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Full text of "The American naturalist."

AMERICAN NATURALIST, 



AN ILLUSTRATED MAGAZINE 



NATURAL HISTORY. 



A. S. PACKARD, Jr. and F. W. PUTNAM. 
R. H. WARD, 




SALEM, MASS. 
\BODY ACADEMY OF SCIF.: 




. PUTNAM & CO, 



CONTENTS OF VOL. VIII. 



Notes from tiie Journal of a Botanist in Europe. By W. G. Farlow, 

M.D. pp. 1, 112, 295. 
Ornithological Notes from the South. By C.Hart Merriam. pp. 6, 

Botanical Observations in Western Wyoming. By Dr. C. C. Parry. 

pp.9, 102, 175,211. 
Animal Life of the Cuyamaca Mountains. By Dr. J. G. Cooper, p. 14. 
On the Relationship between Development and i in; Sexual Condi- 



;\t Aspects of Biology and the Method of Biological 

Study. By Professor Allraaa. p. 34. 
TnE Yellowstone National Park. By Theodore B. Comstock, B. S. 

pp. 65, 155. 
On the Structure and Affinities of the Brontotheridjs. By Prof. 

O. C. Marsh. With two plates, p. 79. 
The Botany of the Cuyamaca Mountains. By J. G. Cooper, M. D. 

Science in the United States. From the French of Alphonse DeCan- 

Notes upon American Water Birds. By Robert Ridgway. p. 103. 
Three different Modes of Teething among Selachians. By Prof. 

Louis Agassiz. p. 129. 
The Wild Cattle of Scotland, or White Forest Breed. By E. Lewis 

Sturtevant. p. 135. 
Exploration of the Gulf of Maine with the Dredge. By A. S. Pack- 
ard, Jr. Illustrated, p. 145. 
The Giant Cuttle-fishes of Newfoundland and TnE common Squids 

of the New England Coast. By Prof. A. E. Verrill. Illustrated. 

p. 167. 
The Flora of Penikese Island. By Prof. D. S. Jordan, p. 193. 
On Local Vaki a i ion-; in the Notes and Nesting Habits of Birds. By 

Robert Ridgway. p. 197. 
A new Species of Willow from California, and Notes on somk other 

North American Species. By M. S. Bebb. p. 202. 
TnE Robin. By Caroline Boyce. p. 203. 
The Natural History of a Polymorphic Butterfly. By Samuel H. 

Scudder. p. 257. 
The Game Falcons of New England. The Sparrow Hawk. By Dr. 

William Wood. p. 266. 

(Ill) 



VOLUME VIII. 

Nature's Means of Limiting the Numbers of Insects. By A. S. Pack- 
ard, Jr. Illustrated, p. 270. 
Habits and Characteristics of Swainson's Buzzard. By Dr. Elliott 

Fossil Horses in America. By Prof. O. C. Marsh. Illustrated, p. 288. 

The Preservation of Caterpillars by Inflation. By Samuel H. 
Scudder. Illustrated, p. 321. 

Notes on the Cyprinoids of Central New Jersey. By Charles C. 
Abbott, M.D. Illustrated, p. 326. 

The Migration of Birds. By T. Martin Trippe. p. 338. 

On the Structure and Casting of the Antlers of Deer. By John 
Dean Caton, LL.D. p. 348. 

The Classification of TnE Rhynchophorous Coleoptera. By John 
L. LeConte, M. D. p. 385. Concluded p. 452. 

Observations on Drosera filiformis. By William M. Canby p. 396. 

A Key to the Higher Alg.e of the Atlantic Coast, between New- 
foundland and Florida. By Prof. D. S. Jordan, pp. 398, 479. 

Human Remains in the Shell-Heaps of the St. John's River, East 
Florida. Cannibalism. By Prof. J. Wyman. p. 403. 

The History of the Lobster. By A. S. Packard, Jr. With plate and 

Notes on the Flora of Southern Florida. By Frederick Brendel. 

p. 449. 
Herbarium Cases. By Dr. C. C. Parry. With cut. p. 471. 
Charles Robert Darwin. By Prof. Asa Gray. p. 473. 
The Agricultural Ant. By Dr. G. Lincecum. p. 513. 
Azalea viscosa, a Flycatcher. By W. W. Bailey, p. 517. 
On the Antenna in the Lepidoptera. By A. R. Grote, A.M. p. 519. 
The Social Life of the Lower Animals. By Prof. P. J. Van Bene- 

den. p. 521. 
On the Distribution and Primitive Number of Spiracles in Insects. 

By A. S. Packard, Jr. p. 531. 

\ Variation in North American Blrds. By J. A. Allen. 

rs on the Supposed Auditory Apparatus of the Mos- 
By Prof. A. M. Mayer. Illustrated, p. 577. 
. Spider. By Dr. G. Lincecum. p. 593. 
On the Nesting of Certain Hawks, etc. By Dr. Elliott Coues, U.S.A. 

p. 596. ' 
The Metamorphosis of Flies. I, II, III. By Dr. August Weissmann. 

pp. 603, 661, 713. 
Address of Prof. Joseph Lovering. pp. 612, 641. 
English Sparrows. By Thomas G. Gentry, p. 667. 
Lmbricative ^sttvation. By A. P. Morgan. With cuts. p. 705. 
On the Cotton Worm of the Southern States (Aletia argillacea Hub.). 

By Aug. R. Grote. p. 722. 
Lots Histories of the Protozoa. By A. S. Packard, Jr. Illustrated. 



REVIEWS AND BOOK NOTICES. 
The Systematic Position of the Brachiopods (Illustrated) p. 43. North 
American Grasshoppers, p. 53. British Marine Seaweeds, p. 64. Lub- 
bock's Monograph of the Podura?, p. 54. New German Botanical Manuals, 
p. 115. The Mollusks of Western North America, p. 116. The Zoologi- 
cal Record for 1871, p. 180. Revision of the Echini, p. 215. Hayden's 
Geology of the Territories (Illustrated), p. 216. Girard's Insects, p. 221. 
Solar Physics, p. 222. The liirt.ii of Chemistry, p. 222. North American 
Moths, p. 223. Surveys west of the 100th Meridian, p. 302. Check List 
of Coleoptera, p. 303. Dictionary of Elevations of the United States, p. 
303. Flora of Colorado, p. 304. Young's Physical Geography, p. 353. 
Half Hours with the Microscope, p. 354. Field Ornithology, p. 418. The 
Butterflies of North America, p. 420. Deep Sea Floridan Polyzoa, p. 421. 
The Publications of the Buffalo Society of Natural Sciences, p. 421. List 
of North American Noctuid Moths, p. 421. The United States Fish Com- 
mission Report (Illustrated), p. 493. North American Flies, p. 497. 
The Unicellular Nature of the Infusoria, p. 498. Siebold's Anatomy of 
the Invertebrates, p. 499. Recent Publications on Ornithology, p. 541. 
History of North American Birds, p. 546. The Principles of Science, p. 
628. Scammon's Mariue Mammals of the Northwestern Coast and Amer- 
ican Whale-fishery, p. 632. The Geology of the Lower Amazonas (Illus- 
trated), p. C73. The original Distinction of the Testicle and Ovary, p. 680. 
Maps of Wheeler's Expedition, p. £83. Physiology of the Circulation. 
p. 684. Bulletin of the Cornell University, p. 684. Manual of Metal- 
lurgy, p. 684. Introduction to General Biology, p. 749. Publications of 
Wheelers Survey, p. 749. The Geological Survey of Indiana, p. 749. 

BOTANY. 
Irritability of the Leaves of the Sundew, p. 55. Were the Fruits Made 
for Man. or D 1 M in M • ' I ruits? p. 116. The Fertilizaiion of Gen- 
tians by Humble Bees. pp. ISO. 220. The Desmids. p. 181. I' 

m of Abutilou. p. 233. Abnormal Form of Allo- 
sorus acrostichoides, p. 304. Rumex patientia L. p. 305. The Northern- 
most flowering Plants, p. 305. The small-flowered Parnassia in Michigan. 
p. 305. The Fresh-yvater Algae of North America, p. 306. Aplectrum 
hyemale again, p. 307. Development of Ferns without Fertilization, p. 
307. Lobelia syphilitica; v. alba, p. 307. Sex in Plants, p. 355. A New 
Ribes, p. 358. Periodic Motions of Leaves and Petals, p. 359. Ascent of 
Sap in the Bark of Trees, p. 360. Botrychium luuaria Swartz, in Michi- 
gan, p. 360. Absorption of Ammonia by the aerial parts of Plants, p. 360. 
Geographical Distribution of the Cupuliferae, p. 422. Note on the Influ- 
ence of Light on the Development of Plants, p. 425. Dr. Beardslee, p. 
499. Double Thalictrum, p. 499. Dr. W. G. Farlow, p. 499. Distribu- 
tion of Alpine Plants, p. 552. Amount of Water contained in the differ- 
ent parts of a Plant, p. 553. Botany of Wilkes' South Pacific Exploring 



Expedition, p. 035. Influence of Forests on llie Rainfall, p. G35. Insec- 
tivorous Plants, p. C84. Distribution of American Woodlands, p. 687. 
Adoxa Moschatellina L.. in Iowa. p. C.'.'O. Dispersion of Seeds by shoot- 
ing them off, p. COO. Botrychium lonaria Sunrtz. p. G91. Yucca fllamen- 
tosa, p. 749. The Distinctive Features of Apple Flowers, p. 752. 

ZOOLOGY. 

A New JEgerian Maple Borer, p. 57. A Spinous Fin in a Minnow, p. 58. 
Capture of a Gigantic Squid at Newfoundland, p. 120. A New ( ?) iEgerian 
Maple Borer, p. 123. The Anatomy of Worms, p. 124. Entomology in 
Missouri, p. 181. A New p. 188. Economic Ento- 

mology, p. 189. Gig ntic Cuttle-fishes of Newfoundland, p. 22G. Laws 
. in North American Mammals and Birds, p. 
227. The Habits of Polistes and Pelopams, p. 229. Notes on the Plant 
Lice, p. 231. mong Moths, 

p. 234. Organs of Hearing in Insects, p. 23G. Change of Habit, p. 2&7, 
Spontaneous Generation, p. 238. Discovery of the Water Thrush's Nest 
in New England, p. 238. Two rare Owls from Arizona, p. 239. Avifauna 
of Colorado and Wyoming, p. 240. The Ollre-sided flycatcher, p. 240. 

Hummingbird new to our Fauna, p. 241. Occurrence of Telea Polyphe- 
mus in California.— A Correction, p. 243. Identity of our Hydra with 
European Species, p. 244. Olive-sided Flycatcher, pp. 308, 309. Pet 
Spiders, p. 3G1. Reproduction of a Fish's Tail, p. 3G3. The Kinglets in 
New Jersey, p. 304. The Honey-ants. p. 3 Go. Spizella Breweri (?) in 
Massachusetts, p. 3f'.G. The Chimney Swift: Change in Place of Nesting, 
p. 3G7. TheMyriopod Cermatia poisonous, p. 308. Blind Crustacea, p. 
3C8. Birds and Caterpillars, p. 3G8. A sinistral Helix albolabris, p. 3G8. 
Note on preserving Insects in Collections, p. 3C9. The Structure of 
Sponges, p. 42.3. Hacck L Animals, 

External Ovaries, p. 427. A Remarkable Beetle Parasite of the Beaver 
(with cut),' p. 427. Tornaria not a larval Starfish, but the Young of a ' 
Worm, p. 429. The White-necked Raven, p. 429. Relation of the Ccelen- 
terates and Echinoderms, p. 430. New Carboniferous Myriopods from 
Nova Scotia, p. 430. The Discovery of the Origin of the Sting of the 
Bee, p. 431. Deep Sea Dredglngs in the Gulf of St. Lawrence, p. 481. 
The Mouth Parts „f the Dragon Fly, p. 432. A New Type of Snakes, p. 
432 Notice of a Species of Tern new to the Atlantic Coast of North 
America, p. 433. The Ruddy Duck, p. 433. Birds New to the Fauna of 
North America, p. 434. On Some of the Evidences of Life in Great Salt 
Lake, p. 435. English Sparrows, p. 436. A New Group of Cyprinidas p. 
436. A Horned Elotherium, p. 437. The Skunk, p. 437. The Redheaded 
Wood .ecker in M ;"n . , p. 137. Menobranchns edible, p. 438. New Orus- 

velopment of certain Batruchiaus, p. 438. The Paleontologies! History of 



Trilobites. etc., as opposed by Barrande, to the Evolution Theory, p. 439. 
Monograph of the Whale Lice. p. 441. New Species of North American 
Bird, p. 500. Occurrence of .la pyx in the United States (Illustrated), p. 
501. The "Hateful" Grasshopper in New England, p. 502. The Kinglets 
in New Jersey, p. 502. Zoology in Belgium, p. 503. Recent Researches 
on Termites and Stiugless Honey-bees, p. 553. The European House 
Sparrow, p. 556. Fish Culture in the Olden Time, p. 557. The Influence 
of the Nerves upon the Change of Color of Fish and Crustacea, p. 569. 
The Cotton Worm, p. 5G2. Larva? of Anopthahnus and Adelops. p. ,">tV.'. 
New Variety of Bine (im-heak, p. 5»'.:',. Dimorphism in Call Flies, p. 563. 

of Anthrenus Larvae, p. 5G4. Larvae of Membraeis serving as milk cattle 
to a Bee, p. 565. The Snow Goose, p. 636. Transformations ..f our Moths 
. p. f.'.'i. English Sparrows, p. 602. Monstrosities among 
Hectics, p. 693. Note on the Synonymy of Telea Polyphemus, p. 753. 
The Reversion of Thoroughbred Animals, p. 754. Deep Sea Explora- 
tions, p. 755. The Chestnut sided Warbler, p. 756. Embryology of the 
see of the Hair Worm, p. 757. A new 
Order of Hydrozoa, p. 757. Birds of Kansas, p. 757. Ostrich Breeding, 
p. 757. Case of a Dog nursing a Kitten, p. 758. 

GEOLOGY. 
Return of Professor Marsh's Expedition, p. 58. The N. W. Wyoming 
Expedition, p. 124. Monkeys in the American Miocene, p. 125. The 
Genus Protohippus, p. 126. Remains of Land Plants in the Lower Silu- 
rian, p. 190. The great Lava-flood of the West, p. 244. Deep-sea Ex- 
plorations, p. 369. The Carboniferous Formation of South America, p. 
441. Analogy of the Tertiary Fauna of France to the Temperate Regions 
of America, p. 442. Small size of the Brain in Tertiary Mammals, p. 503. 
Deep Sea Soundings, p. 504. Deep sea Temperature in the Antarctic 
Sea, p. 637. Origin of the Valley of the Rhine, p. 637. Supposed Lower 
Silurian Land Plants, p. 693. European Fossil Cetacea, p. 694. 



The Manufacture of Pottery by t! 
Berries of Rhamnus croceus as Indian Food, p. 247. A human Skeleton 
from the Diluvium, p. 370. The Pygmies of Central Africa, p. 443. Trog- 
lodytes in Alaska, p. 505. Egyptian Archaeology, p. 50G. A true Geogra- 
phy of the Brain, p. 565. Rate of Growth in Man, p. 567. Extent of the 
Ancient Civilization of Peru, p. 637. Restoration of Indian Pottery, p. 
694. The Earthworks of Fort Ancient, p. 759. 

MICROSCOPY. 
A New Section Cutter (Illustrated), p. 59. A New Form of Microtome 
. p. 126. Embedding Tissues for Sections, p. 191. Dissecting 
Embryos, p. 191. Holmau's Siphon Slide (Illustrated), p. 248. Structure 



of the Potato, p. 248. Mi U9. Am- cells in a float- 

ing Leaf, p. 250. Life of Haeraatozoa, p. 250. Finding the chemical 
Focus in Photomicrography, p. 251. A Spherical Diaphragm, p. 252. 
Leaf Sections, p. 252. Another Erector, p. 252. Cements, p. 252. Auto- 
microscopy, p. 253. Measuring the growth-rate of Plants, p. 253. A re- 
volving Amplifier, p. 253. Quieting Frogs, p. 253. On the Structure of 
Diatoms, p. 309. Unmounted Objects, p. 316. Arranging Diatomaceaj 
(Illustrated), p. 371. Histology, p. 373. Morphology of the Saproleg- 
niei, p. 374. Section Cutters, p. 375. Lecture Illustrations of Micro- 
scopic Objects, p. 375. Podura Scales, p. 376. Lengthened immersion 
Tube, p. 376. Automatic Turntable, p. 376. Origin of Blood Corpuscles, 
p. 376. Substitute for the Camera lucida, p. 377. Amphiplem 
in dots, p. 443. On Circulatory Movements in Vaucheria, p. 444. Im- 
provements in Insect Mounting, p. 507. Measuring Angular Apertures, 
p. 508. Cataloguing Microscopic Specimens, p. 509. Sand-blast Cells, p. 
iun of Stain- 
ing to Pathology, p. 511. New Rotating Microscope, p 567. Mounting 
Diatoms, p. 5G8. Blood Crystals, p. 568. Tolles' New Immersion l-6th, p. 
56*. Splueraphides in Tea Leaves, p. 638. New Microscopical Societies, 
p. 638. Appearance of the Blood in Melanosis, p. 638. Achromatic Boll's 
Eye Condenser, p. 638. Embedding Tissues, p. 0:J!>. Glycerine Mounting, 
p. 639. Beaded Silica Films, p. 696. Cell-culture in the Study of Fungi. 
p. 697. Handling Diatoms, p. 697. Reproduction of Desmids, p. 698. 
Angular Apertures, p. 698. A Finder for Microscopes with plain staue, 
p. 700. The Right-angled Prism as a substitute for the Mirror for trans- 
mitted light, p. 700. Apparatus for giving pressure to objects while dry- 
ing, p. 700. The new Type Plate, p. 701. Fixing Diatoms, p. 701. The 
Podura Scale, p. 702. Distribution of the Rhizopods, p. 761. 

Notes.— Pages 62, 128, 191, 253, 316, 377, 445, 511, 569, 639, 702, 762. 

Exchanges. — Pages 256, 448. 



LIST OF PLATES. 



LIST OF WOOD-CVTS. 



Embryo of I.am.iji 



W- } 









AMERICAN NATURALIST. 

Vol. VIII. -JANUARY, 1874. -No. 1. 



^vu.i.v and .-i^cijilly l>ala, is a sort of botanical Mecca, 
and, indeed, no one who has occasion to travel in the north of 
Europe would willingly refrain from veiling the tomb of Linnams. 

I reached this country by way of Copenhagen, which fine city, 
as well as Hamburg I was obliged to hurry through, taking 
merely a glimpse of the Botanical and Zoological Gardens. From 
Copenhagen I crossed over to Malmoe in Sweden, and took the 
train to the old university town of Lund, where the distinguished 
algologist, Agardh, is professor, as was his father before him. The 
town is, indeed, old and primitive: and from the astonishment of 
the natives one would suppose that I was the first American ever 

A pretty, but to me decidedly unintelligible chamber-maid 

managed after a while to understand that I wanted a room 
Unfortunately, there was no lock to the door, and * 



2 NOTES FROM THE JOURNAL OF A BOTANIST IN EUROPE. 

which, and in the- entries, juniper twigs were spread, a universal 
custom in Sweden. I found the professor at home and expecting 
me. In personal appearance he is tall, and, as they say, aristo- 
cratic looking (in fact he is called "Lord Agardh" by the stu- 
dents) ; he has bright twinkling eyes and a white mustache. He 
speaks and writes English remarkably well. He is a member of 
the Reichstag, and so goes to Stockholm in the winter. His herba- 
rium, with the exception of the largest species, is in his private 



botanic 


The 
al g 


ardcii 


;r specin 


,,.'.',, ;' 


e kept ; 


it the boil 
of the 6f 


ding in t! 


:ie new 
I had 






pre! 


uded by 


an inv 


itation 


to take a { 


■lass of ( 


Cognac 


and so 


da-wi: 


iter, 


a favorit 


e bevc 


srage L 


a this regi 


ion. My 


valise 


being 1 


.mpat 


ked, 


we set t 


o wort 


;. Am 


ongst the 


lot were i 


several 


plants 












ome entirely ne 




larly ai 


nongst my 


Oregon 


and U: 


iliiorni: 


l species ; 1 


nit this is 


hardly 


a prop< 


« tin 


10 to 


notice new species. 


lie seeme< 




larticu- 


larly interes 


ted ii 


\ a specii 


nen of 


Pikm 




, which p 


lant he 


had ne 


ver sv. 




Ithough 


he had 


liimsel 


f added ot 




>ers to 


the gei 




ACV 


tonlaria 


from ( 


Jregon, 


supposed 1 


A- Agard 


h to he 


new, I 


have 


since 


discovei 


■ed, fro 


m an e 


xauiliiatioii 


of the Hi 


ilirecht 


collect: 




i St. 


Petersbi 


irg, to 


be a 


ubiatinu of 


Kuprecl 


it, still 


unpubl 


Uhed 
















The 








ent of 










tion of 


Prot 




Agardh. 


, assist 


ant Pr 


lessor An 


■schoug, 1 


iephew 



German, h 
by way of C 



Ionia, Maci 


■ocystis. 


Du 


rviltoa, etc., several 




set long, 










■iy 


the only 


getting any i 


dea how 


MR'] 


i plants really look. 






lies in the 1; 


irge plait 


i of 


Sarnia. with mountains 


visible in 


.ance. This 


is decidedly 


the most fertile part 


of 


Sweden. 


grain crop 


is very h 


irgv 


. I made an excurs 




with Dr. 


sens. The r 


called \' 


ami 


lsang, made classic 1 
knolls were very b. 




die visits 
tii'ul with 





rathe! 


■ _ 


ney, particularly 


.ling 


in <;< 


irmany. 


The bo 


tanistsof 


the 


vaeati 


on. So, : 


iftur vis 


siting the 


, alt] 


lough 


good, are 


not rei 


nnrkable, 


O til 


is pict 


uresque ar 


id agree 


'able city 




to Up 








beai 


itifuib 


y situated 


. but is 


in most 


ii Li 


md. 


The numb 


er of st 


udeuts is 


as o 


;reat a 


is at Lun< 


1. Mai 


ay of the 


obli 


ged t 


o spend t 


he vac. 


ations in 


at t 


he coi 


npletion of their 


studies. 


- the 


nations or provi 


rices of 


Sweden. 


ouse 


, that 


of the S 


tockh..; 


in-nation 



fifteen hundred, tin 
students are poor 
Upsala, only return: 
They are divided ac. 

being the finest. Each nation has also a lot and monument in the 
cemetery, and most of the students who die at Upsala are buried 
there, as it is a long journey to some of the provinces. In fact, 
Americans who judge of European distances from Great Britain 
and Germany are astonished at the size of Norway and Sweden. 
Professor Schiibler of Chriatiania told me that it was half as far 



from Christiania to the northernmost point of Norway as from 
Christiania to Rome. 

On my arrival I called at once on the venerable Professor Fries. 
I found him at home, surrounded by his children and grand- 
children, assembled to celebrate bis seventy-eighth birthday. Only 
one of his family was absent, a son who lives in Florida. He 
welcomed me warmly, and regretted that he was too feeble to show 
me Upsala. He spoke German, but so slowly that it was difficult 
to follow him. His daughters spoke English ; the youngest, who 
is unmarried, very well. He wears the traditional long black coat 
and skull-cap, and has the venerable appearance and benign ex- 
pression, which is shown in the photograph of himself and the 
amiable Madame Fries, which I remember in Professor Gray's 
collection. Professor Fries directed me to the college building 

my escort in Upsala. The way to the laboratory was through 
very classic grounds. Just back of the castle is the Library, Car- 
favorite wall [shed professors. Lack of the 
library is a large grove with a cemetery in which are buried Wahl- 
enberg and Thunberg. In the grove and cemetery are a number 
of Runic monuments, and through the centre of the grove runs a 
broad avenue to the laboratory, in the stem i Mory of which sev- 
eral of the professors have suites of rooms. Not finding Professor 
Fries at home 1 calle i again the next morning. 

The younger Professor Theodore Fries, stout and robust, and 
not the least like his father in personal appearance, kindly offered 
to be my guide in the city. The situation of I'psala is bleak and 
even dismal, a single hill on which stands the cathedral, castle 
and university buildings, in the midst of a wide plain. The 
cathedral, an ancient brick structure, has no great claims to 
beauty, but _ on account of the tombs and 

relics contained in it. The torn!) of Gustav Vasa is the lion of 
the place, but to all naturalists the tomb of Linnaeus, of black 



by the inhabitants : 
back of which, and 



this way the more valuable mementoes <>t' Linna-us are preserved 

riurn building is a marble statue of the father of botany, in a 
s tting posture, by Bystrom. The expression of the face is ex- 
tremely bei e Linnseos, 

if we are to trust the portrait at Stockholm, which was considered 
an excellent likelier. Professor Aiv-choug. best known by his 
algological writings, resides close to the garden. lie is a rather 
ik-set man, and in his method of study is decidedly Ger- 
man. His collection of microscopic preparations of algae is large, 
and the preparations are beautifully mounted. 

Linnaeus' city house, at the old Botanic (Jarden. is still to be 
seen, nearly unaltered, but it contains no relics of its d 
owner. There are some, however, at his country house at Ham- 
's -.■..•:■::.■- .'- '.. ' ■ .■ : 'a I'.'-:' .. . ' '.■ ' : ' : : : '■ - : ._ '•' ■■)' : : '•' ':'■ h 

contained his herbarium and museum. A good idea of these and 
of all the souvenirs of Linnaeus is to be had from a series of fif- 
teen small photographs, with an accompanying sheet of letter 
press, which were published a few years ago, and are still on sale. 

journals, is not expensive, and could readily be obtained, I pre- 
sume, by thoso who would be interested in these memorials. A 
visit to Upsala is incomplete without an excursion to the tombs of 
Thor, Frei and Odin, three mounds a short distance from the 
town. To make the scene more impressive, the Swedish urchins 
roll over and over down the mounds for a slight gratuity. At a. 
restaurant near by, one is also expected to drink mead out of 
horns mounted with silver and inscribed with the names of princes 
and nobles who drank heavily from them in days of yore. 



ORNITHOLOGICAL NOTES Flo' >U THE SOCTI 



I. SOUTH CAROLINA. 
The town of Aiken is situated in the dry, sandy "Pine Barrens" 
of southern South Carolina. It is a great resort for invalids (es- 
pecially for those suffering from pulmonary diseases), the climate 
being dry and healthful. It is the highest point on the Charles- 
ton railroad, having an altitude of over six hundred feet, and there 

miles west of the town. 

bright green lizards (Anolius Carolinensis) , which, like the cha- 
meleon, possess the \> - ir color to a greenish- 
yellow and a dark reddish-brown. There is also another species 



they generally take 



i ■■ ■■ - 

formed species of Co 

about three-quarters 

out of whi 



Now, : 



ehirp above my head, and. looking up. saw a small bird on the 
top of one of the tallest pine trees : it was too high to be recog- 

creeper (Jfawtilhi carlo) was seen on the 18th, from which time 
afterwards it was common. A few Maryland yellow-throats (Geo- 
thl ii» ■>■ tn\-h>is) arri\ ed on the 31st, but were not numerous. The 
hermit thrush ( Tnrdns PaUasil) and the robin (Planesticus mirjra- 
torius) were quite plentiful when I arrived. Mocking birds {Mi- 

after which time they -fairly filled the air with their rich medley 
of inexhaustibly varied notes, the singers leaping in restless 
ecstasy from branch to branch, with drooping wings and spread 

but one cat-bird (Galeoscoptes Carolinrnxls) and that was on the 
4th of April ; the brown thrush or long-tailed thrasher (Harpo- 
rhynchus rufus) was very common on and after March 19th. 

I shot a pewee or phcebe bird (Sayornis fuscus) on the 15th, 
after which time they were often seen. Our common kingbird, or 
beebird (Tyranmis CaroUnensis) arrived on the 4th of April, 
when it inn se of all the 

other species, both large and small, especially the former. On 
the 22d, I shot one blue-headed vireo ( Vireo solitarius). which was 
the only one seen; the white-eyed vireo ( V. Noveboracensis), how- 
ever, was quite common on and after the 27th. The great 



8 ORNITHOLOGICAL NOTES FROM THE SOUTH. 

wren (Thryothorus Ludovicianus), though a resident, was first ob- 
served about the 27th, after which time it- pleasant song was often 
heard. The bine-gray gnatcatchers (Polioptila ccerulea) arrived 
on the 21st, and soon became very common; the ruby-crowned 
kinglets (Regulus calendula) appeared on the same day, and were 
equally numerous. Rough-winged swallows {Stelgidopteryx serri- 
pennis), in large numbers, arrived about the 22d. Hawks of all 
kinds were rare; one fish hawk (Pandion Carolinensis) was ob- 
served at Langley's Pom! eight miles below here, and occasionally 
a Buteo was seen sailing above Aiken, but too high for the spe- 
cies to be determined. Bluebirds {fiHalia stalls) were quite plenti- 
ful and were probably resident ; they commenced nesting about the 
1st of April, as did the blue jays and Carolina chickadees. I shot 
one loggerhead shrike (Cthtrio Litdociciinms) ; this species was 
quite rare. The common yellow bird (Chrysomitris tnstis) was 
occasionally met with, and the pine finch (C. pinus) was very 
abundant, Chipping sparrows (Spizella social is) were verv plenti- 

spiza melodia). white-throated sparrows (Zoindr'i'-hia (dbicollis), 
black or common snowbirds (J,,,,,-,, /,/^,„„//.s). and the ba\ -\\ in-ed 
bunting (Pooecetes gramineus). 

The following is a list of the birds observed at Aiken, South 
Carolina, between March 14th and April 5th, 1873. 



>\S IN WESTERN* ' 



BOTANICAL Oi;sKKVATIOX> IX WKSTK1LX WYnMIXC 



. 
V. A. Jones into Northwestern "Wyoming during the past season 
1873), the botanical results have proved of such unexpected in- 
erest that I have obtai in Jones to 

a.1 features 
if the region passed over, with notices of rare plants and descrip- 
ions of new species collected on the route. 

Fort Bridge k to Camp Brown. Leaving the point of rendez- 
OOfl at Fort Bridger on the 12th of June, our route followed a 



10 BOTANICAL OBSERVATIONS 



northeasterly course over Green River basin, thence skirting along 
the southern spurs of the Wind River range. The main conti- 
nental divide was crossed at South Pass. From this point fol- 
lowing a more direct northerly course we reached Camp Brown 
in the Wind River valley on July 1st. 

The chief botanical interest on this portion of our route was 
comprised in the many suggestive associations with the early dis- 
coveries of Xuttall nearly forty years previous. Though this 
route has been repeatedly traversed by exploring parlies, lying 
in fact on the well beaten track of western emigrant travel pre- 
vious to the construction of the Pacific Railroad, not a few of the 
plants then collected and described have remained up to this 
time desiderata in herbaria. 

Unusually copious spring rains previous to our journey had 
freshened the vegetation of these usually arid tracts, so that our 

laden wagon train, were enlivened (at least to the botanist) by 

Cleome aurea Hook., Cahjptridium roseum S. Wat-son, Oenothera 
Andina^Sutt, (Enothem xeapnidea Xutt., Astragal hx da/rri Gray, 
Astragalus j.n-tna Gray. Cho „,/,■//* Ih^giasii II. & A., Plantago 
Patognnhv Jaoq., Oilia inroiispiena Dougl.. ami Q.njtheca dendro- 
idea Xutt. In the moist grassy valley of Little Sandy were also 
found quite abundantly Capsella divaricata Walp. and Geatiam 
hv. in Hi's Stew, heretofore overlooked by collectors in this region. 
Of perennial plants, serving somewhat to relieve the prevalent 
ih of Arti'in isia. Tetmdiimia and Li nnsvris. 



t is populai 

equally forbidding .Chenopod 



'arenas Douo\., A. jnmnus \„, 

nd A.Jtavus Xutt., the former 
nd the latter quite abundant 
ourses, at the foot of steep claj 
On gravelly knolls adjoining 



Nutt. is a showy asteroid plant with large white flowers, disposed 

This plant, according to Dr. Gray, is closely allied to or perhaps 
identical with the Xtjlorhiza vMosa Nutt. {Aster Xylorlnza Torr. 
& Gray). In view of the discrepancy in many respects between 
this plant and that described by Nuttall, Dr. Gray has thought 



ationof >even thousand leet above the -ea level, from the Pacific 

vegetation partaking of a sub-alpine character. This district 

ml lofty hills in the central range of the Rocky Mountains." 
Here accordingly we again come within the range of these early 
iscoveries in re-collecting such choice plants as Draba Alpha L., 

>xytropislagopusXxrtt.. and Phlox hryoides Nutt. 
Here also we meet for the first time, probably near its south- 
astern limits, the interesting Lewisia redivim Pursh. This 



BOTANICAL OBSERVATIONS ] 



becomes much more abundant further no 


valley, and we 


> were thus 


afforded an opp 


plant through 


its flowcrir. 


ig and fruiting 


the latter par 


t of June to 


i the middle of , 


period its mat 


ured capsule 


s are detached a 


no trace of t 


he plant ex. 


posed to view, t 


develops the 


rosette of r 


adical leaves, bj 


guided in proc 


airing their i 


applies of this 


root. Recent 


attempts It: 


ive been made 


plant into our 


gardens, wl: 


icre it would pre 


Shrubbery i 


is here represented mainly 


pZsiJitlL 


SaD(ir^ 


<be*cereum~Doik 


in apparently 




.calities, for the 


the mountain 


range fartlu 


Jr south in Col< 


Torr., Cercoca 


rpus parvifi 


dins Nutt., or ,h 


& Gray. 






The scanty 


pine growt 


h includes chief 1 


with an occasi 


onal clump < 


A Abies Douglai 


Vfrginiana L. 

The southe 


astern spurs 


of the Wind Ri 


cession of ste 


ep. grassy > 


lopes agreeably 


clad ridges. 


Through nu 


mberless chamie 


collect their si 


jmmer tribu 




to the lower v 


alleys thrum 


lh deep gorges, . 


faces the stru 


cture and s 


uccession of tin 


clined, rocky 


strata. Th 


e lower undulat 


natural divide 


■s between t 


he numerous w 


tl e n 11 


ey of Wind 




senting smool 


h tabled su 


nunits. bedded 


spersed with % 


fiiilv colored 




are the brigl 


it golden-V( 


.■bow heads of 


Nutt., and Be 


fhnmorlrjf 


$agittata Nutt., 



istic of thi 
Nutt., Are 



grassy expanses of the higher elevations, reaching an altitude of 
nine thousand feet above the sea level, reveal a distinctly subal- 
pine vegetation. We accordingly here encounter such well known 
forms as Saxifraga nivalis L., Eritrichium aretioides DC., Pole- 

mo nhon confertum Gray, Lloyd ia scroti no. Reich., while appar- 
ently more distinctly characteristic of this particular range we 

Eaton and Bupleuram ranunculoides L. 

In the wooded districts Pinus jh.riUs is irregularly mingled with 
Pinus ponderosa and Abie* Douglasii, while Pinus contorta forms 
the almost exclusive growth of the interior ridges and alpine 
valleys. After passing the first -cries of steep ridges, which gen- 
eral! v ores 1;S the main axis of the 
range, the interior valleys are spread out in the form of irregular 
basins, bordered by deep pine woods. Within these timbered 

bogs occupied by a close, clumpy growth of willows. Through 

in the early summer months, these meadows frequently conceal 

treacherous bogs greatly impeding travel, while small ponds and 
occasional permanent lakes are not infrequent. In this variety of 
surface exposure, limited in every direction by irregular, rocky 
ridges, variously set off with extensive snow drifts, we have all 
the conditions of a most attractive mountain flora. 

following plant's \-Draba Alpina L., Lupinus ctespitosus Nutt., 
Jledy irum boreah Nutt., Astroyolus AJpinus L., Oxytropis cam- 
pest ris L., Oxytropis ciscida Nutt.? (or a species near it), Sedum 
stenopetalum Ph., Sedum rhodanthum Gray, Aciindla grandiflora 



14 ANIMAL LIFE OF THE CUTAM 

T. & G., Antennaria dioica L., Senecio lug- ,,s Rich., K< drain 
glauca L.. .' Bcnth., 3Lrt<-nsia paniadata 

Dulles., ( • i ( . >, I / / n I . Prim- 

ula Purri/i Gray, Gantiana humilis Stew, Phaadio. sericea Gray. 

the high mountain district between the Big-IIorn and Yellowstone 
basins will be noticed. 



ANIMAL LIFE OF THE CUYAMACA M()l'NTAI> 



When collecting at San Diego 11: 

a1 the severe Hoods <>[" 

the roads into ihc mountains, thai 



M..-\ 



My late trip throm 

that the animals, like 

and mostly of norther 

i'rom Lowe 



svhile the lower classes frequently 



heard formerly of long-tailed spotted eats being found in these 

Cayoti-s (Caaisi it cms) are scarce, and I heard nothing of foxes. 

Of Rodents, the almost universal Sp,,nnnphiJus Deecheyi was so 

scarce in the mountains, that 1 saw only two, both near streams at 

four thousand feet altitude. Tiny arc, however, common near 



two rainy year*, limes and raUuts may then be seen by hun- 
dreds at a time, and the California quail as well as other resident 

abundant. Two very <\vy years preceded this, and CC C[ ci tly 



ANIMAL LIFE OF THE CUT AM AC A MOUNTAINS. 



Indian Corn (Zea Mays) is sexn 
mule and female flowers are normally on different parts of the same 
plant. Occasionally, however, the female flowers appear among 

flowers appear on the spike (ear) among the female flowers, and 
still more rarely, they are hermaphroditic. 

Other observers reverse the order of rarity of these anomalies 
and say that "male flowers sometimes appear amongst the female 
flowers, and Mr. J. Scott lias lately observed the rarer case of 
female flowers on a true male panicle, and likewise hermaphrodite 
flowers."* 

The writer collected and examined nearly a hundred specimens 
of these anomalies (female flowers among the males), during the 
last autumn (1872) with a view of determining the 
between the proportion or excess of either soxnol dement: and the 
condition of development of the plants bearing such anoi i; !< is 
flowers. 

The stalks bearing female flowers among the males were almost 
without exception •• .s»<7,v,\s." that is. branches coming off from the 
main -talks at the nodes among the adventitious roots just below 
the surface of the ground. The junction of one of these "suck- 
ers" with the-stalk on which it is a parasite, so to speak, is greatly 
constricted, and the point of attachment is scarcely more than an 
eighth of an inch across. There are few, if any, serviceable ad- 
ventitious roots to these suckers, so the stalk derives its nourish- 
ment wholly from the trunfe to irhicl il is joined, and as a conse- 
quence such stalks are short, slim and pale in color, having 
abridged internodes, or in other words, they a re undeveloped. A 
wet season, injury to the main stalk, shady locations and the 
borders of fields, seem to favor their production. 



From what has been brought forward, if wo il 1 api -ay as if 
teient nutrition, from 

n : .1 J,-/ ,/ •, (1 >,',j ,i nf and re.shxu'n' I vrohitian of 
ie sexual organs. 

There were many stalks to be found, boarin'j; male flowers (•■ tas- 
3ls") alone in the normal position (terminal), apparently perfect 
and development, but no stalks are to he found 
earing a complete spike (ear) of perfect female flowers alone, 
ven when terminal. Such spikes (ears) are always defective, 
\ tilled with grains, even when no male 
owers are present. 



tassel in the norma! p • , lU \ ;1 sign of a place 

for a female flower. 

When the ear (femal , bears male (lowers. 

they are usually terminal on the cob, though sometimes they may 
be on any other part of the ear, even a single male flower 
among the closely crowded grains (females). Mr. Scott, as al- 
ready mentioned, speaks of having found even hermaphrodite 
flowers, which would naturally appear to be much more rare 
among dioecious plants than among the monoecious, for the latter 
condition would appear to stand between the dioecious and the 
'< "litic. 

Great numbers of corn plants bear male flowers only, while 
none are female alone, and wherever they approach the latter con- 
dition, the spike (ear) of female flowers is terminal. These exo I li- 
the normal kind (monoecious) and arc certainly more rank and 
vigorous in their growth than those plants which bear principally 
female flowers on the terminal nail of the ohm! which latter, as 



this showing if appears that in proportion to the parlici- 
l- piviloininaiico of the female element, just in that propor- 

,nch of the panicle b nrhich most 

I'lnhU'il what nonafous mentions as a variety calleil C'y- 



1 shape, bearing corn only on one side (the outer) c 



22 ORIGIN OF SEX. 

emulation of the ovules from which such stalks wore produced. 
This point might be practically tested by planting a single stalk 
in a field far removed from any other corn. The tassel should be 
cut off as often as required to prevent the male flowers from form- 
ing, then the pollen from another plant should be applied to the 
female flower at the latest moment when fecundation is possible. 
By this method we should expect to get the largest possible pro- 
portion of exclusively male-generating grains. To get the largest 
possible proportion of female-producing grains, the female flower 
should be fecundated at the earliest possible moment— earlier than 
nature does it. The grains produced under these circumstances 
would, when planted, give the largest and the smallest proportion 
of exclusively male or female plants. 

It would be well to determine whether the grains near the tip, 
in the middle, or near the base of the ear, gave the largest pro- 
portion of exclusively male-producing grains. The follow ing will 



Metzger* has observed that the effect of cli 
as cultivated in Germany, causes "the lower 
keep to their proper form, but the upper se 



consist , .j 

though the converse 

Schleiden, Braun, Ci 



tions on the proporth 

seeds taken from dii 

that the seed taken from the lower, more mature, 

developed parts of the plant gave a much lars 

male-producing seed, than stv.l taken from the u] 

lent, less mature, less highly developed parts. 



branches gave a larger proportion of males than the upper. I 

Concerning the size of the seeds, he says that the largest and 
smallest gave a predo 
of the mean size gave more especially females. 

The carefully made observations of Mr. Thomas Mcehan of 

Cermantown. Philadelphia Co.. i'enn.. are singularly in harmony 
with those of Mr. Girou and others, though, I believe, made en- 
tirely independently of a knowledge of the latter. 

Mr. Meehant has observed that in several plants of the order 
Cupulifene, and he believes in all of them, "we find the female 
flowers only on the strongest young growths, and only at or near 
the apex of the first great wave of spring growth, as if it were 
the culmination of a great vegetative effort which produced them, 
instead of a decline as in the male." 



fifth year, when vitality in the spur is nearly exhausted, do male 

Mr. David Moore, in his morphology of Nepenthes,* says that 

"vigor and healthiness increase the female line of vital force in 

opraent." When growth has ceased, maturity and complete de- 
velopment are accomplished, and the business of reproduction 
exclusively occupies the plant. 

From all this it appears then, that while the plant is mostly oc- 

is,- in other words, undeveloped, does it'hear the largest proportion 



ough study of the subject, that the -renter the fecundity, ii 
gle births, the larger the proportion of male chihlren,\'in< 
versa. I have also said that the benettimj; of males is a 1 
role in the reproductive act of the mother than the be< r etti 
females ; while the begetting of females on the part of the 
is a higher reproductive role than the begetting of males.J I 



Median studiously avoids 


the use of this 


would, I am persuaded, al 


ter his deductions 


full meaning, and apply il 


t in his comparis 



already alluded to. 

With a view of showing the fallacy of the use of this word vigor, 
I may state that Dr. Gouverneur Emerson of Philadelphia, several 
years ago, discovered that "the extensive prevalence of every 
severe zymotic epidemic, or endemic disease ; every occurrence, in 

ing elieet upon a community, will he indicated in the record of 
hirths by a conspicuous reduction in the proportion of mules.''* 
Tie liases tins opinion upon the careful study of the statistics of 
births in Philadelphia .luring the prevalence of cholera in the year 
is:;:!; also for Paris 1832. in the first named city, the per- 

cholera. was at the rate of 17 per cent." The number of concep- 
tions durinii Hie months in >\ 1 was 1826 
males and 18". i females, or 08- G4 males to 100 females. In Paris, 
in 183i>, the year cholera prevailed there, the excess of male concep- 
tions was reduce 1 from the usual average of G per cent, to 3£ per 
cent. From this we see that a ••/< .s,-< ,,, J rigor" so to speak, is ac- 
rease in the proportion of female births; s 



a lessened or increased vigor may determine this increased ten- 
dency toward the production of females ; in fact, anything which 
operates upon the animal economy by distracting it from the busi- 
ness of reproduction, such as rapid and vigorous growth, develop- 
mental processes, mental anxiety, or incipient disease, will cause 
a lessened fecundity and an increase in the proportion of female 
offspring. 

Mrs. Mary Treat* of Vineland, X. J., has, by repeated experi- 
ments on butterflies, found that by overfeeding a certain number, 
a large proportion of female eggs was produced, and that by 
ling, or partly starving them, the proportion of male 

Parents as Affecting the Fecundity and the Proportion of Sexes 
in Births"! tnat foreign mothers (who are unquestionably more 

of boys among their children. 

Mr. II. II. Howorth, in his paper entitled "Strictures on Dar- 

induced by vigorous health and by a plentiful supply of the neces- 
saries of life, while fertility is induced by want and debility, and 
that this law acts directly against Mr. Darwin's theory, in that it 
is constantly re, nitin- the weak and the decrepit at the expense 
of the hearty and vigorous, and is constantly working against the 
favorite scheme of Mr. Darwin, that in the struggle for exi itenofi 
the weak are always being eliminated by the strong." 

It will be seen by the above that the views of Mr. Darwin and 
Mr. Howorth are both extreme ; the former believing that the 
greatest fecundity and best products belong to the most vigorous, 
while the latter believes that the most feeble are most prolific, and 
have the most vigorous offspring. 

The writer is of the opinion, from a careful study of the subjectj 
that a medium condition between these two extremes is most 
favorable to fecundity and the production of healthy, vigorous 
offspring, namely, developmental maturity of the parents, and a 
moderate supply of food in connection with a life most in accord- 
ance with nature. 



more than males. However this be, there can be no doubt of the 
facts stated, for Prof. Martegoute* in his observations on the 

breeding of the Dishley Mauchamp merino sheep, says, — "Our 
monthly weighings show that the cwi - thai have produced female 
html)-, are on an average of weight superior to those that 

these last,, during the suckling period; while the ewes that pro- 
duce males, weigh less, and do not lose in nursing so much as 
the others."! '-That is, mothers are in better condition when they 
lales, and are in better condition when they wean 
/•■male-."' Dr. Cougar}: has observed the 
concerning women. Dr. Spruce, § a South American traveller, 
noticed that a certain palm (Geonoma) bore fruit (female flowers) 

mals, that bear females for several generations, then males; in 
fact the process of "alternation of generations" is dependent 
upon this principle, of which I shall have more to say in another 
paper. || 

I have stated that some stalks bore only male flowers, and sug- 
gested that this fact v> is the result of retard, 1 fe< -nidation of the 
ovule from which the stalk was produced, and 1 mav now point 
out how nature allows these peculiarities to be produced. 

It has been observed, says Lindley." that the quantity and kind 
of light to which the plant is subjected determine the sex of the 



future products of the seeds produce 1 under these circumstar 
General Pleasonton* of this city has lately determined that both 

which is in harmony with the experiments of I )r. Daubeuy. | 
Mr. Thomas Andrew Knight i observed that the w lative quantity 
of light and heat determined the -ex of the (lowers produced by 
certain plants. Lindley says, "It will be found that no pollen is 

, 
ting season, tilled with grains of pollen discharged by the anthers. 
In wet springs the crops of fruit fail, because the anthers are not 
sufficiently dried to shrivel and discharge their contents, which 
remain locked up in the vet of impregm 

is lost." 

; la Fecondation de ijuelpies Vi'gvtaux," the decide 
the state of the atmosphere on the process of fecn 
i insists on the maturity of the pollen as essential t( 



[Hires also a greater quantity of pollen in the 

nt the pollen from being disseminated, while the 
developing, and fecundation is retarded from this 
for this reason that the production of a h 



Darwin^f says that '-walnut trees, whir! 


are propei 


cious, sometimes entirely fail to produce ma 


e Mowers ;" 


female silver maple will not unfrepiently 


nit forth bi 


male flowers." 




- Some cull I** a seri 


s of exper 



the base of the ear are less variable and more mature than those 

near the tip, and are consequently more desirable for seed, as they 
would be likely to give plants more vigorous and prolific. 

I may state here that it is the habit of good farmers to select 

the largest and fairest ears, containing the largest, fullest, and 
hardest grains, for seed ; and that a popular notion prevails that 
ears having a few remaining glumes of abnormally placed male 



"I've seen the largest -r <.!<, tlio' s k-w'd with care, 
Degenerate unless th' industrious haucl 
Did yearly cull the largest." § 

To recapitulate then, — the conclusions arrived at in this paper 

1. That in plants, and animals as well, that are actively occu- 
pied in vegetative, physiological, pathological or other ei forts 
which are antagonistic or complementary to the office of repro- 
duction, the proportion of females home during such times is 
greater than where the plant or animal has reached full develop- 
mental maturity || and growth, is in good health, and is occupied 

tion offspring of a higher developmental condition arc produced, 

more active in growth), more troubled by disease,^ or other pro- 
cess antagonistic to reproduction where they conceive with fe- 
males than with males; and they are made poorer, become more 
exhausted, and less healthy, !>y the production of female oifspring 
than by male products. 

4. It is just possible that the ovules from which females are 
derived may have a higher initial vitality (vigor) though they 
be less highly developed than those from which males are derived, 
yet no egg can properly be said to be predestined to be male or 
female. 

5. That female plants like female animals are less highly devel- 



Situated in the midst of a wide waste of treeless and even 

above the level of the sea. the city of Cheyenne would scarcely be 
thought a central point from which one might make many interest- 
ing little botanical excursions. The strong northwest winds, 
which prevail here almost incessantly, by day and by night during 
all the winter months, seem to sweep all the snows into the valley 
of the La Poudre, in northern Colorado, and leave the plains of 
Wyoming quite bare; so that one sees here only the short dry 
curly turf of buffalo and grama grasses, here and there inter- 
spersed with the spiny balls of Echinocactus Simpsonii. More 
than once during the winter of 1871-2, on the calmer, better days 
that are incident to even a Wyoming winter, did the writer of 
these notes stroll forth upon those plains, to ask of the sere 
grasses and withered cacti, what else could possibly grow among 

Our first spring visit to this region was made on the twentieth 
of May. The grasses were beginning to show green, the little 
spherical !'.■■■' ■■■■ 'wen - ; • each its thaplet of rose- 

purple (lowers, and the low matted Pldox DomjJasi; was blooming 
almost everywhere. A few rods from the depot of the U. P. Rail- 
way we stcod upon the ridge of bluffs that overlook the turbid 
stream called Crow Creek, and its now beautiful little valley. 
The pebble beds that lie along the shore of this almost alpine 
river are quite gorgeous with purple and yellow. The yellow we 
recognize as the handsome bloom of Tin mu^ */'.</ h, cea, a common 
plant of this region, bearing heavy racemes of lupine-like flowers, 
but the purple is apparently something more interesting. It is a 
low growing plant, so small that although we are but a few rods 
from where it is, and we are looking almost straight down upon a 
large, dense patch of it, we cannot determine it. The color is 
much like that of several of our beautiful Coloradian Axtroyali, 



■ color the 
clown the s 
with the 



Colorado Moun 



plentiful, iiiid tills \V\ 
Pacing- up to the hi 



so we beg of our conductor the privilege 

of the journey on foot; lor these bhiils 



. i jacK-raboii . and ■ o ilonj w 

prairie < l<>_u\s. lint we wore landed just on the smith side of a line 

Very conspicuous are some } r ellow beads of a composite, home 
upon tall and slender scapes, and waving with the grasses in the 
wind. At the base of each stem is a rosette of narrow, somewhat 
silky leaves, and the plant is Adnata ^yqwsa Nutt. 

In the winter season, on the hill-tops near Cheyenne, we had 
noticed some close tufts of mossy-green, sharp-pointed leaves, and 
here we find the very plant In bloom. It has sent up numerous 
branching stems, two inches or more in height, bearing rather large, 

rare species as well as a handsome one. The truly elegant little As- 
trarjalus c spito$»s, which a month ago was barely beginning to 
show bloom, is not yet gone by. a iy Bpeci- 

hills and bind'-;, and out upon the clear green expanse of plains. 
toward the metropolis of Wyoming. 

Now we are in the midst of a dense patch of wild peas, of a 

Lathy rus polyraorphus Nutt. ; and a plant scarcely inferior in 
beauty to the best of the cultivated species of this genus. 

Yonder is a slight depression in the surface of the plain, where 
there was more moisture in early spring. The whole spot of 
ground is colored dark dull red, not with flowers, but with the large 
showy fruits of Rumex venosus Pursh. Two species of Pentstemon 
are especialby attractive among the flowers of this region ; P. cris- 
tatus Nutt.. with very large pale purple flowers, in a short rather 
one-sided raceme, and P. atbidus, with smaller and almost white co- 
rollas, arranged in a long raceme. The latter species is abundant, 
almost whitening long lines of ridges. A very fine perennial lupine, 
whose specific name I cannot venture to give, with blue and black 
flowers borne in large dense spikes, is very noticeable on the stony 



hill-sides ; and again in the valleys, or gentle depressions between 
the rolling hills, are the rich purple tufts of Astragalus bisulcatus 
Gray. This is a very handsome perennial, and would be desira- 
ble enough for cultivation, but for its disgustingly strong odor of 

Besides these more noticeable things, our ten miles walk added 
to our herbal several very interesting rarities, which would have 
been overlooked by one who had sought only the showy and beau- 
tiful things of this interesting ground. A remarkable profusion of 
very handsome flowers, of a few species only, is what especially 
characterizes the flora of this region at this season of the year. 
Passing through it by rail, one sees as much of the purple and 
red and white and yellow of the plants mentioned, as of the 
common verdure of the prairie grasses. 



BY PROFESSOR ALLMAN. 

Conception of Biology and Function of the Scientific Method.— 
Under the head of Biology are included all those departments of 
scientific research which have as their object the investigation of 
the living beings — the plants and the animals — which tenant the 
surface of our earth, or have tenanted it in past time. 

It admits of being divided under two grand heads : Morphology, 
which treats of Form ; and Physiology, which treats of Function ; 
and besides these there are certain departments of biological study 
to which both Morphology and Physiology contribute, such as 
Classification, Distribution, and that department of research which 
is concerned with the origin and causes of living and extinct 

By the aid of observation and experiment we obtain the elements 
which are to be combined and developed into a science of living 
beings, and it is the function of the scientific method to indicate 
the mode in which the combinations are to be effected, and ifae ptfi 



which the development must pursue. Without it flic results rained 
would be but a confused assemblage of isolated facts and discon- 
nected phenomena : but, aided by a philosophic method, the ob- 
served facts become scientific propositions; what was apparently 
insignificant becomes full of meaning, and we get glimpses of the 
consummate laws which govern the whole. 

Classification an Expression of Affinities.— Hitherto we have 
been considering the individual organism without an\ direct refer- 
ence to others. But the requirements of the biological method 
can be satisfied only by a comparison of the various organisms one 
with the other. Now the grounds of such comparison may lie va- 
rious, but what we are at present concerned with will be found in 
anatomical structure and in developmental changes; and in each 
of these directions facts of the highest order aud of great signifi- 
cance become apparent. 

By a carefu parison of one organism with an- 

other, wedift ices as well as the differences be- 

tween them. If these resemblances be strong, and occur in impor- 
tant points of structure or development, we assert that there is an 
affinity between the compared organisms, and we assume that the 
closeness of the affinity varies directly with the closeness of the 
resemblance. 

It is on the determination of these affinities that all philosophic 
i of animals and plant- must be based. A philo- 
sophical classification of organized beings aims at being a succinct 
statement of the affinities between the objects so classified, these 
eing at the same time so set forth as to have their vari- 
ous degrees of closeness and remoteness indicated in the classifi- 

Affinities have long been recognized as the grounds of a natural 
biological classification, but it is only quite lately that a new sig- 
nificance has been given to them by the assumption that they may 
indicate something more than simple agreement with a common 
plan— that they may be derived by inheritance from a common 
ancestral form, and that they therefore afford evidence of a true 
blood relationship between the organisms presenting them. 

The recognition of this relationship is the basis of what is 
known as the Descent Theory. No one doubts that the resem- 
blances we notice among the members of such small groups as 
those we name species are derived by inheritance from a common 



ancestor, and the Descent Theory is simply the extension to the 
larger groups of this same idea of relationship. 

If this be a true principle, then biological classification becomes 
an exposition of family relationship — a genealogical tree in which 
the stem una jrees of relationship and 

direct and collateral lines of descent. It is this conception which 
takes classification out of the domain of the purely morphological- 

Affinity determined by the sttidy of Anatomy and Development.— 
From what has just been said it follows that it is mainly by a com- 
parison of organisms in their anatomical and developmental char- 
acters that their affinities are discoverable. The structure of an 
organism will in by far the greater number of cases be sufficient to 
indicate its true affinity, but it sometimes happens that certain 
members of a group depart in their structure so widely from the 
characters of the type to which they belong, that without some 
other evidence of their affinities no one would think of assigning 
them to it. This evidence is afforded by development. 

A Philosophical Classification cannot form a single Rectilineal 
Series. — A comparison of animals with one another having thus 
resulted in establishing their affinities, we may arrange them into 

another. The various degrees and directions of affinity will be 
expressed in every philosophical arrangement, and as these affini- 
ties extend in various directions, it becomes at once apparent that 
no arrangement of the animal or vegetable kingdom, in a straight 
line ascending like the steps of a ladder from lower to higher 
forms, can give a true idea of the relations of living beings to one 
another. These relations, on the contrary, can be expressed only 
by a ramified and complex figure which we have already compared 
to that of a genealogical tree. 

Di^r'ibution and Evolution. — Another very important depart- 
ment of biological science is that of the distribution of organized 
beings. This may be either distribution in space, geographical 
>B : or distribution in time, palceontologieal distribu- 
tion. Both of these have of late years acquired increased signifi- 

by which they are controlled, of the origin of faunas and floras, 
and of the causes which regulate the sequence of fife upon the 
earth. Time, however, will not allow me to enter upon this sub- 
ject as fully as its interest and importance would deserve, and a 



i palaeontological distrihutio 



stituted the earliest life of our planet. 

In almost every group of the animal kingdom the 

passing down from more specialized, or higher, to mor 

bers of the group, the series may be carried on threw 
Now while the descent hypothesis obliges us to regard t 
terms of the series as descended from one another, the n 

alized forms will he found among the extinct ones, and 1 
back in time we go the simpler do the forms become. 

By a comparison of the tonus >o arranged we obtain, 
the law of the series, and can thus form a conception of 
ing terms and continue the series backwards through t 
where no record of the lost forms can be found, until fro 
to still simpler terms we at last arrive at the conception 
so generalized that we may regard it as the primordial 
ancestral form from which all the others have been d 



plication (if another principle. The study of embryology shows 

through transiton phases which have much in common with the 
permanent condition of lower members of the type to which they 
belong, and therefore with its extinct representatives. We are 
thus enabled to lay down the further principle that the individual, 
in the course of its own development from the egg to the fully 
formed state, recapitulates within that short period of time the va- 



•all 



38 ASPECTS OF BIOLOGY AND METHOD OF BIOLOGICAL STUDY. 

Through the hypothesis of evolution, palaeontology and embryology 
are thus brought into mutual bearing on one another. 

Let us take an example in which these two principles seem to be 
illustrated. In rocks of the Silurian age there exist in great pro- 
fusion the remarkable fossils known as graptolites. These consist 
of a series of little cups or cells arranged along the sides of a com- 
mon tube, and the whole fossil presents so close ;i resemblance to 
one of the Sertularian hydroids, which inhabit the waters of our 
present seas, as to justify the suspicion thai the graptolites consti- 
tute an ancient and long since extinct group of the Hydroida. It 
is not. however, with the proper cells or hydrotheea of the Serfo* 
larians that the cells of the graptolite most closely agree, but rather 
with the little receptacles which in certain Sertularinse belonging*! 
the family of the Plumularida we find associated with the hydro- 
thecffi, and which are knoirn as "Nematophores." A comparison 
of structure then shows that the graptolites may with considerable 
probability be regarded as representing a I'luniidaria in which the 
hydrotheea; bad never been developed and in which their place had 
been taken by the nematophores. 

Now it can be shown that the nematophores of the living Plu- 
mularida are filled with masses of protoplasm which have the 
power of throwing out pseudopodia, or long processes of their sub- 
stance, and that they thus resemble tin- Uhizopoda. whose soft parts 
consist entirely of a sim i among the 

Protozoa, or lowest group of the animal kingdom. It' we suppose 
the hydrotheea suppressed in a plumularian. we should thus nearly 
convert it into a colony of Rhizopoda, from which it would differ 
only in the somewhat higher morphological differentiation of its 

colony are organically connected. And, under this view, just such 

tion. it would follow that the graptolite may be viewed as an an- 
cestral form of the Sertularian hydroids, a "form having the most 
intimate relations with the lihizopoda ; that hydranths and hydro- 
theea became developed in its descendants ;" and that the ihizo- 
podal graptolite became thus converted, in the lapse of aires, into 
the hydroidal Sertularian. 

This hypothesis would be strengthened if we found it agreeing 



with the phenomena of individual development. JSow such ± lu- 
mularida as have boon followed in their development from the egg 
to the adult state do actually present well-developed nematophores 
before they show a trace of hydrothecm, thus passing in the course 
of their embryological development through the condition of a 
graptolite, and recapitulating within a few days stages which it 
took incalculable ages to bring about in the palaeontologies! devel- 
opment of the tribe. 

I have thus dwelt at some length on the doctrine of evolution be- 
cause it has given a new direction to biological study and must 
powerfully influence all future researches. Evolution is the high- 
est expression of the fundamental principles established by Mr. 
Darwin, and depends on the two admitted faculties of living be- 
ings— heredity, or the transmission of characters from the parent 
to the offspring ; and adaptivity, or the capacity of having these 
characters more or less modified in the offspring by external agen- 
cies, or it may be by spontaneous tendency to variation. 

The hypothesis of evolution may not, it is true, be yet estab- 
lished on so sure a basis as to command instantaneous acceptance ; 
and for a generalization of such vast significance no one can be 
blamed for demanding for it a broad and indisputable foundation 
of facts. Whether, however, we do or do not accept it as firmly 
established, it is at all events certain that it embraces a greater 
number of phenomena and suggests a more satisfactory explana- 
tion of them than any other hypothesis which has yet been 
proposed. 

With all our admiration, however, for the doctrine of evolution 
as one of the most fertile and comprehensive of philosophic hy- 
potheses, we cannot shut our eyes to the difficulties which lie in the 
way of accepting it to the full extent which has been sometimes 
claimed for it. It must be home in mind that though among some 
of the higher vertebrata we can trace back for some distance in 
geological time a continuous series of forms which may safely be 
regarded as derived from one another by gradual modification — as 
has been done, for example, so successfully by Prof. Huxley in the 
case of the horse— yet the instances are very few in which such a 
sequence has been actually established ; while the first appearance 
in the earth's crust of the various classes presents itself in forms 
which by no means belong to the lowest or most generalized of 
their living representatives. On this last fact, however, I do not 



lay much stress, for it will admit of explanation by referring it to 
the deficiency of the geological record, and then demanding a 
lapse of time — of enormous length, it is true — during which the 
necessary modifications would be in progress before I 
phase of which we have any knowledge could have been reached. 

Again, we must not lose sight of the hypothetical nature of 
those primordial forms in which we regard the -branches of our 
genealogical tree as taking their origin; and while the doctrine 
of the recapitulation of ancestral forms has much probability, 

into a beau -\stem. it is one for which a sutli- 

cient number of actually observed facts has not yet been adduced 
to remove it altogether from the region of hypothesis. 

Even the case of the graptolitcs already adduced is an illustra- 
tion rather than a proof, for the difficulty of determining the true 
nature of such obscure fossils is so great that we may be alto- 
gether mistaken in our views of their structure and affinities. 

To me, however, one of the chief difficulties in the way of the 
doctrine of evolution, when carried out to the extreme length f«j 
which some of its advocates contend, appears to be the unbroken 
continuity of inherited life which it necessarily requires through a 
period of time whose vastness is such that the mind of man is 
utterly incapable of comprehending it. Vast periods, it is true, 
are necessary in order to render the phenomena of evolution pos- 
sible ;. but the vastness, which the antiquity of life, as shown by 
its remains in the oldest fossiliferous strata, requires ns to give 
to these periods, may be even greater than is compatible with 
continuity. 

We have no reason to suppose that the reproductive faculty in 
organized beinus is endowed with unlimited power of extension, 
and yet to go no farther back than the Silurian period— though the 
seas which bore the Eozoon were probably : ,s far anterior to those 
of the Silurian as these are anterior to our own— the hypothesis of 
evolution requires that in that same Silurian period the ancestors 
of the present living forms must have existed :l iid that their lite 
had continued by inheritance through all the ramifications of a 
single genealogical tree down to our own time; the branches of 



Is the faculty of reproduction so wonderfully tenacious as ;ill 
this, that through periods of ineoneeivalile duration, and exposed 
to influences the most intense and the most varied, it has still 
come down to us in an unbroken stream? Have the strongest 
which had survived in the struggle for existence necessarily 
handed down to the strongest which should follow them the power 
of continuing as a perpetual heirloom the life which they had 
themselves inherited? Or have there been many total extinctions 
and many renewals of life — a succession of genealogical trees, the 
earlier ones becoming old and decayed, and dying out. and their 
place taken by new ones which have no kin-hip with the other-? 
Or. finally, is the doctrine of evolution only - 

which, like an algebraic fiction, may yet be of inestimable value as 
an instrument of research? For as the higher calculus becomes 
to the physical inquirer a power by which he unfold- the laws of 

only a hyj ; key to the order and 

hidden forces of the world of life. And what Leibnitz and New- 
ton and Hamilton have been to the physicist, is it not that which 
Darwin has been to the biologist? 

But even accepting as a great truth the doctrine of evolution, 

evidence ha- yet been adduced to lead us to believe that inorganic 
matter has become transformed into living, otherwise than through 
the i_ n \ of a prei x st ng org n sn . md there remains a resid- 
ual phenomenon still entirely unaccounted for. No physical hy- 
pothesis founded on any indisputable fact has yet explained the 
origin of the primordi: 1 protop asm. an 1. above all, of its marvel- 
lous properties which render evolution possible. 



42 ASPECT OF BIOLOGY AND METHOD 

Accepting, then, the doctrine of evolution in all freedom and in 
all its legitimate consequences, there remains, I say, a great resid- 
uum unexplained by physical theories. Natural Selection, the 
Struggle for Existence, the Survival of the Fittest, will explain 
much, but they will not explain all. They may ofTer a beautiful 
a id convincing theory of the present order and fitness of the or- 
ganic universe, as the laws of attraction do of the inorganic, but 
the properties with which the primordial protoplasm is endowed— 
its heredity and its adaptivity— remain unexplained by them, for 
these properties are their cause and not their effect. 

For the cause of this cause we have sought in vain among the 
physical forces which surround us, until we are at last compelled 
to rest upon an independent volition, a far-seeing intelligent de- 
sign. Science may yet discover even among the laws of physics 
the cause it looks for; it may be that even now we have glimpses 
of it; that those forces among which recent physical research has 
demonstrated so grand a unity— light, heal, elcrtricit v, magnet- 
ism—when manifesting themselves through the organizing proto- 
plasm, become converted into the phenomena of life, and that the 
poet has unconsciously enunciated a great scientific truth when he 
tells us of 

" Gay lizards glittering on the walls 



But ail this is only carrying us one step back in the grand gen- 
eralization. All science is but the intercalation of causes, each 
more comprehensive than that which it endeavors to explain, be- 
tween the great primal cause and the ultimate effect. 

I have thus endeavored to sketch for you in a few broad outlines 
the leading aspects of biological science, and to indicate the direc- 
tions which biological studies must take. Our science is one of 
grand and solemn import, for it embraces man himself and is the 
exponent of the laws which he must obey. Its subject is vast, for 
it is life, and life stretches back into the illimitable past, and 
forward into the illimitable future. Life, too, is everywhere. 
Over all this wide earth of ours, from the equator to the poles, 
there is scarcely a spot which has not its animal or its vegetable den- 
izens-dwellers on the mountain and on the plain, in the lake and 
on the prairie, in the arid desert and the swampy fen ; from the 
tropical forest with its strange forms and gorgeous colors and 
myriad voices, to the ice-fields of polar latitudes and those silent 



beneath them, where living things 111 
congregate in unimaginable multitudes. 
le solid earth ; there is life throughou' 
surface down to its great depths, deeper 
nding line has reached. 



solemn mission to which he must devote himself with earnest 
mind and with loving heart, remembering the noble words of 

'-Knowledge is not a couch whereon to rest a searching and 
restless spirit: nor a terrace for a wandering and variable mind 
to walk up and down with a fair prospect: nor a tower of state 
for a proud mind to raise itself upon; nor a fort or commanding- 
ground for strife and contention ; nor a shop for profit and sale ; 
but a rich storehouse for the glory of the Creator, and the relief 
of man's estate." 



REVIEWS AND BOOK NOTICES. 

Thr Systematic Position of tue Brachtopods.* — To those ac- 
customed to find the I'.; I in palaeon- 
tological as well as zoological works as shell-fish, with no hint of 
an affinity to any other class of animals, the author's remark at 
the beginning of his essay that " the Brachiopoda are true worms, 
with possibly some affinities to the Crustacea, and that they have 
no relations to the Mollusca, save what many other worms may 
possess in common with them," will seem in its nature somewhat 
iconoclastic. But we should remember that Cuvier regarded the 
barnacles as Mollusca, and it was not until 1830 that Thompson 
and Burmeister demonstrated from their mode of growth that these 
shell-bearing animals were undoubted Crustacea ; the Serpulae and 
Spirorbes were regarded as shell-fish by many collectors, and even 






the bivalve ter pools are 

daily mistaken by collectors for species of Cyclas. On the other 



*9f 



band certain worms, such ;is Hie 
been regarded as allied to the sna 

We will now attempt, so far 
paper of Professor Morse by giv 




classes. The worms havi 




erve collar from which 
parallel chains of ganglia, while in themollusk- 
there is a nerve collar, but no double chain, gllls " 

parieto-splanchnic regions. The viin;- of worms are usually (ex- 
cept in the leeches) set free in the general cavity of the body, 
which is not the case with the mollusks. Lastly, the embryo 
mollusk (Fig. 6) early develops a shell composed of one or two 
pieces, while the embryonic worm is usually distinctly ringed, 



is an adaptive character resulting from their p ■ 
Moreover it should be remembered that our author regards the 
- as a division of Chaetopod worms, in which the seg- 
ments are invariably present, and form the most important feature 
of those animals. Again, we fail to find any reference to the re- 
lation of the most important anatomical systems (the nervous, cir- 
culatory system and digestive canal) to the walls of the body. The 

to the segmented structure is also most intimate and remarkable. 



To this deficiency in the definitions, otherwis 
cur in noticing the author's conclusions as 1 
relationship of the Brachiopoda. It may 
also be noticed that in none of the dia- 
grams of the transverse sections of the 
worms are the positions of the dorsal ves- 
sel or nervous cord in relation to the body 
walls indicated; and in this respect the 
same view of the mollusk is unsatisfac- 
tory. This is said not so much by way of 









.call ; 






differences between the Brachiopods 
Chaetopodous worms, which demand seri- 
ous consideration in accepting the conclusions as to the precise 
systematic position of the Brachiopods claimed by the author. 

Farther on, in speaking of the general proportions of the body, 
it seems that the author does not lay much stress on the ringed 
rig. 19, structure of the higher worms, of which it 

should be borne in mind he considers the Brach- 
iopods to form a division. Thus it is stated, 
asually, that "a prominent character of 
the higher worms is the annulations or rings 
marking the body." As, however, the annula- 
tions are wanting in certain low worms (i.e. the 
Gephyrea or Sipunculoid worms, Sagitta, Nema- 
m/'meVi'iir'X'rsai toidea, Acanthocephala*) the absence of this 
notch; i. lateral notch, character in the Brachiopods is unimporhmt ; 
still, however, the peduncle of 

Lingula is "partially annulated" Fig. 20. Fig. 21. 

(Fig. 18). 

The comparison between the 
mollusks and worms is then ex- 
pended to the integumentary 
organs. Here, in an exceedingly 
suggestive way, the author shows 
that in the worms the integument 
is rarely ever extended beyond the limits of the body ; but when 





. -..-/ 



it is it forms a broad cephalic collar, "covering the base of the 
arms in those worms possessing it (as in Sabella, Fig. 19), while in 
the Brachiopoda the collar covers and protects the arms," and this 
collar is not to be compared with the mantle of mollusks. On 

Fig. 22. 





page 27 the cephalic region of the true worms is discussed, ami 
the intimate relationship between the head of certain worms, such 
as Sabella and Amphitrite, and that of the Brachiopods, shown. 
This can be seen by a glance at the accompanying figures. We 
cannot farther abstract the condensed statement of the author- 
By making a longitudinal section of the worm Amphitrite, and 
the brachiopod Lingula, the most interesting relationship may be 
detected (Figs. 22 and 23). 



( Fig. l'-'i) much more t 
ponding sections of two 



Bristles like t 



spin- of tho Chitons occur in the AL} /i«/7/? 
Kpdriopo*. The muscles of &W 

integument hear the closest resem- mgF ^%$* 

blance to those of worms. The peri- ^x^ 



I on the dorsal surface of the intestine of Lingula, but not 
tele described by Hancock. But still he, as well as others, 



f\ 




He, however, alludes to a pseudo-haemal system of organs, being 
a set of membranes which invest the oviducts, and has traced the 
circulation ll«. This subject, and t 



tion of Lingula, which has red blood, is reserved for discussion in 
a subsequent memoir. The digestive canal of the Brachiopods, 
as well as the circulatory system, does not compare well with 
those of the normal worms. 

"The anomalous features presented by some worms, in the 
absence of an anus, or the possession of a caeca! stomach, and 
the anterior termination of the anus, are fully repeated in the 
Brachiopoda. In one entire division of the Brachiopoda, repre- 
sented by Terebratula, the stomach terminates in a coecal sac. 
iu Terebratulina the alimentary tract is closed posteriorly. Nor 
has the slightest trace of an anus been detected in Theridium, 
Waldiieimia, Rhyuchonella, and several other genera that have 
been examined. In the very early stages of Terebratulina, I 
have seen the rejectamenta escape from the mouth, and in no case 
has the appearance of an anal perforation been discovered. In 
Terebratulina. the ali i a direct antero-poste- 

rior course without convolutions, while in Lingula and Di>cina the 
anus terminates anteriorly on the right side. In Lingula, the in- 
testine makes a few turns, while in Idscina it makes a single turn 
to the right." 

The nervous system is much as in the worms, there being two 
lateral ventral cords. w Lingula these lateral 

threads seem to be double and connected by commissures) and 
connected at the oesophagus by ganglionic enlargements, which 
send oif threads to the pallial membranes, and to the various mus- 
cles. The breathing orirans of Brachiopods are contained in the 
pallial membrane, which is divided into two oblique transverse 
sinuses, apparently resembling the interior of the branchia of a 
worm. The genital organs are almost identical with those of 
worms, as may be seen by a study of Figs. 30-40. 

We now quote the author's conclusions in his own words : — 

"In considering the assemblage of remarkable characters in 
the Brachiopods, we must recognize in them a truly ancient type, 
and consequently a synthetic, or comprehensive type. Thus 
while we do not find them in all their characters resemblii g any 
one group of worms. I have endeavored to show thai all their 
features, to a greater or less degree, are shared by one or the 
other of the various groups of the Vermes, with one or two 
features shared by the Arthropods. 

It is important to remark in this connection that most of the 
ancient groups differ from present groups with which they are 
associated. Thus the i unlike modern Crus- 

taceans, Milne-Edwards and Van Beneden suggesting their affini- 



52 • REVIEWS AND BOOK NOTICES. 

ties with the Arachnids. Tett'abranehiate Cephalopods are widely 
separated from the Dibranehiate Cephalopods. Crinoids are 
widely unlike modern I>hin.>derms. In other words, among the 
Mollusks, Kchinoderms and Crustaceans are ancient i; 
different from the modern types with which they are correlated. 

So in worms we should expect to see ancient types, while pre- 
senting a high organization, vet differing from present groups to 
which tiny are unquestionably related. And from 
the high complication of structure of the Brachi- rig. 39. 

opods, Tetrabranchiates, and other ancient types, *"*■-„ 
it would seem that in their culmination in ancient U |T 
times they had the same relation to animals living 
then as the higher groups of present times bear 

of Brachiopods, it is probable with them, as with 
other groups, that their lower members were soft- 
bodied, and the argument that has been urged, as 
militating against Darwin, that animals of high 
complication of structure occur in the older 
groups, becomes valueless, when we consider that 
the lower forms of their respective groups are 
more often soft-bodied, and that complicated forms 
of earlier times were also culminating forms of 

preexisting groups. ***** Segmental organ of 

To sum up the whole then : — ancient Chsetopod -■'>> <■' •■■("- <"■''•""• 
worms culminated in two parallel lines, on the m, 
one hand in the Brachiopods, and on the oth 
the fixed and highly ce] 9. The onflce of ditto; *, 

divergence of the Bnu-i ,mi at- 

tained in more ancient times, a few degraded features are yet re- 
tained, whose relationships we find in the lower Vermes; while 
from their later divergence the fixed 
rig.4o. and Ct ,, Kili/ll j Ajmelides are more 

. . closely allied to present free Chaeto- 

ods. 

And so we must regard the Brach- 
iopods as ancient cephalized Chat* 
pods, while Serpula, Amphitrite, 
Sabella, Protula and others, may be 
regarded as modem (latei > 
» a Chcetopods." 

rgan of Terebratulina. 

.'•"I Aside from the great interest of 

manner in which the facts, — many 

discovered by the author himself after the most patient study, 

lid in themselves commend the work to e\ery one — are 



REVIEWS AND BOOK NOTICES. 53 

presented, we think the author has demonstrated, in the clearest 
manner, that the Brachiopods are worms. And we congratulate 
ourselves that this important discovery of the obscure relationship 
of these animals has been made by an American naturalist, with 
the advantages presented in this country. 

Still, from the facts so clearly set forth, we doubt whether the 
Brachiopods should, even with all the important Chastopod charac- 
ters they present, be included in the division of Chsetopod worms, 
but rather look forward to their being united with the Polyzoa in a 
division equivalent, perhaps, to the rest of the worms, at least the 
Chsetophora and Discophora combined, and forming a somewhat 
parallel group. The Brachiopods, certainly, from Prof. Morse's 
own showing, have not either such a nervous system, or respira- 
tory or circulating organs, or an annulated body, as would warrant 
their union with the Chsetopods. He has fully proved that they 
are a synthetic type, combining the features of different groups of 
worms and other articulate animals, and in doing so he virtually 
forbids our sharing his view as to their special Chaetopod nature. 
We would prefer, in speculating on their ancestry, to derive the 
Brachiopods and Polyzoa from a common vermian ancestry, not 
much higher than the Rotifers, from which sprung two stems ; one 
resulting in the Polyzoa, and the other in the more highly and 
specially-developed Brachiopods, while the Chsetopods were prob- 
ably derived independently from an ancestry higher perhaps, but 
vaguely resembling the Rotifers. As to the molluscan affinities 
of these animals, let those prove them who can, after going over 
step by step the track revealed by the patient and toilsome re- 
searches of our author. 

North American Grasshoppers.* — Dr. Hayden proposes to 
collect, in a single quarto volume, papers upon the zoology and 
botany of the Rocky Mountain region explored by him in his gov- 
ernment surveys. The fishes and reptiles will bo 
bv Professor Cope, the botany by Professor Porter, Hemiptera 
by Mr. Uhler, Coleoptera by Dr. Horn, birds by Dr. Coues and 
mammals by Professor Gill. The first part, on a portion of the 
Orthoptera, is now published, and if the whole work is executed 
upon the same scale, one volume cannot contain it all : let us hope 



the part before 

and Botany. Part i, 8 



Dr. Thomas 



confine himself to the study of Rocky Mountain forms, but 
includes the Acridians of the whole of North America. It is pre- 
ceded by an introductory statement of the external and internal 
structure of insects of this group, with especial reference to parts 
used in description ; by an exposition of the author's idea of clas- 
sification and by notes on the geographical distribution of the 
genera and species. In the body of the work one bundled and 
twenty species and twenty-five genera of U. S. Acridians are 
described ; forty species and four genera as new. In the second 
part, the extra-limital species are described, but no new species are 
mentioned ; and nearly all the descriptions, as well as many of 
those in the first part, are borrowed ; it would have been well if 
the author had appended the describers' names. The work is ac- 
companied by a well executed plate (none too large) in which, 
strange to say, nearly one-third of the figures are of European 
species,— copied from Fischer's work ; surely, from the abundant 
material in the author's possession, suitable specimens could have 
been found for illustration. 

British Marine Seaweeds.*— This is a convenient little book, 
of which four parts have already appeared, and five or six are to 
follow. Mr. Grattan, whose home is at Torquay in Devonshire, 
a place famous in the history of British natural history, is a 
thorough enthusiast in seaweeds, and finding that the standard 
treatises on them were too scientific for the use of ordinary ama- 
teurs, and withal quite expensive, he has prepared this work, 
which is so simple that the most inexperienced student can readily 
understand it, while the price, sixpence sterling for each part, is 
moderate enough. Since a very large proportion of our New 
E igl m 1 algae consists of species occurring on the shores of Great 
Britain, and since Harvey's Nereis, the only work on the algae of 
the United States, is costly and not suited to the needs of ama- 
teurs, this book will be very useful to those who not only collect, 
but desire to know something about seaweeds and sea-mosses.— 
Daniel C. Eaton. 

Lubbock's Monograph op the Podekje.— Sir. John Lubbock 
has recently published a "Monograph of the Collembola and Thy- 
sanura." It forms a volume, in octavo, of the Ray Society. The 



BOTANY. «>d 

beautifully, indeed lavishly, illustrated with seventy-eight 



Mr. Joseph Beck, on the scales of certain Podurai, with figures of 
the scales highly magnified. 

BOTANY. 

Irritability of the Leaves of the Sundew. — In our last 
number attention was called to the old observations of Roth re- 
specting the irritability of Drosera leaves. It will be interesting 
to our readers to glance at a short abstract of Roth's treatise.* 

The author begins by referring to the difficulty of drawing any 

believed, by the ancient philosophers, to possess a soul, since they 
appear to share with animals a kind of sensitiveness and motion. 
The word sensitiveness is, on some accounts, objectionable and it 
may be better, therefore, to employ the term irritability. A few 
plants possess this irritability in a high degree, but may we not as- 
cribe to others, irritability less in degree? The author next refers 
to the kindred plants I)in,„rn mn^i"'^' and Dm*,-,---. 
that the latter has, in a slight degree, the kind of irritability which 
characterizes the flytrap. He then describes the action of Dionrea 
in catching insects, and proceeds to give an account of the two 
more common species of sundew, Drosera rotundifolia and longt- 
folia. 

In July, 1779, while on a botanical excursion, Roth observed that 
some leaves of both species of Drosera had closed. Upon sepa- 
rating the infolded surfaces, he discovered dead insects, whereupon 
he asked himself whether sundew did not act just as Dionrea does. 
He transferred healthy plants to his house and proceeded to make 
the following experiments : — 

1st. He placed, by a pair of pincers, an ant on the open leaf of 

dom, the hairs of the leaf turned towards his body, and the edges 
of the leaf rolled over towards him. In a few minutes the ant was 



concealed in the infolded leaf. The insect was killed by this im- 
prisonment. This experiment was repeated upon other leaves and 
with nearly the same results. 

2nd. He placed a little fly, being careful not to injure it, on a leaf 
of Drosera rotundifolia. The insect made some movements to gain 
his liberty, but he soon died, as did the ants in the previous exper- 
iments. The hairs bent inwards as before. The experiment began 
at eleven a. m. At five o'clock p. m. the leaf had completely closed 
and held the fly within. 

The third observation was made upon a specimen of Drosera 
longifolia. An ant was employed, and with the same results as be- 
fore. It is interesting to note the following on p. 64 .- — "Dieses 
Zusammenklappen erfolgt aber auch ebenso wenn man ein Stroh- 
halmchen oder eine Stecknadel zwischen dieselbeu bringt." 

The author makes some remarks relative to the similarity of ac- 
tion in the two genera, Dioncea and Drosera. The most into renting 
note, however, is that in respect to the purpose of the irritability. 
"Mr. Ellis suggests in his letter to Linnaeus that nature, by the 
formation of the leaf of Dionsea, may perhaps have designed it to 
aid in its nourishment. Schreber, however, believes it is unlikely 
that plants should draw nourishment from insects pressed between 
their leaves. It is certain that we cannot determine positively 
what object the wise Creator may have had in giving to these plants 
this wonderful structure and irritability, but I believe that we may 
assume safely that this structure and faculty of these plants may 
tend, through this nourishment, to the preservation and propagation 
of their kind. We cannot yet determine whether these plants may 
not need for their support animal juices. Besides, knowing as we 
do that these plants have, chiefly on their leaves, an apparatua by 
which they may draw from the air foreign bodies for their nourish- 
ment, we have no reason to doubt this possibility." 

The author claims that no one had preceded him in this investi- 
gation. 

In 1802, Roth published the following note (Neue Beytrage 
zur Botanik, von Al. W. Roth. Erster Theil. Frankf. am Mayn. 
1802. p. 185). "In Droseris Germanicis simile phamomenon ob- 
servatur et non minus miraculosum, qnam in Dionffia muscipula, 
Foliorum scilicet pili apice oriferi ab Inseeto irrituti innV<'ttintur, 
inflexi Insectum incarcerant, et folium demum complicatum incar- 



ZOOLOGT. 57 

Passing over the statements in De Candolle's "Introduction a. 
l'etude de la Botanique" (Tome 1, p. 415) 1835; in Treviranus' 
Physiologie der Gewachse (1838, vol. ii, s. 759), in Meyen's 
Neues System der Planzen Physiol, vol. iii, s. 550, we find in 
Botanische Zeitung, June 29, 1860, an article by Nitschke, de- 
tailing an extensive series of experiments upon Drosera. These 
results, together with the very curious observations published in 
Comptes Rendus last year, we will present at an early day, feel- 
ing quite confident that many of our readers will carefully repeat 
some of these experiments during the coming season. — G. L. G. 

ZOOLOGY. 

A New ^Egerian Maple Borer. — Last June my attention 
was drawn to numerous castings, similar to those of the peach 
tree borer {Trochilium exffiomm Say) projecting from the trunk of 
the soft maple trees surrounding our university yard. Having 
approached one of these trees I found several moths already 
hatched out, the most of the maple trees having been destroyed 
by this pernicious insect, which, boring in the bark and sap-wood, 
not only hinders the sap from circulating, but also enfeebles the 
trunk so that it is no longer able to support the weight of its 

During this summer a dozen of these trees were broken down, 
and the few still standing are in such a condition that I believe 
they will not resist the winds of a second season. This condition 
of things induced me to pay close attention to this insect— study- 
ing its habits and collecting specimens. I failed to find it de- 
scribed in any of the entomological works of the university 
library and I have been informed that Dr. Le Baron, State Ento- 
mologist, was not aware of any ^Egerians feeding on the maple 
tree. 

My confidence in this second statement having been reenforced 
by a. similar answer of several men of experience that I consulted 
on the matter, I came to the conclusion that this insect is a new 
destroyer and enemy of our best shade tree. I therefore give you 
a description* of this insect, adding what I could observe on its 

. The female, the perfect insect of this ^geria, 



near the surface of the outer bark. Early in the morning it makes 

its way out of the cocoon and the very thin layer of bark that 
covers' it, leaving the cast skin half emerged from the orifice on 
the trunk, and appearing in a winged state. The females in lay- 
ing their eggs, select the roughest places of any part of the trunk 
— and not of the base only, as the T. exitiosum — where they de- 
posit them one in a place. The larva? are found under the bark at 
any time and in all sizes. — P. Germapius. < ';<•■ ,„ i ki iun, III. 

A spinous Fin in a Minnow. — A genus of fishes (Protistius 
Cope) has been recently discovered in the Ecuadorian Andes, 
which in its general structure appeal--, to belong to the bull-min- 
nows (Cyprinodontidce). Its head and mouth, however, resemble 
those Of a mullet (Muall) and it has a rudimental spinous dorsal 

by membrane so as to be capable of but little erection. 

GEOLOGY. 

Return of Professor Marsh's Expedition.— Prof. O. C Marsh 
and party returned to New Haven, November 7th, after an absence 
of five months in the Rocky Mountain region and on the Pacific 
Coast. The present expedition had the same object in view as 
those of previous years, viz : a study of the vertebrate fossils of 
the west, especially those of the Cretaceous and Tertiary formations. 
The first explorations this year were made in the Pliocene deposits 
near the Niobrara River. The party fitted out in June at Fort 



59 

McPherson, Nebraska, and, accompanied by an escort of two 
companies of U. S. Cavalry, proceeded to the Niobrara, and 
worked in that country for several weeks. Owing to hostile In- 
dians, the explorations of the party here were attended with much 
difficulty and danger, but were on the whole quite successful. 
Many new animals wore discovered, and ample material secured 
for a full investigation of those previously known from that 

A second expedition was made in August from Fort llridger, 
Wyoming, and large collections of Eocene fossil vertebrates were 
obtained, especially of the Dinocerata, Quadrumana and Cheirop- 
tera, which had first been brought to light by the researches of 
the party in previous years. A third trip was made in September 
to the Tertiary beds of Idaho and Oregon, where some interest- 
ing discoveries were made. The party went from Oregon to San 
Francisco by sea, narrowly escaping shipwreck, and then re- 
turned east by rail. On the way, short visits were made to local- 
ities in Colorado and Kansas, to complete investigations begun 
last year. The expedition as a whole was very successful, not 
merely on account of the large number of new animals discovered, 
but also on account of the extensive collections made to complete 
the study of those previously found. All of the collections se- 
cured are now in the museum of Yale College. 



MICROSCOPY. 

A New Section Cutter.— Prof. T. D. Biscoe has contrived a 
new section cutter which is principally adapted for preparing sec- 
tions of soft vegetable tissues and organs, such as leaves, buds, 
etc. It consists essentially of a large glass stage-plate upon which 
the object is fastened, and a movable frame to slide upon this, car- 
rying a razor blade at an adjustable distance from the plate. This 
., g) ctionsof ol ; --<-K while they are under observation 
on the stage of the microscope, under powers as high as the 1 inch 
(X 80) ; and with it Prof. Biscoe has been able to cut series of 
fifteen consecutive sections, each one of which was perfect and the 
average thickness of which was ^W inch. The following is his 
description of the contrivance. 

"Fig. 41 is a plate that fits on to the stage of the microscope 
with a tight friction, yet so that it has movements of an inch or 



more in any direction, so that the object can be brought into the 
field of view ; a is a glass plate held in place by the two pieces 
of wood with screws on the right and left ; b is the wooden base 
of the affair with an oval opening for the illuminating apparatus 
to come up ; this wooden base being covered on the inner or upper 
side with velvet to make smooth the friction on the under side of 
the stage. For use with a mechanical stage this arrangement is 
modified and much simplified, the large glass plate being merely 
attached to the stage, whose screw movements enable the object 
to be brought into the field of view. On the middle of the upper 
side of the glass plate are cemented four strips of glass as shown, 
just far enough apart to take in a common glass slide which is held 
in place by a couple of wedges of common sheet brass ; and on the 
middle of a slide is fastened the object to be cut, either with gum 




arabic or sometimes with collodion. For holding hard objects like 
wood the arrangements are not yet quite perfected, but no special 
difficulty is expected. 

Fig. 42 gives a perspective view of the triangular wooden frame 
that holds a razor blade, r, whose edge and back come down lower 
than the rest of the frame. By means of the three screws with 
graduated heads the whole frame, razor and all, is raised or low- 
ered from the glass plate (a, Fig. 41) on which the triangle rests 
and slides with these three screws as its feet". These three sup- 
porting screws are cut with a thread that counts forty to the inch ; 
the screwhead is divided into one hundred equal parts, and can be 
moved without much difficulty through half of one division, giving 
a vertical motion of „ta inch to the cutting edge. 



61 

Fig. 43 is a large view of one of the screws, with its indicator. 
The indicator may be a simple pin set in the wooden frame, but 
is more convenient if made movable around the axis of the 
screws, so that when the razor is returned after sharpening they 
may be all turned around to the of their respective screws and 
therefore all read alike while the successive cuts are being nn.de. 
On the side of the indicators are scales which sliow how many com- 
plete revolutions of the screws have t 
should move quite stiffly, so as not 
when turning the screw heads. 

With the hands upon the triangle and the eye at the microscope 
tube, the razor can be moved so that its edge shall either make a 
drawing cut or push straight through the object like a chisel, ac- 




ting as either method or any gradation between 



he>1 



j of the substance cut. Thus perfectly even slices can 
be cut, and it is quite easy to take them in consecutive order even 

ed off in the midst of the work and compelled to wait 
half an hour before resuming it. It is a luxury to take off slice 
after slice and know that there is no danger of losing just the 
slices you want especially to see. The object is kept wet with 
fust as the razor begins to cut, a drop of glycerine 
is placed on its edge in which the slice floats without sticking ; 

tre must be taken in the case of very thin and small sec- 
tions not to lose them in a large drop of glycerine in which they 
would be found with great difficulty. By this method slices ^<r 
of an inch in thickness, or rather in thinness, can be all worked 
out nicely, though before it was adopted such thin slices were all 



rn, so as to be unrecognizable. Whether a blade can be made 
cut any thinner than that has not been tried ; but it may be re- 
arked that the first "razor blade used gave out at ? >- o inch thick, 
id would not take an edge capable of cutting finer than that." 



After twenty-seven years of unremitting toil for the advance- 
ment, the exaltation and free spread of science in this country, 
the land of his adoption, Louis Agassiz died, in the ripeness of his 
years, Dec. 14, aged sixty-six. It is not the time now to estimate 
Professor Agassiz's scientific attainments and compare him with 
his contemporaries, but to mourn the loss of one whose profound 
learning and genius for original research; whose organizing abili- 
ties, courageous adherence to the dictates of his conscience when 
matters of scientific faith were at stake ; whose persuasive elo- 
quence, rare personal magnetism, conspicuous enthusiasm, and 
untiring industry which, though it shortened his life, intensified its 
value, made him one of the remarkable men of the century. 

A student and friend of Humboldt and Cuvier, and enjoying the 
instructions of Oken, Tiedemann and others, lie certainly had won- 
derful advantages, and by his native genius and sturdy industry 
made the most of them, his reputation being more than European 
before he was thirty years of age. At the age of thirty-nine he 
came to this country, travelled extensively, and extended his gla- 
cial theory to include both hemispheres. Here he began to build 
up the Museum of Comparative Zoology, his singleness of purpose, 
rare personal qualities and disinterested zeal, winning him friends 
and means for carrying on that vast establishment. Meanwhile he 
travelled and lectured over the country ; everywhere by his native 
unaffected eloquence winning men to a just appreciation of the 
objects and needs of science, and elevating and dignifying the 
pursuit of knowledge for its own sake. He was an admirable 
teacher, and introduced new methods of studying zoology. He 
gathered about him a number of young men, some of whom were 
associated with him in the preparation of the material for his great 
work, "Contributions to the Natural History of the United 
States ;" and so powerful was his influence over his students that 
he may be said to have founded a school in natural history, 
based on the spirit of Cuvier, who moulded Agassiz himself in his 
student days. 



Then came his Brazilian journey, with the immense zoological 
treasures accruing. Hardly resting from this exploration he or- 
ganized the Hassler Expedition around the continent of South 
America, under the auspices of the Coast Survey, and recuperated 
his shattered health on that long voyage. Finally, he established, 
with the aiu of its liberal founder, the Anderson School of Natural 
History, and it was there in his disinterested labors in behalf of 
improved methods of teaching in our higher and normal BChooli 
that he undoubtedly overworked himself and lost the strength to 
resist the strain of duties and cares that multiplied during the 
succeeding autumn. 

He died literally in the harness ; full of plans for the develop- 
ment of his great museum, for the enlargement and full success of 
the Anderson School at Penekese Island, meanwhile doing origi- 
nal work at the museum, writing a course of articles for the " At- 
lantic Monthly," and preparing some papers for this journal ; all 
this, while performing his college duties in the lecture rooms and 
laboratories of the museum, with a course of popular lectures at 
Washington on his hands, and meanwhile not unmindful of the 
calls of social life. 

Professor Agassiz was perhaps the most widely known and 
popular man in the United States. In his death it may be said 
that science has lost one of its most gifted followers, and humani- 
ty, in his long devotion to all that tends to elevate the race, one 
of its best types. 

It will be seen by the following letter, dated San Francisco, Cal., 
Dec. 2, 1873, from Mr. W. H. Ball, that the explorations of 
which he has charge have been quite successful :— 

"We have had a very successful season, though the spring was 
a very late one! and havt accomplished m< it urn 1 d 
J ir| .,., ' rwrv point of interest in the 

. . • • ^ .. ■ ■. • '■ ■• ■ ^ ■'■ • ■■ 

, -,. we surveyed a harbor for the landing of one end 
eabh -.1 the : take it that wav-on ; 
Kvska. We made some interesting soundings m 1 

, of water in the westen part ol . uitii: 

65 *=.,.. X • .In^^t r-w 



We disproved the < 






300 fathoms without bottom where 
it is laid down on the chart. We found the magnetic variation 
to be less easterly than* when the last observations were taken. 
During our leisure natural history was not neglected, and we now 
have a magnificent gv< - y in marine 

invertebrates. In birds, too, we did very well, and especially in 
prehistoric relics. We found no Asiatic influence in the western 
ctic type of fauna and flora 
undreel wood carvings from 
stone implements and thirty- 



BOOKS RECEIVED. 



AMERICAN NATURALIST. 



Vol. VIII. -FEBRUARY, 1874. -No. 



THE YELLOWfc 



enjoyment of the people." 

if this article, having spent some weeks during the 



ve been sal 


;iafiecl with the cc 


inclusion reached by Colonel 


lynoULs, wl 


pting tc 


> reach this regi 


0:1 from the 


s of Wind 


River without success, decided 


that such a 


wholly imi 


practicable. Sin 


ce 1859, the d: 


ate of Ray- 


■dition, all 


explorers have t 


aken it for granted that the 


Wind Riv< 


3r can only be reached from the 


head waters 


xnie River 


, by making a de 


tour so as to cro 


ss the Wind 


ltaina throi 


agh Union pass. 


Impressed wit 


h this idea, 


is heretofoi 


re been made fro 


>m the northwar 


d by way of 


and Bozeman in Montana, 


with the one ex 


ception of a 



forts Ellis ; 

portion of Dr. Hayden's command of last year, which entered by 
ascending the valley of Snake River, under the guidance of Mr. 
James Stevenson. It was natural, therefore, that much interest 
should attach to the results attained hy an expedition, which took 
the field during the past summer, with the expressed intention of 
solving as much as possible of the mystery overhanging the struct- 
ure of the unexplored territory adjacent to the park on the south 
and east.* The northwestern Wyoming expedition, under the 
command of Capt. W. A. Jones, Chief Engineer of the Department 
of the Platte, after an extended tour of exploration among the 
complicated mountain ridges of the Wind River drainage, entered 
the park by a new route. Ascending one of the forks of the 
Stinking Water t to its source in the high and rugged volcanic wall 



Lake. :i j i 



would render the park and the Montana ^ettlemenis readily acces- 
sible, and unlock the rich mineral deposits of the Wind River 

herds of excellent entile are to he so. u -raziuj in l!u- 1I.-I1 [.azures 
of the smaller valleys. 

general public, embracing the greater number of the hot springs 
<"ind geysers. I was very deeply impressed with a sense of the 

festations. By a most fortunate, though quite accidental dispo- 
sition of my time. I was enabled to pass through the most inter- 

and note a large number of the most striking manifestations in a 
comparatively short space of time. And yet when I say that I 
could have remained for weeks in the neighborhood of a single 
geyser or spring, watching closely its daily and hourly pulsations 
and eruptions, studying its history, and marking its effects with- 
out feeling an; nee, it will 



G8 THE YELLOWSTONE NATIONAL PARK. 

readily be seen that my time was all too brief for the performance 
of the work as I desired. 

Much has already been said concerning the benefits to be derived 
by science from the setting aside of this tract of land and the pro- 
tection of its natural features. In fact this was one of the in- 
ducements olfeivd h.r tlie passage of the bill in both houses of 
Congress. Dr. Hayden, in speaking of this bill says, - I believe 

•not only in this country, bm through. H he civilized world. . . . 
dor t 



tions of tin 


i Roc 


ky ilou 




eiits which. 


in my opinh 




the proper 




f this g 


rant 


started on i 


ts we 


stward i 


•our: 


quest, and 


with 


the abu 


nda: 


hills and v 


alley. 


> surrou 


ndiu 


that this tei 


/ritor 


v is dest 


iuod 


tion of whic 


•h urn 


st be' tr: 




from this cl 


arect; 


on, is i 


■ema 


posed as to 


mab 


i its WOl 


ki.ii 


In a pre 


vious 


paper! 


1 b 




v< "!. ! 




\ i f 






>UnIn 


ing 






a by th 






, thus 


produei 


:>d w 


very favor: 


ible i 


or its s 


ucee 


that the in 


mam- 


;e depos 


its, 



It is also highly probable that the 






while the greater portion of the remainder is v 
atecl for the eas; :ipplie: tion < f water. On the ] 

on many accounts, and yet I do not doubt that 



Falls, for the sight of that which ought to be as free as air or water. 

If this bill fails to become a law this session, the vandals, who are 
now waiting to enter into this wonder-hind will, in a single season, 

required all the cunning skill of nature thousands of years to pre- 

be when the ' d heroine thickly } ovulated. 

Having thus proven the wisdom of this liberal appropriation, let 

First, as regards the eviden. es of waning subterranean heat, so 

a remarkable fact that the springs in different localities are widely 
dissimilar in many respects, and even those in the same locality 
often differ as greatly from each other in some of their character- 
istics. The White Mountain hot spiings of (lardincr's River are 

for the formation of a park in this region, the fact that here the 

so clearly portrayed is alone siillicient ground for their protection. 
I venture to say that nowhere in our country, not even in the truly 
wonderful canon of the Colorado, is so much of geological history 

stone basin. Nowhere in the world, I had almost said, is there to 

material. The area within which all this is comprised is much 



rapids, waterfalls and torrents, deep-cu 
abound in every direction ; lakes, gor 
one almost at every turn, and the w 



7 of physics in which h 

the various forces of 



The chemist will inioiest himself in problems of analysis 
synthesis, in the ptocesses of evaporation, condensation aiv 
lution, and the chemical changes incident thereto. To the 
anist and the veg. . >1< phys lojiist, the field is open for o 
ration and wide experimei latlon, but there exists, even at 
great altitude, a storehouse of facts bearing upon the distribi 



72 TIIE YELLOWSTONE NATIONAL PARK. 

and fertilization of plants, and the almost indefinite related sub- 

and the meteorologist, astronomer, artist and phv-ieian, may each 
standpoint, lean, from my own experience, promise 



u.npleteand ? o overwhelming as to enehain 1 
Secondly, I consider that the Yellowstone 
e made a really valuable laboratory and cons 
t little cost and without detriment to any of t 

are now a^itatinc til 



f animals in 



and other ret 






If the reader will bear with m 



(B. pris, 






portions of this wide region, but the great i- Iro '• -■ in to 
present impassable barrier.-.;, which cause them to be 
in lots, as it were, between them. I believe it to be a fi 
to allow them a present range, all told, of not more than 500,000 
square miles, a reduction of one million square miles in twelve 
years. Granting the possible fact that the reduction in numbers 
may be in smaller proportion, and allowing for errors in the cal- 
culation, there can be little doubt that in the next tea years this race 
will become extiuet, at the present rate of destruction. 

The wolverine (Gulo luscus) also represents an ancient type, 
found in the bone caves of England and Belgium. It is liable to 

The Rocky Mountain grizzly bear ( Ursus horribilis Ord.) is 
found by Mr. Buck* to be osteologically identical with remains 
occurring in ancient British deposits of'l'ost-tcrtiary age. This 
species is, perhaps, not yet scarce enough to need protection, as 
it is mainly confined to mountainous regions, and the flesh is not 
greatly in demand. It is a question, however, whether its skin 
will not be more frequently sought in consequence of the disap- 
pearance of the bison, or buffalo. 

The American beaver {Castor Ca,ia<h'nsis)< hunted alike for its 

C is'^r-.hh-s O'n'.-Hsis of the American Post-tertiary. Its limits, 
as with other animals, have been much curtailed by the advance 
of civilized man. It is worthy of preservation for its peculiar 
habits, which need no description. 

The tailless hare, or 
Mountain region by the 1 
genus now confined to the Ilimalay 
regions of North America, has been 
among the bones from Kent's Cavern, 
those from the Brixham Cave."t 

The American moose (Aire Americ 

representative of the Post-tertiary p< 
quite abundant in this country, it is . 

withstand the a^snults of the' hunter. 






greater force to t 
the cotton tailed 
antelope (Antiloca 
mule deer (Cervus 



included in this fauna, remains of this species having 
from the pri of Switzerland. 

this protective scheme, without interfering in the lea 
plans for the best improvement of the park, and, what 
of as much importance to our practical frier,. Is to who 

i of expense.* All of 



YELLOWSTONE 



n fact, the same may be said of the whole fauna of thi 
ivithout exception.* It is only when wountlc 






' ivesti ;ated, and this i 
members of the vertebral 
to look for a peculiar 
account of its altitu-le a 



mising that Dr. C. C. Parry acted as the botanist of the north- 
western Wyoming expedition of 1873, I will only add that his ob- 
servations prove that the rewards of research in that department 
are no less promising than in other fields. 

Fifthly and lastly, there is one young but active science— mi- 
croscopy, — which has as yet scarcely entered this field, but which, 
I firmly believe, will discover within the limits of the Park most 
valuable treasures. The act of Congress providing for this reser- 
vation i isun - t m pn scrvaih n of the greater portion of whatever 
may be available for this purpose. 

Among the most int. restin ; objects for the microscope, will be 
found the colloidal and filamentous products of the hot springs,* 
the minute vegetable and animal life of both hot and cold springs, 
the animal and vegetable parasites, and the numerous crystalline 
deposits of the hoi springs and geysers. 

Yellowstone Lake, in many places near its borders, is so com- 
pletely filled with a soft greenish substance in small pellets, that it 
is impossible to dip a cupful of the water without including hun- 
dreds of them. They are apparently of vegetable origin, but 
careful mi , Ls needed to determine their ul- 

timate structure. Whether this green matter has anything to do 
with the presence of the intestinal worms {IHhotlu-hun onh'ceps 
Leidy),f so abundant in the trout of the hike. I cannot say. but 
the idea has been suggested to me from facts observed in this con- 
nection.]: The whole subject 'of intestinal parasites is extremely 
111 =t g, and this pai h ihu case is, on many accounts, more 
than ordinarily so. The successive stages in the development of 
this species, and the conditions necessary to its metamorphoses, 
have never been studied. 1 can only say that I do not regard tbfl 
intestinal cavity of civilized man as one of its habitats, but more 
extended observation of its habits mav prove the contrary. 

i 



tific value of the YVllowstone Park. 
ftdent that I have in no degree over- 
but, on the contrary, I have been « 

If anvthinuMvliich I may have sai. 



accomplished if I have succeeded in mak 
)f the real facts of the case. In an article 1 
ling number of the Naturalist, it is my i 

fully into the subject of the best methc 
nt of this tract. 



Tiie Miocene deposits on the eastern slope of the Rocky Moun- 
tains contain the remains of a group of gigantic mammals, of 
much interest, which have been named by the writer. Brontother- 
i'ki'.j Although these animals are less remarkable than the 



Dinocerata of the Eocene,* which they seem to h 
equalled them in size, and resembled them in 
features, notably in the structure of the feet, i 



of the group, however, clearly indicates that they do not belong 
in the order Dinocerata, but should be placed with the Perisso- 
dactyls, in which they form a well-marked family. 

The more prominent characters of this f-imily were pointed out 
by the writer in describing Brontotherium ;/<>/.-■ Marsh, the type 
species, and others had been previously mentioned by Dr. Leidy, 
in his descriptions of TUanothertuiii Prontii.j The skull of the 
latter genus is not known, but there can now be no reasonable 
doubt that it was furnished with horns, in some respects similar 
to those of Br<mtvth<>riv.,}i (plates i and ii). The possibility of 
-'mallv ,M-,st, ( ] In- I),- r,.i,iv * •.,,.] i,, l,i. !,!,-,) work 



2=38. The 



and placed near the first premolar. The latter is pro] 

much larger than the corresponding tooth in Titanotherium, 



connected with the opposite outer cusp by a transverse ridge, 
which has behind it an elongated depression, more or less divided 
by projections from the outer posterior cusp. In the upper true 

Yale MiiMum ha, the cn.un hemi>pheri< il in Conn. The lower 



•i !\ with those of T* uiotherium. 



process was stout, ana com^ 
The transverse process was small, and apparently ' 
The posterior articular face is concave, and oblique. Tin 1 m )h ' 

the Proboscidians. The caudal vertebrae preserved indicate a long 
rtail. 
The limbs of the/; nnediate in proport- 

between those of the elephant and the rhiuoeenn. The haniei"- 



Rhinoceros, and 



The metacarpal bone 
)», the first phalanges 



d ligan 


lent. At the distal ei 


. and its head :, deep pit 


arrow. 


and the two edges ar 


e of nearly equal proud- 


the u 




11 fossa on the posterior 


Hie out 


er condyle. .The tibi 


a is stout, and lias a dis- 


The f 


ibula is entire, but qu 


ite slender. The astrag- 


tor tha 




ind the superior groove 


>. TlH 




haninAV,. 


■ l L ' 


tf^t^trL- 


^r^^eTjj 


rtknoi 


m species of this grou 


p is Brontother 


■h is r< 


■presented in the Yal 


e College Museum by a 


perfec 


t, and other character^ 


die remains. The speed- 



The skull in the type specimen of the specie- is well represented 
in the accompany ing plate-,, and its general characters have already 
been given. It is three feet in length, and twenty-two inches 

cranium is the pair of huge horn-cores on the nasals. They are 
about eight inches in length, and extend upward and outward. 
They are triangular at the base, with the broadest face external. 

is continued to the median line. I horn-cores 

are rounded in front, slightly deeurved. and the surface at the end 
is rugose. The orbit is of moderate size, and looks forward, out- 
ward an 1 upward. The lachrymal foramen is small, and ovate in 
outline. The infra-orbital foramen is unusually large. There is 
no post-orbital process. The zygomatic arches are massive, and 
the squamosal portion widely expanded. The temporal fossa ex- 
tends far backward, and has over its posterior portion an obtuse 

cxt id slighth behind th< supra [ t il crest. The paroc- 



:ess of the squamosal is elongate, and its 
y, and is longer than the paroccipital pro 



neurly square than in Titanotherinm Prov.tii Leidy. The upper 

c ^-responding tooth in T. Proutii, but the innei postoj or angle of 

The limbs in this species were shorter than those in the existing 



nose, possibly as extensive as in the tapir. That there was n 
long proboscis, as in the elephant, is indicated with equal certaint 
by the length of the head and neck, which renders such an orga 

ceras {Symborodon trigonoceras Cope), but differs widely in siz< 
having been nearly or quite twice as large in bulk. The horn-core 
also, are very differently placed ; the nasals are' more elongated 

not prominent ; the squamosals are greatly expanded ; and thei 
is no post-ortrital process. 

In comparing the Brontothericke with the equally gigantic £tijj 

be at once noticed : especially the presence of horns in transvers 
pairs; the general structure of the limbs and feet; and partid 
larly the short and thick toes. The dirferences, however, betwee 



these 


■ is 


o group 
but a s 


whih 

the ( 


^ 


The stn 
e small 



Hat : the femur without a third tr< 
in each foot. 

Among the features which this 
cklea may be mentioned: the su| 
ridge of the humerus ; the short t 
the epiphyses with the centra of tl 
appears to belong especially to i 
probably indicates late maturity, 

The preceding description mal 
intitule a verv distine 



actors allying them to the Proboscidea, which replace them in 

All the known remains of the BrontotJmidm are from eat 
the Rocky Mountains, in the Miocene beds of Dakota, Nebra 
Wyoming and Colorado. The specimens here described 
mainly from localities in the "Bad Lands" of Colorado, w 
were discovered and explored by the writer in the summei 



HON OF PL i 



OiiXmiOLl.KlCAL NOTES FROM THE SOUTH. 



II. FLORIDA. 

As I was in Florida but a few days and travelling most of the 
time, few opportunities were afforded for taking satisfactory notes 
relative to the breeding habits, etc., of many of the birds observed 

there. The route foil >w< d was up the St. John*- ri\ 



distance of two hundred and seventy-five miles, to a place called 
•• Okahunqkee," at the head of navigation. 

For the first hundred and fifty miles the country on each side of 
the liver is thickly wooded, the forests consisting mainly of cy- 
press and palmetto trees: the undergrowth is very dense, and, 
together with the long and numerous prickly vine-, forms an almost 
impenetrable jungle. To make mal he collector, 

nearly the whole country is an immense swamp, and it is very 
seldom that you see a little knoll rise above the level of the sur- 
rounding debris. This is, of course, the home of innumerable 
birds and a i for the ornithologist. 

through a vast and almost unbroken savanna: here it widens 



THE BOTANY OF THE CUYAMACA MOUNTAINS. 



During the last week of April, 1872, I made a rapid but very 



which has furnished thorn with so many interesting subarctic 
species both of animals and plants. 

The highest ridge of the Cuyamaca range lies forty miles east 
of San Diego Bay, being at the southwest corner of the Union, and 
thus almo.-d the antipodes of the White Mountains: with which,. 

Mount Washington, and the central o'ne. mea>ured h\ my com- 
panion, Mr. W. A. Goodyear of the California Geological Survey, 
was found to be also about six thousand two hundred feet above 

granite, with some mica and taleose slate on its flanks, especially 

Lng well. 



illimit 


able tc 


.ward the southeast, except by the dim m 


,isty hori/.oi 


Not a 


tree n 


or a trace of green vegetation relieves tin 


■ eye, and w 




• turn ; 


iway from it to the verdant hills above tl 




the W; 


all fror 


q which we have been looking eastward. 






■ base 


of the range is therefore about fifty-fiv. 


? miles wid< 


with r 


i slope 


of five thousand four hundred feet in th 


irty miles t( 


ward 


the we 


st, and of the same amount in only fifteen 


miles on til 


east. 


It is 


singular that all the water falling east 


of the big 


Ve< 


"taxi! 


its way around them and runs to the west, 


e desert, tl 


dryesi 


t porti 


on of the United States, where the rainf 


all (as mea: 






t Yuma) averages only about two inches 




may 


expeet 


the mountains to partake, in some dc 


-roe. of tl 


sterili 


ty of 


the desert itself. But their vicinity t< 


) the Pacif 


Oeeai 


i. that 


exhaustless reservoir from which most oJ 




the w 


estern 


slope are derived, produces a fair anion 


nt of rainfa 


in wii 


iter, ar 


iryness 


of the deser 


by in 


tercvpt 


iing this precipitation. At the same time the sumnu 


rains 


Of M:- 


xico and Arizona are to some extent pon 




the es 


istern i 


slope of the mountains between four thou 


sand and si 


thou- 


and feet elevation, thus failing to reach the coast 


.though the 


can b 


e seen 


frequently from San Diego falling as th 


under-storn 



I arts of the mpsa are covered 
lt naively dense enough to hide the sterile rocks and 

gl Xet the sea, herbage of various kinds, but thin and of little 
value as pasture, covers the surface ; impn 

, , ] the soil, packed almost to the hard- 



belt of shrubby oaks (Adenostema and 



Nutt.) is a shrubby tree accompanying them in thickets of small 

These characterize the mesa, scarcely :i -rending nbovc it, and 
form indeed the northern extension of the flora of the still more 

flowering plants and small live-oak- (Qwrciis ar/.-ifoliu Xees), syc- 

are, however, usually dry ilnrin-j nine months of the year, for a dis- 

tation consists chiefly of plan'-: more common on the ; 
tains, and in a <rreat d<>uTee <»!' <u«c\(>< heloiui-inir to the northern 
instead of the southern (or lower) Californian flora. Some of the 
sandy portions, however, reproduce nearly the same group as the 
Colorado valley. Of course it is quite possible that isolated spec- 
imens of some trees may exist, not met with on our journey. 

As the botanists of the Mexican Boundary, and Pacific B. B. 
Surveys have explored and thoroughly analyzed the flora of these 
lower zones, I will refer to their reports for further details. 

The forests of the mountains may perhaps be b 

journey across them, at the same time -ivin r an idea of the climate 
at the end of April.* 

April 26th. At 1 p. m., we left town and rode over the mesa to 
the San Diego river, encamping a mile above the old Mission, where 
date palms and olive, in cultivation give quite a H 

• ew pools of stagnan 



- 



About six miles east, the river air:un 



which, at we meet the first thick- 

cup oak (Qiirmis c,-<ix ;,,„,■'<!), a curious form, with pale oval 

\ arii is , ■ .', plants, before unseen. ace< \ . : n\ .'. and it is 

perhaps the limit of the orange, which has been growing here 

notable shrubby trees are the northern evergreen plum (Pnmvs 

a shrubby live oak (Q. Umsmul KelL). 



cioii.lv sky, began to condense int 
showers continued during the whole 
that this rain was light in Cajon 
Diego at all, though general in the 
April 28th. Light showers conti 
clouds lifted, we saw the Cuyamac 



pine (P. ponderosa Dougl.) at a height 
and a little higher the black oak (Qm 
ing out, a most beautiful reminder - 
forests. Then comes the lofty and n 
Lambert iana Dougl.), and near the su 
the graceful ''white cedar" (Libocedi 
spruce which seemed, from the remnan 
fir (Picea nobilis Dougl.), at about fr 



two hundred feet. 



)on to clear away the 






almost alone, just ;•- it gTows on the foot-hills bordering both 
northern speci< ■■: i id their forms of a more 



quite immer >us from two thou.san 1 t , four thousand feet altitude. 

the «1 ■> -t. and it seeme,] unaccountable how *uch a den e ;i >*yth 
that the •• Sonora rain,."' a. th<-y are cube 1 iie.v. a;e very Indent 
lie also ' . miles southward, is 






one thousand eight 



. plants, which might j 



This is shown by the fact that in two isolated localities not far 

probably belonging properly to the Sylva of the warmer higfi 

mountains of lower California. One ofthe.se is Finns Torreyana, 
growing scantily on the sandstone bluffs near the mouth of Soledad 
creek, nine miles north of S. Diego Bay, and three hundred and fifty 
feet above the sea. The other is Quercus oblongifolia, found near 

sides these we miss on this raie> - e nianv northern trees found on 



the readers of the Natural 
entific essay. — S. H. Scudi 
The two foreign associate 
jority of the American cor 
the two other bodies above 
land states. Consequently, 



The most brilliant epoch for New England was that of 


Franklin 


and Rum ford. The population of this part of the Unite 


Ml States 


was at that time only half a million, and in consequen 


ce of its 


origin it presented very favorable conditions. 




The only unfavorable conditions were our Nos. 1, 2, 7 


and 18. f 


None of these are very important or very characteristic. 


We thus 


understand why Xew England has made the same progre 


ss in sci- 


ence as the most civilized countries of Europe. The < 


wly pil- 


grims resembled the protest ants expelled from Fra 


nce and 


Belgium, in their ancient intellectual culture, their cko 


•otion to 


ideas rath* r than to intei ■-!-. tin It labori >us and austere 


life. 


The rigor of the old Calvinism gave place at Bosto 


n, as at 


Without this a FrankirwonM not have been poslil.letan. 




entific influence of Harvard University can scarcely be c 


.therwise 


explained. If, to-day, anything would seem to threa 


ten this 


select population of New England, it is the incessant en 


ligration 


of its youth to other parts of America and the immigratio 


n of for- 


eigners for the most part very diii'ereiit from the early 


settlers. 


Perhaps also the characteristic activity of Americans is : 


m obsta- 



cle to the cultivation of the sciences, even in the Ne 
states. Taking the Union as a whole the principal dilliculty evi- 
dently lies here. The young men abandon their studios early in 

ing does not extend to trade stand strangely alone in a society 
thus devoted to the production of all mercantile • 

oot strictly belong to science. 1 need only 
repeat here what a very distinguished American savant said 
recently at the opening of a session of the scientific association of 

European notions founded on a superficial knowledge of the peo- 



nent of the United States, and a portion of the people 
aimed at the abolition of slavery. They sacrificed everything to 

among the Americans, as zealous for the advancement of science 

marvellous progress. It is not activity nor intelligence which 
they lack: it is the will to apply themselves to that which brings 



, that of the Mormons, sti 
ition, polygamy, but it hr 






tion in Europe, ai 


id if thousani 






liberal professions 


for one or two 


centuries, hoped 


to find more se- 


curity in America. 


We should 


then see, on a li 


irge scale, what 


took place for the 


benefit of IS 


ew England, of 


Switzerland, of 


Holland and of F 


russia, at the 


time of the old 


persecutions of 


French and Belgia 


,u protestants. 


, America would 


[ have inherited 


the secular culture 


of sciences in 


Europe. In the 


absence of sim- 


ilar circumstances, 


the extension 


of inherited forti 


ines, of instruc- 




y apparent, of m 




men in the midst 


of democratic 


tumult, must gr; 


idually develop. 


among a certain c 


lass of the An 


lerican people, a 


taste for disin- 


terested and purely 


- scientific re>< 


;areh. 




Distance from tb 




countries has k 


mg been injnri- 


ous to the labors 








proof of this, we i 


nay notice ttas 


it the only citizer 


is of the United 



possible that less attention would have been paid to their labors. 
In our day, communication has become more ready. Many young 
Americans study in Europe. Others come to travel after publish- 
ing memoirs. Their scientific zeal is thus increased, and the Eu- 
ropean savants become better acquainted with them. Finally, the 
Anglo-American language is destined, by the force of circum- 
stances, to predominate. In every way, therefore, one may expect 
a larger development of the sciences in the Cubed States — it is 
true in a somewhat distant future, for favorable influences make 
themselves felt only after one or two generations. 



BOTANICAL OBSERVATIONS I> 



Wind River, which in pursuing a general southeast course 
rains the entire eastern slope of the Wind River range, also 



receives from the east and n 


orth the drainage 


of an extensive 


mountain district, to which, as : 


i whole, no distinct 


ive name has yet 


been applied. To the most so 


utheastern extensi 


on of this moun- 


tain system the name of Owl Ci 


reek ranee has beer 


i locally applied. 


At the lowest point, where thit 


5 merges into the 01 


>en and elevated 


plains, the main stream, turni; 


og sharply to the 


north, loses the 


name of Wind River to assurm 


i that of the Big II 


orn, tributary to 


the Lower Yellowstone. Thus 




he same stream 


under another name, in doublii 


is on its upper co 


arse from south- 


east to north, receives lower dc 


>vvn the eastern dra 


inageoftheOwl 




mountain district 1 


o the northwest. 


through the little known Bi<r IJ 


orn tributaries of < 


)wl Creek, Gray 


Bull and Stinkin'r Water 






Our route, instead of follow 


- - .. . 


valley crossed 


Wind River some distance ab 


ove the sharp ben< 


1 above' referred 



nds do we meet with anything like a rank 
of dense willow thickets, occasional cc 
entea Nutt., with irregular scattering gi 



hpidota Nutt.; 
gus, Trichoba* 

In the series 



On reaching the broken foot-hills of the Owl Creek range, both 



■ rocks, sharp crests 
of upheaved strain, and extensive exposures of the brick-red Tri- 
age formation, present in their varied exposures all the condi- 
tions for a varied flora. We accordingly here meet with such 

choiee plants as Sfa ! < :,> ririih'jJ'jiU Xntt.. < >■• •>jtr< ■>'■< c niprstfis 
L., var.? (No. 88), Aplopappus mtdtiaculis Nutt., Tcumcetum capi- 
tatum Nutt. 

Farther up on the mountain slopes the increased elevation is 
evidenced by greater freshness of vegetation, the dull brown of 

ning streams, however, are still rare, as the altitude is not suffi- 
cient to afford heavy deposits of winter snow to keep up a supply 
of water through the dry summer months. As we again encounter 
pine woods composed mainly of Mi™ DomjhixU and Pinna jlexilis, 

matted growths of J A-/,,.*/, , y ,/,>//,,. s uc<i-nrsi, and occasional patches 
of Berberis Jy»;/>,/,\i,„. Still there is a eharaeleristie absence of 
many forms such as one would naturally look for in such local- 

1 1'- -' "i- Very cominoi id itli ictivc o\( i all th - - 1 * [] r 
' Jit. showv [lowers of •> so.vies of I m>inilS (No. 54) 



ivu'ular order of ^ 



estern edge of the Big Horn basin, we come upon 
,]']' ,!,"',"' , ! k, Grav Bull 






Along the borders of a dry ravine was oliocte. 
Astragalus with nearly mature fruit. This, 01 



act alpine flo 
ay, and a mc 

■lo heads im 



.specie,, to winch t \ w 11:ime nf Tuim.^diu c<,,,<ln,*,i,t, n 
be provisionally applied. In the lower mountain ranges 
succession of charming subalpinc meadows, set off wi 

well known plants, fund-!., I the \\,\l,\uuj; additions t( 
viz: A *'> ,( 'g^»-s oroboides UoniQm., (E anthem brpvijlom 
Gray, Aplnpaftvis irudoides Torr. and Gray, Artemisia 
Nutt., and the singularly neat European species Myosoti 
L. In the valh y of Stinking Water ( n most lna]>pro;>i ialt 
a clour mountain stream abounding in the finest trout), a 
locality, was collected the rare Chenopodiaceous plant « 
izeil by Dr. Torrey as E ml do pin Surld >,i Torr. This, i 
published revision of this family by Mr. S. Watson, 
lm: " i 1 ' ] '■; lV -i«''iu. Atri r ' fJ -(A. d-:hd,d, p is Watson, ine 
fxc. :,.,,: figure of this plant in Vol. xii, pi. 3, of "Pacific 
Reports," only fails to represent the straggling habit 
divaricate branches and the blMcrcl. mcalv-du -ted lcav 
species. It seems to affect a peculiar sod. >o strongly 
natedwith saline ingredients as to be entirely bare of 
vegetation. 

the valley of Stinking Water there i 






interest to attract the attenti. 



were composed of s 

into the most fantastic shapes, presenting i 

• imns and chimney pc: 

ijo sod derived from its disink-Talinii 

rich development of floral forms. We accon 



.■■•■ ' 



On the high alpine crest at t 



dwarfed forms of plants met with low* 
from the following list, noted down Aug 



Pohmmdnui Juaniloxiu: {1\ pnrri/,, 
)ougl., Myosotis alpestris L., Eriogo 



NOTES UPON AMERICAN WATER BIRDS. 



History of North Aim* 



GalUnago acolopacina Dona]) 


var. Wilsonii Bonap. The 


American form of this species is 


distinguishable from the Euro- 


pean merely by slight differences 


in proportion, being smaller in 


general measurements, especially 


in length of bill and tarsus, 


with comparatively longer wing. 




The G. nobilts Scl. ami Salv., 


of northern South America, G. 


Paror/iue Vieill., of the southern 


portion of the same eon t incut, 


and G. Australia Lath, of Austral 


a, seem to be also referable to 


the same species, though slightly c 


i.stingiiishcd by the attenuation 


of the outer tail feathers, thereby 


showing an approach to G. ste- 


nura Kahl, of the Malayan regh 


n, which, however, has twenty- 


six. instead of fourteen to eightee 


1 rectrices. 


Limosa rufa Te.nm., var. °Hro V 


/rjta/is (oadd. The differences 



2. Scolopax r/>mrminu. Linn., S. X. I., li ! 
te™s Tenmi. pi. col. "Ibis Ordii Boimp.," liaird, B. X. A 
p. 685. ' ??? ZWatos J/,-.;-/,-./ nus ( Ii.u-l.. S. X. I., 17-SX, l 

Catal. N. Am. B., No. 500a. Ibis thalassinus Kidgw 
U. S ( 1 1 \[ 1 1 1 par. (In press.) 
i2a«MS elegans, var. <>//.s^ tfus, Ridgway. Differing fron 



iV*.</ia Ja/»fm 



»7us Baird. Differ. 



uff throat. Deep ochraceom 
on the lower surface almost 



NOTES FROM THE JOURNAL OF A BOTANIST IN 
EUROPE. 



PART II. NORWAY, ETC. 
I landed at Christiania upon a high holiday, one rather stri 

the two thousandth birth-day of Norway ! I found Profe 
Schiibeler at home ; and the next day he showed me (hrougl 
Botanic Garden and the University. Although the Garde 
poor enough compared with that of Lund, yet it is good coi 
eringthe latitude, and the conservatories appeared to be as 1 

are well situated, and 1 si, uid think'moro <-xt< nsive than thoi 
Cambridge. The Professor is a man of boundless energy, "i 

the garden. It would be an easy and excellent thing foi 
American correspondent to double and triple their number. S 



Tin-r 






i I c [..-> ertj of the fow si a in 8] - 1 ;■ 
nothing but birches, alders, and olie or two conifers. 

The herbaceous plants were more varied. and very attractive to 
me ; possibly the more so because I had' to puzzle them out with 
the only book I had, Ilartnuinu's Flora in Swedish, which I can't 



The peaks are sharper than anywhere else and covered with snow. 
The view of the Romsdal mountains from Molde is the finest distart 

narrowness of the valleys. From Bergen, I went up the Iiardan- 
ger Fiord and into the Siir Fiord to Odde. The fiords are the finest 

things in Xorwav. mountains two or three thousand feet high) 
io\v>i into the -.rreenest of water. 

rind the mountains black and steep, with the Folgefoiid glacier on 
one side hanging over the cliffs, and coming down the ravines. 
From Odde I visited the Skaggindal foss, a pretty waterfall pour- 
ami 'heard 1 was astonished : ,t the color of the iee which, without 
exaggeration, was as deep as sulphate of copper. It advanced 
fifty feet last year. 



collection of hardy plants and trees of remarkable extent, consul 
ering the climate, and a large herbarium and library attached — al 
under the immediate care of Dr. Kegel, formerly of Zurich, a sci- 
entilic botanist as well as gardener. " Dr. Trautvetter, however, u 
the oliicial head of the establishment. There is a smaller hut : 
choice herbarium at the Imperial Academy of Sciences, *W« 
since Ruprecht's death has been in charge of Dr. M 



and comfort, he spoke 






front of the palace. I think I sh 
now I am tired of the heat and 
leave at once for Cologne on my \ 



REVIEWS AMD BOOK NOTICES. 

New German Botanical Manuals.* — The two botanical te: 

)oks named below have now superceded all others in Germai 
lie first, uniform with :i author, is admi 

y adapted for schools and colleges, being compact, clearly a 
mcisely written, and copiously illustrated with woodcuts, i 
e subjects of any general botanical interest are touched up< 

keep up to the present state of the science without taking t 

ne and trouble necessary for learning, practically, microscoj 



The second 


wor! 


c, although called a 


text-book, 


of the high rep 


: ! ; : 


Ei?SS 


ia. In con 

ted sale, tl 


being already 


neai 




a separate 



The proportion of t 



umraaiy of the present state of botany as it exists in G 
larticnlarly, of the results of recent studies in thecryr 
ad, as such, is a valuable book of reference for the special 
ml professor. It is much too intricate and full of mic 
etails to be easily intelligible to the general reader. It 
aeans the case, as some suppose, that the average I 



. in many places, w 
vegetable life, the bo< 
woodcuts are excellen 



Associ: 


ition, with other p 


•apers, which will mak( 


■the vol.u 


value ti 




BOTANY. 




Web: 


e the Fruits m 


ADE FOR Man, or did Max 


Fruits: 


? — These need it 


ot be taken a 


11 v excjn, 


sitions: 


; for as » God he: 


[ps those who help the 


inselves." 


work ii 


t this respect is 


mainly, if not whol 


ly, in dii 


course ( 


* tendency of N 


ature, so there is a ju.< 


5t sense ii 


may sa\ 


' "the art itself i, 




legreates 


of hort 


icultural skill ha 


ve been accomplice. 


1. More 


not on« 


i of those nature 


ilists who would hav 


e vou be 


nothing 


which comes by 


degrees, and in the 


course of 




tributed to Divin 






The a 


■nswer I should g 


ive to the question, su 


i we thus 


1. Sc 


>me fruits were j 


Jiven to man as they ; 


ire, and 1) 



Whether e 



vi it recent cortnin others — to consider 1 



anything we i 


ICt n 


ally poss 




fro 


in P>J 


rus Malm in f 


Savor. 


though perhaps not ii 




triety. it 


it 




true. 


as Karl Koch 


sup- 


poses, that the apples 


of 


the orch; 


:u-d 




•e lio: 




r sp»- 


cies. At least one of 


our 


wild hav 


rtlu 


U'llS 


. Cr<A 


•trpfjus tomento 




some varieties, bears a 




re and de 


liea 


teh 


■ Haw 


)i'c'd fruit, evici 


x-ntlv 


capable of increase in 


siz 


e ; it mi< 


rht 


ha\ 


•e be 


en in the front 


rank 


of pomaccous fruits. 


In 


a smalh 




rav 


our 


service-berry i 


.VUllW 


have been turned to g 


ood 


account 




(/ui 


• plQl 


us would have 


been 


the progeny of the Chi 


, 


i, the be 


V<> 


aire 


tuly s 


nd our wild rei 


I and 
















■omi, 


but probably not as larj 


iV ; 


is they nl 


'w: 


ire. 


Bn 


t instead of pe 


aches 


and figs, we should be 


.lis, 


■ussing 1, 




ifol. 




most luscious 


vari- 



berries and currants, we sh 



Then we should consider how 
American birthplace, would have 



out. of other accessible, and in some cases no doubt originally 
better, materials. 

coming." Of these, our wild -rapes are foremost. Tliev have 






sached their perfection unassisted. 



me of the veteran nomologists of t 
the li;11 ,au- in ihN n-nnl ; it would 



them for the present unpromising. 

Finally, if pomology includes nuts, there i> v. p 
uncultivated. Our wild chestnuts are sweeter than those of the 
old world: it would be well to try whether races might not be 



thickness of the shell and in the size 
they are invitino- your attention, and 






I this requires time, almost unlimited time ; hut it is not for 
urjoyments of fa -.—Asa Gray, in HoM 



ZOOLOGY. 
>m Mr. Murray, of 



this. He rcpre 
feet. The brea 



gth of the 
rty-five feet. 

flu- II -v. Mi 



; 


: bodv se 




at the in 






the who! 




hut the 


sorkrt'ui 


which is 




erful he; 




l'csonihh 


>s a parro 



onTi'i sJav.DeJ. i>. is7;i V ven sp I p rson.ln the nan 

of Pike, informs rue that he has som many of these gigantic s,jim 



:o Mr. Harvey tl 
ihout one-third t 



Yale College writes us that he has received both jaws a 


nd two 


suckers of the Newfoundland cuttle-fish. The beak, lie says. 


ii, but 


nearly with the figure of that of A. dux, on p. 03. of vol. ^ 


the jaws are somewhat larger, he thinks. -Eds.] 




A New (?) -Egerian Maple Borer.— in the deseripth 


>nof a 


supposed new maple borer on page 57 of the January nn 


,l,r,thris 


recognize an old acqa » ; h ' 





The Ax at 03i r of Yv'okms.— ( lapai ■ le's elaboi de posthumous 
work with iifteen pla s. on the anatomy of tin -ea worms, j pi iin 
in the "Memoires de la Society de Physique et ddlistoire Xaturelle 
of Geneva. 

GEOLOGY. 

The N. W. Wyoming Expedition. —The summer of 1873 is 
noted for the number of expeditions which were organized for the 
purpose of explorations in the territoi'ies, and the almost uniform 
success which has resulted, from a sciont ific point of view. Among 



priation, what three successive parties, led by the most 

intrepid and daring explorers of the western country, had pro- 
made a eai logical and botanical suryev of a 
large portion of unexplored territory in X. W. Wyoming, adjacent 
to the National Park, and connected the whole with the work of 



relating more esp<> daily to the fej 
I must therefore content myself, i 



, objects of 1 
possible to a 



thorough nu 
geology, the 






un*l dynamical geology of this regie 



Mr. J. I). Putnam, assistant to Dr. l any, 
larger ami more comni/m animals which I < 



inirm, and was as largo as the d »mestie cat. Th< 
peculiar forms of lizard, -eipenN and lu iu,-> eon- 

- 

which belongs to the temporary teeth of Equus. Prof. Cope has 
recently obt. te skeletons of several species. 

and finds that like Hippotherium they have three toes. He de- 
scribes a new species P. nrjunrtuft, in which the legs arc consider- 
ably longer and the head relatively larger than in the true horse, 
having thus [ oportions of body, as well as dentition ivsenihling 
the colt. 

MICEOSCOPY. 



any, though I have used one co 



fern stems, I foun 



NOT] 



lit-hsonian Institution, in pi moo of the Into Prof. An 
ANSWER TO COHRESPONDENT. 



AMERICAN NATURALIST. 

Vol. VIII. -MARCH, 1874. -No. 3. 

THREE DIFFERENT MODES OF TEETHING AMONG 
SELACHIANS.* 



seuin of Com ion of fossil 

fish teeth, with the intention of identifying them and comparing 

came an occasion for me to look over the materials we possess. 
Informer years I hail paid considerable attention to the subject 
and contributed somewhat to the advancement of our knowl- 

tivcs of the i-hi-s of Selachians. 1 hm-ii found that the progress 
of nalponfcoWv and / Is on band 



to make the collecting of Selachians a princij 


>al object of my at- 


tention, and to gather specimens in greater 1 


mmber than is usu- 


ally the case with animals of these large d 


imensions. I have 


been richly rewarded for my efforts though it 1 


aas been at the cost 


of considerable labor. We now possess in 


the Museum many 


thousand specimens of Selachians. I do not 


suppose there is an- 


other collection covering so largely the differe 


Qt stages of growth 



and since rny return has, made a ven careful examination oi 
one species in several families, in order to have standard, of com- 
parison based upon the study of several hundred specimens for 

condition the Selachians pr. ,ent characters which are very con- 
been founded on the dim-ivm-.- <>i a.-o. I wish to show first, 
that among the adults we have constancy of character. As an 

twenty-five adult specimens. I have selected this genus for spe- 
cial study on account of its relations to the fossil species of the 
tertiary formation. In Odontaspis the front teeth are placed as 
if there were a set of front teeth distinct from the canine teeth. 
and back of them molar teeth of a very different size, all the 
specimens exhibiting the same arrangement and even the same 

proper. But when we compare specimens of different ages v,e 



functionally u- >d in catching the pre\ ti « re correspond t 
five, six or seven immature teeth placed one behind the o 
• fold of the gum, the youngest occupying the innerimn 



t whu-h are im mature, while those along 
re ready to drop. SoiW of these teeth in 
) the gum that they drop readily, while otl 



r is already fixed . 
1 those of the outer 
dace except that h 



t with reference 
t teeth and they i 



In Cestracion. on me I designate 

ie Port Jackson shark and not the hammer-heads), we have a 
)tally different mode of teething, the knowledge of which is es- 
ential to a correct appreciation of the zoological value of a vast 
the older and middle ge- 



132 

ological formations. I have been fortunate enough to secure a 
large number of specimens of the Cestracion living along' the 
coasts of California, Peru and the Galapagos Islands. I have 
those of Australia also in various stages of growth, so that I could 
ascertain the mode of dentition of the genus by a comparison of 
different species. In the adult, as is well known, the front teeth 
are pointed, while the lateral teeth are grinders, and there are 
* grinders with Hat surfaces and grinders of diilerent forms, in the 
middle of the jaw and behind. What is particularly characteristic 
of these fishes is that the teeth rest upon the surface of the jaw. 
forming flat expanses for chewing, and that many teeth are at work 
at the same time ; also that the inner part only of the rows is in 
progress of formation, while a great many rows act at the same 

In this condition, the genus Cestracion has been described, 
and it is generally understood that what distinguishes it is the 
presence of these different kinds of teeth ; but when I had an 'Im- 
portunity to examine the younger ones, I found that there were 
none of those peculiar teeth in the back part of the jaw. forag 
that swim about in search of prey exhibit only the conical teeth at 
the anterior part of the jaw and have none of the teeth with fid 
surfaces at the hinder part of the jaw. What is still mi 
is that these front teeth, corresponding to the from 
adult, have not single points as in the adult but two Lai 
The teeth which are behind are gradually reduced to tmv< 
prongs, and finally only one prong with a little hook < 
and in very old specimens even these little prongs at the side are 
wanting; so that you have a succession of different teeth re- 
sulting from the gradual change in the teeth of the s: 
The first teeth of the young have this complicat. 
which is maintained through successive droppings h i 
of another character come in. These remain for a time - B 
until a third type of teeth is brought in. As these cl 
in the front we find that row after row is added b< I 
the number of rows cov< the jaw is g» 

increased. ft 

We see in this a different arrangement from the - 
in which the total number of teeth in the jaw is ea 
and remains the same for life, while here the nun. 
increases and the rows forming behind have a totally d» " 



rder to learn their hi 

anee has been the Men 
tks chop tbeir teeth a 



stand how teeth of a large -i/.e could follow the teeth of very 
eh exist in the young. In the teeth of the 
young taken from the mother, embryos therefore, and not young 
in the ordinary sense, the whole width of the dentary portion of 
the jaw' is not half the width of the central tooth of an adult, but 

small teeth. .Teeth as small as a pin's head are actually found in 
the jaw. I have examined a number of jaws of Myliobatis, all of 
which show that fifty times as many teeth must have been 
dropped as remain in the jaw. The teeth are not pushed side- 
wise : they are pushed forward. This occurs in Myliobatis, where 

tion, all of' which progress from behind forward. In the genus 
^Etobatis the teeth are corneal, the (Void part being much nar- 
rower than the hind part. 

The introduction of the new kind of teeth is a complicated thing 
to explain, and to state the changes which they undergo by age 

principal modes of teething we have some modifications of them 
which are characteristic of particular families. In the ordinary 
skate's (Raja) the rows of tooth are disconnected from one another 

■sting-raw , ,,. ; ,r, <;-,<- of that family, 

they cover the jaw closely and are quincuncially arranged. That 



Lh gjciea but from 



the genus Eos. existed in Scotland at an early period. Bos j 
rienins and B. lonqlfron* of Owen. The former was of large 



or six and one-half feet.* Darwin remarks that the Pembroke 
race in England closely resembles this ox in essential structure. 
and that the cattle at present existing in the Chillingham Park 

hody and fine legs. It wa- t\cv.. 

Roman period. J Professor Owen thinks it probable that the 

Welsh and Highland cattle were descei " 



136 THE WILD CATTLE OF SCOTLAND. 

A continuous range of enormous forests covered the whole extent 
of the country in j n historic times, while the gigantic and fierce 
cattle roamed through the chase,* and fed on the tender branches 
and buds, the catkins of birch, hazel, sallow, and other species of 
willow,f rea ter of feeding the moose of the 

Canadian forests. We have reason to suppose that the ancient 
islanders introduced the rudiments of a pastorai life, while yet 
living in pits incovered with boughs and skins, j yet no evi- 
dence leads to the conclusion that the native Britons had do- 
mesticated the great oxen of the country, although undoubted!* 
they formed , a source of food.§ In Switzerland, on the contrary. 
the lake dwellers had succeeded in taming these formidable 
brutes. || 

We have it stated by Darwin, that Bos print hjo.i, inn existed as a 
wild animal in Caesar's. time. f There is a record of white cattle in 
the tenth century, resembling those in the Scottish parks, exist- 

Boethius, in 1526, mentions them as then existing near Stirling. 
"At this toun began the grit wod of ( alidon. This wod of Cali- 
don ranfra Striveling throw Menteith and Stratherne to Atholl and 
Lochquabir, as Ptolome writtis in his first table. In this wod wes 

nis, and thoucht thay semit meek and tame in the remanent figure 
of thair body is. thay wer mair wild than onv uthir beistis, and had 



Ciimarna 


uld."* In; 


% remarkable 


writer co 


mplains of 


the ao-aros.sk 


r " : . ,'* 


of the deer 
nllis of the 
er of the co 


■•in the forest 

said forest, t 


U-in k,p 


it thir nioi: 


vther partis c 


John Le; 


die. Bishop 


of Ross, sp 



low dear, fiedioj 


y on all s< 


great store of r< 


■id dear 01 


with black ears, 


only on tl 


by Bewick in 1 7 


70. and in 


ing their white 


color, but 



^^e find them ref< 


irred to 


it speaks of them as 


retain- 


>8t their manes, jj 


Coiirad 


«n, maned about th 


e neck 


-fid and fearful of m: 


unkind, 


those hearbes whe 


reof he 


t for many days to: 


aether : 



138 THE WILD CATTLE OF SCOTLAND. 

About 1800 they are spoken of as invariably white, with the ears 

tipped with black, and the muzzles black." In 183G, we begin to 
get more pa Color invariably white, muzzle 

black, the whole of the inside of the ear. and about one-third of the 
outside, from the tip downward, red. The horn-; art- very fine, white 
with black tips; and the head and legs are slender and elegant.T 
The Earl of Tankerville, the proprietor of Chillingham park, de- 
scribes them in 1839. In form they are beautifully shap 1, with 
short legs, straight back, horns of a very fine texture, as also their 
skin so that some of the bulls appear of a cream color. J In 1845, 
Low says that the eyelashes and tips of the horns are black, the 
muzzle brown, the inside and a portion of the external parts of the 

bulls have merely the rudiment of manes, consilium- of a ridge of 



and one-half or two inches in length.** 

As a wild race we hear of their occurrence at rare intervals. In 
the time of Edward the Confessor (1042), we are told by one of 

the abbots of St. Albans that wild bulls abounded near London,tt 
and Fitz-Stephen writing about 1174, speaks likewise of their 
occurrence in these woodl.it In 1760, wild white cattle were just 
extinct in the central Ili-hlan is.; In 1 .-,!)«. their occurrence in 
Scotland was confined to but a i\-\v localities.! jj Wo are thus par- 
ticular in tracing the accounts of this breed, as Wilson maintains 
that no sub: ard to prove 

that the.e e,ttl,. .„,. ,,„,, ,] ,,, .-, ,],,,,, „| . n ab<» i/mal 



Chillingham castle the sont of the Karl of Tankcrvdle. is 
ated in Northumberland Countv. En-land, and formerly oe< 
one end of the Caledonian forest, which in tonne- times e>t 
from sea to sea. The wild cattle have been preserved in thii 

in." We find it recorded that the stock at Chillingham was ; 
time left without a bull, from accident and sterility. Fortm 
one of the cows had a bull calf, and the stock was presei 
In color, thev are invariably whifet or white,} or pale cream < 
or creamy white. || or white and cream color.* Their lion 

inwardly and about one-third externally. red.|||| reddish-bro^ 
or red or brown.*** Their necks have rudimentary manes, 
oftentimes a mane from one and a half to two inches long,} J J 

Logs short «-«-« and .lender.- • ' " and the hoof. hla'ek.Ttit 

In 1770 according to Bewick/ some calves appeared with 



iite. or to have black ears.f In Knox's "Natural His- 
tory," published probably in the earlier part of the present century, 
these cattle are said to have lost their manes, but to have retained 
their color and fierceness ; to be of a middle size, long- legged, with 
black muzzles and ears, and their horns to be fine and to have a 
bold and elegant bend. The keeper of those at Chillingham said 
that the weight of the ox was thirty-eight stone, of the cow twenty- 
eight. It would thus seem as if Knox, spoke from personal obser- 
vation (vol. i, p. 55). 

The Hamilton Park cattle are often referred to as the cattle of 
the Chase of Cadzow, after the ensile of that name, the former 
seat of the dukes of Hamilton. Cadzow Castle occupies a site on 
the banks of the Avon in Lanarkshire at one extremity of the 
ancient Caledonian wood. Alton, in 1*1 I, describes these cattle as 
uniformly of a creamy white color, their muzzles an ; 
part of their ears black or brown, and some with a lev black spots 
on their sides. A few are without horns, but the greater number 
have handsome white ones, with black lips bent like a new moon. 
Some of the bulls have a sort of mane four or five inches long. 
The cattle at Hamilton and Ai ho^.m an- not ~o iienv an 1 -ivage 
as their ancestors, but at Aucheiicmive th v still retain much of 
their natural ferocity. Their bar tramht as 

could be wished. Their chest is deep but" narrow, and they have 
much the appearance of the ill-fed native breed of the cattle of 
Ayrshire, Lanarkshire, etc., about fifty years n-.ro.' In 1845 Low 
describes them t- u f j, i;„ * „,i „ , ,, , ,„, , i s an <] in 1870 ' 
the bulls an ' color is 



spotted v 



We have mention of some bavin 


^^4 a ^uZTt a tLo 


latter place were very fierce.} Tin 


jy were also kept at Bishop- 


Auckland in 1635. § 




The cattle preserved at Drurulau 


rig, the seat of the Duke of 


and are 1 ' erihed atlvUh their elu*. 


nfo^zle and orbiteof the eyes 






having lost their manes, but of a wl 


lite color.^f Dickinson states 


that two cows and a bull were living 


in 1821, but the bull and one 


of the cows died that year. He des 


scribes them as dun or rather 


flea-bitten white, polled, with blaci 


: muzzles and ear tips, with 


spotted legs.** Low says they were 


destroyed many years ago by 


order of the late Duke of Queensber 




The cattle at Gisburne Park, in ( 


Jruven, County of Yorkshire, 


England, the seat of Lord Kibbesda 


le, are mentioned, as late as 


1852, as being pure white with bro 


wn or red ears and oosea.ft 


Low speaks of their being polled.;; 


and Bewick describes them 




,f their ears which are brown. 



ites, as Darwin quotes, that they are sometimes without 



from Whalley Abbey, in Lancashin 
1542.J 

The herd at Burton Constable, also 
district of Holderness, all perished ii 

the ears, muzzle and tip of the tail, black.J 



_ weeding out of hh.-mi 
their color or form i 
lingham cattle the mi 
inwardly, and in par 
brown. Their man- 
We find bl* 
the Hamilton herd w. 
date, bat al 
aid,, and leg, are „ 

; 






breeds are apt 1 



» are told by Low 



cality. Mountain 
s than breeds oc- 
is obvious to any 



and loins, than those breed: 


3 wl 




ive 


been s 


ubjected to syste- 


matic breeding. In the Ay 


rshii 


•e brei 


2d we find 


the medium horn, 


often the direction of the cu 


rve i 


and the fr 


erjuent 


black tip pointing 


to the wild breed, its also the 


whi 


te face 


,or 


starre< 


I forehead, and the 


"jigged" back occasional^ 


• or 


fYerjui 


■ntb 


i recain 


ring, to direct our 


attention to the transition c 


attl. 


- l.etv 


,-eei 


i the o 


riginal stock, and 


the recorded results of bree 


Un- 


:, coev 


al v, 


ith the 


advanced interest 


in agricultural pursuits at o 




out is 


01). 






These cattle in their pres 


cut 


state 


are 


easily 


and readily tamed 


and crosses with common sfc 


r>ek 


are oc 


f-asi 




noted. Such with 


the forest bull are said by 


Bo- 


,vick 1. 




nvarial 


)lv take the color 


of the father and to retain s 




(Ofthi 


B fa 


reel),-: 


j.* The recorded 


instance of the crossing of : 




w of t 




vhite b 


reed by a common 


bull gives the color of the p 


rogeny as 


aft 


er the 1 


forest pattern, but 


with mottled legs.f 












When we consider the si 


nail 


miml 


, (T 


of the* 


ie cattle, and the 


length of time they have b 


on' 


rr. 


li'i'. 


uh "'• ' 


iow narrowly they 
suppose that they 



tinually in their vicinitv, and the strikii 


,, r resemblance which is 


often shown to them by cattle of other brc 


seds. According to Low, 


individuals were to be met with in 1845, ii 


, ti u . county of Pembroke, 
cattle of the I'urks.J and 




Aiton speaks of their resemblance to the 


common cattle of l?f ' 


I have myself seen in America, cattle 


which were pure white 


with red ears, and even polled. 




The only explanation which I can see t 


or the variations I etween 


the herds of forest cattle and the tern 
which seems from our account to have 
these, as well as the domestic cattle of th 


U-ncv towards variation- 


,','',''■' '-..,^. :.r. mMioot* 




r'Ti . ■!-' but that 







■ and iiiliiioiicv s. 



Though it was the original intention to devote the month to 
an exploration of George's Bank, it was decided on account of 
the "Bache's" defective boilers to work nearer shore and ex- 
tend farther from land the work of the U. S. Fish Commission, 
for the season located in Casco Bay ; the dredging operations being 
conducted under the charge of Professor Verrill. This involved an 
examination of certain unexplored portions of that great indenta- 
tion lying between Cape Sable, Xova Scotia., and Cape Cod, and 
which is laid down on the charts as the "Gulf of Maine." 

Through the researches of Messrs. Stimpson. Verrill, myself 
and others in the Bay of Fundy, and of Drs. Gould, Wheatland, 
Stimpson an Btts Day. together with the very 

the past summer by Professors Baird and Verrill, we had attained a 
very complete knowledge of the coast fauna of N< 

north of Cape Cod. Moreover, the explorations • 

Bank made by Messrs. Smith, Ilarger and inysel! Ia>t year in the 

"Bache," had given us some idea of the nature of the sea bottom 



:: 



It now remained to explore some ii 
George's Bank, and at a distance from 
braces an account of a reconnoissanci 
south of Mt. Desert Island ; Cashe's I 
southwest of Jeffrey's Bank ; of Jeffre 
submarine prolongation of Cape Ann ; 
northerly extension of Cape Cod. As 



in vest ina 




;s may be regarded as conducted 


along >i x 


main lines, running out < 


easterly from the shore between 


Portland 


and Cape Cod. 




On the 


2d of September, the "] 


Bache," with .Lieut. Jaques tem- 


porarity i 


in command, left Peak's 


Island, Casco Bay, the head- 


quarters ( 


)f Professor Baird and hi: 


> associates, and' made a harbor 



for the night at Boothbay. Early the next morning we ran out 
and dredged about '•Monhegan Falls," in sixty fathoms, searching 
with dredge, tangle and trawl for the arctic coral {Primnoa lepa- 
d if era), a species of sea fan which grows about three feet, in 
height. It is occasionally met with in the fiords of Norway at a 
depth of three hundred fathoms, while fishermen have been said 
to find it on the ground known as '•■xMonhegan Falls," and a speci- 
men two feet high, from George's Bank, is now in the museum of 
the Peabody Academy of Science. Our efforts to find it were, 
however, unavailing.* 

We then ran out to Jeffrey's Bank and trawled in eighty-two 
fathoms, bringing up a fine Comatula (Ant< d m Sarsit), a w ai alh 
of the crinoids; this was the first specimen taken by the Fish 
Commission during the summer. The disk of another specimen 



Ophinaihlahitpida. We 



of Monhegan, for shelter, and on the si 
Portland for repairs. On September 12 



Ired and live, atrd one hundred fathoms (i 
ion 17. Here the arctic sponge, Hyaloi 



shells rivalling in 
ater in Labrador. 
ithus borealis, Yol- 







■■> 1; ;..'•-:': 






ia tltmclnformis (Fig. 47; 
■Mass.) and Hyalonemn lor, 
te shore, afforded the lowe 



The result of the exploration on Caslie's Ledge was extremely 
interesting;, at depths varying from fifty to eighty fathoms over a 
hard, gravelly bottom characterized by multitudes of AxciiUii cal- 
low, or sea potatoes, the richest assemblage of life was found that 




If v.-.-, 



. the 



. wore made in Salem Llai'hor and « 
Two days, the 25th and 26th, were devoted to 
3 snmmit of Jeffrey's Ledge at a distance of nin. 
; of, Cape Ann. f 



loms, a diffei 


■ence of about 


ten degree 


s froi 


a that of the 


3n each side < 


rf this submar 


■ine elevatic 


mi Both here and 


d we used tv 


TO dredges, on 


e being, tin 


own i 


over from the 


ie other cast 1 


from the stern 


of the vessel, wl 


die the tangle 


; over from her side. On t 


he 27th we 


begm 


i to run a line 


;ings and sou 


ridings from C; 


ipe Ann to 


Chipe 


Cod, crossing 


die of Stellv 


ragen's Bank. 


Dredging 


in d( 


>pths between 


I sixty fathon 


as in soft blue 


mud northv 


rest o 


f Stellwagen's 


u the deepes 


t portions of 


Massaehus* 


;tts I 


lay, the fauna 


nd to closely 


• resemble sim 


ilur localiti 


es on 


each side of 


i Ledge, the 


assemblage n< 


>t more sou 


them 


in character, 




•e of the bottc 


an water ra 




between 41J° 


(two therm* 




used as be 


hire). 


In one haul 


tangle ninety 


-five Qen<>d°« 


■ns crisjxttns 




common pen- 


starfish of n 


mddv bottoms 




Ight 


up, with sev- 


y large Asterl 


'as vulgaris, am 


1 several yo 


ling.* 




ipom. Also 


a gigantic Cor 


ymorphafa 


hydrc 


,id polype six 


n height and 


fully half an i 


nch in d'nun 


eter l 


iear the base. 


ed to be a la 


rge specimen 


of C. pe,uU 


•la, w: 


hich we after- 


redged abun< 


lantly on the 


bank. We 


folim 


1 on Stellwa- 


ink, in tu-on! 


y-two to thirty 


ice of Mad 


>arse 


;x i ( FiM9) 




the tangle w tlf p^St ten 



^ 2 EXPLORATION OF THE GULF OF MAINE. 

when it came up loaded with Astrophyton Agassizii, or M 

[load, and other km Is of starfish, the temperature being 1 
48° and 50° at a depth of thirty-four fathoms.* 

But by far the most interesting results were obtained s 
;aaee of about fifty-five miles due east of Boston in depths 




Glycimeris siliqua. 



hundred and seventeen 
with a bottom temperatu 



Panopsea Norvegicr 



mud ; the temperatu 



1 fathoms being from 36^° to 39°. The only apparent exception 
his arctic fauna is the presence of a dead broken specimen of 

of the deep sea Atlantic fauna, and m:iy be found living nearer 
edge of the Gulf stream in the neighborhood of the St. George's 
iks. The fauna of the sandy portions, such as around the 
ihern portion of Slelhvagon's Bank, is similar to sandy beaches 
adjacent bottoms on the coast of Labrador. As the arctic 

• have brought to light several forms hitherto only known from 



C. If". • 



Tin: yi:li.ow>toni 



ssaiy or proper. 



small parcels of ground. at such places in .aid paikas shall re- 
quire the erection of building for the accommodation of visitors; 

all of the proceeds nf said lease*, and al? other revenues 

- d uwh r his direction in the manaep „a nt of the same, 
and the construction of roads and bridle paths therein. lie shall 
provide arjainst the vanton destruction of the jish >■ 

ized to take all such measures as shall be necessary or proper to 
carry out fully the objects and purposes of this act."* 

-It is impossible to fmd fault with this bill, so far as it goes, for 
it is a model of con el 

enough to show clearly its objects and intentions: nevertheless it 
is marked by one of those strange inconsistencies which seem in- 
separable from our present system of u „ad .d* d legislation upon 
matters co i improvements.! I refer to the au- 

thority given to the Secretary of the Interior and the duties 
thereby imposed upon him, without the power of exercising the 
one or of fulfilling the other. Ample provision has been made lor 

I'ided '!,. if no one attempts In injur* or >b trou u-ithin its borders. 



us of Monta 


na and Wy- 


> already a 'jit 


ate 1 the sub- 


xl highways 


through the 


e been adopt 


ed to secure 


the facilities 


in this direc- 



158 THE YELLOWSTONE NATfONAL PARK. 

system of roads which will afford communication between the 
points of interest. Tlii re can he no 

doubt of the speedy introduction of better methods of transport 

og citi 
oming, encouraged by General Ord, ha 
ject of an extended system of natio 
Territories, and vigorous measures h 
their object. This would add greatly 1 
tion. for as I have shown, any direct route between the Montana 
i and the south or east must pass through this reser- 
vation or very near to it. But the project of a railroad through 
that section is not in its infancy, nor can it long be delayed. It 
is unnecessary to dwell upon these points, for it is obvious, from 
what has been said, that the attention of capitalists must soon be 
turned toward this field. I will therefore proceed to show in what 
ways I consider that the interests of science can be best furthered. 

Too much stress cannot be laid upon the great importance of 

prompt, constant, extended and connected observation of the rare 

aning ph« uouiena, w hich form the mos! 

-de features of the district under con nderation. Taking 

these points in the order named, it ought to be understood thatm 

order to obtain thoroughly satisfactory results 

Action must be prompt. — The evidence thus far obtained, though 
meagre and fragmentary, point- directly to the conclusion tua 
constant ch mges are taking place in the movements of 
and boiling springs, resulting occasionally in the apparent extinc- 
tion of an active crater, the sudden eruption of one long dormant, 
or a radical change in the manner of action of another. 

The whole region abounds with traces of geysers, 
and other minor evidences of the persistency of heal 
.dying out of the volcanic furnaces, proving that the 
are i 'preservatives of the last stage of such action. Several i"- 
teu 4 ii- jj -.to , ) I -; Ml i ! iPh ii Hi-, li io ehaug 1 in 










tided only by the steady and laborious p 
related and coincident facts. This necessi 

several of the most prominent of the crate 
Basin of Fire Hole River. 

Langford,t who witnessed two violent ernp 

hours in [870, has since been observed on! 

of August 18, 1872, by a portion of Dr. H 

Another geyser a few rods distant froi 

action, has received the appropriate name 






rhe following tabular list gives the number 6f recorded erup- 
QS of ten of the best known geysers of the Upper Basin of Fire 



1«2 

these limits for a greater period than three consecutive months. 
The most interesting localities, consequently, have been in all 
cases very hastily examined. Dr. Hayden has published topo- 
graphical in >ibution of the principal geysers 
and hot springs of the upper and lower Fire Hole Basins, and of 
Shoshone Lake, to most of which he has given more or less ap- 
propriate names, but upon neither of his trips did he remain long 
enough in any one locality for extended observations. The expe- 
dition of last summer* was able to devote but a portion of the 
time to the area included in the park, and the remaining parties 
have been not only quite small, but they have been much more re- 
stricted for want of time.f All of the facts have been collected 
during the warmest and driest season of the year when the atmos- 
pheric precipitation is least abundant and permanent. We know 
absolutely nothing of the effects of climate upon the temperature, 
periodicity, or degree of activity of the subterranean waters, di- 
rectly or indirectly. • The relations, if any, existing between the 
different craters are almost equally undetermined. Even the 
sources of the water supply and the nature of the heating and 
projecting agencies are but vaguely understood. In fact nothing 
connected with the whole subject is well ascertained and the op- 
portunity for i .,, is almost unlimited. 

It is. also quite possible, not to say probable, that many craters 
which have not yet been seen in action may hereafter prove to be 
among the most interesting and important geysers. D] . Hayd< '• 
describes, in his report for 1872, eruptions of geysers which wert 
not observed the previous year, while two or three which were sees 
in action in 1871 were not observed in 1872. At least two oef 
ones, I have reason to believe, were seen by myself 
summer of 1873, in the Upper Fire Hole Basin alone. Nor is «»■ 
all, for there is little doubt that future exploration will be . 
warded by the discovery of still other basins or v 



rermal and spouting springs. Notw 


i 


a the extensive 
,mplicated pr°b- 
. rc we shall full)' 


nns to solve and numerous discoveries 


i to make c 


ealize the vastness and extent of natu; 


re's varieU 




,AU observations should 


— Any sy 


item of observa- 



greater 



i mv li*t are representat 
at mere protection would 
Lf Besides as I have sta 



lice American? JuvJmi-). Ihe mu 
ie bi< 1 n i antain s) ?p.(Or; 
.untain antelope (Aplocerus mon 
Mountain goat, are undoubtedly 



limit of the adaptations of the order Ruminantia to the 

The interesting case of the suckling of the young by'l 
of Lepus Bairdii, before mentioned, ought not to be ov 

and there are doubtless ninny discoveries yet to be made 
interest. The order Rodentia is well represented in thi 
There are many other points of greatei or less importai 
have occurred to me in connection with the plans of imp 
which I have to suggest, but I must be content with ; 
allusion to them. I cannot forbear, however, calling art 
one very prominent result to be attained by the setting 
this tract, and the consequent preservation of the timbe; 
vided by law. It needs no argument to show the valt 
I'pper Yellowstone forests as a means of eepmlizing the 
tion of the precipitated moisture, which is collected by th 

timbered district within and around the park must be 
support of the settlements in that region, for without t 

impossible. Until artificial forests, so to speak, have 1 
duced along the lower valleys of the streams, upon tl 

these timbered areas must constitute the very backbon 
ecsst'ul agriculture. Such being the case, there are few 



competent scientific corps of i 
I have given here the men 



plan will bo found adequate for the maintenance and utilization 

scientific results ; while, as I have shown, there is need of prompt 

that the whole of this plan should he i31au.-m-.1trd at once. On 
the contrary, time and money may be saved by beginning upon a 
small scale, and gradually widening the scope of <■' 
Eventually, however, such a scheme must lead to the introduction 
Of observers in every important department of scientific research. 
The most unpleasant part of the whole subject is the pecuniary 
difficulty, but I would gladly repose sufficient confidence in the 
culture of my countrymen, to believe that an enumeration of the 
immediate practical results to follow from this investment is un- 

no method of accomplishing this plan seems available, except a 
grant from the General Government of an amount sufficient for 
the labors of a single year, but wo may be justified in hoj ii - that 
the judicious application of the first "grant would render future 
appropriations more apparently necessary. It would 'not he diffi- 
cult to demonstrate the propriety of a iarge endowment Tor Hie 
improvement of the park, but it is foreign to the objects of tins 
paper, which have been to show the value of the tract, and. ui » 
general manner, to show how it maybe used to advantage, without 
discussing minutely the means to be employed for this purports. 

advanch 2 . oore will have been 



- >im- of the suckers. 
Coombs Cove, was the same ir 
for. when captured, it had lost < 



maining agreed in diim-nsio] 
comparatively stout species, 
ents made, of the last nainei 
ng and three or four feet ii 

x feet long and nine inches 
is species resembles the one 



. i X 



; in cireumferenc! 
short, thick, an 



I-; : ,eh oi 
s on th e 
largest 



This species I have recently descril 
ame of Loligo pallida.* 
The body is stout, tapering rapid 



,-. the portion Hint hours suckers forni- 
ole length; in the female the larger 



gest on the other arms, and are arranged 
vs ; those near the tips of the arms are very smal 






A 

m. 



I'rr . pearance of the animal when fresh is umi- 
p"Ie ami gelatinous. The -pen" is broad, 



igth of first paii 



colored. The color * 

changeable, owing to the alt 

the spots or color-vesicles, but these spots 

pecially on the back, and the red and broA 



d wards, for the U. S. Fish Cora- 

devoured in inconceivable lmm- 
lIso by the larger jelly-fishes, and 





i tho 


adults, are 


also greedily de 


■voured 


;, stri 




»ass, weakd 


ish, mackerel, c 


ad. and 


Idles. 


Tl 


lerefore tin 


sse "squids*' an 


2 really 


Zi 


. for 

Thi 


sis the mo 


as Long Islan 
i Massachnsett 


.1 north 
d, and 


■"■!.,! 


until- 


due!' eveli 


ditfers from tl 
ds, and also 


in the 


.f its 


body 


and the E 


ihorter caudal fi 


n. Its 


e" is 


slen 


der in the 


middle and ex 


pamled 


of be 


dug 


iiuill-shapc 


d, as in the two pre- 




S. 1. 


.Sinith ai 


id Oscar Hare 


rer ob- 


l own. 


Ma 


^aehusetts 


, among the w 


harves, 


y 2* 


is": 


2, rit'ii red 


in capturing i 


ml de- 


™x 


;;;!; 


^iut'iom" 


LfivlTchXlo! 


>out in 


they 


•In' 


Id suddenl; 


f dart backward 
I as suddenly ti 


irn ob- 


left 


and 


seize a uVu 


, which was aln 


lost in- 


^ in the b 


aek of the 


neck with thei] 


r sharp 


alwaj 


■s ma 


de in the s 


same place, cutt 


ing out 


?sh, a 


ud w 


as deep enc 


nigh to penetrat 


e to the 


icks 


ivere 


not alway 


s successful, an 


,d were 


lozen 


tun. 


js before one of these aeti 


ive and 



successful attempts, one of the squids would sud 

of the sand so perfectly as to be almost invisible 
would wait u: .-!:, and when 



™; of third pair, 100 m 



to become full grow 
lives, but as sever; 
those of each scho< 



was n: 


iore or 


less thickly coven 


3d with sii 


.mil. 


line- 


liial. 


circular. 


orangi 


'-brown 


and dark brown i 


spots, liav 


ing 


ere m 


date 


margins; 




T?Z 


■e continually cha 




t to 


ihT 


niei 


n luTin 


diamel 


XT, wllO 


q they are pale ors 




, be 


eomi 


ng b 


ghter col- 


ored a 


,s they 


expand. On the 


lower sid< 


3S tl 


ie si 


K)tS 


are more 


scattei 


xd, but 


the intervals are 


generally 


loss 


than 


. the 


diameter 


of the 


lilVerent 


On the upper side 
planes, with the < 


M]o-es ol'tei 


i'ovi 






. 


inerea 


sing the 


variety of the tin 


ts. Along 


; the 


mid. 


lie o 


f the hack 


the gr 


ound-co 


lor is pale flesh-color., with 


a in 


ediai 


i doi 


•sal band. 


along 


which ti; 


ie spots are tinged 


with green 


. in i 


inesi 


:ee!o 


5 . Above 



Of the eight-armed group of Cephalopoda, only < 

)ct"i>us Bau-dii V.. has hitherto been found on tin 

3 not improbable that several other species of sqi 
emain to be discovered on our coast. Even the <. 

S^ew England, or the deep water, off shore, for 
xry little of the active free-,, wi mm ing animals t 
jreat depths and cannot be taken with the dredge 



BOTANICAL OIJSKRYATIOXS IN WK.M'KRN 



habit an exact ires 



moisten- climate; and along 



sual size, and site 






visrosissimum Pursh, Pcuredanv.m leiocarpitm Hook., Ligt^tiann 

Gray,5en€cw triangularis Hook., fif. Andinus Xult . Jlicracium 

I • ok., Gaultheria myrsinites Hook.. Orthocarpus Parryi 

n. sp. Gray (see Appendix, No, 218), Echmospennum dfjle.rum 

Lehm., £jrfraftf%ea Romanzoffiana Cham., Fritillaria pndica 

Hitchcock. 

At the head of Yellowstone Lake, fringing the muddy shores of 

well known European plant, S»_ > irla o.uiuitnxi L. This lias been 
regarded as one of the rarities on the American continent, ana 
has been termed by Dr. Gray one of "the late lingerers" which 
has just managed to maintain its foothold in a few isolated New 
England lakes: but it seemed to be quite at home on the banks 
of the Yellowstone. While it is by no means unlikely, as sug- 
gested by Dr. Gray, that from its diminutive size and mode of 
growth, it may have been overlooked in intermediate h e: lities.its 
occurrence here, in such profusion, so remote from any recognized 
connection with an ancestral source, i- ven suggestive in its heal- 
ing on the question of geographical distribution, and derivative 
origin of species. Certainly the localities on this continent v> here 
it might have persisted, if originally spread round the northern 
hemisphere, are sullicicntly numerous not to leave such wide gd~ 
a that between Maine and Wyoming! Doubtless, as in other 
apparently unaccountable cases, future discovery either cast or 
west will help to fill up this chasm. 

In the numberless ponds and lagoons which occur near t it- 
head of Yellowstone Lake only the usual forms of northern aquat- 
ic plants wore notice I, ' -■ k., Si 
adveyia Ait., Utricularia vulgnns L., Lcmnatrisu 
folia L., Sparganium simplex Huds., Zannichella palustris J*. 
Potamogeton perfoliatus L. . 

In none of these promising localities was I able to detect the 
Nuphar polysepalum Engel., which seems singularly to affect iso- 

The various confervoid growths and obscure vegeti 

i with the numberless hot springs of this jregW| 
eward the special researches of the microscopi 






ground, the 

higher' mou 



i the southern head 



branches of Sna 

mountain range 



s reached a low dii 



not materially different from other districts passed over in our 
previous route. Of plants not elsewhere noticed may be men- 
tioned Sphceralcea acerifolia JSutt. and HudLcd-la ocod'^tUd^ 
Nutt. Near the summit of the high rocky peak overlook! ng Snake 
and Wind River valleys was found a new species of Draha char- 
acterized by Dr. Gray, under the name of Draba ventosa n. sp. 
(see Appendix, No. 15) : also Aster montanus Rich, the latter only 
known from high northern collections in British America. 

From this accessible pass, by which the Yellowstone Park can 
be reached on a very direct route, we passed rapidly down the open 
valley of Wind River and reached our previous rendezvous at 
Camp Brown, on September 12th, after just two months' absence. 



REVIEWS AND BOOK NOTICES. 

The Zoological Record for 1871.* — To those who live away 
from libraries and would keep themselves informed as to the an- 
nual progress in any department of descriptive zoology, this record 
is invaluable. Working naturalists, also, more favorahb. 
cannot do without it. We have found but few omissions in it, an 
American articles and memoirs are faithfully reported. The 
volume has been slow in making its appearance and w 
fortune and better health will fall to the lot of the editor and W 
in the preparation of the volume for 1872. 

BOTANY. 
The Fertilization, of Gentians by Humble BEES.-The ck**l 

gentian (Gentiana Andrew sii) has flowers an inch ana a <[iiat t- 
or more in length. These inflated, bright blue flowers of late j^ 
tumn appear to be always in the bud, as they never open, 
corolla is twisted up so as to leave no opening at the top. 
flowers are all nearlv erect with two stigmas eonsid. 
the five anthers. I see 1 at « ne wa 5 in v,i ich it c u 



that is by insects. Several of my 



ZOOLOGY. 

a flattering notice of the fifth Missouri Entomolog 
which notice, though kicking the familiar initials A. Si 

cause of economic < ntomology. who frequently write- 






Straus-Diirekheira. to consider 
tiie inject body as 20-jointed. 



advocate 1, or 3, or 2, can claim that then particular views are 
demonstrated; and until they are demonstrated the advocates of 
the 1 -jointed nature of the head have the advantage and will natu- 
rally relegate the other propositions to the limbo of pure theory. 

nids and Myriopods under the term Insect can believe in any 

My own view of this matter is not badly set forth in an ex- 
cellent memoir by Dr. II. Sehaum "On the Composition of the 
Head, and on the Number of Abdominal Segments in Insects,"* 
and to defend it properly would require a whole number of the - 
Naturalist, and involve a discussion of the value of the specula- 
tions so freely indulged in on this head. For this I have neither 

made to represent sepai . any more than the 

non-jointed appendages; and if any good reason could be 
given, it ought to apply to the jointed legs of the thorax as 

as the lego-ed larva. To me the idea that the head is composed o\ 

tour joints is not a whit more tenable than the opinion that the 

oral law that an insect leaves the egg with the full complement o( 
joints and none are ever added during metamorphosis. Yet many 
lame have a head without the slightest trace of a 

tenme tn , _ , ! tll , possess both eyes and an ten n». 

Now, how can these organs be said to represent, or be developed 

(2) I have the satisi 3t excellent comp<Mtf 

from the days of Lyonet to those of some of our b< 
authors, in considering an insect 13-jointed ; and to be told that ^ 
should "say 17-jointed or 14-jointed" does not carry i 

My own ex| - ***** 

who consider that in no instance does the number . 



calls an insect's body 1 7-jointed simply becaus< 
bly a single joint, was originally formed out > 
joints. There is a fundamental unity of ele 
and composition (as no one better knows tha 

and have their origin in. the simple cell. Embi 



ultimate structures 



(4) A few quotations will, I think, best refute the charge, 
peaking of the Strepsiptera I distinctly say "now classed witl 
ie Coleoptera;" speaking of the Aphaniptera I say "no* 
laced with the Diptera (5th Rep., p. 15) ; speaking of the Thy- 
mopte'ra I distinctly ^aie that th.-v -may be placed with the 



groups should, at the most, be considered as Suborders: 

referred than. lb. in>tam-e. 1 h, hark li<-< (< <l« ) do ft 

more typical Ilomoptera from which no one thinks of sef 
them" (ibid., p. 16). 



ZOOLOGY 

thought and study ; and t 



the objec 




view. 


It is es 


sentially th 


his'Intr 


Tv!' 


Imps tli 


•vhich has 


justly beer 


have ma 


de i 


10 adv; 


i nee bey<: 


md Westwc 


so, it be 


lies 


my me 


■aning, ai 


id I have s 


express!, 


>n » 


And 


as tacts i 


lever bcvoi 


and ,,. 


ailat 




l^many 


later publb 



in many respects obsolete in 1873." 
' (6) I have already answered the inquiry, i 



better qualified to form an opinion which has weight. After re- 
ferrino- h, his last annual address, before the London Entomo- 
logical Sociotv. to Packard's -Memoir on the Embryology of 
Chrysopa, and its Bearings on the Classification of the Xi-mvp- 
tera." and to the opinions arrived at by the author, "West wood 
concludes as follows : — "And thus the position of the animal in 
the ovum is allowed to unite into one group Libellula with its 
active, and Ilemerobius with its neeromorphous pupa : and to 
separate widelv Ilemerobius and Phry-anea. both with inactive 
pupa, wliich are. however, furnished with jaws of a structure. r rr 
W . fur biting a hole in the cocoon 1...ft„v arris in, at the ful'.y- 
developed imago state. I confess th it this sp mien ot el i~ i i- 
tion founded upon embryologieal data does not carry to my mmd 
conviction of its superior worth." 

: 

:■" 

the bark Ions U iu Jena ' German - V ' and 



JSow this is not very consolii il nearly 

three pages to the reasons for the course pursued, in which page* 

ually broken. It is all the less so that my reviewer lias himself 
named species on very unsatisfactory grounds.* I have studied 
K '' '^'^ i" > > •> f"i m >v \.ur-. u 1 emphasized the fact 
that its eggs are never, at any stage of development, reddish- 
brown, and that the color of the cg^ is a most important character 









my belief that the European insect mentioned hy Curtis, 1 
duval, Taschenberg and others is identical with our's, and sho 
that in Europe as well as in this country it had generally 1 
considered as Gmelin's conclu'formis which, however, applies 
similar species found on the elm in Europe, and not to the a 
tree species under consideration. No one, until last year, eve 
much as thought of referring our insect to Bouche's pomorm 
which, indeed, it cannot be referred ; and I regret that my v: 
and the reasons for them are not better represented in the ab 
quoted stricture. 

The truth is, that if, following the highest authority, we 
sider several very closely allied forms of Mytilaspis as specific 
distinct, the European apple tree species with white eggs, w 
is the one imported into this country, was, up to the appear: 
of my last Report, erroneously referred to conchiformis Gmt 
and they either have a closely allied species in Europe, ' 
reddish-brown eggs, or else Bouche's description is so false in 



erican pomologis 
ewer the efforts I 



he review in question.— C. V.'Kiley, Dec. 3, 187 
[I should not feel called upon to notice Mr. Ril 



• OlHlHi 



i p. L8, 


will be found an account of the opinions 


hors us 


to the composition of the head of insects. 


ter was 


settled by Savigny in 181(5, and confirmed 


fecLea] 


-, Kirby, Carus, Straus-Durekheim, New- 


Iluxle, 


y and others, and by every writer on the 


insects, 


. If Mr. Riley, after reading the views of 


md st u 


dying for himself the embryology of some 







' the humble bee.* 
at the head o 
is simply a mi 
it. The simple fact that the h 



tat it must be composed of four 

that all the different pieces composing it cannot be referred to a 

tell the truth of the matter, and thus lead the reader to take an 
interest in the study of the morphology of insects, t! 
department of biology, than to lead him blind-fold past some of 

4. My good friend is quite wrong in intimating that those 

into BUbjoints," and are -blind or even destitute of antennae," 
never had cephalic segments. If he will study Weisniaim's 

embryo of the flesh fly, the four segments and appendages are 
as distinct as in the embryo of the bee, Ilydrophilus, or other 
beetles. The appendages become obsolete, though not wholly so, 
just before hatching, and Mr. Riley will probably agree with me 
that the differences between a "headless" ma^ot and a caterpillar 
or bee larva are probably due to differences in their mode of life. 
The organs are all there at the outset, in the embryo. I think Mr. 
Riley will set a higher value on " embryological data," after pa- 
nning the works of Rathke, Ilerold. lv."dlikor, Zaddach, Leuckart, 
Huxley, Clapaivde. and espc aally W< is nann and Kowalevsky. 

Whether my criticism on the matter of the apple bark h.-uso 
was hasty and incorrect I leave to others to decide. -A. S. 
Packard,^.] 

A sew North American Bird. — On the 5th of July last 
malien, a son.of Thure Kumlien, the well known ornithol- 
ogist of Wisconsin, shot on Lake Koshkonong, in- the centra! part 
of southern Wisconsin among a flock of the Hydroch ' 
a bird which he at once recognized as something entirely new to 
our fauna. It was a mature female and was found to contain well 
developed ova. though not folly grown. Mr. Kumlien. Sr., "ho is 
ith European forms, at once recognized it as the Hydro- 
r/ "'"'"'' 1"ucopttra and this determination has since been con- 
firmed by Prof. Baird. 

The 17. leucoptera is a well known European form more com- 
mon to southern Europe than farther north and has never ' ofor<? 
been known to occur on this continent. That one should be found 



so far in the interior of Wi 



politan bird, and is found both in 



—Dr. LeConte's excellent ] 
of Economic Eutomolog}- in t 
h much interest, and do gr 
and normalization of the Di 






W. C. Flagg, J. P. Keynolds or H. D. Emery of Illinois ; or ex- 
perience and popularity, like C. E. Dodge or Wm. Saunders (both 
at present connected therewith), there can be no doubt that it 
would be infinitely more efficient in promoting the interests for 
which it was created, and less open to criticism. 

Ihe agricultural interests of the country demand more attention 
and better representation. Jf our merchants lost one tithe of 
what our fanners unnuall\ lose i'n m h -eet d pi lations alone, 
they would immediately seek and undoubtedly obtain adequate 
protection from the government ; for the simple reason that they 
are organized and work as one body. The farmers, heretofore, 
have been disconnected— a mere rope of sand, without concerted 
plan or object. But at present they arc building up a powerful 
. organization which is rapidly extending its strengthening and 
unifying arms over the whole country. It is an organization 
which, if not perverted from its original aims, will soon become a 
very powerful lever in the promotion of the agricultural interests. 
May we hot hope that through its instrumentality the plans and 
suggestions made by Dr. LeContc will at no distant clay be 
realized ! 

In measures five and six (vol. vii, p. 722) as propounded in the 
paper, for the uiiol. sale destruction of noxious insects, I have little 
confidence. Fires, lights, vessels of attractive or poisonous liquids 
are constantly recommended as means of counteracting the work 
of injurious insects ; but my experience with them has been very 
unsatisfactory. Usually quite as many bcnelieial as injurious 
species, and very seldom any really injurious species, arc thus 
captured; and at the best such measures are blind and ineitieierd 
ways of effecting that which can be otherwise effected with more 
certainty and satisfaction.— C. V. Riley. 

GEOLOGY. 
Remains of Land Plants in the Lower Silurian.— M. Les- 

quereux contributes an article to the l - American Journal of Science 
and Arts" for Jan., 1874, in which he reports the discovery 
near Lebanon, Ohio, of fr; gm nts of Siuillaria in clay beds posi- 
tively referable to the Cincinnati -roup of the Lower Silurian- 
This is a remarkable discovery, as no land plants before this had 
been found lower down than the Lower Helderberg division of the 



in Gasp6, Canada. 
)clow the Lower De 



MICROSCOPY. 
TO Tissues for Section. — Dr. Wi 



a piston moved fyy a screw, the upper portion only of the cylinder 
where the object is, being surrounded by a box to contain th< 
freezing mixture, of powdered ice and salt; the freezing box ii 
surrounded by flannel, and the water continually forming in it is 
drained off by a tube through the bottom of the box. 

Dissectixg Embryos. — W. K. Parker, Esq., late president o 
the Royal .. y, dissects early embryos undei 

water, pinning them upon a cake composed of lamp-black ant 



The Mem 

showing an £ 



- 
folly to establish for the benefit of the country. It was agreed 
that at least $300,000 should be raised by subscription as a me- 
morial fund for the purpose of endowing the Museum of Compar- 
ative Zoology in Cambridge. A large number of gentlemen, 
j of the < mntry, were named as a nucleus 
°f a general committee for the purpose, as it was believed that the 
many friends to science all over the land, appreciating the worth 



eorganization of the Museum of Compa: 
ssary by the decease of Professor Agassi 



r the museum are Mr. AlexL 
. F. i.e Poubtales, Keeper. Mr 



BOOKS RECEIVED. 



AMERICAN NATURALIST 



Vol. VIII. -APRIL, 1874. -No. 



future students 



194 THE FLORA OF PKNIKESE ISLAND. 

grass and sheep. There are no flowering plants on the island that 
are at all rare, but some species very common on the mainland 
are conspicuously absent, for instance the asters and golden rods. 
The flora of Gull, a very small island just separated from Peni- 
kese, is included. Several plants, as Lathyms maritimiis and Sol- 
idago sempervirens, are found there which are not in the flora of 
the main island. Probably they once grew there but have become 
exterminated. Such plants are marked with a star(*). 



PORTULACACEiE. 



nore than perhaps five per cent, of the 
cted it in two or three species after the 



most careful observation, 


and in very many cases noticed that 


there was not, in the minu 


test particular, any difference between 


individuals of one species 


5 on opposite sides of the continent. 


Such is undoubtedly the ca 




cies, any seeming variatio 


n that may be observed being more 


probably the peculiarity o 


f an individual rather than the mani- 




mpress. The only instances wherein I 


have yet been able to sal 


isfy myself of a difference in notes in 


two regions are the follow 


ing; Cardinalis Virgiiuunus has a far 


finer song in southern Illii 


iois than it has in Maryland, the notes 


being not only clearer and 


more musical, but the song more con- 


tinned and energetic ; the 


effect being altogether richer. In the 



198 NOTES AND NESTING HABITS OF BIRDS. 

brown thrasher ( liar, ings more vigorously 

in the latter locality. In the far west I found the ground robins 
of the Wahsatch M »untains (Pipilo '• megidoni/.c"') to have such 
different notes from those of the eastern slope of the Sierra Ne- 
vada (in the neighborhood of Carson City) that it seemed that 
they must certainly be a d liferent species; not only did the song 
differ, but all the notes were different. Yet upon the closest com- 
parison of the specimens, no tangible differences in plumage or 
proportions could be detected in the majority of the specimeM 
from the two localities, though occasional individuals from the 
latter place inclined, more or less, toward the form known as P. 

The exact nature of the difference in notes between certain ■ 
birds in the Potomac valley, and the valley of the lower Wabash, 
is a very marked restraint in the songs of the former, as if they 
were afraid of being heard. That they were more cautious in the 
neighborhood of noisy cities, than in the country surronnding 
quiet and less populous towns, might be readily suggested as the 
solution of this difference, were it not for the fact that other spe- 
cies, as, for instance, the robin (Turdus migrat&rius), the mead- 
ow laik i v.,, „,'/,/ magna), the catbird (Gakost v tes Co. ulineiisis). 
the Thryotlt >rus Ludodtianus and numerous other species, sing- as 
hoi \ in 1 in i pit < i.si ly similai i< n 1 the pa ks ml sluuu 
trees in the midst of Washington City as they do in the quiet 
towns and retired orchards of southern Illinois. This objection 
may lose weight, however, when we consider that the species in 
which I have noticed a difference are birds of a suspicious and 
cautious nature, such as would be most readily influenced by the 



Mr. Allen has called attention * to variations in the mode of 
nesting, which he has noticed in many species of birds; «» 
places undue importance upon it in considering certain 
from the usual manner as characteristic of particular localities. 
My experience has been that such variations depend mainly upon 
the facilities afforded by the site of the location of the nest, and 
sometimes, no doubt, are the result of merely the caprice of the 
bird. The Quiscalus purpnn us is cited as one example, and con- 
siderable stress is laid upon the fact of its placing the nest 1 






At Mb 



nests o 


the common 

n the -round 


dove(Z> 


swallow 
the dow 
Caroline 


■ny woo.lpec 
»*/*), in the 


=1: 


vada. tli 


with which il 


";»-.; 



uriii"- two veins of colleetiiv.: hi Nevada and Utah I 
Ll m .; t , :■ thi . , llt .,|,, -o situated : it constantly nested 
d figures or crevices on the face of the limestone 
; the -mud swallow" (P< trowel idon htni- 
ted swift {Pawtila melanoleuca). This 
ntlv not ov. i le P laces for nestin g 



were c 


•xtensive . 


aspen w< 


>ods where 


T. hkol 




and P. 


<w/,/.s- nested 


almnd; 


.intlyinhc 


iles mad* 


^ by the .S/>7 


'j/rapic, 




iw.-ht.dl* 


. Thcinfer- 


euro .' 


Irawn fron 


1 this fact is, that i 


t has J 


i natural p 


•referencc to 


rocks 


as a nestiu 


g place, 


always ign 


ores tl 


le 1 


trees w 


liere suitable 


rocks . 


are to be 


found ; 


and that it: 


5 nestii 


'S : 


in trees 


^ in districts 


where 


precipices 


are rare 


or wanting 


is rpen 


Ldy 


an evidence that it, 


like ot 


her specie; 


s, adapts 




to the 


cln 


iracter i 


of the local- 




rhe red-fr 


onted li 


nnet (Owj* 


„'■!,■,>;■; 


/'•'- 


>n!alii() 


nests about 


houses 


i in Calif, 


wnia; c 


boosing nooks an 


d ( 


■raiinie: 


3 about the 



buildings, as well as the shade trees, for mating [daces. At^Sac- 
ramento I found a nest of this species built inside the pendulous. 
basket-like structure of the oriole (Icterus Bullocki). Along the 
Truckee River, in Nevada, another was (bund inside the mud nest 
of a cliff swallow (P. liinifrons) ; around Pyramid Lake the 
species nested among the rocks, frequently in eaves with the Say- 
ornis Stilus and Illrundo hocreonna ■ while in the wooded portions 



of the Truckee 


vail 


ey its nests wei 


-e common in the ' 


'grease wood" 


(Obione) bushes, 


along with thos 


se of Spizelkt Bre 


weri and Poo- 


spiza Mineata, 


as 


well as in the 


cottonwood trees 


near by. It 


would require 


too 


much space tc 


) describe all the ( 


lifferent situa- 


tions in which 


I !: 


ave found the i 


lests of Troglodytt 


>s Parlmanni, 


so that I will o 


nly 
la 


the Wahsatch 


>f the more remark 
Mountains, as w 


:able instances 
ell as in the 


Truckee valley 


. it 


was usual for t 


he nests to be concealed behind 


the loose bark - 


Of fl 


i dead tree, the 


in"- tin 


rough a fissure 


in the bark at 




3 side of the n 


est ; probably eigh 


t out of every 


ten nests woul 


1 b 


e so situated. 


Many, however, l 


,vere found in- 


side of cavities 


. eit 


iher natural or 


made bv woodpeel 


:er s, while one 


was found buil 


t in 


side of a deserted robin's nest i: 


a the crotch of 


an aspen. 










On the Truckee 


reservation on€ 


» was found in the 


thatched roof 


of the storehou 


se. 


Every ui,r, 


throughout the n* 


>untain of the 


great basin, tin 


) sparrow 


^hmunculus sparve: 


rius) nests on 


the cliffs, in he 




among the ra 


2ks, in company v 


nth the FuJco 


pohjarjrus. At 


Mr 


. Carmel, I hav 


e found nests of Cl 


fejtfM anratus 



low stump ... ,,, m the crround. -^ 

the game place. Pams Cu roll neo sis bores its own nesting l^ ice in 
the soft wood of wild plum and sa^afras trees, and frequently 



feet from the groun 



this bird in Wabash valley, 
bits is seen in the Otus Wilsonh 
posits its eggs in the old dilapu 



ES OF WILLOW FROM CALIEORNI 
TES OX SOME OTHER NORTH 
AMERICAN SPECIES. 



scales ami 



:ntly nerved above, paler b( 
as ; petioles short (l"-4" lor 
I, 2 or 3 inches long in fiowe 
vays borne on short lateral 



U.SObyUi.M'on.piruou^lentato^Kandv^n di 

-' Benth.,a western modification of S. Un'Mi. lms an 
obscurely dentate scale, but is otherwise very unlike. As the 

beneath and fringed on the margin with ferruginous silk) 1; •'■'• ; ~" 

these soon fall off; the lowest persistent ! 

are obovate, obtuse with an abrupt point, almost se--i!o ; ' lu 

are followed by others broader, more pointed, on - ; . 

passing into the lanceolate tap. i-i ointed form of the fully deve - 



sons, in eastern New York, 



nain flock has re: 


mained, and survived 


ititiule 42° nortl 


l, in a locality where 


The robin can a 


ccommodate himself 


ng the summer s 


eason is the farmer's 



badly abused bii 



autumn. 


He makes occasional visits to the cherry tree but does 


not depend on it for a subsistence as he is supposed to do. He 


pecks at 


; the cherries because they are red. ju>t as he would picK 




s a red flower. The species appears fond of the color. 


In the f 


all they feed largely on wild berries, and are slaughtered 


by the t 


housands by sportsmen along the lines of the Hudson, in 


the COd; 


ir thickets/ which they fiv.u.-nt. feeding on the berries. 


on the is 


dands in the harbor of New York Bay, and in New Jersey. 


I am to 


o much the friend of this bird to be blind to his petty 


faults, f 


)r petty indeed they must remain so long as his increase 


is kept 


in rigid restriction by his many enemies. The crow 


(C->m„ 


Iter foe to all 


the robi 


smaller 


birds, and keep, them in severe check, but the robin 


smfers n 


■microns outrages from other hands, and the elements some- 




ay him a mischievous trick. Not only the crow, but the 


crow bl 


lAluM <Oow, >.,,) and the cuckoo (C* <!"» 

tun,) often rob the nest after the eggs are lai I, and thus 


Amerkc 


all the i 


^onVoilL^ 


the nes' 


the own 


er, when she had thus been robbed, and app 


her owl 


more a, 


id, if plucky, will drive "off 7hc legal owner, and taking 



bold possession, bestow all her care thereon, but she ne-* 
turbs the rights of other birds. Occasionally she only drops i 
igg into a sister's nest when taken short, her own being destroje 



shoulders. Wl 



', until the number is droppe 



but lahvnys observed' a formal distan 

The v^n^^'hntlvoX^^in . 
brood, leaves the nest, in a day or 
•enti ely to the charge of the male, wh 



in close proximity, while the female is occupied with prepara- 
tions for a second family. The second nest is not very far re- 
moved from tin- Lir.-t, and fortunate indeed must the parents be if 
these two broods all grow to be adult birds. If the male gives no 
assistance in building the nest, yet he has his duties to perform 
which become him marvellously. As soon as the birds are out of 
the shell it is his business to clear out the nest of all oifensivc 
matter, and keep it clean of all excrement until the birds have 
flown, provide all the food, which is purely insectivorous, and sit 
upon the nest in the female's absence, which is no small ignoble 
office for so brave and noble a fellow as cock robin. He finds 
but little time now for his loud, long strains. His part of duty 
will not bear neglect. 

The young, when left undisturbed, seldom go far away from the 
home nest, although when they once leave, the\ never enter it 
again. It is left in an on< :leanl] - ti venom, 

which soon leave the young bird. The robin is remarkably clean 
in every habit, and takes a daily bath. I was much amused oW 
day, the past summer, at a little incident that occurred in the front 
yard under the cherry tree. 

A female robin was gathering materials for a second nest, 
picking from around the roots of rose bushes, the long dead 
grasses, until her beak was filled and the ends flowed oat Uk« 
silken hairs, when suddenly one of her own young ones, a pretty 
mottled little creature, alighted in front of her and. < | 
her yellow throat, begged for food. The mother thus I 
out warning was confused, and administered a gentle peek on '^ 
head as a reproof, which did not have the desired efl 
immediately plunged the whole contents of her beak do- 
one's throat and flew away. The poor little thing had 
difficult tug, in clearing its throat of the unstable c« - 
the repentant parent soon returned with wholesome 
gave her offspring, after which the male appeared, an 
the offending charge to an adjoining tree. No doubt mine ft* 
gave her liege lord a severe curtain lecture, upon th- 
Secrets of bird-life are seldom revealed but to the mid 
few. Has any one ever observed the manner in which 
proaches its object, how cautiously, politely, quietly. 
moving with one eye ever on the alert for danger, and +h * ( 
solicitously bent oh the particular thing of its desire 



other 
How ^ 



all the large families of iiiMv;- 
throtigh various form- in ditfer. : ' 

our friend , the robin. 

The robin sits eleven days. On the eleve 
of the shell, and on the eighth their ey< 
bodies covered with pin feathers. In eleven 
the nest on an average, although when the 



only mediocre. The robin's i 



ter, the robin d< 


revs among the 

; bred bird. Al 
ar to endow all < 


peculiarly mell 



uhout the in-: are all suppressed and low. but yet clear and dis- 
tinct. They are uttered by the female and are the language of 



ic month of July, the varied profusion of flowers be 
greatly reduced on the high plains, whose rich sprm< 
riefly sketched in the last number. 

lg a view of mam mrroun iing m les of these treeles 



tl mduri x the next eight months. There is V 
givi J'tolven'hundr! K of aerosol ground th 



also those of the herbaceous plants, with the severity of the night's 
frost, even in early July. 

On dry open grounds we found an abundance of Castillcia par- 
rhb>n< Eonu-., a tin.- -c;ulet-I'.o\\ ,■! cd -j . <■;. -, p 'culiar to the far . 
west, and with it a more strictly alpine, and a yellow-flowered one, 
C. breviflora Gray. These two, together with plenty of that most 
handsome Pentstemon, P. acuminatus Dough, were enough to con- 
vert even the otherwise barren hillsides into a paradise of beauty. 
Among the grasses and sedges of the marshy places, were quan- 

indulged a natural dislike for the whole tribe of leeks, and passed 
by these really handsome purple-flowered ones without taking one 
specimen tor our herbarium. A line "monkshood" (Aconitum 

other -peeimeiis yellowish-white, was also Very conspicuous in 
wet shades ; and in the edges of these wet places, grew IbiOysa- 
rum boreale Nutt. and Axtratjalutt alpiuus L. ; both interesting 
leguminous plants not often met with. 

One crystal brooklet had its margins adorned with the large 
yellow purple-clotted corollas of Mmulus luteus L., while the 
damp -round ncai In was neath carpeted with Veronica serpyl- 
b'fulia L. These two el ... one belonging east- 



in this new locality. Here was an abundance also of Eric 
umbellatum Torr., with that cream-colored shade of flowei 
ally met with in this plant at higher altitudes. They are 



i flowers pure white. This nlo 



BOTANICAL OBSERVATIONS 1^ 



REVIEWS AND BOOK NOTICES. 
of the Echini.* — The third part of thi 



<ith many details both of ' 



218 REVIEWS AND BOOK NOTICES. 

to the analogy of some vegetable forms of our Cretan 
with the plants of our time, and also of the Miocene flora o 
Europe; and he maintains that the whole lignilic coal fbimatioi 
of the Rocky Mountains is, "from the base of the . 



I Of the genei 
contributed by Messrs. 






-T^ 



cattle tick of the west and Central Am 
upper figure, natural size, lateral vie\ 
mouth-parts (G7 a much enlarged). A 
Texan Argas Americana (Fig. 68, mu 
the well known .!,v is P< rsi< ms which 
in Persia. 









Ill the special part of the work the author defines in genera 

are not treat,! at length unless they are injurious; 

P^s are given to tin cockchafer, i'ln 1 -t, ] : ha! it. ol tin 



untance with Coleoptera is insuiiieient to enable 
v carefully the later sources of information have be 
• there is no reference whatever to LcConte's view, 
on and value of the Khynehophora. 
Hie plates accompanying the volume, except the firs 
anatomical, are confined to Coleoptera, and with i 



. .ivnt f.r :ii!:it.Miiy. Thme i< also no index. Ihese 
ill doubtless be remedied at the close of the whole work, 

Solar Physics.* — Oar geologh an interest 

in a work by one of the pioneers in the new series of researches 
on the nature of the sun, which have tended to take astronomy 
out of the exact sciences and place it on a rank with its sister 
science, biology. The work is largely an essay on cosmieal geol- 
ogy. In many ways it commends itself to the geologist and biol- 
ogist, and is a fresh illustration of the close connection existing 
between the various branches of physical science. It is divided 
into two parts : I. A popular account of inquiries into the physical 
>n of the sun, with special reference to recent spectro- 
scopic researches ; and II. Communications to the Royal Society 

The first port is naturally of more general interest- embracing 

a Sun ; The telescopic Appearance of the Sun ; The Sun as a 
Type of the material Universe ; The Place of life in a Universe 
of Energy; The Atmosphere of the Sun, and several chapters on 
the Eclipse. The style is clear and int< resting, while the spirit ot 
the writer is sanguine and bold, such as has marked the editorial 
conduct- of "Xalurc," in which journal some of these essay- have 

Certainly the author has reason to thank his publishers for the 
sumptuous appearance of the volume, taking rank as it does «it | 
the most beautiful works of a similar nature that have appeal^ 



The Birth of Cues 
iterating eeries f 



. 



der the law that self-fertile 



ny. a certain amount of <iiii< ivn v he- 



closeh adieu), as wh n it is too high (in those too little related). 

occasion* 1 b\ opposite causes. It is self- i dent that the fact cm 

one of the in; ' -nitig the greater or less fertility 

of a union can be expressed. 

In a species the greater the difference of sexual elements, requi- 
site to the attainment of the highest degrc f fertility, the greater 

will be, in general (arteris /^v^/.s). the diilercnee between the 
plants which can produce otfspring with each other. In other, 
words, species which, with pollen of the same stock, are wholly 

h— intenile. will o, n . n ||\ | K , i\r'ilL.'d very readily by the pollen 



I will not ' i.~ i T „ t^d o . * itions. They 

merely indicate in w hat >en<e. and in w hat connect ion I h:i ■ ■ ' ^ 
to look upon the following example of infertility between near re- 
in the following A. C. E.F. M. P. denote six indigenous Bp* 

ciesof Abutilon For indicating the simple 

letters of the united species are placed in juxtapo i 

' ^U^L'rt'^lm^l'X- nnher N/\ ''l» the ^ 
Of union of these simple hybrids amoi.g 11u-m.V.v,s or with «i«U>j 

pV.;:;:.,; 1 , zi /;■•- 
v;;v,v •' i i: l ( ;;; i :: 1 t :.rp,v:: 

The tour plants EF. T\, EF. /•'.,. F. EF X . F. EF, are brou 
and sisters. bavin- h ;i d the same parents F, and EF,. ^ 

Nine flowers of F. EF, .lusted with pollen of other flowers 
the same stock produced not a single fruit. 




On the other hand there were the following results with 
10 Flowers F. ^impregnated by FE. and FE, 10 fruits \ 



l~ s i 



4.7 



The results following the dusting of the brothers and sisters 
rere not owing to the bad behavior of the pollen since on other 
lants it was completely potent ; the pollen or F. EF, produced 
ruit rich in seeds in the plants /•>„ that of EF. F, on FE 2 , that 
f EF. F 2 on F. Also the pollen of F. EF,, produced i 



svhich so far : 



"i>l»": 



apaM.' 



• kept 



the plants F. F. CF,_, F8 U and FS,. 

The seeds produced by F. EF, and F. EFha 
minatedand given strong plants which, up to th 
pace in growth with those from EF,, F, F. CF,, 

The foregoing examples, show that in hybrids of Abutilon. and 
probably so in pure species of the genus, there are many cases of 
more or less co iplete infertility between nearly related plant- 
stocks, between parents and children, between brothers and sisters 
and even half brothers and sisters. If the foregoing exposition 
of the connection between relationship and fertility is correct, we 
i indicate in other plants similar instances of dimin- 
ished fertility through too near relationship, but we may expect to 



226 ZOOLOGY. 

find complete sterility between relations in those species only which 

like Abutilon are infertile with pollen of the same stock 

Darwin, with his accustomed keenness of vision, has expressed* 
the conjecture that this diminution of fertility, observed so. many 
times, is not a consequence of their hybrid nature, but of too close 
breeding in-and-in, and I am glad to be able to offer, in the exam- 
ples of diminished fertility and complete sterility as a consequence 
of too close breeding in-and-in. in Abutilon-hybrids, herewith com- 
municated, a new proof of the accuracy of Darwin's hypothesis. 
— From the German of Fitz Mailer, Itajhy, Oct., 1872. G. L. G. 

The Fertilization of Gentians by Humble BEES.f— Tne 
fringed gentian (Gentkma crimta) resembles the above in having 
erect flowers and the .stamens below the stigmas. The fringed 
lobes of the corolla spread at right angles. Humble bees work 
upon this very much as they do upon Andrews' gentian. 

There seems to be almost no end to the various contrivances by 
which flowers are fertilized by insects. Flowers closely allied, .of 
the same genus, are fertilized in different ways, so it is not safe to 
make general rules. We may think that insects will act in a cer- 
tain w iv, iccoi'ding to our notion, but al'tei 
them, we shall often see that they are not doing as we supposed 
they would. We need many patient observers for many years yet, 
to repeat observations made on this subject and to make new ones ; 
we want to know how our insects behave upon every species of 
flower from the time they first visit it, to the time it affords no 
nectar to attract them.— W. G. Beal, State Agricultur I C % e 
Lansing, Michigan., Xov. 8, 1873. 



ZOOLOGY. 

ur f ,,nv^,,n,wlnn, f . tli-ll JVC WClV illC0rre< 



in saying that the first letter of Mr. M 
written to Prof. Marcou. W 



u-nished us l,ylW. Marcou. They are 



iteresting as being the last scientific 

Museum o* (V 
Cambridge, M 

My Dear Sir:— My lVini.l M:iiv«»u 



Mr. Marcou, in connect 
Alkx.'Murbat, Esq., 






228 ZOOLOGY. 

Generalization "1" of Mr. Bid ion refers to 

variation in size with locality, and is a law which was most 

ably established by Professor Baird. Gen. 
u 2" refers to the enlargement of the bill in Florida and cape St. 
Lucas birds, while generalization "3 "refers to the "longer tails 
of western birds than of eastern examples of the same spe- 
cies." Generalization " 4 " refers to color, and will be presently 
noticed more in detail. In respect to generalizations "2" and 
"3," Professor Baird only refers to' the disproportionate enlarge- 
ment of the bill and tail at certain localities, as noteworthy facts, 
and, so far from explicitly stating them as general laws, he says 
in a foot-note, referring to the increased size of the bill, "This dis- 
proportionate difference of size at cape St. Lucas and south Florida 
is probably connected with the limited range of the species in those 
regions, which have thus an insular rather than continental relation- 
ship ;"* thus apparently looking upon these- variation- as local 
phenomena. Neither in the case of the enlarged bills, nor the 
lengthened tail, docs he hint at any general geographical law of 
variation of which these are simply the expressions, whereas my 
announcement of the law of the enlargement of peri pi ten''- i>" rts t0 
the southward included not only those instances noticed by Pro- 
fessor Baird, but a multitude of others I had my self observed, botb 
among mammals and bird-, and at numeroi 

to Florida and lower California. In respect to the tail it was in- 
creased in length at the southward— not at the westward— is 
accordance with the above law to which I called attention. 

As regards laws of color variation, Professor Baird merely 
makes the general statement that "specimens from the Pacific 
coast are apt to be darker in color than those from the interior, the 
p frequently exhibiting a bleached or weatherbeaten appesr- 
, possibly the result of greater exposure to the elements and 
protection by dense forests,"! whilst I announced a region of 
rufous tints in the middle portions of the continent, darker 
.._.. on the Pacific coast north of latitude -10% and light colors 
from the arid plains and deserts, as well as the law ol 
intensity of color to the southward ; at the same time convhiunu 
i general farts with the relative amount of aqueous prccipita- 



ZOOLOGY. 

on and the hygroraetric conditions of the atmosphere c 
Liferent areas of the continent. 

The statement Mr. Bidgway makes, notwithstanding 1 
lly complimentary tone of the article as regards the prcs( 



to the southward. These, with the fourth law relating to size, 
cover, in a general way. geographical variation in proportion, size 
and color. Baird's law of size and his facts of variation in re- 
spect to the proportional development of part-, taken with similar 
ones I had myself observed, were of course incentives to further 
research, and suggestive of the probable existence of some gen- 
eral laws oi .-a of which these facts were the 
expressions.— J. A.Allen. 



The Habits 


OF POLISTE: 


3 AND PELOP. 


euS.— My friend. Mr. Uhler, 


ill pardon my 




; but the co 


miction forced itself on my 


lind, in readin 


g the inter 


esting papei 


on pp. 678-9, vol. vii, that 


3me one had s 


adly confoi 


mded the tv 


ro genera above mentioned. 


First, the des 


.crip'ionuf 


the mud ce 




ons of the me 


illd'ofbn 


d^K-'.ad' 


Storing them with you!!g 


riders. The : 


ictual cells 


. whielf f sa 





■ ■ : 

belonging to Pelopams, viz., that of not nursing its young and of 
sealing up the cell when once stored is precisely the habit which 
does belong to Pelopasus and which does imt belong to Polistes. 
Mr. F. Smith has recorded facts which would indicate that some 
of the digger wasp**, such as Meilinn-. may open their burrows 



' n .thi 



them must admit, are absolutely incompatible u 

by Siebold in his last work on 1'arthenogenesis.* 

A large weather-worn impregnated female or qi 
colony in spring, by the construction of a peduncl 
like cell, at the bottom of which an egg is dcposil 

always fed with the masticated flesh of other 

small caterpillars, small moths, etc., and the moth 
the food found in the stomachs of these herbivoroi 

first generation consists of females only ; or, more 
workers dirfering from the workers of Apis in bein 
but, from necessity, parthenogetically so. The^ 
the same structure as the queen, but are distim 
smaller size and brighter color, especially of the ^ 
aid the nests increase in size, or new nests are 1 
fall of the year the larger females and the males 



faith in the unity 



ZOOLOGY. 

the habit of Pelopaeus and Polistes ; and If Mr. 



article in question fails to give. — C. V. Riley, Dec. 3, 187. 

Notes ox the Plant Lice.— That aphides, in the spring 
year, are developed into wingless forms from ova whic 



nore usually single 01 


■ in pairs. 


upon their fav< 


distances from well-e 




colonies as to : 


belief that wings i 


vere sole! 


y acquired for 



In some carefully conducted experiments which I have made, 
some of these winged forms proved quite as prolific as the wing- 

tions of sterility, from which latter fact it seems just to conclude 
that these were sterile females. 



232 ZOOLOGY. 

Further, it has been strongly affirmed by those who have made 
down to the aforementioned date, 
that procreation from a virgin mother continues until the eleventh 
generation is exhausted ; and that when this period has heen 
reached, winged individuals of both species make their appear- 
ance, which, after havii g e< 1< brate i tin ir nuptials in mid-air. re- 
pair to some suitable plant where the females deposit their ova 
for the continuation of the species, after which they both die. 
Prof. Owen, in his writings, says "When this exhaustion occurs, 
some members of the last larval brood are metamorphosed into 
winged males, others into oviparous females," the latter being 
apterous. That such is only partially true I am satisfied from 
observations made during the latter part of October upon the A. 
tnali of Harris. 

This species, from its convenience, has received very careful at- 
tention. On the 26th of October last, while engaged in an exami- 
nation of some of the principal shoots of a Spiraea corymbbsa, 
which seem to be particularly adapted to the growth and well 
being of the above species,' I observed hundreds of wingless 
females engaged in opposition. Directing my glass. to the leaves, 
where scores were still deriving a scanty and precarious subsis- 
tence, I noticed many smaller specimens which presented quite a 
regards size when placed by the side of their plump 
The former, from the endearment which they lavished 
npon the latter, I soon satisfied myself were males. Upon other 
portions of the same field of view were many in the act of copu- 
lating. One particular phase of animal life very forcibly im- 
pressed my mind on this occasion ; to wit, the ardent temperament 
of the males, and the comparative unconcern of the females pre- 
vious to coition. 

Long and anxious watching has convinced me that in the fall 
of the year not a single winged individual of either sex is to be 
found in this species, and further that the essential duties o 
reproduction and of oviposition an performed without the neces- 
sity of win-- and generally upon the very stalks where tbe insects 
were born and lived. 

In size, the males of A. mall are vastly inferior to 
being less than one-half the latter. Externally the,\ 
undeveloped females. Upon any other occasion than i 
I should as - rized them as females whici 

healthy, vigorous nutrition would have pushed unto perfection- 



That they are males has been i 



producing a check to further develop* 
ate the opposite sex. — T. G. Gentry. 



of Comparative Zoology 



follows: A xhiritth.u* jUh of a rare rjonns, 


.'■ -, : - : 


Nothing further is known as to the histon 


of the specimen, bol 


as 1837 was some ten yean 1 >• 


sor Agassiz began t< 


form the unrivalled collection of fishes to 


which this specimer 


belongs, it is very probable that the label w; 


is a copy of some oldei 


one on the bottle in which the fish was red 


?ived at the Museum, 


simply rewritten by myself sometime bet 


ween 1856 and 1864 


On making i , mr'ul ex mi» ition of the fi 


sh it proved to be the 


Gobiosoma molest um of Girard. 


>ed the species from 1 


specimen obtained by Mr. J. II. Chirk at h 


Klianola, on the coast 



11. ventral 5. pectoral 10. caudal 20. My count of the 
ville specimen is, dorsal yii + 12, anal 12, ventral i-f-5, 
ral 18 or 20, caudal 20 : so that there is no important va- 
n. Ventral 5, b mistake due 

i overlooking the small ventral spine which is common to 
f all members of the family. The proportions of the two 
are the same. Giranhs figure represents ti rays of the first 
I a little too far apart and the last rays are too short, as there 
1 little- difference in the length of the rays of this fin. The 



234 ZOOLOGY. 

rays of the dorsal are also slightly too long in proportion to the 
size of the fish figure;!, ami the per lor;! 1 , fin is al.-o a little too long. 
The anal fin should be about one ray nearer the caudal. In the 
Louisville specimen the two dorsals are slighth e. nmvted at the 
base by a low membrane. This specimen lias been so long in 
i i mil kings of color can be traced, but the membrane 
of the fins shows dark shadings made up of small dark points. 
Taking it for granted that the label is correct, this little fish 

the Ohio river, a journey north of about eight degrees of lati- 
tude and of many hundred miles distance. Thai it is not impos- 
sible for the fish to have made such a journey from salt to fresh 
water, we have the knowledge expressed by Dr. Giinther as fol- 
lows :—" This famih [Gobiidm] oilers numerous instances of the 
fact, that a part of the individuals of one and the same species 
are entirely confined to fresh waters, whilst others live in the sea. 
Independently of the interest given by the xc-vy probably correct 



natioi 




KiUiirard 


's species is a vo 


ilid one and 


distin. 


3t from the Gobiomma 


uh'ititlotir.) 


n of our caste- 


rn Atlantic 


coast. 


This last is a more sle 


nder fish ; 


md differs in s< 


•vera! other 


parti e 


ulars. Should any of ou 




,ave the opporti 


mil. vol' cob 


lectin; 


y the small fishes of the 


rivers fiV 


(ring into the gulf of 3Iex- 


ieo it 


would be well to be on 


the lookc 


>ut for other sf 


iccimens of 


the G< 


'■.<inm. whi< 


•h can be 


easily distingi 


fished from 


other 


small fishes of our river 


s by the i 


bllowing chara. 


t-ters : head 


and b 


oily without soaks; hea< 


I about on 


e-fourth the tot 


al length ot 


the fis 




situated ,-, 


>,ry near together 


• on the an- 


terior 


part of the head ; two ii 




back, the anal fi 


il ; ' ! ,;< '" tLe 


secom 


1 dorsal fin, pectoral tin 


rounded : 


uul well develo 






2d, ventral fins situate. 


1 between 


the pectorals 


to^th. 


^forming a single poo 


itcdjln W 


ing close to th. 


: . abdomen. 



of cocoons of the 



Duri 


ng the 




iter in rid 


ing i 


ibout the country I collected 


sovor:U 


cocoon: 


s of this 


: moth for 


the 


benefit of a young natu 


rali~t 


friend 


of mine 


, but re 


tained one, wb 


ich I hung upon the wj 


d] of 


ffiv office. 












On 1 




ting of June 21st, 


a fin 


e female moth came on 


t and 


was the object 


, of con 




inter 


est to the occupants o 


f the 


room. 


During 


■ the da 


y I relatec 




above incident to a g< 


mtie- 


man ai 


i=l at tin 


■ same t 


iiine described 


the appearance of the 


male 


insect. 


I had 


occasioi 


i to be al 


l.sent 


; from the room a short 


time 


during 


the aft: 


naioon. 


and upon 


my 


return was told that a 


male 


moth li 


ad been 


there a 


ml Mutter. 


$d in 


and out at the open \\ ii 


idow 


several 


times. 


but hac 


1 finally < 


lisappearcd. The next day 


waa 


Sunday 




m office 


was clos 


ed, 1 


mt on Monday afterno 


on a 


male a 


gain ma 


de his : 


injH-arane 


e at 


the office window, cam 


e in, 




:er flutt< 


ring ab 


out the r< 


join 


for a space of ten or fifteen 


minute: 


3, found 


the object of his 


seai 


•ch, and the connection 


was 


consuro 




>efore ou 


r very eve 


s. 3 


.et it be remembered tha 


t the 


office l. 


situate 


1 UpO 11 


tli ■ prim ' 


pal 


business street, in the ci 


litre 


of the 


citv. an. 


:1 from 




e to 




.here 


such ai 


i insect 


u-o.dd 


naturally 


be f 


bund. A friend who h 


as a 


store some half a mile 


from my 


office upon the same street 


, has 



any one tell me what fine sense this may be which guides thia 

mate? — F. E. L. Deal, Fitchbmy, m$s., July 7, 1873. 

[We print the above as fair examples of "assembling" among 
moths. Nearly every entomologist has h:i<l similar < xp< Alices. 
It is a common occurrence. We are disposed to think that the 
male is guided by the sense of smell, as the antennae of the silk 
moths probably possess this as well as the sense of hearing — 
Editors.] 

Organs of Hearing in I.vsj.cts. — At. the last meeting of the 
National Academy of Sciences, Professor A. M. Mayer exhibited 
experimental confirmation of the theorem of Fourier as applied by 
him in his propositions relating to the nature of a simple sound, 

the hypol hesis of audition of Ilelmholtz. Placing a male mosquito 
under the microscope, and sounding various notes of ' ■■■ 
in the r; ng< of .1 sound ■ twn ! . tii !'< in 1 mos<pi ! 
fibres of the antennas of the male mosquito, vibrated sympathet- 
ically to these sounds. The longest fibres 
to the grave notes, and the short fibres vibrated sympatl 
the higher notes. The fact that the nocturnal insects 
organized .-intennae, whih tb diurnal ones have not ; and also the 
fact that the anatomy of these parts of insects shows a 
veloped nervous organization, lead to the highly probal 
that Prof. Mayer has here given facts which form (lie li 

added new facts to the physiology of the senses. I 
impulse strike a fibre so that the direction oi the imp.' 
direction of the fibre, then the libro remains stationary. l ' n \ 
the direction of the sound is at right angles to the fil 



those 


fibrils ven- 
ted some fibi 


accurately « 




feet J 


ong and of 


the thickiie,- 


» of 


the s: 


une proporti 


on of lengt 


h to 


tennti 


i of the mos 


squito. He 


foum 


fibrils 


i had to each 


other the s 


ame i 


the mosquito. 







Change of habit.— All who have travelled of late years on the 
St. John's River, in East Florida, must have noticed the cows 
standing for hours at considerable distances from the shore, 
thrusting their heads from time to time into the water. This 
is explained by a change of habit to which they have been driven, 
during the winter months, by a scarcity of suitable grazing on 
land. Grazing is never very good there at any time and compels 
them to feed on moss, young palmetto leaves, shoots of shrubs, 
etc., which under ordinary circumstances they would reject. The 
"river grass," which appears to be a specie- of Yalisneria, has 
become a new and very considerable resource for food. It is said 
Ulat this plant has established its* If, within a few years, in the shoal 
Waters * >f the lower part of the St. John's where it now covers large 
submerged tracts, and it is to obtain this that the cows have taken 
to their semi-aquatic habits. We have frequently watched them 
and have found that while gathering food, the head was kept be- 
neath the surface for a period varying from fifteen to thirty-five 
seconds, du i ■ ,.f course averted. We 

have recently seen a colt feeding in a similar manner. The hogs 
have also taken up this habit, but hold their heads under the 
w ater for a shorter time than the cows. The young calves, though 
they do not eat the " grass," follow the cows and may sometimes 
he seen with their heads only out of water.— I. J. Wjmajx. 



Spontaneous Gi 


1XEH.V 




. — Mr. F 


I. lln 


r Lankester, after re- 


viewing in " Natun 


1" th. 


3 re 


suits of r 


cecnt 


work done in devel- 


oping Bacteria, etc, 


, ill il 


iflld 


ons, cone] 


udes 




"abiogenesis" is "i 


lot in 


a in 


• way rend 


iered : 


more probable than it 


was before by Dr. 


Ba.-ti 


ill's 


expei'ime 


li ts w 


ith organic infusions. 


Prof. Smith and Mr. An 


L-her 


, of Dubi 


iin, ei 


ninent authorities in 


the study of the 1< 


>W(.'f 


:.lg. 


:•, have ci 




m1 in detail aod sng- 


gested explanation.' 


l Of 6< 




of the st 


ateme 


nts in the third part 


of 'The Beginnings 


of Li 


b-Y 


viz., state 


incuts 


relating to the trans- 


formation of variou 


S SpO< 


'ies 




ims in 


to each other. They 


show (the reader u 








►f Mi 


paper in the October 



The nest was sunk 
ten wood among the r< 
(of the Yantic river) 






two tints of reddish brown, with numerous faint points i 
touches of lilac and very pale underlying red. These marks 
much more thickly disposed at the greater end where they fc 
quite large blotches, hut there is little indication of a rin<r '] 
eggs differ from those of S. aurocapiUus in being more'roi 
and polished, and the spots generally larger and more distill 

'80X-0Q; -80X-C0; -79X'G1. and -^x^ ■ i'jmi inch ^ ^^ 
The female was shot after -ivino- , ll0 ., „, )0(l opportunity 
observe her behavior, when she thought hcreelf entirelv ,ln 
She keptolose to the water, but occasionally flew upon low twn 
alighting in a cai , i , , . _, ude as though it were a <m 

effort to hold on, and keeping'up a coquettish flirting of hei & t 
and queer, comical movements of her head. When frighten 
trom the nest she uttered a few distinct chirrups but afterwar 



k«-pt 


silent. 


-Ebxe 


T I.N 




ix, C 


tmbrulrje, 


Mass. 


Tv 


o Rai 


E Off, 


S FR 


OM A 


nzox. 


.— Charl 


es Bendii 


well 


mown 


IS :ui( 


Ithll 


■dasti 


and 


energetic 




his v 


fious 


ommiu 


icat 


)D8 t 


) the NATURAL! 


t, has la 


asp< 


amen 


?ach of 


two 


rare 


specie 


s of owls 




■ rues 


m, Ai 


izona. 


Of 


Spn 


(urn 




. Captai 


cure 1 


by M 


•. Xanl 


Olid 


Ft. 


obtained, the h 




The 

collet 


^zi.Ti 


jted 


by Captai 


a Bendire is an a< 
script notes on th 


Z[ lA 


ows:- 


- " Le] 


4'th. 




; ext 


nt, 42-2o 


; bill, p 



shut April 20, 1872, on the Killito 



I, shot on the Rillito creek, 
esses peculiar interest from t 

reived at the National Museu 



240 ZOOLOGY. 

was previously noted, upon the strength of a specimen observed 
by me in August, 1871, in Richland Co., Illinois (see American 
Naturalist, vii, April, 1873). — Robert Ridgway. 

Avifauna of Colorado and Wyoming. — Our genial critic 

of ours wbich he selects as a point of attack. We said- in llius- 
tration of a stricture we passed upon the paper he edited, that 

"such bird- u< f;,«j<y>rr>i.r Ciii;jnf„;>i„»x and Pipi 1 " /■■<'•> ' "* lin(] 
themselves in ornithological company they never saw outside of a 
book." Dr. Brewer makes us out to mean by this, that these two 
birds" are not found together except on his list, and then^proeeeds 

to rebuke our supposed ignurance in a kindly and cogen y- 
j. llt .... livo(! ., ),„,,- v ,!,;h. w i lr| . ( . these two species occur together, 



at Mt. Auburn, near Cambridge, Mass. The In- 

I'Thi stt (S Wo^l^A year TZ I 
here the uest, with egg,, and have sine, wen the 
time to time, generally in secluded woods about., 
pine, like the once lovely but now desolate spot where it wa 



■HOLOfi 


10 A 


L. — The 


folio V 


:i<t sea 




i(lS73),i: 


n con in 


Lieut. 


Ct. 


M. Whec 


lor. an< 


partim 


rat. 


They ar 


c selec 


amomi 


to 


f material 


to be e 




:,, lv 




n ; " 



habit the United States 


, it never 


having b 


een obse 


rved before 


farther north than the U 
Camp Grant, Arizona, S< 




I procure 


! M -xico. 


While at 
female, on a 


small stream issuing iron 


i a inounia 


in canon- 


When 1 


irst seen it 


was being pursued by 


another In 




f which 


I obtained 


icarcely a glimpse, as tb 


ey darted 


past thro 


ugh the 


trees, but I 


have little doubt that it w 


as a secom 


1 of the sf 


unespeeh 


«. I think 


it not unlikely that this sj 


)ocies will 


) ie found 


to be not 


uncommon 



numbers, from Sept. 20th till late in October, throughout the roll- 
ing plains along the bases of the mountains, and ev< n 
up among the foot-hills. It was usually associated with the sa- 

habits certain characteristics of either species. Its light is par- 
like that of the former bird, but even more wild and ii reg- 
ular. It pursues its zigzag course for a couple of hundred yards, 
and then. s< • behind some 

frii ;i 11 v Ui-h, or tuft of grass. Like the y< :!-• .--winged sparrow, 

nimbly through the grass, changing its course fmnieiitK , and 



that they we br< ed in I he immedi 

This species was first made known to science through a description 
by Cassin, published in Dec. l.siil, in Pr. A. X. So. In is,". 7. Dr. 
Newberry published a description of Williamson's 
{S. Williamxoni) from specimens obtained by Lieut, William- 
son's Expedition: since which time the two species have been 
accepted by ornithologists as perfectly valid, the true relation- 
ship of the two being wholly UwMi-pected. While in southern 
Colorado during the past season, I obtained abundant proof of 

being the male of thyroideux. Though led to suspect this, from 

before I could procure a pair actually mated. After c; 

hatched young. As regards the sexual diiferences of coloration 



of the female are radical li 
With this single exception 
color bctwe, d 
fined mainly to the absence, 
or red patches about the heat 



ZOOLOGY. 

: (Podiceps auritus var. CaUfomicus Coues). 



southern Colorado, I found this species 
colony of perhaps a dozen pairs had e 
small pond of about four or five acres i 
of this, iu a bed of reeds, were found 



of decaying weeds and rushes, four or five inche 


sindiamn 


scarcely raised above the surface of the water, 


upon whit 


floated. In a number of instances they were 1 


Hit a few f, 


taut from the nests of the coot (FuUca Amerianui 


) which aho 


Every grebe's nest discovered contained three eo 


:gs, which i 


instances were fresh ; but in some nests were 


consideral 


vanced. These vary but little in shape, are consic 


leruhlvelu] 


one end being slightly more pointed than the < 


)ther. The 


in length from l-^O to 1-80 and in breadth from 1 


•18 to 1-33 


color is a faint yellowish white, usually much sta 


ined from c 


with the nest. The texture is generally quite 


smooth, ir 


roughened by a chalky deposit. The eggs were 


wholly cor 


from view by a pile of weeds and other vegeta 


ble raaterii 


across. That they were thus carefully covered. 


, merely fo 


cealment, I cannot think, since in the isolated 


- 


these nests are usually found, the bird has no ene 


- 




aing the h 


the grebes were all congregated at the further i 


?nd of the 


and shortly betook themselves through an openi 


ng to the 


houring slough ; nor so far as 1 could ascertain d: 


id they ag ; 



y composed ? — H. W. 



wriw.-Onp. 454, vol. \ it, of this journal, and on p. 15 of the 
"!'!>>■ vcdings of the Boston Society of Natural Historv," xvi. I 
s ^te that 7Wc,v pnhiphomn*, the American silk worm, does not oc- 
cur in the Pacific states. It seems that Mr. Henry Edwards, in an 

Academy of Sciences" (received Dec. 11, after my second paper 



244 GEOLOGY. 

went to press) records this moth as " apparent! 
couver island This insect, though o 

coast varieties, has nevertheless a wide rang". 
imens from Victoria, northern and middle Call 
cape St. Lucas, and San Bias, Mexico." 

On pp. 24 and 40, Bost. Proa, xvi, GorytorJa 
should read Platwo Calif rniurki Tl.-Sch. and G 
should read Platwa tnVoeana. — A. S. Packai 



ion green and brown -i 



habits of some of or 


tr Jlhiznpntla in eating 


Dmfuuww; \ 


absorb the chlorophy 
vours Arcella. 


GEOLOGY. 




The Great Lava-f 


lood of the West, — P 


rof.J.LeConte 


.scribes in the March 


number -of the "Americ; 


an Journal of 


ence," what he regard; 


i as the most extraordina 


ry lava-flood in 


world. "Commeneim 


y in middle California «< 


i separate stres 


in northern Californir 


, it becomes a flood flow 


ing over and c 


-'liiic the s 


mailer inequalities, and 1 


lowing around 



-tertiary. When the fissure eruptions had final 
►rk was taken up by volcanoes, a few of which : 
die paper is one of much interest. 



ANTHROPOLO GY. 






they had nothing bul stone tool. 

shape them the labor must have been immense. ■■ 



Piece of clay is now taken in the hands and ro 


lied out to the 


proper length; it is then placed around the ston 




with the other piece and the stone is moved abou 


t on the inside 


tened out and firmly united with the first piece. 


More' is then 


added in the same manner and so on until the de 


sired size is at- 




ir the operation 


in order to keep the clav moist : and the stone and 


hand are used 


to smooth the inside. ' The necc-arv hri-ht beii, 


g attained, the 


ri m is formed by pressing the top layer of the so! 


' t clav over the 


Vtnma edifiM)!" the stonr. the i::i;_vi- p.e^bm the 


clav over while 


" >tono is moved round the vosel. If feet or ha 


udles are to be 


^Plied, they are shaped by the lingers and stuck o 


n ; the hand is 


™w freely used to smooth over the newly made ve 


ssel. The pot 



is then placed in the tied so as to expose it 

evenly to the heat. When cracks appear, the lingers are dipped 
into thick mud and applied to them, which process is continued 
until all the cracks are filled after which the vessel is ready to 
burn. For this purpose fuel is selected which produces a iron tlo 
heat, the excrements of animals being preferred. All the Pueblo 
Indians of New Mexico and the Moqnies of Arizona own many 

sequently a great thickness of excrement is soon accumulated. 



solving clay of the desired 
chewing the end of a stick, 
matter and applied to fori 
figures being made. The vt 
after which it is burned in 
Sometimes vessels are unit' 



these were evidently used in making- pottery, the' wooden paddles 
which wore probably placed with them having decayed. There 
is no difference between the modern article and these ancient 
stones found in the graves associated with pottery and other do- 
mestic articles buried with the dead.— Edward Palmer. 
The Berries of Rhamnus croceus as Indian Food. — This is 

the mixture a bright red color which is absorbed into the circula- 
tion and tinges the skin. On one occasion a detachment of the 
First Arizona Infantry Volunteers attacked a camp of Apaches 
in the Mogollon Mountains, northern Arizona, killed twenty-two 
and captured two children: the writer, being with the party as 

from ea ing g m li'h of these berries and other coarse substances; 
while their bodies exhibited a beautiful red net-work, the coloring 
■big been taken up by the blood and diM'used through 
the smaller veins. Among the captured stores were quantities of 
these berries dried, also much finely pounded meat and berries. 
A stone mortar, near by. plainly told tin- purpose for which it had 
been used ; while numbers of rats and squirrels with the fur singed 
off, but otherwise entire, lay ready to form the next batch of mixed 



MICROSCOPY. 

popular accessory to the microscope, has contrived a modification 
of that accessory to be known as the siphon slide, in which living 
objects of si ler observa- 

tion uninterruptedly for days or even weeks. A current of water 
or other fluid, of any required temperature, is made to flow con- 
tinuously through, t!.'. <■ object, so that the 
processes of respiration, ciivulath.n, digestion, and nutrition, the 
phenomena of inflammation, and the effects of some classes of 
poisons may be studied at leisure and under perfectly natural or 
entirely controllable conditions. The habits of life of small 



■M 



Jfc 



to the pint) and keep i; at a temp-ratine of 75° F. 
pulp, except the vascular bundles which may be nic 

toward the eves being distinctly 'se< ,. 

He notices that dMWvut varieties of potatoes ar 






Microscopic Drawing. — Wishing to make neutral tint re- 
flector, and while planning a frame in which to mount it, it oceurred 
to me that a reflector to take the place of the steel disk of Soem- 
mering might be made by mounting a piece of looking-glass in the 
same way as a neutral tint reflector, but with the silvering re- 
moved except a small disk less than the size of the pupil. On 
trial I found the reflection good, but the thickness of the glass 
looked through in such an oblique position tinted the field. In 
order to avoid this I made a i: -k of tin-foil 

This I mounted as before, and found it to work perfectly. This 

ehauicu! ability will take the place perfectly of the expensive 

and a smaller hole the rest of the distance through the bit of 
wood; turned the outside in the form of a cylinder and sawed 
off the end in a mitre-box to an . grees ; then' 

bored a one-half inch hole near the end of the tube for the re- 
flected rays, and turned a disk with a cell for the mirror and fitted 
ttl - thin glass, ; v , ping it iu with a small ring of wood glued over 



the edge of the glass. The microscope being ig< f< i draw- 

end smeared with glue ; then the disk was fitted to the end of the 
tube in such a manner that the bit of mirror was in its optical 

eye might approach the reflecting surface. This works nicely, 

Kimball, M.D. 

Air-cells in a Floating Leaf.— In the leaf of Limnanthemwm 



It is nearest the under epidermis that they are located, and the 
•gical significance is not d ' i condition they 



251 

migration of the white corpuscles of the blood through the tissues 
of the body has been d( monstrated ; the diameter of the body of 
the young filaria is considerably below that of the corpuscle ; hence 
with tlu' l>risk, wriggling movements ol' life, ihe possibility of their 
passage through a mucous membrane, especially through the soft 
g am 1 t 01 s f 1 dcei is \ t within the bounds of reality. 
Based upon the facts we know, we may in imagination follow them 
from a mucous tract (e. g. the intestine) to a lacteal or blood ves- 
sel ; they follow the eourse of the circulation, growing on the 
pabulum of the blood of the host, and easily passing with the 
corpuscles through the capillaries; soon their size unfits them to 
traverse even viseus, and the minute capillaries of the lungs act 
as a sieve to retain them in the venous circulation ; they copulate 
and the females become fecund ; - to continue 

the race, provided accidental causes, such as mechanical block- 
ing up of important blood-vessels by the parent worm, do not de- 
termine the death of the host. By this hypothesis the ingress of 
individuals capable of arriving at maturity is explained, while the 
countless hordes of j( by the pres- 

ence of one or more parent >■ lar trails. 



a microphotograph or a lar-e transparent section, obliquely upon 
the stage, so that one edge shall be considerably higher than the 



which v ill 
• other portion. The in- 
n the object which in the 



always be emplo) ig «rith the same objective, tin 

lens being focussed as usual by sight and then turned out of focu 



be remembered a- l he lir-l mlcro-copi-i. pro! ably, who continued 
his studios in pathology by the .study of his own blood during 

been contracted, also, by imprudent devotion to its investigation. 
Measuring the growth-rate of Plants.— E. Askenasy meas- 

A Revolving Amplifier.— Mr. John Emery exhibited, at the 
Royal Microscopical Society, a scries of amplifiers, plano-concave 



Quieting Frogs.— At the Medical Microscopical 
Brace stated that a frog might be quieted, for experi 
circulation, etc.. bv holdin •' for a few minutes in the 1 



hi Colorado. Utah, New Mc: 



^ell-known and accomplished : 



tion. Among the Orthojttvra., it may !>e observed, many of Ihild- 

valuable collection of crania. implements :ind oilier i 

plished by Mr. Henshaw, with Dr. liothrock, the talented young 
botanist, Dr. Newberry, Jr., and Dr. Loew. Next season, the 

Yarrow, who will be assisted by Dr. Rothroek, Mr. Henshaw and 

others. We shall look for still more inteivstinu" results under 

■ : arrangement. We 'learn t lint seven volumes show- 



until his death. He was an associate of Audubon, whom he as- 

of North America, illustrated by that great naturalist and his 
sons. Bachman also published other works and about fifteen 
minor papers, all evincing unusual powers of observation, es- 
pecially those on change of color in birds, on the migration of 
birds, on the mode of reproduction of the opossum, and several 

The Legislature of Kentucky have appropriated s=l>s,.~00. annu- 
ally, for two years, for a new geological survey of the state. Prof. 
N. S. Shaler is appointed state geologist. 

on or have recenth been completed in so many other states, it is 



o hav 


e bee 


:n endeavorir 


and i 


;>ther 


means 


. to a 


dtize. 


is to 


' : ■ 


.y'ex, 


■ept ; 


1 coll,- 


re tov 


its in 


>peci 


a! tield- 


of k 


ttainment 


in theii 


' -pec 


been 


formed at I 


X>uisi 


third 


Thu 


r>da\ s 


of ea. 



.Jenkins. .I.-nnos Kn; n >p. \V. 



EXCHANGES. 






AMERICAN NATURALIST. 

Vol. VIII. -MAY, 1874. -No. 6. 



This but. x) occurs east of the great plains, 

in the Carolinian and the southern half of the Alleghanian fauna; 
it extends north almost to the annual isotherm of 50°, even passing 
that line in the region of the great lakes, so as to include southern 
and the whole of Ohio, but, apparently, not following 
t!l " upward curve of the isotherm beyond the Mis>issippi. In the 
£ »uth it readies the gulf coast, but how far it extends down the 
Florida peninsula is undetermined; its western extension is 
unknown ; it has been reported neither from Texas nor Arkansas, 
although it is common in Missouri (Riley). Prof. Parker states 
that it occurs on the Mississippi at least as far north as Rock 
Inland, 111., and that he has taken a few specimens at Keokuk and 
Davenport, Iowa, although none at Grinnell. It occurs in southern 
Michigan (Mas. Mich. Univ., Andrews) and in many localities in 
Ohio, such as Cleveland — "not uncommon "(Kirtland) ; "common 
where papaw bushes are" (Kirkpatrick) ; Columbus, "still more 
abundant" than at Cleveland (Kirtland) ; Rockport, Poland and 
Hudson (Kirtland) and Eastern Ohio (Foster) ; a single specimen 
has been reported from Komoka, Ontario, Canada (Saunders). In 



Maryland (Uhler) it is "rare" and about PI 

is not common. Finally, one specimen has been taken near 

Brooklyn, N. Y. (Graef^de Akhurst). 

As in some other dimorphic species, however, the di 
of the several varieties does not seem to be coextensive with that 
of the species. Unfortunately, our information here is very 
meagre, since the polymorphism of the insect has only recently 
been proved. . It is, however, certain that the numerical superi- 
ority of the variety Marcellus over Walshii and Telamonides is 
far greater in the north than in the south; indeed, near the 
northern limit of the insect's range, Walshii and Telamonides are 
hardly known, and in extreme northern localities where only a few 
specimens have been recorded, these have always been Marcellus. 

The caterpillar, according to numerous authorities, feeds upon 
the papaw (Asimina triloba Dunal) and, according to Dr. Chapman, 
upon other species of the same genus such as A. parviflora Dunal, 
A. grandijlora Dunal, and A. pygmoza Dunal. Boisduval and Le 
Conte also state that it feeds upon the latter and upon A. p('-h(s- 
tris, — plants belonging to the Anonacese or custard-apple family. 

Some of the caterpillars, as shown by Mr. Edwards' observations, 
attain their full growth in twelve days, although others, especially 
the produce of the form Walshii, require nearly a month. They 
do not draw the leaves of the plant together like the larva of the 
genera represented by Troilus and Glaucus. They are to be found 
in every stage " resting on the surfaces of the leaves, and one would 
suppose they must be nearly exterminated by birds. But like all 
Papilio larvae they emit from the head [first thoracic segment], at 
the same time that they project a Y-shaped tentacle, a 
acrid and sickening odor, which must effectually protect them. 
In a letter, Mr. Edwards adds that he does "not believe a starving 
bird would touch one, the stench being so strong as nearly to 
turn one's stomach." 

Science is deeply indebted to Mr. Edwards, for the thorough 
manner in which he has worked out the history of this butterfly 
by careful studies in the field and innumerable experiments. This 
author has not only indisputably established the identity of two 
forms previously described as distinct species (though often pre- 
sumed to be identical), but has proved the existence of a third pe r ' 



manent form and has admirably traced the relations of each form 
to the others. The account given below is almost entirely based 
on his observations. 

No histories of butterflies are of deeper interest than those of 
polymorphic species, whether considered in themselves alone or 
in the light they are destined to throw upon the origin of species 
and races, problems which demand the profoundest thought and 
most conscientious investigation ; and since this species is poly- 
morphic in a larger sense than any other American butterfly is 
known to be, our interest is greatly enhanced. 

As hinted above, Ajax appears under three different forms — 
Walshii, Telamonides and Marcellus, the polymorphism affecting 
both sexes equally. These forms are shown by Mr. Edwards to 
produce one another in a complicated manner, but in general the 
imago exhibits what has been termed seasonal polymorphism ; 
that is, a series of individuals adhering, in all their variations, to 
several distinct types, each type appearing at a different season 
of the year from the others ; thus Walshii is the early spring type, 
Telamonides the late spring, and Marcellus the summer and autumn 
type. Nearly all the butterflies which, in West Virginia, emerge 
from the chrysalis before the middle of April are Walshii ; between 
that and the end of May, Telamonides; after this, Marcellus. 
The first two, however, do not appear properly to represent distinct 
broods; and this point (to which Mr. Edwards has failed to draw 
special attention) is one of the most extraordinary features in the 
history of the insect ; for Telamonides, judging from his recorded 
observations, is not the direct conseasonal produce of Walshii, 
but both are solely made up of butterflies which have wintered as 
chrysalides, those which disclose their inmates earliest producing 
Walshii, the others, Telamonides ; while all butterflies produced 
from eggs of the same season— and there are several successive 
broods— belong to Marcellus. Thus, besides the true seasonal 
dimorphism the butterflies produced from eggs 

of the same season from those derived from eggs of the previous 
season, we have a secondary seasonal dimorphism, as it may well 
be called, separating the earlier from the later produce of wintering 
chrysalides. 

Mr. Edwards has also proved by his experiments that a portion 
of every brood of chrysalides, instead of disclosing the imago at 
the end of the ordinary time, retain it, occasionally until the ap- 



260 POLYMORPHIC BUTTERF 

pearance of a subsequent brood, 
The spring brood (Walshii-Telan 
wholly produced from chrysalides of the final brood of Marcellus, 
but in large measure from those of all the earlier broods, even ra- 
te earliest Walshii ; the proportion of chrysalides which 
continue until spring increases as the season advances, Mr. Edwards' 
statements showing that of those produced from eggs La 
more than ten per cent, pass over, those from eggs laid May 



about thirty-fiv 



ntil the end of June 



from fifty to sixty per cent, and from those laid in Inly uhout sev- 
enty per cent. Walshii and Telamonides, then, produce Marcellus 
the same season, or either Walshii or Telamonides in the spring; 
Marcellus produces itself the same season, or one of the others 
in the spring; but neither Walshii nor IVlamonides is produced 



■diid and wii 



feed on I 

) put forth 



ari.'iy, 



i three weeks, before the young shoots oi the loou yi 

But no sooner do these appear than the feniae 
leposit their eggs."t This is early in April andjbey 



POLYMORPHIC 

continue to lay them until as late as May 23d ; the eggs hatch in 
from seven to eight days and the caterpillars are from twenty-two 
to twenty-nine days in attaining their growth. 

Telamonides, which, as stated above, is only a later variety of 
the same brood, "begins to fly some weeks after Walshii, and both 
forms .... are for a time common." Telamonides evidently 
lays its eggs very soon, for "on dissecting the abdomen of a newly 
emerged female, the eggs are found to be fully formed though not 
full-sized. I conclude that they mature with great rapidity because 
fertile eggs aiv laid b\ i; > m,<!\ f . -li and uninjured females." 
Mr. Edwards records eggs laid from May 11th to June 2d ; these 
are hatched much more rapidly than those of Walshii (although 
they are not always laid later in the season), namely, in from four 
to five days ; the caterpillars, too, mature more quickly, attaining 
their growth in from fifteen to eighteen days, thus often overtaking 
their tardier predecessors. "About the first of June Walshii 
[imago] disappears, and before the end of the month Telamonides 
also." 

Still farther south, it is evident that the apparition of the butter- 
flies is advanced ; for in Georgia, Abbot records Walshii as emerg- 
ing from the chrysalis March 2d, and Dr. Chapman took it in 
northern Florida, in the latter half of February, 1868 and 1869 ; 
late in .March he also records the species as "numerous," so we 
surmise that Telamonides appears at this time. 

"About the first of June, Marcellus begins to appear and shortly 
is out in great numbers, continuing to be abundant till last of 
October." The broods overlap each other so as to be distinguished 
. besides the brood of Walshii- 
Telamonides already mentioned, there are at least three successive 
broods of Marcellus.* The larva? of Telamonides, as we have 
seen, often overtake the later larva? of Walshii— the earlier larva? 
are by this time (the middle of May) in chrysalis and continue 
fourteen days ; the first brood of Marcellus from these chrysalides, 
and from those of Telamonides, continues to emerge until at least 
the ninth of July, or for more than five weeks.f The chrysalides 



from larvae of Telamonides hang from eleven to fourteen days, and 
the time for the completion of their entire cycle is only from thirty 
to thirty-seven days, which is seldom exceeded by Marcellus 
(twenty-seven to thirty-eight days), although much quicker than 
the period of Walshii (forty-three to fifty-one days). 

The female of the first brood of Marcellus commences to lay eggs 
— which, like those of Telamonides, hatch in four or five days— at 
the very beginning of June, and butterflies produced from them, 
i. e. the second brood of Marcellus, are upon the wing early in 
July — not only before the butterflies of the previous brood 
have disappeared, but even before all the chrysalides from eggs of 
Telamonides have eclosed their butterflies ; the attempt to trace 
the sequence of the broods is, therefore, almost hopelessly bewil- 
dering ; but it seems probable that the second brood of Marcellus 
(the third of Ajax) appears in abundance early in July ; it is, 
perhaps, in speaking of the first brood of Marcellus in Alabama, 
that Gosse says they are "nearly all gone July 1st." These larvae 
attain their growth in from twelve to nineteen days, and hang as 
chrysalides from eleven to fourteen, and it is therefore impossi- 
ble that there should not bea third brood of Marcellus; that I 
fourth brood is even at times possible would appear from the fact 
that the insects continue to change from one stage to another 
without any apparent regard to the approach of winter, which 
overtakes many in conditions under which they are obliged to 
succumb; thus Mr. Riley writes from Missouri: "I have found 
eggs and larvae two-thirds grown, as late as the middle of October, 
when the leaves were almost all fallen ; the parent ought to know 
better if instinct is so infallible." Doubleday remarks that on 
the Ohio the species was very numerous after the tenth of Sep 
tember; if this is an indication of a new brood in September.^ 
if the second brood of Marcellus appear early in July in ! 
also, then the butterflies seen by Doubleday must have been 
fourth brood of Marcellus, or the fifth of Ajax. I do not thin* 
there is another instance on record of a five-brooded butterfly. 

The result. ,,,,.|,,M, Mr. K-lward. in his s tudv of this butter- 



POLYMORPHIC BUTTERFLT. 263 

Mr. Meldola of England, in a paper upon the " amount of sub- 
stance waste undergone by insects in the pupal state."* 

This writer thinks he has shown that the comparative size of the 
three forms of Ajax is exactly opposite to what we should expect. 
In his preliminary general remarks, it is presumed a priori that as 
there is in all insects gain of matter in the larval state, and loss 
during the pupal, the size of an individual of any given species 
" would be, cceteris paribus, inversely proportional to the ratio of 
the pupal to the larval period, or directly proportional to the ratio 
of the larval to the pupal period." 

He attempts to test this theory by tabulating the statements of 
Mr. Edwards concerning the duration of the stages in the differ- 
ent forms of Ajax, and he finds that there is "a relationship but 
exactly the reverse of that which would be anticipated from the 
conclusions previously set forth." 

Walshii, Telamonides and Marcellus, as we have seen, succeed 
each other in season ; they also increase regularly in size in the same 
order. The following table represents the duration of the several 
stages and is taken by Mr. Meldola from Mr. Edwards' work. 



»»T*p„ 


egg. 


LARVA. 


CHRYSALIS. 


TOTAL. 


Walshii . . . 
Telamonides 
Marcellus . . 


7-8 days 
4-5 " 
4-5 " 


22-29 days 
15-18 " 
12-19 » 


11-14 " 
11-14 " 


43-51 days 
30-37 " 

27-38 " 



facts, by which 


he comes to the abo\ 


e conclusion. 




— opvar^. 


R MErK LAKVALPEmOD T ° 


KA r E lv F POTiLPERioD T ° 


5SS?: 


Walshii .... 


fa = 0-549 


«#• = 1-821 


2-70 


Telamonides . 


m = 0-757 


ff$ = 1-320 


3-00 


Marcellus . . . 


fff z= 0-806 


#:$ = 1-240 


3-35 











it is here seen," says Mr. Mcldolu, -that the size of the vari- 
gfrjs_directly instead of inversely proportional to the ratio of the 



pupal to the larval period, and vice versa." Unfortunately for this 
conclusion the figures given by Mr. Edwards, or their reduction by 
Mr. Meldola, refer in each case to the progeny of Walshii, Tela- 
monides and Marcellus, and do not bear upon the question at all. 
In every instance given in the tables, the progeny or resultant is 
Marcellus. By Mr. Meldola's rule, Walshii and Telamonides, 
being the produce of wintering chrysalides, should be, as they are, 
smaller than Marcellus, since the latter is always the result of 
short-lived, summering chrysalides ; unless, however, son; 
factor plays a part, Telamonides should be smaller than Walshii, 
because produced later in the season from wintering chrysalides \ 
but here the opposite is the case. 

The extreme abundance of Ajax is well attested by Edward*, 
when he says: "at certain seasons it is almost impossible to find 
a young plant [of papaw] that is free from .... eggs and it is 
easy to collect scores of them." 

"The female of Ajax may frequently be scon coursing through 
the papaw trees which cover the lower 



\iA<i- 



searching for loaves on 
or running over and re 
purpose. Thereupon 
wings, she stands for :i 
perpendicular to the 1 
it touches the surface, 
ently to alight on a se< 
egg is upon the stem, 
leaf, but almost alw; 

laying continues for se 

Doubleday, speakim 

"I rarely saw it, alight 



265 

by this means to capture it. It is a shy insect and darts out of 
its course at the least motion." Speaking of the autumn brood, 
■which he considers a distinct species, he adds (loc. cit.) : "its 
flight is rather more graceful than that of P. Ajax [i. e. the spring 
brood] ; it sometimes alights in the muddy places by the roadsides 
where little streamlets cross, especially during the heat of the 
day." Ktrtland, too, remarks^ "these two species are readily 
recognized by their peculiar mode of flight ;"* but K 1 wards makes 
no comment upon this point. 

"Many eggs," says Edwards, "are destroyed by insects and 
spiders. There is a minute scarlet spider scarcely larger than the 
egg itself, that mounts upon it and from a puncture extracts the 
contents. I frequently met the shells so despoiled before I dis- 
covered the cause, and have since observed the marauder in its 
operations. I have also lost in a single night, owing as I sup- 
posed to crickets, numbers of eggs laid in confinement." Speak- 
ing of the caterpillar he says: "I have . . . seen spiders feeding 
upon them, attacking even the head, and they have other enemies 
among the insects . They are very little troubled by ichneumon 
flies in this valley, and I have rarely lost a chrysalis from that 
cause. Consequently no Papilio is so abundant here throughout 
the season. I find on breeding them that a considerable percentage 
of the eggs do not hatch, and that more or less of the larva die 
at every moult, as well as in the effort to change to chrysalides. 
Multitudes of chrysalides must be destroyed in the winter by birds 
and mice as they are but imperfectly concealed under stones and 
roots, or even among the stems of the grasses, so that of the tens 
of thousands of eggs that are annually deposited, but a very 
small proportion produce butterflies." The caterpillar is, however, 
sometimes attacked by Tragus exesorhis Brulle, the imago of which 
escapes from the chrysalis by cutting a circular opening, usually 
through one of the wings. 

Desiderata. Although so carefully studied by Mr. Edwards, there 
are still some points in the history of Ajax which require inves- 
tigation. The distribution of the insect in the west and of each 
form throughout its natural range should be more definitely deter- 
mined. The season of the apparition of the different varieties in 
the extreme southern states, and of the different broods of Mar- 
cellus evervwhere, is still unknown and will require careful study ; 



266 GAME FALCON. 

but perhaps the most interesting and fruitful investigation will be 
to follow still further the line of Mr. Edwards' experiments, and 
study the proportion of chrysalides of each brood which retail 
their inmates until spring ; noting every instance of the partial 
retention of the chrysalis, to discover to what extent pi 
ently destined to hibernate, disclose the butterfly the same season ; 
and, further, to determine whether both Walshii and Telamonides 
are indifferently produced from any of the broods of the previous 
year. Mr. Meldola's studies would lead us to conjecture that 
Walshii is generally produced from the later broods of Mam'llus, 
and Telamonides from the earlier broods of the same, and from 
Telamonides and Walshii; but Mr. EdwaiVU' experiments show- 
that this is not invariably the case. The postures of the butter- 
fly have not been described. 



This beautiful little hawk has the peculiar markings of the true 
falcon, and is the smallest and handsomest of the family Falcon- 
idle. It is found all over the continent, and is said to be the most 
numerous of the hawk family. While this no doubt is the fact, 
yet in New England it is not common. It is about as rare as the 
pigeon hawk, but not so irregular in its visitations. I have re- 
ceived only ten specimens in twenty years. Allen in his ornitho- 
logical notes on the birds of the Great Salt Lake Valley says, 
"The sparrow hawk, was by far the most numerous of the Falcon- 
idae. Thirty were seen in the air at one time near the mouth of 
Weber Canon engaged in the capture of the 'hateful' grasshopper, 
which everywhere filled the air and which seemed at this season 
to form the principal food of this and other birds." In the south- 
ern states where it is very numerous it may be seen about the old 
fields, orchards and gardens, sitting erect on a fence, stake, mul- 
lein stalk, or a dead limb of a tree, watching for small birds, mice, 
grasshoppers or beetles, upon which it chiefly subsists, seldom 



committing depredation-* : 
ing its stand it usually 



ally short and irregular; sometimes hovering for a *«h<>rt lime 
with suspended wings, reconnoitring for prey, and then Hying of] 
to another place to renew the same manoeuvre. They are easily 
domesticated. Audubon relates an instance of his taking a young 
bird and providing it with food until able to hunt for himself, 
when he let bim go. "This proved," says Audubon, --a grot i liga- 
tion to both of us. It soon hunted for grasshoppers and other in- 
sects, and returning from my walks, I now and then threw up a 
dead bird high in the air which it never failed to perceive from its 
stand, and towards which it launched with such quickness as 
sometimes to catch it before it fell to the ground. To the last be 
continued kind to me, and never failed to return at night to his 
His courageous dispo- 
l sail off from his perch 
and fall on the back of a tame duck which, setting up a loud 
quack, would waddle off in great alarm with the hawk sticking to 
her. In attempting to secure a chicken one day. the old hen at- 
tacked him with such violence as to cost him his life." When 
they first appear in the spring, their gyrations and cooings are 
very amusing. No falling in love at first sight can be more amo- 
rous. Audubon has described it so graphically that I venture to 
quote. "When spring returns, each male bird seeks for its mate, 
whose coyness is not less innocent than that of the gentle dove. 
Pursued from place to place, the female at length yields to the im- 
portunity of her dear tormentor, when side by side they, sail 
screaming aloud their love notes. With tremulous wings they 
search for a place in which to deposit their eggs ; the birds sit 
alternately, each feeding the other and watching with silent care. 
The family resort to the same field, and each chooses his stand, 
stake or mullein stalk, and together hunt." The sparrow hawk is 
somewhat dainty, refusing to eat woodpeckers or tainted food, 
and it is said if it catches a mouse which proves to be lousy and 



poor, it will leave it and seek another. It nests in hollow trees, 
frequently occupying an old woodpecker's hole : sometimes though 
rarely, it has occupied an old crow's nest, seldom constructing* 
nest for itself, laying usually four eggs, of very uniform size. By 
taking one egg of a set from four sets and three states, I find the 
measurements as follows : 

iam. 1-30. Short diam. 1-12. 



Fro 


>m Pennsylvar 








Connecticir 


The mark' 


than m< 


>st of the egg 


from a cream to a dec 


chocolat 


e spots, somet 


fluently 


; occasionally 



that number of eggs, but 
New England, having knoi 
vicinity. One of my colic 
top of a stump about, ten t 
had been broken off by t 



which are now in my cabinet. The eggs must have been sat upon 
several days ; hence this was a full set. Samuels collected one 
set of four in Maine, and says in his ornithology "I am inclined 
N to think from what I can learn from collectors and others, that 
four is the usual number laid by this bird." It is ass'erted by 
Audubon and others that the sparrow hawk raises two broods in 
a season in the southern states. Not having any personal 
knowledge of the fact, I wrote to my friend, Dr. S. W. Wilson, 
of Georgia, who is an exp< rh net 1 01 nithologist and oologist, rel- 
ative to this point. He says, that "the assertion of naturalists 
that birds south raise more than a single brood in the same season 
is certainly not applicable to the rapacious birds:" and again 
he says, " This is my experience after many observations, that 
none of the hawks and allied birds breed more than once during 
the same season," they begin nesting in Florida in February ; in 
the middle states, in April ; in Connecticut, in the latter part of 
April and the early part of May: in Maine, in May and June. 
A lad brought me a female sparrow hawk. April in', 1*71 . which 
he shot on an old dead tree where he had seen it for several day-. 
I inquired if he looked for a nest. "Yes," he replied, "Hooked the 

ith two fresh eggs 
aid have been full 
nty about the age 

pigeon hawk's age — probably, three or more years. I do not 
know whether they nest before arriving at adult plumage. The 
i here with eggs, and the pair from (.iranby with eggs, 
were adult birds ; these are the only specimens that I have re- 
ceived that I knew positively had nested. 

Length, 10 to 12 inches — alar extent, 19 to 23 inches. 

"Adult: Frontal band and space including the eyes and throat, 
white, spot on the neck behind, two others on each side of the 
neck, and line running downwards from before the eye, black. 
Spot on the top of the head, the neck behind, black ; rump and 

ufous or cinnamon color. Under p 
shade of the same rufous as the back, frequently nearly white, but 
sometimes as dark as the upper parts, and always with more or 
less numerous circular or oblong spots of black. Quills brownish 
black, with white bars on their inner webs. Tail tipped with 



holes i, 


i the t 


ree. He retu 


rued the next 


of this 


hawk. 


The set wa 


3 incomplete 


by the 


1st of 


May. There is as much 


when this bird arrives at 


adult plums 



270 nature's means of limiting the numbers of insects. 

white, frequently tinged with rufous and with a broad si 
band of black, outer frequently white, tinged with ashy and 
burred with black. Bill light blue, legs yellow. Back generally 
with transverse stripes of black, but frequently with very few or 
entirely without; rufous spot on the head, variable in size, and 
sometimes wanting. 

Younger male: Upper parts as above; wing coverts and tail 
ferrugineous red. with numerous transverse bands of la-ownisli 
black. Under parts with numerous longitudinal stripes, and on 
the sides with transverse bands of brownish black, external 
feathers of the tail palest, broad subterminal band on the tail ob- 
scure or wanting. 

Young: All the rufous parts of the plumage with wider trans- 
verse bands of brownish black ; whin coverts dark blui>h cincre- 



longitudinal stripe-, and large circular spots of 



NATURE'S ME, 



A few hints regarding the natural 
sects are here thrown together in or 
our naturalists and agriculturists t< 
inquiries during the coming summer 
e sting subject to our entomologists : 



own, availed myself of the knowledge of some of our ornithol- 

I am indebted to Mr. C. J. Maynard of Ipswich for the fol- 
lowing information upon the birds which devour the canker worm. 
He informs me that in the course of his investigations he has 
opened the stomachs of some three thousand birds. 

"In answer to your questions relative to birds eating canker 
worms and the larva? of other injurious insects I would sav that 
upon examining my notes, I find that I have taken canker worms 
from the stomachs of the following species: — red-eyed virco 
(Vireo olivaceus), song sparrow (Melospiza nu-lodia), chickadee 
(P'rus atricojiiir.Hs), scarlet tanager (Pyraraja rubra), robin 
{Tardus ,ai>jr lories), black b < rijthroph- 

thahnus), wood pence (Cordojrus circus), leasl pewe'e (Knqjidouax 
minimus). Wilson's t! and white 

creepers (Mniotilta varia), blue yellow-backed warbler (Panda 
Americana), Maryland yellow-tin .. <s)\ Nash- 

\iilc warbler (Ilcimi- . golden-crowned thrush 

{Seinrus aurocapillus), chestnut-sided warbler (iJendroica Pensyl- 
vanica), yellow warbler (I), cestica), black and yellow warbler 
(I), maculosa), prairie warbler (D. discolor), Mack-polled war- 
bler (D. striata), (/an. densis), red- 
ram), cat 
b rd i .V ,<,,,,, s ./.s ). pi rph ih ]('/,./, ■, l , t>ll , as ^ 
' urvirostra :■■■■■ L era), chipping sparrow 

. 
bob-o-link (l)otid,onu.c ornjcorus), Baltimore oriole (Icterus 
Baltimore). 

Possibly this list may be increased. Besides these birds, those 

the ruby-crowned wren, brown e> titmice, 

doubtless eat largely of the eggs of canker worms and other in- 
sects which destroy or injure the trees. Winter birds of the 
above species which I have shot at this time have their stomachs 
crammed with insects of some kind. 

As r remarked to you the other evening the Baltimore oriole 
will oat largely of the tent caterpillar, and is the only hi 
will do this. 

All the thrushes will eat wire worms. The swallows destroy 
- ",■ dipterous insects (gnats, etc.). In fact to sum the 
matter up there is scarcely a bird which will not eat largely of 
insect* at certain seasons, when these pests are most abundant. 

It is a noticeable fact that many species inhabiting woods and 
meadows, as may be seen by the list given, leave their usual haunts 
an d visit the fruit trees which are covered with canker worms 
and largely devour them. 



In reference to the currant saw fly worm (Nematus 
I am not certain that I have seen any birds eat them, yet I think 
the truly insectivorous species will do this." 

That the Baltimore oriole sometimes eats large quantities of the 
American tent caterpillar (C/isio^rmj,,/ Aia<-r><'<nw), since they 
have been found in the stomach of this bird by Mr. Maynard, 
is an interesting fact, for birds as a rule do not relish hairy 
caterpillars, ami the American tent calerpillar is covered with long 

Europe the closely allied tent caterpillar (C. neu stria), and those 
of the Cnethocampa and Lijxrrls r/u\<isn,-rl.<> a are said by Penis 
and others to be almost untouched by birds. I have been told by 
Dr. T. M. Brewer of Boston that the English sparrows upon the 

which were injuring a fine tree. These caterpillars are very 



Mr. John II. Sears, of' Darners, Mass., who has paid ranch 



s, of other birds. 
:rved in the act of < 
imore oriole, the 



M birds, such 
king bird in the month* 
Mr. J. L. Ilersey, in th 



n.w.the 



pecker the summer yellow bird, Maryland yellow throat, the 

r eggs in the winter, so does the 

. The hitler eats their grub also and the worm too. 

The common gray creeper, which is with us only in the winter, 

eats the eggs. 

Last summer I had a nest of golden-winced woodpeckers breed- 
ing on my place at Hingham. Some of them dug into my barn and 
winter. Only a part of my trees were protected by a 
belt of printers' ink and some of them were partialh eaten, hut 

give my friend ( ipU i ■ • rates the credit of all this. I know 
this — I gave the young ones a lot of the worms myself and they 
eat them as if they were used to them. The old birds were too 
shy to permit me to see by their good deeds. 

I think the golden robin f. eds its young with them so long as 
they last, but I am not sure that they eat the tent caterpillar. I 
nearly forgot the two cuckoos, yellow-bill and black-bill. They 
eat every form of caterpillar, canker worms included. I do not 
think the robin feeds any to its voting, because it would never do ; 
they are too small and its brood want a big lot. I have known 
the robin to feed its young for entire days, as fast as they could 
bring them, with the moth of the cut-worm. That is about as 
much as we could expect of any bird to do at one time. At the 
rate they went, they must have caught and given their young ones 
about live hundred of these moths in a day. Before that, I had 
good, but I had to give 
in. My in 
raise in many years. So the robin and I are fast friends." 

From the facts already presented, it may be inferred how useful 
birds may become in the work of reducing the number of injuri- 
ous insects. Undoubtedly we have suffered greatly by our wanton 
killing of the smaller birds. We arc far behind European na- 
tions in caring for the insect-eating birds, and providing nests 
for them about our houses and garden-. The Swis, and French, 
have been the most far-sighted in this matter of the protection of 
the smaller insectivorous species. The English, Scandinavians and 
foster them, while in our country, teeming as it is with 
hosts of ravaging insects, the smaller birds are hunted and perse- 
cuted, or if let alone, there is no effort made on any extended scale 
to invite them to our houses and gardens. 

In this connection I may refer to the barbarous and thoughtless 
custom of our young men, in the autumn, organizing in companies 
and shooting small quadrupeds and birds. These hunting parties 
destroy large numbers of raccoons, foxes, skunks, mink, weasels 



and squirrels. It is well known that the skunk, if not an entirely 
inoil'i'n<ive animal, is exceedingly useful.* Its food consists mainly 
of insects, and those among the most injurious, such as the May 
beetle or dorbug. Mink and weasels eat insects, and squirrels as 
I am told, besides eating nuts, will in times of hunger eat the 
chrysalides of insects. It is known that all the smaller quadra- 1 
peds, even the fox, will eat insects when other food is wanting. 

It is said that little harm results from shooting birds in autumn, 
as the breeding season is over, and the birds are migrating south- 
ward, but in the southern states they will prove as useful to agri- 
culture there during their long winter residence, and it is a selfish 
policy that would injure the prosperity of farmers in one section 
of the country, merely to afford a clay's barbarous pleasure to 



may be safe 
plishing the 



or a quintillion young — all descendants of one spinster plant 
louse. Says Professor Huxley in commenting on this fact, " I will 
assume that an aphis weighs TTJ V<j of a grain, which is under the 
mark. A quhitiiliun will on this estimate weigh a quadrillion of 
grains. lie is a very stout man who weighs 2,000,000 grains ; 
consequently the tenth brood alone, if all the members survive the 
perils to which they are exposed, contains more substance than 
500,000,000 stout men, to say the least, more than the whole pop- 
ulation of China." 

When we realize that so far from a quintillion, only a pair or 
two of plant lice survive, and at the end of the season die, after 
laying a few eggs, by which the species is represented in winter, 
we can form some idea of the struggle for existence among an- 
imals, and of the vicissitudes to which they are exposed. We can 
see how delicate is the balance of ciivumstances by which nature 
preserves I ag, as it were, on the one hand to 

prevent the extinction of the species, and on the other its undue 
multiplication. 

Now birds are an ii ■ he increase 

of species injurious to man. Y ■■• 1 impartial. 

They devour useful as- well as injurious insects. They sometimes 
eat our fruits, even if they overbalance the mischief by a strict 
adherence to insect diet out of the short fruit season. It follows 
that we must depend more upon an intimate knowledge of the 
habits of the birds themselves. 

M. Ferris in an admirable paper in the " Mhnoires de la So- 
ciete Royale des Science cle Liege" (tome iii, 1873) entitled "ies 
Oiseaux et les Insectes" says: 

"Almost all birds, probably even the whole of them, eat insects. 

Even the birds of prev. when thev are an hungered, accept this 

makeshift, as do also, according to M. Floreut lhvvost, the wolf, 

the fox and the b;uUrer, when thev iav< uol heen fortunate in the 

chase. There are some birds, such as the swallows, the martins, 

■h.^lmli live lmIusim 1\ on m-« < N : oiher-. a> the 

, ami all the ' i Is v, th small beaks, whi -h 

• tsnme In- ets, i bits at the 

iati.a- end . -. '._-. etc. ; others such 

j ' 
yoiu a p e f, ! i.ects 'to grain, ai i whi h for the rest of the time, 
1" t'er g tin to insects. Still others, for cxamph the magpie, are 

small chickens, all are welcome.' Finally, not to prolong this 



276 nature's means ok limiting the numbers of insects. 

enumeration, for we should never finish if we mentioned all, the 
rapacious birds, such as the screech owl, the buzzard, the kite, 
more accustomed to live on flesh, are sometimes forced to content 
themselves with a morsel less succulent and less appi 
their taste. From this very succinct and very incomplete resume 
of the manner in which birds live, but which every one can ex- 
tend and complete, it follows from the great number of birds that 
there is daily an immense destruction of insects. It is not by 
thousands only, but by hundreds of thousands, by millions, ac- 
cording to the area embraced, that we should count in fine weather 
and from one sunny day to another, the number of victims. The 
imagination shrinks at the idea of the total to which we should 
reach at the end of a year." 

Mr. Perris then says, the main question is, TIow many of the in- 
sects thus eaten are injurious? We will quote our author's conclu- 
sions, though we think that in desiring to show that the protection 
and culture of birds are not the onlv wav to prevent the attacks 



wise annihilate our apple and pear crop, as they almost, tui»«- 
to do now. Remarks M. Perris : — 

1. " Birds are only united in troops more or less cons 

the times of migration of autumn and spring, that is to say wnen 
most insects m.-rou* than during the summer. 

The rest of the time, they live ordinarily in coi r 
themselves, quite rare in ewltivut< 1 _■- un 1>, while t 
vade en masse the trees they wish to attack, the crops of wine 
they are the enemies. . 

2. "Birds destroy insects enormously, but these insects are 

.Ural; .ome are emiueulU u-elul. and the spec* 8 



all r» iw 



badly 1 



much de- 



veloped in them as in the larg< r animals ; or, living inactive, 



i OF LIMITING 1 



move about. Some live under earth or in homes of their own ; 
all arc endowed with a fecundity which astonishes the imagination 
and which, in every ease, is such" that num. in spite of a--- 
persevering care, cannot even in a small farm, ri.I himself of them, 
nor often even free his house of them, not even a portion of it, 

4. "The grubs and caterpillars, which are more especially the au- 
thors of the damages, live almost entirely concealed under the soil, 
v.. deep in the road, in the stems of plants, in fruits, in 
i os, under silken lets, and onh \>-\y the birds a very 
feeble tribute. Those which are developed in the open air are 
generally hairy, v h i li repels birds ; certain of them are nocturnal 
and disappear before day; others are protected by their excessive 

Perris in another place enumerates other useful animals, and his 
remarks will apply in the main to this country : — 

"There are among the mammalia, the moles, which without 
doubt do some mischief in covering our fields with mole hills . . 
. . . but they benefit us by destroying many insects and 

- c of the soil ; besides the hedge- 
hogs, the field mice, the great-headed field mouse (canapagnol), 
the shrew mice, the bats, which are the more useful, in that they 
are nocturnal." 

He also enumerates certain birds, and the larger number of the 
reptiles, adders, the blind worm, lizards, frogs, rennets, toad and 
turtle. The toads are of especial value as their only diet appears 
to be flies and grasshoppers and other insects. These animals are 
extremely sedentary. Wherever they find a supply of insects 
there they will remain for weeks at a time, as long as the supply 
lasts. On Penikese island, some of the students of the Anderson 
School of Nat ural 1 li > t< >r\ disco\ ered that the stomachs of the num- 
erous toads there were filled with young grasshoppers, and that 
they even hopped down to the shore and fed upon the beach-fleas 
which live under sea-weed between tide-marks. Toads are doubt- 
less of use in devouring canker worms, as they abound under apple 
trees infested by them, and probably devour large quantities when 
the worms descend in June to the earth in order to undergo their 
transformation into the chrysalid state. It would be worth while 
to collect them in large numbers and place them in gardens and 
orchards, as once deposited there, they will remain. 

Before I leave this subject of the agency of birds and other 
vertebrate animals iu maintaining this equilibrium in the numbers 



,is est.-n.lea 
i, \AivS tliat 



bicolor preys upon the Bostrichus of the 
turn on Platypus cylindrus, Rhizophagn 
phar/us piniperda and B. minor, Lcei 
Hyperborus fern, Hypophla>ns pinion n»*t 
finally ILipn^hh "s lupins on Bostrkhus 



e victim which ha? 
" Other heellcexl 

«u* make war on 
e elm, alder bush a 



We would also add among otbei I lie cause of 

agriculture the lady birds, lace-winged flies, Syrphus flies and 
numerous wasps. But the true parasites, the ichneumon and 
Tachina flies, those which live within the bodies of vegetable-eat- 
ing insects, these are the aids which beyond all other influences 
keep in check the noxious kinds. It may be said that each sort 
of caterpillar has its peculiar ichneumon parasite, and some are 
known to have several. Here we have an engine of destruction 
which man can in some measure direct. We have seen that birds 
eat friend and foe indiscriminately. The great practical question 
in applied entomology is how can man breed and disseminate these 
insects, and use them as most potent instruments of warfare against 
insect depredators. This question has been satisfactorily settled 
for the first time by Dr. W. LeBaron, the State Entomologist of 
Illinois. So important and suggestive are his remarks that I 
quote the whole chapter on "The transportation of useful parasitic 
Insects" from his able report for 1873, as it deserves the widest 
dissemination among thinking agriculturists. 

"The idea of rearing the useful parasitic insects, and of trans- 
another, has often presented itself to practical t 



280 nature's means oi 


f LIMITING '. 


of them, indeed, being s 


o minute t 


without the aid of a 'lei 


is. and tin 


. have alwav 




*tion, and hau 


: caused it 


ious than practicable. 




"In the course of o 




louse of the apple tree, i 




chalcis fly, which we <les 




oy.ster-.sliell bark louse, 


'<•/,. <!<■;.« (, 






deadly enemy of the ap] 


•h- tr'ce, \,y 


positing her own ops h 


i the body. 



winter in Ge 

Early in the 
package of 



NATURE S MEANS OF LIMITING THE NUMBERS OF INSECTS. 281 

flies proceeding from these were let loose in three orchards con- 
taining many hundreds of apple trees, we may form some idea of 
• of this experiment. :n d i>i the unoertainU which 
would be likely to attend any observations made for the purpose 




of determining the presence of the chalcides. Even if the exper- 
iment shon eessiul. it would be very doubtful 
whether the chalcis marks \\ould be suilicientlv numerous to be 
detected at the close of the first year, but after this they would be 
likely to multiply in a rapidly increasing ratio. 

"About the last of May. 1872, that is, after the intervention of 
one year from the time of commencing this experiment, Capt. 
Beebe examined some of the trees to which the chalcis twigs had 
been attached, and aft* r a careful si in h thi light t! at he had dis- 
covered a few traces of the operations of the chalcides, and sent 
half a dozen of the twigs bearing these marks to me for inspec- 
tion On the 13th of July, I visited Galena and, in com- 
pany with Capt. Beebe, submitted one of the trees, to which the 
greatest number of the twigs had been attached, to a thorough 
examination. 

"The result, if m s at least extremely 

number of holes in the 
. ■ ' . 

; 
|bree ,,f these holes upon the same twig, within a space of four 

u In cond ate a nature I am well 

aware that the greatest caution must be cxer. ised to avoid j mipii g 
to hasty conclusions, and that the observations of a number of 
succeeding years will be necessary before we can arrive at a defi- 
nite conclusion that tl.. e\p riment has been followed by a prac- 
tical as well as scientific success. 

"At the close of the author's article upon the oyster-shell bark 
louse, in his first annual report, after speaking of the absence of 
3, in the northernmost part of the state, 
and of the possible practicability ^>^' transporting them thither, 
^e concluded uiih :|- f,.i:..«ini u-n-ark: 'The absence of the 
chalcis of the bark louse, in thi- u excellent 

opportunity for test ing transporting it thither 



ZZAED. 283 

The species is thoroughly distinct from its nearest ally, B. bore- 
alis : it never gains the red tail, so charjclerislic of the latter, and 
differs in other points of coloration in its several stages of plu- 
mage, as noted beyond. Although its linear dimensions inter- 
grade with those of the red-tail, it is not so heavy nor so large a 
bird, and its shape differs in some points. A tangible and very 
convenient distinction, to which my attention was first called by 
Mr. Ridgway, and which I have verified in numerous instances, is 
found in the emargination of the primaries. As stated in my late 
work (Key N. A. Birds, p. 217), Swainson's buzzard has only 
three emarginatc primaries, while the red-tail has four; the fourth 
quill of the former, like the fifth of the latter, is variously sinuate- 
tapering, but never shows the decided nick or emargination of the 

The following measurements, taken in the flesh, illustrate the 
sexual difference and other variations in size : Largest adult 9 22 
inches long, 54 in extent, the wing 16 ; other females respectively 
21-50X51-75X16-25. . . . 21-00X53-00X15-75 . . . .20-50X51- 
00X15-25. . . .19-O0X49-00X13-50; but this last one was an 
ungrown young. Adult <J 19-00 to 20-00 long, by about 49-00 
in spread of wing, the latter 15-00 and a little more. In both 
sexes, and at all ages, the eye is brown, but of varying shade— I 
have seen no approach to a yellow iris. In the old birds the feet, 
together with the cere, gape, and base of under mandible are rich 
chrome yellow ; the rest of the bill, and the claws, being bluish 
black. In the young of the year these yellow parts are much 
duller— grayish yellow, or yellowish ch^-color. Most of the old 
birds I have skinned had the integument of the lower belly largely 
bare, j'ellowish in color, hardened and thickened with warty ex- 
crescences ; this disease seemed the rule rather than the exception. 
Unfledged nestlings are covered with white fluffy down ; the first 
feathers to appear on the under parts show the characteristic color 
and markings of the formerly supposed species, "B.Bairdii." 
(The various plumages are given beyond.) A moult occurs in 
August and September ; it is protracted, the feathers being very 
grad tallj renewed, almost one by one ; the fresh heavily colored 
feathers contrasting strongly with the ragged and faded ones 
worn during the summer. The young have no moult at this 
season, carrying the pi y leave the nest into 

the winter. I have no observations upon a spring moult which 



284 SWAINS0N 3 BUZZARD. 

probably occurs to both old and young. I took no specimens in 
the melanistic state of plumage in which the bird has been de- 
scribed as another supposed species — B. insignatus; and only 8** 
one in which the entire under parts looked as dark, when the bird 
t\ as ul ng over me, as the pectoral band of the adults is. This 
dark plumage appears to be an individual peculiarity, not a 
normal stage of regular occurrence. 

tioned— even far out on the prairie, miles away from timber, cir- 
cling over head, or perched on the bare ground. In alighting, it 
generally takes advantage of some little knoll commanding a 
view around, though it often has no more prominent place than 
the cart-load of dirt from a badger's hole, from which to east 



of the banks, rising steep on one side and on the othe 

distance of a few yards. The Souris or Mouse River, 
this description, is a favorite resort, where I found the 
numerous than anywhere else. Much of the river hot 
wooded with elm, oak and other large trees ; and tin 
nests found in this timber — sometimes several in sight 
other— would be considered surprising by one not rec< 
that conveniences for breeding are in this country pr 
limited to such narrow tracts. 

heavy shrubbery where a man niay reaeh them from the 

placed thirty <>r forty feet liiu'h. in some stout crotch or.o 






umber oi 
of eacli 



, i0 s of 



varies with the requirements of the Location, being more or less 
conical in an upright crotch, flatter on a fork. The interior hol- 
lowing is slight. An average external diameter may be given as 
two feet, and depth half as much. I was too late for eggs in 
the locality above mentioned ; the only nest I found with anything 
in it contained two half-Hedged young. This was on the 15th of 
August — so late as to induee the belief that perhaps two broods 
may be reared in a season, especially as before this date 1 had ob- 
serve! 1 many full grown yearlings on the wing. This nest built 
about forty feet high, in an oak tree, was very untidy, matted in- 
side with excrement and the scurfy exfoliation from the growing 
feathers of the youngsters, and encumbered with portions of sev- 
eral gophers. The nestlings were too young to make any resist- 
ance beyond a menacing hiss and a very mixed flapping when 
they were unceremoniously pitched out. The mother was shot 
near the nest with a pistol-ball, but her partner kept prudently 
out of the way. This bird had not reached her mature plumage. 
The young had been well cared for ; their crops were full of go- 
pher-meat at the time, and they were very fat. 

In July, I had a live young one in captivity, at about the age 
of these two ; and early in August, I possessed a completely feath- 
ered and full grown bird of the year, probably hatched in May. 
This shows that either two broods are reared, or that the laying 
season runs through most of the summer. This grown young one 
made rather an acceptable capture for some days, as he was trim 
an 1 shapely, with a fine eye and general military bearing, as well 
as an excellent appetite. But then he was bad-tempered, took the 
most civil advances unkindly, and would not even fraternize with 
a pair of very well disposed and sensible owls that were picketed 
with him. At last, when he so totally failed to appreciate his po- 
sition as to use his claws with painful effect, he was summarily ex- 
ecuted. Both this and the younger one before him had a peculiarly 
plaintive whistle to signify hunger or a sense of loneliness, a note 
that was almost musical in intonation. This was the only cry I 
heard from them ; the old birds have the harsh loud scream, much 
alike in all our large hawks'. 

The quarry of Swainson's buzzard is of a very humble nature. 
I never saw one stoop upon a wild-fowl or grouse, and though they 
probably strike rabbits, like the red-tails, their prey is ordinarily 
nothing larger than gophers. Though really strong and sufficiently 



fierce birds, thoy lack the ••• 
I saw ono make the attempt 



SWAINSON S BUZZARD. 

Under parts, including lining of wings, nearly unifo 
dull yellowish-brown ':, thickly ami sharply marked w 
These large dark spots, for the most part circular « 



Adults (either sex). Upper parts dark brown, ver 

grayish or even n lish >i >wn < doings of the feathe 



strong contrast 



FOSSIL HORSES IN AMERICA 



vn fact that the Spanish discoverers of America 
m this continent, and that the modern horse 



in the old lake hasins which the. 


1 covered so much 


of that country. 


The most ancient of these lak< 
remained so long in Eocene tinn 


is that the mud ai 


ng and Utah— 
id sand, slowly 

i vertical thick- 



developed in both sexes, and the incisors did not have the "mark" 
which indicates the age of the modern horse. The radius and 
ulna were separate, and the latter was entire 
throughout its whole length. The tibia and fibula 
were distinct. In the fore foot, all the digits ex- 
cept the pollex, or first, were well developed, as 
shown in the accompanying figure (73) of the left 
fore foot of Orohippus o-jilla Marsh. The third 
digit is the largest, and its close resemblance to 
that of the horse is clearly marked. The terminal 
phalanx, or coffin bone, has a shallow median 
groove in front, as in many species of this group 
in the later Tertiary. The fourth digit exceeds Orohippoa 
the second in size, and the fifth is much the shortest 
of all. Its metacarpal bone is considerably curved outward. In 
the hind foot of this genus, there are but three digits. The fourth 
metatarsal is much larger than the second. 

The only species of Orohippus at present known are from the 
Eocene of "Wyoming ami I. tali, and are as follows: — Orobq T us 
(jracilix Marsh, 0. pumilus Marsh, 0. O'jilis Marsh, and 0. major 

In the middle Tertiary, or Miocene, there were two other lakes 
on either side of the great Eocene basin. The largest of these 
was east of the Rocky Mountains, extending over portions of 
what are now Dakota, Nebraska and Colorado. The clays depos- 
ited in this lake form the " Mauvaises terres" or "Bad lands," of 
that region, and are well known for their fossil treasures. The 
other Miocene lake was west of the Blue mountains, where eastern 
Oregon now is, but its extent is unknown, as this whole region 
has since been covered with a vast sheet of basalt, a thousand or 
more feet in thickness, and the original lake sediments are only to 
be seen where this lava has been washed away. In both of these 
ancient lake basins, many remains of animals allied to the horse 
are found, showing that during the Miocene this group of mam- 
mals were well represented. 

In the western, or Oregon basin, the genus Miohippus Marsh 

first makes its appearance. It resembles Orohippus of the 

Eocene in its general characters, especially in the shape of the 

aber and form of teeth, and separate ulna; but it had 



290 FOSSIL HOItS] 

only three toes in the fore foot, 

was coossified with the tibia at i 

toes reached the 

panying figure of 




are so largely i 11-: Kl >t l< 1 A-r 
our present knowledge of this group. Of these Pliocene genera, 
more titan twenty species have been described from American 
strata, all apparently larger than their Miocene relatives, but all 
smaller than the present horse, and many of them approaching 
the ass in size. Among the more characteristic of these species 
may be mentioned, Anchippus Texanus Leidy, from Texas ; A. 
brevidens Marsh, from Oregon ; Hipparion occidentale Leidy, and 
H. speciosum Leidy, from Nebraska ; Protoliippus perd.it us Leidy, 
from the Niobrara ; P. parvulus Marsh, from Nebraska, the 
smallest Pliocene species ; Parahippus cognatus Leidy, and Plio- 
hippu.s 2" 3 mix Marsh, from the Niobrara. 

In the upper Pliocene, or more probably in the transition beds 
above, there first appears a true Equus, and in the < Quaternary de- 
posits, remains of this genus are not uncommon. Five or six 
species are known from the United States, and several others from 
Central and South America. The latest extinct species appears 
to have been Equus fraternus Leidy, which cannot be distinguished 
anatomically from the existing horse. These later extinct horses 
are all larger than the Pliocene Equines, and some of them even 
exceeded in size the living species. 

The large number of equine mammals now known from the 
Tertiary deposits of this country, and their regular distribution 
through the subdivisions of this formation, afford a good opportu- 
nity to asi of the modern horse. 
The American representative of the latter is the extinct Equus 
fraternus Leidy, a species almost, if not entirely, identical with 
the old world Equus caballus Linn., to which our recent horse be- 
longs. Huxley has traced successfully the later genealogy of the 
horse through European extinct forms,* but the line in America 
was probably a more direct one, and the record is more complete. 
Taking, then, as the extremes of a series, Orohippus ayilis Marsh. 
from the Eocene, and Equus fraternus Leidy. from the Quaternary, 
intermediate forms may be intercalated with considerable cer- 
tainty from the thirty or more well marked species that lived 
in the intervening periods. The natural line of descent would 
seem to be through the following genera: — Orohippus, of the 
Eocene ; Miohippus and Anchitheri'un, of the Miocene ; Anchippus, 



Protohippus and Pliohippus^ of the Pliocene; and 
Eqims, Quaternary and recent. 

The most market! changes undergone by the successive equine 
genera are as follows : 1st, increase in size ; 2d, increase in speed, 
through concentration of limb bones; 3d, elongation of head and 
neck, and modifications of skull. The increase in size is remark- 
able. The Eocene Ornhippnx was about the size of a fox. Mio- 
hippus and Anchitherium, from the Miocene, were about as large 
as a sheep. Ilippurion and J^iohi^ms, of the Pliocene, equalled 
the ass in height : while the size of the Ouaternai y E'juu.f was fully 
up to that of the modern horse. 

The increase of speed was equally marked, and was a direct 
result of the gradual modification of the limbs. The latter were 




the equine series, taken in succession from each of the geological 
periods in which this group of mammals is known to have lived. 

The ancient Orohippus had all four digits of the fore feet well 
developed. In Miohippus, of the next period, the fifth toe has 
red, or is only represented \>y a rudiment, and the limb is 
supported by the second, third and fourth, the middle one being 
the largest. Hipparion, of the later Tertiary, still has three digits, 
but the third is much stouter, and the outer ones have ceased to be 
of use, as they do not touch the ground. In Eqims, the last of 
the series, the lateral hoofs are gone, and the digits themselves 
are represented only by the rudimentary splint bones.* The 
middle, or third digit, supports the limb, and its size has increased 
accordingly. The corresponding changes in the posterior limb of 
these genera are very similar, but not so striking, as the oldest 
type {Orohippus) had but three toes behind. An earlier ancestor 
of the group, perhaps in the lowest Eocene, probably had four 
toes on this foot, and five in front. Such a predecessor is as 
clearly indicated by the feet of Orohippus, as the latter is by its 
Miocene relative. A still older ancestor, possibly in the Creta- 
ceous, doubtless had five toes in each foot, the typical number in 
mammals. This reduction in the number of toes may, perhaps, 
have been due to elevation of the region inhabited, which grad- 
ually led the animals to live on higher ground, instead of the soft 
lowlands where a poly dactyl foot would be an advantage. 

The gradual elongation of the head and neck, which took place 
in the successive genera of this group during the Tertiary period, 
was a less fundamental change than that which resulted in the re- 
duction of the limbs. The process may be said to have already 
began in Orohippus, if we compare that form with other most 
nearly allied mammals. The diastema, or " place for the bit," was 
well developed in both jaws even then, but increased materially in 
succeeding genera. The number of the teeth remained the same 
until the Pliocene, when the front lower premolar was lost, and 
subsequently the corresponding upper tooth ceased to be function- 
ally developed. The next upper premolar, which in Orohippus 
was the smallest of the six posterior teeth, rapidly increased in 
size, and soon became, as in the horse, the largest of the series. 
The grinding teeth at first had very short crowns, without cement, 



tedi&te form. It is, of course, impossible to say with cc 
irongfa which of the three-toed genera of the Pliocene thi 
jgether, the succession came. It is not impossible that t 



PART III. GENEVA AND THE ALPS. 
Acter a month of wandering through Swit/ 1! i id unci northern 
Italy, I have, at length, settled in this charming city for the purpose 
of more systematic botanical study than one is likely to under- 
take in such resorts as Grindelwald and Zennatt. 1 arrived in 
Switzerland from Munich about the middle of July, and reached 
Grindelwald on the 20th, when the alpine vegetation was in full 
bloom, and I think I never saw such a display of wild tlowers as 
was then to be found in almost all the high pastures, or Alps 
proper, and, still higher up, on exposed rocks just below the snow 
line. For the European botanist, who is only in search of rarities. 
Zermatt is much richer than Grindelwald. In general. Dauphiny 
is more favorable for the botanist than Switzerland itself, but to 
an American, who must, at least, see Switzerland and who wishes 
to get a good general idea of the alpine flora at the same time, 
no place seems to me better adapted than Grindelwald. The 
valley is easily and quickly reached and, only a few steps from the 
village, is the moraine of the lower glacier which, by a constant 
recession (according to the guides) for twenty years, has left ex- 
posed a mass of rocks on which, but more particularly along 
their border, may be found numerous alpine an 1 sub-alpine plants. 
Amongst the most beautiful and common, are Unarm alpiaa DC. 
and Epilobivm Fleischeri Ilochst. which attract the eye of non- 
botanical travellers, and even of the guides themselves. To the 
left of the moraine (looking up) and along the path leading to 
the mer de glace one can without fatigue collect alpine plants to 
his heart's content, including even the famous Edelweiss, Leontopo- 
dhtm ulpinum Cass., unless he arrives a little late in the season, in 
which case, every trace of it will have disappeared under the dev- 
astations of guides and tourists. For my part, I can't see the 
least beauty in the flower, and it was a great annoyance to have a 
handful thrust into my face every few minutes by some enter- 
prising, but not over-polite, Swiss boy. It does very well, how- 
(295) 



ever, for the guides to wear a sprig in Hit 
such a decided alpine look and, then, it i 
one has heard about the chamois hunters \vl 
gathering the Edelweiss growing about Ik 
pices, nobody knows how many thousand 

class have probablv retired to the remote: 

without great risk of life or limb ; for whil. 

effect is produced l, v the 'ju-intit ies of r/„i) 



NOTES FROM THE JOURNAL OF A BOTANIST IN EUROPE. 297 

in vain, even in the richest localities, for a glimpse at the wonder- 
ful profusion and brilliancy of the mountain flora. Single spec- 
imens of many and some even rare species may then be found, 
but the flowers will have ceased to be a feature of the landscape. 
The lichenologist will find superb specimens of Evernia divaricate 
m fruit in the forest between Grindelwald and the Rosenlaui 

I regret not having had time to explore the St. Gothard for 
lichens wlm-h are said to be interesting in that region. The rocks 
below the celebrated Devil's Bridge were covered with Gyrophorm, 
mostly common species, however. The richest botanical field of 
Switzerland which the American is likely to visit is Zermatt, 
at the foot of Monte Rosa. Here, there is enough to catch the 
eye of the traveller, but the species for which Zermatt is partic- 
ularly famed must be diligently sought, and one who expects to 
examine this region profitably must make up his mind to stay at 
least a week. Interesting plants are found on the road from Visp 
to Zermatt and, at least, the first half of the way, as far as St. 
Niklaus, had better be made on foot for that reason. The Riffel- 
berg is interesting in the season but, by the middle of August, 
not very much is to be found. The Pinus cembra of this moun- 
tain, and the larches whose trunks are gay with Evernia vulpina, 
are certainly worth seeing. 

As far as botany is concerned, Chamounix is very uninteresting, 
although the lichens are tolerably numerous. The Flegere is al- 
most stupid in its monotony, and the only plant of any interest is 
the fern Allosorus crispus, abundant just before entering the forest. 
Attracted by the name «le Jardin," I started off early one morning 
expecting to return laden with treasures. The scenery was mag- 
nificent, but the so-called garden is destitute of all but common al- 
pine plants, such as Gentiana punctata, G. Bavarica, Linaria 
alpina, etc. The excursion on the whole is fatiguing over the mer 
de glace a fir as can be seen from Montanvert, then, round a 
corner of the Aiguille clu moine to the Telafere moraine, then a 
ul) up the moraine relieved only by the bright flowers of 
Adenostytes albifrons, and across the Telafere glacier to the Jardin ; 
in all, a walk of nine hours over snow, ice and moraines. 

Let me now say a word about the books a traveller had better 
take with him to the botanical districts. I started with Koch's 
"Taschenbuch tier Deutschen und Schweizer Flora," which I found 



298 NOTES FROM THE JOUB1 

to answer the desired object v 
tiquated. It is not in print, 1 
second-hand bookstores of tl 
to lose my "TasclienLtieli ":ui 
stitute at Lucerne. Let me 
wretched "Taschenbegleiter 
Smiler. One might just as \ 
" Railway Guide." At last, 



recentl}', 



er, oall^ 



sides near the city, and the aged M. Duby a short distance up on 
the lake. Besides these is a M. Thane, professor of vegetable 
physiology. The laboratory of the latter has been recently fitted 
up. The botanical garden, although forming a very pleasant play- 
ground for children and their nurses, is hardly what one would 
expect from a city in which three generations of De Candolles 
have lived. It is whispered that the city government prefers to 
use it as a propa- ding garden for the supply of the public squares 
and parks. 

In herbaria the city is very rich, there being, at present, three 
distinct large collections ; the De Candolle herbarium opposite 
the cathedral ; the collection of M. Boissier at his residence ; and 
that of Delessert formerly in Paris. The latter is not yet ar- 
ranged and will be for some time particularly inaccessible. The 
De Candolle herbarium is in two divisions ; the first, from which 
the earlier volumes of the Prodromus were written, remains as a 
classic memorial of that work, no additions or alterations being 
made in it, but all purchases and exchanges are inserted in the 
second herbarium, which contains the materials of the later vol- 
umes. 

The curator of the herbarium is Dr. Muller, whom I found on 
my arrival resting from the fatigue arising from his work on Bra- 
zilian Rubiacea.-. by devoting himself to his favorites the lichens. 
With his assistance I was enabled to study the lichen flora of Ge- 
neva. This excellent botanist and most amiable man has an ex- 
tensive general knowledge of all branches of botany, and does 
not turn up his nose at the smaller plants as beneath his notice. 
In his knowledge of lichens he has few equals in Europe, although 
most of his time is given to the study of phsenogams. The 
Vegetations-punkt mania does not prevail at Geneva as in Ger- 
many, where it affects many of the younger botanists to such an 
extent that they are quite unfitted for practical work. The 
Germans are constantly making the mistake that everything mi- 
croscopic is important, in fact more important than anything else. 

The flora of Geneva is exceedingly interesting, the city being 
situated at a point where a northern and southern flora unite. 
It was too late to study the phanerogams when I arrived, but the 
lichen3 are always in season. A short hour from the city is 
the Pas de l'Echelle leading to the passage between the Grand 
and Petit Saleve. Here is the original station of a number of 



300 NOTES FROM THE JOURNAL OF A BOTANIST IN EUROPE. 

species of lichens. Along the path one sees rocks and stones 
bearing marks of the chisel. These were made by Dr. Miiller 
who points out the identical spot where the first Avipliiloma 
granulosum was found by him, as well as other new species. 
Everywhere lichens abound. In the passage above, between the 
Grand and Petit Salcve, the rocks of the two sides bear different 
species: to the left, the rare Toninia Boissieri, Lynalissa Snli- 
vensis and Omphalaria p'd>'<n(tt(i, and to the right, ninny Verm- 
cariacece. At present, more than a thousand species of lichens 
have been found in the vicinity of Geneva, a very !• 
for a local flora. In one spot a number of holes have been drilled 
into the rocks, and I'rol. Drliurv one dav suggested jokingly, 
that Dr. Miiller was going to blow up the mountain to see if he 
could not find some new speei,- in-ide. To show how thoroughly 
Dr. Miiller has explored this region (pointing to :, led ire of rocks) 
he said that he began :it, one end one Sund:iv, and examined a 
certain tract marking the pine,, where he left' otf. and returned 



Gorge on the Grand Sal.ve. Between the fallen boulders at iw 
foot of the mountain is found ' >> abundance, 

and also the rare fern As V lr„;,', in H,,\u-ri which generally grows 
with Solorina saccata. 

On the opposite side of Geneva from the Salcve and far^ 
distant are the highest summits of the Jura, the Dole, Colombier 
and Reculet. Of these the Dole is the most accessible. The 
ascent is made from St. Cergues about three hours distant from 
Nyonon the lake. The excellent road ascends gradually to St. 
Cergues and affords magnificent view, of the lake and Mt. Blanc. 



;nul l»y mo while 1 was eating, and ask if I liked t ho 
food ? Of course, I had to say it was delicious. The next day, 
QormouB basket with 
a very little luncheon, I went to the summit, passing through 
large forests of Abies excelsa, and pastures full of the beautiful 
Gentiana ciliata. The rocks of the summit were covered with 
lichens, the most striking of which were Biatora rupestris, var. 
calva, Verrucaria plumbea, V. Dufourii, Blastema Agardhiana, 
B. nubigena, Caloplaca chalybcea and Biatora Jurana. Having 
disposed of our luncheon, I soon managed to fill the basket, my 
box, and all my pockets to overflowing, to say nothing of two or 
three leaves of Cirsium ferox covered with a Puccinia, and several 
. s whi.il I carried in one hand. The gendarmes did 
not seem to mind the Cladonice and Parmelke much : but I thought 
his countenance fell as he saw the Verrucarm and other mine- 
plants going into the basket which I kindly allowed him 
to carry. Returning to Nyon in the omnibus I managed to in- 
commode my neighbors by the specimens in my coat pockets. In 
my lap was a heap of Cladonim and Peltigerce, and a worthy 
Switzer opposite got his feet entangled in the strap of my bo- 
tanical box, where were my choicest specimens, and I soon saw it 
moving towards the door bottom upwards with the cover open. 
But every one was restored to good nature by a young lady, just 
from Paris, who distributed a package of candy amongst the com- 
pany. 

An interesting locality for lichens is along the Arvc above 
Geneva ; but, at the time of my visit, the stones on which they 
grow were under water. Only in spring can one collect there 
with advantage. During his excursions in the higher Alps, M. Cas- 
imir De Candolle has made some interesting discoveries with 
regard to the height at which lichens grow. He found on the 
summit of Monte Rosa (15,217 ft. high) Amplaloma murorum. 
The upper part of the Schreckhorn (13,386 ft. high) is covered 
with lichens ; so far as is known, however, only common species. 



REVIEWS AND BOOK NOTICES. 

West of the 100th Mkihihax. — We have before us 



Kin, llll<\ A 



Hogie, Corps of Engineers Meteorological; Dr. II. S. Yarrow, 
U.S.A., Surgeon and Naturalist; Dr. J. T. Rothrock, U.S.A., 
Surgeon and Botanist; Dr. Oscar Loew, Chemist and Mineralo- 
gist ; H. W. Henshaw, Assistant Naturalist and Ornithologist ; 
besides a corps of trained collectors. 

The area gone over in 1873 was no less than 76,000 square 
miles, and Lt. Wheeler's work has probably not been surpassed 
for general accuracy and minuteness of detail. Dr. Yarrow's 
name, as that of the officer in charge of Natural History division 
of the work, is suilieient guarantee of the highly creditable manner 
in which that branch of investigation is conducted. His results, 
to many of which we have already enjoyed access, are of great in- 
terest and importance. It is to be earnestly hoped that this great 
and most important work may not be restricted for want of the 
funds needed for its completely successful prosecution. — Elliott 
Coras. 

Check List of Coleoptera.* — A new and revised list of our 
beetles has long been needed, as a convenience in arranging our 
cabinets and facilitating exchanges. Its pul)Ucati< n has also been 
necessitated by the numerous changes which have been made in 
synonymy, mostly based on comparisons made by Dr. LeConte 
in Europe, and others from examinations made by the author. 
Some important changes have been made in the arrangement of 
- 
placed in the Clavicorn series by Mr. Crotch, an important meas- 
ure sanctioned by Drs. LeConte and Horn, while the weevils are 
placed at the end of the series in accordance with the views of 
Dr. LeConte. 

Dictionary of Elevations of the United States. f— Though 
of special value to physicians, this book will be useful to those 
interested in the geogrr plants and animals, 

as the elevations of many point-, particularly in the Rocky Moun- 



addition to elevations, the latitude :ind menu annual temperatur 
of many localities. We notice some inaccuracies and omission 
in comparing it with "Gannetl's List of Klevations" published b; 
Hayden's Survey, those relating to the heights of prominen 
mountains being inexcusable. These, with tyi)ographical an< 

Flora of Colorado.*— The inhabitants of the far west am 
eastern tourists will have reason to thank Dr. Ilayden for th 
useful series of practical manuals of the natural history of to 
Rocky Mountains he is so energetically pushing on to completer 



in which tl,. the usual very narrow 

linear divisions, while the lower part, barren, has all the character- 
istics of the sterile frond with its " obovate decurrent and crenately 
toothed or incised segments." The abnormal frond is also quite 
as tall as the fertile fronds, which in this fern, it is well known, 
have always much taller stipes than the sterile fronds, lifting them 
high above the latter. 

I was much gratified to behold this dainty graceful fern growing 
in its native haunts — its isolated home. It was now in full per- 
fection, which was not the case at the time of my first visit to the 
island, in May. I observed that it generally grew in clefts or on 
shelves of the outcropping ridges of metamorphosed sandstone, 
partially shaded by trees, and always facing the south. It was 
invariably surrounded with a mass of debris largely formed of the 
decayed fronds of numerous previous generations of the fern, 
while the straw-like stipes of many years remained erect and dry 
encircling the plant below, and no doubt affording it valuable pro- 
tection. — Henry Gillman, Detroit, Michigan. 

Rumex patientia L. This rumex is not mentioned in Wood's 

Botany, and the brief reference to it in the last edition of Gray's 
Manual in connection with Amherst, Mass., suggests that it is 
comparatively rare. It may therefore be interesting to botanists, 
to know that it is not uncommon in Amherst, and at least three of 
the neighboring towns, growing by the roadside or near dwellings. 
And when the writer was at Highgate Springs in northwestern 
Vermont during the past season, it was everywhere as abundant 
and apparently as much at home as any of our introduced ru- 
mices.— H.G.J. 

The Northernmost Flowering Plants.— Dr. Bessels, of Hall's 
Arctic expedition, collected according to a note in "Nature" by 
Dr. J. D. Hooker, four plants from the east side of Smith's Sound 
in latitude 8'2° N. They are Draba alpina L., Cerastium alpinum 
L., Taraxacum dens-leonis Def. var. and Poaflexuosa Wahl. This 
is the most northern locality where any phanerogamous vegeta- 
tion has been found. 

The Small-flowered Parnassuain Michigan.— In the summer 
of 1866, I made the interesting discovery of the small-flowered 
grass of Parnassus (Parnassia parviflora DC), at White-fish Bay, 
Wisconsin, on the northwest shore of Lake Michigan. The 



306 BOTANY. 

elegant little plants grew in patches of moss, in clefts of the rock, 
within reach of the spray from the lake. 

As I was the first to discover this flower on Lake Michigan (in 
Wisconsin), so now, I believe, I am the first to find it in the state 
of Michigan, and thus have the pleasure of adding to its flora this 

rather abundantly on Grand Island, Michigan, along the high ulitfs 
of red Potsdam sandstone ovorhnmiiiur hah'' Superior. At this 
date some of the plants are in full flower, others have gone to 
seed, while a number have flower-buds still unexpended. 
I wish to call attention to the number of the sterile fill 



! taken from the Smithsonian Contributions to Knowl- 



Aflectrum hyemale again. — Of the thirty plants of JpUctrum 
hyemale Nutt., transferred to my garden from the woods north of 
Detroit, on the 20th of April, 1873, mention of which has already 
been made in the Naturalist, but two sent up flower scapes and 
of those but one came to perfection. The petals of this expanded 
on the 5th of June. The other scape proved abortive, the raceme 
not appearing from the sheath. 

At the date of October 1st most of the new leaves of my plants 
were from one inch to three inches above ground, while some were 
only just protruding from the earth. The plants seem to be quite 
healthy. 

Numerous communications, received from various places since 
the printing of my note, are mostly confirmatory of the opinion I 
had arrived at as to the rarity of the blossoming. 

As a generally accepted opinion is that this plant is not found 

in Massachusetts. I would here say that I have lately been informed 

\u>\it\ that there is but one known station for it in 

that state, viz., Amherst, where for two or three seasons it has 

been collected in flower. * 

I omitted mentioning in my former note that on June 30, 
1870, I collected in our woods a single withered scape with pods, 
of the previous season, showing that the plant had flowered there 
in I860.— Henry Gillman, Detroit, Michigan. 

Development op Ferns without Fertilization.— At a late 
meeting of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, Prof. 
Gray communicated a paper by his former pupil, Dr. W. G. 
Farlow, now in Germany, on the development of ferns from the 
prothallium irrespective of fertilization, by a sort of parthenogen- 
esis. The growth observed took place, not from an archegonium, 
but from some other part of the prothallium. 

Lobelia syphilitica var. alba. — In 1868 I found near Prince- 
ton, N. J., a single plant of Lobelia syphilitica v. alba, which must 
be very rare in this country. It was found among many other 
plants bearing blue flowers— though in this case they were perfectly 
white — and continued to bear white flowers for three years as did 
also the seedlings from this plant. After this time I lost sight of 



the plants. Paxton (Bot. Diet.) instances the var. alba, but 
American authors do not look upon it as a permanent variety.— 
J. S. Hough. 

ZOOLOGY. 

Olive-sided Flycatcher. — In the December number of the 
Naturalist Mr. C. Hart Merriam, in remarking on < 'jutopus 
borealis, states, that he obtained a fine specimen at East 
Massachusetts, and asks if this species lias ever been taken in 
Massachusetts before. 

During the past three or four years I have observed each year 
several specimens of this beautiful flycatcher in the vicinity o( 
Cambridge, Mass., and although I consider this a rare bird with 
us, I am inclined to think a few breed within the limits of the 
state every year. I have always observed it in May or June, 
though specimens have been captured here; in the fall. 

With us it is a very wary and shy species when it first arrives 
from the south, freijuent inn the topmost branches of tail fives, am! 



mens there in the course of a few hours. 

On the 23d of June, 1873, I had an unusual opportunity of ob- 
serving a pair of Contopus borealis in Belmont, Mass. For sev- 
eral days previous I had heard one of the flycatchers a 
peculiar call from a hillside which was sparsely covered with firs- 

On the above date, as I was passing that locality, 1 
the notes of tins bird in nearly the same pli.ee, and thinking rt 
must be breeding I approached "in the direction of the sound, and 



309 

gently I was unable to find the nest. I am aware that there have 
been several nests round in eastern Massachusetts, though this 
must certainly be its most southern breeding range. 

I have thought the species must leave us on their southern mi- 
gration by the first of September, though I saw one specimen at 
Moosehead Lake. Maine, as late as the 1st of Oct., 1873, at which 
period the weather was quite cold, water freezing round our camp 
most every night. — Rltuvkx I)i-:a\e, Cambridge, Mass. 

The Olive-sided Flycatcher.— At the close of an article on 
Contopus boretdis, which appeared in the December number of the 
Naturalist (page 750), I made the inquiry "Has this species ever 
been obtained in Massachusetts before ? " Since then I have as- 
certained that specimens of it have been collected in eastern 
Massachusetts by Mr. C. J. Maynard, Win. Brewster, Esq. and 
others, and that it occasionally breeds within the state. 

In addition to the note previously described, Mr. Nuttall said ; 
"The female had a whistling, oft-repeated, whining call of 'pit 'pu, 
then varied to 'fit 'pip, and 'pip 'jni, also at times 'pip 'pip 'pu, 
'pip [p/p 'pip, 'j>u 'pu 'pip, or 'tu 'tu 'tit, and 'tu 'tu. The male, 
besides this note, had, at long intervals, a call of seh 'pliebee or 
Vi 'phebea." It is such a difficult undertaking to represent accu- 
rately the note of a bird by means of letters, that no two persons 
describe that of the same species by the same characters, although 
when pronounced, the syllables generally give the same sound. 
Thus Mr. Nuttall's call of 'h 'phebea is undoubtedly the same as 
! by myself as wh&f. His imitation of the note of 
the female bird is most excellent : I have heard it many times and 
omitted giving it only because I neglected to write it down while 
in the field, and it will never do to trust to memory for such 
matters.— C. Hart Merriam. 



MICROSCOPY. 

Ok the Structure of Diatoms.— It is hoped that the publica- 
tion of the following memoranda will serve the double purpose of 
elucidating the structure of the tests, and at the same time de- 
monstrating the utility of microscopical objectives of exceptionally 
high powers. The uncertainty of the footing in this unstable and 
contested ground will necessitate many errors, and may serve as 



310 

an excuse for them. So many competent microscopies have 
written upon this subject that the writer would fain be silent were 
it not for a firm belief in the superiority of the instrument he 
used, for this kind of investigation. I n fat-t this excellent glass 
gives advanced work on almost every tesl tried, ami f 
the confidence reposed in it. The observations reeorded below, 
unless where otherwise stated, were made with a Tolles' -V> im- 

Tolles' two inch eye-piece, tdvin'-;' an amplification of i'.~>'-> dianie- 

Eitporlisriis Anjnz. — My attention was especially called to this 

Mr. Henry J. Slack, Mr. Samuel Wells and Mr. Charles Stodder. 



light the '-four spherules" arc plainlv seen to be dark openings 



more regular near th latom or appears so by 

reason of the simpler character of the structure in that part. 
They are easily seen with the ¥ V on any part of every specimen 
studied, hut are unusually distinct between the ''four spherules" 
on the inner plate looking through the largest openings in the 
. outer plate ; or may be rendered still more distinct on shells with 
the concave side up. They are more difficult to be seen on the 
outside crust with the hi^h powers used because of its greater 
opacity. Deductions from focal changes with reference to the 
various markings lying in different focal planes corroborate the 
conclusions above expressed. 

The disks examined are on M611er's Probe-Platte and on a slide 
prepared by Mr. Wells. 

Byalodiscus subtilis Bailey.— On this beautiful little shell the 
"engine rulings" are readily seen with almost any illumination. 
and the inevitable con. omitant of intersecting lines, whether real 
or illusory beading are displayed. When we use monochromatic 
light the whole scene is changed. The hyaline portion of the disk 
is instantly resolved into perfectly well defined hexagons, radiat- 
ing from the central nucleus. The central part because of its 
greater depth and complexity is only resolved into irregularly 
shaped spaces of a more or less hexagonal form. Every one of 
the five beads usually seen represents the centre of an hexagonal 
plane exactly as in Pleurosigma angulatum. 

The hexagons are well defined with a power of 7,000 diameters. 
They may also be seen with lamp or daylight. 

Triceratium favus.~The two sets of markings on this fasci- 
nating object ct duly lit in lit rent! d planes (set Carpenter, 
"The Microscope," 4th ed., p. 282 and note) and probably "be- 
long to two distinct layers." The coarse hexagonal ridges are 
found to project from the outer or convex surface, and the inner 
plate bears the minute markings. This is proved by the fact that 
the fine markings show decidedly the plainest on valves that are 
mounted with the interior surface uppermost. 

Under this superior objective the finer markings like the larger 
We distinctly faveolate. Their hexagonal structure is easily seen 
even with lamp illumination. When examining comparatively thick 
shells, posse-sing a complex structure, like the one in question, the 
necessity for avoiding errors caused by too intense or by exces- 
sively oblique light becomes at once apparent. The unequal 



refraction of the light in passing through the extern; 
layer prodn ge upon and of the interi 

In this manner distorted small hexagons may be seen along the 
lines of the larger net-work by a lens incapable of clearly dis- 
playing the minute hexagonal markings above described. 

The best results are obtained on the T. faints with a moderate 
light nearly central. 

Surirella gemma. — This beautiful form has been subjected to 
all the different conditions of illumination in my possession. 
Like other relatively thick shells the appearances presented by the 
markings vary greatly with the changing conditions of observa- 
tion. No trouble is experienced in bringing out the !<• 
strite, nor in making the little beauty seem to " wear beads." At 
times the beads give place to rectangles, and again 

croscope," Carpenter, page |,s->). llarl nark's hexagons as figured 
are too much elongated; although sometimes such an appearance 
is presented when the illuminating pencil is at right angles with 

tible. When the light is so arranged a/to show every side with 



i of BrightwelUn Johnsonii 



equal perfection t 






hexagons. 






The Amici pris 




found to woii 


and when it is us 


ed wi 




slightly elongatec 


i hex 


agons are ea 


frustule. 






Aulacodiscus K 


if ton!. 


L— This sple 


angular figures e^ 


idenl 


:ly elevations 


lines are undouh 


tedly 


depressions. 


circular, others squan 


;, some pent 



MICROSCOPY. 313 

With the ainmoni-sulphat 
shown covered in every t 
Balticum. 

's.— The specimens of this variety, in my 
difficult than Frustulia Soxonica and even 
rival A. i>elbioi<hi under lamp illumination, but any clean frustule 
is satisfactorily resolved. 

Using monochromatic light with plain mirror and Wenham's 
•discovered. After careful mtnip- 
ulation both sets of lines are seen at the same time, and an ap- 
pearance of beading results. 

Xavlcula cuspidata. — Both sets of lines are easy, but the longi- 
tudimd are much ■ ' transverse. Conse- 

quently the I qo semblance 

of beading is to be seen. In diatoms where the intersecting stria} 
are of nearly equal fineness the little square spaces, when not well 
defined, seem circular, and if the illumination l.»y tran-s 
■ 

Mr. Charles Stodder called my attention to this diatom with the 
view of ascertaining with the ^ whether or not the two sets of 
lines lie in different focal planes. My observations many tim%s 
repeated have convinced me that they are never both in focus at 
the same time, and further that tL I are on the 

external surface and the transverse on the internal plate. If there 
are not two plates the lines may be on opposite surfaces of the 
same plate. 

White cloud illumination is found to be much better than other 
and more brilliant light for demonstrating these slight differences 
in focal distances. 3Iai \ < i 'ors of inti rpretation are avoided by 
using an approximately central pencil when the instrument used 
is capable of elucidating all the details of structure without 
greater obliquity. 

Frustidio ion to my observation of longitudi- 

nal lines upon this test and resolution into dots (Naturalist, 
July 1873, page 443) it may be worth noting that even with lamp 
illumination the -fa has displayed the transverse much clearer than 
they appear in Dr. Woodward's photo-print. (Lens, vol. i, p. 197.) 
With oblique light direct from a small German student's lamp, 
without mirror, prism or condenser of any kind, a person entirely 
unaccustomed to the microscope could distinctly see them with 



Beck No. 3 eye-piece, power 7,000 times. Wi 
sulphate of co] todinal lines a 

played with ease. 

This is one of the most difficult test diatoms 
ranking but little easier than A. pellv'ulu, X. 

to confirm the observations of longitudinal 1 in 
difficult test shell, but never lias succeeded in se< 
cept with the blue cell and Wenham's parabolo 
under favorable circumstances. (See I. E. ! 
Lens," April, 1873, page 115. See also the > 
1873, page 31G.) When resolution is effected, 
ceedingly mi mile and uniform in size, showing : 
light when magnified 2;") 00 times. On one oecasi 



One obst 


aele in the wa 


\ of res 


is the prese 


nice of diffrac 


(ion lin 


increases this difficulty. 


Only 


after many 


discouraging 


failures 


the reward 


of success. 




Nitzschia 


curvula 8m.- 


-The 


pearances i 


in this object 


leads i 


complicated structure as 


yet be} 


The extreme fineness of 


the Ion 


the transv* 


sree reminds 


one Of 


is the case 


with the coa 


rser sh 


semblance i 


of beading. 




8triateUa 


intijnmrtiihi.- 


-Two 


rection of 


the light, is o 




beads or * 


pares. In p 


■-int Of 


approach 8 







jpect that it possesse 



MICROSCOPY. 315 

pletely illustrated as the stage is resolved, in whatever direction 
the beam of light may fall. 

Stauroneis.— Some of the larger varieties of 8. phoenicenteron 
are covered with hexagonal areola easily exhibited with central 
daylight. The projecting points of the fractured partitions be- 
tween the hexagons may be observed. 

Pleurosigma angulatu m .—Hexagons. The line of fracture gen- 
erally running around them, but quite often through them. 

Pleurosigma Balticum. — A drop of water slowly advancing by 
capillary attraction shows this shell to be covered frith squares, 
and proves that both sets of lines forming the boundaries of the 
squares are on the same surfs 
presented by an air bubble \ 
to be smooth. 

Pleurosigma formosum. — Near the ends of the frustule it is 
easy under certain adjustments of the light to make it appear like 
a checker-board with alternate bright red and green squares. 
Double rows of green and red bes be seen on 

this as well as on other species of the same genus. (Dr. Pigott 
in M. M. Journal.) When we resort to central light from a white 
cloud, and thus lessen the liabilities to* err caused by refraction, 
diffraction, decomposition of light. ' ion of shad- 

ows, the conclusion is arrived at that these various appearances 
are caused by two sets of intersecting diagonal ridges, the finer 
ridges running up and clown over and between the coarser, and 
subject to considerable variation even on the same frustule. This 
theory would also account for the " beads "(?) being of different 
colors, and the same " beads " changing color when the focus is 
changed. We see in many of the mollusks shell-markings of a 
a racter. 
Concluding remarks. — It would seem that the perfect box-like 
form of the shells of the Diatomacese and their elaborate orna- 
mentation would exclude the idea of a blind process of chemical 
crystallization. Analogy should teach that they are -ecretedfor a 
protective covering for" the tender animal-like plant, as among 
higher forms. If this is true the surface markings ought to be so 
distributed as to give additional strength to the shell without 
greatly adding to its weight. It would also be expected that 
some of the larger shells would be perforated with holes. This 
idea, of course, would have to admit into the discussion consid- 



erations of habits of growth, and environments. Those contained 
in gelatinous envelopes should be less developed in strength of 
shell and bracing. Those growing on algrc and in exposed local- 
ities should be strong to resist fracture. On those moving free 
the bracing would be in proportion to the weakness of the shell: 
larger shells being relatively more liable to be broken. Here as 
elsewhere nature without waste of material combines utility with 
beauty.— G. W. Morehouse. 



copists, Mr. Jno. II. Martin, of the Maidstone Micro-assay Lab- 
distribution of his well-known unmounted objects. Persons desir- 
ing to prepare their own objects can thus obtain a large variety of 
interesting materials at a very small cost. A stock of objects will 
be kept for immediate distribution, ami articles that may he out 
Of stock furnished as soon as thev can be obtained from abroad. 



A RARE opportunit v is oll'cred botani.-i - or sci entitle lnsumuu" 
of purchasing the cryptogamic herbarium of Dr. Duby (author of 
Botanicon Gallicum, etc.), containing the cellular cryptogams 
of all families except the mosses. 

This collection contains first, in eighty-five packag< 
barium of Dr. Wallroth, and includes all the species 
bvthis savant and publish,, 1 in his "Cryptogamia I 
also that of Xees von Ksenbeck. containing the 
species of the different families (except the lichens and H<1^' 

bcr of fungi (among others almost all the species of Schwomitz... 



tins the specif 



NOTES. 317 

of Carolina, published by Mr. Curtis ; those of Java, collected by 
Mr. Zollinger, at Junglmlia ; those of Bahia, by Mr. Blanched; 
those of Mexico, Guadaloupe, etc., etc., and a large number that 
have not yet been published. 

As to the lichens, there are thirty-five or forty enormous pack- 
ages classified by genera, in which are contained not only all 
those which have served for his "Botanicon Gallieum" but those of 
Nees v. Esenbeck, Flowtow and others; besides large invoices 
of exotic and European lichens from Xylandcr, Kurkr, Zollinger 
and others. The Hepatic® of Nees on which the genera and 
species of the Hepaticology of this savant have been established, 
not perfectly in order, are contained in twenty-six packages, 
classified and labelled, and one package not classified. Lastly the 
alga?, studied with the greatest care, for his "Botanicon" and 
subsequent works, either by himself or Mr. Cronan of Brest, 
enriched with a large number of drawings, composing thirty-five 
to sixty packages, in which are comprised the algae of Australia, 
Ceylon, the Pacific, United States (by Harvey) ; other specimens 
from various countries sent by various savants ; the microscopic 
species of Brebisson and other micrographers. To all this must 
be added twenty-four cartons from M. Lamy de Perignam, con- 
taining many different cryptogams, studied and named by M. 
Montague, de Brebisson, etc. 

AH these treasures which he has been accumulating for fifty • 
years, and prepared for special work of his own, but which the 
study of bryology has caused him to abandon, he will sell for five 
thousand francs. 

As to the mosses the collection is still larger, but he will only 
sell it on condition that it shall remain in his hands daring his 
life. 

We hope the time is coming when rare scientific treasures like 
these will be presented either to the Cambridge, or some other 
accessible herbarium in the United States, by generous persons of 



We reprint, from the " N. Y. Tribune," a portion of the report 
by Prof. E. Weiss of Vienna, who visited this country in 1872 for 
the purpose of acquainting himself with the condition of practical 
astronomy in the United States. The extract well represents 
some of the causes thai ligation in the United 



States, and applies as well to biology as to astronomy. We 
look with a sort of dismay upon the future of biologh 
in America, so few are the earnest. self-sacrificing students who 
are devoting themselves to histology. eini .• '■• \ ■■ ud experi- 
mental biology. When the fortunate moinent arrives, that our 
flora aud fauna are worked up. we liope iur what the French 
would call serious work. Meantime the appeals now before the 

the Zoological Museum at Cambridge, we trust will produce good 



NOTES. 319 

The "Miscellaneous Publications" of the TJ. S. Geological Sur- 
vey of the Territories are as follows. No. 1. List of Elevations 
west of the Mississippi, by II. Gannet. 2. (Unpublished). 3. 
Ornithology of the Territories, by Dr. Elliott Coues (to be issued 
in May). 4. Synopsis of the Flora of Colorado, bj Porter and 
Coulter. 5. Descriptive Catalogue of Photographs of the survey, 
for the years 1809 to 1873, inclusive. 

The Boston Society of Natural History is to republish Ileutz's 
papers on North American Spiders, to be edited by Mr. E. liur- 
gess, with notes and two new plates by Mr. J. II. Emerton, as 
No. 2 of the "Occasional Papers." The work will contain about 
one hundred pages, and have nineteen plates, and the price will 
be $3.00 or $3.50. 

In the April number of the Naturalist I find my name ap- 
pears as the botanist of the Wheeler expedition of 1873, to the 
exclusion of my good friend Prof. John Wolf. This has been by 
accidental omission, I am sure, on the part of the writer of the 
article in question. I did have a certain connection with the 
botanical collection, but the bulk of the work done in that de- 
partment was by Prof. Wolf, whose conscientious labor cannot be 
too highly commended.— J. T. Rothbock. 

The friends of the late Professor Agassiz, the friends of educa- 
tion, propose to raise a memorial to him, by placing upon a strong 
and enduring basis the work to which he devoted his life, the 
Museum of Comparative Zoology, which is at once a collection of 
t-. rivalling the most celebrated collections of the Old 
World, and a school open to all the teachers of the land. 

It is proposed that the teachers and pupils of the whole country 
til ke part in this memorial, and that on the hirthhiy vi' Agassiz, 
the 28th day of May, 1871, they shall each contribute something, 
however small, to the Teachers' and Pupils' Memorial Eund, in 
honor of Louis Agassiz ; the fund to be kept separate, and the 
income to be applied to the expenses of the Museum. 

Pupils' Fund" of the '• Agassiz Memorial," maybe sent to the 
Treasurer, James M. Barnard, Room d. No. 13 Exchange Street, 
Boston. 

Will not every subscriber to the Naturalist contribute his or 
ner mite to this great object ? 



The Anderson School of Natural History will open July 7 and 
close August 29. We learn that over ninety applications have 
been made above the number which can be accommodated. This 
in itself is an appeal to the people to sustain the school. The 
funds of the school arc nearly exhausted in erecting the buildings 
and preparing the necessary outfit. The Director of the school, 
Mr. Alexander Agassiz, now asks the cooperation of all inter- 
ested in education in obtaining from the Legislatures of theirre- 

Boards of Education, a moderate aMnoiniation sav of $5,000, or 



BOOKS RECEI 



T H IE 

AMERICAN NATURALIST. 

Vol. VIII. — JUNE, 1874. -No. 6. 



Many persons are deterred from collecting caterpillars, by the 
difficulty and expense of preserving them in the ordinary way. 
The easy and inexpensive method of blowing up and mounting the 
pellicle is so little known in this country, that at the last meeting 
of the American. Association, only one entomologist besides my- 
self had ever seen the operation ; since then, others have tried it 
and been delighted with its simplicity. In the hope of inducing 
all our entomologists to experiment for themselves, the following 
explanation of the process has been prepared. 

It should be premised that caterpillars may be prepared in this 
way so as to retain their colors far better than by any other method 
and often to be fit subjects at any subsequent time for the artist's 
pencil ; the most delicate processes may be preserved uninjured, 
and the examination of hairy or S] ic even more 

readily than during life. Specimens taken from spirits, unless 
absolutely naked, are always difficult to examine from the matting 
of the hairs ; and the internal organs can seldom be studied, even 
in the rudest manner, unless the greatest care has been bestowed 
upon their preservation ; in fact, no specimen can be fitted by any 
process, for the study of both internal and external organizations, 
and for the latter, no method of preparation compares with that 
of inflation. 



The instruments necessary for the operation, besides the tools 
in the hands of every entomologist, are a small tin oven, a spirit 
lamp, a pair of finely pointed scissors, a bit of rag, a little fine 

The oven is simply an oblong tin box, about 2£ inches high, 2J 
inches wide and 5 inches long ; the cover is of glass, and one end 



of the box is perforated by a circular hole \\ inches in diameter. 
It would be well to have this end of glass, and the opposite end 
should be movable ; the oven rests upon an open standard of 
twisted wire or riveted tin plates, as in the woodcut (Fig. 76). 
No soldering should be used upon the oven or standard, as it would 
malted. Mr. » 




in the woodcut by the t 
» superfluous. 

he wire should be very fin 
ad with green thread and u> 



I sketch, 
movable wire 
but this would 

c best is that 
, r3 . It should 



PRESERVATION OF CATERPILLARS BY INFLATION. 323 

not be more than half a millimetre in diameter ; the cut represents 
it magnified nineteen diameters (Fig. 77). 

The straw. Mr. Goossens of Paris, my courteous instructor in 
this art, who possesses a collection of nearly a thousand species 
of inflated caterpillars, uses nothing but ordinary wheat straw, 
choosing stout, dry pieces of various sizes, the cross section of 
which is perfectly circular ; with these he inflates the smallest 
micros and the largest sphingidae. Various modifications have 
been suggested ; a glass tube drawn to a fine point, and provided 
with a pair of spring clips to attach to the caterpillar, is a favorite 
form ; the Germans use this largely, and sometimes attach the 
caterpillar by threads passed around the anal prolegs. Dr. Le- 
Conte informs me that Dr. Gemminger uses a finely pointed tube 
with an elastic bulb attached like a rubber syringe. Mr. Riley 
suggests (as his drawing represents) still another mode, which is 
to pierce a piece of soft wood along the grain with a fine heated 
wire and then sharpen to a point the tube thus formed, to be in- 
serted in the caterpillar ; a tube is also inserted in the other end 
(see Fig. 76). For myself I prefer the simple straw. 

The operation. Kill the subject by a drop of ether or by a 
plunge in spirits ; if it be a hairy caterpillar it should remain at 
least half an hour in alcohol and then rest on bibulous paper for 
forty-eight hours ; otherwise the hairs drop off in the subsequent 
operation. Then placing the caterpillar in the left hand, so as to 
expose its hinder extremity beyond the gently closed thumb and 
first two fingers, enlarge the vent slightly at the lower edge by a 
vertical cut with the scissors ; next lay the larva either upon bib- 
ulous paper on the table, or upon soft cotton cloth held in the left 
hand, and press the extremity of the body with one finger, always 
with the interposition of cloth or paper, so as to force out any of 
the contents of the rectum ; this process is continued from points 
successively farther back, a slight additional portion of the con- 
tents of the body being gently pressed out with each new move- 
ment ; throughout all this process, great care should be taken lest 
the skin should be abraded by too violent pressure, and lest any of 
the contents of the body soil its exterior or become entangled in 
the hairs or spines ; to avoid the latter, the caterpillar should be 
frequently removed to a clean part of the cloth or paper. When 



324 

a portion of the intestinal tube itself becomes extended it should 
be seized with a pair of strong forceps, and, the head remaining in 
the secure hold of the left hand, the tube should be forcibly bat 
steadily torn from its attachments ; with this, most of the contents 
of the body will be withdrawn and a delicate pressure passing from 
the head toward the tail will reduce the subject to a mere pellicle. 
The alcohol lamp is now lighted and placed in position beneath 
the oven ; a straw is selected, of the proper size to enter the en- 
larged vent, and the tip, after being cut diagonally with sharp 
scissors, is moistened a little in the mouth (to prevent too great 
adhesion of the skin to the straw) and carefully introduced into 
the opening of the caterpillar ; the process may be aided by blow- 
ing gently through the straw. When the skin is slipped upon all 
sides of the straw to the distance of nearly a quarter of an inch, 
without any folding of the skin and so that both the anal prolegs 
protrude, a delicate pin (Edelston and Williams, No. 19, is best) 
is passed through the anal plate and the straw. 

the drying process, which consists ..imply in keeping the cater- 
pillar in the oven extended horizontally upon the straw by blowing 
gently and steadily through the straw, as one uses a bluw-pipe. 
Too forcible inflation will make the caterpillar unsightly In- 
tending unnaturally any spot that may have been weakened or 
bruised in the previous operation ; the caterpillar should be kep 
slowly but constantly turning, and no harm will result from wit - 
drawing the creature from the oven and allowing it to • 
gain breath or rest ; only this relaxation should be very !*>» 
The caterpillar should be first introduced into the oven while 1 
flated by the breath, and so placed that the hinder extremity sha 
be in the hottest part, directly above the flame, for it. is essen i» 
that the animal should dry from behind forward; yet not to- 
gether, for as soon as the hinder part has begun to stiflM*** 

the portion next in front should receive partial attentions 






325 

S**ion, the parts about the head should be the last to dry and 
should be kept over the flame until a rather forcible touch will not 
cause it to bend. 

To secure the best results it is essential that the oven should not 
be too hot, the flame should not be more than an inch high and its 
tip should be one or two inches from the bottom of the oven. 

When the skfn of the caterpillar will yield at no point, it is ready 
for mounting. The pin is removed from the straw and the cater- 



(vhich often adheres I 



' gently i 



moved with some delicate, blunt instrument or with the finger nail. 
A piece of wire a little more than twice the length of the cater- 
pillar is next cut, and, by means of forceps, bent as in Fig. 77, 
the tips a little incurved : a little shellac* is placed at the distal 
extremity of the loop, the wire is held by the forceps just beyond 
this point, so as to prevent the free ends of the wire from spread- 
ing, and they are introduced into the empty body of the cater- 
pillar as far as the forceps will allow ; holding the loop and gently 
opening the forceps, the caterpillar is now pushed over the wire 
with extreme care, until the hinder extremity has passed half-way 
over the loop and the shellac has smeared the interior sufficiently 
to hold the caterpillar in place when dry; the extremities of the 
Parted wires should reach nearly to the head. Nothing remains 
but to curve the doubled end of the wire tightly around a pin with 
a pair of strong forceps and to place the specimen, properly 
labelled, in a place where it can dry thoroughly for two or three 
days before removal to the cabinet. 

For more careful preservation and readier handling Mr. Goossens 
employs a different method, placing each specimen in a glass tube, 
like the test tube of the chemist. The wire is first bent in the 
middle and the bent end inserted in a hole bored in the smaller 
end of a cork of suitable size, so as nearly to pass through it ; the 
loops are then formed as above ; both ends of the cork are var- 
nished, and a label pasted around the portion of the cork which 
enters the tube, thus g en and label from dust, 

and the latter from loss or misplacement. After two or three days 
the cork with the caterpillar attached is placed in its corresponding 
tube and the tube may be freely handled. 



326 

Modifications of this system will occur to every one. Dr. Gem- 
minger uses a syringe for the extraction of the contents as well as 
for the inflation of the emptied skin. For an oven, the Vienna 
entomologists employ an ordinary gas-chimney open at both ends 
and inserted in a sand bath, which prevents perhaps the danger of 
too great heat. 



The family of lish.-s I 
popularly a3 u shiners" 
Delaware river and its t 
species of cyprinoids found in the immediate vicinity of Trenton, 
N. J., convinces us how difficult it is to define clearly the dis- 
tinctive characters of many of these fi>hes, even with a very large 
number of specimens to guide us ; the tendency to vary in color 
and fin arrangement being especially noticeable. Therefore, 
while we have ventured to describe, as new to science, a small cy- 
prinoid, collected by us, for the first time, during the season o 
1873, we have purposely confined our notes to the species gath- 
ered here in large numbers, and not included in several small col- 
lections received from other portions of the state. while, 
therefore, we propose to give the full list of species, found in n 
a small fraction of the state's territory, we believe it really presen s 
the entire cyprinoidal fauna of the state. 

In his admirable svnonais * Prof. Cone mentions twelve species, 






THE CYPRINOIDS OF CENTRAL NEW JERSEY. 327 

varieties that, seen from an evolution standpoint, are well ad- 
vanced to that point, where the "species" commences and the 
"variety" ends. To some of these instances, we will call partic- 
ular attention elsewhere, and remark here that, besides the twelve 
species given by Cope, there are included four well marked species, 
of genera not included in the list referred to, being Hybognathus* 
Agassiz, Albernelhis Girard, and Hyborhynchus Agassiz, these 
making the number of genera, nine, that are represented in the 
Delaware fauna. 

So far as our investigations have enabled us to determine, the 
cyprinoids of the Delaware River, at the head of tide water, and 
in the neighboring streams, are as follows: — 

1. Semotilus rhotheus Cope. "Chub." This is our largest and, 
in the river, our most abundant species. Although the males, in 
spring, are then most highly colored, they do not become at any 
season dull or leaden tinted. We have noticed that the variety of 
tints and general ruddy tinge of the whole fish vary considerably, 
in different streams ; the milky, turbid waters of clay creeks ap- 
pearing to have the effect of keeping down the rich colors that 
make this fish so beautiful from March to June, when found in the 
river or clear spring brooks. Some peculiarities of its coloring 
fade almost immediately, and others change in hue, on taking the 
fish from the water. The first published f description of this fish, 
detailed the colors of a living specimen, which accounts, we sup- 
pose, for the difference in the general appearance as given by us, 
and as noticed by Prof. Cope, | when examining dead specimens. 
The largest specimen we have met with weighed 1 lb. H oz. 

2. Semo<' iill). This " chub " is also an in- 
habitant of several little brooks, sometimes reaching considerable 
size, but never attaining the dimensions of S. rhotheus. As we 
have often noticed with reference to allied species of fishes, so in 
wis instance ; we do not find them i. e., the two species of Semo- 
tilus associated in small streams, nor intimately so, in the river. 
Besides the marked difference in color, the s 
make evident the great difference between this and the p 
which is much more nearly allied to the northern Sem oft 

teus Putnam (Leucosomus pulchellus Girard, et and.) "In Gun- 



328 

ther's Catalogue of Fishes," vol. vii, we find a specimen recorded, 
of S. rlwtlieus, from the Delaware River : and considered the same 
as Semotilus argenteus Putnam. As the specimen is marked 
"Adult," it seems strange such an error should have occurred. 

3. Rhinichthys nasutus (Ayres). Both from the limited number 
of streams, in which it is found, and from the few individuals 
which occur, this is preeminently our rarest species. 

4. RhinicMhys atronastts (Mitchill). "Dace." There are but 
few streams, except in the northern portion of the state, where 
this pretty species may be found. Generally, we have met with 
it, associated with the young Semotilus corporalis, and both it and 
the latter were remarkably successful in escaping from a scoop-net, 
by burroiving under stones, with all the ease of a Melanura in the 
soft mud ; or else by leaping several inches from the water, and 
so passing over the rim of the net. 

5. StUbe Americana (Linne). "Roach." DeKay has described 
astwogencrically distinct fi.dies,* under the names of " Variegated 
Bream" Abramis versicolor, and "New York Shiner" Stilbe chry- 
soleucas, the cyprinoid designated above as Stilbe Americana. The 
two varieties, which are not simply varieties in color, are now 
conceded to be the same species, and it seems Btrange that DeKay 
should have considered these variations of more than specific 
value, when now it is not accorded even that importance. On 
studying the descriptions and figures above referred to, and insti- 
tuting a comparison of these with a very large number of speci- 
mens of this fish, we have satisfied ourselves that there exists » 
well marked tendency to vary in this fish, which verges nearlyt 
that line, beyond which a variety becomes 1 
DeKay's figure, on plate 20, 




examine the figure of Abramis versicolor, we find a fish varying in 
the size and shape of its fins also. 

In studying the very large collection of specimens of the 
"roach," from streams of different character, made during the 
past summer, we think we have traced a uniform variation in 
the size and shape of the fins, more especially of the dorsal ant 
ventrals ; and with it, a constant difference of the color of the 
running streams, and the ordinary 
"roach" of our mill-ponds and quiet creeks. These differences, 
in some respects, agree with the distinctions drawn by DeKay be- 

Indeed, we have never met with a "roach" that was strictly iden- 
tical with the fish described by DeKay as a " variegated bream." 
The variations we have traced out in a large series, and which 
we believe to be constant, are as follows :— 



Adult, total length.- 7 A in. 
Dorsal tin, depressed, reacti- 
ng to the point opposite the 



Shabbaconk Creek specim 



Ventral fins, depressed, 



; pupil. closed 



ique; when 
ine with the upper edge of 



Scales with 4 to 5 radii. 
Color uniformly blue, with 
no shade of green or golden ; 



dorsal and caudal fins. 
In order not to mislead the student, it must be clearly under- 
stood, that while the specimens of Stilbe from the Shabbaconk 
Creek are uniformly different, as here pointed out, we do find 
, which are partially grown individuals of the 



330 TFIE CYPRINOIDS OF CENTRAL NEW JERSEY. 

typical Stilbe Americana, that in some respects approach closely 
to the variety characteristic of the Shabbaconk and other clay 
creeks. But the variations we have described cannot be ascribed 
simply to age, especially the uniform blue color of clay creek indi- 
viduals. 

Do we not here have an instance of adaptation to particular 
localities ; even to the change of color? It has often been asserted 
that we never see a species undergoing a radical change ; but is 
not this an instance of such change, one possibly now of "spe- 
cific" value, as a "species" was once considered? The color of 
the waters, in bulk, is bluish ; and it has occurred to us that the 
blue color of these clay-creek roach may have been created or 
evolved, for their better protection from our ravenous kingfishers 
(Ceryle alcyon), who swallow them without any preliminary carv- 
ing, as they are said not to do,* in other sections of the country. 
We have noticed, in fact, that this fish is a favorite prey of the 
kingfisher; and as each species of fish appears to have its own 
peculiar odor, when alive, we have thought that this fish was 

: shallow streams, and so exposed the more to its at- 
tacks, how natural to see, in the changed color, a means of pro- 
tection as an otfset, as it were to its attractions in odor and 
flavor. 

6. Hypsilepis cornutus (Mitchill). "Red-fin." Our "red-fin" 
appears to be in all respects identical with the New England fish, 
as figured by Dr. Storer.f Young specimens are much less robust 
than the figure referred to, but the variations we have noticed, in 
examining a large series, appear to be all due to age. 

Besides the deeper coloring and numerous tubercles upon the 
snout, the males of this species vary from the females in a stouter 
body and somewhat more elevated dorsal outline; features which 



IENTRAL NEW JERSEY. 331 

othrr <>\ -prinoids, but larger ones even killed and devoured adult 
specimens of Hybopsis bifrenatus. 

8. GKnosti ring the past 
summer, met with single specimens of this last mentioned cy- 
prinoid, associated with other small fishes, on several occasions. 
They are identical with specimens in the Museum of the Academy 
of Sciences. l';of. Cope, from tribu- 
taries of the Susquehanna River, Penn. 

9. Hybopsis bifrenatus Cope. "Minnow." This little fish, 

ized by an imperfect lateral line, and deep straw color 
and black markings, is probably our most abundant species of this 

10. Ilybopsis chalybceus Cope. "Minnow." This species, which 
much resembles the preceding, has a complete lateral line. It is 
not uncommon, and usually met with, associated with the other 
small Hybopses. 

11. Hybopsis procne Cope. "Minnow." To quote Prof. Cope, 
"This small species maybe remdi oaong others 
common in our streams, by its long caudal peduncle and tail, its 
large brown-edged dorsal scales and plumbeous lateral band." 

The first mentioned of these three species of Hybopsis is every- 
where, in New Jersey, exceedingly abundant, and supplies the 
carnivorous fishes with an unfailing supply of food. In a collec- 
tion of Hybopses before us, we find the three species represented 
in the following proportion, and believe this to be about their rela- 
: lance in the Delaware and tributaries, at this point. 
Whole number of specimens, 123. 

Of H. bifrenatus, 75 specimens. 



In identifying the above series of small minnows, we have been 
guided solely by Cope's synopsis, to which we have so frequently 
referred. While we believe we are correct in our identifications 
of the three species, we must here mention that there were some 
individuals of this series (and it holds good of every collection 
we have made, of small Hybopses) which we found "it difficult to 
determine, as to their specific relations, that were in fact neither 
bifrenahis nor chalybceus, and, as we believe, not the young of 
other fishes. In a series of a thousand individuals, one will be 



332 THE CYPRINOIDS OF CENTRAL NEW JERSEY. 

pretty sure of finding intermediate forms, which link these three 
Hybopses very closely. This presence of intermediate forms is 
not confined, however, to these small minnows. • In every large 
collection of cyprinoids wo have yet uncle, tii.n- occurred some h> 
di vidua!-;. that varied in one or inu^ , ni lions from typical forms, 
and yet not in such a manner as to indicate probably permanent 
specific or generic peculiarities. 

12. Hybopsis Hudsonius (Clinton). "Spawn eater." This inter- 
esting cyprinoid is exceedingly abundant in the several 
of the Delaware River. The several published figures of the spe- 
cies are characteristic ; both those of DeWitt Clinton,* who first 
described this fish, and that given by DcKay,f are quite accurate, 
and give the best representations of it we have seen. Prof. Cope's} 
figure of "Hybopsis Hudsonius" we believe to be that of the fol- 
lowing species, as will appear. At all event-;, it is a much more 
marked variety of the true I[,uh,,;,;,is % than the small blue Stilht 



-fact of its having a '• sucker "dike hal.it of feeling - 
the bottom of the stream with its peculiar "telescopic" mouth ex- 
tended, and so sucking up such food as it finds to its liking. The 
examination of the stomachs of many specimens shows that, H** 
theStilbe Americana, it feeds very largely on small mollusca, that 
cover every stone and other stationary object in the beds of oar 
streams. We do not think the charge of spawn-*"- 
laid to this fish with more reason than to all the other 
Indeed, without an exception, the ova of all other flshea are. to 






THE CYPRINOIDS OF CENTRAL NEW JERSET. 333 

13. Hybopsis phaenna Cope. Prof. Cope* has described the cy- 
prinoid here referred to as a distinct form of Hybopais, having 
received specimens, collected by the writer, in 1864. He says, 
"Hybopsis phaenna is a species, found in some of the tributaries of 
the Delaware, which I have received from Trenton, N. J., from my 
friend Charles C. Abbott. It is more elongate in form than //. 
Hudsonius and H Storerianus, and has not the rounded front of the 
first or small compressed head of the last. Eye a little less than 
one-third length of head ; latter 5$ times to concavity of tail, and 

more than equal greatest depth of body Angle of 

mouth not posterior to anterior nostril. Scales £, 38. Lateral 
line very slightly deflected opposite the dorsal fin. Base of caudal 
to posterior edge of dorsal, equal from latter to beginning of the 
skin of the head. D. 1-8; C. 19; V. 1-8; B. 1-9; P. 15 ; 
Length 4 inches." 

The differences between the two, H Hudsonius and H. phaenna, 
which are quite uniform and readily noticed in living specimens. 



Hybopsis Hudsonius. Hybopsis phaenna. 

Snout blunt. Angular in Snout tapering. Curved in 

Diameter of orbit less than Diameter of orbit more than 

length of snout. length of snout. 

Anal fin, depressed, reaches Ventral fin, depressed, does 

Bright silvery stripe along Plumbeous stripe along the 

the lateral line, golden pos- lateral line; and four narrow 

teriorly, and uniform olive- blue lines between the dorsal 

green from dorsal stripe to stripe and lateral line. 

Prof. Cope, in his monograph of Pennsylvania cyprinoids, says 
" There may still be some questiqn as to the pertinence of this 
specimen (from the Delaware, at Trenton, N. J.) to H. Hudsonius," 
he having referred it to that species then, and subsequently. Were 
there no specimens of the cyprinoid found in the Delaware that 
were precisely such as described by De Witt Clinton, then it might 
be thought that the H. phaenna was simply a modified form of 
that species ; but the two being associated, each preserving the 
distinctive features, as pointed out by us, witt 



of individuals, that by less pronounced features link the two, 
leaves little ground for doubting their being really, specifically 
distinct. It should be remembered, also, that the H. phaenna 
reaches a larger size than the //. Ifudsonius, here in the Delaware, 
and the "more conic form" of the snout cannot be ascribed to 
maturer age, as has been done by Prof. Cope. Specimens three 
and four inches long are in every respect like Clinton's figure of 
H. Hudsonius, while specimens of /,/,«.">,»». five and five and a 
half inches long, have the tapering profile, much as in the drawing 

must add that, in the figure given by Clinton, the circular black 
spot at the base of the caudal is a very marked feature. Cope 
says in his description, '• no spot at base of tail." Now we believe 
the truth to be, that I 



THE CTPRINOIDS OF CENTRAL NEW JERSEY. 335 

Pharyngeal teeth 1,4—4,1; moderately hooked, and with a 
narrow masticatory surface, more noticeable on one specimen ex- 
amined than on the other. The single tooth of the series is in 
all respects similar to the others, but only half the size. Occasion- 
ally the series is 2,4 — 4,2, as in Alburnellus rubrifrons Cope. 
Anterior ray of dorsal slightly posterior to -the insertion of the 
last rays of ventrals. The anterior ray equals in length the pos- 
terior margin (terminal) of the fin. Terminal ray alightly in ad- 
vance of the anterior ray of anal fin. Anal fin broad, the base 
equalling the length of the anterior ray. Terminal margin of the 
fin slightly concave in outline. The pectoral fins terminate at a 
distance of three scales' width from the insertion of the ventrals. 
Terminal margin of the ventrals opposite fifth ray of the dorsal. 

Lateral line decurved from the upper angle of the opercular ap- 
paratus, and continues in a slightly oblique direction to some dis- 
tance beyond the dorsal fin, and not rising again opposite that Jin 
and continuing straight to the caudal Jin, as in Alburnus rubellus 
Agassiz. D. 1-8 ; A. 1-11. Scales 5-39-3. Total length, 3j- 
inches. Color, pale olive above, with minute black dots on the 
exposed edges of the scales. A bright silvery band three scales 
wide at the operculum, and narrowing to a width of one and one- 
half scales at the base of the caudal fin. Operculum and iris 
pure silvery. Belly white, but not with a metallic gloss. 

The specimens taken were collected late in August, and the 
colors noted while they were in an aquarium. At present they are 
rare, both in the river and its sew we are con- 

fident that we have never seen them previous to last summer, al- 
though accustomed carefully to collect and study our various small 
fishes for the past dozen years ; and from the fact of finding it only 
in the canal, which has an unobstructed outlet into the Raritan 
River, 25 miles east of the Delaware, it may be that the fish in 
question is properly a species belonging to that river. It was in 
this stream that the following species was first met with, in 1870 ; 
and now, as will appear, it is a very abundant species in some of the 
Delaware tributaries; probably derived from the Raritan River, 
through the communication opened by the canal referred to. 

15. Hybognathus osmerinus Cope. This very interesting species 
was discovered by the writer, associated with our common smelt 
or "frost fish" (Osmems viridescens Mitchill) from the Raritan 
River, at New Brunswick, N. J. It was first described by Prof. 



Cope,* from a specimen we sent him, and has since beei 
by the writer.f During the interval, from the time of 
tecting this peculiar species until the present summer, 



the : 


S T ATURALI 


st, proving t 


have 1>< 




■•!.•!' L-h. ana 


had 


«c propei 


•ly studied at 


the time the anatomy. 


, instead of re- 


lvim 


: upon thr 


external app 


earances, 


such an error i 


vould not have 


OOCtt 


rred. Th 




hr-n ma.ir 


, however, is «■ 


ov: correct; for 


the abundano 


2 of this species in so 


me localities is very remark- 


able. 












?J 


TZ !'". 


S£ 


I.HT, Prof 


\ A. C A|-:u- 


and the writer 
[ the inflowing 



THE CYPRINOIDS OF CENTRAL NEW JERSEY. 337 

peculiar character of the pharyngeal teeth — without hooks and 
cultriform — and length of the intestinal canal ; it being, as a rule, 
longer than the total length of the fish, sometimes many times 
longer, in the herbivorous ; and as long, or less than twice as long, 
in the carnivorous and omnivorous species. 

The preferred haunts of this cyprinoid are still waters, with 
muddy and weed-grown banks and bottom. If undisturbed it 
lies quietly in the growth along the banks, or in the bed of the 
lien frightened . % It is a 
sluggish fish, compared with some species, but in the aquarium is 
active enough, to make it desirable. 

16. Hybor i.'niJnesque). Among the many hun- 

dreds of specimens of our cyprinoids, gathered during the present 
summer, occurred one solitary individual, that in the aquarium 
was particularly noticeable for his very blunt snout, small, inferior 
mouth, and the fact of the osseus dorsal ray being separated from 
the adjoining ray by a membrane. These facts indicated its genus 
as Hyborhynchus ; and the length of the alimentary canal, and 
character of the pharyngeal teeth, showed, on dissection, that the 
luiracters had not been misinterpreted. On careful com- 
parison of this single specimen with Gunther's description* and 
the figure given by Prof. Cope,f we find that it agrees very nearly 
with the Hybor. notatus, from northern and western rivers. The 
•i ences we could detect were a somewhat larger eye, pos- 
sibly a more tapering snout, and no trace of a black spot at the 
base of the tail. Experience in the study of this family of fishes 
shows that these may all be merely individual differences. 

The specimen taken was captured, associated with the foregoing 

. and was placed in the aquarium as such; but the 

differences were very noticeable when the two species were seen 

together moving slowly about the plants in tire tanks and nibbling 

at the foliage with their peculiar mouths. 

Having completed the list of our cyprinoids, we will, in conclu- 

point. With no faith in the immutability of specific or generic 
forms, it at once occurs to us that the list might be properly cur- 
tailed by considering as merely " ■ k phaenna , 
i- e., a variety of H. Hudsonius; that possibly the three small 



not as "widely different as supposed; and that the 
Hybognathus osmerinus is, in truth, not "specifically" distvnot 
from the allied argyritis; that, in fact, it would be more consistent 
to consider these all, as we did the small blue Stilbe of our clay 

If, by a " species," we meant anything other than a convenient 
arrangement of the various forms of animal life for purposes of 
study, or saw in the "species" of cyprinoids anything but so 
many varied forms which natural selection has evolved from some 
primitive form of omnivorous fresh-water fish, that has given rise 
to a variety of forms, through a long series of generations, that 
would, each in its own place and time, suit the particular haunts 
it chanced to frequent or was forced to occupy ; if we have any 
other thought in view, then, it would be grossly inconsistent to 
add to the long list of so-called " species." We do not, however, 
consider "species" otherwise than as here sketched out, and ( 



msiderable 



sidering also the amount of variation among any 



brought into play, in recalling a primitive, typical cypi 

the sixteen " species," that we have met with so far, 
ware River and its tributaries, in central New Jersey. 



THE MIGRATION OF BIRDS. 

BY T. MARTIN TRIPPE. 

I nothing connected with the fascinating study of c 



„ „„a buttercups 

' bllt ere they 

110 d tender bn* 



jikds. 339 

that promised future blossoms as soon as the warm April rains 
should fall. Like the flowers, the birds come to us suddenly and 
almost unawares ; a day ago there were none ; to-day, the woods 
and fields are vocal with their music ; but, unlike the flowers, 
there was no herald to announce their approach, no presage of 
their coming. Ere we are aware they are with us; before we 
know it, they are gone. 

On some bright February morning, I go out into brown sere 
meadows, and wander along the banks of a brook, covered here 
and there with dense thickets of tall alders and hornbeams, with 
an undergrowth of blackberries and greenbriars. Yesterday, the 
only inhabitants they contained were tree-sparrows ; to-day they 
hold a party of red-winged blackbirds, whose harsh merry notes 
and jolly chatter proclaim their joy at being home again. They 
have come, perhaps, from reedy marshes that line the Virginia 
coast ; or, perchance, from Carolina rice-fields ; but no man saw 
them on their journey ; silently and unannounced, they came and 
reoccupied their summer haunts. A little later, I visit the same 
wet meadows, and find them frozen at the depth of a few inches, 
though on the surface, the black soil is soft and muddy ; then 
comes a heavy rainstorm the next day, and on the succeeding 
morning, they are alive with snipe. Or, some morning in May, 
when the woods are beg m ir green robes and the 

towhee to call from the thickets, I find, here and there, a warbler 
or two ; but only one or two, save, now and then a troop of cor- 
onatas. A storm from the south sets in and lasts for a day or 
two ; and when it has ceased, in the morning, I go out into the 
woods again ; and hundreds and thousands of warblers of a dozen 
species are fluttering through the boughs and copses, and lisping 
in the tree-tops. How they came, I know not, nor whence ; but 
here they are, where, a day ago, scarce one was to be seen. Two 
days more and nine-tenths of them are gone. 

There are some birds whose migrations are apparent enough. 
In November we see flocks of robins passing south, high up in 
the air, calling to each other as they go. In March, and again, 
late in fall, long trains of crows silently stream across the sky ; 
in September flocks of red-birds wing their way overhead, their 
presence betrayed by their mellow notes. The ducks, geese and 
cranes, with much noise and gabble, announce their passage 
through the country ; and in the later days of autumn, the hawks, 



340 THE MIGRATION OF BIRDS. 

distant specks against the sky, are seen floating slowly southward 
after their departing prey. But the vast majority of birds come 
and go silently and unawares. No one sees' the wren or the spar- 
row on its migration ; no one knows how long, they are on the 
way, or by what route they reach their destination. We. know 
that they come from the south in the spring and return in the fall, 
and there our knowledge ends. 

Most birds move north and south in their migrations; but al- 
though this is the general direction of the movement, it is affected 
more or less by various circumstances. On the seaboard, it 
'follows the general course of the coast, and in the west it is influ- 
enced by the border line between the prairies and the forests 
which, throughout Minnesota and Wisconsin, lies in a northwest 
and southeast < 



;;,,:,,: 



>ring; while, on the other hand, the Blackburnian 
warbler is far more abundant in spring than in fall. Other species, 
again, appear to take a fancy to some particular line of flight, an # 
adhere to it for a number of years, then deserting it for some other. 
I have known the golden plover, for instance, to be quite abundant 
in certain localities, for two or three years ; and then t 
almost entirely for a long period. The greater number of vaa 
flocks of wild fowl that sweep up the Mississippi valley every 
spring, on arriving at the mouth of the Minnesota, some un 
follow up one valley and sometimes the other ; one of the two i " 




on the 22nd of 



crows ; and very rarely did I fail to notice it within those dates. 
But other species show the very reverse of this regularity. The 
snipe and the ducks are notoriously uncertain in their movements, 
in some seasons coming weeks earlier than in others. The blue- 
bird may be seen, in some years, every winter month ; and in 
others, not one may be found till late in February. The bluebird, 
however, is a homesick little fellow away from his native orchards, 
and two or three fine warm days are apt to lure him back, even in 
the middle of January. 

That many birds return, year after year, - to the same localities 
is well established ; but it may be doubted if this is the case with* 
all, or even the majority. Spallanyane's experiment is well known ; 
he tied bits of red silk to the legs of several swallows that haunted 
the house in which he dwelt ; and spring after spring, observed 
the same birds return to their native place. A pair of bluebirds 
that had taken up their abode in a little bird-house, put up for 
their especial benefit, returned for several seasons to the same fa- 
vorite nesting-place— at least I always fancied that I could recog- 
nize the same pair — and, as if to obtain undisputed possession of 
their snug quarters, invariably appeared a few days in advance of 
the other bluebirds. A pair of night herons took up their res- 
idence for three successive seasons, in a little, secluded swamp, 
where neither before or subsequently, for several years, were they 
ever seen. Similar instances doubtless occur to every ornithol- 
ogist. 

Of many species the males and females travel together ; of'some, 
the former precede the latter; but I know of none where the 
females migrate in advance of their mates. The robin is a familiar 
instance of the first case ; and probably all the thrushes follow his 
example. The bluebird, in spring, almost always travels in pairs, 
except ven' early in the season when a solitary male sometimes 
appears. With the Fringillidce, or most of the species, at least, 
the sexes migrate together. The redstart and some of the warblers 
appear a little before their less gayly-colored mates ; and I suspect 
that this is the case with nearly all the Sylvicolidce. The bobolink 
18 a conspicuous example of the same nature ; on the prairies of 
Iowa, flocks of hundreds of males maybe seen, several days before 
a single female arrives. The rose-breasted grosbeak is still another ' 
instance, and many others might be mentioned. As a general rule 
when the males are brighter colored than the females, the former 



precede the latter ; and when there is little or no difference be- 
tween the plumage of the sexes, both travel together either in 
flocks or in pairs. In the autumnal migration this distinction is 
obliterated, and nearly all birds associate together in small par- 
ties or large flocks, composed of* both sexes; and with many the 
females and young retire southward, a little in advance of the 
hardier, adult males. 

Few birds are- absolutely stationary. Even those that we see 
throughout the year are migrating to a greater or less extent. 
The robins that we meet with in midwinter have descended from 
higher latitudes, while those that passed the summer with us have 
gone to warmer regions. Specimens of the same species, taken 
in winter, differ from those of summer in being larger and stouter. 
The earliest birds that reach any given locality in spring are 
usually brighter colored and larger than those that breed there. 
the former passing farther north as the latter arrive. Most birds 
begin nesting immediately after arriving at their destination, and 
when, as is the case with the robin, the first comers appear weeks 
in advance of the breeding season, they remain but a short time, 
moving slowly northward until they have reached their homes when 
they at once commence the task of raising their young, shortly 
after which they begin retiring to the southward. There is thus 
a constant movement going on, interrupted only by the brief 
breeding seasons ; a general swaying north and south in which 
one limit is scarcely reached, before a retrogression sets in towards 
the other ; and when, as is frequently the case, the southern hon 
of the northernmost representatives of a species, is north of the 
summer range of the southern races, the species is looked upon as 
resident, although the individuals composing it are strictly migra- 
tory. This is the view of J. A. Allien, as set forth in his interes ' 
ing "Notes on the Birds of Iowa," and. I believe, corresponds wjtn 
those of nearly all writers on the subject ; but ^"^Z 
disagree. Audubon states that the snipe. 



weeks after « 



jirds. 343 

however, is an almost insurmountable difficulty to be encountered 

Yet some species remain in the same localities throughout the 
year. The gallinaceous birds are true residents of the regions in 
which they raise their young; and many of the Corvidce shift 
their quarters very slightly, if at all, in any season. Some of the 
rapacious birds, especially among the owls, # are quite stationary; 
and among the woodpeckers, are species that appear to reside 
constantly in the same localities. Other species, again, seem to be 
indifferently migratory or stationary. Of the ^ t le s of 

mallards that frequent the ponds and streams of Texas, during 
winter, great numbers are said to remain and breed, while the 
others rove hundreds of miles to the northward. 

In the "Natural History of the state of New York"* DeKay 
gives the Carolina titmouse as being found in southern New York 
in winter only. If this observation is correct, it affords a unique 
instance of a bird migrating north in winter ; but there is good 
reason to doubt the accuracy of the statement. 

The causes of migration are various ; but the principal one is 
undoubtedly the want of food. Birds seek a milder climate than 
that of their native regions, because their means of subsistence 
fail, and they must either obtain it elsewhere, or starve. As soon 
as the chill of autumn destroys the greater number of insects, and 
banishes the remainder to their winter retreats, the insectivorous 
tribes are compelled to migrate to regions where a warmer sun 
sustains a sufficiency of insect life to supply them with food ; and 
the granivorous species, finding their usual stores of seeds either 
becoming exhausted or covered with deep snow, follow in their 
track, while rapacious birds are obliged to accompany their prey. 
Only the species whose food-supply is unaffected by the inclem- 
ency of the season remain. The nuthatch and brown creeper are 
able to find as ample fare in one season, as in another, and a few 
sparrows find sufficient food in such scattered weeds as appear 
above the snow, or amid sheltered nooks and thickets protected 
from the storm. Even in the coldest weather, wherever the cedar 
berries are abundant, we find robins, who refuse to leave as long 
as they can find anything to eat ; and bluebirds may be seen amid 
clumps of sumachs, clinging to their northern homes, until com- 

* Possibly, I am mistaken in the reference. If so, the statement is made in Giraud's 



pelled to go by absolute necessity. In wet, springy meadows, and 
in grass fields, in the eastern states, the meadow lark finds a suffi- 
cient supply of food to subsist upon throughout the winter; while 
on the western prairies, under a less degree of cold he d 
regularly as the kingbird, being unable to procure the requisite 
supply of food in his summer habitat. The snipe and the wood- 
cock linger as long as they can find unfrozen marshes and swamps; 

and coppices, sheltered from the frost, even in raid-winter. But 

woods and marshes, instead of beini: nearlv deserted for several 



migrations of those birds, whose food is most affected by a change 
of temperature, are more regular and extended than those of other 
species, whose subsistence is more independent of the seasons. 
The Colopteridaj, Sylvicolidse, and all insectivorous 
capture their prey upon the wing, belong to the formei 
range extends, in most cases, many hundred miles n«»r! 

behind the rest in their summer abodes. The gra 



unconnected 



pine grosbeak should not find as abundant s supply of food in the 
northern forests during cold winters as in mild ; yet it is only 
during the former that it descends to the latitude of New York ; 
while in the latter it does not migrate as far south by one hundred 
and fifty or two hundred miles. The pine finch, and the crossbills 
are similar instances. On the other hand, a long, hot summer is 
apt to entice some southern birds farther north than usual. 

Man exercises a very considerable influence upon the migration 
of some birds. The clearing away of forests, and the planting of 
trees. upon the prairies, attract species that formerly could not 
find the means of support in those regions; and compel others 
to shun localities whieli they were wont to fivqiient. Fifty or 
sixty years ago, according to Audubon, the mallard and the wild 
goose, as well as some other species of water-foul, bred in consid- 
erable numbers in the Mississippi valley ; but as the settlement of 
the country progressed, they retreated farther and farther north, 
until at the present day, very few raise their young east of the 
Missouri and Red rivers, or south of the British boundary, al- 
though some still nest in central and western Minnesota, and 
northern Iowa. In this case the necessity of reaching a secure, 
safe retreat, remote from the settlements, has caused them to ex- 
tend their migration far beyond its former limit. Doubtless a 
similar motive has acted in other instances with similar results. 
The desire to rear their young in quiet and seclusion, is a very 
strong one in many birds; and if disturbed or annoyed in any 
way, they will soon abandon the region, and seek another where 
they can pass the breeding season unmolested. 

Violent storms, and sudden changes in the weather, are often 
preceded by, or accomp 'ion among 

birds. The immense flocks of pigeons and blackbirds that occa- 
sionally pass through the country are familiar to every one. Sev- 
eral years ago I witnessed an unusual migration of the latter bird, 
which I have never seen equalled, either before or since not even 
in the coast marshes where they sometimes congregate in enor- 
mous flocks. The latter part of February, and first week of 
March hud been very mild and warm, and great numbers of crows, 
redwinged and cow blackbirds had gone north. There came a 
sudden, violent storm from the north one night, accompanied by 
showers of hail, snow and sleet, continuing all next day, and 
driving' before it, immense multitudes of blackbirds. Vast flocks, 



flying close to the ground to escape the fury of the blast, passed 
by so continuously that it was often impossible to tell where one 
ended and the next began. For four or live hours the immense 
hosts kept sweeping by ; the air at times seemed filled with them; 
and I was vividly reminded of Audubon's account of the "wild 
pigeons in Kentucky. The storm expended its fury within a few 
hours after the last blackbird had passed ; but although the next 
few days were clear and warm, not a bird reappeared for nearly a 
week. A similar migration of white-bellied swallows took place 
near Newark, New Jersey, some six or seven years since, in the 
latter part of October, just before a long, northeast rainstorm, 
followed by sharp frosts. Although their numbers were not equal 
to those of the blackbirds, the sky at times, seemed fairly covered 



1 in ich multit les th t 

<r to equal it. Thousands 
"hours of the day, floating 
all moving steadily south- 
Ihill species ; but here an 
ive their brow] 



1871. 


The weather, at t 


summer, — clear, bright am 


vast i 


umbers of cranes b 


bird i 


1 spring and fall, t 


settle 


s, who had been in 


declai 


ed they had never s 


spoa 


thousands covered t 


in ilo 


v easy circles, far up 


ward. 


Most of them were 


there. 


■weeping in wider o 


if eon 


scious of their supe 



was ice upon the ponds, five inches in thickness. The cranes had 
not escaped a day too soon. 

Many birds prefer to migrate during peculiar conditions of 
weather. The crows almost always move north against a high 
March wind. A long rainstorm with heavy winds, in the early 
part of May, is almost sure to be followed, as soon as it has 
cleared away, by a great influx of warblers ; and I have noticed 
that the migrating hawks often appear in much greater iiuiiiIkts 
than usual under the same circumstances. In May, 1865, a long 
northeast storm, clearing up in the evening of the second day, was 
followed by an extraordinary flight of hawks. Spending the day 
in the woods, I was astonished at the number, both of indivi'hmls 
and species. They passed overhead, just above the tree-tops, every 
moment ; sometimes singly, sometimes in pairs, and at times in 
small parties of five or ten or even twenty or thirty. At a low 
estimation, I saw a thousand during the morning; and have no 
doubt that I might have seen ten times as many had I been in the 
open fields, instead of dense woods. The red-tailed, sharp-shinned, 
Cooper's and broad-winged species were the most common ; but 
half a dozen other species were observed, including a golden eagle, 
the only one I ever saw in that locality. All were pursuing the 
same course — northeast — and all flew at nearly the same eleva- 
tion, close to the tops of the trees, as if to avoid the strong head- 
wind as much as possible. Although I had nothing larger than No. 
10 with me, such alluring shots were constantly presenting them- 
selves, that I was tempted to fire a score of times or more, without 
loosening a feather. Had I been supplied with the proper ammu- 
nition, I might have secured fifty specimens that day. Other in- 
stances are afforded by the hummingbird, who journeys only on 
the brightest, sunniest days ; and the snow bunting, whose pre- 
dilection for travelling with snow storms, has gained for him, 
among the Swedes, the name of "bad-weather bird." 

But although we may assign many reasons for the migration of ' 
birds, there is much about them that is seemingly inexplicable. 

It is hard to say, for instance, why the black-throated bunting 
should delay his coming till May, when his relative, the chipping 
sparrow arrives a month earlier, and the song sparrow a month 
or six weeks earlier still ; although neither is equipped with stouter 
bills or forms, or are apparently better adapted to withstand the 
cold. Or it would be puzzling to tell why Aiken's snowbird, which 



remains all winter in certain portions of Colorado finding abi 
dant food, should migrate in spring, while a closely allied specii 
or variety, the chestnut-backed snowbird, appears just as- t 
former is leaving, and occupies its place. That an insectivoro 
bird, as the wood pewee, for example, should delay its coming i 
a month or more after its cousin the phu-be, is explicable by t 
supposition 'that the two birds prefer different varieties of insec 
and migrate only when they are to be found ; but in the case 
the granivorous birds, such an explanation is not admissible, 
may, perhaps, be merely the force of habit ; and such a theory 
borne out by the fact that at distant points on the same isothera 
lines, the different species do not, by any means, preserve t 



OX THE STRUCTURE AM) (ASTI.V; OF THE ANTL 



shall presently see they are organized in the same way. They 
arc anomalous bones, no doubt, and they differ in their economy 
from ordinary bone just so far and no farther, than these peculi- 
arities require. They differ from all other bones in being entirely 
. They are of very rapid growth, speedily mature, die 
and are soon thrown off, while all other bo*nes are of very slow 
growth and persistent with the animal through life. 

Like all other bones, for their growth and sustenance, they are 
provided with a periosteum with //<<>•< rsia n canals and systems and 
medullary arteries. 

These external bones are grown upon a permanent process of 
the skull called pedicels. The periosteum of the antler, during its 
growth, together with a black cuticle covering it in which a coat 
of fine fur is inserted, is called the velvet. In this are a great mul- 
titude of large arteries which everywhere give off branches, which 
penetrate the growing antler and convey the blood to the Haversian 
canals, which are surrounded by, and connected with, Haversian 
systems, the same as in the long internal bones. 

Besides this supply of nutriment from without an internal sup- 
ply is provided for in two ways. First, a main artery, with a 
multitude of auxiliaries, passes up through the pedicel into the 
antler, which answers well to the medullary artery, and secondly 
a number of large arteries branch off from those of the periosteum 
at the end of the pedicel, and pass in through the arti 
where the t: ) the permanent bone. These also 

n to the new-growing antler. Let anyone take the first 
deer's head" with horns which he finds in the market, and dissect 
away the skin at the butt of the antlers, and he will see with the 
naked eye the canals for J into the articulation. 

The veins are mostly internal. 

Thus understanding the system of blood-vessels provided for 
this external bone, and remembering that the blood-vessels are re- 
quired to be, as they are, vastly larger than for internal bones, we 
are now prepared to follow its growth from the beginning to the 

When the dead antler is cast off, which generally occurs with all 
but one of our American species in early winter, the blood-vessels 
of the periosteum reaching the butt of the antler are ruptured and 
a tolerably copious Qow of blood from them ensues. They imme- 
diately set to work and extend the periosteum over the end of the 



pedicel, filling up the concavity in the top of the pedicel, con- 
stituting the seat of the new antler. It remains in this condition 
till spring arrives, when intense activity is observed in this 
covering, the temperature of which is greatly increased, and it 
becomes exceedingly sensitive like any other inflamed part. It is 
now observed to rise up appearing like a large blood blister, and 
the rudiments of the fur on the cuticle are observed. It rises up 
rapidly, forming within itself new systems of blood-vessels till it 
has attained a height of about twice its diameter, when an osseous 
deposit is commenced at the circumference of the top of the ped- 
icel. Thus, is commenced the wall of the new antler which is now 
built up rapidly by new deposits, maintaining about the same 



feel the established walls when the periosteum has become quite 
insensible. Let us dissect it and we find the cavity, large at the 
upper extremity, gradually narrowing to the lower end of the antler 
where it maybe less than a quarter of an inch in diam< 
opening does not terminate with the antler. It passes down in 
the pedicel where it may be a sixteenth of an inch in 
constituting the canal for the medullary artery. The whole in- 
ternal portion of the pedieel is porous, admitting tl 



At the extremities first, the deposit of earthy salts goes on till 
this fills up the canals leading from the periosteum to the Haver- 
sian canals, so that the eiivulation through them is obstructed; 
and from these points complete condensation goes on till it 
reaches the lower extremity, when the communication between the 
external and the internal blood-vessels becomes completely sev- 
ered. Now it is that the animal is prompted by some natural im- 
pulse to rub off this outer covering while yet it is gorged with 
blood. It comes off in long strips or shreds, which look like red 
cords suspended from the antlers and cover the animal with blood 
wherever they can reach and stain the trees and branches which he 
uses for the purpose. During this time the animal seems excited 
and even fierce. I suj se to rub off the velvet 

arises from an irritation created in this thick vascular covering, 
from the fact that the arteries are pouring into it their full volume 
of blood, while the imperfect venous system with which it is pro- 
vided is unable to return the blood sufficiently now that it is cut 
off from the veins within the antler which had principally per- 
formed that office before the surface canals had been closed. 

While this has been progressing on the surface, the growth within 
has been progressing also from the nutriment received by the in- 
ternal arteries. The cavities in the branches and the upper por- 
tion of the beam pretty soon become hardened, like ivory 
throughout, and the solid wall on the lower part much thickened. 
Before the central section has become solid, the nutrient vessels 
are obstructed below, and the deposit of bony particles is arrested 
while yet the larger portions of the antler are more or less porous, 
leaving what may represent the medullary canal, braced in every 
imaginable direction by thin plates of bone, constituting the walls 
of the cells, thus leaving the antler lighter, but nearly as strong 
as if it were entirely solid. The extent of this porous section 
and its density differ very much in different specimens ; still it is 
present in all, to a greater or less extent. The active internal 
flow of the blood continues longer in young animals than in old, 
after the velvet is rubbed off. Sometimes the blood will flow appre- 
ciably when the antler is sawed off near its seat, two or three 



months after the velvet has been discarded, while in aged animals 
after that time, i [y passes up into the antler. 

In the meantime, the lower extremity of the antler, that con- 
vex part below the burr, which sits in the concave seat which is 
the top of the pedicel, has been solidifying much more rapidly 
than the internal portion above ; and before the cells above had 
become too much tilled up, the lower convex extremity, which, 
during the active growth of the antler, was traversed by the canals 
of all the internal blood-vessels leading to or from the antler, 
becomes more and more compact till finally these canals become 
completely filled up and the circulation above cut off. This lower 
crust now much resembles the articular bone terminating the 
internal bones at the articulations. It resembles it in its extreme 
solidity and larger granules, which any one can see on the rough- 
ened surface by inspecting any deer's antler which has heen 
dropped from the living animal, for they are well exposed by the 
absorbent process to be presently described. 

While nature has been doing this work another and a very 



anomalous work has been 



progressing i 



The pedicel, which during the active growth of the antler was 
open and porous, allowing the internal blood-vessels to pass 
through it freely, so soon as the great demand for nutriment had 
ceased, commenced a new deposit of lamina? in those canals, which 
before the commencement of that new growth had been enlarged 
by absorption, until the blood-vessels passing through them are 
collapsed, and so the circulation through them arrested. This has 
become necessary in order to furnish a strong firm base for the 
antler while it is used as a weapon of warfare, which was not 
required during the growth of the antler, when the pedicel was 
spongy and weak. This annual destruction and reconstruction 
of bone tissue nowhere else occurs in the internal animal econ- 
omy, and nowhere else do exigencies require it. 

Now that all sources of nutriment, both external and internal, 
have been cut off from the antler, it dies and becomes a foreign 
body on the living animal, and as nature cannot tolerate this for 
a great length of time she has provided the means for discarding 
the inert body and presently sets those means in motion. O ne 
of the three systems of blood-vessels first described has not yet 
been destroyed. Those leading from the periosteum into the ar- 
ticulation still penetrate the seam although they cannot penetrate 



sorbents of these blood-vessels now commence active operation 
and undermine the antler. They do not can}- away the surface 
of the bone evenly so as to leave it smooth, but as it were they 
remove alternate particles, or rather alternate groups of granules, 

it at the point of junction, has become so weakened that the antler 
drops off or is detached by some slight violence. This process of 
: .•n't one mouth's time. As before slated the 
Mood now Hows freely from the blood-vc--els of the periosteum of 
the pedicel which had penetrated the seam, now ruptured by the 
removal of the antler. If we now examine the butt of the antler 
we shall find the surface very rough, like coarse sand-paper, re- 
sulting from the unequal absorption before described. 

the least tn. e of blood coming from it, although it is sometimes 
stained with the blood from below. 

■-• . : ■ •■ : i :;■■■.■ ; ' . ■ 

the peculiarities of the growth of the antlers on the emascu- 

thrown off, but are p g course of years, even 

to the death of the animal. 





KEVIEWS AND BOOK NOTICES. 




Youxo' 


s Physical G 


EOGBAPHT.*— ' 


This is 


a terse at 


ud excellent 


mpilaU. 


3n by one win 


j, as formerly t 


onnecU 


■dwiih ti 


le geological 


rvey of 


Great Britaii 


i and now a te 


aeher o! 


' geology 


. knows how 


meet the wants of 


students. As 


the pi 


eface wa 


s written in 


^vembei 


•• 1873, and 1 


he latest infon 


nation 


given coi 


icerning the 


stilts of 


deep sea dr 


edging and otl 


tier exp 




which have 




> much light 


on the geolog 


y of th« 


- g lobe > 


we may feel 


re that 




rery late infor 


mation. 


The vi 


ews on the 


'ination 


of continent! 


s and theoreth 


jal o. n . 


dderatioi 


is regarding 




gical cause o 


f the present 


distrdm 


tion ° f ; 


aidmaak and 



354 REVIEWS AND BOOK NOTICES. 

plants are sound. The author insists upon the extreme antiquity 
of the continents and the fact that the present ocean beds have 
always been such. 

The main drawback in the book is the almost entire absence of 
illustrations, of which there are not a dozen. The reader, however, 
is constantly referred to a map. While an excellent book for the 
Britisli student, the American reader will labor under the disad- 
vantage of reference to the local geology of Scotland and England, 
to the exclusion of the broader views to be derived from a study 
of the physical geology of his own continent. Compared with the 
physical geography of our own Guyot, we miss the elegant diction 
and broad generalizations of the leading physical geographer of 
his time. The American '■ Ph\ - : ■; Hie .gi iphv " \\ ith its beautiful 
illustration and maps, which appeal so forcibly to the eye, is a 
much more valuable aid to the naturalist. Young's, however, is 
an excellent book to read in connection with Guyot. 

Half Hours with the Microscope.*— The issue of "Putnam's 
Popular Manuals" has furnished us a new edition of this best of 
books for beginners who take up the microscope as a recreation 
or as a means of studying general natural history. The new 
edition includes all the advantages of the first. Something be- 
tween a catalogue of objects and a treatise upon them, it groups 
together, in a manner both convenient and sufficiently natural, a 
large number of fascinating microscopic views. The clear and 
numerous illustrations by Tuffen West, which are rather construc- 
tions of the objects than drawings of any one possible view of them, 
are not on that account imaginary and faulty as has been claimed, 
but all the better adapted to their purpose. 

With the exception of the con^l.-rublx and judiciously enlarged 
introductory chapter on the structure of the microscope by the 
author, in which the binocular receives such unqualified approval 
as it deserves and receives from those who use it for similar work, 
and a good half-hour, by F. Kitton, with polarized light illustrated 
byabrightchromo-lithograpli. ti,i^,i;ti,.,i Ls not much modernized 
nor is it much the worse for remaining as it was originally con- 
structed. 



The appendix by Thos. Ketteringham, on the preparation :\\A 
mounting of objects, is useful to beginners, though somewhat more 
in need of revision than the body of the work. — R. II. W. 



BOTANY. 

Sex in Plants. — The remarks of Dr. John Stockton Hough 

and complimentary to me, that only a desire tf aid science, a 
desire I am sure my friend will respect, leads me to offer the fol- 
lowing remarks. 

That Dr. Hough has mistaken my views is clear, from his sug- 
gestion that I should luive used the word " development" in my 
papers. Nothing was further from my thoughts. I have endeav- 
ored to show that sex is determined before development begins ; 
and I have used the term vitality or vigor in order to express the 
determining power. In a field so wholly new, as this question 
was when I entered into it, I had ling terms 

to represent the facts properly ; but whenever I have used the 
terms vigor or vitality, I have always explained that I meant by 
them a high or low degree of life whatever that might be. If two 
plants or parts of plants equally "developed," were placed under 
the same circumstances as regards nutrition, and one d 
the other passed through uninjured, this I call a test of vitality. 
In the one case there is a low vital power, in the other a higher : 
this I have taken as the chief factor in deciding sex, and "devel- 
opment" has clearly no place in the idea. 

That Dr. Hough has not read my papers very closely also 
appears fronf his quotations. It was I and not Mr. Darwin, who 
recorded the fact that female branches sometimes appeared on 
male silver maples ; and I also gave the account of Mr. Arnold's 
ross-experiments, both in the "Proceedings of the Academy of 
Natural Sciences" of Philadelphia, before the dates he refers to. 
These are minor errors to be sure, but they lead to the fear that 
there may be greater ones ; and that greater ones do occur is clear 
from his quoting me as saying that, " In Norway spruces it is only 
m tne fourth or fifth year, when vitality in the spur is nearly ex- 
■antly appear." I never said any- 
thing of the kind ; Norway spruces have no spurs. Again I am 
made to build considerably on the Cupuliferae in my arguments 



on sex. I have indeed named the oak, the beech, and the hazel, 
among numerous others incidentally, as plants which would beal 
out my views ; but it is in the Coniferoe, not Cupuliferse, that I 
have given in detail the facts. 

Any one who will read my papers, as referred to by Dr. Hough, 
will I am sure not agree with him that they prove his position. 
His proposition is, "that female plants, like female animals, are 
less highly developed than males, and are the result of an inferio* 
developmental efbrt on the part of the female parents." In the 
first place there can be no comparison between female " plants" 
and female animals. There is an individualized vitality in the 
various parts of a "plant," that there is not in an animal, ami 
that vital power which turns food into life is operating in number- 
less places in the plant, to the one solitary organ in the animal ; 
and in my view it is the varying phases of this vita! power 
as determined by nutrition, in the various and varying parts oi 
plants, which give direction or "development" to the subsequent 
sex. For instance I have shown that in Pinus, Abies. I'ieea, 
Larix, and kindred forms, the female llowers are only borne on 
those most fa r» rahhj nifmilnl /<>,- pnfrt miti-IHn,,, and that these 
many female branches, after they become half dead, commence w 
bear male flowers. How can this favor Dr. Hough's pi 
How can Dr. Hough's proposition be true, if I have fcn 
the facts? That they are true I appeal to any one who wilt take 
the trouble to examine the trees I have named when in blossom. 

I do not think that physiology alone is competent to deal wi 
this sexual question. Morphology must go hand in h 
The failures to appreciate this has led my good friend^ ; 
error in his experiments with the corn plant. If he had 
the common truths of morphology, he would have ai 
the opposite conclusion to that which he has. " Abtv 
nodes" are'by no means "in other words undeveloped. )Clt - ^ 

in many plants, and especially in the Indian corn, a 
development going on while the •' intornodes are ben,_ 
The ear of corn is a complete branch, arrested in its 
development. But in its embryonic condition it has 
than the male. Every blade that forms the "husk" wa- 



ttle husk from an 



shearing stalk- 



BOTANY. 357 

Now examine the male branch, with its weak structure ami "de- 
velopment," and we find that it exhausted its whole growing force 
in half a dozen weak nodes, with scarcely the apology for a leaf 
at any of the nodes. Compare this with the numerous fat husk 
blades, which are the morphological analogies of the leafy bracts 
on the male branch, and even Dr. Hough's theory of "develop- 
ment" fails. Then the male panicle is only a female whi.-h has Inst 
the vital power to combine. If the (usually four) two ranked lower 
branchlets of the male panicle had the vital power to combine* 
with an arrested central axis, and the other high vital powers of 
the female ear also act, we should have an eight rowed ear of 
corn, instead of a male tassel. "Some of the specimens" ap- 
peared, to Dr. Hough, "as if the cob had separated into several 
segments," because the male tassel had gained more than usual 
vital force, and came nearly reaching a perfect ear. This, however. 
is all very clear to those who are familiar with the morphology of 
the corn plant, but which they may readily be excused for mis- 
taking who have only gone so far as to imagine that "a spike 
(ear) is only an undeveloped branch, sometimes having two or 
three internodes it is true, but generally sessile. It answers 
very well for descriptive botany, but leads to terrible mistakes 

In regard to Dr. Hough's facts in relation to the sexual changes 
in the Indian corn, I can bear testimony to their complete accu- 
ra <"y : and I can see that it is only his failure to appreciate their 
morphological value, and the read hearing of my facts on his own 
observations, that he has been led to regard them as favoring a 
view the reverse of mine. 

My position is simply this — a male flower and a female flower 
are essentially the same in their early emhryological conditions. 
Morphology shows that these early identical parts may take either 
°ne form (male) or another (female) ; and I have shown, as I 
claim, that the physiological law which governs this morphoi 
logical development, is a higher vital power to turn nutritive forces 
tinv ards the female than the male transformation — or as I have 
expressed it in my original paper, "It is the highest types of vi- 
tality (not gross development) that take on the female form."— 
T - Mekhax. 



358 BOTANT. 

A New Ribes. — Among the Ribes collected in Colorado Ter- 
ritory daring the past season by Prof. John Wolf, who was acting 
as botanist to Lieut. Wheeler's Expedition, I find a form which 
appears distinct enough to have specific rank assigned it. A 
description is herewith sent. 

Ribes Wolfii, sp. n. (R. sanguineum Pursh., var. variegcebm 
S. Watson, King's Report, vol. v, p. 100). Shrub, neither pricklj 
nor spiny; two to four feet high; somewhat branching; young 
branches light brown, minutely glandular-pubescent, angled by 
two slighi ri !_. <. continuii g down from the expanded base of the 
petiole above; branches of the previous year ashy-gray with a 
deciduous epidermis, which, on being shed, reveals a dark brown 
bark beneath. 

Leaves thickish cordate-orbicular, deeply deleft, lobes rather 
obtuse, mi r] hardly doubly serrate). Aver- 

age of largest leaves two, to two and one-half inches in diameter. 
with sinus at base one-half an inch deep. Leaves slightly vi<- 
cid ; under surface pale green, with a few short glandular hairs; 
upper surface smoother aud deeper green. Petioles from one- 
half an inch to one and a half inches long, -lightly margined hy 
a continuation of the principal veins of the blade : expanded w 
base, becoming semi-amplexicaul. and <d Unas with the expan- 
sion strongly pectinately-ciliate and glandular-pubescent. 

Peduncles decidedly glandular-pubescent, one to two inch* 
long, including the raceme, loosely 4 to 10-flowered. Bractt 
ovate-spatulate, obtuse, yellowish-white, verging to red occasion- 
ally, one to two lines long, and one line shorter than the pedicels, 
i longer than the flowers. 



Sepals red 


, lanceolate, one to o 


ne and 


one-half lines long, 


never reflexed. 

Petals red, 
long as the st 

Styles two, 


ulate, hall' a 




ls the sepals and as 


Tecu 1 o 


ally fror 


a .the summit of the 


ovary, red for half their length and parted to, or below, the middle. 

Stigmas slightly capitate. 

Pruit when young, strongly glandular-hairy, but never prickly, 
becoming much smoother with age. Mature fruit not pulpy. m ^ 
roon or reddish purple, globose, three-eighths of an inch U» 
diameter. 



Seeds few to many, distinctly margined all around ; with the 
1Iln01 ' covei imctate as seen through the gelat- 

inous coating. 

Twin Lakes and Mosquito Pass, Colorado Territory. Among 
rocks, at an altitude of ten to eleven thousand feet, 

It will be seen thai this plant approaches both R. ghitin- 
osum Benth., and 11. sdix/uinei/m Pursh. It is distinguished 
from the former by being fewer flowered, having shorter ra- 
cemes and a rounder berry ; from the latter by its shorter racemes, 
relatively shorter bracts and longer pedicels, and erect calvx 
lobes. 

Its nearest affinity is (as suggested also by Mr. Watson) 
R. sayifjnineum Pursh., of which it may lie but a variety. I think 
it sufficiently distinct, however, to bear the name of its zealous 
discoverer, Prof. John Wolf. — J. T. Rothrock. 

Periodic Motions of Leaves and Petals.— These phenomena, 
on which much has been written both in England and Germany, 
have l.ecn the subject of a fresh series of observations by the 
German botanist Batalin. He divides the different instances of 
motion into three groups : 

(1.) Rapid automatic motions caused by a special motile organ, 
the pulvinus, at the base of the leaf-stalk. (2.) Diurnal motions 
not so rapid but also resulting from a special motile organ. (3.) 
Diurnal motions belonging to the whole of the leaf-stalk and par- 
tially also to the surface of the leaf, but not connected with the 
presence of a pulvinus. The third of these classes, to which 
belong the motions of petals which cause the opening and closing 
of flowers were the special subject of Batalin's observations. 
The ordinary explanation of the phenomenon has been the different 
degree of tension in the two sides of the leaf caused by a differ- 
ence in the amount of water contained in them, which explanation 
has however already been shown by Pfeffer not to meet all cases. 
Batalin agrees with Pfeffer's conclusions and he considers the 
main cause of the motion to be unequal growth of the two sides 
caused !, v alternating differences in the light, temperature and 
tumescence. He believes that the same cause is also one of those 
most efficient in the other classes of periodic motions connected 
with special motile organs.— A. W. B. 



cherry-laurel, which he considers go far to prove the tact mat 
the substances which supply the food of plants have an ascending 

feet annular incisions through the bark, or detached pieces of the 
bark to which buds were attached, or removed entire cylinders of 
bark from the trunk. The result of the experiments was that the 
buds always continued their development when the c 
tion remained uninterrupted with the lower portion of the trunk, 
while, when this communication was completely destroyed, the 
buds invariably withered away. If the bud was separated by a 
perfect annular incision, it withered the more slowly the greater 
its distance from the incision ; and in these cases the starch disap- 
peared completely from the portions of the wood above the incision 
between it and the bud. When entire cylinders of bark with buds 
on them were removed, the buds continued to develop, and even 
produced branches bearing leave-. — A. W. B. 






.mall 



Superior), 



l-hmd. ii being unnamed hitherto on any o 
the maps. 

This is an important addition to the flora of Michigan; and 
though I am aware that the plant had already been discovered on 
Lake Superior, 1 am. assured that this is the first time of its being 
found within the limits of the United States. 

The plants, of which I collected between thirty and forty. gro« 
ontheexpos ts of dwarfed Ft** 



A point of considerable practical importance to agriculture 
been recently investigated in Germany, by M. Adolf Ma] 
Wiesbaden, viz.. whether the aerial parts of plants have the; 
of absorbing ammonia or not. He carried out a series of e: 
ments on plants growing in such a manner that access of a 



root s wa- prevent ed. while the ! 
ted to the ie.nuer.ee of this suKstanee in eitli 
solved condition. The upshot of his experin 
dety of plants subjected to these conditions' al 
absorbing carbonate of ammonia by their aer 
I gaseous and the dissolved condition and of 
■ building up of their tissues. The plants did 





1 aptitud 


e for ab: 




g amnion! 


a tl) 


rough 








the co 


mbined ni 






w 


. B. 














ZOOLOGY 












ble pets they wen 


e, and 


why not? 


W 


ehear 


:±r 


ys, pet 1 


:oads. a 


nd an 


English 




iralist 


i ,! ! ' 


t J had tl 


)t pet sp 


^ 


? But wit 
-ed them f 


h.m 


everal 



ent times ; the 


first I found under 


a stone, the s 




:1 was brough 


to me pretty th 


oroughlybenumbe 


d with wet an< 


1 eoh 


I, having bcei 


taken from a tt 


ib of water. I hac 


1 already prov 


ided 


a domicile fo 


my first capture in the shape of I 


i large cigar b 


ox, covered with 1 


pane of glass, 


and watched with 


some interest 


its ] 


reception of i 


new inmate, h 


alf expecting it v 


rould make ai 


i onfi 


laught on th. 


weaker one an 


d kill it for its hit 


rusion, but it 


man 


ifestcd no in 



Ahus for a day or two they were exceedingly shy of each other 
b «t in the course of a week their fear wore away and they wen 
Peaceable companions enough, but this amicable arrangemen 
Promised" to end suddenly, as I thought, at one time, for while 
was watching them they ran toward each other ; as they met, risinj 
°n their hind legs, with the fore legs of each resting on the other' 
head and body, with jaws widely distended, they appeared as i 



362 ZOOLOGY. 

about to eng le, but in a moment they dropped 

to their feet again and ran away from each other like two kittens 
at play ; this I saw th 1 do m m times erwai 1. al rays en lii g 
in the same manner. I also often saw them chase each other 
around the box, first one and then the other being the pur-ucr. 
I thought then and still think they were at play, for never in any 
instance did they bite one another, nor manifest an appearance ot 
wanting to do so. The only time 1 ever saw them exhibit ill 
temper was when I gave them water to drink, which I did once a 
day, pouring a small quantity upon the bottom of the box ; the 
spiders always i n qui* kly to it. and - ftei thn s would -Kind with 
all their feet in the little puddle that I made for them, drinking 
long and steadily, and sometimes in their eagerness crowding 
each other ; then one would seem to lose his temper and would 
drive the other away from the water. Another and very neat way 
I had of supplying them with water was with a piece of whalebone 
split fine at the end to form a sort of a brush ; this would hold a 
drop or two. I held it near to one of the spider-, but high enough 
to oblige it to rise on its hind legs almost erect to reach it ; tins 
either would do as readily as a dog would have risen to my hand 
for a piece of meat ; after the first two or three times that I sup- 
plied them in this way, sustaining themselves by resting the fore 
legs on the whalebone, sucking the brush dry before letting go 
of it, After a time I did not need to bring the whalebone near 
to them. I would merely show it inside the box and there wan » 
run for it, the first one reaching it getting the first drink. 
awaiting its turn ; it was a matter of surprise to me that thej 
cared to drink so often and so much. I had supposed spider* 
were capable of sustaining long fasts, both in cati \>.'r and drinking ; 
in fact the experience of others teaches us that such is the case, 
but in this instance they were ready to drink at least i 

I supplied them well with flies for food and closely watched 
their method of taking them. The motion of a cal 
upon a bird is as good an illustration as any of the method ; t e 
spider would creep to within the distance of an inch of '- JJJ 
stand perfectly still a moment and then throw the bod 
as far as the length of the hind legs would admit, the hind fee 
not moving from the place on which they were fixed, 
to the spring. They did not often miss in the first ci 
they did, they made repeated attempts until the fly was capture , 



and after eating it they would set 
matter in which they were very prec 
tirst to clean the body, and afterwards the legs with the jaws and 
palpi ; commencing with the first right leg, then washing the first 
left, next the second right and so on until all were clean, depos- 
iting the accumulated dirt in a minute heap in front of them, 
pushing it away with the tore legs when they were done. On one 
occasion I put a common house spider in the box with them, 
thinking that they would kill and eat it as they were much larger 
than the new- spider, but instead of attacking it they seemed much 
alarmed and kept as far from it as possible. Thinking they would 
pluck up courage during the day I did not remove it : at night I 
Ibund that the house spider had spun a web covering the most of 
the box, and my pets were stowed away in a corner completely 
cowed. I removed the house spider, tore out his web and they 
soon recovered their spirits and were as lively as ever. 

I divided the box in which they were confined filling half to the 
top at one end with soft loam, thinking they would dig a hole in 
which to conceal themselves when so inclined, but they did not, 
though I saw evidence several times of their digging; in one 
instance the soil being excavated to some depth, but irregularly, 
having no appearance of the smooth round hole that we find in 
the fields dug by this or an allied species. I supplied a paper tube 
of suitable diameter and about three inches long, and this they 
both used, though rarely both at the same time ; in only one or 
two instances did I find them both in it.— Henry L. Moody. 

Reproduction of a Fish's Tail.— In Lyell's "Principles of 
Geology,"* occurs the following sentence: "The pectoral and 
tail fins of many fresh water lis!,. Inning been cut off, have been 
perfectly restored in about six weeks' time." As this statement 
embodies a fact with which many naturalists seem to be unac- 
quainted, I am glad to be able to give it a new confirmation. 

In the rooms of the Boston Young Men's Christian Union there 
is a fine aquarium, well stocked with gold and other fish. Early 
m the spring of 1873, the well known fish fungus (Achlya prolig- 
er af) made its appearance in the tank, and several fine fishes died. 
Among the specimens attacked by the fungus was a young gold- 
fish, which by some unknown means had lost its tail fin. The 



;me out all over the stump of the tail, the fish became 
sick, and was apparently dying. At the time I knew nothing of 
the nature oi' : -. hut having my :i1 toution called 

to the case, T at once concluded that I had to deal with some 
parasite, and resolved to try to exterminate it. The only caustic 
av; i! V, 1 . ] ened to hi sti in i nil i ic ai i<l. i frw drops of \\ hi< li I 
applied to the affected tail stump, allowing it to remain a moment 
or two, after which I rinsed it off in clean water, and restored the 
fish to the tank. Of course the parasite was killed ; the patches of 
fungus sloughed off, and the sick fish soon he unowellai li lthy. 
A few days later I thought T saw more of the fungus appearing upon 
the previously affected part : hut, upon looking more closely, found 

the course of a month a new tail fin, perhaps a fourth of an inch 
long, had appeared, which continued to "-row rapidlv, so that in 
three months from the time of my experiment the fish could not be 
i'Ts in the aijiiai in in. The lost tail was repro- 
duced with absolute perfection, the reproduction taking place not 
only under my own eyes, but also under the observation of several 
competent witnesses. 

This case seems to me interesting as a confirmation of what 
was already known, and also as showing that the reproduction of 
the lost part was not prevented even by the application of one of 



the most 


; powerful and destrueth 


e of all caustic 


s.— F 


, W. Clark. 


The Kinglets in New Jersi 


BT .— We are s ( 


>mewh 


at surprised 


to find it 


s! it. 1 in the lap st woi k 


on North American o 




that the 


two kinglets (Regulus . 


mtrapa and R. 


calendula) are not 


known t 


o breed in the United ! 


States, but that 


; a few 


. 


to remai 


n thrc 1 o it the si n 


srin Maine, "a: 


nd pre 


■bablybreeJ 


in the d 


ense Thuja swamps." 


Both of these 


kingle 


Is arc (jiute 


abundan 


t in New Jersey from ea 


rly autumn unti 


1 late i 


n^piing-^ 



oology of New .Terser. 
S68, p. 769, and volume iv of this Journal), t 
duals remain, during the breeding season, anion' 
I Sussex county of this state. Both there and in the 
rritory of Monroe and Pike counties, separated fror 
mntyby the Delaware River, here a narrow stream, the 









a. These skins were marked "Laurel (I{hud< 
, Monroe county, Penn., July 11, 1871." 
indeed is more likely than Unit these birds, win 
it during autumn, winter and early spring, she 

' that the northern portion of the stale, and the 



•W«»i Wmdiohi DC— an inh: - in Europe 

botany, to that, in ■ ■ 'nee of our two kiug- 



■jv the nam "of J/ ■ ,<-"•,■''* M ■■ 



canus. What is known of it is still imperfect, and a prolonged 
study would elucidate many interesting facts. 

I first saw this animal last summer in Santa Fe, but it was not 
till late in the fall that I had occasion to examine its habitation. 

A structure like a crater about one inch in diameter indicates 
where they live underground : they make no hills like other ants. 
A narrow canal of the diameter of a quill leads several feet deep, 
it is variously contorted and sometimes widened out to a chamber ; 

producing, the latter performing the other household duties; they 

being recognized as a inirrou eanal win ling through the rounded 
and puit'ed-up abdomen. The strain on the membrane is such as 
almost to cause it to burst. Many do burst, for on digging up the 



entirely saturated \ 


vith liquid honey, and 


ant. In many cast 


■s the rupture produee 


producing ants are 


seen around such phi 


liquor. 




The honey has an 


; : _. ■■■■ i. 


a trace of formic aci 


d, but perfectly neutral 



,1s, and use the g 


athero, 


i honey 


at theil 


r meals ; 


others prop 


fermentation an s 


dcoholi 


c liquor 


from it 






[t would be worth 


while 


for beekeepers 1 


;o try to 


introduce th 


o some kind of t 


iee-hivi 


i fitted i 


vith a h 


uitaMc « 


lry soil and 


)per food at hand 




sm. 









The average weight of a non-p.od„eing ant ,. ttt <> md..-" >«"»^ 

rast simply imm .<' ,nHt and Mineral- 

jist to U. Wheeler's Exploring Expedition. 

SpizellaBreweri ( ?) in Massachusetts.— M. W. Stone brought 
ae a $ sparrow shot December 15, 1873, in Watt 
t was in company with •S. monticola. I could not i 






i any Spizella I ever saw. The bill and feel 



Jireicen, and an approach, tu sucadis." — William ; 

[Note. — Dr. Coues, on reading the above, says tha 
fully examined the specimen while it was in Mr. Hensha 

and agrees that it cannot be distinguished specifically t 
ert, though it has some points about it indicating sot 
gesting a possible hybrid of the two.— Ens. J 



ne chimney is very small) 



J8 ZOOLOGY. 

id have acted accordingly. Is not this a good example of the 

irds, and can it all be attributed to instinct?— C. Hart Mekriam. 

irefoot. It was evening and dark. Site thought at first that she 
ad trodden on a carpet tack, but it seemed quite different soon, 
lore like the effects of a coal of fire. 

She lighted the gas, and saw the large Cermatia which bit her. 
t was wounded by°her tread and had its revenge. It bit just be- 
sveen the toes and h 



The swelling and pain continued about thirty-six hours, keeping 
icr awake most of one night. — Josiaii Curtis, M. D., Wash- 
ington, D. C. 

Blind Crustacea.— A new and interesting genus of Decapod 
Crustacea has been described by Mr. AVood-Mason (in. the Pro- 
ceedings of the Asiatic Society of Bengal, August, 1872) winch 

sely allied 



Nephrops Norvegicus, but, like Calocaris Mac Andre. 
destitute of the organs of vision.— Prof. Westwoc 
before the Entomological Society of London. 

Birds and Caterpillars. — In the very timely art 
Packard in the May Naturalist, Mr. C. J. Maynar 
as stating, that no bird but the Baltimore oriole will 

cuckoo iuirlvi- in an orchard nea 



5 of Bell 



J lip was ft 



Note on Preserving Insects in Collections.— ] 
i method for preserving insects without the troubl 



trial, a perfect result. Sheets of card thus medicated give me all 
the small, soft Hemiptera, etc., with antenna.', etc., not eaten by 
Psocus, as was formerly the case.— T. A. Marshall, in Enlomol- 
oyist's Monthly Magazine. 



GEOLOGY. 

Deep Sea Explorations (Report Brit. Assoc, in Athenreum for 
Sept. 27). — The largest audience of the week was gathered to- 
gether on Tuesday morning (the final sitting), to hear Comman- 
der J. E. Davis discourse "On the recent Achievements of the 
Challenger Deep-sea Expedition." Capt. Davis confined himself 
to the proceedings of the Challenger Expedition north of the 
equator, which formed a natural section of the voyage. The 
operations with which he chiefly dealt were the deep-sea soundings 
viewed in their relations to physical geography rather than to zo- 
ology, which, as is well known, occupies a large portion of the at- 
tention of the scientific staff of the Expedition. He described 
Mid exhibited to the meeting the various mechanical contrivances 
adopted to sound the greatest depths with accuracy, ascertain the 
■-. and bring up mineral ami zo >Iogical specimens from 
the bottom. In the course of the voyage out ward from the Thames 
to Gibraltar, and thence to Madeira and the Canaries, the first in- 
teresting set of soundings were taken off the entrance to the Straits 
of Gibraltar. The soundings over a large area in this section are 
as follows : just beyond the meridian of Cape St. Vincent, due 
west of the straits, *2,5(>0, 2.125, and 2.2-30 fathoms: and, again, 
•'C'tween Madeira and the Canaries 2,350, 2,400, 2,200, and 1,975 
fathoms; but westward and northward, outside this area, the 
'It'Pths diminish to 1,525, 1,400, 1,550, and 1,650 fathoms. These 
results seem to indicate the existence of another deep basin out- 
side the Mediterranean, circumscribed by a ridge -imilar to the 
two deep basins within that sea. Great depths were found close 
"Ptothe islands of the Madeira and Canaries group, but a much 



moiv abrupl elevation from the • ; ; n Bermuda. 

The deepest sounding yet made in the ocean was at a point eighty 
miles distant from these islands, where a depth of 3,875 fathoms 
was found. Five miles of rope was run out with the sounding ftp. 
p latus taking one hour and twelve minutes in its course. The 
other soundings taken around Bermuda prove it to be a peak, 
formed by coral animals, rising abruptly from the abysmal depth 
of 1,500 to 1,820 fathoms — comparable, as Dr. C: rpontei observed. 
to the Matterhorn. Between the West Indies (St. Thomas) and 
the Canaries, nearly in the middle of the Atlantic, shallower depths 
were found, showing that a submarine ridge here exists. The 
depths over the ridge are 1,1)00 and 1. !i5n fathoms, whilst on either 
side of it a broad basin extends, deepening to 2,650 fathoms in the 
western basin, and 3,150 fathoms in the eastern. In crossing from 
Bermuda to the latitude of New York, especial attention was di- 
rected to the Gulf-Stream, both as to the depth and temperature 



of the 



unding of 2,425 fathc 



within the southern edge of the f 
peratures taken at various depths in the stream, it was found that 
in this part of its course the warm water does not extend beyond 
100 fathoms in depth. It was found to be 57 miles broad, rapid 
only along the western edge, where there was a belt of water lo 
miles wide, running ;;j to 4 miles an hour, and 3° Fahr. highe 



f parts of the s 



. 



ANTHROPOLOGY. 
A Human Skeleton from the Diluvium.— M. RivieTC wk© 

discovered the famous human skeleton at Mentone in 1872 has 
recently (March. 1*73) exhumed another in the cavern of Baoune 
Roussee at Venti Niglia near Mentone in the South of France. 
The cavern is twenty-seven or twenty-eight metres above the level 
of the sea and about twelve metres deep. The ground is covered 
by a layer of red conglomerate about a metre in thickness. 
Beneath this layer are large blocks of stone which appeared to be 
piled up about the entrance and among these blocks were found 
the first traces of a human dwelling Round about were scattered 
bones ofthe genera Cervus and Capra mixed with shells of Patella 
au ' 1 Jr vUlu.s and a few stone and bo, , implements. At a depth 
of three and three-fourths metres below this upper habitation was 



371 

found a second with numerous animal remains, the age of which 
did not admit of a doubt, and among them a human skeleton. 
The most important among the animal remains were bones of the 
hvama. horse, marmot, Ursus spelceus, Bos primigenius and various 
species of deer, but none of the reindeer ; also numerous remains 
of birds, and of hind and marine mollnsks. The weapons and in- 
struments were made partly of bone, partly of stone, and belong 
in no case to the period of polished stone implements, but to the 
oldest stone age; some of the smaller in.-tniments were made of 
quartzite or felsite. The human skeleton was not in so good a 
state of preservation as the other previously discovered; it lay 
extended on its back near the entrance to the cavern, the ground 
mund it being covered with a stratified deposit of ashes, charcoal, 
fragments of bone, teeth of animals, mussel shells and stone im- 
plements. The height of the skeleton must have been, when per- 
fect, as much as two metres or a little over, i. e. about six feet, six 
inches. M. Riviere refers without hesitation both the skeletons 
found near Mentone to the older stone age, about the end of the 
epoch of the < ive-bear and 1" ■•> W / >r/ini"v. — A. TV. B. 

MICROSCOPY. 

Arranging Diatomace^e. — The convenience of having diatom- 
acese arranged for observation is appreciated by all who make a 
study of this attractive branch of microscopic research. 

The first requisite is a mechanical finger which may be had 
very cheaply after the following pattern :— A plate A (Fig. 79) 
is attached to the body of the microscope by the objective of from 
1 inch to | inch. To this plate is attached the part B perpen- 
'heular to A; this has the projections b and b' through which 
works the sliding shaft C, the lower part of which is square fitting 
^•'•'irately in the projection b. The shaft, the upper part of which 
>■- furnished with a screw-thread, is raised by turning the milled 
head B, the spiral spring Amoving it downward. The arms D 
are attached to the shaft and to these the needle holder d in which 
the needle is placed at an angle of jibout 45°. This finger can be 
used with nicety with a little practice, and can be made by any 
one that has a little mechanical ability. I have made one that did 
not cost over 25 cents for the materials. 

The other requirement is a stage plate to carry the thin glass 
c °ver. It should be about 1J-X4J- inches, upon which is made to 




an aperture about I inch in diameter for the transmission of light 
to the cover on which the arrangement is being made. 

The cover should be coated by a very thin film of the purest 
gelatine dissolved in distilled water. 

The process is now easily consummated. The cleaned diatoms 



being evenly spread upon a glass slip and the slip placed upon 
the stage, select the specimen desired, let the sliding shaft down 



by turning the milled screw till the point of the needle (which 
should be very fine, or a bristle may be used if preferred) touches 
the object, give it a few backward turns to lift it clear, then more 
rapidly by means of the coarse adjustment of the microscope ; 
substitute the stage plate with the cover attached to it by some 
kind of cement and carry the plate, by means of stage movement, 
so that the object may be let down in the required position on 
the glass cover. Another may then be placed beside it, etc. 
After completing the arrangement, moisten the glue by breathing 
upon it or holding in the vapor of distilled water, though the 
latter is liable to wash the objects out of place unless dextrously 
managed. They are then secure and will sometimes bear rough 
usage in mounting without becoming displaced. Occa 
there will be a specimen that will adhere to the needle so persis- 
tently that we are liable to consider patience no longer a virtue. 
In such cases try another specimen, as different diatoms of the 
same species vary greatly in grade of difficulty. My experience 
is that discoid forms are most easily arranged and the light Navi- 
cular the most difficult. Sometimes air prevents the balsam from 
entering the frustule, which may be avoided by separating the 

Thus any one of the requisite mechanical tastes can have slides 
of diatomacese arranged in squares or otherwise to suit the fancy, 
and a large number of specimens be examined without change of 
slides. The finest specimens may be thus secured, from impure 
gatherings, and reference made to any particular specimen without 
the use of the "finder."— W. W. Rinee, Greene, Iowa. 

Histology. — Dr. James Tyson's magazine article, narrating his 
experience in the laboratories of Dr. Klein of London and of Prof. 
Strieker of Vienna, has been raised to a little book and published 
°y Lippincott as an Introduction to Practical Histology. The 
additions to the original article are not extensive, but are designed 
to make it more comprehensive and more available as a hand-book 
for actual beginners in histology. While almost every microscop- 
ical treatise is full of mounted objects and mounting objects, it is 
refreshing to find even a small work which says hardly a word 
about either, but devotes itself entirely to microscopical study. 
Li ke most histologists, the author values highly the vertical use 
of the microscope, and says little of the binocular i 



374 MICROSCOPY. 

He believes the "vegetable spores" of Salisbury and the "ele- 
mentary corpuscles" of Zimmermann are fragments of the target 
colorless blood corpuscles. For embedding tissues preparatory to 
cutting sections of them, he pins them into the centre of little 
boxes extemporized out of white paper, and pours the melted em- 
bedding material around them ; seeming to prefer for this purpose 
the medium suggested by Dr. J. G. Hunt, which consists of 
common transparent soap cut into small pieces and melted m a 
water-bath with the aid of alcohol, this being a cleanly and trans- 
parent material which can be kept in a bottle and easily melted 
(by placing the bottle in warm water) and poured out when nec- 
essary. The only serious mistake in the book is the measurement 
of the image, in estimating magnifying power, at the distance of 
the stage instead of at ten inches ; an erroneous procedure repeat- 
edly pointed out by us in other cases, and in this case beautifully 
illustrated by the direction on the same page to measure it. when 
using the camera lucida, at the distance of ten inches which ot 
course would give the same results in exactly those instruments 
whose stage happened to be ten inches from the observer a eye. 
On the whole, beginners in histology should thank Dr. Tyson for 
a neat, handy, and timely work whose usefulness is far in ao\ai.»< 



Morphology op the Saprolegniei.— This doubtful family, 
that seems now finally deposited in the algae, has now <■ 
economic interest from the destructive effects produced upon lis" 
eggs in the hatching trays, supposed to be caused by 
lifera. The following summary is translated from advauct she. 
of "Contributions to the morphology and systematic 
the Saprolegniei :" by N. Pringsheim. (Jahrbuch fiir wissenschaft- 
licher Botanik, ix, Bd. 2tr. Heft.) 

The results of my investigations on the Saprolegniei may be 
condensed as follows : 

1. In all the Saprolegniei the male organs of generation de- 
velop from the well known antheridia, that are formed near, or 
grow toward the oogonia. 

2. Those in which antheridia or their equivalents 



are not, as has been supposed, distinct sp< 

gans, but parthenogenetic forms, whose sporangia rip< 

iiization. 



:m - wantnig. 
modified or- 



3. In the Saprolegniei there is but one kind of sporangia; 

those which develop parthenogenetically, ami those which are fer- 
tilized are identical, and show no diii'erence originally. The un- 
fertilized zoospores grow sooner and more readily than those 
which are fertilized. 

4. Several peculiarities in the formation of zoospores, which 
have been considered sutlicient specific distinctions, are not import- 
ant as such, but are merely evidences of a greater or less tendency 
to dimorphism, representing various stages of development in the 
zoospores. 

5. Also various sexual forms of growth may appear in the 
same species, which are not reliable as specific distinctions. — 
W. H. S. 

Section Cutters. — At the Queckett Club, Mr. T. C. White al- 
luded to the impracticable expensiveness of many excellent sec- 
tion cutters, and stated that he had used with great success a 
contrivance, which consisted of a brass tube fastened at right angles 
with a brass plate, upon which a glass plate with a corresponding 
aperture was cemented for a cutting surface. The substance to 
be cut was embedded in an inner tube which was simply pressed 
up by the linger when required. 

Mr. Walter White read a paper on the " Science-Gossip" section 
cutter in which the plug holding the object is raised by slight blows 
upon a wedge, instead of by a screw. 

The President, Dr. R. Braithwaite, said that he did not possess 
a section machine, but was accustomed to cut sections of sphag- 
num and other leaves by inserting them in a slip of soft cork and 
cutting them by hand. 

Lecture-illustrations op Microscopic Objects. — Rev. W. H. 
Dallinger has communicated to the Royal Microscopical Society 
an improved method of preparing transparencies for use with the 
lime-light and lantern. He finds large drawings unsatisfactory 
for a large audience, as well as incomplete in detail, unless pre- 
pared with great labor and skill, and the usual transparencies for 
screen use, whether photographed or painted, cost too much time 
and labor to be always available. To obviate these difficulties, he 
draws the magnified image on a surface of finely ground glass of 
the size of a magic-lantern slide. . The drawing is as ea* • in 
as upon card, using a black lead pencil, and the camera lucida if 



necessary. Colors may 1 >e added, if desired, by a sable-hair pencil. 
The surface is then protected, and the drawing instantly charmed 
into a transparency, by flowing thin balsam over it and allowing 
it to dry as a thin film over the surface. In the same manner 
illustrations of subjects not microscopical may be easily and 
rapidly prepared. 

Podura Scales.— A happy accident has furnished Mr. F. H. 
Wenham a supply of specimens that seem to confirm the theory 
he so strongly defends of the reality of the spines on this most 
disputed of "tests." A favorite specimen which contained a 
detached spine having been destroyed, and an effort to remove 
uninjured the large scales which adhered to the broken cover-glass 
having failed, he scraped off the scales at random with a sharp 
knife edge and mounted the fragments, and wa> pleased to find 
many of the fragments cut obliquely in such manner as to leave 
the spines ( ! ) cut at a different plane and manifestly projecting 
beyond the other portions. Mr. \Venham's drawings certainly 
seem to confirm his descriptions, and photographs of the same 
appearances are promised. 

Lengthened Immersion Tube.— Mr. E. Richards, of the Royal 
Microscopical Society, renders the familiar immersion arrange- 
ment available in deep water, eight to ten inches, by screwing in 
an adapter between the objective and the nose piece of the micro- 
scope. This carries the objective with its immersion cap down 
through the stage and into a tank of water beneath it. 

Automatic Turn-table.— Dr. F. B. Kimball prefers this 
:irrun-ement to the usual method of turning |>y band. He uses 
the works of a common clock, putting a pin through the shaft of 
the table and cutting a slot in the hand arbor of the clock-work, 
and then mounting the turn-table so that the pin will catch in the 
slot and the two move together. 

Origin of Blood Corpuscles. — Dr. II. D. Schmidt, of New 
Orleans, has communicated an elaborate study of this subject to 
the Royal Microscopical Societ v. His studies were chiefly directed 
to human embryos of six weeks old, and upward. He is con- 
vinced that the nucleus only, of the colorless blood-corpuscles, « 
developed into the red corpuscle. He strongly confirms the prev- 
alent opinion that the spleen and lymphatic glands are the perma- 



NOTES. 377 

nent blood-formative organs. He looks upon the blood corpuscle 
as a gland-cell destined to promote within itself the transformation, 
into other elements, of certain materials derived from the liquor 
sanguinis, and when matured to give back directly "to the liquor 
sanguinis, by its final dissolution, its secretion, consisting of its 

Slb titlte fok the Camera lucida.— Mr. W. Kesteven, Jr., 
substitutes the thinnest possible cover-glass for the tint-glass com- 
monly used for camera lucida purposes. He does not appear to 
suffer from the difficulty of too great transparency which has de- 
terred others from its use. 

NOTES. 

Two months ago, in announcing the provision made by the Leg- 
islature of Kentucky for a geological survey, we asked whether 
the time were not coming for a careful geological and zoological 
survey of Massachusetts. Since then, active measures have been 
taken to secure this result. The American Academy of Arts and 
Sciences (the oldest and highest scientific body in the state) has 
petitioned the Legislature, and a memorial, referred at first to the 
Committee on Education, has now been placed in the hands of the 
Board of Edue tion with instructions to investigab the matter and 
report at the assembling of the next legislature. The memorial 
of the Academy, before its adoption, was thoroughly considered 
by a special committee, consisting of the President (Hon. Charles 
Francis Adams) Professors William B. Rogers and T. Sterry 
Hunt, and Messrs. George B. Emerson, Alex. Agassiz, S. H. 
Scudder and R. II. Dana, Jr., so that we can have no doubt of a 
favorable report from the Board of Education. 

The publications of such a survey, says the Academy, in its 
memorial, should embrace a detailed topographical map, on a scale 
of about an inch to a mile, maps colored to show the distribution 
of rock-formations and economic minerals, with charts on a larger 
scale of particular localities, having special interest or im. 
sections and explanatory text to accompany these maps, embrac- 
ing descriptions and analyses of the rocks and ores and of the 
waters, and investigations' into the strength and durability of our 



ng-stones : f 



including their natural history, transforma- 
man and his requirements. 



The memorial goes on to show that in carrying out the survey 
the State could take advantage of the provision made by Congress, 
by which any State undertaking a topographical survey of its ter- 
ritory is empowered to call upon the Cnited States Coast Survey to 
make the pi :,,ns, so that the State is at once 

relieved of a very important part of the work to be done. In 
making these triangulations, the Coast Survey utilizes the expe- 
rience of local professors and their students; and in the same 
way, it would be entirely feasible in following the trigonomet- 
rical with the topographical survey, to employ the services, 
in different parts of the State, of the same persons. The survey 
would thus become at once a most valuable auxiliary to scien- 
tific education, by giving the younger men in our schools of 
science and technology an opportunity to put their studies to 
practical use. 

The Academy places in a conspicuous light the educational ad- 
vantages which would accrue from Mich an undertaking and urges 
that the reports under the proposed survey should, as far as pos- 
sible, be prepared with special reference to an intelligent use by 
the people; and that, instead of being distributed gratuitously. 
they should be sold through the ordinary agencies at a slight ad- 
vance upon -the cost, so as to enable the State to pay the authors 
from the proceeds of the sales, and to recover the greater part of 
its original outlay, without placing the books beyond the reach of 
persons of moderate means. Such a mode of publication would 
unquestionably be the most economical for the State, and the most 
certain to bring the books directly and naturally into the hands of 
those who would value and use them. 

These suggestions are timely and important, and if faithful!? 
followed, would reduce by one-half the ordinary expenses of such 
a survey. One or two further suggestions, however, are needed ; 
that the Legislature should at the start ensure the continuance of 
the survey for a term of years, ten or fifteen at least ; and that the 
appointments should be removed from the domain of politics or of 
personal preferment. Why should not the nominating power be 
intrusted to such a body as the American Academy? This meas- 
ure would give confidence in the success of the survey. 

We bespeak from our Massachusetts readers all the aid they can 

before we can hope to see it urged again with the least chance of 



have not included any other works than those written in Latin or in 
the living languages of Teutonic or Roman origin. I he rea-on is. 
not that I undervalue what may have been written in other lan- 
guages (which I am very far from doing), but simply that 1 run 
unable to understand even the titles of works written in. for ex- 
ample, Russian, Polish, Bohemian, Finnish, or Magyar: and thus 
I have only by accident come to learn that a couple of works in 
these languages treat on araehnological subjects. 

"It may in general be taken for granted that a person of liberal 
education has some iiequaintance with Latin, and know* at lca-t 
one Teutonic and one Romanic language ; and when this is the 
case, he can, without any great waste of time, learn so much of 
the others as to be able, with the help of a grammar 
ary, to understand the purely descriptive works within his own 
department that are written in those languages. This is probably 
the reason why. in determining questions of priority, it is custom- 
ary to attribute as much importance to work- written m. tor in- 
stance, Portuguese or Swedish as to those written in 
more generally studied languages. lint it is. ol com-.. 
to assign the same weight to all languages. No natural^ can 
have time to acquire the knowledge of all the European 
which have already a scientific literature to show ; and the lan- 
guages of this part of the world will assuredly not long 
to keep exclusive possession of that territory. It • 
therefore, to be absolutely necessary, even for the future, in the 
selection of the works of' which a zoologist or botanist ought to 
be expected to possess a knowledge, and which, in the determina- 
tion of questions of priority, ought to be taken into a 
confine one's self to those which are written in the living lan- 
guages of Teutonic or Roman origin and in Latin. 



380 NOTES. 

"The want of a common scientific language will unquestionably 
become gradually more and more felt ; and as a return to Latin 
can hardly be expected, it is not improbable that Eng 
sometime or other acquire that rank, not only because that lan- 
guage is far more widely diffused over every part of the earth than 
any other culture-language, and that already two of the greatest 
nations publish in it the results of their scientific labors, bat 
because English, on account of its simple grammar and as com- 
bining in nearly the same degree Teutonic and Romanic elements, 
is by most Europeans more easily acquired than any other lan- 
guage." — Remarks onSynonym.es of European Spider*. I*:;), p. 
583 (a work written entirely in elegant idiomatic English).— By 
Prof. T. Thorell, of Upsala.— Annals and Mag. Nat. History. 

We may add that De Candolle, the Swiss botanist, has lately ad- 
vocated the use of the 1 

guage, and in this connection we quote the remarks of Mr. G-. 0. 
Sara, the well known zoologist of Norway, in the introduction to 
his elaborate work on animal life at great depths off the Norwe- 
gian coast. 

"That I have chosen a foreign language instead of my mother 
tongue, as the medium of this communication, is a i ; 
which I think does not cull for an \ justification on m\ 
ence is cosrnop -1 u. in I thu< on m j ,, - 

<nir language has not reached this point yet : and to 
bed one of the 
-■■"'■■■. _■■..-.! 

as well because it has most affinity with our own, and cos 

in acknowledgment of the great progress which zoologi 
has made in recent tin; Hum of the English lan- 

guages." 

The present indications are that the meeting of the American 
Association for the Advancement of Science, at Hartford, in Au- 
gust, will be one of unusual interest and will be largely attended. 
The citizens of Hartford have commenced the work of 
rangements for the meeting with great enthusiasm, ami the ue ■■ 
known liberality and wealth of the city make it certain that 
the local arrangements will be made as perfect as possible. A 
favorable to the success of the meeting we notice a new feature 
in the local sub-committees, that of the appointment of a number 
of ladies as a Committee of Reception. The circular of the Per- 



manent Secretary of the Association has been issued, and that of 
the Local Committee will soon follow. When the latter is pub- 
lished we shall give a summary of the local arrangements. The 
circular of the Permanent Secretary, as well as the necessary blanks 
for the entry of papers to be read at the meeting, and for applica- 
tion for membership, can be obtained by addressing him. There 
arc hundreds of persons in the country who, though deeply inter- 
Many would join the Association an 1 aid in its work it' they were 
more fully acquainted with its rules and character, and such we 
recommend to apply to the Permanent Secretary for further 
information. Among the business matters to be attended to at 
the meeting, will be the acceptance of the Act of Incorporation 
giving a legal existence to the Association ; while the new Consti- 
tution proposed at Portland will be acted upon. We learn that 
the Portland volume of Proceedings is nearly printed, and that it 
will contain many of the most important papers read at the meet- 
ing. A number of members whose papers were accepted for pub- 
lication have not sent in their manuscripts, notwithstanding the 
very long time allowed them to do so. We also learn that the 
Committee on the donation by Mrs. Thompson have accepted and 
commenced printing a monograph on " Fossil Butterflies," by Mr. 
Scudder. This work, which will be an exhaustive treatise on the 
subject, fully illustrated, and of quarto size, will form the first of 
the special memoirs of the Association, and in every way will be 
worthy of the liberal patroness. The following are the officers 
elected for the Hartford meeting which will open on August 12th: 
—President, Dr. J. L. Le Conte, of Philadelphia, Pa. ; Vice Presi- 
dent, Prof. C. S. Lyman, of New Haven, Conn. ; Permanent Sec- 
tary, Mr. F. W. Putnam, of Salem, Mass. ; General Secretary, 
Dr. A. C. Hamlin, of Bangor, Me. ; Treasurer, Mr. William S. 
Vaux, Q f Philadelphia, Pa. Standing Committee, ex officio, Ex 
President, Prof. Joseph Lovering, of Cambridge, Mass. ; Ex Vice 
President, Mr. A. H. Wokthen, of Springfield, 111. ; Ex General 
Secretary, P ro f. C. A. White, of Brunswick, Me. ; President, 
^ l ce President, Permanent Secretary, General Secretary and 
Treasurer of the Hartford meeting. Local Committee :— Cha inn a r, , 
Hon. H. C. Robinson ; Vice Chairmen, Prof. John Brocklesbt, 
J - M. Allen, Esq.; Secretary, Rev. W. L. Gage; Treasurer, 
Geo. p. Bissell, Esq., and one hundred and one other citizens. 



The French Association for the 
We copy the following from an extended notice in "Nat 
showing the high stand the French Association has taken, 
cordial support it lias received, and also as containing 
tions that the American Association might, with proper i 



"The first vol 


urae of the 


, vet 


young French Society's Pre 




' It 


is a handsome, heautiiuliy pi 


of 1,38( 














ariety of subjects, connected 




• applied. 












think the Britial 








Ce The g French A 


ssociation 


as o 


ur readers no doubt know, in 


very auspicious « 




iimlx 


;r of members amounting to 




)0. There 






membresfondate, 




ibe one or more shares of th. 


ital of the Association, a 




i amounting to 500 francs ; 




















' 










il subscription of 20 fram's, or f 


aon of ' 












dstence of scarcely three mc 


the Association 


■ 


.cap 


ital of nearly 140,000 francs 



sciences from the double point of view of the perfection of 1 
theory and of the development of their practical apphcatn 
These ends it proposes to accomplish by menus of meetings. 

persons engaged in scientific researches. It appeals for he 
all those 'who believe that tlie cnlthation of science is ncces: 
to the greatness and the prosperity of the country.' 

The Association isdi ad each group 



A Socie 


tv ha. 


i lately been organ 


iaed ii 


i Detroit, 


Michi 


gaii, , 


justed the Deti 


oit Scientific Ass< 


K'iatio 


n, una ha 


V ill-' f 


»r its 


ct the ad 


vancei 


nent of scientific 


knowl 


edge in al 


1 its 


brand 


.t a meeti 


ng held on April 16, 18 


71, tli 


e regular 


elect i( 


>n of 


srs for th 

'resident, 


Dr. ( 


ling term took pi: 


•Mi 


Vice P> 


S" 


/. T 


Iviimer; : 


M 17, ■ 


e President, Prof. 


.1. M. 


B. Sill ; 




•■ 


T. A. B. 


Lyons 


» ; Recorder and < 




? /Cce^er, 


K. W. 


;>lfend 



nd Henry, Fredrick Stearns. Henry Gillman. 

nises of large accessions to the number, the society bi 
come one of the prominent institutions of usefulness 



jary arrangements for procuring 

suitable rooms for the Association as soon as possible, a large 
number of specimens, b >oks, etc., having already been offered for 
the museum and library. 

Archaeology will be well attended to in n< 
year. The "Congress of Archaeology and Prehistoric Anthropol- 
ogy" will meet in Stockholm on August 7th, and will continue in 
session for nine or ten days. The government has asked from the 
Di *'t. a grant of 20. nun IV. towards defraying the expenses of the 
meeting. A magnificent palace has been set apart for the holding 
f,f the Congress, and the King and the city will each give grand 
Ktes. Visitors will be carried over the railroads at half tares, and 
many excursions will be made. The "Congres d' archeologie 
slave" will be held at Kiew from Aug. 14th to Sept 3d. As « Na- 

°f it in northern Europe this summer. 

The entomologists and chemists will prohably muster in large 
force at Hartford" in connection with the meeting of the American 
A ^'eiation. At the Portland meeting a memorial was presented 
bv tl >e entomologists and endorsed by the Standing Committee, 
Ur ging the American and Canadian Entomological Societies, 
to hold annual meetings at the same time and place with the 
American Association, and thev also appointed a committee to 
bri ng before the Hartford meeting for discussion, a code of rules 



for securing uniformity of nomenclature among American Ento- 
mologists. The chemists are proposing the celebration of the Cen- 
tennial of Chemistry and the indications are that the celebration 
will take place at Hartford, during the week of the Association 
meeting, though this is not yet officially determined. 

Since the publication of our note about the Anderson School 
of Natural History in the May number, we have learned that in 
addition to the instructors there named, Dr. W. S. Barnard will 
give lectures on the Protozoa, Prof. D. S. Jordan will take charge 
of the department of Marine Botany, and Mr. P. Roetter will give 
instruction in drawing. 

BOOKS RECEIVED. 



AMERICAN NATURALIST. 



Vol. VIII. -JULY, 1874. -No. 7. 



At the meeting of the Academy held in Washington, Jan., 
1867, I had the honor to offer some remarks f upon the system- 
atic value of the great complex of Coleopterous insects known 
as Rhynchophora. 

It was my intention, as then stated, to follow the memoir just 
mentioned with another, in which the classification of the Rhyn- 
chophora and separation into families should be discussed, in the 
hope of developing a more satisfactory system of arrangement 
than had been thus far obtained. 

Circumstances have prevented me from following this par- 
ticular line of investigation to a definite result, until within a 
short time, though it has frequently occupied my attention for 
brief intervals. The time, however, has not been altogether 
lost, for I found that, with each return to the investigation, I 
obtained an additional, though small insight into the constitution 
of this complex, which has been the subject of repeated efforts 
by the most laborious and successful students of entomology in 
Europe. 



The bases of the classification of the Rhynchophora which 
have been proposed are briefly these : 

I. Schonherr* treated the great mass of these insects (exclu- 
ding only the Scolytidse), as constituting a single family, divi- 
ded as follows : — 

A. Antennas not geniculate ; antennal grooves -wanting ; . Orthoceri. 

Bruchides, Anthribides, Camarotides, Attelabides, Rhinomacerides, 
Ithycerides, Apionides, Rhamphides, Brenthides, Cylades, Ulocer- 
ides, Oxyrhynchides. 

B. Antennae geniculate ; grooves almost always distinct ; Gonatoceki. 

a. Rostrum short, deformed, antennae subterminal ; 

BrachyrkyncM. 
♦Antennal grooves extending below the eyes; Brachycerides, Enti- 
mides, Pachyrhynchides, Brachyderides, Cleonides, Molytides, 
Byrsopides (the last with the rostrum received in aprosternal exca- 
vation). 
** Antennal grooves directed toAvards the eye ; 
Phyllobiides, Cyclomides, Otiorhynchides. 

b. Beak cylindrical, slender, antennas inserted far behind the tip: 

Erirhinides, Cholides, Cryptorhynchides, Cionides, Rhyncli- 
ophorides, Conoderides, Cossonides, Dryophthorides. 

Mecorlojnchi. 

In the gradual progress of the work this last legion, the Mecc- 
rhynchi, were divided into Synmericles, having the front coxae 
contiguous, and Aposfcasimerides, having them distant. 

The distinctions between the tribes above mentioned were 
founded mostly on insignificant and evanescent modifications in 
the form of the beak and antennse ; so that with the immense 
mass of genera and species described, it became quite impossible 
to determine either from the work itself. 

II. Although the faults found with this artificial system were 
neither few nor vaguely expressed, yet it was not until the prog- 
ress (1863) of his admirable work on the Genera of Coleoptera 
by my deceased friend Prof. Lacordaire required this immense 
labor to be done over again, that any attempt was made at a new 
arrangement ; the system of Lacordaire was essentially this : 

The series was divided into six families ; Curculionidae, Bruchi- 
dse, Anthribidae, Brenthidoe, Uloceridse and Scolytidse. Of these 
the Bruchidaa were recognized as having scarcely any relations 

» Genera et Species Cureulionidum, Paris, 1833-1844. 



with the other fai Qg rather to the Chrj'somel- 

ida?, with which they have since been associated by most authors. 

The Bruchidoe and Anthribi<he were clkiraeterized by having a 
distinct labrum ; the Scolytidse by the compressed and dentate 
tibiae, while the Brenthidse were separated rather by form than 
by any distinct structural character. 

The Curculionidae were then divided according to the size of 
the mentum, into 

I. Mentum closing the buccal space, and concealing the maxillfe 

Eyes rounded, prothoracic lobes indistinct, . . Cyclophthalmes. 
Eyes large, depressed, transverse, narrowed below, prothoracic lobes 
well marked, ...... Ozyophthalmes. 

II. Mentum smaller, maxilla? visible Phanerognathi. 



b. Pygidium exposed, or claws appendiculate : 
Ventral segments not angulated at the sides : 
" " angulated: 

B. Front co internum, which is frequently 

a. Oral organs normal. Club of antenna; annotated; 3d 
joint of tarsi bilobed. 
Mesothoracic epimera not ascending: 
" " ascending. 

6. Oral org 

very large, corneous, 3d joint of tarsi rarely bilobed. 
Pygidium exposed. 

" covered by elytra. 

Each of these divisions contains several tribes differ 
by characters of smaller importance, and not unfrequently in- 

HI. The next attempt at a general classification was made by 
Mr. H. Jekel.* This excellent author recognized with great 
clearness, and defined with tolerable precision, the following eight 



principal typos among tin Rhynohophora : Brneliides, Anthri- 
bidee, Attelabides, Curculionides, Calandrides, Cossonides, Sco- 
lvtides and Brenthides. The last cited memoir is occupied chiefly 
with a further development of the classification of the largest of 
these, the Curculionides proper, ami in it In- proceeds to separate 
as sub-families* Braclrycericles, Byrsopides and Amycterides, 
epigeal forms in which the tarsi are not dilated, and not furni»hed 
with brush-like hairs beneath. Having thus isolated them the 
great mass remaining is divided into 
B<xt\ - uissiniilar in form <?, ?, narrower in $ .... Platygnes. 



Beak dissimilar 

Py.uidium covered by the elytra, body pollinose or pubescent 

ISOGYNES. 

Pygidium exposed or covered; body squamose, etc. Metbiogthbs. 

Pygidium covered ' 

Pygidium exposed Gymnopyges. 

The principal types contained in each of these three grand 
divisions are then characterized in a very clear manner; but for 
a proper understanding of this system, a vast improvement on 
all that preceded, the reader must refer to the original memoir. 
In developing the arrangement of the tribes represented in our 
fauna, I shall be largely indebted to the views expressed in this 
most valuable memoir of Mr. Jekel. 

There remain to be mentioned two faunal contributions to the 
history of this subject : 

1. A series of remarks by Mr. Suffrian,f in which the German 
species of several genera, not before carefully studied, are more 
fully elucidated, and various criticisms upon Schonherr's system 
made. J The necessity of a more careful study of the tibiae and 
tarsi, almost neglected by Sch5nherr is insisted on, and an arrange- 
ment of the German genera in groups upon these characters w 
given. 

2. That most admirable work of Prof. C. G. Thomson^ 



which no entomologist ever refers without finding origin*] 
terial by which he can profit ; a remarkable instance of the i 
results to be obtained by a careful and intelligent study of a ' 
limited fauna. The Rhynchophorous series is divided as full' 



Brachidi i rite, Aite- 

labidse. 
Abdomen with the 1st and 2d segments connate, the remain'mi: thr< ■«• 

movable, the 2d usually much longer than the 3d . Amsoioma. 
Apiouidse, Curculionidae, Cosson. . Toinichhe. 

From a survey of the different schemes of arrangement which 
have been thus briefly reviewed, it is evident that while the prin- 
cipal types of the Rhynchophorous series, and the main divisions 
of the great fatniU Ctin i mida Inm been.-! itl\ perceived, the 
attempts to define these important forms have failed in a greater 
or less degree, on account of the want of proper subordination in 
the characters made use of: all of them natural, all of them im- 
portant, though in a less degree than supposed by the expounder 
of each particular system. 

To supplement the memoirs above referred to, there came in 
more recent times the beginning of a systematic study of our 
species of Curculionidae by Dr. George H. Horn, a careful and con- 
scientious study of the Calandridae and Cossonidse and of some 
Mecorhynch genera of the United States.* In the introductory 
remarks he observes : — 

"One character is mentioned in the following pages that ap- 
pears to have escaped notice. In most if not all of the genera of 
•^ '•"/// 'tuques, the males have eight and the female- -even dorsal 
abdominal segments. The Calandrkh-s and CossnnMes appear not 
to possess this character, as also all the Brachjrlojnqiies which I 

The value of this original observation of Dr. Horn is very great. 
but the limitation which he has placed upon it, though correct as 
regards the Calandride an I Co.sonide types, is erroneous as regards 
the Brachyrhyncs, which have the abdominal sexual characters 
Precisely as in the genera in which he first observed them. So too 
have the Brenthidrc, and all the anomalous sub-families of Curculi- 



onidse in the Jekelian system. It appears therefore that this pe- 
culiarity of structure is of much more importance than was 
supposed by Dr. Horn, and that it must in reality be the defining 
character for the division of the Khynchophora into primary series, 
of more than family value. I therefore prepared a series of dis- 
sections of each of the well recognized Rhynchophorous types within 
my reach, and have come to the conclusion that they may be ar- 
ranged in three sets, each of which has a corresponding value to 
the individual series of normal Coleoptera (e.g. Adephaga, Clavi- 
cornia, Lamellicornia, etc.) ; and upon subordinate characters 
(some of which have been already employed in the classifications 
above mentioned, though in an empirical manner) into families as 
follows. 

Series 1. HAPLOGASTRA. 
Abdomen alike in both sexes ; dorsal segments 7, coriaceous, 
with the exception of the 7th which forms the pygidium, and 
which is small and corneous ; ventral segments not prolonged up- 
wards into a sharp edge ; elytra without hit end fold on the inner 
surface, epipleune usually distinct, antenme straight, ll-jointed. 

sually bifid or toothed, rarely (Rhinomacer) simple; 

e conical, prominent, presternum very short in front of 
the coxae. The beak varies in length and thickness, but not ac- 
cording to sex, so far as I know : the front coxffi are contiguous, 
except in one genus of Rhynchiticte (Pterocolus) ; the ventral 
sutures of the abdomen are straight. The mandibles and tibiae 
vary in form, and furnish convenient characters for division into 
families : — 

A. Ventral segments nearly equal in length; epipleural indistinct; tibial 

spurs small; claws simple (always ?). Mandibles simple, flat; lab- 
rum distinct .... Rl!lXoMACEi:it>-l- 

B. Ventral segments diminishing in length;' epipleune distinct; labram 

wanting ; claws bifid, or appendiculate 
Mandibles flat, toothed on each side; tibial spurs small 

RHYXCHrrnxE- 
Mandibles stout, pincer shaped, tibial spurs large Attelabid- 33 - 

The affinities of this series are in an ascending direction with 
the rostrated Heteromera (Oeden.erida- and Pythkhe) ; this is in- 
dicated by the softer tissues in Rhinotnaeeri(he, and certain Bltf* 
chitidoe, and also by the presence of a labrum in the former. ^ 
a descending direction the A rue Curculionid#> 



Front c 



CLASSIFICATION OF THE RHYNCHOPHOROUS 

and the Rhynchitidae to the Belidte, the last family in the third 
series of Rhynchophora. 

The habits of the species of this series are peculiar, and quite 
different from those of the next series, and indicate as is wisely 
observed by Lacordaire,* for the care of their progeny, an in. lust ry 
which appears here for the first time in the family. I cannot de- 
scribe the results of this instinctive or intelligent industry better 
than by condensing the account of the author just cited, referable 
however to European species. 

1. Rhinomaceridae. The European species deposits the eggs 
in the male flowers of Pinus maritim»js. the development of which 
is thus prevented. I may be allowed to observe that this s3 T nthetic 
genus, the nearest approach in the Rhynchophora to the lower 
Heteromera, and therefore the representative of old forms, clings 
to an old and synthetic type of vegetation. 

2. Rhynchitidae. Some of the species of Rhynchites roll leaves 
in the manner of the next family. Others deposit their eggs in 
young fruit, the kernel of which is eaten by the larva ; others again 
place the eggs in the undeveloped buds of trees, which are thus 
destroyed. 

3. Attelabidae. In the spring the females roll up the leaves of 
trees, and deposit in each an egg. After emerging from the egg 
the young larvae eat the inside layer of the case which covers them, 
which they probably leave at a later period, when their growth is 
complete, to perfect their metamorphosis under ground. 

These three families are of small extent, and but little need be 
said regarding their classification. 

RHIXOMACERIDJE. 
This family is represented in our fauna by two species, one on 
each slope of the continent, and is easily recognized by the de- 
Pressed, curved and acute mandibles, and distinct labrum. The 
Pygidium is covered by the elytra, which are punctured without 
any appearance of striae. On the inner face there is no trace of 
a lateral fold : the epipleurae are indistinct, 

ATTELABID.E. 

Four species of Attelabus on the Atlantic slope are the only 
representatives thus far known in our fauna. The beak is stouter 



392 CLASSIFICATION OF 

than in the preceding family, and the mandibles thicker and 
stronger. The epipleurae are quite distinct, and there is no trace 
of a lateral fold oil the inner face of the elytra. The pygidium 
is not covered by the elytra, and is impressed along its upper 
margin for the reception of the apical edge of the elytra.* The 
tibise are armed with large spurs. 

RHYNCHITID^. 

The peculiar form of the mandibles requires the separation of 
these genera as a distinct family. The teeth on the inner side are 
well developed as usual, but in addition, the apex is prolonged out- 
wards into an acute process, behind which is another large tooth.f 

The front coxa? are usually contiguous, large and conical, in one 
genus (Pterocolus) widely separated. The pygidium is either ex- 
posed (Rhynchites, Pterocolus) or covered by the elytra (Eugnamp- 
tus, Auletes). The epipleuroe are narrow, but distinct, and on the 
inner face of the elytra remote from the margin may be seen a 
short straight fold, the homologue of the well defined fold which 
limits the lateral groove for the reception of the side margin of the 
ventral segments observed in all the following families. 

Series II. ALLOGASTRA. 

Abdomen dissimilar in the two sexes; dorsal segments 1-6 
coriaceous or membranous, 7th large, corneous, undivided in $ , 
divided into two in $ ; ventral segments prolonged upwards 
forming a sharp edge, fitting into a corresponding groove on the 
inner face of the elytra, which are without epipleurse. 

The beak and oral organs vary greatly in form, as do also the 
antennas, the tarsi, the ungues, and the position of the coxa? ; the 
1st and 2d ventral segments are most frequently connate, and the 
3d is always shorter than the 2d ; the oth is longer than the 4th. 

The following families seem to be indicated by the material I 
have examined : — 
A. Antennne with a solid annulated club : 

Gular margin very prominent; mentura retracted; 



Presternum not excavated ; . . . 

Presternum 
Gular margin not prominent, menti 
mandibles, which are not scarred a 

Tarsi dilated, usually with a brush of 1 



Concerning Amycteridae and Brachyeeridae, but little need be 
said. They are very peculiar and easily recognized forms, not 
represented in our fauna. 

The first is Australian ; the antennae are slender, and genicu- 
lated ; the beak short and stout, deeply cniarginate al tip. alike in 
both sexes ; the buccal opening is very large, and the cavity is filled 
almost completely by the mandibles, which arc convex, hairy on the 
greater part of the front surface, deflexed, deeply concave beneath ; 
thegular margin is thickened and prominent, so that a deep cavity 
is seen between the gala and the mandibles, in which the mentum 
and oral organs are concealed from view ; the eyes are small and 
nearly round in some, narrowed beneath in others. The front 
coxae are contiguous, the presternum very short ; the elytra are 
connate and extend far over the flanks, so that the side pieces both 
of the meso- and metathorax are concealed. The dorsal segments 
of the abdomen are membranous, except the last which is very 
large, corneous, and convex, more so in $ than in ? , in the former 
it is truncate behind, exposing a semicircular 8th segment, from 
under which protrudes (Psalidnra) a very powerful and complex 
genital armature, consisting of a large pair of forceps, conical ob- 
tuse, punctured and hairy, under which and seen only from below 
is a pair of transverse, thin, polished, corneous plates, also meeting 
on the median line ; between them and the forceps is a large deep 
cavity. The ventral segments are scarcely less singular; the 1st 
and 2d segments large, flat, connate, united by a sinuate suture ; 
3d and 4th very short, separated by deeply excavated straight 
sutures, 5th much lamer, in $ very deeply and semicireularly ex- 
cavated, almost to tlm base, with a tuft of stiff bristles each side 
at the front edge of the excavation ; in the 9 this segment is flat, 
and meets the last dorsal at tip in the usual manner ; on the sides 
the lateral upward extension of the 5th ventral is very large, but 
the spiracle is visible ; the extension of the 4th and 3d segments 



394 CLASSIFICATION OF THE RHYNCHOPHOROUS 



are much 8 ted upon the 5th and 4th respec- 

tively ; the side margin of the 1st and 2d is verv narrow, and the 
side pieces of the metasternum are scarcely visihle. The elytra 
are connate, with the lateral groove of the inner face narrow ami 
sharply defined, becoming broader and indefinite at the posterior 
fourth ; on the inner face are seen eight rows of punctures, cor- 
tg to ridges of tubercles on the back. The tarsi are 
4-jointed, narrow, or at least the 3d joint not wider than the 
others, deeply grooved beneath ; the tibiae are truncate, without 
spurs, the front pair a little incurved at tip in both sexes. Claws 
simple, not contiguous. 

The genera of this family are stated by Mr. Jekel,* to differ by 
the form of the eyes, some being Cyclophthalmes, others Oxyoph- 
thalmes ; also in the antennal grooves, some being Obliq 
others Lateriscrobes. The vestiture of the under surface of the 
tarsi varies in different genera ; in Psalidura they are spongy seri- 
ceous beneath, in others ciliate or spinous. 

In other genera, the sexual characters are less remark 
in Psalidura, and will be found to consist chiefly in the divisfoa 
of the last dorsal segment into two, as in the other families of the 

The Brachyceridte are restricted to Africa and the neighboring 
parts of Europe and Asia. They are stout insects, with ventn- 
cose elytra, suddenly deflexed behind, and extending far upon the 
flanks, like the first tribes of Tenebrionidre, which they also re- 
semble in the large mentum, flat, filling the whole of the buccal 
cavity. The beak is short and stout, thicker at the extremity, 
alike in both sexes ; the antennal grooves are wanting (Episus) ; 
or deep and duvrh-d downwards, almost confluent in the gular re- 
gion (Brachycerus, Microcerus). The antenna; are short, straight 
or feebly geniculate, scape forming less than $ the length ; joints 
of the funiculus 7, rather short, club solid, obconical, truncate 
or subacuminate at tip. Eyes rounded or transverse and acumi- 
nate at the lower end. Mandibles stout, short, more prominent 
in Brachycerus, where they have the lower margin more produced 
into a cutting edge : the front surface is rough and somewhat •*" 
gular, but without any trace of the rounded scar seen in Otiorhyn- 
chidse. The scutellum is scarcely visible ; the elytra, as above 
mentioned, are ventricose, irregularly tubercHlate or costate^ery 



much extended on the flanks, so as to cover the side pieces of the 
meso- and metathorax : greatly detlexed behind. The lateral 
groove of the inner face is deep and narrow, becoming wider and 
obsolete behind. The dorsal segments are membranous, except 
the last, which is corneous, and divided in <? into two as in Cur- 
culionidai. The ventral segments are separated by deep sutures, 
of which the 1st is sinuate; the 3d and 1th segments are shorter 
than the others: the lateral extension upwards is narrow; and 
but slightly wider behind. The front coxae are contiguous, prom- 
inent and subcorneal, the tibia; are not dilated, the spurs are small, 
fixed, projecting inwards, the tarsi 4-jointed, narrow, setose and 
feebly concave beneath (Drachycerus) ; pubescent, concave and 
emarginate beneath (Microcerus) ; claws large, simple, distant. 

BYRSOPID2E. 

The third of the anomalous families has a more general distri- 
bution, and is represented in our fauna by the genus Thecesternus, 
which forms a separate tribe, distinguished from the other tribes 
by the prostcrnal groove for the reception of the beak not ex- 
tended as far as the front coxae. 

These insects are epigeal, rough and dull colored, with the elytra 
widely embracing the flanks, but not strongly deflexed behind, 
concealing the side pieces of the trunk. The beak is very short, 
not thickened at tip, nor emarginate at the middle ; the antennal 
grooves descend perpendicularly and form a gular constriction : 
the antennas are unusually short, imperfectly geniculate, the scape 
as long as the 1st and 2d joints of the funiculus ; the club elon- 
gate oval, pointed, distinctly annulated. Eyes transverse, pointed 
beneath.* Mandibles stout, short, front surface curved and 
roughly punctured ; mentum very small, not placed on a gular 
peduncle ; maxilla? exposed. Prothorax widely lobed in front at 
the sides, so as to conceal the eyes, when the head is deflexed ; 
deeply excavated beneath for the reception of the beak, cavity 
closed behind in Thecesternus by a triangular plate of the pro- 
sternum, but by the front coxae in the other genera ; coxae small, 
globose, contiguous. Elytra- connate, widely extended on the 
flanks, declivous behind, rough; lateral groove of inner face 



narrow, and well defined ; scntellum not visible ; humeri in Th< 
cesternus prolonged forwards, so as to extend along the sides < 
the prothorax. Dorsal segments membranous, last one large 
corneous, divided into two in $ : ventral segments unequal, Is 
and 2d very large, more closely connected, suture arcuated : 3 
and 4th short, sutures deep, 5th as long as the two preceding 
lateral extension moderately wide, wider behind, pygidiuni artb 
ulating with both 4th and 5th A'entrals. Legs slender, tibia tnn 
cate, spurs small, tarsi 4-jointed, narrow, setose beneath. 

Several species of Thecesternus are found in the iute: o e on 
of the continent, from Illinois to Utah, under dried buffalo excr( 
ment, and similar objects.— To be concluded. 



OBSERVATIONS OX DROSERA FILIFORMIS. 



Some observations on the power of the insect-trapping "thread 
leaved sundew" to bend its leaves partly or wholly about its prey. 
may serve to supplement the interesting notes of Mrs. Mary Treil 
recorded in the December number of the American Nati-ualist. 
They were made about the middle of last August during a day s 
botanical excursion in the vicinity of "Pleasant Mills." Ne ff 
Jersey, and were suggested by Mr. Darwin in the following mem- 

(1.) "Put a small atom of crushed fly on a leaf of 

->:n- the apex and observe whether the solid 
after twenty-four hours or so, curls over the fly." 

(2.) " Rub roughly with the point of a fine needle half a dozen 
times a few glands, and observe whether they become inflected 
after a few minutes, or more probably after a few hours." 

The place selected for the experiments was the edge of a cran- 
berry meadow exposed during the whole day to the sun. and yet 
protected by higher ground and trees from the wind, which other- 
wise might have prevented successful results by bid 
entangling the leaves together. Hundreds of the pi 
here growing, most of their leaves being fully extended, while 
others were yet unfolding from their circulate vernation. At < 



made by laying the leaves upon paper and thus getting their exa 
outline, show a remarkable uniformity in the amount of inflectioi 
it being in each case between 15° and 20°, mostly about 1^ 
These experiments were further corroborated by observatio: 
upon the leaves around, many of which were much more ber 
undoubtedly from having held the prey a longer time. In ot 
case indeed, where the capture had evidently been made near tl 
tip of a fully unrolled leaf, it had again curled round the prey i 
as completely to encircle it. 

So far as the limited time available permitted the observatio 
I could not perceive that it made much difference in the amoui 



ion, upon what part of the cireumieren 
taken. But if anything the back or c 



leaf the 



As regards the irritation of the glands with a needle the results 
*ere entirely negative both in the morning and evening, though it 
is possible some sensitiveness might have been shown if the ex- 
periment had been tried during the noonday heat. 

The meagre notes of a traveller made during a single day's 
observation are of course neither so full nor reliable as might be 
obtained by one living on the spot and with time at command. I 
believe further and accurate observations of the habits and func- 
tions of this very curious plant would be well repaid by the inter- 
esting results obtained. 



A KEY TO THE HIGHER ALG^E OF THE ATLANTIC 

COAST, BETWEEN NEWFOUNDLAND 

AND FLORIDA. 



In the preparation of this Key, the principal work of which use 
is been made is Prof. W. H. Harvey's Nereis Boreali-Amer- 



i-wwu-s of the higher groups have been to a great 
extent copied or abridged from that work, and Harvey's Nomen- 
clature and arrangement of families have been generally followed. 
In several instances, doubtful species have been suppressed or 
omitted. 

Although the number of species recognized by Harvey is much 
less than has been admitted by previous writers, a still further 
reduction would be an advantage. Perhaps one-sixth of the 
species described in the Nereis might with propriety be consid- 

The author has tried to render the Key as simple, compact and 
easy of comprehension as possible. Obvious characters, when- 
ever available, have been used in preference to technical ones, 
l which the classification is really based are 



microscopic and often hard to ascertain. 

Special technical terms are generally avoided, and those not 
used in Gray's "Manual of Botany" are defined where they 



Among plants so little known and which vary so widely a^ 
the Algae, a synoptical table by which any specimen in any c<m 
ine se- 



dition may be identified, is, of course, impossible, but J 
that this Key is sufficiently plain and accurate that i 
mens in every ten may be readily classified by its aid. 



Sub-Class I. MELANOSPERME^. 
(olive-green alg^e). 
Plants olive-green or olive-brown, never showing tints o 
Fructification monoecious or dioecious. Spores olive-cc 
either external or contained singly or in groups in proper c< 
(398) 



tacles ; each spore enveloped in a pellucid skin, simple or finally 
separating into two, four or eight sporules. Antheridia, or 
transparent cells filled with orange-colored, vivacious corpuscles, 
moving by means of vibratile cilia. 

Marine, often of large size, mostly between tide marks, A 

A. Feond 



d. Spores in apl >' r vessels com- 

monly present ; large, toagh plants, . FUCACEiE. 

B. Spores in indefinite cloud-like patches on the surface 

of the frond, which is usually hi rye mid st^itnti'. 

sometimes deeply divided, hut never truly hrunehtd, 

LAMINAEIACE2E. 

B. Spores attached to external jointed filaments; ours, slen- 
der deep water species becon 
drying, SPOROCHNACE^. 

B. Spores in definite groups (son) on the surface of the 
frond; fronds smallish, juiceless, the surface netted 
with small cells, DICTYOTACEiE. 

3. Spores immersed; fr <n a few small 

parasites in which the filaments are connected at 
base, CHORDARIACE^!. 

2. Sjyores external; fronds either obviously jointed or else sur- 
rounded by ichorled branchlets, ECTOCARPACE.E. 

5. Frond leafy; air vessels stalked separate, .... Sanjassum. 
■»• Frond leaf-like below ; air vessels in terminal branchlets, pod-like, 

several celled, Halidrys. 

■>. Frond dichotomous ; receptacles filled with mucous ; air vessels, if 

present, not as above, Fucus. 

*• Frond slender, with whorls of delicate filaments at the nodes, 
Arthodadia. 

3 - Frond pinnate, solid, Desmarestia. 

[• Frond flat, with a midvein, 

i • Frond flat, without a midvein, Laminaria. 



KEY TO THE HIGHER XLGJE OF THE ATLANTIC COAST. 

Stipe short, v gin of frond wavy or ruffled ; 






w. Branches with short, remote, horizontal, spine-like branchlets. I 

W. Not as above ; long, loose and feathery I 

x. On Chorda, Dictyosiphon, etc. Stem flexdous 



LIST OF SPECIES. 
In the following list the distribution of each plant is given, 
far as known. The figures refer to the average height of 1 
plant in inches. 



HUMAN REMAINS IN THE SHELL HEAPS OF THE 

ST. JOHN'S RIVER, EAST FLORIDA. 

CANNIBALISM.* 



After repeated examinations of the more important shell heaps 
on the St. John's, we have failed to find any evidence that they 
were nsed for the burial of the dead, or for any other purpose 
than dwelling places. Human bones have, however, been dis- 
covered in them, from time to time, under peculiar circumstances, 
and as their presence opens a question of much interest, it will be 
desirable to describe in detail each of the instances in which they 
have been detected, especially where the bones have been found 
in considerable numbers. 

1- The first which came under the notice of the writer, was at Old 
Enterprise, on Lake Monroe, in 1861, a few rods above the high 
Wuff and near the shore of the lake. The deposit of shells where 
the bones were found is about four feet thick, and has been 
much washed away by the waves during the great storms. White 
taking an excavation near the roots of a large palmetto tree 



which had been ; tion of the water, 

human bones were found about two feet below the surface. A 
foot above them, where a fire had been made, were ashes and 
large pieces of oak charcoal. The bones were not burned, how- 
ever, and did not appear to have been connected with the fire in 
any way. They wore broken into pieces a few inches long, just aa 
was the case with the bones of the deer from the same deposit, or 
from the adjoining bluff, and like them had lost their organic 



is in all respects to have 


the appearance of 


the s;i 




Dones of the animals assoc 


iated with them. 






nents consisted of the head 


of a femur broken < 


;,!fjust 


be- 


-or trochanter, two fragme 


nts of the shaft of 


tills 1,0 




nt each of the shaft of the 


tibia, fibula and b 


.umerus 


s, a 


capula, including the glen 


ioid portion, two ) 


netatarsal 


one phalanx of a thumb 




>able f 


hat 


originally a larger numb 


er of pieces and t 


hat mi 




irried away by the action c 


,f the water iu its 


L-ncroa 


eb- 


le shore. 








Drtant and more complete 


discoveries were m 


ade in 


tllL' 


xl of Blue Spring, though 


the localities were 


suiiiew 


hat 


iles apart. 









following bones : viz., the lower 
humerus, right and left scapula 

right and left femur, right tibia, 



,val mound, in the s 
iction from Blue S 
he skeleton were pr 



tl e i o nn tl 1 1 i t I 

>f human bones was found in a shell field 
li of the mouth of the creek at Blue 
er. The}' consisted of fragments of the 

-, scapula and ulna, broken in the same 



tho 




i the i 


)laee was . 


■. 


explored, only the fo 


1 lowing were 


dia 


JOVl 


ered : 


viz., fragments of £ 


i skull, an imperfect 


lower jaw, 


pie< 


•es 


of th 


e right an 


d left thig 


h bones, a piece of a 


n upper arm 


bon 




some 


lr:igi,u-nt> 


; of the forearm and leg. and a 


few joints of 


fiii. 


:.'!•> 


and 


toes. Tl 


le bones w 


ere all of t 


ive size, evi- 


den 




those 


; of a dwa 


if. Basin: 


r an estimate on the 


proportions 


Of 


lin- 


th;-! 


i bones t< 


> the whoh 


S skeleton, the indivi 


idual is sup- 


POs 


ed 


to h:r 


rc been id 


>out three feet and a half high. 


The angles 


:uim 


iixv 


tt-etl: 


I'hadT^ 




^i^^ring 0l lif 


i off and the 
e, and their 



:.u'ing to man. 

6. A single fragment of a human upper jaw of the right side, 
was found in the large shell heap on the same island and near the 
river buried to the depth of six or seven feet, and could have been 
deposited there only at the time the mound was built. An upper 
arm bone, whole, parts of the lower jaw, and a few fragments of 
other bones, were discovered in the debris at the base of the same 
mound Avhere it had been undermined, but the precise place from 
which they had fallen is uncertain. 

7. In the remnant of a mound, three-quarters of a mile below 
Hawkinsville and on the left bank, human bones were found, about 
a foot deep, in a layer of shells not more than two feet thick. 
They appeared to be of the same age as the shells in which they 
were embedded, and were all broken, and much scattered, a proof 
that they had not been buried. A second deposit was found 
twenty-five feet from the preceding, the bones were somewhat in- 
crusted with lime, and were more decomposed. There were from 

humerus, two of the left clavicle, one of the right ulna, one frag- 
ment each of the right and left tibia and several small pieces of 
other bones. The shore where both these sets were found had 
been undermined and it is probable that many pieces had been 
washed away. 

8. Excavations made on the side of Bartram's Mound near the 

ous pieces of human bones all belonging to one skeleton. There 
were eighteen fragments of cranium, the right half of the lower 

absorbed, and thirty fra-meul.s of other bones including those of 



meuts and were irregularly cemented tog€ 


■ther by ti 






9. A large block of consolidated shells 


. split fron 


Osceola Mound left exposed a portion of 
were continued until no further traces cou 


a human - 


M he\liso 


chief part of the bones were removed in 


a mass of 


and subsequently exposed b} r chiselling aw 


ay the mal 


which they have not been wholly detachec 


I. The 01 




adheres so 






time breaking off pieces of bony structure 





shell mounds 

age and of their being almost the only ones which can, with any 
certainty, be referred to the earliest period of the mounds. Osce- 
ola mound is one of the series in which pottery is not found, and 
its materials, as well as the mound as a whole, have undergone 

There are certainly bones from two individuals, mingled. Two 
thigh bones, which are mates, lie side by side, but in reversed 
positions, the upper part of one corresponding with the lower of 
the other. The articular portions are gone. Parts of at least two 
others were found, one of which was removed nearly whole. Of 



the other there are two cylindrical portions, one 55 an< 


1 the other 


90 mra long. The exposed ends of the shorter one shov 


' the inter- 


eating fact that the bone had been artificially divided, 


by cutting 






it and then breaking the remainder. This is a common 


method of 


dividing bones used by Indians. The broken suifaci 


;■ and the 


marks of the cutting instrument are quite obvious. In 


the longer 


piece these marks are present but less distinct. As 


urther evi- 


dence of the presence of bones from two individuals, m. 




tioned the lower ends of two upper arm bones, both fror 


n the right 


side and of different sizes, and both cemented togetlu 




are three tibia, two of which are decidedly flattened an- 


i belonged 


to the same individual, the third having more nearly the 


triangular 


section, but only slightly flattened. 




Besides the above there are fragments of a scapi 


ila, pelvis, 



humerus, radius, tii> ; i. ril>-. tar-.-il :uul carpal bones and pha- 
langes. There are but few pieces of ribs, and but a single ver- 
tebra has been recognized. 

The different bones were artificially broken in a few cases only, 
and contrasted very strongly in this respect with those previously 
noticed. 

We have met with but a single other instance where human 
bones have shown signs of having been wrought by the aborigines. 
This was in the coast shell heap at Ipswich, Massachusetts, where 
Mr. Eliot Cabot discovered a human upper arm bone, which, as 
shown by the lines and marks on the surface had been ground or 
scraped. The nature of this instrument found is uncertain, as the 
end has been broken off. It is preserved in the Peabody Museum. 

10. At Huntoon Island, and in the rear of the shell mound on the 
St. John's, are two conical mounds, and are supposed to be burial 
mounds, one fifteen and the other twenty-five feet high. Excava- 
tions carried to the depth of six feet, but arrested at this depth on 
account of our inability to get the necessary labor, did not, how- 
ever, reveal any evidence of burial in either of them. A collec- 
tion of human bones was obtained from the top of the larger of 
them at the depth of about a foot below the surface, which in all 
respects correspond with those previously described. They were 
scattered over an area of several square yards and belonged to a 
young individual as shown by the size of the bones and the condi- 
tion of the epiphyses. Each of the long bones was broken into 
two or more, and the skull into many, fragments. Pieces were 
found from all the principal divisions of the skeleton. There can 
be no doubt that the bones were intentionally broken, as the upper 
ends of two humeri show precisely similar marks of violence. m 
each case the bone is broken off an inch below the head, by an 
instrument which crushed the bone, the fragments of which, flat- 
tened down, are retained in opposition, not having been ongum ) 
completely separated. The bones are all incrusted with a «-' :lica 
reous deposit, which in some cases cements the fragments, aii< 
others the smaller bones, as of the hands, togethei I heir con - 
tion is similar to that of the bones from Bartram's Mound alreai) 
described. 

The above are the chief instances of the presence of hum 
remains in the shell mounds which have fallen under our notic . 
They are not supposed to be the only ones which existed, for they 









were killed, who havi 
Shoals, they, in a fla 
devoured by these cai 



410 

that the ancient inhabitants of the St. John's were cannibals may 
be stated as follows : 

1. The bones, an account of which has just been given, were 
not deposited thi lead body. In this 

case after the decay of the flesh there would have remained a cer- 
tain order in the position of the parts of the skeleton, especially 
in the pelvis, the long bones of the limbs, the vertebral column 
and the head. The bones would be entire as in other burials. In 
the cases here described, they were, on the contrary, scattered in a 
disorderly manner, broken into many fragments, and often some 
important portions were missing, as the head at one of the mounds 



8 of the humerus and femur were d 
le, or from ignorance as to the v, ray, 
The shafts of these bones, as also 
were regularly broken through the n 

die corresponding part has been fc 



emu I hsra prevailed largely in both North and South America, 
and that the natives of America were led to it by the same mo- 
practice may be said to commend itself to the savage mind from 
the following considerations : — 

With some it was a matter of choice, depending upon a liking 
for human flesh as an article of food, as with the Fijians, who had 
not even the excuse growing out of a scarcity, for food of all 
kinds existed with them in greatest abundance. With others, and 
these are by far the most numerous, it was practised as an act of 
vengeance or triumph over a fallen foe. and with still others it 
may be said to have been of the nature of a superstitious rite or 
ceremony, as with the ancient Mexicans, the Miamis, and others. 
To the above should be added the pressure of extreme hunger, 
which drives both savage and civilized man to this terrible al- 



■ept 



probable that the idea of eating human flesh a 

tasted and found to be good, as all cannibals aver that it is, under 
the influence of savage instincts and passions, the conversion of 
an enemy's flesh into meat to eat would be very natural. 

Of course the above motives, excluding the last, may be more 
or less combined, and a savage by eating his enemy may get his 
revenge and satisfx his appetite at the same time. Or, as with 
the New Zealander, who loves human flesh as a choice food, and 
who also eats it under the superstitions belief that he thus not 
only incorporates the body of his enemy with his own, but absorbs 
also his enemy's soul, so that ever after the two are one. To the 
▼fetora this had an especial significance, for believing in a future. 
*tete and the presence of his enemy there, if he eats him in this 
Me he makes sure of it that there will be no trouble with him 
ut'i'eafter, for he possesses him body and soul already. 

!n the cannibalism as practised in the two Americas, one recog- 
nizes the same motives and tendencies and often combined with 
them, in addition, a degree of cruelty I 
m otll er parts of the world. 



Capt. Fitzroy has given a sad picture of these poor, wretc 
creatures, living on the very verge of regions just capable of 
taining life. They habitually eat their prisoners of war, an< 

food, the old women aiv sacriiiced without hesitation. Ha' 



ity of Humboldt f 
heap. || The Hex 



them, and the companions of Co 



bodies of their dead enemy.* In the city of Mexico itself. as the 
siege was prolonged and food became scarce, the number of vie- 
then served out as food to the starving people, was very large. 

they wound their way up to the sacrificial stone to be in turn dis- 
tributed as food among the besieged, f 

Of all the American cannibals the Caribs undoubtedly had a 



Mamis and Kickap,.,,. : : < it exited in Lomshum, j| Illinois, and on 

Jesuits who were often eye-witnesses of the feasts of human flesh 
hold by the I in tribes. 






ripped from his body, cut in pieces, broiled, and given to the young 
men under the belief that it would increase their courage ; they 
drank his blood, thinking it would make them more wary, and 
finally his body was divided limb from limb, roasted or thrown 
into the seething pot, and hands .nil feet, arms and legs, head 
and trunk, were all stewed into a horrid mess, and eaten amidst 
yells, songs and dances.* 

purpose, viz : to show that cannibalism being so common in other 
parts of America, there would be no improbability of its existence 
in Florida. We have entered more into details than we otherwise 



Till-; HISTORY OF THE LOBSTER. 



out from overfishing, and the time ma; 



Pr f 38 or Baird, C i 




necticut Academy (vol. ii) 
and in part in the appendix 
to the report of the U. S. 
Fish Commissioner, lately 
issued. The se; 
which the female lobsters 
carry eggs varies much on 
different parts of the coast. 
Mr. Smith states that lob- 
sters from New London 
and Stonington, Co 
with eggs in April and 
May, while at Halifax he 
found them with eggs, in 
which the embryos were 

just beginning to develop, early in September. Wc have seen 
them in Salem with the embryos ready to hatch in the middle of 
May, and are told by Mr. J. H. Emerton, that they also breed 
here in November. It is not impossible that they breed at inter- 
vals throughout the year. This is an important point, At any 
rate there should be a close time on the coast of New England, 
during April and May, and October and November. Persons 
should also be fined heavily for selling lobsters with eggs attached. 
The appearance of the embryo in the egg is represented by fig. 
81.* He divides the larval condition of the lobster into three 
stages. The first, represented on plate 3, figs. A, B (D one of 
the cephalothoracic legs of the second pair, enlarged 20 diameters ; 
a, exopodus; 6, epipodus ; c, branchial appendages), is a little 
under a third of an inch long, and was found early in July at 



before the adult form 
, while the first of the 
yet discovered. After 



„■ .urla,, animals. Th 




THE LOBSTER. 



ceplialothoracic loir- having no exopodal l>ranchos and the abdom- 
inal legs being already dev eloped. Of the early stages of the 
numerous other genera of Astacidea and Thalassinidca. scarcely 
anything is known, but as far as is known, none of them appear 
to approach the larvae of the lobster. Most of the "species of 
Crangonidae and Palaemonidae (among the most typical of macrou- 
rans), of which the development is known, are hatched from the 
egg in the zoea stage, in which the live posterior pairs of ceplialo- 
thoracic appendages, or decapodal legs, are wholly wanting, as are 
also the abdominal legs, while the two anterior pairs of maxilli- 
peds, or all of tin : >• organs. In no 

period of their development do they have all the decapodal legs 
furnished with natatory exopodal branches. There are undoubtedly 
larval forms closely allied to those of Ilomarus in some of the 
groups of Macrourans, although they appear to be as yet unknown. 

"Notwithstanding tiie-e larval forms of the lobster seem to have 
no close affinities with the known larvae of other genera of macrou- 
rans, they do show in many characters a very remarkable and in- 
teresting approach to the adult Schizopoda, particularly to the 
Mysidre. This appears to me to furnish additional evidence that 
the Schizopods are onh d. _ ad< 1 macrourans much more closely 
allied to the Sergestidae than to the Squilloidea." 

The mode of moulting of the lobster, does not seem to have 
been observed. We are indebted to Mr. William II. Silsbee for in- 
formation and specimens regarding that of the adult lobster. He 
thinks it only moults once a year after having nearly attained its 
maturity at some period between May and November. On No- 
vember 8th he saw one moult. It drew its body out of a rent in 
the carapace, or shell covering the front division of the body. 
The cararjace splits from its hind edge as far as the base of the 
rostrum, or beak, where it is too solid to separate. The body is 
drawn out of the anterior part of the carapace. It has been a 
question how the creatine could draw its big claw out through the 
small basal joints. The claw, soft and fleshy and very watery, is 
drawn out through the basal joint, without any split in the old 

and bands and .esophagus, is cast off with the old integument. 
The length of the animal observed before moulting was six and a 
half inches ; immediately after seven and a quarter, a sudden in- 
crease in length of three-quarters of an inch.— A. S. P. 



REVIEWS AND BOOK NOTICES. 

Ornithology.* — So much depends upon i 



Coues for his excellent " Ma 
just the hints, if followed, to 



sometimes causing them to fall almost in pieces of their own 
weight. The present writer, although having had the care of one 
of the largest collections of skins in this county for over ten years, 
has never yet found it necessary to bake a skin to rid it of insects, 
having accomplished it by other means. Drenching a skin in 
the best quality of benzine is far preferable to baking, but this 
is objectionable from its sometimes (generally only after several 
applications) leaving a sticky residuum on the plumage. A 
better process is that of thorough fumigation with the bi-sulphide 
of carbon, which may be accomplished without the offensiveness 
of the fumes being very apparent by using a tight fumigating 
box or chest made expressly for this purpose. 

The "Check List," though bound with the Manual, is essen- 
tially a distinct publication, being also issued separately. It is 
intended for use in labelling collections, and is hence printed on 
only one side of the paper. The two together form a supplement 
to the Key, of which they were originally intended to form a part. 
The "Check List" is a publication of more importance than to some 
its name might seem to imply. It is based, the author tells us, 
on the Key,°and " n ll< els exactly whatever of truth or error that 
work represents." It differs quite materially from the Smithsonian 
Check List, published in 1«W, as it very naturally should, in 
order to properly represent the present state of ornithological 

haps, to the svstem of nomem-hi'iir. iw-lf. through the introduc- 



■■ fifty >pecies a. bled to tne 
id in the exclusion of abo 
mer list, from their being ' 
enable," though a large pro] 



420 REVIEWS AND BOOK NOTICES- 

a number of species and varieties published since the appearance 
of the Key, the list being brought down to April of the present 
year. In his preface the author alludes to the " many needless 
and burdensome generic names," unfortunately adopted in Prof. 
Baird's great work, "for," he adds, " sanctioned by the usage of 
such high authority, they have passed current, and are too closely 
ingrained in our nomenclature to be soon eradicated." This, how- 
ever, only represents one of the phases through which our science 
has passed, and which was not wholly without redeeming features, 
however true it may be that the time has come for us to rid our- 
selves of such now useless relics. During the publication of the 
Key, Dr. Coues instituted this needed reform, but too late for its 
systematic application throughout the class. The land birds were 
hence left in this respect unchanged, while in the generic names of 
the waders and swimmers we were carried hark again to the days 
of Audubon, the genera adopted being essentially those of his Sy- 
'• Cheek List" seemed to present 
milar restriction among the land 
birds, which our author has failed to improve It is hence a mat- 
ter of regret that he has rigidly adhered to the Key, instead of 
departing from it sufficiently to have given us a consistent system 
of generic names throughout. — J. A. A. 

The Butterflies of North Am erica.*— The success (in every 
way but a pecuniary one) of the first series of this admirable 
work, has led to the publication of a second- This will no 
strictly confined to the descriptions and delineations of new spe- 
cies, but the metamorphoses of species before described wfi J 
given, a much more important matter than the descriptior " n 
illustration of new species, unless accompan 
The plates of this new part are thorough- well done; a 
. lUt . lltioll , . . i|( , |. n . v; e and pupie would 






credit to the country. If is ;m admirable presentation book, 
either for young entomologists, or as an attractive serial for the 
drawing-room table. 

Deep Sea Florida* Poltzoa.*— This elaborate treatment of 
the Polyzoa of the Floridan channel is based on the deep sea 
dredging made by Count Pourtales of the U. S. Coast Survey. The 
geographical distribution of the forms found at the greatest depths 
in the channel, is of high interest as the assemblage embraced not 
only well known arctic but :dso antarctic, and even Australian 
species, with those purely tropical. The collection affords, as Dr. 
Smitt states, "new confirmation to the geographical theory first 
and most clearly stated by Prof. S. Loven, that the deep sea fauna 
is a uniform one, connecting the north pole with the south through 
species of animals distinguished by their strong vital force, and, 
therefore, also by their great geological age." Several cretaceous, 
and a number of tertiary (European, Australian and Californian) 
species are recorded as now living in the Florid an seas. 

The Publications of the Buffalo Society of Natural Sci- 
ences, f— The fourth and last number of the first volume of the 
"Bulletin" of this society is a capital one if we consider either the 
number and variety of the papers, the excellence of the illustra- 
tions, or the promptness with which the parts are issued. The 
publication is indeed a great credit to the city of Buffalo, and 
evinces the interest felt in scientific studies by the citizens. Sev- 
eral entomological papers are contributed hy Mr. Grote, the cu- 
rator of articulates and chairman of the publication committee, 
by Mr. Scudder, Mr. H. K. Morrison, Dr. L. F. Harvey, and Dr. 
LeConte; two paleontologicul articles are prepared by Mr. R. 
Rathburn and W. H. Pitt. The Contributions to the Geology 
and Physical Geography of the Lower Amazons, by Prof. C. F. 
Hartt, is a paper of so much general interest that we shall notice 
it at length hereafter. 

List of North American Noctuid Moths.]:— Mr. Grote has 
before supplied entomologists with a catalogue of our Sphingidae, 



list has been published since the imperfect one contained in vi. 
Morris' Catalogue of our Lepidoptera published by the Smithsonian 
Institution in 1860. 

The species enumerated by Mr. Grote amount to 815, belonging 
to 282 genera, including the Deltoids ( Ilypena and allies) whicli 
the author, following Ledeier, takes out of the l'yralidre. lliougu 



BOTi 



he earliest g.:ologic;.lly. 
[>romise of definite coiicl 
>l' the present species l'r 



i proper centre lies, rsut one spi 
anean, and three species are foun 



iea, north of the equator, forming a second centre ol distribution 
in the mountains of Mexico, where it manifots not only more 
numerous species but al>o greater diversity of organization, than 
anywhere else, several large subdivisions being found that are not 

wanting. Although the beech group exhibits such a preponder- 

proper home, still the species are so scattered that it is difficult, 
with the present distribution of land and water, to refer all to a 

Land, since there are other grounds for assuming that these were 

refer the species of Fagus to the same centre, since the nearest 
related species is separated by 70° of latitude from the beeches of 
the south, so that, paradoxical as it may appear, Japan seems once 

and south, just as we find points of contact between Chili and 






424 BOTANY. 

floras of Mexico and the Antilles, the oaks being more numerous 
in Mexico than any other portion of the world, whilst they are 
wholly wanting in the Antilles, although the latter afford climatic 

trast, can be partially explained, as regards the oaks, by the fact 
that the seeds of the latter soon lose their power of germination, 
and are not easily transported hy currents; and besides the oaks 
occur in the mountainous regions of Mexico, remote from the sea, 
and even if the seeds were transported by the aid of rivers, they 
would not find conditions favorable to their development on the 
coast of the Antilles, a fact in harmony with the general rule, that 
the larger number of the plants common to the Antilles and the 
continent belong to the lowlands of the tropics, whilst the plants 
of the mountains are generally endemic. The distribution of the 
cupulifenc also substantiates, in a remarkable manner, the general 

physical obstructions to diffusion of plants arc urcalcst, the ocean, 



cupuliferae of California arc i 

manifests the usual anomftlie 
vegetation becomes more ele 
euliarities in the form of 1 
clouds, a high plateau, with 



more frequent and heavier clouds in Sumatra, where the axis of 
the mountains is perpendicular to the course of the moist, pre- 
vailing winds, whilst in Java it is parallel to it. In this respect 
Portugal resembles Sumatra, and nowhere are the effects of sim- 
ilar climatic conditions more evident than in the southern portions 
of Chili, and in Terra del Fuego. 

Plants. — Last summer a M it a fortnight be- 

fore commencing to bloom, was prostrated by a storm and re- 
mained in that position for a week before I restored it to its 
upright position. The inflorescence of Mentychia is centrifugal, 
the terminal flower opening first and the rest in their order down- 
ward, each flower opening in the evening and closing before sun- 
rise, reopening on a second and usually on a third evening. In 
this instance the regular order was disturbed, the second flower 
not opening till after the fourth, then the fifth to the eighth in 
order, then the twelfth followed by the eleventh, ninth and tenth, 
then the thirteenth followed by the sixteenth, fourteenth and fif- 
teenth. All the retarded flowers were on the lower side of the 
prostrate plant, the retardation being the consequence of the di- 
minished exposure to light during one week.— Fred. Brekdel. 

ZOOLOGY. 

The Structure of Sponges. — An exceedingly valuable work 
on the calcareous sponges has lately been published by Professor 

from their frequent occurrence at great depths in the sea, the vari- 
ous dredging expeditions in the north Atlantic and the Mediterra- 
nean having revealed many new forms of the silicious, or glass 
sponges and their allies. Of the animal nature of sponges but 
few naturalists doubt. Carter, an English microscopist believed 
that the sponge was an aggregation of Amoeba-like infusoria, liv- 
ing among a framework of silicious or limestone spicules. A 
little later, the lamented Professor H. J. Clark, of this country 
Published, in 1866, a paper in which he maintained that the sponge 









■ivei.l :i paper by 
,s sponge (Sj/con 
ew of the struc- 
; there is no real 



in the Hydra, Haeckel 



to the sponges, to the Acalopiue. to t 
:rms, to the mollusks, and to the vertebr; 



Xatural History. Mar./ 
tions of temperature i 
(ranging between 32° ; 
Greenland are in just 

the tropical seas, when 



- 






Mull.)- One {X'/Ws 
in folds of 



specimens of the American bei 
Zoological gardens of Amsterdai 
later Prof. Westwood described i 
of PlatypsyUut castorinus, 




Worm. — Mr. Alexander Agassi/: ha- <li><'<.»ven-<i that the Tornaria, 
an immature microscopic floating animal, which he in common with 
other naturalists had thought to be a young starfish, is really a 
young worm. The parent is a remarkable worm, found at different 
points on our coast and that of Europe, burrowing in sand, and 
described by the celebrated Italian zoologist Delle Chiaje. The 
history of Balanoglossus as given by Agassiz "while showing 
great analogy between the development of Echinoderms and the 
Nemertian worms, by no means proves the identity of type of the 
Echinoderms and Annuloids. It is undoubtedly the strongest case 
known which could be taken to prove their identity. But when we 
come carefully to analyze the anatomy of true Echinoderm larvae, 
and compare it with that of Tornaria, we find that we leave as 
wide a gulf as ever between the structure of the Echinoderms and 
that of the Annuloids." Now the young of certain Echinoderms 
have a form very similar to larval worms. On this chiefly Prof. 
Huxley, misled by the names given by J. Miiller to some of these 
larvae has revived the old opinion of Oken, and associated the 
Echinoderms with the Articulates ; but as he based his opinion 
entirely upon the figures of Miiller, and not upon original inves- 
tigations, his conclusions, which have been adopted by the ma- 
jority of English naturalists, do not appear to Mr. Agassiz as 
tenable. « The hypothetical form to which Huxley reduces these 

which has never been observed, and as far as we now know does 
not exist." His paper, with many beautiful figures, appears in the 
"Memoirs of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences." 

The White-necked Raven. — This bird is seldom seen in the 
fountains at any period of the year, but during winter it is very 
common in the vicinity of Denver. As it is rarely molested, it 
has become so tame that it enters the gardens and streets in the 
quieter portions of the citj and perches on the tiees and fences, 
regarding the passers-by with more curiosity than fear. Like the 
eastern crow it is social in its habits, going in small parties of 
two or three up to ten or twenty ; and in its general actions and 
appearance it closely resembles that bird. Its croak is thinner 
a nd shriller than that of C. corax, which is here seldom, if ever, 
found. On clear, warm afternoon^ during winter and early spring, 



■oii-i.kTnMe heights, 



■ i ! ..' .- 

he coprolites of the li; 

es. The fragments <>(' < 



other species of Xy, 



new i 


family. It is described in the " Memoirs of the 




Sociel 


y of Natural Hi 


story,"' under the name of Ar<-hhthi. 


< j'!/b>bi- 


ohk,t, 


and the family is 


called Affhinlid"'. The insects fou 


md with 


:;:,;: 


X^ITnZ^ 


I pieces to be recognizable, belonge 


i to the 


Tin 


* Discovery of 


the Origin of the Sting of the 


Bee.— 


In Sie 


•bold and Kollike 


r's "Journal of Scientific Zoology" t 


"or July, 


1*7:?, 


containing an ac 


count of the Proceedings of the Zo 


.•logical 


division of the 3rd m< 


seting of the Russian Association 


of Nat- 


uralisi 


ts, at Kiew, is ; 


ui abstract of a paper by Ouljauiu 


on the 


deveh 


)pment of the st 


ing of the bee. The author descn 


bes but 


two p 


airs of imaginal 


disks, while three were discovered 


and de- 


scribe 


fl by the imdersig 


ned in 1866. The author homologizes the 


eloimv 


tits of the sting 


with the feet, as had already been < 


lone by 


me in 


1871. Soon aft* 


•[■wards Dr. C. Kraepelin p 1 1 > . 1 i ^ b < . 1 : 


in elab- 


orate 


article on the 


structure, mechanism and develo] 


unental 


liistor 


Y of the sting of 




i of the 


rting 


(p- 320, vol. 23, 


1873), he only refers to Ganin's o 




tions , 


nade in vol. 19, c 


>f the same journal (1869). Dr. Kr 


•aepelin 


seema 


to have overlooked the writers' papers* on the o 


rigin of 


the sti 


Bg of the bee an 


d ovipositor of other insects ( .Esel 


ma and 



St. Lawkknce. — Mr. 



Journal of Science" the occurrence of the following recent addi- 
tions to the American fauna, in depths of from 200 to 220 fathoms; 
of sponges, TrkhustnitiiKi ItemixjAerk'ni) M. Sars, and CladorMza 
abysskola M. Sars, with Hyalonema lougisshnum; of eehinoderms, 
Ophi.^mlex (jlacialis ; of polyzoa, F lustra abyssicola G. 0. Sars, 
and Escharella iwlraota Sars; of shells, Portlandia lucida, P. 
frigkla, Cylichna umbilkata and Cf-rithiopsis costulata; of Crus- 
tacea, Culocaris Mac Andrew Bell, Mmndops 



I -pi c cs, aliii d to .!/" 






Sars, Halirages f,d ,-<„■; ,,,-t,,^ ]; (l .,-k. M,,,,,,^,*!* t : / r ka bars, ana 
several other species. Numerous interesting species, many of 
them new to the American coast, were also dredged in shallower 
water, on the Orphan and Bradelle Banks, and at the entrance of 
Gaspe Bay. Among the Crustacea from these localities were 
Lemon nasicus Kroycr, A*.t»th;*t, T hm Mohngmii B<ack y (Ediceros 
lynceus, and Aceros phyllonyx Beeck. 

The Mouth Parts of the Dragon Fly. — An important article 
on the mouth parts of the dragon flv, I'erhe and allied forms (O 



Sccietv of 
crihe, ami 



the Friends of Science in Berlin. L«73. The 

figures the palpi of the dragon flies. They possess a one-joint. 

maxillary palpus, and 2-jointed labial palpus, which are not hoi 

Neuroptera of North America' (1MJ1) it is slated -mouth u 

inexact, was copied in the "Guide to the Study of Insects.' 
will be corrected in the lii'il. edition of the latter, as it was unc 

4 4. I * 1 . . 4 41 4 4 4 I,, tl> 

tunately too hue to coi ,. i me iouhu ^ 

now oassin-' through the oress exceut in a few words in the pr 



■h the spines oi 



.J .-lines Orb 






I pon consulting the description of S. Pikei Lawr., in the nil 
volume of the -Pacitie Railroad Reports" (page 863), it will be s( 

orange-colored leg--. Ti; i-nm's Xordma 



c that the autumnal plumage' 
ent this bird should prove d 

I'ui it the !.;«• 



legs in a game stall in Quincy market, Boston. They had been 
sent from Cape Cod, Mass., the day previous, where they were 
said to have been shot. They were apparently not more than six 
weeks old and as their wings were not fledged enough to fly a rod, 
they undoubtedly must have been hatched in that locality. 

This is indeed a very eastern range for this species to have bred, 
as I believe its usual breeding habitat is in the region of the 
Rocky Mts. Dr. Elliott Coues writes me " I found the ruddy 
duck breeding abundantly in July, in ponds on Turtle Mt., ex- 
actly on the line of the 49th parallel, between Dakota and the 
British Possessions, about 150 miles west of Pembina (Red River 
of the North). I obtained many newly hatched young ; eggs were 
laid in June. This is the only breeding place of this species, of 
which I am aware by personal investigation." 

We have a large migration of this duck through eastern Mas- 



sachusetts in October ami Novem 


ber, which would indicate that 


they must also breed more directly 


north of our state, though pos- 


sibly many may follow the chain 


r,f great lakes and St. Law- 


rence River to the Atlantic states. 




I obtained one of the above q 


M-cimens which I have in my 


cabinet, and I have no reason to 


doubt that these birds were 


taken on Cape Cod. 




I have seen specimens, taken as 


far east as Niagara Falls in 


May; these were in high hreedin;. 


f plumage, though I did not 


learn that any nests had ever be 


sen found in that locality. - 


Ruthven Deane, Cambri<hj<>, Mas, 




Birds new to the Fauna of 


Nortii America. — The Gyr- 


falcon of Northern Europe and Sil; 


ieria (Falco gyrfalco Linn.) has 


recently been obtained at Kyska lis 


irbor, one of the western Aleu- 






Of the U. S. Coast Survey. The s[ 


KM'imen°is an adult female, hi 


perfect plumage, obtained June .'}<i 


, is 7:5. On the label are the 


remarks "'eve brown," and k - build* 


, " The measurements of this 


specimen aica. follows : — wing, 1 


1-75; tail, 8-00; culmeD,'^ 


tarsus, 2-30; middle toe, -J-o.".." 'I 


he ground color of the upper 



plumbeous black, except on the throat. The lower parts are, every- 
where, including the under surface of the wings, marked with 
broad transverse bars of plumbeous-black, the two colors about 
equal in amount ; the jugulum, and even the throat, with conspic- 
uous, heavy, dro] ja of blackish. 

This is the first capture of the Scandinavian, or true, gyrfalcon 
in North America, and the fact that it breeds in the Aleutians 

Xttmenius femoraUs Peale must also be added to the number 
of North American birds, a fine specimen having been obtained 
May 18, 1869, by Mr. Ferdinand Bischoff, naturalist to the over- 
land telegraph expedition, under the direction of Col. C. S. Bulkley. 
It is now in the National Museum (No. 58,471 $). 

This specimen has been compared with Sandwich Island exam- 
ples, and found to be identical. The species is very different from 
any other North American one. — Robert Ridgway. 



On some of the Evidences of Life in Great Salt Lake.— 
Dr. A. S. Packard, Jr., in his interesting remarks on "Insects in- 
habiting Great Salt Lake and other Saline or Alkaline Lakes in 
the West," as given in Dr. Hayden's last Report, very properly 
expresses the hope that some one will make a careful examination 
of the shores of the lake, and carefully preserve all traces of life 
which he may find there. 

As I examined a portion of the eastern shore of the Great Salt 
Lake, last year, it may be of lists if I mention 

some of the evidences of life which I found there. Of course I 
found the flies, such as are seen by all who visit the lake in sum- 
mer ; the shore was almost literally black with them. They rose 
before us, but immediately settled down again upon the sands, 
close to the lake, when we had passed. Their larvae, in the great- 
est abundance, were attached to the bottom, and to submerged 
sticks, close to the shore ; and their pupa skins lay in piles on the 
shore. The little shrimp-like crustaceans (Artemia fertilis) were 
also seen in great profusion, and these were the most numerous, 
apparently, where the water was the saltest, as in portions partly 
shut off from the lake. 

I collected a large number of shells on the shore of the lake, 
but did not interpret them as representing life in the lake ; they 
ar e all, I believe, fresh-water forms. Besides these, I found two 



436 zoolc 

fishes, each about a foot long, o 

W itilOill (lulllit eaillC fl'um 1 he hike 

there from Lake Utah, or from <oi 
into the lake, or whether they belt 
do not know. But I have so n 

lake at my earliest <> 

College, Nov., 1873. 

allied to the western chubs. It is 
;, . than that it was c 



• reasons. There is 

t f-,„-,.<eo the time 
, .esto^ tl-iaof 

R8 recently printed* 
^^'^''.^il'terilticV 
e The group dil8« 



from all those related to il in ill ■ possession off 
of the ventral fins, and two closely united osse 
front of the dorsal. In some of the species the 



Philosophical Society I exhibited the greater part of the mandible 
of a large extinct hog of the genus Elotherium which had been 
described in the "Bulletin of Hayden's Geological Survey of the 



■hi 


rite !•!',!■ 


'"pah'Tfa 




IglnZ 


•ns ol 


? much strei 


igth.— E. 


D. 


. C. 




;an Journal of Scienc 




for May. 


: Vl / : ; 


^in'wWcl 


! , itf-h! 




ng arti.-k 


\gard 


ed as simpl 


y a very 


dis 


agreenblo 



>n, that ea 



Maine, to which I have access, except in one published by the 
Portland Society of Natural History. I do not know from that 
list who found the bird, or in what part of the state it occurred. 

region.— C. H. Fernald. 

Menobkanchus edible. — Cayuga Lake (near Ithaca, central 
New York) abounds with the spotted Proteus, 3Ienobmnchus 
maculatus (perhaps a variety of M. lateralis, but never striped 
and always spotted). In preparing a paper upon their anatomy 
and embryology, Dr. W. S. Barnard and myself have occasion to 
use them in numbers ; and a single fisherman, who sets many 
hooks for fish has brought us a hundred during the past month 
(March) ; he, and all others, apparently regard them as poisonous, 
and are rather averse to touching them; so far is this from the 
case, that they are absolutely harmless in every way ; and on the 
5th, Dr. Barnard and myself eat one which was cooked, and found 
it excellent; it is our "intention to recommend it as food, but not 



New Crustacea of the Swedish .Josephine Expedition. 
The Norwegian naturalist <i. (). Sars, the son of the celebrated 
zoologist, Professor Michael Sars. has worked up the species of 
Cumacese found by the Josephine expedition. They are little 
shrimp-like Crustaceans, some of which were found at great 
depths by the naturalists of the Swedish expedition which partici- 
pated in the recent deep sea explorations with the dredge. As 
some of the species new to science are from near the .coast o 
Long Island, the paper will be of interest to our American zool- 
ogists. The work is done in the most thorough maimer, « r i 
admirably executed plates. It forms one of the memoirs of the 



fter ruin their 

■'Lorou* 18 ' 



ZOOLOGY. 439 

lonpe, a volcanic island, the soil of which is composed of tufa, 
pozzuolana and similar material, are so peculiar and so very unfa- 
vorable for the maintenance of tadpole life, which is essentially 
piscine, that M. Baray was led to expect the existence of some 
ties of development. The ova were easily procured, as 
they were everywhere present under moist leaves. No tadpoles 
could be dia of the frogs were of an extraordi- 

narily minute size. The eggs were spherical, with a diameter of 
from three to four millimetres, and were each provided with a 
small spheroidal expansion resembling a hernia of the gelatinous 
mass through a pore in the envelope. In the centre of the sphere 
the embryo was visible, lying on a vitelline mass of a dirty 
white color, and having a thin body, a large head and lour 
styliform members with a recurved tail. When the egg was 
touched the embryo moved rapidly and changed its position. A 
day later the embryo was perfect, with a tail as long as the body, 
translucent and like that of a tadpole. The limbs immediately 
formed, and at the expiration of a few days little frogs of a dark 
grayish brown color, and without a vestige of a tail, escaped from 
the egg. M. Baray's observations have established the following 
facts : — l. That this Hylodes Maitinicensis commences life by a 
rotatory movement of the future embryo ; 2. The fully formed 
embryo performs the rotatory movements more rapidly, bat in a 
horizontal plane ; 3. The bran- ice. and 

again vanish sometime afterwards ; 4. The larva in the ovum is 
provided with a tail and limbs ; 5. The tail of the larva not only 
facilitates the movements of the imprisoned animal, but also aids 
respiration by the numerous and minute vessels which ramify in 
this highly developed appendage ; 6. The animal issues from the 
egg in the form which it preserves throughout life. As M. Gamier 
observes, these observations seem to constitute a starting-point 
for a special investigation of great importance, and have a close 
relation to the question of the adaptability of species to surround- 
ing conditions. It may be asked in this case whether the frog has 
been created with special modifications adapting it to live in an 
island destitute of marshes, or has it in course of time acquired a 
new mode of development enabling it to survive under the excep- 
tional conditions under which it has been placed. — The Academy. 
The Paleontological History of Trilobites, etc., as op- 
posed by Barrande, to the Evolution Theory. — During the 






inks that there is ] 



:■•■■•. .■■:.!■_; - 






of then 


• organ 


ization. is 


SUCTCSs 




.lution that 


Wc 1 


1 as a" 


proof of 


period. 


to beli 


eve that tl 


by M. ] 


Barran. 


le. represei 



discovered of late in the Rocky Mountains, the advocates of evo- 
lution can well afford to wait patiently for a solution of these 

Monograph of the Whale Lice. — A full account of the va- 
rious species of Cvainus, or so railed whale louse, with many fig- 
ures, has been published in the " Memoirs of the Scientific Society 
of Copenhagen" by Dr. Lutken. These troublesome crustaceans, 

long claws to the more protected and softer parts of whales, such as 
the bowhead, the humpbacked, the sperm whales, narwhal and 



GEOLOGY. 



Itaituba, just below the lower falls of the river Tapajos, show 
that the carboniferous beds at that place belong to the coal meai 



number of new species soo 
that locality, Spin/era 



S. apima Hall, 8. plano-convexa Shum.-ird, Jilhhi jwnrtnUfera 

North American coal measures. 

Mr. Chandless collected carboniferous fossils from the Paranary 
and Amana, branches of the Maue-assir, a tributary of the Am* 

one hundred miles west of Itaituba. aiid the beds and fossils are 
the same as at that place, as is proved by specimens kindly pre- 
sented by Mr. Chandless. 

A specimen of rock given me by Sr. Gabriel Vierra Lobes of 
Abydos, and said to have been found on the river Trombetas, con- 
tains some of the same specie.- and is interesting since it indicates 
the same formation on the north side of the 



In a small collection of Peruvian fossils forwarded by Prof. 
Orton for examination, I have recognized Bitzia punctulifera 
Shumard, and Spirifera camerata Morton (S. Condor d' Orb.), in 
a pebble from the bed of the Pichis River, a branch of the Pachitea, 
one of the western tributaries of the Ueayali. This is a new 
locality for the carboniferous situated about six degrees north of 
Lake Titicaca. 

Carboniferous beds in the south of Brazil in the provinces of 
Santa Catharina and Rio Grande do Sul, are described in Prof- 
Hartt's Geology and Physical Geography of Brazil. These are 
also of coal measure age, containing workable beds of coal w^ 
characteristic coal plants. — O. A. Dkkisy. 



- 
and especially the ■ a ■ . ■ j i se.-i soundings made by the "Challenger." 
seem to go against the view oi* intercom in* nt il hridgcs held by 
some naturalists. We look for a solution of the resemblance of 
the tertiary fauna of Europe and north temperate America, to a 
study of the tertiary lands of Arctic America, Greenland and Spits- 
bergen, from which the European forms of an American type may 
have emigrated in preglacial times. 

ANTHKOPOLOGY. 

The Pygmies of Central Africa. — Dr. Schweinfurth has stud- 
ied and drawn the Akka or pygmy race of Central Africa, whose 
average height is four feet six inches. The statements of Hero- 
dotus and Aristotle are thus fully confirmed. 

MICBOSCOPY. 

Amphipleura pellucida in dots. — A ¥ V objective was made by 
Tolles to my order, and finished on the 12th of March, 1873. The 
angle of aperture as invoiced by Mr. Stodderis 165°. From my 
measurements I think the objective is correctly named by the 
maker. At the extreme open point it is a good J ff th dry. The 
screw-collar has twelve divisions : by turning it eight divisions it 
1 for uncovered wet, and four divisions remain to adjust 
for cover for immersion work. It works through covering glass of 
about 2 £ ff th of an inch, but it is better to use thinner glass, or 
mica, to enable the observer to focus through specimens. 

With lamp-light and the ^th the resolution of Amphipleura 
is better than I have before seen. Using ordinary day- 
tiones, Bacteria, etc., are well defined, especially when a 
Kelner eye-piece is used as a condenser. 

With sunlight and the ammonia-sulphate of copper cell, Su- 
rirella gemma yields longitudinal stria, and, as the direction of the 
light is changed, rows of " hemispherical bosses" as described by 
Dr. Woodward. 

With the same illumination specimens of Amphiph ura peUuefrla, 
mounted dry, by Norman, were resolved and counted with perfect 
ease and remarkable plainness, the striae being still distinctly visi- 
ble with No. 3, eye-piece, draw-tube extended six inches, and 
power upward of 10,000 times. 



It is with hesita 
solved the lines c 
the '-beaded" stru 
doubted by some e 
born things" and 



ftlHTcl! content- ivhk-h 

n^the Ihin'' 

1( .,^s:intly t0 
(^■MMithiT. Tlu- in" til)n!5 



NOTES. 
We have received the report of the House Committee on Public 
-ands concerning the geographical and geological surveys west of 



nsohdation of Powell's with IlaydeuV survey, under the : 
3nt of the Interior. This has si nee been done, and C< 



begun. This is extremely necessary 
general map, gc o-raphieal' and ueolo^i 
More than this, it would be, if we mi.stal 



heads of the respective bureaus of the 
these bureaus to be those of Physics, ( 
Geology and Mining, Meteorology, Ge 



which, by its intimate relations with the government, and the 
national influence it has acquired through the wise and able 
administration of its affairs, has become even now almost in part 
the equivalent of a government department. 

It is suggested that at the annual meetings of our scientific and 
learned bodies, some action be taken towards directing public 
attention to the need of a well organized Department of Science 
to look after the interests of a broad and generous scientific cul- 
ture, physical, biological and social, or relating to any other 
branch of science which may aid in the elevation and improvement 
of our people. 

On June 2d the corner-stone of the American Museum of Nat- 
ural History, in course of erection on Manhattan Square, New 
York, was laid in presence of an audience numbering 5000 people. 



alf Of the truces, which «:is lollmveU m 
Div Miid one bv I'rolWsor 



3 cover eighteen 
[1 he exceedingly 
tdress Professor 
, R1 inaugurating 
rular courses of 
ific investigators 
he country. & 



i in 1856 ; fourteen in all have appeared, being published 
in the u Transactions of New York State Agricultural Society." 
No extra copies of the last four reports have been published, and 
they are exceedingly difficult to obtain. They are interesting, 
full of fresh observations and deserve the widest circulation. 

It appears that for two years 3 so devas- 

tated several counties in Minnesota and Iowa tii;i r the settlers are 

died, and the earth is now so full of grasshoppers that the 
soil cannot be tilled for at least one year. A bill was passed by 
Congress permitting the settlers in all these counties to abandon 

i for one year, without prejudice to their rights under the 

ra laws, so that they may support their families else- 

We have before us the first number (May) of " Psyche," the 
organ of the Cambridge Entomological Club, edited by B. P. 
Mann (8vo, pp. 4). This timely issue will, besides the matter 
we may expect to find in such a journal, contain a list of all writ- 
ings upon entomology published in North America from the 
beginning of 1874, with a brief note of the contents of each. 
The subscription price is $1.00. 

It is understood that Dr. A. W. Chapman offers his Herbarium 
for sale. It must be rich in specimens of southern plants, and 
especially v ing the types of many species de- 

scribed in his "Flora of the Southern United States." His 
address is Apalachicola, Florida.— W. M. C. 

The Botanical Congress of Europe began its sessions under 
the presidency of Dr. J. D. Hooker at Florence. An interesting 
report of the meeting will be found in the London Journal of 
Botany for June and July. 

There is a flourishing Natural History Society in New Albany, 
Indiana, with a fine local collection of Indian remains, some of 
much rarity. The collections in other departments are very cred- 



The well known entomologist G. A. Herrich-Schaeffer, died i 
Ratisbon, Germany, on the 14th of April, aged 75 years. 

The distinguished geologist, Professor John Phillips, died i 
Oxford, England, on the 24th of April, aged 73 years. 



BOOKS RECEIVED. 



AMERICAN NATURALIST. 

Vol. VIII. -AUGUST, 1874. -No. 8. 
NOTES ON THE FLORA OF SOUTHERN FLORIDA. 



- in reality North 
American or West Indian? One of the greatest authorities in 
botanical geography, Prof. Grisebach, in his latest work upon the 
distribution of plants ("Vegetation der Erde," 2, p. 340), as also 
m a previous one ("Die Geographische Verbreitung der Pflanzen 
West Indiens," pp. 19 and 20), favors the former opinion. 

He says: — "The character of the vegetation of Florida is in 
general identical with that of Georgia and Carolina. But eight 
species of West Indian woody plants occur in Florida, and but six 
in Key West.* When the Northern Bahamas above 27° N. Lati- 
tude shall be explored it is probable that the difference between 
them and the neighboring ma; -1 .bats vtv- live English miles 
distant, will be yet more evident. This difference is not due to 
climate, nor yet to geological structure, for as the coast of Florida 
is surrounded by coral reefs, so has the archipelago of the Bahamas 
been built up by the same means. Why is it then that the vege- 
tation of the West Indies has possession of these islands and not 
of the equally near and similarly formed Keys of Florida ? Even 
the few plants which are common to both occur also for the most 



the ( ; renter Antilles by 

the contrary Florida am 

mi — a proof 



dent that the t 



Southern Florida, 
only at solitary p 



have taken noti 
plants. It is i 
region is bette: 



The coral formation of Southern Florida— if it be true that the 
polyps cannot live but in a certain depth of water— indicates a 
slow subsidence of the land, and this movement may possibly 
have preceded the upraising of the tertiary Atlantic and M 
coast of the Southern States and the existence of the Gulf Stream. 
Between Bernini Point and Cape Florida the depth of the strea^ 
is considerably less than at any other point, and this may & av 
been the line 
tory eastward 



hael, 



(136 woody, 83 perennial, and 28 monocarpic), of which 187 are 
common to the West Indian Islands and partly to South America 
and (31) to Mexico. 23 to Mexico only, and 87 known as yet only 
from Southern Florida. 

If it be conceded that the Gulf Stream is an insurmountable 
obstacle to immediate immigration from the West Indies, and that 
any plant from there must have made the circuit of the Gulf, why 
is it that the majority of these emigrants have not settled in 
Mexico, as should have been expected from the greater chances 
that evidently exist in favor of that country. The inference is 
reasonable that the 156 species of Southern Florida which are 
common only to regions lying southward and not to Mexico have 
36 waters of the Gulf, 



The flora of Northern Florida, including 5S widely distributed 
species which are not expressly noted by Chapman as growing 
there, comprises 1511 species of vascular plants, of which 875 
occur in the Northern States. Of the remainder 234 extend to 
North Carolina, 113 to South Carolina, 108 to Georgia, 3 to Ten- 
nessee, and 53 only westward. Of all these only 15 are men- 
tioned expressly as occurring in Southern Florida. Of the 125 
which are known only from Florida 9 have been found in the 
southern part of the State. There are 1487 Floridan species 
which are not known as belonging to Southern Florida, or which 
at least are not so reported in published documents. 

It may further be remarked that the above 247 southern species 
belong to 170 genera, of which 102 with 131 species are not 
represented in Northern Florida, and of these again 26 genera 
with 30 species belong to orders which are not found in other 
parts of the eastern United States. Comparing, moreover, the 
woody, perennial and monocarpic species, we find the numbers 
quite disproportionate and must suspect that a great number of 
Perennials, particularly Cypcracese and grasses in the interior are 

From all these facts we conclude that the flora of Southern 
Florida is, so far as known, not to be considered a part of the 



; RHYNCHOPHOROUS 



North American flora, but a link between it and that of the West 
Indies, and that a portion of those species which are peculiar to 
the northern portions of the State, and the immediately adjacent 
region, may have been derived from the south. 



THE CLASSIFICATION OF THE RHYNCHOPHOROUS 
COLEOPTERA. 



In a large number of 
' the mandibles, may 1 
ie appearance of a scai 



torv. that tlicv :tiv i)!'uli:ililv n| -t-rvioe in enaming ^ c 
cut its way out from the nest or cell in which tne hw» u 
takes place. lar 

While recognizing the frequent occurrence ot im» ° ° 
structure, altogether without parallel among other insects, it^ ^ 
not seem to have occurred to Lacordaire, that we ha\e 
character of great importance for systematic purpose, an ^ 
after removing the large mass of such genera, the norma s ^ 
Curculioniihe would be mi _ i n ,letini« n, '" ; 



sometimes longer and thickened or diluted ut tip, which is emargi- 

the beak (Otiorhynchus). in which e:ise tliey are short, and not 
bent downwards; (2) longer. lateral, and directed towards the 
eyes or (3) long or short, directed obliquely below the eyes; they 
always extend nearly to the apex. The mandibles are short and 
thick, pincer-shaped. with an apical scar, which varies somewhat 
indifferent genera, to which was attached a deciduous piece also 
of variable form ; very long and falcate (Phyllobius, etc.), long 
and straight (Trigonoscuta), or short and obtuse. The mentum 
is large, and fills the buccal space, except in Eudiagogus, where 
it is small, leaving the maxillae exposed. The antennas are ge- 
niculate, with the scape usually very long; the club is pubescent 
and annulated. The eyes are usually rounded, but in several 
genera transverse and pointed below ; in the latter case, but also 
m some ol the round -eyed genera, the front margin of the pro- 
thorax is dilated forming post-ocular lobes ; these lobes are some- 
times very feeble and sometimes indicate.! only by a marginal row 
of long hairs (yibrixsu* of Lacordaire). The front coxae are con- 
species, the epimera of the mesothorax project below the elytra to 
a greater or less extent ; the episterna of the metathorax are either 
covered by the elytra, and indistinct, or narrow and very dis- 
tinct. The hind coxae arc usually widely separated, the ventral 

the 1st and 2d larger, connate, 3d and 4th shorter, 5th a little 
longer. The lateral extension of the ventral segments is tolerably 
wide, broader behind ; the dorsal segments are membranous, the 
last is corneous, divided in $ as usual, but the terminal portion 
apparently more retractile than in genuine Curculionidte. The 
legs are moderate, tibiae variable in form, tarsi spongy beneath, 
usually dilated, though sometimes (Ophryastes) very slightly so, 
and in Ebigopsis only sparsely ciliate. 

The tribes of this family so far as represented in our fauna may 
be naturally grouped as follows :— 



.•!.,-:lk: 



Antennal groove- 

prothorax not lobed : Bkachydkbjm. 

directed below the eyes, which are sometimes transver 

Humeri rounded Leptopscsi. 



Eyes rounded, prothorax not or scarcely lobed. Dy: 
Eyes transverse, prothorax lobed. . . . Opiie 

I. Mentum large, beak short, flat ; 

Antennal grooves very short, not oblique (eyes 
rounded and prothorax not lobed) ; outer 



Antennal grooves longer, obliqi 



It will be seen after a short inspect \<> 
mentioned for the definition of the rcsp 
eral arrangement in this family parade 
that which I have developed in the Ten< 
been adopted by Dr Horn in his excellei 
ily, as represented in our fauna.f The 
icterized by large 



tinguished in the former case (Asididse) by the ventral segments 
entirely corneous, J in the latter (A) by the indistinct side pieces 
of the metathorax. Then comes a second series, composed of two 
principal subseries, Blapsidoe in the former instance, with elytra 
widely extended on the flanks, and Tenebrionidce with narrow epi- 



the present family we !,:„,• (li ., ) apterons. and (H-M ^_ 

dationalcl ar a'the isolated genus 

^Mi:,^u;hnv;,,,Jnu/^,dlonn ; ,;in the short be^ 



very numerous, the representation in North America is but small, 
and that the highest form, Otiorhynchus, exists on this continent 
only as a few sp< ad parasitic on fruit trees, in 

the Atlantic States. 

On examining closely the part of the head adjacent to the eyes, 
a small oblique suture will be seen extending downwards from the 
anterior inferior part ; if this Assure is entirely closed, the eye is 
round, as in the majority of the genera ; if it is open the eye be- 
comes more or less pointed at that part, and finally assumes the 
transverse, acuminate form observed in Ophryastes, etc. My at- 
tention was first directed to this peculiarity, by observing that in 
the few species of Otiorhynchus now domiciled in the United 
States, there are quite perceptible differences in the form of the 
eyes, which are more rounded in 0. arcticus, and more pointed in 
0. ligneus. In Agnqihus this fissure is more distinct, and the 
eye is accordingly more pointed. 

The groups of Otiorhynchini are distinguished by the tarsal 
ungues and antennas, as follows : 
Ungues separate ; 

Antennae long and slender, Qtiorhynchi. 

Antennae thicker, Trachyphloei. 

Ungues connate at base, Periteli. 

The tribe Brachyderini as here limited is by no means that de- 
fined by Lacordaire under the same name. I have removed from 
it various groups having the humeri distinct, which will be found 
below and under Tanymecini ; Sitones and its allies do not even 
belong to this family, but will be found among the first Curculion- 
idae, where the simple mandibles and small mentum entitle them 

Thus diminished, the tribe, as represented in our fauna, indicates 
but two groups, distinguished by the form of the beak : 

Beak longer than the head, feebly auriculate, antennal grooves com- 
mencing on the upper surface; support of deciduous piece very 
prominent, eyes coarsely granulated, somewhat pointed below. 



• longer than the head, not auncuiate 
very prominent; eyes finely granulai 



rt of decid- 



The first group is represented by a single undescribed spec 
from Colorado ; the accessory mandibular pieces are short, pyrj 
idal, obtuse, and slightly curved. 



456 

The second group is represented by two species on the Atlantic 
slope, belonging to Epicaerus :ind ("iraphorinus ; the body is pyri- 
forin and robust; the accessory mandibular pieces are not pre- 
served in any of my specimens, but the process which supports 

With the tribe Leptopsini, and the anomalous Rhigopsis de- 
scribed below, the series having the side pieces of the metathorax 
indistinct or invisible is concluded. They ditt'cr essentially by 
the outline of the front margin of the prothoi i\ being sinuous 
when viewed laterally, so as to form a broad lobe for the protec- 
tion of the eyes, when the head is delloxed : and correlative with 
this the tip of the presternum is broadly and feebly emarginate. 



ii m-'ali'»ie^ 
■imcnof //•■' 



types, according to 

long, more or less 
•ill the preceding 



457 

sometimes finely carinate, not expanded at tip ; the antemnd 
grooves are very narrow, parallel at their origin, and usually sud- 
denly deflexed, though sometimes (Phyllobius) very short and 
straight. The eyes vary in form and the prothorax is lobed or 
not. The prothorax. is usually Insinuate at base, with the hind 
angles acute, though sometimes truncate. The elytra are usually 
free, with prominent humeri, and the wings well developed : 
though sometimes they are connate, with rounded shoulders. The 
accessory mandibular piece is long and falcate in both, and the 
support at the tip of the mandible is circular and not prominent; 
characters of great moment when associated with the peculiar form 

Two tribes are indicated by a difference in the outer stria of the 



Outer stria of elytra abbreviated or interrupted . . Taxymecixi. 
The first tribe is represented by Pachnaeus, and Phyllobius in 
the Atlantic States, and by Scythropus on both slopes of the con- 
tinent. Of these Pachnaeus has the eyes transverse, and the pro- 
thorax lobed at the sides in front, while in the others the eyes are 
rounded, and prominent, and the front outline of the prothorax 
is straight. The species are all winged, and the humeral angles 
are obtuse and well defined. The base of the prothorax is trun- 
cate in all the genera except Pachnaeus, where it is distinctly bi- 

Macrostylus, a Brazilian genus recently found in Texas, is an 
anomalous member of this tribe. The antenna are very long and ^ 
slender, and the joints of the club seem to be quite separate and 
free. It is of very small size, and has the elytra connate and the 
humeral angles not prominent; the beak is not channelled, but 
otherwise resembles the beat of other members of the. tribe. The 
claws are connate almost to the tip, as in Phyllobius, etc., while 
they are separate in Pachmeus. There are thus three groups in- 
dicated. 

Prothorax lobed in front ; claws separate : . . . Pacbnsei. 



Humeri not prominent, e 
The Tanymecini resemble 
istinguished by the 



458 

with the next about £ from the base, or abbreviated at that point, 
or interrupted, the continuation commencing behind the middle 
and extending to the tip. The prothorax is Insinuate at base 
(Compsa, Brachystylus and Brachythysus), truncate or feebly 
rounded in Tanymecus, Aphrastus, and the genera with connate 
elytra. The eyes are rounded and the prothorax not lobed in all 
of our genera. 

Four groups are indicated in our fauna. 
Elytra connate, humeri nut prominent, .... Symmathetes. 

Claws connate, Aphxasti. 

Claws separate; 

Prothorax truncate at base, Tanymeci. 

Prothoraxbisinnateatba.se, Cyphi. 

Next to this tribe come the Entimini, large and brilliant insects 
of South America ; the rostrum is stout, not so broad as in the 

sides, thickened bHow '.-it th.- tin. will, tin- antcnnal grooves deep 



i wo insects presenting i 

sidered, each indicating a t 

The first is found abtmdj 



auriculate at 
visible from a 
tinctly in an 
is large and i 



scutHlum distinct. First v< 
others straight ; side pieces c 



prothorax i s 



459 

der, tibiae feebly mucronate at tip ; tarsi dilated, brush-like be- 
neath, claws separate. 

This species is from 10-ll mm -4-45 inch long, black, densely 
clothed with small cinereous scales, with lateral and dorsal vittae of 
the prothorax, and scutellum pale yellow ; the prothorax is sparsely 
I, and the elytra very feebly striate. I have named the 
genus Evotus. It is the Otiorhynchus? naso Lee. (Pac. R. R. 
Expl. and Surveys, p. 56). 

The second of the anomalous forms above mentioned is a small, 
roughly tuberculate insect of the southern part of California, 
found under bark of yucca. It resembles in appearance the Euro- 
pean Rhytirhinus, and shows unmistakable Byrsopide affinities. 
The mentum is, however, similar to that of the other Adelognaths 
of the present family, and the apical scar of the mandibles is dis- 
tinct, fiat and subtriangular, though without the central elevation 
usually seen. The tarsi are less dilated than usual, and sparsely 
ciliatr beneath: the 3d joint is emarginate rather than bilobed, 
the claws separate. The rostrum is moderate in length, thick, 
irregular, not emarginate at tip, prominent above the eyes ; the 
antennal grooves are deep and descend obliquely below the eyes 
which are pointed below, oblique and transverse. The scape of 
the antennae extends nearly to the eyes ; the funiculus is longer 
than the scape, 7 -jointed as usual, with the 1st and 2d joints a lit- 
tle longer ; club oval, pointed and annulated as usual. Prothorax 
strongly lobed behind the eyes, feebly emarginate beneath, broadly 
flattened '(but not excavated) in front of the coxae. The side 
pieces of the metathorax are not distinct, the 1st and 2d ventral 
segments are large, connate by a sinuated suture ; 3d and 4th short, 
5th longer than the 3d and 4th united, with a broad impression 
each side near the margin. 

The species is of small size (5-5 mm ) brown, covered with a dirt 
colored crust, very roughly reticulate above, with large deep pits ; 
the humeral angles are sharp and prominent ; there is a large tu- 
bercle on each elytron about J from the tip, and another smaller one 
near the tip. I have named this singular insect Rhigopsis effracta. 

The last tribe having an apical scar to the mandibles is Eudiag- 
°giui, represented by two species in the southern Atlantic States. 
The form resembles somewhat the Tanymecini, but is rather 
stouter and more convex ; the color is black adorned with narrow 
stripes and bands of metallic scales. 



The beak is short and 



- 



B. Antcnnal grooves not extending to the base of the mandibles -. 

A. Gular peduncle broad truncate, mandibles eiuaiginate at tip (antennae 

not geniculate, claws toothed) ; Ithycekini. 

B. Gular peduncle long: (Jlecorhynchi). 

A careful analysis of the tribes composing the last division 
(Mecorhynchi) would extend this memoir to an unsuitable length 
for my present purpose, and must be reserved for the concluding 
part of my work on classification,* now in preparation. A few 
remarks upon the other four tribes, which might even be regarded 
as ibf umhe will however not be out of place. The types are 
well known with the exception of the second, Bathyrini. founded 
upon a very remarkable species from Arizona and Texas, which 
resembles somewhat, a Cratuparis, of the family Anthribkke ; a 
resemblance increased by the hind angles of the prothorax in <J 
being expanded and flattened, so as to be as wide as the base of 
the elytra. The beak is not longer than the head, deeply con- 
stricted at base beneath, then suddenly expanded so as to be as 
broad as long, very thick, strongly channelled and deeply emar- 
ginate above. The antennal grooves are deep, extending to 
the base of the mandibles and flexed below the eyes, which are 
pointed below ; the scape of the antennae extends as far as the 
eye; the 1st joint of the funiculus is £ as long as the scape; the 
2d is about }j as long as the 1st; the 3d -7th nearly equal in 
length, gradually a little thicker ; club pubescent, oval, annulated 
as usual. The buccal cavity is very deep, and square. The gular 
peduncle is not visible, and the mentum small, narrow, and deep 
in the cavity ; the mandibles are strong, their base very broad and 
transverse, the tip (so far as I can see) feebly emarginate. The 
prothorax is lobed behind the eyes, and the prosternum deeply, 
almost semicircularly, emarginate in front. The front coxa; are 
contiguous ; the side pieces of the metasternum narrow ; the sides 
of the elytra narrowly emarginate behind the humeri, scutellum 
transverse, wider behind ; the sutures of the ventral segments are 
straight, and the segments less unequal than usual, the 3d and 4th 



462 CLASSIFICATION OF T 

together being longer than the others separately. The legs are 
short, the tibiae truncate, feebly rnucronate at tip, and with broad 
distinct corbeilles; the tarsi are broadly dilated, 3d joint deeply bi- 
lobed as usual ; claws separate. I have named this genus Bathyris. 
B. dispar; oblong oval, black, thickly covered with large dirty 
brown scales, varied on the elytra with patches of paler cinereous, 
and with scattered darker scales ; of these the most conspicuous 
is a lateral transverse spot in front of the middle ; a larger indis- 
tinct apical blotch is marked with an oblique brownish line; the 
stria arc represented by ten rows of quadrate punctures ; the outer 
one not abbreviated nor confluent ; scutellum transverse, cinereous 
scaly. Length 4 - G mm 

Arizona has the thorax at base as wide as the elytra, the hind an- 






characteristic of 



The tribe Alophini retains a remnant of a form seen otherwise 
only in the preceding family ; the elytra are convex, with the 
humeri not prominent and the prothorax is comparatively small. 
The prominence of the gular margin easily distinguishes it from 
all other tribes. The tibiae are slightly mucronate at the inner 
angle of the tip, and the terminal surface is well defined, not lat- 
eral. The apical margin of the mandibles is curved, sharp and 
prominent, thus making the outer face broad and flat, with a well 
defined margin. L;» lt hhr,,s hi'i'iinnhm Mann, from Alaska, be- 
longs to this tribe, and seem. >eareeiy diitereut from Alophus, 
except by the shorter and stouter funiculus. L» v h\u V h >ws lin- 
eaticollis on the other hand has an entirely different oral structure, 
and is apparently allied to Phvtonomus, etc. 

Ithycerus is a completely isolated form, having no relation with 
other genera. As pointed out by Dr. Horn,* the remark of Prof. 
Lacordaire, that the £ has G ventral segments, is an erroneous 
intei 1 1 t t o if the very convex last dorsal segment, which can 
be seen from beneath. 

BRENTHID2E. 

The species of this family are remarkable for the very elongate 

the mouth organs. In our ov n /:' 7- '"-■ mhtn.ta for instance, the 
beak of the male is broad, short and flat, with large prominent 
mandibles, whil< ad slender, with 

very small mandibles. But two genera occur in our fauna ; Eup- 
salis on the Atlantic slope from Canada to Texas, and Brenthus 
in Lower California. 

The mouth is not constructed on the same plan as that of the 
long beaked Curculionidie : the gular peduncle is wanting, and the 
inentum varies in form according to the shape of the buccal open- 
ing, which it nearly fills, thus concealing the maxillae. The family 
is also easily known by the antennae being 11- jointed, not clavate 
"or geniculate, nearly moniliform in Kupsalis, somewhat com- 
pressed and broader externally in Brenthus. 

The eyes are rounded, the lenses are covered with a perfectly 
smooth membrane, and are couse pie it \ not -jrauulated, the front 



coxae are separated by the prosternum ; 

and the side pieces are distinct and very narrow. The 1st and 



mtral segments 


; are very ] 


lone;. 


, and elosi 


•ly co 


nnate 




ort, oth as long as the 


two 


preceding 


unite 


A. T 


'he tibia? are 


nnoate at tip, 


the front 


ones 


I'eehlv ui 


ignieu 


late. 


and with the 


ner margin of 1 


the tip con 


cave 


; tarsi dil 


ated. 


brush! 


like beneath. 


1 joint bilobed i 


ii our gClK 


ira, < 


tth joint lc 


>ng, c: 


laws simple separ- 


e ; the tarsi are 


less dilaU 


:d in 


some exol 


icgei 






The dorsal seg 


merits are 


una: 


aged esaci 


:ly as 


in true Curculion- 


;e ; they are all inrmliran 


oils 


except th( 


■ last. 


whicr. 


i is corneoiH 


td convex in $ 


.divided il 


■ Si 


'■''■■ 


of th 


e vent 


ral segments 


e only narrowly 


' prolongec 


1 upwards, and 


are in 


nbricated ; the last 


iracle is large 


and unco 


verei 


1. The elytra 


have i 


on the inner 


:le the usual la 


teral fold, 


but 




becoming I 


obsolete near 


e tip, it diver< 


res strong 


ly from the n 


.argin 


and 


is continued 



i of the 



segments, thus showing an approat 
afterwards seen in Scolythhe. 

Some of the most curious characters in the Rhynchophorous se- 
ries occur in this family. Among them 1 may instance Tapk- 
rodents distortus Westwood, from Natal, remarkable by the 
enormous development of the left mandible; and Calodromus 
Mellyi Guerin, from India, in which the 1st joint of the hind tarsi 
is as long as the whole body. 

Series III. HETEROGASTRA. 
I have named this series from the fact, that although the abdom- 
inal segments are alike in both sexes, and the ventrals also pro- 
longed upwards at the sides, fitting into a groove on the inner lac 
yet the best cbanu't' rs 
>s are to be found in the particular 
of the arrangement of the last ventral segments ^ 
Nothing distinctive cai 
except the similar pygid 
upwards of the ventral s 



Antenme geniculate, clubbed : 

tibiiv generally compressed an 
Ventral segments very unequal, 



CALAXDRIDiE. 

Elytra with the usual fold on the inner face near the side very 
strongly developed ; diverging behind, and becoming gradually 
effaced. 

Ventral segments 3d and 4th shorter, 1st and 2d connate; lat- 
eral prolongations broad, imbricated ; the sharp edge for reception 
in the elytral groove only developed on the 1st and 2d segments. 
Dorsal segments coriaceous, pygidium large, triangular, rounded 
at tip, declivous, alike in both sexes, though smaller in the third 
sub-family ; last spiracle covered by prolongation of ventral seg- 

An excellent synopsis of the United States species of this 
family has been published by Dr. G. H. Horn.* 

According to differences in the form of the mouth, the indig- 
enous genera may be divided as follows : 



Pygidium exposed : 

r peduncle long, 



B. Pygidium c 

Gular peduncle broad, mentum concealed, . . . Rhixid.e. 

Gular peduncle moderate, mouth normal, .... Cossonidje. 
The mouth in this sub-family is formed upon a peculiar type not 
seen in the genuine Curculionidse : the gular peduncle is extreme.ly 
long and narrow, leaving the maxillae visible in the buccal fissures ; 
the mentum is small, sometimes concave, and the palpi not usually 
visible. The mandibles are convex on their outer face and 
strongly toothed at tip as in many Curculionidae. The beak is 
long, curved and cylindrical, the antennae inserted at a distance 
from the mouth, geniculate, with a large club which is corneous 
and smooth at base, spongy and pubescent over the rest of the 
surface. The eyes are transverse and finely granulated. The 



?HE RHTNCHOPnOROUS 

front coxaj are widely distant. The hide pieces of the r 
are large, and those of mesostemum also large, ascending ob- 
liquely. The hind coxae are oval, and widely separated, the tibiae 
are slender, sinuate, strongly unguicnlate at tip, with the articular 
surface lateral; tarsi usually dilated, and brushlike beneath, some- 
times narrow and not scopiferous ; last joint rather long, claws 
simple, separate. 

Again a different modification of mouth is seen in this sub-family. 
The gular peduncle becomes a broad short plate projecting for- 
wards, forming the floor of the mouth, within which the nientumis 
concealed. The mandibles are smooth and very convex on the in- 

project outwards. The beak is long ami slender. The antennae 



With the 5 
scribed, thes< 
Hylobiini in 
ately long, tl 

The beak isi 



simple, separate. 
D d by Mr. G. R 
ert of California; 



rUnt not dilated. 



.cognized by 



467 

the peculiar arrangement of the last ventral segment, which is 
prolonged upwards along the whole lateral and apical margin, so 
that the pygidium is confined entirely to the dorsal surface, and, 
as it were, surrounded by this sharp edge. 

The mouth is . mcle emarginate. 

the mentum moderate in size, prominent, buccal fissures broad, 
maxillae exposed. Mandibles stout, curved, convex on the outer 
face, toothed on the inner side. Beak short, or almost wanting, 
antennae short, geniculate, club usually solid, annulated on one or 
both sides, base usually smooth and corneous for a greater or less 
extent ; rarely (Phloeotribus) the club is lamellated. Eyes usually 
large and transverse. 

Front coxae usually contiguous and subconical, hind coxa? large. 
not widely separated ; tibiae compressed, usually serrate on the 
outer edge, terminal spur large : tarsi sub-pentamerous, not spongy 
beneath, 3d joint sometimes narrow, sometimes dilated ; 4th joint 
usually rudimentary, sometimes (Platypus) quite distinct, last joint 
long, claws simple, separate, strong. 

The ventral segments are not very unequal in length, and the 
suture between the 1st and 2d is straight and well marked, the 5th 
is frequently the longest ; the intercoxal process of the 1st is usu- 
ally acute. 

The dorsal segments are membranous, the p\«-il r all 

and horizontal, covered by the elytra : the last spiracle is visible ; 
the lateral upward prolongations of the ventral segments are well 
marked, and furnished with a sharp edge, continued even to the 
tip of the 5th segment. The lateral fold of the elytra is conse- 
quently well marked, the groove narrow and deep, gradually ob- 
literated, but not wider toward the tip. 

Two sub-families are indicated, Platypodia and Scolytidae, the 
1st with the basal joint of the tarsi very long, and the 4th dis- 
tinct ; the latter with the 1st joint shorter than the others united, 
and the 4th joint less developed.* 

The synonymy of our species will probably present much diffi- 
culty, and the number is by no means that indicated by the names 



4G8 CLASSIFICATION OF THE RIIYNCHOPIIOI 

in the catalogues. The only connected scries of descriptions is 
contained in the synopsis by Dr. Zimiuermann, with an appendix 
by myself,* in which differential characters are given for the defi- 
nition and distinction of each species. Many of the same have 
been described by Mr. Kiehoif.t with diagnoses only, and no com- 
parative or differential characters. For their identification, there- 
fore, comparison of specimens will be necessary, or the completion 
of the promised monograph of the family from the hands of that 
author must be awaited. 



ite at tip, toothed 
nutated, rounded 



or emarginate. The front coxa; are contiguous c 

arated, rounded ; the pronotum is sharply margined behm^ a 

the margin is frequently distant from the base, © 

the sides. The side pieces of the metasternum are aisiu 

ventral semn.-nts an- n.-:.rlv «■.,..:.!. and rather closely c 



' 



:WK-1. 



and slightly prolonged at tip so as to fit into this excavation. The 
lateral fold of the inner surface of the elytra is well marked for 
the middle third, but is distant I'm m the side, and gradually ob- 
literated behind, following along the 2d line of punctures from 
the side. The tibiae are slender, truncate at tip, with feebly de- 
veloped spurs, never mucronate ; the tarsi are dilated and brush- 
like beneath, the 2d joint u-.ii.dly deeply einarginate, receiving the 
3d joint in the emargination : the 3d is usually narrower and shorter 
than the 2d and also emarginate : the last joint moderate in length, 
claws separate toothed. 

As observed by Lacordaire,* when the sexual differences are 
well marked the male is larger than the female, and the beak of 
the latter is shorter : the reverse being the case in all other fami- 
lies of Rhynchophora. There are also sometimes great differ- 
ences in the antennae and front legs which are much longer in the 

The larvae of some species of Brachytarsus {Antltrihus Geoff.) 
are parasitic on certain species of Coccus : the only example thus 
far ascertained of carnivorous habits among the Rhynchophora. 

APIONID^. 

In this family the last dorsal segment is horizontal and small as 
in the Scolytidae, but the other characters are quite different. 

The beak is long and slender, the mouth small, the gular pe- 
duncle rather narrow and emarginate, the mandibles feeble, and 
acute. The antennae are not geniculate, the scape is somewhat 
elongated ; they are inserted on the side of the beak at or above 
the middle, and the grooves are very short ; the eyes are rounded, 
rather coarsely granulated. 

The prothorax is not lobed in front, the coxae are contiguous, 
conical and prominent. The side pieces of the metathorax are 
distinct, narrow. The tibise arc slender, truncate at tip ; hind 
Pair without spurs ; the daws are separate, more or less toothed 
at the base. 

The dorsal segments are membranous : the last segment (pygi- 
di um) is horizontal, rather small and corneous, entirely covered by 
the elytra ; at the side it meets only the 5th ventral, and the last 
spiracle is not apparent: the ventral segments are very unequal, 



the 1st and 2d very large co 
-ti';iii;lit : lateral prolongatk 
side of elytra narrow, grad 
nearly to the suture (somewl 



represented by Api 
species of pyriform 
agnized appearance 



that the body is apt 



■ 3 of Beloa the 



HERBARIUM 



Notwithstanding the lucl n of the present 

official authority in Washington, dignified with the high sounding 
title of the Honorable C mimissi. ,ncr « ,f Agriculture, or the "unim- 
portance of the routine duties of the herbarium botanist," there 
has probably never been a time in the history of scientific botany, 
when greater attention has been given to this very important 

More especially is this true of a rapidly increasing class of 
local or amateur "herbarium botanists," who are intent on the 
collection and preservation for convenient reference and study, 
of limited floras, or particular natural orders of plants. 

Having had occasion from a somewhat pr< .longed experience 
as a botanical collector, to realize the want in my own case as 
well as to observe the frequent loss of valuable material by others, 
from the lack of suitable hei » I h ave been led 

to adopt a simple contrivance with a view to meet the desid- 

While for very extensive and permanently located herbaria, 
such as that of Prof. Gray at Harvard, stationary cases are per- 
haps more desirable on the score of economy; still there is a 
manifest advantage in having a somewhat portable character to 
such depositories, in order that necessary additions can be incor- 
porated into the general collection with least disturbance of the 
original arrangement. More especially in the much larger class 
of collections subject to removal, is it advisable to provide for 
such contingencies, by separate portable cases. 

Still another advantage of such an arrangement is in limiting 
the depredation of destructive insects within narrow limits, whore 
they can be checked without the great expense of going over an 
entire collection. In this view, (somewhat on the plan adopted 
in the British museum), I have adopted cases of the following 
description. 

These cases consist essentially of an evenly partitioned box, 
with double doors, black walnut (or hard wood) fronts, finished 



flush on the outside, with no irregular projections of knobs or 
catches, so that for distant transportation they can be snugly 
enclosed in rough outside boxes (two or more together). The 
inside in each apartment has a capacity of 18£ inches in height, 
by 13£ inches in breadth, and 18£ inches i 



is divided by two movable Blii 
six to each case. The doors i 
corresponding bevel on the cas 
outside hinges, so that in open 
sharp edges to hinder the drav 



thri- 




ll well as allowii 
interfering with t 
clear back agains 

turn the cases 01 
order compactly 



a.bipto'l to 






■ fruits, cones, wood sections, etc., still keeping up a desired uni- 
form outside appearance. 

In the permanent herbarium, these cases can be snugly piled 
one on the other, in tiers three or four in height, and closely 
fitting at the sides. The lower cases might be raised a foot or 
more above the floor, or the least used orders, or duplicates, kept 
in the lowest space. 

The height of two cases (39 inches) would be convenient in 
looking over and comparing specimens, and where scarcity of 
case room is not urgent, the best lighted spaces might be arranged 
at this height. 

At a rough estimate such cases may be calculated to hold 
conveniently six hundred species of average botanical specimens. 

The cost of such cases, depending of course, largely on the 
material used, and amount of finish, etc., has been fixed by a 
manufacturing firm here in Davenport, Iowa (M. B. Cochran & 
Co., school furniture dealers), at $6.50 per case. For a larger 
number (ten or more), or in case of an increased demand, the 
price could be materially reduced. I am indebted to the above 
firm for the use of the wood-cut, here given to illustrate this sub- 
ject. The particular adaptation of such cases for school uses, 
to contain in convenient form the necessary material for illus- 
trating botanical lessons, is too obvious to require more than 
simple mention at this time. 



CHARLES ROBERT 



Charles Robert Darwin was born at Shrewsbury on Feb. 12, 
1809. He is the son of Dr. Robert Waring Darwin, F.R.S., and 
grandson of Dr. Erasmus Darwin, F.R.S., author of the "Botanic 
Garden," « Zoonomia," etc. ; by the mother's side he is grandson 
°f Josiah Wedgwood, F.R.S., the celebrated manufacturer of 
Pottery. Mr. Darwin was educated at Shrewsbury School under 
Dr. Butler, afterwards Bishop of Lichfield, and in the winter of 
1825 went to Edinburgh University for two years. He there at- 
tended to marine zoology, and read before the Plinian Society at 



the close of 1826 two short papers, one on 


the movement of the 


ova of Flustra. From Edinburgh Mr. Da 


•win went to Christ's 


College, Cambridge, where he took his Bac 


elor of Arts degree in 


1831. In the autumn of 1831, Capt. Fitz 


loy having offered to 


give up part of his own cabin to any uatun 


1st who would aecom- 


pany H.M.S. Beagle in her surveying voyag 


round the world, Mr. 


Darwin volunteered his services witliout sa 


ary, but on condition 


that he should have the entire disposal oi 


his collections, all of 


which he deposited in various public inst 


tutions. The Beagle 


sailed from England Dec. 27, 1831, and ret 


rned Oct. 22, 1836. 


Mr. Darwin married his cousin, Emma 


Vedgwood, in the be- 


ginning of 1889, and has lived since 1848 


lt Down, Beckenham, 


Kent, of which county he is :i ma-Unite. 




The Royal Koeiety awarded to Mr. Darn 


in. in 1853, the Royal 


Medal, and in l.si',1 the (\,pl,. v Medal. 1 


1859 the Geological 




He is an honorary 


;r i rn^Lr^!hV;rM!iir i,:nti,icSo<;it:t 


es, and is a Knight of 


Sinee his re;„( 


> Beagle, Mr. Darwin's 



Two British naturalists, Eobert Brown and Charles Darwin, 
nave, more than any others, impressed their influence upon science 
in this nineteenth century. Unlike as these men and their works 
were and are we may most readily subserve the present purpose in 
what we are called upon to say of the latter by briefly comparing 
and contrasting the two. 

Robert Brow ii 50, full of years and scientific 

honors, and he seems to have finished several years earlier all 
the scientific work that he had undertaken. To the other, Charles 
Darwin, a fair number of productive years may yet remain, and 
are earnestly hoped for. Beth enjoyed the great advantage of 
being all their lives lono- free from any exacting professional du- 



ties or cares, and so were able in the main to apply themselves to 
research without distraction and according to their bent. Both, 
at the beginning of their career, were attached to expeditions of 
exploration in the southern hemisphere, where they amassed rich 
stores of observation and materials, and probably struck out, 
while in the field, some of the best ideas which they subsequently 
developed. They worked in different fields and upon different 
methods ; only in a single instance, so far as we know, have they 
handled the same topic ; and in this the more penetrating insight 
of the younger naturalist into an interesting general problem may 
be appealed to in justification of a comparison which some will 
deem presumptuous. Be this as it may, there will probably be 
little dissent from the opinion that the characteristic trait common 
to the two is an unrivalled scientific sagacity. In this these two 
naturalists seem to us, each in his way, preeminent. There is a 
characteristic likeness, too — underlying much difference— in their 
admirable manner of dealing with facts closely, and at first hand, 
without the interposition of the formal laws, vague ideal concep- 
tions, or "glittering generalities" which some philosophical nat- 
uralists make large use of. 

A likeness may also be discerned in the way in which the works 
or contributions of predecessors and contemporaries are referred 
to. The brief historical summaries prefixed to many of Mr. 
Brown's papers are models of judicial conscientiousness. An 
Mr. Darwin's evident delight at discovering that some one else bas 
"said his good things before him," or has been on the verge o 



them, seemingly equals that of making 



r- ■■ . 



himself. It reminds one of Goethe's insistin 

morphology must have been held before him and must be souk 

where on record, so obviously just and natural did they appe* 

Considering the quiet and retired lives led by both these m • 



;ated in a P* 
Altliou^u 3lr- 



Darwin had been for twenty yours well and widely known for his 
"Naturalist's Journal," his works on "Coral Islands," on "Vol- 
canic Islands," and especially for his researches on the Barnacles, 
it was not till about fifteen years ago that his name became pop- 
ularly famous. Since then no scientific name has been so widely 
spoken. Many others have had hypotheses or systems named after 
them, but no one else that we know of a department of biblio- 
graphy. The nature of his latest researches accounts for most of 
the difference, but not for all. The Origin of Species is a fasci- 
nating topic, having interests and connections with every branch 
of science, natural and moral. The investigation of recondite 
affinities is very dry and special ; its questions, processes, and re- 
sults alike — although in part generally presentable in the shape of 
morphology — are mainly, like the higher mathematics, unintel- 
ligible except to those who make them a subject of serious study. 
They are especially so when presented in Mr. Brown's manner. 
Perhaps no naturalist ever recorded the results of his investigations 
in fewer words and with greater precision than Robert Brown : cer- 
tainly no one ever took more pains to state nothing beyond the 
precise point in question. Indeed we have sometimes fancied that 
he preferred to enwrap rather than to explain his meaning ; to put 
it into such a form that, unless you follow Solomon's injunction 
and dig for the wisdom as for hid treasure, you may hardly appre- 
hend it until you have found it all out for yourself, when you will 
have the satisfaction of perceiving that Mr. Brown not only knew 
a U about it, but had put it upon record long before. Very different 
from this is the way in which Mr. Darwin takes his readers into his 
confidence, freely displays to them the sources of his information, 
and the working of his mind, and even shares with them all his 
doubts and misgivings, while in a clear and full exposition he sets 
f °rth the reasons which have guided him to his conclusions. These 
you may hesitate or decline to adopt, but you feel sure that they 
have been presented with perfect fairness ; and if you think of ar- 
guments against them you may be confident that they have all 
been duly considered before. 

The sagacity which characterizes these two naturalists is seen 
! n their access in finding deeisiv. instances, and their sure insight 
"Jto the meaning of things. As an instance of the latter on Mr. 

arwin's part, and a justification of our venture to compare him 
Wl th the foeUe princep* botanicorum, we will, in conclusion, allude 



to the single insl >ok the same subject in hand. 

In his papers on .it ion in Ochidea 

and Asclepiadeas, Mr. Brown refers more than once to C. K. 
Sprengel's almost forgotten work, shows how the structure of the 
flowers in these order- Lir.:< } r^iures the agency of insects for 
their fecundation, and is aware that -in Asclcpidca? . . . the in- 
frequently visits every flower of the umbel." lie must also have 
contemplated the transport of pollen from plant to plant by wind 
and insects ; and we know from another source that lie looked upon 
Sprengel's ideas as far from fantastic Vet instead of taking the 
single forward step which now seems so obvious, he even hazarded 
the conjecture that the insect-forms of some Orchideons flowers 
are intended to deter rather than to attract insects. And so the 
explanation of all these and other extraordinary structures, as 
well as of the arrangement of blossoms in general, and even the 
very meaning and need of sexual propagation, were left to he sup- 
plied by Mr. Darwin. The aphorism " Nature abhors a vacuum" 



stration of the principle, belong to 01 
To have originated this, and also tfa 

the moment it is apprehended — and t 
ciples to the system of nature in s 
within a dozen years, a deeper impre 



There is no need of our giving any account or of estimating 
importance of such work- as the -Origin of Species by means* 
Natural Selection," the - Variation of Animals and Plants untl< 
Domestication," the -Descent of Man, and Selection in relatw 
to Sex," and the " Expression of the Emotions in Man and & 



analysis o 
upon the 
flowers, f 



KEY TO THE HIGHER ALG.E OP THE ATLANTIC COAST. 479 

upon the action of Dionsea and Drosera — a capital subject for Mr. 
I>an\ in's handling. 

Apropos to these papers, which furnish excellent illustrations of 
it, let us recognize Darwin's great service to natural science in 
bringing back to it Teleology: so that, instead of Morphology 
versus Teleology, we shall have Morphology wedded to Teleology. 
To many, no doubt, Evolutionary Teleology comes in such a ques- 
tionable shape as to seem shorn of all its goodness ; but they will 
think better of it in time, when their ideas become adjusted, and 
they see what an impetus the new doctrines have given to investi- 
gation. They are much mistaken who suppose that Darwinism is 
only of speculative import nee and perhaps transient interest. In 
its working applications it has provi ,1 to be a new power, eminently 
practical and fruitful. 

And here, again 
Brown, greatly as 
than was justly to be expected from him. Mr. Darwin not only 
points out the road, but labors upon it indefatigably and unceas- 
ingly. A most commendable noblesse oblige assures us that he will 
go on while strength (would wo could add health) remains. The 
vast amount of such work he has already accomplished might 
overtax the powers of the strongest. That it could have been done 
[th is most wonderful. 



A KEY TO THE HIGHER ALGiE OF THE ATLANTIC 

COAST, BETWEEN NEWFOUNDLAND 

AND FLORIDA. 



TAKT II. RHODOSPERME^l. 
(RED ALGiE). 

Plants rosy red or purple, rarely brown-red or greenish red, 
becoming, wnen exposed to sunlight, dull green or yellowish. 

rectification of two kinds; dioecious :— 1. Spores contained 
either in external or immersed conceptacles, or densely aggregated 

ogethur and dispersed in masses throughout the substance of the 



external or immersed 



in the frond, rarely contained in proper receptacles ; each tetra- 
spore enveloped in a polhu-i.] skin, ami at maturity splitting into 
four sporules. Antheridia filled with yellow or hyaline corpuscles. 
Ours all marine (except Bostrychia), and chiefly below low water 

A. Frond calcareous. rigid.: its <-<-ds containing Carbonate of 

Lime, CORALLINACEJ;. P 

A. Frond expanding I .■■;-.,.„■, ■..-. lichen-like, but not calca- 
reous, SQUAMARLE. V 

A. Frond not calcareous nor lichenoid, B 

B. Frond mostly rylindrirdl. partly or entirely articulate, • C 
B. Frond not articulate anywhere, ^ 



C. Nodes not specially constricted * 

D. Joints obvious throughout, long in the main stems and 

gradually short*- r *iborr. s^hi-riod at the tips; color 
bright, sometime gobl-tint>d. . . ckikkithsia in 

CERAMIAC&E. d 

D. Terminal joints not aplwriml : colors duller, often greenish, 

riiAMPiA in LAlKENCIACEiE. W 

E. Sporiferons nucleus in external s r h* rind eonee v tacles: axis 

polysiphonous (of 4 or more tubes) : joints not distinct 
on older parts of frond, . RHODOMELACE-& » 

E. Axis monosiphonous : joints usually obvious : colors mostly 

bright, ■ ' r 

P. Branches beset with short, fine, mostly simple filaments 

SPYRIDIACEJ3. I 

F. *« «ofcw*; n&y profusely branching; frond so,^ rf 



Sporif rous nuch us .•w/-./ 7 >h >.-, . , ;■],< ,- simph or formed of 
many nucleoli; numerous spores without order in a 
membranaceous mother-cell. (Fronds leathery, often 
large, and rarely adhering closely to paper.) ... I 

Frond composed of polygonal cells; often flat or fan- shaped, 

RHODYMENIACEJE. X 



I. Fronds 






struei». 

gelatine, ...... CRYPTONEMIACEJS, 

J. Nucleus in an external, ovate or spherical conceptacle, 

J. Nucleus not as above; cylindrical, dichotomously forked, 

K. Cylindrical; branches mostly tapering towards bas< and 

apex; superficial cellules very minute, 

GELIDIACEiE. 
K. Cylindrical or flat; surface covered with small cells; 

branches ,,<,', tapering to base (except in Ciiondria) 

riiodomelackj:. 



ff. Frond cy] 


indrieal, 


at least th 


e brancl 


acts a 


,.,„,,„ 


jer parte* 


urtic- 


K. Frond no 

*. Frond el 


on-ate.l 


^r';: 


'ranl'llin 


![mu- 


:::;" 


te, but thickly 


I. Joints of frond, 




::: 


--' 


mostly 


dark red, 


£ 



482 KEY TO THE HIGHER ALGJE OF THE ATLANTIC COAST. 

Q. Tetraspores in definite sori ; frond flat, with a midvein, . . . E 

Q. Frond flat, without a midvein ; spores not in sori, S 

R. Delicate, rosy red ; lamina unbranched ; no lateral veins, . . 

R. Fronds with veins and veinlets or else branched, . Delesseria. B' 
S. Frond compressed in our species, laciniate, . . Gracilaria. E 1 
S. Frond flat, laciniate, delicate and rosy, often veiny, Nitophyllum. C 
S. Frond flat, leathery, margined with wing-like segments, . . . 

Calliblepharis. D' 
T. Frond slightly compressed ; branchlets slender at base, Gelidium. F 
T. Coarser; cylindrical; succulent and flaccid, . . . Solieria. G* 
T. Frond filiform, much branched; branches clothed with small 

pointed branchlets, Hypnea. B7 

TJ. Dark brown, cartilaginous ; not adhering to paper, . Polyides. V 

V. Suborbicular; red-black, Peyssonneha. J 1 

W. Regularly dichotomous and level-topped, .... Scinaia. V 

W. Sparingly dichotomous ; worm-like Nemalion. E 1 

X. Frond flat, fan-shaped, multifld, * 

X. Frond linear, two-edged, pcctinate-pinnatifld, . Plocamium. 0| 
X. Frond terete, alternately decompound, . . • Cordylecladia. P 
Y. Frond stipitate, palmately cleft ; usually large and dark, . •■■ * *3£ 
Jihodymenia. JF 
Y. Roseate; dichotomously or pinnately multifld, . • Euthora. T? 
Z. More or less flatten 
Z. Cylindrical, . . 
a. Frond stjpitate, regularly f 

form ; shallow water, 

a. Frond stipitate, irregularly cleft, prolifen 

a. Channelled on one side, convex on the other; covered witfl BK" 
tubercles or frondlets, Gigartina. 

a. Frond rigid, 2 to 3 inches high; dichotomous; axils rounded; 
apices blunt Gymnogongrus. 

a. Frond 1 to 2 feet long ; margin fringed, with frondlets, . • ■ 



Frond broad, palmate, fringed 

very rigid and horny ; axils 



. Afinfeltia- 
Frond very bm a chain of swollen nodes 



containing conceptacles, or else tendril bearing, 



,»** * 



i branched, adhering closely t 



Not as above, and less c 



Branchlets mostly opposite and tapering to b 



• usually second 



or arching, stem constricted, adheres to paper, 



Fronds level topped, dichotoraous; axils and apices acute; ends 
in fruit swollen into pod-shaped receptacles, . Furcellaria. 

Frond decidedly constricted at the nodes, . . . Griffithsia. 

Frond two edged, decompound pinnate, pinnae opposite, Ptilota. 

Frond filiform, 

Tetraspores sunk in the frond ; axils rounded ; branches dichoto- 
mous and commonly ending in little forks, which are often 



with the apices hooked Callitkamn 

Tetraspores external ; whorls of short, curved branchlets at 

nodes, Haiti, 

Surface coated with small cells Spyri 

Pinnately decompound; axils obtuse, apices acute, . . 
Branchlets club-shaped, obtuse, 



Stem stout, mostly excurrent, . . 
Slender, generally forking near base, 



Substance soft, closely adhering to paper, . . . 
Rather rigid; scarcely adhering to paper, . . . 
Brownish red, pinnately much branched, .... 

g paper; more slender and regularly pinn 

Primary tubes four only, 

Primary tubes 6 to 25, 

olate throughout; dissepiments pellucid, 



Branches widely spreading, beset with spine-like branchlets, . 

Branches not spinous nor divaricate, 

Rigid and bushy ; not collapsing when drawn from the water; 

joints veiy short 

Flaccid and silky ; joints longer, 

Dark; tips with tufts of roseate fibrils, 

Full red ; in small dense tufts or wads which adhere closely to 

Coarser; less densely tufted; scarcely adhering, 

Red brown ; branches long, twig-like, sometimes with pencils of 
fine rosy branchlets ; stem scarcely adhering to paper, . . 

Dull, brownish; tips flbrilliferous ; joints striate; adhering to 
Paper, 

Brighter colored, more branched and with longer joints, . . 

Pinnately much branched, scarcely Jointed; branches mostly 
naked below and pinnate above ; blackish; substance rigid 
and wiry, not adhering closely to paper; excessively varia- 
ble, 

Internodes long; branches feathery at the tips; adheres to 
Paper; a deep water variety of No. 73 (?) 



><-v, rigid, darl 
Small, rigid, full red, di^.icho 



'. 



. 



f a single colored c 






k -* Fronds alternately decompound: a pair of minute opposite 

k- 2 Branchlets i,v, osite fibres at 

apex, 149 

tufted, mosth rose-purple, and obviously jointed through- 

t* Frond 4-1 inch, arising from creeping, matted threads, ... 144 
«. 2 Frond I inch or less' Iii-h : para-iiic not rising from matted 

; ^Ik 11 " 1 ' ..'.':. 131 

*• Joints in bran, des swollen, . 132 



486 KEY TO THE HIGHER ALCr-Sl OF THE ATLANTIC COAST. 

n. s Somewhat coarser, with shorter joints : plumules distichous, . 134 
O. 2 Slender, shrub- ' once from other Callith- 

amnia by the bead-like chains of fruit (seirospores) : com- 
mon, often greenish : (Formerly and perhaps more properly 
considered as the type of a separate genus, as Seirospora 

Griffithsiana Harv.), 138 

O. 2 Articulate throughout, branches ending in little corymbs of 

branchlets, 137 

p. 2 Branchlets pectinate, secund, recurved, on the upper side only 
of branches: a beautlfu es: specimens 

of which were found at Penikese in 1873, by Miss Susan 

Eowen 139 

p.* Branchlets simple, subulate, 142 

p. 2 Branchlets, or some of them in fours, pinnate, • 143 

p.* Without above characters; branchlets opposite, pinnate, or bi- 

q. 2 Joints 4-10 times as long as broad : brilliant : frequent, . • ■ * 40 

q. s Joints shorter : less common, 141 

r. 2 Forming a dense purple fringe on Zostera: branches long, se- 

cu « d > ?s 

r. 2 Forming crimson patches on rocks : branches long, erect, • • ** 
r. 2 Forming velvety tufts on Dasya : branches bud-like, secund, • 
r. s Forming a fleecy, pink-down on Ceramium rubrum : branches 
spreading, curved : frequent 

54. ODONTiiALrA devtata Lyngby. Maine and North. 3-12. 
65. Chondria DASYPhtlla Agardh. Coast. 6-12. 
DUt. 6-8. 



RHODOMELA SUBFU8CA Ag 

Rhodomela gracilis Kut: 

Rhodomela Rochei Harvey. New Jersey to i 



KttoovMK.MA Palmetta Greville. Halifax. 1-3. 

Phtllophora Brodiei Agardii. Cape Cod and Nortl 
Phyllophora membraxifolia Agardh. Cape May a 
Gymsogongrus Torkeyi Agardh. New York 4-7. 






Gloiosiphosia CAPII 






.1 Agardh. New England. 









• PART III. CHL0R0SPERMEJ3. 
(GREEN ALG.E.) 

Plants grass-green, rarely brownish, bluish or purple, a few low 
forms red. Propagation in our species by simple cell-division. 
or by transformation of the coloring matter (endochrome) of the 
cells of the whole or a part of the frond, into zoospores. In a11 
waters and damp places.* ^ 

'ciduted; < udochrome diffus < ] 
. . . CONFERVACEiE. H 



Fronds various, never truly jointed • 

Frond tubular and holloiv often branched or else broad and 

flat, membranous, composed of simple quadrate cells. 

Fronds composed of a simple filiform often profusely 

brandling cell, or of many such cells united into a 

sponge-like body; often bright green and phoneme. 

SIPHONACE.E. * 

Frond with an anmtlated pith, composed of very short cel- 
lules, surrounded by a membranous, inarticulate. ' 

bidar sheath OSCILLATORIACE^. 

Microscopic, unicellular; growth by semisection of the ce ■ 

Color bright green at all times ULVACEJE- 

Olivaceous or purplish, becoming bright pnrph "•''"""■' p 
or in fruit PORPHYRACE-*^ 



D. Green — ceU-iralh membranous; fresh water — chief!,, r 

entirely DESMIDIACEJE. 

D. Telloiv brown; cell-walls silicious. DIATOMACBJE. 



Fi-oiul bram-iu'u'-' 

Frond branched ; brandies beset wit! 



^ Fronds vc'ry fine an 


. ' . . . .158 


q m n f ; meLl ; 

Q Membrane formed 
»• Frond JanTeolate^ 


fa double layer of cells; - . • • — B 

t^^^T^Tl 161 

mposcd'of two closely applied membranes; 


* F^ntsTiT? 

S - Filaments soft ^™ 
S. FUameote loosel U 


s, flat, smooth and glossy ; common, . . 160 

Mbroad, t ? fl ? d, . Ce . W • • - C • • • • ' 162 

iiv dense, soonuy fastiuiatc pale green tufts, T 



S. Dull green, scarcely adhering to paper ; branches few, spreading 

S. Not as above; filaments loosely tufted sometimes interwoven, 

feathery, very slender; pale or bright green V 

T. Joints below about twice— above, 6 to 8 times as long as broad, U 
T. Joints uniformly about twice as long as broad; tufts short, 

globose 165 

U. Tufts starry, of a brilliant glossy green retained in drying, . . 183 

TJ. Tufts globose small, yellow-green ; on small algae, 164 

V. Joints 6 to 10 times longer than broad ; bright yellow-green, . 171 
V. Joints 3 to 5 times longer than broad ; pale or yellow-green; not 

adhering closely to paper, * 

V. Joints 2 to 4 times as long as broad; mostly adhering to paper, W 
W. Dark or brilliant green (often drying pale) ; nodes not con- 

W. Pale or glaucous green ; nodes mostly constricted, * 

X. Excessively branched; ultimate divisions secund-pectinate; 

joints uniformly three times as long as broad, 1°" 

X. Less branched, with longer joints ; main branches long, flexuous, 

Y. Eather rigid ; branches recurved-pectinate ; joints 2 to i times as 

long as broad, ■ 189 

Y. Stems long, flexuous; branches long, with short branchlets; 

joints shorter, ■ ■ f 

Z. Pale greenish, forming spongy tufts; nodes slightly constricted, i 

Z. Yellow green; very flexuous; forming silky tufts 

a. Bright yellow green, fading when dry: branches crowded, • •* 



b. Joints l£ to 3 times as long as broad, ' 

b. Joints not longer than broad, yellowish, rather rigid but collaps- ^ 

ing when drawn from the water, ' ' 176 

C Very rigid, glossy green; not adhering to paper; deep water, ^ 

C. Pale and flaccid; nodes very long, swollen, pale green, ' ' ' yjg 

d. Soft and flaccid; adhering closely to paper, ' yfl 

d. Coarse and rigid, dark green; filaments straight, • • • * e 

d. Filaments twisted, very slender but somewhat harsh, . • ' ' l8 l 

e. Mostly floating; joints less than twice as long as broad, • " ' ,gg 

e. On rocks, etc., joints twice as long as broad or more, • ' ' y$ 

f. Joints about as long as broad ; substance rather firm, * ' ' ' jg4 

f. Joints twice as broad as long, substance rather soft, • • ' ' jj 

g. Cell walls thick • ■ ' ' i 

h. In large dark green tufts; filaments thick and tenacious, • ■ * ^ 

h. Onr^i-. «♦„ ~.,<,f„ rt ,.~i: „„„. «i „,„„., f U „r.ri<rii tin the waic i 



Northern species, floating in mats in stagnant I 
spreading in thin strata on mud, 



i. Southern, blackish green, floating or attached to small algae, . 

j. Bluish green or rusty red ; filaments tenacious, 

j. Blackish green or violaceous; filaments not half so stout as in 

the preceding 

k. Filaments 1 to 2 inches long; scarcely interwoven; the endo- 

chrome not very distinctly annulated 

k. Minute; filaments densely matted together; annulations more 

1- In little starry tufts on the smaller alga? 

1- In velvety patches on rocks, etc 

m. Filaments flexuous, simple ; common on rocks, rendering them 

very slippery 

m. Filaments longer and straighter, often appearing branched, by 

the splitting of the endochrome (" viviparous"), . . . . 



• Cladophoea l.etevieens Dilhven. Coast. 3-8. 

• Cladophoea fracta I i a l> m '' , \. »- .r.-i-o; > 

- 

■: ■ 

' L!i -Stom«,i;,. iia Olnevi Haivey Rho.le IMaml an. 
• ■ . . ; -. - • . . . 



ETYMOLOGY OF XA.MFS OF GEXE11A 



REVIEWS AND BOOK NOTICES. 
The United States Fish Commission Report.'*— The valuable 
report of Prof. Baud, with the supplementary papers by Profs. 
Verrill, Gill, Smith and others, is not only a readable but exceed- 
ingly handy work for reference. How manifold are the subjects 
elating to a proper inquiry into the food and habits of our fishes 
ma y be gathered from the pages of this report. Not only have we 
full data concernii >na relating to the fisheries, 

but Prof. Baird has called to his aid a number of natu It 
chemists and physicists, all whose investigations bear on the sub- 
ject of our fisheries, the most abstruse matters having an imme- 
diate practical interest, It was thus found necessary to study the 
Peculiarities in the temperature of the water at different depths, 
lts cll emical constitution, the percentage of carbonic acid gas and 

the dredge. The be fisheries occu- 




WJQfmgV 




tribution of animal life along the coast of Rhode Island and Mas- 
sachusetts south of Cape Cod. 

The report is also accompanied by a "List of the Sea Weeds df 
the South Coast of New England," by Dr. W. G. Farlovv; a 
"Report upon the Invertebrate Animals of Vineyard Sound and 
the Adjacent Waters, with an Account of the Physical Characters 
of the Region," by Prof. A. K. Yen-ill, and a "Catalogue of the 
Fishes of the East Coast of North America," by Dr. Theodore 
Gill. 

We shall concern ourselves chiefly with the admirable report of 
Prof. Verrill, which we would commend to our readers as a full 
and reliable manual of the marine zoology of our southern New 
England shore. It is illustrated by thirty-eight plates containing 
287 figures (mostly drawn from life by Mr. Emerton) of the inver- 

erustacea. As an evidence of the thorough and detailed manner 
in which the subject is discussed, we may cite the chapters into 
which the work is divided : — Fauna of the Bays and Sounds; 
Fauna of the Brackish Waters of Estuaries, Harbors, etc. ; Fauna 
of the Colder Waters of the Ocean Shores and Outer Banks and 
Channels ; Lists of Species found in the Stomachs of Fisb«i 
Habits and Metamorphoses of the Lobster and other Crustacea; 
Systematic Catalogue of the Invertebrates of Southern New Eng- 
land and Adjacent Waters. Under these heads will be foun 
many remarks on the habits of the lower animals, which add niu c 
to the popular interest and value of the book. 

A good many new forms are described and figured from U* 

tacea, and in the work of i<h 'big tllC lattel " "'. 

samples of the illustrations, which are simple outline-. •>} l j 



larged seventeen diaras.) as seen in the last stage jnst before it 
changes to the "megalops" stage (Fig. 90, enlarged thirteen 




Maine, preliminary notices of which have already appeared in the 

"American Journal of Science," the "Proceedings of the Ameri- 

Can Ass ociation " and this journal. 
North American Flies.*— The long expected third volume of 

| s series (the fourth was issued in 1869) has at length appeared. 

1 contains elaborate monographs of two families of diptera en- 

i led: — l. xh e f am [[ y of Ortalidse ; 2. Review of the North 

American Trypetina. 
The Ortalidse are treated in the most exhaustive manner and 
e v iews about their classification, given in a long introductory 



chapter (pp. 1-70), embrace all the Ortalidae at present known 
from all parts of the world. The existing literature of the Orta- 
lidffi is also fully reviewed. The number of the North American 
species of this family described in the body of the work is sixty- 

The North American Trypetidse have been the subject of a 
monograph which appeared in the first volume of the same series 
(1860). The additions to this family, received by Mr. Loew since 
that publication, were so numerous that he thought it worth while 
to return to the same subject again. The present work contains 
the descriptions of sixty-one North American Trypetidse, thirty- 
eight of which were not contained in his first monograph. To this 
are added twelve South American species, for the sake of com- 
parison with closely allied North American ones. 

To the volume are added four plates, with 116 figures, repre- 
senting the wings of nearly all the described species. 

The translation of the volume from the German, r, 
made by Baron R. Osten Sacken. The four volumes of the My- 
ographs, etc., hitherto published, contain the following families 
Diptera: Large monographs; Dolichopodida; (Vol. II), Tipalw* 
brevipalpi (Vol. IV), Ortalidaa (Vol. Ill), Trypetidse ( Vols, * an 
III). Smaller monographs (all in Vol. I) : ScioinyzicUe, EpnJ- 
dridae, Cecidomyidae. 

The Unicellular Nature of the Infusoria.* — ^'^ 
that comes from the pen of the distinguished professor of Jen* ° 
striking and original. The main idea of the present paper ^ 
reaffirmation of the unicellular nature of the Infusoria, firs 
tinctly enunciated by Von Siebold in 1845, when he opP ^ 
Ehrenberg's well known conceptions of their organization, i* J 
divides the animal kingdom into two groups, the one- 2 
Protozoa, and the many-celled or Metazoa, and accomp aD1 
views with the inevitable phylogenetic table of the anim 

This view scarcely seems in accordance with known ^ 

gardingthe structure of these so-called iinic< 
the reader will turn to that remarkable book, " Mind an ^ 
(p. 43) by the late Professor II. J. Clark, he^vill^J^- 



celled structure of Actinophrys clearly described and figured. 
He remarks that " though the cells are very distinct, they exhibit 
a low state of development, as low perhaps as could possibly ob- 
tain without failing to be genuine cells." Farther on (p. 46) he 
claims that in this animal there are " two distinct sets of tissues," 
and speaks of an " outer layer of cells " and of a set of " inner 
cells." Until these parts are explained away we shall doubt the 
wisdom of the conclusions of the German observer, and call in 
question the natui sification of the animal king- 

dom into one-celled and many-celled animals. It seems less nat- 
ural than the old a vertebrates. 



stantly used this work, having- found it the most valuable boc 
reference in the language, notwithstanding the fact that 
twenty years behind the times, and the classification is objec 
able. This edition is exactly the same as that of 1854. 



Dr. Beardslee has recently published a catalogue of the plants 
of Ohio, in the preface of which he speaks of " the late M. S. 
Bebb, of Illinois." As inquiries are already addressed to us upon 
the subject, we wish to say that Mr. Bebb actually and actively 
hves, and we hope the day is far distant when this appellation can 
°e rightfully appended to the name of this most enterprising and 
efficient of our middle-aged western botanists. — A. G. 

Double Thalictrum.— A day or two ago, Mr. Whiting, a stu- 
dent, brought me a novelty in the shape of a completely doubled 
flower of Thalictrum anemonoicles. The stamens were all trans- 
formed to pink petals, giving to the flower much the appearance of 
a small specimen of the double flowered form of Prunus nana. 
There was but one flower, on a solitary pedicel, otherwise the plant 
seemed to be normal. I shall secure the root if possible, and hope 
to perpetuate this very pretty sport. Is this doubled pink form 
common? — C.E.Bessey. 

Dr. W. G. Farlow, a valued contributor to the Naturalist, 
^2^™edtoCambridge, after two years' study of lower crypt- 



ogamic botany with DeBary of Strasburg, Miiller of Geneva, and 
Thuret of Antibes. Through the month of August he takes charge 
of the summer botanical instruction at the Botanic Garden of 
Harvard University, which is for this month devoted to crypto- 
gamic botany exclusively, mainly to Fungi and Algse. We under- 
stand that he is engaged in the preparation of a manual of our 
New England Marine Algae, which, for a beginner, is very much 

ZOOLOGY. 

New Species of North American Bird. — On investigation of 
the interesting sandpiper from the Prybelov Islands, lately men- 
tioned by Mr. Dall in the Naturalist (vii, 1873, C34) as Tringa 
"crassirostris," and given under this name in my " Check List" 
(No. 426 bis upon Mr. Harting's identification, I found that the 
bird is not T. crassirostris but an apparently new species, which, 
in my late appendix to H. W. Elliott's Report on the Prybelov 
Islands (1873), I have named Tringa ptilocnemis. As the work 
just mentioned is not generally accessible, owing to the smallues 8 
of the edition, the following is reproduced in substance: — 

Adult in breeding plumage. With somewhat the general appearance of 
Tringa alpina, but the black areas on the uiuh r parts pccto.al. not ^ ^ 
inal. . . . Legs very short (much as in T. maritinv.t); tibial tt:U<^ 
reaching nearly or quite to the suffrago. Tarsus shorter thaii the 

scapular region and scapulars black, completely variegated * 



s edgings 

x gravid 



chestnut-brown, paler ochrey-brown and whitish; tne i 

feather being black with one or another or all of these vai 

the coronal separated from the interscapular markings I 

white, dusky-streaked, cervical interval. Lower back, rump ana »ff- 

tail coverts blackish-brown, only varied with an occasional che> 

edged feather. Wing coverts grayish-brown with narrow «M« jj j 

the greater ones with broad definitely white tips. Secondaries ' n ,£, 

brown touches near the end. Primaries grayish brown with white ^ 
except at tip, and fading to white on the inner webs to I " '■■ 
several of the innermost also largely white on the outer web, wi ^ 
nite white tipping. Central tail feathers brownish-!'] 
ruptly paler, grayish; rest white or nearly so, with a fa ^JjJ eIS and 

entire under parts white, interrupted on the breast 
perfectly continuous nor well-defined black area, and marked on ^ 
breast and sides with a few narrow sharp blackish shaft lines. ^ 
auricular patch. Legs and bill dark. Length about 9-50 inches, 



, 2£; bill, 1-10 to 1 



general dis- 
h biographical notes by Mr. 
-Elliott Coues. 

Occurrence of Japyx in the United States. — While engaged 
at the end of April in exploring the Mammoth Cave and adjoining 
caverns with Prof. Shaler of the Kentucky Geological Survey, I 
detected under a stone in a small cave a few rods north of White's 
Cave (which may be called White's Cave, Jr.) and from 40 to 50 
feet from the mouth, consequently in partial daylight, a specimen 
of Japyx in company 



with two Scolopendrella 




Fig. 91. 




Americana Packard, our «*- 






most interesting myrio- \^ 






Pod, and not hitherto \j 
found except in Salem, 










Massachusetts. I after- . 






e 


*ard found several of jL\ 


it X 




i i 1 


the Japyx under stones /*. 


^\\\0 




* 1 


b J the roadside near ' 






J A 


Mammoth Cave. It here 






^ ) 


occurred, just as I have J 






\ 


f ound the European J. 




V 


s °l<f<igus near Vienna, 






in company with my 






friend Dr. Brauer. Our ^ 






ffers decidedly S§ 


h ti 




kwn the European spe- 1 


1 cq 


irn^M) 


l ' 10s - with specimens of ~ 


T F=? 


\Nl77 


whi eh I have compared * 




\ 7 


|t (see Fig. 91, and de- 


J LJ 


\^±j 


mI « of mouth-parts). 
« is quite different from 










t^ Mexican J. Sans- 






J"* of Humbert from 






Santa Cruz and Orizaba. 






J «Pyx snbterraneus, as this new 


species may be 


called, may a 


0n ce be distinguished from the otl 


ter specie 


m by the 


I much greatf 



length of the abdomen, the head and thorax taken together being 
more than twice contained in the abdomen, while in /. Saussurii 
they are two-thirds as long as the abdomen. The 8th abdominal 
segment, also, is nearly twice as long as in the Mexican species. 
The head is broader than in J. Saussurii, but narrower and pointed 
a little more than in J. solifugus. The forceps are much nearer J. 
solifugus than the Mexican specie-*, and is much longer than in either 
species. Length -58 inch ; the Mexican specimen measured about 
an inch. It is whitish, with the two terminal segments honey yel- 
low ; the forceps much darker. We shall in a succeeding number 
figure this interesting form, which is of extraordinary interest, as it 
is an ally of Campodea, now regarded as a stem-form of the higher 
insects by Brauer, Lubbock and others.— A. S. Packard, Jr. 

The « Hateful" Grasshopper in New England.— Though the 
ravages by grasshoppers in New England are caused by the red- 
legged locust (Caloptenus femur-rubrum), it seems that for several 
years there have been specimens of Caloptenus spretus from Maine 
and Massachusetts in the Museum of the Peabody Academy of 
Science. They have been hitherto confounded with CJm«M* 
rum, but are at once distinguishable by the shorter male cerci an 
the notched terminal ventral segment. The interesting fact ^abou 
these eastern O. spretus is, that they are of precisely t" 
and markings of C. femur-rubrum, being much smal 
much shorter wings than the western race, a difference J 
due almost wholly to climatic causes. A number of surmises m 
garding sexual and natural selection and mimicry might be »j 
dulged in, but the facts that might suggest them can be exp 1«» 
by a reference to the different meteorological conditions by «§■ 
the two races are environed. In Dr. Hayden's forthcoming ' W 
nual Report on the Geology of Colorado," the reader will nn 
number of facts bearing on the variation in size of body, and J>^ 
of wings and color in eastern and western examples of t e s ^ 
species of moths, the conclusions from which are borne o 
study of these grasshoppers. — A. S. Packard, Jr. 

The Kinglets in New Jersey.— If your correspondent,^ 
Abbott, had only been aware that it has been our aim tlu^ ■' 
our " History of North American Birds," to state nothing as ^ 
which is only surmised there would have been no occasion o ^ 
"surprise" on his part, that our account of the Reguli has 



and with 
I belie* 



made to conform to this rule. It is never safe to infer from the 
mere presence of a bird in any p:i ti ilnr loc ,'.:t\ in the breeding 
season that it necessarily breeds there. I could give you in- 
stances without number where birds arc found in summer in local- 
ities, where, so far as one can ever be sure of a negative, we know 
they do not breed. We have seen the black-poll warbler in eastern 
Massachusetts as late as the 10th of June. Yet who supposes it 
ever breeds here? Dr. Abbott's account escaped my notice, but I 
certainly could not have made it the occasion of any change in 
my statement that the Regains was not then known to breed in the 
United States. I could only have referred to the interesting fact ' 
of its occurrence, as stated, as suggestive of its possibility. 
Nothing short of its actual nest and eggs would have justified me 
in speaking of its breeding as a certainty. — Thomas M. Brewer. 
Zoology in Belgium.— The Belgium Academy has lately is- 
sued two large octavo volumes, as memorials of its hundredth an- 
niversary. The second volume is of great interest to zoologists 
as it contains a review of the progress of zoology in Belgium, by 
the veteran naturalist Prof. P. J. Beneden. 

GEOLOGY. 

Small size of the Brain in Tertiary Mammals.— At the 
last meeting of the Connecticut Academy of Arts and Sciences, 
June 17th, Prof. Marsh made a communication on the size of the 
brain in Tertiary Mammals. His researches on this subject have 
been mainly confined to the larger extinct mammals which he had 
Obtained in the Rocky Mountain region, and the results are of pe- 
culiar interest. The Eocene mammals all appear to have had small 
brains, and in some of them the brain cavity was hardly more ca- 
pacious than in the higher reptiles. The largest Eocene mammals 
are the Dinocerata, which were but little inferior to the elephant in 
bnlk. In Dinoceras Marsh, the type genus, the brain cavity is not 
more than one-eighth the average size of that in existing Rhinocer- 
oses. In the other genera of "this order, Tinoceras Marsh and 
Uintatherium Leidy, the smallness of the brain was quite as re- 
markable. The gigantic mammals of the American Miocene are 
the Brontotfieridce, which equalled the Dinocerata in size. In 
Bnntotherium Marsh, the only genus of the family in which the 
sku11 is known, the brain cavity is very much larger than in the 



5 04 GEOLOGY. 

Eocene Dinoceras, being about the size of the brain in the Indian 
Rhinoceros. In the Pliocene strata of the West, a species of Mas- 
todon is the largest mammal, and although but little superior in 
absolute size to Brontotherium, it had a very much larger brain, 
but not equal to that of existing Proboscidians. The Tapiroid 
ungulates of the Eocene had small brain cavities, much smaller 
than their allies, the Miocene Bhinocerotidce. The Pliocene rep- 
resentatives of the latter group had well developed brains, but 
proportionally smaller than living species. A similar progression 
in brain capacity seems to be well marked in the equine mammals, 
especially from the Eocene OroJdppus, through Miohipptu and A ti 
cJiitherium of the Miocene, Pliohippus and Hipparion of the Pli- 
ocene, to the recent Equus. In other groups of mammals, likewise. 
so far as observed, the size of the brain shows a corresponding in- 
crease in the successive subdivisions of the Tertiary. These facts 
have a very important bearing on the evolution of mammals, and 
open an interesting field for further investigation. 

Deep Sea Soundings. — The " Tuscarora," Commander Belk- 
nap, duly reached Honolulu from San Diego, California, having been 
engaged in taking deep-sea soundings. She made a straight pas- 
sage, not deviating twenty miles on either side of a direct line 
drawn between the two ports. During the passage sixty-two 
soundings were made, at a distance of forty miles apart. The 
deepest sounding — the forty-ninth after leaving the coast-*** 
found to be 3,054 fathoms, while the mean depth was 2,562 fat - 
oms. At a distance of GOO miles from the American coast 
depth was found to be 494 fathoms, and at 1,050 miles, 780 fath- 
oms. The average temperature below 1,200 fathoms was foun 
to be about thirty-five degrees Fahrenheit. From Honolulu 
Japan sixty casts were taken at intervals of about 50 miles- 
the first 95 miles from Honolulu, the depth increased at nearly 1 
ft. to a mile, reaching 2,418 fathoms in lat. 21° N., long- 1° " 
W. The average depth of all the casts taken during '^'VJS 
was 2,450 fathoms. Between the mountains (all but one o • ^ 
are entirely submarine) the bed of the ocean was very leve : | 
greatest depth was found at lat. 22° 44' N., long, l^ 8 
3,262 fathoms. 

Bottom temperatures, as in other parts of the Pacific, ^ 
from 33°-2 F. to 34°-6 below 1,800 fathoms, whatever the 



tional depth. Between 1,200 and 1,800 fathoms the temperature 
rises slowly to about 35° at the former depth. From 1,200 fath- 

iftartf ranging from 70° to 7G° F. 

The voyage occupied twenty-eight days, and the weather was 
exceptionally favorable. There are only sixty-five inhabitants on 
Peele Island, and the "Tuscarora" was the first visit of a naval 
vessel for more than seventeen years ; Commodore Ferry stopped 
at the island in 1853. 



ANTHROPOLOGY. 

Troglodytes in Alaska.— In 1872, Mr. William II. Dall made 
6ome interesting di>o>\eiU's of prehistoric remains in a cave on 
Amaknak Island, situated in Captain's Bay, Oonalaska, which he 
supposed exhausted the subject. In 1873, however, he found that 
he had left uudisturbed a still lower stratum, and finally cleaned 
out the entire cave down to the bed rock. He ascertained that 
the whole interior of the cave had been painted over with a red 
pigment or chalky ore of iron, above which was a bed of organic 
mould about two feet in its greatest depth, in which were found 
three skeletons, surrounded by a rough sort of sarcophagus built 
of the jaws and ribs of whales, and around them were a large 
number of implements, especially of stone knives. This was 
covered in turn by a layer six inches or less in thickness of refuse 
material, the remains of repasts on marine animals, shell-fish, fish, 
and echini. Scattered irregularly over this were broken and worn 
implements of quite a different character from those found with 
the dead, and the whole indicated that this was only a resting- 
Place of parties who used it temporarily while waiting an oppor- 
tunity to cross the surf to the adjacent island. It was down to 
this lower stratum that the labors of the previous season had ex- 
ended hut without disturbing it. 

A stratum of this latter portion was covered by a bed of shin- 
gle, evidently introduced by water, and supposed to be the actual 
bottom of the deposit. Mr. Dall is of the opinion that the skele- 
tons found here are the oldest yet discovered in the Aleutian re- 
gion, although not approaching in antiquity those discovered on 
Table Mountain, or the Neanderthal. He thinks the cave was 
fir st used as a burial-place, the mould over three skeletons having 



accumulated by the decay of animal matter and of rubbish ; and 
that the debris from the repasts of occasional visitors had been 
gathering for a great many years. An unusually high tide or 
storm probably brought in the shingle from the adjacent sea-beach, 
and after this the cave was again used as a deposit for the dead. 
Nothing was discovered indicating in any way that the place had 
been used or visited by the white races. 

The total number of crania obtained by Mr. Dall amounted to 
thirty-six, besides many hundred implements of bone, ivory, and 
stone, and many carvings of wood and other objects, presenting 
evidence of the existence of large and flourishing communities 
numbering thousands of inhabitants where now none or only rem- 
nants of population exist. 

Underneath the old villages were found still more ancient 
kitchen heaps of echini, fish bones, and edible shell-fish many feet 
in thickness, the age and time taken in forming them hardly to be 
approximated or counted even in centuries. Only in the tipper 
strata were seen the indications of progress in hunting and fishing, 
afterward so notable that even the sperm whale succumbed to the 
attacks of these hardy canoe-men. Their progenitors were con- 
tent to pick echini from the shore and mussels from the rocks, and 
hardly any implements could be found in the refuse of their re- 
pasts — the accumulation of centuries. 

After them large villages of solidly constructed houses rose; 
and probably at the height of their progress and numerical in- 
crease the almost equally barbarous Russian of Siberia fell upon 
them, and nearly swept them from the face of the earth.— Barker 
Weekly. 

Egyptian Archeology. — At the meeting of the Anthropolog- 
ical institute, June 9, Prof. Busk, F. R. S., president, in tteftg 
Sir John Lubbock, Bart., read a paper on the discovery c" 



implements in Egypt. The author began with a sketch 



of the 



■ of the 



08 of M. Arcelin and Dr. Hamy, 
tained that the flint implements found along the val 
Nile, including a hatchet of the St. Acheul type at Deir-el-Baha^, 
indicated the existence formerly of a true stone age there as 
Western Europe. MM. Mortillct and Broca concurred in * 
view. On the other hand Dr. Pruner-Bey, and especially ^ 
Lepsius, had expressed the opinion that most of the objects 



507 

scribed, such as the flint flakes, were naturally produced. M. 
Chabas also took the same view as Dr. Lepsius, and denied tbe 
existence of any evidence of a stone age in Egypt or elsewhere. 
On the occasion of a late visit to Egypt with the object of getting 
conclusive personal evidence on the question, the author found 
worked flints at various spots along the Nile Valley, especially in 
the valley of the tombs of the kings of Thebes, and at Abydos, 
and after carefully weighing the facts and arguments brought for- 
ward by MM. Lepsius and Chabas, he was disposed to agree with 
MM. Arcelin and Hamy in considering that these flint implements 
really belonged to the stone age, and were ante-Pharaonic. Sir 
John exhibited a full series of the Egyptian flint implements 
found by himself during his visit, and the paper concluded with a 
minute description of each specimen. Prof. Owen, F. R. S., then 
read a paper on tbe ethnology of Egypt. Since the observations 
recorded in 1861, by Dr. Pruner-Bey, on the race-characters of 
the ancient Egyptians, mainly based on the characters of skulls, 
evidences, in the author's opinion, of a more instructive kind have 
been discovered, chiefly by M. Mariette-Bey. They consist of 
portrait-sculptures, chiefly statues, found in tombs accompanied 
by hieroglyphic inscriptions revealing the name, condition, and 
date of decease. A study of those works led to the conclusion 
that three distinct types were indicated. (1) The primal Egypt- 
ian, bearing no trace of negro or Arab, but more nearly matched 
by a high European facies of the present day. (2) The type of 
the conquering race of Shepherd Kings, or Syro-Arabian, exempli- 
fied in the Assyrian sculptures. (3) The Nubian Egyptian, typ- 
ified in the bas-relief figure of Cleopatra in the Temple of Denderah. 
In conclusion, the professor drew a graphic picture of the high 
state of civilization attained by the Primal Egyptian race, 



^quisite works, done - go, are now r 

accessible to man. The paper was amply illustrated by 
of Photographs, maps and diagrams.— Nature. 






MICROSCOPY. 

Improvements in Insect Mounting.— The lesson of tbe fly in 
amber was one n ime to learn, or rather which 

w e never learned well until, now, its whole secret comes to us 
from India. Mr. Staniforth' Green, of Ceylon, has sent a collec- 



508 

tion of mounted insects to London, which have been presented to 
the Queckett club by Mr. Curties. They are represented by 
Messrs. Curties, Ingpen, Loy, Mclntire and others as well pre- 
served and satisfactory objects, free from cloudiness, air bubbles. 
or deterioration of tissue as well as from distortion of form. Not 
being flattened or eviscerated, they show to great advantage in the 
binocular microscope. A few had been soaked in potash solution. 
but these were the least satisfactory members of the collection. 
The largest and best part of the objects had been immersed in the 
medium without maceration or other preparation. The smaller 
insects were simply killed by immersion in ether and immediately 
transferred to the soft balsam ; the larger insects were similarly 
killed in ether, then dried a few days under slight pressure be- 
tween the leaves of a book, and afterward soaked in turpentine 
and transferred from that to balsam. The balsam containing the 
insects was kept in the tropical sun for some time, until all moist- 
ure was dissipated and the balsam had pervaded the whole of the 
tissues. The muscles and other internal and external organs, not 
having been disorganized by potash or in any other way, were well 
preserved and capable of inspection ; and in many cases polarized 
well. Small delicate insects which are difficult of preservation or 
even of study in any other way, are most successful in this ; as. 
for instance, aphides, small and frail diptera. hymenoptera, minute 
spiders, eggs, larva, pupa, etc. This method is of value not only 
to the microscopist, but also to the entomologist, placing W« or 
frail specimens out of reach of dust, mould, ants, and other 
dangers which threaten dried specimens. 

We have tried this method largely, both with thin balsam, an 
with hard balsam dissolved in chloroform and in benzol, and hsi* 
succeeded with all. Probably experience will show that each « 
best adapted to certain objects. A water-bath is a good substitu* 
for the tropical sun. When the balsam is sufficiently hard the o^ 
jects should be mounted in it in glass cells. Doubtless the san 
blast cells will prove to be adapted to this purpose. 

Measuring Angular Aperture. — Mr. Wenharo, in <*N{ 
gain accuracy in measuring the angular aperture of dry objec n m 
would like to cut off all stray light that might enter the lens wi 
out being capable of forming an image, by placing over the o J 
tive a conical nozzle having a small aperture in its apex. 



aperture would correspond to the focus of the lens, and the nozzle 
would just include the cone of rays capable of forming an image 
and would exclude all false rajs of any considerable angle. This 

ureil by a horizontal movement a vertical slit will be a satisfactory 
substitute. For high powers the slit must have thin edges ; and 
it must be capable of adjustment to the width of focus of the lens. 
His arrangement is easily made and used. A plate three Inches 
long and one inch wide lias a central aperture nearly one-half inch 
wide, the edges of this opening being bevelled away below so as to 
admit a large angle of light. Upon this plate lies a glass slip 
about 2 in.Xi in., pressed against at one end by a spring, and at 
the other end by a screw, so that it can be easily slid backwards 
and forwards under the two staples (one inch apart) which hold it 
upon the surface of the plate. The slip is formed by the edges of 
two slips of platinum foil (-001 thick) one of which is cemented 
with Canada balsam upon the glass slip, while the other is fastened 
under one of the staples so as to lie on the glass slip but not move 
with it. These platinum slips never overlap : but their edges may 
be brought in contact, or may be separated as widely as desired by 
means of the set-screw pressing against one end of the glass slip 
which carries one of them. In measuring angles the usual method 
of rotating the instrument horizontally is employed ; only this 
apparatus lies upon the stage with its slit in focus of the objec- 
tive and adjusted in width so as barely to include the whole 
breadth of the focus. If the stage of the microscope is too thick 
to admit fall angle of 1 n l t tl c <it i aratus may be arranged below 
the stage and the objective focussed down to it. 

Cataloguing Microscopic Specimens.— At the Medical Micro- 
scopical Society, a paper by Mr. Groves was read on the subject 
of cataloguing and arranging microscopic specimens. Though 
classification was deemed necessary in large cabinets, yet it was 
considered entirely undesirable in small ones, and in both cases 
the catalogue and not the arrangement was relied upon for finding 
objects. The method of cataloguing recommended consists of an 
ordinary alphabeted note book in which, under the proper alpha- 
betical heading, every portion of each specimen is independently 
dtered and the slide referred to by numbers or otherwise. Thus 
°ne excellent slide which shows well a number of points of struct- 



tire will be entered under several headings and be used to illus 
trate all these points, while under the usual methods of classify in; 
slides in series, a number of duplicate slides would be required t 
fill up the different series. All difficulty in finding specimens i 
also positively obviated. 

The president, Mr. Jabez Hogg, expressed the belief that th 
proposed plan would supersede all others now in use. 



Cells. — Mr. Henry F. Hailes contributed to the 
Queckett Club an account of a new and probably valuable appli- 
cation of the sand-blast process. It had occurred to him that this 
process might be employed to sink cells in glass slips for micro- 
scopical mounting ; and lie applied to the inventor, Gen. Tilghman, 
who had a supply sunk in an apparently satisfactory manner. Mr. 
C. Baker, the optician of High Holborn, has undertaken to sup- 
ply these new cells to the trade. They can be sunk of any de- 
sired size and shape, and possess the positive advantage of haying 
no joint at the bottom of the cell. Of course the floor and sides 
of the cell are rough or "ground " surfaces, but this is not a sen- 
ous disadvantage. For opaque objects the ground surface forms 
an agreeable background ; for objects in balsam, the refractive 
index of the medium corresponds so nearly with that of glass that 
the granulations of the glass surface are optically obliterated and 
disappear entirely ; for media of less refractive power than bal- 
sam, it is necessary to varnish first the ground surface with balsam 
and allow it to dry before introducing the fluid. The new eels 
seem particularly available for foraminifera, insects mounte^ 
without flattening, and other clumsy specimens, whether ia air 
balsam or glycerine. 

Another Microscopical Cement. — Mr. T. Charters WW* 
recommended to the Queckett Club four or five parts of com °|° g 
yellow beeswax melted with one part of Canada balsam /°\ ^ 
purpose. Like the electrical cement, and the paraffine, wbic »^ 
already come into general use for the same purpose, it is apP 
melted, on a hot wire, after the manner of soldering ; sets as^ ^ 
as cool, and hence cannot run in under the cover however 
cell may be, and can be instantly loosened by warming if t ^ 
is to be repaired or the object dismounted for any purpose. ^ ^ 
especially applicable to dry mounting, to temporarily fixing ^ 
jects for early use, and to fasten apparatus where contrivanc 



New Application of Staining to Pathology. — Dr. H. C. 
Major claims that healthy and morbid tissues are affected by log- 
wood staining-fluid— with such different degrees of facility as to 
afford a really valuable means of discrimination. Thus staining 
becomes a means of diagnosis as well as of defining the structure 
of cells, etc. He instances sections of brain in cases of acute 
mania and of senile atrophy, in the former the gray cortical layer 
and in the latter the internal white substance being most deeply 
stained and best defined. 

NOTES. 

The governor of Minnesota calls on the general government 
for aid, as owing to the ravages of the grasshoppers for two years 
past M many thousands are now (July 8) suffering for food." An 
"utter and wide-spread destitution exists in the southwestern 
counties of this state among the new settlers, whose crops hi 
been destroyed for two years." He asks for contributions 
money and provisions to relieve the immediate 
the sufferers. Why should not the grasshopper be e 
The grasshopper or locust of the east is universally 
tions of Africa and western Asia, and pronounced 
Palatable article of diet by Arab chiefs as well as Hottentot 
ages. They are eaten roasted whole, minus the legs, or roasted and 
powdered. We would recommend that experiments be made as to 
the best mode of preparing the locust for food. They should be 
thoroughly cooked to guard against parasitic worms. Not willing 
to urge the use of grasshoppers as food for others without first 
eating them ourselves, we may say that we have found the grass- 
hopper, first killed by boiling" water, and then fried in butter, at 
least as palatable as many articles of food eaten by civilized people ; 
a nd to people actually famishing, as is said to be the case in Min- 
nesota, it will be worth their while to avail themselves of a food 
stuff which millions perhaps of people of other lands regard as 
wholesome. 

The Proceedings of the 22d, or Portland meeting of the Amer- 
ttan Association make a much more bulky volume than any of its 
Predecessors. It is noticeable that while the papers in the section 



512 bc 

a and Chemistry, occupy perhaps no n 
space than usual, those in Natural History fill 409 pages. 
papers are perhaps up to the average, but we notice two or tl 
that might have been weeded out by the publishing < 
The volume appears with a commendable degree of promptness. 

Mr. G. R. Crotch of England, known for his studies on the 
Coleoptera, died the last of June at Philadelphia, of consumption. 
He was the author of several valuable papers on Coleoptera and 
an indefatigable collector. He lately spent a year in California 
and Vancouver Island an king extensive col- 

lections, mostly contained in the Museum of Comparative Zoology. 

BOOKS RECEIVED. 









AMERICAN NATURALIST. 

Vol. VIII.-SEPTEMBEB, 1874.-1*0. 9. 
THE AGRICULTURAL ANT.* 



Since my return from Mexico, I have discovered several traits 
in the character of the M : , r !,>■'■■■> .-.,■ '< /■>••;. „,s that I had not noticed 
before. In fact, the circumstances that have developed the facts 
1 am about to notice had not transpired. 

In 1848, the year I came to Long Foint, there was but one 
agricultural ant city within a mile of the place. This nest was 
situated in a nearly barren little spot on top of an elevation, 
underlaid with stratified sandstone. Here there was but little 
grass and weeds to interfere with their seed collecting labors. 
The ant rice which they so carefully cultivate was flourishing in a 
regular circle near the outer border, but inside of the pavement. 
There were little patches of the same grass scattered about on the 
! Utle S la ^e which had doubtless been planted there by some exper- 
ienced ant, for it had been neatly cleared of all other vegetables, 
,n fact cultivated by them. 

The entire surrounding country consists of very rich black 
Prairie soil, and was bearing a very heavy coat of cowfodder 
gra * es - In this dense coat of grass the mound builder could not 
tra vel ; but was content to confine himself to a single city in the 
°pen district, until a road that passed near the pavement had been 
I'^Wout through the deep grass. This occurred about two 



514 

years after my first acquaintance with the above named city. It 
was interesting to observe how soon they availed themselves of 
the use of the el< >ad. They were seen running 

along in trains half a mile from their city, and it was not long 
before new cities were seen along the side of the road. The first 
one made its appearance about eighty yards from the old city and 
just far enough from the road to be out of the way of the passing 

These new cities, which, in the course of three years, made their 
appearance at intervals of a long the side of the 

road for more than a mile, were never seen before; they were a 
year and a half old. One of their peculiarities is, that with bits 
of stick, little balls of soil and the like, they conceal the entrance 
of a new city until they consider themselves sufficiently strong to 
make their appearance' and sustain themselves among the nests of 
other ants. They are then seen clearing out and paving a consid- 
erable circular space around the entrance to their city. Some old 
settlements have a pavement fifteen feet in diameter and a mound 
in the centre a foot high. 

And now the increasing cattle made the grass thinner, and the 
ants swarming out spread their cities in all directions at shot 
intervals (thirty yards is about the average) until the prairies are 
full of them. 

They do not, like the bees, throw off colonies, to go out an 
build up a new kingdom. It is a very different process. On a 
certain day in summer all the males and females— they all fly-~ 
assemble, as if by appointment, from all the surrounding nesM 
some suitable place ; generally in the smooth road, where 
seize each other, three or four males to one female and **®*** 
on the ground eagerly, give the idea of a battle ; which the c 
less observer is sure to report as such- It is, however, no 
but a rampant amative furor, which continues three or four ^ 
when the female becoming satisfied with her numerous, eager Kg 
makes shift to tear herself loose from them and make 1 
At first she climbs up some little weed or spear of grass, 
to rest for a few minutes, when she spreads her glass) «j -- 
the last time, and flies with the wind until she is tired, ^ ^ 

great haste, and running around, she soon selects a pl*^ ^ 
she energetically goes to work digging a small hole, w lC ' 






she has deepened sufficiently for her wings to prevent her free in- 
gress, she deliberately withdraws and with her sharp mandibles 

or seven inches deep, and excavating a small cell at the bottom, 
she closes the passage above, and remains sleeping in her little cell 
nine or ten days. If she survives that long, she comes out, pro- 
cures some food and goes to work, deposits twenty or thirty eggs, 
raises them to maturity ; — they are all workers — and after this 
the queen or mother ant is seen outside no more. She conceals 
the entrance to her kingdom, keeps her workers busy, increases 
their number rapidly, and in the course of eighteen months, find- 
ing her armies sufficiently strong, she throws off all disguise and 
clearing a considerable space around the gate of the city com- 
mences to pave it and to build up a monument or pyramid. This 
last is a public work as well as the pavement, and it is carried on 
slowly by the police, who are always found on and around the en- 
virons of the city. 

Thus have I partially described the origin and progress of a 
single successful mother ant of the mound building species. 
^ ere all that fly away from those astonishing connubial assem- 
blies equally successful, it would require but very few years for 
them to overpeople the whole earth. But nature, as she has done 
ln all other races of animal life, has made provisions for the 
destruction of the superfluous queens. Great numbers of them 
never return from the little cell they have prepared for themselves 
a t the bottom of their new home. They die either from having 
Packed the dirt in the hole above them, or from being found by the 
hunters or soldiers of the surrounding kingdoms, whose custom it 
! s ' WQ enever they discover one of these new beginnings for a city, 
^variably to dig out and assassinate the occupant. Many birds 
ar e fond of the females of this species of ant, devouring all they 
can find. There are many other causes for the failure of these fat 
qneens which, according to my observations on the subject, result 
m the conclusion, that not exceeding one in a thousand of those 
ginning a nest survives and builds up a colony. 
^1 have witnessed several of their grand connubial festivals. 
1858, that occupied a plat of ground 107 yards in 
2n yards wide. The ground was thickly strewn with 
em - When I first discovered them they were coming from 
CVery Erection, and lighting down on the above described plat by 



length a 



516 

tens of thousands. It was a great day with the ants; and soon 
the place was so I hat it was impos- 

sible to walk among them and not crush them. 

In the course of three hours the males began to show the dread- 
ful effects of their dissolute course. They began rapidly to die. 
The females would wring themselves loose from the males and fly 
off, leaving them exhausted and struggling in death. They had 
fulfilled their mission, and the ground long before night was 
covered with their dead bodies. 

I visited the place the next morning : the wind had driven them 
into the little gullies in the road, and there could not have been 
less than a bushel of them. Not a female dead or alive to be seen 
anywhere amongst them. But not far off, and in the direction the 
wind was blowing at the time they made their escape from their 
prostrate and dying lovers, could be seen countless numbers of 
little black piles of earth which had been thrown out of their holes 
during the night. There were fifteen to twenty of these new bar- 
rows to every square rod, and they were seen in that proportion 
for more than a mile. So it is plain, if there were no counteracting 
influences, to see that they would soon occupy every avaua 
space. Few of them, however, proved successful, for the who 
prairie had already been fully stocked with them. Pavemen 
were to be seen every thirty or forty yards, but too new to pos- 
sess any mounds. Their pavements were flat when in 1868 I wen 
away; and now I have got back in 1873 I find they have mme 
great improvements ; all have raised mounds 



large. The progress they have made on their 



mounds and pave- 

This species of ant subsists almost entirely on small se^ 
great quantities of which they store away in their granary ^^ 
supply food for winter. During rainy seasons m the au ^ 
months it happens right often that the ground becoming s_ 
rated, the water penetrates theii granaries, and swells and spr^ 
their seeds. In this em, i gene\ the\ bring out the damage. - - ^ 
the first fair dav, and exposing it to the sun until near **&*> 



take in all that is not actually sprouted. I saw them n 
trey's farm one day have out on a flat rock as much I 
wheat sunning. 1 wanted to see how they would n 



One of our Germans invented a very destructive ant trap. It 
is set over the entrance to their city, and is so contrived, that 

Occasionally a well formed fellow is observed to arrive at the top 
of the precipice, where he stops and gravely and cautiously sur- 
veys the awful abyss below, filled with frantic and terribly dis- 
tressed thousands— who have incautiously precipitated themselves 
into inevitable ruin — and after viewing the dreadful and disas- 
trous condition of his fellow laborers, he seems to understand the 
true nature of the misfortune, and turning from the irremediable 
calamity, hastens down the inclined place into the grass weeds, 
beyond the reach of further observation. 

Quite a number of them are seen to examine and hastily fly 
from the entrance of this destructive trap. 



AZALEA VISCOSA, A FLY-CA 



•Lhe many curious observj - te in regard to 

vegetable fly-catchers ha\e open, 1 my eyes to such phenomena 
as are presented in my forest walks. As is well known to all 
botanists, our sweet swamp azalea {Azalea viscosa) has its 
corolla covered on the outside with innum rable clammy and 
g^ndular hairs. Each hair is a prolongation of the cuticle and 
ls Amounted by a purple and globular gland. In the bud, these 
bairs appear to cover the whole surface of the flower, but when 
tfa e corolla expands, they are seen to occupy the midrib of the 



518 AZALEA VISOOSA. 

petals as well as the tube of the corolla. These glandular hairs 
are efficacious fly-catchers, but what the object is in thus securing 
inject pio\ , I will not pretend to state. 

I have been amusing myself, if any such apparently cruel 
occupation can be considered entertaining, in watching the cap- 
ture of flies by the azaleas. When I first brought the flowers 
home, many small insects, as winged ants, were entrapped amidst 
the hairs. These have remained alive several days, still vainly 
_ struggling for freedom. As the houseflies are abundant in my 
room, it occurred to me that I might extirpate the pests, and at 
the same time learn something of the process of insect-catching. 
I have not noticed that the powerful fragrance of the blossoms 

smaller insects. It seemed to lie accidental when the houseflies 
were captured. I exposed •, number of buds and fully opened 
blossoms on a sunny window-sill thronged with flies. It was not 
many minutes before I had several captures. A mere touch of a 
fly's leg to the glutinous hairs was sufficient for his detention. A 
struggle only made matters worse as other lews were by this 

glairy threads which fasten to' the ha ill of the flies' legs. They 
maybe drawn, out to a great length and tenuity, still retaining 
then strength. If two^juds are pressed together and then 
drawn apart, innumerable threads may be seen to bind them. 
There is a complete network of them between the various glands. 
They will confine the strongest fly ; he is at once held like Gulli- 
ver among the Liliputians. Under the microscope, the legs o 

feetly" white and transparent. In one attempt to escape, a house- 
fly lifted a flower bodily from the window-sill, perhaps a quarter of 

after long efforts, escaped, but seemed incapable of using its legs! 
it flew away readilv. In one instance, I have found the dn* 
remains of a small in,ec, embedded an.ids, the hairs, but canno 
say whether its juices were in any way absorbed by the phmt. ■ 
such assimilation takes place, what is its purpose? Can this pbe- 

observed them; perhaps others can siipi.lv further information- 



ON THE ANTENNA IN THE LEPIDOPTERA. 



cialization of structure was correlated with lKil.it in these insects. 
I stated that the antennae were more actively used by the moth 
than by the butterfly, and I suggested that their sensitiveness was a 
protection and an assistance to the night-flying moths in directions 
where a change to a diurnal habit rendered such sensitiveness less 
necessary to the butterfly. In two instances I was led to reject 
conclusions with regard to the antenna' that had already appeared 
in print. The first of these is the hitherto accepted and arbitrary 
division of the Lepidoptera into two sections under the terms 
Rhopalocera, or club-horned, and Ileteroccra or diversely-horned. 
I endeavored to show, that the change in the antenual form was a 
gradual one, from the neuropteriform antennae of the Tineidae, or 
lowest moths, to the butterfly -like antenna? of the Castniares, or 
highest moths ; that the antennae of the Hesperidae were quite dif- 
ferent from the butterflies ; and that the change in antenual struc- 
ture throughout the suborder was really expressed by a greater 
rigidity and equalization in length, or was one of direction and 
attitude. As the antennas become less serviceable to the insect 
they become more rigid and in position more elevated above the 
"head, as in the butterfly, while in the moth they are more whip-like 
and are directed forwards or, in a state of rest, frequently thrown 
backwards by the sides of the body, beneath the wings. The 

elusion that the antenna?, in the Lepidoptera, "instead of being 

struments of atu I have endeavored to show 

that Dr. Clemen, ex , t s , 1 the moth Platysamia cecropia, 
instead of being confirmatory of this view, point to an exactly 



520 THE ANTENNA IN 

flying moth, depi asible of direction 

or locality, and under '■'■ ■ lion it naturally re- 

fused to proceed. A very si 1 indeed be needed 

to confirm the fac cts, so important 

and widely developed an organ a> the antenna was devoted to an 
exceptional use, while the absence of any structural connection 
between the wings and the antenine renders such a construction 
impossible. It app< ars rather that the senses of smell and hearing 
are not differentiated in insects and that the antennae are organs 
of perception receiving impressions from either sense. The " as- 
sembling " of the Bombyces has its cause probably in the greater 
specialization of the male antennae, which are sensitive to the 
odor of the female as well as to the waves of sound. It is not 
extraordinary to find such a means for the preservation of the 
species highly developed in a group where the maxillae are feebly 
developed, little or no food is taken, and the duration of life in 
the reproductional stage is so brief as in the Bombyces. Having 
watched the free habit of the butterflies, I have thought that these 
depended more on the organs of vision for a recognition of the 
sexes, and I have detected instances of necessarily harmless co- 
quetry between the males of Argynnis ; an action not unrelated 
to that observable among dogs and higher animals. Professor 
Mayer's experiments with the male mosquito, as narrated in 
American Naturalist, vol. 8, p. 236, are confirmatory of these 
views, as showing the sensitiveness of the antennae to the wav 
of sound, and it is not unreasonable to suppose that the antenna 
of the male insect are particularly sensitive to the peculiar soan J 
and odors emitted by the female of its own species. 

In the absence as yet of conclusive evidence as to cases of P* 
culiar sensitiveness to odor or sound, it may be sufficient to » 
sure from what has been adduced of the general functions of ^ 

point of' view 1 hitherto regarded 

the a te * to the real differ- 



THE SOCIAL LIFE OF THE LOWEB ANIMALS. 1 



at spectacle which wo mil i 
and lie who weighs and n 
3 preservation of the mos 



may be compared 



great drama of life presides a la' 
But which rules the movements of the stars ; and if at each 1 



'iflith c 



airies oif from this -erne myriads of beings, 
2 causes new legions to replace them. It is a 



It is demonstrated to-day. that the animal, whatever it may 
«*, whether that which occupies the top of the scale, or that 
which touches the last confines of the kingdom, consumes water 
and carbon. Albumen suffices for all the wants of life. The 
same hand, however, which has brought the world out of chaos, 
has varied the nature of this consummation ; it has proportioned 
^is universal nourishment to the needs and to the particular 
organization of the species which should draw from it the prin- 
Cl Ple of motion, the maintenance of life. 

It is a very interesting study, that which has for its end a 
knowledge of the food of each species. This study constitutes an 
important branch of the history of animals ; the bill of fare is 
Wnt ten in advance in imlelible' characters in each specific type, 
and tkse characters are scarcely less difficult to decipher for the 
naturalist than the palimpsest or the archaeologist It is under 
«e form of a bone or of scales, of feathers or of shells, that 
Se binary letters figure in the digestive tracts. It is by visits 
not domicili ary but stomachal, that wc are to be initiated into 
l6Se cletail s of household economy. 



The bill of fare of fossil animals, though written in characters 
less clear and less complete, can, however, still often he read in 
their coprolites. We should not despair even of discovering some 
day the fishes and tlio crustacea which wore devoured by the plesi- 
osaurs and the ichthyosaurs, and of finding that some parasitic 
worms majr have been introduced with them into their spiral 

Naturalists have not always studied with sufficient care the 
relations which exist between the animal and its food, though 
these relations would furnish the observer with information U p 
high importance. 

Every organic body, conferva or moss, insect or mammal, 
becomes the prey of some beast ; liquid or solid, sap or blood, 
horn or feather, flesh or bone, all disappear under the teeth of 
one or the other; and to the remains found in each correspond 
the instruments necessary for their assimilation. These primitive 
relations between animals and their diet maintain the industry of 
each species. 

We find on taking a nearer view, more analogy between tl 
animal world and human society, and, without seeking farther, * 
can say there is no social position which has not its counterpart 
among the animals. 

The greater number of them live quietly on the fruits of their 
labor, and practise a trade which supports them ; but aside roffl 
these honest industries, we see also certain miserable beinp 
which cannot live without the aid of their relatives, and estab- 
lish themselves, some as parasites in the thickness of their org"- 
the others as commensals by the side of their host. 

It is some years since one of our learned and intelli^' ; 
teres of the University of Utrecht, Professor Halting,** 
charming little book on tin- industry of animals. No ll;U " l 
,f the trade, are pe* 

we «* 



our ; ttcntion to the fact that 

known in the animal kingdom. We find indeed ani; 

miners, masons, carpenters, pape 



cloth or lace, + and their product: 
in comparison with the point lac 



nrl indistinct that it has to be magnified several million times in 
rder to be visible to the naked eye. and the best microscopes do 
>ot yet always reveal all the delicacj of designs which adorn 
bese wonderful organisms; it is with difficulty that the instru- 
ments of the first masters suffice to observe the infinitesimal fan- 
Finally to whom do the manufacturers of Venders or of Lyons, 

>al, a flower ; and even to the present day we have been unwilling 
^ imitate their example. These workshops are in operation every 
ay under our eyes, their gates are largely open to all the world, 



524 


THE SOCIAL LIFE OF THE LOWER ANIMALS. 


and none 


of them are marked with the hackneyed in 


Xo Admi 


ttance. 


Should 


these machines stop, or should they only resl 


we should be exposed to the chances of not being a 


the naked 


ness of our shoulder.- ; the fine lady would b; 


cashmere, 


nor silk nor velvet ; as for us, we should h: 


flannels, n 


ior cloths to cover us ; the shepherd even, 


mountain* 


ser, would no longer have his goatskin to pro 


against th 


e inclemency of the weather. It is by the 


this good 


creature which gives us its flesh and fleece, 


leave the 


south to brave the rigor of the northern clira 


tablish on 


^selves by the side of the reindeer and nar 


perpetual 


glaciers.* 



The greatest industry would be invariably surpassed d« 
place in one of our great universal expositions its product* 
by side with those of the insect or spider. In order to center 
the ideas of equality of this age, we should not in taking 
forget our pretended ancestors. 

There are all sorts of pursuits in this world, and if * 011 ' 
them are honest, we can say that there are othei s whicha 

than one animal is a swindler.. lo:idi(i'_' 'I'*' life of a fine g 




, Qcumbera certain organs,! ire c 

a parasite. It is no more a parasite than he v 
le of a vigilant and clever neighbor and quietly 

e Reinora, lazily anchors himself to a good sw 

a than the traveller who installs hi 

ead in bis pockets. There arc also mutual i 



emselves for t 


i part o 


f their life, and only 


te periods. 


They ai 


e not, as has been t 


1,1 Stmi,ge Wl 


ngs with 


out any other organs t 



maintaining life. A large number of them are as well provided 
as others with organs for working, and only seek aid at certain 
periods in their lives. There is not, as has been thought, a spe- 
cial class of parasites, but nil classes of lower animals contain 
them. We may divide them into different categories ; in the first 
we may reunite all those which are free at the beginning of life, 
swimming about and taking their sport without seeking aid of any 
one, until the infirmities of age oblige them to seek refuge. Cov- 
ered with the togapretexta they live at first like true Bohemians 
and take .their rest in some good inn.* Sometimes it is both the 
males and females which seek this kind of aid at the coming 
on of old age ; f at other times it is the females alone, while the 
male continues his vagabond life. J It happens also that the female 
drags along her spouse, and maintains him completely during his 
captivity ; the male remains a small boy in size as well as habits, 
and if the host who feeds her, serves him with liquor, she in her 
turn affords her husband food.jj Feu- females of the Lernsans 
can be found which do not carry about with them their lihpntian 
males, who do not quit their wives any more than their own shai- 
ows. All the parasitic crust acoa take their place in this first 
category. 

We also find some— those hobgoblins of ichneumons for ex- 
ample—which are perfectly free in their adult age, but call W 
support in their youth. There are numbers of these insects, whict 









they throw off their larval robes, they know no restrain , 
armed from head to foot, they bravely seek adventures hkeot^ 
insects. || In this category are found the parasitic diptero* ^ 
hymenopterous insects. ,. f . 

There are also some which are classified from their mode ot a^ 
all changing their hotel, not to say establishment, uccu^ 

they solicit favors, and all their juiirnov is vigorously i 



the cestode and treinatode wo 
begin life in a sort of vagaboi 



happily know to-day the steps 1 



s jourw?' '■' 
ind soft « omi 



■My to use their delicate limbs, than the 
odge in their first hotel ; restless and unquie 
t for another home, and then reestablishing 
lemned to perpetual seclusion. 

That which adds to the interest which tli 
)eings inspire, is that at each change of 

jrinations, they wear a virile toga, not to I 



Most of the worms which have the form of a leaf or of a rib- 
bon, are subject to these peregrinations accompanied with changes 
of costume, and those which do not arrive at their final stage, 
generally die without posterity. 

Not the least interesting is the fact that these parasites do not 
inhabit indifferently such or such organs of their host ; all begin 
modestly by the almost inaccessible mansard roof, and end their 
lives in the large and spacious apartments of the first floor. At 
first they care only for themselves, and are contented, under the 

the h. art, the ventricles of the brain, or even the ball of the eye ; * 
ktter they busy themselves with the cares of their families, and 
occupy the larger organs, as the alimentary and respiratory tracts, 

horror of being shut up, and their offspring reclaim an existence 
in the broad world.f 

It is not always easy to indicate the identity of those person- 
ages which visit one day the saloons, in embroidered dress, the 
next the most obscure closets in a beggar's costume. 

There is a hist category in which are found those who claim aid 
fang their whole existence ; penetrating at once into the body 
°f their host, they do not move, but lodge there from the cradle 

It is only a few years since we did not suppose that a parasite 
could live in any other animal than that in which we found it. 
Al * helminthologists, with few exceptions, regarded the intesti- 
nal worms as formed without parents in the same organs they in- 



habited. We had observed, 



. 



instituted some experiments to assure ourselves of the possibility 
of these passages,* but all these experiments bad only given a 
negative result, and the idea that transmigration was necessary 
was so completely unknown, that Bremser, the first hehnintholo- 
gist of his age, accused tfudolphi of heresy when he stated that 
3 of Bshes could live in birds. 

At a period nearer ours, our learned friend Von Siebold, called 
with good reason the prince of helminthology, shared more com- 
pletely this opinion, in referring the Cysticercus of the mouse to 
the Taenia of the cat, but . _ worm as a stray, 

sick and dropsical being. To his eyes the worm had made a false 
journey into the mouse ; the Taenia of the cat could only live in the 
cat. Was Flourens romancing when I announced to the French 
Institute that it was necessary lor these cestoid worms to migrate 
from one animal to another in order to pass through the phases 
of their development ? 

At present in the zoological institute we daily repeat with the 
same success experiments on these transmigrations, and lately our 
learned friend R. Leuckart, who directs with so much talent the 
Institute of Leipzig, has discovered, in company with his student 
Metznikoff, some transformations of worms accompanied with a 
change of sex ; that is to say, they have seen some Nematoid 
parasites of the lungs of frogs, either always females or hermaph- 
rodites, produce males and females which bear no resemblance to 
their mother, and whose habitual abode is n 



rth.f Here we have a female, b 



i ; i widow. 
,id daiiL'h- 



who cannot live without aid, and who brings forth s 

ters able to take care of themselves. The mother is paiasiuc .-, 

viviparous, the children are, for their whole lives, free andovip* 



tely observed, 






dated by different spermatozoids.* Though those transanimations 
are to-day perfectly known and believed, yet naturalists quite often 
attribute the honor of this discovery to our confreres who have not 
known that the demonstration had been entirely made and that 
the new interpretation was generally accepted. But to return to 
our subject. Aid is thus as varied as we find in our own world: 
to one is furnished the domicile,! to others the table,} and to a cer- 
tain number a livelihood in lodgings. § It is a complete system of 
lodging and subsistence, besides the best arranged philozoic institu- 
tion. But if on the part of these paupers, we see that they render 
each other mutual aid, we should not regard them as wholly para- 
sites or commensals. We believe we should be more just in calling 
them mutuulists, and mutualism reclaims a place, as we have before 
said, by the side of coinmensalisni and of parasitism. It will be 
necessary also to find a qualification for those which, as certain 
Crustacea and even birds, are spongers or sharks || (des pique-alette 
ou des ecornijleurs) rather than parasites : and for others which 
pay for the aid rendered them by malicious deeds.f 

And how shall we designate those which, like the little plover 
of which we have already spoken, render a service that we may 
compare to medical assistance ? 

The plover indeed acts as a dentist to the crocodile, as a small 
species of frog acts as an accoucheur to his wife in using his 
fingers as forceps to bring forth the eggs into the world. And the 
beef-eater, does it not perform a surgical operation each time that 
it opens with its beak, the tumor on the back of the buffalo 
•fcfefc contains a larva? It is an operator who pays for his keeping. 
Nearer at home we see the starling render in our fields the same 
service as the beef-eater in Africa ; and can we not say that there is 



530 THE SOCIAL LIFE OF THE LOWER ANIMALS. 

among these animals more than a specialty in the act of healing? 
We need not forget that the undertaker is a common personage in 
nature and that it is never without some profit to himself or his 
offspring that this sombre workman buries dead bodies.* There 
are even some animals not without some analogy with the shoe- 
black or the scourer and which perform with a certain sort of co- 
quetry the toilette of their neighbors.! 

And how shall we designate those birds known under the name 
of stercoraries which profit by the meanness of gulls to live in idle- 
ness? The gulls surpass in their strength of wing ; the stercoraries 
end by making them disgorge and share with them the profits of 
the fishery. Pursued too closely these timorous birds disgorge the 
contents of their crops to lighten themselves, as the smuggler who 
sees no other means of safety than in abandoning his load. »e 
should not always ascribe these habits to the species as a whole, 
since in the mosquito it is only one of the sexes which seeks a 
victim. In general all these animals live from hand to mouth, and 
if there are some which know how to eebnomize, there are likewise 
those which do not ignore the advantages of a savings bank.} 
Like the crow and magpie there are some which care for the mor- 
row and save the overplus of the day. 

We have spoken : this small world is not always easy to under- 
stand, and in these societies each one contributes his capital, some 
by industry, others by force or strategy, and he is more a m» 
than a Robert Macaire who shares nothing at all and makes the 

Each kind of animal may have its parasites and coromensa^ 
and each animal may have even different kinds and various 
gories of them. ^_______ 



larvae, my attention was called to an interesting feature in the 
distribution of the thoracic portion of the main tracheae and their 
stigmatal branches. In the larva of Sphinx and of Platytamia 

larvae, there are nine pairs of spiracles, or stigmata, of which 
eight are abdominal, there being a pair to each first eight seg- 
ments of the abdomen; while there is but one pair of thoracic 
spiracles, which are invariably, so far as I am aware, situated on 
the prothoracic segment. On laying open the body of a Sphinx 
larva a large number of branches are seen to arise from the pro- 
thoracic and basal, or first pair of abdominal spiracles. Now 
between these two points it will be remembered that there are no 
spiracles or any external signs of them. And yet the main tra- 
chea between these two spiracles deviates from its course and 
bends down to send off a small trachea to the place where, did a 
spiracle exist, we should look for it, i.e., to a point in the suture 
between the mesothoraeic and metathoracic segments, where in 
bymenopterous larva a spiracle does exist. From the upper side 
of the main trachea two larger branches are sent towards the 
kterior of the body. These apparently correspond with the num- 
^OM branches sent off from the spiracles. 

In Platysamia cecropia the same disposition of the main tra- 
chea may be seen, as it bends out in the same way towards the 
Us «al site of the spiracle in other groups of insects, and throws 
°«" three branches, one outward towards the tegument, small, and 
apparently rudimentary, while the two others, directed inwards, 
are larger than in Sphinx. 

This has led me to ascertain how the spiracles are distributed 
ln r ot -ber groups of insects, and what is their usual number. 

hLle in the lepidopterous larvae there is but one pair of stig- 
Tnata ' "'bicli are situated on the prothoracic, or first thoracic, seg- 



532 

ment, in the larvae of the higher Ilymonoptera, i.e., the bees and 
wasps (I have examined Borabus, Xylocopa, Hal ictus, Amlrcna. 
Vespa and Polistes), there are no spiracles on the prothorax, but 
a pair on each of the two following thoracic segments. In all 
these the thoracic spiracles are :b will developed as those on the 
abdomen, and in Bombus larvae the tracheae proceeding from the 
spiracles are as well developed, being large and elongate barrel- 
shaped just after leaving the stigmata, and beyond subdividing 
into several branches. In two genera of Tcnthrediuida?, and prob- 
ably in the family generally, the spiracles are arranged as in the 
lepidopterous larvae, there being but one pair, the prothoracic. 
In the Uroceridae, however, Trcmex in its larval state has two 
pairs, one prothoracic and one metathoracic, the anterior pair twice 
as large as the posterior pair. So it would seem .that while no 

on the thorax, yet three pairs may be found on different rings u» 
different groups, though not actually existing in one indrw ■ 
The ideal number of pairs is throe, or for the entire body eleven. 
In the Diptera the Ocidomyhe have nine pairs of rtfe***^ 
which one is thoracic (on the prothorax), while the eig 
pairs are abdominal. In the Muscidae, there are two P airs ^ n j; 
one prothoracic, the other anal, or situated on the ninth ^ 
of the abdomen. So that in this group we have ten se a 
which bear spiracles, though no single species is known 
more than nine pairs of spiracles. ne 

In the Coleoptera there are usually nine pairs of 8 P^y 
thoracic, and eight abdominal. The thoracic spiracles are^^^^ 
on the pro- or meso-thoracic segment.* In the adult ^ ^ 
and other beetles Strauss shows that a spiracle exist- betw^ ^ 
meso- and meta-thorax, which is not present in the Ian 
be so, then the ideal number of pairs in Coleoptera is ten - f 

In the Hemiptera and Orthopteraf there are two p» ^ 
thoracic spiracles present on the two anterior s a ^ — 



DISTRIBUTION OF SPIKACLES IN INSECTS. 533 

in the Ncuroptera* there are the same number, but none on the 
1 o 1 \ 

In the larva of Corydalus cornutus there is a pair of spiracles 
on tl i tl o \ I t tl sy are no larger than those on the basal 
segment of the abdomen. It is difficult to say whether they are 
situated on the protlioraric or mesothoracic segment, but I am 
inclined to regard them as placed on the extreme hind edge of 
the prothoracic ring. 

A curious fact may be here mentioned, as I have not seen it 
noticed before, regarding the distribution of the trachea* in the 
larva of Corydalus. The main trachea' suddenly enlarge from the 
second abdominal spiracle to the base of the head, when it sub- 
divides and distributes branches to the head. From the spiracle 
on the basal abdominal segment a trachea, as large as the an- 
terior swollen portion of the main trachea, takes its origin and 
Passes directly under the main trachea. Now both trachea? send 
a branch opposite to where the mesothoracic stigma should be, if 
present, i.e., on the hind edge of the ring. Both branches of the 
tir«che«, the main one and its fellow, anastomose perfectly over 
' to the prothoracic spiracle. 



This 



ubling of the trachea?, which are so very large, forms 



evidently an hydrostatic, 
to lighten the anterior and 
Elated air sacs of the 
sustain the view of Gegei 
dosed, forming- ftir-hl«A1*, 



Probably 



3 respiratory, orga 
■ portion of the bo 



Did a 

be found on the bodies of any one spe- 
cies of the groups of insects above mentioned, yet that eleven 
segments of the body, in different species taken collectively, bear 
bem - Now if we turn to the Thysanurous genus Campodea, we 
Sha11 fin( l on the authority of Meinert that it bears spiracles on 
each thoracic segment. From this fact we are inclined to regard 

ie normal primitive number of pairs of spiracles. 

i larvae of the different groups of winged insects had 
01 '»ginally a pair on each thoracic segment. Certainly at least on 
e -Igl^^a^roun^s from t||e jndicat jonsjn existing caterpillars 



GEOGRAPHICAL VARIATION IX NORTH 
AMERICAN BIRDS.* 



Probably the birds of no equal area of the earth's surface are 
better known than those of North America north of Mexico, or of 
the whole continent southward even to the Isthmus of Panama. 
No museums in the world, probably, possess so large suites o 
specimens of single species as there are of North American birds 
in the Museum of the Smithsonian Institution and in the Museum 
of Comparative Zoology, nor from so many localities. In IMD ? 
instances single species are represented by hundreds of specimen 
collected at frequent intervals throughout their know ™"^' 
Those contained in the Smithsonian Institution 1 



by Prof. Baird and others 






them have justly acquired a world-wide reputation toi 
oughness and accuracy. Those in the Museum of Compara 
Zoology have also been carefully studied. , at 

Briefly, then, what are the facts and the general .-'.My 
have followed the investigation of this exceptionally hu\u ■' : < 
of material ? What are the allowable inferences, and »lu>t .-' '■' 
principles have been apparently established? To answer tr" cc 




the series of Gove 



his Bobseqaent war 


ks have furnished m 


variation with loca 


lity, but instead of 


tie connecting thes 


e phenomena as the 


w ere viewed as ev 


idences of specific < 


ences are, indeed, s 


:o great between mai 


to intergrade that 1 


it is not surprising 




hen known from on 


ently unconnected 1 


by intermediate fonr 


u ,1:l s been found 


that they are not ti 


mediate forms so 


linking them togetl 



'g'K'ly diagnosed. These connecting links, inhabiting — at 
ca l position and in climatic conditions to those frequented by the 

differentiation mainh or wholly through climatic influence, or 
he diverse conditions of environment. 

Latitudinal variation presents the following phenomena, which 
re of sueh general occurrence that even the exceptions, if such 



536 GEOGRAPHICAL VARIATION IN NORTH AMERICAN BIRDS. 

1. As regards Size. There is a general reduction in the size of 
the individual from the north southward, amounting not unfre- 
quently to as high as ten to fifteen per cent, of the maximum size 
of the species. The reduction is much greater in some species, 
and in some groups of species, than in others, but is almost inva- 
riably considerate and easily recognizable. 

2. In respect to the Bill. The variation of the bill is somewhat 
inverse to that of the general .size, as a rule the southern forms 
having generally relatively, and often absolutely, larger bills 
than northern ones, the increased size taking different proportions 
in different species and dim-rent styles of bill. Those of a stout, 
thick, conical form generally increase in general size, but espe- 
cially in thickness. "" Those of a slender, attenuate form become 
slenderer ami relatively longer at the southward, with a decidedly 
greater tendency to curvature. 

3. In respect to the Claws. A similar increase in size is appar- 
ent in the claws, especially in that of the hallux, at southern 
localities, perhaps less marked and less general than the increas 
of the bill, with which it evidently correlates. 

4. In respect to the Tail. A marked elongation of the tail a 
the southward has been noticed in many cases, both in Cape 
Lucas birds (Baird) and in those of Florida. 

5. In respect to Color. The differences in color are especia^ 
obvious, and may be reduced to two phases of m° dificatl °° : ~ 
(a) a general increase in intensity at the southward and (>>•■ 
increase in the extent of duskv or black markings at the exp 
of the intervening lighter or white ones; or, conversely, «*, 
duction in size of white spots and bars. Under the g e 
increase in intensity the iridescence ot lustiou specie J 
greater, and fuscous, pluml 
tints are heightened in specie 
Under the repression of lig 
ings and spots on the wings and tail become more or i*«» *" ^,; v 
and frequently to a great degree, in species barred tran- . 
with light and dark colors ; the dark burs widen at the *>* 

at the expense of the white or lighter ones, "^"JJJ Lj** 



nil streaks and blotches o 
Dtensity of color. 



. : 



In respect to Ion „it. iinal variat m. tin 1 ferences appear to be 
mainly those of color, and to hold a direct relationship to the hu- 
midity of the climate. On the arid plains of the middle and 
western portions of the continent the annual rainfall is less than 
half that of the eastern half of the continent, white a rainy belt 
occurs on the Pacific coast, stretching northward from near the 
mouth of the Columbia River to Alaska, over which the annual 
rainfall is double that of any portion of the eastern half of the 
continent. Taking the species that present a nearly continental 
range, we find that almost invariably they pass gradually into the 
pallid forms of the interior at the eastern edge of the arid plains, 
the greatest pallor being developed in the driest regions, as the 
peninsula of Lower California and the almost rainless belt along 
the Colorado River, and northward along the eastern hase of the 
Sierra Nevada Mountains ; that on the Pacific slope they again 
reassume nearly the tints of the eastern form, but more to the 
northward, over the above-mentioned rainy region, they acquire 
a depth of color far in excess of what the species presents in the 
Atlantic region. This coincidence of bright and pale tints, with 
the relative humidity of the locality is certainly suggestive, if not 
demonstrative, of the relation of cause and effect between these 
two phenomena, since the same rule is traceable, over large por- 
tions, at least, of the Old World ; the Scandinavian forms, for 
instance, being darker colored than the conspecific races of Cen- 
tral Europe, and these again darker than those of Northern 
Africa and the adjacent regions. Humidity alone, or in con- 
junction with greater intensity of light, seems equally well to 
account for the increase of color to the southward. Yet, from the 
well known bleaching effect of sunlight, intensified by reflection, 
u Pon the colors of animals living upon sandy islands, and sea- 
beaches, and desert interior regions, it seems doubtful whether the 
!arger share of modification in intensity of color in birds may not 
be due to humidity alone, or to humidity and a high temperature 
together, rather than to intensity of light,* 

In regard to the enlargement of peripheral parts at the south- 
ward, it seems not unreasonable to suppose that the increase of 
temperature in stimulating the circulation in these exposed mem- 
o's may have something to do with if. especially in view of the 



idence afforded by mammals, wh; 



good also for sub-farailies. In cosmopolitan genera, families, etc 
the tropical species are almost always brighter colored than the 
extra-tropical ones. All the most gorgeously colored families of 



In respect to the mil. with very few exceptions, all long 4 ; 
forms attain the highest development of this member witbu 



formerly regarded as Bpec 5 dil evi,liu '^ 

quire modifications of the hitherto accepted nomenclature. - 



admittedly of less than specific rank. Mo 



i...-. . ■ , ■ , , . ' . ' -■•■•-'■ : 'i , - : '-" 



vegetation and the earth itself in sneh localities; yet. a 
semblance of the birds of tbese arid districts when yom 
fresh plumage to those of the adjoining regions at the sum 
is much greater, as u general rule, than at the end of the 
season, we i mve thus palpable evidence of the direct mot 

the intenser and darker shades of the iridescence of the 
on the breast of the southern form of Ortyx Virgininnm <•: 






•ister ones. On the c 
general modification over w 



540 GEOGRAPHICAL VARIATION IN NORTII AMERICAN BIRDS. 

the reverse than otherwise of what is commonly supposed to lie 
the result of sexual selection. 

Freely admitting, however, that both natural selection and sex- 
ual selection are causes of modification in the gradual differentia- 
tion of animals, I am led to regard them as secondary rather than 
primary elements, and that climate and other environing condi- 
tions take a larger share in the work than the majority of evolu- 
tionists seem willing to admit. Evidently no single law will 
explain all the phases of modification by descent, and in addition 
to those above alluded to, doubtless what Hyatt and Cope, among 
?rican zoologists, have termed the laws of acceleration and re- 



• 



among the other causes of the i 



birds, even, phenomena are apparent that cannot be strictly ad- 
mitted into the category of geographical or climatic variations, 
but seem singularly to combine some evident features of this char- 
in respect to coloration, of allied intergrading forms, as occurs in 
some of the birds of the middle portion of the North American 
continent as compared with those of the eastern portion. Again, 
in respect to insular regions, while the above mentioned general 
laws of climatic variation arc there evident, certain other excep- 
tional modifications obtain, that seem specially to characterize 

A word, in conclusion, respecting hybridity : —When compara- 
tively few instances were known, in which specimens combined in 
various degrees the characters of two quite distinct forms, their 
synthetic character was generally explained by the theory of hy- 
bridity ; but the irrefragability of the evidence now at hand m 
proof of the intergradation of such forms over large area*H* 
transition being so gradual as to occupy hundreds of miles in «* 
passage,— and also coincident with a similarly gradual change* 
the conditions of environment, together with the demonstrable 
evidence of the power of climatic influence, seems to furnish a 
more satisfactory explanation of these perplexing phenomena- 
But an advocate of the theory of hybridity might still assume t »• 
this gradual transition over' -i wide area is 116 objection tot 
theory, since the gradual fading out of the impression of eontft* 
habitats of two : Id be anticipate^ 



the forms in question. ] 
anting the po:»ibihty of 
, which seems realh impr 



entiation can be can scarcely he 

supposed to account for the gradual change. Furthermore, grad- 
ual diiieivntiation is now known in so many cases that it amounts 
to tbe demonstration of climatic variation as a general law, by 
means of which a species may he saf'eh predicted to take on a 
given character under certain specific climatic conditions. If the 
theory of hybridity be urged to account for the intergradation of 
forms occurring at localities differently situated in respect to lati- 
tude, as has sometimes been done, it evidently falls under the 
Wright it has to support ; and yet there seems to be little better 
evidence in its behalf in cases where the intergrading forms 
happen to be differently situated in respect to longitude. 

To describe in detail, or even to give illustrations, of geograph- 
ical modification would require more space than would be proper 
to use in this connection, especially since a preliminary- exposition 
of the facts upon which the -ions have been 

based, has already been presented in two papers in the Bulletin 
of the Museum of Comparative Zoology (Vol. ii, No. 3, April, 
iSTl, and Vol. iii, No. G, June, 1872). 



REVIEWS AND BOOK NOTICES. 
Recent publications on Ornithology. — Like the pages of the 
Naturalist with which our readers are of course sufficiently fa- 
miliar, recent issues of nearly all our scientific institutions show 
notable activity in ornithology, and a number of papers have 
accumulated on our table. In the Philadelphia Academy's Pro- 
ceedings, Mr. Thos. G. Gentry has described peculiarities in the 
Edifications of Sayornis fuscus (1873, p. 292) and Vireo solitarius 
(op. cit., 354) ; Mr. B. R. Hoopes has published a new variety, 
Knderi, of Buteo borealis (op. cit., 238, pi. 5) from Iowa, a pale 
r ace of the dry interior, apparently as distinct as some others now 
currently recognized. In the Boston Society's Proceedings (xvi, 



' BOOK NOTICES. 

ontinued the development of Lt. 

Carpodacus Cassiuii which should, we believe, stand as C frontalis, 
and that of "Myiadestes Tovnsendii;' an evident slip of the pen 
for Phcenopepla nitens. 

lociddce (Pr. B. S. N. II. X vi, pt. ii), in which" he takes the ground 

with that now commonly accepted by ornithologists, who reduce 

witli the mode in which the several Conns are handled in the late 
work of Messrs. liaird, Brewer and Rid<nvay. 

The important business of cataln-uine: the Boston Society's eol- 

by Mr. R. Rid'gway, who has gone ear-fully over the series of 
Raptores, identifviim the specimens and naniiii" - them upon Ms 
protracted and favorably known studies of this group. His paper 
(Pr. Bost. Soc. xvi, 1873, -Hi), though simplv a catalogue, becomes 
at once an authority, and places the collection upon a more satisfac- 
tory basis than it has hitherto rested upon. We wish that arrange- 
ments could be made for him to go over the Philadelphia Acad- 
eme Ravtores i lik« ™ ;t ; Q „ ™™ durable piece* 



graphs of the genera Miei 



st notable of | 
•of. Baird's m 



of Messrs. Baird, Brewer and Ridgway. partly in courteous aceom- 
modation of ourselves, in order that the names might heroine 
available for our "Check List," then in press. Some twenty-five 
new names are proposed all together, mostly varietal. 

Mr. Ridgway's fourth and fifth papers are* local lists of the Birds 
of, respectively, Colorado and the Salt Lake Valley. The first of 

gether with the large amount of material gathered by, more par- 
ticularly, Mr. C. E. Aiken ; it comprehends the birds of the whole 
territory. The last named may be regarded as in some measures 
complementary to Mr. J. A. Allen's recent 'Reconnoissance' (Bull. 
1872), Mr Ridgway's investigations having 
May until August, while Mr. Allen's were 

knowledge of the presence and movements of the species within 
the region mentioned. 

In evidence of the great activity of research at present in the 
southwest, may be instanced an additional local list by Mr. II. W. 
Henshaw, giving a resume of the ornithological results of his sea- 
son's connection with the Wheeler Explorations west of the 100th 
meridian. The ground covered is partlv what we went over in 
1864-65, which has been latterly reworked by Lt. Bendire, U.S.A. 
The list is confined to Mr. Henshaw's own observations, and may 
be regarded as perfectly reliable, not only in the identifications of 
the species, now contained in his beautiful collection, but in the 
Nervations upon their movements and relative frequency. 

Returning to Mr. Ridgway's contributions to ornithology, we 
have next to note an important paper (Ann. Lye. X. Y. x, 1874, 
3c -i) upon the birds of Illinois, with one exception the first article 
bearing upon the whole subject. Mr. R, II. Holder's paper 
(Trans. 111. Agric. Soc. iv. 1859-60, 005 ; 247 species, minus 
tvv <> not valid) was a simple enumeration, and, though excellent 
as far as it went, lacked the essential qualifications of discrim- 
inating the several categories of residents, migrants and strag- 
g lf> rs. Kennicott's contributions (op. eft., i, 580 ; 187 species) 
w ere confined to Cook county, and to a supplement of 22 species 
to Henry Pratten's list of the Birds of Wayne and Edwards 
counties (184 B p. -J- 22=206 ; op. eft., 596) with the addition of 
Wotusanhinga and Tauhduxl cukttnr (Pr. Bost. Soc. v, 1856,391). 

Uh to* exception of a paper which we have not seen, by F. 



Messrs. Jordan and Van Vlieck publish at Appleton, Wise, in 
small 4to, a Popular Key to the Birds, Reptiles and Fishes of the 
Northern States. When the emended edition of this praiseworthy 
endeavor to unlock this portion of our fauna to students is is- 
sued — we understand a revision is contemplated — we trust we 
may be authorized by the merits of the publication to speak of it 
more highly than we can at present. 

Though somewhat foreign to our present purpose, reference in 
this connection to Prof. Reinharclt's continued studies on the 
osteology of Water-birds (Aft. Vid. Medd. Nat. For. Kjob., 1873, 
123) may not be wholly out of place, as we are convinced of the 
particularly important bearing such investigations have upon the 
classification of the future. In the late paper referred to, the 
wing-structure of Procellariiihc is treated with reference to the 
presence of the one or two supplementary ossicles of the elbow- 
joint, developed in connection with the " apophyse crochue" of 
the humerus, and the origin of the extensor metacarpilongus and 
extensor plicae alaris (tensor patigii of some authors). He finds 
the bones in six genera and not in eight ; but as the sis are 
richer in species, it is present in about two-thirds the species o 
the family. They are peculiar to the family, though other Long* 
pennes, as well as AlcidaB and Limicola have the humeral hook. 
He points out their function, and proposes to divide the group 
primarily upon them. — Elliott Coues. 

History op North American Birds.*— The annomceXae ^l 






a work on the ornithology of North America, by the 
gentlemen, is in itself a guarantee of its interest and 
value ; and the three volumes now published fully satisfy sucn e 
pectations. or . 

A work of this character, always welcome, is pal tic il ! v I ; 
tune at this time, as the need of a comprehensive " Hlst ,^ of 
North American Birds " has long been felt. For nearly a mm 
a century from the publication of Audubon's " Birds of An* ^ 
in 1844, until the present year, no such book has appeared-! ^ 
long ago as 1858, the numerous Government expeditions^^ 



Reports. This was almost entirely technical, and limited to clas- 
sification and description. Since this date many new species have 
been discovered and much additional information acquired, which 
find expression here, together with a resume of everything of 
value previously published. The typography is all that could be 
desired, and misprints are noticeably few in number. The illus- 
trations are excellent, and comprise a full length figure and out- 
lines of the bill, wing, and foot of at least one species of each 
genus ; and sixty-four plates representing the head, for the most 
part of life size, of each species. Volume I begins with an intro- 
duction giving the general an M its of Aves, and 
their classification. Under the first family, or Turdidae, are in- 
cluded sixteen species and seven varieties. Two only (T. Pallasi, 
with var. nanus and var. Autluboni, and T. Swainsoni with var. 
wtulatus) are found from ocean to ocean, being modified in certain 
regions as above. Turdus conjinis is united to migratorius as a 
variety ; and T. iliacus of Europe is admitted into our fauna, hav- 
ing been twice obtained in Greenland. 

Harporhynchus Lecontei and longirostris are given as varieties 
respectively of 11. miiciens and rufus. Phyllopneuste Kennicotti 
Baird is a synonyme of P. borealis Blasius, the latter name having 
priority; it is a Northeastern Asian species, accidental in Alaska 
and perhaps in Europe (Heligoland). Saxicola amanthe is now 
recognized as by no means rare in the northern parts of our con- 
tinent, where it seems to become more abundant yearly. Begulus 
Cuvieri Aud. is included ; a second specimen, together with the 
ne sts and eggs of the two common species, are still desiderata. 
The Parinae comprise twelve species and three varieties, of which 



tlie hatter i 



- 



Uricnpillus. Sitta includes three species only, 
ln g given as a variety of Carolinensis, and pygmcea (III, 502) 
M "probably a geographical form of S.pusilla." Our Creepers 
are rc garded as Certhia familiar is var. Americana and var. Mex- 
ican*. Here, as in many other parts of the present work, the 
tendency to unite as races the closely allied forms of Europe and 
y°rth America is shown, and, in our estimation at least, most 
Judiciously. i n regard to the present species we can say from 
careful personal nh«Pr™t;rm C that thp habits and notes (including 



the "very distinct and varied song") are almost precisely iden- 
tical both in this country and in Europe. 

Thryothorus Berlondieri is united to Liidovicianus as a variety; 
and Troglodytes Parkmanni with oedon. T. 4»iericanMS And. is 
stated to be aecZon "in dark, accidentally soiled plumage. T. 
hyemaUs and Alascensis are lm\cii a- geographical races of the 
European T. parvulus. Motacilla alba of Europe, like Tardus 
iliacus, has been twice obtained in Greenland, and more frequently 
in Iceland, and is therefore described. A third common European 
species, Anthus jtratensis, has also been procured in Greenland, 
and more recently in Alaska. 

Pages 177-32o are devoted to the Sylvicolidse, and form a very 
interesting section. Fifty-two species and three varietur Ml 
enumerated, the genus Dendroica claiming twenty -three species. 
Geothlypis Macgillivrayi receives a distinct article on pp. 303-305; 
but on p. 297, and also in the appendix (III, 507), it is stated to 
be a geographical race of (,'. Philadelphia. 

Jcteria longicauda is given as a western form of virens. Thirteen 
species of Vireo, with three varieties V. rjilvus var. Swinsoni; V. 
solitarius var. Cavsini, and plumbaus) arc described. On pp. 36 
and 364, V. olivaceus is stated to have occurred in England j W 
it is somewhat questionable whether the specimen obtained was 
not V. altiloquus* 

The number of North American shrikes has been reduce d o 
two, Collurio borealis and C. Lndovicianus, with var. robus^ 
( = elegans, Baird nee Swainson) and var. exenbitoroides. On PP- 
426-428 is given a synopsis of the Certhiolce, several of ^ 
(besides C. Bahamensis) may very possibly occur as straggK" 
the southern extremity of Florida. -^ 

Pyranga Cooperi Bidgway, is united to P. auttiva, and «*J * 
grosbeak to Pinicola enucleator of Europe. Pyrrhula Cassiru 
is "a well marked and distinct species/' and not a variety*^ 
European P. coccinea; it is a Siberian species accidental in- ' 
and has been once obtained in Belgium. ^"■ m( ' 1 '" t ' J "'' ; .>.|, 
Mexiccina are united to curvirotira « vnrieties, and I 

are separated as "entirely disuuet 

d Arctic America^ 



'.A., with var. U>.lhW of Creonland 
N. A. in winter; III. .1. jlanmstria 
var. Breirsteri. Lexcostirte griseinncha is united to te ph roods as 
a variety, as are throe others, eampestris Hand, littoralis lJaird, 
and (III, 509) australis Allen. The validity of Passerridns 
princeps Maynard, as di-t inguished from Centmnyx Bairdi, is eon- 
firmed. Passerculus alaudinus, Sumbrirh, nsis, and uuthhnts are 
considered to be geographical forms of P. tawnna; and P. guttata* 
is united to mv/;Ti/, s . I n the Appendix (III, . r >13), speaking of 
the fact that Coturniculus Lecontei is intermediate between r. 
flcjiWojn" and .-l/Hworfra/HHS camlacntnn. Prof, liaird remarks that 
"this renders it necessary to unite Ammodromus and Coturnieulus 
into one genns, recognizing them as subgenera, definable chiefly 
by the different style of coloration of the supei s lfU e i the 
tv.o groups," the name Ammodromus having priority. 

In the same appendix, p. 51G, the capture in California of a 
specimen intermediate between Passe reiki iliaca and Toicnsendi is 
said to render it "extremely probable that all the known forms of 
this genus are but geographical races of one species." 

To Melosj lettes. Alauda arvenstM 

ai »«l Bermuda ; and it has also been introduced in the vicinity of 
^'e\v York City, apparently with success. Eremnphila cornuta 
u appears to be absolutely identical " with E. alpestris of Europe, 
^hieh latter name has priority. Sturnella neglecta is united to 
• s - magna as a western race. 

Sturnus vulgaris, having been once obtained in Greenland, is 
'"^ided. The raven of North America is considered to be a race 
°f the European C. corax. Another judicious change is the re- 
P * TLtchonkawd Xuttalli to P. caudata as varieties ; 
A "''" 7 '' bang regarded as a local aberrant form of Hxdsonivo, 
l,iif; 'nng ehietlv in its vellow bill. The difficult family of Tyran- 
nic receives a careful and interesting review. Contopus Richard- 
«oni is given as virens, var. ; and Empidonax Tradli as pusilbts, 
Va r- Chordeiles Henryi is considered to be a western form of C. 
Popetue. 

^f humming birds ten species are described, including the 
doubtful Thaumatias Linncei. Lampornis mango is mentioned in 
a foot note only. 



The number of valid species of woodpeckers has been consid- 
erably reduced, only twenty-three being enumerated, including 
Oolaptes hybridw, and o imperiodU as extra- 

limital. Picus Can<<A< n.s/.s, Harrisi and Auduboni are united to # 
Josus as varieties : Oairdn^n' with pubescens; Picoides Americans 
with tridactylns of Europ ■ <<V.s and ?•//&<?)' with 

varius. On p. 588, vol II, speaking of Comrrus Curolinenti* ami 
the singular confusion, still existing in regard to its breeding habits, 
etc., Prof. Baird remarks that i4 in view of their very limited area 
and rapid diminution in numbers, there is little doubt but that 
their total extinction is only a matter of years, perhaps to be con- 
summated within the lifetime of persons now living." 

The third volume begins with the Raptores, the systematic por- 
tion of which is by Mr. Ridgway. Here, again, many of the 
allied boreal forms of North America and Europe are united as 
geographical races of the same species, and in our opinion wit 
great justice.* Fifteen species of owls are enumerated. It seems 
to be definitely settled that Nyctale albifrons Cassin is the young 
of N. Acadica. Three principal varieties of Scops asio are given: 
Floridana, MaccjilH and KennkottL The dimorphic condition o 
this species and Glaucidium ferrugineum (as well as other extra- 
limital species) is well compared to the melanistic state of cer 
hawks, in the one case reddish, in the other a more or less eep 
sooty brown being the color. Spheotyto hypogcea of Nora an^ 
Central America is given as a race of S. cunicularia of bou 

The Falconidse comprise thirty-one species. The same gen 
rule applies to the allied races of hawks as well as owls of W^ 
as compared with those of North America, namely, that i 
latter the size is greater and the color much darker. Thw ^ 
division is particularly interesting, many new frets '- 1 ' ''-'_, 
the breeding habits, etc., of these birds, brought to hg ^ 

eral recent travellers in the Northwest, being p 
the first time. The synonymy of the North Americanjef^^ 



551 

is given as follows: — I. Falco (Hierofalco) gyrfalco Linn., var. 
canclkans Gni. ( = Groenlandicus Daud.) of Greenland, wandering 

into Europe and North America; II. var. Islnndieus Sabine, of 
Europe, Iceland, Greenland and North America; III. var. sneer, 
Forster, of interior of continental Arctic America ; IV. var. Lath 
radora And. 

On page 254, a figure of the curious Onychotcs ( 
is given. Buteo ofyptents is united to Simitisnni, and II. chgnns 
to linecdus. The American rough-legged hawks (excepting the 
western Archibuteo fcrruginens) arc given as one species, and that 
a variety (Sancti-johannis) of the European A. lagojms ; the me- 
lanistic condition being now correctly regarded as a frequent 
though purely individual peculiarity, like albinism. Kalinins al- 

Greenland. On page 329 it is stated that '* the 'bird of Wash- 
ington' of Audubon was, without the least doubt, a very large 
immature female (of the bald eagle) in about the second year." 
It is to be hoped that this question is now finally settled. 

The true Meleagris gallopavo is described as inhabiting the 
eastern province of North America, with var. Mexieana found 
from Texas and Arizona south into Mexico. The latter race is 
now considered to be the origin of the domesticated turkey. 

Canace Frankiini is united to Canadensis as a variety ; C.fuli- 
ginosus and Bichardsoni to obscums; and Bonasa umbelloides and 
Sabini to umbellus. Three species of Ptarmigan arc enumerated : 
— I. Lagopus mutus var. rupestris of Arctic America, Greenland 
and Iceland ; II. L. cdbus, common to Europe and North America ; 
III. L. leucurus of Northwest America. Audubon's L. Ameri- 
cans is united to the first species. 

In the Appendix are given a number of new facts in regard to 
the habits, distribution, and synonymy of species previously con- 
sidered, and one or two new species are added, as Harporhynchus 
Bendirei Coues, Setojyhaga picta, Feuccea carpalis Cones, etc. It 
may here be remarked that while certain species are noted as hav- 
ln g been obtained in Europe, as Galeoscoptes Carolinensis, Den- 
droica virens, F, lera, ShameOa magna, etc., 

similar mention is made of others whose claims to such notice are 
equally good, as Tardus migrator, us, Coccygus Americanus, Kar- 
Porhynchys rufus, I! guJus ea , n lula, and a few others. A glos- 
sary of technical terms closes the volume. 



In concluding this imperfect sketch we would only add that for 
years this will be the standard work on the ornithology of North 
America, and that the volume or volumes on "Water Birds" will 
be looked for with much interest by students and others interested 
in the birds of our country.— J. S. Merrill. 



BOTANY. 

Distribution of Alpine Plants.— M. De ( 1 He lei 1 
at the late Botanical Congress at Florence a communication on 
the causes of the distribution of rare plants on the Alps. The 
author (M. De Candolle) explained that the preglacial Alpine 
flora was not able to exert a great influence on the existing 
flora, inasmuch as the great changes which took place during the 
glacial period had necessarily swept away this ancient vegeta ion. 
He could not agree with those who considered the Alps as a cen i 
of diffusion of a special flora, but believed them rather to be 
refuge ground for the plants, which, as the glaciers retired, i^ 
found conditions more favorable to their existence than in 1 
lower clown. In proof of this he observed that the richest parts K 
the Alps for rare plants are those which were soonest depri 
glaciers, the ground having been thus cleared for the 
of a more ancient flora, of which these rare plants a 
The southern, the eastern, and the western slopes of 1 



:•■ 



.vely cleared of the principal gl: 



>su-;-A:; 



received their flora first from the south, and then from trie < ' 
west. The author then asks, "Why should the plant, >**■» 
the glaciers retreat, and why should there be greater van^ 
this advancing vegetation?" In preglacial times there *J*_| 
moisture in the climate of Europe, and consequently the flora 
richer and more varied. After a time the climate became** 
and as the glaciers retired many plants were able tom ^ ca] 
themselves by advancing gradually over the ground as it ^ 

for their growth. Hence one can deduce the law that the rtf ^ 
and variety of Alpine floras depend on the antiquity o 



e facts. 



When, for instance, a rare species is to be found i 



atural to suppose tha 
5 ground, and that tl 
id divided it into tv 
md how M. De Cand 



that in Asia .Minor h 
ch could help to expla 



Alpine plants.— Journal of Botany. 

Amount of Water Contained in the DiFFDMirr Tauts or a 
Plant.— At the same meeting M. Galeznoff gave the result of his 
researches in calculating the amount of water contained in the 
different parts of a plant. Bv dividing a trunk into a number of 
pieces from the base upwards, he found invariably that the quantity 

four species studied by him, lie [band J'nw.s trylvestrti contained 

most moisture in the trunk, and Acer the least. Betula and Pop- 
^us tremula were intermediate. In Finns the bark is drier than 
t] ie wood, and in Acer more moist. In Betula it is drier in the 
Wl "ter and spring, and more watery in summer and autumn. The 
contrary takes place in the case of the poplar. In the branches 
the same law holds good but their bases are drier than the por- 
tion of the trunk from which they take their rise ; and the petioles 
are more waterv than the leaves. In the flowers, the perianth, 
the filaments and the styles contain more water than the anthers. 
-Journal of Botany. 

ZOOLOGY. 

^Recent Researches on Termites and Stingless Honey-dees. 
The aeeompanvinjr letter, just received from Fritz Midler, in 
80 «thern Brazil, is so intere>tii - that it appears to me well worth 
Publishing in " Nature." His discovery of the two sexually ma- 
ture for ms of Termites, and of their habits, is now published in 
Germany ; nevertheless few Englishmen will have as yet seen the 



In the Germ- compares, as far as function is 

concerned, the winged males and females of the one form, and 
the wingless males and females of the second form, with IfcMi 
plants which produce flowers of two forms, serving different ends, 
of which so excellent an account, by his brother, Hermann Muller, 
has lately appeared in " Nature." 

The facts, also, given by Fritz Muller with respect to the sting- 
less bees of Brazil, will surprise and interest entomologists.- 
Chakles Darwin. 

» For some years I have been engaged in studying the natural 
history of onr Termites, of which I have had more than a iK* 
living species at my disposition. The several species differ much 
more in their habits and in their anatomy than is generally as- 
sumed. In most species there are two sets of nentew, % 
laborers and soldiers ; but in some species (Caloi 
laborers, and in others (Anoplotermes F. M.) the soldiers, are 
wanting. With respect to these neuters I have come to the sa 
conclusion as that arrived ; ,t by Mn Bates, viz., that, different^ 
from what we see in social Ilymenoptera, they are not morliMa 
imagos (sterile females), but modified larva-, ■ 
further metamorphosis. This accounts for the fact first obsenw 
by Lespes, that both the sexes are represented among the a i 
(or.o-eMli.d neuter) Tennis. In .on,,, sp,, ies of Calotemes the 
male soldiers may even i iguished tro 

female ones. I have been able to confirm, in almost an 
species, the fact air, ady oh.cned by Mr. M- 
ago, but doubted by most subsequent 
of the queen there live, always a king. I 
•'■ ■ 



• ly of these c 



Lall}"^ 






species. Besides the winged males and females, 
duced in vast numbers, and which, leaving the ten 
swarms, may interem-vs with iho-e produced in othe 
there are wingless males and females which never leave m^ 
itary where they are born, and which replace the win ° e( . a true 
females, whenever a community does not lind 
king or queen. Once I found a king (of a speci 
; company with as many as thirty-one such 
led, "instead of with 
queen. Termites would, no doubt, save an exti 
of laboi if, insti id ol ra simj< one illy up ' ' " 

and females, almost all of which (helph 



%Z 



^ able t< 

' raised solely a few~wingless males and fen 
langer, might remain in their native termri 
not admit the paramount importance ot 



f coarse, iroi i [action I by 



onal cells, and so. I think. h:is .Melipona. The genera Apis an 
Melipona may even have separated from a common progenito 
before wax was used in the construction of the cells; for in hiv. 
bees, as is well known, wax is secreted on the ventral side: i 
Melipona on the c«>n(r:irv, as I have seen, on the dorsal side < 

when once established, should have migrated from the ventral t 
the dorsal side, or vice versa. 
The queen of the hi\v-bee 11 x t ■ -> her eggs on the bottom of th 

empty cells; the larva' are fed by the laborers at first with sem 

gd only when tl i are closed. Th 

Mehpomv and Trigone, on the contrary, till the cells with scm 
digested food l id, and they shut the cell 



ZOOLOGY. 

largest being about the size i !' ! 



in winch 1 have unserved the con,,! ruction of the combs, the by::.. 

of some more species. Some of our species are so elegant and 

beautiful and so extremely interesting, that they would beamost 



nor do I think 

Europe and the 
_ If it be of so 


that i 


apiary.-^ 


alio 




The Eur 

giving Nvha 
altogether v 


T. 


N Hoi 

ally s< 



what I 


aayobser 


•e inmy Meliponi 


IHOTT.- 


-I regret 


verv much that s 


nformed 


as Dr. C 


Dues, should aid in 


tions co 


npel me t 


) believe to bean 




to the h 


use sparrow, P lv 


:!,!!;;.',, 


is now a 


Dr. Cones admit- 
m the beginning. 
es ; he was always 
jparently only too 



this is too important a question to be thus dismissed, esp*Wl 
by a gentleman like Dr. Cones, who has enjoyed no opportunity 
of knowing from his own observations whether the opinions be is 



nia, Mr. Gei 
ise sparrow i 



sed to being driven off it would be our 
arrow. Before we bad tbeir European < 
nlly known as a visitant to our city. B 
undant, in tbeir season, and wbat is very 
t and keep company witb tbe European, 
summer, 3-011 may see the bouse sparr 
arrow feeding together in close proximity 

As for tbe blue-birds, tbe boot is on tbe 



the sparrow. My friend, John R. Poor, Esq., of Somerville, had 
succeeded in introducing tbe house sparrow into his grounds, in 
the early spring of 1871. They bad begun to build in the boxes 
put up for tbeir homes, when blue-birds appeared and drove them 
olf. and made use of their boxes ! 

As for the opinion expressed by Dr. Cones that the sparrow is 
not needed here, that the good they do is overrated, etc., I will 
not trespass upon your space now by seeking to controvert an 
opinion so utterly confronted by overwhelming evidence all around 
us. I will only refer him to the report of the French parliament 

the sparrow at the head of the useful birds of France ; to the tes- 
timony of George N. Lawrence as to their destruction of the 
measure-worm in New York, Brooklyn, Newark, etc., and to our 
own city forester of Boston, who can inform him, if he discredits 



accounts of artificial fish breeding, and 
rivers with fish, state that this is a very 
• the attention of the readers of the Nati 



558 ZOOLOGY. 

extract from Kalm's Travels. It will be remembered that at the 
suggestion of Linnaeus, Peter Kalm was sent to North America 
" to make such observations and collect such seeds and plants as 
would improve the Swedish husbandry, gardening, manufactures. 
arts and sciences." He arrived at Philadelphia in Sept., 1748, 
and left the country early in 1751. He recorded his observations 
on nearly every conceivable subject, from "the way of eating in- 
ters" and the "art of a lings" to the most 
interesting observations on society, politics, agriculture and neu- 
ral phenomena and productions. The expenses of his trip were 
paid in part by the government of Sweden, in part hy the Uni- 
versity of Upsala, by societies and private subscription, Kalm 
himself contributing to the extent of his ability, " so that at his 
return he found himself obliged to live upon a very small pittance." 
I quote from the English translation of his travels, published m 
London in 1772. After speaking of the diminution offish" 1 

times of the year" and "the numerous mills on the rivers and 
brooks" whose dams prevent the fish from passing "up the river 
in order to spawn," he says (Vol. 1, p. 229) : 

" Mr. Franklin told me, that in that part of New £«jM 
where his father lived, two rivers fell into the sea, in one of wmi 
they caught great numbers of herrings, and in the other not o^ 
Yet the places where these rivers dis< 

sea were not far asunder. They had observed that lUl ' v 
herrings came in spring to deposit their spawn, they always s_^ 
up the river where thev used to catch them, but never cam 
the other. Thi- / . Franklin's father, who ^ 

settled between the two river., to trv whether it was not po» 
to make the herring lihenUe li\e in the other river. *<> * 
purpose he put out his nets, as thev were coming up for spa' 
and he caught some. He took the spawn out of them ana jg 
fully carried it across the land into the other river. » Jj 
hatched and the < ons< out in < u is tint everv vear aUei'« :i1 
caught more herrin-s in that river; aud'this is still tfie t 
This leads one to I, .[nu that tl fi-di vavs lik< to H «\' . 
same place where they were hatched, and 'from whence tuej 
put out to sea ; being, as it were, accustomed to it. 

< Mr. Benjamin Franf«^ 
its welfare, and the W* 
y new discoveries in electricity, was the 
' me, and introduced me to many of w» 



He gave me all necessary instructions and shewed me his kindness 
on many occasions." Here is another item that is of interest. 
While speaking of New York, ami the oysters found there, lie goes 
on (I, p. 187), — "Lobsters are likewise plentifully caught here- 
abouts, pickled much in the same way as oysters, and sent to 
several places. I was told of a remarkable circumstance about 
these lobsters, and I have afterwards frequently heard it men- 
tioned. The coast of New Turk had already European inhabitants 

that coast; and though the people fished ever so often, they could 
never find any signs of lobsters being in this part of the sea; 
they were, therefore, continually brought in great well-boats from 
New England, where they are plentiful ; but it happened that one 
of these well-boats broke in pieces at Hellgatc, about ten English 
miles from New York, and all the lobsters in it got off. Since that 
tune they have so multiplied in this part of the sea, that they 
are now caught in the greatest abundance." — Wm. II. Bkewek. 

The Influence of the Nerves upon the Change of Color 
of Fish and Crustacea. — A change of color is observed in 
many fish. It may be rapid and intense, as in the chameleon, 
but lacking its variety. Pouchet studied this phenomenon in a 
fish-breeding pond in Concarneau, among species of Blennius, Go- 
hius and Pleuronectidse. In a former communication to the Acad- 
emy of Science, Pouchet reported that this change of color of the 
surface of the fish, corresponding to the color of its surroundings, 
originated in the brain, and the impression was caused by the ac- 

<<i' the animal disappeared. The 



tirpation of the eyes this powe: 
blinded nlamvmo^^ „~„„:..„„ 



whatever be the color of the surroundings. This neutral coloring 
seen upon the entire body may be called a paralysis of the pig- 
m ent cells. Pouchet tried to prove the influence of the nerves 
«I>on the pigment cells in the following experimental manner, 
loung Pleuronectidse that changed their color with rapidity were 
ke Pt in a tank with a brown bottom ; before severing the nerve 
^ey were put into another tank, the bottom of which was covered 
^th sand ; here the specimens operated upon became bleached. 
Ex cept those portions especially influenced by the nerves, they 
stained their dark color. By separating the spinal cord no such 



of all of the 
The deep 



560 ZOOLOGY. 

result was observed. When the trigeminal nerve was severed, al! 
of the pigment cells on that side of the head supplied 1 y it " 
paralyzed. The animal operated upon, kept in a tank with a ssiwy 
bottom, had a failed color, only a small portion of the head re- 
mained dark, a smaller or larger portion, depending upon how 
large a part of the trigemimus was severed. A corresponding 
result followed the separation of the spinal nerves. The course 
of the severed nerve was followed by a dark colored stripe; on 
the back of the pleuronectide, zebra- like lines were seen. There- 
sultless severing of the spinal cord proves, that the influence that 
a spinal nerve has upon the coloring cells does not proceed tro 
the spinal cord. The splanchnic and sympathetic nerves are then 
brought into question. The severing of the former gives no result. 
If on the contrary the sympathetic nerve is severed anywhere on 
the inferior portion of the vertebral canal, paraly: 
pigment (tils of the skin occurs, posterior to the 
position of the fine delicate sympathetic nerve makes it injpossiw 
to divide without injuring the neighboring parts. The anima s 
vives the operation two and three days. During this time it is 
light and half dark colored. Similar trials made upon the inw 
maxillary nerve and artery, both of which lie superficial!} and - 
accessible, make it possible that the real nerve stem which reg« a ^ 
the movement of the pigment cells is not the one that accoinp^ 
the blood-vessel. Pouchet tried cutting the sympathetic m^ 
its origin, behind the articulation of the suspensorium, bu ^ 
such result as was anticipated. The length of time tl at th' 1- 
ysis of the pigment cells lasts, after the nerve is sever »g^ 
fully known ; it has been found to remain some we 
at first. The paralyzed portions upon the surface of the bo j^ 
ceive this mixed color, like the blind pleuronecti 
light, according as the remaining portion of the skin is ™ * 
by the surroundings. Pois '' are ' " l * „ tta 

morphine, veratria and sontonin has no especial influence upon 
change of color. 
The influence 
lived a long time in a tank, the bottom of which was C 



Kiiued :- ; - 



xmding color. 

il v . and came to the 
mes influenced, but t 



assume a color wholly unlike each other. Those in the white d 
are yellowish, almost colorless, as if they had just shed their sk 
and those in the dark colored dish are of a brown red color. Wl 
changed the pale one into the dark colored dish, and vice versa, tl 
change color in a corresponding manner. The change of a p 
one to a dark color, was more rapid than the reverse. Under fav 
able conditions we can create a yellow, red and blue Falaemon. 
a foot is removed when any one of these colors is present, and j 
into a solution of sugar, the three colors appear successively ' 
fore the eye. The microscope reveals the sequel to this. If 1 
Pigment cells are pressed together like balls, then they are 1 
minute to mirror themselves upon the retina. As soon a> the : 





k,ns H, 




y color of the I 


;;';: :;;';;;; 


Si 


:B: 


?mon takes on a i 


foundati 


on. If 


the col 


oring cells contr 


ins six or 


seven h< 


>nrs in 


the hypodermis ; 




'ith the 


Paten 


ion as with fish, 1 


result of 


visual i 


mpressions. 



Pouchet adds in conclusion, that in the eyeh e the 

pigment cells are wanting. — ( Translated by Dr. Mart J. S. Blake 
from Schmidts Jahrbucher, No. 9, 1872). 

The Cotton Worm.— I have already shown that this insect is 
first described and named KcimtiiiicaHy by lliibner in 1822, as 
Aid hi orrjilhtcea from Brazil. It is an inhabitant of more south- 
ern latitudes than the cotton belt of the Southern States. I have 
shown that the insect is found during the winter as a moth, not 
from " analogy," but fact. I have also shown that the insect dies 
out in the central and northern portions of the cotton belt every 

year, and is repla I the succeeding year by immigration from 

more southern localities, and where the cotton plant is perennial. 
Prof. Glover's observations on the moth seem to me to be gener- 
ally correct and reliable ; on the other hand, Prof. Riley's remarks 
in the Sixth Missouri Report are, where Prof. Glover is contra- 
dicted, a " too hasty generalizing," and show nowhere any original 
acquaintance with the subject. The moths have been collected by 
Prof. Packard on an island in Salem harbor, Mass. ; and by Mr. 
Burgess in Massachusetts Bay, flying over the water, and by my- 
self about Buffalo, N. Y. The worm never attacks the young cot- 
ton in Central Alabama in the spring or early summer, but appears 
at its earliest at the end of June, and is invariably preceded by 
flights of the adult moth. Since in Central Alabama insect lite 
begins as early as March (and before then the " hybernateff m 
ton moth has disappeared) what is the Aletia argillacea d oul =_'£ 
tween that date and July, when the worm appears? And why* 
the young cotton not attacked in May by the worms from the eg^ 
deposited by the "hybernating" moths? If the " hybernatin^ 
moths lay eggs, their progeny perish from lack of food. Bu - 
chrysalides are killed by frost, and there is great irreu'ulant} a *; 
the completion of the final brood of moths arising from the age 
the insect and the approach of the winter.— A. R. Grote. 

■n Armors —The larv* and p^ 



of Anopthalmus, from Salt c 


ave near Mammoth, w< 
,,«l m V M-lf while engag 

{ ' , „. P re ft" 1 " 3 


in May last by Mr Sanborn 
bag the eaves of Kentucky i 


Survey of Kentucky. The 


Hrv.-c of Anopthalmus were 




upae were found lying m l 


with the beetles, while the \ 



holes in the same situation and at the same date. The larva is 
more closely allied to that of Pterostichtu nfgrita, figured by 

rather slenderer, the head much longer and narrower, and the 
mouth parts longer, while the caudal appendages are shorter. 
The end of the body is like that of Harpalua and Stcnolopbns m 

figured by Schibdte, but the form of the mandibles is more like that 

not chitinous as in C'arabid larva" 1 generally. There is no sculp- 

The larvae of Adelups hirtus has a body somewhat like that of 
Agathidium, but the head is very much larger and as wide and 
long as the prothoracic segments. It is white, and I can perceive 
no eyes. The body tapers rapidly from the prothorax to the end. 
and is provided with long hairs. The antenna? are large and long. 
The larvae of these beetles have not yet been discovered in Europe. 
—A. S. Packard, Jr. 

New Variety of Blue Grosbeak. — Several Mexican examples 
of G. ccerulea examined, uniformly differ from the United States 
bird in the following particulars: they are larger; wing 3-70 in- 
stead of 3-40, tail 3-00, as against 2-70 ; total length about 7-00. 
The bill, in particular, is notably larger every way, and especially 
deeper, with a more swollen upper mandible and more curved ridge. 
Length of culmen 0-70, extreme depth about the same : in Q. <■•■•- 
rulea, culmen 0-60, depth decidedly less. It is mostly light brown- 
ish horn-color, instead of mostly blackish. I see no difference in 
l he plumage. This appears to be the resident Mexican form, and 
to be quite as "good " a variety as many of those now current, it 
maybe termed G. ccerulea var. eurhyncha.— Elliott Coles. 

LbMOKrnisM in Gall Flies. — Mr. H. F. Bassett (Canadian 
Entomologist, v, 91) states that Cynipa q. operator is double 
hrooded ; thirty of one brood of females ovipositing in the buds of 
the oak, and again some of a second brood ovipositing in the 
foung acorns of Querais ilicifulhi. From these and other facts he 
lnf ers « that all our species that are found only in the female sex 
are re P r esented in another generation by both sexes, and that the 
t*o broods are, owing to seasonal differences, produced from galls 
- entirely distinct from each other." This confirms Walsh's 
Dv ery of dimorphism in the Cynipa (see Amer. Ent. ii, p. 320). 






Sweet Scented Ants.* — I have just returned from Mr. A.J. 
Lauderdale's, where I had been on a visit of inquiry in reference 
to the sweet ants. The whole family were present, and all declare 
that they have often smelt thorn, when by accident, in their noc- 
turnal visits, one would get crushed under foot. They have also 
captured them and smelt their sweet perfume when crushed be- 
tween the fingers. Capt. Lauderdale states that the odor which 
the ants emitted on being crushed surpassed in sweetness any per- 
fumery he had ever seen ; that he had repeatedly searcbw ;,l! 
them since he evacuated the place, without success ; that the hor- 
ticultural ants had, since the house was left unoccupied. fiHeda| 
the fireplace with bushels of sand ; and gave it as his opinio" that 
they had driven off the fragrant ants. My son examined them 
and pronounced it the sweetest odor he had ever experienced. 

These ants are extremely rare, but that they do exist there is 
but little doubt.— Gideon Lincecum, Long Point, Texas. 



uber Ants.* — Once upon a time there dwelt h 
; colony of the very smallest species of blac 






vants about my cook lion- "' symp>>"' 

through the floor. The little ants had found it, and seemingly t^ 
entire population were out and busy packing it away to their om • 

The microscope showed that they carried the syrup in J^ 
abdomen. But before they had secured all the syrup, I ob**? 
there was great excitement along their road. The larger, ^ 
erratic ants had discovered them while carrying home the ^'^ 
and were taking it away from them. It was real!) 1 >" 
observe the ruthless maimer in which they slaughtered and ro' 
the helpless little ants of their dUtended ^ark- <>(' ^yotmy- 

They grabbed up the heavily burdened little follows 
them, and, biting open the abdomen, drew out the I' ' ^ .. 
seemed to swallow it ; then, casting the lacerated ,:i! ' : '~", 
they furiously sprang upon another of the panic-*' 1 ■■< ^y ; _. 
and repeated the horrid operation. Millions of tnes ^ jt 

butchers were at work ; and soon, on account of their *** ' 
populous city was exterminated.— G. Lincecum. 

ceived from Mr. K. S. (a-im, tu.> small i.dim'um°njar«e 



ANTHROPOLOGY. 



body. By this ne* 



and adductor muscles of the forearm, for the flexor and rotator 
muscles of the arm, the muscles of the foot, and those of the face. 
r hey, moreover, removed the portion of the convolution on the 



that after the injury thu had only an imper- 

fect control over the movements of the part of the limb in ques- 
tion. Recently Dr. Ilughlings Jackson, from the observation of 
various diseased conditions in which peculiar movements occurin 
distinct groups of muscles, has adduced evidence in .support vi 
the conclusion that in the cerebral convolutions are localized the 
centres for the production of various muscular movements. With- 
in the last few months these observations have been greatly ex- 
tended by the elaborate experiments of my able colleague in King's 
College, Prof. Ferrier. 

Adopting the method of Fritsch and Hitzig— but instead of 
using galvanic he has employed Faradic electricity, with which, 
strange to say, the investigators just mentioned obtained no very 
definite results— he has explored the brain in the fish, frog, dog, 
cat, rabbit and guinea-pig, and lately in the monkey. The results 
of this investigation are of great importance. He has explored 
the convolutions of the cerebrum far more fully than the German 
experimenters, and lias investigated the cerebellum, corpora quad- 



rigemina, and several other portions of the 



. 



by them. There is, perhaps, no part of the brain whose function 
has been more obscure than the cerebellum. Dr. Ferrier has dis- 
covered that this ganglion is a great centre for the rnovenien 
the muscles of the eyeballs. He has also very carefully niapp« 

the cerebrum, which are concerned in the productions of vac** 
in the muscles of the eyelids, face, : 



fore and hind feet, and tail. He confirms the 


doctrine that t:» 


corpus striatum is concerned in motion, while t 


lie optic thalamic 


is probably concerned in sensation, as are alsc 


, the hippocampi 


major and its neighboring convolutions. He h 


in the case of the higher brain of the monkey tl 


'front part of^ 
t it specially w' n ' 


found in the dog or cat — to wit, a portion in the 


brain, whose stimulation produces no muscular n 


may be the function of this part, whether or no 
isters to intellectual operations, remains to be 


seen. The&e re- 


searches of Frits. ■h, Ilit/ig, Jackson, and Ferrh 



all the studies in come: will w "' 

interesting, and tew so important, as those in which the i 
centres will be mapped out in the brains throughout the ver 



MICROS COPY. 



"H v ^itli it. This, of course, gives a rotating : 
lithculty in regard to centring. Any tremor. 

wsiiifving apparatus, and is therefore of lit 
'or objects illuminated from below, this ana 



tically as good as the more difficult and < 
the stage only ; though for objects illu 
less convenient. It is also made binocu 



Mounting 


Diatoms.— It i 


is due to 


Dr. Chi 


ristopher Johnston of 


Baltimore, U 


> say that I am 


> ' 


i to his 


very valuable paper. 


on the "Pre! 


>aration of Diat 


omaceffi' 


' for the method of lvtainb. 


the diatoms i 


in place, mentic 


.ncd in n 


>y note. 


If dry mounting is 


preferred, I 


have found by i 


experhne 


nt, that 


the diatoms may be 


arranged as 






er, with 


jut the gelatine coat, 




i place by moi 


stening 


with vapor as before stated. 


This plan ha 


s some advantac 


res for re 


al study 


.— W. W.naot* 


Blood Cr 


rsTALS. — Thed 


etection 


of blooc 


I by finding its crys- 


tals is a mod 


U easier process 


. than lu 


is been 


thought, and is also 


much more < 


generally applici 


:ll»lc. ll 


l blood 


decomposed, or that 
•moglobin is changed 


has been trea 


ited by acids or 


caustic- a 


lkali, ha 


into a new substance : litem 






hydrochloric 


acid, gives chan 


tcteri.tie 


crystal- 


'„tofSdW«** 


them we m un- 


t proceed thus : 


A sina 




placed on a i 


slide ; it is dissc 


-lved in : 


l drop of 


: water, and a mimte 
rith a thin slide, and 


portion of se 


a-salt is added. 


It is & 


Dvered v 


pure acetic acid is made to pass betv 


veen the 


two slides, and it i* 


heated over i 


i spirit-lamp to 


boiling 


point. 


Acetic acid is ag alU 


added, and i 


t is heated afresh ; this 


is repei 


ited till the cry- •>•• 


are obtained. 


They are rh 


of a dir 





(see M. M- ■ 



! demonstrate I think 
md convey to the eye <■ 

s.nriaiv- of front lens : 



I £th over Cymatopleura elliptic 



the most valuable property of the new ,'th will he iveogni 
it- superior performances !>y centrally disposed light. Wi 
experience I have had of the },lh in this direction I am for 
the conclusion that these new system glasses of Mr. Toll 
become equally valuable to histologists and diatomists.— 
wards Sm-mJ Ashtabula, 0.. July, 1874. 



NOTES. 

KG of the Am 



by the 




•lined In 


- the 


'.See 


tional 


Co 






six papers in S( 














those in Section B, ter 


i were g 


iven 




ilie oi 


ily. 


and the resl 


read fc 


'.v their authors 


' 


ic se 


ctiol 


i or pi 


•op< 


ar subsectioi 


were 




icussed. 


Set 




A foi 


■me 


i a subseet 


fhemi. 


stry on Monday 


. 




,-hiel 


t was 


VCI 


■V strongly 


senter 


I and held its sea 


j 


1 Tu 


esda 


v evei 


ling 


. The addi 


intere: 


a* taken by the 


chemists 


, in 


the 


'ilartl 


Ul'I 


meeting w 


doubt, 






ions 


pas- 


sedat 




. 


which 


they declared t 






nad' 


,-isable tc 


, form a se] 



society, and agreed to enter the Assoei lion and establish; ; - 
manent subsection. Their action in this respect cannot be too 
heartily endorsed by the scientists of the country, for it is just 
such action, on the part of all the different bodies of scientific men 
that now annually meet independent of the Association, that is 
needed to make the American Association the great power in this 
country which the British Association has become in England by 
the united efforts of all persons interested in the advancement of 
science. We feel confident that it will not be long before the 
Association of Mining Engineers will realize the advantages to k 
secured by uniting with the American Association, especially as 
under the new constitution they could organize, as the chemists 
have done, as a permanent body. The entomologists were present 
in goodly numbers, and while faking an active part in the meetings 
of Section B, they also organized as a club and held separate even- 
ing meetings, under the name of the Entomological Club of the 
American Association. From much that was said and done at 
the recent meeting, it was vwy evident that a strong feeling has 
expressed itself over all parts of the country in favor of a unite* 
effort to make the future meetings of the American Association in 
every way the expression of the advancement of science in 
country, and with this effort, which is simply the natural rt^ 
of the growth of the Association, the process of absorbing all e 
smaller scientific bodies of a national character is only a matter ■ o 
time. The botanical element was more largely represented at 
Hartford meeting than we remember ever to have noticed beo j 
and now that the impetus has been given it is very ^ aa0ia ^ 
expect large additions from the botanical ranks at the a- 
meetings. The geologists were as usual well represented^ 
formed a subsection for Monday and Tuesday, with Pro • ' • 
Dana in the chair. There were also more papers bearing on S^ 
eral zoological questions this year than for several past mee^ P 
and Anthropology was made prominent by a numtx r " Q • . 
teresting communications. On Monday Section B su n ^ 
into Biology and Geology and continued to hold its me f m °. oU 
subsections until Tucdav evening when it held its final **- 

with the exception of a very short o, aW,lne^^ 

The older members were largelv represented at tins 
aud a noticeable feature was the attendance of a number oi^ 
presidents of the Association. Under this head r" ^ 



recall : 



longs than to Section B, we feel that all our renders will 

them in the following numbers of the Naturalist. 

riie social element of the meeting was well develope 
though there was very little private entertainment given 

*ho, as the Local Committee, took an active interest in th( 

I in many ways made the meeting a very pleass 

The only levee given to the Association was by Dr. Stea 

I urn's, lay when a very enjoyable evening was passed. ! 

''^titutions and large establishments in and about Hartfoi 
most of them were very generally accepted by members, an< 

fanged by the Loeal Committee were well planned and adn 
( ' :lri 'i< J d out. The steamer excursion down the Connecticut 



river ; while the geologists, and all others who wished to go, 
I their full share in the several afternoon excursions to Tarilf- 
* and the Portland quarries ; and all who went on the afternoon 
; ursion to Cheneyville could only have experienced great pleas- 
at the sight of this model and beautiful little village, where 
er threads are unwound and woven into sub- 
in Thursday, the day following 
excursion took place, and con- 
a trip through the most beautiful portion of the State to 
> and the iron mines of Salisbury. 
3 expected, a large amount of time was occupied in dis- 



ant matter was finally settled to the perfect satisfaction of a!, 
concerned, it was time well spent, and it is now believed that tin 1 

fully adapted to the work it is to perform. The acceptance of the 
Act of Incorporation also gives an important legal existent 
the Association which will add greatly to its power. The officers 
for the next meeting were elected under the new constitution, and 
very great additions to the interest and importance of the future 
meetings are expected from the addresses of the Vice-Presidents 
and the Permanent Chairmen of subsections. An important addi- 
tion to the Standing Committee is also secured by the new con- 
stitution, as under it the past Presidents are now life members of 

the sections, will be members of the Committee. In this way^Jj 
Committee becomes a much lar 
rans of American Science as v ... 
Association, and will be fully capable of performing the impor- 
tant work that devolves upon it. It is also believed that tyM 

will fully realize the importance of the position and the resfKW 
bilities which thev accept. 

The very cordial invitation which came from Detroit^ 
Association to hold its next meeting in that city, was « / 
tendered by the Governor of the State, the Mayoi of ^ 
and the Detroit Scientific Society, that it was 
Association to do anything but accept, and it was mu 
voted to hold the next meeting in Detroit, beginning on IM 
Wednesday in August, 1875. 

The following were elected as the officers for the next llK \ J 
President, J. P. IPd-ml. <>f \V i^himxton : T" ^ /'^ s ^ v 

B, J. \V. Davwm, of' Mont.eal: Ch«iin,«n "/ < ''" "^ f 

five years, F. W. Putnam, of Salem : di-nvrol StC !' l "y^\\ 
H. Scudder, of Boston ; Treasurer, W- S. Vaux, ot P^ _ ^, 
Secretary of Section A, S. P. Langley. of Allegheny 



We have already given an aeeounl of IMmi s zooio-r- • 
ratory at Naples, and referred to the Anderson Sd«><>! «■:" v " " 

mCioif ro i\ftl!r.l".m ; !rTm^ Z ""'"" 

Kxi)«'nu.cntnl.s" etc-.. M.*L ;i cn/r-I)ut hiers jriu-s : n ' ]] ] Wn ^ [ 



frw advanced students to Beaufort, N. C. ; the Washing 
( ""i'-*lM\vn colleges could combine and have a summer m- 
Old Point Comfort ; the Pennsylvania Colleges could rend 
■* Cape May, while the western and northern colleges coti 
™o« -t h ling students to the Anderson School at Penikesi 
i our extensive coast CO 

"U. a.s well as observations on the chemistry and phy>ics of t. 

Tin: Anderson School of Natural History at Penikese 

e! "^"l on the 29th of August. Fifty students received in.-ti 



Jane 19th, age. 



six. A zoologist and geologist, his greatest work says " Xatn 
was his account of the fossil fauna discovered in the Cretacc 
rocks of southern India. 

The number of visits paid during the year to the herbariun 
the British museum for the purpose of scientific reseaivh. 
1020. 
. Upwards of 21,000 herbarium specimens have been recei 
(chiefly presented) from all parts of the world at the herbariui 
the Royal Gardens at Kew. 

A kew volume of Lacordaire's Genera of Coleoptera has la 
appeared. 

BOOKS RECEIVED. 



AMERICAN NATURALIST. 

Vol. VIII.-OCTOBEK, 1874. -No. 10. 

EXPERIMENTS ON THE SUPPOSED AUDITORY 
APPARATUS OF THE MOSQUITO.* 



Ohm states in his proposition that the ear experiences a simple 
sound only when it receives a pendulum-vibration, and that it de- 
composes any other periodic motion of the air into a series of pen- 
dulum-vibrations, to each of which corresponds the sensation of 
a simple sound. Helmholtz, fully persuaded of the truth of this 
proposition, and seeing its intimate connection with the theorem 
of Fourier, reasoned that there must be a cause for it in the very 
dynamic constitution of the ear ; and the previous discovery by 
the Marquis of Corti of several thousandf rods of graded sizes in 
the ductus cochlearis indicated to Helmholtz that these were suit- 
able bodies to effect the decomposition of a composite sonorous 
*ave by their co-vibrating with its simple harmonic elements. 
This supposed function of the Corti organ gave a rational expla- 






578 AUDITORY APPARATUS OF THE MOSQUITO. 

nation of the theorem of Ohm, and furnished "a leading thread" 
which conducted Helmholtz to the discoveries contained in his re- 
nowned work, "Die Lehre von den Tonempfindungen."* In this 
book he first gave the true explanation of timbre, and revealed the 
hidden cause of musical harmony, which, since the days of Pythag- 
oras, had remained a mystery to musicians and a problem to phil- 

It may, perhaps, never be possible to bring Helraholtz's hy- 
pothesis of the mode of audition in the higher vertebrates to the 
test of direct observation, from the apparent hopelessness of ever 
being able to experiment on the functions of the parts of the inner 
ear of mammalia. The cochlea, tunnelled in the hard temporal 
bone, is necessarily difficult to dissect, and even when a viewi 
obtained of the organ of Corti, its parts are rarely in situ; an. 
moreover, they generally have had their natural structure alter 
by the acid with which the bone has been saturated to renden 
soft enough for dissection and for the cutting of sections for 
microscope. . 

As we descend in the scale of development, from the ig 
vertebrates, we observe the parts of the outer and middle ear _ 
appearing, while at the same time we see the inner ear gra u ) 
advancing toward the surface of the head. The external at e ^ r ' the 
auditory canal, the tympanic membrane, and with the a 
now useless ossicles, have disappeared in the lower verteW 
and there remains but a rudimentary labyrinth. Z 

Although the homological connections existing between ]igtSt are 
tebrates and articulates, even when advocated by natura ^-^ 
certainly admitted to be imperfect, yet we can hardly S *PP ^ or 
the organs of hearing, in the articulates will remain sta i fl? 
retrograde, but rather that the essential parts of their W ^ 
of audition, and especially that part which receireS nigmg> in- 
vibrations, will be more exposed than in higher orgaD ^, ticU j a te3 
deed, the very minuteness of the greater part of the ^^ 
would indicate this, for a tympanic membrane placet "V^ cap . 
communication with a modified labyrinth, or even an au ^ & 
sule with an outer flexible covering, would be useless to B ^ 
number of insects for several reasons; first, such ^ & VV ^ 



unless occupying a large proportion of 1 



volume of an ' 



eral surface of their bodies, and that the proportions and si 
ation of these organs will comport with the physical conditic 
necessary for them to receive and transmit vibrations to the in 
rior ganglia. 

Naturalists, in their surmises as to the positions and forms 
the organ of hearing in insects, have rarely kept in view 1 
important consideration of those physical relations which t 
organ must bear to the aerial vibrations producing sound, a 
which we have already pointed out. The mere descriptive ana 
mist of former years could be satisfied with his artistic faculty 1 
the perception of form, but the student of these days can oi 
make progress by constantly studying the close relations whi 
necessarily exist between the minute structure of the organs 
a n animal and the forces which are acting in the animal, a 
*hich traverse the medium in which the animal lives. T 
want of appreciation of these relations, together with the ft 
' '• many naturalists are more desirous to describe many n< 






function of 



wt "ch may exist in all animals of a class, has tended to keep 
tta ny departments of natural history in the condition of mere 
descriptive science. Those who are not professed naturalists ap- 
preciate this perhaps more than the naturalists themselves, who 
are imbued with that enthusiasm which always comes with the 
ear nest study of any one department of nature ; for the perusal 
°J those long and "laboriously precise descriptions of forms of 
0r gans, without the slightest attempt, or even suggestion, as to 



their uses, affects a physicist with feelings analogous to those expe- 
rienced by one who peruses a well classified catalogue descriptive 
of physical instruments, while of the uses of these instruments he 
is utterly ignorant. 

The following views, taken from the "Anatomy of the Inverte- 
brata, by C. Th. v. Siebold," will show how various are the opinions 
of naturalists as to the location and form of the organs of hearing 
in the Insecta. "There is the same uncertainty concerning the 
organs of audition (as concerning the olfactory organs). Experi- 
ence having long shown that most insects perceive sounds, this 
sense has been located sometimes in this and sometimes in that 
organ. But in their opinion, it often seems to have been forgotten, 
or unthyught of, that there can be no auditory organ without » 
special auditory nerve, which connects directly with an acoustic 
apparatus capable of receiving, conducting and concentrating the 
sonorous undulations. (The author who has erred most widely in 
this respect is L. W. Clarke, in Mag. Nat. Hist., Sept., 1838, who 
has described at the base of the antennae of Carabus nemoraht 
Illig. an auditive apparatus composed of an Auricula, a M&* 
auditorius extemus and internus, a Tympanum and Labyrinths, 
of all of which there is not the least trace. The two white convex 
spots at the base of the antennas of Blatta orientalis, *** w ,c 
Treviranus has described as auditory organs, are, as 
has correctly stated, only rudimentary accessory eyes 
and Goureau think that the antenna serve both as tactile an J* 
auditory organs. But this view is inadmissible, as Eyichson 
already stated, except in the sense that the antennae, like al so 
bodies, may conduct sonorous vibrations of the air; but^ 
admitting this view, where is the auditory nerve ? for it is 
all supposable that the antennal nerve can serve at the same 
the function of two distinct senses.) ^ 

"Certain Orthoptera are the only Insecta with which t ere ^ 
been discovered, in these later times, a single organ haV ^ con . 
conditions essential to an auditory apparatus. This orga ^ 
sists, with the Acrididse, of two fossae or conchs, surround ^ ^ 
projecting horny ring, and at the base of which is attache ^ ^ 
brane resembling a tympanum. On the internal surface ^ ^ 
membrane are two horny processes, to which is attae ^^ 
tremely delicate vesicle filled with a transparent fluid ^^ 
senting a membranous labyrinth. This vesicle is in c0 



Burmeister 
Newport 



with an auditory nerve which arises from the third thoracic gan- 
glion, forms a ganglion on the tympanum, and terminate* in the 
immediate neighborhood of the labyrinth by a collection of cunei- 
form, staff-like bodies with very finely-pointed extremities (primi- 
tive nerve-fibres?), which are surrounded by loosely-aggregated. 
ganglionic globules. (This organ has been taken for a soniferous 
apparatus by Latreille. J. Miiller was the first who fortunately 
conceived that with Gryllus hieroglyphics this was an auditory 
organ. He gave, however, the interpretation only as hypothet- 
ical ; but I have placed it beyond all doubt by careful researches 
made on Gomphoceros, Oedipoda, Podisma, Caloptenus and Trux- 

"The Locnstidse and Achetidse have a similar organ, situated 
in the fore-legs directly below the coxo-tibial articulation. With 
a part of the Locustidse (Meconema, Barbitistes, Pha*cropteHL, 
Phylloptera), there is on each side of this point a fossa, while with 
another portion of this family there are, at this same place, two 
more or less spacious cavities (auditory capsules) provided with 
orifices opening forward. These fossse and these cavities have 
each, on their internal surface, a long-oval tympanum. The prin- 
cipal trachean trunk of the leg passes between two tympanums, 
and dilates, at this point, into a vesicle whose upper extremity ia 
in connection with a ganglion of the auditory nerve. This last 
arises from the first thoracic ganglion, and accompanies the prin- 
cipal nerve of the leg. From this ganglion in question passes off 
a band of nervous substance, which stretches along the slightly 
excavated anterior side of the trachean vesicle. Upon this band 
is situated a row of transparent vesicles containing t: a 
of cuneiform, staff-like bodies, mentioned as occurring with the 
Acrididas. The two large trachean trunks of the fore-legs open 
by two wide, infundibuliform orifices on the posterior border of 
the prothorax, so that here, as with the Acrididic. a part of this 
trachean apparatus may be compared to a Tuba Enstachn. V\ ah 
the Achetidas, there is, on the external side of the tibia of the 
fore-legs, an orifice closed by a white, silvery membrane (tympa- 
»«*), behind which is an auditory organ like that just described. 
(With Acheta achatina and italica, there is a tympanum of the 
same size, on the internal surface of the legs in question ; but it 
* scarcely observable with Acheta sylvestris, A. domestka and A. 
Mrnpestris.)" 



Other naturalists have placed the auditory apparatus of diurnal 
Iepidoptera in their club-shaped antenna? ; of bees at the root of 
their maxilla? ; of Melolontha in their antennal plates ; of Locusta 
viridissima in the membranes which unite the antenna with the 

I think that Siebold assumes too much when he states that the 
existence of a tympanic membrane is the only test of the existence 
of an auditory apparatus. It is true that such a test would apply 
to the non-aquatic vertebrates, but their homologies do not extend 
to the articulates ; and besides, any physicist can not only con- 
ceive of, but can actually construct other receptors of aerial vibra- 
tions, as I will soon show by conclusive experiments. Neither 
can I agree with him in supposing that the antennae are only tactile 
organs, for very often their position ami limited motion would ex- 
clude them from this function ;* and, moreover, it has never bee 
proved that the antenna 1 , which differ so much in their forms 
different insects, are always tactile organs. They maybe used as 
such in some insects ; in others, they may be organs of audition; 
while in other insects they may, as Newport and Goureau surmise. 
have both functions ; for, even granting that Midler's law o 
specific energy of the senses extends to the insects, yet the ana^ 
omy of their nervous system is not sufficiently known to pre\en^ 
the supposition that there may be two distinct sets of nerve r^ 
in the antenna? or in connection with their bases ; so tha ^ ^ 

it se rn \ serve both as tactile and as auditory organs : ]U* _ 
the hand, which receives at the same time the impression oi «« 
character of the surface of a body and of its temperature ; or, 
the tongue, which at the same time distinguishes t^ -» 
form, the temperature and the taste of a body, 
objection to this statement : "Newport and Goureau toin^--^ 
antennae serve both as tactile and auditory organs- But t ™^ 
is inadmissible, as Erichson has already stated, except in ^v 
that the antenna?, like all solid bodies, may conduct sonor0 ^. nd tbe 
tions of the air." Here, evidently, Siebold had not in h» ^ 
physical relations which exist between two bodies w 1^ ^ 
exactly the same number of vibrations ; for it is well * n0 br 
when one of them vibrates, the other *U be se^intoj^to^ 

" " ~~ _ ^iiraccomP aDied J 

palpi, which are properly placed, adequately organized and endowe 



Finally, I take 



the impacts sent to it through the intervening air. Thus, if the 
fibrilloe on the antennae of an insect should be tuned to the differ- 
ent notes of the sound emitted by the same insect, then when these 
sounds fell upon the antennal fibrils, the latter would enter into 
vibration with those notes of the sound to which they were sever- 
ally tuned ; and so it is evident that not only could a properly 
constructed antenna serve as a receptor of sound, but it would also 
have a function not possible in a membrane ; that is, it would have 
the power of analyzing a composite sound by the co-vibration of 
its various fibrillae to the elementary tones of the sound. 

The fact that the existence of such an antenna is not only sup- 
posable but even highly probable, taken in connection with an 
observation I have often made in looking over entomological col- 
lections ; viz: that fibrillar on the antenna? of noctuial insects are 
highly developed, while on the antennae of diurnal insects they are 
either entirely absent or reduced to mere rudimentary filaments, 
caused me to entertain the hope that I should be able to confirm 
my surmises by actual experiments on the effects of sonorous vi- 
brations on the antennal fibrillaa ; also, the well known experiments 
of Hensen,* and the inferences of Dr. Johnston from anatomical 
studies of the antennae of the ( ulex. encouraged me to seek in 
aerial insects for phenomena similar to those Hensen had found in 
the decapod, the Mysis, and thus to discover in nature an appa- 
ratus whose functions are the counterpart of those of the apparatus 
w »th which I gave the experimental confirmation of Fourier's the- 
orem, and similar to the supposed functions of the rods of the 
organ of Carta. 

The beautiful structure of the plumose antenna? of the male 
Culexiswell known to all microscopists ; and these organs at once 
recurred to me as suitable objects on which to begin my experi- 
ments. The antennae of these insects are twelve-jointed and from 
ea ch joint radiates a whorl of fibrils, and the latter gradually de- 
crease in their lengths as we proceed from those of the second joint 
from the base of the antenna to those of the second joint from the 
% These fibrils are highly elastic and so slender that their 
lengths are over three hundred times their diameters. They taper 
sll gatly, so that their diameter at the base is to the diameter near 
th e tip as 3 to 2. 

of Siebold and Ksm&fer! VoL^ 08 ** *" DeCaP ° '" 



584 AUDITORY APPARATUS OF THE MOSQUITO. 

I cemented a live male mosquito with shellac to a glass slide 
and brought to bear on various fibrils a '-th objective. I then 
sounded successively, near the stage of the microscope, a series of 
tuning-forks with the openings of their resonant boxes turned 
toward the fibrils. On my first trials with an Ut 4 fork, of 512 v. 
per sec, I was delighted with the results of the experiments, fori 
saw certain of the fibrils enter into vigorous vibration, while others 
remained comparatively at rest. 

The table of experiments which I have given is characteristic 
of all of the many series which I have made. In the first column 
(A) I have given the notes of the forks in the French notation, 
which Konig stamps upon his forks. In the second (B) are the 
amplitudes of the vibrations of the end of the fibril in divisions 
of the micrometer scale ; and in column (C) are the values of 
these divisions in fractions of a millimetre. 



B$- 1-5 '0126 

Ut 5 2-0 '0168 

The superior effect of the vibrations of the Ut 4 fork on the fibn 
is marked, but thinking that the differences in the observed amp i" 
tudes of the vibrations might be owing to differences in the in «« 
sities of the various sounds, I repeated the experiment, but vibra^ 
with lower intensities the forks which gave the greater amph u » 
of co-vibration ; and although I observed an approach tow 
equality of amplitude, yet the fibre gave the m aximum ^i 
when Ut 4 was sounded, and I was persuaded that this special 
was tuned to unison with Ut 4 or to some other note within a s^ 
tone of it. The differences of amplitude given by Ut* an [ 
and Mi< are considerable, and the table also brings out W ^ 
esting observation that the lower (Ut 3 ) and the higher (b .j 
monies of Ut 4 cause greater amplitudes of vibration V* ^ 
intermediate notes. As long as a universal method for ^ 
mination of the relative intensities of sounds of diSeven J^ 
remains undiscovered, so long will the science of acoustics 



HE MOSQUITO. 585 

in its present vague qualitative condition.* Now, not having the 
means of equalizing the intensities of the vibrations issuing from 
the various resonant boxes, I adopted the plan of sounding, with 
a bow, each fork with the greatest intensity I could obtain. I 
think that it is to be regretted that Konig did not adhere to the 
form of fork, with inclined prongs, as formerly made by Marloye ; 
for with such forks one can always reproduce the same initial in- 
tensity of vibration by separating the prongs by means of the 
same cylindrical rod which is drawn between them. Kxperi incuts 
similar to those already given revealed a fibril tuned to such per- 
fect unison with Ut 3 that it vibrated through 18 divisions of the 
micrometer or -15 mm., while its amplitude of vibration was only 
3 div. when Ut 4 was sounded. Other fibrils responded to other 
notes, so that I infer from my experiments on about a dozen mos- 
quitoes that their fibrils are tuned to sounds extending through the 
middle and next higher octave of the piano. 

To subject to a severe test the supposition I now entertained, 
that the fibrils were tuned to various periods of vibration, I meas- 
ured with great care the lengths and diameters of two fibrils, one 
of which vibrated strongly to Ut 3 , the other as powerfully to Ut 4 ; 
and from these measures I constructed in homogeneous pine wood 
two gigantic models of the fibrils ; the one corresponding to the 
Uts fibril being about one metre long. After a little practice I 
succeeded in counting readily the number of vibrations they gave 
when they were clamped at one end and drawn from a horizontal 
Position. On obtaining the rati., of these numbers I found that 




586 AUDITORY APPARATUS OF THE MOSQUITO. 

it coincided with the ratio existing between the numbers of vibra- 
tions of the forks to which co-vibrated the fibrils of which these 
pine rods were models. 

The consideration of the relations which these slender, tapering, 
and pointed fibrils must have to the aerial pulses acting on them, 
led me to discoveries in the physiology of audition which I imagine 
are entirely new. If a sonorous wave falls upon one of these 
fibrils so that its wave-front is at right angles to the fibril, and 
hence the direction of the pulses in the wave are in the direction 
of the fibril's length, the latter cannot be set in vibration ; but if 
the vibrations in the wave are brought more and more to bear 
athwart the fibril it will vibrate with amplitudes increasing until it 
reaches its maximum swing of co-vibration, when the wave-front 
is parallel to its length and therefore the direction of the impulses 
on the wave are at right angles to the fibril. These curious sur- 
mises I have confirmed by many experiments made in. the following 
manner. A fork which causes a strong co-vibration in a certain 
fibril is brought near the microscope, so that the axis of the reso- 
nant box is perpendicular to the fibril and its opening is toward 
the microscope. The fibril, in these circumstances, enters into 
vigorous vibration on sounding the fork ; but, on moving the 
around the stage of the microscope so that the axis of the ox 
always points toward the fibril, the amplitudes of vibration of « 
fibril gradually diminish, and when the axis of the box c0 ™ cx ^ 
with the length of the fibril, and therefore the sonorous P als ® 9 * 
on the fibril in the direction of its length, the fibril is al--;^ 1 ;- 
stationary and even remains so when the fork, in this P 0Sltl0D * ce 
brought quite close to the microscope. These observations &o^ 
revealed to me a new function of these organs ; for ih or 
moment, we assume that the antennae are really the organs w^ 
receive aerial vibrations and transmit them to an auditory cap^ 
or rudimentary labyrinth, then these insects must have ^ ^ 
of the perception of the direction sound more highly e^^ 
than in any other class of animals. The following exper^ j^ 
will show the force of this statement and at the same » ^ of 
trate the manner in which these insects determine the dire iW) 
a sonorous centre. I placed under the microscope a live m ^ fte 
and kept my attention fixed upon a fibril which ^^^wn 
sound of a tuning-fork, which an assistant placed in ^ ^ 
positions around the microscope. I then rotated the stag 



the fibril ceased to vibrate, and then drew a line 
on a piece of paper, under the microscope, in the direction of the 
fibril. On extending this line, I found that it always cut within 5° 
of the position of the source of the sound. The antennae of the 
male mosquito have a range of motion in a horizontal direction, so 
that the angle included between them can vary considerably inside 
and outside of 40°,* and I conceive that this is the manner in 
which these insects during night direct their flight toward the 
female. • The song of the female vibrates the fibrillae of one of the 
antennae more forcibly than those of the other. The insect spreads 
the angle between his antennas, and thus, as I have observed, 
brings the fibrillae, situate within the angle formed by the antennae, 
in a direction approximately parallel to the axis of the body. The 
mosquito now turns his body in the direction of that antenna 
whose fibrils are most affected, and thus gives greater intensity to 
the vibrations of the fibrils of the other antenna. When he has 
thus brought the vibrations of the antenna? to equality of inten- 
sity, he has placed his body in the direction of the radiation of 
the sound, and he directs his flight accordingly ; and from my ex- 
periments it would appear that he can thus guide himself to within 
°° of the direction of the female. 
Some may assume from the fact of the co-vibration of these 



sounds of different pitch, that the mosquito has the power 



fibrils t 

°f decomposing the sensation of a composite sound into its simple 
components, as is done by the higher vertebrates ; but I do not 
hold this view, but believe that the range of co-vibration of the 
. ru 8 of the mosquito is to enable it to apprehend the varying 
Pitch of the sounds of the female. In other words, the want of 
definite and fixed pitch to the female's song demands for the re- 
ceiving apparatus of her sounds a corresponding range of co-vi- 
ration, so that instead of indicating a high order of auditory 
evelopment it is really the lowest, except in its power of deter- 
mi nmg the direction of a sonorous centre, in which respect it sur- 
passes by far our own ear.f 

tSomephysioTogists. s 



The auditory apparatus we have just described does not in the 
least confirm Helmholtz's Irypothesis of the functions of the organ 
of Corti ; for the supposed power of that organ to decompose a so- 
norous sensation depends upon the existence of an auditory nerve 
differentiated as highly as the co-vibrating apparatus, and in the 
case of the mosquito there is no known anatomical basis for such 
an opinion. In other words, my researches show external co- 
vibrating organs whose functions replace those of the tympanic 
membrane and chain of ossicles in receiving and transmitting 
vibrations ; while Helmholtz's discoveries point to the existence 
of internal co-vibrating organs which have no analogy to those of 
the mosquito, because the functions of the former are not to receive 
and transmit vibrations to the sensory apparatus of the ear, but 
to give the sensation of pitch and to decompose a composite so- 
norous sensation into its elements ; and this they can only do by 
their connection with a nervous development whose parts are as 
numerous as those of the co-vibrating mechanism. Now as sue 
a nervous organization does not exist in insects, it follows that 
neither anatomical nor functional relations exist between 
vibrating fibrils on the antennas and the co- vibrating rods in the 
organ of Corti, and therefore, that neither Hensen's experiment 3 
on the Mysis (assumed by Helmholtz to confirm his hypothesis), 
nor mine on the mosquito, can be adduced in support of Helmhol zs 
hypothesis of audition.* nd j 

The above described experiments were made wit ^ ar ^' oatab . 
think that I am authorized to hold the opin 



lished a physical connection existing between 



the sounds emit* 



!i:i: ti'-'i 



•rill* of the 



by the female and the co-vibrations of the antem — 

male mosquito ; but only a well established physiologic^"^ 




between these co-vibrating parts <>f the animal and the develop- 
ment of its nervous system will authorize us to state that these 
are really the auditory organs of the insect. At this stage of the 
investigation I began a search through the zoological journals, and 
found nearly all that I could desire in a paper, in vol. iii, 1 *•"»<>, of 
the Quarterly Journal of the Microscopical Society, entitled " Au- 
ditory apparatus of the Cuiex Mosquito, by Christopher Johnston, 
M. D., Baltimore, U. S." 

In this excellent paper I found clear statements showing that 
its talented author had surmised the existence of some of the 
physical facts which my experiments and observations have es- 
tablished.* To show that anatomical facts conform to the hy- 
["•thesis that the antenna! fibrils are the auditory organs of the 
mosquito, I cannot do better than quote the following from Ur. 

"While bearing in mind the difference between feeling a noise 
and perceiving a vibration, we may safely assume with Carus— for 
a great number of insects, at least,— that whenever true auditory 
organs are developed in them, their seat is- to be found in the 
neighborhood of the antenna}. That these parts themselves are, 
in some instances, concerned in collecting and transmitting so- 
norous vibrations, we hold as established by the observations we 
have made, particularly upon the Culex mosquito ; while we believe, 
as Newport has asserted in general terms, that they serve also as 
tactile organs. 

"The male mosquito differs considerably, as is well known, from 
the female ; his body being, smaller and of a darker color, and his 
nead furnished with nntr,ui» and palpi in a state of greater de- 
velopment. (Fig. 92.) Notwithstanding the fitness of his organs 
f or predatory purposes, he is timid, seldom entering dwellings or 
annoying man, but restricts himself to damp and foul places, es- 
pecially sinks and privies. The female, on the other hand, gives 
greater extension to her flight, and attacking our race, is the 
occasion of no inconsiderable disturbance and vexation during 
the summer and autumn months. 

"The head of the male mosquito, about 0-67 mm. wide, is pro- 



590 AUDITORT APPAR. 



vided with lunate eyes, between which in front superiorly are 
found two pyriform capsules nearly touching each other, and 
having implanted into them the very remarkable antennae. 

s, measuring about 0'21 mm., is composed of a horny 
is attached posteriorly by its pedicle, while anteriorly 
it rests upon a horny- ring, united with its fellow by a transverse 
fenestrated band, and to which it is joined by a thin elastic mem- 
brane. Externally it has a rounded form, but internally it resembles 




and between this inner cup and outer globe there exists « 

except at the bottom or proximal end, where both are unit* 

u The antennae are of nearly equal length in the male t 

"In the male, the antennae is about 1*75 n 



of fourteen joints, twelve short and W -arlv 



_ 



>-70 mm. Each of the shorter joints has a fenestrated sh 
with an external investment, and terminates simply P<? s 



THE MOSQUITO. 591 

but is encircled anteriorly with about forty papillce, upon which 
are implanted long and stiff hairs, the proximal sets being about 
079 mm. and the distal ones 0*70 mm. in length; and it is beset 
with minute bristles in front of each whorl. 

"The two last joints have each a whorl of about twenty short 
hairs near the base. 

''In the female the joints are nearly equal, number but thirteen, 
and have each a whorl of about a dozen small hairs around the 
base. Here, as well as in the male, the parts of the antennae 
enjoy a limited motion upon each other, except the basal joint, 
which, being fixed, moves with the capsule upon which it is im- 
planted. 

"The space between the inner and outer walls of the capsule, 
which we term confidently the auditory capsule,* is filled with a 
fluid of moderate consistency, opalescent and containing minute 
spherical corpuscles, and which probably bears the same relation 
to the nerve as does the lymph in the scalae of the cochlea of 
higher animals. The nerve itself, of the antenna, proceeds from 
the first or cerebral ganglion, advances toward the pedicle of the 
capsule in company with the large trachea, which sends its rami- 
fications throughout the entire apparatus, and, penetrating the 
Pedicle, its filaments divide into two portions. The central threads 
continue forward into the antenna, and are lost there ; the periph- 
eral ones, on the contrary, radiate outward in every direction, 
e »ter the capsular space, and are lodged there for more than half 
their length in sulci wrought in the inner wall or cup of the capsule. 

" In the female the disposition of parts is observed to be nearly 
the same, excepting that the capsule is smaller, and that the last 
ll,s ^l antenna! joint is rudimental. 

" The proboscis does not differ materially in the two sexes ; but 
tlle Palpi, although consisting in both instances of the same 
number of pieces, are very unlike. In the female they are ex- 
tremely short, but in the male attain the length of 2-73 mm. ; 
while tbe proboscis measures but 2-16 mm. They are curved up- 
w ard at the extremity. 

* * The position of the capsules strikes us as extremely 
!u V ° rable for the Performance of the function which we assign to 
which there present themselves in the same light 



the m; besides 



the anatomical arrangement of the capsules, the disposition and 
lodgment of the nerves, the fitness of the expanded whorls for 
receiving, and of the jointed antennae fixed by the immovable 
basal joint for transmitting, vibrations created by the sonorous 
undulations. The intracapsular fluid is impressed by the shock, 
the expanded nerve appreciates the effect of the sound, by the 
quantity of the impression ; of the pitch, or quality by the con- 
sonance of particular whorls of stiff hairs, according to their 
lengths; and of the direction in which the undulations trau-'i. j 
the manner in which they strike upon the antennae, or may be 
made to meet either antenna? in consequence of an opposite move- 
ment of that part. 

"That the male should be endowed with superior acuteness oi 
the sense of hearing appears from the fact, that he must seek the 
female for sexual union either in the dim twilight or in the dark 
night, when nothing but her sharp humming noise can serve nun 
as a guide. The necessity for an equal perfection of hearing does 
not exist in the female ; and, accordingly, we find that the organ* 
of the one attain a development which the others never reach. 
In these views we believe ourselves to be borne out by direct ex- 
periment, in connection with which we may allude to the grea er 
difficulty of catching the male mosquito. 

" In the course of our observations we have arrived at the wn 
elusion, that the antennas serve to a considerable extent as organ 
of touch in the female ; for the palpi are extremely short, * 
the antenna? are very movable, and nearly equal the V v ° m 
in length. In the male, however, the length and perfect deve r 
ment of the palpi would lead us to look for the seat of the tac^ 
sense elsewhere, and, in fact, we find the two apical anten^ 
joints to be long, movable, and comparatively free from ^ 
and the relative motion of the remaining joints very muc 

limitetL " , * •„ the fall, sd 

My experiments on the mosquito began late in ^ 

therefore I was not able to extend them to other inse T^ nte =. 
spring I purpose to resume the research, and will espe ^ 
pecially on those orthoptera and hemiptera which voluntau. 



THE GOSSAMER SPIDER.* 



like cobwebs flouting in the air, in calm, clear weather, espec- 
ially in autumn, and is probably formed by a species of spider." 
l'retty -rood for a dictionary maker. But lie didn't know how it 
happened to be floating in the air. 

Sure enough, that fine, filmy substance is formed by a little 
spider. I have seen them making it. It is a balloon, and if 
Webster had caught one of those floating locks of gossamer 
before it reached a landing place, be would have found the little 
aeronaut and half a dozen young ones aboard of it. The bal- 
loon is the plan adopted by that particular species of Arachnids, 
to Mattes widecast its young ones. 

This species of spider constructs nets and snares, and, like 
many other species of the family, its net is circular, very regularly 
and systematically constructed, and thoughtfully placed in an open 
passage way, seven or eight feet from the ground between two 
bushy trees, and above the contingency of being broken by a 
roaming cow or loose horse. 

In setting and establishing the two first brace lines between 
the two trees it has selected for its net, it displays much sagacity 



ugenuity, with a thorough knowledge of the powers 



of the 



i possible method and position to avail itself of 
Mi uses. Climbing up the tree situated to the windward, it takes 
l*osition, at the proper elevation on the point of the longest twig 
■ can find that projects towards the other tree of its selection ; 
and spinning one of its gossamer webs of the proper length, 
Patiently waits for a breath of air to waft it across the vacant 
space of ten to twenty feet and lash its viscid extremity to some 
projecting twig or leaf of the opposite tree. It holds the line in 
« band, feels when it strikes, and instantly making the home end 
ta 't. strikes out boldly on the microscopic thread, lets go another 
«Wd as she travels, and is soon observed lashing down the ends 



of the now double line, to a twig of the other tree. This done, it 
runs back and forth on it, spinning a thread every trip until § 
line is ten or fifteen ply. 

It now places itself on another twig of the windward treo. I 
nearly under the first line as possible and six or eight feet below, 
lets go another thread. As soon as it feels it has caught on the 
opposite tree it fastens down the home end, and hastens to reenaet 
all we saw it perform on the first line. It seems to be much elated 
and encouraged by its successes, and, now hurriedly, is seen climb- 
ing up the first tree, and very soon is engaged at work as near the 
middle of the upper line, as could have been obtained by actual 
measurement. Soon it is observed descending spinning out a 
thread as it goes, it being safely fastened to the upper line. It 
swings clown until it is somewhat below the lower line; but 
finds that the thread it hangs on, is half a yard or more to one 
side of its lower line. It now, after a moment's reflection, at- 
tempts to swing, pendulum-like, at the end of its thread to and 
from the lower line. The spider soon ascertained that success di 
not lie in that experiment ; and wound up the thread it was hang- 
ing on until it regained its position on the middle of the upper 
line. It was very nearly calm, and it rapidly spun out a long « 
thread, which, light as was the breeze, passed above the ower 
brace line. It was however continuously extended until it s 
amongst the brush some distance away. The ingenious 
workman continued to spin out the thread, until the slack o 
bending down came in contact and adhered to the lower ^ 
Feeling the entanglement, it immediately ran down, cut an ^ 
loose the surplus end of the thread, carried the end in ■* a ^ J . 
point at right angles with the attachment to the Hoe above,j 
it fast, then quickly ran about a yard along the lower tm 
tached a thread, returning, ran up the middle line, thea*^ 
the upper brace to a point perpendicular to where it had . 
the thread in hand to the lower brace, drew up the slack an fl 
it fast. Then passing on the upper brace to a point abou ..^ 
beyond the middle dropped line, made a thread fast and iw -Jjj 
descended the middle line, carrying the thread to a pom *^ 
angles with its attachment above, and giving it the proper ^ rf 
made it fast. And now, laying three or four threads " io0g . 
these three stay lines, the balance of the work, thoug 
was easily accomplished. 



• brace, at- 



and with the 



approach of a stranger. One species of mud dauber destroys mul 
titudes of the gossamer spiders. 

When, in the last days of November there comes a clear da} 
temperature GO Fall, wind gently from the south ; at about OH 

may be seen, in this latitude at various heights and distance, ver 
many white locks of gossamer floating smoothly in the air. al 
going with the wind. These are the balloons of the gossame 
spider. And there is a mother and half a dozen or more youn: 
-p'.ders aboard of every one of them. 

Each balloon is furnished with two long lines at the forward end 
which may be seen, waving and flapping in the wind as they rh 
and seeming to aid in preserving the equable position of the ligh 
floating craft. 

Towards four o'clock, p. M., the spectator will observe that th 
balloons are beginning to descend; and at the same time he wil 
>» great numbers of long glittering webs, detached and floatm 
at random all rising higher as they go on with the wind. 

Meanwhile the balloons with their freight are whirling, not ver 
rapidly downwards, until they strike some tall weed or grass 
*uen they become entangled, and the passengers instantly lea 
out. and spinning out a web swing themselves down to the ground 

If the observer is near enough when the balloon strikes he ca 
s ee all this. 



1 we noticed these balloons, when the wind 
tude of one or two thou 



596 ON THE NESTING OP CERTAIN HAWKS, ETC. 

is no telling where they came from or how far they might float. 
150, or 200 miles perhaps. Thus is scattered the species over 
vast districts, which, no doubt, is the object of their aeronautic 
journey. 

When they intend to make an ascension, they fix themselves on 
some extreme point of the branch of a tree, or weed or corn tassel ; 
there carefully spin out a lock of white gossamer five or six inches 
long and two inches wide in the middle, tapering towards the ends; 
holding it all the time in the gentle breeze by a thread two or three 
inches long, which, being attached to the end of the selected 
point, detains the balloon until it is finished. They then spin out 
at the bow two lines thirty or forty feet in length, another at the 
stern twenty or thirty feet long, then cut the cable and float briskly 
upwards and forwards on an inclined plane. 

I once observed one of these spiders at work on the upper corner 
of an open, outside door shutter. She was spinning gossamer, ot 
which, she was forming a balloon ; and clinging to her thorax was 
a little cluster of minute, young spiders. She finished up the body 
of the balloon ; threw out the long bow lines, which were flapping 
and fluttering on the now gently increasing breeze, several minute* 
before she got all ready for the ascension. She seemed to « 
fixing the bottom and widening her hammock-shaped balloon. Am 
now the breeze being suitable, she moved to the cable in the stern, 
severed it, and her craft bounded upwards and soaring awa 
northwards, was soon beyond the scope of my observatl ^ Je . 
was standing near when it was preparing to cast loose the ca 
and had thought I would arrest its flight but it bounded away n 
such a sudden hop, that I missed and it was gone. 



ON THE NESTING OF CERTAIN HAWKS 



In a recent number of the '. 
the nidification of Swainson's 
nothing to say of the eggs, as 
for them. The present year 



:ire entirely unwooded ; the streams cut their sinuous course <l<-'']> 
into the loose soil of the prairie, making on the convexity of 
almost every turn a hold perpendicular earth-hank a hundred feet. 
more or less, in height. To these "cut-banks" as they are called. 
Bvahnon'i and some other hawks, to be presently mentioned, re- 
sort to breed. The nest is composed of small sticks — the stems 
of sage brush and other rank weeds — with grasses, etc.. and is ot 

little projecting shelf of ground, generally near the top of the 
embankment. The eggs of this bird I have taken, fresh and in 
various stages of incubation, from the latter part of June till the 
middle of July. No one of the numerous sets contained more 
than two eggs ; this is obviously the usual complement, in this lat- 
itude at least, though presumably not the maximum. In one in- 
stance, I found but a single egg in the nest, so far advanced in 
incubation that I was satisfied no other would have been laid. 
These eggs differ, furthermore, from what I believe to be the rule 
in this genus, in being nearly colorless and unmarked. They are 
quite like hens' eggs in general appearance, as well as in size and 
shape. Most of my specimens are uniform dull white, with no 
Bore evident markings than such 008 
frequently observed in the eggs of the marsh ' 
'"'"* H'clsonicus) ; a few have some obvious dirty-brown scratchy 
s l>ots, in every instance at the small end ; none are marked all 
°ver, nor are any of them strongly blotched at all. It would have 
been impossible to predicate the normal character of these eggs 
u l>on any rule which might be supposed to hold in this genus. 
p lain colorless eggs, the well-known exceptions in the cases of 
m any or most species of Buteo, are here the rule. 

It may not be generally known that the ferrugineous buzzard 
Urchibuteo ferrvr,;, , „* , uhi, h i- m-civ lit.-d. and properly so, with 
a fcoMedly western range, is a common species of eastern Montana 
an <* the adjoining portions of Dakota, in latitude 49°. I have 



frequently seen it this summer along 


the i 


orthern tril.i 


Milk river, where I have 


secured some 


fine 


specimens of 


young, and observed its 


nidification. 


riiis 


s precisely t 


as that of Buteo Swainst 


ni, the nest w 


neb 


r found be'm 


projection on 


the face of an 


eartl 


bluff. Itc 


three young, about read\ 


to take flight 


Julj 


18th. 




ised to find y 


et a tl 1 1 


nesting in the same un 


lsual manner 


Th 


s was the j 


falcon or duck hawk (Fc 


Ico communis) 


, a I) 


■tl whose aid 



troversy, and entered into the discussion of the relationship < 
the American to the European form. I was tin; 
cover the nest, which very few ornithologists have seen in l| 
country, and to note how readily the bird adapted itsell 
special surroundings. In this region the falcon may be truthtu.. 
said to nest on the ground; yet we must remember that it ia ^ '■ 
the replacing by an earthen embankment of the rocky cni^ 
the bird is described as usually nesting. In effect the loC* '-'•<■ | 
the same. One of the two nests I found was almost witam .- 
shot of the two spots where Swainson's and the ferrugineooa 
zard were respectively nesting. It was almost a burro" '■ _• 
ground, so completelv was it hidden on a little shelt ot ^a. 
neath a projecting mass, and further concealed by a tall coln^ 
earth nearly washed away from the face of the bank, n* 1 
contained three young ones, just able to fly. On I"- 1 ;- 
down by a rope over the brow of the bank, tb 
and circled about till two were shot ; one parent had been a i 
'ed; the other was not seen. The third young on 
_j u , . t _ _ , , ,...._ _,.,. u„a managed to capt<^ 



'light to mo by a soldier who had 
it alive ; it is still in my possession 



• 



and enterprising prisoner. The other nest was on the ; 
a perp,ndi,ular embankment, on a slight shelf ^ ■;; 
below the top. It likewise contained three yonr>«(W 
yet able to leave the nest, lioth parents hovered ov^ 
loud harsh ones: the male hep! at a . e.peotlul di^no- » 
mother bird, more intrepid in the defence of her home," ^ 
me at close range, till, at one of her swoops, I brought, 



ink rendered descent to the nest to 
|M family to the care of the fathei 



-:i!i.|- ufthe swallows' nests patched the face of the hanks in van- 
while another group was affixed within a few leet ot one <>t the 

whether the swallows were fond of their bold ami powerful neigh- 
bors or not. 
In speaking of this unusual association of swallows ami falcons, 

pair of Arkansas flycatchers, and Swainson's buzzard; their nests 
being in the same tree and hut a few feet apart. Both birds were 
incubating a t the time of my visit. 

The Arkansas flycatcher (Tyrannies vertkdU*), is one of the 
commonest of the small birds along the Upper Missouri and the 
wooded parts of the Milk river and its tributaries. So far as I 
have observed, however, it will not go into an entirely treeless 
country. In travelling over the prairie, no sooner do we strike a 
*«Nde» (ravine) with scattered cottonwoods and box-elders, than 
99 hear the shrill cries of these birds - t and the nest— or several 
Of them — may usually be soon discovered, the nest being bulky, 
a ntl the trees straggling, with thin foliage. These birds lay later 
than most species in this country. I have taken fresh eggs up to 
the middle of Jul v. and am sure there was no previous brood. 
The nests are in a fork or crotch, generally far out on the limb, 
but sometimes directlv a-ainst the trunk : and at any height from 
fi ve or six to forty or fifty feet. The common kingbird is gener- 
al seen in company with this species ; I have taken both nests 
from the same tree. The eggs of the two are indistinguishable ; 
°or can the nests be told apart with certainty ; though on an aver- 
age the Arkansas is the larger, softer and fluffier, with more weedy 
aiul downy material and fewer slender rootlets; it r - 1 " 1 



'^ compactly built. The* 



umber. 
' Vi th the sam e general habitsTthese two flycatchers may instantly 
De ^cognized by the voice ; that of the Arkansas is much harsher 



and louder than that of the common kingbird, which more nearly 

resembles the twittering of a martin. The difference is very 

noticeable when the two species are hovering together overhead. 

Hon of their homes. 

Our common I led to the long list of the cow- 

bird's victims, and to the shorter catalogue of those ingenious birds 
who get rid of the obnoxious egg by building a two-story nest 
I have such a one in my collection, with a cowbird's egg safely 
shut up in the basement. 

Nothing that I am aware of has been entered upon the records 
respecting the nidification of the mountain plover (Eudwmias m ■ - 
tana) . I find it breeding quite commonly in all the region immedi- 
ately north of the Milk river, and extending at least as far east as 
tbe mouth of this river. It nests on the open prairie, in June and 
July. There is nothing peculiar in the nidification ; the nest is 
merely a slight depression, lined with a few grass blades. The 
only set of eggs I have contains three ; and as I have severa 
times noticed the parent leading her brood of three young over 
the prairie, I conclude that this number, and not four, is the usu 
complement, in this latitude at least. The eggs are as descnlr 
in my late work ; they are rather peculiar, and little liable to 
confounded with those of any of the allied waders. When startle 
from the nest the bird makes off crouching low, running swiftl} V^ 
with frequent pauses, and uttering meanwhile a low cha m 
note, quite unlike the ordinary soft mellow cry. As I hW»*j* 
the bird nests anywhere on the dry prairie ; but if it lmv ^ 
preference, it is for the stretches of low loose grassy gro und w jJJ 
the prairie dogs settle, as distinguished from the more an 
gravelly or stony prairie. The period of nesting must e p^ 
tracted ; for I have taken nearlv fresh eggs at the same tun* < 
I saw broods running about, and but a few days before W»M ™£ 
ered young, no longer under charge of the parent were o 

The numberless alkaline pools or small lakes with wh* J£ 
tions of Dakota and Montana are cursed are the favorite re ^ 
resorts of two very elegant and interesting birds ; the a\ ' ]y 
Wilson's phalarope. These two species are always ir V J^ 
associated in my mind, so frequently have I found them «» ^ 
not only in this region, but in Kansas and other parts o 



regions of our Territories. In flight 



- 



birds of t 



tance by its resemblance to a miniature crane : its body white, and 
wings black, its long blue legs stretched stiffly straight behind, and 
the measured sweep of its ample wings, unlike the quicker heats of 
the thin, pointed pinions of its allies. Its voice is also character- 
invaded. This bird must nest quite early; as I found no eggs, 
and by the middle of July well grown and completely feathered 
young birds were flocking. These may be distinguished from the 
adults among other marks, by the curiously swollen condition of 
the shank ; the upper part of the tarsus being two or three times 
as thick as the tibia. It is much the same with the phalaropcs 
and other waders. As regards the singular bill of the avocet. the 
amount of curvature of which has occasioned no little discussion, 
I may observe that I have shot some birds with the bill about as 
much curved as it is represented to be in Wilson's figure, which 
has been severely criticised, and others with the bill as straight 
as Audubon drew it ; nor was the difference, so far as I could see, 
anything more than fortuitous. The degree of swimming power 
the avocet possesses has also been variously estimated. The bird 
generally wades about after its food ; but on striking a deep place 
begins to swim without the slightest hesitation ; and moreover, I 
have seen it alight from on wing on deep water, and swim about 
as freely as a duck. In this respect, the avocet and the phalarope 
are about on a par. 

One of the most generally diffused of the birds that breed 
along the Upper Missouri and in the Milk river region is the 
long-billed curlew (X'truehhis longirostris). I have travelled lor 
days together and scarcely lost sight of these birds for an hour, 
during the daytime ; while at night their piercing and lugubrious 
cries resounded to the howling of the wolves. There is something 
Peculiarly melancholy, and almost foreboding, in their screams, 
heard in these remote wilds, where the traveller is never entirely 
free from a sense of contingent danger. The birds breed any- 
where on the broad prairie — perhaps oftenest in the vicinity of 
Pools and sloughs, but not necessarily near waten The eggs^* 
mostly laid in June, but there is a wide range ii 
1 ^v e taken a set in Julv. h: a in o ■• ■ ioush < uight young t 
These, like other waders when young, have a curiously clumsy 
and gawky appearance when running over the prairie, as if their 
kg* were too Ion- and heavy to be easily managed. They may 



Thus 
r birds. 



602 ON THE NESTING OF CERTAIN HAWKS, ETC. 

readily be caught during the first week or two. At this age the 
bill is about two inches long, comparatively stout throughout, and 
scarcely decurved. 

Among the smaller birds of the boundless prairie, a few species 
are specially notable. The commonest and most universally dif- 
fused is the western horned lark (Eremophila alpestris leucotem) ; 
we find it breeding everywhere. It begins to lay very early; 
the < o 1) speckled young ones, quite unlike the adults, may 
be taken any time in June, already flying ; while eggs (doubtless 
of a second brood) may be secured through July. The mode 
of nesting of the larks, and of the three most conspicuous prairie 
fringillaries, is substantially the same. The three to which I refer 
are the bay-winged bunting (Pooecetes gramineus confiMih W 
chestnut-collared bunting (Plectrophanes ornatus) and Maccown's 
bunting (P. Maccownii). These two Plectrophanes are the most 
characteristic of the prairie sparrows, and are found together iu 
abundance in most of the regions here under consideration. P 
ofnatus however, is rather the more easterly of the two. Thus, 
it is common all over northern Dakota and the eastern part of 
Montana ; while I have seen none since I came the first few miles 
up the Milk river, where P. Maccownii increases in numbers, then 
becomes the prevailing, and finally the only species. The c] ; es j^' 
collared has a very pretty habit of soaring, like Sprague's tim 
while the female is incubating, singing in the air, and letting i- 
gradually down like a parachute, with the wings stretched ap_^ 
at a right angle with each other— an action that displays th f^J_ 
black of the under parts and the white of the tail to the es 
vantage. Floating thus lightly in the air they remind one ot b _^ 
terflies ; and their song, though not of the highest excelled , 
sweet, gladsome and musical. . tlie 

Great numbers of water-fowl stay their flight to nest u i 
pools and sloughs of our Northern Boundary ; among them n^ 
mentioned mallards, widgeons, shovellers, teals, pintails, ^a^ 
buffle-heads and wild geese. To resume the subject wit ^ 
this slight article began, namely, exceptional modes of nes i •, 
would say that the geese of this region sometimes nest QflU, 
ground around the ponds, as geese ordinarily do. and th ^; []t ., 
they sometimes nest in trees, somewhat like' wood ducks, J 
they do not enter holes for this purpose. Arboreal nidil^ ■ 
geese sounds strangely, but it is nevertheless true ; .and it i s 



ircumstance to those persons who inhabit the 

1 ornithologists may he in the ma 
a case narallel with that related l.y Audub. 



Kle with an observa 
i been repeatedly Bts 
>Ct8, and had nothin. 



thin, so as to appear merely a membranous bag, but for all 1 
could see that the disposition of the muscles is the same as that 
Obtaining in other gallinaceous birds. The case is simply a 
reduction of the amount of muscle, without any essential change 
in arrangement. At least this is the result of an off-hand dissec- 
tion, such as one would be likely to make in the field. The 
change is an evident adaptation to the soft and succulent or juicy 
nature of the bird's food— buds, leaves and insects, instead of 
grain. There is another peculiarity of this bird, also dependent 
upon its food, and the nature of the digestive process. When 
flushed it almost invariably acts in the way which has given the 
green heron (Ardea 'virescens) its inelegant popular appellation.— 
Milk Piiver, at i'J°, July 25, 1874. 



THE METAMORPHOSIS OF FLIES.* 



< Before I pass to the general res 
tions a short chronological exhibit c 
m ent will be useful. 

!n agreement with all the earlier observations on the einbry- 
ol °gy of other insert, it is apparent that during the life of the 
lar va, in its outer form as well as the internal organs, only the 



phenomena of growth are manifested, and not a deeper rea« h ; . 
metamorphosis. As the enlargement of an organ by simple growth 
in the Vertebrates is allied with a new formation of blood vessel?. 
so here the origin of a new trachea is accompanied by the speedy 
enlargement of muscles and intestine, and with this very impor- 
tant continual increase of the net-work of trachea? is combined an 
expansion and increase in volume, so that after the first moulting. 
on the anterior end of the body, a new pair of stigmata are formed, 
while the aperture in the hinder one is doubled, and after a sec- 
ond moulting, a three-fold aperture is made. Accompanying this 
is a certain change in the apparatus of hooks arming the mouth 
of the larva. All these changes are not of great importance ; they 
lead to no new feature in the organization of the animal ; they are 
series of processes which pm-rdc the formation of entirely ne 
organs or parts. Transformation in this last sense occurs only in 
those parts of the larva, out of which the parts of the adult insects 
are developed. The genital glands, as well as the outer sMnoJ tl* 
• segments bearing the appendages of the fly's body, are dr&d$fl*# ' 
in the larva; indeed they are even formed during the development oj 
the embryo. t 

We find ourselves in fact almost going back to the encase "J™ 
theory of Swammerclam, who believed that the larva, pupa wM 
terfly were imprisoned from the very first in each other, anc 
to light by the successive casting off of each skin. It * s ""j 
only this, that the parts of the fly* do not all lie perfectly 
within the larva, but exist only as rudiments, and that w . j 
part of the body of the fly is newly formed, while some o 
parts will be produced out of the larva. The head and^- 
with their appendages are formed within the larva >\ '' ^ eV , 
development of special cell masses. The abdomen, • ' 
arises through a simple change of a number of larva s „ ^ 
The head and thorax arise not as a whole out of a sing ^ 
mass, but in separate pieces, out of which after pupation 
form is perfected. . . te f r0 m 

The head arises out of two groups of cells which ongi ^.^ 
a nervous filament sent off from the supra-ms 
but each segment of the thorax arises out of four ^'^V',, £ 
of cells which are partly inserted ir 



- 



of 


cells form flat disk-like 




less membrane and may 1 


idl 


imaginul disk of the thora 




appendage belonging to i 


Ad, 


the appendages of the 1 



The pupation in Sarcophaga oeeurs right of ten days after the 

marked contraction of the whole body, with an infolding ol the 
first segments. 

Under the hardened, barrel-shaped, larva skin [puparium], the 
true pupa is formed, i. e., the body of the fly enclosed by a special 
membrane, the pupa-sheath. The process of formation of the 
body of the fly, while thus enclosed, lasts for four days after the 
Pupation. Then it reaches that stage which in the development 
of the butterfly is shown by a stripping off of the larva skin, and 
the formation of the pupa is ended : then begins the development 
of the same. This consists in the building up of the external 
form of the body, and in establishing the position and develop- 
ment of the internal organs. This period can be divided into 
two sections, which are here described chronologically. The first 
division consists of the more delicate modelling of the outer form. 
Hitherto the insect has appeared only in its crudest shape, the 
appendages of the thorax and head are but rudimentary, neither 
attaining their full size, nor their definitive form. All these parts 
ai> e now entirely formed, and are matured in from two to seven 
" :,Vs - and already covered with colorless hairs and bristles. 

The second division covers the period of the eighth to the 
twentieth day, during which time the inner organs are completed. 
and the outer surface of the body assumes its peculiar colors. 

The first period, that of the formation of the pupa, lasting from 
0ne to f our days, begins with the destruction of the four anterior . 
se gments of the larva. The hypodermis which gives it its form 
J* loosened, the muscles of the body-walls, as also of the pharynx, 

e cell ular walls of the pharynx itself, the anterior part < * " 
:t. Durin: 
imagiual disks : 
dages, which are indeed very short, 
uad are nothing but a 



606 

projection outwards of these same thoracic pieces. However 
here — as we had until now I im slit — the appendages of the imago 
do not result froi . out of the larval hypodermic 

as would seem to be correct in a morphological view, which would 
consider the appendages of the insectean body as projections; of 
the skin, during their development not aborted, but persistent. 
They are in fact still, however, projections outwards of the skin. 
though they are formed at a time when the skin has not grown 
into closed segments. Still we find at the end of the second day 
the formative disks of the thorax appended to their pedicels 
(nerves, tracheae) in the form of swollen transparent vesicles, and 
within them the thoracic pieces to which they are closely related. 
with its appendage, can be easily observed. In three days they 
have attained their perfection, the skin peels off and falls away. 
and they now become three completed rings, the thoracic seg- 
ments. At the same time the tracheae of the larva are thrown o • 
and then begins the formation of a peculiar trachcary s\ -t< 
which performs its functions only during the pupal period. I Q lts 
trunks and larger branches it resembles the larval system, but i 
the terminal rings is unlike anything else. In this respect t eii 
structure is very peculiar, in that all the ends project M?«* 
the liquids of the body, and nowhere, as before, do they send W 
branches to the different organs. The filling of the ne« -} ^ 
of air vessels with air does not go on during the remain"* «? | 
ings, through a removal of the old proximal tubes (»n«i«ar ' 
this cannot be completely seen during the life of the pop* 
through the cross division of the proximal tubes (/,*>"" ' 
in a determined place of the stem near the anterior »tignn 1 1- 

At the third day the three segments of the thorax unite <^ 
a small ring which posteriorly coalesces with the edge o 
larval segment; but the anterior edges arc puffed up w ' '' 
In the opening lie loose the chitinous parts of the mou ^ 
. the apparatus of hooks. The head of the fly is not yet to ' 
but the rudiments of the same are still visible u.tluu t i- - , 
In the two formative disks of the body, whi<-li «"e w«>ui»_\ 
as appendages to the brain, develop into a vesicle oontainwB ^ 
cesophagal ganglion, the head-vesicle, on which the eyes ^ 
temue are already indicated, and fmm under who-'' !; | / ' . 
the proboscis grows out. On the fourth day the he» ■ . . 

advanced forwards from within the thorax, conies to hg 



the end of the first period. 

The process of development of the first four days is confined 
not wholly to the outer crust of the body, but also to the new re- 
modelling, or transformations of some of the inner organs. The 
nervous centres which had been separated in the larva here become 
luted; an infra-oesophagi il ganglion separates (abschniirt) from 
the ventral cord, and the upper (supra-u'sophageal ganglion) di- 
vides into two divisions, of which the outer may be considered the 
central organ of the sense of sight (ganglion opticum) and as the 
bulb of the compound eyes. 

All the anterior and middle portion of the alimentary canal 
sloughs off, and at the end of four days becomes renewed. This 
happens only to the oesophagus and chyle-stomach, while the pro- 
ventricalus and csecal appendages of the stomach are not thus re- 
produced. They break up cell by cell ; these cells are carried 
into the chyle-stomach forming there a compact mass, which is 
surrounded with a peculiar covering, as if encysted. They do 
not fill up the cavity, but swim in a honey-like liquid which by 
jKa time will have been secreted by the cells of the walls. Here 
tlie t>olls are preserved, though the organ is destroyed, thus the 
"■conversion is effected in the walls of the chyle-stomach. Each 
Ml decays by fatty degeneration and in the place of the old cells 
a me new ones which rebuild the organ. The destruction of the 
W« is accompanied by a contraction of the muscular walls, and 
nreby an important shortening of the organ is produced. Next 
*•« muscles as well as the trachea? decay, many branches of 

al »nentary canal remains without air-vessels until the last day of 
*■ pupa state. As soon as the abdomen has formed, by the con- 
"•action of the subcutaneous muscles of the last eight larval seg- 
ments, the muscles disappear, and at the same time, namely, 
lU » tie U mce of the head, at which time also the nervous 
centres become pushed forward : they tear away also the degener- 
St€d nei "vous branches, whose terminal threads likewise become 



608 

destroyed with the organs in which they ramify. Of the influence 
of the nervous system on the entire organism, there is nothing to 
be said since the change of form of the central parts ts accompa- 
nied by a complete histological transformation, as the interpene- 
tration of their cell masses with fat demonstrates. 

The dorsal vessel does not now perform its functions. The 
animal now consists of a thin cellulose skin, with its content; 
partly destroyed, in part completely destroyed, and in part alrea n 
concerned in the new formation of the organs. The entire tat 
body, cellulose tissue, of the larva, is lost in a liquid mass of fat 
globules and nuplei, and they are mingled with the decaying mus- 
cles, tracheal, etc. At the end of the first period the contents of 
the pupal body may be well compared with the contents of the 
fertilized egg. All visible traces of animal life have ceawd i M 
action of the centres of the expression of animal life is suspended, 
and out of this chaos of elemental parts the organs are built up 
anew. One essential difference from the development of the em- 
bryo only remains, that at no time arc all the inner organs wan- 
ing. External activity and decay occur simultaneously. But an 
internal or external movements are wanting; sense organs *J 
nerves are wanting, and there can be truly said to be ^"J^ 
impressions received, though an activity may 1 
central parts of the nervous system. Yet a regular I 
does not occur, and the only relative physiological action »^j 
of breathing, which here goes on as passively as in the egg, ^ 
one case through the stigmata and tracheae, in the ot er - 
pores of the egg-shell. An active breathing process, sucU * B 
on in the perfect state, is entirely wanting. ^ j^ 

While the decay of the inner organs is going on. or .^^ 
taken place, the formative elements begin to develop ^ 

out of the cell-mass ; fat nuclei, fat globules, and & * kf *^ q 
unite into round masses of nucleated spheres, whic ' j n g s 
of building up a membrane around themselves, and era ^^ of 
nucleus within. Already in the third, still more in the ^ 
the fourth, day do the appendages of the thorax grow » ^ ^ 
and all arise from a thin cellulose skin, and out ^^ytf 
cavity which fills up with fat globules and nuclei as "^ J^.;. ,.: 
gradually breaks up. With this begins the im-'^"-" 
the appendages and of the external form of the body ^ popa 
definitive form ; the period of formation of the body o 



ascribed to t 
r flow of n 



has ended, and now begins the period of development of the 
same. It lasts from the fifth day to the time of exclusion of the 
fly, and can, as has already been shown above, be divided into 
two subdivisions, of which the first reaches to the end of the sev- 
enthday. 

First to be noticed is the formation of the pupa-case, which, how- 
ever, was in existence at the end of the first period, but lies as the 
cuticula right on the cellular skin (zellenrinde) by which it was 
ensheathed. It now rises up and a space filled with clear liquid 
separates it from the upper surface of the body. The cellular teg- 
ument (zellenrinde) of the a] i. partly by the 
increase of the cells present, which seem to receive their plastic 
material by endosmose, but partly through a free formation of new 
cells by a self division of the nuclei. The whole cavity of the 
limbs seem to be compactly filled with nuclei which are uniformly 
from the outer to the innermost transformed into cells. 

By tbe fifth day the last tarsal joint is divided into two lobes, 
and show the first position of the claws. On the sixth the sutures 
are more distinct, the pulvilli are formed, and on the seventh day 
the external form of the limb is completed. The hypodermis di- 
rides into two layers whose deeper portion is disposed on the up- 
per surface of the skin and form the hairs and bristles. Inside 
the limbs only the position of the nerves and tracheae of the pupa 
13 established, the muscles arise afterwards. 

In like manner the wings are formed, their veins arise, the hairs 
a Pl»ear ; they attain their definitive form and are folded together. 

The halteres grow out, and instead of a single hollow, stunted 
Projection, they are completely formed, and hairy, though still 
colorless. The antennas also reach the same grade of perfection, 
an d like the appendages, the segments themselves now assume 
their definite form. The four abdominal segments are formed out 
of the ei ght larval segments which originally formed the abdomen 
of the fly. 

^hile the external form of the body rapidly advances in this 
manner to its final perfection, corresponding but slower changes 
are dls covered in the viscera. The fatty tissues continually dis- 
appear, and as often the cavity of the body is filled more com- 
pactly with nucleolated cells, and fat molecules. The newly formed 
. n esophagus thickens at the end towards the proventriculus, and 
eed the first beginnings of the sucking stomach is indicated at 
AM ER. Naturalist, vol. vnr. 39 



this period. The chyle-stomach gradually changes in length, its 
walls are transparent and clear, and it is strikingly demarked from 
the dark small intestine rendered so by the walls filled with fat 
corpuscles. With this begins the period of decay, and it reaches 
on the seventh day its complete development. 

Already during the course of seven days usually begins the 
second subdivision of the second period which is characterized by 
the relative position and development of all the organs of the im- 
ago. On the seventh day we find in the cavity of the thorax the 
first trace of the muscles of the wing. Series of cells of the greatest 
fineness pass in determinate directions through the liquid masses 
of fat, and up to the fourteenth day increase in thickness, until 
finally they lie close together to the lateral spaces of the thorax, 
and only leave in the median line a slight space for the free pas- 
sage of the stomach. Their structure is, then, usually definitive, 
it is a sarcolemmous sheath filled with contracted fibres which lie 
together in fascicles, and are kept separate from one another by nu- 
cleated columns. Meanwhile out of the fragments of the old 
intestinal canal appears the new, and shortly after this is 
accomplished there is a union of the small intestine and rectum, 
and by the tenth day the rectal pouch is placed in relation with 
the four rectal apillse. At the same time a new plexus of mus- 
cles begins to form on the upper side of the entire intesti 

Still the most important steps in the formation of the principal 
organs of sense of the fly, the compound eyes, fall into this last 
section of its developmental history. The ocular disks, which 
originated out of the hinder division of the brain-appendage, is 
still connected with the bulb at the beginning of the second period 
by means of a slender nerve. The bulb gradually extends itself 
so that it covers the whole interior of the eye-disk, and only be- 
comes separated from it by a thin layer of fat, which has already 
arisen between the two parts. The bulb shows radiating streaks, 
which are indications of the nervous threads passing through it. 
Only out of the eye-disks will the true eyes be formed, i. e., the 
compartments with the dioptric apparatus, and the perceptive ner- 
vous elements. On the twelth day, however, the disks and also 
each compartment leading out of it, have the very small diameter 
of 0-051 ram ., which is gradually at the close of the pupa state en- 
larged five times, while at the same time the cellular elements 
lying behind each corneous facet, forms for each chamber a crys- 



talline body, a nervous thread and cortical substance. The pig- 
ment layer begins to form and is finished, and the bulb sends out 
the ganglion cells at the base of the chambers of the eye. The 
nervous centres also take on their last definite form, the hinder 
part of the ventral cord, which already in the first period had ex- 
tended out from the infra-oesophageal ganglion, and had extended 
back into the abdomen, now unites with the thoracic knot. A 
similar longitudinal commissure unites it with the infra-oesophageal 
ganglion. At the last moment the central portions send out 
nerves to the sides into the thoracic muscles and into the limbs, 
m which during the tenth and eleventh day the muscles begin to 
form, and afterwards hindwards into the abdomen. 

Of the larval organs only the dorsal vessel is destined to pass 
°ver into the last division of the developmental period, but it still 
suffers a total transformation. A process of fatty degeneration 
similar to that which took place in the alimentary canal occurs, 
the 12th day it assumes a new form and organization. 



: - 



capable of performing its functions, i 



ff ant of a histologically perfect system of muscles proves. 

The tracheary system is completed last of all. The first posi- 
tlve c <>fidition is assumed on the 15th day, and by the 17th it is 
generally entirely formed. The trunks arise for the most part by 
me ans of the masses of nuclei out of the originally solid series of 
^a, the terminal branches of the organ out of a single cell ; 

e hollow space between them will form the cavity of the trachea, 
w nile thev hm^i, ««♦ k„ — „„• t^„A a Vot th^s 



: t the 



! ^ey branch out by growing outwards. Yet these c 



most part be traced back to the masses of nuclei, I 



especially within the inner of the bundles of primitive muscles 
the thorax, they arise from an organization of the histological 
formative elements at hand, i e. the muscular nuclei. This remark- 
a le fact does not take place without a reaction in the muscular 
^ciculae themselves ; their sarcolemma disappears and they de- 
corate into fascicles of tracheae wanting the spiral thread. 
t . ll the organs which have trachea? intimately connected with 
_ em have the game developed in the last three days. The trachea? 
jT w out in the nervous centres, in the bulb of the eyes, and the 
of tr^ Canal in its entire course is surrounded by a net work 
them. They are sent to the rectal papillae in great abundance 
*ith a peculiar development. The dorsal vessel also and the 
Cavp 1DUSCulat ' system receives trachea? and likewise the genital 
Vltles with their outlets and accessory apparatus. 



612 ADDRESS 

As the development of the genital glands has already begun 
during the larval state, so during all the pupa state it steadily 
goes on, the copulatory pouch, the accessory glands, and recep- 
taculum seminis, are developed with the new alimentary canal in 
the last section of the period of development. The genital glands 
of the male only attain their development during the pupal state. 
The eggs are developed directly after the exclusion of the fly. 

The final perfection of the external form is the coloring of the 
chitinous skin. Shortly after, on the 18th to 20th day, follows the 
hatching of the egg. 



ADDRESS OF PROFESSOR JOSEPH LOVERING.' 



Gentlemen and Ladies of the American Association fob 
the Advancement of Science : — 
When the States General of France were assembled for the last 
time at Versailles, after along interval of inactivity, and 
ural address was pronounced by the Bishop of Nancy. 
passed upon his performance the sweeping criticism th 
missed the grandest opportunity ever offered to man for saying 
something or holding his tongue. And, whenever this Ass0Cl ^ 
tion, comprising not only those who teach, but many who cr» 
science, assembles, as it now does, to listen to the address o i 
retiring President, if he is duly sensible of his responsibility, 
would gladly avail himself of Mirabeau's alternative, either o 
being equal to the occasion or of being silent. But the rule ot 
Association, adopted in the original draft of the constitution 
Philadelphia, and the example of my predecessors whic n ^ 
unwilling to reverse, leave me no choice ; and when I see a 
me, not the terrible monsters of the French revolution, mad e 
by the miseries of a downtrodden country, but calm and g^ 
minded lovers of truth, I feel sure of a just and generous 
Welcome, then, the precious opportunity, enjoyed by the Pres^ 



1RING. 613 

of this Association, of discussing some of the great themes of 
science before an audience which has for its nucleus the original 
tors, discoverers, and inventors in the country, and which 
like the sun, is surrounded by an extensive chromosphere only a 
little less brilliant than the central body by contrast ; and let my 
earnest endeavor be not to abuse or waste the great privilege. 

I am confronted on the very threshold of my address by the 
douht whether it were better to beat out the little bit of golden 
thought, for which I have time and capacity, into a thin leaf 
which shall merely gild the whole vast surface of scientific inves- 
tigation, even for a single year, or to condense it into a solid 
though minute globule, only big enough and bright enough to light 
up some narrow specialty. The general practice which prevails, 
of selecting a President alternately from the two principal sec- 
tions into which the Association is divided, will justify me in pay- 
ing my particular addresses to the physical sciences, knowing that 
the large and active department of Natural History will be prop- 
erty treated in its turn by those most competent to do it. Not 
even the capacious mind of a Goethe, a Humboldt, a Whewell, or a 
Herbert Spencer is large enough to give a decent shelter to all 
the subjects which come within the scope of this Association. At 
the same time I must say that I sympathize with the remarks 
made by President Hunt at Indianapolis, when he questioned the 
Propriety of excluding geology from the ranks of the physical 
sciences ; only I would give them a still wider significance. Phys- 
! cal sci ence is distinguished from natural history not so much by 
lts subjects as its methods. In my imagination I can picture to 
m yself all these subjects as being handled in the same masterly 
S^sp of mechanics and mathematics by which the physical astron- 
omer holds in his hands the history and the destiny of the solar 
' 8yst fm. What is only a dream or a fancy now may become a 
reality t the science of the future. Why, asked Cuvier, may not 
natural history some day have its Newton : to whom the laws of 
Ration of the sap and the blood will be only as the laws of 
Kepler. With such an endorser, I may venture to quote these 
Wor( is of a consummate mathematician without fear of their being 
** aside by the naturalists as one of Bacon's Idols of the Tribe. 
n intelligence which at any given instant should know all the 
wees by which nature is urged and the respective situations of the 
^gs of which nature is composed, if, moreover, it were sufflc- 



re to subject these data to calculation, would 
include in the same formula the movements of the largest bodies 
of the universe and those of the slightest atom. Not! 
be uncertain to such an intelligence, and the future no less than 
the past would be present to its eyes." The time has aire 
when a knowledge of physical laws and familiarity with the instru- 
ments of physical research are indispensable to the naturalist 
I would not recommend that dissipation of intellectual energy. 
which will make a man superficial in all the sciences but 
profound in none. But Helmholtz has established, by his own 
example, the possibility of being an eminent physiologist and, 
at the same time, standing in the front rank of physicists and 
mathematicians. The restlessness of human inquiry will never 
be satisfied with knowing what things are, until it has also dis- 
covered how and why they are, and until all the relations of 
space, time, matter, and force, in all the kingdoms of nature. 
have been worked out with mathematical precision. 

It is a happy circumstance in the history of science, that this 
vast mechanical problem did not rush upon the mind at once in 
all its crushing generality. The solar system, with a despotic 
sun at the centre, competent to overrule all insubordination among 
planets and comets and check all eccentricities and jealousies, 
and so far isolated from neighbouring systems as to fear nothing 
from foreign interferences and entangling alliances, presented 
comparatively simple problem : and yet the skill and labor of 
many generations of mathematicians have not yet closed up the 
argument upon this first case. On the orbits of this domestic 
system they have been sharpening their tools for higher and more 
delicate work. The motions of binary stars have also been 
brought under dynamical laws, and partially subjected to the rule 
of gravitation, so far as the astronomer can judge from the best 
observations which he can make upon those remote objects. But 
when he launches out, with his instruments and his formulas, into 
clusters of stars, even those of greatest symmetry, he is wholb 
at sea, without chart or compass or lighthouse, and with no other 
illumination than that which comes from a prophetic demonstration 
in Newton's Principia. The mathematician has here to treat, no 
with an unlimited monarchy, as in the solar system, but with a 
republic of equal stars, and the dynamical condition of the clus- 
ters is involved in all the obscurity of molecular mechanics ; ° r 



it matters not whether the individual members of a system are 
atoms or worlds, if the intervening spaces have corresponding 
magnitudes. Even in astronomy, the inspiration of mechanics 
and the pride of mathematics, how trifling is the region which has 
been subjugated to the rigid rules of the exact sciences when 
compared with the immense territories which remain under the 
jurisdiction of natural history, and must be studied, if at all, by 
the methods of the naturalist, though with an inverted microscope. 

If now we circumscribe our outlook by the line which marks 
where physical science ends and natural history begins, it will be 
possible to examine only a few of the salient points in the pros- 
pect before us : and what these are will depend upon the point 
of view which we select. Whewell presents the history of any 
science at each of its successive epochs as circulating around one 
powerful mind, which figures as the hero of the drama : and what- 
ever immediately precedes or follows is only the prelude or the 
closing strain to the great movement. In the philosophy of 
Comte, every science passes through a theological and metaphys- 
eal en is before it reaches the healthy condition of positive 
knowledge, and its whole history is written out by him in these 
three acts. With Buckle, the progress of science, without which 
there could be no history, is coincident with the advance in civil- 
ization ; but the action begins with science, and the reaction only 
comes from external causes. All that science and civilization 
demand is perfect freedom of thought. The worst enemy of both 
is the protective spirit in church and state, the former telling men 
what they must believe, the latter what they must do. 

Each of these views of scientific development may be true but 
n °t to the exclusion of all others. Metaphysical blindness or 
theological prejudice may block the way of science or defame its 
f air name. It has been stated that six members of the ultracler- 
lcal Party at Versailles voted against the appropriation for secur- 
*g observations of the approaching transit of Venus, because 
^y did not believe in the Coperuican system, and this too while 
the echoes of the celebration of the four hundredth birth-day of 
Copernicus are still resounding over the earth. So also, circum- 
stances and even accidents may shape the course of discovery : 
the happiest of all accidents, however, being the appearance on 
the stage of the discoverer himself. 

The point of view which I have chosen for reviewing 



the close 



616 ADDRESS 

and advancing columns of the physical sciences is this:— Are 
there any improvements in the weapons of attack, or have any 
additions been made to them? These are of two kinds : — 1. Instru- 
ments for experiment, and 2. The logic of mathematics. These 
are the lighter and the heavier artillery in this peaceful service. 

If we cast a hurried glance over that long period of experi- 
mental research which began with Galileo and ended with Davy, 
we recognize, as the chief instrumentalities by which physical 
science has been promoted, the telescope, the microscope, the 
pendulum, the balance, and the voltaic battery. It is not neces- 
sary for me to enlarge upon the strength and accuracy which the 
battery and the balance have given to chemistry, or on the stretch 
and precision of vision which the telescope and microscope have 
bestowed on astronomy and physics. These instruments, the 
veterans of many a hard fought battle, science still enjoys : not 
superannuated by their long service but continually growing in 
power and usefulness. The little opera-glass with which Galileo 
first lifted the veil from the skies and awoke the thunders of the 
Vatican has blossomed out into the magnificent refractors of 
Cambridge, Chicago, and Washington. The little reflector with 
which Newton, by a happy mistake, expected to supplant the lens, 
has grown into the colossal telescopes of Herschel, Rosse, and 
the Melbourne observatory. The spasmodic, momentary action of 
Davy's batteries, sufficient, however, to inaugurate a new era 
in chemistry, has been superseded by constant currents, which 
grumble not at ten hours a day. After lighting up the forelands 
of a continent during the night they are fresh to work an ocean 
telegraph the next morning. With all my wonder at this mys- 
terious instrument which serves so faithfully the cause of science 
and civilization, with renewed admiration of the microscope and 
the telescope, one of which transforms an invisible speck of 
matter into a universe and the other collects the immensity of 
the heavens into a little celestial globe upon the retina of the 
eye, I must pause for a moment to eulogize that simplest an 
most modest of scientific tools, the pendulum. 

With the eye of science Galileo saw in the leaning Campanile at 
Pisa, not a freak of architecture, but the opportunity of experi- 
menting on the laws of falling bodies : and, in the adjacent cathe- 
dral where others admired the marble pavement or the vault * 
roof, the columns, statues, or paintings, his attention was caug 



by the isochronous vibrations of the chandelier, which during the 
long centuries has never been absolutely at rest. "VVheri it is said 
that the pendulum has no rival as a standard of length except the 
metre, that it furnishes an exact measure of time, and that time 
is an indispensable element in the study of all motion, and also 
the most available means of obtaining longitude on the earth and 
right ascension in the heavens, a strong case has been made out 
for the practical and scientific usefulness of Galileo's discovery. 
During the long years of doubt in regard to the true figure of the 
earth, the pendulum maintained the cause of Newton in opposition 
reports of the geodesists, until Maupertuis, by a 
, flattened, as has been pithily said, the earth and 
the Cassinis at the same time. The shape, rotation, and density of 
the earth ; the diminution of terrestrial gravity with an increase of 
distance from the centre ; the local attractions of mountains, and 
secrets hidden below the surface of the planet, have been dis- 
covered or verified by the declarations of the pendulum : which, 
Aether in motion or at rest, has never tired of serving science. 
And, in a wider sense, the pendulum has done for the electric and 
magnetic forces what, in its restricted meaning, it did for gravity. 
That which Borda failed of accomplishing in the measurement of 
arcs the pendulum realizes in its measurement of time : it multi- 
Plies its observations, eliminates its own errors, strikes its own 
average, and presents to science the perfect result. In 1851, a 
crowd of spectators was assembled in the Pantheon of Paris to 
witness the first performance by the pendulum of the new part 
prepared for it by Foucauit : in which, obedient to its own inertia, 
and indifferent to the earth's rotation, it preserves the parallelism 
°f its motion : an experiment startling though not wholly unantici- 
pated, and which has made the circuit of the earth. The new con- 
trivance of Zbllner promises to indicate changes in the direction of 
a force as accurately as the common pendulum measures intensity. 
L et us now consider what the physicists of our own day, and 
their immediate predecessors, have added to their rich inheritance 
of instrumental means, remembering all the time that, however 
lr npressive from their novelty these additions may be, and how- 
ler manifold their applications, they have only supplemented the 
experimental methods which have been described without sup- 
Panting them. For the most part, the later devices would be 
useless without the cooperation of the earlier ones. 



An interesting event in the history of science, which must he 
known to many of you, has taken place during the current year. 
In 1824, Poggendorff began to edit the Annalen der ChemU Hud 
der PhysiJc. Under his supervision 150 volumes have been issued, 
containing 8,850 distinct communications from 2,167 different 
authors, the 193 papers of H. Rose outnumbering those of any 
other contributor. The history of physical and chemical dis- 
covery during the last fifty years might be written out of the 
materials treasured up in this single journal. In recognition of 
the signal service which Poggendorff has hereby rendered to 
science, his friends assumed the editorship of one volume in 1874, 
which is called the Jubilee volume [Jubelband]. 

In 1826, Poggendorff described in volume vii. of his Journal ■ 
device of his own invention for observing with exceeding nicety 
the movements of a magnetized bar. A mirror was attached to 
the bar and moved With it. From this mirror a beam of light 
was reflected into a theodolite. This was the origin of the happy 
thought of amplifying a trifling motion by making the finger 
of a long and delicate ray of light serve as a weightless pointer. 
A few years later, this idea was embodied by the mathematician, 
Gauss, in an instrument which he called the magnetometer. 
Since that time, it has been continually budding out in new appli- 
cations, scientific and practical. I need only recall to your recol- 
lection the beautiful method of Lissajous for compounding the 
- of tuning-forks, and tracing in golden lines the curves 
which are characteristic of different musical intervals and varied 
phases of vibration. A new chapter has been opened in mechanics 
for describing and explaining these strange and nameless curves ; 
and, in acoustics, the ear has been dispossessed by the eye of what 
would seem to be its own by right divine, and it is no longer the 
best scientific judge of sounds. By new devices Koemg has 
translated time into space and made visible the individual vibra- 
tions of the invisible air ; and, in numerous ways, the mechanism 
of sound is as real to the eye as the sensation is to the ear. 

With a bare allusion to the fact that every message which 
passes over the cable telegraph is a tribute of indebtedness to the 
simple but comprehensive method of Poggendorff, I pass to two 
other cases of great difficulty and wide significance in which the 
same method has triumphed. I refer to the determination of the 
velocity of electricity and the velocity of light. 



When Wheatstone devised and executed the ingenious experi- 
ment of producing three electrical sparks, not strictly at the same 
instant, but after the brief interval required by electricity to travel 
over one quarter of a mile of copper wire, and then of observing, not 
the sparks themselves, but their images, as seen in a mirror re- 
volving with the prodigious velocity of 800 turns in a single second, 
and from the prolongation and relative displacement of these 
images deducing the velocity of electricity, the duration of the 
electrical light, and the duality in the direction of the transmitted 
disturbance, he delighted the brotherhood of science by the skill 
and boldness of his attempt and astonished it by the extravagance 
of his results. For twenty years no one ventured to repeat the 
difficult experiment. When at length it was tried by Feddersen, 
and more recently by our own associate, Rood, the values which 
they assigned to the duration of the electrical light, and which could 
not be challenged, made still the wonder grow. So far as this 
mode of experimenting concerns the velocity of electricity, Wheat- 
stone stands alone : and his estimate of this velocity (the largest 
known velocity in the universe unless we count in the velocity of 
gravitation) has never been brought to a second trial. Indirectly, 
Jt has been tested by some of the operations conducted upon land 
and ocean lines of telegraph. When the local times of two places 
are compared by means of electro-magnetic signals, sent alter- 
nately in opposite directions, the difference of longitude and the 
transmission-time of electricity can be disentangled from one an- 
ot her, by the strategy of mathematics, and the most probable value 
computed for each. The velocity which has been calculated from 
these longitude-campaigns falls far below that credited to Wheat- 
stone. The apparent discrepancy is explained by a misinterpre- 
tation of Wheatstone's experiment. An experiment which proves 

at ele ctricity runs through one quarter of a mile of wire at the 
««k of 288,000 miles a second does not justify the inference that 
J Would move over 288,000 miles in one second. Anomalous as 

e case may be, electricity has no velocity in the ordinary sense. 

he transmission time of the electrical disturbance is proportioned 
the 8quare of the distance tQ be travelled. Therefore, the 
™<* lt y has no CQn8tant fixed value? but yarieg with the length of 
« e Journey. This law, which is deduced from the mathematical 

.*°ry of Ohm, introduces order among the experiments where, 
^erw lse , there would be chaos. It is not surprising that Wheat- 



620 ADDRESS 

stone and the readers whom he addressed were misled by the orig- 
inal facts. Few men, who have rendered signal services to science, 
and who have finally reached the highest pinnacle of fame, have 
suffered more from poverty and neglect, and waited longer for a 
recognition of their merits, than the modest student of Nuremberg. 
The slender volume which will perpetuate his name was indeed 
published at Berlin in 1827, and antedates Wheatstone's experi- 
ment by seven years. But the book was treated with contempt 
by a minister of state, to whom Ohm presented a copy, at his 
university of Cologne, and was first brought to the notice of 
English readers in 1841, when an English translation of it was 
effected through the agency of the British Association, and the 
Copley medal was presented to Ohm by the Royal Society of 
London. As late as 1860, when the same work was rendered into 
French, the translator admits that the mathematical theory of Ohm 
on the galvanic circuit, the elements of which have since rapidly 
1 in popular text-books, was almost unknown in France, 
that high seat of science. If the serene but steady light of math- 
ematics had not been dimmed by the blaze of experimental suc- 
cesses, and the teachings of Ohm had been heeded sooner, the 
science of electricity- would have been the gainer, and the men 
of science would have been saved the mortification of treating the 
electromagnetic telegraph as an impracticability. 

When Wheatstone was a candidate to fill a vacancy among the 
corresponding members of the French Institute, it was objected 
that he had only made a brilliant experiment, but had not discov- 
ered a new principle. Arago came to his rescue and asserted that 
he had introduced a powerful and fertile method of experimentation 
which would be felt in other sciences besides electricity. The 
French physicist lost no time in devising means for making good 
these claims. If it could be proved experimentally that the ve- 
locity of light was greater in air than in water a capital fee* B> 
the contending theories of light would be settled forever. Arago 
planned the experiment and pressed its feasibility upon the Acad- 
emy of Sciences with all the power and eloquence of his nature. 
At last he roused two younger physicists to undertake what r a 
growing infirmities prevented him from doing with his c 
The result declared in favor of undulations, and a fata! 
dealt to the corpuscular theory of light which had vexed science 
since the days of Newton. If Fizeau and Foucault drew their in- 






spiration from Arago, they owed their success to nothing except 
their own skill in devising and executing. Having tried the tem- 
per of their steel on this easier problem, they were ready for the 
grand attack, which was to measure the absolute velocity of light. 
The instrumental arrangements of these two experimentalists 
agreed only in the part which each borrowed from Poggendorff : 
the details differed so widely as to give to whatever agreement 
might appear in their results the force of an irresistible argument 
for their accuracy. The velocity of light, as found by Fizeau in 
1849 by the artificial eclipses which the teeth of his revolving 
wheel produced, exceeds by about six per cent, the velocity which 
Foucault obtained, in 1862, with the moving mirror. The arith- 
metical mean of the two values comes very close to the astrono- 
mer's estimate of the velocity of light. But this simple average 
is precluded unless it can be proved that the two experiments are 
entitled to equal weight. The internal evidence, expressed by 
what mathematicians call the probable error, manifested a decisive 
preference for Foucault's result, and it has met with general accep- 
tance. The soundness of the scientific judgment in this case has 
been placed beyond all cavil by Cornu, who has recently repeated 
Fizeau's experiment, with additional precautions, and resolved the 
discord into a marvellous accord. Fizeau's experiment, in spite 
°f the numerical defect, was hailed as one of the grandest triumphs 
of experimental skill. In 1856, he received the prize of 30,000 
francs which the Emperor of the French had founded, to be given 
for the work or the discovery, which, in the opinion of the five 
academies of the Institute, had conferred the greatest honor and 
service upon the nation. Hitherto, it had been supposed that 
nothing short of an interstellar or an interplanetary space was a 
m atch for the enormous velocity of light. And yet one physicist, 
b y using a distance of less than six miles, and another, without 
going outside of his laboratory, have discovered what astronomers 
bad searched heaven and earth to find out. 

# % these capital experiments the science of optics has achieved 
its own independence. Let us see what they have done, at the 
s ame time, for astronomy. The sequences in the eclipses of Jupi- 
ter's tnoons are modified by the velocity of light. The aberration 
of starlight is a measure of the ratio between the velocity of light 
and the velocity of the earth. For nearly two centuries our 
Pledge of the velocity of light leaned upon one or the other 



622 ADDRESi 

of these relations. If the velocity of light can be known from 
experiment, the problem may be reversed and the distance of the 
sun given to the astronomer. As soon at it appeared that Fou- 
cault's estimate of the velocity of light fell short of the astronom- 
ical valuation by about three per cent, it was certain that either 
the experiment was in error, or the received aberration was too 
small, or the reputed distance of the sun was too large. An error 
of three per cent, in the experiment or in the aberration was Inad- 
missible. But it was conceivable that the distance of the sun 
should be at fault, even to this extent. The popular announce- 
ment that Foucault had picked a flaw in the astronomer's work 
was not correct. Astronomers had always known what those who 
pinned their scientific faith on text-books did not expect: that 
the problem of finding the sun's distance was an c 
delicate case, and that an ominous cloud of uncertainty hung over 
their wisest conclusions. Whenever it is possible to is 
nature in more ways than one, science is not satisfied with a single 
answer, nor with all the answers unless they agree. The transit 
of Venus, the parallax of Mars, and the tables of the Moon, each 
can tell the sun's distance. But their testimony was con; 
and neither one at all times repeated the same story. The ques- 
tion was, which to believe. Since 1824, when Encke published 
his exhaustive computations on the last transits of Venus, the 
distance which they assigned to the sun has been acquiesced in as 
the most probable. But the moon, as has been said, has always 
been a thorn in the sides of mathematicians. While practical and 
theoretical astronomers have been reducing its motions to stricter 
discipline, the suspicion has been steadily gaining strength in their 
minds that the distance adopted from the transits was too large. 
The effect of Foucault's experiment was to intensify the doubt. 
The case of the twin transits of the last century, thought to have 
been closed forever by Encke, has recently been opened again by 
the astronomer Stone. When Venus has nearly entered upon the 
sun, the moment of interior contact is preluded by the formation 
of a slender ligature (called the black drop) between the nearest 
parts of the two discs ; caused, perhaps, by irradiation. One ob- 
server has recorded the time when this ligature began, another 
the time when it was broken. In working up the observations of 
the last transits, both classes were not combined indiscriminate^" 
Mr. Stone has reexamined the documents, classified differently the 



materials, and extracted from them two new and independent 
values for the sun's parallax. The reconciliation which he has 
suddenly brought about between the experiments of Cornu and 
Foucault, the motions of the moon, and the transits of Venus, 
is as perfect as it is surprising. Nevertheless, the approaching 
transits of Venus, the earliest of which is close upon us, will be 
welcomed, if not as the only possible way of solving a hard 
problem, at least for the confirmation which is demanded by a 
solution already reached: for able astronomers have dissented 
from the interpretation put upon the records by Stone. The minds 
of observers have been prepared for what their eyes are to see, in 
December, 1874, by the experimental rehearsal of the black drop, 
and the photographer's box will arrest the planet in the very act. 

The consequences of Foucault's experiment, substantiated us it 
m ay be by the best astronomical evidence, are as far reaching as 
toe remotest stars and nebulae. The sun's distance is the astron- 
omer's metre, through which masses, diameters, and distances are 
Proportioned out to planets, comets, and stars. If the sun's dis- 
tance is cut down by three per cent., there must be a general con- 
traction in all the physical constants of the universe. The earth 
0nI ) r is immediately exempt from this liability. But if, as modern 
science teaches, the earth lives only by the triple radiation from 
the sun, then an earlier doom has been written for the earth also. 
Geology i s no longer allowed to cut its garnl ent from a past dura- 
tion of unlimited extent. The numerical estimates of physical 
science, with a large margin of uncertainty, assign limits between 
w "ich alone geology has free play. Whatever tends to reduce or 
en] arge those limits must be of interest to the geologist as well as 
t0 the astronomer. 

This is the brilliant career, in electricity, optics, astronomy, and 
Jj eol °gy, of the little mirror, cradled in the laboratory of Foggen- 
• ]*> and which has not yet seen its fiftieth birthday. 

n m aking this exhibit of the instrumental appliances of modern 
Posies, I W in simp]y Dame the p i ar i SC ope, the stereoscope, and 
^instruments in photography, and hurry on to the spectroscope. 
ll * steps by which the spectroscope has attained its preeminent 
ank ara ong the instruments of the phvsicist and the astronomer 
* er e taken at long intervals. A whole century intervened between 
Eton's experiments with the prism and Wollaston's improve- 
ment The substitution of a long and narrow slit for the round 



hole in the window shutter was enough to reveal the presence of 
the two boldest dark lines in the solar spectrum. Wollaston 
stood on the threshold of a rich development in science, but 
neither he nor his compeers were ready for it, and what be saw. 
novel as it was, attracted little attention. Spectrum analysis, in 
relation to light itself, began when Frauenhofer published, in 
1817, in the memoirs of the Bavarian Academy, an account of his 
experiments on the direct and reflected rays of the sun, on star- 
light, and various artificial sources of light: dispersing the rays 
by prisms of fine Munich glass and then receiving them into a 
theodolite. Frauenhofer repeated some of his experiments in the 
presence of the younger Herschel, but for many years he had the 
field wholly to himself. A paper by Herschel on the colors of 
artificial flames acquires a new interest from what has been done 
more recently. Between 1830 and 1860, numerous pbyaioisto, 
among whom are the well known names of Brewster, Miller, 
Wheatstone, Powell, Stokes, Gladstone, Becquerel, Masson, 
Van der Willigen, Pliicker, and Angstrom, were at work upon the 
facts connected with the emission of light by incandescent bodies 
and its absorption by gases and vapors. As early as 1830, Simms 
had placed a lens in front of the prism, with the slit in p the focus, 
and another lens behind the prism to form an image of the slit. 
The first hint of that pregnant fact, the reversal of the bright 
spectrum bands of flames, came from Foucault in 1849. His ex- 
periment was repeated at Paris, in 1850, in the presence of Sir 
William Thomson. It was reserved for a young physicist d 
Heidelberg, who was not born until seven years after Frauenhofer. 
laid the foundations, to place the keystone upon the structure on 
which many hands had labored : by demonstrating, in i860, the 
law which is the theoretical basis of the chemistry of the heavens. 
Kirchhoff, with admirable frankness, is careful to say that this ;"• 
had been anticipated by others, especially by Angstrom and 
Balfour Stewart, although it had not been sharply stated or 
severely proved. It is a singular fact that the mechanical ex- 
planation of the law, as it has been expounded by KireU* ■■'• 
Angstrom, and Stokes, was partially enunciated one hundred }ea n 
ago by the mathematician, Euler, when he said that every -in- 
stance absorbs light of the special wave-leng 
to the vibration of its smallest particles. The 11th of Jutyi 1>l ' 
i in the history of science as being the i V 



ADDRESS OF PROFESSOR LOVERING. 625 

on which Magnus read, before the Berlin Academy, KirchhofTs 
memoir on the chemical constitution of the sun's atmosphere, and 
the existence in it of familiar substances found upon the earth. 
Speedily, spectroscopes were multiplied, modified, and improved, 
and became indispensable auxiliaries in the workshop, the labora- 
tory, and the observatory. It is not necessary to enlarge upon 
what this instrument has done for common chemistry, in hunting 
out the minutest traces of common substances and detecting new 
ones. The physician, the physiologist, the zoologist, the botanist, 
and the technologist have shared with the chemist and the physi- 
cist the services of this powerful analyst. But it is the highest 
prerogative of the spectroscope to be able to make a chemical 
analysis of celestial bodies, upon the single condition that they 
give to it their light. Polarization can only say whether any 
portion of this light is reflected. The motions which the telescope 
uncovers may decide in favor of a central attraction, but it is 
silent as to the intensity of this attraction unless the moving 
body belongs to the solar system. The. universality of a gravi- 
tation may be proved, but not the universality of the very 
gravitation which pervades our own system ; except by an argu- 
ment from analogy. We see that one star differs from another 
star in glory. But what the other differences or resemblances 
are we know not, without the spectroscope. Henceforth astron- 
omy possesses a new instrument of discovery, and also a new 
tnbunal to which all speculations about the sun and the stars, the 
fWora and the zodiacal light, the meteors and the comets, must 
"* brought and by which they must be judged. 

I leave it to the naturalists to assign a value to the alleged 
anticipations of Darwin by the geometer Maupertuis, who was 
**>d to have died just before he was going to make monkeys talk. 
e whim s and conceit of Lord Monboddo are not worthy of 
notlc e. Lamarck began life as a soldier : was a meteorologist as 
* ai *d as long as Napoleon would allow him to be : perhaps he 

as a botanist from choice, but he was made a zoologist, in spite 
„_; self, by the revolutionary Convention. He was as brave in 
of th° e ^ ln War ; bufc he "Pected to create it, by a simple effort 
bought. Having demolished the modern chemistry, he turned 
2o^!! n ° Clastic zeal int0 natural history. His philosophy of 
published a few years after the cosmogony of 



626 ADDRESS 

lution as a mechanical doctrine, capable of explaining certain 
characteristics of the solar system, about which the law of gravi- 
tation is silent. Whoever reads the stately chapters of Laplace, 
on the stability of the planets and the safeguards of the comets, 
will easily recognize expressions which are the mechanical equiv- 
alents of the principles of natural selection and the survival of 
the fittest. The elder Herschel hazarded the speculation, that the 
clusters of stars and the nebulae which his devouring telescope 
had picked up, by hundreds, on the verge of the visible heavens, 
were genuine suns assembled under the organizing power of 
gravitation ; and that the varieties in size, shape, and texture, 
were produced by differences of age and distance. The imagi- 
nation of Herschel and other astronomers has taken a loftier 
flight. To them many of the nebulae are not clusters of stars, but 
unborn solar systems, waiting for that consolidation by which 
planets are evolved and a central sun is formed, and destined thus 
to repeat the cosmogony of the home system. Comte claims that 
he has raised the nebular hypothesis to the rank of positive sci- 
ence. He supposes the stupendous enginery of evolution to be 
reversed. He follows, with his mathematics, the expanding sun 
backwards into chaos, until it has absorbed into its bosom even 
the first born among the planets, and finds, at every stage, numer- 
ical confirmation of what Laplace threw out as a plausible con- 
jecture. As Mr. Mill and other writers of note have accepted this 
authority, it should be understood that Comte has never published 
the data or the process of his computations. By whatever other 
inspiration he arrived at his conclusion, he was not brought to it 
by his mathematics. He has said all that is necessary to show 
that he ignored all the difficulties of the problem, and dodged the 
only solution that could give satisfaction. The cosmogony of 
Laplace, with all its fascination, must be excluded from exact 
mechanics and remanded back to its original place in natura 
history, by the side of the more general nebular hypothesis of 
Herschel. All other cosmogonies which poetry or bom 
invented are childish in comparison with this : and no one woul 
desire to banish it from science altogether, until it is disproved or 
displaced by something better. Instead of deciding, it must share 
the fate of the all-embracing cosmical speculation of Halle}- 
How uncertain that fate is we may be taught by the frequency 
with which the preponderance of evidence has shifted from one 



627 

side to the other, during the last fifty years. The irresolvability 
of many of the nebulae, by powerful telescopes, led Herschel to 
espouse the cause of a diffuse primeval matter, out of which 
worlds were fashioned. No wonder that, in particular cases, the 
negative evidence was sometimes turned into positive evidence on 
the other side, by improvements in telescopes. Although every 
nebula which deserted from the nebular hypothesis strengthened 
the suspicion that the remaining irresolvability was purely optical, 
a sufficient amount of negative evidence would probably have 
always existed to create more than a doubt in the minds of many 
astronomers. On the discovery of spectrum analysis, observers 
rallied around it, in the hope of finding an escape from the 
dilemma: and this new hope has not been disappointed. The 
continuous spectra of some nebulae prove them to be suns, envel- 
oped in more or less of atmosphere. The broken spectra of other 
nebulfe show that they are in the condition of an incandescent 
gas. The classification which the spectroscope makes of the neb- 
ula corresponds so well with their telescopic appearance as to 
justify the confidence which one class of astronomers had in their 
Wa J of deciding on the truth of the nebular hypothesis. While 
'he spectroscope has manifested varieties of material, color, tem- 
perature, and consolidation in nebulae and stars, both single and 
composite, beyond anything which the perfected telescope' could 
ever have revealed, it has at the same time found enough of earth 
ma U of them to make man feel at home any where in the visible 
diverse. The fact that certain well-known substances on this 
P la net pass current everywhere in nature leads irresistibly to the 
conclusion that all the specimens came originally from the same 
* lnt - It is the legitimate office of science to reduce the more 
omplex to the simple : to explain, if possible, the existing state 
° matter h Y an anterior state. The nebular hypothesis, which 
r T* pts t0 do this, no longer starts from a conjecture but a 
, ltj : •ki the existence of diffused incandescent vapor ; and 
d Clence W *U hold on to it, until a better theory of mechanical 
ev elopment is found. — Concluded in next number. 



KEVIEWS AND BOOK NOTICES. 

The Principles of Science.* — Though each scientist, whether 
consciously or not, does his work on principles underlying all 
useful and durable efforts, yet the methods have been gradually 
developed, and the laborer in one department may be ignorant 
of the mode of procedure in others quite remote from his line of 
study. The author discusses the methods common to all the sci- 
ences, though with a bias towards physical science, pai 
physics, chemistry and astronomy. As a result we have a book 
which we are sure will win the sympathy of the reader, as it is an 
earnest and sensible treatise. Wherever we have opened the vol- 
ume we have been attracted by the interest and clearness of the 
style, and the general tone of the discussion which, though on the 
whole conservative, is in full accordance with the spirit of modern 
science. 

The chapters on the use of hypothesis, and the character of the 
experimentalist are capital. Professor Jevons boldly says " it is 
wholly a mistake to say that modern science is the result of the 
Baconian philosophy ; it is the Newtonian philosophy and the New- 
tonian method which have led to all the great triumphs of physical 
science, and I repeat that the 'Principia' forms the true 'Novum 
Organum."' If we mistake not, the theory of evolution, as sug- 
gested by Lamarck, Spencer, Darwin and others is a result of the 
Newtonian rather than the Baconian method ; certainly it may be 
said in its present stage to be a "hypothetical anticipation of 
nature," valuable as it is as a means of research. 

In the chapter on Classification the author states h\< 
a natural classification is an "arrangement which woul 
the genealogical descent of every form from the original life g ern1. 
Those morphological resemblances upon which the classification 
of living beings is almost always based are inherited resem- 
blances, and it is evident that descendants will usually resemb e 
thek parents and each other in a great many points." Much 1 
portance is given to the bifurcate or dichotomic arrangement so 
universally used in descriptive biology. ^____— 



How a mind trained in logic and the methods of exact science 
looks upon the theory of evolution, may be seen from the following 



"The genealogical view of the mutual relations of animals and 
plants leads us to discard all notions of any regular progression 
of living forms, or any theory as to their symmetrical relations. 
It was at one time a great question whether the ultimate scheme 
of natural classification would prove to be in a simple line, or a 
circle, or a combination of circles. Macleay's once celebrated 
system was a circular one, and each class-circle was composed of 
five order- circles, each of which was composed again of five tribe- 
circles, and so on, the subdivision being at each step into five minor 
circles. Thus he held that in the animal kingdom there were five 
orns— the Vertebrata, Annulosa, Radiata, Acrita, and 
Mollusca. Each of these was again divided into five— the Verte- 
brata consisting of Ma Pisces, Amphibia, and 
Aves.* It is quite evident that in any such symmetrical system 
the animals were made to suit themselves to the classes instead of 
the classes being suited to the animals. 

; We n o W perceive that the ultimate system will.be an almost 
1 tree, which will be capable of 
-a ion by lines on a plane surface of sufficient extent, 
fiut there is not the least reason to suppose that this tree will have 
a symmetrical form. Some branches of it would be immensely 
developed compared with others. In some cases a form nun have 
Propagated itself almost from primeval times with little variation. 

In other cases frequent differentiations will have occurred. 
lis genealogical tree ought to represent the 
idual living form now existing or which has 
"Mted. It should be as personal and minute in its detail of rela- 
tions, as the stemma of the kings of England. We must not 
assume that any two forms are absolutely and exactly alike, and 
ln any case they are numerically distinct. Every parent then 
m «st be represented at the apex of a series of divergent lines, 
representing the generation of so many children. Any complete 
• system of classification must regard individuals as the 
pecies. But as in the lower races of animals and plants 
the differences between individuals are usually very slight, and 
apparently unimportant, while the numbers of » 
immensely great, beyond all possibility of separate treatment, 
scientific men have always stopped at some convenient but arbi- 
**W point, and have assumed that forms so closely resembling 
Jen other as to present no constant difference were all of one 
« n «- They have, in short, fixed their' attention entirely upon the 
^"J^rtures of family difference. In the genealogical tree which 






on the Geography 



they have been unconsciously aiming to construct, diverging m 



ging in character, and the purpose of all ettmi* 



at so-called natural classification was to trace out the relation^ 
between existing plants or animals. Now it is evident that ba- 
reditary descent may have in different cases produced very differ- 
« ut results us ivnurds the problem of classification. In some cases 
the differentiation of characters may have been very freo. 

is of all the characters produced may have been transmit- 
ted to the present time. A living form will then have, as it were, 
an almost infinite number of cousins of various degrees, and there 
will be an immense number of forms finely graduated in their 
resemblances. Exact and distinct classification will then be 
almost impossible, and the wisest course will be not to attempt 
i distinguish forms closely related in nature, but to 
allow that th aal forms of every degree, to mark 

out if possible the extreme limits of the family relationship, and 
perhaps to select the most generalized form, or that w 
sents the greatest number of close resemblances to others of the 
family, as the type of the whole. 

Mr. Darwin, in his most interesting work upon Orchi 
out that the tribe of Malaxes are distinguished from Epidendre* 
by the absence of a caudicle to the pollinia, but as some of the 
Malaxeffi have a minute caudicle the division really breaks down 

'This is a misfortune,' he remarks,* 'which every naturalist 
encounters in attempting to classify a largely developed or so- 
called natural group, in which, relatively to other groii 
has been little extinction. In order that th 
enabled to give precise and clear definitions of his divisi 
ranks of intermediate or gradational forms mi 
swept away : if here and there a member of the interne. 
has escaped annihilation, it puts an effectual bar to any absolutely 
distinct definition.' . ye 

In other cases a particular plant or animal may perhaps &a 
transmitted its form from generation to generation almost 

r, what comes to the same result, those forms whitj 
diverged in character from the parent stock, may hai 
unsuitable to their circumstances, nr.d nia\ have perished soone 
or later. We shall then find a particular form standing apart no 

-. 
ally we may meet with specimens of a race which m - 
far more common but is now undergoing extinction, and is »w 
the last of its kind. Thus we may explain the occurrence 01 
ceptional forms such as are found in the Amphioxus. I he 4 
setacese perplex botanists by their want of affinity to ol 
of Acrogenous plants. This doubtless indicates that their gene 



i other plants must be sought for in the most 
distant past ages of geological development. 

Constancy of character, as Mr. Darwin has said,* is what is 
diicllv val . - naturalists; that is to say nat- 

uralists wish to find' some distinct family mark, or group <>l 
diameters l.v which they may clearly recognize the relationship 
of descent between a Large group of living forms. It is accord- 
ant relief to the mind of the naturalist when he comes 
upon a definitely marked group, such as the Diatomacea>. which 
are clearlv s< nearest neighbours the Desmid- 

iacea? by thei k and the absence of eh: 

But we must no longer think that because we fail in detecting 
constancy of character the fault is in our classiricatory science's. 
Where gradation of character really exists, we must devote our- 
selves to defining and registering the degrees and limits ot that 
gradation. The ultimate natural arrangement will often be devoid 
of strong lines of demarcation. 

Let naturalists, to... form dn-ir >v<cins 
with all the care they can, yet it will certain! 
to time that new and exceptional forms of animals or vegetables 
will be disco ire the modification of tin 

A natural system is din etc '. as we have seen, to the di>. 
it these laws being pure 
" will frequently he falsified h\ more extensive investigation. 
From time to time the notions ol 

especially in the case of Australian animals ai, 
by the discovery of unexpected combinations of organ- 
events must often happen in the future. If indeed the I 
come when all the forms of plants arc discovered ant a 

• 
a new and more favourable position, as remarked by Alpnonse 
Decandolle.t" 

From paying too much attention to a classification by types, i.e., 
by selecting one typical form and grouping around it allied forms, 
Frofessor Jevons believes that "a certain laxity of logical method 
« thus apt to creep in, the only remedy for which will be the 
frank recognition of the fact that according to the theory of heredi- 
tary descent, the gradation of characters is probably the rule, and 
the precise demarcation between groups the exception.' 

The author agrees with those naturalists who regard 
e nee of any such groups as genera and species as "an ai bitrarj 
creation of the naturalist's mind ;" an important result of the estab- 
lishment of the theory of evolution being "to explode all notions 



• ' : : " 

tions." The whole is in his opinion a question of degree. 

What is the outcome of the tendencies of modern scientific 
thought, materialism and the reign of physical law? The log- 
ical and courageous philosopher with the modesty of true science 
will exclaim with our author, after a survey of the little that is 
positively known of the laws of nature that "before a rigorous 
logical scrutiny the Reign of Law will prove to be an unverified 
hypothesis, the Uniformity of Nature an ambiguous expression. 
the certainty of our scientific inferences to a great extent a delu- 

The closing paragraphs of the book leave an excellent impres- 
sion, and its whole tendency is to induce that attitude of the mind 
which characterizes the true philosopher who, as our author quotes 
from Faraday, "should be a man willing to listen to every sug- 
gestion, but determined to judge for himself. He should not be 
biased by appearances ; have no favourite hypothesis ; be of no 
school: and in doctrine have no master. He should not be a 
respecter of persons, but of things. Truth should be his primary 
object. If to these qualities be added industry, he may indeed 
hope to walk within the veil of the temple of nature." 

Scammon's Marine Mammals op the northwestern Coast axd 
American Whale-fishery.*— The title of Capt. Scammon's im- 
portant work indicates sufficiently its object and scope. It lS 
divided into three parts, besides containing a lengthy appendix. 
Part I (comprising 112 pp.) is devoted to the natural history of 
the Cetacea, or the whales, porpoises and dolphins. Part I 
(69 pp.) treats in a similar way of the Pinnipedia, or the seals, 
while Part III (87 pp.) contains a concise and very interesting 
history of the American Whale-fishery. In Part I, the author 
has before him an almost wholly unworked field, and one in whic 
he proves himself to have been an intelligent and faithful laborer. 
The marine mammals, and especially the Cetacea, from the na i 
of the element in which they live, as well as their generally 
unwieldy proportions and wary dispositions, are among the 
difficult animals to study that the naturalist encounters. On 



naturalist who combines with his scientific knowledge the experi- 
ence of a whaleman could even hope to give more than a very in- 
adequate account of the habits of these " monsters of the deep." 
The immense size of many of the larger Cetacea, and the great 
infrequency of opportunities of observing them stranded, or wholly 
removed from the water, render it very difficult to get either ac- 
curate figures of them or more than approximate measurements. 
Capt. Scammon seems to have enjoyed rare opportunities for col- 
lecting material for his book, and an excellent preparation for the 
task he has undertaken, for, besides his twenty years of personal 
experience and observation, he has availed himself of information 
acquired by other intelligent whalemen. Hence his biographies, 
statistics of size, and his figures of the animals are far more satis- 
factory than anything that has previously appeared treating of the 
general history of these little known animals. Fourteen pages, 
for instance, are devoted to the California gray whale (Rhachi- 
anectes glaucus Cope) in which is detailed not only its habits and 
distribution, but the methods and dangers of its pursuit and cap- 
ture; the article being also illustrated with three lithographic 
plates. The bowhead or great polar whale (Balcena ■>/<.-. 
receives an equally extended notice, this species being "by far the 
most valuable in a commercial point of view of all the Balcenidm 
and is the chief object of pursuit by the whaleman in the northern 
seas." The yield of oil, in large individuals of this species, is 
said to exceed sometimes two hundred and seventy-five barrels, 
while ^e product of baleen may be upwards of three thousand 
fiv- e hundred pounds. The whaling grounds are described at 
length, as is also what is termed "Bowhead Whaling." Capt. 
Scammon considers it as conclusively proved that this species 
Passes from the Atlantic to the Pacific, "or rather," as he expresses 
u > "from the Atlantic Arctic to the Pacific Arctic by the North," 
and believes that air-holes always exist in the ice which covers the 
arctic wa ters, even in the coldest latitudes. About a dozen pages 
a [ e dev <>ted to the sperm whale (Physeter macrocephalus) , and 
ab °ut five to the orca, or killer, which is, of all the Cetacea, the 
a °st rapacious and terrible to the larger denizens of the sea. 

., Part II the ground is less new, but here very material con- 
^butions are made to a better knowledge of several species of 

e larger Pinnipeds, especially of the sea elephants, sea lions, 
m f ur seals of the California coast, and also of the sea otter 



[Erihydra marina), which is singularly included with the Pinni- 
pedia ! The history of the wholesale destruction of these animals 
for commercial purposes possesses a peculiar and rather melan- 
choly interest. Besides adding much new matter to the history of 
the fur seal as observed by the writer on the California coast, 
the chapter is made much more complete by the quotation of the 
greater part of Capt. Bryant's excellent article on the fur seals 
of Alaska, published a few years since in the Bulletin of the Mu- 
seum of Comparative Zoology.* 

Part III is possibly the most interesting portion to the general 
reader, giving as it does not only a succinct chronological and 
statistical history of the American Whale-fishery, but also vividly 
portraying the privations, dangers, and excitements attending this 
daring pursuit, as well as the special training, energy and skill 
necessary to its successful prosecution. New England may well 
be proud of the names so favorably mentioned as the founders and 
leaders in this great enterprise, whose vessels were often the first 
to bear our national emblem to remote waters and distant seaports. 

In the appendix is given a systematic "catalogue of the Cetacea 
of the North Pacific Ocean" by Mr. W. H. Dall, of the U. S. Coast 
Survey, prepared with special reference to Capt. Scammon's mono- 
graph in the preceding pages of the general work. This catalogue 
embraces also many osteological notes and descriptions of M* 
forms. The list comprises about forty-four species, which Mr. 
Dall observes, " appear to be more or less thoroughly character- 
ized," but ten are of unknown habitat. "Leaving these out," he 
adds (with all species based on insufficient material), we have as 
the approximate distribution of the known Pacific Cetacea : Japan, 
five species ; northern seas, six species, including two or three 
which visit California ; warm seas and South Pacific, eleven I 



\ of Western North America, from the Aleutian 



Islands 



to Central America, eighteen species, including several vfeKOW 
from the Arctic Seas." 

The volume closes with a "glossary of words and phrases used 
by whalemen," and a list of the "stores and outfits" usually taken 
out by a first-class whale-ship for a Cape Horn voyage. 

While Capt. Scammon's work is very satisfactory in ti 
with which it deals with external characters— color, size, form, 
pro portions, etc. — and in its biographical details, j hejujthor_j>- 



stains (and perhaps wisely) from a critical discussion of points 
of synonymy and affinity ; yet it is a work that goes far towards 
filling a wide gap in marine mammalogy, to which subject it is a 
most welcome and important contribution. The publishers have 
spared no pains, apparently, to make the work attractive, and the 
illustrations are generally of a high order of execution. The 
work is very appropriately inscribed by the author to the memory 
of Louis Agassiz. — J. A. A. 



BOTANY. 

Botany of Wilkes' South Pacific Exploring Expedition. — 
Since the lamented death of Dr. Torrey, his report on the Botan- 
ical collections made by the naturalist of Wilkes' expedition on 
our western American coast, has been printed under the care of 
Prof. Gray. It makes the larger part of the 17th volume of the 
results of that expedition, of which, like the rest, only 100 copies 
are printed by Congress. A small number of extra copies have, 
however, been secured, at private expense ; these are bound up with 
the preceding part of the volume, devoted to the Lower Crypto- 
gamia of the expedition (Lichens, Algje and Fungi) and the large 
Plates being folded and bound in, the whole makes a stout royal 
quarto volume, with 29 plates. The Naturalists' Agency has this 
0n sale, at ten dollars. The mosses of the same expedition by 
Sullivant, which form the first part of this same volume in the 
government copies, in the extra edition have the letter-press made 
U P into imperial folio pages, in double columns, to match the 26 
great folio plates. A very few copies of this handsome volume 
StlU re main in the hands of the late Mr. Sullivant's executors, and 
Can be h ad for ten dollars each. 

Influence of Forests on the Rainfall.— At a recent meet- 
lng of the French Academy M. M. Fautra and Sarquiau read a 
n °re relative to this subject. They found from experiments made 
m a forest of more than 500 hectares,* and also on a plain free 
rem trees situated about 300 yards from the forest, that much 
^rerain fell i n the wooded part than on the plain. 



ZOOLOGY. 

The Snow Goose. — On the 6tb of October, 1873, I shot at Mt. 
Carmel, Illinois, a fine adult male Anser hyperboreus, which had 
been living with a flock of tame geese for nearly a year. The 
bird had been crippled in the wing the preceding fall, but the 
wound, which was merely in the muscles, soon healed, and it 
escaped by flight. It flew about half a mile, and, observing a 
flock of tame geese upon the grassy "commons" between the 
town and the river, alighted among them. It continued to stay 
with them, going home with the flock regularly every evening, to 
be fed and enclosed in the barn-yard. 

My attention was attracted to this bird " by its owner, Mr. 
Thomas Hoskinson, from whom I got the above facts ; and who 
kindly told me that if I would shoot the bird he was willing to 
have it sacrificed to science. Accordingly, I repaired to the 
"commons" and found the flock at a locality designated. After 
some little search the "white brant" was discovered, being dis- 
tinguished by its black quill-feathers, rather smaller size, shorter 
neck, black instead of bluish eyes, and the black space along the 
commissures of the bill. When unmolested this bird was as un- 
mindful of a person as the tame geese, and it required chase to 
make it endeavor to escape, which it always did by rising easily 
from the ground, and flying to the river — sometimes half a mile 
distant. 

The specimen was in fine plumage and excellent condition, and 
made a very clean, perfect specimen when prepared. It measure 
as follows : — Length, 27 inches; extent, 57; wing, 17; crimen. 
2-25 ; tarsus, 2 ; middle toe, 1-75. Its weight was h\ lbs. Bill 
deep flesh-color, the upper mandible with a salmon-colored tinge, 
and the lower with a rosy pink flush ; the terminal ungui nearly 
white; the commissures enclose an elongate oval space of deep 
black ; iris very dark brown ; eyelids greenish-white ; tarsi an 
toes purple-lake, the soles of the feet dingy Naples-yellow. 

A remarkable feature of this specimen is that one or two ot 

primaries are entirely pure white, while most of the remaining 

ones have longitudinal spaces, of greater or less extent, on t e 

inner webs. The question arises, whether this is merely a case 

(636) 



GEOLOGY. 

Deep sea Temperature in the Antarctic Sea. — In the Re- 
port to the Admiralty of Capt. G. S. Nares, of H. M. S. Chal- 
lenger, dated Melbourne, March 25, 1874, Capt. Nares, speaking 
of the temperature of the ocean, especially near the pack edge of 
the ice, says : — "At a short distance from the pack, the surface 
water rose to 32°, but at a depth of 40 fathoms we always found 
the temperature to be 29° ; this continued to 300 fathoms, the 
depth in which most of the icebergs float, after which there is a 
stratum of slightly warmer water of 33° or 34°. As the thermom- 
eters had to pass through these two belts of water before reaching 
the bottom, the indices registered those temperatures, and it was 
impossible to obtain the exact temperature of the bottom whilst 
near the ice, but the observations made in lower latitudes show 
that it is about 31°. More exact results could not have been ob- 
tained even had Mr. Siemens' apparatus been on board." 

Origin of the Valley op the Rhine.— Geologists intending to 
travel up the Rhine should by all means read an interesting paper 
% Prof. A. C. Ramsay on the origin of the Valley of the Rhine, 
contained in the Quarterly Journal of the London Geological So- 
ciety (May 1, 1874). He states that the valley during portions of 
the mioeene tertiary period was drained by a river flowing from 
north southwards, and after the upheaval of the Alps the present 
ri ver originated and flowed through an elevated plain formed of 
nnocene rocks, leaving the existing plain, "which to the unin- 
stmcted eye presents the deceptive appearance of once having 
°een occupied by a great lake." 



ANTHROPOLOGY. 

Extent of the Ancient Civilization of Peru.— Prof. C. F. 
JJ ar t writes to the president of the Anthropological Society of 
* e riin, that in a journey to the river Amazon he found some pieces 
of Pottery of which some recall curious forms discovered in Peru, 
^ which prove that the ancient Peruvian civilization extended to 

e easte m side of the Andes. 



MICROSCOPY. 

Sph^eraphides in Tea Leaves. — The present interest in the 
question of adulteration of tea leaves gives special importance to 
Mr. George Gulliver's discovery that the parenchyma of these 
leaves is thickly studded with sphseraphides, apparently of oxalate 
of lime, having a mean diameter of about y^ inch. They have 
hitherto escaped notice, being not easy to find on account of the 
opacity and density of the parts. Soaking, or boiling the leaves 
in a potash solution, separates the epidermis (which is composed 
of cells with sinuous margins, and smooth, taper, slightly curved 
hairs, with the addition of oval stomata on the under side) and 
exposes distinctly the parenchyma, nerves, and sphseraphides. He 
has found potash equally useful in exposing the crystals in other 

New Microscopical Societies. — A new society has been or- 
ganized in Australia, known as the " Microscopical Society of 
Victoria." Mr. W. H. Archer is the first President. 

A Microscopical Department of the Providence Franklin So- 
ciety has been established, with the following officers for the 
present year : — Chairman, Professor Eli W. Blake, Jr.; Vice- 
Chairman, A. O. Tilden ; Secretary, Professor John Peirce ; Cabi- 
net Keeper, N. N. Mason ; Treasurer, Dr. C. B. Johnson. 

The "Indiana Microscopical Society" was incorporated Feb- 
ruary 16, 1874. It is located at Indianapolis, and holds monthly 
meetings. 

Appearances of the Blood in Melanosis.— M. Nepveau rep- 
resents that the blood of persons affected with melanotic tumors 
becomes marked by the presence of an excessive proportion o 
leucocytes which are also filled with dark granules ; the red cor- 
puscles when seen in masses have more or less of a sepia tin , 
and the serum contains reddish-brown granules, and flexible cas •>* 
resembling hyaline casts which seem to be derived from t 
capillaries. 

Achromatic Bull's Eye Condenser.— This unusual acces ^ 
was exhibited by Mr. Ingpen at a late meeting of the Quecke 
Club. 
(638) 



Embedding Tissues. — At the Queckett Club wax was spoken of 
as the chosen material for embedding tissues preparatory to cut- 
ting thin sections. Dr. Matthews preferred paraffine to beeswax. 
Dr. George Hoggan, however, considered carrot preferable to 
wax, and elder pith better than either. 

Gltcerine Mounting. — According to Dr. George Hoggan, gly- 
cerine is used almost universally for mounting in France. A little 
paraffine is run around the edge of the cover-glass, and a solution 
of sealing wax painted over it. 

NOTES. 

Professor Jeffries Wyman, of Cambridge, died suddenly at 
Bethlehem, N. H., on September 4th. For many years Professor 
Wyman had been in delicate health and obliged to spend the win- 
ter months in Florida, while the heat of summer was avoided by 
excursions to the mountains, and it was hoped that with the great 
care he was taking he would be spared for many years to come ; 
especially did this seem probable from his apparently restored 
condition on his return from Florida last spring, when he seemed 
to have renewed vigor for the labors before him, and commenced 
to put the material he had collected during his Florida trips in 
order for publication. This was so far advanced that at the time 
°f his decease he was engaged in printing his memoir upon the 
Shell-mounds of Florida, a work that it is greatly to be hoped was 
so far completed in manuscript as to ensure its publication, as it 
w iU undoubtedly exhibit the thoroughness and cautiousness with 
which his investigations were made. 

Professor Wyman was born in Chelmsford, Mass., August 11, 
l *U. He graduated at Harvard in the class of 1833, and four 
J'ears after received his degree of M. D. He then passed two 
years of study in Europe, and soon after returning to this country 
accepted the position of Professor of Anatomy at the Hampden 
Sj dney College of Virginia, which place he held until 1847, when 
he accepted the Hersey Professorship of Anatomy and Physiology 
at Harvard, which position he held at the time of his decease. 
He was one of the original Trustees, appointed by Mr. Peabody, 
of the Peabody Museum of American Ethnology and Archaeology, 
a Q<* had from the first held the position of Curator of that Mu- 
8e um which owes so much to his care and labors. He always 
tQ ok an active part in the Boston Society of Natural History, and 



succeeded Dr. Warren in the office of president, which office he 
held until 1870 when the state of his health compelled him to re- 
sign the chair. He was one of the original members and first 
officers of the American Association for the Advancement of Sci- 
ence, and was also an original member of the National Academy. 
For many years he acted on the council of the American Academy 
of Arts and Sciences, and was an honored member of many other 
societies. Professor Wymau was of a singularly modest and re- 
tiring lisposition, and though a constant and most laborious 
worker, his reluctance to appear in public, and his extreme modesty 
regarding the results he attained, has prevented the world from 
sharing in but a very small part of his great knowledge, as his 
publications have been comparatively few in number. Ever m $f 
to assist and guide those who sought his council he was, while 
lly severe, a most genial and thorough friend, and was 
greatly honored and respected by his pupils and friends. 

In his death humanity loses an upright, reliable and strictly 
honest man, and science one of the most thorough and cautious 
of investigators. 

The French Association for the Advancement of Science held 
its third meeting at Lille, Aug. 20th, with a large number of foreign 
scientists in attendance. Over one hundred and fifty persons read 
papers -luring the meeting. One of the attractions was a visit to the 
new laboratory of experimental zoology at Vimereux, near Bou- 
logne. There was also an excursion to Bruges and Antwerp. The 
session lasted for eight days. 

The International Congress of Anthropology and prehistoric 
Archaeology opened Aug. 7, at Stockholm, with an attendance ot 
800 members, of which more than 300 were foreigners. Everything 
betokened a brilliant meeting. 

The new geological survey of Pennsylvania is being pushed 
with much vigor under the direction of Prof. J. B. Lesley- 
$30,000 annually for three years have been voted by the .legishv 

Professor Carl Moebics left Kiel on the 25th of July f <* 
Mauritius. He will remain there five or six months to 
marine fauna of the island and make collections for the Prussian 



AMERICAN NATURALIST. 

Vol. VIII. -NOVEMBER, 1874.- No. 11. 



ADDRESS OF PROFESSOR JOSEPH LOVERINGJ 



[Concluded from October Number.] 
An interesting question, which has waited thousands of years 
ev en to be asked, and may wait still longer for an all-sufficient 
answer, relates to the motion of what were once called the fixed 
tors. If numbers count for anything, this is the grandest prob- 
m wllica °an be presented to the mind of the astronomer. The 
argument from probabilities, which reposes on a substantial math- 
roatical foundation, is loud in affirming some kind of motion, and 
repudiates the notion of absolute rest. We must place the stars 
°utside the pale of science, and where no process of reasoning 
Can reach toern, or we must suppose that they subscribe to the 
universal law of all matter which we know, and exert attractive 
» repulsive forces upon each other. There may be one solitary 
y .» 0r m ore probably an ideal point of space, the centre of 
Cavity of the material universe, around which there is equilib- 
gj ; but everywhere else there must be motion. Though 
J*ance may reduce the effect of each one of the forces to a 
'uunum, in the aggregate their influence will not be insignificant. 
j « sun must share the common lot of the stars unless we repeat 
J*^°% of ancestral science, at which we now smile, and transfer 



T* 8, XAT t-ri.u.isT, vol. viii. ' 41 



642 ADDRESS 

the throne of the heaven of matter from the earth to the centre of 
our own little system. If the sun move, a new .order of paral- 
lactic motion springs up in sidereal astronomy. The process of 
elimination requires the mathematician to calculate the direction 
and velocity of the motion of the sun which will leave behind it 
the smallest unexplained residuum: and this remainder is the 
motion of the stars themselves. The delicacy of the problem 
lies in the minuteness of the quantities to be observed and in the 
assumptions which must be made in regard to the distances of the 
stars ; only a few of which have been positively computed from 
parallax. However, a result has been reached, highly probable 
in the sun's case, but which can be converted into absolute values 
for other stars only so fast as their individual distances are dis- 
covered. Here again physics and chemistry, with the spectro- 
scope in hand, have come to the aid of astronomy and geometry. 
Should it appear that the conclusions from spectrum analysis 
must be questioned, the attempt was brave, and even a defeat 
would be honorable. 

In 1675, a Danish astronomer observed the novel fact that 
the frequency in the eclipses of Jupiter's satellites fluctuated with 
the motion of the planet to or from the earth. He hit upon a 
happy explanation, viz ; that the swift light takes more or less 
time to telegraph the astronomical news across the omnipvesent 
lines of force. This early observation is the avant-courier of a 
host of others which have slowly followed in close array. That 
of a blind musician comes next. He noticed, in 1835, that the 
pitch of a steam-whistle, on the Lowell Railroad, fell suddenly as 
the locomotive passed him. Unfortunately, Munroe's observation 
was never published, although he sought and found an a 
of what was then a strange fact. In this case, the whistle sends 
the message, the waves of sound transmit it, and the ear is the 
register : but the changing distance modifies the time. In 1842, 
Doppler of Prague was led, by theoretical considerations, to for- 
mulate the proposition, now known in science as Doppl 
ciple : that the color of light and the pitch of sound, as they W» 
upon the senses, are changed by the relative velocity of the o - 
server and the origin of the disturbance. In 1845, 1 
made experiments upon the railroads in the Netherl 
Scott Russell repeated them on English railroads, « 
firmed the theory in the case of sound. In the application of -t e 



theory to color, few astronomers will be willing to follow Doppler 
in all his extravagancies. 

If it be true, theoretically, that the relative velocity of light, 
the wave-length of transmission, and the period of oscillation in 
the ether, are altered by the relative motion of the observer and 
the place from which the undulation starts, it is obvious that all 
other velocities have but a small chance in competition with the 
velocity of light, and that slight changes of color, if physically 
real as Doppler supposed, would fail of being recognized even by 
the eye of a painter. To interpose the spectroscope, and observe 
the change of refrangibility by the displacement of the sharp lines 
of the spectrum, was a lucky escape from this embarrassment. 
After Huggins had tried his hand at this new method, with a 
small telescope, upon the brightest of all the stars, he was sup- 
plied by the Royal Society of London with a larger instrument 
to pursue the investigation. The results of his spectroscopic in- 
quiry into the motions of many stars have been published. Where 
these results have conflicted with the foregone conclusions of as- 
tronomy, Huggins has not hesitated to arraign the accuracy of 
astronomical data and methods. I have freely admitted the deli- 
cacy and difficulty of the geometrical process. The spectroscopic 
analysis, when applied to the same problem, walks upon slippery 
ground and must take heed lest it also fall. The alleged dis- 
placement is a nice quantity, and instrumental sources of error 
nave been pointed out which may explain away the whole of it. 
1 lay no stress upon the large difference between Vogel and 
Hu ggins in the quantity of motion which spectrum analysis 
bribes to Sirius, inasmuch as the direction of the motion is the 
8an >e. We do not yet know all the elements "which the earth 
contains. The spectroscope has already added four to the 
n «mber. There is reason to think that the stars, though having 
8 °me substances in common with the earth and sun, are not 
^hout their peculiarities. The lines in the stellar spectra may 
<* out of position, not because they are the displaced lines of 
Jjtfinm, magnesium, and hydrogen, but in consequence of novel- 
16S ln the gaseous atmospheres of the stars. 

tion, perhaps a probability, in favor of Huggir 
0n ' « it rest on a sound basis of theory. If there is s 
ss m the physical and mathematical foundation of his argumei 



there will be 



644 ADDRESS 

gratifying as it is tot) aspirations of science, 

the whole superstructure must fall. 

I am thus suddenly brought face to face, with the second head 
of my subject: the mathematical and philosophical state of the 
physical sciences. 

The luminiferous ether and the undulatory theory of light have 
always troubled what is supposed to be the imperturbable charac- 
ter of the mathematics. The proof of a theory is in 
when it can predict consequences, and call successfully upon the 
observer to fulfil its prophecies. It is the boast of astronomers 
that the law of gravitation thus vindicates itself. The nndulatorj 
theory of light has shown a wonderful facility of adaptation to 
each new exigency in optics, and has opened the eye of observa- 
tion to see what might never have been discovered without the 
gs of theory. But this doctrine, and that of gravitation 
also, have more than once been arrested in their swift march and 
obliged to show their credentials. After Fresnel and Young had 
secured a firm foothold for Huyghens' theory of light in mechanics 
and experiment, questions arose which have perplexed, if not 
baffled, the best mathematical skill. How is the ether affected by 
the gross matter which it invests and permeates? Does it move 
when they move? If not, does the relative motion between the 
ether and other matter change the length of the undulation or 
the time of oscillation? These queries cannot be satisfactorily 
answered by analogy, for analogy is in some respects wanting 
between the ether and any other substance. Astronomy says that 
aberration cannot be explained unless the ether is at rest. Optics 
replies that refraction cannot be explained unless the ether moves. 
Fresnel produced a reconciliation by a compromise. The ether 
moves with a fractional velocity large enough to satisfy refraction. 
but too small to disturb sensibly the astronomer's aberration. 1° 
1814, Arago reported to Fresnel that he found no sen- 
ence in the prismatic refraction of light, whether the earth •■■ 
moving with full speed towards a star or in the opposite 
and asked for an explanation. Fresnel submitted the q 
mathematical analysis, and demonstrated, that whatever chan B 
was produced by the motion of the prism in the relative velocu} 
of light, the wave-length in the prism, and the refraction. W»" 
compensated by the physiological aberration when the ray* 



DRING. 645 

emerged. Very recently, Ketteler of Bonn has gone over the 
whole ground again with greal core, studying not only Arago's 
case but the general one, in which the direction of the light made 
a.ny angle with the motion of the earth : and he proves that the 
light will always enter the eye in the same apparent direction as 
it would have done if the earth were at rest. The mathematical 
and physical view taken of this subject by Fresnel, has been under 
discussion for sixty years, and forty eminent physicists and math- 
ematicians might be enumerated who have taken part in it. Fres- 
nel's explanation has encountered difficulties and objections. Still, 
it is consistent not only with Arago's negative result but with 
the experiments on diffraction by Fizeau and Babinet, and the 
preponderance of mathematical evidence is on that side. Mr. 
Huggins runs counter to the general drift of physical and algebrai- 
cal testimony (although he appears to be sustained by the high 
authority of Maxwell), when he attributes some displacement of 
the spectrum lines to the motion of the earth, and qualifies the 
observed displacement on that account. The number of stars 
which Huggins lias observed is insufficient for any sweeping gen- 
eralization. And yet he seems inclined to explain the revelations 
°f his spectroscope, not by the motion of the stars, but by that of 
the solar system : because those stars which are in the neighbor- 
hood of the place in which astronomers have put the solar apex 
are moving, apparently, towards the earth, while those in the op- 
posite part of the sky recede. If it be true that the earth's annual 
Notion produces no displacement in the spectrum, then the motion 
of the solar system produces none. Or, waiving this objection, if 
the correct explanation has been given by Huggins, astronomers 
have failed, by their geometrical method, of rising to the full 
ma gnitude of the sun's motion. The discrepancy appears to 
awaken no distrust in Mr. Huggins' mind as to the delicacy of the 
JPeetruni analysis or the mathematical basis of his reasoning. 
" n the contrary, he would remove the discrepancy by throwing 
^credit on the estimate of star-distances made independently by 
' lm 'e and Argolander from different lines of thought. 

a est we ask, if it is certain that even the motion of the lumi- 
"arywill change the true wave-length, the period of oscillation, 



light 


which i 




•om it. The 




rabject 


has not 


been allowed 


jrtitied 


by mo 


re than 


one analogy : 



but it is said that comparison is not always a reason. It is not 
denied that, when the sonorous body is approaching, the sound 
waves are shortened, the number of impulses on the ear by the 
condensed air is increased, and the pitch of the sound is raised. 
Possibly, the color of light would follow the same law ; but there 
is no experiment to prove it, and very little analogy exists between 
the eye and the ear. There is no analogy, whatever, between the 
subjective sensation by either organ and the physical action of the 
prism. The questions at issue are these :— Does refraction depend 
upon the absolute or the relative velocity of light ; are the time 
of oscillation of the particles of ether and the normal wave-length, 
corresponding to it, changed by any motion of translation in the 
origin ; or is the conservation of these elements an essential attri- 
bute of the luminiferous medium. It has been said that Doppler 
reasoned as if the corpuscular theory of light were true, and then 
expressed himself in the language of undulations. Evidently. 
there is an obscurity in the minds of many physicists, and an un- 
certainty in all, when they reason upon the mechanical CO 
of the ether, and the fundamental laws of light. The mathemati- 
cal theory is not so clear as to be able to dispense with the illumi- 
nation of experiment. Within the present year. Van der Willigvn 
has published a long and well considered memoir on the theoret- 
ical fallacies which vitiate the whole of Muggins' argument fbr 
the motion of the stars and nebulas. His analysis proves that the 
motion of the luminary will not interfere with the time of oscilla- 
tion and the wave-length, provided that the origin of the disturb- 
ance is not a mathematical point but a vibrating molecule, and 
that the sphere of action of this molecule upon surrounding mole- 
cules is large enough to keep them under its influence daring '< :i 
or a hundred vibrations, before it is withdrawn by the motion o 
translation. If this theoretical exposition of the subject should 
be generally adopted by mathematicians, the spectroscopic obser- 
vations on the supposed motion of the stars must receive anotfc* 
interpretation. On the other hand, if a luminary is selected « 



independently of spectroscopic 



■ 



and the displacement of the spectrum lines accords w; 
tion, it will be time to reconsider the mathematical theory, » n 
make our conceptions of the ether conform to the ex] 
The spectroscopic observation of Angstrom on an obliqu 
spark does not favor Muggins' view s r Secchi testifies to opP° sl 



IRING. 647- 

displacements when he examined, with a direct vision spectro- 
scope, the two edges of the sun's equator, one of which was 
rotating towards him and the other from him, and Vogel has re- 
peated the observation with a reversion-spectroscope. This would 
have the force of a crucial experiment were it not that an equal 
displacement was seen on other parallels of latitude, and that the 
bright bands of the chromosphere were moved but not the dark 
lines of the solar atmosphere.' 

When Voltaire visited England in J 727 he saw at the universi- 
ties the effect of Newton's revolutionary ideas in astronomy. 
The mechanism of gravitation had exiled the fanciful vortices of 

wrote : "A Frenchman who comes to London finds many changes 
in philosophy as in other things : he left the world full, he finds it 
empty." The same comparison might be made now, not so much 
between nationalities as between successive stages of scientific 
development. At the beginning of this century the universe was 
as empty as an exhausted receiver : now it has filled up again. 
Nature's abhorrence of a vacuum has been resuscitated, though 
for other reasons than those which satisfied the Aristotelians. It 
1 the mathematicians and not the metaphysicians who are now 
discussing the relative merits of the plenum and the vacuum. 
Newton in his third letter to Bentley wrote in this wise :— "That 
gravity should be innate, inherent and essential to matter, so that 
°ne body may act upon another at a distance, through a vacuum, 
without the mediation of anything else, by and through which 
their action and force may be conveyed from one to another, is to 
me so great an absurdity, that I believe no man, who has in philo- 
sophical matters a competent faculty of thinking, can ever fall 
mto it." Koger CoteSi who wag Newton > s successor in the chair 
of mathematics and natural philosophy at Cambridge, was only 
fou r years old when the first edition of the Principia was issued, 
ari d Newton outlived him by ten years. The venerable teacher 
Pronounced upon the young mathematician, his pupil, these few 
bnt comprehensive words of eulogy: "If Cotes had lived, we 
should have known something" The view taken of gravitation 
b J' Cotes was not the same as that held by his master. He advo- 
ted th e proposition that action at a distance must be accepted 
* s °ne of the primary qualities of mat ter, admitting of no farther 
anal ysis. it was objected by Hobbes and other metaphysicians, 



648 ADDRESS OF PROFESSOR LOVERING. 

that it was inconceivable that a body should act where it was not. 
All our knowledge of mechanical forces is derived from the con- 
scious effort we ourselves make in producing motion. As this 
motion employs the machinery of contact, the force of gnn itfttton 
is wholly outside of all our experience. The advocates of action 
at a distance reply, that there is no real contact in any case, that 
the difficulty is the same with the distance of molecules as that 
of planets, that the mathematics are neither long-sighted nor 
short-sighted, and that an explanation which suits other forces is 
good enough for gravitation. 

Comte extricated himself from this embarrassment by excluding 
causes altogether from his positive philosophy. He rejects the 
word attraction as implying a false analogy, inconsistent with 
Newton's law of distance. He Substitutes the word gravitation, 
but only as a blind expression by which the facts are generalized. 
According to Comte's philosophy, the laws of Newton are on an 
equality with the laws of Kepler, only they are more comprehen- 
sive, and the glory of Kepler has the same stamp as that of 
Newton. Hegel, the eminent German metaphysician, must have 
looked at the subject in the same light when he wrote these 
words :— " Kepler discovered the laws of free motion; a dis- 
covery of immortal glory. It has since been the fashion to say 
that Newton first found out the truth of these rules. It has 
seldom happened that the honor of the first discoverer has been 
more unjustly transferred to another." Schelling goes farther in 
the same direction : he degrades the Newtonian law of 
into an empirical fact, and exalts the laws of Kepler into neces- 
sary results of our ideas. 

Meanwhile, the Newtonian theory of attraction, under the ski - 
ful generalship of the geometers, went forth on its triumphal 
march through space, conquering great and small, far and v*K 
until its empire became e me. The i 



of Descartes offered but a feeble resistance, and 



■ 



dashed to pieces h\ the artillery of the parabolic comets : an<i •■ 
rubbish of this fan, ilul mechanism was cleaned out as completely 
as the cumbrous epicycles of Ptolemy had been disma 
Copernicus and Kepler. The mathematicians certified that tw 
solar system was protected against the inroads of conn- - 
border warfare of one planet upon another, and that il - 
was secure in the hands of gravitation, if only space shoal 



649 

kept open, and the dust and cobwebs which Newton had swept 
from the skies should not reappear. Prophetic eyes contemplated 
the possibility of an untimely end to the revolution of planets, if 
their ever expanding atmospheres should rush in to fill the room 
vacated by the maelstroms of Descartes. When it was stated 
that the absence of infinite divisibility in matter, or the coldness 
of space, would place a limit upon expansion, and, at the worst, 
that the medium would be too attenuated to produce a sensible 
check in the headway of planets, and when, in more recent times, 
even Encke's comet showed but the slightest symptoms of 
mechanical decay, it was believed that the motion was, in a prac- 
tical, if not in a mathematical sense, perpetual. Thus it was that 
the splendors of analysis dimmed the eyes of science to the in- 
trinsic difficulties of Newton's theory, and familiarity with the 
language of attraction concealed the mystery that was lurking 



beneath it. 



ong experience in the treatment of gravitation 



"acl supplied mathematicians with a fund of methods and formulas 
suited to similar cases. As soon as electricity, magnetism and 
electro-magnetism took form, they also were fitted out with a gar- 
ment of attractive and repulsive forces acting at a distance : and 
the theories of Cavendish, Poisson, Aepinus and Ampere, endorsed 
as they were by such names as Laplace, Plana, Liouville and 



■i and disturb if not dislodge the prevalent interpretation of 

e torce of gravitation, were sown by a contemporary of Newton. 

ue y found no congenial soil in which they could germinate and 

ructify until the early part of the present century. At the 

Resent moment, we find the luminiferous ether in quiet and undi- 

* ld ed possession of the field from which the grosser material of 

whe lent SJStems had been Vanished. The plenum reigns every- 

U hi 6 ' the Vacuum is nowhere. Even the corpuscular theory of 

fo!- c aS l% ° ame from the hands 0f its founder ' re( l uired the rein " 

i ment of an et ber. Electricity and magnetism, on a smaller 

ae ' a Ppliecl similar machinery. If there was a fundamental 

tain? ti0n t0 th ° conce P tion of forces actin S at a distance ' cer " 

ij the bridge was already built by which the difficulty could be 

jm 0lmte( i. The turning-point between the old physics and the 

3^***°* was reached in 1837, when Faraday published his 

the specific inductive capacity of 



ex Perime] 



650 ADDRESS 

This discovery was revolutionary in its character, but it made no 
great stir in science at the time. The world did not awake to its 
full significance until the perplexing problem of ocean telegraphs 
converted it from a theoretical proposition into a practical reality, 
and forced it on the attention of electricians. The eminent scien- 
tific advisers of the cable companies were the first to do justice to 
Faraday. This is one of the many returns made to theoretical 
electricity for the support it gave to the most magnificent com- 
mercial enterprise. 

The discovery of diamagnetism furnished another argument in 
favor of the new interpretation of physical action. What that 
new interpretation was is well described by Maxwell. "• Faraday. 
in his mind's eye, saw lines of force traversing all space, where tbe 
mathematicians saw centres of force attracting at a distance; 
Faraday saw a medium where they saw nothing but distance, 
Faraday sought the seat of the phenomena in real actions going 
on in the medium, they were satisfied that they had found it in a 
poiver of action at a distance impressed on the electric flmda. 
The physical statement waited only for the coming of the mathe- 
maticians who could translate it into the language <>f anah-i-. 
and prove that it had as precise a numerical consistency as the 
old view with all the facts of observation. A paper pul 
Sir William Thomson, when he was an undergraduate at the uni- 
versity of Cambridge, pointed the way. Prof. Maxwell, in b« 
masterly work on electricity and magnetism, which appears 
1873, has built a monument to Faraday, and uncon- 
himself also, out of the strongest mathematics. For i 
mathematicians and physicists had labored to associate the a*i 
of electrostatics and electrodynamics under some more - 
pression. An early attempt was made by Gauss in l83o, 
process was published, for the first time, in the recent cox0 ^ 
edition of his works. Maxwell objects to the formula of 
cause it violates the law of the conservation of energy. 
method was made known in 1846 ; but it has not escap< 
cism of Helmholtz. It represents faithfully the laws of Amp 
and the facts of induction, and led Weber to an absolute measu ^ 
ment of the electrostatic and electromagnetic units. 'I 
these units, according to the formulas, is a velocity : 
ment shows that this velocity is equal to the velocity of 
Weber's theory starts with the conception of action at a o J L 



SRING. 651 

without any mediation, the effect would be instantaneous, and we 
are at a loss to discover the physical meaning which he attaches 
to his velocity. Gauss abandoned his researches in eleetroinati- 
netism because he could not satisfy his mind in regard to the 
propagation of its influence in time. Other mathematicians have 
worked for a solution, but have lost themselves in a cloud of mathe- 
matical abstraction. The two theories of light have exhausted all 
Imaginable ways in which force can be gradually transmitted 
without increase or loss of energy. Maxwell cut the Gordian 
knot when he selected the luminiferous ether itself as the arena 
011 "hich to marshal the electromagnetic forces under the symbols 
of his mathematics, and made light a variety of electromagnetic 
action. His analysis gave a velocity essentially the same as that 
of Weber, with the advantage of being a physical reahtv and not 
a mere ratio. Of the two volumes of Mr. Maxwell, freighted 
With the richest and heaviest cargo, the reviewer says: "Their 
author has, as it were, flown at everything : and, with immense 
spread of wing and power of beak, he has hunted down his vic- 
tims in all quarters, and from each has extracted something new 
a nd interesting for the intellectual nourishment of his readers." 
- -ear physical views must precede the application of mathematics 
t0 any subject. Maxwell and Thomson are liberal in their ac- 
knowledgments to Faraday. Mr. Thomson says: "Faraday. 
without mathematics, divined the result of the mathematical inves- 
ts : '*i "ii : and, what has proved of infinite value to the mathema- 
* ; ^na themselves, he has given them an articulate language in 
w hich to express their results. Indeed, the whole language of the 
Hagnetic field and lines of force is Faraday's. It must be said 
:,,r ,ll( ' mathematicians that they greedily accepted it, and have 
ev er since been most zealous in using it to the best advantage." 

ft is not expected that the new views of physics will be gen- 
ially accepted without vigorous opposition. A large amount of 
^tellectual capital has been honestly invested in the fortunes of 
the other side. The change is recommended by powerful physical 
ar guments, and it disenthralls the theories of science from many 
Metaphysical difficulties which weigh heavily on some minds. On 
. e oth er hand, the style of mathematics which the innovation 
^troduees is novel and complex ; and good mathematicians may 
fim * it necessary to go to school again before they can read and 
^erstand the strange analysis. It is feared that with many who 



652 ADDRESS 

are not easily deflected from the old ruts, the intricacies of the 
new mathematics will outweigh the superiority of the now physic*. 
The old question, in regard to the nature of gravitation, WW 
never settled : it was simply dropped. Now ii is revived wiih:!- 
much earnestness as ever, and with more intelligence. Astronomy 
cast in its own mould the original theories of electrical ami ni;i_- 
netic action. The revolution in electricity and magnetism mod 
m ■(•< -sarily react upon astronomy. It was proved by Laplace. 
from data which would now. probably, require a numerical correc- 
tion, that the velocity of the force of gravitation could not be 
less than eight million times the velocity of light ; in fact, that it 
was infinite. Those who believe in action at a distance cannot 
properly speak of the transmission of gravitation. Force can be 
transmitted only by matter : either with it or through it. Ac- 
cording to their view, action at a distance is the force, and it 
admits of no other illustration, explanation, or analysis. It is not 
surprising that Faraday and others, who had lost their faith in 
action at short distances, should have been completely staggered 
by the ordinary interpretation of the law of gravitation, and that 
they declared the clause which asserted that the force diminished 
with the square of the distance to be a violation of the princi- 
ple of the conservation of force. 

Must we then content ourselves with the naked facts of gravita- 
tion, as Comte did, or is it possible to resolve them into a mode of 
action in harmony with our general experience, and which does 
not shock our conceptions of matter and force? In 1798, Count 
Rumford wrote thus: "Nobody surely, in his sober senses, has 
ever pretended to understand the mechanism of gravitation." 
Probably Rumford had never seen the paper of LeSage, published 
by the Berlin Academy in 1782, in which he expounded BM 
mechanical theory of gravitation, to which he had devoted sixty- 
three years of his life. In a posthumous work, printed in l*l s - 
Le Sage has developed his views more fully. He supp 
bodies were pressed towards one another by the everlast 
of ultramundane atoms, inward bound from the immensity of sp** 
beyond, the faces of the bodies which looked towards ea< '•■ < "'•'' 
being mutually screened from this bombardment. Jt was obi* -< " 
to this hypothesis, which introduced Lucretius into the 
Newton and his followers, that the collision of atoms with atoms, 
and with planets, would cause a » ■> the force ° 



gravity. Le Sage admitted the fact. But as no one knew that 
the solar system was eternal, the objection was not fatal. As the 
necessity for giving a mechanical account of gravitation was not 
generally felt at the time, the theory of Le Sage fell into oblivion. 
In 1873, Sir William Thomson resuscitated ami republished it. 
He has fitted it out in a fashionable dress, made out of elastic 
molecules instead of hard atoms, and has satisfied himself that it 
is consistent with modern thermo-dynamics and a perennial gravi- 

Let us now look in a wholly different quarter for the mechanical 
origin of gravitation. In 1870, Prof. Guthrie gave an account of 
a novel experiment, viz: — the attraction of a light body by a 
tuning-fork when it was set in vibration. Thomson repeated the 
experiment upon a suspended eggshell and attracted it by a simple 
wave of the hand. Thomson remarks -that what gave the great 
charm to these investigations, for Mr. Guthrie himself, and no 
doubt also for many of those who heard his expositions and saw 
his experiments, was, that the results belong to a class of phe- 
nomena to which we may hopefully look for discovering the mech- 
anism of magnetic force, and possibly also the mechanism by 
«'hich the forces of electricity and gravity are transmitted." By 
a delicate mathematical analysis, Thomson arrives at the theorem 
that the "average pressure at any point of an incompressible, 
Motionless fluid, originally at rest, but set in motion and kept in 
motion by solids, moving to and fro, or whirling round in any 
manner, through a finite space of it," would explain the attractions 
just described. Moreover, he is persuaded by other effects besides 
those of light, that, in the interplanetary spaces and in the best 
artificial vacuum, the medium which remains has "perfectly de- 
cided mechanical qualities, and, among others, that of being able 
fc o transmit mechanical energy, in enormous quantities:" and he 
cherishes the hope that his mathematical theorems on abstract 
bydrokinetics are of some interest in physics as illustrating the 
great question of the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries :— Is 
action at a distance a reality, or is gravitation to be explained, as 
we now believe magnetic and electric forces must be, by action of 
intervening matter? 

J n 1869 and 1873, Prof. Challis of Cambridge, England, pub- 
"8ued two works on the Principles of Mathematical Physics. 
T hey embody the mature reflexions i 



at the advanced age of threescore years and ten. Cballis be- 
lieves that there is sufficient evidence for the existence of ether 
and atoms as physical realities. He then proceeds to say :— '-The 
fundamental and only admissible idea of force is that of premm>. 
exerted either actively by the ether against the surface of the 
atoms, or as reaction of the atoms on the ether by resistance to 
that pressure. The principle of deriving fundamental physical 
conceptions from the indications of the senses does not admit of 
. gravity, or any other force varying with distance, as an 
essential quality of matter, because, according to that principle. 
we must, in seeking for the simplest idea of physical force, have 
regard to the sense of touch. Now, by this sense, we obtain > 
perception of force as pressure, distinct and unique, and not in- 
volving the variable element of distance, which enters into the 
perception of force as derived from the sense of sight alone. 
Thus, on the ground of simplicity as well as of distinct percepti- 
bility, the fundamental idea of force is pressure." As all other 
matter is passive except when acted upon by the ether, the ether 
itself, in its quiescent state, must have uniform density. It must 
be coextensive with the 'vast regions in which material force ii 
displayed. Challis had prepared himself for the eluci 
defence of his dynamical theory by a profound study of the laws 
of motion in elastic fluids. From the mathematical forms in 
which he has expressed these laws he has attempted to derive the 
principal experimental results in light, heat, gi 
and magnetism. Some may think that Mr. Challis has done 
nothing but clothe his theory in the cast off garments of an obso- 
lete philosophy. If its dress is old, it walks upon new legs. 
interplay between ether and atoms is now brought on to 
not as a speculation supported by metaphysical an I 
arguments, but as a physical reality with mathemati. 
I should do great injustice to this author if I left the 
that he himself claimed to have covered the whole ground of ** 
system by proof. Mathematical difficulties prevented bun bom 
reaching a numerical value for the resultant action oi 
ether upon the atom. What he has written is the 
pointing the direction in which science is next to tra\ i 
end of the journey is yet a great way off. The repeated P* ^ 
of Mr. Challis against the popular physics of the da: 
bold proclamation of the native, independent motion of the e 



li:ive iiroused criticism. What prevents the free ether, asks the 
late Sir John Herschel, from expanding into infinite space? Mr. 



< li.-.lii. 



replies that we know nothing about infinite space i 



Wens there, but the existence of the ether, where i 
ence can follow it, is a physical reality. The source of the mo- 
tion which the ether acquires is not the sun: for the most ellicient 
cause of solar radiation is gravitation and condensation. Our 
author avoids the vicious circle of making gravitation, first the 
reason and afterwards the consequence of the motion of the ether. 
He says : " It follows that the sun's heat, and the heat of masses 
in general, are stable quantities, oscillating, it may be, like the 
planetary motions, about mean values, but never permanently 
hanging, so long as the Upholder of the universe conserves the 
force of the ether and the qualities of the atoms. There is no law 
of destructibility : but the same Will that conserves can in a mo- 
ment destroy." The following remarks upon this theory deserve 
our attention. "The explanation of any action between distant 
bodies by means of a clearly conceivable process, going on in the 
ig medium, is an achievement of the highest scientific 
v 'alue. Of all such actions that of gravitation is the most univer- 
Sal and the most mysterious. Whatever theory of the constitu- 
tion of bodies holds out a prospect of the ultimate explanation of 
the Process by which gravitation is effected, men of science will 
b e found ready to devote the whole remainder of their lives to the 
development Of that theory." 

The hypotheses of Challis and Le Sage have one thing in com- 
mo «; the motion of the ether and the driving storm of atoms 
must come from outside the world of stars. " On either theory, 
the universe is not even temporarily automatic, but must be fed 
from moment to moment by an agency external to itself." Our 
^ience is not a finality. The material order which we are said to 
k »ow makes heavy drafts upon an older or remoter one, and that 
a third. The world, as science looks at it, is not self- 
sustaining. We may abandon the hope of explaining gravitation. 
an d make attraction itself the primordial cause. Our refuge then 
18 ^ the sun. When we qualify the conservation of energy by 
ion of energy, the last of which is as much an induc- 
tion of science as the first, the material fabric which we have 
d still demands outward support. Thomson calculates 
tha t, within the historical period, the sun has emitted hundreds of 



658 

which held them. The discovery that heat was a motion and not 
a substance, foreshadowed by Bacon, made probable bj 
and Davy, and rigidly proved by Mayer and Joule when they ob- 
tained its exact mechanical equivalent, opened the way to the 
dynamical theory of gases. Joule calculated the velocity of this 
promiscuc y the minuteness of the 

missiles, and found that the boasted guns of modern warfare could 
not compete with it. Clausius consummated the kinetic theory of 
gases by his powerful mathematics, and derived from it the exper- 
imental laws of Mariotte, Gaj'-Lussac and Charles. By the as- 
sumption of data, more or less p] maticiani 
have succeeded in computing the sizes and the masses of the mol- 
ecules and some of the elements of their motion. It should not 
be forgotten that mathematical analysis is only a rigid system of 
logic by which wrong premises conduct the more surely to an in- 
correct conclusion. To claim for all the conclusions which have 
been published in relation to the molecules the certainty which 
fairly belongs to some of them would prejudice the whole cause. 

One of the most interesting investigations in molecular me- 
chanics was published by Helmholtz in 1858. It is a mathemati- 
cal discussion of what he calls ring- vortices in a perfect, friction- 
less fluid. Helmholtz has demonstrated that such vortices possess 
a perpetuity and an inviolability once thought to be realized only 
by the eternal atoms. The ring-vortices may hustle one another, 
and pass through endless transformations, but they cannot be 
broken or stopped. Thomson seized upon them as the imperson- 
ation of the indestructible but plastic molecule which he WW 
looking for, to satisfy the present condition of physical science. 
The element of the new physics is not an atom or a congeries of 
atoms but a whirling vapor. The molecules of the same substanc* 
have one invariable and unchangeable mass : they are a! 
one standard pitch and, when incandescent, emit the same kind o 
light. The music of the spheres has left the heavens and conde- 
scended to the rhythmic molecules. There is here no birth or dea 
or variation of species. If other masses than the precise 
represent the elements have been eliminated, where, asks »** 
well, have they gone ? The spectroscope does not sin i 
the stars or nebulas. The hydrogen and sodium of remotest space 
are in unison with the hydrogen and sodium of earth. 

In the phraseology of our mechanics we define matter and to 



EKING. 659 

as if they had an independent existence. But we have no con- 
ception of inert matter or of disembodied force. All we know of 
matter is its pressure and its motion. The old atom had only 
potential energy; the energy of its .substitute, the molecule, is 
partly potential and partly kinetic. If it could be shown that all 
the phenomena displayed in the physical world were simply trans- 
mutations of the original energy existing in the molecules, phys- 
ical science would he satisfied. Where physical science ends. 
tttotral philosophy, which is not wholly exploded from our vocab- 
ulary, begins. Natural philosophy can give no account of energy 
when disconnected with an ever present Intelligence and Will. 
In Herschel's beautiful dialogue on atoms, after one of the speak- 
ers had explained all the wonderful exhibitions of nature as the 
work of natural forces. Ilorinione replies :—•■ Wonderful, indeed! 
Anyhow, they must have not only good memories but astoni>hin:_ r 
presence of mind, to be always ready to act, and always to act, 

nistake, according to the primary laws of their being, in 
every complication that occurs." And elsewhere, "Action, with- 
out will or effort, is to us, constituted as we are, unrealizable, 
unknowable, inconceivable." The monads of Leibnitz and the 
demons of Maxwell express in words the personality implied in 
Pv m- manifestation of force. 

In this imperfect sketch of the increased res "oes and the 

Present attitude of the physical sciences I have not aimed to speak 
a s an advocate ; much less to sit as a judge. The great problem 
1/1 the day is, how to subject all physical phenomena to dynamical 
huv *- With all the experimental devices, and all the mathematical 
a Ppliances of this generation, the human mind has been baffled in 

pta to construct a universal science of physics. But 

nothing will discourage it. When foiled in one direction, It will 

another. Science is not destructive, but progressive. 

W hMe its theories change, the facts remain. Its general! 



ng and deepening from age t 






al1 the theories of physical science the remark of Grote which 
Ch allis quotes in favor of his own : — "its fruitfulness is its cor- 
" Instead of being disheartened by difficulties, the 
trQ e man of science will congratulate himself in the words of 
Wenargues, that he lives in a world fertile in obstacles. Im- 
mortality would be no boon if there were not something left to 
dl8 cover as well as to love. Fortunate, thought Fontenelle, was 



Newton, beyond all other men, in having a whole fresh 1 
before him, waiting for an explanation. But science w 
Alexanders weeping because there are not other worlds to ( 
For every heroic Columbus, who launches forth, in howeve 
bark, upon untried oceans, seeing before 
where others behold only a wilderness of waters, there are prec- 
ious discoveries in reserve. Surely the time has not yet come 
when the men in any section in this Association can fold their 
arms and say: — It is finished. Unless our physicists are con- 
tented to lag behind and gather up the crumbs which fall from the 
rich laboratories and studies of Europe, they must unite to deli- 
cate manipulation the power of mathematical analysis. Mathe- 
matics wins victories where experiment has been beaten. A\ ith 
good reason we applaud the many brilliant successes of instru- 
mental research. . Mathematical analysis, with its multitudinous 
adaptations, is the only key which will fit the most intricate v, aid- 
in the treasury of science. With the help of her mal 
physicists, Great Britain has now taken a position in science 
which she has not held before since the days of Newton. In 
Germany, the physicists do not hold back from the most difficult 
problems of the day, because they are led along by ex Pf ri ™^ 
on one arm and by mathematics on the other, 



t scientists prevails, 



5 of Vesuvius, and 



makes them ready 

nature and humanity. France, too, out of the very 
humiliation, sends an inspiring word to us. Since her defeat, her 
scientific spirit has been aroused as it was after the days oj 
first revolution. Her Association for the Advancement of Science 
is only a two year old infant; but it has sprung into 
like Minerva from the head of Jupiter, fullgrown and 
Already it has displayed a vitality and a prosperity which t» 
Association, in its opening manhood, has not yet acquired. 

s of its first President are as true for the United States as ^ 
ce : — that the strength and glory of a country are not in 



THE METAMORPHOSIS OF FLIES. « 



We now attempt to consider morphologically the phenomena of 
the development of the Muscidae, as discussed in the foregoing 
chapters. In the first place, the theories above laid down seem to 
be thoroughly established, i. e. that we have in the metamorphosis 
of the flies nothing to do with a simple change of skin. Indeed, 
the additional metamorphosis is accompanied by a casting aside 
and new formation of the chitinous framework which underlies 
the body, but this has a very subordinate signification. The sys- 
tems of organs of the larva disappear simultaneously, it may be 
completely, it may be only histologically ; and out of the frag- 
ments the tissues build up a new body. It is a matter of doubt 
whether to consider the larva and pupa as one and the same indi- 
vidual, or whether we have not in reality an alternation of genera- 
tions. I think that those who speak of a metagenesis in certain 
Echinoderms should regard this also as such, if with V. Carus,f 
we consider metamorphosis as a series of developments in which 
the animal, during a certain stage in its development, is provided 
will] provisional organs; but metagenesis as that in which this 
whole developmental stage itself (Amme) must be considered as a 
Provisional one, so that it readily follows that the system of organs 
of the larva taken collectively is provisional, or in other words, 
that the larva itself is a provisional stage, while the fly must be 
considered as a new individual; such process taking rank as an 
alternation of generations. At all events from the Pluteus-form 
Urva new organs arise in the sea star, as from the larva in the fly. 
There is the alimentarv canal and the water vascular system, which 
la «t, though in a plainly undeveloped condition, is already par- 
tially developed in the larva. Here we have, except the hypo- 
derm of the abdominal segments of the larva, no parts which pass 
"»*> the pupa without previously undergoing a total revolution. 
The alimentary canal and the water-vascular system of the Echino- 



rSerm larva at do ti 

develop more perfectly; they grow more complicated in their 
structure; they throw off their parts singly; they only hold in 
reserve their histological structure in order to become physiolog- 
ically capable of performing their functions. 

In the Muscidae, on the contrary, each organ of the larva does 
not become entirely lost, though bordering upon a histolysis, >. e. 
becoming functionally incapable, their histological elements dis- 
solve themselves into a blastema, from which a new histological 
element must arise. The only difference from the total destruc- 
tion, such as befalls the muscles, the fat bodies, etc., is this, thai 
the destruction of tissues here becomes a continuous process, ami 



the new organs are built up out of the same in; 


iterial which com- 


posed the old ones. This obtains in the inte 


stine, the nervous 


system and the dorsal vessel. But a Burprisi 


ng analogy to the 


development of the Echinoderm occurs in the 


; formation of the 


imaginal disks. As the body of the Echinoden 


a selects at several 


points around the alimentary canal of the lai 


:va indifferent cell 



masses, and then all unite and consolidate into a single mass, so 
arise at different places within the body of the fly larva— here 
still in genetic relation with the organs of the larva — masses of 
indifferent cells, which become differentiated in the course of ft" 
development of the different parts of the imago, and become trans- 
formed into a common whole. It cannot be considered as an 
essential deviation, that in the Pluteus larva these cell masses »re 
formed during the life of the larva, while in the muscid larva the) 
are formed before that, in the egg; and this i 



slight exten 



r of the 



formative disks, those out of which the upper half ol 

thorax is formed, here makes an exception, and is onl\ 

shortly before the pupation. Had we considered the i< 

the cell masses of the Echinoderm larva as buds, tun 

stronger reason is the formation of the imaginal disks of the fl 

cidae a budding process. They are outgrowths of th< 

tary membrane of the nerves and trachese of tissues. n; '" 11 ' r) 

they are not histologically, are yet physiologically eqi 

the complete fibrous tissues of the vertebrates. Both 

essentially derived from an amorphous, fundaments 

which seems to have the capabilities which the more rec 

in histology ascribe to the peculiar restorative quality of the eo 



TLIES. G63 

nective tissue of vertebrates, i. e. of building up cells, and of re- 
turning to that from which it originated. 

I find it generally true that the nuclei lying near a recent disk 
become metamorphosed into disk-forming cells ; tha'i they sur- 
round themselves with cells, and multiply like the other disk-cells. 
•Such a process may be seen in the exceptionally late appearance 
of the upper piothoracic disks. These disks are already formed 
in the egg out of the embryo cells, — out of the same material as 
the tegunientary membrane with which they develop. They could 
only in an ideal sense be regarded as outgrowths of this tcgu- 
mentary membrane ; so the upper piothoracic disks are. in reality, 
nothing but outgrowths. The nuclei of the peritoneal skin form 
cells, and increase in number, constituting the disks. We have here 
a bud which scarcely differs from the buds which are concerned 
in the formation of new stigmata in the first moulting of the larva, 
and we should almost err in considering the morphological value 
°t this disk to regard it as a true imaginal disk ; it should at least 
not be compared with those of the free Tipulidffi larvae, in which 
they have a by far more complicated structure, while they are con- 
siderably larger, and are indicated contemporaneously with the 
formation of the other disks of the thorax. 

As I cannot agree with that opinion which regards the well- 
known metamorphosis of Echinoderms as a metagenesis, so am I 
still far from proposing that there is such a metamorphosis in the 
Muscidae. We must certainly, with V. Cams and J. Muller, con- 
sider it in this respect as irrelevant whether the nurse produces 

growing from the egg develops into a sexual form, or whether it, 
not capable of that, at the end of its development produces germs 
(buds) which build up a sexual animal; or whether the series of 
developmental forms from the embryo up to the sexually ripe 
animal end in one or two individuals. The answer in both cases 
seems to me not doubtful. In the Echinoderms as in the Muscidre 
w e have to deal with a metamorphosis, not with an alternation 
of generations. Larva and sexually mature animal are one and 
the same individual. In the Echinoderms it seems to me this is 
**fent in that the internal organs (intestine and water canal sys- 
tem) are present, and without any interruption of their functions 
P ass ( >ver from the larval stage to the adult sea star ; so that a 
single germ will not from the beginning pass by gradual differen- 



664 

tiation into the perfected 
of cells take place and 
the new "individual." 

But in the flies there is another fact which compels us to look 
upon the larva and pupa as a single individual, however slight 
may be the community in organs and external form between the 
two developmental stages. It is this circumstance that the same 
mass of organized substance constitutes the body of the growing 
larva, as of the fly. During the metamorphosis no growth takes 
place. The larval skin is thrown off, the insect forms a case 
around itself beneath whose shelter it remains and builds up the 
final form of the perfect insect. It takes in or gives out products 
of combustion of the still unceasing process of respiration. We 
have in a manner a second egg-development, and as we consider 
egg and larva as a single individual, so must the pupa, though not 
containing the undeveloped larva as a yolk, be considered as one 
and the same individual. But it does not happen that there is no 
stage in the development of the pupa in which the larval organs 
are not present ; though the organs of flight are indeed newly 
formed, the exclusion of the larval body does not take place sud- 
denly, but very gradually it grows parallel with a whole series of 
formations of new structures. Larva and fly overlap each other. 
There can be no doubt that they are one and the same individual 1 
that their development also is to be considered as a metamor- 
phosis. 

It is still the most complete metamorphosis conceivable which 
we find in the Muscidse, far more complete — I do not profess to 
speak from more recent observations — than, for exam] 
amorphosis of the Lepidoptera. The destruction of the larv 
Lpniflnntorn rrnifih leas comolete, as the 



The museles 



organs is in the Lepidoptera much less complete 
terous pupa has the power of i 
of the larval segments concerned in the movements seem w ^- 
main, and the nervous power is not interrupted ; there is a com- 
munication between the nervous centre and the organism, 
consciousness of the animal remains, it reacts on stimulation. Ac- 
cording to Herold the pulsation of the dorsal vessel goes on. 
pupa in short ceases not for a moment to be a living being, won 
the life of the Muscid is as latent us that of the fertili 

h the transfer of many organs of the larva into 

[find that even m 



^lies. 665 

the Lepidoptera the origin of the thorax is from the Injpoih y rmis of 
the larva; that no thoracic disks are developed within the body, 
but that the appendages of the thoracic segments grow by a direct 
metamorphosis from the limbs. The wings alone have a special 
mode of development and in a very peculiar way. 

I think that the kind and mode of" formation of the thorax in 
the pupa of insects have the closest connection with, at first sight, 
a very subordinate circumstance, the presence or absence of true 
limbs in the larva. / thin ':. thai > .-/<< >■- ' j where the three segments 
of the birf.i immmlintchi fn'loH-iftg the head bear appendages, the 
corresponding appendages— the legs— of the adult insect, are formed 
OH a simple metamorphosis; while on the other hand, whin these 
Umhs are wanting in the larva, there are found thoracic scales within 
the hod>j of the [arm; and not only the appendages but also the -walls 

All my observations, new and old, agree with this view ; among 
others the earlier observations on the larva of the gnat, already 
spoken of, which have only anal limbs, but no typical segmental 
appendages, and in which the structure of the thorax is the same 
as in the Muscidje. 

When it is said that the life of the insect is latent in the pupa, 
that the usual functions of animal life, such as motion and sensi- 
bility are wanting, I might speak of the Muscidae alone, and say 
this of all insects with a similar mode of formation of the thorax. 
There comes into consideration here, not only the greater or less 
• of development, the more or less marked absence of 
the larval organs, but also the period of the formation of the pupa. 
In the Tipulid larva, noticed above, the larval and pupal states are 
more intimately blended than in the Muscids. The thorax and 
head of the pupa are already fully formed, while the larva is ac- 
tively swimming about. When the larva skin is cast off the 
muscles of the pupa are already at work ; the functions of animal 
life ^ffer no interruption. 

But in the Muscidse the loss of the larval parts precedes the 
formation of the body of the pupa. Hence we perceive no mo- 
tion, and in fact the animal life is latent. The circulation of the 
blood ceases, the peripheral nervous system is destroyed, and the 
cential system loses any power of action; at the same time all 
the inner organs become incapable of farther functional condi- 
tions. The development of new systems of organs begins with 



the rise of mdiliercn 
as happens in the ft 
renewal of the structure is seen in a measure in the internal or- 
gans. We can distinguish four modes of development, according 
to which the parts of the fly originate. Either certain parts of the 
larvae become persistent, under modification, or the larval organs 
become a foundation for the parts of a fly, but are thrown oft", cell 
by cell, ere they assume a definite character. The third and last 
kind is when an entirely new development of parts takes place, 
the beginning of which either dates at the embryonic or larval 
period or at the close of the pupa state. 

Let us consider this single mode of development more closely 
as regards the direct transfer of the larval parts alone from the 
hypodermi8 of the eight hinder larval segments, which are after- 
wards developed into the abdomen of the fly. The second mode 
occurs in the alimentary canal, the Malpighian vessels, with the 
dorsal vessel and the central part of the nervous system. The 
same process is observed in all these organs, that of their removal. 
cell by cell, with a succeeding new development. I might term it 
a histolysis. The histological elements of the organ— simple as 
well as compound— surfer a fatty degeneration ; there remains a 
residuary mass filled mostly with fat molecules. In the nervous 
centres and Malpighian vessels the nuclei of the cells become per- 
sistent, and perhaps give rise to the development of new histo- 
logical elements ; whether this persistent mass deports itself like 
the alimentary canal, or whether after its destruction it retains the 
nuclei, must remain undetermined, nevertheless this same mass, 
which had composed the former organs, serves to build up anew the 
new ones. The products resulting from this destruction of organs 
are not wholly dispersed, but remain together and so receive the 
form of organs in their totality, even if no single histological 

We must here leave undetermined how the cells which are to 
form the new organs originate, though this cannot be doubtful M 
regards the last two modes of development of the parts of the 
imago. They undergo a completely new development, i. e. of a" 
those parts which are not generally present in the larva, or are 
not in their complete state of functional activity. In this last 
category belongs the thorax and head of the Jly and <'' 
ages, also those parts of the imago which arise from the disks ; 



the cells of the embryo, and in the uppei 
are afterwards formed, there is still a co 
bryonal cells and those of the disk if s 



tion which generally obtains in the last half of the period of pu- 
pation. and gives the material for the development of the inner 
organs still wanting, the tracheae, nerves, the fat body of the fly, 
and the genital armature. I have sought to call attention to the 
fact that we are dealing with a "free" cell formation, i. e., that 
the newly formed cells arise directly or indirectly from cells. In 

in the fertilized egg show a process of free cell formation, arising 
independently from some previous formative element. An objec- 
tion to this could be raised, that we have to do with an endog- 
enous cell growth, while the whole egg should be considered as B 
eell. It is clearly shown to be in agreement with the earlier ob- 
servations of Stein and Lubbock, that the insect egg is not the 
bivalent of a single cell, but is composed of a number of cells. 
sho "l'l this objection be laid aside, then a similar objection in the 
cell growth of the inner parts of the pupa could not arise, and if 
the relation be proved by fresh observations, then there may be a 
fr ee cell growth in the living organism. 



An the September issue of the Naturalist, Dr. Brewer reviews 
at considerable length a small article which appeared in a previous 
n »mber, from the pen of Dr. Coues, concerning the European 



668 mm 

house sparrow. He accuses the latter of entertaining feelings of 
prejudice a^ninst the sparrow-,, ami of \>< ing •• ; pparcntly only too 
glad to condemn them on the scantiest evidence." 

After a careful perusal of what Dr. Coues has written. I must 
confess that I am utterly unable to see how such a construction as 
Dr. Brewer's could be forced upon it. In the article to which ref- 
erence has been made, Dr. Coues says, "I have always been op- 
posed to the introduction of the birds, mainly on this score, also 
for other reasons." What the other reasons are, it is not my 
province to divine ; but it is sufficiently obvious from a clause of 
the above quotation, that his opposition to them was not founded 

_::i;iry wrong* which he supposed they would e< 
upon knowledge either gained by personal observation or that had 
been communicated to him by others. lie was undoubtedly ia 
possession of evidence similar to mine, at the date of the tetter's 

By referring to page 146 of the "Key," I find that he mani- 
fested considerable concern about the results which would evi- 
dently follow the overflowing of municipal limits by the species, 
when the latter should come in contact with our native birds. 
Here it is difficult to resist the conclusion, that the knowledge 
which he possessed at the time of writing the "Key," afforded a 
sufficient warrant for what he said, and furnished the ground for 
his anxiety. Dr. Coues is too careful an observer and recorder 
of facts to pen an article without having taken the precaution to 
intrench himself securely against assault. From the evidence 
submitted it is clear that the charge of prejudice which has been 
preferred against him, is not sustained. 

Leaving the learned doctor to defend himself, in his own able 
manner, which I am assured he will not hesitate to do, a regard 
for my own feeble reputation, compels me to pen a few lines de- 
nunciatory of the charge of misrepresentation which Dr. Brewer 
has imputed to me, as implied in his review. The D 
in language not to be miscomprehended, that he "enl 
credits" my statement, assigning as the reason, that he does no 
believe that " the habits of either the house sparrow, or 
blue bird, or the native sparrows, are different in P< 
from what they are in Massachusetts." What I see wit ^ 
natural eye is "evidence of belief. I am not prone to 
"double vision," but generally observe things as they really e» 



I have never visited Massachusetts for the purpose of studying 
the habits of its birds, but have derived considerable knowledge 
thereof, from the writings of its ablest sons, and can fearlessly 
aver, that either they have failed to represent the facts as they found 
them, or else perceptible differences exist. I do not wish to be 
understood as imputing the charge of misrepresentation to them, 
but only to show that my experience in eastern Pennsylvania has 
been of such a character as to prove beyond dispute the existence 
of differences of habit. A multitude of circumstances exist to 
vary the habits of a species. A single circumstance occasionally 
suffices : but, generally, a combination is necessary to determine 
variation. The introduction of a new species in a given locality, 
in its struggle for existence, will often have a tendency to place 
a new aspect upon affairs. Rapidity of multiplication, and a con- 
sequent increase of numbers, will often make up for lack of indi- 
vidual courage ; — for in union there is strength. Birds that are 
proverbial for courage will often betray feelings of cowardice, and 
yield when beset by fearful odds. 

Ever since the introduction of the sparrows into our own city, 
I have been a close observer of their ways, and have watched their 
rapid increase and steady diffusion, with feelings of fear, lest 
coming into contact with our smaller birds, they would compel 
the latter to seek quarters elsewhere. This suspicion has been 
latterly confirmed. On the outskirts of Germantown, and even 
in the groves which surround many of our palatial residences, 
where the house sparrow has intruded, the robin, sparrows and 
blue bird, our most welcome guests, but occasionally greet us 
with their presence and voices. To be sure there are places where 
these denizens of foreign birth have not disarranged the quiet and 
harmony that once pervaded our groves and fields uninterrupted 
as they were save by an occasional breach of trust. 

The members of a family that quarrel among each other will 
often exhibit the same unenviable trait of character towards out- 
siders. In the breeding season, Dr. Brewer admits that the males 
are exceedingly pugnacious, but only when actuated by amatory 
influence. Granting this for the sake of argument, is it not a 
reasonable presumption that while these influences endure, the 
Passions being wrought up to a high pitch of excitement, the 
casual appearance of a stranger on the scene would be miscon- 
atrued as an act of interference, and the force of infuriated indig- 



nation be wreaked upon the innocent intruder. This would cause 
the former source of trouble to be forgotten for the time being ; a 
feeling of love and good will to prevail, and the united strength 
of several to be centred upon an apparently common foe. 

A supposed case of this kind would seem to admit of no other 
explanation. Here would be the starting-point for that enmity 
which I know to exist between this species and our smaller 1 inU 
in certain localities. As years roll on it will gradually strengthen 
and increase. Just such facts as this supposed case calls for, in 
order to lead to a satisfy !,.y <• ,.,,• usion, fell under my imme- 
diate observation during the early days of last spring. 

Our smaller birds were just as abundant then, as in former 
years, and, as far as I was able to determine, the circumstances by 
which they were environed were materially the same. In places 
not as yet overrun by the house sparrows, apparently circum- 
stanced similarly, our native species build as freely as ever. 
But there are spots not a few in number, where year after year I 
have wended in my ornithological pilgrimages, and returned with 
a rich harvest ; but latterly, they have been deserted, and the fa- 
miliar forms and voices I once loved to greet have gone, and 
strangers now occupy their loved retreats. 

I have known instances where our smaller birds have commenced 
nest-building, and on the appearance of the sparrows have been 
compelled to beat a precipitate retreat. 

What I have thus detailed at length, has been the experience of 
others. Mr. Abel Willis of Germantown informs me that the 
robins and sparrows were frequent visitors upon his father's prem- 
ises in early spring, and were wont to build upon the bushes WW 
trees that occupy the lawn, for several years in succession. This 
last year they came as usual, but the house sparrows had preoccu- 
pied all the available places. Displeased with such presumption, 
they were not disposed to yield quietly, but set about to expel the 
intruders ; and in the encounter, being outnumbered, were obliged 
to emigrate to other quarters. 

Repeatedly they renewed their endeavors, but were as often 
defeated. 

In the cavity of an old apple tree in Mr. Willis's yard, a p*l 
of the 

and were engaged in preparing for 



which they occupied was severed from the trunk by the writer': 
request, and deposited in his collections. The birds were sue 
cessful in bringing to maturity a family of twelve children. Mr 

itors to the tree during the early part of the season, and then 

ins and our native sparrows were compelled to yield, and look foi 
suitable quarters elsewhere. While engaged in nidiftoatton and 
incubation, he further informed me, not a bird is permitted tc 
approach within ten paces of the nest, for the male is ever on the 
alert for intruders, and wreaks instant vengeance upon their te- 
merity. The tree which held the nest being in close proximity tc 
his residence, sitting within his back door, he could command a 
full view of the surrounding prospect, and observe every manoeuvre 
of the sparrows. He had witnessed frequent encounters between 
the innocmt sparrows and the robins and our native sparrows, and 
always noticed that the former were the aggressors. At the time 
of writing -the sparrows still continue to visit the old apple tree, 
the scene of their former joys and pleasures. 

The editor of the "Weekly Guide" of Germantown, last spring 
published the observations of several of our most prominent citi- 
zens, bearing upon this subject, in which were stated facts similar 
to what have been detailed. In the cases to which he referred, 
the sparrows were always the aggressive party, and what indi- 
vidual courage and strength failed to accomplish, was brought 
about through the medium of numbers. Instances were cited where 
the robins and blue birds were beset by numbers of the sparrows, 
and were completely banished from sites rendered dear and sacred 
by past associations and recollections. What our citizens partic- 
ularly bewail is the utter repugnance which the sparrow mani- 
fest towards our smaller species. In certain localities referred tc 
in the above publication, the sparrows had taken complete pos- 
session, and the familiar forms and voices of the song and chip 
Ping sparrows, the robin and blue bird, are recollections of the 
Past, save when an occasional chirp bespeaks tl 
°f these friends, come back to take, perhaps, 
scenes which memory holds dear, to be instant 
scurity. 



well of 
nto ob- 



672 ENGl 

Mr. John Strouse of Chestnut Hill, a careful observer of the 
habits of birds, a taxidcnniM iy < u-^ai -ition, informs me that in 
all his experience, which has been a very long one, he never met 
a species which, for size, displayed such pugnacity and persistent 
pertinacity during the breeding period, as the house sparrow. 
Instances of these unenviable traits have repeatedly come under 
his immediate observation. There are localities, he affirms, known 
to him, where the robin, sparrows and blue bird, were wont 
to breed every spring, except the last, in great numbers. This 
neglect of accustomed sites he attributes to the quarrelsome 
nature of the sparrows. Upon the property of Mr. John Butler 
of Germantown, the smaller native species were always to be dis- 
cerned in large numbers during the season of nidification, but 
now the English house sparrows have taken their places; the 
former were absolutely driven away, as he had ocular demonstra- 
tion of the fact. 

It is true that the birds have been of immense service in ridding 
our squares of the caterpillars which were once so prevalent and 
so annoying to persons of delicate nerves and refioed tastes. 
Had our city authorities years ago, by a wise regulation, pro- 
vided for the removal of the squirrels, and encouraged many of 
our smaller insectivorous birds to build, by erecting suitable boxes 
for their accommodation, and imposing the severest penalty upon 
any who should molest them, there is no doubt that we should have 
been saved the expense of importation and the repugnance which 
possesses some of us at witnessing the banishment of many of our 
most common species. Our smaller birds, once placed in our 
squares and unmolested, would, in course of time, come to regar 
such localities as their permanent homes, and, year alter yeWi 
would revisit them under the spur of past associations. Innumer- 
able instances might be cited to prove that birds are frequently 
so strongly attached to particular localities, that they visit them 
every season unless driven away perforce. Such being the case, 
why could not our squares be rendered so attractive to our 
smaller insectivorous birds that they would come to regard them 
as their homes during their sojourn with us? They could an 
the presence of the sparrows be dispensed with. 



EEVIEWS AND BOOK NOTICES. 

The Geology of the Lower Amazoxas.*— The Erer'e-Montc- 
Alegre District and the Table-topped Hills. In this paper Prof. 
Hartt has given us a very interesting account of a part of his 
careful explorations on the Lower Amazonas. In the fall of 
1870, a month was spent in the vicinity of Kicn' with three assist- 
ants, and in the following year, nearly as much time was given to 
the same neighborhood in company with Mr. 0. A. Derby, his 
present assistant. A large portion of the ground was gone over 
on foot and field u<>v- mid sketches carefully made. The results 
of Prof. Hartt's labors are of extreme interest, as they clear up 
many uncertainties in regard to the age of the sandstones and 
shales of Erere, supposed by the late Prof. Agassiz to be of gla- 
cial origin. They really belong as far back as the Palaeozoic age. 
6pace will permit us to give but a brief outline of the main por- 
tion of the paper, in connection with the sketches illustrating it, 
the cuts of which have been kindly loaned by the Buffalo Society 

To the northwest of Monte-Alegre, a town situated on the Rio 
Corapatuba, near where it enters the Amazonas, and distant 350- 
360 miles nearly directly west of Para, is quite an extensive 
Plain, surrounded on all sides by hills and high grounds. The 
distance across the plain from north to south is about fifteen miles, 
its width from east to west is over ten mites. It lies somewhat 
%Ikt than the alluvial plains of the Amazonas. and is drained 
] >y the Igarape of Erere, a small stream flowing into the Igarape of 
PWtuna, which in turn enters the Rio Curupatuba some distance 
below Monte-Alegre. The structure of the plain of Erere is very 
s >mple, for it is composed of nearly horizontal strata of Devonian 
a ge, through which the small Igarape has worn a little valley, 
narrow toward the north where the stream flows over the bare 
focks, but broader below and partly filled in with alluvial depos- 
irs ' ^ing below the level of the plain. The rocks project in low 
'''"Us along the edge of the valley, and about fifteen feet in thick- 
ness of the Devonian beds are exposed, where the road from the 



Igarape to Erere crosses the bluff on the west. The beds com- 
posing the lower part of this bluff consist of a " soft, well-lam- 
inated, fine-grained shale, dark gray in color, alternating with 
white or red layers, and consisting of a fine, more or less sandy 
silt, with an abundance of little flakes of mica." One species of 
Discina and two of Lingula were obtained from the variegated 
shales. The former has been identified with a New York species, 
Discina lodensis of Hall from the Genesee shale, and is very abun- 
dant. Above the shales is a heavy bed of red and white clay 
rock, containing only obscure markings, the whole having a slight 






: ; 




inclination to the southeast. In the northwestern part of 
campo, Prof. Hartt.found, that " the rock varies from a very ha , 
dark-colored, silicious shale, to a well-bedded, dark gray, com P^ 
cherty rock, breaking with a conchoidal fracture." These we^ 
the lowest beds of the series examined . Fragments only of foss^ 
were obtained from the more shaly portions. Foil 
Monte-Alegre trail eastward from the igarape, light-colored si 
with thin bands of a reddish sandstone, full of fossils, are ^V^ 
just before reaching the Monte-Alegre highlands. The os ^ 
belong to common Devonian genera. In a large open camp i 



675 

i distance of about two miles 
1 whitish or yellowish shales. 
The sandstone is seldom seen in situ, but usually occurs in loose 
angular fragments. It affords an abundance of fossils, and forms 
the best collecting ground known on the plain. At this point 
Prof. Hartt and Mr. Derby made a very large collection of fossils. 
It represented ten genera of Brachiopods, about the same number 
of genera of Lamellibranchs and Gasteropods, two species and 
genera of Trilobites and several other forms. After a careful 
comparison of these with North American and European collec- 
tions, several of the species were found to be identical with species 
occurring in the Hamilton group of New York, and described by 
Prof. Hall. So the conclusions are, that the sandstones and 
shales of the Erere plain were formed at a period, corresponding 
to that in which the Hamilton shales were laid down, in North 
America. 

The surface characters of the plain are in strict keeping with its 
simple structure. To the eastward of the Igarape, it stretches to 
the foot of the Monte-Alegre highlands, almost as level as a floor, 
the Palaeozoic rocks passing beneath the highlands. To the west- 
ward, as we approach Erere, the plain forms a flat or rolling open 
campo, with long gentle ascents and descents. There is very little 
soil on any part of the plain, the surface of which is usually 
covered with angular fragments of red sandstone or rounded iron 
nodules. The campo is sparingly covered with grass, while the 
trees are few, stunted and scattered. Several large dykes occur 
on the plain. 

Having gone over, though very hastily, what seems to be the 
most interesting part of Prof. Hartt's paper, as it is the richest in 
results, let us, by the aid of his sketches and descriptions, examine 
the surrounding hills. They form almost a square, protecting the 
level plain on all sides ; to the eastward lie the Tertiary hills of 
Monte-Alegre, made up in large part of a single ridge, and extend- 
ing from the Curupatuba on the south nearly to the Serra of Taua- 
Jorf on the north. They have a height of about 500 or COO feet, 
are composed of horizontal beds of clays and sands, probably of 
Tertiary age, and seem to be " a degraded outlier of the once ex- 
tensive formation of the serras of Paru." The upper town of the 
villa of Monte-Alegre is placed upon its summit, above the Rio 
Curupatuba, toward which the descent is very rapid. 



The Serra of Erere forms a part of the southern boundary of 
the plain. On its east, between the serra and the igarape, is a 
plateau, made up, at least in part, of obliquely laminated beds of 




tinted sands and clays. "The serra is a high, narrow, rugged, 
irregular ridge, four or five miles long, trending about east-north- 
east and west-south-west, and with abrupt and often | 
sides." The top of the ridge is very irregular, composed of heavy 
beds of sandstone which are often exposed in ledges, or lie strewn 



Si i ^ 






about the surface in hnge blocks. The sandstones form 
bluffs along the upper part of the serra on its northern side, 
which the slope is very rapid. At both ends the serra 



beneath 
termin ates 



quite abruptly, as represented in the following cut showing it from , 
the east. 

Just west of the Serra of Erere is a short ridge, with the same 
trend and geological structure, called Aroxi. This is followed by 
several still smaller ridges, apparently part of the same outcrop. 

Fig. 95. 



The Serra of Paituna, near the igarape of the same name, is 
composed of horizontal beds of the same sandstone as that of the 
Serra of Erere, "so that the two serras probably form part of a 
synclinal fold." The sandstones forming the Serra of Erere are 
well jointed and of unequal hardness. On weathering, they have 
assumed many curious forms, some of which are covered with 
Indian inscriptions and paintings. Fragments of silicified wood 
have been found in the stone, but they are too poorly preserved to 
admit of identification. Thus we have no palseontological evidence 
as to the age of these sandstones, whieh may be older or newer 
than those of the plain to the north. 

Looking northeastward from the Serra of Erere, beyond the 
northern termination of the Monte- Alegre highlands, we see the 
Serra of Tauajuri, a "splendid, blue, mountain mass, which, with 
precipitous front, heaves its back against the horizon, like a giant 
«ave ready to break upon the level plains of Erere, that lie spread 




out before us. While, northward from the hills (of Aroxi and 
Araeuri) stretches a belt of low, wooded ridges, skirting the 
campos on the west and north, and bending round to close the 
c ^euit with Tauajuri." 

The Serra of Tauajuri is a sharp-crested ridge, exceedingly steep 
°n the southern side, but sloping off at an angle of 10°-15° on the 



northern. Its highest point is about 850 feet above the level of 
the sea, and it appears to differ entirely from Erere in its geological 
Structure. I he view from the summit extends over an immense 
area, the entire Erere-Monte-Alegre highlands and the Devonian 
plain being in sight. 




The description of the table-topped hills to the eastward of 
Monte-Alegre, which have been the subject of much discussion, 
we copy verbatim : 

"The table-topped hills of the Amazonas, so frequently described 
rs. consist nf scveru] isolated mountains or plateaus of 
imposed of horizontal strata, which lie on the 
northern side of the river between Prainha and Alt 
known collectively as the Serras of Pan'.. They are 

vel tops and their Verv abrupt, sometimes \ 
sides. The westernmost of these serras is that of 1 
eastward of which is that of Velha Pobre, while still farther east 
are the Serras of Almeirim/ The general appearance of these 
- is represented in the following sketch made from the 



^3 



"The serra of Paranaqnara is distant, as nearly as I 
about twenty miles to the eastward of the fazenda" (of L>. *• 
Rodrigues on the Igarape of Marapi). - It is an extensive, isolatea 
eircumdenudation, and apparently forms a long, narr ?"' 
irregular strip, running east-west. The following skel 
from a point a few miles west of the mountain, will show its topo- 
graphical features as seen in elevation." 




"The following cut is from a sketch taken from the top o 
serra, looking off northward along the western side, showin< 
level-topped summit, and the steep sides and spurs, along v 
run the edges of the horizontal strata like courses c " 




No fossils have been found in the Parauaquara beds and their 
age is undetermined. — R. R. 

We may add that the excellent palseontological work by Mr. 
Rathbim "On the Devonian Brachiopoda of Erere, Province of 
p ara, Brazil," follows and supplements Prof. Hartt's paper, and is 
illustrated with three heliotypic plates, containing one hundred 
and one figures. The author draws the following conclusions 
fr om his study of the Brachiopod fauna of Erere : — 

"Although the fossils so far obtained from Erere, were collected 
lr om so small an aiva an 1 so limited a thickness of rock as to 
^nder it unsafe to draw any extended or definite conclusions 
, a* it I-, resembles so 
as to leave 
no doubt th rod, the sandstones and 

snales of Erere, represent about the same horizon as the Hamilton 
g^up of North America. Not... Hamilton 

group gem- ,. beds, but even species of those 

same genera, which cannot be separated from North American 
8 Pecies of the Hamilton group." 



The Original Distinction op the Testicle and Ovary.* — 
An interesting contribution to the germ layer or Gastraea theory 
of Haeckel, which is now exciting the attention of embryologists 
and evolutionists, is afforded by Prof. E. Van Beneden of Liege. 
It will cause an inquiry into the real value of Haeckel's Gastraea 
theory, disputed by some of our leading zoologists. We translate 
Van Beneden's introduction and conclusions. 

'■ Huxley was the first who demonstrated that the entire organi- 
zation of the zoophytes, medusae, a i ,i Spir- 
ophores can be reduced to a sac formed of two adjacent cellular 
layers, the ectoderm and entoderm (Allmnn), and who considered 
■ ireneral law of structure in the 
■ Although one did not dream :it this period of seek- 
- es between the vertebrate - an I low. r animals. IIuxle\ 
took in all the bearings of his discovery. He recognized and 
in Hear and precise language his opinion on the horaol- 
ii he believed exists between the ectoderm and entoderm 
of the Coelenterata, and the two primordial cellular layers of verte- 
brates. See in what terms he expresses this idea; • 

: he structure of the body-walls of the Hydrozoa, to » hich l 
have just referred, possesses a singular interest in it- 

-: •-':■••.' -. : . •■.:,■ :;..-... „ , : .... . . : ' 

states of the lower animals and the embryonic conditions of 
higher organizations. 

'For it is well known that, in a very early state, the g 
of the highest animals, is a more or less complete sac. v 
wall is divisible into two membranes, an inner and an outer; the 
latter, turned towrn i . n relation 

with the nutritive liquid, the volk The van 

are produced by a process of budding from one, or other, or both 
Of these primary layers of the germ.' . . 

He seek- wrallelism, froi 



between the ectoderm of zoophyb 

and internal layer on the other. He concludes bv s: 
there is a very real and uennine analogy between the 
drozoon and the embt 

logical researches mad', in late years, in < 

' •^'■■•■'.V:,.-.- -A,.-.. ;....;:, ■ . ,.;■ ., -: ».-..-..,■-..■■• 

•—,r •....■■.•..,i': ! ,. :• '..<■:,■ .... , •- ■ 

of the illustrious Knglish naturalist. And in the first rank 



the Diphydse and Sipbooopaor* 



work done in i of contradiction, be 

cited that of Kowalevsky ; in showing the identity of development 
of Amphioxus and of the Ascidians. he closed with a single stroke 
the abyss, thought to be impassable, which separates the branch 
of vertebrates from all the lower organisms. The important pub- 
lications of the same author on the other types of organization, 
added to those of Gegenbaur, Ilaeckel. Ray Lanke-ter. Kleinen- 

iigdoin this grand conception that all the parts of the 
animal organism are formed from the two primordial cellular layers, 

and everywhere homologous. 

These ideas have just been developed in detail and brilliantly 
defended in two essays of a hie.lt philosophic import. Ilaeckel 
has proposed in his brochure Die Guxtra'a thearic, <!'» 

i Tho-rrciches und die Ifomologie der Keim- 
blatter, a theory which he had first announced in his monograph on 
the calcareous sponges. Some analogous ideas, and in several 
respects almost identical, have been published in En-land in the 
Annals and Magazine of Natural History, under the title; "On 
t e I'nirti v,. (Vi .[a\, imi tic Knil.no :b tin 15 — < I tin < -euea- 

: Animals" by my Wend E. Kay Lankester. 
All the pluricellular animals. . nicnt begins 

by the segmentation of the cell-egg, pass through in the course of 
lar embryonic form, that of a sac whose thin 
walls are coi ent wywsj the en 

ectoderm. The first surrounds a cavity which is the ; 
digestive tube; these the body of the em- 

bryo; it alone can be impressed bv external causes. The diges- 
tive (M\it v cenuuuiicate. uith the exterior by a single orifice 
*h ■ h serves both as mouth and anus. The embryo U 
a digestive cavitv, which is but a simple stomach: li 
proposed to give to this primordial form the name ot ;—'• 
As this embryonic form occurs in the vertebrates, as well as tne 

Ration; t, j in all the same morphological 

value; tfa . itive cavity of vtrto 

,,„form in the course 
of evolution of all the metazoal animals allows us to refer them 
to a common source ; there is a convergence of the grea 

ism as bad been urged by Cuyier 

and Von Bai ******* at a -geological 

epoch fari, : these orga- 

sand ways in their form and m 

te, 8 , have been the common soure 

very numerous group of Gastraeades (Haeckel). 



different types of organization from the 
This induction has been already freely continue. 1 in that whirl) 
concerns the central nervous system, 'which is developed in all 
animals from the ectoderm. 

Consequently, it makes no difference if we should wish to know 
the origin of an organ, whether we seek for it in one or another 
type of organization ; the results can be extended to the whole 
. lification. 

However, of all the types of organization, that which >orv<s 
best for research on this capital question of the origin of organic 
systems, is that of the polypes, still called zoophytes or Cojlen- 
terates. In them, in short, the ectoderm and cndoderm persist 
with their embryonic characters during their entire life ; all the or- 
gans of the zoophytes are only a dependence of one or the other 
of these layers, sometimes of the two layers united. 

The polype form may be traced back with the great. - 
to the Gastrula, all the parts of which are preserved without un- 
dergoing any great modifications daring all the course of exist- 

Conclusions. In the Hydractinire 1. The eggs are developed 
exclusively from the epithelial cellules of the endodenn. They 
remain, up to the time of their maturity, surrounded by the ele- 
ments of the endoderm. 

2. The testicles and spermatozoa are developed from the ecto- 
derm; this organ resin -formation of 
a primitive cellular fold formed by invagination. 

3. There exists in the female sporosacs a rudiment of the tes- 

gan ; in the male sporosacs a rudiment of an ovary. TM 
sporosacs are then morphologically hermaphrodites. * * 

on consists in the union of an egg, a prod' 
endoderm, with a certain number of spermatozoa, products of the 
ectoderm. This act In 

ments of opposite polarity, which, after having been urn 
stant in the egg, separate again ; for in most animals those in 
which the Lias into two occurs, th 

from which the ectoderm are formed are already separated from 
those which are to form the internal layer of the embryo. 
The new individuality is realized at the n - 

the elements of opposed polarity has taken place, as ao- 
solutely as a molecule of water is formed by the union of atom 
of hydrogen and oxygen." 

In a late paper on the embryology of jelly fishes Metznikoff has 
criticised the universal application of Haeckel's Gastrsea theory, 



REVIEWS AND BOOK NOTICES. 683 

and shown that in the embryos of the Acalephs and Echinoderms 
the outer layer is invaginated and forms the walls of the stomach. 
Ami it appears to us that if organs, such as the ovary and testicle, 
almost universally recognized as homologous, are developed from 
opposite germ-layers, then the importance of the germ-layer theory 
of Haeckel is diminished by Van Beneden's remarkable discovery. 
We should say, however, that at the last meeting of the French 
Association for the Advancement of Science, Mr. P. Hallez ques- 
tioned whether the ovary and testis were homologous. Mean* bile 
Giard announced at the same meeting that the male organs of 
Sacculina, a crustacean, are developed from the frontal glands, 
which in turn arise from the ectoderm. 

Maps of Wheeler's Expedition. — We have received six ad- 
vance sheets of a "Topographical Atlas" projected to illustrate 
Explorations and Surveys west of the 100th meridian of longi- 
tude, embracing results of the different expeditions under Lt. 
Wheeler, Corps of Engineers, U. S. A., published by the war de- 
partment. The scale of each atlas sheet is one inch to eight 
miles. Sheet 50 covers portions of central and western Utah; 
sheets 58 and 59 embrace parts of eastern and southeastern Ne- 
vada and southwestern Utah ; sheet 66 covers portions of south- 
western Utah, northwestern Arizona and southeastern California. 
The work appears to be well done and will be useful to geographers 
and naturalists studying the distribution of plants and animals, 
especially the map of the areas of drainage to the Atlantic and 
Pacific oceans and of the interior basins of the United States, 
^st of the Mississippi river. 

We have found exceedingly useful the progress map of lines and 
areas lying west of the 100th meridian, and giving the lines of 
exploration by different parties sent out by government since Lt. 
Pike's expedition of 1805 ; not, however, including the area sur- 
veyed by parties under the Department of the Interior and Smith- 
sonian Institution. 

A large number of sheets are in preparation, and we shall ere 
^ng with the aid of these and the maps publishing by Hayden and 
Powell's expedition, with those of Whitney's Survey of California, 
°e >n possession of definite knowledge of the region west of the 
i, which is now altogether wanting in any atlas we have 
yet seen. 



Physiology of the Circulation.*— In this useful work the 
author has aimed "at producing a comprehensive view of the cir- 
culation as it exists in the lowest vegetable and high 
forms." He has ^ endeavored to prove by a variety of arguments 
that the circulation, whenever and wherever found, differs less in 
kind than in degree ; that fluids may move in living tissues with 
or without vessels and hearts ; that the circulation in an aggrega- 
tion of vegetable cells is essentially the same as that which occurs 
in the tissues of our own bodies. As a chain is composed of 
links, all of which are formed on a common type and fit into each 
other, so the circulation in the lowest vegetables and animail 
gradually develops into that of the higher, until we reach man 
himself; the circulation in the one being relatively as perfect as 
in the other." 

Bulletin of the Cornell University^ — The first two num- 
bers of this new periodical, a credit alike to the university and 
the officers, contains a report of a reconnoissance of the Lower 
Tapajos river, by Professor C. F. Hartt, and a finely illustrated 
paper by Mr. O. A. Derby on the Carboniferous Brachiopoda of 
Itaitdba, Rio Tapajos, Brazil. We hope the patrons of the Uni- 
versity will sustain this valuable publication. 

Manual of Metallurgy. J— The author of this excellent manual 
was a student of Dr. Percy, the distinguished metallurgist, from 
whose work the present one is in part compiled. It will evident!} 
prove, as the author hopes, a useful auxiliary to the more volumi- 
nous works on this subject. It is amply illustrated. 

BOTANY. 

Insectivorous Plants. § — The leaf of Sarracenia is a tramp** 
shaped tube, with an arched lid, covering, more or less com P Ie ~£ 
the mouth. The inside is furnished with a perfect chevaux-de- 
frise of retrorse bristles, commencing suddenly^b^u^nmch^from 



§ Abstract of a papei 



the base ; thence deerea m about the middle to 

the mouth they are so short, dense, and compact, that they form a 
decurved pubescence which is perfectly smooth and velvety to the 
touch, egpec asses downward. Under the hood 

again, many of them become large and coarse. Running up the 
front of the trumpet is a broad wing with an emarginate border, 
parting at the top and extending around the rim of the pitcher. 
Along this border, but especially for a short distance inside the 
mouth, and less conspicuously inside the lid, there exude drops of 
a sweetened, viscid fluid, which, as the leaf matures, is replaced 
by a white, papery, tasteless, or but slightly sweetened sediment 
or efflorescence ; while at the smooth bottom of the pitcher is 
secreted a limpid fluid possessing toxic or inebriating qualities. 

The insects which meet their death in this fluid are numerous, 
and of all orders. Ants are the principal victims, and the acidu- 
lous properties which their decomposing bodies give to the liquid 
doubtless render it all the more potent as a solvent. Scarcely 
any other Hymenoptera are found in the rotting mass, and it is an 
interesting fact that Dr. Mellichamp never found the little nectar- 
loving bee or other Mellifera about the plants. On one occasion 
only have I found in the pitcher the recognizable remains of a 
Bombus, and on one occasion only has he found the honey bee 
captured. Species belonging to all the other orders are captured, 
and among the larger species I have found katydids, locusts, 
crickets, cockroaches, flies, moths, and even butterflies in a more 
°r less irrecognizable condition. 

Two species are proof against the siren influences of the de- 
str oyer, and in turn oblige it, either directly or indirectly, to 
support them. The first is Xanthoptera semicrocea Guen., a little 
glossy moth which may be popularly called the Sarracenia moth. 
11 walks with perfect impunity over the inner surface of the 
Pitcher, and is frequently found in pairs within the pitchers soon 
after these open in the earlv part of the season, or about the end 
°f April. The female lays ""her eggs singly near the mouth of the 
P'tcher, and the young larva from the moment of hatching spins 
f °r itself a carpet of silk, and very soon closes up the mouth by 
Rawing the rim together with a delicate gossamer-like web, which 
effectually debars all small outside intruders. It then begins fret- 
hood, feeding downward on the cellular tissue and 
having only the epidermis, and by the time the worm has attained 



its full size the pitcher generally collapses. At this time the worm 
is beautifully colored, and is characterized by rows of tubercles, 
which are especially prominent on the four larger, legless joints. 
The chrysalis is formed in a very slight cocoon. The species, 
kindly determined by Mr. A. R. Grote, was many years ago fig- 
ured by Abbot, who found it feeding on Sarracenia varioktrii in 
Georgia. Guenee's descriptions were made from these figures, 
and here the author appends a few descriptive notes from the 
living material, of interest only to specialists on account of their 
technical character. The second insect which successfully braves 
captivation is a species of flesh-fly which the author names Sarco- 
phaga sarracenim. After giving some technical details of struct- 
ure, he shows how the larva of this fly riots in the putrid insect 
remains, and how, in order to undergo its transformations, it 
bores through the leaf and burrows into the ground. The im- 
mense prolificacy of these flesh-flies, and the fact that the young 
are hatched in the ovaries of the parent before they are deposited 
by her on tainted meat, are duly commented upon, as well as the 
rapid development of the species ; also the propensity of the larva? 
for killing one another and their ability to adapt themselves to 
different conditions of food-supply are made appreciable. 

In conclusion the author says : To one accustomed to seek the 
why and wherefore of things the inquiry very naturally arises as to 
whether Xanthoptera and Sarcophaga play any necessary or im- 
portant role in the economy of Sarracenia. Speaking of the N^r- 
cophaga larva, Mr. Ravenel asks, » May he not do some service to 
SaiTiicenia as Pronuba does to Yucca?" And if so may not an 
this structure for the destruction of insects be primarily for W 
benefit? Can he be merely an intruder, sharing the store of pro- 
vision which the plant, by ingenious contrivance, has secured for 
itself, or is he a welcome inmate and profitable tenant? Self-"** 
tilization does not take place in Sarracenia, and the possibiMg 
that the bristly flesh-fly aids in the important act of r 
lends interest to the facts. No one has witnessed * 
pleasure than myself the impulse which Darwin has of late y***" 
given to such inquiries, but the speculative spirit, is, in some quar- 
ters, becoming too wild and unbridled, and we should be cautio 
lest it impair our judgment or our ability to read the simple \esao 
of the facts. My own conclusions summed up are : 

First: There is, no reason to doubt, but .every reason to beUe^ 



that Sarracenia is a truly insectivorous plant, and that by its se- 
cretions and structure it is eminently fitted to capture its prey. 

Second : That those insects most easily digested (if I may use 
the term), and most useful to the plant, are principally ants and 
small flies, which are lured to their graves by the honeyed path, 
and that most of the larger insects, which are not attracted by 
sweets, get in by accident and fall victims to the peculiar mechan- 
ical structure of the pitcher. 

Third: That the only benefit to the plant is from the liquid 
manure resulting from the putrescent captured insects, some of 
which doubtless descend to the root-stalk, and probably through 
large tubular cells, observed by Mr. Ravenel, passing through the 
petiole into the root. 

Fourth : That Sarcophaga is a mere intruder, the larva spong- 
"ig on and sharing the food obtained by the plant, and the fly 
attracted thither by the strong odor, as it is to all putrescent ani- 
mal matter or to other plants, like Stapelia variegata, which give 
forth a similar odor. There is nothing to prove that it has any- 
thing to do with pollination, and the only insect that Dr. Melli- 
champ has observed about the flowers with any frequency, is a 
Cetoniid beetle — the Euryomia melancholica. 

Fifth: That Xanthoptera has no other connection with the 
Plant than that of a destroyer, though its greatest injury is done 
after the leaf has performed its most important functions. Al- 
most every plant has its peculiar insect enemy, and Sarracenia, 
wi *h all its dangers to insect life generally, is no exception to the 

Sixth : That neither the moth nor the fly have any structure 
Peculiar to them, which enables them to brave the dangers of the 
plant, beyond what many other allied species possess. — C. V. 

Distribution of American Woodlands. *— This is a paper to 
be published in the Statistical Atlas of the United States, now in 
Progress of publication. It is an exhibition of a map, and a 
description of the methods by which the map was colored. Then 
f °Hows an analysis of the trees of the tree flora in the ten dis- 
vhich the United States was divided. The flora of the 
LDl ted States, the author said, is believed to contain over 800 



woody species, and over 300 trees. Of these trees about 250 spe- 
cies are somewhere tolerably abundant, about 120 species grow 
to a tolerably large size. 20 attain a height of 100 feet, 12 a 
height sometimes of over 200, and a few — perhaps 5 or 6 — a 
height of 300. The speaker analyzed the districts, adding : New 
England I consider to contain 80 or 85 species, of which 50 may 
reach a height of fifty feet ; Maine is the great source of pine and 
spruce lumber, but as a whole the hard wood species predominate. 
Without going into the details of this flora, it is sufficient to give 
the author's remark that the area of woodland in New England is 
not perhaps greatly diminishing, but the amount of tin 
ble of being made into sawed lumber is lessening. The Middfe 
States have about 100 to 105 species of trees, 65 to 67 of which 
sometimes reach 50 feet in height. Here were originally very 
heavy forests. There are still large areas heavily timbered, but 
the timber for all purposes is unquestionably rapidly diminishing, 
and there is no compensating influence going on for increase. 

But in the Middle and New England States various hard woods 
attal ti their greatest perfection as to strength and durability; and 
as a consequence here we find the manufactures that are depen- 
dent on those woods. In the southeastern region — that is, ex- 
tending from Virginia and Florida— we have about 130 species. 
In each case these form the conspicuous elements of the land- 
scape. 75 attain a height of 50 feet or more, and about a dozen 
species a height of 100 feet. A belt of pine timber extends the 
whole length of this region, which is the great source of the hard 
and yellow pine. The author described the ornamental trees of 
that beautiful region, and resumed: The northwestern region, 
from Ohio to Minnesota, and north of the Ohio River, is repre- 
sented by about 105 to 110 species, 68 or 70 of which may reac 
a height of fifty feet. That is the district furnishing at present 
the largest production of sawed lumber within the I 
Michigan alone furnished in 1870 of the 12,750,000 of M. feet, 
2,250,000; Wisconsin furnished over 1,000,000 — the two states 
thus producing more than one-fourth of the whole yield returne 
in that year. 

The author alluded to the rapidity of the destruction going on 
in that region ; also of the diminution of sawing lumber in »J 
forests, and the increase in woodland over the prairie ™f on ** 
becomes cultivated. The southwestern region, extending r 



BOTANT. 689 

Kentucky to Texas and the Gulf, has about 112 to 118 species, 60 
or 65 of which attain a height of 50 feet, which the author also 
analyzed. West of these last two districts, this treeless belt, ex- 
tending entirely across the continent from the Gulf of Mexico to 
the Arctic Ocean, is described, and its characteristics within the 
limits of the United States are mentioned. It is 350 miles wide 
in its narrowest part, between latitude 36° and 37°, and 800 miles 
wide on our northern border. The Rocky Mountain region is 
next considered. This consists of from 28 to 30 species, but a 
vastly smaller number making up the timber region. Perhaps not 
over half a dozen species constitute by far the larger part. No 
hard woods are abundant in any of the forests west of the Great 
Plains, although hard woods occu the southern 

and western part, as scattered trees rather than as forests. Be- 
tween the Rocky Mountains in the Sierra Nevada is a desert 
or sparsely wooded region, which cxti n Is - »utl u u 1 to Mexico, 
uniting on its southern part with the treeless expanse which ex- 
tends from the Atlantic to the Pacific along our southern frontier, 
and throwing out a spur entirely across the Rocky Mountains 
near the Pacific Railroad, connecting it with the treeless plains on 
the eastern side. This great treeless district varies very much in 
its different regions, has quite a large number of species of inter- 
est to botanists, and some few of economic value. The only 
forests within it are forests of coniferse, occurring on the moun- 
tains, of which the largest one is in Arizona and is 400 miles 
,0 ng, the limits of which have recently been demonstrated by 
Lieut. Wheeler's Expeditions. Here followed an analysis by the 
author of the flora of the region west of this Desert ; of California, 
Washington Territory, and Oregon, where were found the grandest 
forests, perhaps, on earth, and the noblest trees. The number of 
species of these latter is quite large, but in any one region the 
number of species is small. With one single exception all of the 
tr ees within the United States which attain a height of 200 feet 
are fou "d in this district. The forests are entirely of cone bear- 
lfl g trees and the number of species is large, the number of timber 
trees being very large and their size and value also being great. 
gton Territory official reports state that the land will 
Produce from 25,000 to 300,000 feet per acre, and that there are 
Va st tracts " that would cover the entire surface with cord wood 



10 feet in height." Then follows again an analysis of the trees 
of California and Oregon, including the many forms there that 
have heen of interest in the world. 

In Alaska, the tenth region or district, the data are insufficient 
for the map, but there are heavy forests there that are well known. 
The author J disposition of forests, 

showing what variety of causes have controlled this. Then the 
economic value of some of the industries directly dependent on 
them. were alluded to, and the author ended his paper with some 
conclusions regarding the future supply, and suggestions regard- 
ing the planting of trees. — Wm. H. Brewer. 

Adoxa Moschatellina L., in Iowa ! — A correspondent in the 
Northeastern part of the state sent me some time since speci- 
mens which prove to be Adoxa Moschatellina L. Its locality is 
given in the "Flora of North America" as between lat. 54° and 
64°, and on the higher peaks of the Rocky Mountains as far south 
as lat. 42°. Professors Porter and Coulter in the "Flora of Col- 
orado" call it a " sub-alpine, common" plant. The last named 
gentleman collected it on Mt. Lincoln at the altitude of 13,000 
feet. Mr. Watson in a private note says, "not found before this 
side of Colorado and the mountains, I believe." 

Its occurrence in Iowa is certainly unlooked for. It grons 
abundantly on a rocky hillside, and was in bloom in May. V* 
locality in this case is best given as "Upper Iowa Kiver, Iowa." 
— C. E. Bessey, Agricultural College of Iowa, Aug. 31, 1874. 

Dispersion of Seeds by Shooting them off. — Our corre- 
spondent, Mr. Brandegee of Colorado, writes: — 

"While drying seeds of lonidium lineare, I noticed 
esting habit it has of shooting its seeds. Each capsule contains 
six seeds and is a six shoots. The throe xalvt- <•; 
press the seeds tightly by their margins and in this w 
shot off singly, as one vh<»<.?- maimv seeds from between 
fingers. A good shot will go fifteen to twenty feet." 

All violets do it, and lonidium is of this family. To render 
the operation clearer, it should be added that the three firm valves 
into which the capsule splits, after their separation fold toget er 
on their axis, to which the seeds are attached in a row, and i »<» 
the gradually increasing pressure so applied to the hard an 
i ovoid seeds that fires them off. — Eds- 



BoTRYcniim lunaria Swartz, was collected in Michigan long 
before the date given in the June Naturalist by Mr. Gillraan. 
In my herbarium are specimens collected on Isle Royale by Dr. 
A. E. Foote, in the summer 6f 1868.— C. E. Bessey. 



ZOOLOGY. 

Transformations of our Moths. — Some interesting notes are 
given by Mr. J. A. Lintner in the " Twenty-sixth Annual Report 
on the New York State Cabinet of Natural History for 1872." 
He describes very fully the larva of Eudryas unio which feeds on 
Epilobium coloration, and not on the grape, as stated by Fitch, 
and afterwards by Packard and Riley on Fitch's authority. Lint- 
ner gives characters for distinguishing the lame of Eudryas unio 
and grata as well as Psychomorpha epimenis, which so closely re- 
sembles Eudryas in its larval stage. The larvae of Parorgyia 
parallela Gr. Rob., Apatelodes angelica Grote, Ccelodasys unicornis 
(8m. Abb. Fig. 101), Platycerura furcilla Pack. (Fig. 102), Dry- 




<**™ P a rubicunda Fabr., Tolype Velleda (Stoll) ^adaagibbosa 
<S*. Abb. Fig. 103), and an unknown Notodonta (Fig. 104, 
% 105, the same when feeding) ; also of Cerura boreahs Boisd 
<% 106) and other Bombycid moths are described. Several 



larvae of the Noctuidae are also described for the first time ; among 
them Diphtera deridens Guenee (Fig. 107). Several new moths 







are described, among them Cucullia Speyeri (Fig. 108, male ; Fig. 
109, female). The separate copies are in some cases accompanied 
by the finest photographs we ever saw. 

English Sparrow. — I noticed in your magazine for September 
Dr. Thos. M. Brewer's defence of the European house sparrow, 
and being convinced that this little friend of man has been ma- 
ligned both in its native and adopted home, I desire to add my 
testimony as the result of careful experience and observation. 

In January last I procured twelve European house s] 
Boston, Mass., and had them sent to me by express. Two die 
from the effects of the journey, the rest I kept in my barn *# 
until April, when they were let out, or rather eight of 



I killed by : 



! which got 



without my 



knowledge. 



have a large number of pear and peach trees, 
besides several maples, two walnut trees, an English oak an^ 
shrubs and flowering bushes of various kinds. In our kite e 
garden we raised during the past season three kinds of corn, po *' 
toes, cabbages, tomatoes, beets, carrots, onions, radishes^ 
berry tomatoes, horse radish, celery, several varieties 1 



of beans, 



peas, squashes, pumpk i»j lettuce, spinach, and 

other vegetables, besides herbs, black, red and white currants, and 
several varieties of grapes ; we also had a large number of flowers. 
During the summer our garden has been remarkably free from 
worms, and our crops never were better. Our trees never did 
better, while they have' been remarkably free from caterpillar* 
where last year (1873) they were nearly stripped of their foliage 
by their ravages. 

In the place of the eight sparrows let out in April we now have 
thirty, and they appear to be constantly at work about the place. 
They are nearly always accompanied by the American goldfinch 
or yellow bird and our common sparrow. 

To-day as I sat in my room writing I saw them fraternizing with 
a flock of blackbirds on one of our walnut trees. In fact they 
seem to court the society of other birds, and never have the birds 
been so abundant on our place. The male sparrows fight among 
themselves after the manner of roosters, but do not seem to molest 
other birds. 

The sparrows did, with the yellow birds, attack our radish and 
turnip seeds as they ripened, but by using netting around those 
plants we kept the birds from doing serious damage. Nothing 
else was attacked by them, and we consider them a positive benefit 
to our place. We keep a horse and are accustomed to spread the 
stable droppings from day to day, broadcast. The sparrows seem 
to watch for this, and in an incredibly short time pick over and 
separate the manure and spread it much better than could be done 
with the hoe and rake. They are sprightly, friendly, and useful, 
and we would not have them leave us for much more than they 
originally cost. — Stephen Gould, Newport, R. /., Sept., 1874. 

Monstrosities among Beetles. -Dr. Kraatz publishes, in the 
17th volume of the Berliner Entomologische Zeitschrift, an illus- 
trated paper on deformities in beetles. 

GEOLOGY. 

Supposed Lower Silurian Land Plants. - Prof. J. S. New- 
berry doubts (American Journal Science and Arts, August, 1874) 
whether the Sigillaria mentioned by M. Lcsquereux as occurring 
jn the Lower Silurian beds of Ohio is a Sigillaria at all or whether 
^ is a land plant even. 



694 ANTHROPOLOGY. 

European Fossil Cetacea.— Prof. J. F. Brandt has published, 
in the memoirs of the Royal Academy of St. Petersburg, an elab- 
orate quarto work on the fossil and sub-fossil Cetacea of Europe. 
It is illustrated with 34 plates. 



ANTHROPOLOGY. 

Restoration of Indian Pottery. — The caving of a bank of 
loamy earth on the east side of Connecticut River, about seven 
miles above Hartford, brought to light, several years ago, fragments 
of Indian pottery, which were found by a gentleman then tem- 
porarily residing at East Windsor Hill in that vicinity. They wore 
composed of burnt clay intermingled with particles of pounded 
quartz, and as they evidently had a relation to one another, he 
commenced putting them together, using for that purpose slips ol 
writing paper, about half an inch wide, and two inches long, coated 
with thick gum-arabic mucilage, and stuck on the inside of the 
pieces opposite the joints. 

When I first saw his work he had reconstructed, from the pieces 
which he had found, about half of a kettle, the rim of which was 
entire, and about ten inches in diameter, and quite elaborately or- 
namented with lines grooved in the clay while it was in a pkstki 
state. I was much interested in his work, for though I had fre- 
quently found fragments of that kind of pottery, I had never seen 
pieces of any one utensil sufficient in size or number to indicate 
the forms or dimensions of such ware. I went with him t0 the 
place of deposit, and we raked and sifted the soil tl 
and recovered additional fragments, from which we built up wftl 
the gummed slips, the entire form of the kettle, although there 
were in several places gapa which no shards were found to fill- 
It cost a deal of time and study to locate all the pieces, of which 
there were about seventy-five in number broken (it might almost be 
said) into every shape and size into which crockery could be bro- 
ken. The labor was like that of putting together a dissected map, 
very dissected; or like that of solving all the figures of a book o 
Chinese puzzles laid together in one grand design. . 

The gummed slips answered the purpose of their designer at - 
mirably. Had he interposed between the shards any kind of ce- 
ment, that would have prevented strict contiguity, or that nouW 
have feet them immovably in their places as they were added one 



by one, it would have been impossible to go on without trim- 
ming pieces that would not otherwise enter their proper places. 
Every additional piece trimmed would have aggravated the er- 
rors of adjustment, and the original form of the kettle would 
have been lost. But the paper slips, pasted and interlaced only 
on the inside of the work, allowed close adjustment of joints. 
They were also flexible, and capable of removal at any point by 
wetting if the progress of the work demanded. The fragments 
were pretty uniformly one-quarter of an inch in thickness, and it 
was sometimes, though not often, necessary to shore them op with 
props until the slips were sufficiently dry to hold them. The ket- 
tle was rebuilt resting on its rim, mouth downward, and in that 
position the fragility of the reconstruction made it necessary to 
keep it. The form developed was egg-shaped, the small end ot 
the egg representing the bottom of the kettle, and the large end 
opening into a short, wide neck, which flared into a I - 
rim. The ornamental grooving was principally on the neck and 
rim ; though the whole remaining exterior surface was chopped 
with short grooves intersecting at various angles. A cross sec- 
tion at any point did not-vary very noticeably from a circle. The 
interior snowed prints made by fingers in moulding and smooth- 
ing the plastic clay, and towards the bottom, the wear of subse- 
quent use. The exterior of the bottom was somewhat darkened, 
as if by smoke ; there was no glazing, and the general color was a 
ferk brick red. The dimensions nearly were, height fourteen and 
one-fourth inches, diameter of rim nine and one-half inches of 
neck eight and one-fourth inches, and of body eleven and one-ha 
inches. Capacity about thirteen quarts, beer measure. 

The first finder of the relic shortly transferred his residence to 
a foreign country, and his title to me. Wishing recentlj 

5 from this kettle, I found that atmospheric changes had 
caused most of the gummed slips to peel from the interior of the 
work so that it scarcely held together. Chaos might come again 
at any moment. As a first precaution I immediately made a quan- 
tity of duplicate numbers on little squares of 
them on the outside opposite all the joints; then separ 
work into nearly its original number of pieces, and lebuiit i 
new slips, 1 top (or bottom rather, as the ket- 

tle stood mouth downwards) large enough to see, and work upon, 



6$6 microscopt. 

After the body of the kettle had been brought into its true 
shape, the first step towards improvement was to make a not very 
thick solution of glue in water, and la}' it with a small brush, bote 
all the joints ; avoiding spreading the glue beyond the joints as 
much as possible. This, on drying, set all the fragments in place 
quite firmly. The upper pieces around the hole, however, were 
not glued, but left supported by the gummed slips only for con- 
venient insertion of the last pieces. Slips were next gummed on 
the inside across all gaps left by missing fragments. I then made 
a kind of cement, or mortar from pieces of very soft burned brick, 
pounded to dust, sifted, shaded to the color of the kettle with 
lamp-black, and moistened to a plastic state with not very thick- 
glue water. With this mortar all the joints and gaps were filled 
on the outside.- But the gaps were designedly not filled quite to 
the required thickness with one coat, as the mortar would shrink 
and crack somewhat in drying. Wherever these cracks appeared, 
glue was rubbed into them with the brush before laying on the 
final coat of cement. When this coat was dry it was smoothed 
with old files and sand paper and groove-marked in imitation of 
the unbroken surface. Protuberances in»the cement too large to 
be readily filed down in a dry state, were first surface-softened by 
slight damping. The hole at the top was next anderlaid wiA 
slips, and filled. Finally the slips were all removed from the in- 
terior by damping with a moist cloth, and any crevices that ap- 
peared were filled with cement. 

From a basket full of nearly worthless shards was thus recon- 
structed a single relic, very rare (at least in Connecticut) whole 
and strong, showing no obvious breakage, as good as new for eth- 
nological use, and as indestructible if not soaked with water, M 
any specimen of ceramic art.— E. W. Ellsworth, East Winder 

mu, a. 

MICROSCOPY. 

Beaded Silica Films. -Mr. Henry J. Slack has produced 
delicate films of silica, by mixing powdered glass, powdered floor 
spar and sulphuric acid in a flask and conducting through a gla*» 
pipe the gas which escapes from the heated mixture into a dis 
containing glycerine and water. By contact with pure water t e 
gaseous silica is deposited so suddenly and violently as to pr°j 
duce only amorphous particles, and a similar result is obtain 



when silica is precipitated from its alkaline salts or iratefiguufeei 
dissolved in water ; but a mixture of glycerine retards the pro- 
cess and gives opportunity for the formation of definite forms. 
The films thus produced, washed and examined in water or 
mounted in balsam, either simulate organic cell forms, with cavi- 
ties formed by the bursting of minute gas-bubbles, or consist of 
heads or spherules exhibiting remarkable regularity of size and 
arrangement ; the beads seem to vary from -^£0x5 to TOffVotr i neD 
or less; and they appear to least advantage, in size, under the 
highest powers. They seem calculated to add to our knowledge 
of high power definition if not to throw light upon questions of 
crystallization and organization. Some of the films produced the 
beautiful polychromatic effects so often mentioned by Dr. Pigott 
as occurring in beaded diatoms and scales. 

Cell-culture in the Study of Fungi.— Ph. Van. Tieghem 
and G. LeMonnier in their published researches on the Mucorini 
give a good working account of their method of cell-culture which 
is applicable not only to the smaller fungi but Jo many other 
plants. A glass cell i or £ inch is cemented upon a glass slide, 
and a suitable cover-glass is kept in place by three minute drops 
of oil placed on the edge of the ring. The contained air is kept 
moist by a few drops of water placed in the bottom of the cell, 
while a very small drop of the nutritive fluid is placed on the 
lower surface of the cover-glass, and in this drop the spore to be 
cultivated is sown. The whole drop, and indeed the entire con- 
tents of the cell can now be examined with suitable powers, and 
the germination' and development of the plant traced hour after 
hour from any given spore, with the greatest certainty and ease. 
Extraneous spores will sometimes be introduced, but they are 
easily detected. 

Handling Diatoms. -Capt. Lang, of the Reading Mi. ro* op- 
ic-ul Society, gives "A useful Hint" to persons ^~ " 



, select and 



hanciles, are generally satisfactory, those of the badger or fine 
camel-hair or sable brushes, being generally useful. Bo* so 
diatoms refuse to be thus picked up, and these he finds to be read- 
ilv handled by means of a fine feather. The fine, .tiff, el as l; and 
<*arply pointed feathers on the extreme end of the carpal jomts 



r and of the woodcock were found 
suitable. 

Reproduction of Desmids.— Prof. Leidy, at a late meeting of 
the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, made some re- 
marks on the mode of reproduction and growth of tbe Desmids. 
In illustration he described a common species of Docidium or Pleu- 
rotsenium. This consists of a long cylindroid cell constricted at 
the middle and slightly expanded each side of the constriction. 
When the plant is about to duplicate itself the cell-wall divides 
. From the open end of each half- 
cell there protrudes a colorless mass of protoplasm defined by the 
primordial utricle. The protrusions of the half-cells adhere to- 
gether and continue to grow. The bands of endochrome now 
extend into the protrusions and subs [u< nth k< op pace with tiu-ir 
growth. ■ The protrusions continue to grow until they acquire tha 
length and form of the half-cells from which they started. The 
exterior of the new half-cells thus produced hardens or becomes 
a cell-wall like that of the parent half-cells. In this condition 
two individuals of Docidium are frequently observed before sep- 
aration. During the growth of the new half-cells the circulation 
of granules in the colorless protoplasm is quite active. In a spe- 
cies of Docidium l£ mm long by T y" ra broad, the growth of the new 
half-cells was observed to be at the rate of about ± mra in an hour. 

Angular Apertures.-— It is not yet forgotten that at the Lon- 
don examination of the £ inch lens sent to demonstrate the pos- 
sibility of obtaining an excessive angular aperture in immersion 
work on balsam objects, the lens was measured at an adjustment 






) the point was known except t 



l work at all, nor a recognized maximum po- 
sition for any kind of work; the plain fact being that the accom- 
plished committee were so bent upon teaching us the fa 
of reduced angle that they seem to have forgotten to look for any 
other possibility in the case. Nor is it likely to be forgotten as 
long as Mr. Wenham so far forgets his usual and admirable caution 
as to allude to the correction of this * ' u " ■*" 



quibble," nor while the eminent President of the Royal Microscop- 
ical Society utters in his formal address such an astounding state- 
ment as the following: — " The lens in this instance was properly 
corrected as a dry lens, and then after measurement in air it » fl » 



measured in water and then in very fluid Canada balsam without 
alteration of the adjustment. It may be quite possible that if the 
lens had been readjusted so as to give the best image for immer- 
sion in balsam, a slightly greater angle might have been obtained ; 
but this would not have been a fair way of making a comparison as 
it is not the mode in which the glass would ever be employe 1 in 
actual practice." By not saying squarely, It is probably true that 
if the lens had been readjusted so as to give the best image for im- 
mersion in icater, a greater angle would have been obtained; and 
this would have been the fair way of making the meawm ment, as it 
is the mode in which the glass would be employed in actual practice, 
Mr. Brooke lost a rare opportunity to do a noble if not a generous 
act. As he is well known to be incapable of an intentional sophis- 
try which by adroitly worded phrase should suggest a doubt where 
none is felt, belittle the concessions which are called for by mani- 
fest truth, and say one thing which is true but has no relation to 
the case at issue, and at the same time imply another thing which 
does relate to the case but is unqualifiedly incorrect, there is no 
choice but to conclude that his extraordim 
tanding it tone of judicial coolness, was made without that de- 
liberation whi. h the official . haract. r of the address demanded. 

On the other hand a still more recent lens by the same maker, 
claimino- still more excessive aperture, has been examined by Mr. 
Wenham by his method of cutting off false light described in the 
August number of the Naturalist. By this method , whl 
seem incapable of excluding any image-forming rays, hi 
in obtaining a clear and distinctly limited angle for the lens whose 
light, when not thus protected, was vague and uncertain; the an- 
gular aperture at the same time being reduced from "180 to 
"112— which corresponded within a few degrees with the aperture 
computed trigonometrically from the width of the front lens an 
the length of the working focus. To this it is answered that with 
a dry object on the cover there is no distance involved and the 
triangle is impracticable ; while accurate focussing upon a stop 
which is feasible at "uncovered" adjustment, is liable to enor 
from spherical aberration when adjusted for maximum ai _ 
Tolles' method of demonstrating the utilization of ex". 
rays is by placing a central stop upon the posterior surface of he 
back system of lenses, so large as to cut off all *£«*- the 
objective is used dry ; so that by no trick of i" 



700 MICROSCOPY. 

light be made to pass through the narrow ring of clear aperture 
remaining around the stop ; but if water be flowed in both above 
and below the balsam-mounted object, converting both the objec- 
tive and the illuminating semi-cylinder into i