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Full text of "The American naturalist."

I 

AMERICAN NATURALIST 

AN ILLUSTRATED MAGAZINE 

NATURAL HISTORY 

By A. S. PACKARD, Jr. 



VOLUME X 



BOSTON 
H. 0. HOUGHTON AND COMPANY 

Corner Beacon and Somerset Streets 
NEW YORK : KURD AND HOUGHTON 

(l{jc BtucrfiiHe Precis, CambrtUsc 



CONTENTS. 



e Progress of Di.scov 



Contents. 

Temperature on the Germination of Pi 






Contents. 

Map of Prehistoric Ruins in Colorado, 307 ; Mexican Migrations, 

! 



* Collecting Case, 503 ; A Double Staining with Hematoxylin | 
81: A t'olariscope object, 12:;: A Remarkable Forage for B( 

I. 44.;. Amateur Mirru-,-,,,,^. 1-ju , American Mirrn-o,,,™] i 



,..„-.. J 



,753; Tyndall Association \ 



THE 

AMERICAN NATURALIST. 

Vol. x. — JANUARY, 1876. — No. 1. 
BURS IN THE BORAGE FAMILY. 



A BUR in the light of morphological botany may be seen to be 
J --*- a seed, a fruit or a portion of one, a calyx, an involucre, or 
what not. Under the tcleologieal aspect, which was once thought 
to be expelled from natural history, but which has come back in 
full force, a bur is one adaptation for the dissemination of seeds 
by cattle or other animals. 

One of the most familiar burs is that of the common hound's- 
tongue (Cynoglossuni), of the Borage family ; and those of one or 
two species~of stickseed (of the nearly related genus Echinosper- 
murn) are equally troublesome, clinging as they do to*~the fleece 
or hairy coat of domestic animals and to clothing. These burs, 
morphologically, are not seeds, but quarter portions of seed-like 
fruits. They adhere for transport by means of prickles or pro- 
jecting points, which arc cither barbed or hooked at the tip; the 
grappling organs in some cases occupying the whole surface of 
the pericarp, in others particular portions of it. 

It is rather interesting to notice how in the same family, that 
is, among plants all constructed on the same particular plan, this 
same purpose is effected or attempted in different ways, and, as 
we may say, more or less successfully. The occasion of these re- 
marks came to me with a new plant of this order in which the bur 
proved to be formed of different materials from the ordinary burs 
of the family. 

It is worth noticing, moreover, that in what botanists must con- 
sider one and the same genus, and, so to speak, of one blood, the 
grappling organs may be either more or less developed, or rudi- 
mentary, or even wanting altogether, or when wanting to the 
seed-like fruits, may be developed on some neighboring part. 



2 Burs in the Borage Family. [January, 

The genus Eritrichium here offers instructive illustrations. It 
is very nearly related to the stickseeds. One end of its series of 
thirty or forty species is very near to Myosotis, or forget-me-not ; 
the other, in all its characters other tfian that of the grappling 
fruit, comes very near to Echinospermum, or stickseed. Now, 
among species at both ends of the series — in some and not in 
others — a tendency to bur-like fruit is manifested. The four 
seed-like nutlets, either smooth or moderately and variously 
roughened, fall out of the calyx at maturity, and take their 
chance. But in a few of them, in one especially which is found 
upon our higher Rocky Mountains, a wingdiUo circle of prickly 
teeth is developed around the back, which calls to mind the sim- 
ilar grappling border of a common western stickseed, except that 
its rays are not barbed. Yet in a recent monograph of the 
American species it is said that - they bear a few rigid, bristly 
points; which only need to turn backward to bo gloehidiato," 
that is, to become grappling barbs. In another species, E^ Cali- 
fornicum, the little nutlets usually have a merely wrinkled or 
roughened surface; but we have lately observed, in what we 
must regard as a form or state of it ( var. tubffhehidiatint/ ), that 
the crest of the rugosities rises here and there into short, bristly 
points, and the tips of some of these, under a Ions, show minute 
but distinct backwardly turned barbs. Then, quite at the other 
end of the genus there is a species, b). j>t^r<><-<ir//tnn, which has three 
of its four nutlets wing-margined, the wing essentially resembling 
that which, in the commoner stickseed of the same western re- 
gion, often connects the rayed circle of barbs ; and this wing is 
now and then found to be broken up into narrow lobes or teeth, 
which only need barbs to convert this outlying Kritrich'mm into 
an Echinospermum. The bearing of such facts upon the ques- 
tion ofthe origin of the efficient burs of stickseeds and the like is 
obvious. 

But this same genus, Eritrichium, in some, cases secures disper- 
sion by cattle in anothefway. It is a common character of the 
Borage family to have the herbage and the calyx beset with stiff 
and sharp bristles, in some even pungent or stim/mg. In one set 
of species, nearly confined to our western plains and thence to 
California (the section Krynitztyti), the fruit-bearing calyx in- 
clines to close loosely over the tour small and smooth or unap- 
pendaged seed-like nutlets, at maturity a joint form- underneath, 
and the whole falls off together. In most of these the bristly 
hairs that clothe the calyx are particularly strong and sharp; and, 



1876.] Burs in the Borage Family. 8 

as they spread in all directions, the whole, if caught in the hairy 
coat of passing animals, is likely to act as a sort of four-seeded 
bur ; the bur here being a fruiting calyx instead of a quarter- 
section of pericarp. The bristles being straight and smooth, their 
hold is precarious. We know of no species in which they become 
hooked. But just that occurs, on a small scale, in nearly half the 
species of the related genus Myosotis, mouse-ear or forget-me-not ; 
that is, the stronger bristles on the ealj \ are neatly hooked at the 
tip, and so a sort of bur is formed. It would be more effective if 
the fruit-bearing calyx disarticulated more readily from its pedicel. 

This brings us to the new genus already referred to. It is an 
insignificant little plant in appearance, recently found by Dr. Ed- 
ward Palmer upon Guadalupe Island, off Lower California. The 
specimens were mixed with those of a Pectocarya (native to Cali- 
fornia and Chili), which in aspect they much resemble. But in 
Pectocarya the four-lobed and four-rayed fruit is itself a bur, 
grappling by a fringe of marginal bristles or slender teeth with 
hooked tips. But in our new plant, which I have named Harpa- 
gonella, the nutlets or seeming seeds are perfectly smooth. There 
is in the flower the ordinary provision for four of them ; but two 
of the lobes on one side seem to be abortive from the first, while 
the other two grow to an unusual size, compared to that of the 
blossom. As they enlarge, so does the cabyx on that side of the 
flower, but not on the other. The two conjoined calyx-leaves of 
that side, united by their contiguous edges almost to the tip, as 
they increase in size soon begin to fold around one or the other 
of the growing nutlets, — it seems indifferent which, — leaving 
the other one "out in the cold," forming a sort of husk which 
incloses it completely, and then develops from the outside five or 
six long and narrow finger-like processes,, and alone; the length of 
these forms a set of hook-tipped bristles, thus producing a most 
effective bur. 

As to the other seed, it apparently starts as fair as its preferred 
twin-companion, and sometimes it grows to almost the same size 
and matures its embryo, but more commonly it fails to mature. 

This is a curious case of " natural selection,'' and a sacrificing 
of three for the greater advantage of one. For an advantage we 
must presume it to be, or to have been, to be thus protected and 
provided with means of transport; else, under any view, it would 
not have come to pass. Moreover, this is a sort of case which is 
comparatively intelligible under the supposition that it has come 
to pass in the course of time and the course of nature ; while the 



4 The Florida Chameleon. [January, 

supposition of its specific creation in this way at the first, on the 
plan of destroying two of the four at the birth, and giving one of 
the remainder a diminished chance for existence, is an utterly be- 
wildering conception. 

I know not what quadrupeds or other animals there may be 
upon Guadalupe Island, of which this bur may have taken advan- 
tage for dissemination. I presume there are, or have been, such 
animals upon the island. But even if there are none, the hypoth- 
esis of the development of this bur under natural selection will 
not thereby be negatived. For although we know of this plant 
only there, we are not bound to suppose that it originated on this 
small island. The island is now used as a breeding-place for An- 
gora goats. As they come to be distributed upon the adjacent 
maiu-laud, we may expect that the little Harpagonella will take 
advantage of the offered means of transport, and compete with its 
relatives already established there. 



w 



TIIK FLORIDA CHAMELEON. 



TITH the opening of summer, the teaching naturalist is some- 
delighted # at finding on his lecture table a curious or 
attractive specimen from the local fauna or flora. Perhaps the 
object is the more interesting as being the contribution of some 
enthusiastic pupil. Sometimes it happens that the object has been, 
at some cost of trouble, obtained from a distance. In this wav 
early last June, a pleasant surprise was sprung upon the writer! 
who found on his table a box containing four small lizards from' 
Florida. Poor little things, there were eight of them when fhev 
left the sunny South; for alas, four had perished from the rough- 
ness of "the middle passage." They had been unskillfulh 
packed, or rather not packed at all; and the shaking they had 
experienced had been too much for them. That day another 
died, leaving but three. To get them home I hud B ride of thirty 
miles by rail. Having put my little box safely in a corner of the 
car, between the coal-bin and the stove, I took a forward seat and 
from the effects of late work the night before soon fell into ', 
doze of a few minutes. I was awaked by the noise of the passen- 
gers. Happening to look on the floor of the ear, [beheld to my 
dismay, the youngest of my lizards under the seat 



the box, and had crept 



1876.] The Florida Chameleon. 5 

seats. With a singular aspect of quizzical timidity it was peer- 
ing innocently at me out of its pretty, beaming eyes. Now these 
little things, so purely innocent, are in their movements as quick 
as light. Something must be done, and very soon, or I and my 
pet were both undone. If seen by one of these garrulous women, 
the resulting commotion will be of a sort to defy all sober imag- 
inings, for the little innocent will loom up into the presence of a 
rattlesnake with four legs, seeking whom he may destroy. I 
stooped slowly and cautiously. How fortunate ! I covered its 
escape with the first movement of my hand. How the tiny thing 
did squirm ! I took it quietly back to the box, put its nose at the 
hole whence it had escaped, and so had it once more secure. All 
these tactics were gone through without attracting the notice of 
any one ; and so, greatly relieved, I resumed my seat as if noth- 
ing had happened. 

Soon a small fern case was improvised. The sides were glass, 
and for the sake of giving air, the top was covered with a piece 
of lace. The bottom was spread with Sphagnum, moderately 
moist. Into this were set some very small ferns, two species of 
Drosera or sundew, and in one corner a small specimen of Sar- 
racenia, or pitcher-plant; this was so elegantly marked that it 
seemed like those antique carnelian cups which one reads about. 
Gracefully trailing over this mossy bed was the dark, bright- 
leaved Mitchella. To imitate a contiguous lake or pond, at one 
corner a shallow vessel of water was sunken in the moss. In 
this pretty garden our three pets were placed. The design was a 
mimicry of their own sub-tropical surroundings, with the hope 
of getting them to feel sufficiently at home to exhibit some of 
their peculiar traits. 

As our little strangers are now snugly domiciled in their new 
home, some account may be attempted of their family relation 
and i in lis idual habits. 

This little reptile is found as far north as South Carolina, 
hence it is known in the books as the green Carolina lizard. 
Visitors to Florida seem by almost common consent to have 
named it the Florida chameleon. While structurally there is in 
the reptile thus indicated a very wide difference from its name- 
sal e, yet there are relationships between them, one of which is 
notably suggested in the faculty of changing the color of the 
skin. Indeed, naturalists have regarded this little thing as the 
representative or analogue in the New World of the chameleon in 
the Old. Our Florida lizard is a member of the Anolis grow, 



8 The Florida Chameleon. [January, 

which contains the prettiest specimens of the lizard tribe. The 
specific name of our subject is Anolis principalis. I have not 
seen one picture of this exquisite little creature in the popular 
books but is a shameful caricature. So graceful is it that one 
cannot look at it long without forgetting its reptilian rank. The 
head is quite flat, and may be likened to a pyramid, with two of 
its opposite sides much wider than the other two. The teeth are 
very small and quite pretty, much like the teeth of the very 
finest jeweler's saw. They are flattish, and pointed, triangular, 
and the back ones have on each side of the tooth a little spur, 
also the shape of the central part of the tooth. When first seen 
the feet present ;i striking appearance, owing to the very wide and 
sprawling divergence of the toes, each of which, except the fifth, 
which is almost rudimentary, is flattened out into a leaf-like 
spread at the last joint, or the joint next to the delicate, bird-like 
claw. The scales of the back and sides are so delicate as to give 
the appearance of a very fine shagreen. Altogether the animal 
has the aspect of grace and frailty. The one on my table meas- 
ures seven and a quarter inches from front of lip to tip of tail, 
which at its base is the one eighth of an inch in diameter, whence 
it tapers gradually until it ends in the thickness of a mere thread. 
Indeed, of the seven and a quarter inches total length, four and a 
quarter are taken up by the tail, so that the actual body is but 
three inches long. And this airy little body has hind limbs 
an inch and a half long, giving it great jumping power. In my 
specimens, contrary to the descriptions in the books, the normal 
color is a bronze-brown for the back and sides, with a central 
stripe along the vertebral column of a steel-gray. This warm 
bronze is made deeper by the presence of innumerable minute 
markings of lines, zigzags, and chevrons, of a very dark brown. 
The entire under side is of an ashy or greenish white. 

Soon my pets made themselves at home. Two of them, how- 
ever, were evidently ailing. In fact, only one of them quite got 
over the rough experience already mentioned. The principal food 
furnish..! them was dies, of which they were very fond. We 
would put them into the fernery unhurt, so as to see the Andes 
catch them. The two ailing ones showed little energy in the 
matter, and, in truth, took their food daintily. The conduct of 
the other was very different. lb' would set himself up so pertly, 
and would eock his bright eyes so knowingly at us, and at a fly at 
the same time, that we came to regard him with special partial- 
ity. His 



1876.] , The Florida Chameleon. 7 

was so watchful, while the others were so stupid, that he won for 
himself the pet term Nolie. Indeed, Nolie became, despite his 
timidity, quite entertaining. For one with so little in his head his 
ways were often smart, and sometimes there was just enough of 
selfishness to make things spicy. If he saw a fly walking in the 
moss, there was first that quick twitch of the head which brought 
one eye squarely upon his prey. This was to reconnoitre the sit- 
uation. Then followed the quickest little poke of that nose like 
a shot, and the fly was taken in and most legitimately "done for." 
The captor would slightly elevate his muzzle, give two or three 
champs of the serrate jaws, at least two real efforts at degluti- 
tion, and the prey would disappear. Now in this little act of 
picking out the fly from its entanglement in the leaves of the 
Sphagnum, it is worthy of note that the whole process had all 
the precision of an engineer's formula, it was so direct and so 
neatly done. One of my children put two small toads in with 
the lizards. As all know, the toad has a projectile tongue with 
a glutinous tip. This is darted at an insect, which is inevitably 
captured, and disposed of in the twinkling of an eye. How often, 
even with so perfect an apparatus, have I seen the toad bring 
into its mouth, besides the prey, some extraneous object, such as 
a bit of leaf or straw. Anolius does its work better than that, 
though its tongue gives it no aid whatever. 

I have just been watching Nolie eying a fly which was walking 
on one of the glass panes of his house. He made a noiseless ad- 
vance of about three or four inches: then followed a spring, when 
he was seen cleaving to the glass by his feet, and champing the 
captured fly. I sa\vMm once" intently watch the movements of a 
fly which was walking on the glass.' As seemed evident tome 
by an ominous twitch of that little head, his mind was made up 
for a spring; but lo, there was a simultaneous make-up of mind 
on the part of the fly, which at this juncture flew towards the 
other side of the case" Then came — and how promptly — men- 
tal act number two of Anolis, for he sprang as the after-thought 
directed, and caught the insect on the fly, midway between the 
two sides of the fern case. There was surely very fine reckon- 
ing here. And what definite decision and prompt execution! 
At one time one of the feeble ones, as it hung in a corner of the 
case by its adhering feet, to my joy caught a fly which happened 
to walk right before its nose. Nolie had been eying this fly, 
and prohal.ly he was only waiting for the insect to be still a mo- 
ment on the glass. He had waited too long. So, at any rate, 



8 The Florida Chameleon. [January. 

he seemed to think ; for with one leap he nipped the protruding 
end of the insect, and snatched it from the mouth of its proper 
captor. "Ah, Nolie; that is very naughty of you, but quite 
funny; there is so much of human sharp practice in it." 

In August the dreaded potato beetles, Doryphora decemline- 
ata, were with us in great numbers. It occurred to me to put 
some into the fern-case. The little toads saw them at once, and 
their big goggle eyes gleamed with ogreish satisfaction. Quicker 
than the feat can be recorded one of the Bufos swallowed three of 
those dreadful spearmen, and his comrade did the same by two. 
The Doryphoras were thus literally taken in, and the Bufos 
metaphorically likewise. It was specially observable of the one 
which had swallowed the three spearmen, despite the grotesque 
gravity of his demeanor, that there was a certain dolorous air 
about him, as of one suffering from an overdose of Doryphora. 
Though kept some two weeks with no other food, neither Bufo 
would touch a spearman again. And as to Anolis? Ah, he was 
not the fellow to be caught thus. Was our Nolie more knowing 
than they? He assuredly was more circumspect, and did not "go 
it blind." It was plain that he could not stomach these offensive 
strangers. I noticed that Anolis did not fancy beetles, any way. 
It was fond of the diptera or flies, while an occasional spider was 
taken with a keen relish. Speaking of spiders in this connection, 
I am reminded of a kindly humorist who sent from Florida, to a 
friend, a box of mourning moss, TUlandsia usneoides. He had 
put into the moss, for mischief, one of these inoffensive lizards. 
The box reached its destination, and when opened, out popped 
the little prisoner. "Oh, the dreadful thing! Don't touch it! 
You '11 get poisoned, just as sure as you do ! " There was quite 
a consternation, and the unconscious disturber of the peace was 
summarily consigned to a young lady friend of ours, " who de- 
lights in bugs and such horrid things." It was a lucky transfer 
for poor little Anolis. That gentle girl carried her new pet 
safely through the winter not without care and good judgment. 
She fed it chiefly on spiders, then almost the only procurable food. 
To obtain them the outhouses and barn lofts were made to yield 
to her scrutinizing search. And so well was all this done that 
when spring came, and insect loud abounded, her little chameleon, 
as she called it, was in prime condition. They are very fond of 
spiders. Bell tells of a pet Aimlis }>n'wi/>alis catching the large 
garden spider, Epelnt d'nuh>.ma, by one leg. The spider bit the 
little fellow on the lip, and death soon ensued. 



1876.] The Florida Chameleon. 9 

When the first sharp days of October set in, the lizard sur- 
prised me by a specimen of adaptation to circumstances. It 
had seemed hitherto incompetent for anything of that sort. It 
selected a hummock of dry Sphagnum, and with its nose worked a 
hole something after the manner of a toad while making its hole. 
Letting it do all it could alone, I then deepens 1 the little burrow 
with my finger. This was to be its sleeping-place, and the little 
troglodyte has occupied it steadily, and has slept in it every night 
now for five weeks. 

This 6th of November is delightfully bland, following as it 
does a raw, bleak day. The sun is now full upon the fern case 
in the window, and Nolie puts its head out of his sphagnum cave. 
After many twitchings right and left, for about ten minutes, it re- 
solves to go out for an airing. There is something interesting in 
the seeming contradictions of these little beings. One while you 
would think from their movements that they were all impulse 
and flash, so rapid and jerky, and in such unexpected directions, 
are their movements. There is so much circumspection in those 
eyes — a literal looking around things from which one might in- 
fer deliberation in every act. Whatever may be the preliminary 
thinking, the execution "is all impulse, flash, and dash. Still, there 
is one notable exception to all this. It is in the matter of un- 
dressing himself, an operation which comes off several times in 
the season. Nothing can possibly be more deliberate. Previous 
to the undertaking it looks much as did Patrick's parrot when 
thinking intently on nothing, although with Anolis there is real 
head-work going on. In fact, its head is actually turning gray, 
yes, almost white. There is a serious corrugation of the scalp, then 
a splitting of the cuticle. It now rubs the head against one of the 
posts at the corners, thus pushing the skin back on to the neck, on 
both sides of whuh the loosened cuticle stands out like a flange, 
or stiff collar of extravagant proportions. As the sunlight shines 
through, it has a derided hue, namely, the pale blue of tempered 
steel, which by a triek of the trade is so exaggeratingly imitated 
by painting on certain steel implements, as axes and scythe 
blades. So the creature sits in the sunlight, forcing upon us 
the most ludicrous associations by its great stand-up collar. We 
are reminded of the vain servant on his Sunday parole, with 
collar bi'o-ul .,,,,1 ,■,..„ •! 1 m<,- to the ears, stiffly staivhed and over- 



10 The Florida Chameleon. ' [January, 

tremely pretty: a delicate pale translucent blue; and the scale 
markings so minute as to suggest a lace work that is too fine 
for the execution of any loom. But to Anolis all this is " gauzy 
frippery " now, and its presence irksome. A few more rubs and 
pushes, and in a ragged condition it is got back to the thighs. 
The persistent creature now succeeds in so flexing its head as to 
get it flat siglewise on its neck, when it seizes the ragged edge of 
the old garment with its teeth. There is some tugging, followed 
by one or two tumbles over, when off comes a large piece of the 
vestment. What then ? It is swallowed ! Then the head and 
neck and one front limb are denuded. It turns now to the other 
front limb, on the upper part of which is a piece of loose skin 
flaring most prominently. Just then a fly approaches provokingly 
near. With one boot on and one boot off, Anolis makes for that 
dipteran disturber of his private labors. The fly serves as a 
luncheon, which disposed of. the lizard resumes its work, and the 
sharp nose dips into the old clothes again. Anolis is not long in 
getting off the skin. It is all done piecemeal as just described, 
and every particle is eaten ; even the bits that fall between the 
plants are carefully picked up. There are several sheddings in 
one summer. This lizard, I think, has gone through it four or five 
times this season. Under the microscope a bit of the old cuticle 
is a beautiful object. This exuvia is the exact mold or impres- 
sion of the scaly skin which it has left behind. Of course, then, 
one side of this cast consists of deprt ssions the other side of ele- 
vations, which correspond precisely. Under a quarter-inch ob- 
jective lens the elevated side is surprisingly like a lot of white 
pearlies spread uniformly on a table. Not trulv convex, but gib- 
bous is each elevation, being a little longer than broad. Each 
has a dark curved line extending nearly its entire length. This 
line is curiously suggestive of- the depression which separates at 
one side the two cheeks of a peach. Each line begins at the base 
end of the scale, which corresponds to the stem end of the fruit. 
Here the line is the widest, when it narrows gently, until it dis- 
appears a little before reaching the opposite end of the cast, or, to 
continue the simile, the flower end of the fruit. At this point 
the peach similitude stops; for the entire gibbous surface is 
closely dotted with polygons or several-sided spots. Although 
not at all regular, yet the sides of these markings are very dis- 
tinct, and quite easily counted, each having four, five or six 
bounding lines; or. since M. Martinet insists "on the hard words, 
these figures are composed of irregular rectangles or parallel..- 



1876.] The Florida Chameleon. 11 

grams, pentagons, and hexagons. No two of these round promi- 
nences, or peach-shaped scale-casts, touch each other. Them- 
selves of a silvery hue, they are separated from one another by a 
thicker cuticle, of a much darker color, thus throwing out the 
rounded casts in bold relief. 

And what is the philosophy of their swallowing this cast-off 
skin? I have seen that pretty newt, the Triton millepunctata, 
exuviate beneath the water. Except the rent made at the head, 
which is the starting-point of exuviation, the divested skin was 
entire, even to the very toes, and appeared in the water a gos- 
samer likeness of the" animal itself. As soon as it moulted, 
the little thing would turn round and swallow its cast-off gar- 
ment, tucking it in entire and untorn. The toad does the very 
same thing. There must be, 1 think, some vital economy which 
is subserved by this singular habit of putting up the old clothes, 
or, as our juvenile wag suggests, turning the stomach into a 
clothes-chest. Motive in this matter can hardly be attributed to 
things so lowly. We are reminded of a somewhat similar habit, 
and quite as strange, of the edueahilia, or higher animals. Dogs, 
cats, cows, etc., devour their own placenta. The mother dog and 
cat keep the bed of their litter clean by swallowing the excreta. 
Our little " Lady," a high-bred diminutive hound, had lately two 
pups. One died in the night. Her mistress was shocked next 
morning at finding Lady devouring her dead baby. All had dis- 
appeared but the head, when her strange work was arrested. 
And so cleanly was the whole business, not a stain was on her 
blanket. Now these animals have no cannibal propensities. Re- 
cently a cheetah, the Persian hunting leopard ( Lcyytnfa jnUta)^ 
having died suddenly, came into our possession. The animal was 
in such excellent condition, its flesh so fat and tender, that we 
offered some choice cuts to a number of dogs, Lady being- among 
them. It was really curious to observe their conduct. They 
stretched their necks, bringing their noses near enough to smell, 
but not to touch the strange meat ; which done, each turned 
awav in solid disgust. Here gleamed the true nobleness of these 
educabilia, a proper sense of the fitness of things. Nature hath 
her mysterious sanctities, and even in the animal reckoning, such 
matters should be promptly put out of sight. 

Anolis can cleave to the glass. The phenomena is precisely, as 
I understand it, the same as with the sucking disk of the shark- 
sucker, Echeneis remora. With a hand-lens I have watched its 
toes while adhering to the glass. The flattened pads are as dry 



I? The Florida Chameleon. [January, 

as a bone. But the scales are transverse, each one as long as the 
pad is wide. They are erectile, too. Now when the animal 
leaps at an object, intending to adhere to it, these scales are shut 
down tight, and the ridges all closed. At the precise instant of 
the impact on the glass which terminates the leap, these trans- 
verse scales are raised, or set on edge ; thus there are as many 
ridges as scales, that is, so many transverse pits ; and every one 
of these pits is, by the mechanism just described, of necessity a 
vacuum. Only four of the five toes on each foot are serviceable in 
this direction. As the pads of the toes vary much in size, so 
does the number of the transverse scales. They run from about 
twenty to thirty. Striking an average of twenty-five for each 
toe, and multiplying by sixteen, there would be not less than four 
hundred of these sucking pits, or air-exhausted depressions. 

In the popular estimate, the chief interest in this little so-called 
Florida chameleon attaches to its faculty of changing its color at 
will. Its two extremes of color are a deep, warm, bronzy brown, 
and a pale but bright pea-green. Throughout the summer, espe- 
cially at night, the favorite position of our Anolis was to hang 
suspended, with head up, from the posts at the corners of the 
fern case. In this way they invariably spent the night. It was 
their chosen position for sleep. How often have I taken the 
lamp and approached their case at different hours of the night, 
and found them with eyes tightly closed and fast asleep, and their 
color a bright green. But the posts to which they thus adhered 
by their feet was of a deep brown color, hence the two colors 
were set in striking contrast. Throughout the day, although oc- 
casionally playing with diverse colors, they were for the most 
part brown, and this too although walking or milling ain.mg the 
green leaves. The belief that the color of the contiguous ob- 
ject is mimicked for the sake of protection is, I think, not con- 
firmed by the observed facts. The truth is that in this 'matter of 
animals enjoying life there is a higher law than that of mere in- 
tention. I shall call it the law of spontaneous expression, which 
has its base in another law, to wit, that a joy unuttered is a 
sense repressed. Why should green be the favorite night-gown 
of our sleeping Anolis? I timidly venture the suggestion that 
it is because the animal is disposing itself for the luxury of sleep, 
its color changes being the utterances of its emotions. In these 
little creatures are united a remarkable agilitv with an equally 
"im-ked fragility. They delight in sleep, and they delight in 
exercise, and take a great deal of both. But they are very 



1876.] The Florida Chameleon. 

easily tired, and are often seen panting from i 
Whether it be the expression of enjoyment of repose, comfort, 
or emotional joy, the highest manifestation is its display of green. 
Just listen to what I have this day witnessed. Yesterday was 
quite cold. The fern case was in the window, and a fire was in 
the* room. Still the air was keen and raw. But to-day the at- 
mosphere is mild, and the sun, full upon the window, pours his 
mellow warmth directly into the fern case. After putting his 
head forth to inspect the weather, he comes out of his troglo- 
dyte chamber, and stretches his brown body in the full blaze 
of the sun. What a blessed basking this is. To him, in con- 
trast with his cave, it is the luxury of bliss. Nolie soon be- 
gins to doze, sleepily opening and shutting his eyes, but keeping 
both auricles open wide. Now begins that wonderful play of 
colors. It appears first in the normal bronze brown of the back. 
Literally they are lively.colors, such are the moving changes, as 
the folds of the skin, especially those on the neck, catch and 
glance the sunlight. That deep umber is now mellowing into a 
yellowish brown. A minute more and it has a bronze, coppery 
tint. Now it runs into an olive-green ; anon, a leek-green ; at 
last a pale but bright pea-green. Through all this color trans- 
formation on the back there is a medial line extending from the 
head to the tail, which is always of a hue paler than all the rest. 
As to the under parts, the customary ashiness is all gone. It is 
white ; but such a white ; not glaring, but soft. In fact, I think 
the tiny scales are now set a little on edge, thus giving the white 
the aspect of frosted silver. The back, as was said, is green ; but 
I now observe what I have very seldom seen, that, so to speak, 
over this green is a bloom, so that it looks like a frosted green. 
It is observable that the top of the flat head doggedly retains its 
dark normal brown. As to the eyelids, in this matter of color, I 
think they are the most to be admired. Each of these little brill- 
iant orbs in constant motion is a perpetual twinkle. In ordinary 
repose the eyelids are a pretty, pah' brown. But these organs are 
especially susceptible of color-change, Not only will they run 
rapidly through the whole scale, but the positive colors will be 
spread in such decided and rapid contrast that it seems as if the 
order were set to the key-note of a humor which " is alone high 
fantastical." These winking lids emulate the gems. Now, a 
palish brown, they are smoky topazes. Instantly they become 
green emeralds, and quicker than one can write flash into 
the peculiar blue of the turquoise. I have seen the New York 



14 The Florida Chameleon. [January, 

stickleback (Q-asterosteus Nov eboracenis), in its love season, go 
through changes as bright and rapid ; yes, even the gray, cold 
pupil of its eye would flash into the true blue of heaven. The 
eye of our Anolis cannot do this. Its colors are fixed; But what 
a pretty eye it has. The pupil is as the most sparkling jet, and 
the iris is a ring of limpid amber. But as to these color-changes, 
it should be borne in mind that they are excited by causes the 
very opposite in character, love and hate, for they can woo 
and" fight too ; also by fear and joy. In the changes just de- 
scribed, I see the manifestation of animal enjoyment. It is No- 
lie's way of telling it, — his conventional, "I feel good." So 
dumb is he that this is his only way of getting it out. Only 
once have I betted any semblance to sound escape him. I had 
thrown a ha&crippled fly at liim, which struck on his nose. He 
let off just the tiniest " umph ! " then caught the fly and disposed 
of it. 

The sun has gone down behind yonder house. Nolie knows it. 
His bright colors have left, and he betakes himself to his little 

I had forgotten to say that Nolie's two weakly comrades died 
within some three weeks of each other. One of them had lain 
for two days on the mossy bed, and was a beautiful bright green. 
How we did admire it for those two days, not knowing that its 
little life had fled. It was somewhat consoling to us all to reflect 
that doubtless its time had come, and it had died in a green old 
age. It was put into alcohol, when- in a few days the green dis- 
appeared, and the normal brown returned. This surprised me, 
as I had expected a result similar to my experience with the 
green snake ( Chlorosoma vernaliz), which in alcohol turns blue. 
I{ts]MM ting its comrade, it should be added that it also departed 
this life in a suit of green. 

I once possessed a very large Anolis from Cuba. Its body was 
about ten inches long, and it was quite thick in proportion. 
That which entertained us greatly was its expansile throat, or 
dewlap, which it would inflate to an enormous size. This char- 
acteristic is to some extent true of our little Anolix prinri pat is, 
and is dwelt upon largely in the books. In this regard I have 
been disappointed, having witnessed the phenomenon only twice 
in an entire summer. The spectacle, though strange, is very 
pretty. The skin under the throat expands immensely, giving 
to the animal a comical but rather formidable aspeet. The col- 
ors of the inflated dewlap are very line, usually ending in a per- 
fect flame of intense scarlet- 



1876.] The Florida Chameleon. 15 

A word more must be said of those delicate markings of very 
dark brown, sprinkled so thickly on the back and sides. As 
already mentioned, they are made up of little straight lines, 
Bgcags, and chevrons. They are as constant and perhaps as in- 
explicable as those queer markings on certain minerals, known as 
" Widmannstattian figures." These tiny markings on the back 
and sides of Anolis principalis are always there, and they never 
change their color. Even when Anolis has changed from a ruddy 
brown to a bright green, a hand-lens will show that these figures 
are all there, and that they have retained their brown color too. 
And in some way, upon close inspection, it will be seen that 
whatever the hue may be that is assumed, these singular figures 
impart to it character and tone. 

I think our observations show that the highest effort in color- 
change is in the green. There were two instances in which it is 
my belief that this same color was produced involuntarily. It is 
observable that the Anolis delights in tints. From a deep olive 
it will run through the entire gamut of that color by insensible 
hues into a leek green. It does not like harsh color lines. Now 
on one occasion Nolie had a queer spot break out on his right 
flank, just behind the fore limb. It was a bright green patch, 
nearly half an inch in length. The outline was sharp and angu- 
lar, 'it was on a cold day, when the room was uncomfortable, 
just the time when there is no disposition to change color. It is 
notable, also, that this patch of green upon that dark ground of 
brown held its brightness for two days, a very long period in- 
deed. At another time, under like circumstances, a smaller 
patch of the same color appeared on the left flank, near the hind 
leg. It had the sann> patchiness as the former spot, and also 
continued bright for an unusually long time. 

Perhaps a hundred times have we been asked the question, 
kt How are these changes of color produced? " The physiology 
of this matter is not well understood ; but there is a hypothesis 
upon it which is probably in the main correct. To state this in 
rigid accuracy would likely for some of our readers require too 
many technical terms. At the risk, then, of appearing to be 
didactic, we will use very different speech. Supposing through a 
sheet of block tin many thousands of little pipes were made just 
to enter. Let them, if you will, be regarded as infinitely small. 
Call this series A. Now suppose another series in all respects 
similar and fixed in like manner. Call this series B. It must be 
understood that the pipes of one series alternate with those of 



16 The Florida Chameleon. [January, 

the other series, so that it shall be first a pipe of A, then a pipe 
of B, and so on in regular order for both series. Suppose again 
that the A pipes contain green pigment, and the B pipes contain 
yellow. We will further imagine that each pipe series has a 
series of muscles which can act upon them. Now laid over the 
mouths of all these pigment tubes let us suppose a translucent 
film. Our perforated block tin and its translucent spread, with 
the mouths of the color tubes opening between them, shall repre- 
sent the rete mucosum, or colored layer of the skin. Suppose 
now the appropriate muscles squeeze the lower ends of the A 
series of pigment tubes, the pigment at once comes up against the 
almost transparent skin, the color of which is now blue. Let the 
muscles relax and the pigment descends into the tubes again. 
Let the same process occur with the B series of tubes, and the 
result will be that the skin show* ;i yellow color. \"i waiting 
for the yellow pigment to return into the tubes, let the A series 
be again squeezed, and up comes the blue pigment against the 
translucent spread. Now everybody knows that a green color is 
easily made by a mixture of yellow and blue. Suppose the little 
spots where the blue touches under the translucent film to be so 
small as to be called molecules, and suppose the same of the spots 
where the yellow pigment touches, and you have all the condi- 
tions necessary for begetting green. It is also easily imagined 
how by regulating the aim unit of muscular pressure the propor- 
tions of the separate pigments is regulated, and so the most deli- 
cate tints are produced. 

At the dining table of a hotel in Florida a lady appeared with 
her four pet Anoles. They were fastened to her head-gear by- 
silken threads, and ran over her neck and head, or nestled in the 
tresses of her hair, as they saw fit. In this particular we think 
the lady did violence to the rights of others. But duly regarding 
the proprieties of time and place, the lady did well in her delight 
with her w - little chameleons.'" As a pet, the Anolis principalis 
is everything that is commendable : clean, inoffensive, pretty, 
and wonderfully entertaining: provoking harmless mirth, and 
stirring up in the thinker the profoundest depths of his philos- 



3.] Proper Specific Name of the Song Sparrow. 



for 
titury by a specific name which, if the just rule 
of priority is considered, cannot be applied to it longer. 

The observation of a specimen which presented a rather unique 
appearance — the tail being veined by transverse dark brown 
bars, quite sharply denned — discovered the fact to me. 

Recent examination of numerous specimens shows that this 
feature is more or less apparent in nearly all examples. It seems, 
however, to have been unnoticed since Pennant wrote until the 
obtaining of my specimen, which was some two years ago, for no 
author in his description of the bird has shown an acquaintance 
with the peculiarity; but quite the reverse, as Professor Baird 
distinctly affirms 2 that the tail of the song sparrow displays no 
such appearance as the following descriptions would imply. 

Pennant's description is : With the crown, hind part of neck, 
and back rust colored, spotted with black ; the spots on the back 
large ; coverts of the wing plain ferruginous ; primaries dusky, 
edged with dirty-white; whole under side 1 white, with black 
streaks pointing downwards; tail brown, crossed by numerous 
dusky bars. Inhabits New York. (Arctic Zoology, ii. 375.) 

Gmelin writes: Fringilla ferruginea nigro-maculata, subtus 
alba nigro-striata, alis ferrugineis, cauda fusca atrolineata. Habi- 
tat in Noveboraco. (Systema Naturae, i. 922.) 

Who can doubt but that these descriptions refer to the song 
sparrow, if they do differ in a few minor respects ? 

We think it follows from the above citation from Pennant 



i64i, U7. — Max., Cab. Jour., vi. 1858, 275. 

Z>»otric!,in mr!o,ii„ Hon.. List, 1838. — lb., Con! 

Mtlospiz,, uulodia Baird, Birds X. Am., 1858 
Baird, Hrewi-r and Hid-rwav, Hist. N. Am. Birds, 



18 New Zealand Flax. [January, 



ong sparrow 



the bird he had in hand when he 



penned his portrayal and suggested the name " fasciated spar- 
row " (upon which Gmelin's name is founded) ; moreover, as the 
latter author's name antedates the one assigned by Wilson, it fol- 
lows, therefore, that fasciata should take precedence, to the elim- 
ination of " melodia." 

It may be urged, however, that fasciata is not entirely appro- 
priate, and melodia having been recognized as the correct name 
so long, a change is unnecessary ; and that if this work of res- 
toration begins there will have to be many other changes in orni- 
thological nomenclature. But we say, Let it begin ; let all the 
old names that can lay claim to restoration, and be recognized as 
applying to present species, be brought to light and receive due 
consideration. 

The Chamata fasciata Gambel furnishes a parallel case with 
the song sparrow in the possession of a barred tail ; and the bars 
are no more appreciable, in fact less so, than in some individuals 

of the Melospiza. 

Now, if this name is currently recognized as applicable to the 

Cham&a, with its distinctive feature less marked than in Melospiza, 

why should it not hold good with the latter ? 

In the Smithsonian collection are specimens of the western 

varieties — fallax, rufina, guttata, Grouldi, and Heermanni — which 

possess quite visibly barred tails. 



NKW ZK ALAND FLAX. 



HPHE attention of the traveler who stands for the first time on 
-*■ the shores of New Zealand is especially attracted by two 
characteristics of its flora, one or the other of which will be pres- 
ent in every scene that impresses itself on his memory. 

The first is the profusion everywhere of ferns of many differ- 
ent forms and colors, which present every gradation, from the 
strange and graceful tree-ferns, which raise their spreading 
crowns of feathery fronds thirty or forty feet from the ground, 
down to the little bright green ferns, with fronds scarcely half an 
inch long, which cling to the rocks far below in the dark ravines, 
where they are constantly wet with spray. 
The other plant which (■specially calls foi 



1876.] New Zealand Flax. 19 

which is the subject of our sketch, is a flag-like, liliaceous plant, 
growing in large spreading clusters of sword-shaped leaves, which 
are often eight or ten feet in length, and of a bright, shining 
green color. Many of these bunches support an upright flower- 
stalk, with purple blossoms, which resembles, somewhat, the in- 
florescence of the banana, held in an upright position. This plant 
is known to the colonists as New Zealand flax, and to the bot- 
anist as Phormium tenax, of which several varieties have been 
described. 

It is very characteristic of New Zealand, being found nowhere 
else, except on the Norfolk and Chatham Islands. 

During our stay in New Zealand we found it growing wherever 
we went, from the low shores of the southern part of the South 
Island, where it covers immense fields, up to an elevation of four 
and five thousand feet among the southern Alps. 

The spreading masses of Phormium growing among thick 
groves of the palm-like grass-tree ( Cordyline australis) give to 
many retired nooks and valleys a soft tropical beauty, that forms 
a pleasing contrast with the usual rugged and Alpine grandeur of 
New Zealand scenery. 

The New Zealand flax covers thousands of acres, both in the 
North and South Island ; this amount, although vast, could be 
increased many fold by cultivation. Seemingly, it likes best the 
low, wet land near the coast, but also grows with great luxuri- 
ance along the banks of rivers and lakes, where it can obtain 
plenty of moisture. 

To the natives of New Zealand, before the blessings of civiliza- 
tion (?) wore thrust upon them, the Phormium was what the 
cocoa-nut palm is to the inhabitants of the tropics, or the bamboo 
to the Hindoo and Malay. The Maori woman, sitting on the 
earthen floor of her hut, makes an incision across a leaf of Phor- 
mium with the sharp edge of a mussel-shell ; then placing the 
leaf on the edge of the shell, with the cut side up, rapidly draws 
it between her thumb and the shell, thus stripping off the green 
pulp, and leaving the tough fibre ready for use. 

Of this the Maoris weave their mats and rugs, which are very 
s"H and warm, and often wrought in an elegant pattern by means 
of colored Phormium. 

These mats, together with garments made of the dried, un- 
dressed leaves, formed the scanty clothing of the natives before 
the coming of the Europeans. 

The dried leaves, when split into narrow strips, are used to 



20 New Zealand Flax. [January, 

make coarse matting for the floor, and baskets to contain fruit 
and serve as dishes. 

The long, tough fibre is made into strong nets and fishing- 
lines, and is also of great use in building houses, canoes, etc. 

The stone adzes with which the Maoris dug out and orna- 
mented their canoes were lashed to wooden handles by bands of 
Phormium, which also furnished the canoe with sails. 

The clear white gum that exudes from the base of the leaves 
is used as glue and also for chewing ; with the colonists it forms 
an excellent substitute for mucilage and sealing- wax. 

The bright-eyed Maori boy makes his toy canoe of the green 
leaves, and gathers the sweet honey from the blossoms of the 
Phormium. 

At the present day the more enlightened natives use it instead 
of writing-paper, and "with a sharp-edged shell engrave their 
thoughts upon it." 

One night while spearing the monstrous eels that inhabit the 
New Zealand lakes, we became acquainted with another of the 
uses of this interesting plant ; the old dead leaves, when bound 
into small bundles, made excellent torches, which answered our 
purpose nearly as well as pine knots, with the use of winch most 
of us are familiar. 

These are a few of the purposes for which Phormium is used 
by the simple New Zealander. 

To civilized man it would become a hundred-fold more useful, 
could he but invent a cheap and satisfactory method of cleaning 
the fibre. 

This fibre has been found by experiment to be the strongest 
known, with the exception of silk, being twice as tenacious as 

Numerous machines have been invented to meet this want, but 
as yet none have been a success. 

Could such a method be devised, this strong and beautiful 
fibre would compete favorably with the manilla of the Philippine 
Islands, or the flax and hemp of Europe and America. 

Such a discovery would bring to New Zealand greater wealth 
than she has derived from her gold mines, and, together with the 
immense amount of wool that is annually shipped from her shores, 
make those rich islands eminently a fibre-producing country. 

With the imperfect means at their command the colonists have 
already produced considerable quantities of dressed Phormium. 
This, in former years, was small in quantity, but of an excellent 



1876.] Bartramian Names in Ornithology. 21 

quality, being prepared by the Maoris. In 1870, there was sold 
in the London market four thousand tons of Phormium fibre ; 
this, however, was of an inferior quality, having been imperfectly 
prepared by machines. Its principal use is, at present, in the 
manufacture of ropes, for which purpose it is usually mixed with 
manilla. Numerous chemical means have been resorted to for 
obtaining the fibre, but without satisfactory results. Thus far 
civilized man, with all his array of machines and engines, has 
been unable to do the simple work of cleaning the Phormium 
fibre as well as the tattooed cannibal did with a sea-shell. 



THE AVAILABILITY OF CERTAIN BARTRAMIAN 
NAMES IN ORNITHOLOGY. 

TJNDER the caption " Fasti Ornithologise Redivivi.— No. I. 
Bartram's Travel's,'' Dr. Elliott Coues has recently 1 attempt- 
ed to revive sundry of Bartram's names of the birds of the United 
States, on the ground of their priority. Dr. Coues assumes 
that Bar tram was "on principle binomial, occasionally laps- 
ing ; " and that " if his occasional slips are to count against him, 
then not a few great modern ornithologists must also be ruled 
out ; among whom may be instanced Schlegel, Bonaparte, Sunde- 
vall, and others, in whose writings are found trinomial names," 
etc. " But the count against him [Bartram] for nearly a cent- 
ury," says Dr. Coues, « is not a true bill ; the verdict must be, 
if not reversed, radically modified." Since a few of Bartram's 
binomial names have come into current use, whilst others are 
commonly cited in synonymical lists, Dr. Coues claims that if 
Bartram is entitled to anything, he has not received wlrat is 
rightfully his due, and if not entitled to anything we have given 
him tribute to which he has no claim. Dr. Coues adopts the 
former alternative, and on the ground of consistency advocates the 
adoption of all of Bartram's binomial names that can be identi- 
fied, in cases where they happen to have priority, whether they 
are accompanied by descriptions or not. 

Before accepting fully the results that follow such premises, 
let us examine a little into the nature of Bartram's work. The 
ornithological matter contained in Bartram's Travels is not- 
ably of two kinds. In the general narrative he has at sundry 
1 Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci., Phila., 1875, pp. 338-358, September, 1875. 



22 Bartramian Names in Ornithology. [January, 

places described not only the habits and distribution of some of 
the birds he met with in his travels, but has given more or less 
careful descriptions of the birds themselves, designating them 
also by binomial names. In addition to this he has given, at 
pages 288-296, a nominal list of two hundred and fifteen spe- 
cies, in which he has usually mentioned the species under Latin 
binomial names, to which he has added an English name ; occa- 
sionally to the Latin names he has appended a few words of de- 
scription, also in Latin ; while certain typographical signs are 
prefixed to denote the places of residence of the different species 
and their migrations. These signs, with the simple names, con- 
stitute in most cases all that approaches to a description of the 
species that Bartram has given ; yet the attempt is now made 
to establish priority for these names, on the ground that the 
species thus designated were sufficiently described to substantiate 
the claim, and to set them up in place of names backed by good 
description and thoroughly familiar through long use. 

In this list of two hundred and fifteen species, quite a number 
of names prove to be synonymous with others; thirty-six are 
given by Dr. Coues as "undetermined," and ten or a dozen more 
are only guessed at ; leaving fully one fifth of the whole number 
almost hopelessly in doubt. In addition to this there are thirty- 
five or more polynomial names. Of the one hundred and eighty 
species of the names of which Dr. Coues attempts to give the 
present equivalents, nearly all had been previously described in 
the Systema Naturae of Linnaeus, a work that must have been 
accessible to Bartram if any European book on natural history 
could be ; and that it was so is evident from his references to it 
in the botanical portions of his work. Bartram has, in fact, in 
some groups employed a large proportion of lannaean names, 
while in others he has either altogether ignored them or was ig- 
norant of them. Of his twenty-two species of rapacious birds, 
all but three of the recognizable species were already in the 
Systema Naturae, yet only five of them appear under the Lin- 
naean names ; of his seventeen remaining names only one, Vul- 
tur atratus, is strictly entitled to recognition. Of the rest of 
the land birds, numbering one hundred and seven species, a 
dozen of the names are either polynomial, synonyms, or undeter- 
minable, while of the remaining ninety-five, eighty of the species 
had been previously named and described in the Systema Na- 
turae, or by other writers preceding Bartram ; yet less than 
half of these names were used by Bartram, who instead gave 



1876/J Bartramian Names in Ornithology. 23 

new names of his own. In the rest of the list, embracing the 
wading and swimming birds, the case is even still worse. Of 
these, numbering eighty-five species, nineteen are given by Dr. 
Coues as "undetermined;" fifteen others are guessed at only, 
three are synonyms, and fifteen of the names are polynomial! 
Of the thirty-three binomially named species determined by Dr. 
Coues, twenty-eight had been described in the Systema Na- 
turae; of the remaining five, Dr. Coues regards three as avail- 
able. Finally it appears that after excluding from Bartram's list 
of two hundred and fifteen species the synonyms, the polynomial 
names, and the undeterminable ones, we have left but one hun- 
dred and forty-six, or about two thirds of the whole ; and that 
of these one hundred and thirty, or thereabouts, had been named 
and described several years prior to the publication of I >art rani's 
work, mainly, too, in the Systema Naturae, a book that to Bar- 
tram must have been one of the most accessible works on natural 

Dr. Coues, however, has indicated twenty Bartramian specific 
names and one generic name which he claims must be adopted, in 
order that Bartram may have his due as one of the fathers of 
American ornithology. We are, of course, not to judge the sci- 
entific works of a century ago by our present standards, but mak- 
ing due allowance for the two periods, it would seem that in the 
recognition Bartram has already had, he has been most fairly 
dealt with, and that further claims for him will only call forth a 
more rigid criticism of his merits as an ornithological writer than 
his work will well bear. Ten of these twenty-one Bartramian 
names, however, Dr. Coues claims, have been for a long time cur- 
rently in use, six of them having been " erroneously " attributed 
to Wilson and one to Audubon. The remaining ten Dr. Coues 
proceeds to newly " set up." 

But let us examine Bartram's work still further. First, re- 
specting Bartram as a binomialist : we find that out of two hun- 
dred and fifteen names in his list thirty-six are not binomial, or 
more than one in seven, — pretty frequent lapses for a "bino- 
mialist on principle." Secondly, we find that the Bartramian 
names already in current use or quoted as synonyms belong 
to species that he not only binomially named, but to species 
which he more or less fully described in his narrative, though 
some, it is true, are taken from among those of his list. Thirdly, 
it seems that the species for which Bartramian names have been 
currently employed, but " incorrectly " attributed to Wilson or 



24 Bartramian Names in Ornithology. [January, 

Audubon, were never described, in any true sense, by Bartram, 
and would be undeterminable if their recognition depended on 
anything in Bartram's work. We have in nearly every case only 
the name, which, being a characteristic one, is presumably refer- 
able to the species to which it was subsequently applied by Wil- 
son or Audubon, who were the first to give anything which, by 
any reasonable license, can be construed as a "description " of the 
species in question. In most cases Wilson may have obtained the 
names directly from Bartram, since, as is well-known, William 
Bartram was not only the friend of Wilson, but his associate and 
instructor in natural history ; and it is hardly presumable that 
Wilson did not know, through personal intercourse with Bartram, 
the birds the latter had named in his Travels. 1 Besides this, the 
natural applicability of the names to the species in question may 
have rendered the names in a measure traditionally current. 
Other names which have not that happy suggestiveness, but 
which are in all other respects wholly parallel, figure promi- 
nently in the long list of Bartram's species that Dr. Coues, with 
all his ability as an ornithological expert, has had to give as 
" undetermined." The specific name palustris, when applied to 
a sparrow or a wren, may be distinctive when it happens that 
only one species of the group to which the species belongs affects 
marshy situations, but as soon as a second is found, the name of 
course has then no distinctive value. Coincidences of this kind 
are all that make many of Bartram's names determinable ; and 
this merely chanced to be so, happening otherwise, however, in 
numerous instances, as witness the in other respects parallel cases 
of " Falco pullarius, the chicken hawk," " F. gallinarius, the 
hen hawk," " Fringilla canabina, the hemp bird," « Galandra 
pratensis, the May bird," etc. Fourthly, the remarks above 
given under " thirdly " are also strictly applicable to nearly all 
of the Bartramian names newly set up by Dr. Coues, these 
being determinable only by negative evidence and not by any- 
thing inherent in Bartram's work, — simply through a process 
of exclusion by virtue of a full knowledge of the avi-i'auna of 
the region in question ; by knowing that they cannot well refer 
to anything else. For nearly or quite half a century after Bar- 
tram wrote, such a thing Avould have been impossible, simply 
from lack of this necessary knowledge of the fauna of the region 
to which Bartram's work refers. 

* In the case of Audubon, the single instance of the use of the same name mav per 
haps be properly regard.-.! as a coinnrtem-e. 



1876.] Bartramian Names in Ornithology. 25 

Lists like Barfcram's are not of rare occurrence, where the au- 
thors, not having the means of readily determining the species, or 
not caring to take the trouble to do so, give the correct names 
when they happen to know them, and prefer coining names for 
the others as the easiest way out of a difficulty. 

Finally, let me ask students of zoology — for the principle in- 
volved is not, of course, limited to ornithology — if searching for 
old names, which, like those of Bartram's, can only be determined 
by the process of exclusion, with which to supplant long-estab- 
lished ones, intelligently proposed and backed by adequate descrip- 
tions, tends to the best interest of science ? If the example Dr. 
Coues is here setting is to be followed, there will be no stability 
to our nomenclature for a long time, but only, except perhaps to 
a few experts, the most perplexing confusion. The advocacy of 
such revolutions on the score of justice is, it seems to me, calling 
things by wrong names, robbing, as it does, intelligent workers of 
the recognition justly their due, whenever circumstance may favor 
the deciphering of the hieroglyphics of earlier slovenly or ignorant 
writers, of which their own works would never afford an interpre- 
tation. Such researches may be of interest from an antiquarian 
point of view, but they should end with their legitimate results, 
and not be pushed with a view of overturning long-settled names 
in zoological nomenclature. I herewith append a list of the Bar- 
tramian names (given in quotation marks) which Dr. Coues 
wishes to see set up, with the nomenclature resulting from his 
determinations, together with their usual equivalents, and with a 
few critical remarks on special points. 

1. "Vultur ATRATUS, black vulture or carrion crow" = 
Carthartes atratus (Bartr.). Elsewhere well described. 

2. " Falco glaucus, the sharp-winged hawk, of a pale sky- 
blue color, the tip of the wings black " = Elanus glaucus (Bartr.) 
Coues = M. leucurus auct. Otherwise further described. 

-3. " Falco SUBCERTTLIUS, the sharp-winged hawk, of a dusky 
blue color" = Jctinia zubavruleu* (Bartr.) Coues = I. Missis- 
sippiensis auct. Otherwise further described. 

4. " Corvus CARKIVORTJS, % the raven " = Oorvus corax, var. 
carnivorus (Bartr.) B. B. and R. Adopted in 1858 by Baird, 
but Bartram's whole description consists of the names here given 
in quotation marks, with a mark prefixed denoting that it is one 
of the species that " arrive in Pennsylvania in the spring sea- 
son, from the South, which, after building nests and rearing 
their young, return again southerly in the autumn" At page 



26 Bartramian Names in Ornithology. [January, 

179 Bartram speaks of seeing "the vultures and ravens crouched 
on the crooked limbs of the lofty pines," etc., in East Florida. 
Is Dr. Coues willing to extend the former range of the raven 
over East Florida, and admit it as a summer migrant from the 
South to Pennsylvania, accepting Bartram as authority, and 
amend his ornithological writings to correspond ? Consistency 
certainly calls for this if we adopt Bartram's name, and " con- 
sistency is a jewel." says our author. 

5. "Coevus maritimus, the great sea-side crow or rook" = 
Gorvus maritimus Bartr. = 0. ossifragus Wils. Based on the 
name and the indication of its habitat, though " great," as com- 
pared with the others, is erroneous. The ambiguity that over- 
shadows C. carnivorus throws additional doubt upon the identity 
of C. maritimus with C. ossifragus. 

6. " Corvus frugivorus, the common crow " = C.frugivo- 
rus Bartr. =C. Americanus Aud. Based on the name alone and 
u exactly parallel," says Dr. Coues, with the case of the raven. 

7. "Corvus Floridanus, pica glandaria minor, the little jay 
of Florida " ' = Cyanocitta Floridana (Bartr.) Bon. = Aphelocoma 
Floridana (Bartr.) Cab. At page 212 distinguished from Cya- 
nura cristata. 

8. " Gractjla purpurea, the lesser purple jackdaw, or crow 
blackbird " = Quiscalus purpureus (Bartr.) Cass. This render- 
ing is evidently not tenable, since the Gr acuta quiscula of Lin- 
naeus (1758), as shown by his description in the Systema Na- 
turae, refers to this species and not to Q. major, though possibly 
some of the references may. Hence if quiscula is to be used for 
either of the Quiscali, it must be used for purpureus and not for 
major, although Bartram employed it for Q. major, and on this 
ground Dr. Coues suggests its adoption tor that species. 1 

9. " Certhia RUFA, little brown variegated creeper " = 0. 
familiaris, var. rufa (Bartr.) Coues, » with those who separate 
the bird from the European " — C. Americana auct. 

10. " Certhia pinus, the pine creeper " = Bendroeca pinus 
(Bartr.) Bd. " The name," says Coues, " is universally attrib- 
uted to Wilson, but we see here its original source." Are we quite 

1 " Gracula quiscula, the purple jackdaw of the sea-coast " Bar/ram. Dr. Coues 
says, ■■ The expression ' purple jackdaw of the sea-coast ' is perfectly dia-uostie, the 
species hem- thoroughly maritime am! always callci 



1876.] Bartramian Names in Ornithology. 27 

sure? Is it not more likely to be the Helminthophaga pinus, 
which is the " pine creeper " of Catesby, and the Oerthia pinus of 
Linnaaus, since Bartram often quotes Catesby, even in his list, 
and many of his trinomials and English names are the Same as 
those of Catesby, and evidently adopted from Catesby. 

11. " LuCAR LiviDUS, apice nigra, the cat bird or chicken 
bird " = Lucar Carolinensis (Bartr.) Coues r= Mimus Carolinen- 
sis auct. Dr. Coues, presuming •• apk-o nigra" was intended to 
read " vertice nigra," which of course is probable, adopts the name 
Lucar, though " probably meaningless " and looking "like a mis- 
print," for the generic name of the cat bird, as being coequal with 
Felivox of Bonaparte and G-aleoscoptis of Cabanis, and as equiva- 
lent to Mimus in case the cat bird and mocking birds are to be 
placed in the same genus. 

12. "Meleagris Americanus, the wild turkey " == Melea- 
gris gallopavo, var. Americana (Bartr.) Coues. As it is fully de- 
scribed at pages 14 and *•"'.. and binomially named on page 83 
as Mdnn/ris oeirideiltoHs, this, if either of Bartram's names is 
to be adoped, is the one which, according to the ride of priority, 
must be adopted, .1/". <>r<-l,l> »l<il!s having the precedence of 
over two hundred pages in Bartram's work. Hence we have 
Meleagris gallopavo var. occidentalis (Bartr.) ! The name occi- 
dental was evidently given in allusion to its being an inhabitant 
of the western world, as ho nanpams it with the Meleagris (Nu- 
mida meleagris) of Africa. 

13. " Carduelus pinus, the lesser goldfinch" = Chrytomitri* 
pinus (Bartr.) Bon. First described by Wilson under the 
same specific name, which name, as Dr. Coues observes, has been 
usually attributed to the latter author. Bartram's right to pri- 
ority rests solely on the Latin and English names above given, 
which may be presumed to apply to Chrysomitris pinus auct. 

14. " Passer domestic us, the little house sparrow or chip- 
ping bird " = Spizella domestica (Barer.) Coues = Spizella soci- 
alis auct. This is another of the lucky cases where the name 
alone seems to determine the species with probable certainty. 

15. u Passer palustris, the reed sparrow " = Me lospiza pa- 
lustris (Bartr.) Bd. First described by Wilson under the same 
specific name, to whom the name has heretofore been attributed, 
but is now transferred by Dr. Coues to Bartram, because he pre- 
sumably used the name for a swamp sparrow, and because we 
chance to have but one ! 

16. " Passer agrestis, the little field sparrow " = Spizella 



28 Bartramian Names in Ornithology. [January, 

agrestis (Bartr.) Coues == S. pusilla auct. First described by 
Wilson under the specific name pusilla, unless it be Gmelin's Mo- 
taaUa jxnrorum, as some have supposed possible. Several of our 
sparrows would better bear the epithet " little field sparrow " than 
this; as, for example, Pooecetes gramineus and CoturnictUui 
passerinus, and also Passerculus savanna, unless the latter should 
be considered too northern for the asterisk in Bartram's list. 
Spizella pusilla, though now known as "field sparrow," is only 
found in fields bordered with thickets or partly overgrown with 
bushes. 

17. "Motacilla DOMESTICA (regulus rufus), the house 
wren " = Troglodytes domestica (Bartr.) Coues = T. aedon 
auct. Without the English name " house wren," " Motacilla 
domestica " would be wholly undeterminable. 

18. " Motacilla palustris (reg. minor') the marsh wren " 
= Cistothorus palustris (Bartr.) Bd. First described as palus- 
tris by Wilson, to whom, as Dr. Coues says, this Bartramian name 
has usually been attributed; but why is' not Bartram's palustris 
as likely to be Cistothorus stellaris as anything else ? 

19. « Ardea mugitans, the marsh bittern, or Indian hen " 
= Botaurus mugitans (Bartr.) Coues = Botaurus lentiginosus 
auct. Can the above names be allowed as a basis for priority, 
"the marsh bittern" being the only really descriptive part? 

^ 20. « Tantalus pictus (Ephouskyka Indian), the crying 
bird, beautifully speckled " = Aramus pictus (Bartr.) Coues = 
A. giganteus auct. Elsewhere fully described. 

21. "Colymbus Floridanus, the great black cormorant of 
Florida, having a red beak"*= Graculus Floridanus (Bartr.). 
First described by Audubon under the same specific name, proba- 
bly merely by a coincidence. The "red beak" Dr. Coues ex- 
plains as a lapse of memory for " red gular pouch and lores." 

From the foregoing it will be seen how very slight are the 
claims Bartram's names have to priority over those in current 
use. Of the twenty-one given above, Nos. 1, 2, 3, 7, 11 (the 
generic name only), 12 {occidentalism not Americana), and <?0 _ 
six or seven in all, - are the only ones that, in justice to' all 
parties, can rightfully stand. One (No. 10) has been shown to 
be almost unquestionably Linna^an, not Bartramian. 

In conclusion. I would suggest to the author of the article under 
review, who seems so zealous in the vindication of a truly saga- 
cious naturalist, the propriety of also claiming for him priority in 
the discovery of the geographical law of variation in size in North 



1876.] The Harvard Summer School of Geology. 29 

American mammals, — a law it took naturalists fifty years longer 
to develop and formulate, — since Bartram repeatedly alludes to 
the smaller size of animals of the same species in Georgia and 
Florida than in Pennsylvania, especially the wolves, deer, foxes, 
"and other animals." At page 216 of his Travels, for instance, 
after referring to the small size of the horses of Florida, he says, 
" It is a matter of conjecture and inquiry, whether or not the dif- 
ferent soil and situation of the country may have contributed in 
some measure in forming and establishing the difference in size 
and other qualities betwixt them. I have observed the horses 
and other animals in the high hilly country of Carolina, Georgia, 
Virginia, and all along our shores, are much larger and stronger 
than those bred in the flat country next the sea-coast ; a buck- 
skin of the Upper Creeks and Cherokees will weigh twice as 
heavy as those of the Siminoles or Lower Creeks, and those bred 
in the low flat country of Carolina." 



THE HARVARD SUMMER SCHOOL OF GEOLOGY. 

T^HE first session of this, the last to be established of the sev- 
eral schools for summer teaching which have been originated by 
the officers of Harvard University, held its first session at Cum- 
berland Gap, Kentucky, during the past summer. The design 
was to give practical field instruction in geology to teachers and 
others of some training in science and general culture, who might 
desire to acquire the methods of such work. The Governor of 
Kentucky having given an invitation to the President of Harvard 
College to place the school in Kentucky, and having offered the 
cooperation of the Kentucky Geological Survey, the school was 
established at Cumberland Gap, within the State of Kentucky but 
near to the state lines of Tennessee and Virginia. Though re- 
mote from the routes of travel, this point offered peculiar advan- 
tages for the study of stratigraphic, topographical, and dynamic 
geology. The structure of the Appalachian mountain system is 
exceedingly well shown at this point; the section extends from 
the lower Potsdam sandstone to the middle coal measures, giving 
about twelve thousand feet of beds within forty miles of distance ; 
a wonderful system of faults of different ages bring these beds to 
view at many different points and enable the student to observe 
them under varied conditions; a short distance away, within plain 



30 The Harvard Summer School of Geology. [January, 

view, lies the great Unaka chain, where are found the highest 
points in eastern North America. The rocks are generally rich 
in fossils, the section, taking it altogether, giving ;i peculiarly good 
illustration of the life of the American palaeozoic rocks. The 
subcarboniferous and Upper Cambrian limestones being very 
massive, afford a remarkable series of caverns, some of great ex- 
tent and many abounding in human remains. 

Despite a season of great and unprecedented rain-fall, nearly 
thirty inches in two months, there was no serious illness in the 

Restrictions were put on the number of students, more applica- 
tions having been rejected than accepted. The class in attend- 
ance numbered thirty-one persons, more than half of whom were 
teachers engaged in science-instruction in various academies, nor- 
mal schools and colleges in different parts of the country. 

The instruction consisted of lectures and practical work in the 
field, the latter occupying by far the larger part of the time. The 
routine of work was about as follows: at six A. M. a lecture and 
discussion on the last field work ; another lecture in the evening, 
generally on some zoological subject. The daylight was used in 
field-work near camp, except by those who were out on larger ex- 
cursions ; two or three of the excursions, each occupying from 
two to four days, were made each week; parties of from four to 
twelve, with one or more instructors, made a foot journey together 
over a section of the neighboring field. Each party had a wagon 
or pack mule, according to the country, and an outfit of provis- 
ions and camp utensils for rough camping. On its return the 
party was expected to report the results of its work at one of the 
evening meetings. Most of the students made great progress in 
the field-work, some of them being brought to the point of making 
extended journeys, from which they would bring back well- 
digested reports, without the guidance of an instructor. 

The following gentlemen were engaged in the administration 
and instruction of the school : Mr. N. S. Shaler, Professor of Pa- 
laeontology of Harvard University, and Director of the Kentucky 
Geological Survey; Mr. Walter Faxon. Instructor in Zoology of 
Harvard University ; Messrs. Lucian Carr, A. R. Crandall F N 
Moore, W. B. Page, C. J. Norwood, John H. Talbutt, and John 
R. Proctor, Assistants in the Kentucky Geological Survey. Pro- 
fessors Safford and Kerr, State Geologists of North Carolina and 
Tennessee respectively, assisted in the instruction either in the 
camp or m the field. Professor Jordan, of Northwestern Univer- 



Ancient Ruins in Southwestern Colorado. 31 

ve some instruction in ichthyology, 
the latter part of August, several 
parties were organized to afford the students the opportunity of 
making extended journeys in the direction of their homes. One 
or these parties made a journey of two weeks and another of four 
weeks through the mountains of eastern Kentucky and Virginia. 
Professor Kerr accompanied a party through a part of the mount- 
ains of North Carolina. 

The instruction of the camp began July 1st and closed August 
30th. It is proposed to hold the next session of the school at or 
near the same point, in 1876. The number of students admit- 
ted will probably be increased to fifty, and the other conditions 
will remain the same. The eminent success of the experiment 
was in the main due to the cooperation of the Kentucky Geolog- 
ical Survey. This survey furnished six skilled persons, who had 
been trained in the study of the rocks of the State, to the list of 
teachers. It is satisfactory to note that this assistance was given 
without any detriment to the researches of the survey, it being 
found that the students were a help rather than a hindrance to 
the work of the assistants. 

It should be noted that the class was limited to persons who 
were graduates, or who were actually engaged in teaching or in 
fitting themselves for the work of professional geologists. 



ANCIENT RUINS IN SOUTHWESTERN COLORADO. 
j^JR. W.H. JACKSON, the photographer to Professor Hay- 
den's United States Geological Survey of the Territories, 
describes and figures in the Bulletin (second series, No. 1) of the 
survey certain ancient ruins of Indian structures discovered in 
the valleys and gorges of the extreme southern corner of Colorado 
Territory. 

One of the most perfect houses seen was discovered in the 
crevices of the escarpment of the Mancos Canon, eight hundred 
teet vertically above the stream at its bottom. This house (Plate 
III., Fig. 12 ; this and plates I. and II. were kindly loaned by 
Professor Hayden) is two storied, and remarkable, not only on 
account of its elevated ami almost inaccessible position, but from 
the pains with which it was built, the walls having been con- 
structed of carefully dressed stone, plastered within and painted 
*n two colors. 



1876.] Ancient Ruins in Southwestern Colorado. 33 

"The house itself, perched up in its little crevice like a swal- 
low's nest, consisted of two stories, with a total height of about 
twelve feet, leaving a space of two or three feet between the top 
of the walls and the overhanging rock. We could not determine 
satisfactorily whether any other roof had ever existed or whether 
the walls ran up higher and joined the rock, but we incline to 
the first supposition. The ground plan showed a front room 
about six by nine feet in dimensions, and back of it two smaller 
ones, the face of the rock forming their back walls. These were 
each about five by seven feet square. The left hand of the two 
back rooms projected beyond the front room in an L. The cedar 
beams, which had divided the house into two floors, were gone, 
with the exception of a few splintered pieces and ends remaining 
in the wall, just enough to show what they were made of. We 
had some little doubt as to whether the back rooms were divided 
m the same way, nothing remaining to prove the fact excepting 
holes in the walls, at the same- height as the beams in the other 
portion. In the lower front room were two apertures, one serv- 
ing as a door and opening out upon the esplanade, about twenty 
by thirty inches in size, the lower sjll twenty-four inches from 
the floor, and the other a small outlook, about twelve inches 
square, up near the ceiling, and looking over the whole canon 
beneath. In the upper story, a window corresponded in size, 
shape, and position to the larger one below, both commanding 
an extended view down the cafion. The upper lintel of this 
window was of small, straight sticks of cedar, of about the size of 
one's finger, laid close together, the small stones of the masonry 
resting upon them. Directly opposite this window was a similar 
one, as shown in the figure, but opening into a large reservoir, or 
cistern, the upper walls of which came nearly to the top of the 
window. It was semicircular, inclosing the angle formed by the 
wall against the rock, with an approximate capacity of about two 
and a half hogsheads. From the window and extending down 
to the bottom of the reservoir was a series of cedar pegs, about a 
foot apart, enabling the occupants to easily reach the bottom. 

" The entire construction of this little human eyrie displayed 
wonderful perseverance, ingenuity, and some taste. Perpendic- 
ulars were well regarded, and the angles carefully squared. The 
stones of the outer rooms or front were all squared and smoothly 
raced, but were not laid in regular courses, as they are not uni- 
form in size, ranging from fifteen inches in length and eight in 
thickness down to very small ones. About the corners and the 



1876.] Ancient Ruins in Southwestern Colorado. 35 

windows, considerable care and judgment were evident in the 
overlapping of the joints, so that all was held firmly together. 
The only sign of weakness was in the bulging outward of the 
front wall, produced by the giving way or removal of the floor 
beams. The back portions were built of rough stone, firmly 
cemented together. The mortar was compact and hard, of a 
grayish-white, resembling lime mortar, but cracking all over, like 
some of the adobe mortars. All the interstices between the 
larger stones were carefully chinked in with small chips of the 
same material. The partitions were of the same character as the 
smooth wall outside, both presenting somewhat the appearance 
of having been rubbed down smooth after they were laid. The 
apertures from one room to another were small, corresponding 
in size and position to those outside., Most peculiar, however, 
was the dressing of the walls of the upper and lower front rooms. 
Both were plastered with a thin lavi-i- of some firm cement, of 
about an eighth of an inch in thickness, and colored a deep 
maroon-red, with a dingy white band eight inches in breadth 
running around the floor, sides, and ceiling. In some places it 
bad peeled away, exposing a smoothly dressed surface of rock. 
No signs of ornamentation, other than the band alluded to, were 
visible." 

Of some of the other ruins observed in this canon and photo- 
graphed, Fig. 1 represents the ground-plan of a round tower, con- 
sisting of two circular walls, with the intervening space divided 
into separate apartments. A tower somewhat larger than usual, 
adjoining a rectangular structure, is represented by Figs. 2 and 
6 - The tower was twelve feet in diameter, and at the present 
time about twenty in height, the wall being some sixteen inches 
m thickness. Fig. 4 represents a portion of a doorway and one 
corner of a carefully built house, while Fig. 5 depicts a cliff-house, 
one hundred feet above the level of the bottom of the canon, Fig. 
6 being a copy of some inscriptions upon the walls of the canon 
near by. Another cliff-house, eight hundred feet above the canon, 
•s represented by Fig. 7, while Fig. 8 indicates the tenacity of the 
cement, the isolated portion still remaining firmly attached to its 
^'nidation. A general view of the canon of the Rio Mancos near 
jts outlet from the Mesa Verde is given at Fig. 13. The table- 
lands upon either hand vary from five hundred to one thousand 
feet in height, and it is in the darkly shaded lines in the upper 
**K of the high bluff on the right that the little houses are found, 
^ shown in Figs. 5, 7, and 12. 




,-^v- •»§^flj^ 




1876.J Recent Literature. 37 

Passing into Utah, Mr. Jackson came upon the ruins of an 
Indian village (Fig. 14) situated in the bluffs of the valley of 
the Hovenweep, of which Fig. 11, Plate II., is a ground plan ; 
the area extended a hundred yards. 

In the valley of the McElmo, Utah, was found a square tower 
(Fig. 9) on the summit of an elevated rock. Fig. 10 represents 
an isolated rock in the same valley, covered with ruined houses 
and walls. A Moquis tradition states, according to Mr. Ernest 
Ingersoll, who accompanied Mr. Jackson's party, that at this 
spot, in ages past, their ancestors made their last stand against 
the northern tribes before retreating to their present villages. 

Over New Mexico and Arizona are scattered similar ruins 
which have been described since the sixteenth century, when 
Vaca saw them occupied. The present Moquis Indians inhabit 
such structures, and it seems probable that their ancestors, an 
agricultural people, were driven up the canons by the i 
"'" hostile tribes from the north. 



RECENT LITERATURE. 

Sachs's Text-Book of Botany. 1 — The present translation is based 
on the third edition of Sachs's Lehrbuch, a work which has been ex- 
traordinarily successful in Germany, a fourth edition having made its ap- 
pearance during the progress of the English translation. It has also 
been translated into French by Van Tieghem. The difficult task of ren- 
dering technical German words and phrases into clear and forcible En- 
glish has been very well performed by the translators, and it seems to us 
that they have shown good taste in making but 
those explanatory rather than controversial. The 
are excellent, quite as good as those of the German edition, which is cer- 
tainly saying a great deal. 

The mere fact that the present translation has already been favorably 
received in England and this country shows that it supplies a want which 
the ordinary English text-books, excellent as they are in some respects, 

not satisfy. This want is a book which shall give something more 
than a description of the organs of flowering plants, and a detailed ac- 
count of the orders into which they are divided. It cannot be denied that 
ln this country the tendency has been to consider the chief, if not the 

7 aim of botany to be the classification of phanerogams and the de- 
scription of new species. The excellent translation of Sachs will, it is to 
1 Text-Book of Botany, Morphological and Physiological. By Julius Sachs. 
^ranslated and annotated by Af.kkki. W. Bennett and W. T. Tiiiski.tos Dyer. 



38 Recent Literature. [January, 

be hoped, do much towards correcting this misconception of the true spirit 
of botany. In the text-book before us only 160 pages are devoted to 
phanerogams, while the part relating to cryptogams fills 213 pages, and 
that to physiology a still greater number of pages ; so that the reader 
cannot fail to draw the conclusion that what many botanical students in 
this country have been in the habit of regarding as the most important 
thing, is only one branch of the science, and by no means more impor- 
tant than others. Kven in that part of the text-hook relating to phane- 
rogams there are many ways of looking at familiar subjects which will be 
new to American botanists, as, for example, the theory of the carpel, and 
we cannot fail to see that, after all, some things which we have come to 
regard as facts are nothing i1 other people 

may have different but equally good theories. 

In the fourth i-ditiuii of the [..hrliin h U :, <-la-..-iii<-;itioii of Thailo|,Jiyt<\s 
which is given as an appendix to the translation. Sachs rejects the old 
division into alg:v. fungi, and lirhons, and, instead, gives a series of paral- 
lel groups, those, on one hand, containing chlorophyll and those, on the 
other, free from chlorophyll. The existence of parallel groups in algae 
and fungi has long been known, but we believe this is the first general 
text-book in which the division into algae and fungi has been abandoned. 
Although in a general way correct, the details of Sachs's classification 
cannot be accepted. Although Sachs is preeminently a physiologist, it 
seems to us that he has been quite as successful in his presentation of the 
researches of others in anatomy and cryptogamy, as of his own researches 
in physiology. We are not made very much wiser by being told that 
many motions arise from the tension of tissues, and it seems as though the 
term reiz, which may mean either irritation or some inherent attractive 
force, were only a learned way of concealing ignorance. Throughout the 
book we are impressed with the fact that advance in botany during later 
times has been dependent on the use of the compound microscope. Here- 
after it will be as impossible for a botanist to keep up with the times 
without doing microscopic work as for an astronomer to succeed without 
a telescope. 

It is to he regretted that the price of the translation is so high, but the 
number and quality of the illustrations probably render it necessary. 
It would be at least a consolation to American purchasers to know ex- 
actly what the price is, or ought to be, in this country. We imported the 
book directly by mail and were obliged to pay $8.60 ; others have been 
charged as high as $12, and one, more fortunate, procured a copy at a 
book store for $8. It has been suggested that the work be divided 
into parts to be sold separately, and, although students should not 
read one part to the exclusion of others, many would be able to purchase 
♦»»» separate parts at different times who could not afford to buy the 



hole at once. An abstract < 



abridgment of the German would hardly be 

of Thome's Lehrbuch der Botanik, would be preferabl 



corresponding to Prantl's 



1876.] Recent Literature. 39 

Caton's Summer in Norway. 1 — From a careful reading of this 
attractive and unpretending book, and from similar experiences in the 
southern and middle portions of Norway, we feel entitled to say that 
Judge Caton has given American readers a thoroughly reliable account 
of Norway, particularly the extreme north. English books about Nor- 
way are not so scarce as the author states, but the present volume gives 
the most complete and accessible general account of this interesting 
country we have seen. The author lays no claim to a knowledge of 
geology ; the raised beaches and glaciers, on which he does not dwell, 




$mmw 



een fully described by Forbes in his elaborate work, Norway 
Glaciers, and by Chambers, while the wonderful valleys of 



Topography, am 
Elk. With Port 

• J :»i>-on, MrCli,,-, 



Recent Literature. [January, 







Recent Literature. 



1876.] 

Norway, more like the canons of the West than any mountain gorges 
we have seen elsewhere, are not mentioned. 

But of the reindeer and Scandinavian elk our author speaks with the 
interest and decision of an expert, and his opinion on the specific rela- 
tions of these i 




The red deer (Fig. 1), now confined in Norway to the two Maud* of 
Hatterroen and Smoen. and which in Bohemia lias successfully interbred 
with the American Wapati deer, the author suggests is conspecific with the 
Wapati or American elk ( Cervus Canadensis). So also the reindeer (Fig. 
2, male, Fig. 3, female) is, we believe, correctly regarded as the same species 



limals, and ha< 



Ut- 



ile by the Tunguses, and highly prized 1 



42 Recent Literature. [January, 

as we are informed by Erman." Again, on page 238, he says, " During 
that examination, with the animal so close before me, and made still more 
critical by handling it, I became entirely convinced of the specific iden- 
tity of the reindeer of Lapland and the woodland caribou of America, 
and in this opinion I was only confirmed by a subsequent examination of 
the wild reindeer of Norway." 

The Scandinavian elk was also at one time domesticated, and success- 
fully broken to draw loads, but the experiment was abandoned, while 
trials made in America, our author tells us, proved that it can be do- 
On the southern edge of the Dovre Fjeld he passed by the present 
habitat in Norway of the elk (Fig. 4), " which is specifically identical with 
the American moose, tlnm^li it i.-, :i little less in size and not quite so 
dark in color, but in all essential particulars they are precisely alike, and 
if one from either side of the Atlantic were transferred to the other, no 
one would, suspect that he was an emigrant." 

Of the quality of the illustrations, our readers, through the liberality 
of the author and his publishers, have an opportunity to judge. They 
were drawn by an excellent German artist, from animals preserved in 
captivity, and while standing quietly. In the case of the elk, however 
we doubt whether the engraver has done justice to the drawing of the 

Some unfortunate typographical errors occur, as " Dover-fjeld " for 
Dovre-fjeld, " Felle Fjeld" for Fille Fjeld, " Romsdel Fjord" for Roms- 
dal Fjord, while in most, if not every case, Christiania is spelled " Chris- 

Dichogamy in Plants. 1 — Our readers will recall with pleasure a 
translation of some of Professor Delpino's notes on this subject printed 
in this journal, July, 1871. 

The present work is far more comprehensive than its modest title in- 
dicates. It classifies the insect-visited flowers upon a new basis, namely, 
with regard to the attractions which they offer insects, and birds as well ; 
it presents, however, an exhaustive statement of the peculiarities of 
structure which render close-fertilization unlikely. As a mere hint of 
the method, we will allude to the group of odoriferous blossoms. These 
flowers are divided into two classes, sympathic and idiopathic. The 
former is subdivided into those flowers which are (1) sweet-smelling, 
(2) aromatic, (3) fruity in odor, like Galycanthus. The second class, 
comprises (4) those with heavy odor (e. g., Papaver), and (5) those which 
are nauseous, as some of the stapelias. But it must be further stated 



) vegetate, per Federico Del 



i'."t. -■..!..!., ,.,„ ,„'., ii. Milano, 1 

<lnn. By F. Delpiso. (This volume of r$50 pi-,, is mi extract from tin; Proceed- 
ings of the Italian Society of Nat j , xvi., xvii.) 



1876.] Botany. 43 

that these five classes are brokeD up again into forty-five smells, and 
each smell has a name ! The author has, here and there, made a little 
blunder of an amusing, but not serious character. For instance, our old 
friend of the bogs, skunk cabbage, figures as Pothos fcetida, nitttef tint 
head odore alliaceo, and again with the name Simpbcarpus (sic) fostidus 
in the monotypic class odore mefitico ; which is not so bSd, after all. 
The volume is as attractive to entomologists as to botanists ; both will 
find it full of suggestions in regard to examinations of flowers and their 
visitants ; both will complain that a work so full of details should have 
no index. The table of contents is analytical and full, but does not re- 
place the index which we have the right to expect. 

Recent Books and Pamphlets. — The Structure and Development of the Sting 
and Ovipositor of Certain Hvmenoptera and the Green Grasshopper. By Dr. H. 
Dewitz. 8vo, pp. 26. (From' Siel.oM ami Kolliker's Zeitschrift.) 

List of the Fishes, Tunicata, Polyzoa, Crustacea, Annulata, Entozoa, Echinoder- 
mata, Anthozoa, Hydrozoa, and Sponges known from Greenland. Compiled for 
the use of the British North-Polar Expedition. By Dr. Chr. F. Lutken. 1875. 
8vo, pp. 115 to 197. London. 

The Vertebrata of the Cretaceous Formations of the West. ByE. D. Cope. 
United States Geological Survey of the Territories. Washington, D. C, 1875. 4to, 
pp. 303. With 57 lithographic plates. (For sale.by the Naturalist's Agency, Salem. 

Recherches sur les Phe'nomenes de la Dig* »tion ch< i l< - It:-. < ti «. By F. Plateau. 
Bruxelles. 1874. 4to, pp. 124, 3 plates. 

Cheek List of the Noctuida* of America North of Mexico. By A. R. Grote. I. 
Bombycire and Noetiu-litav Buffalo, X V. 1873. Svo, pp. l>8, with a plate. (For 
sale by the Naturalist's Agency, Salem, Mass.) 

The American Journal of Microscopy. New York Industrial Publication Co. 
Vol.1. No. 1. December, 1875. 8vo, pp. 12. Fifty cents a year, single number 

The Illustrated Annual Register of Rural Affairs for 1876. Albany, New York : 
Luther Tucker and Son. No. 22. 12mo, pp. 134. 

Synopsis of the Odonata of America. By Dr. II. A. Ilagen. (From the Proceedings 
of the Boston Soc. Nat. Hist, xviii , 1875.) Boston, 1875. 8vo, pp. 76. 

Bulletin of the United States National Museum. No. I. Check List of North 
American Batrachia ami 1'Jeptilia. Hv Kdward I). Cope. ( Department of the Interior, 
U. S. National Museum.) Washington, D. C. 1875. 8vo, pp. 104. 

Die Gastrula uml die Kifmvhung der Thiere. Bv Ernst Haeekel. (From the 
Jenaisehe Zeitschrift, 1875.) With 7 plates. 8vo, pp. 106. 



GENERAL NOTES. 
BOTANY. 1 
Dichogamy in Epilobium angustifolii'm. — That the anthers 
shed their pollen before the stigmas of that flower are in condition to 
receive it, is one of the observations of Sprengel, at the very beginning 
of our knowledge of this subject. But he seems not to have railed at- 
tention to the additional security against close-fertilizing, caused bv the 
recurving of the style during the early anthesis, while the pollen is shed- 
1 Conducted by Prof. G. L. Goodale. 



44 General Notes. [January 

ding, and its erection afterwards so as to bring the now expanded stig- 
mas into the line of the axis of the blossom. Nor does Lubbock allude 
to anything of the kind. This I shall elsewhere illustrate. The present 
object is to call attention to a point which I had not observed, but which 
is mentioned in a letter from a former pupil, Mr. W. M. Courtis ; namely* 
that only seven of the stamens shed their pollen before the stigmas 
expand, the eighth anther opening afterwards ; or in some flowers two 
anthers are thus late ; " as if it might be nature's plan to insure cross- 
fertilization if possible, but if not, self-fertilization would be possible.'' 
This should be looked after next summer. — A. Gray. 

Dimorphism in Claytonia. — The number of hermaphrodite flowers 
in which either dichogamy or dimorphism is known to occur, already 
large, increases with attentive observation. Mr. E. L. Hankenson, of 
Newark, New York, finds two forms of Clmjtonia Virginica, and sends 
copious specimens ; one form has an elongated style mid short filaments ; 
the other long filaments which equal or overtop the style, the latter, how- 
ever, not absolutely shorter than in the counterpart form. It would be 
interesting to know if this holds true generally. — A. Gray. 

worth recording that Mr. Walter Faxon last summer discovered this 
limits of Gray's 
ee County, Virgil 
Tennessee. — A. Gray. 

The Hollyhock Puccinia. — A note in the October Naturalist, 
by Mr. Meehan, in which he states that Puccinia malvcesarum has 
probably existed in this country for many years, leads me to say that 
ever since notices in foreign journals, regarding the sudden and wide- 
spread appearance of this fungus in Europe, have appeared, I have 
taken more notice than usual of all hollyhocks that I have met with (and 
the plants are abundant in this country, not only in cultivation but as 
garden weeds and scapes to roadsides), but have failed to find the Puc- 
cinia. On several occasions I have found at roadsides hollyhock plants 
whose leaves were densely covered with brownish spots, and having the 
same appearance as leaves infested with the Puccinia (of which I have 
many specimens from England and Germany) ; on examination, however, 
no fungus was found, but it appeared to me that the spots were of insect 
origin. If not the work of insects it may be possible that they were 
due to a species of Phyllorlicta {P. destruens Derm. ?) whose perithecia 
would have appeared later in the season. — W. R. Gerard. 

\ itality of Seeds. — EL Hoffmann reviews in the Botanische Zei- 
tung, October 15 and 22, 1875, the vexed question of vitality of seeds. 
After giving references to the literature of the subject, which, by the way, 
he does not treat at all critically, the author describes experiments with 
loss, a diluvial earth found in the valley of the Rhine. When the rail- 
road .station Monsheim (at Worms) was built, the earth was du- away 



1876.] Botany. 45 

to a depth of twelve feet. Some of the loss was taken with necessary 
precautions, and securely sealed until the following spring (1865). In 
May, twenty-four flower pots were half-filled with manure which had 
been heated ill order to destroy any seeds present, and on this substra- 
tum some of the loss was placed, leaving an air space above, of two 
inches, and each pot was covered by a glass disk which had a bit of 
wood under one edge to allow access of air. The surface of the loss' 
soon had plenty of ferns and mosses, just like those which are so 
abundant in all greenhouses. A few phamogamic plants came up ; four 
which could not be determined accurately were supposed to be Voce inl inn 
myrtillus, a second, a Chrysanthemum Leucanthemum ; afterwards a third 
came up, a Galium, ami linallv an Kquisetum. A second series of exper- 
iments, conducted with greater care to exclude all waifs, gave wholly 
negative results. Some molds, a coat of moss, and a single grass, Festuca 
pratensts, were the only plants within the bell-jars. 

The Primordial Utricle. — Professor Pfeffer has lately studied 
the so-called primordial utricle, with the following results, which are given 
In the Botanische Zeitung, October 1st, from Kblnische Zeitung, 1875, 
248. Protoplasm placed in contact with aqueous solutions becomes 
clothed on all sides with a delicate membrane caused by precipitation. 
This is the so-called primordial utricle. In protoplasm, certain albumi- 
noids are dissolved, which separate out in water because their solvent 
is withdrawn. But this is limited to the surface of contact, because 
the membrane formed by precipitation does not allow the solvent to 
pass through. What this solvent is, has not been ascertained positively, 
but it is believed to be something beside the inorganic salts which, in 
egg-albumin, hold a protein substance in solution. 

Origin of high Hydrostatic Pressure in Vegetable Cells. 
— In the Botanische Zeitung, November 5th, there is an abstract of a 
communication made by Professor Pfeffer to the botanical section of the 
Association of German Naturalists and Physicians, at Graz, 1875, on the 
subject of the origin of high hydrostatic pressure in vegetable cells. 
This pressure, amounting sometimes to several atmospheres, even where 
there is only slight concentration of the fluid contents of the cells, led 
him, on theoretical grounds, to refer it to the molecular condition of the 
Primordial utricle. This conclusion was confirmed by experiment. With 
contraction of the molecular interspaces, resistance to filtration increases, 
and likewise the pressure which is brought about endosmotically. Thus 
in the case of the precipitated membrane of ferrocyanide of copper (see 
Sachs's Text-Book, p. 597) a pressure of two atmospheres can be ob- 
tained, provided the film finds a suitable support, in a two per cent, solu- 
tion of cane sugar. In the brief account given, there are no details as 
to the method of determining the amount of pressure. The resistance 
°f the membrane to filtration is a complex force dependent on several 
variables, but with changes in this resistance, hydrostatic pressure is 



46 General Notes. [January, 

changed ; for instance, by heating, since thus the molecular interspaces 
are increased. This theory was then ingeniously applied to the expla- 
nation of periodic movements in plants. 

Botanical Papers in Recent Periodicals. — It is intended to give 
under this head the titles of the principal papers relating to botany and 
vegetable physiology, contained in the scientific journals and proceedings 
of societies. The enumeration will not always be exhaustive, nor will short 
notes or memoranda be mentioned unless of particular interest. A few 
of the following titles are at second-hand from Sklarek's Repertorium der 
Naturwissenscltaften, October, 1875. 

American Journal of Science and Arts, November, 1875. Estivation 
and its terminology, by Prof. Asa Gray (gives the history, and discusses 
the question, of the proper term to be applied to the mode variously 
called obvolule, contorted, or convolute). 

Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club, New York, October and No- 
vember, 1875. Lichens of Kerguelen's Laud, by Professor Edward 
Tuckerman. (Among the species collected by Dr. Kidder in the U. S. 
Transit Expedition is a new genus, Urceolina.) Notes upon Amjchia 
dichotoma, by John H. Redfield (suggests the reestablishment of two 
species). Dimorphism or trimorphism in Pontederia cordata, by W. H. 
Leggett. 

The Journal of Botany, British and Foreign, November, 1875. De- 
scriptions of new plants from the Nicohar Islands, etc., by S. Kurz (giv- 
ing also a short account of the principal features of the vegetation of this 
group in the Indian Ocean). New lichens from Kerguelen's Land, by 
the Rev. J. M. Crombie. Professor Tuckerman's paper in the October 
number of the Bulletin of the Torrey Club has a month's priority. 

Quarterly Journal of Microsco/n'rid Science. October, 1*75, has two 
photographs of microscopic preparations of the resting spores of the 
potato fungus. Mr. \Y. G. Smith observes that the organisms now pho- 
tographed are identical with the bodies found thirty years ago by Dr. 
Rayer, of Paris, and afterwards placed in the hands of Rev. Mr. Berkeley. 
These specimens are still in existence and have been photographed to 
the same scale as the recently found bodies. In the same journal Pro- 
fessor McNab gives a condensed translation of Dr. Oscar Brefeld's 
memoir on the life-history of Penicillium, a genus of low fungi to which 
the common pale blue mold belongs. 

Journal of the Linnean Society, October 11th. Notes on the Gamo- 
petalous orders belonging to the Campanulaceous and Oleaceous groups, 
by George Bentham (dealing with the development of the former group 
and the geographical .retribution of both). Notes on the occurrence of 
M fairy-rings," by J. II. Gilbert. "The highly nitrogenous fungi flour- 
ished strikingly, and appeared in ' fairy-rings ' on two plots only," in 
Mr. Gilbert's experiments. " On neither of these was nitrogen or potass 
applied as manure." On the characteristic coloring-matters of the red 



1876.] Botany. 47 

groups of Alga, by H. C. Sorby. Six different characteristic coloring- 
matters, soluble in water, have been detected and are here described. 
The six are referred to two typical coloring-matters, Phycocyan and 
Phycoerythrin. 

The Gardeners' Chronicle, November 20, 1875. Rue, a popular ac- 
count of its historical and legendary associations. Autumn tints of trees, 
hy J. McNab. Garcinia mangostana, by Mr. Prestoe, of Trinidad (an 

te o t g 1 ription, with plates, of the fruit of the mangosteen). 

Comptes rendus des Seances de V Academic des Sciences, September 20, 
1875. On the role of the protective sheath of the vascular bundles in 
herbaceous dicotyledons, by J. Vesque. On the development and struct- 
ure of glands within the leaf, by J. Chatin. September 27th. Abnormal 
variation of hybrid plants, by Ch. Naudin. 

Annales des Sciences Naturelles, Botanique, 1875-1-1. New researches 
respecting the Mucorinece, by Ph. Van Tieghem. To be hereafter no- 
ticed. 

Jahrbucher fiir Wissenchaftl. Botanik, Bd. X., heft 2. On the anat- 
omy of leaves, by Reinke (with special reference to certain glands oc- 
curring on them). On the fertilization of Basidiomycetes, by Max Reess. 
Germination of the spores of Cyalhus (a gastromycetous fungus), by R. 
Hesse. On the development of certain leaves, by A. B. Frank (treat- 
ing chiefly of the theory of interposition). 

Flora, 1875, No. 22. On growth, and the formation of chlorophyll, 
by C. Kraus. (The formation of chlorophyll does not retard growth.) 
No. 23. Abnormal fir-cones, by Dobner. On the action of vegetable 
acids on chlorophyll within the plant, by C Kraus. (No effect pro- 
duced unless the protoplasma and the contained chlorophyll are en- 
feebled.) No. 26, On abnormal cones, by A. Braun. 

Botanische Zeitung, October 1st to November 5th, inclusive. Fertili- 
zation of species of Agaricus, by Dr. E. Eidam. In reports of societies : 
Gottingen, II. Conwentz shows that the microscopic anatomy of the vascu- 
lar bundles may be sometimes used as a diagnostic character in ferns. 
Bonn : On the formation of the primordial utricle, by Professor Pfeffer 
(elsewhere noticed). Leipsic : An examination of certain lichens with 
respect to the Schwendener theory, by G. Winter (favorable to the 
theory). New Peronosporea, by Schenk. On certain fungi, by G. Win- 
ter. On intercellular thickening in the cellular tissue of ferns, by 
Luerssen. On flesh-eating plants, by Reess and Will. (Investigations 
made before the appearance of Mr. Darwin's treatise, and generally con- 
hrimug hie le suits, by more technical methods of research.) On the 
origin of high hydrostatic pressure in vegetable cells, by Dr. Pfeffer 
(elsewhere noticed). On the morphology of vascular cryptogams, by 
Dr. Frank (comparing them with the lower grades). On the lower 
limits of sexuality in plants, by Dodel-Port. On fertilization, by Stras- 
burger. On the plants of iEtna, by Professor Strobl. Brandenburg: 



4S General Notes. [January, 

On the arrangement of the leaflets in ferns and cycads, by A. Braun. 
(The leaflets in the former have the posterior edge of the one leaf cover- 
ing the anterior edge of the one behind it ; the leaflets in cycads are the 
lis. There are said to be a few exceptions in ferns.) Halle: 
On the anatomical structure of the roots of certain Convolvulaceai, by 
Schmitz. (This paper is of pharmaceutical interest, being devoted to the 
detection of adulterations in dntga of the order, such as jalap.) A con- 
tribution to the subject of the vitality of seeds, by H. Hoffmann (else- 
where noticed). Some other notices are unavoidably deferred. 
ZOOLOGY. 

The Extinction op the Gkeat Auk at the Funk Islands. — 
Mr. Michael Carroll, of Bonavista, Newfoundland, has recently given 
me the following very interesting facts respecting the extermination ot 
the great auk (Alca impennis) at the Funk Islands. In early life he 
was often a visitor to these islands, and a witness of what he here de- 
scribes. He says these birds were formerly very numerous on the Funk 
Islands, and forty-five to fifty years ago were hunted for their feathers, 
soon after which time they were wholly exterminated. As the auks 
coidd not fly, the fishermen would surround them in small boats and 
drive them ashore into pounds previously constructed of stones. The 
birds were then easily killed, and their feathers removed by immersing 
the birds in scalding water, which was ready at hand in large kettles set 
for this purpose. The bodies were used as fuel for boiling the water. 
This wholesale slaughter, as may well be supposed, soon exterminated 
these helpless birds, none having been seen there, according to Mr. Car- 
roll, for more than thirty years, and he expresses great doubt in respect 
to the existence of the species now anywhere about tin- islands of New- 
foundland or Labrador. — J. A. Allbn. 

Bewick's Wren, Thyothorus Bewicki, is something of a rarity, I be- 
lieve, in the Atlantic States, where its movements, and especially its 
breeding resorts, are not very well made out. It may, therefore, be 
worth while to here record the fact that it breeds in considerable num- 
bers in these same mountains. I saw two or three individuals daring my 
ride up and down the mountains ; and, though I found no nests, the 
actions of the birds satisfied me that they were at home for the sum- 
mer. — Elliott Coues. 

Ranue of the Bay Ibis. — A letter from Captain C. Bendire, U. 
S. A., to E. Dickinson, Ksq.. dated Camp Harney, Oregon, says, " I 
have lately discovered that Ibis Ordi breeds near here. An otlicer has 
sent me portions of a skin, sufficient for identification, and writes me 
that he saw the young birds, besides some forty old ones. - ' — Elliott 
Coues. 

Eauly Nesting oi- thi; Ann a Hi mmino-Uiuo. — In the Ornithol- 
ogy of California, i. :).V.). I stated that the young of Oalypte Anna 



1876.] Zoology. 49 

are sometimes hatched as early as March 15th, but never having met 
with eggs, I was not aware until this year that such is their usual habit 
near San Francisco. The extensive cultivation of Australian trees may, 
perhaps, have helped to make this early nesting more general, as in thi3 
climate such trees, as well as other subtropical garden plants, are covered 
with flowers, supplying winter food for these humming-birds more plen- 
tifully than the native plants formerly did. But whether a " new de- 
parture " or not, my boy (eight! years old) found three nests of this 
species within a stone's throw of the house, between February loth and 
20th, all on low branches of the Eucalyptus (or Australian blue gum), 
between ten and twenty feet above the ground. These trees are cov- 
ered most of the winter with large flowers, in which there is much 
honey, and the acacias of several species, also blooming at this season 
(like most antipodal trees), have been very attractive to the hummers, as 
well as to minute insects on which they feed. They have likewise utilized 
the long, silky stameus of some acacias in building their nests, though 
still wring chiefly the down from various native herbs, the platanus, wil- 
low, etc., besides going a long distance to find lichens to adorn the nests 
outside, although there are none of these parasites on their favorite gum- 

I have since seen another nest built on a densely-leaved twig of a 
Monterey cypress, adding to the variety of locations before described, 
and this was a few yards only from a noisy hotel on the main road. To 
add to the completeness of their history I watched one nest to note time 
of incubation, and found it sixteen or eighteen days at least [while the 
Eastern species needs but thirteen. — Brewer']. One brood \\a^ hitched 
before March 1st, another on the 5th. This is while only two truly 
summer visitors have arrived, the Hirundo bicolor (January 30th) and 
Sehisphonts mfus, the latter (Nootka hummer) first seen February 16th, 
but does not build until April or May. 

in the nest observed, one young died, but the other was fledjied and 
left it on March 30th, quite able to make short excursions for food in fif- 
teen days. I had seen fledged young ones about the Eucalyptus trees 
several days earlier, so that they must hatch in many nests as early as 
March 1st. Three cold rains occurred during the development of the one 
I watched. During all the time of development both of eggs and young 
there have been white frosts at night and fresh, piercing cold winds dur- 
ing the day. As with the Nootka Hummers the females perform the task 
<>i hatching ami feeding the young entirely by themselves, the males dis- 
appearing from the lowlands and gardens after the eggs are laid, and re- 
aring among the richer flowers of the mountain canons. 

My correction of NiittalTs account of the nest of this species is con- 
firmed by these specimens, which are much larger than that he describes, 
b«mg 1.75 inch, instead of 1.25 wide, etc. But as he caught the female 
0f i the nest, with the .-iri^ in if. and describes the bird (as 7) 



50 General Notes. [January, 

rocephalus), at the same time stating that it is the one mentioned by 
Audubon as the female of the Anna, he must have made an error in 
measuring it, especially as he gives the height correctly. His specimen, 
by the way, is mentioned by Baird and others as a " male with forehead 
covered with yellow pollen." This mistake may arise from its having a 
red metallic patch on the throat, not mentioned in their descriptions of 
the female, but I can state from seeing hundreds of females in spring, 
that they have this patch as well as young males in fall. The female 
Nootka hummer has it also, as late authors state, though Nuttall was 
doubtful about it. 

I may add that the only other small bird yet building here is the blue- 
bird (Sialia Mexicana), and this only inside of buildings or hollow trees. 
— J. G. Cooper, Haywood, Alameda County, Cal. 

Intelligence in the Hawk Moth. — While watching the sudden 
unfolding of the flowers of the (Enothera Lamarkiana, we observed that 
the hawk moths never visited the same flowers twice, even when fright- 
ened away by some motion made by us. On returning, they would go 
only to those flowers that had opened during their absence, or that had 
not been visited before their flight. — J. M. Milligan. 

Perforation op Orange Skins by Moths. — The proboscis of 
Australian moths of the genus Ophideres is said to be so stiff, and even 
barbed, that it is capable of perforating the most resisting envelopes. 
The moths thus perforate oranges in order to feed upon their juices. M. 
Kiinckel has examined the specimens forwarded to him by M. Thozet, 
a French botanist, and says, " It is incorrect to call the proboscis rigid, 
as it curls up in the usual way ; but instead of a soft terminal portion, 
it has a hard one. The two adpressed maxillae terminate in a sharp tri- 
angular point, furnished with two barbs. They then swell out and pre- 
sent on the lower surface three parts of the thread of a screw, while their 
sides on the upper surface are covered with short spines springing from a 
depression with sharp, hard sides. These spines are to tear the cells and 
the pulp of the oranges, as a rasp opens^those of beet root, to extract the 
sugar. The upper portion of the proboscis is covered from below and 
on the sides with fine serrated striae disposed in a half helix, which give 
it the qualities of a file. These striae are from time to time interrupted 
by small non-resisting spines, which serve as tactile organs. The orifice 
of the canal by which the liquids ascend is situated on the lower face, be- 
low the first thread of the screw. 

u Not content with examining Ophideres Fullonica, I studied 0. 
salaminia, 0. materna, and 0. imperator, which all had auger-like pro- 
bosces. The structure of these maxillae affords a generic character of 
great value ; it moreover establishes a closer relation between the lepi- 
dopters, the hemipters, and certain dipters which have maxilla? adapted 
to pierce tissues." — Monthly Microscopical Journal, London. 



1876.] Anthropology. 51 

interest ornithologists to know that the tree sparrow of Europe (Pyr- 
gita montana) has lately been discovered to be a resident of the United 
States 

• The resemblance of this species to the English house sparrow has 
led me to be on the watch for it since the introduction of the latter, but 
without success until I found it in St. Louis, Mo., last spring. Here I 
found the new species abundant, but was unwilling to take any until the 
s over. Four skins sent to Mr. G. N. Lawrence, of 



New Yc 



are pronounced by him to " agree i 



and description of this species." He also informs me U„„ _. 
years ago Mr. Eugene Schieffelin noticed fifty or sixty of these birds in 
the store of a bird importer in New York, where they were unrecognized ; 
and these were probably afterwards sold as or with P. domestica. This 
is undoubtedly the explanation of their occurrence here, and further 
search will very likely show their presence in other localities. 

With a general resemblance to the common house sparrow, Pyrgita 
montana is readily distinguished by its chestnut crown and the sii tularin 
of both sexes and the young. In St. Louis it considerably outnumbers 
P. domestica, and, as is the case in Europe, it prefers the outskirts of the 
city and the country. In other respects these two species closely re- 
semble each other. — Dh. James C. Merrill, U. S. Army. 
ANTHROPOLOGY. 

Antiquity of Man. — Mr. Southall, in his late work on the Recent 
°''i£in of Man, founds an argument against the antiquity of man's origin 

the fact that what are unquestionably paleolithic implements are oc- 
casionally found on the surface of the ground, either alone or associated 



*»h Iieolilhu, 



implements. 



way such a commingling of the two forms does not militate against this 
ivisic-n of an unquestioned stone age. It should be remembered, in the 
first place, that paleolithic implements, after being long buried in strata 
of sand or gravel, may become exposed by floods, landslides, or through 






--orge . 



0i thereby sweeping away tne soil over a considerable oeit or coun- 

Subsequently, the river resumes its older channel, and the newer 

•pped and so mingled with the exposed older 

From what I have seen of the action of the Delaware River 

its valley, especially between the cities of Trenton and Borden- 

m New Jersey, I have satisfied myself that such may have occa- 

ighborhood by 



le arrival of the Europeans, 
' w quite certain that they were a paleolithic people when they reached 



quently, they 



- may have been the geological changes subse- 
their ground, and very gradually learned to 



62 Creneral Notes. [January, 

utilize the more difficultly wrought minerals in fabricating stone imple- 
ments, and there! »y readied the polished stone period. In this way, the 
two forms would be necessarily mingled ; but it must be remembered 

lithic implement is found upon the surface, a hundred are quite deeply 
imbedded in the soil, and in the underlying gravels. — Charles C. Ab- 
bott, M. D. 

Indian Graves in New Jersey. — The graves of Indians found 
here in central New Jersey vary to a considerable degree, and suggest 
the probability that tribes having different burial customs successively 
occupied this territory. On the terrace that faces the east side of the 
Delaware River, below Trenton, where I have gathered thousands of 
stone implements, the graves are to be detected by the discoloration of 
the soil and the little series of relics that were deposited in each grave. 
These graves, now a foot or more deep, were in all probability 4 < surface 
burials," i. e., the body, encased in skins and covered with bark, was 
placed on, not in, the ground. In time the grave would become covered 
with leaves and sand, and so gradually be covered with a thin layer of 
vegetable mold and earth. The gradual increase in the depth of the soil, 
which is ever in progress in wooded countries, would result in making 
the surface burial really an inhumation, and as such we now find it. 
This shallow grave, with every vestige of the skeleton long since gone, 
and simply indicated by a few arrow-points, an ax, and possibly a pipe, 
bears every indication of antiquity, and yet doubtless is simply the grave 
of an Indian. There is one feature connected with these graves and the 
scattered relics, as we find them, that deserves attention. The rude 
implements, never polished, and made of the river rock, which we have 
maintained were strictly paleolithic implements, are never found in these 
graves, or in any graves that we have examined. Had these ruder 
implements been used as a general thing, at the same time that the pol- 
ished celt and jasper arrowheads were made, then they would likewise 
have been deposited in the graves; for the contents of an Indian grave 
are the implements and ornaments the occupant used and wore during 
his life-time. Like the implements themselves, these graves are proofs 
of the great antiquity of man's origin along the Atlantic coast of 
America. — Charles C. Abbott, M. D. 

GEOLOGY AND PALEONTOLOGY. 

Comstock's Geology of Wyoming. — This report is to be found 
in Captain Jones's Report upon the Reconnaissance of Northwestern 
Wyoming including Yellowstone National Park, made in the Summer 
of 1873. The portion by Prof. Theo. B. Comstock relates to the 
structural geology of the country passed over, and contains new matter 
regarding the celebrated hot springs and geyser9*of the Yellowstone 
Park, with archaeological and philological notes relating to the Indian 



1876.] Geology and Paleontology. 53 

tribes, particularly the Shoshones. The report is accompanied by a 
large colored geological map. We hope hereafter to print some extracts 
concerning the geysers and Indian inscriptions. 

Cope's Cretaceous Vertebrates. — This elaborate and lavishly 
illustrated quarto volume, issued as one of the final reports of Hayden's 
Survey, forms a worthy successor to the pateontological monographs of 
Leidy and Lesquereux, also published by Hayden's United States Geo- 
logical Survey of the Territories. 

Scudder's Fossil Butterflies is another exquisitely printed and 
illustrated monograph of a high order of merit, on a subject quite novel 
and as interesting to European students as to home observers. We 
shall return to these works in subsequent numbers. 

Hyatt's Fossil Ammonites, with the works previously cited, wit- 
ness the activity now shown by American paleontologists. Several 
papers by Professor Hyatt have been issued during the past year, giving 
the results in brief of the studies of many years on the supposed genetic 
relations and classification of different groups of Ammonites. Of much 
interest in connection with the hypothesis of evolution are the papers 
entitled Biological Relations of the Jurassic Ammonites, and Genetic 
Relations of the Angulatidae. An elaborate monograph by Professor 
Hyatt of certain groups of Ammonites, particularly the Arietidce, to be 
illustrated by a number of plates, is to be soon published by the Museum 
of Comparative Zoology. 

Winchell's Geology of the Black Hills forms the geological 
report appended to Captain Ludlow's (U. S. Engineers) Reconna 
of the Black Hills of Dakota, 1874, but only lately published 
report fills fifty-five quarto pages, embracing also a list of trees and 
shrubs, and is accompanied by a colored geological map of the route 
surveyed. 

Kerr's Geology of North Carolina. — Last of all is laid upon 
our table Prof. W. C. Kerr's Report of the Geological Survey of North 
Carolina, Vol. I., Raleigh, 1875, containing Physical Geography and 
Economical Geology, with maps ami lithographic plates of fossils, de- 
scribed by Messrs. Conrad and Cope. 

The Fossil Plants of America. — Already the study of the 
North American fossil plains has supplied, in regard to the distribution 
of the species at different periods, some important information, which 
modifies a few of the conclusions derived from European vegetable 
Paleontology. Though the isothermal zones have been evidently of a 
w 'dtli proportionate to the age of the geological periods, producing in 
the Carboniferous times, for example, uniformity of vegetation over the 
w hole northern hemisphere, if not over the whole surface of the earth, 
•t appears that there was already at this period a continental or local 
f acies marked in the groups of vegetation. The North American charac- 
ter is recognized in the coal flora of this continent by Schimper, in his 



54 General Notes. [January, 

Vegetable Palaeontology, as it has been for a long time exposed by the 
works and descriptions of American authors/and this facies becomes more 
and more distinct in the more recent periods. The precedence of vegeta- 
ble types in the geological flora of this continent is distinctly recognized, 
and therefore the hypothesis of the derivation of the North American 
flora from Miocene European types is necessarily set aside. On this 
last question, former remarks in this paper prove the unity of the pres- 
ent flora, derived by constant succession of related vegetable forms from 
the Cretaceous, at least. On the question of precedence of vegetable 
types, it has been remarked that the appearance of land-plants is posi- 
tively recognized in the Silurian of Michigan, while no land-plants have 
as yet been described from formations lower than the Middle Devonian 
of Europe ; that also we find already in the Devonian of the United 
States trunks of conifers recognized as prototypes of the Araucaria, 
which are only found later, in the Subcarboniferous of Europe. Our 



Carboniferous flora has a number of its forms 



appearing later in 



Permian of Europe. The Triassic flora of Virginia and North Carolina 
is half Jurassic. A number of Cretaceous genera of the Dakota group 
are reproduced in the Miocene of Europe, as they are, too, in some of 
the North American Tertiary vegetable groups, and also in' the flora of 
this epoch. Therefore the vegetation of the European Miocene seems 
partly referable to the American Cretaceous. And in following the 
comparison upward, we find, in what is considered the Eocene of the 
Lignitic of the Rocky Mountains, a larger number of forms identical or 
closely allied to European Miocene species, while the Miocene group of 
Carbon represents the youngest type of the Tertiary flora of Europe 
and Greenland, with species of Platanus, Acer, etc., scarcely distinguish- 
able from indigenous species of our present flora. - Lesquereux's Review 
of the Fossil Flora of North America. (Bulletin of Hayden's Survey of 
the Territories, second series, No. 5, November, 1875.) 

Fossil Vertebrates of New Mexico. - Professor Cope, in a 
preliminary report to Lieutenant Wheeler, in charge of the United 
States Geographical Survey west of the one hundredth meridian, enu- 
merates eighty-three species of vertebrate animals as having been dis- 
covered by him in the deposits of the Eocene lake that once covered the 
northern and western parts of New Mexico. Of these, eight are fishes, 
twenty-four reptiles, and fifty-one mammals. Of the whole number, fifty- 
four species were introduced for the first time to the notice of scientists. 
This fauna is nearly related to that of the Eocene of Wyoming in many 
respects, but differs in the different distribution of many of the genera. 
Thus, Pal <zy°ps, a genus abundant in Wyoming, is not found in New 
Mexico, while Bathmodon, which does not occur in the Bridger beds of 
yoming. is the most abundant type in New Mexico, parts of over one 
hundred and fifty individuals belonging to seven species having been 
found by Professor Cope. Small tapiroid animals of the genus Ovohip- 



1876.] Geography and Exploration. 55 

pus are abundant, and at least eleven species of lemufine monkeys were 
found. The carnivorous animals discovered numbered eleven species, 
some of which were as large as the jaguar, or larger. They are all 
quite distinct from living genera excepting one genus, which is related 
to the Asiatic civets. Some very small insectivora were also found, one 
of which is not larger than a small shrew. The waters of the lake 
abounded in turtles, crocodiles, and gar-fishes. 

GEOGRAPHY AND EXPLORATION. 
Wheeler's Reconnaissance of Southern Nevada. — This expe- 
dition spent six months in exploring southern and southwestern Nevada 
in 1869 ; the results, however, were not published until 1875. The re- 
port contains much new information regarding the Indian tribes and 
southern Mormon settlements. The chief geographical point of interest 
is the erasing of Preuss Lake from the maps, which was in 1872 found 
by Lieutenant Wheeler to be the southern shore of Sevier Lake. 

African Travel.— An expedition to Central Africa up the Congo 
River, under Dr. Gussfeldt, failed to accomplish its object owing to the 
fact that the natives are poor carriers, and were in dread of meeting can- 
nibals in the interior, as well as from the ill-health of Dr. Gussfeldt. 
Valuable collections were made, however. 

The Pacific Coast of America. — Mr. A. L. Pinart, so well 
known for his researches in Alaska, partly in connection with Dr. W. H. 
Dall, has received a commission from the French government authoriz- 
ing him to study the ethnology and languages of the southern races of 
the west coast of both North and South America. He is at present 
on a visit to the Indian reservations of Maine and Nova Scotia. Re- 
turning thence to San Francisco, he intends to sail for Valparaiso, with 
a view of determining if possible, besides other things, the source and 
direction of migration of the native American tribes of both hemispheres. 
The Himalayas and their Glaciers. — In Drew's late book, 
The Jummoo and Kashmir Territories, which is highly spoken of by 
Nature, much is said about the glaciers of the Himalayas ; glaciers on a 
scale, as he says, not to be met with except in the Arctic regions. A 
glacier which he examined at Basha, in Baltistan, was upwards of twenty 
miles long, and others are to be met with of much greater extent ; indeed 
to judge from the map, this northwest Himalayan region is one huge 
net-work of glaciers. The largest of all is the Baltoro glacier, thirty- 
five miles long, which comes down between two lofty ridges ; the north- 
ern ridges rise in one spot to the height of 28,265 feet, the peak of that 
height being the second highest mountain known in the world. And 
}' (, t. adds Xature, these glaciers are a mere remnant, the evidence seems 
to show, of the glacial covering which at one time spread over the Him- 
alayan region. 
Nordenski old's Arctic Expedition intends in part to sail up the 



*>v General Notes. [January, 

Jenesej River with the view of returning to Europe across Siberia, while 
the other party returns to Norway by sea in the Proven. The results 
are exceedingly rich, geographically, geologically, and in a zoological 
way. The Sea of Kara was found to be completely free of ice, and was 
thus crossed and dredged for the first time by a scientific expedition. 
The water at the surface of the Kara was so fresh as to kill the animals 
brought up from the bottom. The investigations on the ocean currents 
are of much interest. If, says the account in Nature, in the north- 
ern part of the Sea of Kara, where the water on the surface is almost 
completely free of salt,and at this time of the year very warm, a flask 
filled with water from the surface is sunk to a depth of ten fathoms, the 
water freezes to ice. There are thus no warm ocean currents here at 
any considerable depth below the surface. On the 8th of August the 
party landed on the peninsula of Jalmal, which separates the Sea of 
Kara from the Bay of Obi. Here traces of men, some of whom had 
gone barefoot, and of Samoyede sledges, were visible on the beach. 
Close to the shore was found a sacrificial altar, consisting of about fifty 
skulls of the white bear and walrus, with reindeer bones, etc., laid in a 
heap. In the middle of the heap of bones there stood, raised up two 
idols, roughly hewn from driftwood roots, newly besmeared in the eyes 
and mouth with blood, also two poles provided with hooks, from which 
hung bones of the reindeer and bear. Close by was a fire-place and a 
heap of reindeer bones, the latter clearly a remnant of a sacrificial meal. 
Arctic Stations.- Lieutenant Weyprecht has surprised geogra- 
phers by his common-sense suggestion that hereafter Arctic explorers 
should aim to erect stations at different points in the Arctic regions 
where observers should make simultaneous observations, extending over 
the period of a whole year, with identical instruments and according to 
identical rules, mtimi tr, «v.^ • i i • i 

' 6 1V1U £ LUt3ir nrst attention to physics, meteorology, biol- 
ogy, and geology, and the second place to geographical discoveries. Ac- 
cordingly, the German Commission on Arctic Explorations has recom- 
mended that a principal station be established on the east coast of 
Greenland, with secondary stations on Jan Meyer Island and the west 
coast of Spitzbergen. 

MICROSCOPY.* 

A Double Staining with Hematoxylin and Aniline. - When 
engaged last autumn in the Anatomical Department of the Oxford Uni- 
versity Mu eum in making microscopic preparations of brain, my atten- 
tion was especially directed to the staining of the sections. 

My first attempts were made with hematoxylin and carmine. Of these 

the latter proved useful for detecting nuclei, but, the protoplasm of the 

cells remaining almost uncolored, it was impossible to distinguish the shape 

ot the different cells, a matter of the greatest importance where, as in the 

1 This department is conducted by J)k. R. H. Ward, Troy N. Y. 



1876.] Microscopy. 57 

brain, cells are met with of such various shapes and sizes. Another 
great deficiency in the carmine-stained sections was the indistinctness of 
the fibres. In all cases along time was required for the carmine to take 
any effect, sixty to seventy hours being insufficient to stain deeply. 

Hematoxylin produced much more successful results. In the first 
place, the fibres were almost always brought out distinctly ; and secondly, 
the cells with their processes were in many cases clearly defined. But 
still the cortical substance was frequently insufficiently stained, even after 
twenty-four hours' immersion in the staining fluid, which, owing to the 
use of alum, is sufficient to render the preparations too brittle to be easily 
mounted. The special value of hematoxylin consists in the clearness with 
which it brings out the nuclei, of the medullary substance, and the fibres 
and cell-processes of the cortical substance ; its fault is a want of depth 
in the color of the cortical substance. 

Having found aniline blue useful for staining some hardened tissues, I 
was led to try it in this case. The only virtue that it had was that it 
stained the protoplasm of the medullary rrlU wry darkly, and always 
attacked them first ; that is to say, its strongest point exactly agreed with 
the weakest point in hematoxylin. 

This led me to double staining, and the results were fully up to my 
expectations. The following is the method of staining which I finally 
adopted. After from twenty to twenty-four hours' immersion in hema- 
toxylin I washed the preparation in weak spirit, and then in distilled 
water till all the spirit was driven out. I then immersed it in aniline for 
from half to three quarters of a minute, again washed it in spirit, and 
after the usual treatment mounted it in Dammar. 

The preparation of humiatoxylin used was that recommended by Frey, 
* e., a few drops of an alcoholic solution of the pure crystals added to a 
solution of alum in water. The latter I have used in the proportion of 
from two to four grains of alum to an ounce of water. The more alum 
Aere is in the solution the more rapid is the staining, but there is great 
danger of making a thin section too brittle by the use of much alum. The 
aniline I diluted sufficiently to be able to see through it pretty easily. 

The results obtained by this method are most satisfactory. The nuclei 
already stained by the hematoxylin are made of a richer color, while the 
Protoplasm surrounding them is much bluer than the nuclei themselves- 
In the cerebellum the effect is particularly good, the medullary substance 
being of a rich purple and the cortical substance of a pale blue, but show- 
ing the cells with remarkable clearness. — TV. H. Poole, in Quart. 
Journ. Mic. Science. 

.Use op Carbolic Acid in Mounting. — Mr. T. Barnard, of Kew, 
Melbourne, communicates to Science Gossip a reassertion of the suc- 
cessful use of carbolic acid as a substitute for turpentine in mounting 
msect dissections. A portion of the insect, fresh, is washed, soaked for a 
few hours in pure carbolic acid, and then mounted in Canada balsam with 



58 Scientific News. [j aD 

better effect than from turpentine. By the aid of heat the mountin, 
be accomplished almost immediately. Zoophytes, after boiling in 1 



:essfully 
exible, instead of brittle as by the ordin; 



ary turpentine 
Hyatt of Mor- 



process. 

EcciiNTRic Pith < 
risania, exhibited at a meeting of the Torrey Botanical Clu 
specimen consisting of a section of the stem of poison ivy, Rhus Toxico- 
dendron L, and having the pith near one side « like a hole bored near the 
edge of a coin." A similar structure is seen in some other climbing 
stems, as of Ampelopsis, though [not in all such ; and the editor of the 
Bulletin suggests, as a mere conjecture, that the extraordinary one- 
sided thickening may indicate that the plant is nourished by the root- 
lets imbedded in the bark of the tree. 



SCIENTIFIC NEWS. 

-The Department of the Interior has issued a circular, prepared by 
Professor Otis T. Mason, designed to direct the attention of the agents 
ot the Indian Bureau and others to the collection of objects and infor- 
mation for the purpose of representing at the Centennial Exposition the 
history of culture among the aborigines of America, including the tribes 
now 111 existence and those which are nearly or quite extinct 

~ We regret exceedingly to hear of the untimely death of Dr. Wil- 
lemoes &unm, the amiable and accomplished naturalist of the Challenger 
party. He was a student and assistant of Professor Siebold, of Munich, 
when invited to accompany Professor Wyville Thor 
naturalists may remember his cordial and hospitable spin 
special student of the lower worms and the Crustacea 

At the opening meeting of the Royal Geographical Society, Nov, 



ber loth, Sir H. Rawlinson referred 



gmu satisfaction to Stanley's 



^Tsle^ 7 ^^ 6Xhibited a c ° mpletechart or "' 

cW *' f- ra r iSC ° TOdar ° fr ° m hi§ StudieS ° n the tuilicat *' Salpa, de- 
clares that it has an amnion, and is 'developed in a true uterus. 
— A . suggestive article entitled Conscious] 



gives many 



-,u Sg e S uve article entitled Consciousness in Evolution, by Pro- 
U>pe, has been reprinted from the Pcnn Monthly for August 
— Teaching to Young Children, in Nature for November 18th. 



topic. We doubt, however, whethe 



tomology is rather a "holiday than a school subject/ 
that* can be taught with as much ease and profit as even botany. 
f<- NovcmhT!i?K U , Ge0l °S ical Surve Js> by Professor Geikie, in Nature 
Z7rt r J!h! ie T* k » ™ a «^™S way of Hayden's U. S. Geo- 



I Survey of the Territories. 



1876.] Scientific News. 59 

— Apropos of surveys, we trust that the friends of science and higher 
education in Massachusetts will vigorously urge the importance of a re- 
survey of the geology and biology of that State. The vote in the legis- 
lature last year was so decidedly in its favor that it would seem as if a 
second hearing and renewed effort on the part of men of culture might 
bring about the accomplishment of the plan urged last winter upon the 
attention of the legislature, and which came so near to definite and favor- 
able action. 

— Dr. Burmeister, of Buenos Ayres, is preparing for the Centennial 
Exposition at Philadelphia a work on the fossil horse of the Argentine 
Republic, to be published in large folio with eight plates. He is also 
just sending to press the first volume of his Physical Description of the 
Argentine Republic. 

— The Boston Society of Natural History proposes to send to the 
Centennial Exhibition an epitome of its museum, including plans of the 
building and cases. For this purpose fifteen cases, occupying one hun- 
dred and five feet of linear measure, will be needed. Besides this, a 
selected portion of the New England collection, now an attractive 
feature of the museum, will be placed on exhibition. It is estimated 
that this portion could be completely illustrated with selections occupy- 
ing twelve cases, extending eighty-four feet. Work has already begun 
under the direction of Professor Hyatt, the custodian. 

— The Monthly Weather Review of the Weather Signal Bureau at 
Washington, with its maps and quite full record of biological phenomena, 
will interest students and prove after a series of years of very consid- 
erable scientific value. With little effort more contributors might per- 
haps be enlisted, so that the connection of meteorological phenomena and 
the sudden appearance of swarms of grasshoppers, for example, could be 
traced, and possibly insect years be predicted, and thus farmers warned 
a year in advance of devastations by insects. 

— An excellent article on the wild grasses of Nebraska, by Professor 
Samuel Aughey, appears in the New York Tribune for November 26th. 

— An elaborate quarto work on the amphipod Crustacea ( Gammarida:) 
of the Sea of Baikal, by Dr. Dybowsky, illustrated by fourteen plates 
(in part colored), has lately been published by the Entomological Society 
of St. Petersburg. 

— A retriever dog, says Nature, whose owner was working in the 
garden of the Bath Institution, lately killed a favorite cat, a frequenter 
0I " the same grounds. Having committed this unprovoked murder, the 
d°g deliberately took the cat in his mouth, carried it some distance, dug 
a deep hole behind some bushes, and, after depositing the cat therein, 
carefully replaced the earth ; and had he not been observed there would 
have been no evidence of the crime. Shortly after, the dog lost his life 
b y poison, probably a^enalty for the offense. 

Had the dog lived, would he not, more canino, have exhumed the cat 



f °r dieteti 



■ic purposes? — 1 



Proceedings of Societies. 



PROCEEDINGS OF SOCIETIES. 
Philosophical Society of Washington, November 20, 1875 
— Dr. Woodward, of the Army Medical Museum, gave an account illus- 
trated by photographs and illuminated photographic pictures thrown 
upon a screen, of spurious lines, noted by Dippel, and more lately in ■ 
Bntish periodical's genuine, seen on certain diatoms. The species 
.'"'■] '/';: SaXOmca has transverse lines of extreme fineness, and lon- 
gitudinal lines had been described by Dippel and others, some assert- 
ing that the latter were coarser and others that they were finer than 
he transverse ones. Dr. Woodward showed very clearly by his illumi- 
noted slides enlarged on the screen forty-five thousand diameters, that 
he onguudmal hues appeared not only on the diatom but also o D the 
I f --^em to it, and similar lines appeared about specks of dirt on 
lie plate Ihese could be varied in coarseness by differen 



object. Hence he concluded tha 



~— „. „ 1C uuject. nence he con. 

caused by diffraction of light from the midriff, or the 

or any other object in the field. He remarked that 1 



they were spi 



sdge of t 



lines could be determined by the fact that they did 
TlT/l^!!!? iIlum 5 na i t ; ons or focusing; they we 

nry read a sh 

vision in circumscribed porti 

f Zt^L !l 00 - d T d ex P lained b ^ a - >*«* fc ° 
j. 

Ge 
concluded 






JOSS? -V 875 : r^ 0feSS0r Heni 7 read a short 

' " vuu '">'u cjLpiauiea 

part of one, of the tubercul* quadrigemince of the optic : 

Mr. J. K. Gilbert read a paper on ripple marks as observed by him 
Geological Survey of the Territories under Major Powell He 
ded that the sharper edges of the ripple marks were frequently, if 
miZEi. l ' PPer " dgeS ; and SU ^ed that the theory of ripple marks 
iformly connected with littoral action did not explain thelcts suffi- 
tly. He supposed that they might be formed in deep water by trans- 
■urn of vibrations through the water acting on the material at the 
nZlTn. Tr°J H T?\ Said ' that wh ^ it was evident that ripple 



mart. ™ V v/r , - " ' ' ! 

former " I ' 7et that he C ° DsMered " CCTtoi " *»« '"' 

format o„ waS always the result of motion, eitner of air or water M . 

cola J T &r ' he f ° rmati0n ° f ri P" le ™*° " *• tottoJof 
12E52 r P Water !n WhiC " "° CUrrent Clisto] - »«*— ■ Abbe 
Ta 2 l^:^ r !f " S , 0fan ?*» ^ ^d come to the < 



. — <*"U1» & ut au X[anan wno n . 

.0™;*:;:"; sees Sir" 8 mig,,t be propagate < 1 even 

American Academy,,, \,i<,v',"s',,., ,, 

-"■■■ s.ta.„o wa« s „„ ,„,...„;,.,, ,";:;: :'::;"';' "; er9 - 

eently made by Dr. E. i> : ,,„ . , ' " f i' 1 ™* re- 
form, iiw.ft.ri,,,...,,.-,,;, ;:-,., *' , ;'; , ; fl '■■•»•'■■:«?- 

one nuimrtd and nineteen species, in- 



1876.] Proceedings of Societies. 61 

(fading twenty-one belonging to the higher cryptogamic orders, besides 
a dozen of probably recent introduction. The number of new species is 
twenty-two, with two new genera, almost all nearly allied to Californian 
species and genera. Of those before known, all are Californian, and 
most have a wide range through that State. The flora of Mexico is 
scarcely represented, but on the other hand some fresh indications are 
found of a connection between our western flora and that of South 
America. 

'Boston Society of Natural History. — November 17th. Mr. 
W. K. Brooks read a paper on the egg and bud development of Salpa spi- 
nosa (Otto). The life-history of Salpa may be stated in outline as fol- 
lows : the solitary Salpa is tin- female, which produce a chain of males by 
budding, discharging an egg into each before birth. These eggs are im- 
pregnated while the zooids of the chain are small and sexually imma- 
ture, and develop into females, which give rise to other males by budding. 
After the embryo has been discharged from the body of the male, the 
latter grows up, becomes sexually mature, and discharges its seminal 
fluid into the water, by means of which it is carried to the eggs within 
the bodies of younger chains. 

December 1st. Mr. S. H. Scudder gave an account of the geographical 
distribution of Vanessa cardui and V. Atalanta, two butterflies of wider 
wnge than any others known. He attempted to show by the facts at 
command, and by the distribution of the other species of the genus, that 
V. cardui, originated in North America and V. Atalanta in Europe. 
Both the species are now found over either hemisphere, and V. cardui 

111 a future number of the Naturalist. 

Professor James D. Dana made a communication on metamorphism 
and pseudo-morphism in minerals, in reply to Dr. Hunfs strictures on 
the author's views regarding these phenomena. A Prodome of the Ta- 
banidce of the United States. Part II. The Genus Tabanus, by C. R. 
Osten Sncken, was read by title. 

Natural History Society at Michigan Agricultural Col- 
lege. Notes' of Remarks made at late Meetings. — Two roots of the 
Wparagus were found of equal size, about one eighth of an inch in diam- 
eter, of winch one had grown right through the centre of the other. 
°r the one had grotvn about the other. They were not fastened to each 
other, i. e ., one was loose in the cavity where it had grown. Roots of 
basswood and beech were found grown firmly together like a net-work. 
united in many places. Some of these were over an inch in diameter. 

The leaf-cutting bee is very common about Lansing, Mich. It is 
4 u ito destructive to leaves and petals of roses, the petals of Pc/imia. 
^off/otu'inn, and many others. The beauty of some beds of flowers is 
often much injured by them. Their cells are frequently found made of 
bits of leaves and petals. Quite a number were found in a woolen stock- 



b2 Proceedings of Societies. [January, 

ing, where they were placed during a few days. In one case there were 
twenty-seven pieces of leaves to make a cell, and thirteen round pieces 

A plant of Portulaca olerorca (common purslane) weighed one 
pound and thirteen ounces, and by careful estimate produced about 
l,2o0,000 seeds. 

A student brought in a horn about six inches long, and over two 
inches m diameter, slightly curved and blunt at the apex. The horn 
was suspended on the abdomen of a sheep, a little to one side It 
could be easily slipped around. It was there a year or so before the 
sheep was killed. 

A student had noticed that the dandelion opened and closed four times 
before the flowers were withered and seed began to appear. On fair 
days it closed earlier than on cloudy, varying from noon till four o'clock 
B™ Society or Nun,, s, mm ,„. -November 5, 1875. 
lhe following paper was read : A List of the North American Svn.hid-t- 
by C E. Osten Sacken. Mr. Grote announced that his Check St^ 
ISorth American Noctuid* was in the printer's hands, and would be is- 
sued by Reinecke and Zesch, 500 Main Street, Buffalo, during the pres- 
ent month. Mr Grote exhibited a specimen of a new species of Trigo- 
nophora for which the name Trigonophora V-brunneurn was proposed. It 
was synonymous with the var. A. of periculosa Guen 

December 3d D, Rohlff, the African traveler, was the guest of the 
evening. The following paper was read: An Illustration of North 
American Agrotis, by Dr. Leon F. Harvey. 

Cambridge Entomological Club. -November 12, 1875. Dr. 
Hagen exhibited queens of white ants (Termes flavipes) found by Mr. H. 
G Hubba d in Florida. No queens of this species have ever been found 



country, and but one anywhere. The females i 



before in t 

veloped, being wingless, but sexually mat^ Dr. 

*nTjrV7r rtaV1Ce ° f t P0],U]ar kn ° Wled ^ e ° f the *1» to winch 

^^ri^Zi""^^ by the presence ° f these i " sects ' wMch 

Mr. S. II. Scudder spoke of the supposed relation of the « osmateria " 
ot certain bur; 

nrn-or, ^*i, i -j * , ' transveise fissure an. 

organ ot the underside of the prothorax in other butterflies 

Is an if f 1 CUrre " t5 iD ' he f ° mati ™ of ">«.Uifero« S deposits. 

an instance of the presence of the heavy metals in marine animals 

he remarked that Bisehoff extracted an ap^reciaWe aZ t „f d r' 

from only 11 p ou „ ds of PociU ^J^ Qm m 'olZ 

7 Se^^st : r cTr \ E - y e - — i'tr:::: 
- heat :s jrass^rrriT ^ 



Scientific Serials. 63 

side of iron and sulphuric acid, which readily form sulphate 

Natural History Society of Montreal. — November. A 
paper by Mr. H. G. Vennor, on the galena and plumbago deposits of 
Eastern Ontario, was read. Mr. Vennor believes that all the so-called 
Laurentian rocks which contain Eozoon and many metalliferous deposits 
(galena, apatite, etc.) are of Silurian or Cambrian age. These rocks 
are always associated with crystalline limestones. The Huronian group 
he believes to be next oldest, and lastly there is a great tract of Azoic 
gneisses, etc., which are truly Laurentian. The true Azoic Laurentian 
beds, in this view, do not contain metalliferous deposits, nor crystalline 



SCIENTIFIC SERIALS. 1 

Proceedings of the Royal Geographical Society, xix. 7. — 
Summary of recent Observations on Ocean Temperature, made in the 
Challenger and Tuscarora, in relation to the Doctrine of a general Oce- 
anic Circulation sustained by Difference of Temperature. 

Petermann's Mittheiltjngen, xxi. 10. — The Russian Amu- 
Darja Expedition. A Natural History Journey to Patagonia, by Dr. K. 
Berg. Chinese Travelers of the Middle Ages to West Asia, by Dr. E. 
Bretschneider. Journey to Araguaya by Dr. Couto de Magalhaes in 
January, 1865. Notes on the Oasis El-Chargeh, by Dr. Schwerafurth. 
C. Weyprecht's Survey of the Northern Coast of Novvaja Semlja in Sep- 
tember and October, 1872. October 18. Paul Solcillet's and Largean's 
Travels in the Sahara and to Soudan, by Gerhard Rohlfs. Pictures from 
the Far North, by Karl Weyprecht. The latest Travels in Australia, by 
E. Behm. The Spread of the Egyptian Power in the Upper Nile and 
Us Geographical Results. Supplementary number, 34. Journey through 
North Africa from Kuka to Lagos, by G. Rohlfs. 35. The Population 
of the Earth, by Behm and Wagner. 36. Four Addresses on the 
Caucasus, by G. Radde. 37. Carl Mauch's Journey in the Interior of 
South Africa, 1865-72. 

The Geographical Magazine. — November, 1875. The Arctic Ex- 
pedition, iii., iv. A Glance at the Results of the Expedition to Hassar 
b y H. P. Lerch, by H. Yule. The Voyage of the Challenger, by J. E. 
Davis. Recent Journeys in Paraguay, by Keith Johnston. 

Bulletin de la Societe de Geographie. — September, 1875. 
ftise and Fall of the Coast of France, by Jules Girard (records the dis- 
covery, between Vannes and Nantes, of Druidical monuments, under the 
water). Geography of the Athabaskaw-Mackenzie, by l'Abbe Petitot. 



64 Scientific Serials. [January. 

American Journal of Science and Arts. - December. On 
Southern New England during the Melting of the Great Glaciers, by 
James D. Dana. Notice of new and interesting Coal Plants, by E. B- 
Andrews. J 

Archiv fur mikroskopische An atomie.- October. The Genus 
Loxosoma, by Oscar Schmidt. On some Rhizopoda and allied Organ- 
isms, by L. Cienkowski. The Locomotive Apparatus of Infusoria, by H. 
Simroth. On a new Microtome, by P. Schiefferdecke* The < trgafi, of 
Hearing of the Heteropoda, by C. Claus. 

Nature. — October 28. Notes from the Challenger (describing a 
colossal hydroid Polyp), by G. J. Allman. November 4. Ameri- 
can Geologica Surveys, by A. Geikie. Muller on Bees and Flowers, 
by J. Lubbock. November 11. Evidences of Ancient Glaciers in 
Central France, by J. D. Hooker. 

Jena Journal of Science (Jenaische Zeitschrift, etc.). — May. 
don toT"/ ° f ^'TT Pulmonates ' *>? Carl Rabl. Contribu- 
" , p r f n 7 J u S^° f TermiteS ' by F - M " ller - Hceclcelina gigan- 
On L T i ° fthe ^ T Up of Monothalamia, by E. Bessels. July. 

Gastrula and the Segmentation of the Eggs of Animals, by E. Haeckel. 

AKCHIV FUR ANTHROPOLOGIE. Aup-mr TNWoc «., *1.„ T V C 

Smith, Sonnd, etc., by E. Be,.* xjcestf ElVi££i 
Deposits of Switzerland, by L. Rutimeyer. ■ 

Journal of Zoology (Siebold and Ko'lliker, editors). - July. New 

£T£ ::z^ owl ^ g r f Parasitic Copepods > b ^ c - ci - °» 

f ■■ ^ ,:;;/';.■:" theC ° n Wtion of Infusoria and Cell Division, 

w..h reference to Dr. Dawson's Dawn of Life, by II. J. Carter. Co* 
tnbo .onsto the Stndy of the Chief Generic Typ'es of the PalaToic 
Corals. By James Thompson and H. A. Nicholson. 
StthTX T S °™ C ™ »a*™"-«es.- Paris, October, 1875. 

^.i^r Guif of Mar8ei " es ' by a - f - Marion 

„f h!1 E r , EO1 ° G i 0AL Mag "™ E ._ London, December, 1875. The Canse 
tl^'t Pe , r '° d '" Britafa ' by C "° rIeS Ricke » 8 - DM *• Cold o. 
A Chapter i,r, eMe ° Ver ' he S - Hemi * h -e ? by F. W. Hutton. 
A ; I m the Ihstory of Meteorites (part xii. ) : The Conelnsion, b, 



THE 

AMERICAN NATURALIST. 

Vol. x. — FEBRUARY, 1876. — No. 2. 

INDICATIONS OF THE ANTIQUITY OF THE INDIANS 
OF NORTH AMERICA, DERIVED FROM A STUDY OF 
THEIR RELICS. 

THE stone implements of the Indian long since lost in the 
chase, broken in the conflict, or discarded when metals were 
introduced, as we now gather them up singly or by the score, 
seem to give us no clew to those most interesting of all questions 
connected with them, When were the first of these stone imple- 
ments shaped? How many centuries have passed since the 
Indian first reached our shores, and armed himself with these 
rude weapons? 

That isolated specimens of relics, however occurring, should be 
valueless in this respect is quite natural, considering the many 
circumstances which might arise to place single implements in 
the most unlooked-for places ; but on the other hand, when an 
opportunity is had of securing nearly the entire series of relics 
«& by a departed race in a single locality, and of examining 
tnem, not simply on the shelves of a cabinet, but as they lie upon 
and in the ground, then there is an opportunity afforded of gath- 
ering facts concerning them other than the extent of their varia- 
l °n in shapes and uses ; and particularly may we learn something 
of the relationship they bear to each other with reference to the 
vexed question of their antiquity. 

In previous articles in this journal (vol. vi.) I have briefly 
^led attention to the vast numbers of relics found in Central 
tfew Jersey, and drawn a distinction between the ruder and the 
mor e elaborate forms, considering the former strictly paleolithic 
miplernents ; but that from this stage of culture to that of the 
Polished stone age there had been an unchecked development, a 
gradual merging of the one into the other condition. Subsequent 



66 Antiquity of the Indians of North America. [February, 

studies have led to a modification of this view, and a separation 
of the two classes of relics as traces of distinct peoples. This 
subject I propose to dwell upon at some length in a subsequent 
article, and desire to call attention now to what I believe to be 
positive indications of the very great length of time during which 
the Indian occupied New Jersey, as derived from the study of 
thousands of stone implements gathered by myself. 

Unless some very marked geological change occurred, obliter- 
ating every vestige of the former surface of the country, lost 
paleolithic implements would naturally occur, scattered "about, 
and what more probable than that men of a later period should 
occasionally pick up, preserve, and utilize them ? The difference 
between a paleolithic and a neolithic flint hatchet is not as great 
as that between an ancient stone and a modern metal hammer ; 
and Nilsson 1 refers to a stone hammer of undoubted antiquity 
being long used by a carpenter, who had put it to uses similar to 
those of its prehistoric owner. When, therefore, among true In- 
dian relics that occasionally are found lying together as the series 
described by the writer in this journal',^ that marked the site of 
a "homestead of the stone age," there happens to be "rudely 
chipped implements " associated " with some of the very finest 
wrought stone weapons and arrow-heads," it is not necessary 
to conclude that the latter were made at the same time as the 
others, for we are not sufficiently familiar with the everv-day life 
of the stone-age Indian to assert that he could have "found no 
use for these rude productions of his predecessors, on the one 
hand, or that he did not gather them up for use, or work them 
over into better forms, when they happened to be met with. In- 
asmuch as these rude relics that are intimately associated with 
newer relics invariably exhibit a greater degree of weathering and 
decay than accompanying implements of the same mineral, it is 
not difficult to separate them ; and whatever the use to which 
they may have been put, it appears certain that they were occa- 
sionally gathered — veritable relics of a departed people then — 
by the Indians for some practical purpose. 

As arrow-heads are the best known form of Indian relics, and 
as they certainly outnumber all other forms, and are abundant 
frequently where no other pattern is found, they afford by reason 
of their numbers excellent opportunities fur determining various 
questions concerning the condition and degree of culture of the 



1876.] Antiquity of the Indians of North America. 67 

people using and making them. I will therefore first refer to 
them, in endeavoring to point out the indications of the antiquity 
of the Indian. H J 

On examining a complete series of arrow-heads from one locality, 
we find that whatever mineral was available was utilized in their 
manufacture, and on the sites of arrow-makers' workshops not 
only is there a vast accumulation of chips of the more popular 
minerals for arrow-heads, but quantities of water-worn pebbles 
from the river and brook beds, which have been split in two, or 
otherwise tested, to see if by the first fracture they gave promise 
of being available. Again, certain minerals seemed specially 
adapted for a given pattern of arrow-points, and were used almost 
exclusively for it. We have here certainly an unquestionable 
'"^cation that the art of arrow-making had been progressive, 
*feether the progress was made while the Indians were in this 
country, or acquired previously. In either case, the progress had 
been made; and when we find rude arrow-heads in consider- 
able numbers, of plain patterns, scattered singly about fields and 
orests, it is quite conclusive that these are the forerunners of the 
former, — the elaborate jasper specimens, — and that the progress 
mthe art of arrow-making was acquired during the Indian's occu- 
pauey of this territory . As this was very slow, the date of his 
arrival reaches back into strictly prehistoric times. 

Having seen that different minerals were used by the Indians 
in arrow-making, lot us consider in detail what evidence there 
JjJ of great improvement in the production of these implements, 
^he poor specimens of themselves do not simply indicate, as might 
Claimed, that they are the work of beginners in the flint-chip- 
ping art, for they are found in such localities and under such con- 
d-t„,..8 f ar too often for one not to see that they are the weapons 
of an earlier time than are the more elaborately wrought forms 
f ound near them. In a country overgrown with forests, where 
lei '<-' is annually a vast deposit of dead leaves, there necessarily 
ls a steady increase in the depth of the soil by the deposition of 
,l thin layer of vegetable mold. This increase I believe to be 
about one one hundred and twenty-eighth (-i | 5 ) of an inch per 
annum, in beech, oak, and chestnut woods. If on examination of 
the undisturbed soil of such forest tracts we find jasper and 
quarts arrow-heads at a depth of ten inches which are large, not 
acutely pointed or symmetrical, and of the simplest patterns, as 
"' h-at-sliaped or triangular; and smaller, symmetrical, stemmed, 
arbed, acutely pointed specimens two or three inches deep, as a 



68 Antiquity of the Indians of North America. [February, 

rule ; then I submit it is quite certain that the former are about 
thirteen centuries old, and the latter ranging from two and a half 
to four centuries. This is what really occurs in New Jersey, and 
in part I rest the claims of the Indian's antiquity thereupon. 

Again, in the river flats that are yearly and semi-yearly over- 
flowed, this same condition obtains ; and the deeper in the depos- 
its — which are constantly increasing in depth, and have been 
since the river assumed its present dimensions — that we find these 
arrow-heads, while mineralogically the same with the very finest, 
they show less skill in the workmanship. This applies, as we shall 
see, to all other forms and varieties of weapons, domestic imple- 
ments, and ornaments ; and gives us evidence of an improving 
savage, who subsequently reached a somewhat higher stage, be- 
yond which he has no capability of going. 

The grooved stone ax is a form of Indian relic that is a marked 
feature of the stone weapons^ of the Indians. They are mod- 
erately abundant every where, 'and tens of thousands are probably 
still lying in the soil. I have knowledge of one field of twelve 
acres from which have been already gathered one hundred and 
thirty specimens, and every plowing brings others to the surface. 
These axes give us the same evidence of gradual improvement 
I have pointed out as existing in the case of arrow-heads. Weap- 
ons of this pattern are strictly a neolithic form, the groove 
making it a polished or ground stone implement. They are 
never made of " flaking " material, but are pecked or hammered 
into shape, then smoothed or polished. In the apparently more 
ancient graves, these axes are pebbles from the river bed, that 
have acquired something of an ax shape. The edge was first 
hammered and then smoothed by rubbing, and a roughened circle 
made about it, at or near the middle of the stone. 1 Derived 
from such a rude relic we have, in later times, very carefully 
grooved specimens, many with the groove faced with high ridges, 
that give the depression a double depth. The edge is a mar- 
vel of accuracy in tool making, being as correctly formed as 
in the most elaborate steel ax of the present time, although of 
course not as thin in the blade, and as sharp. These perfect stone 
axes occasionally are turned up in plowing, but most frequently 
are found in graves, associated with finely wrought jasper spears 
and other weapons ; but never in the oldest graves, or the deep, 
undisturbed soil. Examination of the mud of the river flats, and 



1876.] Antiquity of the Indians of North America. 69 

other localities where analogous changes are in operation, yields 
precisely the same results, as to the degree of excellence of work- 
manship in comparison with the depth at which they occur, as 
in the case of arrow-points, and I draw the same conclusions in 
the one instance as in the other. 

Before referring to pottery and its bearings on this question, I 
desire very briefly to call attention to an interesting point con- 
nected with every large series of stone implements from a given 
locality ; that is, that there are very many forms of such relics 
that are never found except of advanced workmanship. In pro- 
portion as the implements of the Indian were of primitive make, 
they were few in forms, one form answering for a variety of pur- 
poses ; but advance in the art suggested variations in shape to 
meet particular uses ; and so, in proportion as we find a speci- 
men of a specialized shape, we find it elaborately wrought and 
of fine material. A rudely nicked flint flake was never yet met 
with that there is a shadow of reason for believing answered as 
a saw, and was thus used. The wavy, saw-like edges of many 
spear-heads doubtless suggested that tool ; and carefully toothed, 
thin flakes of jasper are frequently found, 1 that unquestionably 
were made for sawing, and for this use only. The large " scrap- 
ers," especially those occurring in fresh-water and marine shell- 
heaps, are not generally very carefully shaped, and the major- 
ity are made of easily worked material. Like arrow-heads, they 
give evidence of gradual improvement. With the ruder shapes 
of this implement, just referred to, there are never found associ- 
ated the delicately chipped, diminutive " scrapers," as they 
are usually called, which were certainly intended for other uses 
than cleansing skins. These miniature " skin- dressers " were 
doubtless suggested by the typical scraper, and so are of later 
origin. They are met with upon the surface of the ground, 
and, whatever their use, are simply another instance of what I 
stated concerning arrow-heads and axes. If correct in my con- 
clusions with reference to Indian relics as a whole, the bearing of 
the above remarks regarding specialized forms, such as described, 
on the question of the antiquity of the Indian, is obvious. 

There is no one class of relics by which the general advance in 
art can be estimated better than that of pottery. This, in a 
more or less fragmentary condition, occurs associated with neo- 

1 In a fresh-water shell-heap of limited dimensions, situated on the bank of a small 



70 Antiquity of the Indians of North America. [February, 

lithic stone implements wherever found, either on the surface, in 
the soil, or buried in graves. This association is a reliable guide 
to the age of accompanying relics, especially when met with in 
graves, for superior ware would be chosen to contain the food 
buried with the body. I have invariably found in the graves 
which from indications irrespective of their contents gave evi- 
dence of considerable antiquity, that the contained relics agreed 
with the external evidences ; and especially is this true of the 
pottery. It is very coarse and free from all attempts at orna- 
mentation when associated with coarse, unskillfully chipped 
weapons ; and elaborate, highly decorated, - by figures of varied 
patterns, not colored, - and fine in its composition when found 
in graves containing carefully wrought, artistic jwper spears and 
arrow-points, and highly polished, symmetrical celts and axes. 
he same obtains with pottery that has been long lost, and 
deeply buried by the accumulating soil of periodically submerged 
lands, when compared with that found nearer and upon the sur- 

The rude pottery, and evidently the older, is simply clayey 
earth with no admixture of foreign matter other than what has 
been accidentally incorporated, such as small pebbles and frag- 
ments ot wood. It is easily broken, free from ornament, and, I 
judge sun-burnt only.* Always thick, and usually uneven ves- 
sels of such rude make could have been of but limited use,' and, 
judging from the fragments, were always small round or oval 
bowls, never contracted at the opening as the majority of cups, 
vases, and urns of later times are. The finer and later pottery 
is made of carefully selected clay, is mixed with finely pulverized 
mussel shells is comparatively thin, of uniform thickness, and 
often very elaborately decorated with curved lines, dots, Z ig-zags, 
and parallel lines, singly or combined. Some fragments that I 
have gathered give grounds for believing that by varying the 
proportions of the ingredients of the mixture the maker could de- 
termine the color, as some of these fragments are of a bright brick- 
red color others of a delicate pearl tint, and a third variety of a 

^ T Pi w A CarefUl C ° mpariSOn ° f a W S e se ^ 0f 
specimens gathered from a single neighborhood, made in connec- 



1876.] Antiquity of the Indians of North America. 71 

tion with laborious examination of the surroundings and circum- 
stances of the finding of nearly every fragment, — thousands in 
number, — makes it evident that a very gradual improvement 
was acquired in this art by the Indians during their occupancy of 
this territory. 

It is unnecessary to give additional facts indicating that the 
duration of the occupancy of this country by the Indian was 
marked by a considerable improvement in his condition, as 
shown by the vast superiority in workmanship of much of the 
stone-implement work over the rest (exclusive of paleolithic 
plements), and therefore of necessity that that occupancy wa 

The question now naturally arises, How old are the oldest 
dian relics? Only comparative antiquity can be determined. 
There is no starting-point from which to begin a positive calcula- 
tion, and I purpose only to show that the antiquity is real and 
great, without endeavoring to determine its limits by an 
of figures. I have already done this in reference to the : 
heads and axes. There are, however, one or two considerations 
which have some bearing on this question. 

There occasionally are brought to light traces of human habita- 
tions which, judging from their contracted limits, were si 
dwelling-places of a single family, or at most a small gr< 
people. The hearth, readily recognized by the charcoal and 
ashes, the fact of subsistence on animal food by the bones of 
mammals, birds, and fishes, and the occupation, if an arrow- 
maker, by abundance of flakes and chips, — all are there. There 
ia nothing wanting to tell the story of the lives of the former 
occupants of the place. Such habitation-traces, if I may call 
them thus, differ among themselves in two ways: by the greater 
or less depth beneath the existing surface of the soil, and by the 
character of the finish of the contained relics. There is in this 
case, too, a repetition of what has been thrice stated already, nearer 
the surface, finer the finish ; but the depth of soil above these 
ancient hearths can, I think, be measured so as to give an approx. 
imation to the age of the inhumed relics, whether in the case of 
deposition from the muddy waters of the semi annual freshets, or 
of the slow decomposition of forest leaves. The freshets of the 
Delaware River, occurring usually twice a year, deposit about 
one two hundred and fifty-sixth ( 5 ^) of an inch per annum, and 
hearths and shell-heaps occur as deep as two feet below the present 
meadow surface. Such traces of human habitation*, if there have 



27 Antiquity of the Indiana of North America. [February, 

been no other causes in operation to bury them, are about sixty 
centunes old. If we double the deposit from the water in a 
given time, even then twenty-six hundred years had passed by 
since the abandonment of these little shell-heaps and "home- 
steads when Columbus discovered the western world ; but I be- 
lieve the former estimate to be much nearer the truth. 

I have already referred to arrow-heads which I considered to 
be about thirteen centuries old. They were far from being rude 
in workmanship, although not of the most elaborate finish. If 
we grade a series of a thousand specimens from one locality into 
tbree or four, say four, degrees of excellence, such specimens as 
I have estimated as probably thirteen centuries old will stand 
as number three i„ the series. If the acquirement of excellence in 
flint chipping was uniform, the first and rudest of the arrow-heads 
assignable to the neolithic Indian dates back twenty-six centuries 

conT S ° ,<S S T" enS graded 8S number *■» All things 
considered from thirty-five to forty centuries ago, at least, I 

what I n V 6 f " t Pa8t Whe " th8 Mi - ^-red in 
what is now New Jersey ; but it is by no means improbable that 

pZ I" ti • """I ^ fOU " d ' ,is Wa ^ t0 the **>">*> «-* 

stone n • T 8 . made a " d USed StiU rudel ' i"'pl"™™ts of 
tev are n P 7 S f a ° £ Sand and « rarel -d-lying the soil, 
refcrraTt H 810 " y - J met ^ Th ™g h ^ this essay I have 
referred to them mc.dentally as " paleolithic " implements In 

will be seen that one of two considerations must be true. Either 
the paleolithic implements belonged to the same people as the 
neohtliic forms, or they are the production of a iffifp^J 
When it is remembered that the Indians preserve a tradition of 
being a usurping people, and credence is given to this fact as stafcd 
by them according to numerous authors, the relics now found 
seem corroborative of such a tradition, and these paleolithic 
implements, so different from the others in many respects, re- 
race n of t, I 6 ° < y "'^ ° f '^ 8ti " °' der P e °P Ie ' the -toclithonous 
r y the in „ ,0 T eS , Wh ° W r " S °' e P ° SSeSsion wh » driven away 
were but lT 8 Tt Wl '° Se 0W " St ° ne ™P le «'<^ •* *e time 
Sed peo' 1?^ , rate than th ° 8e ° £ the «I»>W »»bj* 
to Tbeautff d ' a ? entUry aftCr Cent '"'y rolled >>>'■ bec^e 

"nd! r::;! 411 : ****** ^ **« - 

the pebbles tlZZE*? °" ^ "* ^^ **" 



1876.] HaeckeVs Gastrcea Theory. 

HAECKEL'S GASTR^A THEORY. 



pROFESSOR HAECKEL has just published in the Jenaische 
A Zeitschrift 1 a second paper on the gastraea theory, devoted to 
answering the many attacks to which it has been subjected. It 
is fortunately free from the personalities which disfigure so many 
of Haeckel's productions, and consists mainly of new theories and 
new interpretations of well-known embryological facts. Haeckel 
now endeavors by a most ingenious theory to explain the phe- 
nomena of segmentation, which (according to him) conceal the 
original unity of the gastnea in the different classes of the animal 
kingdom. As Haeckel now presents the gastraea theory it would 
be difficult to recognize it as he and his followers formerly under- 
stood it. 

It is unfortunate that Haeckel should feel obliged to coin so 
many new terms, for unless the reader can throw himself, heart 
and soul, into Haeckel's position, he will ■ hardly feel inclined 
to master the delicate shades of meaning which a difference in 
prefix or termination involves. They undoubtedly contribute to 
the terseness of the text, but are so numerous that the reader can 
scarcely be expected to carry in his mind the necessary vocabu- 
lary, much of it dating back to the Generelle Morphologic 

Haeckel has made an important admission in going back for 
his starting-point to the egg (as the opponents of his theory 
nrged), and attempting to trace how far segmentation can be 
influenced by natural selection ; he has of course seen the diffi- 
culty, of which all embryologists are aware, of accounting through 
such a cause for the vital divergence observed in the segmentation 
of closely allied groups, leading eventually to the same result. It 
is difficult even in the wildest flight of imagination to frame a 
theory to account not only for these radical differences of devel- 
opment in the ancestral eggs, living in the same medium, sub- 
ject to identical influences, but also for their transmission by in- 
heritance. Haeckel's explanation of the causes which have led 
to the concealment of the descent of the gastrula is that only 
those embryonic processes which can be traced directly to a 
former independent ancestral form, and can be inherited, are of 
primary importance for the recognition of genetic connection, 
while those embryonic phenomena which are due to adaptation 
of the embryo or larval condition can claim only a very secondary 
i Die Gastrula und die Eifurchung der Thiere. 



74 HaeckeVs Gastrcea Theory. [February, 

importance. It is by palingenesis and cenogenesis, the terms he 
applies to primary and secondary embryonic phenomena, that he 
accounts for the divergence observed in the earlier embryonic 
stages. Whether we agree with Haeckel or not, his paper can- 
not fail to be most suggestive, as this is the first attempt to tabu- 
late the early embryonic stages of the egg in the different classes 
ot the animal kingdom, with a view to account for their differ- 
ence on the theory of natural selection ; the more interesting com- 
ing as it does from the investigator who first tested the theorv of 
descent by the monographic study of a great group. It is "not 
our purpose to describe the many subordinate phenomena, either 
of palingenesis or of cenogenesis, quoted by Haeckel ; we merely 
wish to call attention to the dangerous path he treads when he 
explain* anomalies as falsifications of the record in either time or 
spa,o. When we have to resort to such devices, no explanation 
at all is fully as satisfactory. 

Armed with this new instrument of investigation, Haeckel 
carefully compares the different modes of segmentation resulting 
in the gastrula to which he had already alluded in his Anthro 
pogeme He then takes up the same subject for the several 
classes of the animal kingdom, and treats it with his usnaJ int- 
imity and closes with the phylogenetic interpretation to be as- 
signed to the early stages of embryonic development. Of these 
he recognizes hve as of primary importance : the "monerula," or 
sent m "tf age metaZ ° an devel °P rae «t; the second stage, repre- 
sent.? he egg as commonly understood, which he calls the « cy- 
tuk the third, the "morula," or mulberry stage ; the fourth, 
the "plamea (formerly known as « pl anula ," though v,rv d\i- 

iZt^;:z:^ n spoken ° f - der ** — >; ^ ^e 

This paper is accompanied by two plates of diagrammatic 
sketches copied from varices authors, represent, - ,!,, ".. , „', ,'„ , 
Uon and gastrula of various invertebrates and vcr," i 

Haeckel gl ves m add.fon original figures of the same stage* in . 
custacean, an annelid, a mollusk, and a bony fish. It is a •„,;„ 

w rthtir ? t illf ;'' *-*«— ^j g -„ esach j rast . 

In back g « ' I'"' 6 S ° f " n ' hlme » tol » t^ory, and quietly 

tall back upon the righteousness of his cause. His Bean, of , 

silr r !i as nova ' uo as a ?w ™^-> * * S£ 



1876.] Summer Birds of the White Mountain Region. 75 
The plate devoted to the segmentation of the bony fish is par- 
tieulavly important, as it gives ns a totally different interpretation 
of the formation of the embryo from the one usually accepted. 
HaeckeFs observations were made on the pelagic eggs of what he 
calls a Gadoid. Judging from closely allied eggs we have had the 
opportunity to study on our coast, we should say they were more 
probably Cottoid eggs. 

It may not be out of place to call attention to the great abun- 
dance of pelagic fish eggs readily obtained, in all stages of devel- 
opment, during the breeding season of a number of our common 
marine fishes. With the exception of the very earliest stages of 
segment ition, only to be obtained, owing to the rapidity of the 
process, by means of artificial fecundation, I know of no method 
so readily accessible for studying the embryology of fishes as 
that of collecting pelagic fish eggs. I have myself studied more 
or less completely the embryology of our sea-perch, tautog, two 
species of sculpins, two species of flounders, a Motella (young 
Phycis?), our blue-fish, menhaden, butter-fish, goose-fish, and 
several other species of uncertain origin. These pelagic eggs are 
by no means as delicate as eggs usually laid on the ground and 
obtained by ordinary artificial fecundation, and the young em- 
bryos can generally after hatching be retained alive for a consid- 
erable period. 

THE SUMMER Bit 



region of the White Mountains, I may stale that my 
information in regard to them has been drawn from observations 
made at Conway and Bethlehem. At North Conway, where I 
spent several weeks in the year 1872, 1 observed, through what- 
ever part of the neighboring country I went, an almost entire 
absence of birds. That township, owing to its situation in a val- 
ley to the south of the White Mountains, and ot her causes perhaps, 
contained, to my knowledge, few birds beside the ruffed grouse, 
a few ducks in the rivers, sandpipers, one pair of hawks, one pair 
of kingfishers, a few robins, and the proverbial village swallows. 
But Bethlehem, the highest village ..f New F.nghmd, sixteen hun- 
dred feet above the level of the sea, blessed with a cool, invigor- 
ating climate, situated to the westward of Mount Washington, 



76 Summer Birds of the White Mountain, Region. [February, 
yet practically among the hills, in many places covered with large 
tracts of genuine old New Hampshire forests, and overrun with 
brooks, contains thousands of birds in summer, and these birds be- 
long partly to the Canadian fauna. Therefore this article has 
been written partly to illustrate the distribution of that fauna, 
but partly, however, for other purposes. When I first came to 
Bethlehem, two years ago, I found but one pair of robins in the 
township but lam glad to see that there are now several pairs, 
one of which, I have been told, built their nest a little while ago 
on the top of a long pole, which stood without support in an 
open hen-yard. Several robins have retired from the village and 
built their nests in the woods and haunts which seem more ap- 
propriate to the other thrnshes, of which the Swainson's thrushes 
are by far the most common, and correspond to the familiar wood 
thrushes of Massachusetts. The olive-backed thrush lings very 
sweetly, very much like the wood thrush, but not so finely nor 
quite so exquisitely ; picks up insects of various kinds, as food, 

wondf 1 Tu " ° l the ^ !n the thicfc ™> ds > Particularly 
woods drained by swamps or streams, and builds its nest in young 
spruces, from six to ten feet above the ground, laying in *5 
three or four eggs, wh.ch are much like those of the scarlet tan- 
toted f T ™? J ° tW bM8 ' * ° ften reilrs ' whe » u " dis - 
mh t, w-l S °, y0U " g ^ * he C ° QrSe ° f the s ™ mer - Her " 
m,t and Wilsons thrushes are not at all common, and I have 

"do It thint^T T ^ ^ Bethkhem > e 8 P<^% of the former. 
I do not think that I have ever seen any brown thrushes. 
cJew^V e u 0n l-° ] * wocat - bird8 'l>ut these latter, as is the 
«» with the blue-birds familiar to me at home, are to be ranked 
among strangers ,„ this place. I have been greatly pleased to 

™!i " n°, g° ld r' Cr0Wned Wrens h <™> •«* inhabit a large 
tract wh te blrches (the home Qf chidkadees) j found a J m 

voun. T f °,. y ° Un g ,n Au S ust > ^ y«r, as well as without 

STL , k , 18 r r V th ° Ugh I haTC " 0t ** b <*» abk t" «« d 
tbeir nest. Chickadees, brown creepers, and both kinds of nut- 
hatches are summer residents, as house wrens also are occasion- 
thel'e \fn /rf " T™ "" ° f m ° re interest to m « than 

h2h i ; w e £ound a great ma,, y in the ™% s k«* 

o tohleh! Z T ". ? ma ' k " f ° r - BreWCT ' S > b^re coining 
nl. an M-V ^l mhabited °"' y the Sides of Mount Wash 
an n £f ^ t "f" „ *** "^ "" ™ ^ «*«* «» 
Z,, 7, u bru9hwood <> f «'« forests, and from the top of 
some dead hmb often pour out a shrill, hurried song of wonder- 



1876.] Summer Birds of the White Mountain Region. 77 

ful power and great liveliness. The woods frequented by these 
wrens, as well as many other forests, abound with warblers, only 
a few of which regularly pass the summer in Massachusetts, 
whereas most of them can no doubt in summer be found in Canada. 
The black and white creepers are not common ; but the little blue 
yellow-backed warblers are quite common, usually busily engaged 
among the tree-tops, their habits and their song being the same 
during their migrations through the neighborhood of Boston in 
the spring. They build their nests chiefly in the drier woods of 
maples, chestnuts, hemlocks (and oaks), as they do in Massachu- 
setts, when they occasionally pass the summer there. In such 
woods, and the damper spruce swamps, I often see the black- 
throated green, or hear his familiar notes, which are sometimes 
blended with the less musical u zwee-zwee zwee-zwee " of the 
Hack-throated blue, which refrain is repeated in a peculiar tone, 
with a rising inflection. The two kinds of warblers, however, 
which I have been most surprised to meet here are the yellow- 
rumps and the prairie warblers. I saw a pair of the former 
among some spruces, my attention having been called to their 
song, which, by the way, I have heard again and again in the 
spring migrations of these birds, and which resembles more or 
less a weak imitation of the purple finch's song. The prairie 
warblers I have twice met in different woods, and I found in a 
low spruce, in a dark wood, one of their nests, which, as well as 
the eggs in it, differed very much from all other specimens in my 
cabinet. I was rather amazed to find the former species so far to 
the south of what I supposed to be their range in summer, and 
the latter species in dark forests, a hundred miles northward of 
certain sunny pasture-lands in Massachusetts which have usually 
been considered the northern limit of their distribution. 

The Blackburnian warblers are also summer residents here; 
and though the brilliant coloration of the male is an ornament 
to the place in which he lives, yet his simple notes, " wee-see- 
wee-%e4-wee-$e6" (to which a terminal " wee-seS-ick " is occa- 
sionally added), are hardly an addition to the various musical 
charms of the place. I now and then meet black and yellow 
warblers in the woods, and hear or see chestnut-sided and Nash- 
ville warblers in more open lands; but these latter are rare. 
"Black-polls " belong, I think, to Northern Maine rather than to 
Northern New Hampshire, and I have met but two here, though 
I have found several old nests in spruces and hemlocks, which I 
have attributed to these birds. The Canada fly-catchers, on the 



78 Summer Birds of the White Mountain Region. [February, 
contrary, quite commonly inhabit the cooler woods, where I have 
often watched the male catching insects and caterpillars with 
great dexterity, sometimes collecting a dozen or more in his bill, 
doubtless to feed his mate or young with. The Maryland yellow- 
iwoat, however, is by far the most common warbler at Bethle- 
h, '» J - tivqnenting woods and roadsides alike, never shy but always 
watchiul ; whilst the equally familiar -red starts " are also toler- 
ably common, and I often hear them singing in company with 
others of then- family in the depths of the forests. Though I 
base .s.-en no water thrushes here, yet in the deep woods, since 
there are no dry groves near the houses, I occasionally hear the 
tannhar chatter of the wagtail (S. aurocapillus) , generally near 
K'.me water-course, however, rather than in dry woods. 

V\he,„ver 1 return from a long walk through the haunts of 
iK'se \ annus warblers which I have just enumerated, I invaria- 
bly see many eedar-birds on the roadsides and in the orelmrds, 
and when I get to the village I can always see there about 
me all the swallows, mcluding the so-called chimney swallows 
(.M.iyh cannot, however, by modern classification claim any near 
Wlafaonsinp to the true Hirundinidce). Of these swallows the 
sand martins have established themselves at a sandbank near 
the central cluster of houses, and have become fairly colonized- 
where** the cliff swallows and purple martins (the latter of which 
a friend reports having seen) have but just made their appearance 
in the township (for the first time, so far as I know, though ,.,,- 
haps one or two pairs may have spent the last season here, un- 
noticed by me). About the village both red-eyed and warbling 
vireos pass the summer (of the latter only one pair} • and in the 
-ods I often hear the cheerful warble of the red-ey'ed and soli- 
tuy vireo, the latter of which is very rare, whereas the former is 
quite as common as about Boston, and constantly reminds me of a 
more familiar neighborhood. Grateful for the society of these 
vneos, 1 am thankful that this place is not pestered with their 
cruel and destructive relatives, the murderous shrikes, of which 
i nave seen no bloody traces as yet. 

The findies are well represented at Bethlehem, both by species 

ninar to us near Boston in summer, and by others. Perhaps 

ZnT r mm ° n ^ff" 1 **"*** are the goldfinches, which fre- 

l"-'t pastures, roadsides, and gardens, sometime, by the way 

since in Massachusetts they habitually build their nest very late in 
the season, and here all bird sgenerally breed two, three, or four 



1876.] Summer Birds of the White Mountain Region. 79 

weeks later than they do two degrees further south (within thirty 
miles of the shore). The purple finches are rare ; but five kinds 
of sparrows are common, and make up this deficiency ; of these 
the song sparrows, bay-winged buntings, and savannah sparrows 
frequent the fields, from which I constantly hear their songs — the 
more familiar music of the two former, and the quaint, drawling 
"chip-chirr" or" chip-chip-chee-chee-chirr'' of the savannah spar- 
rows. " Chippers " are quite common in the village, and all day 
long the clear, exquisite whistle of the Peabody-birds (or white- 
throated sparrows) is heard from the woodland which they in- 
habit. The snow-birds frequent the woods and hill-sides in many 
places, and there gain a livelihood by finding food on the ground 
or about fallen logs and standing stumps, over which they are 
constantly running ; and the indigo-birds are common in pasture- 
land, whence I often hear their familiar song, sometimes joined 
with that of the chestnut-sided warbler, or some other denizen of 
their haunts. 

The Icteridm and Corvidce are represented each by two species, 
the former by the bobolinks and a stray pair of golden robins, the 
latter by crows (in no great abundance) and a very few blue jays, 
whose screams I hear but occasionally from the woods. (Thus the 
number of oscine birds which I remember to have seen at Beth- 
lehem is fifty, of which sixteen are not regular summer-residents 
in Massachusetts. The number of Clamatores is six, and the 
total number of Passeres fifty-six, of which forty are also regular 
summer residents in the neighborhood of Boston.) The repre- 
sentatives of the Clamatores are the following fly-catchers : the 
kingbirds, the great crested fly-catchers, the pewees, which are 
»ot at all abundant, the olive-sided fly- catchers, the wood pewees, 
and the Traill's fly-catchers, which inhabit much the same places 
as do the wood pewees, preferring, however, rather drier woods, 
where, from the upper branches, on which they have taken their 
post, they utter their characteristic " pu-ee." 

Belted kingfishers live near the streams and mill-ponds; and in 
the forests which border upon these, live the hunnning-'oirds, which 
rarely come to the gardens in the village, preferring the woods to 
open grounds, as I believe that they often do in more cultivated 
and more thickly populated districts. Occasionally, whip-poor- 
wills enliven the night with their cries, and night-hawks very 
often lly about at dusk, sometimes in company with the few ehiiu- 
n *'.v swallows which live in the village. I have once or twice 
heard the notes of the (yellow-billed ?) cuckoo from the shrubbery 



80 The Origin and Development of Museums. [February, 

which borders upon the woods, where live the hairy woodpeckers, 
— whose relations, the downy woodpeckers, I do not remember to 
have often seen here, — and also the three-toed woodpeckers (Pi- 
cusarcticus), of which I have seen but one pair; the yellow-bel- 
lied woodpeckers, regarding which I may make the same remark; 
the great log-cocks (H. pileatus), which particularly affect old 
forests and backwoods; and the common nickers (Colaptes au- 
ratus). (These birds are the seventeen representatives of the 
Ficanan group, and five of these do not regularly breed in Massa- 
chusetts.) I have seen no birds of prey, except occasionally four 
hawks: red-tail, sparrow-hawk, sharp-shinned hawk, and marsh 
hawk; a golden eagle; and as to the game-birds, there are wild 
pigeons, ruffed grouse, one pair of woodcock, no snipe, but a few 
ignominious sandpipers ( T. maeularius ; also R. solitarius ?) in 
their stead. With these five latter birds and one accidental heron 
(.once seen flying over the valley) I close this perhaps imperfect 
list of the eighty -three birds which are summer residents at 
Bethlehem twenty -one of which are not summer residents in 
Massachusetts, unless irregularly so. Man V of these birds repre- 
sent a Canadian fauna; some belong to that and the Alleghanian 
fauna too whereas a few belong entirely to the latter. These facts 
how that Bethlehem is situated on the line between these two 
We, and contains an interesting admixture of birds which be- 
long to different areas of distribution. 

THE HISTORY OF THE ORIGIN AND DEVELOPMENT 
OF MUSEUMS. 



QOLLECTIONS of objects of natural history are indispensable 
^nowadays to the naturalist in his studies. The advantage of 
such collections to the student is indeed very obvious, as the fudv 
of natural history consists chiefly in comparison. Every des rip" 
ion every observation, is more or less a comparative one, even if 
hat rob C °T 1S110t mentioned ' »»d * " easily understood 
that richer and more complete collections help to a more com- 

d tbl y V a Tn ^^ WOrk ' The hi8tor /° f *he origin and 
development of collections of natural history is not devoid of in- 

a co Son Th 7^ * ^ m08t C ° nVenient ™gement of 
collection. The materials for such a history are scanty, for those 



1876.] The Origin and Development of Museums. 81 

of ancient times are nearly wanting. But the impossibility of be- 
lieving that knowledge in natural history would be attained and 
furthered without collections induced Professor Beckmann to 
express the opinion in a short but interesting paper on this sub- 
ject, some ninety years ago, that the origin of such collections 
was to be found in the old custom of keeping curious and remark- 
able objects in temples. This opinion gains some ground, as the 
medical sciences are considered to have originated in the written 
reports of convalescents about their sickness, and the remedies 
used, which were posted in the temple of JSsculapius for every- 
body's instruction. There are some interesting facts quoted by 
the classic authors. The skins of the hairy men from the Gor- 
gades Islands, brought home by Hanno's expedition, were still 
preserved in the temple of Juno, three hundred years after Car- 
thage was destroyed. The late Professor J. Wyman ingeniously 
suggested that they might be the skins of the gorilla. The 
horns of the Scythic bulls, exceedingly rare, and alone capable of 
preserving the water of the Styx, were given by Alexander the 
Great to the temple of Delphi. The horns of the renowned 
obnoxious steer from Macedon were presented by King Philip to 
the temple of Hercules ; the abnormal omoplate of Pelops was 
in the temple at Elis ; the horns of the so-called Indian ants, in 
the temple of Hercules at Erythris ; the crocodile brought home 
by the expedition to the sources of the Nile, in the temple of Isis 
at Caesarea. A large number of similar cases are quoted in Pro- 
fessor Beckman's above-mentioned paper. The choice of places 
devoted to religious service, for such deposits, was very appropri- 
ate, every spoliation of them being considered sacrilege. So it 
happened that such curiosities were preserved many centuries, 
and the not infrequent additions in such a space of time formed at 
last a somewhat considerable collection, open at any time and to 
everybody. The variety of prominent objects was certainly in- 
structive to the observers. 

Apollonius saw with wonder in India the trees bearing the 
different kinds of nuts he had seen before preserved in the tem- 
ples in Greece. After all, things brought together in such con- 
fusion were the origin of collections ; and in fact this custom was 
continued through the Middle Ages, changed only by the exclu- 
sion of objects not agreeing with the sanctity of the place. In 
a votive temple on the battle-field of Feuchtwangen hung the 
omoplate said to be that of the commander of the Teutonic 
Order who had fallen in battle four hundred years ago ; it is now 



82 The Origin and Development of Museums. [February, 

in the museum in Koenigsberg, Prussia, and belongs to a whale. 
Even now this custom is not entirely obsolete. 

It seems certain that prominent naturalists, such as Aristotle 
and Apuleius, must have had collections, though there is no di- 
rect testimony to that effect given in any of their works still ex- 
tant. The order of Alexander the Great for hunters, trappers, 
and fishermen to bring all kinds of natural objects to Aristotle, 
is well known ; Theophrast and Apuleius are also known to have 
studied and dissected many different kinds of animals, chiefly 
fishes. Apuleius is the first naturalist known to have found it 
profitable and necessary to make voyages for the purpose of study- 
ing foreign animals, and collecting palaeontological objects in the 
Getulic Alps, but unfortunately all his works on zoology are 
lost. The Emperor Augustus is considered the first prince pos- 
sessing collections of a scientific nature. 

I presume that the certain knowledge of the collections of the 
great naturalists above quoted was lost, as the collections them- 
selves were quickly destroyed, for lack of means for sufficient 
preservation. The truth of this explanation is made more appar- 
ent since the successive discovery of more convenient and easier 
means of preservation of objects has made these collections more 
lasting and permanent through later generations. In a really 
interesting and obvious way, every new discovery, every improve- 
ment in the manner of preservation, has given a newer and 
stronger impulse to the enlargement of the collections, to the 
perfection of science. 

Some methods of preserving objects were of course known to 
the ancients, but these methods were the same as those used for 
the preservation of food or of corpses, and generally not at all 
adapted or sufficient to preserve objects in a manner to make 
them fit for scientific purposes. The principal of these methods 
consisted in the exclusion or the prevention of the obnoxious 
action of oxygen. So the objects were preserved or dried, 
pickled with salt or spices, or entirely covered with salt water, 

The sow which was said to have borne thirty young pigs to 
iEneas was pickled by the priests, and was still to be seen at 
Lavinium in Varro's time, some ten centuries later. Large Af- 
rican animals pickled with salt, two hippocentauri and a large 
monkey, sent to Rome, were seen many years later by Pliny. 
Other large animals preserved in the same way were sent to the 
emperors in Constantinople, and even much later the hippopota- 
mus described by Cohunna arrived, pickled with salt. 



1876.] The Origin and Development of Museums. 83 

It was the custom among the Assyrian people to preserve 
corpses in honey, and this did very well also for delicate objects. 
When Alexander the Great conquered Suza, he found a very 
large and expensive quantity of purple dye two hundred years 
old, preserved in an excellent condition by an external layer of 
honey. Covering the objects with wax preserved them well, but 
for scientific purposes not better than the mummies of animals 
found to this day in the Egyptian pyramids. The celebrated 
book of Numa Pompilius, found in his grave, was entirely covered 
with wax, and, though five hundred years old, in perfect condition. 
The long space of time after Chrisfs death, nearly twelve cent- 
uries, is entirely devoid of interest concerning natural history. 
Curious enough, and perhaps explaining this lack of interest, is 
the fact that in the earlier centuries of the Christian era the 
study of natural history was believed to be in some way a proof 
of religious infidelity. The reason of this will probably be found 
m the lack of education and study of the disciples and nearly all 
the apostles. Discussion would have been impossible, difficult, 
or of doubtful result. Simple faith covered all. So it happened 
that the prominent works of Aristotle were nearly lost in Europe. 
Translations of these into the Arabian language, introduced in 
the tenth century through Spain, and again translated into Latin, 
were used, and the original text was perhaps not known until 
the fifteenth century in the west of Europe. Except a few 
scanty pages in the works of Saint Isidorus, there was nothing 
written about natural history before the time of Albert the 
Great, and of course no collections existed. We are told by 
Begin, in his work on the natural history of the Middle Ages, 
that rich abbeys and cloisters possessed indeed some collections 
of medicinal or poisonous plants, of fossils, minerals, and shells. 
Even in the time of the Crusaders, such collections were aug- 
mented by frequent voyages in foreign countries. Some of these 
curiosities are still preserved: for instance, in the treasury of 
St. Denis, in France, the feet of a griffin, sent to Charles the 
Great by the Persian Shah ; some teeth of the hippopotamus, and 
similar objects. 

The vast erudition of the celebrated Albertus Magnus, a Cath- 
olic priest born in Bollstadt, in Germany, extended even to 
natural history. His works are in every way admirable. The 
manifold voyages of this savant, his long residence in very differ- 
en t places, Cologne, Paris, Rome, and Regensburg, facilitated 
the observation of different animals. The works of Aristotle 



84 The Origin and Development of Museums. [February, 

were known to him only in the Arabian translation, and he ap- 
parently possessed no collection ; at least, in going through his 
works, it is evident that the animals were described after living 
or fresh specimens. 

Science, during the next three centuries, did not advance in a 
remarkable way; we find nothing but repetition of the state- 
ments of Alb pies, Cantipratanus, Bartholomseus 
Anglicus, Roger Bacon, Vincentius from Beauvais, and others. 

The middle of the fifteenth century, and the time immediately 
following, is one of the most striking periods in history. The 
invention of printing, the discovery of America and of the way 
around Africa to the East Indies, the overwhelming amount of 
gold and silver gained by trade or war in those new countries 
and suddenly inundating all Europe, followed by the momentous 
times of the Reformation, made a change in fashion, in study, and 
in knowledge, never seen before, and perhaps never to be seen 
again. Art and science advanced in the same rapid manner, the 
latter prepared in some way by the large immigration of learned 
Greeks, after the destruction of the Greek empire by the Otto- 

The same great time produced some discoveries of the highest 
importance to the existence and preservation of collections ; the 
most important, now considered by millions as the greatest calam- 
ity, being that of alcohol. This fluid was known to alchymists 
long before, but the use of it as medicine, as drink, and for the 
preservation of animal substance, certainly not much before 1483. 
A poem printed in that year, in Augsburg, set forth the excellent 
qualities of the fluid, and stated decidedly that it had been 
proved that all meat, fish, and fowl put up in alcohol would be 
well preserved, and would never decay. But ten years later we 
find the same use and abuse of alcohol as at the present time. 
The use of alcohol for the preservation of objects offered the 
additional advantage of their being easily seen and studied. 
Something else was needed, however, namely, good transparent 
glass jars or bottles, and the means of closing them as well as 
possible. I have not been able to ascertain the time of the first 
manufacture of transparent glass bottles; I suspect, however, 
that it may belong to some earlier time. The use of cork to 
close bottles dates surely after the middle of the sixteenth cent- 
ury, as in 1550, at least in France, it was known to be used only 



for soles. Before 



is time, and even a century later, 



1876-3 The Origin and Development of Museums. 85 

Paper, a very important object for collections, has been known 
since the beginning of culture in the East, but the use of it be- 
came gradually less and less, on account of heavy taxes upon it, 
from the beginning of the Christian era to the sixth century, and 
in the twelfth and thirteenth centuries the use of it was nearly 
forgotten. Cotton paper was carried by Arabs to North Africa 
in the tenth century, and two centuries later to Spain. Curi- 
ously enough the manufacture of linen paper was discovered 
through an intentional fraud. People first tried to make cheaper 
cotton paper by the introduction of linen rags, and very soon ob- 
served that the paper was greatly improved by this addition. Of 
course the manufacture with linen rags alone gave a more perfect 
paper, and was retained. This was probably first manufactured in 
Germany, as there exist old deeds in Havana on linen paper from 
the year 1318. Paper mills existed in 1341 in France, and later 
in Nurnberg, Holland, Basle, and Switzerland. Some mills existed 
in England, but produced only packing-paper ; till 1690 all writing 
and printing paper was imported from Holland. It is sure that 
at the end of the fifteenth century linen paper was everywhere 
used, and cheap enough to displace the costly parchment. It is 
obvious that the common use of paper was a great advantage to 
every student. Botanical collections were only possible when the 
preservation of dried plants could be afforded. Just at this time 
the name herbarium, with its present meaning, seems to have 
originated. 

Before this time, objects of natural history accompanied only 
oy chance the more valuable objects of trade. Now science 
seemed suddenly to be awakened, or rather new-born. Every 
one was in haste to study the new objects, never seen before, and 
arriving in great numbers from newly-discovered countries. It 
was a natural consequence that those of the old country should 
oe compared with the new ones, and every student was surprised 
to find so much around him that he had never known before. 

Conrad Gesner, a naturalist from Switzerland, a student of 
vast erudition and clear judgment, may be considered the reno- 
vator of natural science. History begins a new volume with his 
name, and his works are for the next centuries of the same im- 
portance as those of Albertus Magnus for earlier times. Gesner 
l >egan in a right and sensible way to study thoroughly the com- 
mon objects nearest him, and by this means was enabled to 
understand more easily those from foreign lands with different 



86 The Origin and Development of Museums. [February, 

Switzerland, Genoa, Venice, Augsburg, Nurnberg, were at 
this time in a most favorable position for students. The largest 
trade of the world, from the East Indies, passing through these 
cities made them the most important centres of trade. The cel- 
ebrated house of the Fuggers, in Augsburg, possessed the whole 
north of South America, a country larger than Europe ; and it 
was therefore easy for them to collect in their princely mansions 
the wealth and curiosities of the world. 

The desire to possess the largest collections increased in a way 
easily to be understood, especially as the invention of the printing- 
press had now afforded facilities for making the facts known to 
the world in a very short space of time. As the trade was in 
the hands of merchants, of course the collections were in their 
hands also, or in those of private students more or less widely 
known, as, for instance, Agrippa, Monardus, Paracelsus, Valerius 
Cordus, Hieronymus Cardanus, Matthiolus, Conrad Gesner, 
Agncola, Belon, Rondelet, Aldrovand, Thurneisser, Ortelius, 
from Italy, France, Switzerland, and Germany. England, too, 
was not behindhand, and Hackluyt gives an index of private col- 
lections in that country. The arrangement and contents of these 
collections are given in printed lists, the first known of which is 
that by Samuel Quickelberg, a learned physician of Amsterdam, 
published in lo65, in Munich. Shortly after, Conrad Gesner 
published the catalogue of the collection of Johann Kenntmann, 
a prominent physician in Torgau, Saxony. The whole collection 
contained in a cabinet with thirteen drawers, each with two par- 
titions about sixteen hundred objects : minerals, shells, and marine 
animals ; and yet it was thought to be so rich that students made 
long journeys to see it, and Kenntmann stated that the objects 
were collected at such an expense as few persons would be able 
or willing to afford. Similar catalogues are published by Mer- 
cati from Rome, Imperati, from Naples, Palissy, from Paris, 
and Thurneisser, from Berlin. 

I cannot omit here to mention that nearly all interest shown 
m science was manifested by Protestants, the few honorable ex- 
ceptions being mostly priests, who understood the times, and the 
necessity of being always among the foremost, in order not to lose 
their ascendency. The followers of Loyola were, soon after the 
mstitut^n of the order, eager enough to gain distinction even 
aere. FoMowipg the history of our subject, our attention is called 
Re ornT 7 *??* ^ ^ a11 de P artm <^ « -cience before the 
Reformation fell gradually into the power of the predominant 



1876.] The Origin and Development of Museums, 87 

church, which hurled an anathema against all further investiga- 
tions. The noble and brave inhabitants of Spain, the valiant and 
intelligent people of Italy, the nervous and quick-minded French, 
the accurate and slow Germans, all were in the same way subdued, 
and prepared to recognize nothing but the ideas approved by the 
church. Curiously enough, there never existed a stricter censor- 
ship of published books, the censors being at first Catholic priests 
and afterwards principally Jesuits, and their opinions are printed 
on the first page of many old works on natural history. It 
should never be forgotten that while those countries which ac- 
cepted the Reformation grew stronger and stronger, fostered in- 
telligence, and furthered science, all others, even the noblest, de- 
generated, and never again reached their former prominence, 
though they struggled bravely and nobly. Everybody will re- 
member poor Galilei, a giant sacrificed to the glory of the church. 
Every kind of free thought seemed then, as at the present time, 
most pernicious to this infallible institution. 

It now became the fashion for princes to possess collections. 
They contained celebrated medicines paid for by their weight in 
gold. Bezoar, the horn of the unicorn, the Maledivian nut, the 
Alraun, were perhaps placed side by side with such rarities as the 
pistol with which Berthold Schwarz tested gunpowder when he 
had discovered it, with Chinese or Egyptian relics, and what would 
now be considered bric-a-brac of every kind. The German Em- 
peror Rudolf II., otherwise known for his avaricious and indecent 
behavior, spent large sums of money for his collections, and paid 
a thousand gold florins, a very large sum for those times, to his 
artist Hoefnagel, for drawing the specimens contained in them. 
The magnificent miniatures on parchment, in four volumes, aiv 
still extant. The Princes of Gottorf brought together an admi- 
rable collection, called, after the fashion of those times, Kunst- 
kammer (cabinet of art), the remnants of which are still promi- 
nent treasures of the collections of Copenhagen and St. Petersburg. 
A competition now arose between travelers in search of inter- 
esting objects. I will mention only those of the Baron von Her- 
berstein to Moscow, of the Ambassador Busbeq to Constantinople, 
who imported the first tulip, of Olearius to the East Indies, and of 
Kaempfer to Japan. Eventually nearly every prince felt obliged 
to have a well-arranged cabinet. 

A prominent physician in Nurnberg, Besler, published a de- 
scription of his collection, or rather figures of some objects, in 
1642 ; the first edition of which is very rare, printed on blue-tinted 



88 The Origin and Development of Museums. [February, 

paper. The collection contains dried plants, Indian nuts arranged 
on a string (a horrid poison), a branch of a plum-tree with one 
hundred and twenty plums, weighing thirteen and one quarter 
pounds, horns of the unicorn, monstrous horns of other animals, 
a stuffed lynx, whose open mouth and red tongue made him look 
very ferocious, the cranium of a wolf, the bone of his tongue and 
wind-pipe, a rodent animal from Moscow, some birds, the cranium 
of a swan, a nautilus with carved shell, monstrous heads formed 
by shells, minerals, money, medals, crystals, the sword of Ziska 
a Turkish pipe, vases of terra sigillata, fire-proof cloth of asbes- 
tos, jewels, guns, old stone hatchets, corals, Indian ink, fucus 
growing on a stone, and petrefactions. 

I have enumerated purposely the contents of one collection of 
this time, and have chosen this particularly because it seemed to 
be the most interesting, as the description of it was reprinted four 
times in the years immediately following. A rich and partially 
classified catalogue of John Tradescant's collections was published 
in England by his son ; but one will not be surprised to find such 
a heading: "Some kinds of birds and their eggs," and among 
them "Easter-eggs of the Patriarch of Jerusalem," and « the claw 
of the roc bird, which, as authors report, is able to truss an ele- 
phant. 

As numerous other collections of this period were arranged in 
a similar manner I pre f er to mention only one more, that of 
the Jesuits in the Collegium Romanum at Rome, because the cat- 
alogue printed in 1678 shows the interior rooms in which the col- 
lection was arranged. As Italy was at this time still the leading 
country of the world in fashion and culture, and the order of the 
Jesuits influential and powerful, the arrangement of their collec- 
tion may be considered as a fair example for others in that cent- 

r y w f , c r tainly more ° r iess imitated *■ but never sur P assed 

t. We find large, vaulted galleries, connected with vaulted rooms, 
the floor covered with inlaid marbles, the ceiling with allegorical 
pictures. The arrangement of the exhibited objects shows a kind 
of refined taste, and is agreeable to the eye ; the taller and more 
prominent objects being arranged by themselves in the middle, 
as, for instance, a number of Egyptian obelisks, on the top of each 
of which were placed emblems of Christianity. Busts and other 
oojects we re placed on columns along the wall, the spaces between 
them be.ng provided with shelves bearing smaller objects. Pict- 

heTvierl^ " ^ 1 maF fil1 the U PP er P art of the ™«. «** 
heavier thmgs, such as a crocodile, are suspended from the ceil- 



1876.] The Origin and Development of Museums. 89 

ing. Not the least prominent object of the museum is an obelisk, 
made in the Egyptian fashion, to celebrate the memory of the 
conversion of the Swedish Queen Christina, the daughter of the 
most prominent king in the Thirty Years' War, Gustavus Adol- 
phus, the fact of the conversion being expressed on the obelisk in 
thirty-three different languages. 

Just at this time a curious historical essay on the origin and 
development of museums, and the best arrangement of them, 
was published, the author of which was probably a certain Ma- 
jor, and this very rare pamphlet, first published in 1674, has 
been reprinted later in Valentyn's Museum Museorum. Accord- 
ing to the fashion of the time the author begins with the enu- 
meration of the different names for such exhibitions, and out of 
forty of these, seventeen are Greek. I think it would be rather 
hard to remember them all, and even tedious to hear them re- 
peated. The number of collections from the time of King Sol- 
omon to the author's time is computed to be one hundred and 
forty, twenty-two of which belonged to prominent princes ; many 
of them are spoken of more in detail, but mixed with fabulous 
stories. The author believes it very probable that King Solomon 
possessed a collection, and is sure about King Hizkiah of Jerusa- 
lem, and Ptoloma3iis Philadelphus of Alexandria. He speaks 
about the museum of the Greek emperor in Constantinople, said 
to have contained the whole poetry of Homer written on the 
skin of a dragon, a fact which he concludes to be somewhat 
doubtful, as according to his calculation this skin must have been 
one hundred and twenty yards long. 

At some length are "given details about the collections of the 
Great Mogul in Agra, of the Inca in Peru, and of Montezuma in 
Mexico, the last two being real marvels of richness and value. 
All the animals, trees, and plants of the country were manufactured 
in pure gold or silver, in life size, and smaller ones in jewels, and 
placed in the gardens of the court. Montezuma is said to have 
possessed a zoological garden with all the living animals of the 
country, the ditches for marine animals being filled with salt 
water. Most of the facts given in this essay are partly exagger- 
ated, partly erroneous ; nevertheless some of the chapters, sug- 
gesting the best rules for arranging a museum, are quite inter- 
esting. 



90 Californian Garden Birds. [February, 

CALIFORNIAN GARDEN BIRDS. 

r^HE sociable and confiding disposition of the birds of the west- 
ern United States as compared with the same species eastward 
has been noticed by several late writers, but the reasons have so 
far been scarcely mentioned. Among them perhaps the strongest 
is that bird-collectors and idle boys are less numerous, while 
sportsmen find larger game so plenty that they do not waste 
ammunition on birds so small that no one but a foreigner would 
take the trouble to pick them for the table. 

Besides this, the prevalence of prairies over most of the western 
regions makes any garden full of trees and shrubs a rare nursery 
for the woodland species, where they find more protection from 
hawks and weasels than in their native groves, while they may 
also levy a small contribution on the fruits in return for the 
insects they destroy, and their lively songs. In California the 
poison intended for ground-squirrels has also destroyed millions 
of birds about the fields, and left them unhurt in gardens 

It is interesting to notice that most of the early travelers in 
California mention the comparative scarcity and silence of small 
birds about the first settlements. 

• In the garden at Haywood, eighteen miles southeast of San 
Francisco in which I have before noted the nesting of the Anna 
humming-birds, so great a variety have built this spring that 
some notes on the others may be of general interest. The ex- 
tent of ground is only half an acre around the house in which I 
hve, and most of the nests mentioned are within it. The hum- 

has buil here, though swarms of the Nootka hummer frequented 
the eucalypt us-trees during April, on their way north. Another 
ul uJf' J h&eggS > laidA P ril 23d and 24th, hatched 
May 11th, thus confirming the remarkably long (from seventeen 
to eighteen days) period of incubation. 

A single Stellula calliope was shot April 16th near here. I saw 
16th w r A [ exandri Ma y 4th >and one Calypte cost* May 
Artn hn \ theS l h r mera ^ V ^ rare near San Francisco. An 
Arkansas kingbird (Tyrannus veri m a tree in 

the street adjoining the garden, but too high to Lan'ne A 
bkck pewee (Sayornis niyrieans) had built under the eaves of 

oLr^tno? 7 " e T lj ^ FeWry ' but also t0 ° hi g h fOT dose 
observation. A pair of western bluebirds (Sialia Meccano) had 



1876.] Californian Garden Birds. 91 

raised a brood of young under the roof of the adjoining house, 
and all of them have frequented the garden much after May 4th. 
The well-known summer yellow-bird (Dendrceca cestiva) arrived 
April 20th, and a pair have a nest in the garden, though its site 
has not yet been discovered. 

The barn swallow {Hxrundo horreorum) builds, as elsewhere, in 
the barns, against rafters, etc., arriving March 19th. The cliff 
swallow (Eirundo lunifrons') builds under eaves of barns and 
houses much more abundantly than the last. I saw two instances 
in town where bluebirds took possession of nests of this bird 
about the 15th of March, and successfully held them against the 
owners, which returned from the south on the 24th. A pair of 
white-bellied swallows (Hirundo bicolor var. vespertina Cooper) 
took possession of a little bird -house which I put upon a post 
twelve feet high, near the house, and have built and laid eggs in 
it since April 30th. (Some others were building in town after 
their arrival three months earlier.) They had to drive off a 
saucy wren which had a nest near by, but had tried to hold two 
houses by building a sham nest in this one, and often endeavored 
to tear down the swallows' nest in their absence. 

This western variety of the H. bicolor is larger and bluer than 
the eastern, though so far without a distinctive name. I found 
it breeding in 1873 as far south as latitude 35°, in Ventura County, 
Cal, near the coast. A house wren ( Troglodytes cedon var. Park- 
manni), as just remarked, built in a bird-house placed on the end 
of the porch. This species arrived March 30th, though a few win- 
ter within a hundred miles southward. The male of the pair men- 
tioned came to the garden about the 10th of April, and very in- 
dustriously worked at building a nest for two weeks before it per- 
suaded a female bird to remain. It sung constantly, but less 
finely than the eastern birds, from which its longer tail, never 
held vertically, further distinguishes it. 

Two pairs of the house linnet (Carpodacus frontalis var. rho- 
docolpus~) have nests in a Monterey pine (P. insignis), another 
in a cypress, one under a plank placed in the forks of two trees 
for a swing to hang on, and one pair in a rose-bush covering the 
end of the porch, where children can look freely into it. This 
last had the first egg laid April 22d; incubation began on 
the 25th, and the young hatched May 6th and 7th, requiring 
about eleven days. Although thousands are shot in the fruit sea- 
son on account of their destructiveness, neither the numbers nor 
the familiarity of this characteristic western bird seem to be dimin- 



Valifornian Garden Birds. [February, 

ished They swarm also in the groves and kill vast numbers of 
tne yet more destructive caterpillars during the spring months, 
being thus quite as useful as the imported English sparrows. 
cJ/, ■?, gOWfin0h <.°*»»*** Pariah commonly 

called here " mid canary," abounds in gardens. A pair built in a 
rose-bush close to the path, and not over three feet from the 
giouna commencing to set on four eggs April 20th and hatching 
ten days They only raised one young, which left the nest 
May 16th. Others were fledged when this hatched, and still other 
pairs were just laying, in nests usually from six to twenty feet up 

Z™ "I ,' ° n ° 'T 6 ™' in a P ine - The e S& here "» P«* 
greenish or almost white, and 0.45 by 0.60 inch The Lawrence's 
goldfinch (Chrysomtiris Zmorendi), not yet distinguished by 

ts hab.ts so far as to begin to frequent gardens where coniferous 
trees grow, building in pines and cypresses, as the nearest ap- 
nev a er J T* Z '}*** *° the £aTOrite ^^ though I have 
natTve n 7 WS at M ° Dtere y' where «» former trees are 
field's id, t' fit eWer 7^ 6Videntl y led int0 e ™ by Dr. Can- 
held s identificahon of their eggs from Monterey, as given in 
North American Birds, j. „ Qy where hfl * * 

So in ' a ««0° " ° f f' PmltHa " 6tC ' Th03e * ^ near San 

D.ego in 1862 were, as described in the Ornithologv of Califor- 

'■> • in, pure white, measuring 0.46 bv 80 in^h " r m iQ 

«S» builtlf '" A f ° f Chippin 8 S P" rows (**•*• L- 

ohers hit I "!! 83 ab ° Ut eigl " feet above the ground, and 

-tftLftZ " eStS ab ° Ufc th ° garden - Th °y *™™ d March 31st, 
summer v"Z H T, ° D ,** "* Th * ^ of «» ™ a » 
rCd Anr 1 Z -T i!' lmnet ( ^"""V^ ^na). It ar- 
m a tlfil' M it! bUdt " " eSt iD the g arde »- A »-* fo«" d 
in a thicket May 15th contained four nearly fresh ears like those 
desenbed ,n the Ornithology of CalifornL Thrown fi„I 



is^ot m Var - eri8Salia} ' th ° U S h oft ™ <*"<><• "canon finch," 
protected"- 6 fl n7r n "' Se ° 1Uded TaHeyS than in e arde " s ™>« re 
tamest of ' ad ' be ' ng a C0D8tant "*<««*. become, one of the 
asTear the 1 SPe °' eS ' """^ '° ^ d °° r f ° r f °° d and buildin S 
birds k 2„ '° USe 1 '' Ca " find a ,ocati °n. Like other resident 
filt c^he mUC1 Variati ° n in ti,ne ot " es «"g. « » 'aid t^ 



1876.] Californian Garden Birds. 93 

The western oriole (Icterus Bullockii) arrived here March 
31st. My statement in the Ornithology of California that they 
arrive at San Diego as early as March 1st applies only to a very 
few avant-courriers, as most of them reach there after the 15th. 
They reached Ventura County in 1873 about the 20th ; but as I 
saw one in the November previous, a few may winter in Califor- 
nia, that being two months later than they usually leave. 

A pair built in a hanging branch of a gum-tree (Eucalyptus) 
in the garden, about thirty-five feet from the ground. The male 
was in the immature plumage (like the female), and another 
male skinned by me April :24th was similar, so that, like Icterus 
spurius, some of the males, if not all, require more than one year 
to obtain perfection, a fact not before recorded. Like the Icterus 
Baltimore and the other species as far as known, it probably re- 
quires three years, though the stages are not so very different as 
to have been called species, as with Icterus spurius and many 
tropical American forms. 

The following birds also built in other gardens in town, but I 
could not watch them so carefully. The western yellow-bellied 
%-catcher (Empidonax difficilis) arrived March 30th. One pair 
built early in M ly on a beam under a wagon-shed, in the man- 
ner of the pewees, but, pertinaciously retaining their woodland 
habits, tried to conceal the nest by a wall of green moss partly 
hanging over the edge of the beam and making it still more con- 
spicuous by the contrast of color. Three other nests found along 
the neighboring creeks were built on slight projections among 
roots and stumps overhanging the water, from four to twenty 
feet above it, and all with the same green mossy parapets. I 
have identified the birds by shooting several. The differences in 
both young and adult birds between this and the eastern E. flavi- 
ventris pointed out in the North American Birds, iii. 363, as well 
as the entire difference in nesting and eggs described on page 
380, with which mine agree perfectly, seem to require a specific 
separation of the western birds, none being found intermediate. 
In the Ornithology of California, i. 328, I could not distinguish 
the western adult bird from the incomplete descriptions of the 
eastern, the young only having then been critically compared. 

The Empidonax pusillus of Northern California seems, h ow- 
ever, to graduate southward into the eastern var. Traillii as given 
ty me, though I should have used the prior specific name. The 
nests and eggs described by me in the Ornithology of California, 
i. 330, probably belonged to pusillus, which I have not seen in 
this more open region. E. Hammondii is a more eastern form. 



9 4 Californian Garden Birds. [February, 

^ Swainson's greenlets ( Vireosylvia gilvus var. Swaimonii) ar- 
rive about March 30th, and some keep about gardens, where I 
have found their old nests. None of the characters distinguish- 
ing the western and eastern races seem to be invariable, while 
their songs and habits do not serve to distinguish them specific- 
ally. Their arrival at San Diego, April 10, 1862, as published 
by me, must have been two weeks later than usual. 

The western mocking-wren (Thryothorus Bewickii var. spilu- 
rus) is a constant resident, but commonest in winter. A pair 
built in a small box in a stable, and had young when discovered 
in April. The open nest in a bush described by me in the Or- 
nithology of California, i. 69, is evidence of an unusual depart- 
ure from their common habits, and was very probably an old nest 
built by some other bird, this species generally building in dark 
cavities of trees, brush-heaps, etc., but now apparently growing 
more familiar. It shows variations in building similar to T. Lu- 
dovicianus. 

The American goldfinch ( Ohrysomitris tristis) is less common 
here m summer than the western species, immense numbers go- 
ing north of this State in April, while the others are not known 
to occur in Oregon, and most of C. Lawrencii go south of this 
latitude in winter, being then replaced in numbers by this species. 
On this coast they seem to breed earlier than eastward, as I found 
several undoubted nests in Ventura County about April 18th, in 
willows where none of the other species ever appeared. The 
eggs described by me from Santa Cruz may, however, have been 
those of C. Latvrencii, as they were smaller than usual, perhaps, 
however, from belonging to a second brood. 

I may note here, in connection with this genus of birds, that I 
killed one of C. pinus as late as April 15th, and that they built 
m the tall pines near Monterey, where I saw them in June, 1874. 
This most southern locality recorded is accounted for by the 
cool winds, fogs, and pines of the place. 

The California song sparrow (Melospiza melodia vars. Samu- 
elis, Heermanni), like all species of birds which run into many 
local varieties, is little if at all migratory. Where cats are not 
too troublesome it becomes the most familiar of birds. The great 
variations in the size of these birds in California, from which the 
varieties above named and also M. Gouldii have been de- 
scribed (and even placed in other genera), are not confined to 
any latitude, unless the last (and smallest) was from the penin- 
sula, the middle-sized (Samuelis) being found about San Fran- 



1876.J Californian Garden Birds. 95 

cisco Bay, though more rare than larger ones. In Ventura 
County I found them to vary in full from 5.65 to 6.25 long, wing 
2.40 to 1.80. The eggs also vary exceedingly in size and pattern 
between the extremes given in Birds of North America, iii. 25 
and 27. 

I might extend this catalogue of garden birds considerably by 
mentioning additional species found building in other places in 
gardens, but less commonly. The following are common here 
along creeks on the borders of the town, but not yet found build- 
ing within garden fences. 

The Oregon thrush (Turdus ustulatus), now known to build as 
far south as latitude 35° and probably 34° in California, arrived 
here April 20th, when T. nanus had gone north. I have been 
informed that the robin (T. migratorius), never before known to 
remain in the valleys in this latitude in summer, has begun to 
breed in cherry orchards three miles from here. 

The black-capped warbler (Myiodioctes pusillus var. pileola- 
tus) arrived March 30, and in Ventura County March 18, 1873. 
This is a month earlier than I saw them nearer the coast, as 
noted in the Ornithology of California, i., and accounts for their 
early appearance in Oregon. It is a month earlier than the sum- 
mer yellow-bird, for which I mistook it in 1854 at Puget's Sound, 
arriving April 10th. (Natural History of Washington Territory, 
n. 181. These dates also need correction in later books.) 

The bank swallows (Cotyle serripennis') have holes in the 
steep banks of the creek, one of which I opened May 17th, and 
found seven fresh eggs in it at a depth of two feet, and five feet 
from the top of the bank. The ground wren (Chamaa fasciata) 
is a resident in bushy places along creeks or on dry hills, and 
often frequents fences about clearings where shrubs or brush are 
abundant. It is very artful in concealing its nest in dense thick- 
ets. The plain titmouse (Lophophanes inomatus) is a very socia- 
ble bird where its favorite live-oaks are left standing near houses, 
building in March in any suitable hole it finds. The least tit- 
mouse (Psaltriparus minimus') is another sylvan bird which re- 
mains about houses among oaks and other trees, even in the city 
of San Francisco. I obtained a nest with seven fresh eggs on 
May 15th. The western purple finch (Carpodacus purpureus 
var. Qalifornicus), though not before seen in summer in the 
valleys, sometimes remains near the cool bay of San Francisco, 
and, if not building in gardens, joins the house linnets in their 
depredations on fruit. 



96 Calif ornian Garden Birds. [February, 

The black-headed grosbeak (ITedymeles melanocephalus), a 
delightful summer songster often called here "bullfinch," is in- 
clined to be very sociable, though its nests are so often robbed by 
boys for cage-birds that it builds mostly in places more retired 
than gardens. 

The redwing blackbird (Agelaius phamiceus, and var. guber- 
nator), though preferring marshes, often builds here in small trees 
on the borders of boggy streams within cultivated grounds, if un- 
molested. I saw- a fine male this spring with the shoulders en- 
tirely orange, the opposite extreme from var. gubernator. Brew- 
er's blackbird (Scolecophagus cyanocephalus) is numerous about 
houses, and builds in companies in low trees where unmolested. 
It has recently taken to roosting in winter in the evergreens of 
the "Plaza " in the noisiest centre of San Francisco, with English 
sparrows. The California jay ( Cyanocitta California), if not so 
much persecuted, would be abundant and very bold around houses 
where oak-trees grow, but the boys drive them to wilder build- 
ing-resorts. Its thievish habits and practice of destroying other 
birds' eggs make it a bad tenant. The size of eggs I gave in the 
Ornithology of California was misprinted 1.80 by 1.04 instead of 
0.80 by 1.04 ; these San Diego eggs being, as usual, smaller than 
others from northward. 

Gardner's woodpecker (Pious pubescens var. Gairdneri) is 
a common visitor to the gardens, and, like its eastern relative, 
will doubtless burrow for nests in old fruit-trees. The allied 
Picus Nuttallii seems to avoid this region. 

The rufous humming-bird (Selasphorus rufus), though very 
familiar in other places at least as far south as latitude 35°, I 
have not seen here building near houses, though a few do build 
along creeks, preferring moist locations. On the other hand, the 
barn owl (Strix flammea var. pratincola) is very common, and, 
where protected for the purpose of destroying vermin, becomes 
familiar. One pair has a nest in a windmill, and another built 
in a hole in a steep, high bluff at the edge of a garden, where I 
got fresh eggs April 10th. The nest and eggs mentioned as from 
me in North American Birds, iii. 522, prove to belong to the 
G-eococcyx. 

Finally, the California quail (Lophortyx Calif amicus), though 
becoming rare so near San Francisco, is very tame about houses 
where it is protected, feeding and laying eggs near the barn- 



W**] The Chirp of the Mole-Cricket. 97 

THE CHIRP OF THE MOLE-CRICKET. 

J'HE common mole-cricket of the United States (Gryllotalpa 
borealis Burm.) usually commences its daily chirp at about 
four o clock in the afternoon, but stridulates most actively at 
about dusk. On a cloudy day, however, it may be heard as 
early as two or three o'clock ; this recognition of the weather is 
rather remarkable in a burrowing insect, and the more so since 
it does not appear to come to the surface to stridulate, but re-- 
mains in its burrow usually an inch below the surface of the 
ground. The European mole-cricket is said to chirp both within 
its burrow and at its mouth (plerumque sub terrd, Fischer says) 
and it may be that our species sometimes seeks the air in chant- 
ing ; but the chirp, as far as I have heard it, always has a uni- 
formly subdued tone, as if produced in some hidden recess. 
Fischer says that the European species, which is twice as large as 
ours, cannot be heard more than from one hundred to one hun- 
dred and fifty feet (ultra spatimn 20-30 passuum). Ours, when 
certainly beneath the surface, is easily distinguished at a distance 
of five rods ; and one would presume that it could be heard, if 
° ~"J ground, nearly twice as far away. 



Its ch 

peated 



i"P is a guttural sort of sound, like grti 
i trill indefinitely, but seldom for mor< 



three minutes, and often for a less time. It is pitched at two oc- 
taves above middle C, and the notes are usually repeated at the 
rate of about one hundred and thirty or one hundred and thirty- 
ve per minute ; sometimes, when many arc singing, even as 
rapidly as one hundred and fifty per minute. Often, when it 
urst commences to chirp, it gives a single prolonged trill of 
more slowly repeated notes, when the composite character of the 
chirp is much more readily detected ; and afterward is quiet for a 
Io »g while. When most actively chirping, however, the com- 
mencement of a strain is less vigorous than its full swell, and the 
notes are then repeated at the rate of about one hundred and 
twenty per minute; it speedily gains its normal velocity. The 
note sounds exceedingly like the distant croak of toads (Bufo) 
at spawning season, but is somewhat feebler. Zetterstedt com- 



)8 Bartramian Names in Ornithology. [February, 

3ares the chirp of the European species to the note of Hyla ar- 

Although belonging to the saltatorial Orthoptera, this insect, 
[ike the other species of its genus, is a poor leaper ; inepU »dit. 
says Fischer of its European congener. But on the other hand, 
it can run backward quite as easily as forward, — a fortunate 
Tift, :is the greater part of its burrow is too narrow for it to turn 
in. — Psyche, Cambridge, Mass. 



\ I ^ re Pb r to Mr. Allen must not be considered controversial, for 
1 "- two reasons. In the first place, my original article stated 
the whole case, from my point of view, so carefully, so completely, 
and so explicitly, that I am left without ground for further argu- 
ment. Secondly, nothing that Mr. Allen adduces in his critique 
invalidates the principle I established, most of his criticism being 
irrelevant to the main point at issue, namely, that if any of Bar- 
tram's identifiable, described, and binomially named species were 
entitled to recognition, then all such of his were equally so en- 
titled. Mr. Allen himself admits this, the whole point and pur- 
pose of my article, his protest being simply against the painful 
necessity of so doing ; out of ten Bartramian species which " Dr. 
Coues proceeds to newly * set up,' " he acknowledges the right- 
ful claim of " six or seven "to be so dealt with, thereby yield- 
ing the very point he wished to refute. In short, the only actual 
disagreement between Mr. Allen and myself is that he is able 
to identify satisfactorily rather fewer of Bartram's species than 
I succeeded in doing. But this last is a matter to which I gently 
alluded in my article when I said in substance that ornitholog- 
ical experts would of course identify Bartram's species accord- 
ing to their respective ability. 

But Mr. Allen's article is so courteous, so temperate, and writ- 
ten with such evident intention and desire to be perfectly just to 
all concerned, and yet misses the mark so widely, that I feel called 
upon to examine it further; in doing which, I trust I may not fall 
behind my critic in the amenities ; surely I hope not to. No seri- 

i An article in The American Naturalist for January, 1876, x. 21-29, criticising my 
article '• Fa>u n , 1," in Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. I'Iu'Ih'MI'I''"- 



1876.] Bartramian Names in Ornithology. 99 

ous disagreement can long subsist when each feels and shows the 
respect due to the other, and when neither is contending for him- 
self, but for the truth and the general good. 

Before proceeding further, I will dispose of the only point on 
which Mr. Allen has misrepresented me ; let me hasten to add 
that I am sure he did so unintentionally. For he says that I 
advocate the adoption of certain names « whether they are ac- 
companied by descriptions or not." But he did not really con- 
sider me guilty of such folly ; what he meant was, whether ac- 
companied by sufficient, formal descriptions, according to the 
usual interpretation of what constitutes a description. For rea- 
sons set forth at length in my paper, I hold that all of Bartram's 
species were in effect described. How inadequate many of his 
descriptions were is seen in the large number of unidentifiable 
species. Of course I admit this ; but the quality of Bartram's 
descriptions is not a point at issue. 

Next, I wish to bring prominently forward a strong and good 
point Mr. Allen makes, namely, that species, to be tenable, must 
be identifiable by something in the work itself in which they are 
named; it not being allowable to use knowledge subsequently 
gained to identify them upon a principle of exclusion, or any 
other process of cumulative circumstantial evidence. This is the 
gist of the sound count that my friend makes against me ; for I 
certainly applied some of the knowledge which is the common 
property of ornithologists of 1875 to the identification of species 
proposed in 1791 ; and if this kind of reasoning, and the sort of 
" moral" certainty reached by its means, be ruled out as evidence, 
1 should not wonder if, of the ten species I newly set up, no 
more than the six or seven Mr. Allen admits would be allowed to 
stand. I willingly concede the point, but, in paying my respects 
to Mr. Allen on this score, would simply ask him, What has this 
to do with the proposition of mine, that if any of Bartram's 
species are tenable, then all his fully identified, described, and 
binomially named ones are too ? 

The rest of Mr. Allen's critique may be summed under several 
heads, as follows : — 

(!•) The general statement that Bartram was a pretty poor sort 
ot an ornithologist after all. As an expression of his opinion, 
Mr. Allen has a perfect right to say so, and I should be the last 
to restrict the freedom of his judgment ; but it is irrelevant to 
e case at issue. I think rather more highly of our author than 
Mr. Allen seems to, and in fact I wish we had no worse ornithol- 



100 Bartramian Names in Ornithology. [February, 

ogists to deal with, though there have been such before and since 
Bartram's time ; but I never made his general standing as an or- 
nithologist an argument in favor of adopting certain of his names. 
Yet this wholly uncalled-for attempt to depreciate Bartram's 
general ability as an ornithologist occupies much of Mr. Allen's 
paper. 

(2.) Respecting our author as a binomialist : Those who are 
sufficiently interested may compare Mr. Allen's paper with mine 
on this point, to find that we agree exactly, though Mr. Allen 
has had recourse to the arithmetic of the case, which I did not 
consider necessary. If the figures should show that Bartram 
lapsed from binomial propriety every other time, instead of about 
once in every seven times, the circumstance would absolve no 
one who uses Corvus carnivorus, for instance, from using Corvus 
frugivorus too. This is, in substance, all I ever claimed. 

(3.) Mr. Allen accuses Bartram, by implication, of giving cor- 
rect names " when he happened to know them," otherwise of pre- 
ferring to coin names as the easiest way out of. a difficulty, not 
having the means of ready identification, or not caring to take the 
trouble required for determination. Now, in the first place, this 
is a gratuitous assumption that Bartram did not do the best he 
knew how, and, as such, surely indefensible from any standpoint. 
Secondly, supposing Bartram was a fraud, and did " gobble " all 
the species he could, what has that to do with the question? 
The fact that he did coin names simply imposes upon us the 
necessity of recognizing such of them as are binomial, are identi- 
fiable by description accompanying, and possess priority. His 
motives are not proper subjects of public inquiry. If all the 
species which early and late ornithologists have " borrowed " and 
printed as their own were canceled, what a relief it would be to 
the synonymical lists ! 

(4.) Mr. Allen inquires, with some warmth, whether this sort of 
thing " tends to the best interest of science." It may or may 
not, I reply, but I believe it does, and that time will show it 
does. At any rate, the reason Mr. Allen adduces for his belief 
that it does not is not a sound one. He says, " If the example 
Dr. Coues is here setting be followed, there will be no stability 
to our nomenclature for a long time, but only, except perhaps to 
a few experts, the most perplexing confusion." But I contend 
that the only possible road to stable nomenclature is that which 
leads to the very bottom of the matter. In the nature of the 
case, the process of striking « bed-rock " is desultory, uncertain, 



1876.] Bartramian Names in Ornithology. 101 

and confusing ; I admit, as I deplore, the inconvenience and the 
difficulty. But a fact is no less a fact because it is a disagreeable 
one ; and whether we like it or not, the fact remains that names 
of species will continue to shift until the oldest one that is ten- 
able according to rule is recognized. Therefore the sooner a 
species is "hunted down," the better; and this is just what I 
undertook to do in the cases of a few of Bartram's. I did it 
partly on the score of '* justice " to that author, but this was not 
my main object. I am no sentimentalist in such matters, and if 
I thought it would be to the best interest of science to ignore 
Bartram, I should quietly do so. It is simply because I believe 
it best, in spite of transient inconvenience, to bring him to light, 
that I have done so, in an attempt to secure that very stability 
which Mr. Allen accuses me of disturbing. To speak my mind 
freely, I may add that I should have been disappointed, consider- 
ing that I had signally failed, had not my paper made some dis- 
turbance ; exactly that effect was anticipated and fully intended, 
otherwise the paper would not have shown raison d'etre. And 
I am encouraged further to believe that the paper took its own 
step, however short, in the right direction, by the recollection that 
certain Fasti of my honored predecessor in this particular line of 
work, whose title I have had the presumption to revive, were re- 
ceived with wry faces and shrugs — and received, nevertheless. 
I am perfectly satisfied to let my own be tested in the crucible of 

(5.) The remainder of Mr. Allen's paper is chiefly devoted to 
the examination, seriatim, of the individual cases in which I claim 
priority for Bartram. This portion of his paper is a fair and 
strong counter-argument to mine. It requires, however, no com- 
ment from me, since all this part of the subject, in which the gen- 
eral principle is not involved, is only left where I put it, in the 
ands of the experts, each of whom will determine for himself 
which particular ones of Bartram's names he can identify to his 
satisfaction, and which he cannot. Without here scrutinizing 
the cases in which I believe Mr. Allen to be wrong, I wish to 
acknowledge one instance in which he shows that I am probably 
wrong-, the case of Oerthia pinus, No. 10, which I now see is 
Fobably, as Mr. Allen says, Hehninthophaga pinus, not Den~ 
«"*«* pinus, as I too hastily assumed. f 

dually, let me say a word respecting Mr. Allen's suggestion 
at I ought to have gone further, and attributed to Bartram the 
Priority of discovery of the great law of geographical variation in 



102 Recent Literature. [February, 

size, which recent naturalists have developed and formulated. I 
suspect that Mr. Allen allowed himself to become slightly quiz- 
zical at the close of his critique ; but I shall take him at his word, 
and reply seriously. I do not find that Bartram presents anything 
but a statement of fact of the smaller size of Floridan animals as 
compared with those from Pennsylvania ; to do which, nothing 
but a tape-line, or, failing that useful article, a good pair of eyes 
and fair memory, were requisite. Whereas, in treating of the 
same important subject himself, Mr. Allen has been prominent 
among those who have generalized from the facts to broad con- 
clusions ; and in so doing has displayed inherent powers of mind 
which, coupled with extensive and varied acquirements, have won 
for him the high position he now holds among American natural- 



RECENT LITERATURE. 

Powell's Exploration of the Colorado. 1 — The first part of 
this volume contains the personal narrative by Major Powell of his peril- 
ous and successful exploration of the most wonderful river-gorge in the 
world. The second part, containing his observations on the physical 
features of the Valley of the Colorado, will be noticed In a future number 
of this journal. 

The narrative is one of the most thrilling records of personal advent- 
ure we have ever read ; the interest of the reader is intense from the 
first to the last page, the story being told in a modest, unpretending way, 
so that the dangers do not seem exaggerated, and the impression pro- 
duced by the rare exhibition of courage and endurance is not lessened by 
any straining for effect in the words of the narrator. 

The canon of the Colorado is over a thousand miles loug, and at one 
point over a mile (6200 feet) in depth. This deep cut is broken at inter- 
vals by lateral canons, where branches, such as the Grand, Yampa, Vir- 
gin, Kanab, and others, enter the main stream. An idea of the grand- 
eur of these dark, solitary gorges, with vertical sides often nearly a mile 
high, and with pinnacles and towers overhanging the river winding like 
a silvery thread below, may be gained by a glance at the figures of Mu- 
koon-tu-weap Canon, of a cafion in Escalante Basin (Fig. 5.), but espe- 
cially of the Grand Canon. The bird's-eye view of the Terrace Canons 
(Fig. 6) represents the relations of the>e canons to the surrounding 
country. 



1876.] Recent Literature. 103 

On the 24th of May, 1869, the expedition, in three boats, left Green 
River Station on the Union Pacific Railroad, and after floating down the 
river, shooting boats down over falls, often upsetting* 

losing one boat and many provisions ami in-tnim* nts haunted day after 
day with the sense of worse dangers ahead than those already overcome, 




ES.'ALANTE BASIN. 

and near the close, just as they had escaped the greatest peril of all, left 
apparently to their fate by three of the party, who escaped the dangers 
of the canon only to be murdered by the Indians, they emerged on the 
2 9th of August from the Grand Canon of the Colorado, and the next 
da 7 reached the Mormon settlements at the mouth of the Virgin River. 



