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JULY, 1891. No. 295 




To f — .-.--- * 


One of the greatest needs of American science 
at the present time is a convenient medium in which 
brief preliminary notices of the results of investigation 
can be published. A considerable length of time of 
necessity elapses between the conclusion of any series 
of observations and their appearance in print, and it 
is of great advantage to the observer, and still more to 
his fellow-workers, to have the results made known as 
soon as possible, thus insuring priority of discovery to 
the one, and allowing the others to keep more perfectly 
posted with what is going on in the scientific world 
around them. 

A preliminary notice should be published at once 
to be of value, and hitherto there has been no scientific 
periodical in this country, published at sufficiently brief 
intervals, and open to all investigators, which has 
specially opened its columns to the publication of such 
notices, and has undertaken to make them public with 
as little delay as possible. This the Naturalist 
proposes to do, and invites the cooperation of all in- 
vestigators in an attempt to inaugurate a department 
for the prompt and satisfactory publication of prelimi- 
nary notices of the results of scientific investigations. 




TN July, 1889, 1 received a copy of the " Discovery of the Creta- 
ceous Mammalia" 2 from Professor O. C. Marsh, and shortly 
afterwards wrote to the author calling attention to all the points in 
which it appeared to me he was mistaken, and suggested that he 
should revise the paper himself. 

This was a year and a half ago. In the meantime Parts I. and 
II. of the " Cretaceous Mammalia " have been widely distributed, 
and the discoveries have been accepted without question by many 
who have no special knowledge of the Mesozoic mammals, and 
with considerable hesitation and criticism by those who have ; 
I refer especially to the notices by Lydekker, 3 Lemoine, 4 Cope, 5 
and Dames 6 It seems, therefore, that it is important to carefully 
review, in a manner that cannot be misunderstood either by the 
author or by others, what appears to me to be one of the most 

Society of Washington, 

Bot. Garden, 


596 The American Naturalist. [July, 

remarkable contributions to paleontology ever published. Criti- 
cism can, of course, be based only upon the published diagnoses, 
descriptions, and figures in comparison with our present general 
knowledge of these early mammals. Other evidence is promised 
by the author, and I venture to predict that it will confirm the 
greater part of the conclusions reached in this review. 

First, as to extent and general character. The conspectus of 
the author impresses us that this fauna is not only highly varied, 
but contains forms which are mostly new to science. Four orders 
are believed to be represented : the Allotheria, Pantotheria, Mar- 
supialia, and Insectivora. The author finds six families among the 
Allotheria alone, four of which are new ; five new families in all. 
Sixteen new genera and twenty-seven new species are described. 
All of the types are isolated teeth, excepting those of Camptomus. 
With the exception of Halodon, Cimolomys, and Dipriodon, only 
one tooth of each species is described,— -i. e., from different parts of 
the jaws, — and we are given to understand that the remaining 
teeth, found with each, will be described in the memoir now in 
preparation by the writer, under the auspices of the United States 
Geological Survey. 

Before this varied fauna is generally adopted in paleontological 
literature, let us examine the author's types and diagnoses, keeping 
in mind some of the characteristics of his work. These are : 
First, as regards other authors, not fully recognizing priority of 
discovery and nomenclature. Second, not taking advantage of 
readily available previous literature and description. Third, fail- 
ing to recognize well-determined morphological characters, and 
founding extensive taxonomic systems upon various portions of 
the same animal, or upon imperfectly characterized types. The 
very fact that this work is done under the auspices and with the 
support of the National Survey renders it the more necessary to 
subject it to a full and fair spirited criticism ; for the first char- 
acteristic of such work should be, not novelty, but permanent 

Priority of Discovery and Nomenclature. — It is evident that the 
same fact cannot be discovered twice, in case the original dis- 
covery is authentic and properly published. It is well known 

1891.] Cretaceous Mammalia. 597 

that Mr. J. L. Wortman discovered the first remains of Cretaceous 
Mammalia in 1882, a fact recorded by Professor Cope, as below: 
" Mammalia, which have been " It has long been a reproach 

looked for so long in vain in to paleontology that no remains 
the Laramie beds, have at length of mammals were known from 
been found. Mr. J. L. Wort- the Cretaceous formation. . . . 
man . . . now announces that For many years, therefore, 
he has found them in place and special search has been made 
mingled with Dinosaurian re- in various countries for Creta- 
mains in such a manner as to ceous mammals, but thus far 
leave no doubt as to their con- almost invariably without suc- 
temporaneity." — Amer. Nat., cess. . . . A second announce- 
Oct, 1882, p. 830. ment was made by Cope in 1882, 

based upon a few fragmentary 
remains discovered by Dr. J. L. 
Wortman in Dakota. These 
fossils, although not found in 
place, were apparently from the 
Laramie formation." — Ameri- 
can Jour n. of Science and Arts, 
July, 1889, p. 81. 
These papers under review amply confirm Mr. Wortman 's dis- 
covery by describing many remains of the same mammal. 
Nevertheless the original discovery is made to appear very unim- 
portant by depriving the mammalian type of its name. This 
type was a molar tooth, described as follows : 

" Menisco'essus conquistus, gem " It is now known that the 

et sp. nov. — But one specimen tooth first described, and re- 
of this animal was found, and garded as a premolar, is the 
that is represented by two molar tooth of a Dinosaurian reptile, 
teeth and a distal extremity of a as suggested by Cope, and not 
humerus. Were it not for the of a mammal. The name given, 
associated molar tooth, I should therefore, must apply to this 
think that the second tooth alone. On this point the rules 
might be that of a herbivorous of nomenclature are clear and 
reptile. It is probably a fourth decisive. The imperfect molar 

598 The American Naturalist. [July, 

premolar. . . . Char. gen. — tooth subsequently described 
Fourth premolar with a com- and the fragment of a humerus 
pressed antero-posterior edge, are evidently mammalian, but 
which is studded with denticles ; without a name! 1 — American 
sides without ridges. Posterior Journal Science and Arts, loc. 
molar rather small ; crown with cit., p. 82. 
three longitudinal series of tu- 
bercles, of which many have 
crescentic sections." — Ameri- 
can Naturalist, loc. cit., p. 830. 

It is very clearly stated by Prof. Cope in the above description 
and context that the first tooth — i. e., the true molar — is the one 

szznr^ upon which the mammalian determination is 

awla based; and that the second tooth — i. e., the 

Hi premolariform one — would have been considered 

fig. i.—Menis- reptilian except for its association with the first. 
< ,0' h' pe "An This was clear to Lydekker, Lemoine, Osborn, 
inferior molar ;x 2. anc j a u subsequent writers, being repeated later 
with emphasis by Prof. Cope (Amer. Nat., July, 1884, p. 693). 

Previous Literature and Description. — There are obvious advan- 
tages in not consulting and referring to previous literature. It 
leaves the mind of a writer unprejudiced by previous opinions, 
and moreover lends to a contribution a quality of independence 
and originality. On the other hand, it deprives him of the 
benefit of past careful and laborious studies, and leads him into 
errors which might easily be avoided. 

In case of the papers under review, previous literature has 
apparently escaped the attention of the author, except in the 
matter of nomenclature. The result is that some well-known 
principles which govern the extremely complex and confusing 
dentition of the Multituberculates are left out of consideration 
entirely, as well as some of the main characters of the den- 
tition of the Mesozoic mammals in general, and some char- 
acters which enable us to distinguish between the teeth of 
mammals and those of reptiles and fishes. As regards the Mul- 
tituberculates (Aliotheria), it is now well known that their teeth 
show the following characters : 

1891.] Cretaceous Mammalia. 599 

1. In the true molars, the rows of tubercles of one jaw fit into 
the longitudinal grooves of the other jaw. 2. In some families 
there are three rows of tubercles and two grooves in the upper 
molars, and two rows with one groove in the lower molars (Plagi- 
aulacidae) ; in other families there are conversely two rows above 
and three below (Stereognathidas). 3. In every known species 
the last molar is invariably simpler than the penultimate molar, 
both as to length of crown and number of tubercles. 4. That 
the premolars are of two types: a, trenchant; b, tubercular. 
When tubercular, they can be distinguished from the moJars by 
the absence of grooves, or closures of the grooves by tubercles. 
5. The primary function of the incisors is to pierce the food ; the 
secondary function is to facilitate the backward motion of the 
jaws, as in the rodents. 

As regards the ordinal terms, Allotheria and Pantotheria, they 
have not as yet been defined or adopted. 7 The former is equiv- 
alent to the Multituberculata, which has been defined and is now 
in general use ; 8 the latter is only used by the author in the 
reference of one genus. 


1. Cimolomys gracilis '(PI. II., Figs. 1-4). Described as an upper 
molar ; first referred to Tritylodontidai (Owen), subsequently to 
new family Cimolomidae. — Comparing this type with the upper 
molar of Neoplagiaulax, 9 Lemoine, we find it is a first upper 
molar of one of the Plagiaulacidae Gill. 

2. Cimolomys bellus (no figure). The type is referred to a distinct 
species of Cimolomys. — The description and measurements indi- 
cate that it is a second upper molar of C. gracilis. 

3. Cimolomys digona (PI. VII., Figs. 1-4). The type is described 
as an upper molar of a third species of this genus, referred to the 
Cimolomid;e. — It is an upper molar of one of the Plagiaulacidae. 

T See Osborn. " Mesozoic Mammalia," p. 257. The objections to Allotheria are that 
Marsh is applicable to the family Plagiaulacidae. 

600 The American Naturalist. [Juh 

A premolar (PI. vii., Figs. 13-16) is rightly described as at 
upper premolar, and correctly associated with this genus (compan 
Fig. 19, Lemoine 10 ). 

4. Cimolodon nitidus (PI. 11, Figs. 5-8). 
The type is described as an upper molar 
representing a new genus and family, the . ° JJ\ x^~\ 
Cimolodontidae.— Comparing it with the ^^;-||J <m&£g> 
lower molars of Ptilodus " Cope, it is FlG ld __ Neoplagi ^ Ux Le - 
evident that the type is a first lower ™™* OT p T ^mo\a°\^° ]aT ' *' 
molar of one of the Plagiaulacidae. 

5. Nanomys mimttus (PI. 11., Figs. 9-12). The type is described 
as a last upper molar of the left side, and referred to the Cimolo- 
dontidae. — A comparison with Ptilodus shows that it is a last lower 
molar of the right side, belonging to one of the Plagiaulacidpe. 12 

6. Halodon sculptus (PL in., Figs. 1 1-1 3). Tr?£*typejs a fourth 
lower premolar, rightly referred to one of the Plagiaulacidae. 

A superior incisor (PI. in., Figs. 1-3) 
is referred to this species. It apparently 
belongs to a much larger form. N 

7. Halodon serratns (PI. in., Figs. 14- 
1 7). The type is a fourth lower pre- 
molar, a smaller species rightly referred 
to one of the Plagiaulacidae. 
"of \ "/'/'. A superior incisor (PI. in., Figs. 14- 
,1 17) is referred to this species. It ap- 
type specimens. parently belongs to a larger form. 

It is a well-known fact that the upper molars of the Plagiaula- 
cidae have three rows of tubercles, while the lower molars have 
but two, and that the cusps of the lower rows fit into the valleys 
of the upper teeth. This is beautifully demonstrated in the 
author's own figures as here reproduced and rearranged in Figure 
3 : a is the type of Cimolomys gracilis, which fits upon c, the type 
of Cimolodon nitidus; while b, the type of Nanouivs vi in it tits, 

1891.] Cretaceous Mammalia. 60 1 

would probably be found to coincide similarly with the type 
of Cimolomys bcllus, unfortunately not figured by the author. This 
gives us the characters of the molars of what was possibly a 
new genus (Cimolomys) of the Plagiaulacidai, intermediate between 
Plagiaulax with three well-developed premolars, and Ptilodus with 
one large and one ex- 
tremely small premolar. 
|& This genus cannot at 
Trt ' vlra present be defined, be- 

g£ x s fa cause, so far as we can 

m* m' y compare the molars and 

\ Iggfe &&&&' premolars, they closely 

X&F? V^&ft^r resemble in size and de- 

(cfmoiomTdi) 1 " ! "Sa^oT* velo P ment tne corres- 

tysmimu- ponding teeth of Ptilo- 
dus. The premolars of 
this genus are, of course, found in the species of Halodon. The* 
premolar referred to H. serratus agrees best in size with the molars 
of C. gracilis. 

The accompanying restoration of the upper and lower jaws of 
Cimolomys gracilis shows the various relationships of this animal 
as given in the above diagnoses by the author : 

&=^> V nrnoloLt L/ f Cimolomidae. 

These relationships will probably be increased, rather than 
diminished, by future discoveries. 13 As it is, an upper and lower 
jaw referred to three families, five genera, and five species, is with- 
out precedent in paleontological literature. 

8. Dipriodon robustus (PI. 11., Figs. 13-15). The type is prob- 
ably correctly described as a last upper molar of the left side ; it 
is referred to a new family, the Dipriodontidre. 

602 The American Naturalist. [July, 

9. Dipriodon lunatus (PI. 11., Figs. 16-18). The type is rightly 
described as a first or second upper molar. — Keeping in mind the 
larger size and greater complexity of the more anterior molars, 
there is no ground for referring it to a new species. 

10. Tripriodon coelatus (PI. 11., Figs. 19-21). The type is 
described as a first upper molar, and is referred to a new family, the 
Tripriodontidae. — It resembles in the arrangement of its denticles 
the lower molars of Stereognathus, and, as shown below, is a last 
lower molar belonging to the genus Meniscoessus Cope. 

11. Selenacodon fragilis (PI. 11., Figs. 22-24). The type is 
described as an upper molar distinguished by crescentoid tubercles 
from the foregoing. — It is an anterior lower molar belonging to 
the genus Meniscoessus Cope. 

12. Selenacodon brevis (PI. vil, Figs. 9-12). The type is 
described as an upper tooth, apparently from the left side. — As 
the accompanying figures show, it agrees in every detail, except 
the degree of wear, with the type of Meniscoessus conquistus Cope ; 
it is a lower molar, probably the last. 

The lower incisor (PI. vin., Figs. 1-3) is probably correctly 

13. Tripriodon caperatus (PI. 111., Figs. 18-20). The type is 
correctly described as a lower incisor. — No ground is assigned for 
referring it to a new species. Similar incisors of smaller size (PI. 
in., Figs. 21-22 ; PI. vin., Figs. 1-3) are referred respectively to 
Tripriodon ccelatus and Selenacodon brevis. 





This collection of molars demonstrates that Meniscoessus, like 
Stereognathus, belongs to a family in which the tubercles are 
crescentoid and arranged in two rows in the upper molars and 
three rows in the lower molars. This is admirably shown in the 
author's own figures as rearranged in Figure 5. a, the type of 
Dipriodon robustus, is seen to fit upon b, the type of Tripriodon 
ccelatus ; d and c belong to old individuals, but the worn cusps 
and valleys coincide ; they are respectively the author's types of 
Dipriodon lunatus and a molar referred to Selenacodon fragiUs, as 
: agrees exactly with the type except in point of wear. 

The lower incisor, type 
of Tripriodon caperatus, 
corresponds in size with 
these molars ; the two 
smaller incisors, referred 
to T. ccelatus and Selena- 
codon brevis, have the 
same shape and grooved 
sides. (1) When these 
incisors are placed side 
by side, as in Fig. 5, 
with the upper incisors 
Fig. 6.— a, upper incisor of Haiodon sadptus : referred by the author 
.;''.]',„; to Haiodon sculptus and 

oi Selenacodon brevis. After Marsh. Hahdoil SCrratUS, we 

observe that the longitudinal and transverse diameters of 
the crowns and fangs coincide exactly i 
dering it highly probable that they belong to 
the same species. (2) The question is, Do 
these teeth belong to Haiodon or Menis- 
coessus ? We observe that the lower incisor 
associated with Haiodon formosus (PI. vm., 
Figs. 32-35) has the enamel confined to a 
band, as in Ptilodus and Neoplagiaulax. It is 
smooth. It is, therefore, probable that all these 
striated, completely enameled incisors belong 
to Meniscoessus. (3) When, 

it agrees exactly with tne type except 


604 The American Naturalist. [July, 

incisors are far too large to be associated with the premolars of 
H. sculptus and H. serratus, we have further grounds for asso- 
ciating them with Meniscoessus, with which they agree in size. 
The tooth (Fig. 7) assigned by the author as the upper incisor 
of Dipriodon robustus apparently belongs to a reptile. It is 
unlike any incisor hitherto found with the Multituberculata. 

The accompanying restoration is based upon the foregoing 
considerations, and show that, according to the author, the relation- 
ships of Meniscoessus are as varied as those of its contemporary, 
Cimolomys, including three families, four genera, and seven species.. 

14. Allacodon lentus and A. pumilus (PI. viil, Figs. 22-26-31). 
The types are described as upper molars of a genus related to 
Allodon and Bolodon, and referred to the 
$HU fftk Allodont i dai - — ^ is a universal characteristic 
***^ f/Al oftne molars of the Multituberculata that, as 
the grooves are adapted for fore and aft wear, 
lentus. Afte/ MarsT the tubercles are arranged on the sides. In 
Types - the type of Allacodon a tubercle stops the 

valley ; these types are unadapted to fore and aft wear, — they are, 

therefore, premolars, and probably belong either with Meniscoes- 
sus or Cimolomys, or possibly with some other genus the molars 
of which are not represented in this collection. Upper premolars 
of this type are seen in Chirox Cope; Bolodon Owen and Ctena- 
codon Marsh. 

15. Oracodon anceps (PI. vin., Figs. 13-16). g gm 
This type is rightly described as a premolar, but m3 
no grounds are given for considering that it be- a 
longs to a distinct genus and species. . ft&\ 

16. Camptomus amplus (PL v. Figs. 1, 2). * " y 
The type is a scapula with which are associated 
other bones, calcaneum, astragalus, interclavicle. 
No grounds are assigned for separating these 

remains from genera founded upon the teeth.— The astragalus 
bears the same proportion to the molar teeth of Meniscoessus 
that we observe in Polymastodon ; it is also apparently per- 
forated. The affinities of these forms to the Monotremata have 
been observed by Cope;- the coraco-scapular facet, therefore, 
strengthens the supposition that some of these bones at least 
belong to Meniscoessus. In any case, they cannot be considered 
as good types. 

This completes the Multituberculate forms. 

YlG.U.— THtylo- 

The American Naturalist. 

B. — Trituberculate Forms. 

17. Dryolestes tcnax (no figure). The type is a lower jaw with 
a mylohyoid groove, in which the number and character of the 
teeth " cannot be determined." The author's reference is pro- 

18. Didelphops {Didelphodoti) vorax (PI. iv., Figs. 1-3). The 
type is an upper molar, distinguished from Didelphys by interme- 
diate tubercles. — This character does not separate it from the large 
number of Trituberculates with similar molars ; the genus is, there- 
fore, undefined at present. The other species, D. fcrox and D. 
comptus, are also undefinable. 

19. Pediomys elegans (PI. iv., Figs. 23-25). The type is an 
upper molar.— It is not distinguished generically from Didel- 

20. Civwlestes curtus and incisus (PL iv., Figs. 8-18). The types 
are lower molars.— Like Didelphodon, these forms cannot be 
defined; they are tuberculo-sectorial. 

It is evident that we have here remains of two distinct and 
probably new genera, which may be accepted without definition. 

C. — Incertte sedis. 

21. Stagodon nitor (PI. vn., Figs. 22-25). The types are a few 
teeth with single fangs, referred to a new family, the Stagodontida?. 

-G> T ~ 

Mammalia. ' 607 

^^» C2> ^" T "— ** — They do not resemble 

%^~~ < p~W £-8Jr the teeth of any known 

mammal, although de- 
scribed as having two 


i.-frtagodontiite), a, Stofodon Hitor; t, fan S S > which are > 
on nanus. After Marsh. Types. eyeri not shown 

figures. The premolar associated is distinctly 1 

22. Platacodon nanus (PL vin., Figs. 4-12). The types are 
compared to the molars of Chrysochloris. — They do not bear 
the most remote resemblance to the molars of Chrysochloris or 
any other known mammal. Prof. Dames considers that they 
belong to the Cyprinoid fishes. 14 

The above types do not resemble in the most remote degree 
the molars in either the Multituberculate or Trituberculate series, 
— the only two mammalian series hitherto represented in all the 
discoveries of Mesozoic or Eocene times. Nor have they, as 
figured, any of the characteristics which we expect to find in 
mammalian teeth. 15 They should, therefore, be considered either 
reptilian or icthyopsidan ; we cannot agree with the author that 
they are " evidently mammalian." 

The above analysis may be summarized under the following 
heads. We find that the author has : 1. Separated parts which evi- 
dently belong together ; vide, various teeth of Cimolomys and 
Meniscoessus ; 2. United parts which apparently or certainly belong 
together ; vide, the large upper incisors with Cimolomys, the 
reptilian or fish molar of Stagodon with a mammalian premolar, 
the reptilian tooth as an upper incisor of Dipriodon; 3. Associated 
or identified reptilian or icthyopsidan teeth as mammalian ; vide, 
Platacodon, Stagodon, and incisor of D. robustus. 

The large Cretaceous fauna described by the writer is therefore 
seen to be principally composed of synonyms. We must elimi- 

. u. Geol., 1890, pp. 141-143- 

Sec H. G. Seeley. " On the Nature and Limit: 

th." Proc. Roy. Soc. April 4 th, 1888, p. 129. 


The American Naturalist. 

1 . The terms preoccupied by other authors. 

2. The terms founded upon different parts of the same anin 
and thus largely preoccupied by the author himself. 

3. The terms founded upon imperfect or indefinite types. 
4- The terms founded upon reptilian or icthyopsidan teeth. 

A. Allotheria. 


$ gracilis 
" digona 


' nit id ns 
Xtuiomys minutus 





Dipriodon robnstus 
" lunatus 
5. Tripriodontii 

Tnpnodon ccelatus 
" caper at us 

Selenacodon fragilis 


(In part.) 

Allacodon lentus 

? Camptomus ampins 
? Oracodon anceps 
? B. Pantotheria. 
? 7. Dryolestid^:. 
f Dryolestcs tcnax 

C. Marsupialia 

ps vorax 
" ferox 
Cimolestcs incisus 

D. Insectitora. 
Pediomys elegans 

Probably preoccupied. 

! types or preoccupied. 


2 type. 

!. Order indeterminate = Creodonta, 
Insectivora or Marsupialia. 
DlDELPHOPS Marsh; two spec's. 
Cimolestes Marsh; ? species. 

Not defined. 

i8 9 i.] Cretaceous Mannu 


8. Stagodontid.e. I 
Stagodon nitor j 

Platacodon nanus J 

This reduces the Cretaceous mammals described in these two 
papers to one well-determined order or suborder, two well-deter- 
mined families, and four or five genera, one of which can now be 
well defined (Meniscoessus), while the remainder are probably 
distinct genera, which we may be able to define by the acquisition 
of more material (Cimolomys, Didelphops, and Cimolestes). There 
is no question that the majority of the remaining generic names 
are synonyms, although it is quite possible that some of the types 
described, such as Oracodon and Pediomys, may be found to rep- 
resent distinct or new genera. 

It may be said that this analysis has almost eliminated the 
work of the author. This unfortunately is what is necessary if 
we would render this contribution of any permanent value in 
paleontology. We are, then, left with a series of teeth which rep- 
resent rare skill on the part of the collector, and are figured with 
remarkable accuracy by the draughtsman. A kw points of 
interest upon the collection as a whole may be mentioned : 

The Multituberculata. The preponderance of teeth belonging 
to members of this order would appear to indicate that it flour- 
ished during this period. Cimolomys represents a connecting 
form between Plagiaulax, Upper Jurassic, with three premolars, 
and Ptilodus of the lowest Eocene with two. The smallest 
species, C. formosus, apparently has as many grooves upon the 
fourth premolar as we observe in Ptilodus, and the first lower molar 
has even more tubercles than we find in the corresponding tooth 
of the Lower Eocene genus. These grooves and tubercles mark 
the stages of development, and it would appear that Cimolomys 
is not far removed from Ptilodus ; this relation can only be deter- 
mined by the discovery of additional teeth ; we may find that 
Cimolomys has a large third premolar. 

Another interesting fact is that Meniscoessus does not belong 
with the Plagiaulacida;, as has been generally supposed hitherto, 16 

18 Cope, Osborn, Lydekker. 

610 The American Naturalist. [July, 

but should apparently be placed with Stereognathus (with which 
its resemblance in molar structure has always been recognized) in 
a distinct family, the Stereognathidae, distinguished by the pres- 
ence of two rows of tubercles in the upper molars and three in 
the lower, of the crescentoid pattern. The more numerous 
tubercles in Meniscoessus would accord well with its more recent 

There are thus apparently only two families of the Multituber- 
culates represented here, — unless, as the author has suggested, 
Allacodon belongs to the Bolodontidae. We have yet to find the 
successors of the Tritylodontidae and predecessors of Polymas- 
todon and Chirox of the Lower Eocene. 17 

As for the Trituberculate forms, there are evidently two distinct 
genera, which probably belong to different families. The types of 
Didelphops and Cimolestes closely resemble molars found respec- 
tively among the Mesodonta, the Creodonta, Insectivora, and 
Marsupialia. Their systematic position is, therefore, very uncer- 
tain from this evidence. They mark, however, a very great 
advance upon the Jurassic forms in tooth evolution. We find in 
Didelphops the earliest low-crowned tritubercular molar which has 
been obtained, with one or two intermediate tubercles, while the 
lower molar is the earliest quinquetubercular tooth known. The 
Cimolestes molar is tuberculcwsectorial, and presents a marked 
advance upon Jurassic tooth types, but has, nevertheless, a broad 
talon, with both the entoconid and hypoconid developed, whereas 
all Jurassic forms present the hypoconid only. 
. The bones of the appendicular skeleton present a number of 
very interesting points, some of which the author mentions. 
These are : the coracoid facet upon the scapula ; the interclavicular. 
We note also the flat astragalus, without a neck, apparently per- 
forated by an astragalar foramen, 18 and with a broad cuboidal 
facet as well the navicular facet. The calcaneum has a narrow 

1891.] Notes on 

Mespzoic Ma m main > . 


We look forward with gi 

eat interest to Part III 

. of this series 

of papers, as this collectioi 

1 is a most valuable and interesting 

one ; and the above review 

is not intended in any 

way to depre- 

ciate the importance of an increased knowledge 

of the Creta- 

ceous Mammalia. 


T HAVE recently received from Prof. H. F. Osborn a pamphlet 
entitled " A Review of the Cretaceous Mammalia," which is 
intended as a criticism of two of my papers, and is a character- 
istic addition to his previous publications on Mesozoic mammals. 
It is difficult to take this review seriously, as it contains no new 
facts, and is mainly an application of the author's theories, which 
may, in part, prove to be true, but at present are without substan- 
tial basis. To attempt to refute all the assumptions he makes 
would involve a long discussion of known Mesozoic mammals, 
and take time from more important work. A brief notice of a 
few points, therefore, must suffice for the present. 

Every one familiar with Mesozoic mammals knows that the 
author of this review has never collected any, has no specimens 
of the kind, and has only seen a part of those belonging to others, 
who have shown them to him as a matter of courtesy, in some 
cases even when an investigation was intended or in progress. 
Of more than a thousand specimens of Cretaceous mammals on 
which my investigations are based, he has not seen a single one, 
and no others are known except a few fragments. Of several 
hundred specimens of Jurassic mammals which I have secured in 
the west, he has seen perhaps one-tenth ; while of other Mesozoic 
mammals from this country, he cannot have seen in all more than 
a half dozen specimens. 

612 The American Naturalist. 

Prof. Osborn's other qualifications for discussir 
mammals do not seem especially conspicuous. Certainly his 
papers on other Mesozoic mammals do not show that high degree 
of accuracy which a critic should put into them. One or two 
examples will make this evident. 

He began this work in 1886 with borrowing two specimens of 
Dromatherium Emmons, and making a new genus of one of 
them, on insufficient grounds. In a characteristic manner, he 
commenced by criticising Emmons's work, especially one figure, 
but this he subsequently retracted. His own figures of one of 
these fossils agree neither with each other nor with the specimen, 
as a recent comparison shows. 

He next turned his attention to the Mesozoic mammals in the 
British Museum, beginning with the Triassic Tritylodon from 
South Africa described by Owen. Again Prof. Osborn did not 
agree with the original authority, but announced in print that a 
most important point had not been appreciated by Owen : namely, 
a large parietal foramen, which showed that " the primitive Mam- 
malia, of this family at least, had a pineal eye of some functional 
size and value," — a most interesting discovery, if true. A reference 
to the specimen itself proved that there was no foundation what- 
ever for the announcement, and Prof. Osborn was compelled to 
retract it (Science, Vol. IX., p. 92 and p. 538, 1887). 

The results of Prof. Osborn's further study of the Mesozoic 
mammals in the British Museum were not considered important 
by some of the best authorities there, and some of his observa- 
tions they disproved, in my presence, by referring to the fossils 
themselves. His figures of these specimens, moreover, are not 
accurate, and in some cases are misleading, as a single example 
will show. In his Mesozoic Mammalia, Plate vn., he gives a 
new figure of the type of Phascolotherium,but a comparison with 
the original specimen shows that this fine figure is erroneous in 
at least four important points : namely, the first incisor ; the crown 

of the last molar, which i 

1 the specn 

tion of the dental foramen; and the mylohyoid groove. His very 
objectionable method of regarding different isolated specimens as 
identical, and making a " composite " drawing of them, as repre- 

i89i.] Notes on Mesozok Mammalia. 613 

senting a single type, led into other serious errors. This method, 
which belongs rather to metaphysics than to natural science, Prof. 
Osborn has again used in the present review, and with no better 

This long review purports to discuss my first and second papers 
on Cretaceous mammals. The first thing that strikes the careful 
reader is the title he gives to these papers. My own title was a 
simple one, " Discovery of Cretaceous Mammalia," and it is only 
fair to expect, in an elaborate review, that the title, at least, will be 
correctly quoted. Instead of this, Prof. Osborn has added two 
other words, giving it a different meaning, but quoting it as mine : 
namely, "The Discovery of the Cretaceous Mammalia." He 
read this review in no less than three different cities, and pub- 
lished an abstract elsewhere, yet apparently had no time to read 
my' title of four words carefully enough to quote it correctly. A 
small matter, perhaps, but proof positive of careless work. 

The next point to be noticed is that my order Allotheria is 
rejected as not having been defined, and a later term, Multituber- 
culata, is adopted because it has been defined. This direct state- 
ment of Prof. Osborn is incorrect, as my order was defined when 
proposed in 1880 {Am. Jour. Set., Vol. XX, p. 239). The cum- 
bersome term Multituberculata was not defined when proposed 
by Cope in 1884, but Prof. Osborn kindly attempted this in 1888. 
His definition, unfortunately, does not include some characteristic 
forms of the group, but takes in accurately the genus Mastodon, 
although this great Proboscidian can hardly be considered a 

By way of instruction, Prof. Osborn is good enough to indicate 
what he terms " the main characters of the dentition of the Meso- 
zok mammals in general, and some characters which enable us to 
distinguish between the teeth of mammals and those of reptiles 
and fishes." This is a most promising statement, but loses some 
of its force when we find that it has not saved him from precisely 
these mistakes, either in his previous papers or in the present 
review, as I show later. 

He is scarcely more fortunate in his announcement of what he 
regards as the well-known characters of the teeth of one group, 

6 14 The American Naturalist. [July, 

the Allotheria. I have probably seen all the Mesozoic mammals 
examined by Prof. Osborn in Europe, and likewise quite a num- 
ber of others, including the type of Stereognathus. He is cer- 
tainly wrong in several of his main conclusions, and in others 
there are many facts against him. 

A more correct restatement of some of the characters of this 
group would be as follows : 

i. No true Plagiaulacidaj are known with three rows of tuber- 
cles on the upper molars. 

2. No Allotheria are known with certainty to have three rows 
of tubercles on the lower molars. 

A careful study, moreover, of the known specimens of the true 
Plagiaulacidaj would have shown him the strong probability, at 
least, that the genus Bolodon, which he makes the type of a dis- 
tinct family, is based on the upper jaws of Plagiaulax ; also, the 
probability, as I have before suggested, that the type of Stereog- 
nathus, of which he makes another of his numerous families, is 
an upper jaw, although described as a lower one. 

Bearing in mind these points, Prof. Osborn's main criticisms 
are seen to be without foundation, and the errors largely his own. 
By substituting theory for the actual study of well-preserved 
specimens, he has unwittingly placed on record the fact that he 
cannot tell upper from lower teeth in Mesozoic mammals, nor the 
teeth of reptiles and fishes from those of mammals. 

There is now conclusive evidence that the Cretaceous molar 
teeth with three -rows of crescents belong to the upper series, as 
I described them. Prof. Osborn's reference of these to the lower 
jaw is based merely on theory, with only conjecture to support it. 
The same fundamental error runs through most of his reviews, 
and measures the value of his criticism. 

Another unfortunate error of Prof. Osborn was mistaking the 
tooth of a reptile for the premolar of a mammal, and not only 
describing and figuring it as such, but making this a basis for 
using a generic name (Meniscoessus), against well-known laws of 
nomenclature. This supposed premolar he figures and describes 
in his Mesozoic Mammalia (p. 218), and has elsewhere strongly 
defended its mammalian character. There is not a particle of 

"Notwithstanding this inexcusable mistake, Prof. Osborn ven- 
tures to assert in his review that a tooth, which I described and 
figured as a molar of a mammal, Stagodon, has but a single fang, 
does " not resemble the teeth of any known mammal," and that 
the genus was " founded upon reptilian or ichthyopsidian teeth*." 
I distinctly stated that this tooth has two fangs, and the bases of 
these were indicated in one of my figures. Moreover, several 
well-preserved specimens since obtained show two distinct roots, 
and other features which prove these teeth mammalian beyond 

figures as a premolar a specimen which is now almost certainly 
known to pertain to a fish, and not to a mammal. I have a very 
similar specimen from the same locality, which is pronounced the 
same species by those who have examined both. This I pur- 
chased many years ago of a well-known collector in Stuttgart, 
who called it a mammal tooth. When investigating Mesozoic 
mammals later, I examined this specimen with care, and found it 
to be made up of two portions of fish teeth (Hybodus) neatly 
cemented together, making four cones on a quadrate base, as in 
the fossil Prof. Osborn so carefully described. A friend who saw 
my specimen here has since sent me from Europe drawings of a 
third supposed mammal tooth from the same locality (Diegerloch), 
which he considers the same as mine. The drawings are charac- 
teristic, and indicate another specimen of apparently the same 
sort. Others are probably in existence, as the demand for Meso- 
zoic mammals is great, and the supply has hitherto been limited. 
One or two points more should be mentioned about Prof. 

vork on Meso 

ely, his habit of 

replacing, on insufficient grounds, scientific names, especially 
those of families and genera, by other names of his own ; also, 
using the figures of other authors without the usual credit. As 
an example of the latter, I may cite this use of no less than five 
of my figures of Jurassic mammals, in his memoir on Mesozoic 

616 The American Naturalist. [July, 

Prof. Osborn in his review alludes to " the extremely complex 
and confusing dentition " of some Mesozoic mammals, and of the 
truth of this statement his own papers afford many illustrations 
besides those here mentioned. What this perplexing subject 
really needs, however, is more facts and less theories. Believing 
this, I have endeavored to secure new facts by long and laborious 
explorations, hoping in this way to clear up some of the confu- 
sion which so puzzles fireside naturalists. The 1,500 specimens 
Mesozoic mammals I have thus secured, fragmentary though most 
of them are, will, I trust, prove of some service in this work, 
although their full investigation has been delayed by other 

No one who has earnest work to do can afford to spend time 
in the ungracious task of pointing out errors in the work of 
others. For this reason, I have hitherto said nothing about the 
mistakes in Prof. Osborn's papers on Mesozoic mammals, intend- 
ing to wait until my own memoir on the subject, for which I have 
collected so much material, should make it my duty to review the 
whole subject. The injustice of his criticism on my preliminary 
work while in progress made a brief reply necessary. The full 
discussion, I must still reserve for my memoir. 

New Haven, Conn., April 10th, 189 1. 


CANCHO PANZA remarked that men were as God made 
them, and sometimes a great deal worse. But it is becom- 
ing known that the world is really improving ; that a line touch- 
ing the dark ages and passing through our present imperfect 
civilization may be produced indefinitely, in imagination, toward 
better things. So Sancho's horizon was cramped, and we may 
now believe that man in general is better than he was born. 

Of course " perfection " in anything is unattainable, and dis- 
cussion of the " perfect man " could only be carried to any sort 
of a conclusion by, first of all, recognizing that there cannot be 
such a creation, for the very conception involves contradictions. 
Herbert Spencer has ably gone over this and kindred subjects 
in showing that everything is relative, and that no matter what 
advances may be made, others are still possible. Equilibrium 
means death, a cessation of inter- and counter-action. " Perfec- 
tion " is inconceivable, and the ignorant, who imagine they can 
conceive it, may be convinced that their ideal was a frightful hob- 
goblin after all. 

Picture to yourfeelf what the African, the American Indian, or 
the primitive people of any country, would regard as the perfect 
man, and compare their wild and, in the main, hideous concep- 
tions with those of " civilized " men, — particularly that portion to 
whom thought is an effort. But as the science of comparative 
mythology plainly shows that deification is this same process ; 
that gods were always big men ; anthropomorphism, from which 
no one can completely free himself, runs rampant through our 
ideas of any sort of superiority, whether of this world or another, 
The Joves, Wodins, Thors, Brahmas were muscular and some- 
times noisy, and some early races allotted many legs and arms 
or other parts to their gods ; or, as in an Egyptian instance, con- 
ferred extraordinary length of arms, as symbolizing great power. 

618 The American Naturalist. [July, 

And in this powerftdness we have the general underlying agree- 
ment as to, at least, what is accomplished by " perfection." 

This apparently indirect manner of approach to our subject 
enables us to save time by clearing up in our minds what we 
mean, and do not mean, when we speak of the perfect man, or his 
approximation, the better man. And still we are driven to nar- 
rower ground by recollecting that John L. Sullivan might have 
an opinion on this topic differing somewhat from that of Oliver 
Wendell Holmes and other essayists. 

We are asked: "What qualities are most essential for the 
perfecting of a human being ? What are the cardinal points to be 
insisted upon for the all-round development of the coming man ? " 

The modern scientific method of finding an answer would com- 
pel us to take another ramble over creation, for man is part of 
the universe, and cannot be fairly considered apart therefrom, 
though we may avoid unnecessary discursiveness in the endeavor. 

Looking at the worst phase first, in all ages man has been a 
sorry sort of brute, with animal propensities, desires, passions ; 
and, as Buckle has fully shown, his civilization has been a growth 
from feuds, follies, conquests, individual and tribal selfishness and 
rapacity ; but with increase of intelligence a respect for the rights 
of others came about, because man recognized that he best con- 
served his selfish interests by mutual regard. Self-protection 
was assured by family protection, and both these by tribal protec- 
tion, and it is dawning upon the world that national barriers must 
eventually give way to the universality of interests ; nor is the 
heterogeneity of the " brotherhood of man," with diversity of 
aims, ideas, capabilities, and needs, any greater, comparatively, 
to-day, between races, than it was ages ago between many 
individuals of the same tribe. 

Altruism is the highest egoism, and is developed from it. In 
plain words, as Darwin expressed it, club law instituted morality 
in savage tribes. This club law, and the fear of it, led to an 
habitual regard for the method of avoiding its enforcement, and 
it became folly to be other than virtuous under such circum- 

Knight errantry, the duello, and finally, in these days, suits at 

i8 9 i.] The Coming Man. 619 

law, with occasional relapses into the older methods of adjust- 
ment, afforded object lessons in expediency which sages and 
patriarchs dwelt upon to the inexperienced. 

The history of the world includes the evolution from lower to 
higher expediency ideals. Disregard for the rights of others was 
a means by which our savage ancestors sought to prolong life 
and secure enjoyment. With less of this brutality, but nevertheless 
with plenty of suffering abounding through his thoughtlessness 
and his inability to curb his passions, the barbarian is an improve- 
ment upon the savage in this matter of expediency ideals. His 
love of ornamentation, luxuriance, and similar childish traits 
cause his actions to be merely an exaggeration of what we find 
to-day in civilized society. " Civilized " nations are but barba- 
rians masquerading in the apparel afforded them by a develop- 
ment of the arts and sciences beyond their deserts. The ear- 
rings, the bustles, the tight lacing, the artificialities generally, the 
worship of wealth, the indifference as to how one may have 
acquired money, the abandonment to pleasure procuring, sight- 
seeing in and avoidance of scenes of suffering and squalor, the 
social vanities and dissipations, prove that the masses, rich and 
poor alike, divested of the tinsel afforded them by the fair devo- 
tees of science and art, might as readily be Turks or Hottentots. 

Vulgar expediency ideals pervade our popular novels. The 
getting of wealth, the capturing of beauty, the utter want of a 
worthy aim in life prevail, and the success of authors who pander 
to this taste is a measure of what the purchasers of these books 

The right does not change, but our ideas of right do. Hero 
worship is dying out, and principles, not men, receive more 
deference. The race has had to make this advance through bitter 
experience, constant disappointments, disillusions, the shattering 
of idols, the growth of knowledge. Religion, with its hopes and 
fears, its system of rewards and punishments, notwithstanding 
these were " other worldly," became stimuli to good and de- 
terrants from evil. The bare fact that some would act con- 
sistently with belief that there was a life after death, where he 
would suffer pain or pleasure according to what he had done in 

620 The American Naturalist. [July, 

this world, shows that the believer was guided by expediency, but 
truly of a higher kind. Surely the conventional ideas of right 
and wrong, even in this day, make a grand mess. The biases 
are innumerable that are created by rank, caste, prejudice, relative 
degrees of ignorance and intelligence, training, education, and 
nationality. A single instance can be cited : the term " morga- 
natic," which is a wink at the license of royalty. " The king can do 
no wrong." Princes may be debauchees, drunkards, vicious, but 
they are defended, and their most public outrages are denied or 
condoned. Even dictionaries smile complacently at the villiany of 
nobles by giving a definition that does not include all that is 
known to be the meaning of the word morganatic. 

However much we may assert to the contrary, and even though 
upon reflection we acknowledge to ourselves that wealth and good 
looks should not be measures of respectability, the childish trait 
is universally prevalent, even among civilized adults, that the good 
looking man, the well-dressed man, the wealthy man, is alone the 
good man. Poverty is regarded as evidence of punishment for 
wickedness. The every act of the bulk of mankind proclaim 
this to be a deep-rooted belief. 

But surely there is a conscience, private and public, that works 
for final good. Undoubtedly. But we can understand that con- 
science, and its peculiarities and well-known inconsistencies, if we 
can bring ourselves to calmly inspect its origin in the law that 
the altered or acquired habits of one set of a?icestors may greatly 
affect the conduct of their descendants. For instance, A is a 
murderer and freebooter, living many centuries ago, when to be 
otherwise was scarcely the rule. His surroundings and associa- 
tions made him such. His child, B, at a later time and under 
better influences, is taught a disrelish for his parents' pastimes, but 
could easily relapse, as the inherited instincts were strong within 

The good influence is* kept up, however, and the grandchild, C, 
does not murder or plunder, because he has inherited a corrected 
disposition, which is intensified by the circumstances under which 
he lives. The great grandchild, D, by persistence of these con- 
ditions, would as surely be benefited by the inheritance for good 


The Coning Man. 62 

as he was likely to resemble his progenitors in feature or form. 
He has a ready-made conscience, for which he is not at all 
responsible, and deserves no credit. It might be so acute as to 
cause him to die of remorse, were he betrayed into wrongdoing. 

Having reached this negative plane of mere respectability, D 
and his successors may develop some positive good trait, the 
habitual practice of which may become second nature. The 
feudal lord of A's time found happiness only in the desolation of 
others; F and G, his philosophical descendants, like Sir Titus 
Salt, grieve if they cannot find some means of doing lasting good 
to humanity, and yet from A to X, Y, and Z, expediency governs 
all of them. 

One finds it most expedient to obey the promptings of his 
conscience, and derives comfort only from so doing. The keeping 
alive of that " celestial spark " may be to him more valuable than 
all the possessions of the world ; while another, with none of this 
"spark " to speak of, or who may have had it developed in some 
other direction, kicks the beggar who annoys him, and laughs 
with pleasure when he recollects the event. The philanthropist 
feels a heart glow in remembering how he has relieved some one 
in distress or has contributed to some reform movement. 

Different influences for good brought to bear upon successive 
generations are sure to appear in the last generation in a radical 
change of character from that of the remote ancestor, making it 
as impossible for X to do an evil deed deliberately as it was for 
A to do anything else. So you see that expediency, the doing 
of that from which we expect to draw the most comfort, is the 
controlling spirit of action in all. 

The world's history shows that people became better only 
through intelligence ; that this made it possible for them to adopt 
higher expediency planes ; by regard for the rights of others each 
found his own rights best conserved. Nor did mankind, until 
the habit was instituted, do right from any other motive than 
that of mere convenience. The highest efflorescence of this 
natural law, beginning with the club, will be in the appearance of 
a highly developed altruism in a later age. Social maladies, 
poverty, and unhappiness will not be allowed to exist, upon the 

622 The American Naturalist. LJuiy, 

principle, but recently discovered, that the presence of a degraded 
race devolves the degradation of neighboring races. 

The structure of the brain itself shows that expediency regard 
is intellect ; the nervous system plainly rules bodily parts. In 
higher and still higher grades of intelligence the connecting 
strands of the brain, the countless tangles of telegraph lines that 
inter-relate these parts, are more complex and numerous ; and the 
main distinction between the idiot and one who is mentally sound 
is that the latter, by the integrity of his mental mechanism, is 
able to better adjust his inner to his outer relations. He is more 
in keeping with his surroundings. So goodness is a form of 
wisdom, after all. Habit and conscience make it possible for us 
to do right for right's sake, but habit and conscience are the 
product of your environment and what you have inherited. Con- 
science causes the right thing to be automatically performed. 
You do instinctively, and perforce, what before required a motive, 
just as the engineer can manage his machine in the dark and 
without thought, but when he was learning to do so his every 
sense must be alert. This view explains the inconsistencies of 
our nature ; morality is but intellect, and no intellect is completely 
symmetrical. Ideas of propriety vary within wide limits. Disease 
may degrade mind in one way in one patient, and in other ways 
in other patients, depending upon the resistive strength of inher- 
ited traits, and what has been inherited. 

And this brings us to a consideration of the old saw, " mens 
sana" etc., from the anthropological or physical point of view. A 
superficial consideration would suggest that mind and body must 
be developed symmetrically to accomplish the best results, but 
while this may hold good for mediocrity in both, which is nature's 
method of averaging things, we can readily see that athletes, 
gymnasts, pugilists unduly nourish and train their muscles at the 
expense of their brains, and that book-worms and thinkers gen- 
erally incline to too much passivity physically. The world has 
reaped advantage from its diseased and' bodily imperfect Gibbon, 
Tom Hood, Walter Scott, Sam Johnson, and Byron, though in 
different measures, and from imperfect temperaments such as 
Bacon, Coleridge, Dean Swift, De Quincy. But we should only 

i89i.] The Coming Man. 623 

consider their defects as their misfortunes, and not the cause of 
their literary bents, for mental deformity has among potentates 
been the cause of untold suffering to nations. Neither physical 
nor mental perfection (if we can grant that such things existed) 
seem to have assured lasting integrity to either body or mind. 
The Spartans as a race do not appear to have been the fittest to 
survive, and during certain epochs in European history the man 
who dared to think at all could with difficulty keep his head on 
his shoulders. 

But we must not lose sight of the fact that the world has 
profited more by the individual labors of men and women whose 
intellectual greatness was coupled with such extreme modesty 
that, while in quiet ways their power for good was incalculable, 
they never cared to take credit for it. " Full man}' a flower," 
etc., as Cowper has it. 

As good machinery may, other things being equal, be expected 
to do good work, or better than imperfect machinery, a certain 
amount of good health is requisite for the accomplishment of any 
ordinary life-work. 

Then there must be suitable consideration of the fact that were 
society built upon the principle of the " One-Hoss Shay," the 
wheels could not do the work of the thills, and so on, but each 
part could do its perfect work only by reason of the radical per- 
fection of differences. So we are forced to regard the " perfect 
man " as one who is suited to his particular place and environ- 
ment ; and as development is only possible to its fullest extent 
when environment, opportunity, and ability are favorable, we will 
have to suppose a case to which the following applies : 

1. Excellent physical and mental heredity has barred out the 
chances of consumption, insanity, liquor addiction, criminality, 
decrepitude, or ugliness. 

2. As "every child has the right to be well born," so he has 
the right to good training, and our typical better man can only 
come from better folk with the right ideas of nurture. 

3. This entails having not too many in th< : nnsly, for the lower 
the race the more prolific ; and highest culture is possible only, 
as a rule, where time can be devoted to the rearing and i 
of a few children. 

624 Tlie American Naturalist. [July, 

4. The parents should have the direct supervision of the child's 
care, for among the very wealthy and the very poor neglect of 
children is too often the rule, and there is nothing in the world 
that can take the place of parental, especially motherly, love and 

5. Circumstances do not permit one to develop as he will, or 
should; and as poverty produces thoughtfulness, thrift, and sym- 
pathy, and a better understanding of our neighbors' needs and 
characters, he who is unfortunate enough to be born wealthy 
should be brought into closer contact with the " other half" of 
the world. 

6. As accomplishing something in the world is the only 
measure of adaptability, the means for such accomplishment 
should be sought, but not at the sacrifice of conscience, — whether 
acquired or ready made by ancestors. 

7. He should be a man of fair size, because every one is inclined 
to discredit the possibility of a small man doing big things. 
Measure up your own list of heroes. Large-sized men are for 
this reason apt to be overestimated, just as titled individuals are 
who accomplish anything. Was it Huxley who said that Argyle 
was very smart — for a duke ? 

8. The proper regard for his individual interests will entail a 
genuine altruism which will make him not only a patriot (not of 
the demagogue kind) but a lover of liberty for the world. Kos- 
ciusco, Kossuth, Washington, Fayette, Garibaldi actively inter- 
ested themselves in universal freedom when their own countries 
could spare their attention. 

9. He could with great advantage be an American, for in 
America truth is left free to combat error ; and no tyranny can 
be enduring under such auspices. 

10. His education should be with regard to Herbert Spencer's 
idea that, first and foremost, that knowledge should be acquired 
which is of most practical worth to the individual, and that the 
ornamental should have last consideration. Overdoses of classical 
verbiage and minute details of the intrigues of courtiers would 
thus give place to physics and chemistry, which are of more 
account in this work-a-day world. 

1 1. The cultivation of self-control, in the recognition that man 
is his own worst enemy. 

12. Other desirabilities may be subclassed under the preceding. 
In a general way, and when aberrant types are excluded, the 

increase of the facial angle of Camper in the evolutionary scale 
has a value as an index to what nature does to increase intelligence. 
It is a very superficial physiognomical means of estimation, 
however, if associated matters are not properly considered at the 
same time, for the skull-growth may not keep pace always with 
brain-growth", in individuals or races, and complexity of convolu- 
tions may result to fold into smaller space the same amount of 
brain surface that may also be found with fewer convolutions in a 
larger, or more roomy, skull. 

It is the multiplicity and complexity of the nerve-strands in 
the brain that causes intelligence, and these are developed by 
proper exercise and education of the senses in relation to the 
finer muscular movements. The learning of something to do 
that will benefit the world as well as self, and deep thinking 
thereon, and endeavoring to understand the universe, as far as 
possible, is best calculated to develop the brain most symmetri- 
cally, repress the evil and bring out all the good of which the 
highest type of man is capable, for goodness is but a high order 
of intelligence, notwithstanding its occasional absence in intellects 
otherwise highly developed, and its frequent presence among 
those whose minds are defective in other directions. 


S~\F all the instruments that have come into use in the hands of 
^" > ^ science during the latter part of the present decade, none of 
them have been found so universally helpful as has been the 
camera. The photographic camera, with its modern multitudinous 
appliances, has made its power felt in the greatest variety of 
ways in all the departments of science, as in physics, chemistry, 
mechanics, astronomy, zoology, and each and the rest. But it is 
not my object to present an historical essay here upon this 
instrument, nor even to make the attempt to write out all I know 
about the operating of one in its details; it is merely my aim to 
bring a few practical hints before young photographers, and show 
them some of the new fields wherein, by patience and study, they 
can put their instruments to very excellent uses. As we all know, 
the art of photography is now easily acquired, and the producing 
of photographic pictures a pleasurable and sometimes a profitable 
employment. Yet how often it is that we see a young person 
purchase a first-class camera with its entire outfit, and after 
coming to be a good photographer, is satisfied at the end of a 
year or so with having filled a large album with pictures of the 
country around about his or her place of residence, or groups of 
friends, and perhaps a few other subjects, when the whole, save 
the album, is relegated to a corner in the garret. This is by no 
means a rare occurrence and the end of such enterprises. 

I am a working naturalist, and a number of years ago con- 
ceived the idea that a good photographic outfit would meet a 
variety of ends in the course of my labors. A hundred dollars 
gave me one, and three times that amount of money would not 
induce me to part with it now. Including all my early failures, 
more than fifty per cent, of my pictures, and there have been a 
great many of them, have been published as illustrations to my 
scientific papers, and elsewhere. 

1 891.] Where Amateur Photographers Can Assist Science. 627 

When one comes to examine the figures of mammals, birds, 
reptiles, fish, and other forms that illustrate many of our older 
works in zoology, he can be but struck with the fact how wide 
of the mark the majority of them are. Indeed, it is frequently 
difficult to recognize the form of the animal that the artist 
intended to depict from the drawing he has made of it. 

It was along such lines, as well as others nearly related 
thereto, that I hoped to introduce an improvement into my own 
designs. So simple are these steps that I feel sure that any 
painstaking young photographer can acquire and practice them, 
— and that, too, to profitable ends ; to his personal enjoyment in the 
pursuit; or to the great assistance of others; or even to the 
advancement of learning ; possibly to all of these combined. 

A year or so ago I was collecting zoological and ethnological 
material in Northwestern New Mexico, and among many other 
things captured a great number of tiger salamanders {AmNvstoma 
tigrimun), which were sent to biological laboratories all over the 
world. Now a salamander is a difficult subject to get a good 
figure of, and there are comparatively but few such throughout 
the entire range of zoological literature. This was my way of 
obtaining one with the camera: I fixed a small pine shelf perpen- 
dicular to the wall of my study at a convenient distance above 
the floor. This I covered with a large sheet of clean, white 
blotting paper, bending it so it hung down over the shelf in front, 
and likewise extended up over the wall behind. It was held in 
place by pinning it to the shelf with artists' thumb-tacks. Next 
placing any long, small object on the middle of the shelf in the 
place to be afterwards occupied by the salamander, we focus 
upon it with the camera, a strong light coming directly from 
behind the instrument. Insert your diaphragm with the smallest 
aperture, and remove the " dummy " from off the shelf. Now 
we are ready for the subject, and as it is very difficult to get one 
of these animals to lie still an instant, I waved over his nostrils, 
for a second or two, the fumes of a little sulphuric ether, and 
placed him in position on the shelf. As he recovered from the 
anaesthetic, he assumed a very natural attitude, and was perfectly 
quiet, allowing me to make an exposure of two minutes, and the 

result was I obtained a good working negative. 1 
The object of the blotting paper is to give a 
sharp figure, bereft of all surroundings, and 
that is one kind of picture largely demanded 
in zoological illustrations. Of course we can 
have all the grass, stones, and the rest of it 
that we want, but, as I say, that is not the 
kind of figure desired. The nap on the blot- 
ting paper usually gives a peculiarly soft back- 
ground, and dead white in the reproduction 
made from the negative. 

In nearly all cases such a negative should 
be intensified by the usual method with bi- 
chloride of mercury and the ammonia bath. 
' It sharpens all the details of the figures, and 
makes a better print for the object in view. 
Now from such a negative a good photograph 
can be made upon sensitized albumen paper, 
and from this a drawing can be ma< !<-. Or, 
any of the photo-engravers, by the various 
methods now employed, can make an electro- 
type from this negative, from which anv nuni- 


ike . 

afterwards colored by hand from the original, 
and then handed to a lithographer for repro- 
duction. Finally, one of the prints on this 
plain paper, can be delicately traced over by 
means of one of Gillott's mapping pens (No. 
291) and Higgins' American drawing ink. and, 

with your drawing ink. Tl 
white " figure thus produced 


1891.] Wlui\ iphers Can Assist Science. 629 

typed by any of the ordinary methods, at a very moderate cost, 
and it will make a fair figure to illustrate what the young 
naturalist may have to say in the journal he subscribes for, — 
as, for instance, the reports of any of the many chapters of the 
Agassiz Association to President Ballard. Excellent figures 
of fish may be obtained by any of the above methods, if you 
will but go to the trouble of constructing a glass tank of 
clear panes of window-glass, say 10x16, but only an inch or two 
apart, and parallel. In such a tank, filled with the very clearest 
of water, your ordinary-sized fish will be kept constantly in posi- 
tion and quiet. You can photograph through the double glass 
and the water, but you must only have the sky behind it for a 
background. To get an animal life-size you measure it with a 
pair of compasses, and compare this measurement with the image 
on the ground-glass of the camera, after you have finally focused 
to your liking. Your best stock of patience will be demanded in 
the photography of living birds. An entire chapter might be 
written upon this branch of the subject, and then it would hardly 
be exhausted. The same scrupulous care must be exercised in 
reference to position, the accessories, the backgrounds, and the 
rest of it. Very often we get excellent pictures from slightly 
wounded birds, and this was the case with the specimen of the 
Western Red-Tailed Hawk here offered in illustration. I made 
the photograph of this specimen in New Mexico in 1888. 

It will be seen that I selected a rugged pine stump for him to 
stand upon, and this perch was sharply focused before placing 
my subject upon it. Further, it must be noticed that I secured a 
horizon ; in other words, the hawk is brought out in strong relief 
against a good sky, which occupies the upper half of the figure. 
It would have been a simple matter to have placed a dead bird 
under one of his talons, but it was not done in this case ; I have 

630 The American Naturalist. [July 

figures of owls wherein I have accomplished it. Where no back- 
ground is demanded, such birds can be photographed in one's 
study, with a white sheet behind them, and against this cone- 
bearing pine boughs, old stumps, and the like, come out beauti- 
fully, and elegant figures of many kinds can be reproduced from 
the negative thus secured. A pneumatic snap-shutter is almost 
an indispensable adjunct to your camera in the proper photog- 
raphy of birds, as some of them have to be partially hypnotized 
before placed in position to be taken. Then, as they recover 
from the effect of this, they dress their plumage, assume a 
natural posture, and then appear animated. You now watch 
your opportunity, and secure an instantaneous picture of your 
feathered subject. In the forest you can often get most valuable 
negatives of nests and similar objects, all of which are highly 
prized by the scientific naturalist, and can be used in his work- 
Large lizards, such as our " Gila Monster " of Arizona, I have 
obtained by firmly strapping my camera in such a manner as to 
have the line of the focal axis perpendicular to the floor, upon 
which I have placed a sheet of white blotting paper, and then 
allowed the reptile to walk over it, and as he came beneath the 
lens, I secured a first-class negative of him. In the case of 
mammals, I have obtained photographs of dead ones, placed in 
natural postures, so faithfully done that they deceived the eyes of 
the best experts afterwards. My badger, published in Forest 
and Stream several years ago, w r as taken in that way, and very 
numerous other subjects, both since and before it. 

The field and line of work I have briefly indicated above, is 
brimful of interest for the enthusiastic young naturalist, and one 
wherein he will soon find that all his ingenuity will be most amply 
demanded. As every faithful young biologist should keep his 
"journal " of observations made afield, and in the forest, or afloat, 
he will very soon find that his camera will aid him immensely in 
affording the means of furnishing permanent pictures wherewith 
to illustrate his remarks, and these in addition to the ones used 
from which his photo-electrotypes have been selected for printing. 




of Carcttochclys, Ramsay. 


TN May, 1886, Prof. E. P. Ramsay, (1) of the Australian Museum, 
Sydney, described a peculiar new tortoise under the name of 
Carettochelys insculptus} The description was based on an adult 
female (carapace, eighteen inches in a straight line), which was 
obtained in the Fly River, New Guinea. The new genus was 
referred to the family Trionychid;u, fanning "a link between the 
river tortoise and the sea turtles." In 1887 Mr. Boulenger (2) 
placed this genus in a special family (Carettochelydidae) of the 
Pleurodira, for the reason that the specimen was found in New 
Guinea, from which island only Pleurodira are known. The 
characters of this family were given as : " Plastral bones, nine. 
No epidermic scutes on the shell. Limbs paddle-shaped, with 

Prof. Gill, (3) nearly at the same time, wrote a review of Prof. 
Ramsay's paper, in which he reached the conclusion that the form 
is the type of a peculiar family, Carettochelyid.e, and that " it 
may quite likely prove to be a Pleurodire." Prof. Gill makes the 
following remarks : " But whatever may be the relations of the 
new genus, whether to the cryptodirous or pleurodirous tortoises, 
it has many quite peculiar characters. From all known forms it 
is apparently distinguished by the absence of scuta, the peculiar 
feet, and, other characters. Undoubtedly, therefore, the new genus 
does not belong to any of the established modern families, and 
apparently not to any of the extinct ones named, although when 
more is known of Carettochelys, as well as the extinct forms, it 
may turn out that the Papuan animal is related to one of the 
families now regarded as extinct." 

The family Carettochelydidae of the Pleurodira was accepted 
by Mr. Lydekker (4) in the same year, and Hemichelys Ly- 
dekker, from the Lower Eocene of India, referred to it. In this 

632 The American Naturalist. [July, 

form we have five neuralia in contact with each other, and there 
was probably a small mesoplastron present, according to Lydekker. 
To conclude from the figure, it seems that there were eleven 
peripherals on each side, as in the Pleurodira, for instance. I 
believe, therefore, that it is more likely a Pleurodiran than a near 
relative of Carettochelys. 

In 1890 I published a short note on Carettochelys, (5) in which 
I doubted the Pleurodiran nature of the genus. I said : " It is 
true it belongs the Papuarian region, in which, so far, only 
Pleurodira have been found. There are some characters, however, 
not seen in the Pleurodira, but in another group of Chelonians 
consisting of the families Cinosternida.-, Staurotypid;e, and Pseudo- 
trionychidae. It is only in this group that we find twenty-one 
peripheralia (marginal bones), as in Carettochelys; the neural 
bones are also reduced, and the dermal shields have disappeared 
entirely, as in Pseudotrionyx ; to the latter character, however, I 
attach little value, as it may occur in any family. 

" It seems to me that the systematic position of Carettochelys 
is far from being clear. How easily could the whole question be 
settled ! Mr. Ramsay would do a great service to science if he 
would undertake to have the cervicals and the skull extracted, or 
the cervicals alone, if he fears for the skull. This could be done 
without injuring the specimen, and the structure of these parts 
would show at once the affinities of this peculiar genus." 

Not doubting that Carettochelys would prove a very important 
form of the Testudinata, I wrote to Prof Ramsay, asking him if 
he could not examine the osteology of the animal, and publish a 
note about it. A short time before I received an answer I read 
Dr. Alexander Strauch's Bemerkungen uber die Schildkroten- 
sammlung im zoologischen Museum der kaiserlichen Akademie 
der Wissenschaften zu St. Petersburg. (6) 

Dr. Strauch, whose classification of the tortoises is far behind 
the times, and certainly not accepted by anybody— (he does not 
distinguish the Pleurodira from the Cryptodira, but places them 
in one group, Testudinida, of the same rank as the Cheloniida ! 
The unfortunate separation of Dermochelys as a suborder Atheca 
is still kept up !)— places Carettochelys in a special "Abtheilung " 

i8 9 i] On the Relations of Carettoehelys, Ramsay. 633 

of the Thecophora, with the name Carettochelyda. " Ruckens- 
child herzformig mit Randknochen. Brustschildknochen zu 
einer Platte verwachsen. Schale ohne Hornplatten Floasenfiisse 
mit 2 Krallen. Phalangen der Zehen mit Condylen." Strauch 
remarks : " Sovveit sich nach der allerdings noch sehr unvoll- 
kommenen Beschreibung Ramsay's urtheilen lasst, muss seine 
CarcttocJielys insculpta unbedingt zum Typus einer besonderen, 
den Trionychiden und den Meerschildkroten gleich werthigen 
Familie (nach Boulenger also Superfamilie) erhoben und im System 
zwischen diese beiden gestellt werden." 

Shortly after I had read Dr. Strauch's paper I received an 
answer from Prof. Ramsay, which I will give in full : " I received 
your note on Carettochelys in due time, but owing to the internal 
alterations going on in the museum the specimen could not be 
got at, and it is only now that I have been able to examine it. 
Alas! there were no cervical vertebra: to examine ; the animal had 
served the explorer for food, and the whole of the bones, except 
the skull, had been cut away. I had this photographed for you, 
and hope it will help to place the very interesting form in its 
proper place. I shall be glad to help you in any way; but there 
is nothing to work on, more than I have given in the Proc. Linn. 
Soc. X. S. W., Vol. I., 1886, p. 158, with plates." 

This was bad news. Nothing left of the bones but the skull ! 
But probably it was possible to determine the systematic position 
of the interesting animal from the photographs, which were on 
the way. A few days after the letter the photographs came : 1, 
two upper views of the entire animal ; 2, one lower view ; 3, the 
upper view, and 4th, the lower view of the posterior portion of 
the skull. To Prof. Ramsay I have to express my best thanks 
for his great kindness and liberality. 

The skull at once showed that this form was no Pleurodiran ; 
that its nearest living relatives appeared to be the Trionychia, its 
very closest fossil relative the peculiar Pseudotrionyx Dollo, from 
the Eocene, which I always had suspected as such. 

The skull is only comparable with that of the Trionychia. As 
in this group, we have three greatly developed, crest-like posterior 
processes : the supraoccipital, and on each side the squamosal. The 

634 The American Naturalist. [July, 

supraoccipital process is club-shaped and enormously developed, 
— more than in any other tortoise known. Of course this 
character alone would not be sufficient to establish absolutely the 
near affinity of the peculiar form with the Trionychia ; such a 
development of the posterior portion of the skull could take place 
in the Pleurodira or Cryptodira just as well. But there are other 
characters which at once show that the form has nothing to do 
with the Pleurodira. Before all, the pterygoids extend behind 
between quadrate, basisphenoid, basioccipital, a condition never 
seen in the Pleurodira. Whether the pterygoids are completely 
separated by the basisphenoid as in the Trionychia cannot be 
seen from the photographs ; this question, therefore, is still an 
open one. The quadrate is peculiar. The articular face with the 
lower jaw is Trionychian, not Pleurodiran ; and so is the posterior 
end of the lower jaw. The quadrate is not completely closed 
behind, but only on its outer border, as in Podocnemis, for instance, 
but not in such a great degree. As is well known, the quadrate 
of the Trionychia is completely closed behind ; this, of course, is 
a secondary condition, and there cannot be any doubt that the 
ancestors of the Trionychia had the quadrate open behind. The 
quadrate of Carettochelys is exactly of such a form which we 
may expect in the ancestors of the Trionychia. The pterygoids 
resemble very much the same elements in the Trionychia. The 
lower jaw is rounded in front and has a short symphysis. The 
upper side of the skull is very interesting. The greatest peculi- 
arity is that the upper surface of the bones is granulated exactly 
as the shell. The dermal plates described by Ramsay do not exist ; 
there are no plates on the skull at all. This peculiar condition 
is only found in the Jurassic Compemys plicatulus Cope. The 
sutures of the bones of the upper side of the skull, which can be 
seen, just as the sutures of the elements of the carapace and 
plastron are visible, must have been taken as indications of dermal 
plates by Prof. Ramsay. 

The interorbital 

space is very large, the orbits being com- 

pletely lateral ; the postorbital arch is about half of the interorbital 
space. The whole upper aspect of the skull reminds us of the 
Dermatemydid*, Staurotypid*, Cinosternids ; and the arrange- 

i8 9 i.] On the Relations of Orrettoe/ie/ys, Ramsay. 635 

ment of the elements is the same, the frontals being excluded 
from the orbits. There is no indication in the photograph of free 
nasal bones. The nose is projected much in front, and must have, 
when in fresh condition, an appearance very much like that in 
the Trionychia, but not so much pointed. The zygomatic arch 
is not elevated as in the Trionychia, but is in a line with the 
maxillary and quadrate, as in the Cinosternidoe, for instance. 

The neck, the vertebrae of which were unfortunately not pre- 
served, was short ; but I do not see any reason why the head 
could not have been retracted, as in the Chelydridas, for instance 
Nothing is known about the shoulder-girdle and the pelvis. But 
one thing seems to be sure : the pelvis was not coossified with the 
carapace and plastron, but free. If it had been coossified 
with the shell, as in the Pleurodira, it probably would have been 
preserved with the shell. An important question is the number 
of phalanges in the fourth digit ; as is well known, in all Trionychia 
we have more than three phalanges in the fourth digit. It looks 
to me, as far as I can conclude from the photographs, that in 
Carettochelys the number, three was not surpassed. 

We have now to consider the carapace and plastron. Both have 
been figured by Ramsay, but there was some doubt about the 
presence or absence of a mesoplastral element. In regard to the 
carapace, I have nothing new to add. There is no trace of dermal 
scutes on the shell. The number of neurals is six ; they are very 
slender and all separate from each other. The first six pleuralia 
meet in the middle line behind, being separated in front by the 
neuralia. The seventh and eighth neuralia touch each other 
completely in the middle line. There is only one postneural. The 
number of the peripheralia (marginal bones) is ten on each side, 
besides the single pygal. The most interesting new point to be 
noted in the plastron is the presence of a small distinct meso- 
plastral element. The structure of the plastron is best seen from 
the figure. 

I have stated above that Pseudotrionyx is the nearest relative of 
Carettochelys. Pseudotrionyx was described by Dollo (6) in 18S6. 
The portions found in the Middle Eocene of Belgium consisted 
of the posterior part of the carapace, and the nearly complete hyo-, 

636 The American Naturalist. [July, 

hypo-, and xiphiplastron of the right side. The sculpturing o 
the shell is the same as in Carettochelys. There is no trace of 
dermal scutes. The number of the peripheralia is the same as in 
Carettochelys. There is only one postneural, of the same shape as 
in this form. There is a difference in the neuralia, however. There 
are seven slender neuralia in Pseudotrionyx, which are all connected 
with each other, separating the first six pleuralia completely; the 
seventh pleuralia meet behind, and .the eighth are entirely con- 
nected. In all the pleuralia the rib heads are well developed. If 
we now compare the plastron of Carettochelys with the portions 
preserved in Pseudotrionyx, we are struck at once by the enor- 
mous resemblance. The hyoplastra of both are nearly identical 
in shape. I may call especial attention to the border connecting 
the hyoplastron with the endo- and epiplastron. But to conclude 
from Dollo's figure, it seems to me that the hyoplastron was not 
entirely united to these elements, but only connected with them 
by ligament, as in the Cinosternidse. The most interesting point, 
however, is that Pseudotrionyx doubtless also had a distinct meso- 
plastral element as Carettochelys. Dollo held the opinion that 
there was a small fontanelle at the outer border of the hyo- and 
hypoplastra (Echancrure naturelle, reste d'une fontanelle laterale, 
X. Fig, I., PI. 11.) Besides, he thinks that the line of the con- 
nection between carapace and plastron was very short. There can- 
not be any doubt, however, that Pseudotrionyx showed about 
the same conditions as Carettochelys. 

Pseudotrionyx is placed by Dollo, Zittel,and Lydekker among 
the Chelydrida^. A skull originally referred by Sir R. Owen to 
Platemys is considered by Lydekker (8) as belonging to Pseudo- 
trionyx. It is stated that it agrees essentially with that of 
Macrochelys ; and that this reference is confirmed by the total 
absence of the impression of horny shields, indicating that the 
skull, as in the Trionychida;, was merely covered with skin. I 
think it is at least doubtful whether this skull belongs to 

We have now to consfder the relations of Carettochelys. Its 
nearest relative is, as I have shown, Pseudotrionyx. There is no 
idenceev from the present material that Pseudotrionyx belongs to 

i8 9 i.] On the Relations of Carettochelys, Ramsay. 6$j 

a different family from Carettochelys. I do not hesitate, therefore, 
to place both genera in one family, Carettochelyidae Boulenger, 
1887, which name has the priority before Pseudotrionychida; 
Boulenger, a family established in the Encyclopedia Britannica, 
(Vol. XXIII.), p. 457, to contain Pseudotrionyx Dollo and 
Anostira Leidy. 

This family may be characterized in the following way : 

Shell without epidermal shields. Plastron composed of eleven 
elements, two small mesoplastra being present, which are sepa- 
rated from each other. Only ten peripherals on each side, be- 
sides the single nuchal and pygal. (Carettochelys, Pseudotrionyx.) 

Upper surface of skull covered with small, round, raised 
rugosities exactly as the shell, with three posterior processes, as in 
Trionychia ; skull resembling in shape that of the Cinosternidae, 
but snout more projecting. Limbs paddle-shaped ; digits much 
elongate, only the two inner clawed. (Carettochelys.) 

How far Pseudotrionyx agrees with Carettochelys in the latter 
characters, new finds have yet to determine. 

The question now is, To which group of tortoises does this 
family belong? In a former paper I distinguished four 
groups of tortoises : the Amphichelydia, Cryptodira, Pleurodira, 
and Trionychia. Of one thing we are sure: it does not belong to 
the Pleurodira. Unfortunately we do not know the structure of 
the cervicals, which is so characteristic of the three remaining 
groups. From all that is at present known, it appears to me that 
the Carettochelyidae are nearest to the Trionychia, but show at 
the same time characters of a group of Cryptodira, composed of 
the families Staurotypida? and Cinosternidae. I expressed 
a few years ago the opinion that the Trionychia did come from 
forms which had the peripherals complete, and carapace and 
plastron closed; that the Trionychia are nofan original, but a 
highly specialized group. Carettochelys shows in the structure of 
the skull, especially of the posterior portion, Trionychian affinity. 
I believe that the ancestors of the Trionychia consisted of forms 

6 3 8 The American Naturalist. I July. 

which in the structure of carapace and plastron were very much 
like Carettochelys. On the other hand, there seem to be connec- 
tions through Anostira with the groups of Cryptodira named 
above. These affinities are shown in the shape of the skull and 
plastron, and the peculiar number of peripherals. Until the cer- 
vicals and pelves are known, I think it is impossible to determine 
the correct systematic position of the Carettochelyid;e. The most 
probable view seems to be this : The Carettochelyidae came from 
a group of tortoises related to the stock from which Staurotypidae 
and Cinostemidae developed. It is probable that the Caretto- 
chelyidae are very close to the ancestors of the Trionychia, of 
which they are only survivals. For the ancestors of the Triony- 
chia we have to look in the Jurassic and Lower Cretaceous ; for 
I have shown in another paper that the Trionychia of the Upper 
Cretaceous (Laramie) are typical forms, in which the peripheralia 
had been already entirely reduced. I have little doubt that these 
started from the Amphichelydia. 

There are some points which could be made out by examina- 
tion of the unique type specimen of Carettochelys ; the entire 
structure of the skull, for instance, the condition of the first dor- 
sal, which is probably preserved. It would be very important to 
know whether the premaxillary is small and single, as in the 
Trionychia, or whether it is developed, as in the Staurotypidae, for 
instance. It would be interesting to know whether the anterior 
part of the centrum of the first dorsal vertebra is modified as in 
the Trionychidae or not. 

I can only hope that new specimens will be collected soon in 
New Guinea. They doubtless exist there in great numbers, 
and I think the time will not be very far away when we will 
know the whole anatomy of this most interesting tortoise. 

Clark University, Worcester, Mass., April 5th, i8cjj. 

1. Ramsay, E. P.— On a New Genus and Species of Fresh-Water Tortoise, 
from the Fly River, New Guinea. Proc. Linn. Soc, New South Wales, Second 
Series, Vol. I., Parti., May 25th, 1886, pp. 158-162, Pis. m.-vi. 

j8 9 i.] On the Relations of Car tt, '/, ... A' .< /say. 639 

2. Boulenger, G. A.— On a New Family of Pleurodiran Turtles. Ann. 
Mag. Nat. Hist., Vol. XIX., March, 1887, pp. 170,171. Encyclopedia 
Britannica, Vol. XXIII., p. 457. Catal. of the Chelonians in the Brit. Mus., 
London, 1889, p. 236. 

3. Gill, Theodore. — A Remarkable Tortoise. Annual Report of the 
Board of Regents of the Smithsonian Inst, for the year ending June 30th, 
1887, Part I., Washington, 1889, pp. 509-511. 

4. Lydekker, R. — Eocene Chelonians from the Salt-Range. Mem. Geol. 
Survey India. Paleontology India, Series X., Vol. IV. Calcutta, 1887, 
pp. 61-63, PI- xii. ; also Lydekker-Nicholson Manual of Pal., Vol. II., 

5. Baur, G. — Note on Carettochelys Ramsay. Amer. Nat., Nov. 1889, 
p. 1017 (published 1890). 

6. Me"m de l'Acad. Imp. des Sciences v. St. Petersbourg, VII. C. Serie, 
Tome XXXVIII., No. 2, St. Petersbourg, 1890, Decembre. 

7. Dollo, L. — Premiere note sur les Cheloniens du Bruxellien (Eocene 
moyen) de la Belgique. Bull. Mus. Roy. Hist. Nat., Belg., Tome, IV., 

8. Lydekker, R.— Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc., Vol. XIV., p. 242. Catal. 
foss. Rept., Part III., pp. 145, 146. Paleontology, p. 1195. 

The American Naturalist. 

TT is generally conceded that it is important to avoid the dupli- 
cation of names of like rank in the nomenclature of each of 
the great divisions of organic life. A genus of plants may bear 
the same name as a genus of animals, but no two genera of either 
must bear the same name. There has, however, recently developed 
a difference of opinion as to what constitutes identity of name. 
It was for a long period assumed that any difference is a differ- 
ence, and that words identical except as to masculine or feminine 
termination are different words. Thus no one thought of regarding 
Picus and Pica as duplicates, and the two appeared together in 
ornithologies for nearly a century. But the desire for change 
stimulated somebody to consider the use of one of them a dupli- 
cation of the other, and a new name was proposed to take the 
place of the one which was introduced latest. Following this 
example, numerous changes have been proposed for the same 
reason. But there are other instances where the difference extends 
to two letters, as in the case of Menodus and Menodon, and here 
also change has been introduced. If a difference of two letters 
is not enough to preserve two names, it becomes a question 
how many letters will constitute diversity, and so on. There seems 
to be a preference also that a difference of a letter in the beginning 
of a name is of greater moment than such a difference towards 
or at the end of a name. Thus no one has proposed to change 
the name Tinodon because there is also a name Dinodon, or 
Momus because there is a Mimus, or Mora because there is a 
Mola. The number of changes which may be made on such 
grounds as these is very great, and the name-changers have yet a 
large field before them. 

From another point of view we can see that if differences of 
one or two letters are not admissible, we are debarred from the 
use of a large proportion of possible Tiames. Thus we cannot 
have Manodus nor Monodus, nor Melodus nor Tenodus, nor 

1 89 1.] Editorial. 641 

Henodus, nor Menopus, nor Menotus, on account of Mcnodus, 
and so on ad infinitum. The fact is, the changing of a name 
which differs by a single letter from another name has no warrant 
in any rule, or in common sense. The changing of names is an 
inconvenience to be avoided as far as possible, and the zeal 
frequently seen to make such changes without sufficient ground 
should be abated. When the correct spelling of a name makes 
it identical with another, change is necessary, since a name is 
only recognizable when correctly spelled. Science is nothing if 
not accurate. 


Ai '.ASSIZ, A.— On the Rate of Growth of Corals. Bull. Harvard Mus. Comp. Zool., 

AMI, H. M— On the Geology of Quebec and Environs. Bull. Geol. Soc. Am., Vol. 

Anatomy, Physiology, Hygiene. Compiled under the direction of the California State 
Board of Education. 

Annual Report of the Arkansas Geological Survey, 1889. From R. Ellsworth Call. 
Annual Report of the Treasurer of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia. 
AYRES, A.— The Ear of Man ; Its Past, Its Present, and Its Future. Reprint from 

BARUS.C— The Compressibility of Hot Water, and Its Solvent Action on Glass. 

XLI., Feb., 1891. From the author. 

The Chemical Equilibrium of Solids, in Its Relation to Pressure and to Tem- 

Becker, G. F.— The Washoe Rocks. Reprint Bull. No. 6, California Acad. Sci. 

BONNEY, T. G.— Notes on Two Traverses of the Crystalline Rocks of the Alps. 
Ext. Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc. Feb., 1889. 

On the Crystalline Schists and Their Relation to the Mcsozic Rocks in the Lepon- 

tine Alps. Ext. Quart. Journ, Geol. Soc, May, 1890. From the author. 

Bull. No. 10, Oregon Agri. Exper. Station. 

Bull. Nos. 6, 7l and 9, Agri. Exper. Station Rhode Maud State Agri. School. 

Hull. 14, Miss. Agri. Exper. Station. 

BUTTS, E.— Recently Discovered Footprints of the Amphibian Age in the Upper 

Cajori, F.— The Teaching and History of Mathematics in the United States. Cir. 
Inf. No. 3, Bureau of Education, 1890. 

organized Jan. i, 1891. * * 

Recent Books and Pamphlets. 

,. s. Hoi-kins.— Preparation and 

iistology. Proc. < 


S . P.— The Intramusci 

lar Bad 


the Skeleta 


of th 


^uI p Al~lTveg. 

of Nurs 








R. H. R„ and A. Keith 

-Th. - 



Blue Ridge 

near Harper' 

II.,;.;.. I 

man, C. A.— Circular on Commercial 

e Agri. 


Hayes, C. W.— The Overthru 

; Fa lib 


SHc- -,. 

the Colon i 

erden, Pail Von.— 

I Deriv 



es de Moda 

Vol XL, March, 1891. 

Catalogue of Fossil Reptilia and Batrachia (Amphibia) 
in the British Museum, Parts II., III., and IV. 1 — Dr. Lydekker 
includes in Part II. the orders Ichthyopterygia and Sauropterygia ; in 
Part III. the Testudinata ; and in Part IV. the Placodontia, Theromora, 
and the Batrachia (Amphibia). Part I. included the Archosaurian 
series (Dinosauria, Crocodilia, and Ornithosauria) and the Squamata. 
The order of treatment has not been a systematic one either ascending 
or descending, possibly for reasons connected with the administration 
of the museum. Apart from this, we are disposed to find fault with 
some features of the system adopted which are more important. Thus 
the streptostylicate series is quite heterogeneous, including the Rhyn- 
chocephalia, which must go with the Dinosauria in the Archosaurian 
line ; and the Ichthyopterygia, which belong in the Synaptosaurian 
series. The Rynchocephalia of Lydekker, however, include some types 
(as Rhynchosauridae) which, from their single coSssified postorbital 
bar, belong in the Synaptosauria. 

In the treatment of the detail of the subject embraced by these 
catalogues we find the conscientiousness and painstaking characteristic 
of the author's work generally. The definitions are comprehensible, 
and the treatment of material judicious so far as appears. The settle- 
ment of questions of affinity and synonymy left uncertain by the older 
paleontologists is a service for which students everywhere will be grate- 
ful. This was especially needed among the Testudinata, which Dr. 
Lydekker found in great confusion, but which he has reduced to com- 
parative order. We have to thank him for the abolition of the name 
Colossochelys, which cannot be distinguished from Testudo. Some of 
his genera are probably too comprehensive, as, e.g., Cimoliasaurus (Sau- 
ropterygia), as the author himself suggests. Trionyx also probably 
includes more than one genus. Here is also the place to correct- some 
statements of the author anent the Adocidaj. He remarks (p. 129) : 
" The so-called Adocidae of Cope are probably also referable to the 
Dermatemydidae, the abortion of the ribs not being a character of 
family value. In the Cretaceous genus Adocus there are traces of 
vermiculation, which are more distinct in the Eocene genus Agomphus, 
and it has yet to be proved that the latter is really distinct from the 
1 Catalogue of the Fossil Reptilia and Amphibia in the British Museum. By Richard 
Lydekker. Part II., 1889 ; Part III., 1889; Part IV., 1890. London. Published by 
the trustees of the British Museum. 

l89l] Recent Literature. 645 

under-mentioned genus " (Trachyaspis). The fact is, that, as I showed 
in 1873 ( Ann - Repo rt u - s - Geo1 - Surv - Terr -> l8 7 2 'P- 621), Adocus 
has an intergular plate, and a simple contact of the inferior pelvic 
bones with the plastron, and is allied to Baena, belonging therefore to 
Lydekker's group Amphichelydia ; and the absence of rib-heads is not 
included in my family definitions. Also Agomphus has no trace of 
vermiculation, while they are strong in Trachyaspis. 

We refer to some points of nomenclature which arrest our attention. 
The author establishes a "new family," Dermatemydidse, and then 
remarks that the "so-called Adocida? " belong to it. Should this be 
the case, the proper proceeding would have been to have placed Derma- 
temys and allies in the Adocidse. The name Anomodontia is used 
instead of Theromora for the order first defined by the present critic 
under the latter name. Both Prof. Owen's first and last use of the 
former term are shown by Lydekker to have been for the division to 
which the later name Dicynodontia has been also applied. The latter 
name should be disused, both because it is a synonym and because 
some of its members are edentulous. Dr. Lydekker is probably correct 
in preferring the name Theriodonta to that of Pelycosauria, as they 
may refer to the same natural division, although the evidence is not 
all in vet. The name Cotylosauria, though proposed with an erroneous 
definition, is probably the proper one to apply to the subdivision 
Pareiosauria, while Proganosauria should* be probably used in place of 
Procol .-.phonia. The term Labyrinthodontia is resuscitated and used 
for the Stegocephali, although its original definition and etymology 
render it applicable to a limited subdivision only, whose actual bounda- 
ries are not yet known. In the division of the Stegocephali into orders 
or suborders considerable difference of opinion has developed. The 
obvious and simple division into Ganocephali, Rhachitomi, Embol- 
omeri, and Microsauri is objected to by Lydekker, Zittel, and Fritsch, 
on grounds which seem to the present critic insufficient ; and the classi- 
fications which it is proposed to substitute appear to stand on unsecure 
foundations. The value of the presence of complete intercentra in the 
cervical and dorsal regions in Embolomeri is said to be destroyed by 
the fact that Archegosaurus (Ganocephali) possesses the character in 
the caudal region; very inconsequent reasoning, it appears to us. 
Objection to the systematic importance of the segmented or rhachi- 
tomous structure is based on the fact that it is present in young Laby- 
rinthodons, etc. This is certainly a new reason for discarding a char- 
acter from systematic biolog 
inconstant in adults it should 

When a character is 

hown to be 

legated to the rear, hi 

t not before. 

vertebra may 

646 The American Naturalist. [July, 

yet be discovered, but it has not been as yet ; and it will not be soon 
observed with the embolomerous structure. 

The author's adhesion to the law of priority in specific and generic 
names contributes much to the simplification of nomenclature. He is 
not as strict in the matter of family names. We cannot agree with 
him in changing a name as preoccupied, so long as it differs from the 
supposed preoccupier by one letter. This is not preoccupation.— C. 

A. S. Woodward's Fossil Fishes. 2 — The fine collection of 
fossil fishes contained in the British Museum has been at last utilized 
as the basis of a systematic work. No better appointment could have 
been made for the accomplishment of this purpose than Mr. A. Smith 
Woodward, whose abilities as a systematic zoologist have been amply 
tested in this difficult field. The first part of the catalogue is devoted 
to the Elasmobranchii. Two hundred and ninety-six species are con- 
tained in the museum collection, which is only a part of those actually 
known. The value of the work is greatly enhanced by the reference 
list of all described species given under the head of each genus. Of 
the above species, twenty-four are included under the Ichthyotomi, of 
which fourteen are Pleuracanthidae, and the remainder Cladodontidse. 
The systematic position of the latter family is for the first time thus 
indicated. The doubts expressed as to the segmentation of the skull 
of Didymodus, expressed in this place by Mr. Woodward, have been 
since set at rest by an inspection of the specimens themselves, as he 
acknowledges in his report on American collections published in the 
Geological Magazine at a later date. 

In the second part of the work Mr. Woodward takes in hand the 
question of the systematic relations of the fishes in general. He dis- 
cards the division Ganoidei as unavailable, and adopts the subclasses 
Elasmobranchii, Holocephali, Dipnoi, and Teleostomi, as has been 
done in this country. He does not adopt the Agnatha, but accepts 
the superorder Ostracodermi 3 Cope, which, according to some authors, 
represents the former in the Paleozoic formations, and places them as 
a fifth subclass of the Pisces. This is a great advance over previous 
views held in Europe, and it now remains to be seen whether the 
opinion that the Ostracophori are outside the class of fishes is to be 

1891.] Recent Literature. 647 

Another important point is the definite location of the Acanthodii 
as a third order of the Elasmobranchii, for what appear to be entirely 
valid reasons. These are quite sustained by the results of a study of 
several species of Acanthodes, published in 1890 by Dr. Otto Reis, in 
a paper which had not probably come into Dr. Woodward's hands in 
time for notice. 4 The next important systematic step is the location 
of what is left of the old Placodermi after the abstraction of the 
Ostracophori, represented by the Coccosteidae. These Dr. Woodward 
regards as Dipnoi, and the view is a plausible one. Doubtless paleon- 
tologists have no better place for them, and new evidence is likely 
to confirm the proposition. He names the order the Arthrodira. 

Two orders of Teleostomi are adopted, the Crossopterygia and 
Actinopterygia ; the Rhipidopterygia and Podopterygia being rejected. 
We have given reasons in the Naturalist for April why we think 
these orders (or better, superorders) should be retained. Under Cros- 
sopterygia, four suborders are recognized,— viz., Haplistia(Tarrasiidae); 
Rhipidistia (Holoptychiidas, Rhizodontidae, Osteolepididae, and Ony- 
codontidae); Actinistia(Ccelacanthida?) ; and Cladistia (Polypteridae). 
The Actinopterygia are divided into two sections, A and B, corres- 
ponding to our Podopterygia and Actinopterygia respectively. The 
present work enters only the former division, which includes the 
families Palaeoniscidae, Platysomatidae, Catopteridae, Chondrosteidae, 
Belonoihynchidae, Acipenseridae, and Polyodontidae. The volume 
concludes with the Platysomidae. 

Many important points in the structures of these fishes are discussed, 
and the species which are included are placed on a permanent basis. 
The work is illustrated by numerous good lithographs. — C. 

Mrs. Bodington on Evolution. 1 — This book, of two and a 
quarter hundred pages, is a popular presentation of many of the 
farts discovered by the more modern laborers in several fields of 
biology. Its nine chapters treat of the following subjects: The evo- 
lution of the eye ; extinct and surviving mammalia; the flora of the 
past; interesting facts in e 
puzzles in paleontology ; the 
the origin of the fittest. The authoress' presentation of these topics is 
both graphic and scientific, and is well calculated to interest 'the gen- 

* Zurkentniss des Skelets der Acanthodinen, von Dr. Otto M. Reis ; Geogn. Jahreshefte 
des Kgl. bayer. Oberbergamts, 1890. 

648 The American Naturalist. [July, 

eral reader. In fact, the work is an excellent one to put into the 
hands of any person without scientific knowledge, who desires to get 
an insight into questions that occupy at present the scientific mind. 
An especial interest will attach to the book, in the minds of Ameri- 
cans, because many of the facts and conclusions described are derived 
from the work of their countrymen. This will be a recommendation 
to those foreign readers who do not desire the labor of searching the 
original sources in our scientific literature, for popularizers of Ameri- 
can biologic work have not yet grown up on our own soil. The 
authoress is the wife of an English physician who lived at Vancouver, 
British Columbia, and is still a resident of that beautiful region. 

Mrs. Bodington has become a Neo-Lamarckian in her views after an 
impartial examination of the evidence offered by paleontology, and 
she says : " Neo-Lamarckism supplies the ' motif which runs through 
almost every study in this little book. I had not met with the works 
of Lamarck when these studies were written, yet it seems to me that 
every advance in the physical sciences which I have endeavored to 
chronicle adds a fresh laurel to the fame of this most unjustly decried 
genius. If we, who love and honor the name of Darwin, look upon 
him as the Newton of evolution, we surely shall not detract from his 
fame if we look upon Lamarck as its Galileo." 

Geography and Travel. 

Enteral Xotrs. 

The Peary Exploring Expeditions for Greenland and the 
Survey of Unexplored Regions of the Arctic Circle.— An 
expedition that promises to the promoters and to science generally 
discoveries and result of interesting import now takes the name of the 
North Greenland Exploring Expedition. It has been fitted out by an 
experienced investigator, Lieutenant Robert E. Peary, who is a civil 
engineer, serving in the navy with the rank of lieutenant, and for the 
past two years stationed at the League Island Navy Yard. Philadelphia. 
He has obtained a long leave of absence in order to command this 
enterprise, which he has personally projected and arranged, contributing 
largely to the necessary expenses. His former experience in the far 
north fit him thoroughly for his work. Five years ago he penetrated 
far into Greenland with a companion, and obtained a knowledge 
that is the basis of his present project of reaching and exploring the 
most northeasterly promontory of Greenland, and, if the conjectures 
of the existence of a polar open sea be well founded, to secure all the 
information obtainable about that ocean. 

Among the first to see the promise of Lieutenant Peary's project 
were the members of the Philadelphia Academy of Natural Sciences. 
This institution not only extended sympathy and support, but organized 
a special auxiliary corps, with this personnel : Professor Angelo Heil- 
prin, Curator-in-Charge of the Academy, will be the geologist and 
leader of the party; Professor Benjamin Sharp, M.D., Ph.D., also of 
the Academy, will be the zoologist ; Professor J. F, Holt, Professor of 
Natural History at the Philadelphia High School, also zoologist; Dr. 
William T. Hughes, ornithologist; Mr. Frazer Ashhurst ; Dr. Robert 
M. Keely, assistant ophthalmologist at the Jeffeisoo Medical College, 

Philadelphia, surgeon; Dr. V 

Mengel, Ph.G., of Reading, 

vp hot staunch steam vacht, called the 

H. Bark, 

Alexander ( 

For the voyage a diminutive but staunch s 

Kite," has been secured. She was built expressly for sealing 

id has buffeted the ice-floes ot Norway for nearly eighteen ; 

650 The American Naturalist. [July, 

for the proposed heavy work, and supplied with every means that 
experience can suggest to fit her for the work. 

The dimensions of the "Kite" are 117.6 feet long over all, 26.4 
feet beam, and 14 feet hold. Her tonnage is 280 gross and 190 net. 
The engine is a vertical one of fifty-horse power, placed well aft, so as 
to give the propeller a short crank shaft, and thus lessen any liability 
to breakage. The propeller can be triced up and the rudder unshipped 
in thick ice. Her speed is from seven and one-half to nine knots. 
Her bow and sides are well protected with heavy pieces of iron and 
dovetailed blocks of wood. 

The vessel will be commanded by Captain Richard Pike, who went 
with Lieutenant Greely in 1881, and was also one of the Greely rescue 
party in 1883. His crew will consist of chief mate, Edward Tracy; 
boatswain, Patrick Dunphy : chief engineer, William Jardine ; second 
engineer, Alexander McKinley ; steward, Lawrence Hackett ; assistant 
steward, Patrick Welsh ; cook, Thomas Pepper ; firemen, Andrew 
Roost, Edward Crook, and John Cunningham, and able seamen, 
Thomas Collins, John Cummings, Timothy Looney, and John Verge. 
McKinley is from Glasgow, and Pepper from London. The others 
are Newfoundland seal fishermen. 

Lieutenant Peary will be accompanied by his wife and five hardy 
seamen who have experienced the rigor of polar winter weather, and 

entire ship's company will consist of thirty persons. There will also 
be four large Newfoundland dogs on board. 

The " Kite " sailed from New York, in June last, direct to Ivigtut, a 
coaling station at the southernmost point of Greenland, just back of 
Cape Farewell. From thence the " Kite " will proceed to Upernavik, 
on the northwestern coast, in latitude 73 . This is the northernmost 
Danish settlement of Greenland. From Upernavik the " Kite" will 
break her way through the ice across Melville Bay, around Cape York 
to Whale Sound, where Lieutenant Peary, his party, and all their sup- 
plies will be landed. 

It is expected that it will take a month to reach Whale Sound, where 
a house will be built for Lieutenant Peary and his wife, who will 
accompany him on his long journey. At this point the North Green- 
land and the West Greenland parties will separate. The North 
Greenland expedition will start out and establish provision stations 
to the northward and eastward. About a year will be consumed 
in making these preparations, and it is not expected that the 
actual business of that part of the expedition will be begun until the 

i8 9 i.] Geology and Paleontology. 651 

summer of 1892. Lieutenant Peary will then take a northeast route, 
skirting the coast, but keeping on the unbroken inland ice. As the 
party proceeds, their route will bend to the northward and reach the 
furthest point north of the Greely expedition. From that point an 
effort will be made to reach the northern terminus of the land and 
determine its character, and also the existence of an open polar sea. 
At the same time the Academy of Sciences corps will proceed south- 
ward. Lieutenant Peary states that he will make journeys from station 
to station on snow-shoes and ice-skates or skias, while provisions will 
be transported by Eskimo dogs and by members of the party. It is 
believed by Professor Heilprin and others that the party will reach 
within 350 miles of the North Pole by traveling, it is estimated, about 
1,200 miles to and from the main station. This journey will con- 
sume about three months, including rests, and the daily journey will 
cover from eighteen to twenty miles. He proposes to see if the region 
of the North Pole is of land or water, and hopes to discover the polar 


The Name Huronian.— Professor Alexander Winchell, in the 
Bulletin of the Geological Society of America, Vol. II., pp. 85-124, 
remarks as follows : 

" Clearly, the interests of geology and of truth demand an adjust- 
ment of these conflicting conditions in terminology. If Sir Wil- 
liam Logan unwittingly extended the term Huronian over two systems 
now known to be distinct, that usage cannot be continued. Either 
the name must be restricted to the upper system, or it must be relegated 
to synonymy. We think it may be appropriately attached to the 
upper system. The early Canadian geologists sought a term which 
would cover, first and chiefly, the great quartzites which were found to 
follow the Silurian strata in downward succession. Underneath were 
*een so-called chloritic schists and a slate conglomerate. In the 
region first studied these were seen to rest on crystalline rocks, and 
appeared to fill completely the gap between the Silurian and the 
gneisses. These strata were all conformable, and evidently constituted 
a system. If it had not been previously named, the Canadian geolo- 
gists conferred a service on science in giving it a designation. 

" Soon, however, older schists than these were described; but since 
cordance with these was not striking in the original 

652 The American Naturalist. [July, 

region, as known thirty years ago, and since their conglomerate and 
slaty characters were similar to those in some strata of the system first 
named, it was natural, or at least it was venial, to include these latter 
with the former. If, now, we have learned that they are geologically 
incongruous with the higher, it appears obviously necessary to drop 
them off, however prolonged the period in which they have been 
associated together. 

" This is the view which we have maintained for several years. We 
have insisted that the so-called Huronian of Lake Superior is an older 
system than the Huronian of Lake Huron. But we were not aware, it 
must be confessed, until our recent studies, that the same older system 
was actually present north of Lake Huron. 

"If, then, Ave restrict the term Huronian to the upper system, it 
remains attached to the best-known and characteristic portion of the 
old complex Huronian. There will remain the older system, not dis- 
tinctively named until Dr. Lawson in 1866 bestowed upon it the name 
' Kewatian.' In volume, in petrographic and stratigraphic characters ' 
it is a system. It should therefore receive a name of systemic form. 
Such name is Kewatian, homophonous with Huronian, Silurian, and the 

"Whether the term Huronian must not yield to the priority of 
Taconic or Cambrian, we will not discuss. Whether Kewatian can 
take precedence over Azoic, Taconic, and Cambrian, remains to be 
decided. It is the misfortune of all these names, except Kewatian, 
that they were originally intended to cover a complex of strata which 

Pre-Paleozoic Surface of the Archean Terranes of 
Canada. — Mr. A. C. Lawson has collected evidence to show that 
the hummocky aspect of the Archean terranes of North America i» 
not due to the action of the ice of the Glacial epoch, but that it was 
characteristic of the surface upon which the earliest Paleozoic sedi- 
ments were deposited. In pursuing the work incident to this paper, 
Mr. Lawson found also excellent presumptive evidence that the greater 
part, if not the whole, of the Canadian Archean terranes were at one 
time covered by Paleozoic strata. (Bull. Geol. Soc. Am., Vol. L, pp. 

A Mesozoic Fish Fauna in New South Wales. 1 — Mr. A. 
Smith Woodward has recently published a memoir on some fossil fishes 

F.Z.S., F.G.S. Memoirs of the Geological Survey of New South Wales. Paleontology, 

1891.] Geology and Paleontology. 653 

collected by Mr. Charles Culler, at Gosford, New South Wales. The 
series comprises nearly four hundred specimens obtained from a layer 
of dark-gray shale, four feet thick, interstratified with the massive beds 
of sandstone belonging to the Hawkesbury formation. As a result of 
Mr. Woodward's researches, they have been classified as follows : One 
Dipnoan, possibly allied to Ceratodus, Gosfordia truncata. Of the 
family Palseoniscidse, Myriolepis clarkei, M. latus, Apateolepis aus- 
tralis ; of Catopteridae, Dictyopyge symmetricus, D. illustrans, D. 
robustits ; of Belonorhynchidae, Belonorhynchus gigas, B, gracilis ■ of 
Semionotidse, Semionotus australis, S. tenuis, Pristisomus gracilis, P. 
latus, P. crassus, Cleithrolepis granu latus, C t alius; of Pholido- 
poridae, Pholidophorus gregarius, ? Peltopleurus dubius. All the 
species are new except M. clarkei and C. granulatus. Of the genera, 
Gosfordia, Apateolepis, and Pristisomus are new. 

An examination of this list at once demonstrates that the fauna is 
of early Mesozoic age, and Mr. Woodward regards the Hawkesbury 
beds as homotaxial with the Keuper of Europe, or, at the latest, with 
the Rhastic. An important fact leading to this conclusion is the 
absence in this series of fishes with well-developed vertebral centra. 

Ten plates accompany the text, from which one learns how much 
good work can be done with very fragmentary fossils. 

A Cimoliosaurus from the Niobrara Cretaceous of Kan- 
sas.— Prof. Williston has recently described a Cimioliosaurus from the 
chalk of Western Kansas, which is of interest by reason of the 1 

and preservation of the remains. The specir 

the >kull 

and twenty-eight cervical vertebrae, all attached, and with their relative 
positions but little disturbed. The entire length of the skull is about 
nineteen inches, its greatest height about nine inches. It is evident 
thas the skull was a long and narrow one, quite similar to that of 
Plesiosaurus conybeari Sollas. Prof. Williston describes for the first 

Plistocene Subsidence versus Glacial Dams.— Prof. J. W. 
Spencer's studies of the old shore-lines, such as beaches, terraces, and 
sea-cliffs, in the northeastern part of North America, lead him to think 
that these shores were constructed at sea-level, and not moulded in 
glacial lakes. Under these conditions it is necessary to accept a great 
subsidence of the continent, in later Plistocene times, to nearly 2,700 
feet in Western Pennsylvania. He also cites foreign examples to show 
that these continental movements are not peculiar to America, but 
ad in the Barbadoes. in Asia. 

654 The American Naturalist. [July, 

On Some New Fishes from South Dakota.— The Rev. 
D. S. McCaslin and the Rev. Wm. M. Blackburn have sent me some 
specimens of fossil fishes obtained by the latter gentleman from the 
Ree Hills in South Dakota. They are preserved on slabs of a soft, 
chalky rock, and are in pretty good preservation. The age of the 
horizon has not yet been determined. It is overlaid, according to 
Mr. Blackburn, by a thin layer of glacial drift. There are five spe- 
cies, all new to science. I describe them below, and reserve reflections 
as to their probable geologic age until their characters have been 

Gephyrura concextrica, gen. et sp. nov. Isospondylorum vel 
Haplomorum.— Char, gen.— Mouth small, the superior border formed 
by the premaxillary, the maxillary apparently not contributing ; no 
teeth. Branchiostegal rays six, or probably seven. Dorsal fin median 
in position, short, originating above a point just posterior to the 
origin of the ventrals, and extending to a point above the anal fin- 
Vertebras keeled, the last not modified by the development of hypural 
bones, but terminating abruptly, or gephyrocercal (Ryder). Caudal 
fin normal, and not elongate. Scales cycloid, with strong concentric 
grooves, and a few proximal radii crossing them. No lateral line dis- 
cernible. Fins without conspicuous spines. 

Char, specif.— The only specimen is broken vertically across the 
middle, and the posterior half shifted so as to lie immediately below its 
proper position. It appears that little or no part of the fish has been 
lost. Radii, P. 9; D. 9; C. 6-16-8; A. II 11 . V. 1-6; vertebra, 
10-18. Scales in twelve longitudinal rows between dorsal and ventral 
fins, and equal in number to the vertebrae on the longitudinal line, or 
twenty-eight. Head covered with scales ; five in a vertical line on. 
the operculum. The dorsal, pectoral, and ventral fins are rather 
small. The caudal fin is probably not much forked, if at all. The 
orb.t is large, but its outlines are not well preserved. The head enters 
the total length four and a quarter times to the base of the caudal fin- 
rays, and slightly exceeds the depth at the ventral fins. Total length, 
61 mm. ; do. of head, 15 mm. ; do. to base of ventral fin, 24.5 mm. ; 
do. to base of anal fin, 30 mm. ; depth at ventrals, 14 mm. ; depth at 
caudal peduncle, 6 mm. 

This fish may belong to the Cyprinodontidae. It is peculiar in the 
absence of the hypural bones, the caudal region resembling the tvpe 
modified trom the diphycercal, called by Ryder the gephyrocercal/ 

? Sardinius blackburnii, sp. nov.— This fish is represented by a 
single specimen, which is in good preservation with the important ex- 

r 89i.] Geology and Paleontology. 655 

ception that it lacks the head. Its generic position is therefore not 
positively determinable, although it is strongly suggested by the 
parts preserved. If not strictly a species of Sardinius, it is an allied 
form. The vertebrae have longitudinal fossa? ; the hypural bones are 
well developed, and distinct from each other. The dorsal fin com- 
mences above the ventrals, and is of moderate length ; anal not elon- 
gate. The spaces between the caudal hjemal spines are traversed by 
a slender rod obliquely downwards and backwards near the vertebra;. 
The scales are cycloid and with strong concentric grooves. Owing to 
the loss of many of the scales, the presence of a lateral line cannot be 
affirmed. One interneural in front of D. I. 

Char, specif.— Radii, D. 1-7 (possibly one lost at the end) ; A. 8 ; 
V. crowded together, but not less than six. Caudal vertebra;, 17. 
Depth at D. I entering length to bases of caudal rays, 1.5 times. 
Depth of caudal peduncle, 2.25 in the same. Length 'from front of 
base of D. to end of caudal fin, 29 mm. Length of caudal vertebral 
series, 20 mm. Vertical depth of caudal fin, 22 mm. Length of base 
of dorsal fin, 6 mm. ; elevation of do. 8 mm. 

Proballostomus longulus, gen. et. sp. nov.— ? Isospondylorum. 
Char, gen.— Mouth small, ? superior, at the extremity of a prolonged 
muzzle. Dorsal vertebrae elongate, fossate ; caudal vertebrae shorter. 
Pectoral fin median, lateral ; dorsal above ventrals, median ; anal 
small ; caudal large, little emarginate. No conspicuous spines. 
Hypural bones distinct from each other. It is probable that the single 
species known is either scaleless or that the scales are extremely minute. 
The affinities of this genus are not exactly determinable, owing to the 
injured condition of the head. It may be allied to either of the two 
genera already enumerated. The remarkable production of the muzzle 
distinguishes it from either, as well as the elongate vertebra;, and 
corresponding width of the intercostal spaces. 

Char, specif— Radii, D. I 8 ; C. 6 21, 3 ; A. I 6 ; V. 10 ; P. 
10. There is a break behind the skull, so that the number of dorsal 
vertebrae is uncertain ; there were at least 13 ; caudal vertebrae, 18. 
The form of the postcranial regions is slender, the depth at the dorsal 
fin entering that region to the base of the caudal fin six times, and the 
total length ten times. The head enters the total minus the caudal 
rays, one and three-fifths times, or twice, including the caudal fin. 
The caudal peduncle is long, and its depth enters the total length minus 
the caudal fin, thirteen times; its length enters the total minus the 
head, two and one-half times. Total length, 87 mm. ; approximate 
length of head, 29 mm. ; of caudal vertebrae, 20 mm. Depth at ven- 
tral fins, 7 mm. Elevation of dorsal fin, 7 mm. 

656 The American Naturalist. [July, 

Oligoplarchus squamipixnis, gen. et. sp. nov. Percidarum.— 
Apparently allied to Lepomis, but I cannot determine the presence of 
vomerine teeth or the number of the branchiostegal rays. 

Char. gen. — Jaws with a few rows of conic acute teeth. Apparently 
no palatine or pterygoid teeth. Operculum without notch or produc- 
tion of the posterior angle or border. Bones of the head smooth, and 
not serrate. Scales ctenoid, with rough area externally and concentric 
grooves internally, and radii proximally. Spinous radii, D. X. ; A. III. ; 
P. I. Spinous dorsal continuous with soft portion, both together 
much larger than the anal fin. Caudal fin furcate. Skull with a 
median crest, from which a series of interneural bones extends to those 
supporting the dorsal fin. Lateral line not discoverable. 

This genus appears to be allied to the Percid genera related to Cen- 
trarchus, which now inhabit North American waters. It differs from 
all of them in one way or another, as for instance in the form of the 
opercular border, or in the number of the spinous rays and their pro- 
portions. It is perhaps most closely allied to the extinct genus Plio- 
plarchus Cope, differing mainly in the small number of anal rays ; 
that genus possessing from five to seven. These differences are the 
same as those that separate some of the recent genera, showing that 
the same diversities existed in Cenozoic times as now. In the best 
preserved specimen I count six branchiostegal rays, but I am not sure 
that this is the entire number. The pubes are connected with the 
clavicles directly ; vertebrae with lateral fossse. 

Char, specif. — This species is the most abundant, as many as twelve 
individuals having come under my observation. The largest is about 
equal in size to our smaller existing sunfish, Lepomis pallidus. Radii, 
D. X 9-10; C. 5, 17, 5 ; A. Ill 7-8 ; V 1-5 ; P. I 12. The dorsal 
spines increase regularly in length to the tenth ; the first rises above the 
base of the ventral fin, which is a little behind the base of the pectoral. 
The anal fin commences below the first soft ray of the dorsal fin, and 
is nearly coterminal with the last soft ray of the same. The ventral 
spine is quite as robust as any of the dorsal spines, and is subquadran- 
gular, with the external and posterior faces convex, and the anterior 
grooved. The anal spines are robust, the third the longest. The 
scales are in from twelve to fourteen longitudinal rows. In one speci- 
men, of larger size than the others, there are seventeen rows. This 
probably indicates another species, but it is too imperfect for charac- 
terization. Scales rather smaller than those of the body extend on the 
interspinous membranes of the soft dorsal and caudal fins, and on the 
opercular and suborbital regions of the head. Vertebra?, D. 12, C. 

1891.] Geology and Paleontology. 657 

16. Length, exclusive of caudal fin, 52 mm.; length of head, 18 
mm. ; do. to base of D. 1 (axial), 21 mm. ; do. to base of ventral, 
22 mm. ; do. to base of anal, 35 mm. ; depth at base of D. 1, 19 
mm. ; do. of caudal peduncle, 10 mm. ; length of tenth dorsal spine, 
8 mm. The specimen measured is one of the smaller ones, and is 
selected on account of its good condition. The larger specimen above 
mentioned measures 34 mm. in depth at the first dorsal spine, and the 
head is 28 mm. in length. 

Mioplosls multidextatus, sp. nov. — Represented by a specimen 
nearly perfect, but wanting the caudal and anal fins. It conforms 
exactly to the characters of Mioplosus Cope in the distinct dorsal fins, 
the serrate inferior border of the preoperculum, the two anal rays, and 
the ctenoid scales. Radii : Br. VI (? + ) ; D. XII-12 ; V. 6, no well- 
developed spine. Dorsal fins slightly separated at the base ; the 
longest spinous ray the third ; the first very short. Vertebrae, D. 14, 
C. 16, the last one counted possibly not the last, as its distal end is 
broken off. Scales in about twenty longitudinal rows at the ventral 
fins, and twelve at the caudal peduncle ; with proximal radii coarse, 
and no concentric grooves. Posterior limb of preoperculum smooth; 
the inferior with nine robust teeth directed forwards. A serrated crest 
on the posterior part of the skull, which is either the superior branch 
of the posttemporal or immediately adjoins it. Eye large ; muzzle 
short, not" longer than diameter of orbit. Mouth opening obliquely 
upwards. Ventral fin originating a little in front of dorsal, its rays 
quite long. Anal originating below anterior ray of second dorsal. 
Depth of body at first dorsal a little less than one-third of length with- 
out caudal fins, and equal to length of head. Length of head, 35 mm. ; 
do. to base of first dorsal, 41 mm. ; do. to base of second dorsal, 75 
mm. Length of muzzle to orbit, n mm. ; depth of second dorsal, 23 
mm. The proportions of*this species are about as in the M. abbrevia- 
tes, and the number of scales as in M labracoides. The peculiarity 
consists in the increased number of spines of the first dorsal fin (nine 
in the other species), and dorsal vertebrae (ten in other species), and 
preopercular teeth (five in other species). 

Geological Position.— The first observation to be made on the 
species above described is that they differ as to species, and three of 
them as to genus, from all others discovered elsewhere, both fossil and 
recent. The next conclusion is that they include no Cretaceous types, 
the only identification with a Cretaceous genus (Sardinius) being 
purely provisional. The third point is that the genus Mioplosus has 
been found hitherto in the Green River Eocene only. The age is 

658 The American Naturalist [July, 

Cenozoic, but to which system the fauna belongs it is difficult to dis- 
cover. None of the genera have been found in the Amyzon shales, 
and but one in the Green River shales, so that their pertinence 
to the Eocene fauna is doubtful. The chalky matrix much resembles 
that of some localities of the White River Neocene (Oligocene), and I 
should not be surprised if it should be found that this is the age of the 
fossils. It is likely that they were lacustrine in habitat. — E. D. 

Geological News.— Paleozoic— G. M. Dawson calls attention 
to the great Cambrian formation of the Selkirk Range. Its estimated 
thickness is about 40,000 feet. (Bull. Geo. Soc. Am., Vol. II., pp. 

165-176.) Mr. H. M. Ami has found a fauna in the Quebec city 

rocks which is distinct from that of Point Levis. If his determination 
of the fauna is correct, the horizon of these rocks is that of the Tren- 
ton. (Bull. Geol. Soc. Am., Vol. II., pp. 477-502.) Mr. J. L. 

James considers the Maquoketa shales an extension of the Cincinnati 
group. He bases this opinion on studies of rocks of the Cincinnati 
age from Richmond, Indiana, to Savannah, Illinois. (Am. Geol., 

June, 1890.) H. R. Geiger and Arthur Keith classify the sandstones 

of the Blue Ridge near Harper's Ferry as Upper Silurian. (Bull. 

Geol. Soc. Am., Vol. II., pp. 155-164, pis. 4, 5.) Mr. J. F. 

Whiteaves has recently described and figured several new species of 
fossils from the Devonian rocks of Manitoba. The list comprises one 
Brachiopod, three Mollusks, two Gasteropods, and nine Cephalopods. 

(Trans. Roy. Soc. Can., Sect. IV., 1890.) Mr. S. A. Miller 

reports forty new species of Crinoids from the Lower Carboniferous of 
Missouri. More than half of the number belong to the genus Platy- 
crimus. (Bull. No. 4, Mo. Geol. Surv.) 

Mesozoic— Mr. A. Smith Woodward has added the following new 
species to the list of British Jurassic fishes : Eurycormns grandis, Hyp- 
socormus leedsi, H. tenuirostris , Leedsichtlys problematic^, Brown- 
eichthys ornatus. (Geol. Mag., Oct., 1889.) 

Cenozoic. — During the past season Mr. G. F. Becker has found 
additional reasons for maintaining the existence of diabase in the 
Washoe Cenozoic rocks, and also for dividing the pyroxene andesite 
into two distinct outflows, separated by a long interval of time. (Bull. 

No. 6, Cal. Acad. Science.) Mr. N. H. Darton, of the U. S. Geol. 

Surv., names the Eocene formation which extends through Maryland 
and Virginia the Pamunky, and the Miocene of the same region the 
Chesapeake. (Bull. Geol. Soc. Am., Vol. II,, pp. 431-450, pi. 16. 

Mineralogy and Petrography. 

New Minerals.— Aguilarite.- A new regular mineral from Guan- 
ajuato, Mexico, has been named by Genth 2 aguilarite. It is imbedded 
in colorless calcite as brilliant iron-black skeleton dodecahedrons, 
elongated in the direction of one of the crystallography or one of 

the octahedral axes. The mineral i 

has a hardness of 2.5 and density of 7.586. Its composition (Ag^. 
79.07; S=5.86; Se = 14.82) corresponds to Ag 2 S+Ag,Se. Upor 
alteration it yields a scaly iron-black substance, with the compositior 

of cupriferous stephanite, and metallic silver. Griphite.— -In tht 

granite at the Riverton Lode, near Harney City, South Dakota, occui 
kidney-shaped masses of a phosphate, dark brown in reflected light, 
and yellowish-brown or brown in transmitted light. It is amorphous, 
and has no cleavage. Its density is 3.401, and its hardness 5.5. It is 
easily fusible in the flame of a candle, and is soluble in acids. Its 
composition, as found by Mr. Headdon, 3 is : 

<<n . 

composition, which cannot be repn 

simple formula, the author calls the substance griphite. from ,7 :c - 

puzzle. Kaliboritc* is associated with pinnoite and boracite in 

upper layers of the Kainite zone at Stassfurt, Germany. It is a wh 
granular substance with a density of 2.05. It is slightly soluble in wa 
and dissolves easily in dilute acids. Its composition is : 

5^46 f' E o° $ ?;° = K ) M & B (( O„, + 39 H,O. 

The new mineral falkenhaynite, described by Scharizer 5 fi 

Joachimsthal, Bohemia, is regarded by Sandberger 6 as a membe: 
the bournonite group, differing from annivite in containing m 
antimony and less arsenic than this latter, and almost no bismuth. 
composition, as found by Scharizer, is : 

S SI As Bi Cu Ee Un 

25.76 24.30 5.02 .34 39.77 2.83 1.99 

660 The American Naturalist. [July, 

The mineral is steel-gray, with a grayish-black streak. Sanguinite' 1 

is associated with argentite and proustite at Chanarcillo, Mexico, as 
bronze-red scales, containing sulphur, arsenic, and silver. By reflected 
light the scales are black ; by transmitted light they are red. The 
streak is dark purplish-red. Crystallization probably hexagonal. The 

material available was too scanty to allow of analysis. Kallicite, 

from Grube Friedrich, near Schoristein, on the river Sieg, in Prussia, 
is a nickel sulph-antimonide of composition, according to Laspeyres, 8 as 
follows : 

S SI As Bi Fe Co Nic 

14.391 44-942 2.016 n-75 8 2 76 -889 26.943 
equivalent to NiAsS+2NiBiS-f 13N1S6S. Its specific gravity is 7.01 1, 
and its position in the systematic classification of minerals is with 
ullmannite. — ^Sychnodymite is described by the same writer as a new 
cobalt-copper-sulphide from the Kohlenbach Mine, near Siegen, 
Prussia, corresponding to polydimite among the nickel compounds. 
The mineral occurs in little twinned octahedra of a darker color than 
those of polydimite. It is associated with quartz, tetrahedrite, and 
pyrite. Its density is 4.758, and composition : 
S Cu Fe Co 

40.645 18.984 .927 35-786 

: (CoCuNiFe) 4 S 5 

Mineralogical News. — Honey-yellow or greenish-yellow crystals 
of axinite from Franklin, X. J., have an unusual tabular habit, with 
the P 1 face largely developed. They also contain several rare planes, 
well developed, and a new face, f V\. Their axial ratio is a:b:c = 
4921 : i:.4797. an ^ 0=82° 54' 13'% P = 9 l ° S 1 ' 43"> r =I 3 l0 3 2 ' 
19". Their specific gravity is 3.358, and composition : 9 

Lamellar masses of the same mineral have a density of 3.306. Their 
composition does not vary much from that of the crystals. Crystals of 
the same mineral from Guadalcazar, Mexico, are associated with white 
feldspar. These are sage-colored. They are tabular parallel to *P, 
and their faces are frequently rounded. Granular scaly masses identi- 
cal in character with the crystals yielded : 

' ■■ / ; - 

1 89i.] Mineralogy and Petrography. 66 1 

The density of the crystals is 3.299. A small fragment of the same 
mineral from McKay's Brook, Northumberland Co., N. S., was not 

large enough for analysis. Massive rose-colored eudialite™ from 

Magnet Cove, Ark., has a specific gravity of 2.810. Analysis gave : 
Si0 2 QuO, Ta 2 5 (?) FeO MnO MgO CaO Na 2 K.0 CI Ign. 
51.83 11.45 -39 4.37 -37 -ii 14-77 i3- 2 9 -43 1-4* i-88 

Sphene occurs at Magnet Cove, in small brown or brownish-yellow 

crystals, associated with the constituents of elaeolite-syenite. They are 
simple combinations of ocP and -P. 

Si0 2 Ti0 2 FeO MgO CaO Ign Sp.Gr. 

•57 30-84 39-35 ' -73 tr - 28.26 3.457 

At the same locality, in a coarse-grained calcite, are crystals and 

crystalline grains of monticellite, associated with crystals of magnetite 
and apatite. The habit of the rare mineral is short prismatic, with 
pyramidal terminations ooP^and 2P55 / largely developed (axial ratio 
= •4337: 1 : -5757)- The hardness is S; density, 3.108. The min- 
eral, upon analysis, gave, as a mean of two sets of determinations : 

Si0 2 A1 2 3 MnO FeO MgO CaO P 3 5 Ign 
33.46 .17 1. 12 5.01 20.61 35.24 2.03 2.28 

deducting the P 2 5 as apatite, which was present in the assay, the 
figures became : 

SiO, A1,0 3 MnO FeO MgO CaO Ign 
35.14 .19 1.17 5-25 21.64 34-21 2.40 

corresponding to (Mg,Mn,Fe) 2 Si0 4 +Ca 2 SiO,. A light-gray selen- 

iferous bismuthinite, consisting of slender crystals imbedded in clay, 
yielded Genth :« Bi = 77. 54 ; S= 14.06; Se = S.8o, corresponding 
to 4Bi 2 S 3 -f-Bi 2 Se 3 . It probably came from Guadalajara, Mex. Its 
i.306. As the mineral was sent to the 

of guanajualite, 

'an analysis of 

a specimen of this from an old German 

collection was r 

nade in order t< 

j discover whether or not 

it should be 

regarded as a di 

stinct species. 

The examination resulted 

in the figures : 

Bi = 68.86; S 

= 4-68; Se=: 

25.50, corresponding to ] 

Bi 2 S 3 +2BiSe s . 

Messrs. Melville and Luidgren ,2 have contributed to our knowl- 
edge of the minerals of the Pacific slope some interesting observations 
in cinnabar, metacinnabarite, struneyerite, and a few other rare sub- 
stances among which are the recently described minerals knoxvillite 


662 The American Naturalist. 

tonite. Cinnabar from the New Idria Mine, -California 
a prismatic or rhombohedral habit, with the basal plane and a s 
of rhombohedra and tetarto-trapezohedrons well developed, 
crystals are made up of layers of dextro- and lsevo-rotatory mat< 
At Knoxville acicular crystals occur with -f R, and ooR. They en 
metacinnabarite that occurs in seams in a vesicular marcasite. 
analysis gave : HgS = o8.48; FeS=r.6o; SiO f =.7i. Analys: 
redingtonite and knoxvillite yielded : 

SO s A1,0, Cr 2 3 Fe 2 3 FeO NiO MnO MgO Res H 2 at 

R- 35-35 5-14 7-5i -18 4.58 i-oo tr. 1.853.46 27.0 

K. 35.91 4.84 7-4i i5-3 6 3-8i .835 3.22 1.74 9.3 

FLO above ioo° 

and sulphur-yellow scales and crystallir 

FeO MnO MgO H 2 
39.97 26.54 .46 .21 3.06 30.43 

Stromeyerite from the Silver King Mine, San Bernardino county, Cal, 
has a specific gravity of 6.28, a steel-gray color on a fresh fracture, and 
= 53-96; Cu= 28.58; Fe = .26; 8 = 15.51; 
ire chromium chlorite Kotschubeite is found in 
rreen Valley, Cal, as thin, hexagonal plates 
arranged in rosettes. The plates are twinned monoclinic crystals, with 
an optical angle of about 30 , and an acute bisectrix nearly normal to 
oP. The type mineral from the Urals is in apparently hexagonal 
pyramids. The composition of the California mineral is: 

Si0 2 Cr 2 O a A1 2 0, FeO MiO CaO MgO 
35-74 n-39 6.74 1.23 4.87 .183 35.18 

Loss at 105 Loss above 105 
•365 12.68 

. In a note on some Canadian minerals Mr. Harrington ,3 mentions 

the existence of gothite crystals, forming a velvety druse on hematite, 
calcite, and other minerals at Clifton, N. S. At the same place radiat- 
ing needles of the iron compound are found capped with rhombohedra 
of calcite. One specimen yielded: Fe a O, = 88.92 ; Mn 2 () .. = .14 : 
H s 0= 10.20; Si0 2 = .32. A white to pale apple-green serpentine 
occurs as veins in a darker serpentine at an asbestos quarry near 

13 Can. Record of Science, Vol. IV., No. 2, 1890. 

1891.] Mineralogy and Petrography. 663 

Coleraine, in the Eastern Townships. When first mined it is so soft as 
to be easily squeezed between the fingers, but on exposure it becomes 
harder until a hardness of 3.5 or more is reached. It then has a 
density of 2.514, and a composition : SiO, = 43.13 ; MgO = 42.05 ; 
FeO =.37; H 2 Or= 13.88, with traces of MnO, NiO, and CaO. 
Cinnamon garnet from Ottawa county, Ont., has a density of 3.58, 
and a rose-red almandine from the Laurentian gneiss at Murray Bay, 
Que., has a specific gravity of 2.59. Small red spessartites, 1 * imbedded 
in the feldspar and muscovite of a coarse granite vein at Villeneuve 
Mine, Ottawa county, are much heavier. Sp. gr. = 4.117. The 
composition of these is : 

SiO, A1,0 3 Fe,0, FeO MnO CaO MgO Loss 
Cinnamon 36.22 18.23 7.17 .63 37-39 tr. .70 

Almandine 37.97 22.44 2.39 26.12 1.18 5.27 5.42 
Spessartite 36.30 19.20 10.66 30.06 3.07 .43 .31 

From the dump heaps of the Grant and Emerald Mines, in Bucking- 
ham, in the same county, specimens of mountain cork and mountain 
leather were obtained that yielded : 

SiO, A1,0 3 Fe,0 3 FeO MnO CaO MgO Loss Sp. Gr. 
53-99 -55 i-oo io-99 *-*9 I2 -53 J 6.25 2.56 3-°5 
Since pseudomorphs of asbestos after pyroxene are found in the 
vicinity, it is thought that the material analyzed may be of the same 
nature. Dawsonite and ittnerite occur at the Corporation Quarry, on 
the west side of Montreal Mountain, and fine chalcedony concretions 
are imbedded in the clay between Irvine and the Cypress Hills, in the 

northwest territory. The analyses of several minerals are given in a 

recent bulletin of the U. S. Geol. Survey, 15 among which the following 
are the most interesting: (1) petalite, from the spodumene locality at 
Peru, Me. ; (2) spessartite, from the Mica Mine, Amelia county, 
Va - 5 (3) K'Ulemmite, Trotter Mine, Franklin, N. J. ; (4) kaolin, from 
the Waterfall Mine, Gunnison county, Col. 

MO, A1,0 3 Fe 2 3 FeO MnO ZnO CaO Na,0 K s O l,i,0 P 2 O s H 2 Oand Loss 

Triplitc, from a tin mine near Rapid City, S. Dak., gave : 
A1,0, Fe,0 3 FeO MnO CaO Na,0 P,0, H,0 F SiO, CI CO, 
8.74 2.36 1.97 29.13 6.72 5.25 39.68 3.67 2.35 .43 -25 - 26 
besides traces of MgO m and K 2 0, and .13 per cent. LiO,. 

The American Naturalist. 


Motion in the Protozoa.— Ryder has some interesting remarks 
on the contraction of the Vorticellid stalk ' which has not before been 
properly understood. The muscle in the stalk is composed of alter- 
nating discs of anisotropic and isotropic matter, the former being in 
contact with the sheath on the inside of the coils, a type unknown 
elsewhere. Notes are also given on the motion of Trypanosoma. 

Morphology of the Siphonophores. — Brooks and Conklin have 
recently studied 2 the reproductive organs of a Siphonophore belonging 
to Haeckel's order Auronectge. The specimens came from near the 
Galapagos Islands, and were subjected to sectioning. The authors 
found only female organs, and are inclined to think that Haeckel's 
" androphores " some long, spindle-shaped gynophores filled with 
yolk, but into which the egg nucleus had not yet passed, or from 
which it has been forced out by pressure. The development of the 
gynophores is described, and the authors conclude that the " monovone 
gonophores " are true gonophores, while the " polyovone gonophores " 
are merely pouches containing ova, and are not, strictly speaking, 
gonophores. The attention is called to the fact that only male Physalise 
have been found, and the suggestion is made that in these two cases 
the other sex may be so different in form as to have been classed as a 
wholly different genus. 

The Starfish Larva. — In a paper read before the National 
Academy of Sciences, 3 Dr. Brooks says that in numerous starfish larvae 
taken at Wood's Holl, the water system is at first bilaterally symmetri- 
cal in every particular, although the right pore and pore canal early 
disappear. This is regarded as an additional argument for regarding 
the larva as ancestral, and attention is called to the similarity in 
ontogeny between the water pores of the starfish larva and the spira- 
cles of Appendicularia and the tunicate tadpole. 

Anatomy of the Synaptidae.— Among the results derived from 
a study of the six species of Synaptidae belonging to the genera Syn- 
apta, Chirodota, and Myriotrochus, Drs. Ludwig and Barthels con- 
clude 4 that in the adult Synaptid there is no radial water canal ; that 

i Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci., Phila., 1891, p. 10. 
f Johns Hopkins Univ. Circ, X., p. 87, 1891. 
'Johns Hopkins Univ. Circ, X., p. 101, 1891. 
* Zoo/. Anzeiger, Vol. XIV., p. 117, 1891. 


i89i]. Zoology. 665 

semilunar valves constructed on the same plane are present in the 
tentacular canals ; that a pair of auditory vescicles are present on each 
radial nerve where it emerges from the calcareous pharyngeal ring, 
and these are probably functional in the adult ; the so-called eyes of 
Synapta vittata are undoubtedly sense organs, and the pigment spots 
in other forms are probably the same. These spots in S. vittata have 
a rich nerve supply. 

Genito-Intestinal Canal in Trematodes.— S. Goto confirms 5 
Ijima's account of a canal connecting the oviduct, in the ectoparasitic 
Trematodes, with the intestine. His studies have been made on eleven 
species representing four genera. 

Fertilization in the Cestodes.— Pintner 6 has been very fortu- 
nate in finding two proglottids of Anthobothrium musteli in copula, and 
ascertained that a true cross fertilization was taking place. He also 
found another proglottid of the same worm in which the penis had 
entered very deeply the vagina of the same joint. These observa- 
tions show that both close and cros^ fertilization oa nrs in these and 
possibly in all Plathelminthes. 

studied the reforrr 
the processes are much like those of the growing embryo, except in 
regard to mesoderm. When fission occurs the violent contraction of 
the longitudinal muscles curves the ectoderm and entoderm towards 
each other, and then a union between the two is effected. The more 
rapid growth of the ectoderm produces the material for the procto- 
deum. The ectoderm gives rise to the ventral nerve chain and the 
lateral nerve line, and between these occur two other anlagen, which 
correspond in position to the ventral setae and nephridia, but Miss 
Randolph has not traced them out. The mesoderm arises chiefly from 
large cells (neoblasts) in the region of the ccelomic epithelium of the 
ventral long muscles. These neoblasts represent the chorda cells of 
Semper, and occur in every segment except a few anterior. From 
these arise the embryonic mesoderm of the newly forming tail. It 
soon becomes arranged into a median and two lateral elements. The 
median becomes the ventral mesentery, and the walls of the ventral 
blood vessel; the lateral elements form all the lateral mesodermal 
structures except the circular muscles. These last arise from certain 
cells whose origin was not traced. 

5 Zoo/. Anzeiger, Vol. XIV., p. 103, 1891. 

666 The American Naturalist. [July, 

Distribution of Magelona.— Dr. E. A. Andrews calls atten- 
tion 8 to the existence of the adult worm Magelona at Wood's Holl, and 
points out that the larva described by Fewkes from Newport as pos- 
sibly the young of Prionospio tenuis in all probability belongs to this 

Budding in Polyzoa.— C. B. Davenport, contrary to Hatschek, 
says 9 that the stolonic mass in the Polyzoa arises from the ectoderm 
soon after the two-layered stage, the disc thus forming sinking below 
the general surface, and giving rise later to the first polypides. The 
ccelomic epithelium arises by a sort of ingression of a tissue to be 
probably regarded as mesoderm plus entoderm. In Paludicella each 
young polypide arises in the adult colony independently of any older 
polypide. It arises from a mass of embryonic tissue at the end of the 
branch, and some of this tissue is left behind each time the tip moves 
forward, and from this arise the lateral branches. As in the Phylacto- 
ltemata, the hinder part of the alimentary canal progresses from the 
anal toward the oral end. The oesophagus arises independently, and 
the two pockets fuse. The tentacles at first lie in two parallel rows o 
seven each, and the ectoproctous condition is not attained until the two 
free ends of the ring canal become confluent between mouth and anus. 
The so-called epistome described by various authors in early stages of 
Gymnolaemata has no relation with the similarly named structure in the 
other forms, but is merely the fold separating the brain cavity from 
the oesophagus. Eight laws of growth are formulated, based upon 
Bugula and Crisia as typical. 

The Crystalline Style.— This problematical structure in the 
alimentary canal of many Lamellibranchs has recently been inves- 
tigated anew by F. E. Schulze. 10 The idea that it is a supply of reserve 
food material is rejected by him, from the fact, among other reasons, 
that microscopic study shows it to be an epithelial secretion. He is 
rather inclined to the view that it, along with the mucous surfaces of 
the stomach, protects the intestinal walls by covering sand and other 
sharp particles with a layer of mucus. 

The Position of Limulus.— Packard contiues his studies of the 
brain of Limulus. 11 He claims that the brain differs fundamentally 
from that of Arachnids, and is homologous with only that part of the 
scorpion brain which lies in front of the chelicral nerves. The his- 

8 Johns Hopkins Univ. Circ. X., p. 96, 1891. 
10 S. B. Ges. Naturforsch. Freunde, 1890, p. 42. 

i8 9 i.] Zoology. 667 

tology is described, but is not easy to understand without figures. His 
conclusions are that the lack of homology between the brain of Limu- 
lus and Arachnids, the shape and grouping of the appendages, the 
absence of urinary tubes, of tracheae, the presence of branchiae, forbid 
the association of Limulus and its fossil allies with the Arachnids, 
although they may have had a common origin. 

The Vertebrate Ear.— Dr. Howard Ayers, from a study of 
mammalian and sauropsidan ears, concludes ,2 concludes that the so- 
called membrana tectoria of the mammalian cochlea is not a mem- 
brane which acts as a damper on the organ of Corti. He rather 
regards it as an artifact produced from the very long sense hairs of the 
cells of the cortian organ. The membrana basilaris further is not a 
vibrating membrane. "The physiological unit of the cochlea is a 
sensory hair-bearing epithelial cell ; the anatomical unit of the 
cochlea is a group of hair-bearing and supporting cells, — ;'. <?., a sense 
organ comparable in a word to an ampullar sense-organ." Full details 
are promised immediately. 

Segmentation of the Vertebrate Head. — B. H. Waters 
thinks 13 that the neuromeres of Beranek and others may be traced 
into the mid- and fore-brains of Amblystoma and the cod, and he 
would recognize three neuromeres in the fore-, two in the mid-, and 
six or five in the hindbrain. The optic nerve is given a segmental value. 

Description of a New Species of Catostomus (C. rex) 
from Oregon.— One specimen, thirty-two inches long, from Lost 
River, Tule Lake, Oregon, was added last year to the collection of the 
California Academy of Sciences. The characters are as follows: 
D. II., ni^ ; A. II., by?. Scales, 13-80-8; about 35 before the dor- 
sal. Head, 4 ; depth, 4. Eye, 8 in head, placed but little posterior 
to the middle, the snout about 2)/^ in head. Head broad, flattish, the 
cheeks sunken and very long. Mouth small, lower jaw strong, the 
maxillary spine forming a hump on the snout. Papillae small, appar- 
antly but two rows on upper lip. Scales peculiar, the basal portions 
covered with skin. Ventrals rounded, placed below anterior half of 
dorsal, not reaching halfway to vent. Dorsal as high as long, angu- 
lar, the last rays but little shorter than the anterior, inserted midway 
between tip of snout and base of middle caudal rays. Pectorals reach- 
ing halfway to ventrals. Caudal peduncle subterete, long. Anal just 
reaching to caudal. Lateral line interrupted posteriorly. Pharyngeals 

668 The American Naturalist. [July, 

narrow, the teeth gradually narrower from below upward. Blackish to 
below the lateral line, many of the scales of the ventral surface dark 
dotted. Fins blue-black, the paired fins darkest.— R. S. Eigenmann. 

The End of the Urodele Tail.— It has long been known that 
in the tritons the skeleton of the tail terminates not by a vertebral 
body, but by a " cartilaginous end rod." This has been said to have 
no genetic connection with the notochord. Now Barfurth, 14 in study- 
ing regeneration in this region, finds that the chorda cells are capable 
of regeneration in the Urodeles, and that the chorda cells become 
altered into this terminal element, which he prefers to call "chorda-rod." 

The Gila Monster.— Mr. Samuel W. Garman has recently 
studied 15 a living specimen of this reputedly venomous lizard. It was 
fed on eggs. It made its burrow in the sand in the box in which it 
was kept, and it evinced great desire to bask in the sun. It was 
"really good natured," although it could be teased into a temper. 
Mr. Garman is very doubtful of its deadly qualities. The venom 
seems to affect small animals, but to have little danger for larger ones. 
Several of the well-known accounts of its noxious character are quoted, 
and then Garman details his own experiments with a cat, less than 
one-third grown. This the "monster bit twice on the hand and 
wrist. For half an hour this caused the kitten some distress, and was 
licked and dressed as usual. Then followed an hour and a half of 
sleep, from which the kitten woke as bright as ever, the hand being 
slightly swollen, and in twenty-four hours no ill effects were seen. 
The same kitten was then bitten again, and later the wounds were 
studied, but no disintegration or other modifications of the tissue were 

Dr. R. W. Shufeldt, in the New York Medical Journal of May 23d, 
1 89 1, gives a summary of observations made up to date on the struc- 
ture of the salivary glands, and the effects of the saliva when intro- 
duced into wounds. He concludes that the evidence is conflicting. 
Three good figures accompany the paper. 

Recent Researches in the Herpetology of Africa.— The 

Societe Philomatique of Paris has recently published several papers by 
M. F. Moquard on reptiles and Batrachians from Africa that will 
interest zoologists, as they come from regions but little represented 
either in museums or private collections. In the memoir on the rep- 

1891.] Zoology. 669 

tiles from Somali and Zanzibar 16 the author prefaces his descriptions 
with the following remarks : 

"The new collection of reptiles and batrachians reported in 1884 
from the Somali country and Zanzibar, by M. G. Revoil, is without 
doubt the most important of all those which this zealous traveler has 
sent to the museum during many excursions into regions at that time 
almost unknown. One of these collections was described many 
years ago by Professor L. Vaillant. This new one, richer in species, 
is distinguished by some specific types and interesting genera which 
appear to be new. Among these types we cite in the Lacertilian order 
Hemidactylus tropidolepis, the dorsal aspect of which is covered with 
unequal, keeled scales, and not with granulations, as appear upon many 
of the species of Hemidactylus, or with equal, smooth scales, as 
H. homozolepis ; an Eremias with nostril opened between four nasal 
plates, and with the dorsal scales keeled, which I have dedicated to Pro- 
fessor Alph. Milne-Edwards, E. edwardsii ; a new species of Agamo- 
don, A. compression, characterized by a compressed body and by 
having the lateral borders of the cephalic shields recurved. 

" Besides the new species of Dasypeltis, of slender form, D. elongata, 
the Ophidians contain two Calamarians which we believe represent new 
genera, the one a relation of Elapomorphus, but without the malar 
or preorbital constitutes the genus Elaposchema, a name which 
will suggest its resemblance to Elaps ; the other, slightly removed from 
Amblyodipsas, and to which I would give, on account of its size, the 
name Brachyophis, is especially remarkable for the presence of a true 
occipital plate behind the parietals. It seems proper to dedicate these 
two new species, Elaposchema vaillantii and Brachophis revoilu, respec- 
tively to M. Vaillant and M. Revoil. 

"Among the species already described, but which until now 
have remained in the museum we cite the following: Agamodon 
anguliceps Peters, Psammophis biseriatus Peters, and Chiromantis 
petersii Boulenger ; the first is represented by nine specimens, and the 
last two each by two. 

" In concluding this short introduction, we call attention to the fact 
that two of the new species of which we have spoken above are bur- 
rowers,— Agamodon compressum and Brachyophis revoilii. One readily 
believes that other types of similar habits of life, and which have 
hitherto escaped the researches of explorers, will be found to enrich 
18 On a Collection of Reptiles and Batrach Zanzibar. By M. 

670 The American Naturalist. [July, 

the herpetological fauna of Eastern Africa whenever a thorough search 
can be made." 

The collection includes thirty-four species, of which twenty are 
lizards, twelve are snakes, and two are batrachians. Two plates, 
admirably drawn, accompany the paper, giving in detail the curious 
appearance of the three new species. 

The other papers contain a description of a new snake {Atractaspis 
leucura) from Assinie ; 17 a review of the genius Heterolepis, with the 
addition to it of three new species, — H. stenophthalmus, H. guiralii, H. 
savorgnanii ; l8 and descriptions of snakes 19 and reptiles 20 from the 
Congo country. 

Of the latter, M. Mocquard described thirty-four species, four of 
which are new, — Microsome '• (' > > . 1 ' ngi auda, Atheris 

anisolepis, and Gonionotus brussauxii. 


Development of Compound Ascidians. — Dr. M. v. Davidoff 
has published a second contribution to the above subject, entitled 
" Untersuchungen zur Entwicklungsgeschichte der Distaplia magni- 
larva, etc." 2 He deals here with the general formation of the germ- 
layers. The paper runs through more than a hundred pages, and the 
author by no means confines himself to the title of the paper, but dis- 
cusses the development of all other Ascidians, the problem of the meso- 
derm formation, and touches upon the origin of the vertebrates them- 
selves. The holoblastic segmentation of the egg is described for the 
earlier stages. The most interesting fact in this connection is the 
presence of the test cells between the segments of the egg for quite a 
long time during the early stages. Subsequently they disappear, pre- 
sumably degenerating. A solid mass of cells results from the segmen- 

ie do Paris Seance du 28 Novembre, 1885. 

re Heterolepis et des especes qui le composent dont trois nouve 

lies. Ext. 

Ophidiens rapportes du Congo par la Mission du Brazza. Ext. du 

Bull. Soc. 

: Collection de Reptiles du Congo. Ext. Bull, de la Soc. Philom; 

erie.t. 1, No. 4, page 143. 

>y Dr. T. H. Morgan, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Md. 

1 89i.] Embryology. 67 1 

tation, those over one pole being very large, and aie, as shown by their 
fate, the endoderm cells, while those at the other pole go to form the 
ectoderm. Both germ-layers are filled with large yolk masses. The 
ectoderm cells partially surround the endoderm cells. Where ecto- 
derm and endoderm come in contact around the periphery of the large, 
open blastopore there is found a ring of small ectoderm cells, which go 
to form the nerve-chord of the older larva. It is thus seen that the 
nerve-chord is formed from two bilateral parts lying along each side of 
the blastopore, then subsequently coming into contact form the nerve 
plate. Before the blastopore is closed in, however, the large endo- 
derm cells, which are still at the surface (within the rim of the ecto- 
derm forming the blastopore lips) delaminate into a row of outer, 
smaller cells— the endodermal plate— and larger cells in the interior of 
the embryo. From the former there develops, at the sides of the 
blastopore, the peristomial mesoderm. Later, as said above, the lips 
of the blastopore close over the endodermal plate, and the nerve-chord 
is formed out of the cells from the two sides of the blastopore meeting 
over the endodermal plate. // is thus seen that the blastopore corre- 
sponds to the dorsal side of the embryo. In other words, the animal pole 
of the eggs, where the ectoderm first forms, corresponds to the ventral 
side of the Ascidian, and by inference to the ventral side of all Chor- 
data. (Van Beneden had previously pointed out this fact, which is of 
the greatest importance, since it bears directly upon two of the most 
interesting problems of embryology,— viz., the relation of vertebrates 
to other groups, and the polar relations of the egg to the adult ani- 
mal.) There is no invaginate gastrula in Distaplia, andt he cavity of 
the digestive tract appears later as a split in the endoderm. After a 
review of gastrula within the group, the author concludes as follows ; 
" Segmentation in the solitary Ascidians is nearly equal, and leads to 
a one-layered blastula, of which one-half flattens, then invaginates. 
By this means there is formed a gastrula which comes nearest of all 
Ascidians to the primitive type,— i.e. , to a Archigastrula. In the social 
Ascidians a modification is brought about in that the blastula is not 
formed. With the disappearance of the latter the segmentation- 
cavity is reduced to a split between the embryonic cells, or fails com- 
pletely. The result of segmentation is a two-layered plakula, into 
which the elements of the two germ-layers differentiate quite early,— 
at the eight-celled stage. The gastrula is here formed not by invagi- 
nation of blastoderm cells, but by a splitting in the endoderm, while the 
borders (periphery) of the plakula rise up and grow towards one 
another,— a process that is brought about by unequal growth (increabe) 

672 The American Naturalist [July, 

of the cells of the two germ-layers, and is to be distinguished from the 
true invagination (embole)as pseudoembole. 

"The development of the compound Ascidians is easily distinguished 
from that of the social Ascidians. Here the plakula turns in by 
another process, since the gastrula-cavity (which formed the archente- 
ron in Clavellina) is filled in the dorso-ventral direction with dividing 
endodermal cells. Now the archenteron arises neither by embole or 
by pseudoembole but by delamination of the large endodermal cells 
{Distaplia amaroeaim). The closing over of the endoderm by the 
ectoderm takes place in Distaplia by a different process in different 
parts of the embryo ; anteriorly it is purely epibolic ; posteriorly, on 
the other hand, this takes place by a division of the dorsal endoderm 
cells (endodermplate), which at the same time, together with the ecto- 
derm cells in question, grows around a space (pseudogastrula-furrow), 
which space is later filled by the endodermal cells themselves. This 
process, taking place in the pseudoembolic region of the embryo, 
must be looked upon as a rudiment of embole, which, in spite of great 
changes in the egg of social Acidians, occurs in the typical way." 

This series of stages, from the simple to the social, to the compound 
Ascidian, furnishes an excellent example of Hatschek's law that " by a 
phyletic change in a group of animals not only the adults (end stage) 
are changed, but also the whole series of embryonic stages, from the 
egg to the adult' (end stage.) 

Rabl's phylogenetic classification of the vertebrates according to 
the accumulation of yolk is criticised and objected to. We need not 
here enter into the detailed description of the origin of the mesoderm, 
the digestive tract, and the notochord, which occupies the last fifty 
pages of the paper. 

Development of the American Lobster. — Two preliminary 
papers, one on the habits and larval stages of the lobster, and the 
other on the reproductive organs and early stages of the lobster, have 
been published by Prof. F. H. Herrich. 3 " The spawning season is con- 
fined to the summer months, and the eggs which are then laid are 
carried by the female throughout the fall, winter, and spring, and are 
not hatched under natural conditions until the following summer." The 
number of eggs laid varies from about 3,000 to 36,000 ; a lobster 10*^ 
inches long produces on an average 12,000 eggs. The lobster does 
not breed annually. The eggs laid in summer develop with compara- 
tive rapidity, and eye pigment is formed in 27 to 30 days. Develop- 
ment slows up in the fall, and comes nearly to a standstill in the 

3 Johns Hopkm^ L"ruw-> t\ < n_u ir No. 87, 1891. 

1 89 1.] Entomology. 673 

winter. Soon after hatching a brood the lobster may moult, but eggs 
are not laid again until at least another year. 

When the young lobster hatches from the egg it moults, and in arti- 
ficially hatched lobsters large numbers die on account of inability to 
pass this moult. After six or seven days the second moult occurs. 
Young lobsters swim at the surface six to eight weeks, and then dis- 
appear entirely from the surface. 

The second paper deals with the growth of the reproductive organs, 
and the stages as far as the nauplius-like condition. The greatest dif- 
ferences appear in the segmenting eggs. The egg nucleus, with its 
surrounding protoplasm divides near the center of the egg, and its 
products wander to the surface, and the periphery breaks up into 
irregular cells. Until about 40 hours after fertilization the peripheral 
yolk is entirely segmented. About 30 segments are present. In all 
the segmentation stage occupies three days. By the end of the fourth 
day the invagination stage is reached. This is followed by the keel 
stage, which lasts about four days. At the beginning of the tenth day 
the nauplius appendages begin to bud, first the first pair of 
antennae and mandibles together, and a little later the second pair of 

The "Arrow Weed " and Mexican "Jumping Bean' 
Insect. — It has long been known that the Indians in Mexico make a 
powerful poison from some native plant, which poison, in a milder 
form, is also used as a cathartic. It has also long been known that 
seeds possessing the curious power of jumping are produced upon the 
same plant in Mexico, and are sent to other parts of the world, form- 
ing quite an article of commerce. The exact nature of this plant, 
however, has hitherto remained a mystery. At a recent meeting of 
the Washington Entomological Society, Professor C. V. Riley read an 
interesting paper on the determination of the plant upon which these 
"jumping seeds " are produced. In the Transactions of the St. Louis 
Academy of Sciences for 1875 ' s an account of Carpocapsa saltitans 
Westwood, the insect which causes the saltation of the " beans," he 
had called attention to the fact that the particular euphorbiaceous 
plant upon which these seeds are produced was not determined. 
Westwood, in his original description of Carpocapsa saltitans, states 
that the plant is known to the Mexicans as Calliguaja, and in a recent 

674 The American Naturalist. [July, 

letter to Prof. Riley from M. Chretien, of the French Entomological 
Society, the plant was referred to as a Mexican euphorbiaceous plant 
called Colliguaja odorifera Moline. About this time Mr. J. M. Rose, 
of the botanical division, brought to Prof. Riley specimens of plants 
recently collected by Dr. Edward Palmer, who sent with the plants 
specimens of the capsules, thus rendering it certain that the jumping 
bean occurs on this particular plant. It turns out to be undescribed, 
has been referred to the genus Sabastiania, and will be described by 
Mr. Rose as S. palmeri. Prof. Riley decides that the reference given 
by M. Chretien is erroneous, as Bentham and Hooker give Colliguaja 
odorifera as from South America, and there is no record of it from 
Mexico. Comparison of the specimens in the department herbarium 
showed that while evidently closely allied, Colliguaja is quite distinct 
from Sebastiania, which renders it rather remarkable that the name 
given by the Mexicans to the plant should be identical with that 
adopted for the South American genus. The name seems to be of 
Chilian origin, and was doubtless introduced into Mexico by the 
Spaniards. It is probably applied to various euphorbiaceous species 
having the same poisonous attribute, whether occurring in Mexico or 
south of the equator. 

A closely allied species of Sebastiania from the same localities (as 
yet undescribed, but which Prof. Watson will describe as 6". pringlei) 
also shows evidence of being infested with Carpocapsa saltitans, and a 
third species (S. bilocularis) is infested by an allied larva of a moth 
which Prof. Riley describes by the name of Grapholitha sebastiania. 
There is therefore good evidence that the insect causing the saltations 
of the "beans" develops in the capsules of at least two different 
species of the genus Sebastiania. The young larva doubtless hatches 
from an egg laid externally on the capsule, and penetrates the same 
while quite young, very much as in the case of the common pea weevil. 
Dr. Palmer found S. palmeri only in certain canons near Alamos, 
where it is popularly known aspalo de la flecha cuero de las sinullas 
brincaderos (arrow tree which produces the jumping beans). The 
plant exudes a good deal of milky juice, which is what the Indians 
use on their arrow-heads. It is a loose-growing shrub, from five to 
eight feet high, the wood very hard, and the milky juice readily crys- 
tallizing into a clear, white, brittle substance. In the appearance of 
the wood it reminds one somewhat of our witch-hazel, and in the leaf 
of a broad-leaved willow. As in the case of other Euphorbiaceae, the 
carpels, or each of the three parts of the capsule, dehisce, or suddenly 
split when ripe ; but when the larva inhabits the same the parts fail to 

1891.] Archeology and Ethnology. 675 

separate, being kept together by the carpet of silk which the larva 
spins on the inside. The peculiar jumping motions of the carpel are 
thus produced, as first described by Prof. Riley in the Transactions of 
the St. Louis Academy aforementioned. The full-grown larva, by its 
holding fast to the silken lining by its anal and two hind pair of 
abdominal pro-legs, which have very strong hooks, then draws back 
the head and fore body, the thoracic parts swelling and the thoracic 
legs being withdrawn. The contracted parts being then suddenly 
released, the larva vigorously taps the wall of its cell with its head, 
sometimes thrown from side to side, but more often brought directh 
tapping for insects. 

down as in 

the m 


of a wood 


The seed w 

ill thus 


whenever w 


the winter, 


ith most tc 


long time 

in the 


state after 



Remarkable as a 

re the 


of this 

that they a 

re throv 

m intc 

1 the shade 

on the leaves of oui 

■ post-oak and oth< 

tx oaks. 

seed-like gz 

ill, and 

the in: 

,eet within. 

which ] 

Cynics ,„//, 


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larval state 



me 13th 

The International Congress of Anthropology and Pre- 
historic Archeology of Paris, 1889.— {Continued from page 592). 
Fifth Question: "The Relation between the Civilization of Hall- 

diseussion of the congress. Captain E. Boett 
criticising the excavations made at Hissarl 
Captain Boetticher was of opinion that the hil 
had been explored by M. Schliemann did nc 
maim thought, the debris of the walls or the 
that it had been a necropole or crematory, a 
cremation, and that the superposed territory 

676 The American Naturalist, rjuiy, 

urns and other objects which related exclusively to funeral and burial 
customs. That, said he, which M. Schliemann took for walls of 
defense or habitation were nothing but the surrounding walls of 
furnaces where incineration had been practiced. The tumulus of 
Troade, he contended, had the same origin as that of Hissarlik. Its 
civilization was, according to him, essentially Assyro-Babylonian, 
influenced in a large measure by the Phoenicians and by the Egyptians. 
About 1500 years B.C. the civilization of which Troy may have been 
the center extended over a part of Asia Minor and into Western 
Europe. It was destroyed by the Hellenes that substituted for it the 
classic civilization. Hissarlik, Mycenae, Tirynthe, Koban, and Hall- 
stadt are the principal stations of this now destroyed and disappeared 
civilization. Captain Boetticher enumerated his proofs, and insisted 
upon the analogy between the objects of Italy and those which had 
been gathered in Egypt, in Assyria, and in the north of Europe, and 
of which the destination, said he, was essentially votive and funeral. 
Dr. Schliemann rose, and, according to the official report made by the 
secretary, he was saluted by an ovation which was entirely exceptional 

facility, and I may remark, English equally well, and he expressed 

commenced with a historic resume of his excavations, of his first visit 
to Troad in 1868. He recalled the fact that, disdaining all traffic and 
commercial profit by the sale of the classic antiquities which he there 
discovered, he had given to the museums in his native country and 
others all the products of his research. He gave due credit to his aids 
and assistants, of whom stood in the first rank his wife, a French 
engineer, Adolphe Eaurent, Emile Burnouf, director of the French 
School at Athens, Joseph Holfor, the architect, of Vienna, Dr. 
Virchow, and Dr. Doerpfeld. He acknowledged an international 
concert of praise of which any man, scientific or not, hail just right 
to be proud. The attacks of boetticher had been responded to by 
Virchow and Doerpfeld. The latter offered his services to accompany 
Boetticher to Troy, and there take up the excavations, and M. S. hlie 
mann declared his willingness that the whole should be done at his 
expense. Dr. Schliemann then took up the details of the discussion. 
He declared that M, Boetticher made choice of exceptions out of an 
enormous series or mass of material. He replied to attack after attack 
with apparent satisfaction and success. He extended his remarks, and 
compared in detail the antiquities of Troy with those of Mycenae, of 

Archeology and Ethnology. 

Tirynthe, and Orchomene, 
become general in Greece a 
century B.C. He concluded ■ 

formed a veritable era in the study of preclassic civilizati 

M. J. de Morgan spoke of the antiquities found at Hiss; 
M. Schliemann. He declined to enter into the discussion 
differences between Dr. Schliemann and ('apt. Boetticher. S. 
concerned those differences, he was decidedly upon the sidt 
Schliemann, and if he had any difference of opinion of his o 
Dr. Schliemann, it was rather that from his knowledge and his 
tions in the Armenian and Chaldean countries, and those fart lu 

had made the error of assigning too recent a date rather t 
ancient a one. M. de Morgan recalled the numerous evidence 

of Warka and Mougheir, in Chaldea, were at least thirty c 
h.c, and yet were in the beginning of the age of iron in that c 
At 1700 ii. c. the Egyptian generals returned from their cat 
in Asia bringing with them utensils of iron, to which they 1 
great value in view of the rarity of that metal in the valley of t 
At the beginning of the Assyrian empire iron had already be 

eesi sui'tinei 
: the epoch t 

678 The American Naturalist. [July, 

which the excavations related were at an earlier period than that 
indicated as having had a knowledge of iron. With our knowledge 
of investigations of Dr. Schliemann one cannot suppose the first excep- 
tion to have existed. The investigations were sufficiently profound, 
sufficiently extensive, to satisfy one that if iron had had an existence at 
that time in that locality, he would have found its evidence ; and this 
was evidence or proof, said M. de Morgan, that the inhabitants of 
Hissarlikdid not at that time possess knowledge of iron. The other 
conclusion must then prevail, to wit : that the excavations at Hissarlik 
made by Dr. Schliemann pertain to an epoch when iron was not known 
or used by the inhabitants; and by this line of reasoning he demon-- 
strated to his own satisfaction the error of Dr. Schliemann having 
assigned to Hissarlik a period too recent, when it should have been 
more ancient. M. de Morgan said that a study of the mines, whether 
of iron or of copper, and all the excavations in the neighborhood 
with which he was acquainted, confirmed the teachings of history, and 
he thought he had correctly laid it down. In Russian Armenia the 
excavations told the same story. M. de Morgan said he had opened 
more than a thousand sepultures, all of which contained arms of iron, 
which belong or could be divided into two simple groups : one of 
which was anterior to the eight centurj b. ( .. the beginning or dura- 
tion of which was as yet unknown, but which might have been very 
much older than the date mentioned ; the other was posterior, after 
the grand invasions of the seventh century 1: c, but before the Persian 
conquest. The age of bronze, said M. de Morgan, if m existence o! 
to be found in the Transcaucasie, was of comparatively short duration ; 
and therefore, ranging himself upon the side of Dr. Schliemann 
and against Captain Boetticher, he demanded, is it possible that 
the whites of the /Egean sea, who were always moving from one 
place to another, who were eminently the people of migration, of 

knowledge of iron while that knowledge was spread around them upon 

Archeology and Ethnology. 

which had been discovered and excavat(*l by 

de Morgan 

mentioned by M. de Morgan, and they cai 

me from th 

e mountain 

range midway between the Caspian and the 

Black Seas 

. So these 

objects both of bronze and of iron mentio 

ned by him 

were quite 

Monsieur A. Odobesco presented some observations and descriptions 
as to the prehistoric monuments in Roumania, in Northern Moldavia. 
He described the objects of human industry as being arms made of 
polished stone implements in gold, objects in pottery. Some of the 
latter were covered with designs in color which resembled the volutes, 
spirals, and cervides of the vases of Mycenes. There were also small 
statuettes in terra-cotta. Monsieur Odobesco believed that the pre- 
historic stations of this sort in Roumania, Yakuhia, Transylvania, 
belonged to the same chain of civilization which had its origin in 
Greece and Asia Minor and united the prehistoric Caucasus, and he 
recommended the attention of the congress to this matter at some 
future session. Thus was brought to an end the extremely interesting 
and somewhat exciting discussion between Dr. Schliemann and Captain 
Boetticher. {To de continued.) 

Recent Discoveries of Egyptian Remains.— Writing to 
the New York Nation from Keneh, Cpper Egypt, on March 17th,. Mr. 
W. H. an important and must interesting discovery 

680 The American Naturalist. [July, 

the pyramid." "In the fojenoon of Wednesday," continues Mr. 
Goodyear, "a workman came to say that an opening had been found 
under the platform on the side next the pyramid. This proved to be 
the top of a doorway choked by detritus, through which Mr. Petrie 
crawled into an interior of three chambers, and discovered the 
inscriptions mentioned. I had the pleasure of following him. Mr. 
Petrie thought the apartments had not been previously entered for 
about three thousand years, — that is to say, that the rubbish fallen 
from the pyramid had choked the entrance about three thousand years 
after construction. A friend who was with me noticed on the floor 
some dried wisps of papyrus, a plant now extinct in Egypt. The 
chambers thus far found are so filled that one cannot stand erect in 
them, and a door at the end|of the third chamber is blocked by large 
stones. Over all lies an enormous mass of detritus, whose removal by 
Arab diggers is now progress. I had the pleasure next day of carrying 
the news of Mr. Petrie's find to the gentlemen of the Egypt Explora- 
tion Fund at Beni-Hassan, and oi fected delight 
over it." — Scientific American, May 23d, i8gi. 

Proceedings of Scientific Societies. 


The Royal Society of Canada.— This body met at Montreal, 
from May 27th to June 1st, inclusive. The officers were as follows: 
Honorary president, Lord Stanley de Preston j president, Rev. Geo. 
M. Grant ; vice president, Abbe J. C. LaFlamme ; honorary secretary, 
J. G. Bourinot; honorary treasurer, Dr. A. R. C. Selwyn. The fol- 
lowing papers were read in the department of geology and biology: 

" On the Probable Occurrence of Gold-Bearing Rocks in New 
Brunswick." Prof. L. W. Bailey. " Notes of the Pleistocene Plants 
of Canada, with Descriptions of New Species from the United States." 
Prof. D. P. Penhallow, B.Sc. " The Geological Formation of Quebec, 
South of the River St. Lawrence." R. W. Elk, LL.D., F.G.S.A. 
Communicated by J. F. Whiteaves. "On the Present State of Botany 
in the Dominion of Canada, with Suggestions as to Promising Lines 
of Investigation, and a Proposal for I'nited Kl'ibrt in Systematic ■<>!>- 

and D. P. Penhallow. 15.Sc. " I Iibernation : A Preliminary Com- 
munication." Prof. Wesley Mills, M.A., M.D. " The Orthoceratidae 
of the Cambro-Silurian Rocks of Manitoba." J. F. Whiteaves, of 
the Geological Survey. " The Ammonites of the Cretaceous Rocks 
of the Valleys of the Peace and Athabasca Rivers." By the same. 
"On the Geology of the St. Claire Tunnel." Frank D. Adams, 
B.A.Sc. Communicated by Sir Wm. Dawson. " ( >bservations on the 
Distribution and Habits of Some New Brunswick Fishes, including 
New Forms Lately Identified. Philip Cox, A.B., B.Sc, Newcastle, 
N. B. Communicated by Prof. Bailey. " Illustrations of the Fauna 
of St. John Group, No. VI." G. F. Matthews, M.A. " Three Deep 
Wells in Manitoba." J. B. Tyrrell, M.A., B.Sc. Communicated by 
Dr. G. M. Dawson. " On the Sequence of Strata Forming the Que- 
bec Group of Logan and Billings, with Remarks on the Fossil Remains 
Found Therein." Henry M. Ami, M.A., F.G.S., of the Geological 
Survey of Canada. Communicated by Dr. G. M. Dawson. " De- 
scriptive Notes on Certain Implements. Weapons, etc., from Graham 
Island, Queen Charlotte Islands. IS. C." Alex. MacKenzie. Com- 
municated by Dr. G. M. Dawson. 

The American Society of Microscopists.— This i 


five days. Its 

shington, D. ( 
roll of activt 

:., a 

ugust ioth, and continue in 

hundred and fifty nami 
United States who is ai 

t all prominent 

x> z 

nearly every person in the 
microscopist. Its member- 

bership consists of tw( 
students of the natural 

sciences, who" 

iZ i 

-viz., professional men and 
he- microscope in their daily 


r s, or those who find pleasure an 

diagnosis, or precision ; and 
d profit in the revelations of 

the inst 

rument. Many 

of the latter . 


from having early chosen 

in thei 

peara this class j 

id investigation, ha 
predominated in the 

ve acquired high reputations 
roscopical research. In its 
membership of the society, 

but at i 

.resent the proft 

ssional elemen 

argely in excess. 

iam Muggins, Esq.. D.C.L., LL.D., F.R.S., F.b 
tnts elect, The Right Hon. Lord Windsor, Lord Liei 
ganshire; The Most Hon. The Marquis of Bute, 
Hon. Lord Rayleigh, M.A., D.C.L., LL.D., Se 
F.R.G.S. ; The Right Hon. Lord Tredegar; The 
Aberdare, G.C.B., F.R.S., F.R.G.S. ; Sir J. T. D. Lie 
J.S.; Archibald Geikie, Esq., For.Sec.R.S., F.: 
Director-General of the Geologica] Survey of the 

1891.] Scientific Neius. 683 

Ogden N. Rood, A.M., Professor of Physics in Columbia, says: 
" No member of this department is engaged in any commercial or 
outside work whatever. There is one feature of work in which some 
college professors are accustomed to indulge, which cannot be too 
strongly condemned. That is when a man under salary from a great 
university, trading on the name and fame of the institution, holds 
himself in readiness to testify as expert witness for a pecuniary con- 
sideration. This practice, I take it, is one which ought to be discour- 
aged by the authorities of the colleges where it exists. The time of a 
college professor should be devoted to teaching and to original 
research, to the interests of the students, and to the advancement of 
science. The office should not be prostituted in such a manner by 

institution where this practice is not known : that is at Johns Hopkins. 
The only reason that makes such expert testimony valuable in the eyes 
of the jury is the fact that the witness is an officer in a prominent 
institution of learning, and this looks, to me, like trading in the 
reputation of the college, and, to say the least, is a great breach of good 
taste. ' ' — Scientific American, May 23d, 1891. 

Edmond Andre, the well-known student of the Hymenoptera, died 
in Beaune, January nth, 1891. 

Dr. Oscar Schultze is called to be extraordinary professor in the 
University of Wurzburg. 

Dr. Lewis E. Hicks, for the past six years professor of geology in 
the University of Nebraska, will leave his position at the close of the 
college year. 

Dr. Dostoiewsky has been elected prosector of histology and embry- 
ology in the Medical School of St. Petersburg. 

Antonio Stoppani, the Italian geologist, died January 1st, 1891. 

Dr. Gustav Retzius, well known for his classic work on the verte- 
brate ear, has resigned his position in the University of Stockholm. 





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The phosphates of the system are 
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exhaustion usually indicates a lack 
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supplies the phosphates, thereby «» ST^VS 

: capacity tor labor, 


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included in the list. Many genera, too, have been revised by specialists, 
and their revisions have been used in the preparation of the Check-List. 
Several additional species discovered last year (1890) are included. 

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Vol. XXV. AUGUST, 1891. No. 296 


THE LITOFTERNA [Illustrated], ..'.£. IX Cope, 

' ' 

1 M . : ..,'/ ; . : ■';. " ; : * ■'■' ;■. r;;^,.- ■-■■;■ 


1 Embryology.— Some Notes on the Breeding 

• 753 

j Entomology.— tsect— Recent 

1 "''''""'"' 

^ ■•■"■" ''"' r '." " : . v ■ i v ' r :\ ; V-'' : '^ 




To f ,. - * 


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AUGUST, 1 89 1 


T^HERE has been known for many years a mammal of the 
Pampean formation of Buenos Ayres called by Professor 
Owen Macrauchenia. 1 It is distinguished by many peculiarities, 
but at the time of its first description its characters were chiefly 
known from the skull and cervical vertebrae. The former 
resembles very much that of a horse, but has the strange 
peculiarity of having the external nostrils posterior to their usual 
position in land mammals, — that is, between the eyes, where it is 
placed in the sea-cows or manatees. The teeth were generally 
found much worn, but their general appearance was like those of 
primitive three-toed horses ; but the canines were small and like the 
premolars. The cervical vertebrae, on the other hand, displayed 
characters like those found in the camels, especially in the 
absence of an especial canal for the vertebral artery, which pre- 
sumably ran in the canal of the spinal cord. The position of 
this animal was absolutely uncertain, on account of the absence 
of specimens of the feet; but Professor Owen was inclined to 
place it in the Perissodactyla, and other authorities have followed 
him (Plate XVII.). 

Professor Burmeister, of Buenos Ayres, later obtained still better 
specimens, which included parts of the hind feet. He found that it 
had three toes on both feet, and he published a restoration of it. He 

1 Zool. of the Voyage of the " Beagle," Fossil Mammalia, p. 35, PI. v. and XV., 1389. 

686 The American Naturalist. [August, 

represented it as a long-legged and long-necked mammal, fur- 
nished with the short proboscis of a tapir. 2 Within a few years 
good specimens of the fore feet were received in Paris, and 
Messrs. Scott and Osborn have given us a figure of that member, 
which, with what was known before of the hind foot, enables us 
to place the genus finally in the system. The carpus and tarsus 
are both taxeopodous, or with the bones of the two rows in con- 
tinuous lines and not alternating. 3 So this genus is a taxeopod, 
and cannot enter the Perissodactyla, which is diplarthrous. 

The lamented French paleontologist, Bravard, who perished in 
the earthquake at Mendoza, thought he had discovered in Argen- 
tina species of the European genera Palaeotherium and Anoplo- 
therium, which were found by Cuvier in the Eocene deposits 
near the city of Paris. The discovery of these genera in this 
region was unlooked for, and its announcement excited much 
curiosity, if not credence. 

In 1873 Prof. W. H. Flower described and figured in the Philo- 
sophical Transactions of London (p. 173) the dentition of a 
new mammal, under the name of Homalodoiitotlicriian aaiuing- 
hamii. He regarded it as allied to Rhinoceros on the one hand 
and Macrauchenia on the other (Fig. 4). 

Some years after this Burmeister announced the finding by 
Moreno of the skull of a large mammal in the Eocene beds of 
Patagonia, of remarkable character. It was represented as hav- 
ing large and formidable canine teeth and a very short series of 
molars, but of its affinities no definite idea was expressed. It 

In the great work on the " Extinct Mammalia of Argentina," 
recently issued by Ameghino, which is reviewed in the present 
number of the Naturalist, the characters of these forms are 
much more completely described than previously, and the rela- 
tions of several of them have been clearly pointed out. Informa- 
tion is furnished which enables us to estimate the position of 
them with certainty. In the year in which this volume was 
issued the present writer published in the Naturalist a " Syn- 

* Annal. del Mus. Pub. de Buenos Ayres, T. I., p. 32, PI. i.-iv. ; p. 252, PI. xm. 

I8 9-J The Litopterna. 687 

opsis of the Families of the Vertebrata " (1889). Here the 
results of my study of the preliminary papers of Ameghino and 
Burmeister were embodied in the following systematic form. The 
Macraucheniidas were placed in the suborder Toxodontia (p. 28). 
Ameghino having .shown that the supposed Palaeotherium and 
Anoplotherium of Bravard were allied to this family, and should 
be referred to the genera Proterotherium and Oxyodontotherium, 
a family, Proterotheriidae, was proposed for the former, and it was 
also placed in the Toxodontia. The Toxodontia were placed in 
the Taxeopoda. Ameghino's researches having shown that the 
fore-foot structure of the Toxodontidae and Mesotheriidae is that 
of the Amblypoda, while the posterior foot only has the taxeo- 
pod structure, it became evident that the Toxodontia must be 
regarded as a distinct order between the Taxeopoda and the 
Amblypoda. The Proterotheriidae and Macraucheniidae having 
the taxeopod structure of both extremities, must remain where I 
placed them. M. Ameghino, disregarding the question of taxe- 
opody and diplarthry, places these families under the Perisso- 

proposes to regard them as a suborder, with the 

name of the Litopterna. This name will be retained, and will 
apply in my system to a suborder of the Taxeopoda. 

The structure of the feet of the Astrapotheriidae remains 
unknown. Their location will depend entirely on the solution of 
this question. M. Ameghino places them in the Amblypoda. 
This position is rendered extremely improbable by the structure 
of the # true molar teeth. Those of Astrapotherium resemble 
those of the Toxodontia, but still more those of Macrauchenia. 
Homalodontotherium resembles Rhinoceros. Until the question 
is positively settled by the discovery of the feet, I place them 
in the Litopterna as their most probable position, following 
Ameghino, so far as regards Homalodontotherium, which he 
places here. 

The suborder Litopterna is nearly related to the Condylarthra, 
and it is probable that future discovery will obliterate the differ- 
ences which we find to characterize the known types. The prime 
characters in which the Litopterna differ from the Condylarthra 
are the absence of epitrochlear foramen of the humerus, and the 

688 The American Naturalist. [August, 

ginglymoid articulation- of the astragalus with the navicular in 
one, the anteroposterior, plane. In the Condylarthra this articu- 
lation is ball and socket, or nearly universal, as in the Unguicu- 
lates generally. The articulation in the Litopterna is of ungu- 
late character, and has the same functional value in the fully 
developed forms, such as Epitherium, as in the Artiodactyla. In 
the known forms the fibula articulates with the calcaneum, 
another point in which they differ from the Condylarthra. A 
peculiar character, said by Ameghino to characterize this sub- 
order, is the presence of four roots of some of the inferior pre- 
molars and molars. This authority also states that they do not 
possess a clavicle. 

The three families differ as follows . 
Superior molars essentially tritubercular, the two 
external cusps modified into Vs ; inferior mo- 
lars with Vs ; Proterotheriidce. 
Superior molars with straight external wall and 

cross-crests, no Vs ; Astrapotheriidce. 

Superior molars with subequal external Vs and 

cross-crests ; inferior molars with Vs ; Macrancheniidce . 

The dentition of the Proterotheriidae could be easily derived 
from that of the Periptychidae of the Condylarthra by the modes 
of complication usual in other Ungulata. On the other hand 
that of the Macraucheniidae could have been derived from that of 
the Meniscotheriidae. The dental type of the Astrapotheriidae 
could have been derived from that of Protogonia by a process 
similar to that by which the Rhinocerotine line arose from a 
primitive quadritubercular diplarthrous form. The parallel pre- 
sented by the succession of the Litopterna in time as compared 
with that of Diplarthra is most remarkable. The resemblances 
in the dentition are such that the early students of the paleon- 
tology of Argentina referred members of the Proterotheriidae and 
Macraucheniidae to the Perissodactyla and Artiodactyla, and later 
authors have referred one of the Astrapotheriidae to the Rhinocero- 
tidse. In the last case the resemblance may be traced in all parts 
of the molar teeth, even including the plication of the anterior part 
of the external wall of the crown. The entire suborder is a 

i8 9 i.] The Litopterna. 689 

remarkable illustration of the identity of results produced by 
identical mechanical causes. The parallel is further increased 
by the diminution in the number of the digits, in the cases when 
the structure is known, in the course of geologic time. 

The families range from the Lower Eocene to Plistocene time. 
They have not been found hitherto outside of South America. 
They thus continued much longer than the Condylarthra, and 
must be regarded as a derivative of that suborder, which found 
in South America conditions favorable for continuance which 
were wanting in North America. 

sider their characters in greater detail. 
In the Proterotheriid^e we have a type more closely con- 
nected with the Periptychidae of the Condylarthra than any later 
form. The superior molars are tritubercular, the protocone with 
well-developed accessory tubercles anteriorly and posteriorly, as 
in Periptychus. The external cusps of these teeth are modified 
into Vs, however, as in Meniscotherium. The three internal 
cusps become confluent on wear (Figs. 1, 2). 

The genera distinguishable in the material furnished by M. 
Ameghino are as follows : 
Digits? Symphysis not coossified; no in- 
termediate tubercles of the superior 

molars ; Proterotherium Amegh. 

Like the last, but intermediate tubercles 

present ; Anisolophus Burm. 

Symphysis mandibuli coossified ; Thoatherium Amegh. 

No intermediate tubercles ; ? symphysis ; 

three digits, the lateral rudimental ; Epitherium Amegh. 


TIu An 

possible to determine the number of digits pres- 
ent in the greater number of the genera of 
this family. It is, however, extremely prob- 
able that we have four or five in the Eocene 
genera Anisolophus and Thoatherium. If so, 
we have a successional reduction in later peri- 
ods, similar to that which has been shown to 
have occurred in the horse line. In Epitherium 
Amegh. we reach a stage corresponding to 
that of Hippotherium, the lateral digits being 
reduced to the condition ot dew-claws, accord- 
ing to Ameghino (Fig. 3). Proterotherium 
and Anisolophus are the only genera in which 
the dentition is well known, and our knowledge 
is confined to the molars. The premolars 
nearly resemble the true molars in both jaws. 
Two species certainly belong to Proterothe- 
rium, and they are from the " inferior Oligo- 
cene" of Patagonia. Three other species 
from the Oligocene and Eocene of the same 
region, described under distinct generic names 
by Ameghino, have not been yet clearly distin- 
guished from Proterotherium. Two species 
are referred to Anisolophus, which with the 
single one of Thoatherium are from the Eo- 
Fi g . 3 .— Epitherium cene - But one species of Epitherium (E. 
jfa. ; laUrnarium Amegh.) is yet known. This is 
Kom^me^hTno 1 S ' Ze ' a m ° St interestin g animal, and took the place 
in the Miocene fauna of Argentina (accord- 
ing to Ameghino) of the three-toed horses in the corre- 
sponding age in the Northern Hemisphere. It was about the 
size of a small guanaco, and was digitigrade, like the higher 

In the Macraucheniid/e we have a line of modification differ- 
ent from that of either of the other two families, resembling in 
some respects both of them. Thus the superior molars are con- 
structed on the one type in the modification of the external 

i8 9 i.] The Litoptcma. 691 

cusps into more or less distinct Vs of equal proportions, while 
the internal part of the crown is modified from transverse crests, 
such as are seen in the Toxodontia. The genera are as follows : 

I. Canines one-rooted. 

? Canines ; incisors small and sepa- 
rated by diastemata ; Diatomicodon Amegh. 

Inferior molars with simple Vs ; Scalabrintherhun Amegh. 

Vs of inferior molars with an external 

transverse branch ; Oxyodontotherium Amegh. 

II. Canines above two-rooted. 

? Canines ; external nares advancing 

to between premaxillaries ; Mesorhinus Amegh. 

External nares bounded by maxillaries 

in front ; Macranchcnia Ow. 

But little is known of these genera, excepting Macrauchenia. 
In this genus there are three subequal toes, both anteriorly and 
posteriorly, and progression was digitigrade. The nostrils were 
remarkable for their posterior position, being partly above the 
orbits. The latter are closed behind. The last premolar teeth 
only in both jaws are like the molars, and there is a short dias- 
tema in front of the small canine Incisors like those of a horse, 
without the cups. Dental formula: I. f; C. \ ; Pm. T ; M. f . 
The molars, as is often the case in the Argentine forms, soon 
wear so as to obscure the structure, and an internal cingulum 
encloses the spaces between the cross-crests as fossae. The 
absence of vertebrarterial canal from the cervical vertebrae in 
this genus is a repetition of what occurs in the Camelidai. Four 
species of Macrauchenia are described (Plate XVIL). 

Macrauchenia patachonica Owen was an animal of about the 
proportions of a mule. The posterior position of the external 
nostrils has suggested that the habits were aquatic, or that it 
possessed a short trunk like the tapir. It is a characteristic 
species of the Pliocene beds of Buenos Ayres. A smaller 
species, M. boliviensis Huxley, has been found in corresponding 
beds in Bolivia. Seal abrinthcrinm paranense Brav. and orthii 
Amegh. are from Miocene beds of the Parana. The same form- 
ation has produced the Mesorhinus pyramidatus Amegh., which 

692 The American Naturalist. [August, 

had the dimensions of the guanaco. No genus of the family- 
has been yet reported from the Eocene. 

The Astrapotheriidae include the largest forms of the Litop- 
terna, if they belong truly to 
certainly known, which differ a: 
Dentition; I. , T ; C. \ ; Pm. ; 

M. I ; no diastema ! 
Dentition ; I. f ; C. \ ; Pm.. \ ; 

M. I ; a long diastema ; 
Dentition; I. ?; C. ?; Pm. \; 

M. I ; a long diastema ; Listriotherium Merc. 

In Homalodontotherium the dental series is uninterrupted, and 
the canines are small and resemble simple premolars. The pre- 
molars differ somewhat from the molars, and the molar series 

Homalodontotherium H u xl ey. 
Astrapotherium Burm. 


generally has much the appearance of that of Caenopus among 
the rhinoceroses. In the inferior molars the resemblance is not so 
great, although not wanting (Fig. 4). Nothing is known of the 
typical and only species, H. cunninghamii Flower, but the denti- 
tion, and this indicates an animal of the size of an ox. 

In Astrapotherium Burm. the dentition is much more spe- 
cialized. The canines are large, and they are followed by a dias- 
tema. There are only two premolars above and one below. The 
superior premolars differ from the true molars more than is the 
case with Homalodontotherium, but they have the same character, 
— ft, e., an external wall, and a curved internal crest, the convexity 

patachonica Owen 

inwards. They are much smaller than the true molars (Fig. 5). 
Five species are known. The A. magnum Owen, the largest 
mammal of the Eocene of South America, equals a rhinoceros in 

Fig. 5.- 

dimensions. Its canine teeth, well developed in each jaw, ren- 
dered it a formidable animal. 

All the species of the Astrapotheriidae are from the Lower 
Eocene of Patagonia. 

Macrauchenia patachonica Owen ; from Burmeister ; mi 

Fig. 2.— Skull from below. 
Fig. 3. — Superior dental series. 
Fig. 4.— Inferior dental series. 



stachys. Stachys affinis Vil. 
""THIS plant was introduced into cultivation by Messrs. Vil- 
* morin-Andrieux et Cie, in 1886. 1 The roots are thick and 
fleshy, and are called useful for pickles, and may be used fried. 
According to Bretschneider, 2 the roots were eaten as a vegetable 
in China in the fourteenth and sixteenth centuries, and are 
described as a cultivated vegetable by Chinese writings of 1640 
and 1742. It is used as a cultivated vegetable in Japan, and is 
called choro-gi, and, as Mr. Taniari tells me, it is esteemed. 

sugar beet. Beta vulgaris var. 
These are selected forms from the common beet, and scarcely 
deserve a separate classification. Those figured by Vilmorin are 
all of the type of the half-long red, agree in being mostly under- 
ground, and in being very or quite scaly about the collar. The 
sugar beet has been developed through selection of the roots 
richest in sugar for seed-bearers. The sugar-beet industry was 
born in France in 181 1, and in 1826 the product of the crop was 
1,500 tons of sugar. The formation of the " sugar beet " could 
not, then, have preceded 181 1; yet in 1824 five varieties, the 
grosse rouge, petite rouge, rouge ronde, jaune, and blanche, are 
noted, 3 and the French sugar or amber reached American gar- 
dens before 1828. 4 A richness of from sixteen to eighteen per 
cent, of sugar is now claimed for Vilmorin's new improved white 
sugar beet. 5 

1 Vilmorin-Andrieux et Cie. Seed Cat., 1886, with figures. 
5 Bretschneider. Bot. Sin., 53, 59, 83, 85. 

1891.] The History of Garden Vegetables. 695 

The names assigned by Vilmorin to the sugar beet are : France, 
betteraves a sucre ; Germany, sucker-rube ; Flanders and Holland, 
suiker-wortel ; Spain, remolacha de azucar, betabel de aaucar ; 
Portugal, betarava branca d'assuear. 

The discovery of sugar in the beet is credited to Margraff in 
1 747, announced in a memoir read before the Berlin Academy of 

sweet cicely. Myrrhis odorata Scop. 

This aromatic herb can scarcely be considered as an inmate of 
American gardens, although recorded by Burr 6 in 1863. It has 
also fallen into disuse in Europe, although yet retained by Vil- 
morin 7 among garden vegetables. In 1597 Gerarde 8 says the 
leaves are " exceeding good, holsom, and pleasant among other 
sallade herbes, giving the taste of anise unto the rest." In 1778 
Mavve 9 records that it is used rarely in England. Pliny 10 seems 
to refer to its use in ancient Rome, under the name anthriscus. 
It finds notice in most of the early botanies. 

Sweet ficely or s-iceet-scented chervil or sivcct tern is called in 
France, cerfeuil musquc, cerfeuil d'llspagnc, cerfcuil anise, eicutaire 
odorante, fougerc niusqnee, uiyrrhide odorante, persil d'aue de 
Lobel ; in Germany, grosser spamscher wehlriechender kerbel ; in 
Flanders, spaanschc kervel ; in Denmark, spansk kjorvel ; in 
Italy, Jin oce hie II a ' or mirride. u 

sweet marjoram. Origanum sp. 
But two species are enumerated by Vilmorin for European 
culture, but several other species were formerly grown. The 
leaves of all are used for seasoning. 

Origanum vulgare L. 
This aromatic herb, a native of Europe, has become natural- 
ized sparingly in the Atlantic states, and is quite variable, afford- 
ing a dwarf variety to culture. It is supposed to be the Cunila 

'Pickering. Ch. Hist., 

6 9<5 The American Naturalist. [August. 

bubula of Pliny, 12 and the Origanum of Albertus Magnus " in 
the thirteenth century. It is not, however, indicated as cultivated. 
It is called " English wilde marjerome " by Gerarde " in 1 597, 
and " wild marjoram " by Ray 15 in 1686, who describes also the 
dwarf variety. It is mentioned as cultivated by Mawe 16 m 1778, 
but not by Bryant 17 in 1783, although a hundred years earlier 
Meager 18 gives the English name of « pot or wild marjoram " to 
one of the cultivated varieties, and includes also the "pide," which 
is probably the variety with variegated foliage mentioned by 
Burr, 19 who enumerates this species among American garden 
plants. Its culture is also mentioned by Worlidge in 1683, who 
— *~i the partly colored and the white varieties. 

marjoram, pot marjoram, or perennial marjoram is 


called in France, marjolaine vivace ; in Germany, 
joram; in Flanders, orego ; in Denmark, merian ; » in France 
also, origan; in Germany, dosten ; in Italy, regamo or origano ; 
m Greece, rigani or riganon ; 21 in Telinga, mridu-maruvamuP 

Origanum majorana L. 
This is the species usually present in the herb-garden. It is 
supposed to be the amaracus of Pliny, 23 who speaks of it as cul- 
tivated. It is also the marjorana of Albertus Magnus" in the 
thirteenth century, and is mentioned as cultivated in the early 
botames. Its modern culture is quite extended, and at Bombay 
it is considered sacred to Siva and Vishnu. 25 It is said to have 

12 Pliny. Lib. XX., c. 61. 

" Albertus Magnus. De Vee. . Tessen VA 

Meager. Eng. Gard., 1683, 86. 

" Pickering. Ch. Hist., 261. 
M Birdwood. Veg. Prod of 1 

"Pliny. Lib. XXI e 3,. 

1891.] The History of Garden Vegetables. 697 

reached Britain in i573, 26 and was a well-known inmate in 
American gardens in 1806. 27 

Sweet marjoram, knotted marjoram, or annual marjoram is 
called in France, marjolaine a coquUle ; in Germany, majoran, 
franzosischer majoran ; in Flanders and Holland, marjolijn ; in 
Italy, maggiorana ; in Spain, unjorana, almoraduj ; in Portugal, 
manjerona ; ^ in Norway, merian ; 29 in Greece, masouran, 
mantziotirana ; in Egypt and Yemen, mardakusj ; in Hindustani, 
marzanjosh, marwa, nazbo; 30 in Arabic, mirznnjoosh, marda- 
kusch ; in the Deccan, murwa ; in Tamil, marroo;^ in the 
Mauritius, marjolaine? 1 

Origanum onites L. 

Pliny M speaks of this species as called onitin or prasion in the 
first century, but its introduction to Britain is said to have taken 
place in 1759. 32 It was in American gardens in 1806, 27 but does 
not appear to have been much cultivated, although recorded by 
Burr in 1863. Its name does not now occur in our seed-lists, as 
it is inferior to the preceding variety. 

This species has been called pot marjoram, a name which has 
been applied to the 0. vulgare. 

Origanum heradcotician L. 

This species has been identified with the Cunila gallinacea of 
Pliny. 34 It is mentioned in the early botanies, and is said to have 
reached England in 1 640, 35 and is recorded in American gardens 
in 1806. 36 It finds mention by Burr in 1863, but seems now to 
have disappeared from our seed-lists. It is frequently mentioned 
by early garden writers under the name of whiter sweet marjoram, 
and has a variegated variety. 

21 Mcintosh. Book of the Gard., II., 238, 239. 

"McMahon. Am. 

Gard. Cal., 

»Vilmorin. L. c. 

19 Schubeler. Culturpf. , 


80 Pickering. L. c. 

, -J 4 S 


SI Don. Gard. and 



33 Pliny. Lib. XX. 

"Pliny. Lib. XX. 

. II., 


M McMahon. L. ( 

69S The American Naturalist. [August, 

sweet potato. Convolvulus batatas L. 
This widely distributed cultivated plant, originally of South 
and Central America, had developed many varieties at the period 
of its discovery by Columbus. Peter Martyr 37 in his second 
decade, written about 1 5 14, mentions batatas as cultivated in 
Honduras, and in his third decade he gives the names of nine 
varieties. In i526 0viedo 38 not only mentions sweet potatoes 
in the West Indies, but says they have often been carried to 
Spain, and that he had carried them himself to Avila, in Castile. 
In Peru, Garcilasso de Vega 39 says the " apichu " are' of four or 
five different colors, some red, others yellow, others white, and 
others brown, and this author was contemporary with the con- 
quest. The " camote " of Yucatan, called in the islands axi and 
batatas, is mentioned in the fourth voyage of Columbus/ 1 and 
ChancS", physician to the fleet of Columbus, in a letter dated 
1494, speaks of ages as among the productions of Hispaniola. 
In Europe, sweet potatoes are mentioned by Cardan 42 in 1556, 
and Clusius, 43 in 1566, describes the red or purple and the pale 
or white sorts as under culture in Spain, and in 1576 he notes 
that their culture had been attempted in Belgium. Their mention 
hereafter in the early botanies are frequent. Their culture is 
noted for Virginia before 16 

least thirteen sorts are 

notes that in the Hawaiian Islands 

1750 Hughes 45 says that al 

the Barbadoes, and Wilkes * 

: potato had 

been introduced, there are thirty-three varieties, nineteen of which 
are of a red color and thirteen white. On the Mauritius, Bojer « 
describes the round and long forms, white and purple. At the 
present time Vilmorin* describes two varieties in France and in 

39 G. de Vega. Roy. < 

" Pharmacographia, i 
"Cardanus. De Ren 

The History of Garden Vegetables 

1863 Burr 

q describes nine varieties as 

in Ameri 

,an gardens. 


the varietie 

now known to r 

ne, not on 

:type ca 

be considered 

as modern 

n its appearance. 

The swet 

t potato is called 

n France, 

potate donee, batate. 

chautdes I 

ides, truffe donee 

; in Ital 

r, patata 

in Spain 


Portugal, batata.* 9 

Other na 

mes have been, in 


in 1597, potatoes, potatns, 

and potades 

(Ger.); by Clu 

sius, 157C 

, batatas, 

ea motes, am 

Native American names are, in Peru, apichn (Piso. de Vega) ; 
at Quito, enmar (Markham) ; in Brazil, jetica (Piso. Marcg.), 
jettiki (Hans Stade) ; by the Portuguese in Brazil, batata (Marcg.), 
patattes (Nieuhoff) ; in Mexico, eamote (Unger) ; in Carib, maby 
(Descourt.) ; in Tupi, hctich (Gray) ; in Tupi-Guarani, yeti (Gray) ; 
in Yucatan, eamote (Port. Voy.) ; in Choctaw, ahe (Gray). 

Other names are, in New Zealand and Otaheite, cnmala (Cook) ; 
in New Zealand, knmara (Wilkes) ; in Malay, ubitora ; Javanese, 
nbi; Chinese, at Batavia, hantsoa (Nieuhoff); Central Africa, 
veeazee (Grant) ; East Africa, in Wanika-land, fiasi (Krapf.) ; in 
the Soudan, dankali, donkali (Heuze). 

In India, shnkar-kundo (Firm.); in Bengali, shukar-knndoo-aloo ; 
in Telinga. , via (Drury) ; in Hindustani, penda- 

loo ; in Tamil, snkkaray-vnllie ; in Ceylon, batala ; in Persian, 
zardak-lahori ; in Malay, batatas (Birdwood) ; in Japan, imo, 
kara imo (Thunb.). 

tansy. Tanacetum vnlgare L. 

Tansy is still included in the herb-garden as a condimental 
and medicinal herb, yet it is very little grown, the wild plant 
usually sufficing for all purposes, and it very readily becomes an 
escape, thriving in out-of-the-way places without culture. It was 
formerly in greater esteem than at present. In 1633 Gerarde 50 
says : " In the spring-time are made with the leaves hereof newly 
sprung up, and with egs, cakes, or tansies, which be pleasant in 
taste, and good for the stomacke." In 1778 Mawe 51 says : "This 

700 The American Naturalist. [August, 

herb for its economical uses in the kitchen and medicine merits 
culture in every garden," and names for varieties the plain- 
leaved, the curled-leaved, the variegated-leaved, and the scentless. 
Both the common and the curled are figured by Dodonaeus 52 in 
1616, and are mentioned in other botanies of this period. It was 
in American -gardens before 1806. 

Tansy * or tansie M is called in France, tanaisie, barbotine, herbe 
amere, herbe aux vers, tanacee ; in Germany, gemeiner rain/am, 
revierblume, wurmkraut ; in Denmark, reinfang ; in Italy, ata- 
nasia, tanaceto, erba santa-maria ; in Spain, tanaceto.™ 

tarragon. Artemisia dracunadus L. 

This plant, widely spread over South Russia, was brought to 
Italy, probably from the shores of the Black Sea, in more recent 
times. The first mention on record is by Simon Seth, in the 
middle of the twelfth century, but it appears to have been scarcely 
known as a condiment till the sixteenth century. 55 The leaves 
make an excellent pickle, and are sometimes used in soups and 
salads. The flowers, as Vilmorin says, are always barren, so the 
plant can only be propagated by division. Its culture is men- 
tioned by the botanists of the sixteenth century, and in England 
by Gerarde 56 in 1597, and by succeeding authors on gardening. 
Rauwolf, 57 1573-75, found it in the gardens of Tripoli. In 
America it is mentioned by McMahon 58 in 1806. 

Tarragon is called in France, estragon, absinthe estragon, dra- 
gonne, /argon, herbe dragon, serpentine, torgon ; in Germany, 
dragon, bertram, esdragon, schlangenkraut ; in Flanders and Pol- 
and, dragonkruid ; in Denmark, estragon, kaisersalat ; in Italy, 
dragoncello, targone, serpentaria ; in Spain, estragon; in Portu- 
gal, estragas. 59 

54 Turner. Libellus. 1538. 
» Targioni-Tozzetti. Hort. T 
™ Gerarde. Herb., 1597, 193. 

5 - McMahon. Am. Gard. Cal 

isgi.] The History of Garden Vegetables. 701 

thyme. Thymus vulgaris L. 

A plant native to the southern countries of Europe, and which 
has been long cultivated in more northern countries. In English 
culture it is recorded about 1548, 60 and it is mentioned by Ger- 
arde in 1597, and succeeding authors. It succeeds as an annual 
even in Iceland, 61 and is recorded as grown in the tropical gar- 
dens of the Mauritius. 62 Three varieties are known : the narrow- 
leaved, Thymus vulgaris, teuuiorc folio of Bauhin, 63 1596; the 
broad-leaved, Thymus vulgaris, latiore folio of Bauhin, 63 1596; 
and the variegated, Thymus variegato folio of Tournefort, 64 and 
also mentioned by Bauhin 65 in 1623. It was known in American 
gardens in 1806 66 or earlier, and the broad-leaved kind is. the one 
now principally grown in the herb-garden for use in seasonings. 

The common, French, or narroiv-leaved thyme is called in 
France, thyme ordinairt . , frigaiUe, mignotese du 

Gcncvois, pote, pouilleux ; in Germany, ftanzosischer thymian ; in 
Flanders, thymus; in Holland, tijm ; in Denmark, thimian ; in 
Italy, timo, pepolino ; in Spain, tomillo ; in Portugal, tomillw ; 67 
in Norway, timian ; m in Arabic, hasha ; in Hindustani, ipar; <® 
in India, espar, 70 

Thymus serpyltum L. 

This is a very variable plant, occurring wild in Europe, and 
sparingly naturalized in some localities in Northeastern America. 
In 1726 Townsend 71 speaks of it in English gardens, but not as 
a pot-herb ; but it is placed among American pot-herbs by 
McMahon 66 in 1806. At the present time it is occasionally used 

fil Pharmacographia, 1879, 487- 

702 The American Naturalist. [August, 

for seasoning in England. In Iceland it is used to give an 
agreeable flavor to sour milk. 72 

Wild thyme or mother of thyme is called also in Britain, pell- 
a-mountain ; in France, serpolet ; in Germany, quendel ; in Italy, 
scrmollino, selvatico, serpillo ; in Yemen, saaterP 

Thymus citriodorus Pers. 

This plant is considered by many botanists as but a variety of 
the preceding. It was described by Bauhin in 1623, and was in 
American gardens in 1806. The odor of the leaves is quite 
agreeable, and it is thought to be a desirable seasoning for veal. 

Lemon thyme is the thyme citronne of the French. 

tomato. Lycopersicum sp. 

The earliest mention I find of tomatoes is by Matthiolus Ti in 
1 554, who calls them pomi d'oro, and says they have but recently 
appeared [in Italy]. In 1570, Pena and Lobel 75 give the name 
gold apple in the German, Belgian, French, and English languages, 
which indicates their presence in those countries at this date. In 
1578 Lyte 76 says in England they are only grown in the gardens 
of " Herboristes." Camerarius in his Epitome, i$86, 77 gives the 
French name of pommes d' amours, which corresponds to Lyte's 
amorous apples ; and in his Hortus Medicus, 1588/" gives the 
names as potman Indian, and the foreign name of tumatle ex 
Peruviana; but Guilandinus of Padua in 1572 had the name 
tumatle americanorum, and Anguillara in 1561 names them poma 
Peruviana. 70 In Hernandez's history of Nova Hispania, 165 1, he 
has a chapter on the tomatl, which includes our tomatoes and 
alkekengis, and in 1658 the Portugese of Java used the word 

" Burgsman. Gard. Chron., Dec. 25th, 1886, 810. 

i8 9 i.] The History of Garden Vegetables. 703 

tamatasf* Acosta/* 1 however, preceding 1604, used the word 
tomates, and Sloane, 82 in 1695, tomato. 

Both the yellow and the red-fruited are named by Matthiolus 74 
in 1554, but the prevalence of the name golden apple in the 
various languages would indicate that this was the color most 
generally distributed. The shades are given as golden by 
Matthiolus 1554, ocher yellow by J. Bauhin M in 165 1, and deep 
orange by Bryant 84 in 1783. I give only the first authors when 
the color is mentioned, and do not follow with succeeding authors, 
who are many. 

The red color is noted by Matthiolus, 74 1554, the pale-red 
by Tournefort* 5 in 1700, and the purple-red in the Adversaria, 75 
1570. * 

The white-fruited is named by Lyte 7 " in 1578, by Bauhin m in 
1596, etc. 

The versicolored by J. Bauhin M in 165 1. 

The bronze-leaved is indicated in Blackwell's Herbarium," 7 1750. 

The cultivated species, following Dunal, 8S are Lycopcrsicum 
pimpinellifolium L., L. pyriforme L., L. humboldtii L., L. eerasi- 
forme L., and L. eseuleutum L. If these species are well founded, 
then it seems as if an additional species should be formed which 
hould include our globular, smooth, unribbed sorts, and this we 
must do if we would follow out the history of the varieties. 

Lyeopersieum eseuleutum Dun. 
This is the common species, with flattened and more or less 
ribbed fruit, and is the kind first introduced into European cul- 
ture, being described in the Adversaria of 1570, as well as by 
many succeeding authors, and the earlier figures indicate that it 
has changed but little under culture, and was early known as 

• Bauhin. 
■ Blackwel 


The American Naturalist. 

now in red, golden, yellow, and white varieties, and a parti-colored 
fruit is mentioned by J. Bauhin in 165 1, and the type of the 
bronze-leaved by Blackwell in 1 770. It was probably the kind 
mentioned by Jefferson" 9 as cultivated in Virginia in 178 1, as it 
was the kind whose introduction into general culture is noted 
from 1806 to about 1830, when their growing was becoming 

It has the following synonymy, gained from figures : 
Poma amoris, an Glaucium Diosc. Lob. obs., 1576, 140. 
Poma anions. Lyte's Dod., 1578, 440. Cam. Epit., 1586, 

21 ; Lrer., 15c 

)7, 275 ; bwert., 1054, t. 20, p. 2. 
Lugd, 1587,628. 

Poma amorL 

r, ponium aurcun* Lob. ic, 1591, I., 270. 

Solatium /w 

nit c rum, fructu rotunda, molli. Matth. Of 

Poma anion. 

s- fructu luteo ct rubro. Hort. Eyst, 161 3 

Aurca mala. 

Dod., 1616, 458; 1583,455. 

Pomi d'oro. 

Cast. Dur., 16 17, 372. 

Ponntni amo 

ris ma/us. Park. Par., 1929, 381, f. 3. 

Anions pomi 

tm. Blackw., 1750, t. 133. 

Mala aurca. 

Chabr., 1677, 525. J. B., 1650, 3, 620. 

Solarium poi 

iiifcrum. Mor. Hist, 1699, s. 13, t. 1, f. / 


. Tourn., 17 19, t, 63. 


' galcni. Morandi, 1744, t. 53, f. 8. 

Common Large Red. Mawe, 1778. 

Morclle pommc d amour. Descourt., 1827, VI., 95. 

Tomate rouge grosse. Vilm., 1883,555. 

Large Red. Burr; 1863, 646. 

In form these synonyms are substantially of one variety. The 
descriptions accompanying and others of the same date mention 
all the colors now found. In 17 19 Tournefort names a pale red, 
red, a yellow, and a white variety in France, and in 1778 Mawe 
but the common large red in England In 1854 Brown describes 
but two varieties, the large red and the large yellow, for American 
gardens. The Lycopersicum esculentum L. is said by Bojer to 
grow spontaneously in the Mauritius [as an escape]. 

i8 9 i.] The History of Garden Vegetables. 705 

Lycopersicnm rotnndum. 

I here place the larger unribbed round or oval varieties which 
are now becoming popular, and also the fancy varieties known as 
the plum, but I would not have it understood that at present I 
consider this group as forming a true species in the botanical 
sense, for my studies are not yet sufficiently complete. Of this 
group there are no indications of their being known to the early 
botanists, the first apparent reference I can detect being by 
Tournefort in 1700, 90 who places among his varieties the 
Lycopersicnm rubro non striata, and this same variety was 
catalogued by Tilly 91 at Pisa in 1723. The non striato not fluted 
or ribbed, implying the round form. In 1842 some seed of the 
Feejee Island variety was distributed in Philadelphia, and 
Wilkes 92 describes the fruit of one variety as round, smooth, 
yellow, the size of a large peach, and the fruit of two other 
varieties as the size of a small egg, but gives no other particulars. 
This is the first certain reference that I find to this group. The 
large smooth or round red and the small yellow oval tomato of 
Browne, 9 '* 1854, may belong here. Here may be classed such 
varieties as Hathaway's Excelsior, King Humbert, and the Plum, 
and some of the tomato pomwc varieties of the French. 

This form occasionally appears in the plants from seed ot 
hybrid origin, as when the cross was made between the currant 
and the tree tomato, some plants thus obtained yielded fruit of 
the plum type. This, however, may have been atavism. The 
botanical relations seem nearer to the cherry tomato than to the 
ordinary forms. 

Lycopersicum cerasiforme Dun. 

The cherry tomato is recorded as growing spontaneously in 
Peru, w in the West Indies," 2 Antilles, 91 and Southern Texas. 9 '' I 
have also observed it in a railroad cutting in New Jersey. It 
furnishes red and yellow varieties, and was noted in Europe as 

91 Tillius. Cat. Hort.' Pisa, at Pisa, 1723. 106. 
» Wilkes. U. S. Exp. Exped., III., 335. 
93 Browne. U. S. Pat. Of. Rept., 1854. 385- 


The American Naturalist. 


early as 1623, 97 and is mentioned in 1783 by Bryant 98 as if the 
only sort in general culture in England at this time, but Mawe," 
in 1778, enumerates the large red, as also the red and yellow 
cherry, as under garden culture. The following i 
mostly founded on description : 

5 synonyn 

1623, 167; Prod., 

5. mala cetliiopica parva. Park. 

e si i) litis era/, magnitudiiic, jigur 
Recchius Notes, Hernand., 165 1, 296. 
nstar {quoad magnitudine), Hort. Reg. Bles., 

1 fructu rotundo, moll 

a st rnbro. To urn. 
%si luteo. Tourn., 
Bryant, 1783, 21: 

parvo rubro pla, 


Solan urn amor is / 

Cujus fructus pla, 
S/ry, htiodendro, etc. 


Solatium pomifi m 
Ray, 1704, III., 352. 

Lycopersicum fructu < 

Ly coper sicum fructu t 

Solatium lycopcrsicuu, 

Cherry-fruited. Mav 

Cherry. Mill. Diet, 1807; Burr, 1863, 649, 652. 

Morelle cerasiforme. Descourt., 1827, V., 279, t. 37S. 

Lycopersicum cerasifolium. Noisette, 1829. 

Cherry-shaped. Buist, 185 1. 

Tomate cerise. Vilm., 1883, 5 59- 

This species is probably the normal form of the tomato of the 
gardens, to which the other species above given can be referred 
as varieties. It is quite variable in some respects, bearing its fruit 
sometimes and usually in clusters, occasionally in racemes It is 
but little grown, and then only for use in preserves and pickles. 
( To be continued. ) 



Minot, C.-S. — The mesoderm and ccelom of vertebrates. 
Am. Nat., XXIV., p. 877, 1890. 

Ayers, H. — Concerning vertebrate cephalogenesis. Joum. 
Morph., IV., p. 221, 1890. 

Ryder, J. A. — A physiological theory of the classification of 
the skeleton. Proc. Am. Philos. Soc, XXVI., p. 550, 1890. 

* Duclos, G. — La perche argentic d'Amerique ou calico bass. 
Rev. Sc. Nat. Appl., 1889, p. 12. 

Minot, C.-S. — Zur morphologie du Blutkorperchen. Anat. 
Anz., V., p. 601, 1890. 

Ayers, H. — The morphology of the carotids, based on a 
.study of the blood vessels of Chlamydosclachus anguineus. 
Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., XVII., 1889. 

* Spitzka, E. C. — Embryology : A sketch of human develop- 
ment. Medical Standard, V., p. 133, 1889. 

Minot, C.-S. — Morphology of the blood corpuscles. Am 
Nat, XXIV., p. 1020, 1890. 

Nakagawa, I. — The origin of the cerebral cortex and the 
homologies of the optic layers of the lower vertebrates. Journ. 
Morph., IV, p. 1, 1890. — Forms studied are: Menobranchus, 
Rana, Spelerpes, Tropidonotus, Columba, Didelphys. 

Gage, S. P. — The intramuscular ending of fibers in the skeletal 
muscles of the domestic and laboratory animals. Proc. Am. 
Soc. Microscopists, XIII, p. 132, 1890. 

Brooks, W. K. — On the relationship between Salpa and Pyro- 
soma. J. H. U. Circ, IX, p. 53, 1890. 

Morgan, T. H. — The origin of the test-cells of the Ascidians. 
Journ. Morph., IV, p. 195, 1890. 

The American Naturalist 


Wright, A. A. — Amphioxus in Tampa Bay. Am. Nat., 
XXIV., p. 1085, 1890. 

Ayers, H. — Contribution to the morphology of the vertebrate 
head. Zool. Ans., XII., p. 504, 1890. — Based on Amphioxus. 

(including ganoids). 

Eigenmann, C. H. — The evolution of the catfishes. Zoe., I., 
p. 10, 1890. — Follows Sagemehl; gives genealogical tree. 

The Point Loma blind fish and its relatives. Zoe., I., p. 65. 

— Typhlogor: ;■! the other gobies. 

Jordan, D. S.— Fishes of the Yellowstone Park. Zoe., I., p. 
38, 1890. — Habitat and lists of species. 

Eigenmann, C. H. — The Barracuda. Zoe., I., p. 55, 1890. — 
Habits of Sphyrcena argentea. 

Sebastodes goodei. Zoe., I., p. 59, 1890. — From San 


Eigenmann, R. S.— Note on Typhlogobius calif orniensis. Zoe., 
I., p. 181, 1890. — Tenacity of life. 

Wilson, H. V. — On the development of the sea bass (Serrauus 
atrarius). J. H. U. Circ, IX., p. 56, 1890. 

Ryder, J. A. — The functions and histology of the yolk-sac of 
the young toad-fish. Proc. Phila. Acad., 1890, p. 107. 

Henshall, J. A.— On a collection of fishes from East Ten- 
nessee. Journ. Cin. Soc. Nat. Hist, XII., p. 31, 1889. 

Eigenmann, C. H. — On the egg membranes and micropyle of 
some osseous fishes. Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., p. 119, 1890. 

Jordan, D. S.— On the fishes described in Muller's supple- 
mental volume to the Systema Naturae of Linnaeus. Proc. A. N, 
S. Phila., 1890, p. 48. 

Hopkins, G. S. — Structure of the stomach of Amia calva. 
Proc. Am. Soc. Microscopists, XIII., p. 165, 1890. 

Green, Ash down H. — Description of a specimen of Chirolo- 
phuss polyactocephalus from Vancouver Island. Proc. A. N. S. 
Phila., 1 891, p. 105. 

Gill, T.— Note on the genus Felichthys of Swainson. Proc. 
U. S. Nat. Mus., XIII., p. 353, 1890. 

1891.] Record of American Zoology. 709 

Jordan, D. S. — Notes on the fishes of the genera Agosia, 
Algansea, and Zophendum. Proc. U.. S. Nat. Mus., XIII., p. 
287, 1890. 

Garman, S. — On Batistes vetula Linne. Bull. Essex Inst., 
XXII., p. 53, 1 89 1. —Occurs at Wood's Holl. 

Gill, T. — Osteological characteristics of the family Amphi- 
noidae. Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., XIII., p. 299, 1890. 

Garman, H. — Notes on Illinois reptiles and Amphibians, in- 
cluding several species not before recorded from the northern 
states. Bull. 111. Lab. Nat. Hist., III., p. 185, 1890.— Myla 

Kellogg, J. L. — Notes on the Pronephros of Amblystoma 
punctatum. J. H. U. Circ, IX., p. 59, 1890. Vide Am. Nat., 
XXIV., p. 969, 1890. 

Strong, O. — The structure and homologies of the cranial 
nerves of the Amphibia as determined by their peripheral distri- 
bution and internal origin. Zool. Ans., XIII., p. 598, 1890. 

Cope, E. D. — On a new species of Salamander from Indiana. 
Am. Nat., XXIV., p. 966, 1890. — Gyrinoplulus maculicaudus. 

Dr. Leonard Stejneger on Bufo lentiginosus ivoodhousei. 

Am. Nat., XXIV., p. 1204, 1890 (1891). 

Hay, O. P.— The skeletal anatomy of Amphiuma during its 
earlier stages. Journ. Morph., IV., p. 11, 1890. 

Snow, F. H. — The mode of respiration of the common Sal- 
amander from Indiana. Trans. Kan. Acad. Sci., XII., p. 31, 
1890. — Ambl lias pharyngeal respiration, taking 

water through nostrils. 


Garman, H. — Notes on Illinois reptiles and Amphibians, in- 
cluding several species not before recorded from the northern 
states. Bull. 111. Lab. Nat. Hist, III., p. 185, 1890.— Forms new 
to state are : Chrysemys belli, Pseudemys concinna, Eutamia radix, 
Tropidoclonium lineatum. 

Sharp, B. — Remarks on the exuviae of snakes. Proc. Phila. 
Acad., 1890, p. 149. — Molting of Eutcenia sirtalis. 

710 The American Naturalist. [August, 

Brown, A. E. — On a new genus of Colubridae from Florida. 
Proc. Phila. Acad., 1890, p. 199. — Stilosoma extenuata. 

Baur, G. — On an apparently new species of Chelys. Am. 
Nat., XXIV., p. 967, 1890. 

Henshall, J. A., Cope, E. D.— Snakes in banana bunches. 
Am. Nat., XXIV., p. 968, 1890. 

Sharp, B. — Remarks on the exuviae of snakes. Proc. A. N. 
S. Phila., 1890, p. 149. 

Ritter, W. E. — The parietal eye in some lizards from the 
Western United States. Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., XX., No. 8, 
1 89 1.— Vide Am. Nat., XXIV. 

Garman, S. — On the " Gila Monster " {Heloderma suspectwn). 
Bull. Essex Inst.', XXII., p. 60, 1 891. —See Am. Nat. 

Garman, H. — The differences between the geographic turtles 
{Malacoclemmys geographicus and M. leseuerii). Bull., Essex 
Inst, XXII., p. 70, 1891. 

Bryant, W. E.— Land birds of the Pacific district. Zoe., I., p. 
277, 1890. 

Found dead on the beach. Zoe., I., p. 282, 1890. — List 

of dead birds in San Francisco county, Cal. 

An ornithological retrospect. Zoe., I., p. 289, 1890. 

Anthony, A. W. — Notice of a supposed new Vireo from 
Oregon. Zoe. y I., p. 307, 1890. — Vireo huttonii obscurus. 

Lucas, F. A.— Notes on the osteology of the Paridse, Sitta, and 
Chamaea. Proc. U. S. Nat. Mas., XIII., p. 337, 1890. 

Bryant, W. E.— Notices of supposed new birds. Zoe, I., p. 
148, 1890 — No good descriptions. 

Keeler. C. A.— Observations on the life-history of the house 
finch. Zoe, I., p. 172, iSgo.—Carpodacus mexicanus frontalis, 
with plate of young birds. 

Stone, Witmer.— On birds collected in Yucatan and Southern 
Mexico. Proc. Phila. Acad., 1890, p. 201.— Nominal lists of 

1891.] Record of American Zoology. 711 

Hancock, J. L. — Brain-work of birds. Am. Nat., XXIV., p. 
969, 1890. 

Batchelder, C. F. — Recording the numbers of birds observed. 
Auk, VII., p. 216, 1890. 

Keeler, C. E. — Geographical distribution of land birds in 
California. Zoe, I., pp. 225, 257, 295, 1890; I., p. 337, 1891. 

Anthony, A. W. — A new Junco from California. Zoe, I., p. 
238. — Junco hy emails thurberi. 

Cooper, J. G. — A doomed bird. Zoe, I., p. 249, 1890. — 
California vulture. 

Taylor, H. R. — Abnormal nest of Vigor's wren. Zoe, I., p. 
276, 1890. 

Allen, J. A. — To what extent is it profitable to recognize geo- 
graphical forms among North American birds? Auk, VII., p. 1, 

Ben dire, C. E. — Notes on Pipilo fuscus mesoleucus and Pipilo 
aberta; their habits, nests, and eggs. Auk, VII., p. 22, 1890. 

A second nest and eggs 1 A tints taken in 

Colorado. Auk, VII., p. 92, 1890. 

Bertgold, W. H. — Coccothraustes vespertina in Erie county, 
N. Y. Auk, VI., p. 209, 1890. 

Bollers, F. — Barred owls in captivity. Auk, VII., p, idi, 

Brewster, W.— The little brown crane (Grus canadensis) in 
Rhode Island. Auk, VII., p. 89, 1890. 

Capture of a Canada jay {Perisoreus canadensis) near Cam- 
bridge, Mass. Auk, VII., p. 91, 1890. 

Bullock's oriole in Maine. Auk, VII., p. 92, 1890. 

Recent occurrence of the turkey vulture in Eastern 

Mass. Auk, VII., p. 204, 1890. 

Food of young humming birds. Auk, VII., p. 206, 1890. 

The Acadian sharp-tailed sparrow and Scott's seaside 

sparrow on the coast of South Carolina. Auk, VII., p. 212, 

Cantwell, G. G.— Shrikes of Minnesota. Auk, VII., p. 213, 

7 12 The American Naturalist. [August, 

Chapman, F. M.— On the eastern forms of Geothylpis trie has. 
Auk, VII., p. 9, 1890. 

On the winter distribution of the bobolink, with remarks 

on its routes of migration. Auk, VII., p. 39, 1890. 

Note on Cyanocitta stelleri litoralis. Auk, VII., p. 91 


On the changes of plumage in the bobolink. Auk, VII., 

p. 120, 1890. 

Clark, H. L.— Coccothraustes vespertina at Amherst, Mass. 

Auk, yn., p . 210, 1890. 

Cockerell, T. D. A.— Variation in the nesting habits of birds. 
Nature, XLIL, p. 6, 1890. 

Cooper, J. G.— Note on Pacific coast birds. Auk, VII., p. 214, 

Doan, W. D.-Birds of West Virginia. Bull. 3, W. Va. Agr. 
Sta., p. 41, 1889. 

Dwight, J., Jr.-The horned larks of North America. Auk, 
VII, p. 138, 1890. 

Elliott, H. W .—Quiscalus quiscala ameus killing and catch- 
ing gold-fish. Auk, VII., p. 208, 1890. 

Forbush, E. H.— Evening grosbeaks in Hampden county, 
Mass. Auk, VII, p. 210, 1890. 

Hasbrouck, E. M.—Picoides arcticus in Central New York. 
Auk, VII, p. 206, 1890. 

Lucas, F. A.— The great auk in the U. S. National Museum. 
Auk, VII, p. 203, 1890. 

Mearns, E. A._Observations on the avifauna of portions of 
Arizona. Auk, VII, p. 45, 1890. 

Addendum to " A list of the birds of the Hudson High- 
lands." Auk, VII, p. 55, 1890. 

Capture of the Widgeon (Anas penehpe) on the James 

River, Va. Auk, VII, p. 88, 204, 1890. 

* Patterson, R.-American bittern in County Londonderry 
[Ireland]. Zoologist, XIV, pp. 24-26, 1890. 

Pennock, C. J.— Note on the nesting of Buteo brachyurus at 
St. Mark's, Fla. Auk, VII, p. 56, 1890. 

1891.] Record of American Zoology. 713 

R idg way, R. — Buteo bracliyurus and B. fuliginosus. Auk, 
VII., p. 90, 1890. 

Intergradation between /. .md Z. inter- 
media, and between the latter and Z. gambeli. Auk, VII., p. 96, 

Harlan's hawk a race of the red-tail, and not a distinct 

species. Auk, p. 205, 1890. 

* [On |. Ibis, VI., ii., p. 129, 1890. 

Roberts, T. L. — Notes on some Minnesota birds. Auk, VII., 
p. 213, 1890. 

Scott, W. E. D. — A summary of observations on the birds of 
the Gulf Coast of Florida. Auk, VII., p. 14, 114, 1890. 

The Key West quail dove at Key West. Auk, VII., p. 

90, 1890. 

Sennett, G. B.— The king eider at Erie, Penna. Auk, VII., 
p. 88, 1890. 

A new wren from the Lower Rio Grande, Texas, with 

notes on Berlandier's wren of Northeastern Mexico. Auk, 
VII., p. 57, 1890.— Thyrothonts ludovuianus lomitensis. 

Shufeldt, R. W. — Notes upon Coccothoraustes vespertina as a 
cage bird. Auk, VII., p. 93, 1890. 

* Progress in avian osteology for the year 1 888-1 889. 

Jour. Comp. Med. and Vet. Sci., Jan., 1890. 

* On the use by certain young birds of the terminal claw 

of the pollux. Ibis, VII., ii., p. 128, 1890. 

Stephens, F. — A new Vireo from California. Auk, VII., p. 
1 59, 1 890.— Vireo vicinior calif ornicus. 

Thompson, E. E. — Evening and pine grosbeaks in Ontario. 
Auk, VII, p. 211, 1890. 

Treat, W. E. — Mortality among bank swallows. Auk, VII., 
p. 96, 1890. 

Williams, R. S. — Mjnadestes toumsendn wintering in Montana. 
Auk, VII, p. 98, 1890. 

Wintle, E. D.— The evening grosbeak at Montreal. Auk, 
VII, p. 209, 1890. 

Worthington, W. W. — The Ipswich sparrow in Georgia. 
Auk, VII, p. 211, 1890. 

714 The American Naturalist. [August, 

Second supplement to the A. O. U. check-list of North 
American birds. Auk, VII., p. 60, 1890. 

Shufeldt, R. W. — Contributions to the comparative osteology 
of Arctic and sub-Arctic water birds. Jour. Anat. and Phys. 
XXV., p. 60, 1890. — Laridae, Stercorariidae ; affinities of divers, 
auks, and gulls. 

Anthony, A. W. — The nests and eggs of Townsend's J unco 
(Junco townscndii) and San Pedro partridge {Oreortyx pictus 
confinis). Zoe,l.,p. 5, 1890. 

Bryant, W. E — Ornithological observations during the total 
eclipse of January, 1889. Zoe, I., p. 21, 1890. 

Taylor, H. R. — Nesting habits of the golden eagle. Zoe, I., 
,p. 42, 1890. 

Emerson, W. O. — Birds new or rare in California. Zoe, I., p., 
44, 1890. 

Keeler, C. A. — Songs of some Californian Zonotrichidae. 
Zoe, I., p. 72, 1890. 

Emerson, W. O. — Migratory instinct in caged wild birds. 
Zoe, I., p. 80, 1 889. 

Keeler, C. A. — Song birds about San Francisco Bay. Zoe, 
I., p. 116, 1890. 

Nest of the California bush tit. Zoe, I., p. 151, 1890. 

—Psaltriparus calif ornicus. 

Ridgway, R. — Natural history survey of Illinois, State labo- 
ratory of natural history. The ornithology of Illinois. Part I. 
Descriptive catalogue. Vol.1. Springfield, 1889. 

Stone, W.— On the genus Psilorhinus Ruppell. Proc. A. N. S., 
Phila., 1 89 1, p. 94. 

Ridgway, R. — Observations on the Farralon rail (Porzana 
jamaicensis coturniculus Baird). Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., XIII., 
p. 309,1890. 

Shufeldt, R. W. — Observations on the osteology of North 
American Anseres. Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., XL, p. 253, 1889. 

* Hancock, J. L. — Anomalies in the limbs of Aves. North 
American Practitioner, II., p. 405, 1890. 

Shufeldt, R. W. — Contributions to the comparative osteology 
of Arctic and sub-Arctic water birds. Jour. Anat. and Phys., 

1891.] Record of American Zoology. 715 

XXIV, p. 543, 1890; XXV., p. Co, iSgo.— l'n/e Am. Nat, 
XXIV, p. 545- 

Stone, W. — Catalogue of the owls in the collection of the 
Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia. Proc. A. N. S. 
Phila, 1890, p. 124. — Nominal list. 

On birds collected m Yucatan and Southern Mexico. 

Proc. A. N. S. Phila, 1890, p. 201.— Annotated lists; none new. 

Belding, L. — Migrations of the deer of the Sierra Nevada. 
Zoe, I, p. 121, 1890. 

Auld, R. C. — A means of preserving the purity and establish- 
ing a career for the American bison of the future. Am. Nat, 
XXIV, p. 787, 1890. 

Tuckermann, F. — On the gustatory organs of some of the 
Mammalia. Jour. Morph., IV, p. 151, 1890. — Study of tvventy- 

Osborn, H. — Catalogue of the mammals of Iowa. Proc. Iowa 
Acad. Sci. for 1888, p. 40, 1890. — Sixty-one species. 

Mearns, E. A. — Description of supposed new species and sub- 
species of mammals from Arizona. Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist, 
II, p. 2^7.— Vide Am. Nat, XXIV, p. 586, 1890. 

Ricksecker, L. E. — Notes on the yellow-haired porcupine^ 
Zoe, I, p. 235, 1890. 

Belding, L. — The wolverine {Gulo luscas) in California. Zoe, 
I., p. 303, 1899. 

Spitzka, E. C. — Zur Monographic Dr. Theodor's iiber das 
Seehundsgehirn. Anat. Anz., V, p. 173, 1890. 

Minot, C.-S. — On the fate of the human decidua reflexa. Anat. 
Anz., V, p. 639, 1890. 

Dobson, G. E. — A synopsis of the genera of the family 
Soricidae. Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1890, p. 49. 

Ryder, J. A. — The eye, ocular muscles, and lachrymal glands 
of the shrew mole {Blarina talpoides). Proc. Am. Philo. Soc, 
XXVIII, p. 16, 1890. 

* Tuckermann, F. — On the gustatory organs of some Eden- 
tata. Internat. Monat. Schr. f. Anat. u. Phys,VII,p. 335, 1890. 

Allen, H.— Description of a new species of Carollia, and 
remarks on Carollia brevicauda. Proc. Am. Phil. Soc, XXVIII., 
p. 19, 1890. 

* Dobson, G. E.— Monograph of the Insectivora, systematic 
and anatomical. London. — Publishing in parts. 

* Herrick, C. L., and Tight, W. G.— Central nervous system 
of rodents. Bull. Sci. Lab. Denison Univ., V., 1890. 

Tyrrell, J. B.— Reply to Mr. Thompson's critical note. Proc. 
Can. Inst., VII., p. 281, 1*90.— Vide Am. Nat., XXIV, p. 548. 

Spencer, T. B.— A comparison of the external and middle ear 
of man and the cat. Proc. Am. Soc. Microscopists, XIII., p. 
146, 1890. 

Fish, P. A.— The epithelium of the brain-cavities [of the cat]. 
Proc. Am. Soc. Microscopists, XIII., p. 140, 1890. 

Dvche, L. L.— Notes on three species of Gophers found at 
Lawrence, Kansas. Trans. Kansas Acad. Sci., XII., p. 29, 1890 
—Spermophilus i 3 -lineatus, S. fraukluui, Gcomys bursarius. 

* Meek, A.— Note on the female organs of Erethison dorsatum. 
Studies Mus. Zool. Univ. Dundee, 1890. 

Tuckermann, F. — The development of the gustatory organs 

Allen, H. — On the distribution of color-marks in trie Ptero- 
podidae. Proc. A. N. S. Phila., 1890, p. 12. 

Wilcox, E. V._ Possible occurrence of the wolverine in Ohio. 
Am. Nat., XXIV., p. 1206, 1890 [1891]. 

Howell, W. H.— The life-history of the formed elements of 
the blood, especially the red blood corpuscles. Jour. Morph., IV., 
p. 57 , 1890.— Vide Am. Nat., XXV., p. 59. 

Observations upon the occurrence, structure, and function 

of the giant cells of the marrow. Jour. Morph., IV., p. 1 ly, 1890. 

W! — , P. A.— The epithelium of the brain-cavities. Am. Mo. 
,p. 256, 1890.— Ciliated epithelium in cavities 


A MONG the many uncritical propositions urged by would-be 
reformers in recent years, few are more so than some of 
those anent the interesting subject of women's waists. We are 
repeatedly told that a narrow waist is a deformity produced by 
artificial compression, and that the just model for the healthy 
normal woman is the robust and matronly Venus of Milo. Now 
the anthropologist knows that this general assertion is not true 
as applied to the civilized white woman. It is especially charac- 
teristic of the highest types of woman of the Indo-European 
race to have wide hips and a narrow waist, up to the age when 
adipose tissue fills to greater uniformity of outline, the graceful 
curve which is so generally admired. It is well known that the 
form of the pelvis differs in the different races, so that in the 
white race the female pelvis differs from that of the male more 
than is the case with the African. In the latter the female pelvic 
strait is as in the male, longer in anteroposterior than in trans- 
verse diameter ; in the female Mongolian the strait is subquadrate 
in outline, while in the Indo-European the strait is oval, with the 
transverse diameter greater than the anteroposterior. Thus the 
white woman has wider hips than the woman of inferior races, 
and she is in so far more unlike the male than they. The larger 
pelvic cavity of the female is an adaptation to the increase in the 
bulk of its contents incident to gestation ; and it follows that 
when this cavity is not so occupied, the moveable viscera fill the 
space. From this results the contraction of the abdominal walls 
immediately above the pelvis known as the waist. It is then 
clear that the diameter of the waist is inversely as the diameter 
of the pelvis, and the differential of diameter is greatest as the 
transverse diameter of the pelvis exceeds the anteroposterior. 

The cause of the increased transverse diameter of the Indo- 
European pelvic strait is probably mechanical. It may be due 

718 The American Naturalist. [August 

to anteroposterior pressure on the pubic arch. This in turn may 
be a consequence of the monogamic customs of the Indo- 
European subspecies due to the greater esteem in which women 
are held. But on this point we can only speculate. 

In any case the Venus of Milo has the form of a very mature 
woman of her race, and many moderns can boast of far more 
graceful figures than she. And these figures are not the result 
of artificial compression of the clothing, but are the product of a 
natural evolution of form. It is true, however, that all women 
of the white race have not attained this stage, and not a few 
retain the figure of lower races. It is not, however, proven that 
the women possessing this figure are any better child-bearers than 
those of modern type. Occasionally we meet women who to a 
robust waist add a narrow pelvis, — an unfortunate structure, and 
one not likely to be extensively reproduced, owing to the difficult 
parturition which is indicated. 

The women who are not satisfied with the figures which nature 
has given them, and who endeavor to reduce a naturally robust 
waist to the proportions which characterize their more favored 
sisters by artificial means, deserve all the reprobation which the 
above-mentioned reformers bestow so undiscriminatingly on all 
alike. Excess of slenderness is not beautiful, and artificial com- 
pression forces the viscera into positions which produce a deform- 
ity of the abdominal wall more repulsive than a stout waist. — C. 

— Laboratories of Marine Biology have been established at 
various localities for the purpose of enlarging our knowledge of 
animal and vegetable structure, development, and function, and 
to furnish a headquarters for the instruction of the entire com- 
munity in all matters connected with increased supply, avoidance 
of disease, and cultivation of more varieties of sea foods. 

Some idea of the extent to which the important bearings of 
Laboratories of Marine Biology are appreciated and encouraged 
abroad may be gained from the following list, which will make 
clear at the same time how much America is behind other nations 
in giving scientific oversight to one side of the question of cheap 
and plentiful food supply, a question growing in importance in 



direct ratio with the growth of population. The first of the 
laboratories named in the list, that of Naples, has cost, in per- 
manent plant alone, over $100,000, and is carried on at an annual 
expense of $20,000. The laboratory and fittings of the English 
station, at Plymouth, were completed at a cost of over $60,000, 
raised by subscription. The two Austrian and the eight French 
stations have been fostered by the intelligent and progressive men 
of their respective countries, and have given abundant returns in 
practical contributions to knowledge. The Japanese station has, 
during its few years of existence, done much to alleviate certain 
sources of public distress. The following list represents the 
number of such stations and the countries where .they are 
situated : Italy, 1 ; Austria, 2 ; France, 8 ; Holland, 2 ; Belgium, 
1 ; Germany, 1 ; Sweden, 2 ; Great Britain, 5 ; Russia, 1 ; Japan, 
1 ; New South Wales, 1. In the United States we have one at 
Wood's Holl, Mass., and one under charge of the U. S. Fish 
Commission, at the same place. In the wide range of our Atlantic 
and Gulf coasts south of Wood's Holl no station exists. 

Through the energy of Prof. C. S. Dolley, of the University of 
Pennsylvania, and the liberality of Mr. Chas. K. Landis, of Vine- 
land, New Jersey, ground has been obtained at Sea Isle City, Cape 
May County, N. J., and a commodious building has been erected 
on it to serve as a station for biological research. 

The final establishment of the Laboratory of Marine Biology 
upon the New Jersey coast is the outcome of a long and careful 
consideration of ways and means, undertaken by the University of 
Pennsylvania, to ascertain how it could best meet its own needs 
and the requirements of biologists at large. 

To place the laboratory upon the more northerly New England 
coast necessitated its closure during the winter months on account 
of climatic conditions. 

To have accepted the offers of suitable properties in Florida, 
or the Bahama Islands, would have necessitated the absence of a 
number of the university's staff of naturalists during the collegiate 
year, when their services are particularly needed at home. Com- 
parative inaccessibility applied to either alternative. The decision 
in favor of the present location of the laboratories is based upon 

7 2 o The American Naturalist. [August, 

the fact that the fauna of the New Jersey shore waters and of its 
numerous bays and thoroughfares is exceedingly rich, uniting to 
a degree, greater perhaps than any other locality, the northern 
and southern marine faunas. The plants of New Jersey are also 
peculiarly interesting from the standpoint of climatology and 
geographical distribution. New Jersey occupies a central position 
as regards the great oyster industries of the country, midway 
between Rhode Island and Virginia. Access is quick and easy 
to the greatest centers of oyster consumption and distribution, 
—viz., Baltimore, Philadelphia, and New York. The desirability 
of the location is enhanced also from its proximity to three of the 
greatest intellectual and scientific centers of the country, the 
University of Pennsylvania, Columbia College, and Johns Hopkins 
University, enabling the work of the laboratories to be conducted 
in thorough accord with the university idea, and available to the 
considerable number of naturalists congregated at these institu- 
tions and in the scientific organizations of the three great cities. 
Ready access to the unsurpassed libraries and collections of these 
three cities, and particularly to those of the Academy of Natural 
Sciences of Philadelphia, urged strongly in favor of the present 

An examination of the U. S. Coast Survey charts will show a 
gradual widening of the littoral area towards the southern end of 
New Jersey. This great shoal-water area is the home of myriads 
of interesting marine animals, and the spawning and feeding 
grounds^ of an equally important series of fishes, etc. The 
numerous bays and the intricate maze of thoroughfares running 
back through the salt meadows to the mainland are equally inter- 
esting from a biological standpoint. 

Sea Isle City, situated on Ludlam Island, affords unsurpassed 
facilities for the utilization of this rich field for investigation. It 
has direct railroad connection with New York and Philadelphia 
by numerous fast trains, good harborage for collecting-boats, and 
Ludlam Bay, with its oyster grounds of several hundred acres, 
awaiting only the suggestions of the naturalist to replenish them, 
and counterbalance the short-sighted policy of the oystermen' 
Sea Isle City is located in an area the hard sand beach of which 


shelves in the most gradual manner for a distance of several miles 
below the sea-level. It is underlaid with a tenacious, black 
alluvium, representing submerged meadow-land, and from the 
permanency which this gives it, forms a favorite habitat to 
mollusks of great number and variety, so much as to have gained 
the name of " Shell Beach " among the inhabitants of this region. 
The scientific staff consists of Professors Dolley (Director), 
Jayne, Ryder, Wilson, and Cope. 

— Attention may be directed to the shortness of the time 
permitted the meeting of the American Association for the 
Advancement of Science, to be held in Washington, commencing 
August the 19th. As originally announced it was to have closed 
on August the 22d, thus covering only four days, of which three 
may be regarded as working days. It is then succeeded by a two- 
days' session of the Geological Society of America. By a new 
arrangement the two societies now overla'p their sessions. 
Equally inexplicable is the proposition to have the papers of 
foreign geologists read before this society. Is there a scheme 
on foot to extinguish the congress ? or is this only one more 
illustration of the confusion of geological ideas that naturally 
emanates from Washington ? We are of the opinion that there 
is no proper reason for a meeting of the Geological Society in the 
summer. The meeting during the winter holiday seems to satisfy 

— It is still far from certain that the execution by electric 
shock is more humane than that by hanging. No detailed report 
of the recent execution of four men at the New York State 
prison has been yet made public, and some of those authorized to 
make it, appear to have a prejudice in favor of this mode of exe- 
cution. The only details which have been reported so far include 
two remarkable statements. One is that these men, as was the 
case with Kemmler, required two discharges to kill them. The 
other was that the face of the only one of the four men which 
was seen by an outsider, was seamed with burns, and that a hole 
was burned in the leg to the bone. That a portion of the dis- 

722 The American Naturalist. [August, 

charge passed over or near the surface of the body of Kemmler 
was stated in the reports, and the similar statement in this case 
requires explanation. The sentiment of humanity and decency 
must be satisfied in this matter. 


ABBOTT, C. L— Evolution, True or False. From the author. 

Galapagos. Ext. Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. at Harvard College. From th 

XXIX., Feb. nth, 1891. From the author. 

ALLEN, J. A.— The Am. „ . A Seven Yes 

BECKER, G. F.— The Structure of a Portion of the Sierra Nevada of Califc 
Geol. Soc. Am., Vol. II., pp. 49-74. From the author. 

BODINGTON, A— The Flora of the Past. Ext. Hardwicke's Science Go< 

Bronn, H. G— Klassen und Ordnungen des Thier-R 

eichs. Vie 

rter Band, Vermes. 

ves. 35 u. 36 Lieferung 


35 u. 36 Lieferung. From the a 

Bulletin de la Soc. Zoologiq 

lede France pour lannee 




Cave Drawings. Ext. App 

Physiological Action of 


1. Reprint Thera- 

D'Invilliers, E. V.— Phosphate Deposits of the Island of N 

Dumble, E. T — Cheap Fuel for Texas. Circular No. 8, Geol 

on Triassi 

USSo^ 00 New 

Separatabdruck Ornith. Monats 

utzeder Fogelwelt. 

XV., Jahrg.. 1890. From the av 

GarMan, S.— Massachuset 

England Saibling, 

Exts. Twenty-fifth Annual Rept 

The "Gila Monster/ 

— Htnochilus wheatlan 

Hi. Balis 

aristotelus. Exts. Bull. Essex 

Inst., Vol. XXII., Nos. 

4. 5. and 

6, 1890. From the 

1 891. Recent Books and Pamphlets. 

Herrick, C. L.— Cuyahoga Shale and the Problem of the Ohio Waverly. Ext. Bull. 

Hippisley, A. E— A Catalogue of the Hippisley Collection of Chinese Porcelain, 
with a Sketch of the History of Cera ., \rt in CI na I At Rept.U. S. Nat. Mus.. 1887-88. 
From the Smithsonian Institution. 

ivialzite. Ext. Zoologische 

PoHLIG, HANS.— Die grossen Saugetiere de 

POUCHET. Georges.— Trois Communications sur Les Cetaces. Exl 
ndus des Seances de la Societe de Biologie, Dec, 1890, Jan. 1891. Frc 

Proceedings of the Society for Psychical Research, Dec, 1890. 

RlCHTER, K.— Plantje Europas. From the author. 

RlTTER, W. E. — The Parietal Eye in Some Lizards from the Westerr 
t. Bull. Harvard Mus. Comp. Zool., Vol. XX., No. 8. From the autho 

t. four,,. Science, Vol. XLL, Jan., 1891. From the author. 

1890. Bull. Geol. Soc Am.. Vol. II. 

The Census Bulletin. From the Dept. of the Interior. 

TROUESSARTet Topsent.— Sur un Nouveau genre d'Acarien sauteur (A 
amphibius) des cotes de la Mamche. From the authors. 

TrcKKRMAN, F.— The Development of the Gustatory Organs in Man. F 
Am. Journ. Psychology. Vol. III., No. 2, 1890. 

The Gustatory Organs of Procyon lotor.— -The Gustatory Organs 

artel. Exts. Journ. Anat. and Physiol., Vol. XXIV. 

Upham, W.— On the Cause of the Glacial Period. Ext. Am. Geol., Dec 

Upham, W., and Frank Lever 
:ussion of the Climatic Conditions 
. Hist., Vol. XXIV., 1889. From V 

s Argenti. 

rhe Origin of the Mesoblast-Bands in Annelids. Reprint Jo 

1 Coralline Crag.— A New Theory of Pterichthys. Exts. fron 
roid Fish from the London Clay of Sheppey. Exts. from I 

» Dipnoan Fis 

Soc. Rept., 1888.— On a New Species of Pycnodont Fish, Mesodon damor, 
Head of the Eurycormus from the Kimmeridge Clay of Ely.— Visit to American ] 
Exts. Geol. Mag., 1890.— A Synopsis of the Fossil Fishes of the English Oolites. 
from Proc. Geol. Assoc, Vol. XI., No. 6. From the author. 

Ameghino on the Extinct Mammalia of Argentina. 1 — We 

have here a monumental work, such as can only be produced under 
circumstances which seldom concur. The conditions are, first, rich 
and newly discovered fossiliferous deposits ; second, a man who is 
competent to study and describe them ; and third, facilities for publi- 
cation. Such a coincidence created the Ossemens Fossiles of Cuvier 
in Europe ; a similar state of affairs has produced corresponding works 
in North America ; and now South America has come forward with a 
history and a historian worthy to take rank with anything that has 
gone before. The richness of the Pampean beds of Buenos Ayres has 
been made known to us by Owen and Burmeister, but it has been for 
Ameghino to bring to our notice the extraordinary wealth of the 
Miocene and Eocene beds of the Parana and of Patagonia. Indeed, 
the wealth of Patagonia, of which a few jewels were brought home by 
Darwin, turns out to be extraordinary, and the explorations conducted 
by Senor Carlos Ameghino, brother of the author of this book, have 
been more productive than those of any other known region, those of 
some parts of North America alone excepted. 

The orders of Mammalia most abundantly represented are those of 
which examples had been already brought to light in a comparatively 
small number of representatives by previous explorers. The number 
of genera and species enumerated by M. Ameghino is as follows: 

Genera. Species. 


Taxeopoda (Litopterna), 


Diplarthra (Perissodactyla), 

Incertae sedis, 


7 2 6 The American Naturalist. [August, 

The most important results achieved by M. Ameghino are as follows : 
First, the discovery and definition of numerous marsupialoid or multi- 
tuberculate forms from the Eocene of Patagonia ; second, the discovery 
of Creodonta in the same region and horizon ; third, the discovery of 
Edentata with enamel bands on the teeth ; fourth, the definition of the 
suborder Litopterna, and discovery of new types; fifth, the completed 
definition of the order Toxodontia. To these points may be added 
as only second to them in importance the discovery of Eocene forms 

Edentata ' 

superior incisor teeth, and the great addit 

the number of forms of Edentata, Glires, and Toxodontia. 

The marsupialoid forms are of great interest. Abderites resembles 
the Plagiaulacidae, while in Epanorthus we have a type which shows 
how the singular cutting premolar of this type or that of the Marsupi- 
alia Diprotodonta may have been derived from a primitive tuberculo- 


the Eocene of 

Patagonia is a fact of great significance, and M. Ameghino regards 
them as true Marsupialia, and the ancestors of the Diprotodonta of 

The Creodonta mostly repose on the evidence of imperfect material. 
Some of them have a simple dentition, and much remains before their 
true affinities can be determined. 

The suborder Litopterna deserves more detailed notice, and we give 
it in another place in the Naturalist. It is a most interesting modi- 
fication of the Condylarthra, showing variations in dental and foot 
structure parallel with those seen in the Perissodactyla, with which I. 
think M. Ameghino wrongly combines them. 

The light thrown on the structure of the Toxodontia is most impor- 
tant. The structure of the posterior feet has been hitherto but partially 
known, and that of the fore feet entirely unknown. M. Ameghino 
shows that the former are taxeopodous, and the latter amblypodous, 
proving conclusively the claim of the Toxodontia to be regarded as a 
distinct order of ungulate Mammalia. An important feature of this 
book is the number of new genera allied to Mesotherium which are 
described and figured. 

The great number of Glires described is remarkable. It is inter- 
esting to observe that they correspond with existing forms of South 
America, the Chinchillidae and Caviidae being most numerous even in 
Eocene times, while the Leporidse are very few, and present' only in 
the latest beds. 3 

As a general result of M. Ameghino's work it is now possible to 
announce the following conclusions: The extinct Mammalia may be 

i8 9 i-] Recent Literature. 727 

referred to three categories ; first, the orders which have been mainly 
restricted to the Southern Hemisphere, and have originated there, — the 
Edentata, the Toxodonta, the Litopterna ; second, cosmopolitan 
orders, — Glires, Chiroptera, Marsupialia, Perissodactyla ; third, orders 
which have come from the Northern Hemisphere at a comparatively 
later period of geologic time, — Carnivora, Froboscidia, and Artiodac- 
tyla. The further history of the origin of the truly Antarctic types 
will be awaited with the greatest interest. 

An atlas of 98 plates accompanies the text. The figures have been 
executed under the careful eye of the author, and express the characters 
referred to in the text. The great expense involved in their production 
has made it necessary to employ some phototype process, which can 
not give as good artistic effects as lithography. 

We congratulate M. Ameghino on the completion of this great work. 
We also congratulate the country which has produced it. It is works 
of this character which give a nation its intellectual standing in the 
world. Henceforth Argentina will be known to science as a country 
which has added one of the largest and most important contributions 
to its temple of life.— E. D. Cope. 

Furbringer's Researches on the Morphology and Sys- 
tematic of Birds. 2 — This is a work of great thoroughness in 
the field which it covers. It is divided into two parts, each included 
in a volume ; the first describing the anterior limb and shoulder 
girdle, and the second being a comprehensive review of the characters 
and systematic relations of birds. In the first volume the osteology, 
myology, and neurology are thoroughly described, and the illustra- 
tions cover the plates at the end of the second volume. The charac- 
ters of many species are for the first time described and figured. In 
the second volume the work already done in bird anatomy is reviewed, 
both zoology and paleontology being thoroughly examined. The sys- 
tematic results are set forth in tables. In one of these the structural 
characters are tabulated. In another the divisions down to families 
inclusive are displayed. We give this table, exclusive of the families, 
as exhibiting concisely the author's views. Two phylogenetic trees 
follow. On three succeeding plates three horizontal sections of these 
trees are given, which display the affinities of higher and lower forms 

2 Untersuchungen zur Morphologie u. Systematic der Voegel; Zugl. ein Beitr. zur 
Anatomie der Stiitz Ond Bewegungsorganen ; von Max Fiirb ringer. Amsterdam Zj. von 


I.— Subclassis SAURUR^E. 

Archseopterygi formes Archaeopteryges 
II.— Subclassis ORNITHURiE. 






Casuarii formes 


thi formes 







Podicipitiformes ■ 









Ichthyornithi formes 








Ralli formes 

' Fulicarise 

" Apterygiformes 


Crvpturi formes 





' Pterocletes 

Psittaci formes 


' Coccygi formes 



' Pico-Passeres 

Pico-Passeri formes 




f Halcyones 

Halcyon i formes 

l Bucerotes 



f Coraciae 


] Caprimulgi 


The complex characters of bird affinities are well displayed in these 
graphic methods. It is rendered partly clear that in a great many 
instances nothing but actual paleontological discovery will reveal the 

Dr. Fiirbringer's work, besides being a treasury of bird anatomy 
and character, introduces us to the literature in a most exhaustive way. 
Nothing has escaped him. We seem to be in the presence of aH the 
workers who have contributed to the systematic of birds from the 
beginning. All are recognized, and the share of each in the work is 
duly recorded. As a standard of information on scientific ornithology 
the book will always hold a first rank. 

Miller's North American Geology and Paleontology. 3 — 
This work is an alphabetically arranged index of the genera and 
species of Paleozoic plants and animals. The only scientific division 
of the catalogue is that into classes. The names of the genera and 
species are accompanied by one reference to a description, and fre- 
quently by a good figure. The work opens by a general geologic 
description, including the Mesozoic and Cenozoic formations, and by 
an enumeration of the rules of nomenclature. 

The work is an exceedingly useful one for reference. The alpha- 
betic arrangement makes it necessary that one should know beforehand 
what he wants to find. It is hence useful chiefly to the scientist. For 
the purposes of the student such a work should be systematically 
arranged throughout. 

Some fault may be found with the description of the Cenozoic beds 
of the interior of the continent in a few particulars. Thus it is stated 
that the Wind River beds are Miocene, when they are Eocene, and the 
Loup Fork beds are said to be Pliocene, when they are Upper Mio- 
cene. Miocene and Pliocene pass into each other so completely, 
however, that the names should be abolished, and the word Neocene 
used in their stead. We only notice one serious objection to the sys- 
tematic presentation of the subiect, and that is in the land Vertebrata. 
Here the Batrachia and Reptilia are mixed together under the head of 
Batrachia, an error for which it is difficult to account, since the dis- 
tinction between the two classes has-been maintained by the describers 
of their respective contents. In the matter of etymology of names, 
the present work is mainly up to the requirements of the subject. The 
book is one which the working paleontologist cannot do without. 

» North American Geology and Paleontology, for the Use of Amateur; Students and 


The American Naturalist. \ August, 

Bergen's Primer of Darwinism. 4 — This little book is a con- 
venient one to put into the hands of a preliminary inquirer on the 
subject of evolution. It takes up successively the variability of species, 
the systematic order, and the parallels between the ontogeny and 
phylogeny. A number of illustrations elucidate the subject-matter. 
The authors have not gone into the discussion of the origin of varia- 
tion, and of the Neolamarckian and Neodarwinian schools, nor into 
the question of inheritance of acquired characters. As far as it goes, 
the book is an excellent one. 

Morris on Civilization. 5 — The history of civilization is the his- 
tory of mankind written from the utilitarian standpoint, rather than 
from the heroic or romantic. It is the real history, the one which will 
take the place of all others in our institutions of learning when our 
teachers have sufficiently escaped from tradition and custom. History 
as now taught is largely political history, where the occupations of the 
great majority of mankind are neglected, and in wliich the deeds of 
mankind which were best worth doing are unrecorded. Mr. Morris's 
book is a comprehensive synopsis of the progress of man in all his 
activities, occupying twenty-four chapters. He treats of population, 
government, religion, law, philosophy, commerce, wealth, science, art, 
and education. The erudition necessary for the production of such a 
work is encyclopaedic, and we may say that the work is well done 
considering the limited space at the author's disposal. His own views 
are in touch with modern humanitarianism and modern thought, and 
his unobtrusive presentation of them appears to be the natural outcome 
of the logic of each subject as it arises. A more definite reference to 
authorities would have added greatly to the value of the work. 

, Jr., and Fanny 
By Charles Morris. Chicago, 

Geography and Travel. 

General Notes, 


A Visit to the Philippine Islands of Masbate and Marin- 
duque.— On the first of May, 1888, after a month's stay in the Eastern 
Philippines, we sailed from the port of Catbalogan, in the island of 
Samar, bound for the island of Masbate. Our vessel was a stout little 
brig called the " Salvamiento," built in the islands, manned by a crew 
of Indians, and commanded by a Spanish captain. Our cargo was 
abaca (manila hemp), for the Manila market, and our only fellow- 
passenger was an old Indian sergeant going up to Manila on furlough. 
The southeast trades were just beginning to blow, and we set sail at 
sundown. The month in the eastern islands had been one of the 
hardest we had passed, with the jealousy of the authorities, poor food, 
the beginning of the rainy season, and a most difficult and mountain- 
ous country to hunt over, and we were pleased enough to be once more 
turned towards the north and home. The evening was pleasant, and 
we sat in the moonlight on the deck far into the night listening to the 
old sergeant's stories, and then turned in to sleep in a shake-down of 
sails on the cabin floor. 

The next morning found us still moving leisurely along under the 
same gentle breeze, and in the common highway from the Eastern and 
Central Philippines towards Manila. Islands were in sight on both 
sides all day, most of them more or less cultivated. In the afternoon 
we reached the southern point of Masbate, and sailed along the eastern 
shore. The country looked bare and brown enough. Most of it was 
campo, a rolling prairie, covered with coarse grass, now parched with 
drouth, and in many places blackened with fire. 

Just at night we turned into the little harbor of Palanoc and dropped 
anchor, the captain saying that he would wait and put us ashore in the 
morning, so that we might have time to hunt a house to stop in. He 
then took me ashore in his boat, and we climbed the steep bank of 
sixty or eighty feet, up to the little town, and there, guided by the 
moonlight, along a little crooked street to a low shop kept by a China- 
man, in which were an antiquated billiard table and a bar, and where 
were assembled the four or five Spaniards who made up the official 
corps of the island ; for Masbate is a province, and Palanoc its capital. 
The captain introduced me as " Un senor naturalista Americano," 

732 The American Naturalist. [August, 

and an old, grizzled officer in half-military dress began to tell remark- 
able stories of a young American naturalist whom he knew in the 
islands many years before. I finally made out to recognize myself in 
one of these stories, and the old man as an officer whom I had met and 
stopped with in the island of Basilan in " '74." He was acting gov- 
ernor of Masbate now, and the next morning put the whole establish- 
ment at our service. We were too many to accept his hospitality, and 
he ordered the school-house, which was closed for a vacation, to be 
put at our disposal. The palm thatch was in bad repair, but we had 
left the oncoming rainy season behind at our last stopping place, and 
the tables and benches served us well for our work. Several prisoners 
in chains were sent to transport our baggage up the steep hill, and we 
moved in immediately and got over breakfast in our new home while 
the " Salvamiento " was slowly making her way out of the harbor. 
The same day several of our party got out to some patches of woods 
not far away, and found the country so dry that great cracks ran 
through the soil in every direction. Birds of several kinds, especially 
parrots and cockatoos, were abundant. All the birds brought in had 
a familiar look, and the next day the same ; and there was now no 
doubt of it, we had struck another island of the central group, and 
the birds were identical with those of Panay and Negros. Masbate is 
distant enough from these to have a fauna of its own, but a study of 
the sea-bottom will probably show shallows which have not long ago 
connected it with the other central islands. After we had spent four 
or five days at Palanoc, and just as we were planning a trip into a 
wilder and better-timbered part of the island, the steamer ' ' Taal ' ' came 
into the harbor, and began loading with cattle for Manila. We found 
she would touch at Marinduque, our next stopping place, on her way, 
and, after a hurried consultation, concluding we could add but little 
of value to our collections from Masbate, we packed our goods and 
got on board the same evening, some of the woodsmen bringing us a 
few fine tree snails while we were on our way to the steamer. The 
species of land and tree snails of the Philippines are more restricted 
in distribution than even the short-winged birds. * 

The next morning found us well on our way, and passing through a 
multitude of islands, several of them of considerable size and impor- 
tance. The southeastern extremity of Luzon was also in sight, and 
the famous volcano of Albay. 

We arrived at the port or roadstead of Boac, in the island of Mar- 
induque, just at night again, and we and our baggage were set ashore 
just before dark. The town was several miles away, but a few houses, 

i89i] Geography a?id Travels. 733 

forming a little fishing village along the road leading up to it, were 
the sight among cocoa groves. The inhabitants of the place were an 
inhospitable lot, and, failing to make terms with them, we camped for 
the night on the beach, among our baggage. The next morning, con- 
cluding the port to be better fitted for our purpose than the inland 
town, we hired a little house just big enough to put a table into and 
to hang up our hammocks, and moved in, and, hiring an Indian boy 
as cook, were ready to look about us. The country along the coast 
was level and sandy, and much of it planted in cocoa groves, the rest 
showing ditches and banks made for irrigating rice, though the fields 
were now dry and grown up to grass and weeds, the last year having 
been too dry to raise rice. Troops of horses were feeding over these 
plains. Behind this level land the country rose up in low hills, which 
were rocky and covered with thick bushes. The only virgin forest in 
sight was several miles away, inland, and on steeper, higher hills. 

The birds shot in the cocoa groves about us proved to be distinct, 
many of them, from any we had as yet procured, though we afterwards 
found them to be identical with those of the great island of Luzon. 

There had been a gradual increase in the number of species of birds 
found nesting since February, but we now found nearly all species in 
the full tide of nesting. It seems strange that this should agree so 
closely with the nesting season in the north temperate regions. Bee- 
birds, kingfishers, cuckoo, shrikes, fruit-thrushes, orioles, fly-catchers, 
sun-birds, crows, starlings, pigeons, rails, herons, ducks, parrots, and 
cockatoos were all nesting. When the natives heard that we had cash 
to pay for such things, we were fairly besieged with boys and girls and 
women, with birds' nests and eggs, and land and tree snails. The 
ladder leading up to our room usually had two or three people upon it, 
who would hold up their collections whenever any of us came in sight. 
The native name of the bird was always required, and the nest with 
the eggs as far as possible. One day an old woman brought a basket 
with a number of round, white eggs, new to us. She was required to 
bring the nest to which the eggs belonged before being paid, but said 
the nest was a " pogo," and was then told to bring along the " pogo." 
A few days after we found that the eggs were those of the beautiful 
Merops bicolor, the prettiest of the two Philippine bee-eaters, and that 
they are laid in a hole in the ground, and this was the " pogo " we 
had demanded of the old woman. 

The number of birds building nests in holes here seemed to me to 
be rather remarkable. Among these were the bee-eaters, kingfishers, 

734 The American Naturalist. [August, 

swallows, shrikes, two species of starlings, cockatoos, parrots, owls, 
woodpeckers, and hornbills. But for the help of the natives our col- 
lections would have been poor ; but the island seems over-populated, 
at least for the methods of cultivation used, and the people were 
anxious to get our money. Among the animals brought us were two 
of the curious Philippine rats (Phloeomys). They were nearly as large 
as our common gray rabbit, light-gray in color, with short black tails. 
They were brought living, tied together to a stick, and had nearly cut 
each other to pieces before we received them. 

A trip down the beach to the south two or three miles brought us 
to a small creek flowing out of the hills, and following this up we 
found some woodland in the steep ravines, and many birfls, among 
them two species of beautiful pittas, in abundance, and further above, 
a few of the great hornbills (Buceros hydrocorax), and the curious 
crested cuckoos (Dasylophus), before supposed to be limited to Luzon. 
At about the same distance to the north there was a tract of lowland, 
much of it planted in rice, which was now being harvested, and here 
all kinds of waders were abundant, — rails and gallinules and herons of 
several species, most of them nesting, and a few Philippine mallards. 
Along the sea beach were thickets of small timber, and upon these we 
found one of the prettiest of the Philippine tree snails quite abundant, 
while the natives brought us from further inland quantities of Bulimus 
philippenensis and woodianus, two of the largest and finest species in 
the islands. The weather, which was dry when we arrived, gradually 
changed. Rain-clouds gathered over the hill-tops, and before the 
close of the month we had several heavy showers, and the rainy season 
had begun, and we prepared to move before it again,— this time to the 
little-known island of Mindoro, which was in sight across the strait, 
twelve or fifteen miles away.— J. B. Steere, Ann Arbor, Mich. 

Geology and Paleontology. 

Elevation of America in the Cenozoic Periods.— Mr. W. 

H. Dall writes as follows to the Geological Magazine {ox May, 1891 : 

" I notice in recent numbers of the Geological Magazine that Mr. 
Upham has been discussing his views on the elevation of the Gulf of 
Mexico, etc. It seems a pity that gentlemen who desire to launch 
such startling hypotheses should not devote more time to settling the 
facts upon which these hypotheses are based before promulgating their 
new views. As the statements made by Mr. Upham may be taken as 
properly verified, and more confusion be thereby occasioned, permit 
me to call attention to a few facts which have been verified. 

" I. The late Dr. Maack, when on the Isthmus of Darien, did not 
collect any Pleistocene fossils from the summit of the Atrato divide, 
763 feet above the sea. 2. The Pleistocene fossils collected by Dr. 
Maack were from an elevation of only 150 feet on the Panama side, 
ten miles from Panama City. The fossils above this height collected 
by Dr. Maack are Eocene or Miocene exclusively, and related to the 
Miocene fauna of Santa Domingo, as indeed was pointed out by Gabb 
nearly twenty years ago (Proc. Am. Philo. Soc, Vol. XII., p. 572). 
3. The summit or dividing line is not fossil iferous, and is probably not 
later than the Mesozoic epoch. 

" I may add, from information to be shortly published, that the 
supposed great elevation of Florida at any time since the later Eocene 
is as improbable as any hypothesis which could well be conceived. 
The conclusions which the facts necessitate in the case of Florida may 
be briefly outlined as follows : During the later Eocene, West-Central 
Florida was an island, like one of the Bahamas at present, composed 
exclusively of organic marine sediments, which in the Vicksburg epoch 
attained an unbroken thickness of more than 1,000 feet. The whole 
submarine plateau above which the present Florida rises may turn out 
to be of this age and constitution. This island had a land-shell fauna 
derived from the south. The strait between the island and the main 
coast north of it was more than fifty miles wide at the narrowest point, 
and was only closed at the beginning of the Pliocene. There have 
been gentle changes of level since the Eocene, but nothing violent, 
and the vertical range has been small. The Eocene and the old 
Miocene faunas were of a subtropical character, like the Antillean 
fauna at present. A change took place in mid-Miocene by which a 
cool, temperate, or colder water fauna invaded the Floridan region 

736 The American Naturalist. [August, 

from the north, and about 200 feet of strata (Chesapeake Group) were 
deposited, equivalent to the well-known Miocene beds of Virginia 
and Maryland. With the elevation which connected the Floridan 
islands with the continent a warmer era was again inaugurated in the 
sea, and an invasion of Pliocene vertebrates began on the peninsula of 

" There were unquestionably great changes of level on the conti- 
nent, increasing as one goes northward, both in Miocene and Pleisto- 
cene times. In the Antilles it has been proved that great changes 
have taken place. But the Floridan region, for some unknown rea- 
son, escaped, and Yucatan probably also. 

" I have been making a special study of Floridan geology for some 
years, and hope to publish a considerable amount of new information 
on that subject during the coming summer." 

Discovery of Coal near Dover, England. — In the Contem- 
porary Review, April, 1890, Professor W. Boyd Dawkins gives a his- 
tory of the discovery of coal in Southeastern England. As far back 
as 1S26 Buckland and Conybeare recognized the physical identity of 
the coal-bearing districts of Somerset on the west with those of North- 
ern France and Belgium on the east. In 1855 Godwin- Austen showed 
that the general direction of the exposed coal fields in South Wales 
and Somersetshire and those of North France and Belgium was ruled 
by a series of folds running east and west parallel to a great line of 
disturbance centered in the " axis of Artois," and concluded, from a 
careful study of the region, that there are coal fields beneath the 
Odlitic and Cretaceous rocks in the south of England, near enough to 
the surface along the ridge to be capable of being worked. His views 
were reinforced by Prestwich, in a report made to the Coal Commis- 
sion of i860— '71. At length, in consequence of a report made by Mr. 
Dawkins to Sir Edward Watkin, chairman of the Southeastern Rail- 
way and the Channel Tunnel Company, a shaft was sunk on the west 
side of Shakespeare Cliff, near Dover, to the depth of forty-four feet, 
and from the bottom of this a bore-hole has been made to the depth 
of 1,180 feet. The Coal Measures were struck at a depth of 1,204 feet 
from the surface, and a seam of good blazing coal was met with twenty 
feet lower. This discovery establishes the fact that there is a coal field 
lying buried under the newer deposits of Southeastern England, and 
proves up to the hilt the truth of Godwin-Austen's hypothesis, after a 
lapse of thirty-five years. 

1891.] Geology and Paleontology. 737 

Occurrence of Texas Lignites. — The lignites of Texas occur 
in the Fayette Beds and Timber Belt Beds of the Tertiary deposits. 
The borders of this area have been determined and have been fully 
described by Prof. E. T. Durable in the Mineral Resources of the 
United States, 1887, since which time they have not been changed 
materially by the later investigations. The Fayette Beds underlie the 
coast clays and other Quaternary deposits of Texas. Their outcrops 
cross the entire State from the Sabine River to the Rio Grande, and 
consist of clays, sands, limestones, and pebble deposits. The under- 
lying Timber Belt Beds are composed of siliceous sand and greensand 
marls, interstratified with clays, generally of a brown color, and thin 
beds of limestone. The beds of lignite contained in both these series 
of rocks are very numerous, sometimes occurring in lenticular masses, 
greater or less extent, thinning out in every direction, and again form 
extensive seams of considerable thickness, frequently fourteen feet. 
The Texas Tertiary has been but little disturbed. The force lifting 
these strata to their present level has caused a gradual and slow eleva- 
tion, leaving them as originally laid down by the Tertiary sea. How- 
ever, though no violent volcanic eruptions have distorted these beds, 
they are nevertheless found sometimes broken, faulted, and bent, 
caused by the drying and compression of loose, moist underlying 
deposits. (Second Ann. Rept. on the Iron Ore District of East Texas, 

The Geological and Natural History Survey of Minne- 
sota. 1 — The report of the Geological and Natural History Survey of 
Minnesota for 1889 embodies a summary of American opinions on the 
older rocks of North America by Alexander Winchell, and the record 
of Mr. N. H. Winchell's field observations in the northeastern part of 
the state during 1888 and 1889. These observations confirm theviews 
lately set forth by Irving, Bonney, and Samson, and the conclusions 
published by the reports of the Minnesota survey, to the effect that 
the Huronian system, as now defined and understood by the Canadian 
geological reports, really embraces two or three formations ; that one 
of these is the true Huronian, as at first described and mapped by 
Murray, another is theKeewatin of Dr. A. C. Lawson, containing the 
iron ores at Tower, Minnesota, and another is the series of crystalline 
schists which have been styled Vermilion series. These three forma- 
tions are distinctly separated by lithology and unconformities that have 
been noted from Vermont to Minnesota, and should no longer be 

1 The Eighteenth Annual Report of the Geol. and Nat. Hist. Surv. of Minnesota, for 

738 The American Naturalist. [August, 

included under a single term, — at least not under the term Huronian, 
which at first had a correct and adequate definition, embracing but one 

1 idea of the progress that is being made in the 
ortheastern part of the state, and of the 
; that are being developed there. 

Geological News — Archean. — Mr. Arthur Harvey thinks that 
the nodules found in the Animikie slates in the region of Thunder 
Bay are fossil organisms simpler in structure than sponges. In appear- 
ance they resembled the puff-balls of our meadows, varying in size 
from a hen's egg to a coal-scuttle. (Transactions Canadian Inst., 
March, 1891.) 

Paleozoic. — A. Smith Woodward reports two new Devonian fishes, 
— Onychodus arcticus, from Spitzbergen {Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., 
August, 1889), an d C/imatius latispinosus, from New Brunswick {Geo/. 
Mag., November, 1889). Mr. R. B. Newton has described and fig- 
ured a new mollusc (Porce/Ua latidorsata) from the Carboniferous lime- 
stone of Ireland (Geo/. Mag., 1891). Mr. Newton proposes to change 
the name of Porcellia Lev. to Leveillia, because it resembles the Por- 

cellio of Latreille ; an entirely inadmissable proposition. E. N. 

Ringueberg has described and figured five new crinoids from the Lower 
Niagara limestone at Lockport, N. Y. Ca/Ucrinus acanthinus, G/y- 
p/aster(Eucrn thyocrinus conoidens, EucalyMocrinus 

mura/is. (Annals N. Y. Acad. Sci., July, 1890.) 

Mesozoic— According to A. Smith Woodward, the so-called Cre- 
aceous lizard, Raphiosaurus, is founded upon the anterior half of the 
dentary bone of a characteristic Cretaceous fish, Pachyrhizodus. (Ann. 

and Mag. Nat. Hist., November, 1889.) Mr. David White has 

found Cretacic plants at several points about Gay's Head at Martha's 
Vineyard. They seem to be nearly related to those of the Middle 
Cretacic of Greenland, and there is reason to believe them identical 
with the flora of the Amboy clays. (Bull. Geol. Soc. Am., Vol. I., p. 

554-) Mr. R. T. Hill divides the Comanche series of Texas into 

several separate and distinct terranes, theVwer two of which may pos- 
sibly be of the pre-Cretaceous age. He gives both stratigraphic and 
paleontologic proof that such a division is neccessary. (Bull. Geol. 

Soc. Am., Vol. II. pp. 503-528.) A new genus of Paleoniscid 

fishes from the Karoo formation of South Africa has been described 
by A. Smith Woodward under the name of Atherstonia scutata. In 
appearance of the scales, the situation and proportions of the fins, this 

1891.] Geology and Paleontology. 739 

South African fish most nearly approaches Gyrolepis, from the Euro- 
pean Trias and Rhgetic, and Rhabdolepis, from the European Lower 
Permian. {Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., September, 1889.) 

Cenozoic. — Mr. Sirodont has been studying the fauna of a Ceno- 
zoic formation at the foot of Mount Dol, on the southeastern side. He 
is of the opinion that the debris there accumulated belongs to a period 
anterior to the movement which elevated the shores of certain regions 

about the Baltic Sea. {Revue Set., June, 1891.) Mr. E. Riviere 

reports the finding of the teeth and bones of Equus caballus fossilis, 
Bos primigenius, and a deer as yet undetermined, in the sands of Cergy. 

{Revue Sci., May, 1891.) Dr. Reusch has found glacial striae and 

boulder clay in Finmark, belonging to a period much older than the 
"ice age." The ice-marked sandstones are probably Permian, but 
may belong to the Cambro-Silurian series. {Geol. Mag., May, 1891.) 

General. — M. L. Cayeux announces the discovery of an important 
formation of Diatoms in the tufa which contains Cyprina planata in the 
north of France and Belgium. This tufa results from the agglomera- 
tion of sands of the same horizon cemented together by a colloidal or 
chalcedonis silex. -Among the Diatoms which are thus found in great 

{Revue Sci., May, 1891.) Mr. A. Lindenkohl reports a sunken 

river channel in Chesapeake Bay. A narrow and deep channel can be 
traced nearly throughout the entire length of the bay, from the mouth 
of Bush River to that of the Rappahannock, a distance of 1 20 miles. 

{Am. Jour. Science, June, 1891.) On his return from Koukou-nor, 

while crossing the Nau-Chang, Mr. Martin discovered a large band of 
Jade encased in a rather friable rock. It is true Jade, as fine as that of 
Siberia, and is worked by the natives to make ornaments, often of 
great value, for the Chinese. {Revue Sci., May, 1891.) As to gla- 
cial records in the Newark system, Mr. I. C. Russell says that after 
personally examining nearly every area occupied by it, he fails to find 
any evidence to support the hypothesis that glaciers assisted in its 
deposition. {Am. Journ. Science, June, 1891.) 


Abnormal Duplication of Urosome in Rana catesbiana. — 

While searching the stores where aquatic supplies are sold it has been 
my fortune to obtain two tadpole monstrosities, — one from a dealer in 
Harlem, and one from a store near Cooper Union, New York city. 
The occurrence of two such specimens during the same season, each 
obtained from a different locality, sets aside the probability of either 
being the result of accident. A careful examination has led to the con- 
clusion that the malformations are congenital. As I am assured by 
Dr. John A. Ryder that nothing of the sort has been observed hitherto, 
I furnish herewith a description and sketch, as being of possible interest 
in their bearings on the morphology of monsters. 

Both are tadpoles of Rana catesbiana, far enough advanced to possess 
the posterior limbs. These, however, have very small thighs, and pre- 

sent a dwarfed appearance as compared with those of normal tadpoles 
of same size. One of the tadpoles died soon after coming into my 
possession ; the other is alive. In both the abdomen is oval and flat, 
instead of swollen and globular. This characteristic has been persist- 
ent with the tadpole now alive, although it has been furnished with 
Anacharis, Utricularia, and other food-plants, and has fed upon them 
constantly with as much zest as is shown by ordinary tadpoles. In the 
tail of each a bifurcation takes place toward the tip, and there follows 
a duplication of the tail above and below the axis of the body. In 
both the dorsal and ventral branches of the fin-fold occurs a series of 
muscle-plates, and a dorsal and ventral branch of the chorda corre- 
sponding to the diverging limbs of the tail-tip. The plates -extend a 
little beyond the point of bifurcation, and the notochord to the 

extreme tip of each branch. In each three vein-like structures extend 
to the tips of branches, which I suppose to be the spinal cord, aorta, 
and caudal vein ; but, as neither specimen has been dissected, and 
these structures are not very clearly defined, this point must rest in 

The lines which cross near bifurcation appear to do so in each speci- 
men, a dorsal branch of chorda passing into ventral, and a ventral 
branch into the dorsal fin-fold. 

So far as known, all duplications of this kind have been to the right 
and left of a median line, as in Japanese goldfishes, and this vertical 
duplication, with the result of appending to an ordinary tadpole a struc- 
ture closely resembling the forked caudal fin of some fishes, may suggest 
one of the methods of evolution of fishes and frogs from the same 
ancestral vertebrate form. 

I should be pleased to correspond with any one interested, and to 
communicate further if other facts can be obtained by a closer exami- 
nation of this exceedingly rare and unusual larval form. 

[Note.— These cases of abnormal tadpoles described by Mr. Sher- 
wood have seemed to me so remarkable that it appeared very desir- 
able that they should be figured. The method of duplication of the 
tail is precisely the reverse of that observed in the case of the so-called 
"fan-tail" races or double-tailed goldfishes from Japan and China. 
What disturbances of ontogenetic processes may have led to the devel- 
opment of this singular form of monstrosity in the tails of tadpoles 
remains to made out. The origin of such irregularities may be 
coupled with actual mutilations, as seems to be indicated in other cases, 
by the experiment of cutting off the tails of tadpoles, as described 
in the Archiv f mik. Anatomie, 1891 (D. Barfurth on functional adap- 
tation and the regeneration of tissues in the Amphibia). In the 
memoir referred to it was found that the angle, with reference to the 
notochordal axis, at which the tip of the tail of a tadpole was cut off 
determined the direction of the inclination, upwards or downwards, of 
the tip of the tail, which was reproduced. If the tail was cut 
square across or at right angles, there was no departure from the nor- 
mal form of the reproduced tip. If, however, the tip of a tadpole's 
tail was cut off so that the upper half of the plane of section, or that 
above the notochord, formed an acute angle with the latter (the angle 
opening forwards), the now newly reproduced tip of the tail would 
have its axis directed upwards. If the lower half of the plane of 
section formed an acute angle with the notochordal axis (the angle 
opening forwards), the tip of the tail which would now be reproduced 

742 The American Naturalist. [August, 

from the stump at the plane of section would be directed downwards 
instead of upwards, as before. In other words, the direction of the 
plane of section in these cases of the mutiliation of tadpole's tails 
determined the direction of the axis of the finally completed and 
restored tails.— J. A. R.] 

Snakes in Banana Bunches. — Since the notices published on 
this subject in the Naturalist (1890, Aug. and Oct., p. 968) three other 
instances have come under my notice. Prof. J. Lindahl, of Spring- 
field, obtained from a fruit dealer in Chicagd*a specimen of the harm- 
less dipsadine snake, Sibon annulatum Linn., which he obtained from a 
bunch of bananas. Wm. Cherrie, of San Jose, Costa Rica, informs 
me that as many as six men were killed during 1890 by the bites of a 
venomous snake which lives in the banana bunches, which they load on 
vessels at the port of Limon on the Caribbean Sea. From figures and 
descriptions Mr. Cherrie recognizes the species to be the Telesuraspis 
schlegelii¥>zxt\\., which abounds in Costa Rica. It has the prehensile 
habit fully as well developed as in the Boidae, which have been found 
in the like situation. The Philadelphia Zoological Garden has received 
a specimen of a small boa, the Ungualia partialis, which was taken 
from a banana bunch from Jamaica. The list of banana-dwelling 
snakes now includes five species,— viz., three boas, one harmless colu- 
brine snake, and one venomous species allied to the copperhead.— 
E. D. Cope. 

Description of a New Jumping Mouse from Nova Scotia 
and New Brunswick.— But one species of Zapus has been recog- 
nized by recent writers on North American Mammalogy, hence it was 
with much interest that I examined three specimens taken at Resti- 
gouche, N. B., during the summer of 1880, by Mr. E. A. Bangs, of 
Boston, who recently sent me the skins for determination, saying that 
he had always considered them different from the animal found in 
Massachusetts. The mice were collected on the banks of a river in 
the depths of the forest, and were very difficult to procure, as they 
could not be induced to enter any kind of a trap, and it was necessary 
to shoot all the specimens taken. About half a dozen skins were 
obtained, all but three of which were subsequently destroyed by insects. 
These three specimens represent a species evidently distinct from Zapus 
hudsonius, and may be named and characterized as follows : 

Zapus insignis, sp. nov.—Meriones labradorius Dawson, Edinb. JV. 
Phil.Journ., III., January, 1856, 2, not of Richardson and Sabine. 

Sp. ch.— Size and color about as in Zapus hudsonius, from New 

1891.] Zoology. 743 

York and Massachusetts ; tail slightly longer proportionally, white all 
around for about 25 mm. at tip. Length 225, tail 126, hind foot 
30 mm. (Type % ad. ; No. fff collection of G. S. Miller, Jr., Resti- 
gouche, N. B. ; September 10th, 1880 ; E. A. Bangs, collector.) The 
skull closely resembles that of Z. hudsonius, but is slightly larger, with 
brain-case a trifle broader and flatter. 

The other two specimens are males. They agree perfectly with the 
type, except that the tails are longer, with the white tips reduced to 13 
and 1 1.5 mm. They measure: Length 224, tail 141, hind foot 30.8; 
and length 235, tail 140, hind foot 30.4; and were taken at Resti- 
gouche, September 8th and 10th, respectively. 

The three specimens agree in lacking the upper premolar usually 
usually found in Zapus hudsonius ; but as all are old, and have the teeth 
much worn, it i-, possible that this tooth may have been shed, leaving 
no trace of its former presence. I can find no published account of 
the occasional absence of this premolar in Z. hudsonius ; but Mr. F. 
W. True writes me that a single specimen from Pennsylvania in the 
V. S. National Museum shows this peculiarity. 

Apparently the only description of a jumping mouse with white- 
tipped tail is that given by Dawson (Edinb. N. Phil. Journ., III., 1856, 
2), who describes the animal from near Halifax, and uses the name 
Meriones labradorius Rich, for it. Richardson took his name from 
Sabine {Zool. App. Franklin s Journ., 1823,661), whose specimen 
"from Cumberland House" was imperfect, having the tail only 2.50 
inches long, thus rendering the name labradorius undeterminable. The 
first adequate description given under the name labradorius is that of 
Richardson, in the " Fauna Boreali-Americana," and this refers strictly 
to Z. hudsonius, or at least to a dark-tailed animal. 

My warmest thanks are due Mr. Bangs for his kindness in permitting 
me to announce this new species, which is his discovery rather than 
my own.— Gerrit S. Miller, Jr., Peterboro, N. Y.,June 28th, i8gi. 

Descriptions of Three New Species of Mexican Bats.— 
During a recent collecting trip, made for the Comision Geografica- 
Exploradora, to Las Vegas, Canton of Jalapa, Vera Cruz, I found what 
appears to be a new species of Vesperugo. 

Close by the hamlet of Las Vegas is a small, long-since-extinct 
volcano, on the sides of which are found numerous " sink-holes" that 
give entrance into long, narrow caves or tunnels, through which for- 
merly flowed the lava after it had ceased to be fluid on the surface. 
Some of these tunnels are as smooth and clean as though but lately 
emptied of their fiery contents, whilst others are strewn with great 

744 The American Naturalist. [August, 

heaps of angular fragments of lava, jarred down from the roof by some 
earthquake. Not infrequently two or three superimposed tunnels 
have been united in parts of their length by their respective floors 
having fallen through. In these caves, even on the hottest day, the 
air is fresh and cool, and has a perceptible current down the mountain 
side, which at the constrictions becomes a strong breeze. This cool- 
ness of the atmosphere was a fortunate circumstance for my collecting, 
as because of it I found most of the bats in a state of semi-hibernation, 
enabling me to take with the hand all those within arm's reach. Prof. 
J. A. Allen's recently described Vespertilio velifer was the prevailing 
species, abounding in hundreds, and of which I took with the aid of my 
assistant, Senor Carlos M. Teran, 193 specimens 5151 being males, and 
the remaining 42 females. This I take to be a fair average of the pro- 
portion of the sexes in what is probably one of their permanent head- 
quarters. Plecotus macrotis was scattered about in very sparing numbers, 
but five specimens being seen. Unlike my former experience with this 
species in the valley of Mexico, all were found solitary, completely 
isolated from the other species as well as from one another. 

While collecting these bats I came across one whose small size 
immediately distinguished it from the two other species ; yet from its 
general similarity in form, viewed by the uncertain light of a stearine 
candle, and its almost exact identity in color with velifer, led me for 
the moment to suppose that it was a young of that species. But upon 
finding another of these small bats I made a closer examination, and 
at once saw that I had another species to deal with, new to me, and I 
fancied new to science. A search through all the literature of the 
subject that I have at hand confirms me in the belief that it is an unde- 
scribed species. 

Six specimens, five males and one female, were taken, and no 
others were seen. In every case they were hanging from the sides of 
the caves, instead of from the roofs, as was the case with velifer, and 
unlike it were always solitary, — a point on which I place no special 
stress, as I find this and several other habits of bats to vary with 
locality, etc. Some were taken not far from the entrances, where, 
when the eyes were accustomed to the darkness, a faint sort of phos- 
phorescent glow could be seen in the direction of the mouth of the 
cave. Others were taken many hundreds of yards within, where inter- 
vening abrupt angles rendered it absolutely impossible that the slightest 
ray of light could at any time of day penetrate. That this locality is 
not the headquarters of this species I am satisfied ; whether higher up 
in the tierra templada, or below in tierra caliente, will prove to be its 

i89i.] Zoology. 745 

center of distribution I am not positive ; but I think that it will be in 
tierra caliente, at least during the winter months. The semi-hiberna- 
tion of the specimens taken point toward this opinion, for I am inclined 
to believe that here, where ten miles of travel may bring an entire 
change of climate, the bats, as a rule, prefer to migrate rather than to 

These bats, when first taken, were entirely motionless ; but in a few 
moments the heat of my hand revived them, whereupon they occasion- 
ally gave voice to a faint, high-pitched squeak, — so high in pitch that 
I fancy it lacked little of being beyond the range of the ordinary 
human ear. They went into none of those ecstasies of rage seen in 
many of the larger species that bite Whatever comes within range of 
their mouth, be it their own foot or wing. One, found in a compara- 
tively dry part of a cave, was completely beaded over with dew, indi- 
cating, I think, that it had passed at least several days since taking 
flight. When taken into the daylight they closed their eyes and 
covered them over with the carpal portion of their wings. 

Vesperugo ver^ecrucis, sp. nov. — All six specimens were indistin- 
guishable one from another in point of color, 
description is taken from a dried skin. 
description is taken from a specimen pre 

Hairs of back clove-brown for basal half, followed by 
zones respectively broccoli-brown and clove-brown ; some of hairs 
furthermore tipped with light Vandyke-brown, giving a decidedly 
"rusty" tone to the back. Ventral surface, bases of hairs slightly 
lighter than those of back, followed by light hair-brown, producing a 
grayish or smoky effect. 

Wing membranes naked, except a very limited area on upper surface 
along sides of body, not exceeding three or four millimeters in width ; 
and on lower surface, the area included between a line passing from 

746 The American Naturalist 

the middle of humerus to the knee and the side of the body is s 

Interfemoral 1 
upper surface, 

Legs and arms naked. Wing extending from base of outer toe. 
Antebranchial membrane losing itself at middle of radius. Two 
caudal vertebrae free from membrane. 

Black glandular prominences between eyes and nostrils well devel- 
oped, fringed with longish hairs on both upper and lower edges, and 
with three or four long, black, bristly hairs growing from its upper 

Inner edge of ear conch evenly convex. Outer edge coming up, in 
an even, sweeping curve, from angle of mouth to level of tip of tragus,, 
where it meets a slightly concave line leading up to the obtusely 
rounded tip. A nearly semi-circular antitragus is developed from that 
part of the conch passing below the tragus. Bone of inner margin of 
tragus concave, thus throwing this organ forward, followed by a straight 
margin. Bone of outer margin with a sub-triangular lobe, followed 
by a deep notch, above which the greatest width is quickly reached. 
From here a nearly straight line leads to the tip, which is obtusely 
rounded. (See Fig. 2.) 

Measurements in millimeters : Length of head and body, from tip 
of nose to base of tail, 37.5 ; length of tail, 36; length of tail beyond 
membrane, 3 ; length of head, 15 ; height of ear, from notch between 
antitragus and conch to tip, 10 ; height of tragus, inner margin, 4.5 ; 
height of tragus, outer margin, 6 ; greatest width of tragus, 2 ; length 
of antitragus, 2; height of antitragus (approximately), .75; length 
of forearm, 31 ; length of thumb, including claw and excluding meta- 
carpus, 7.5. Second digit — metacarpal, 29. Third digit — metacarpal, 
30.5 ; first phalanx, 11. 5; second phalanx, 11 ; cartilaginous tip, 5. 
Fourth digit— metacarpal, 29 ; first phalanx, 10 ; second phalanx, 7 ; 
cartilaginous tip, 2.5. Fifth digit — metacarpal, 28; first phalanx, 
8.5 ; second phalanx, 5 ; cartilaginous tip, 1. Interspace between 
tips of third and fourth digits, 16 ; interspace between tips of fourth 
and fifth digits, 37 ; interspace between tip of fifth digit and juncture 
of membrane with foot, 42 ; extent of outstretched wings, 212 ; length 
of tibia, 13.5 ; length of foot, 9 ; length of calcaneum, about 8. 

Teeth ~* \~] ^ 3:13=30. 

Middle upper incisors separated by 1.5 mm., inclined forwards and 
inwards ; a large internal cusp on posterior-external edge halfway up 

i8 9 i.] Zoology. 747 

from base to tip. Outer incisors simple, conical, inclined parallel to 
their respective inner mates, separated from canines by about .75 mm. 
Lower incisors tri-lobate, evenly spaced. Upper canines long, simple, 
slightly recurved. Lower canines straight, with basal cusps on forward 
edge only. First upper premolar interior to tooth line, visible from 
the exterior. Second upper premolar longer than any of its corre- 
sponding molars. 

A prominent conical excrescence is on the lower gum, opposite the 
space between the premolars, in front of which the point of the upper 
canine passes. Two much less prominent excrescences are on the upper 
gum immediately above this lower one. Type No. 527 S , Las Vegas, 
Vz., Feb. 19, 1891. Collectors, H. L. Ward and C. M. Teran. 

Vesperugo vercecrucis appears to be most closely related to V. georgi- 
anus; therefore I append a comparative table of i 

5 2 7- * 37-5 36. 31. x 3-5 5 6 - 2I2 -~ 
528. ? 38.5 36. 32. 14. 55- 2 J 5- 

32. 30. 14. 51. 

34-5 3°-5 *3-5 54- 

!-5 33-5 J 5-5 56. 

of georgianus 

exceed the large; 

difference found, I should probably consider my specimens as repre- 
senting a smaller southern variety ; but taken in consideration with 
difference of color pattern, the dorsal hairs having three and some 
even four distinct bands of color, instead of but two, zsgeorgiams a 
described, the nakedness of the legs, less extent of hair on interfemorat 
membranes, etc., an apparent difference in the form of the ear, and 
slight differences in the teeth, lead me to also consider this difference 
in size as a characteristic of the species. 

Nyctinomus depressus, sp. nov.— For about a year I have been 
aware of the existence in this museum of an apparently undescnbed 
species of Nyctinomus, an adult male taken within the museum building. 
I have vainly endeavored to obtain other specimens of this species,^»ut 

748 The American Naturalist. [August, 

have so far found no other of the genus except brasiliensis ; which is 
extremely numerous here, as well as in several other parts of the country 
where I have collected. 

The specimen under consideration appears to be more closely allied 
to N. macrotis than to any other described species, but quite distinct 
from this, as will appear by a comparison of the figures and description 
here given with Dobson, Catl. Chiroptera in Brit. Mus., pp. 435. 43 6 > 
PI. xxii., Fig. 6. 

Above, burnt umber ; below, Prout's brown ; bases of hairs on both 
surfaces, white. Membranes and ears, in the alcoholic specimen, 
nearly perfectly concolor with the under surface of body. A line of 


very short hairs bordering humerus and radius on upper surface of ante- 
branchial membrane, so fine as scarcely to be perceptible when wet. 
On upper surface of wing membrane, short lines border the radius, 
except at the extreme elbow, and occupy the angle formed by the 
juncture of the fourth and fifth metacarpals. On both upper and 
lower surfaces the membrane is covered with hairs to a line extending 
from the proximal third of humerus to the middle of the femur. Inter- 
femoral membrane covered for three or four millimeters below femora 
on upper surface, and naked on lower. Inner edge of ear evenly 
convex when flattened out, but from its vertical waviness appearing as 
in Fig. 5. The forward interior margin is reflexed over the deep 
depression at the upper extremity of the keel, thus forming a sort of 
pocket. Outer margin bilobate, the lower lobe arising from a short, 
straight base coming up from behind the antitragus, the upper lobe 
being continuous with the tip and inner edge. Keel large, strongly 
reflexed at angle near base, extending slightly exterior to the antitragus. 
Tragus straight on inner and upper margins. Outer margin formed by 
two slightly concave lines producing a slight lobe by their juncture at 

the center of this margin. Conch with seven diagonally transverse 
flirtings appearing as furrows on the upper and as ridges on the lower 
surface, the posterior one being very slightly marked. On the outer 
surface, passing through the centers of these flutings, and at right 
angles to them, is a slight ridge formed by a doubling of the skin. The 
peculiar depressed angle formed by the juncture of the two lobes of the 
external margin of the conch {vide Fig. 4) gives to the ears of this 
species a peculiar drooping appearance that has suggested to me 
depressus as a fitting specific name. 

Nostrils circular, opening forwards, outwards, and very slightly down- 
wards. A prominent subcircular swelling between the eye and nostril 
and slightly below a line connecting them. Side of face with five 
flutings extending to lip. A deep furrow under eye. Face and chin 
nearly naked. Wing membranes from inner surface of distal ends of 
tibia and from calcanea, indefinitely edged with yellowish-white, more 
defined in centers of interdigital spaces and in center of the space 
between the fifth finger and tibia. Outer edges of first and fifth toes 
closely fringed with short,. curved white hairs; on the fifth toes, dorsal 
to this outer fringe, is a row of less numerous curved hairs, exceeding 
them about three times in length. From the upper surface of base of 
each claw spring three or four long curved hairs, about 8 mm. in 
length on chord. No gular pouch. Thumb with well-developed 
callosity at base of first phalanx. 

Teeth 2=2 J=j j=2 J=| = 30. 

Upper incisors semi-conical, parallel, separated by space of 1 mm. 
Lower incisors bifid, crowded ; the middle pair in a straight line, the 
outer ones starting from near centers of inner surfaces of middle pair 
and diverging at an angle of 45° from them. Canines long, with dis- 
tinct, unbroken anguli, somewhat dilated on posterior-internal part of 
lower one, but not forming a true cusp. The upper canines are curved 
backwards, saber-shaped, passing 1.5 mm. below gums of lower teeth 
when the mouth is closed, the lower pair fitting into sockets between 
upper incisors and canines. First upper and lower premolars much 
smaller than second ones, in middle of spaces between these and 
canines. Second upper premolars decidedly longer than molars, with 
very acute outer cusps ; the internal cusps not particularly developed, 
as is the case with macrotis. 

Measurements in millimeters from alcoholic specimen : Length of 
head and body, from tip of nose to base of tail, 79 ; length of tail, 
52; length of -tail beyond interfemoral membrane, 33; length of 

750 The American Naturalist. [August, 

head, 31 ; length of ear, from notch between antitragus and conch to 
anterior point of margin, 25 ; length of antitragus, 7 ; height of 
antitragus, 4.5 ; height 0/ tragus at inner border, 2.5 ; height of tragus 
at outer border, 4.5 ; width of tragus at top, 2.5 ; ears unite at base 
for 3.5 ; length of forearm, 60; length of thumb, not including meta- 
carpal, 8. Second digit — metacarpal, 55. Third digit — metacarpal, 
58; first phalanx, 24; second phalanx, 22; cartilaginous tip, 7. 
Fourth digit — metacarpal, 56 ; first phalanx, 21 ; second phalanx, 2. 
Fifth digit — metacarpal, 29; first phalanx, 20; second phalanx, 5. 
Interspace between tips of third and fourth digits, 31 ; interspace 
between tips of fourth and fifth digits, 60 ; interspace between tip of 
fifth finger and attachment of membrane to tibia, 60 ; extent of out- 
stretched wings, 357; length of tibia, 18; length of foot, 13; 
length of calcaneum (poorly defined), about 16. 

Type, and only specimen, No. 516 % ad. Tacubaya, D. F., Mar., 
1887. Collector, Louis G. Ruoz. 

A comparison of the measurements of this species with macretis shows 
that although the length of ear, forearm, and peculiarly short second 
phalanx of the fourth digit are the same in the two species, yet depressus 
is considerably the larger bat of the two. 

Centurio minor, sp. nov. — I have in hand an adult female Centurio 
that I cannot identify with either C. senex or m'murtrii, because of 
some apparent differences in the cutaneous folds of the chin, and 
because of differences in measurements that I cannot believe to be due 
to individual variation. Unfortunately the collector commenced to 
make a skin of the specimen, dissecting the head to forward of the 
eyes, before deciding to preserve it in alcohol. For this reason I give 
mly a figure of the lower jaw, for I know by experience 
hat at best I could make but a guess at what was the 
iriginal shape of the head. Fortunately the specimen 
t the cutaneous 

i a (about half-ripe) foetus 
, and that shows all the cutaneous 
besides possesses a curious cone 
of skin springing from the occiput, looking like the top-knot of hair 
of vnic?nurtrii a.- figured in the Biologia Centrali-Americana. 

Description of type, No. 525 female ad, Cerro de los Pajaros, Las 
Vegas, Vz., July or August, 1888. Collector Carlos M. Teran. 

Color, above Brocolli-brown, lighter on occiput and neck, darker 
toward the tail. Each hair three-zoned ; base brown, middle white, 

I89I-] Zoolot 


and tip brown ; the white occupying one-half of entire length. On 
the lower part of back the white becomes more and more soiled until 
it is scarely noticeable. Or the hairs may be described as brown on 
lower back, with slightly lighter centers that fade to pure white on neck, 
and occiput. Belly same as back, becoming lighter on head and neck, 
which is white, washed with brown. No distinct zones of color as on 
dorsal surface. At ventral aspect of junction of antebranchial mem- 
brane with the body is a small, triangular spot of white fur. Wing 
membrane externally covered with unicoled hairs, same shade as dor- 
sum, to line from middle of humerus to near knee. Upper surface of 
interfemoral membrane thinly clothed, same color as rump. Wing 
membranes from tarsi. Antebranchial from bases of first phalanges of 
thumbs. Face naked, with the exception of a few white bristles and a 
row of short white hairs from corner of mouth to antitragi. Lower 
jaw naked in front, bordered by a fold of skin, free in central part 
that passes from antitragns to antitragus. Another narrower fold 

ing a slight central depression or pit with a small one on each side of 
it. From this widened part of fold a straight sided, naked patch 
extends backwards having, a trifle below its center, a laneolate pit. 
Below on each side this nuked space throws out an arm terminating 
in a rounded lobe. Lower down, and separated by a line of hair, are 
two warts, one on each side of central line, each with a slight depres- 
sion in its center. The sketch will, I think, explain this more easily 
than words. The white hair bordering this inverted T-shaped, naked 
space is very short and fine, quite invisible to the naked eye when the 
specimen is wet. I have purposely greatly exaggerated its length in 
the sketch that it may not be overlooked. 

Ears divided into two lobes of equal. proportion, and form with 
those of sencx as figured by Dobson in Catl. Chir. Brit. Mus. Facial 
cutaneous folds, and the peculiar marking- between the fourth and fifth 
fingers, and internal to the fifth, are apparently the same. These 
markings are not exactly the same on each side, several of the lines 
being branched, tuning-fork shaped, and not conforming one side with 
the other. They, therefore, can probably be but little relied upon for 
diagnostic purposes. 

Teeth*"* [Z] *Z\ 2= 28 ' 

The only noticeable difference between the teeth of this specimen 
and those of senex {vide Dobson) is that in minor the second lower 

752 The American Naturalist. [August, 

molar is equal to the first instead of the half its size, and sectionally is 
quadrangular instead of triangular. 

Comparative measurements of minor and senex in millimeters, 
those of latter species reduced from measurements in inches given by 

Length of head and body (about) 65 77 

Length of head 20 25 

Length of ear 13 x 7 

Length ' of tragus 4 7-5 

Length of forearm *4°-5 53 

Length of thumb 13 l 3 

Length of second finger, metacarpal 33 

Length of third finger : 

Metacarpal 37 3 8 -5 

First phalanx 14 *7-5 

Second phalanx 22 23 

Third phalanx 2 n 15- 5 

Length of fourth finger : 

Metacarpal 34 34 

First phalanx 14- 5 l 4 

Second phalanx 13 14 

Length of fifth finger : 

Metacarpal 36 35.5 

First phalanx 14 15 

Second phalanx 12.5 14 

Interspace between tips of third and fourth fingers 32 

Interspace between tips of fourth and fifth fingers 45 

Interspace between tip of fifth finger and foot . . 52 

Extent of outstretched wings 277 

Length of tibia 17 17 

Length of calcaneum 5.5 6.5 

Length of foot 14 10 

In three of these measurements,—/.^., thumb, fourth metacarpal, and 

tibia, — the two species measure the same ; in three others, — i.e., first 
phalanx of fourth finger, fifth metacarpal, and foot, minor is the larger; 

in all the other thirteen comparative measurements it is the smaller. 
The difference in length of forearm, 12.5 mm., is much more than I 

J 89i] Embryology. 753 

have yet found in individual varieties of bats. That of the foot and 
of the ear, each 4 mm., is great for so short organs. The difference 
in tragus, 3.5 mm., particularly strikes the attention. I am inclined 
to believe that this is the least variable organ in bats. 

Notwithstanding these differences the closeness of these two bats is 
very marked, and I should not be surprised if minor should eventually 
prove to be but a variety of senex. However, until there is positive 

The collector failed to note the date of capture, but informs me that 
he is certain that it was in July or August, and probably in the former 
month. From this I imagine that the young bat would have been 
born some time in September. The specimen was taken at night while 
flying about a bonfire.— -Henry L. Ward, Tacubaya, D. F., Mexico, 
April 20th, i8qi. 

Some Notes on the Breeding Habits and Embryology of 
Frogs. — The following notes are the outcome of several years of ob- 
servations on the breeding habits and stages in the development of frogs. 
They are confessedly very incomplete, having been collected rather as 
an amusement than with any desire to increase our present knowledge 
of amphibian embryology. Some older observations have been 
verified, and I believe a few new observations made which perhaps are 
worth recording. From many points v( view I think the develop- 
ment of the frog is better adapted to the need of students beginning 
the study of embryology than the classical chick. Certainly this 
seems to be true if a clearer knowledge of the phenomena of develop- 
ment in general is desired, and not merely an introduction to human 
embryology,— the best excuse offered for presenting the hen's tgg and 
chick, with its mystifying yolk and white and its incomprehensible (to 
the beginner) larval membranes. On the other hand, the ease with 
which the young chicks are to be obtained at all seasons makes a very 
strong argument in their favor. Correspondingly, the difficulties of re- 
moving the younger stages of the frog's egg from the surrounding jelly has 
been a great drawback to its study. Appreciating this last difficulty, 
I have, experimented for several vears on methods of removing these 


The American Naturalist. [Augi 

jelly membranes. At last I think that I have successfully solved the 
problem, and can now obtain with the greatest ease the most difficult 
stages, which are also in perfect histological condition. The method 
will be given in the last section— 9. Clay models of the early stages 
of segmentation of the egg have been a very useful addition in pre- 
senting to others the arrangement of the cells. These, of course, 
should be copied from actual eggs, and not from the perfectly regular 
(but entirely schematic) figures of the ordinary text-books. 

The following topics are touched upon : (1) Time of Laying, and 
Localities. (2) Laying in Confinement. (3) Polar Bodies. (4) Seg- 
mentation of the Eggs. (5) Orientation of the Egg. (6) Enclosure 
of the Light Pole by the Dark Pole. (7) Effect of Temperature. 
( 8) Times of Hatching, etc. (9) Methods of Technique. 

1. Time of Laying, and Localities. — The observations were made in 
the vicinity of Baltimore, Md., during the spring months of the years 
'88, '89, '90, '91. I shall only speak of those species of whose iden- 
tity I am certain. Other and more imperfect observations are left out. 
The first frogs to lay, and amongst the very first (Acris gryllus excepted) 
to appear, are the wood frogs (Rami sylvatica). A few warm days in 
early spring suffice to bring them out. The following records give a 
general idea as to the time: February 23d, '91, and March 8th, 9th, 
and 10th, '80. The eggs of these had been laid several days. The egg- 
bunches are found in small pools on the edges of woods, generally 
amongst the low hills, and are often stuck to twigs of bushes. The 
bunches are generally large, four to six inches in diameter, and contain 
very many good-sized eggs. In the same pools it is quite usual to find 
the firmer egg-bunches of Amblystoma, as this Urodele also lays its eggs 
very early. 

Somewhat later two species of tree frogs appear in the small pools 
in the woods, generally in quite small, and therefore, during the day- 
time, often quite warm, puddles; sometimes in the same pools as the 
wood frogs, oftener in the ditches by the side of the road. These tree 
frogs are Llyla pickeringii and Chorophilu* triseriatus. They are often 
found paired, and may be in this condition carried to the laboratory, 
where they continue to lay for hours without abatement. The eggs of 
these species arc very similar, and I know no certain method of dis- 
tinguishing the one from the other. The bunches are small, attached 
to bits of grass, or lie simply on the bottom, and each bunch contains 
from five or six to fifteen or twenty eggs. I have the following records 
of times at which the eggs were found: Hyla — March 9th, 10th, 13th, 
April 5th, '90 ; Chorophilus — February 23d, '91, March 13th and 

1 89 1 .] Embry 'ology. 7 5 5 

The eggs of Rana haiecina are found still later, sometimes in the 
same localities as the wood frogs, oftener in pools in the open ground 
quite away from the woods. The eggs are individually smaller, so 
that although the jelly masses are often as large as those of the wood 
frogs, the number of eggs is greater. The following are the records : 
March 25 th, April 5th, '90. The eggs of Rana damitans are not 
so certainly referred to its adult, and I have only strong probability 
showing them to belong to that species. The bunches much resemble 
those of R. haiecina, but the eggs are larger and the jelly firmer. 
Those I have found were also attached to twigs of bushes, which 
is not always the case in R. haiecina. 

The toad (Bufo lentiginosus) in this latitude lays very late in the 
spring. The eggs are easily distinguished from the frog's, as they are 
laid in long strings, often yards in length, the eggs arranged 
(generally) in a single row. They were recorded April 14th, '90, 
April 5th and 6th, '91. The best localities seem to be those parts of 

by a bar, so that the eggs are not carried away by the water, and where 
the water itself is often exceedingly warm. Copulating individuals 
are easily obtained, and they continue to lay in confinement. 

2 Laying in Confinement.— -If frogs are caught at the height of the 
breeding season, they can often be got to lay in confinement. The 
surest way is to get the paired individuals, frightening them as little as 
possible, and placing them in dishes or aquaria containing the requisite 
amount of water. Only once have I had the wood frogs lay in the 
laboratory, although with proper precaution there seem to be on 
very great difficulties of obtaining in th s wa> the eggs ot thi* S j c ie*. 
A single large bunch of eggs were laid by this pair during the n.ght, 
which developed normally. 

By far the best and easiest eggs to be obtain,, 
the laboratory are those of the tree frogs named above. They will 
continue to lay small bunches of eggs for as much as twenty-four hours 
' aem. By removing the bunches as fast as laid, an exact 

ord may be kept 

after catching them. B, ^ q{ ^ mmot loa . Moreover 

small and the jelly 
pted for study of the segmentation stages 
distinction betw 

the cells 

(animal) pole and those 

sharp, and the fate of the celtf more easily traced througn tne laic 
-..!__-.. _u. .-„.., the laboratory and placed 

756 The American Naturalist. [August, 

copulating pair, which were laying eggs when captured, were isolated 
over night from other individuals, and in the morning a long string of 
eggs were found. Dr. E. A. Andrews carefully estimated the number 
of these, and found that inside of ten hours the female had laid the 
astonishing number of 28,000 eggs, and the male had fertilized them. 
This was at the rate of forty-one eggs per minute for ten hours. 
After the eggs are laid the male and female separate, and while 
formerly they remained quietly in the dishes or aquaria, they now 
proceed to climb out, and show a tendency to wander over the 

3. Polar Bodies. — I have seen these extruded in the egg of the tree 
frog. They are found at or near the apex of the black pole, and 
appear as two white spots with a black periphery. Sometimes they 
are quite near to each other. Again, I have seen them separated by 
quite a wide distance. They were extruded about one hour after the 
eggs were laid as nearly as could be calculated. 

4. Segmentation of the Eggs. — The series of diagrams ordinarily found 
in text-books on embryology are exceedingly diagrammatic, and give 
an entirely erroneous impression as to the appearance of the segment- 
ing egg, especially during the later stages. I found this to be the case in 
the eggs of the tree frogs (see above) and the common toad, and ex- 
pected to find a parallel case in Rana temporaria,— that studied by 
Ecker, and from whom the text-bock figures are taken. During the 
present spring ('91) I have procured the early stages of segmentation 
of this frog, and found it to agree in every particular with other 
species, and therefore to depart from the text-book or classical type. 
Rauber has given excellent figures of the later stages of the frog eggs, 
and in many points I have verified his account. The first furrow 
divides the egg into two equal halves. The second at right angles to 
this gives four equal segments. The third furrow is not equatorial, but 
lies nearest the dark pole of the egg, the result being in four-equal black 
cells and four larger, but equal, light cells. At the next stage the 
marked regularity of the preceding stages is lost, and each of the eight 
cells divides, as it were, independently of the rest. The text-book figure 
at this sixteen-celled stage may be taken to represent an ideal to which 
the egg never attains. The division of the sixteen cells into thirty-two 
does not conform to any rule, although again, but in 3. less degree, 
Ecker's figures may be taken to represent in the most diagrammatic 
way possible the planes of cleavage. Without figures it is impossible 
to describe the precise method of segmentation ; those of Rauber 
approximate, I believe, most nearly to the truth. In general, we may 

» 891] Embryology. 757 

say that up to the eight-celled stage the segmentation is very regular, 
but that after that no particular plane of division can be prophesied 
for any segment. Often during the sixteen-celled stage the upper 
eight (black) cells are arranged in almost a perfect bilateral symmetry, 
and not a radial one, as given by Ecker. 

5 . Orientation of the Egg. — The relation of the first plane of segmen- 
tation to the adult has attracted a great deal of interest during recent 
years. The relation found in the frog's egg has been already studied, 
with varying results. Newport's experiments in 185 1, '53, '54, are, I 
think, the most to be relied upon, and during the present spring I 
have had the pleasure of verifying his results on a small scale. The 
eggs of the tree frog were used in the experiment. The outer layers 
of the jelly were removed from an egg which had not yet divided or 
had only undergone the first cleavage. A small, triangular piece of 
card-board was then cut out, and a drop of collodion placed on it. 
The egg with its thin layer of surrounding jelly was placed on the drop 
of collodion 4s soon as the latter began to stiffen, and card-board and 
egg were then immersed in a dish of water. With a pencil a line was 
drawn on the card-board corresponding to the plane of first division. 
The water was changed several times until all trace of ether was gone, 
and afterward set aside in a quiet and warm place. Several other eggs 
were prepared by the same process. At the end of forty-eight hours 
the medullary folds began to appear, and it was then seen that the 
plane between these corresponded exactly, in most cases, to the plane 
indicated on the card-board, and therefore the obvious conclusion is 
drawn that the first plane of division divides the egg into two parts, 
corresponding to the right and left halves of the adult body. In 
a few eggs the first plane was somewhat to the right or left of the 
mid-line of the adult. The embryo begins to rotate in the egg- 
capsule very soon after the appearance of the medullary folds, so 
that unless observations are made at the very first appearance of 
the folds the results will be falsified, on account of the rotation 
of the embryo from its original position. The eggs of the tree 
frogs are especially good for experiments such as these, on account 
of the rapidity with which they develop, decreasing therefore the 
possibilities of a secondary change in position of the egg after it has 
come to rest plane of division marked. I think it would be 
possible, by keeping the eggs in a warm room, to cause them to develop 
the medullary folds within twenty-four hours after the eggs are laid. 

6. Enclosure of the Light Pole by the Dark Pole.— In studying 
a series of eggs from the segmentation period to the formation 

758 The American Naturalist. [August, 

of the blastopore, the so-called overgrowth or epibolic growth of the 
black cells has been observed. I am quite sure, however (except in the 
immediate region on the dorsal side of the blastopore, and later over 
its whole extent), that the yellow cells disappear from the surface not 
by an overgrowth of the first-formed black cells, but by a process of 
splitting off of cells from the upper corner of the yellow cells themselves. 
In other words, there is not a general migration of black cells, but each 
remains approximately in the position in which it was first formed, 
and new black cells are continually added at the periphery of the 
black cap by the splitting off of cells from the upper ends of the yel- 
low cells, so that Balfour's sentence, that the disappearance of the 
yellow cells " is effected by the epiblast growing over the yolk at all 
points of its circumference," is somewhat misleading. As a corollary 
to what I have said, it follows, of course, that there is a continuous 
formation of new pigment taking place at the periphery of the black 
area within the new cells that are being formed, and also within the 
ends of the yellow cells which go to form the new cells in this region. 
I have not studied with sufficient care the gradual turning in of the 
cells around the rim of the blastopore. In one living egg, however, I 
saw in the dorsal region of the blastopore some of the cells forming 
the floor of the archenteron gradually disappear within the blastopore. 
7. Effect of Temperature. — It is impossible to give any exact time to 
the different stages of development, as the time is directly proportional 
to the temperature of the water within certain limits. The highest 
temperature is not always the optimum, for several bunches placed in 
an incubator for hen's eggs were entirely destroyed. The freezing of 
the water in which the eggs are kept does not seem to injure the eggs 
in the least, but simply to retard their development. I have had eggs 
completely surrounded by ice, and afterward development quite 
normally. However, when the eggs themselves are actually frozen 
they seem to be destroyed, perhaps by the formation of ice spicules 
within them. The wood frogs, which lay their eggs so early, generally 
lose in this locality great numbers of them on account of getting caught 
in the ice. Those which are not so caught develop later, when the ice 
melts, and do not seem, in any way, to be injured by water at the 

experimentation by the physiological embryologist, and I regret I have 
not kept exact records of the effects of heat and cold. 

8. Times of Hatching, etc. — The different species of frogs leave the 
jelly membrane at different ages. Some have the tail well developed, 
and are quite active. Others have the tail just appearing, and are 

1891.] Embryology 759 

only able to twist their bodies slowly from side to side, as they cling 
to the jelly-mass by means of the suckers below the mouth. 

The young tadpoles of the wood frog leave the water as small frogs 
in the late spring of the same year in which they were laid, — that is, 
become frogs in four to six months. Eggs collected about March 
17th began to change to frogs about June 1st to 14th. These were 
kept in quite cool water, in a basement room, away from the sunlight. 

At the time of. transformation into tadpoles a sudden decrease in the 
length of /lie intestine is brought about. The tadpoles cease to eat, 
and the intestine is entirely freed from extraneous matter during this 
time. The change takes place at the same time that the tail is absorbed 
within the body (not dropped off, as popularly supposed), and at the 
same time the pair of fore feet, which were enclosed within the bran- 
chial fold, break through to the exterior. The intestines were removed 
and measured from the pyloric end of the stomach to the proximal end 
of the rectum. Their lengths are recorded in the accompanying 
table for the wood frog : 

(a) From a large tadpole, with whole tail and two large posterior feet. 
(b) From a tadpole, with whole tail and two large posterior feet, (e) From 
a tadpole, with whole tail and two large posterior feet. (//) From a young 
frog, tail beginning to disappear, and four feet, (e) From a young frog, 
§ tail and four feet. (/) From a young frog, )/ 2 tail and four feet. 
(g) From a young frog, no tail, and out of water two weeks. 

9. Methods of Technique.— The eggs during the periods, in which 
it is difficult or impossible to remove the inner jelly membrane, can 

;6o The American Naturalist. [August, 

be freed in the following manner : With a pair of sharp scissors each 
egg must be cut out from the general jelly-mass, retaining as small an 
amount of surrounding jelly as possible. It is then put into an alco- 
holic solution of picric acid for an hour or longer (one to twelve). 
The solution is prepared by saturating 35 per cent, alcohol with picric 
acid, and adding the same amount of sulphuric as in Kleinenberg's 
solution. The solution is not diluted, but used saturated with picric 
acid. The eggs are then washed for several hours in 3.5 per cent, alco- 
hol, several hours in 50 per cent, alcohol, and placed in 70 per cent, 
for several days, changing the alcohol once or twice if necessary. 
About the second day the inner membrane begins to swell, due to a 
slow osmotic action, I think, as the membrane is stretched by tension 
from within. On the third or fourth day the swollen membrane may be 
pierced by a sharp needle, and the egg taken out, which is then placed 
permanently in 80 per cent, alcohol. The method is exceedingly 
simple, and consists largely in waiting a few days for the osmotic 
action to take place. Such eggs, if properly prepared, are in excel- 
lent histological condition. This simple method has proved so suc- 
cessful that I have not further experimented with it. It is possible 
that it may be improved by varying the strength of alcohol used, but I 
have not seen the need of looking further. The membrane does not 
swell in stronger alcohol than 70 per cent., and weaker would macerate 
the eggs. 

Certain precautions are necessary in imbedding the eggs to prevent 
brittleness. This is obviated by soaking the eggs before imbedding, 
for several hours, in a solution of turpentine saturated with paraffine, 
and kept in a warm place,— not so hot as the water-bath (50 C). 
Heat causes the egg to become brittle. This is obviated by the above 
process of soaking, so that the egg need not remain so long as an 
hour in the melted paraffine of the water-bath. In the younger stages 
there is no need for very thin sections, but sections 10 ft thick are suf- 
ficent for all purposes. If the sections are cut too thin the yolk tends 
to break up and crumble.— T. H. Morgan, May 1st, 1891. 


The White Wax Insect.— The following account of the pro- 
duction and use of the white wax of China, about which very little is 
known in America will be read with interest. We find it in the issue 
of the N. C. and S. C. and C. Gazette for March 26th, 1S91. 

The native candles of the north are made of sheep's tallow, hut 
those of the central provinces are partly manufactured from bean oil, 
which is able to be utilized for this purpose by the addition of white 
insect wax in the proportion of about one-eighth. Where bean oil 
cannot easily be procured the seeds of Stillingia sebifera are employed. 
This tree grows most extensively in the south. A picul of its seeds 
yields twenty or thirty catties of tallow, and when this has been pressed 
out, subsequent grinding and steaming result in the production of an 
oil called ch'ing yu out of the albumen. Insect-made white wax is 
added in the proportion of three catties to a hundred catties of the 
tallow. It is the wax which gives it sufficient consistency to remain 
thoroughly congealed in ordinary temperatures. From Hankow in 
1889 about 120,000 piculs of the tallow of the tallow tree were exported, 
and of this quantity nearly half found its way to Shanghai in the same 
year. An enormous quantity of candles are made in Shanghai and its 
vicinity, and the pressing out of bean oil for the manufacture employs 
a large number of water buffaloes. The old industry is that which has 
for many ages made use of the tallow-tree product. The new has 
grown out of the Newchwang trade which supplies Shanghai with 
beans. The vast industry which is an essential to the use of the vege- 
table tallow began, we are told, about six centuries ago. Till recently 
we knew generally that the wax is made at Luchou Fu, in Anhui, at 
Kiahing in Chekiang, at Hinghua Fu in Fukien, as well as in Hunan, 
in Kweichou, in Yunnan and Szechuan. But the processes were never 
fully described, and there was a need for fuller information. That 
want has been supplied by the inquiries of Mr. Alexander Hosie, of 
the British consular service in Szechuan. The tree on which the 
insects produce the wax is an inhabitant of a different part of the 
country from that which produces the insects. Chinese ingenuity 
brings the insects from their birthplace to their new home many miles 
aw ay, and sets them to the work of wax-making. It is this curious 
history which Mr. Hosie has been the first thoroughly to investigate. 

762 The American Naturalist. [August, 

The white wax insect was frequently referred to in old works on 
China. One object of Mr. Hosie's recent journey to the Chienchang 
valley near Mount Omi was to procure from the tree on which the 
insect live specimens of the foliage and flowers, for Sir Joseph Hooker. 
These he procured, and specimens of the living tree with the incrusted 
white wax on it, as well as samples of the latter, as it appears in com- 
merce, and of the Chinese candles made from it. The said valley is 
5,000 feet above the level of the sea, and is the great breeding ground 
of the insect. The tree is an evergreen, with the leaves springing in 
pairs from the branches, very thick, dark green, glossy, ovate, and 
pointed. In May and June it bears clusters of white flowers, suc- 
ceeded by fruit of a dark purple color. The Kew authorities now say 
it is the Ligustrum luadum,"OT large-leaved privet. In March Mr. 
Hosie saw on the trees certain brown pea-shaped excrescences attached 
to the bark of the boughs and twigs. Opening some larger ones they 
presented either a whitey brown pulpy mass, or a crowd of minute 
insects looking like flour. Their movements were just perceptible to 
the naked eye. From two or three months later they become brown 
creatures, with six legs and a pair of antennae. These are the white- 
wax insect or Coccus pela. There is a beetle which is a parasite on the 
Coccus. It is a species of Brachytarsus. It is found in many of the 
excrescences above mentioned, and burrows in the inner lining of the 
scale, which seems to be its food. When a scale is plucked from the 
tree the Cocci escape by the hole which is made. It is in the town of 
Kiating that insect white wax is produced. This city is 200 miles to 
the northeast of the Chienchang valley. The scales are gathered in 
the valley, and made up into paper packets of about sixteen ounces 
each. Sixty of such packets make a load, and they are conveyed by 
porters from the valley to Kiating in the night-time. If carried by 
day the insects would develop and escape from the scales. As it is, 
an ounce is lost in transit. A pound of scales in good years is sold 
for half a crown. In bad years it is worth twice this amount. In 
favorable years a pound of scales produces four or five pounds of wax. 
In the plain around Kiating very many plots of ground are seen edged 
with stumps, from three or four to twelve feet high, with numerous 
sprouts growing from their gnarled heads, as on pollard willows in our 
own country. The tree is probably Fraxinus chinensis, — a kind of 
ash. The leaves spring in pairs from the branches, and are light green, 
ovate, pointed, serrated, and deciduous. On the arrival of the scales 
in May they are made up in small packets of from twenty to thirty 
scales, which are enclosed in a leaf of the wood oil tree. Rice straw 

1 891.1 Entomology. 76* 

is used to suspend the packet under the branches of the ash or white- 
wax tree. Rough holes are drilled in the leaf with a blunt needle, so 
that the insects may find their way to the branches through the open- 
ings. The insects creep rapidly up to the leaves, where they nestle for 
thirteen days. They then descend to the branches and twigs, and 
take up a position on them. The females then begin to develop scales 
on which to deposit their eggs, and the males to excrete the substance 
known as white wax. It first appears as an undercoating on the side 
of the boughs and twigs, looking like snow. It spreads gradually, till 
in three months it is a quarter of an inch thick. In a hundred days 
the deposit is complete, and the branches are lopped off. The wax is 
removed chiefly by hand, and is placed in an iron pot of boiling 
water. The wax, on rising to the surface, is skimmed off, and deposited 
in around mould. This is the white wax of commerce. It is used to 
coat the exterior of animal and vegetable tallow candles, and to give 
greater consistency to the tallow. It is also used to size paper and 
cotton goods, to impart a gloss to silk, and as a furniture polish. From 
Hankow each year at present about 15,000 piculs of white insect wax 
are exported in a year, and the main portion of it finds its way to that 
port from Szechuan. Chinkiang absorbs 1,000 piculs, and Shanghai 
14,000 piculs. At Shanghai one-half is for home use, and the other 
half to distribute again to other ports. Tientsin requires 1,000 piculs, 
and Canton and Swatow a thousand piculs each. Thus it appears 
that while Szechuan is not the only producing center of insect white 
wax, it produces enough to furnish the most distant cities with the 
means to make a sufficient number of candles to maintain the temple 
worship, as well as to enable the people everywhere to equip their lan- 
terns for walking in the evening, and aid in night illumination 

Recent Station Bulletins.— Mr. James Fletcher, of the Central 
Experimental Farm of Canada, has recently issued an admirable popu- 
lar bulletin (No. n) concerning injurious insects and insecticides. 
The Delaware Station issues as Bulletin No. XII. a somewhat similar 
account of certain noxious species, together with a record of experi- 
ments with remedies. Prof. C. P. Gillette issues as Bulletin No. 15 of 
the Colorado Station timely articles concerning the Codling Moth and 
Grapevine Leaf-Hopper. Mr. H. E. Weed, of the Mississippi Station, 
publishes as Bulletin No. 4 a pamphlet of forty pages, in which he 
discusses the following topics: The Screw Worm, Pea Weevil, Bean 
Weevil, Striped Cucumber Beetle, Ox Warble Fly, Plum Curculio. 
Codling Moth, Insecticides, and Spraying Machinery. 

764 The American Naturalist. [August, 

Food Habits of Coccinella convergens.— Since the publica- 
tion of Prof. Forbes's paper upon " The Food Relations of the 
Carabid?e and Coccinellidse " various obververs have found that at 
least one species {Megilla maculata) of the family Coccinellidce is a 
vegetable feeder. 

I have noticed another species, Coccinella convergens, doing con- 
siderable damage to cabbage plants this season. The first noticed 
cabbage thus eaten was sprayed with Paris green, and upon examina- 
tion the day following several dead specimens of C. convergens were 
found on the ground under the plant. Since then I have noticed 
others eating the leaves of several cabbage plants. — Howard Evarts 
Weed, Mississippi Agricultural College. 

Transformations of Coleoptera. — Mr. Wm. Beutenmiiller, of 
the American Museum of Natural History, has lately published in the 
Journal of the New York Microscopical Society (Vol. VII., pp. 1-52), 
a Bibliographical Catalogue of the Described Transformations of 
North American Coleoptera, for which he deserves the thanks of his 
entomological brethren. Ii 

Henry Edward's catalogue of Lepidoptera. Thre< 
ninety-six species are included in the list, — a strikir 
upon the paucity of our knowledge of the immature 
great order. 

The International Congress of Anthropology and Pre- 
historic Archeology of Paris, 1889. — {Continued from page 6~ 9). 
Sixth Question: "Firstly, The Human Remains of the Quaternary 
Epoch Discovered Within the last Fifteen Years j and secondly, The 
Proper Ethnic Elements Belonging to the Men of the Different Ages 
of Stone, Bronze, and Iron." 

The discussion of this question was opened by Monsieur Fraipont, 
of the University of Leige, Belgium, who had been the discoverer of 
the celebrated cavern of Spy, on the river Meuse, in Southern Bel- 
gium. He exhibited the skulls and bones which he had there found, 
and said that these were the most complete representatives now known 
of the race of Canstadt, as has been classified by MM. de Quatre- 
fages and Hamy. This man was contemporaneous with the mammoth 

1891.] Archeology and Ethnology. 765 

and the Rhinoceros tichorinus. but was subsequent to and not contem- 
poraneous with the Rhinoceros merkii and the Elephas antiquus. Mon- 
sieur Fraipont enumerated the pithecoid characters found in the 
skeletons of Spy, and concluded that there was " an ascending 
evolution, the most characteristic of humanity" during the Qua- 
ternary Period. 

Monsieur de Quatrefages reserved his opinion upon the characters 
named by Monsieur Fraipont as simian or pithecoid. 

Dr. Topinard was doubtful if the facial portion of the skull of the 
man of Spy was correct, and in consequence thereof the osteology of 
the face must rest doubtful. 

Monsieur Manouvrier admitted the general resemblance of the men 
of Spy with those grouped around the skull of Neanderthal, but 
explained some of their diversities. He investigated the morphology 
of the femur and tibia of the men of Spy, and interpreted it differ- 
ently from Mr. Fraipont. 

Dr. Deniker could not agree with M. Fraipont in the simian char- 
acters which he found in the man of Spy. Dr. Topinard stated also, 
on the side of Dr. Deniker, that the incurvation of the tibia existing 
among the gorillas is not found among the orangs. 

M. Fraipont explained his meaning of the terms simian and pithe- 
coid, so that they did not appear so strong as he had at first stated. 

Dr. Hamy said that the discovery made by M. Fraipont at the 
cavern of Spy gave proof of the existence near the middle of the 
Quaternary period of the existence of a special human race. His 
discoveries had rehabilitated the skull of Neanderthal, and completed 
the passage between the exaggerated type of that race and the speci- 
mens less accentuated of Brux of Canstadt and of Engisheim, and 
permits us to utilize the most precious pieces known, now nearly for- 
gotten, the debris of the skeleton of Lahr. Dr. Hamy recounted the 
circumstances in which Ami Boue discovered the skeleton of Lahr in 
1823, of their translation to the museum, and that they had finished 
by taking their legitimate place by the side of the remains from 
Neanderthal and de la Naulette. He described rapidly the bones of 
each member, the fragments, etc., going on from head to foot, and 
showed the analogies which these pieces presented with those of 
Spy, and demonstrated by these comparisons that the skeleton of 
Lahr was indeed contemporaneous with the Lehm from which it had 
been extracted, and it was now, by reason of the discovery of Spy, to 
be classed among the human remains of the race of Canstadt. 

766 The American Naturalist. [August, 

Dr. Hamy, continuing the discussion of Question Sixth of the 
program, reviewed the new documents on the subject of the arche- 
ology of the primitive human race since the publication of his great 
work on the Crania Ethnica. The fragments found in the Grotte de 
Gourdan, which had been recently published, the under jaw from the 
Grotte of Malarnaud, found by M. Regnault, and described by M. 
Filhol, and which M. Hamy had presented, — these are, along with the 
bones of the men of Spy, the only new acquisitions of the race of 

The race of Cro-Magnon is represented by several new discoveries, 
of which the most important was the discovery of the skull in the 
Grotte du Placard, which had been exhumed by M. Maret. 

Dr. Hamy described this piece, and assigned it a place in the ana- 
tomic series of the race of Cro-Magnon. We possess, said he, no new 
document or specimen of the types of Furfooz, the second type of 
which appears more and more to attach itself to the age of polished 
stone, which furnishes from one time to another in Southern Belgium 
new specimens, more or less characterized as belonging to this ethnic 

Monsieur Felix Regnault sent a human lower jaw, incomplete, found 
in the Grotte of Malarnaud, in Ariege. Dr. Hamy declared it to 
have great ah; r pieces from Naulette, Goyet, etc., 

and other caverns in Belgium. 

Monsieur Marcellin Boule described the caverns of Malarnaud from 
which this under jaw came, and presented to the congress his written 
notes thereon. A section of the earth of the cavern and the place 
where this jaw was found was thus composed : 1st, the superficial rub- 
bish ; 2d, the deposit of clay and gravel containing the remains of 
divers animals of prehistoric times, — the auroch, the reindeer, the 
mountain goat, etc ; 3d, a strata of stalagmite ; 4th, clay and gravel, 
— in this were the cave bear and lion, the wolf, mammoth, etc., and it 
was from this strata that the under jaw came. This is the stratum of the 
machoire de la Naulette, the skeletons of Spy, the skull of Engisheim, 
and probably that of Neanderthal. There were no specimens of 
Elephas antiquus, Rhinoceros merkii, or hippopotamus, or the ani- 
mals characteristic of the early Quaternary period, and which cor- 
respond to the human industry of Saint-Acheul and Chelles, and 
therefore, said Monsieur Boule, the Quaternary prehistoric man, — he of 
' the Chelleen epoch, — remained still unknown. 

Dr. Lagneau gave it as his opinion that this under jaw of Malarnaud 
belonged to the race of Canstadt or of Neanderthal, and he spoke of 

1891.] Archeology and Ethnology. 767 

the great extension of territory which this man covered in prehistoric 

M. de Quatrefages presented a manuscript of M. Hardy, of Peri- 
gueux, which was entitled, " The Discovery of a Sepulchre of the 
Quaternary Period of Chancelade in Dordogne," and gave several 
observations upon the skull of which Hardy has presented the photo- 
graph. The skull was dolichocephalic, but asymetric ; the face large, 
the orbits of elongated form; the front was well developed, the 
femurs were columnar, the tibias platycnemic, and it altogether pre- 
sented the most striking and apparent characteristic of the race of 

M. Manouvrier read a communication on the platymetry or flatten- 
ing of the antero-posterieur of the upper third of the diaphyse of 
the femur, that he had often observed upon human femurs in the neo- 
lithic period. 

M. Goldstein presented his pantometre, and explained its use and 
necessity in anthropological photographs. 

Dr. Verrier presented two Australian skulls. 

Dr. Soren Hansen presented his paper on prehistoric trepanning. 

Dr. Benedickt explained his method and apparatus on crainometry, 
and referred to his display at the exposition. 

Dr. Jacques presented the human remains gathered by the brothers 
Si ret in Spain. These brothers Siret were civil engineers in Antwerp, 
and I had the privilege and the pleasure of visiting and studying their 
collection while in that city. Their excavations were conducted prin- 
cipally in Southeastern Spain, in the country between Carthagene and 
Almeria. We have their magnificent and extensive volume, costing 
$100, in our library. Their investigations were regular, methodical, 
and scientific. The prehistoric epoch to which these investigations 
belonged were principally the neolithic period and the age of bronze. 

Dr. Jacques had studied seventy of these skulls and skeletons, the 
former complete, the latter more or less so, and gave his opinion as to 
the divisions to be made as to the races to which they belonged. One 
race, the most common, presented many analogies with that of Cro- 
Magnon, but with an occasional characteristic of the type of Furfooz. 
The race of Furfooz was there shown by some specimens, though not 
so frequent as the former. A third group identified by Dr. Jacques 
compared with those of the Basques, and his conclusion was that the 
neolithic people southeast of Spain comprised individuals belonging to 
the most ancient epoch in the Iberian peninsula. 

Dr. Topinard delivered a most interesting address, entitled il Paler- 

768 The American Naturalist. [August, 

anthropology." He said the congress was interested in prehistoric 
anthropology as in prehistoric archeology. There was a paleo- 
anthropology as a paleoethnography. The former required the 
services of a naturalist and anatomist ; the latter required the ethnog- 
rapher and the archeologist. The excavator serves to unite the two 
former, as the traveler serves to unite the two latter. • It is because of, 
or by means of, this link that the work of the one is rendered benefi- 
cial to and aids the other. It is exceedingly rare that the anatomist 
is an explorer. For every one competent archeologist there are 
hundred amateur excavators. The latter interest themselves bu 
slightly over the human remains. Museums and private collections 
are gorged with industrial and artistic objects of prehistoric man, 
but are almost entirely without any of his remains. He lamented 
these gaps in the means of our information, and was much impressed 
with our poverty in this regard when he came to make an inventory ol 
our knowledge concerning the ancient races of man. He declared the 
necessity of having numerous series in order to study with success the 
craniology, and entered into the details of methods employed in order 
to find the necessary facts, and gave a resume of our knowledge con- 
cerning our prehistoric ancestors. Then followed his remedy. He pro- 
posed that the congress should take the initiative in preparing detailed 
instructions for the usage of excavators, in which, said he, they can be 
made to understand that the work on which they are engaged is indefi- 
nitely more difficult than they had believed, that the skulls and human 
bones are at least as interesting and as valuable to preserve intact as 
the objects of human industry. He declared in unmistakable terms 
that prehistoric stations, once disturbed, were forever destroyed. He 
enlarged upon the necessity for anthropological science that the exca- 
vations, when done, should be well done ; if not, they are lost to us, or 
our children and our grandchildren, and a great part of our national 
treasure will be scattered and destroyed. 

MM. Cartailhac and de Mortillet came to the aid of Dr. Topinard, 
and seconded him in his views. It was finally agreed that a com- 
mission should be appointed which would be charged with preparing 
these instructions, and the congress appointed Drs. Topinard, Hamy, 
Reinach, and Cartailhac to prepare it. 

{To be continued.') 

Preliminary Notes on the Archeology of Southwestern 
New Mexico.— In connection with the geological work which the 
writer has been conducting in Southwestern New Mexico, during the 
past two years, investigations in the archeology of the region have also 
been pursued, and with gratifying results. This ancient home of the 

i*9i. Archeology and Ethnology. 769 

Aztecs and cliff-dwellers is indeed one of the regions o rtie most 
profound interest to the archeologist to be found on the American 
continent. Almost everywhere on the now bare and desert plains, in 
the fertile valleys, lovely canons, and even lofty mountain-tops, the 
ruined houses and pueblos of this most interesting and once-powerful 

It is evident that both the Aztecs and cliff-dwellers (were they dis- 
tinct races ?) were driven out by a stronger race, whether by the Span- 
iards or others. Their houses have been burned, and in every room 
in the ancient pueblos which the writer has examined there are found 
from one to several well-preserved skeletons of men, women, and 
babes, all apparently laying where they fell by the hands of foes. 

All inflammable material, as the reeds, grasses, and poles forming 
the roof and posts, have been consumed, and the rocks and adobe 
fallen in, burying the bodies of their former inhabitants where they 
fell. Generally the household utensils, etc, are found where they were 
apparently last used. 

In the Mimbres valley and elsewhere these ancient ruins are very 
numerous, occurring from one-fourth to two mfles apart. 

In making excavations in these ruins the writer has found beautiful 
clay and sandstone dishes, clay (made from fragments of painted pot- 
tery), bone, stone, and turquoise beads and ornaments, various stone 

At Cook's Peak extensive mining operations were carried on by 
these ancient people, 1 and now are to be seen large numbers of their 
ancient workings, which had been filled with debris worked from the 
mountain-side, but which have since been cleaned out, and the mines 

These old mines are of great interest, and much time and study have 
been given them by the writer. The ore is mainly a low-grade argen- 
iferous "sand-carbonate." In mining, fire and water and rude stone 
hammers were used. 

Of these hammers the writer has found more than thirty. When 
these mines were cleaned out ashes and large quantities of charcoal 
were found, all presenting as fresh an appearance as if the work had 
been done but a short time ago. When the hard galena ore was 
reached the mines were abandoned. There have been found in these 
mines small voyers, broken pottery, arrow-points, bone, crystal, and 
turquoise beads, stone hammers, etc., most of which are now in the 
writer's possession. I also found a small, rude smelter near one of these 
antique mines, and a quantity of slag close by. 

j jo The American Naturalist. [August, 

Near these mines ancient reservoirs for the storage of water are 
found in the " gulches." The water doubtless was used in mining. 

In some sheltered places in the valleys and canons can still be plainly 
seen old cornrows and sakeys (irrigating ditches). 

On the east, west, and middle branches of the Gila River, in the 
Mogollon Mountains, is to be found as rough, wild, and broken a tract 
as is to be discovered in any part of the great Rocky Mountain region. 
Here in the rugged cliffs are found great numbers of ancient cliff- 
dwellings, some of which are unsurpassed in interest. 

Considerable time was devoted to the study of these dwellings, mak- 
ing explorations in, and plans and sketches of, them, as well as draw- 
ings of many of the more interesting and extensive hieroglyphics 
painted on the rocks by the former inhabitants of these dwellings. 
One of these ancient cliff-dweller's pueblos (if I may so term it), situ- 
ated in a lofty cliff which forms the side of a deep, narrow canon that 
extends out from the west branch of the Gila, is of special interest in 
many ways. This cliff-dwellers' village is in a fine state of preservation, 
and consists of upwards of twenty-eight rooms. 

Several days were spent in making explorations in these dwellings. 
Large quantities of valuable relics were found in the debris of the rooms. 
Among the relics obtained were specimens of several kinds of cloth, 
all made from the fibre of the Spanish dagger, matting of bear-grass, 
willow-work, sandals, cords of various sizes, feather- work, a ball and 
large skein of twine of the same material as the cloth, human and ani- 
mal bones, stone utensils, great quantities of corn-cobs, corn, squash 
or pumpkin rinds, seeds, and steins, corn-husks, beans, gourds, pottery, 
braided human hair of a brown color, etc. ; and last, but by no means 
least, a perfectly preserved cliff-dweller mummy. This was a mummy 
of a small child, with soft brown hair, similar to that found braided, 
only finer. It was closely wrapped in a considerable amount of two 
varieties of coarse cloth, woven from the fiber of the Spanish dagger, 
then wrapped in a large, nicely woven mat of bear-grass, and tied on 
by cords of the same material as the cloth to a small, curiously 
shaped board of cottonwood. The position relative to the relics 
found, together with much other evidence, demonstrate conclusively 
that this is a mummy of a true " Cliff-dweller." 

So far as I am aware, this is the only specimen of its kind ever dis- 
covered; and as to the value of the relic and discovery every archeolo- 
gist can ju%ge. 

In the near future I propose to publish a detailed account of the 
results of my archeological researches in this strange country. — Clem- 
ent L. Webster. 

The Nervous System of Convoluta. 2 — The discoverer of the. 
nervous system of the accelous Turbellaria, Yves Delage, recommends 
gold chloride as a means of demonstration. 

A number of Convoluta are placed in a watch-glass, and most of 
the sea-water removed. Formic acid (33 per cent.) is then poured 
over them, killing them almost instantly. At the end of two minutes 
the formic acid is removed, and gold chloride (one per cent.) put in 
its place. After ten or twelve minutes' exposure the gold chloride is 
replaced by formic acid (two per cent.), in which the Convoluta 
remain, in the dark, until the stain is complete (from one to three 
days). It is well to allow the planarians to become uniformly violet 
and opaque, and then to decolor them with cyanide of potassium (one- 
half per cent.). This reagent is allowed to act, according to the case, 
from two to twenty-four hours. The decoloring action can be arrested 
by washing with formic acid (two per cent.). The preparations can 
be mounted in balsam, but glycerine, with a slight admixture of 
formic acid, gives the best results. The prolonged action of the 
formic solution renders the animals supple, so that they are easily 
arranged on the slide. 

The results obtained with gold chloride are notoriously variable. 
According to Delage's experience, out of three or four trials one at 
least is sure to be a success. In the same operation the results are 
different for different individuals. The best-stained specimens are 
easily recognized with a low magnifying power, and these alone are 
set aside for mounting. 

If* sections are required, the worm, after being decolored in formic 
acid, must be hardened in the usual grades of alcohol. It is important 
to have the object extended and free as possible from wrinkles and 
contortions. This end can be best secured by subjecting the worms to 
slight pressure under a cover-glass while applying the formic acid (33 
per cent.). Even then many of them will find space to twist them- 
selves out of shape, but some will remain straight, and these can be 
selected for cutting. 

In order to cut several individuals at once, all oriented alike, Delage 
passes them through chloroform, with a mixture of chloroform and 
paraffine. From this he removes them to a slide smeared with oil, and 

1 Edited by CO. Whitman, Clark University, Worcester, Mass. 

2 Yves Deiage. Arch, de Zool. Exp. et Gen, 1886, p. 1 13. 


The American Natwalist. [Am 

arranges them with a small brush. The slide is then carefully lowered 
into a dish of warm paraffine, and usually reaches the bottom without 
deranging the specimens. After cooling, the slide is taken out with 
the Convoluta still in place. From six to a dozen may thus be im- 
bedded and cut in a single series. 

Osmic Carmine for the Histology of the Nervous Sys- 
tem. — The gold chloride method serves only for the coarser anatomi- 
cal features of the nervous system. The finer structure can be studied 
to best advantage after treatment with osmic carmine. This new 
reagent is prepared as follows : Take a strong solution of carmine in 
ammoniacal water, and evaporate it on a water-bath until the appear- 
ance of red clouds on the surface indicates that the excess of' ammonia 
has disappeared. After cooling, add an equal volume of osmic acid 
(one per cent.), and filter under a bell-jar. A very dark fluid is thus 
obtained, which has the staining properties of carmine and the fixa- 
tive properties of osmic acid. At the end of some days this reagent 
loses its odor and becomes darker. Its fixative properties have disap- 
peared, leaving it a good macerating reagent. It is best, therefore, 

the time of using, or at least not many days before. 

The Convoluta designed for sectioning ought to die extended. 
They will do this in a concentrated solution of sulphate of iron. As 
soon as they have been killed by this reagent they should be trans- 
ferred to the osmic carmine, and left from one-half to twelve or more 
hours, after which they may be hardened in the usual grades of alcohol 

For the examination of the "frontal organ" (olfac to-gustatory 
organ) in the living animal it was found necessary to resort to some 
immobilizing agent. Experiments with the various agents in common 
use showed that chlohydrate of cocaine (ten per cent.) was the best. 
A drop of a solution in distilled water was placed on a slide and 
evaporated slowly over a lamp. When the water had disappeared and 
the slide had cooled a number of Convoluta were placed on the small 
spot of cocaine by the aid of a pipette, leaving as little water as pos- 
sible, so that they would be slightly compressed by the cover-glass. A 
good immersion lens was necessary, and examination had to be made 
with haste, as only two or three minutes elapsed before the tissue 
became opaque and began to change. 


A living illustration of the truth of the evolution theory has been 
dredged in 392 fathoms off one of the Galapagos Islands, in the shape 
of a stalked crinoid, or sea lily, in which are united the characteristics 
of three distinct fossil genera of the same group of organisms, — 
Apiocrinus of the Bradford clay deposits, Hyocrinus, and Rhizocrinus 
This interesting survival of a very old and complex type will shortly 
be described by Mr. Alexander Agassiz. 

Dr. Schliemann, like Robertson "the naturalist of Cumbrae,"— 
whose life, by the Rev. T. R. R. Stebbing, has just been issued by Messrs. 
Kegan Paul & Co., — is another striking illustration of the class of men 
who become distinguished in science in spite of adverse circumstances 
in early life and subsequent pressure of business avocations. Mr. 
Robertson in his youth was a farm laborer, but found opportunities, 
nevertheless, to cultivate his mind as well as the soil. He passed 
through a Glasgow medical course, but selected a business career, and 
retired on a competency thirty years ago. Then he found leisure at 
last to gratify his tastes for natural history, settled on the island of 
Cumbrae, and worked at various branches of marine zoology, observing 
and recording natural phenomena. He is acquainted with many 
di>Unguished naturalists, and enjoys an honorable and honored old age. 
The ninth annual report of the Geological Survey of the United 
States, for the years 1887-88, recently issued, is of unusual 
general interest, as it contains full accounts of the great earthquakes 
in Charleston and its vicinity, from persons who witnessed the 
shocks, — that of Mr. Carl McKinley, editor of the Charleston News 
and Courier, being a most vivid and realistic description, — and from 
numerous well-equipped scientific observers. The city of Charleston, 
with the exception of Boston, was the oldest and most English-looking 
of any in the United States. It is interesting to note, from the report 
of Dr. C. E. Manigault, that the houses built prior to the revolutionary 
era on the English system of bricklaying, in which shell lime was used, 
sustained the successive shocks with the least injury. After 1838 in- 
ferior lime and methods of building were adopted, and these erections 
suffered severely. Not half a dozen houses escaped altogether. 
Nearly twenty buildings were burnt, and all of these were on fire at 
once on the first eventful night. The actual number of killed was 

774 The American Nalitmlisl. [August. 1891.] 

seven whites and twenty colored persons ; of deaths attributed to cold 
and exposure, eighty-seven. The number of wounded was never ascer- 
tained. Low wooden houses appear to be the best suited and safest 
habitations in earthquake regions. The shocks were felt as far north 
as Toronto in Canada, south as the island of Cuba, east as Boston, and 
nearly a thousand miles off in a southwesterly direction in the upper 
Mississippi region. The volume is illustrated with views of the ruins 
of Charleston and Summerville, of the fissures on the banks of the 
Ashley River near the phosphate works, the craterlets of Summerville, 
and many plans, maps, and diagrams. In fact, the Charleston earth- 
quake was the best observed and most photographed "shake" on 
record. The shocks traveled at the rate of three miles per second. — 
Agnes Crane. 

The summer meeting of the American Geological Society is to be 
held Monday and Tuesday, August 24th and 25th, in the Columbian 
University, Washington, D. C, and will doubtless be one of unusual 
interest. The meeting will be preceded August 19th to 2 2d by the 
meeting of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, 
and will be followed by the International Geological Congress, which 
meets August 26th, and remains in session one week. The three 
societies will meet in the same building. The foreign members of the 
International Geological Congress are to be invited to read papers 
before the Geological Society, and their papers will be given pre- 
cedence on the program. A number of excursions will probably 
be arranged. The local arrangements are in the hands of a com- 
mittee, Mr. G. K. Gilbert, chairman. 



Horsford's Acid Phosphate. 

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exhaustion usually indicates a lack 
of supply. The Acid Phosphate 
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Check-List of Canadian Plants. 

There has been published and is now offered for sale what is 
believed to be a complete list of the Phaenogamous and Vascular Cryp- 
togamous Plants of Canada. The Catalogue of Canadian Plants issued 
by the Geological Survey of Canada has been used as a basis, but a 
large number of species discovered since it was published have beer, 
included in the list. Many genera, too, have been revised by specialists, 
and their revisions have been used in the preparation of the Check-List. 
Several additional species discovered last year (1890) are included. 

The price of the list is 50 cents per copy, 3 copies for $1.00. 
Address, JAS. M. MACOUN, 

Geological Survey, Ottawa, Canada. 

ADVl-K'l l-KMK 

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n^HE August Number of the North American 

T^OR EXCHANGE.— 14 Volumes (1883- 
* 1889) American Journal of Science; 

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Cretaceous Invertebrata and 
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and December '85, October, November and 
December '8j, all or part of '77. 

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The Observer 

E. F. BIGELOW, Editor z 

Address, E. F. BIGELOW, Publisher. 

THE OBSERVER, No. 5 Waverly Ave., Portland, Conn. 

Walker Prizes in Natural History. 

The Boston Society of Natural History offers a first prize of from $60 
to $100, and a second prize of a sum not exceeding $50 for the best memoirs, in 
English on one of the following subjects : 

1. An original investigation into any of the problems connected with the 
geology of the last ice epoch in New England ; any of the glacial features, as for 
i and history of moranial deposits and eskers, or of sand 

An original investi 
of the shore line c 

sited by « 

margins and submerged forests. 

3. A study of any river valley in New England containing an area of not less 
than one hundred square miles ; the inquiry to include the preglacial history of the 
stream, the changes effected in the basin by the last ice epoch, the relation of the 
valley to the neighboring basins, and to changes of level of the sea. 

Each memoir must be accompanied by a sealed envelope enclosing the author's 

Secretary < 

iwardd unless the memoirs are deemed of adequate merit. 
For further particulars apply to 
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For Sale. 

Twenty different specimens of fos- 
sil plants from the Dakota Group 
Cretaceous will be sent to any ad- 
dress on receipt of $2.50. 

Send stamp for plate illustrating 

Chas. H. Sternberg, 

P. O. Box 60, Lawrence Kansas. 




Now Ready, Limited Edition in Two Volumes. 
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V F. Osborn, 775 Mineralogy and Petr, -*r ifh\ : — Petrographical 

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DR. H. C. HOVEY, in an article i of August 29th, says : 

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by Prof. A. E. Foote, of Philadelphia, describing a new locality for meteoric 

Cafion Diablo, Arizona, fragments of which contained diamonds 

Small meteoric fragments, numbering 131 in all, ranging in weight from on 

of an ounce to six pounds ten ounces, were scattered over an area about a third of a 

mile in length and one hundred and twenty feet wide, and extending northwest and 

southeast Exactly in line, but about two miles southeast, were found two 

3, one weighing 154 pounds and the other 201 pounds, which were on 

both of them deeply pitted and the larger one perforated in three places. 

About 200 pounds of angular oxidized fragments, also of meteoric origin, were 

A a mass weighing 40 pounds was examined by 
Prof. G. A. Koenig, who found it to be extremely hard, a day and a half being taken 
in making a section. An emery wheel g to polish the section. 

This led to closer inspection of certain exposed ca 
were found The fact of special interest may be accepted as proved, — that 

examined by the geologists present at the reading of Prof. Foote's paper. 

there were many opinions expressed as to the so-called "crater," and as to its relation 

to the meteor, none doubted the genuineness of the diamonds." 

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u (^\F more than a thousand specimens of Cretaceous mam- 
mals on which my investigations are based he has not 
seen a single one, and no others are known, except a few frag- 

In the above paragraph Professor Marsh refers to the fact, also 
stated very distinctly in my review of his " Discovery of Cre- 
taceous Mammalia," 2 that I had not examined his material, and 
implies that my criticism is of less value because based solely upon 
his descriptions and figures. This, I may explain, was not from 
any lack of appreciation of the importance of studying type- 
specimens, but because these types, together with the other large 
mammalian collections belonging to the government, are not 
accessible to American paleontologists. I should certainly 
have examined them if I could have done so under conditions 3 
similar to those in which specimens belonging to the various 
foreign museums are made accessible to others and myself. 

malia," by Henry F. Obsorn. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sc, Phila., 1891 ; and was read before 

776 The American Naturalist. [September, 

Without question, these and all other U. S. Geological Survey 
types, now that they have been described and figured by the 
author, should be placed in the National Museum, where they 
could be studied under the ordinary museum restrictions. The 
examination of type specimens which the author regards " as a 
matter of courtesy " is rather a matter of custom and necessity ; 
especially is this true -where the types are not private but public 
property, and have been employed in official reports. 

Nevertheless, after carefully reading the author's " Note," I am 
more confident than before that an examination of the types will 
fully confirm all the main points raised in my review. As the 
" Note " contains very little in the nature of direct consideration 
of my criticisms, I had not intended to answer it ; but my attention 
has been called to the probability that, like the author's original 
papers on the Cretaceous Mammalia, this one might have consid- 
erable weight with naturalists who happen to be entirely unfa- 
miliar with the morphology and literature of the Mesozoic Mam- 
malia. We find two features in the " Note " : first, a number ot 
definite statements in regard to the structure and classification 
of the Mesozoic mammals which bear directly upon this discus- 
sion, — these I shall now consider and answer ; second, a number 
of unfavorable but indefinite comments upon the character and 
methods exhibited in my paleontological papers. To the latter 
I shall make no reply, because, if these papers are of no value, 
my personal statement to the contrary would have no weight ; 
moreover, such discussion would merely divert attention from the 
real question at issue, as raised in my review, — viz., the character 
of the evidence advanced by Professor Marsh for the existence of 
a very numerous and highly varied Cretaceous fauna. Of the 
twelve specific statements made by the author in his " Note," four 
are in defence of his " Cretaceous Mammals," eight are in criti- 
cism of alleged errors in my papers upon the Jurassic and Triassic 
mammals, especially in the " Memoir Upon the Structure and 
Classification of the Mesozoic Mammalia." I may first reply to 
the latter. 

1. It is first stated that I separated Dromotherium from Micro- 
conodon upon insufficient grounds, and figured the type of the 

i8 9 r.] A Reply to Professor Marsh. yyy 

latter genus inaccurately. 4 I would say, in reply, that Microcono- 
don is entirely distinct from Dromotherium in the structure both 
of the teeth and jaws, excepting only in the imperfect division of 
the molar fangs, which in this instance is not a generic but at the 
least a subordinal character. The figure of Dromotherium syl- 
vestre was drawn with the utmost care, yet I will be glad to cor- 
rect any inaccuracies if the author will kindly point them out. 

2. That I attributed a pineal foramen and eye to Tritylodon, and 
later was compelled to retract it. The facts are that in a note 
to Science I based this suggestion upon Owen's figure and 
description of an apparent " fontanelle " between the parietals and 
frontals. At the same time I wrote to the British Museum asking 
Dr. Baur to make a careful examination of the skull itself, and, 
upon my learning that there was no foramen, I immediately 
published a correction in Science? and moreover withdrew the 

3. That my figure of Phascolotherium was inaccurate in four 
important points. In reply, I may say that three years ago I 
published 7 a correction of the only error in this figure, — viz., the 
elevated position of the dental foramen. In regard to all three 
other inaccuracies the author of the " Note " is mistaken : 1. As 
may be seen by. reference to Flower & Lydekker's recent work," 
the first incisor is present ; 2. The mylohyoid groove is correctly 
figured, as may be seen by comparison with figures published by 
Owen and others; 3. As stated in the explanation of the plates, 
the last molar was restored from Dr. Buckland's figure, 9 which 
was made before this tooth was detached and lost, — a perfectly 
legitimate proceeding. 

4. That I misquoted the title of " Discovery of Cretaceous 
Mammalia." This is the only point in which the author is 
entirely correct. I find that inadvertently the article " the " was 
included in quotation marks. 

778 The American Naturalist. [September, 

5. That my definition 10 of the Multituberculata (1) omitted some 
of the characteristic features of this group, and (2) embraced accu- 
rately the genus Mastodon. I find that my definition included 
the only three distinctive and universal characters of this group 
which were known at the time (1888); additional char- 
acters have since been published, nor are any mentioned by the 
author of the " Note." No one, except the author, could confuse 
my definition with that of the Mastodon, because the Multituber- 
culata was placed as a suborder of the Marsupialia. The best 
criterion of the clearness and sufficiency of this definition is that 
the term defined has been universally adopted in subsequent 
official and standard publications (see Flower, Lydekker, Troues- 
sart, Doderlein, Ameghino, and others). 

6. That I overlooked the strong probability that the type of 
Bolodon is an upper jaw of a species of Plagiaulax, and made it 
the type of a new family. The fact is, that so far from overlooking 
the resemblance between Bolodon and Plagiaulax, I have given 
the fullest discussion which has ever been published u of the 
evidence for and against the union of these forms into one genus 
and family. The author, moreover, does not mention that the 
latest expression of opinion upon the subject is his own, and in 
favor of the very views he is here criticising, as shown in the fol- 
lowing sentence : " These fossils evidently belong to the family 
named by the writer {i.e., by Marsh) the Allodontidae, which 
includes the American genus Allodon.and Bolodon from the Juras- 
sic of England." 12 

7. That I have overlooked the probability that the type of 
Stereognathus is an upper jaw, although heretofore described as a 
lower one. Nothing can be said in support of such a proba- 
bility. The universal opinion of English writers, following the 
exceptionally careful figures and descriptions of Charlesworth 
and Owen, is that this type is a lower jaw. I have not examined 

• Op. cit., Fig. 29 . 

i8 9 i.] A Reply to Professor Marsh. 779 

the type itself, but even since the author's suggestion u that the 
type is part of a maxilla it is again described and figured as a 
lower jaw in Flower and Lydekker's " Mammals." M 

8. That I followed Cope's error in founding the genus Menis- 
coessus upon a supposed premolar, which is, in fact, a reptilian 
tooth. It is distinctly stated in my review, as well as in Cope's 
original description, that the type of Meniscoessus is the molar 
tooth, as is also implied by the term itself. 15 Professor Cope 
himself expressed serious doubts as to the mammalian nature 
of the " premolar." When I examined it, finding a basal cingu- 
lum and close histological resemblance to the molar, I described 
it as a premolar, and figured it as a probable premolar. 
There is, however, reasonable doubt as to its mamma- 
lian character, for the basal portion of the crown is entirely want- 
ing, removing all evidence as to the character of the fangs. 

9. That I mistook two portions of a fish (Hybodus) tooth, arti- 
ficially cemented together, for a mammalian premolar. I con- 
cluded my description of this tooth in the following way : " If it 
is actually from the Rhsetic beds, it probably represents a premo- 
lar of Triglyphus." I thus clearly expressed my doubts as to its 
reference to a long-established genus, and was far from selecting 
such a specimen as the type of a new genus and family of mam- 
mals, as the author has done in the case of Stagodon. 

It thus appears that of these eight alleged errors I have myself 
long since published corrections of the two relating to Phascoloth- 
erium and Tritylodon ; that nothing has been added by recent 
discovery to my definition of the Multituberculata ; that my asso- 
ciation of the supposed premolars with Meniscoessus and Trigly- 
phus was in each case accompanied by an expressed doubt, 
either in the description or figure ; finally, that my conclusions 
regarding the Bolodontidae (Allodontidse), if erroneous, have never- 
theless been adopted and supported by the author himself. The 
author's criticisms will therefore have little weight with persons who 

"Arner. Jour. Set., April, 1887, p. 343. 

780 The American Naturalist. [September, 

are fully familiar with the literature of this subject. 10 Let us now 
consider the four points which the author has advanced in reply 
to my review of his determinations of twenty-seven distinct types. 
1. First, as regards the types of the genus Stagodon and 
family Stagodontida?, the author still considers them as mam- 
malian teeth, and remarks : " I distinctly stated that this tooth 
has two fangs, and the bases of these were indicated in one of 
my figures." As this point is an interesting one, I reproduce for 
a second time the figures of the teeth which were selected as the 

-€*-r*— » 


types of Stagodon, and allow the reader to judge. We must 
direct our attention only to these types, remembering that the 
other teeth were all found isolated, and the fact, as urged by the 
author, that " other teeth described as premolars," and " well- 
preserved specimens since obtained " show distinct fangs, .has no 
bearing upon the question, since the association of these teeth 
with the types is purely conjectural. 

2. The order "Allotheria." The author claims that he has 
defined it, that it is prior to Multituberculata, and should be 
adopted. There is no question as to the priority of definition 
of the Allotheria ; let us consider the character and applicability 
of the definition. A fundamental objection to this term, as well 
as to Pantotheria, is that Gill and Huxley had previously em- 
ployed the termination theria for the three great subclasses of 
Mammalia (represented to-day by the Monotremata, Marsupialia, 
and Placentalia) ; the termination had thus acquired a distinctive 
and useful subclass rank. Even, therefore, if Allotheria had been 
properly defined, it could not well be adopted for a group which 

A Reply to Professor Marsh. 781 

lost an order included in the Prototheria or Meta- 
theria. We may consider it fortunate, therefore, that the term 
was not given a distinctive ordinal definition, but one which, 
upon the author's own statement, 17 failed to separate it from the 
Marsupialia, — viz: 1. Teeth much below normal number; 2. canine 
teeth wanting; 3. Premolar and molar teeth specialized; 4. 
Angle of lower jaw distinctly inflected; 5. Mylohyoid groove 
wanting. The best criterion of the definition and of the inutility 
of this term Allotheria is the fact that it has been rejected 
by every subsequent writer. 

The third and fourth points advanced by the author in reply 
are extremely comprehensive, and, if they can be substantiated, will 
to some extent invalidate my criticism. It will be observed, 
however, that both points are advanced very cautiously. 

3. He states that "no true Plagiaulacidae are known with 
three rows of tubercles upon the upper molars." This f? equiva- 
lent to saying that we have no positive evidence that the upper 
molars have three rows ; it is not stated by the author that any 
upper Plagiaulax molar is known with two rows. I may recall 
the fact that in my review I called attention to this lack of posi- 
tive evidence, and enumerated the strong cases of indirect evidence 
to the contrary which we find, first, in the association of loose 
molars of three rows of tubercles with the lower jaws of Neo- 
plagiaulax, not to speak of Cimolomys; second, in the three 
rows of the maxillary molars of Polymastodon, a genus very 
closely related to Plagiaulax ; third, in the analogy of Tritylodon 
I consider this indirect evidence so strong that it is very unlikely 
to be refuted by subsequent discovery, and believe that the author 
will never be able to substantiate this first statement. 

4. Finally, he states that " no Allotheria (Multitubcrculata) 
are known with certainty to have three rows of tubercles in the 
lower molars." In support of this cautious assertion, the author 
first refers to the type of Stereognathus as probably a portion of 
a maxilla; this probability we have already shown rests upon no 
stated evidence whatever. He observes, secondly, that " there is 
now conclusive evidence that the Cretaceous molar teeth with 

782 The American Naturalist. [September, 

three rows of crescentic tubercles belong to the upper series, as 
I have described them." 

In reply, I may say that undoubtedly some crescentic tuber- 
cular teeth, in three rows, will be found in the upper jaws of some 
Cretaceous species, if for no other reason, because the ancestors 
of Polymastodon will be found in the Cretaceous, and these 
ancestors will exhibit three rows of subcrescentic tubercles in the 
upper molars, since such is the character of the large Polymas- 
todon upper molars. 

It remains for the author to show specifically that the types of 
Selenacodon and Tripriodon are maxillary teeth. I should 
myself have considered them as such but for the fact that the 
type of Dipriodon robustus, with two rows of tubercles, was de- 
scribed as a maxillary tooth, and figured with a supposed frag- 
ment of the zygomatic arch attached to the alveolar border. If 
this tooth proves to be mandibular, and the molars with three 
rows of crescents are shown to be maxillary, the author will have 
substantiated his second statement ; but such proof will not help 
him out of his synonomic dilemma, for it will still appear that he 
has founded three families, five genera, and as many species upon 
different teeth belonging to the same dental series, and all syn- 
onyms of Meniscoessus. 

Enough has been said to make it clear that, whatever evidence 
the author may hold in reserve for his future memoir, this " Note 
on Mesozoic Mammalia " contains no positive evidence in defence 
of his " Cretaceous Mammalia." 

In closing, I may quote a concluding paragraph in the author's 
reply : " No one who has earnest work to do can afford to spend 
time in the ungracious task of pointing out errors in the work of 
others." I have always been of the same opinion that criticism is 
an ungracious and thankless task. In this case I deferred my 
" Review " for nearly two years, and endeavored to avoid it 
entirely by sending to the author all my main points of doubt in 
regard to his paper, and asking him to revise it. After waiting 
for the author to avail himself of this opportunity, I came to the 
conclusion that the " Cretaceous Mammals," sent out with the 
authority of the distinguished author's name, and under the 

i8 9 i.] A Reply to Professor Marsh. 783 

auspices of our National Survey, might spread abroad a score of 
synonyms which, finding their way into literature, it would require 
years to eliminate. I am happy to see, however, that all recent 
writers, guided by their own critical faculty, and in some measure 
perhaps by my " Review," have taken from the two papers on 
" Discovery of Cretaceous Mammals " only what they actually 
contain, — namely, valuable and interesting additional characters of 
two or three multituberculate genera, already partly known, besides 
the discovery of two small trituberculates, and have not recog- 
nized the four orders, eight families, sixteen new genera, and 
twenty-seven new species constituted by the author. 

The American Naturalist. 


r FHE study of the order Umbellifenc presents peculiar diffi- 
culties to the beginner, for the flowers are uniformly small, 
and strikingly similar throughout the large and very natural 
group. The family distinctions or features are quite pronounced 
and unmistakable, and it is the determination of the genera which 
presents obstacles, — serious, indeed, but not insurmountable 
" By their fruits shall ye know them." 

The Umbelliferae, as we see them here, are herbaceous, with 
hollow, often striated stems, usually more or less divided leaves, 
and no stipules. Occasionally we meet a genus, like Eryngium 
or Hydrocotyle, with leaves merely toothed or lobed. The 
petioles are expanded into sheaths ; hence the leaves wither on 
the stem. The flowers are usually arranged in simple or com- 
pound umbels, and the main and subordinate clusters may or may 
not be provided with involucres and involucels. To this mode of 
arrangement there are exceptions. In marsh-penny-wort (Hydro- 
cotyle) the umbels are in the axils of the leaves, and scarcely 
noticeable ; in Eryngium and Sanicula they are in heads. 
The calyx is coherent with the two-celled ovary, and the border 
is either obsolete or much reduced. There are five petals inserted 
on the ovary, and external to a fleshy disk. Each petal has its 
tip inflexed, giving it an obcordate appearance. The common 
colors of the corolla are white, yellow, or some shade of blue. 
Alternating with the petals, and inserted with them, are the five 

The fruit, upon which so much stress is laid in the study of 
the family, is compound, of two similar parts or carpels, each of 
which contains a seed. In ripening, the parts separate, and hang 
divergent from a hair-like prolongation of the receptacle known 
as the gynophore. Each half fruit (mericarp) is tipped by a 
persistent style, and marked by vertical ribs, between or under which 
lie, in many genera, the oil-tubes or vittae. These are channels 

1891] Hemlock and Parsley. 7 $5 

containing aromatic and volatile oil. In examination the botanist 
makes delicate cross-sections of these fruits under a dissecting 
microscope, and by the shape of the fruit and seed within, and by 
the number and position of the ribs and oil-tubes, is "able to 
locate the genus. It of course requires skill and experience to 
do this, but any commonly intelligent class can learn the process. 
It goes without saying, and as a corollary to what has already 
been stated, that these plants should always be collected in full 
fruit ; the flowers are comparatively unimportant. Any botanist 
would be justified in declining to name one of the family not in 
fruit. An attempt would often be mere guesswork. 

In this family is found the poison hemlock (Conium) used by 
the ancient Greeks for the elimination of politicians. It is a 
powerful poison. The whole plant has a curious mousy odor. 
It is of European origin. Our water hemlock is equally poisonous, 
and much more common. It is the Cicuta maculata of the 
swamps, — a tall, coarse plant which has given rise to many sad 
accidents. Aithusa cynapium, another poisonous plant, known as 
" fool's parsley," is not uncommon, and certainly looks much like 
parsley. This only goes to show how difficult it is for any but 
the trained botanist to detect differences in this group of plants. 
Side by side may be growing two specimens, to the ordinary 
eye precisely alike, yet the one will be innocent and the other 

The drug assafcetida is a product of this order. All the plants 
appear to " form three different principles : the first, a watery acid 
matter ; the second, a gum-resinous, milky substance ; and the 
third, an aromatic, oily secretion. When the first of these pre- 
dominates they are poisonous ; the second in excess converts 
them into stimulants ; the absence of the two renders them useful 
as esculents ; the third causes them to be pleasant condiments." 
So that besides the noxious plants there is a long range of useful 
vegetables, as parsnips, parsley, carrots, fennel, dill, anise, cara- 
way, cummin, coriander, and celery. The last, in its wild state, 
is said to be pernicious, but etiolation changes the products and 
renders them harmless. The flowers of all are too minute to be 
individually pretty, but every one knows how charming are the 

786 The American Naturalist. [September, 

umbels of our wild carrot, resembling as they do the choicest 
old lace. Frequently the carrot has one central maroon-colored 

Though most of the plants are herbs, Dr. Welwitsch found in 
Africa a tree-like one, with a stem one to two feet thick, much 
prized by the natives for its medicinal properties, and also valuable 
for its timber. In Kamschatka also they assume a sub-arboreous 
type, as well as on the steppes of Afghanistan. 

As mistakes often occur by confounding the roots of Umbel- 
liferae with those of horse-radish or other esculents, it is well, 
when in doubt, to send the plants, ahvays in fruit, if possible, for 
identification. None of them are poisonous to the touch, — at least 
to ordinary people. Cases of rather doubtful authenticity are 
reported from time to time of injury from the handling of wild 
carrot. We have always suspected the proximity of poison ivy; 
still, it is unwise to dogmatize on such matters. Some people 
cannot eat strawberries — more's the pity ! — while the rest of us 
get along with them very happily. Lately the Primula obconica 
has acquired an evil reputation as an irritant, so there is no telling 
what may not happen with certain constitutions. 

Difficult as is the study of Umbellifene, it becomes fascinating 
on acquaintance. To hunt up a plant and name it by so scientific 
a process brings to the student a sufficient reward. 

Providence, Rhode Island, Jidy 2d, i8gi. 

Problem of the Soaring Birds. 


C AYS Darwin, in the naturalist's voyage around the world . 
" When the condors are wheeling in a flock round and round 
any spot, their flight is beautiful. Except when rising from the 
ground, I do not recollect ever^having seen one of these birds 
flap its wings. Near Lima I watched several for nearly half an 
hour, without once taking off my eyes : they moved in large 
curves, sweeping in circles, descending and ascending without 
giving a single flap. As they glided close over my head, I 
intently watched from an oblique position the outlines of the 
separate and great terminal feathers of each wing ; and these 
separate feathers, if there had been the least vibratory movement, 
would have appeared as if blended together; but they were seen 
distinct against the blue sky. The head and neck were moved 
frequently, and apparently with force ; and the extended wings 
seemed to form the fulcrum on which the movements of the neck, 
body, and tail acted. If the bird wished to descend, the wings 
were for a moment collapsed; ami when again expanded with an 
altered inclination, the momentum gained by the rapid descent 
seemed to urge the bird upwards with the even and steady move- 
ment of a paper kite. In the case of any bird soaring, its motion 
must be sufficiently rapid so that the action of the inclined sur- 
face of its body on the atmosphere may counterbalance its gravity. 
The force to keep up the momentum of a body moving in a 
horizontal plane in the air (in which there is so little friction) 
cannot be great, and this force is all that is wanted. The move- 
ment of the neck and body of the condor, we must suppose, is 
sufficient for this. However this may be, it is truly wonderful 
and beautiful to see so great a bird, hour.after hour, without any- 
apparent exertion, wheeling and gliding over mountain and river." 
The above remarkable words for many years have served to 
sustain my interest in the endeavor to substitute the actual 
for his provisional solution of soaring flight. 

The American Naturalist 

I presented in this magazine certain papers of a suggestive 
character, the results of much observation and experiment, in the 
hope of directing attention to curious facts, not recognized, bear- 
ing upon this subject. Three years ago I moved to my present 
location, Egeria, Colorado, where, during the past eighteen 
months, I have done the principal work necessary for this under- 

I consider myself successful in obtaining important results. 
In this paper I propose dealing with an experiment so obviously 
simple, as it now stands, that I am dazed to think of the labor 
that has been expended upon it. This device, in wind, really 
exhibits the entire soaring case in a very concise way, so far as its 
fundamental principles are concerned ; but I give briefly the same 
experiment in calm air, as supplementary. The first form of the 
experiment can be tried by any one with a fair amount of con- 
structive ability, and it cuts an awful chasm through the teachings 
of the mechanical schools on atmospheric resistance, and unerr- 
ingly pointy to practical air navigation. 

A rough-board platform, about twelve, feet square, with a post 
and cross-beam fixed upon it, the whole being capable of hori- 
zontal rotation to present the plane to the wind from whatever 
direction it might blow, is the framework. 

The plane should be a flat pyramid, — 5x5 feet square is a good 
size on the base, and two inches high. The edges of such 
shape, being sharp, give the effect of a true plane without thickness. 
The whole should be finished smooth, similar to the top of an 
ordinary piano. Perfectly seasoned white pine or red cedar is an 
excellent material to use, glueing thin strips together in the rough, 
and dressing to shape. 

To one edge of the plane two fine steel wires are fastened, 
which are suspended from two ordinary spring balances, fixed by 
their rings to the cross-beam of the platform. When thus sus- 
pended the plane will sway freely too and fro, like a child's swing, 
the flat side being in a vertical position when at rest. 

To the apex at the back of the plane is fixed another wire pro- 
vided with another spring balance, the ring of which is fastened 
to the rear part of the cross-beam, when the plane is drawn back- 

Problem of the Soaring AV/vA. 


ward to any desired angle of obliquity with the horizon. This 
wire must in all cases be kept perpendicular, and the other two 
parallel to the plane. 

It is obvious that the plane can be pulled backwards through 
all degrees of the quadrant, and suspended at any position by the 
wires and balances in a state of rest. While the plane hangs 
vertically all its weight will be on the parallel wires, half on each. 
As it is pulled to the rear less and less weight will be on the 
parallel wires, and more and more on the normal wire, until at a 
horizontal position, 90 from the starting point, all weight will be 
on the normal wire, and none on the parallel. 

If we assume the soaring inclination of a bird to be 5 ° from 
horizontal, and pull the plane back to that angle, the normal 
scale will mark twenty-seven pounds and the parallel one pound 
each, small fractions of weight being neglected. If an angle of 
45 be used, the normal scale will mark about nineteen pounds 
and the two others g 1 /, pounds each. 

To operate this device, a time of calm air is chosen, and 
plane is pulled back to any desired angle, say 45°, the nor 
scale fastened in position, and the weight indications of e 
scale noted. When wind arises, rotate the platform to face it, 
that the plane will stand squarely across its direction. Thi 

but to get all the resistance possible out of it. Then observe 
scales to see what effect wind has on the normal and pan- 
gravity stresses. Any perceptible breeze will be shown by 
normal scale, which will indicate less and less weight as w 
increases. If the air moves with sufficient force, all weight ' 

ygo The American Naturalist. [September, 

be taken from the normal scale, the wire may be cut, and the 
plane will rest on the air pressure beneath its surface, in which 
event pressure is substituted for tensic 
otherwise the stress being unchanged, 

If the plane be suspended at the soaring angle of 5 , and 
wind is strong enough to lift it to that angle, all tension will be 
taken from the normal scale, the plane resting on air pressure as 
at the 45 inclination, and so on through all degrees of the arc. 

During all this time the parallel scales indicate the weight 
recorded by them at the various angles in calm air, so that they 
are not influenced by wind in the least degree, however great its 
force might be. 

If at any angle of obliquity the plane be held by a wire from 
each corner, perpendicular to it, and fastened to the platform, no 
force of wind will vary the parallel scales, the tension of the four 
wires holding the entire wind resistance, however great, In 
short, there is no way to get wind to affect the parallel scales. 
If variation in them occurs, it shows at once some error in the 
experiment, either the wires being out of adjustment, or some 
warpage of plane or other disturbance having taken place. 

The rotating arms for trying this experiment in calm air are 
60 feet radius, their ends describing a circle of 120 feet diameter. 
The plane is hung under the arm, and all the conditions of the 
other experiment complied with. No change could be noted in 
the results, excepting that motions of plane were made with 
greater smoothness, on account of greater steadiness in artificial 
wind. By no means could air resistance be brought to bear on 
the parallel component of gravity. It acted the same in wind as 
in calm air, undisturbed by atmospheric resistance. 

Before anyt hill g is inferred from these experiments it will be 
best to state the facts of the case. So completely subversive of 
the usual conceptions of the action of air on surfaces is this trial 
that it seems imperative to get the facts right before attempting 
to range them in the order of mechanical sequence. 

For convenience, I will number a few of the conspicuous ones. 

1. The scales, being marked in half pounds, do not register 

1 8gi.] Problem of the Soaring Birds. 791 

small fractions of force, so that if there be friction down the 
plane caused by slipping air, such resistance would act on the 
parallel scales, but, being of small magnitude, could not be read 
from the index. 

2. Neither the cross-arm in wind, nor the rotating arm in calm 
air, holds the plane against the air. They simply neutralize the 
parallel factor of gravity, and prevent its acting upon the plane. 

3. The normal gravity component does work upon the air by 
disturbing it in various ways, such as changing its motion, and 
condensing it, and it is the only fraction of weight that meets 
with atmospheric resistance, if we neglect the unknown elements 
of friction. 

4. The experiments are in obedience to the law of normal 
resistance of fluids to surfaces compressing them. 

5. There is no resistance to the plane on the line of motion of 
either plane or air. Even the hypothetical friction is not on such 

6. Wind or calm air produce identical results ; the only require- 
ment being that air and plane shall meet, motion of either, related 
to the earth, being indifferent. 

The consequences flowing from the above are many and im- 
portant, and in the briefest manner I will notice those which 
seem to demand the earnest attention of every student of nature, 
however abhorrent they may be to text-book devotees. 

It is obvious that the wires of the experiment, when the plane 
is adjusted to any obliquity in calm air, resolves weight in the 
same way that an ordinary inclined plane would if the latter were 
rough, the stresses being of the nature of pressure instead of 

Then we have in the mathematical formula of inclined planes 
without friction what also applies to oblique atmospheric resist- 
ance. For when the plane of the experiment, held by the wires, 
is submitted to air pressure, the shape, size, and obliquity of that 
plane determines the shape, size, and obliquity of the plane of air 
pressure beneath it, which plane being destitute of friction the 
component along it must be neutralized, as is done by the paral- 

Am. Nat-Sept.-*. 


lei wires, to preserve stability ; otherwise, the experimental plane 
would slip down the air plane. 

It follows that atmospheric resistance is a purely static feature 
in all cases ; as completely so as a rigid inclined plane, resolving 
all forces impinging upon it. This becomes still more evident 
when we see that it is the experimental plane that determines the 
direction of air resistance, and not the direction in which plane 
and air meet. If air moved vertically upwards, or from the rear, 
or from any other direction, against the lower surface, the direction 
of resistance would be unchanged, and the experiment equally 
effective. It was not to employ horizontal wind that the experi- 
ment was arranged, but to parallel the case with a soaring bird, 
the working force of which is gravity. 

Magnitude of resistance would vary, with the same wind, as 
its direction approached or receded from the normal line, but, as 
will be shown farther on, magnitude is unimportant, direction 
being the vital matter. 

If the experimental plane were supposed to be of the same 
specific gravity as the air it displaces, and some other force used 
to hold the plane against, or drive it upon air, the same result 
would follow. This force would be resolved, as gravity is resolved, 
by the air plane. 

The enormous error of the mechanical schools in estimating 
resistance of air to oblique surfaces is now conspicuous. This 
error has the sanction of the great name of Newton, and stands 
squarely across the pathway leading to artificial air navigation, 
setting up scarecrows along every avenue to success. 

But it is consoling to know that no man, not even a Newton, 
can diagram a force into nature that was not there before the 
diagram was made. 

The entire nature of air resistance is misconceived. The case 
is a curious one of bouleversement. The activities are turned 
upside down. Instead of the surface resolving the resistance, it 
is the resistance that resolves whatever forces drive the surface 
upon it. I have examined over a hundred text-books of 
mechanical teaching, and have found no exception to the preva- 
lence of this error. They all get resistance on the line in which 

' the Soaring Birds. 


plane and air meet. They do not all go about it in the same 
way, but in the end that is where they locate it. So far as I can 
determine, the error is on the increase, the later authorities being 
more emphatically astray than the earlier ones. The last utter- 
ance that I have seen is contained in a lecture delivered to the 
students of Sibly College, Cornell University, in May, 1890, by 
O. Chanute, C.E. On pages 28 and 29 of the published paper 
the error comes out glaringly. In speaking of M. Drzewieki's 
work on Duchemin's formula, he says : " Next he calculates the 
horizontal components of the normal pressure, this being the 
resistance to the advancement of the plane." His entire exposi- 
tion is saturated with the blunder, for no horizontal resistance 
exists. Mr. S. P. Langley, in his recent submission of experi- 
ments and suggestions in aerodynamics, entertains the same 
delusion in its full force, otherwise he seems notably free from a 

But my thanks are due to some unknown friend who has just 
sent me a copy of Science, dated May 1st, 1891, in which 
I find marked a letter to the editor on "Flying Machines," 
by H. A. Hazen. The writer is wholly unknown to me; 
but I infer that he is neither a "crank" nor a dabbler in 
science, but a well-grounded expert of wholly intelligent attain- 
ments. Without presuming to defend Mr. Langley in the 
remotest manner, I am justified in holding that Hazen's statements 
are accepted by the mechanical schools, and I herewith call 
attention to the utterly erroneous nature of such teaching by con- 
trast to the following facts. 

1. A bird does support itself in soaring flight by going fast, 
and in no other way. 

2. There is no evidence that a bird in the act of soaring ever 
remained stationary in still air for an instant ; and whether air is 
hurled against bird or bird against air, the result is the same ; 
meeting in opposition of bird and air is required by the very 
nature of soaring flight. 

3. " Solution of the problem " is unchanged by " great velocity." 
4- As parallel motion on the upward slant is what gives 

" velocity " to the bird, and as atmospheric friction is the only 


■walist. [Septa 

) such translation, speed of flight is determined by a 
force which may, for all practical purposes, be left wholly out 
of the account. 

5. "As a matter of fact," the statement that "it would be 
much easier to go slow than fast " is a burlesque. 

6. Resistance of air at one mile or one hundred miles per hour 
is practically the same. 

So far as I can see, the paraphrased arguments of LeConte do 
not touch the problem of soaring flight in any way, but all the 
errors of the mechanical schools are evidently adopted by him. 

But here is by no means the end of this catena of difficulty. 

There are three ways, shown in the subjoined diagram, in 
which a surface and air can meet. 

1 . Parallel to the surface. 

2. Obliquely to the surface. 

3. Normal to the surface. 

The first meets with frictional resistance. 

The second with both friction and pressu 

The third with pressure resistance only. 

The direction of the first and third 1 
which plane and air meet, there being a single stress on that line. 
The directions of the second resistances are both parallel, and 
normal to the plane, there being two stresses perpendicular to 
each other, and no stress on the line in which plane and air meet. 

It directly follows that direction of motion of the second case 
is a resultant, composed of two velocities, one on the line of fric- 
tional, the other on the line of pressure resistance, the plane 
being a body subject to two forces, neither of which are in the 

r8gi.] Problem of the Soaring Birds. 795 

No single force, however great, could drive a plane obliquely 
through air. There must of necessity be not less than two 
stresses, derived either from the application of two forces, or the 
resolution into two components of one. 

I need go no further in this direction, but will add a few words 
regarding my work during the past year and a half, in the way of 
direct flight. 

It is sufficiently obvious that a force of about two pounds' con- 
stant pressure applied to the plane, either in wind or calm air, in 
the above experiments, to take the place of the cross-arm and 
rotating arm, neutralizing the parallel component of gravity, 
would, if obtained from the constant flow of twenty-seven pounds 
pressure escaping from beneath the surface, produce a true soar- 
ing plane in calm and wind. 

A smooth plane has no tendency to throw two pounds of this 
twenty-seven pounds (over 90 ) against the obstructive component. 

The true problem of flight consists in so manipulating the 
surface as to perform this function. I have hitherto taken the 
wing of a soaring bird as a model, and have had unexpected and 
most gratifying success. 

I can produce true soaring flight in natural wind with a plane 
exceeding two pounds to a square foot of surface whenever I 
wish to do so and can obtain wind strong enough for the pur- 
pose. During the above-mentioned period of time I have made 
about fifty planes of various shapes and sizes, and from 25 
to 400 pounds in weight. These planes are not set free in wind, 
but used as in the experimental cases above, with rigid rods in 
place of the parallel wires. These rods run in large rings and 
have a cross head at their outer ends, allowing the plane to run 
to the front until its edge rests against the rings. In the best 
trials the parallel component is neutralized at 10° from horizon- 
tal, far exceeding my expectations derived from observations of 
the birds; their angle of obliquity being rarely over 5 . 

On a few occasions these planes accidentally escaped me in 
time of highest wind, and were ruined at once for all purposes 
excepting fire- wood ; in each case being a loss of two or three 
months' work, and playing havoc with my finances. One that I 

796 The American Naturalist. [September, 

valued particularly plunged to the front in a violent blast of wind 
with force sufficient to tear out the rings. It rose into the air 
gradually higher and higher, until an elevation of at least 3,000 
feet was attained, when some part of the device giving away it 
lost equilibrium, and plunged through the air, striking the earth 
about two-and-a-half miles from the starting point, and 1000 feet 
higher than that locality. Another mile would have carried it 
to the summit of the Flat Top Mountains. It was in the air 
about three hours, and I walked beneath it during its flight. Its 
course was directly against the highest wind I have experienced 
during my residence here. At times it did not progress, but 
went higher. It weighed one hundred and ten pounds, and had 
been well balanced for experimenting on surface manipulation. 
There was no lesson taught in this flight, the birds having been 
doing the same thing for a long time. It was an interesting 
spectacle to look at ; so is a large bird in the same act. I presume 
Mr. Darwin's provisional solution would apply to this plane as 
well as to the condors, bat I am trying to explain the actual 
mechanical activity of both. 

The best effects produced were with a plane of 400 pounds 
weight and eighty square feet of surface. In a wind that would 
be rightly termed a gale, arising about midnight, this plane was 
thrown to about y° from horizontal. It ran to the front against 
the rings at io°, where the entire parallel component was neu- 
tralized, and at 7 it hugged the rings with a force that required 
a backward pull of fifteen pounds to detach it. 

This plane would make a splendid air navigator, and I would 
have no hesitation in trusting myself to it when steering, equi- 
librium, and alighting or stopping items had been worked out. 
I mean to say that it would navigate wind. I am now just enter- 
ing on a course of experiments in calm air. 

The front ledge is an important factor in steadiness, but the 
rear curve I have entirely abandoned, surface manipulation being 
depended upon to produce the parallel thrust. My judgment is 
that I have succeeded in separating the mechanical devices of a 
bird's wing which produce flight from .those serving other life 
; of the animal. It has been an arduous task. At the 

Problem of the Soaring llirds. 


close of experimenting in this line I hit upon a method not 
exhibited by the birds, which promises best results, but which 
waits further developments. 

Let us suppose a soaring bird of twenty-seven pounds weight, 
with stretched wings on an angle of 5 from horizontal, translat- 
ing itself in calm air, or stationary when related to the earth in 
wind. Suppose, further, the initial impulse to have been made 
so that its motion is uniform. 

Then its weight is resolved into a normal and parallel compo- 
nent by the air plane of pressure beneath it. The normal com- 
ponent does work by driving the air out of place, thereby chang- 
ing its motion. The parallel component acts upon the bird, 
tending to drive it on the downward slant, backwards. The air 
in being condensed reacts in all directions, and reaction towards 
the front being resisted by the surface manipulations, the bird is 
driven against friction and the small component, on the upward 
slant, and, completing the diagram of velocities, the result is 
horizontal flight. 


If the parallel factor be supposed out of the way by neutraliza- 
tion arising from surface manipulation, and the air to be calm, 
then the normal factor would drive the plane against air pressure 

1 any given 1 

: of time, say 1 

: second. 

Simultaneously with this motion a small excess of parallel force 
over that required to balance the parallel factor — say one-half 
pound constant pressure — would drive the plane from a to c, 
against friction, in which case motion would occur on a d, the 
resulting line of horizontal flight. 

I have said that direction, and not magnitude of force, was the 
vital point in the soarfng activity. This fact must now be quite 

798 The American Naturalist. [September, 

plain. Magnitude of force depends on weight of plane, and on 
that alone. The gravity stress existing between the plane and 
the earth's center is the only conceivable force in action, and air 
will meet any demand made upon it by the normal factor of this 
force, against which it is a reaction. This factor is determined 
by the angle of obliquity of plane in each case, and the work 
done upon the air goes on independently of the parallel motion 
of the plane on the upward slant, which alone gives a soaring 
movement. It is obvious that whether wind should move from 
the zenith downwards, or from the earth vertically upwards, or 
horizontally, or from any angle of obliquity whatever, the soaring 
activity is not affected. That goes on as it does in calm air. 
Motion of plane as related to the earth would of course vary with 
wind, if inclination remained the same, but the soaring action, 
considered by itself, is absolutely independent of wind, — meaning 
by that word motion of air as related to the earth. 

I had prepared specimen feathers from the wings of various 
birds during the past twenty-five years, intending to prepare a 
paper for publication on the subject of surface manipulation, 
which I hold to be the most curious and interesting feature about 
a bird, yet almost paralleled by the wonder that it has hitherto 
escaped notice. But we have a rat, if it be a rat, that is endowed' 
with a peculiar moral nature. With it, exchange is no robbery. 
A nest of them inhabited the building in which I kept my speci- 
mens, and they bartered what I laid claim to for an indescribable 
lot of miscellaneous rubbish of no earthly use to me. Their 
views and mine were very different. They had cut the feathers 
into small bits and mixed them with dirt, and stowed them away 
in all sorts of holes and corners. I shut a cat in the room for 
some days, which caused the rodents to vanish, but my feathers 
were ruined. 

If you will take a primary wing feather of any large bird, — 
say a wild goose, or especially a frigate bird, — and cut squarely 
across the ribs, and examine the divided part endwise with a 
magnifying glass of low power, you will see nature's plan of 
surface manipulation to get the forward thrust against the small 
component of weight and air friction. Cut on b c, and examine 


1 1/ 


The American Naturalist. 

[s, P i, 

the cut ends of the ribs along a. You will see something like d. 
If we suppose an unpressed small portion of air to be represented 
by a small circle o, and the same air when pressed, by a flat disk 
O, and then mesh this disk with the sort of surface made by 
the manipulation, the nature of the front thrust will be made 
thinkable. I enlarge it below. That part of the air particle to 

the rear of the dotted line as b slips easily over the ribs, while the 
front part, a, engages with them and tends to carry them to the 
front. I have worked out all this artificially with excellent 
results, and can give you a paper upon it if a large part of the 
actual size and shape of the ribs in different birds is left to mem- 
ory, as the rats have destroyed my samples. 

The History of Garden Vegetables. 


Lycopersicwn Humboldt ii Dun. 
This is very like the preceding, but the racemes of the flowers 
smaller, the calycine segments being never the length of the 
corolla, and the berries one-half smaller, red, and, when culti- 
vated, not less angular than those of L. esculentum) It was 
noticed by Humboldt 2 as under cultivation at La Victoria, 
Neuva Valencia, and everywhere in the valleys of Aragua, in 
South America, and is described by KunthMn 1823, and by 
Willdenow, about 1806, from plants in the Berlin garden from 
seeds received from Humboldt. The fruit, although small, has a 
fine flavor. I suspect the Turban, Turk's Cap, or Turk's Turban 
of our seedsmen, a novelty of 1 881, to be referable here, although 
this cultivated variety is probably a monstrous form. 

Lycopcrsicinn pyriforme Dun. 
This, which is to be classed as one of the fancy varieties under 
cultivation, occurs with both yellow, red, and pale yellow or 
whitish fruit. It was described by Dunal in 1 8 1 3, and in Persoon's 
synopsis in 1805. 4 ^ ' s mentioned in England in 18 19, and 
both the colors in the United States by Salisbury 5 in 1848. It 
is liked by some for garnishing and pickling. The common 
names are pear-shaped and fig. 

Lycopus; in piwf lit "aim Dun. 

The currant tomato bears its red fruit, somewhat longer than a 

common currant, or as large as a very large currant, in two- 

2 Humboldt. Trav., Bohn. Ed., II., 20. 

802 The American Naturalist. [September, 

ranked racemes, which are frequently quite large and abundantly 
filled. It grows wild in Peru and Brazil, and is figured by 
Feuille 6 in 1725, but not as a cultivated plant, and is described 
by Linnaeus 7 in 1763. The grape or cluster tomato is recorded 
in American gardens by Burr 8 in 1863, and as the red currant 
tomato by Vilmorin 9 in 1883 and 1885. It is an exceedingly 
vigorous and hardy variety, with delicate foliage, and fruits most 
abundantly. The berries make excellent pickles. 

According to the test of cross-fertilization, few, if any, of the 
above are true species. Two only of the above named — the 
cherry and the currant tomato — do I find recorded in a truly 
wild condition. The tomato has, however, been under cultiva- 
tion from a remote period by the Nahua and other Central 
American nations, and reached European and American culture, 
as all the evidence implies, in an improved condition. If there 
is any evidence that any of our so-called types arose spontaneously 
from the influences of culture, I have failed to note it. We may 
well ask, Why did not other forms appear during the interval 
from 1558 to 1623, when but one sort, and that figured as little 
able.vari received the notice of the early botanists ? 

The modern names of the tomato, or love apple, are in France, 
tomate, pomme d 1 amour, pomme a" or, pomme du Perou ; in Ger- 
many, tomate, liebesapfel ; in Flanders and Holland, tomaat ; in 
Italy, porno d'oro ; in Spain and Portugal, tomate ; in Norway, 

In Arabic, bydingan toumaten ; u in Burma, kha-yan-myae- 
phung ; 12 in Ceylon, maha-rata-tamattie ; 13 in the Deccan, wall- 
wangee ; in Egypt, bydingan toumaten ; in Malaya, tomatte ; 
in Tagalo, tomates, camatis ; 12 in Tamil, seemie-takalie-pullam ; 13 

Id and Gard. Veg., 1863, t 
Les PI. Pot., 554. 
• Culturpf., 91. 

;. Prod, of Bomb., 

i89i.J The History of Garden Vegetables. 803 

in Indian gardens, goot-begoon, oou lacetce buengun ; " in Mexico, 
jomatl ; 15 in Japan, akanasu, red egg-plant. 1 " 

turnip. Brassica sp. 
Vilmorin in his " Les Plantes Potageres," 1883, classes all the 
turnips under Brassica napus L. ; but the older authors referred 
them, more correctly as we think, to Brassica napus and B. rapa. 
Decandolle, 17 who makes this distinction, separates the first into 
three groups, based on color, the white, yellow, and black ; the 
second into groups, comprising the white, yellow, black, red, and 
green. In the thirteenth century Albertus Magnus describes the 
napus as with a long root, which is eaten, and the rapa as having 
a spherical compressed bulb, and sometimes red in the stalk. The 
turnip is of ancient culture. Columella, 18 a. d. 42, says the napus 
and the rapa are both grown, and the latter the larger and greener 
for the use of man and beasts, especially in France ; the former 
not having a swollen, but a slender, root. He also speaks of the 
Mursiau gongylis, which may be the round turnip, as being espe- 
cially fine. The distinction between the napus and the rapa was 
not always held, as Pliny 19 uses the word napus generically, and 
says that there are five kinds, the Corinthean, Cleonasum, Liotha- 
sium, Boeoticum, and the Green. The Corinthean, the largest, 
with an almost bare root, grows on the surface, and not, as 
do the rest, under the soil. The Liothasium, also called Thra- 
cium, is the hardiest. The Boeoticum is sweet, of a notable round- 
ness, and not very long as is the Cleonaeum. At Rome the 
Amiternian is in most esteem, next the Nursinian, and third our 
own kind (the green ?). In another place, under rapa he mentions 
two kinds, the one broad-bottomed (flat ?), the other globular, 
and the most esteemed those of Nursia. The napus of Amiterni- 
num, of a nature quite similar to the rapa, succeeds best in a cool 
place. He mentions that the rapa sometimes attain a weight of 

is Heller. U. S. Pat. Of. Rept., 187-1, 4H- 

804 The American Naturalist. [September, 

forty pounds. This weight has, however, been exceeded in mod- 
ern times. Matthiolus, 20 in 1558, had heard of turnips that 
weighed a hundred pounds, and speaks of having seen long and 
purple sorts that weighed thirty pounds. Amatus Lusitanus, 21 
in 1524, speaks of turnips weighing fifty and sixty pounds. In 
England, in 1792, Martyn 22 says the greatest weight that he is 
acquainted with is thirty-six pounds. In California, about 1850, 
a turnip is recorded of one hundred pounds weight. 23 

Brassica napus esculenta DC. 17 

This differs from the Brassica rapa oblonga by its smooth and 
glaucous leaves. It surpasses other turnips by the sweetness of 
its flavor, and furnishes white, yellow, and black varieties. It is 
known as the Navet or French turnip. 17 It was apparently the 
napa of Columella. 1 * It was certainly known to the early bot- 
anists, yet its synonymy is difficult to be traced from the figures. 
I think, however, the following are correct : 

Napus. Trag., 1552, 730; Matth., 1554, 240; Pin., 156 1, 
144; Cam. Epit, 1586, 222; Dod., 1616, 674; Fischer, 1646. 

Bunias sive napus. Lob. ic, 1591, L, 200. 

Bunias silvestris lobelii. Ger., 1597, 181. 

Napi. Cast. Dur., 161 7, 304. 

Bunias. Bodaeus, 1644, 773. 

Napus dulcis. Black w., 1765, t. 410. 

Navet petit de Berlin. Vilm., 1883, 360. 

Teltow turnip. Vilm., 1885, 580. 

The navews are mentioned as under cultivation in England by 
Worlidge, 24 in 1683, as the French turnip by Wheeler, 25 in 1763, 
and Miller's Dictionary, 1807. Gasparin 26 says the navet de 
Berlin, which often acquires a great size, is much grown in 

i8gi.] The History of Garden Vegetables. 805 

Alsace and in Germany. In China, according to Bretschneider, 27 
it was known in the fifth century. 

Brassica rapa depressa DC. 
This has a large root expanding under the origin of the stem 
into a thick, round, fleshy tuber, flattened at the top and bottom. 
It has white, yellow, black, red or purple, and green varieties. It 
seems to have been known from ancient times, and is described 
and figured in the earlier botanies. 

A. Flattened both above and below. 

Rapum. Matth., 1554, 240; Cam. Epit, 1586, 218. 
Rapum sive rapa. Pin., 156 1, 143. 
Rapa. Cast. Dur., 161 7, 386. 
Navet turnip. Vilm., 1883, 583. 

B. Flattened, but pointed below. 

Orbiculatum sen turbinatum rapum. Lob. ic, 1791, I., 197. 

Rapum. Porta, Phytognom, 1591, 120. 

Rapum vulgare. Dod., 16 16, 673. 

Rave d'Auvergne tardive. Vilm., 1883, 369. 

C. Globular. 

Rapum. Trag., 1552, 728. ♦ 
Rapa, La Rave. Tourn., 17 19, 113. 
Navet jaunt £ Holland*. Vilm., 1883, 370. 
Yellow Dutch. Vilm., 1885, 588. 

Brassica rapa oblonga DC. 

This race differs from the preceding in having a long and 
oblong tuber tapering to the radicle. It seems an ancient form, — 
perhaps the Cleonaeum of Pliny. 

Vulgare rapum alterum. Trag., 1532, 729. 

Rapum longum. Cam. Epit., [586, 219. 

Rapum tcreti, rotunda, oblongaque radici. Lob. ic, 1591,1., 

Rapum oblongius. Dod., 1616, 6ji. 

Rapum sativum rotuudum and oblongum. J. Bauh., 165 I, II., 

806 The American Naturalist. [September, 

Rapa, La Rave. Tourn., 1719, 1 13. 

Navet de Briollay. Vilm., 1883, 372. 

Briollay turnip. Vilm., 1885, 591. 

This representation by no means embraces all the turnips now 
known, as it deals with form only, and not with color and habits. 
In 1828 thirteen kinds were in Thorburn's American seed cata- 
logue, and in 1887 thirty-three kinds. In France, twelve kinds 
were named by Pirolle in 1824, and by Petit in 1826. In 1887 
Vilmorin's wholesale seed-list enumerates thirty-one kinds. 

The turnip is believed to have reached England from Holland 
in 1 5 50, 28 but before this it had reached the New World. In 
1540 Cartier 29 sowed turnip seed at the present Montreal, in 
Canada. In 1609 30 turnips are mentioned in Virginia, as also in 
1649; 31 they are mentioned as cultivated in Massachusetts in 
1629. 32 In Peru they are said by Acosta, 33 in 1604, to have 
increased so abundantly as to become a nuisance in the planting 
of grain. 

The turnip is called in France, navet, gros navet, grosse rave, 
naveau, navet turnips, rabiole, rabioule, rave plate, tornep, turneps, 
turnip ; in Germany, hcrbst-rube, stoppel-rube ; in Flanders and 
Holland, raap ; in Denmark, rde ; in Italy, navone, rapa; in 
Spain and Portugal, tiabo; u in Arabic, lift* luft ; in Bengali, 
shalgram; in Persia, shalgraiu ; in Sindh, gokkru ; M in Japan, 
busei, aona (the round form). 37 

- Booth. 


of Bot 


Voy., I'i 

1 A Perfect Desc. 

'Higginson. M 

ass. Hist 


I'I. Pot 


. 357- 

-' I>lil«>. 

Fl. ^g. 111. 


HP HE fortieth meeting of the American Association for the 
Advancement of Science was held at Washington, between 
August 17th and 25th, inclusive. It was a successful and 
enjoyable occasion, and the membership present exceeded 800. 
Representatives from almost all parts of the country, including 
the Pacific coast, were present. The papers read were generally 
of a high order of merit. A noticeable feature was the large 
number of new specialists who appeared, especially in the Bio- 
logical and Geological Sections, an indication of increased 
activity in these fields, due in the main to the good work which 
has been going on in our universities. The overflow of entomo- 
logical papers was large enough to give the Entomological Club 
plenty to do, and a good many geological papers went over to the 
Geological Society of America, whose meetings overlapped those 
of the American Association. The address of the retiring pre- 
sident, Professor George L. Goodale, on the possibilities of the 
introduction and cultivation ofplants, now only known in the wild 
state, which shall be of utility to man, was of wide interest. The 
addresses of the vice presidents were as various as usual. That of 
the president of the Geological Section was technical, while that 
of the president of the Biological Section was didactic. Professor 
Prescott made an excellent presiding officer. Excursions were not 
allowed to interfere with the work of the association, and they 
were the more enjoyable on that account. The closing meeting, 
on the evening of the 25 th, was an occasion of much hilarity. Not 
the least important contribution to this feeling was the ad- 
dress of a youth who presented the association with an invitation 
to hold the meeting of 1893 at Chicago, during the exposition. 
In well-considered language the association was asked to con- 
tribute its mite to one of the vast aggregate of congresses to be held 
there, and thus take part in the rejuvenation of the human race 
which it was anticipated would date from that event. Rochester 
was selected as the place of meeting for 1892. 

— The American Society of Geologists met on August 24th 
and 25th, during the meeting of the American Association in the 

8o8 The American Naturalist. [September, 

same building (the Columbian University) , in Washington. As the 
24th was occupied by the association in excursions, the meeting on 
the 24th was devoted to papers by foreign members who had arrived 
with the intention of attending the International Congress. These 
were Steinmann and Rothpletz,of Germany ; Harker and Gregory, 
of England ; Schmidt, Krassnow, and Pavlow, of Russia ; De Geer, 
of Sweden ; and Stephanescu, of Roumania. Some of these will 
appear in future numbers of the Naturalist. The most important 
papers contributed by American members were those of President 
T. C. Chamberlin, Mr. R. T. Hill, and Mr. W. J . McGee. The 
society was the recipient of papers suitable for the International 
Congress, after it was decided to restrict the work of the latter 
body to discussion of definite questions only. Professor Steven- 
son, of New York, presided over the sessions with his usual ability, 
and Mr. McGee made an admirable secretary. 

— The fifth meeting of the International Congress of Geologists 
met at Washington from August 26th to September 1st, inclusive 
The attendance from foreign countries was larger than was an- 
ticipated, although not so large as the list published by the 
reception committee would indicate. The foreign members were 
distributed as follows: Austria-Hungary, 2 ; Belgium, 4 ; Canada, 
3 ; France, 3 ; Germany, 1 7 ; Great Britain, 6 ; Mexico, 3 ; Nor- 
way, 1 ; Roumania, 2 ; Russia, 4 ; Sweden, 4 ; Switzerland, 2 ; 
total, 51. Several members were accompanied by ladies ; Great 
Britain sent 2 ; Roumania, 2 ; and Russia, 1 ; total, 56. With 
some names not classified above, the total number present was 
about 65. The language selected for the conduct of the affairs of 
the congress was English, although French has been hitherto 
universally employed. This was due to the fact that the members 
of the U. S. Geological Survey, who had assumed the manage- 
ment of the congress, could neither speak French nor understand 
it when spoken. 

Professor Newberry, the acting president, was ill, and unable to 
attend, so that his place was occupied successively by the first 
vice president, Professor Jos. Le Conte, and Professors Von Zittel of 
Munich, and Gaudry of Paris. The honorary presidents were 
Professors J. D. Dana and James Hall. The second and third vice 
presidents were Maj. J. W. Powell and Mr. Raphael Pumpelly. 

1891J Editorial. 809 

The discussions as arranged by the committee of management 
had reference, 1st, to the general principles of stratigraphic correla- 
tion ; 2d, to the system of colors for geologic maps ; and 3d, to 
the system of classifications of the Plistocene deposits. The 
necessity for discussion of the principles of correlation was not 
very apparent, since those principles are well known and generally 
adopted. The discussion, however, brought out some considera- 
tion of intercontinental and transcontinental applications of these 
principles, which were entirely appropriate to an international 
congress. Much of the discussion, however, bore on the question 
as stated, and was either inappropriate or local in its bearings. 
The discussion on the classification of the Plistocene was based 
on two systems, one offered by Mr. McGee and the other by- 
President Chamberlin. Both are physical systems, and not histori- 
cal, as was observed by various gentlemen who took part in the 
discussion. They were, however, of universal application, and 
many interesting facts were brought out, especially with reference 
to the existence or not of an interglacial warm climate on both 

The congress was entertained by receptions at the Arlington 
Hotel, the U. S. National Museum, and the private houses ot 
Messrs. Thomas Wilson and S. F. Emmons. Nearly all the 
foreign members took part in the excursion to the Rocky Moun- 
tains, Grand Canyon of the Colorado, and Yellowstone Park, 
which left Washington, September 2d, from which they are 
expected to return about September 25th. Before the meeting of 
the congress many of the members visited the paleontological 
collections at New Haven and Princeton, and during the con- 
gress, the collection of Prof. Cope at Philadelphia. Some interest- 
ing specimens from New Haven were exhibited in the U. S. 
National Museum. 

The congress was overtaken at its opening by a spell of hot 
weather, which constituted a drawback to the enjoyment of some 
of the members. As an educator to the younger American 
geologists it was a successful occasion. We can point out some 
material defects of management which would not have occurred 
had the meeting been held in Philadelphia, as originally intended ; 
but we postpone this for another occasion. 

The American Natiaalist. 

.-On a Collection of Mammals from Southern Texas ai 

necticut. Bull. Geol. Soc. Am., Vol. II., pp. 415-430. From the society. 

Gill, T.— Note on the Aspredinidae.— The Characteristics of the Family o: 
goid Fishes. Ext. U. S. Nat. Mus., Vol. XIII. From the museum. 

the West Coast of Florida, and the Bermuda Islands. Proc. Phila. Acad. Ni 
March, 1891. From the author. 

County. Bull. No. 3, Geol. Surv. Mo. From the author. 

Exts. Bull. Geol. Soc. Am., Vol. I., pp. 163-174, 175-194. From the society. 

Proc. Roy. Soc, Vol. XLIX.-On < crtain Ornithosauria 

Huh \. 4 Geo! >u;v,-s t Mi u I rom the author. 

OSBORN, H. F.— A Review of the Cretaceous Mammalia 
Sci., Phila., January, 1891. From the author. 

Bull. No. 7, U. S. Dept. Agri., Div. Entomol. From the de 

-rom J. M.Rusk,! 
I., pp. 517-593- F! 

RlNGUEBERG, E. N. S.— The Crinoidea of the Lower Niagara Limestone at Lockport 

RUSSELL, I. C— Notes on the Surface Geology of Alaska. Bull. Geol. Soc. Am., Vol 
I., pp. 99-162. From the survey. 

Recent Books and Pamphlets. 8 1 1 

,ort of Hoard of Control of the State Agri. Exp. Station at Am- 

Cat. Proc. Soc. Micros., 1890. From the society. 
Plistocene Period. Ext. Bull. Geol. Am., Vol. I., 1889. 

Summary Report of the Canadian Geological Survey Department for the Year 1890. 

Trotter, Spencer.— Effect of Environment in the Modification of the Bill and Tail 
of Birds. Ext. Proc. Phila. Acad. Nat. Sciences, 1891. From the author. 

Tkol-essart, E.— Extrait de l'Annuaire Geologique Universal. Tome V., Mammi- 
feres. From the author. 

Upham, W.— Glacial Lakes in Canada. Bull. Geol. Soc. Am., Vol. II., pp. 243-276. 

Report of the Exploration of the Glacial Lake Agassiz in Manitoba. Geol. and 

Pre GU M < ontnuntd 1 '. wtinn iml t : .1 Period. Bull. 

Geol. Soc. Am., Vol. I. From the society.— Artesian Wells in North and South Dakota. 
Am. Geo!.. October, 1890. From the author. 

i. Proc. Am. Ass. A<h From the author. 

, C. O.— Some New Facts about Hirudinidae. Reprint from Jour. Mot 

lalton Museum.— N • ■ , a Selachian Fish from the 

ishes. Ext. Geol. Afaj?.. Decade 3. Vol. VI. , 1889. From the author. 


Morris's Aryan Race. 1 — This work opens with a general descrip- 
tion of the races of mankind, and then proceeds to discuss the origin 
of the Aryans, their migrations, and- their history in general. The 
author adopts the view of Latham and others, that their original home 
was Southeastern Russia, and not the highlands of Western Asia. He 
summarizes the evidence, which is largely derived from the Sanscrit 
language. That the original home of the Aryans was not South- 
western Asia is indicated by the fact that that language contains no 
names for the lion and tiger ; that it was not from Northwestern Asia is 
shown by the absence of a name for the camel. The supposition that 
Scandinavia was the land is shown to be incorrect by the fact that 
there is no word for the reindeer, and because the Aryans were a pas- 
toral people, and not dwellers in forests. 

His discussion of the ethnic origin of the Aryans is of course 
speculative. He supposes that the dark-colored tribes which now 
inhabit the more southern latitudes from India to Spain were derived 
by descent from the negro race, while the northern light-colored types 
were derived from the Mongolian. The derivation of the Aryans from 
the Mongolians at a remote and prehistoric period is among the possi- 
bilities, but that the darker forms have a negro origin is scarcely so. 
The origin of both must be traced to prehistoric — say neolithic— man, 
and it may be that the light (Xanthochroic) Aryans really represent 
the race in its pure form, and that the darker races (Melanochroi) 
represent either the primitive neolithic race, or are the product of 
hybridization between it and the Xanthochroi. 

Mr. Morris describes briefly the western migrations of the light 
tribes, the Celts, Teutons, and Slavonians ; and those of the darker 
Pelasgi, Hellenes, etc. ; and later treats of the eastern extension to 
Persia and India, which established the Iranian and Hindoo popula- 
tions. These supposed migrations are illustrated by the descriptions 
of the Gauls and Teutons left us by the Roman authors. 
v The chapters on the religious, philosophical, and poetic achieve- 
ments of the Aryans will instruct the general reader, and the concise 
definitions of the intellectual and moral merits of the race form" a 
scientific index of the line of human progress. The last chapter con- 
tains a brilliant forecast of the increasing greatness and power of this the 
latest and the best product of human evolution. 

1 The Aryan Race : Its Origin and Its Achievements. By Charles Morris. S. S. Griggs 

isgi.j Recent Literature. 813 

The work is necessarily, from its brevity, synoptic in its treatment 
of the subject, and as such is especially adapted to instruct persons 
engaged in active life, whose time for reading is limited. To such 
persons we can recommend the work, as expressing in a brief space 
the results of recent research in a field of the greatest interest to all 
students of mankind or of our own part of it. — E. D. Cope. 

Boulenger on Rhynchocephalia, Testudinata, and Croco- 
dilia. 2 — In this book of 300 pages we have another valuable result of 
the labors of Dr. Boulenger, which will be of great utility to the 
students of the Reptilian orders named. The very full collections at 
the disposal of the author enable him to settle many questions of 
specific characters that have awaited elucidation, and to assign to their 
proper places in the system many forms which have been named. The 
system adopted is clear, and expresses the present state of our knowl- 
edge. For many of its good points the author is indebted to Dr. 
George Baur, whose recent researches in tins field have been of great 
value. Dr. Boulenger has used Dr. Baur's observations with judg- 
ment, attaching values to them in accordance with their merits. We 
think he has undervalued the character of the mutual attachment of 
the plastron and carapace. On the other hand, the peculiarity of the 
nuchal bones has enabled Baur to distinguish the Dermatemydidae 
from the Emydidae. We do not now give as high a rank to the Athecae 
as does Boulenger, nor would we abolish the suborders, as is proposed 
by Baur, but have adopted an intermediate course. 

Dr. Boulenger reaches a remarkable conclusion as to the relations 
of the Trionychidae with broad alveolar surfaces for crushing, to those 
with acute edges of the jaws. He finds that species of India, China, 
and Africa present individuals with both kinds of structure, which are 
otherwise undistinguishable, except by a few correlated characters. 
He thinks that the facts indicate a dimorphism in such species, one 
form being piscivorous and the other conchivorous. He has not found 
any young ind ilveolar surfaces, and sus- 

pects that that modification is acquired by the animal's entering on a 
diet of Mollusca, and that it is maintained by persistence in it through- 
out life. The genus iMutvpcl'j's thus becomes a modification of Trionyx. 
•This is certainly a remarkable proposition, and it ought not to be 
difficult to prove or disprove it by observations on our Trionyx fa-ox, 
the only North American species supposed to present constantly broad 
and flat alveolar surfaces. 

2 Catalogue of the Chelonians, Rhynchocephalians, and Emydosaurians in the British 
Museum By G. A. Boulenger. Published by the trustees, 1889. 

8 14 The American Naturalist. [September, 

The whole number of Testudinata recorded by Dr. Boulenger is 
195. Perhaps there are a dozen species omitted. Of the Crocodilia 
23 species are recognized. — E. D. Cope. 

Frazer's Mineralogical Tables. 3 — The object of Dr. Frazer's 
tables is to enable the students to determine the nature of the most 
important minerals without recourse to blowpipe analysis. As is wail 
known, the first edition was a translation of Dr. Weisbach's "Tabellen." 
In the third edition but little of Weisbach's original descriptions 
remain. Except the plan, the entire contents of the little book are 

production, in which are incorporated many of the most important 
portions of Groth's chemical tables and Weisbach's latest determina- 
tive tables. The arrangement of the tables is briefly as follows : The 
minerals are divided in accordance with luster and streak. These 
groups are printed together, and in columns opposite the names of the 
various members of each group are given their hardness, tenacity, 
crystal system and habit, cleavage, chemical composition, density, 
paragenesis, and a few blowpipe reactions in rare cases. With its aid 
there should be almost no trouble in deciding the name of any com- 
mon mineral. The tables are especially valuable for field determina- 
tions. They are bound flexible cloth, and are of a convenient size 
for carrying in the pocket. — W. L. B. 

s Tables for the Determination of Minerals. By Persifor Frazer. Third edition. 
Philadelphia, J. B. Lippincott Company, 1891, pp. IX., 115. 

Geology and Paleontology. 


Geological Survey of New Jersey, 1890. ] — This annual re- 
port covers the work done under the direction of Mr. I. S. Upson, 
assistant-in-charge under the late Dr. G. H. Cook, and the present 
state geologist, Mr. J. C. Smock. It includes the report of Frank 
L. Nason on the crystalline rocks of the Highlands, and of the mag- 
netic ores of that district: Mr. Coman's notes on (1) the sediments 
overlying the upper marl beds in eastern Monmouth county, (2) evi- 
dences of former shore-lines above the present sea-level, (3) the gravel 
of the Trenton terrace ; Mr. C. C. Vermeule's report on the observa- 
tions of stream-flow and rainfall up to date; a paper from Mr. Lewis 
Woolman describing the artesian wells in the southeastern coast-belts 
of the state; and, finally, an account by G. W. Howell of the 
drainage work inaugurated by the survey and carried on with so 
much success and such beneficial results. 

Mr. Nason's careful examination of the outcrops has resulted in the 
discovery of organic remains in the crystalline limestones, which have 
been referred by Prof. C. E. Beecher to the Cambrian, and below 
the Potsdam sandstone formation, as has been done by Mr. Lewis 
Woolman in Pennsylvania. His ideas concerning the limestones of 
Sussex county are summed up in the following conclusions : 

" First, the white limestones of Sussex and Warren counties are of 
post-Archean age. Second, the white and blue limestones belong to a 
synchronous horizon. Third, this horizon is the horizon of the 
Olenellus fauna." 

The extent of these conclusions is more far-reaching than is at first 
sight apparent. First, it demands that a careful search be made for 
fossils in the whole belt, or rather belts, of limestones, sandstones, 
slates and shales hitherto called and regarded as Potsdam, Trenton, and 
Hudson River. The result may prove the existence of a great horizon 
•of rocks in New Jersey, New York, and Pennsylvania hitherto unsus- 
pected, and may also throw much light on the question as to the posi- 
tion of the Green Pond Mountain rocks. Second, in this belt are 
rocks — limestones, sandstones, slates, iron and zinc ores — in every 

1 Geolo"ical Survey of New Jersey : Annual Report of the State Geologist for the year 

816 The American Naturalist. [September, 

degree of metamorphism. The belt is penetrated by various kinds of 
igneous rocks ; and the petrography and chemistry of rocks and 
minerals in every stage of metamorphism, induced by pressure and 
heat, can be traced out and its history deciphered to its minutest de- 
tails. It is rare to find rocks of known geological age in which such 
favorable conditions exist. The histories thus elaborated can be used 
most advantageously in deciphering other localities whose history is 
written in less legible characters. 

Elevated Sea-Beach on Grand Cayman.— Southeast from 
the Isle of Pines, and distant about two and one-half degrees, lies 
the Grand Cayman Island. Politically it is a dependency of 
Jamaica, from which it is separated about as far as it is from the 
Isle of Pines. • Geographically it seems to be more closely associated 
with Cuba than with Jamaica, in so far as any argument derived 
from the ocean depths around would indicate. The water gradu- 
ally deepens from about three hundred and fifty fathoms at Cape Cruz 
(Cuba) to about eight hundred at Cayman Brae and Little Cayman; 
thence to over one thousand one hundred fathoms as one approaches 
the Grand Cayman. The course from Cape Cruz to the Grand 
Cayman is west by south. The distance is one hundred and forty 
nautical miles ; and as the smaller islands of Cayman Brae and 
Little Cayman lie almost in the line indicated between Cape Cruz 
and Grand Cayman, and as the water deepens north and south of the 
line, one readily recognizes the presence of a submarine ridge stretch- 
ing from Cuba to Grand Cayman, of which these Caymans are them- 
selves merely coral-capped summits. 

The main fact here indicated is the distance, and the depth of ocean 
which surrounds this island of the Grand Cayman ; to the south of it 
two, and even three, thousand fathoms are found. During the past - 
winter I made a brief visit to the southern shore of the Grand Cay- 
man. My attention was called to a sea-beach or wall, fifteen feet above 
the present tide-level. The most casual observer could not fail to 
notice that it indicated the action of the water, and that the materials 
of the beach came from the water. The broken and worn masses of 
coral along this higher shore led to but one conclusion. I immediately 
began speculating on the time required to form that shore-line, and how 
long it took place, etc. The fact is, however,' that the whole thing 
happened in a single day, during one of the fearful hurricanes which 
swept over the island in the earlier part of this century. The testimony 
on this point is quite too direct and positive to admit of any doubt. 


i89i-] Geology and Paleontology. 817 

The vast depth of water to the south of the island, and the long 
unbroken sweep of the ocean in the same direction, prepare one to 
believe anything might be possible when that vast body of water was 
urged on by a tropical hurricane. The illustration shows the hurricane 
beach above and the present line of the water below. (Plate xvm.) 

The most obvious lesson of this special case is a due caution in 
reasoning on shore elevations, unless all the elements of the problem 
are absolutely known. — J. T. Rothrock. 

New Acquisitions to the Eocene Fauna from Southern 
Patagonia.— In a letter dated May 5 th, 189 1 , M. Florentino Ameghino 
informs us of the paleontological researches of his brother, Carlos 
Ameghino, on the borders of the river Gallegos, in Patagonia,— 
whose former researches we have already made known to our readers. 
The new results may be summed up as follows : 

1. The lemurs (Prosimiae) are for the first time found in the Eocene 
of Patagonia. 

2. The discovery of new species of Microbiotheriidae in good con- 
dition«serves to confirm the opinion advanced by M. Ameghino in his 
last work on the Plagiaulacidae. The Microbiotheriidae have multiple 
incisors (four on each side), and so seem to represent the ancestral 
type of the Plagiaulacidae and of the, Diprotodont Marsupials. 

3. The same formation furnished an entirely new group of Plagiaula- 
cidae with multitubercular molar teeth, but with the same dental for- 
mula as the species already known. The last molar is, however, 
entirely rudimentary. These new types connect the Plagiaulacidae of 
Patagonia previously described with the Plagiaulacidae of Europe and 
of North America. {Revue Seientijique, July 4th, 1891.) 

The Progress in Geology for the Years 1 887-1888.— In a 

resume of the geological work done in the years 188 7-1 888, Mr. 
W. J. McGee cites the following as the most important : 

1. The transition from an empiric classification in geology to a nat- 
ural one by processes or by fundamental principles and laws. 

2. The birth of the new geology, which interprets geologic history 
from the records of degradation, as the old geology did from the 
records of deposition. 

3. The invention of a method of determining the depth of earth- 
quake centers and of the velocity of earthquake transmission. 

4. The recognition and definition of a great geologic group,— the 
Algonkian, and also of a subgroup of rocks,— the Lower Cretaceous, 
and the correct determination of the succession of the subordinate 

818 The American Naturalist. [September, 

divisions of the Silurian and Cambrian in the structurally complex 
field east of the Hudson River. (Smithsonian Report for 1888.) 

We fail to see that Mr. McGee sustains the comprehensive claims 
made under the first and second heads. Both departments of geology 
referred to had been fully established prior to 1887 ! 

Fossil Birds from the Equus Beds of Oregon.— In the 
American Naturalist of last April (1891) the present writer invited 
attention to the fact that he had in hand for description a large collec- 
tion of fossil birds from the Upper Pliocene of the Silver Lake region, 
Oregon. A small part of these had been loaned by Professor Condon, 
of the University of Oregon, but the great bulk of the collection 
belonged to the cabinet of Professor Cope, who had with marked 
generosity placed them at my disposal for the aforesaid purpose. 

My labors upon this fine collection have now been completed, and 
the work is ready to be passed into the hands of the printers and 
engravers. The memoir will make a quarto volume of upwards of a 
hundred pages, and is illustrated by four quarto plates, presenting over 
forty figures of the bones of the new species and genera. 

The present notice pretends to be nothing more than a brief 
abstract, giving a list of the species described, with remarks thereon. 

Those indicated by an * have already been either noticed or de- 
scribed elsewhere by Professor Co*pe. 

jEchmopliorus occidentalism 3. Colymbu 

Colymbu s hot bee I Hi. 4 Colymbu 

5 . Podilymbus podiceps. 

10. Larus ph 

1 1 . Xema sabinii. 

12. Sterna elegans ? 
9. Larus oregonus. Sp. nov. 13. Sterna fosteri ? 

1 4. Hydrochelidon nigra surinamensis. 

15. Phalacrocorax macropu!.* 16. Pelecanus erythrorhynchu 

r carolinensis . 

' cyanoptera ? 

9i.] Geology and Paleontology. 

5. Spatula clypeata. 
1. Dafila acuta. 

. Aix sponsa. 

. Aythya ?narila nearctica ? 

29. Branta hypsibati 

30. Branta propinqu 

31. Branta canadens 

7. Glaucionetta islandica. 33. Anser aUrifrms 
i. Clangula hyemalis. 34. Chen hypt rbvrea 

3 5 . Olor paloregonus* 

36. Phccnicoptc 

"us copei. Sp. nov. 

39. Fulica americana* 40. Fulica n 

41. Phalaropus lobatus. 

42. Tympanuchus pa Untie in 
43- Pedioctetes phasianellus 

47- Aquila pliogryps. Sp. nov. 48. Atjuila j 


50. Scolecophagus affinis. Sp. nov. 51. Corvus annectens. Sp. nov. 

Of the fifty-one species here enumerated ten have already been 
noticed by Cope, three of which were described as new, and one of which 
has since proved to be new, — /'. e. , the brant I have described above 
as Branta propinqua. 

Larus robustus is represented by a left coracoid, which is nearly 
perfect. This bone is shorter and stouter than the corresponding 
element in Larus glaucus ; otherwise its characters are almost 
identically the same. Larus robustus was a gull rather smaller than 
L. glaucus, with which it may easily have been closely related. 


Another gull was Lams oregonus, 
science, which was about the size of Lams delawarensis, and its 
existence is based upon two humeri, both from the left side of two 
different individuals. The characters exhibited on the part of these 
bones are distinctly different from those of other gulls of this size. 
Anser condonii is a great extinct goose, vastly larger than our present 
existing Canada goose (P. canadensis). Its remains are represented 
in Professor Cope's collection by a fractured os furcula and the parts 
of two others. These were carefully compared with the furculae of a 
number of our wild geese and swans of the genera Chen, Anser, 
Branta, Dendrocygna, and Olor, and it was found that, upon the 
whole, the majority of its characters agree best with Anser albifrons. 

These characters and comparisons are dwelt upon in detail in my 
forthcoming memoir. I have named this goose after Professor Thomas 
Condon, of the University of Oregon, the first naturalist who discovered 
and collected any of the remains of fossil birds in the Silver Lake 
region of Oregon. A fine series of bones represents the new brant, 
Branta propinqua, — a small goose evidently referred to by Cope as a 
species that came "near nigricans." I propose the above name for 
this now extinct form. 

One of the most interesting discoveries made in the Silver Lake 
region was the fossil remains of a new species of a now extinct 
flamingo, which I have called Phcenicoptems copei, in honor of 
Professor E. D. Cope, who discovered it. I found a number of bones 
belonging to this species in the collection, and a study of them reveals 
the fact that P. copei was a somewhat taller and longer-winged flamingo 
than P. ruber, though at the same time it was probably not quite so stout 
in the body. 

A small heron, to which I have given the name of Ardea palocci- 
dentalis, and a new coot, Fulica minor, smaller than Fulica america?ia, 
were, as will be seen in the list given above, also among the novelties. 
The first-named was a species somewhat larger than A. candtdtssima, 
and smaller than A. egretta, with osteological characters identical with 
existing herons. Osteologically, too, the two coots agree, the species 
differing only in size. 

It will be observed that the Galling were very well represented in the 
avifauna of Western Oregon during the later Tertiary times, and among 
their fossil remains I found three species of them that proved to be new- 
Both of these were closely related to Pediocates phasianellus colum- 
bianus. The larger form, Pedioccetes lucasii, I have named in honor of 
my friend, Mr. F. A. Lucas, in recognition of his published labors in 

Goology and Paleontology. 

P. nanus was smaller I i decidedly smaller than 

P. lucasii. 

Another grouse was /',//,, •, trtrix ■;/////. a rare form apparently, and 
one smaller than a female Centrocercus, but considerably larger than 
the largest forms of Tympanuchus. It was probably related to several 
of the existing species, and may have been in the ancestral line of the 
sage cocks. Its remains exhibit osteological characters that diffen ntiate 
it generically from our present tetraonine types. I have named it in 
honor of Dr. Theodore Gill, the eminent ichthyologist and biologist. 

Two new eagles were also discovered, but their fossil remains were 
not abundant. Aquila pliogryps I believe to have been a large bird, — 
somewhat larger than A. oinysaotos. to which it was apparently related. 

siderably smaller eagle 

the lesser Accipitres were discovered. 

Among the Passeres, I met in the collection with the remains of an 
extinct blackbird, which I have called Scolccophagus affinis, it being 
related to Brewer's blackbird, and probably in those Pliocene times 
resorted in numbers to the vegetal growth of the margins of the lakes. 
Corvus annectens was a raven, smaller in size than any of our present 
ravens, to which it was very closely related. 

It is not my intention here to abstract any part of my " conclusions " 
in reference to the avifauna of the Equus beds of Oregon, as suck 
remarks can well remain until the appearance of the general work upon 
the subject. 

In closing, it gives me pleasure to tender my sincere thanks to 
Professor G.Brown Goode, of the National Museum, for the unlimited 
facilities extended to me in the matter of the loan of the skeletons of 
existing birds from the museum's collections ; also to Mr. Lucas for his 
kindness in getting them to me after my request in that direction had 
been granted. That material, added .to my own collection of bird 
skeletons, was ample for all purposes of comparison, for all the neces- 
sary existing species were at my command.—^. W. Shufeldt, M.D., 
Smithsonian Institution. Washington, D. C 

Geological News.— General.— Mr. L. J. Clark confirms Flem- 
ming's theory that the Island of Toronto is formed of material which 
came originally from the Scarboro' Heights, and that the mechanical 

822 The American Naturalist. [September. 

force which transported the material to its present resting-place was the 

storm action of waves. (Trans. Can. Inst., March, 1891.) The 

most interesting fact developed in the recent surveys of the Pacific 
coast is that the coast-line of Southern California is more abrupt than 
that of any part of the Atlantic or other portion of the Pacific. (Scien. 
Am., ]u\y 25th, 1891.) 

Archean.— Professors Solas and Cole call attention to the streaki- 
ness which characterizes the interlamination of an olivine and coral 
sand-rock, and note its resemblance to eozonal and serpentihous lime- 
stone. (Proceed. Roy. Dublin Soc, 1891, p. 124.) 

Paleozoic— Sir William Dawson has described a new fossil plant, 
Lepidodendron murrayanum, from the Carboniferous rocks of Newfound- 
land. The specimen shows the character of the old stem, branches, 

and leaves. (Bull. Geol. Soc. Am., Vol. II., p. 532). Rev. H. 

Herzer has found in the Upper Helderberg limestone, near Sandusky, 
Ohio, a fossil fragment of an Alga, which has been described by Prof. 
Lesquereux under the name, Halymenites herzerii. The specimen is 
remarkable, and of great value, from the fact that its internal structure 
is so well preserved that its characters are clearly discernible. One or 
two specimens only of that kind are recorded by paleobotanists 

(Proceeds Nat. Mus., Vol. XIII.) Mr. H. M. Ami has contributed 

a paper to the Canadian Record of Science, April, 1891, in which he 
says that it is perhaps premature to state the precise geological hori- 
zon of the strata at Quebec city, but in his opinion they occupy a 
position in the Ordovician system higher than the Lewis formation, 
but lower than the Trenton, and are probably an upward extension of 
Sir Wjlliam Logan's "Quebec Group." This would make them 
about equivalent to the Chazy formation of the New York and Ontario 

Mesozoic— M. Kilian and M. Leenhardt have decided that from 
a stratigraphic'al standpoint the sands of the valley of the Apt, in 
Southeastern France, are Cretacic, and not Tertiary, as has been thought. 

(Bull. No. 16, Tome II., de la Carte Geol. de la France.) Mr. A.J. 

Jukes-Brown and Rev. W. R. Andrews have ; 

Dinton, Eng., that there is a well-developed Upper 

Purbeck series in the vale of Wardoi 

thickness of 70 c 

feet, and this is succeeded by representatives of the Wealden and Vec- 
tian series, which, however, are poorly developed, and taken together 

are less than 100 feet. {Geol. Mag., July, 1891.) Mt. Diablo is an 

isolated peak of the Coast Ranges of California, lying about 27 miles 

1891.] Geology and Paleontology. 823 

east by north of San Francisco. H. W. Turner reports that it consists 
of a central mass of metamorphic rocks. The strata immediately sur- 
rounding the metamorphic mass are, except for a space on the south- 
west, of Cretaceous age. Next to the Cretaceous, going away from the 
mountain in any direction, are Eocene (Tejon) strata, and these are 
followed successively by Miocene, Pliocene, and Plistocene deposits. 
(Bull. Geol. Soc. Am., Vol. II., pp. 385-414.) 

Cenozoic. — M. Deperet has recently published a list of the fauna 
from the different Pliocene beds of Theziers. It contains 302 species, 
and many varieties, of invertebrates, comprising 112 Gastropods, 107 
Lamellibranchs, 3 Pteropods, 5 Brachiopods, 3 Crustaceans, 4 Echino- 
derms, 7 Polyps, and 1 Bryozoan. This is much the most extensive 
that has been given for any single formation of the valley of the Rhone. 

(Bull. No. 6, Tome II., de la la France.) M. Gaudry 

announces the discovery of mastodon remains near Cherichira, in 
Tunis, probably the jaw of M. angtistidens, similar to that of the Mid- 
dle Miocene of Sansan. {Rev. Set., Ju 20th, 1891.) In a recent 

paper (Bull. Wash. Philos. Soc, Vol. XL, pp. 385-410.) on the 
Mohawk beds in Eastern California, Mr. Henry Ward reaches the fol- 
lowing conclusions : " The Mohawk valley is the bed of a Plistocene 
lake caused by the damming up of the cafton of the Feather River 
by a flow of andesitic lava. Glaciers existed contemporaneously 

with the lake." According to R. Ellsworth Call, the Loess of 

Eastern Arkansas is Plistocene ; the gravels and sands, Tertiary ; and 
the lower clays, as indicated by the few fossils found, are Eocene Ter- 
tiary. The Loess about Helena is rich in fossil land-shells, but in 
general the fossiliferous exposures are few. Minerals of economic 
importance are not to be found, nor are the lignites of any importance 
from an economic standpoint. (Ann. Rept. Ark. Geol. Sur., 1889.) 
Recent researches by W. J. McGee have shown that the Appomat- 
tox formation consists of a series of obscurely stratified loams, clays, 
and orange sands, with local accumulations of gravel about waterways. 
It forms a widespread terrane, almost continuous with the Costal Plain 
between the Rappahannock and the Mississippi. No characteristic 
fossils have been found in it, but its stratigraphic position, unconform- 
ably below the Plistocene, and uncomformably above the Miocene, 
indicates an age corresponding roughly with the Pliocene. (Bull. 
Geol. Soc. Am., Vol. I.) 

Petrographical News. — In an argumentative article on the 
individuality of rocks Lang 2 proposes to regard as a rock individual 
the product of a continuous (uninterrupted) rock-forming process. 
Accordingly he would class interbedded clays, sandstones, and con- 
glomerates deposited from the same body of water by a gradual lessening 
of its velocity, as a single rock, With clayey, sandy, and conglomeratic 
facies. In the eruptive group, that is a rock individual which has been 
forced from the depths of the earth by a single earth-throe. The 
beginning and end of a rock-forming process thus marks the limitations 
of a rock individual, even though a second period of similar processes 
should subsequently give rise to a rock of the same nature as that pre- 
viously formed. The ideas discussed in the article are of great interest, 
but the practical advantages to be gained by regarding rocks from the 

point of view of its author are not immediately perceptible. 

Another article of some theoretical interest is Justus Roth's criticism 
of Rosenbusch's 3 recent paper on the chemical nature of eruptive 
rocks. After giving a short historical review of the attempt to explain 
the variation in eruptive rocks upon a chemical basis, the author 4 pro- 
ceeds to examine critically the views set forth by Rosenbusch. In the 
first place, he states that ten of the sixty-three rocks whose analyses are 
quoted by this writer are much altered from their original condition ; 
others are but local in distribution, while of others, again, the analyses 
are incomplete. He further continues by showing that the fundamental 
magmas by whose mixture the various types of rocks are regarded as 
made up, far from giving rise to definite varieties when mingled in 
definite proportions, may themselves consist of different combinations 
of different minerals. He then calls attention to what appear to be 
weak points in Rosenbusch's calculations, and concludes with the state- 
ment that there is not yet sufficient knowledge concerning the chemical 
character of eruptives to warrant the construction of a theory concerning 

their composition. Loewinson-Lessing* has attacked the chemistry of 

the eruptive rocks in a little different way from Rosenbusch. He com- 
pares the relations between the bases and the acid in a rock, and calls . 

1 Edited by Dr. W. S. Bayley, Colby University, Waterville, Maine. 

Mineralogy and Petrography, 825 

those rocks acid that contain an excess of the latter, — ;'. e., more than 
enough to saturate the bases present. This excess shows itself as free 
quartz. Thus it is not the percentage of silica in a rock-mass that carries 
it into the acid, neutral or basic class, but it is the lack or excess of silica 
as compared with the bases. Several empirical formulas represent the au- 
thor's types. They are based on the determined ratio between bases and 
acid in neutral rocks, in which the amount of silica necessary to saturate 
the bases (in percentage) is represented by formula Si0 2 = 2(R 2 0-fRO) 
+ 1^0.,. In neutral rocks this relation exists, consequently the for- 
mula represents the composition of such rocks. The amount of silica 
in basic rocks is represented by Si0 2 = R 2 0+R0-f R,0 S , and in acid 
rocks Si0 2 — 2(R 2 0+RO) + R 2 3 +Quartz,— i. e., the percentage of 
silica in these is greater than twice the sum of the percentages of R 2 () 
and RO, plus R 2 O s , by as much as there is quartz in the rock. The 
author then uses these formulas, with others deduced from them, as a 
basis for the classication of eruptives. His paper is interesting reading, 
and if facts justify his formulas the conclusions reached by the author 

the pressure alteration of basic eruptives have added quite a little to 
our information regarding this phenomenon. Welch 6 has described the 
alteration of diabases into schists in the region of the Soonwalde, in 
the Taunus, on the left side of the Rhine. Well-developed diabases 
exist near Rauenthal. Under the influence of pressure they have given 
rise to schistose rocks containing actinolite, and others in which chlo- 
rite and epodite have replaced the original augite. Other schists, whose 
relationship to diabase can be determined only by a microscopical 
examination, have been called hornblende-sericite-schists, augite- 
schists, and sericite-calc-phyllites. The author has made a careful 
study of all these, which has resulted in their separation into schists 
composed of actinolite and epidote, those containing a blue amphi- 
bole, and finally those made up principally of chlorite. In some of 
these derived rocks augite may still be detected, in others the diabase 
structure is still visible, while in a third class no traces of the original 
constituents nor of their arrangement are recognizable. All show 
evidence of pressure in the shapes of their components and in their 
nature. In the first class the epidote and chlorite have been derived 
from augite. The second class contains, in addition to glaucophane, a 
bluish-green actinolite, sericite, and biotite. Epidote is entirely want- 
ing. The rocks of the third group are combinations of chlorite, 
quartz, sericite, and generally calcite. In each the structure is schis- 

• Zeits. d. deuts. geol. Ges., XLL, 1890, p. 394- 

826 The American Naturalist. [September. 

tose, and the mother-rock was a diabase or a diabase-porphyrite. The 
paper concludes with a discussion of fifteen analyses of the rocks de- 
scribed. Dynamically altered diabase and gabbros (sometimes schis- 
tose) occur also as sheets and dykes cutting altered sediments at St. 
Johnstown and Raphoe, in N. W. Ireland. Among them are epidiorites 
in which, according to Hyland, 7 the hornblende still preserves the 
ophitic structure of the original augite. The original feldspar was 
labradorite, but the changes effected in it have yielded a quartz-feldspar- 
epidote mosaic in which the secondary feldspar is oligoclase. The 


England, are distinctly banded. To account for the phenomenon it 
has been suggested that it is due either to original sedimentation, or to 
the deformation of eruptive rock-masses, or to the injection of rock 
material along planes of weakness in preexisting rocks. Since the 
schists are now known to be eruptive, the first explanation is not avail- 
able. Against the second Somervail 8 brings the following objections, 
viz. : the symmetry of the banded structure, the frequent transitions 
between adjacent bands, and the uniform banding in large masses of 
the same composition. The injection theory is contradicted by the 
absence of irruptive contacts. He accounts for it on the supposition 
that segregations formed during the cooling of the magmas, 
yielding " schieren " that were afterwards squeezed. A green schis- 
tose rock from near Zermatt, in the Pennine Alps, occurs so associated 
with other schists that Bonney 9 is compelled to regard it as a pressure 
schist derived from serpentine. The rock is so very fissile that it may 
be split into sheets one-eighth of an inch thick. Only two essential 
constituents are observed in it, one an olive-green mineral, occurring 
in small translucent flakes with a cleavage like mica and an extinction • 
parallel to this, and the other a chromite or magnetite. The former 
mineral may possibly be antigonite. Associated with this rock are two 
other schists : one, a green schist, is a soft chloride rock, composed 
of chlorite, magnetite, and zoisite (?). The composition of the chlo- 
rite is probably near that of chloritoid. The other schist is full of 
talc. The origin of neither of these could be determined. A 

seen between crystalline and clastic rocks has recently been offered by 
Prof. Pumpelly, 10 who believes that rock disintegration by weathering 

1891.] Mineralogy and Fctrography. 827 

has, in many cases, given rise to thick accumulations of loose material, 
which has subsequently been used in the manufacture of the detrital beds. 
If the new beds were laid down under the influence of gentle currents 
their basal member would contain a large proportion of the material 
of the older rocks, and would thus simulate them to a greater or 
less extent. If this explanation is found to hold good, it will 
obviate the supposed necessity of regarding granite and gneiss as 
derived from fragmental rocks by some form of obscure metamor- 

phism. Rosenbusch " attacks the subject of the origin of the 

schists from a chemical standpoint. He shows by citing analyses that 
some foliated rocks have compositions corresponding to those of mas- 
sive rocks. These he regards as squeezed eruptives. Others are dif- 
ferent in composition from any known eruptive. These he regards as 
dynamically changed sedtfftentaries. The foundation principle under- 
lying the argument is that dynamo-metamorphism affects but little 
chemical change in the material upon which it acts, except such as 
may be brought about by'percolating water. 

Mineralogical News. — The unique mineral tnelanophlogite has 
been made the subject of recent study by Friedel n and by Streng. 13 
The former writer has examined the apparent cubes of the mineral in 
polarized light, and has found them to consist of six tetragonal pyra- 
mids, with their apices turned in and their bases forming the sides of 
the cubes. When heated the substance blackens and finally becomes 
opaque. Its density is 2.030-2.052, and the angle between contiguous 
cubic faces 91 23'. The cubical cleavage reported by Lacroix does 
not exist. Some crystals appear to be simple cubes, while others are 
made up of many individuals, which in their section appear as fibers 
radiating from a center. They owe their form, consequently, not to 
pseudomorphism. They are pseudo-regular. A very careful analysis 
of these crystals yielded a result corresponding to 2oSi0 2 -f S0 3 , with 
small quantities of SrS0 4 and carbon. The crystals are implanted in 
opal. Other crystals, very similar to those described above, are the 
pseudomorphs of quartz described by Mallard. They have not the 
same density as melanophlogite, nor the same optical properties. 
The formation of the latter mineral is ascribed to the action of S( \ on 
quartz. The author also describes fibrous crystals formed by the 
grouping of hexagonal lamellae with most of the properties of the 

828 The American Naturalist. [September, 

tetragonal melanophlogite. Analysis of these gave Si0 2 = 93.2 per 
cent., S0 3 = 5.7 per cent. This substance loses twelve per cent, of 
its weight on heating, while the tetragonal mineral loses six per cent. 
§treng declares that the mineral does not contain sulphuric acid, since 
it yields S0 3 only when treated with an oxidizing agent. Whether the 
sulphur is in the form of free sulphur or of an organic sulphide, could 
not be determined by him. The crystals, according to this author, are 
bounded by ooO*> and 00O2, and are probably pseudomorphs of opal 

and quartz after some unknown mineral. A little more than a year 

ago the nodular rose-red eudialite of Magnet Cove, Arkansas, was 
described by Hidden and Mackintosh. 14 Recently crystals of the sub- 
stance have been investigated by Dr. J. F. Williams. 15 These are tabu- 
lar transparent or translucent rose-colored or crimson bodies traversed 
by cracks in all directions. They are hexag*ial with a : c = 1 : 2. 1174- 
OR, 00P2, R, — y 2 R, — 2R appear on one crystal, and on another 
occur in addition — &R, #R. \R and — ^R 5 . The density varies 
between 2.804 and 2.833, ancl tne double refraction is positive. It is 
one of the youngest of the constituents of the eleolite-syenite in which 
it occurs. The negatively refracting eucolite, of about the same compo- 
sition as eudialite, appears in brownish-yellow crystals in the same rock. 
In it a cleavage parallel to OR is quite pronounced. OR, R, — >^R, 
00 R, and 00P2 bound its crystals. Its specific gravity is 2.6244-2.6630, 

and its hardness 5-5.5. He thinks it may be an altered eudialite. 

The zinc-bearing rhodonite from Franklin and Sterling, N. J., has been 
reinvestigated by Pirsson. 16 The crystals are usually tabular and 
elongated, parallel to oc/p. The new planes 2P35-, 4?^ and 4P' 
were observed. The axial ratios, calculated from the best measure- 
ments obtained, are: a : b : c = 1.078 : 1 : .6263, a = 103 39', 
,S = 108 48' 30", y = 8i° 55'. The cleavage is prismatic, and the 
extinction on the basal plane is 54 from the edge OPaP,. Since the 
crystallographic constants and the extinction of the mineral differ so 
slightly from those of rhodonite, it seems that the morphotropic action 
of the zinc is but slight. Composition : 

SiO, FeO ZnO MnO CaO MgO 
46.06 3.63 7.33 34.28 7.04 1.30 

corresponding to RSiO s . Upon data collected during the course of 

many analyses of uraninite from American and foreign localities, Mr. 

" Amer. Jour. Set., XXXVIII., 1889, p. 494. 
is lb., Dec, 1890, p. 457. 
i«Ib.,XL., Dec, 1890, p. 484. 

i8gi.] Mineralogy and Petrography. 829 

Hillebrand 17 concludes that nitrogen is a constant constituent of the' 
mineral, and in a form different from any hitherto observed in the 
mineral kingdom; that its composition varies widely, and with it 
the physical characteristics ; and, finally, that the composition does not 
correspond with any formula proposed to represent* it. The author 
proposes to continue its study, and asks the aid of mineralogists in 

securing specimens. Excellent transparent crystals of a 

have been obtained by Mr. Penfield 1S from Franklin, Macon county, 
N. C. They are prismatic with soP and 00?^, but no terminations. 
The ratio a: b, based in approximate measurements, is .51375 : 1. 
The cleavage is perfect parallel to the prism and the brachypinacoid,. 
and poor parallel to the macropinacoid, 2V na = 88° 46', with the 
corresponding index of refraction for fi = 1.6353 > a = A, l> = B, 
c = C. The double refraction is negative for green and yellow light, 
and positive for red light. Density = 3.093. The composition is : 
Si0 2 FeO MnO MgO CaO H 2 A1 2 3 Loss at ioo° 
57.98 10.39 .31 2S.69 .20 1.67 63 .12 

m Ma 
obium and tantal 

composition : 

CaO MgO FeO Fe 2 O s (Y.Er.Ta),0 :i (CeLaDi) 2 0, Xb,0, Ta 2 < ) 5 TiO, SiO, 6.16 5.42 .10 4-38 5-°S 44-12-08 

phenacites from Mt. Antero, Col., are communicated by Penfield. 20 The 
crystals occur implanted in granite or on the feldspar and quartz of 
this rock. The beryl probably afforded the beryllium for the other 
two minerals. It occurs in light-green or blue prismatic crystals, 
usually simple combinations of P and OP, but occasionally also 
with 2P2 and ooPf The peculiarity of the crystals is the number of 
depressions observed on various planes. These are pits bounded by 
pyramidal faces, and into them long needles of beryl project. The 
forms on the needles are i 2 Pf, 1.2P2 and 2P. The axial ratio of the 
bertranditc is .5993, instead of .5953, as printed in the author's first 
paper 21 on the mineral. Some of the crystals of phenacite are inter- 

t Cove, 

Ark., proves upon 

and. tl 

herefore, to belong 


Its d 

ensity is 4.18, and 

penetration twins, with the base the twinning plane. Harmotome is 

announced byFerrier 22 as occurring in calcite filling vuggs in veins cut- 
ting the Animikie slates in the vicinity of Rabbit Mountain, Ontario. 
Besides calcite, the minerals associated with the harmotome are 
amethyst, fluorite,' and pyrite. Black tin-bearing rutile crystals, sup- 
posed to be from the Harney Peak district, in the Black Hills, have a. 
density of 5.294. Its composition, according to Headdn eand Pirsson, 23 
is Ti0 2 = 90.79 ; FeO = 8.01 ; Sn0 2 = 1.35. The habit is ortho- 
rhombic, with Poo, 00P00 and P, twinned parallel to 11P00. Tin 

ore has not yet been found in workable deposits in Texas. Most of the 
material from that state reported as being cassiterite is keilhanite, 24 

tourmaline, or black garnet. Analyses of rhodochrosite from 

Franklin Furnace, N. J., yielded Browning, 25 after correcting c 

impurities, the following figures : 

MnO CaO ZnO MgO FeO Fe s O, C0 2 Sp. Gr. 

45-55 "-4i 1.48 1.78 .22 .16 39.40 3.47 

Miscellaneous. — It is a pleas 
Schneider 26 are busy with e\p<-riu 
of problems relating to the constitution of natural silicates. The 
methods employed by them resemble somewhat those that have afforded 
such excellent results in organic chemistry. Silicates are exposed to 
the action of hydrochloric acid gas at high temperatures, and to its 
solution at ordinary temperatures, and the effects in each case are 
noted. They are then ignited and subjected to other reagents, and 
the products here obtained are compared with the results of the former 
experiments. In this way the presence of groups of elements is recog- 
nized that are analogous to the residues of carbon chemistry. The 
conclusion already arrived at by the authors are to the effect of talc is 
an acid metasilicate (Mg 3 H 2 (Si0 3 ) 4 ), and not a basic salt of pyrosilicic 
acid (Mg(Si 2 0.) 2 (MgOH) 2 ) as Groth suggests. Serpentine is thought 
be a substituted orthosilicate corresponding to Mg 2 (Si0 4 ).,H,i M-OII). 
and its relation to olivine and chondrodite are represented as follows: 
Olivine = Mg 4 (Si0 4 ) 2 ; chondrodite = Mg 3 (MgF)(Si0 4 ) 2 ; serpen- 
tine = Mg 1 (MgOH)H,(SiOJ 2 . Chlorite is regarded as R" 2 (Si0 4 ) 2 R' 4 , 
or olivine with half the magnesiem replaced by R', and the fluoriferous 

i8 9 i.] Zoology. 831 

phlogopite ixom Burgess, Ont., as Al(Si0 4 ) s Mg s KH a +Al,(Si0 4 ) s Mg 1 K 

(MgF). Belovvsky 27 finds that green hornblende, when subjected 

for some time to the heat of a bunsen burner, changes its color, the 
character of its pleochroism, the strength of its double refraction, and 
the position of its planes of extinction, and becomes in all respects 
similar to the basaltic variety. Upon the addition of a little sodium 
chloride 28 to a solution of sodium sulphate, the latter salt crystallizes 
upon evaporation as thenardite, and not as mirabilite. A mixi 
potassium and sodium sulphate under the same conditions yield 

glaserite. A few illustrations of regular growth of pyrite crystals are 

given by Smolar. 29 Some of the crystals (all of which are from Pied- 
mont and Elba) are probably interpenetration twins according 
some new law, while others are regular growth only. The authoi 
believes that our knowledge of twinned crystals is still in its infancy, 
and advises many more observations on regular intergrowths before we 
conclude as to the conditions of twinning. Rhombic pyramids 01 
sulphur 30 crystallize from picoline or pyridine saturated with sulphur- 
etted hydrogen. The oolitic iron ores of the Cliniton group in the 

Alleghenies are not cemented concretions, as was supposed, but they 
are pseudomorphs of bryozoons, or of fragments of these. 31 


Sipunculus gouldii. — Dr. E. A. Andrews, in a paper l that should 
have received earlier notice, describes the structure of this common 
east coast Sipunculid. The principal points brought out are the rich 
peripheral nervous system ; the presence of " pseudostomata." in the 
splanchnic epithelium, the function of which remains unsettled ; the 
division of the alimentary tract into several regions, differentiated by 
anatomical and histological peculiarities; the probability that the stomach 
is a sucking organ ; the confirmation of the discovery that the reproduc- 
tive organs were on the posterior surface of the origin of the posterior 
retractor muscles. Andrews thinks that the points which he has 

832 The American Naturalist. [September, 

brought out emphasize the similarities which exist between the Sipun- 
culids and Phoronis. He also thinks that in spite of the absence of 
metamerism there is nothing in the anatomy of the adult which could 
not be explained on the theory of lost segmentation in these worms, 
while he institutes a striking comparison between the gonads of the 
Polychsete placed on the posterior side of a dissepiment and those of 
Sipunculus attached to the posterior surface of the pharyngeal retractors. 

Sipunculus nudus.— H. B. Ward describes 2 the anatomy and 
histology of this Mediterranean form. The material at command 
embraced only the anterior portions of the body, so no study was 
made of many features worked out by Andrews. The histology of the 
body-wall and of the nervous system receive most attention. Among 
the many points brought out, the most interesting is the existence of a 
" cerebral organ," consisting of a canal- opening to the exterior in the 
dorsal median line, and connecting posteriorly with an area in close 
connection with the brain, which the author is inclined to regard as 
sensory, and to homologize with similarly situated organs in Phymo- 
soraa and Sipunculus gouldii. The general accounts of structure given 
by Andrews and Ward agree well in broader features, but differ con- 
siderably in detail. From the evidence afforded by the nervous sys- 
tem Ward is inclined to the view that there is only a remote relation- 
ship between Sipunculus and the Annelids. 

The Eye in Blind Crayfishes.— G. H. Parker has studied 3 the 
eyes in Cambarus setosus and C. pellucidus. In both species the optic 
ganglion and optic nerve are present, the latter terminating in the hypo- 
dermis. In C. setosus the retina has almost completely degenerated, while 
in C. pellucidus it is represented, by a thicker portion of the hypodermis 
with scattered multinuclear granulated bodies. These Parker regards as 
degenerated clusters of cone cells. Thus Cambarus setosus from the 
caves of Missouri has gone farther in the line of ophthalmic degenera- 
tion than its ally from the caves of Kentucky and Indiana. 

" The Compound Eye of Crustaceans " is the title of a larger 
paper 4 by the same author. He gathers together all that is known, 
adding much himself in the endeavor to solve certain problems sur- 
rounding these organs. The retina of the compound eye is composed 
of a number of similar units or ommatidia, but the structure of the 
ommatidium varies considerably in different groups. One question 

i89i.] Zoology. 833 

which Parker asks is: " What are the means by which ommatidial types 
are modified, and what is the significance of the changes through 
which these types pass? " The argument of the present paper is that 
the ommatidia composed of four cells are more primitive than those 
containing many cells, and to show how cell-division can have caused 
the modifications and what other factors may be concerned. 

Parker recognizes three types of compound eye so far as retinal 
structure is concerned: L, represented by Decapods, Schizopods, Sto- 
matopods, Isopods, Leptostra, and Branchiopodidae of the Phyllopods, 
has the retina a simple thickening in the superficial ectoderm ; II., in 
Apodidae, Estheridae, and Cladocera, the retina does not retain a 
superficial position, but becomes covered by a fold of the integrement, 
the pocket remaining open in some and closed in others; III., in 
Amphipods, and possibly Copepods, the retina is completely separated 
from the hypodermis, not by an infolding, as in the second type, but 
by delamination. Of this the author is not certain from actual obser- 
vation, but he gives a number of facts which warrant his conclusion. 
Types II. and III. pass through a stage comparable to type I., and 
hence maybe regarded as derivatives from it. 

Detailed descriptions of the structure of the ommatidia in various 
forms are given and illustrated by numerous figures. Continuing bis 
work with that of his predecessors Parker tabulates the ommatidia of 
the different Curstacea in a manner which conveys at a glance the 
difference between them so far as numbers of cells are concerned. In 
an ommatidium going from the surface to the optic nerve there are 
present (1) the cells of the corneal hypodermis which secrete the 
cornea; (2) the cone cells, varying in number from two to five, one 
function of which is to form the crystalline cone ; (3) the retinular cells, 
which may be either undifferentiated or divided into two groups, 
proximal and distal, the total number varying between three and 
nine; and (4) accessory pigment, cells which are either of ectodermal 
or mesodermal origin, all of the rest of the eye being clearly ecto- 

All compound eyes of the Crustacea are thus clearly built upon a 
common plan, and the variations between them are traced to (1) the 
differentiation of cells, (2) the suppression of cells, and (3) probably to 
multiplication of cells by division, although this last has not been 
demonstrated by observation. 

Parker traces the origin of the ommatidium to such structures as are 
seen in the Chaetopod Nais, where there is an eye composed of a few 
large transparent cells, the distal portions of which are in part covered 

834 The American Naturalist. [September, 

by pigment cells. The transparent cells are the forerunners of the cone 
cells, while the pigment cells represent an as yet undifferentiated 
retinular region. This view is clearly opposed to that of Watasi, 
already noticed in our pages, by which each ommatidium is regarded 
as an involution of ectodermal cells, the members of which may still 
retain their power of secreting cuticular structures. The ommatidium, 
on the contrary, is a differentiated cluster of cells in a continuous 
unfolded epithelium. Patten's view that the ommatidium is a hair- 
bearing sense-bud receives no confirmation in Parker's studies. 

Eyes in Arcturus. — Beddard describes 5 the eyes in deep and 
shallow-water species of Arcturus. He finds that some at least of the 
deep-sea forms show evidences of degeneration in the visual apparatus. 
Thus in three species he finds the conical lens showing signs of becom- 
ing opaque, while in three others there is alteration of size and curva- 
ture. In several others the rhabdom affords similar evidence, while in 
many deep-sea forms the decrease in amount of pigment is also regarded 
as an indication of degeneracy. 

The Northern Limits of the Scorpions. — During a recent 
collecting trip to the Bad Lands of the Hot Creek Valley, in the 
extreme northwestern corner of Nebraska, Mr. F. C. Kenyon, a mem- 
ber of the party, found a living scorpion (Buthus sp.). This is, so 
far as I am aware, some three hundred miles further north than any 
member of the group has ever been found east of the Rocky Moun- 
tains. West of the mountains, I am informed by Mr. Henshaw, they 
extend north to Oregon and Washington. — J. S. Kingsley. 

Glands in Orthoptera.— H. Garman describes, in the current 
volume of Psyche, peculiar glandular structures borne between the 
ninth and tenth terga of the abdomen of the cave cricket. Their 
function is unknown ; but the author points out the fact that scent 
glands occur in the females of certain Bombycids. Apparently he is 
not familiar with the recent literature of abdominal glands in the 

Notes on Tunicates.— Herdman thinks 6 that the usual divisions 
of the Tunicates, while convenient, do not express the true relation- 
ships of these forms. According to him, the Synascidiae are in reality a 
polyphyletic group, the members of which touch the Ascidias simplices 
at various points. Hence a strictly phylogenetic classification will 

5 Proc. Zool. Socy. London, 1890, p. 365, pi. XXXI. 

i8 9 i.] Zoology. 835 

ignore the Ascidiae Compositae of our text-books, although the division 
may be retained for convenience. 

Walter Garstang 7 gives the first part of a review of the Tunicata of 
Plymouth, England. Species of the families Clavellinidae, Peropho- 
ridae, and Diazonidaa are enumerated and described at length. 
Pycnoclavella is a new genus. 

W.A. Herdman promises a monograph of the British Tunicates. 

The Affinities of Polypterus.— H. B. Pollard has studied some 
points in the structure of Polypterus which, he thinks, 8 throw light 
upon the relationships of this form. The ear, except in lacking the 
ductus endolymphaticus, is distinctly Urodele in its character, as is 
shown by the immense sacculus, which reaches the level with the semi- 
circular canals, and by proximal division of the auditory nerve. The 
so-called opisthotic corresponds to the Urodele petrosum ; the opthal- 
micus profundus and superficialis pass through a foramen into the 
nasal capsule ; the supracranial fontanelle is partially roofed over by 
cartilage; the "paired vomer" is really dermopalatine, and corre- 
sponds to the so-called vomer of the Batrachia. The jaw muscles corre- 
spond to the Batrachian rather than the Teleostome type, while the 
nervous system corresponds almost to detail with that of larval Sala- 
mandra. The conclusion to be drawn from these facts is that the 
ancestry of the Urodeles must be sought in Crossopterpgians. Turn- 
ing now to the affinities of the other piscine forms, Pollard promises to 
show homologies of Polypterus with the Stegocephali, while the posi- 
tion of the Dipnoi and Holocephali must be different from that usually 
accorded them. Chimaera, etc., are Dipnoan forms which have lost 
their dermal bones, and are retrograded in some respects toward the 
Selachian type. If the Dipnoan forms are to be regarded as ancestors of 
the Batrachia, we should expect to find in the larval Urodeles the 
same relations of quadrate and palatines to the cranium, but such 
is not the case. In the young Cryptobranchus the quadrate has nearly 
the same relationships as in Polypterus. The suprapharyngobranchial I. 
articulates with the auditory capsule, and from it the author traces the 
origin of the Urodele stapes. This paper is a sample of the errors into 
which it is easy to fall in ignorance of the facts of paleontology. 

The Pineal Organ of Ichthyophis and Protopterus — 
Burckhardt thinks 9 that all previous authors have mistaken an arterial 

836 The American Naturalist. [September, 

plexus for the pineal organ in these forms. In Ichthyophis, on account 
of the enormous folding of the arterial plexus the roof of the thalam- 
encephalon is completely covered. It falls into an anterior wall, 
embraces the ganglia habenuloe on either side, and a posterior wall 
between the posterior and superior commissures. At the spot where 
these swellings meet is a small pear-shaped vesicle, which extends into 
the space between the hinder part of the arterial plexus and the roof of 
the thalamus. Development shows that this is the pineal organ. In 
Protopterus the pineal organ is a small, irregular sac, which extends 
directly upwards from the boundary between the mid- and twixt-brains 
into the abundant connective tissue of that organ. Burckhardt has 
not yet traced its lumen into connection with. the third ventricle. 

Foetal Period of the Seal. — Grieg has studied the period of 
pregnancy of Phoccena communis.™ He analyses the known literature, 
and finds great diversity of opinion. He then studies thirty-five 
embryos, with dates of capture of the mother, and comes to the con- 
clusion that the period is about nine or ten months. According to the 
Norwegian fishermen, copulation takes place usually in July and Aug- 
ust ; but he finds that the breeding season may extend, according to 
locality, from July to October, and the young are born from March to 
June. At the time of birth the young measure from 700 to 860 milli- 
meters, and may reach a length of 880 millimeters. 

Extent of the South American Fresh-Water Fish 
Fauna.— There are more fresh-water fishes in the neotropical than in 
any other region. A comparison made by Carl and Rosa Eigenmann 
of the latest lists of European and North American fresh-water fishes, 
with a list of the South American species, shows the extent of the South 
American fauna. In summing up the species they find 126 European, 
587 North American, and 1,147 South American species. (Proceeds. 
U. S. Nat. Mus., Vol. XIV., pp. 1-81.) 

The Chromididse of the Fresh Waters of Madagascar.— 

One of the most interesting peculiarities of the fresh-water fish fauna 
of Madagascar is the presence of the Chromididas, coincident with the 
absence of the Cyprinidse and the Characinidae, although these two 
groups are found in Africa, and the great, paucity of Siluridaj, so that 
the Chromididae are, so to speak, the only fresh-water fishes of this 
large island. 

At the present time the Chromididse are a family of South America 
and of Mexico, 230 species out of 260 having been described from 
that region. 

»7«fl Zeitschr., XXV.. 544, 1891. 

mididae are to-day repre.-enu-d in Madaga>rar by nine serie- belonging 
to four genera, the affinities of which are as follows: 

The Paretroplus are distinguished from the Hemichromis, which 
belong to Africa and to Asia Minor, by a greater number of anal spines. 
The Paretroplus belong to an African type. 

If the Paratilapia have certain affinities with the Hemichromis, they 
are still more closely allied to the Acara, from which they are distin- 
guished only by the indentations of the bony projections of the external 
branchial arch ; but the Acara belong to tropical South America. 

The Paracara also have close affinities with the Acara. 

As to the Ptychochromis, Steindacher has shown that they are 
separated from the Chromis by the presence of a lemelliform, com- 
pressed projection from the upper part of the first branchial arch. 
This character is found in the genus Geophagus, from South America. 

The genera of the Chromididae peculiar to South America have 
ctenoid scales, while those of Africa and Western Asia have cycloid. 
Among the of Madagascar, the Paretroplus, we may say, 
belong to the African' type, as they have cycloid scales. All the other 
Chromididae of Madagascar have ctenoid scales. Thus the Chromididae 
of Madagascar are more closely related to the fresh-water species of 
tropical South America than to the African species. 

From a study of the herpetological and ichthyological fauna of the 
fresh waters of Madagascar, it appears that this island, Southern 
Africa, and South America formed in a pre-Tertiary epoch, parts of the 
same continent, which had a fauna of the same origin and charac- 
ter. While South America and Africa have received since the Pliocene 
epoch invasions of animals of another creation, Madagascar has had, 
on the contrary, no connection since that epoch with any other land, 
and presents to-day the same fresh-water fish fauna as it did in the 
Middle Tertiary, without any addition save that of the Carassius 
recently introduced. The division between Madagascar and Southern 
Africa must have happened before the commencement of the Miocene, 
for neither Cyprinidae or Characinidae are found in Madagascar. Com- 
munication must have lasted for a much longer time between South 
America and the South of Africa, which, toward the Pliocene epoch, had 
received an influx of Characins ; whilst the Cyprins, introduced into 
Africa from the European continent, or rather from the South Asiatic, 
had hardly penetrated South America. (Dr. H. E. Sauvage, Bull. Soc 
Zool. de France, iSqi, p. ioo.) 


Notes on the Development of Engystoma. — This interesting 
Batrachian occurs in the Piedmont section of North Carolina, near 
Littleton, and within twelve miles of the southern boundary of 
Virginia. Its presence after a ram may be discovered- by its peculiarly 
plaintive note. Oviposition seems to occur in the evening and during 
cloudy afternoons. It is now late in July, yet two lots of ova have 
been found by me which had been very recently deposited by the 
parent female " frog-toad," as it is known here amongst the natives. 
The eggs are heavily pigmented at the upper or animal pole, being 
darker than the eggs of Rana, and also considerably smaller. They 
are laid in strings, but so coiled as to form a nearly complete single 
layer over a considerable surface of water. The gelatinous coating, as 
in Rana, spreads out under the surface of the water, where by its 
adhesion to the layer of molecules at the surface a certain amount of 
support is thus gained for the eggs. It is therefore evident that surface 
tension is an important agent in keeping the eggs of this genus, and 
those of Rana, at the surface of the water. Other genera, such as 
Bufo, do not have the eggs supported on the surface, but are laid in 
strings formed of one row of eggs, wrapped in a gelatinous cord which 
lies on the bottom of the pond in which oviposition occurs. Still 
other forms have the eggs glued together in large masses and supported 
upon water weeds; this is notably the case with some Urodeles, 
such as Amblystoma. 

The development of the eggs of Engystoma is rapid ; three days 
after deposit the larvae escape from the egg-envelopes. Throughout 
the course of development there is well-marked evidence of geotrop- 
ism, or of the action of gravity in maintaining the equilibrium of the 
egg. The animal or black pole remains uppermost, the heavier or 
light-colored vegetative pole remains lowermost ; the whole egg is thus 
maintained in a position of static equilibrium with the earth's center. 
There seems to be no tendency to rotate the egg through ciliary action, 
previous to the closure of the medullary folds. That cilia are entirely 
absent on the eggs of Engystoma is proved by the fact that at the 
time the medullary groove is still open every egg of the same age is 
in exactly the same position in respect to the center of the earth, and 
remains so for a long time, or until the tail fold is well developed and 
the medullary groove has been closed. Before the closure of the 

1 89 1 . ] Embryology. 8 3 9 

medullary groove, but after the egg has begun to elongate and the 
paired, secretory, adhesive surfaces of the under side of the head have 
appeared as rudiments, the position of the animal and vegetative poles, 
is still the same as in the undeveloped ovum. The head end of the 
egg is slightly elevated above the caudal end. This is due to the for- 
ward growth of the head, and the retention of the heavier yolk, farther 
backward under the posterior half of the medullary groove. The medul- 
lary groove thus comes to be inclined downward a few degrees from 
the head toward the tail, but the groove looks exactly toward the 
zenith, while the yolk looks downward in every egg, even the inclina- 
tion of the medullary groove with respect to the horizon being the 
same for every egg of the same age. 

At this stage I neglected to note an extremely important fact, — viz., 
whether the cephalic and caudal poles of the same row of eggs were all 
of them lying in the same direction. The fact that no change of 
position occurs for a long time in the eggs of Engystoma would indi- 
cate that possibly we might find that the future cephalic pole of the 
egg bore a constant relation to the cephalic pole of the parent Engys- 
toma, such as is known to be the case in Batrachus tau. Such relations 
between parent and offspring exist to a marked degree, if they are not 

same rule holds with respect to animals. According to what has pre- 
ceded, the early development of Engystoma is peculiarly favorable for 
the purpose of testing the theory that the cephalic and caudal polari- 
ties of the parent are transmitted directly to the offspring, or that the 
future long axis of the embryo already conforms, even in the egg, to 
that of the parent. 

The next step in the development of Engystoma is somewhat simi- 
lar to that of Rana.* As soon as the larvae have the tail-fold well 
developed they turn over and lie on the side, curved upon themselves, 
within ^he egg-envelope. This is the condition of the eggs on the 
second and early part of the third day. On the third day the larvae 
leave the egg, and then tend to fall upon the bottom of the pool or 
receptacle in which hatching occurs. Soon after this they begin to 
swim about actively, and, singularly enough, instead of swimming like 
a fish, for some reason, which it is difficult to make out, the larvae 
revolve on their own long axes. This singular mode of locomotion is 
probably due to the peculiar manner in which the tail is vibrated. This 
mode of swimming lasts about a day, after which the larvae begin to 
swim in the usual fish-like way. At this stage, when the larvae come 

840 The American Naturalist. [September', 

when quiescent the axis of the body, when in a condition of equilib- 
rium, assumes an angle of about eighty degrees with the surface. 
The adhesive organs near the mouth now become functional. Up to 
this time the light area on the yolk is prominent, and enables one to 
watch the singular rotation of the larvae. The head now begins to 
widen rapidly, and the light area on the belly becomes darker. The 
tail-fold soon becomes very thin, and bordered all round by a delicate 
edging of black pigment. The larvae cease to rotate on the fourth 
day, and no longer take up their angular position at the surface of the 
water, and now behave very much like the larvae of Rana. They are 
now very heavily pigmented over the whole of the body ; the light 
area over the space where the yolk was formerly placed has disap- 
peared, and the larvae are now black as seen from above. — J- A. Ryder. 


The International Congress of Anthropology and Pre- 
historic Archeology of Paris. {Continued from page 768, .) 

Seventh Question: "Ethnographic Survivals Which Can Throw 
Light Upon the Social State of the Primitive Population of Central or 
Western Europe." 

M. Hassler, of l'Assomption, opened the discussion of this question 
with a general presentation of the subject. 

M. Lumholtz, of Christiania, Norway, gave a long and interesting 
description of his four years' residence in Australia. 

M. Glaumont, of Bourail, presented the result of his studies of the 
usages, customs, and manners of the neo-Caledonians. M. Glaumont 
presented a series of fetiches which were used by the people. 

Signor Belucci, of Perugia, presented a catalogue of his grand col- 
lection of amulets displayed at the exposition. 

Dr. Hamy recalled a discussion which had taken place at the Society 
of Anthropology upon the subject of the savages of Mariannais, whom 
it was sought to prove were men living in ignorance of the use of fire ; 
but Dr. Hamy presented a large fragment of pottery which had very 
evidently been made by fire and subjected to its use in cooking or 

M. Chily Naranjo, from the Canary Islands, recalled the conclusions 
which had been presented to the congress of 1878 by M. Verneau 

» Edited by Dr. Thomas Wilson, Smithsonian Institution. 

1891.I Archeology and Ethnology. 841 

upon the subject of anthropology of the Canary Islands. He ranged 
himself on the side of M. Verneau in the belief that the Guanche 
population of these islands at the moment of their discovery were of 
the race of Cro-Magnon, and had come to a slight degree of higher 

M. de Zmigrodski, of Cracow, presented a large chart of the 
objects which had been exposed at the exposition, containing the 
designs of more than 300 objects on which were the sign of the 
svastika, or ancient cross. He divided these into five parts : Asia 
Minor and its influences, the Greco-Roman epoch, Christian epoch, 
the prehistoric in Europe, and the contemporaneous of the nineteenth 
century. Several members expressed doubt as to the conclusions of 
this gentleman. 

M. Dumoutier presented to the congress the costume of a woman of 
Muong, of Western Tonkin, which was ornamented with svastikas. 

Mr. Jammes, of Realmont (Tarn), had spent many years in 
Cambodia, and had made many and extensive excavations in his 
search for evidences of prehistoric man in that country. He pre- 
sented many of the objects which he had found and brought 
back. The collection was purchased by me for the United States 
National Museum ; and these objects, with the locality whence they 
came, were described by me in the Naturalist for March, 1890, p. 286. 

M. Belucci announced the discovery of a number of flints chipped 
by intention. The discovery was made by MM. Cuchi and Biauchi, 
Italian travelers, in a locality named Denghis, in a high valley of the 
Abai Abyssinia. These chipped flints were in every way comparable 
to those of the prehistoric ages of Europe. 

Eighth Question : "To What Extent do Archeologic or Ethnographic 
Analogies Sustain the Hypothesis of Relations or Migrations Among 
Prehistoric Peoples?" 

M. Ernst, of Caracas, opened the discussion by a memoir on the 
ancient inhabitants of Merida, in Venezuela. The author occupied 
himself especially with small vases in the form of cuvettes, with legs, 
the extremities of which were joined between themselves by transverse 
pieces which formed a square, with angles more or less round or 
occasionally a circle. M. Ernst described three known types of these 
vases, their ornaments in relief, their colored designs, and gave 
reasons for the belief that these were objects of luxury, possibly of 
religion or cult. The distribution of the original type in Vene- 
zuela, in Costa Rica, and possibly in the countries of New Grenada 

842 The American Naturalist. [September, 

and Chiriqui, appears to assign to these ancient populations a com- 
munity of origin. 

Their language seems to confirm these ideas. The currents of the 
dispersion of this human family should have taken rise in the center of 
South America, from which they were directed from the north and the 

M. Verissimo, of Para, said: "There are two Indian families in 
juxtaposition in Brazil. One of these is the Tupi Guaranis, who speak 
the lingoa gcral ; the other is that of the Tapouis, — that is to say, the 
barbarians, to which belonged, possibly, the men of Sambaquis." 

The pottery discovered in the Isle of Marajo, at the mouth of the 
Amazon, and of which M. Verissimo presented a remarkable speci- 
men, appeared to indicate other affinities than those from the north. 
The prehistoric men of Marajo had probably come from Central 
America, and followed the coast of the Atlantic. Among the dis- 
coveries which tend to confirm this hypothesis, M. Verissimo cites the 
implements of wrought jade which were met with in Brazil, and of 
which he presented a specimen sculptured in the form of a batrachian 
or frog. 

M. Hamy observed that the figure of the object presented by M. 
Verissimo was sufficient to justify the supposition of a northern or 
western origin, as had been attributed to it by Verissimo,— that is, in 
the Antilles on the one part, in the Cundinamarcaand Central America 
on the other, where abound those representations of the frog which 
have a role so important in the mythologic iconography of Central 
America. The representations of the frog in the New World author- 
izes the formula adopted by this question, "The Hypothesis of Pre- 
historic Migrations." 

M. L. Netto, of Rio Janeiro, had some words to say upon the com- 
munication of M. Verissimo, upon the Sambaquis or shell-heaps of 
Brazil, and presented a number of objects found during their excava- 
tion, and particularly a grand fetich of the form of a fish, others ot 
mortars in the form of fishes and birds, which could be nothing else 
than the work of actual savages. As to the question of the expansion 
of jade or jadeite in South America, M. Netto was of the opinion that 
it is a phenomenon that has not yet been satisfactorily explained. 

Baron de Baye recalled and recited the theory adopted by Professor 
Putnam as to the Asiatic origin of the mineral of which these objects 
were made in Central America. 

Dr. Gosse, of Geneva, was of the opinion that the question now 
under discussion was not more advanced in America than in Europe, 

1 89r.] Archeology and Ethnology. 843 

and that the origin of these hard stones employed in Europe during 
the age of polished stone is as yet undecided and much to be discussed. 
Mr. Thomas Wilson described how the nephrite implements were 
used in Alaska, and how the mineral of which they had been made had 
been found by Sir George Dawson, in the form of smooth and worn 
pebbles, in the valleys of the Lewis, the Kowak, and the Yukon rivet*. 
He said that Dr. Gosse was right to advise us to wait for further infor- 
mation. The elements of jadeite and nephrite were quite common- 
Mr. George F. Kunz, of New York, presented to the congress a 
votive hatchet in jadeite, beautifully sculptured, of extremely large 
dimensions, from Canada. It was his opinion that this mineral came 
from the southern part of Mexico ; but the Mexicans of modern times 
had never yet discovered its origin. It might be perhaps upon the 
summit of some mountain. He continued by giving a description of 
several new minerals, similar to jadeite, which had been used in America 
for such implements, and have been identified by Professor F. W. 
Clarke as pectolite, wollastonite, pagolite, and agalmatolite. Imple- 
ments made of these minerals have been found in divers portions of 
the United States of America, and therefore there was nothing curious 
or wonderful in finding the origin of the jadeite and nephrite in that 

M. Netto presented a portrait of a woman of the tribe of Indians of 
Boticude, and with it gave a description of what was called the botoque, 
which much resembles, if it was not actually, a labret ; and he said 
that many American people used it in distant portions of the country. 
In this he was supported by Dr. Hamy, who presented several curious 
specimens from his museum of ethnography, and especially those from 
the northwest coast of America. Both Dr. Hamy and M. Netto were, 
however, in doubt whether these objects would show a relationship 
between two peoples so widely separated. 

Mr. Thomas Wilson instituted a parallel between the paleolithic 
that in Europe. This period has been 

other,— the Delaware, the Miami, a 
Rivers. He described these localit 
tions in which the pale. 
them and paleolithic implements ii 

844 The American Naturalist. [September, 

between them was principally that of material, and this was in some 
cases much the same; for argillite implements were found at Trenton, 
while the quartzite implements of Piney Branch would comptre in all 
respects with those found by MM. d'Ahemar, Noulet, and Cartailhac in 
the valley of the Garonne. Mr. Wilson continued his discourse at 
some length by the comparison of the neolithic types from America 
with those of Europe. Many of both kinds were shown, some by the 
original and others by photographs and drawings. 

M. Verneau discovered in the islands of the Canaries the polished 
stone hatchets of which the material, form, and work recalled those 
which were found in the Antilles, and, above all, at Porto Rico. There 
were other things of the same order which showed analogies, particu- 
larly the pintaderas of the Canaries, with the imprints of the ancient 

M. Cartailhac gave a resume of the researches which he had just 
terminated upon the prehistoric archeology of the Balearic Isles, and 
proved that all the affinities of the archipelago were with the south. 
He had not found a trace of the age of stone, and the grand monu- 
ments had an African aspect or appearance. 

M. Tardy dilated upon the beginnings of civilization in Algeria, and 
the synchronisms of the first stages of the earlier ages of humanity in 
Africa and in Europe. 

M. Belucci presented a note upon the relations between the central 
and southern portions of Italy at the epoch of the polished stone. 
These relations are established not only by the obsidian of Lapiri, which 
came from Central Italy, but also by the particular forms of arrow- 
heads, and by the scrapers and knives of a variety of flint which had 
its origin in the southern provinces; finally by the polished stone 
hatchets of the form bombe, which were common in Southern Italy, 
and which were met, though rarely, in Central Italy. 

M. Adrien de Mortillet communicated a summary of the results of a 
mission which had been confided to him by the Commission of Mega- 
lithic Monuments: to study the monuments of the same nature in 
Algeria, and to compare them with those of France. 

M. Hamy did not agree with these conclusions, and he commended 
conservatism in our opinions, and advised us to guard against generali- 
zations in regard to prehistoric monuments of countries which, though 
neighbors, yet offer from the archeologic point of view such profound 


Note on the Evolution of the Upright Tail in the Do- 
mestic Dog. — My attention has recently been called to the work on 
" Organic Evolution " by Professor Eimer, page 114, to a paragraph 
in which he seems unable to account for the dogs in Constantinople 
carrying the tail upright. In speaking of the subject he says : "Bat 
the reason why these dogs begin to erect the tail and carry it upright, 
while the ancestral jackal, like the wolf, carries it hanging down, is 
not so easy to discover, although the fact could scarcely be explained 
as a case of adaptation." I beg to offer a provisional explanation of 
this phenomenon, and also to take exception to the latter statement, 
—that it cannot be explained as a case of adaptation. While my ob- 
servations were not made at Constantinople, the dogs accompanying 
the several tribes of Indians I observed in the Western United 
States, 1 some of which arc tamed wolves, or are directly descended 
from the wild American wolf known as the coyote, offer opportunities 
of study which brought me to a realization of this subject, which may 
be summed up in a few epitomized remarks. 

As the dog becomes domesticated it is prone to use the tail as an 
organ of expressing mental states, especially those of emotion ■ for 
example, the wag of the tail expressive of delight, or sudden dropping 
of the tail between the legs at some disappointment or fright. The 
ancestral or wild wolf carries the tail hanging down, because that 
position (the tail being especially bushy and large in the wild animal) 
would be less conspicuous and more compatible with life in a free 
state of nature, or, as it were, to better elude detection. A family 
of wolves playing together undisturbed occasionally carry their tails 
curled upwards. By degrees the tail acquires naturally the upright 
position as a result of coincident evolution of the mind of the wolf 
incidental to domestication, and moreover thus instancing the slow 
adaptation of the appendage as an organ of expression. The cessation 
of 'natural selection in the domestic dog would give to the tail greater 
freedom of motion without detriment to life ; and artificial selection 
perfects the caudal appendage into many diverse shapes. Still greater 
influence is exerted by certain expressions of the mind by that appen- 
dage, tending to keep it up, and by the influence of heredity, trans- 
mitting those tendencies. The muscles correctively become strength- 
ened and developed, and the erect position ultimately passes into an 
apparently fixed character in some varieties of the dog.— Dr. Joseph 
L. Hancock, July 10th, 1891. 


Fixation of the Methylenblue Stain.— In the last number of 
the Zeitschrift fiir Wissenschaftliche Mikroskopie (Vol. VIII., 1,1891, 
p. 15), Prof. Dogiel offers some new points on the use of methylen- 
blue in staining nerves. 2 

Nerves exposed to the direct action of methylenblue often stain so 
intensely that they appear dark blue, almost black. Such preparations 
should lie in the fixing medium (saturated aqueous solution of picrate 
of ammonium) twenty-four hours or more, otherwise the color fades 
quickly after transfer to glycerine. Long exposure to sunlight causes 
the stain to fade. 

The fixing medium often macerates, loosening the epidermis and 
rendering difficult the investigation of intra-epithelial nerves. The 
macerating effects may be checked by adding osmic acid (1-2 cc. of a 1 
per cent, solution to 100 cc. of the fixing fluid). This mixture pre- 
serves the tissue, and at the same time blackens the medullary sheaths 
of the nerve-fibers. As the axis cylinders stain dark violet, it becomes 
easy to distinguish medullated from non-medullated fibers. The prep- 
arations are mounted in dilute glycerine. 

If the tissues are to be prepared for sectioning, a stronger per cent, 
of osmic is added (1-2 cc. of a 1 per cent, solution to 25-30 cc. of 
picrate of ammonium). The preparation lies in this fluid twenty-four 
hours, and is then cut in liver or pith, or with the freezing microtome. 

Biedermann 3 recommends as a fixative in the case of invertebrates 
the following mixture : 

Saturated aqueous solution of picrate of ammonium . . . . 1 vol. 

Glycerine 1 vol. 

Solution of salt, 3^ per cent, (sea-water in case of marine forms) 2 vols. 

The nervous system is dissected out for exposure to the staining 
fluid. That the exposure may be as direct as possible, the nerve-cord 
(Hirudo, Lumbricus, etc.) should be freed from its sheath. A very 
dilute solution of methylenblue is used, and allowed to act from 
two to three hours. If the preparation, after the exposure, be placed 
on a slide wet with the staining fluid, and left for one-half to 
one hour in a moist chamber, the color effects will be intensified. This 

2 Cf. this journal, Dec. 1890, p. 1219. 

1891.] Microscopy. ' 847 

" airing " is not required with marine animals, as with them the color 
differentiation is completed in the staining fluid. 

In the case of marine animals the methylenblue is dissolved in sea- 
water. It dissolves less readily than in fresh water, and owing to this 
weak solubility it is liable to form a fine granular or crystalline pre- 
cipitate on the surface of the preparation. As a large part of the 
dissolved staining substance is lost by filtering, it is best to prepare it 
fresh each time, and to allow it to settle, so that the clear fluid can be 
turned off for use. In the case of Nereis the nerve-cord is not 
obscured by a thick opaque sheath, and hence it is only necessary to 
open the dorsal wall lengthwise and spread it out flat in order to apply 
the stain. 

Vasale's Modification of Weigert's Method. 4 — The pieces 
of the nervous system to be prepared are hardened in Muller's fluid or 
in bichromate of potash, and then, either with or without washing, left 
in alcohol until they are wanted for sectioning. For staining, the three 
following fluids are required : 

1. Hematoxylin 1 g., dissolved in 100 g. water by heating. 

2. Neutral acetate of copper, saturated, filtered solution. 

3. Borax 2 g., ferricyanide of potash 2 1 /, g., dissolved in 300 g. 

The sections taken from alcohol are placed in solution 1 for three 
to five minutes; then for the same time in solution 2, in which they 
become black. They are next washed quickly in water and put into 
solution 3, which is stirred, and in which the ganglion-cells, neu- 
roglia, and the degenerated parts are quickly discolored, while the 
medullated fibers remained stained dark violet. Finally the sections 
are washed in water and quickly placed in absolute alcohol. They are 
cleared with carbol-xylol(\h\tt parts xylol to one of liquid carbolic acid), 
and mounted in xylol balsam. This clearing mixture has the advantage 
that it does not shrink sections inclosed in celloidin. A contrast-stain 
may be obtained if the sections, after being washed, are treated with 
alum carmine or picrocarmine, or according to Pal's method. 

Upson's Gold-Staining Method for Axis Cylinders and 
Nerve-Cells. 5 — Pieces of the central nervous system are hardened in 
potassium bichromate, beginning with oiu: per cent. ;iiul increasing to 
2^4 per cent. They are left in this fluid in the dark from four to six 

848 The American Naturalist. [September. 

months, then washed quickly and placed in alcohol of 50 per cent, two 
to three days, which should be renewed a few times. They are then 
transferred to 95 per cent, alcohol, and left until they show plainly a 
greenish color (two to four weeks or more). 

The preparations are then ready for sectioning, and may be cut 
without imbedding, or after imbedding in celloidin. Two methods of 
staining are used : 

1. The section is placed in a one per cent, solution of gold chloride, 
to which two per cent, hydrochloric acid has been added {about two 
hours), then washed in distilled water, and transferred to a ten per 
cent, solution of potash for half a minute. 

The section is then washed in distilled water, and there left until the 
following reducing fluid (to be made fresh each time) is prepared : 

Acid, sulfurosum 5 cc. 

Tinct. iodi., 3 per cent 10-15 drops. 

Liq. ferrichlorid 1 drop. 

This fluid must be made very exactly and quickly, and the moment 
it is ready the section is placed in it and left until it assumes a rose 
color. If left only a few seconds too long it becomes dark red, and is 

As soon as the proper color appears the section is transferred to 
distilled water, and then to absolute alcohol on the slide. After ten to 
fifteen minutes it may be cleared in clove oil and mounted in balsam. 
The slide is to be kept in the dark. 

2. The section is placed for two hours in the following solution : 

Gold chloride, 1 per cent 5 cc. 

Ammonium vanadicum, saturated solution . . 10 drops. 
Acid hydrochlor 3 drops. 

Wash, and transfer to the following (freshly prepared) mixture for j£ 

Caustic potash, 10 per cent 5 cc. 

Permanganate of potash, 10 per cent 10 drops. 

Wash, and expose to the following reducing fluid, freshly prepared : 

Tin solution 15 drops. 

Aq. dest 3 cc. 

Iron solution 3-5 drops. 

Acid, sulfurosum 3 cc. 

1891.J Proceedings of Scientific Societies. 849 

The moment the acid sulfurosum is added a thick precipitate arises, 
and at this moment the reducing fluid is strongest. 

The method of handling the section is the same as in method 1. 

The tin solution is made by adding so much chloride of tin to three 
per cent, tincture of iodine until the color is white or yellowish. The 
iron solution is a saturated solution of ferrum phosphoricum in distilled 

The method is somewhat cumbersome, but the results are said to be 

Method of Preparing Rotifers. 6 — The first difficulty which one 
experiences in studying the rotifers is their constant motion. This 
difficulty is overcome, according to Masius, by the use of a mixture of 
methyl alcohol, water, and cocaine in weak solution. 

After being anaesthetized by this fluid, the rotifers may be fixed with- 
out contraction in the ordinary preservative fluids, — Flemming's fluid, 
for example. 

For the study of the head, an anaesthetized specimen is placed upon 

side in water 


Natural Science Association of Staten Island. — April 1 ith. — 
Mr. Arthur Hollick stated that a nest of the barred owl {Syrnium 
nebulosum) was found on Staten Island, March 27th, by Mr. Chas. 
Rufus Harte, a student of Columbia College, This is an addition to 
the list of birds known to breed here, and the following memorandum 
from Mr. Harte was read : 

" In the woods which are the continuation of the swamp (near Bull's 
Head) I came upon a sweet gum, having an ' owlish ' looking cavity. 
As I turned aside to investigate, a barred owl flew out and away 
into the depths of the woods, appearing again once or twice, but 
always at a very respectable distance. The tree was about two feet in 
diameter, with no limbs below the opening, which was some thirty 
feet up, and very irregular in form. The cavity into which it opened 
was about eight inches in diameter, and was filled to within six inches 
of the mouth with dead leaves and feathers. On this bed lay the three 

850 The American Naturalist. [September, 

eggs, which were nearly hatched and very dirty. I did not see any 
remains of birds or mammals either in or about the nest.' ' 

May 9th. — A communication was read from Mitchell's Book Co., 
S30 Broadway, N. Y., stating that they had the original deed of sale 
of Staten Island by the Indians, in 1670, and inquiring if the associ- 
ation desired to purchase or copy it. The corresponding secretary 
stated that he had requested Mr. E. C. Delavan, Jr., to examine the 
document, with the following result : 

56 Wall Street, New York, May 9th, 1891. 
Arthur Hollick, Esq., New Brighton, N. Y. : 

Dear Sir : — I have examined the conveyance in possession of the 
Mitchell Company, 830 Broadway, referred to in their letter to you. 
While the document presents many internal evidences of authenticity, 
two points strike the professional reader as odd. In the recital of parties 
the names of the grantees are first written, followed by the names of 
the grantors. The grantees are Governor Lovelace and James Duke 
of York, the former representing the latter. The grantors are various 

The second point that, seems to me unusual is that no totems have 
been drawn by any of the sachem grantors, and in their place are the 
ordinary marks that would likely be adopted by any illiterate. 

Granting the authenticity of the document, what is its value ? The 
price placed on it by the company is 5600. Its highest interest 
attaches when it is viewed from a purely antiquarian standpoint. 
Historically its interest is secondary. The first grant of Staten Island 
to Michael Pauw (1 629-1 630) was conditional on his -acquiring the 
Indian titles, which we must assume that he accomplished. Pauw 
subsequently reconveyed to the West India Company (see Gay's 
History). After the English ousted the Dutch authorities a conveyance 
by the Indians of Staten Island to Governor Lovelace, before 1760, 
is said to have been made, followed by a deed of confirmation in i7'6o 
(see Clute). The latter is probably the same instrument now under 

From the lawyer's standpoint Indian deeds are now of little or no 
practical importance. It has been held that the Indians had no title 
which would be recognized in the courts of this country. The only 
legally recognized title was that of discovery and conquest. (Trustees 
of the Freeholders and Commonalty of the Town of Southampton, 
respondents, vs. The Mecox Bay Oyster Company, 116 N. Y. 
Johnson vs. xMdntosh & Wheat (U. S.), 543. Martin vs. Waddell, 
16 Peters 367.) Yery truly yours, 

Edward C. Delavan, Ir. 

is 9 i.] Proceedings of Scientific Societ 

Mr. Arthur Hollick read by title a list of 35 
Tottenville, October 4th, 1890, 
State Botanist. This will be published as a "special " at some future 

Mr. Hollick presented a specimen of Spirophyton caiuia^alli, found 
on the shore of Tottenville, — an addition to the local list of paleozoic 
fossils found in the Drift. 

Mr. L. P. Gratacap showed specimens of Lymneea palustris, and read 
the following memorandum : The Lymna a palustris, which was found 
last autumn by Mr. Davis in the brook that courses along Washington 
Avenue, and which was identified by Mr. Sanderson Smith, has been 
kept in confinement by me during the winter. The tank in which the 
individuals were placed was kept in a very cold room and partook of 
of the changes in the winter weather. Two only survived the experi- 
ence, and these have not hibernated, but maintained a sluggish life all 
winter. This spring seven gelatinous capsules exuded, each containing 
about twenty-five embryos. Amongst the authorities the opinion 
seems entertained that adults do not generally live over the winter, and 
that maturity is reached in one year. This opinion seems very 
questionable. The species may repay some attention. On this conti- 
nent it ranges as far north as Great Bear Lake in Canada, and in the 
United States extends from New England through Pennsylvania and 
Kansas to California and Oregon. Abroad it ranges from Siberia to 
Algeria and Sicily. About five varieties are recorded by writers. The 
black patches of Lymnea upon the cement blocks just under the 
overflow from the new pond recently made in the Snug Harbor 
clearings, south of Castleton Avenue, may also prove to be this species. 

Mr. W. T. Davis noted the Carolina wren, as an addition to the 
list of birds known to breed on the island, and read the following note : 

On the 26th of last April I discovered a family of Carolina wrens 
(Thryothorus ludmncianus) on Richmond Hill near the old British fort. 
One of the parent birds was perched on top of a small Ailanthus tree 
calling vociferously, while the other accompanied the young, which 
were hidden in a, thick growth of low briers, grass, etc., in and out of 
which they crept. They were just able to fly, — indeed, one of them 
could only do so for a yard or two, and much preferred climbing about 
the briers. Later in the day the little birds had congregated under a 
small cedar, whose lower branches touched the ground, but they quickly 
sought the protection of the briers again when approached. It is hoped 
that they will not be molested, but continue to abide on Staten Island, 

for the Carolina wren remains all the year round where once it has 
fixed its home. 

Mr. Davis also contributed the following botanical notes : 
A swamp of three or four acres lies just north of the Amboy road, 
between Gifford's and the road to Richmond. At present it supports 
a thick growth of huckleberry bushes, poison sumachs, young red 
maples, a number of magnolias, etc. Several bushes of the mountain 
holly (Nemopanthes canadensis) also grow there, which species has not 
before been reported from the island. In July, 1889, the deep red 
berries were conspicuous; in 1890 the bushes bore no fruit; but on the 
26th of April, this year, they were found in blossom. (Specimens were 

The peat is particularly thick and quaking in this swamp, and 
fifteen or twenty years ago, before it had been, drained so extensively, 
the pitcher plant (Sarracenia purpurea) grew in its northwest corner, 
as I was informed by a man who lived in the vicinity. The common 
cranberry also grew there, and the man who told me about the pitcher 
plant, said his mother used to pick them for family use, but in his 
time he had never gathered over a handful. Now they appear to be 
exterminated. There is, however, an unreported patch of cranberries 
{Vaccinium macrocarpum), or perhaps more properly several patches, 
in the low, open woods between Washington Avenue and the road from 


There has been no little change among biologists in the United 
States during the present year. The opening of the Leland Stanford, 
Jr., University made a number of new positions. Dr. D. S. Jordan, the 
president of Indiana University, was called to the presidency of the new 
institution, and so far he has announced the following natural science 
faculty : J. C. Branner, of Indiana University, professor of geology ; 
O. P. Jenkins, of De Pauw Universe logy and his- 

tology; J. H. Comstock, of Cornell, non-resident professor of ento- 
mology ; C. H. Gilbert, of Indiana University, professor of vertebrate 
zoology ; D.H. Campbell, of Indiana University, professor of crypto- 
gamic botany. Prof. J. M. Coulter, of Wabash College, accepted the 
presidency of Indiana University ; C. H. Eigenmann is appointed pro- 
fessor of zoology, and David Mottier instructor in morphological botany, 
in Indiana University. PrOf. L. M. Underwood, of Syracuse University, 
goes to De Pauw to take the place vacated by Dr. Jenkins ; and Prof. 
C. H. Hargitt and Mr. O. F. Cook are promoted to the chairs of 
biology in Syracuse University. Dr. Bleile has been elected professor 
of comparative anatomy and physiology in Ohio State University. 
Professor H. F. Osborn, of Princeton, has been elected professor of 
vertebrate zoology, and Prof. E. B. Wilson, of Bryn Mawr, associate 
professor of invertebrate zoology, in Columbia College. Prof. E. H. 
Barbour, of Iowa College, has been appointed associate professor of 
geology in the University of Nebraska ; and H. W. Norris goes to Iowa 
College as professor of natural history; 

Dr. Franz von Wagner is a privat docent in the University of Strass- 

Professor Chun's place in Konigsberg is taken by Dr. Max Braun, 
of Rostock, while Dr. Fr. Blochman goes to the zoological chair in 

Edmond Andre, the student of the Hymenoptera, died at Braune, 
January nth, 1891. 

Dr. A. Viallanes has been appointed director of the zoological 
station at Arcachon, France. 

854 The American Naturalist. [September, 1891.] 

Edward Burgess died in Boston, July 12th, 1891. He was born in 
Sandwich, Mass., in 1848, graduated in 1871 from Harvard University, 
and was for several years professor of entomology in the Bussey Insti- 
tution of Harvard. He was secretary and librarian of the Boston 
Society of Natural History from 1873 to l8 &3> when he resigned to 
devote himself to naval architecture. Mr. Burgess described some 
Diptera, but the bulk of his work was on the anatomy of insects. 
He was a careful dissector and a good artist, his "Anatomy of the 
Milkweed Butterfly," published in 1881, being a good example of 
what anatomical work should be. 

J. M. Stedman, formerly of Cornell University, now of the U. S. 
Department of Agriculture, has just accepted an invitation to the 
chair of biology in Trinity University, Durham, N. C. This institu- 
tion has been completly reorganized, and will open in September with 
the following new departments : Medical college, law school, schools 
of arts, literature, political and social science, divinity, and a college of 
the sciences. 

The marine biological laboratory at Wood's Holl, Mass., is enjoy- 
ing its most prosperous season, some 54 students and investigators being 
at work at present. The Gifford House, purchased last year, makes 
fine quarters for the mess, while the Fay and Gardner cottages relieve 
the pressure for suitable rooms. 

Professor W. K. Brooks, with a party of students, went to 
Jamaica for the summer. The party report good results, but expensive 
living. Outrageous prices were charged for every building available for 
laboratory purposes. 



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To f . * 


One of the greatest needs of American science 
at the present time is a convenient medium in which 
brief preliminary notices of the results of investigation 
can be published. A considerable length of time of 
necessity elapses between the conclusion of any series 
of observations and their appearance in print, and it 
is of great advantage to the observer, and still more to 
hisfellow-workers, to have the results made known as 
soon as possible, thus insuring priority of discovery to 
the one, and allowing the others to keep more perfectly 
posted with what is going on in the scientific world 
around them. 

A preliminary notice should be published at once 
to be of value, and hitherto there has been no scientific 
periodical in this country, published at sufficiently brief 
intervals, and open to all investigators, which has 
specially opened its columns to the publication of such 
notices, and has undertaken to make them public with 
as little delay as possible. This the Naturalist 
proposes to do, and invites the cooperation of all in- 
vestigators in an attempt to inaugurate a department 
for the prompt and satisfactory publication of prelimi- 
nary notices of the results of scientific investigations. 


What Two Naturalists 
Say of It. 



The Century Dictionary. 

AS a reference-book for men who cannot afford a great library, but who 
some work to which they can refer for a definition of a common wc 
for a scientific or technical term, which can be depended upon to be at once ful 

It is not only a complete word Dictionary, but it is an encyclopedia of common 
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words and things defined. Prof. Elliott Coues, M.D., Ph.D., has been in charge of 
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Synopsis of the Families of Vertebrata. 
This article, which was printed in the American Naturalist 
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publishers, for the use of lecturers, instructors and others who 
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Vol. XXV. 

OCTOBER, 1891. No. 298. 



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Prof. G. A. Koenig, who found it to be extremely hard, a day and a h 
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Vol. XXV. OCTOBER, 1891. 298. 


T N preparing a sketch of the geology of South America I feel 
obliged to add some explanatory remarks. This sketch ac- 
companies a map which forms a part of the second edition of the 
Physical Atlas of Berghaus (Gotha, Justus Perthes), which publi- 
cation will be finished at the end of this year. Besides many 
other maps, the geological part of this atlas has sketch- 
maps of all continents, which represent the actual state of our 
knowledge. In preparing the sheet of South America I was 
aided by many geologists who, like myself, had occasion to 
explore some parts of this continent, especially by Orville 
Derby for the part of Brazil, by Luis Brackebusch for the part 
of the Argentine Republic, and by many others. 

I thought it of some interest to the Association of North 
American Geologists to explain the main resemblances and dif- 
ferences which exist between the northern and the southern part 
of the great American continent, and to urge some remarkable 
points in the geological evolution of South America. 

I pass by the primordial rocks, very imperfectly studied as yet 
in South America. The Paleozoic rocks are better known, and 
offer great interest. By the investigations of d'Orbigny, Forbes, 
Kayser, Rathbun, Clarke, Orville Derby, and those made re- 
cently by Dr. Ulrich, of Strassburg, upon the rich collection of 

856 The American Naturalist. [October, 

fossils I brought home from the central plateau of Bolivia, the 
two following interesting points have been demonstrated : 

1. That nearly all parts of the Paleozoic formations are repre- 
sented in South America by marine deposits, being known by Cam- 
bian, Lower and Upper Silurian, Devonian and Carboniferous fossils. 
As far as our knowledge extends, the older Paleozoic deposits — 
i. e., the Cambrian and Silurian formations — are generally more dis- 
turbed and metamorphosed than the Devonian and Carboniferous 
series. In consequence of this fact, the faunas of the latter forma- 
tions are better known than those of the former. 

2. The richest Paleozoic fauna as yet known from South 
America is that of the, Devonian formation. More than 150 
different species have been described. The rich and well-preserved 
fauna collected by me in the eastern part of the Bolivian 
plateau has enabled Mr. Ulrich to show that the Bolivian deposits 
form a very important link between those of North America on 
one side, and those of Brazil, the Falkland Islands, and South 
Africa on the other side. The highly fossiliferous clay slates, 
sandy clays, and sandstones widely distributed in Bolivia and 
Brazil are the equivalents of the Oriskany sandstone, the Upper 
Helderberg, and the Hamilton groups of North America. Their 
fauna bears an American, not a European, character, as proved 
by the two commonest and most characteristic Brachiopods : 

1. Leptoccelia flabellites. This fossil has been found in North 
America, Bolivia, on the Falkland Islands, and in South Africa. 

2. Vitalina pustulosa is known from North America, Brazil, 
Bolivia, and South Africa. 

Partly by the identity, partly by the similarity of the Devonian 
faunas of the named regions, it appears quite evident that a great 
Devonian sea embraced large parts of both Americas and South 

The Carboniferous deposits seem to be much more restricted 
in South America than the Devonian. The sub-Carboniferous 
is mostly composed of non-fossiliferous sandstones ; the Upper 
Carboniferous, containing representatives of universally distributed 
Brachiopods and Gastropods, and of the genus Fusulina, is known 
from Peru, Bolivia, and some parts of Brazil. 

i8 9 i.] A Sketch of the Geology of South America. 857 

During the Permian, Triassic, and Jurassic epochs the greatest 
part of the South American continent, in the same manner as the 
North American, was above the sea-level, for according to the 
•researches made by Brackebusch in the Argentine Republic, by 
myself in Bolivia, and by Derby in the Matto-Grosso region, a great 
if not the greatest, part of the red sandstones generally considered 
to be of Permian or Triassic age seems to belong to the Cretaceous 
formations, — probably to the lower part of it. The flora which 
existed during the Permian and Triassic periods upon the South 
American continent is of high interest. The coal-bearing 
deposits of South Brazil and those of the Argentine and Chilian 
Cordilleras contain many representatives of the so-called " Glosso- 
pteris flora" known from South India, Australia, and South Africa. 
The age of these coal deposits is not everywhere the same. The 
flora of South Brazil has been referred to the younger Paleozoic, 
because it contains some Paleozoic types of plants ; those of the 
Argentine and Chilian Cordilleras belong to the Rhaetic group, 
and are partly covered conformably by marine deposits of the 
Lower Lias. 

Marine deposits of the Triassic and Jurassic formations have 
only been found in the western part of the continent, — namely, in 
the Cordillera between the 5 and 35 of southern latitude. The 
Triassic fossils are of the same type as those found in California 
and Western Canada, the leading fossil being a species of 
Pseudomonotis of the group of Ps. semicircularis Gatt. From 
the Jurassic formation nearly all horizons have been found in 
a fossiliferous state, and the rich collections made in different parts 
of the Argentine, Chilian, and Peruvian Cordilleras have enabled 
us to determine that the succession of marine organic life during 
this period was quite the same on the Pacific slope as in Europe 
and East India, and there have existed very intimate faunistic 
relations between these regions. As regards the extension of 
marine deposits of the Triassic and Jurassic epochs, there exists 
a remarkable similiarity between North and South America, 
being themselves confined to a small strip parallel to the Pacific 

858 The American Naturalist. [October, 

In contrast to this small extension of marine Triassic and 
Jurassic rocks, the Cretaceous deposits cover a very large area in 
South America. Marine Cretaceous fossils are found in nearly 
all parts of the Cordillera from South Patagonia to East 
Venezuela, and Mr. White has discovered a rich fauna of the 
Cretaceous formation of East Brazil. The invasion of con- 
tinental areas by the sea at the earlier Cretaceous period, which 
has been observed in many parts of Central Europe, seems to 
have taken place on a much larger scale in both Americas. We 
know now, by the investigations of Hill and White, that a part 
of the Cretaceous strata of Texas formerly regarded as Upper 
Cretaceous belongs to the lower part of this formation. The 
Cretaceous formation of Mexico appears as a direct continuation 
of the Texas deposits ; and as far as our present knowledge 
extends, the relations between the faunas of the older Cretaceous 
of these regions and those of Venezuela, Colombia, and North 
Peru are very intimate. It is interesting to see certain char- 
acteristic fossils of the Lower Cretaceous of the north reappear in 
the south. The famous genus Aucella, widely distributed on the 
slopes of the North Pacific, has been recently mentioned by N. 
Ritin from Mexico ; by White from Brazil ; I know it also from 
the invirons of Lima associated with Ammonites of the Neocomian 
of Europe. The Cretaceous sea which covered the central part 
of America probably continued farther to the east. We find, there- 
fore, some remarkable relations between the Lower and Upper 
Cretaceous faunas of South America, especially of Colombia and 
Peru, and those of North and West Africa. Some forms of Buthi- 
ceras known from Algiers are found abundantly in the Upper 
Amazonian region. The truly marine deposits of the central part 
of America disappear to the north and the south, and seem to be 
replaced by sandy deposits without marine fossils. Probably a 
great part of the red sandstone formations which occur 
in Brazil, Venezuela, Bolivia, and in the north of the Argentine 
Republic, take the same place relative to the marine sediments of 
the older Cretaceous as do the Atlantosaurus beds, the Trinity 
and Tuscaloosa formations in the north, — namely, underlying 
themselves or forming an equivalent of them. 

i8 9 i.] A Sketch of the Geology of South America. 859 

I cannot conclude my remarks upon the Mesozoic formations 
of South America without mentioning the two following pecu- 
liarities. The first is the fact that, wholly independent of the 
marine Cretaceous deposits of the Cordillera on the Pacific coast 
of South Chili, glauconitic sandstones are found which contain 
a rich fauna of the uppermost Cretaceous, especially on the Island 
of Ouiriquina. Besides many Ammonites and Baculites, partly 
identical with those from South India, this fauna is characterized 
by the abundance of Gastropods of a Tertiary type. The Cre- 
taceou* beds are covered conformably by a lignitic formation, 
whose fauna does not contain the Cretaceous fossils ; but strati- 
graphically both formations are intimately united. So a curious 
parallelism seems to exist in these deposits of South Chili, 
with the Chico-Tejon group of North California. 

The second point to be pointed out is the abundance of eruptive 
rocks within the Triassic, Jurassic, and Cretaceous formations of the 
Cordillera. On the western side of the border of Chili and Peru, 
where the marine deposits of these formations predominate, only a 
very small part of the rocks are formed by limestones, clay slates f 
or sandstones. These appear, however, to be interlaid between strati- 
fied masses of prophyritic, melaphyric, and andesitic material, the 
entire thickness of which strata reaches several 1000 meters. So far 
as we know, this is the largest area of eruptive formation of 
Mesozoic time. The Cordillera of South America is famous for 
its eruptive formations of the latest time, but it merits no smaller 
attention for its submarine eruptions during the Mesozoic time, 
and for the injection of the Mesozoic strata by truly granitic 
and dioritic rocks. 

The Tertiary formations, well developed in the Argentine 
Republic, have been subdivided into a number of groups by Doring. 
• According to the researches of Ameghino, the younger Tertiary 
deposits of South America show a remarkable peculiarity. This 
paleontologist discovered the remains of human beings not only 
in the Pliocene, but also in the Miocene, deposits. I must confess 
that, comparing the European Mesozoic strata with those of South 
America, quite another classification of the latter seems to be indi- 
cated. What has been called the Pampean formation in the Argen- 

860 The American Naturalist. [October, 

tine Republic, and referred to the Pliocene, is no other than the 
Loess in Europe, whose formation took place between the two 
latest glaciations. Adopting this view of the case, the so- 
called Miocene strata probably belong to the great ice period, and 
the Pehuelche stratum represents only the morainic deposits of the 
last ice period. The Plistocene deposits of South America are 
not yet studied in detail, but the glacial deposits I met in South 
Patagonia can be easily distinguished into two different groups : 
those of a former more extended and overarched formation, 
covering not only the lower parts, but also the table mountains of 
over ioo m. in height; and the younger formation, the kettle 
moraines of which are found along the foot of the Cordillera. The 
extension of true glacial deposits within the Cordillera seems to 
be much greater than generally admitted. Twenty years ago 
Raimondi described clearly true moraines from the Cordillera New 
of Ancachs (about g° s. lat), reaching down to 2500 m. above 
the sea-level. I myself found moraine deposits in the Cordillera 
of Copiapo (28 s. lat.), about 1200 m. above the sea-level, and 
these observations coincide quite well with those made north of 
the equator by Sievers, who found the traces of former glaciation 
in the Sierra Nevada do Santa Marka and in the Sierra Nevada do 
Tarija. These facts seem to prove that the glacial periods did 
not alternate on both hemispheres, but that they were contempo- 
raneous. In this respect further studies upon the Plistocene 
formations of the Cordillera of South America will be of great 
scientific value. 

Besides the true glacial deposits and the aeolean formation of 
Loess and loam, there exist in South America, especially on the 
High Plateau of Bolivia, like deposits of great extent. Terraces 
and tufa deposits analogous to those of the Great Basin of the 
West indicate a formerly much wider extension of the Lake 
Titicaca over the whole High Plateau from Southern Peru to the 
Argentine frontier. It seems that this former extension of lakes 
in South America coincides also with that of the lakes of the 
Great Basin region. 

Notes on the Hearts of Ccr> 


T N preparing a thesis for the degree of bachelor of science at 
Cornell University, in the spring of 1891, certain facts were 
observed and conclusions reached which have been thought 
worthy of presentation, if only as an evidence that further investi- 
gation is needed. 

Professor Wilder placed at my disposal the following materials : 
Many hearts of the sheep and domestic cat, several human hearts, 
and the hearts of a monkey, panther, raccoon, hyena, dog, deer, 
calf, horse, donkey, and rabbit. 

Special attention was given to the following parts : The 
Tuberculum Loweri, Eustachian valve, Thebesian valve, coro- 
nary sinus, and the oblique vein of Marshall, a few of the 
facts that seem of chief importance I shall state in the briefest 

The Tuberculum Loweri. — According to " Wilder and Gage's 
Anatomical Technology," "the distinct presence of the Tuberculum 
Loweri and the Eustachian valve have as yet not been determined 
in the cat." Nevertheless, I found what I consider the homolo- 
gue of the Tuberculum Loweri of the human heart present in 
every heart examined. Although Hyrtl denies its presence in 
the human heart, all other authorities agree that it is a constant 

The Eustachian Valve. — Of the hearts examined, the Eustachian 
valve was found only in man, monkey, and a remnant of it in the 
cat, but not extending above (cephalad) the coronary sinus 
orifice as in man and monkey, but below it (caudad) and protects it. 
In the fcetus of the cat it is of relatively as great in extent as in 
man, but in the adult cat only a valve guarding the coronary sinus 
orifice remains. It is this valve that has been mistaken for the 
Thebesian valve by several anatomists. 

The Thebesian Valve. — The statements concerning the Vieussens 
and Thebesian valves are perplexing. Allen and Gegenbaur say 

862 The American Naturalist. [October, 

" the Thebesian valve covers the opening of the coronary vein," 
whereas that valve over the orifice of the coronary vein is known 
as Vieussens valve, in honor of its discoverer. According to 
Heath, " the coronary valve guards the opening of the coronary 
sinus." ButThebesius was the first to make known the form and 
position of the valve over the termination of the sinus, and in his 
honor it is called the Thebesian valve. 

According to Marshall, "the Thebesian valve is present in 
every instance in which the coronary sinus receives blood from 
the heart alone, as in man, monkey, dog, and cat, but absent in 
those animals that have a left azygos or left precava." Since the 
Thebesian valve was found only in man, monkey, and rabbit, and 
not in the cat, panther, and dog, where Marshall says it ought to 
exist, and one is present in the rabbit, where he says it ought not 
to be, this generalization will not hold good. A valve existed 
over the orifice of the middle cardiac vein in every heart 
examined, and as it is not named in any work as far as I know, I 
would suggest that it be called coronary valve. 

The Coronary Sinus. — Morrell says " the coronary sinus of 
the sheep is the lower dilated part of the left azygos." Marshall 
holds that in those animals in which a left azygos or left precava 
exists it empties directly into the right auricle, and the coronary 

Bourgery, Owen, Gegenbaur, and Howell think the coronary 
sinus is but the dilated part of the coronary vein. 

Personal observation causes me to differ from the above-named 
authors as to the homologue of the sinus. It is my opinion 
that the coronary sinus is the persistent primitive left Ductus 
Cuvieri, and that the left precava or left azygos, when they exist as 
as well as the great coronary vein empty into it ; thus sending 
their blood through it to the heart. The great coronary vein 
empties into the sinus, and not in one case into an azygos, in another 
into a cava, again directly in the auricle. In support of this, Bar- 
deleben says " the left azygos as well as the left precava, when pre- 
sent, empty into the sinus. That piece of vein under discussion is 
the left Ductus Cuvieri, which does not disappear in any mamaml." 

The Oblique Vein of Marshall. — It was surprising to find that 

i8 9 i.] Notes on the Hearts of Certain Mammals. 863 

the oblique vein of Marshall, which occupies the place below the 
pericardium that the left precava does when present, is not shown in 
the illustrations or mentioned in the works of Owen, Wiedersheim, 
Howell, or Wilder and Gage's Technology. Not sending branches 
into the substance of the heart, it is not, as older anatomists thought, 
a branch of the great coronary vein. Although said to be im- 
provided with a valve, I found one over its orifice in the heart of 
the monkey {Cercocebus fidiginosus). Marshall holds that the 
oblique vein of Marshall is the remnant of the left azygos of the 
foetus. Since those animals that have the oblique vein of Marshall 
shall have also the termination of the azygos emptying into the 
left brachiocephalic, I cannot agree with Marshall in this res- 
pect. The embryo heart shows the oblique vein to be the termi- 
nal portion of the primitive left precava. 

The American Naturalist. 



TN this essay I propose to examine the question whether vivi- 
section should be permitted in the interest of humanity and 
and science ; and if so, with what restrictions. 

Vivisection is the term employed for designating the operation 
performed with the knife upon living animals. This term, 
although including operations upon the human being, is applied 
principally to those performed upon the lower animals, such as 
the cat, dog, rabbit, guinea pig, etc., even frogs and fishes. 

The performing of a surgical operation upon a human being, 
whether under the influence of anaesthetic or in a comatose or 
hypnotic condition, is simply one kind of vivisection. Now why 
should vivisection of the lower animals be prohibited when the 
same operation is performed upon human beings every day ? 

What are the objects of vivisection ? I answer : first, the 
increasing of our knowledge of physiology ; second, the con- 
firmation of facts previously known ; third, the acquisition of 
dexterity in operative surgery; and fourth, the experimental 
application of inoculative medicine, including vaccination and 
preventive and curative inoculation. 

Without this process commonly called vivisection the sciences 
of medicine, surgery, anatomy, physiology, histology, embryology, 
and pathology would even yet be in their infancy, and in some 
respects at least would remain forever undeveloped. 

Vivisection may be traced back as far as the years 377 and 
460 B.C. Hippocrates, the greatest of ancient scientists, was a 
vivisector. iEsculapius, Celsus, Aulus, Cornelius, and later, 
Galenus Claudius, and other great ancient scientists, practiced 
vivisection upon the lower animals, and even upon human beings. 
It is too well known to be disputed that Galenus Claudius 
(Galen), who lived from 131 to 201 A.D.,was the first to discover 
that the arteries in the human body contained blood instead of 

i89i-] Vivisection. 865 

air, as had been previously supposed. How else than by the 
process of vivisection could he have made this wonderful dis- 
covery ? 

Let me cite a few of the principal benefits that have accrued to 
physiology, and hence to the art of healing, by means of vivi- 
section. By this course of procedure the doctrine of the circula- 
tion of the blood, the lymphatic circulation through the lymphatic 
vessels, and that of chyle through the lacteals, were established. 
Thus also our present knowledge of the nervous system and its 
functions is due to vivisection, since these facts could not have 
been obtained by the most minute anatomical research. Our 
present rational modes of treating epilepsy and the various forms 
of paralysis are due to the experiments of Brown-Sequard, 
Bernard, and others, upon the living animals. 

The causes of the sounds of the heart would never have been 
understood without vivisectional experiments, and the stethoscope 
would have been useless in the diagnoses of cardiac diseases. 
The true nature of diabetes was thus discovered. 

The Hunterian treatment of aneurism by ligature is the result 
of experiments upon the living animal. 

The study and application of anaesthetics, one of the greatest 
boons to mankind, could be pursued only by experiments upon 
the living animal. Who would regret the suffocation of even 
greater numbers of animals when he considers the amount of 
agony and misery saved to man ? 

If there be a solution — and doubtless there is one — of such 
questions as the best method of restoring to life one apparently 
drowned, the restoration of one suffering from apparently fatal 
effects of chloroform, why chloroform kills, etc., who would 
regret the sacrifice of the animals necessary for these solutions ? 

What have been the results of vivisectional experiments during 
the last century ? By means of vivisection the great French 
chemist and bacteriologist, Pasteur, discovered his wonderful 
preventive inoculative treatment of hydrophobia. 

Dr. Austin Flint, Jr., proved that the liver is an excretory as 
well as a secretory organ. By comparing the blood drawn from 
the carotid arteries of a dog with that contained in the jugular 

866 The American Naturalist. [October, 

veins he has demonstrated that cholesterine — i.e., the excretion of 
the liver — is the product of nerve action. Thus he was enabled 
to study that condition of blood poisoning which results from an 
abnormal accumulation of cholesterine in the vital fluid. 

By means of vivisection we have been led to the present 
advanced state of knowledge in regard to the processes of diges- 
tion, assimilation, and nutrition. 

Thus the Old World, leaning upon the staff of experience, is 
steadily advancing, climbing the lofty heights of science with a 
firm and certain tread. But we Americans, an enterprising nation, 
are sitting idly by, shackled by false ideas of humanity, while 
over our heads hangs an obscuring pall called the laws prohibiting 

Who are making the great scientific discoveries, the investiga- 
tions and researches of to-day ? Who are advancing every branch 
of medical and surgical science ? Who are the great protectors 
of humanity ? Answer, the vivisectors. 

Science cannot advance without the aid of vivisection ; there- 
fore vivisection must and will be practiced, in spite of laws and 
governments. Then why not regulate and control the practice 
of vivisection, instead of prohibiting it ? 

Congress should be urged to pass a law making the art of 
vivisection part of the curriculum of every reputable medical 
college. Our government should assist and encourage scientific 
vivisectors in their researches and investigations, just as England, 
Germany, France, and Austria have done during the last century, 
by offering capital prizes and honorary medals to scientists, 
microscopists, and physiologists. Why not ? All is in the interest 
of science, and principally for the protection of humanity against 

But at the same time this process, this science 
should not be free to every meddler and dabbler in science. It 
should be practiced only by scientists, such as expert microscop- 
ists, physiologists, and pathologists. If an ordinary physician or 
other learned man wishes to practice vivisection for study or 
experimental purposes, let him be compelled to do so under the 

i8 9 i.] Vivisection. 867 

supervision and instruction of a licensed vivisector at his labora- 
tory, and under his personal observation. 

Let Congress authorize the President of the United States to 
appoint a board of examiners for the purpose of examining appli- 
cants for the position of vivisector. Of course such applicants 
would be no other than expert scientists, microscopists, pathol- 
ogists, and histologists. Let such a licensed vivisector be con- 
nected with every reputable medical college having a pathological 
and histological laboratory. 

I am a strong advocate of anticruelty societies, but at the 
same time I believe that man has the first claim upon humanity. 
If the suffering of mankind can be alleviated, is it not cruel to 
refuse relief? 

If the practice of vivisection is properly regulated the suffering 
of the animal can be greatly diminished. Let the work be done 
scientifically, with dexterity, ingenuity, and skill, and whenever it 
is possible let the animal be placed under the influence of an 
anaesthetic, chloroform or ether. 

I have had the opportunity of studying the process of vivi- 
section and its results, during my sojourn in Europe, at Virchow's 
laboratory, Berlin, Rokitansky's laboratory.Vienna, Pasteur's labor- 
atory, Paris, and the Von Recklinghausen laboratory, Strassburg, 
and I have witnessed several thousand vivisections, and in each 
and every instance I came to the conclusion that vivisection is a 
necessary procedure, and of paramount importance in the study 
of medicine and surgery, their kindred and contributing branches. 
It is simply impossible to obtain a practical knowledge of physi- 
ology, histology, etc., without vivisection. 

To prove that my assertions are correct, and based upon scien- 
tific principles, I will narrate a few practical cases in medicine and 
surgery in which by no other means than vivisection were the 
scientists able to demonstrate to the medical profession of the 
whole world that a certain medicine, or a certain described surgi- 
cal operation, is necessary to save the patient and insure a speedy 
and complete cure. 

Let us consider, first, surgery. The various surgical operations 
and procedures, especially as to their technique, have been 

868 The American Naturalist. [October, 

developed and perfected by means of vivisection. Consider par- 
ticularly the abdominal operations, such as those performed upon 
the stomach, intestines, liver, spleen, kidneys, etc. The honor of 
perfecting these operations is due principally to Prof. Billroth, of 
Vienna, Austria, the boldest surgeon that ever lived. He, in the 
year 1879, performed for the first time that operation known as 
gastrotomy, upon a living human being (a woman). This oper- 
ation consisted of a resection of the pyloric end of the stomach 
for cancer of the stomach. A complete recovery resulted. (An 
excision of a portion of the stomach was made, and the intestine 
was sewed to the stomach.) Of course the original idea was 

Previous to this adventure Prof. Billroth and his assistant, Dr. 
Woelfler, had performed this operation upon ten living dogs. 
This was done in order to determine positively, first, whether or 
not this bold surgical operation was possible and justifiable ; 
second, the best mode and technique of this surgical procedure ; 
third, the rate of mortality; and fourth, the applicability of 
operative surgery in the treatment of such grave afflictions. 

In all the various surgical operations upon the intestines there 
arose questions in regard to the technique, and principally as to 
the best application of stitches, sutures, instruments, antiseptic 
dressing, etc., as to the form, quality, and quantity applied. 
All these questions and difficulties were answered and overcome 
by experiments upon living dogs and cats. Excisions of the 
spleen, of one kidney, and of a part of the liver, were tried time 
and again upon living animals long before the operations were 
performed upon human beings with good results. 

The various plastic surgical operations, operations upon the 
muscles, nerves, and bones, operations upon the eye, ear, nose, 
and throat, were first developed and perfected by vivisectional 
experiments upon animals. 

Some of the more delicate surgical operations, such as castra- 
tion, oophorectomy, ovariotomy, etc., were first thoroughly studied 
and then applied in operative surgery after repeated experiments 
upon living animals. These experiments and proofs have justified 

i8 9 i.] Vivisection. 869 

the surgeons in such bold surgical operations for the relief and 
permanent cure of such dreadful pathological disorders. 

Since the term vivisection includes all experiments upon the 
living animal, whether the knife is used or not, there is also a 
medical phase of the question, and here it will suffice to say that 
the physiological* action of all medicinal preparations would never 
have been thoroughly understood had it not been for experiments 
upon living animals. These experiments serve to determine, first, 
the physiological action of a drug or preparation ; second, the 
minimum and maximum dosage ; third, the poisonous effects of 
drugs, and their antidotes ; and 4th, the effects of hypodermic 
injections and inoculations. 

To an unbiased thinker I believe I have proved that vivisection 
is both necessary and justifiable. Even the humanitarian, if he 
be a sportsman, thinks little of the pain given to animals in the 
chase. No one objects to the killing of animals for food or for 
their commercial value, even though the animal die a lingering 
and painful death. If it is legitimate to slay animals in order to 
supply food and luxuries, and even amusement, why should it 
not be legitimate to inflict pain upon or to slay an animal for the 
higher and nobler purpose of relieving suffering humanity and 
prolonging human life ? 

Therefore, again I say, remove the prohibition, but regulate 
and encourage the practice of the indispensable accessory of 
scientific progress, — vivisection. 

The American Naturalist. 



VI OT far from the Land's End of France, and adjoining tnc 
picturesque coast of Finisterre, a favorite resort not only 
of French, but also of English and American artists, lie the 
barren and almost treeless plains of Morbihan, one of the eighty- 
six departments into which the French Republic is now divided. 
Morbihan is Celtic for " The Little Sea," and the district is famous 
not for its scenery, for the landscape is very tame, but for its 
impressive and mysterious so-called Celtic or Druidical ruins. 
These remains are mounds, tombs, and monoliths erected by a 
race whose remote descendants still occupy the soil, their farms 
and dwellings and hamlets bordering upon, and in part inclosing, 
the tombs and lines of stone pillars which keep silent watch over 
the region. The most imposing and best known of these series 
of pillars or " menhirs " are the great " alignments " of Carnac, 
which have for centuries excited the curiosity and interest of 
travelers and antiquarians. 

Such monuments, if they ever existed in so great perfection in 
other parts of France, have been removed by farmers in clearing 
their lands, or in building their own dwellings, as with us glacial 
boulders have been removed and used for building stone walls. 
On the remote coast of Morbihan, however, where the land is 
comparatively sterile and treeless, and the population is sparse, 
not only have the monuments been tolerably well preserved, but 
the Bretons themselves, perhaps speaking a language derived 
from their pre-Celtic ancestors of the later stone and early bronze 
age, have preserved in a degree the probable features, the folk- 
lore, and some of the customs of the times when these monuments 
were erected. 

Hence a journey to Morbihan, with its weird, somber land- 
scape, its cider-drinking, superstitious, Celt-speaking peasants, 

i From the New York Independent. 

i8qi.] Among the Prehistoric Monuments of Brittany. 

clad in their sober black garments, environed by the 
mounds, tombs and standing stones, rising as silent 
the mysterious past, and becoming an integral part of the every- 
day life of the inhabitants, — a journey among such scenes has a 

From Paris to Carnac seemed like a journey to Ultima Thule. 
Ordinary maps in guide-books, and the books themselves, threw 
little light on this obscure corner of France. Had it not been for 
valuable information kindly afforded us by Prof. Gabriel de 
Mortillet, the distinguished founder of the prehistoric section of 
the vast Museum of National Antiquities at St. Germain-en Laye, 
who drew a rough map of the Carnac region, together with 
information given us by Dr. Topinard, the learned successor to 
the chair of anthropology formerly held by Paul Broca, who 
freely gave us his personal cards for use among the local anti- 
quarians of Morbihan, we should have lost much time in seeking 
the most interesting places to visit* We were also indebted for 
useful suggestions to Mr. Thomas Wilson, who spent part of a 
previous summer in and about Carnac, and has, in company with 
M. Gaillard, the chief antiquarian of Morbihan, explored a number 
of dolmens, and whose article in the American Naturalist for 
July, 1888, was of much aid. Acting on such good and reliable 
advice, I made M. Gaillard's hotel at Plouharnel my headquarters, 
and from there made excursions to Lockmariaquer, to Carnac, 
to Erdeven, and to the Peninsula of Quiberon, thus seeing all 
the alignments and many of the typical tumuli and dolmens of 

A journey in any direction from Paris through Brittany to the 
Atlantic coast is a delightful one. It was the middle of August, 
delightfully cool, often misty, to be sure, but with no pouring 
rain, and often a bright sun, — ideal weather for walking and 
driving in village carts. Leaving the Mount Parnasse station at 
eleven in the forenoon, the train shot by Versailles, with its 
palace, gardens, and surrounding forests, and after taking us 
through Chartres and Le Mans, left us early in the evening at 
Rennes, where we slept. Early the next morning we visited the 
museum of the university, and though it was closed, — it being a 

872 The American Naturalist. [October, 

fete day, — the keeper politely gave us a short hour of his time to 
enable us to see the pre-Celtic and other prehistoric remains of 
stone, bronze, and iron. Here are amassed the rich vertebrate 
remains, including the bones of the mammoth from Mont Dol, 
Brittany, associated with human flint implements, many polished 
stone axes taken from dolmens ; but of especial value are the 
fine Gallo-Romari remains and the many relics of the Merovingian 
age excavated from the Necropolis of Caranda. Among the 
many fine objects in the geological museum of interest to the 
anthropologist is an immense mass of jade from New Caledonia, 
perhaps a foot square. Merely glancing at the valuable zoological 
and art collections gracing the halls of a lyceum in a French 
provincial city of 60,000 inhabitants, and heaving a sigh at the 
utter lack of local museums and art collections in far wealthier 
provincial cities in the United States, we hurried to the station 
and took the train for Vannes. The afternoon was spent 
at this strikingly picturesque town, with its ancient timbered 
houses, leaning over toward each other across the narrow 
streets in such a social mood ; with its mediaeval walls and 
towers, its three notable gateways, its Norman cathedral, and 
lovely park and flower gardens. It was the fete day of the Vir- 
gin, and a procession of men and boys, with women and girls in 
their white-starched caps, such as perhaps only gather in unique 
Brittany, filled the square and moved slowly down the incline, 
closing its ranks as it approached the most ancient of the city 
gates, the Porte Prison, situated between two machicolated towers 
rising from the town walls. 

One should visit the excellent museum here before passing on 
to Carnac. The Musee Archeologique is situated in the third 
story of a very old, rambling, timbered building, with creaking 
oak stairs and ghostly corridors. The rooms are small, but the 
cases contains very rich collections taken from the dolmens and 
tumuli we were afterward to visit. Here were placed together 
in the case the relics excavated in 1862 from Mont St. Michel, at 
Carnac, the largest burial mound in France. It comprises superb 
series of polished axes in jadeite, chloromelanite, fibrolite, and 
diorite, with a beautiful necklace of green turquoise. There was 

1891.] Among the Pre his torn Monuments of Brittany. 873 

also a fine series from the tumulus of Mane-er-H'roek at Lock- 
mariaquer, comprising besides six jadcite axes ninety-two of 
fibrolite, which is a dark variety of serpentine. The pottery 
of the mound was represented, and among them were seen the 
rude, unfinished earthenware, precursors of our bowls, tumblers, 
and cups and saucers. Some of the " green turquoise " heads 
were cylindrical, perforated, and exactly resembled in shape and 
color a jade bead we had obtained at Cholula, from a Mexican 
Indian. The jadeite implements were illustrated by unworked 
specimens of jade*from Thibet, and of jade nephite from Siberia, 
as well as saussurite from the valley of the Saas. 

Reluctantly leaving this quaint and attractive town, we took 
the evening train for Plouharnel Carnac, reaching the Hotel du 
Commerce, kept by the two daughters of M. Felix Gaillard, to 
whom we took a card of introduction from Professor Topinard, 
and from whom we received every kind of attention and aid, the 
learned archeologist freely giving us the benefit of his many years' 
exploration of neolithic menhirs and dolmens, as well as Gaulish 
burial-places. Part of the hotel is devoted to a very rich local 
museum, crowded with stone implements, ornaments, and articles 
in bronze and gold, pottery, including funeral lamps with holes 
for the wick, and three graves removed with their contents from 
Quiberon, the whole illustrated by stone implements from North 
America and New Caledonia, with objects from the Swiss palafitts, 
or pile dwellings, which M. Gaillard told us are of the same age 
as the dolmens of France. 

And now, before we actually visit these strange memorials of 
past neolithic occupation, let us explain the meaning of the Celtic 
names applied to them. The megalithic monuments are rude 
monoliths of the granite of the Breton coast, called menhirs, from 
two Bretoh or Celtic words, men, a stone, and hir, long ; they are 
also called peulvans. The menhirs are arranged in groups of 
from nine to thirteen rows, each row being called an alignment. 

The tomb-like structures called dolmens are so named from 
men, a stone, and do/, table. They consist of a few large, broad, 
flat stones set up on edge so as to inclose a more or less oblong 
space ; the larger ones are about six feet high, and covered over 

874 Tlie American Naturalist. [October, 

by a single great slab (called table) or several flat stones. The 
smaller ones are said to resemble tables and altars. Many of 
those in the Morbihan are approached by covered galleries, which 
are generally straight, but at times curved ; the main structure or 
chamber is sometimes wider than long. They, in nearly each 
case, face the east, and were places of sepulture or tombs, being 
the precursors of the old-fashioned tombs of our cemeteries, and 
were covered by mounds of earth called tumuli. A tumulus 
sometimes enclosed a cairn or gilgal, or heap of squarish stones, 
six or eight inches or a foot in diameter, thrown or laid over the 
dolmen to protect it from wild beasts. A cromlech in France is 
a circle or semicircle of menhirs or upright stones. The stones 
composing a cromlech are usually smaller than the majority of 
the menhirs, and the stones touch each other, while in an align- 
ment of menhirs the individual stones are from two to several 
feet apart. The word cromlech is from kroumvi, curved, and 
lec'li, meaning sacred, or, according to some writers, smaller stones. 
There are in the single department of Morbihan 306 dolmens, 
and throughout France 3,410. They are rarer in the north and 
east than in central, southern, and western France. Beginning 
with the most eastern point at which dolmens occur, archeologists 
have observed them in western India, where they have been used 
to the present. They are found in Palestine, near the Dead Sea, 
in the land of the Moabites. Going west, we find them on the 
other side of the Caucasus Mountains, in Circassia and the 
Crimea. Passing farther to the westward, they occur in Central 
Europe, northeast of Dresden, from Mecklenburg through Den- 
mark into southern Sweden, but none occur in Norway. Return- 
ing to Germany, many have been discovered in Hanover and the 
Low Country, as well as in Belgium, in Luxembourg, and Switz- 
erland. They also occur on the Channel Islands, in- Cornwall, 
in the Isle of Man and of Anglesea, some in western and a few 
in the eastern counties of England, while many occur in Scotland 
and in Ireland. Turning to the Mediterranean region, there are 
the ruins of dolmens in Corsica, in northern Spain, in Andalusia, 
in Portugal, while in northern Africa they are abundant from 
Morocco to Tripoli, especially in Algeria. Mortillet rejects the 

1891.] Among the Prehistoric Monuments of Brittany. 875 

theory once held that the dolmens were constructed by a migra- 
tory people, maintaining that they were the work of a sedentary 
population, and not of one and the same race, as skeletons of 
very different races have been found in them. At the same time 
many facts tend to show that the dolmen-builders in the first 
place came from the east. Mortillet also states that dolmens 
were burial chambers used as places of sepulture by families or 
by tribes. The menhirs were also quarried and erected by the 
designers and builders of the dolmens, who roughly hewed and 
chipped the monoliths into their present shapes with small axes 
of polished flint, jade, and the harder varieties of serpentine. 

Before we inquire into the traits and customs of the Neolithic 
tribes, let us glance at the monuments they left behind them. 

After breakfast we clambered into a Breton village cart, driven 
by a youthful latter-day Celt, with M. Gaillard as our courteous 
guide, and set out over an excellent road, often bordered with the 
broom and hedged with gorse, past farms and scattered dwellings 
of stone, through the village of Carnac, with distant views of the 
Atlantic, dotted with the brown sails of the sardine fishing boats, 
and on our left overlooked by the tumulus of San Michel, the 
highest elevation in the neighborhood. The road soon passes 
over a causeway bordered with salt vats ; and after an hour's 
drive we cross the ferry a little above the fishing village of La 
Trinite. The ferry, by the way, was an interesting study. 
Although the amount of travel on this road would hardly seem 
to warrant it, the road on each side of the arm of the sea was 
elaborately paved with granite blocks to a point below low-water 
mark. The boat was a big scow, large enough to hold two 
carriages, and was slowly, laboriously pulled across by means of 
a large iron chain. 

At the village of Lockmariaquer, which was the site of Dari- 
origum, or of some other Roman settlement, we walk out to the 
end of the solid granite jetty, whose earliest foundations are 
attributed to the celts, the Romans afterwards improving upon 
them. We engage two fishermen to take us in their boats to 
Gaverne or Gavr'Inis, anglice Goat Island, on which is perhaps 
the most interesting tumulus and best-preserved sculptured dolmen 

876 The American Naturalist. [October, 

in the Morbihan, and probably in Europe. With a fair westerly 
wind and a bright sky we hie on, taking the opportunity to eat 
our lunch of cold meat, bread, and cider, with a course of excellent, 
though tiny, raw oysters, which are usually offered at the hotels 
throughout the coast towns of Brittany. Clambering ashore 
over the slippery rocks we walk up a lane bordered with fig trees, 
and ascend the eastern side of the mound, which is a galgal, or 
cairn, twenty-six feet high, and covered with soil overgrown with 
the broom and prickly gorse. 

The view from the summit of the mound, over the Gulf of 
Morbihan and its shores, is one of much interest, from the fact 
that some of the distant eminences are artificial mounds, and that 
on some of the islands there are dolmens. We can look across 
a narrow passage swept by swift tidal currents to the little ragged 
island of Er-Lanec, with the remnants of one cromlech, half of 
the circle on the shore and the other half below high-water mark, 
while beyond, at low water, can be seen the prostrate stones which 
once formed a second cromlech. The land has fallen, and the 
sea has partly torn down this and all the other islands since the 
times when the dolmen builders inhabited this region. 

Descending, we enter the gallery of the dolmen by a path 
walled in with the square porphyritic granite blocks taken from 
the sides of the galgal, and, passing through the low, narrow 
gallery about twenty-five feet long(Cartailhac says thirteen meters) 
we enter the chamber, which runs east and west. About forty 
huge slabs form the pavement, the walls, and the ceiling. One 
of the slabs in the ceiling is of quartz ; and we judged the largest 
slab to be about eighteen feet square. But the distinguishing 
feature of this dolmen is the mysterious sculpturing on the slabs. 
All the granite wall-slabs are thus sculptured, the marks being 
cut in. And what was the nature of the tools ? The quartz 
slabs alone had been untouched. Cartailhac argues, with good 
reason, we think, that the implements could not have been of iron, 
as only the softer granite was grooved and engraved, and that the 
engravings were made with stone tools. It is also noticeable 
t'mt in other dolmens we visited, symbolic stone axes, mounted 
« ;i handles, are engraved on the slabs of the ceiling, while on a 

1 891] Among the /"• its of Brittany. 877 

single upright slab in the dolmen we are now describing there 
are eighteen such axes figured, with others in the same gallery. 

The marks themselves roughly resemble the tattoo marks of 
Pacific Islanders. As Cartailhac remarks in his " La France 
Prehistorique " (1889), they are diverse linear combinations, being 
straight, curved, waved lines, either isolated or parallel or ramified 
like fern leaves, or arranged in segments of concentric circles, 
either limited or not, and trimming certain compartments of 
spirals with short turns, recalling exactly the figures made by 
the wrinkles of the skin on the palms of the hands and the 

The last-described marks are certainly the most typical and 
abundant, and perhaps were suggested to the proto-Celtic engraver 
by studying the lines on his hands. The artist was not hurried 
in his work, and, as Cartailhac says, the sculptures must have 
been made before the stones were put in place. 

But the tide is going out, and we must unwillingly leave this 
fascinating ruin and return to Lockmariaquer, to visit other 
dolmens. One of the most notable, situated south of the 
town near the base of an elliptical mound, thirty-nine feet high, 
is the dolmen Mane-er-H'roeck (the mountain of the fairy). The 
opening to the gallery, as in all the other dolmens, faces to the 
east ; and to enter it we pass by two enormous but prostrate 
menhirs, one thirty-one and the other twenty-five feet long. The 
walls of the dolmen are built in horizontal layers, and one of the 
stones raised on the right side of the entrance is ornamented with 
very beautiful and curious sculptures, some like escutcheons, 
besides ten figures of symbolic axes with handles. Thence 
walking across a potato field, occasionally stopping to pick up 
fragments of Roman tiles, we approach the " king of the menhirs," 
called Mane-ar-Groac'h. His monolithic majesty is second in 
size and height to none in Europe, or any other country ; the 
next largest one in Brittany being thirty-seven feet high. It lay 
however, prostrate, and broken into four pieces. When entire it 
was sixty-seven feet six inches long, seven feet six inches thick 
in one diameter, and thirteen feet six inches in the broadest 
portion. This colossal menhir, as usual when one or' two stand 

878 The American Naturalist. [October, 

alone, served as a monument, and was evidently in direct relation 
to the tumulus and the inclosed dolmen, for we noticed one 
standing sentinel over a dolmen ; and they are sometimes erected 
on the summit of a tumulus, as at He de Sein ; in such case they 
may have been put up to indicate burials. The dolmen near the 
base of the Mane-ar-Groac' a famous one, and, like many of 
the others, has been purchased and restored by the government. 
It is the Dol-ar-Marc'hadourien, or Table of the Merchants. On 
the under or inner side of the great table or covering slab, which 
is twenty feet long by thirteen feet wide, was engraved a large 
stone symbolic hatchet with its handle. That these images are 
in reality rude representations of hatchets seems plausible. Stone 
axes, apparently made expressly for ceremonial use, are found in 
nearly all dolmens, having been placed there by the side of the 
dead ; and they are in nearly all cases beautifully finished, with 
sharp, unbroken edges, and often of jade, which is only now to 
be found in Asia and Polynesia, being one of the rarest minerals 
in Europe, Some authors suppose that the axe was regarded by 
the people as the symbol of separation, an emblem of the end of 
life. However this may be, whether from its utility alone in ' 
every-day life, or its use as a weapon of war, it must have been a 
highly prized and venerated instrument, to be so often engraved 
on tombs, and so invariably buried with the dead. 

This region is especially rich in dolmens, as they are scattered 
all about Lockmariaquer ; the dolmen of Mane Lud being situated 
on one of the principal streets, next to a house, the tumulus once 
inclosing it rising behind. 

A little way out from the town is the dolmen of Kervress, 
remarkable for the cup-shaped pits in the under side of the cov- 
ering slab, and which, of course, must have been made before 
the stone was put in place. These cup-shaped hollows are 
scattered irregularly over the surface, varying somewhat in size, 
the largest being about an inch and a half in diameter. They 
are a great puzzle to archeologists, who can make nothing of 
them. Occurring in Germany, Switzerland, among the Alps and 
the Pyrenees, and in Portugal, both in dolmens and on menhirs, 
they had some meaning to the men of the stone and of the bronze 

1891.J Amouc; the Prehistoric Monuments of Brittany . 879 

age, after which they ceased to be formed. It is only to be said > 
with Cartailhac, that at -the present day Hindu women at the 
approach of maternity may be seen carrying water from the 
Ganges, with which they sprinkle these symbolic cups in their 
temples with prayers to the divinity indwelling. 

Such superstitions still prevail, unless they are of new and 
independent growth, in France, and in the Pyrenees, in Sweden, as 
well as in Switzerland, where they are either regarded as the work 
of elves, or visited by young girls and widows in the hope of 
getting husbands. The great mound of St. Michel looms up as 
on our return we approach the little village of Carnac. It is the 
largest tumulus in France, overlooking the rather flat surrounding 
country and the Atlantic, with Belle Isle in the distance and to 
the right the peninsula of Quiberon. The tumulus is now 65 feet 
above the surrounding fields, though originally it must have been 
considerably higher, its summit having been leveled by the 
Romans, who built a temple upon it, while the remains of a 
Gallo- Roman villa are still visible near its base. In place of the 
Roman temple stands a humble and not at all interesting chapel, 
dedicated to St. Michael. We ascend the tumulus by the fifty -two 
steps made of the small granite blocks taken from the galgal 
which protected the dolmen, the great elliptical mound of earth 
covering both dolmen and cairn, being 400 by 200 feet in its 
greater and lesser diameters. Toward the north and northwest 
are plainly to be seen the famous alignments of Kerlescan, 
Kermario, and Menec, which we were to visit on the morrow-, 
when M. Gaillard was again our guide, philosopher, and friend. 
Without his intimate knowledge of these striking monuments we 
should not have half seen or understood them, and the kindly 
man, full of enthusiasm and enlightened interest, told us all he 
knew of the alignments and their probable object. His conclu- 
sions seem to us to be in advance of what has been published 
by the leading French archeologists, who have only made com- 
paratively brief visits to the region. Fortunately the government 
has for a number of years taken possession of the alignments and 
most of the dolmens, restoring them by setting the buried or fallen 

880 The American Naturalist. [October, 

stones into their original places, so that we saw them under more 
favorable auspices than earlier travelers. • 

With our old white Breton horse and ricketty cart, and youth- 
ful Breton presiding over the reins, we again drove through Carnac, 
past iVEont Saint Michel, and turning sharply north at the salt 
vats, drove through a delightful lane shaded by chestnuts and 
oaks, with walls of turf overgrown by the gorse, leading to an 
old chateau, buried from sight by a thick wood. It was just the 
day for exploring alignments. The same blessed sun which for 
so many ages had shown upon these same stones while being 
planted by throngs of Neolithic workmen, perhaps under the 
inspiration of their priestly leaders, — the same sun shone brightly 
under the menhirs rising from the gay purple heather which 
clothed the undulating plain. M. Gaillard had wisely conducted 
us to the easternmost point, and was now to lead us for three or 
four miles westward, so that we could review, one after the other, 
beginning with the thirteen alignments of Kerlescan, and ending 
with those of Menec. 

There are at Kerlescan thirteen rows or alignments, comprising 
262 menhirs, and extending westward about 1 ,000 feet. At the 
western end is a cromlech now restored, which, instead of being 
semi-circular, is somewhat square, inclosing a space about three 
hundred feet in diameter. We then visited the interesting 
elliptical mound inclosing the dolmen of Kerlescan, lying just 
north of the middle of the group of menhirs, which is exceptional 
and indeed unique in Brittany from having been surrounded by 
an elliptical cromlech or circle of menhirs, some of which were 
six or seven feet high, and placed a few feet apart, not touching 
each other as in those of the alignment. Then retracing our 
steps, picking our way back through masses of the prickly, for- 
bidding gorse, which bore an occasional yellow pea-like flower, 
we examined the cromlech, and, taking to our cart, drove on to 
the next series of alignments, the larger one of Kermario. 

The avenues of Kermario consist of 855 menhirs planted in ten 
rows, extending over the undulating heath for nearly a mile, or, 
to be exact, 4,037 feet - The standing stones are impressive for 
their size and height, some of them being twelve feet high. 

1891.I Among the /' 1 His of Brittany. 881 

Moreover, an added interest are the traces of Roman occupation 
on the south side near the western end, — in fact, traces of the 
civilization of Rome of the period of the Gallic wars are scattered 
over Morbihan ; and the peasants call the alignments Caesar's 
Camp. Indeed their explanation of these lines is that their 
patron Saint Corneille was pursued by the Roman army, which 
was, as a punishment, turned to stone, the taller pillars represent- 
ing the officers. 

After crossing another interval we reach the eastern end of the 
alignment of Menec, whose cromlech, at its western end, incloses 
some of the farmhouses of the hamlet of Menec, which is not far 
from Carnac. The menhirs lie to the north of the road between 
Carnac and Plouharnel. The group is a little shorter than that of 
Kerrrrario, being 3,376 feet long, and consists of eleven instead 
of ten lines, and the stones are not quite so high and imposing as 
those of the middle group. The stones or pillars vary much in 
shape ; some are much rounded ; many were, however, planted 
with the smaller end down ; and whether it is a mere coincidence 
or not the highest stone is about eleven feet high, the number of 
rows is eleven, the alignments themselves are about eleven yards 
apart, while the spaces between the stones composing each line 
are often ten or eleven feet apart. In this, as in the other groups 
of alignments, the rows are not mathematically straight, but more 
or less wavy, and the stones vary much in distance apart, all the 
way from perhaps three or four to ten or eleven feet. In general 
the stones decrease in height toward the end, where they are not 
much over four or five feet high. The groups follow the natural 
inequalities of the plain, whose surface is rolling, the country 
slightly descending from Menec to Kerlescan. 

The semi-circle of stone or cromlech at the western end of the 
Menec group was inclosed by standing stones from about five to 
six and even eight feet high, which touched each other. At 
present many are prostrate, and there are two or three small stone 
farmhouses within the circle. Fortunately the government pur- 
chased the entire group in 1888, and will raise and plant the fallen 
stones ; and as the inhabitants of the houses die or remove, the 
buildings will be taken down. The restoration of the Kermario 

882 The American Naturalist. [October, 

group is nearly accomplished, and is almost entirely inclosed by 
a* low stone wall. 

It was hard to leave this weird, fascinating, and impressive 
landscape, in which the natural features were tame enough, the 
strange interest being due entirely to the work of the heads and 
hands of a forgotten and extinct people, who have passed away 
leaving not a tradition behind them, — only these imposing monu- 

" No priestly stern procession now 

Streams through their row of pillars old ; 
No victims bleed, no Druids bow, — 

Sheep make the daisied isles their fold." 

Returning to our hotel to breakfast, we spent the afternoon in 
exploring the dolmens and alignments of the Quiberon peninsula, 
accompanied by M. Gaillard, who was so enthusiastic and inter- 
ested in having us see everything of archeological interest. 

The carriage road to St. Pierre, which is a little village situated 
on the new railway running to Quiberon, passes over a dreary, 
monotonous waste of sand, and as it runs along the middle of the 
neck of land reveals few extended views of the ocean. On our 
way we pass on the western shore, not far from the site of a 
Gaulish burial-place, from which M. Gaillard had recently exhumed 
seven skeletons, with bronze bracelets and Gaulish coins and 
pottery. After visiting the dolmens and tumuli of Port Blanc, on 
the west shore near St. Pierre, gathering pieces of pottery, bones, 
and flint chips, and seeing how the ocean has encroached on the 
slowly subsiding coast, so as to undermine the cliff and the 
tumulus, which must have been situated much farther inland in 
pre-Celtic times, we walked over the grassy, sandy wastes back 
to our cart, and drove past the village of Saint Pierre and its old 
windmill to the menhirs and cromlech on the shore. How long 
the rows of standing stones were originally, it is difficult to say, 
because the coast has sunken and the waves have undermined and 
overturned the stones at the eastern end. Walking down across 
the field, where the men, and women, too, were digging potatoes, 
we stood on the edge of the falaise, or sandy cliff, and the tide 

1891.] Among the Prehistoric Monuments of Brittany. 883 

being partly out, we could trace some of the lines into the sea. 
A few of the stones were lying prostrate on the beach, while others 
beyond were overgrown with sea-weed, and still beyond lay some 
under the waves. There are in all five lines, which extend in a 
southeasterly direction for 635 feet seaward. At a distance of 
about ninety yards from the head stones of the rows, the highest 
menhirs being about eleven feet, is situated the ruined cromlech 
which, according to Lukis, was two hundred feet in diameter. We 
did not attempt to measure it. The group has not yet been 
restored, and only about a dozen of the stones are still upright. 

M. Gaillard had brought his compass with him, and now dem- 
onstrated a curious fact to us. He had already called our atten- 
tion, while visiting the alignments of Kermario and of Menec, to 
the occurrence between certain of the rows of a single menhir, 
standing by itself, and which has been overlooked, he said, by all ' 
other archeologists. In the alignments of Kerdescan this mys- 
terious odd stone is situated, we think, between the seventh or 
eighth space between the rows. It is about eleven feet high, and 
from nine to ten feet thick at its greatest diameter, which is not far 
from the top, the stone being smaller at its base. In the align- 
ments of Menec the single menhir is in the third space from the 
northern side; namely, between the third and fourth rows of 
planted stones. In each group of alignments, at least in four of 
them, this odd menhir occurs, though varying in situation, de- 
pending apparently on the position of the rows, none of which 
are exactly in an east and west course, as their builders had no 
compass. They are all situated not many paces — perhaps fifty, 
more or less — from the cromlech. 

Now our friend and guide took the greatest interest and satis- 
faction in placing his compass on one of the middle stones of the 
cromlech at St. Pierre, and demonstrating to us that the line of 
50 (it varies from 45 ° to 50 in different groups of alignments) 
intersects the single menhir. M. Gaillard has been here, Jls well 
as at the other alignments, at sunrise on the morning of the longest 
day in the year, the 2 1 st of June, has placed his compass on this 
menhir, and at the moment the sun appeared above the horizon 
the odd or single unaligned menhir was seen to be in line with 

884 The American Naturalist. [October, 

the median stone of the cromlech and with the sun. It is there- 
fore inferred, and very naturally, that the designers and builders 
planted these stones in accordance with a fixed plan, and that the 
inclosure must have been the scene of some ceremony at the time 
of the summer solstice. And this confirms the idea insisted on 
by archeologists, among them MM. Cartailhac and Gaillard, that 
the groups of standing pillars were planted after a common design 
and nearly at the same epoch, and that the people who erected 
them were possibly worshipers of the sun, having brought with 
them from the far east, their original home, the cult so char- 
acteristic of eastern races. On the morning of our last day spent 
in the Morbihan — and what soul-stirring and awe-inspiring days 
they were, with the charm of the fresh Atlantic breezes, and 
the bright sun lighting up the heaths and plains, the quaint cos- 
tumes and dialect of the peasants lending an unusual human 
interest to the scene — we drove to the dolmens and alignments of 
Erdeven, through a region of lilliputian farms. The property of 
the country people is chiefly in land, and the farms handed down 
from one generation to another becoming gradually halved and 
quartered, though many were triangular or polygonal in shape, 
until some of them seem scarcely large enough to support a sheep 
or cow, or to afford room enough for even a small potato patch. 
Moreover, they are hedged in by high turf walls overgrown with 
gorse, one of the most forbidding of prickly plants. Some of the 
farms were inclosed in turf fences, perhaps four or five feet high, 
with the corners elaborately built of stone. 

The largest of the dolmens in Brittany is that of Crucuno, 
called La Roche aux Fees, or the Stone of the Fairies. A farmer 
had built his house next to it, and the dolmen, by no means of 
fairy-like proportions, was used as a cow-house until its purchase 
and restoration by the government. It is twenty-four feet long 
by twelve wide, and one can stand upright in it. From this im- 
pressive dolmen a path, which a boy will point out for a slight 
cupreous gratification, leads across the fields to the very remarka- 
ble dolmen of Mane-Groh, which is galleried, and besides the 
principal chamber, has four lateral inclosures. 

1891.] Among the Prehistoric Moruu;, a is of Untlauy. ^^ 

We shall now dismiss the dolmens, which arc so numerous and 
interesting. They are regarded as the tombs or burial-places, 
possibly in some cases ossuaries, of tribal chiefs and their families. 
They were opened at intervals, perhaps for the interment of the 
successors of the warriors for whom they were first built. Many 
of them have a circular hole in the stone door a little over a foot 
in diameter, too small for the passage of a body, and probably 
used for the deposit of food for the service of the departed in 
his wanderings in the other world. It is not improbable that 
our pre-Celtic, neolithic ancestors brought with them from their 
eastern homes the observance of burial rites, and very primitive 
religious ideas, involving some notion of a future life, besides the 
worship of their ancestors and of the sun. 

On the whole the Erdeven group of alignments is more im- 
pressive than the others, on account of the greater length of the 
rows, the larger, higher stones, and their greater number, 1,120 
having been counted by M. Gaillard. They extend over the 
rolling plains a distance of more than two kilometers, or over a 
mile, — viz., 6,886 feet. One of the standing stones near the 
western end is nineteen-and-a-half feet in height, and two others 
a little over twenty feet high ; one of the prostrate stones is 
called " the sacrificial stone," but the furrows in the surface seem 
due rather to weathering than to artificial means. 

Could one stand at or near the head, and overlook the entire 
group of alignments, the impression made would be of course 
more striking than at present, since many of the stones have 
fallen, and the lines are much broken, while they make a turn to 
the southeast near their middle. But as they stand, the longer 
the observer lingers among them the more impressive they 
become; and not to see the alignments of Carnac and of Erdeven 
is to miss one of the wonders of the world. They rank in im- 
portance and interest with the ruins of Central America and of 
Mexico, and the so-called Pelasgic walls and burial-mounds of 
Greece, while they are by far the most imposing relics of pre- 

Rows of standing stones are not, however, confined to the 
Morbihan; the menhir-erecting and dolmen-building race, judging 

886 The American Naturalist. [October, 

by the monuments it has left behind, existed in other parts of 
France and of the Old World. According to the latest and 
most trustworthy authority, M. Cartailhac, whose work entitled 
" La France Prehistorique " appeared in 1 889, there are in Morbihan 
eight of these groups of alignments, including the cromlechs con- 
nected with them, and nine, far less important, in Finisterre, five 
in the department of Ille-et-Vilaine, and six or seven others, of 
small size and slight importance, in the rest of France, most of 
them only forming one or two short rows of standing stones. 
Mortillet says there are in France fifty-six alignments, in fifteen 
departments. Analogous to the alignments in France are the 
Sarsden Stones in Berkshire, England, which are composed of 
800 menhirs. 

Solitary standing stones or monoliths of a later age occur in 
the Pyrenees, in Corsica, and in Northern Africa, and at present 
the natives of Madagascar and the Khasias of Northwestern India 
raise stone columns around their tombs ; but these are^analogous 
to the solitary menhirs planted near the dolmens, or those com- 
posing the cromlechs, surrounding dolmens, or tumuli. Whether 
of original prehistoric growth or a later development, the solitary 
menhirs are in Thibet and in other lands venerated as symbols of 
the reproductive powers of nature. Finally, we have the solitary 
obelisks of Egypt, and the monumental stones of mediaeval times, 
which have survived to our day in the granite shafts and marble 
columns memorizing great national events, or sacred to the mem- 
ory of the departed. 

The alignments were not made spasmodically, at irregular inter- 
vals, one stone after another being set up during a long period, 
as in a modern cemetery, but they were evidently built at one 
period after a fixed design or pattern, to which all conform. 
Those of Morbihan and of Finisterre were undoubtedly planted 
at the same time by the same people, — a race animated by other 
ideas than those of living merely an animal existence. It is not 
probable that they were memorials of some conquest or other 
event of great importance. It seems natural to conclude that 
these vast and imposing relics, whether we consider the size of 
the stones themselves, their enormous number, their repetition 

1891.] Among- the Prehistoric Monuments of Brittany. 887 

over a not very extensive region, and their similarity of plan and 
contemporaneity with the dolmens, were the outcome or tangible 
expression of the religious nature of the pre-Celtic mind. The 
people had, long before starting on their westward migration, 
emerged from savagery, and after centuries of physical and intel- 
lectual effort, having peopled Europe, now strong in numbers, and 
dominated by lofty conceptions and wonderful zeal and industry, 
had met together, and working, as if impelled by a common 
inspiration and impulse, under the direction of their priests, raised 
these unique monuments. The population must have been dense; 
it was not now migratory, but an agricultural as well as pastoral 
people. The materials for the dolmens and menhirs were not far 
off. No traces of quarries have survived, because the Atlantic, 
in conjunction with the plutonic forces at work in the earth's 
crust, has lowered the coast, and washed away all traces of these 
mighty workers in stone. As we noticed in the materials of 
some of the dolmens and menhirs, the rock is a porphyritic 
granite, with oblong crystals of feldspar and scales of black 
mica, readily rusting on exposure to the air. On the cliffs at the 
ferry, on the way to Lockmariaquer, we noticed the rock in. place. 
It readily and naturally breaks by the action of frost into square 
or oblong blocks, fitted either for monoliths, or for the small, 
squarish blocks with which the galgals were formed. 

More industrious and inventive than savages, they made use of 
their oxen, and, whole families or tribes cooperating, the busy 
multitudes, swarming like bees, with the use of stone axes and 
chisels, and the aid of fire, quarried the big slabs for the dolmens, 
and the monoliths for the alignments. They probably moved 
them on rollers a few hundred yards, or even one or several miles, 
inland, and then, with a skill developed by long experience, and 
probably after many a bitter failure, set the stones in place. Some 
of the menhirs stood on the surface, without any foundation ; in 
other cases foundations for them were carefully laid. So long 
have they stood that all marks of quarrying have been effaced by 
the agency of the atmosphere. As Wilson states, a menhir in the 
headline of the Erdeven alignment, which had been overturned 
and used as a fireplace, though with tool-marks on it, and buried 

888 The American Naturalist. [October 

during Roman occupation, must have remained prostrate from 
fifteen hundred to nineteen hundred years ; " yet it had previously 
stood on end long enough a time for the top to become so 
weathered as to be plainly distinguishable from the bottom." 

What, then, was the use of these remarkable monuments? No 
burials took place among them. The chiefs and their families 
were deposited at death in the dolmens. The question is still an 
open one, the best archeologists differing as to whether they were 
monuments to the dead, or whether they were temples. The 
common design pervading all the larger alignments, showing that 
they were erected at the same epoch, forbids one accepting the 
view that they were simply commemorative of different persons, 
that they were a kind of archive, each stone recalling a fact, a 
person, or a date. The remarkable care observed in burying the 
dead proves that these people were strongly religious. The care 
taken to put in the proper place the odd stone, and its relation in 
the summer solstice to the rising sun, indicate that the align- 
ments were erected for the worship, on stated occasions, of the 
sun. M. Gaillard told us that he believed the menhirs were 
erected by this early race as monuments to their ancestors. The 
English archeologist, James Miln, who lived for many years at 
Carnac, and who founded and built the interesting local museum 
which bears his name, tells us in his " Fouilles Faites a Carnac " 
that after taking into account the association in this region of 
menhirs, of alignments, of cromlechs, and of dolmens, he con- 
cludes that " these monuments are the debris and the remains of 
an immense necropolis," and perhaps this is the more natural and 
logical view to hold. At the same time, while this involves the 
worship of their ancestors, the sun may also have shared in their 

Judging by the contents of the dolmens, some bronze bracelets 
and other articles having been found in them, these megalithic 
monuments were erected during a period of transition from the 
stone age to the age of bronze ; and they are supposed to be 
contemporaneous with the pile dwellings of the stone age of 
Switzerland. Who were these stone axemen, these neolithic stone 
masons, who could with their polished celts quarry, and could 

i8 9 i.] Among the Prehistoric Monuments of Brittany. 889 

transport monoliths weighing more than some of the obelisks of 
Egypt, the great menhir of Lockmariaquer being nearly 68 feet 
long, and weighing 240 tons ? Were they genuine Celts ? Prof. 
Gabriel de Mortillet says no. " All these primitive monuments 
formerly bore the collective name of Celtic or Druidical monu- 
ments. It was supposed that they were peculiar to the Celts, 
and raised by their priests, the Druids. It is a great error. 
These monuments are found in abundance in regions which have 
never been occupied by the Celts, as Denmark, Spain, Portugal, 
Morocco, Algeria, etc. They are even very probably in greater 
part anterior to the great Celtic invasions ; and if they attracted 
the attention of the Druids, it was only when they were already 
partly in ruins and lying on the surface of the soil " (" La 
Prehistorique Antiquite de 1'Homme," 1885). 

Cartailhac, in his excellent work on Prehistoric France (1889), 
also says that we must abandon the views of the older archeolo- 
gists, who believed that these were Druidical monuments, and 
should be attributed to the Gallic or Celtic race, or to any single 
race of emigrants from the east. Within twenty years, owing to 
the rapid course of discovery in France, so many dolmens having 
been opened, in which were found the skeletons of different races, 
the tendency among the most experienced French students is, 
with Mortillet, to deny any special ethnic value 'to these monu- 
ments. For example, De Quatrefages discovered the bones of 
two races in the same dolmen, and Hamy has demonstrated that 
the population of France was almost as much mixed during , 
neolithic times as to-day. Cartailhac concludes that the problem 
of the megalithic monuments is exactly that of the advanced 
civilization of Europe, which even in prehistoric times became 
almost universal, and which is called neolithic. "Did it," he 
asks, " reach our country with new races or populations ? Was 
it spread by contact of one people with another ? We have no 
response to make to these questions. The truth is probably 
scattered throughout all systems, and that which is true for one 
country will be inexact in another." 

All archeologists, however, agree that these monuments were 
erected by the neolithic race or group of races, who used pol- 

890 The American Naturalist. [October, 

ished stone axes, and that this complex of races originated in the 
east, perhaps between the Caspian and Black Seas, migrated into 
Europe, bringing with them the cereals, flax, and the domestic 
animals and burial practices, and that they had religious ideas. 
As compared with the paleolithic races of the Old World, or 
those who were simply hunters and fishermen, and were of a 
purer, more savage, and primitive race, the neolithic peoples were 
a most composite type. To narrow down the problem, the 
French archeologists acknowledge that the megalithic monu- 
ments of France were of the same age as the pile-dwellings at 
Robenhausen, near Zurich, which are of the polished stone age. 
It is well known that the lake-dwellers of Switzerland, as the 
centuries went on, received from the east and south bronze imple- 
ments, and a knowledge of the art of making bronze tools. It is 
also known that the dolmens of Northwestern France were still 
used as places of burial as late as the beginning of the bronze 
age. Hence it seems natural to infer that the people who built 
these monuments were the ancestors of the Celt-speaking Welsh, 
Irish, and Bretons. The Robenhausen civilization was not prob- 
ably much older than that of Egypt; and it seems reasonable to 
suppose that the menhirs and dolmens of France were of recent 
age, compared with the troglodytes of Spy and Neanderthal, the 
cave-dwellers of Cro-Magnon, of Dordogne, and of Kent's Hole 
or the men of the Mentone rock-shelters. 

At all events — and this is the great charm of such inquiries — the 
problem is as yet unsolved. We may wander up and down these 
alignments, so weird and awe-inspiring, and speculate as to what 
manner of men were their builders. Few places in the world are 
enveloped in such an atmosphere of myth and doubt. The very 
people now inhabiting these stone-studded plains, perhaps their 
remote descendants, speak a semi-fossil language, go about 
among these monuments of the dead in a funereal garb of black, 
still cherish a few pagan, almost prehistoric, superstitions. They 
can readily talk with Celtic, Irish, and Welsh, but French is a 
foreign language to them ; and, in short, they are a link between 
the present and the age of stone. Many English travelers visit 
this strangely interesting region. Why is it that so few Ameri- 
cans care to wander to the Morbihan ? 

The Double Monster Rosa-Josepha Blazek. 

T3 OSA and Josepha Blazek were born January 20th, 1878, a 
*^ Skreychov, in Bohemia. Their birth, which seems to have 
taken place without any difficulty, was accomplished under the 
care of a village nurse. 

The mother, aged twenty-two years, had been delivered, two 
years previously, of a well-formed and healthy daughter. The 
parents are sturdy peasants, of some means, but of limited intelli- 
gence. Until recently they have been opposed to a public exhi- 
bition of their children. 

A short notice printed at Prague in 1878 shows that six 
months after their birth they were visited by M. Auguste Breisky, 
then a professor of the German Faculty of Medicine of that city, 
and director of the Gynecological Clinic. After an examination, 
M. Breisky stated that the development of Rosa-Josepha was in 
accordance with their age. M. Marcel Baudoin relates that soon 
after their birth the parents, horrified, took the advice of an old 
woman, and left them eight days without food, expecting them to 

At first sight the sisters Rosa-Josepha give the impression of 
two little girls, rather small for their age (now thirteen years), very 
blonde, slightly pale, with a gentle, amiable manner, and eyes some- 
what languid in expression. On seeing them sitting side by side 
on the same footstool one would hardly suspect their union when 
they are dressed ; but if one makes the slightest movement the 
other follows immediately. 

The trunks are not parallel, the axes of the vertebral columns 
diverging perceptibly, making a large V, the apex of which cor- 
responds to the union of the pelves. Each trunk is bent on itsel 
at an angle of 45 °, to give the faces their proper positions. More- 
over, the heads are inclined a little toward each other, for the same 
reason. The contact of the trunks is less — although Rosa- 
Josepha is only thirteen years old — than that of the double mon- 

892 The American Naturalist. [October, 

ster Millie-Christine, aged twenty-two, in whom the right shoulder 
of one individual touches the left of the other. 

The faces of these two little girls closely resemble each other ; 
they have a rather old and worn appearance, but the mental and 
physical strain to which they have been subjected since leaving 
their own country would account for this to a certain degree. 

In figure the resemblance is extraordinary^ — much more so than 
between ordinary brothers and sisters, and even more than is often 
the case between twins of the same sex. 

It is only when one examines them in profile that it can be 
seen that they are united by the posterior pelvic wall as com- 
pletely as the famous Hungarian pygopage, Helen-Judith, descrip- * 
tions of whom may be found in all the old works on monsters. 

The angle formed by the bodies — the point of the V repre- 
senting the trunks — is made by the intimate union of the sacral 
and coccygean regions at the center, and those of the four nates 
by the lateral parts. One finds there a real saddle, of which the 
bony skeleton resembles a wooden saddle similar to those of the 
Breton horsemen. There is a single pelvis of exaggerated size, 
consisting of four iliac bones, to which are attached the four legs, 
which are well formed, if one can judge from the gambols in 
which these young persons indulge without difficulty. 

Beneath the sacral conjunction, in a quadrilateral, dome-like 
space, limited by the origin of the four lower limbs, there is found 
a region the description of which is of the first importance in the 
history of monsters. In the language of a German gynecolo- 
gist who is very exact on this point, and also of M. Isch-Wall, 
there would seem at first sight to be a single set of organs ; one 
urethra, one uterus, and one anus. It is certain, however, that 
there are two bladders, for a desire to urinate is not felt by both 
individuals at the same time ; in this they resemble other pygo- 
pages, and it is easily understood if one believes that the allan- 
toides are formed when the union of the embryos takes place, and 
by reason of their very anterior situation, they are not close to the 
point of contact, which is posterior. 

The other internal genital organs are double. 

i8 9 i.] The Double Monster Rosa-Josepha Blazek. 893 

The rectum is probably single for some distance, as they are 
actuated by a single impulse to defecate ; but there are undoubt- 
edly two large intestines. 

According to Breisky, at the age six months there was a 
remarkable asymmetry of the heads of the two children, very 
noticeable if one looked at them from above or behind. 

As regards psychological phenomena, it is now well known 
that monsters of this kind constitute two distinct personalities, 
and that one has to deal with individuals where brains function 
entirely independently of each other. 

The two girls speak " Czech," — that is to say, the language of 
their native land. They can occupy themselves in many ways 
independently of each other. One sleeps while the other is 
awake. The showman relates many amusing stories about the 
different sensations that they experience, but these need to be 
verified. It has been proved, however, that they have not the 
same tastes in the matter of food. One likes beer, the other 
wine ; one is fond of salad, the other detests it, etc., etc. ; when 
one is thirsty the other does not necessarily experience the same 

The two hearts do not beat in unison, for the radial pulses are 
not synchronous. 

With Millie-Christine, Paul Bert demonstrated that a touch on 
the lower limbs of one individual was perceived by the other ; 
whence it was concluded that the caudce equina of the spinal 
marrow were united. It does not seem to be so with Rosa- 
Josepha ; there is only a very restricted zone in which a sensation 
may be experienced by both at the same time, and this zone cor- 
responds to the middle part of the skin which covers the trans- 
verse mass placed between the pelves, — a place where it might be 
possible to separate the two girls if it should become necessary 
through the death of one of them. It can be inferred from this 
that the union is less intimate than in the case of Millie-Chris- 
tine, and that if the spinal canals communicate at the level of the 
sacrum — which is probable — the cords are either not united at 
all or but slightly. 

894 The American Naturalist. [October, 

The movements are supple and graceful. When one walks the 
other does not have to walk backwards. Progression takes place 
in many ways that would take too long to describe here. Ordi- 
narily, as with Millie-Christine, the two internal feet advance 
together, then the two external ones. Rosa-Josepha can walk, 
each by herself, the one carrying the other. The walker throws 
herself a little in advance, the one who is carried resting on the 
other's hip, having only to lift her feet a little from the ground. 
Sometimes they walk on three legs, or even two, going up stair- 
ways, and practicing the dancing lesson which is given them every 

The pathological history of their pygopage would be very 
interesting if it could be exactly known. It is on record that one 
of the children was sick, when a year old, with croup which the 
other did not have. Shortly after the well individual was seized 
with convulsions, which did not attack the one which had had 
the croup. 

The case of Rosa-Josepha is not entirely analogous and com- 
parable to the two other pygopages, Helen-Judith and Millie- 
Christine. The former, who has disappeared from public view 
since 1874, had the spinal cords united, but in Rosa-Josepha this 
does not seem to be the case. In other respects these two girls 
resemble Helen-Judith, and they probably constitute a type inter- 
mediate between the latter and Millie-Christine. 


^HHE question is often asked the editors, With but limited funds, 
* what journals related to biology should our college take ? 
As others may be in the same position as these inquirers, the 
answer is made here. Of course this journal should occupy the 
first place, since it is the only American periodical which regu- 
larly presents abstracts of the more important papers in all 
departments of natural history. Next in importance is the 
Journal of the Royal Microscopical Society (London, $7.50 a year), 
which, besides one or two original papers in each number, con- 
tains abstracts of work done in botany, zoology, and in micro- 
scopy and microscopical technique. The Zoologischer Anzeiger 
(Leipzig, $4) presents every two weeks original communications 
upon zoology, and also a classified list of all zoological publica- 
tions from all parts of the world. The Anatomischcr Anzeiger 
(Jena, $4) contains only anatomical and embryological papers, 
and an index to the current literature of those subjects. The 
Biologisches Centralblatt (Erlangen, $4) is made up of original 
communications and longer resumes of zoological and botanical 

In the line of botany every library should have the Botanical 
Gazette (Crawfordsville, Indiana, $2) and the Bulletin of the Tor- 
rcy Botanical Club (New York, $2). For the larger and more 
important papers the Annals of Botany (London), the AftnaUs des 
Sciences Naturelles Botanic (Paris), the Botanisches Centralblatt, 
and the Jahrbucher fur wissenschaftliche Botanik, are the most 

For the original contributions to zoology the most useful 
are the Journal of Morphology (Boston, £9), the Quarterly Jour- 
nal of Microscopical Science (London, $10), the Zcttschrift fur 
wissenschaftliche Zoologie (Leipzig). Where more funds are 
available this list can be indefinitely increased. 

896 The American Naturalist. [October, 

— The organ of the Brooklyn Entomological Society, Entomo- 
logia Americana, has ceased with the completion of its sixth 
volume. In the years which it has been running it contained a 
number of valuable papers on entomology, and especially was it 
noted for its synopses of the various groups of insects. In 
another aspect the demise of the journal is not to be regretted, for its 
editors apparently allowed everything that came to be published, 
and the result was that each number contained several articles 
each about a page in length. Such a course does not advance 
entomology ; it is rather a drag upon it, for no one can by any 
possibility keep track of the multitude of short notes thus poured 
out, and by-and-by there may be quarrels resulting because some- 
body's ten-line squib has been overlooked. Entomologia Ameri- 
cana was, however, not alone in this fault. 

— Uniformity is in many respects desirable in many things, 
but uniformity may result in deformity. What a world this would 
be were all men to think alike ! The editors of the American 
Naturalist have their little differences of opinion, but this does 
not interfere with the conduct of the magazine. For instance, 
one of our number exhibits tendencies towards a strict uniformity 
in geological nomenclature, while the other is more conservative, 
and perceives deformity in the uniformity of the newly modified 
names of the geological (geologic) ages. Triassic and Jurassic 
are good and long-accepted terms, but Siluric and Cretacic have 
a barbarous sound. Carbonic has a flavor of the deadly C0 2 ; and 
then Cambric! — it recalls handkerchiefs and pillow-slips, and any- 
thing except ancient Wales. However, the advocates of the new 
" terminatiology " are not thoroughly consistent. Ancient roots 
should not stand in the way of Eocic, Miocic, Pliocic, and the 
like, when uniformity is to be gained. 

Recent Books and Pamphlets. 

LEN, J. A.-Descriptions of a New Species and a New Sub-Species of 
Ext. Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist.. Vol. III., Oct., 1890. From the autl 
1, H. M.-On the Geology of Quebec and Environs. Bull. Geol. Soc. 


Florian.— The 

Teaching a 


From the 

.L, J. MCK.— Psyc 

:hologyat t 


L.J.,andG.C. Da 


Fleming, S.— Time Reckoning for the Twentieth Century. Ex. S 

ving and Extinct. London : Adam and Charles Black. From the 
FOSHA.Y, P. M., and R. R. Hice.— Glacial grooves at the Southe 

Fourth Aniyial Report of the Canadian Institute (session of 1890- 

1a, with Descriptions of One New Gem 
i on the Genus Felichthye of Swainson. 

XI II.. pp. 361-376, pi. 28-30.— The Osteologies 
Kelly, E. A.— Notes on the Myology of 

The American Naturalist. [October, 

■emde Eier im Nest. Ein Beitrag zur Biologie der Vogel. 

From the Truste 

W.— The Inca Bone and Kindred 


des Annates des Sciences Naturelles, 

B83. F 

New Spe 

mestone of Ireland. Ext. Geo/. Mag. 


III., Vol. 

Nineteenth A 

nnual Report of the Board of Directo 

•s I'hila 

Zool. Soc 


Jahr. des Kgl. Bayr. Oberbergamts Jahr., 1800. From the author. 

Riley, C. V— Insecticides and Means of Applying Them to Shade and Forest 
Trees. Ext. Fifth Report U. S. Entomol. Com. From the author. 

Ryder, J. A.— The Sturgeons and Sturgeon Industries of the Eastern Coast of the 
United States. Ext. Bull. U. S. Fish Com., Vol. VIII., 1888, pis. 37 to 59- ?™ m the 

.nnual Report of the Commissioners of tl 
tfear from Oct., 1889, to Sept. 30th, 1890. 
tiual Report of the Board of Control of 

.TEARNS, R. E. C— On the Nishinam Game of " 
ps." Ext. Am. Antkropol., Oct., 1800. From the 1 

., pp. 457-^43, pl- 38. From the Museum. 

1 891. From the 
idae of Temperate 

Udden, J. A.— Megalonyx Beds in Kansas. Ext. Am. GeoL, June, 1891. From 

WHITMAN, C. O.-The Naturalis 
Wallace, A. R.— Natural Selec 

Recent Literature. 


Geological Survey of Arkansas, i88g. 1 — This volume of the 
Geological Survey's reports relates principally to Crowley's Ridge, — 
the only marked topographic prominence in the country between 
Little Rock and Memphis, the geology of which is most admirably 
discussed by R. Ellsworth Call, who contributes, also, notes' on the 
forest trees of this region, and a description of a new mollusk. MyH&u 
harnatoides, from the Tertiary of Eastern Arkansas. Prof. R. D. 
Salisbury has a chapter upon the relations of the northern drift to the 
Plistocene deposits, where he clearly sets forth the succession of events 
in the northern part of the United States during Plistocene times, 
and points out the relations of those events to the influences that 
shaped Crowley's Ridge and its adjacent territory. A valuable paper 
from Prof. F. H. Knowlton, on the " Fossil Woods and Lignites of 
Arkansas," and a brief explanation from J. C. Branner as to the 
origin of Crowley's Ridge, make the report on this region of 
Arkansas complete. 

Zoological Geography. 8 — The study of the zoological distribu- 
tion of animals is one which is making continual advances. It is with 
the view of presenting the principles of this science in a comprehen- 
sive yet brief and simple manner that M. Trouessart has written this 
book. It is one of the Bibliotheque Scientifique Contemporaine series, and, 
like the others of that admirable set, is well illustrated with pictures, 
diagrams, and tabulated statements to express at a glance the author's 

In general, the greater divisions established by Sclater and Wallace 
have been followed, but some changes have been necessitated by the 
progress made during the last five years. 

In chapters I. to V. the author describes the great continental 
regions which have been distinguished according to the distribution of 
the higher vertebrates. Chapter VI. is a study of the means of the 
dispersion of animals, both by their own locomotive powers and by 
agencies outside of themselves. Here, also, will be found a sketch of 
the faunal characters of the different regions, — a branch of the subject 

•. E. L. Trouessart. Librairie J. I 

900 The American Naturalist. [October, 

too often neglected. The second part (chapters VII. to XL), de- 
scribes in detail the successive and regular distribution of each class of 
animals, the classification being based on their means of locomotion. 
In the last chapter the author calls attention to the relations existing 
between paleontology and zoological geography. 

M. Trouessart is to be congratulated for the masterly way in which 
he has presented the subject, and on his success in popularizing it. 

The Ancestors of Our Animals. 3 — This exceedingly attractive 
little book is one of the Bibliotheque Scientifique Contemporaine 
series. In it Dr. Gaudry has combined the ideas concerning the 
origin and development of animal life previously published in scattered 
articles. There is a resume of his works on Pikermi and the Leberon 
which will be appreciated by students who have been unable to pro- 
cure the original volumes. Finally a chapter is devoted to the 
paleontological work done in the Museum of the Jardin des Plants. 
M. Gaudry has introduced many figures to illustrate the text, many of 
which are restorations, and give the general reader a better idea of the 
animal than could be obtained from the fragments of bones which 
mean so much to the student. The book is a capital demonstration of 
scientific facts made popular. Prof. Gaudry states that he has been 
materially assisted in this work by M. Marcellin Boule. 

Morphology of the Avian Brain— This is the title of by no 
means an unimportant contribution to the first volume of the Journal 
of Comparative Neurology, of Cincinnati, by Mr. C. H. Turner. The 
memoir includes over fifty octavo pages, and is illustrated by five 
plates, three of which are folding. They present many figures of 
brains, of divers views, of different birds of this country. There are 
also sectional microscopical views. Mr. Turner informs us that his 
investigations are based upon the study of "over one hundred and fifty 
birds, belonging to nine orders, twenty families, more than forty genera, 
and about fifty species." A brief but clear account of his methods of 
research is given, and this is followed by his remarks upon the external 
form of the bird's brain in general, followed in turn by sections devoted 
to descriptions of the various parts, as the rhinencephalon, the prosen- 
cephalon, the hemispheres, the mesencephalon, the diencephalon, the 
epencephalon, the metencephalon, and finally the cranial nerves. 
Measurements and ratios of all these structures are given under the 

» Les Ancetres de nos Animaux dans lea TemDS G*olo*in„« 
Libraire J. B. Bailliere e 

1891.J Kecent Lutratmre. 901 

various divisions treating of them. He republishes Coues's description 
of the cranial nerves as presented in his second edition of the " Key" 
to North American birds, and states that he is in error when he says 
that the " optic lobes are never covered " in the avian brain by that 
part of the encephalic mass above them (p. 50). 

In the second section is discussed the " Relation of Brain Measure- 
ments to Taxonomy," wherein the classifacatory schemes for birds 
given by Huxley and Parker are contrasted, and a special table treat- 
ing of the taxonomy of the North American Passeres as it has been 
given by Coues, the A. O. U., and by Shufeldt, is also presented. 

Mr. Turner supports the views of Shufeldt with respect to the posi- 
tion in the system of the Corvidae, the Icteridae, the Fringillidae, and 
the Turdidae, and departs but slightly from him in the other families. 
In giving the Paridae a high place, he agrees with Coues, but gives 
Shufeldt due credit for having long ago pointed out their being a very 
highly organized group of birds. 

Although the present writer has adopted, in one or two instances, 
the exhibition of the affinities of families by means of tabulated serial 
lists, I must say here that upon the whole the scheme is very deceptive 
and often misleading. It is very much like an attempt to show the 
mode of growth and branching of a tree by similar means. It is quite 
out of the question. I consider that we have twenty families in the 
group Passeres in this country, and Mr. Turner has dealt with but ten 
of them. Further investigation may induce him to recast to some 
extent his taxonomical scheme of the North American Passeres, and 
we trust that such studies will soon be forthcoming. 

Space will not admit of my giving Mr. Turner's valuable recapitu- 
lation of his observations upon the avian brain here, and I must be 
satisfied with this brief notice of a paper that will well repay the care- 
ful reading of all those interested in vertebrate morphology, and in 
the structure and natural classification of birds in particular. — R. W. 
Shufeldt, August /otA, i8gi. 

General Notes, 


Chatham Island, Galapagos Archipelago, Aug. 28, 1891. 

Having returned from a trip of two months through the Galapagos 
Islands, I take the opportunity to send you a few lines about the prog- 
ress of the expedition. As you know, Mr. C. F. Adams and myself 
left New York on May 1st. