novel mode of using 
micrometers. He places the micrometer below the achromatic 
condenser, and thus employs its image as a stage micrometer, fo- 
cussing the condenser so as to make the image of the micrometer 
coincide with the plane of the object on the stage. This remedies 
the greatest defect of other stage micrometers (as Fraunhofer's), 
since the accuracy which is necessarily diminished in proportion 
to the magnifying power employed, is at the same time increased 
by the whole amplifying power of the achromatic conden>er. 
Hence this arrangement more nearly resembles in accuracy the 
ocular micrometers, and it might with nearly equal propiicty 
be called an eye-piece micrometer, since its second image is formed 
in the ocular along with that of the object. It possesses the valu- 
able property of reading otf the size of objects directly, without 
troublesome computation and without :'.!oua.<e for the power 
of the ocular. Either the cobweb micrometer or the lines ruled 
on glass may be used, and the arrangement should be such that 
the micrometer lines should appear on the stage in precisely a defi- 
nite proportion of their natural size. An accuracy of tj ,)Vttjt oi 
an inch is theoretically quite attainable by this plan. With the 
cobweb micrometer this arrangement seems nearly faultless, save 
the first trouble of combining the apparatus so as to get a perfectly 
accurate reading: but. villi line- on gla — . thv ljUi — ■ { late, with i ts 
imperfections as well as its lines, necessarily gives an image which 



is perhaps as annoying ;ls if the plate? instead of its ima ,r^ Wrlv 
in the locus of the eye lens. 

The Micro-spectroscope. — Dr. E. J. Gayer has contrive! and 
pul.iishccl ill the Transactions of the Royal Microscopical Society, 
a micro-spectroscope consisting of a collimatin- l,n. :,„.| 
more prisms occupying the position of the ocular, and immedi- 
ately above these a telescope, suitably inclined, for examining the 
spectra. According to Hogg, and other authorities, the first appli- 
cation of the spectroscope to the microscope was made by Mr. H. 
C. Sorby who placed a triangular prism below the stage, the object 
being situated in the spectrum. As this was inapplicable to 
opaque objects, Mr. Hnggins proposed to adapt a direct vision 
spectroscope to the ocular, which he accomplished by inserting the 
collimative-tube of a star spectroscope into the body of the micro- 
"""i"; i! > the iwial position of the eye-piece. The Sorby-Browning 
en!ir: '' V;,li) ''' i'^s so o, : M , ; U - r . u1 gemi nts that 

thi ' v !l; Vl '>oen nearly forgotton, and Dr. Gayer has rediscovered 
Mr Iluggins' arrangement without knowing it. He combines with 
ir tl]r ^oi'by-Browning plan of adding a side stage for the com- 
parison of spectra, and seems to secure an increase of light by 
-lit nearer the objective, about an inch above it. On 
the other hand, those most familiar with the Sorby-Browning eye- 
Piece form, claim that it has sufficient light and dispersion for its 
use. and that its absorption bands are not only wide enough but 
more distinct than if magnified by a telescope. 
Blights ox Tea a^d Cotton. — Mr. M. C. Cooke describes a 

. tndia. "H ,«h rsonia thececola Cooke, Perithecia glo- 
ose, black, prominent, pierced at the apex, scattered over both 

is : spore- cylindrical, rounded at the ends. 
. on long hyaline pedicels (.0004-.0005 in.), 
- long without the pedicels : on leaves of 
Thea." Picking off the diseased leaves and burning them is the 
-uguested for this blight, which shares with the punct- 
ures of an unknown insect the credit of destroying the plants. 
Seeds of American cotton naturalized at Dharwar, India, af- 
- Black blight," manifested but little injury externally, 
? .rushed were found to be filled with a sooty powder 
appearing like the spores of an Ustilogo. On closer < 



380 

Mr. Cooke be \ concate- 

nate, ilmugh -hi,i Li-raking iii) i it. i -u' globose ii V \ iduals, ami he 

cerata Cooke) notwithstanding their anomalous habitat. As a 
Torula it must be considered a sequence rather than the cause of 

the decay of the seed, while the opposite would be fairly presumed 

which ruled upon l.1 i — in « io.< yi< 1 t« -t .»'., K consisting of lines 
of iridescent fineness ; and the beautiful iridescence of Nobert's 
lines by opaque or dark-field illumination is almost as familiar to 
microscopists as that of mother-of-pearl or of some of the diatoms. 
Recently Mr. Wm. A. Rogers of the Cambridge Observatory 
ha-- engraved upon glass, lines of great beauty and considerable 
fineness. Those of medium fineness, especially, glisten beauti fully 
with rainbow-colored light. The lines from s \ inch to .j 4 !, t bich. 

and uniform in their spacing; while the finer lines excel in fine- 
ness and distinctness any < ngi aving in \ iou>ly seen by the writer. 
Those of .,^0 inch are perfectly successful, while those of zffa* 
inch are capable of being defined and counted. Some of Mr. 
Rogers' engraving are made in stars like Mr. Stanistreet's lines. 

Apertures of Objectives. — The Tolles' T V, sent to London 
as proof of the utilization of more than .-ej r aperture in balsam, 
ha. been carefnllj examined by Messrs. C. Brooke, H. Lawson, 
W. J. Gray and S. J. MTntire, who report an angle in air of 145°, 
in water 91°, in balsam 79°. Mr. Wenham believes the balsam 
angle might have been three degrees higher in hard instead of ihiid 
balsam. Doubtless four more competent judges could not have 
been selected in the world, and their report will be likely to he 
generally accepted unless it can be shown that a higher angle 
might have been utilized at some other point of practically useful 
a.lj istnn nt. n question which they tan scarcely have failed to con- 
:■■'.'. 

Uxder-corrected Objectives.— The advantage of these lenses, 
which have only lately attracted much attenti 

. year 1865. At that 



of a pa 


per on th 




>ve su 


bject, J. W. ( 


)ueen 


v. Co 


. ha- 


improv 


.'<! their 11 


lodel 


Of St! 


idents' micros 


cope, avail! 


nu' tl 


libcrall. 


f of the 


modern su 


ggestions on 


the su 




. 1 


fled an. 


roduced, 
1 cheapen 


undei 
ed f< 


•rm'w 


aame of Popi 


ilarlf'u 

l!y ('(iu: 


Tn> 


the' 


of stud 


entV st:m 


1. I 


•xperi 


enced microscopists 


will 


beti 




ate the efforts 


of mi 








ealh 


strumcr 


its at a p 


rice a 


vhich 


will render them po 


[.ula 


v an. 


extensn 


rely usefu 














A Xi 


nr Ocuw 


.u M 


[CBOM 


ETEB. — Dr. 


rigott 


a.iv 


ises 




an eye-p 








raved c 




plai 


lens of 


long focin 


3, SUC 


h as i 


i spectacle gl: 


iss. As he 




the con 


vexity is 






to appreeiab 


[y alter 


the 


elie 


ocular, 1 




can 


i:.nl\- i 




jf obta 






workmanship, as 


comi 


>ared 


with the Cull 




>:-■■ 


I n.l 


of a sta 


- 




cut down to such s 


ize a> t 


:o In 


, [ n 


of the eye-lens. 














Blooi 


-DISKS OF 


THE 


Sal, 


rox. _ Mr. G 


eogeG 


Dili, 


:erc 



*«*. highest Power. — Messrs. Powell & Leah 
Pleted and exhibited a one-eightieth inch objective 
angular aperture of 160°, works through glass coy, 



and is fairly op t 

4,000 with the lo 
and good definitic 



lood Corpuscles. —Mr. Malassez notices a general ten- 
these bodies to diminish in number and increase in size 
rer animals. The following ligmv-; in-iicah' the estimated 
o a cubic millimetre ; in the goat, 18,000,000 ; in the 
,000,000 ; in man, 4,000,000 ; in the porpoise, 3,600,000 ; 
1,000,000 to 1,000,000; in osseous fishes, 2,000,000 to 
iiul in cartilaginous fishes, 230,000 to 140,000. 



-i-ting of a variety o 
birds, artificially formed of beau 
flies and moths. Some of the : 






Cane, or in tact any other vessel. Capt. 
rthern point by means of sledges. Hall 



claimed that Kane's Polar 
crossed it in a sledge joi 



field on the first of June. 

The New Albany, Ind., Society of Natural 1 listorv is doing good 
"-ork in developing the natural history of Indiana and has several 
■Ctive workers in its ranks. Located in a rich fossiliferous region, 
also iu t!i e locality of several caves and subterranean streams, we 
look to the members of this society for important additions to our 
in these departments, and we are also pleased to note 
that t hey are doing much in collecting the stone and bone relies of 
the former inhabitants of the region, having already made a large 
•n of specimens, as we can testify from a 






-Prudent, John Sloan : Vice Preshh ?,.% Chm 
r. L. Morse ; Secretary, W. W. May ; Treasw 
r"nan. Frank Spellman ; Curators, W. A. Cla 



The Pa 



tural History read at the Washington meeting 
of the National Academy of Science in April, 1873, were on the 
following subjects: — Biographical Memoir of Dr. John Torrey. 
y Dr. Asa Gray; On Reproduction in Progeny of Defects pro- 

UUc, - <i f 'V Injury in Parents, by Dr. Charles E. Brown-Sequard : 
°n the Unity of the System of Life in Animals and the true 
Principle of Gradation in the various Animal Types, by Prof. A. 
The following members were elected :— Professor Elias 






ng. Prof. YV\ A. Norton, Dr. Theodoj 



We vc 


>gret 


that Profe 


ssors Marsh s 


uid Cope have eo 


necessar 


V to c 


«rry 


their 


controversy t< 


d the e 


■xteur that 


Wishing 


torn: 




u the 


perfect iudep 


eiidem 


:e of the K 


in all m 


attew 


invo 


king 


scientific criti 


icUm, 


we have all 


parties t 


o havi 


i tbei 


r lull 


say, but feeling thai 


: now the e 


between 


the j 


mthoi 


S ill 


question has 


come 


to be a pe 


ami that 


the > 


;.vrn; 




is not called i 


.ipon t 


ij devote fui 


to its eo: 


asider 


ation. 


, the « 


continuance of 


' the 91 


abject will 



BOOKS RECEIVED. 



AMERICAN NATURALIST. 



VII. -JULY, 1873. -Ho. 



TI1K PRAIRIE WOLF, OR COYOTE: (AXIS L.\ 



period. The examination is made of about twenty >kins with 

^••Vi-lm.l.im'u-nmiiilul.i.li i ^ ,il u bi un-box. 
shortened muzzle. pendulous lips, b ug. loo e. silky, drooping ears. 

yrrcirtotl through domesfeat u. K\ en in thi- cm the likem-s i n 

• - of this : 'gi m can b i '.. 1 i < t certainly 
; : ;' ! '-'liable JVoni a coyob'. for a reason that will be evident. 
Tll< ! 11 l-onces between the coyote and pointer become reduced to 

itself, su striking!;, d'Aei-e in its entir.'t\ . aj pears, ^hen analyzed. 





l.,„,«,r 


Lav W 




Uj* 


Small 




.. D . .!:. 


^ 


k : :;s 


ik* 


St 1 gl It shoulder 


24 


24 


21 


22 


19 




M 


86 




34 








n 


Tal to e d of hai a 


- 


18 




1,50 


13-60 


Tip of nose to eye 


3-75 


> hi 


Ti of nose tc 






"50 


7-5 


7 


T- of t oc ■ t 




- 






"•50 


Elb t 1 


16 


13-50 


1,50 


U-M 


Knee to end of hind claws 


16-26 




WidtbacroseeyeerftaBK* atfke. 


2-50 


7-26 


1« 


7 




Width across eyes at outer canthus... 


4-25 




3-25 






Width across inner base of ears 


6 




4 


















Width across tips of outstretched ears 


15 




11-75 






Greatest width of ear pressed flat. . . . 


3-25 




3-25 






Tight girth of muzzle at middle 


8-50 




7-50 








23 




19 






Ti ht irth of bell 








Lon est 1 ■ f i I 










Width across hairs of tail pressed flat. 




8-50 







The coyote appears more stoutly built, but this is deceptive, 
owing to the dense furring ; the various girths show the contrary. 
It is, however, somewhat more "compact," the limbs lacking a 
certain freedom of swing, if not being slightly shorter. 

It would not be much to the point to compare the pela I 
the cultivated coat of the pointer differs quite as much from the 
shaggy one of numerous other dogs, as from that of the coyote. 
It is interesting to observe, however, that even the closest-haired 



THE PRAIRIE WOLF, OR COYOTE. 387 

anger, a slight though decided " mane." The 
;e is very conspicuous, the longest hairs over the 
Dur to six inches. The furring of the tail is as 
extremely diverse. The tail of a coyote ordinarily droops to the 
sufTrago, the hairs reaching beyond half-way to the heels ; it is per- 
fectly straight ; the " brush " is terete-tapering, perhaps not quite 
so full for its length as that of a fox : in absolute size it is just 
intermediate between that of a Vulpes velox and V. mtwmuru^ 
both of which are smaller animals. But furring aside, we find in 
the total lack of curve in the thorough-bred pointer's tail, a curious 
coincidence if nothing more. This straight ness, prized by sports- 
men, the result of breeding, and often cruelly insured by removal 
of the terminal joints so that some of the tendons lose insertion, 
is a feature in which the pointer departs from most dogs (the curly 
tail has been laid down as a specific characteristic of "Canis famili- 
aris "), and resumes that of the coyote. 

fortuitous conditions of pelage aside, the physiognomy, an 
almost equally casual matter, is the most striking difference be- 
tween the two. It is difficult to portray an animal's facial expres- 
sion in words ; in this case we can hardly do better than to say 
that the aspect is just between a wolf's and a fox's, but more 
" d °ggy " than either. Audubon's figure is good ; if anything, the 
front view of the upper figure is too " foxy." The coyote's face 
would be exactly matched by that of many cur-dogs, especially 
slender-nosed kinds, did it not lack almost entirely the frontal 
prominence of the latter, a feature which in some kinds of lap- 
dogs is exaggerated into monstrosity. The upper profile of the 
coyote's face, from occiput to snout, deviates not much from a 
"kaight line, the forehead being remarkably flat. This flatness 
sTives an appearance of breadth that is deceptive, the real width 
being both absolutely and relatively less than in the pointer. But 
&8 '•' idth across the ears of the pointer (six inches instead of four) 
produced by the drooping of these organs down the side 
°f the head. The lips are thin and scant, ordinarily showing th 
1 ' - • IwayB parting after the animal is dead. There is some- 
thing peculiar about the eyes ; they seem to look more directly for- 
ward than those of the pointer. They are set very near together* 
the inner angles being only about an inch and a half apart, yet the 
obliquity carries the outer canthi over three inches apart. The 
ears are xery large, triangular, pointed, upright, with very stiff 



nearly equilateral t 



are the skulls of i 



lin of dog is bred beyond the present 
of course, not to the point in the : 



(sexual) periods ; 
. 9 and dog $ ) h 



• of the anh 
of the ears. 



lupus). The top oft 

both fore and hind lee 



THE IRREGULAR MIGRATIONS OF BIRDS 






inces where they were before unknown, and a disappearance from 
their former range. Similar movements take place and, indeed, 
are constantly going on, among all ranks of the animal and vege- 
table kingdoms, though owing to their preeminent mobility, birds 
afford the most conspicuous examples, excepting, perhaps, the 
class of insects. The slow but sure progress of the Norway rat 
from the east is well known, it having gradually spread itself in 
the course of one hundred and fifty years, from Persia to the Pa- 
cific Ocean. The steady eastward march of the Colorado potato 
bug is another example, while among plants, Lcnan,th;,uim vul- 
gar* and Budbeckia hirta afford familiar instances. 

Audubon speaks of the chestnut-sided warbler as one of the 
rarest Sylvias of his day. In his "Ornithological Biography," he 
tells us that he searched for it for years in vain ; and finally on ob- 
taining five specimens in the same spring, considered himself 
extremely fortunate. At the present day it is, in the very regions 
where Audubon spent years in collecting, one of the commonest 
warblers ; and the most inexperienced collector could shoot, not five, 
but live hundred in one season ; indeed I have seen it far outnum- 
bering all the other species together, and literally swarming in the 
woods. At the same time, the mourning warbler, rare in the time 
of Wilson and Audubon, remains quite as much so still ; only in 
certain other localities it has been found very abundant. Now it 
is not to be supposed that the former species could have been com- 
mon in the eastern states, and yet have eluded the observation of 
Audubon ; and it is not at all probable that their present abundance 
is owing to the natural increase of the species. Plainly there must 
have been a migration or extension of range from some other re- 
gion where it was at that time abundant ; and in the same manner 
the next fifty years may see the mourning warbler extending its 
limits further and further eastward from Minnesota, where it is now 
common, until it is as abundant in the Atlantic States as the 
chestnut-sided warbler. 

A somewhat similar case, but occurring in a much more limited 
space of time, happened in my own experience. In a series of sev- 
eral years' close observation at Orange, New Jersey, I searched for 
the great-crested flj-catch.-r ( .Vv«V/iv/,»/.s -v/„//,/.<), year after year, 
but all in vain; and what made the fact very singular was. that 
twelve or fifteen miles off, I had seen the bird sufficiently often to 
convince me that, if not common, it was bv no means rare. Tet 



. . ■ 
diately about Orange, lbr. alt in >ugh in the woods nearly every week 
for years, I never saw it until, after I had almost despaired of 
era finding it, I did succeed in shooting a single specimen. This 
was in the fall ; the next spring I saw a pair. In the summer, I 
went away; and, after an absence of two years, returning to Or- 
ange, I strolled through the woods, my old hunting grounds, ami. 
to my surprise, almost the first bird I saw was the great-crested 
flycatcher. Subsequently I scarcely ever took a walk through the 
woods, without seeing or hearing it. 

Now for what reason it had neglected quite an extensive range, 
in every way suited for its habits, and what impelled it so sud- 
denly to invade and occupy that region, I cannot possibly im- 
agine, as the woods had undergone but little change in that brief 
period and that little by no means prejudicial to its habits. 

The purple finch was another instance of the same character, 
though less striking, from its known erratic disposition. For three 
years, I never saw more than a single pair ; then it made its ap- 
pearance during an unusually cold and stormy fall, in large num- 
bers, and after that, for several years it was a regular spring and 
autumn visitor, so that I came to look for it as regularly as the 
robin or fox sparrow. The pine finch, also erratic, I never saw 
at all, for five years ; then it appeared in great numbers just before 
a severe winter, and thereafter, for a space of several years, it was 
a regular winter visitor, staying till late in March, and coming as 
regularly in mild seasons as in cold. 

In the time of Wilson, the redheaded woodpecker was one of the 
very commonest birds of the orchard and farm : and so abundant 
and familiar were they that, at the time of his writing his ac- 
count of that bird, he says he knew of several nests within a few 
miles of Philadelphia. At the present day however, the redheaded 
woodpecker is not a frequent bird in the vicinity of towns and 
villages of the regions of which Wilson wrote. At Orange, I 
never saw more than a dozen individual- in any one year; and all 









found with few or no exceptions, on the edges of heavy timber, and 
never in orchards or anywhere near the outskirts of villages. I 
do not speak from very extended experience, but in the course of 
many pedestrian tours through northern New Jersey and southeast- 
em N,, w York. 1 never iuuud this bird either common or familiar. 



fee and rh 



Orange, though hunting for 



equally unai 


cause, 1ms aim 


The Carolina parruls 


:cet is another 


drawal from a former i 


•ange, the bird 


formerly it was quite at 


•undant. This i 




snt of the count 


whore it wasfoiMieriy. 


common, havim 






lowever, are only tern;) »r :y. although [ :un i it-lined to think 1 
*"hich in the first plac<\ they were compelled to fly for saf 



ngland was probably modified by the recent cold winter ; and of 
)urse, a inodiii.-ni.m ■»:' ih ■ .■■ vl ^uld result in a corresponding 

es, more or less d\ ■-, n I, nt i:oon the ( ^uh n> for food. ^ The 
\ the slightest <hi in t'u UW, nn >t i i le.jjo some readjust- 



394 AN OCTOPUS INHABITING THE COAST OF NEW ENGLAND. 

In many cases, however, it seems impossible to assign any reason 
for these irregular migrations. What caused the chestnut-sided 
warbler to become so abundant in the eastern states, where it for- 
merly was so rare ; what influenced the Carolina parrakeet and the 
raven to desert regions where they were once common ; and what 
caused the appearance of the great-crested flycatcher about 
Orange, where for years it had not been seen ; and why the hairy 
woodpecker shuns the same region, are questions that will puazlfl 
an ornithologist to answer. Certainly, in none of these cases, was 
persecution, or lack of proper shelter and food, or change of cli- 
mate the impelling cause. It may have been the same motive that 
influenced them, that ofttimes has impelled the races of men to 
migrate en masse, as in the days of the Huns and Goths, — the mere 
desire to see and possess new countries, with the vague expecta- 
tion of bettering their condition thereby. Certain it is that, what- 
ever the motive, the tribes of birds migrate here and there, invade 
and hold new regions, and disappear from others ; and move to 
and fro, upon the face of the earth, in the same manner as do the 
tribes of men. 



DISCOVERY OF AN OCTOPUS INHABITING- THE 
COAST OF NEW ENGLAND. 



he work of the U. S. Fish Commit 
fine new species of Octopus ( 0. Bairclii Verrill) which inhabits 
the deeper waters of that region. It seems to be not uncommon 
below seventy-five fathoms, judging from the fact that we met with 
it in five different localities. All the specimens obtained were 
males, and it is probable that the females are much larger than 
the males, as the genus. 

Most of the specimens were kept alive for several day-, in order 
to observe its habits. Several good drawings were made In* Air. 
J. H. Emerton, showing its different attitudes. When at rest it 
remained at the bottom of the vessel, adhering firmly by some 01 



i> !kis:i] sucker* of it* arm*, while the e 
;re curled back in various positions ; 
;u!v horizontal position and the eyes 
id had a sleepy look ; the 




i used as an organ of 

i the siphon, for it and the arms were alter- 

l closed, the closing being done energetically and 



re than four 
idled by the < 



mid :iroii . ' 






ras. Tlu- 



THE HOMOLOGIES OF PEDICELLAREE. 



O. F. Miiller, in his " Zoologia Danica" was the first to point 
out the existence of certain organs in sea-urchins which have long 
remained a puzzle to naturalists. To these organs he gave the 
generic name Pedicellaria. and considered them as parasites of the 
sea-urchins. Of his genus Pedicellaria he describes three species 
which are now known to be either different stages of development, 
or different kinds of pedicellaria?, situated in various parts of the 
shell of the sea-urchin. Our knowledge of the pedicellaria is now 
materially changed, first by the views of Delle Chiaje, who, in 
1825, figured and described the pedicellarire of several sea-ur- 
chins and starfishes. He however no longer considers them simple 
parasites but says distinctly that they form a part of the test of 
the Kchinoderms and help them in seizing their prey and taking 
hold of adjoining bodies. Much of this view has been corrobo- 
rated, and like many of the shrewd observations of Delle Chiaje 
is gaining only now the recognition it should have received 
long ago. Valentin in 1841 gives in his "Anatomy of Echinus " 
excellent figures and descriptions of pedicellate which he con- 
siders as organs of prehension. Agassiz at that time suggested 
the possibility of their being young stages of Echinoderms, in con- 
sequence of the discoveries then made by Sars of the remarkable 
development of a species of starfish. This, it is needless to say, 
is a view he has long ago abandoned though he is most persistently 
credited with it even at the present time. Subsequently, Erdl, Du- 
vernoy, Miiller and Troschel, Sars, Stimpson, Norman and Stew- 
art have figured a number of pedieellaria of Echini and starfishes, 
and have made a more or less successful attempt to use their char- 
acters as aids in distinguishing closely allied species. An article 
on pedieellariae in the "Annales des Sciences Naturelles" for 1869, 
by Perrier, gives a large number of excellent figures of the pedi- 
ceUaria- of -tarnMies and sea-urchins: unfortunately, except as a 
mere accumulation of facts, it is useless, the writer ignoring what 
had been done for the last twenty years, on the very appendages 
he was describing, so that he leaves the question of their nature 

(398) 



stood in the days of Valentin in spite c 
made, and hints of their true nature th; 
78 Troschel, Sars and A. Agassi/., whi 
/7j\ Perrier much useless speculation. 
■;/J No attempt has yet been made to 
'fl ogies of these organs, and the pre 
V intended to give the results whk 
reached by the writer since 1864, fi 
of the embryology of starfishes and 






If i 









ve shall find, scattered in 
nes over the whole surface of the 
pedieellariiv (Figs. 7* and 79). 
a calcareous stem (Fig. 80) artic- 
se upon a small granule of the le-t 
y a muscular sheath expanding i 
somewhat swollen portion with a thimble-shaped knob at the 
This knob, though it seems solid and compact at first sight, 
reality split into three wedges (Fig. 81 a), which can Fig . 
be opened and shut at will. When open, these pedi- 
cellariae may be compared to a three-pronged fork, 
Fig. so. ex cept that the prongs are arranged concentri- 
cally instead of on one plane and when closed 
they fit into one another as neatly as the pieces 
of a puzzle. Fig. 81 represents the end view 
of one of these pedicellarise. 

If we watch a sea-urchin after he has been 
feeding, we shall learn at least one < 
offices which this singular organ perfor 
the general economy of the animal. That part 
of the food which he ejects passes out of the 
anus, an opening on the summit of the body in the 
area where the zones of which the shell is com- Fig S1- 
posed converge. The rejected particles, thrown , , \ 

out in the shape of pellets, are received on Jyijl} 
these little forks which close upon them like forceps, ST ;J C^ 
and they are passed from one to the other down the C^pi~^J 
side of the body till they are dropped off into the 
water. Nothing is more curious and entertaining than to watch 
tb -e neatness and accuracy with which this process is performed. 




bits of food passing rapidly along tlio 



'I\i5 ESS I 

II meats only along certain given lines. They are C 

I | especially numerous about the mouth where they M 
|!|j are much shorter (V'vj. T'J) ami more compact; ''" V, -- N 



the muscular she: 



bility of the shea 



possible direction, the flexi- 
) sweep in all the corners and 
he spines, and occasionally 

-.it an- led among the spines. 
> pass their prey to the mouth 







Meetly from the limestone network < 
Fig. 88. tbe shell. We fin 

^J&ur „ 8imilarly in Echh 

_3^>^ — 1( — -s^ pedicellate placer! i 
kp^Wkj^ pits (Goniocidaris) i 

and their function is ' 
<l«ite problematical ; their move 
educed to the mere opening and shutting 



*xrr G * ° f the nomolo g ies o f these interesting appendages. 
e m U3t now go back to the earh historv of the growth of 



„ the early 
spines in embryo Echinoderms to obtain the key of 
gIG8 ° f P^ellai-ire. In all young echinoderms the 1 






upper coating of the arms of a starfish, the envelope of a Holo- 
thurian, the shell of a sea-urchin, is made up of Fig. 91. 
ar network of limestone cells (Fig. 
witn increasing size this network becomes 
^(jl closed at certain points and sends off upright 
fttj shanks which little by little form very irregular 
OQC fan-shaped spines (Figs. 89 and 90) ; in our 
n common sea-urchins these spines are immova- 
ble, forming at that stage part of the test 
itself. As the spines grow they become more 
pointed (Fig. 91) but are still immovable. In 
somewhat more advanced stages a slight con- 
striction is formed at the base of the spine 
(Fig. 92) and very soon after that, below the 
' constriction a tubercle is formed upon which 

the spine is articulated and capable of a > 
amount of motion by means of the muscular sheath 
connecting the base of the spine and the tubercle, 
which fit by a ball and socket joint (Fig. 93) ; Fig M 
soon the spine appears longitudinally stri- 
ated, the limestone cells of which it was 
composed when smaller being obliterated by 
the successive circular layers of the older 
spine (Fig. 94). 

In some sea-urchins (Arbacia) we find 
18 which never become articulated, are always fixed, 
Fig. 93. and remind us of the embryonic stage of 

J^~~\ the spines of our common sea-urchin. In 

J^f3^, one of the Echini discovered by M. Pour- 
" O .o«»® tal v g the fixed S pi nes cov er the whole 
r part of the test (Fig. 95), the movable spines being 
5. limited to a circumscribed area along the edge of 
the shell (Podocidaris). 

; trace the development of the spines of star- 
vve find something similar ; but as the pedi- 
clustered round the base of the longer 
are able to distinguish in the earliest j 
stages what will become a spine, and what will 
eventually form pedieellarise, a distinction which it is not possible 
to make in Echini where the pedicellariae and spines are irregularly 




PEDICELLARIJE. 403 

ttered. This is especially the case in such genera as Arbacia 
I the like, in which there are so-called embryonal spines remain- 
Fig. 96. in S always fixed 
movably to the test. 



tages of the ' 
d pedicellari«i (Fig. 96), and have found that at first it 
Me to distinguish between a spine and pedk-cllnria' ; it 
s. is only in somewhat later stages that the first 

trace of a difference FiJf <99 _ 

can be detected (Fig- 
ure 97) ; subsequently 
there is nod- 



greater and more rapid 
development of the central spine, as to 
hat will form spines 
• pedicellarioe (Figure 




4U 



pentagonal starfishes of 

our coast (Hippasteria) it is even easier to trace 
the gradual passage of the original limestone network either, on 
bipartite pedi- 




J n Fig. 99 we can ea 
central granule, surrounded by smaller granules, into 
°* b y the splitting of the granule we have gradua 

■ght furrow, then a deeper groove, till two clappers are formed 



simple 
have gradually formed 



404 THE HOMOLOGIES 

(Fig. 100) which eventually become movable and act as pedicel- 
l:iiia\ though they are the simplest forms of that organ. In an- 
other starfish, the genus Luidia, the central granule surrounded 
Fie. 102. ky smaller granules develops either into a spine which 
passes through the stages of Fig. 101, and terminates 
, long slender spine surrounded by papillae at its 
i, or the central spine of Fig. 101 is like the central 
granule of Hippasteria, little by little Flg .io4. 

split into three, and forms finally a pas- 
sage through such forms as are given in 
Fig. 101 into short tripartite pedicel- 
lariae surrounded by isolated spines at /~~^ 
base. If anything further t 
?d to prove the ] 
spines and pedicellariae it is t 
tripartite, pedunculated Echin 
lariae attached, as common sj 

l a tubercle (Fig. 93) surrounded by 
the peculiar smooth area called the scrobicular circle ; 
and this last form of pedicellariae is actually found in 
x^-v the genus Podocidaris (Fig. 102). The same reasoning 

\®/ will readily suggest to the student of Echinoderms the 

homology of the so-called claws of Ophiurans (Fig. 
103) and of the anchors of Holothurians (Fig. 104) which, al- 
though used for such totally different functions, being a sort of 
prehensile organ, for motion along the ground, are in reality only 
in their turn modified spines, or different forms 




Although the spine (Fig. 94) of our common 
sea-urchin is apparently so different from the 
pedicellariae figured in this article, yet when 
we pass in review the whole order of Echini we 
find differences among the spines fully as great 
as those observed in the pedicellariae. What 
can be more diverse than the immense, slender, 
hollow spine of a Diadema six to eight times the diameter of 
the test, and the short, flattened spine forming a regular pave- 
ment on the test of Colobocentrotus. We find such extremes 
as the club-shaped, curved, ambulacral spines of Salenia, the 
papillae of Cidaris, the sharp, solid, curved, antennae-like spines 



of Coelopleurus, the massive, bat-shaped spines of Heterocentro- 
tus, the cupuli-form spines of Goniocidaris, the slender, si Ik- 1 ike 
spines of the Clypeastroids. Among the Spatangoids, there are 
several families where the spines are specialized along certain 
lines (the so-called fascioles) in which they so retain their embry- 
onic features, being either articulated (Fig. 105) or directly at- 
tached to the test, and provided at the extremity and along the 
shaft with a more or less sensitive vibratile membrane, as all 
young spines originally are. 

In Ophiurans we find all the intermediate stages between [dates, 
claws and slender spines; in starfishes between the simplest 
granules, the most complicated serrated spines and pedicellariae, 
and in Ilolothtnians, between mere spicules, anchors and F ig. 105. 
the pavement-like covering of such genera as Cuvieria and ,4. 
Psolus. All this shows "plainly enough that the spines gj 
and pedicellariae are strictly homologous, whatever moditi- y3; 
cations they may assume in the different orders of Echino- \y/ 
derms, whether they serve as prehensile scavengers or 
simply protect the test against the violence of the waves 
on the rocks, or the attacks of their enemies. Sea-urchins 
are favorite food of many species of fish who would find it 
lather dangerous to attack the bristling Diademas and re- 
quire pretty strong jaws to get the better of the armored 
Heterocentrotus. The spines are not simply organs of 
defence ; they also act as means of locomotion, and in such 
genera as Arbacia the ambulacral suckers perform only a 
secondary part in the displacement of the sea-urchin, the y 
spines of the lower side serving as stilts by which the sea-urchin 
raises itself and moves along by a kind of halting gait. In Ophi- 
1 •''- fid Ilolothurians, the pediei 1 ma ' ooks . n i am hors pi r- 
form the part of organs of prehension and locomotion at the 

There is nothing in the history of the development and in tie 
homologies of these organs to show that they have been suddenly 
to existence; on the coi ions of the 

pediceUariee as they have been rapidly sketched in this 
article show the most complete homology between appendages 
■ lately lieen considered as strong proofs of the possi- 
bility of the sudden appearance of organs fol 
Motive could be given. I trust I have made it sufficiently plain 



that in the most complicated pedicellariae known, with a freely 
movable stalk ;m I w ith snapping jaws, we have only a very grad- 
ual modification of the simplest sort of limestone network found 
in all Echii!> -■ stages of the einliryonk' devel- 

opment, while still in the Pluteus-stage, and that we have an 
unbroken - rimitive network to form, on the 

one side the most diversified spines, and on the other equally 
variable pedicellariae, and that we must consider the latter in their 
most complicated forms as nothing but highly specialized spines. 



REVIEWS AND BOOK NOTICES. 

The Depths of the Sea.* —One could not but form a favora- 
ble impression of this sumptuously printed book from its attractive 
exterior ; the pleasant impression is deepened by a perusal of it. 
The narrative is on the whole clear and graceful : the novelty of 
the facts and the fine illustrations will interest the lay reader, and 
the scientist will find placed before him in an accessible form the 
results obtained by the British explorations by means of the 
dredge and thermometer in the depths of the eastern north At- 
lantic and the Mediterranean Sea. 

The marine zoologist will be led after reading it, as perhaps not 
before, to study more carefully the temperature and chemistry oi 
the water in which he dredges, while the broader questions of the 
batten <»f animals will engage 
his attention perhaps the more after reading Prof. Thomson's 
interesting summary of the joint work done by Carpenter, the 
physiologist and physicist ; Jeffreys, the conchologist ; and Wyville 
Thompson, the accomplished zoologist. After the introduction, we 
have chapters giving an account of the cruise of the " Lig 
those of the "Porcupine;" chapters on deep-sea sounding, and 
deep-sea dredging, on deep-sea temperatures, the Gulf Stream, the 
deep-sea fauna, and the continuity of the chalk. 

In the introduction (p. 44) the idea is presented that deep-sea 



of Great Britain, far from being 

ignated them, "are the inhabi- 

pecial thermal condi- 




h Tangles attached. 

s, which 'crops out' as it were, or rather comes within range 
of the ordinary means of observation, off the coast of Scandi- 



We are not so sure but that Forbes' notion was in the main the 
>re correct one. Certainly from the facts presented in this book, 

i should gather the imprest . >r I'tiuna temkil 




is effectually disposed of by the remark that 

supported through all its tissues ou all sides, w 

by incompressible fluids at the same pressure." 

The chapter on deep-sea soundings is full i 

illustrations. • . • ,,;n what has ! 






by American and English naval officers, that "the central and 
southern parts of the Atlantic appear to be an old depression, 
probably, at all events coeval with the the deposition of the Ju- 
rassic formations of Europe, and throughout these long 
tendency of that great body of water has no doubt been to ameli- 
orate the outlines, softening down asperities by the disintegrating 




officers employed in the 



['hit 



States Coast 



Florida, which were continued in the following year, and were 
productive of most valuable results." 

On turning, however, to the sixth "Bulletin of the Museum of 
Comparative Zoology," published at Cambridge, Mass., Dec. 26, 
1867, we learn that from dredgings off the coast of Florida be- 
tween May 17th and 29th, and carried to the depth of three 
hundred and fifty fathoms, Pourtales concludes that " short as the 



season's work was. ami few as were the casts of the dredge, tin 
highly interesting fact was disclosed, that animal life exists ft 
qrr.it (Jr^fhs, in as great a dirersif>/ and as great an abundance as 
in shallow water" (the italics are his). 

The work in the spring of 1868 was carried on at a maximum 
depth of five hundred and seventeen fathoms : thus two seasons' 
work was accomplished by the United States Coast Survey before 
the British Steamer " Lightning " weighed anchor at Oban the 8th 
of August, 1868, for the first British deep-sea dredging voyage. 



To the Scandinavian naturalists (particularly Professor M. 
Sars and his sou G. O. Sars beginning with 1850) however, we 
owe the impetus, which led American and English naturalists to 
dredge at great depths. Prof. Loven, however, in 1863, referring 
to the result of the Swedish Spitzbergen expedition of 18G1, when 
inolhi.ra, Crustacea and hydrozoa were brought up from a depth of 
fourteen hundred fathoms, expresses the remarkable opinion which 
later investigations appear generally to support, that at great 
depths, wherever the bottom is suitable, " a fauna of the same 
• general character extends from pole to pole through all degrees of 
latitude, some of the species of the fauna being very widely dis- 
tributed." We reproduce (thanks to the publishers) a figure (106) 
of the dredge with hempen tangles attached, a most valuable 




means offish!: us starfishes, e 

^hich the dredge fails to obtain entire or in sufl 

The exceedingly interesting and able < 
and relations of the Gulf Stream we must pass over. Our author, 
however, dissents emphatically from the well known views of his 
colleague, Dr. Carpenter, on these points. In the account of the 
deep-sea fauna the Bathybiw ffceckeUi \ Fig. 107), which created 
so much excitement at the time of its discovery, of course is first 
noticed. Thompson thus speaks of it, "If this have a claim to be 
recognized as a distinct living entity exhibiting its mature an>\ 
final form, it must be referred to the simplest division of the shell- 
less Rhizopoda, or if we adopt the class proposed by Professor 
Haeckel, to the Monera. The circumstance which gives its special 
interest to Bathybius is its enormous extent ; whether it be con- 
tinuous in one vast sheet, or broken up into circumscr; 
v idual particles, it appears to extend over a large part of the bed 



of the ocean." Fig. 107 is a mass of the protoplasmic material 
of which Bathybius is formed, with Coccoliths embedded in it, 
magnified seven hundred diameters. 

As an example of the sponges abounding at great depths is the 
Holtenia Carpenteri (Fig. 108, half the natural size). A charac- 
teristic coral is the Lophohelia prolifera of Pallas (Fig. 109, three- 
fourths the natural size), which at the depths of three hundred to 




six hundred fathoms "forms stony copses covering the bottom for 
many miles." 

Among the Echinoderms, the Rhizocrinus Loffotensis of Sars 
(Fig. 110, once and a half the natural size) is interesting not only 
in itself, but as having been found by Pourtales to occur in the 
depths of the Gulf Stream ofT Florida. 

The starfish, Archaster, is characteristic of the abysses of the 
northern seas, and a fine new form is Archaster vexiP'j' t W • 
Thomp. (Fig. 111). A most singular and intensely interesting 



sea-urchin is the Pourtalesia, first found by Pourtales off the coast 
of Florida. The British dredgers have revealed a second species 
(P. Jeffreysii W. Thorap., Fig. 112, slightly enlarged). It is 
closely related to a cretaceous group, the D^ysasteridse. Finally, 
among Crustacea, the sociable Arcturus Baffini (Fig. 113, about 
natural size) with i:- '- antenna.' is worthy of 

note as an arctic form. 

Many interesting mollusca were obtained, comprising a multi- 
tude of new species. Some dredging in nine hundred and ninety- 
four fathoms off the Spanish coast revealed -a marvellous assem- 
blage of shells, mostly dead, but comprising certain species which 
we had always considered as exclusively northern, and others 
which Mr. Jeffreys recognized as Sicilian tertiary fossils, while 

scribed, and some of them represented new genera." On another 
occasion in seven hundred and eighteen fathoms off Spain the 
Veri ;,■.„■(! ,\i oeutdostata was taken. This shell "is fossil in the 
coralline crag, and the Sicilian pliocene beds, and it now lives in 
the Japanese archipelago." 

In the final chapter the doctrine of the continuity of the chalk 
period with the present is discussed: in other words "that in the 
deeper parts of the Atlantic a deposit, differing possibly from 
time to time in composition but always of the same general char- 
acter, might have been accumulating continuously from the creta- 
ceous or even earlier p rioda to the present day." 

The "Depths of the Sea" is a work that every biologist should 
read, and for the general student of science it is the only general 
treatise on this subject. We hope so pleasant and thoroughly 
educated a narrator as Professor Thompson will be able to favor 
us with a similar work on the subject, at the close of his " Chal- 
lenger " cruise. Certainly he will be in a position, if ordinary 
success attends this important expedition, to give to the world, in 
connection with American and German observations, results still 
. more comprehensive and conclusive than those flowing from the 
cruises of the " Lightning " and ' ' Porcupine." 

COLOR-VAMATIOX IN BlRDS DEPENDENT TPON CLIMATIC InFLTj- 

FN< £*.*— The critic's office is not seldom ungracious, and we have 



never felt it to be more so than in the present instance ; but, hav- 
ing undertaken to keep the readers of the Naturalist au courant 
with the progress of American ornithology, we shall not shrink 
from any responsibility this may involve. We recognize Mr. 
Ridgway's paper as highly meritorious, and a valuable contribu- 
tion to philosophic ornithology ; it is good strong work in a com- 
paratively new field. But until the truths it elucidates are gener- 
ally recognized and become the common property of ornithologist*. 
it will remain eminently proper to handle the subject not exactly 
after Mr. Ridgway's method ; for he writes as if his views were 
both novel and original, which is not the case. To speak plainly. 
the paper is based entirely upon Mr. Allen's views, without the 
slightest allusion to this author; and is illustrated chiefly by 
cases already published, yet without the proper references. This 
is of no consequence to science, in the abstract, and does not 
detract from the scientific merit of the paper, which lies in its 
pointed and forcible illustration of certain laws ; but in science, 
much as elsewhere, individual rights must be respected — noblesse 
oblige. In raising an ethical question by our articles of impeach- 
ment, we will put the charge of appropriating Mr. Allen's work 
without acknowledgment into this shape:— a, either Mr. Ridg- 
way's views, here enunciated, are original, or, b, they are not. If a, 
we ae 4 uit him of scientific plagiarism, and accredit him with dis- 
covery, but accuse him of suppressing the fact, known to him, that 
the same discoveries had been already made by another person, and 
published about eighteen months previously. If b, the case speaks 
for itself too plainly to require further remarks. Mr. Ridgway 
has been for so long a time an industrious and painstaking student 
of ornithology that the facts he here elucidates cannot well have 
escaped his own investigations; and the feeling that he fairly 
earned his results may have led him to disregard the simple fact 
that he was anticipated in publication. Without further personal 
shall quote the record * in substantiation of what we 









unjust, or even incorrect in any particular, 
of course, open to a refutation 



The point of Mr. Ridgway's paper is this: 



ot then formally brought 



next is that of Myiodioctes ivi$ilbi$ var. plJeolota 
case of the genus Geothhyns is, however, chiefly 



the author employs Cardinalis, Carpodacus and $ph>/ropicufi; mak- 
ing a new Mexican variety, carncn 'nianus, and 
previous writer " in reduoini!: C. i'jne«s of Baird to a 
variety. In the matter of blue, the Cyanura Stelleri series is ad- 
duced and very skilfully treated. An interesting parallelism of 
Xtellrri and v<>,'<>,uihi i> elucidated; the writer keeps the two dis- 
tinct species, although he confesses that they intergrade at one 
point. The peculiar mode of parallelism is here presented for the 
first time ; the rest of the case is not novel -j— E. G. 

Late Local Lists. — Of three papers of this sort which have 
reached our table, Mr. Dall'sjis the most important, relating to 
the least known locality. Some of our readers will remember that 
on a previous occasion we had to speak in high terms of this gen- 
tleman's and Dr. Bannister's researches, which resulted in adding 
many new birds to our fauna. F< Mi investi- 

gations, in connection with the U. S. Coast Survey, Mr. Dall now 
reports upon 53 species observed in the Aleutian Islands from Un- 
alashka to the Shumagins. "The facts noted are an additional 
confirmation of the peculiarities of distribution noted by me in 
previous publications on the fauna of Alaska ; and the region vis- 
ited is of peculiar interest, as being the portion of the West coast 
where the arctic Canadian fauna of the region north of the 
Alaskan range, and the characteristic West coast fauna which 
prevails south of that range, come together and are to a certain 
extent intermiugled." In addition to the names of the species 
forming the "face'' of the report, we have many biographical 
notes, sometimes extensive, as in case of the kittiwake ; some- 
times novel, as in the instance of the beautiful Steller's eider, and 
always interesting. Particular attention has been given to the 
life-colors of the iris, a matter too often neglected by those whose 



opportunities for contributing this information are both ample and 
inviting. The nomenclature adopted is not a late one, and many 
of the species are only nominal, though' the competent ornitholo- 
gist will make the required changes without ditlieulty in most 
cases. We note the appearance of a certain " Hirundo Unalash- 
ken.sis? Gmelin " — a species neither identified of late years, nor 
now determined by Mr. Dull. Troglodytes Ahtskensis lid. is prop- 
erly reduced to a variety of hyemalis (Cf. Key N. A. Birds, p. 
351): but Mi'Iospl-M ■• insignis," which ought to be similarly 
treated, stands, as do Aquila "Canadensis," Brachyotus "Cas- 
sini," Lewostirte ~ griseinucha," Passerculus " SandwicheiiMs," 
Corvus " carnivorus," Pica " Hudsonica," and many other mere 
varieties or pure figments. Among interesting occurrences may 
be noted a second American specimen of Livnosauropyg-ialix, lately 
added to our fauna, and Moreca penelope. By this and his pre- 
vious paper, Mr. Dull has made himself our chief authority on the 
birds of our newly acquired territory. 

With Mr. Allen's late " Reconnoissance," Messrs. Holden and 
Aiken's paper,* just out, Mr. Ridgway's, for the coming Re- 
port, the still unpublished explorations of Dr. H. C. Yarrow and 
Mr. C. H. Merriam, Lt. Bendire's partially elaborated operations 
in Arizona, and we may be permitted to add, the whole results of 
Dr. Hayden's investigations, now in preparation !>y ourselves — 
the birds of the interior western territories are getting such an 
overhauling as they have not had for the past fifteen years. The 
editor of the Holden- Aiken paper says, " The following interest- 
ing notes were prepared for my own private perusal, and not 
designed for publication. They are possessed of too much in- 
terest to be withheld, embodying as they do the careful observa- 
tions of two promising young ornithologists who have explored, 
:,t different seasons of the year, a comparatively new field." The 
editor is thus responsible for the "get-up" of the paper; and this 
ig the independent researches of different observers has 
been done in a way that reminds us of the alleged fact, that Homer 
nodded once. For we are left in ignorance of, or to find out if we 
can, the localitx rof obs< rvatii u. "Wyoming and Colorado Terri- 
tories" cover a good deal of ground, and much of the edge is taken 



precisely. Mr. Holden's obser 


vations appea 


r to have 


been made 


about Sherm 


an, in the southeas 


it corner of ^ 


'yoming. ( 


juite a long 


way from the "Black Hills" as 


laid down on 


the maps 


; while Mr. 


Aiken's (we 


understand) were 


in Colorado, 


Bomewhen 


;■ about Ca- 


Son City or 


Fountain, south of 


Denver. Th 


at our criticism does 


not lack poii 


it may be seen in the fact, that < 


>ut of 14S 


! species re- 


ported upon. 


only -_V, (not one-f. 


ifth) are menti 


onedbyb 


oth observ- 


ere; and nei 


arly 100 are given 


by Mr. Aiken 


alone. 


rhis shows 


such a radic: 


tl difference in the 


faunal chared 


;eristic of 


the regions 


embraced in 


the paper, that it 


s two sides v 


,-ould hav( 


; been pre- 


sented much 


better apart ; whil 


e if merged, 1 


:he precise 


■ locality of 


observation 


should have been 


given in ev< 


•ry instai 


lcc. As it 


stands, such 


birds as Geococcy; 


5 Califormann 


^ and Pip 


ih mesoleu- 












side of a boo 


ik. The biographic 


:al notes are e: 


scelliMit ai 


id perfectly 


reliable. \V 


e note with surpi 


•ise the breed 


ing of Sr 


,jl,-n>i>h«'Jiin 


omiu'n'nd ( 


in a place (somew 


To) whTre'S 


the Black 


Hills. Wy- 
'uihi.x would 


have been es 




le occurrence ■ 


of Eri* 


•tnra Domi- 


root somewl 


lere in Colorado i 


Dr Wyoming. 


A new 1 


)ird, Junco 




. Aikenii, is named 


I, but not desc 


rihed. nor 


is even the 



>t to the point that we. or others, Inl- 
and who its sponsor is. The name hei 
, though it may have been already ii 
ave been accompanied with a descrij 
Other nomenelatural points might 1) 

species : while the impropriety of 
xicanus" for the Tyrannula dnerascc 
fully exposed by Dr. Selater. Mr. La 



species of birds were noted or 



BOTANY. 



the Rocky Mount: 






>ver, that the simple-leaved frutescent species (also extra-Euro- 
>ean) are the ancestors of those with divided leaves, — but this is 
i speculation of a different character, upon which little or no evi- 
lence can be brought to bear. — A. Gray in American Journal of 



Botanical Notelets. — Equisetum arvense is characterized as 
having, and generally has, its branches 4- sided and the teeth 
four. Milde describes a variety boreale, chiefly high northern, with 
three teeth and 3-sided branchlets. This form is very common 
around Boston, chiefly in grassy places, and it might in the ab- 
sence of the fertile plant be mistaken for K. pmtense. It has 
been noticed here for some time, but attention has been called to 
it by Mr. Wm. Boott. 

Cyprip^linia uonilo with two Mowers lias been sent by Mr. J. 8. 
Scott, of Westfield, Mass. The flowers are approximated, the 
second bract close to and opposite the usual one ; and the lips of 
the two of course facing each other. 

Acer nigrum with stipules, at Wabash, Indiana, which Mr. Mills 
brought to our notice last year, holds the character this season, 
not only in the tree first observed but in several others. 

Anemone neuiorom. or tri folia. From the Peaks of Otter, at 
altitude of about three thousand feet, Mr. A. H. Curtiss sends an 
anemone of a form new to this country (although there is some 
approach to it in Oregon), which may be called .1. nemorosa with 
undivided leaflets or A. tri folia L., according to the botanists' 
fancy. It is fully as large as the latter, having the stem a foot 
high up to the leaves, and the leaflets two and one-half inches 
long; the deepness of the teeth of these, and a slight tendency to 
trilol.ation. should rather refer it to A. npmorosa, which not rarely 
exhibits this state in Europe. This European form, as Mr. Curtiss 
■■-hears to have kept company with Conrnllaria mojohx, 
being here associated with it in one of the most northern stations 
of this plant, which in America is restricted to the Alleghanies. 
. Dimorphism in Forsyth io. In Cambridge and its vicinity all 
the blossoms of Forsythia suspensa have long filaments and a short 
style; all those of F. riridissima have short filaments and a long- 
style. This was noticed l>y Mr. Brown, one of my pupils, of the 
present Senior Class. In all probability this is not a specific dif- 
ference, but one of dimorphism. That only a single form of each 



species should be met with in this neighborhood, or even in the 
country, is not extraordinary, since these shrubs are propagated 
from cuttings or slips. "The published figures of F. viridUrima 
are of the long-stamened sort. Siebold and Zuccarini describe the 
long-styled form of F. suspensa, the counterpart of the one we 
have, but their plate represents bath ; so that the fact of dimor- 
phism is pretty well made out.— A. Gray. 



ZOOLOGY. 

The Diminution of Food Fishes. — In our recent abstract of the 
annual report of the Commissioners of Fisheries of this State, 

Prof. Baird of the Smithsonian Institution and United States 
Commissioner of Fish and Fisheries, in answer to one sent by 
them asking his opinion as to the probable cause of the rapid 
diminution of the supply of good fishes on the coast of New Eng- 

eating character that we subjoin it nearly entire : — 

"We are all v.ery well aware," writes Prof. Baird, "that fifty 
f New England, empty- 
ing into the ocean, wore crowded and almost blockaded, at certain 
the numbers of shad, salmon and alewives seeking to 
ascend for the purpose of depositing their spawn, and that, even 
after these parent ti-h had returned to the ocean, their progeny 

:11|| 1 later in the year descended to the sea in immen-e schools. It 
**e daring this perio .-oast were 

also of great extent and value. Cod. haddock, halibut, and the 
hne fish generally, occupied the fishing grounds close to the shore, 

; II|( i <-ould be caught- from small open boats, ample tares being read- 
''y taken within a short distance •>[' the ii-hermen's abode, without 
the necessity of resorting to distant seas. Now. however, the 
state of things is eiitirelv different. The erection of impassable 
the waters of the NViv England States, and especially 
of Maine, has prevented the upward course of the 



424 ZOOLOGY. 

of phenomena were :u >i . r« < iated i-? those of cause and effect. Hali- 
but, it is believed, can be reduced in abundance by over-fishing 
with the hook and line. 1 hi t She i -\in rh uce- in Kurope ami America 
coincide in the confirmation >>f the opinion that none of the meth- 
ods now in vogue for the capture of fish of the cod family (includ- 



their i.iiuii 


>ers. Fish, 


the fern 


ales of w 


hii h'di 


,p OS it f r 


, .in 'one to 




rK5 






asily e 








fwith'tl^ 






Wvo 


V'w' 




















ierly could 


be seen 


ired almo 


st witl 


dn sigh 


t of their 


'"Tt'i'm.u 


a well est a 


bli-diod i' 


act that the mov< 


mients o 


f the fishes 


of the cod 


faniilv are , 












>'l"h'- < 










1. by "ill. 




food. Thi 


is the cod. 










ivel'v little 


known on t 


he coasts of 










.pi.roael.es 


the schooh 


? begin to 


















mud the . 


hollo, h- 






there finall, 






■s that tin 








ir presence 












hacks .,f the fish! 












Here the 


y spcul sev 


eral mor 


iths in the proce; 


ss of reproduction, 






ted in .]-. 




1 the '. 


ishery b< 




Cllted at tl 




e. Twei 




thirty 


thollSMl 


I'ol Which 



426 ZOOLOGY. 

the young rattlesnake is not provided with so large or so loud a 
rattle as the full grown snake, as tending to disprove the mimetic 
and protective uses of this appendage— " The young requiring 
greater facilities for obtaining food, and more extensive measures 
for protection." 

"Were this accepted as satisfactory reasoning, a similar conclu- 
sion might be reached in regard to a multitude of animals, fof 
instance, all those having horns, as the deer, goat, antelope, etc., 
in which the young are unarmed : yet the protective uses of the 
horns cannot be questioned. AVith many of those animals, the 
female is invariably destitute of these appendages, yet we might 
suppose, from her position as the immediate protector of her 
offspring, that she required to be most fully provided in this 

The truth is that, to a remarkable extent, the young of most 
creatures are little else than the food of other animals; often they 
are the food of even their own species, if not of their own parents. 
Nothing is more emphatically proclaimed, on every side, than the 
fact (put into such divine language by Tennyson) that Nature is 
careless of the individual, however careful she may be of the type. 
She forms a thousand seeds, but only one germinates and pro- 
duces its kind. We have, too, the mystery of the pollen, which 
I have watched for years with wonder, where, in one case, with 
apparently miserly penuriousness, she doles out the precious life- 
giving atom just sufficient to fecundate, while, in other instances, as 
if glorying in her prodigality, she scatters the golden du>i as freely 
as some spendthrift heir squanders the hoarded wealth of his 

Yet I have perfect faith that '-nothing is lost "— nothing 
wasted: but that all has a governing purpose, circumscribing to 
the very nicest minutia: 1 the exact proportion requisite for the 
result ; albeit hidden from our purblind eyes. We know so many 
of Nature's delicate adjustments and wonderful combinations that, 
surely, we can have perfect confidence that, even when all is dark 
to us, her ways are Wisdom's ways. We brino- out our clum-y 



balances, but the volatile 



escapes 



As to the frequency o ,t being pro^ 

the protective weapons or appliances of the full grown c 
dant material can be found, from the oyster and lobster, 







tion, to 


the noble stag 


ed with his " branchy cr 


own," rejoiei 


n g natn 


irally in his so 


highly personified gendei 


. guarding tl 


le herd 


of which he is 


monarch, or the slow, sul 


len buffalo, v 


there we 


> see the males 


ing an impassable cordo 


a around the 


mother 


cows and their 


less calves, when assaile* 


1 by the " ca- 


ucl arcl 


Lers," the bulls 



so protected, but slowly acquired these weapons through 
elopment. The early condition of the horns of the deer 
ered with smooth velvet, and unsuitable for defence, is another 



Numberless facts otter themselves on this subject — the protec- 

ness of the parent when guarding its olisprinu' is a ■■ 

episode in the lives of many of the lower animals. This passion, 

iVeqik-ntly carried to the extreme of rendering them temporarily 
regardless- of personal danger when e\cii their lives are threatened, 



Among insects the parental instinct is often wonderful, prompt- 



ronted Owl in Canada.— Although the " white- 
r yctale albifrons Cass.) is now conceded by most 
kd ornithologists to be the young of the saw-whet 
I Bon.), its supposed rarity in comparison with the 



428 ZOOLOGY. 

adult renders the following record of recent instances of its captui 
in Canada of considerable interest. Mr. Ridgway, in a pap. 
published in this journal in May, 1872, in noticing Mr. D. ( 
Elliott's mistake of considering the X. cdbifrons to be the youii 
of N. Tengmalmi, has carefullyelaborated the evidence of its heir 
the young of N. Acadka. This relationship had been previous] 
suspected, and seems now to be fully confirmed. Mr. Mcllwrait 
under date of Hamilton, Ontario, Canada, Jan. 20, 1873, writ< 
as follows: "On looking over the Naturalist of April, 187 
I observe a notice of the capture of a specimen of the whit 



collectors, I have seen or hear 
i number of years back. My fin 
in's account, and the figure gi\ 



Drummondville, to 



i -id by those parties with whom I have conv< 
i the subject that it is the young of the saw-whet, and yet 



" Ibis," of its 1 
maJini'] I do no 



i Baird'a work and elsev 
the *' Washington Eagle, 


" M well" as upon his 
,iform for their whole 




my ohservations on 


s as a specific character : 


; differing in details 




the two legs of the 


a series of thirty or fort} 


• specimens, I found 



iffer from those of the toes in being 
relations, the phalangeal ones sliding 



of the validity of '■ II. Washingtonii" does not rest entin 
"Pon the accuracy or the reverse! of delineation and deseripth 



430 ZOOLOGY. 

among the mass of "sen." "bald," " troldei 
tailed," etc., eagles stated to inhabit this con 
or brown eagles from Nova Scotia that have 
hands are young bald eagles. 
across ; another .si feet ; exceeding s< 
One had the tail 15 J inches : in anothe 
3£ inches, and tarsus the same. The* 
even outdo "Washingtonianus" exce 
Bernard Gilpin, M. D., Halifax, N. & 

[Note. Dr. Coues, to whom we referred this pl 



Doryphora lO-h'm-atu (Say), is tlm 



20), at Fort Gratiot. Michigan. 1 encountered it in large numbers. 
in both the larva and perfect states, in the vicinity of potato-fields 
(where it had committed terrible depredations), devouring the 
younger leaves and flower buds of the common thistle {Cirsimn 
lanceolatum Scop.), which it was rapidly stripping even to its thick 

In the same neighborhood I also saw it on pigweed (AmamHtx* 
retrojlexus L.), hedge mustard (Sisymbrium <,r}i, ■>,,<*!,■ Scop.), the 
cultivated oat. smart-weed ( p.,1, ,,,■„,'•>,„ /,, ,,!,->, J/,' r L.). mh-I the red 

But of the last mentioned plants, with the exception of the night- 

The thistle it seemed particularly to relish. Could its attention 
be diverted from the potato to the Canada thistle it would encoun- 
ter an object worthy of its urowess : and tin 



:h was also to be be seen an abundance of the . 
oman, Detroit, Michigan, September, 1872. 



the common Deer. — At the foot of the bluff on the Vermilion 
Kiver, I saw a flock of wild turkeys crossing on the ice and coming 
directly towards me. I concealed myself in a very dense thicket 
and awaited their approach. Though concealed by the thick brush 
I knew by the sound, that they were passing very near me, and 
going towards an open space on the brow of the bluff within easy 

exposed, intently looking for the appearance of the game. The 
first that appeared was the head and neck of the leader of the 
i express 



ck, whicu 

purpose of looking at me, for he instantly sti 
me and gave the loud quick note of alarm. 



: with the deer. 



The Ant-liox.— While in the Indian Ladder Region, All 

; is situated neaAhe head of the '-Ladder Road," at the ha: 
ie cliffs smd extends for several rods along the path to the " r 
:ouse." The cliffs 1 here hang over the paths, so that it is all 

sintegrated limestone, extremely tine, hut mingled with mi 

?r. Perhaps at this last date some were in the chrysalis, I 
:veral specimens thus obtained most of them entered that statt 
mrt time, while those taken in August remained until the folio 



ts of the settlement. On the other 



i-o parallel series, the Is» 



lb:ti-mm<?i'<i. characti . die number of the tarsal 

divisible into two parallel -cries, known generally as P>nt<t m<r<i. 
and Tetramem though the names are not rigidly exact. The Pen- 
himcra embrace the bulk of the Coleoptera, and contain all the 

series, the Adephaga (second ventral segment visible at the sides) ; 
ChirJrornes (antennae normally clavate. tarsi variable) : Ijimdli- 

comes (antenna) pectinate or serrate, anterior cavities open): 
Detailed characters were added for the families of Cltirirornrs, 
which were divided into three main groups characterized by the 
development of the anterior coxae, which are prominent and con- 
tiguous in SilphUh", etc.. globose and separate in Erotylidce, etc., 

sodidce and Othniidae were removed to the Adephaga and Hetero- 
mera respectively (Proceedings of American Philosophical Society, 

Do Rattlesnakes Climb trees? — In the attractive volume en- 
titled " The Animal Creation ;" by T. Rymer Jones, New York, 
1873, we find the author asserting that ^they do not climb 
trees ; " but on the preceding page. p. i'Jl, we find the rattlesnake 
figured as wrapped, constrictor-like, about a good sized tree. The 
figure itself is poor, and gives the impression of a serpent ten or 
twelve feet long; but more noticeable is the fact that the text and 






'rotalns horri- 



the body of a 

i position. The snake kept his entire length upon the 
f the trunk of the tree, and finally coiled himself up 
of departure of the main branches. Here he was par- 
led and had sufficient " room to spare," to dart half 

now that rattlesnakes do climb trees, but not in the 
i in the illustration referred to ; and we should judge 
ies' assertion that they "do not climb" was also in- 
has. C. Abbott, M. D." 
)x of Dragox-flies by Birds.— Mr. Gould, in a com- 



434 ZOOLOGY. 

lieve that the larger dragon-flies are very liable to the attacks Of 
bird-, and have no doubt that the hobby and kestrel occasionally 
feed upon them ; with regard to the small blue-bodied species 
(Agrionidce) frequenting the sedg mes, I ha\e 

seen smaller birds, sparrows, etc., capture and eat them before my 
eyes, after having carefully nipped otf the wings, which are not 
I. This must take place to a considerable extent, tm 1 
have observed the tow-path strewn with the rejected wings." This 
has been observed by Mr. J. L. Hersey of New Hampshire (see 



Bees and King-birds. — For the last ten years I have carefully 
noted the habits and movements of the king-birds, and have come 
to the following conclusion, viz : that they do eat the honey bee, 
and so does the purple martin ; but instead of being destroyed for 
it, they should be protected and allowed to build their nests near 
the farm-house, because they drive off the hawks, crows and other 
plundering birds from the poultry yard. Warm afternoons in July 
and August, when the drone bees are out, we have seen 1 1 
come down within ten feet of the hive and snap up the drone bees, 
thus relieving the workers from the necessity of expelling them 
from the hive and biting off their wings to prevent them from 
getting back to the hive. The king-bird also, we find, selects the 
drone, and will come afternoons and take his position on a stake 
in front of the hive, and when a drone bee comes along will make 
a rush for him, come back to the stake, give him a pick or two and 
swallow him. But says an objector. ••What do they subsist on 
before the drone bees fly out?" This point I settled by shooting 
one in the month of May, and I found in his crop the wing- Bad 
legs of May-bugs. By watching their movements, I find the 
dragon-fly is also a favorite food for them. — J. L. Hersey, Ameri- 
can Bee Journal. 

Color of the Eggs of Caprimulgin*:. — In the paper of Br. 
Elliott Coues in the Naturalist of June, referring to the eggs of 
the Antrostomns XuttaUii, he speaks of it as a "singular circum- 
stance" that its eggs should be white and adds that it is "a thing 
before unknown in this genus." In confirmation of his belief in 
the singularity of the absence of spots in the eggs of Nttttwl - 
whippoorwill Dr. Coues refers to Dr. Sclater's generalization that 
ail CajtriiniLyince lay colored eggs. 



.p°,;> 



We have in t 



r striking exemplifies 



danger of hastily laving down rules from isolated facts. The real 
tact is. so far as we now know, there are as many species belonging 
to the genus Antrostomus that lay white unspotted eggs as there 
are that hare colored ones. The eggs of Nuttall's whippoorwill 
were first obtained by Mr. Robert Ridgway, who met with them, 
July 20, 1868, among the East Humboldt Mountains, and the 
Unspotted character of their eggs has for some time been a well 
known and undisputed fact. 

But this is not the first instance of the discovery of an unspotted 
egg of an Antrostomus. In the third volume of the first series of 
the Ibis, page 64, Mr. Salvin mentions taking, April 20, 1860, on 
the mountains of Santa Barbara, in Central America, a species of 
Antrostomus with two white eggs. Mr. Salvin has since informed 
me that the parent of these white eggs has been ascertained to be 
A. macromystax of Wagler. 

So far as we now know two of this genus, Caroline,)*;* and vodf- 
erits, have eggs with purple marbling on a white ground, and two 
have purely white eggs. Occasionally the eggs of vocifetus are 
almost immaculate. It is quite possible that the other southern 
forms of Antrostomus will be found to have unspotted white eggs 
and that the markings of the more northern species are the excep- 
tions and not the rule.— T. M. Brewer. 

More Monsters.— The account of a double pig in the June 
number of the Naturalist (page 567) leads me to say that there 
are no^ in my possession awaiting examination the following 
malformations. 

1. A double pig, apparently identical with that above referred 
to ; the brains are perfectly preserved. 

2 - A pig more nearly double, the two individuals being joined 
only by the thorax. 

v- A child with two heads, three legs and a rudimentary third 
arm ; of this the viscera including the two brains are preserved. 

4 - Four calves with two heads each ; from two of these the 
brains are preserved. 

•>. A cock and a hen full grown, and possessing four legs each. 

6- A young chick with one leg. 

«• A fcetal pig with seven toes on each manus and six on each 



436 ZOOLOGY. 

8. The manus of an adult pig with a well formed pollex. 

9. A silver fish with partly divided tail. 

10. A car > and one cornu of the uterus. 

11. A pup, one day old ; with no tail, single efoacal opening 
and one kidney only one-fifth the size of the other. — Burt G. 
Wilder. 

The Depths of Mid Ocean. — In her voyage from Teneriffe to 

St. Thomas the British Exploring Ship " Challenger " sounded and 
dredged every other day. The soundings showed that a pretty 
level bottom runs off from the African const, deepening gradually 
to a depth of 3,125 fathoms at about one-third of the way across 
to the West Indies. If the Alps, Mont Blanc and all, were sub- 
merged at this spot, there would still be half a mile of water above 
them. Five r west there is a com] 

shallow part, a little less then two miles in depth. The water then 
deepens again to three miles, which continues close over to the 
West Indies. At the deepest spots both on the east and west side 
of the Atlantic, the dredge brought up a quantity of dark red clay. 

at all depths. No difficulty was experienced in obtaining these 
deep-sea dredgings, and it was merely a question of patience, each 
haul occupying twelve hours. In depths over two miles little baa 
been found, but that little was totally new. — Nature. 

A Cat's Jump. — The following statement, of the distance 
leaped by a cat, is made by the Mes>i>. San ford Brothers, of 
Ithaca. N. Y.. who are not only reliable but accurate observers 
of the doings of animals. " When our cat was about a year old. 
he was seen on several days to take position upon a show-case 
four feet high, and to watch a canary in a cage hanging from the 
ceiling eight feet from the case ; the ceiling was eleven feet from 
the floor; and the cage an ordinary cylindrical one. One day. as 
we were observing him thus engaged, he suddenly sprung at the 
cage and caught his claws upon it ; his weight swung the cage up 
g n-t tin cei ing. >p 1! i _; all the vessels, and terrifying the 
canary; after swinging to ami fro several times, the cat dropped 
to the floor uninjured ; we measured the distance from the top of 
the case to the cage and found it to be ten feet ; so that the cat 
made an ascent of six feet in eight, or upon an incline of nearly 
thirty-five degrees." — B. G. Wilder. 



zoology. 437 

CEstrus hominis in Texas. — I have in my possession a larva 
supposed to be that of CEstrus hominis Gmelin ; if it is not, it is 
evidently very closely allied to that. It was taken from an ulcer on 
the shoulder of an eight-year old boy, of our village, on the 15th 
inst., by his mother, and given to the family physician, Dr. M. H. 
Oliver, through whose kindness I was put in possession of it. It 
is a whitish grub, about $ of an inch in length, somewhat wider 
than thick, the constrictions between the segments are well marked, 
the cephalic hooks and anal stigmata are visible. It has the appear- 
ance of not being fully grown. It is interesting from the fact that, 
according to the '-American Entomologist," no fly belonging to this 
family has heretofore been known to attack man within the Tinted 
States.— S.J. Stroop, Waxahachie. Ellis C<,nnt>j. Texas, January 
'2-2. I,s7;5. [Having received Mr. Stroop's specimen, we may say 
that this is not the larva of (Estnts hominis, but of the sheep hot 
fly {CEstrus ovis), or a closely allied species.— Eds.] 

Agricultural Ants.— Mr. Moggridge has observed at Menton, 
France, two species of ants (Aphenogaster) carrying into their 
nests, during the winter months, the seeds of certain late fruiting 
plants. He has traced their burrows to a spherical chamber filled 
with the seed of a grass which he had seen the ants in the act of 
transporting. " Outside the channels there was generally a heap 
of the husks of the various seeds, and sometimes one of those 
heaps would fill a 4 uart measure. These husks had had their fari- 
naceous contents extracted through a hole in one side. He pur- 
posely strewed near the nests large quantities of millet and hemp 
seeds. After the lapse of a fortnight many of these seeds, previ- 
ously conveyed into the nests, had been brought out again, they 
ha\ ing evidently commenced to germinate, and he then found that 
the radicle was gnawed off from each seed, so as to prevent further 
growth, and, this being effected, the seeds were carried back again. 
The cotyledons of germinated seeds were removed from the 
nest."— Trans. Entomological Society of London, 1871. 

Metamorphoses of Butterflies. — Dr. Burmeister has for- 
warded to Paris a fine series of drawings illustrating the earlier 
stages of the magnificent South American Morphos and Pavouias ; 
" la!1 J details of their external anatomy are also represented. They 
*iU be published in the tk Revue et Magazin de Zoologie" and will 
Sn Pply a great deficiency in our knowledge of the metamorphoses 
of butterflies. 



ANTHROPOLOGY. 

Ax Indian Carving. — At a recent meeting of the Essex Insti- 
tute, Mr. F. W. Putnam exhibited a very interesting carved stone 
which he had received from Dr. Palmer of Ipswich, who stated 
that it had been found at Turkey Hill, Ipswich. 

This stone was evidently carved with care for the purpose of 
being worn as an ornament, and was probably suspended from the 
neck. It is of a soft slate, easily cut with a sharp, hard stone. 
The markings left in various places by the carver, showing where 
his tool had slipped, indicate that no very delicate instrument 
was used, while the several grooves, made to carry out the idea 
of the sculptor, indicate as plainly that the instrument by which 
they were made, had, what we should call, a rounded edge, like 
that of a dull hatchet, as the grooves were wider at the top than 
at the bottom, and the stria? show that they were made by a sort 
of sawing motion, or a rubbing of the instrument backwards and 
forwards. In fact, the carver's tool might have been almost any 
stone implement, from an arrowhead to a skin scraper, or any hard 
piece of roughly chipped stone. 

Figure 114 represents the stone of natural m/c, its total length 
bAng two and a half inches. It is of general uniform thickness, 




tion representing the 
forked tail, or caudal 
y thinned to its edg 
ortion representing the dorsal fin. 
The carving was evidently intended to represent a fish, with 
some peculiar ideas of the artist added and several important char- 
acters left out. The three longitudinal grooves in front represent 
the mouth and jaws, while the transverse groove at their termina- 
tion gives a limit to the length of the jaw, and a very decided 
groove on the under side divides the under jaw into its right and 
(438) 



left portions. The eyes are repre-ented as slight 1 1. i -i-v --i 
the top of the head. The head is separated from the abd 
portion by a derided groove, and the eaudal fin is well repre 
by the forked portion, from the centre of which the ronnd< 
mination of the whole projects. In this part there is an 

pass through for the purpose of suspension. The portion 
sculpture rising in the place of a dorsal tin is in several' 
singular conception of the ancient carver. While holdii 
position of a dorsal fin, it points the wrong way, if we rega 



was limited by the length of the piece i 
head so much out of proportion, he wj 
anterior portion of the fin in order to e: 
gard it in this light, the notches on the 



own conclusions. 

The symmetry of the whole carving is well carried out, both 
sides being alike, with the exception that the raised portion at the 
posterior part of what has here been called the dorsal fin is a little 
more marked on the left side than on the right, and the edge on 
the same side is snrroun led I ; vn ^ ne - 

The carving was unquestionably made by an Indian of the tribe 
once numerous in this vicinity and. as it was almost bej-ond a 
doubt cut by a stone tool of some kind, it must be considered as 
quite an ancient work of art; probably worn as a "medicine," 
and possibly indicated either the name of the wearer or that he 
was a noted fisherman. 

Discovery of a New Human Skeleton of the Palj.outhic 

Part 16, 1027)' tin- remand of a -cud fos.il human skeleton from 
the sixth cave of Baousse — Rousse (Grottes de Menton), Italy. 
The skeleton was found at a depth of nearly four metres below the 
floor of the cave, Lying extended on its back in the !• . 
direction of the cave. The deposit forming the floor is regularly 
stratified, and consists of charcoal, ashes, of small calcin 
stones, bones and teeth of animals, shells and flints. Associated 



with the remains were numerous flint implement- and 

in bone, as well as a number of perforated shells belonging to the 

genera Nassa. Buc-ehium, Cy/n-na, etc. ; these, from their position, 

had evidently formed part-, of :j -. and were 

intoned with the body. The extreme friability of the bones did 
not allow of their removal in so perfect a condition as that of the 
first skeleton, but, in thisoroe ako. they belonged to a t:dl indi- 
vidual, the skeleton nie;i-urii|M nearly two metres in length. In 
the debris of the cave, bones of the following animals were met 
with: — ■ Ursus spelceus, Hycena spelau. ('this Ihjihs and wipes, 
Arc fo mux i/rimi'jenia, Lrpiix fi'ii/r/ijus. Jl/'/.s. Equnx rnhiijjtis. Sax 
si-mfti. Box primiijrviiis. ('crrn.s Omnd/ ■„.-;'.•;. FJa r l >/x corxirvx and 
oipreolux, and f'opro prrmlycniii. Besides there were found some 
bones of a large eagle and of some birds of passage, as well as 

cuius, Jffjtilns, Pecten, De)d<d>um, and Trm-his.— The Academy. 
MICROSCOPY. 



Apertures op Objective 


s.— The full i 


■eport havin 


g been re- 


ceived of the London exami 


nation of the ' 


lolles' x'a inc 


ft objective 


sent there for measuremen 


t, it appears 


that unforti 


mately the 


examiners were thrown off 


their guard 


by an unex 


pected ele- 


ment in the case, and that, i 


incredible as il 


; may seem, 1 


:hcir report 






Everybody 




an objective with cover-adji 


istment possei 


sses a certai 


n range of 


powers and angular aperture 


s ; and no one 


doubts that 


Mr. Tolles 


can make an objective of 1 


45° aperture i 


in air, or th 


at the cor- 


responding apertures would 


be 91° in wa 


ter and 79° 


in thinned 


balsam. The one question 


in regard to 


this objeetiv 


e is not its 


balsam angle at an adjustme 


nt. dry. upon 


an accident a 


lly or arbi- 


trarily chosen object and the 


! corresponding 


r immersion 


angles. but 


its balsam angle at its higl 


lest (working) 


\ adjustment 


. If, from 


faulty mounting, the adjustn 


lent can be s< 


•re wed past 1 


the limit of 


good definition, then of com 


se it ceases t< 


) be an achi 


■omatic ob- 



e, however, that tl 

lable angle dry, s 

Mr. Tolles' pro 



i to be hoped 1 



The principle involved in this 
aperture, according to the raediu 






Mr Tolles has uniformly declined either to accept or to con- 
trovert this well known theory. preferring simply to offer proof of 
'tis ability to excel this limit, without reconciling- >uch result with 
inc. Whether lie utilizes rays beyond the 

extreme' rays : hut his letter to the March number of the Monthly 
Mic. Jour, practically disclaims tiiis doctrine, and hints at a higher- 
secret of his excessive angle. Curiously this letter happens to be 
published in 



442 

Mr. Wenham evidently does not recognize the pos* 
" collecting," by means of posterior combinations, rays 
vergent (behind the front lens) than those which are 
when the objective is worked dry ; and Mr. Tolles disti 
avows this theory for his side of the controversy: yet 
neither absurd nor improbable, and it is most likely the < 
by which the balsam angle is to be increased beyond 82°. 

Since the above was in type Dr. J. J. Woodward has 
an important contribution on this subject in the Mon 
Jour. A T V was sent to him in February by Mr. Tolle 
animation. It gave good definition, through glass one 
nghest cover-adj 



fifth of an 


inch t 


hick, at its p 


r.int 


meJareTt 


. a.ljus 
>y the 1 


tank method. 


He 


Dions modi 


[Ration 




■boat 


solar rays 1 


hrou-1: 


i the objectiv. 


> fro 


darkened r 


oom. t! 


le inverted cc 


me < 


the objectiv 
filled with I 


mi";,,!' 


isecting this 


,',"'• 


immersion fashion, 


to the surface of t 


portion of 


the medium was e; 


isilv 


method ga^ 


•e a bal 


sam angle of 


BOt 1 



ethod, throwing parallel 
li<dit below the fiu-a.of 



objective being attached, 
medium. The illumin: ?. I 



by Tolles for measurement, as well as to other Tolle; 
viously furnished by that maker. On being apprised < 
Mr. Tolles sent a |, which gave a balsam angle of 
according to adjustment. This objective was pec 
structed, having four combinations instead of three ; 

Keith, who exam im. attributed tl 



so in Balsam.— Mr. W. H. AValmsloy's succ 
3 gives great value to his practical sugge 
Science Gossip. He regrets that beginne 
with spring clips, spirit lamps, and over-he 
im, dried to the point of brittleness and tl 
listency of rich cream in chemically pure bt 
e necessity for such annoyances. He tree 






8 the -lass cover in the m 



microscopists by furnishing unmounted objects for the use of 
amateurs. Mi s pr i C e for two dozen objects, post free, to the 
United States, is one dollar. 

Resolution of Fkustulia Saxoxica into Rows of Dots. After 
my new Tolles J a immersion had resolved the lines of Ann>hi- 

Fi'"sh,i;,, s,,,, ,. mM1 ntei"dr\ b> .1. 1). Poller. l'his t»l is 

Gr-xuimatophora x>'Mil!ssimn is in balsam, or at least I find it so 
V 1 imp Light, although both are satisfactorily shown. The fol- 
lowing measurements were made with the Tolles ^ objective, 
Xo. 2 eye-piece, and camera lucida ; amplification 4000 times. 

transvor.se >tihe of the Fru.itulia are brought out without the least 
difficulty. The average number of lines to the thousandth of an 
.„ on different frustules, was eighty- 
sentially with the counts of Dippel and Dr. 
Woodward. 

I also succeeded in bringing plainly to view longitu 
which were counted in the same way. The average of fifteen 

number oba . f-eigfat, the highest one hundred. 



These lines I found more difficult that 


l the 




phqih* unt pdl 'Kid a, but patent enoug 


h to 


be 8 


It appears then that Dr. Woodward v 


ras e 


orrect 


longitudinal stria? of Dippel as diffractio 


n phi 


were nuK'h coarser than the true lines 






about 50,000 to the inch. 






Thus far everything was done wit! 




e. 1 


bright apparently raised lines were tra 


n>!bi 


■mod 


this resolution into dots being acc< 


.uil.l 


ished 








The results stated above have beer 


1 repeated! 


resolve into beads, with the ¥ V> Nav 


icula 




nnipii.iirtata and any Pleuroshjma. — ( 


;. W, 


Mob 



Mould ox Bread. — Messrs. Rochard and Legros 
belief, in " Comptes Rendus," that this frequent paras 
tion is due rather to the poor quality of the flour, or t 

en t tl 1 to the presence of germs in the air, and 
be prevented by adding an excess of salt to the bread. 

Effects of Dyeixg Wool.— M. Dumas has been ir 
the question whether wool, and similar hairs, are penetr 
coloring material, or only colored externally in the 
dyeing. In fresh wool he found all the layers perfe 
bleached wool the outer or cortical layer was marred 01 

coloring matter between the cells ; while hairs Whfcl 
boiled in alumina and iron solutions appeared twisted c 



story ot tne b< \ wit . n , , .- pi, eyes ma\ safeh b« 1 - 
a curious hoax, founded on the magnifying power of shor 
eyes as oomp 1 ones. One eye may I 

extraordinary d.-tbrmity. several times as large; but it ^ 
no longer a human eye if capable of -'iving the high po-ver 
microscope. That the author of the hoax did not even 
consistency or plausibility is seen in the representation 1 
boy was able to use for ordinary purposes the eyes that we 
lie. unaided, of resolving diatoms. 



Economical Value of Rafiiipks.— Mr. F. C. S. Roper i 
gested to the Eastbourne Nat. Hist. Soe. the value of raphide 



)logy of Malignant Timor?.— Dr. W. R. Neftel, in a c 

sually originating in localities most constantly subjec 
ses. Afterwards it becomes generalized by means of 

a hereditary disposition to malignant tumors, not in 

al acquisition of morbid germs, but in the inheritance 

s resistance to the causes of disease, is not denied, 
ed to have been greatly exaggerated. 

line that organic germs of various kinds, when introdu 



ilTUAUT.— Mr 


. James How, 


a well km 


)wn philosophical 


Insti 


'''/■■n'llVl 




them. die. 


■orge Knight and 
1 suddenly, Dec. i 


*, 1*7 


How will be i 


ss 


>r his skii: 


[ in the use of the 
►pea of good qual 


10 to. 



NOTES. 

the American Association at Portland next 
be one of the largest held for several years. 
that quite a number of titles of papers to be 



446 notes. 

read have already been entered. A number of the older members 

of the association, several of whom were unable to attend the 

which will add much to the scientific results of the session. The 
entomologists are also anticipating a full attendance, and anthro- 
pology will probably be well represented, while geology and gen- 
eral zoology will unquestionably be maintained in their usual 
force. Botany has for many years been but slightly represented, 
to the regrets of workers in other fields. Will not the botanists 
show their force this year? Section A will probably be largely 
represented, as heretofore, by many distinguished scientists. Par- 
ticulars relating to the meeting : i Li'iven in otu advertising pages. 

At the late Annual Meeting of the American Academy of Sci- 
ence and Arts, Boston. Prof. Asa Cray resigned the chair of Pres- 
ident which he had held for the past ten years. The following 
Officers were elected :— President, Hon. Charles Francis Adams: 
Vice President, Prof. Joseph Lovering ; Cor. Sec'y, Prof. J. P. 
Cooke, Jr ; Pee. Sec'y, Prof. E. C. Pickering ; Treasurer, H. G. 
Denney; Librarian, Edmund Qnincy ; Council: Class I, Prof. 
Benj. Peirce, Prof. Wolcott Gibbs and J. B. Henck; Class II, 
Alex. Agassiz, Prof. Asa Cray (in place of Prof. J. Wyman 
who declined reelection), and Dr. Charles Pickering; Cla-s III. 
Rev. G. E. Ellis, Hon. R. C. Winthrop and Prof. A. P. Peabody. 

Science in Europe has met a great loss in the recent deaths of 
Baron Liebig, the distinguished chemist, and of De Verneuil, the 
French geologist and associate of Sir R. I. Murchison in the geo- 
logical survey of Russia. 

Lastly, who will say that John Stuart Mill, "the greatest living 
master of the purely inductive philosophy." did not exert an im- 
portant influence on physical, as well as me t 1 i 1 I ol t al 
science, and anthropology, in its broadest sense? 

The U. S. Fish Commission under Prof. S. F. Baird will spend 
the summer at Peak's Island, Portland Harbor- A large number 
of students and naturalists will assemble there, and the Commis- 
sioner's headquarters will form, as thev have in the past, a most 
- hool for the study of biology. A steam-tug has been 
provided by the government for dredging on an extended scale. 
and plans are on foot for deep-sea dredging. 



NOTES. 1 1 7 

The "Scientific Correspondence" of Goethe was collected by 
Goethe himself, and will fill two volumes; it comprises the years 
1812-32, though most of the letters appertain to 1S22-27. There 
are letters addressed to Goethe by Blnmenbach, Cams, Loder, 
Sommcring, Seebeck, d'Alton, Brandes, von Henning, Martius, 
Nees von Esenbeck, Pnrkinje, Wermburg, and Zschokke. It ap- 
pears from them tha' Goethe kopt up the most lively and detailed 
interest in the progress of science and natural history until the 
latest period of his life.— The Academy. 

It is with much pleasure that we record the recent munificent 
donation of one hundred thousand dollars to the Museum of 
Comparative Zoology made by Mrs. Quincy Shaw, a daughter of 
Prof. Agassiz. We have never seen a statement of the permanent 



i n«»t come ami—, for the expenses of such 
establishments are much greater than is generally supposed. 

veying the living fish, oysters and lobsters to the Pacific coast 
only succeeded in stocking the river at Omaha with such of the 
animals as survived the fall through the bridge. Query.— How 
■boot the strength of the bridges on " the great continental high- 

The professorship of Natural History in Ann Arbor, lately 
vacated by Professor Winched, has been filled by the election of 
Professor Eugene W. Hilgard of the University of Mississippi, a 
gentleman of the highest attainments and especially known in 
the scientific world from his reports on the geology of the Gulf 
States. 

Prof. N. S. Shaler of Harvard College has been appointed 
State Geologist of Kentucky, his native state. Prof. Shaler is for 
the present in England. We learn from the daily papers that he 
has accepted the situation. 

A fine chance is offered to any enterprising naturalist who 
wishes to test by experiments the theory of cave life, as the 
present proprietors of the Mammoth Cave offer to sell the cave 
and all its contents for the sum of $500,000. 

The distinguished botanist Wm. S. Sullivant died at Columbus, 
i April 30th, aged 70 years. 



OLio, 



BOOKS RECEIVED. 






AMERICAN NATURALIST. 

Vol. VII. — AUGUST, 1873. — No. 8. 
PHYLLOTAXIS OF CONES. 



Ix the summer of 1870 I examined a large number of cones of 
several species of Coniferse to see if there was any variation in 
their leaf arrangement. It has long been well known that the 
scales or leaves of cones show very plainly a certain number of 
parallel spiral whorls twisting to the right and a different number 
twisting to the left. A closer examination will also usually reveal 
other parallel whorls (one or more in each direction) with numbers 
differing from those most easily seen. By beginning with the 
simplest forms of alternate leaf-arrangement, as the elm (J-), and 
sedges (i) ; and then to the more common but more complicated, 
as the cherry (f), and American larch (|), it is found that in these 
fractions the numerator expresses the number of times we pass 
around the stem to find a leaf directly over the one with which 
we started, while the denominator indicates the number of vertical 
ranks or rows of leaves up and down the stem. This is nicely 



and denominator in the leaves of }'«. ■ - jihimtntosa, where the 
fraction is thirteen thirty-fourths, if memory is not at fault. In 
Yucca the bases of the leaves are so broad that they reach about 
half-way around the stem, so it is easy to see which is below or 
outside of all the others. The fractions above mentioned also 
express the angular divergence or show the proportion of the 



450 PHYLLOTAXIS OF ( 

tive leaves of the same spiral whorl. Stretch a wire or band with 
marks or appendages so as to be alternate, two-ranked as are the 
leaves in the elm ; then by giving the band a twist, it brings the 
marks three-ranked, like the sedges ; still farther torsion brings 
them five-ranked, like the leaves of a cherry tree ; still more twist 
and they stand as the scales of the American larch, which is ex- 
pressed by the fraction three-eighths. 

The most common series of fractions found in alternate leaves 
is h h h h i 5 *, A, ib %h ft, etc. The relations of these sev- 
eral numerators and denominators have been repeatedly shown by 

After the first two fractions, each succeeding one may be made 
by adding both of the previous numerators for its numerator and 
both of the previous denominators for its denominator. Each 
denominator is the same as the second succeeding numerator. 
"Also, taking the orders of secondary spirals nearest the vertical 
line, on each side, right and left, the number of parallel spirals of 
the lower order of these two will give the numerator ; and this 
number, added to the number of parallel spirals of the higher 
order will give the denominator." — Henfrey. Also " the number of 
the parallel secondary spirals is the same as the common difference 
of the numbers on the leaves that compose them." — Gray. These 
relations enable us to number easily each scale of any cone, or 
count the spirals each way, and then determine with accuracy the 
fraction expressing its Phyllotaxis. Balfour and Gray in their 
text books say the Phyllotaxis is uniform in the same species, and 
that one direction or the other gei each species, 

and that both directions are sometimes met with in different cones 
of the same tree. Several other text books make the same asser- 
tions. Most authors on this subject with which I am familiar say 
there are only rare cases of other series of spirals. P. Duchartre 
mentions two other series, viz : £, h f , A , A , A , etc., ], h h &> 
2&, etc., and observes that -the same relation exists in different 
fractions of each series as exist in the fractions of the more corn- 
Mr. Hubert Airy recently read a paper before the Royal So- 
ciety, England, an abstract of which is given in " Nature " for 
March 6, 1873. After mentioning some experiments which show 
the intimate relations of different fractions of the common series, 



he adds : " It also appears that the necessary sequence of these 
successive steps of condensation, thus determined by the geometry 
of the case, does necessarily exclude the non-existent orders J, £, 
|, ^ T , etc." This conclusion "determined by the geometry of the 
case," proves to be only an incorrect theory, as shown by the fol- 

I examined nearly all the cones (one hundred and fifty-five) 
which grew upon a Norway spruce, seventy-four of which showed 
five parallel spirals to the right and eight to the left ; while sev- 
enty-four showed eight spirals to the right and five to the left. 
Five cones had seven spirals to the right and four spirals to the 
left. One cone had four spirals to the right and six to the left, 
and one cone had six spirals to the right and four to the left. I 
will try to tabuh I in A briefer manner: — 



In all of these cases it was possible to see other spirals, but I 
have mentioned those most apparent in each case. For instance, 
in the most common forms of Norway spruce, there were spirals 
with three rows, eight and twenty-one one way, and five and 
thirteen the other way. Other cones showed three and seven one 
way, and four and eleven the other. 

To cut this article short, the fractions for most cones of Norway 
spruce was i|, for others it appears to be i', and for others £$. 
By operating with the fraction ft and other numbers of spirals on 
the cones in the same way as we may on the most common forms, 
we get this series of fractions, viz :" J, 5, T \, T \, *J, etc. Other 
cones noticed in the table as having f, Mir and >ix spirals, had also 
two, ten, and sixteen. The fraction for these was ]-£, and would 
be found in a series f, f , \%, fa i|, i|, e tc. The latter we ob- 
serve. when each fraction is r. .hired to it- lowest terms, is the same 
as the first or most common fractions. mentioned. Most cones of 
the European larch had the phyllotaxis expressed by the fraction 
2 8 T , others by T 7 g, one. other by L \. This latter cone had three, six 
and nine spirals, and falls into the following series, viz: f, f, t 6 t>> 
fa }|i etc. Most cones of the American larch fall under the 
fraction J-, others -^j, others f. 

In these few examples the same number of parallel spirals is 

in the two directions, right and left. They 

also show that other series than the one usually accepted as 



Plants with the leaves opposite generally have them four-ranked 
up and down the stem, and then the leaves are said to decussate. 

to express it; giving the axis a slight twist we get j. another 



another twist T 6 F , etc. 


Some oi 


otaxis of opposite let 


ives the sa 


r less twisted. The single com 


ated the fraction T \ 


(a tract io 


tor and denominator 


l.y three 


lis under decussate v 


hurls „f 1 



greater skill in mathematics than myself. My examples indicate 
that we may look for some curious series of fractions by diligently 
examining the phyllotaxis of a great number of plants of many 

diit'.-rcnt species. 

more scales. 



ON THE DISTRIBUTION OF CALIFORNIAN MOTHS.* 



The Phalaenldffi (Geometrids) of California (including Oregon 
and Nevada) seem to be composed of four elements: (1) of spe- 
cies of genera exclusively American (North and South). Such 
are Chcerodes, Sicya, Hesperumia, Tetrads, Azeliiia, Gon/todes 
and Metanema. Certain species of these, with several of Tephro- 
sia (a genus largely found in the New World) are the most char- 
acteristic of the Pacific slope of the United States. 

(2) The species next must characteristic belong to the following 
genera:— Halia, Tepkrina, Selidosema and Ileterohcha. Species 
of these groups occur in Europe, but especially fall except HuUn 
which has a species (//. uovaria) living in northern Europe) in 
southern Europe, around the Mediterranean Sea, western Asia, 
and Asia Minor ; while species of Heterolocha occur in Abyssinia 
and South America (Quito). 

(3) The next group comprises a few arctic or circumpolar spe- 
cies of Coremia, Cidaria and Larentia, or of cosmopolite genera 



454 THE DISTRIBUTION < 

such as Hypsipetes, Cidara, Coremia, Eupithecia, Scotosia, Acid- 
alia and Boarmia. 

(4) There are four species common to both the Pacific and At- 
lantic states, viz., Lareutia cvmatilis, Camptogramma gemmata, 
Tephrosia Canadaria and Azelina Hubneraria. 

In the brief introductory remarks to the first part of this Cata- 
logue (these Proceedings vol. xiii, 381) we briefly alluded to the 
fact that some Californian Lepidoptera repeat certain features pe- 
culiar to the fauna of Europe. I find that there are but two forms 
strikingly European among the Phalamidae, viz., Numeria Califor- 
niaria Pack, (wrongly described by me as Ellopia Califomiatia 
xiii, p. 384) which is very near the European Numeria pulveraria, 
and quite different from the Atlantic states X. obfinnaria, and 
the genus Chesias which does not, so far as yet known, occur in 
the Atlantic region.* 

But if we find a very few species which recall the European fauna, 
there are on the other hand many peculiar European genera which 
do not occur in the Pacific region. In other groups of Lepidoptera 
there are some species that recall European types ; sach, especially, 
are p.ij,,:,,, %,,!;,;„,„ Boisd.. n-presenting the European P. JJachaon, 
and the genus Parnas&ius, which does not occur in the Atlantic 

Going out of the Phalaenidse, we find a few European types of 
Bombycidae which occur in California and are not found in the 
Atlantic states, such as the genera Epicallia and Callarctia. 

On the other hand we find in California no such development of 
the genus Lithosia as in Europe, no species of Zygcena, no Psychi- 
dat (except Phryganidia, an aberrant form) ; no such develop- 
ment of Hepkdus, while Xyleutes robinice, as in the Atlantic states, 
represents the European Cosms ligniperda ; moreover the various 
forms of Lasiocampa and other allied genera are far less numerous 
if not (L. Carpinifolia Boisd. is, according to G-rote, a species of 
Gastropacha) quite wanting in the Pacific region. 

We miss again in the Pacific states any species of Telea or 
Tropcea, forms linking the Atlantic or northeastern American ento- 
mological fauna with that of northeastern Asia (Telea being 
represented by the closely allied Anthmrea and Tropaea Luna 



3ALIF0RNIAN MOTHS. 455 

being represented by T. Selene Leach). California has evidently 
not borrowed her insect fauna from northern China or Japan.* 

In the Neuroptera we have strong European features, the genus 
Rhaphidia-f occurring in the Pacific states, and not in the Atlantic, 
While Boreas California^ is more like the European B. hyemalis 
than our two Atlantic species. 

The crustacean fauna of northeastern America, with Limulus 
as its most remarkable feature, repeats that of eastern Asia; 
but on the other hand Dr. Hagen states that the European 
genus Astacus occurs in California, while Cambarus is only found 
east of the Rocky mountains. 

Mr. F. W. Putnam informs me that of one hundred and sev- 
enty-three genera of fishes given by Giinther as inhabiting the 
seas about Japan, only about thirty-six are represented on the 
northwestern coast of America, and of these thirty-six the major- 
ity are also found in the Atlantic, while about eighty others of the 
Japanese genera are also represented on the southeastern coast of 
North America and in the West Indian seas, of which a number 
are found on the western coast of Central America as well. He 
also tells me that the fresh water fishes of northern Asia, when 
compared with those of other regions, more nearly resemble those 
of the northeastern parts of North America, though a number of 
the genera are also common to both North America and Europe. 
By the same authority I am informed that there is a striking re- 
semblance between the reptiles and batrachians of northeastern 
Asia and northeastern America. 

My attention has been drawn to a consideration of these fea- 
tures in the geographical distribution of animals by a perusal of 
the able and suggestive essay by Prof. Gray on the distribution of 
California plants, in his address at the Dubuque meeting (Aug., 
1872) of the American Association for the Advancement of Sci- 



40b THE DISTRIBUTION OF CALIFORNIAN MOTHS. 

ence, and of Mr. Lesquereux' able papers in Hayden's Geological 
Reports on the Territories, 1872. The main features in the geo- 
graphical distribution of land animals are apparently the same with 
those of plants. Prof. Gray shows that " almost every character- 
istic form in the vegetation of the Atlantic States is wanting in 
California, and the characteristic plants and trees of California 
are wanting here" (i. e., in the Atlantic States). We may on the 
whole say of the Californian Lepidoptera, at least, as Dr. Gray re- 
marks of the plants, that they are "as different from [those] of 
the eastern Asiatic region (Japan, China and Mandchuria) as they 
are from those of Atlantic North America. Their near relatives. 
when they have any in other lands, are mostly southward, on the 
Mexican plateau. . . . The same may be said of the [insects] of 
the intervening great plains, except that northward and in the 
subsaline [insects*] there are some close alliances with the [in- 
sects] of the steppes of Siberia. And along the crests of high 
mountain ranges the arctic-alpine [insect-fauna] has sent south- 
ward more or less numerous representatives through the whole 
length of the country" (p. 10). He then refers to the " astonish- 
ing similarity" of the flora of the Atlantic United States with that 
of northeastern Asia. Our actual knowledge of the insect spe- 
cies of northeastern Asia is most vague compared with the exact 
knowledge of the botanist, and the comparison we have drawn 
relates only to generic types. 

It is evident that the notion of continental bridges in quater- 
nary times, connecting for example Asia and California, is quite 
unnecessary, since there are, so far as is yet known, no forms 
characteristic of Asia in the Californian fauna, and the grand diffi- 
culty is to account for the presence <>!' a certain resemblance to 



the European fauna in that of California. Here I think Dr. Gray 
has been the first to indicate a solution of the problem. Our 

knowledge of American fossil tertiary insects is at present almost 
nil; we must, then, in the absence of any evidence to the con- 

of Heer and Lesquereux. 

The ancestors of the California.! Panmssius, Rhi V hhV,n and 
Other European forms, mav .have inlial.ited the Arctic tertiary con- 

their descendants forced southward have probably lost their foot- 
hold in the Atlantic region and survived in California and Europe, 
like the Sequoia in California. Something more than similarity of 

hence community of origin, with high antiquity and a southward 
migration of forms not of tropical origin, are the factors needed 
to work. out the problem. That something of this sort has taken 
place in marine animals we know to be the fact. Certain forms 
now supposed to be extinct on the coast of New England and 
s <-andinavia, such as Yoldia arctica Gray (Xucula Portia, ,dka 
Hitchcock), are still living in the seas of Greenland and Spitz- 
bergen. The quaternary fauna of Maine indicates a much more 
Purely arctic assemblage than is at present to be found. This is 
also the case with the Scandinavian quaternary fauna, according 
to the researches of Prof. M. Sars. As we have before shown, the 
circumpolar marine fauna runs down along the coast of north- 
cistern America and of Europe, and the forms common to the 
two shores have not come one from the other. Europe has not 
perhaps borrowed in quaternary times from America, but both 
nave been peopled from a purely circumpolar fauna. If there has 
been any borrowing it has been on the part of Europe, since the 
tlK -d musk ox of France and central Europe is said to be identical 
with the musk ox of arctic America. So also on the coast of 
northeastern Asia and Alaska are circumpolar forms, which have 
evidently followed the flow of the arctic currents down each coast. 
The forms which are identical or representative on these two coasts 



are so strikingly simil 
of Xew England are, 
northward. I believe 


V 


n northern Japan to those < 
we mistake not. also derive 
to be a matter of fact that 


States species of inse< 




which are 


common to the tw 



458 statu: 

are, if not of circumpolar, at least of subarctic or boreal origin. 
From these facts we are led to accept the conclusions of Les- 
quereux and Gray that co-specific or congeneric forms occurring 
in California and Europe and Asia, are the remnants of a south- 
ward iuL» lion fn in p .! i! tertian lands .1 iri ._ U rtiary and even 
perhaps cretaceous times ; and in proportion to the high antiquity 
of the migrations there have been changes and extinctions causing 
the present anomalies in the distribution of organized beings 
which are now so difficult to account for on any other hypothesis. 

For this reason it is not improbable that those species of insects 
which are more or less cosmopolite (and independently so of human 
agency) are the most ancient, just as some forms taxonomically 

example, the curious anomalies in the geographical distribution of 
Limuhis, the genus only occurring on the eastern coasts of Asia 
and North America, accord with its isolation from other erustaeea. 
Geological extinction has gone hand in hand with geographkJil 
isolation. It was a common form in Europe in the Jurassic period, 
and in the next lower (permian) period but one (the triassic inter- 
vening) we find other Merostomata and a few Trilobites. 

We make these speculations hoping that much light will be 
thrown upon the subject by studies on the rich tertiary inseet 
beds of the west, and of the fossil insects in the arctic tertiary 
and cretaceous formations. Until then we must regard all foun- 
dations for these hypotheses as laid by the fossil botanist. 



ON THE STATUS OF ARISTOTLE IN SYSTEMATIC 
ZOOLOGY. 



Seen extravagant claims have been urged in favor of the ivrogm- 
tion of Aristotle as an exponent of classihYatory science, and as a 
model meet to be followed by the naturalists of the risii 
tion, that it maybe timely to inquire into the merits of a 

and whether they are really justified by his works. In doing so we 
must, of course, in justice to the ancient author, exclude from eon- 



.ogy. 459 

sideration the results of accumulation of data by various workers, 
which have culminated in the recognition of the valuation and sub- 
ordination of groups now prevalent, and limit ourselves to the in- 
quiry whether there was aught, either in the spirit or the method 
of inquiry exhibited in Aristotle's works, or in any of his conclu- 
sions, far in advance of his own age and transcending (as has been 
urged) even the fruits of the researches of Linne and later writers. 
And inasmuch as the mammals are the best known, and most 
familiar to the naturalist as well as layman, the treatment of the 
members of that class may be examined, and it may be regarded 
as tolerably certain that if ill fortune has resulted in their case, it 
has, to even a greater degree, in others : and, as a matter of fact, 
such has resulted in other cases, but the reader will have to take 
for granted that the writer has satisfied himself of the fact. If the 
statement should be gainsaid, he is prepared to prove the truth of 
the assertion ; meanwhile, proof is only offered affecting the clas- 
sification of the mammals. The references to the book, chapter, 
and paragraph where are found the assertions commented upon, 
will enable verification (or correction) to be readily made. The 
principal claims in behalf of Aristotle affecting the mammals are 
the following :— 

1st. The complete and scientific recognition of the class as now 

2d. The recognition of relations based on scientific induction 
and knowledge of homologies. 

3d. The recognition of natural groups (families, orders, etc.) as 
now understood. 

4th. The appreciation of the principles of classification ; or, in 
other words, the subordination of values of such groups. 

These may be examined in the order enumerated. 

1. Recognition of the class. It has been urged that the full 
recognition of the class of mammals was attained by Aristotle ; 
that, in fact, "The Zootoka of Aristotle included the same out- 
^:ndk diverse but organically similar beings which ^constitute the 
Mammalia of modern naturalists."* 

It is quite true that all the mammals were recognized as Zo- 
otoka (or viviparous), but so were other animals, and the adjective 
was not restricted to the mammals. In reference to reproduction, 
Aristotle has simply remarked, as matters of ordinary observation, 



that animals are viviparous, oviparmiv and venniparous. Such 
a distribution would naturally occur to one who had observed a 
number of facts, but very little scientific knowledge, would suffice 
to correct the erroneous first impression. 

Further, among the viviparous animals are included man. the 
horse, the seal,* and others with hair; and among marine animals 
the cetaceans, but so are also the Selachians (I, iv, 1) and, in 
another chapter (I, vi, 2), the viper is added. He makes, it is true. 
a distinction between such as are inli'nnilhj viviparous and ovipa- 
rous (I, iv, 2) for he had not conceived of the possibility of the 
truth embodied in the aphorism "omue virion ex ovo" but there is 
no evidence that he had any conception of the significance of the 
character observed, or that if called upon to subordinate the 
groups of animals, he would have classed them otherwise than 
ordinary observers of the same facts would have done and. in 
numerous cases and with knowledge of the same facts, did after- 
wards : it is at least, an assumption which is even negatived br- 
other observations of Aristotle, and rendered improbable by our 
knowledge of the operations of the mind exhibited by others in 
the classification of facts. 

If, on the one hand, Aristotle appears to recognize, in the state- 
ment that the Selache are viviparous fishes (VI, x, 1), that the 
Cetaceans are not fishes, but a peculiar group (I, vi, 1) like bird- 
and fishes ; on the other hand, by direct association of them wiu> 
Selachians as viviparous aquatic animals (VI, xi, 4) and their 
irh feet and from man, 
as well as from the oviparous fishes, he removes them to a still 
greater extent from the ordinary mammals f and raises a doubt what 
really were his ideas as to their relations. 

2. Recognition of -homologies.— Although recognizing homolo- 
gies in a vague manner (I, i, 3, 4), as any one c 






spressing his thoughts must do b 



extent. 



his appreciation rarely advanced much if at all beyond ; 
views, and he* frequently confounded the relations of true homol- 
ogy and analogy, putting, <?. g., in the same category, ib 
of the nails and hoofs of ordinary quadrupeds and the nails of the 



human hand, and crabs' claws (I, i. 4). Deceived by th 
of the proximal joints of the members within the comm< 
nal integument and the elevation of the heel and carpi 
mammals, he adopted the current view that all animals, 
elephant, differed from man in the contrary flexures of 
having the joints of the fore limbs (really the carpus 
forwards and those of the hind limbs (tarsus) directed 
(II, i, 4). His observations of monkeys, which would 
bled him to add other exceptions to the elephants, 
forgotten for the time being in these " generalizations." 






3 exhibited in the statement that the lion has no vertebra?, but 
nly one bone in the neck (II, i, 1), and yet no one — certainly no 
comparison of things — could look upon that 
likeness to the cat,f and it might 
novements of the beast, or natural 
tieiiuction.s concerning them if it had not been seen alive, based on 
the knowledge of the necessities of animal life and animal me- 
chanics, might have prevented the reception of such strange ideas. 
o. Appreciation of groups. — Among the multifarious objects 
" : which the sense of sight takes cognizance, there are many so 
much alike that they are at first naturally confounded ; and intel- 
lectual acumen is exhibited, not in synthesis or the appreciation 
of the resemblances, but in analysis or perception of the differ- 
ences : especially is this the case, when the like forms are 
I with others ; the differences are then still more lost 
f'^ht of and overshadowed by the closer common bond coming 
mt, > bolder relief in contrast* with the unlike. For example, it 
i'uivs no penetrating acumen to recognize man. the monkeys. 
Uit'.bats. the typical ruminants and the typical cetaceans as dis- 
tinct forms existent in nature. But such are fair examples of the 
- r ""l- for the appreciation of which Aristotle has been so highly 
lauded.— g roui)s which from their verv nature in their integrity first 
the senses, and which only minute analysis enables the 
observer subsequently to differentiate into ultimate constituents. 
4. Subordination of groups. — If, too, modifications of the 



462 STATUS OF ARISTOTLE IN SYSTEMATIC 



members are to be considered, it would be rather a person of pe- 
culiar idiosyncrasy whose attention would not be first arrested by 
the characters exhibited by man (biped), quadrupeds, and whales 
(fish-like and without hind limbs). 

Equally probable would it be that, when examining the feet of 
quadrupeds, his attention would be first arrested by the differences 
seen in the hoofed and - : and if, further, the 

former were studied, the cloven hoof of the ruminant, the solid one 
of the horse, and the divided one of the elephant would be equally 
likely to first attract attention. And yet these obvious points of 
structure are almost the only ones noticed by Aristotle. He made 
no attempt to coordinate them, to subordinate the groups so dis- 
tinguished, or to assess a taxonomic valuation on characters or 
groups ; in brief, there is no evidence of definite ideas of classifica- 
tion having occurred to him. It may, indeed, be well believed that 
some indistinct perception of system must have flashed upon the 

tangible to be seized and embodied in a system. 

Those groups which Aristotle recognized are the erode mate- 
rials with which the naturalist has to deal. He was ana 
even with the characters which furnish the criteria for classifying 
them, and to assign to him any definite views respecting their re- 
lationship is an anachronism and may involve a wrong to himself. 

In fine, there is, so far as I can perceive, not the slightest evi- 
dence of any recognition of what is now understood by classifica- 
tion in any of the extant treatises of Aristotle on animals, and 
the systems framed to embody his generalizations have been con- 
structed from isolated sent< 
simply reflect the framer's n< 
might have supposed. 

And, as a hearty admirer of the great philosopher (more excel- 
lent in intellectual than in physical science), I may eln 
to protest against systems (like that, e. g., published by Bfacleay] 
which have been fathered upon him; I may assume fchi 
attention ever been challenged, he might have better a] 
the relations existing between the groups which he, in common 
with daily observers, perceived. 

Careful and repeated perusal of Aristotle's biologic 
have, in fact, failed to convey to the writer any impression save 



.ogt. 463 

that he was a tolerably good observer and compiler, and surpassed 
ordinary men, perhaps, in ability to embody in words the results 
of his observations of various disconnected facts. There is, how- 
ever, no coordination of the facts observed, no valuation, and no 
subordination which would entitle his observations to be considered 
as ■ body of scientific facts or doctrine. The materials for science 
exist indeed, but in a very crude and imperfect condition. Com- 
mendation of his work as a model of scientific treatment betrays 
a phase of mind and appreciation which is not readily eompivhen- 
sible, and has only found expression in vague eulogy without prof- 
fer of the proof or basis for the encomiums. It need only be 
aided that in this opinion I essentially agree with some of the best 
qualified students of the works of the great Stagyrite. Of these, I 
need only mention especially the several treatises of Dr. Whew- 
ell,* the great master of Trinity college ; Prof. Carl Sundevallf 
who has published a commentary on several of the classes treated 
of by Aristotle ; and Mr. George Henry Lewes j, who has devoted a 
special work to an examination of Aristotle's various treatises. The 
verdicts of these gentlemen are pertinent and amply justified, I 
think, by the facts. The same can scarcely be said of the cen- 
sorious criticism of the Grammarian of the Deipnosophiste,§ or 
of the illustrious advocate of the inductive method |j, but even their 
judgments, or at least that of the last, are the natural result of an- 
tagonism to the opposite extreme. 

At a future time, I may perhaps publish an analysis of the four 
fcpftal p repositions ascribed by Cuvier to Aristotle'. 






>KXM 1 l\ I', si .Y.M1-.NS IN I'nRITLA* A. 



Two years ago my . • sensitiveness 

of the stamens of Portalam rjraiaVflow, by observing a peculiar 
motion in them, while a small wild bee was engaged in gathering 
honey, and perhaps pollen, from the flowers. Upon trial I found 
that I could, by touching the stamens, make them move through 
quite considerable arcs of circles. I pursued the investigation 
somewhat farther at the time, but on account of a pressure of 
work was compelled to drop it. Last year I again made some 
examinations which confirmed my pre\ious observations, but de- 
clined calling special attention to the facts until I had had oppor- 
tunity for examining Claytonia as well. This last I have been 
enabled to do this spring, and having now again verified my 
observations on the l'ortulacas can give the results. 

In both the common species of Portulaca i.e., grandiflora and 
olemcea, if the stamens are brushed lightly in any direction, they 
will immediately with a strong impulse "bend over toward the 
point from which they were brushed ; for example, if a pin be 
made to pass through the stamens from left to right, they will 
bend from right to left ; if the direction of the pin be now re- 
versed so as to pass from right to left the stamens will spring 
back from left to right, and this reversal of motion may be con- 
tinued lor some time, of course with diminished energy. The 
motion seems to be induced by a p,t*h;»f, or bendhvj of the stamen. 
as simply touching it appears not to affect it at all, and the direc- 
tion of this motion seems to be determined by, and always <■"■- 
trary to, the pushing and bending. The object of this is, I thin", 
evident. When a small insect visits the flower and struggles 
thruimh the thicket of stamens, as it bends them away from itM ' lK 
thev will react and bend eloselv a-ainst the sides of the insect's 
body, covering it with pollen. uhi.-l, will be thus carried from 
flower to flower. Thus far I have not noticed any special arrauire- 



body of an insect come i 



tact with 


the stign 




the 


next flower vi 


however raised coi 


isi.ler: 


ibly 


above the top 


may suffi< 


•iently g 


nurd i 


igai. 




verge qui 


to widely 


it is 




ible that thej 


before the 


■ stain, 'lis 


are. 






Hoping 


to get 1 


now 1 


ight 


on this poin 



namely, the securing of cross-fertilization. When the flower first 
opens, its five stamens rise parallel with the three cleft stylo, and 

but the stigmas are dosed, the three stigmatic Burfaces being 

closely applied to each other so that the style appears as if entire 
and single. After an undetermined time the lobes of the stylo 
begin to diverge, and the stamens then, or a little before, recede, 
so that when the stigmas are fully exposed the anthers are turned 

:' east's the stamens seem to bear with considerable 
force upon the petals, the anthers touching nearly the middle 
point of the petals, while the iilameiits are arched as in Kaham 
ylauca. 

From my observations I am led to think that after fei I 

their first position — though of this I cannot speak with certainty. 



STRLE ON MOUNT MONADNOCK. 



Having in the last three years spent many days in studying the 
striae on Mt. Monadnock, the writer is unwilling that the results of 
his observations should be lost for want of record, especially as 
they seem to have an important bearing upon unsettled questions 
of surface geology. This mountain is peculiarly favorable to such 
study. Its long spurs radiating from a central elevation, although 
less regular than the points of a star, yet present to four points of 
the compass long ranges of bare rock, which have recorded the 
markings of the ice period with all their variations of direction. 
and furnish a lesson not to be found, perhaps, in any other Locality. 

To understand fully the meaning of the evidence herein detailed. 
it is necessary to have a clear idea of the relative bearing and 
position of these radiating ridges or spurs. 

For the sake of clearness of description we will suppose the 
principal ridge, which runs north 25° east, to be straight, and to 
be four miles long. This ridge was an uplift, sloping toward the 
west, and presenting its broken and precipitous face toward the 
east. It is like a dam set obliquely across the current of the 
northern drift, and its serrated edge rises from fifteen hundred to 
two thousand feet above the surrounding country, growing higher 
from each end toward its central parts. If we suppose a section 
of this range near the centre to be pushed some fifty rods farther 
west, and elevated to the height of three thousand two hundred 
and eighty feet, we shall have the summit of Monadnock. A 
short -pur projects west of the summit about a mile, and divides 
into two branches ; these we will call the west and northwest 
spurs. The two ends of the clam we will call the north and south 
spurs; these with the western spur and its northwest fork com- 
plete the outline of the mountain, making four radii. 

Numerous observations of the direction of drift striae made in 
the adjoining towns show very general uniformity. They 



range of not more than lo , varying 15 west oi 

and south. On the summit of Monadnock the direction varies 



re is no change in the striae so long as the altitude r 
same. The crest is all naked rock for two miles and 
three miles, and frequent observations can be made, 
fast as the ridge falls off in height the stria? gain a mon 
7 direction, becoming 15°, 20°, 25° west of north; wht 

of this long dam. 
ilthough a special expedition was made to what I have 



All the higher portions of the ridge were striated like the summit 
:m<l the fidge before described. 

Another day's expedition was made to the we t si St 1 ng 

on the crest of this lofty ridge and looking toward the south, the 
view is unobstructed to the horizon. The strife all along this 
ridge are innumerable and all north and south. There is no op- 
posing ridge near, to lead one to expect south of this a change in 
the striae. On the contrary there is every facility for the drift cur- 
rent after passing this ridge to continue on in a straight course. 
The southern spur is a mile or more off on our left and presents a 
h 'gh opposing barrier toward the southeast but none toward the 
south. Why should the drift current after passing this ridge, 
suddenly turn toward the east and climb the steep and lofty bar- 
rier of the south spur? Nevertheless there are indications of just 



pair of imaginary compasses t 



milium of Mt. Monadnoek, and with the other strike a curvi 
the west spur to the south spur, we shall hardly have made a m< 
complete change of. direction from one spur to the other, than 
indicated by the stria- in the short space of a mile and a half, 
is difficult to pass over all parts of the valley between these t 
spurs, the upper portion of it being extremely craggy or unev< 
!t is better to go down to the open pastures at the base of 1 



m ountaii 



; at the foot of the western spur and 
ain toward the east, the first tiling t 
;nse number of bowlders. They ei 



multitude any other deposit about the mountain. but tbnn no pint 
of its talus, which boo not fall on this side. They seem to be in 
some way connected with the change of the drift current, which 
began at this place, and with the position of the ridge under the 
lee of which they lie. Passing through these bowlders which con- 
tinue for half a mile or more, we come to the first bare ledges; 
these are marked with striae, N. 20° W. These are soon succeeded 



; of the ridge the strire are very generally north 
In one place an angular trough perhaps twenty 



I suggest the idea th 






Beginning at the -uitb 



preserved than those on less woodei 
the mountain. It would be difflcul 
evading dii-et-tion. Multitudes ran di 



sistent with the motion of a glacier? 

Mt. Monadnock furnishes some suggestions also on the subject 

enough account for a largo amount of rock disintegration. On 

less amount of erosion, lint the amount of actual planing and 
grinding of the earth's surface by icebergs or continental -lacicrs 

urernent. Whoever has had experience in grinding ami polishing 
''''"'' 1 -pcciuiens knows full well that, so long as there are pro- 
tmVranees or cavities on the surface he is grinding, he has ac- 
c,mih ' means of iud^imr his rate of progress. But when he is 






™*«. xne rock is composed of lamime an im 
'" ! ;"' toward the south. When the rock is fi 
J lle ' fracture is interrupted l.v each lamina, so th 
lamin * l->ct sliuhth like the ,. n ,tm-,s of 
ov er these sh . lrp S( , 1Tatures there ba8 been mnch 
ishing, but the shalhm , nities originalh In-twee 



ly been ground out. and there is no reason tor supposing that this 
hard rock has ever been eroded more than half an inch. On Mo- 
upper edge alone has been worn off, it is often easy to supply the 
lost angle, by reproducing the contiguous sides. Studied in this 
method an erosion of one or two feet would be as much as is in- 
dicated on all the higher portions of the mountain. On lower 
ground surfaces are more flat and judgment is at fault. Between 

the drift current. This extended valley is tilled' with mammillated 
rocky protuberances projecting among the spruces which grow 



roughness of original fracture worn off. 

A few words about the erratic bowlders in this vicinity may not 
be irrelevant. There are bowlders here of a phonolitic character, 
which often contain black porphyritic pebbles fused into their sub- 
stance, making them very easy of identification. These have been 
a subject of special study, and some fifty of them have been found 
in Cheshire county. Prof. Charles H. Hitchcock, who is inthnau -iy 



Keene that must weigh one hundred t 


ons. Many were foui 


together or in the same line ; but mai 


iy more show a great 


divergence. Keene is forty miles fro 


in Ascutney, and in t 


tance many bowlders have diverged ei 


ght miles, or one mile 


from the starting point. These bow 


lders have been dug 


the drift at various depths. While it 




tinental glacier making so many and 


such wide diverging 1 


is also ditllcult to understand how ie« 




these bowlders and polished their 1 


mrd material on so 



REVIEWS AND BOOK NOTICES. 

gt in Missouri.* — Not only is this rci 



the thoroughly good 
rk done by Mr. Riley in 

attempt at enlisting th< 
f agriculturists in obser 




of certain pi i t, etc.), play n<> unim- 

portant part in destroying- the well known apple worms. 

We have farther information concerning the grape Phylloxera, 

Mr. Riley offers the 

' e ' opinion that the mor- 

/^^^X /^ "^ tality among the grape 

vj \ / Ly vines in this country 

\ I for two or three years 

\\ / past may be due to this 

>\\ insect, and from the 

*~>^ lib} -" ts he makes 

S^mll^S^-) we should judge that 




' the government for i 






\Ci 



distinct from the A. pomorum Bouche of Europe, from the fact 
it the eggs of the European species are reddish-brown, while 
)se of our species are white. Care should here be taken in as- 



ple us wo have observed 
in Jena, Germany, and 



from Europe, and 
have been the bet 






(Bouche; 

and other pines are°sometimes so much affected 1 
v louse, Mytilaspis pinifolice (Fitch), (Fig. 1 

«\ leaved ; 



&, the : 





in June of the present 
year on the leaves of j 
the white pine at Bruns- ^ 
wick, Maine. 

We then have an ac- 

" the habits and transformations of , 




', jft in the main corrobc 

i i |\ tive of Mr. Lintn. 

I 1 interesting remarks 

2 I ' this subject. One 






-g, different spines). Another is t 
. 125 female, Fig. 126 larva. Fig. 127 spines). 
led to the report is an article " On a New Ge 
family Tineidie : with remarks on the Fe 




ce and struct, ire ma; 


be 


learned from 


lexed drawings (Fig. 




F 


larva, 6, c, moth, d-k, 




11 


nd details of larva; 






f the head ; b, maxil- 




1^ 


their palpi, e, a scale, 




k ' 


, g, labial palpus, A, 




\ 


hind wing; Fig. 130, 




\ 


f male and female). 




// \ 


lgelman had drawn 




viyj 



■yucca ,s incapable of Vj 





the size of her head (Fig. 129 al). Thus laden, she 
top of the pistil, bends her head, thrusts her tongue 
matic nectary, and brings the pollen-mass right over 
this position she works with a vigor that would indie 



& 



Such is the method by which c 



l&^Jgg 



eggs are thrust into the fruit " fro 
or from the stigmatic opening, following, most probably, 
of the pollen tubes." In a day or two after the dowers 
ered the young fruit contains generally two young larva 




mn, 






The Tineids of North America. * — Our gratitude is due to 
Mr. Stainton for this kindly act of international courtesy in pre- 
serving in a permanent form the part of Dr. Clemens' scientific 
writings (and tiny were all confined to the Lepidoptera) relating 
to the family of Tineidte, Dr. Clemens was fortunate in the begin- 
ning of his studies, in the friendship of so able a naturalist and 
kind a helper as the editor. For our part, who owe so many favors 
to Dr. Clemens, and also have derived so much aid and stimulus 
from Mr. Stainton's works, we appreciate fully this mark of friend- 
Little new matter, but a number of new woodcuts appear, frow 
Dr. Clemens' pencil, being mostly outlines of the venation of the 
wings of these small moths. Nine letters to Mr. Stainton. and ■ 
few pages of other matter, arc added to what has already been pub- 
lished in the Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences. 
and the Entomological Society of Philadelphia. 



BOTANY. 

Ok Cross-fertilization as Aided 



impulse, a force independent of external influences.! In this cat- 
egory he places the stigmatic movements of 3Iim'.>h<*. Morhjui". 
and Sccevola, and the movements of the stamens in ParnaTsia and 
other plants. The object of the movements of the stamens in 
P. i mo xs i ft. was already connected in hi- mind with that of insect 
agency, and this has since been conclusively established by other 
botanists. \ 

I am not aware that a like connection has been noticed between 
the stigmatic movements of musk, and the necessity of insect fer- 
tilization. Vaucher remarks that during the time oj 
M. luteus and M. glutinosus will, as he himself has tried, close at 



tbe slightest touch. The sensitiveness will be seen to play : 
part in this fecundation. 
I will take the commonest species, M. moschatv*, u 

blown flower, but never hang downwards. Of the four s- 
the anterior, lower, and larger pair ripen after the po 
upper, and shorter pair. Both pairs of anthers arc held t 

lower lip, and away from the base of the flower. The .• 

closely pressed against the upper lip of the corolla, and its 
has two large tint Can-shaped lobes. hi a very young bu< 
lobes are closed. In a hardly opened laid the lobes are be< 
to open, the lower one bending back against tbe style ; 
time it is that the shorter stamens burst, but as they an 
shorter than the style the pollen cannot reach the stigma. 
course down the tube is facilitated by the, at that time, s 
position of the flower. In a just opened flower the stign 
Cully open, parallel, and opposite to the lower lip of the < 

anthers are nearly empty, and the longer only just begini 
split; the pistil is feher* tie shorter, and 

protogynous W } T | 1 respect to the longer stamens. 
In a flower almost beginning to fade the longer stam< 

-*ill >hcdding their pollen, the shorter ones are withered, a 
stigma be-pollened and in many cases closed. This closin 
moreover, be experimentally produced by touching the sti 
-'iiiaee with a pencil, in which ease the stigmas will close ii 
thirty seconds. In faded flowers, whether from contact or 
wise, the stigmatic surfaces have closed. 
From these facts it will appear that self-fertilization 

rection in which the anthers open ; (3) by their not read 

Stance fronf the ', 



Un the other hand, an insect attracted 
^ney could hardly leave the flowers withou 
"Pper side of his body or on his proboscis. 



leave some -rain- attached to it ;is he works ]iis way towards the 

Tint what purpose does the sensitiveness serve? To prevent 
the stigma being fertilized by its own pollen by insect agency. 
Without this sensitiveness why should not an insect covered with 
the pollen of the shorter and synaomic stamens leave the pollen 
on the stigma of the same plant as he Lacks his way out? (oven 
the sensitiveness, tins is impossible, for as the insect passes under 
the stigma the sensitive motion is excited, and while he is drink- 

the insect will be to complete the closing. 

A similar use of a quite different movement has been suggested 
to me by Miss S. S. Dowson. one of mv Cambridge corresponding 



cleft. In the bud the pistil is much shorter t!i 

by the time the bud is just opened it has leng 1 
i the stamens, and its tip is adpressed to t 



i the middle lip of the corolla, 



Amherst, Mass. with the query "What are the New England lo- 
calities of this rare plant ?" During 1859 -CO I found it in the 
vicinity of Bangor, Me., on land newly cleared and burnt over, 

Making a trip subsequently to Mt. Katahdin, nearly one hun- 
dred miles north from Bangor. I found it abundantly, at intervals. 
in clearings, all along the route. But I have never found it else- 



v-. part ii) of the Memoirs of the 

Sciences. B is a philosophical 
u^ion of tin.' subject, and we shall 
ce of our readers in a subsequent 



ZOOLOGY. 

Spontaneous Division in Starfishes.— Mr. C. Liitken, of Co- 
penhagen, so well known for his important researches on the nat- 
ural history of certain groups of the Echinoderms. has reeently 
' :u '' ''efore tin Royal Acad i my of ( openhagen the results of some 
u-ry interesting rind valuable investigations on the spontaneous 
division of the starfishes and brittle-stars. Professor Verri 11 has 
recently described a new genus of brittle-star (Ophiothda), all the 
known species of which possess a number of arms greater or less 
than five, generally six, and in some few instances three or two ; 
H'l'y randy indeed docs the normal number of live make its appear- 
ance. Liitken describes a new species of this genus ( 0. hifJirola) 
on a certain number of specimens of win. h he finds six nearly equal 
an " s - : '' il1 in the majority of these specimens there is a marked 
difference between the three arms on one side of the body and the 
Uttee arms on the other ; in another set the difference is still more 
: '- 1 '" I. the- oi„ . ( . t oi thre. inns beinu quite small and the other 



I doubt that these 
then a regeneration 



482 ZOOLOGY. 

of the parts that had been divided off. It becomes an interesting 
question how often such division could take place in any indi- 
vidual ; without being able to pronounce any positive opinion on 
this point, Liitken inclines to the belief that up to a certain age 
it can be repeated several times. Allowing that the faculty of 
regeneration is very great among the ophiuroids (;i disk of an 
ophiura deprived of all its arms will sometimes under favorable 
circumstances renew them all), still the phenomenon witnessed in 
Ophiothela differs from a mere casual renewal of lost part-, of an 
accidental lesion ; there is a regularity and symmetry about it 
which certainly points to a true natural spontaneous division hav- 
ing for its object the multiplication of the individual. It must not 
be forgotten, moreover, that Profs. Steenstrup and Sars have ob- 
served the same phenomena in certain small ophinroids with six 
arms, especially among species of the genus Opltittrt!* that live in- 
tertwined among corals and sponges, nor that the truth of their 
observations has been confirmed by Liitken himself. In one or 
two species of another genus, (Jpliln,,,,,,,, ( <>. Il ;,,<il<i), the same 
thing occurs ; in these instances it becomes clearly apparent that 
in young individuals <■ ;' reproduction take- 

place, and that with the adult forms the results of the division are 
truly sexual. Similar phenomena have been remarked in certain 
Asteridce, notably in Asterias problema Stps., and in some allied 
species described by Verrill, as well as in Linclcio omith'rpn* and 
Ophidiaster cribrarius. Liitken is of opinion that though there 
are many cases where the spontaneous division is merely gemma- 
tion more or less disguised, there are likewise many instances in 
which it is, so to speak, simple division and nothing else. In the 
case of the ophiuroids and asteroids he inclines to think it a 
normal form of multiplication, which takes the place of gemma- 
tion. It would have a near relationship to the power of regene- 
ration on the one hand, and to that of gemmation on the other ; 
and while it may not always be possible to clearly define the 
exact limits of these " powers," it is convenient to preserve to 
" Schizogonj 7 " an independent place among the different forms o 
agamic multiplication. The classifying of the phenomena above 
allude. 1 to as occurring in the ophiuroids and asteroids in the eate- 
gory of "Schizogony," conclusively indicates, in short, that there 
is in this spontaneous division something altogether different from 
The following general propositions are laid down by 



Liitken : — 1. The most energetic manifestation of thr faculty, 
regeneration in animals is the power of divisibility ; 2. In eer'tai 
forms of Radiates, in which the faculty of regeneration is ver 



Medusa, asteroids and ophinroids, which must not be confoun. 
with the disguised form of gemmation met with in Infusoria i 
certain heteropod-. may be regarded 08 a peculiar form of agai 
reproduction, such as Blastogony, Sporogony and Parthenogo 



Habits of a Species of Soi 


kex. _ As far as mv observation 


ftta ttemusk 6 - I h\d Tike^to' 


■animal among the Quadruped 1 vpe. 


have said mouse — but except the 


incisors, it resembles the Talpa 


family more than it does the Mus. 


They are rather rare. Indeed 


until the present year I had never 


seen one of them. They dwel 


11 in warm nests, made of grass, 


under rocks, old logs, or old c 


astaway rails, about the fences or 


edges of the prairie. They do 


not come about the houses, and are 


purely nocturnal. I have foum 


1 only three nests of them. They 


have four young at a time, wh 


ich they nurse and care for most 


affectionately. I had a family < 


>i' them and fed them a week, where 


I could observe all their actions 


. I had the father and mother and 


their four half-grown offspring. 




hoped to succeed in sending 


the whole family' to you. hut our 



put him and his companion into an emptv ov-ter can. and setting 
H back in the box, went to supper. When I returned, I found that 
the ferocious rascally male had made shift to get out of the can, 
aud had murdered all the young ones. I was very sorry for the 
loss, and thinking he had done all the mischief he could, turned his 
wife out of the oyster can, and left them in the box with the be- 
ad murdered the sorrowing mother and had eaten her very nearly 
U P- These last two captured cannibals I have sent vou. The 



yoimLT arc born blind, and remain so until they arc half gr.iwii 
certainly, perhaps longer. The male seems to care for and assist 
in rearing the young, lie will go out ami capture a grasshopper or 
cricket, carry it home and give it to his nursing companion. All 
the actions, one to the other, of a married couple, indicate in the 
untrammelled state, much affection and caressing attention. No 
bear or panther could manifest a greater degree of ferocious de- 
structiveness than does the male of this diminutive tribe of animals 



whlrlhebox^cle 


- 


temi 


;^ il ; 


Vitll 


paniment. They 1 
that is, as far as nv 


"own"! 


!.».',• 


'o-' 


II. 


gestation, or how often they \ 
tome. They sleep all day. 
observation on the action of 


four 


half 


eir 3 
lui." 



Aleutian Cepualopods. — In the i 
Unalashka, a large number of giant i 
ous times. One of these, a species, 
measured six feet from tip to tip of 
mutilated, or about fifty-two inches from the posterior extremity 
of the body to the ends of the arms as they remained. The color 
was white, oeellated with brick-red and the larger suckers measured 
twenty-live inches across. 

A still more remarkable form, however, was subsequently ob- 
tained, perhaps the Onychoteuthis Bergi Licht., one specimen of 
which measured from the posterior end of the body to the Ban**' 
lated ends of the tentacular arms one hundred and ten inches trito 
a body girth of nearly three feet, and weighing nearly two hun- 
dred pounds. Another specimen more mutilated measure.! eig»*5 
inches in length. The larger one could hardly have been less than 
ten feet long when perfect, the pen measuring sixty-one inches. 
> jaws was about the size of a small 
■■ t iabb, which .■'■< urs :.• - 



dantly. r 


eaches a length of sixt 


een feet 








that of tl 


ie decapodous cephalupo 


ils of les: 


topus ab( 


>ve mentioned, the hody 


would n. 


diameter 


and a foot in length, a 


nd the a 


tenuity t< 


>Wftrd their tips. 




There « 


■ W uZT h n^nh 


ulk as wi 


K. Smith 


. an experienced sperm 




ligent oh 


server, informs me that i 


lie has se 



Henry G. Hanks, of the San Franei-eo Microscopical Society. 
reports having seen, when on a voyage in a trading schooner 
among the South Sea Islands, a cuttlefish near the surface of the 
water. " as large as the schooner !" While this is rather indefinite 
-til! it indicates that specimens much larger than any yet recorded 
may probably exist in those regions. I have also rather vague 
reports of some enormous squid which have been observed in tin- 
Gulf of California.— AY. H. Dall. 

Certain Sponges, etc. — On looking over the "Depths of the 
Sea" by Prof. Wyville Thomson (Macmillan and Co., 1873), my 

nection with what had been said a few pages previously, seemed 
to me to do great injustice to our distinguished naturalist, Dr. 

is ~ u there appeared "Remarks on some curious Sponges," by 
Prof. Leidy. In this article, after calling attention to the views 
of the nu ture of the sponge, Hyalonema, as offered by Gray, Val- 
enciennes, Milne-Edwards, Brandt, Bowerbank, Schultze, and Eh- 
renberg, Dr. Leidy observes, " Prof. Schultze regards the sponge 



nvmity 


with the large 


Monies at the base. 


Tl 


.is up 


pears to 1 


be the s 


general view. "l. 


lit it has occurred to 


me 


that 


the spon 


glassy cable, or rope 


of sand, to the sea 


i!"r 




perhaps 




jae. Thisopini 


ion is founded on the 




umstance that 



486 ZOOLOGY. 

sponges generally the large oscules from which flow the currents 
of effete water are uppermost. The ends of the threads of the 
fascicle, with their reversed booklets, are also well adapted to 
adhere to objects." Prof. Leidy, then noticing that the - beautiful 
Kupleetclla of the Philippines was also at first represented upside 
down," concludes by giving a clear description of the Pheronema, 
a sponge "apparently intermediate in character with Hyalonema 
and Euplectella — (which would) "appear to throw some light 
upon the question of what belongs to Hyalonema." 

The observation of Prof. Thomson, to which I have referred, "ill 
be found on page 426, and is as follows : "Perhaps the most sin- 
gular circumstance connected with this di-eiisshm was that all tUi- 
tinie we had been looking at the sponge upside down, and that it 
had never occurred to any one to reverse it." Beading this quota- 
tion by itself one would naturally suppose that Prof. Thomson 
had simply been ignorant of what Dr. Leidy had already published, 
but at page 418 of the same work, "the Depths of the Sea," in 
describing a sponge resembling [Ioltenia. Prof. Thomson remarks 
"I was inclined at first to place this species in the genus Phe- 
ronema, but Dr. Leidy's description and figure," etc. Evidently. 
then, Prof. Thomson was familial- with what Dr. Leidy had pub- 
lished in reference to these sponges. Why therefore does he 
unjustly ignore the fact that Dr. Leidy was the first to describe 
correctly the position of Hyalonema by saying " we had been 
looking at the sponge upside down and that it had never occurred 
to any one to reverse it." We trust that Prof. Thomson will now 
gracefully throw up the sponge.— Henry C. Chapman. 

Embryology of the Lepidoptera.— The distinguished Russian 
embryologist, Prof. A. Kowaleusky, gives us in a late memoir 
(Embryological studies on Worms and Anthropods, St. Peters- 
burg, 1871), the first definite information we possess as to the 
mode of development of the Lepidoptera. He finds that develop- 
ment goes on very uniformly in very remote genera. The primi- 
tive band is confined to one side of the egg and sinks a little way 
into the yolk ; it is thus an endoblast, as Dr. Dohm had previously 
stated from the observations of Herold. The outer membrane, 
which surrounds the yolk, and is developed from the primitive 
blastoderm (the amnion of most authors), is called the "serous 
membrane," by Kowaleusky, while the inner membrane, which 



ises from the primitive band, and apparently corresponds 
fidtenblatt" of Weisraann and others, he calls the "am 
jareely has the primitive band sunk down into the yolk. I 



brane." It has now obtained its characteristic color.- and hairs. 
and lies curled up on its ventral side until it gnaws through the 
chorion and effects its escape from the egg-shell. From Kowa- 
leusky's observations, we should judge that the Lepidoptera at 
first, though dilfering in some important respects from other in- 
sects, in others develop like Libellula, Telephone and the Hemip- 
tcra and other endoblasts. In this respect, perhaps of not much 
importance, the development of the Lepidopteia i- -mite din", rem 
from that of the Phryganeidre. This, perhaps, indicates that there 
has been no genetic relation between the moths and caddis flies. 
Later, after the germ is formed, with indications of segments, the 
embryo resembles that of Diptera and Hymenoptera.— A. S. P. 

The Purring of the Cat.— Since the vocalization of rodents 
lias l ;l t e i v ] )een a subject f study, it has occurred to me to inquire 
into that of one of their mortal enemies. Has any one expounded 
fully the mechanism of the purring of a cat? 

The facts are these. The purr is a double or to and fro sound ; 
it accompanies the breathing of the animal and is a respiratory 
Phenomenon. It is in fact a vocalization, with the mouth closed. 
'Pi"- vibration attending it is felt all over the chest and no farther. 

On auscultation of a pussy during the purr, I found a very 
m »sic,d rumbling sound permeating the lungs throughout. Its 
' ! ' ai;i <tcr is changed, however, when the larynx is compressed; 
becoming higher as the voice does with narrowing of the glottis. 



488 ZOOLOGY. 

The vibration is also coarser to the ear in the throat than else- 
where. It reminds one there of the rattle connected with exces- 
sive secretion of mucus in the wind-pipe. But, as there is no 
liquid present, I ascribe the sound principally to a rough vibra- 
tion of the epiglottis ; supplemented no doubt, by an exaggerate.! 
vesicular murmur in the lungs, caused by a quivering, semi- 
convulsive mode of action of the respiratory muscles. 

Perhaps all this may be familiar to most people, and I may have 
been before ver\ unobservant in supposing the purring to be a 
general tremor of the whole body, having no connection with the 
breathing process. 

Since writing the above note I have looked through a number 
of physiological works, without rinding anything about "purring:" 
but at last, in the "Cyclopaedia of Anatomy and Physiology," 
find the following remarks (Article Voice, Vol. iv, p. 1490) :— 

"The whole of the feline order [sic] are remarkable for the 
■ of the superior ligaments of the larnyx. by whieli 
_ is most prub:ibl\ produced. Yico. d'Azyr ascribed the 
the cat to two thin memhi anes 'situated beneath the 



ligaments; } mt we [J. IiMmp] v.eiv unable 
, Wolff, Casserius and others. 



succeed in 
finding them." 

This shows that the vocal nature of purring has been observed. 
I am sorry not to be able to refer to the memoir of Vicq. d' Azyr 
"On the Anatomy of the Vocal Organs in Mammals," 1779, to find 
whether he goes into detail in regard to it. Probably, in an ana- 
tomical treatise he does not. 

The "AVillow Wands" from Burrard's Inlet.— Some pecu- 
liar specimens from British Columbia, resembling peeled willow 

switches were exhibited at the last meeting of the British Associa- 
tion, and were commented on in "Nature" and elsewhere by 
naturalists, among whom, Dr. P. L. Sclater (on the authority of 
some sea captain who stated that they were derived from aM) 
suggested that if the statement were' correct they might be the 
hardened notochord of some unknown fish. Several of the gen- 
tlemen referred to suggested that these organisms were the axes 
of aleyom.id polypes allied to I', ,, „„/„/„ ,,r Yinjuhirhu and Mr. R. 



California. Although 



is found only in deep water.— W. II. D. 

ject of cave life and the prohaUe d< rivation of the Mind craytish 
of Mammoth cave from ancestors able to see, we would refer our 
readers to the following remarks of Prof. YVyville Thomson in 
■•Nature. " May l.>, on Dc-kbania leptodaetyla von Suhm, dredged in 
hit. 2 V 38' N., long. 44° 39' W. in 1900 fathoms. It is allied 
to Astacus, but differs from all the typical decapods in the total 
absence of eye-stalks and eyes. 

"The absence of eves in many deep-sea animals and their full 
' in others is very Y.-markaUe. 1 have mentioned 



iro-m HO to 370 fathoms, eve-' mimal is 

Mind, the eves lx'iiur replaced bv rounded cah-areous 

^ to the staiks. In examples from .>o to 700 fathoms 

■ dity. t ic e\e->talks have lost their special character, 

ri\e 1. and tin it ten ni tions combine into a strong 

^' ■■ - ■ , ■ : '■ ^.^ \ -'V _".-: ." ."'- '•' ' ■ ^'-' :- 
•dl'uuu.e of .,,!,,■ [ U h,. ,) n th. oih.i Inn I. M,nn,h(. from 
equal depth.. | 1:i s its eye. „,,„> , . el ai 

'-■■:......-.. . -. , -..._■ ....... . • • . ■: : :■• 

ength the eye becomes susceptible of the stimulus of the fainter 
light of phosphoresence ? The absence of eyes is not unknown 



amnno- the Astacidae. Astocus pellucidus, from the Mammoth 
cave, is blind, and from the same cause— the absence of light; 
but morphologically the eyes are not entirely wanting, for two 
i in thi positi< l in which eyes 
are developed in all normal decapods. In Deidamia no trace 
whatever remains either of the eyes of sight or of their pedicels." 

Ocelli in Butterflies. — Forty years ago. King, in a memoir 
on the occurrence of ocelli in insect*, remarked that these organs 

far as I know this has been the universal testimony of natiii;i!i>i>. 
It was therefore, with some surprise, that on removing the scales 
from the head of Lerema Accius $ , I discovered in the middle of 
the front, a conspicuous ocellus. Other species were examined 
both sexes of L. 

neither sex of L.Hianna! I could not find any in the neighbor- 
ing genera. In the $ of L. Accius and L. Pattenii there is a 
single ocellus — lenticular and smooth; in the ? of the former 

points, all together equal to the one ocellus of the $ and indica- 
ting that the latter is composed of three continent ocelli. 

It is not a little remarkable that in other Lepidoptera possessing 
ocelli, these are always two in number, and situated l.chind the 
antennae, probably (I am unable to examine specimens) upon the 
vertex. In some Hemiptera, however, the ocelli are found below 

had the same morphological significance as that of the other 
organs.— S. II. Scudder. 

Ox a Habit of a Species of Blarina. -I recently placed a 
water-snake (Tropidonotus sipedon) of two feet in length, in a fern- 

Unensis or a small B. ful t >',;<h-x. The snake was vigorous when 
placed in the case in the afternoon and bit at every thing within 
reach. The next morning the glass sides of his prison were 
streaked with dirt and other marks, to the height of the reach of 

was then lying on the earthen floor in an exhausted state, making « 
few ineffectual efforts to twist his body, while the Marina was 
busy tearing out his masseter and temporal muscles. A large part 



him- [<>,, 
the other 



getic efforts. He 1 



austion.— E 


. D. Cope. 






ie Central 


Park Z< 


X>LOGICAL GARDE! 


c — Lion 


■o cubs bon 


i January 


25, 1873 (this is t 


he second 


lave bred o 




£) ; period of gest; 


ition six- 



f other species of Felis ; after 



snageries than in 


zoological gardens, the change of air no 


ving considerabl 


e influence in producing this result. The 


of the Dublin Zoological Gardens has been more success- 


toy other Direc 


tor in Europe in breeding lions. They 


er been able to n 


iise young lions in the London Zoological 


Dr. Bartlett, t 


be Superintendent of the Gardens, in a 


id to the Society 


, says : — 


*y extraordinar 


v malformation or defect has frequently 






nt's Park. This 


i imperfection consists in the roof of the 


ing open. The 


palatal bones do not meet, the animal is 




isequently always dies. This abnormal 








at have bred in the Gardens, and were 






these malr'orme 


ci young, the cause of which appears to 



492 ZOOLOGY. 

Generation of Eels (Anguili^e).— This is a subject that has 
occupied the attention of naturalists from the earliest dawn of Ich- 
thyology ; and its importance, both in a physiological and econom- 
ical point of view, has always been, ami still is recognized. 
Yarrell, in Jesse's "Gleanings in Natural History," and in th€ 
second edition of the "History of British Fishes," Vol. 2, p. 388, 
expresses his belief, as the result of a close examination of a 
number of eels, that they are ovipan.u-. producing their young 
like other true bony fishes : and he refers in support of tins opinion. 
to some Ilunterian drawing*, on a magnificent <calc. Ly ('lift. 
Dr. Mitchell, too, of New York, coincides strictly with Yarrell. 
Though hermaphrodites in fishes have hitherto been supposed to 
occur only abnormally, as in the genus Sen-anus, they may perhaps 
be more common and regular than is admitted in the books of 
comparative anatomy, such as that of Owen, wherein fishes are 
said to be always dioecious. But now an Italian physiologist, (i. 
B. Ercolani, in the Proceedings of the " Aecademia delle Scienze 
di Bologna," of hist December, describes •• IVrfeet Hermaphrodit- 
ism in the Eel ;" the genitals only completely developed at sea 
during the month of December ; ovaries and testes then and there 
with spermatozoa; and, as he believes, the spermatozoa are 
discharged into the peritoneal sac, and the ova tin-. 
before their emission from the body. This is surely an interesting 
statement, and in conformity with many facts well known regau - 
ing the economy of the eel. But it requires confirmation, and 
indeed the subject is so very curious and important, that it is to be 
hoped that ichthyologists on the seacoast will pursue the inquiry 
. — Li i nil a ml Water. 



-M. Alphonse 



Milne-Edwards 



■ perfect ami 
nimal. The venous 
blood, instead of being diffused through intcrorganio lacuna?. - >'< 
the Crustacea, is, for a considerable portion of its coarse, 
in proper vessels with walls perfectly distinct from the 
organs, originating frequently bj ramifications of rem;,.: 
cacy, and opening into reservoirs which are for the most part weU 
circumscribed. The nutritive liquid passes from these 
into the branchiae, and, after having traversed these respirator 
organs, arrives, by a system of branchio-cardiac canals, in a pen- 



, of which the di- 



en flying, the white on the wings causes then 



headed grosbeak, their 
K< ilama zoo, Michigan. 



are feathers ml 


ilch I 


have put on th< 


e bottom of t 


struck with tin, 


s oba 


srvation, that every time a ft 


to the nest, it vi 


:;K !ii- 


it deliberately d 


i Pl >,Ml into th, 


Pit in its place, 


when 


the building bi 




would drop intc 


» the i 


lest and then w 


riggle the boc 


to the structur 


e. 1 


'he soaking of 


the feathers 




1, namely, to cause them to lie in p 


the proper bend 


from 


the motion of 


the bird's boc 




h'rab! 




n these little 


wood, Februan 


/ 14. 






An Aquatic 


R..MI 


nrcw Moth. — 


Mr. Bar of ( 


warded to the I 




^logical Societ 


v of France, < 


specimens of the vari 


ous stages of a 


d interesting J 


fcm lives under stc 




and rises to 



494 ZOOLOGY. 

transformation, l'he cocoons are found in clusters flo: 
water. Aquatic caterpillars have hitherto been knowr 
lower families of Lepidoptera. 

The Education of Apes. — The following query 
a '• layman," but is worth considering: — 

"Suppose a man whose wealth corresponded with 



both in size ai 


:id <|i 


ialitv. : 








the native lai 


id. i, 


' •■' ; ;i ' 


he hardly pen 


■epri 


de. V 


be of immens 




IsCqlU'll 


Faulty In: 




T IN A 


studies last si 




■r on a 


dispose of it f 


or the vvinb 


newed observi 




s at th« 


Its box was in 


>atiy 


eovere 


that in blissf 


nl ig 


:nur ;1 ne 



an might 



terrible "snake beneath the flowers/' 

We have a cat, which, already adult, was brought from "The 
Pines," and doubtless had a knowledge of snakes, probably both 
by inheritance and aeqiiaintance. Yesterday, March 2d. the rop- 
tile set up its peculiar blowing in its dark box. It was a sight to 
observe the actions of the cat. There was plainly astonishment 
in that feline pate. She kept her place, turning her head toward- 
the several corners of the room, and listening intently. Still 
continued that strange blowing of the snake, like a loud 
of wind o^-aping from a rent in a great forge bellows. The cat 

part pendent to the floor. Pussy's mind was made up — that was a 
snake — nothing surer, for the sound kept steadily coming from 



mention. i[ er C1 y ? whether caused by want of food or any other 
attention, is exactly that of our American puma (Felix pawn 
Shaw) popularly known as the panther or painter. I have heard 
the female puma's cry so piercing and distressing, and the like- 
ness is so close, that the sound of pussy's cry is positively an- 

loudness. Even the very timbre, or quality of tone is identical. 
The cat is black and white and in disposition as gentle as others, 
even showing affection. I ought to say that when a kitten she 
was a favorite of my lamented friend, that accomplished botanist. 
the late Dr. P. D. Kineskern, and even in the pains of his de- 
parture her kitten gambols on his bed entertained that good and 
excellent man, who is known in posthumous fame as the philoso- 
pher of the Pines— Samuel Lockwood. 

Variation in Dentition.— Mr. Allen and others may be inter- 
ested in a case showing that even the dental formula, so univer- 

W variable, and therefore not always reliable. In the skull of a 
™ \ : ' "'"'* lupus L., race oeciden talis Rich., strain griseo-albus 

-■'•''■■ there is a supernumerary tooth on the right side of the 
10W( '• jaw. The extra tooth is a molar behind the last true molar, 



(about* 



back of the large sectorial i 
3 than the last true molar a: 



timate), but well de 



ight pit in 

;spects the 
r before i 



To judge from a limited expei 



shade, becomes sadly injured by the adhering dust. I had a s] 
men given me lately, which, from this cause had become so 
sightly as to be accounted worthless. I filled a deep jar 
water, and stirred into it a good table spoonful of chloride of 1 



i tesn water. j.ui» c« 
chlorine. It was then suspended in the air t( 
it was of immaculate whiteness, and sparkled 
snow.— S. L. 

favorite resort for redheaded woodpeckers (J 
cephalus). Among the young and growing tre 
transplanted upon the campus are some sugar in 
ru>nm) the bodies of which are six or eight i 
Seeing the woodpeckers l>u-i!v tapping upon tin 
trunks and found them perfectly sound, but tin 

canihium layer, whore they stopped. The sap 
from the holes, and, watching the movements 
ward upon the trees, I became convinced that 
the sap and that they had pecked the holes 1 
obtaining it. This habit is probably not new to 
I am not aware that it has before been noticed.- 



if. \\ bre-buhfkd Shrike. — In a resident 
al and southern Iowa, I killed a large numb 
ugh the greater number were plainly refe 



though without undoubted specimens of the latter bird IVmn the 
southern states, I was unable to decide wliether they were ab- 
solutely identical, or in what the difference consisted. I mention 
this fact to show that, while occasional observations, or observa- 
tions for a limited space of time, would probably result in the 
conclusion that C. excubitoroides was the only form, close and ex- 
be found that would appear to be absolutely of that species. 
Nevertheless, the typical tsriiMoroith'* is the predominating, and 
' y far the commonest, form ; nor could I observe anything in the 
habits of the birds pointing to two species or even well-defined 
varieties; birds mated together sometimes showing considerable 
differences of plumage.— T. Martin Trippe, Orange, N. J. 

Tadpoles in Winter. — An esteemed contributor sends us an 
account of tadpoles that were found early this spring, having 
passed the winter in that condition, which he considered as per- 
haps n ease of arrested development. It is however well known 
that the large bull frog ( Rami. p>'jv<m.s) is (at least in the New 
England States) two or three years in the Larval or tadpole con- 
life there is no knowing hov> long the larval state would be re- 
tained. The experiments made by Prof. Wyman several years 
since resulted in keeping the tadpoles for a number of years, 
:,1 "1 at the end the water was accidentally let out of the tank. 
If anyone will take the trouble of trying the experiment it will 
l'^'iil-ly be found that unless the tadpoles are allowed a chance 
to hop along shore about the time their legs are developed, they 
can be greatly retarded in obtaining their perfect form as frogs or 
toads. Many of our Neu Kn-land species of frogs and toads 
develop very rapidly, pacing through the tadpole condition in a 



week or two, while others are naturally much longer in making 
the change, and probably both Bam' fmttinaUs and Ba:mi [>q>lt'nx, 
and perhaps other species, require to pass one or two winters in 
the tadpole state.— F. W. P. 

The Golden-winged Woodpecker. — In his "Notes of an Or- 
nithological Reconnoissance of portions of Kansas, Colorado, Wy- 
oming, and Utah," J. A. Allen speaks of specimens of Colaptes 
auratus, taken in eastern Kansas, showing a tendency to the col- 
oration of G. Mexicanus in having the -black maxillary patch. 
more or less tinged with red;" and mentions one from Floridf 
with the same peculiarity. I have observed red feathers in the 
cheek patches of bird- >li->t at Oian-r, X. J., in three or four 
instances; and in one case the black was quite thickly sprinkled 
with small >p i ks of hi _ t. si ii m_ ivd, more 1 liant than th 
of the nape. Here w,e have an instance of occasional 
of one spe-i > y to vnvy in the direction of a 

congeneric species, not occurring within fifteen hundred miles of 
the former.— T. Martin Trippe, Orange, tf. J. 

Ornithological Queries. — I wish to make two or three orni- 
thological queries through the pages of the Naturalist. What 
are the southernmost localities in which the following species are 
known to breed? viz: Begulus satrapa, B. calendula. Auortliura 
hyeii I J ?co hyemalis. Pk<ctropha»e* pktns, P. Lapponkus and 
P. nivalis? What is the eastern limit of Vireo Belli? and what is 
the southern and southwestern range of Bedicecetes phasianeUvsl 
I am very desirous of obtaining information on these points. T. 
Martin Trippe, Orange, N. J. 

Mode of Egg-laying op Agrion.— Mr. G. W. Dunn writes us 
that while collecting at Santa Cruz, California, he observed a 
species of Agrion (as we find the insect to be) "flying about the 
water united male and female. The female would light on « 
spear of grass growing in the water ; the male would then let go, 
and the female go down the grass twelve or fifteen inches under 
water and depo>it her eggs." 

On the 9th of June, 1872, 
yellow pine (Plnus mi fit) ahoii 
s in diameter, in which several 



The larva is a footless, yellowish white grub, more or less 

which doubtless assist it in locomotion, the second segment next 
the head is flattened on the upper side. On both the upper and 
under sides of the body are seven raised rough spots at right an- 

leaving its passage filled with chips. Within the distance of from 

The pupa is white and varies in size from three-fourths of an 
imago, the only differcm i !•< ing that tl . < lytra are not developed. 



and after a short time gnaws its way out. appearing from the first 

with gray, black, and cream color, and varies in size from three- 
fourths, to something over an inch in length. The two sexes 
differ in the great length of the antenna-, which in the male are 
f ull twice the length of the body, and in the development of the 



anterior tarsi, which in the male are much broader than in the 
female. It is unnecessary farther to describe the imago as in this 
state the dentatov is well known. J have only taken these beetles 
in Massachusetts but have found traces of them in Connecticut 
and in northern New York, whence it can be inferred that they 
inhabit all New England. — F. C. Bowditch. 

The Painted Bunting. — The Plectrophanes pirtus visited south- 
ern Iowa last fall in great numbers, appearing toward the close of 
October, but whether it i> as abundant every season I cannot say. 
but am inclined to think that it was far more common than usual. 
as was the case with almost all northern birds.. In its habits it 
was ver\ similar lo the I. pland longspur, but differed in being 
less gregarious. fre<pmn! iy feeling singly or in small parties of 
five or six, which the latter bird seldom does, and in showing a 
partiality for wet meadows and moist low-lying prairie swales, 
while tin- longspur prefers the cornlields and higher ground, as a 
rule, and does not appear until some weeks after pictus. The 
notes and tlight of the two species are quite similar, though dis- 
tinguishable.— T. M. Trippe, Garden Grove, Ioim. 

New North American Htmenoptera. — The last number of 
the Transactions of the Academy of Science of St. Louis contain! 
a posthumous paper by the late B. D. Walsh, in which many new 
-..■■■■ i :.:,■ described. 



ANTHROPOLOGY. 

he publication of our notice of the stone 



relics. In the paper referred to. we loured ; :. ■-..•--■■- 

pers. each bearing considerable resemblance to the others. In a 
collection of fifty-four specimens lying before us, we find five 
types; one of them is the English form, being thin (lakes of 

from a medi [>ped to a bevelled edge in front. 

i - -■ 



appears, as a rule, to have the scraping edge convex, the sides 

chipped to a cutting edge, and the implement itself, even when 
very small, appears to be chipped from a nodule of mineral, and 



specimen, having the ^veiled, or -scraper" edue very di>tinctlv 
chipped. 
The form of scraper that is most usually met with, in our New 

^ Ainu i. [st. pages 221-22:1. the figures of which we here repro- 
duce (Figs. 131, 132, 133, 134). This type, which is a modifi- 
cation of the spoon-shaped scrapers described by Mr. Evans, 
appears to have been the favorite one among the Delaware 
tribes. There are twenty-one specimens in this little collection, 
all of which are carefully wrought, and but three of them are of 
slate. While in general appearance this form suggests the utili- 
zation of the bases of spearheads in their manufacture, we doubt 
*&J much, after examining a very lar-e number, if this was the 
rule. We think, rather, that it was the exception, because this 
type of scraper very generally is thicker than spearpoints ; the stem 
° 1 ' handle is thinner than the blade: the upper side or that from 
which the bevelling proceeds is ridged, while beneath it is flat or 

of the base of either of those implements. The implements figured 
111 Vol. vi of the Naturalist, pages 212 and 213. here reproduced 
as Figs. 135, 136, 137, we now believe to be scrapers and not 
spear or arrowpoinls. The variation in size of this stemmed or 
modified spoon-shaped scraper is from three inches in length by 

eighths in width. As in the pn a smallest 



specimen is equally 



21. It is flat upon one side and con 
tifully chipped bevelled edge. It « 



1} 




scrapers varies somewhat in the relati 1 
handle, so that the gradation to other for 
gular or kite-shaped 



idths of head and 

especially the trian- 

be traced in every considerable collec- 



The form of scraper described 
shaped" is represented in the seri 
five others approach this type, ar 




links with the preceding tj-pes. These twelve speci] 
of jasper, very well chipped over their whole surface, 
as smoothly wrought as the preceding and have well rl 
ing edges along certain portions of their margins. 
are about the same as the specimens figured by Mr. 



The spoon-shaped 
specimen on page 27 






aper. 



of which Mr. Evans figra 

work, is represented by three speci- 



504 

mens in our series, one of which is very similar to that referred to 
from the Yorkshire wolds. The others have the bowl of the 
spoon not so well defined, but otherwise are well made scrapere. 
There 'are also three other specimens, that might be more prop* 
erly called knife-shaped scrapers, in that the bowl and stem or 
handle are of the same width. The scraping edge is, however, 
circular, as in the true spoon-shaped form. These may be looked 
upon as connecting links with the quadrangular or horseshoe- 
shaped scrapers. There remains one other specimen to notice, 
being a « side scraper," as Mr. Evans calls this form, that is, one 
that is broader than it is long. It is made of slate, chipped with 
some care ; is two inches in length by three in width. Both sides 
are adapted to scraping, being cadi well chipped, with the lower 
side Mattel than the upp< surf -e. What perhaps might be called 
the true edge, is somewhat more extended than the other, from 
the barblike projections at either end, which barbs give a finished 
appearance to the implement, which otherwise might have been 
looked upon as merely a flake or unfinished specimen. This form 
of scraper is not common with us. 

After a careful study of these and many other specimens of this 
form of implement, found in New Jersey, we have determined, we 
think : 

First. That jasper, quartz and allied minerals were preferred in 
manufacturing scrapers. 

Seroarthj. That as much care was taken in their shaping and 
finishing, as was the case with arrow-points and spearpoints. 

Third!;/. That but few -Hakes" were utilized in making scrapers. 
as is the case with European specimens. 

Fourthly. That the majority of scrapers were intended to be 
inserted in handles of bone or wood. 

Fifthh/. That large spearheads especially, and some arrow- 
heads were use 1 for making serapers. having previously lost their 
points, and being too short to be repointed. 

Lastly. That, as a class, the New Jersey scrapers are smaller 
than those found in Europe. — Charles C. Abbott, M.D. 



MICROSCOPY. 

Improvements in Objectives.— Mr. Wenham has placed micros- 
copists, and indeed all persons interested in scientific progress, 



late Mr. Lister discovered and published the law of aplanatic foci. 
that liv separating -mitably connected lenses one or two positions 
could be found in which spherical alienation was balanced: and 
Mr. Ross constructed in 1831, with unexpected success, the first 
objective embodying this principle. Mr. Ross then discovered 
that the interposition of a cover-glass removed the aphmatic focus 
to a different plane, causing negative aberration and requiring the 
lenses to be brought closer together ; and he therefore introduced 
the screw collar adjustment which has now become universal. 
These objectives consisted of three pairs, the double convex crown 
and plano-concave flint of each pair having their contact surfaces 
of equal radius and balsamed together, the three pairs having foci 
about in the proportion of one, two, three, and the anterior pair 
being at a considerable and variable distance from the other two 
Pairs. In this combination the s 



he year is;} 7. Mr. Lister furnished Mr. Ross a diagram of 
e front lens, consisting of a [.la no-concave of flint between 
lano-convex crowns, for the purpose of protecting the flint 
the exposure to the air and of diminishing the depth of 
ure, which was unfavorable for the passage of the marginal 

The front surface of the middle pair was made concave 
o other advantage than reducing the depth of contact, and 

be made a plane with at least equally good results in cor- 
t of the oblique pencils and in flatness of field. An angle 
' was attained, by this method, in one-eighths. 



Thirteen years later Mr. Lister introduced the triple-Lark, for 
the same objects as the triple front, it being composed of a double 
concave of very dense flint between a plano-convex and a double 

the aperture of a | raised to 130° or over. 

At that time Mr. Wenham, experimenting in the construction of 
objectives, discovered that excessive over correction or negative 
aberration was easily obtained with lenses of shallow contact 
curves, and that color correction was chiefly controlled by changes 
in the triple back, the rays passing through the concave flint of 

convex crown glass which was long rejected by the leading opti- 

tli s syM i p •— < -si i n _i ] n ip< rtun o! 1 «.)', md »\ is suc- 
cessful at first attempt, the middle pair being neutral or nearly 
achromatic and the triple back happening to have a suitable excess 
of negative aberration or over correction for color. Some posi- 
tive spherical aberration remained, which was remedied by giving 
additional thickness to the front lens ; a correction now considered 
essential and requiring great delicacy, as a difference in thickness 
of ^ inch will determine the quality between a good and an 
indifferent T V- 

The excessive depth of the contact surfaces of the middle pair 
was a remaining defect, it being so great that if not balsam ce- 
mented, total reflection of the marginal rays would take place, and 
the angular aperture be reduced. Though the surfaces are oblit- 
erated by being cemented with balsam and the rays are thus en- 
abled to proceed, slid an angle beyond that of total reflection, 
implies excessive and detrimental depth of curvature. Placing 
the flint in the form of a meniscus above a plano-convex crown 
was employed as a middle pair with some satisfaction. An at- 
tempt was also made to obtain the whole chromatic correction with 
the biconcave flint of the back, the middle as well as the front 
being a single uncorrected plano-convex of crown. Sufficient 
over correction was obtained by the back to balance both the other 

widely separated in the fnnit and' middle h uses and between them 
when placed for aplanatic foci, that they could not be brought 



together again at the point of leaving the hack Ions, and must 
. either leave it converging to some one fixed conjugate focus, or 
else parallel but not united ; in the first case the combination 
could only be applicable to one fixed length of bod}', and in the 
other it would not be satisfactory under any conditions. The cure 

cases, vai ;ing only with the power required; the triple middle is 
of about hree times, and the single plano-convex back four and 
a half times the radius of the front. The single plano-convex of 

hack portion, the plane surface being above instead of below. 
Perfect color correction can be obtained by this formula in all 
sciew collar objectives, from £ inch upwards. This combination 
consists of five lenses and ten surfaces, taking the place of eight 

These results are worked out by diagrams more easily than by 
math inatieal computation; tiie course of the rays being projected 
by means of proportional compasses, with surprising accuracy, 
on a scale of some fifty times the size of the real combination. 

Tolles' Triplets. — A correspondent writes as follows regard- 
ing a half inch triplet lately made by Mr. Tolles. " I am greatly 
pleased with the lens. Its performance is .^//c,h/<V. and it really 
gives the naturalist when away from his microscope an extraor- 
dinary facility. I should be very sorry to be without it." We 
quote this from our friend's letter, which was by no means de- 
signed for publication. These triplets certainly surpass anything 
of the kind we have met with. Mr. Tolles has just finished a .-'. 
objective, which is perfectly satisfactory to himself. 

NOTES. 

It is seldom that the sad record we arc now obliged to make 
occurs in a single number of a magazine : — the loss by death of 
four valued contributors within so short a time. 

Prof. John Lewis Russell, of Salem, died on the 7th of Jane, 
in the 65th year of his age. Prof. Russell was one of the founders. 



and for many years the president, of the Essex County Natural 
History Society, which afterwards became part of the Essex Insti- 
tute. He was an active worker in botany, and though he never 
published the results of his labors to any great extent, he has for 
year-. Ihvii coii-idered as an authority in New England crypto- 
genic botany to which he devoted most of his attention. Of a 
peculiar and retiring nature, he never made himself prominent 
among the scientists of the day, though by those who knew him 
intimately his learning was held in great respect. As a popular 
exponent of botanical subjects he was much appreciated. 

Mr. Gf.ohge Gums, tin- 'distinguished American ethnologist and 
philologist, died at New Haven, on the 9th of April, in his fifty* 
eighth year. Mr. Gibbs, though a lawyer by profession, has been 
an extensive contributor to various departments of natural sci- 
ence, as well as to literature, but his special work since 1849, when 
he first visited the Pacific eoast, has been in researches rela- 
tive to the languages and history of the North American Indians. 
Since this period he has filled several important posts as geologist 
on several of the government surveys and added much to our 
knowledge of the geology and zoology of the western portion of 
our continent. At the time of his death he was engaged in >n- 
prmitendinir the printing of a quarto volume of the Sy 
Contributions, containing several hundred series of Indian vocab- 
ularies which he had arranged in a most critical manner. T\ e 
understand that this last work of Mr. Gibbs was so far perfected. 
that its completion will be entrusted to Dr. Roehrig who was 
assisting in the work. 

Col. John W. Foster, President of the Chicago Academv ot 
Science, died at Chicago on the 29th of June, aged 58. Col. 
Foster, though an active laborer in science for many year- '- 
perhaps best known as the joint author with Prof. Whitney of the 
government Report on the Mineral Lands of Lake Superior, pub- 
lished in 1850, and from his volume on the Mississippi V) ley 
published a few years since, though he has contributed manj 
papers and memoirs on geological and archaeological subjects.^ 
He contemplated a series of articles on the "Mound builder- <■! 



the Mississippi Valley" for this magazine, 



which were pub- 



lished, when his time became fully occupied in the preparation c 
S extensive work on the subject, which was issued but a fci 
before he died. He was one of the original member 



of the American Association for the Advancement of Science 
which he was president at the meeting held in Salem in 18G9, 

Association. 
Prof. Hexry James Clark died at Amherst, on July 1st, 

scientific world as a very promising student with Prof. Gi 

of Zoology at Harvard, and afterwards held professorships at 

Agricultural College of Pennsylvania, the I "ni versify of Kentuc 
and finally in 1872, at the Massachusetts Agricultural College 



nated. lrof. Clark was probably the most thorough histologist 
in this country, and was our best microscopist in the general ac- 
ceptance of the term. His volume entitled " Mind in Nature" 
published some ten or twelve years since was the result of his 

Agassiz' volumes on the Natural History of the United States, and 
he has also printed many important papers in the Memoirs of the 
American Academy, the 'Boston Society of Natural History, and 
various scientific journals. We understand that the Smithsonian 
Institution wa- publishing an extensive work !y lVoi'.C lark, which 
we trust will not be delayed by his death. Prof. Clark was a 
member of the National Academy of Science and of the leading 
scientific societies in the country. 

It appears that the scientific results of the voyage of the Pol- 
aris, as revealed by the examination by the Secretary of War of 

Ctpt. Tyson and his comrades, when the vessel is rescued, as there 



MTocaces orfarl I one. The Tolari 

Ine dredge was not used, but the records of the astronomical, 

meteorological, magnetic, tidal, and other departments of explo- 

pear to have been full, while the 
hi-i.-ry. iiM-hidimr -kins and skeletons of musk oxen, bears and 



of drift wood of the walnut, ash and pin 



510 NOTES. 

to have been picked up near the shores of Newman's Bay an 
Polaris Bay. On the shores of the latter bay in hit. 81° 38' J 
Capt. Hall "found that the country abounds with live seal 
game, geese, clucks, musk cattle, rabbits, wolves, foxes, bear 
partridges, lemmings, etc., etc." 

The geographical results of the Polaris expedition, so far i 
they can now be ascertained from the testimony of Messrs. Tysoi 
Myers and their comrades, may be summed up briefly as follow 

in reality a sound forming an expansion of Kennedy channel i 
the northward and broken by Lady Franklin Bay on the wes 

and certainly extending far inland. Its size was not ascertained 



Hans.-i expedition, an 


d with it defining the north 


ern limits of 


Greenland. This inlel 


; was called the southern fiord, 


, North of it 


is the indentation of th 


e shore called Polaris Bay by 


Captain Hall, 


where the Polaris wii 


itered in hit. 81° 38' north. 


The northern 


point of this bay was 


named Cape Tupton. Its sou 


thern point is 


the northe: - 


From Cape Tupton the l&i 


channel from 



twenty-five to thirty miles- wide opening out of the sound beioiv 
i. The trend of land continues to Repulse Harbor In 
lat. 82° 9' north, the highest northern position reached by land dar- 
ing this expedition. From an elevation of 1700 feet at Repulse 
Harbor, on the east coast of Robeson's Straits, the land continues 
northeast to the end of these straits, and thence east and southeast 
till lost in the distance, its vanishing point bearing south of east 
from the place of observation. No land was visible to the north- 
east, but land was seen on the west coast, extending north as far 
a . th.. . } e could reach, and apparently terminating in a lu . Hand 
84° north. Mr. Myer also stated that directly to the north he ob- 
served, on a bright day, from the elevation mentioned, a hue 
of lidit. apparently circular in form, which was thought by other 
observers to be land, but which he supposed to ii.d' at- open 
water. Besides ascertaining accurately the condition and extent 

ering the southern fiord to the southeast, and Roberts's Straits to 
the north, with another wide expanse of water beyond it and ex- 



errors in the shore line of the west 
Hayes, and also errors in the shore lin 
by Dr. Kane, were observed and corre 

Mr. Clement J!. Markham writes 
results gleaned from the story of the 

English a iv tie expedition, which has 1 



_ -Trof. C. A. White of Iowa State University and State Geolo- 
gist of Iowa, has been appointed Professor of Geology and Nat- 
ural History at Bowdoin College. This is a new chair, and its 
establishment shows that the interest in science that has always 
fl'iu-:.H.-ii/.ed This college is on the increase. The Cleaveland 
Cabinet of Natural History at Bowdoin College was dedicated 
July 10. The museum, formerly Massachusetts Hall, has a very 
handsome interior. The address was delivered by Hon. Nehemiah 

The bryological books and exceedingly rich and important 
collections and preparations of mosses left by the late W. S. 
Sollivant are to be consigned to the Gray Herbarium of Harvard 
University, with a view to their preservation and long-continued 
usefulness. The remainder of his botanical library, his choice 
microscopes, and other collection, are bequeathed to the State 
Scientific and Agricultural College, just established at Columbus, 
and to the Starling Medical College, founded by his uncle, and of 
Which be was himself the senior trustee. 



for the season on April 18, having sustained a free course of pop- 
ular scientific lectures during the winter. 



BOOKS BECEIVED. 



AMERICAN NATURALIST. 

Vol. VII. -SEPTEMBER, 1873. -No. 9. 
"CONTROLLING SEX IN BUTTERFLIES." 



The article with the above title by Mrs. Mary Treat, in the 
March number of the Naturalist, has attracted a good deal of 
attention, and most naturalists will be proud that a lady has set 
tlio example of making such investigations. But while I fully con- 
« *ith the authoress in the deduction that the female in insects 
■■d especially in Lepidoptera, "requires more nourishment than 
the male," I cannot follow her in the other conclusion - that sex 
is not determined in the egg of insects." Were this conclusion 
well founded it would upset what most physiologists of note be- 
lieve to be a fundamental principle, viz.. that, in the individual, 
sex is determined at the moment of conception, no matter at what 
stage of growth it becomes ascertainable by us. That such is the 
case with the higher animals will scarcely be doubted, and to 
reason from analogy that it is the case with the whole animal 
kingdom is quite as natural, though < ; u illy as unsafe, as it was in 
years gone by to argue that Indna sine conchitn was an impossi- 
,Jln \v ; or that larval reproduction, in insects, could not possiMy 
take place. It is, therefore, worth while to weigh the evidence for 
and against the possibility of controlling sex in larvae. 

Mrs. Treat, whom I know to be a good observer, and whom I 
esteem as a correspondent, had already, in 1871, communicated 
to nie her belief that she could control the sex in butterfly larvae, 



514 

Mini though I then gave her my . .pinion that her experiments were 
by no means satisfactory and conclusive, for the reason that many 
of the larvae experimented on died, we find her discoursing in the 
following unqualified manner in ''Hearth and Home" for January 
13, 1872, in treating of Papilio aster i as :— 

"When the worms become of the right size cut off their BUpplj 
: their food-plant and selected their 



Led by Mrs. Treat's observati 
mer conducted a few experiments which results 
from those recorded in the article referred to, 
briefly reviewing the article, I will detail. In 
of these results I have been obliged to defer ^ 
till the present time. 

In the first experiment with Papilla asterkis, n 
Treat, some of the larvae died, and we are not 
number experimented with was large or small. 

In the experiment with the same insect in 187: 
of seventy-nine specimens that had been label 
chrysalides having died) three females only wei 
the other hand those that were well "fed up" am 
produced sixty-eight female- and four males. '■ 



In the third experiment with twenty larvae, nine feim 
eight males were produced, the other three failing. 

In the experiment with ]\c,«>.ss<i ,/,,//. r ,/ more than halt t. 
died, and in tin trial- vvith A>n* »to , ». >•• nda some also t 
were parasitized. 

Now Papilio* deposits its eggs singly, and from expea 
breeding asterias, Troilus, Turnus and Ajax, from the 
am satisfied that it would be very difficult to get an 
number to hatch on the same day or to iiecome c'my-a 



would most li 










ii-y. the eg-> 


and it is mor 


e easy to get 


a number o 


Mrs. Treat's e 


hHamesp^u 


tettWy-tt 


Mrs. Treat < 


loes not tell us 


; ivln>tlioi- she 



Mrs. Treat s] ra eating beyond the period 

ing*' them, as tl any limit to these process 

little. Xhey are deceptive ! Most Lepidopterous larvae, in a st: 
of nature would come under the head of "feeding up" as they ui 
ally have an ample supply of food at command, and eat their i 
^ hile, therefore, it is perfectly possible to stunt such larvae by f 

Period and diminish the amount of their development, it is uttei 
impossible, in the great majority of ca>es. to get them to eat afi 
they once commence to prepare tin- the chrysalis state. This 
m }' firm conviction after ten years of pretty extensive inse 
rearing, and I think that most experienced insect-raisers will agr 
*ith me. If disturbed after preparing to pupate, most Ian 
will repeatedly renew similar preparations, but if too often fri 
«tted they will per preparation 



516 

prepare for the transformation by the changes already taking 
place in the system, and in the great majority of cases the mandib- 
ulate is already giving way to the haustcllate mouth, and has be- 
come impotent to perform its wonted labor. Larvce can neither 
be forced nor stuffed beyond a certain limit, and this limit is at- 
tained by every well fed larva in a state of nature and in the viva- 
rium, so that if Mrs. Treat's theory had any real foundation almost 
all insects that were not "starred" ought to be females. A high 
temperature will cause rapid development. hut it dues not cause a 
greater aggregate amount of feeding. 

But to my own experiments : Of the six insects chosen, the 
sexes in some differ in the most remarkable manner, while all 
show sufficient disparity to render mistakes in separating the 
sexes impossible. They are, also, all common in this section, so 
that others will have no difficulty in verifying my facts. Except 
in the case of Thyridopteryx 1 made no attempt to "feed up ;" my 
efforts all being in the direction of "starving," or, as Mrs. Treat 
would put it, of producing males. Neither have I relied entirely 
on my own observation ; for, being necessarily absent from home, 
at intervals, the experiments, with explicit directions, were at such 
times left in charge of Mr. Otto Lugger and Miss Mary F. Murt- 
feldt, both well practised in rearing Lepidoptera. I would al-o 
premise that the stunting process began from the time of batching, 
and that it was carried so far that, of the less hardy species, many 
died under the treatment. It was, also, especially enforced bo- 
wards larval maturity. The species chosen were, 1. Thyridoph ,-v.c 
epkemerceformis (Haw.); 2. Orgyia leuaostiama (Sm. and Abb.) i 
3. Clisiocampa Americana (Harr.) ; 4. Hyperchiria Io (Fabr.) ; a. 
Hemileuca Main (Drury) ; G. Am'. -iota mbiauida (Fabr.). 

1. Thyridopteryx ephemermformis.—Tvfo lots: lot 1 eonsistiBg 
at first of between thirty and forty individuals, and abundantly 
and constantly nourished ; lot 2, of thirty individuals and very 
poorly nourished or "starved." From lot 1, twenty-eight cocoons 
were obtained, of which fifteen were males and thirteen females, 
all of them attaining the imago state. From lot 2, eigbtee 
cocoons were obtained, winch produced twelve m h-~ 
males, two of the females failing to perfect and dying !1L '' 
chrysalis state, in which the sex is readily determined. 1 1L 
stunted lot produced, on an average smaller specimens, and • 
later in developing, the first male appearing September 1W 



gainst September 10th, on which day the first male in lot 1 i 
eared. Some of them, however, were of the usual size. 
Besides these two lots which were in small vessels and vc 
trictly watched, I had a great number in a large 1 needing eat 
diieh were so thoroughly neglected that fully one-half died. I 
ccurate account was kept of them but of upwards of fifty ehi 



2. Org;/m leucostigma.— Started with a lot of forty, which were 
very carefully watched and very insufficiently fed. From them 

and eight males. I naturally looked for a different result in this 
case as there is a very perceptible difference in the size of the 
sexes, and the female larva grows one-third larger than the male 
requiring, in consequence, a greater amount of nourishment. I 
had also noticed in previous rearing of this species that the males 

PMaed through four ; but to show that the number may vary in 
the same species, according to circumstances. M'.~- M.:;; 
assures me that under this stinting process the former went 
through four molts like the females. Similarly. Prof. YVestwood 
li:i* informed me that a larva of Megatoma [Tin *-/.f.s] *< rr < which 
lie once kept on flies and insufficiently fed, lived for three years 
- [1 I molted no less than fourteen times. 

•">. Cli$ior<i-,iii>a Anwfi . — Si ' irith a batch of upwards 
of fifty j us t hatched. Obtained only nineteen cocoons from them. 



■ ;i -s;>lras and Aniurpha, and in both 

5. Hemileuca Maia.— One brood < 
from an egg-belt fastened around a \ 
feed them on peach leaves, which w« 



518 

more than half had died. Stinted the rest as much as possibh 
until only thirty-two entered the ground. Of these fifteen pro 
dueed males and eight females, the rest being yet chrysalides. 

6. Anisota rubicunda.— About fifty larvse of all ages, of tin 
first brood, and badly stinted, gave twenty-two chrysalides; am 
these gave eleven females, seven males — the rest dying. Upward 

of the above females and likewise stinted, gave fifty-six chry 

I watched these with a acid deal of interest, as, from the nee 
essarily weakened condition of the parents, 1 expected a larg 
proportion of males; but I was doomed to disappointment, $ 
but three moths —two females, one male — issued on the 21st an< 
22nd of May. In examining the remaining chrysalides I find then 
all dead, and I cannot help thinking that this excessive mortality 



th ■ parents on the sex ot tne cm- 



brood of larvae, one sex or the other will greatly 

While, therefore. I do not think that the facts J 
session, warrant the belief that the quality or amoui 



any influence in determining sex in the im 
egg, I do believe, with Thomas Meehan, 
others, that there is a certain relation bet 



tained by Mr. H. F. Bassett of Waterbury, Connecticut, there can 
be little doubt that many of the species produce two distinct 
kinds of pills, alternating with each other, the one vernal, the 
other autumnal. The former produce flies with a due proportion 
of the sexes, and the latter produce nothing but large feinales.t 
In other words, the directly fecundated and in-.iv highly vitalized 
ova produce nothing but large females, while the parthenogenetic 
offspring is smaller and composed of both males and females. 

The curious facts, as now understood, in the economy of the 
common hive-bee, seem at first to militate against the conclusion 
that food has no influence on the sex of larvae, but in reality they 
do not, though they indicate that the sex may be altered or deter- 
mined after partial or imperfect conception has already taken 
place. All eggs not directly impregnated produce drones or males 
{not f. i:ll il>-x. as i-A.S.P.." by a singular lapse of thought, has 
stated on p. 177 of the March number of the Nam i;ai.i-i ). while 



:rjr> 



IN BUTTERFLIES. 



those which are impregnated at the will of the mother produce 
females either partly or fully developed, i.e., workers, or queens. 
The rule with animals is that the ova perish unless vitalized by 
the direct influence of the male spermatozoa. Nevertheless par- 
thenogenesis in many of the lower forms of animal life, and espe- 
cially in insects, is an admitted fact; and what does it imply? 
To my mind it implies that in exceptional cases, the male ele- 
ment is sufficiently potent to vitalize the ova in the second gener- 
ation, or that it may endure until succeeding generations : that, in 
short, to use Owen's words, "the spermatic virtue of the ancestral 
coitus" may influence the descendants. Von Siebold does not ac- 
cept this explanation, but there are many facts which indicate 
that it is the true one, and the male element becomes exhausted 
in time and is needed sooner or later for the continuance of the 

Parthenogenesis has repeatedly occurred in species which nor- 
mally cannot multiply without direct sexual intercourse, e. g., in 
Bombyx mori, Sphinx ligustri, etc. ; while in a great number of 
others the embryo, in eggs not directly fecundated, develops up to 
different stages. What in some species is the exception becomes 
the rule with others, of which the hive-bee is an example. The 
male element may be said to possess all degrees of potency in its 
influence on the reproductive function of its immediate issue, as 
the embryo in ova not directly fecundated attains all degrees of 
development before death. In cases of parthenogenesis it is potent 
enough, vital enough— to cause full development of the offspring 
for one or more generations, though, in the majority of instances, 
and especially where this mode of reproduction does not occur 
as a rule, this offspring is most frequently male. Finally, it may 
be so potent, as in what is termed thelotoky, that females instead 
of males are produced. 

The ova in a virgin queen bee may, therefore, be said to be al- 
ready partially fecundated — sufficiently so to produce males or 
drones ; but they must be more thoroughly vitalized, by the direct 
male influence, before the female sex can be stamped upon them. 
Even here, however, the sex is not changed after the deposition of 
the eggs, and it is not the influence of food which produces the 
change. 

Though I believe that the evidence is against Mrs. Treat's con- 
clusion, I hope she will continue her experiments, with that thor- 



otighness and exactness of which she is capable. Nature'- 

'.vs. unlv to find them violated and upset. a< 
truly interpret her ways. She is as watchful of the myria 
ble atoms that mantle o'er the pond with green, or of tb 
swarms that till tin; air -though our transparent vacancy it 
as she is of the higher forms of life. Plastic, she con 



and >«>lw i 



THE FLORA OF THE DISMAL SWAMP. 



a recent botanical trip to the Dis: 

, with the species found in flower, ma}^ not be 
wanting in interest. 

Sunrise, on the morning of April 11th, found our party of two. 
Mr. William H. Seaman <5f Washington, and myself, just ready 
to make the landing at Old Point Comfort. A stroll before 
breakfast, for a mile or two along the sandy point, brought us 
to small groves of pitch pine (Pinus rigida), interspersed with 
thickets of dwarf live oak (Quereus virens var. maritim or), here 
'caching its northern limit, while inside the fortress the true 
live oak attains quite a large size. The prickly pear (Opuntia 
''".'/"/•-). is scattered along the -and. and on one almost inac- 
cessible edge of the rampart displays it- reddish fruit. Along 
the ramparts occur the bright blue spikes of the grape 

(.VW,,,-/ l„,t r ,„, /,/,.,). with Ijimhlm nmj.hj'.'i <i»?-, > i\'fm>-r>''i ul 

Th.iliana and vida. A walk of a couple of miles to Hampton 



reveals nothing of special interest, Viola cucnllata and primal a>- 
fnVut being the only species noticed. The suburbs of Norfolk 
abound with pride of China {Melia azedarach), still retaining its 
whitish drupes, three or four species of magnolia and other dis- 
tinctively southern trees, while Yucca gloriosa flourishes most 
thriftily on heaps of garden rubbish. 

The next morning a little steamer received us for our trip, op 
the Elizabeth River, through the Dismal Swamp Canal, and down 
the Pasquotank Eiver, to Elizabeth City,N. C, forty miles in all. 

The swamp region is of indefinite extent, being estimated at 
from six hundred to one thousand square miles, thirty miles or 

west. Much of it has been cleared and partly drained, here and 
there a clearing of several hundred acres meeting the eye. said to 
be capable of producing fifty bushels of shelled corn to the acre, 

while at rare intervals appear neat, white and inviting mansions. 
It seems originally to have been heavily wooded. The cypress 
(Tiij'orJiinn fiisfirhum), juniper (J,i,»p*rns Virginiana), tulip tree 
(JJrin,!, ,„],:, n tukpifera), and the sweet and sour gums {Lvp>i<h>m- 
bar Stymeiflna and Nyssa unijiora and aqnatica), are abundant 

Most of the large trees, however, have been cut otf, or have 
fallen victims to the frequent fires, several of which were raging 
during our vi-it. and liirhi ■! up the horizon at night; often by 
these fires, the peaty soil for miles is burned to the depth of four 
or five feet ; the hollow thus formed soon fills with water, and ever 
after retains a truly "dismal" appearance. But, for the most part, 
the swamp exhibits almost tmi-ieal luxuriance, the true canehrake 






- 



evergreen. !' leaf and the cypres- 

but beginning to put forth its delicate leaflets. Bex glabra, ink- 
berry, or. as it is called there, gall-berry, is the most abundant 
shrub, especially alomi the watereour-es. occurring, from two to 
ten feet in height, its black berries contrasting finely with »** 
glossy leaves. The sweet bay {Magnolia glauca), the holly 
(Ilex opaca), often with its scarlet berries, the great laurel ( W»>- 
do<h-n<iron maximum), and perhaps loblolly bay (Gordonia L(<^- 
atithus), are very abundant; while climbing high over all is the 
Smiku- kurifolia. with its large, stent, evergreen leaves, appearing 
as if pinnately compound, and lower down the green-brier (S. 



canal to Lake Dn 
Typha latifolk,. X 






cultivation, Pyrus arbutifolia, Quercus 
idantly Eubus villosus, with two or three 
:1 Gaylussacia. Along the canal banks, 
lasses, forming almost impenetrable cane- 
ity feet in height, we found Arundinaria 
' fortunate enough to detect the former in 



■ had. 



healthy. Fish are quite plenty. We saw no animals, though 

foxes, "possuni" and "i i" arc plenty, and bears and deer are 

seen occasionally. Birds too are scarce ; now and then a turkey 
buzzard sails slowly overhead, or a hawk starts up from an old 
stump, or a flock of crows wind their noisy way from wood to 
cornfield, but very few of the sparrows or flycatchers or other 
cheerful occupants of ordinary woods meet the view. For the 
most part silence and solitude reign supreme. 

Around Elizabeth City, the ground is dry and the soil good, 
and we found in addition to species already enumerated Senecio 
■ 



, Arabis laevigata, Barbarea vulgaris, CV///// ,•/,•/„ 
vema, Proserpinaca palustris and pertniao a. IL/(lrocof>/le umbellata, 
and Sagittaria. On the trunks of the fine elms along the streets 
is found, very abundantly, Polypodtam incanum, its root-stocks 
creeping over the bark, and covering them with its delicate fronds 
to a height of twenty feet. Though apparently dry and dead, 
upon being brought home and placed in a fernery, the fronds 
began to expand and some new ones were seen putting forth. 
A later trip would doubtless reveal many more species. Imt with 
the drawback of possible chills and certain yellow Hies and 
mosquitoes. 



INJURIOUS AND BENEFICIAL INSECTS. 



Though the reporter was absent during most of the past season, 
and was unable, except in a slight degree, to make any special 
tions on the habits of our more injurious insects, yet 
with the help of others some new material is here offered that may 
be serviceable to farmers and gardeners. The facts that we have 
to present may often seem disconnected and desultory, but few 
except experts in natural history are perhaps aware how difficult 
and prolonged a task it is to follow out the transformations of any 
particular iiwvt, and study thoroughly its habits in its different 
stages of growth. Unlike birds, quadrupeds and fishes, which 
have similar habits at all stages of growth, an insect, with its 
three separate stages of larva, pupa and adult, leads as it were 
three lives, with different surroundings, and in each of those 
stages may be regarded as a different animal. Then it is often 
extremely difficult to ascertain to what beetle or moth or bee 
such or such a grub or caterpillar belongs. Our entomologists 
are not numerous enough, and often from their time !>eing ta- 
ken up with the pursuits of their profession, usually not that of 
science, are unable to spend the time in the field to observe the 



habits of insects for themselves. Unfortunately, also, so back- 
ward is the science of entomology in thi.s country, that the atten- 
tion of its students is at present fully engrossed with classifying 
and describing the adult insects. When it is to be borne in mind 
that there are within the limits of the United States, probably at 
a low estimate, ten thousand species of Ibiuu-noptera (bees, 
wasps, ichneumon flies, saw-flies, etc.), half as many butterflies 
and moths, about ten thousand species of Hies, as many of bee- 
ties ((/nlenntrni) and of bugs ( I I<-,u Intern), and several thousand 
species of grasshoppers, etc. {( trilmph -rn I, and neuropterous 
insects, such as dragon-flies, caddis-Hies, etc., etc., the whole 
amounting to upwards of fifty thousand species of insects, to say 
nothing of the spiders, mites aud ticks, centipedes and millepedes, 
it is evident that in the mere preliminary work of identifying 
and properly describing these myriad forms — an intellectual 
work requiring as much good sense, discretion and knowledge 
as shown in the pursuit of medicine, the law or education, — 
that all this work, which is simply preliminary in its nature, is a 
vast one, and that the combined exertions of many minds over 
several generations will not exhaust the subject. As it is, there 
are in this country only about thirty entomologists who publish 
ting to ii s .,-is. Necessary as it is, this work of clas- 
sification is by no means the highest and most useful branch of 
physical science. He who studies carefully the habits and struc- 
ture of one insect, and. hire, lays before the 
farmer and gardener a true story of its mode of life, is a true bene- 
factor to agriculture, and at the same time benefits science more 
than he who describes hundreds of new species. Such an one 
was Dr. Thaddeus W. Harris, whose leisure moments were conse- 
crated to the benefit and advancement of the agricultural interests 
"f 1 our state, and the commonwealth perhaps never made a better 
investment than in supplying the agricultural community with an 
illustrated edition of his immortal work. On looking over Dr. 
Harris's work we find that he mentions about six hundred species 
s to vegetation, and as others have been added since 
then, it is not improbable that we have at least one thousand 
destructive species, i. e., about one-tenth of the entire number 
(10,000) of insects which undoubtedly are to be found living 
within the limits of this state. As to the losses sustained from 
their attacks it would be difficult to say how great they are, but it 



is to be estimated at lea-t by Iiundreds of thousands of dollars. 
The amount of waste by the agency of insects is really appalling, 
and even now but slightly appreciated by our fanning community. 
We have perhaps little idea how many insects are preying upon 
our crops, our -hade and ornamental trees. There are, probably 
within the limits of our country, one-tenth of the number, i. e. 
five thousand, which are either at present engaged in the work 
of injury, or are destined to be, with the growth of civilization. 
which means in this instance the destruction of the natural food 
of these insects and the substitution of a different diet, our 
choicest grains and fruits, in their stead. 

During the last summer the canker-worm was as destructive 
as ever, and it seems to have gained a linn foothold among us. 
It is scarcely creditable that so conspicuous and comparal ively 
easily assailed an insect as this does so much annual damage. It 
would seem as if the birds did not teed upon it to much extent. 
We have personally never seen birds feeding upon the canker- 
worm, though Professor Wyman states that doves eat them some- 
times in large numbers and it is thought that the crow hlackhmls 
pick up the caterpillars. As we have stated in a former report 
there are certain kinds of caterpillars that birds do not relish. 
Indeed birds seem to have certain fancies of their own among 
edible insects. Thus the martin will store up in its nest quarts 
of the common striped beetle of the potato, to the exclusion of 
other insects. 

The reporter would be greatly obliged for any facts upon this 
subject communicated by those who may have a chance to observe 
what birds feed on particular kinds of insects and at what season 
and month of the year. 

Our cranberry crop has been grievously ravaged during the year 
past, though the writer has no information to give at present in 
relation to this subject farther than that recorded in the article 
entitled "New and Little Known Insects," in the "Report on Agri- 
culture of the State for 1870," and that given in the author's 
"Guide to the Study of Insects," though he has visited several 
cranberry pastures during the recent autumn. In conclusion, 
before offering the accompanying remarks on certain injurious 
and beneficial insects, the reporter would invite the attention of 
sts to those insects that prey on the cranberry crop and 
other injurious insects, and beg them to communicate to him at 



1ml 


•itiui 




. Oftt 


lese perh 


aps the : 






xry saw-fly, \ 


rhich in 


this st; 


Lte, but 






states, as in 


Illinois. 


, does in 


some cs 




i dai 


nage. Then : 


i few moths whieh have 


on 


iVuil 


;-trees, the cu 




tc, have 


transfei 


to 


tlie 


strawberry; 6 


;uch are 


the a pi 


,le-leaf-r< 



saifron measuring-moth {An'jrmoa oy-<'"/<"-/«/). and several other 
eaterpiilai- found in the western states, and described in the ento- 
mological reports of Messrs. Walsh and Riley, and also in 
••Harris's Treatise on the Injurious Insects" of this state, and the 
reporter's "Guide to the Study of Insects." 

tus in(irn!,i_t)is), is one of the most common and fanhlar of all 

This is the common May beetle, June beetle or "dor bug," the 

Dr. Harris has -iv. u a l.ri. f -krteh of its hnl.it- and transfor- 



sometimes 


5 called "white-wo 


rm," does to th 


e roots of gi- 


ass, re- 


marking 1 


that "in many plac 


es the turf may 


be turned u 


[> like a 


carpet in 


consequence of th( 


! destruction of 




Ie how- 




not say that it a' 








has for >e 


veral years been ki 


lowii to do in g 


aniens about 


Saleni. 


My attent 


ion was especially 


called to its nv 


rages by Mr. 


D. M. 


Balch, of 


Salem, who has 


lost many stray 


i-berry-plants 


by the 


white grul 


t). It seemed evidt 


jnt that they we 


re introduced 




manure p! 


laced around the rx 


>ots, as during July and late 


in sum- 


mer, a nn 


inure-heap near by 


swarmed with 


the well-know 


n white 


grubs, in 


various stages of < 


development, soi 




,- in the 


second y 


ear and others in 


the third year's 


growth. T 


hey eat 


the main 


roots of the plant. 


, thus destroying 


r one plant a 


Aer an- 



528 

other. From this it will be obvious that if we observe the plant 
to wilt and suddenly die, we may look for the white grub and at 
once kill it to prevent farther ravages. It is evident, so large 
and voracious are these worms, that one plant would be a mere 
trifle to one of them. 

It also eats down in much the same manner young squash- 
plants, as I am told by Mr. C. A. Putnam, of Salem, who has 
been obliged to plant the seed over once or twice. They attack 
young- j dants at the time when they have thrown out three or four 
leaves. It is obvious that in dealing with this destructive insect 
we must become familiar with its habits. Every one knows the 
larva or grub of this insect, so that a detailed descriptic 
necessary. It is a large, soft-bodied, thick, white won 
as large as the thumb. Its head is yellowish or ps 
colored. Its skin is so thin and transparent that the air-vessels 
and viscera can be seen through it, while, though it has three pairs 
of legs, it is so gross and unwieldy thai it lies, when dug < 
its retreat, flat upon its side. 

How many years the grub lives before changing into the beetle 
we do not know, but probably at least three, 
maturity in the autumn, and early in May in 
chrysalis may be found in little 
sis inches under the mould, in which position we have found 
it in Maine late in May. During the latter part of May and 
early in June, *. e. for about a month, it flies about at night, 
a warm nights. By day it hides in fruit and other 
trees, clinging to the underside of the leaves by its long, curved 
claws, which are admirably adapted for the purpose. Here it does 
at times n, 3, to cherry- 

Where it lays its eggs is not definitely known, but it is proba- 
ble that it burrows in the >oii and there lays its eggs, as does the 
European cockchafer, of whose habits Harris gives a summary, 
and also the goldsmith beetle, of which we give an account far- 
ther on. Riley however says that -soon after pairing, the female 
beetle creeps into the earth, especially wherever the soil is loose 
and rough, and after depositing her eggs to the number of forty 
Of fifty, dies. These hatch in the course of a month, and. the 
grubs growing slowly, do not attain full size till the early spring 
of the third year, when thev construct an ovoid chamber, lined 



i"n*t watch it narrowly for the grubs so easily seen, and kill them. 
^ hen a vine is seen to die down suddenly in summer he must 
then dig around the roots and search for them, and go over the 
bed carefully, even if help has to be employed. It is better to 

e^siu;{. i u endeavoring to exterminate these grubs, than to yield 
['HsMvely to the scourge. The remarks of Mr. Luekwood that we 
i -'print m our account of the goldsmith beetle are eminently prac- 
tical as applied to this insect. As for special remedies, we have 
none to propose. Watchfulness and care in culture are better 
than any special nostrums. 



It has been figured by Mr. Kiley. i 
attacks this worm in Virginia. * It 



>> hile many animals, such as skunks, moles, crows, etc., prey 
tt the beetles, the only insect enemy I have personally observed 
1 the fierce carnivorous Calosoma beetle (C. mlidum) which I 



gling to escape : on taking up the May beetle a large 
v icetU's t i in immense numbers. 1 



duty of 1 


:he agriculturist, to pick them off the trees and 


jm. If 1 


:he French take the pains to practise hand- 




instance "about eighty millions were collected 




a single portion of the lower Seine" (Riley), 


em rs can 


aifonl to take similar pains. 


L-ription ol 


' the May beetle is scarcely necessary. The ad- 


iigure, tnl 


:en from' Harris' work (tig. 138), gives a good 




Fig. 138. idea of its appearance 




lai'vie of thc M . insects are nut known; probably they live 
ground upon the roots of plants. 

It has remained for the Rev. Dr. S. Lockwood to discovi 
the grub or larva of this pretty beetle iu New Jersey de\£ 

manner as the May beetle. His account was first publisj 

May beetle. He found that some of the beetles, as in the ( 
the M:v beetle, assume the adult beetle state in Octobt 



spring. 



regards the number of years in the life of this insect, Dr. 



532 injurious , 

Lockwood remarks that "when collecting the larva? in May. I 
often observed in the same places grubs of the Cotaipa of at least 

four distinct ages, each representing a year in the life of the 
inject, judging from Ileiiuy's figures of the larva' of the English 
cockchafer, or dor beetle (Melolontha vulgaris). But the cock- 
chafer becomes an imago in January or February, and comes 
forth into active life in May. just four years from the deposit of 
the egg. Supposing our Cotaipa to take on the imago form in au- 
tumn, and to spend its life from that time to the next May in the 
ground, it would be five years old when it makes its debut as an 
arboreal insect." It is possible that Dr. Lockwood may be in 
error regarding the age of this beetle, as M. T. Reiset says in 
France this insect is three years in arriving at its perfect beetle 
state. The following remarks on the habits of the European 
chafer may aid observers in this country in studying the habits of 
our native species. M. Reiset says (see "Cosmos" as translated 
in the American Naturalist," vol. ii, p. 200) "that this beetle 
in the spring of 1865 defoliated the oaks and other trees, while 
immense numbers of their larva.- in the succeeding year, 1866, 
devoured to a fearful extent the roots of garden vegetables, etc., 
at a loss to the department of the lower Seine of over five millions 
of dollars. This insect is three \oais in arriving at its perfect 
beetle state. The larvae, hatched from eggs laid by the beetles 
which appeared in such numbers in 1865, passed a second winter, 
that of 1867, at a mean depth in the soil of forty one-hundredth* 
of a metre, or nearly a foot and a half. The thermometer placed 
in the ground (whieh was covered with snow) at this mean depth, 
never rose to thirty-two degrees F. as minimum. Thus the larvae 
survived after being perfectly frozen (probably most subterranean 
larvae are thus frozen, and thaw out in the spring at the approach 
of warm weather). In June, 1867, the grubs having become full 
fed, made their way upwards to a mean distance of about thirteen 
inches below the surface, where, in less than two months, they all 
change* 1 to the pupa state, and in October and November the per- 
fect beetle appeared. The beetles, however, hibernate, remaining 
below the surface for a period of five or six months and appearing 
in April and May. The immature larvae, warned by the approach- 
ing cold, began to migrate deep down in the soil in October, when 
the temperature of the earth was ten degrees above zero. As 
soon as the snow melted they gradually rose towards the surface.' 



from Dr. Lockwood as follows: "On the evening of the 13th 

both sexes. These were taken home :m<l well eared for. On the 
16th a pair coupled. A jar of earth was at once provided, and 
the beetles placed on top of the dirt. In the evening the female 
burrowed and disappeared. Near midnight she had not returned 
to the surface; next morning she had reappeared. The earth 

eggs were found, not laid (as we expected) in one spot or group. 

size. Laid lengthwise, end touching end, two eggs measured 
very nearly three-sixteenths of an inch. They were like white 
wax, semi-translucent ; in form, long-ovoid and perfectly symmet- 

formed and very lively. Its dimensions were about five-six- 
teenths of an inch in length and about three-thirtieths of an inch 

dull yellow seen in the adult grub, the legs the same color, and the 
extremity of the abdomen lead-color, the skin being transparent. 



■i-own tive-eiu-hths of an inch in length, preserving 
olors. 
It is quite possible that a few of the eggs escaped : 



hatching of these requ 
days. It must be ren 



Regarding its ravage- in straw 'berry beds, I cannot do better 
than quote from Dr. Lockwood's excellent account in the Amebi- 

farm of a celebrated strawberry "towit in Monmouth county. >'. 

ent, 'the worm.' The plants va it- 
dead on the surface and easily pulled up, the roots being eaten off 
below. It was observable that the lields which presented the 

as Wilson's Albany Seedling. Besides this there were nine other 
varieties under culture, — Barnes' Mammoth. Schenck's ExccUor, 
the Agriculturist, Triomphe de Gaud, Cutter's Seedling, the Ju- 
cunda, Pine-apple. Early Scarlet ami Urooklyn Scarlet. While 
the Wilson stood second to none of these as a prolific fruit-bearer, 
yet it fell behind them in vigorous plant-growth. Hence, while 
every kind was more or less affected, the other varieties seemed 
. saved by their own growth and enemy from a destruction so thor- 
ough as was that of the Wilson. These patches were all planted 
in the spring, and all received the same treatment, the ground 
being kept open and free from weeds. The amount of the spring- 
planting was seven and a half acres. Of the Wilsons there were 
three different patches in places quite separated from each other. 
and on not less than five different kinds of soil. These patches 
were among and contiguous to those of the other varieties. While 
all suffered more or less, the chief injury befell the Wilsons, of 

larva of the goldsmith beetle, now engaged in the first one of 
its allotted three-summer campaigns of mischief. These grubs 



, ere the wa 
scratching 






done by child 



their ultimate size ; hence thei 
tie. Besides, what a prospect of 

a moderate -.hare of them reach 



dantly in this state. Though this report refers chiefly 
yet in the future, as civilization advances and the counl 
more thickly settled, gardeners are undoubtedly des 
plagued by these little animals, and a slight notice ol 
not be out of place, as the ravages they commit ma 
times wrongly attributed to insects. 

It seems that Mr. and Mrs. Chappelsmith of New 
Indiana, "found their strawberry plants dying rapid 
seeking for the cause discovered these mollusks at wor 
stems and crowns of the plants, rasping off the outer c 



of plants. Since attention has been called to the 
these minute mollusks, they have been found at 

strawberry plants in all the gardens examined.*' 

to be obnoxious. Yet it is not probable that sna 



so abundant with us as in Europe, as our climate is much dri 
and hotter, snails needing a damp, rainy climate in order 
gorously. 



The Bean-iveevil — In our article entitled • 


'Injurious Insects 


New or Little Known," published in the Repo 


rt of the Board of 


Agriculture for 1870, we described and figure 


d the bean-weevil, 


which was then regarded as an imported spec 




Bruchus gmnarius, and some account was gi 


ven of its habits. 


Afterwards in a short note published in our Fii 




(p. 22), we stated that it was not an import* 


ition, but a native 


species which for some years lias been known 


to be j the 


bean in ^ew Tork and the Middle States. 


It was mentioned 


under the unpublished or manuscript name of . 


Bruchu* varicornis 


(Leconte). The same year Mr. Riley described 


I it in his report on 


the injurious insects of Missouri under the mum 


l of Bruchus fabo>, 


and states that it appeared about ten years ag< 


,) (1862) in Rhode 


Island, according to Mr. F. G. Sanborn, and is 


now known to ap- 


pear in Illinois and Missouri. 




How extremely injurious this weevil has bee 


n, and still threat- 


ens to be, appears from both Mr. Riley's and 


my reports. We 


are sorry to ai is said to be 


! very abundant in 


seed-stores in Boston, and unless checked in its 


I course, a compar- 


atively easy thing to do at this time, it will 


rapidly spread all 


over the state, and do incalculable injury to the 


bean crop. 


I am indebted to Mr. C. A. Putnam, of Sa 


lem, for numerous 


living specimens of this weevil, with the beans 


; from which they 


were emergino-, obtained by him at a seed-store 


in Boston in Feb- 


ruary. We have figured, in our report for 187 


0, the bean perfo- 


rated by the -rubs. It is easy to tell by the litt 


ie round dark spot 


on the outside of the bean, i. e., the thin coverii 


ig over the hole in 



affected should at once lie barm 

they are a year old, the insects 
keeping the seed for two vears 




plants, it may throw much light on the physical geog 
meteorology of our state. The cicada also often does much 

l[ t}^ry tu fruit-trees. e>neciallv in the West, and it is thus, aside 






arks that we have to make arc simply supplement:! 
• reader may Hud in Dr. Hants' admirable account 
ise." He brings out the important fact that these i 
lid, in the larval state, to do much injury to apple ai 
)y drawing the sap from the roots, so that the tree m£ 



1 substantiated by farther obser 



had been stung by the so-called seventeen-year locust 


, I take the 


liberty of sending you twigs from eleven different varie 


ties of trees 


in which the females have deposited their eggs. I do t 


his to show 


that the insect seems indifferent to the kind of wood i 


nade use of 


as a depository of her eggs. These were gathered J 


bily 1st, in 


about an hour's time, on the south hills of the ' Gr 


eat Chester 


Valley,' Chester county, Pa. No doubt the number o 


f trees and 


bushes might be much increased. The female, in dej 


^siting lier 


eggs, seems to prefer well-matured wood, rejecting t 


he growing 


branch of this year, and using the last year's wood anc 


1 fre-iuently 


that of the year before, as some of the twigs enclosei 


1 will show. 


An orchard which I visited was so badly ' stung ' tha 


t the apple 


trees will be seriously injured, and the peach trees will 


hardly sur- 


vive their treatment. Instinct did not seem to caution 


the animal 


against using imp as I found many ' 


cherry trees 


had been used by them, the gum exuding from the won 


nds, in that 



" The males have begun to die, and are found in numbers under 
the trees ; the females are yet busy with their peculiar office. The 
length of wood perforated on each brancli varied from one to two 



any one has succeeded in that way. who lias kept them 
eat length of time. In the brood of 1868, the first cl- 
eared here in a body, on the evening of the second day 

The first pair incoihii I observed on the 21st, and the 
e depositing on the 2Gth of the same month. The first 
■e excluded on the 5th of August. All these dates are 
t nan corresponding observations made by my- 
.tl'iers in former years. On the loth of July I cut off 
e. pear and chestnut twin's containing cirgs, and stuck 
uto a bottle containing water, and set it in abroad, slial- 

from any cause had fallen to the ground, and tiiis was 
i>o with Mr. Vincent Bernard, of Kennet Square. Ches- 






, fresh branches 






r half a dozen observers in this county, as 

r that they require the moisture contained in 
■ve their vitality. When the proper time ar- 
•..nditionsare preserved, they are easily bred, 



340 



Mr. Riley. n: nt of tliis cicada in his -\ 

Annual Report on Noxious, Beneficial, and other Insects of 
souri"for 1869, has shown thai in the southern states thin 
year broods of this insect are found. He remarks : " It wai 
good fortune to observe that besides the seventeen-year brc 
the appearance of one of which was recorded as long ago as 1 
there are also thirteen-year broods, and that, though both s 
times occur in the same states, yet in general terms, the seveni 
year broods may be said to belong to the northern and the 










thirtv-eia'ht de- 
gi^, though in 



V 



had been observed, they should have returned in 1803." 

Mr. B. M. Watson informs rue from his personal observation, 



that it also appeared 



In Fall Ki\ 
appears at c 



locust (Cicaxla septeudecim) ar 
{C. pritinosa). Fig. 142. copied 
port gives a good idea of this spe( 




the preceding. 

in the vicinity 
cession, with o 
the first time i 



the external open inn - : tlier 



wards, the Low 

touching each o 



bright reel markings on the head and the 
in Brunswick, Maine, I have noticed that 
10th of June, and in this state it probi 



The Brachys Leaf-r 



only half the len 


gth of the leaf, but often it extends 


r around the end 


. of the midrib, half way down the 


of the leaf. The 


track of its burrow is irregularly sin- 


uous. At the en 


cl of this gallery or burrow it forms a 


round chamber j 


ust as wide as the body is long, disk- 


shaped, the walls 


being convex, the cell looking like a 


smooth, regular 1 


dister. 



Tfip Spotted-necked Zeo^ovV?.— This beetle is allied to Trogo- 

though the grub is still more intimately related to the European 
XeriwttonitA elu»<iat»m. which is found under the bark of elms in 
l)urrows inhabited by Ilylesimis. a wood-horing beetle. Having 
received the Languria in all its stages of growth, from Mr. Bel- 
frage of Texas, though the insect occurs in the middle states, it 
is thought that a description of it will not be out of place in a 
report on economic entomology, as some members of the group to 
which it belongs are known to be destructive. The adult beetle 
was first described by Say (under the name of Languria p>n>et>- 
r,,I!is) from Ohio. It is pale reddish, with the fore legs, wing- 
: i nd of the body black, with a lar^e distinct black spot 
in the middle of the neck (prothorax). It is said by Mr. Say to 
■ - . 



TJie Aphis-eating Lady-beetle. — Among the insects which do 
incalculable benefit to agriculture, are several kinds which prey 
almost exclusively upon the Aphis or plant-louse. The Syrphus 
flies in the maggot state devour great quantities, and so do the 
larvae of the lace-winged fly (Chrysopa). Scarcely less valuable 
w«. i5i. aids to the gardener are the young of the "Lady- 

bird " beetle (Coccinella). During the past 
summer we have traced the transformations of a 
species (Psyllobora 20-maculata Say) which lived 
in all its stages on the leaves of the horse-chestnut 
i during the month of August. As no aphides 
:re seen on the leaves, I am inclined to think 
it in this instance the food of the young lady- 
•d was certain freshly hatched Psoci (Coeci- 
s), aphis-like neuropterous insects which were 
aning about over the leaves, masses of their 
' eggs being attached to the leaves, and as usual 
covered with a thin web. Indeed some Coccinellae feed on the 
eggs and young of their own kind. This lady-bird is a very small 
beetle, a tenth of an inch long ; pal eluding the 

legs and antennae. There are four black spots on the prothorax, 
and nine on each wing-cover, two on each wing cover usually 
running together, thus making twenty distinct spots in all. 





The Aphis-eot/ag Mil,. — Quite an unsuspected enemy of the 
aphis is a little garden-mite, which I found in July and August 
last in considerable numbers in Fig. 152. 

my garden, busily engaged in de- 
vouring the plant-lice on the rose- 
bushes. 

We know but little of the 
numerous kinds of mites which 
abound in this country, and but 
few species are known to prey on 
other insects. The present species 
is allied to the red garden-mite 
{Trombidium), which is often seen 
running over flower beds. It is 
the six-legged young of these mites 
which, under the name of harvest- 
mites, are so irritating and annoy- 
ing when they get upon our bodies, 
as they work their way in under 
the skin. Their natural hosts are 
various insects, such as grasshop- 
pers, etc., as we often perceive 
them with their heads stuck in 
between the joints of the latter. They ar< 
color, and in former times have been used 




i all vermilion-red 



in the proportions and form of the legs and moutl 
generic with the European Trombidium papillosum 
which is said to live on the trunks of trees and in n 



THE RELATION BETWEEN THE COLOR AND THE 
GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION OF BIRDS. 



The July number of the N'.vn i;ai i-r contains ■■■ .-ritieism of my 
paper on the relation between color and geographical distribution 
of birds* which is doubtless by this time familiar to the readers 
of this journal. The tone of this criticism renders it necessary 
for me to reply to it : but in doing so 1 shall endeavor to use as 
little space as possible, and limit my defence to the statement of 
a few simple truths, which I hope will answer the purpose as well 
as a lengthy discussion. 

The specific charges made against me are two in number : (1) I 
am accused of "appropriating Mr. Aden's work without acknowl- 
edgment " to the latter author ; and (2) of dishonestly claiming 
originality in the conception of certain laws and of cases illustra- 
ting them. These charges are preferred severally in the following 
words: — "he writes as if his views were both novel and original. 
which is not the case. To speak plainly, the paper is based en- 
tirely upon Mr. Allen's views, without the slightest allusion to 
ami is illustrated chielly by case- already published, 
yet without proper references." 

As regards Mr. Allen's work, I am not only willing, but 
desirous, that he should receive all the credit due him for his 
well accom; :<ting the laws of climatic color- 



irds. 549 

variation. and in- ■•graphical distribution. This gentleman's writ- 
ing place him in the foremost rank of the philosophical ornithol- 
ogists of the present clay ; their high merit and great importance 
being recognized by all to whom they are familiar. I have t he- 
highest respect for Mr. Allen's work-: they show careful study. 
_iit . persevering -c:nvh for facts, mid thorough, analytical 
mode of treatment. About their only 7 fault consists in the two 
frequent evidence of conclusions "jumped at," or based upon in- 
sufficient evidence. 

But as justly as Mr. Allen deserve- his high position among the 
most thorough and advanced ornithologists of the day, we must 

written upon the subject of climatic color-variation and geograph- 



y's : and thus opened the way to late 
preceded by Dr. Gloger who antici] 



ither, is influenced not only by the mean temperature ■ : t 
ir, but also by that of si; boot the time 

i most rapid growth or molt) <><"' h;i f'"- r<hit,re time urnl </»n 
' <>/ i],, fnUlnn suoiv a,»l ;W» " (p. 1<>. See pp. W-lll 



of i red lisl i i , ,, i-. or \ lit-'! rown -p T - i i \ 1 i. b- 
ablybeowinu- to the aiMiend o < ^Utution 

of the year in question" (p. 98). 

In 1866, before the appearance of any of Mr. Allen's writings. 
Professor Baird published a paper entitled " The Distribution and 
Migrations of North American Birds,"t Sn which much was said 
regarding climat'n variations in color and proportions. The gen- 
eralizations advanced in this paper are the following : 



1. Latitudinal u„rl cdtitndinal variation in size of resident spe- 
cies ; northern bred individuals, and those born at high eleva- 
tion, being larger than those born farther south or in the low 

2. Absolute increase of the size of the bill, even with diminu- 
tion in general btdk, in Florida birds, as compared with individ- 
uals of the same species born north of that peninsula : the same 
rule applying, to a less extent, to birds from Cape St. Lucas. 

3. Longer tails of western birds than of eastern examples of the 
same species. 

4. Darker color of birds from the Pacific coast than of specimens 
of the same species from the interior, "the latter frequently exhib- 
iting a I .leached or weatherbeaten appearance, possibly the result 
of greater exposure to the elements, and less protection by dense 
forests." 