Recent Literature. 



Near the Grand Canon Mr. Powell i 
of t T te Indians, more primitive than an) 
nent by our author. They subsist on w 






or truit of the yucca or Spanish bayonet, which ia rich, not 
paw-paw, they eat raw and roasted. « They gather the fruits 
' plant, which is rich and luscious, and eat them as grapes, or 



1876.] Recent Literature. . 105 

from them express the juice, making the dry pulp into cakes, and saving 
them for winter; the wine they drink about their camp-fires, until the 
midnight is merry with their revelries. 

" They gather the seeds of many plants, as sunflowers, golden-rods, 
and grasses. For this purpose they have large conical baskets which 
hold two or more bushels. The women carry them on their backs, sus- 
pended from their foreheads by broad straps, and with a smaller one in 
the left hand, and a willow-woven fan in the rhiht, they walk among the 
grasses and sweep the seed into the smaller basket, which is emptied, 
now and then, into the larger, until it is full of seeds and chaff; then 
they winnow out the chaff, and roast the seeds. They roast these curi- 
ously: they put the seeds with a quantity of red-hot coals into a willow 
tray, and, by rapidly and dexterously shaking and tossing them, keep the 
coals aglow, and the seed tray from burning. As if by magic, so skilled 
are the crones in this work, they roll the seeds to one side of the tray 
as they are roasted, and the coals to the other. Then they grind the 
seeds into a fine flour, and make it into cakes and mush." 

A chapter follows containing A Report on a Trip to the Mouth of the 
Dirty Devil River, by A. II. Thompson, which is succeeded by the 
second part, On the Physical Features of the Valley of the Colorado, 
while the third part is zoological in its nature, containing treatises by Dr. 
Coues and Mr. Goode. 

Cope's Check-List of North American Batrachians and Rep- 
tiles. 1 — This is the first of a new series of works published by the 
Department of the Interior for the United States National Museum, under 
the direction of the Smithsonian Institution. Besides the check-list 
which will prove useful to students, Professor Cope enters into an elab- 
orate discussion of the geographical distribution of the vertebrates, par- 
ticularly the batrachians and reptiles, of the northern hemisphere. The 
author divides the earth's fauna into six realms, those of the northern 
hemisphere being the realm of the new world (Nearctic) and that of the 
old world (Palearctic). However well these terms (first proposed, we 
believe, by Dr. Sclater) may apply to the vertebrates, when we come to 
the insects and marine invertebrates the terms " Nearctic " and " Pale- 
ai 'ctic," as applied to the circumpolar region, seem to us to be somewhat 
artificial, though applying well to the north temperate hemisphere. The 
essay, however, will be found exceedingly useful and timely. 

Kidder's Natural History op Kerouelen Island. 2 — The sec- 
ond Bulletin of the United States National Museum run tains the notes on 
the birds of Kerguelen Island made by Dr. Kidder while attached as natu- 
! Check- List of North American Batmchia and Reptilia. By Edward D. Copb. 
B,,ll « i " "f t |„ (juite.i states National Museum. I. Washington, 1). C. 1875. 






X,,t>n 



106 Recent Literature. [February, 

ralist to the American Transit of Venus Expedition in 1874-75. The 
results are of much interest, as the climatic features of the island are pecul- 
iar, while there are no land birds or mammals, strictly speaking, indige- 
nous to it, and but a single shore-bird (Chionis minor), though the island 
is about ninety miles long and fifty broad, with snow-covered mountains, 
the highest of which (Mount Boss) rises to an elevation of about 5000 
feet. The birds observed were pelagic forms, such as gulls, albatross, 
penguins, etc. The species have been determined by Dr. Coues, whose 
synonymical and other notes give additional value to the essay. 



The Zoological Record. 1 — Thoug 



the ap- 



> call the attention of 



for 1874, it is perhaps not entirely too late for 
) value of these yearly i 



the literature of systematic zoology. They deserve an extended circu- 
lation in this country, where access to zoological works is limited, and 
students away from large libraries are obliged to use such a record. 
Possessing such a manual of recent zoological literature, and ascertaining 
what has been published in his special department, the isolated student 
can borrow from central libraries works of which he otherwise would be 
totally ignorant. 

We notice that the last four volumes are much thinner than the early 
ones. Is this a sign of the zoological millenium when all the new species 
and genera shall have been described, and students will be forced to study 
the anatomy, physiology, and development of animals ? 

Scudder's Fossil Butterflies. 2 — This beautifully ,r td 1 
illustrated memoir is the result of a critical and extensive examination 
of the specimens of fossil butterflies existing in European museums, 
none having yet occurred in this country. After describing the fos- 
nd elaborately comparing them with related forms 



ring, the author discuss 






probable food-plants of tertiary caterpillars, and the ] 
m of butterflies most nearly allied to the fossil specie 
as have been erroneously referred in i 



It appears that nine well-authenticated species of butterflies are now 
known, all from the European Eocene and Miocene tertiary formations, 
and that they represent all the families of butterflies except the Rurales, 
represented by the Lyeama. Of the allies of the nine fossils forms, four 
now live in the East Indies, three in America, on the confines of the 
trop,cal and north temperate zones, one in the north temperate zone of 
Europe, Asia, and America, and one on the shores of the Mediterranean. 
The?l^' W mC ° rd f ° r 1872 - Edited b ^ Alfred Newtok. 8vo, pp. 495. 
pp. 5^3 EdItCd ^ E " C ' RYE - L ° ndon : John Van Voorst - 1875 - 8v0 - 

tion fcrihf Tdf CS " B " V SAM0Er ' H - ScUDDER - Memoirs of the American Associa- 
tes ; pp. 99. $1.00. For sale by the N !«««.. ' 



1876.] Recent Literature. 

Three out of the four species whose living allie 
come from the older deposits of Aix, and only 
Aix species shows special affinities to America 
here." the author remarks, ' 
a growing 1 
European tertiaries." 

This handsome memoir appears in print through the generosity of 
Mrs. Elizabeth Thompson, of New York city, who generously gave the 
sum of one thousand dollars for the promotion and publication of original 
investigations by members of the association. The results in every way 
prove the wisdom of the donation, and we express the hope that similar 
benefactions may follow from other sources. 

Sachs's History of Botany. 1 — Under the patronage of the King 
of Bavaria, the Royal Academy of Sciences is publishing a History of 
Modern Science in Germany. The treatment of the individual sciences 
has been entrusted, by a special commission, to men eminent in their 
respective departments. This volume is one of the earliest of the series. 
Professor Sachs, of Wiirzburg, well known as a high authority in vege- 
table physiology, and more widely as the author of A Text-Book of 
Botany, was selected to write the history of botany. The history is given 
in three books. The first treats of morphology and systematic botany, 
and covers the period from Otto Brunfels (1530) and Fuchs (1542), 
down to 1860. The most interesting chapters are those devoted to mor- 
phology as influenced (1) by the theory of metamorphosis and the spiral 
distribution of leaves (1790-1850), and (2) by a fuller knowledge of the 
cell and the lower grades of plants, and (3) by the theory of develop- 
ment (1840-1860). Professor Sachs looks upon the work done during 
the twenty years just mentioned, as having freed morphology and sys- 
tematic botany from their old prejudices ; sight has become clearer, the 
methods of investigation safer, and the manner of putting questions 

The second book sketches the progress of vegetable anatomy from 
Malpighi and Grew (1671-1682) down to the time of Nageli. The au- 
thor j us tly regards Von Mohl and Nageli as having together placed this 
division of botany on a secure foundation. The molecular theory of the 
latter is considered the basis of modern vegetable physiology. 

To this subject the third book is devoted. The conflicting views which 
have been held respecting reproduction, nutrition, and the dynamics of 
Plants are fully presented and with great fairness. It is hardly possible 
to detect any partiality in this remarkable section. It remains to be no- 
ticed that this history is not confined to botany in Germany ; Germans 
may, however, well be proud of the large and honorable share which their 
countrymen are here shown to have taken in the advancement of the 

1 ^esckichte der Bolanik mm 16 Jahrhundert bis 1860. Von Db. Julius Sachs. 
MunduM,. in:.-,. (A HMoi-y of Botany from the 16th Century to 1860. By Dk. 
Jii i-ics Sachs. Munich. 1875.) 



108 Recent Literature. [February, 

science, and they may congratulate themselves upon the selection of an 
historian who has not ignored the claims of other nations 

The Octopus.* -This is a pleasant account of the Octopus or poulpe, 
adapted to the mind of the average visitor at the immense aouarial es- 
tabhshments of the sea-ports of England, and perhaps worth reading on 
this side of the water, where poulpes — « these blasphemies of creation 
against itself," as Victor Hugo styles them — are common enough south- 
ward, but fashionable colossal aquaria are as yet lacking. 

ED WARDS »a Butterflies of North Amkuica.*— *The fourth part 
Of the current series of this magnificent work, issued from the Riverside 
tress at the end of December last (but dated November), contains 
fewer subjects than usual, two whole plates being given to illustrate the 
history of Mehtaa Phaeton and Papilio brevicavda. The former plate 
is perfect as far as the colored figures are concerned, and cannot be sur- 
passed, if it can be equaled, by the best of foreign work ; but the plain 
lithograph of the web is not so satisfactory, i .,;, in , )llt few i vce s 
any indication of the web-like structure. The other plates con tl 
species of Argynnis {A. Eurynome, Bischoffi, and \) p Ts)[ and ' twoTf 
Grapta (G Bylas and Marsyas). The teft accompanying the Three 

sr t s ur r n v h % ei :r, ts is maini ^ **^ *■«£*■ s 0me 

_, es lr ; S ' i|,;! '^ '■la.Miication of these species of Grapta. 

ihe accounts of Phaeton and brevicauda, on the other hand, are very full, 
and are welcome additions to the history of our butterflies. That of 
the former is very nearly complete, but contains a few errors ; for in- 
stance, in the statement that the rows of hair-bearing tubercles of the 
newy hatched caterpillar "indicate the position of The future spine," 
1872W* Tf. - S1DCe ? P ° iDted ° Ut ( C ™ ad ™" Nomologist, March, 
1M - M tins I, not the case, the position of few or none of the spine- 
bearing eminences of the mature caterpillar corresponding with those of 
the previous hair-supporting tubercles. These are points of „,,, •»,„■,. to 
which the author p;.vs little -itrfM.tim. I.„* . i ■ i . 

. * ^ S " ttle attention, but which are very important in 

their bearing upon the affinities of butterflies. 

In writing that "Phaeton alone, out of a hundred species of butterflies 
that frequent our fields," protects itself in the larval stage "in a web 
woven by the community," Mr. Edwards seems to be unaware that this 

1 th t L- a T-T kh C ™7 ° ne ° f thG tribG t0 Which Phae '°» ^ong», as far 
as their history is known, and will therefore doubtless prove ' 

the few species of Easterr " T 



I fully elucidated. It is also t 



whose history has not yet 



1 The Octopus orthp /W JTC^S f v .■ 

■><ndofFa«. RvIIksk 
12mo, pp. in. For sale by the Natur 



'/'/-• lhitt,rjll, 



Vhh Colored Drawings and Descriptions. 



1876.] Recent Literature. 109 

The food-plant, Viburnum dentatum, given on the authority of Mr. 
Glover (doubtless borrowed from Dr. Packard) is probably a mistake. 
The caterpillar of Phaeton has been found upon a great variety of plants, 
such as Aster, Corylus, Berberis, Solidago, Vernonia, Clematis, and 
Rubus, and even upon ferns, grasses, and flags ; but this is to be ac- 
counted for simply by the roving disposition of the caterpillar. 

It is strange ihat Mr. Edwards makes no allusion whatever to the 
very careful account of the history of thi3 insect given three or four 
years ago by Mr. Lintner. 



Book 


and Pamphlets. - 


- The Native Races of the Pacific States of 




By Hubert Howe B 


ncroft. 


Vol. V. Primitive History. New 












Mexico 


based upon Collection-* made by 


,). Bra 


son, Captain J. Xan 


has, and Pre 1. Tick BiM-huff. By George N. 




in of the Boston Ho 













11. Ophiuridse and Astrophytidse, 




edged by the late D 




m Stimpson. By Theodore Lyman. 












native Z.'.o'.oirv, No. 




pp. 34. 


a, a new Genus of Invertebrate Am 


mals described by Tycho Tullberg. 


Plates. 


(Proceedings of the 


Koval J 


wedish Academy of Sciences, May 



By J. B. Davis. (From the Transactions of the Daft 
irlem.) 1874. 4 to, pp. 20. Two Plates, 
nes. I. On the Newport Conglomerate. II. On the Gravel and 



8vo, pp. 15. St. Louis. November 5, 1875. 

Notes on the Natural History of the Grape Phylloxera (P. vastatrix Plunchon). 
% Charles V. Riley. Svo, pp. 7. 

l'<-'ber die Umwamllung de-, Mcxicani-M-hen Ax.dobt in ein Amblystoma. (Siebold 

Kectitication ot ii, :„,!,., ,! M :l p„l M<1 -an embracing Observations on the 
Drift of the State. By Alexander Wmchell. Salem. Svo, pp. 26. 

Botanical Bulletin. Vol. I., No. 1. November, 1875. John M. Coulter, editor, 
Hanover, Ind. $1.00 a year. Monthly. 

An Illustration of North American Agrotis and Oncocnemis. By Leon F. Har- 
H \ v - With a photographic plate. 8vo, pp. 4. Buffalo, N. Y. 1876. 

On NoctuidiE from the Pacific Coast of North America. By A. R. Grote. With 

Boston Society of Natural II Mors. II 
1875. Paper, $3.00; cloth, $3.50. 
nseicaltan. An Address on the Artificial Breeding c 



GENERAL NOTES. 
BOTANY.^ 
Exotic Plants around San Francisco Bat. — Many of the 
species of the Australian eucalypti and acacias mature their seeds in the 
climate of the shores and neighborhood of San Francisco Bay; many 
of the foreign geraniums and fuchsias also seed and fruit in the open 
air, though exposed more or less to the trade-winds ; this is notably the 
case at the university grounds at Berkeley, which are in a line due east 
from the Golden Gate. — R. E. C. Stearns. 

Preissia commutata. — In a communication to the editor, Mr. 
Henry Gillman reports Preissia commutata (liverwort) at Laughing 
Fish River, and Eagle River, Michigan, at White-Fish Bay, Wisconsin, 
and several other localities on the Lakes. The plant occurs chiefly on 
sandstone. 

Sequoia sempervirens. — The statement on page 571 of the Nat- 
uralist for 1875, of the discovery of a grove of colossal redwood 
trees, Sequoia sempervirens, proves to have been a hoax. 

Very large specimens of this species are occasionally met with in the 
forests of the Coast Range. Six miles east of Stewart's Point and twenty- 
three miles west of Healdsburg, in Sonoma County, a fine specimen may 
be seen on the farm of James McCappin ; it is not far from three hun- 
dred feet in height, and reaches up about one hundred feet to the first 
limb ; it is quite straight and symmetrical, and measures seventy-one feet 
ae foot from the ground; seven feet 
i U forty-six feet. — R. E. C. Stearns. 

. — " In the books," the petals of the 
fuchsia are described as convolute. At my request, one of my students 
examined one hundred and fifty-nine flowers of various species, hybrids, 
and varieties. The petals exhibited sixteen different modes of arrange- 
ment with reference to each other. Only twenty-eight, about one sixth, 
were regularly convolute; of these, twenty-one twisted to the right, and 
seven to the left. Seventy-five flowers, nearly half of all examined, had 
one petal outside at each edge, the others in regular order. In thirtv- 
seven cases, one petal was entirely outside, the one opposite to it had 
both edges covered by those next to it. 

The foregoing remarks are kindred to those on Phyllotaxis of Cones, 
in the Naturalist, vii. 449, and on Indicative Estivation, viii. 705.- 
W. J. Beal. 

Vallisnkria spiralis This plant, growing in moderately deep 

water m the south of Europe, has long been a favorite object of cultivation 

in aquana, from the clearness with which the rotation of the protoplasm 

1 Conducted by Prof. G. L. Goodaus. 



can be made out in the cells of the leaves, and the remarkable phenom- 
ena connected with its mode of fertilization, though the latter is less 
often witnessed, owing to the comparative rarity of the male plant. At 
a recent meeting of the Linnsean Society, of London, Mr. A. W. Bennett 
read a paper on the phenomena connected with the development of the 
peduncle of the female flower. This attains a final length of from three 
to four feet, and the rapidity of its growth is perhaps unequaled in the 
vegetable kingdom, being at its most rapid period at the rate of twelve 
inches in twenty-four hours. By marking off" and measuring from time 
to time equal portions of the peduncle as they developed above the sur- 
face of the water, Mr. Bennett determined that the greatest activity of 
growth is displayed by the terminal portion of the flower-bud. A 
marked length of 2 inches from the flower-bud increased to 6.5 inches 
during the time that the remainder of the peduncle increased from 8.7 
to 21.25 inches, showing a greater energy in the former case in the pro- 
portion of three to two. This presents a greater analogy to what is 
known to be the ratio of development of different parts in the case of 
roots than in the case of aerial stems, in which the zone of greatest ac- 
tivity of growth is generally at some considerable distance from the 
apex. Very few observations have, however, been made on the relative 
rate of growth of different portions of the same internode. When unfer- 
tilized, the peduncle of the female flower does not coil up and withdraw 
the flower below the surface, as is the case when pollen from a male 
flower has had access to it, but floats in a wavy manner on the surface ; 
and under these circumstances the female flowers remain open for days 
and even weeks, as if waiting for the male flowers. — A. W. Bennett. 

Insectivorous Plants. — An interesting series of experiments con 
firmatory of the power stated by Darwin to be possessed by the leaves of 
Drosera, of absorbing nourishment through their glands, has been made 
b y Dr. Lawson Tait, of Birmingham, England. He placed side by side 
plants of the common D. rotimdifolia, some in the normal state, others 
with the roots pinched off clef e to the rosette of leaves, and with the 
leaves all buried, only the budding flower-stalk appearing above the 
Ba nd ; others with the roots and flower-stalk left .on, but all the leaves 
pinched off, the roots being buried in the sand ; and others again with 
the roots left on but appearing above the sand, some of the leaves buried 
and others exposed. These plants were all carefully washed with dis- 
tilled water before being planted in silver sand which had been deprived 
of all organic matter, and carefully watched to prevent flies being caught; 
they were then fed, some with pure distilled water, others with a strong 
decoction of beef, and others with a very dilute solution of phosphate of 
ammonia. The conclusions arrived at from the series of experiments 
w ere that the plant can not only absorb nutriment by its leaves, but 
th at it can actually live by their aid alone, and that it thrives better when 
supplied with nitrogenous material in small quantity. The n* 



112 General Notes. [February, 

matter is more readily absorbed by the leaves than by the roots, over- 
fcedisg killing the plant sooner through the leaves than through the 
roots alone, although the roots also a igenous matter. 

Dr. Tait had announced, independently of Mr. Darwin, the separation of 
a substance closely resembling pepsin from the viscid secretion of the 
glands of Drosera dichotoma. 

In the September number of the (London) Journal of Botany, Mr. 
J. Wi Clark details another important independent series of experiments 
with a similar result. He obtained large quantities of plants of Drosera 
rotundifolia, and a smaller quantity of Pinguicula lusilanica, and fed 
the leaves with the bodies of freshly-killed flies soaked in a solution of 
citrate of lithium. The needful precautions being taken to prevent the 
solution from being carried mechanically to other parts of the plant, 
after an interval of forty-five or fifty hours various portions of the plant 
were incinerated, and the ashes tested for lithium by the spectroscope. 
The result proved conclusively that the products of digestion, after 
absorption by the leaves, do enter the leaf-stalk, and are thence dis- 
tributed to other parts of the plant. — A. W. Bennett. 

The Life-Htstory of Moulds. — A most important contribution to 
our knowledge of the lower forms of life is contained in Dr. Oscar Brefeld's 
Botanische Untersuchungen iiber Schimmelpilze (translated by Dr. W. 
R. McNab in the Quarterly Journal of Microscopical Science for Octo- 
ber), containing an account of a series of very close observations on the 
life-history of PeinrilUmn r^ntcum and others of the commonest moulds 
belonging to the same genus. Besides the well-known non-sexual mode 
of reproduction by conidia, Dr. Brefeld detected also on the mycelium 
which he terms " sclerotia," the products of a sexual process. 



These c 



generation produced from the t 



tilized carpogonium. There are therefore i 
alternations of generations. The first or sexual generation is large, and 
capable of producing non-sexual spores. The second or non-sexual gen- 
rounds it in the form of a sclerotium or sporocarp, which after a time 
develops asci and ascospores, these latter again producing the first 
sexual generation. This formation of ascospores seems to show that 
I>r>nni;,,nn must be placed in the group of Ascomycetes; and Brefeld 
considers that, from the striking resemblance of the" minute structure of 
the sclerotia of Penicillium to that of the common truffle, this genus of 
moulds must be placed close to the Tuberaceae. — A. W. Bennett. 

Fungi heaped up in Pines by Squirrels.— Mr. J. S. Fay has 
sent us specimens of a fungus which he finds heaped up in considerable 
buantitfei in the crotches of young pine-trees not more than ten or 
twelve feet high, at Wood's Hole, Mass. Mr. Fay at first supposed that 
these heaps were accidental, but is now convinced that they were made 
either by squirrels or blue jays. The fungi are Boleti, and, as far as can 



1876 -1 Botany. 113 

be determined from their present condition, all of one species There 
are several species of Boletus found at Wood's Hole, but they all grow on 
tne ground. Ihe most probable supposition is that the heaps were made 
by squills, and it would be interesting to know whether they actually 
eat the fang,. Perhaps some reader of the Naturalist may be able to 
settle this point. — W. G. Farlow. 

Messrs. Ii. O. Houghton & Co., of the Riverside Press, design 
pubhshmg shortly a series of sketches of the wild flowers of North 
America, from studies by the well-known botanical artist, Mr. Isaac 
fcprague. Those who are familiar with the accurate work of tbb -killful 
artist^ particularly with his recent illustrations in Mr. Emerson's Trees 
antt S, hrubs of Massachusetts, will welcome the promised plat,s. Each 
portfolio of four colored plates is to be accompanied by descriptive 
le er-press in which the more interesting details of structure and' the 
habits of the plants will be explained. 

Botanical Papers in Recent Periodicals. — ^//^* of the 
Tory Botanical Club, New York, December, 1875. Ejn, 
ST? iT'i 'I"' (A deSCd P ti0Q ' bv ** A -tin, of an' unusual 
t feel, 71 "^ The Variati ° n iS beHeVed b * the edit0r to ^ due 
No Z / de ! el °P meut -) Omphalaria pulvinata Nyl., a lichen new to 
ortn America, has been found at Poughkeepsie by Mr. W. R. Gerard. 
f ota ™™l Bulletin, December, 1875. Professor Porter gives a short 
"st of double wild flowers. Several" notes of local interest. 
^ omptes rendus des Seances de VAcademie des Sciences, Ixxxi. 19. 
exhaustion of the soil by apple-trees, by Is. Pierre. 20. On the 
»eory of carpels, by Trecul. (A study of the pistil in one of the 
Ama 1T n ls family.) 2 1. On fibres of remarkable length and tenacity, 
y as. Pzerre (from Lavatera, of the Mallow family). On fixation of 
mospheric nitrogen in soils, by Trucho, On the formation, structure, 
™ breaking-down of the swellings in the grape-vine produced by 
affi rr\ y C ° niU ' 0n P roducti <>» of sugar in the beet-root, as 
nected by loss of foliage, by CI. Bernard. Villiane, Duchartre, Bous- 

2 T l Pasteur have Bote8 on the same sub J" ect - 0u M»*d 

Ios e, by Girard. 24. On the destruction of vegetable substances 
h wood, by Barral and Salvesat. 



mixed v 



Mom, 



Dr. Luerssen continues his description of t 



cular Cryptogamia collected by Dr. Wawra in the Sandwich Islands. 

•/»• Description of some lichens new to Europe, by W. N> Under. 

xotamsche Zeitung, November 12, 1875. Reports of societies • 

*ea ss ociationat Gmz: Kirchnergave some account- of the botanical 

8 of Iheophrastus, especially the volume on Vegetable PhyawtogT 

acute ^ deSC . ribed as bein S marked bv fu,,ness of detail > aiiJ indicating 

pi-om" 6 ? "V nve " Stisation * An annotated German translation, is now 

vZ V ° n Ettiu S shausen gave reasons for believing that Castanea 



114 General Notes. [February, 

vesca is descended from Castanea ataxia. No. 47. On the marine 
Phanerogams of the Indian Ocean and Archipelago, by Naumann. (An 
account of the flowering plants found in salt water during the cruise of the 
Gazelle.) Nos. 48, 49. Contributions to the history of the development 
of the Sporogonium in liverworts, by Kienitz-GerlofF. In reports of 
societies : Berlin: Ascheron on the distribution of the sexes of Stratiotes, 
a plant allied to Sagitlaria. (The pistillate and staminate plants are 
for the most part widely separated.) Nos. 50, 51. On the development 
of cambium, by Dr. Velten. (Examining N. J. C. Miiller's views.) 
In reports of societies : Brandenburg : Braun on the morphological 
nature of ihe tendrils in the gourd family (regarding them as leaves, 
and in divided tendrils each division as one leaf). Berlin: Brefeld on 



Siizung»b< Akademie der Wissenschaften, lxx. i. 

Contributions to the morphology and biology of yeast, by Emil Schu- 
macher, of Lucerne (detailing experiments to determine the influence of 
low temperature, etc., upon the life of the yeast plant). Lxx. ii. Investi- 
gations respecting the occurrence of lignin in the tissues of plants, by 
A. Bnrgersteiu. (Experiments with aniline sulphate, by which he deter- 
mined the absence of lignin in fungae and algae. It is found in a very 
few plant-hairs, in all wood-cells, but never in cambium. Many bast-cells 
have considerable lignin, but the sieve-cells hardly any. The most curi- 
ous observation was that the walls of pith-cells in many plants are ligni- 
fied, and the medullary rays also. 



ZOOLOGY. 






■ During a flying \ 



to the mountains of Southwestern Virginia, the I 
found Junco hyemalis very common on the summits, at an altitude of 
forty-five hundred feet. A nest containing three eggs, about to hatch, 
was discovered within a stone's throw of the house. It was built on the 
ground, in a hole in a slight embankment. The mother-bird fluttered in 
Bight within a few feet of me, of course rendering the identification ab- 
solute ; besides, the birds were plentiful in the vicinity, and well known 
to the most obtuse of the aborigines of this primeval region. The 
southern extension of the species during the breeding season has only 
* " * f become known. Professor Cope mentions it in a former paper in 



I Naturalist, and I have no doubt t 



right in crediting i 



species with a breeding range to the mountains of Georgia. This cir- 
cumstance of its distribution explains the sudden appearances and disap- 
pearances of the species, according to the weather, during the colder por- 
tions of the year, at low levels. It can readily change its summer for its 
abode, and conversely, by a few hours' flight. 



While 



subject, let me allude 



mentary aberration of mind, I don't know which, that led me t 



1876 -] Zoology. 115 

" Graylock range " as an instance of the southward dispersion of this 
bird in the breeding season, at page 141 of the Birds of the Northwest. 
The proper allusion is to some mountains in North Carolina. — E. C 

Homologies op Mammalian Teeth. - Professor Cope has recently 
investigated the homologies of the different types of mammalian teeth. 
He refers all of them to four types, the hapIodont,ptychodont, bunodont, 
and lophodont. The first is a simple cone or truncate cylinder in form, 
and from it all the others are derived by folding vertically (ptychodont) 
or transversely. The lophodont teeth are the most complex, and consist 
of various modifications of the bunodont type. The bunodont tooth has 
the summit of the crown composed of obtuse tubercles, which may be 
high or low or flattened in different ways. The odd-toed hoofed mam- 
mals have the outer tubercles flattened so as to have a crescentic or 
V-shaped section, and the inner tubercles are either simply conic or con- 
nected with the outer by cross-crests of various character. The rhinoce- 
ros, tapir, Symborodon, etc., possess such teeth. The ruminating animals, 
on the other hand, have both the inner and outer crests much fl 



i section, and they are also much elevated, so as 
Heave deep valleys between them, which are often filled up with cement. 
The flesh teeth of the lower jaw of carnivora were shown m h- ju. 
from a simple tubercular (bunodont) tooth with four i 



be chiefly observed among Eocene < 



a process of < 

mvora. Professor Cope finds that some of these add a small fifth tuber- 
cle, and that this is connected with the outer front one of the four by a 
o\v ledge. Successively the two hinder tubercles disappear, and the 
f ont or fifth grows larger. The ridge connecting the latter with the 
outer grows longer and higher, and the inner front then disappears, 
finally the hinder part of the tooth disappears also, leaving but two 
apices connected by a cutting edge, which is characteristic of the flesh- 
tooth of the lion and tiger. 
The human molar tooth is one of the simpler forms of the bunodont 

Protective Resemblance in the Yellow-Bird. — On passing 
an embankment of the Grand Trunk Railway at Fort Gratiot. Michigan, 
one warm day in August, 1872, we noticed that numbers of the yellow- 
ed ( Chrysomitris tristis Bon.) had collected where an extensive growth 
he common mullein ( Verbascum thapsus L.) lined the slope. Each 
"J* had perched on the apex of a spike of the blossoms, the color of 
* ch was almost the identical shade of yellow in the plumage of the 
blr d- The mulleins were ranged in stiff files, like soldiers in yellow uni- 
° rms ' and each bird, as we passed, remained motionless, looking like a 
continuation of the spike, of which one might be easily deceived into 
^'nking it p art and parce i. As soon as we had passed by? the birdg 
* er e again busy, flitting from plant to plant, feeding on the seeds, and 
• m. selves. 



116 General Notes. [February. 

We could not avoid thinking that there was a meaning in the action 
here described, significant of an established protective habit, especially 
considering the decided changes of plumage assumed by this species at 
different seasons of the year. — Henry Gillman. 

Shells of Kerguelen Island. — The naturalists connected with 
the Transit of Venus Expedition have begun to make their reports. 

In the report of Dr. J. H. Kidder, of the Kerguelen station, now in 
press, Mr. W. H. Dall contributes a list of the mollusca collected, de- 
scribing three new genera. One of these was described in a late num- 
ber of the Annals and Mag. Nat. Hist, by Mr. E. A. Smith, of the Brit- 
ish Museum, under the name Eatonia, long since preoccupied by Hall 
for a genus of brachiopoda. For this Mr. Dall substitutes Eatoniella. 
Mr. Dall also describes a genus allied to Ceropsis of the Carditidce, but 
smooth and without lateral teeth, and with a semi-internal ligament, 
giving it the name Kidderia, in honor of the naturalist of the expedition. 
Dr. P. P. Carpenter also describes a new genus of chitons, with the 
anterior and posterior valves marginate, but not slit, and the other 
valves without a margin. This genus, intermediate between Hanleia 
and the articulate chitons, he calls Hemiarthrum. 

ANTHROPOLOGY. 
Jasper War-Club Teeth. — In the sixth volume of the Naturalist, 
page 157, fig. 24, I described a large flint implement as a hatchet. Such 
specimens I have since been led to consider as teeth, if I may so call 
them, of war-clubs; the handles of which were frequently the femora of 
the elk and bison. This form may be briefly described as obtusely 
pointed, short, and broad jasper implements ; evenly chipped to a well- 
defined edge. Average-sized specimens measure about three to four 
inches in length, by two and a half to three in breadth. While the 
chipping is not as fine as in arrow and spear points, it is certain that the 
majority, at least, are finished implements, as suggested by the author of 
Flint Chips (p. 439), and not merely " blocked out " masses of jasper, 
to be subsequently worked into spear-heads and similar forms (see Ran 
on Agricultural Implements, Smithsonian Annual Report, 1868, p. 401). 
Besides these finished specimens, I have found that the larger flint im- 
plements, which I have considered to be either " lance - heads " (Proc. 
Acad. Nat. Sci. of Philadelphia, 1860, p. 278) or agricultural imple- 
ments when blunt and broad, and weapons when narrower and pointed, 
in vol. vi. of this journal, page 155, fig. 22, — that these, when broken 
in half, were subsequently utilized as I have suggested, just as broken 
arrow-heads were occasionally made available, by conversion into scrap- 
ers (see this journal, vii. 500), except that in the latter instance 
the base of the broken implement was used, and in the former, the 
pointed or upper half. My reason for considering them as the teeth 
of war-clubs is that the point, although blunt, is well defined, and the 



1876.] Geology and Palaeontology. 117 

edges equally so, and that the implement as made was intended for pene- 
nuiimi rather than cutting, but necessarily by the aid of a handle, inas- 
much as the base has a roughly chipped edge, which would prevent its 
being used effectively if simply held in the hand. Certainly as a simple 
cutting implement or hatchet it would not have been pointed. This sup- 
posed use of these specimens, as described, is confirmed by the discovery 
lately of three specimens of such implements in Indian graves. Each of 
these chipped flints had evidently been inserted into long bones (femora) 
of some large mammal. The bones themselves had so nearly decayed 
that only minute fragments could be gathered, but the outline was dis- 
Klg t mh h b le as the relic lay in the ground. Two of these specimens of 
flint teeth had evidently been wrought de novd from the mineral ; the 
other was as evidently the pointed half of a lance -head, or hoe, the 
base being a single surface, showing that the specimen had there been 
broken directly in two. Somewhat confirmatory also of this view of the 
use of such relics is the fact that of the broken specimens of " lance- 
heads " found lying on the surface of the ground, the vast majority are 
the bases; the points having been gathered and utilized, I believe, in the 
manner suggested. War-clubs of wood, armed with a metal tooth, are 
now seen among the Indians Cutlin. in his North American Indians, 
vol. ii., plate 150, figures such an one, and frequently refers to them 
throughout that work. Prior to the introduction of metals, war-clubs 
were of course common, but armed with stone instead of iron. The 
jasper implements above described, I doubt not, were the forerunners 
of the metal teeth of the modern club. — Charles C. Abbott, M. D. 

Opening of a Royal Burial Mound in Denmark. — The Royal 
Society of Northern Antiquaries at Copenhagen has recently published 
a beautifully illustrated folio volume containing a description of a royal 
'•"rial mound or barrow, with translations of the Runic inscriptions on 
stones, at Jellinge, of the time of the royal pair, Gorm and Thyra. 

GEOLOGY AND PALEONTOLOGY. 

known have occurred in the Miocene Tertiary. Professor Gaudry has 
recently announced to the French Academy traces of the ^existence of 
I mammals at the beginning of tl 
>st phalanx and an ui 
i finger. He places t 
mcnum, with the specific name of priscus. The fossils have been found 
,n the same bed, suggesting that the edentate in question has lived at the 
time of the lower Miocene*as well as at the last phase of the Eocene. 

■ Jamaica of on animal of this group, rather smaller than the manatee 
18 indicated by the skull and atlas vertebra, described by Professor Owen 



118 General Notes. [February, 

under the name of Prorastomus sirenoides in the Quarterly Journal of 
the Geological Society of London. 

Geology of New Caledonia. — In an article on -the metallic 
mines of New Caledonia, by Rev. W. B. Clarke, besides a notice of the 
mines of chromic iron and nickel, there is given, in La Revue Scientijique, 
a re'tume of the geology of these islands. 

GEOGRAPHY AND EXPLORATION. 

United States Coast and Interoceanic Surveys. — The late 
annual report of Commodore Ammen, Chief of Bureau of Navigation, 
states that the work of geographically determining as many points as 
are supposed necessary, in Central America and in the West Indies, was 
prosecuted last year by the United States steamer Fortune, and this 
year by the Gettysburg. The longitude of Panama, Aspinwall, Santiago 
de Cuba, and Havana have been determined by means of the telegraph. 
The work now in course of completion will include points on the Wind- 
ward Islands and the northern coast of South America. The survey of 
the outer coast of the Peninsula of Lower California, and that of the 
Gulf of California, had been concluded by Commander George Dewey, 
commanding the Narragansett. The gulf was previously unsurveyed, 
but has now been sufficiently examined and determined for the safety of 
navigation. Commander A. J. Mahan, commanding the Wasp, has made 
much-needed surveys at the mouth of the Rio de la Plata. 

It is recommended that when a vessel can be spared for the purpose 
from those employed on the North Pacific Station, a running survey be 
made of the coast of Gautemala. This would render the survevs (of dif- 
ferent values) continuous from Behring's Straits to Cape Horn. Since 
completing the lines of deep-sea soundings in the Pacific Ocean for cable 
purposes, another line has been run by the United States steamer Tus- 
carora, under the command of Commander Herber, from San Francisco 
to the Sandwich Islands, and some soundings were also made on the re- 
turn of the said vessel from the Navigator Islands to Honolulu. 

In regard to interoceanic surveys, this work, which has been carefully 
prosecuted for five seasons by two or more parties from the Isthmus of 
Tehuantepec to twenty or more miles south of the mouth of theNapipi, 
on the River Atrato, is at length satisfactorily accomplished. Since the 
last report a careful survey of the Isthmus of Panama has been made, 
the computations completed, and the whole placed before the Interoceanic 
Canal Commission. 

he Tundras of Siberia. — The prevalent idea that the plains of 
Liberia are frozen the year around is dispelled by Nordenskiold in his ac- 
count of his Siberian journey, to be found in Nature. « We were yet far 
north of the Arctic Circle, and as many imagine that the region we had 
now passed through, the so little known tundra of Siberia, is a desert waste, 



1876.J Geography and Exploration. 119 

either covered by ice and snow or by an exceedingly scanty moss veg- 
etation, it h perhaps the place here to declare that this by no means is 
the case. On the contrary, we saw, during our passage up the Jenisei, 
snow only at one place, a deep valley cleft of some fathoms' extent, and 
the vegetation, especially on the islands which are overflowed during the 
spring floods, was remarkable for a luxuriance to which I had seldom 
before seen anything corresponding. 

" The fertility of the soil and the immeasurable extent of the meadow 
land, and the richness of the grass upon it, had already called forth 
from one of our hunters, a middle-aged man, who is owner of a little 
patch of land between the fells in Northern Norway, a cry of envy of the 
splendid land our Lord had given < the Russian,' and of astonishment 
that no creature pastured, no scythe mowed the grass. Daily and hourly 
we heard the same cry repeated, though in yet louder tone, when we 
some weeks later came to the lofty old forests between Jeniseisk and 
Turuchansk, or to the nearly uninhabited plains on the other side of 
Krasnojarsk, covered with deep fschornosem (black earth), in fertility 
certainly comparable to the best parts of Scania, in extent exceeding the 
whole of the Scandinavian peninsula. This direct expression of opinion 
by a veritable if unlearned agriculturist may perhaps not be without 
interest in judging of the future of Siberia." 

The Swedish Expedition to Novaya Zemlya. — In our last 
number we gave some account of Nordenskibld's expedition. His ship, 
the Proven, which he placed under the command of Dr. Kjellman, has 
returned to Norway. Nature reports that the party found an abundance 
of marine vegetation in the Kara Sea, which has been hitherto thought 
to be remarkably destitute of vegetable life. " We have,' the letter to 
the Stockholm daily paper concludes, N during this summer sailed over 
known and unknown seas more than six thousand (Eoglkh) miles; we 
have visited regions whither expeditions for more than three hundred 
years have attempted in vain to come ; we have made rich collections in 
all departments of natural science." Nordenskibld, who is the distin- 
guished professor at the Royal Swedish Academy of Stockholm, reached 
St. Petersburg on the 17th of November, having journeyed overland 
from the mouth of the Jenisei River. An account of his journey appears 
in Nature for December 2d. 

The Kybale Race. — An exhaustive monograph of this people (La 
Kybalie et les Coutumes Kabyles), in three large octavo volumes, by 
MM. A. Hanoteau and A. Letourneau, has been noticed in successive 
numbers of the Revue Scientijiqiie. These Kybales are the descendants 
°f the ancient Numidians, and their country forms a part of Algeria. 

Pictures of Yunnan.— Under this title F. Garnier has published 
a work on this inland province of China, abstracts of which, with fine 
views of the striking scenery of the country and the people, are appear- 
ing in Globus, a weekly German journal of travel. 



Mexican Migrations. - At the Exposition International de Geo- 
graphic held at Paris last year, Professor Quatrefages exhibited an un- 
published map illustrating the migrations of the Mexicans. 

MICROSCOPY.* 

Amateur Microscopes. — The notorious success of Mr. Wenham, 
the late Mr. John Williams, and some other microscopists, in preparing 
their own apparatus, is exceptional only by reason of the degree of excel- 
lence attained. It is especially true of microscopists that they love the 
instruments they work with, and from this love follows not only the par- 
tially unfortunate "test-object fever," but also the eminently useful habit 
of studying, adapting, altering, and finally manufacturing accessories, if 
not instruments, suited to their needs and fancies. Such amateur work 
not only is the best possible drill in the science of the microscope, but 
also has added very largely to the development of the microscope of to-day. 
The European journals are full of interesting and profitable results from 
such work; while the readers of the Naturalist have long been 
familiar with the contrivances and original constructions of a considerable 
number of American workers. Most microscopists, however, have con- 
fined their attempts to the production of accessories, believing, very judi- 
ciously, that the microscope as a whole could be more successfully made 
by more experienced hands. Of the comparatively few home-made 
microscopes, two recently published forms may serve as examples of the 
two extremes of ultra simplicity on the one hand and the best attained 
success on the other. In the form contrived by Mr. John Phin and de- 
scribed m his Practical Hints, the body consists of a tube of stiff writ- 
ing-paper rolled several times around itself, pasted at the outer edge, 
and blackened on the inside. This tube slides, for focal adjustment, 
through another paper tube. A piece of looking-glass serves as mirror, 
and a demolished cigar box furnishes wood enough to make the remainder 
of the stand. A simple half-inch lens acts as objective, and a similar lens 
of two-inch focus constitutes the ocular or eyepiece. The lenses are held 
m place in the tube by means of the bottoms of pill boxes perforated to 
allow the passage of light, while similarly perforated pill boxes are placed 
in the tube in proper position to act as diaphragms to reduce aberration 
by cutting off stray light. Such a microscope, at a cost of fifty cents, is 
conceded to be too imperfect to use for scientific study or even for instruct- 
ive amusement, its utility being not in the using but in the making of it. 
t is believed that a student by actually constructing such an instrument 
would gam a very clear idea of the essential parts of the microscope, as 
weU as a good understandiug of ^ ^ rf ^ ^ ^ ^ J^ 



The more elaborate 



instrument 



1 This department is © 



3 described by Mr. John 



• R- H. Ward, Troy, N. 



18 < 6 -] Microscopy. 121 

Michels in the last November number of the Popular Science Monthly. 
The essential parts of a microscope-stand are simplified and combined 
with great ingenuity and judgment. The form of stand is essentially 
that of the pocket microscopes of Swift and some other London makers, 
in which a single inclined bar, resting on the table at its lower end and 
supported by two legs near its upper end, carries firmly and conveniently 
the mirror, stage, and compound body. The blackened paper tube which 
serves as body is large enough to receive a good ocular or eyepiece at 
the top, and contains at the bottom a society-screw adapted to hold any 
objectives that may be chosen. It slides through a wooden tube lined 
with cloth, giving a good coarse adjustment. This wooden tube is glued, 
by means of an intervening piece of wood, to the main inclined bar of 
the stand. The stage is of wood, or gutta-percha modeled into shape 
while warm, also attached by means of a block of wood, and the object 
slide is held in position by elastic india-rubber bands. The mirror and 
Us immediate mounting is that of a common student's stand. This 
instrument stands nearly fifteen inches high when in use, weighs one 
pound, and can be packed within a space fourteen by three and a half by 
three inches. It is perhaps the best amateur microscope that can be 
made at the present time by a student of average mechanical skill. One 
reason why it is the best is because it contemplates the use for all its 
optical parts of first-class professional work ; for we cannot quite agree 
with its author that there is no reason why the student should not make 
nis own lenses. Objectives have reached a degree of excellence which 
has quite outgrown the skill of an ordinary amateur. True, Mr. Wenham 
can make lenses of surpassing excellence, and so could Mr. Spencer, while 
*W1 ttnlearned in the science and unpracticed in the art of microscopy, 
ut such instances are so rare as not to compromise the accuracy of the 

°r do we think that the author does full justice to the recent progress 
achieved (though still too little) by the regular makers in the way of 
himishing good and useful work at an available price. What is called 
rst-class apparatus is still prohibitively costly, and much of the cheap 
is more than correspondingly poor ; yet instruments can now be 
ought at a reasonable cost that would not be fairly described as charac- 
G k! ed b,V " diminutive size > smallness of field, poor light, shortness of 
j , absence of society's screw, and other evils " which " will soon cause " 
. hem " to be cast aside." Nor do we share the author's difficulty in find- 
ing lenses in this country which he can specially recommend. Most of 
° Ur dl8ti nguished makers now prepare not only lenses of excessively high 
>ut also lenses of exquisite workmanship, moderate 
ting, and available price ; lenses which we recommend 
Wlt « double pleasure because of our strong faith in the utility of mod- 
6rate an gles for general use, and our firm belief that the perhaps neces- 



:^1,, s 



122 General Notes. [February, 

sarily high cost of the high-angle lenses has materially retarded the 
Bowing popularity and usefulness of the microscope itself. 

A Remarkable Forage for Bees.— Rev. J. L. Zabriskie, whose 
interesting papers on bee-bread, in the Bee Keepers' Magazine, have 
given readers unfamiliar with the sciences concerned a reliable under- 
standing of the structure of pollen, and the curious development, upon 
the hind legs of the bees, of the pollen brushes and pollen baskets with 
which the pollen is gathered, loaded up, and carried to the hives, observed, 
during the last summer, bees coming to bis hives loaded with an anuspaJtj 
large quantity of a pollen-like powder having a bright vermilion color, 
not before noticed. The pollen baskets were filled to overflowing with 
this novel food, which the bees were carrying to their hives and storing 
away in the usual manner. Microscopically examined the grains were 
unlike any known pollen, but corresponded exactly in their peculiar color, 
size, shape, granular contents, and character and delicate markings of 
the epispore, with the raspberry ru.-t, i at the time on 

leaves in the garden and adjoining fields ; this rust being a leaf fungus 
{Uraln lnminata) whose delicate mycelial cells force themselves among 
and draw nourishment from the cells which form the tissue of the leaf, 
and which at the time of fruiting rupture the skin in little spots on the 
under surface of the leaf, and develop crowded clusters of bright red 
spores surrounded by the upturned edge of the ruptured leaf skin, which 
looks, when magnified, not unlike a little dish filled with miniature 
strawberries. The bees were not seen to gather spores from these clus- 
ters, but the grains carried to the hives were positively identified by com- 
parison with fresh specimens from the leaves. This presumably un- 
wholesome food seemed to have no unfavorable effect on the health of 
the infant families of bees. Whether some such strange choice of food 
is related to the occasional occurrence of poisonous honey, may be sug- 

Cryptogamic Parasites. — The report of M. Maxime Cornu, in 
the Bulletin Entomologique, on a larva of Chelonia Hebe which had heen 
killed by a parasitic fungus, refers the fungus to the genus Entomoph- 
thora, and possibly to the species which preys upon flies in the autumn. 
The presence of this parasite in a larva he thinks has not been previously 
recorded. M. Cornu concludes that fungi cannot perforate healthy ani- 
mal tissues, but must enter through some wound or other op 
he has observed an Aphis of the elder infested even to the antenna with 
an abundance of corpuscles of a species of Entomophthora, while the fiftf 
two young in different stages of development contained within the af- 
fected insect were all perfectly free and healthy. 

Blood Globules in Typhoid Fever. — M. Cornil has found, in 
the blood of the spleen of patients who have died in the third week of 
typhoid fever, large numbers of white globules, inclosing red globules to 
the number of five, six, or even more in a single cell. Other cells in- 



1876.] Scientific News. 

closed granules of hsematosine. Although the existence in the 1 



ling red globules is nothing new, nevertheless 
typhoid fever. 



Cornil is the first i 

The mesenteric glands, according to Cornil, are always L.,„_. 
typhoid fever, in a manner analogous to the acute or subacute inflamma- 
tion due to suppurative lymphangitis. — The Medical Record, from Lyon 
Medicak. 

James W. Queen & Co. — This well-known firm has been once 
more dissolved, Mr. Cheyney carrying the department of philosophical 
apparatus with him to Bond Street, New York city. The remaining 
partners, S. L. Fox and W. H. Walmsley, retain the microscopical branch 
of the business at the old stand and under the old name. Microtoopkti 
will find G. S. Woolman in charge of their department at the New York 

Raphides in Enchanter's Nightshade.— The Bidletin of the 
Torrey Botanical Club suggests sections of the enchanter's nightshade 
(Circasa Lutetiana L.) as an interesting microscopical study, the leaves, 
stem, and root being crowded with raphides, and the cells of the pith being 
filled with small transparent ball-like bodies. 

A Polariscope Object. — Hairs of common gromwell {Lithosper- 
mum officinale L.) are said to polarize beautifully under the microscope. 



SCIENTIFIC NEWS. 
rhe following remarks by the editor of Nature, though referring 
o science in England, are not perhaps out of place in an American 
journal : — 

% looking to general science, again, the government avoids the 
difficulties which must necessarily accompany, with all the fluctuations 
traa "e, any attempt to teach applied science except in some very gen- 
eral forms. The fact is that the practical applications of science bring 
their own reward, and need no extraneous encouragement ; instruction 
and invention in them may very well, and without the least hardship, be 
ef t to those whose pockets they fill. Art receives ample encouragement, 
and is well rewarded by the nation ; let but an artist in any department 
show himself capable of producing good work, and he will soon find 
at both the government and private individuals have 






plenty of rewards 

w »y of assistance or reward, and yet the scientific investigator is 
Jon s servant and greatest benefactor. Pure scientific research is 
e nt, like virtue, its own reward ; the man who devotes himself to 
j other means of gaining a livelihood, 
the help lie will get from his country ; 
er ami over again, our country's pros- 



124 Scientific News. [February, 

perity, the progress of nearly all our industries, and even the very ex- 
istence of many of them, are dependent on the discoveries of the scien- 
tific investigator who pursues his research on purely scientific principles, 
and with no practical end whatever in view. Our country has got at 
least as much glory, and we venture to think more practical benefit, 
from achievements in the region of pure science, as from all that has 
been accomplished in the domain of art ; and yet no helping hand is held 
out to those who are able and willing to do their country the highest 
service, but cannot, because they must drudge for a living. The domain 
of science is every day becoming more and more extended, her methods 
are becoming more and more complicated, and her instruments more and 
more expensive; in almost every department paths are being opened 
up which, if pursued to their end/would certainly lead to discoveries of 
vital importance to the best welfare and prosperity of the nation. Our 
public men are continually telling us that we are 'being outstripped by 
continental nations in fields which used to be peculiarly our own, and 
that simply because abroad every encouragement is given to scientific 
research, while here its existence is either ignored or it is regarded as a 
mere pastime." 

— Dr. Oscar Grimm has published in Siebold and Kolliker's Zeit- 
schrift a summary of the results of his investigation of the fauna of the 
Caspian Sea. The character of this assemblage of life has interest, 
says Nature, for the evolutionist as well as the geologist. It will afford 
evidence not only of modification of animal life, but also of successive 
changes in the physical geography of that region. Dredgings were car- 
ried on, by means of a steamer, down to one hundred and fifty fathoms, 
and an enormous quantity of specimens were obtained, including six new 
fishes, twenty species of mollusca, thirty-five species of Crustacea, prin- 
cipally colossal forms of Gammaridee, and twenty species of worms. 
The western part of the sea gives depths of five hundred and seventeen 
fathoms, and has a very abundant fauna ; at one haul of the dredge in one 
hundred and eight fathoms, there were taken three hundred and fifty 
specimens of Gammaridoe, one hundred and fifty Idothea entomon, fifty 
colossal Mysis, etc. Eighty species in all are new to science. 

— Professor Ernst Haeckel's work on The History of Creation, as 
translated by Mr. Van Rhyn, of New York, will be published early in 
the year by D. Appleton & Co. An English translation of Haeckel's 
Anthropogenic is soon to appear in London. Macmillan & Co. ad- 
vertise a new edition of that choice work, White's Natural History of 
Selborne. They have also published A Course of Practical Instruc- 
tion m Elementary Biology, by Professor Huxley and H. N. Martin 
(crown 8vo, 6s.) , and Historia Filicum, by J. Smith, with thirty litho- 
graphic plates. 

— A second meeting of those proposing 
tion club, similar in manv r efi n«P> 9 t„ th« 



1876.] Proceedings of Societies. 125 

Switzerland, was held January 12th at the Massachusetts Institute of 
Technology in Boston. Professor Pickering presided. Mr. S. H. Scnd- 
der, of the committee on organization, made a partial report, suggesting 
several names for the society or club, and defining its object to be the 
study of comparative geography and the scientific and aesthetic explora- 
tion of the highlands of New England and the adjacent regions. 

— In Arctic Notes sent to Land and Water by an officer of the 
Pandora, the British Arctic exploring vessel, he says, " I would sooner 
eat seal's meat than mutton or beef." This is a little exaggerated, per- 
haps, but we can aver that seal's flesh has a relish to it after a day's dredg- 
ing on the coast of Labrador, and a meal of boiled whale's flesh is good 
for a very hungry man. A well-seasoned mince pie made of whale's 
flesh would scarcely be distinguishable from beef pie. 

— Professor Carl J. Sundevall, the venerable and distinguished orni- 
thologist of Stockholm, has lately died. He left works on the morphol- 
ogy of arthropods and other subjects. The botanist, Professor F. G. 
Bartling, of (-ujuin^vii, died in November. 

— The medal of the first class, with the diploma, awarded to Professor 
Hayden, in charge of the Geological Survey of the Territories, by the 
International Congress of Geographical Sciences which met in Paris in 
August, has been received through the state department. Professor 
Hayden has also recently received letters informing him of his election 
as honorary member of the Italian Geographical Society of Turin, 
Italy, and foreign corresponding member of the Geographical Society 
of Paris, France. 



PROCEEDINGS OF SOCIETIES. 

Academy of Sciences, St. Louis. — November 15, 1875. Professor 
Riley remarked that among the changes that took place in those portions 
of the State so thoroughly devastated by locusts last spring, none were 
more interesting than the wide-spread appearance of a grass (Vilfa 
vaginaflora) unnoticed in ordinary seasons. The locusts eat down the 
bhie grass so closely that in most instances it died out, and this annual 
grass takes its place and grows up rapidly just at the time when most 
needed by stock, so that it is considered a godsend by the farmers, who 
generally believe that it was brought by the locusts. The seed was 
scattered over the land the autumn before, and the conditions were all 
favorable for its starting. In ordinary seasons, on the contrary, it is 
smothered and choked down by other plants. 

December 6th. Prof. C. V. Riley made a communication on jumping 
seeds from California, motion being imparted to the seeds by inclosed 
caterpillars of a small moth (Carpocapsa saltitans). 

December 13th. A paper entitled The Grasshoppers and the Sea- 
son of 1875 was received from Prof. G. C. Broadhead. 



126 Proceedings of Societies. [February, 

^ Professor Riley read a paper on the use of Paris green as an insecti- 
cide, reciting several important experiments, from which he drew the fol- 
lowing conclusions : — 

(1.) Paris green that has been four months in the soil no longer re- 
mains as such, but passes into some less soluble state, and is unaffected 

(2.) When applied in small quantities, such as alone are necessary in 
destroying injurious insects, it does not affect the health of the plant. 

(3.) The power of the soil to hold arsenious acid and arsenites in insol- 
uble form will prevent water from becoming poisoned, unless the green 
be used in excess of any requirement as an insecticide. 

He alluded to some of the potato-bug poisons, one of which, made up 
of salt and arsenic, whs more dangerous than others, because it was liable 
to be mistaken for common salt. 

January 4th, annual meeting. Prof. C. V. Riley was elected pres- 
ident He remarked on a new use of the wood of the American agave, 
as a lining for insect-boxes, instead of cork. He exhibited strips of the 
wood, twelve by four inches, and one half inch thick, which answer this 
purpose admirably, the wood being remarkably light and porous, and pins 
being pushed into it with great ease and held firmly. It is much che; 
than cork. The celebrated traveler, Mr. A. R. Wallace, preserved 
his valuable entomological collections in the East Indies in boxes nnde 
of pieces of this wood pinned together with thorns, and it is now coming 
into very general use. 

Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia. -December 28th, 
annual meeting. The curators announced that the new building erected 
for the academy was ,o far completed as to be ready for the reception 
of its collection* The removal of the mu.eum from the building now 
occupied was commenced on the 2d of November and was completed last 
week It is proposed shortly to commence the removal of the library 
and the curators anticipate having the new hall ready for the future 
meetings of the academy early in January, 1876. 

The concluding thirty pages of the Proceedings for 1874, and four hun- 
dred and twenty-seven pages of the Transactions, have been published,, 
the latter being illustrated by twenty-four lithographic plates and ninety 
wood-cuts. One hundred and eighty-se' 






- — „ V11C U «„ U1CU anu eignty-seven pages of the quarto journal 
have also been issued before the completion of the illustrative plates, as 
advance copies of Professor Cope's paper on the Batrachia and Reptilia 
ol Losta Rica. ll, e report concludes with a brief notice of the important 
events occurring in the history of the academy during the past year, 
which are stated to be the reception of the I. V. Williamson Library Fund, 
the aale of the premises at present occupied by the society, the removal 

tfenthaTidT 0118 * * ^ ***« * ^ ™*™* «~ of Nine- 
teenth and Race streets, and the junction of the American Entomological 



1876.] Proceedings of Societies. 127 

The librarian reports that there were nineteen hundred and forty 
additions to the library from January 1 to November 30, 1875, being an 
excess of two hundred and eighty for the eleven months named over the 
number received during the twelve months of the preceding year. Re- 
ferring to the income at the disposal of the academy for the support of 
the library, the report continues, " At the annual meeting, held Feb- 
ruary lGth, the treasurer announced the munificent donation by Isaiah V. 
Williamson, Esq., to the academy, of ground rents to the amount of twen- 
ty-five thousand dollars as a permanent fund for the use of the library. 
It is confidently hoped that the interest on this sum, together with the por- 
tion of the interest derived from the legacy of the late Dr. Thomas B. Wil- 
son devoted to the same use, and amounting together to eighteen hundred 
dollars per annum, will be sufficient, not only to keep the library sup- 
plied with the current scientific literature, but also to enable the library 
committee to secure, from time to time, the many very desirable books 
of an earlier date which are still wanting in most of the depart- 

Boston Society of Natural History. —January 5, 1876. Prof. 
W. H. Niles read a paper on the evidence of a widely spread geological 
force, exhibited by certain rock-movements. Referring to the phenomena 
of spontaneous fracture and expansion of rock in a north and south di- 
rection in quarries at Monson, Mass., Groton, Conn., Berea, O., and 
Lemont, 111., he inferred that they could not be due to. local causes, 
W*1 xpLiiued them by a north and south compression of the strata, due 
to the contraction of the earth, and showed the important bearing of the 
subject on the question of mountain-building. Mr. L. S. Burbank noticed 
some rare trees of the Merrimack Valley. 

American Geographical Society. — December 6th. Judge Daly 
spoke on the progress in geographical research in Africa, with special 
reference to Stanley's recent explorations. He was followed by remarks 
from Mr. Bayard Taylor, who claimed that " Stanley's journey from Zan- 
zibar to the Nyanza, and his exploration of the eastern shore of the lake, 
have never been surpassed for boldness, rapidity, and success by anything 
« the records of African travel." ' 

Academy of Sciences, San Francisco. — December 20, 1875. Dar- 
Hngtonia Californica, the pitcher-plant of the Pacific coast, formed the 
subject of a paper by Mr. Henry Edwards, who gave an account of its 
appearance, of its functions as a fly-trap, — though its digestive powers 
*ere questioned, — of the different insects entrapped by it, and of its dis- 
tribution and habitat. 

Academy of Sciences, New York. — December 13, 1875. Papers 
on A New Phosphide of Silver, and a Method of estimating Silver by 
Phosphorus, by Prof. W. Falke, and on a Direct Process in the Manu- 
facture of Iron in Japan, by H. Newton, were read. 

Cambridge Entomological Club. — December 10, 1875. Dr. 



128 Scientific Serials. [February. 

S^tzgave some account of the results arrived at in the Monograph 
LeConfe f nd Hor7 ^^ StatGS ' S00n t0 be ^^ h ? ^s. 

Bckfalo Society of Sciences. -December 17, 1875. A paper 
by Mr. Groteon Noctuid* from the Pacific Coast of North America 
Teir ^ remarked ° n a D0Ctuid ^A, Polenta Tepperi, from 

Essex Institute, Salem, Mass. - December 6, 1875. Rev. Mr. 
Wright gave an account of the structure of Indian Ridge, in Andover, 
Mass., which he regarded as an ancient moraine. ^^o\er, 

SCIENTIFIC SERIALS. 1 

The Geographical Magazine. — December, 1875. The Arctic 
Exped, on V. From Ritenbink to Upernavik. The Voyage of the Chal- 
Z^ J 1 i E ' DaVlS - ^ P ' Barb0t de M ™y'* ^logical Ex- 
£2 r m Tu e tt^ 10 ? f thG AmU Dar ^' The Basi « of the Macken- 
I s i T !" 2*** Stat6S Ge0l0 ^l Survey in the San Juan Coun- 
try Stanleys Exploration of the Victoria Nyanza, by E. G. Raven- 



M;Zi of m ° SC T C ; L J0URNAL ' - DeCembe '' 1875 ' <>n a New 

Method o measuring the Position of the Bands in Spectra, by H. C 

J The IliH ^"^ ° f FrmtUlia S "*™^J " J .Wood- 
Archiv eIk N an m meaSUHng ADgUlar ApertUre ' h ? R - Keith " 



Sobers bvDr if A ' DRGE ^ HICHTE - ~ On the Genital Apparatus of 
Krainer' \n'JTu' ^T' **"*■ ° f the %^achnL, by F. 
bv B UMardn jS^f ° f Cu " in * !? the Stomach of the Geryonk 

Zm ^r DeSCnptl0n of a Fin Whale, by G. Zaddach. 
or, 2k IT' Zoologie. (Siebold aifd Kolliker, edit- 
SchmMl T \ ' ThG DeVe] °P ment * Sponges, by Oscar 

SchmKlt. Researches on the Hexactinellid* (Sponges)," by W. Mar- 

tion"ofT m A V OURNAI ;° F SCIENCE m Abt..- January. Descrip- 

Tead R rr n f e r in T s T , Extinct species ° f w ° ,f ■»* ^ *»» *■ 

Lead Region of the Upper Mississippi, by J. A. Allen. 

Bulletin dk la Societe pi: Geography tu\» i. ,07^ 

?kS2T and its Ba9i - b * L ' AbM D - d - ' *«5££8 

TWd""™ °*.** 100 "— »>• 5. The Unarmed Gephyre,, by H. 

ap«i c::,t':x F R B;o7c,!i ovember 27 - The Geuitai ° r ^° ° f dm - 

er this head will be for the most part selected. 



AMERICAN NATURALIST. 

Vol. x. — MARCH, me. — No. s. 
A COLONY OF BUTTERFLIES. 

^BOUT one hundred thousand years ago, during the decline 
ot the ice period, a colony of butterflies settled in New En- 
gland I hey chose for their territory Mount Washington, in 
a ew Hampshire, and their descendants occupy the rocky summit 
ot that mountain to this day. Mount Washington is 6293 feet 
high and the White Mountain butterflies are not found below 
an elevation of about 5600 feet. Between this height and the 

oud-cap p ed summit, the butterflies disport during the month of 
-uiy ot every year. The bare and inhospitable summit affords lit 
le vegetation, but the White Mountain butterflies find there food 
upon which they thrive. Both Mr. Sanborn and Mr. Scudder 
nave found the caterpillar feeding upon the sedges which grow, 
Dest they may, in hollows and between the rocks. The brown 
butte rfly which succeeds the caterpillar measures about one and 

gm tenths inches from tip to tip of the extended fore wings. 

cros° Ve i i '^^ ^ feebly marked ; beneath ' the hi » d ^ngs are 
*>ed by a dark median band with its outer edges deeper brown 
and irregular, while beyond the band the wings are marbled, 
tei°fl Vn i and WHite * Naturalists know the White Mountain but- 
y y the name of Oeneis semidea, and its first biographer 
_ ls J ininas Say, who described it in the year 1828. Previously, 
Wtterfl° maS Nut ^ H ' the bofcanist > had collected specimens of the 
fro e ^ Wlllle Sa ^' s ori ginal figure of the species was drawn 
of Sal^ mdividual Presented to him by Mr. Charles Pickering, 

t is 1800 miles west from Mount Washington to Long's Peak, 
no° r ad °' In this direction ' oy er all the level stretch of country, 
with ^^ Hke ° Ur White Mountain butte rfly are to be met 
butterfly ^ Colorado ' s P ecies similar t0 the W1 »te Mountain 
^^"°t exactly like it, are Jiound again occupying ele- 



130 A Colony of Butterflies. [March, 

vated lands. To the northward it is 1000 miles to Hopedale, 
Labrador, and here again very similar butterflies are found living 
in that northern region. 

This is a strange distribution for a butterfly, and so the question 
comes up as to the manner in which it was brought about. By 
comparing what has been found out with regard to past condi- 
tions of the earth and the present state of things, a solution of the 
question has been offered. This solution gives us the ice period iD 
North America as the agent which has induced the present dis- 
tribution of the genus to which the White Mountain butterfly 
belongs. And the colonization of the butterfly on our New- 
England mountains would have been effected in this wise. 

Before the ice period commenced in New England, it had gath- 
ered in the extreme north of the continent. The ice gradually 
and very slowly advanced year by year to the southward. Al- 
ways more snow fell than was melted, and this snow stayed sum- 
mer and winter, and accumulated more and more. It consoli- 
dated into neve* and glacial ice. Forming on the highest lands, 
the ice-rivers filled the ravines and joined upon the plains the 
main body of ice which was pressing southward from the pole. 
Summer and winter still alternated, but, as is the case now at the 
extreme north, the summers were short and the winters long. 
The advancing ice destroyed or drove before it the insects and 
animals of the warmer climates, which it chilled by its approach. 
But it was kind to its own children. It brought down with it its 
Oeneis butterflies and its reindeer. Before its feet it spread food 
for both of these, year by year, always pushing food and animals 
to the south. At the probable rate of less than a mile in a hun- 
dred years, it brought them at last into Virginia, from the far- 
thest north ; not the Virginia of to-day, but Virginia changed 
into an Arctic scene. 

At length the climate changed. The point of farthest advance 
reached, the ice began to retrace its steps. And it called its own 
back with it, alluring them by their food, scattered ever farther 
and farther to the north. At some time the lengthening summers 
and shortening winters brought the main ice sheet back into 
New England. From Southern New York to Connecticut, to 
Massachusetts, to Vermont, to New Hampshire, it retreated all 
the way. It was as the retreat of an army with all 



perfect order. Year by year it called 
upon its plants, its butterflies, its animals, and they followed in 
its royal train. It had overridden all obstacles, all lives and 



1876 -] A Colony of Butterflies. 131 

constitutions, and in its retreat it shed, over the lands which again 
saw the sun, floods of water, the source of fresh life and civiliza- 
tions. But it was careful of its own plants and animals ; they 
were to go back with the ice, nor be seduced by the lakes and 
streams its retreat unveiled, and so become companions to the 
mammoth. And it succeeded, for the most part, until it reached 
the White % Mountains. Though year by year the individual 
butterflies perished, they planted their successors ; the longer- 
lived reindeers laid their bones by the way, and in the Connecti- 
cut Valley itself, but fresh herds still were ready to follow the 
northward march of the great glacier. 

Out of the valley of the White Mountains the main ice mass 
gradually retreated ; and here it lost some of its followers. At 
that time the White Mountains must have presented an appear- 
ance not unlike the Alps of to-day, an aspect which, owing to 
their inferior elevation, they have since lost under a climate 
growing in warmth. The local glaciers, which then filled the 
ravines, attracted some of the wayward, flitting Oeneis butterflies 
by a display of the food plants which they had harbored and 
detained from the main glacier. Year after year the great glacier 
retreated farther and farther north, followed by the main body of its 
train, — plants, butterflies, and animals, — the while some of these 
foolish butterflies were beguiled by the shallow ice-rivers which 
then filled the ravines of Mount Washington. Return became at 
length impossible. They advanced behind the deceiving local gla- 
ciers step by step up the mountain-side, pushed up from below by 
the warm climate, which to them was uncongenial, until they 
reached the mountain peak, now bare of snow in the short summer. 
Here, blown sidewise by the wind, they patiently cling to the 
rocks. Or, in clear weather, on weak and careful wing, they fly 
trom flower of stemless mountain-pink to blue-berry, s waving 
trom their narrow tenure of the land. Drawn into the currents 
of air that sweep the mountain's side, they are forced down- 
wards, to be parched in the hot valleys below. Yet they main- 
tain themselves. They are fighting it out on that line. They 
are gapped, and must die out there by natural causes unless 
certain entomologists sooner extirpate them by pinning them 
U P m collections of insects. What time, in Tuckerman's Ravine, 
fi,: 886 tIle Ill_a dvised collector, net in hand, swooping down on 
" devoted colony of ancient lineage and more than Puritan 






wonder if, before it is too late, there i 



aw P a8 sed to protect the butterflies from the cupidity of their 
Pursuers. 



132 Game Falcons of New England: The Goshawk. [March, 
This is the story of a colony of New England butterflies. I 
commend this colony to the protection of all good citizens of the 
State of New Hampshire. 



A LTHOUGH this bird (Astur atricapillus) has not the char- 
acteristic markings of the true falcon, yet it can be trained 
to capture game. It was considered by Audubon, Sabine, aud 
others to be the same as the European goshawk, which was so 
highly prized for sporting. Says Wilson, "If this be not the 
celebrated goshawk formerly so much esteemed in falconry, it is 
very closely allied to it." The poet Chaucer in alluding to it 



Falconry and hawking, as defined by our lexicographers, are 
synonymous, but formerly birds of sport were divided into two 
classes, those of falconry and those of hawking. This bird came 
under the latter class. Mr. Pennant informs us that " the gos- 
hawk is used by the Emperor of China in his sporting excursions, 
and is considered the best of all hawks for falconry." The same 
writer further says that he " examined a specimen from America 
which was superior in size to the European." Whether the 
American and the European are identical I am unable to say ; but 
many of our ornithologists at the present time consider them 
specifically distinct. Until quite recently, the tendency of or- 
nithologists has been to make as many new species out of one 
bird as possible. Every change of locality necessitating a differ- 
ent construction of nest, and every slight change in color, arising 
from climacteric causes, has been seized upon to create new spe- 
cies. Happily for science there is now a reaction taking place 
among our best ornithologists. Says Professor Baird, " I take 
more pains now to subordinate forms once considered specific, 
than I do to establish them as such." It is not impossible or 
even improbable that our goshawk may yet be considered identi- 
cal with the European species, and our perigrine falcon with its 
European congener. The goshawk is the handsomest of all our 
rapacious birds, and is so beautifully marked as to be easily distin- 
guished from all our hawks. It is not very common in any part 



1876.J Game Falcons of New England: The Goshawk. 133 
of the United States, but Cassin informs us that " it is appar- 
ently more abundant in Northwestern America than in any other 
portion of the United States." His opinion was based upon the 
fact of six specimens being captured by the Pacific Railroad sur- 
vey parties in Washington Territory and Shoal Water Bay. It 
may have been abundant that season and not seen there again 
for many years. Professor Verrill says that " it is common in 
Maine, and breeds there." Mr. G. A. Boardman, of Maine, says, 
" It is the boldest and most common of our winter hawks." 

Some winters it is abundant in Connecticut, and the most com- 
mon of our hawks, and then for years not a single specimen is 
seen. The first specimen which I obtained in East Windsor was 
in the winter of 1849-50. He was caught in a trap and brought 
to me alive. I gave him his liberty in a room eight feet by 
twelve feet, with a good supply of food, which he utterly refused 
to touch until the thirteenth day, when he devoured an entire 
hen, and died the next day, a victim to his voraciousness. The 
next that I received were two specimens in the winter of 1859- 
60. Nuttall speaks of its being very rare in Massachusetts ; yet 
in 1859-60 Hon. C. L. Flint, of that State, received twenty 
specimens. It did not visit us again until the winter of 1867- 
o8. That season I mounted five specimens and sent away 
quite a number for exchanges. I probably received some twelve 
or fifteen during the winter. In the winter of 1868-69 I re- 
ceived nine, and in 1869-70 two specimens. Since 1870 none 
have been taken or seen in this section, and it may not visit us 
again for another decade. 

The goshawk does not usually soar high, like the longer-winged 
hawks, nor dart upon its prey by a direct descent, as do the true 
falcons, but by a side glance. It is restless, seldom alighting 
but for a moment, except to devour its quarry, and then it stands 
almost erect. Its flight is so rapid that it can easily overtake the 
swift pigeon on the wing. Audubon relates the following fact 
that he was an eye-witness to: "While traveling along the 



Ohi,, | 



goshawk give chase to a large flock of 



blackbirds then crossing the river. The hawk approached them 
^ith the swiftness of an arrow, when the blackbirds rushed to- 
gether so closely that the flock looked like a dusky ball passing 
through the air. On reaching the mass, he with the greatest 
ease seized one, then another, and another, giving each a squeeze 
Wl th his talons and suffering it to drop upon the water. In this 
banner he had procured four or five before the poor birds reached 



134 Game Falcons of New England: The Goshawk. [March, 
the woods, into which they instantly plunged, when he gave up 
the chase, swept over the water in graceful curves, and picked up 
the fruits of his industry, carrying each bird singly to the shore." 
The goshawk is the most daring and venturesome of any of our 
diurnal birds of prey. A farmer who resides a few miles from 
my office, wishing to perpetuate the old New England custom 
of having a chicken pie for Thanksgiving dinner, caught some 
fowls, took them to a log, severed the neck of one, and threw it 
down beside him. In an instant a goshawk seized the struggling 
fowl, and, flying off some ten rods, alighted and commenced de- 
vouring his prey. The boldness of the attack so astonished the 
farmer that he looked on with blank amazement. Recovering 
from his surprise, he hastened into the house and brought out his 
gun, which secured him both the hawk and the fowl. Another in- 
stance of still greater daring occurred near East Windsor Hill, 
Conn. A goshawk flew after a fowl near a dwelling-house ; the 
door being open, the hen flew inside ; the hawk followed, and seized 
her in the room occupied by an old gentleman and his daughter. 
The old man hastened to the rescue, and struck the hawk with 
a cane before it released its grasp. The daughter caught the 
hawk as it attempted to fly out of the door, and killed it. 

When looking for prey it skims along near the surface of the 
ground with great velocity, and catches its game so quickly and 
easily as scarcely to be seen by the looker-on. The female is 
nearly one third larger than the male, and the young measures 
considerably more than the adult bird. I have specimens of the 
goshawk of all ages from the young to the adult, but am not 
aware that it is known when this bird arrives at adult plumage. 
I have kept the young in confinement until one year old without 
its showing the least tinge of gray or slate-color. No one but an 
ornithologist would ever suspect that the young and the adult be- 
longed to the same species. 

With regard to the nest of this bird, says Audubon, " The 
goshawk is of rare occurrence in most parts of the United States, 
and the districts of North America to which it usually resorts to 
breed are as yet unknown. Some nest within the Union, others 
m the British Provinces of New Brunswick and Nova Scotia, but 
the greater part seem to proceed farther north." The nest is 
said to be quite large and flat, and placed on the high branches 
of a tree, near the trunk, and is composed of dead twigs and coarse 
grass, lined with fibrous strips of plants, and sometimes with a 
few feathers. The goshawk lays from three to four eggs, usually 



1876.] The Origin and Development of Museums. 135 

of a dull bluish-white color, and slightly spotted with faint brown 
blotches. One of the eggs in my collection is of a dusky white 
color, slightly tinged with dull blue, with oblong blotches of 
greenish-blue, and quite granulated. The measurements of two 
taken from different localities are as follows : long diameter 2 T 2 ff 
inches, short diameter 1 T V; the second one, 2£ inches by If 
inches. These measurements are somewhat less, and the egg was 
less spherical, than the one described by Dr. Brewer in his North 
American Oology. After thirty years' observation and experience 
m ornithological and oological researches, I am satisfied that it is 
not wise to place too much reliance upon the measurements or 
number of eggs found in a nest. This is particularly the case with 
our rapacious birds. Take for instance the great horned owl. 
Audubon says that it lays from three to six eggs ; another collector 
says it always lays two eggs. While this may seem inexplicable 
to some, it admits of a very easy solution. A pair of these birds 
will occupy the same piece of woods for years if not molested, 
and the collector who finds their nest will invariably find two 
e ggs. I have found two, three, four, and five eggs in a nest of 
this bird in different localities. The old bird lays two eggs, 
while the younger bird lays the larger number and the smallest 
e ggs. I have never seen these facts in print, and am not aware 
that they are known to oologists, but they are based upon my 
observations and that of my collectors. They explain many 
seeming discrepancies, and for this reason I have digressed some- 
what from my subject in order to give what I consider impor- 
tant facts to the oologist, as this closes my series of articles on the 
game falcons of New En-land. 



THE ORIGIN AND DEVELOPMENT OF MUSEUMS. 1 

THE second part of the seventeenth century is remarkable for 
the formation of academies in nearly every great city, and 
some, principally in Italy, were founded even a century before. 
The first one, the Academia Secretorum Naturae, founded in 1560 
m Rome, was soon suppressed by the popes as being dangerous. 
Of those founded in the seventeenth century, some were more 
successful, and the most prominent are still vigorous, as, for in- 
stance, the Royal Society in London, the Leopoldine Academy in 



136 The Origin and Development of Museums. [March, 

Germany, and the Academy of Sciences in Paris. These three, 
founded nearly at the same time, between 1660 and 1670, have 
published their valuable transactions during two centuries, con- 
taining an immense number of facts and speculations which prove 
clearly that union is power. The facility of publishing isolated 
facts, otherwise lost, advanced science and her tools, the collec- 
tions, in a remarkable degree. Naturally, from this time forth, 
new societies were founded year by year, all doing more or less 
valuable service. 

In the mean time a very important discovery was made, that 
of the microscope. Formerly, natural history consisted only of 
observations made with the naked eye, but now the field of obser- 
vation was enlarged in a manner not dreamed of before. Of 
course collections, becoming by degrees living archives of science, 
were allowed to be established on a larger scale. 

It is well known that magnifying-glasses have been found 
among the Assyrian relics and the ruins of Pompeii, but the use 
of their magnifying power is nowhere recorded, though it is 
probable that some of the admirable gems of the ancients were 
cut with the help of lenses. Spectacles, perhaps in some way 
known in Rome, and even used by Nero, are said to have been 
invented at the end of the thirteenth century in Italy. Mag- 
nifying-glasses were manufactured by Arabians, and later by 
Roger Bacon, but certainly not used for the purposes of natural 
history before the beginning of the seventeenth century. Italy 
and Holland dispute the honor of the invention, which was per- 
haps simultaneous in the two countries. The great advantages 
of lenses for observation were directly acknowledged, and even 
augmented, by the invention of the compound microscope. Fon- 
tana in Rome and Drebbel in Holland are the rival inventors. 

The old fame of Italy was now declining, and religious fanati- 
cism hindered more and more the development of science. Un- 
fortunately, also, the famous wealth of the Italian merchants was 
destroyed bythe refusal of a number of prominent princes to pay 
their debts, enormous sums of money advanced by Italian bank- 
era. These circumstances, together with the general change of 
the old routes of trade, gave an important advantage to the Dutch 
Protestants. The easily amassed fortune was largely used to 
advance culture and science, and the small Dutch country be- 
came for more than a century the leading nation in fashion, 
taste, and science, till her French and English neighbors put 
themselves somewhat roughly in her place. The particular taste 



1876.] The Origin and Development of Museums. 137 

of the Dutch people for accurate and correct work in its exagger- 
ated and pedantic character was well adapted for forming and ar- 
ranging collections so rapidly acquired by a trade with the whole 
world. 

Naturalists seldom equaled, never surpassed, belong to this 
interesting time, as Swammerdam, Leuwenhoek, Ruysch, Rum- 
phius, Seba, and others. The observations and collections of 
microscopical objects by Leuwenhoek and Ruysch have till to-day 
a world-wide or rather a traditional fame, and are still preserved, 
partly in London, partly in St. Petersburg. Swammerdam him- 
self gives an interesting account of his way of arranging and 
preserving the collections which were the pride and marvel of the 
country, seen and admired by prominent princes, who disputed 
among themselves the honor of acquiring them. This distin- 
guished naturalist invented the mode of preservation of the most 
difficult objects by inflation, by drying, by injection, and by dif- 
ferent chemicals. 

The fame of the Dutch cabinets, as the most prominent of the 
time, induced Peter the Great to visit and study them carefully. 
A number of the most renowned, bought by him for enormous 
prices, were transferred to St. Petersburg to arouse an interest 
m such studies in his country. There are also a large number of 
more or less similar and expensive collections in France, Den- 
mark. Germany, and England. The celebrated collection of Sir 
Hans Sloane was later the nucleus of the gigantic one of the 
British Museum. 

Some details of the celebrated collections of Ruysch and Vin- 
cent in Amsterdam would perhaps be of interest as standard 
exampi es of the arrangement of collections at this time. The 
Principal room is an immense hall, the high walls of which are 
furnished with columns, large windows in the upper part, with a 
gallery supported by caryatides, and the ceiling covered with 
wch frescoes. Shelves in the wall, or semicircular alcoves, were 
used for the exhibition of the objects. Large tables extending 
through the halls allowed of a far more detailed examination of 
tDe jars and' boxes with which they were covered. Rooms con- 
nected with the halls were used for the cabinets, filled with 
drawers or glass jars symmetrically arranged. The latter con- 
tained birds, fishes, reptiles, the egg of a turtle with the embryo 
supported by the hand of a child, and a crocodile embryo in sea- 
weed. The cover of the jar is of rich silk damask, fastened with 
elegant silk cords, the color of which is always reported in the 



138 The Origin and Development of Museums. [March, 

description of the collection, and on the top of the cover are 
groups of objects arranged in the most extraordinary way ; the 
young of the obstetrical toad dancing on the nose of their mother 
in extravagant attitudes, butterflies and other insects flying about 
bouquets of dried flowers, shells grotesquely arranged in clusters 
and supported by pyramids of corals, and curious dried sea-fishes 
or sea-urchins are fastened on the top. 

The whole arrangement was such as to please the eye of the 
visitor, often curious, even tasteless, but according with the fash- 
ion of the time, though scarcely ever scientific except that gen- 
erally animals belonging to the same classes were brought to- 
gether, if the size of the animals or glass jars in which they were 
placed allowed of it ; but this was not often the case. 

Printed descriptions with the most costly engravings of the 
contents of the collections were published, the repeated editions 
of which show the interest of the public. Some of them, for 
instance, the plates of the cabinet of Seba, in Amsterdam, were 
for a long time a principal authority in natural history, and the 
source from which naturalists obtained their knowledge. Indeed, 
this time is to be considered a forerunner of Linmeus in bringing 
together materials which he was to classify, and thus begin a new 
era in the study of natural history. Considerable progress is 
now to be noticed in the development of collections of natural 
history, as well as the attempt to arrange and preserve objects 
in a manner to secure them against a speedy destruction. 

The objects preserved in alcohol are secured by large corks, 
covered again by different materials to prevent the evaporation 
of the preserving fluid. Delicate objects, such as shells and fine 
corals, were placed in drawers, fixed in the bottom in artistical 
figures, and the insects were mostly preserved in the same way. 
Insect-pins did not exist till a century later, and in their stead 
were used needles, and formerly thorns of plants, as we find them 
even now in the boxes arranged in China and imported from 
that country. The entire boxes were protected against dust or 
museum pests by glass covers ; or else small boxes, each contain- 
ing a few insects, or only one, were arranged in larger boxes, a 
custom prevailing as late as the beginning of this century. 

I he well-known naturalist, Petiver, pressed the insects as flat 
as possible, and fastened them between two plates of mica pasted 
together by slips of paper and fastened on a leaf folded on one 
side of a lame book. This P.n™,ia „ rt n„„j 



1876.] The Origin and Development of Museums. 139 

The observation of the biology, and the study of the anatomy, 
of the objects now progressed rapidly with the help of the micro- 
scope, and the works of some prominent naturalists of those 
times are a source of information not yet exhausted. The names 
of Buffon, Re'aumur, Degeer, Roesel, and many others are even 
now the pride of science in nearly every country. The middle 
of the last century begins the science of the present time with the 
immortal works of Linnaeus ; immense progress was made in the 
century after, which he foresaw, and it would be almost super- 
fluous to dwell uponthe merits of Linnaeus. 

But it seems to me that one of his innovations in science has a 
striking value for the advancement of collections, which has been, 
I believe, somewhat underrated. The invention and use of his 
binomial nomenclature allowed a scientific labeling of objects. 
Formerly all names of objects were designated by the so-called 
nomen speeifieum (now called a diagnosis), consisting of a dozen 
words. Linnaeus' use of one name (he calls it a trivial one) 
for the species and one for the genus facilitated the labeling 
formerly so tedious and wordy. The advantage is obvious. The 
clear and logical mind of Linnaeus not only purified the system, 
but also enabled him to purge the collections of a considerable 
number of fabulous and fictitious objects, sometimes a dangerous 
task. He was obliged to leave Hamburg suddenly, and by night, 
because he declared and proved the most expensive and rare ob- 
ject of the collection of the mayor of that city to be a fraudulent 
manufacture. It was a so-called hydra with many heads, the 
ciMnium having been made of weasels covered with snakes' skins. 
The mighty owner of this exceedingly costly object grew furious 
and threatened to imprison Linnaeus as an impostor. 

The " printed instructions " for the arrangement of a museum 
Published by Linnaeus in 1753 is the first really scientific essay, 
and has been followed by most naturalists. Indeed, even to-day 
we find the principles and rules of Linnaeus more or less uncon- 
sciously followed in many museums. 

Linnaeus himself built at his country-seat, Hammerby, his mu- 
seu m, a small, square, brick building, on the top of a hill, with 
a beautiful view from his garden. I was fortunate enough, 
thirty-six years ago, to visit the place, just after the death of his 
youngest daughter. Everything was nearly in the same order as 
left by Linnaeus. The collection and library, as is well known, 
were transferred to England. I saw them afterwards, one small 
cabinet containing the herbarium, and a similar one the insects 



140 The Origin and Development of Museums. [March, 

and shells. This souvenir of the great man fills the heart with 
awe, when one considers the small number of objects forming the 
basis of his studies and voluminous works. 

Among the numerous museums which were arranged accord- 
ing to his system, and described by himself and his disciples, 
none gratified his pride more than the collection in the Jardin du 
Roi, in Paris, by order of the king, and against the wishes of 
Linnasus' celebrated antagonist, Buffon, the director of this insti- 
tution. It will not, perhaps, be out of place to quote here an ac- 
count of it given in 1780 by a prominent American, in the letters 
of President John Adams : — 

" Yesterday we went to see the garden of the king, Jardin du 
Roi, and his cabinet of natural history, a great collection of met- 
als, minerals, shells, insects, birds, beasts, fishes, and precious 
stones. They are arranged in good order and preserved in good 
condition, with the name of everything beautifully written on a 
piece of paper annexed to it. There is also a collection of wood 
and marbles. The garden is large and airy, affording fine walks 
between rows of trees. There is a collection from all parts of 
the world, of all the plants, roots, and vegetables that are used in 
medicines, and indeed of all the plants and trees in the world. 
A fine scene for the studious youth in physic and philosophy. 
It was a public day. There was a great deal of company, and I 
had the opportunity only to take a cursory view. The whole is 
very curious. When shall we have in America such collections ? 
I am convinced that our country affords as ample materials for 
collections of this nature as any part of the world." 

The preeminent value of collections was first recognize! when 
Sweden did not shrink from sending a man-of-war to recover the 
collections which had been sold in a legal manner to another 
country. The great advance made by Linnaeus was followed by 
unusual exertions and struggles in nearly every part of the civilized 
world. Every country had disciples of Linnaeus as leading nat- 
uralists. Everywhere collections suddenly arose, and only a score 
of years was needed to recognize that, with the excessive vigor of 
this time, science had bequeathed a new law of the highest* im- 
portance for collections : the most careful preservation of de- 
scribed objects, nowadays called types. This new law, seemingly 
of very small importance, soon gained the most powerful influ- 
ence over all museums, changing even their interior management 
and leading in a natural way to more appropriate arrangements. 

It became necessary to give to one person the power to govern 



1876.] The Origin and Development of Museums. 141 

and direct the whole ; the old custom of having a board of patrons 
to decide matters concerning the internal management proved to 

gotten that, in a regular meeting, the Board of the Ashmolean 
Museum decided that the bird No. 31 should be thrown away as 
a rotten object. It was the last Dodo existing. Except in En- 
gland, and its present and former colonies, such boards of trustees 
have been abolished. 

The aim to preserve everything contained in collections soon 
demanded a new and most important officer, called conservator. 
His duty is manifold and burdensome, especially in a rapidly 
growing museum; the most varied kinds of work belong to him, 
but all centring in the effort to preserve the treasures of science. 
In fact, the business of this officer is an art in which there are 
various degrees of excellence, but in which, as in other arts, no 
degree of excellence is to be attained without training. 

There are a number of scientific matters in which nearly 
everybody feels himself able to have and to express an opinion, 
as, for instance, scientific education, local geology, primeval his- 
tory, management of libraries, and evolution. The arrangement 
of a museum belongs to the same category, to the detriment of 
science, which has lost often and heavily by such volunteer efforts. 
The importance of thorough training for this business is shown 
by a large and abundant literature. The development of the art 
't managing collections in the manner above stated was followed, 
curiously enough, in a natural way by the exclusion of the non- 
scientific public from them. The inevitable and perhaps irrepa- 
rable loss of important specimens by persons not accustomed to 
handle such objects and ignorant of their value, together with 
the impossibility of securing all objects without impeding their 
^hil.iti.m, was the reason for excluding everybody except natu- 
ralists. If we consider that every kind of exhibition necessitates 
!arge expenses for large rooms, and for arrangements conven- 
ient if not showy, and that just this time of progress demanded 
"nmense sums of money, the expedient resorted to will be easdy 
understood. 

With few exceptions, perhaps, for a quarter of a century most 
museums became so exclusive that public admission was consid- 
ered a hindrance or a nuisance. Even after attempts were made 
to give up this exclusiveness, something of it remained, and a 
natural consequence of this tendency was a sort of excdusmmess 
ln the naturalists themselves, who stood aloof with their works 



142 The Origin and Development of Museums. [March, 

and collections for some time, till both were ready for the study 
and use of the public, just as an artist is not accessible till his 
work is accomplished. 

The great impulse given to science by Cuyier was felt through 
the whole world, and every naturalist realized the necessity of a 
renewed and earnest study to enable him to follow the rapid 
progress of the master. The new way led directly to a compar- 
ative anatomy as basis for a comparative zoology. The admi- 
rable collections for this kind of study made and established in 
the Jardin des Plantes by Cuvier and his faithful associate, Lau- 
rillard, were at the time unrivaled, and show the immense 
amount of labor performed before the results could be published. 

The aim of Cuvier was so expansive that even his masterpiece, 
the R6gne Animal, was considered by him only as a tool neces- 
sary to be manufactured before he could work out the principles 
of natural history according to his ideas. 

The result of this kind of revolution soon manifested itself in 
every museum, and the French ones under the eye of the master 
were far in advance. The new era developing the rights of man 
led directly to the necessity that everybody should be enabled to 
have his share in this advance of science. Museums were again 
thrown open to the public, and the peculiar taste for exhibition 
and show made the French museum, for more than a quarter of 
a century, the leading and most refined in the world ; the other 
countries followed more or less slowly but steadily in their own 
way. It is a remarkable fact that even in the Jardin des Plantes, 
where the low, old-fashioned rooms were very soon overcrowded 
with objects, it was apparent that such a multitude of facts could 
be neither agreeable nor useful for public instruction. It was 
deemed advisable to prepare a separate collection, selected and 
arranged in a manner to be interesting to the public, which, being 
prepared according to French taste, was superior to all former 
ones. It is proper to mention here that just at this time, when 
Paris was the centre of science for the world, one of the most 
prominent of the army of ardent disciples of Cuvier was a young 
student from Neufchatel, Switzerland, — Louis Agassiz. The 
time of Cuvier is the date of the beginning of most of the large 
museums now in existence ; some of them, indeed, were started 
before, but in a different and far inferior manner, so that few of 
the contents could be retained when the new start began which 
influenced so powerfully those of London. Vienna, Berlin, Co- 
penhagen, Stockholm, Munich, and St. Petersburg. 



1876.]. The Origin and Development of Museums. 143 

It now became impossible for private collections to compete with 
the larger and steadily advancing museums, and the old custom 
which rich merchants had kept up for several centuries of accu- 
nl 1 1 & coll 3tions began to disappear, and, to the detriment of 
science, was rarely renewed. Nevertheless, some of the old col- 
lections of this kind have lasted even to our times. Of private 
collections the museum of Sir Ashton Lever, afterwards, if I am 
not mistaken, united with the British Museum, was one of the 
most prominent, and some others known now only through 
printed catalogues were important. 

The Ashmolean Museum, in Oxford, before it was transferred 
to the new rooms in 1861 was perhaps one of the most curious 
examples of the old style. Even in America, the East India 
museum in Salem, before the foundation of the Peabody Academy 
of Science, was a fair specimen of such collections of various 
objects of natural history, ethnological materials, and curiosities. 
Private collections were now devoted to special classes or 
orders, according to the taste of the owner, and even often sur- 
passed in their speciality larger museums. The impossibility of 
private students advancing natural history by means of large 
collections led quite naturally to associations and societies for this 
purpose, a considerable number of which were founded in nearly 
every country, so that science gained a large amount of facts, 
very prominent publications, and even more or less excellent 
collections. But soon most of them saw that their means 
were not adequate to their exertions. The collections suffered 
first, as it was not possible to maintain and preserve them in a 
scientific way. Later they grew to be a burden, and had to be 
Riven up more or less reluctantly, and the societies confined 
themselves to scientific work and publishing the results. There 
are a few exceptions where large means have been provided 
by patrons, and of these the Society of Natural History in Bos- 



most prominent, 



valed in its collectic 



and manner of exhibition. 
fc o accomplish which grows heavier every year. At any rate, 
science is much indebted to them for providing means for the 
Publication of valuable matter which often would have been left 
unpublished without their generous help. 

The public itself looked upon the ardent exertions of the nat- 
Uralisls with more curiosity than admiration, as the exclusive- 
ness of science was the cause of a very moderate standard of gen- 
er *l knowledge, till some of the most prominent workers found it 



144 The Origin and Development of Museums. [March, 

advisable to put the results of their investigations into a shape 
which could be understood by people not scientifically trained. 
The pride of the century, Alexander von Humboldt, led the 
long series of such publications, and the interest of the public, 
once awakened, exceeded all expectations, so that in later times 
the so-called popular literature of natural history equaled or even 
superseded the scientific publications. Of course every museum 
deemed it a duty to keep pace with this interest, and opened its 
doors to the public. At first, things went on to the satisfac- 
tion of both parties ; but by and by a natural change took place. 
The aim to exhibit the collections in a way pleasing and satis- 
factory to the public taste necessitated work often beyond the 
power of the officers, and to the scientific detriment of the collec- 
tions. The buildings proved to be mostly too small, or at least 
not fit to exhibit the objects in a suitable way, and in the new 
ones the principal claim on the architect was often to satisfy the 
taste of the public by giving a beautiful view of the specimens, 
the interests of science being secondary. An imposing hall, with 
splendid galleries, staircases, and large, high rooms, was the basis 
of a plan for a museum. The specimens themselves were to be 
arranged more or less artistically : birds and butterflies first, fishes 
and crabs being condemned to the corners. 

The three principal conditions of a building intended for a 
museum, convenient rooms, light, and the exhibition of the ob- 
jects, had to be balanced in another way ; the exhibition, as well 
as the light, took the heaviest share ; and the latter being the 
greatest and most injurious enemy to the preservation of objects 
of natural history, the disadvantage for science increased in such 
museums beyond all measure. The necessity of securing speci- 
mens against injury augmented the expenses considerably, espe- 
cially when all objects should be exhibited. Nevertheless the 
aim of public instruction could not often be attained in a way to 
match the exertions. The larger the collection, the smaller its 
value for the instruction of the public. The reason is obvious. 
Anybody obliged to pass about a quarter of a mile before cases 
with only water-fowls or sparrows, or to look at twenty thousand 
species of beetles of the same family, becomes bewildered and 
loses the connection between the different forms, the very thing 
for which he wished to see the museum. 

Such large collections, which would be the pride and the aim 
of the scientific naturalist, are like a complete dictionary to the 
linguist; but nobody, Ibelieve, will undertake toreada dictionary 



1876.] The Origin and Development of Museums. 145 

for pleasure or for general instruction. This somewhat hybrid 
tendency to satisfy at the same time science and the public proved 
to be detrimental to both these and the naturalist himself. Every 
country complained' of the gradual conversion of scientific asso- 
ciations into popular audiences, with no scientific knowledge to 
speak of, and this had the usual effect even upon scientists. 

The conclusion is very simple ; the desire of advancing science 
is very different from that of advancing the knowledge of the non- 
scientific public, and both cannot be attended to at the same time 
and with the same means, without hindrance and injury to one or 
the other. The importance of the separation of these two has, 
during the last score of years, been more and more fully acknowl- 
edged. The plans of several museums recently built were appro- 
priate to different purposes, either scientific ones or those adapted 
to public instruction, and beautiful specimens of both these pat- 
terns are in existence. 

It was certainly strange and unfitting to ask a naturalist to 
study in the same Toom an elephant and a small worm, so that 
rooms suitable for the best observation of both seemed to be a ne- 
cessity. The plan of scientific museums provides for the com- 
paratively small number of large animals large rooms or halls, 
and a series of small connected rooms, so that the different 
classes and orders may be kept separate, thus allowing a thor- 
oughly scientific arrangement of the objects, not to be altered 
for merely showy purposes. The creation of a scientific museum 
requires long and hard labor of generations of naturalists, and 
unless scientifically separated, the largest accumulation of objects 
of natural history forms only a sort of store-house. A museum 
cannot be bought at once with money, but must be developed by 
steady work. The largest and most advanced museums in the 
world have been arranged by three or even four succeeding gen- 
erations of naturalists, and are still more or less remote from the 
achievement of their intended perfection. The only way to 
hasten the work is to buy scientifically prepared collections, but 
the chance to do this is rare, and the difference between the ob- 
jects bought and those not yet worked up often creates an un- 
pleasant discrepancy. 

The expedient of sending out persons to collect the natural 
objects of a number of countries for museums seems quite natural, 
an d indeed has been resorted to in many cases. The financial 
result was generally unsuccessful, and the objects more expensive 
than the highest market price. No doubt such expeditions fur- 



146 The Origin and Development of Museums. [March, 

ther and advance science to a degree not to be attained in any 
other way, and should therefore not be done away with. But a 
museum dependent for its subsistence upon certain and regular 
funds would be able to undertake them only rarely, and with the 
generous help of patrons, as is done so successfully in this country. 
On the whole, a well-managed museum hardly needs these ex- 
traordinary and irregular exertions, which always retard the 
progress of the institution. It should not be forgotten that a 
museum has a great advantage over a private collection, as it is 
generally of no great consequence if it waits years for a favorable 
chance to obtain certain objects, whilst a private collection can 
wait only during the life-time of its possessor, or rather during 
his working years. 

Indeed, the overwhelming number of objects obtained during 
the last thirty years by the steadily increasing trade with the 
whole world has filled every museum to overflowing, and thus re- 
tarded its progress. The scientific work is still entirely unable 
to keep pace with the collector. The conscientious worker in a 
museum suffers every day the torments of Tantalus, having be- 
fore him innumerable and most interesting objects for the further- 
ance of science, and for excellent publications. He must there- 
fore content himself with only putting them in the right places 
and on the right shelves, and has no time for scientific work if he 
would fulfill his duty. He is surely pardonable if he occasionally 
revolts, although he finds his recompense in the conviction that 
he is working not only for himself but for others, for the advance- 
ment of science and of culture. 

. The sudden and unlooked-for enlargement of the collections 
has another equally unexpected consequence, which has not yet 
been accounted for. In former times most of the specimens were 
dried, and natural science came to be merely a knowledge of 
dried skins and dried animals, and the last great zoologist who 
knew nothing but the skins of animals died only thirty years 
ago. The enormous expense of preserving objects in alcohol be- 
came more and more embarrassing, and a large part of the income 
of every museum had to be expended every year for this purpose. 

It is easy to calculate the time when a museum will be obliged 
to stop its work, and even be unable to preserve the objects al- 
ready in hand. Various other liquids have been tried with more 
or less success, and finally the fact that objects preserved in a 



npiins >n 



determined 



1876.] The Origin and Development of J 

Natural history still consists principally in the knowledge of 
dead and preserved animals as seen in the museums. Eventually 
zoology became a museum zoology. Every worker knows the 
difficulty of using scientific works in comparing living or fresh 
specimens, though he has no difficulty at all with such as have 
undergone the regular museum process. 

It would be unfair not to acknowledge the steps now taken by 
naturalists to overcome this still enormous difficulty, and the real 
progress already made ; but nevertheless it is certainly a great 
advantage to science that in every museum the objects are pre- 
served in the same way. It is therefore clearly necessary to find 
the easiest means of reducing the evaporation of this expensive 
fluid, and this attempt has been made in all European museums 
during the last ten years. 

We have now traced the development of collections of natural 
history to the present time. The separation of collections to ad- 
vance science from those designed to advance general knowl- 
edge will be doubtless a permanent one, and is to be considered 
as a sign of real progress, as a benefit to mankind. The collec- 
tions designed to advance science will be archives of all that has 
been done in science. The better the facts of science are pre- 
served, the better the archives will be. These collections will 
nave only an indirect advantage for the public, just as a book is 
of no use before one is able to read. 

The noblest aim to be fulfilled by these scientific collections is 
to prepare the way and show how museums intended to advance 
knowledge, namely, collections for public instruction, can be 
made and arranged so as to be best fitted for their purpose. J 
believe that this way will not be difficult to discover, if the 
Purpose and the aim are clearly defined. As text-books must be 
adapted to the degree of knowledge of the student who is to pe- 
ruse them, so must museums correspond to the average standard 
of knowledge in the public which visits them; and as in text- 
books this standard may be placed somewhat above the average 
knowledge, so collections should be formed which would necessi- 
tate the public to adapt itself to a higher standard — a thing 
mankind is always inclined to do. 

It will be found impossible to arrange museums exactly fitted 

f or every kind of knowledge. As a certain limit must be given 

them, it may be best to have at least one so-called epitome- 

eoUection, in which every beginner should find, as in arithmetic, 

easiest means for acquiring further knowledge. The adoption 



148 Lubbock's Observations on Bees and Ants. [March, 

of such a principle in the arrangement of museums would be equal 
to the different grades of text-books for different classes of students. 
Only the great amount of money needed to make so many differ- 
ent collections, and the still greater expense of maintaining them 
at the proper scientific standard, will prevent the arrangement of 
such manifold collections, though it would be the best way to ed- 
ucate the public. As science is to become simpler at every step 
in advance, and to lift higher and higher the mystical veil now 
so impenetrable to those without scientific knowledge, we have a 
right to hope that hereafter the way indicated above will be made 
less expensive and rendered possible of attainment. Hence every- 
body is called upon to hasten the progress of science, as the most 
effective means for the advance of general knowledge. 



LUBBOCK'S OBSERVATIONS ON BEES AND ANTS. 
The second of Sir John Lubbock's series of Observations on 
Bees, Wasps, and Ants has recently been published in the Jour- 
nal of the IAnnean Society, and the following extracts may give 
our readers some idea of the interesting nature of his observa- 
tions, which simply require a little time and patience, and could 
be tested and extended by one not an expert in systematic ento- 
mology or the anatomy of insects. It is surprising that there 
are not more observers of the habits of animals in this country, 
among young people. The last thing taught in our public schools 
is the habit of observation, the only path to reflection as well as 
independence in thinking. 

Lubbock's earlier papers tended to show that while bees do not 
communicate information to one another, ants certainly have this 
power. Now our author publishes a series of facts, diaries of 
the doings of bees, which show, in his opinion, " that some bees, 
at any rate, do not communicate with their sisters, even if they 
find an untenanted comb full of honey, which to them would be 
a perfect Eldorado. This is the more remarkable because these 
bees began to work in the morning before the rest, and continued 
to do so even in weather which drove all the others into the shel- 
ter of the hive. That the strange bees which I have recorded 
should have found the honey is natural enough, because there 
were a good many bees about in the room." 



1876.] Lubbock's Observations on Bees and Ants. 149 

bees : " Once," he says, 1 " I assisted at a curious contest which 
took place between the queen and the worker bees in one of my 
hives, and which throws some light on the intellectual faculties 
of these animals. A set of forty-seven cells had been filled, eight 
on a nearly completed comb, thirty-five on the following, and 
four around the first cell of a new comb. When the queen had 
laid eggs in all the cells of the two older combs, she went several 
times round their circumference (as she always does, in order to 
ascertain whether she has not forgotten any cell), and then pre- 
pared to retreat into the lower part of the breeding-room. But 
as she had overlooked the four cells of the new comb, the work- 
ers ran impatiently from this part to the queen, pushing her, in 
an odd manner, with their heads, as they did also other work- 
ers they met with. In consequence, the queen began again to go 
around on the two older combs ; but as she did not find any cell 
wanting an egg, she tried to descend, but everywhere she was 
pushed back by the workers. This contest lasted for a rather 
long while, till the queen escaped without having completed her 
work. Thus the workers knew how to advise the queen that 
something was as yet to be done, but they knew not how to show 
her where it had to be done." 

I have already mentioned, with reference to the attachment 
which bees have been said to show for one another, that though 
I have repeatedly seen them lick a bee which had smeared herself 
in honey, I never observed them show the slightest attention to 
any of their comrades who had been drowned in water. Far, 
indeed, from having been able to discover any evidence of affec- 
tion among them, they appear to be thoroughly callous and ut- 
terly indifferent to one another. As already mentioned, it was 
necessary for me occasionally to kill a bee ; but I never found 
that the others took the slightest notice. Thus on the 11th of 
October I crushed a bee close to one which was feeding, — in fact, 
so close that their wings touched ; yet the survivor took no notice 
whatever of the death of her sister, but went on feeding with 
ev ery appearance of composure and en 
had happened. When the pressure \ 
b y the side of the corpse without the slightest appearance of ap- 
prehension, sorrow, or recognition. It was, of course, impossible 
for her to understand my reason for killing her companion ; yet 
neither did she feel the slightest emotion at her sister's death, 
n °r did she show any alarm lest the same fate should befall her 
a ^ 80 - In a second case exactly the same occurred. Again, I have 



150 Lubbock's Observations on Bees and Ants. [March, 

several times, while a bee has been feeding, held a second bee by 
the leg close to her ; the prisoner, of course, struggled to escape, 
and buzzed as loudly as she could ; yet the selfish (?) eater took 
no notice whatever. So far, therefore, from being at all affec- 
tionate, I doubt whether bees are in the least fond of one an- 

Their devotion to their queen is generally quoted as a most 
characteristic trait ; yet it is of the most limited character. For 
instance, I was anxious to change my black queen for a Ligurian ; 
and accordingly, on the 26th of October, Mr. Hunter was good 
enough to bring me a Ligurian queen. We removed the old 
queen, and we placed her with some workers in a box containing 
some comb. I was obliged to leave home on the following day ; 
but when I returned on the 30th, I found that all the bees had 
deserted the poor queen, who seemed weak, helpless, and miser- 
able. On the 31st the bees were coming to some honey at one of 
my windows, and I placed this poor queen close to them. In 
alighting, several of them even touched her ; yet not one of her 
subjects took the slightest notice of her. The same queen, when 
afterwards placed in the hive, immediately attracted a number of 
bees. 

That a bee can distinguish scents is certain. On the 5th of 
October I put a few drops of eau de Cologne in the entrance, 
and immediately a number (about fifteen) of bees came out to 
see what was the matter. Rose-water also had the same effect ; 
and, as will be mentioned presently, in this manner I called the 
bees out several times ; but after a few days they took hardly 
any notice of the scent. For instance, on the 17th of October I 
tried them with twenty drops of eau de Cologne, the same quan- 
tity of essence of violet, of lavender-water, of essence of musk, 
of essence of patchouli, and of spirits of wine ; but they took no 
apparent notice of any of them. 

I have also made some observations with the view of ascertain- 
ing whether the same bees act as sentinels. With this object, on 
the 5th of October I called out the bees by placing some eau de 
Cologne in the entrance, and marked the first three bees that 
came out. At five p. m. I called them out again ; about twenty 
came, including the three marked ones. I marked three more. 

October 6th. Called them out again. Out of the first twelve, 
five were marked ones. I marked three more. 

October 7th. Called them out at 7.30 A. M M as before. Out of 
the first nine, seven were marked ones. 



1876.] Lubbock's Observations on Bees and Ants. 151 

At 5.30 P. M., called them out again. Out of six, five were 

marked ones. 
October 8th. Called them out at 7.15. Six came out, all marked 

October 9th. Called them out at 6.40. Out of the firsften, 
eight were marked ones. 

Called them out at 11.30 A. M. Out of six, three were marked. 
I marked the other three. 

Called them out at 1.30 P. M. Out of ten, six were marked. 

Called them out at 4.30. Out of ten, seven were marked. 

October 10th. Called them out at 6.05 A. m. Out of six, five 
were marked. 

Shortly afterwards 1 did the same again, when out of eleven, 
seven were marked ones. 

At 5.30 p. m., called them out again. Out of seven, five 
were marked. 

October 11th. At 6.30 A. M., called them out again. Out of 
nine, seven were marked. 

At five P. m., called them out again. Out of seven, five were 
marked. 

After this day they took hardly any notice of the scents. 

Thus in these nine experiments, out of the ninety-seven bees 
which came out first, no less than seventy-one were marked ones, 
though out of the whole number of bees in the hive there were 
only twelve marked for this purpose, and, indeed, even fewer in 
the earlier experiments. I ought, however, to add that I gener- 
ally fed the bees when I called them out. 

It is sometimes said that the bees of one hive all know one 
another, and immediately recognize and attack any intruder from 
another hive. At first sight this certainly implies a great deal of 
intelligence. It is, however, possible that the bees of particular 
hives have a particular smell. Thus ' Langstroth, in his interest- 
ing treatise on the Honey Bee, says, " Members of different col- 
onies appear to recognize their hive companions by the sense of 
8 mell ; " and I believe that if colonies are sprinkled with scented 
a yrup, they may generally be safely mixed. Moreover, a bee re- 
turning to its own hive with a load of treasure is a very different 
creature from a hungry marauder ; and it is said that a bee, if 
kden with honey, is allowed to enter any hive with impunity. 
Mr. Langstroth continues, " There is an air of roguery about a 
thieving bee which, to the expert, is as characteristic as are the 
lotions of a pickpocket to a skillful policeman. Its sneaking 



152 Lubbock** Observations on Bees and Ants. [March, 

look and nervous, guilty agitation, once seen, can never be mis- 
taken." It is at any rate natural that a bee which enters a wrong 
hive by accident should be much surprised and alarmed, and 
would thus probably betray herself. 

Oft the whole, then, I do not attach much importance to their 
recognition of one another as an indication of intelligence. 

I had made some observations also with the view of ascertaining 
whether the bees which collect honey also work in the hive and 
attend to the brood, or whether they devote themselves exclu- 
sively to one or other of these duties. My observations, how- 
ever, were not conclusive; but some light has been thrown on the 
subject by Dzierzon, from which it would appear that for the first 
fortnight of a bee's life she attends exclusively to in-door duties, 
and only afterwards takes to the collection of honey and pollen. 
Dzierzon's statements have been confirmed by Dr. Donhoff. On 
'the 18th of April he introdu.v.l ;i Ligurian queen into a hive of 
black bees. The first Ligurian workers emerged on the 10th of 
May, and made their first appearance outside the hive on the 
17th ; but not until the 25th did any of the Ligurian workers 
appear on his feeding-troughs, which were constantly crowded 
with common bees, nor were any seen to visit the flowers. Re- 
peated observations, says Dr. Donhoff, u force me to conclude 
that during the first two weeks of the worker-bee's life the im- 
pulse for gathering honey and pollen does not exist, or at least is 
not developed, and that the development of this impulse pro- 
ceeds slowly and gradually. At first the young bee will not even 
touch the honey presented to her ; some days later she will sim- 
ply taste it ; and only after a lapse of time will she consume it 
eagerly. Two weeks elapse before she readily eats honey ; and 
nearly three weeks pass before the gathering impulse is suffi- 
ciently developed to impel *her to fly abroad and seek for honey 
and pollen among the flowers." 1 

In my first memoir I alluded to the difficulty which bees expe- 
rience in finding their way about. In this respect they certainly 
differ considerably. Some of the bees which came out through 
the little postern door (already described) were able to find their 
way back after it had been shown to them a few times. Others 
were much more stupid; thus, one bee came out on the 9th, 
11th, 12th, 14th, 15th, 16th, 17th, 18th, and 19th, and came to 
the honey ; but though I repeatedly put her back through the 
postern, she was never able to find her way for herself. 

1 Hive and Honey Bee, Langstroth, p. 195. 



1876.] Lubbock's Observations on Bees and Ants. 153 

I often found that if bees which were brought to honey did 
not return at once, still they would do so a day or two afterwards. 
For instance, on July 11, 1874, a hot, thundery day, and when 
the bees were much out of humor, I brought twelve bees to some 
honey ; only one came back, and that one only once ; but on the 
following day several of them returned. 

My bees sometimes ceased work at times when I could not 
account for their doing so. October 19th was a beautiful, sun- 
shiny, warm day. All the morning the bees were fully active. 
At 11.25 I brought one to the honey-comb, and she returned at 
the usual intervals for a couple of hours ; but after that she came 
no more, nor were there any other bees at work. Yet the weather 
was lovely, and the hive is so placed as to catch the afternoon 

I have made a few observations to ascertain, if possible, whether 
the bees generally go to the same part of the hive. Thus, — 

October 5th. I took a bee out of the hive, fed her, and marked 
her. She went back to the same part. 

October 9th. At 7.15 I took out two bees, fed and marked 
them. They returned ; but I coulcV not see them in the same 
part of the hive. One, however, I found not far off. 

At 9.30, brought out four bees, fed and marked them. One 
returned to the same part of the hive. I lost sight of the others. 

Since their extreme eagerness for honey may be attributed 
rather to their anxiety for the common weal than to their desire 
for personal gratification, it cannot fairly be imputed as greedi- 
ness ; still the following scene, one which most of us have wit- 
nessed, is incompatible surely with much intelligence. " The sad 
fate of their unfortunate companions does not in the least deter 
others who approach the tempting lure from madly alighting on 
the bodies of the dying and the dead, to share the same miserable 
end. No one can understand the extent of their infatuation until 
he has seen a confectioner's shop assailed by myriads of hungry 
bees. I have seen thousands strained out from the syrup m 
which they had perished ; thousands more alighting even upon 
the boiling sweets ; the floor covered and windows darkened with 
bees, some crawling, others flying, and others still so completely 
besmeared as to be able neither to crawl nor fly — not one in ten 
able to carry home its ill-gotten spoils, and yet the air filled with 
new hosts of thoughtless comers." l 

H, however, bees are to be credited with any moral feelings at 



15-4 Lubbock's Observations on Bees and Ants. [March, 

all, I fear the experience of all bee-keepers shows that they have 
no conscientious scruples about robbing their weaker brethren. 
" If the bees of a strong stock," says Langstroth, " once get a 
taste of forbidden sweets, they will seldom stop until they have 
tested the strength of every hive." And again, " Some bee- 
keepers question whether a bee that once learns to steal ever re- 
turns to honest courses." Siebold has mentioned similar facts in 
the case of wasps (Polistes). 

M. Forel, in his excellent work, Les Fourmis de la Suisse, 
asserts that ants, when they first quit the pupal state, like the 
bees, devote themselves to household duties and the care of the 
young, not taking any part in the defense of the nest until a 
later period of life. He has repeated many of Huber's experi- 
ments. As regards the memory of ants, he convinced himself 
that they recognized their companions after a separation of four 
months ; but he believes they would not do so for more than one 
season. In my previous memoir I have described the behavior 
of ants to companions from whom they had been separated for 
several months, and mentioned that I could not satisfy myself as 
to the lively manifestations of joy and satisfaction described by 
Huber as being shown under such circumstances. M. Forel, in 
the above-mentioned work, expresses his opinion that the signs 
which Huber regarded as marks of affection were in reality 
signs of distrust and fear, which, however, were soon removed. 

Ants of different nests are generally enemies ; but M. Forel 
assures us (page 262) that when they first quit the pupa-stage, 
ants do not distinguish friends from foes, though three or four days 
are sufficient to enable them to do so. It is to be regretted that 
he does not give the facts on which this interesting statement is 

The behavior of ants to one another differs very much accord- 
ing as they are alone or supported by numerous companions. An 
ant which would run away in the first case will fight bravely in 
the second (page 249). 

MM. Forel and Ebrard both assert that if an ant is a little ill, 
or slightly wounded, she is carefully tended by her companions ; 
while, on the other hand, those which are dangerously ill or 
wounded are carried out of the nest to die. I have not met with 
any cases of this kind. 

Again, some days I found no ants about on my window-sill as 
usual, although there seemed nothing in the weather to account 
for it. 



Lubbock's Observations on Bees and Ants. 



I/if, 



I quote the following in order to show the steadiness with 
which ants work. 

July 13th. At 6.20 A. M. I put an ant to some honey ; at 6.40 
she went, at 7.02 she returned, and at 7.08 went away again, but 
not to the nest ; at 7.11 she returned, and at 7.15 went away again. 



after which she came back no more. During this time fifteen 
others had come to the honey. 

That ants have a certain power of communication has been 
proved by Huber and other observers. Several striking cases are 
mentioned by M. Forel. For instance (op. cit., page 297), an 
army of Amazon ants, on an expedition in search of slaves, at- 
tacked a nest of Formica rufibarbis. In a few seconds (quelques 
secondes) the dome of the nest was covered with F. rufibarbis, 
which rushed out to defend their house. 

On another occasion he placed a number of Tetramorium cais- 
Pitum about four inches from a colony of Pheidole pallidula. 
"En un clin d'oeil," he says (page 384), " l'alarme fut re'pandue, 
e * des centaines de Pheidole se jeterent au devant de l'ennemi." 

Again, he (page 349) placed some earth containing a number 
°f Tetramorium about four inches from a nest of Strongylogna- 
thus Saberi. Several combats took place ; but after the lapse of 
a few minutes (quelques minutes) a whole army of S. Huberi 
Merged and attacked the intruders. 

°n another occasion, some Amazon ants (page 301) were 
marching in vain for a nest of Formica rufibarbis. After a while 
some of them found the nest. >* Immediately " (aussitSt), he says, 
" a signal was given, the Amazons rushed in the right direction, 
an <* pillaged the nest in spite of its inhabitants." This is a sur- 
P ris ing statement. If it is to be taken literally, the c 



cannot have been i 



by t 



s; the ; 



156 Lubbock's Observations on Bees and Ants. [March, 

hardly have been a visible one ; are we then to imagine a sound 
or smell to have been made use of which our auditory and olfac- 
tory nerves are incapable of perceiving ? or have ants some sense 
which we do not possess ? 

It would even appear, from M. Forel's statements, that in 
some cases one species comprehends the signs of another. This 
is, of course, the case when different species live in association ; 
but I am now speaking of hostile species. Formica sanguinea, 
he assures us, understand the signals of F. pratensis. " Elles 
savent," he says (page 359), " toujours saisir l'instant ou les pra- 
tensis se communiquent le signal de la deVoute, et elles savent 
s'apprendre cette ddcouverte les unes aux autres avec une rapi- 
dity incroyable. Au moment meme ou l'on voit les pratensis se 
jeter les unes contre les autres en se frappant de quelques coups 
rapides, puis cesser toute resistance et s'enfuir en masse, on voit 
aussi les sanguinea se jeter tout-a-coup au milieu d'elles sans la 
plus petite retenue, mordant a droite et a gauche comme des 
Polyergus, et arrachant les cocons de toutes les pratensis qui en 
portent." 

He is of opinion (page 364) that the different species differ much 
in their power of communicating with one another. Thus, though 
Polyergus rufescens is smaller than F. sanguinea, it is generally 
victorious, because the ants of this species understand one an- 
other more quickly than those of F. sanguinea. 

It appeared to me that the following experiment might throw 
some light on the power of communication possessed by ants, 
namely, to place several small quantities of honey in similar sit- 
uations, then to bring an ant to one of them, and subsequently to 
register the number of ants visiting each of the parcels of honey, 
of course imprisoning for the time every ant which found her way 
to the honey except the first. If, then, many more came to the 
honey which had been shown to the first ant than to the other 
parcels, this would be in favor of their possessing the power of 
communicating facts to one another, though it might be said they 
came by scent. Accordingly, on the 13th of July, at three P. M., I 
took a piece of cork about eight inches long and four inches wide, 
and stuck into it seventeen pins, on three of which I put pieces 
of card with a little honey. Up to 5.15 no ant had been up any 
of these pins. I then put an ant to the honey on one of the bits 
of card. She seemed to enjoy it, and fed for about five minutes, 
when she went away. At 5.30 she returned, but went up six 
pins which had no honey on them. I then put her on to the card. 



1876.] Lubbock's Observations on Bees and Ants. 157 

In the mean time twelve other ants had been up wrong pins 
and two up to the honey ; these I imprisoned for the afternoon. 
At 5.46 my ant went away. From that time to six o'clock, seven 
ants came, but not the first. One of the seven went up a 
wrong pin, but seemed surprised, came down, and immediately 
went up the right one. The other six went straight up the 
right pin to the honey. Up to seven o'clock twelve more ants 
went up pins — eight right, and four wrong. At seven, two more 
went wrong. Then my first ant returned, bringing three friends 
with her ; and they all went straight to the honey. At 7.11 she 
went ; on her way to the nest she met and spoke to two ants, 
both of which then came straight to the right pin and up it to the 
honey. Up to 7.20 seven more ants came and climbed up pins — 
six right, and one wrong. At 7.22 my first ant came back with 
five friends ; at 7.30 she went away again, returning at 7.45 with 
no less than twenty companions. During this experiment I im- 
prisoned every ant that found her way up to the honey. Thus, 
while there were seventeen pins, and consequently sixteen chances 
to one, yet between 5.45 and 7.45 twenty-seven ants came, not 
counting those which were brought by the original ant ; and out 
of these twenty-seven, nineteen went up the right pin. Again, 
on the 15th of July, at 2.30, I put out the same piece of cork with 
ten pins, each with a piece of card and one with honey. At 4.40 
I put an ant to the honey ; she fed comfortably, and went away 
at 4.44. 

There were a good many other ants about, which, up to this time, 
went up the pins indiscriminately. 

At 7.15 an ant came and went up the right pin, and another 
at 7.18. At 7.26 the first ant came back with a friend, and both 
went up the right pin. At 7.28 another came straight to the 

" 7.31 one came to the right pin. " " the first ant came back. 

7.36 one came to the right pin with " 7.49 another came to the right pin. 

At 7.39 one came to the right pin. " 7.51 " " right « 



158 Lubbock's Observations on Bees and Ants. [March. 

Thus after seven o'clock twenty-nine ants came ; and though 
there were ten pins, seventeen of them went straight to the right 
pin. 

On the 16th of July I did the same again. At 6.25 I put an 
ant to the honey ; at 6.47 she went. 

At 6.49 an ant came to the right pin. At 7.05 the first ant came back, and re- 

" 6 50 another " " mained at the honey till 7.11. 



These two ants were met by the first one, which crossed 
tennae with them, when they came straight to the honey. 






After this, for an hour, no more ants came. On this occasion, 
therefore, while there were ten pins, out of thirty ants, sixteen 
came to the right one, while fourteen went to one or other of the 
nine wrong ones. 

July 18th. I put out the boards as before at four o'clock. Up 
to 4.25 no ant came. I then put one (No. 1) to the honey ; she 
fed for a few minutes, and went away at 4.31. 

At 4.35 she came back with four friends, and went nearly 
straight to the honey. At 4.42 she went away, but came back 
almost directly, fed, and went away again. 



ant (No. 2) I allowed t< 



Observations on Bees and Ants. 
right pin and At 5.51 ant No. 1 came back, and a 



to right pin ; this 


At 5.58 two ants car 


o by -No. 2. 


" 5.59 another ant 


came to right pin. 






I changed the pin ag 



Thus during this time, from 4.50 until 7.50, twenty-nine ants 
came, twenty-six went to the right pin, while only three went up 
any of the nine wrong ones. Moreover, out of these twenty-six, 
only four were distinctly brought by the two ants which I had 
shown the honey. 

On the 19th I tried a similar experiment. The marked ants 
frequently brought friends with them; but, without counting 
these, from 3.20 to eight o'clock, out of forty-five ants, twenty- 
nine went up the right pin, while sixteen went up the nine wrong 

Thus on 



Or, adding them all together, while there were ten .pins at least, 
out of one hundred and fifty-six ants one hundred and three came 
up the right pin, and only fifty-three up the others. 

It certainly appeared to me that some of the ants were much 
cleverer in finding their way to the honey than others ; several 
ants which I put on honey came back to nearly the same place, 
an <* yet did not seem able to find the exact spot. 

Again, some appeared to communicate more freely with their 
Wends than others; and I have met with cases which show that 
8 °me ants certainly do not, under such circumstances, summon 
others to their assistance. From this point of view the following 
observations may be compared with those already recorded. On 
tQ e 1st of August an ant came to the honey at 4.20 and went 
aw ay a few minutes afterwards. 



Y *t during all this time she brought no friend with her. 



160 Lubbock's Observations on Bees and Ants. [March. 

The following additional observations were made after the read- 
ing of the paper, at the dates severally mentioned below. 

Thus on January 3d I placed some larva? in three small porce- 
lain saucers in a box seven inches square attached to one of my 
frame nests. The saucers were in a row, six inches from the en- 
trance to the frame and one and a half inch apart from one an- 




r put about eighty larva? in cup 3. 
It is remarkable that during all this time she did not come 
straight to the cups, but took a roundabout and apparently irres- 

At 7.04 she came to cup 1 and then to cup 3, and then home. 
There were at least a dozen ants exploring in the box ; but 
she did not send any of them to the larva?. 

At 7.30 she returned to cup 3 and took a larva. 

I now left off watching for an hour. On my return 

At 8.30 she was just carrying off a At 9.30 she came to cup 3, then to cop 3 
larva - and took a larva. 

At 8 40 she came back to cup 3 and At 9.52 she came to cup 3, then to cup » 



^"'•] Explorations in Colorado. 161 

At 10.45 she came to cup 3, and I went to bed. At seven 
o'clock the next morning the larvae were all removed. In watch- 
ing this ant I was much struck by the difficulty she seemed to 
experience in finding her way. She wandered about at times 
most irresolutely, and, instead of coming straight across from the 
door of the frame to the cups, kept along the side of the box ; 
so that in coming to cup 3 she went twice as far as she need have 
done. Again, it is remarkable that she should have kept on vis- 
iting the empty cups time after time. I watched for this ant 
carefully on the following day ; but she did not come out at all. 

During the time she was under observation, from 1 till 10.45, 
though there were always ants roaming about, few climbed up 
the walls of the cups. Five found their way into the (empty) 
cup 1 and one only to cup 3. It is clear, therefore, that the ant 
under observation did not communicate her discovery of larvse to 
her friends. 



EXPLORATIONS IN COLORADO UNDER PROFESSOR 
HAYDEN IN 1875. 

^HE United States Geological and Geographical Survey of the 
lerritories, under the direction of Professor Hayden, during 
the season of 1875, continued the work of the two previous sea- 
sons m Colorado, completing the southern and southwestern por- 
tions, including a belt fifteen miles in width of Northern New 
Mexico and Eastern Utah. 

The entire force was divided into seven parties. The district 
surveyed by the first party, under A. D. Wilson, embraced an 
area of 12,400 square miles. It contains the foot-hills sloping 
eastward from the Front Range, the southern continuation of 
he Saugre de Christo Range, the southern end of the San Luis 
Va %, the extension of the La Plata Mountains, and the lower 
country of the Rio San Juan and its tributaries. A small por- 
.!° n of tn e sedimentary eastern foot-hills was first surveyed, and 

e work was then carried westward to the mountainous vicinity 
ot fte upper Rio Grande. Instead of forming a well-defined, 
* 0ar ply-limited range, the mountains south of the Rio Grande are 
ornied by a high plateau with numerous isolated peaks. Both the 
''"' t, ; ul 'Hid the peaks mentioned are volcanic, showing the char- 
acteristic regularity of flows prevalent there. From the position 

volcanic beds composing the higher peaks it may be inferred 
T a o at 0n e time the summit of the plateau extended to a consid- 



162 Explorations in Colorado. [March, 

erably higher altitude than at present. Towards the southwest it 
drops off suddenly into the lower country containing Rios Piedra 
and Pinos. Where the plateau ends, volcanic and sedimentary 
beds of Cretaceous age appear, extending from the Rio Animas 
eastward to the border of the district. Above the Cretaceous 
beds Nos. 2 and 3 is a series of shales and sandstones about 
three thousand feet in thickness, and containing coal at a num- 
ber of points, of unknown geological age, though the series were 
thought to be possibly parallel with the Trinidad coal-bearing 
strata, and not of Cretaceous age. 

The work was continued to the extension of the La Plata 
Mountains, among which evidences of former glaciers were found. 
In this region also there are evidences of the former existence of 
two very large lakes at the close of the volcanic activity there. 
The work was then connected to the north and northeast with 
that of 1874, and therewith finished. 

The southwestern division, under the direction' of W. H. Holmes 
as geologist, worked over an area of about sixty-five hundred 
square miles. The section of stratified rocks exposed extends 
from the lignitic series to the Carboniferous, including about two 
thousand feet of the former, and slight exposures merely of the 
latter. The heaviest seam of coal examined in the lignitic beds is 
twenty-one feet in thickness. In the Cretaceous beds fossils oc- 
curred in ten distinct horizons, which Mr. Holmes expects to be 
able to identify with corresponding ones on the Atlantic slope. 
The section obtained is the most complete and satisfactory made 
in Colorado up to this time. 

The prehistoric remains in the canons and lowlands of the 
southwest are of great interest. Many cliff houses built in ex- 
traordinary situations, and still in a fine state of preservation, 
were examined. A good collection of pottery, stone implements, 
— the latter including arrow-heads, axes, and ear-ornaments, — 
some pieces of ropes, fragments of matting, water-jars, corn and 
beans, and other articles were exhumed from the debris of a house. 
Many graves were found, and a number of skulls and skeletons 
that may fairly be attributed to the prehistoric inhabitants were 
added to the collection. 

The western or Grand River division was under the charge 
of Henry Gannett, topographer, with A. C. Peale as geologist. 
The region surveyed embraces the country drained by the Un- 
compahgre and Dolores- rivers and their branches, and the work 
extended about thirty miles into Utah, the total area surveyed 



1876.] Explorations in Colorado. 163 

being about six thousand square miles. The geology of this dis- 
trict is comparatively simple, there being no great uplifts, nor 
many local disturbances. The sedimentary beds are all included 
under the Carboniferous, Red beds (Triassic?), Jurassic, and 
Cretaceous series. On August 15th, the work was brought sud- 
denly to a close by the Indians. 

The work of the fourth division, directed by G. R. Bechler, 
extended over a large area, situated from the foot-hills of the 
Rocky Mountains to the Upper Arkansas and Eagle rivers, and 
from a point six miles south of Pike's Peak to within fifteen miles 
of Long's Peak, including the great mining industries of Col- 

The party under Mr. Gardner had made but little progress 
when it was prevented from doing further work by the Indians. 
One of the stations occupied was very important, namely, the 
Sit ' r, "« li» s ='l Mountain, which enabled Mr. Gardner to secure an 
excellent set of observations, thus extending the triangulation far 
rato Utah, and connecting the eastern work of the survey with 
the great Colorado River of the West, 

The trip of Mr. Jackson, the photographer of the expedition, 
to the southwestern portion of Colorado renewed the work of 
1874 on the ancient ruins north of the present Moquis Pueblos. 
wteiesting archaeological discoveries in the upper San Juan Mesa 
Verde imd La Plate regions were made by Mr. W. H. Holmes, 
,n addition to his geological work. The ruins occurred only in 
jWe canons which had alluvial bottoms. A strip of bottom 
land only fifty yards in width at the bottom of the deep canons 
w, >uhl yield ma ; Z( , cumgh to subsist quite a town. The supposi- 
t j on tha t they belonged to an agricultural people is strengthened by 
e fact that in the vicinity of any group of ruins there are also a 
number of little « cubby-holes," too small for habitations, but very 
evidently intended for " caches " or granaries, and the large towns 
c °ntain small apartments that must have been designed for the 
Same lls e. In one place where grass, cedar, and artemisia flour- 
*' and tn ere is most excellent grazing land, these people must 
ave had herds of sheep or goats which they brought up here to 
S^ze during the winter, just as the Ute and Navajos do at the 
P^sent time ; and the towers so frequent in this region were 
Probably built as places of refuge or residence for the herders. 
P°n the faces of rock near one of these ruins is an inscription 
^ Wed in with :i sharp-p..infd instrument, and covering some 
% square feet of surface. Figures of goats, lizards, and hu- 



164 Explorations in Colorado. . [March, 

man forms abound, with many hieroglyphical signs. At other 
points adobe houses of great extent were discovered. One town, 
running along the face of a perpendicular bluff for three hundred 
yards, contained seventy-five rooms, with granaries and cisterns. 
In the centre of the mass was a well-preserved circular apartment, 
a little below the general level of the others, which was probably 
an estrefa. The goat corrals were inside, between the houses 
and the bluff. In another ruined town, consisting of houses 
scattered up and down the De Chelly and Bonito rivers, were 
great reservoirs in which was found abundant and excellent 

A week was spent by Mr. Jackson at the Moquis towns, where 
he obtained photographs of the houses and the inhabitants. The 
comparison between the work of the prehistoric town-builders 
and the Moquis was very much in favor of the former, the high- 
est degree of perfection being exhibited in the cliff houses of 
the Rio Mancos (described in the January Naturalist), where 
some of the houses were marvels of finish and durability, while in 
traveling to the present homes of the Moquis there was found 
to be a gradual merging of the ancient into the modern style, 
from the neatly-cut rock and correct angles of the prehistoric 
race to the comparatively crude buildings now made by the 
Moquis. Other ruins in different cations were visited, the most 
extensive of which were in the canon and valley of the Monte- 
zuma. Here the bottom of the canons once supported a very 
thickly settled community. There is in one lateral canon an 
almost continuous series of ruins for a distance of twenty-five 
miles. Throughout the lateral canons every available defensive 
point has been utilized, and is now covered with the remains of 
heavy walls and large blocks of houses. 

Another singular feature was the number of holes cut into the 
perpendicular lower wall of the canon for the purpose of ascend- 
ing the rock, holes just large enough to give a hand and foot hold, 
and leading either to some walled-up cave or to a building erected 
above. Some of these steps ascended the nearly perpendicular 
face of the rock for one hundred and fifty or two hundred feet. 

The results of this trip were the collection of a large number of 
utensils, both modern and ancient, stone arrow and spear points, 
knives and axes, with photographs especially illustrative of the 
most important ruins, and numerous sketches of everything of 
note, which will be. brought out in detail in the regular publica- 
tions of the survey. 



187 6 -] Recent Literature. 165 

During the summer, Mr. P. R. Uhler and Dr. A. S. Packard, 
Jr., were temporarily attached to the survey, and made collec- 
tions of insects in Colorado. Dr. Packard investigated the rav- 
ages of the destructive grasshopper and other injurious insects of 
Colorado and Utah, with a view to the preparation of a report on 
the injurious insects of the Territories. He also discovered a new 
cave-fauna on the shores of Great Salt Lake, and investigated 
the Alpine insects of the Rocky Mountains. 



RECENT LITERATURE. 

Wtman's Fresh-Water Shell-Mounds of the St. John's River, 
Florida. 1 — This very valuable contribution to our knowledge of the 
archeology of North America is modestly asserted by its lamented au- 
thor to be " a record of what he has observed and a contribution to the 
knowledge of these ancient relics of a race which has long since passed 

ay. it certainly is all this and more, although "still very incom- 
plete," _ a fact which goes far to show how wide a field for exploration 
and study i 8 open to those devoted to archaeological pursuits. The 
memoir opens with an admirably clear sketch of the characteristic feat- 
ures of the St. John's River, followed by a general description of the 
mounds, forty-eight in number, the majority of which are found between 
Uke George and Lake Harney. These shell-mounds, built up exclu- 
de y of fresh-water species, are peculiar, in being formed mainly by 
accumulations of Ampullarias and Paludinaa, with a small percentage of 
ussel shells (Unios), as elsewhere these heaps are entirely formed of 
^nios, the other shells being either very scantily represented or alto- 
ge her absent. Those here described " are in almost every case built on 
banks of the river, resting either on one of the ridges of sand and 
"ver mud, .... or on land slightly raised." The accompanying plate 
\ •)> forming the frontispiece to the memoir, illustrates the shell-mound 
t ri^ Enter P rise - " F rom the presence of fire-places ashes, calcined 

lis, char coal, and implements, together with the bones of edible ani- 
mals and occasionally those of man, found at various depths from top to 
bottom, and the absence of everything which might have been made by 
. White man > it seems certain that these mounds were the accumula- 
tes by an d the dwelling-places of the earliest .... inhabitants, dur- 
5 ne successive stages of their formation." As bearing upon the 
4 estion of the antiquity of these mounds and their various contents of 
Utaan ori ghi, Professor Wyman remarks " that the building of the 
ulI reSk ' Wattr Shdl-Mound S of the St. John's River, Florida. By Jeffries Wyman. 
-Mass°"p 0f thC Peabod y Academy of. Science. Volume I. Number 4. Salem, 
and n V ' shed h J the Academy. December, 1875. Royal 8vo,pp. 94. With a map 




A" 



^^_^ x 

/ it 




: 




1876.] Recent Literature. 169 

mounds extended through very long periods of time and were the result 
of very slow accumulation, or that the shells existed formerly in much 
greater quantities than now." Granting the probability of the latter 
supposition, the former seems much the more reasonable, and every fact 
discovered with reference to these mounds strengthens the probability, if 
we must so limit it, of the great age of these traces of a perished race. 
It is a curious fact that stone implements " were seldom met with in 
making excavations in the shell-mounds," inasmuch as we associate them 
with all early traces of human occupancy of any locality ; but some few 
specimens were met with, and we recognize them to be such paleolithic 
forms as characterize the French bone caves (see Reliqui* Aquitanica?) 
and even those of an earlier date, since some are mentioned by the author 
as "resembling somewhat the celts of the St. Acheul pattern." The 
figures on Plate II., especially 1, 2, and 7, are also identical in form with 
the rude implements from the river gravels of the Delaware Valley 
(New Jersey), as comparison with specimens in the Cambridge museum 
will show. Here again we have an undoubted indication of the antiq- 
uity of the shell-mounds, and of their pre-Indian origin. Of the pot- 
tery it is remarked that fragments " exist in the later but not in the old- 
est mounds." This would indicate an acquirement of the knowledge of 
utilizing clay for making cooking-vessels while the mounds were in course 
of construction, or accumulation, and certainly the specimens from the 
mounds figured Plate V., figs. 3, 4, 5, and 6, are of the very rudest de- 
scription, and less elaborate in ornamentation than much of the ware 
made by the Indians of the more northern and western States. Pro- 
fessor Wyman remarks that " a comparison of the pottery from the shell- 
heaps of the St. John's with that from other parts of Florida shows the 
important fact that they have but little similarity." 

Besides descriptions of stone implements and those of bone and of 
shell, admirable chapters on pottery, human remains, traces of cannibalism, 
flattened tibine, and allied subjects, go to make up the contents of this 
lemoir. We have not space to allude to these in detail. 
> student of American archeology can do without the work, 
- •«= wisnes to be well informed in this branch of the science. 

Marschall's Nomenclator Zoologicus. 1 — The Zoological and 
Botanical Society of Vienna published in 1873 a Nomenclator Zoolog- 
ies, prepared by Count Marschall, and intended to serve as a supplement 
the We U-known work of Agassiz. Not having been issued by a reg- 
ular publishing house, the volume is less known than it would otherwise 
e - It purports to include all names of genera proposed for animals be- 
tween 1846 and 1868, besides a few which were overlooked in the work 

i generum animalium tam 
ilphabetirum disposita sub auspiciis et 
, conscriptus a comite Atjgusto db 



Otain 



170 Recent Literature. [March, 

of Agassiz. It is not, however, based upon the comprehensive plan 
which renders the earlier work so valuable, and is far inferior to it, not 
only in plan but in execution. As far as we have noticed, all names of 
groups higher than genera have been omitted ; the value gained by their 
introduction would have far more than compensated for the slight addi- 
tional labor required. To have added the derivations, as Agassiz did, 
would have so greatly augmented the labor of the compiler, besides in- 
creasing the cost of the work, that we can scarcely blame the omission, 
valuable as they would have been. What we deem, however, one of the 
prime defects of the work is that the names are not grouped in a single 
series, but are scattered under twenty-one distinct headings (representing 
as many groups of the animal kingdom), and no general index is fur- 
nished ; one of the most frequent uses to which works of this nature are 
put is in searching whether a name which it is proposed to adopt is already 
in use in zoology ; but for this, one must now look through twenty-one 
different lists. When we add that the work is full of misprints, has many 
names out of the intended alphabetical order, and is certainly by no 
means complete, 1 we are obliged to confess that a most useful intention 
has been spoiled in the accomplishment. 

Hentz's Spiders of the United States. 2 — Besides its regular 
publications of Memoirs and Proceedings, the Boston Society of Natural 
History publish a series of Occasional Papers. The first of these was a 
collection and reprint in elegant style of the miscellaneous papers of the 
late Dr. T. W. Harris. A more useful work is the present reprint of 
the papers on our spiders, by Mr. Hentz. In its present form it will be 
the starting-point for future studies on this subject, and prove exceed- 
ingly useful from the large number of excellent figures, which represent 
however, species chiefly from the Southern States. The work has passed 
through careful editorial hands, and the drawings and notes by Mr. 
Emerton add not a little to the usefulness and value of the work. A 
biographical sketch is given by Mr. Burgess. 

Morse's First Book of Zoology. 8 — The fact that a second edition 
of this attractive little book has so soon appeared is good evidence of its 
entire fitness as an elementary book of zoology. The few typographical 
errors which occurred in the first edition have been corrected ; otherwise 
the book is the same, and to our mind in its present form unexception- 

posed by Fieber in Lotos, during 1854. This is the more remarkable as Fieber's 

papers were noticed at the time in a literal] oant Marshall's 

. Oesterreich. Literatur. 

'- Th, Spiders of the United States. A Collection of the Arachnoidal Writings 

of Nicholas Marcelujs Hentz, M. J). Edited by Edward Bdrgess, with Notes 

s by James H. Emerton. Occasional Papers of the Boston Bockfl 



187$,] Recent Literature. 171 

able as a text-book for boys and girls. We hope to see it introduced 
into every school in the country, for sooner or later zoology will have 
to be taught in all our common schools, at least so much of it as to 
MUM children to collect and observe the common animals they meet 
with in their daily walks. An excellent feature of this book is that the 
child is led to examine the object and compare it with others, and is then 
stimulated to see how it acts, thus unconsciously getting some glimpses 
at least of the principles of morphology and physiology. The objects 
are called by their common names. The author has had the good sense 
to omit the scientific names, thus rendering the book vastly more attract- 
ive and useful. Many readers are anxious to first learn the Latin names, 
and are too often content to stop here. The scientific name is the 
thing of least importance. The author well illustrates, in the preface, 
the difficulty and mental confusion resulting from the present state of 
zoological nomenclature, the bane or necessary evil of the study of 
biology. 

The Movements and Habits of Climbing Plants. 1 — We wish 
to refer our readers to a review of this book, and of Mr. Darwin's treatise 
on Insectivorous Plants, in recent numbers of the Nation. Our readers 
will recognize in the review the thorough analysis and clear statement 
which characterize Professor Gray's criticisms. It may be well to add 
to the review a single statement which is based on the opening sentences 
of Climbing Plants ; namely, that Mr. Darwin had his attention first 
called to the subject several years ago, by a short paper by Professor 
Gray on the movement of certain tendrils. 

Recent Books and Pamphlets. -Natural History and Antiquities of Selborne. 
te. With Notes, by Frank Buckh 



Illustrated by V II. I Ma 



-Norse Mythology ; or - 
the Eddas, systematized 
Index. By R. R a„j , 



% Prof. M 

/>v-h-W'au 






:h. "li 


eligionofoui 


• Ford 


athers. Cot 


i tabling all the Myths of 


and 


iut.-r|uvred. 




an Introdi 






Chicago : S 


. C. G. 


•iggs & Co. 


1875. 12mo.pp.473. 


f the 


Dinnerrata. 


Part 


I. By Pro 


f. 0. C. Marsh. With 


Amei 


■ 


af s, 




Arts, February, 1876.) 


;amin 


ation of Cri 


ide I>i 


•ugs and ot 


her Vegetable Products. 






Mich. 








of St. John 


's Kiv 


•er, Florida. By Jetfries Wyman. 










lass. 1875. Royal 8vo, 




(i. Fur sale 








1 the 


Tides and Ci 






:inity By W. H. Dall. 


IJopo 


rt. Washington, D. C. No. 


10. 4to, pp. 36. With 



Report on Mt. St. Elias. By W. H. Dall. (From the U. S. Coast Survey Report 
jr 1875.) With a map and sketches. Washington, D. C July, 1875. 4to, pp. 32. 

Notes on the Yucca Borer (Megathymus yucat). By C. V. Uilcv. : I 
Sciences, St. Louis, January, 1876.) St Louis. 1876. 8vo, pp 23. With ruts 

tion Post-Pliocene de l'Acadie. Par G. F. 

answick. By G. F. Matthew. (Canadian 

Ions of New Species. By A. G. Wetherby. Cincinnati. 1875. 8vo, pp. 12. With 

Descriptive Catalogues of the Photographs of the United States Geologic*! Nurvev 
n 1869 to 1875 inclusive. Second Edition. W. H. Jack- 
on, photographer. Washington, I). C. 1S75. 8vo, pp. 81. 



GENERAL NOTES. 
BOTANY. 1 
Astragalus Robbinsii Gray. — As some botanists seem to sup- 
pose this plant extinct, it may be of interest to them to know that the 
station has never been lost, and that at any time since Oakes used to col- 
lect it until now, fine specimens have been easily obtained. It is abun- 
dant over the very limited area where it grows, and has never been found 
anywhere else, I believe. Few plants are so exceedingly restricted in 
their range, for its habitat consists only of a space about five hundred 
feet long and from fifty to one hundred feet wide. This is on one bank 
of the Winooski River, near Burling 
overflowed by every freshet. This limestone is v 
and full of crevices which are filled with sand m 
In these crevices, or less often in hollows that have been filled with earth, 
the astragalus grows, sending its roots from six inches to a foot or even 
more down into the crevice. It does not, so far as I have noticed, ever 
grow higher on the bank of the river than the spring floods reach, nor 
away from the exposed limestone rock. Potentilla fruticosa is found 
abundantly in the same location, and less abundantly Ancmow mukifik 
"^ Campanula rotundifolia, and also several less numerous species of 



Composite, Salix, etc. — G. H. Perkins. 



The Potato-Blight.- 



nportant step has recently been 



made in our knowledge of the history of this disease. It is about thirty 
years since it was first clearly traced by M. Montagne in France, and 
the Rev. M. J. Berkeley in England, to a parasitic fungus, Botrytis or 
Peronospora infestam, which first attacks the haulms and leaves, and 
eventually causes the decay of the tubers. Two modes of asexual re- 
production, by means of « simple spores " or conidia, and actively moving 
swarmspores or zoospores which penetrate the s:omata of the host, have 
1 Conducted by Prof. G. L. Goodale. 



1876.] Botany. 173 

long been familiar to botanists ; but it has been reserved for the well, 
known mycologist, Mr. Worthington G. Smith, of London, to discover 
quite recently the sexual mode of reproduction, which is quite analogous 
to that already known in other species of the same genus. On the 
mycelium, within the decaying tissues of the potato-plant, are produced 
the true sexual organs, the antheridia and oogonia, each of the latter 
containing a germinal cell or obsphere which is fertilized by a fecundat- 
ing tube put out by the antln'ridimn. which discharges its contents into 
the protoplasm of the oospheiv, thus convening the latter into an oospore 
or « resting spore." The germination of this latter body has not yet 
been observed. The chief point of practical importance in this discovery 
is that it disposes of the theory which had been started of an " alternation 
of generations," namely, that the spores of the potato-fungus germinate on 
some other plant than the potato, producing a fungus which had not been 
recognized as identical with the Peronospora, the spores of this again 
producing the potato-fungus. The ground which has to be worked over 
for the destruction of the disease is thus considerably limited. — A. W. B. 
New Classification of Cryptogams. — In the last edition of 
his Lehrbuch der Botanik, Prof. J. Sachs proposes a new classifica- 
tion of the lowest section of cryptogams, which he distinguishes as 
tikoBopkj/te$ t including the classes, hitherto considered distinct, of Algas, 
Fungi, Lichens, and Characea?. He divides the section into four classes, 
each consisting of two parallel series, the one containing chlorophyll and 
commonly known as Alga? (including Charace®) ; the other destitute of 
chlorophyll and commonly known as Fungi (including Lichens). The 
classes are as follows : Class 1. Protophyta. This class comprises 
the simplest known forms of vegetable life, unicellular, or the cells con- 
nected into filaments, rarely into more complicated tissues ; no mode of 
sexual reproduction is known. To the chlorophyll-containing series be. 
°ng the Chroococcacea;, Nostocacece, Oscillatoriece, Rivulariece, Scyton- 
«»ea?, and the Palmellacece (in part) ; to that destitute of chlorophyll the 
Zxhigomycetes (bacteria) and Saccharomyces (yeast). Class 2. Tygo- 
spore,£. Asexual propagation various; sexual propagation by means 
ot gygospores, the result of a process of conjugation. This is divided 
!nto two sections. In the first the conjugating cells are locomotive, as in 
the lo/rochiete and Hydrodictyece (containing chlorophyll), and the 
Myomycetes (destitute of chlorophyll) ; the second section includes the forms 
"» which the conjugating cells are stationary, namely, in the first series 
ft* Conjugate (comprising the Metocarpea:, Tyguemece, Demndiea>, and 
^omacea) ; i n th e second series the Tyg>nnycetes (comprising the J/«- 
n '"'"" :U1(1 Piptocephalidte). Class 3. Oospores. Reproduction by 
00 gonia, containing an obsphere or embryonic cell, becoming an oospore 
°r resting-spore by the act of impregnation. In the series containing 
j*'orophyll are Sp/ueropltea, Vaucheria, the Oedogonece, and Fucaceee ; 
m e serie s destitute of chlorophyll the Sdprolegineee and Peronosporea. 



174 General Notes. [March, 

Class 4. Carpospore,e. A distinct organ, or " sporocarp," results from 
the process of the fertilization of the female organ, or carpogonium. 
In the first series are the Coleochcstce, Floridece, and Characece ; in the 
second the Asr.omip-cti's (including Lichens), Aecidiomyceles, and Pasidi- 
nmycetes. This classification of the lower Cryptogams appears to be 
founded on sounder principles and a more thorough knowledge of their 
structure, and especially their mode of reproduction, than any hitherto 
proposed. — A. W. B. 

"Twines with the Sun." — A correspondent writes to inquire 
whether this expression, frequently applied t<> certain twining plants, is 
correct. He suggests that it might not apply to plants growing in the 
southern hemisphere. The expression "with the hands of a watch" 
is conveniently employed in place of the above, and seems to remove all 
possible ambiguity. If one wishes to guard more completely against 
captious quibbling, he may amplify the expression thus: "in the direction 
taken by the hands of a watch held face upwards, in front of the ob- 



Botany at the Bussey In 

desire, at $5.00 each, sets of fungi numbering fifty well-determined 

specimens in each set. 

Botanical Prizes. — The following prizes were awarded in 1875, 
the French Academy. 



The Desma; 



prize in cryptogamic botany was divided 1 



M. Emile Bescherelle for his Mosses of Mexico and New 
and M. Eugene Founder for his Ferns of the same countries. From 
the report we learn that three hundred and fifty-nine species of Mexican 
mosses have been identified by Schimper and Bescherelle. In New 

nier gives five hundred and ninety-five species of Mexican ferns, one 
hundred and seventy-eight of which are peculiar to Mexico. He reports 
two hundred and fifty -nine species of ferns in New Caledonia. 

The Barbier prizes for discoveries in medicine and botany were given 
to Albert Robin and M. Hardy for their investigation of the new drug, 
jaborandi, the leaves of Pilocarpus pimuit.as* a plant of the rue family- 

Botanical Papers in Recent Periodicals. — American Journal 



of Scie 


ice and 


Lrtt, ¥ 


bruarv 


18 


76. Dr. 


Gray 




s at 


some 


length . 


recent paper by 


\audii 


On 


the Natu 


eot 11 


redit\ 


and 


Varia- 


bility i, 


Plants. 


















Bulk 


in of the 


Torres 


Ihtm 


'cal 


Club, N 


tt Xo\ 




la ry, 


[876. 



lily is treated of at length by J. Hammond Trumbull, and 
philological grounds the conclusion is reached that at least 



W7&J Botany. • 175 

found and described in North America. Professor Eaton describes Ophio- 
ghssum palmatum Plumier, a rare fern detected by Dr. Chapman in 
Florida. Gyperus Wolfii is described by A. Wood. 

American Agriculturist, February, 1876. How Flowers are Ferti- 
lized, by Prof. Asa Gray (devoted to compound flowers, with cuts of 
Leptosyne, a plant from the sea-shore in the southern part of California). 
• Nature, January 13, 1876. Fertilization of Flowers by Insects, xii. 
Further Observations on Alpine Flowers, by Herman Miiller (with cuts 
of the corolla of Rhinanihus alectorolophus). 

The Canadian Journal of Science, Literature, and History, Toronto, 
December, 1875. Plants of the Eastern Coast of Lake Huron, by John 
Gibson, B. A., F. G. S., and John Macoun, M. A. (A list comprehend- 
ing the Phamogams, vascular Cryptogams, and the Mosses of the east- 
ern coast of Lake Huron, and their distribution through the northern 
and western portions of British North America.) 

The Monthly Microscopical Journal, January, 1876. Reproduction in 
the Mushroom Tribe, by W. G. Smith, F. L. S. (an account of repro- 
duction in Goprinus radiatus). 

Comptes rendus, December 20, 1875. Remarks on the Theories of the 
Formation of Saccharine Matters in Plants, and especially in the Beet, 
by CI. Bernard. ("In the leaves of plants there exist sometimes starch, 
or dextrine, or glucose, or cane sugar, or inverted sugar. What has 
been said relative to the transfer and transformation of these saccharoid 
Principles from the leaves to other parts of the plant has been based on 
hypothetical views, and not on experiments.") Boussingault remarked 
that the sugar of Agave is chiefly saccharose, formed and treasured up in 
the leaves. 

Bulletin de la Societe chimique de Paris, December 20, 1875. On 
the Presence of a Crystallizable Sugar in Germinating Cereals, by G. 
Kuhnemann. (The author isolated a small amount of sugar identical with 
saccharose, from sprouted barley.) Researches on Sugar and Dextrin in 
parley, by G. Kuhnemann. (The author found no dextrine or glucose, 
b ut a crystallizable sugar and a substance to which he gives the name 



? la Societe d'Acclimatation, September, 1875. 



u Plants of Japan, by Dr. Vidal. (This paper enumerates t t 
Pan which yield food, drugs, and useful products.) 
Atti della Societa Italiana di Scienze Naturali, Vol. XVII. Fasc. III., 
°- Later Observations and Considerations respecting Dichogamy in 
b e Vegetable Kingdom, by F. Delpino. The third and fourth parts of 
the work noticed in the Naturalist for January, 1876, page 42. 
D U f ver yt afKongl. Vetenskaps Akad. Fbrhandlingar, Stockholm, 1874. 
^escnptions f Mosses collected by N. J. Anderson during the Voyage 
the Frigate Eugenie, 1851-53, by John Angstrom. (Includes Hepat- 
c * as well as true Musci.) 



176 . General Notes. [March, 

Flora, 1875, No. 29. Dr. J. Muller gives, in the form of an analytical 
key, some account of new Brazilian Rubiacece. (This is continued in 
No. 30.) Dr. Leopold Dippel replies, with great asperity, to a recent 
communication by Dr. Sanio respecting the nature of the cell-wall in 
cambium. No. 31. Dr. Lad. Celakovsky, On the Intercalated Epipetal- 
ous Circle of Stamens (continued in No. 32, not yet finished). On the 
Genesis of Coloring Matters in Plants, by Dr. Carl Kraus, of Triesdorff 
(treating of the relations of chromogen to the colors of flowers, etc.). 
No. 33. Lindberg's new classification of the fifty-nine genera of Eu- 
ropean Hcpaticm is reprinted from a memoir in Acta Societatis Scientiarum 
Fennia; X. President's Clark's lecture On the Circulation of Sap in 
Plants, 1874, is criticised at some length. The reviewer is di c t ng, 

and points out some possible errors of interpretation, but appears to have 
thoroughly appreciated the wide range of experiments, and the energy 
with which the work was done. 

Botanische Zettung, No. 52. On the Development of Cambium, by 
Dr. W. Velten (examining Prof. N. J. C. Midler's views in regard to 
the development of Cambium). Reports of Societies: Berlin: Brefeld 
on Development of Certain Fungi. This number contains an interesting 
obituary notice of Dr. Bartling, author of Ordines Naturales Planta- 
rum (1830), and professor at Gottingen. Dr. Bartling was born at 
Hanover, December 9, 1798, and died November 19, 1875. No. 1 
(January 7, 1876). On the Influence of Light on the Color of Flowers, 
by E. Askenasy. (This account of experiments is not yet finished.) A 
few notices of plants by Ascheron. Professor Pfeffer criticises with the 
greatest severity, in a book-notice, the recent paper on vegetable move- 
ments, by E. Heckel, of Montpellier. He insists that Heckel has not 
observed ordinary caution in his work, and his results are wholly un- 
trustworthy. . A notice of the paper and the review will be soon given 
in a general note. 

ZOOLOGY. 
Bahtramian Namks again: An Explanation.— In Dr. Coues's 
reply to my critique upon his article on Bartram's ornithological names 
he seems to have misunderstood my admissions, inasmuch as he says I 
have yielded the very point I wished to refute. The point at issue is 
not whether "Bartram's identifiable, described, and binomially named 
species " are entitled to recognition, for no one would be foolish enough 
to deny that. The few names of this character in Bartram's Long list- 
or the '* five or six " among the tiventy (not ten) Dr. Coues claims as 
Bartramian in origin, I have of course freely admitted. But I do not 
see how excluding about three fourths of the names claimed by I>r- 
Coues as properly originating with Bartram is admitting the main point 
at issue, which is the recognition of species not identifiably described. 
The real difference between us is as to what constitutes a description. 
While Dr. Coues considers that such vague references to species as 



1876 -] Zoology. 177 

" IF Falco pullarius, the chicken hawk," « * Calandra pratensis, the May 
bird," "* Passer agrestis, the little field sparrow," etc., are to be regarded 
as descriptions, especially if the coincidence of favorable circumstances 
renders it possible to guess with tolerable certainty what birds were 
BMMt, I do not. Neither do I consent that names such as these, whose 
application is mainly determinable by a process of exclusion based on 
the subsequent accumulation of knowledge for three fourths of a century, 
shall be taken to supplant others which have become familiar through 
long use, and which were originally accompanied by carefully and intel- 
ligently prepared descriptions, and in many cases also by admirable 

If Dr. Coues had insisted on the recognition of only those Bartramian 
names really identifiable by Bar tram's descriptions, I should have ac- 
cepted them without a word of protest; but when he coupled with them 
tbree times as many more which can be determined only on some other 
'-;- and then rarely with any degree of certainty, I deemed it an inno- 
vation not to be quietly endured. I am very glad to see that even Dr. 
jws himself has abandoned this extreme ground in his reply to my 

In conclusion I may say that I do not feel that Dr. Coues gave the 
t ™ nce t0 Bartram's recognition of the variation in size in animals of 
e same species from different localities quite the consideration it merits, 
r Jiartram not only observed the facts, but correlated them into a gen- 
nol t f aternent ' and even raised th e inquiry whether these differences be 
ne result of conditions of environment, — whether "the different 
o>l and situation of the country may have contributed in some measure 
forming and establishing the difference in size and other qualities be- 
"vutthem." — J. A . Allen. 

RUCAKfl in San Francisco Bay. — Pelicans (P. fuscus) are un- 
aiiy numerous in San Francisco Bay this season, especially on th« 
wh; t ern S ,! de ' aI ° ng the Oakland shore. Recently, during a dense fog, 

»»»te pelican (P. «•„,/„■,.,■/, ^ ; \-..- JL .,•„ *« ♦:? 

Wln gs flew 



1 (P. erythrorhyncus) measuring i 



bears ARS ^ PaNTHERS on the Pacific Coast. — Nine cinnamon 

Bod S VVe p re ° entl y cau g ht with steel traps on a ranch on the coast near 

, Cga ^aers, Sonoma County, California ; and William Bonness, a 

of c rf n the LittIe Chico ' in Butte Count J> kil,ed last month a famil y 

Ford* 1 ] •* Ii<>nS consistin S of the P arent P air and two cubs - Robert 
*— in Oregon last month, and one was recently killed 



>eattl.., W. T.. 



rhich measured nine feet four inches in length. 



Plentiful in San Bernardino County, and robins and larks 
abundant in the orchards of Santa Cruz, California. — R. 

, ,., . ! v " rjIO *s and other seals which frequent the rocky islets near 
v °l. J**!!? 6 t0 ^ an ^ ranc isco Bay, at Point Lobos, have heretofore been 



178 General Notes. [March, 

protected by law, having been regarded as objects of interest and curios- 
ity to the Sun Franciscan.- and -tranters visiting the neighborhood. 
The Cliff House at the point is a famous resort, and the road leading to 
it from the city a favorite drive ; these animals, which are quite numerous, 
are a conspicuous feature in the attractions of the locality. The state 
fish commissioners, who are diligently working to stock the waters of the 
State with food fishes, find that the results of their labors are impaired 
through the voracity of the seals, which occupy a station especially favor- 
able for preying upon the finny tribe. Recently a bill has been intro- 
duced in the legislature to repeal the protective act and to encourage 

It may well be questioned, however, whether more harm is not done 
by the Chinese fishermen who drag the waters inside of the bay and 
sweep them of everything that has life, whether fish or crustaceans, with- 
out regard to " age or condition," and who dry their " catch " for export 
either to the interior or to their native land. The amount of fish-food and 
of young fish thus caught and dried is undeniably very great, and should 
in some manner be regulated or controlled by legislation. The papers 
have recently contained an account of an attack on a boat made by a 
sea-lion. "As a Mexican Indian named Sacramentus was crossing 
Tomales Bay at Marshall, the boat was attacked by a large sea-lion. 
The Indian dealt the beast a heavy blow on the head with a hatchet. 
but without repulsing the animal, which again attacked the boat, with 
renewed fury. It was finally killed and afterward towed ashore. The 
lisherinen estimated its weight at twelve hundred pounds." — R. E. G 

Eyes and no Eyes. — In the chaetopod worms of the cold deep water 
of the Atlantic " we miss neither the colors nor the eyes which are met 
with in coast regions" high north. Ehlers believes that these colors 
and eyes are preserved in the lightless depths in consequence of " neff 
animals ever migrating down from the brighter layers of water, and so 
preventing the disappearance of these parts." As the surface animals 
go southward and into water warmed superficially by the Gulf Stream, 
they retire into the depths. To this Ranke, in the same volume (xxv.) ol 
the Zritsrhri/f fur "issenschaftlich Zoologie, adds another pregnant in- 
gestion as to the persistence of eyes where they seem to be useless ; namely- 
that in leeches their very simple eyes have also sensations of touch and 
taste : indeed, that they are not simply eyes which may upon occasion seru' 
other ends, but rather neutral organs of sense which can act in varh 'in- 
directions, as needs in the long run may require. Some confirmation of 
this u appears partly from the fact that organs quite similar to these so- 
called eyes on the head of the leech occur also in the whole of the rest 
of the body." We take these statements from a German correspond- 
ent of Nature, November 25 th. 

Remarkable Habits of a Tree-Frog. — Professor Peters has re- 



»#«.] Anthropology. 179 

cently described the mode of deposit of its eggs employed by a species 
of tree-frog (Polypedates) from tropical Western Africa. This species 
deposits its eggs, as is usual among batracbians, in a mass of albuminous 
.Mb : hut instead of placing this in the water, it attaches it to the leaves 
of trees which border the shore and overhang a wajer-hole or pond. 
Here the albumen -speedily dries, forming a horny or glazed coating of 
the leaf, inclosing the unimpregnated eggs in a strong envelope. Upon 
the advent of the rainy season, the albumen is softened, and with the 
eggs is washed into the pool below, now filled with water. Here the 
male frog finds the masses, and occupies himself with their impregna- 

A Snake-Eating Snake.— Some years ago Professor Cope de- 
scribed the snake-eating habits of the Oxyrrhopus plumbeus Wied, a 
rather large species of snake which is abundant in the intertropical parts 
of America. A specimen of it from Martinique was observed to have 
swallowed the greater part of a large fer-de-lance, the largest venomous 
snake in the West Indies. The Oxyrrhopus had seized the fer-de-lance 
by the snout, thus preventing it from inflicting fatal wounds, and had 
swallowed a great, part of its length, when caught and preserved by the 
collector. More recently a specimen was brought by Mr. Gabb from 
Usta Rica, almost five feet in length, which had swallowed nearly 
t fee feet of a large harmless snake (Berpetodryas car hiatus) about 
six feet in length. The head was partially digested, while three feet 
<" the mouth of the Oxyrrhopus in a sound condition. The 
xytrhopu* is entirely harmless, although spirited and pugnacious in its 
manners. Professor Cope suggests that its introduction into regions 
infested with venomous snakes, like the island of Martinique, would be 
flowed by beneficial results. The East Indian snake-eater, Naja elaps, 
is unavailable for this purpose, as it is itself one of the most dangerous 
°i venomous snakes. 

ANTHROPOLOGY. 

Anthropological Notes. — In the third part of the Bulletin de la 
huhropologie for 1875 is a paper by M. Coudereau on 
»'ds, with five tables of claasifieation. ' This paper merited 
;'! ™ ■' Mention to justify the appointment of a committee consisting 
M; , . ' ( li; L"vee, Picot, Hovelacque, Coudereau, De Caix St. Aymour, 
\ V '.'"'""i 1 ;- l)r Ciiareueev. Andre Lefevre, Krishaber, Parrot, Proust, 

^ ; .. r,i ? f Bub8e q»«nt meetings. In the same number, M. de Mortillet 
theT ed the rece P tion of a Ietter from M - Babert de Juille, announcing 
discovery f a trepanned skull in the dolmen of Bougon in Deux 
o,,r eS " , M " Broca stated ^at this was the fifth locality wherein this 
^tom had been traced. 

Xvn ' of Reliquiae Aquitanicaa has been received, containing the 



180 General Notes. [March, 

conclusion of the paper on the Fossil Man from La Madelaine and 
Laugerie Basse ; Notes on the Caribou of Newfoundland, by T. G. B. 
Lloyd ; Notes on Ovibos moschatus, by E. Lartet ; supplemental notes, 
and a series of indexes to the whole work. 

In the third part of Revue d' Anthropologic, Dr. Berenger Feraud 
has a long and deeply interesting article upon the Oulofs of the Coast of 
Senegambia, embracing descriptions of their physical characters, man- 
ners, customs, intellectual }, nourishment, 
language, the family and social organization. 

Before the British Anthropological Institute, November 9th, Mr. Fran- 
cis Gallon read two papers : one on Heredity in Twins, the other on 
A Theory of Heredity. It appears that twin-bearing is hereditary, 
and that it descends through males and females about equally. In the 
latter paper it is argued that the germs which were selected for develop- 
ment into the bodily structure had a very small influence from a heredi- 
tary point of view, while it was those germs which were never developed 
but which remained latent, that were the real origin of the sexual ele- 
ment. This accounts for much that Mr. Darwin's theory of pangenesis 
over-accounted for, and is free from objections raised against the latter. 

Dr. Robert Brown has translated Dr. Rink's celebrated work entitled 
Tales and Traditions of the Eskimo, with a Sketch of their Habits, Re- 
ligion, Language, and other Peculiarities. Blackwood and Sons, of 
Edinburgh, are the publishers. 

At the session of the Anthropological Section of the French Associ- 
ation, August 25th, M. de Mortillet advanced a new theory of the ori- 
gin of bronze. After reviewing the countries where copper and tin are 
found, he concludes that bronze implements and weapons took their 
origin in India. He bases his conclusions mainly upon the following 
facts : Mysorine, the most reducible ore of copper, is found principally in 
India. In the peninsula of Malacca, and notably in the Isle of Banca, 
are found the richest deposits of tin in the world. The shortness of the 
handles of bronze weapons is paralleled by those of India at the pres- 
ent time. Finally, in the lacusirian deposits of the bronze age of Switz 
erland and Savoy, strange-shaped objects are found which have their 
analogues only in India. As an indication of the origin of the white- 
skinned races of Northern Africa, we find many of the same forms pre- 
vailing amongst them. 

Among the exceedingly interesting objects brought from the Rio San 
Juan by Professor Hayden's party is a Peruvian double bottle or jar- 
similar in every respect to many of the whistling bottles of the last- 
named country. Whether this is an accidental resemblance or an article 

The Rev. M. Eells has sent to 



script of one hundred and sixty pages, containing a full account of »e 
Twamish Indians of Hood's Canal, Puget's Sound. Nothing in conn'ec- 



W6.] Anthropology. 181 

tion with American ethnology is more desirable than that every Indian 
agent in the country would furnish us with a manuscript of the tone and 
tenor of this splendid work. — O. T. Mason. 

American Archaeology. — Two very interesting pamphlets have 
been published recently in Rio Janeiro, from the pen of Professor Ch. 
I red Hartt : one entitled Amazonian Tortoise Myths, the other, Notes 
on the Manufacture of Pottery among Savage Races. In the former we 
have from the Lingua Geral, or modern Tupi language, spoken at Erere\ 
Santarem, and on the Tapajos River, the fables founded on the exploits 
of the Jabuti or tortoise, and other mythical animals, — monkeys, tapirs, 
buzzards, etc. In the latter is an account of the process of pottery- 
making and ornamentation, embracing the materials, the tools, the proc- 
esses, and the products, together with a copious bibliographical refer- 

M. Rohan, in the second number of Le Musee Archeologique, speaks 
of the handles used for flint hatchets by the ancient Mexicans. Among 
others he draws attention to weapons formed by inserting bits of obsidian 
m a grooved wooden handle, resembling the Polynesian shark's-teeth 
spears and swords. These obsidian weapons are described and figured 
! D Scho °Icraft, v. 290, and in the Smithsonian Contributions, vol. xi., art. 
«., p. 180. 
Mr. Hyde Clarke has published in pamphlet form, through Trubner 
Co., an article from the Journal of the Anthropological Institute, 
entitled Researches in Prehistoric and Protohistoric Comparative Phi- 
° ogy, Mythology, and Archaeology, in connection with the Origin of 
* jure in America and the Accad or Sumerian Families. The design 

rem *"?"* '^ *" UiS ° Wn W ° rds ' " t0 bri " S archaic P hi,olo gy int0 
reunion with those nascent studies of anthropology, arclurologv, and my- 
ology, which have met with acceptance and popularity." He has else- 
AhU SP ° ken ° f the 8imiIarit 7 between the Agaw of the Nile and the 
first ] ° f tHe CaUCaSUS with the Omagna and Guarani of Brazil. He 
draws attention to the Pvgonean and other so-called prehistoric 
«* of North and South America, of Africa, and of the islands of the 

the t 0C6an ' aDd then bj P arallels of culture he reviews the tribes of 
T e , Wo hem ispheres, somewhat similarly to the plan pursued by E. B. 
fou ° r - ln tracin S the growth of culture, and by Colonel Lane Fox in 
philT^ Ule evolution of implements and weapons. He regards, for 
and n ICal pur P° ses ' Egyptian, Sumero-Peruvian, Chinese, Tibetan, 
'V; "*■ 4 " 1111 " languages as protohistoric. In addition to resemblances 
1 tanguage between the 
Parallels 

mounds, 



,a<i;i! i-liaracri'rs, by similar customs of head-shaping, def- 
, monumental 



""'iitliie and niraalithic monuments, statues, towe 
°y their metallurgy, masonry, pottery, and weaving 
Q s and beliefs ; by their calendars, and by their i 



182 General Notes. [March, 

domestic customs. The author favors the view of Mr. Park Harrison 
and Professor Owen that migrations to America proceeded by the Sand- 
wich and Easter Islands as well as by Behring Strait. He cond«fcl 
by affirming that " the whole of the phenomena of man in America 
represent an arrested development of civilization, cut short, as compared 
with Europe and Asia, at a time so remote that in the Old World the 
great religions of the globe, Judaism, Christianity, and Islam, had time 
to cover the Eastern hemisphere, while until the Spanish conquest the 
Americas had in the flux of centuries never heard their revelations." — 
O. T. Mason. 

GEOLOGY AND PALEONTOLOGY. 
The Brain of the Dinoceras. — This extinct animal, discovered 
by Professor Marsh in the Eocene beds of Wyoming, nearly equaled the 
elephant in size, but the limbs were shorter. The head could reach flw 
ground, and there is no evidence that it carried a proboscis. Professor 
Marsh figures the skull in his second memoir, entitled Principal Charac- 
ters of the Dinocerata (American Journal of Science, February, 1876). 




The accompanying cut (Fig. 9) gives an outline of the skull (seen from 
above, one eighth the natural size) of Dinoceras mirabile. The central 
figure near the base of the skull illustrates the remarkably small brain. 
Says Professor Marsh, " The brain-cavity in Dinoceras is perhaps the 
most remarkable feature in this remarkable genus. It proves conrlu-ivtly 
that the brain was proportionately smaller than in any other known mam- 
mal, recent or fossil, and even less than in some reptiles. It wu>. in &*$ 
the most reptilian brain in any known mammal. In D. mirabile the en- 
tire brain was actually so diminutive that it could apparently have been 
drawn through the neural canal of all the presacral vertebrae, certainly 
through the cervicals and lumbars." 

Modntain-Making. — An abstract of Professor Suess's memoir on 
the Origin of the Alps has been furnished the American Journal of Sd' 
enre by Mr. K. & Dana, which we further condense, often using the ex- 
act language of the abstract. According to the views of the early geo 1 ' 



1876.] Geography and Exploration. 



ogists, still widely accepted, the origin of mountains is to be ascribed to 
the elevation of a molten or semi-molten mass which threw up the rocks 
along its axis, and crowded the upper strata to the right and left, forming 
in this way a mountain-chain. But this view is not sustained by observed 
facts, and Suess adopts the modern view of a general horizontal move- 
ment of the mountain system as a whole. The conclusions of Suess 
agree to a very considerable extent with those of Professor Dana in his 
discussion of mountain-making in general. 

In the Alps the exertion of this horizontal force was essentially in- 
fluenced by resistance from four different sources: (1) from the presence 
of foreign masses of older rocks; (2) from the folding mass itself; (3) 
from the occasional introduction of older volcanic rocks, as granite and 
porphyry, in the moving mass ; (4) finally, it appears that single mount- 
l Adamello or the red porphyry, near Botzen, have 
the development of the surrounding 

If we look at the subject more broadly, however, and pass out of 
Europe to America, and then further study the great mountain-chains of 

and mountain-movements are one-sided, and the direction of the move- 
ment is in general northwest, north, or northeast, in North America and 
Europe, but southerly or southeasterly in Central Asia. There is no 
regular geometrical arrangement in mountain-chains. 

In conclusion, it may be remarked that mountain-making as a whole 
can be regarded as a stiffening of the earth's surface, which process has 
been determined by the distribution of certain older rigid masses. These 
may be made up of mountain lines pushed up together and crossing each 
other, as in Bohemia, or they may consist of widely extended surfaces 
whose strata, even the oldest, have retained their horizontal position, as 
in the great Russian plain. These primitive masses conform to no geo- 
metrical law, either in outline or in distribution, though they have deter- 
mined the form and course of the folds which contraction has produced 
m the more pliant portions of the earth's surface between them. 
GEOGRAPHY AND EXPLORATION. 

Exploration op the Upper Madeira Plate. — Professor James 
Orton, of Vassar College, is preparing for a third expedition to South 
America. He purposes to explore the unknown parts of the Upper 
Madeira Plate, the Rio Beui in particular. This magnificent river, 
the largest tributary to the Madeira, has never been explored ; its course 
18 ^ much - a geographical problem as the source of the Nile. The mys- 
terious Madre de Dios is supposed to be an affluent, but it remains to be 
Proved. Lieutenant Gibbon was charged by our government to settle 

e question, but he failed in the attempt. Professor Orton intends to 
e *amine this river mainly in the interest of geographical science ; but 



1^4 General Notes. [March, 

its natural history and commercial resources will receive all possible at- 
tention. To archaeologists this must be an intensely interesting field, as 
the Bern region was the treasure-land of the Incas ; while to zoologists 
it is a paradise of new forms. Said Dr. Sclater in his address before the 
British Association, ■< There is no part of South America which I would 
sooner suggest as a promising locality for the zoological collector." 

The Aleutian Islands. — We have received copies of a Report 
of Geographical and Hydrographical Explorations on the Coast of 
Alaska, by W. II. Dall, assistant in the Coast Survey. It is accom- 
panied by a map of these islands on an extended scale, and contains 
many corrections of previous maps. 

Mount St. Elias. — In an elaborate account of Mount St. Elias 
printed in the forthcoming report of the Coast Survev. Mr. Dall publics 
a map of the neighboring Alaskan coast, with sketches of Mount St ElUl 
an.l Mnm,i Fairw, ,uh,r. The former he estimates to be 19,500 feet in 
height, while Mount Cook, which is sometimes mistaken for it, is 16,000 
feet high. Mr. Dall thinks that Mount St. Elias is not an extinct volcano, 
through the great amphitheatre on the southeast flank may possibly be' 
the crater of an extinct volcano ; still this is doubtful. " Preeminent In 
grandeur/' says Mr. Dall, - is the southern face of this mountain. With 
few and but insignificant foot-hills, it rises abruptly from the valley; 
and at about five thousand feet above its base, the entire side of the 
mountain is formed of an immense rock-face, inclined at an angle of 45° 
to the sea, rising eight or ten thousand feet without a break in its con- 
^-^ i' term , inates somewhat irregularly above, and the upper con- 
granite peaks of the Californian 
ie apex is pyramidal, sharp, and clearly cut, leading to the 
t it is precipitous on the invisible northern side." There 
are no glaciers on the flanks of this mountain, but, owing to the topo- 
graphical features of the peak, great snowfields; while there are four 



! peak remind one of th< 
Sierras. Tin 
inference that 



glaciers on Mount Fairweathei 
which lies between the t 



' the Bay of Yakutat, 
ntains, " glaciers come down to the sea, 



and send their floating fragments, laden with earth and su^ C8 , 
the sea." These glaciers have apparently always been local, as " the 
character of the topography is such that it is inconceivable that a contin- 
uous glacier, moving in any direction, could have ever covered the west- 
ern slope of these mountains." The statement of a Russian sailor that 
Mount St. Elias sent forth flames and ashes is regarded as untrustworthy. 
MICROSCOPY. 1 
Microscopy at the American Association. — At the Detroit 
meeting of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, 
last August, the microscopists who were in attendance decided to organ- 
lie permanently a subsection or club, connected with the , 



1876.] Microscopy. 185 

To allow ample time for preparation, and to facilitate the cooperation of 
all interested parties, it was decided to adjourn for one year, and to pro- 
ceed with the organization at the Buffalo meeting of the association, 
which commences on the third Wednesday of August next and continues 
about one week. All persons interested in the microscope, and desirous 
of joining such an organization as is now proposed, are invited to be 
present and cooperate, whether at present members of the association or 
not, and are requested to bring to the meeting original papers of scien- 
tific interest upon subjects connected with the microscope and its work, 
and also to bring instruments, accessories, and objects, especially those 
illustrating new or unfamiliar inventions, contrivances, and discovt 

It is hoped that the participation 
will be prompt and cordial. The general i 
tion has become a positive necessity, and it 

be b no other way be so fully obtained as by meeting in connection with 
the American Association, whose character and influence could not fail to 
be an advantage, whose meetings are necessarily held only at the most 
available times and places, and whose elaborate arrangements for the 
convenience and economy of members attending are designed for the 
enefit of scientists in every department. The recent accession of the 
chemists, the ethnologists, and the entomologists marks the tendency of 
the association to become a general congress of American scientists. 
In meeting with the American Association the microscopists will enjoy a 
more than double advantage, but separated from it they would lose from 
their number those who desire to attend the meetings of the association 
and whose business or other convenience might interfere with the addi- 
tional journey and absence demanded by a second meeting. 

American Postal Micko-Cabinet Club. — A year's experience in 
the working of this organization has already given it the position of a 
us eful and well-sustained institution. The first announcement of the 
formation of the club was so favorably received that an unexpectedly 
,a rge number of members was enrolled, since which time its member- 
s' *P has steadily increased until it now numbers twelve circuits of mem- 
ntry east of the Rocky Mountains. 
i exception of a remarkably small number of accidents to objects 
_ — m transit by the mails, which it is believed will be still fewer in 
e futur e> the club has met with no practical difficulties or disappoint- 
ments. The general excellence as well as the variety of objects con- 
JL Uted haS been cons picuous ; and those members, if there are any, 
i the work of others in various departments 
1 science must at least feel that they have contributed widely to 



With the 



of the s 



advantage of others at very 
T t0 the circulation and 



tudy of mounted objects, critical 






oposed to add during the present year t 



microscopic objects and material, whether mountec 
necessarily connected with the slide contributed ; any member adding at 
the bottom of his note a statement of offers or wants, and other members 
addressing him directly by mail, in regard to the same. 



SCIENTIFIC NEWS. 

— The fifth Bulletin, second series, of the United States Geological 
and Geographical Survey of the Territories contains the following pa- 
pers : A Review of the Fossil Flora of North America, by Leo Lesque- 
reux ; Notes on the Geology of some Localities near Canon City, by S. 
G. Williams ; Some Account, Critical, Descriptive, and Historical, of 
Zapus Hudsonius, by Dr. Elliott Coues ; On the Breeding-Habits, Nest, 
and Eggs of the White-Tailed Ptarmigan (Lagopus leiicurns), by Dr. 
Elliott Coues ; List of Hemiptera of the Region west of the Mississippi 
River, including those collected during the Hayden Explorations of 1873, 
by P. R. Uhler ; On some New Species of Fossil Plants of the Lignitic 
Formations, by Leo Lesquereux ; New Species of Fossil Plants from the 
Cretaceous Formation of the Dakota Group, by Leo Lesquereux ; Notes 
on the Lignitic Group of Eastern Colorado and Wyoming, by F. V. 
Hayden ; On the Supposed Ancient Outlet of Great Salt Lake, by A. 
S. Packard, Jr. The paper by Mr. Uhler occupies about a hundred 
pages, and contains numerous descriptions of new forms and is illustrated 
by three excellent plates. 

— On the 13th of October, 1875, The Cincinnati Geological Society 
was organized with the following officers : President, Harold B. Wilson ; 
Treasurer, Chas. Schuchert ; and Recording Secretary, Chas. B. Morrell. 

— A Summer School of Biology will be opened in the Museum of 
the Peabody Academy of Science, Salem, Mass., beginning July 7th 
and continuing six weeks. Especial attention will be given to marine 
botany and zoology, as the advantages for dredging and shore collecting 
are most excellent. The museum of the academy is situated within 
less than five minutes' walk of the wharves, while the cars and omnibuses 
run often to the beaches and good collecting-grounds. The number of 
students will be limited to fifteen, and while the school is designed pri- 
marily for the teachers of Essex County, Mass., a few others can be ad- 
mitted. Board can be obtained for So a week and upwards. 

Instruction in botany will be given by Mr. John Robinson, with the 
assistance of Mr. C. H. Higbee ; and in zoology by A. S. Packard, Jr., 
with tin; assistance of Messrs. J. S. Kingsley and S. E. Cassino. Mr. C 
Cooke will have charge of the dredging parties. Special instruction will 
be given in microscopy by Rev. E. C. Bolles. Prof. E. S. Morse and 
several other naturalists of distinction will probably give an occasional 
lecture. An admission fee of $10.00 will be charged. For further par- 
ticulars apply to A. S. Packard, Jr., Peabody Academy of Science, 



1876.] Scientific News. 187 

— A careful examination of the papers left at the Smithsonian Institu- 
tion by the late Dr. Stimpson has revealed the existence of the complete 
MSS. of his final report on the Crustacea of the North Pacific Exploring 
Expedition as far as the end of the Anomoura, with beautiful figures of 
one hundred and thirty-seven of the new species. It was supposed that 
these had perished with Dr. Stimpson's other MSS., and with the collec- 
tions they described, in the great Chicago fire. We trust they will soon 
be published. 

— Among the Swedish contributions to the Centennial Exhibition will 
be a number of articles of a fine red granite, that takes as high a polish 
as the well-known Scotch granite, and among the manufactures of the 
beautiful porphyry found in PJtVlal, in the province of Dalarne, will be a 
table belonging to the king, which cost ten thousand dollars. A me- 
teorite, weighing ten thousand pounds, sent by the discoverer, Professor 
8«rden8ki5ld, will attract notice. From the Hawaiian Islands will be 
sent to the exhibition a model of the islands, made to a scale, showing 
their physical geography and topography, and the mountains, valleys, 
woods, forests, rivers, volcanoes, etc. 

— Major Powell has gone West among the Indians for the purpose of 
obtaining casts of the features of the Indian tribes. He has given much 
attention to collecting linguistic and historical documents concerning the 
Pueblos of New Mexico. 

— Mr. J. Matthew Jones, of Halifax, proposes to publish shortly in 
Psyche a list of the few insects known to inhabit the Bermudas. They 
are mostly of a Floridan or West Indian type. 

— Nordenskiold reports that at Cape Schaitanskoj, the most northerly 
point on the Jenesei River, Dr. Stuxberg discovered a species of fresh- 
water snail {Physd}. This is the most northerly locality for land and 
fcwh-water mollusks. 
^ — Mr. J. T. Humphreys, of Atlanta, Georgia, has been appointed 

popular writer in one of the 
uiontnues, is " the sacred lily of the East," is " a beautiful blossom," and 
" is said to have been introduced into this country from Europe by a 
member of the Gadsden family." The latter statement is rather dis- 
credited by the writer, who adds that "it grows wild in Florida," and 
w as probably brought to South Carolina by Michaux. All this may be 
Put about right by a slight correction : The plant is not the sacred lily 
°f the East — meaning the Indian Lotus ; though a large blossom, it is 
n ot beautiful ; it belongs only to this continent, and grows wild from 
Florida to Wisconsin and Connecticut. 

— The sixth Bulletin, second series, of Hayden's United States Geolog- 
Kfcl and Geographical Survey of the Territories, finishes volume i. for 
1874 and 1875. It contains the following papers : An Account of the Vari- 
es Publications relating to the Travels of Lewis and Clarke, with a Com- 



188 Proceedings of Societies. [March, 

mentary on the Zoological Results of their Expedition, by Dr. Elliott 
Coues; Notice of a very large Goniatite from Eastern Kansas, by F. B. 
Meek ; Fossil Orthoptera from the Rocky Mountain Territories, by S. 
H. Scudder ; Studies of the American Falconidce, Monograph of the 
Polybori, by Robert Ridgway. 

— At the second meeting, held in Boston, of those interested in mount- 
ain exploration, the name " Appalachian Mountain Club " was adopted. 
Prof C. H. Hitchcock exhibited a model of the White Mountains, and 
Mr. Sweetser presented the report of the c 
of the White Mountains, and the club voted to adopt a 
which the committee recommended. 



PROCEEDINGS OF SOCIETIES. 

Academy of Sciences, San Francisco, Cal. — December 20, 1875- 
A memorial to the legislature, praying that the Geological Survey be re- 
sumed, was adopted. It was stated in the memorial that there have 
been published four volumes of the geological reports, namely, one of 
geology, two of paleontology, and one of ornithology, besides mailer 
pamphlets and several topographical maps, the beauty, accuracy, and 
value of which are appreciated and acknowledged by all who have care- 
fully examined them. Of the unpublished matter already accumulated, 

ere is the material for a second volume of geology, for a volume of botany 
nearly ready to be issued, and the greater portion of the material for a 
second volume of ornithology, devoted to the aquatic birds. The map 
of Central California is so nearly finished that the active field-work of 
ore season would complete it. This map embraces nearly one 
* of the State, extending from Lassen's Peak on the north 



Visalia 



nd includes ; 



districts within the limits of California. The work 
is unexceptionable, and when completed it will possess the highest prac- 
tical value, will meet with a ready sale, and will be the most important 
contribution to the geography of this coast that has ever been made. A 
general geological map of the whole State has been partially drawn and 
colored, and could be finished and published in such a way as to show 
the extent of the present knowledge of the geology of the State (subject, 
o course, to such improvements in detail as may~hereafter be developed 
by future works), at no great expense. The United States Coast Sur- 
vey map of the peninsula of San Francisco has been geologically colored 
m great detail, and only waits the means for its publication. 

Philosophical Society of Washington. - January 15, 1876. 
Major J. W Powell addressed the society on types of mountain-building, 
describing the characteristics of the mountains in the regions covered by 



January 29 th. Mr. 



EL Dall read a paper c 



1876.] Proceedings of Societies. 189 

shell-heaps of the Aleutian Islands. He showed that they were sep- 
arated into three successive periods, indicated by the remains of food 
contained in the shell-heaps, namely, lower or Echinus layer (Littoral 
Period), composed of the remains of Echini and mollusk-shells ; middle 
or fish-bone layer (Fishing Period), composed principally of the remains 
of fish; and lastly, the mammalian layer (Hunting Period), composed 
principally of bones of sea animals and birds. Above all this came the 

The first period might have extended over a thousand years ; the length 
of the others there is no means of approximating. The first layer con- 
tained few and very rude implements, and a gradual progression was 
observed in the variety and finish of the implements and weapons of the 
succeeding layers. Only toward the last were there any signs of the use 
of houses, fire, or ornamentation of tools or other articles. The charac- 
ter of the latter showed that the early inhabitants formed their tools and 
weapons after the Eskimo patterns, but these gradually became differ- 
entiated into a type peculiar to the islands. Mr. Dall considered it 
probable that the first inhabitants were Eskimo of a low type, who took 
to the islands for protection, coming from America, and in their re- 
stricted surroundings in the course of ages developed into a special type, 
without entirely effacing the links which connect them with the Eskimo 
in language, physique, and fabrications. 

Dr. Bessels read a paper on the hygrometric properties of the atmos- 
phere in the Arctic regions. 

Boston Society of Natural History. — January 19th. Mr. T. T. 
Bouve read a paper on the origin of porphyry, in which it was claimed 
that the rock was an altered conglomerate. Professor Hyatt exhibited 
a geological map of Marblehead Neck. The conglomeritic character of 
the porphyries of this locality were particularly dwelt upon, and a large 
series of specimens exhibited. A paper by Mr. L. S. Burbank on the 
conglomerates of Harvard, Mass., and their relations' to the crystalline 
rocks, followed. 

February 2d. Dr. W. K. Brooks read a paper on the development of 
Astyns (Coluinbella) lunata. Thi> is the first siphonated gasteropod 
whose embryological history has been followed. Some general views on 
the molluscan pedigree were added. Mr. S. H. Scudder read a paper 
°n the way in which cockroaches and earwigs fold their wings. 

Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia. — February 4th. 

e Sections of the academy are being arranged as rapidly as possible 
ln the new building, and it is hoped that the museum will be thrown 



Dinornis of New Zealand, and i 



190 Proceedings of Societies. [March, 

twice the bulk of the former. The discovery introduces this group of 
birds to the known fauna? of North America, recent and extinct, and 
demonstrates the fact that this continent has not been destitute of the 
gigantic forms of birds now confined to the fauna of the southern hemi- 
sphere. A description of the fragment was given, the peculiarities which 
distinguish it from the corresponding part of its nearest allies were dwelt 
upon, and the name Diatryma gigantea was proposed for the form indi- 

Professor Frazer exhibited eight geological maps of Yesso, lately re- 
ceived from Benjamin Smith Lyman, Geologist-in-Chief of Japan. 

Mr. Henry Carvill Lewis remarked that it might be of interest to 
mention the occurrence of strontianite in Pennsylvania — a mineral 
which he believed had not been heretofore recorded as occurring in our 
State. Pie had found it quite abundantly in Mifflin County, on the 
Juniata, opposite Mount Union. It exists as white tufts of rhombic 
crystals lining pockets in limestones, or, when in shale, disseminated 
throughout the rock-mass. 

A paper entitled Description of a New Generic Type, Bassaricyon 
Gabbii, of the Procyonida, from Costa Rica, by J. A. Allen, was pre- 
sented for publication. 

California Acad kmy of Sciences. — At the late annual election, 
Prof. George Davidson was elected president. At the meeting of Jan- 
uary 17th, Henry Edwards read descriptions of new species of Lepi- 
doptera, and a resolution was adopted, the object of which was to section- 
ize the academy. 

Academy of Science, St. Louis. — January 17th. Dr. Richardson 
exhibited a skull and some specimens of pottery obtained from a mound 
"near the stock-yards" at East St. Louis. The mound was about ten 
feet high, and forty feet in diameter at its base. At a depth of six or 
seven feet, eighteen skulls were found. The bodies had been laid in a 
circle, with the heads outward. Many of the skulls were fractured on 
the temporal bone. He had also found eighteen graves in the bluffs on 
the Belleville or " rock " road. These bones were found under slabs of 
stone, with some article of pottery near the head. 

Mr. Theo. Allen exhibited some pottery and skulls found in mounds 
in Southeast Missouri. The mounds were near a swamp, and inclosed 
in an earth-work about a quarter of a mile square. Three mounds were 
opened. In only one were human remains found. Here were discovered 
the skulls, arms, and legs of many skeletons. No vertebra; or ribs were 
found. The bodies had been placed in a circle, with the heads inward. 
The skulls were nearly all flattened on the left side, and pressed out on 
the right side, but lay with the face upward. Many articles of pottery 
were found with the skulls. Mr. Allen stated that many of these adult 
skulls possess rudimentary teeth. Within the inclosure were also found 
many sink-holes, laid out in regular order, which had once served as 



1876.] Proceedings of Societies. 191 

human habitations. Specimens of dried brick which had been used to 
plaster over these rude habitations were also found. Mr. A. J. Conant 
also exhibited some skulls, and implements of bone and stone, found by 
iiim in caves in Pulaski County, Mo., on the Gasconade River. 

Academy of Sciences, New York. — January 24th. The president, 
Dr. J. S. Newberry, made a communication on Fossil Fishes and Foot- 
Prints from the Trias of New Jersey, in which he announced his re- 
discovery of an old and important locality, which had been for many 
years forgotten or lost. Boouton, New Jersey, lies at the junction of the 
Trias with the gneiss range of the Highlands ; and close to the village 
occur two adjacent beds of shale, in the Triassic sandstone. These layers 
are literally crowded with fishes, for the most part in a very perfect 
condition, showing no traces of slow decay, but rather of sudden destruc- 
tion and burial. Many fine specimens were procured, but only one 
species had been definitely recognized, Gatopterus gracilis. 

He also exhibited very fine and large tracks from the Triassic sand- 
stones at Pompton, a few miles from the fish locality. They have the 
same characters as the three-toed reptilian foot-prints (the so-called 
1 bird-tracks ") of the Connecticut Valley. The evidence is ample that 
this great tribe of bird-like reptiles had a very considerable development 
in our American Mesozoic, reaching on well into the Cretaceous in the 
forms of lladrosaurus and Laelaps. 

Prof. D. S. Martin presented an account of the Occurrence of Silmiau 
Fossils in the Drift of Long Island. The fossils are characteristic Bra- 
chiopods of the Delthyris shaly limestone (especially Strophotlonta Beckii 
and & Headleyana) from a large bowlder in the heavy drift of Long Isl- 
and, at Willett's Point. A like circumstance has lately been noted in the 
Proceedings of the Philadelphia Aeadenn . — the finding of Oneida and 
Medina bowlders at West Philadelphia. The questions arising are the 
s: 'm<' in the two cases, namely, as to whether the transporting agent was 
glacier-ice or bergs. If the former, the distance over which the ice- 
"li<e; actually moved (in the present ease nearly one hundred miles) is 
quite beyond our usual estimate, at least in this region, and would also 
■•quire that the glacier should have overridden the range of the Blue 
K%e Highlands entirely. On the other hand, if icebergs were the 
agents, they must needs have passed through the narrow gap. in that 
range now occupied by the Hudson, in this instance, and by the Dela- 
ware, Lehigh, or Schuylkill, in the other. The finding of some oysters 
(apparently 0. borealis) with the Long Island bowlder would indicate 
clearly that floating ice was the agency of transportation. 

Mr. llemy Newton, of the United States Black Hills Kxpedition, 
exhibited a large series of rocks and of Cretaceous and Jurassic fossils, 

What in detail. The rocks included Potsdam sandstone, Iluronian slates, 
5111,1 gi'ainti's of two very distinct types; one of these Mr. Newton re- 



192 Scientific Serials. [March, 

gards as Laurentian, and the other as eruptive, and subsequent to the 
deposition of the Potsdam, at least, as that rock contains no fragments of 
it, though full of pebbles from the Huronian. 

Trot Scientific Association. — January 17th, annual meeting. 
Dr. R. H. Ward was elected president, and Rev. A. B. Hervey and Wm. 
E. Hagen vice-presidents. Dr. Ward delivered an address on the Pet- 
rified Forest of California. He considered the peculiar fracture of the 
fallen petrified trunks their most suggestive and important peculiarity 
since they are broken up somewhat symmetrically in a manner that 
might happen to wood rendered brittle by charring or perhaps by partial 
petrifaction, but could hardly be conceived as occurring to ordinary wood 
or stone. 

SCIENTIFIC SERIALS. 1 • 
Quarterly Journal op Microscopical Science. — January. On 
the Structure of Hyaline Cartilage, by G. Thin. Further Observations 
on a Peach or Red Colored Bacterium, by E. R. Lankester. On the 
Development of Teeth, by C. S. Tomes. An Account of Professor 
Haeckel's Recent Additions to the Gastraea Theory, by E. R. Lankester. 
On the Evolution of Haemoglobin, by H. C. Sorby. 

The Monthly Microscopical Journal. — January. Improved 
Method of Applyiug the Micro-Spectroscopic Test for Blood-Stains, by 
J. G. Richardson. 

The Popular Science- Review. — January. In the Wake of the 
Challenger, by J. G. Galton. The Cretaceous Flora, by J. Morris. 

The Geological Magazine. — January. Contributions to the 
Study of Volcanoes, by J. W. Judd. Geology of Ice and Bell Sounds, 
Spitzbergen, by A. E. Nordenskiold. 

Zeitschrift fur wissenschaftlich Zoologie. - December 8, 
187o. Natural History of the Marine Bryozoa, by W. Repiachoff. 
Anatomy of Qhatoderma nitidulum, by L. Graff. On the Order Gastro- 
tricha, by II. Ludwig. 

Archiv fSr mikroskopische Anatomie.- November 20, 1875. 
On the Tegument of Amphibia, by F. Leydig. On the Anatomy of 
Amphioxus lanceolatus, by P. Langerhans. 

Archives de Zoologie expf,rimentale et generale. — No. 3, 
1875. Researches on the Free Helminths of the Coast of Brittany, by 
A Villot. Contributions to a History of the Gregarin* of Invertebrates 
of 1 ans and Roscoff, by A. Schneider. On the Development of Podurs, 
by Oulgamn (notice by the editor). 



Peterm 

5. Sta 
fold's 
1 The articles enumerated under 



1875 Stanley's Exploration of Victor" NyanTaX E- 
denskxolds New Route by Sea from Europe to Siberia. 



AMERICAN NATURALIST. 

Vol. x. — APRIL, me. — No. 4. 

THE AMERICAN ANTELOPE, OR PRONG BUCK. 

JT is not possible to give more than a synopsis of the natural 

history of the American antelope in the space which may be 

Uowed in this journal. It was first made known to the 

scientific world through Lewis and Clark, who found it in 1804 

obi ct iZ V f SS ° Uri ' "^ Wh ° Ht timeS made {t an im P° rtant 
°oject ot the chase. On their return they brought with them 1 

Td7?'/ hi - h WaS Phlced in Peale ' s Museum, at Philadelphia, 
»nd first described by Mr. Ord, and named Antelope Americana. 
itoee years later, in Journal de Physique, he gave it a generic 
distinction under the name of Antilocapra Americana. 

mis animal is not a native of the Old World, and is confined 
a very i, mi ted portion of the New; that is to say, the western 
sine co »tinent, mostly 7 within the temperate zone; and 

ain° e '> S We Sha11 hereafter see .> {t avoids Crests and high mount- 
Jj »♦" may nut be looked for in many portions of this region. 
r.VhV'V ' t "" n,i ,,: ' St ° f tlu ' AIississ 'I , l ,i River, nor did it even 
™« Missouri River except on its upper part, where it crossed 
' T i nVer m tne more arid regions. 

4: e iti ts r f our anteiope ex p ,ain ** [t is s ° c ° nfined [n its 

arbt " l ent 1S stric % herbaceous. It not only rejects 

arbore ous food, but it has such an aversion to forests that it 
at th GnterS tHem voluntar ily, refusing to be driven into them 
Passin g r at6St peril - Tnie ' {t wiI1 cross thin skirts of timber in 
season! 1 ^ Prai " e t0 another ' and the old bucks at cerfcai » 
kind b' W 1 n theJ Se6ni inc,ined t0 avoid the soc iety of their 
like Y!^ n known to seclude themselves in the open, park- 

^giades of some districts, 
the i| ey are exce P tionall y gregarious in their habits, although 
.^J^^bands of thousands in which they formerly assem- 



194 The American Antelope, or Provg Buck. [April 





1876.] The American Antelope, or Prong Buck. 195 

bled are now broken up by the advancement of civilization, 
which has absolutely expelled them from those regions where 
they were met with in great numbers a quarter of a century 
since. Then they were most abundant in California, where they 
sometimes almost literally covered the' plains and the foot-hills 
west of the Sierras, and where now a solitary wanderer is rarely 
heard of. The parks and plains in the mountains and east of 
them, and the great table-lands separating the distant ranges, 
are now most affected by our antelope, for there it finds that dry, 
gravelly soil, covered by a scanty but nutritious vegetation, which 
its tastes seem to crave and its nature seems to require ; there 
too, only the shepherd and the herder are induced to intrude upon 
its seclusion and disturb its quiet. 

Although Richardson objects to the appellation Americana, 
because there may be two species of the genus, it is now settled 
»yond dispute that this animal stands alone, a solitary species 
o a distinct genus among ruminants, as vre shall presently see, 
iffering so widely in many important particulars that zoolog- 
ical laws which have hitherto been considered well settled have 
to be abandoned and new ones recognized. Capra Americana, 
which was once supposed by some to be a species of the same 
genus, is now well established to be a true goat, and no more 
related to the animal under consideration than is Ovis montana, 
our Rocky Mountain sheep, and in coat and coloring the latter 
bears a much stronger resemblance to our animal than the for- 

_« size, the prong buck (Bartlett) is considerably smaller 
i the ordinary Virginia deer, and less variation among indi- 
observed than occurs in any of the deer family. A 



«% adult 



male rarely exceeds four feet in length frc 



height to the top of the shoulder, while the 

j-jT * emaie ls considerably smaller. The hunter never has 

culty m throwing the largest upon his horse or upon his 

«>oiilder, and walking to camp with him, though if the distance 

e great he gets heavy, no doubt. 

. Reform is best understood by reference to the illustration, 
**<* » taken from life, of a fully adult male standing at perfect 

neck * The b ° dy is Sh ° rt and round ' the tail is very shorfc ' the 
rart *t ratller sn °rt, and is carried very erect. The head is 

and er ^ Sh ° rt ' and Carried WeU UP " ^ ^ *** SmaU 

he Uairs of this animal differ from those found on most of 



196 The American Antelope, or Prong Buck. [April, 

the hollow-horned ruminants, and possess the extreme charac- 
teristics generally observed in those of the deer. They are hol- 
low except near the roots and extreme points, and are filled with 
a sort of light pith something like that found in the quill of the 
turkey or the chicken. These hairs are quite non-elastic and 
fragile, in this respect resembling more those of the caribou than 
of any other quadruped. The points of the hairs are solid, and 
hence firm and tenacious, while the lower parts are -moistened 
by an oily secretion from the skin which makes them the more 
flexible and less liable to be broken. Hence they are found to 
be most fragile one quarter or one third of the way down from 
their points. There is present an under coat of fur during the 
winter, but this is less abundant than on most of the deer. 

On the belly the hairs are more solid and tenacious, and on 
the legs and face they are quite so. On the top of the neck is 
a distinct mane, more pronounced on the male, consisting of long, 
erect, and firm red hairs*, which are less abundant towards the 

The illustration of the young kid will show that it is of the 
same color as the adult, only the shades become deeper on the 
older animals. The face is generally black to yellowish-brown, 
with white cheeks. Below each ear is a dark brown or dull 
black patch. The neck and upper part of the body are of a yellow- 
ish-tawny color, often deepening to a brownish shade. On the 
lower part of the sides the belly and the inguinal regions are white, 
which color extends up between the hind legs, uniting with the 
white patch on the rump. This white area extends up under 
the neck, where it is broken into transverse bands by the yellow- 
ish-tawny of the neck. On many specimens a tawny line ex- 
tends down the back to and along the upper side of the tail, 
dividing the whole patch on the rump, while in others this is 
entirely wanting. The white color on all the parts where it is 
present is entirely immaculate. 

The entire absence of the hind or accessory hoofs found in 
most other ruminants early attracted attention, and distinguishes 
the prong buck from both the deer and the antelope, between 
which it seems to stand. Externally, then, the foot is short and 
broad, without distinct curvatures, and resembles the foot of the 
true antelope much more than that of the deer. 

A very important feature of this animal is the glandular system 
which it is found to possess. Until quite recently these glands 
have not been made a subject of special study. They are per- 



1876.] The American Antelope, or Prong Buck. 197 

haps best described and located by Dr. Murie. All are dermal 
glands. Two are sub-auricular, and covered by the dark patches 
already mentioned. There are two ischiatic glands at the points 
of the hips below the tail, and another pair is found at the hocks, 
and there is an interdigital gland on each foot. Besides the ten 
-lands which may be said to be in pairs, there is a single gland 
on the top of the back at the anterior border of the white patch. 
There is no lachrymal sinus. 

From these glands is emitted an odor more pungent at some 
seasons than at others, and more observable from the old males 
than from the females or the young males; still, it is observable 
in all at all times 

The eye is exceptionally large for the size of the animal. It 
is much larger than that of any of the deer, the ox, or the horse. 
The entire exposed part of the orb is intensely black, so that I 
have never been able by the closest scrutiny to distinguish the 
pupil from the iris on the living subject. While it is brilliant, it 
is mild, soft, and gentle. It is the eye of the antelope gazelle, 
only larger and blacker, as I have often compared them when 
standing side by side. This animal has been often called the 
American gazelle. A female gazelle from Asia, in my grounds, 
showed a disposition to associate and play with a young prong 
buck, but with no other animal in the grounds. I have seen our 
antelope weep copious tears, when in deep affliction. 

In domestication this animal loses its wild timidity sooner and 
more completely than any other animal /eras naturce whose do- 
mestication I have attempted. When taken young it soon ac- 
quires the attachment of a child for the human species, and when 
captured adult in a short time becomes so tame that it will take 
rood from the hand and follow one by the hour, walking through 
the grounds. It soon perceives that it has nothing to fear, and 
then readily bestows its confidence. It is not generally healthy 
In do 'nestication, probably from the humidity of our climate and 
e want of some alimentary element which it finds in its native 
Plains. Many are afflicted with scrofula, and some linger and 
die without any well-defined disease. I have never yet been able 
keep one in my grounds for a single year, but am still contin- 
Uln g my experiments. 
1 have never yet heard of an instance where they have bred in 
°mesdcati(>n, although the males especially are excessively sala- 
" l,Us "'" their inclinations; but I have yet to learn of a case of 
^tnal fertility. 



198 The American Antelope, or Prong Buck. [April, 

They show a degree of intelligence scarcely surpassed by that 
of the dog, which would, no doubt, be greatly improved by suc- 
ceeding generations under the influence of domestication, should 
that be proved possible. One that was in the constant habit of 
following me soon became disgusted with the elk which chased 
him, so that whenever he saw me going towards the gate which 
opened into the elk park, he would place himself in front of me 
and try to push me back, and then look up imploringly, and if 
I turned away in another direction would gambol about in the 
greatest delight. In the wild state, at least, this animal is pos- 
sessed of inordinate curiosity, by which it is often beguiled within 
reach of the hunter. In this it resembles the barren-ground cari- 
bou, or our small Arctic reindeer. 

It is the swiftest of foot of all known quadrupeds, but it cannot 
continue the race at high speed for a great length of time, al- 
though for a few miles or a few minutes its escape seems like the 
flight of a bird. While it can make astonishing horizontal leaps, 
even from a standing position, it cannot or will not make high 
vertical leaps. I do not think that one under any circumstances 
could be driven over an obstruction a yard in height. 

Like that of all the deer tribe, its sight is defective, since it is 
unable to readily identify objects without the aid of motion. Its 
senses of smell and hearing are very acute, and on these it largely 
depends to warn it of the approach of enemies. 

The most interesting of all the characteristics of the goat ante- 
lope, that which most distinguishes it from all other ruminants, 
is its horns. These appendages are given to both male and fe- 
male, but on the latter they are scarcely more than rudimentary 
till they are fully adult, and even then they are quite insignifi- 
cant, varying from one to three inches in length at the uttermost. 
The horn of Antilocapra is hollow, like the horn of the goat and 
the ox, and it is deciduous, like the antler of the deer. When 
this peculiarity was announced, it was received with entire in- 
credulity by naturalists, and the world -of science accepted the 
truth only after overwhelming evidence had been accumulated. 

The first allusion I find to the deciduous character of the horns 
of this antelope is in Audubon and Bachman's Quadrupeds of 
North America, ii. 198, where we learn that the hunters at Fort 
Union told Mr. Audubon that the antelopes shed their horns, 

but the naturalist " managed to prove i I, ntrarv " Again, on 

age 204, he returns to th, subjoin, says h, was never able 
' they do shed their horns. 



1876.] The American Antelope, or Prong Buck. 199 

Dr. Canfield, of Monterey, California, who lived in the midst 
of vast flocks of antelope, and had domesticated many of them 
and intelligently studied them, in 1848, in a communication to 
Professor Baird, of the Smithsonian Institution, announced the 
deciduous character of their horns quite circumstantially, and gave 
many interesting facts connected with the animal, but the pro- 
fessor considered the announcement so extraordinary that he did 
not feel justified in publishing the communication. Five years 
later Mr. Bartlett, superintendent of the gardens of the Zoolog- 
ical Society of London, himself observed the casting of the horns 
of an adult male then in the society's gardens, and announced the 
fact to the society in a paper which was published in its Trans- 
actions. Since then it has been admitted by naturalists as an 
established fact. 

From the number of these interesting animals which I have 
had and still have in a state of domestication, my opportunities 
for observing them have been good, and I have found it the very 
luxury of study to observe the progress of the growth and the 
casting of these horns, and to investigate the mode of growth ; 
and I am sure the reader will bear with me while I give a brief 
description of the process. 

The horn of the antelope grows on a permanent process of the 
skull which rises upon the supra-orbital arch, so that not an inch 
of space intervenes on the adult between the base of the horn 
and the orb itself. When the male kid is born, a protuberance 
may be felt where the horn is to grow. This grows with the 
kid, and by the time it is six months old, the little horn breaks 
through the skin, presenting a sharp, hard point. This horn per- 
fects its growth from the first to the last of January, when it has 
attained a length of an inch or less, and is then cast off. The 
next horn is perfected and cast earlier, and so on till full ma- 
turity is attained, when the horn is thrown off in October, though 
m this strict uniformity must not be expected. 

On the adult male the horn is about twelve inches long, and 
the core in the specimen now before me is little more than five 
inches long. The horn is laterally compressed. The lower half 
is about two and one half indies with' and one inch thick, the 
anterior edge becoming sharper towards the prong. Above the 
P r ong it is much Less compressed, assuming more a cylindrical 
^m ; still it is somewhat flattened to the end. The prong, which : 
18 anterior and occurs about midway the length of the horn, is 
scarcely more than an abrupt termination of the anterior part of 



200 The American Antelope, or Prong BucL [April, 

the flattened section, where its width is increased to about three 
and a half inches, terminating in a sharp point ; so we may say 
the prong is one inch in length. But in this different specimens 
vary considerably. 

The horn appears as if constructed of a mass of longitudinal 
fibres, even presenting a striated appearance, especially the lower 
part, and is roughened by a great number of small tubercles be- 
low the prong to near the base. Many hairs occur on the lower 
portion of the horn, some of which often remain till the latter is 
shed. In color the horn is a deep black, except the extreme tip, 
which is generally a translucent yellowish-white, sometimes for 
half an inch or more. 

If we now confine ourselves to the horn on the adult, we shall 
the better" understand it. Soon after the rut-time is passed, we ob- 
serve the horn, the shell which envelops the persistent core, lifted 
from its seat and each day carried up higher and higher, and be- 
coming more and more loose till presently it is thrown off. Then 
it is revealed to us how this has been done. We look inside the 
cast-off horn and see that the cavity does not extend above the 
prong, which is scarcely half-way up the horn. We see that 
the core was laterally compressed, broad and thin, presenting an- 
teriorly its sharpest edge. The illustration shows the form and 
extent of this core better than I can describe it in words; and so 
of the horn itself. I represent the side of the horn cut away so 
as to show the entire core. As we proceed in our examinatiofl 
Ave see that when the old horn was thrown off the now horn 
had a ready made considerable progress in its growth above the 
end of the core, and that it was this new growth of horn which 
had d.slocated the old one, completely detached it from the core, 
and so permitted it to drop off. From the hardened point down 
to the core, the new horn is warm and slightly elastic and flexible, 
east so towards the hardened point. To watch the growth of 



the horn henceforward i 



exceedingly interesting. It extends in 



length pretty rapidly, and towards the „ rr 
posterior curvature as the hardening proeAs, whic-lf converts it 
into true horn, progresses downward. Meanwhile the skin which 
covered the core, and which was rather sparsely set with long, 
coarse, lightish- colored hairs, shows no unusual activity. But 
when the perfected horn reached the top of the core, the upper 
section of this skin, for an inch perhaps, showed unusual activity, 
'"" ;"'•'»"• th.eker, its upper part becoming hard and insensible 
and finally assuming the consistence of true horn, conforming in 



1876.] The American Antelope, or Prong Buck. 201 

shape to the thin, flat core, only that the new horn projects its 
anterior edge far beyond the core, thus forming the prong ; and so 
the growth proceeds downward, involving but a limited portion 
of the skin which covers the core, below which it appears to be 
in a normal condition and above which is the perfected horn, till 
finally it reaches the base of the horn, when the growth may be 
considered perfected. This occurs about the last of July or early 
m August. The progress of the growth is much slower on the 
lower part of the horn than it was on the upper part. The 
lower part of the horn, which envelops the core, is covered more 
or less with hairs which penetrate it from the skin beneath. 
These we find more abundant as we pass down the horn in our 
examination. These at last, however, nearly disappear from the 
surface, probably by abrasion. As soon as or before the commence- 
ment of the rutting season, the horn has completed its growth 
and has become a perfect weapon, and so continues during that 
season, which so excites the males to belligerency. As this 
passes by, the growth of the new horn commences at the top of 
the core and proceeds as before described, lifting the old horn 
from its seat and finally throwing it off. 

I may not occupy the space requisite to describe the pecul- 
iarities of the growth of the successive horns and of the cores, 
while they are growing from the kid to the fully adult, although 
they show some interesting phenomena. Suffice it to repeat that 
the first horn of the kid is shed in January; the next year it com 
Pletes its growth earlier and is shed in December, and so on each 
year, the horn being shed a few weeks earlier than was its prede- 
cessor, till when the animal becomes fully adult the horn is cast 
soon after the rutting season is past. 

A have never had in domestication an adult female, with horns 
developed, and cannot say whether they mature and are thrown 
°tt at the same times as those of the males. 

, Apparently the skin covering the core of the horn is converted 
mto horn. The microscope alone can reveal the truth of this, 
j! nd bv its aid the whole is made plain. The core of the horn is 
lrst covered by the periosteum. Next, and without any interven- 
ln g tissues, comes the skin, with its proper epidermis. The horns 
deviously described have their roots in the cellular tissue, or 
" H>r s, '.<tum of the skin, as we will call it. When sufficient l\ 
magnified, the upper or outer part of the skin shows the uneven 
^Pearance occasioned by elevations and depressions called papilla*, 
* observed on other portions of the skin. Upon this uneven 



202 The American Antelope, or Prong Buck. [April, 

surface rests the epidermis, if we may use that term, where con- 
stant activity is ever present. As this epidermis or outer coating 
of the skin on the human subject, for instance, is constantly wear- 
ing away, so must it be constantly renewed by new growths. For 
this purpose minute cells are constantly being formed upon or next 
to the papillae. The new cells, being at the very bottom, neces- 
sarily force up their predecessors, which become more and more 
flattened out in the form of scales. Of these flattened scales the 
epidermis is formed ; as they approach the surface, they become 
dryer and harder and of a horny nature, "even on the most deli- 
cate skin, and in that condition these horny scales or flattened 
cells are worn' off by friction. It is these flattened cells which 
constitute all horns, hoofs, nails, and claws ; and so we are not 
disappointed when we find that the horns of our antelope are 
composed of these same flattened and dried-up cells. As these 
cells are forced up and flattened out, they cohere in a mass large 
enough to form the horn, and in obedience to some law of nature 
are molded into the proper form. When enough of these flat- 
tened and hardened cells have been accumulated and consolidated 
to constitute the horn at a given place, it cleaves off from the 
softer inner portion of the cuticle within, leaving a stratum of 
epidermis covering the corium. 

While the mode of growth of this horn so exactly corresponds 
with that of other and persistent horns, its progress is necessarily 
widely different. The growth of other horns is very slow and 
uniform, proceeding from the epidermis at their bases, while this 
horn, instead of taking a life-time to complete its growth, must 
be finished in a few months. It is not pushed up and enlarged ■ 
little each year by a slow accumulation of these flattened and 
hardened cells at its base, but it first shoots up with astonahfcg 
rapidity from the very top of the core, till the old horn is pushed 
off and the new one above is far advanced, while over all the 
rest of the core the cuticle has manifested no unusual activity. 
but simply a moderate state of vitality is exhibited. When the 
growth of the horn above the end of the core is completed, the 
time has arrived for the formation of the new horn below. That 
part of the epidermis which had been so active and performed 
such extraordinary work in so short a time relapses into a Sfcfc 
of quiet, and a section below has suddenly become aroused to a 
state of great activity, till it has done its work and completed it* 
horny crust, when in a few days, or weeks at most, it in turn 
relapses into quiet ; and so, as the growth progresses' downward, 



76.] The American Antelope, or Prong Buck. 



ions become stimulated to great activity, do their 
work, and subside to quiet, till finally the base is reached and the 
horn is complete ; and now the epidermis has a rest during the 
rutting season and until the time arrives for the commencement 
of a new growth, which proceeds as before ; and so is it annually 
repeated. 

We can partially understand how it is that the lately active 
part becomes quiet so soon as the horn over it is perfected, if we 
will remember that a partial separation takes place between the 
horn and a sensitive stratum of the epidermis, but I cannot so 
readily explain how it is that successive sections below are awak- 
ened from their state of quietude to an activity nowhere else in 
nature equaled or even approached for the same purpose. I can 
only say that the exigencies of the case demand it, and nature sup- 
plies the means. 

Altogether this is a most interesting animal, requiring peculiar 
conditions of life for its well-being, which confine it to a very 
limit,,] area on the face of the earth. The discovery of this 
animal has opened a new chapter to the naturalist, in which 
some of his preconceived notions must be rudely swept away, and 
new possibilities in the animal kingdom recognized. It stands 
solitary and alone in the middle space where a void was thought 
to exist, which supposed zoological laws had declared could never 
be filled. It supplies a link in the animal kingdom which we 
thought could not exist, and which we were slow to recognize 
^ht'ii found. It occupies an intermediate place, if it does not 
entirely fill U p the gap, between those ruminants which have hol- 
low and persistent cornuous horns and those which have solid and 
deciduous ones. It has eight incisors in the lower jaw, and no 
canine teeth, but twenty -four molars. We find examples of 
this dental formula in both the above groups. In its skin and 
coat it is like the deer. Its eye is most like that of some of the 
antelopes. Its glandular system is most like that of the goat. It 
w the most delicate and particular feeder of all ruminants, while 
the goat is the most promiscuous consumer. In its salacious dis- 
position it resembles and even excels the goat, but is the farthest 
°f all from it in its ability to climb rocks and precipices. It has 
°»any characteristics hitherto supposed to be confined to one or 
the other of the families of ruminants above referred to, while it 
dibits others peculiar to itself. 

Since writing this article I have examined the illustrations h.uv 
^produced (see Figures 12 and 13), with the late Mr. Hays's 



p pi 





1876.] Are Potato Bugs Poisonous? 205 

article on the growth of the horns of the prong buck, in the 
Naturalist, volume ii., page 131, and find some differences be- 
tween his observations and mine, from which we may infer the 
want of exact uniformity not only in the structure but in the 
progress of the growth of the horn. The section of the horn 
shown in Figure 1 2 shows a core differing in both form and ex- 
tent from any I have seen. I have never met one where the 
core extended above the prong. 

ARE POTATO BUGS POISONOUS? 1 



A STATEMENT of the poisoning qualities of the JDorgphora 
decemlineata, or potato bug, has repeatedly been made in pub- 
lic prints, and notably in the Seventh Report on the Insects of 
Missouri by Professor C. V. Riley. It is claimed that after coming 
m contact with the bugs, or inhaling the steam or smoke produced 
by boiling or burning them, persons have exhibited various symp- 



io investigate the matter, a quantity of the bugs collected from 
nelds near Buffalo, where no arsenic had been used, was submit- 
ted to distillation with salt water, so as to allow of an increased 
temperature. Under this process, about four ounces of liquid were 
procured from one quart measure of the insects. This liquid was 
perfectly clear, and emitted a highly offensive smell ; it proved 
w alkaline reaction on account of the presence of a certain quan- 
tity of free ammonia and carbonate of ammonia. 

Again, an equal quantity of the bugs was used to prepare a 
tincture made as follows : Absolute and chemically pure alcohol 
WHS condensed upon the live bugs ; after a digestion of twenty- 
four hours the alcohol was evaporated at a gentle heat. The 
tincture so obtained had a decidedly acid reaction, was brown in 
color, and was not disagreeable in smell. 

To ascertain the effect on the animal system of the liquid and 
the tincture above described, a number of frogs were procured for 
the experiment. About one half cubic centimetre of the liquid 
and the tincture each was introduced separately into the stomach, 
^either the liquid nor the tincture produced any apparent effects. 
he vivacity of the frogs so treated continued unimpaired, not- 
Wl thstanding the complete retention of the doses. Again, two 
/ s Kead at the Detroit Meeting. of the American Association for the Advancement 



206 Are Potato Bugs Poisonous t [April, 

fresh frogs were submitted to a hypodermic injection of the liquid 
and the tincture, in the hind legs, by means of an ordinary hy- 
podermic syringe. The injection of the distilled liquid was unat- 
tended by injurious results. A slight disinclination, at first, to 
use the hind limbs was shown also in the case of another frog, 
which was treated hypodermically with pure water to check the 
results obtained. 

The injection of the tincture, however, proved fatal to the sub- 
ject. A few moments after the injection the leg operated upon 
seemed to become paralyzed, and the heart stopped beating 
within thirty minutes afterwards, by which time the other two 
hypodermically treated seemed to have completely overcome the 
effects of the operation. 

The tincture, although highly concentrated, contained but a 
small quantity of animal acids, which, when saturated with bases 
of potassa and soda, formed deliquescent hexagonal crystals, visi- 
ble under the microscope, but insufficient in quantity to analyze. 
It is known that such acids are very active in their effects upon 
the animal system. The bite of a flea or of a bedbug is attended 
by an introduction of acids which produce a swelling by the coag- 
ulation of the albuminous fluids of the body. The rapid coagula- 
tion of milk was shown by the experiment of introducing a few 
drops of the tincture above described, during the present experi- 
ments. In the case of the insects above mentioned, especial or- 
gans are occupied with the secretion of the acids which serve the 
insect economy by coagulating those parts of the blood of the 
victim which may not be useful for food. No such organs have 
been noticed in the potato bug. The presence of the acid lead? 
us to conjecture as to the origin of such organs, while they have 
apparently not become developed in the potato bug. The acids 
being found to be present in such small quantity, the conclusion 
is unavoidable, in the light of the present experiments, that the 
bugs are not poisonous. 

Rather does it seem likely that the published statements to the 
contrary were based on erroneous observations, while it is ex- 
tremely probable that certain of the more aggravated and circum- 
stantially detailed cases of poisoning are due to the effects of ar- 
senic (Paris green and arsenious acid), which is now profusely 
used for the extermination of the bugs. Many metallic salts will 
produce cutaneous irritation; when arsenic is sublimed by heat, 
the inhaled fumes will produce nervous disorder; the effects of 
Paris green may have been mistaken' for those of the potato 



1876.] The Little Missouri " Bad Lands." 207 

bugs. It is credible, moreover, that when larger amounts of the 
bugs are thrown into a fire to destroy them, even when not con- 
tinuing any arsenic, an incomplete combustion might take place, 
in which case carbonous oxide (CO) would be produced, which 
would certainly bring about the evil effects complained of. It 
may also be remarked that previous to the advent of the potato 
bug the potato plant itself had not been so freely handled as 
lately ; an inquiry as to the effects of the entrance of the minute 
hairs from the leaf into the skin, and also into the properties of 
the juice of the plant, might show cause for some symptoms com- 
plained of. 

At this time, when the use of arsenious acid is forbidden in 
Germany in the manufacture of aniline colors, on account of its 
evil effects on animal organisms, it may not be thought im- 
proper to call the attention of the people of our country to the 
present use of arsenic in the culture of so universal a food plant 
as the potato. 

THE LITTLE MISSOURI "BAD LANDS." 

JN Western Dakota are what are termed the Little Missouri 



iad Lands.' 



picturesque and strange 



imagination can well conceive. As we leave the Missouri iU ., 
tort Abraham Lincoln, the present western terminus of the 
X °rthern Pacific Railroad, the journey to these " Bad Lands " 
is mainly by the so-called Sully's Trail, which runs nearly due 
J-iu,,,,! between the 46th and 47th parallels. The three hun- 
dred miles of treeless prairies that lie between the Missouri and 
kittle Missouri rivers present us with nothing of remarkable 
mterest. Gradually, as we advance westward, the grass becomes 
scantier and the cacti and sage bushes more abundant, evincing 
the increasing aridity of the climate. Isolated, conical mounds 
buttes," occasionally of considerable height, are seen at long 
intervals, and serve as important landmarks. The streams are 
§ eW and sm "ll, the most of them dwindling towards the end of 
summer to a series of detached, brackish pools. Along the larger 

T !, '»'i we meet here and there with little clumps of trees, or, 
" u ' ''andy, with continuous narrow belts of timber, consisting 

miy of box-elder and cot ton- wood, with a sprinkling of elm ; 
* occasionally they are made up almost entirely of oak. These 

e groves, sometimes a day's journey apart, constitute the 



208 The Little Missouri " Bad Lands." [April, 

only trees met with, — little wooded oases in a vast expanse of 
rolling, grassy prairie. In crossing these prairies we miss, even in 
June, when the vegetation is in its greatest freshness, the variety 
and profusion of flowers that give to the more southern prairies 
the aspect of a vast flower-garden, — the patches of pink, orange, 
yellow, and other bright tints produced by the social grouping of 
the prevailing species, which impart their own hues to broad areas 
of the landscape, as do often the buttercups and daisies to New 
England hill-sides. Most conspicuous on the Dakota prairies, 
west of the Missouri, are the little prairie roses (Bosa blanda 
Ait.), which fill the air with their delicate perfume, and seem 
often to almost cover the ground in their abundance. These 
gems of the prairie in a measure atone for the absence of a 
greater variety of showy flowering plants. 

Bird life is abundant over these prairies, they being everywhere 
enlivened by the few peculiar kinds, such as larks, buntings, and 
sparrows, that so eminently characterize the Plains. Among 
them, however, the ornithologist detects with delight both the 
Missouri skylark (Neocorys Spraguei Scl.) and Baird's bunting 
( t 5 ntronpb Bairdii Bd.), species which until a few years since 
were among the least known of the birds of the continent. Few 
mammals attract our attention, the prong horn, or so-called 
"antelope" (Antilocapra Americana Ord), being the chief, 
which, while notable for its grace and beauty, is also the principal 
game animal of this portion of the Plains; the American bison, 
or "buffalo,'' '■ 



vhose trails still 



existed here but a few years since, and 
' aving now wholly disappeared from 



s-dog towns 



the region east of the Yellowstone. 

are somewhat frequent, their little occupants'being ever objects 
of interest ; occasionally the prairie hare (Lepus campestris 
Bach.), or jackass rabbit, as more commonly called, surprised 
by our approach, scampers away in all possible haste, his im- 
inense cms and very long legs giving him the appearance of 
being much larger than he really is. 

After days of pleasant journeying amid such scenes as these, 
we find ourselves upon the border of the « Bad Lands," to the 
exploration of which we have long looked forward with so 
much interest. Though they are but a few miles distant, there is 
""thing as yet to indicate their proximity; we see before us 
only the same low ridge that in prairie landscapes seems ever to 
bound the horizon. Reaching the crest of this low ridge, how- 
ever, we have before us, instead of another similar swell, one of 



1876.] The Utile Missouri « Bad Lands:' 209 

the strangest vistas the continent affords. We look down upon 
a broad valley studded with detached, nearly bare, conical, pyram- 
idal, and rectangular mounds, one hundred to several hundred 
feet in height, and a few yards to many hundred yards in length. 
All are similarly capped with a stratum of bright red, indurated 
day, which on closer examination proves to have been metamor- 
phosed by heat, and to be mixed with cinders and other mineral 
substances that seem to have had a volcanic origin. The mounds 
themselves are made up of variegated shales, horizontally dis- 
posed, which, seen in section in the nearly vertical sides of the 
mounds, appear as parallel bands of yellow, brown, green, gray, 
black, and other tints, surmounted with red. This strange pan- 
orama extends for many miles, and as we gaze upon it for the 
first time we soon cease to wonder that General Sully, in his 
march through this region in 1864, should have likened it to " hell 
mth the fires out," as he is currently reported to have done. 

The trail we have chosen fortunately leads us through the 
very heart of this interesting country, so that the experiences of 
a single day even would be sufficient to give us considerable 
™liarity with the varied phenomena of a locality that may be 
taken as a fair illustration of the remarkable topography of an 
extensive region. By a difficult and winding descent we reach 
the valley of Davis Creek, through which we are to find our way 
the Little Missouri. Our interest in our surroundings con- 
antlj, increases, as at every step some new feature, noticeable 
t 0r its P ic turesque effect or as illustrative of some geological 
torce attracts our attention. The mounds and ridges increase in 
he ight, their rounded summits still capped with bright pink 
' ;,i "; :| " 1 almost verdureless. Red bands are also seen at inter- 
s m the sides of these mounds, these bands being composed of 
e same baked, reddened clay as that covering the summits, 
Wlth g^erally a thin layer of scoriaceous material at the bottom 
°^each red band. Although traces of fire are so evident, the 
orce that has given the country its present broken character 
as been the gentle action of water. The strata everywhere pre- 
serve their almost perfectly horizontal position, these buttes and 
fil] ai J' narrow ridges being but the remains of strata that once 
h . ed the country to a higher level than even the tops of the 
^g est buttes now standing. By the slow process of aqueous 

a d°u 1UVe tllG S ° ft strata of sands and cla y s k een reraoved i 
he country scored to the depth of hundreds of feet, 
vo" fc x ° t,ler forees have been at work - Heat of S reat "density, 



210 The Little Missouri " Bad Lands:' [April, 

and from an unusual source, has also acted here on a grand scale, 
but as a preserving rather than as a destroying agent. Beds of 
lignite, a few inches to several feet in thickness, occur interstrat- 
ified with the deposits of sand and clay. The deep, sh: 
formed by the action of water have exposed these beds of lignite 
for long distances. This exposure to atmospheric influences 
seems to have in some way produced spontaneous combustion of 
the lignite, for there is abundant evidence that some of the igneous 
action about to be described occurred before the close of the 
terrace epoch. Whatever may have caused the coal beds to take 
fire, the fact remains that for long ages their destruction has 
been going on, and even still continues, producing geological re- 
sults of a most interesting and important character. When once 
well ignited they seem to burn for long periods, the fires pene- 
trating far into the interior of the hills, extending at times till 
all the coal seams over very large areas are consumed. At the 
present time these fires are known to sometimes originate from 
the prairie fires, which occasionally sweep over these lignite ex- 
posures and ignite the coal. But a large proportion of the beds 
that have been destroyed appear to have been so site 
prairie fires could not have reached them, the exposures being 
about midway up the bare, nearly vertical faces of very high 
bluffs. Wherever the lignite beds have been burned, their 
former position can be easily detected by the bright red bands of 
the hardened overlying clays and sands which have been meta- 
morphosed by their combustion, these red bands being often 
traceable by their color for long distances, occurring at the same 
level in butte after butte. 

The burning of such large masses of lignite must of course, es- 
pecially when the beds have considerable thickness, produce an 
intense heat ; yet the metamorphism here seen seems sometimes 
to be on too grand a scale to be the result of so limited a cause. 
The thickness of the strata more or less changed in texture and 
color by the heat varies, of course, with the thickness of the seam 
of lignite the burning of which was the source of the metamor- 
phic action, and hence ranges from a few feet to twenty or thirty, 
and occasionally to upwards of fifty ! In many cases the heat 
was sufficient to partly or wholly fuse the shales immediately in 
contact with the burning lignite, giving them a semi-vitrcous or 
porcelaneous texture. At the bottom of the series of metamor- 
phosed beds we have usually a layer of cinders and clinkers, 
which occupies the position of the former lignite bed itself. This 



1876.] The Little Missouri " Bad Lands." 211 

layer is generally of a whitish or grayish color, and is made up 
largely of hard, semi-vitreous, vesicular material, the larger inter- 
stices of which are rilled with ashy or earthy matter, while occa- 
sionally portions are so soft as to be easily crumbled in the hand, 
or crushed under the foot. Indeed, it is not much unlike the re- 
siduum left in our grates from the burning of common coal. 

The material next above this often shows signs of having been 
in a semi-molten or at least plastic condition, and generally pre- 
sents a great variety of tints, as olive, drab, yellow, gray, white, 
brown of various shades, purple, and even black. The purple 
and olive tints are quite frequent; the other colors often occur in 
narrow zones or mere lines, producing a very beautiful effect. 
The texture varies from a dense, compact, jaspery character to 
that so porous and vesicular that the mass will float upon water, 
with every degree of porosity between these extremes. This 
variegated layer is usually but a few inches in thickness, and is 
of rather local occurrence, as is also the scoriaceous or vesicular 
matter, neither appearing except where the heat has been very 
intense. The scoriaceous material also varies greatly in color, 
being usually black, but sometimes grayish, while it also occurs 
of every shade of red, from dark reddish-brown to bright car- 
mine. These materials always pass gradually into the overlying 
reddened, baked clays, which, as previously "stated, may vary in 
thickness from a few feet to twenty or more, and which, from 
their great thickness, bright color, and wide distribution, form 
°ne of the characteristic features of the region we are considering. 
The color of these beds is that of bright red bricks, and where 
the material has been thinly scattered about by the gradual dem- 
olition of buttes once covered by it, as sometimes happens, the 
resemblance of the locality to an old, long-abandoned brickyard is 
v ery striking. These hardened clays still retain the abundant 
l mpressions of plant-remains, but they are generally too frag- 
mentary to be of much value as specimens. A few quite well- 
preserved casts of the leaves of exogenous plants occur, but the 
vegetable relics consist mainly of the imprints of broad-leaved 
grasses and sedges, which seem to have in places nearly filled the 
c a ys. Heavy clay deposits almost always immediately overlie 
e beds of lignite, and when they are very heavy, or the seam 

"gnite is very thin, the metamorphism scarcely extends be- 
am of clay ; usually, however, it affects the stratum 



[ s and that : 



upon the clay, sometimes converting 1 



coarse-grained, rather soft sandstone, hand-specin 



212 The Little Missouri "Bad Lands." [April, 

which are scarcely, if at all, distinguishable from the red sand- 
stone of the Connecticut Valley. The meta 
ceases in passing upward, as respects both color and hardness, 
till the influence of the heat wholly disappears. The color of 
these metamorphosed shales thus fades from intense red, or even 
black, through light brick-red to pale red and pule reddish-yellow; 
whilst the texture varies from crumbling scoria and slag, through 
rock of a trappean texture and conchoidal fracture, to finely fis- 
sured baked clay and sandstone, and finally to shales but slightly 
hardened and almost unchanged in color. 

The beds thus altered often present interesting features of 
structure, the indurated clays being extremely fissile, breaking 
up into thin, small, irregularly shaped splinters and fragments, 
which possess a clear, metallic resonance ; the sandstones occa- 
sionally present a prismatic structure, with the planes of cleavage 
oblique to those of stratification, the mass breaking into five or 
six sided prisms, half an inch to an inch or two in diameter, and 
one or two to even two and a half feet in length, almost slender 
enough and long enough for walking-sticks ! 

As already intimated, the beds of lignite vary greatly in thick- 
ness, from a few inches to five or six feet, and even more, 1 with 
corresponding variations in the amount of metamorphism produced 
by their combustion. In the burning of the heavier of these beds 
not only is an immense amount of heat generated, but vapors are 
formed which, in escaping, have also left their interesting records. 
These consist of jagged, chimney-like mounds of breccia that still 
crown many of the buttes and ridges, the softer materials that 
surrounded them having been worn away by denuding agencies, 
leaving them as striking and picturesque features of the land- 
scape. These mounds have sometimes the form of short, thick 
columns, being circular, a foot or two in diameter and a few feet 
high ; at other times they are ten or twelve feet in diameter and 
of about the same height, while they not unfrequently assume 
the form of low, narrow, ragged walls of highly altered rock, the 
material of all these erupted mounds presenting the features of 
a true volcanic breccia. The matter composing these chimneys 
was mostly forced up through small orifices or narrow fissures, 

eifil>t tV.i thick, M T!l r..t«,| \, s ,',' on Custer's Creek! 



1876.] The Little Missouri " Bad Lands." 213 

while in a plastic or half-molten condition. At these points the 
heat was so great that the sands and clays through which the 
fissures extended became thoroughly melted, leaving the walls 
of these fissures with glazed surfaces, vitrifying them to depths 
varying from half an inch to several inches. In some instances 
the melted matter ran down while in a viscous state, solidifying 
in pendant, rounded masses; in other cases it was, squeezed out 
through lateral cracks in the walls of the main fissures, congeal- 
ing in similar botryoidal forms. Again, masses are seen in these 
chimney-like mounds that seem to have been twisted and folded 
when in a viscous state, the surface still retaining its waxy lustre. 
In connection with the formation of these fissures and mounds 
there were slight disturbances of the adjoining strata, affecting 
sometimes an area of only a few feet in diameter, and rarely ex- 
tending over many yards. Occasionally, however, the fissures 
extended for ronsuloralth- distances, accompanied by the usual 
phenomena of intense igneous action already noticed, with a dis- 
turbance of the strata for several yards on either side of the fis- 
sure, where many feet in thickness were lifted and still remain 
highly inclined. We have here, in fact, a series of volcanic 
puffs, or volcanoes in miniature, having their seats of action in the 
burning coal-seam, ten, fifteen, or perhaps fifty feet below. In- 
deed, some of these disturbed areas present a very broken and 
volcanic aspect, and a geologist suddenly transported to one of 
these localities would feel at first that he must be in the midst of 
a truly volcanic district. He would find that from the tops of 
these apparently volcanic ridges blocks of scoriaceous material, 
differing in no respect from real volcanic products, have rolled 
down into the adjoining valleys, and lie scattered in masses vary- 
ing from a foot in diameter to those of several tons' weight. The 
ragged masses of rock crowning the higher points of the ridges, 
Kke ruined battlements, with the adjoining chasm-like ravines, 
faced with highly metamorphosed rock, do combine, in fact, to 
present quite a disturbed and chaotic scene ; yet a careful ex- 
amination of even these localities shows that the strata are 
everywhere horizontal, save at such few limited areas as those 
already noticed. We find here, as usual, the horizontal beds of 
cinders underlying the metamorphosed strata, differing from 
those of other localities only in their greater thickness, and point- 
ln g out most conclusively the origin and cause of these local dis- 
ruptions and former intense igneous action. That the burning 
of the lignite beds is really competent to produce all these effects 



214 The Little Missouri "Bad Lands." [April, 

we have the abundant stratigraphical proof afforded by this whole 
region, and the further testimony of trustworthy eye-witnesses, 
who have seen the beds of ligniteon fire with the same phenomena 
resulting as those above described. 

The effect of this metamorphic action, when we consider its 
cause, upon the general topographical and geological features of 
the region under consideration, is wonderful almost beyond con- 
ception. Wherever the country is deeply scored by ravines usu- 
ally several of these red bands of metamorphosed shales occur, 
separated by fifty to one hundred and fifty or more feet of un- 
altered clays and sands, and, running horizontally and parallel to 
each other, are seen for many miles, passing at the same eleva- 
tion through butte after butte and ridge after ridge. The high- 
est points are invariably capped with this hardened material, and 
hence all rise to about the same level over an area of many square 
miles. Generally there are several sets of these elevations, dif- 
fering only in size and height, the hardened bands that cap the 
smaller and lower appearing at the same elevation in the sides of 
the larger and higher, which are capped with portions of higher 
beds that have nearly disappeared. The indurated beds thus in 
a great measure determine the height and form of these remnants 
of strata which once filled the valleys to a height considerably 
above the tops of the highest points now left, and serve as a great 
check upon the surprisingly rapid erosion now going on, and 
which is every year removing vast quantities of the easily yield- 
ing strata. 

The extent of the influence of this igneous action upon the 
general aspect and character of the country is perhaps most im- 
pressively seen from elevations that overlook considerable areas of 
these strange " Bad Lands ; " the scene of course varying greatly 
in its topographical details with every change in the position 
from which it is viewed. From a high point on the western 
bank of the Little Missouri, nearly opposite the mouth of Davis 
Creek, the view is that of a vast expanse of verdureless mounds 
and walls of naked rock, interspersed here and there with little 
grassy plateaux, and crossed by the green valley of Davis Creek, 
with its scanty fringe of low trees. Bright red is the prevail- 
ing color of the landscape, but in the nearer ridges the bands of 
yellowish-brown, dark-brown, and grayish shades are also dis- 
tinguishable. The surface of the country is everywhere deeply 
scored, some of the higher points being two hundred and fifty to 
three hundred feet above the bed of the Little Missouri, and the 



1876.] The Little Missouri " Bad Lands" 215 

eye catches little else than the bare, more 
shales. Each hardened band forming a 
the eroding forces, the country presents a series of narrow ter- 
races ; these, being covered with a scanty growth of vegetation, 
form little plats and strips of green that pleasantly relieve the 
otherwise unbroken expanse of barrenness. Such a scene of wild- 
ness and desolation seems like a glimpse, as it were, of a half- 
formed world, unfit as yet for the habitation of man or for his 

A more extensive view of the Little Missouri " Bad Lands " is 
obtainable from the- Sentinel Buttes, two high points situated 
on the western border of this remarkable region, and reaching an 
elevation of about six hundred feet above the Little Missouri. 
The horizontal position of the strata composing these elevations 
shows what a vast amount of material has been removed from the 
surrounding region by the slow action of denuding forces. The 
country presents, as we look eastward from these buttes, an al- 
most continuous expanse of low, red-capped ridges and buttes, the 
prevailing red color being relieved only by bands of yellowish- 
brown and gray tints formed by the unaltered shales exposed in 
the deeply cut ravines. In this direction the view consists almost 
wholly of bad lands, — a vast stretch of undulating, verdureless 
red surface, extending as far as the eye can reach, only the naked 
crests of the distant, red-capped buttes and ridges being visi- 
ble. It is a scene not easily forgotten, so utterly barren, and yet 
so wild and picturesque. Its desolateness is doubtless greatly 
heightened by the contrast of green, rolling prairie which meets 
the eye when turned in the opposite direction. In looking north- 
ward or southward we have on the one hand a beautiful prairie 
landscape, broken only here and there by a low, red-capped 
butte or sharp ridge, while on the other is a boundless expanse 
of naked red mounds and ridges, — billows, as it were, of a fiery 
sea, —the transition from the one to the other being abrupt and 
strongly marked. 

We haA^e here before us but a portion of one of the numerous 
belts of these peculiar bad lands that occupy vast areas of East- 
ern Dakota and Western Montana. The Little Missouri " Bad 
Lands," with a breadth varying from twenty to thirty miles, ex- 
tend for hundreds of miles along the stream from which they de- 
ri ve their name. Other equally remarkable areas appear at in- 
tervals along the Missouri, from the vicinity of Fort Berthold 
nearly to the Judith River, or for a distance of fully five hundred 



216 Jumping Seeds and Galls. [April, 

miles. Another immense area occurs along the Yellowstone, ex- 
tending from its mouth nearly up to the Big Horn River, or for 
several hundred miles, as well as for long distances up its lower 
tributaries. The valleys of the Rosebud, Tongue, and Powder 
rivers are, indeed, among the most noteworthy localities of these 
metamorphic phenomena, the hills being sometimes reddened as 
far as the eye can reach by the burning out of the lignite beds. 
This metamorphism is, in short, almost coextensive with the 
hgmtic tertiary formation of the Upper Missouri, which occupies 
an area some five hundred miles in length by about three hun- 
dred and fifty in breadth, extending from near the 100th to 
about the 108th meridian, and from the vicinity of the 43d to 
far beyond the 49th parallel. Within this region, however, are 
occasional districts where this metamorphism occurs only in the 
higher, scattered buttes, the great areas of this disturbance and 
change being the borders of the principal water-courses, as the 
Missouri and its southern tributaries between the above-named 
points, including the Yellowstone and its eastern affluents. 



^T a late meeting of the Academy of Sciences of St. Louis, 
Mr. C. V. Riley exhibited certain seeds which possessed a 
hidden power of jumping and moving about on the table. He 
stated that he had recently received them from Mr. G. W. 
Barnes, of San Diego, Cal., and that they were generally known 
by the name of " Mexican jumping seeds." They are probably 
derived from a tricoccous euphorbiaceous plant. Each of the 
seeds measures about one third of an inch in length, and has two 
^at sides, meeting at an obtuse angle, and a third broader, con- 
vex side, with a medial carina. If cut open, each is found to 
contain a single fat, whitish worm, which has eaten all the con- 
tents of the seed and lined the shell with a delicate carpet of silk. 
The worm very closely resembles the common apple worm (Car- 
pocapsa pomonella), and indeed is very closely related, the in- 
sect being known to science as Carpocapsa saltitans. It was 
hrst recorded by VVestwood in the Proceedings of the Ashmo- 
lean Society of Oxford, in 1857 (iii. 137, 138), and repeated* 
referred to under the name of Carpocapsa Behaisiana in the 
Anmiles of the French Entomological Society for 1859. 

Ihe egg f the moth is doubtless laid on the young pod, which 
contains the three angular seeds, and the worm gnaws into the sue- 



1876.] Jumping Seeds and Galls. 217 

culent seed, which, in after growth, closes up the minute hole of 
entrance, just as in the case of the common pea weevil (Bruchus 
pisi). Toward the month of February the larva eats a circular 
hole through the hard shell of its habitation, and then closes it 
again with a little plug of silk so admirably adjusted that the 
future moth, which will have no jaws to cut with, may escape 
from its prison. A slight cocoon is then spun within the seed, 
with a passage-way leading to the circular door ; and the hith- 
erto restless larva assumes the quiescent pupa state. Shortly 
afterwards the pupa works to the door, pushes it open, and the 
little moth escapes. When ripe, the shell is very light, and, as 
the worm occupies but about one sixth the inclosed space, the 
slightest motion will cause the seed to rock from one of the flat 
sides to the other. But the seed is often made to jerk and jump, 
and, though this has been denied by many authors, Mr. Riley 
bad had abundant proof of the fact, and had seen the seed jerked 
sewral lines forward at a bound, and raised a line or more from 
the surface on which it rested. If the seed be cut, the worm 
will soon cover up the hole with a transparent membrane of silk; 
and if two of the opposite angles be cut, the movements of the 
worm can then be seen, if the seed be held against the light. It 
thus becomes evident that the jerking motion is conveyed by the 
worm holding fast to the silken lining by its anal and four hind 
abdominal prolegs, which have very strong hooks, and then draw- 
ing back the head and fore-body and tapping the wall of its cell 
with the head, sometimes thrown from side to side, but more 
often brought directly down, as in the motion of a woodpecker's 
head when tapping for insects. In drawing back the fore-body 
the thoracic part swells, and the horny thoracic legs are with- 
drawn, so as to assist the jaws in receiving the shock of the tap, 
which is very vigorous, and often given at the rate of two a sec- 
ond and for twenty or more times without interruption. It is 
remarkable that this, of all the numerous seed-inhabiting Lepi- 
dopterous lame, should possess so curious a habit. The seed 
will move for several months, because, as with most Tortricid- 
ous larvas, this one remains a long time in the larva state after 
doling to its growth and before pupating. 

Mr. Barnes gives the following account of the plant, received 
through Captain Polhamus, of Yuma, A. T. It seems to be 
^led hoth Yerba de fleeha and CnlU,,uaja by the Mexicans: 
Arrow-weed ( Yerba de fiecha). This is the name the shrub 

ars th at produces the triangular seeds that during six or eight 



218 Discovery of the Laws of Evolution. [April, 

months have a continual jumping movement. The shrub is 
small, from four to six feet in height, branchy, and in the months 
of June and July yields the seeds, a pod containing from three 
to five seeds. These seeds have each a little worm inside. The 
leaf of the plant is very similar to that of the * garambullo,' the 
ni)]\ difference being in the size, this being a little larger. It 
is half an inch in length and a quarter of an inch in width, a 
little more or less. The bark of the shrub is ash-colored, and 
the leaf is perfectly green during all the seasons. By merely 
stirring coffee or any drink with a small branch of it, it acts as 
an active cathartic. Taken in large doses it is an active poison, 
speedily causing death unless counteracted by an antidote." 

Mr. Riley stated that the seed of Tamariscus was known to 
be moved by a Coleopterous larva (Nanodes tamarisci) that fed 
within it ; and he concluded by describing and exhibiting a still 
more wonderful jumping property in a seed-like body which may 
be observed in our own woods. It is a little spherical, seed-like 
gall produced in large numbers on the under side of the post and 
other oaks of the white-oak group. This gall drops in large 
quantities to the ground, and the insect within can make it 
bound twenty times its own length, the ground under an infested 
tree being sometimes fairly alive with the mysterious moving 
bodies. The noise made often resembles the pattering of rain. 
The motion is imparted by the insect in the pupa and not in the 
larva state. Mr. Riley presented a description of the gall, which 
may be known by the name of Quercus saltatorius, the black ily 
which issues from it having been described as Cynips saltatorius 
by Mr. H. Edwards, of San Francisco. 



\ T a recent meeting of the Academy of Natural Sciences of 
Philadelphia, Professor Cope made some remarks on the 
progress of discovery of the laws of evolution, of which the fol- 
lowing is a synopsis : — 

He remarked that while Darwin has been its prominent advo- 
cate within the last few years, it was first presented to the scien- 
tific world in a rational form by Lamarck, of Paris, at the com- 
mencement of the present century. Owing to the adverse in- 
fluence of Cuvier, the doctrine remained dormant for half a cent- 
ury, and Darwin resuscitated it, making important additions at 



1876.] Discovery of the Laws of Evolution. 219 

the same time. Thus Lamarck found the variations of species 
to be primary evidence of evolution by descent. Darwin enun- 
ciated the law of " natural selection " as a result of the struggle 
for existence, in accordance with which " the fittest only survive." 
This law, now generally accepted, is Darwin's principal contri- 
bution to the doctrine. It, however, has a secondary position in 
relation to the origin of variation, which Lamarck saw, but did 
not account for, and which Darwin has to assume in order to 
have materials from which a " natural selection " can be made. 

The relations exhibited by fully grown animals and plants 
with transitional or embryonic stages of other animals and plants 
had attracted the attention of anatomists at the time of Lamarck. 
Some naturalists deduced from this now universally observed 
phenomenon that the lower types of animals were merely re- 
pressed conditions of the higher, or, in other words, were embry- 
onic stages become permanent. But the resemblance does not 
usually extend to the entire organism, and the parallels are so 
incomplete that this view of the matter was clearly defective, and 
did not constitute an explanation. Some embryologists, as Lere- 
boullet and Agassiz, asserted that no argument for a doctrine of 
descent could be drawn from such facts. 

The speaker, not adopting either view, made a full investigation 
into the later embryonic stages, chiefly of the skeleton of the batra- 
chia, in 1865, and" Professor Hyatt, of Salem, Mass., at the same 
time made similar studies in the development of the ammonites 
and nautili. The results, as bearing on the doctrine of evolu- 
tion, were published in 1869 in a paper entitled The Origin of 
Genera. (Proceedings of the Philadelphia Academy of Natural 
Sciences.) The relation usually observed between adult types 
and transitional stages was there termed inexact parallelism. 
It was then pointed out that the most nearly related forms of 
animals do present a relation of repression and advance, or of 
Permanent embryonic and adult type, leaving no doubt that the 
one descended from the other. This relation was termed exact 
Parallelism. It was also shown that if the embryonic form were 
the parent, the advanced descendant was produced by an in- 
cased rate of growth, which phenomenon was called accelera- 
Von; but that if the embryonic type were the offspring, then its 
failure to attain to the condition of the parent is due to the super- 
vention of a slower rate of growth. To this plu 
term retardation was applied. 
Parallelism is the result of u 



220 Discovery of the Laws of Evolution. ' [April, 

that is, acceleration affecting one organ or part more than another, 
thus disturbing the combination of characters which is necessary 
for the state of exact parallelism between the perfect stage of one 
an i nut I and the transitional stages of another. Moreover, acceler- 
ation implies constant addition to the parts of an animal, while 
retardation implies continual subtraction from its characters, or 
atrophy. The speaker had also shown (Method of Creation, 
1871) that the additions appeared either as exact repetitions of 
preexistent parts, or as modified repetitions, the former resulting 
in simple, the latter in complex organisms. 

Professor Haeckel, of Jena, has added the key-stone to the doc- 
trine of evolution in his gastraea theory. Prior to this generali- 
zation, it had been impossible to determine the true relation ex- 
isting between the four types of embryonic growth, or to speak 
otherwise than to the effect that they are inherently distinct from 
each otluu-. But Haeckel has happily determined the existence 
of identical stages of growth or .segmentation in all the types of 
eggs, the last of which is the gastrula, and beyond which the 
identity ceases. Not that the four types of gastrula are without 
difference, but this difference may be accounted for on plain prin- 
ciples. In 1874, Haeckel, in his Anthropogenie, recognized the 
importance of the irregularity of time of appearance of the differ- 
ent characters of animals during the period of growth, as affect- 
ing their permanent structure. While maintaining the view that 
the low forms represent the transitional stages of the higher, he 
proceeds to account for the want of exact correspondence ex- 
hibited by them at the present time by reference to this princi- 
ple. He believes that the relation of parent and descendant has 
been concealed and changed by subsequent modification of the 
order of appearance of characters in growth. To the original, 
simple descent, he applies the term palingenesis ; to the modified 
or later growth, ovogenesis. The causes of the change from 
palingenesis to coenogenesis he regards as three, namely, accel- 
eration, retardation, and heterotopy. 

It is clear that the two types of growth distinguished by Pro- 
lessor Haeckel are those which had been pointed out by the 
speaker, in The Origin of Genera, as producing the relations 
ot exact and inexact parallelism, and that his explanation of 
the origm of the latter relation by acceleration or retardation is 
the same as that of the latter essay. The importance which 
Haeckel attaches to the subject was a source of gratification to the 
T^u!^ Xt WaS a Slmilar impression that led to the publication 
ot 1 he Origm of Genera in 1869. 



1876.] The Flora of Guadalupe Island. 221 

It remains to observe that the phenomena of exact p 
or palingenesis, are quite as necessarily accounted for on the prin- 
ciple of acceleration or retardation as are those of inexact par- 
allelism, or coenogenesis. Were all parts of the organism accel- 
erated or retarded at a like rate, the relation of exact parallelism 
would never be disturbed, while the inexactitude of the par- 
allelism will depend on the number of variations in the rate of 
growth of different organs of the individual, with additions in- 
troduced from time to time. Hence it may be laid down that 
synchronous acceleration or retardation produces exact parallel- 
ism, and heterochronous acceleration or retardation produces in- 
exact parallelism. 

In conclusion, it may be added that acceleration of the segmen- 
tation of the protoplasma or animal portion of the primordial 
egg, or retardation of segmentation of the deutoplasma or vege- 
tative half of the egg, or both, or the same relation between the 
growth of the circumference and centre of the egg, has given rise 
,to the four types which the segmentation now presents. This 
analysis of the laws of evolution was tabulated as follows : — 

•ill! 3 Hi I 

l?i"8 flfi 

II 4 * I « * I 



THE FLORA OF GUADALUPE ISLAND, LOWER CALI- 
FORNIA. » 

THE island of Guadalupe is in latitude twenty-nine degrees 
north, about one hundred miles from the coast of Lower 
California, and two hundred and thirty west of south from the 
town of San Diego, which is near the southern line of California. 
ft is twenty-six miles in length in a north and south direction, 
wi th an average breadth of ten miles, and is traversed by a 
fountain ridge, the central peak (Mount Augusta) having an 
'Extract from the Proceedings of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, 



222 The Flora of Guadalupe Island. [April, 

elevation of 3900 feet above the level of the sea. From this point 
the nearest main-land is visible. The sides of the ridge are ex- 
ceedingly rough and broken, cut up by numerous deep and rocky 
canons, and even the more level surfaces are described as usually 
covered by rocks of every size and form. The rocks are volcanic, 
and several extinct craters still exist. 

The island lies within the great ocean current which flows 
from the peninsula of Alaska down our western coast, the con- 
tinuation of what is known as the Japanese Gulf-Stream, and in 
the zone of the northwest trade- winds. Fogs are very prevalent, 
especially in the winter months (from November to February), 
when they are driven by the winds over the crest of the island, 
covering all the northern end and filling the upper portions of the 
canons, while the lower canons and the southern extremity of the 
island remain clear and warm. These winter winds from the 
northwest are described as strong and cold, sometimes extremely 
so, an instance of which occurred during December, 1874, when 
ice an inch in thickness was formed in the middle of the island, 
accompanied by two inches of snow, which was followed by hail' 
and five days of cold rain. In summer these winds have less 
force, though still brisk and chilly for much of the time ; and the 
fogs, instead of being carried over the central ridge, are driven 
around the northern end, and by eddy-winds are borne into the 
lower canons of the eastern side, which are thus made cooler 
than the region above them. Otherwise the summer months are 
intensely hot, especially in the southern portion of the island, and 
the soil, becomes soon everywhere so dry that the effect of the 
temporary summer fogs upon the vegetation is slight. The differ- 
ence in the seasons, however, at the two extremities of the island 
is remarkable, as vegetation at the southern end and in the east- 
ern canons is at least two months earlier than in the northern and 
western portions, and has for the most part reached its maturity 
by the close of May, under the then established heats of summer. 
The annual amount of actual rain-fall is very variable, there be- 
ing an abundance in some years, and in others little or none. 

Guadalupe was early known to the navigators of these seas, 
but it was never permanently occupied. There are evidences of 
its temporary occupation by shipwrecked sailors, and it was also 
long ago stocked with goats > for the purpose of supplying fresh 
meat to vessels short of provisions or suffering from scurvy, and, 

* It is said that this was done by Captain Cook, who, however, was never upon this 



1876.] The Flora of Guadalupe Island. 223 

though out of the general course of travel, it has been occasion- 
ally visited on this account. Twelve years ago an expelled gov- 
ernor of Lower California took refuge here with his family, and 
remained for two years. Soon afterward a party of men from the 
same state lived for some months upon the island, engaged in 
killing the goats. During the last ten years it has been oc- 
cupied by a California company, by whom it was purchased for 
the purpose of raising the Angora goat, and the island is now 
overrun by these animals. Several men are kept in continual 
charge of them, and regular visits are made by the vessels of the 
company. 

With thus much of preliminary remark upon those conditions 
which must affect the vegetation of the island, we may pass to 
the flora itself. As respects the probable sources from which this 
flora may have been derived, it is evident that there has been 
abundant opportunity for the introduction of some species by hu- 
man agency. These should be especially expected near the usual 
landmg-place upon the eastern side, excepting such as would be 
probably distributed through the island by means of the goats. 
Those of most recent introduction in this way would doubtless be 
Californian ; the older might be from the nearer peninsula or 
from other localities. Of other recognized agencies for the dis- 
tribution of plants, — the winds, ocean currents, and birds, — the 
prevalent direction of the first from the northwest is adverse to 
the supposition that any species of pha-nngainous plants, at least, 
would be so introduced. The ocean currents might be considered 
as more favorable, and as likely to bring accessions from the Cali- 
fornian main-land, contributed from the interior by the Sacra- 
mento and other smaller streams. But the winds here again 
jould prove an interposing agency, and by creating a surface- 
drift toward the coast would prevent floating seeds from attaining 
any great distance from it. Such as did succeed in reaching the 
1§ land, and -in obtaining and maintaining a foothold upon it, 
would probably be wholly Californian. Less certain conclusions 
mi ght be expected in regard to the agency of birds, but it ap- 
pears, from the collection of the birds of the island made by Dr. 
"aimer, that they are all in some measure peculiar to the island 
itself, « consisting almost entirely of familiar forms of the birds 

the Western United States, but showing marked peculiarities, 

^titling them to recognition as geographical varieties. Nothing 

Mexican about them in the slightest degree." 1 So that, though 

1 Prof. Spencer F. Baird, in letter. 



224 The Flora of Guadalupe Island. [April, 

they demonstrate a connection between the island and California; 
yet they also indicate that that connection has been only at a re- 
mote period, and that their participation in the introduction of 
plants must have been slight. 

It might therefore be conjectured, if the island were of com- 
paratively recent formation and always disconnected from the 
main-land, that its flora would show a meagre list of species almost 
wholly Californian. Or if, on the other hand, it had at some 
time been connected with the continent, that then its vegetation 
would be similar to that of the adjacent peninsula, unless some 
counteracting influence should have been at work, as would seem 
to be true of the birds. 

To show to what extent the flora of Lower California differs 
from that of California proper, reference may be made to the list 
of plants collected by Xantus at the lower extremity of the pe- 
ninsula, 1 as given by Dr. Gray in the sixth volume of the Pro- 
ceedings of this Academy. Of the one hundred and eighteen phae- 
nogamic species there enumerated, only six are probably found 
even in extreme Southern California, while thirty others range 
northward only as far as Sonora, or eastward through Mexico to 
New Mexico or Texas, the remainder being peculiar to the pe- 
ninsula or exclusively Mexican. The peninsula shares in this 
difference with Mexico itself, the type of whose whole flora ac- 
cords rather with that of the eastern portion of the continent 
northward, except so far as it would necessarily be affected by 
the more tropical character of the climate. Of this a good and 
sufficient illustration is seen in the fact that of the Phaseolea, a 
tribe which is well represented in all the Atlantic States, Texas, 
Southern New Mexico, Eastern Arizona, Sonora, Lower Califor- 
nia, and all of Mexico southward, not one species is found within 
the limits of California, nor in the interior basin west of the 
Rocky Mountains. 

The only collection that we have of the plants of Guadalupe is 
that made by Dr. Edward Palmer during the last season, from 
February to May, which is probably as complete as was possible, 
though attended with much labor and difficulty. He visited all 
parts of the island, often finding it necessary to reach places which 
the goats had found inaccessible, in order by means of ropes and 
poles to secure rare specimens of species which appeared to have 






udc nearer to the 1 
in Diego is little g 



1876.] The Flora of Guadalupe Island. 225 

been elsewhere completely extirpated. The entire number of 
species is one hundred and thirty-one, including one hundred and 
two exogenous and eight endogenous, the remaining twenty-one 
belonging to the higher cryptogamio orders, - ferns, mosses, and 
liverworts. Omitting a single phaenogamous species (a Hew 
chera), of which the material is insufficient for a satisfactory de- 
taBtaaatwm, the remaining one hundred and nine may be divided 
into five groups : (1) Introduced species, of which there are 
twelve ; (2) those that range from the Pacific to the Atlantic 
States of which there are nine; (3) those that are found 
throughout California, or at least as far north as San Francisco, 
^>,f "ty-nine; (4) those found only in Southern Cali- 
fornia, below Los Angeles, or in Arizona, numbering eighteen; 
astiy, those peculiar to the island itself, of which there are 
twenty-one. 

The twelve species l of whose comparatively recent introduc- 
lon there can be little doubt are all of European origin, and 
chiefly from Southern Europe, and are all also found more or less 
™lely naturalized in California. The original introduction of 
ost is probably due to the Spaniards, at least upon the main- 
land, where the extent to which several have become distributed 
8 something marvelous. The most remarkable is the Alfilaria 
Wodium cicutarium), which, unlike the wild oat (Avenafatua), 
as not been limited in its range to the western side of the Sierra 
W . ^ l " ls found through much of the interior, from New 
• tx "» to Washington Territory. On Guadalupe it is found 
jerywhere, and is more abundant than any other plant. An- 
er species of the same genus (K moschatum), provided with 
.^ e same contrivances for securing the dissemination and plant- 
I I ; to numerous seeds, occurs less frequently both here and in 
^ °™ia ; probably because, requiring more moisture, it is un- 
itself where the other will flourish. Another 



tarVM 1S the OU $ omeris subulata of India, Egypt, and the Ca- 
wSl +i andS ' f ° lmd al8 ° in Southern California, and common east- 
to tl p° Ugh the valle ys of the Lower Colorado and of the Gila ' 
counT l Grande ' and in Northern Mexico. It is difficult to ac- 
introdi the wide " s P read distribution of this plant, if of recent 

j, l °n, through a region so desert and sparsely inhabited. 

h, v ' ' 8 these twelve species placed in the first group, there are 

others, also found in California, which are considered identi- 

' mhulata ■ Silent Galiira ; Malva borealis ; Erodium 
- >' " • ; > >,, h c- , : > a ■ us ; In-; talks arvensis ; Soianum nigrum; 



226 The Flora of Guadalupe Jsland. [April, 

cal with South American forms {Specularia biflora and Amblyo- 
pappus pusillus'), possibly introduced from Chili or Peru, perhaps 
indigenous to both regions. Their presence on Guadalupe would 
perhaps rather favor the belief that they are native to our western 
coast, especially as five other South American species, or forms of 
them, occur in the Guadalupe flora (Jillcsa minima, Gi/ia pusilhi. 
Plantago Patagonica, Parietaria debilis, and Muhlenbergia debi- 
lis), which are more or less frequent in California ami eastward 
in the centre of the continent, and are generally admitted to be 
native. There are, therefore, ninety-seven phaenogamous plants 
which may be considered as indigenous. 

It is evident, therefore, that, as regards the species common to 
the island and the main-land, the flora may be said to be exclu- 
sively Calif ornian in its character. Not a single species is found 
that is peculiar to Lower California or Mexico. The same alli- 
ance is nearly as prominent if we look at the twenty-one new 
phaenogamous species of the island. Fifteen of these (a Thysan- 
ocarpus, a Sphceralcea, a Lupinus, a Trifolium, an Oenothera, a 
M'ljurrhiza, a Galium, a Hemizonia, a Perityle, a Bceria, a Mim- 
ulus, a Pogogyne, a Calamintha, a Phacelia, and an Atriplex) 
belong to genera largely or exclusively represented in CaliforBM 
and the region east of it, and are mostly closely allied to the 
species of that region. The remaining six species include a 
Lavatera, a composite, a borraginaceous plant, a species allied 
to the olive, and finally a palm. The Lavatera is interesting as 
representing a widely scattered genus, not otherwise found in 
America, except as a second species occurs on the more northern 
island of Anacapa. The genus belongs chiefly to the region 
of the Mediterranean, where fourteen species are native; two 
others are confined to the Canary Islands ; another has been dis- 
covered in Central Asia, and still another in Australia. The 
new composite is referred by Dr. Gray to a South American 
genus (Diplostepkium), not otherwise represented in our flora, 
( but of which there are eighteen species in the Andes from the 
equator southward. Of the borraginaceous and oleineous species 
Dr. Gray forms new genera ; the one (Barpagonella) allied to 
the small genus Pectocarya, of which there is one Chilian Bp60» 
and two Californian, one of these also in the Guadalupe flora ; 
the other (Hesperelcea) bearing no close resemblance to any 
other member of the olive family. On the other hand, the palm 
(Brahea (?) edulis), conspicuous on the island as the only rep- 
resentative of a tropical flora, is probably less nearly related to 



1876.] The Flora of Guadalupe Island. 227 

the Central Mexican genus to which it is provisionally referred, 
than to the genus Livistona of Australia. A congener of the 
Guadalupe species has recently been detected by Dr. Palmer in 
the canons of the Tantillas Mountains, near San Diego. . . . 

As respects the cryptogamic vegetation, of the half a dozen 
ferns, all are frequent in California, one peculiar to the southern 
part of the State, another found throughout North America and 
Europe. Of the eleven mosses, two are strictly Californian 
species, seven are common everywhere in the United States and 
Europe, and two are European species which had not previously 
been detected in America. Of the four Hepaticcz, three are Cali- 
tornian and one is considered new. 

Reference should be made to the plants which by their abun- 
dance and prominence give character to the vegetation. Among 
these the "sage-brush" and "grease-woods" of the valleys of 
1 oasm are duly represented by an Artemisia and an Atriplez, 
winch share with a Franseria in covering large tracts, and in pro- 
tecting the soil and the smaller annuals from the winds and sun. 
Irees are numerous over much of the island, chiefly coniferous : 
■ pine, belonging to a Southern Californian species, but peculiar 
» some of its characters ; a juniper, common in California ; a 
cypress, similar to and perhaps identical with a Mexican species 
which extends into California; and a small oak, which is common 
throughout the State. To these is to be added the palm, which 
is requent in the southern canons, growing to a height of forty 
% and bearing large clusters of edible fruit, 
lo conclude, it is apparent, from all that has been said, that this 
f . Hora as a whole is to be considered a part of that of Cali- 
alsoft ' lS . dlStinct from the flora of Mexico. It may be inferred 
forni h ^ lmS n0t been t0 any great extent derived from Cali " 
th f • ? ai1 ^ ex * stm S Process of conveyance and selection, but 
i is rather indigenous to its present locality. Moreover, 
island Jt W ° Uld indicate a connection at some period between the 
acte T i tllG main ~* and to the north, yet the number and char- 
r or the peculiar species favor the opinion that they are rather 

tended* ^ ° f a fl0m Similai * t0 that ° f California ' which once ex " 
nowTl m v tlns dire ction considerably to the southward of what is 

prese ° f that fl ° ra u P on the main - land - And ' fina %' the 
ure t JJ^ ° f . so ma ny South American types suggests the conject- 
fl ora off V ' and the similar el ement which characterizes the 
thp^ /. nia ' m& y be dlie ^ some other connection between 
e dl stant region* *i,o« — ~u:„i, :„*„ „«a „„„„ + w 



228 Recent Literature. [April, 

all the peculiarities of the western floras of both continents had a 
common origin in an ancient flora which prevailed over a wide, 
now submerged area, and of whose character they are the partial 
exponents. 



RECENT LITERATURE. 

Huxley and Martin's Biology. 1 — The problem which has so fre- 
quently puzzled teachers in biology, namely, to know where to com- 
mence their instruction, has been most happily solved by Professor Hux- 
ley in his Elementary Biology. He has prepared a series of practical 
lessons which should be mastered by all who wish to lay a solid founda- 
tion upon which to build special knowledge in either zoology or botany. 

The plan followed by Huxley has been to take a small number of 
plants and animals readily obtainable under ordinary circumstances. Of 
these a short description is given, followed by detailed laboratory instruc- 
tions ; these should enable every student to know from his own knowl- 
edge the facts mentioned in the accompanying description. He will thus 
gradually l.Mrn biological terms, and obtain "a comprehensive and yet 
not vague conception of the phenomena of life." The plan of thus pav- 
ing the way J work on a few forms is 
not a new one. The elder De Candolle used to say he could teach all 
he knew of botany from a few plants, while zoologists until recently 
gained their first insight into the phenomena of life mainly from the 
study of vertebrates, and especially of man. It is only within a more 
recent period that the great development given to the study of inverte- 
brates has trained a school of zoologists who have begun at the lower 
end, so to speak, and who have always retained their predilection for 
invertebrates in opposition to those who, having studied human anatomy 
and physiology) have mainly devoted themselves to the vertebrates. The 
latter have always worked with the immense advantage of Rita 
Kttbject with knowledge gained in a field where the constants of the 
science, contrasted with those known from among invertebrates, were 

investigations across structural features and phenomena most imperfectly 
understood. 

It is greatly to be hoped that the introduction of such an admirable 
text-book as that of Huxley and Martin will not only break down the 
distinction existing between the two sections of zoologists, but will also 
lead zoologists and botanists hereafter to become biologists, while follow- 
ing the special department to which they may from i 
themselves as original c 



Course of Practical Instruction in Elementary Biologv. By Professor UvxiV* 
. N. Martin. Crown 8vo. 6s. London and New York : Macmillan & Co. 



*876.] Recent Literature. 229 

This book is' quite unique for a text-book on biology ; it has not a 
single figure. The student is called upon from the instructions to see 
first for himself what there is to be observed, then to make his own draw- 
ings, a process which will surely and clearly show him, or his teacher, 
what he has omitted. The student has no possible chance, in giving an 
account of what he has done, to repeat anything by rote, for should he 
follow the usual practice of reciting the very words of the description, he 
can hardly hope to give an intelligent reply to the questions of hig 
teacher, if the latter is properly fitted to guide him in his laboratory 
work. The amount of solid information to be obtained by feithfelly fol- 
lowing the instructions given for the study of the frog shows the masterly 
hand which has prepared the questions. 

The total absence of discussion of any sort is as remarkable a feature 
in this volume as the omission of all figures. 

White's Natural History of Selborne. 1 — Reading again this 
delightful record of quiet, shrewd observations of the habits of birds and 
crickets, trees and plants, sticklebacks and hedgehogs, — in fact, the com- 
mon things of the wayside and hedgerow,— by an English country curate, 
we have renewed the delights of our boyhood, when White's Selborne, 
fcandford and Merton, and the Swiss Family Robinson were the stand- 
ard books. But what a contrast this gorgeous edition to the little buff 
paper-covered reprint in Harper's Family Library ! 

To the letters of White to Thomas Pennant, Esq., whose name is so 

indelibly connected with American zoology, and to the " Honourable 

aines Barrington," are added some hitherto unpublished, a memoir 

o the author, and over a hundred pages filled with a strange medley of 

no es by Frank Buckland, the editor of the volume, illustrated by cuts 

man-traps, a baby hedgehog, a mummied monkey, and other objects, 

s^m e rUle m ° re gr ° tesque than usefu1 ' whi,e Lord Selborne contributes 

e illustrations by Delamotte are exquisite and abundant, and the 

°'k is published in a style of elegance and luxury that will, we feel 

e, lead many a country gentleman in America as well as England to 

PV f lt a cons Picuous place on his drawing-room table. 

Anderson's Norse Mythology. 2 — So much has been said in praise 

t .^ms book by scholars that we can add nothing by way of commenda- 

erar ^ CntlC1Sm that wi]1 be of an y importance. But aside from its lit- 

r y merits, and the interest that so fresh, enthusiastic, and apparently 



PI'- .VU. 



by P. H. Delamot- 






280 General Notes. [April, 

reliable a study of Norse mythology possesses, the book, it seems to us, 
will prove of lasting value to the student of comparative mythology. If 
the Norsemen originally came from Asia, we have in this recent folk lore 
a descendant of a fossil mythology, and a means of comparison with the 
mythology of our American aborigines. When the time comes for a 
comparative study of our Indian traditions and legends, we may be able 
to discover some connection with the archaic myths of the Indians of the 
Old World which will throw some light on the origin of human life on 



Recent Looks and Pamphlets. — A Romance of Perfume Lands, or the Search 
>r Capt. Jacob Cole. With Interesting Pacts about Perfumes and Articles used 
i the Toilet. By F. S. Clifford. Boston : Clifford. 1875. 12mo, pp. 295. 

On the Superficial Geology of the Central Region of North America. By G. M. 
)awson. (From the Quarterly Journal of the Geological Society, London, Novem- 

La Maturation de l'CEuf, la Fe'condation, et les premieres Phas 



The Present Condition of the Earth's Interioi 
First Annual Report of the Chicago BoU 



GENERAL NOTES. 
BOTANY.* 

The Plantain indigenous in Southern Colorado. — While 
with Holmes's division of Hayden's survey last summer, in Southwestern 
Colorado, I found the common dooryard plantain under such circum- 
stances as to render it probable that it is indigenous there. With the 
exception of a few plants growing in a grass-plot where it was no douht 
sown with eastern grass seed, I have never met with it in Eastern Got" 
orado. Near the corner of the four Territories, on the sand-bars of the 
Rio Dolores and Rio de los Mancos, a part of Colorado inhabited only 
by Navajoes and Utes, it is quite common. This almost unknown region 
has rarely been visited by the white man, and the plant could not have 
been introduced by him. — T. S. Brandegee. 

Vitality op Seeds. — Professor Ernst, of Caracas, contributes the 
following facts to this vexed subject. The Plaza Bolivar in Caracas wai 
formerly a market-place, and until the year 1867 formed a square plain 
inclined from north to south. When the government decided to remove 
the market and use the grounds as a park, the place was leveled by dig- 
ging away about six feet of the soil at the northern end. Of course a 
fresh surface was thus exposed to the air. A large number of rubbish 
1 Conducted by Pbof. G. L. Goodale. 



1876.] Botany. 231 

plants or very coarse weeds soon clothed the earth from which the six 
feet of soil had been taken. But among the many plants which camo 
up at the northern end of the plaza was a vast quantity of Bioteroa 
trinervata, a species which is very restricted in its range near the city. 
The only locality from which the fruits of this plant could have been 
brought by the wind was south of the plaza ; but on account of the sur- 
roundings of the city, south and north winds are unknown. It seems 
likely to Professor Ernst that the seeds had remained under the cement 
of the old market-place for more than thirty years, and had been there 
preserved unharmed. When the cement was broken up and the ground 
graded for the plaza, the buried seeds, or rather fruits, were exposed to 
atmospheric influences, to moisture, warmth, and air, and after the lapse 
of so long a time germinated. 

The second case relates to a very common weed, shepherd's-purse, 
which, strange to say, is so rare at Caracas that it had not been met 
with in botanical excursions covering a period of twelve years. Two 
years ago, in the southern part of the garden of the monastery a place 
was graded for the erection of a building. A great deal of soil was re- 
moved and a wholly fresh surface was thus uncovered. Upon this spot 
many weeds sprang up, and among them thousands of specimens of 
OapseUa bursa-pastoris, or shepherd's-purse. Professor Ernst concludes 
that in this case, as in the other, the seeds had remained dormant in 
the soil for an unknown period. These cases belong to the same class 
as those mentioned by Hoffmann, and given in the January number of 
the Naturalist. 

Tropical Trees during the Dry Season. — Professor Ernst, of 
Caracas, states that many woody plants of the Venezuela flora lose all 
their leaves during the dry season, even when the ground is copiously 
watered for the purpose of preventing their fall. Several large-leaved 
plants, such as Cassia, mahogany, and many others, exhibit this phenom- 
enon. The new foliage starts usually when the rainy season sets in, but 
if the rains come very late, as they did in 1875, many of these trees un- 
fold their buds and develop the leaves at a period when the ground is 
dry and hard, the tropical heat very intense, and the air extraordina- 
ry dry. This curious periodicity has been casually noticed by several 
writers, but no explanation has been hitherto offered. Professor Ernst 
has given this subject careful study, and now states that in general, those 
trees which cast their foliage in the dry season have compound leaves of 
rather delicate texture. From such leaves transpiration is exceedingly 
ra pid, and earlv carries «v all ih« available water. When there " 



away all the available m 



jjntil the end of April or the beginning of May, when I 
rotn the northwest, as nrecursors of the tropical rains, ai 



232 General Notes. [April, 

above ground any great amount of moisture, if they do any at all, but 
the slight transpiration which had been going on from stems and young 
shoots is now checked. The small amount of moisture which tlfe roots 
can take from the parched soil is not without speedy effect upon the 
branches and buds to which it is carried. The buds soon open. But in 
the spring of 1875, when there was not a cloud to be seen in May, and 
the west wind at evening brought little relief from the scorching drought 
of the day, and the baked crust of the soil everywhere showed no trace 
of moisture, the trees put forth their leaves as usual ! Now the first case 
is easily explained ; how about this one, which seems so different ? 

At the outset, Professor Ernst admits that the individual nature of the 
plant, the age, the condition as regards health, etc., must be carefully 
investigated. This he has not yet done. He goes on, however, to say 
that it is generally understood that the only external excitant to growth 
is the warmth of the air. Since in the dry season there is, as he states, a 
difference between the temperature in the sunlight and at night of about 
twenty-seven degrees Fahr., this must cause very great changes in the 
volume of the gases held in the spongy tissues of the tropical trees. The 
pressure is very variable, and he assumes that the fluctuations must cause 
motions of nutrient liquid. He further assumes that when these juices 
are brought to the terminal cells of a bud, growth must result, and the 
leaves must unfold. It must be confessed that Professor Ernst has 
made a fair use of Krutzsch's observations in regard to the temperature 
of stems and twigs as affected by the surrounding temperature, and he 
appears to have skillfully applied the mechanical theory to this case, hut 
he has not as yet done much to solve the riddle of periodicity of vege- 

ECCENTRICITY OF THE PlTH OF RHUS Tox: 

tention was drawn to this subject by the January N 
known, this handsome but much-dreaded climber, 
woodlands, has the habit of adhering tightly to tlu 
by a multitude of aerial rootlets, which often 
the appearance of being embedded in a cushic 



The results of 



my investigations c 




what curious. The fact itself that the pith, wherever the vine „ — 
adhering closely to living trees, lies very near the outer side, leaving 
largely disproportionate amount of the woody tissue on the side next the 
tree, is, so far as I have observed, universal. The following observation! 
will give an idea of this disproportion : — 

In a vine 5£ lines in diameter the distance from the centre of the p: 
to the inner margin was 4£", and to the outer only f ". This propor- 
tion held uniformly for various heights from the ground. The measure- 
ments included the bark, which, as well as the annual rings, partook of 
the general tendency, and was much thinner on the outer side. 

A larger vine, upwards of an inch in diameter at the base, had climbed 



1876.] Botany. 233 

a cedar-tree (Juniperus Virginiana L.) to the top, and, no longer finding 
anything to adhere to, sent out free fruiting branches nearly half an inch 
thick. Of this I took several measurements. Two and a half feet from 
the ground, where the diameter was 10^", the distance from centre of 
pith to inner edge was 8£", and to outer 2". A foot lower the propor- 
tion had decreased to that of 9" to 2£" in a diameter of 11$". Ten 
inches lower still it had further decreased, so that the pith was still 9" 
from the inner, but 4£" from the outer margin. The ratios between the 
two distances in descending the stem were therefore, respectively, 4£, 
3$, and 2. Above the first-mentioned point the position of the pith re- 
mained nearly unchanged. 

A very large vine, nearly four inches in diameter, gave less marked 
results. Sections not being exactly circular, linear measurements could 
not be relied upon, but a line drawn through the heart, parallel to a tan- 
gent at the point of contact with the tree to which it adhered, showed 
a decided preponderance of wood in the inner segment. The adhesion 
in this case, however, as is probably the case with all large vines, was 
slight, the rootlets appearing to lose their vitality with age. The vine 
divided at the height of eight feet, and the branches, which adhered more 
closely, showed a greater eccentricity. 

Numerous observations were made on other vines thus normally situ- 
ated, with substantially the same results. One case in particular, how- 
ever, exhibited the extreme of the phenomenon, the cellular dot ap- 
proaching to within a fourth of a line of the membranous bark. Indeed, 
■0 anxious did it seem to remove itself to the greatest possible distance 
from the tree that for the greater part of the way there was a manifest 
ndge running along the back of the stem, in which the pith was situated. 
These facts, however, uniform and singular as they are f could not in 
themselves be regarded as sufficient to demonstrate the absorption of sap 
from the supporting trees by the rootlets. To satisfy such an assump- 
tion certain tests must be applied. The first that^ suggested itself to me 
was that of making similar observations at points where, for any reason, 
the vines had swung loose from their support, so that no connection 
should exist by means of the rootlets. Many such cases were found and 
examined. The larger vine first referred to, which at a distance of two 
^ and ^ a h alf from the ground, where the attachment was firm, meas- 
ured 8£" to the inner aud 2" to the outer margin, giving a ratio of 4J 
etween the measurements, had the pith located 5*" from the inner and 
i from the outer margin, a ratio of 1£, at a point some six feet higher, 
where it had become detached. In this example it was evident that 
were had formerly existed some degree of attachment. At other points 
jgj»er up, where there were less signs of its having ever adhered, the 
P«h was found to be nearly central, while on the projecting branches of 
e same vine, bearing the berries and showing no tendency to cling, 
6re was no appreciable eccentricity. Another small vine, which ad- 



234 General Notes. [April, 

hered for four feet and then swung away for two feet, reattaching above, 
had the pith decidedly more central at the detached part than at points 
either above or below. The extreme case to which I referred, where the 
pith actually ran through a tube slightly raised above the outer surface, 
showed a transition from this state of extreme eccentricity to one of 
central lty in the space of one foot where the vine suddenly abandoned 

The function assigned to the rootlets by the hypothesis is one of para- 
sitism. They are assumed to penetrate the bark as far as the cambium 
layer, and remove the sap of the tree, appropriating it directly to the 
vine. This nutrition, being ready-made, would naturally be deposited at 
the nearest point of contact, and thus account for the great preponder- 
ance of woody tissue found on the side next the tree. It would there- 
fore follow that this eccentricity of pith should not exist where the sup- 
port is not a living tree. To test this question, I sought out a small 
vine of the same species which climbed and closely adhered with a pro- 
fusion of rootlets to a perfectly dry stone wall ten feet in height This 
I examined most carefully, and accurately measured at various points, 
finding the position of the pith uniform at all distances from the ground. 
The following measurement will therefore answer for all : Three feet 
from the base, where the diameter was 4£", the pith was 2f " from the 
inner and 2" from the outer edge, or within three fourths of a line of 

One other class of instances seemed to bear directly on this point, and 
to these I gave special attention. I refer to vines found climbing fences 
and posts under varying circumstances. The results obtained from these 
were perhaps the most surprising of all. One 5J" in diameter tightly 
hugged a decayed fence post, insinuating its rootlets deeply into the soft 
surface. Of this the pith was 4" from the inner and l\" from the outer 
margin, giving the astonishingly large ratio of 3£. A section of a larger 
stem (11") similarly situated, and whose rootlets tore away considerable 
of the decayed wood in detaching it, showed the centre of the pith to be 
7" from the inner and 4" from the outer margin. Considering the size 
of this vine the eccentricity was large. 

Where the wood to which the vines adhered was not decayed or soft, 
a marked diminution in the eccentricity was perceptible. In one in- 
stance where the rootlets clung very tightly to a dry surface, which had 
moreover been charred and where penetration was impossible, the meas- 
urements were respectively 3 J" and 2J", or an eccentricity of half a line 

So far as my observations, which were numerous, extended, it seemed 
to be the law that, cceteris paribus, the softer the wood to which the 
rootlets adhered, the greater the eccentricity of the pith. 

Without going further into details, therefore, the whole subject may 
be thus briefly summed up : — 



(1.) The pith of the poison ivy, wherever the vine is of moderate size, 
and is found adhering closely either to the bark of a living tree or to any 
soft, decaying substance, is located from three to ten times nearer the 
outer than the inner side of the stem, and sometimes still more eccen- 
trically ; the annual layers of wood as well as the bark becoming corre- 
spondingly thickened on the side next the support. 

(2.) This eccentricity diminishes and frequently disappears altogether 
at points where there is no attachment by the rootlets. 

(3.) It is greatly reduced in vines which cling to hard substances 
which the rootlets are unable to penetrate, as a stone wall or a dry post. 
That all these facts are in harmony with the theory of the absorption 
t from the support, in so far as any form of parasitism is 
lined. The last class of observations 
described may be regarded as directly negativing such an assumption. 
Besides, I have seen nothing to render it probable that the rootlets ever 
pierce the outer bark. But, on the other hand, these facts do all unite 
in pointing to a physical connection of some kind between the penetra- 
tion of the rootlets and the eccentricity of the pith. The notion thus far 
entertained, and which has found its way into our standard text-books, 
that these rootlets are « not for absorbing nourishment/but for climb- 
ing, may in future require some modification. Yet, admitting this 
physical connection, there remain puzzling physiological questions. If 
these rootlets perform the function of true roots, and find congenial soil 
in the corky layer of bark, in the soft mass of decomposed wood, and 
even to some extent in the minute cryptogamic vegetation that always 
exists among them even when clinging to walls of brick or stone, how 
does this explain the singular behavior of the pith and the strange 
eccentricity of the annual rings ? — Lester F. Ward. 

Sets of Dr. Edward Palmer's recent collection of plants of San Diego 
Co., California, and of the Tantillas Mountains in Lower California, near 
e ^ndary, will shortly be ready for distribution. They will probably 
number about three hundred species, and will be sold at ten dollars per 
hundred. Address Sereno Watson, Cambridge, Mass. 

Robinia hispida. — Can any of our readers procure specimens of 
Me fruit of this plant for Professor Gray, of Harvard University, Cam- 
bridge? The pods are almost unknown. 

Botanical Papers in Recent Periodicals.— The Journal of Bot- 
a »y (Trimen), February. S. Kurz, On the Species of Glycosmis (plants 
of the orange tribe). A. E. Eaton, Plants of Spitzbergen. H. F. Hance, 
ew Orchids from Hong Kong. Reichenbach fils, Descriptions of three 
i lants. W. B. Helmsley, Notes on the Flora of Sussex. R. A. Prior, 
Un Rumex hydrolapathum and X. maximus. G. Dickie, On Marine 
, gas from Kerguelen Island. M. J. Berkeley, On a New Agaricus 
r ° m Ker guelen Island. Dr. Gray's paper on iEstivation and its Termi- 
noi °gy is reprinted in this number. 



236 General Notes. [April, 

Comptes rendus, January 3d. Duchartre, Conclusions respecting the 
Production of Saccharine Matters in Plants. E. Meckel, Floral Glands 
of Parnassia palustri. January 10th. R. Corenwinder, On the Dimi- 
nutiou in the Amount of Sugar in Beets, during the Second Period 
of their Growth. 

Annates des Sciences naturelles, December, 1875. P. Duchartre, On 
the Bulbs of Lilium. 

Flora, No. 33. Dr. Lad. Celakovsky, On Intercalated Epipetalous 
Stamens. F. Arnold, On the Lichens of the French Jura. Nos. 34 and 
35. C. Miiller, New Grenada Mosses. Dr. K. Prantl, Morphological 
Studies. No. 36. O. Bbckeler, On certain Carices. This number con- 
tains a very long and interesting review of Darwin's Insectivorous Plants. 
No. 1. Hugo de Vries, On the Wood formed during Repair of Wounds 

Botanische Zeitung, No. 2. On the Palmella State of Styghchnium, 
by L. Cienkowski. On the Influence of Light on the Color of Flow- 
ers, by E. Askenasy (elsewhere noticed). No. 3. Botanical Miscellany, 
by Dr. A. Ernst (abstracts of these notes are given above). On the 
Behavior of Yeast in Liquids free from Oxygen Gas, by M. Traube 
(controverting the views of Brefeld). No. 4. The Development of 
Basidiomycetes, by Oscar Brefeld. (A review of some recent publica- 
tions, especially those of Reess and Van Tieghem.) No. 5. Investiga- 
tions respecting Growth, by J. Reinke (not finished). On the Rate of 
Movement of Water in Plants, by Dr. Pfitzer (to be hereafter noticed). 
In the report of the Bonn society, Professor Pfeffer's papers on the 
Formation of the Primordial Utricle, and the Production of High Hydro- 
static Pressure by Osmosis, previously noticed in this journal,^ given 
with considerable fullness. No. 6. On the Morphology of the Araceffi, 
by Dr. A. Engler (not finished). 

Arbeiten des botanischen Instituts ik Wurzburg, heraus- 
gegeben von Professor Dr. Sachs. Erster Band. This volume of con- 
tributions from the Botanical Institute at Wiirzburff comprises four 






ntervals s 



work can therefore be ranked among periodicals. In the present notice 
we shall give very briefly a sketch of the memoirs, hoping to present 
fuller outlines of several of them in subsequent numbers of the Nat- 
uralist. 1. Dr. W. Pfeffer, On the Action of Colored Light on the De- 
composition of Carbonic Acid in Plants. (By an improved method of re- 
search the following results were reached : Only the visible rays of the 
spectrum can decompose carbonic acid ; in fact, those which seem bright- 
-*, namely, the yellow rays, are alone as efficient in this work as all the 



others combined. The r 



highly refrangible rays of the visible spec- 



and those which act most energetically on chloride of silver, < 
* subordinate part in assimilation. Each color in the spectrum has 
mte quantitative effect on the activity of assimilation.) 2. Dr. W. 



1876.] Zoology. 237 

Pfefter, Studies respecting Symmetry and Specific Causes of Growth. 
(An examination of the influence of surroundings upon the growth of a 
liverwort.) 3. J. Sachs, On the Influence of the Temperature of the Air 
and the Effect of Daylight on the P in the Rate of 

Growth of Internodes in Length. (See abstract in Sachs' Text-Book, page 
735 et seq. In the memoir, Professor Sachs has given a very full resume 
of the literature of the subject.) 4. J. Sachs, On Negative Geotropism. 
(Observations respecting the curving upwards of shoots from a stem 
placed horizontally.) 5. J. Sachs, On the Deflection of Roots from their 
Normal Direction of Growth by Contact with Moist Surfaces. (See 
abstract in Sachs' Text-Book, page 764.) 6. Hugo de Vries, On some 
Causes of the Direction taken by Parts or Plants which possess Bilat- 
eral Symmetry. (The effects of gravitation, light, defoliation, etc., are 
examined. The views of Frank are contested. See Text- Book, page 
705.) 7. J. Sachs, The Plant and the Eye as Different Tests for Light. 
(Sachs had early insisted upon a distinction between objective intensity 
of light and its brightness to the eye. Prillieux in a paper on the sub- 
ject is thought to have overlooked these distinctions, as well as that be- 
tween refrangibility (objective) and color (subjective). In the present 
memoir Professor Sachs reviews the literature of the subject, defends 
his former position, and further explains the relation between the inten- 
sity of light and the activity of assimilation.) 

ZOOLOGY. 

The Crossbill breeding at Riverdale, N. Y.— This bird 
{Loxia curvirostra var. Americana) made its appearance here last au- 
tumn, November 3d. Small flocks were occasionally seen all winter, 
and through March and April, feeding on seeds of cones of the Norway 
spruce and larch. On April 22d I noticed a pair building near the top 
of a red cedar, about eighteen feet from the ground. The nest, April 
30th, contained three eggs, and was composed of strips of cedar bark, dried 
grass, and stems of the Norway spruce, and was lined with horse-hair, 
feathers, dried grass, and fibrous roots. The eggs were about the size of 
those of Junco hyemalis, in color very light blue, slightly sprinkled and 
blotched at the large end with dark purple. I saw a small flock of six 
of these birds May 10th, which were the last seen here. Riverdale is on 
the Hudson River, sixteen miles north of New York Bay. — E. A. 

:k's Wren {Thryothorus Bewi 

" something of a 



Bewick's Wren {Thryothorus Bewicki), although 
b «rd to those not ornitholnmate. in not, "so 



238 General JSotes. [April, 

the same spot to breed. An interesting feature in the habits of this species 
is the marked variation of their vocal powers. While some are remark- 
ably fine singers, others are very commonplace, or else too lazy to exer- 
cise their capabilities. — Charles C. Abbott, M. D., Trenton, N. J. 
Flowers of the Golden Currant perforated by Humble- 
bees.— In Part 7 of Half-Hours with Insects, page 202, it is stated 
that the first and only instance known in this country of the curious trait 
of the humblebees of perforating the corollas of flowers to get the honey 
is given by Mr. W. W. Bailey in The American Naturalist, 1873. 
Last spring a cluster of Ribes aureum growing in my dooryard was 
visited by humblebees, and I noticed that they always extracted the 
honey through perforations in the bases of the calyces made by their 
mandibles. When at least three fourths of the flowers had been despoiled 
in this way, so great was their dexterity that seven flowers per minute 
were found bitten open and robbed of their honey. The same was no- 
ticed by Mr. Struthers, of Fort Atkinson, on the flowers of Robinia pseu- 
dacacia, in 1863. — W. F. Bundy. 

Habits of Western Birds. — As we encamped on Antelope Creek, 
Nevada, May 28th, I at once proceeded to procure specimens, and in fol- 
lowing up the stream a short distance I came upon a thicket of willows, 
in which I found a large nest, occupied by one of the parent birds. 
After securing the bird, which proved to be the female of Buteo Swain- 
soni, and crawling up to the nest for the eggs, I noticed a slight commo- 
tion amongst the leaves but a short distance away, which upon exam- 
ination proved to have been caused by a pair of Bullock's orioles (Icterus 
BuUoekO), which were also breeding. Both of these nests were about 
twelve feet from the ground, only eight feet apart, and unprotected from 
above, by the absence of any branches or leaves. The orioles had cer- 
tainly built in a dangerous locality, and must have been entirely unmo- 
lested by the hawks, as the eggs in both nests were far advanced in in- 
cubation. 

Later in the season (August) we camped at Big Pines, Owens Valley, 
Cal., where we saw great numbers of humming-birds flying around the 
tops of the pine-trees. Towards evening some were seen near the 
ground, and after watching them very closely for a while I saw one 
alight close by, which soon after flew to its nest. The nest was built 
upon a small cottonwood branch, exactly over and but about two feet 
above a perfect torrent of water rising in the glacial summit of the 
Sierra Nevadas. The species (as Professor Baird has since informed 
me) was Stellula Caliope. The nest, eggs, and skins, with those above 
referred to, are now at the Smithsonian Institution, together with the 
general collections. 

In the December number of the Naturalist for 1873, Mr. Allen 
answers Dr. Barrett (?) in reference to the supposed geographical " dis- 
tribution," or rather range, of the crow and raven. As he says, they are 



1876.] Zoology. 239 

gregarious throughout the region over which we passed in 1873, Yel- 
lowstone River, etc., and I can say the same of Nevada, in the valley of 
the Payhee and Humboldt rivers. Frequently, while working our way 
slowly up the Grand Canon of the Colorado River, where the plateau 
was over six thousand feet above us, with walls at an angle (from 
base to summit) of nearly eighty degrees, we found numbers of crows 
and ravens flying over our heads, or perched upon the projecting ledges 
of sandstone or basalt. Rather dismal to hear the croaking in such a 
locality, — the bottom of a gorge, one and a quarter miles below the sur- 
face.— W. J. Hoffman, M. D. 

Remarkable Structure of Young Fishes.— Dr. Giinther, of 
London, has recently discovered that the young of the sword-fishes and 
Chcetodus possess structures exceedingly different from that of the adult. 
In the young Chatodus the front of the body is shielded with large bony 
plates, which in one species are produced into three long, equidistant 
horns, which diverge ray-like from the body. In the swoid-libhts the 
scapular arch is prolonged into a horn at the lower part, and the belly 
fins are wanting. There is no sword, but the jaws are long, of equal 
length, and both are furnished with teeth. As the fish grows, the scap- 
ular horn disappears, the ventral fins grow, and the upper jaw is de- 
veloped in excess of the lower. The long teeth disappear, and the 
upper jaw grows into the toothless, sword-like weapon which gives the 
fish its peculiar character. 

Unusual Nesting Sites of the Night Hawk and Towiiee 
Bdnting. — A letter from Mr. William Couper, of Montreal, speaks of 
his having found the eggs of Chordeiles popetue on the flat roofs of build- 
ings in that city, and the nest of Plpilo erythrophthalmut in a small tree 
about three feet from the ground. In each of these cases the departure 
from the usual habit of the species is decided. — Elliott Coues. 

Eggs of Boa-Constrictor. — My friend, Dr. Kunze, has shown 
me an inf ertile egg of a boa which he lately obtained at the Central Park 
menagerie. The boa laid twenty-one eggs, each about the size of a 
hen's egg. The animal made the deposit in sight of her keeper and 
other*. She hud two fertile eggs, and then a sterile one, in regular 
succession ; each third egg was sterile. The fertile eggs had each a 
young boa within. One came out of its shell immediately after being 
H but soon died. All the others died within their shells. The sterile 
e ggs were albuminous throughout, and cut like cheese and smelled like 
. "Perm oil. Could this be the balance of an impregnation received the 
year before ? - S. Lockwood. 
Small Birds caught bt the Burd, 
eman presented me with a skeleton of i 
f ° some Dur s, which he found on a burdock ; and at the same time he 

C ° Untry roads > when I saw a yellow-bird (Chrysomitrisjristis) fluttering 



240 General Notes. [April, 

on a burdock, and when I stooped to catch it, it tore itself away, leaving 
a number of its feathers on the burs. A few days after, I caught a 
yellow-ruraped warbler (Dendroica coronata) fastened to the same kind 
of plant. — A. K. Fisher. 

ANTHROPOLOGY. 

- Notes. — Those who attempt to institute a com- 
i elaboration of culture in the Old World and in 



spheres, must not forget that in the western men wrought only with 

no beast of burden excepting the llama, that they had no cows for milk, 
no domestic animals for slaughter ; and but for the faithful wolf-dog, the 
aborigines of North America would have been absolutely cut off from 
the advantages of those friends of man which in the eastern hemisphsw 
arc imlissolubly linked with progress. 

The railway companies of Western Germany having taken steps to 
secure and preserve all historical and prehistorical relics found in their 
gradings, some rich discoveries have been their reward. At Durkheim 
a highly ornamented Roman tripod inlaid with gold and other metals 
was found. Near Eisenberg, a Roman grave with rich deposits was 

Prof. George Rolleston's paper in the Journal of the Anthropological 
Institute (v. ii. 120), On the People of the Long Barrow Period, is a 
very interesting treatment of the subject. We can extract only a few 
sentences. As to the physical characteristics of the people, the male 
skeletons were very generally about 5.5 feet, the female 4.8 feet. The 
average difference between the statures of males and females in civilized 






. precisely similar disprop.iri 



observable at the present day in the stature of individuals of the two 
sexes among savages. In studying the skulls we are to take into ac- 
count what the author, quoting Professor Cleland, calls " ill-filledness," 
or the presence of ridges and depressions occasioned by scanty feeding 
and lack of comfort. Speaking of the age of the barrows, there is no 
doubt that they are the first sepulchral evidences of the existence of man 
in Britain. Pristine or priscan man, like the modern savage, grudged 
' which was spent in piling up a huge mound. 



H. W. Mosely, naturalist to the Challeng 



recording I 



vations on the Kudang tribe of Australia, living near Cape York, says 
that though they are destitute of almost everything in the way of prop- 
erty, having neither perforated stones to help them dig roots, as have the 
Bushmen, nor boomerangs, nor tomahawks, nor canoes ; living not on the 
available wallabies and phalanges, but on fish, reptiles, invertebrates, and 
vegetables ; having the scantiest clothing ; being, finally, below savagery, 
as understood by. a good judge of it, Professor Nillson, in having no 



1876.] Anthropology r\ 241 

chiefs, — they nevertheless take great pains with the burial of their dead, 
marking out and adorning the graves with posts, and decorating them 
with the bones of the dugong. None of them have any metal imple- 
ments ; tanged and barbed arrowheads are wanting in them. When 
containing any burnt bones, the latter never occur in urns, and a large pro- 
portion of the bones present the manganic oxide discoloration. The im- 
mense majority of long barrows in the south of England were erected for 
inhumation, whereas exactly the reverse has been the rule in the north 

On the whole, indications are not wanting which suggest that iiiluima- 
tion will ultimately be shown to have been the earliest mode of burial 
practiced in these as yet the earliest known sepulchres, and that inhumation 
m galleried chambers was probably the earliest variety practiced, at least 
where the necessary slabs of such chambers and passages were available, 
but that burial withbut burning, and also without any cist or chamber 
whatever, may in other districts not so conditioned bave been contem- 
poraneous with burial in chambers ; and, finally, that inhumation in cists 
without passages leading down to them, and cremation, mark later epochs 
in the Long Barrow Period. The plan of cremation was that of pack- 
ing the bodies in all states of decomposition along the central axis, to- 
gether with wood and stones; the combustible and transpirable mass 
reached half the length of the barrow. Whatever was done in a crema- 
tion barrow was done at one time, once and for all. 

Macmillan & Co. have published during the last year a work en- 
titled Angola and the River Congo, by Joachim John Monteiro. The 
author speaks very disparagingly of the prospects of civilizing the na- 
tives. The same gentleman has a paper on a kindred subject in vol. v., 
K irt B.J of the Journal of the Anthropological Institute. 

M. Clermont Ganneau reviews the ancient inhabitants of Palestine in 
the August number of Macmillaris Magazine. The London Athenceum 
of December 11, 1875, contains a letter from the Rev. Selah Merrill, 
archaeologist of the American Palestine Exploration Society, in which 
he reports a visit to Urn El Jemal, the Beth Gamul of Jeremiah, in the 
neighborhood of Bozrah and Salchad. 

Professor Fischer, director of the Mineralogical and Geological Mu- 
seum of Freiburg, Baden, has sought to organize a new branch of anti- 
quarian study, namely, mineralogical archaeology. His object is to as- 
certain, by a microscopical and chemical examination of nephrite, jade- 
ll e, and other substances of which stone implements are made, the ex- 
act source of these materials, and also the migrations of the people who 

An Indian Rock-Shelter in Lancaster County, Pennsylva- 
nia. — Professor Haldeman has lately discovered an interesting series of 
Indian relics in a small cave, or more properly rock-shelter, at the west- 
em side of Chickis Rock, Lancaster County, Pennsylvania. This rock 



242 General Notes. [April, 

or cliff, he informs me, is of quartzite (Potsdam sandstone), which has 
the curve of an anticlinal axis, the base of which may be called a cave. 
This is arched, high enough for a man to stand at the entrance, with the 
roof declining backwards and on each side to the ground ; the width and 
depth about twelve feet. The " find " of specimens consists of one hun- 
dred and thirty arrowheads, of quartz, jasper, limestone, and chalcedony ; 
one banner-stone or sceptre, a perforated implement resembling a toma- 
hawk ; eight chisels, mostly of quartz ; two pipe-stems, three net-sinkers, 
and about one hundred fragments of pottery. As the characteristic 
specimens of this find, with full details of their discovery, will shortly be 
illustrated and described, we will not refer more particularly to them. 
The specimens here briefly referred to were found beneath a deposit of 
rich black mold, varying from two and one half to three feet in depth. 
If thifl deposit is solely due to the decomposition of vegetable matter, the 
contained relics indicate that very far back in the past the red man had 
arrived at an advanced stage of neolithic culture ; for the specimens as a 
class are of excellent workmanship. — Charles C. Abbott, M. D. 

The Tasmanians. — In a recent memoir on the osteology and pecul- 
iarities of the Tasmanians, who have recently become extiuct, Dr. J. 
B. Davis records his belief that they represent a type distinct from the 
Australians. Besides presenting osteological differences, the Tasmanians 
never used the boomerang or shield, although they had a larger brain, 
and were intellectually superior to the Australians. Like the Australians, 
however, the Tasmanians never made pottery. Although Tasmania M 
situated but a little more than three hundred miles from Australia, Davis 
thinks there was never any communication between the two peoples. la 
confirmation of this view he states that the Tasmanians neither had 
native dogs nor practiced circumcision, a custom very general among the 
Australians. "All that can be said with truth is that the Tasmaniani 
are not Australians, they are not Papuans, and they are not Polynesians. 
Although they may present resemblances to some of these, they differ 
from them all substantially and essentially. From all this we are justi- 
fied in asserting that the Tasmanians were one of the most isolated races 
of mankind which ever existed ; 
race of people, dwelling in their c 
And they have been one of the earliest races to perish totally by coming 
into contact with European people." The population of Tasmania M 
the time when first visited by Europeans was between four thousand 
and seven thousand. The last native died three years since. 

GEOLOGY AND PAL M ONTOLOGY. 

Hot Springs and Geysers. — We extract from Prof. T. B. Corn- 
stock's Report on the Geology of Wyoming the following remarks on 
the difference between hot springs and geysers : " In the ordinary hot 



1876 -] Geology and Palceontology. 248 

spring the spurting of the liquid, when it occurs, is owing to a resist- 
ance offered to the direct escape of the expansive force from below, and 
ttu resistance may be found in the tenacity of the liquid contents of the 
bowl, in the untoward shape of the bowl or its connected passages, or in 
'" ' '!"< " reMricti n of the orifice near the surface of the liquid. In 
eit ler case the uprising force is condensed, as it were, near one point, 
irt or eruption is caused by the sudden overcoming of the ten- 
sion when the force has become sufficiently concentrated to free itself 
from its confinement. Thus we may meet with a great variety of spout- 
prings, resulting from two or more of these causes com- 
bined, and the force may be produced by heat alone or by the evolution 



"The ph. 




' — "»«< uuinn or such a 
doubt whether existing theories 
m ° n ma nifestations of such ajril 



i for alb the com- 
agitated bowls. Almost without exception, 
'.'" '"/ geyser, the action, whether frequent or the reverse, is inter- 
tough the successive periods in each case may be quite irreg- 
' Usually, as the first indications of an approaching eruption, there 
Wl be noticed an escape of vapor, soon followed by a sudden rising of a 
mass of water sufficient to fill the surface-chamber of the geyser. The 
Phenomena which follow 
0f 'ajying nature, no u_ 
juption takes place near the centre of the bowl, and that I 



thro f of water is accora P lished b y 

oes from one spot, while in the ordinary eruptive springs the 
seldom shot upward from the same point twice in successio 



244 General Notes. [April, 

must, therefore, believe that the propelling power in the geyser acts 
temporarily and suddenly, while in the common hot spring, quiet, boiling, 
or eruptive, constant or periodical, the force is evolved with considerable 
regularity. The idea which the writer desires to convey will be rendered 
more evident by the comparison of Figures 14 and 15. Figure 14 shows 
the supposed section of a common eruptive spring ; and it will readily be 
seen that jets may even occur in cold springs of this structure, provided 
a quantity of carbonic acid or other gas is struggling to free itself from 
beneath the ledge at o. In Figure 15, which is intended to represent the 



supposed condition of the subterranean geyser-waters in the first stage of 
an eruption, the reservoir a is supposed to contain water which remains in 
equilibrium nearly at the level ss. By constant accessions of heat from 
below, the vacant passage above is finally filled with vapor, and by de- 
grees the water in the bent passage c becomes heated, and evolves vapor 



n of the vapor in 

overcome the combined pressure of the water and vapor in c 
the latter i's forced out, followed by a portion of the water i 



1876.] Geology and Palaeontology. 245 

voir a. The force thus expended, a vacuum is produced in b by the re- 
ceding of the column of water in a, and the foregoing operations are 
indefinitely repeated. This theory seems capable of explaining the facts 
so far as they are known, and the variations observed in special cases, or 
even in different eruptions of the same geyser, appear to the writer to 
require but slight modifications of the section, and none that are of great 
importance. The passage c may be kept filled with water by means of 
the surplus which falls back into the bowl. 

" Bunsen's theory of geyser action, which has not yet been proven inade- 
quate to explain the more prominent features of eruptions, does not seem 
sufficient (to the writer) to account for all the differences between the 
geyser and the mere hot spring, but it must not be inferred that such ex- 
cellent authority is disregarded. On the contrary, the author proposes 
the structural hypothesis simply as a supplement to the superheating 
theory of Dr. Bunsen, in order to explain su 
the Fire-Nob basins, which appear to requir* 

At the same time it must be confessed that there are objections to hia the- 
ory, based upon these observations, which are difficult to reconcile. It 
will be impossible to present these here, but an outline of the theories 
in question is appended. Bunsen has shown that an eruption may be 
artificially produced by introducing steam near the base of a long, nar- 
row column of water, which causes the water, as it rises under pressure, 
to become super-heated, the surplus heat being used for the production 
of more steam, which adds to the elevating force. This admirable the- 
ory, of which the above experiment is an illustration, is based upon a 
series of ingenious observations among the hot springs of Iceland. 
Bischof adopts an opinion almost identical with the structural hypothesis 
here proposed, and the present author, it will be remarked, combines the 
two theories, believing both necessary to explain all the facts observed." 

The Mechanism of Stromboli. — As apropos to the subject of gey- 
sers we would direct the reader's attention to an able article on Stromboli 
by the late G. Poulett Scrope, published in the Geological Magazine for 
December, 1874, and illustrated by a view of Stromboli, which is here 
reproduced (Plate I.) through the courtesy of the publishers, the Messrs. 
Trubner & Co. Mr. Scrope attacks Mallet's suggestion that the mech- 
anism of Stromboli has not merely some similarity with that of a geyser, 
hut that the volcano actually contains a geyser in its inside. In this con- 
nection lie quotes Lyell's Principles, in which it is stated that the phe- 
nomena of geysers "have no small interest as bearing on the probable 
mechanism of ordinary volcanic eruptions, namely, that the tube itself is 
tl] e main seat or focus of mechanical force." Scrope then refers to his 
°wn theory, which corresponds to the views of Lyell and Dana. The 
opinion of the latter he quotes as that " of an impartial and unquestionable 
authority" (Dana's Manual, 1863, page 692). Mr. Scrope shows that 
"there is no ground whatever for attributing to Stromboli any mech- 
anism different from that of ordinary volcanoes." 



1876.] . Geography and Exploration. 247 

The Mountains of New Zealand. — In the coast scenery of 
X v Zealand, with its deep fiords and mountains, none of which, however, 
rise above an elevation of nine or ten thousand feet, we find some in- 
teresting similarities to the scenic features of the Pacific coast of Oregon 
and Alaska. An interesting account of the physical geography of New 
Zealand, particularly the province of Otago, is given by Messrs. Hutton 
and Ulrich in their Report on the Geology and Gold Fields of Otago. 
The sounds or fiords were in one case found to be 1728 feet in depth. 
Mr. Hutton notices the points of difference between the Alps of Switzer- 
land and those of New Zealand. " No one," he says, " after visiting 
ice two remarkable points of 
in tain regions. The one is that mountains 
with sharp, serrated summits, which are the exception in Switzerland, 
are the rule in New Zealand, and the other is that the numerous large 
waterfalls which the traveler in Switzerland sees at almost every turn 
are quite exceptional in New Zealand. A few waterfalls, but they are 
very few in comparison with Switzerland, are found in the deep fiords 
on the west coast, and a few smaller ones towards the heads of the valleys 
in the heart of the mountains, and these are nearly all. And yet the 
mountain- in New Zealand are quite as rough and rugged as the Alps of 
Europe, and indeed the gorges are more numerous and deeper. There 
are also other minor points of i 



GEOGRAPHY AND EXPLORATION. 

Cameron's Explorations in Tropical Africa. — Cameron's 
achievement stands quite alone. For the first time in the history of 
the world a European traveler has walked across tropical Africa from 
east to west. Rut Cameron has done more. This wonderful march* of 
three thousand miles is but a portion of his work. He has taken such a 
series of scientific observations as will place him in the foremost rank of 
practical geographers ; he has surveyed the southern half of the great 
Lake Tanganyika, has solved the problem of the course of the Congo, 
and has fixed the position of the water parting between the Congo and 
the Zambesi. 

B °rn in i 8 44, and having entered the navy in August, 1857, Lieu- 
l enant Cameron was only twenty-eight when he received his instructions 
rom Sir Battle Frere at Zanzibar, and took command of the Living- 
stone East Coast Expedition. His previous services, which qualified him 
°r this important charge, are recorded at page 274 of Ocean Highways 
0r Member, 1872. His instructions, dated February 14, 1873, were 

take up supplies to Dr. Livingstone, and to carry out such explora- 
0n M he might direct or advise, it being specially pointed out that the 
COmpletion °f the survey of Lake Tanganyika was work of great im- 
portance. Accompanied by his frieud and old messmate, Dr. Dillon, 






248 General Notes. [April, 

R. N., and by Lieutenant Murphy, R. A., Cameron made a final start 
from the east coast for the interior on the 18th of March, 1873. 

The young lieutenant showed his admirable fitness for the work from 
the first. There were special and peculiar obstacles which entailed very 
heavy expenditure, and Dr. Kirk was of opinion that no expedition, 
starting from Zanzibar, ever had so many difficulties to encounter. 
Cameron gallantly faced and overcame them, and, in spite of them all, 
he reached Unyanyembe on the 4th of August, 1873. 

At this place all the members of the expedition suffered terribly from 
illness. Out of forty-five days Cameron himself was down with fever 
during twenty-nine, and was afterwards prostrated by a still more serious 
fever, of a remittent type, and inflammation of the eyes. It was here 

of the great traveler, and his journals and other effects, joined the relief 
expedition and received that aid which enabled them to reach the coast. 
Lieutenant Cameron sent down the Livingstone caravan to the coast, in 
charge of Lieutenant Murphy, with ample supplies for the journey; and 
the continued illness of Dr. Dillon obliged him also to return. The 
party left Unyanyembe on the 9th of November, 1873, and on the 17th, 
Cameron's friend, Dillon, "a skillful and zealous < 
complished scholar and firm and steadfast friend," succumbed^ 
effects of overwork and a pestiferous climate. 

Cameron was now alone ; but his work was not yet done. Living- 
stone's servants had reported that a most important map belonging to 
the doctor had been left at Ujiji, without which the record of the great 
traveler's discoveries would be very incomplete. It seemed to the 
young explorer that its recovery was a sacred duty, and he also consid- 
ered himself bound to do his utmost, with the means at his disposal, to 
further the cause of geographical discovery. With these objects, but 
still suffering acutely from the effects of fever and ophthalmia, Cameron 
Bet out from Unyanyembe for the west on the 11th of November, 1873. 
He kept on steadily working " westward ho ! " with dauntless persever- 
ance, until he reached the shores of the Atlantic. 

Traveling through a difficult and entirely new country, he discovered 
several of the southern tributaries of the Malagarazi and the interesting 
region they water, and on the 21st of February, 1874, he reached the 
shores of Lake Tanganyika. 

Cameron's first great geographical exploit after reaching Ujiji was the 
survey of Lake Tanganyika, which he ascertained to be 2754 feet above 
the level of the sea. He launched his boats in March, 1874, closely ex- 
amined and surveyed the whole southern half of the lake, discovered 
the great stream called Lukuga, flowing out of it, and returned to Ujiji 
on the 9th of May. His invaluable map of the lake will be found facing 
page 72 of the Geographical Magazine for March, 1875, and was also 
published in the Proceedings of the Royal Geographical Society. Cam- 



Geography and Exploration. 



The gallant explorer started from Ujiji on his lonely and < 
xpedition on the 20th of May, 1874, and, after traversing the Manyuema 
ountry, arrived at Nyangwe on the Lualaba, the farthest point reached 
y Livingstone, in the following August. He found that Livingstone 
les too far to the west. It proved to be 
s the level of the sea, which at once puts 
d to any notion of the Lualaba being connected with the Nile sys- 
Instead of flowing north, the Lualaba here turns to the west, and 
west-southwest, eventually entering and flowing through a great 
called Sankowa. The river receives many tributaries from the 
i and one very large stream from north of the equator, called the 
. Thus the drainage from both north and south of the equator 
nts for the two rises in the Congo. For Cameron has now fully 
1 the identity of the Lualaba and the Congo. 
The advance from Nyangwe, Livingstone's farthest point, was the 
most momentous crisis in Cameron's undertaking. The difficulties were 
great. It was impossible to obtain canoes. The chief beyond the Lo- 
mane, which here falls into the Lualaba, declared his resolution of mak- 
ing war if the explorer attempted to cross his country. He was thus 
diverted from his intended route down the course of the Congo. But 
he was not to be stopped. The route he actually did take was of equal 
importance, and led to equally valuable geographical discoveries. It led 
south from Nyangwe, up the eastern side of the valley of the Lomane, 
to Kilemby, the capital of a great chief named Kasongo, who ruled over 
all the country of Urua. 

The Urua country was first made known to us by Captain Burton, in 
his Lake Regions of Central Equatorial Africa, who calls it Uruwwa, 
a central district west of Tanganyika," with a ruler named Kiyorabo, 



e calle(1 Rua . but Cameron was the first to discover it and fix its 
Position. 

Cameron remained at the capital of Urua .from October, 1874, to Feb- 
ruary, 1875. It i s a most important central point, for here the traders 
from the east and west meet. Cameron found an Arab merchant named 

umah ibn Salim, from Zanzibar, and also two mulatto traders named 
AW* and Coimbra, from Bihe in Benguela. His long detention in 

bongo's country enabled the explorer to collect much valuable geo- 
graphical information respecting the whole of this part of tropical Africa, 



tag a complete and detailed account of the rivers and lakes which 
e *l the Congo from the south. He discovered a new lake called Kas- 
' thr ough which the Lualaba flows ; and another, with no outlet, 



250 General Notes. [April, 

called Mbhoya, which is specially interesting from having regular lake 
villages on its waters. He discovered also that the Lomane is a dis- 
tinct river from the Kassabe, receiving a large stream called Luwembi 
from the west, coming from a lake called Iki. probably the Lake Lincoln 
of Livingstone. Katanga, the famous copper-yielding district, within the 
territory of Urua, is situated between the rivers Lualaba and Lufira. 
which unite, and the combined stream, after flowing through a chain of 
small lakes, receives the Lualaba of Livingstone, which is really the 
Lurwa. The united rivers then flow through Lake Lanji (the Ulenge 
of Livingstone), and past Nyangwe to Lake Sankowa, and thence, as 
the Congo, to the sea. Cameron ascertained the names and positions of 
all the different tributaries of these rivers, and will be able to give a 
complete account of the hydrography of this newly-discovered region of 
the Upper Congo. 

After many vexatious delays, Cameron, accompanied by the mulatto 
Alriz, set out from Kasongo's country for Benguela. His course led 
him past the sources of the Lomane and the Luwembi, and close to the 
sources of the Lulua he came upon water flowing to the Zambesi. He 
traveled over a rich table-land, with numerous streams, to Sha-Kilembe's 
town, which he reached in September. The nights were cool on this 
elevated plateau, and on two occasions there was actually frost, when 
Cameron enjoyed the feeling of the crisp soil crunching under his feet. 
Sha-Kilembe is the Ya-Quilem of Ladislaus Magyar. It is on the river 
Lumeji, a tributary of the Liambeje, in latitude 11° 31' south and lon- 
gitude 20° 24' east. 

As the travel-worn party approached the goal, all nearly spent, and with 
supplies at the lowest ebb, their leader performed an additional journey 
of a hundred and twenty geographical miles, in order to bring assistance 
to his native followers. The route led from Sha-Kilembe to Bihe, and 
thence to the Portuguese town of Benguela, on the shores of the Atlan- 
tic, where Cameron arrived last October, and whence he proceeded to 
Loanda to recruit his health. Thanks to the forethought of the Vis- 
count Duprat, the great traveler received every attention and much 
kindness from the Portuguese officials. As soon as he has found means 
of sending his other followers to Zanzibar, he will return home with old 
Bombay, the veteran servant of former travelers, and a small boy named 
Jacko, who accompanied him from Unyanyembe. 

When Cameron arrives in this country, and fills in the details of the 
mere skeleton route which is now before us, we shall have a story of 
unsurpassed interest, whether we consider the great geographical dis- 
coveries he has made, the new regions he will describe, or the personal 
• himself. 

•y merit rests mainly on the number and 
Je of his scientific observations. The total distance over which he 
marched from Zanzibar to Benguela is 295.3 miles. Along this 



1876.] Geography and Exploration. 251 

route he has fixed 85 positions and taken 706 observations, consisting 
of 137 for latitude by stars north and south of the zenith, 196 for time, 
368 lunar observations, one for the sun's eclipse of April 6, 1875, and 
' ir amplitudes for compass variation. His method of observing lunars 
for longitude is of the first order, namely, by stars east and west of the 
moon's enlightened limb ; and by computing his observations, he has not 
only laid down his route accurately, but has also projected a remarkable 
section of the country over which he traveled, from the Indian Ocean 
to the Atlantic. The heights of places above the sea are determined by 
fi'iir Casella's aneroids, including 3718 observations, and by 70 observations 
of five boiling-point thermometers. The itinerary gives the approximate 
latitude and longitude of all the places visited, and their distances from 
each other ; and by this itinerary, with the observations for height, the 
section sheets have been projected. Cameron also collected a vocabulary 
of the language of interior Africa, comprising fourteen hundred words. 

Ih vast importance of Cameron's discoveries, which establish on a 
firm basis the geography of south tropical Africa, cannot be fully appre- 
ciated and understood without a carefully prepared map accompanied 
hy a critical commentary, which will be published in our number for 



March. Meanwhi 



f look for the return to this country of I 



great traveler himself, where he will receive a hearty and cordial \ 

But Cameron himself has abstained from laying any claim to theoret- 
ical or hypothetical discoveries, and has merely stated facts that have 
come under his observation, and the reports he has collected from Arabs 
and natives. He has never claimed the discovery of the outlet to Lake 
Tanganyika. He has simply described a stream, called the Lukuga, 
which he found to be flowing out of the lake, mid the course of which 
he followed for four miles. He leaves deductions to geographers at 
home, while he furnishes them wifh accurate data for forming their con- 
cusions. It i 8 Burton who has generously called his young successor 

^e second discoverer of Tanganyika." Cameron's observations are 
ra °re complete than those of any previous traveler, but he speaks with 
characteristic modesty of his discoveries. " As for geographical work," 

e says, " I Qave c i eared up a lot of niist i nesSj if not positive darkness ; 

K the work is immense, and ought to be taken in hand thoroughly, and 
^t by desultory expeditions which make their way to one point, and then 
u aVe t0 ° 0me awa y with th eir work unfinished. Fresh men should take 
JJPthe work of their predecessors, instead of, as at present, every man 
Vln g to hunt for his own needle in his own bundle of hay." If all 
feed and observed as Cameron has done, there would be 
e left to desire. — Extracted from The Geographical Magazine for 



MICROSCOPY. 1 

Mode of Production of Microscopical Images. — Professor 
Abbe, of Jena, bas lately 2 established a conception of the manner by 
which images are produced in the microscope, which is entirely dif- 
ferent from those usually adopted. The microscopical image of the 
object is formed by the superposition of two images, which have an en- 
tirely different origin, and can in fact be conceived to be separated one 
from the other. One image is a negative one, by which all parts are 
represented as a geometrical likeness by the unequal emersion of the 
rays of light passing through the object. This image is called by Abbe 
" absorption image." It represents the definition of the microscope. 

The other image (formed by as many partial images as there are 
bundles of rays which have been isolated from the cone of light, and pass 
into the object) is positive. It is an image produced by refraction, and 
represents the penetration, that is, the finer structure of the object. 
Wherever the structural elements of the object are small enough and 
approximated enough, phenomena of diffraction appear. The conse- 
quence is that structural images, produced by a cooperation of the frac- 
tion of the ray3 of light, are not in a constant connection with the real 
structure of the object which produced it, but inconstant connection with 
the phenomenon of diffraction which brought about the image. 

Microscopical images, therefore, showing systems of fine lines, as in 
diatoms, do not allow us to infer with safety the morphological existence 
of such structures, but only the existence of structures necessary to bring 
about such images. Consequently, the smaller the linear dimensions of 
a structure, the more unsafe are the conclusions respecting the real struct- 
ure as indicated by the image. It can therefore never be decided with 
certainty by what sort of structure the systems of lines (as for instance 
those of Pleurosigma angulatum) are produced, nor will the image of 
nes of muscular fibres give certain conclusions 
of the finer details of structure. This want of 
certainty may also apply to differences in the degree of transparence of 
objects, their color and polarization. 

Abbe's researches allow us to limit with certainty the powers of the 
microscope. " Never can parts be seen which are so nearly approxi- 
mated that even the first bundles of rays of light produced by fraction 
are not able to enter the objective at the same time as the unbroken cone 
of light." Every aperture of the objective has a fixed limit for the 
smallest distance of objects by which it is possible to see the object. 

Any new perfection of the microscope cannot go much ftirtk* tllU ' 
to show for central illumination the whole length of one wave of blue 
light, and for the greatest possible oblique illumination half the length 

1 This department is conducted by Dr. R. H. Ward, Troy, N. Y. 



1876.] Microscopy. 

It may therefore be observed that no microscope will i 
of the structure of an object than it is possible to see by 
objective of a power of two hundred diameters. Helmholtz J 'arrives at 
the same results by another mode, giving the smallest perceptible dis- 
tances for the middle greenish yellow light, 0.000275 mill. = jjJU. mill. 

-H.IlAGEN. 

[We print this abstract of Professor Abbe's curious researches, though 

Ed.] 

Ttndall Association. — The second annual " Science Exposition " 
of this active society was given at the City Hall, Columbus, on the 
evenings of December 7, 8, 9, and 10, 1875. A prominent part of the 
exhibition was the microscopy, in charge of the president of the micro- 
scopical section of the society, Rev. I. F. Stidham. Objects calculated 
to prove attractive to a popular assemblage were displayed upon micro- 
scopes furnished mostly by the members of the society, and an explana- 
tory lecture was delivered on the first evening by Prof. A. H. Tuttle. 
The instruments, over thirty in number, were by nearly all the familiar 
makers, the following maufacturers being those that were represented by 
more than one each: Beck, Queen, Hartnack, Grunow, Ross, Zent- 
mayer, Crouch, and Fields. 

Sonorous Sand. —The « musical beaches " which occur at some points 
on the New England coast and in Georgia, as well as at the more 
famous localities in Arabia, Switzerland, the Hebrides, and the Sand- 
wich Islands, have lately been attracting much attention from micro- 
scopists. When handfuls or larger quantities of the sand are rubbed 
together, a musical sound is produced which seems to be due to the nu- 
merous microscopic pits or cavities which abound in the grains of sand. 

hese pits are especially conspicuous and interesting in the Sandwich 
slands sand. Moisture, which would temporarily obliterate the cavities, 
Prevents the sound. 

xchanges. — A photograph of any specially interesting microscopic 
object will be furnished in exchange for the use of the object from 
which to obtain a negative. The object itself will be returned uninjured 
withm one week. Address proposals to R. H. Bliven, Elmore, Ohio. — 

ouble-stained vegetable sections in exchange for good mounted objects 

• &■ C, 103 Warren Avenue, Boston. — Slides of sonorous sand 
rom Sandwich Islands in exchange for any good mounted objects. W. 

• S 103 Warren Avenue, Boston. 

Unmounted Objects. — C. A. Baldwin has transferred the agency 
w distributing these objects to Prof. H. A. Ward's museum, Rochester, 

" J w r ° m Whi ° h they Can be obtained in future - 

" 7* Q UEE * & Co. — The changes recently noticed in this firm re- 
fer only to the New York house. 

B«.iJ b . e , r die Grenz en der Leistun K sfahiffkeit der Mikroskop, Monatsbericbte der 
,,n Akademie, 1873. na ™ fios 



SCIENTIFIC NEWS. 

— The annual report of 1 
Zoology contains plans of tl 
now partly built, together with its proposed addition and the corner- 
piece joining it to the main building. The curator, Mr. Alexander 
Agassiz. seems to discourage the accumulation of great stores of alcoholic 
specimens, suggesting that they should be restricted to a minimum, and 
1 in lite- 1, as far as possible, to those classes where no other mode of pres- 
ervation is practicable ; and he thinks " the time has come when large 
collections must naturally be supplemented by zoological stations. 
These, when once established at properly selected localities, will enable 
museums to dispense with much that is now exceedingly costly." By 
the success of the Agassiz Memorial Fund, the authorities will be en- 
abled, as soon as the contemplated additions to the museum are erected, 
to carry out the principal ideas of Professor Agassiz for the arrangement 
of a museum. This fund is stated to amount to $310,673.99. 

— A new marine Fucoid from the Water Lime Group, at Buffalo. 
N. Y., has been noticed by Messrs. Grote and Pitt, under the name of 
Buthotrephis Lesquereuxi. The specimen is one of the best preserved 
of the kind yet discovered. No remains of sea-weeds appear to have 
been known hitherto from the Water Lime Group of the Silurian for- 

— The third volume of the new edition of the Encyclopedia Britannica, 
just published, contains articles on the Atlantic and Baltic, by Dr. W. 
B. Carpenter, and on Biology, by Professor Huxley and W. T. F. Dyer. 

— The Progress of Darwinism is an annual issued in Germany, giv- 
ing the annual record of evolution literature, as part of a series of other 
reports on the progress of geology, meteorology, etc. 

— Among the recent books of travel published by E. If. Mayer, 
Cologne and Leipzig, are the three following, by Robert von Schlagin- 
tvveit: Die Prairien des amerikanischen Westens (The Prairies of 
Western America) ; Die Pacific-Eisenbahn in Nordamerika (The Pacific 
Railroad of North America) ; and Die Mormonen, oder die Heiligei) roffl 
jungsten Tage (The Mormons, or Latter-Day Saints). 

— A summer school of science and physical culture on a rather novel 
plan is projected by Prof. D. S. Jordan, who proposes to take a 



apolis to the upper t 



3 Tennes- 



see, thence by boats down the French Broad and Tennessee, to Chat- 
tanooga, where the school will be closed. 

— A memoir of the late I. A. Lapham, LL. D., who suggested the U- 
S. Weather Signal System, has been prepared by Mr. S. S. Sherman. 

— Elisee Reclus is editing Noovelle Geographic universale, la Tcrre 
et les Hommes, of which six livraisons had appeared in Paris up t0 
November last. 



1876.] Proceedings of Societies. 255 

PROCEEDINGS OF SOCIETIES. 
Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia. — February 24th. 
Professor Cope gave a history of the progress of the doctrine of evolu- 
tion of animal and vegetable types. (This is printed elsewhere in this 
number of the Naturalist.) Dr. Allen called attention to a remark- 
ably prognathous human skull, from Australia, belonging to the academy, 
in which the monkey-like characters were unusually apparent. Other 
peculiarities observable only by anatomical experts were pointed out. 
A paper by Dr. Charles A. White, entitled Descriptions of Fossils from 
Paheozoic Rocks of Iowa was presented for publication. 

Academy of Science, St. Louis. — February 7th. Prof. C. V. Riley 
remarked on insectivorous plants, stating that while Drosera, Dioncea, 
etc., actually digest animal matter, the only benefit Sarracenia received 
from captured insects was from the liquid manure resulting from their 
putrescent bodies. 

Society of Natural History, Boston. — February 16th. Prof. 
William B. Rogers presented some geological notes on the thickness of 
the Virginia Tertiaries as indicated by the artesian borings at Fortress 
Monroe ; on the Upper Secondary Sandstone of Virginia as including 
an ancient drift, and its relation to the post-tertiary cobble-stone deposit ; 
with suggestions in explanation of the course assumed by all the great 
mere of the Middle States on entering the region of tide- water. 

Professor W. G. Farlow remarked on the nature and mode of growth 
t the « black knot " of plum and cherry trees. This is an American 
^gus, and has spread from our wild plums and cherries to the cultivated 
rees. p r ofe SS o r Farlow recommended the wholesale destruction of our 
wiw species, especially Primus Virginiana, as breeders of the disease, 
ich, if followed up by careful pruning of trees in cultivation, could not 
f ail finally to eradicate the black knot. 

th ^ AMBRid «e Entomological Club. — January 14th. It was voted 
^ a publication fund should be established, amounting to at least two 
^ousand dollars, the interest of which should be expended in publishing 
catio/' f S h n °. 0ther wa y would h be possible to maintain the publi- 
which ° ^ Blblio S ra P nic al Record of North American Entomology, 
ren a 'V rea,, y re cognized as more complete than any other similar 
obtl n yd6partment of science. A committee was appointed to 
obtain this f und . IF 

glands hT 61 " P ° intedout the presence of some hitherto unparalleled 
unon !i! D l le thorax of Anisomorpha buprestoides, and presented a paper 
iwi tbe subject for niihK***.*^ :- n...-*- 



subject for publication in Psyche. 
iioned t\ 



/>,'. ■','. '\ IL St ebbins, Jr., mentioned the capture, near London, of I 
JVfc* Mackaon which f 



February l lth . 



useum. 

Mr. Scudder said that he considered that Mr. Riley 



256 Scientific Serials. [April. 

had proved by his recent investigations that Megathymus yucca is a but- 
terfly, and forms a new group of Urbicolre. 

Mr. Scudder exhibited a dissection of Autolyca pallidicornis, to show 
the interior glauds corresponding to the prothoracic excretory openings 
to which he had called attention at the previous meeting, when speaking 
of the function of these organs in Anisomorpha buprestoides (Spectrum 
bivittalum) and in Phasmidae generally. 

Mr. Fewkes exhibited drawings to show the structure and position of 
these glands. Mr. Dimmock exhibited wings of Microlepidoptera which 
had been bleached and mounted as microscopic objects ; some of these 
had been colored after bleaching, so as to show that the scales still re- 

Troy Scientific Association. — February 21st. Wm. E. Hagen 
read a paper on the curiosities of gold and gold mining, giving prom- 
inence to those facts that might have given plausibility to the theory of 
the derivative character of this metal. An abstract of this paper will be 
published in another number of this journal. 



SCIENTIFIC SERIALS. 1 

The Annals and Magazine of Natural History. — January. 

On the Classification of Scorpions, by T. Thorell. First Report of the 

Naturalist accompanying the Transit of Venus Expedition to Ker- 

guelen's Island in 1874 (conclusion), by A. E. Eaton. 

Monthly Microscopical Journal. — February. Remarks on the 
Foraminifera, with especial Reference to their Variability of Form, illus- 
trated by the Cristellarians, by T. Rupert Jones. 

The Geographical Magazine. — January. The Swedish Arctic 
Expedition. The Malayan Peninsula, by H. St. John. On former 
Physical Aspects of the Caspian, by H. Wood. Is it Possible to Unite 
the Black Sea and the Caspian ? by D. Ker. The Western Sahara, 
by E. G. Ravenstein (with a map). February. Dr. Beccari's Recent 
Visit to New Guinea, by H. H. Giglioli. 

American Journal of Science. — March. Structure of Obolella 
chromatica, by E. Billings. On the Damming of Streams by Drift Ice 
during the Melting of the great Glacier, by J. D. Dana. On Flint 
Implements from the Stratified Drift of Richmond, Va., by C. M. Wal- 
lace. Principal Characters of the Tillodontia, by O. C. Marsh. 

The Geological Magazine. — February. Sketch of the Geology 
of Ice and Bell Sounds, Spitzbergen, by A. E. Nordenskiold. Remarks 
on the New Hebrides Group, by II. Hosken. 

Nature. — January 27th, and February 3d. Professor Tyndall on 
Germs. Professor Nordenskiold on the Jenisei. 

1 The articles enumerated under this head will be for the most Dart selected. 



AMERICAN NATURALIST. 

Vol. x. — MAT, me. — No. s . 



ANIMAL HUMOR. 



" The heart 

With si»l, 
Nor feel 



^Y HAT deep philosophy might be evolved from an honest con- 
•techW? T ° f anlmal Sp ° rfcS ! Just here a child ma J tnrn 
Serll n CmifUSi ° n ° f thG Wi8e man - Whether wel1 or 

otherwise, Cowper's words have been allowed to push us into the 

Ion, J If > US ° Ur ^^ draUght ° f Htera ^ IlUm0r ' Jt was 
poem fh' t ? C ° meS UP t0 " da y as a delicioas ™°»- The first 
Po^ that made our almost baby cheeks to dimple with ringing 

SettT - Gilpln; Und When t0ld " aUth ° r ** 
"Zelt r 8 ' PUS -' Tiney ' and BeSS ' in 0OT Wi^ estimate 
confirms hp ^ £ " ght Pr ° per man ' And the ^ter Hg^nt 
with anil, y ° U ? ful Verdict Jt haS Seemed to me ^hat it is 
la much as it is with other folks; the jocose and the 
stock boj t e8 ° me and the Sad ' are v ^ often from the same 
b ydoo- s "j k re 1S a rou g h -and-tumble mirth, enjoyed alike 
nated b «ro i » y6a ' *""* th ° Se semi - barbarous ones denomi- 
th * dogs and il 'V? ° bservable of tllis ki * d of play, with both 
^ITI! rt nS ' *■*■ h0WGVer M « h their g lee > a -■» 
n nffi , aU the fun ' A deca ? ed a PP le "fcWj thrown 

mcient for this purpose : the whole effervescence is over, 
le tun is flat ns ft fo™„„* _„*.__ 



«thefu„ 18tfat „, stag 



In th aS sta S nant water. 

"oWies'" Part6d dajS When one chair in colle g e tQ ok several 
" p ~of." was a very funny man. TT 
es, even, were kept in stock 
time and purpose. There 



intent!; ° Ur . g °° d old " P ™f-" was a very funny i 

endatd 7 ~*\ His ^> -en, were'kept in stock and cal- 



"star ioke" i S own time and P ur P ose - There was his 

of wit Wt] JS pronounced " hu g e and capital." This bit 

mor eyear ' f^ introd ^tion, was regularly aired in s.pho- 
Bein g now J T ' Gd JUni ° r inf ° rmed us i U8fc when t0 ex P«et it. 
longer fresh and green, it was resolved in class 



258 Animal Humor. [May, 

caucus that we" would conduct ourselves as behooved philosophers, 
when this laughter-provoker should make its annual round. At 
the expected time it came, and was really excellent. The pro- 
fessor let it off in good style ; then he laughed heartily at his own 
wit. And why not ? He had done so annually for a generation 
of years. But, alack ! nobody joined in the chorus ! Such a re- 
frain ! It was unanimous. The class were as demure as a pack 
of wearied mules. Every face was stolidly, starkly blank. As 
a humorist, that rotten apple had " put a head " on that learned 
man. Whether this cruel shock had caused the lesion of some 
nervous centre was not known, but we never heard the professor 
joke or laugh in class again. Ever after, the humanities were 
dispensed very dry, and ethics, his forte, were especially served 
up quite plain. Sorry for our naughtiness, we came to regard 
our action as a second-class joke. 

Within hailing distance of our former home at Keyport was 
the shop of a basket-maker. A pet monkey was the occasion of 
many an uproarious scene in the shop. In fact, all hands some- 
times played monkey, the quadrumanal leading off, hunted by 
the bimanal ones, over and through the sinuosities of great heaps 
of oyster baskets. Unaware of our seeming pedantry, we vent- 
ured to say that the specimen belonged to the family Cebidm | 
this was promptly corrected by an apprentice, who told us that 
it belonged to the " boss's family." Happily, we were both 
right. It was one of the spider monkeys, and known as Ateles 
Belzebuth. " The devil it is," said the apprentice. " You bet, 
there 's deviltry enough in that monkey." To this we conde- 
scended no reply, regarding it as a little profane, and a good deal 
libelous. We continued by saying that the monkey came from 
South America, where they called it the " marimonda." Again 
came an interruption from the facetious apprentice, who said. 
" There is a heap of mountebank in the little cuss." The wee 
thing was a slim-bodied, long-limbed, and grotesque-looking creat- 
ure, and withal gentle, and confiding, and brimming over with 
fun. It was quite fond of a good-natured romp with the men 
and boys, when it would jump from one to the other, and cast 
around their necks that marvelous fifth hand, its prehensile 
tail. In tit -for -tat, tag -and -run, its agility and tactics W»" 
splendid. All this was very fine for a few days. But this 
good-natured romping soon became ill-tempered and vicious on 
the part of the shop hands. In truth, erelong that sense of feel- 
ing tired set in which so soon comes upon many an owner of 



1876 -J Animal Humor. 259 

pets. Then came heartless practical jokes, harsh treatment, and 
general neglect. The poor creature had now evidently lost all 
heart Something worse than the throwing of the rotten apple 
had happened. Marimonda was clever at catching sticks. A hot 
poker was thrown to it, — the burning shame ! Poor thing I It 
now broke down completely, and made up its mind to drop all 
fun forever. Not at all vicious, still gentle, but joyless, it be- 
came chronically sad. Prematurely grave, for it was very young, 
the merry Marimonda was mirthful no more. I told its tor- 
mentors that the little fellow's days were numbered ; in fact, that 
they were killing it. Already it had lost confidence, in every 
one of them ; but the first time that Ateles heard my voice, it 
approached me with a trustingness which was quite affecting. It 
attracted the attention of the workmen, one of whom said, « Just 
ook at that ! The beast won't come nigh any of us, and always 
tears a stranger; but see how it takes to the minister from the 
ftrst time that it puts eyes on him. It fairly whimpers when it 
bears him coming." All this was true. And for that whimper — 
« was a plaintive coo, soft and flute-like. True it was, whenever 
* ca led at the basket-maker's shop I was sure to be met with 
the love -greeting of little Ateles, a soft, cooing utterance of 
trustful joy. But there was much plaintful, tender melancholy 
m it, for the wonted merry mood of Marimonda was forever gone. 
iat there was real affection in that little heart, I entertain no 
°ubt. Its gentle eyes told all this plainly whenever they saw 
me coming. Such manifestations could not be other than touch- . 
£g, they spo ke so unmistakably of an implicit faith in me : and 
1S eviden t that it yielded the fruits of peace to the trusting 
ne - I think with animals, as with men, humor and gentleness 
go together ; and if either survive the other, it is this goodness 
hat S leams when the other light is put out. 

would not have it implied that this glinting towards, or even 
^similating, the higher attributes of man makes our monkey less 
lr nian, but I would insist that such qualities should not be' reck- 



oned brutish. 



these touches of nature that make the whole 



man I nGV6r dared inter P ret the words of that a P°stoli 

' Word s so weighty with significance, whatever that may be, 

every thoughtful mind: " For we know that the whole crea- 

th " ' p* 0ane th, waiting for the adoption." Yes, trust is needed at 

h»» TI\ Gnd of the journey. I have had a mouse creep into my 

Poo M C ° Vered ' andtodie - 
°or Marimonda soon came to grief. A pot of green paint 



260 Animal Humor. [May, 

unintentionally set in the way proved too much for simian riiri- 
osity. She ate of the pigment, and in pitiful agony perished. 
This was dolorous tidings to us, and our temper rose to a spurt 
of indignation. Ah well, our soul contains no green-room secrets, 
so it may as well be confessed : it did make our placid spirits 
rily to see our pet comique go off like a contemptible Doryphora, 
dosed with Paris green. 

Shall not proper names be respected ? And were not James 
and John apostles? How then could our learned friend ever 
again speak in meeting after that irreverent pun of calling his 
two monkeys, Jack and Jim, " the sons of Cebidae " ? But there 
are some things that common folks cannot cope with. Once 
happening in upon our savant friend, we made the acquaintance 
of Jack, who now was alone. As his master said, Jack wai a 
Cebus, and his proper name was Cebus capuchins ; hence he was 
a cousin, so to speak, of our Ateles, as they both belonged to the 
same family, Cebidce. I suppose that capucinus would indicsft 
that this Cebus had a monkish head on his shoulders. Though 
very much more demonstrative, Jack had not the winning ways 
of Marimonda. His accomplishments were in another line. 
While the voice of Ateles was soft and musical, and in general 
her actions were gentle, Jack abounded in guttural gibberings 
and genuine monkey grimace. I had never before seen Jack, nor 
indeed, except the one fact of his remarkable sonship, had I even 
heard of him. When I entered the house he was chattering in 
his cage. I approached and said, " Poor Jack ! " at the same 
time extending to him both my hands. He took a finger of each 
hand of mine into each of his tiny hands, and as he held me 
thus, he gazed into my eyes as a discerner of spirits might who 
is divining from the tone of voice and the light of the soul-win- 
dows. The query in Jack's mind was, " What sort of stuff is tins 
new fellow made of ? " Mental movements are sometimes ni>ia<- 
ulously quick, and that monkey's mind was made up like a flash. 
The savant looked on in surprise. " You are the only one, 
said he, " that Jack has taken a liking to at the fust glance, 
Of a sudden my host set up a terrible to-do, as if he would hat? 
me torn to pieces, crying, " Go for him, Jack ! Go for him. 
But Jack looked perplexed, as he evidently liked me. He still 
held me by a finger of each hand ; and it was plain that he 
would rather go for me, than go for me. Again, however, the 
master shouted excitedly, " Go for him, Jack ! go for him ! ' 
And Jack, in obedience to command, went for me, shaking my 



1876 Animal Humor. 261 

hands by the one finger of each as if he would impress me with 
the fearfulness of simian anger. And how wide open he kept 
his mouth, and how the white teeth shone, as from between 
rushed a torrent of gibbering rage ! Now this perfunctory tem- 
pest was exceedingly well gotten up, considering the shortness of 
the notice. The part was well acted ; the best make-believe 
anger I ever beheld. Of course it was the sheerest sham. The 
creature would not hurt a hair of my head. His owner's com- 
mands obeyed, he turned his attention to me from a friendly 
point of view, and began making a minute inspection of my hands, 
especially the lines in the palms, as if he might be practicing 
palmistry, he looked so grotesquely grave. 

Jack could catch, with either hand, a nut when thrown to him, 
and crack it with a stone as deftly as any one. He had his 
patience once sorely tried with an obdurate black walnut. His 
mistress put a large stone in his reach. It was so heavy that 
Jack had to walk nearly upright in order to keep his balance 
when he sought to carry it; but he succeeded, and down, with 
the nicest aim, came the stone upon the nut, which was fairly 
smashed. But if you would evoke the animal's genius, it was 
only necessary to tantalize him a little by putting nuts on the 
floor at an inconvenient distance from his cage. With a doubled 
string he would throw the loop, and lasso in the prize. We have 
seen him attain his object by the most persistent and ingenious 
movements of an awkward angular bit of pine wood. 

On one occasion a gentleman called who was bald. Our Cebus 
regarded the visitor with unfriendly wonder. Why should he be 
Ie8a 'ike him than other folks were ? Had not other men, like 
monkeys, hair upon their heads ? Was not this making an in- 
vidious distinction, perhaps to the disadvantage of capucinus ? 
course, no son of Cebidaa could say, " Go up, thou bald head ! " 
JSm Cebus was in no reverent mood, albeit he did show off his 
accomplishments in the line of getting the nuts off the floor. He 
was next ordered to go for the gentleman, which order he exe- 
®»Bd wi th alacrity and spirit. As Cebus was securely confined, 
j»W paroxysm of obedience hurt no one. « But," said the gen- 
^eman, as he turned his back upon the cage to address his host, 
* think his dexterity with that stick is wonderful, and shows 
** ^Me of even stranger developments." The gentleman 
as correct ; and whether the droll beast was affected by the com- 

how e "! ° r n0t ' We Cannot sa y- Ifc was an inex P licable nwdift* 
e ^er» that at that especial moment the angular wand was 



262 Animal Humor. [May, 

brought down with intense simian anjjvr upon that glistening pate. 
It did look as if Cebus thought, " Let me ' put a head on ' that flat- 
tery ! " The gentleman's feelings may be judged from his ac- 
tions. Up rose a livid spot, on which, like a soothing poultice, 
one hand was tenderly placed, as old Uncle Ned would say, — 
" In de place whar de wool ought to grow." 

Now in all this we find incongruousness and surprise, and, to 
the spectator, sparkling, rollicking fun. In words, it would have 
the startle and unexpectedness of wit ; in pantomime, that scene 
would bring down the house like a hurricane. Is it supposable 
that Jack was unconscious of the fun ? I do not think that he 
was altogether funnier than he knew. 

Is it not noteworthy that the fun of animals is chiefly got at 
in sham battles, amid the roar of mock anger ? Boys too often 
love to tease and worry animals, and not less one another. It is 
with the same impulse one ties a tin utensil to a cur's tail, or 
pins some annoyance on a playmate's back ; and from the same 
source come tripping, and sparring, and knocking the hat down 
over its owner's eyes. If motive be the gauge, how fine the line 
between much of boyish roguery and monkey mischief generally. 
Ateles played tag, and Cebus attacked our humble self in fun 
and the bald man in earnest. On the doctrine of identity, our 
illiterate neighbor spoke more astutely than he supposed when he 
bade a teasing wag not to cut up any more monkey-didos with him. 

Have we not seen in some men a humor of an inhuman sort, 
the delight in torment and destruction ? "Some one has called it 
"pure cussedness." Mixed with better traits, Cebus had this 
malady in streaks. He got loose once, and found his Avay to the 
closet of confections. A few minutes sufficed him to eat to sati- 
ety ; then the " pure cussedness " began to play. He took the 
precious sweets from the jars and threw them on the papered 
walls of the drawing-room. Oh, was not this the very delecta- 
tion of fun ? " A melancholy scene," did you say ? It was Mil- 
tonian: " Delectable both to behold and taste." Then came the 
smashing of glass and china, a most exciting perfomance. The 
scene of operations was now changed to the museum and study of 
the naturalist. Here he discovered a rich and novel field for the 
exercise of his peculiar talents. An aquarium contained .1 BVSOr 
ber of living salamanders. Cebus began an investigation. He 
is quite curious about live things. If in the present instance 
intended, it was very bunglingly done. Each 
taken out of the water, separately examined, its head 



1876.] Animal Humor. , 263 

taken off, and head and body laid on the floor. Jack had now 
had a tearing time. The mischief done seemed to be to his 
heart's content, so he slunk back to the shelf in his cage, on 
which he sat, and looked the very image of demure and passive 
harmlessness. We find here a humor of a grim and brutal sort, 
senseless and wanton, — as when the vicious boy who had badly 
burned a cat was asked his reason, and said, « Oh, I don't know. 
Only just for fun. I did n't mean anything." Human conduct 
abounds in this meaningless deviltry. Maybe this ogreish humor 
is a phase of that total depravity belonging alike to beasts and 

But for striking contrasts of fun and gravity, commend us to 
our young dog, Dick. On his mother's side he came from a 
high-bred stirps ; of his father we know nothing. When Dick 
set about a frolic, all his powers were enlisted for the occa- 
sion. In the truest sense he gave his whole mind to it. At 
make-believe anger no canine actor could excel, and I have not 
witnessed his equal. I have seen him fly at his mistress, whom 
ne loved with all the ardor of a devotee, as if the very furies 
m^pe led him. He would take her bare arm into his mouth and 
growl with the seeming ferocity of a Cerberus. Indeed, the sav- 
iSrri ,? ^owlwas one of the high colors in the picture. 
Had Dick been homo instead of canis, his histrionic rGle would 
ZVu? 6 , 6en a buccaneer > b ^dit, or some such marauding 
man of blood. No stage-strutting hero could roll his gutturals 
Zl u! J ' A Stranger enteri "S dari *8 °" e °f Dick's tragedy 
b iev ir th ° Ught hi8 mistre8S a d °°med -man. Make 
tamTt , Why ' DiGk W ° Uld 8imulate " th « ™r torrent, 
XT' T dwhirl ™ d <* passion," and all in the merest fun! 

P} a doggish joke, for when the splurge was over, not the 
1^ mark would there be on my lady's impfriled limb. I have 

compard tT ^ ** animal in real "*■ but lt ™ mild 
' pared to the apparent anmi . ^f ^ QD . „u 



let off 



apparent anger of these sham outbursts. And 



merry jets of doggish humor. When 



eneourawd t- rt j V J J uuggisu nuraor. vvnen 

^eflll° S °' * WOuld lau g h ' and so droll were these 



^me cachinnati 



would also stand 



they would set the household 



the table, and, when told, 



~- « "«"J v^ij IU1 <l 111' 

« the wiw'Tr-,- And ' What ™ S ^ st ™S°' ^ 
He eouldturn fr ° ll0witU the Widest sedateness of conduct. 

we sometimes found ,£*"" ^ ^ C ° mi ° al t0 the S rave - As 
tound, this very gravity was to u a decidedly annoy- 



264 . Animal Humor. [May, 

ing and inconvenient. If permitted to accompany me on a vil- 
lage stroll, he would walk behind with the deportment of a 
footman of the olden time ; but let a dog come along and look 
askance at his master, especially let his tail come in contact with 
him, however accidental it might be ; it made no matter about 
the size of the offender ; if Dick was small he was spry and wiry, 
and generally the chastisement he administered was short, sharp, 
and decisive. If it were a large dog, Dick would attack him 
scientifically. He was agile as a deer. If the subject for correc- 
tion was one of the heavy weights, Dick would spring into the 
air, and, descending upon him, inflict a bite in some unexpected 
place, his complicated tactics and rapid evolutions begetting in 
the mind of the burlier beast a perplexity like that of the Iron 
Duke when he beheld the strategy of the little Corsican : " Hang 
the fellow ! he fights contrary to rule ! " Dick's solicitous atten- 
tion to his master's personal welfare, though in spirit admirable, 
through his way of doing it had become to a degree oppressive, 
as the minister's good name was now associated with some 
notable canine contests. What would you think of the town 
Chronicle's going out of its way to wind up a dissertation on 
Village Dog-Fights thus : « As regards this well-fought contest 
between the expressman's big dog, Whitey, and the little Dom- 
inie in black, all must admire the dogged valor which save 
victory to the latter, and sent the former from the field with a 
sad curtailment of his high prestige ; and we cannot but compli- 
ment the professional gentleman on his being possessed of so 
large an amount of fighting capital, as the outcome of so small 
an investment in dog-flesh. The next time the little Dominie in 
black goes in, in the language of Lord Macaulay's old Roman, 
4 may we be there to see.' " Of course such ethical whisperings 
from so immaculate a source as the public press must be heeded. 
Having occasion to go to the railroad depot, we took the precau- 
tion to shut Dick up. But love laughs at locksmiths. Dick was 
at the depot as soon as his master, and occupying his usual place 
behind him. On came the train. A village mongrel, notorious 
for its habit of following horses and barking at them, came yelp- 
ing defiantly at the iron horse. We stood waiting for the train 
to stop ; this done, the bully dog retraced his steps to the plat- 
form, his tail wagging, expressive of approbation of his treat- 
ment of the great fire-fiend. It was evident that Dick, who bad 
kept close to my side, viewed the whole performance with honest 
but intense disgust. Generally, dogs take to us instinctively 5 



1876 -] Animal Humor. 265 

they seem to know that we like them j I have almost wondered 
if the genius of their race has not heard us quoting, " I am the 
friend of dogs, for they are honest creatures." However that 
may be, the bully dog approached us and looked as if claiming 
our approval of his conduct. To Dick this seemed sheer impu- 
dence, and an imposition on his master's good nature which on 
his part should not be allowed to go unpunished. The bully dog 
was the larger, and stood his ground well for a few moments', 
but the punishment Dick administered was very severe, and Sir 
Lofty withdrew in a very humble mood. Our efforts to take 
Dick off were of no avail. He would never leave a job unfin- 
ished. To our astonishment and disgust we heard the compli- 
ment from the crowd, " Good for the little Dominie in black ! " 
-Now, as the words dominie and clergyman are in these parts con- 
vertible terms, the minister naturally felt this to be a slur of an 
unpleasant personal character. 

With all his accomplishments, Dick is quite a young dog, but 
at an early age he gave us a manifestation of a very touching 
nature ; if it had been in a child it would have been called filial ; 
such as know the least about it will, as is the wont, probably call 
instinct. The dog had been engaged in a very hearty, rough- 
and-tumble game with our youngest boy, on the kitchen floor ; 
this gave Dick a decided advantage, and he made the best of it. 
At this juncture, old Maje, blind and decrepit with age, began 
whining at the door to go out for his daily airing. The day was 
very cold, and the ground white with the first decisive snow of 
^ n ^ er \ A11 this Dick knew, as he had been out that day, but 
a Maje, who was stone-blind and nearly deaf, was ignorant of 
«w situation. Dick at once stopped his fun and went out with 
the old dog. The poor old beast was on a call of nature ; Dick 
understood it all, and by certain pushes and other little canny 
evices got the old fellow to a proper place. Returning, he con- 
mued the same kind offices, taking care to get so beside the 
ind dog as to prevent his passing the door. Now just think 
a11 this - The new snow had put the blind dog at a disad- 
vantage by rendering the faculty of scent of small avail. All 
f s, the young dog comprehended ; and then he did not wait 
J* ;l "; " M A°g to make known his wants by a cry or otherwise, 
" r! '!ly ; llu l promptly anticipated them. Allowing the dog- 
. to have worked as would the man-mind, — and what other 
a ^ ln . thisc ase is supposable? — then are there not some fine 
n s in this benevolence of the young dog ? We may men- 



266 Animal Humor. [May, 

tion, too, that this self-imposed charity of the young dog was 
regularly repeated under similar conditions. An instance may 
be stated, as it excited in us who watched from the window 
both amusement and admiration. Though there was no snow, 
the day was extremely cold. The old dog wanted to go out, 
and Dick, of his own accord, took charge of him. I verily be- 
lieve that the conception of the young dog was that the old 
dog stood in danger of getting frozen from inability to find his 
way back to the house. But the old fellow, who does nothing 
but eat and sleep, is as fat as a bear about hibernation time. 
He fairly waddles with his environment of adipose tissue. Not 
so his youthful guide, who is wiry and lean from incessant a<tiv- 
ity. Now old Maje, feeling no discomfort, was in no haste to 
return ; but poor Dick stood shivering with the severity of the 
weather, and actually whined in his impatience to get the old 
dog home again. Still, notwithstanding the provoking insensi- 
bility of the old dog, his young benefactor did not leave him a 
moment until he had him safely housed once more. 

On this twenty-ninth day of February I went to see a seal on 
exhibition in New Brunswick, New Jersey. It had just been 
captured in the Raritan River, but a little below the city. The 
animal had fallen victim to a habit well understood by fishermen in 
other parts of the world, that of visiting a seine for the purpose 
of stealing fish. The difference was that this was a young seal, 
— it weighed but one hundred pounds, — and was not up to the 
tricks of the old ones, who knew the ins and the outs, and could 
elude the fishermen. This baby seal was rather pretty. Its 
sides were" mottled with ^w^m-leopard spots on a brown ground. 
The species was Phoca vitulina, the calf-seal, so called because of 
a calf-like cry which the species can make. There was nothing 
calvish in the conduct of the captive, however. Its captors were 
attentive to its wants, and really very kind to it. One of them 
undertook to pat it on the head, and got an ugly bite for his 
goodness. And what a head, so like that of a highly intelligent 
dog ; well might Cuvier call the group Callocephalus, the beau- 
tiful-headed beasts, so pretty are they, and so knowing, with their 
large, black, lustrous eyes. Now, among the quadrupedal mam- 
mals, the seals almost seem to lead off the Educabilia, or intel- 
ligent animals, in cranial excellence, owing to their high, thin- 
boned skulls and their large and finely convoluted brains. 

It must then be that the seal is not without a faculty for fun- 
How great its capacity for instruction is, we know. I was greatly 



1876.] Animal Humor. 267 

interested in observing its skill in disposing of an unsizable fish. 
Unfortunately, the seal to thrive in confinement must be well 
fed ; hence in its best condition it becomes lethargic, and there is 
too great a discount on its natural playfulness. They romp and 
tumble with one another, and have sham contests. But I once 
saw a seal that had dined to its satisfaction, and had one fish to 
spare, which was a menhaden. Feeling well after a good meal, 
it was in excellent disposition. It actually began to play with 
that remaining fish. It would seize the fish in its mouth, and, 
by means of that singularly springy neck, would with a jerk send 
it six or seven feet high in the air, and would utter a bark of 
delight, not unlike a pup, when the prey would fall splashing 
into the water. Then in bubbling glee our sea-dog would toss it 
into the air again. Then there were certain divings, and splash- 
ings, and bodily contortions, and shakings of the insensate fish as 
if it were alive, — actions all indicative of high animal enjoy- 
ment. I should think that this sport continued not less than ten 
minutes, when the animal probably was somewhat tired. 

The question arises as to the kind of fun, that is, its mental 
character. Was it like that of a boy tossing and catching his 
ball, a simple exercise of skill ? Or was it like the gambol of a 
lamb or a kid, mere animal gush ? I think it was like neither. 
It had in it a tinge of malicious exultation, the strong making 
game of the weak. How a cat will purr while it tosses the poor 
mouse, still alive, and perhaps even unhurt. There is in this a 
grim complacency, what seems to me a sort of vicious enjoyment, 
rf not of devilish delight. The boys had their fun, though it was 
death to the frogs. I think, too, that all this is germane to the 
experience of certain natures sodden with chronic irony. There 
can be no doubt that carnivorous animals enjoy the excitement 
°f pursuit, and preeminently the success of capture. As a rule, 
too, it is probably true that while hunger is unallayed no time is 
lost in sporting with the captive prey ; also generally no captures 
are attempted except when necessity prompts. But some ani- 
mals will capture and destroy sometimes for no other reason than 
that there is opportunity to do it, and they find fun in so doing. 
Alas, that, in this regard, in most unmanly preeminence stands 
man himself ! 

There is an animal also of thin skull and large brain capacity, 
noted for its puffing and blowing as it gambols in the sea. This 
18 tn e porpoise, Phoccena communis. Twenty years ago it was 
often seen in Raritan Bay. To us the sight was full of interest. 



268 Animal Humor. \}&%j, 

With what a rhythmical movement these monsters would gam- 
bol along in line, one huge fellow taking the lead, and every one 
behind duplicating his movements, pretty much like the play of 
boys, "follow your leader." These porcine mammals of the sea 
follow the migrations of the Clupidce, the family of fishes in 
which the shad, menhaden or moss-bunker, herring, and others 
are found. Thus we see it especially in the spring and fall. 
As food is his object, the porpoise keeps in their wake, and that 
of the fierce and active blue-fish, Temnodon saltator. Not more 
terrified would a herd of gazelles be before a band of tigers, than 
is the moss-bunker, Alosa menhaden, when pursued by the blue- 
fish. The poor things crowd like a moving bank, compacted by 
the devouring pursuer, and the pursuer, so intent upon his vic- 
tims, is in turn pursued ; for the porpoise is pressing behind. 

Though I implicitly believe it myself, yet I did not see what I 
am about to relate. I have heard it more than once from the 
eye-witness, an intelligent and much-respected man. He had 
been commander of a coasting vessel. Said he, " It was early 
fall, and I was running with garden stuff from Key port to New 
York. I saw several porpoises. They were going in a line, 
much as you always see them, but the two head ones had each 
a blue-fish, with which it played as a cat does with a mouse. 
They were some distance off, and I might be mistaken about the 
height ; but each porpoise would throw up its fish high into the 
air, maybe ten or twelve feet, as nigh as I could judge. Just 
after each toss-up of the blue-fish, each porpoise would duck its 
nose, by a forward pitch of its "body." 

" That was indeed surprising. Let me ask, Did each porpoise 
catch the fish when it fell ? " 

"That I could n't say, but should think most like not. I think 
it picked the fish up each time. One of them I know tossed its 
fish up at least seven times in close succession, before it stopped. 
I am satisfied, too, that it was one and the same blue-fish all the 

44 Well, well," we thought. " Then this queer, ogreish fun is 
found among porpoises, seals, and cats ! And is not this, the 
grimmest, whether among animals or men, also the lowest hu- 

In regard to Jack's lassoing the chestnuts on the floor, I do 
not see, with an able thinker, the necessity of his inheriting the 
trick, as an achievement by some arboreal ancestor who used a 
vine or pliant twig to loop in some coveted fruit on the tree. 



1876 -J Animal Humor. 269 

That Jack might have had a grandfather smart enough for that, 
one may not dispute ; but that he ever had an ancestor similarly 
held in limbo, and tried as he had been, is far from probable 
Necessity is the mother of invention ; and to me it seems that 
Jack, with no thanks to any ancestor, had to exercise his own 
wits in an original way. We had a coati-mundi, Nama fusca, 
which we often tantalized with an egg, a dainty that it loved too 
well. Having tied the animal by the neck to the table leg, the 
egg was put at an unreasonable distance on the floor. The ani- 
mal would tug at the string, and make most earnest efforts to ob- 
j ani l!lL ' P rize . fil,s t by the use of the forefeet, and then, failing, 
by the use of the hinder. This being also of no avail, it would 
change its tactics completely, pulling by its neck at the string, so 
as to extend its body hindward as much as possible, then stretch- 
ing its tail towards the egg, at the same time bending it to a lit- 
tle curve at the end ; then steadying and stiffening the tail by the 
use of one Hand, with which hand a gentle pushing movement 
was secured, and the egg was rolled in a curve, which was short- 
ened by the shortening or increased bending of the tail, and so 
the prize was brought within reach. To my mind there seems to 
have been but one view of the case possible to both animals. 
When the exigency first arose, it was to each one a new prob- 
lem and had to receive from each an original solution. The 
monkey got at it by looping a string, and Nasua by curving the 
°*»aal extremity; and, let it be noticed, each one used the im- 
fWWised implement, so to speak, in his hand. In this way the 
one got the chestnuts, and the other got the egg. The point is 
«»*, whatever of intellectual force each might have inherited, 
each had to meet the exigency for himself, and in his own way. 
atl and Ceb us bad each to rebus the riddle for himself. How- 
ever easy it might be afterwards to each, it was at first an inven- 
tion. 

And now, what of it all ? It was not designed to inflict upon 

chink ^ * Wearj homil y- We felt like stealin S' as through a 
> a glance at the knowingness of the lower animal life. Surely 



there is 



tr ue humo] 



among them, as related to a psychology of their ■ 



uld but get at it ; and is it not worth the 



- ing . This unfeeling humor of the cats and porpoises and 
eals; that dogged gravity, rollicking mirth, and filial bearing of 

e canine Dick ; the chattering sport, the grotesque fun, theutili- 
^nan genius, and the discerning spirit of that « son of Cebid* ; " 

6 ttllte -hke cooing, harmless play, social disposition, and pa- 



270 Our Wild Gooseberries. [May. 

thetic trustfulness of the poor monkey, Marimonda, — what of it 
all ? " Ah ! " said our friend with the orthopterous " doxy," but 
who is afraid of crickets, and despises bugs generally, " Don't you 
mind ; is it not all simply instinct ? " " No," we answer, " but a 
part of a grand something, more complex and less blind ; a fabric 
which God has been building since before the world." Our friend, 
who looked astonished, was one who always made full tithes of the 
anise and the cummin, even if he did overlook the weightier me- 
ters of the law. Hence he was so particular about his vowels, 
too. " Fay -brick, fay-brick," he reiterated ; " what do you 
mean?" "Ay, bricks; ay, bricks, indeed," we said, simulat- 
ing the sound, " bits of the divine temple, you know. That is 



OUR WILD GOOSEBERRIES. 



rFHE American Naturalist may be of much use as a medium 
-*- of communication with every part of the country, and our 
scattered botanists may turn it to greater account than they have 
yet done. There are many queries to ask, and bits of informa- 
tion wanted, which the local botanist or zoologist may answer or 
supply with little trouble and essential advantage to the science. 
The only difficulty is to bring the demand into connection with 
the source of supply. For that I know no. better way, in the 
present instance, than to use the columns of this widely circu- 
lated journal, if I may be permitted to do so. Let me say, then, 
to the botanists, that the wild gooseberries of the United Stat* 
are not in a satisfactory condition as they stand in the books, 
and that information and specimens are needed from very various 
parts of the country. A response to this appeal made by a few 
persons happily situated, in this and that part of the country, 
may perhaps clear up the principal difficulties in the course of 

A cursory sketch of our species as I now understand them 
may show what is most wanting to' a better understanding 01 

I. Let us begin with the species which a gardener might say 
was a cross between a gooseberry and a currant, namely, — 

Mibes lacustre Poir., well marked by having racemes of numer- 
ous small flowers, in the manner of a common currant, the blos- 
som as small and as open, and the very small reddish berries 



1876.] Our Wild Gooseberries. 271 

beset with some scattered bristles. This abounds through the 
north, in cold wet woods from Newfoundland to the Pacific. 
There is a dwarf variety of this in the higher Rocky Mountains 
and northwestward, smaller in all its parts, and with fewer- 
flowered racemes. In some publications I have called it R. se- 
tosum, a species said to have been raised by the Loddiges from 
seed sent by Douglas. This very one was received from the 
Messrs. Loddiges under that name thirty years ago, and cultivated 
in the Cambridge Botanic Garden. Yet it is not the plant pub- 
lished and figured by Lindley, as will be presently seen. I pass 

II. The true gooseberries, with peduncles bearing only one or 
two or at most four flowers, and calyx-cup bell-shaped or tubu- 
lar. These may be roughly arranged in three sets by the color 
of the flower. 

(1.) Yellow-flowered. The only one of this subdivision is the 

R. leptanthum Gray. It belongs to the Rocky Mountains of 
Colorado and New Mexico, and to the drier parts of the Sierra 
Nevada. It was first collected by Dr. Edwin James in Long's 
expedition, but was named and described long afterwards, from 
Fendler's New Mexican collection. It is an insignificant, small- 
leaved, and slender-flowered species. The dried flowers do not 
seem to have been really yellow, but they are said to be so by 
the collectors in the Sierra Nevada, where, however, the flower is 
generally shorter, broader, and more downy. We would ask 
those who have met or may meet with it in the Rocky Mountain 
region if the flowers are really yellow or yellowish there. 

(2.) White or greenish flowered, sometimes with a dull pur- 
plish tinge. To this division belong all our edible gooseberries, 
and here lie the main difficulties in the way of distinguishing 
the species. 

Two of these may be known from the rest by having the lobes 
°f the calyx decidedly shorter than the tube, and their berries 
are apt to be prickly. They are 

R. setosum Lindl., a white-flowered species with a narrow cy- 
lindrical calyx-tube. It takes its name from the slender scat- 
tered prickles on the branches ; but these are sometimes wanting, 



this being 



. all the species. 



Denies are either perfectly smooth and naked, or beset \ 
p, W brisfcl y prickles. This is the R. oxyacanthoides of Hooker's 
ora ' bu t certainly not of Linnaeus. It belongs to the Saskatche- 
wan region, extending into Montana and Wyoming. No. 107 of 



272 Our Wild Gooseberries. [May, 

Dr. Parry's Wyoming collection is a small-leaved form of it, 
which was mistaken for R. leptanthum ; but the flower is per- 
fectly smooth, evidently white, and the style deeply cleft and 
hairy towards the base. I suspect that this species inhabits the 
northwestern shore of Lake Superior. Botanists visiting that 
district should look for a species with pure white flowers, a half- 
inch or less in length, wit h cylindrical lube, and stamens decid- 
edly shorter than the lobes. 

R. cynosbati L. This dogberry, as the name denotes, is well 
marked by the usually strong prickles on the fruit, weak prickles 
on the stems (the thorns sometimes wanting altogether, but occa- 
sionally well developed), slender peduncles, and especially by the 
broadly bell-shaped tube of the greenish flower. It is common 
from Lower Canada to Illinois, and in the Alleghanies to Virginia. 
It is found occasionally with the berries as well as the stems wholly 
unarmed. 

In the rest of this section the calyx-lobes are decidedly longer 
than the short, bell-shaped tube ; and the berries are smooth and 
naked, purple, sweet and pleasant-tasted. 

R. gracile Michx. is the most distinct of them. It is well 
named on account of the slender peduncles, long and narrow ca- 
lyx-lobes, and almost capillary filaments. The latter are half an 
inch long, generally connivent or closely parallel, and soon con- 
spicuously longer than the oblong-linear calyx-lobes, which, 
being reflexed in anthesis, as in all these species, then expose 
the whole length of the stamens to view. The flower is whiter 
than in the rest of these species, having barely a slight tinge of 
green. The berry is pretty large, and is prized in cultivation, 
under the name of Missouri gooseberry. It is the R. Muso***. 
ense of Nuttall in Torrey and Gray's Flora. It is also, as the 
figure shows, the R. niveum of Lindley in the Botanical Regis- 
ter; and from the character, it is probably the R. triflorum 0* 
Hooker's Flora. It ranges from Tennessee and Illinois to the 
northern borders of Texas, and northwestward into the Rocky 
Mountains. In Michaux's Flora the habitat is the mountains of 
Tennessee ; but I suppose it will not be found in the Alleghanies. 
A note with the specimens in his herbarium at the Jardin des 
Plantes records that they were collected " in itinere Nashville. 

R. rotundifolium Michx. is a species of the Alleghany Mount- 
ains, ranging northward and eastward into New York and the 
western borders of Massachusetts. Professor Dewey long a g° 
collected it near Williamstown, and Professor Tuckerman's Am- 



1876 -J Our Wild Gooseberries. 273 

herst catalogue gives West River Mountain, on the authority 
of Hitchcock. I wish to obtain flowering specimens of it from 
all parts of its range ; for the limits between it and the following 
are obscure. Its range is more southern and comparatively re- 
stricted ; the flower is narrower, and the stamens longer, becom- 
ing a quarter of an inch in length and nearly double that of the 
calyx-lobes ; the peduncles also are longer ; but this character 
does not hold out well. Although it belongs to a district most 
of all familiar to botanists, I have seen few flowering specimens. 
The New York catalogue in the Bulletin of the Torrey Club 
cites « Fort Lee, W. H. L., and foot of 60th Street, North River. 
LeRoy." A specimen of the latter is preserved in the Torrey 
Mrfwiium, and is the European gooseberry. R. triflorum Willd 
is, I think, rightly referred to R. rotundifolium, an earlier name. 

R. oxyacanthoides L. We must bring this name into use in 
Place of R. Mrtellum Michx. (which is generally inappropriate), 
for no reasonable doubt remains that it is the Hudson's Bay 
gooseberry, figured by Dillenius, upon which Linna3us founded 
the species. It is the common smooth-fruited gooseberry of 
New England and the whole region northward, and it extends 
westward to and beyond the Rocky Mountains, and even into 
the Sierra Nevada of California. It has shorter peduncles than 
the preceding, but this distinction is by no means absolute; the 
flower is broader, and the stamens merely equal or only slightly 
exceed the calyx-lobes. It is the R. saxosum of Hooker, whose 
X. oxyacanthoides is R. setosum, while that of Michaux is R. 

&. divaricatum Douglas. This takes the place of all the pre- 
p m g on the Pacific side, and ranges from the lower part of 

•' itoinia (in a downy form, R. villosum of Nuttall) to British 
Columbia, meeting R. oxyacanthoides in the interior. There is a 
torm (var. irriguum, the R. irriguum of Douglas), of which we 
know too little, which comes near to R. rotundifolium. The 
species is pretty well marked by its slender peduncle and pedi- 
cels, mostly 3-4-flowered, oblong and livid-purple calyx-lobes, 
and short and broad tube ; the stamens about a quarter of an 
inch long, and thrice the length of the broadly wedge-shaped 
th , nearly Whlte P etals ' The flower ' ovar y included > is from a 

l (t \° lmlf an inch 3 ° ng ' The berries are said to be excellent. 

of «» Red " fl owered species. These all belong to the Pacific side 

the continent, are large-flowered, and their berries are unfit to 



274 Our Wild Gooseberries. [May, 

R. Lobbii Gray. I am under the necessity of giving a name to 
this little known but apparently very distinct species. It is fig- 
ured by Hooker in the Botanical Magazine, tab. 4931, as B. 
subvestitum Hook, and Arn., from a Californian plant sent by 
the late Mr. Lobb (whether seeds or young plants is not men- 
tioned, probably seeds) to his employers, Messrs. Veitch and Son. 
But the only specimens I have seen are one, exactly agreeing with 
the plate, from Kew, ticketed " Vancouver's Island, Wood," and 
another, from the Willamette, in the same region, collected by 
Mr. Howell. It should be particularly looked for in California, 
north of San Francisco Bay, and along the coast to British Colum- 
bia. Perhaps the Californian habitat is an error. The species 
may be distinguished by its dark, purplish-rod calyx of half an 
inch in length, not counting the ovary, nearly white petals half 
the length of the stamens, very glandular but unarmed ovary, 
and especially by the short, oval, and very blunt anthers, winch 
are dotted with a few warty glands on the back. These short 
and blunt anthers are shared with all the preceding species, but 
not with the following. 

R. Menziesii Pursh, well marked by its sagittate anthers, 
with a mucronate tip. The flowers are as large as in the preced- 
ing, or considerably larger, but variable in this respect, and of a 
similar purplish-red color ; and the berry is large and prickly, 
usually densely, sometimes sparsely so ; the prickles sometimes 
strong and spiny, sometimes shorter, bristle-like, and when young 
gland-tipped. It extends from the southern part of Oregon 
through the whole length of California, and varies exceedingly- 
R. subvestitum Hook, and Arn., as to all the specimens of 
Douglas, on which it was founded, is a form of the species not 
far removed from the typical. R. Californicum and R. occiden- 
tale Hook, and Arn. seem different enough in the original and 
in many other specimens, being very small-leaved and maiwj 
glabrous. I had formerly (in the fourth volume of the Pacific 
Railroad Explorations) united these two with R. subvestitum. 
I am now of opinion that all are forms of R. Menzimi. MJ3J 
are, however, commended to the notice of native CaJLifonW' 

R. speciosum Pursh. The scarlet-flowered gooseberry of Cali- 
fornia is so distinct that a separate section has been provided for 
it. Besides the bright color and ample size of the flowers, its 
calyx-lobes do not turn back, and are often only four ; the stamens 
protrude for an inch or more, and the rather dry berry is f eW " 



vv nne, tubular, with short Tobcs'.V. V.V. ' [ [ [ [ . .*.'.'." .' .' .' .' .' .' .' .' .* [ [ \ [ ^r™ 

pedtabe '.7.7.B.' Cyhosb. 

b lobes longer than the tube and shorter than 

iau the tube! 



1876.] Multiplication by Fission in Stentor Mulleri. 275 

seeded. Its synonymous names are characteristic: R. stamineum 
banth for the remarkably long stamens ; R. fuchsioides Berlan- 
dier, for the resemblance to a fuchsia-blossom. In England, 
where it is hardy, it is prized in cultivation for its brilliant red 
flowers garnished by the shining and almost evergreen leaves. 
Trained to the wall of a house, it may be carried to the hmghi 
of fifteen or twenty feet. 
A synoptical view of the species will be c 



Yellow or yello' 



n ?. a1 - vx tj nTVA1 

Purplish-red, larger ; Pacific species : divaricatum. 

Anthers oval, pointless t. t 

Anthers sagUtate,muc r 'onat*e' RMemiT 

Scarlet-red, very long-stamened/caHfirnian '. .' .' .' .* 7.7 [ [ \ [ [ ZZ'jL fZTZu. 

MULTIPLICATION BY FISSION IN STENTOR MULLERI 

1 , A P tlle g° od fortune, one evening lately, to observe the 
two T° CeSS ° f the division of a lar g e &*»*** *&&* »*« 

hvor°U < mdividuals > b y fi ssion. The circumstances were 
the cl Prettj carefu % notin g the phenomena exhibited as 

not Unge W6nt ° n ' and there were some of them which l have 
queJ 6611 ^ arrated ' and which have a direct bearing upon the 

T , n 0± the organization of this group of infusoria. 
Lake F Water WaS fr ° m the Maumee River at Toledo > 0hio > on 
fers S f nd Contained a good variety of infusoria and of roti- 
\ ,lad Propagated quite rapidly in the glass jar, among 
P^nts carelessly thrown into it. The specimen of 
^ or under consideration attracted my attention by its size, 
stalk b^ ab ° Ut f ° Ur lnmdredth s (.04) of an inch in length, the 
the n lg stretched ^ it appeared about one half longer than 
Proportions shown in t.hp p n ^vin, nf S't^i.nr Mallei i„ *h« 



S» cDi *^ 



3 engraving of Stentor Mulleri in the 



Wh «? 1 *"*'"" J dictionary. 

lis f r S 6 * aminill g other forms in the compressor, I returned to 
ime to time to enjoy its beauties, and soon noticed 




276 Multiplication by Fission in Stentor Miilleri. [May, 

that the ciliary motion was extending from the disk, at the point 
of depression in its horseshoe shape, down along the body about 
one quarter of its whole length, and this gradually became more 
marked until the Stentor presented the appearance shown in out- 
line in Figure 16 a. The 
portion of the body immedi- 
ately under the disk swelled 
slightly, and the general 
form somewhat resembled 
the flower of the calla lily. 
The next change noticed 
was that at the bottom of 
the slit in the side the open- 
ing took a rounded form, so 
that the chain-like motion of the cilia looked (as a member of my 
family expressed it) as if a chain were running over a little pulley, 
and the cilia made a continuous fringe around the disk, down the 
body, and around the circular end of the slit, as shown in Figure 
1QL 

The body now began to show a protuberant swelling immedi- 
ately under [it-ning at the lower end of the cil- 
iated slit, and in a few minutes this enlargement equaled in diam- 
eter the previous thickness of the body of the Stentor at this point, 
thus doubling its size at the point of greatest expansion. The 
protuberance was distinctly on one side of the body, and appeared 
as an excrescence, the ciliated line running out to its apex, and 
the Stentor now showing the appearance outlined in Figure 16 c. 
The swelling continued to increase, involving gradually tin 
whole circumference of the body of the animalcule, the upper 
side of the protuberance assumed a sharper angle to the longitu- 
dinal line of the body, becoming more disk-like, while the line 
of the cilia enlarged so as to show an approach to the genera 
form of the original head of the Stentor, the new oral opening 
gradually enlarging and deepening. Figure 16 d shows the ap- 
pearance about a quarter of an hour later than that represented 
by Figure 16 c. 

The slit line between the two disks now disappeared, and ;lt 
the end of another quarter of an hour the upper portion of the 
body was attached to the lower by a connection no thicker than 
the tail of the original had been, though in each the disk was 
about one third smaller than the original disk, and the slope 
from it to the smaller part of the body below was much les* 



1876.] Multiplication by Fission in Stentor MullerL 277 

abrupt than in the usual stretched form of the animal when its 
disk is expanded. Figure 16 e represents its appearance at this 
time. The oral opening of the lower disk was now plainly seen to 
connect with the general internal canal by a circular orifice which 
varied in size, sometimes disappearing as if closed by a sphincter. 
Up to this period of development the Stentor had kept its 
place, attached by its tail to the upper glass of the Wenham 
compressor, its body stretched at great length, its cilia in rapid 
and vigorous motion, the whole animal waving slowly or par- 
tially rotating on its longitudinal axis. Now, however, it quickly 
retracted with a spring like the recoil of a bit of stretched India- 
rubber, in the manner common to it and the smaller Vorticella; 
which have long pedicels. The two parts of the body, or more 
properly the twin bodies, enlarged in diameter while shortening 
in length, and it was apparent that the mass of each was about 
equal to the other, although the lower part had been more than 
twice as long as the upper when the whole had been stretched at 
full length. The form of the parts was now almost exactly alike 
m each, and resembled the common bell-shaped Vorticelhe, such 
as Vorticella campanula, etc. In the retraction the internal canal, 
which now became plainly visible, also enlarged in diameter when 
relieved from the stretch, and appeared slightly convoluted. It 
passed out from the lower body just below the margin of the 
disk, and entered the upper body at its caudal extremity, appar- 
ently having only an extremely thin membranous wall at the 
point of junction of the two bodies. These bodies now began a 
sort of swaying and gyratory motion, the lower one still fast to 
Jie glass by its tail, and the upper one swinging slowly around, 
the umbilicus between the two becoming smaller and smaller as if 
twisted up. Figure 16/ is a sketch of the appearance at this time. 
Suddenly the connection parted, and the two Stentors swam 
separately away, both assuming the common form of the animal- 
u e when free-swimming, and differing from the original indi- 
^dual only i n being of smaller size. 

le complete transformation through all the stages I have 
noted occupied about two hours. I did not observe any internal 
difference of structure at the point where the swelling first began. 
TT dlsti nctly marked internal canal or sack could be seen when 
ne body W a S stretched to its full length, but the manner in 
which it became unmistakably visible on the sudden retraction 
, , e ° r L e the fi nal separation of the parts looked strongly as if it 
*ad been there, but was drawn out to such tenuity as to be no 
n ger apparent through the semi-translucent body. 



278 Primitive Man. [May, 

Again, there was no doubt in regard to the fact that the cili- 
ated line or slit extending from the disk down the body of the 
animalcule became apparent only after it had been some time 
under observation, and that the length and activity of the cilia 
along it increased rapidly within a very few minutes, so as to be- 
come a striking and marked feature of its appearance. This 
raises the question whether the fringe of cilia down the body, as 
described, is a specific characteristic of the Stentor Midln-i, of is 
not rather a mark of the beginning of fission in all Stentors, —a 
question which an amateur naturalist may state, but will not 
presume to express an opinion upon. 

In the instance above reported it is noteworthy that, except in 
the first appearance of the ciliated line down the body, there was 
nothing resembling a division by cutting or splitting. The body 
was of larger diameter than before, both above and below the 
new disk, when it first assumed the form of a protuberance with 
a ciliated circle on its anterior side ; and the subsequent diminu- 
tion of the diameter of the body and tail of the upper individual 
was gradual throughout its length, through the stages shown by 
the drawings. 

The observations were made with a quarter-inch objective of 
low angle, but excellent definition and penetration, with the B 
eyepiece, and the situation of the Stentor in the compressor was 
very favorable for an unobstructed view of the phenomena at all 



PRIMITIVE MAN. 1 

rFHE steady progress of discovery justifies the inference that 
-*• man, in the earliest periods of his existence of which we 
have any knowledge, was at the best a savage, enjoying the ad- 
vantage of a few rude inventions. According to the theory of 
evolution, which has the merit of being based on and not being 
inconsistent with observed analogies and processes of nature, he 
must have gone through a period when he was passing out of the 
animal into the human state, when he was not yet provided with 
tools of any sort, and when he lived simply the life of a brute. 

No proofs, however, of man in this earliest stage have as yet 
been found, and the term " primitive man," if intended to be 
strictly applied, is at present a misnomer. The earliest traces 
thus far discovered do not reveal to us his beginning. This is 
still hidden in that mysterious past out of which he has emerged 
and into which neither science nor exploration has as yet pene- 

1 From the late Professor Wyman's Shell-Mounds of Florida. 



1876.] Primitive Man. ' 279 

trated. The ancient remains found in California, brought to the 
notice of the scientific world by Professor J. D. Whitney, and 
referred by him to the tertiary period, exhibit man as a maker of 
instruments for grinding grain, and other implements of stone, 
and, as far as an imperfect skull goes, essentially the same in his 
anatomical features as now. Or should those instances be set 
aside, as some geologists, waiting for further discoveries, are in- 
clined to do, we still have remains from the gravels of the 
Somme in France, as well as the Ouse and other localities in 
England. Some of these last, Mr. Evans believes, date back to 
the time when the Needles of the Isle of Wight were connected 
with the mainland, the sea of Solent was the mouth of a river, 
and Britain was probably still a peninsula. The time since these 
conditions existed may not, he says, be estimated by years, but 
unquestionably, extends back an immense period beyond that 
covered by history. The abundance of flint implements belong- 
ing to the gravels above referred to shows that man was then and 
there far from being primitive. 

^ If the theory of evolution be true, and man was ever in a tran- 
sitional or strictly primitive state, without tools or implements, it 
will be obvious that all the knowledge we can expect ever to 
have of him in this condition must come through the remains of 
his own body, older than his inventions, which will carry us back 
still further towards, if not to, his starting-point, as the geologist 
is carried back in time to the early period of the existence of 
animals. Even with regard to these, geology fails to reveal to 
us their actual beginning. Possibly the early remains of man 
may never be known, for during the revolutions which have 
taken place on the surface of the earth and the inroads which 
the sea has made upon the land, if a suggestion of Cuvier may 
be accepted, " the places where he [man] dwelt may have been 
utterly destroyed and his bones buried at the bottom of the ex- 
isting seas." 

It is almost certain that his bones, if simply left on the sur- 
face, would, like those of land animals generally, be soon entirely 
destroyed, either by the effects of the weather or by their consump- 
tion for food by wild animals. Nothing can be more striking 
tnan the complete destruction of the bones of the birds and rep- 
tjjes, some of gigantic size, which once thronged the shores in 
the valley of the Connecticut River. Were it not for the pres- 
ervation of their seemingly more perishable footprints, the mere 
Knowledge that they once lived would not now exist. The same 



280 Primitive Man. [May, 

is doubtless true of other kinds whose habitat was inland, and 
whole races of mammals and birds may have once existed of 
which no traces whatever remain, and this too within compara- 
tively recent times. Keeping these considerations in view, it 
seems not at all improbable that the same fate may have be- 
fallen the remains of the earliest man. 

As the ease with which food can be procured determines the 
habitat of animals, so also it determines that of man, and this 
naturally brings him to the shores of seas, lakes, and rivers, where 
it can be had with the greatest ease. It is hardly conceivable 
that he could, under any circumstances, at once have entered 
upon an agricultural or hunter life, since these both require expe- 
dients and inventions which long experience and education alone 
can give. Without tools or inventions of any sort, life in the 
forest, it would seem, would be for him almost impossible. Be 
this as it may, the wide geographical distribution of shell-heaps 
shows how generally man has been attracted by the kinds of 
food the shores yield, including not only shell-fish but fish and 
game, and the extent to which they have supplied his wants in 
his early periods. They are found at intervals along the whole 
Atlantic coast of the United States from the Bay of Fundy to 
the Gulf of Mexico, on the shores of California and northward to 
Behring's Sea, in Central America, the Gulf of Guayaquil, OB 
the coast of Brazil, Patagonia, and Terra del Fuego, on the shores 
of England, Scotland, Ireland, France, and Denmark, in the 
Malay Peninsula, in Australia and Tasmania, and will doubtless 
be discovered in still other parts of the world. 

Besides those just mentioned, other shell-heaps have been found 
on the interior rivers of the continent, especially the Mississippi 
and its tributaries. Atwater, who was the pioneer in inquiries 
relating to them, described the mounds of mussel shells on the 
banks of the Muskingum, containing various articles of human 
make, and LeSueur and Say explored a mound at New Harmony, 
Indiana, as early as 1826. Since then Dr. D. G. Brinton, Dr. 
Cox, Generals Humphreys and Abbott, and Professor C. A. 
White have described many other localities in the great Mis- 
sissippi Valley where they exist in large numbers, and show how 
generally the habit of eating shell-fish prevailed in that region. 
In addition to the fresh- water shell-heaps of the St. John's, 
Florida, we have examined a well-defined shell-heap on the 
shores of the Concord, in Massachusetts, consisting of Vnio 
eomplanatus, living specimens of which can be had from the river 



1876.] Primitive Man. 281 

near by. This shell-heap contains charcoal and pieces of worked 
bone and stone. It had been previously visited by the late H. 
D. Thoreau, who regarded it as an ancient Indian dwelling-place, 
though he published no account of it. Quite recently Professor 
Hartt, of Cornell University, has explored some of the interior 
fresh-water shell-mounds of Brazil, which are very extensive, 
selections from which are preserved in the Peabody Museum at 
Cambridge. 

The study of the works of man from the oldest shell-heaps, 
the only records left of the progress their builders had made, 
tends to show that he was as far advanced at least as are the 
miserable creatures the traveler meets with now in the Straits 
of Magellan, or as are the Dyacks of Borneo, the Australians, or 
the Andaman Islanders. In other words, we have the life of 
man manifested now in a condition as primitive and no more ad- 
vanced towards civilization than in the earliest prehistoric periods 
which have thus far been studied. 

The only records we have of the earliest inhabitants of the St. 
John's River are the shell-mounds and the comparatively few im- 
plements they contain. Judging from these of the progress the 
natives had made, it is clear that they too had passed out of the 
primitive stage, had become hunters, had made some progress in 
the useful arts ; and, however rude their implements, they were 
such as could only have been the result of long-continued efforts. 
They have left no signs of having learned the art of agriculture, 
but their tools, if they had any, may have been of a perishable 
nature. In the oldest mounds no pottery has been discovered, the 
builders of them no doubt having been ignorant of it. Though 
implements of wrought shell, bone, and stone are met with, they 
are not numerous, and those of stone from the interior of the 
mounds are quite rare. 

The bones of animals obtained by hunting on land are in com- 
paratively small numbers, so that, far as indications go, the older 
natives subsisted chiefly on fish and shell-fish. This is strikingly 
the case at the mound" on Huntoon Creek, Osceola Mound, the 
wound next above Blue Spring, and at Horse Landing. Whether 
the inhabitants who built and dwelt upon the older shell-heaps, 
or even upon the later ones, were the same people the first ex- 
plorers found occupying the shores of the St. John's is uncertain. 
he x ndians who lived in Florida later had no traditions with 
j" e gard to those who preceded them in remote times, nor is it to 
e ex Pected that they should have, for they were not the descend- 



282 The Cave Beetles of Kentucky. [May, 

ants of the original inhabitants, but were comparatively recent 
immigrants themselves. The early explorers make no reference 
whatsoever to the shell-mounds on the river, though they could 
hardly have failed to do so if these had continued to be occupied 
as dwelling-places, and the fresh -water shells were still to be 
used to any considerable extent as articles of food. They dis- 
tinctly state that the natives lived by hunting and agriculture, 
describe the details of carrying on these operations, the prepara- 
tion of dried meat, and mention the different articles, animal and 
vegetable, used, their mode of collecting food in granaries, and 
of preparing them ; but nothing is said of the shell-fish. The 
inference is that the shell-mounds had already ceased to be occu- 
pied as dwelling-places, and that the natives had outlived the 
mode of life which gave rise to them, or had been replaced by 
others of different habits. 

This conclusion is consistent with the fact that trees are now 
growing on some of the mounds, which are older than the dis- 
covery of America. 

Unfortunately, we have no satisfactory means of making a 
comparison between the older and the later inhabitants, derived 
from parts of the human skeleton. There is an abundance of 
crania and bones taken from the burial-mounds, but it is hardly 
safe to assume that these represent the earliest dwellers on 
the St. John's. The bones from Osceola Mound and those from 
Rock Island, in Lake Munroe, are the only ones we have met 
with which can be claimed to be unequivocally contemporaneous 
with the earliest shell-heaps. The skull from the first of these 
places has anatomical peculiarities which differ from those of the 
skulls of the burial-mounds, but as there is but one, it may be 
exceptional. 

The relation of the older to the later inhabitants, that is, of 
those dwelling on the St. John's centuries before and at the time 
of the first explorations, must remain for the present a matter 
of doubt. We need more complete explorations of the burial 
mounds than have as yet been made, and more complete anatom- 
ical comparisons of the crania and bones. 

THE CAVE BEETLES OF KENTUCKY. 

BY A. 8. PACKARD, JR. 

'THOSE who have gone the rounds of Mammoth Cave, crossed 
X the river Styx, with its muddy banks, passed through \ : ^ 
Man's Misery, through the damp passages of the Labyrinth, 



1876.] The Gave Beetles of Kentucky. 283 

and lunched by Richardson's Spring, know that not a* little dis- 
comfort is experienced in the course of the journey. But for 
the insect-hunter, who must spend hours on his knees in search- 
ing for the less common forms, or lie prone on his face on damp 
sand -banks, — the bed of the ancient stream which tunneled 
out these underground passages, — wearied vertebra? and knee- 
joints, the smoke and drippings of the oil lamps or candles, are 
Che drawbacks which must be endured if he would be successful 
in his search for cave life. By two or three weeks' research in a 
few of the caves of Kentucky, in company with Professor Shaler, 
in charge of the Geological Survey of Kentucky, and with the aid 
of Mr. F. G. Sanborn, we were enabled to more than double the 
number of species of insects known to inhabit Mammoth and ad- 
joining caves, and to discover a new and rich cave-fauna in the 
Carter caves in the eastern part of the State ; while in examining 
Weyer's Cave, in Virginia, not known before to be tenanted by 
insects, some. twenty species were discovered by the writer. The 
results of our researches on the spiders of these caves have already 
been given in the Naturalist (ix. 274, 278), by Mr. J. H. 
Emerton and myself. In the present brief essay I propose to draw 
attention to the amount of variation in the cave beetles, and to 
ne early stages of a few species, referring the reader for more 
details to -papers hereafter to appear in the memoirs of the Geo- 
logical Survey of Kentucky. It may here be said that the flies 
nave been examined by Baron Osten Sacken, the beetles have 
been identified by Dr. J. L. LeConte, while the Amphipod 
Crustacea have been identified by Prof. S. I. Smith, and papers 
on the Phalangids and other low arachnids and the mites are in 
3 of preparation by the i 



Of the 



two genera of blind beetles (Anophthalmus and Ade- 



lops) which occur in caves in Kentucky and Southern Europe 

ne smaller form is Adelops. Its appearance and habits are very 
different from those of Anophthalmus. It belongs to the family 
°t burying beetles, or Silphida>, the larger species of which are 
Known to deposit their eggs in dead birds, mice, etc., previously 
burying them beneath the surface of the soil. The Adelops, 

owever, is allied to a diminutive member of the family, Catops, 
l ne species of which live in fungi, carrion, or in ants' nests. The 
Melops (Plate II., Figure 4, enlarged), named Adelops Mrtus by 

r - Tellkampf, its original discoverer, is most abundant under 

08e st °nes at Richardson's S 
years tak en their lunch, the : 



The Gave Beetles of Kentucky. 



[May. 




284 

pasturage for these beetles. It is probable also that the dead 
bodies of bats, crickets, and smaller insects sustain them in other 
caverns and in different portions of Mammoth Cave. 

The other blind beetles, various species of Anophthalmus, prey 
without doubt chiefly on living objects, perhaps the young of 
their own kind or of the Adelops, as they belong to the family 
of carnivorous beetles, the Carabidce. They are found running 
over damp sand-banks, sometimes hiding in little pits under 

Six species of Anophthalmus are known, of which A. Tell- 
kampjii is the largest and most abundant, 
occurring in Mammoth and the neighboring 
caves. Next to this, Anophthalmus Mene- 
triesi of Motschultzy is most common. In 
the grottoes near Mammoth Cave, Cave City 
Cave, and Walnut Hill Spring Cave, near 
Glasgow Junction, Mr. Sanborn found An- 
ophthalmus pubescens Horn. In Wyan- 
dotte Cave A. tenuis Horn and A. eremita 
Horn are the only blind beetles found, and 
the former has been found in Bradford Cave. 
Indiana, by Dr. John Sloan and myself. 
The larger number of species occur in the 
Mammoth Cave region, while in the Carter 
caves of Eastern Kentucky only one species 
(A. pusio Horn) occurred, which was orig- 
inally discovered by Professor Cope in Erharts Cave, Montgom- 
ery Co., Virginia. No Adelops has occurred away from the 
Mammoth Cave region. 

The subject of the degree of variation in these cave beetles is 
an interesting one. So uniform are their physical surroundings : 
the perpetual darkness, even annual temperature, varying but 
very slightly winter or summer, unless in the smaller caverns ; 
the dryness of the air, though after the spring freshets the caves 
are doubtless damper than at other seasons of the year (this 
may not be the case with Wyandotte Cave, which is remarkably 
dry compared with Mammoth Cave) ; all these conditions must 
certainly tend to produce much persistence of form and size in 
these beetles. 

I will give a few notes regarding differences in size, to show 
how much variation does occur. In twenty-two specimens of 
Anophthalmus Tellkampfii (.0.30 inch in length) from Salt Cave, 



1876.] The Cave Beetles of Kentucky. 285 

there was absolutely no difference from a number of examples of 
the same species from Mammoth Cave. Eleven A. Tellkampfii 
from White's Cave, a small cavern near the surface, did not 
differ in any respect from a number of Mammoth Cave specimens, 
both sets measuring 0.30 inch. Fourteen A. Tellkampfii col- 
lected by Mr. Sanborn in Sugar Bowl Cave, three miles north- 
west of Glasgow Junction, were the same as those from Mammoth 
Cave, but among them was some variation in size ; the longest 
individual was 0.30 inch, the shortest 0.25 inch. Out of sixty- 
five A. Tellkampfii collected by Mr. Sanborn in Long Cave, 
nearly one mile from daylight, the longest was 0.30 and the 
shortest was 0.25 inch. Out of twenty-seven specimens of A. 
Tellkampfii from one locality in Mammoth Cave, the Labyrinth, 
the amount of variation was exceedingly slight, none being over 
0.30 inch and the smallest 0.27 inch in length. 
The smaller species of Anophthalmias seem to vary more than 
it, probably owing to the fact that the caves they occur 
n are in most cases smaller, nearer the surface, and therefore with 
a less equitable temperature and more sudden alternations of 
dampness and dryness. For example, of eighteen specimens of 
A tenuis, the largest measured 0.20 and the smallest 0.16 inch, 
ut there was less uniformity in size among these than in A. 
lellkampfii from Mammoth Cave, for nearly a third were smaller 
than the others, while out of about eighteen A. Tellkampfii only 
one or two were dwarfed. Individuals of Anophthalmia' Mene- 
tnesi (also a smaller species than Tellkampfii} from different 
caves, varied somewhat in size. The Adelops hirtus varies more in 
proportion than the species of Anophthalmia; thus of twenty- 
two examples all taken from the Labyrinth, the largest were 0.12 
inch long, and the smallest 0.09 inch. Of this species two thirds 
were males. It appears, then, that there is a slight variation in 
e, and the main factor in bringing it about seems rather to be 
o j Want of sufficient food than any other cause. The tendency 
variation is to a diminution of size, and this is generally among 
insect*, where the climate is not extreme, owing to lack of suffi- 
cient food. And to the wanderer in these great grottoes the 
u ght constantly presents itself to the mind, How do these in- 



sects, f ew and 



scattered as they are, get enough t 



Perpetual hunger they must undergo was well illustrated in 

^yandotte Cave, where, on kneeling in the path, one could see 

m ers of the common myriopod of that cave (Scoterpes cav- 

marum Cope) gathered around the hardened drops of tallow 



286 The Gave Beetles of Kentucky. [May, 

which strew the pathways of that wonderful cave. One could 
almost hear them, in the stillness of the Titanic corridors and 
domes of that magnificent cavern, exclaim over a newly fallen 
drop of tallow from our candles, " Here 's richness ! " 

A few beetles were found in these caves which had evidently 
found their way in from out-of-doors, as they had eyes and did 
not differ from normal specimens. They are figured on the ac- 
companying plate. 1 Figure 1 represents Batrisus spretus LeC. 
(much enlarged), one of the family Pselaphidce ; two females 
were found at the end of Dixon's Cave. It is a common beetle, 
and ranges from Vermont to Georgia, according to Dr. LeConte. 
Figure 12 represents Quedius fulgidus (much enlarged). It oc- 
curred in Dixon's Cave and also in Weyer's ; it is a common 
species in the Middle and Western States. This and two other 
Staphylinidce or rove beetles, represented by Figures 6 and 7, 
and a larva of this family (Figure 9) occurred in different caves 
and all had eyes, being evidently fresh arrivals in these subter- 
ranean retreats. 

It was a matter of much importance to discover the larva 1 , or 
young, of the blind beetles, the true autochthones of these caverns, 



in order to ascertain whether the young are born blind, partied- 
larly as the larvae of these genera, so far as we know, had not 
yet been discovered in Europe. Systematic research in different 
caves soon revealed several larvas, both of Anophthalmus and of 
Adelops. The young Anophthalmias occurred in several caves ; 
particularly in Salt Cave, on damp sand-banks, under stones. 
Figure 3 represents what is without much doubt the larva of A 
Tellkampjii. This larva is more closely allied to that of the Eu- 
ropean Pterostichus nigrita, figured by Schiodte, than any other 
form with which I have been able to compare it, but the body is 
rather slenderer, the head much longer and narrower, and the 
mouth-parts longer, while the caudal appendages are shorter. 
The end of the body is like those of Hurpahi* and StenoUphis, 
as figured by Schiodte, but the mandibles resemble those of Ear- 
palus. There are no traces of eyes, and the body is white and 

1 Explanation of Plate II. Figure 1, Batrisus spretus. Figure 2, pupa of Anoph- 
><>fii. Figure 3, larva of Anophthalmus T< '■>•■.>■ ■■ •'• '• mt.nna; 

3 b, labium and palpi ; 3 c, maxilla and palpi ; 3d, labium. Figure 4, I 

4 a, antenna of larva. Figure 5, larva of Adelops hirtus. Figure 6, a Staphylmid 
beetle. Figure 7, a Staphylinid beetle. Figure 8, an unknown blin.i 

larva from Bat Cave, one of the Carter eaves. Figure !♦ larva 

Natobaum, ix. 276). Figure 12, Quedius fulgidus. All the figures are magnified 




CAVE COLEOPTERA OF KENTUCK 



1876.] University Instruction in Botany. 287 

rather soft, not chitinous as in most Carabid lame. There is no 
sculpturing on the head, and but a single claw on the legs. 

At the same time and in the same sand-banks occurred the 
pupa (Figure 2, enlarged) of the same species. It rested in 
little pits or cells three quarters of an inch long under flat stones, 
and was eyeless and white, with the harder parts of the mouth 
honey-yellow in color. 

Though the pupa of the Adelops was not found, two larvae 
occurred, one in the Labyrinth of Mammoth Cave. Figure 5 
represents this interesting form, and 4 a one of the antenna mag- 
nified. It bears some resemblance to the larva of AgathUlium (I 
know of no figure of a young Catops with which to compare it), 
Nt the head is very much larger and nearly as wide as the pro- 
thoracic segments. The body tapers rapidly from the prothorax 
to the end, and is provided with long hairs ; it is dull white. 
There are no traces of eyes. 

UNIVERSITY INSTRUCTION IN BOTANY. 



^y ITHIN the last few years the interest of the public in bo- 
tanical questions has very much increased, and not only is 
Here a greater demand for popular lectures, but the introduc- 
tion of the study of botany into the common schools is beginning 
7 '■'■ s ' ""sh agitated. But who is to teach the subject? If 
6 P llbllc des jre to have botany taught in the schools, it is not, 
as some botanists seem to suppose, because they regard botanical 
acts as more important than other facts, — historical, philological, 
e c.. , — but because, of all the natural sciences, botany is the most 
easily and cheaply adapted to the school-room, and it is to natu- 
ral history in some form or other that the public look for a rem- 
) or the evil of book-cramming and memorizing which prevails 
// " !l1 ' -l'"ols. But although botany may serve to counteract 
eood f ^ Wl11 n0t accom P lisu that object unless in the hands of 
^ oa teachers, and the very first requisite of a good teacher is a 
^ mihanty with the subject he is to teach. If the introduction 
ne tan ? into the schools is precipitated, the instructors will 
^cessanly be those who are already overburdened with other 
Ranches which they are obliged to teach, and which furthermore 
na? l a ° h ln exac % the way in which botany or any other 
them l SClenCG Sh ° uld neyer be tau S ht - The school-teachers 
elves must be taught, and that will not be an easy task, 



288 University Instruction in Botany. [May. 

considering how little time they have for study, and Iioav many 
of them have reached an age when entering upon new habits of 
thought is not easy. Evidently, if there is to be any instruction 
in botany in the schools which shall amount to anything, it must 
come from those who have studied the subject at college, for it is 
iu the universities that botanical experts are found as instructors 
and it is only there that any systematic and continued study of 
the subject can be attempted. Let us see what sort of botany is 
taught in the universities, and whether any improvement is 
needed or to be desired. 

In many of our universities, and we are not now speaking of 
agricultural colleges, which must be classed with technical schools 
rather than with universities, the study of botany is elective, and 
it would not be far from correct to say that it is chosen by a mod- 
erately large per cent, of students for a single year, and contin- 
ued by a much smaller number, perhaps a third or a quarter. 
during a second year. In all our colleges, whether botany is 
compulsory or elective, the students are not required or supposed 
to have any previous acquaintance with the subject, and in all, 
the first step is to recognize the organs of flowering plants and 
to learn their names. As soon as possible, the student is re- 
quested to provide himself with a manual ; a number of flowers, 
from the field or the hot house, as the season serves, is then placed 
in his hands, and he is required, if we may be allowed the expres- 
sion, to " go through " them. This last process varies somewhat 
with the fancy of the instructor and the laboratory facilities of 
the college. Where the botanical chair is combined with those 
of zoology, chemistry, and the modern languages, the "going 
through" consists in tracking a flower, just as though it were a 
thief or a woodchuck, to its hiding-place in the manual by means 
of a key. A neat pencil mark against the specific name serves 
to indicate one step onward in the mental development of the 
student. In those colleges where there is a greater division of 
labor, and one man is obliged to teach only botany and zoology, 
there is generally provided a printed schedule in which the stu- 
dent as he proceeds records the number of stamens and pistils, 
the interesting fact whether the ovary is superior or inferior, and 
other similar details, until, having filled his schedule, he is at lib- 
erty to turn to the key and follow the course we have previously 
described. 

In a few colleges, during the first year, students of botany, > n 
addition to the analysis of flowering plants, hear a few lectures 



I876 -J University Instruction in Botany. 289 

on cryptogams or vegetable physiology, but the great fact is 
never lost sight of that the aim and end of all botanical instruction 
is, at the end of a year's study, to be able to take one's manual, 
and, with a certain degree of facility, find the names of common 
flowering plants. That is the first task to be accomplished, and 
not until it is accomplished is any student to be allowed to take 
up anything else. As a matter of fact; comparatively few students 
pursue the subject for a second year, if by the university regula- 
tions they are allowed to give it up ; and the question suggests 
itself, What is the result of a botanical course of one year ? The 
good students who have, under the circumstances, made the best 
possible use of their time, are able to analyze simple flowering 
plants with tolerable ease, and know the characters of some of 
the orders of phaenogams ; and those who have not studied so 
faithfully are perhaps able to explain to a cruelly skeptical father 
that a rose-bush is very much like an apple-tree, or to compare 
notes with Emily, who has just returned from Miss Smith's Insti- 
tution for Young Ladies, and, after some months' study, is not 
quite sure whether the calyx is inside or outside the petals. 

VVe must confess that it seems to us a mistaken notion to teach 
botany as though the naming of phamogams, or even the general 
morphology of phaenogams, was any more important than other 
opics. We know from experience that but a very small per 
cent, of the students who study botany in college ever do learn 
enough to enable them to analyze flowers with any ease, and that 
even the few who can, rarely continue the study after leaving 
college, from want of either time or opportunity for herboriz- 
ing- The botanical students in any university may be divided 
in o three classes : those who have a passion, a natural aptitude, 
^ the subject, whose number is always very small, and includes 
ose who are to become the experts and higher teachers of 
otany ; those of good ability and industry, who elect botany 
jcause they hope to find it an aid afterwards when they shall 
s u y a profession or become school-teachers ; and those who 
select the study as part of a plan of general culture and im- 

!om 6me f ' Thei ' e is a f ° Urth Class ' but We neVer menti ° n that ' 
niposed of young gentlemen whose principal aim in coming to 
Allege seems to be to get as little good out of it as possible. We 
ould hke to know which of these three classes is benefited by 
ca e alm °st exclusive study of phsenogams for the first and, in the 
^ e of many of them, the only year of their botanical studies. 
ToT 6 Wll ° Wisl1 for S enera l culture get a smattering of the tech- 



290 University Instruction in Botany. [May, 

nicalities of one branch of the vegetable kingdom, and are in 
absolute ignorance of all the rest. Those who think a one year's 
course, as at present arranged, will help them as teachers, will 
find themselves without a general notion of the vegetable king- 
dom, without which it will not be easy to instruct others. The 
medical man will find that he would be able to recognize several 
useful plants were it not for the fact that they do not grow 
within several hundred miles of his home, and, on the other hand, 
that he has no knowledge either of vegetable histology, which 
would be a great assistance in his pathological studies, or of 
fungi, which are interesting in connection with the origin of sev- 
eral diseases. 

If we look at the effect of the usual training on the first class 
we have mentioned, those who really wish to become botanists, 
the conclusion we must draw is not flattering. Why is it that 
so few botanical workers are found in this country ? Where are 
the young men of ability and enthusiasm who ought to be work- 
ing up some of the interesting botanical questions ? They are 
all — studying zoology. As botanists, we cannot of course ad- 
mit that botany is in itself any less interesting than zoology, and 
if we turn to Germany, for example, we find that the proportion 
of young men who enter on a botanical career there is as large as 
that of those devoting themselves to zoology. If at the present 
day we are feeling the want of young botanists to investigate or 
instruct, we must not forget that at the door of every botanical 
lecture-room the would-be enthusiast has encountered a manual 
of flowering plants, through which he must make his way if h e 
would see any light beyond. What wonder that many were at- 
tracted to the other house, where manuals were not so much in 
vogue, and the study of development encouraged. It must be 
said with shame that not a single work on the development or 
minute histology of any plant or group of plants has ever been 
written by an American, if we except some of Sullivant's bry- 
ological works. It has finally become the prevailing belief tha 
if one would do anything for botany he must find or make new 
species. It is certainly of the greatest importance that event- 
ually all species of plants should be described, but it is very inju- 
rious to have one who has not a large library and herbarium a - 
tempt to decide what is new and what is not. 

We would by no means disparage the systematic study of 
phaenogams, but by conveying the idea that such a study un- 
derlies and is the key to the whole science of botany, numbers 



1876 -J University Instruction in Botany. 291 

of young men whose talents and services could ill be spared 
have been driven to other branches of natural history. The 
great mistake seems to us to have been that it has been at- 
tempted to educate all who study botany as though they intended 
to become botanical specialists in the department of descriptive 
phamogamy, whereas not one in a thousand has such an inten- 
tion or desire. 

We would see the instruction in botany for the first year 
ather directed to give a good general view of the whole vege- 
table kingdom, than to enable the student to follow out specific 
analysis in any one department. We would not Wet that 
bo any is one of the divisions of biology ; we would, as far as pos- 
sible, examine plants in action, and would let the student devote 
hs time for the first year to the examination of a few illustrations 
ot the different types of vegetable life, from the highest to the 
ZT w° Ut ailJ attGm P t at teachin S Particular genera and 
pecies. We would teach the student how to investigate for 
mselt, and avoid imparting any encyclopedic knowledge. At 
close of one year's study the student would be in a condi- 
tion to know in which direction he prefers to work, and in his 
12 W? * 6r ^^ ° f « nd ? hG coul d Pursue more and more ,„ 
de ail the department which his own taste may dictate, not, h„ w - 
™' , " !| i;'ly neglecting others. We think it absolutely neces- 
v that i„ the first year of study a general course should be 
P s e I vlnch the student should be obliged to think for him- 

Z aUd should «* be allowed to depend on books. 
kind° W 6r lnt ° P artic «lara, we should prefer something of this 
Oct J Sa PP° se the college term to begin about the first of 

St., 1 7 e " d the flrSt of the Allowing July, and that the 

uaent spends three hours a day for three days in the week in 
e laboratory, or, in case a lecture is given on any day, only two 
dim + « laboratoi T w «rk. The material is selected to suit the 
c We of the Northern States. 

lustr C K° BER AND NoVEMBBR - — One lecture a week. (A.) II- 
etc tih 8 ° f Palmella i Nostoc , Oscillaria, Desmids, Spirogyra, 
»se of°th W the StrUCture of the cel1 ' and acc * uire facilit 7 in the 

(B ^ e com P oun d microscope and in making preparations. 
shnVA Myxom y c ***, to examine the plasmodium. Nitella, to 
( C 7° VementS ° f P-toplasm. 
(D \ p 0r Syzygtt™, to illustrate conjugation. 
Dec < eron °spora viticola, to show oospores and zoospores. 
cember, January, and February. — (A.) Basidiomy- 



292 University Instruction in Botany. [May, 

cetes, illustrated by Agaricus, Lactarius, Corticium, etc., alco- 
holic material, to show structure of mycelium and hymenium. 

(B.) Ascomycetes, showing ascospores, conidia, pycnidia, etc., 
illustrated by Eurotium, Phyllactinia, Microsphceria, Peziza, 
MorcMla, Sphceria morbosa, Sphceria herbarum, Hypomyces, 

(C.) Lichens of different kinds. 

(D.) Funis, Laminaria, Ectocarpus, Polysiphonia, Callith- 
amnion. (These last can be obtained alive in winter by those 
living near the sea-coast, and all except Fucus can be kept per- 
fectly well in alcohol.) 

The subjects just mentioned for December, January, and Feb- 
ruary should occupy two days out of the three, part of the time 
being spent in attending lectures and part in laboratory work. 
The third day, the organography of flowering plants should be 
studied. 

March. — (A.) Ferns and mosses, structure of prothallus 
and fruit, one day in the week. 

(B.) Vegetable physiology, one day. 

(C.) Organography of flowering plants, one day. 

April, May, and June. — One day a week to histology of 
higher plants. Two days to analysis of flowering plants. With 
a certain number of lectures on vegetable physiology, and in 
early summer a glance at the Uredinei, illustrated by acidial 
and uredo forms and dried material of teleutospores. 

Such would be the course which we should advise for a person 
old enough, and with sufficient previous training to be admitted to 
college. For persons in their first and second childhood, kinder- 
garten methods will do very well, but for young men we prefer 
work. The course we have laid down requires work with the 
compound microscope from the very beginning. There is no e- 
nying that the microscope has caused a revolution in botany* • lI,< 
no botanist of the present day, no matter what depa 
may take up, can afford to be ignorant of the practical working 
of that instrument. Vegetable histology is the very A B C ° t 
botany, and no botanical work can be solid unless it rests on t a 
foundation. To be sure, the microscopical societies have done 
their beat to bring the microscope into disrepute, by encouraging 
the notion that there is a department of microscopy apart from 
botany, zoology, and pathology, and by striving to reconimen ^ 
the public large and expensive instruments, which, however pe 
feet they may be optically, are ill adapted for steady work an 



1876.] University Instruction in Botany. 293 

for the slender means of most young people. The microscope as 
an optical instrument comes under the province of physics, and 
microscopy is no more a science apart from biology and pathol- 
ogy Aan is cutlery. We might just as well have a department 
of cutlery in which we could include those animals and plants 
which are usually studied by sections made with razors and 
knives. Every college where botany is taught should be pro- 
vided with a number of compound microscopes. Microscopes 
sufficiently good for ordinary purposes can be purchased in Eu- 
rope for thirty dollars gold, or even somewhat less, and can be 
imported free of duty for college use. Even with duty paid, 
fifty dollars ought to secure a very fair French or German mi- 
croscope. 

Our proposed course implies a tolerably large proportion of 
laboratory work, and we may be allowed here to say a few 
words on what seems to be a growing evil in this country, the 
abuse of laboratories. A few years ago, when it was seen that 
instruction in natural history could not be imparted successfully 
from books alone, laboratories were introduced to remedy the 
evil. ■ It was said, In the laboratory the student will see the ob- 
ject itself ; he will learn to compare, to reason, and, instead of 
merely committing a number of pages to memory, he will have 
a practical knowledge of the subject. But the laboratory s\ stem 
has worked in a curious way, although in a way which might 
ave been anticipated, and it has not proved such a complete 
panacea as had been expected. If, on the one hand, to those 
who are anxious to learn and are fond of investigation, laboratory 
exercises are of incalculable value, it must be said, on the other 
1 m,! - that the average American student is thoroughly impressed 
with the idea that, if he does not understand a thing at once, it 
* the business of the instructor to explain it to him. It never 
Wna that it may be for his advantage to work the thing 
°ut hi ms elf. From childhood up, having been taught that edu- 
cation consists in the acquisition of facts, he cannot see that the 
ttere process of acquiring a fact may be of more importance than 
the fact itself. But the case is even worse. The fourth class of 
students which we described, those who wish to have as easy a 
"ne as possible, regard the laboratories as especially created for 
. P U1 'Pose of escaping study, and to the laboratories they flock 
^ crowds. They seriously interfere with the work of the good 
udents, by compelling the instructor to spend a great part of 
lme ln explaining things which they ought to work out for 



294 University Instruction in Botany. [May, 

themselves. If a shirk is a nuisance in the lecture-room, he is 
tenfold a nuisance in the laboratory, where he wastes not only 
time, but room and working materials. 

Were the courses in our colleges elective, in the true sense of 
the word, this difficulty of the crowding of laboratories by stu- 
dents who are not in earnest would not arise. But even where 
the botanical course is nominally elective, there is a certain com- 
pulsion employed in the form of check-lists or compulsory recita- 
tions. As it is, we see no other way out of the difficulty than to 
divide a botanical class of any size into two sections ; one includ- 
ing those who are willing to work, who should have laboratory 
privileges; the other including the shirks, who should be re- 
quired only to attend lectures and recitations, and who should, of 
course, be marked on a lower scale. There is no good reason 
why a college should provide laboratory room and equipments 
for those whose principal object in going to the laboratory is to 
try to worm out of the instructor the questions of the next ex- 
ainination paper. There is another class of well-meaning but 
exasperating students, birds of passage we must call them, who 
have usually not more than fifteen or twenty minutes to spend 
at any one time in the laboratory. We see no reason why, if a 
student actually has no time at his disposal, he should be allowed 
to throw a laboratory into confusion by a series of abrupt en- 
trances and as abrupt departures. 

We have purposely omitted any lectures on economic botany 
from our proposed course. However useful a study it may be 
for apothecaries, it is entirely unadapted to college students. 
They might just as well try to learn so many pages out of the 
dictionary. It would be very desirable to remember the names 
and orders of a large number of useful and injurious plants. 
But no one ever does who is not obliged to lecture twice a year 
on the subject, and even then he is compelled to refresh his WtBB? 
ory by frequent perusal of certain books whose titles we will not 
mention, for fear that it may be said that we are betraying pro- 
fessional secrets. 

In Germany the botanical professors generally give a princi- 
pal course of lectures, which is attended by those who are pay- 
ing particular attention to the science, and a shorter accessory 
course, on some limited subject, which is attended by those 
who simply wish to know what is going on in the botanical 
world, without making any detailed study. It seems to us that 
something similar would be advisable in this country. There is 



1876 -] Recent Literature. 295 

always a number of students who would like to hear a few lect- 
ures on some of the most interesting topics relating to botany, 
students intending to become clergymen, lawyers, business men, 
whose time is so occupied with historical or philosophical courses 
that they could not take a regular botanical course. The few 
minutes which they could spend in a laboratory would be time 
thrown away. They want a few plain lectures on some limited 
topic, and the topic should be changed from year to year. On 
one year there might be, for instance, six lectures on fertilization 
of higher plants. The next year a course on the lower limit of 
the vegetable kingdom. Or there might be two or three courses 
of six lectures during the same year. 

RECENT LITERATURE. 
A Few Suggestions on Tree-Planting. 1 — The increased inter- 
est awakened of late in arboriculture may be attributed in part to a 
realizing sense that we have been forest-spendthrifts, and that it is about 
time for us to begin economizing, and if possible repair our wasted pat- 
rimony. There is a vague fear that certain dangers are impending over 
us as a penalty for recklessly clearing the timber lands, and there seems 
to be a very general wish that our neighbors should do something at once. 
Now, what to do and how to do it are not so clear. 

In a course of lectures last winter at the Lowell Institute, Dr. Hough 
gave a frank statement of the difficulties. In the Eastern States the tra- 
ditions of two hundred years are against tree-planting ; there is no con- 
cert of action in any community; there are many contingenci* * jrbich 
may render the scheme in any one case a very hazardous one, and there 
s. at all events, a long time to wait for any pecuniary profit. 

Besides these difficulties we may state another, namely, that in few 
towns are the assessors of taxes in a right frame of mind. And so each 
man would gladly see his neighbor do something at once. This little 
Pamphlet by Mr. Sargent gives many sensible hints as to what to do, 
and we call attention to the paper because it is a practical one, advo- 
cating practicable methods. Meanwhile, as our communities are acting 
on Professor Northrop's suggestion to plant centennial trees in the towns 
^is year, can they not try afew centennial forests ? 

Die Pflanzenwelt Norwegens. 2 — This work is in two parts. 

The first, published in 1873, is a general account of the physical features 

of Norway and Sweden, with particular reference to the distribution of 

4 Few Suggestions on Tree-Planting. By C. S. Sahoent, A. B., Director of the 

iw!i ;V ! '". !Vt .' im of """-"rcl diversity. From Report of Massachusetts State 

,er. (The Vegetation of 



296 Recent Literature. [May, 

wild pfonta and the cultivation of the useful ones. The second part bears 
the date 1875 and is more special in its nature, being in fact a popular 
flora of Scandinavia. The volumes are interesting throughout. We 
shall hope to transfer to our General Notes some of Professor Schiibeler's 
statements respecting the remarkable climate of Norway, and the occur- 
rence of Southern plants near the Arctic circle. 

Botanisciiki: .1 LHRESBBBlCHt. 1 — Annual Report on Botany, by Dr. 
Just, of Carlsruhe. The second year of this valuable compendium is an 
improvement on the first. The several departments of botany are con- 
ducted by different men, chiefly specialists, and in a careful manner. The 
articles which have appeared in the journals, and proceedings of societies, 
are given in abstract. Besides these there are very good critiques of the 
botanical books for the year (1874). The Year-Book is of great value 
to all botanists who wish to keep up with the published researches, and 
who have not time to study all the journals. It must be said, moreover, 
that the range bich Dr. Just and his associates have 

selected their notes is very wide, comp : and agricult- 

ural journals, which are not likely ordinarily to fall in a botanistffl wu). 
Technologists and chemists have had their annuals for several years, and 
it is high time that botanists should fare as well. Botanists ought to con- 
gratulate themselves that the task has fallen into such good hands, and 
they should see to it that the enterprise is sustained. 

Kneeland's American in Iceland. 2 — This little book, issued about 
the same time as Judge Caton's Summer in Norway, affords fresh evi- 
dence that American tourists are taking more interest than formerly in 
Northern Europe, particularly the Scandinavian peninsula and the isl- 
ands to the westward, the homes of the Northmen. Dr. Kneeland, 
book is an intelligent and by no means dull account of Iceland, preceded 
by pleasant sketches of the Orkney, Shetland, and Faroe Islands, as 
seen during a voyage of a few weeks in 1874, the year of the thousandth 
anniversary of the settlement of Iceland by the Northmen. 

Our readers will examine with much interest the chapter on the 
Physical Characters of Iceland, in which the author adopts the view 
that Iceland was uplifted towards the end of the glacial epoch, and that 
this explains the traces of a milder climate in Greenland before the ad- 
vent of man. At present the geographical position of Iceland is there- 
fore very important, as " with Jan Meyen and Spitzbergen it forms a 
natural barrier against the desolation of Northern Europe by the ice 
from Arctic regions ; should Iceland disappear beneath the waters, ^ or_ 

1 Berlin : GebriiderBorntrager, 1875, 1876. ,. , 

*An American in Iceland. An Account of its Scenery, People, and IH- >y WJ 
a Description of its Millennial Celebration in August, 1*74; ">' ,!l N "" s " 
' "kn, v, >h. tland, and Faroe Islands, and the Great Eruption of 1874. By SamW 
Kneeland. With Map an. . ,v„od, Brooke 



Recent Literature. 



-1\M 



way would have the cold of Greenland, the north of England would 
become frozen, and Greenland would be green again." 

Now that we have in Montana the Yellowstone Park, with its hun- 
dreds of geysers, some throwing loftier streams than the Great Geyser 
of Itseland, which sends a shower not over one hundred feet high, the 
Haukadaly Valley of Iceland must hereafter assume a more modest 
place in our geographies. But for many years more travelers will see 




o~j »^r of Icelar 
loaned by the publh 
11 has been irritated 



•by pou 



of Montana. Our figure (18), kindly 
the Strokr or " churn " geyser, after 
cart-load of sods down its capacious 



298 Recent Literature. [May, 

throat." The column of water is about one hundred feet high, and while 
the geyser is recovering from the effects of this novel emetic we leave 
the subject of Iceland and its sensitive interior. 

Hassard's Floral Decorations. 1 — This little manual seems to 

It will afford many a new suggestion, and the hints are in good taste. 
We select the titles of a few chapters to give some idea of the scope of 
the work : Preparing Flowers, Wiring Flowers, Gumming Flowers, 
Keeping Prepared Flowers Fresh ; Plants through the Table, Decora- 
tions for Buffets; Table Decorations for Christmas Day; Arrangement 
of Fruit for Dessert ; Vases for the Breakfast-Table ; Vases for the 
Drawing-Room ; Button-Hole Bouquets and Coat Flowers ; Pot Plants 
in Rooms; Window Gardening, Hanging-Baskets, Fern-Ci e , Stands 
of Plants ; Plant-Stands for Halls ; The Grouping of Plants in Rooms. 

K*c*nt Hooks and Pamphlets. — Myths of the New World. By D. G. Brin- 
ton. Second Edition, revised, from New Plates. New York : Henry Holt & Co. 

Angola and the River Congo. By Joachim John Monteiro. With Map and Illus- 
trations. New York : Macmillan & Co. 1876. 12mo, pp. 354. $2.50. 

Contributions a l'Histoire A * Noyau embry- 

les. 1876. 8vo, pp. 50. With a Plate, 
d Holzwespen. Von C. G. A. Brischke 
und Dr. G. Zaddach. 4to, pp. 23-89. 1875. With Three Plates. 
Birds. (From the Encyclopaedia Britanniea. ninth edition, iii. 728-778.) By Alfred 

Geological Survey of Alabama. Report of Progress for 1875. By E. A. Smith. 
Montgomery, Alabama. 1876. 8vo, pp. 220. 

Geological Survey of New Jersey. Annual Report of the State Geologist for the 
Year 1875. By Geo. H. Cooke. Trenton. 1875. 8vo, pp. 41. With a Map. 

The Affinity of the Mollusca and Molluscoida. By W. K. Brooks. (From the 
Proceedings of the Boston Society of Nat ura I History, xviii 225-235,1876.) 

Botanical Articles. By Prof. W. til be Bulletin 0* t" e 

Bussoy Institution, March, 1876. 8vo, pp. 404-454. With Six Plates. 

Bulletin of the United States Geological and' Geographical Survey of the Terri- 
tories. Vol. ii.,No. 2, Art. 1. Studies of the American Falconid*. By Robert 
Ridgway. Art. 2. Ornithology of Guadaloupe Island. By Robert Ridgway. Wash- 
ington, D. C. April 1, 1876. 8vo, pp. 91-195. With Two Plates. 

Notes on the Locust Invasion of 1874, in Manitoba and the Northwest Territtd* 
By G. M. Dawson. Montreal. 1876. 8vo, pp. 16. (From the Canadian Natural- 
Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology. Vol. iii., Nos. 11-14. Cam- 
bridge. March 27, 1876. 8vo, pp. 273-348. 
Transactions of the Kansas Academy of Science. Vol. iv. Topeka. 1875. 8ro, 



GENERAL NOTES. 
BOTANY. 1 
On the Rate of Movement of Water in Plants. — This subject 
has been frequently investigated since the time of Hales and Bonnet. 
Professor Sachs, of Wiirzburg, gave, as the result of his observations, 
the rate of 23 centimetres an hour. McNab, in 1871, made use of a 
solution of a salt of lithium, and traced it in its course through the 

These values are regarded by Sachs himself and others as too low. The 
methods are regarded by Professor Pfitzer, of Heidelberg, a u sit sf ic 
tory, and he suggested in 1873* another which yielded very remarkable 
results. He allowed the soil in some flower-pots containing plants to 
dry O o far as to cause drooping of the leaves. Then he noted the posi- 
tion of the leaves by means of needle points, and watered the soil freely. 
The leaves recovered their former positions rapidly, and the times were 
observed. The rate of 5 metres an hour was the highest noted. In 
Justicia Adhatoda leaves 25J centimetres above the ground moved in 
three minutes after the soil was watered. In 1874 McNab repeated the 
lithium experiments and obtained a higher rate than before, nearly 40 
inches in the hour. Looking upon this as too low, Pfitzer has again ex- 
perimented, this time with lithium nitrate. The water employed con- 
tained one half of one per cent, of the salt. The plants used were cut 
under the solution, and the cut end immersed therein for a while. Upon 
removal the plant was cut in lateral halves from above downward, and 
the parts were tested spectroscopically. Twigs of Philadelphus gave 
% Amarantus 6, and Helianthus 10 metres in the hour. The highest 
rate observed was in the case of a sunflower with leaves in bright sun- 
%ht ; here it was 22 metres in the hour. The results of later observa- 
tions are promised. 

The Influence of Light on the Color of Flowers.- It was 
shown by Sachs a dozen years ago that the blossoms of many plants can 
develop normally in perfect darkness. Plants which have a good supply 
of elaborated material stored up in bulbs or tubers were observed to 
nave flowers of normal shape and color, even when all the leaves had 
grown and the flower-buds opened in a dark room. If the buds are 
'^closed in opacpie cases, but the leaves exposed to sunlight so that 
assimilation is unhindered, the color and shape of the flowers remain 
normal. There were noticed by Sachs a few slight exceptions. Com- 
mon nasturtium blooming in the dark had flowers more yellow than usual ; 
w all-flower had smaller and brighter yellow blossoms than those which 
opened in the light ; scarlet-runner, brilliant flesh-red flowers ; large 
^napdragnii, usually i lilv ing flowers of deepest red, had, when blooming 
m the dar k, corollas which were white blotched with rose, and on the 
1 Conducted by Prof. G. L. Goodale. 



300 General Notes. [May, 

lower lip had a sulphur-yellow spot. Sorby, in 1873, showed by the spec- 
troscope that diminution in the amount of light prevents the formation 
of red coloring matter in the corolla of wall-flower, and changes the 
character of the yellow coloring matter. Askenasy was familiar wit":. 



these facts last s 



3 of experiments, the 



results of which have just been published. He concludes 
flowers need the light in order to acquire their normal color, but others 
are quite independent of it. This difference may be referred in some 
cases to defective nourishment of the plant kept in darkness, but this 
cannot explain all. The observations can be so easily made that we 
suggest to our readers a repetition of some of the experiments. The 
plants which gave the most striking results were Prunella, Silene, An- 
tirrhlmim. Palmonaria. Hyacinthus, and Tulipa. 

Tolmmsa. Menziesii, of Oregon (a curious rather than handsome 
saxifrageous plant, related to Tiarella), propagates naturally and freely 
by adventitious buds, produced at the junction of the leaf-stalk with the 
blade, in the manner of Begonia. We have five live plants that show 
this, sent by Elihu Hall, of Illinois, who calls our attention to the pecul- 
iarity. He states that any of the leaves may be taken off and used suc- 
cessfully for propagation. — A. Ghat. 

Mr. W. F. Flint sends good specimens of Astragalus Robbinsii Gray, 
from the limestone region about Queechy, N. H. 

Rate of Growth of Agave Scapes. —July 10, 1870. I measured 
a scape of Agave sisalensis to-day, and made two transverse slits with 
the point of my knife, six inches apart, one above the other, and not far 
from tip of scape. 

July 17th. The tip of scape is to-day 41 £ inches higher than it was 
on the 10th, and the upper incision is 3J inches and the lower one $ of 
an inch higher than they were on same day. 

July 22d. Three other plants measured to-day, whose scapes are re- 
spectively 30, 20, and 16 inches high. 

July 25th. In the last seventy-two hours the scapes have grown in 
height 17£, 12 J, and 10£ inches, respectively. 

Two transverse incisions were made, one 13| inches from the apex 
of scape, the other 18 inches below this ; the upper one has ascended 
3 J inches, and the lower one but ft of an inch. 

July 29th. Scape of No. 1 has ascended (its tip) in the last six days 
39 inches, and No. 2, 24 inches. (No. 3 was not measured.) 

August 5th. Tip of scape of No. 1 has ascended in fourteen days 
71 inches, and No. 2, 70 inches. 

August 22d. No. 1 has, in thirty-one days, ascended 12 feet and three 
inches, and No. 2, 12 feet and two inches. — N. B. Moobe, Manatee. 
Fla. 

The Teeth of Green Leaves as Organs for the Secbetio* 






1876 Botany. 301 

has been known since the announcement by Conrad Sprengel, in the 
last century, that on the stipules of certain Vicias there are secreting spots. 
Schlechtendal, in 1844, described the secretion of " sugar" by the leaves 
of Clerodendron and Viburnum Tinus. Unger noticed " sugar-glands " on 
tl« -e and on Acacia longlfolia. Caspary found similar glands on many 
plants, but it appears to have been Haustein who first thoroughly inves- 
tigated their structure. He thought the glands were in most cases mod- 
ified trichomes or plant-hairs. Reinke has lately reviewed the whole 
subject, and finds that in addition to the sugar-spots and sugar-hairs 
*ew are also modified serrations of the leaf-blade in many plants, 
which serve as organs for secreting matters; in some cases the exuda- 
of a saccharine character, but often of a mucilaginous nature. 
s Avium and some other species of Primus, Kmrria Japoniea, 
h<>m centi/olia, Cydonia Japonica, Betula alba,"and many other plants 
are spoken of in his memoir as p"3ssessing"leaf-teeth which secrete freely. 
A few plates accompany Reinke's paper. 

Botanical Papers in Recent Periodicals.— The Journal of 

' "■'■ Ilritls h <™d Foreign, March, 1876. On New and Rare Fungi, 
by W. G. Smith, F. L. S. Two New Amaryllidacem from Natal, by J. 
G. Baker, F. L. S. On the Genus Syringodea (in Order Iridacea-), by 
•J- G. Baker, F. L. S. The Apetalous Fuchsias of South America, by 
W. B. Helmsley. Some Contributions to Plant-Chemistry, by A. H. 
Church. (Analyses of lettuce, Irish moss, water-cress, beech-scales, elm- 
flowers, outer layers of wheat-grain.) A list of new species of flowering 
plants in periodicals published in Great Britain during 1875. 

Proeeedtngg of the Royal Irish Academy, January, 1875. On Heat as 
a Factor in Vital Action (so-called), by Geo. Sigerson, M. D. (Con- 
cerning the effect of heat on cyclosis, etc., and on the motion of latex.) 
April, 1875. On the Apothecia of certain Alga 1 , by William Archer. 
On a new Fresh- Water Sarcodic Organism, by William Archer. List 
of Seychelles Myrtaceae, by J. G. Baker, July, 1875. On the Structure 
of the Leaves of certain Conifers?, by Prof. W. R. McNab. (A reex- 
amination of the microscopic anatomy of the section Tsuga of the genus 
WHg, \\ Itli plate giving cross sections of the leaves of the six species.) 

Botanical Bulletin (Hanover, Indiana), March, 1876. Chia, by Dr. 
Rothrock. (« Chia" is a mealy preparation made from the roasted seeds 
of Salvia ColumbaricB. The meal mixed with water is used as food and 
as a demulcent drink. Quantities of this seed have been found buried 
in graves several hundred years old, a fact which indicates that its use is 
°f great antiquity.) Notes on Grammes, by A. H. Young. 

Oomptes rendus, No. 3. A. Miintz, On certain Changes in the Can* 
k u gar of Cane-Juice. No. 5. Heckel, On the Spontaneous Periodic 
Movement in the Stamens of Saxifraga sarmentosa, umbrosa, Geum 
"■■■<"'l»/„i;. L aml in p, trnassi(( }>a i nst ris. The relations of this phenom- 
enon to the arrangement of the floral organs. 



Flora, No.. 2. Hugo de Vries, On Wood-Tissue which repairs Wounds 
(not finished). A. Geheeb, On certain Mosses. No. 3. A. de Krem- 
belhuber, Brazilian Lichens. Hugo de Vries, On Wood which repairs 
Wounds (not finished). Stephan Schulzer, Notes on Fungi. No. 4. 

Botanische Zeitung. Reinke's paper on Investigation of Growth is 
continued in the numbers since our last notice, and down to No. 10, 
March 10th. The paper is of great interest, and will be noticed at 
some length in the June Naturalist. 

Arbeiten des botanischen Instituts in Wurzburg, herausgege- 
ben von Professor Dr. Julius Sachs. We resume our notice of this volume 
of Botanical Contributions from the Wurzburg Laboratory with the third 
part, which begins with a paper by Dr. Hugo de Vries, On the Wilting 
of Cut Shoots. (De Vries has clearly pointed out the marked difference 
in effect between cutting shoots under water and severing them with 
exposure of the cut surface to the air. The former shoots wither far less 
than the latter.) IX. Hugo de Vries, On Growth in Length of Tendrils 
which curve on the Upper or the Lower Side. (The effect of irritation 
to change the rapidity of growth is not local, but is felt in certain cases 
throughout the tendril. The effect is often continued after the removal 
of the irritant or the body in contact.) X. Hugo de Vries, On the 
Mechanics of Living Plants. (Abstract given in Sachs' Text-Book, page 
777.) XL Dr. Emil Godlewski, Dependence of the Elimination of 
Oxygen from Leaves on the Amount of Carbonic Acid in the Air. (1. 
Increase in the amount of C0 2 in the air up to a certain limit favors the 
evolution of oxygen ; above this limit it is more or less injurious. 2. This 
limit varies for different plants: for Glyceria spectabilis on clear days, 
between eight and ten per cent. ; for Typha latifolia, between five and 
seven per cent.; for oleander a little lower. ... 5. Increas* itn U 
of the light increases the evolution of oxygen.) XII. Dr. K. Prantl, 
On the Influence of Light on the Growth of Leaves. (Attributing *• 
difference between growth in light and growth in darkness to the patho- 
logical condition induced by absence of light.) XIIL and XIX. Pro- 
fessor Sachs, On the Growth of Tap and Side Roots. (An interatfaj 
and elaborate memoir, to be hereafter given in abstract in our General 
Notes.) XIV. Dr. Hermann Miiller (Thurgau), On the Protonema and 
Rhizoids (root-hairs) of Mosses. XV. Dr. Oscar Brefeld, On Alcoholic 
Fermentation. XVI. Dr. Hugo de Vries, On the Extensibility of Grow- 
ing Shoots. XVII. Dr. K. Prantl, On the Renewal of the Growing PoW 
in the Roots of Angiosperms. XVIII. Dr. R. Pedersen, Have Varia- 
tions in Temperature, as such, an Unfavorable Influence on Growth? 
(Answered in the negative.) 

In closing this sketch of the first volume of Contributions from the 
Wurzburg Laboratory, we must be allowed to call attention to an im- 
portant and excellent feature of the nublh-iticm, mnm-Iv. the summary at 



1876 -J Zoology. 303 

the end of each article. This has long been the practice of French 
writers. Its adoption in a work like this gives an increased value which 
we are all quite ready to appreciate. Furthermore, we must refer to the 
generally impartial historical outlines which are prefixed to the separate 
memoirs. Even a busy reader can see what has been done before, and 
what the upshot of each paper is. 

ZOOLOGY. 

Are Potato Beetles Poisonous? — Although I have made no in- 
vestigations regarding the poisonous nature of the Colorado potato bug, 
and am prejudiced neither pro nor con, the experiments of Messrs. 
Grote and Keyser as stated in the April Naturalist do not seem con- 
clusive to me. I should not consider the innoxious nature of the Dory- 
phora proven. Since heat changes many organic substances, it is not im- 
possible that the "liquid " of their experiments may differ entirely from 
the juices of the living beetle. Their hypodermic injections would seem 
to prove the idea (if I understand their account correctly) that the beetles 
do possess some toxical properties. The heart of a frog separated from 
the body often beats for a longer period than that recorded in their ar- 
ticle. Another possible source of error lies in the animal employed in 
^.^investigations. All animals are not equally susceptible to the action 

poisons. Man is more so than the lower vertebrates, and they even 
•"Iter among themselves in this respect. Thus it may be that the beetles 
lave qualities injurious to man, while they have no effect on frogs and 

n e above remarks I have not endeavored to prove the poisonous 
qualities of the beetles, but to express my reasons for denying the co- 
gency of the reasoning employed in the article referred to, and to turn 
r '*; attention of other investigators to the subject. - J. S. Kingslev. 

Ihe Labrador Duck.— H. E. Dresser, Esq., the well-known orni- 
thologist, author of the Birds of Europe, is desirous of obtaining informa- 
« 'm h reSPeC — tWS bil ' d (° am P tolam * t La&r#briiu) t Mt& as its geo- 
*t *h k- dlstnl,ution (P ast and present), anything tending to elucidate 
i s, and, in particular, a list of the specimens known to be pre- 
served in United States collections. In this last matter, will the custo- 
* ians of collections in which the bird is represented kindly interest them- 
selves ? Mr. Dresser furthermore authorizes me to offer £40 ($200, 
goid) for a pa i r , ma i e and female> b good order< Communications may 
« addressed to him, No. 6 Tenterden Street, Hanover Square, London, 
i or to the undersigned. — Elliott Coues, Smithsonian Institution, 
>> -».«.h mgton, D. C. 
fuE Cotton Worm. — Mr. Grote, in the last Alabama Geological 

QOT * 8tatGS hiS beHef that the cotton W0rm i9 an im P° rttd illsect and 
o ° j ndl £ en ous to the Southern States. In Alabama it does not appear 
11 the plants before June or July. 



804 General Notes. [May, 

ANTHROPOLOGY. 

Anthropological Notes. — Under the editorial supervision of Mr. 
Edward Arber, of London, a volume of great interest will appear during 
the coming season. It will be a reprint of the first three English books 
on America. The first was printed at Antwerp by John of Doesborowe, 
about 1511, a book " of the new Landes, and of the People founde by 
the Messengers of the Kynge of Portyngale, named Emanuel." The 
second is a translated extract from the Cosmographia (1540) of Se- 
bastian Muenster,*professor of Hebrew at the University of Basle, en- 
titled A Treatese of the Newe India, with other new founde Landes and 
Islandes as well Eastwarde as Westwarde, as they are known and founde 
in these our days, etc. The third is a collection of the first English 
Voyages, Traffics, and Discoveries, containing Peter Martyr's Decades, 
and other interesting articles. 

The attention of anthropologists is most earnestly directed to the cir- 
cular letter of the anthropological subsection of the American Associa- 
tion for the Advancement of Science, inviting them to attend the BttMk 
ing to be held in Buffalo the present year, prepared to read papers on 
interesting subjects. 

Messrs. Macmillan have in press a volume by Mr. E. G. Squier, 
being " Incidents of Travel and Explorations in the Land of the Incas. ' 

Corresponded- Blatt of January 1st has a supplement containing a 
catalogue of all the public and private collections of ethnological, anttoo* 
[)ologi<-al. and prehistorical collections in Germany. The "- 
Institution commenced such a catalogue for all branches of scientific 
study within the United States, some time ago, and many hundreds have 
responded to their circular. 

The fourth number of Revue d' Anthropologic comes to us with an un- 
usually interesting collection of articles. The principal ones are Ke- 
cherches sur lTndice Orbetaire, by Paul Broca ; Ethnogenie des Popula- 
tions du Nord-Ouest de la France, by Gustave Lagneau ; Origin* *> 
Bronze, by G. de Mortillet ; Le Feu chez les Peuplades primitives, by 
Mme. Clemence Royer. 

The contents of the twelfth number of Materiaux pour l'Histoire 
primitive et naturelle de l'Homme are of a more special character. 
The drawing of the royal tomb of Koaloba, in the Crimea, possesses 

A very interesting paper was read before the British Scandinavian 
Society, January 18th, on some recent discoveries of tumuli belonging 
to the viking age. Among other objects a boat eighty feet long » D 
eighteen wide, with high prow, is like some now used in certain par 
the Norwegian coast. 

Lieutenant-Colonel Playfair reports the discovery at Aun 
of Roman ruins of the most magnificent character. The inhabitants bea 
• unmistakable testimony to the classic origin of their features, langiwg > 



1 876.] Geography and Exploration. 305 

and customs. Many remains of Roman edifices, some of them crowned 
with Byzantine structures, were found. The full account is in a Blue 
Book, just issued, of consular reports to the Foreign Office, London. 

Dr. Hooker is in receipt of a private letter describing the warlike 
habits of the Papuans. No man leaves his dwelling for his bit of culti- 
vated land, even, without his powerful bamboo bow and a few deadly poi- 
soned arrows. These are pointed and barbed with human bone, brought 
to almost needle-like sharpness, and most carefully and neatly finished, 
They are poisoned by being plunged in a human corpse for several days. 

GEOLOGY AND PALEONTOLOGY. 

Gigantic Mammals of thk Rocky Mountains. — We have al- 
ready (page 182) called attention to Professor Marsh's discovery of the 
remarkably small brain of the Dinocerata, a group of large tertiary 



imeriatn Journal of Science and Arts 
ipal characters of the Brontotheridte, 




306 General Notes. [May, 

which were mammals nearly equaling the elephant in size, but with 
shorter limbs, and with a flexible nose as in the tapir, but no true pro- 
boscis. They lived in the lake basins of Dakota, Nebraska, Wyoming, 
and Colorado in the early Miocene Tertiary period. Figure 19 repre- 
sents a side view of the skull of Brontotherium ingens Marsh, one 
twelfth of the natural size, and Figure 20 is an outline of the skull and 
brain cavity of the same animal, one tenth of its natural size, showing 
the remarkably small size of the brain. On the plates are views of 
different parts of the skeleton and of casts of the brain cavity. 

GEOGRAPHY AND EXPLORATION. 

Is it Possible to Unite the Black Sea and the Caspian ?- 
Major Wood answers this question in the affirmative in the Geographical 
Magazine for February. He says that though the present level of the 
Caspian Sea is about eighty-four feet below the ocean level, it must be 
remembered that the highest point in the Manytch Channel, connecting 
the Euxine and Caspian basins, is but twenty-four feet above ocean 
level. " Manifestly, therefore, if these twenty-four feet were cut through, 
the waters of the Sea of Azof would pass into the Caspian basin and fill 
it up. Nor would such an enterprise present the shadow of a difficulty 
to the engineering genius which has already brought into being the great 
excavators that were used on the Suez Canal. 

" The result of the filling up of the Caspian basin would be the de- 
struction of Astrakhan and of all other buildings situated below ocean 
level on the Caspian littoral, and the project therefore would not appear 
at first sight to be a desirable one." Its execution would increase the 
water-spread of the Caspian from an area of 140,000 square miles to one 
of 250,000 square miles, and provide an ocean route to the eastern shore 
of the Caspian, and thus aid in developing the civilization of Central 

Ancient Geographers. — It is not too much to assert, says a writer 
in the Geographical Magazine, that all the geographical achievements 
of the age, stupendous as they are, have been virtually nothing more 
than a grand and successful filling-in of the vague outlines bequeathed 
to us by the past. The Suez Canal was the idea of Pharaoh-Necho; the 
establishing of a beaten track across the Isthmus of Panama, that o 
Cortez and Nunez de Balboa; the Mont Cenis passage, that of Hanni- 
bal; the commercial highway across Central Asia, that of Alexander^ 
Great; the diverting of the Oxus into another channel (winch, r 
is scarcely possible now), that of Octai Khan ; the voyage . 
round the cape, that of Xerxes ; the search for the source of the £> e. 
that of half a dozen Egyptian kings, as well as of their conqueror, U 
byses, centuries before the Christian era ; the existence oi 
seas in South Africa, that of the Portuguese explorers- of the six 



, however, 



1876.] Microscopy. 307 

century, some of whom, if we are not mistaken, have got more than one 
of these new " discoveries " of ours marked on their maps ! In short, 
we may say with the Irish school-master, when he found one of his own 
mnilea in Homer, " Curse tbim ancients, they Ve stolen all our best 

Sahara into an inland sea is discountenanced by Mr. E. G. Ravenstein, 
who thinks that the plan is premature. He claims that the natural out- 
lets of the Sahara are Tripoli, Algiers, Morocco on the north, the Atlan- 
tic seaboard on the west, and the Senegal and Niger on the south. " It 

supplied, and their surplus produce is exported, and they will suffice for 

Map op Prehistoric Ruins in Colorado. — A Preliminary Map 
of Southwestern Colorado and Parts of the Adjacent Territories, show- 
ing the Location of Ancient Ruins, issued by the United States Geolog- 
ical and Geographical Survey of the Territories, F. V. Hayden in charge, 
will be found of much use by archaeologists and travelers, as it gives the 
localities of the ancient rock ruins and cliff-houses discovered by the sur- 



MICROSCOPY. 1 

San Francisco Microscopical Society. — This working society 
now numbers about forty active members, and its annual receptions and 
semi-monthly meetings are well sustained. During the past year it has 
commenced the formation, by purchase and donation of books and sub- 
Wriptiona to magazines, of a suitable library, and has added to its supply 
of apparatus a Nachet microscope whose one-eighth objective, which has 
no collar adjustment, with Nachet's oblique condenser, resolved promptly 
and easily into beads No. 19 of Moller's test-plate. Among the nota- 
ble additions to the cabinet of slides are a series of slides of the wall 
rocks of the gold-bearing veins of California ; a series of sections of 
the woods of California ; a slide of the curious diatom, Schizonema 
Grevillii, remarkable for its great external resemblance to some forms of 
%«, the frustules of which were contained in a regular tubular frond, 
"» which they were living when found, and up and down the canal of 
which they were seen to move ; a slide of crystals of salt obtained by 
slow evaporation from the tear of a child ; and a fragment of photo- 
graphic paper mounted in balsam to exhibit the minute specks which are 
so annoying to the photographer, and which appeared as white spots con- 
ing a dark nucleus of an arborescent crystalline formation, black 
°*'<le of manganese being believed to be the cause of the spots, and 
Jjydrochloric acid being suggested as a possible means of removing them. 

e Work of the society seems to be mainly directed to the legitimate 
natural history applications of the microscope, though not without some 
1 This department is conducted by Dr. R. H. Ward, Troy, N. Y. 



Mich diversions as public exhibitions and a moderate amount of "micro- 
scopic gymnastics " in the way of " test-object " resolution. Mr. Kinne's 
paper on the method by which a fly walks in an inverted position was 
brought so strongly before the attention of the publishers of a school- 
book in which the familiar facts of the ease were misrepresented, that 
they promised to suppress the erroneous article in future editions. The 
excellent annual address of the president, Prof. Win. Ashburner, recom- 
mends that, in addition to the advantages furnished to members, the 
privileges of the rooms be extended to in vestigators who might not be 
able to incur the expense of regular membership. 

Kinne's Turn-Table. — This is a self-centring table in which the 
object is held diagonally between rectangular clutches, as in the " Cox 
table." This was contrived independently, though published subse- 
quently to Mr. Cox's invention, from which it differs in moving the 
clutches by a lever and spiral instead of a screw. 

Comparative Photographs of Blood. — Dr. J. G. Richardson, 
for the sake of illustrating in erlmi i -liable appear- 

ances of different kinds of blood, has flowed drops of blood from differ- 
ent animals so nearly in contact on the glass slide that portions of the 
two drops appear in the same field and can be photographed together. 
Dr. C. Leo Mees has modified this method and obt tim d < x«i usite n'-nl - 
in specimens presented to the microscopical section of the Tyndall A- ■- 
ciation. He spreads the blood by Dr. Christopher Johnson's method, 
which is to touch a drop of blood to the accurately ground edge of a 
slide, and then draw it gently across the face of another slide, leaving a 
beautifully spread film. In this way one kind of blood is spread upon 
the slide and another on the cover. When dry, one half of each is care- 
fully scraped off with a smoothly sharpened knife, and the cover inverted 
upon the slide in such position as to bring the remaining portions of the 
film into apposition. Under the microscope and in the photograph the 
two kinds of blood appear in remarkably fine contrast, even those 1 



> nearly alike for safe discrin 



, b. in- 



easily distinguished win n thus prepared from fresh material. 

" Rusty Gold." — Mr. Melville Attwood, in his paper on 
before the San Francisco Microscopical Society, discredits the belief o 
the miners that a thin film of oxide of iron forms on gold and prevents 
a successful separation of the gold by means of amalgamation. He be- 
lieves the failure of the miners to obtain good results to be due for 
more to an unexpected poverty of the quartz than to any difncul y 
causing the quicksilver to combine with the gold that is really present. 

Exchanges. — (Notices, not exceeding four lines in length, of nu- 
croscopical objects or apparatus wanted or offered in exchange, not sa , 
will be inserted in this column without expense.) 

Diatoms, prepared or unprepared, in exchange for others. < »"* 
spondence desired with amateurs interested in mounting arranged 



I876 Microscopy. 809 

toras. — Galloway C Morris, Tulpehocken Street, Germantown, Phila- 
delphia, Penn. 

Ifcgio-lanterii transparencies or cabinet-size photographs of micro- 
wopic objects in exchange for suitable slides. — R. H. Bliven, Elmore, 



> Crystallizations. — Mr. C. C. Merriman, of Roches- 
«r, gives the following useful hints in regard to the preparation of the 
" x ' iu, ; lt< - H"»zmg "bjects contributed by him to the Postal Micro-Cabi- 
net Club: "All solutions must be in distilled water, and carefully fil- 
tered. Solution ofgum arabic must beaddedtothecrystall.no oliit.on 
until the drops will dry on the slide without crystallizing. Then the 
drop on the slide is to be held over steam until one or more points of 
crystallization appear; then at once dried over an alcohol lamp ; then 
new over the steam again until the crystals have grown a trifle larger, 
so on untd the specimen is satisfactory. The specimens are to be 
and theT^ ^ ^ a ^ ° f C ° llodion ' such as Photographers use,' 
en mounted m old Canada balsam." Specimens thus prepared 
tave been perfectly preserved for many years, though some of them are 
"poiied by re-crystallization after mounting. 

Albican Microscopical Societies. - The following list ot 
f rr f ° P T DiZati0nS is COrrected t0 date > with Ate exception of a 
taries »TZ' * ^^ information <*>nld not be obtained. Secre- 

rectionT TZ* ! nterested are 8 P eci *% requested to furnish such cor- 
dons and additions as may become necessary from time to time 

Tuesdav 1Z eve S - ltUte V SaCraraent0 ' Cal - 0r g a ™ ed ™*>. Meets second 

Rev I*F n niUg n month - President, ; Vice-President, 

fcv.' J- H. C Bront D ' ; SeCr6tary ' A - R A ndrews; Cor. Secretary, 



- M. 1) 



Director, W. 
json, M. D. ; iVC ^ 
Cor. Secretary, J. H. McQuillen, M. D. 



L?'T DireCt ° r ' W - S - W - Bo^^berger, M. D.; Vtoe-W- 

C'hestiiutT 8 . S^ M ' D - ; Recorder, J. G. Richardson, M. D., 1835 



. M. I). 



American As^ " ^u^ons Hunt, M. I). 

- ssociation for the Advancement of Science ; Microscopical 
s **ion 8 of [h P ** 0ccasionall y in connection with the migratory 
the Buffalo m! f a8SOC,atlon "' ^ is intended to organize permanently at 
American Ar *** AugU8t 

-.,. m , ■ •'■'•"-■"I'"'-aI Society of the City of New York. Organized 
^t 10th St T and f ° Urth Tuesda ^ eveni "g s of th * month, at 35 
m11 ' Atki,; so 7;r!! nt ' John B.Rich,M. D.; Vice-PresubMU. Will 
Urer 'T-d'Oremieulv n SeCretar ^ C ' R Cox > 13 William St.; Treas 
Ame rican J^L^^ °" G ' Mason ' 

Postal M 1C ro-Cabinet Club. Organized 1875. Business 



310 General Notes. [May, 

conducted exclusively by mail. President, Prof. John Peirce, Provi- 
dence, R. I. ; Secretary, Rev. A. B. Hervey, 10 North Second St., Troy, 
N. Y. ; Managers, R. H. Ward, M. D., Troy, N. Y., and C. M. Vorce, 
Cleveland, Ohio. 

Bailey Club, New York city. A small club of working microscopists. 
Meetings informal, every second Tuesday, at residences of members. 

Boston Microscopical Society. Organized 1873. Meets first and 
third Thursdays of month, at residences of members. President, David 
Hunt, Jr., M. D. ; Vice-Presidents, Stephen P. Sharpies, S. B., and Al- 
fred F. Holt, M. D. ; Secretary and Treasurer, R. R. Andrews, D. D. S., 
Brattle Square, Cambridge, Mass. ; Council, S. W. Creech, Jr., J. Frank 
Brown, and Edward Moulton ; Custodian, C. H. Osgood, D. D. S. 

Boston Society of Natural History ; Microscopical Section. Organ- 
ized 1864. Meets second Wednesday evening of month. Committee, 
Edwin Bicknell, R. C Greenleaf, and B. Joy Jeffries, M. D. 

Buffalo Microscopical Club, Buffalo, N. Y. Organized 1876. Presi- 
dent, Prof. George Hadley, M. D. ; Secretary, James W. Ward; Anvi- 
sory Council, H. R. Hopkins, M. D., Henry Mills, and Prof. D. R. Kel- 

Dartmouth Microscopical Club, Hanover, N. H. Organized 1870. 
President, Prof. E. Phelps; Vice-President, Prof. L. B. Hall; Cor. 
Secretary, Hiram A. Cutting, M. D., Lunenburgh, Vt. 

Denver Microscopical Society. 

Dunkirk Microscopical Society, Dunkirk, N. Y. Organized 1874. 
Meets second Friday evening of month. President, George E. Black- 
ham, M. D. ; Secretary and Treasurer, M. E. C. Shelton. 



Microscopical Society, Philadelphia. 



rized 1871. 



Meets third Thursday evening of month. President, S. H. Griffith, 
M. D. ; Secretary and Treasurer, William C. Stevenson, Jr., 24 South 
4th St. ; Managers, Jno. Gordon Gray, E. O. Shakespeare, M. D., and 
B. F. Quimby. 

Indiana Microscopical Society, Indianapolis, Ind. Organized 1W* 
Meets first Friday evening of month, at residences of members. Pr es1- 
dent, William B. Fletcher, M. D.; Secretary and Treasurer, E. Hadley, 
M. D., 191 Va. Ave. 

Jamestown Microscopical Society. . , 

Kirtland Society of Natural History, Cleveland, Ohio ; Microscopic* 
Branch. Secretary, John Bowers. . . 

Louisville Microscopical Society, Louisville, Ky. Organized 
Meets first and third Thursday evenings of month. Preside 
Lawrence Smith; Vice-Presidents, Noble Butler and C F. <>'!''' '; 
M. D. ; Treasurer, C. J. F. Allen ; Secretary, John Williamson ; "> 
Secretary, E. S. Crosier, M. D. . 

Maryland Academy of Sciences, Baltimore, Md.; Section 
and Microscopy. Organized 1874. Meets first and thir 1 



1876.] Microscopy. 311 

evenings of month, at Academy Buildings, Mulberry St. Chairman, B. 
W. Barton, M. D. ; Secretary, W. G. Harrison, M. D., 69 Centre St. 

Memphis Microscopical Society. Memphis, Tenn. Organized 1874. 
Meets first and third Thursday evenings of month, at 2 IS Main St. 
President, S. P. Cutler, M. D. ; Secretary and Treasurer, A. F. Dod, 
257 Main St. 

New Jersey Microscopical Society, New Brunswick, N. J. Organized 

1871. Meets second Monday evening of month at Rutgers College. 
President, Prof. F. C. Van Dyck ; Rec. Secretary, Rev. Samuel Lock- 
wood, Ph. D., Freehold, Monmouth Co., N. J. 

Providence Franklin Society, Providence, R. I. ; Microscopical De- 
partment. Organized 1874. Meets every second Wednesday evening 
at rooms in North Main St. President, Prof. Eli. W. Blake, Jr.; Vice- 
President, A. 0. Tilden ; Secretary, Prof. John Peirce ; Treasurer, C. B. 
Johnson, M. D. ; Librarian, N. N. Mason. 

San Francisco Microscopical Society, San Francisco, Cal. Organized 

1872. Meets first and third Thursdays of month at 531 Cal. St. ; Presi- 
dent, Prof. William Ashburner ; Vice-President, Henry C. Hyde ; Rec. 
Secretary, C. Mason Kinne, 422 Cal. St. ; Cor. Secretary, Charles W. 
Banks ; Treasurer, Charles G. Ewing. 

Society of Natural Sciences, Buffalo, N. Y. ; Microscopical Section. 
Organized 1872. Curator, Henry Mills, 162 Fargo Ave. 

State Microscopical Society of Illinois, Chicago, 111. Organized 1869. 
Meets second and fourth Fridays of month, at the Academy of Sciences. 
President, Henry W. Fuller ; Secretary, B. W. Thomas ; Cor. Secre- 
tary, Charles Adams ; Treasurer, Geo. M. Higginson. 

State Microscopical Society of Michigan, Kalamazoo, Mich. Presi- 
dent, Rev. Dr. Foster. 

Troy Scientific Association, Troy, N. Y. ; Microscopical Section. Or- 
ganized 1870. Meets first Monday evening of month, except July and 
A »gu U at lesidences of members. President, R. H. Ward, M. D. ; 
Vice-President, Rev. A. B. Hervey ; Secretary, Prof. Arthur W. Bower. 

Tyndall Association, Columbus, Ohio; Microscopical Section. Or- 
ganized 1874. Meets first and third Saturday evenings of month. Pres- 
ldent ' R ev. I. F. Stidham ; Secretary, C. Howard ; Curator, M. Hensel. 

The Leeuwenhoek Medal. — The first award under the provision 
^de at the two hundredth anniversary of the discovery of infusoria by 
leeuwenhoek, for bestowing a medal in his honor upon distinguished 
microscopists, has been received by the oldest European candidate, Pro- 
fessor Ehrenberg, of Berlin. 

New Adjustment for Cox's Turn-Table. — A slide may be, by 
this turn-table, centred for width only, by laying it on the table at right 
an gles to the line of the spindle and placing triangles of brass, or even 
cardboard, between it and the clutches which are designed to hold the 
C0rners of the slide. When thus arranged the slide may be slipped so 



312 Scientific News. [May, 

as to bring different parts of its median line successively to the centre of 
the apparatus, and thus a series of cells may be made upon the same 
slide, or any desired group of cells may be made by using a variety of 
unequal triangles. For common use the two triangles should be exactly 
I be right-angled, and should have the sides adjoining the 
right angle one inch in length. Such pieces may be cut from sheet brass 
about the thickness of an ordinary glass object slide. These triangles 
may also be used, with the addition of a few cardboard blocks, for the 
purpose of decentring, in refinishing old slides that have not been ac- 



SCIENTIFIC NEWS. 

— In the Seventh Annual Report of the American Museum of Natu- 
ral History it is stated that the trustees have purchased Professor Hall's 
palasontological collection for $65,000, and Mr. Squier's rare collection 
of antiquities from South and Central Americas $200,000 have been 
appropriated by the New York legislature for furnishing the magnificent 
new museum building on Manhattan Square. The number of visitors to 
the museum, still remaining in the old arsenal, averages 13,577 a week, 
the weekly average of visitors to the entire British Museum, embracing 
all the exhibition halls, being 11,574 in 1874. 

— The Bulletin of the United States Geological and Geograplm.il Sur- 
vey of the Territories, vol. ii. No. 1, contains A Notice of the Ancient 
Remains of Southwestern Colorado, examined during the Summer of 
1875, by W. H. Holmes; A Notice of the Ancient Ruins in Arizona 
and Utah lying about the Rio San Juan, by W. H. Jackson ; The Hu- 
man Remains found near the Ancient Ruins of Southwestern Colorado 
and New Mexico, by Dr. Emil Bessels. 

— Mr. Grote's Check-List of the Owlet Moths or Noctuidte of Amer- 
ica, Part I., Bombycife and Noctuelitte (Buffalo, N. Y., pp. 28), is a 
very useful catalogue. It is accompanied by a photograph illustrating 
several new species. 

— From The Round Table and Beloit Monthly we learn that a bill 
has been passed by the legislature of Wisconsin appropriating - -' >J 
for printing the geological reports made during the past three years by 
he late Dr. Lapham and others, as well as those that shall be P"*^ 

by Professor Chamberlain, who has been appointed to complete the work. 
The New York Nation states that $10,000 has been appropriated by the 
same legislature for the purchase for the university of Dr. La**"* 1 
collections and library. It also is to print for the Wisconsin Academy 
of Sciences a volume of transactions in alternate years. 

— Professor Angelin, a Swedish geologist and pala;ontologist, died at 
Stockholm on the 13th of February, aged seventy. . . 

— Prof. F. V. Hayden has been elected a member of the Imperial 
Society of Naturalists of Moscow. 



1876.] Scientific News. 313 

— A course of summer instruction will be given at Bowdoin College, 
Brunswick, Maine, in chemistry and mineralogy by Professor Car- 
nichwl and Mr. Robinson, while botany will be taught by Mr. F. L. 
Scribner. The Normal School of Natural History will hold a second 
session at Normal, Illinois. Professors Gastman and Forbes are the 
directors. 

-The government of India is making arrangements for an archaeo- 
logical survey of the whole country. 

— Dr. A. B. Hoyt writes us from Grafton, N. H., that he saw a bull- 
frog nearly swallow a common striped snake about one foot long. At 
"mouT 6 DOt m ° re thaU fiVe lnCheS ° f the SUake WaS ° Ut ° f the fr °S' S 

-Baron von Nolken, of Riga, Russia, has gone with an assistant to 
Bogota for the purpose of collecting and observing insects. The micro- 
epidoptera that he collected there on his previous journey have been 
'escribed by Professor Zeller, and the work will be published by the 
Entomological Society of Russia. 
-Professor Alpheus Hyatt is now engaged in monographing dis- 
Ih^ m r/i r " h - Water ShellS fr0m the *— Tertiary locality of 
tVomone'l i eSireSt ° make com P^ons with living or fossil shells 
roal ,n" 1 tl6S - He has already obtained shells in which the nor- 

ties bntw-T m ° re ° r lGSS di8t0rted ° r unwo ^nd, from two other locali- 
ses, but wishes to obtain more extensive information ;m ,l offers in ex- 

t::v:z of steinheim sheiis ' **~ ° r «~* ^^r** 

tofore mo^f ^ d - 1StlDCt vaneties - Distorted forms have been here- 
with n^ m PerfeCt1 ^ Sti "' inclosed basi »* of limited extent 
requestedAn ***?»?*" Witb **&"* to similar localities is also 
Boyhto i .tr t R S 7 ^ ^^ HUtory ' COmer ° f Berkele ? and 



streets, Boston, Mass 



~ _!>'■• Stoindacln 



well-known ichthyologist, who sper, 



has iZt* C ° UDtry &tud y' m S the fishes of North and soul 

Vienn a 1^1 ^T^ director of the Imperial Zoolo,neal Museum at 

-][ \r T R edtenbacher, lately deceased. 

he ^ a female°I P ! iinS, 1 0f ^^ ^ ° ntari °' Canada ' Writes « s that 
cre * on the SS P U ( Pekcanus erythrorhynchm) with a horny 
N1I5UU8, nr^ aS T 1Dthat described by Professor Snow in the 
0f L ake Saner n } ' ™ Sh0t bj an Indian ° n the ,10rth 6hore 

C?bHT the old Hudson Bay Compauy ' s Post? Fort 

to* meeting of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, 
referri «& as he lb" 6 " > read a pam S ra P h from -Eschylus' Prometheus 
, Greek s of a neri J w to the river Zambesi > an <* showing that the 
kno *led,e a f P |, bef ° re that of Herodotus had a ,„„,, illtill lt , 

- fI ikel Si Ttl 1 f ^ than th6 - y have had the ™*« for. 

*« studied the development of the annelid worm, Fabricia, 



314 Scientific News. [May, 

one of the family Sabellidce, and finds that it passes through a true " gas- 
trul.t " condition. This is the first time that this stage of development 
has been traced in the higher worms. In studying these embryos he 
used carmine and hematoxylin as staining agents, the embryo being 
rendered transparent by glycerine. 

— Prof. E. Ray Lankester, in his abstract of Haeckel's article on the 
Gastraea theory, actually includes the Ascidians in the Vertebrates, adding 
in a foot-note that " Professor Haeckel is not responsible for the classifi- 
cation here adopted of the Tunicata under the great group of Verte- 

— To elicit facts as to the migration of birds, Forest and Stream pro- 
poses to each one of its readers the plan of noting down, in reference to 
the birds of his district, observations upon some or all of the following 

(1.) Whether each species is resident throughout the year, is a sum- 
mer or winter visitor, or only passes through in spi ing and fall. 

(2.) With reference to each species in his locality, whether it is 
" abundant," " somewhat common," or "rare." 

(3.) What species breed, and whether more than once in a season. 

(4.) Dates of arrival, greatest abundance, nest-building, laying eggs, 
hatching of young, and beginning of departure of each species, and when 
it is last seen in the fall. 

(5.) What effect, if any, upon the relative: abundance of particular 
birds, in retarding their arrival or hastening their departure, sudden 
changes of the weather, storms, and " late " and " early " seasons appear 



(6.) Similar notes upon the appearance i 
upeds, reptiles, and fishes of the 









ing of trees and plants. 

(7.) Other occurrences considered noteworthy. 

Among the birds most likely to be reported upon, and which aW ! " 
best exponents of the laws of migration, are the following, and to them 
especial attention is asked : cat-bird, blue-bird, summer yellow-bird or 
yellow warbler, golden -crowned thrush, redstart, barn swallow, goldfinch 
or thistle-bird, song sparrow, chewink or towhee-finch, bobolink, re - 
winged blackbird, meadow lark, Baltimore oriole or hang-nest, ph® e 
bird or bridge pewee, chimney swift or swallow, kingfisher, red-hea e 
woodpecker, woodcock, killdeer plover, Wilson's snipe, white crane, 
wood duck, wild geese. 

If every naturalist or beginner in science would commence this spring 
to record such facts as these, it would induce him to observe much nw re 
closely and systematically than he might otherwise. v B n- 

— It may interest our botanical readers to learn that Mr. A. "• 
nett, of London, has been for some time engaged on a translation >o 
Thome's Lehrbuch der Botanik. It will be published in the course of 
present year by Messrs. Longma 



lustrations. 



1876.] Proceedings of Societies. 315 

PROCEEDINGS OF SOCIETIES. 

Natueal History Society, Montreal. — February 28th. A paper 
on the Nipigon or copper-bearing rocks of Lake Superior, with notes on 
copper mining in that region, was read by Mr. J. "W. Spencer. 

Principal Dawson called the attention of the members present to an 
interesting collection of ferns and other fossil plants which had been re- 
cently obtained by Mr. Albert J. Hill from near Sydney, Cape Breton, 
some of which were exhibited. He said that they were of interest as show- 
ing the occurrence of forms hitherto known only in the middle and upper 
coal formations, in beds assigned, on stratigraphical evidence, to the upper 
part of the Millstone- Grit. They were also of interest from the pres- 
ence of at least four species of ferns showing fnictiticution, which would 
shortly be described. They were further of interest as occurring in the 
same beds with the remains of a fossil larva of a dragon-fly. which will 
be described by Mr. Scudder in the next number of the Canadian Nat- 
UraUst, and which is the first insect of that family found in the Carbon- 
iferous rocks. 

Academy of Sciences, St. Louis. — March 6th. Professor Conant, 
who had lately visited Southwest Missouri and examined certain curious 
mounds there, situated some miles from New Madrid, gave a brief ac- 
count of his trip. One curious discovery made was that while the skulls 
taken from the centre of these mounds were the true mound-boMer 
skulls, two were found in the edge of one of the mounds that belonged 
to a very different race. The exceedingly low, retreating forehead indi- 
cated a much lower grade of organism, yet the remains had been buried 
after the mound-builder fashion, with a jug on each side of the head. 

March 20th. Professor Potter reported that Dr. G. I. Engelmann and 
himself had visited the New Madrid mound region, and opened four 
mounds, securing ten or twelve skulls and about one hundred specimens 
of pottery. 

G- C. Broadhead read a paper on the Porphyritic Rocks of Southeast- 
ern Missouri, presenting evidence that these rocks are Huronian. 

A - J- Conant read a paper on the Mounds of New Madrid. The 
burial-mound examined by him was found within an inclosure of about 
6% acres, which is surrounded by earthen walls. Probably a thousand 
skeletons have been already found. Three pieces of pottery are usually 
found with each skeleton. Some vessels were more than a foot in 
diameter, with walls bo thin that they could not have been safely moved 
w hen filled with water. It was observed that some skeletons were in a 
much better state of preservation than others. In some cases the out- 
"ne of the skull was shown only by a thin white line ; in others the 
usual pieces of pottery were found, but all traces of the skeleton had 
^appeared. Mr. Conant thought this an evidence that the mounds had 
long been a p l ace of burial. 



316 Proceedings of Societies. [May. 

Dr. Engelmann remarked that the preservation of bones depends 

upon humidity and the character of the soil. Many bones undoubtedly 

older than the bones of these mound-builders are found in a state of 



Dr. Engelmann made a communication on North American Oaks. 
The genus Quercus is more extensively developed in America than 
in any other part of the world. In the Carolinas, oaks grow as small 
shrubs. The leaves of different oaks show great variation, some re- 
sembling the leaves of the willow, others those of the holly, etc., but 
the fruit is very much the same in all. The typical and probably the 
primitive oak of the tertiary had an acorn and a lobed leaf. An oak 
found in California has flower and leaves like a chestnut, but bears 
acorns like an oak. The cup of the acorn, however, is spiny like the 
burr of the chestnut. Dr. Engelmann remarked that this oak may be a 
hybrid produced between the chestnut and the oak in bygone times when 
these genera were less differentiated, as it is well known that even now 
hybrid oaks will propagate when removed from the " struggle for exist- 
ence ' against more hardy rivals. 

Academy of Sciences, New York. — March 13th. The following 
papers were read : Further Researches on Phosphide of Silver, by Win. 
Falke ; A new Test for Boracic Acid, and other Qualitati Re ct o 
by M. W. Res ; Comparison of the Milk of the African Race with that 
of the Caucasian, by Henry A. Mott, Jr. ; Milk and the Lactometer, by 
Elwyn Waller. 

Geological Section. March 20th. Mr. S. W. Ford presented an ac- 
count of the discovery of additional species of fossils in the primordial 
rocks of Lansingburgh, N. Y., and of plant-remains in the primordial 
slates at Troy, and described a new species of Microti iscus from the 
latter locality, for which he has proposed the name, M. Meeki. He also 
exhibited specimens of the hitherto imperfectly known pygidnmi of 
Conocephalites (Atops) trilineatus, from Lansingburgh. In conclusion 
he made some remarks upon the probable stratigraphical horizon of the 
Troy beds among primordial rocks, stating that the fauna of these beds, 
while entirely distinct in its species from that of the Acadian or Mene- 
vian group on the one hand, and from that of the ordinary Potsdam on 
the other, yet shows a decided leaning, in its genera, toward the former 
of these groups. 

^ The president, Prof. J. S. Newberry, gave a resume of his observa- 
tions on the geology of the oil regions of the United States, — all of 
which he had visited,— and the results of his study of the facts which 
seem to illustrate the genesis of petroleum. 

Very briefly stated, his theory of the origin of petroleum is that it is 
one of the evolved products of a spontaneous decomposition of organic 
tissue, chiefly vegetable, which begins as soon as life ceas< " * elldi 
only with the oxidation of all the contained carbon and hydrogen. When 



1876 -1 Proceedings of Societies. 317 

exposed in moist air vegetable tissue rapidly oxidizes in decay; when 
buried under water or in earth the process is retarded, and the constitu- 
ents react on each other, forming carbonic acid, carbonic oxide, water 
carburetted hydrogen, petroleum, etc, which escape, leaving peat, lignite, 
i ■"■■d. anthracite, and graphite as residues in different stages of this pro- 
m-.'-u ... change. Petroleum and marsh gas are constantly escaping f IO in 
M considerable carbonaceous strata, and especially from bituminous°shale, 
beds of which underlie all our productive oil regions, and are the sources 
»f the oil and of the gas with which it is always associated. 

The carbonaceous shales of the Lower Silurian system supply the 
petroleum of Burkesville, Kentucky, and Collingwood and probably En- 
j&tailen, Canada. The petroleum of Western Pennsylvania is derived 
from the Devonian black shales (« Cadent" of Pennsylvania, « Huron " 
of Ohio), which have a thickness of several hundred feet, and underlie 
all the oil region. When escaping from them the oil and gas rise into a 
series of overlying sandstones and conglomerates, which serve as reser- 
voirs, and are confined there by sheets of nearly impervious clay shale 
The oil wells of West Virginia are bored in the coal measures, bat in 
1 "Mch disturbed region, and the oil probably comes from the Huron 
shale. The oil of Mecca and Grafton, Ohio, is Lower Carboniferous. It 
•s found in the Berea grit, but originates in a black -hale (Cleveland 
shale) which underlies it. 
Philosophical Society of Washington. — March 11th Dr. 
oodward continued his observations on Frustularia Saxojiica, showing, 
y means of illustrations thrown upon a screen, the misapprehensions into 

iQosomeconl ; : 1 | ., ;,,; j, v mistaking for this 

^'— another diatom, Navicula rhomboides. 

J**«b 25th. Mr. Gilbert gave an account of lake formations, showing 
iiini, means hy which lakes are produced, and, among others, one 
frequently been in his opinion mistaken for. glacial action, 
ti cliffs of which the upper portion is subject to easy vertical cleavage, 
«ge masses are frequently detached, falling into adjacent valleys, dam- 
mis and forming lakes in this way with a mass of detritus 
k ch had beei b or was liable to be, mistaken for the material deposited 
y a terminal moraine. These views were corroborated by Major Pow- 
e » who mentioned several instances of such lake formations. 

rofessor Mason then addressed the society on an international svs- 
^m of archaeological symbols. 

M \ DEMY ° F Natural Sciences, Philadelphia. — March 14th. 
JJj Meehan spoke of the mode of propagation of the Florida moss or 
tunit-' U ' l '. SinCG he had before spoken on the subject he had had oppor- 
where the seeds germinate they do so on the 
the branches, and where the bark is smooth rather than 



un <*er side of t 
rou gh, thus 



iv, lt 



essor Cop. 



indicating the presence of i 



318 Proceedings of Societies. [May, 

and described ten years ago. He had rec< 
examining an entire skeleton. It belongs 1 
specifically from its nearest ally, and seems t< 
tween the genera Globiocephalus and Grampus. The anatomical charac- 
ters separating these were given, and the name Globiocephalus brachyp- 
terus was proposed for the species. 

Professor Frazer spoke of a peculiar trap from York County. Dr. 
Koenig, having been engaged upon the investigation of the minerals oc- 
curring at Magnet Cove, Arkansas, gave a preliminary notice of some of 

Mr. B. Waterhouse Hawkins, having stated that he was at present em- 
ployed in rebuilding the skeleton of Hadrosaurus in the museum, re- 
viewed the subject of the position of the so-called clavicles, referring 
specially to the opinions of Professors Leidy, Huxley, and Cope. He 
reminded the members that in 1868, when studying the remains con- 
tained in the museum, he had adopted the opinion first advanced by 
Dr. Leidy, and assigned the bones in question to the pelvic arch. Pro- 
fessor Cope, in 1867, had published his opinion that they were pubes, 
but had afterwards assigned them to the position of ischia, thus mdor„ 
ing the view advanced by Professor Huxley. Mr. Hawkins 
on at least one occasion demonstrated before the Academy tha 
ion of Cope and Huxley was not supported by the necessities of the 
creature's organization, and had advanced the opinion in 1875, and pre- 
viously, that the bones in question were really pubes, having the long 
section so placed as to support the abdominal walls, as in the crocodi e 
and marsupials. Attention was called to the fact that corresponding 



mtly been placed by Owen in his descriptic 
establishing the correctness of the position 



a of Omosaurus 
taken by Mr. 



Hawkins with regard to them in Hadrosaurus, as far back as w ■ •» 
steadily adhered to by him in spite of the authority of the eminent natu- 
ralists who up to the present time held a contrary opinion. Professor 
Cope complimented Mr. Hawkins on the results established by Owen I 
description of Omosaunw, and further referred to the position of the bones 

A paper was presented for publication entitled On Paclmolite and 
Thomsenolite, by George Augustus Koenig, M. D. 

Troy Scientific Association. — March 6th. Microscopical sec- 
tion. The fructification of Alga; was discussed, and illustrate ^ 
slides contributed by the members. Dr. J. J. Woodward's photograp^ 
of the spurious lines of Frustulia Saxonica were presented by Dr. • 
Ward. d . 

March 20th. General meeting. Rev. A. B. Hervey delivered an 

.Alex- 



Boston Society of Natural History. — March 
ander Agassiz remarked on the affinities of starfii 



Dr. 



The Danger from White Ants to New Engla 



Appalachian Mountain Club, Boston. — March 8th. Papers 
were read on the following subjects : The Atlantic System of Mountains. 
by Prof. C. H. Hitchcock. Illustrated by a new Model of the White 
Mountains. A Day on Tripyramid, by Prof. Charles E. Fay. Two 
New Forms of Mountain Barometer, by Mr. A. B. Emmons. Exhibi- 
tion of Mountain Profiles, by Mr. G. F. Morse. 



SCIENTIFIC SERIALS. 1 

Annals and Magazine of Natural Histort. — February. On 
Mr. Carter's Objections to Eozodn, by J. W. Dawson. Dr. R. Willemoes- 
Suhm on the Development of Lepas fascicularis and the " Arcluxoea " of 
Cirripedia, and on the Development of some Pelagic Decapods. March. 
On the Polytremata (Foraminifera), especially with Reference to their 
Kjthica] Hybrid Nature, by H. J. Carter. On the Budding of the 
Cuninae in the Stomach of the Geryonidce, by B. Uljanin. Evidence- of 
a Carnivorous Reptile about the Size of a Lion, by R. Owen. On the 
Relations of Artemia salina and Artemia Mi<h!h<tuse>iii.;\\u\ on the genus 
Bmnchipus by M. W. J. Schmankewitsch. 

ZEITSCHRIFT FUR WISS 



io id. (j n tne Structure and Development of Sycandra raphanus, by 
F. E. Schultze. On the Sexual Organs of Branchipus Grubii, by II. 
Nitoche. On the Transformation of the Mexican Axolotl into an Ambly- 
stoma, by A. Weismann. On the Systematic Position of Vortex Lemani, 
by L. Graff. Contribution to the Knowledge of the Bryozoa, by II. 
SGtache. January 17, 1876. The Developmental History of Proteus an- 
gumeus, by F. E. Schultze. Notes on the Developmental History of the 
Na M'-- by W. Flemming. On the Anatomy of Crinoids, by II. Ludwig. 

■Pwermann'8 geographischer Mittheilungen. — December 15, 
1875. The Mongols and the Land of the Tanguts. Steamer-Commu- 
nication between Brazil and Columbia, by R. Reyes. On the History of 
Discovery of the Western Coast of Australia. Stanlev's Researches on 
Ae Victoria Nyanza (continuation). , 

Psyche. — February. Odoriferous Glands in Phasmida?, by S. H. 
kcudder. 

Globus. — Nos. 6-9 contain Rebatel and Tirant's Journey in Tunis 
(with excellent illustrations). 

r _£'"■; /^graphical Magazine. — March. Cameron's Route from 
ake Tanganyika to the West Coast of Africa, by E. G. Ravenstein. 
'" irrigation of Firozpur, by C. R. Markham. The World's Future 
*£>*■] Depot, by D. Ker. The Voyage of the Challenger, by J. G. Davis. 
A P"b The Russian Campaign in Khokand, by A. Vambery. Peru, 



320 Scientific Serials. [May. 

by C. R. Markham. The Island of Palawan, by C. Pascoe. Easter 
Island Tablets. 

The Geological Magazine. — March. Subaerial Denudation ver- 
sus Glacial Erosion, by W. Gunn. On the Classification and Nomen- 
clature of Rocks, by G. H. Kinahan. Sketch of the Geology of Ice and 
Bell Sounds, Spitzbergen, by A. E. Nordenskiold. (Part iii.) April. 
A Comparison between the Oldest Fossiliferous Rocks of North Eu- 
rope, by G. Liunarsson. The Probable Conditions under which the 
Palaeozoic Rocks were deposited in the Northern Hemisphere, by H. 
Hicks. 

Quarterly Journal of Microscopical Science. — April. Obser- 
vations on the Early Development of the Common Trout, by E. K>in. 
Recent Researches on the Nuclei of Animal and Vegetable Cells, and 
especially of Ova, by J. Priestley. Contributions to the History of the 
Germinal Vesicle, and of the first Embryonic Nucleus, by E. van Bene- 
den. A new Process for examining the Structure of the Brain, by H. 
R. O. Sankey. On the Development of the Ova and Structure of the 
Ovary in Man and other Mammalia, by J. Foulis. On the genus 4* 
trorhiza of Sandahl, lately described as Hcechelina by Dr. Bessels, by 
W. B. Carpenter. 

Monthly Microscopical Journal. — March. Mr. Sorby's Ad- 
dress as President of the Royal Microscopical Society. Further NotM 
on Frtutulia Saxonica, by W. J. Hickie. On Staining and Mounting 
Wood Sections, by M. II. Stiles. On the Characters of Spherical and 
Chromatic Aberration arising from Excentrical Refraction, and their 
Relations to Chromatic Dispersion, by Dr. Royston-Pigott. 

American Journal of Science and Arts. — April. Review of 
Croll's Climate and Time, with especial Reference to the Physical Theo- 
ries of Climate maintained therein, by Simon Newcomb. Principal 
Characters of the Brontotheridce, by O. C. Marsh. 

Annales des Sciences Naturelles. — December 31, 1875. Re- 
cherches sur les Organes gemtaux males des Crustaces decapodes, par 
M. Brocchi. Nouveaux Documents sur l'Epoque de Disposition de a 
Faune ancienne de l'Isle Rodrigue, par Alph. Milne-Edwards. V* 
quelques Applications de l'Embryologie a la Classification methodique 
des Animaux, par G. Moquin-Tandon. 



THE 

AMERICAN NATURALIST. 

Vol. x. — JUNE, me. — No. e. 

10 AND ITS HABITS. 

JN a mountainous region comprising adjoining portions of the 
Mates of Virginia, North Carolina, Tennessee, and Kentucky 
arise numerous small streams which unite to form the principal 
Jjvers which are the head-waters of the Tennessee River. All 
taese streams not excepting the upper portions of the Tennessee 
River ^tself, have in a greater or less degree the characters of 
mountain torrents, which in reality they seem to be on a very 
grand scale. The streams have very usually a rapid descent, and 
are in many places broken by shoals and rapids, the beds of the 
streams being usually coarse gravel or rock ; there are seldom to be 
Jound stretches of placid water, and accordingly, as might well be 
conjectured, the fauna of the region, so far at least as relates to 
resn-water mollusks, is somewhat peculiar. In the gravelly por- 
tions ot some of the streams abound numerous species of Unio ; on 
•tils are found immense numbers of operculate univalve 
il( l m the rapids, especially in rocky portions of the 
'"""/'l^ rivers, are found the beautiful and interesting shells of 
species of I , which are the largest and most attractive univalves 
2 * . familv t0 which they belong. The earliest account we have 
this group of shells may be found in the Journal of the Academy 
J Natural Sciences, November, 1825, in which Mr. Say described 
species found in the North Fork of the Holston River in Vir- 
ng it Fusus fluvialis. From that time until quite re- 
lational species have from time to time been published, 
to u T m beI f g referred t0 the Holston R iver or more vaguely 
reo * e * nessee -" Even so late as 1873, there was only a single 
th °u f° win g that IP had been found in any stream other than 
A * Holst on River. The record here alluded to occurs in the 
_^an Journal of Concliology, vi. 223, and bears date October 



322 lo and its Habits. [June, 

24, 1870. If there were any persons aware of the occurrence of 
lo in streams other than the Holston River prior to that date, 
they probably had reasons for not publishing the fact. Since the 
date quoted, however, it has been ascertained that the distribution 
of lo extends to several streams in East Tennessee, rendering it 
quite probable that future explorations may lead to its detection 
in the southern part of Eastern Kentucky, and in the northern 
part of Western North Carolina. At the present time lo is known 
to occur in the following streams : North Fork of the Holston in 
Western Virginia; in the Holston River in East Tennessee; in 
the Tennessee River as far south as Bridgeport, Alabama ; in the 
Nolachucky and French Broad rivers in Jefferson County, Tenn. ; 
in the Clinch River at Black's Ford, Anderson County, Tenn., 
and at Williams' Ford in Roane County, Tenn. ; and in Powell's 
River at Kraushorn's Ferry, near the State of Kentucky. 

Observers who have made any records of the habits of lo agree 
in stating that the shells are found only in swift water, though 
there appear to be discrepancies as to the abundance of speci- 
mens, which may indicate that some localities are more favorable 
for them than others. It must be inferred that lo, living in 
streams the currents of whirl) arc very rapid, is specially organ upl- 
and adapted to the situations in which it is found. Such, indeed, 
seems really to be the case ; for a lady who collected specimens 
in some of the rivers of Tennessee wrote of them as follows: 
i4 The muscular power of lo is astonishing. I frequently find one 
adhering to a rock half as large as'my head, and when I take up 
the shell it brings the rock with it, and requires much force to 
separate it." 1 

It is somewhat strange that shells of so much beauty as some 
of the species of lo display are scarcely known to the mhabitaofc 
dwelling in the neighborhood of the streams in which they OCCM! 
yet it seems, from records made of the contents of ancient buna 
places, that they were known to the people who inhabited the 
country prior to the advent of European races. Mr. Lea. W '* H 
upon this subject, 2 makes the following suggestive remark, whic i 
conveys a great deal in a few words : " Professor Troost informs 
me they [Ios] are rare in the river [Holston] ; that they W 
been observed in the graves of the aborigines ; and as it was gen- 
erally believed that these were 'conch shells,' consequently com- 
ing from the sea, it was urged that, the inhabitants who posses 



1876 Io and its Habits. 323 

&em must have come over the sea. It does not appear that 
they [Ios] had been observed in their native element, though liv- 
ing at the very doors of the persons who had remarked them in 
the tumuli." The impression that Io is a " sea-shell " is one that 
strikes most ordinary observers at first sight, as every collector 
who has them can testify. 

Quite a considerable number of species of Io may be found 
described and figured in various works treating on the shells of 
Worth America, and there is considerable diversity exhibited in 
, colors, and markings. There seems to be con- 



"iderable difference of . 



. among persons 



these shells, as regards the number of species. There are some 
individuals who with apparent good reason believe that there is 
really only one species of typical Io, to which all the forms are 
subordinate as varieties ; while on the other hand we shall find 
others who for reasons quite as good insist that there are five or 
more "good species." The shells, taken by themselves, without 
regard to any facts relating to their habits, do not afford conclu- 
sive testimony as to species, as it is exceedingly difficult to isolate 
orms that cannot be made part of a continuous series when targe 
numbers of shells are placed together. There are, however, some 
tacts connected with geographical distribution and the association 
°r varied forms, which seem to indicate conclusively that there 
are certainly two species ; and, this being admitted, the logical 
inference might be, under all the circumstances which remain un- 
considered, that there are more than two species. This, however, 
18 a ^tion which remains to be investigated. The facts upon 
which two species are inferred are the following. At Black's 
' ni - < 'linch River, Anderson County, Tenn., two forms of Io con- 
stitute very nearly all that are found at that particular localitv, 
■fa mese two forms occur there in about equal numbers, and 






; associated with them any intermediate forms i 



• Ue extr emes. Thirty or forty miles down the river (following 
winding course), at Williams' Ford in Roane County, these 
same two forms reappear, but their relative numbers have changed. 
At this point the form which seems to be identical with a shell 
°gnred by Reeve as Io turrita (not Mr. Anthony's species of that 
n ame, by anv means) is the shell occurring in fewest numbers, 
th tM pi ' eVailin S form is a graceful, slender variety of the shell 
» Mr. Lea calls spinosa. The change in the relative abundance 
tiy Uvo for ms by a change of station seems to afford evidence ivla- 
Ve to species. In following out the train of ideas which tins 



324 lo and its Habits. [June, 

suggests, it is perhaps appropriate in this connection to glance at 
the subject of geographical distribution as it relates to other 
forms, and suggest some of the conditions that seem to be corre- 
lated to the diverse forms. A little reflection will satisfy the 
most casual observer that the conditions under which lo is found 
are subject to variations of no small magnitude. First to be con- 
sidered is the climatic condition, affected by the combined influ- 
ences of latitude and elevation, conspiring in the northern limit of 
the region inhabited by lo to produce a lower mean annual tem- 
perature than may be inferred at the southern limit. There may 
be in all a difference of four or five degrees of latitude, and possi- 
bly from two hundred to four hundred feet difference in eleva- 
tion. In the northern portion of the area inhabited by lo are 
found those forms destitute of spines, associated with others in 
which the spines are only rudimentary or reduced to mere tuber- 
cles. To the southward, the smooth forms diminish in numbers, 
and disappear entirely before the central latitude of 1 cjwc^Cv, 
is reached, and as a warmer climate is approached the develop- 
ment of the spines becomes more and more luxuriant. This is 
true of the Holston River in Virginia and Tennessee, and recent 
observations have detected a similar state of facts in the Clinch 
River and its tributary, Powell's River. Besides the influences 
of climate dependent on latitude and elevation, it may be con- 
jectured that there are other influences affecting lo, some of them 
in a considerable degree depending on the mineral properties oi 
the water due to the variable qualities of rock and soil among the 
mountains of that region. In evidence of this may be suggeste 
of shells from different 



In correlating these differences we shall find the most robust 
Ios in the Holston River. The roughest shells, as regards the 
whole surface, occur in French Broad River. The most slender 
and graceful forms are found in Clinch River. The smallest adult 
forms occur in Powell's River, where there are also other pecu - 
iarities observable that contrast curiously with what is known o 
lo elsewhere. The tubercular and spinous forma of Powell's R^er 
exhibit their characteristics (spines and tubercles) in a more m- 
■ dimentary form than those found else where, and on averaging the 
specimens it will be observed that they appear to have one W o 
less, and more spines or tubercles on each whorl, than is observa e 
in the more luxuriant forms of other localities. How m ™*^ 
all the differences in forms here suggested is ascribable tospeci 



1876.] J and its Habits. 325 

is not at this time a subject of inquiry. In color, the shells of 
French Broad River are remarkable for green tints in the epi- 
dermis. In the Holston River the tints are somewhat ferruginous, 
but not to the same extent observable in the shells of Powell's 
River ; while in Clinch River the epidermis is often of a bright 
yellow or orange, varied by livid tints which are partaken of by 
many other univalve mollusks inhabiting that stream. 

The reader may possibly have felt, in reading a portion of this 
paper, some curiosity to know why Io occurs only in the upper 
waters of the Tennessee system of drainage. In the introductory 
paragraph of this paper it was stated that " all these streams, not 
excepting the upper portions of the Tennessee River itself, have 
m a greater or less degree the characters of mountain torrents, 
which i n reality they seem to be on a very grand scale." From 
what we now know of Io we may infer that it cannot exist in 
placid rivers, and the limit of its distribution south in the Tennes- 
see River depends on the character of the river. At the point 
where the Tennessee begins to be a majestic, placid stream, there 
Io ceases to extend its domain. This vciv simple inference is a 
key to the solution of other problems relating to the geographical 
distribution of allied forms in the same great family of mollusks. 
Very many of the univalve mollusks of the Tennessee drainage 
abound in swift shoal water, among rocks over which the water 
flows in broken torrents, and nowhere among still waters. The 
Tennessee River at Mussel Shoals is very prolific in various 
forms of mollusk life which delight in a rapid current ; but below 
that point, in the navigable portions of the stream, very many of 
these interesting species disappear, because the conditions are no 
longer favorable to their existence. 

Thus far, in the main, only the typical Io has been considered. 
There is another group of shells very nearly allied to Io, known 
V the generic designation Angitrema. Mr. Reeve regarded these 
shells as properly belonging in the genus Io; but his views do not 
se em to have met with much favor by writers on American 
conchology on this side of the Atlantic. Notwithstanding this 
evident difference in opinion, there is much reason for believing 
that Mr. Reeve's position is a good one, for some of the species of 
Angitrema are apparently related to Elk River, the Cumberland 
^ lv er, and some of its tributaries, as Io is to the head-waters of 
the Tennessee River. Indeed, it appears to be true that near the 
Point where Io begins to disappear in the Tennessee River in 
A1 abama, some of the forms of Angitrema replace it. The ques- 



326 Mathematical Nature of Plyllotaxis. [June, 

tion of the relative geographical distribution of Io and Angitrema, 
taken in connection with obvious resemblances in the shells de- 
tected by Mr. Reeve, seem to. favor the suggestion that Angi- 
trema is but a minor phase of Io. In habits the animals, so far 
as is known, are somewhat similar to each other, with this differ- 
ence, that Angitrema is fitted to dwell in more quiet waters than 
the necessities of Io require. 

Taken in another aspect, the inquiry why Io should be confined 
apparently to the head-waters of the Tennessee River can be an- 
swered (in the proverbial Yankee style) by offsetting the inquiry 
why a curious group of shells with a fissured lip should be found 
only in the Coosa River in Alabama. This, like much more that 
might be made the subject of inquiry, is a part of the unwritten 
history of Io that remains to be investigated. 

The reader who may desire to refer to a summary of what has 
been written on species of Io will find such information as is 
available for the purposes of a naturalist in a work entitled Strep- 
omatid*, by G. W. Tryon, Jr., Smithsonian Miscellaneous Col- 
lections, No. 253. 

A POPULAR EXPLANATION (FOR THOSE WHO UNDER- 
STAND BOTANY) OF THE MATHEMATICAL NATURE 
OF PHYLLOTAXIS. 

TAKE, by the finger and thumb of your right hand, hold of a 
spike of Plantago major, Lepidium Virginicum, or other 
flower-cluster with symmetrically crowded flowers, and with the 
finger and thumb of the left hand grasp it a little higher up, so 
as to include between the two hands a dozen or twenty buds on 
a piece of stem about equally tough from end to end. Twist the 
stem, and if it twists equally in all parts you will bring your 
buds into a small number of ranks, let us say 8. By twisting a 
little in the opposite direction you will get them into 5 ranks. 
Twist harder, and if your stem is tough enough to stand the 
twist you will bring them into two ranks. Turn back to 8 rows, 
and twist harder in that direction ; you will fetch your buds into 
3 rows. Then twist still harder in that direction, and if you have 
an old, tough, plaintain spike, you may get the seed-vessels all 



1876.] Mathntutticd Xature of Phyllotaxis. 327 

Thus by mechanical twisting, if the twist is equal in all parts 
of the stem, we get on one side of the natural position the num- 
ber of rows 5 and 2, and on the other side 8, 3, and 1. Hence if 
we begin with the most twisted position and come toward the 
natural position, we get the numbers 

On one side .... 2 5 

On the other ... 1 3 8 

Now these series of numbers indicate the approach towards the 
untwisted position. What would be the number of ranks in that 
theoretically perfect untwisted state? As both these series of 
numbers are increasing, that is, the number of ranks decreases as 
you twist either way, you may infer that in the untwisted state 
the number of ranks is prodigious or innumerable. Carrying on 
the series by adding zigzag as the lines are dotted, we should 

1 2 5 13 34 89 233 

1 "3 "*8 21 55 144 377 

Hence we say that the slightest conceivable twist in one direc- 
tion makes the number of ranks 377, a little more in that direc- 
tion gives 144, 55, 21, 8, 3, 1, while the slightest twist in the op- 
posite direction gives us 233, a little more 89, 34, 13, 5, 2, 1. 

There is, however, a mystery in the space between 233 and 
377, between twisting one way and twisting the other. Let us 
not seek to solve it by running the number of ranks up higher, to 
610, 987, 1597, etc., but approach it in another way. 

In the stem twisted one way, the angle between the leaves is 
h the whole circumference, or § , or ^, or i|, etc. ; with the stem 
twisted the other way the angle is £, or |, or 5 * T , or & etc., the 
circumference. Let us set these in double rows : — 

Twisted one way . . . 1 f A H H *&' 

Twisted the other way . . * | A H V& «f 
Or putting them in decimals we shall see how they converge 
towards the same value : — 

Twisted one way . . .5 .4 .38 .382 -.38202 

Twisted the other way . .33 .375 .3809 .3818 .38194 

Take the high fraction Jf §{■ in the upper series and turn it 

into decimals, we get .38196603. If the leaves were at this angle 

tn ey would form 4181 rows or ranks, and the least twist would 

Produce the lower numbers. Let us now attempt to find some 



Nature of Phyllotaxis. [June, 

simpler mode of representing these fractions .38196603 or ^/If » 
which are the same. 

Dividing both numerator and denominator of r *g j by 1597 
will give H"£&V> dividing each term of the last fraction by 
987 gives us 



equal to 



*** 



equal t 



continued indefinitely by the name of x, it is plain that the 
phyllotactic fractions beginning with £, J, $, f, f^ continually ap- 
proach nearer and nearer to the value £+„ or 



and these values are alike. Putting the first 



This expression, * (3 — VT), is equal to .38196+, and ex- 
resses the exact ratio of the leaves in a theoretically untwisted 
tern when the number of rows is infinite. Other arrangements 



are simply approximations to this (as though they aimed j 
but got the stem twisted in growing), such as 

*n = l »« = ! 



W 1 



TRACES OF AN AMERICAN AUTOCHTHON. 



^HEN in our rambles over the fields, in search of relics, we 
ce to find lying side by side some rough, rude imple- 
ment and a delicate, artistically-wrought arrow-point, we are apt 
to merely glance at the former, and perhaps smile at so poor an 
effort at flint-chipping, while admiring the beauty of finish and 
excellence of workmanship displayed by the latter. But the 
unshapely implement has a history that, if not as eloquent as the 
legends of the red man, is far older, and calls up a shadowy vis- 
ion of a still more distant time, when another people dwelt in 
this goodly land, and fashioned for its use these rude stone weap- 
ons that now alone are left to tell its story, and recall the time 
when this "great continent was occupied by a wide-spread 
though sparse population." 

During the summer of 1872, having heard of the occurrence 
of Indian relics in a gravel bank then being removed, I carefully 
examined the face of the bluff, and succeeded in finding a single 
stone implement, and subsequently two others. These three 
specimens were described and figured soon after, 1 and I then ex- 
pressed the opinion that, " had but a single specimen been found, 
^ might reasonably, perhaps, have applied to it the doctrine of 
chances, and maintained that it was merely a freak of nature ; 
D «t the occurrence of three specimens so near each other effect- 
ua % disposes of the justice of such an opinion, and we must 
admit the antiquity of American man to be greater than the 
^vent of the so-called Indian." 

1 have lately succeeded in finding a few specimens of relics, in 
strata of river drift, similar to those figured in the Naturalist, 
but higher up in the series ; thus apparently connecting them 
*jth the rude forms found near and occasionally on the surface, 
which I formerly believed to be the forerunners of the later 



330 Traces of an American Autochthon. [June, 

relics. The intermediate specimens above referred to, seven in 
number, are rudely wrought lance-heads (?) and those ridge- 
backed, flat-bottomed implements, known locally as " turtle- 
backs." The supposed lance-heads are very similar to the 
European palaeolithic forms, and in all respects identical with 
those found nearer the surface, of which the late Professor J. 
Wyman said, 1 in a notice of a series sent him. " There are sev- 
eral implements which very closely resemble the celts of the drift 
period of Europe, especially those found at St. Acheul, two or 
three of which, except for their material, could hardly be distin- 
guished from them." 

My studies of these paleolithic specimens, and of their position 
in the gravel beds and overlying soil, has led me to conclude rhit 
not long after the close of the last glacial epoch man appeared 
in the valley of the Delaware, and that during his occupancy 
there was a steady but not violent physical change of the gen- 
eral surface of the country, caused by the greatly increased 
volume of the river then nearly filling the present valley ; and 
that at a point in time when the river (Delaware), diminished 
to its present size, occupied its present channel, these palaeolithic 
people were driven off by the Indians, who at that time were 
themselves not advanced to the neolithic or polished-stone age 
condition. On examining a series of stone implements gathered 
from some one spot, we find one characteristic, common to all, 
which at once attracts the attention. This is the uniformity of 
the workmanship. As remarked by Professor Geikie, " The 
weapons and implements belonging to the older or palaeolithic 
period are altogether of ruder form and finish. They are merely 
chipped into the requisite shape of adze, hatchet, scraper, or what- 
ever the implement may chance to be. Although considerable 
dexterity is shown in the fashioning of these rude implements, 
yet they certainly evince much less skill on the part of the tool- 
maker than the relics of the newer or neolithic period. It w 
somewhat noteworthy also that while the implements of the 
neolithic period are made of various kinds of stones, those of the 
palaeolithic period consist almost exclusively of flint; and so char- 
acteristic are the shape and fashion of the latter that an expe- 
rienced archaeologist has no difficulty in recognizing and distin- 
guishing them at once from relics of the neolithic age." 2 

With the exception of the use of the word " flint," the above 

i Fifth Annual Report of the Peabody Museum of Archeology, page 27. Cam- 
bridge. 1872. 

a Great Ice Age, American Edition, page 404. 



1876.] 



Traces of an American Autochtho 



331 

is in every way applicable to the rude implements here consid- 
ered to be the production of an older people than the Indians. 

Again, on examination of a large series of these relics, consid- 
ered with reference to the circumstances under which they were 
gathered, it is found that the mineral of which they are almost 
exclusively made is not really a soft stone, easily worked ; nor on 
the other hand as dense as jasper or quartz. A freshly fractured 
surface will readily scratch glass. Their surfaces are, however, 
quite soft, from long exposure since their detachment from the 
parent rock. In fragments of a rock buried in ordinary soil, and 
not exposed to unusual chemical action, any decomposition, if it 
took place at all, must have been very gradual; indeed, 




a % slow ; am 
*ere long exposed 
ground, before the slowly increasing deposit of soil or stratum of 
■JM or gravel, as the case may be, concealed them from view. 
Ihis « weathering " of the surface of rude implements varies con- 
siderably in depth, but is not more noticeable on any one pattern 
t,le fe ^ forms common to these older relics. It occurs on all, 
a «d the variation, ranging from ^ to T hs ot an inch, indicates, I 
eil eve, a greater antiquity of the more deeply corroded speci- 
mens. A peculiarity which also tends to separate these rude 
pes from the more 'common or true Indian relics is the preva- 
ence of certain forms of a marked character, which do not occur 



332 Trace* of an American Autochthon. [June, 

of jasper, quartz, or other minerals used by the Indians. The 
most marked of these forms is that here figured, which I call, 
adopting the local name, a "turtle-back." The name quite ac- 
curately describes this peculiar form of stone implement. It is 
only necessary to say that they are flat upon the under side, 
usually presenting but one surface ; and where two or three, the 
lines of separation are scarcely definable, and the specimen, when 
placed upon a level surface, appears to be perfectly smooth under- 
neath. They vary but little in size, the one here figured (Fig- 
ure 21) being an excellent example of an average specimen of 
this form of stone implement. 

Considering this turtle-back as the primitive form of these 
palreolithic implements, we find that they vary from it, in three 
directions : towards the common grooved ax, but never with a 
groove ; into spear-heads and large arrow-points ; and into scrap- 
ers, such as the Indians later used. But while we meet with 
palasolithic axes, spears, and scrapers which are quite similar to 
the neolithic forms, they can never be confounded with them ; 
the workmanship is quite distinct, and, however unusual its 
shape, there is that about it that marks it as not an ordinary 
Indian relic. 

It is well here to refer to the fact that the occurrence of rude 
implements such as are here described takes place not only in this 
neighborhood, but Mr. C. C. Jones, in his work on Indian antiq- 
uities, 1 alludes to " some rudely-chipped, triangular-shaped im- 
plements found in Nacoochee Valley under circumstances which 
seemingly assign to them a very remote antiquity. In material, 
manner of construction, and general appearance, so nearly do 
they resemble some of the rough so-called flint hatchets belong- 
ing to the drift type, as described by M. Boucher de Perthes, 
that they might very readily be mistaken the one for the other. 
.... At a depth of nine feet below the surface, intermin- 
gled with the gravel and bowlders of the drift and just above the 
rocky substratum upon which the deposit rested, were found 
three flint implements That the implements in ques- 
tion were brought down with and deposited in the drift when as 
yet there was little or no vegetable life in the valley, seems 
highly probable. How many centuries have looked down upon 
the gradual accumulation of the soil which now overlies the drift, 
none can answer ; but of one thing we may rest satisfied, that 
these specimens of the rude labor of prehistoric man may well 
1 Antiquities of Southern Indians, page 294. 



1876.J Trace?, of an American Autochthon. 333 

claim high antiquity Thus, in Nacoochee, while the 

neolithic age is richly represented, the palaeolithic period is not 
entirely wanting in its characteristic types." 

The above well describes what obtains in the valley of the 
Delaware, except that the palaeolithic period is quite well repre- 
sented, and without so abrupt a break between that and the neo- 
lithic age. 

Having, I trust, made the reader sufficiently familiar with the 
more prominent characteristics of these rude implements, as 
compared with the common forms of Indian relics, I propose 
now to determine, if possible, something concerning their origin ; 
and to suggest to what race these palaeolithic folk belonged. 

If it is true that the relics of preoccupying races, now scattered 
over the State, are traces of two distinct peoples, it is obvious 
that either the older occupants of the territory passed away be- 
fore the advent of the Indian, or they were" driven from the 
country by the latter race. Had the paleolithic folk disappeared 
from the valley of the Delaware at some time long prior to the 
advent of the Indian, there would have been a break in the 
series of stone implements now found, and no commingling what- 
ever, for a people once established would totally disappear only 
m consequence of geological changes occurring ; and Buch would 
sufficiently alter the surface of the country to embed the relics 
in strata at some distance beneath the soil. Marked changes in 
the contour of the territory here considered have certainly taken 
place since the first appearance of man in eastern North America, 
,,ut these changes have been so gentle as not to destroy the habit- 
ability of the country, and we therefore find the traces of that 
earlier people not only in the underlying gravels, but in the soil 
above, proving, I think, that paleolithic man did not disappear at 
a point in time anterior to the Indian's first appearance. It 
must be remembered, too, that the Indians claim to have been a 
usurping people ; to have found, on their arrival, a preoccupy- 
ln g people, whom they dispossessed of their lands. If sucli is 

case, — and do not the deeply buried rude relics here described 
authenticate their statements ? — then two questions naturally 
anse m one's mind : Who were these ancient people ? Where 
are they now ? 

It is scarcely probable that a race driven from their homes in 
he valley of the Delaware should have entirely left the country. 
*% could not have crossed the ocean ; and we look at the 
nei ghboring peoples to find the descendants of this displaced 



334 Traces of an American Autochthon. [June, 

people, if indeed they have not perished from off the face of the 

Have we near at hand any people that even in some respects 
meet the requirements of our supposition ? I believe we have, 
in the Eskimo. 1 

The similarity of the Delaware Valley implements to those of 
Europe, as already referred to, is even more marked when the 
former are compared with the relics from French caves. The 
stone implements figured by Lartet and Christy, 2 illustrative of 
the weapons, domestic utensils, and ornaments of the reindeer 
people of Southern France, are, in part, so exactly reproduced 
in the palaeolithic relics of New Jersey, that a close relationship 
of the two peoples suggests itself ; although no caves such as are 
found in France, or engravings of extinct mammalia, have been 
discovered here. 

In the brief space allotted to a magazine article, it is not prac- 
ticable to enter minutely into detail with reference to the many 
facts having direct bearing on the question of the gravel-bed im- 
plements, their antiquity and origin. I have but briefly referred 
to the marked resemblance between New Jersey and French cave 
specimens of stone relics, and will here only acid that "it would 
be easy to cite many cir live of the resemblance 

between the condition and habits of the modern Eskimo and 
these cave dwellers of France at the reindeer period." 3 If, there- 
fore, the rude implements of the Delaware Valley gravels re- 
semble those of the caves of France, and the French troglodytes 
were identical (?) with the Eskimo, it is fair to presume that 
the first human beings that dwelt along the shores of the Dela- 
ware were really the same people as the present inhabitants of 
Arctic America. 

It has been demonstrated, I believe, conclusively, that some 
eighty thousand years ago the last glacial epoch came to a close. 
There was, however, no sudden change in the climate. The 



ice the iibov 


e was written, I have 


tare for Decern!* 








iew of Dr. Ri 










it the Eskimo are 






rho have been pushed 




,v the intrusive 1 




|.mi(.t..,n'>i 


. Kinks's, it will be no 






paper, an.l 










occupation i 


rf this country by two 


peoples, a, in 


dicatedbytherel 




liqui:, Aqui 


tanicrc. London. 186 


5-74. Edite< 


I by T. Rupert J 


ones 




tanicie, page 26. 








■mate and T 


itne, by Croll ; Great 


Ice Age, by J 


. Geikie. 





1876.] Johnny Darters. 335 

winters were more severe than now, the summers shorter, and 
the reindeer still abundant. At this time, the river, now occupy- 
ing a comparatively small and shallow channel, flowed at an ele- 
vation of nearly fifty feet above its present level ; and it was 
when such a mighty stream as this, that man first gazed upon its 
waters and lost those rude weapons in its swift current that now, 
in the beds of gravel which its floods have deposited, are alike the 
puzzle and delight of the archaeologist. Had these first comers, 
like the troglodytes of France, had convenient caves to shelter 
them, doubtless we would have their better wrought implements 
of bone to tell more surely the story of their ancient sojourn 
here; but, wanting them, their history is not altogether lost, and 
in the rude weapons, now deep down beneath the grassy sod and 
flower-decked river bank, we learn at least the fact of "the pres- 
ence, in the distant past, of an earlier people than the Indian, 
and have a veritable trace of the American autochthon. 



JOHNNY DARTERS. 



^NY one who has ever been a boy, and can remember the days 
of green meadows, tag alders, and an angleworm on a pin 
hook, surely has not forgotten the little dusky fish which lay 
perfectly motionless on the pebbly bottom of the shallow stream, 
' ln,< im Pted by fly or worm, while over his head the silly little 
minnows strained their toothless mouths in a vain endeavor to 
swallow the bait meant for the nobler sun-fish. You will remem- 
be r, too, that when, after watching him a while, you put down 
• , ""' ,1; ' l!| l to catch the little philosopher, just as you had cov- 
ered him and were sure you had him he was resting as com- 
posedly as ever a few feet farther up the stream. That little 
&sh was a Johnny Darter. 

lfc is an ancient and venerable family, that to which he be- 
l011 gs, the family of Darters. It is exclusively American, but 
none the less ancient and venerable on that account, for its mem- 
! ,~ :; ! ' ;"'y pond and brook of our Eastern United States trace 
', ' ■ !| " f lineage through a dozen lines of descent to a primitive 

'" <,r ' \vhi.-h lived and loved a million of years before the time 
r Ui ' 1151 "- <"• William the Conqueror. 

, ''' llat uralists know them as Etheostomoids, from Utheostoma, 
name given by Rafinesque to the first ones described, for 



336 Johnny Darters. [June, 

until 1820, no writer on such matters supposed the Johnnies to 
be fully developed fishes, but thought them the young of some 
perch or bass. Even for twenty-five years later, the wise men of 
the East who study nature in books and bottles, and do not know 
her when they meet her out-of-doors, spoke of Etheostoma as a 
mere "myth," having "no existence save in the fertile brain of 
men of versatile but disordered intellect," as they were pleased to 
style Rafinesque and others who saw things not described by 
Cuvier or dreamed of by Valenciennes. 

The books call these fishes " Darters," from Boleosoma (dart 
body, in Greek), the name of the common eastern species; the 
realistic dwellers of the Ohio Valley call some of them hog-fishes; 
the boys call them Johnnies, and, as the boy instinct is the truest, 
Johnny Darters they shall be. 

All the darters are very small fishes ; the largest barely reaches 
the minimum of size on the urchin's string when he comes back 
from the mill-pond, while the smallest is with one or two excep- 
tions the least of all fishes. They have only the rudiment of an 
air bladder, and are therefore unable to float freely in the water 
or even to swim at all without severe manual — not caudal — 
labor. They rest quietly on the bottom for the most part, curled 
up under a stone or standing on their front and tail fins; now 
and then throwing themselves forward for a short distance by a 
broad and sudden sweep of the pectorals, to snap at some water- 
bug or to dodge the claws of some crawfish or the grasp of some 
small boy. This movement made, they come to rest, either per- 
manently or until they can bring their arms forward again. 
When a darter wishes to swim for any distance his course is 
peculiar: at every impulse forward he rises in the water; at 
every rest he begins to fall, his face meanwhile wearing an ex- 
pression of contented helplessness. The whole movement is much 
like that of a boy learning to swim, whose nose goes under when 
he brings his arms forward after each stroke. 

The mouth of the darter bristles with teeth, which indicate its 
carnivorous habits, and its great voracity makes it in a small 
way the terror of the aquarium, for it carries death and <li-uia) 
to timid water-snails and the smaller crustaceans. It pounces 
upon a piece of meat with all the ferocity of a wild-cat, having 
none of the timid eagerness characterizing the minnows, ana 
little of the graceful dash of the perch and bass. 

Rafinesque says of the Johnnies of his acquaintance, " They 
are good to eat, fried." This is doubtless true, but I should as 



Johnny Darters. 337 

soon think of filling my pan with wood- warblers. The good man 

potior "pot-luck," but to let escape "the Indian 

Then- small size, brilliant coloration, quaintness, and hardiness 
«^der the darters very desirable aquarium fishes, miu-h more 
;'ftrart,ve m every respect than the cheap and vulgar gold-lish 
Ihey a re httle known even to naturalists; few of them have 
?ured, and the biography of none ever written, so we 
hope : that this attempt to tell the story of some that we know may 
"" r U ' ^attractive to those who can see' something more in a 
Wnc fish than a possible dinner to themselves or to a kimMisher. 




The barred darter or log perch {Percina caprodes; Figure 22 
represents a species of Percina) is the largest of the Etheosto- 
»ioids. It may be most readily known by its superior size and 
JL peculiar Pattern of coloration. The ground color is pale 

T '~ darker above, silvery beneath; on this are about fifteen 



ack vertical bars t 



Perfectly with as many shortei 



ncomplete rings, alternating 






sh only liall'-way 

lateral line ; the hindmost bar is reduced to a 

■■ base of the caudal, and there are many black 

^Pecks and mottlings on the fins. The body is long and slender, 

'•'■'•"il. and linn and wiry to the touch; the dorsal 

rge, and the first consists of about thirteen spines ; the 

1 on top and tapers into aflat, pointed snout, which 

abruptly squared off at the end, much overlapping the small 

the aftGr the faSlli ° n ° f the W The kteral lhie ' as in a11 
species mentioned in this article, is perfectly distinct from the 
ue aa to the tail. 

, ** ' :,,il reaches a length of six or eight inches, and it may be 
11 with a hook baited with a worm. I often meet 
v 'th one or two of them strung through the gills on a 
" bo* ' fi 1 ?,' al ° ng with " red e y es '" " sfcone totel V' and other 
a J* sh \' A t such times, I generally buy the log perch for 
vol. J CUt Xt ° pen to look at the air bladder which the books 



338 Johnny Darters. [June, 

say it does not have, and then lay it away with the rest of my 
treasures in the bottle of alcohol. 

We find Percina usually in rapid and rather deep water, as 
deep as we dare wade in when seining in hip boots. We rarely 
find them small enough for ordinary aquarium purposes, and the 
living specimen before me, though wonderfully quick and grace- 
ful, has shown little that is noteworthy, save his courage, love of 
angleworms, and a possible disposition to bury himself in the 
sand. There is something in the expression of his face, as he 
rests on his " hands and feet " on a stone, remarkably lizard-like, 
reminding me of the blue-tailed skink QEumeces fasciatus). 

We next come to the fine gentleman of the family, the black- 
sided darter (Mheostoma blennioides~). This species may be 
known best by its coloration. The ground hue is a salmon yel- 
low ; the back is regularly and beautifully marbled with black, 
forming a peculiar and handsome pattern. On the sides, from 
the head to the tail runs a jet-black band which is widened at ir- 
regular intervals into round spots, which contrast sharply with 
the silvery color of the belly. Or we might say that on each 
side is a chain of confluent, round, black blotches. At times 
these spots are quite pale and do not seem to meet, but in an in- 
stant they regain their original form and shade. These changes 
are when the fish is excited by the presence of things eatable. 
A male in our aquarium underwent almost in an instant an en- 
tire change of pattern upon the introduction of a female fish of 
the same species, whom he recognized as his true affinity. Al- 
though the two have been together for some weeks, the novelty 
has not yet worn off, and though his colors vary much from one 
hour to another, he has never quite reverted to his original dress. 
The form of the black-sided darter is more graceful than that 
of any other, and his movements have less of the angular jerki- 
ness which distinguishes his relatives. 

The dorsal fins, as in Percina, are long and large, the numbei 
of spines being about fourteen. Etheostoma delights in clear 
running water, and he may be found in most streams south and 
west of New York. A notable peculiarity is the presence of a 
row of shields or enlarged scales along the middle line of tlie 
belly. These may serve to protect that part from the friction of 
the stony bottom. They seem to be shed at some seasons, but 
when and why is unknown. 

Etheostoma is especially desirable for aquaria. He is hardier 
than any other fish as pretty, and prettier than any other as 



1876.] Johnny Darters. 339 

hardy, and withal he " has a way of his own," as Barney Mullins 
said of Thoreau. 

The most simply beautiful of all fresh- water fishes is the green- 
sided darter (Diplesium blennioides ; Figure 23 represents a 



species of this genus). He is not, like the Pcecilichthys, an ani- 
mated rainbow, but has the beauty of green grass, wild violets, or 
a log covered with green moss. As we watch him in the water, 
fcfth his bright, blended colors and gentle ways, once more, with 
Izaak Walton's Angler, "We sit on cowslip banks, hear the 
birds sing, and possess ourselves in as much quietness as the si- 
lent, silver streams which we see glide so quietly by us." 

During the ordinary business of the year the Diplesium, like 
most sensible fishes and men, dresses plainly. It is a serious 
matter to get any time for contemplation when the streams are 
low and food scarce, and a plain coat may ward off danger as 
well as facilitate attack. At all times, however, he may be known 
by these marks: the fins are all large, and the first dorsal has 
thirteen spines ; the back is covered with zigzag markings down 
to the lateral line,, which is complete and continuous, while be- 
low it extend eight or nine arrow-shaped, olive spots, which are 
more or less connected above, sometimes as if forming a wavy 
line ; these are on a nearly white ground, which blends with the 
uniform coloration of the belly. The eyes are quite large and 
prominent, the snout is short and rounded, giving a decidedly 
frog-like profile, while on a front view the little, inferior mouth 
seems puckered with » prunes and prisms." The roof of the 
umuth is toothless, though all the other Johnnies have small 
teeth on the front part of the roof behind the jaws, the region 
technically known as the vomer. 

But when the first bluebirds give warning by their shivering 
and b °diless notes that spring is coming, then the Diplesium 
Puts on his wedding clothes and becomes in fact the green-sided 
uarter. The dorsal fins become bright grass-green, with a scarlet 
e a " d at the base ; the broad anal has a tinge of the deepest era- 
**» wm le every spot and line upon the side has turned from 



340 Johnny Barters. [June, 

an undefined olive to a deep, rich green, scarcely found elsewhere 
in the animal world except on the backs of frogs. 

The same tint flashes out on the branching rays of the caudal 
fin, and may be faintly seen struggling through the white on the 
belly. The blotches nearest the middle of the back become jet- 
black, and thickly sprinkled everywhere are little shiny spots of 
a clear, bronze orange. In the aquarium, Diplesium seems more 
shy and retiring, too much of a fine lady to scramble for angle- 
worms or to snap at the "bass-feed." She is usually hidden 
among the plants, or curled up under an arch of stones or m ■ 
geode. Specimens may be caught most abundantly in rapid, 
gravelly streams, but we often find stray individuals lying on 
sandy bottoms, the proper home of the Pleurolepis. 

Boleosoma effulgens 1 is the darter of darters. Although our 
earliest aquarium friend, for the very first specimen placed tfoere 
showed us by a rapid ascent of the river-weed how "a Johnny 
could climb trees," he has still many resources which we have 
never learned. Whenever we try to catch one with the hand we 
begin with all the uncertainty which characterized our first at- 
tempt, even if we have him in a two-quart pail. 

He may be known from his cousins by his short first dorsal fin 
of nine spines, and by the absence of all color save soft brown on 
white that has the faintest tinge of yellow, but not a dirty white 
at all. The other nine-spined darters, Poecilichthys, etc. (Fig- 
ure 24 represents a species of this genus), have a different 
projecting 
2 the body 
deeper! and the lateral 
ing on the 
the body. 



sides of Boleosoma is 
_ ._ eight W-shaped marks, below which are a 
few flecks of the same color. Covering the sides above the bt 
eral line are wavy markings, — gathered into blotches on 





1876.] The Black Knot. 341 

median line, — that have given him the name of tesselated 
darter, said by the books to be "common." But Boleosoma is a 
braver name, and we even prefer " Boly," for short. The head 
resembles that of Drplesium, but the habit of leaning forward over 

strike attitudes like a tufted titmouse, and he flies rather than 
swims through the water. He will with much perseverance push 
his body between a plant and the side of the aquarium, and bal- 
ail,,( ' himself on the slender stem. Crouching eat-like before a 
snail-shell, he will snap off the horns which the unlucky owner 
pushes timidly out. But he is often less dainty, and, seizing the 
"imnal by the head, dashes the shell against the glass or a stone 
alls the body out or breaks the shell. " Boly," alas ! 



5 the « Quake 






THE BLACK KNOT. 
r jHE following article is an abstract, by Mr. B. D. Halsted, 
of a paper by Prof. W. G. Farlow published in the Bulletin of 
tll( ' I'mssey Institution of March, 1876. It will be the endeavor 
to give, with the aid of two of the three original plates, 1 a brief 
notice of the most important points concerning this destructive 

^ ithout doubt, the most striking disease of vegetable origin 

occurring on fruit-trees in this country is that commonly known 

as the black knot. The disease takes its name from" the un- 

:-'";;'. black, wart -like excrescences, with which everyone is 

' plum-trees and different kinds of wild and cultivated 

" n '- r -- It is found in all parts of our country east of the 

,r;'/ Quintains, "nd is so common and destructive that in some 

rets 0ne seldom sees a plum-tree free from the knot. An idea 

y iXU " Eorn aed of the small crop of plums now raised in New 

* the fact that two dollars and a half were given in 

n last autumn for a peck of damsons for preserving. In 

ffl e parts of New England, partienlarlv in Maine and along 

« sea-coast, the raising of cherries has also been almost aban- 

' ' i" the <kiiio! Mr. J II I! ,] ,ui tl, Mu^nm ol < onipanitiv" 



342 The Black Knot. [June, 

doned, in consequence of the ravages of the black knot. The 
disease is peculiar to America, and has been the bane of fruit- 
growers from early times ; but although much has been written 
in agricultural papers' about its injury to the fruit crop, the sub- 
ject has been almost entirely neglected by botanists. In the 
present paper we shall consider the cause and prevention of the 
knot, and the question whether the disease is the same on plums 
and cherries. As a preliminary step, it will be well to trace the 
development of the knot as it occurs on a single species, and for 
this purpose the choke-cherry, Prunus Virginiana L., may be 
selected. 

The size of the knots varies greatly, being found on the 
species of Prunus under consideration all the way from a few 
lines to several inches in length, with an average of two inches 
in circumference. The knot does not usually entirely surround 
the branch, but growing from one side, often causes the branch 
to bend or twist into an irregular shape. In the winter, when 
the branches are leafless, the knots are much more noticeable, 
and at this season they are often cracked and broken, worm-eaten 
and hollow. 

In the swollen portions of the branch above and below the 
knot, sections under the microscope show the vegetative portion 
of the fungus in the form of minute threads, .0007 mm. ui 
diameter, twisted together and extending from the cambium 
towards the outer portion of the stem, where they become sep- 
arated as shown in Plate IV., Figure 1. The fungus first reaches 
the cambium either by the germination of spores on the surface 
of the branch, or by the mycelium proceeding from a neighboring 
knot. The part of the cambium free from these bundles of 
mycelial threads grows in the usual manner, and in an old branc ^ 
a cross section shows at the end of the season one more "ring 
or layer of wood on the sound than on the diseased side. From 
this it is to be concluded that the growing layer of tissue of the 
plum or cherry branch is the place from which the fungus begins 
its destructive work. . , 

In the spring the swollen portion of the branch, whether it 
on either side of an old knot or at the beginning of a new one, 
increases in size, and the mycelium soon reaches and bursts throng 
the bark, so that by the time the choke-cherry is in flower J 
knot has reached nearly its full size, though differing fr0Tn a " c ° n . 
one in being still greenish in color and solid or pulpy in °° 
sistency. 



18 ™-] The Black Knot. 343 

" With a hand-lens one can see small hemispherical protuber- 
ances, which are the beginnings of the ' perithecia.' The whole 
surface of the protuberances is covered with filaments (Plate III., 
Figure 2) about .04 mm. to .06 mm. in height and .004 mm. in 
breadth, which are somewhat flexuous and frequently divided by 
cross-partitions. The filaments are more frequently simple, but 
sometimes branch. At the tip of the terminal joint, or more fre- 
quently a little to one side, is borne a spore .006 mm. in length, 
ovate and rather sharply pointed at the lower end. Not unfre- 
quently two or three spores are borne on the upper joint, and 
others may also be produced on some of the lower joints. We 
have never seen any cross divisions in the conidial spores, which 
fall very early from their attachments. The conidia which we 
have just described spring directly from the surface of the peri- 
thecia. They continue to bear their spores until the latter part 
of summer, when they begin to dry up, and as winter sets in 
one finds only their shriveled remains." As autumn approaches, 
the knots assume their black color, the inner portions being 
either destroyed by insects or reduced to a powdery mass, with 
only the hard outer shell, which contains the perithecia, left in 
place. These perithecia are small pits or sacs which are scat- 
tered through the hard crust and contain the sexual spores, borne, 
always to the number of eight, in asci or cells. In Plate IV., 
Figure 4, is shown a highly magnified cross section through a 
perithecium, with the spore sacs attached to the wall. Figure 3 
of the same plate gives a still more magnified view of two of the 
asci, with the spores somewhat regularly disposed ; while spring- 
ing from the wall of the perithecium and extending above the 
asci are the long and slender sterile threads called - paraphyses." 
" The asci grow slowly during the winter, and about the middle 
of January the spores begin to ripen. In the month of February 
they are found in perfection ; but late in spring they are not so 
abundant or in such good condition. We first found a few ripe 
spores on the 17th of January ; and in the second week of Feb- 

JJ^ary, most of the knots examined contained ripe spores 

he s P 01 'es measure from .016 mm. to .02 mm. in length and 
.I .^" 008 ™ n * to ' 01 mm - in breadth. They are two-parted, as 
IV., Figures 5 and 6 ; one division being uni- 



formly r 
quarter 



smaller than the other, and not i 

i third as long. The spores are transparent 



shghtly granular. As they lie in the ascus, the small end almost 
ln vanably points downwards. Spores which ripen in February 



344 The Black Knot. [June, 

germinate in the course of from three to five days, when suffi- 
ciently moist." 

Besides the conidial spores formed from the outside, and the 
ascospores from the inside, of the wall of the perithecia, there 
are still other forms of fruit, which are called stylospores. These 
spores are produced in cavities between the perithecia ; a cross 
section of such a cavity is represented in Plate III., Figure 4, 
with a small portion more magnified in Figure 5, showing these 
bodies to be borne on long stalks and divided by partitions into 
four parts. 

" Plate IV., Figure 2, represents a section through a cavity 
hardly distinguishable externally from the perithecia. which, in- 
stead of being filled with- asci, is lined with slender filaments 
whose tips are somewhat incurved, and easily broken off, the 
central part of the sac being filled with them. We call these 
" spermogonia," from their resemblance to the bodies of the same 
name in lichens. They are much less common than the conidia or 
stylospores. Interspersed amongst the ascus-bearing perithecia. 
one finds tolerably frequently still other cavities which are much 
more flattened than the perithecia, which often, instead of appear- 
ing oval, on section seem almost triangular. They are lined with 
short, delicate filaments which end in a minute oval hyaline body. 
These small oval bodies are produced in immense numbers, and 
are discharged not singly, but in masses. They are more or less 
closely held together by a sort of jelly, and ooze out from the 
cavity in which they are produced in the' form of tendrils remind- 
ing one of the toy called » Pharaoh's serpent." This last form 
is called the "pyenidia." It seems that this fungus does not 
lack for methods of propagating itself and continuing its species. 
The knot on the choke-cherry, when compared with those on 
the plum and cultivated varieties of cherry, is seen to be slightly 
different in general appearance ; but when viewed with the 
microscope they all prove to be identical, the difference notice- 
able to the naked eye being due to more favorable circumstances 
for its growth afforded by one species of Primus than by another. 
On the plum it does not thrive as well as on the choke-cherry. 
The curculio deposits its eggs in the young pulpy knot, and from 
the punctures a oaim soon exudes and on this" coat in" - a mold. 

the curculio stings the knots that so niai'iv persons have been leil 
to believe that the knots themselves are of insect origin." 



1876 -] The Black Knot. 345 

Schweinitz was the first to describe, under the name of Sphrria 
»°rboto, the fungus causing the black knot. At that time noth- 
ing was known of the secondary forms of fruit of this group of 
tungi. Mr. C. H. Peck was the first to describe the conidia. 
*rom a short discussion as to the position this species should 
" ! " '• |:i -^""'-:nn»ii and tho name it ought to bear, it is con- 
dll ' l ^f that until its related species are better known its old place 
and name had best be retained. 

The black knot is far from being of recent origin, and has 
Banished a subject about which vastly more has been written 
than was known. Many, especially the early writers, held it to 
be of insect origin, while, later, others have looked upon it as a 
vegetable growth, and still others included in its production the 
actions of both these forms of life. During the last thirty years 
the insect theory has been gradually given up by the entomolo- 
gists ; but it still remains for many fruit-growers to accept the 
knot as being of fungus origin. The proof given in the paper is 
^ry conclusive on this long-disputed point. « First, the knots 
do not resemble the galls made by any known insect. Secondly, 
j l[rl ">"u!i insects, or remains of insects, are generally found in old 
nots ' m m ost cases no insects at all are found in them when 
■^ Ul -\ T hir»lly, the insects that have been found by entomol- 
'" ,l "" 1 " '" i:i '' huots are not all of one species, but of several (lif- 
erent species, which are also found on trees which are never 
affected by the knot. On the other hand, we never have the 
hick knot without the Sphceria morlom, as was admitted by 
at ''; is : a1 " 1 the mycelinm of that fungus is found in the slightly 
swollen stem lon g bl -''"'-<' anything which could be called a knot 
la * ,l,: ><h. its appearance. Furthermore, the Sphceria morbosa is 
n°t known to occur anywhere except in connection with the 

k 10se wll o believe that there are two distinct species of the 

lave arrived at this conclusion from a too hasty generali/.a- 

upon incomplete observations. " Having seen some cherries 

jy mi the knot, although growing near diseased plum-trees, 

i U< otllei '*< perhaps not near any plum-trees, covered with knots, 



backed by the kn 



346 The Black Knot. [June, 

and Prunus Virginiana L., the choke-cherry, are about equally 
common near Boston. The latter is very frequently attacked by 
the knot ; the former never, as far as our experience goes, and 
we have examined hundreds of trees." In and around Boston 
the cultivated plum has been nearly destroyed by the knot, while 
over the same territory the wild plum is of rare occurrence, if 
found at all, showing that the disease must come from some 
species of cherry. 

In all this long discussion of the black knot much confusion 
has grown out of the loose use of popular names. The choke- 
cherry of one person may not be the choke-cherry of another ; 
and the bird or rum cherry in one section may bear other names 
in another part of the country. 

With a knowledge of the nature of this contagious disease 
the remedy at once suggests itself : namely, to cut off the knots, 
together with the swollen portions of the branches, wherever and 
whenever they are found. In autumn, as soon as the leaves fall, 
the knots can be most easily seen, and all branches bearing tln-m 
should be taken off and burned at once. Though the ascospores 
are not formed until late in the following winter, it was carefully 
observed that, were the knots left undestroyed, they would ripen 
after the branch was cut from the tree. The choke-cherry, bird- 
cherry, and wild plum furnish means for rapid propagation of the 
knot, and they should be gladly sacrificed for the good of their 
more worthy allies. Of the choke-cherry the writer says, 
"However opinions may differ as to its beauty, there can be only 
one as to its injurious influence on cherry and plum orchards; 
and it cannot be too strongly impressed upon fruit-growers that 
the choke-cherry is a most dangerous enemy, and should be de- 
stroyed." 

Knowing the cause, nature, and means of propagation of the 
black knot, it remains for the fruit-growers to profit by their 
valuable instruction and use their best endeavors to destroy this 
pest. The article closes with a statement of the importance of 
keeping the disease within its present bounds. It is now peculiar 
to America, and any means of introducing it into other countries 
should be strenuously avoided. 

EXPLANATION OF THE PLATES. 
Plate III. Figure 1. Sphceria morbosa on the cultivated plum, as seen in autum . 
Figure 2.' Section of knot on the choke-cherry in May, magnified six hundred 
diameters ; a, mycelium ; b, conidia. 



876.] 




Profi 


'■ssor Tyndall 


Figure :i 


. Coni 


3ia more higl 


lily magnified. 


Figun- • 


l. Sect! 














Figure 5 


. Stylospores more 1 


lighly magnified. 


Plate IV 


'. Fig,,: 




of choke-cherry s 








Figure : 


!. Sper 






Figures 




and spores ol 




Figure 4. Perit: 


tiecium with ! 





containing stylospores. From 



PROFESSOR TYNDALL ON GERMS. 
NDER this head, Nature gives an abstract of a paper read 
by Professor Tyndall before the Royal Society, January 
13th, entitled On the Optical Deportment of the Atmosphere 
in Reference to the Phenomena of Putrefaction and Infection. 
Among other things, he wished to free his mind, and if possible 
the minds of others, from the uncertainty and confusion which 



D 



now beset the doctrine of "spontaneous generation." Pasteur 
lias pronounced it "a chimera," and expressed the undoubting 
conviction that, this being the case, it is possible to remove para- 
sitic diseases from the earth. We make a few extracts from this 
interesting article: — 

" To the medical profession, therefore, and through them to 
humanity at large, this question is one of the last importance. 
But the state of medical opinion regarding it is not satisfactory. 
In a recent number of the British Medical Journal, and in an- 
swer to the question, « In what way is contagium generated and 
communicated ? ' Messrs. Braidwood and Vacher reply that not- 
withstanding ■ an almost incalculable amount of patient labor, 
the actual results obtained, especially as regards the manner of 
generation of contagium, have been most disappointing. Ob- 
servers are even yet at variance whether these minute particles, 
whose discovery we have just noticed, and other disease germs, 
are always produced from like bodies previously existing, or 
whether they do not, under certain favorable conditions, spring 
J nto existence de novo.' . . . 

" The result of the experiments showed that infusions of vari- 
ous substances exposed to the common air of the Royal Institu- 
tion laboratory, maintained at a temperature of from 60° to 70° 
anr -, all fell into putrefaction in the course of from two to four 



348 Professor Tyndall on Germs. [Jane, 

days. No matter where the infusions were placed, they were 
infallibly smitten. The number of the tubes containing the in- 
fusions was multiplied till it reached six hundred, but not one of 
them escaped infection. 

" In no single instance, on the other hand, did the air, which 
had been proved moteless by the searching beam, show itself to 
possess the least power of producing bacterial life or the associ- 
ated phenomena of putrefaction. The power of developing such 
life in atmospheric air, and the power of scattering light, are 
thus proved to be indissolubly united. 

"The sole condition necessary to cause these long-dormant 
infusions to swarm with active life is the access of the floating 
matter of the air. After having remained for four months as 
pellucid as distilled water, the opening of the back door of the 
protecting case, and the consequent admission of the mote-laden 
air, suffice in three days to render the infusions putrid and full 
of life. . . . 

" From the irregular manner in which the tubes are attacked, 
we may infer that, as regards quantity, the distribution of the 
germs in the air is not uniform. The singling out, moreover, 
of one tube of the hundred by the particular bacteria that develop 
a green pigment, shows that, as regards quality, the distribution 
is not uniform. The same absence of uniformity was manifested 
in the struggle for existence between the bacteria and the peni- 
cillium. In some tubes the former were triumphant; in other 
tubes of the same infusion the latter was triumphant. It would 
seem also as if a want of uniformity as regards vital vigor pre- 
vailed. With the self-same infusion the motions of the bacteria 
in some tubes were exceedingly languid, while in other tubes the 
motions resembled a rain of projectiles, being so rapid and vio- 
lent as to be followed with difficulty by the eye. Reflecting on 
the whole of this, the author concludes that the germs float 
through the atmosphere in groups or clouds, with spaces more 
sparsely filled between them. The touching of a nutritive fluid 
by a bacterial cloud would naturally have a different effect from 
the touching of it by the interspace between two clouds. But as, 
in the case of a mottled sky, the various portions of the land- 
scape are successively visited by shade, so, in the long run, are 
the various tubes of our tray touched by the bacterial clouds, 
the final fertilization or infection of them all being the conse- 
quence. The author connects these results with the experiments 



1876 -] Professor Tyndall on Germs. 349 

of Pasteur on the non-continuity of the cause of so-called sponta- 
neous generation, and with other experiments of his own. 1 

" On the 9th of November, a second tray, containing one hun- 
dred tubes filled with an infusion of mutton, was exposed to the 
air. On the morning of the 11th, six of the ten nearest the stove 
had given way to putrefaction. Three of the rows most distant 
from the stove had yielded, while here and there over the tray 
particular tubes were singled out and smitten by the infection. 
Of the whole tray of one hundred tubes, twenty-seven were 
either muddy or cloudy on the 11th. Thus, doubtless, in a 
''"nt;igious atmosphere are individuals successively struck down. 
On the 12th, all the tubes had given way, but the differences in 
their contents were extraordinary. All of them contained bac- 
teria, some few, others in swarms. In some tubes they were 
slow and sickly in their motions, in some apparently dead', while 
IB others they darted about with rampant vigor. These differ- 
ences are to be referred to changes in the germinal matter, for 
the same infusion was presented everywhere to the air. Here 
also we have a picture of what occurs during an epidemic, the 
difference in number and energy of the bacterial swarms resem- 
bling the varying intensity of the disease. It becomes obvious 
from the* experiments that of two individuals of the same pop- 
wakon, exposed to a contagious atmosphere, the one may be 
severely, the other lightly attacked, though the two individuals 
milv be as identical, as regards susceptibility, as two samples of 
one and the same mutton infusion. 

" The author traces still further the parallelism of these actions 
with the progress of infectious disease. The Times of January 
j l]l obtained a remarkable letter on Typhoid Fever, signed 
|I. D.,' in which occurs the following remarkable statement: 
In one part of it (Edinburgh), congregated together and in- 
habited by the lowest of the population, there are, according to 
the corporation return for 1874, no less than 14,319 houses or 
dwellings — many under one roof, on the "flat" system— in 

cloud n wo° 3pital praCtice ' the °P enin g °f a wonnd durin £ the passaged a bacterial 
xwppt, e an effect ver y different from the opening of it in tin 



i LMiize Taye volli^- reinen Luftverhalti 
jrchen, 1838, p. 525.) The coincidenc 
nothing of Ehrenberg's conception. 



350 Professor Tyndall on Germs. [June. 

which there are no house connections whatever with the street 
sewers, and consequently no water-closets. To this day, there- 
fore, all the excrementitious and other refuse of the inhabitants 
is collected in pails or pans, and remains in their midst generally 
in a partitioned-off corner of the living-room until the next day, 
when it is taken down to the streets and emptied into the cor- 
poration carts. Drunken and vicious though the population be, 
herded together like sheep, and with the filth collected and kept 
for twenty-four hours in their very midst, it is a remarkable fact 
that typhoid fever and diphtheria are simply unknown in these 
wretched hovels.' 

" This case has its analogue in the following experiment, which 
is representative of a class. On November 30th a quantity of 
animal refuse, embracing beef, fish, rabbit, hare, was placed in 
two large test-tubes opening into a protecting chamber contain- 
ing six tubes. On December 13th, when the refuse was in a 
state of noisome putrefaction, infusions of whiting, turnip, beef, 
and mutton were placed in the other four tubes. They were 
boiled and abandoned to the action of the foul " sewer gas 
emitted by their two putrid companions. On Christmas Day the 
four infusions were limpid. The end of the pipette was then 
dipped into one of the putrid tubes, and a quantity of matter 
comparable in smallness to the pock-lymph held on the point of 
a lancet was transferred to the turnip. Its clearness was not 
sensibly affected at the time ; but on the 26th it was turbid 
throughout. On the 27th, a speck from the infected turnip was 
transferred to the whiting ; on the 28th, disease had taken entire 
possession of the whiting. To the present hour the beef and 
mutton tubes remain as limpid as distilled water. Just as in the 
case of the living men and women in Edinburgh, no amount of 
fetid gas had the power of propagating the plague as long as the 
organisms which constitute the true contagium did not gam ac- 
cess to the infusions. 

"The universal prevalence of the germinal matter of bacteria in 
water has been demonstrated with the utmost evidence by the 
experiments of Dr. Burdon Sanderson. But the germs in water 
are in a very different condition, as regards readiness for devel- 
opment, from those in air. In water they are thoroughly wetted 
and ready, under the proper conditions, to pass rapidly into t e 
finished organism. In air they are more or less desiccated, and 
require a period of preparation more or less long to bring them 
up to the starting-point of the water-germs. The rapidity 



1876.] Professor Tyndall on Germs. 351 

development in an infusion, infected by either a speck of liquid 
containing bacteria or a drop of water, is extraordinary. On 
January 4th a thread of glass almost as fine as a hair was 
dipped into a cloudy turnip infusion, and the tip only of the 
glass fibre was introduced into a large test-tube containing an in- 
fiwon of red mullet. Twelve hours subsequently, the perfectly 
pellucid hquid was cloudy throughout. A second test-tube con- 
taining the same infusion was infected with a single drop of the 
distilled water furnished by Messrs. Hopkin and William* • 
twelve hours also sufficed to cloud the infusion thus treated! 
Precisely the same experiments were made with herring, with 
e same result. At this season of the year, several days' expos- 
ure to the air are needed to produce so great an effect. On De- 
cember 41st a strong turnip-infusion was prepared by digesting 
thin slices in distilled water at a temperature of 120° Fahr The 
infusion was divided between four large test-tubes, in one of 
which it was left unboiled, in another boiled for five minutes, in 
the two remaining ones boiled and, after cooling, infected with 
ne drop of beef-infusion containing bacteria. In twenty-four 
hours the unboiled tube and the two infected ones were cloudy, 
the unboiled tube being the most turbid of the three. Th« tnfb. 
sion here > 



t turbid of the three, 
peculiarly limpid after digestion ; for turnip it was 



quite exceptional, and no amount of searching with the _ 
scope could reveal in it at first the trace of a living bacterium : 
' , germs wer e there which, suitably nourished, passed in n. 



single day into bacterial 



nave not sufficed 



without number. Five days 



produce an effect approximately equal 



this in the boiled tube, which was 
mi ™n laboratory air. 






, be a doubt that the germs 



er widely among themselves as regards preparedness for de- 
velopment. Some are fresh, others old; some are dry, others 
d .oist. Infected by such germs, the same infusion would require 

erent lengths of time to develop bacterial life. This remark 
wM T ^ ^ GXplains the differen t degrees of rapidity with 
haMi' Gpidemic dise ase acts upon different people. In some, the 

theTff g Peri ° d ' ' f {t maV be called such ' is Ion S' in some short ' 
n p ao l f! T rences depending upon the different degrees of prepared- 
688 of the contagium." 



352 The Former Climate of the Polar Regions. [June, 

ON THE FORMER CLIMATE OF THE POLAR REGIONS. 1 



/"\NLY a few years ago it was looked upon as an article of faith 
" among geologists that the whole globe was once in a melted, 
incandescent slate, and that the conditions of temperature now 
prevailing on the surface of the earth have been in process of 
time produced by the slow, gradual cooling of the once fused and 
glowing mass. It then appeared so natural that, in consequence 
of the earth's internal heat, a tropical climate should extend from 
pole to pole, that no special weight was attached to the evidences 
of this fact which geology was at that time able to produce. 
The Dane Giesecke's and the English Scoresby's specimens of 
fossil plants from the east and west coasts of Greenland, evi- 
dencing a warm climate there, attracted so little attention that 
neither I hey, nor the fossil remains of Saurians found by the 
famous Arctic traveler, Sir Edward Belcher, in the American 
Polar Archipelago, could be found in the museums to which they 
had been confided. 

It was not till geologists had become fully convinced that the 
gradual transition from the time when a warm climate was sup- 
posed to have prevailed over the whole earth and the present 
time has at least once been interrupted by a period during which 
the greater part of the European and American continents were 
covered by mighty glaciers, that the geological theory of climates 
was taken up with real interest. People began gradually to per- 
ceive that, even supposing the earth really to have once been m 
a state of glowing fusion, the cooling must already at the Cam- 
brian and Silurian epochs have proceeded so far that the quantity 
of heat which the earth lost by radiation was fully compensated 
by that which it received from the other heavenly bodies. It 
has also been supposed that the cause of the glacial period--; 
when vast ice mountains scattered bowlders from Scandinavia 
over the plains of Northern Germany, and when the Swiss Alps 
formed the centre of an icy desert similar to the present Green- 
land— is to be sought for in some trilling changes in the form 
of the earth's orbit and the inclination of the equator, which 
have taken place and continue to take place periodically after the 
lapse of thousands or hundreds of thousands of years. The same 
causes which have once produced the glacial period have thus 
happened, not only during this last period 



, and translated for The Geologic 



ish Academj- 



1S7G.J The Former Climate of the Polar Regions. 353 

!»"<■, but also many times before; and there is reason to suppose 
*** they were also then followed by somewhat similar results, 
-that W to say, that the cold and the warm eras have manv 
—ted on the surface of the earth. In consequence of 
»* * has become a matter of the utmost importance to science 

o obtain by real observation accurate information as to the state 
of temperature on the earth's surface during as many of the 

tSS geological periods as possible - Whe » in - '£■ * 

*eshon is seriously propounded, it is seldom long be- 
l ;;:; i ::~^ *ndevenin the instance before us we'have 
. ' ,lhlvc ' i y < ' (1 »'«»ii'L-misconh-ibuti<)nstogeologi,.al l -lima- 

J*W from lands the geographical situation of which, in the 

l of the pole, renders them best fitted to yield in- 

iul, »iati(.)n of this kind. J 

sJnlv g60l0 f .° f the P° lar tracts can in two different ways 
PF y us with information concerning the former climate, partly 
b) a comparison of the fossil animals and plants there found with 

'-"^ '"nnsthat live under certain determinate climatic con- 

';• PWtly by an accurate examinati >„ , r tin ^ m„„s sti ,1 t 

tW n g e °logical ages, with a view to ascertain whether 

: . ipnt any of the indications which n^uallv distinguish 

- • I ial formations. " 

incr f ]° W P ossess fossil remain's from the polar regions belong- 

'; T Um,,st al] «»■' lH'1-io.ls into which the geologist has divide! 

■,:"; 7'^h, earth. Tl 1 ,.Si| liriil n,-.,.ils,lM,-l 1 .M,Cli„ 1 .,k 

-' '"'me from the American Polar Archipelago, and the 

() , U ." " ;i '"ralists from Novaja Semlja, as also some probably 

til( ."7 t n ri '. ,n; " 11 « <>f fish found by the Swedish expeditions on 

Spitzbergen, are, however, too few in number, and 

, '" '.' """ ls ,, "> far removed from those now living, to furnish 

,. Slm ' information relative to the climate in which they have 



<>: i 



after the termination of the Devonian age, an 

" ! inent scorns to have been formed in the polar basin 
' J,II '"P". and we still find in [ieeron Island and Spitz- 
M sn ' at a <>f slate, sandstone, and coal, belonging to that 
lu ' n an ' niibedded abundant remains of a luxuriant 
Ntl ie|), ;is we ][ as severa j f f} ie fossil plant-remains 
'_' m the polar regions by the Swedish expeditions, have 
[ '. ! i " , ' ,! and described by Professor Heer, of Zurich. We 
'■niv meet with forms, vast Sigillaria, Catamites, and 
'''I't'l'-x'IfnJr'tn, etc., which have no exactly correspond- 



354 The Former Climate of the Polar Regions. [June, 

ing representatives in the plants now existing. Colossal and 
luxuriant forms of vegetation, however, indicate a climate highly 
favorable to vegetable development. A careful examination of 
the petrifactions taken from these strata shows also so accurate 
an agreement with the fossil plants of the same period found in 
many parts of the continent of Central Europe, that we are 
obliged to conclude that at that time no appreciable difference of 
climate existed on the face of the earth, but that a uniform 
climate extremely favorable for vegetation — but not on that 
account necessarily tropical — prevailed from the equator to the 
poles. 

The sand and slate beds here mentioned do not contain any 
marine petrifactions, whence we may conclude that they have 
been formed in lakes or other hollows in an extensive polar con- 
tinent. In Beeren Island and Spitsbergen they are, however, 
covered by beds of limestone and siliceous rock, which form the 
chief material in Beeren Island, and of several consideiabfc 
mountains on the southern side of Hinloopen Strait, and the 
innermost bays of Ice-fjord in Spitzbergen. The manner in 
which these mountains rise several thousand feet above the sur- 
rounding snow desert, their regular form, crowned with vast 
masses of dark volcanic rock divided into vertical colu 






and the 
tendency of the calcareous beds to fall away and form natural 
arches, give to these mountains the appearance of ruins of colossal 
ancient fortifications and temples, unequaled in sublime and des- 
olate magnificence. Here, indeed, we meet with the monumental 
gravestones of a long-past age. The rock is in fact formed almoj 
entirely of shells of marine mollusca, fragments of corals, ami 
bryozoa of the age of the mountain-limestone. We ha v.- then. 
here, not only a proof that the ancient polar continent BflBH 
down again and gave place to a deep polar ocean, but also, in 
the correspondence of the corals, shells, and other associated 
organic remains with those met with in more southerly tracts, 
an indication that the warm polar climate remained unchanged. 
The mountain-limestone period was followed by an era during 
which the richest coal-beds of England, Belgium, and Amen* 
were formed, and which has accordingly received the naim' 
the coal period. A new distribution of land and water bad no 
taken place, continents had again arisen in the polar tracts, m 
the sandstones and argillaceous strata of which we a- 
Bell Sound, on the western coast of Spitzbergen, fossil plan 



1876.] The Former Climate of the Polar Regions. 355 

that bear witness to a rich polar vegetation developed under a 
W*rm climate. Among these, however, we miss the species of 
large-leaved fern so abundant in the coal-beds of more southerly 
lands, a circumstance which may possibly indicate a certain dif- 
ference of climate as existing at that epoch, unless, as is more 
probable, the circumstance is merely the result of the insuffi- 
ciency of the materials brought from but one single arctic local- 

The only relics from the polar regions belonging to the suc- 
ceeding era, the Triassic, are those of marine animals, amongst 
which a considerable portion consists of large, shell-clad Cepfea- 
•red to Ammonites, Nautilus, etc., which, judging from 
the habits of the forms still existing in our time, could assuredly 
have only lived in a warm ocean. More certain information rela- 
tive to the nature of the polar climate at that time is afforded by 
portions of skeletons of colossal Sauria, — one form, Ichthyosaurus 
polaris, seems to have reached a length of twenty or thirty feet, 
--which, together with vast coprolite beds, are found in" great 
abundance inclosed in the Triassic strata of Ice-fjord, and which 
; l mong the now existing fauna have their nearest representatives 
crocodiles on the sunny banks of the Nile, or perhaps 
lizard, Amblyrhynchns, 



rather i 



Crala, 



pagos Isles. That multitudes of these cold-blooded t 



"ved at that t 



the vicinity of the eightieth degree of ] 



! e atte «ts beyond all doubt climatal conditions very different 
from those of the present day. 

At the entrance of Ice-fjord and at Mount Agardli, in Stor- 
ed, the Triassic strata aiv covered with marine formations be- 






nmediately subsequent geological era, the Jura 



Period, and, as far as we can judge from the few fossil 1TOII 
itherto discovered in these strata, no diminution had as yet 
a«m place in the warmth of the polar climate. But great 
VjJ geS now came to P ass in tue portion of the polar basin north 
Europe, the ocean being again transformed into a continent, 
Tnt Ch ' th ° Ugh shattered and reduced, still exists up to the pres- 
time. The upper portion, therefore, of the Jura formation 
°* fcpitzbergen does not contain any marine organisms, but in 
and • ° f . them beds of sandstone and slate, with coal-seams 
impressions of plants. From the strata belonging to that 
8> met with at Cape Boheman, in Ice-fjord, situated between 
s ^ event y-eighth and seventy-ninth degrees of latitude. " 



expeditions have brought home numerous impressio 



356 The Former Climate of the Polar Regions. [June, 

palm-like cycadeas and coniferse, the representative species of 
which now flourish in the neighborhood of the tropics. This 
already leads to the supposition of a warm climate, which sup- 
position is further confirmed by a comparison with the European 
fossil flora of the same date, which indicates that the climate of 
Spitzbergen did not then materially differ from that of Central 

The Swedish expeditions have also succeeded in obtaining, 
partly from Greenland and partly from Spitzbergen, from two 
separate epochs of the Cretaceous era, extensive collections of 
fossil plants, lately described by Professor Heer in the Trans- 
actions of the Royal Swedish Academy. By this we have been 
enabled not only to determine the epoch when differences of 
climate first began to show themselves on the surface of the earth, 
but also pretty closely to follow an extremely remarkable change 
in the appearance of the vegetable world which took place dur- 
ing the course of that period. 

Within the polar basin we meet with the lowest division of 
the Cretaceous age on the north side of the Noursoak peninsula, 
in Northwestern Greenland. The crown of the hills is here 
composed of black, ancient lava-sl reams and immense beds of 
volcanic tuff, hardened in process of time into solid rock. 

Over these volcanic formations now rests a covering of per- 
petual ice, and beneath them on the sea-shore vast strata of Band 
are discovered, containing inconsiderable coal-beds, interstratihVJ 
with clay-beds and a fine-grained argillaceous shale singularly 
fitted for preserving the impressions of fossils that have been 
imbedded in it. These plants belong to the lowest portion of 
the Cretaceous age, and among the collections brought from this 
spot, Heer has succeeded in distinguishing seventy-five different 
species, among which are thirty ferns, nine cyeadeaB, and seven- 
teen coniferse. 

The third part of the ferns belongs to one genus, Gleichenia, 
which still flourishes in the neigborhood of the tropics and 
warmer parts of the temperate zone, and the same remark holds 
good of the cycadese, most of which are referable to the genus 
Zamia, species of which we meet with within the tropics, as also 
of the coniferse, some of which are nearly related to forms still ex- 
isting in Florida, Japan, and California. From this Heer draws 
the conclusion, that in the early part of the Cretaceous period 
the climate of the now ice-covered Greenland was somewhat like 
that which now prevails in Egypt and the Canary Isles. 



1876.] The Former Climate of the Polar Regions. 357 

Among the ferns, cycadese, and coniferaB of Nbursoak peninsula, 
were found a few impressions of a species of the poplar, Populu* 
primceva, which formed the only and at the same time the old- 
est known representative of the forest vegetation now prevailing 
in the temperate zone. Nevertheless the vegetation of the arctic 
tracts was already during the Cretaceous period undergoing a 
complete transformation. Evidence of this has been obtained 
from the same locality, Atanekerdluk, on the south side of the 
Xoursoak peninsula, from which such magnificent remains of 
antic vegetation of the Tertiary period had previously been ob- 
tained, from strata at a somewhat higher level. Here, out of 
the talus. that has fallen from the lofty fells, some black and 
tolerably easily crumbling strata of shale protrude, among which, 
on careful inspection, impressions of plants may be discovered 
belonging to the Cretaceous formation, not to the lower, but 
the upper portion 'of it. The vegetation is here quite differ- 
ent. The ferns and cycadeae have disappeared, and in their place 
we find deciduous trees and other dicotyledons in astonishing 
variety and forms, among which a species of fig may be men- 
tioned, of which not only the leaves, but also the fruit, have been 
" ] " ;,i "-! in a fossil state; two species of magnolia, etc. The 
Bamate that then prevailed over the whole globe was therefore 
still warm and luxuriant, even if, at least in the arctic regions, 
'■"'i-siderably modified from what it formerly had been, inasmuch 
M that the flowerless vegetation (which was now beginning to 
} can judge from its present representatives, 



tlu- fen, 



required a warm, humid climate, whereas the 



' in ns with their luxuriant flowers, which now began to charac- 
nze the vegetable world, required, in order to develop all the 
gun 1 lr [ tneir co i or ^ a cle;u . ;nul sunuy sky- The disappear- 
ance of sundry tropical and sub-tropical forms that are met with 
| n the older Cretaceous strata has led Heer to the conclusion 
that difference of climate at different latitudes was now begin- 
n »ig to show itself, and he calls attention to the circumstance 
*** &is takes place synchronously with the development of the 
d icot y i edonous plants in greater variety. 

Unhappily, in the arctic regions no fossil remains belonging 
°the Eocene age, which immediately succeeded the Cretaceous 
P er iod, have hitherto been met with, and we are therefore desti- 
ne of the actual data necessary for ascertaining its climatic 
character. But the next following, or Miocene, age places at 
disposal abundant materials in the magnificent remains of 



358 The Former Climate of the Polar Regions. [Juue, 

plants obtained, we may say, from all parts of the polar basin 
and its vicinity: from West Greenland by Ingleiield, MeCiintnck. 
Rink, Torell, Whymper, and the Swedish expeditions ; from 
East Greenland by Payer; from Alaska by Mr. Furnhjeimj 
from Sagalin by Admiral Furnhjelm ; and from different local- 
ities of Spitsbergen by the Swedish expeditions. 1 The spots 
where remains of this period are found are frequently distin- 
guished by their astonishing abundance of fossil plant-remains. 

For example, at a place in Spitsbergen which we have called 
Cape Lyell, after the lately-deceased great English geologist, the 
rocks on the shore for a distance of several hundred feet form a 
continuous herbarium, where every stroke of the hammer brings 
to light an image of the vegetation of a long-past age, when 
the forest vegetation of these tracts consisted of tin: swamp- 
cypress of Texas (Taxodmm distichnm), of gigantic sequoias, 
relations or ancestors of California's mammoth tree, of large- 
leaved birches, limes, oaks, beeches, planes, and even magnolia* 
The place is situated in about 77° So 7 N. lat., on the south side of 
the entrance to Bell Sound, on the western coast of Spitzbergen. 
At the foot of the cliff, on one or two barren heaps of gravel, 
one may discover shoots an inch long of the polar willow, sole 
representative of the present vegetation of the locality. Just off 
the shore the ocean currents drive icebergs, which have fallen 
from the neighboring glaciers, backwards and forwards, and fcb* 
crown of the rock itself forms the limit of a mighty glacier, 
which threatens within a few years to bury, under an icy cover- 
ing of several hundred feet thickness, not only the little vegeta- 
tion that exists here, and which in the summer weeks is some- 
times adorned with charming colors, but also the memorials of 
the ancient glorious age now preserved within its rocks. 

By a careful examination of the rich materials here accessible, 
and by a comparison of the petrifactions with those of the same 
period found in more southerly localities, Heer has shown that 
already in the Miocene era considerable variety of climate ex- 
isted on the face of the earth, though even the pole at that time 
enjoyed a climate fully comparable with that of Central EaWp 8 
now. The then flora of Europe had almost entirely an Ameri- 
can character, and there are many reasons for supposing that HW 
continents of Europe and America were at that time united, and 



1876.] The Former Climate of the Polar Regions. 359 

bounded on the south by an ocean extending from the Atlantic 
over the present deserts of Sahara and Central Asia to the 
Pacific. 

Between the Miocene and the present era are two important 
periods, the Pliocene and the Glacial, which to us are particu- 
larly deserving of attention, inasnuirh as that during them man, 
the lord of creation, seems first to have made his appearance* 
That during the latter of these periods vast masses of ice covered 
at least all the northern part of Europe is a well-known fact ; 
but concerning the nature of the transition from the glorious 
climate of the Miocene age to the Glacial period we possess no 
knowledge whatever founded on actual observation. Probably 
at some future time contributions towards the solution of this 
important question may be found amongst the mountain masses 
that occupy the peninsula between Ice-fjord and Bell Sound in 
Spitsbergen, or in some parts of the basalt region of Northwest- 
ern Greenland. In the interior of Ice-fjord and at several other 
places on the coast of Spitzbergen, one meets with indications 
either that the polar tracts were less completely covered with ice 
during the Glacial era than is usually supposed, or that, in con- 
formity with what has been observed in Switzerland, inter-glacial 
periods have also occurred in the polar regions. In some sand- 
beds not very much raised above the level of the sea, one may in 
fact find the large shells of a mussel (Mylihis edtdis) still living 
in the waters encircling the Scandinavian coast. It is now no 
longer found in the sea around Spitzbergen, having been prob- 
ably rooted out by the ice-masses constantly driven by the ocean 
currents along the coasts. 

From what has been already stated, it appears that the animal 
and vegetable relics found in the polar regions imbedded in 
strata deposited in widely separated geological eras uniformly 
testify that a warm climate has in former times prevailed over 
the whole globe. From paleeontological science no support can 
°* obtained for the assumption of a periodical alternation of 
warm and cold climates on the surface of the earth. 

A careful investigation of the structure of the different sedi- 
mentary strata leads to the same result. We are now very well 
acquainted with the origin and nature of the various strata, the 
substance of which has been supplied by the destructive opera- 
tion of glaciers on the surrounding and subjacent mountain 
ma sses, and we can point out certain marks by which these 
strata may be distinguished from other non-glacial deposits. In 



360 The Former Climate of the Polar Regions. [June, 

these last, one very rarely meets with any large stone bowlders, 
which have fallen from some neighboring cliff and been imbed- 
ded in sand or clay, either directly, and, if so, close to the place 
where originally found, or else after having in the spring been 
moved a greater or less distance by river ice. In glacial forma- 
tions, on the contrary, as one may gather from the study of the 
strata in Scandinavia that belong to the glacial period, erratic 
blocks transported on icebergs to far-distant regions play an im- 
portant part. If a climate similar to that which now prevails in 
the arctic regions has several times during various geological 
eras existed in the neighborhood of the pole, one has reason to 
expect that sandstones inclosing large bowlders should often be 
met with in these tracts. 

But this is by no means the case, though such formations, if 
they exist on a large scale, could hardly escape observation. 

The chai-acter of the coasts in tin; arctic regions is especially 
favorable to geological investigations. While the valleys are for 
the most part filled with ice, the sides of the mountains in sum- 
mer, even in the eightieth degree of latitude, and to a height of 
one thousand or fifteen hundred feet above the level of the sea, 
are almost wholly free from snow. Nor are the rocks covered 
with any amount of vegetation worth mentioning, and, more- 
over, the sides of the mountains on the shore itself frequently 
present perpendicular sections, which everywhere expose their 
bare surfaces to the investigator. The knowledge of a mount- 
ain's geognostic character, at which one in more southerly conn- 
tries can only arrive after long and laborious researches, removal 
of soil, and the like, is here gained almost at the first glance ; and 
as we have never seen in Spitsbergen nor in Greenland, in these 
sections, often many miles in length, and including, one may say. 
all formations from the Silurian to the Tertiary, anv bowlders 
even as large as a child's head, there is not the smallest prob- 
ability that strata of any considerable extent, containing boulders, 
are to be found in the polar tracts previously to the middle of 
the Tertiary period. 

Since, then, both an examination of the geognostic condition 
and an investigation of the fossil flora and fauna of the polar 
lands show no signs of a Glacial era having existed in those 
Parts before the termination of the Miocene period, we are fully 
justified in rejecting, on the evidence <>f actual observation, tin' 
hypotheses founded on purely theoretical speculations, wlii«'l» 
assume the many times repeated alternation ,,:' warm and glacial 

'•bmates between the nresent h„„ ,n,l the e,rlies' .-V, .logical W*' 



RECENT LITERATURE. 
Anderson's Mandalay to Momien. 1 — Mandalay is the capital of 
liurma. and Momien an important town in the province of Yunnan, 
Western China. The two British expeditions of which Dr. Anderson 
fives a narrative was for the purpose of establishing commercial relations 
between the British in Burma and the rich provinces of Western China. 
Both missions were repulsed and entirely unsuccessful, but much informa- 
tion concerning these remote regions was collected by Dr. Anderson, and 
has been given to the public in this handsome volume. The population 
is a motley one, the Burmese intermingling with the Chinese, though 
both live in different quarters of the same towns, and both are confined 
closely to their walls and fortifications by the fierce hill tribes on the 

Few notes on the natural history of the country have been recorded, 
though "a full and illustrated report is in active preparation." The 
famous tame fish of " the little rocky island of Theehadaw, which boasts 
the only stone pagoda in Burma, and is resorted to by numbers of pil- 
grims at the great Buddhist festival in March," are briefly mentioned in 
the following words : " Having supplied ourselves with rice and plantains, 
the boatmen called ' Tit-tit-tit.' Soon the fish appeared, about fifty yards 
off, and after repeated cries they were alongside, greedily devouring the 
offering of food. In their eagerness they showed their uncouth heads 
and great part of their backs, to which patches of gold leaf, laid on by 
recent devotees, still adhered. So tame u ere ili.-x iliat they suffered 
themselves to be stroked, and seemed to relish having their long feelers 



' small, beautifully cut forms, with few or no signs < 
some variety of jade ; but there is no reason to doubt the authenticity 
the larger forms which were brought to us. Bronze celts are also 
■id, but are valued at their weight In gold ; we managed, however, to 
•chase one at Manwyne on the return journey. It belongs to the 
keted type of celts without wings. The composition of the bronze is 
same as that of the celts found in northern Europe: tin, 10; copper, 






362 Recent Literature. [June, 

Cochin China, of which finely illustrated accounts are appearing la 
Globus, the i for the present year also contain 

The Geological Record for 1874. 1 — This useful work is appar- 
ently a complete bibliography of all works, papers, and notes, on geology, 
mineralogy, and palaeontology, published during the year 1874. It will 
be of course indispensable to American laborers in these fields, espe- 
cially to those who do not have access to large libraries. The work 
seems to have been prep aess, as there are twenty- 

seven contributors besides the editor, and it is accompanied by an index. 
The Record is divided into eight sections, namely, Stratigraphical and 
Descriptive Geology, Physical Geology, Applied and Economic Geol- 
ogy, Petrology, Mineralogy, Palaeontology, Maps and Sections, Miscella- 
neous and General. Brief summaries of the most important works and 
essays give it a great value to the working geologist. There are more 
than two thousand entries. 

Johnson's Cyclopedia. 2 — With Professors F. A. P. Barnard and 
A. Guyot as editors-in-chief of this compact and useful cyclopaedia, the 
reader may be assured tlmt the articles upon scientific topics are reliable, 
accurate, and fresh. The associate editors are twenty-seven in numher, 
embracing several of our leading scientists, and there are five assistant 
editors, whose names are well known in scientific and literary circles. 
The editors claim that of the articles " not fewer than two or three 
hundred, at the smallest estimate, are articles upon topics of interest in 
science, letters, and constructive art, of which the titles do not appear 
in any contemporary work of the kind; many of them having been, in 
fact, suggested by the recent progress of scientific discovery or literary 
research." We notice, in looking hastily through the second volume, 
articles by the following scientists : Barnard, Chandler, Cooke, Dawson, 
De Gubernatis, Gill, Goodale, Gray, Guyot, Hitchcock, Hunt, Packard, 
Riley, Verrill, Willey, Woodward, and Yule. 

Recent Contributions to North American Mammalogy.— Dur- 
ing the last few months several important papers have appeared relfttUJjg 
to the mammals of North America, chiefly by Dr. Elliott Coues and Dr. 
Theodore Gill. It is now several years since Dr. Coues began to divide 
his labors between the North American mammals and birds, his atte 
tion having formerly been given almost exclusively to the latter. ± ie 
first general results of his work upon the mammals appe£ 
of a Synopsis of the Muridse of- North America. 8 T 

1 The Geological Record for 1874. An Account of Works on Geology, 
and Palaeontology, publi.-h.-d darin- the Year. Edited by William V 
London : Taylor and Franci*. 1875. 8vo, pp. 397. 

» Johnson's AW Unh-crsul Cjclop.rdia. A Scientific and Popu 
Esel'ul Knowl.-dj,,.. Illustrated with Maps, I'lans, and En-ravings. In 4 • 
Vol. ii. 1876. L-Lichens. Royal 8vo, pp. 1767. New York: A. J. Johnson a" 

5 Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia,' 1874. 



i brochure < 

.lineralc?. 



1876.] Recent Literature. 363 

twenty-four pages is based on the material ("several thousand speci- 
mens") in the Museum of the Smithsonian Institution, and is stated to 
be an abstract of a memoir 1 in which the characters of the varieties. 
species, and higher groups are to be given, with synonymy, bil 
etc. In this paper the family Muridce is taken in its usual acceptation, 
with the exclusion of the genus Jaculus (= Zapus), formerly included 
among the Muridce. The four introduced species, namely, the common 
house rats and mice, are mentioned merely by name, but the principal 
synonomy in the cases of the indigenous species, generic and subgcn. t it- 
diagnosis, and the geographical distribution of the species and sanctum 
are also added. Of the genus Neotoma four species are given, including 
one (N. magister) fossil from the caves of Pennsylvania. The others 
are N. Floridana, under which are placed N. Mexican a and N. micropas 
of Baird's General Report on the Mammals of North America; N. 
fuscipes, and K cinerea, the latter embracing also N. occidental of 
Baird's General Report. The species of Sigmodon are reduced to one, 
£ Berlandieri Baird and Hesperomys Tolticus De Saussure being re- 
ferred to S. hispidus. The species of Hesperomys are also greath re- 
duced in number, and are placed in three subgenera: Vesperimus, here 
first characterized, and Onychomys and Oryzomys of Baird. Of the 
subgenus Vesperimus six species are recognized, including two from 
Mexico, one of which is described as new. The other four are H. leuco- 
pus, with four varieties (leucopus, yossypinus, Sonoriensis, eremicus, and 
('"reohts), Michigunmsis, and CaUfornicus. Under variety leucopus are 
included no less than fourteen nominal species of previous authors, while 
two others appear under variety aureolas. The subgenus Onychomys 
includes two species, one of which (torridus) is described as new from 
Arizona; the other (leuwptster) includes also the Mus Missourirusis 
of Audubon and Haehman. The subgenus Oryzomys embraces the 



3 species pahi 



North American s 



vs. Ochetodon is described as a new genus, with three species 
given as w.dl-cstabli.shed and two that are doubtful. In a foot-note, under 
Ochetodon, the genus Ruthrodon is characterized, and diagnosis given of 
its two subgenera, one of which ( /*,'"/>< >mys) is new. 

•n the arvicoline group (subfamily Arrlcuihnn h>otomys \- 
as a new genus, with one species, the netelies of Pallas, which ts re- 
garded as circumpolar in its distribution, and as shading southward in 
North America into variety Gappari (== Arvicola Gappan auct.). The 
J** genus Arnmlu is divided into four subgenera, namely. 
R af, Chilotus and Pedomys Baird. and /'/////«//< McM.inne, and em- 
bra <*s six species. To the old A. riparius Ord, c-r the common meadow 



n,te, l States Geological an,! (.'.. o-raj.hical Survey 
gra P h »f the Murida, we are informed, is already i 



364 Recent Literature. [Jtme, 

mouse of North America, are referred no less than eighteen specific 
names of former authors, while two other species ( Tuwnsnulii ami rati- 
t/,ot/tt'if/iiis) an oTih provisionally regard d as cli.-iim-t from this. The 
other three species of the old genus Arvicola have each also several 
synonyms, the A. curlatus of Cope (from California) being regarded as 
a variety of austerus, and a new variety of pinr'onan is aihle.il, from 
Southeastern Mexico, a region where the genus was long supposed to be 
unrepresented. The subgenus Synapto,,,^ l.aird is raised to generic 
rank, and embraces the single species Cooperi, formerly referred to 
Myodes. 

The lemmings of America are reduced to two species, which are re- 
ferreil to two genera — 3F>i»d>>s as restricted and Coniculus Wagler. 
The one (M. obensis) is confined to the western portions of arctic 
America, while the other (C. huehonius) is found throughout the Arctic 
regions generally, and includes several nominal species. The muskrat 
{Fiber zibthicus) closes the list of the North American MuridcB. 

In no group of North American mammals have such extensive 
changes been as yet made as Dr. Coues has here found it necessary to 
adopt ; few groups, too, have so much needed careful revision, or present 
a more difficult field of inquiry. The vast amount of material Dr. 
Coues has had as a basis for his work, and the evident care he has ex- 
ercised in its elaboration, lead us to look forward with great interest to 
the appearance of the promised fuller exposition of the group. 

Almost simultaneously with the appearance of this synopsis in its 
original place of publication, it was also reissued, with additions, as one 
of the publications of the Northern Boundary Commission, as the " first 
of a series of preliminary zoological reports which may appear from time 
to time, during the elaboration of the material secured by the Boundary 
Commission." l The additions appear to consist mainly of a list of ten 
species collected during the survey, with notes on their distribution. 

As previously noticed, Dr. Coues. in his definition of the family 
Murida:, excluded from it the genus Jaculus. This genus he has since 
raised to the rank of a distinct family, 2 to which he has given the name 
Zapodidm. The results of his investigation of this species he sum- 
marizes as follows: (1.) That there is at present only one known 

1 On the Murida of the Northern Boundary Sun:,/, with a Critica 
North Amrrt an Centra and S/,p.-i,s. United States Northern Boundan 

.Major \V. J. TwiniiiL', I'nit.'d ^- ;ltl " 
Engineers, Chief .Wnmi.mer. Xararal History. No. 1. On the Murida. By 

of Philadel] ' [874. Bro, pp. 28. 



1876.] Recent Literature. 365 

' ipus. (2.) That this species, usually referred to th< 

'litters from the Mur'nht' t«> a degree w;iiT;iiitii)g its recognition as a dis- 
tinct t'linilv, as was done by Dr. Gill in 1*72. Its principal characters 
are the presence of an upper premolar not found in Mir, idee proper, the 
different and peculiar construction of the ante-orbital foramen, and the 
limbs. (3.) That none of the various 
n appli* '1 to this specic-s were tenable, accord- 
ing to recognized rules of nomenclature. He then proceeds to show 
DtptU, and 
. and proposes the new one of Zaptts, in allu- 



cnaracters of the genus, with a notice of its geogra 
remarks on its synonymy. 
Brinton's Myths of the New World. 1 — " Picking painfully 

foreign rubbish and scrutinizing each stone that lies around, if we still 
are unable to rebuild the edifice in its pristine symmetry, yet we can at 
least discern and trace the ground plan and outlines of the fane." This is 
what the author has most successfully done, and the results of his studies 

^-•^l-^Indiauso'rx'u-tll'a'n'l' South America. ' ("haptens II.toX.in- 
cl usive cover the fascinatm- fl.-l.l of study suggested by the ideas of God 
among the Red race ; Sacred Numbers, The Symbol of the Bird and 
Serpent, Myths of Water, Fire, Thunder, and the Religion of Sex; also 
*e subject of their Supreme Cods. The Myths of Creation, the Deluge, 



^ we the most entertaining chapters of the worl 11 1 

** ihe myths of the Red men generally back to the one sola 
* nd Eposes of the personality of their god-like heroes, as Quetz 
Vl £cocha, and Michabo. 
^The opening chapter, a general consideration of the Red race 



366 General Notes. [June, 

such as his isolation, being ' ; cut off time out of mind from the rest of 
the world," and the fact that " the remains of primeval art and the im- 
press he made upon nature bespeak for man a residence in the New 
World coeval with the most distant events of history," the author, if 
we understand him aright, adopts the theory of the unity of the human 
race. If by unity is meant a common origin from one creative centre, 
and that a creation de novo, rather than derivative, then we dissent. In- 
deed, reasons are given in every chapter of the work, for be) 
the Red race of America never had any intercourse, or bore any relation- 
ship to other peoples of any portion of the globe, unless we trace man 

not now existing as such. A word, and we have done. On page 35, 
Dr. Brinton states that " not a tittle of evidence is on record to carry 
the age of man in America beyond the present geological epoch." In 

fessor Wyman, on page 45 of Fresh-Water Shell-Mounds of Florida, 
as follows : " The ancient remains found in California ... by Professor 
J. D. Whitney, and referred by him to the tertiary period," etc., etc. 
To this is added an important foot-note, that " the ample evidence col- 
lected by Professor Whitney, but not yet published, substantiates the 
opinion given above with regard to age." We have, therefore, some- 
thing more than a tittle of such evidence, and we are carried back to a 
time >yhen man in America was even too primitive to originate \hm 
curious myths ■.'.','■; tftorwanls became so marked a feature of their 
lives, and which Dr. Brinton has most successfully interpreted. 





Recent Books and Pamphlets. —Prehistoric Man 


Researches into the 


























List of Skeletons and Crania in the Section of Comparative Ai 






ates Army Medical Muslim, for Use .luring the Intel 








Connection with the Representative* of the Medica 


M)cpar. 






nny. Washington, I). C. 1876. 8vo, pp. 52. 














£ 


0, pp. 13. 


tion, lbT 


6. Worcester 






By P. 






o, pp. 4. (From the American Journal of Science an 


d Arts. < 


rol. xi., May, 



GENERAL NOTES. 
BOTANY.^ 

Arrested Growth and Persistence of Barbuea ruralis.— 
During a visit made to He Royale, Michigan (Lake Superior). i" the 
summer of 1874, my attention was called to a curious example of the 
1 Conducted hy Prof. G. L. Goodale. 



1876.] Botany. 367 

preservation of such a fragile organism as a moss, while what we regard 
as more enduring objects ar. At Scovill's Point, a 

-In:;., lii-h tongue of rock, of trap formation, running out into the lake 
test leveral hundred feet, the almost level summit presents a large space 
thickly carpeted with the moss Barbula ruralis Hedw. In this were in- 
sorilied a number of names and dates, made by simply cutting away t he 
moss and letting the underlying rock appear. The inscriptions, mostly 
racters of several inches in length, were in general distinctly 
legible, the dark green (almost black) moss preserving the outlines, and 
■ppearing, with few exceptions, to have remained at a stand-still — 
neither decaying nor growing — since the writings were made. 

One of the 
whom the point is call 
friend, a mutual acquai 

d me that in the year denoted (twenty-eight years before), 
the gentleman, visiting He Eoyale, to his surprise, found inscriptions in 

him at the time, and, revisiting the island in 1872, climbed up here to see 
whether any trace of his father's writing remained, and to his astonidi- 
- it as well as the other inscriptions undisturbed, cut his own 
name with the date — all in the Barbula. The isolated locality, and the 
steep (mostly perpendicular or overhanging) sides of the cliff, render it 
probable that few persons would find their way to the spot without some 
such object in view. The inscriptions, as seen bv me in 1874. were as 
follows: "June— 182o." " — 43." "P. A. Scovill, '46." " — 
1847. _«o. C. Scovill — 1872." 

-the first of these inscriptions I have thought may have been made 
b J the party of Captain Bayfield, R. X., who about the date given made 
his survey of Lake Superior, undoubtedly visiting this island. That it 

so fragile a substance, is surely remarkable. From the time at which I 
saw them to the earliest date would cover a period of forty-nine years. 
And most interesting is the evidence here conveyed of the persistence of 
the moss, coupled with its arrested growth. The plants were so dry and 
be easily rubbed to powder between the hands, and could 
■ be removed without breaking them. Yet on placing some 
ln water they revived so as to apparently present full vitality. 

This is not the first time I have had my attention called to this plant. 
and its semi-torpid habit. It must be of exceedingly slow growth ; and 
believe it is but rarely found in fruit. Though it is abundant on Lake 
uperior, I have never met a fertile specimen. — Henry Gillman, 



<>v. 



I Hygroscopic Mecha* 
! ad an interesting paper c 



368 General Notes. rj une . 

the Linnean Society of London. The plant on which his observations 
were made was chiefly the feather-grass, Stipa pennata, but the same 
phenomena exist in many grasses, in Anemone montana, and in some of 
the (ieraniaceic. The essential points of structure common to all these 
self-burying seeds are: (1) a sharp point more or less covered with ;v- 
flexed hairs ; (2) a strong woody awn sharply bent at one point so as to 
be divided into a lower vertical and an upper more or less horizontal 
part, the vertical part being strongly twisted on its own axis (or form- 
in-- a helix as in tin- Geraniacea>). The hygroscopic phenomena exhib- 
ited by all the seeds are, (1.) On being wetted the vertical part of the 
awn untwists, and causes the straight horizontal part to revolve and 
describe a circle in a horizontal plane; the angle between the vertical 
and horizontal parts also gradually disappears! and the awn becomes 
straight. (2.) As the awn becomes dry again, the movements just de- 
scribed are reversed, the angular bend and the torsion of the lower part 
of the awn appearing. The process by which the seed of Stipa buries 

or less vertical position, its point resting on the ground. When the 

able to revolve, the rotation is transferred to the seed ; the tendency of 

the seed to straighten itself is also converted into pressure of the point 

of the seed against the soil. As the 

pulled out of the ground, as would be 

of the movements by which it was buried. On the contrary, : 









the process of drying. 



combination of these two alternate actions the seed is completely buried. 
What >]Mcial advantage it maybe to a plant that its seeds should be 

burird is uncertain; in the case of Slip,,, at least, it ms to have no 

connection with germination; it is conjectured that it may serve as a 
protection against graminivorous birds, etc. The explanations given by 
l[i " l ' >"<! «d the twist in the awn of the wild oat. and by ilanstein of 
the torsion of the awn of Erodium, appear to be inadequate to explain 
the phenomena. The hygroscopic torsion of the awn appears really to 
depend on the power of torsion residing in the individual cells of which 
the awn is composed. Thus when an isolated cell is dried it twists on 
its own axis in precisely the same manner and direction as the awn it- 
self; and just as the latter untwists in moisture, so do the individual 
cells in like condition. It is demonstrable that the torsion of the sepa- 

power appears to depend on the molecular structure (stratification *A 

striation) of the walls of the twisting cells. Although it was previoady 
Iviioun from the researches of Niigeli and others, that certain cells be- 
come twisted in drying, yet their combination so as to produce torsion 
in a considerable mass of tissue has not before been observed. Neither 



187( 5.] Botany. 369 

has the power of torsion in drying, possessed by the cells, been hitherto 
shown to be of use in the economy of any plant. — A. W. Bennett. 

The Potato Disease. — The supposed discovery of the sexual re- 
liroilu.-five organs of Peronospora infestans, the fungus which causes the 
potato-blight, by Mr. W. G. Smith, continues to attract much atten- 
tion in England and on the Continent of Europe. The eminent my- 
cologist, Professor De Bary, of Strasburg, does not altogether accept 
Mr. Smith's conclusions, believing that what he considers the resting- 
spores of Peronospora must belong to some other fangus accidentally 
present in the decaying tissue ; and his views were recently explained 
at the Linnean Society of London by Mr. Carruthers, F. R. S. Pro- 
fessor De Bary proposes to divide the group Peronosporea; into three 
genera. In Cystopus the conidiophores grow in large bunches, the conidia 
being developed in single rows in basipetal order. In Peronospora. from 
a tree-like mycelium, conidiophores arise singly or in small bunches at 
the ends of the branches, and have no successors in the direct line. The 
new genus, Phylophthora, to which the old Peronospora infestans be- 
longs, differs in its multiple and successive conidia, which, when shed, 
leave swellings on the branches. In all three genera the ripe conidia, 
when placed in water, produce ciliated zoospores, which penetrate the 
issue of the host and develop threads or mycelium. By another and 
sexual mode of propagation the oogonia, bladder-shaped female cells, 
after being fertilized by the small male cells or antheridia, produce from 
'"" lr protoplasm a thick-walled oospore, from which mycelial threads 
■t'ynt. and the process is then repeated. A considerable period of in- 
ac lvity may, however, precede the germination of the oospore, which 
m tins e.iMj hibernates during the winter, while its host decays. The 
conidia propagate and spread the fungus during the summer season only, 
and do not live through the winter. Professor De Bary has found in 
"' 'Vug potato-tubers bodies exactly corresponding to oogonia. On 
experimenting with the oospores of these and planting them in potato- 
es he obtained minute bodies which conducted themselves precisely 
zoospores, and in moat respects resembled those of Pythium. Other 
on the moistened legs of dead flies and bodies of 
esulted in their complete phases of development which were 
step by step, the zoospores producing a plentiful 'Top of m yce- 
"«ui, etc. Asnhis new fundus differs in many ways from Pliyh 7 >hti»>ra 
!,'■'' ; . ■'"'*' De B ary proposes to call it Pythium vexans, and he regards it 
" the Saprolegniece, The fungus named by Montague 
!il| l the warty bodies found associated with it he believes to 
jj ," ' ,,,mi * UOt connec ted genetically, and only imperfectly known, 
-'•investigated the question of the perennial mycelium of 
'■•■"sioiiafly hibernating where the oospores are not found in 
b v ,? 11Ct ' ancl believes that he has proved that there are two methods 
V£"f the c °nidia may pass from the tuber to the foliage. - A. W. B. 



experiments 
watched 



370 General Notes. [June, 

Aplectrum with Coral-like Root. — Early in April, 1876, in 
transplanting some Aplectrum hyemale Nutt., from the woods northwest 
of Detroit, I fouud two adjoining plants of this species having branched 
and toothed coral-like roots, similar to those of Goraflorhiza, iinmedi- 
ately beneath the usual bulb or corm, which was also provided with the 
ordinary rootlets. Each plant had the green leaf which the species sends 
up in autumn. A close examination of forty-three additional plants from 
the same woods failed to discover another instance of this interesting and 
significant peculiarity. I have transplanted from this place, at various 
seasons, during eleven years over one hundred specimens of this plain ; 
but never before found a case like the above-described. The coral -like 
roots seemed parasitic on the partly decayed bark of a tree-root, and the 
whole was imbedded in ice, the frost still being in the ground. The ab- 
sence of the coral-like root has been made a generic distinction separating 
Aph-cti nni from Corallorhiza. 

I have sent the specimens to Professor Gray, who previously had 
never seen nor heard of this " unexpected fact." I request of botanists 
throughout the parts of the country where this plant is found, to search 
for the peculiarity, that we may learn whether it exists elsewhere, and 
to what extent ; though, from my own experience, I think it likely to 
prove most exceptional. — Henry Gillman, Detroit, Michigan. 

Researches in Regard to Growth. — The method pursued by 
Reinke appears to be a modification of that employed in the Labor****) 
at Wiirzburg, and for which he does not give the credit due. The im- 
provement in the apparatus seems to be a real one. A balanced *W 
therefore tight thread goes from the growing plant over a wheel, which 
by index and multiplier enables the observer to watch and record the 
growth. A microscope of long focus is used to read the vernier, 
notice of the results obtained by the use of this apparatus must be de- 

Rhynchospora CAPILLACEA VAR. LEVISETA. — This is named and 
was discovered by the Rev. E. G. Hill, and is characterized by having 
the perianth bristles perfectly smooth, while in the ordinary form the\ an 
downwardly denticulato-rou-lmiifd. Iv\eept in this renm 
ular the plant appears to be undistinguishable from A'. <'tipiH" r '' n - 
Hill found the plant in wet pine barrens, around the head of hake 
Michigan, at Pine Station, Indiana. There is another variety, barflj 

in other stations), discovered in Herkimer County, New York, in l^ 4 ' 



Botanic 


tt Papers 


in Recent Periodica 


ls. — Comptes rendus, 


No. 9. . Bo 


ussingault, 


n the Influence exerted 


by Vegetable Mold on 


the Xitritic 


ation of Ni 


Substances used as Manures. S. 


Clue/. On I 


iteococca Oi 


1, and its Modification by Light. Ed. Ilerkel. 


On the Mov 


ements of the Hairs and Glands of 


the Leaves of Drosera 


. 


and in the 


Leaves of Pinguicula t 


ulgaris. No. 10. A. 


Ilartli.'-leiny. 
Waters. 
Flora, Nc 


, On the Ab 


sorption by Plants of B 


[carbonates in Natural 


i. 5 and continued in No. 6. Dr. II. 


Midler, On Heliotrop- 


ism. (The 


following co 


ndudons are reached: (1 


..) In a growing organ 


of a plant, o 


nly those zor 


les which have not yet fii 


lished growing, exhibit 


curvatures < 


lependent oi 


i light. (2.) The heliot 


ropic curvature is pro- 


duml by alt 


' the sensitive 


3 zones during extrusion. 


(3.) The parts which 


grow most 


rapidly are 


most sensitive to light. 


(4.) liven negative 


heliotropism 


(curvatures 


away from the light) as i 


n roots is most marked 


when growt 


a is mostvig( 


jrous. (5.) Heliotropic 


curvatures do not cease 


at once when the Hud it is 


removed. (.',.) The rat, 




at first, ther 








ishes. (7.) 


The curvatu 


ire is not always at tin- 


same place ; it recedes 


gradually towards the 


lower end of the grov 


dug stem. (8.) The 


smaller the 


angle which 


the incident rays of ligl 


lit make with the axis 




the slighter 


will be the effect produced. (!>.) Heliotropism 


continues ui 


itil growth ceases or until light has been brought to act upon 






• until the curvature fronc 




ly curvatur 


e from gravi 


Nation (geotropism). (1 


0.) Heliotropic curva- 










Stems which. 




ireviously kept in the d; 




to light coming from one 


side, than are those whic 


li have been previously 


illutmnat.,,1 i 




(12.) The concave side. 




1'i^ldy ilium 


iuateel. -row; 


< less rapidly than the other. (13.) Negative 


ZTZu 


Zu-nZlT 


! u !! ie Von!vt r lh<fiow! 


,h throughout all zones 
>r zone. (14.) Helio- 



Plant. (io.) 
ot ' Athen N U uta 



372 General Notes. [June, 

of Basidiomycetes and Ascomycctes. (Noticing Brefeld's paper, and claim- 
ing that Brefeld has substantially confirmed the results of Van Tieghem's 
early researches.) Max Reess, A Correction (of an alleged error in 
Brefeld's memoir). Reinke, Investigations Respecting Growth. No. 
12. Dodel-Port, Concerning the Swarm-spores of Ulothrix zonata. Re 
ports of Societies : Amsterdam, Jonkman, On the Prothallium of Marat- 
tiacece. No. 13. Th. Irmisch, A Contribution to the Natural History of 
Cactacece. (Considering the seedlings of Ehipsalis.) No. 14. In Re- 
ports of Societies : Gottingen. Holle, On the Organs of Vegetation in 
Marattiacece. Holle, On a New Camera fusing a double mirror). 

ZOOLOGY. 

The European Woodcock shot in Virginia. — A few days ago 
I received from Dr. M. G. Ellzey, of Blacksburg, Va., the information 
that " a European woodcock was shot in Loudon County, in November, 
1873," by his brother, with a number of the common species these gen- 
tlemen secured together. The alleged occurrence being one of much in- 
ternal" evidence necessary to place the matter beyond question. Dr. 
Ellzey appears to be perfectly competent in the case, from the partTOR- 
larky of the reply with which he has favored me. "The flight of the 
bird was slower, heavier, and nearer the ground than that of the familiar 
bird. When compared with twelve or fifteen of the latter, it appeared 

pointed, and possessed but one falcate primary. The bird was tounu <> 



rer, the cha 

wing settles the matter beyond dispute. I was at the time 
peculiarities of the European bird as compared with ours in 
and made the comparison with such care as to preclude 



We have several authentic records of the casual presence of Scolo J^ 
msh'cnla in America, besides some less explicit references to th*' 
fact in the works of leading sporting writers ; but so far as 1 n 
member, there has hitherto been no recorded instance of the occurrenc 
of the species south of New Jersey. — Elliott Coues. 

Notable Change of Habit of the Bank Swallow. — In trea - 
ing of this bird {Cotyle riparia, Birds of the Northwest, p. 87)^ 
state, "It becomes an interesting question whether the bank >w "** 
will ever abandon its burrows, and so far modify its fos.sorial nature .is 



1876.] Zoology. 373 

build in chinks and crannies, or affix a nest anywhere about a building." 
The matter is already decided, and the surmise verified, as I learn from 
a correspondent, Dr. Rufus Haymond, well known by his contributions 
to the ornithology of Indiana. He writes as follows : " The depot of the 
"White Water Valley Railway, in Brookville, Indiana, is built upon 
stone piers, and spans the hydraulic canal, some five or six feet above the 
water. While at the depot during the past summer I saw a bank swal- 
low fly under the building with several blades of grass in her bill ; and 
being curious to see what she would do with them, I watched her. and 
saw her carry them through a two-inch auger hole which had been bored 
trough a pine board. The spot was inaccessible, owing to the water; 
but I know from the droppings about the hole that this was her nest." 
I have never seen or heard of any previous record of such habit, and 
consider Dr. Raymond's statements very interesting. — Elliott Coues. 

The Chapparal Cock. — Can any of your ornithological readers 
give us any information as to the food of tbe chapparal cock, or road 
runner, as it is usually called in this region (Geocorn/r (\tl!f,,n,;<nni$). 
It is found, though it is not abundant, along the foot-hills in this \ icmity. 
A friend gave me a specimen killed here a few days ago, but I believe it 
is not found north of the " Divide." On mounting the bird I found in its 
gizzard no recognizable matter except debris of grasshoppers, and as no 
one has seen a grasshopper alive here for two months, the question is, 
Where did the bird get them ? Does it provide its food in the season, 
laying it up for winter ? One of the grasshoppers was in perfect condi- 
tion, except that it had lost some of its legs. Under a lens the mass of 
the comminuted material was seen to consist of minute pieces of legs and 
integument of grasshoppers. — V. T. Chambers, Colorado Springs, 
Cal. 

The « Sisco of Lake Tippecanoe." — I am informed by Mr. J. A. 
Henshall of Oconomowoc, Wis., that the fish described by me under the 
above name {Argyrosomus sisco, American Naturalist, March, 1875, 
P- 135) occurs in abundance in Nemahbin Lake. Waukesha ^ County, 
Wis., which empties into Rock River, through Bark River, and in Okau- 
chee, Oconomowoc, and La Belle lakes, in the same county, which send 
their waters also to Rock River by way of the Oconomowoc. 

A notice of this species occurs in Rafinesque's Ichthyologia Ohiensis, 
P- 44, as follows : — 

"The white fish of Lake Erie, Coregonus albus of Le Sueur (or 
Sahnn rhipeiformis <.f Or. Mitchell), a fish which differs from the trouts 
}J being toothless, is said to be found in some streams of Indiana at the 
!l " a < 1 of the Wabash and Miami ; but I have no certain proof of this. ' — 
"• S. Jordan. 

Corals and Coral Islands; bt James D. Dana. — We are not 
going to review the book, as it is one which we suppose a large part of 
0u r readers are familiar with already. We only propose that they shall 



British Quarterly for October last. Here is a sentence: "Professor 
Dana, who is another Hugh Miller, made his mark as a writer many 
years ago by his Two Years before the Mast. The man who could 
write that was clearly marked out for something better than the life of 
an able-bodied seaman ; but few who have risen in life as he has have 
been able to turn to such use the lessons of sea-faring life learned in 

'•The man who could write that" precious sentence in a quarterly 
review, confuse two men of such mark, and educe either of them from 
an illiterate sailor. has earned thereby a word of notice. 

Note on the Blue Goose. — A few years ago I came upon a flock 
of four Anser ccerulescens, about two miles west of this place, in April. 
They were fee* upon the bank <»f the west fork of 

White Water River. As I approached them, and before I discovered 
them, they rose up from the ground very much in the manner of the 
mallard. I shot one some days later, breaking its wing, and brought it 
home with the hope of saving it, but it died in a few hours. One of the 
three left was afterwards shot by one of my neighbors, Mr. lialstead. 
with a rifle. The wing was shot off at the wrist joint. He secured the 
goose, took it home, fed it, and it became as tame as a domestic goose. 
He lived near the bank of the river, but, notwithstanding he had tame 
geese with which it associated, it would never approach the water, hut 
would stand upon an elevation and watch those in the river. He kept 
it a year, from April to April, but a hurricane which occurred in the last 
April blew a fence down upon it and killed it. I saw it in the fall after 
he caught it. It ate corn very greedily, but, unlike the common goose, 
did not swallow the corn whole, but picked up every grain, placed it 
between the outer edges of the bill and bit it in two, the bill snapping 
like a steel-trap. This, to me. was a curious fact, but the fact that for a 
whole year it never entered the water was still more astonishing.— 
Rufus Haymond, Brookeville, Indiana. 

Occurrence of Maggots in a Boy. — Dr. G. W. Martin, ahomceo- 
pathie physician, and a very intelligent, well-informed gentleman, was 
recently (June oth) called to see a patient, a lad of about fourteen years, 
who had been seized with violent spasms. The doctor gave as an assist- 
ant remedy a purgative, whereupon the lad passed at one stool about 
fifty little insects or bugs, as he called them. The doctor brought them 
to me and I told him that they were dipterous larvae. I requested hua 
to put some in a box of moist earth covered with glass, and the Hies 
appeared on the 17th of June. Now can you tell what the fly is.' — 
Gilbert S. Jui>d, Maysville, Ky., June 22, 1875. 

[On submitting the flies to Baron Osten Sacken, he wrote us as fol- 
lows : "The fly you gave me is Anthomyia (lloinalomyia) snt/nns. one 
of those mentioned in the American Entomologist, ii. 139, and ot 



1876.] Zoology. 375 

lar experience is recorded in Europe." The article referred 
to is entitled Larva) in the Unman Bowels. It is by the late Mr- 
Walsh, and gives a good summary of what is known of the sabjecl in 
this country. See also Guide to the Study of Insects, pp. 3(50, 3G7. 
-Ed. Naturalist.] 

Swedish Podurans. — The Poduridce, or "spring-tails" of Sweden, 
have been monographed in an elaborate way by T. Tullberg. The mem- 
oir is accompanied by twelve plates, and enters quite fully into the 
anatomy of these little creatures of so much interest to microacopMtS. 
The work appears in the Transactions of the Royal Swedish Academy 
for 1871, and has ju>t reached this country. 

ANTHROPOLOGY. 



i obtained by the writer, from a locahty 
»h within a short distance of the site of 
s collecting labors of the past three years. By the uprooting of a large 
tree during the tornado of Tuesday night, February 1st. and a consequent 
landslide on the south bank of Crosswick's Creek, near Vardviile. Mer- 
cer County, New Jersey, the traces of the site of a former " homestead " 
were brought to light, consisting of corn-mills, pestles, axes, hammers, 
spears, and arrow-points, associated with innumerable fragments of 
hones, mussel-shells, and charcoal. No fragments of the bones were suf- 
ficiently large to determine the animals to which they belonged, beyond 
the fact that while some undoubtedly were fragments of mammal hones, 
the vast majority were those of birds and large fishes. The main feature 
of interest connected with the stone implements is the uniform character 
of the workmanship displayed in their manufacture. There was not 
found one polished celt, or a single specimen of jasper arrowhead. 'I he 
find consists of the following specimens : Sixteen arrow-points varying 
from four inches to one and one half in length ; they are all of the same 
mineral, a slaty rock, and now very much weather-worn, soft, and plia- 
ble. One spear-head, six inches in length, made of the same mineral and 
anally wi-athur-worn. Five specimens varying between the spear and 
knife forms, one of white quartz, and all of the same character of work- 
manship. One specimen of an elongate, lozenge-shaped implement, 
seven inches in length by two in greatest width, and pointed at each end; 
the edges have been chipped ; very much weather-worn. These twenty- 
three specimens, found as they were together, bear us out in our remarks 
in the February number of the NATUBAU8T, that specimens found 
de ep in the soil, as ;l class, are less elaborately wrought than those; 
f ound nearer the surface. They were lying, when exposed to view, about 
^o feet below the surface, and the character of the soil is such that its 
;t '' nill "datioti is wholly due. 1 believe, to the gradual decompo>uion ot 
vegetable matter, commingled with fine sand, such as gentle winds will 



376 General Notes. [June, 

carry as " dust." If, as was suggested in the February number of this 
journal, one inch of soil will accumulate in one hundred and twenty-eight 
years, these specimens are fully thirty centuries old. and certainly their 
general appearance is suggestive of as considerable an antiquity. 

The large specimens that were taken from the mingled dust and ashes 
of this ancient dwelling-place comprise two corn-mills, as they are usu- 
ally called. They are both large, quadrangular, sandstone bowlders, 
one with the depression only on one side, the other with a shallow cup 
on each side. With them was one globular pebble three and one half 
inches in diameter, that evidently had been used as the crusher, in reduc- 
ing the corn or nuts to a powder. The grooved stone axes were thir- 
teen in number, varying somewhat in pattern, but particularly noticeable 
in that but two were of that form in which the groove does not extend 
entirely around the head of the ax, but leaves a smooth surface on the 
upper edge. 1 This pattern may be of later date than those with the 
groove extending entirely around the specimen. I have found, on com- 
paring many hundreds of these relics, that as a rule those with the 
groove not encircling the implement are more accurately finished, and 
r extent of polished surface. Pebbles of a very regular out- 



: were chosen, and the a 



among them 



the other hand, pebbles not at all symmetrical were frequently chosen for 
axes, grooved and ground to an edge at one end; but such non-sym- 
metrical specimens, I believe, always have the groove extending entirely 
about them. The thirteen specimens here mentioned vary from eight to 
four inches in length. The workmanship displayed in their production 
quite accords with the rude arrow and spear points with which they 
were associated. Not one can be called a first-class ax, although some 
certainly are better finished than others. There occurred two specimens 
of chipped clay -slate implements, that approach the ax in form, and 
which were evidently designed as cutting implements. One is quadran- 
gular, six inches in length by four in width, and about one inch in thick- 
ness. The chipping is easily traced over the entire surface. There is 
no trace of a polished edge or groove. A slight depression on the upper 
and lower margins indicate that a handle was once attached to the speci- 
men, as ordinary grooved axes were hafted. The accompanying sp**" 
men is still ruder in finish, but has a better-wrought edge. It is ob- 
tusely triangular in outline, and a little shorter and narrower than the 
preceding. The pestles are eight in number and vary from one foot to 



tbll! 


• inches in len 




. None are 


polished and worked i 


nto an accurately 


cyli 


udrical shape. 




I the larger ■ 


ones all have the heads 


; so battered as to 


sho- 


w that they w 


ere 


n-ed as we 


use modern pestles in 


mortars, and not 


ts ' 


' rollers," or 


wai 


■-clubs, as s< 


)ine have suggested. 


The other speci- 












haramer-stones, a 




per, and thrt 




iobble-stones- 


:, two of which have 


been somewhat 




1 


Th. 


» American Nl 


uurulist, vi. 145, Figure H 





1876.] Anthropology. 377 

chipped, as though intended one for an ax, the other for a chisel or 
gouge. The other is a curiously shaped stone, that has been utilized aa 
a hammer or nut-cracker. The shape may be designed and not acci- 
dental. It is quite certain I made use of stones of con- 
venient shapes, for many of the simpler household purposes ; but it does 
not follow because no trace of chipping or polishing is to be detected 
upon these stones, that the stone has been accidentally so shaped, for the 
long-continued use of a broken stone would tend to wear it down and so 
obliterate the trace of the fracture. A survey of the fifty-four specimens 
constituting this "find," together with the circumstances under which 
they were discovered, allbrd. I think, valuable additional evidence of the 
facts, as I believe them to be, with reference to the stone implements 
found in North America generally, which are that those found most 

considering that during the occupancy of the Atlantic coast of North 
America, the Indians advanced from a lower to a higher stage of stone - 
age culture. — Charles C. Abbott, M. D. 

Anthropological News. — Colonel Charles Whittlesey contrib- 
utes to the Scientific Monthly of Toledo, for November, 1875, articles on 
the Rock Inscriptions in Amherst, Lorain County, Ohio, and on The 
Comparison of the Indians and Mound Builders. 

A story has been going the rounds of the papers to the effect that 
PJgmy graves exist in Tennessee and Kentucky. It is not new, Hay- 
wood in his Natural and Aboriginal History of Tennessee having at- 
tempted to substantiate the notion. The following evidence that no 
Pygmy race left their remains in this part of our country must be conclu- 
sive. Mr. S. E. Haskin, writing from Pine Falls, Tennessee, after hav- 
ing opened twenty small slab-graves in White County, says that the 
graves vary in length from fifteen inches to two feet, and in width from 
seven to fourteen inches. He sends with his lettei a package of bones 
and teeth. Some of the latter are milk teeth, and in one fragment of a 
jaw-bone the second teeth are pushing out behind the milk teeth. Mr. 
W. M. Clark, employed during the last year by the Smithsonian Institu- 
tion, to investigate the same subject, and who sent the relics mentioned 
by Ressels in his paper in the Bulletin of Hayden's Geological Survey. 
(Vol. II., No. 1). has written for the Smithsonian Report for 1875 a long 
account of his labors, in which he distinctly proves that the little slab- 
graves are either those of children or are ossuaries. But the most ex- 
haustive refutation of the whole matter is contained in Chapter -II. of a 
Paper, accepted for publication in a forthcoming volume of the Smith- 
^nian Contributions to Knowledge, by Dr. Joseph Jones, of New Orleans. 
Th e entire subject is reviewed, from Haywood's work down, and the 
most convincing proof brought forward from the examination of hundreds 
■ fePaves, that the small cists are either children's graves or ossuaries. 



I fragile jaw exhibits t 



s of teeth ; 



378 General Notes. [June, 

case parts of more than one skeleton are found. Furthermore, in the 
same mound with the so-called pygmy graves are found long graves in 
which the skeletons of unusually tall men and women lie at full length. 

The International Congress of Americanists will hold its next se sion 
at Luxemburg, from the 10th to the 13th of September, 1877. They 
have already issued their circular of invitation. 

Mr. Charles M. Wallace contributes to the American Journal of 
Science for March an article in which he claims to have found in the beds of 
brick, clay, and stratified gravels, near Richmond, Va., various hatchet-lik* 
disk-like, and - thic implements, from four to eight feet 

below the surface. " One of them is somewhat like an implement from 
the Reculver Pits " (Evans, p. 534, N. Y., 1872). The name of Professor 
Baird is used in the article as encouraging the author (he encourages 
every diligent seeker for truth) ; but I am sure Mr. Wallace does not 
mean to say that Professor Baird endorsed his conclusions as to the nat- 
ure of his finds. Two things are necessary to be done in the case. 
The most scrupulous care is to be exercised in determining exactly all the 
conditions of the find, and the implements must be compared with bum- 
lar ones from other localities by skilled archaeologists before any safe 
conclusion can be reached. 

The Paris Anthropological Society has issued separately the cramo- 
logical and craniometries] i by a committee of that 

Both the January and the February numbers of Mater -iau.r pour I H<s- 
toire primitive et naturelle de VHomme are full of interesting matter. 
All lovers of archaeology should encourage this periodical, whose editors, 
at great personal sacrifice, conduct it solely in the interest of science. 

The Rev. William Houghton read a paper before the Society of BibMs 
cal Archaeology, March 7th, on the Mammalia of the Assyrian .M"i'ii- 
ments ; Part I., Domestic Mammals. There are three forms of ^pre- 
sentation : (1) by pictorial or sculptural representations; (2) hy de- 
scription ; (3) by picture and description combined. The domestic ani- 
mals known were the ox, sheep, goat, camel, ass, horse, mule, and dog. 
The author promised a subsequent paper on the Wild Animals. 

George Smith writes to the Athenaeum of February 12th, " I have 
discovered a Babylonian text giving a remarkable account of the temple 
of Belus at Babylon. It is the first time any detailed description of a 
temple has been found in the cuneiform texts." 

Mr. fi. B. Tylor read before the London Institution, March 23, 1876, 
a paper on the Races of Mankind and Their Civilization. The follow- 
ing works on anthropology have appeared: Hellwald, Culturg.- hi< liK' ; 
reviewed by Tylor in Academy, February 26th. Wilson, Prebistof* 
Man, 2 vols., Macmillan. Gill, Myths and Songs of the South P«J»ft 
King & Co., London. Koner, Bibliography of Anthropology- Gar ' 
land, Atlas der Ethnographie, Leipzig, Brockhaus. 



1876.] Creography and Exploration. 379 

GEOLOGY AND PALEONTOLOGY. 

The Tjeniodonta, a New Group of Eocene Mammals. — At a 
recent meeting of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, Pro- 
fessor Cope described the character of some mammalia from the Eocene 
deposits of New Mexico, obtained by him during the Wheeler Expedition 
of 1874, which he regarded as allied to the Jnscctimra. The feet are 
armed with compressed claws. The dental characters are seen first in 
the supposed superior incisors. Unfortunately they have not yet been 
found iu place in the cranium, but their association with a rodent type of 
inferior incisors, which have been found in place in the inaudible, con- 
fines us to the alternative choice between superior incisors and canines. 
From the small size or absence of inferior canine- a similar character 
may be inferred for the superior canines. 

The superior incisors present two bands of enamel, an anterior and 
a posterior. They are compressed in form, the sides presenting a sur- 
face of dentine or cementum. Attrition produces a truncate or slightly 
concave extremity. The inferior incisors are rodent-like. 

Two families represented this suborder in the Eocene period in New 
Mexico. The first, or Ectoganidce, possessed molar teeth with several 
roots ; in the Calamodotitidce, each molar has a simple conic fang. But 
one genus of each family is known. In both the enamel of the molars 
i- principally a band on the outer side of the crown; the deficiency is 
supplied in Galamodon by a deposit of cementum which invests the 
molar and superior incisor teeth, covering the crowns excepting where 
the enamel bands are present, The latter investment is so much thinner 
that the cementum forms a raised border all round t 



» substances. The general s 



> of Cahntiwhn affords 



i the Edentata, which indicate that the 
Taniodonta partially fill the interval between that order and the Eden- 
tata presented by the existing fauna. 

Professor Cope also pointed out the close resemblance between the 

»mdibular dentition of the contemporary Eocene genus Esthonyx and 

the exiting /vV/Wvw, and stated that Anchippodus and allies chiefly 

differ from Esthnmjr in the persistent growth of the incisor teeth. 1 

GEOGEAPHY AND EXPLORATION. 

P'-kiviax Geography. — The publication of the preliminary volume 
°f Don Antonio Raimondi's great work, El Peru, will be, says a writer in 
th >' (''■"'jraphlca! JLa/azine, an epoch in the history of Peruvian geo- 
graphical research. This accomplished and indefatigable geographer 
an <l naturalist had traveled over every part of the republic, on a fixed 
Plan, during a space of nineteen year/, diligently collecting materials be- 
. ' See On the Supposed Carnivora of the Eocene of the Rocky Mountains, Froceed- 
m gs of the Phila.l, | Sciences, December, 1875. 



380 General Notes. [June, 

fore he sat down to prepare his great scientific work on Peru for pub- 
lication. This first volume is the key to the whole work, for it describes 
the methods and instruments used in the \ n i<n - lti tin lies of science, and 
contains a most interesting personal narrative of the author's numerous 
journeys, during nineteen years, over the length and breadth of the land. 
The work itself will consist of six parts. The first will be devoted to 
geography and meteorology, the second to geology, the third to mineral- 
ogy, the fourth and fifth parts to botany and zoology, and the sixth and 
last to ethnology, including descriptions of the architectural remains, pot- 
tery, arms, etc., of the different Peruvian tribes. 

Recent Risk <>r tiik 1'ii:i vivx Coast. — Interesting illustration! 
of the comparatively recent change in the coast level of Peru and 
the geographical changes resulting, are afforded by Mr. A. Agassiz in 
the last Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology. A number 
of corals were found by him at the height of from 2900 to 3000 feet 
above the level of the sea, at a distance in a straight line from the Pacific 
Ocean of twenty miles. From the general features of the country along 
the coast of Peru, it requires but little imagination to reconstruct the 
former internal sea formed by the Coast Range, which must have, 
within comparatively recent geological times, covered the whole of the 
great nitrate basin of Peru, and which has gradually been elevated to 
its present position. This inland sea then became a salt lake, after- 
wards a lagoon, and finally was entirely drained. While Darwin showed 
that beyond doubt the coast of South America has been recently ele- 
vated 800 feet, Mr. Agassiz believes that the elevation reached an alti- 
tude of at least 2900 feet, and in earlier times, judging by the marine 
nature of the fauna of Lake Titicaca, to an elevation of 12,500 feet. 

MICROSCOPY. 1 

The Limits of Microscopic Vision. — In li s rec t i il d 
dress to the Microscopical Society of London, the president, Mr. H. C. 
Sorby, F. R. S., discusses the relation between the limits of the powers 
of the microscope and the size of the ultimate molecules of matter. As 
the combined result of observation and theory, he concludes that the 
normal limit of distinct visibility with the most perfect microscope is 
one half of the wave-length of the light. If so, even with the very best 
lenses (except under special conditions) light itself is of too coarse a 
nature to even enable us to define objects less than sxihu t0 wW ° f 
an inch apart. It would appear, therefore, that as far as this question is 
concerned, our microscopes have already reached their ultimate Umft- 
Adopting the results as to the size of the ultimate molecules of B**** 
arrived at by Mr. Stanley, Sir W. Thomson, and Professor Clerk-Max- 
well, Mr. Sorby calculates that in the smallest interval which could be 
distinctly seen by the best possible microscope, there would be about 
1 This department is conducted by Dr. R. H. Ward, Troy, N. T. 



ad molecules of liquid water or about five hundred and twenty 
of albumen lying end to end ; and that in order to see the ultimate con- 
stitution of organic bodies, we should requre a magnifying power from 

He calculates that with our highest powers we are as far from seeing 
the ultimate molecules of organic substances as we should be from see- 
ing the contents of a new ,. I eye at the distance of a 
third of a mile. A spherical particle one tenth the diameter of the 
smallest speck that could be already defined with our best and high**! 
powers, might nevertheless contain no less than one million structural 
molecules. Mr. Sorby makes a very interesting application of his re- 
sults to Mr. Darwin's theory of pangenesis, his general conclusion being 
that no serious objection can be raised against the theory when exam- 
ined from a purely physical point of view, as far as relates to the inheri- 
tance of a very complex variety of characters by the first generation. 
— A. W. Bennett. 

Boston Microscopical Society. — This society held a public re- 
ception at Fraternity Hall, on the evening of April 27th, for the pur- 
pose of making better known its organization and aims. A short exhi- 
bition with the oxy-hydrogen microscope was given, in addition to the 
use of more than fifty table microscopes, with their accessory apparatus. 

Exchanges. — [Notices, not exceeding four lines in length, of micro- 
scopical objects or apparatus wanted or ottered in exchange, not sale, 
will be inserted in this column without expense.] 

Arranged diatoms in exchange for good objects. Address offers to 
Christian Febiger, Wilmington, Del. 

Extract of hop, mounted, showing lupulin crystals ; in exchange for 
any mounted objects. Address Richard Allen, 146 North Fourth Street. 
Troy, N. Y. 



SCIENTIFIC NEWS. 

-Physicians will be interested in a work entitled Micro-Photographs 
iistology, Normal and Pathological, by Carl Seiler, in conjunction 
* J. Gibbons Hunt, M. D., and J. G. Richardson, M. D., to be pub- 
ed in twelve number by J. H. Coates, of Philadelphia. 
-At a late meeting of the Paris Geographical Society. Dr. Haney 

ered at the western extremity of Cuba, and that these proved that the 
'''■ ut tl»" island was at one time inhabited by that race. 
- Professor Marsh publishes in the American Journal of Science, for 
e > a Notice of a New Suborder of Pterosauria. The group is distin- 



■ lv. Marvine. a geologist of much 



382 Proceedings of Societies. [June, 

— The Smithsonian collections for the International Exhibition have 

been forwarded to Philadelphia from Washington. They are designed 

the United States. Specimens of all the animals in this country will be 

exhibited, and all the machinery of hunting and trapping will receive the 
amplest illustration. It is stated that there are forty-live hundred casts 
of food fishes now at the Smithsonian ready to be sent. The casts . 
are made of plaster and papier mache, modeled from frozen specimen* 
and from photographs. Among the other objects there will be a run- 
ning screen of the size of eighteen hundred square feet, filled with pho- 
tographs of American food fishes. The dresses of the fishermen in vari- 
ous climates, the varieties of flies used in catching trout, the fishing rod, 
the harpoon, and the lance, will all be shown. The chase of the whale 

treasures is a cast showing t 
furs will be one of the nio-t remarkable ever seen on the continent. 
The useful products of our inland and foreign waters (other than v« rm- 
brates), have been arranged by Dr. Dall. Among thest will b d.. .'- 

fish, crabs, shrimps, corals, >t;ir-tish, sponges, and marine products not 

and a -roup of lay figures intended to convey an idea of the character 
and habits of the North American Indians, will complete a very excel- 
lent collection. 

PROCEEDINGS OF SOCIETIES. 

National Academy of Sciences, Washington. - April 18-20. 
Professor Henry opened the public session by delivering' tin- annua u 
hi h serve i a review of the v«-ir It was confined to the official 
affairs of the Academy. The report of this year contaii 

Joseph Winlock. the astronomer of Cambridge, -Mass. Aie 

j"" 1 " 1 '" 1 ' " . " ""Id 101 - _; - Wilson, who. 

by death during the past vear was \ ieo-1 resident li«m.\ 
although not a member, was one of the founders. He took a chiel bi -■• 
in the preparation of the hill under which the Academy was ■ ^ _■■■ ^ ^ 

:■, • . • ■!. • ■• ;; ■'•■'■ "'■' ' ' ;: ' : ' 



Proceedings of Societies. 383 

will be found to defray the 

ing to and from the meetings. 

becoming in a certain sense a 

expression of calm judgment 
ivas its appropriate position. 




then briefly mentioned : its jud^m. 
micn.senpi,-. determination (with rt 
proportions of wool imported in i 
e-titnated that a million of dollars v 



rency; and as to the crystallization of different grades of 

part of the Polaris expedition was intrusted to the Academy. Dr. Emil 
Bessels has been engaged in preparing the material obtained for publicu- 

sults in the departments of hydrography, meteorology, and astronomy. 
A fourth volume is in preparation, of which Admiral 1 >avis has charge; 
this will contain the narrative of the expedition and much biographical 
information ; its expense is borne by the Navy Department. The legacy 
left by Alexander Dallas Bache to the Academy has been applied, (1) to 
Ike preparation of a magnetic survey of the United States; (2) to ob- 
servations on sun-spots, conducted at Cambridge, Mass. ; (3) to certain 
researches on light and heat. The first of these undertakings is in a 
Co "dition to report considerable progress. The map when completed 
will prove of important service for surveying purposes and topography 
generally, as it will determine the dip and direction of the needle for all 
localities. Uv tl lt , ,-ecord of ihese data now. the students of the earth's 
magnetism will have a means in future years to ascertain the rate and laws 
°f the great secular varialions, as yel only imperfectly understood. The 

Slu ce his death sonic arrangements have been projected for collating his 
Woi 'k and continuing it. The researches on light and heat are carried 
on by Charles Peirce, a son of Prof. Benjamin Peirce. Part of the 
regular work of the Aeadenn consist- in lming memoirs prepared of its 



and PI y c 1 St c re of the Black Hills, by Henry Newton ; The Age 
of Mountains as determined by Degradation, by J. W. Powell. 

Five members were elected, namely, Professors Langley, Peters, and 
Haldeman, General Warren, and Mr. Clarence King. 



SCIENTIFIC SERIALS. 1 

The Annals and Magazine of Natural History. — April. Is 
there such a Thing as Eozoon Canadense? a Micro-Geological Investi- 
gation, by Otto Hahn. Descriptions of some New Species of Annelida 
from Kerguelen's Island, by W. C. Mcintosh. Extinct Lemurina, by 
W. H. Flower. Note on the Embryogeny of Salmacina Dysteri, by A. 
Giard. 

Archives de Zoologie lxf-erimentale et generale. — No. 
4, 1875. Contributions a l'llistoire des Grcgarines des Invertebres 
de Paris et de Roscoff, par A. Schneider. Recherches sur l'Appareil 
Circulatoire de- tr E. Perrier. 

Zeitschrift fur wissenschaftliche Zoologie (SieboM und 
Kolliker). — March 6. Researches on Free-Living Nematodes, and the 
Genus Ghcetonotus, by O. Biitschli. On the Ontogony of Cyclas, and 
the Homology of the Germ-Layers in the Mollusks, by H. von Ohering. 
On the Silk-Glands of Lepidoptera, by F. E. Helm. On the Formation 
of the Blastoderm in the Spiders, by H. Ludwig. On the Challenger 
Expedition. Letter to Professor Siebold, by R. V. Willemoes-Suhm. 

Petermann's Mittheilungen. — January 21st. The Ground 
Work of the Map of the Loango Coast, by P. Giissfeldt. The Geo- 
graphical Convention in Paris, July 15 till September 16,1875. The 
Southern Batta-Land of Sumatra, by A. Schreiber. Geographical -Ne- 
crology of the vear 1875. Journey to Araguay, by Dr. Couto de Magal- 
liaes.'in January, 1865. March 1st. The Distribution of Sedimentary 
Rocks in Europe, by H. Habenicht. River Navigation in Southern New 
Guinea. Views from the High North, by Karl Weyprecht. The Mon- 
gols and the Land of the Tanguts. Przewalsky's Journey. 
" Monthly Microscopical Journal. — April. On a New Arrange- 
ment for Illuminating and Centring with High Powers, by W. II. Dal- 
linger. The Identification of Liquid Carbonic Acid in Mineral Oivur- 
by W. N. Hartley. On some Structures in Obsidian, Perlite^ - 
Leucite, by F. Rutley. On the Aperture of Object-Glas 
Wenham. On Zeiss' 5 fe Immersion, by W. J. Hickie. 

Bulletin of the Museum or Comparative Zoology.- IH-,Nos. 
11-14. Exploration of Lake Titicaca, by A. Agassiz and S. W. < «•"»•?• 
Reptiles, by S. W. Garman. Notice of the Pateo** 
. £.''..__ . . n f Corals 



F. IT. 



Fossils, bv O. A. Derby, with Notes by A. Agassiz. Recent < 
from Tilibiche, Peru, by A. Agassiz and L. F. Pourtales. The L. 
opment of Salpa, by W. K. Brooks. 



THE 

AMERICAN NATURALIST. 

Vol. x. — JULY, me. — No. 7. 
LAKE WAKATIPU, NEW ZEALAND. 



T AKE Wakatipu is remarkable not only for the grandeur of 
its scenery, which some travelers assert is equal to that of 
>w itzcrl;niil, but also for the many interesting features in its 
physical geology. 

Lake Wakatipu is situated about a hundred miles from the 
southern end of the South Island of New Zealand, among the 
picturesque mountains of the Southern Alps. Its esthetic feat- 
ures we will not attempt to describe ; a conception of its varying 
scenes, some of which are as wild and grand as others are soft 
aml beautiful, can be conveyed only by the brush of the artist ; 
we endeavor merely to tell the story of their origin. 

The lake is of a sigmoidal shape, about seventy miles long, and 
hoin one to three broad. Its waters, which are very clear and 
c °kl, have been sounded to the extraordinary depth of fourteen 
I'lhdml frrt, The surface of the lake being about one thousand 
jeet above the sea, its bottom, therefore, is four hundred feet 
1 " w ^ than the surface of the ocean. On either side of the lake, 
il1 " 1 <]"»."J>o,,| i rs w]lo h. oxh;llt< t]ui moim tains rise in a contin- 
uous series of very rugged peaks to a height of from five thou- 
sand to seven thousand live hundred feel, while Alt. Earnslaw, 
which forms the head of the valley, attains an elevation of 9165 
e,,t i its top whit,, with perpetual snow, and its sides scored by 
lending glaciers. 

. Fin? valley of \ AX \ i{ . W ; ,katipu extends southward beyond the 
* 0ot of the lake for a distance -of fifty or sixty miles, and gradu- 
al Spreads out into the low, level country which forms the 
Province of Southland. As the physical features of the lower 
;" ,n " ,n <>f the valley are not essentially different from those of 
' * 1I,U "< diate shores of the lake, we are forced to consider them 



386 Lake Wakatipu, New Zealand. [M* 

as having a common origin, and being but portions of the same 
valley, the upper part of which is filled with fourteen hundred 
feet of water, and the lower portion by an unknown depth of 
worn and rounded shingle. The rocks in which the valley is 
formed are, for the most part, clay slates and gold-bearing mica 
schists, which are very much curved and twisted, and in many 
places green with chlorite. 

When we look for the causes, the working power that has pro- 
duced these grand results, the mind becomes awestruck by the 
magnitude of the forces which have formed not only the grand 
valley, but the very mountains in which it exists. 

What pictures pass before us when we follow in rapid review 
the great changes that have resulted in the formation of these 
rugged mountains, gray and scored as they are by time. We see 
the sediments which for ages have slowly accumulated at toe 
bottom of the sea, and formed the mud and ooze «>i ancient 
oceans, by the action of heat and great pressure hardened ana 
crystallized into rock, and then slowly upheaved by the mysteri- 
ous volcanic forces into lofty mountain chains whose snowy peaks 
gleam above the clouds, only to be slowly removed, to have great 
valleys opened in their sides, and their most solid rocka Wfflffl 
away and carried down particle by particle to be spread ou 
once more at the bottom of the sea. If we consider these changes, 
grand as they are, as but a single circle in the great cycle or 
geological time, we can appreciate to some extent the wonders 
of the history that is written on the rocks. It is only to ie < 
chapter in this history — the formation of the valley - that w 
would ask your attention. _ . . to 

Valleys may be considered as owing their origin, P» mar ^' 
one of three causes : (1.) They are formed by a fa ding of the 
rocks, thus forming depressions, the sides of which dope ni 
towards the axis, hence designated as synclinal va ..- 
amples of vallevs formed in this way are to ^ met with where^ 
stratified rocks have been upheaved, as in the bierr 
Rocky, and Alleghany Mountains. (2.) Valleys are some ^ 
formed by the fracturing of the earth's crust by volcanic ^ 
Valleys of this kind are seldom seen, being confined to * 
of great volcanic disturbance. (3.) The kinds of vaUeya . 
noticed are usually greatly modified by denudat ."", ^ hi. • ( 
other great agent in their formation. By denudation we^ ^ 
stand the wearing away of rocks not only by wtfu » ^j^, ._, 
rain, but also by the more powerful action of use an 
water, the operation of which we can see everywhere about 



1876.] Lake Wakatipu, New Zealand. 387 

As the evidence of a synclinal axis is nowhere apparent in the 
valley of Lake Wakatipu, we are unable to account for its exist- 
ence by the upheaval of the mountains on either side of it. We 
are likewise at a loss to find any indication of the rocks having 
been rent asunder by volcanic forces. The formation of the val- 
ley can be referred only to the third cause, that of denudation, 
or the slow removal by ice and water of the rock that once filled 
it to a height greater than that of the mountains which now 
tower above it. 

It may seem strange at first sight that such an immense 
amount of rock — measured by hundreds of cubic miles in the 
valley of Lake Wakatipu alone — could have been worn down 
and transported to distant places by the slow action of ice and 
water. This difficulty would be removed, could our readers stand 
with us on one of the many lofty mountains which overlook the 
lake, and see far up at its head, amid many mountains less grand, 
the snowy summit of Mt. Earnslaw, on whose sides are blue 
regions of ice ; these are the descending glaciers in which lies the 
In those streams of ice that 
Mt. Earnslaw, vast and irre- 
sistible as they are, we see but the puny remains of a mighty 
river of ice that once flowed through the whole valley of Lake 
S akutipu, the extent of which was limited only by the ocean, 
which undermined and floated away its extremity in the form of 
icebergs, in the same manner that they are formed at the present 
<% on the coast of Greenland. It takes but a glance to con- 
y ince us that this great ice-river was the engraving tool that, 
a, ded by storm and frost, cut in the living rock the picture of 
wonderful grandeur and beauty that is spread out before us. 

The glaciers around Mt. Earnslaw are still at work, as they 
have been for ages, in extending the valley. The streams that 
are f °rmed by the melting of the ice are all the year turbid with 
8 jlt, which is the rock that has been ground fine by the glacier, 
the flour from the mill, which they deposit in the upper end of 
the lake. I n this manner some six or eight miles of the valley 
has be en filled up to a height of a few feet above the usual level 
of the lake. We have but to extend the forces now in operation 
f ' n Mt. Earnslaw to the whole valley of Lake Wakatipu, to have 
an accurate and satisfactory explanation of its formation. 

| h ere is another feature of great interest in the history of this 
* all ey, first made known by Captain F. W. Hutton, of Dunedin. 
n the shore of the lake, about twelve miles above Queenstown, 



388 Lake Wakatipu, New Zealand, [July, 

is a limited deposit of tertiary limestone, containing as fossils, 
Ostrea Wullerstorfii, Cueullcea alta, C. Worthingtoni, Panopcea 
plieatft, and many others. The junction of the limestone with 
the crystalline rocks beneath can be seen but a few feet below 
the surface of the lake. The limestone being at the present level 
of the water, the valley must have been eroded to that depth 
before the limestone was formed. As its deposition took place 
beneath the waters of the ocean, the valley was at one time an 
arm of the sea, and was afterwards upheaved to its present eleva- 
tion or higher, and the wearing down of the valley continued. 
We have, therefore, as the sequence of events that resulted in 
the formation of Lake Wakatipu, the following : — 

(1.) The Southern Alps forming a sloping table-land, the 
highest remaining point of which is Mt. Cook, 13,200 feet above 
the sea; on this high table-land were deposited immense amounts 
of ice and snow, brought by the warm, moist winds from the 
ocean, which formed the glaciers that flowed off in various direc- 
tions towards the sea. One of these ancient rivers of ice had its 
source in the region about Mt. Earnslaw, — which, however, was 
then greatly different from its present form — and flowed over 
what is now the valley of Lake Wakatipu. This old-time glacier 
continued its slow motion towards the sea for unknown ages, 
until it had ground out the solid rock to a depth of five or six 
thousand feet in vertical thickness, and for over a hundred miles 
in length, 

(2.) The work of this mighty glacier was finally terminated 
by a sinking of the land, which caused the valley to become il 
arm of the sea, similar in every respect to the deep, narrow 
fiords that form such a characteristic feature of the west coast of 
New Zealand at the present day. What before was an alpine 
valley filled with hundreds of feet of ice then became the home 
of huge oysters, and many other forms of marine life, whose re- 
mains we now find in the limestone. We know that the sea 
filled the valley for a long time, since the compact gray lime- 
stone that it left behind it was not formed rapidly, as sandstone 
and conglomerate may be, but the material was first gathered 
from the waters to form the shells of mollusks and foraminifert, 
or the hard parts of corals, crinoids, etc., and then these worn 
down to a fine detritus by the waves and spread out as a calca- 
reous sediment, before the hardening process of rock-making 
commence. Together with the limestone are beds of fine «*"j 
and masses of conglomerate, composed of both rounded and angu- 



1876.] Lake Wakatipu, New Zealand. 389 

lar pebbles and containing fossil shells (Crassatella ampla) 
These deposits speak of other although minor changes during the 
time that the waters of the ocean occupied the valley. 

(3.) In the third stage the land is again upheaved to the dig- 
nity of a mountain chain, whose lofty summits become covered 
with vast fields of snow and ice, which, seeking an equilibrium, 
again flow as a glacier down the valley of Lake Wakatipu. 
This second extension of the ice-stream down the old valley re- 
sulted i u the removal not only of most of the limestone that had 
been deposited, but also of fourteen hundred feet of the crystal- 
line rocks beneath. The limestone on the shore of the lake iB 
thus shown to be an inter-glacial deposit, not by being inter- 
itatified with beds of till, but by the existence above and be- 
low it of distinct glacier-worn valleys. 

These great glaciers of New Zealand, together with the occur- 
rence of erratics and moraines in Natal, South Africa, as de- 
scribed by G. W. Snow, 1 indicate a time of extreme cold in the 
southern hemisphere, corresponding to the glacial epoch that left 
its records — in the form of striated rocks, bowlders, and moraines 
— over the northern hemisphere as far south as the fortieth par- 
allel. The limestone of Lake Wakatipu is similar in position to 
the inter-glacial lignite beds of Switzerland, as described by 
Professor Heer, and to the inter-glacial forest-beds of Scotland 
and America. Geologists will notice, however, the greater age 
°f the limestone of Lake Wakatipu. which, as indicated by its fos- 
sj>s,is Upper Eocene, but whether svnchronal with the Eocene of 
Europe has yet to be determined. 

FIh ' great extension of these ancient glaciers may also be 
°wing, in part at leas ^ to a greater elevation of the land. 

Either condition returning to those rich and promising islands. 
th ey would again become wrapped in ice and snow, which would 
swell the ice-streams from Mt. Earnslaw to their ancient dimen- 
SU) ns a nd re-create those giant glaciers. 

rhe second glacier, like the first, had its period of great ex- 
tension and then slowly passed away. As its terminus retreated 
JP the valley it left behind it the material it had gathered from 
fc he overhanging cliffs along its course, or had torn from the sides 
jf the val ley, together with the finer products ground by the 
i " U " 11 °* the glacier from the rocks over which it passed. This 
rff** 1 ^w forms the filling of the valley below the lake, and 
48 been worked over, perhaps many times, by streams of water 
1 Quarterly Journal of the Gcologici! Society, «™ r >40 



390 Lake Wakatipu, New Zealand. [July, 

that have left it in many regular lines of terraces along the sides 
of the valley, which form a striking contrast with the angular 
crags and rocks that tower above them. 

At Kingston, which is situated at the southern extremity of 
the lake, a huge terminal moraine, composed of cyclopean masses 
of angular rock, has been thrown by the glacier directly across 
the valley, and now forms the shore of the lake. In this con- 
fused mass of rocks we have indisputable evidence that here for 
a long time stood the terminal face of the glacier, which ended 
abruptly, as is common with glaciers at the present day, and 
formed a wall of ice from cliff to cliff. The reason why glaciers 
end so suddenly, and are thus enabled to form terminal moraine*, 
lies in the fact that they are flowing from higher to lowei and 
consequently warmer regions, and must eventually reach a point 
where the warmth is sufficient to melt the ice of which they are 
composed, although in many instances this limit is not attained 
until the glacier enters the sea. The rocks which form the ter- 
minal moraine at Kingston were once the lateral moraines on the 
surface of the glacier, which, as the stream moved on and was 
melted away, were carried over its terminal face — just as trees 
and blocks of ice are carried over Niagara — and were left in 
the confused mass that we find them. 

Some idea of the time required for this truly herculean task 
of valley-making may be gathered from the fact that the average 
motion of the Swiss glaciers can be taken at about twelve inches 
a day, or one mile in fourteen and one half years. At this rate a 
block of stone falling upon the surface of the glacier of Lake 
Wakatipu near its source at Mt. Earnslaw, would require more 
than a thousand years to reach its final resting-place in the ter- 
minal moraine at Kingston, which is only midway down the 
valley. This mighty mill, therefore, were it now in existence, 
could have made but a single turn since Christ was born at 
Bethlehem. 

As the warmth increased, the glaciers retreated to their present 
position around the summit of Mt. Earnslaw, leaving the va - 
ley dammed up by the moraine at Kingston, and filled by the 
water formed by the melting of the ice. On the sides of < the 
valley, in many places, huge blocks of stone were scattered, simi- 
lar to those in the moraine at Kingston. They also conferred 
the rounded form of roches moutonnSes on the low hills and KBOU* 
along the shores of the lake. 

We have, therefore, in the valley of Lake Wakatipu a striking 



1876.] Lake Wakatipu, New Zealand. 391 

example of the manner in which glaciers are enabled to form 
lake basins, not only by the blocking up of narrow valleys by the 
masses of dirt and stones carried down on the surface of the ice, 
but also through the wearing down of the rocks throughout the 
upper and middle course of the glacier at the same time that 
they are protected from waste at the lower end by the formation 
of a terminal moraine. Such we conceive to be the simplest, 
although imperfect reading, of the grand history of Lake Waka- 
tipu. Other great changes probably took place, however, the 
records of which have been erased. 

Nearly the same words may be written of many other lakes 
which fill rock-basins, or are confined by ancient moraines, like 
many of the " lochs " of Scotland, and the long, beautiful sheets 
of water in the State of New York, of which Lakes Otsego and 
Seneca are examples. The glaciers to which these lakes owe 
their origin belonged to the glacial epoch of geologists, and were 
far mightier than the one whose footsteps we have traced. The 
excavation of the great lake basins between the United States 
and Canada has been traced back to the same great ice age. 

Not only are we allowed to read the past history of this inter- 
esting lake, but we may also look beyond the veil that obscures 
its future. As the combined action of ice and water have been 
the instruments for its formation, so are they also working its de- 
struction. After the formation of the moraine at Kingston fchfi 
waters sought a new outlet from the valley over the falls of the 
Kawarau, which are constantly being worn away by the action 
^ the water, thus tending to drain the lake to a lower level, as 
we see by the terraces along its shores that it has been already 
lowered. While the outlet is every moment becoming deeper, 
the streams that flow from the foot of the glaciers, together with 
e ^ry little rill and rivulet that is born among the mountains, is 
continually bringing down its burden of sediment, however small, 
which is deposited in the lake, and does its share towards filling 
the valley. If this process seems very slow, or inadequate to 
accomplish so great a work, we must remember that the opera- 
|_ 10 ns of nature, unlike those of man, are not crowded into a brief 
We-time, but continue on through ages. The very glacier that 
c «t this magnificent valley to the depth of a mile and a half in 
the solid rock, was formed of the little vesicles of mist that were 
Rafted by the wind against the cold mountain-tops, which caused 
ftemto crystallize and accumulate on the summits as snow and 



A Cosmopolitan Butterfly. I. Its Birthpla 



A COSMOPOLITAN BUTTERFLY. I. ITS BIRTHPLACE. 

rFHERE is but one butterfly whose range is so extended as to 
-*• merit the name of cosmopolitan ; it is the Painted Lady or 
Vanessa cardui. With the exception of the arctic regions and 
South America, it is distributed over the entire extent of every 
continent. Australia and New Zealand produce a race peculiar 
to themselves, while the other large islands south of Asia pos- 
sess the normal type, which is also found upon small islands lying 
off the western borders of the Old World, the Azores, Canaries, 
Madeira, and St. Helena. On the other hand, it has not been 
discovered upon the small islands off the American coast, such as 
Guadalupe, the Revillagegidos, and Galapagos on the western 
side, or the Bahamas and Bermudas on the eastern ; neither does 
it occur in any of the Antilles, excepting Cuba, and there but 
rarely. 1 It is reported, however, from islands lying in the mid- 
dle of the Pacific Ocean, such as the Hawaiian group and Tahiti, 
but its actual occurrence there is at least doubtful. 2 



t probably by r 



1876.] A Cosmopolitan Butterfly. I. Its Birthplace. 393 

On the American continent, its southern boundaries will prob- 
ably be found in Venezuela, New Grenada, and Ecuador, 1 but it 
is almndant even as far south as the highlands of ( iuntemala, and 
thence stretches northward over the entire breadth of the conti- 
nent to the arctic regions ; on the eastern coast it has been 
found as far as Labrador, and on the west to the eastern shores 
of Behring's Straits. 2 In the heart of the continent I have taken 
it upon the Saskatchewan, and Doubleday reports it from Mar- 
lins Falls ; but Mr. W. H. Edwards does not recollect seeing it 
in the few collections lie has examined from points farther north. 
As we see it flourishing in the colder regions of Europe and 
North America, so also is it found on all mountain heights ; and 
Mr. H. W. Bates, writing of the whole genus, distinctly says it 
is "found only in elevated places in the neighborhood of the 
equator." The stations in Southern Asia from which V. cardui 
has been reported, — Cashmere, Nepaul, Bootan, and Sikkini,— 
all lie on the flanks of the Himalayas, and the Nilgherry Hills are 
the highest elevations of the Indian peninsula. In the Alps of 
Europe this insect flies to the snow level ; but in North America, 
although it may be regarded as one of the commonest butter- 
flies in the elevated central district, it is most abundant at a level 
of seven or eight thousand feet. Lieut. W. L. Carpenter and 
rtfeew have never found it above the timber line; but Dr. A. 
s - IVkard, Jr., has taken it on Arapahoe Peak, between eleven 
:m, t twelve thousand feet, and on Pike's Peak from eight thousand 
feet to within five hundred or a thousand feet from the summit. 

We naturally inquire, Where did this cosmopolitan creature 
Alginate? Judging from its present distribution alone, we should 
Probably answer: In the temperate parts of the Old World; 
I*™"*' in the New World it has penetrated but a short distance 
mt0 South America, and has established no colonies upon the 
neighboring island., excepting ( >„ Cuba : while in the Old World 



394 A Cosmopolitan Butterfly. I. Its Birthplace. [July, 

it has not only crossed the equator, and colonized many of the 
islands of the Indian Ocean, but has founded a race beyond in 
Australia and New Zealand, and has reached many of the small 
islands lying off the coast of Spain and Africa, not to mention 
the questionable report of its presence on the Hawaiian islands 
and Tahiti, the affinities of whose populations are with the Old 
rather than with the New World. But this reply is not wholly 
satisfactory, nltlnmgh most writers in discussing its distribution 
have assumed an Old World origin. 

To answer this query fairly, we must examine the distribution 
of the other species of the genus. At first we seem to gain little 
aid from this source, for we are perplexed by finding thai smother 
species, V. Atalanta, is also an inhabitant of two worlds, although 
confined almost exclusively to the north temperate regions of 
both, which seems a new complication; and, again, that the other 
species of the genus share between them nearly the entire globe. 
Thus in the Old World V. Indica is found in the region that 
bears its name; V. Dejeanii in the Malayan Archipelago; V. 
Itea in Australia and New Zealand (into which latter island it 
has probably spread from the former) ; V. Gonerilla in New 
Zealand ; V. Tammeamea in the Hawaiian Islands ; V. Abymn*** 
in Northeastern Africa; and V. Eippomene in Southeastern 
Africa and Madagascar. While in the New World, V. Huntera 
is found in North America, east (and to a slight extent west) of 
the Rocky Mountains ; V. Carye west of the Cordilleras from 
California to Chili ; V. Myrinna in the tropics of South Amer- 
ica, east of the great mountain chain ; and V. Terpsichore at the 
southern extremity of the continent. 

But the species of the genus Vanessa (and all the recognized 
forms are here enumerated) fall into two natural groups : one of 
these contains such species as have upon the dark upper rarfwj 
of the wings a conspicuous, bright-colored bow, crossing the mid- 
dle of the fore wings and skirting, somewhat narrowly, the border 
of the hind wings ; while the other comprises forms on whose 
upper surface the bright colors (usually some shades of red) 
nearly or quite predominate, but are broken by the darker pa** 
into irregular blotches on the fore-wings, and form the ground 
color of the entire outer half of the hind wings, so that all effect 
of the somewhat regular bow of the other group is lost. There 
are further differences between them ; the species of the for©** 
group have the paronychia distinctly bihiciniate, as pointed 1 ou 
by Doubleday ; they have also the upper abdominal appendage 



1876.J A Cosmopolitan Butterfly. I. Its Birthplace. 395 

bifid at tip, and their caterpillars live in a nest formed by draw- 
ing together the edges of a single leaf ; while those of the latter 
have the inner lobe of the paronychia rudimentary, the upper 
abdominal appendage simple, and their caterpillars live in nests 
formed of many leaves. 

Now V. Atalanta falls into the former section, and V. eardui 
into the latter ; and if we put out of consideration for the mo- 
ment the distribution of these two butterflies, since they occur 
alike in both worlds, we find that all the species of the first group 
are Old World species (including V. Kammeamed) , and all the 
species of the second group are New World species. It is diffi- 
cult to avoid the conclusion, therefore, that these two insects 
originated, each where its nearest congeners are exclusively 
found, namely, V. Atalanta in the Old World and V. eardui in 
the New ; or, using the facts of distribution still further, V. Ata- 
Imta in Europe and V. eardui in North America. 

That V. eardui should be found upon many of the outlying isl- 
ands of the Old World, and upon almost none of those which 
surround its birthplace, is not a matter of much surprise. The 
butterfly-fauna of islands which have little or no indigenous pop- 
ulation is almost altogether made up of a few species of great en- 
durance and which hibernate as butterflies (that is, are longer 
liv, *'l than others in the imago state), and it seems pretty certain 
that their presence there at all is an accidental circumstance. 
fc. J. M. Jones has recently given 1 a very interesting account 
°*tae Budden appearance in Bermuda of large numbers of Terias 
L^sa, a delicate-winged butterfly, common enough in the south- 
em United States, but hitherto unknown to Bermuda, where he 
has detected only Anosia Berenice, Danaida Arehipp**, and 
Junonia Ccenia ; and he very reasonably accounts for the sudden 
appearance of these little butterflies by supposing them to have 
been caught up by the winds in a period of great atmospheric 
disturbance, and whirled over the sea to this island. Another 
* r »ter tells of the visit, during a cyclone, of numerous birds and 
,n sects to a ship six hundred miles from the African coast and 
**o hundred from the Cape Verde Islands ; among these were 
™° butterflies, Diadema Bolina and Vanessa eardui, the latter 
t? i, ' :isf not yet recorded from the Cape Verde Islands. Other 
" ! " ;il " *a might be given, but from these alone we may reasona- 
^V ■oppose that of the myriads of insects which perish from such 
ll, ' r ' 1,1, '»ts. a few now and then reach and people some hospitable 



396 The Lobster ; Its Structure and History. [July, 

Considering the wide and even tropical distribution of V. cardui 
in the Old World, its absence from South America seems not a 
little remarkable. But the species of cosmopolitan genera not 
very rich in species (like Vanessa) are generally conterraneous, 
or they occupy adjoining zoological provinces as equivalent species. 
species of replacement, or, as the Germans sometimes call them, 
vicarious species. But we have already seen that, if we leave out 
of account our cosmopolitan species, and restrict V Atalanta to 
the Old World, where it actually belongs, each of the species of 
Vanessa occupies a separate zoological region, one adjoining an- 
other, over nearly the entire extent of either world. The cosmo- 
politan species, similarly restricted to the New World as its 
proper habitat, occupies nearly the same region as V. ffuntera, 
extending no doubt farther north, and becoming less abundant 
toward the southern extremity of the common limits of the two, 
phenomena which are repeated in the distribution of our two 
common and wide-spread eastern species of Argynnis, A. Cybele, 
and A. Aphrodite. The absence of Vanessa cardui from South 
America is therefore rather an argument in favor of its Ameri- 
can origin. The presence of the insect on the shores of Bearing's 
Straits, as testified by Wagner, is an indication of its route from 
America to Asia ; and this passage must have taken place in 
times so far distant that it has had opportunity to push its way 
even to Australia and New Zealand, and there to become so mod- 
ified as to establish a peculiar race, once dignified by a specific 
name. If its presence in the Hawaiian Islands can be proved, 
such a fact would be more difficult to understand; but we can 
hardly doubt that V. Tammeamea and the other Old Worid 
species of Vanessa sprang from one original stock; and if the 
progenitors of the Hawaiian Islands species found a track from 
the Asiatic continent, so, plainly, could Vanessa cardui 



THE LOBSTER; ITS STRUCTURE AND HISTORY. 

AS the season of summer schools is approaching, it baa **** 
^ thought advisable to give a short account of the anatomy of 
the lobster. This animal has been chosen not only on account of 

its size and the ease with which either it or its fresh-water cousm. 

the crayfish, can be obtained, but also from the inter b*« 

position it occupies in tin; articulata. forming an important t\ p< 
of this branch of the animal kingdom. A few technical terms 



1876.] The Lobster ; Its Structure and History. 397 

have been employed, since there is a lack of common names, to 
lid in explaining the homologies of the various parts. 

At the first glance the lobster is seen to consist of a large an- 
terior portion, bearing the pincers and various other appendage* ; 
and a posterior jointed portion, the abdomen. Taking the third 
x^nu'iit (somite") of the abdomen as a starting-point, it is seen to 
••onsist of an upper IJenjal) and an under ( sternal) portion. The 
portion of the segment between these two is called the pleurum. 
On the under side, inserted between the sternum and pleurum, is 
>een a pair of appendages, the swimmerets (pleopoda'). Each 
consists of a basal portion (protopodite') and two oval fringed 
paddles, of which the inner is the endopodite and the outer the 
'■r"p»dit<>. This we will consider as our typical segment, that is, 
we will try to show that all the other somites are formed on the 
^iii" plan, with more or less variation of detail. In the sixth 
abdominal segment these swimmerets will be seen to be greatly 
enlarged, and the exopodite lias a transverse joint. The seventh 
"''last segment (tehou) lias no appendages. Together with the 
Pleopoda of the sixth it forms a paddle by which the animal is 
ennhU-rl to piopd itself backward in the manner familiar to all 
who have ever observed these animals when alive. The pleopoda 
of the first abdominal somite are also modified ; in the female 
th( -y are small, slender, and soft; in the male each consists of a 
I 1 ;;"! protopodite and endopodite, the exopodite being absent. 
1 n '- endopodite of the second segment in the male lobster bears 

^' ii., w come to the anterior portion of the body, in which 
- are not so distinctly marked. It is covered with a 
shield, the citraj>we. In front it is produced, be- 

18 a g^ve which indicates the position of the heart in the in- 
WK*. It certainly does not indicate the line of separation of 
th e head and thorax. 

e are enabled to separate the anterior portion into somites 
fr om the fact that for everv pair of jointed appendages there is 
; ( ' , ' ri,, ;-ponding segment. Proceeding forward from the abdo- 
: !"' li with our homologies, we first find the fifth or last thoracic 
r iil,! '- ^l.ich differs „,vatlv at first sight from the swimmerets. 
^nsists of a protopodite and a jointed endopodite; in its 
arller s tages it had also an exopodite. With the thoracic limbs 
a new feature appears ; to the limb or the sternum at the base 
"* {1 "' Hl "l' arc attached on,- or more conical appendages consist- 



398 The Lobster ; Its Structure and History. [July, 

ing of little lamella fastened together, forming a gill. These gills 
are packed away under the carapace. There are twenty on each 
side. The fifth limb bears one. In the fourth we find still an- 
other organ, a thin leathery structure with scattered hairs, the 
epipodite, the function of which is to keep the gills apart. This 
limb bears four gills, as do the third and second. In the second 
and third limbs the inner distal angle of the next to the last joint 
is greatly elongated, forming with the last joint a pincer or 
chela; limbs thus formed are said to be chelate. The first pair 
of thoracic limbs are greatly enlarged, and it is the outer instead 
of the inner angle of the joint next to the last which is elongated 
to form the pincer. It bears three gills. 

We now come to the appendages of the head, and among 
them we again find the exopodite. The six posterior pairs are 
commonly called the "mouth parts." We first find, in going 
forward, three pairs of innxillipeds, each composed of a protopo- 
dite, exopodite, and endopodite. The outer pair are larger than 
the others, the basal joints are hard and toothed like a saw ; they 
bear each three gills. The second pair bear one small gill and 
the third are gilless. In front of the maxillipeds are the two 
pairs of maxillae. They are delicate, almost membranous. The 
epipodite of the posterior one, called s>-<iph><iivi1.hi.te, is in life m 
constant motion, baling out water from the gill cavity, thus 
creating a current over the gills and aiding in respiration. We 
next come to the mandibles, a pair of hard protopodites with 
cutting edges, and a delicate three-jointed endopodite termed a 
palpus. Between the mandibles is the mouth. It is bounded 
behind by a bifurcated process, the metastoma, and in front by a 
simple enlargement, the labrum. In front of the mouth the 
sternal surface bends abruptly upward. Above this flexure we 
find the larger antennae, which consist of a protopodite and *& 
dopodite, the exopodite being represented by a small spine. SB 
farther in advance are the smaller antennae, called the anten- 
nulae. This finishes the number of segments. Reviewing, we see 
that we have eight cephalic, five thoracic, and seven abdomma . 
It will be seen that the writer does not recognize any segmen 
corresponding to the eyes, and that he believes the telson to be a 
somite. The reasons for the former are chiefly embryological ; 
for the latter, the fact that the intestine passes through it, °* 
gether with certain reasons derived from the development of t^ 
young lobster. The mere absence of appendages has no grea 
weight. 



life] The Lobster; Its Structure and History. 399 

The internal anatomy is best studied by removing part of the 
carapace and tergal portions of the abdominal segments, as 
shown in the plate, taking care not to injure the underlying or- 
gans. Beneath the shell will be found a reddish membrane, 
which must also be carefully removed. The heart will be seen 
to be an irregular hexagonal body, lying just behind the suture 
noticed in speaking of the carapace. It consists of a single ven- 
tncle contained in a sae improperly called the pericardium. It 
gives off in front an artery to the eyes and anterior part of the 
body. Close to this on each side is the hepatic artery. On the 
under side is the sternal artery, while from the posterior angle 
arises the artery which supplies the abdomen. The sternal 
artery connects with one which runs the length of the body on 
the under side. Respiration is carried on in the gills. The 
heart forces out through these various arteries the blood, which 
collects in a venous sinus, passes to the gills, and then back to 
the heart. 

In front of and surrounding the heart is a delicate, convoluted 
mass, the liver, which occupies a large proportion of the thoracic 
cavity. In it are imbedded two elongated bodies, ovaries or 
testes, according to the sex, which pass under the heart. They 
are connected in front of the heart. Behind this connection are 
the oviducts of the female or vasa deferentia of the male. 

The mouth, the position of which has been noticed, is con- 
nected with the oesophagus, which in turn empties into the stom- 
ach. This latter is a large sac in the anterior part of the body, 
and consists of anterior and posterior {cardiac and pyloric} 
portions. In the cardiac is a complex calcareous organization 
operated by powerful muscles, the office of which is to finish the 
mastication of the food. In the pyloric portion is a ciliated 
strainer. The intestine is a straight tube extending beneath the 
heart from the pylorus to the anus, which is situated on the un- 
der side of the telson. At the base of each antenna is the " green 
gland," supposed to be a kidney ; it communicates with the ex- 
terior by an opening in the protopodite. 

The « brain " is found at the base of the rostrum, between the 
e } T es. It gives off nerves to the eyes, the antennula? and the an- 
tennae. From the posterior portion are given off two commis- 
sures, which pass around on either side of the oesophagus and unite 
in a ganglion behind. To examine this and the succeeding tho- 
racic ganglia, it will be found necessary to carefully break down 
P^t of the sternum. From each of the oesophageal commissures 



400 The Lobster; Its Structure and History. [July, 

arises a nerve, the two uniting in front of the stomach and giving 
rise to the sympathetic nerve. From the infra- oesophageal gan- 
glion arise the nerves which go to the mouth parts. The thoracic 
ganglia are connected by two commissures, the abdominal by a 
single cord. The sternal artery passes between the commissures, 
uniting the third and fourth thoracic ganglia. There is no gan- 
glion for the telson. 

The only senses which are localized in the lobster are sight 
and hearing. The position of the eyes has been noticed ; the ear 
is found as a small sac in the base of the antennuhe. 

Space will allow but a slight account of the development ; for 
details the reader is referred to the papers of Mr. S. I. Smith. 
in Verrill and Smith's Report on the Invertebrata of Vineyard 
Sound, and in the Transactions of the Connecticut Academy of 
Science. (See also the Naturalist, July, 1874.) The eggs 
are of a dark green color, and are found from April to November 
on the coast of New England. The embryo in the egg has its 
eyes sessile, its antennae are simple sacs, and its abdominal feet 
are wanting. In the first stage after leaving the egg the thoracic 
feet are furnished with an endopodite fringed with hairs. The 
animals then swim on the surface. In the second stage some of 
the abdominal appetidagea appear. In the third it loses its ex- 
opodites, and begins to resemble the adult. Specimens three 
inches long have been found with nearly all the characters of the 
adult. Daring the first year the molts are quite frequent, but 
afterwards they are believed to occur but once a year. The car- 
apace splits down the back, and through the opening the animal 
withdraws itself, leaving its oesophagus and stomach within the 
cast-off skin, and in a few days the new skin becomes hardened. 

EXPLANATION OF PLATES V. AND VI. 






13'O.J The Probable Danger from White Ants. 401 

THE PROBABLE DANGER FROM WHITE ANTS. 

J INVITE the reader to imagine himself in a forest in the 

interior of Brazil. There is a clearing in the forest. A small 

valley covered with underbrush, and containing , fresh water 

as before our eyes. Here and there are scattered little 

11 yv.'ral feet high, more or less covered with grass. Thick 

ewadsrise slowly and make the close air still more oppressive; 

Ult ' ,:il ".\ season, the disagreeable summer of the tropics, is ap- 

1 4- All seems quiet, but suddenly one's attention is 

^° ted b y a strange activity beginning in one of the little 

As if by witchcraft, a cleft opens in the middle of the hill. A 

"* -ines out with folded wings, followed by two, 

i, in one row, as many as the quickly widen- 

— ». u anow to pass at once. Like a silver ribbon the train 

*»f '1-m-nthe hill, for the membrane . ,i the uiie.^hmm, ,s Jik, 

-other-of pearl. These insects take a course jusl opposite to the 

' "' L ;|S tins is the only way in which their delicate wings can 

n ' SNt the ]>ressure of the air. More and mere without interrup- 

' : • "I'l'wir hastily, as if driven out of the hill. Other similar 

, y K[VG been opened, from which .similar trains throng out. 

U^' '. !:l '' ll ' 11 seems t0 discharge its living lava like a vuVano. 

ttost carious spectacle is seen near the cleft. There 

: ';' ,M ["'»■ wingless creatures with enormous heads and hooked 

.:, "I.' ';""'' ,lu '. »i«>ve threateningly, to defend the entrance to 

,'..J !i " ! " n ' :m " ai1 chambers, and to accelerate the march of their 

li! - have been turned out. At last the rows grow 

• '; .;'',' : ''" 1 {] ^-r and the clefts begin to close as if walled up by 

■„; 7 :l,! " h ^- I" the mean time the swarm has tried its wings, 

, ;;' J" steadily into the air, keeping close together near the 

JJ '', l! " trees and then gradually falling to the earth. Pretty 

''"•>• -f the falling insects increases, and we notice 

" X ,' llv ;i ' U; iys in couples, male and female, running quickly 

( " || : i 1 ." il . ll, vii.g m g H ,-id „f their loosely attached wings. 

' """ung to observe the strange kind of emigration of these 

"l.v called white ants, we find that only a few of 

,,,< ', ,;; ! ; i n; " is li ve till the next morning. All those that have 

n-ptij,.^' 1 ^ aten ky the large numbers of mammals, birds, and 

v °i- x. _?so e ! to swallow tliem na ve been caught by the busy 



402 The Probable Banger from White Ants. [July, 

workers of the white ants, and elected as heads of a future 
family. A clay cell, shaped like a watch-glass, serves for the 
royal pair, first as a dwelling and later as their grave. They are 
never allowed to leave it. The entrance is carefully walled up, 
and at first only one small hole is left for the workers to go in 
and out. Food is brought in and consumed. The queen grows 
visil.lv. and begins soon to lay the eggs of the coming brood. 
The number of eggs is immense ; the statements vary between 
eighty in every minute and eighty thousand in twenty-four hours. 
As the same queen continues to lay eggs for two years, at least 
in some species, some forty millions of eggs will have been laM 
during this time. This large number is not exaggerated ; indeed, 
the fecundity of some common insects goes much beyond this. 
The common blue-bottle fly has in one summer five hundred 
millions of descendants, and the plant-louse has in one year, in 
the fifth generation, six thousand millions, and still continues to 
lay eggs when the ninth generation is already fit for propagation. 
Among the vertebrates some fishes have a comparatively numer- 
ous progeny. 

The growth of the queen increases in proportion to tin' num- 
ber of eggs forming in her body. "When full-grown she is sev- 
eral thousand times as large as before ; that is, her abdomen 
only has grown from one half an inch to six and even eight 
inches in length. The whole body resembles a thick worm, cov- 
ered at regular distances with brown spots, the former segment!! 
of the abdomen. The delicate feet are completely unable to 
move the body, out of which the eggs are forced by an incessant 
peristaltic motion. , 

Meanwhile the cell of the so-called queen has been widened 
according to necessity. A gang of workers, forming a chain, 
moves about the floor and carries the eggs into the nurseries 
near by. To shorten the way they make little holes in the W»» 
of the cell at regular distances. Soon we find a motley crow^ 
crawling about in the nest ; very young larva?, workers and so ^ 
diers, two aborted forms of both sexes, nymph*, and later, min- 
gled with them, the full-grown winged imago. < 

But the nest has become too small, and we now see similar W» 
rising near by; then the partition walls are broken to , "." 11 ^; 
the new dwellings with the old ones ; and additions to the WW 
force the brood to repeat the operation. Larger Bp< 
tropics raise hills to twelve feet and more in height, strw* 
enough to resist the influence of the tropical rains, and to ren 
difficult their destruction by men or animals. 



1876.] The Probable Danger from White Ants. 403 

The whole is built up by the blind workers in the dark, for it 
is B peculiarity of the white ants that they shun the daylight. 
No matter how far they intend to go, they build a pipe of clay 
of about a quill's diameter, forming a viaduct, the inside of 
which is quite smooth, whilst the outside is more or less rough. 
It is wonderful how quickly the work progresses. In a file each 
worker carries to the right place a small particle of loam, mixed 
with its saliva. Without interruption the little troop is busily 
engaged, and such pipes have been observed to progress two 
inches in a single hour, and six feet during one night. 

When the work is damaged, the workers retire, frightened, 
and in the breach appear the thick-headed soldiers ; first one, 
then more, in such a hurry that often the foremost are thrown 
down by the eagerly pressing crowds. Opening their jaws wide, 
they move their heads threateningly to reach the enemy, and at 
the same tunc make a peculiar hissing sound. Furiously they 
beat at everything in their way, and not infrequently put to 
flight barefooted intruders. The soldiers do not help at the 
work ; protection is their only duty. They are blind, like the 
workers. 

lhere are some very curious facts observed concerning the 
mstinct of these little animals. As the whole nest would die 
With the premature death of the queen, sometimes two equally 
well-developed queens are found in the same cell, but the rather 
:; I" li; " workers have built between them a partition, begin- 
ning at the ceiling but not quite reaching the floor. Therefore 
only conversation is possible ; perhaps they think that two queens 
would not live peaceably so near together. Every society pro- 
•"" K ■" ■■•'nlly for a substitute in case of the queen's death, and 
cell, shaped like that of the queen, two or three indi- 

Au f 6 f ° Und ' P re P ared ' if wanted, to take her place. 

All the species of the white ants which build hills belong to 
h- tr °P 1Cs - But besides these, there exist numerous species 
fac d CUrious nests in tlie t0 P s of trees > or beneath the sm> 

of the earth, or which live in decayed trees and in every 
eal ° \ deCayed wood - Two of the. latter kind, very similar to 
• live in Europe and North America; and about these 
obg P e artlcular > and their dangerous habits, I propose to make some 

nat ur e i Eur0pean s P ecies (Termes lucifugus) has been observed by 

for nearly a century. The little dark-brown insect, 

g under stones or in old decayed trees, had until recently never 



404 The Probable Danger from White Ants. [July, 

been injurious. Even its appearance in myriads after the falling 
of an old uninhabited house in Rochefort, in France, did not draw 
the attention of the people to the danger. Some time afterwards 
more accidents happened. In a boarding-house a whole dinner 
parry fell suddenly from the third story down into the cellar, and 
some other buildings threatened similar mishaps. The danger was 
increased, as each owner carefully denied having these fearful 
guests, for fear of depreciating the value of his house. The anvil 
of an industrious blacksmith yielded under his hammer, and the 
block supporting it broke to pieces, entirely destroyed by white 
ants. The attention of the government was drawn finally to the 
danger by the destruction of the costly timber stored in the navy 
yard for the building of men-of-war, and the destruction of the 
naval archives. Several times S( i t h c mi si n t 

to investigate the new pest and to propose remedies ; and scien- 
tific societies in vain offered prizes for the fortunate destroyer of 
these animals. Nevertheless every remedy proved useless, as 
refuse and manure spread the obnoxious insects further. Con- 
stant attention and the destruction of tin: pipes, and use princi- 
pally of only metal and stone for the construction of new build- 
ings, were considered the only remedies against the white ants. 
Some years later they did less damage, and disappeared, as insect 
pests commonly do, without any known reason. For the last 
twenty years they have existed everywhere in the formerly in- 
fected departments, but without being obnoxious. 

The North American species (Termes flavipes) in form and 
color is very much like the European, but differs in the more 
yellowish legs. The species has been known to science since the 
end of the last century. Their obnoxious power was iirsi s1h>wh 
in Europe, in the beautiful hot-houses at Schoenbrunn, belong- 
ing to the Emperor of Austria. The insect was believed, prob- 
ably by mistake, to have been imported with plants from South 
America, for till now this species has not been observed south of 
the North American continent. It was not possible to get rid 
of them in Schoenbrunn, in spite of great expense and careiut 
labor. One of the largest, hot-houses was so nearly destroyed 
by them that it had to be torn down to prevent its falling ** 
ruin. Besides the beams, they had destroyed the tubs in which 
the plants were set. The new hot-houses were built of iron, but 
the white ants are still living in them. 

The whole region of the United States east of the IJo«'k) 
Mountains possesses only one species, the above-mentioned ?• 



1876.] The Probable Danger from White Ants. 405 

faripes, spreading from the Gulf to the Lakes, and from the At- 
lantic to the westward beyond the Mississippi. This white ant 
seems to be common everywhere ; it is very abundant in New 
England, and from my personal observation is to be found 
everywhere around Boston, in its suburbs and in the surrounding 
country, within a radius of ten miles. It lives in old stumps, in 
fad trees, and in fences, logs, and every kind of rotten wood. 
So far as is known, living trees are not attacked. 

ously, and nearly every year local newspapers give some account 
of an irruption. Curiously enough, and although many observers 
were eager to follow the insects to their nest, till recently none 
had been discovered. Only a few months ago, in the southern 
part of Florida one was found by chance in an old rotten log, 
and the queen sent to the Cambridge Museum. I have tried to 
discover the nest here since I was invited to come to Cambridge 
by the late Professor Agassiz, and I have repeatedly given serious 
attention to this subject. But I never succeeded. I beg to 
mention only one of my experiments. A board which lay about 
twenty steps from the corner of the museum when I arrive