Here then are three laws of climatic or regional variation in 
size and proportions, and two of color, in which Mr. Allen is 
anticipated by Professor Baird. But without going farther into 
the literature of the subject, I will proceed at once to discuss Mr. 
Allen's celebrated work published in 1871,* in order to show 
wherein he has anticipated me in the announcement of generaliza- 
tions, in cases illustrating them, or in reducing specific names to 
the rank of race, or "variety," names. On p. 235, the law of in- 
creased intensity of color to the southward is announced, this not 
having been especially noted by previous writers (though Gloger 
says something indefinite in relation to it in his work above cited). 
This law, then, originates with Mr. Allen. The cases which he 
cites in illustration are the following : Quiscalus purpureus, Age- 
Iain* phonirrnx, <) r t>jr 17 n j< ;,ni n ns, St .# rm lla •• Lndoriciana" (= 
magna), Galeoscoptes Carolinensis, Ilorporhynehitii r it fits, Centum* 
Carolina*, Ptcus pubescens, P. Gairdneri. Colaptes oxrahis, Thn/o- 
thonts Lndovidamis, Troglodytes (•■don. Gcothh/pis trichas, Pipilo 
er>ith roptlndu, „s. But,-o lineatns and Buc-phala Americana^!). The 
idea of "the so-called Bw-jJado Ishindiea being the larger northern 
type of B. Ana-rim n<<. in which the white markings on the head 
and wings occupy a somewhat larger area."' is entirely erro- 
neous, as every one acquainted with these very different species 



will admit. The other cases cited show only slight (sonietim. 
inappreciable) manifestations of this law within the territory of tl 
United States. Thus none of my cases were "already published 
and, besides, all were in a new geographical field. 

The laws of variation with longitude, which Mr. Allen lai 
down, are the following : 

1. Brighter colors of the birds from the interior, than of tho, 
from the Atlantic States; with a tendency to more ferruginoi 
tints in some species and to melanism in others. 

2. Brighter or darker colors of the birds from the Pacific coa 
(especially north of the iOth parallel) than of those from the hit 



By referring to this paper, it will be seen that all the above 
laws are substantially the same as in the generalizations made by 
Professor l.aird in 1866, so that they were at the time of the 
publication already " the common property of ornithologists ;" 
while the proposition that red areas "spread," or enlarge their 
field in proportion as we trace certain species toward the Pacific 
coast, and that in the same proportion yellow often intensifies in 
tint, is a law of which Mr. Allen makes no mention, and which 
is, BO far as he is concerned, original with me ; at the same time 
I claim originality for the cases illustrating both this and the 
foregoing laws, though I have never thought before of claiming 
either the generalizations or the examples as discoveries of my 



far as Mr. Allen 
n which I reduced previously rec- 
ognized "species" to the rank of geographical races, or "vari- 
eties," "the implication being, that such nomenclature, and the 
views sustaining it, are novel." Dr. Cones professes to have antici- 
pated me in several of these cases by using the same nomen- 
clature in his "Key," and other previous works. How far he is 
justified in this it is my purpose to show. 

The case of Chrysomitris, Dr. Coues claims to have "first worked 
out, in 1866 (Proc. Phila. Acad., 81), exactly as it is here pre- 
sented, although ('. ps„!tri<i was not there formally brought into 
this connection, as it has since been by us (Key, Oct., 1872, 132, 
133)." How much Dr. Coues is entitled to make this assertion 



Dr. Coues' reasons for keeping ^sulfrin :ip:irt from Mexicanu. 
s varieties nrc explained by his own words, which wo tjuote 
. 83 of the first paper cited : — .... "the typical psaltria 
ery diverse from mexicanus proper, and the doubtful i 
meaning var. Arizo »".-) '•incline so very decidedly toward 
itter, that, in the impossibility of uniting />■■<■ t/tria. with m< 
inus" (!!!) "we must consider them" (the doubtful specinn 
-var. Arizona) " as varieties of the latter, unless, indeed, tl 
3 hybrids between the two." Thus it is very plain that C. ps 
hi was not then formally brought into the connection in wh 
placed it. My arrangement of these forms was as follow- : 



Cones does not even note the progressive increase of black ft 
psaltria to Columbiana — much less does he appear to consider 

this case — but merely gives the comparative characters of 
several races, and remarks incidentally, that there is a grnd 
transition between the two extremes ( C<>hi,„h>ana and Arizona 
psaltria being positively separated from the series, as a disti 

into the connection" of a race along with mexicanus in the "Ke 
Dr. Coues may, perhaps, remember the occasion upon whicl 

explained the case to him. illustrated it bv a series of specime 
and discuss,,! the matter with him without hesitation. 

In the treatment of the races of Myiarchus Lau-rencii, I c 
tainly cannot be justly charged with •• scientific plagiarism." si) 



itiivly dit IV it nt light from Dr. Coues, 



Each of the three races which I recognize is character 
perfectly tangible distinctive features: var. ni(/rinij»'!his 
marked by conspicuous characters which distinguish it fro 
the others, notwithstanding that Dr. Coues ••cannot make . 
it is even a recognizable variety." The simple fact that 
series I recoirnize but one species, with three geographica 
and apply scientific principles in showing the gradual tn 
from one extreme to the other, and at the same time show 
rect relation between this progression and a certain dim: 
of color- varial . lizes, in effect, t 

out any varieties, and does not discuss any law 
at all, shows how unjust me his pretensions to have anticipated 
me in this case. These pretensions may, perhaps, be considered 
the more unjust from the fact that the material upon which Dr. 
Coues based his monograph of this genus had been previously 
overhauled by me, thus giving him the benefit of my unpuMi-hed 
!is. which were in many cases indicated upon the labels 
—though it is but due Dr. Coues to say that he acknowledged in 
one case the source of his information (see p. 67, Proc. Acad. Nat. 
Sci., July, 1872). 

I do not claim originality for calling Picus Harrisii, "riUosus 
var. Harris;;: 1 but merely — as anyone can see — cite it as an 
instance illustrating increased melanism toward the Pacific coast. 
For calling SpJn f rnpicus ruber, "varius var. ruber," however. I do 
claim originality, notwithstanding the fact that this way of " put- 
ting it 7 ' was first done in the •■Key." I well remember, though per- 
haps Dr. Coues may not, the occasion upon which I unhesitatingly 
told him of my discovery, and satisfied him of its merit by laying 
out a series of specimens to illustrate my theory. At that time he 
certainly had not thought of combining S. ruber with S. mrixs, 
as a geographical race, along with S. nuchalis, but the length of 
time elapsing before the publication of the "Key" (perhaps a 



554 color 

year) no doubt justifies his lack of recollection as to bow he got 
the idea. 

The statement in regard to Cardinalis is erroneous in several 
respects : first, I did not make " a new Mexican variety, carnens, 
of CurilinftJi.-i i't'rtjirtknuix." but gave the synonymy of that pre- 
viously named race, citing Lesson first, and Bonaparte's Con- 
spectus next, as authorities for the name, which I merely reduced 
to the rank of a race. The new race which I characterized was 
coccineus Ridgway, from eastern Mexico, while carneus Lesson 
was from the western coast. In reducing C. igneus of Baird to a 
variety, I did not follow "a previous writer" (Key, p. 151 cited) 
since, as explained further on, I had not seen the "Key" until afto 
the printing of my paper. 

In the case of the western forms of Cyanura I am perfectly wil- 
ling to renounce all claims to originality, for if my method of 
treating them contributes to the better understanding of the rela- 
tion which they bear to each other, my aim is accomplished. 

So far as Dr. Coues' "Key" is concerned in the matter of no- 
menclature, it must in this instance be ignored, as the following 
facts justify : Though the "Key" was published in October (1872) 
and my papers not until December and January following, yet I 
never saw the pages of that work until after the issuing of my 
papers, which were written and forwarded to the publishers the 
preceding July or August, at which time I had not seen the "Key" 
at all. Even had I seen and been perfectly familiar with its pages, 
I could still claim with perfect right, for reasons stated farther on, 
originality for the nomenclature which I used. 

And now, having justified myself in regard to the relation whicb 
my paper held to previous publications in specific points, let me 
say a few words in its defence on general principles. From the 
time when its preparation wa> iir-! discussed in my mind to the 
time of its publication, the question never once occurred to me 
whether the laws which I endeavored to explain were my own dis- 
coveries, or whether their discovery was the property of others. 
I took it for granted, that the subject and its general principles 
were so familiar that a preliminary review of its literature would 
be a superfluous addition to a paper already overburdened with 
references — of which, very singularly, my reviewer complains of 
a meagreness. My only view was to begin at once with these 
laws, state as precisely and briefly as possible what their prin- 




REVIEWS AND BOOK NOTICES. 555 

ciples were, and illustrate thorn. t mrohj in the i„in-c*t of science, by- 
novel cases and, when possible, by the cumulative evidence of 
familiar cases. If I have succeeded in contributing a few unfa- 
miliar facts to the store of science (and the hope that I have is 
encouraged by the fact that my reviewer has had the courtesy to 
approve of the treatment of some cases, and to acknowledge the 
merit of an occasional novelty) I am much gratified : and consider 
myself well paid for my labors. To be charged with literary theft 
must be unpleasant even when it is merited ; but to be falsely 
branded with "scientific plagiarism," without any provocation, is 
an accusation which cannot be borne i 
charge bears with it so much arroga 
against it is not sufficient; 
selfish and uncourteous did J 
attention which I have received. I therefore deem it my duty to 
state here, that the several examples alluded to above are but a 
fraction of the number of cases in which I have suffered from my 
indiscretion of being too trustingly communicative, and from Dr. 
Coues having taken advantage of earlier means of publication. 

Should my reviewer realize the truth of his preliminary remark, 
that "the critic's office is not seldom ungracious," I am sure that 
I feel very sorry that he made up his mind not to " shirk the re- 
sponsibility " in which the tone, more than the matter, of his criti- 
( i-w involved him. 



REVIEWS AND BOOK NOTICES. 

Antiquities of the Southern Indians.* — The autho 
the hope that the pages of this volume will, "at least, i 
gree, minister to the information and pleasure of tho* 
not incurious with regard to the subject of 
ol °gy ;" and we think in this he will not be disappointed. There 
certainly is a larixe amount of valuable information in the twenty- 

The several works that have now long been the text books of 



North American archaeology have all drawn a broad distinction 
between the so-called mound-builder and the Indian: although 
in the elaborate monograph of Messrs. Squier and Davis, there is 
much that belongs either in common to the two races, or the 
various relics of both have been mixed up. Even as far east as 
New Jersey, the various forms of relics found in the mounds have 
been discovered except one class of pottery, and possibly the 

That the two peoples were not the same— that the present red- 
man was not the descendant of the mound-builder, has been and is 
the general opinion, and yet it is difficult, in very many cases, to 
say of many "finds," this is mound-builder and this Indian. So 
the precise relation the two peoples bore to each other is as desi- 
rable a problem to solve as to trace out the exact origin of either. 
It was this latter thought especially that has been suggested by 
every few pages of the volume before us. 

The first nine chapters, giving admirable descriptions of the 
various mounds in Georgia, recall the many mounds examined by 
Messrs. Squier and Davis, throughout the Mississippi valley : 
and we are carried back to the remote time of the occupancy of 
the country by this mysterious people. Mr. Jones, with his de- 
scriptions of the mounds, adds a most admirable account of the 
manners and customs (as they were) of the Indians, but we ask. 
Did they build these mounds? The author says, in this con- 
nection— "In the light of the Spanish narratives, aftei » careful 
consideration of the relics themselves, and in view of all the facts 
which have thus far been disclosed * * * * we see no good rea- 
son for supposing that these more prominent tumuli and enclo- 
sures may not have been constructed in the olden time by peoples 
akin to and in the main by no means farther advanced in semi- 
civilization than the red-men native at the dawn of the historic 
period. In a word we do not concur in the opinion, so often ex- 
pressed, that the mound-builders were a race distinct from and 
superior in art, government and religion, to the southern Indians 
of the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries." This is something new 
in the later speculations concerning the American aborigines, 
scarcely borne out we think by a careful survey of the antiquities 
of the whole country. Indeed Mr. Jones himself shows that 
mound-building races preceded the Indian, and such passages as 
the following frequently occur,— "The Creeks did not claim that 



these tumuli wore erected by thorn. Tiny declared that they 
were here when their ancestors first possessed themselves of the 
region." Now it' these mounds were deserted by their builders 
previous to the occupancy of the country by the Creeks or other 
Indians, it would seem probable that they were a different people. 
Had they been driven away by the Indian, then the latter would 
have a traditional recollection of that event. It is not possible to 

and the Indian ; and if the latter were a degenerate offspring of 
the former, would not some trace of a tradition still remain with 
them of their ancestors' superiority in art, government and re- 
hgion? 
As the contained relics of themselves go but little way towards 
_ mound history, may not these ( Georgia mounds have 
been built by Indians? by some race preceding those that last 
occupied that territory? for the red-man is certainly given to 
roving. Like relics do not prove like races, and do like mounds ? 
On this very point, Mr. Squier has expressed an opinion concern- 

of these mounds, that "the resemblances which they bear to the 
defensive structure- of other rude nations, in various parts of the 
world, are the results of natural causes, and cannot be taken to 
indicate either a close or remote connection or dependence. All 
primitive defences, being designed to resist common modes of 
attack, are essentially the same in their principles, and seldom 
differ very much in their details. The aboriginal hunter and the 
s emi-ci\ilized Aztec selected precisely similar positions for their 
fortresses, and defended them upon the same general plan; yet it 
would In pa pabU unsafe to fo md c >m 1 isions as to the relation of 
the respective builders, upon the narrow basis of these resem- 
blances alone." These remarks are applicable here, because we do 
not /et kno\i ivhat relation thest ( b >rgi a mounds h< ir to the uu- 
''l'lestioiiably archaic structures of the Ohio and Mississippi valleys. 
^"e still believe that the mound-builders were a different people from 
r i"' Indians, and had the relics of each been separated and treated 
of by themselves, we think more light would have been thrown 
upon American archeology by the first half of Mr. Jones' work. 
Chapters x to xxii. inclusive, arc devoted to the enumeration and 



Jersey, very numerous on the si ttered in 

fewer numbers wherever game had itecn followed by the dusky 
hunters. These relics as a rule differ in no way from such traces 
of the aborigines found in the middle and northern states. Mr. 
Junes claims, however, that a greater degree of skill is exhibited 
in the workmanship, especially of their arrowpoints, by the 
southern Indians ; and we have no doubt but that such was the 
case to a certain extent : that is, that there is obtained in Georgia 
a larger percentage of jasper and quartz arrowpoints, which are 
always mure delicately chipped than those formed from softer min- 
erals. We must, however, call attention to the fact that the fifty- 
three illustrations given do not indicate extraordinary skill, nor 
have we a drawing of "almost every known form," which the au- 
thor says "finds here (in Georgia) its type." The most intevsting 
specimens of stone implements figured by Mr. Jones are the 
sword, pi. xii, fig. 4, the dagger, fig. 3 of same plate, and the axe 

we have never met with any relic resembling them ; although we 
have frequently heard of an axe. with a handle of stone, but 
have always failed to find its present whereabouts. The sim- 
ilarity of our American stone implements to those found in 
Europe makes the dagger peculiarly int< n sting, as it n n U rs tl at 
form common to the two countries. 

In describing the pipes, idols and pottery of Georgia, we think 
the author has pretty thoroughly confounded Indian and mound- 
builders' relics. The idols, •■animals." pipes and some of the 
vases, we should consider as belonging to the latter people; 
while the plainer pipes and fragment- of potter\ figured are such 
- >le country. 

While students of American archaeology owe much to Mr. 
Jones for the vast amount of information he has made acceaaiW* 
to them, by the publication of his interesting work, we think it 
is to be regretted that the great distinction between mound- 
builders and Indians has not been admitted by him, for having 
had an opportunity in Georgia of carefully studying the many 
traces of each race, the distinction between them, carried out in 
one volume, would have long been a most valuable guide to those 
who, in other portions of the Union, may wrest from destruction 
and preserve to science the rapidly disappearing relics of the 
ancient peoples of America. — C. C. A. 



REVIEWS AND BOOK NOTICES. 559 

The Childhood of the World.*— This tastefully printed little 
book will not, we think, disappoint those who take it up, pro- 
vided they expect no more than what the author states in the 
preface to be its scope and aim, which are "to narrate, in as 
simple language as the subject will permit, the story of man's 
progress from the unknown time of his early appearance upon the 
earth to the period from which writers of history ordinarih hegin." 

"As the Table of Contents indicates, the First Part of this book 
describes the progress of man in material things, while the Second 
Part seeks to explain his mode of advance from lower to higher 
stages of religious belief." 

The first part, which is the shorter of the two, is too brief, and 
scarcely sets forth the claims of prehistoric archaeology to the 
rank of a science ; although the author very properly states the 
main fact of that science, more than once, i.e., the very great 
antiquity of man. We think that he is too brief, in this first part, 
because it is possible he may not have said enough to excite the 
young reader's attention and curiosity, and so cause him to look 
further into the subject of archaeology, which offers so wide a field 
for research. 

Mr. Clodd believes that man was created de novo, and not devel- 
oped, and starting with that assertion, notices in detail, " Man's 
first wants," his tools; then fire, cooking, pottery, the use of 
metals, and then touches upon language, writing, counting, and 
man's wanderings about the globe ; holding throughout, appar- 
ently, that all men have sprung from a common origin, which we 
think by no means demonstrated. At any rate, climate, to 
which he refers on page 47, and "the land they dwell in," will not 

■everal distinct types of mankind. Nor can we admit as true, 
the statement that America was peopled by tribes who "leapt 
across the narrow straits between Asia and America ami wandered 
over that vast New World." This " leaping across narrow .-traits " 
does not appear to us to accord with the traces of archaic man 
already discovered in this country, as "the contemporaneity of 
man in America with the mammoth and mastodon may be regarded 
as being satisu, :... |\ ,M;d.!i-hcd " and when we go back so far 



blocked up every portion of the way? In the second part, the 
researches of Max Miiller, Tylor and others as to myths and wor- 
ship in its various forms, are very clearly outlined, and, we doubt 
not. will lie read with pleasure by all who purchase this little vol- 
ume. We hope, with the author, that the subjects treated of may 
rouse a curiosity which will lead to the careful study of the works 
of Tylor, Lubbock, Nilsson, Waitz and other ethnologists, from 
which Mr. Clodd has so laryelv drawn in his brief account of Man- 
in Early Times.— C. C. A. 

mous Plants of Canada and the Northeastern Portion of 
the United States.* — This is somewhat on the plan of the 
British exchange Catalogue which was in use twenty years ago. 
It is printed in eight pages of large quarto size, each of six 
columns. The portion of the United States included is co-exten- 

of states on the western side of the Mississippi ; namely. Missouri. 
Iowa and Minnesota. 

each species, i. e., its occurrence in either or all of three districts, 

with much pains, and is admirably adapted for its purpose : that of 
facilitating exchanges among botanists. Mr. Curtiss, as one of our 
most active botanists, has doubtless felt the need of what he has 



A new life is pervading this society, perhaps due to the removal 
of Mr. Grote, the well known lepidopterist, from the south to Buf- 
falo. The first number of its Ihiliciin contains the four following 






loths," » Catalogue of the Sphingu 
ague of the Zygamidae of North A 

rum a .study of the Genera Uypena 



BOTANY. 
on or Grasses— Prof. Hildebrand, a German 

plants, has recently made an important series 
the fertilization of grasses, and especially of 
o! f( rtiliz ti< 1 in all gi iss, s. v i pt those f< \\ 
s never open, is the wind, insects apparently 
:. With this object the pollen grains are very 
that they are at once dispersed by a breath 



time, and 
In the n 



pollen from one flower must almost necessari 
of another flower. In the wheat each separate flower remains 
open only for an extremely short time, the glumes separate from 
one another suddenly, th 1 tl t inol tely protruding, and a 
large quantity of the pollen is dispersed into the air, the whole 
process not occupying more than half a minute. In most of these 
cases the stigma remains receptive only for a very short period and 
then dies, while in others the stigma remains in a receptive condi- 
tion till long after the anther-, have dropped oil", and then must nec- 
essarily be open to the access of foreign pollen. In compa rath eh 
few cases the natural contrivances appear to favor self- rather than 
cross-fertilization. Thus in the oat and barley the majority of 
the flowers never open, and are, therefore, necessarily self-fertil- 
ized ; there appear, however, in almost all cases to be a small 
number of flowers, often arranged in one or two scparat< rows, 
which do open, and therefore may introduce occasional cross-fertil- 
ization. It is probable that the same species behaves differently 
n to its arrangements foi fertih/.atioii under ■ liferent 
circumstances of climate, while species very nearly related exhibit 
phenomena which offer a marked contrast. — A. W. B. 

Structure and Propagation of Lichens. — The theory of 
Sch\w tidriier that L'aien-an uot -rp.irah < r'_ani-m- but are com- 
posed of Fungi, parasitic on Algae (the so-called gonidia) , has not, 
up to the present time, found much favor with cryptogenic bota- 
nists, Sachs being almost the only physiologist of repute who 
has as yet adopted it. The theory has, however, recently met 
with some countenance from the researches of Woronon on the 
lichens Parmelia pulceruh ■■;,t,i and parietiua. He confirms the pre- 
vious statements of Famhu/hi and Baranetzky that the -oniuui 
of these lichens produce zoospores which he describes as bi-cili- 
ated ; and he gives an exact account of their mode of escape from 
the gonidia. These zoospores, after the cessation of their vibratile 
motion, caused by the cilia, become covered by a membrane after 
the ordinary mode of the zoospores of Algae, and form themselves 
into gonidiform bodies, increasing by division, but producing 
neither filaments nor hyplme, but only giving birth to new gonidia, 
in other words, to youna iudi\ lual- of a unicelluhu alg oi tht 
genus Cystococcus. The observation of the actual germination 
of the zoospores is a link in the chain, hitherto wanting.- 



. W. B. 



Cleistogenous Flowers in Viola striata. — When wv take 
Gray's Manual, and find no mention of a striking fact, we con- 
clude that what is not known to so excellent a botanist must be 
new. Yet to me the production of cleistogenous towers hy Viola 
striata is so old a fact that only its omission from the manual 
leads me now to refer to it.* 

The Manual confines the production of these tlowers to the aeau- 
lescent species which it says "produce apetalous tlowers from 
underground stolona during summer." V. striata belong* to the 
leafy-stemmed section, and produces an abundance of these tlow- 
ers from midsummer till frost. In early spring the petaloid 
flowers come out from the axils of the four lowest nodes ; six or 
eight nodes are then formed, in which the axillary bud is devel- 
oped into a branchlet instead of a flower, and all the succeeding 
nodes bear leaves with apetalous flowers from the axils, which 
produce seed very profusely. 

Physiologically speaking there is nothing remarkable in this. 
As suggested in my remarks on Fragaria "GUrnard" some years 
ago. a stolon or runner is but an upright caulis which has lost the 
power of creel ion. and characters common to one easily appear 
in the other with little or no modification.— Thomas Meehan. 

Sphagnum and Hypnum Peat.— The opinion seems to have 
been somewhat prevalent that peat does not accumulate abun- 
dantly in limestone regions, but this is not true of large portions 
of some of the northern interior states. For example, all the peat 
of Iowa is in an eminently limestone region and the water taken 
out of any of the marshes shows a strong reaction for lime by 
proper chemical tests. 

From my own observations I be 3 peat does 

Uo! accumulate in limestone regions, but that the peat mosses of 
such regions all belong to the genus Hypnum. I have found no 
other moss entering into the composition of Iowa peat. 

Another fact observed in this connection has doubtless much 
significance, namely; the Ericaceae are almost entirely wanting in 
Iowa, and no plants of that order have yet been observed by 
myself i n or auou t these Hypnum marshes. The principal plant 
assisting the Hypnum in the production of peat is a kind of grass. 
Should one go north from Iowa or Illinois into the metamorphic 



regions of Minnesota and Wisconsin. I think he would see the 
Hypnum gradually give place to Sphagnum in the marshes, and 
the marsh Ericacea' appear with the last named moss. 

In short, lime seems to be an uncongenial element in the habi- 
tat of both Sphagnum and most if not all ericaceous plants, but 
is not uncongenial to Hypnum and grass. Therefore the abun- 
dant presence of lime will not necessarily prevent the accumula- 
tion of peat.— C. A. White. 



Centronyx " ochrocephaltjs" Aiken.— This nominal species, 
described by Mr. Aiken in a recent number of the Xatiiialist.* is 
neither entitled to specific rank, nor even to a name as a well 
marked variety or race. This deduction I have adopted after a 
careful examination of the two specimens of it collected — one, the 
type, in the museum of (lie Smithsonian Institution, the other in 
the collection of Mr. R. Ilidgway — and their comparison witli 
Audubon's type of C. Bairdii. The color differs in the two 
types very appreciably, indeed as much and even more, than in 
many well established and closely allied species; but while the 
itinctnesa of these is sustained by large series of speci- 
mens in which there is scarcely any gradation, or a too close ap- 
proximation in coloration, the validity of the C. "orhron }J«j!»s" 
is entirely overthrown by the second specimen obtained, which 18 
exactly intermediate in color, as it is in season of collection, be- 
tween the first and the single specimen of C. Bairdii. The emar- 
ginate tail of Aiken's sparrow, as compared with the doubly 
rounded one of Baird's, lias little weight as a character. The 
C. Bairdii undoubtedly possessed this feature, as is apparent 
from the appearance of the plumage, which everywhere exhibits a 
worn and bleached surface : and in some places the vanes at the 
tips of the feathers are worn quite off' from the shafts ; this is es- 
pecially noticeable in the rectrices. The most cogent reason for 
considering it distinct from C. Bairdii lies in the differences in 
— C. H ochrocepkaius" being con- 
siderably the larger; but, even in this, it does not exceed the 
proportion of variation which should be recognized as occurrent 
in a species. 



■,rln,,„-h„x BemUr, 



ximum number of species in the - 
ubtedly reached some time ago : ? 
I could be censured but mildly for c 



While sympathizing with the spirit of Mr. Chapman's criticism o 

we must say that he is not quite correct when he asks: " Whi 
therefore does he [Dr. Thomson] unjustly ignore the fact tha 
Dr. Leidy was the first to describe correctly the position of Hya 
lonema, by saying we had been looking at the sponge upsid< 
down, and that it had never occurred to any one to reverse it?' 
Dr. Leidy's article is in the Naturalist, Vol. iv. This was ii 
January, 1871. Doubtless Dr. Leidy's article was written tin 
year before. In the Naturalist, Vol. iii for 1870, is an inter 



i to Prof. Loven's Hyalonema boreale, it should be me 
: C. Wyville Thomson in his book, p. 113, says : "It 
ery far from Hyalonema. It is more nearly allied 



Passage of Spe 


cific Characters 


— I find among t 


lie Acrididce from 


seem to go far to 


ward confirming tl 


often specific chai 


acters pass over ft 


The Acrolophit, 


*» hirtipes Thos. ( 


rery distinct and 


somewhat peculia 



of Prof. Cope, that 
nus to another. 
. (Gryllus hirtqies Say) forms a 
■ genus ; the specific charac- 
ters arc also very distinct and well marked. During my connec- 
tion with the Unite 1 Suites ( leological Survey, in charge of Dr. F. 
V. Harden I have frequently met with this species in Colorado, 
northern New Mexico, and Wyoming, but nowhere else in those 
territories or in northern Utah, Idaho. Montana. Nebraska. Kan- 
sas or Dakota have 1 met with any closely allied species. Reeently 
the Orthoptera collected by Lieut. Wheeler during his Explora- 
tions in Arizona have been submitted to me for examination ; in 
that collection I find specimens which, in specific characters in- 
cluding even color, agree exactly with A. hirtipes, but differ in two 
prominent generic characters. 

In Acrolophitus the chief generic characters are, an erect, coni- 
cal vertex (which alone distinguishes it from all other American 
species of Oedipoilhif) ; a sharp elevated crest on the posterior 
lobe of the pronotum ; posterior margin of the pronotum acutely 
angled. The species collected by Lieut. Wheeler has the erect, 
conical vertex, but the pronotum is without a crest or even a 
medium carina, ami the posterior margin is obtusely rounded, 
yet the general form, size, etc., even to the hairs on the legs. 
are the same in both species; the color is exactly the same 
throughout. — C. Thomas. 

Occurrence of the Rock Wren in Iowa.— Salpindes obsoletus, 
not previously found east of the Rocky Mountain region, was ob- 
served by the writer last fall in Decatur county, Iowa. It was 
seen on several occasions, far out on the prairie, running over the 
ties on the railroad track, retreating when alarmed, into the 
dense prairie grass. — T. M. T., Garden Grove, Iowa. 

MICROSCOPY. 

Apertures of Objectives.— It is now certain that nothing can 
be easier than to get more than 82° of rays through a balsam 
, and that those accomplished mi- 
contrary were in error in resting 



their mathematical ar-nimiit upon the improved assumpti< 
the conditions under which the law of reduced apertures [ 
were, and must necessarily be, the same in all objectives 

by°Dr. J. J. Woodward in the -Monthly Microscopical Joi 
Now that the doctrine of the limitation of the balsam ar 
objectives, plausible and strong in seeming to rest upoi 



me controversy. 

Dr. R. H. Ward, Sir:— I have rea 
Number of the Naturalist, of a currei 

balsam angular aperture of objectives. 

The r V measured in London had, anc 
ment where with appropriate cover thii 
not be good. Its highest angle, when ii 
midway of the total adjustment, and at 
inch cover. All this I will show you 

theory has been openly declared in eve 
the form of reply to Mr. Wenham since 
of my first " experiment," Thus, while 
the reduction of refraction at the first p 



568 

angle of (close to) 180°, after the first refraction, was necessarily 
reduced to 82° (closely) by crown glass plane surface, and by 
heavy, flint plane surface to 70° (closely). That is and has been 
understood, all around ; though produced and constantly reit- 
erated as an answer to my claims, not only by Mr. Wenham, but 
volunteered with much rudeness from another quarter. 

You comprehend the case perfectly when you say, " This reason- 
ing assumes only that the extreme ray above the front combination. 
capable of entering into the image when the objective is worked 
dry, is the extreme also when adjusted for immersion work." But 
it would be equally true to say, "the extreme ray above the front" 
surface " is also the extreme ray, etc." In the light of this state- 
ment, what is to be understood by my March paper (Monthly Mi- 
croscopical Journal, 1873) to which you allude as •• practically 
disclaiming this doctrine of rays beyond the extreme rays dry? 
Why, I suggest the one sure way of g'mng entrance from the 
denser medium into the Front of a larger pencil than before with 
crown glass, in just so far as the refraction of the Front in such 
medium approaches the refraction of crown glass in air; and, 
behold : I am made to disclaim the very thing I have just done and 
pointed out how. However, from what you have written I know 

impinging on the inner front surface of the front lens will, from 
crown glass, emerge into the balsam without sensible deviation. 
Now. suppose we use flint glass ; the angle at which total reflec- 



tor June, 187; 



that this is the only way to exceed 82° 
The 100° ± objective of four systems 
an. It is, as to plan. described in the •• > 
rnal"for March, 1872. There the iniu 
as a dry objective, the front as applied t 
to admit such a pencil to the dry ohjecti 
ner three. But the | tested by Dr. Wo 
• three, an angle of 10f>° in air, and. a. t 



"Monthly Microscopical 


Jouin 1 a 1 1 i i I Wi 


!l q 


Fig. 1 and explanation 


as theory, antecedent to fact. I 


'be 


system objective being > 


subsequently made and authoritat 


ivel 


for June, ls 7 ?; : [ml i y j, 


. (See "Monthly Microscopical J 
V Dr. Woodward giving the angle 


[our 


in balsam.) Quoting a: 


gain, as to the case of the three i 


<yst 


same Journal, same page 


preferring to Fig. 2. » What is i 




is to increase the refract 


ion of the convex surface of the 1 


:Von 



the front surface is immersed. Now the results, according to this 

second case, are well attested for angles considerably above 

for support of my theory ! i. e., the universally accepted theory. 
For balsam of refractive index the same as common crown or 
plate glass I will, with pleasure, show to you at any time that the 
angle of the T V objective, tested in London, is at least 90°; and 
that ia the kind of balsam Mr. Wenham has constantly talked of, 



higher refractive index and reduce the angle a little. Hence cer- 
tain discrepancies as to amount of angle above 82°. For this rea- 
son, I have used the semi-cylinder, but that has, and had, another 
and a superior purpose. As a means of getting the actual angle, 
and the crucial test to decide this discussion, a much simpler 
method will serve. Thus, any piece of plate glass, say an inch 
square or upwards, and perhaps T V inch thick, or more or less, one 



570 

or both plane surfaces fine ground, is all that is necessary, only. 
be it provided, that some part of one edge be a polished or frac- 
tured surface tolerably near flat and square. Use this precisely as 
Dr. Woodward uses his tank, and the angle of the objective lor 
that kind of balsam (like the glass) will be indicated along the 
ground surface if a little care be taken in adjusting glass to 
objective. Balsam, glycerine or dense oils will do to connect the 
objective front and glass plate, for the pencil traversing the plate 
will be constantly the same for a wide range of " preservative 
media." This cone can be marked as to its boundaries with a 
pencil on the ground glass, and measured with a protractor with 
perfect facility. 

Whatever position gentlemen respondent may take now, pro 
or con, the end is assured, viz., a practically larger angular aper- 
ture for objects in balsam. I hope you will award these comments 
an insertion. Respectfully yours, 

Robert B. Tolles. 

40 Hanover Street, Boston, Mass. 

P. S. — Since writing the above, the " Monthly Microscopical 
Journal" for July, containing Mr. Wenham's reply to Dr. Wood- 
ward's article, has come to hand. I notice Mr. Wenham recom- 
mends the same ground glass plate for test of angle that I describe 
above, only nothing is said of connecting media. This is excel- 
lent ! With air between, the cone will, with crown or plate -lass. 
be about 81°, but if water or balsam or any known liquid replaces 
the air it can be more. It is the test. Some objective will be 
found in England, I dare say, to go above 82°. — T. 

Microscopical Experiments with Insects' Eyes. — Dr. F. W 
Griffin, of the Bristol School of Chemistry, gives in the " Worid 
of Science "and in the "Monthly Microscopical Journal," an in- 
teresting note on this subject. Any tolerably mounted beetles 
eye (transparent) will give some of the desired effects ; but tor 
good results the semi-globular set of "lenses" which constitutes 
the outer part of the compound eye should be very earefttUj 
cleaned and flattened without materially altering the form of the 
individual lenses. This is arranged as a transparent object under 
a one inch objective, and preferably a "Keiner" eye-piece, when 
some two thousand lenses or corneules are brought into W6W ■* 
once. By racking the objective up, the focus of these little lenses 



571 

is found, slightly above their surface, and in the focus of each is 
seen the image of an object, as for instance a fly on the point of a 
pen, held between the stage and the minor. T»v a little ingenuity 
a good view can be obtained of a blind-tassel, the profile of a 
person standing before the window, or even of a landscape out- 
side ; though these distant ami dillieult objects show better by 
using a .[ inch objective and a one inch lens as achromatic eon- 
denser. A swinging tassel, or a profile cut in brown paper and 
fastened against the glass, or a person's hand with the fingers in 
motion, or a watch face with the second hand in motion, are 
among the curious or grotesque objects that may be seen multi- 
plied hundreds of times in the beetle's eye. When lamplight is 
used, it must be rendered parallel by the bull's-eye, and for really 
good effects the concave mirror and one inch achromatic condenser 
must also be used. 

Binoculars for High Powers. — Mr. Wenham, finding the 
various non-stereoscopic binoculars unsatisfactory, am"; 
inconvenient to make and mount a reflecting prism which should 
come sufficiently near the lenses to be efficient with the highest 
powers, has revived the achromatic refracting prism suggested by 
him to the Microscopical Society on June 13, 1860, by which the 
rays from each lateral half of the objective are bent towards the 
axis of the tube, crossed, and sent to the opposite eye of the ob- 
server. The prism, representing really two prisms cemented back 
to back, is made so small and mounted in so thin a tube that it 
can be slid down into the mounting of the objective close to the 
posterior lens. 

Structure op Eupodiscus and Isthmia. — Mr. Henry J. Slack 
has communicated to the Royal Microscopical Society some im- 

-;■:'■ 
impression that in all diatoms the silicious deposition takes place 
s of varying dimensions and arrangement. He entirely 
discards such terms as " areolse," "cellules," etc., believing that 
cut structures are merely, and always, unresolved groups 
of variously aggregated spherules. This structure he has demon- 
strated, and has repeatedly confirmed on Pinnularise, but with the 
old means of investigation he failed on Isthmia and Eupodiscus. 
With Mr. Wenham's new "Reflex Illuminator," however, these 
easily fall nn der the same law, the circular valve of Eupodi$eua 



572 

Arrpi* being composed of radiating bands of minute and closely 
packed spherules with intervening rows of clusters of larger 
spherules usually in fours. ;ind Isthnnu. enerrh revealing, in the 
place of its familiar reticulated appearance, an auurc-.ition of 
minute spherules at different levels but of, as yet, not well deter- 
mined arrangement. A Beck's -£• objective will reveal this struct- 
ure, though a I -is preferable ; Powell and Lealand's new pattern 
(dry front) giving it excellently. 

On the other hand, Mr. Samuel "Wells of Boston, who has stud- 
ied E'H'txIisctis Anjii* without the reflex illuminator, perceives no 
spherules and explain- the usual appearances with* ut them. The 
outer or convex surface he funis clear and smooth, except that it 
is irregularly dotted with depressions about g^inch in diameter 
and extending nearly through the thickness of the valve. This 
appearance is verified by the binocular microscope and by sec- 
tional views obtained from broken valves, and is not varied by any 
change of power or illumination. The concave surface, which 
Moller mounts upwards and which alone was probably .-tudied by 
Mr. Slack, is nearly smooth, without ridges and probably without 

round clots with intervening blank spaces. These clots are about 
sxsfasts inch in diameter, and with a T \ or tf \> and Prof. H. L. 
Smith's apparatus for opaque illumination, tiny appear to be slight 
deprc— ions with the bottom slightly convex; the four or more 
which are over each of the depressions on the other side of the 
valve being naturally brighter than the others, and corresponding 
to the groups of larger spherules of Mr. Slack. 

Mr. Charles Stodder also combats the doctrine that the silicteu- 
matter in diatoms is always deposited in the spheroidal form. He 
still believes that the markings on ordinary diatoms are depres- 
sions and not elevations, and that the line of fracture is inclined 
to run through them instead of between them, and he therefore 
retains the terms " cellules," u areola?," etc. His account of i-"- 
podiscus Argux is so much like that of Mr. Wells, though published 
independently, as to suggest the explanation that they have 
worked at the subject together. He finds two silicious coats, the 
outer comparatively opaque and marked with large, thin apertures 
through which could be seen the inner coat with its much finer 
markings which vary according to focus and illumination from a 
spherical to a cellular appearance, and from a radiated to an irreg- 



Tulles ,', with Trof. Smith's 
>th, transparent, and struct- 



NOTES. 
We print in this number the proceedings of the first meeting 
of Hi. U>^:/ Natural Ili.ton Chili, organized hy the students 
of the Anderson School of Natural History at Penikese Island. 
The school was, notwithstanding the unfinished state of the build- 
ing*, and many other temporary drawbacks, resulting from its 
isolated situations, opened on the sth of July, fifty students being 
present. As we go to press the indications are that the need of 
such a school has been fully demonstrated, and its future success 
thoroughly assured. The nature of the work alrea.lv done is such 
a* will tend to make each student an original investigator. A 



art of 


observing for th 


emselves, ga 


nin-_ 


an insight intc 


les an. 


difficulties of re 


search and obtaii 


ing some idea o 


t exte 


t of the field of 


Jiology. E^ 


■n a 




we.ks 


they will return 




ools 


and colleges w 


' enthi 


siasm for scienc 


3-teaching, w 


Inch 


will inevitably, 


take i 


ot, be shown in 


the other t 


tndi< 


s they may ha-v 



Though the school, at the time of writing this note, has been 
running but a fortnight, lectures on surface geology, the em- 
bryology of vertebrates and articulates, on physiology, physical 
geography, on the microscope and its construction, with practical 
lessons in its use, free hand drawing on the blackboard, zoologi- 
cal and landscape drawing, ami daily div<lging excursions in the 
yacht ^ Sprite," together with instructions in collecting and pre- 
serving animals, have been given. The amount of laboratory 



rk of teaching, on the good prospects of 



Proceedings of the Agassiz Natural History Chili.— The first 
meeting of the club was held July 24, 1873. President S. F. 
Whitney in the chair. 

Professor Agassiz, having been invited by the President to 
favor the club with remarks and advice concerning the best 
methods of work, responded very pleasantly. 

Mr. E. C. Crosby read a short paper upon the genus Bufo. The 
eggs of two specimens examined numbered 8840 and 2200 respec- 
tively, counted under a lens magnifying four times. All appeared 
black to the naked eye, but the lens showed half of them to be 
ashy-brown. With :i power of ~:> diameters, the eggs were seen to 
be spherical in shape and of various sizes; the interior of each of 
a lighter color than its exterior. The stomach of one toad con- 
tained eight orthopterous (Locustarhe and Gryllida?) insects and 
fifty-three Amphi pod cnistaeeans with much dead grass-like matter. 
Some of the crustaceans were alive and moving in the stomach. 
The intestine and the oviduct were each sixteen inches in length. 
Reference was also made to the great comparative size of the 
femoral muscles in this genus. 

Mr. C. S. Minot said he also had noticed that in toads caught 
near the beach, the stomach was filled with Gammarus ornatus. 
In two specimens caught early in the morning the sand-fleas in 
the anterior part of the stomach were still alive ; in others caught 
just before noon they were all dead. He had also observed that 
in all the toads killed by chloroform, the heart continued beating, 
after death ; while just the opposite effect occurred in mammals. 

Dr. Wilder stated that when turtles and toads were killed with 
benzine the hearts would beat for several hours, although it, B ~e 
nth mammals; 



always stops the action of 1 
in one case a Chysemys picta was left for eighteen hours in a jar 
with an excess of benzine, yet the heart beat for several hours 
after the animal was opened. 

Dr. Wilder also suggested that the depth (2 to 5 inches) of the 
hole in the turf, in which the toads are often found secreted during 
the daytime, might be for the sake of protection from the sa 
i must often sweep an unwooded island. 

He further remarked upon the absence of any mollusks in the 
stomachs of those hitherto examined, although multitudes of sma 
Littorinas are left upon the seaweed and among the stones wher 
the( 



Mr. C. S. Minot presented specimens of stratified sand and 
other soils from Xashaurna Islands. The remarks called out la- 
this item caused a digression to the subject of glacial scratches 
upon which Prof. Agassiz made a few suggestions. 

of vertebrates. According to both Meckel and Huxley, this 
muscle is not found in dogs. Huxley mentioned it with a list of 
muscles which are generally represented in the vertebrates above 
fishes and which are well developed in man. Meckel names 
various of the mammalia in which it is found, but says it is absent 
in bats, the hyena, dog and some others. In dissecting the muscles 
of the forearm of a Newfoundland dog, July 19th, his attention 
diar strip of muscular fibre, scarcely three- 
idth. In tracing it out to its distal end it 
was found to terminate in a small tendon, fully one-fourth the 
length of the entire muscle. Judging from the position of this small 
muscle Prof. \\ ilder unhesitatingly pronounced it the rudiment of 
the muscle known to anatomists as the " Supinator longus." It 
was so small that it would have been of very little if any use to 
the clog. It will be of interest to ascertain in what races of clogs 
this muscle is present, and in what absent, as we must admit it 
was absent in those dogs examined by Meckel and Huxley. 

The President hoped that sometime the club would possess 
a library of reference and a cabinet for comparison. Prof. Agassiz 
explained in reply, that by the terms of Mr. Anderson's gift, it 
»M possible to make the library and collections of the Museum 
a t Cambridge, at some time, available to the Anderson School. 

habits of Crepidula formicate Lam., upon being irritated. 

Miss Shattuck reported the addition of Betula alba, var. to the 
1J st of the flora of the island. 

Is it not a little strange that we should not have in this country 
a first class zoological garden? The nearest approach is the 
Collection of animals in the Central Park, New York. Between 
April l, 1870, and April 1, 1871, there were about 175 animals in 

this collection ; thev were placed in a series of buildings which 
surround the Museum and comprise one for the carnivora, one for 
tfl e birds and monkevs onen air sheds for the bears, wolves, 



Professor Marsh, with a large scientific party from Yale Col- 

brate fossils in the Rocky Mountain region. A successful trip to 
the pliocene beds of the Niobrara river lias already been made 
and the party are now exploring the eocene deposits near the 
Uintah Mountains. They will probably not return east before 
December. 

ANSWERS TO CORRESPONDENTS. 



BOOKS RECEIVED. 



AMERICAN NATURALIST. 

Vol. VII. — OCTOBER, 1873. — No. 10. 



FrUoi.v-associates : — We meet again at a point far distant from 
the one where we gathered last year, to interchange social greet- 
ing and scientific thoughts. :m.l to form plans for future labor 
"lid usefulness. Fifteen hundred miles divide Dubuque from 
Portland, as the bird flies, and yet that extent of country and 
«UCh more are all our own. Its living and dead treasures, with its 

capital of the country to new sources of wealth. 

ment of Science hold their session for a few days only, and 
occupy a portion of their time in interchange of social greetings 
among themselves and with the inhabitants of the city where they 
meet, that critical examination of papers communicated to the 
Association cannot be entered upon that otherwise would be, nor 

■*tters more fully, such supervision is surrounded with so many 
difficulties that those whose business it is are forced to content 

themselves with an imperfect discharge of their duty. 



This too often gives rise to unjust criticisms on the part of the 
press, whose reporters attend the meetings with the same views as 
those with which they would enter a learned body of scientific 
men, who meet at stated periods, with short intervals, and where 
both time and sound eritieism are bestowed upon such investiga- 
tions as are communicated. 

This association, in some sense, is to be regarded as an annual 
scientific fete, where the interchange of ideas outside the audience- 
: -ts us much, if not more, stem matter tor retleetion 
as the communications which may be read ; the minds of men 
that have been on the stretch during the year are relaxed, and 
fresh pabulum and new vigor are furnished for the coming year. 

It sometimes happens that many persons who attend our meeting- 
gather erroneous impressions from them as to what the scientific 
men of the country are doing, and go away questioning" themselves 
whether or not scientific societies and associations have, after all. 
done much for science ; and conclude that while the men forming 
them have made many important investigations, and published them 
for the benefit of succeeding ages, it is to practical and obscure per- 
sona that the world is indebted for its great discoveries. 

I allude to this here, as it is but recently that I have seen this 
; the attention of 



assertion ma 




i an article calculated 


the masses, 


and 


the author of that arti 


citing Clarke 


>, Fu 


lton and Mor: 


se. Nov, 


those men o 


f ski 


Hand genius, 


I would 


fulciitms tin 


whn 




I their k 




ouch 


in practical s< 


■ience an 




\\i 


thout its aid ( 




failed him ir 




structiug his J 


luge asti 


the experiments < 


>n latent heat 




owe the pre; 


M-nt 


steam-engine, 


and wit 


never have ruffle. 


:1 the water of 


our rive 


of the ocean 


; an 


d without the 


scientili 


though incoi 


aspi< 


:uous, experiu 


tents of 



I me to reflect much upon 
>th for those wishing to 
for those desiring it only 



tuny to pursu 
ne ago, a phy 



Our vast material interests draw rh.' students from their labora- 

them; and if it were not for tin patient submission of the people 

suspend operations. 

But it is at the door of the educational institutions themselves 
that the greatest blame is to be placed. First of all, our univer- 

competent to fill the scientific chairs in all these institutions could 
not be easily supplied in this country. Were it possible, it would 
be far better to have fewer scientific schools, and to establish 
them on the broadest basis, with most liberal endowments, bo that 

student, and to make their examinations of such a standard that 
the indorsement of these several schools would be a passport to 

taste and talent for pure science to devote their fir>t years to 
labor in that direction. Owing to these detects in our system of 
scientific education, American science is frequently reproached as 



count i 


•y from tl 


lie time of 


Franklin 


to the present dav 


■ ; and in the 


appiic 


ation of 


science to the arts w 


e are not far beh: 


ind the most 


advan 


ced natio 


m of our oa 


vn time. 






I ki 


low that American 


scientists 


are looked upon 


by their Eu- 


A? 


otm-in^t 


zzz^ 


rued labor 


piratical in their 


iug the great 


truths 


■Ami disc 


overies in 


science others have brought 


to light, and 


not ev 


olving tl 


lem by ha 


rd and lal 


loiious study and 


experiment. 


This i 


3 to som< 


i extent true, for the 


labors required of our profes- 


sors, \ 


vlio have 


educated 


and trained minds, in the < 


•omit!es> o-l- 


leges 1 


iliat dot 1 


:he hind, a 


re so oner* 


dus that no time is given them 


fur t In 


i exercise 


• of origin; 


il thought 


and investigation 




Wh 


at can a 


physicist. 


a chemist 


or naturalist, do v 


dio has three 


or fuu 


r classes 


- to teach. 


usually ii 


i the most elemei 


itary part of 



their indies? The very labor unfits him fo 

educational drudge instead of an intellectual 
ever his intrinsic merits may be, he is in c 
pecuniarily, no better than those engaged in 
suits of life, being at the same time restricted in intellectual re- 

I will, however, just here make one other plea for our men of 
science against any unju-t comparison with those across the At- 
lantic. It is this. Our country is a new one, of most peculiar vaA 
wonderful features of surface, of soil, and of climate, and of un- 
told and fabulous wealth within its bowels ; it beckons every man 
to fortune; and with such ease are wealth and honors snatched 
from its overflowing lap that even men who love and honor 
science are drawn off their direct paths into by-ways and other 
pur-uits. and too often leave behind them the scientific t< 



science paves 


the wa] 


guide-post for 


the pra 


this great fan 


tli. is fj 


those words ( 


>/ hf>n< 


practical men' 


) are onl 




sounded 


discovery was 


;mnuiim- 


This does n< 


>t arise X 


now as they ^ 


■ere in t 


gardedasafri 


volous ft 



,-al in well-conducted 



would an 


ogate to repr 


esent its 


bearings « 


world. 1 


nils being, tl 


le case. 


it be 


lioo\ 


thoughts, 


words, and ; 


MJts, else 


they 


may 


injustice. 


and misrepr. 


isent both Nat 


are i 


We are 


all searcher 


s after t 


ruth : 


but 


do not m 


istake what t 


ruth is. : 


md he 


, beg 


fatal err,. 


r which has s 


imply b< 


.rrowo 


d Hi 












Error' has 


3 often glimi 


ner enor 


igh tc 


i da; 


entl.usias 


t ; truth itsel 


f shines 


with e 


■UMii- 


by the m, 


)st jealous ai 


nong sci< 


■ntist- 





scientific labors. The Government never hesitates to encourage 
the most thorough invi--t i-';i tions by scientific men into all mat- 
ters that are likely to benefit the people or advance those great 
scientilie investigations which are of a more abstract character. 
Witness the care and liberality with which it encourages ihat 
corps of scientists engaged in the gigantic enterprise of the coast 



1 rocks will cease to give wealth to toil, oar 



MODERN METHODS OF SCIENCE. I 

for the rich soil which covers such a vast proportion of our coi 
try, some of the states of which, like Illinois, with 55,000 squ 
miles -of surface, have hardly a barren acre, yet we can ph 
nothing from it ; it is not like the tropical forest, from which 
indolent natives may gather their food, and live a life of inei 
almost akin to that of the beasts that wander through its r 



inclemency of varying seasons, but when this is done 
glorious return! — rie 1 1 and luxurious crops, abundant hs 

for roads, a ready market is afforded for the farmer s pi 
when we go beneath the soil and mine the rock it is n< 
the uncertain gold and silver, but the sure coal and in 
rewnr.l toil. .1 lure of the labor improve 



to the patient and judicious perseverance of men of science, who 
111 some way or other show that they are not mere abstractionists, 
but that what they do has practical bearings, and therefore renders 
the people more powerful both at home and abroad. Science fur- 
nishes, so to speak, the raw material out of which all the progress 
"t modern nations is constructed. To use the words of one of our 
nestora of science : " It is only in recent times that the value of 
scientific research began to be felt ; and I hope to live, old as I 
MO, long enough to see the community, the enlightened commu- 
11J |y which has become my second fatherland, appreciate what 
science is doing for the general prosperity, and then contribute to 
science with all ty which char- 



Thus 



nuch has been said in relerei 



I now pass to the second part of ray discourse— the methods 
of modern science — the caution to be observed in pursuing it, 
if we do not wish to pervert its end by too confident assertion! 
and deductions. 

It is a very common attempt nowadays for scientists to tran- 
scend the limits of their legitimate studies, and in doing this they 
run into speculations apparently the most unphilosopliical. wild, 
and absurd ; quitting the true basis of inductive philosophy, and 
building up the most curious theories on little else than assertion; 
speculating upon the merest analogy ; adopting the curious views 
of some metaphysicians, like Edward Von Hartmann ; striving to 
work out speculative results by the inductive method of natural 
science. To me this appears a perversion of Bacon's philosophy, 
and we cannot wonder that one Adopting such views, whatever his 
claim to genius may be, soon cuts loose from all physical reason- 
ing and becomes involved in the most transcendental and to all 
appearances absurd opinions, which, however clear to the author, 
are strange and unintelligible to others: and if at anyone time 
we believe we have caught the conception of the author, this 
impression is only momentary, and we give up in despair, realiz- 
ing that we cannot follow his intellectual ecstasies ; for, in the 
language of Tyndall, they are even "unthinkable." Those en- 
gaged in such speculations are very commonly found in bitter 
conflict with each other, forcing on us the belief of the saying of 
D'Alembert, that "when absurd opinions become inveterate it 
sometimes becomes necessary to replace them by other errors, if 
nothing better can be done." 

This extreme metaphysical philosophy is referred to for the rea- 
son that many scientists, ranking as sober, earnest laborers after 
truth, are caught dealing in such philosophy in their method of 
iiietimes, quite unconscioush to themselves, 
forgetting that " science is only an accurate record of the proc- 
esses of nature ; that its laws are only generalizations of its 
observations, and not a declaration of an inherent necessity; 
and that one of its observations is the uniformity of natural 
sequence." 

I am one of those who believe that everything must give way 
to the laws of nature ; but then we must master these laws, and be 
sure that we have done this before either interpreting phenomena 
by them or venturing into the realm of speculation. 



As has been already remarked, men are to-day just what they 
have ever been. As bright Intellects and as great philosophers 
lived two or three thousand years ago as do now; their minds 
sought out the same great truths that wo are searehimr for in 
these .lays, and they sought for them by the lights wit* which 
they were surrounded. In those earlier ages poetry, sculpture, 
wchitectnre, and even some facts belonging to natural history 
(things that belonged either to the imagination or to the eye), 
arrived at as high a degree of perfection as perhaps they ever 
will; for the two senses which appreciate the ideal and the real 
were as perfect then as now. 

agination and the eye aided him but little or not at all. then the 
discoveries in these fields and their interpretations call for other 
means for arriving at results. In modern days we attempt to be 
?"ided by the clear light of inductive reasoning which we may 
think we are employing, when too often it is the very smoky torch 
of analogy that is being used ; and this fact serves to explain why 
't is that some of the most brilliant philosophers of compara- 
tively modern days are only remembered by their names — a>, for 
example the great French philosopher Descartes, whom Dugald 
Stewart says " is much better known to the learned of our day by 
the boldness of his exploded errors than by the profound and im- 
portant truths contained in his works. " 

And such an example as this is of great value to the reflective 
ainid, teaching caution, and demonstrating the fact that, while the 
rules by which we are guided in scientific research are far in ad- 
vance of those of ancient days, we must not conclude that then- 
are perfect by any means. In our modern method of investigation 
how many conspicuous examples of deception we have had in pur- 
l the best method of investigation ! Take, for instance, 



the science i 
d ay. While 



geology from the time of Werner to the present 
re always thought we had the true interpretation of 
t! »' structural phenomena of the globe as we progressed from year 
to year, yet how vastly different are our interpretations of the 
1 ;''""' ■"• day from what they were in the time of Werner! In 
chemistry the same thing is true. How dearly were all things 
xplainecl to the chemist of the last century by the doctrine of 
phlogiston which in the present century receives no credence, while 
chemical phenomena are now viewed in an entirely different light ! 



Lavoisier, in the latter part of the last century, elm 
henomenon of respiration and the production of anii: 
ne of the most beautiful of theories, based, to all a] 
pon well observed facts ; yet at the present day mc 
bservations, and the discovery of the want of balan 
lie inhaled oxygen and exhaled carbonic acid sulr 
eautiful theory, and we are left entirely without one. 



'.,!l:i 



la nuniiH>r ot tacts m rega 
the tissues, etc., all of t 



ken of as a fluid, then as : 
vertible into caloric or mec 
-ill be considered fifty years 
vow what I desire to enforce 



) do then? Must we' cease the- 
o be learned from this is, to be 
is ; to generalize as far as our 



icise interpretation of the 





■ them along. 


tak. 


j to these crutches. 


It is common to 1 


speak of the t 




i-y of gravitation, t 


nothing purely h 


ypothetical in 


COi 


mection with the i 


bich it is studied ; 


in it we onlv 


see 


a clear generalizat 


rved laws which g 


overn the mu 




attraction of bodi 



luminous bodies, or by the 
trobable so long as tl 



lesis, as has been the case with the emission theory 
iay be the fate of the undulatory theory, which. 

ve are now able to interpret its phenomena, 
ually learned will agree perfectly as regards the 
re of an ape and a man, and thus far their results 
niversal acceptance ; but some of the same zoolo- 
:rcise of the imagination and ingenious analogical 
le the man from the ape, while the others cannot 



r are convinced not so much by the law or jus- 
tly the ingenuity and special pleading of the 









"ons into the world of the imagination ; in fact, it 



investiga- 



prologue to our present meeting. But in order to illustrate 
ubject of method more fully I will refer to Darwin, whose 
has become sync » ..,.-.,■* with , ■ ■_ < — u <■■ wlnpment and 



Q, which, as we had thought, died out v 
re have one of those philosophers 



unerica we find scientific men of th< 

ng completely in regard to his logic. analogic* 



Unrwm takes up the law of life and runs it into : 
development. In doing this he seems to me to increase the embar- 
rassment which surrounds us on looking into the mysteries of cre- 
ation. He is not satisfied to leave the laws of life where he finds 
them, or to pursue their study by l< reasoning. 

His method of reasoning will not allow him to remain at rest : he 
must be moving onward in his unification of the universe. He 
started with the lower orders of animal-, and brought them through 
their various stages of progressive development until he supposed 
he had touched the confines of man; he then seems to have re- 
coiled, and hesitated to pass the boundary which separated man 
from the lower orders of animals; hut he saw that all lib- previoii- 
logic was bad if he stopped there, so man was made from the 
ape (with which no one can find fault, if the descent be legiti- 
mate). This stubborn logic pushes him still farther, and he must 
find some connecting link with that most remarkabh property 
of the human tare called expression: so his ingenuity has given 
us a very curious and readable treatise on that subject. Yet still 
another step must be talo n in tl - linking together man and the 
lower orders of animals ; it is in connection with language : and 
before long it is- not unreasonable to expect another production 
from that most wonderful and ingenious intellect on the connec- 
tion between the language of man and the brute creation. 

Let us see for a moment to what this reasoning from anal- 
ogy would lead us, if applied to chemical science, which investi* 



gates a great variety of compounds that exhibit most curious 
analogies in all their properties. Take for instance soda and 
potash — how identical in almost all their properties, and their 
compounds arraying themselves in identically the same form, de- 
fying almost all the senses to detect their difference : if they be 
brought into relation with other elements, they associate them- 
selves with these elements in identically the same way. The 
same is true in relation to baryta, and strontia, or chlorine, bro- 
mine and iodine ; the last three elements even show most curious 
numerical relations in regard to their combining proportions. 
And then when we pass to the mineral kingdom, what a wonder- 
ful property is that isomorphism in the chemistry of Nature's 
operations ! 

The chemist, with all these facts before him, has as much right 
to revel in the imaginary (urination of sodium from potassium, or • 
fodine and bromine from chlorine, by a process of development, 
and call it science, as the naturalist has to revel in many of his 
wild speculations, or the physicist who studies the stellar space 
to imagine it permeated by mind as well as light — mind such as 
has formed the poet, the statesman, or the philosopher. 

Yet any chemist who would quit his method of investigation, of 
marking every foot of his advance by some indelible imprint, and 
go back to the speculations of Albertus Magnus, Roger Bacon, 
; md other alchemists of former ages, would soon be dropped from 
the list of chemists and ranked with dreamers and speculators. 

To prove the truth of my assertion, that this is the legitimate 
result of this school of philosophy, I will quote from one of its 
disciples, F. W. Clarke. He says: "When one is fairly started 
on a line of thought it is hard to come to an end. If we assume 
an hypothesis to be true, a hundred others rush in upon the mind 
and demand consideration. We do not know but that the evolu- 
tion of one element from another may be possible. The demon- 
strated unity of force leads us by analogy to expect a similar 
unity of matter. Those elements which seem to-day so diverse in 
flkttacter may be after all one in essence; at present it can 

What is most remarkable in connection with the above opinion 
is that the author of it is commenting on matter, in connection 
With the spectroscope, an instrument whose very triumphs are 
based on the grand distinguishing hues in the elements of matter, 



dissimilarity and no coalescence. 

Is this to be one of the methods of modern 
ask? While in our ignorance and short-sightedn 
careful in pronouncing any assumption as possil 
still there is no reason why these terms should 1 
weight in the study of science ; for in the absti 



then every com ititled to equal & 

sideration. And we are not therefore surprised that the autl 
last quoted should say, - Ho then we may proceed to theorize 
the most barefaced manner, without quitting the legitimate t 

Are we to introduce into science a kind of purgatory into whi 
to place undcmoiistral.le speculations, and keep them there ir 
state of probation, and s;iy Unit science cannot discard a thee 



What I have 
departure Darw 
purely speculati 



Quatrefages, i 
of man he say 


ce. In referi 
s distinctly th 


philosophers : 
wish to be, ei 


"Neither hei 


of botanical a 


od soologicaT 



scientist. 


he goes 


on to say: "It is established that man has tw 


grand fuc 


wltiea of 


which we find not even 


a trace among ai.imab 


He alone 


has the moral sentiment of g. 




alone beli 


teves in 


beings superior to him 


titnJTi^Ji 


seen, and 


that are 


I capable of influencing 1 




in other v 


fords, m< 


in alone is endowed idth 


morality and rvli'jina: 


And it 


may be 


added that Ilartniann. a 


philosopher of anothe 


school, %i 


iys, sele> 


■tion explains the progr 


ess in perfection of ai 


already e: 


dating type within its own degrees of organization, bu 


it cannot 


explain 1 


;he passage from an infe 




tion to a s 


uiperior 


one. 




If Prof 


. Ouatret 


'ages be right in regard 


to the moral scntimem 


in man. tl 


len Dar* 


rin must be wrong in ass 


erting the developnmir 


of man c 


)Ut of tl 


lat in which not a trac 


e exists of what mosi 


preeminently cons 


titutes a man ; or he m 


list satisfy himself wit! 


evolving 


the phy 


sical part of man out 


of the lower order oi 






by some creative force 




these prin 


ciples. 






Our ow: 


a distinguished naturalist and a 


ssociate, Prof. Agassiz. 


reverts to 


this the 


ory of evolution in the 


same positive manner. 






rnestness and warmth ; 


is to call forth severe 


editorial < 


criticisms 


!, by speaking of it as a 


, " mere mine of asser- 


tion," and 


1 of « tl 


le danger of stretching 


inferences from a few 


observatio 


ns to a 


wide held," and he is 


called upon to collect 


"real observation 


s to disprove the evol 




would her 


e remarl 


c, in defence of my dis 


tinguished friend, that 


scientific i 


mvestiga 


tion will assume a curioi 


is phase when its vota- 


ries are re 


riuirod t< 


> occupy time in looking 


np facts, and seriously 



century, Darwin, Huxley and others. I am too great a respecter 
of both science and the pursuit of science ever to encourage by 
my example anything like dogmatism among scientific men. 
While arraying methods of study in other branches of science to 
combat those employed by the followers of the evolution hypothe- 
sis, I most willingly indorse what Tyndall says concerning it, viz : 
"I do not think the evolution hypothesis is to be flouted away 
contemptuously ; I do not think it is to be denounced as wicked. 
Fear not the evolution hypothesis ! it does not solve, it does not 
profess to solve, the ultimate mystery of the universe. It leaves 
in fact that mystery untouched." If it be grounded on truth, it 
will survive all attempts to overthrow it ; if based on error, it will 
disappear, as many so-called scientific facts have done before. 
Science is a progressive study. It does not dogmatically pro- 
nounce itself aa infallible : it is at all times ready to admit what 
has been once rejected, if it return clothed with truthful demon- 
stration which science properly calls for as a passport to admission 
into its domain. 

I would also caution my associates to avoid carefully what may 
be called the pride of modern science ; for so rapid have been the 
discoveries of science during the last century, crowding upon us 
especially during the past twenty-live years, that we are apt to 
become bewildered and dazzled, and cry out in unbounded enthu- 
siasm : Great is the god Science! it revealeth all things to us, 
and we will consecrate our talent and our time to its worship. The 
marvellous discoveries in chemistry, geology, electricity, light, 
etc., have lifted the veil that concealed from us so many of 
Nature's secrets that we are almost baffled in our attempt to 
systematic them. Ida won .1 1 organh coini >unds ; the disin- 
terring of curious records of past ages; the obedient and sub- 
missive lightning that carries our messages ; that wonderful light, 

of the universe ; and the conservation of force — all these, I say, 
bewilder the mind so that we reveMn building bright air-castles, 
almost losing our mental equilibrium. Of all scientists of the 
present day the chemists perhaps have kept a more stable equilib- 
rium than any other class, starting out with a fixed law to govern 
them in regard to what are considered elements, never in any in- 
stance tolerating the development or transmutation of one element 
outofanoth-. ible the analogy they may exhibit 



STHODS OF SCIENCE. 593 

of all known substances, and recog- 
nizing them as the same whether in the earth or in the sun. 

I would, therefore, caution against too great enthusiasm, for we 
are far more ignorant than we sometimes suppose. In fact, true 
philosophy dictates to its followers humility, and that it is the 
province of ignorance to believe that it knows everything, while 
the philosopher is aware that he knows little or nothing. 

While we are prying into space, and studying the matter, size, 
and movements of the heavenly bodies far beyond our own uni- 
verse, we leave behind us a vast number of things that have baffled 
our scrutiny and defied both science and metaphysics. When we 
look at our bodies, without reference to the consciousness that is 
within, hut merely studying what relates to our physical pails, 
how many things concerning it we have not discovered! 

While occupied, the early par! of this year, in reflecting upon the 
conservation of force and certain meteoric phenomena connected 
with the sun, my attention was frequently drawn to the small- 
pox that was then in the form of a violent epidemic around me. 
Seeing persons being vaccinated who had in their childhood 
been subjected to the same operation, and observing in the vast 
majority of cases the failure of the production of any effect, I 
asked myself the question : How are we to rank that mysterious 
agent which, when brought to bear upon the system, in however 
minute a quantity, not only permeates every fibre and cell in every 
part of the body, but is never lost? for when through year- everv 
particle of the hody (with perhaps the exception of the teeth and 
a part of the bones) has been renewed over and over again, yet, 
[ace to a new one. this vaccine energy (if I 
may so call it) was imparted to the new matter, and so on through 
life. Here then was the conservation of a force as mysterious in 
its course and operation, and as hard to be understood, as that of 
motion, light, or any other of the recognized forms of the energies 

Yes! after we have studied the heavens and all contained 
therein that the aided eye can reach, we shall yet have to de- 
scend to earth and study the every -day physical phenomena that 
are in and aroun 1 h 1, ind ng even gn iter mysteries to unravel 
that meet our unaided senses every moment of our existence. 

I come now to the last point to which I wish to call the atten- 
tion of the members of the association in the pursuit of their in- 



otts, and the speculations to which these give rise in their 

Reference has already been made to the tendency of quitting 
the physical to revel in the metaphysical, which, however, is not 
peculiar to this age, for it belonged as well to the times of Plato 
and Aristotle as it does to ours. More special reference will be 
made here to the proclivity of the present epoch among philoso- 
phers and theologians to parade science and religion side by 
side ; talking of reconciling science and religion, as if they had 
ever been unreconciled. Scientists and theologians may have 
quarrelled, but never science and religion. At dinners they ure 
toasted in the same breath, and calls made on clergymen to re- 
spond, who, for fear of giving offence, or lacking the fire and firm- 
ness of St. Paul, utter a vast amount of platitudes about the 
beauty of science and the truth of religion, trembling in their 
shoes all the time, fearing that science, falsely BO called, may take 
away their professional calling, instead of uttering in voice of 
thunder, like the Boanerges of the gospel, that "the world by wis- 
dom knew not God." And it never will. Our religion is made so 
plain by the light of faith that the wayfaring man, though a fool, 

No, gentlemen ; I firmly believe that there is less connection be- 
tween science and religion than there is between jnrisprudence and 
astronomy, and the sooner this is understood the better it will be 
for both. 

Religion is based upon revelation as given to us in a book, the 
contents of which are never changed, and of which there have 
been no revised or corrected editions since it was first given, ex- 
cept so far as man has interpolated ; a book more or less perfectly 
understood by mankind, but clear and unequivocal in all essen- 
tial points concerning the relation of man to his Creator ; a book 
that affords practical directions, but no theory ; a book of factej 
and not of arguments ; a book that has been damaged more by 
theologians than by all the pantheists and atheists that have ever 
lived and turned their invectives against it — and no one source of 
mischief on the part of theologians is greater than that of admit- 
ting the profound mystery of many parts of it, and almost in the 
next breath attempting some sort of explanation of these myste- 
ries. The book is just what Richard Whately says it is, viz. : 
"Not the philosophy of the human mind, nor yet the philosophy of 



the divine nature in itself, but (that which is properly religion) the 
relation and connection of the two beings — what God is to us, 
what he has done and will do for us, and what we are to be in re- 
gard to him. " 

Now science on her part has her records: they are the discov- 
ered truths in the relation that man bears to the animate and in- 
ugdoms around him, so far as they are made out by him 



from time to t 



> proceed in his labors i 



perfect instruments and often equally imperfect senses, he has to 
correct himself over and over again; and his observations and 
theories, especially the latter, make frequent shifts, though each 
time he supposes that the truth has been reached. I will exem- 
plify this in a marked manner by an extract from a recent dis- 
course by Prof. Ferdinand Colin, delivered before the Silesian 
Society for Natural Culture. In speaking of Humboldt and his 
Cosmos (which he styles the "Divina Commedia" of Science, 
embracing the whole universe in its two spheres, heaven and 
earth) he says: "But we cannot conceal from ourselves that the 
Cosmos, ■published twenty-five years ago, is in many of its parts 
now antiquated. Any one who to-day would attempt to recast 
the Cosmos must proceed like the Italian architect who took the 
PiH*ars and blocks of the broken temples of antiquity, added new 
ones, and rebuilt the whole after a new plan." And I would 
simply ask : When is this new structure to be torn down to form 
material for another? Surely the most enthusiastic admire]- of 
the development of the last twenty-five years does not think that 
we have arrived at the end of all things ! 

I will take yet another example. For the last fifty years or 
more the unity of the human race has been a most prolific subject 
"i investigation and discussion, until it was generally conceded 
that there must have been more than one origin for the different 
races. In fact, theologians had already entered on that mis- 
chievous work called reconciling science and religion, and saying 
that after all there was some little mistake in the biblical record 
°n that subject, and, if the Author would only permit, it would be 
well to make a correction just there ; but this could not be done, 
and there it stood — that all men were of one flesh. But science, 
restless, changeful, moved on ; and to-day the unity of the human 
r ace is insisted on by nearly all the leading naturalists, who teach 
What Prof. De Quatrefages teaches, as uttered in a recent lecture 



of his. He says : " In this examination of the physical man 
e had alreadj reached 

in our earlier lecture, and ice can repeat with redoubted cerfnint;/ 
that the differences among human groups are characters of race, 
and not of species. There exists only one human species, and 
consequently all men are brothers ; all ought to be treated as 
such, whatever the origin, the blood, the color, the race ;" and in 
conclusion he further says : " I shall not regret either my time or 
my pains, if I am able, in the name of science, and that alone, to 
render a little more clear and precise for you the great and sacred 
notion of the brotherhood of man." 

One other example under this head, and I have done. The 
book of science teaches that the sun is the source of all light and 
heat ; yet in that post-prophetic chapter of the book of our relig- 
ion it is said that the creation of the first day was light, and not 
until afterward was the sun created ; and this was again a stum- 
, to theologians, and many wi>hed that Moses had been 
a little more particular. But science in its onward march, as it 
grouped together the matter floating in space to form in the be- 
ginning of time this earth (our eircling globe), tells us that it* we 
can imagine one to have been placed on our globe before it had 
consolidated, he would have seen vast seas of vapor floating 
around and far above it, shutting out the very light of heaven so 
that darkness brooded over the waters ; that the first benign 
influence that smiled upon the earth was the gentle rays of lig 1 ' 1 
struggling through the dark mist; and the prophetic eye, either 
on the plain, in the valley, or on the highest mountain peak. 
would not behold whence it came, and might exclaim in sublime 
poetic ecstasy: "God said. Let there U> light; and there v> a> 
light." Not until ages, perhaps, after that did the bright 
orb of the sun reveal itself to the prophet as the source of this 



book of religion stand as it is ; if it be not 
■ to naught ; and 






and if it mistake its results it is certain to correct them i 
for the causes of its perturbations are as surely di-cov 
Leverrier and Adams discovered those of Uranus. 

Science and religion are both travelling towards the sam 
point — the Author of all truth — yet by two very e 
roads ; and if they be induced every now and then to turn < 



routes to compare notes, they will very much retard . 
progress and waste much time in discussing the peculiar merits 
of their particular road, and get into a quarrel about them. The 
roads they travel arc paved with certain principles and forces, 
but of very different natures. 

Science treads on certain mathematical axioms and principles, 
recognizing matter and certain forces or modifications of an en- 
ergy innate in matter, as heat, light, electricity, etc. Religion is 
guided by its axioms and principles, faith, love, and hope, and 
with these it is expected to work out its great end in the present 
and future of mankind. Science is nature revealed; religion is 
Nature's God revealed ; and neither the one nor the other can be 
without its axioms, incapable of demonstration. 

Some may mock at faith and -ay ■• Faith is bankrupt, and her 

remain to be distributed among the impo\erishcd s uls that are 
her creditors ;" still it is an axiom made manifest to our con- 
sciousness, as much, if not even more so, than the axiom of 
a mathematical point being something without length, breadth 
'-'(' thickness, or a line as having length without breadth or thick- 

This faith is as much an energy of the immortal, as heat is one 
of the energies of matter. We know heat by its phenomena 
alone, and we know faith in the same way. its phenomena proving 
!ts existence a- well to the child as to the man. to the learned and 
the unlearned. It led Socrates and Tlato. even with their im- 
perfect light, to the great God, the Creator of the heavens and the 
<-"U'th. and to a belief in the immortality of the soul. 

What God is in his essence we know not, nor how it is that he 
can exist. A Being not made by himself nor any one else ; with- 
out beginning of days or end of years : existing through infinite 
''-•-'■ Idling immensity without being in any place; everywhere 
Present without displacing a single one of his myriad creatures ; 
Pervading all things yet without motion ; being all eye, all ear. 
all energy, and yet not interfering in the least with the thoughts 
and actions of man;— this has been well styled "the greatest 
mystery f the universe, enveloped at once in a flood of light 
U!ili an abyss of darkness — inexplicable itself, explaining every- 
thing else, and after displacing every other diflrculty, itself re- 
maining in inapproachable, insurmountable, incomprehensible 



grandeur, so that the Psalmist exclaims : ' Clouds and darkness 
are around about him ; righteousness and judgment are the 
habitation of his throne.'" 

This is the God whose existence reason cannot. prove, while it 
cannot disprove, and whom the religionists and scientists are 
looking for : that they will one day see him as he is, is my firm 
belief, and, as I before stated, they will see him the sooner by 
keeping separate roads. 

That many a scientist will be swallowed up in pantheism from 
want of patience is to be expected, and, I regret to acknowledge, 
will with Hartmann " maintain that creation is a cause, existence 
a misfortune, life a deepening disappointment, and that the ex- 
tinction of personal consciousness is the only salvation;" but 
many more will enjoy the double felicity of arriving at the groat 
end sustained both by science and by religion, and will agree with 
what Socrates wrote nearly two thousand years ago. w 
revealed word of God to enlighten him— or to mystify him, as 
some would say. Listen to that philosopher of ancient days as he 
says: "This great God, who has formed the universe and sup- 
ported the stupendous work whose every part is finished with the 
utmost goodness and harmony — he who preserve- them perpetually 
in immortal vigor, and causes them to obey him with a never-fail- 
ing punctuality and a rapidity not to be followed by the imagina- 
tion—this God makes himself sufficiently visible by the endless 
wonders of which he is the author, but continues always invisible, 
in himself. Let us not then refuse to believe even what we do not 
see, and let us supply the defects of our corporeal eyes by using 
those of the soul ; but let us learn to render the just homage ot re- 
spect and veneration to the divinity whose will it seems to be that 
we should have no other perception of him than by his benefits 
vouchsafed to us. " 

I cannot close this part of my subject without reverting to the 
tendency of certain men of science to make physical e 
the test of all truth ; even prayer and divine providence influ- 
- become subjects for experiment | 
and if the results be not in accordance with the experiments* 
then suspicion is to be cast on faith. This has been truly ex- 
plained as coming from the spirit of an age which strives to make 
natural science the all in all of wisdom, and begins with nature in- 
stead of beginning with God, and ends with burying man and 



even God wi- i he supreme 

Spirit the impersonality that is usually ascribed to material na- 
ture ; and all this in spite of the fact that profound philosophers 
and earnest devotees have believed in there being a consciousness 
subject to influence above their sense. 

If we look at Xatuiv as science has thus far penetrated into her 
mysteries, we discover in the innermost parts of the earth matter 
in a constantly restless state : in the ocean or the air we behold the 
ever moving, never resting ; above are the sun and stars speed- 
ing on through boundless space, and they in their own masses 
are like huge boiling caldrons casting their vapors hundreds of 
thousands of miles into space. And so the toiler in science 
goes penetrating nearer and nearer, as he think-, to the ureat 
cause of all things. In the same way he thinks he has discovered 
the cause of all motion upon this planet, both in the animate and 
inanimate, and he hastily concludes that the energy resident in 
the sun is fixed and invariable ; yet while he reasons as if he had 
arrived at the prime cause, he admits that there is something 
yet unknown on whu-h the sun depends as much as the earth does 
upon the sun. 

While I admit most freely that the smallest event in the 
physical world is but the sequence of secondary causes (if I 
may use the expression) and effects, obedient to what appear 
to us fixed and invariable laws, yet it is illogical for any mind to 
assert that they cannot be altered by the operation of some 
energy that may reach beyond any cause yet discovered by the 
light of science. 

While the energy of the *<<» travels in swift motion and in rapid 

- through the ethereal space that divides the earth from 

^e sun, and in turn science by the spectroscope travels back from 

the earth to the sun over the same waves, and has revealed to her, 

111 writing as it were, on the beautiful pages of the spectrum, the 

composition of that incandescent globe and the mighty power of 

i forces, so does the energy of th't gi'e«t eause that 

formed the sun reveal itself to the internal consciousness, reaching 

the eye of faith, by undulations more rapid than light ; and as 

sis back, looking through its spectroscope (the revealed 

*m!of God), it beholds the constitution of that great cause as 

composed of infinite love and mercy, truth and justice. 

A s light has revealed the sun to us by penetrating an organ 



specially formed for its impressions, the physical eye, so is God 
revealed by faith, the soul's eye. As well might we say that we 
are acquainted with all phenomena of the rays of the sun as 

ite to ourselves the power of limitii 
faith. 

In these things science is both vain and modest, logical and 
illogical ; as, for example, here is what Dr. Cohn says, in a dis- 
course of his previously referred to : " The deeper natural science 
penetrates IV aa to nniYersal laws, the more 

she lays aside her former fear to test the latest fundamental laws 
of being and becoming, of space and time, of life and spirit :" and 
in the next breath he says : •• It is not to be hoped that during the 
next twenty-five years all the questions of science which are at 
present being agitated will be solved. As one veil after another 
is lifted we find ourselves behind a still thicker one, which conceals 
from our longing eyes the mysterious goddess of whom we are 
in search." 

How Dr. Cohn expects to justify his first statement by his last 
assertion of the increasing thickness of the impenetrable veil is 
more than my logic can divine. 

But in this matter of subjecting faith to physical test by what 
is now commonly called the " prayer-gauge," philosophers of the 
most advanced school differ very widely in their opinion ; and 
that remarkable pantheist (or pessimist), Edward Von Hartmann 
(probably the most remarkable man of that school since the days 

patriarch- in his idea of the power of faith, or something '<'"- >Nt 
akin to it) calls all mankind to "combine together in one -rand 
'act of self-abdication, and to resign the \ety faculty of "'hi ■'} :l 
mighty concert, not of prayer, but of self-renunciation — by the 
help of such means as art and science may apply, and by such 
perfection of the magneth telegi pi a- >hal < iabh ' '" ' 
once to will not to' will any more, and so to bring all conscious 
personal life to an end by an absorption in the almighu and nn- 
spirit." Not the most ascetic religious devotee could 
ore unbounded confidence in the power of faith subvert- 
mly the laws of nature, but nature herself, than is <-*- 



, let us stick to science— pure, una* 
3 religion things which pertain to i 



lult.'-i-- 



MODERN METHODS OF SCIENCE. 601 

science and religion are J" 

same ocean, and before 

their pure streams, and How together into that vast ocean of truth 

which encircles the throne of the great Author of all truth, whether 

pertaining to science or religion. 

I will here, in defence of science, assert that there is a greater 
proportion of its votaries who revere and honor religion in its 
broadest sense, as understood by the Christian world, than in 
any other of the learned secular pursuits. 

In this address I may be accused of more or less dogmatism : 
but I can assure the Association that whatever there may be of 
apparent dogmatism arises entirely from my reluctance to con- 
sume more time in making explanations and reasoning fully on 
the topics discussed. I have moreover departed from the usual 
character of discnurses delivered l.y the retiring presidents of this 
association, and have not presented a topic that might have been 
of more interest to you, viz.. some special scientific subject com- 
ing more immediately within the province of my research : for 
tins departure I claim your indulgence, as well as for omitting 
all allusion to scientific progress during the past year. 

But before concluding I cannot refrain from referring to one 
great event in the history of American science during the past 
year, as it will doubtless mark an epoch in the development of 
science in this country. I refer to the noble gift of a noble for- 
eigner to encourage the poor but worthy student of pure science 
in this country. 

It is needless for me to insist on the estimation in which Prof. 
John Tyndall is held amongst us. "We know him to be a man 
whose heart is as large as his head, both contributing to the cause 
of science. We regard him as one of the aHesf physicists of the 
time, and one of the most level-headed philosophers that England 
has ever produced — a man whose intellect is as symmetrical as 
the circle, with its every point equidistant from the centre. 

We have been the recipients of former endowments from that 
land which, we thank God, is our mother country, from which 
we have drawn our language, our liberty, our laws, our literature, 
our science, and our energy, and without whose wealth our mate- 
rial development would not be what it is at the present day. 
Count Ruraford, the founder of the Royal Society of London, in 
earlier years endowed a scientific chair in one of our larger uni- 



versities, and Smithson transferred his fortune to our shores to 
promote the diffusion of science. 
Now, while these are noble gifts, yet Count Rumford was giving 
ntrymen — for he was an American — and both his 






! posthumous gif'U t'roni 1 



But the one to which I now refer was from a man who ranks 
not with the wealthy, and he laid his offering upon the altar of 
science in this country with his own hands ; and it has been both 
consecrated and blest by noble words from his own lips ; all of 
which makes the gift a rich treasure to American science ; and I 
think we can assure him that as the same Anglo Saxon blood 
flows in our veins as does in his (tempered, it is true, with the 
Celtic, Teutonic, Latin, etc.), he may expect much from the 
American student in pure science as the offspring of his gift and 
his example. 

With this feeble tribute to our distinguished scientific collabo- 
rator I bid you adieu, and, returning to the association my most 
heartfelt thanks for the honor that has been conferred on me, 
surrender the mantle of my office to one most worthy to wear 
it — Prof. Levering, of Cambridge. 



ON SOME NEW FORMS OF AMERICAN 



The birds described in this article are chiefly geographical forms 
of well known species, which have not before been characterized. 
Though we consider them as geographical races, and not as dis- 
tinct species, they are none the less entitled to separate con- 
sideration. According to the usual custom of ornithologists they 



svould be ranked i 



I species ; but the laws of geographical, 



or climatic, variation in external features, with which the public 
have been familiarized by the writings of Mr. Aden and other 
contemporary authors, are so evidently the cause of the differen- 
tiations noted, that we cannot but consider the forms here described 
as merely climatic races of species which have like representatives 
in other geographical provinces. 



3 of races of birds by Prof. 

. conspersus Rid 



F AMERICAN BIRDS. 603 

hitherto unpublished descrip- 



ibove characters apply to all specimens of Catherpes from 
■ the Mexican boundary. as substantiated by a sufficient 
i the collection. It is a remarkable fact that this northern 
mid be so much smaller than the Mexican one. especially 
of the fact that it is a resident bird in even the most 
i parts of its ascertained habitat, 
race maybe inu ished from the Mexican 



00 i 






In var. Mexicanus the white of throat is more abruptly defined 
Sgainst the rufous of abdomen than in var. conspersus, in which 
the transition is very gradual. The latter has the secondaries 
rufous with narrow isolated bars of black ; the former has them 
blackish, indented on lower webs with dark rufous. In Mexicanus 
the feet arc very stout, and dark brown ; in consjiersus they are 
much weaker, and deep black. 

All specimens from south of the United States boundary (in- 
cluding Giraud's type of Certhia albifroris) belong to the restricted 
Mexicanus. 

Habits.* The geogi ,\\ of this race of the 

white-throated wren, so far as known, is confined to the line of 
the United States and Mexican boundary, extending northward 
up the valley of the Colorado, as far as western Nevada, and along 
the Rocky Mountains into Colorado. The corresponding Mexican 
race reaches some distance southward, but has not yet been de- 
tected beyond the limits of Mexico. The habits of both races, 

Dr. Heermann first met with this wren in the spring of 1851, 
on the Cosumnes River. In the following year he procured three 
specimens on the Calaveras River. He describes it as an active, 
sprightly bird, having a loud and pleasing song that may be heard 
a great distance, and whirl) it repeats at short intervals. When 
found, it was occupied with searching for insects, between and 
under the large bowlders of rock that, in some portions of the 
river, are thrown together in confused masses, as if by some ter- 
rific convulsion of nature. 

Dr. Kennerly also met with this species in similar localities 
among the hills bordering upon the Big Sandy, where the 
rocks are also described as piled up thick and high. They 
"ere ,];ating from rock to rock and creeping among the crevices 
with great activity, constantly repeating their peculiar and sin- 
gular note. The great rapidity of their motions rendered it 
difficult to procure a specimen. He did not observe this bird 
anywhere else. 

Their occurrence equally in such wild and desolate regions, and 
in the midst of crowded cities, indicates that the abundance of 
their food in either place, and not the absence or presence of man, 
determines this choice of residence. When first observed they 



were supposed !,. nest exclusively in deep and inaccessible crev- 
ices of rocks, where they were not likely to be traced. Mr. 
H. E. Dresser afterwards nut with its nest and eggs in western 
Texas, though he gives no description of either. He found 
this species rather common near San Antonio, where it remained 
to breed. One pair IV _: otlice at that place, 

an old hal habits made 

them great favorites with the workmen, who informed him that 
the previous spring they had built a nest and reared their young 
in an old wall close by, and that they became very tame. At 
Dr. Heermaun's rancho, on the Medina, he procured the eggs 
of this bird, as well as those of the Carolina and Bewick's wrens 
{Thrynthi.nis LmlnrlcUnnt and T. Iii-i'-lrkii), by nailing up cigar- 
boxes with holes cut in front, wherever these birds were likely to 

Mr. Sumichrast describes its nest* as very skilfully wrought 
with spiders' webs, and built in the crevices of old walls, or in the 
interstices between the tiles under the roofs of the houses. A 
nest with four eggs, supposed to be those of this species, was ob- 
tained in western Texas by Mr. J. II. Clark; it was cup-shaped, 
not large, and with only a slight depression. The eggs, four in 
number, were unusually obloug and pointed for eggs of this 
family, and measured -80 by -(50 of an inch, with a crystalline- 
white ground, profusely covered with nunienm- and large blotches 

So far as the observations of Mr. Ridgway enabled him to 
notice this bird, he found it much less common than the Sal- 
piiictes obsoletes, and inhabiting only the most secluded and 
rocky recesses of the mountains. Its common note of alarm 
is described as a peculiarly ringing tlinl: It has a reniarkably 
odd and indescribably singular chant, utterly unlike anything 
else Mr. Ridgway ever heard. This consists of a series of 
detached whistles, beginning in a high fine key, every note 
clear, smooth, and of equal length, each in succession being a 
degree lower than the preceding one, and only ending when 
the bottom of the scale is reached. The tone is soft, rich and 
silvery, resembling somewhat the whistling of the cardinal gros- 
beak. 

It was often seen to fly nearly perpendicularly up the face of a 



rocky wall, and was also noticed to cling to the roof c 
all the facility of a true creeper. 






The differences between the Pacific coast specimens of H. celata 
from the interior regions — first pointed out in the "Re- 
view of American Birds" — are very readily appreciable upon a 
comparison of specimens. The present bird is a coast variety, 
entirely replacing the true celata (var. celata) in the region above 



4. Dendroica Downii'-n.ww. uJbllora Baikd. White-browed Wa 



P fSr ol C c a a I 



In the "Review" (p. 209) several variations in this species are 
noted ; but at that time there was not a sufficient number of speci- 
mens to warrant our coming to a conclusion as to their value. 
JNow, however, we have better materials before us, and upon the 
examination of about thirty specimens, including two series of 
nearly equal numbers,- one from the Atlantic states and the 
West Indies, the other from the Mississippi region and mi Idle 
Amenca-fi„d that there are two appreciably different races, to 
Hshed from each other by points of constant difference. 
AH birds of the first series have the bill longer than any of the 
latter the difference in a majority of the specimens being very 
^'•I'Table; they also have the supcmlian -, T , bright yellow 
anteriorly, while among the latter there is never more than a trace 
yellow over the lores, and even this minimum amount is dis- 
cernible only in one or two individuals. The West Indian form 
is, of course, the true Dominica, and to be distinguished as var 
as none of the synonymes of this species were founded 
upon the Mexican one, however, it will be necessary to propose a 
new name ; accordingly, the term var. albilora is selected as being 
most descriptive of its peculiar features. 

The following synopsis, taken from typical specimens, shows 
tne differences between these two races .— 



In the lower Wabash valley this form of the yellow-throated 
arbler is rather common during summer, and inhabits chiefly the 
marg ms of swamps in the bottom-lands, though in spring' and 
ail it makes occasional visits, with other species, to the orchards 
0r even the door-yards within the towns. In its manners it re- 
sembles the black and white creeper (Mniotilta varia) more than 
any other species, creeping, not only along the branches of trees, 
«t over the cornice and eaves of buildings, with all the facility of 



5. Dendroica Gracing \av. de<:or<< Ridoway. [londunis YTaiblei 



6. Myiodioctes pusillus, var. pileolata (Pallas).} 



xue aoove ia',.Ti|iti(ni is taken from a specimen in the col- 

eollected in California l,y I),-. <; :llI ,l,',l. and U vrv decidedly dif- 
ferent from any of the recognized .North American species. Of 
nearly the size of C. ewubitoroides and budovicianus, it has a bill 
even more powerful than that of C. borealis. In its mi waved 
under parts and uniform color of the entire upper surface, except 
scapulas, it dilfers from hnrouUs and wubitoroides, and resembles 
L<«1 'ririan,,. In the extension of white over the inner webs of 
the secondaries it closely resembles C. excubitor. The great 
••I" white at the base of the tail — the four central 
entin U Mack, and the bases of the others grayish- 

ferred to the L. rioyins of Swainson, alleged to have come from the 



-onsulered as resulting from an imperfect description. Messrs. 
Sharpe and Dresser, however, as here quoted, show that Swainson's 
jpe really belongs to L. lahtora, an Old World species. We, 

laving no reason to discredit the alleged locality of the specimen. 

Synopsis of the species (including 8, 9, 10 and 11 of this arti- 
le) of the 

Genus CERTHIOLA SuxDEVALL.f 



Indies, almost every island us far as known having its peculiar 
species, . luleniiii;. it 1- true, in very slight characters, but always 

representative of this genus, its place being supplied apparently 
by Cizreba cyanea, distributed besides throughout the continental 
tropical regions. The specimens from St. Thomas I cannot dis- 
tinguish from those of Porto Rico, but this is. so far as the series 
before me indicates, the only case where one species occurs on 
two islands. All the West Indian species, nine or ten in number, 
agree in having the whole upper part nearly uniformly du>ky or 
blackish ; the head and back being concolored, while of the three or 
four South American, all but one (C. luteola) have the back more 
olivaceous, the head much darker. Again, the West Indian spe- 
cies, with a single exception (C. bananivora), have both webs of 
lateral tail feathers broadly and about equally tipped with white ; 
while in all the South American this white is more restricted on 
the inner web, and on the outer reduced to a narrow border. C 
Caboti from Cozumel, near eastern coast of Yucatan, exhii.it> the 
continental impress in possessing the character last mentioned. 

In all the species from the Greater Antilles and the portion of 
continental America west and directly south of this group, there 
is a distinct external white patch at base of quills ; while this 
disappears in the species of the Lesser Antilles and eastern 
South America, or is only faintly traceable. Again, in the spe- 
cies of the Lesser Ant; .arance of the white 
winu'-patcli, the greater and middle wing-coverts show a faint 
edging of lighter, by which, as well as by the darker back, they 
n allies. 

The shape of the white patch at base of the quills on the outer 
web furnishes, in combination with the color of the throat, excel- 
lent and permanent specific characters. This in the Jamaican, 
lla\ 1 ana Uahaii i turm> i-> • _ i. extending '4 radualy 
and uniformly behind to the outer edge of the quill, while in 
those of Porto Rico, St. Thomas, Cozumel, and the South Ameri- 
can species, where it exists, the posterior outline is nearly trans- 
verse, and only running out a little along the outer web. 



As a general rule South American species have shorter tail- 
than the West Indian. 

It is a nice question what are really ^peeies in this genus, and 
what merely races or varieties: hut it would probably be not far 
from correct to assume that the various forms described are simply 
modifications of one primitive species, produced by geographical 
distribution and external physical conditions. In the following 
diagnosis I shall treat all the varieties as occupying the same 
rank, without attempting any discrimination. Although but one 
of these belongs to the United States, and that as a straggler from 
the Bahamas, I give the table of the whole, to show the inter- 
esting relationship between them. 



table is b;ise<l upon a critical r 

scimens belonging to the Smithsonian Instil 



ynopsis of the species of 

JUNCO 



The six forms diagnosed above appear to be well characterized 
by the distinctive features pointed out; and each one is so char- 
acteristic of the region which it inhabits that at least ninety per 
cent, of the specimens obtained during the hreeding season in 
any locality will be typical representatives of one or the other of 
these races. Unless, however, we admit the theory of hybridiza- 
tion, to account for intermediate specimens, and acknowledge it 
especially in this case, it is impossible to consider that any two of 
these forms are distinct >peciiiealiy. for they are connected by an 
uninterrupted series between the most extreme forms — hyemaUa 
and itWmla — without a break in the gradual progression from the 
one to the other. Thus, from Sun River, Dakota ; Ft. Whipple, 
Arizona ; Ft. Bridger, Wyoming, and the McKenzie River district, 
are specimens with the pinkish side- of Oregonus and plumbeous 
back of hyemalis; or else with black head or rusty back and wings, 
of the former, with ashy sides of the latter ; or with the charac- 
ters of the two mixed in various degree-. In the same, manner 
other specimens, from Ft. Bridger, Ft. Whipple. Ft. Burgwyn. 
New Mexico, Colorado, and the Yellowstone region, have the 
head, and black lores of t.vui- 
ccps with the pinkish sides and rounded outline to the ash of 
breast as in Ore<jo,ms; or else they have the rufous spread over 
the wings as in Of>«j<>n "*, and other characters as distinguishing 
canicfp*; other specimens are intermediate between the two in 
various ways. This form was characterized by Professor baud 
as Junco annectens (Birds Cab, i, 1870, app., p. 564). Among 
the southern Rocky Mountains, and in northern Mexico, speci- 
mens are found which combine perfectly the characters of caniceps 
and rincr^/s. These have the black and yellow bill and pale ash 
throat of the latter, and the rufous of the back strictly confined 
to the interscapulars as in the former. This form is the ./. <k>r- 
salis of Henry (Proc. Philad. Acad., 1858, 117. Baud, B. N. 
Am.. 1858, 467). 

In the effect of climate upon size, altitude appears to have far 
more potency in this group than latitude; thus in tracing these 
forms southward, then- is no noticeable decrease in dimensions, 
but on the contrary, the most southern form (aUicola) is larger 
than the most northern one {hyemalis). The alpine forms, how- 
ever, alticola and Aikeni, are considerably larger than those which 
breed at lower elevations. The climatic color-variation in this 



rather perple: 



to the 


laws. In Oregon 


it* of the Pacific coast we find the 


neons ( 


>r fuliginous plui 


-!''• of that r« -i" i 


ceps of 


the middle regioi 


a is paler than Oregonus and hyem 


would 1 


Oe expected ; in . 


Aikeni we readily detect the albii 


pllUHMg 


e of a very cold, 


alpine region. If we cannot fii 



instead it is darker than the race inhabiting the lower 
s (cinereus), we must look for an explanation. This 
laps, be found, in the supposition that the higher sum- 
Juatemala have a climate sufficiently cool and bracing 
•ate the bird generally, and thus make it larger and 

3nough to produce any Manehing effect upon the plu- 
le local conditions — perhaps denser forests or thickets — 
eeper color than cinereus of the more open table-lands. 









the.^e bands, in the form of obscure white tio> t 



A series of six specimens (f 



color. The o 


tin r extr 


the bands on 1 


;he coverl 


the inner web; 


! of the st 


There is nearl 


v :is mud 


Mr. Aiken aa 


ys tliat ' 


the wing-band 


s. and th 


The largest 


speeiim-ii 



Habits. But little is known as to the habits of 

let with by Mr. C. E. Aiken, near Fountain, El Pa 
olorado Territory, in the winter of 1871-72. Th 



of two or tin 



present race differ more from the 

\s, the bill being more slender, an 

, Botterii (=<< sf/r./Iis. vnr. Il.lt,,- 



close ; the difference being greater in the proportions thar 
colors, the latter having a shorter win- and tail, with thirl, 



Sclater. 

the difference being greater in the propo 

s rather a predominance of 
above. 
1 specimen described above 
aens upon which the latter 

as representing a perfectly 
i similarity of the specimen 



a variety of the common species : but we find it 

ie-Rio Grande region, and refer the supposed aber- 
cestivalis. In this Los Xogales specimen we find 
arences in proportions and colors as are sufficient 

d Mexican race, (var.,.//, ,//, a'nd var. /; '7, ,-,7) 



from each other only in such respects as would be expected, and 
a sn-ee substantially in other characters, by which they are distin- 
guished from the different plumages of aestivalis. Secondly, the 
re gion to be filled by a peculiar race of aestivalis is represented by 



the var. Arizona?., which is undoubtedly referable to t 

The P. Cassini is hardly less distinct from the races 

ter as a race of aestivalis, as to take the same view i 
Cassini. 

Synopsis of the genus 

CARDINALIS Bonap. 



OX THE OVIPOSITION OF THE YUCCA MOTH. 



To complete the natural history of Pronuba yuccasetta, a de- 
HTiption of the method of ovi position is necessa^. In a former 
article on this insect occur the following 



* or want of sufficient time, i have hoen unable to catch the 

■ _-.- are not deposited i.u the outside of 

stigmatic opening, following, most probably, the course of the pol- 
len tubes. 1 stroiiiiiv incline to the latter view. tor. tl, 
i-epidoptera are funiMied with exren-iie oviposit- rs. wliich enable 
-is! rheireo'u-s into crev.ces and other orifices, I know 
of none which actually punH.ire, nor have I been able to discover 

Neither have I been aide to «li -cover tlie egg in situ; which is 
'/■"' r y 1 "! "f the flesh <>f the young fruit. The ovipositor is so 



indeed, it often does in natural science ; while the curious < 
Pronuba adds one more to the anomalies which belong to hei 
She does puncture the young fruit and convey her eggs into 1 

The yucca flowers are fully openo! and perfect during a singl 
evening and night only, and it is during this, the first night c 
blooming, that eggs are consigned to the somewhat prismatic pil 



load of pollen, fo 
amount. 

Once equipped i 



until the tip of her ah. 
favora hie point is reach 



lelieaty and elasticity of the ovipositor pr..p.-r. which issiu 

No sooner is the ovipositor withdrawn into the abdome 

» the top of the pistil, uncoils her pol 

) the stigmatic openin 



hi'tvl vigorously a. I h:ive previously described — the 






lm i''i the influences of impregnation and eudosmosis, 

i tells ma that: ha hn* haon ihl« tn tmm tl 



622 on 

This larva hatches on the fourth or fifth day after the laying of 
the egg, and usually commences feeding between two ovules, 
which, in consequence of its action, swell abnormally. Thus in 
making a longitudinal section of the fruit these swollen ovules 
often indicate the presence of the worm where it would otherwise 
be overlooked while very small. 

While oviposition generally takes place in the manner described, 
the moth head outwards and straddling two stamens, an entirely 
opposite position must sometimes be assumed, since larvae and 
punctures are not unfrequently found in the upper part of the 
fruit, especially where a single one is stocked with ten or a dozen 
lame, as is sometimes the case.* As the fruit enlarges, the mouth 
of the puncture forms a slight, discolored depression, more notice- 
able in some varieties than in others : hut the passage-way becomes 

My observations this summer might be extended much in detail. 
They have convinced me more than ever that Prounha is the only 
insect by the aid of which our yuccas can be fully fertilized ; t"« >r 
I have studied this fertilization genth i Jit ftci night, with- 
out seeing any other species go near the stigma. The stigmatic 
opening closes after the first night and I know of no crepuscular 
or nocturnal species which could collect the requisite amount of 
pollen and bring it so to bear on the stigma that each ovule would 
receive the influence of a pollen grain. The species already enum- 
erated! as frequenting yucca are mostly diurnal and have nothing 
to do in the work ; and wherever I have excluded the moth from 
the flowers, by enclosing the latter with netting, no fruit has been 
produced. I am therefore led to believe that the few rare instances 
of yucca-fertilization, in localities where Pman/xi may be presumed 
not to occur, have been brought about by another in-eet acciden- 
tally, or by the stamens reaching an exceptional length, and the 
anthers being brought into contact with the stigma by the con- 
niving of the closing petals. 1 have found the stamens of varying 
length in the flowers on the same panicle and in some instance.- 
almost as long as the pistil. 

It is my intention to obtain a large number of cocoons this year 
and it will give me pleasure to distribute them among those who 



grow the yucca in those parts of this country or in Europe 
seed is not produced. The cocoons will be best sent in 
spring and should be buried three or four inches beneath t 



REVIEWS AND BOOK NOTICES. 

Prehistoric Races of the United States.*— Had the so-called 
Indian never existed in North America, it would, we think, have 
been a more satisfactory undertaking to endeavor to solve, from 
existing data, the mystery of that forgotten people of this conti- 

it is impossible to avoid uniting the traces of the two people, 
especially when describing stone implements, while professedly 

of the redman found in the Atlantic states, there are frequently 
ogle specimens, that seem applicable to the mound- 
builder rather than to the Indian : so, judging from relics of this 
character only, there seems to be a closer tie between the two 
peoples than the learned author of the volume before us is 
disposed to admit. Such is the impression made by a careful 
perusal of that portion of the work which describes the stone 
implements found in and near the earthworks referable to the 
mound-builders ; and it is the copper weapons and pottery that 

wise assignable to the mound-builders, that is not also character- 
Mid other purposes, then indeed, we see abundant reason for 



the opening chapters of the book, Dr. Foster gives an a 
ble resume of the evidences, in Europe and in the Unit 
;s, of the antiquity of man ; and follows these chaptc 
others on the geographical distribution of the works of t 

id-builders ; shel. -banks (w ich are as referable to India 

manufactures of their builders, and also, on their copp< 
cceeding these, is an exceedingly interesting chapter on t 



many subjects tnat are «>t -teanily increasing Intel 
arelueologists. As the main object of the work 

mound-builders and any of the races of the Old W 
the apparent similarity of manners and custom 
rather for their origin to that race who, in times i 

of Minas Genes, in connection with mammalian 



t of every imx 



here two very clearly expressed ideas i 
d-builders in North America, and of 
Dr. Foster does not believe, as we ha 
American origin of this people ; but seeks it 



REVIEWS AND BOOK NOTICES. 625 

discovery, by Dr. Lund, in Brazil, "of human bones of both sexes 
entirely preserved and partially petrified ; in fact, truly fossil 
bones, mixed with those of gigantic and extinct animals,*" "and 
points out the similarity of the crania from Brazil with authentic 
mound-builders' skulls, that similarity being " a remarkable de- 
ficiency of the frontal eminences, amounting to an almost entire 
absence of the forehead," and further adds, " a type which we find 
delineated on the monuments of Mexico and Central America and 
which is seen in the crania recovered from the shores of Lake 
Michigan and the banks of the Wabash and Mississippi." 

These mound-builders' skulls, it appears, from Dr. Foster's re- 
searches, "differ on the one hand from the Indian type, which is 
brachycephalic, and from the Teutonic, on the other, which is 
dolicocephalic.- They are intermediate, or orthocephalic ;" and, 
after giving some craniological details, adds, "I think we are jus- 
tified in drawing the conclusion that the mound-builders were not 
the ancestors of North American Indians." 

The conclusion drawn being that orthocephalic mound-builders 
could not or did not degenerate into redmen, who according to 
Ketzius are brachycephalic, "on that side of our continent which 
looks towards Asia and the isles of the Pacific" and dolicoce- 
phalic along the Atlantic seaboard, being nearly related to the 
Guanches of the Canary Islands, and the Caribs— but that " the 
primeval people of Brazil, the Huanchas of Peru, the platform 
builders of Mexico and the mound-builders of the Misaissippi 
Valley" were closely allied people. Of these, however, Dr. 
Foster distinctly states that the latter are orthocephalic ; while 
Retzius describes the others as decidedly dolicocephalic. If 
therefore both authors are correct, we cannot trace the connec- 
tion between the mound-builders, as described by Dr. Foster, and 
the races described by Retzius, to whom our author refers so 
frequently, as to the characteristics of their crania. And, on the 
other hand, if the orthocephali are derived from dolicocephalic 
autochthones of Brazil, why may not their descendants have be- 
come, by sexual selection, brachycephalic redmen, or indeed re- 
verted to the ancestral dolicocephalic form ? The fossil men of 
Minas Geraes may be the ancestors of the mound-builders, but do 
the craniological details brought forward by Dr. Foster, of them- 



A word more, and we have done. "We have asserted that our 
author did not seek, out of America, for the origin of the Ameri- 
can races. Such would seem to be his opinion, when he asks the 
question (chap, x) "Who were the mound-buil'lt'isr'' ;ui.l also in 
discussing "manners and customs as the basis of ethnic illa- 
tions:" but in chapter xi, we find Dr. Foster asserting that he 
doubts not u that there will be found continuous and urn. 
causes which shall explain all the diversities in the different 
branches of the human family, without the necessity of i\—>:t in- 
to independent creations." To this we cannot subscribe, and 
think we see in it a contradiction to the whole tenor of the pre- 
ceding chapters. 

The antiquity of the redman in America can scarcely be meas- 
ured ; it is- probable that he " witnessed the declining existence 
of the mastodon and megalonyx, in the later ages of ' 
period*" — that of the mound-builder can scarcely be greater, 
and efforts to trace his origin "toa common fountain of life, as 
with other a g the earth, soon involve the inves- 

tigator in the mazes of conjecture." 

We learn from the preface of the volume before us, that Dr. 
Foster hoped at a later day "to draw more liberally from the ma- 
terials at his command." It will ever be a source of regret that 
his untimely death has forever ended his valuable labors in 
American archaeology. Valuable and interesting as is the work 
we have briefly reviewed, we doubt not but that a more compre- 
hensive monograph from the same gifted source would have over- 
come many of the difficulties that now beset the path of American 
archaeologists. — C. C. A. 

Classification of North American Beetles-! — Since his re- 
cent return from a stay of several years in Europe, Dr. LeConte 
has applied himself to the study oV our beetles, and with what 
success may be seen in the amount of work contained in the two 
pamphlets we notice in this number of the Naturalist. 

Though this second part is much smaller than the first, and 
treats of but two families, the Spondylidae and Ce/ambycidas, ye* 
the work is done in the same thorough, comprehensive way that 



characterized the first, and which places the author, in his mas- 
terly grasp of the subject, foremost among the living writers on 
Coleoptera. 

Each family of beetles is fully characterized, with detailed de- 
scriptions of the subfamilies, tribes, and brief diagnoses of all the 
genera, together with interesting remarks of a general nature. 
The work when completed will necessarily be a complement as 
well as supplement of Lacordaire's famous "Genera of Coleop- 
tera," and will invite the attention of European entomologists, 
while in America it will be the Coleopterist's vade mecum. 

New North American Beetles.*— Dr. LeConte, in this second 
part of "New Species of North American Coleoptera," describes 
eighty-nine new species of beetles, mostly from the Pacific coast. 
A number of new genera are also characterized. 



BOTANY. 

Flowering of Aplectrum. — With us the flowering of Aplec- 
trum hyemale Xutt. appears to be an exceedingly rare event; so 
much so, that close watching of the plant in our woods, for sev- 
eral years, on my part, has been unrewarded by a single instance 
of its blossoming. The experience of others corroborates the 
conclusion that it is a shy bloomer, at least in Michigan. I am 
anxious for information on the point referred to, as regards 
other localities. A friend once succeeded in obtaining the flowers 
by taking up the plants in the spring, and keeping them in saucers 
of the rich black mould which the Aplectrum loves so well, thor- 
oughly moistened. A plant which I once potted sent up a fine 
scape, several inches high, but, owing to the want of proper care 
during my absence from home, it did not come to perfection. 

The Aplectrum was formerly well represented in the woods 
north of Detroit ; but the encroachment of the city is fast destroy- 
ing the station which was remarkable for the abundance of this 
rather scarce plant. However, it is, even now, far from exhausted. 
On the 20th of April, 1873, I took from a space about ten feet 
square, in a piece of beech woods, thirty of these plants, which I 



transferred to my garden, in the hope of seeing them blossom. I 
shall duly communicate the result. Some years ago, I gave 
sever.'! 1 handsome roots to a Boston friend, for cultivation; but 
I have not heard since regarding them. Some which I have 
kept potted for three years invariably send up every summer 
their large, many-plaited leaves, which remain throughout the 
winter as usual ; but the flowers are not produced. It may be 
that, in order to procure the desired result, the pot should not 
be kept housed during winter, but remain plunged in the open 
ground. 

I have thought that perhaps the destruction of the native forest, 
depriving the plant of some element necessary to its perfect devel- 
opment, is the cause of its so seldom or never blossoming here. 
This is a suggestion worthy of note as regards the history of 
other plants as well as of this one. Of late years the Aplectrum 
is, with us, of less lux formerly. — Henry Gill- 

man, Detroit, Michigan. 

A Yew Flowering in Winter. — About six weeks ago I nipped 
a small spray off a dwarf yew tree, protruding through the snow, 
in my neighbor's garden. It was my intention to press it ; but 
for immediate convenience it was put in a glass of water, in the 
sitting room, and for some time no more was thought about it. A 
few days ago (Feb. 7), I was astonished to find a number of full 
blown flowers on the spray. These pretty, diminutive objects 
were accompanied with an interesting phenomenon. The anthers 
kept up a little fusillade of explosions, throwing off the yellow 
pollen in tiny clouds. My thumb nail, which happened to be near 
one of the little globular catkins about as large as a canary's eye, 
was quite yellow with the ejected powder. I shook off some on 
the slide of a microscope. They were, in form, when under a lens 
of high power, like angular pebbles, and although I had barely 
touched the slide with my nail, yet the number of pollen grains 
under the microscope was innumerable. To me, this affair wa- 
intensely interesting, and a very pleasant episode in a sick room. 
The entire process can doubtless be repeated by any one, with the 
certainty of success, even in midwinter. The pretty little stran- 
gers still continue blooming on my table, and impart a cheeriness 
to this unusually bleak St. Valentine's Day.— S. L., in Monmouth 
Democrat, Freehold, A T . J. 



Variations in Medeola and Uvularia.— On the 17th of June, 
1872, I found in the woods near Fredericton, N. B., a specimen 
of Medeola Virginica (not rare in these parts), possessing the 
following unusual characteristics. 

The whole plant was about eighteen inches high. Instead of 
the usual whorl of leaves near the middle of the stem, the whole 
of these were clustered at the summit, there producing a sort of 
double whorl, of twelve leaves in all, the lower and outer being 
of the usual size and gradually becoming smaller and oval-lanceo- 
late towards the top, thus embracing the upper whorl of three 
leaves usually found beneath the flower. The latter was still 
more anomalous in character, the single blossom (which was erect, 
and not recurved, upon a short stout peduncle) having one petal 
recurved between two of the sepals, which with the remaining 
petals were alike and spreading, with incurved edges. Within 
the perianth were four other bodies, apparently petals, but some- 
what stamen-like in aspect, followed by three good and three ap- 
parently abortive stamens, the whole surrounding six dfU 
stigmas ! Are these results the effect of an effort at reversion, 
or are they due to a partial consolidation of the two or more flow- 
ers usually found in the same situation — or both? 

Another curiosity, though less remarkable than the last, and 
recently observed by me, is a specimen of Uvularia a 
possessing three well forme 1 dowers instead of the solitary one or 
rarely two, described in Gray's Manual as usual with the plant. 
Both of the above specimens were preserved and are now in my 
herbarium.— L. W. Bailey. 

A New Ballast Waif. — Kaighn's Point, opposite Philadel- 
phia — a place where ballast is discharged — is noted for the for- 
eign plants which appear there year after year, some of which are 
disposed to remain. To the list of such plants which has been 
published we may now add a remarkable one, Calycera balsamiti- 
folia, a native of Buenos Ajres, a representative of a singular 
small family, nearly allied to Composite, and peculiar to extra- 
tropical South America. It was collected by Mr. Isaac Burk, 
and determined by Dr. H. Leffmann of Philadelphia.— A. G. 



ZOOLO GY. 
The Preservation of the Lower Animals. — I have the honor 
of making known to the class two methods that I have employed 
at Helgoland, during the last season, for the preparation and pres- 
ervation of Medusae, Ctenophorse, Noctilucte and most of those 
lower forms, transparent as crystal, which live at the surface of 
the sea, and which the use of the towing net furnishes in abun- 
dance. I submit to the class different jtfedusse (Oceania, Gery- 
onopsis), Ctenophorse and some Noctilucse prepared for several 
months, and remarkable for their perfect preservation. 

One of these methods consists in the use of a weak solution of 
osmic acid, the other in the use of picric acid. 

Osmic acid has been constantly employed in histology, espe- 
cially for the study of the nerve-terminations, and Max Schultze 
has made known, by his beautiful researches on the structure of 
the retina, all the advantages which the use of this reagent 
presents. Not only does the osmic acid harden the. most delicate 
tissues and organs, allowing us to make fine sections, but it 
possesses the valuable property of coloring brown, afterward* 
black, the fatty parts in general, and more particularly myeline. 
It tints in brown epithelial cells and muscular tissues ; it renders 
very apparent the fibrillar structure of the cylinder of the axis of 
nervous fibres, and brings out clearly the isolated nerve fibrillar 
Very recently, F. S. Schultz has employed with great success 
osmic acid for his beautiful histological researches on Cordylo- 
phora lacustris. This reagent indicates admirably the limits of 
the cells and brings out well their different characters. 

I have used osmic acid to prepare Medusae and Ctenophorse, in 
order to save them from the destructive action of alcohol, in the 
following manner. The object is placed in a very feeble solution of 
osmic acid, for a time varying, according to the nature of these mi- 
nute organisms, from fifteen to twenty-five minutes. After this lapse 
of time the animals are colored pale brown ; the cells of the endo- 
derm and the organs attached to the endodermic layer are alone col- 
ored, and the other tissues preserve their original transparence. 
Thanks to this coloration of the endodermic cellules the gastrc-vas- 
cular canals are admirably indicated, and the cirrhi become more 
distinct than in the small, living Medusa?. At the same time all the 

(630) 



tissues harden, and we can then withdraw from the acid solution 
the objects which have been submitted to its action, wash them 
carefully several times, and then place them in strong alcohol 
without running the risk of finally destroying either their elegant 
forms or the transparence of their tissues. We can even after 
several weeks, and probably after several months, study the organ- 
ization and the structure of these delicate beings as well as if we 
had them living under our eyes. 

Another method that I have employed with success consists in 
the use of picric acid in a concentrated aqueous solution. I have 
preserved in this liquid, for about six weeks, small Medusae 
(Oceania) and NoctilucaB. We only notice that the small Medusa* , 
which are perfectly transparent in life, have become plainly 
opaque. I have examined microscopically some Noctilucse thus 
preserved, and can state that they appear just as they came from 
the sea. — E. Van Beneden. 

The Avi-fauna of Colokado.— Dr. Coues, in the June number 
of the Naturalist, criticises the Holden-Aiken list of the Birds of 
Colorado. So far as his criticism has any pertinence, it would 
seem to be to complain of the incongruity of grouping in the same 
list birds found in northern and in southern portion*, of this terri- 
tory. If this were the first time that local lists were made, based 
on political and disregarding natural lines, it would perhaps be 
worth while to discuss this point. Or I might fall back upon my 
reserved rights, and, while allowing to my critic the full right to 
his individual opinion, claim the right to differ, toto coelo. Or I 
mignt cite, in extenuation of my offence, a well known list of New 
England Birds, in which "such birds as" the hooded warbler and 
the Canada jay "find themselves in ornithological company they 
never saw outside of a book—" or that of the birds of Arizona, 
or of South Carolina wherein similar forced associations are only 
possible cum longo intervallo. But my transgression is one for 
which I propose to make no excuse, and for which I do not need 
even such illustrious examples ; and I would not now have re- 
ferred to this critique but for an unfortunate error which I deem it 
important to set right. Facts are more valuable than mere 
unsupported theory, and illustrations are peculiarly unfortunate 
when they contradict instead of confirming an hypothesis. Such 
is the case with my critic. To demonstrate the impropriety of the 



632 ZOOLOGY. 

Holden-Aiken list, Dr. Coues says "such birds as Geococcyx Cali- 
fornianus and Pipilo mesoleucus find themselves in ornithological 
company they never saw outside of a book." Now so far from 
demonstrating the incongruity of this list, the sentence I quote 
proves the need of it. It enables us to teach even so good an 
ornithologist as our critic, and it also shows that it is never 
safe to argue on merely negative ground. The illustration he has 
chosen, so far from confirming, refutes his objections. Mr. Aiken 
informs me that not only are both of these birds found in Colo- 
rado, even in the same county, but that he knows positively of 
several instances in which G. CaUfornianus and P. mesoleucus 
have been seen within a few rods of each other. A valid reason 
might also be urged for the absence, in the list, of any description 
of Junco Ailceni, but it would not interest your readers to hear it : 
enough that it was both unavoidable in itself, and a postponement 
rather than an omission.— T. M. Brewer. 

Malformations.— Last winter one of our pupils at New Bruns- 
wick, N. J., communicated the fact that he had purchased, the pre- 
vious autumn, of a huckster woman in Newark, a pair of young 
ducks, each having four wings. The woman had twelve for sale, 
and said that' the eggs were laid by a well formed bird ; that she 
hatched a brood of sixteen, every one of them having four wings. 
The youth said that h'is birds used both pairs of wings in flying, 
that is, in moving rapidly on the surface of the pond. They did 
not live long. Whether this was due to any defective vitality in 
the birds, or to any extraneous cause, could not be learned. 

But we turn from these traditionary facts to a catastrophe, which 
our own eyes have inspected, as having befallen a family of cats. 

About a mile and a half from Freehold, N. J., lives an intelli- 
gent family who have had for several years an annual litter of 
malformed cats. Several years ago a young male cat was brought 
from Allentown, some twenty miles distant. This cat had a de- 
formity in one front foot, which had six toes. It coupled with a 
cat of normal form and parts, and a litter of four or five was the 
result, all with six-toed front feet. The she cat became trouble- 
some, getting into the pantry, and so was sent off. The kittens 
were disposed of except one. With this the paternal cat united, 
and the result was four kittens each having six toes on each fore- 
foot, and five on each hind-foot. This intermixing, as I under- 



stand, by this Grimalkin Turk, has gone on for some four years, 
and to-day, July 29th, I examined one of his daughters, some 
three months old, which has six toes on each of the hind-feet, and 
seven toes on each of the fore-feet. The fore-feet are bifurcated ; 
that is, they have, as it were, each two paws to one foot, the 
outer paw of each foot being much the larger, and having four 
toes ; and the inner, or smaller paw, on each foot, having three 
toes. This kitten was one of a litter of four, all malformed pre- 
cisely alike. On some points I could not get the exact informa- 
tion desired. But I should think that the vitality of these cats 
is becoming less and less, as they do not become common. To me 
it seems astounding when I attempt to conceive of the physical 
equation which enters into this erratic conception — the minute- 
ness of the abnormal material which, plus the normal substance 
as imparted by the spermatozoon, gives the initial impulse to a 
result so eccentric. If, as Goethe declared, " It is in her mon- 
strosities that Nature reveals to us her secrets," one would like to 
know something of the mode and motive of such a distribution of 
the life force. During our inspection of Miss Tabbie it was all 
very well so long as we stroked her back with one hand. She 
purred as expressive of true feline luxuriousness ; and, what is not 
common, she even licked the other hand as indicating affection. 
But when we meddled with her extremities, she evidently regarded 
it as taking personal liberties with unpleasant peculiarities ; and 
instantly rewarded our duplicity by investing in our hand the seven 
talons concealed in that duplex napkin.— Samuel Lockwood. 

The " Willow Wands " from Burrard's Inlet.— I have been 
able definitely to place the above, referred to by my friend "W. H. 
D -» M on page 488 of this volume of the Naturalist, by the receipt 
in this city of several specimens in good preservation. The 
"wands" or "switches" prove to be what the majority of scien- 
tific gentlemen who had seen specimens, supposed, viz., the cen- 
tral stalks or axes of Alcyonoid polypes, but do not belong to the 
genus Umbelhdaria as suggested by me, but to a new species of 
Pavonaria, which I have described in the " Mining and Scientific 
Press" (August 9th) of this city, under the name of Ptoxmatria 



Blakei. 



beautiful form resembling in a general 



British species P. quadrangular is from Oban. The most perfect 
specimen, but not the largest, displayed some 245 ^-like rows, 



and numbered about 5000 individual potypcs. With P. Bhtb>i 
were received specimens of Pennatula tenua Gabb, described in 
Proc. Cal. Acad., vol. ii. — R. E. C. Stearns, San Francisco. 

The Kingfisher.— In a recent number of the Naturalist is a 
note by Dr. Abbott contradicting Darwin's statements as to the 
manner in which the kingfisher {Ceryle alcyon) takes its food. 
Permit me to add my testimony in favor of Darwin. Having ob- 
served the habits of birds for some years I can say that the king- 
fisher divides its food by means of its bill, before swallowing. 
The smaller fish being soft are easily crushed and divided while 
being swallowed. The larger fish are frequently jtarfiaih -"'al- 
lowed and so carried to a convenient perch and there disgorged, 
and then a few strokes of the bill divide it ready for digestion. 
A dissection of a kingfisher will show the above to be the ease.— 
E. E. Breed, Duluth, Minn. 

The "Horned Toad."— It may be of some interest to the 
readers of the Naturalist to know that the common horned toad 
i Pfrrunosoma cornuta) produces a large number of young at a 
single birth. Last summer Mr. George Eddy of this city brought 
me a toad which had given birth to twenty-five little ones, and two 
weeks ago (July 14) a boy called after me and showed me a toad 
which only two hours before had given birth to twenty-even. 
The young were exceedingly active and could run as rapidly ta 
the old one. — John Wherrell, Leavenworth, Kansas. 

The Black Snowbird Breeds on the Gratlock Range. I 
have for some time suspected that the black snowbird {JuMSO 
hyemalis) breeds on the mountains of this region; but I have 
never found the nest of this bird here till to-day. To-day I found 
the nest, with two eggs, on one of the hills belonging to the Gray- 
lock range. It was on the ground just under the edge of a little 
bank and was made of dried grasses and linad with black hair. 

Jacob Horton, of the senior class in this college, found the nest 
and eggs of this bird on Graylock a few days ago. — Sanborn 
Tenney, Williams College, Aug. 6, 1873. 

Addition to the Avi-fauna of America. — One of the birds 
obtained by our party in the Aleutian Islands during last season, 
with an incomplete set of eggs, was forwarded by Prof. Baird < to 
whom the specimens were submitted) to Mr. Harting of London ; 



it is the Tringa crassirostris of Temminck and Schlegel, a 
hitherto known only from eastern China and Japan, and s 
toting addition to our northwestern fauna.— W. H. Dall 



GEOLOGY. 

On a Few Mineral Localities which are Not Mentioned in 
the Books. — Beryl occurs sparingly in the southern part of Sul- 
livan, New Hampshire. I have an absolutely perfect crystal, both 
terminations perfect, from this place. Dana mentions beryl from 
Sullivan with a query. 

From Alstead, N. H., I have obtained crystals of beryl which 
have yielded the most beautiful gems. The beryl here is found 
near the well known mica quarry. In the mica quarry itself there 
occurs an interesting variety of albite, containing prominent scales 
Of a 8i I very colored mica. The small crystals of beryl from the 
old mica quarry are remarkable for their modified terminations. 

In Gilsum, N. H., I have obtained crystals of beryl, and tine 
crystals of mica. I found them in a cut made through the coarse 
granite, for the highway, between Gilsum and Marlow. 

A mile or two northwesterly from the centre of the town of 
Acworth, N. H., and on the north side of the old highway from 
this town to North Charlestown, there is a locality of Woe kya- 
r. 1 gave at the Troy meeting 
of the American Association for the Advancement of Science. 
Hi> kvanite will be seen, by the careful observer, on the stone 
wall by the wayside, and it is found in place a little to the north- 
ward of the wall. A variety of kyanite (fibrolite?) is common in 
the mica slate of the eastern part of Marlow, N. H. Black tour- 
maline also occurs in this town. 

Plumbago occurs sparingly in the last named town ; also more 
abundantly in Weare, N. H. The fact of its occurrence in Weare 
*nay have been recorded before. I am not sure about it. 

Acicular crystals of rutile in perfectly limpid quartz occur as 
bowlders in the southern part of New Hampshire. I have one of 
these which I obtained in Jaffrey, N. H., but of its exact locality I 
at n not now sure. I may here add that I have a similar specimen 
from the northern part of Vermont, and from the fact that not a 
f ew specimens of this sort have been found in these two states, it 
»s evident that somewhere to the northward there is an important 
locality of this mineral.— Sanborn Tenney. 



636 

The "Glades" of Maryland.— Will you call the attention of 
geologists who may 1 to passing <..v».t the Baltinioiv and Ohio rail- 
road to this very peculiar region? From a bird's-eye view which 
I had from a summit, a little north of Oakland station, in Alle- 
ghany county. I am satisfied that these meadows were the seat of 
ancient glaciers. If this is so, it brings the former glacier level 
of the Alleghanies much lower than has heretofore been supposed ; 
that is to say down to 2400 or 2500 feet above mid-tide at Balti- 
more. — George Gibbs, Neiv Haven. 

Bowlders.— I believe it has long been known that in many 
cases bowlders are formed by exfoliati(*n and disintegration in the 
very situations in which we find them. Fine examples of granite 
bowlders of this sort occur near the ordinary stage road about 
five or six miles, more or less, north of the Yosemite. — Sahbqb* 
Tenney. 

ANTHROPOLOGY. 

The Age of the Famous Gaudeloupe Skeleton.— M. Hamy 
has just made, at the Museum of Natural History at Paris, a dis- 
covery of much interest in relation to the age of the famous 
Gaudeloupe skeleton. He found in one of the blocks containing 
a skeleton of a child eight years old, an amulet of jade, represent- 
ing a batrachian. This jewel he pronounces to be of Carib origffl. 
Eochefort and Du Tertre speak of the fondness of the primitive 
n of this archipelago for certain green and red stones, 
and especially those which had the form "grenouille" (frog). The 
block was carried to Paris at the same time as the one enclosing 
the skeleton examined by Cuvier. Abridged from the Paris 
"Journal des Debats." 



MICROSCOPY. 
A New Chimney for Microscope Lamps.— Mr. Wenham « 
as a chimney a cylindrical brass tube with a space cut out o{ 
side, which space is closed with an 
place by a spring clip. The tube 
the perishable part, the glass slip, can be instantly replaced wiier- 
ever the microscopist may be, while the peculiarly sh . 
chimneys, commonly used on microscope lamps, cannot be obtaine 
away from the large cities. 



637 

Separating Diatoms. — In cleaning diatoms, and in preparing 
other microscopic specimens, it is often necessary to decant part 
of the fluid in a vessel without disturbing the remainder, in order 
to separate those objects or particles which are heavy and settle 
promptly from those which are lighter and remain longer diffused 
through the liquid. When no great nicety is required, the upper 
portion of the liquid may simply be 
poured carefully off from the lower ; as 
in washing sediments, where all but the 
heavier part is to be thrown away, 
much better separation is accomplished 
by a syphon, either the upper or the 1 
er portion, preferably the latter, being 
quietly drawn off by this means. This 
apparatus is so simple as to be easily 
made and managed, and easily cleaned 
for subsequent use. Of the more com- 
plicated contrivances for this use, one 
of the best is Benning's (See Nave's 
Collector's Hand Book of Algae, etc., 
London, 1869, p. 26), which consists spring Tap. 

of a tall jar with a series of stop-cocks or taps at various heights, 
the water containing the objects being conducted by a funnel to 
the bottom of the jar, and the objects escaping with the water 
from the various taps according to the readiness with which they 
settle through the water. Another plan, a modification by John 
H. Martin of a previously used apparatus (see Martin's Manual 
of Microscopic Mounting, London, 1872, p. 24), consists of a 
closed cylinder with several tubes leading through the top, the 
lower ends of these tubes opening inside of the cylinder at dif- 
ferent heights, and the fluid being forced out through them by the 
pressure of a column of water carried in a flexible rubber tube. 
The disadvantages of these contrivances are their complexity, diffi- 
culty of cleaning, and danger of imperfect cleaning. A simpler 
arrangement is to use a tube drawn out to a funnel-shape at the 
bottom, and closed below by a spring-tap consisting of a rubber 
tube pressed together by a wire spring as represented in the cut. 
T uis apparatus, described in the "Collector's Hand Book" (p. 
22 ) and elsewhere, is easily worked and cleaned, and eminently 
^satisfactory. Though much used abroad, it has scarcely been 
adopted in this country. 




638 NOTES. 

Note on a New t l Objective. — In the Na 1 
appears the announcement that "Mr. Tolles has recently com- 
pleted a T \ objective perfectly satisfactory to himself." Now the 
fact is Mr. T. never constructed an objective of any power "per- 
fectly satisfactory to himself," and I really think it necessary to 
put in a plea in abatement to this effect. — Robt. B. Tolles. 

Wales. — Wm. Wales, who has been abroad this summer, has 
returned to Fort Lee, N. J., and resumed work in the construction 
of his well-known and much-used objectives. 



NOTES. 

At the second meeting of the Agassis Natural History Club. 
held at the Anderson School of Natural History, July 30th, Mr. 
Jordan gave an account of two algaB common on our shores, 
known as Chordaria flagelliformis and Dictyosiphon feniculasem, 
"hi- li li:iu Itei i, < ..nsidcivd as distinct plants and referred to dif- 
ferent orders. Areschoug suggested, some time ago, that tin lattei 
was but an abnormal state of the former, but this view has not 
been accepted by other algologists. Mr. Jordan showed a drawing 
of a specimen of Chop la ese harbor, two of whose 

branches were, to all appeal tuic.^. Dictyosiphon. l>oth to the nake<l 
eye and under the microscope. Unless the Dictyosiphon were 
parasitic, which on close examination seems impossible, or unless 
it be not identical with the plant described under that name in 
Europe he thought we must conclude that the two alleged species 
are but different forms of Chordaria flagelliformis. 

Mr. Ingersoll mentioned some of the changes in the general 
forms of terns, in their growth. In the bird just ready to hatch the 
head is about as bulky as the whole body, and the distance from 
the commissure to the crown is nearly as far as to the occiput ; tbe 
bill is short and thick, the eyes well forward, large and closed. 
The shoulders are tolerably narrow and the body widens and thick- 
ens posteriorly. The legs are long in proportion, lack color and 
rigidity, and seem fat and useless. The body is covered wit* 
flexible, hair-like tubes instead of feathers, which, however, indi- 
cate in their areas of growth the pterylography of the species. 
At birth changes begin which culminate in maturity. The bil 
becomes long, attenuated and sharp at the tip, until it measures 
from commissure to tip twice the distance from commissure to 



occiput. The bill is now bright red with more or less black 
about the tip. The black tip is apparent in the embryo, but the 
red does not appear till the bird is ready to fly, and then but 
faintly. Meanwhile the top of the head flattens till the angle be- 
tween it and the culmen is almost lost ; so that the longest diam- 
eter of the head is the horizontal. The neck is still long and 
slender, but in the body the main bulk is anterior between the 
shoulders, and not in the hinder part of the body where the yolk- 
is absorbed, as in young birds. The breast bone gradually in- 
creases in strength and the keel assumes its large proportions by 
the time of maturity. 

Mr. J. Tingley asked if the colors could be preserved in star- 
fishes. Prof. Agassiz replied that certain shades of color were 
more evanescent than others, but in the end all would disappear. 
Specimens preserved in glycerine or alcohol would preserve their 
colors for a short time. It was not known to what the colors were 
due ; and this was true of all marine animals. Color, in some 
fishes examined, was found to be due to different oils accumulated 
w distinct cells, and different tints arose from the grouping of cer- 
tain cells. The Professor said further that nothing could be more 
beautiful under the microscope than these pigment cells, and 
it was easy to obtain them— only take a little piece of colored skin. 
He had forty folio colored plates of one species from the embryo, 
where the pigment cells were few, up to older specimens where 
they were crowded one behind the other, and he had seen them in 
v «-'ry mum conditions, yet he had not come to the end of the story. 
The different tints were, he supposed, owing to different oxida- 
tion ; at any rate the colors seemed to be different conditions of 
an identical substance. 



At the recent meeting of the American Association for the Ad- 
vancement of Science held in Portland, Maine, from Wednesday, 
August 20th to Tuesday, the 26th, one hundred and fifty-seven 
Papers were entered on the general list. Abstracts were received 
oi all but nine and were referred to the sectional committees who 
allowed most of them to be read ; a number that were read, how- 
ever, were not approved by the oo don. This 
D is yearly becoming more necessary in order 
to keep up the < 
and to keep the lin 



640 NOTES. 

ciation, though it would be a subject for great regret if funds were 
not at hand for the printing of every paper that advanced science. 
The very opportune donation of one thousand dollars by Mwi 
Elizabeth Thompson, the first patron of the Association, will allow 
the commencement of a new series of publications of papers em- 
bodying original research, thus enabling the committee to show 
especial honor to such papers. Seventy-seven of the papers pre- 
sented were referred to Section B (natural history) and many of 
them were of first rank in scientific importance. 

The general character of the meeting was decidedly scientific, 
and the discussions, though sometimes sharp, were carried on with 
a general good feeling and no personalities arose to mar the good 
nature of the meeting. The rooms of the City Building, where all 
the meetings were held, were all that could be desired. The Local 
Secretary and a few other members of the Local Committee w«« 
indefatigable in their efforts to make the meeting pleasant and suc- 
cessful so far as the local arrangements were concerned. It must 
be confessed, however, that the social element and the sympathy 
of the citizens generally with the objects of the Association i 
far less than at any piv\i..n- imciin^ which we I 
The lunch given by the ladies of Portland and the clam bate u 
Old Orchard Beach broke the ice a little, but that hearty entering 
of the citizens into the objects of the Association, which has cha* 
acterized former meetings, was wanting. The excursions, by rail 
and steamer, after the adjournment, were much enjoyed by those 
able to remain and take part in them. About two hundred old 
members were present and one hundred and ten new members were 
elected. Prof. Lovering in his closing remarks as presi 
an eloquent speech and declared the twenty-second meeting closed 
at 11 o'clock a. m. on Tuesday, August 26th. 

Among the important business transacted during the session 
was the report of a special committee on a revision of the Consti- 
tution, looking to a better carrying out of the objects of the Asso- 
ciation. This report will come up for action at the m i 
which will be held at Hartford, Connecticut, on the second Y> ed- 
nesday of August, 1874. 

The general officers of the next meeting are Dr. J. L. LeConte, 
President ; Prof. C. S. Lyman, Vice President ; Dr. A. C. Hamlin, 
General Secretary ; Mr. F. W. Putnam, Permanent Secretary. 



attended. 



THE 

AMERICAN NATURALIST. 

Vol. VII. -NOVEMBER, 1873. -No. 11. 



The subject announced in the programme for this evening's 
lecture is " The Structure and Growth of Domesticated Animals." 
It would take a year's course to do justice to the whole subject, 
and I had therefore to choose a portion of it, and especially >ir-1i 
a part as may give you an idea of the difficulties of inv< 
some of the topics which are, perhaps, of the greatest importance 
in practical life. It is often expected that science will furnish all 
the information wanted at a given moment, but iinf 
science is not always ready. My object is to show that you 
must have knowledge before you can apply it, and that knowledge 
is not always to be had for the asking. There is not always that 
information on hand which may be needed even for the most 
useful purposes ; and in order to allay the impatience which is 
sometimes manifested in respect to the want of usefulness on the 
part of scientific men and their ability to enter into the arena of 
'lie, I wish to show you how ditlieult it i- to handle some 
of the subjects, and I have chosen one respecting which, of course, 
science can furnish all the 
i) wanted. 






642 

Concerning the anatomy of our domesticated animals there is a 
great deal known ; enough to give a good idea of the pe 
of the full-grown animals of the different kinds which we raise to 
u-c for various purposes. Concern 

there is also a great deal known, which is of value and service to 
guide us in our treatment of them. Nobody expects to treat a 
pig as he treats a horse ; and the difference in our management of 
two such animals is determined by what we know of their struc- 
ture, by what we know of the functions or the play of their char- 
acteristic organs ; but there is one topic about which the farmer 
would like to know more, and that is in reference to breeding ; 
and especially such points in the process of breeding as would 
enable him to do certain things which would add greatly to the 
value of our stock. If it were known how to raise male animals 
in places where it is desirable to have them in larger numbers, if 
it were known how to raise heifers in those regions where dairy 
farming is largely carried on, imagine what an advantage it would 
be to be able to determine beforehand the sex of the animals to 
be bred. Unfortunately, we do not know enough to-day to guide 
us in that direction, and yet I have not the remotest doubt that 
the time is coming when we shall be able to bring forth what we 
want, as we have been able to produce certain peculiar modifica- 
tions of the various kinds of domesticated animals to suit our pur- 
poses, — when we want beef rather than milk, when we want 
strength rather than delicacy of structure. Now, how shall we 
get at it? We have not the information. You may consult the 
men of science, the most learned men of the day in every part of 
the world, and they will say, "Upon these topics we have no 
satisfactory knowledge whatsoever." It is to be reached only by 
studying the various functions connected with the process of 
breeding, by studying especially the earlier stages of the growth 
of animals with which we are familiar, and studying them with 
reference to that point. Upon that topic I will make a few state- 
ments concerning the facts with which I am familiar. 

It is not long since all animals were divided into two classes 
with reference to their breeding. Some were called oviparous— 
that is, egg-laying animals, which multiply by laying eggs, out of 
which a young animal is eventually evolved ; the others were called 
viviparous, — such as bring forth living young, after a more or less 
protracted gestation ; and these two classes of animals were sup- 



ANIMALS. 643 

posed to be widely different one from another, both in structure 
and in mode of reproduction ; but less than fifty years ago, a 
German physiologist, Karl Ernst von Baer, one of the ablest 
investigators of our century, made the astounding discovery that 
all animals bring forth eugs that may not be distinguished from 
one another at a certain stage ; that all our cattle, all our domes- 
ticated animals, all the beasts of the forest, as well as all the 
birds on earth, produce eggs similar to one another. This seems 
a very extraordinary statement, yet perhaps I shall be able to 
make you familiar with the fact, and to make you understand it 
as fully as you know that your hens lay eggs. But the eggs of a 
great many animals most useful to us, and of those about which 
we would like to know most, have not been studied microscop- 
ically. I have devoted a great deal of my life to similar topics, 
and I have never yet seen the egg of a mare ; I have never yet 
seen the egg of a cow ; I have never yet seen the egg of a pig ; 
yet I believe that these animals bring forth eggs as much as the 
animals that have been investigated with reference to that point. 
A sufficient number of quadrupeds have been studied to leave no 
doubt that all quadrupeds produce eggs as well as birds, as well as 
all other animals, without exception. One of the ablest physiolo- 
gists of our time, Professor Bischoff, of Munich, has devoted over 
twenty years of his life to the study of a few of these animals, 
■Bel the ; itions are embodied in a volume of 

many hundreds of pages, with a large number of plates, represent- 
ing the history of only four species of quadrupeds. One is the 
rabbit, another is the dog, a third is the guinea-pig, and the fourth 
a species of deer which is common in the forests of Europe, — the 
roebuck ; and the history of these animals, as presented in this 
volume, covers only the very earliest period of gestation. — and 
mainly that portion of their history embraced during the first 
days of gestation, during the time when the egg of these animals 
is transformed into a germ which grows to be an animal like the 
parent. Now, unless we can have a similar history of any one of 
our more valuable domesticated animals, as of the horse, or of the 
cow, we cannot expect to know how to influence their reproduc- 
tion. This is the very foundation of all knowledge in that 
direction. What will be necessary for that? When these inves- 
tigations began they were made upon animals which could be 
secured at the lowest price ; they were begun with the hen. Two 



644 STRUCTURE AND GR0WT1 

young German physiologists, Pander and D' Alton, under the 
guidance of Professor Dollinger, began that study, and, in order 
to ascertain how the chick is formed, — not how the chick grows 
in the egg, but how it is formed during the first hours after the 
sitting of the hen upon the egg has begun,— they opened three 
thousand eggs. Now, why is it that we have not yet such knowl- 
edge of the horse? Because there are not three thousand mares 
to be sacrificed to study their development ; and unless some 
means are found by which something of the kind can be done, we 
cannot have the beginning of the history of that one animal : 
unless, perhaps, with the greater knowledge we now possess and 
long acquired skill, a smaller number of individuals may suffice ; 
but not until hundreds and hundreds of animals are sacrificed for 
that purpose, under proper conditions, can we have the tirst fact 
concerning their history. And if you find in physiological text- 
books this subject treated as if it were entirely known, it is simply 
because the data in reference to the animals, the physiology of 
which is given in our text-books, are borrowed from the four ani- 
mals carefully studied by Bischoff, and not from any particular 
knowledge obtained from the domesticated animals themselves. 
When, in our human physiology the embryology of the human 
race is presented, it is largely illustrated by conditions which have 
been studied from the rabbit, the dog, the guinea-pig and the 
roebuck. Direct observations are so few that they are hardly 
worth mentioning. A few cases of suicide have furnished the 
only information which is on record concerning the first condition 
of the human being. 

And now I propose to show you what an egg is, and then to 
satisfy you that all animals produce such parts as deserve the 
name of egg. 

A hen's egg, surrounded by its shell, which is calcareous, is 
lined on the interior by a double membrane. A skin extends over 
the whole internal surface, and that skin is double; and in one 
part of the shell it recedes from the shell and leaves an open 
space, which is the air-chamber of the egg. These" are only pro- 
tections of the egg, and are formed last upon it. In the interior 
of the egg we have a round ball of yolk which is suspended in the 
egg by two cords of somewhat harder albumen than that which 
surrounds the yolk. These two cords keep the yolk so suspended 
in the egg that whatever position you give the egg, certain parts 



STRUCTURE AND GROWTH OE DOMESTICATED ANIMALS. 645 

always remain uppermost. You may open any number of eggs 
and you will always find that a little white speck stares you in 
the face. You may turn the egg as you please, but that little 
speck will always be uppermost. This is owing to the fact that 
the yolk is heavier in one portion and lighter in another ami that 
it may swing upon the two strings of albumen ly which it is sus- 
pended. This speck, called blastoderm by embryologists, is the 
part from which the young chick is developed when the egg is 
brought under proper conditions of temperature, etc. 

As to the albumen, or white, it is not one mass ; it consists of 
a number of layers : and when you boil an egg so that the whole 
is hardened, it is easy to see that it peels off in these layers, 
which arc deposited one alter another. Now such an egg has a 
history. It does not begin to be an egg of that size ; it does not 
begin with having a shell; it does not begin with having these 
membranes within the shell ; it does not begin with having the 
white around the yolk. There is a time when the egg has neither 
shell, nor these membranes, nor the white, but when the whole egg 
is yolk; and you may find such eggs in the organ called the 
ovary, in which the eggs are produced. If we look carefully at 
the ovary of the hen, we find that it contains a variety of eggs. 
It has eggs which have attained to their full size— they are about 
tlie size of a small walnut — it may contain a certain number of 
these — but by the side of these large j-olks there are smaller 

you will soon see that there are those, which, at the distance of 
a few feet, you could not see at all, even if I represented them 
magnified a great many times ; and you gradually, by learning to 
watch more and more closely, detect among this mass of eggs 
which are readily visible, others which are less and less distinct 
to the eye ; and if you take a magnifying glass, you find that 
there are others which had escaped your eye when you had no 
_ power to help you : and. if you use higher and higher 
power, you begin to find that there are more of these most minute 
eggs, which loom up to your eye in proportion as you use a higher 
power of the microscope. It is like the starry heavens, where 
you have stars of first, second, fourth and tenth magnitude, some 
of which are visible to the naked eye, and others only through 
the telescopes of our observatories. Yet all these small specks in 
the ovary, invisible to the naked eye. are bona fide eggs. As soon 



as one of the full-grown yolks drops, to be taken up by the fal- 
lopian tubes and carried through the oviduct, there to be sur- 
rounded by albumen, and then by a shell. — another -rows larger. 
and when all those which are at any moment of full size have 
been laid, they are followed by another crop, and crop after crop 
comes to the surface of the organ, ready to be laid in succession* 
If you watch their growth, it is easy to see that each one passei 
into the condition of the eggs higher in size by a process of in- 
crease which is similar to the process by which a young animal 
grows to acquire the dimensions of an adult. Nobody now doubts 
that these small granule- -..-uttered through the ovary are really 
eggs in their incipient condition. 

How do they look when examined under the microscope. — say 
under a microscope magnifying two hundred and fifty times the 
diameter. — an egg. therefore, which could not be seen by any 
human eye? You magnify it, as I have said, two hundred and 
fifty times, and you will see that that egg is a sphere, which you 
may, with the microseope. magnify to look a- large as a full- 
grown yolk. It is then perfectly transparent, as if it were full of 
a uniform fluid, like water ; but at some places on the side it has 
a little vesicle, a little bag, which is also transparent, and may 
only be seen under skilful management ; in this again there is still 
another micros-op!,- holy which appears like a small dot. Now 
you examine an egg a little larger than that, and you will perceive 
that in it the fluid mass is obscured slightly by small dots. If you 
apply the highest powers of the microscope to these dots, you very 
soon find that they are not solid granules, but that they are hollow 
vesicles which, in their turn, produce other granules within them- 
selves, so that the growth of an egg is in fact the enlargement of 
little uranule-liko masses of animal substance, which are trans- 
formed into bag-like bodies within which the same process is re- 
peated over and over again. As the whole egg grows larger, these 
little granules burst and scatter their contents into the surrounding 
fluid ; and the egg, from perfectly white, becomes slightly tinged 
with yellow, and finally grows more and more opaque; and. when 
the yolk lias aeqnired it- full size and is ready to drop, it is 
really an opaque mass, but consisting throughout of these minute 
granules. 

Now let us take the ovary of the rabbit, the guinea-pig, or any 
other quadruped, and examine its contents, and we see eggs ex- 



als. 647 

actly like these young eggs of the hen ; so similar to them, that 
the most skilful observer is incapable of distinguishing the one 
from the other, — the egg of a rabbit from that of a hen. Of 
course they do not remain in that condition. There is this pecu- 
liarity : that the egg of a quadruped remains small, and while 
retaining mis undergoes of itself changes by 

which the germ is developed in- time : while, on the contrary, the 
egg of a bird grows large; even before it has its shell, its yolk- 
becomes very large, and it is surrounded by those auxiliary 
means of protection necessary for an egg which is to be cast 
before the germ is formed ; while the fecundated eggs of mammalia 
are not cast, and the young undergo their development in the egg 
while the latter is still retained by the parent. And so it has 
been proved by Baer, that there is no difference whatsoever 
between so-called viviparous and oviparous animals, but that 
all produce eggs which have the same identical structure, and 
^'hirh <littbr from one another only by their various capacities, by 
the various proportions which they attain, and by the various 
ways in which the germ is developed in them. 

One more word to satisfy you that this is the case in all ani- 
mals. Eggs of the larger birds have been observed as I have 
said, and it needs not to be repeated that in every species in 
which the observation has been carried on, it has been found that 
the ovarian egg, — that is, the egg prior to its being laid, — has 
the small dimensions and the pec' eteristic of 

all ovarian eggs in their earliest condition. This is also the case 
with reptiles. Our little turtles lay eggs of considerable dimen- 
sions in comparison with their size ; but examine their ovary, and 
you will find that there are contained in that organ eggs of all 
possible dimensions, as in the bird, and that when young these 
eggs do not differ from the egg of the quadruped. And so it is 
with the fish, whatever be the kind of fish. I have examined 
many sharks and skates, as well as many of our salmon and trout 
and our various kinds of suckers and codfish, and I know that 
all these different kinds of fish produce similar ovarian eggs, 
^ome of them lay them early, and lay eggs which are at once 
recognized as eggs, and others retain theii egg> until the young 
are fulh developed and the\ I r >._ forth then, like the quadruped, 
living young ; so that they exhibit within the limits of one and 
the same cla£ to those which we observe among 



648 STRUCTURE AND GROWTH OF DOMESTICATED ANIMALS. 

different classes in the higher animals. And if we pass from the 
class of fishes to the lower types of the animal kingdom,— to 
insects, for instance, Crustacea, and worms, — we find everywhere 
the same process. Even the parasitic intestinal worms are now 
known to be produced by eggs, and eggs which are transferred hy 
various processes from one animal to another, sometimes with 
their food or drink, at other times by boring into the body of their 
host, thus remaining parasites in succeeding generations. The 
sa me thing has been observed among the various kinds of mollusks, 
— the cuttlefish and periwinkles, the oysters, mussels, etc., for 
all these produce eggs ; and when the eggs are examined, at the 
proper time, and in a proper manner, they exhibit exactly the same 
structure as those of the higher classes ; and we may go down to 
the very lowest classes of the animal kingdom — the seaurchins, 
the starfish, the jellyfish, or even the corals or polypes, and there 
again eggs are found, and eggs which in no way differ from those 
of the higher animals. 

From such statements, which cover now such extensive ground, 
it might be inferred that to know one is equal to knowing all. By 
no means ; for enough has already been done to show us that every 
one has its peculiarities, every one has its own mode of develop- 
ment, and in every one there are peculiar processes which make 
the generalization only true in the most comprehensive form of 
expression, and no longer true in the details of the farther devel- 
opment. So that all our knowledge of the process of reproduc- 
tion in one species of animals may not give us an answer when 
we would impure into the corresponding process in another ani- 
mal. Thus you see the necessity of repeating for those animals, 
the breeding of which we would desire to influence, all those ob- 
servations which have been made upon a few. 

I should like presently to make some remarks as to the kind of 
training necessary for this, that you may not imagine that the 
first enthusiast can go to work and do it. It requires a long 
training to be prepared to look at an egg, to be prepared to see 
how it grows ; but before I make any such remarks, I would say 
a few words more concerning the formation of the germ, so that 
you may see what an interesting field of observation is now open 
to the student; open, not yet cultivated; by no means cultivated 
to the extent desirable in order to make the knowledge in any 
way useful in practical life. There is that condition necessary to 



all knowledge, that it should be acquired, not only in its general 
features, in order to be useful, but that it should be brought to a 
point where it shall be really applicable to any practical purpose ; 
and a great deal of the difficulty in scientific investigation arises 
from the fact, that while it is easy to study, to a certain extent. 
it is not always easy to carry our knowledge to the point where 
its application becomes easy or even practicable. And I would 
say, to exonerate science from its failure to make itself more gen- 
e/ally popular and practical, that the mental qualities required for 
investigation are not the same as the qualities required for prac- 
tical application. You know too much of practical life to need to 
be told that the importers who bring to your manufacturing estab- 
lishments the raw materials are not those who make the cloth for 
your clothes ; or that those who import the raw materials with 
which all the various manufactures are produced are not likely to 
be themselves manufacturers; and the ability of the one excludes 
very often the ability of the other. In scientific matters this is 
perhaps more extensively the case than in practical pursuits, so 
that a class of men must be educated who will take up knowledge 
where the scientific man leaves it. and cany it where the man of 
business, or the practical man. requires it. I could mention many 
a case in which scientific men have injured themselves in their 
attempts to derive profits from their scientific work or to apply 
their knowledge to practical purposes. That will happen again 
and again when scientific men rashly enter the arena of practical 
life. You must allow them to work in the field for which they 
were prepared, and accept from them what they can give. I claim 
that as due to science, and I think the sooner the community un- 
derstands it the sooner will all have the benefit of what science 
can produce, and cease to ask the impossible from scientific men. 

In this first presentation of the subject of embryology I shall 
not be able to give the whole history of the formation of a new 
being, but only so much of it as will satisfy you that our higher 
animals produce eggs like birds and the lower classes ; but with 
this essential difference, that in mammalia the fecundated egg is 
not east or laid, but undergoes all its changes within the maternal 
body until the living young is dropped. Here are several figures of 
ovarian eggs of the dog, rabbit and human female, which may easily 
be compared with the eggs seen in the ovary of a hen. Figures 
154, 155, 156, 157, 158, 159, ICO and 161 are such ovarian eggs. 



650 STRUCTURE AND GROWT1 

Figures 154, 155, 156, 157, 158, 159 and 160 show that the eggs 
of different mammalia, such as rabbits and dogs, resemble one 
another as much as the eggs of different species of birds belonging 
to different orders of this class. 

The formation of a germ in the egg begins by a very peculiar 
process, called "segmentation." It is unquestionably a mani- 
festation of the internal life of the egg,— for an egg must be 




considered as a living body. 

Supposing we have here the egg of a dog. copied from 
(fig. 162) : the egg divides itself spontaneously into two halves (ng. 
168), which are entirely independent of one another, and only re- 
tained together by the common envelope of the yolk. After that, 
each half divides itself into two halves again, so that the yolk 



so the process goes on. Each quarter of the yolk divides itself 
again into halves, so that we next have eight such bodies (fig. 



* 









spheres, which till the cavity of the yolk-membrane. Eight balls, 






separated into lit • are about as small as the prin 

itive cells of which the yolk consisted (fig 169). We have then 




C.2 



■ 



— very -iiiiil.-ir to what the primitive cell 
was, only that, instead of simple yolk-cells, it now consists of an 
innumerable quantity of little spheres which have resulted from 
the spontaneous division of the whole into siu < r-.-i\v!v multiplie.l 
halves. There is, however, this difference, — that on one side of 
the egg there is, when this process is completed, a larger number 
Fi K . 164. of these small balls or globules than Fig. i«5. 



[hat the balls mi 
ide than on the other. Ik 
3ds this process of self-divi- 
vades the whole yolk, so 
on the periphery, and on all sides, it is 
except that on one side the spheres are somewha 
;ish. In the yolk of a hei 





me, for in the hen the process also takes 
s laid. In order to examine it, therefore, 
;n must be killed and the egg must be 
observed during its passage through the ovi- 
., when on the surface of the yolk, and on 

a nail. These furrows are multiplied cross- 
, and then crosswise again, and this process 
peated until the whole surface is changed 
. these same globular bodies, already noticed 
in the rabbit and dog, but which in the hen extend only over a 
small part of the surface of the yolk. Now this small part of the 
surface of the yolk is that white speck which is seen at once when 
you open the shell of an egg ; and from it the chicken is developed. 
In fishes, there is still another process. Suppose we take the 
salmon. The first segmentation of the yolk consists in halving 




[als. 653 

and quartering, and then the process of self-division goes on only 
in one-half, viz., in the upper half of the yolk, the lower half 
undergoing no change, so that you have at first only two spheres, 
one below and one above, then two in the upper part, then four in 
the upper part, then eight in the upper part, then sixteen in the 
upper part, the lower part remaining in its primitive condition, and 
the whole upper part finally being transformed into a body similar 
to what we have as a whole in the mammal, resting as it were on 
a cup of unaltered, unchanged yolk in the lower part. In the fish, 
it is this mulber^-like, segmented portion of the yolk which is 
changed into the germ, while the other half takes no part in the 
formation of the germ, but only feeds it, being in fact absorbed into 
it. The egg is actually a live being, only it is a live being which 
struggles into its structure by its own activity ; and in the for- 
mation of the organs it afterward possesses, the process of growth 
is not one of enlargement simply, but involves such changes as to 
transform a uniform mass into a variety of systems built of differ- 
ent tissues and endowed with special functions. In the chicken, 
two parallel swellings first arise along the middle line of the back, 
leaving a shallow furrow between themselves ; and the white disk, 
spoken of above as a white speck, enlarges and spreads so as to 
cover the whole surface of the yolk visible from above. If you 
look at this furrow in a section it will be something like an arch, 
open above. Gradually this furrow grows wider at one end. with 
indentations right and left, and then the margins of the disk spread, 
and, folding downward, enclose more and more of the yolk, and 
the sides of the furrow thicken, so that represented in profile it 
will be no longer a shallow furrow, but something like a channel 
or tube. 

At this stage the whole mass has still about the same consis- 
tency everywhere. It is like soft jelly and a little pulpy, but pres- 
ently the two edges of the furrow come more closely together, and 
finally touch. Meanwhile the margins of the new being rise in a 
fold and enclose the central parts, forming a sac around the germ. 
known as the amnios. The natural result of the closing of the 
upturned edges of the germ is the formation of a cavity, enclosed 
between these edges. That cavity now fills with a transparent fluid, 
and as it fills there appears something a little more substantial 
upon its sides and below it ; the walls protecting the cavity be- 
come less transparent or even slightly opaque ; then the cavity 



widens sidewise on its anterior pnrt. and rises ;i little from the 
rest. In one word, this cavity forms the channel for the spinal 
marrow, and its front part the cavity for the brain, and the walls 
grow to be flesh and bone to form the dorsal spine. The upper 
part represents the axis of the skeleton, with the surrounding soft 
parts : the lateral parts form the ribs with their fleshy covering, 
and, the animal thus closing over the yolk, we have the abdomi- 
nal cavity. Now, it requires a little more enlargement, a little 
more change into different substances, to complete the formation 
of the new being. The gelatinous substance outside the main axis 
is changed into a fibrous structure, which is muscle. The little 
opaque bodies in the axis and upon its sides absorb some earthy 
material contained in the primitive substance from which they have 
arisen, and thus bone is formed. The fluid in the upper cavity be- 
comes a little more granular and more solid, and it is the brain 
and spinal marrow. The yolk is absorbed during the process of 
growth, but the wall within which it is contained is elongated and 
enlarged, and in consequence of farther changes in the a 
of that part of the yolk which is in immediate contact with the 
body-walls, the alimentary cavity is formed. You have, in fact, all 
the organs of the animal growing in the same way, by successive 
transformations of the homogeneous mass into all the various tis- 
sues and organs which build up the animal in its perfect condition. 

From the time the chick has reached the condition in which all 
its organs are fairly sketched, it simply grows larger and lamer. 
and finally breaks through the shell. The skin has already become 
distinct from the muscles ; the feathers begin to be formed, and all 
those parts with which you are familiar may readily be distin- 
guished. You see now by what complicated process (the detads 
of which I have considerably abridged) this is brought about. 

I have given you but a meagre outline of the changes which takl 
place in the formation of quadrupeds, birds, reptiles, and fishes, 
though this may be sufficient to show that these processes must be 
studied in every animal independently. 

The figures on the following page, representing a fish in the 
egg, show at once how different the growth of these animals is 
from that of the mammalia and birds. Here we have no amnios J 
the young fish remains free upon the surface of the yolk. The 
structure of the body, however, and the circulation of the blood 
upon the yolk, are strikingly similar to those of the dog, the 



als. 655 

chicken, or the little turtle. Compare in this respect the figures 
of D'Alton with those of Bischoff and my own in the embryology 
of our terrapene. 

Now, what are the conditions necessary for making these obser- 
vations? A man must be practised, and not only practised, bat 
fully skilled in the use of the microscope. He must know the 
structure o( the animal in its adult condition so accurately, and so 
completely, that every difference in the structure of the younger 
animal will at once strike his eye. He must be able to make these 
comparisons without having specimens before him for comparison ; 




:.\-., 



ue must have appropriated that knowledge to himself so < 
pletely that he may weigh the changes going on ir 
of the germ, merely by the eye, and ascertain every change in so 
accurate a manner that he may record the facts in their true con- 
nection. And more than that, he must be able to prepare the 
conditions in which these germs will not be altered by being 
brought under the microscope. Try to bring an embryo, a young 
chick, in that early stage of growth, as you see it after a few 
days' incubation, under the microscope, and you are likely to find 



GROWTH OF DOMESTICATED ANIMALS. 

that you have reduced it to a shapeless mass. These objects can- 
not be handled like a piece of wood. They must be treated with 
a degree of delicacy which makes it impossible, for instance, for 
an observer to use any stimulant, even such as coffee and tea. or 
to eat heartily, or to exercise in any degree which may accelerate 
the pulse ; otherwise his eye will be constantly thrown out of 
focus. Unless a man has himself under control to that extent, he 
cannot begin to make good observations. Not only must he have 
the knowledge necessary, not only must he have the practice 
necessary, not only must he have the instruments necessary— he 
must have his own organization so completely under control that 
he brings himself into that living relation with the object of his 
observations which alone makes it possible that they shall be accu- 
rate. It is not everybody who is willing or able to do this ; and 
then he must carry on his observations by day and night, as the 
embryo is growing unceasingly, and unless he does continue his 
observations uninterruptedly, he may miss the most important 
steps in the progress of growth. Now before you find a man 
qualified to be an observer, you may have to wait a long while. 
It was just so during our late war. We did not find the generals 
who knew how to command, the day of the first battle. It requires 
years to find a man capable of leading two hundred thousand men. 
In matters of scientific progress we need a great many students, 
and large schools, from which to pick out the man who is capable 
of making new discoveries, or simply accurate investigations ; and 
have we these schools now? Is the number of our scientific stu- 
dents proportionate to the intellectual capacity of the nation ? By 
no means ; and until our system of popular education is radically 
changed, or so far changed, at least, that in all our schools instruc- 
tion is given in those branches of science which train observers, 
you may not even have the knowledge necessary to carry on your 
practical pursuits, and still less the chances of making any real 
progress. These results can only be brought about by introducing 
into our schools that sort of instruction which prepares students 
to become observers, or at least, which gives the teacher an oppor- 
tunity of ascertaining whether any of his pupils may be educated 
into an observer or not. Such schools we have not, such teachers 
we have not, or very few of them — half a dozen in Massachusetts 
is the sum-total of men qualified to teach in that way ; and the 
schools in which they may teach, the apparatus necessary for that 



STRUCTURE AND GROWTH OF DOMESTICATED 1 

instruction, we have 

not have them 

conditions necessary for the acquisition of new knowledge which 

may improve the conditions of our success in the practical affairs 

of a civilized community. 

You may ask what text-books you shall take to begin with. 

present text-books, for most of them are manufactured by people 
who know nothing or precious little of the subject about which 
they write. They are mere compilations, made for the market, by 
men who have no sort of knowledge of what should be the sub- 
stance of a text-book ; and, what is worse than that, our schools 
are crowded with so large a number of pupils that the teachers, 
even the very best of them, have to resort to all sorts of devices 
in order to keep alive. Instead of teaching, that is, instead of 
giving out of their knowledge and their substance something by 
which they can vivify the intellect of their pupils, they are forced 
by the pressure of numbers to direct their pupils to commit to 
memory some superannuated book, and to make them recite things 
not worth knowing. So there we must begin. We must begin by 
relieving the teacher from a task to which no human being is 
equal ; for it is impossible for any one person to teach eighty 
pupila well, in one and the same room T at the same time, and to 
teach every branch of human knowledge in close succession. It is 
physically impossible. It is past endurance; and all those who 
have tried to do this kind of work, hom-th and faithfully, have 
paid for the effort with the loss of health. And then there is 
another point. In order to get men capable of performing the 
bask of teaching, you must give greater inducements to 
able intellects to devote themselves to the task. The teacher's 
profession must not be the least remunerative of any profession 
in the community, as at present it is. Only those who by nature 
cannot help being teachers go into it, and their willingness to 
teach is misused by the community by giving them a pittance 

ganize normal schools to educate teachers of natural history- and 
science generally. You must not only determine that you will 
introduce these branches of knowledge into your schools, but you 
must prepare teachers for the task. 



In a paper published in the "American Journal of Science" in 
1872 I mentioned the fact, first noticed by Percival, that crystals 
of staurolite are found in Salisbury, Connecticut, in mica schist 
"underlying" directly the Stockbridge or Canaan limestone. 
Since then I have found in southern Canaan, at a locality in Falls 
Village, west of the Housatonic River (to which I was directed 
by Dr. Stephen Reed of Fittsfield), crystals of this mineral in a 
very similar, well-characterized mica schist ; but in this case, the 
schist overlies the limestone and is, therefore, the newer rock.j 
This staurolitic mica schist contains also small garnets. The 
order of superposition is free from all doubt, for the Canaan 
limestone outcrops at the bottom of the same hill, from beneath 
the schist, and the dip is not over fifteen degrees. 

The age of the Stockbridge limestone is admitted by all recent 
writers on the subject to be Lower Silurian. Logan referred it to 
the Quebec group or the formation next below the Chazy. But 
since then Billings has described fossils from the same limestone 
at West Rutland, which he has identified as Chazy. And the 
Crinoids and other species, mentioned in the "Vermont Geological 
Report" as found in the limestone at other Vermont localitiefl 
appear to show, as long since suggested by Professor James Hall, 
that the Trenton limestone is also present in the formations. The 
Chazy and Trenton limestones (Black River included) follow one 
another in New York, and the west and south. That the Canaan 
limestone is the same identical stratum that occurs at Stockbridge 
in Massachusetts, and farther north at Pittsfield, I know from a 
personal tracing of the rock throughout this region ; and examina- 
tions still farther north in Massachusetts and Connecticut lead me 
to believe in the conclusion of the geologists of the Vermont 
survey, that all is one formation— the Stockbridge limestone, or 
the Eolian as Hitchcock named it. 

I think it probable the Salisbury schist is 



sses. 659 

The fossils found in Vermont lead to the conclusion that the 
limestone represents the Trenton era as well as the Chazy. The 
overlying mica schist and other associated rocks have a thickness 
of at least three thousand feet ; and, if the limestone is Trenton 
in part, they belong to an era later : either to a closing part of 
the Trenton period, or to the period ol the Hudson River or 
Cincinnati group. 

In any case there is no reason to doubt that the staurolites 
occur in rocks of the later part of the Lower Silurian age, and 
strong reason for the conclusion that these schists are in age veri- 
table Hudson River rocks. 

On this view, the Hudson River or Cincinnati group, in the 
Green Mountains — alike in Connecticut, Massachusetts and 
Vermont, — includes beds of quartzite, mica schist, chloritic mica 
slate, hydro-mica slate (the talcose slate of the earlier geolo- 
gists), well-characterized gneiss of various kinds, some of it much 
contorted, and granitoid gneiss. 

At a locality at South Canaan village, in Cobble Hill, the lowest 
rock over the limestone is quartzite ; next follows mica schist 
passing into gneiss ; and above this there is a light-colored grani- 
toid gneiss, breaking into huge bloeks with very little of a schist- 
Near the boundary of the towns of Tyringham and Great Bar- 
rington, four miles east of the latter village, a locality long since 
studied by Mr. R. P. Stevens of New York, and by him pointed 
out to me, there are, over the limestone, alternating beds of 
quartzite gneiss and limestone dipping at a small angle to the 
eastward. Commencing below, the succession is 



The fact that quartzite, 

here alternate with one another is bej^ond question ; and, if I 
am right in the age of the deposits above suggested, the alter- 



660 NOTE ON BUFO AMERICANUS. 

nations occur at the junction of the Trenton and Hudson River 
formations. 

The above section occurs on the east side of a small open valley. 
On the west side of the same valley the foot of the bare front of 
the hill consists of quartzite, clipping slightly to the north-west- 
ward, as if one side of a very gentle anticlinal of which the rock 
of the Devany quarry is the opposite. The quartzite, although 
hard and generally pure, contains a layer of mica schist ten inches 
thick which becomes pure quartzite a hundred feet to the east- 
ward. Above the quartzite follows gneiss, which continues west- 
ward three miles, in a shallow synclinal, to Great Barrington, and 
there this gneiss is overlaid by a second thick stratum (100 feet 
or so) of quartzite. Here, then, there are two strata of quartzite 
separated by two or three hundred feet of gneiss, the whole over- 
lying the Stockbridge limestone. The gneiss is a very firm rock, 
covering the slopes in some places with blocks like houses in size, 
where upturned through the growth of trees. I had suspected 
that it was one of the older gneisses of New England, until I 
found that it was overlaid by quartzite, and, on tracing further the 
stratification, proved that it belongs unquestionably to the series 
of rocks newer than the limestone. 

From the facts which have been presented it follows that all 
old-looking Green Mountain gneisses are not prse-silurian, and, 
further, that the presence of staurolite is no evidence of a prse- 
silurian age. 



NOTE ON BUFu AM F UK A XI -v' 



This note is intended as a contribution toward the psychology 
of the American toad ; simply presenting some evidences of in- 
telligence and of capacity for learning to which I have been 

In the summers of 1843-5, an old toad used to sit under the 
door of a beehive every fine evening, and dextrously pick up those 
bees which, overladen or tired, missed the doorstep and fell to the 



ground. He lost, by some accident, one eye, and it was observed 
by several members of the family, as well as myself, that he had 
with it lost his ability to pick up a bee at the first trial; his 
tongue struck the ground on one side the bee : but after several 
weeks' practice with one eye he regained his old certainty of aim. 
I have never seen our toad use his hands to crowd his food into 
his mouth as the European toad is said to do ; although he uses 
them freely to wipe out of his mouth any inedible or disagreeable 
substance. When our toad gets into his mouth part of an insect 
too large for his tongue to thrust down his throat (and I have 
known of their attempting full grown larva? of Sjjhinx quhiquemac- 
ulatus, and even a wounded hummingbird) he resorts to the 
nearest stone or clod and presses the protruding part of his 
mouthful against it and thus crowds it down his throat. This 
can be observed at any time by entangling a locust's hind legs to- 
gether and throwing it before a small toad. 

On one occasion I gave a "yellow-striped" locust to a little 
toad in its second summer, when he was in the middle of a very 
wide gravel walk. In a moment he had the locust's head down 
his throat, its hinder parts protruding ; and looked around for a 
stone or clod, but finding none at hand, in either direction, he 
bowed his head, and crept along, pushing the locust against the 
ground. But the angle with the ground was too small and my 
walk too well rolled. To increase the angle he straightened his 
hind legs up, but in vain. At length he threw up his hind 
quarters, and actually stood on his head, or rather' on the locust 
sticking out of his mouth,— and after repeating this once or 
• twice succeeded in "getting himself outside of his dinner." 

But these instances of ingenious adaptation to the circum- 
stances, were exceeded hy a toad about four years old at Antioch 
college. I was tossing him earth worms while digging, and pres- 
ently threw him so large a specimen that he was obliged to attack 
one end only. That end was instantly transferred to his stomach, 
the other end writhed free in air, and coiled about the toad's head. 
He waited till its writhings gave him a chance, swallowed half an 
inch, then taking a nip with his jaws, waited for a chance to draw 
in another half-inch. But there were so many half-inches to dis- 
pose of that at length his jaws grew tired, lost their firmness of 
grip, and the worm crawled out five-eighths of an inch, between 
each half-inch swallowing. The to sought his 



662 ON SECTION AVICULARIA OF THE GENUS POLYGONUM. 

■ ....! to aid his jaws, grasping his abdomen with his foot, 
and, by a little effort, getting hold of the worm in his stomach 
from the outside ; he thus by his foot held fast to what he gained 
by each swallow, and presently succeeded in getting the worm 
entirely down. 

A garter-snake was observed this summer in North Conway 
pushing a toad down his throat by running it against clods and 
stones ; just as the toad crowds down a locust. 

The amount which a toad can eat is surprising. One Tuesday 
morning I threw a Coreus tristis to a young toad, he snapped it up, 
but immediately rejected it, wiped his mouth with great energy, 
and then hopped away with extraordinary rapidity. I was so 
much amused that I gathered some more of the same bug and 
carried them to a favorite old toad at the northeast corner of my 
house. He ate them all without making any wry faces. I gath- 
ered all that I could find on my vines, and he ate them all, to the 
number of twenty-three. I then brought him some larvae of Py- 
gcera n< nostra, three-quarters grown, and succeeded in enticing 
him to put ninety-four of them on top of his squash bugs. Find- 
ing- that his virtue was not proof against the caterpillars when I 
put them on the end of a straw and tickled his nose with them, 
he at length turned and crept under the piazza, where he re- 
mained until Friday afternoon, digesting his feast. 

A gentleman having read this paper told me he had seen the 
toad tuck in the last inch of an earth worm with his band, Euro- 
pean fashion. I then remembered that I have several times seen 
our toad put the last quarter-ineh of earthworms in with his hand ; 
but never saw .a locust. 



ON SECTION AVICULARIA OF THE GENUS 
POLYGONUM. 



Ldded, as coordinate sections, 
old genera. Its most dis- 



tinctive characteristics are the leaf jointed upon the petiole at the 
point of divergence from the sheath ; the broadly dilated filaments 
of the three inner stamens ; and the incumbent cotyledons. Of 
these the first occurs in no other section of the genus, excepting 
| Teph%8, of a single species, but is found in Atraphaxis, Thysa- 
nella and Polygonella, of the subtribe Rumicem. The second is 
also peculiar to § Tephis, but exists in Atraphaxb and a section of 
Polygonella; while the third, occurring besides only in § Ambly- 
gonon of Polygonum, is characteristic of Rumex, Atraphcms, Th>j- 
sanella and some species of Polygonella. The closest affinity of 
the section is to the genus Atraphaxis, which has also perfect 
flowers and the same peculiar stipular sheaths, and from which it 
is distinguished mainly by its more or less herbaceous sepals 
not enlarging or deflexed in fruit but appressed to the acheninni. 
It would seem that the genus Polygonum should be restricted to 
the two sections Avicularia and Tephis, on account of this, in these 
respects, nearer relationship to the Rumicem than to the other sec- 
tions with which they are at present united. 

The species P. artirulnhim. which was long retained in § Avicu- 
laria. but referred by Meisner to Polygonella, and restored by Dr. 
Gray to Polygonum as § Pseudo-polygonella, must be placed with 
Polygonella erirniths < w hich include*, P. M !.<„> ri>t,ni). having a sim- 
ilarly . xcentric embryo, somewhat contorted, and the cotyledons 
either accumbent or incumbent, i inner sepals 

are those of Polygonella polygama (P. parvifolia), and its colored 
marcescent calyx, the solitary flowers upon elougated pedicels 
jointed near the middle, and the peculiar floral sheaths, are com- 
mon to all the species of Polygonella in contradistinction to those 
of Polygonum. 

The section Avicularia and the North American species be- 
longing to it may be defined and arranged as follows :— 



!. Mi hx - Kvect or ascending, 2-4° high, glabr 






Meisner refers also to this section his P. Cah'forni'rxi)}, founded 
upon 1944 Hartweg, without fruit. It is separated, however, by 
every character but habit, and the remarkable peculiarities of the 
Mhenium require that it should be placed in a distinct section, 
not very closely allied to any other in the genus, as follows : — 



r years this test has been subjected to most careful and 
l by the most competent observers and with the 
best microscopes, but, after all, the true character of its markings 
still remains a disputed question. These differences of opinion 
have evidently arisen partly from the complex nature of the mark- 
ings themselves, and partly from the different conditions under 
which they have been seen. In this scale we have coarse ribs 
easily seen with a very ordinary glass, and on the other hand deli- 
cate structures severely taxing the powers of the finest objectives 
in existence. This fact alone is sufficient to account for the want 
of agreement, without accusing any person of being biassed hy a 
theory ; while those observers who think their own instruments are 
the best will continue to be satisfied with what they may happen 
to see, and shut their eyes to any advance. 

As the microscope has been improved, our ideas of the structure 
of the Lepisma scale have been gradually modified, and who will 
now claim it to be " too easy for a test object?" 

In the order of difficulty of resolution we have — 

1. The heavy longitudinal ridges running from end to end of 
the scale and slightly projecting at the point. 

2. Distinct ribs generally radiating from the quill, or curved 
parallel with the outline of the scale, and becoming faint in the 

aote from the quill. 

3. Transverse corrugations of the membranes. 

4. Faint irregular veins branching from the diverging ridges 
(No. 2) generally taking a transverse direction, and, together with 
the corrugation, causing the spurious appearance of fine beading 
at their points of intersection with the ridges. 

To make sure of my work on this scale I have studied il under 
a number of different conditions. The observations have been 
conducted with monochromatic sunlight ; with white cloud and 
lamp; with central beam and oblique; with mirror, prism>. arhro- 
matic condenser with and without central stops, and with Wen- 
(666) 



STRUCTURE OF THE SCALES OF LEPISMA SACCHARINA. 667 

ham's paraboloid. All these methods point to the same conclu- 
iions. following up the line of observations described by the 
late Richard Beck, in his most valuable contribution to our knowl- 
edge of this subject, the same results were arrived at in regard to 
the appearance of coarse beading, etc., viz., "that the interrupted 
appearance is produced by two sets of uninterrupted lines on dif- 
ferent surfaces "* That the longitudinal and the oblique lines are 
on different sides of the scale is also plainly seen by their lying 
in different focal planes under a - 5 V objective. And farther, while 
examining a scale in fluid I have repeatedly observed air bubbles 
on one surface of it confined by the longitudinal ribs, and on the 
other side others bounded by the oblique ridges ; and on moving 
the slow adjustment up and down, with the movement of the bub- 
bles under control, they never interfere or mix with each other.! 
Nothing further is required to prove that these markings are 
actually ridges and that they project from different surfaces of the 
object. The experiments of Mr. Beck settle this question. 

As microscopical definition advanced the very feeble radiating 
lines were noticed in the spaces between the ribs, formerly thought 
to be smooth. In the central portion of the test these lines are 
parallel with the main ribbing. They in their turn were seen to 
be uneven and pronounced to be " beaded striae."} Must this fine 
beading like its shadowy predecessors be also extinguished by 
intersecting cross lines and so add one more to the long list of 
illusory appearances? To attempt to throw some light upon this 
question is the principal object of the present article. 

In the first place, it is far from being a difficult feat to see this 
beading. Any first class lens, from a ' upward, when properly 
handled, will display it or something very like it. The writer 
has found it an easy task with Wales' T » T immersion, or even with 
a Beck -i and deep eye-piece. With Tolles' T V immersion the 
fine transverse structure indicated above is brought out. and it 
becomes at once evident that the small beads are indeed spurious 
like their big brothers, and for a similar reason. 

The fine transverse markings seem to branch from the faint 
radiating ones and have the appearance of a net-work of minute 
capfllariesi Beside these there are coarser transverse waves or 



bles have been observed imprisoned between the heavy ribs on one 
or two sides, and by these corrugations •■w the other sides. There- 
fore the corrugations may safely be said to be on the same surface 
of the scale with the longitudinal ridges, and the branching vein- 
like structure on or near the other surface. Careful focussing is 
corroborative of this idea, making it certain that these two details 
of structure lie in different planes. With monochromatic light, 
the delineation of this structure is eminently satisfactory, and the 
effect of the slightest change in focal adjustment is at once felt. 
When the object is a little out of focus the light is unequally re- 
fracted and broken up in passing through this complicated net- 
work of ridges and corrugations, and produces an appearance of 
fine molecules over the whole surface of the scale. 

The coarse and the line heads both vanishing under advancing 
definition, together with the behavior of the confined bubbles of 
air, seems to my mind fully to demonstrate the reality of the 
structure above described. Often, when the. corrections are not 
perfect, the semblance of beading can be directly traced to a seem- 
ing enlargement of points of linear intersection and branching. 
When the ^ is at its best work the finer transverse markings are 
usually irregular both in strength and direction but always unmis- 
takable. They may be plainly seen on some of the smaller scales 
and in the central parts of the larger, and at almost as good 
advantage as near the edges of the easier scales. Sometimes they 
are continuous across several intercostal spaces and again only 
extending across one, or it may be merely budding, as it were, 
from the ribs. It will be noticed that the "beads" as drawn 
by Mr. Hollich exhibit corresponding irregularities. 

In conclusion the remark of Beck on the scales of Lepidocyrtus 
may well be quoted— "and my own belief is that the markings 
upon this and all other varieties of Podura-scales are more or less 
elevations or corrugations upon the surface, which answer the 
simple purpose of giving strength to very delicate membranes. 
If this idea is true of the Podura it applies with greater force to 
the complicated ridges of Lepisma. 

The same original structure is often modified in diverging di- 
rections so as to subserve totally distinct purposes. And as hairs 
are probably modified scales, and a regular gradation may be 



fcween them, 



i;i;:t 



; chain is filled up between 



nl»> .■xtfinling from end to end of a scale, through un.lulati..,^ 
and shorter ribs, to those slightly projecting, and i 
perfect spine or secondary hair. 



THE NORTH AMERICAN GOATSUCKERS. 

The whippoorwills and nighthawks of North America are by 
many confounded and considered to be the same species. This 
impression is, nevertheless, entirely erroneous ; and I hope to show, 
in the following remarks, such obvious differences existing be- 
tween them as will convince the most superficial observers of their 

It is surprising that our farmers (for they perhaps are the per- 
sons by whom these birds are most generally confounded) should 
consider such widely separated species, which resemble each 
other in color only, the same. It exhibits a carelessness which is 
hardly excusable, for doubtless the majority of them have shot the 
birds in question, and a simple comparison would surely convince 
them of their error. That any supernatural ideas should be enter- 
tained respecting these harmless and useful birds appears even 
more surprising ; but such is the case with a large number of 
People, more especially, however, with the uneducated. There is 
prevalent in various sections of the country a remarkable awe, not 
to say fear, of them : and various are the misfortunes which are 
ascribed to their supposed supernatural influence — such as the 
sudden death of one of the inmates of a house, which, it is af- 
firmed, surely follows the song of the whippoorwill if he be perched 
upon the door-sill. It is also believed by some that the white 
spots on the wings of the nighthawks are silver dollars. The 
pertinacity with which superstitious traditions cling to people is 
well known, and the foregoing, which are not all that are current 
respecting these birds, form no exception. They have undoubt- 
edly been handed down and preserved through many generations. 
It appears remarkable, but there seems to be something about these 
birds which has excited the superstition of various nations for 



G70 THE NC 

ages back. Their very name implies this. The at 
"goatsuckers," which has now extended to the whole family, was, 
without doubt, suggested by their very wide gape. This led to 
the idea entertained by the ancients that they sucked goats. 

In the west these birds have been accused of the crime of 
sucking milk from cows— about as probable as'snakes being guilty 
of the same offence ; yet there are hundreds who believe in such 
impossibilities: and to this belief may be attributed the cause of 
their being birds of evil omen in the estimation of our rural popu- 
lation. These mistaken notions have been current since the days 
of Aristotle, if not still further back. Absurd as they may appear 
to an enlightened and reflecting person, they are, nevertheless, 
firmly believed by many, which may to a certain extent account 
for the universal ignorance of the birds as well as of their 
habits. 

The main reason, however, that these birds are confounded is 
in reality due to the great dissimilarity in their habits; for the 
nighthawks are often seen, and only occasionally heard, while the 
flrhippoorwiHs are frequently heard and seldom seen: and their 
very similar appearance when asleep or resting for the day (the 
whippoorwilis being seldom observed at any other time) tends 
also to confirm the opinion that they are the same species. 

The family C<ipri>ii'>Jiji<la, to which these birds belong, is divi- 
ded into three sub-families. Steatornithiiuv, Podaryinm and C«2>n- 
mulgince. The latter only is represented in North America, tnd 
by two genera, Antrostomus Gould, the whippoorwills, and Chor- 
ins., the nighthawks ; the former of which contains three 
species, the latter two. 

The common whippoorwill (A. vociferus Bon.) is an inhabitant 
of eastern North America from Canada to Florida, where it is 
replaced by the chuck- will's- widow (A. Carolinensis Gould). Its 
range to the westward appears to be restricted to Leavenworth. 
Kansas,* where it is again represented by a still smaller species, 
the A. Nuttalli Cass., or "poor-will." 

It is a summer sojourner in the District of Columbia, where it 
usually arrives from the south the last of April or the first of May. 
Although I have observed it as early as the thirteenth of April 
its arrival at that early period is of rare occurrence. The males 
generally precede the females a few days, and soon after the latter 



[ AMERICAN GOATSUCKERS. 671 

is merely a shallow bole scraped in the ground, in close proximity 
to its accustomed companion, a rock, stump, or fallen tree. The 
eggs are from one to three in number, of a delicate creamy-white 
color, with blotches of different shades of lilac and pale brown : 
they are laid in the early part of May. The young are out by the 
first of June, if not earlier, and are very curious looking little crea- 
tures, covered with a fine down of a yellowish color. As soon as 
they are able to leave the nest, the mother guides them in their 
search for insects until they are able to use their wings. When 
Surprised in these excursions, it is amusing to witness with what 
solicitude she hastens to lead them to a safe retreat. But if the 
intruder (especially if a human being) persists in following, and 
approaches too closely, she turns offjn another direction, feigns 
lameness and incapability of flight, flutters along for a few rods 
ahead, and exerts herself to the utmost to allure the interloper 
from her offspring. After having decoyed the stranger, as she 
thinks, a sufficient distance, she suddenly regains her power of 
flight, and darts off to the protection of her helpless progeny. 
This species roosts almost exclusively on the ground, although it 
has occasionally been found upon a tree. When disturbed in the 
daytime it rises as silently as a shadow, and flies off" in a confused 
zigzag manner, but immediately settles within a few rods. But 
when the shades of evening advance it comes boldly forth from its 
roosting places in the most invious and secluded parts of the for- 
ests, to search for the night-flying Lepidoptera, of which it destroys 
countless numbers. It is then that we hear its lively whistle in 
company with the loud, hoarse, guttural hoo-hoo-hoo-hoo-e, of 
the great-horned owl (Bubo Virginia u>is) ; the quivering-wailing 
cry of the screech owl (Scops asio) ; the croaking of frogs, and 
the song of the cricket and the katy-did : which form quite a . 
contrast to the beautiful songs of the thrushes which enliven our 
forests and groves during the day. 

The chuck- will's-widow (A. Carolinensis Gould) is the largest 
North American species. In its habits and general appearance it 
resembles the common whippoorwill, with which it is generally 
confounded by inexperienced observers. Its range in the United 
States has usually been supposed to be limited to the south Atlan- 
tic and gulf states, being seldom if ever seen north of the Caro- 



672 

Unas oa the coast. But Mr. Ridgway is confident that he has 
heard it in southern Illinois ;* which, if his observation proves 
correct, will he but another instance exemplifying the well-known 
fad of birds having a more extensive latitudinal distribution in 
the interior than upon the coast; which is doubtless subject to, 
and explicable by, climatic influence. Its notes, from which it 
takes its name, resemble less then has generally been supposed 
the syllables " ehuck-will's-widow." They are pronounced in a 
rapid manner with a slight elevation of the voice upon the last 
syllable. Butterflies, moths and a variety of other insects, form 
its food, as they do also that of the other members of this group. 

The next is Nuttall's whippoorwill (A. Nnttalli Cass.), or more 
properly "poor-will," as it is said to omit the first syllable. It in- 
habit* the country west of the Mississippi river, and is domiciled 
in nearly every part of that vast extent of prairies. This is the 
smallest species, measuring only eight inches in length. Its habits 
differ essentially from its eastern congeners, as it is necessarily 
an inhabitant of open portions, and is unconversant, if I may so 
use the expression, with the woods which they so delight in fre- 
quenting. The eggs are immaculate livid white and destitute of 
spots or blotches, and, with A. macromystax of S. Mexico, difler 
in this respect, from all the other species. 

We now come to the nighthawks (Chordeiles) . The common 
nigbthawk or "bull-bat" (C. popetue Baird) of the eastern states 
is abundant from British America to the West Indies, and west to 
Kansas, where it becomes lighter, and constitutes the variety 
Nt'iu-jji Cass. This bird is an abundant spring and autumn u-i- 
tant to the District of Columbia, arriving about May first, and 
departing the last of September. In its breeding habits it differs 
from the whippoorwill in constructing its nest, which is a mere 
hole scratched in the ground, in open places, as fields and bare 
hillsides; and never in thick woods. It sometimes deports its 
eggs on a dead leaf, or even on a bare rock. During the pairing 
sea>on the actions of the male are strange and interesting, 
dusk he frequently mounts high into the air, and then, part 
closing his wings, descends with great rapidity 
the air in passing through the wing feathers in 
produces a loud booming sound which may b 
siderable distance, and has been likened to tlu 




THE NORTH AMERICAN 

by blowing into the bung-hole of an empty barrel. This noise 
must be regarded as a means of bringing the sexes together, as 
it is heard only in the spring. In the intervals between his as- 
censions, the male darts around in every direction, uttering sharp 
squeaks and throwing himself into all sorts of attitudes and pos- 
tures, calculated, no doubt, to please any passing female. It is 
both diurnal and nocturnal in its habits, but more properly the lat- 
ter. Nevertheless, I have frequently seen numbers pursuing and 
capturing their prey in broad daylight, when the sun was shining 
brightly. At such times, however, their flight is very high, so 
high indeed that they resemble the swallows with which they asso- 
ciate, and if it were not for the slow and regular flapping of their 
long wings, and an occasional harsh note (a note of exultation 
perhaps as they snap up some unfortunate beetle or moth) they 
might readily be mistaken for them. But it is in the dusk of the 
evening that they may be seen in the greatest numbers ; when, in 
certain localities and at certain seasons of the year (especially 
in the fall), thousands may be seen darting around in their rapid 
and necessarily irregular flight. As darkness approaches, they 
descend to the earth and skim along the surface, snatching up any 
ill-fated bug that may have failed to find shelter. 

I recollect a small valley in the northern part of Pennsylvania, 
which appears to be a favorite resort of this bird, more especially 
in the fall. It is about five miles in length, a mile in width, is 
inclosed by two ranges of high mountains, and is one of the most 
picturesque places in the state. A small stream wends its way 
along the base of one of the ranges and empties itself into the 
Susquehanna hard by. An hour or two before dusk a few night- 
hawks wiil }.e seen approaching from the direction of the river. 
These have no sooner passed than more make their appearance; 
and thus they come in an ever increasing stream, twisting and 
turning in pursuit of their insect prey, but always keeping in 
a general 
foremost ^ 

turned, as is their invariable custom, will be seen drawing near in 
their return to the river. In this way they may be seen coming 
and going with continually increasing numbers, until the sky p s 
far* writh their fleeting forms, and night has thrown a veil over 
tlleir actions. I have watched them for hours in this locality. 
When they first appear they are high in the air, but as dusk ap- 



proaches their flight is lower ; which is occasioned by the insects 
that they are pursuing seeking shelter for the night. Unlike the 
whippoorwill, this bird roosts almost entirely upon trees ; in fact 
it is seldom found on the ground except during the breeding sea- 
son. In roosting it always rests in a parallel position with its 
perch. This is undoubtedly owing to its comparatively small and 
weak legs, which are not capable of sustaining it any length of 



The western nighthawk (var. Henryi Cass.) was formerly consid- 
ered to be a distinct species, but is now regarded as only a geo- 
graphical variety of the preceding ; the principal difference being a 
paler coloration caused by a predominance of the lighter mark- 
ings. It inhabits the same region as Nuttall's whippoorwill, or 
the whole of the western country. 

The Texas nighthawk is much smaller than either of the pre- 
ceding, and is very distinct, its nearest relative being a South 
species (C. acutipennis) . It is a more southern bird 
abundantly in the state from 










'. popetue, var. Henryi C 



FARTHER OBSERVATIONS ON THE EMBRYOLOGY OF 
LIMULUS, WITH NOTES ON ITS AFFINITIES.* 



In a recent paper on the " Embryology 
ie " Memoirs of the Boston Society of ] 



676 

that the blastodermic skin, just before being moulted, consisted of 
undented cells, and also traced its homology with the so-called 
amnion of insects. 1 have this summer, by making transverse 
sections of the egg, been able to study in a still more satisfactory 
manner these blastodermic cells and to observe their nuclei before 
they become effaced during and after the blastodermic moult. 

On June 17th (the egg having been laid May 27th) the periph- 
eral blastodermic cells began to harden, and the outer layer, that 
destined to form the --amnion." to peel off from the primitive Land 
beneath. The moult is accomplished by the flattened cells of the 
blastodermic skin hardening and peeling off from those beneath. 

During this process the cells in this outer layer lose their nu- 
clei, and, as it were, dry up, contracting ami hardening during 
the process. This blastodermic moult is comparable with that of 
Apus, as I have already observed, the cells of the blastodermic 
skin in that animal being nucleated. 

This blastodermic skin in its mode of development may also 
safely be compared with the "amnion" of the scorpion as de- 
scribed and figured by Metznikoff, and we now feel justified in un- 
lie-itatinu'ly lit mu< ionizing il with the - amnion "of inserts, in which 
at first the blastodermic cells are nucleated, and appear like those 
of Limulus. Moreover the layer of germinal matter, from which 
the blastodermic skin moults off, may be compared with the prim- 
itive band of insects. On June 19th, in other eggs, the cells 
of the blastodermic skin were observed to be empty, and the nu- 
clei had lost their fine granules, and were beginning to disappear. 
The walls of the cells had become ragged through contraction. 
and in vertical section short peripheral vertical radiating lines 
could be perceived. 

At this time an interesting phenomenon was observed. In cer- 
tain portions of the blastodermic skin, or amnion, the cells had 
become effaced, and transitions from the rudiments of cells to 
those fully formed could be seen. From this we should suppose 
that the retention of these cells in the amnion of Limulus is due 
to the singular function this skin is destined to perform, i.e., to act 
as a vicarious chorion, the chorion itself splitting apart 
off in consequence of tl>e increase in size of the embryo. In in- 
sects these cells disappear, and after the skin is moulted it appears 

From studies afterwards carried on in the laboratory of the 



THE EMBRYOLOGY OF LIMULUS. 677 

Anderson School of Natural History, on the anatomy of the adult 
Limulus, I have been able to fully confirm the important discovery 
of Prof. Owen (Lectures.) 1852 and more recently of M. Alphonse 
Milne-Edwards* relative to the sheathing of the nervous cord and 
its branches by a system of arteries, and I would here hear testi- 
mony to the accuracy of Edwards' drawings and descriptions. 
Moreover I have been able by a study of living Limuli, beautifully 
injected by Mr. Bicknell by the kind permission of Prof. Agassiz, 
the director of the Anderson School, to extend still farther the 
anatomical researches of Milne-Edwards. With Mr. Bicknell's 

on the peri; i i turn <>f the bod\ . than indicated 

by Milne-Edwards, and have made out the existence of an exten- 
sive series of closed vessels in the respiratory abdominal feet. 
For this I was prepared by a study of the respiratory lamelhe. 
which, in the arrangement of their ehitinous septa, may be closely 
homologized with the gills of Amphipod Crustacea, as observed in 

With the new information aridrded us by A. Milne-Edwards, re- 
garding the relations of the nervous cord with the ventral system 
of arteries, and the remarkably perfect circulatory system, so much 
more highly developed than that of any other Arthropod, I should 
no longer feel warranted in associating Limulus and the Merosto- 
niata L»-encraliy uith the Branchiopoda, but regard, them, with the 
Trilobites. as forming perhaps a distinct subclass of Crustacea. 

Certainly if we consider the relations of the anatomical systems 
to the walls of the body, the disposition of the segments forming 
those body walls, and the nature of the appendages, Limulus 
is built on the crustacean type. Because its nervous cord resem- 
bles that of the scorpion, and its circulatory system is more 
perfect than that of any Arthropod we know, this is no reason for 
::at it is not a Crustacean. On the same ground Cera- 
todus is not a fish because it has the lungs of a reptile, nor is 
Oriiithorhynchus a Saurian • • au-e it has the shoulder girdle of a 
Saurian, f I have, moreover, shown that some important features 
in the embryology of Limulus are like those of the scorpion and 
the hexapodous insects, the "amnion" of Limulus apparently 
being homologous with that of the insects. 



678 

In fact Limulus seems to me to be a synthetic or comprehensive 
type, bearing the same relations to the Crustacea that Ceratoclus 
does among the fishes, or Archaeopteryx among the birds ; and be- 
cause Limulus has strong analogies to the Arachnids, we should 
not overlook its true affinities with the Branchiopodous Crustacea. 

Limulus may, then, be regarded as a Crustacean with the cara- 
pace of Apus, bearing simple and compound eyes as in that Phyl- 
lopod, with the antennae foot-like as in many Entomostraca, and 
the abdomb.. |y erustaceous in their structure, 

while the circulatory system is not fundamentally unlike that of 
other Crustacea, but only more perfect, and the digestive system 
is throughout comparable with that of the normal Crustacea. 



The insects of the genus Polistes have not hitherto been reported 
to make nests of clay. All the North American species have 
been oonsi ■.}> ilders. Many species are known 

from the United States, Canada and the West Indies, and these 
are generally of a brown or yellow color, having spots or bands 
either lighter or darker. 

In the present instance we have a dark brown species with nar- 
row yellow bands across the abdomen, and with yellow feet, which 
builds a nest of clay in the form of a cylinder. In the stump of 
a decayed Liriodendron, found by O. N. Bryan, Esq., in Charles 
county. Maryland, a number of these insects had aggregated their 
cylinders. The stump was about two feet in diameter and the 
central cavity (which had been formed by the borings of large 
beetles) was five inches wide. In this, attached to the sides, some- 
times lying flat in the grooves left by the beetles, or at 
at a considerable angle, and attached by their bases, were thirty- 
three of these peculiar structures. They were of a yellow clay, 
generally about half an inch in diameter, and varying in length 



from two to five inches. Sixteen of these were attached in one 
group projecting from the side of the cavity, and towards their 
outer ends were bent into a blunt curve ; resembling a colony of 
the tubes of Serpula. 

The nest, or, more properly, receptacle for the egg and young, 
is constructed in this manner. The adult Polistes flies to an adja- 
cent place where there is suitable wet clay, works this substance 
into an oval pellet and flies to the place where the building is to 
be made. The pellet is then laid obliquely and pressed down by 
the fore feet and head of the insect so as to cause it to adhere 
firmly to the surface on which it is building. This operation is 
repeated until it has formed a cylinder about one inch in length. 

As it proceeds, it smooths the inside of the cylinder by working 
with its jaws and pushing the front of its flat head against the 
plastic clay. The first section being thus finished to its satisfac- 
tion it flies off to secure small spiders. It seizes a spider with its 
fore feet, stings it in just such a way as to paralyze, without de- 
stroying its life, and then deposits it in the bottom of the cylinder. 

An egg is then laid beside the spider, and the wasp flies off" to 
secure other spiders. This is continued until the cavity, which 
generally holds from twelve to fifteen of the smaller kinds, is full. 

The wasp then proceeds to cover the open end with a cap of the 
same material as before, after which it adds other sections to the 
number of three or four, filling each with spiders, and depositing 
one egg in each. The young larva feeds on these paralyzed spi- 
ders, and, as it seems, requires from twelve to fifteen of them to 
nourish it until it is ready to become a pupa. 

Unlike the species of Pelopa?us, which also make clay nests, it 
does not nurse its young, but they are securely sealed up in the 
sections to feed themselves. When ready to come forth, the wasp 
gnaws a round hole in the wall of its cell, and flies forth as a per- 
fect insect. 

A similar, if not identical,' species was very troublesome in Bal- 
timore during the early part of last summer. 

On the front walls of the Peabody Institute these wasps as- 
sembled in considerable numbers ; and constructed their cells in 
the grooves of the joints of the marble. Their clay cylinders 
were so numerous as to greatly disfigure the marble and render it 
necessary to have the front of the Institute cleaned. 



THE FERTILIZATION OF FLOWERS BY INSECTS 

AND THEIR MUTUAL ADAPTATION 

FOR THAT FUNCTION.* 

The old idea, once a J - ines, tit;;' 

-ively to pro- 
mote the enjoyment of mankind, has suffered many severe shocks 
from the rude onslaughts of modern science. The discover that 
the e:irtli was ahabitable and inhabited world, countless ages hefore 
man appeared upon the scene, might be explained on the hypothesis 
that it was thus becoming prepared for the advent of the master- 
piece of creation ; the egotism of the human species might even 
survive the discouraging fact that gems of purest ray serene were 
born in the unfathomed caves of Silurian or Devonian oceans, and 
that flowers of the most perfect beauty were born to blush unseen 
in the midst of oolite or cretaceous deserts. The unpitying theory 
of the survival of the fittest, however, points relentlessly to the 
conclusion that man after all is not the raison d'etre of anything 
he sees around him except himself: that --jedes l'tir sich" is the 
rule of nature ; that every organic being is contrived so as to have 
the best chance of supplying its own wants, and not for the sake 
of administering to the wants of others ; in fact that the philoso- 
phy of science must, for the future, be an application to the realms 
of nature of the principle of self-love, such as even a Hobbes 
might accept. 

The volume before us, though full of minute details of empirical 
observation, is an important contribution to this philosophy of 
science. The main fact which forms the groundwork of Prof. 
Midler's observations is not new. Towards the close of the last 
century one of the keen observers of nature with which that period 
abounded, C. C. Sprengel, in his Dos P„hh,-ht, (i, h> iinni** der 3c- 
iur im Ban und in dor Befrucktung der Blumen, pointed out that a 
number of the different forms which the flowers of plants assume 
are obviously contrived for the purpose of attracting insects and 
of enabling them to cany away the pollen which is required to 



681 

fertilize other flowers of the same species. This line of research, 
which bad been almost lost sight of since Sprengel's time, has 
been renewed in our own day by Darwin in this country, the writer 
of this volume and Hildebrand in Germany, Axell in Sweden, and 
Delpino in Italy; the first-named naturalist reducing the sum of 
his observations to the well-known aphorism that ••nature abhors 
perpetual self-fertilization." The whole of that complicated struc- 
ture which we call in ordinary lnnii-uage the "flower" of a plant 
consists, in fact, of the reproductive organs enclosed in a number 
of envelopes which have for their purpose not only the protection 
of the essential organs within them, but the attraction of those 
insects or other animals which arc necessary for the fertilization 

The contrivances for effecting this purpose, though infinite in 
number and variety, may be classed under two principal heads. 
color and scent. A large number of insects obtain their food 
chiefly or entirely from the juices of flowers ; and the necessity 
for cross-fertilization renders the visits of these insects as indis- 
pensable to the life of the flower as to that of the insect. To 
enable them to find this food the juices are very commonly scented ; 
a field of clover or beans will attract all the bees in the neighbor- 
hood from a great distance ; and, if carefully watched, the bees 
will be found not only to carry off with them the honey, but to 
80 a portion of the pollen from flower to flower. Where 
the juice of the flower does not happen to be scented, the bright 
color of the corolla commonly serves the purpose of attracting 
insects from a distance. Different insects and other small animals 
have apparently very different ideas of beauty as regards the form 
and color of the flower. Hummingbirds are said by Delpino to 
have a penchant for scarlet and for flowers with long wide tubes ; 
hence in countries where there are no hummingbirds, as our own, 
scarlet flowers or those with long wide tubes are very rare among 
native plants.* The largest-flowered of European plants, the 
peony and several species of convolvulus, are visited chiefly by 
large beetles allied to the cockchafer ; and as we proceed farther 
north to climates too col ion of insect, the corre- 

sponding flowers also disappear, not being able to mature their 
seeds without assistance. When fertilization is effected by very 



small insects, something more than a large conspicuous corolla is 
required to show the visitors the way to the nectary or receptacle 
for the honey ; hence arises the variegation of flowers, the bands 
or patterns of color being almost invariably so arranged as to di- 
rect the insect in the way it should go in search of food. As na- 
ture seldom provides two contrivances, concurrently, for the same 
purpose, we find that variegated (wild) flowers are seldom scented ; 
while the most odoriferous flowers are- almost always uniform in 
color ; the evening primrose, which opens its scented flowers only 
in the dusk, requires no variegation to direct the night-flying moths 
to the scented nectar. 

Illustrations of all these laws have been observed by the natur- 
alists we have mentioned, and have been collected with great in- 
dustry in this volume by Dr. Midler, himself no idle worker in the 
same field. According to the theory of natural selection, those 
descendants from a common ancestor which vary from the others 
in any direction that tends to increase their attractiveness to insects, 
or to secure a more certain transference of the fertilizing pollen 
from one flower to another, will have the best chance of survival 
and of perpetuating and increasing this peculiarity in their prog- 
eny. Dr. Muller has himself examined, or records the observa- 
tions of others on, nearly four hundred species of plants, and 
describes the structure of the reproductive organs and of their e 



velopes, with especial reference to their a 



elf-fertili- 
ving in each case a list of all the 
insects which have been observed to visit the flower, and Must ratlin: 
his description, where necessary, by admirable woodcuts. This 
portion of the subject is more or less familiar to most botanists ; 
what Dr. Muller has made peculiarly his own study is the tracing 
out of the same principle, applied to the visiting insects, as previ- 
ous observers have noted with respect to the visited flower. By the 
same principle of natural selection those insect- which display to 
the greatest perfection contrivances for extracting the honey of 
flowers or for carrying away the pollen — the latter serving in some 
cases for their own food, in others for storing up in their nests as 
food for the larvae or young — will stand the best chance of perpet- 
uating offspring provided with the same peculiarities ; and we find 
here abundant descriptions and drawings of the various forms 
which these contrivances assume in different classes of insects. 
In his concluding chapter Dr. Muller discusses the origin of 



THE FERTILIZATION OP FLOWERS BY INSECTS, ETC. 683 

these phenomena, and declares himself a firm adherent of Darwin's 
theory, finding the explanation of every special contrivance on 
the one side or the other in the principle to which we have already 
referred. He therefore vigorously combats the teleological views 
of Sprengel and Delpino, the latter of whom especially, while ac- 
cepting the theory of evolution or descent with modification, yet 
disputes the soundness, or at least the adequacy, of the other the- 
ory usually associated with it, that of natural selection. He recurs, 
in fact, to the piv-Danviniau doctrine of design, to account for the 
phenomena which furnish the subject of this work, or, as Miiller 
represents him : "Nature is with him a being endowed with human 
thought, which has invented definite forms of flowers leading nec- 
essarily to cross-fertilization ; and this is then completely carried 
out by the employment of different parts of plants for the same 
purpose. This creator of flowers, far exceeding in talent the clev- 
erest man, has predestined certain forms of flowers for certain in- 
sects, and certain insects for certain forms of flowers, and has 
contrived each one to fit the other." The reasons which may be 
adduced against this theory would be simply a repetition of the 
main argument of Darwin's Origin of Species and Variation of 
Aninxilti and Plant* under domestication. The believer in the doc- 
trine of natural selection finds it more consonant with the facts 
which he sees around him to assume that Nature — if it is possi- 
ble to personify the idea — works, not by preconceived notions 
and prearranged harmonies, in which case we should expect to 
find everything perfect, without discord, waste, or incompleteness ; 
but rather, as a human workman would act, tentatively ; making 
small improvements here and slight adaptations there ; every form 
of life, in fact, constantly approaching a more and more perfect 
adaptation to the circumstances in which it is placed, a perfection 
which, however, is never absolutely attained. 

There are few regions of scientific inquiry more easily open to 
any observer resident in the country and possessed of ordinary 
powers of observation, than those connected with the fertilization 
of flowers, and none which would more amply repay careful re- 
search by leading to further insight into the still hidden laws which 
govern the origin of species. To all workers in this field Dr. 
Mailer's elaborate and in every respect admirable work will be an 
indispensable companion. — A. W. Bennett, in the Academy. 



REVIEWS AND BOOK NOTICES. 

The Human Brain.*— As the title indicates, the main purpose 
of this work is anatomical rather than physiological; for the 
author well says that "not the least of the obstacles in the way ot 
solving the problem " of the relation between mental faculties and 
cerebral convolutions is the present "difficulty of recognizing the 
constant unity of form in the multiplicity of individual varia- 
tions :" and he wishes his outline figures "to be regarded not 80 
much as pictures as maps by which one may find his way more 
easily in this region." In other words, the four diagrams of the 
human brain as seen from the left side, from above, from below 
and from the mesial surface, must be accepted by the reader, not 
as accurate representations of any single brain, but as the gener- 
alized results of the author's comparison of several brains, the indi- 
vidual variations of which are capable of being referred to these 
diagrams as types. 

The value of such a u'-u.-i ali/.at i-.n miiiht be estimated if the 
author had given us the numher of individuals upon which it is 
based ; his statement that foetal brains were studied, is so far 
satisfactory as evidence of a correct method; but in the absence 
of any figures of these latter, we can test the correctness of his 
"ii only l.y comparing his diagrams with actual speci- 
mens. And without going into technical details, which would be 
here out of place, we must state that such a coin] unison with ten 
cerebral hemispheres, representing four different periods of hetal 
life, has enabled us to confirm Ecker's views with respect to the 
nature of only two main outer fissures, those of Sylvius and of 
. Eolando (centralis), respecting which there has never been any 
disagreement. We are the more willing to admit this failure to 
agree, because our author himself dissents from previous writers. 
But while insisting upon the differences from his type 



manifested by our specin 






of the futility of establishing a pattern based upon them or upon a 
much larger number of specimens. Indeed we hail the discrep- 



REVIEWS AND BOOK NOTICES. 685 

ancy as another proof of three views elsewhere urged by us; 1. 
That a very large number of specimens especially of foetal brains, 
must be carefully studied. 2. That the results must be checked 
by an equally careful comparison between the two halves of the 
same brain. 3. That the existing disagreement is likely to per- 
sist for a long time unless we discard the human brain for the 
simpler Drains of the lower monkeys, the lemurs and cann'mm, 
using large numbers of brains of nearly allied species. But the 
foregoing considerations do not hinder our acknowledgment that 
the present work is a real boon to anatomical science; since it 
for the first time renders it possible, for the reader of English only, 
to ascertain what has been done in cerebral topography: the 
figures are clear, the nomenclature uniform, and a full synonymy is 
prefixed to the description of each fissure and fold. 

The fissures, are, correctly as we think, stated to be the "more 
important," but upon what ground is not indicated ; and there is 
given a brief account of the formation of the Sylvian fissure, as 
differing from all others: a point which has been in part con- 
firmed by our own observations upon the brains of young ani- 
mals. 

We are now inclined to return to the ancient belief that each 
cerebral hemisphere acts as a unit and with more or less vigor 
according to the number and depth of the fissures ; but Ecker 
vigorously repudiates this idea, holding that it "consists of a mul- 
titude of organs each of which subserves definite intellectual pro- 
cesses." But this opinion, while according with the original idea 
of phrenology, by no means indicates our author's estimate of the 
present "professors" of that "science" to whom, together with 
the rest of this admirable little work, we cordially recommend the 
following passage (p. 9). "The travelling phrenologists, who 
wander around with plaster heads of Schiller, Napoleon and some 
celebrated rascals, and cipher out a character from a number of 
bumps on the skull, are well known. Few of them have ever 
seen a brain."— Burt G. Wilder. 

Infusorial Life.*— Under this title Mr. W. H. Dallinger and 
Dr. J. Drysdale publish, jointly, in the August No. of the 
"Monthly Microscopical Journal," an article of extreme interest 
as a natural history contribution, and of revolutionary importance 



686 REVIEWS AND BOOK NOTICES. 

in respect to the prevalent methods of investigating questions of 
"spontaneous generation." Dissatisfied, as most thinkers are, 
with the vague and uncertain methods and conclusions of heated 
infusions and sealed flasks, the authors turned for an answer to 
the life history of the individual monads, and fortunately succeeded 
in obtaining the history of a species which might easily have been 
described as a group of species or quoted as an organism of spon- 
taneous origin. 

The necessity for a change in the methods of study in biogen- 
esis is well stated in their words, as follows :— '-The question as to 
whether vital forms of the lowliest and minutest kind may have 
their origin in a new, and as yet unexplained, arrangement of 
non-vital material, is one that can never find a legitimate and final 
reply in the class of experiments employed to test it within the 
last thirty years. A careful student of the literature of the 
subject will see that the results obtained by the same and different 
experimenters, with similar infusions and solutions, are so un- 
certain, and often contradictory, as to leave the whole question 
open to bias; and an almost equal array of so-called 'experi- 
mental facts' from nearly equally trustworthy observers, may be 
quoted on either side. This may be all pleasant enough in a 
'wordy war,' but it does not even approximate to a decision of 
the issue, and points to insufficiency in the experiments employed. 
The appearance or non-appearance of organic forms in certain 
infusions placed in sealed flasks or tubes, or otherwise conditioned, 
is held to be decisive of their production de novo or otherwise ; 
but in point of fact we know nothing— absolutely nothing— of the 
life history of the greater number of the forms produced. To 
attempt to decide, therefore, from the experiments as yet pub- 
lished, that their production in gross masses in inorganic infusions 
proves that inorganic elements produced them, may be to beg the 
whole question. Inferring from what we know of nature's modes 
of reproduction, we have a right to expect, not a de novo produc- 
tion, but a production from genetic elements. But when we re- 
member the relation in size, throughout nature, between the ova 
and spermatozoa and the organism producing them, the fact that 
no such elements are visible (if they exist) in Bacteria or monads 
is probably a mere necessity of our present instrumental power. 
At least this is inevitable, that before we can be bcI 
certain that these lowly forms do or do not originate in non-vital 



elements, we ought to know their life-history; and if this be 
desirable in the question of abiogenesis, it must be absolutely 
essential before we can even approach that of heterogenesis. We 
must patiently follow them without a break in observation, through 
all their changes, and then, by repeating these observations, 
decide on the stability or otherwise of the form. For some years 
our attention has been individually directed to this subject : and 
three years since the advisability of combined work commended 
itself to us. For work of this kind to be effective, we believe 
there must be more than one observer, in order that the observa- 
tions may be unbroken as far as possible, and also to secure a 
mutual as well as a double confirmation." 

With Ross' medium powers, and Powell and Lealand's high 
ones, the authors commenced the study of an undescribed monad 
which sometimes occurs abundantly in water in which a cod's 
head has been macerated. The drop of infusion was so arranged 
that it could be preserved in the focus of the highest powers, 
and the orga healthy, and 

under continuous observation for an indefinite length of time. 

The cercomonad sab - a small oval bodj T with 

two actively moving flagella at one end. This was the familiar, 
mature form, and the one which, alone, according to the usage 
of the students of Infusoria, would be considered characteristic of 
the species. Other forms however were observed, differing in size 
and shape and with one flagellum at each end, or amoeboid with or 
without flagella, or cyst-like and smooth and globular ; forms each 
of which might easily be regarded as a distinct species or possibly 
as a capricious variety, but which were tracked through a series 
of transitions, the recurrence of which was repeatedly observed 
and was found to be unvarying and to be a portion of the life 
history of the same individual. The mature form with oval body 
and two flagella at one end, after moving about with great activity 
for a period of time which in the observed cases was about forty 
minutes, became squarer or more elongated, and somewhat dumb- 
bell shaped by a sudden constriction of the sarcode. At this 
stage the body is furnished with one flagellum at each end, which 
lashes with great force. The constricted portion becomes nar- 
rowed more and more by stretching until so attenuated as to equal 
only the flagella in thickness, when it parts in the middle, leaving 
two separate bodies each furnished with a flagellum at each end. 



This multiplication l>y fission, in an average of forty cases, was 
completed in four minutes and forty seconds, and continued to be 
repeated without variation during from two to eight days. 

After this period the organism gradually assumes an amoeboid 
form li\ |» -,iiv,><lt.'. and muves only l»y psciulo- 

podia although the flagella are still present and somewhat active. 
In the course of seven hours, there were several of these amoeboid 
forms in the field, each enclosing or enveloping a flagellated body. 
Finally two of these approached each other until they touched, 
and rapid blending of the sarcode took place, the flagella disap- 
peared, the bodies came in contact with each other and rapidly 
coalesced, and the common body thus formed increased in size 
until it was no longer enveloped in the delicate sarcode, but be- 
came a mere, smooth, globular cyst with a distinct integument 
which afterwards became thin, burst, and discharged a viscid 
mass of oily looking matter. Under the power employed, Powell 
and Lealand -fa and A ocular (X2500), this presented, when 
somewhat dispersed, a minutely granulated appearance. By 
adding an eight inch drawtube and B ocular, it became certain 
that this consisted of a densely packed mass of inconceivably 
small granules. The observers believe that they should have 
wholly failed to see these sporules but for their enormous aggre- 
gation and motion in a mass, and that "with the ^ the most accu- 
rate observer could not have discovered their presence if he had not 
preciously seen them with the -£,." 

The development of these granules was now watched with the 
greatest care. In six hours they had increased to a decidedly 
perceptible degree, though still far smaller than the minute and 
familiar Bacterium termo of Cohn ; an hour or two later they 
began to reassume an oval shape ; in nine hours from the fust they 
had become rather larger than B. termo and had becomi 
and begun to move freely, the bodies became vacuolate, and m 
something less than twelve hours the normal parent form wai 
assumed. This history was traced carefully and repeatedly, and 
with unvarying results. 

The effects of heat and dessication were also tried : an-1 it was 
found that although drying slowly upon a glass slide and exposure 
to a dry heat of 121° C. entirely destroyed all the adult forms, 
yet, after moistening again with distilled water and watching the 
field for some hours, growing points were in some insiance- uis- 



covered exactly resembling an early stage of the developing spo- 
rules, which points matured into the flagellate state. Farther 
experiments demonstrated that a heat, without dryness, of 6G° C. 
destroys all the adult forms, while young monads appear and de- 
velop in an infusion which has been heated to 127° C. suggesting 
that the sporules are uninjured by a tempera tn re n-hi>-h is destruc- 
tive to the adult. 

After this history, whose importance, if verified by subsequent 
observation, can scarcely be over-estimated, a history of a monad 
multiplying by subdivision, reproducing by conjugation (a true 
sexual reproduction of an extremely simple type), and actually 
seen to develop from sporules invisible under the powers usually 
employed in such investigations, and Indestructible by heat which 
is fatal to the adult forms, it seems almost a waste of time to read 
of experiments with boiled infusions in sealed flasks, and Ave are 
lather inclined to wait patiently until Powell and Lealand or 
Tolles, or some one else, shall give us a lens capable of reading 
the life-history, whatever it may be, of Bacteria and Vibriones.— 
K. H. W. 









BOl 


'ANT. 












Peb 


FOR AT 


EOH 


r Gerardia 


PEDICU 


LARL 


Y BT 


Bf.es.- 


-1 Ik 


ive 


vay, 


- been 


much 


interested in 


the pret 


ty genus ( 


ierardia 


. !a:_, 


dy 








vicinity of Pr 




!, R. 


I. 1 


in the su 




of 


71, 


while 


sitting 


; amidst a d. 


?nse gro 


wth 


of 6 


r. petlici 


daria. 


I 




i that 


all the humble-bees 


i which v 


isite 


d the flowers 


alight 


ed 



on the outside near the base of the corolla. I could not account 
for so singular an action, asthe aperture to each bell was so wide. 
I found upon examination that the corolla in each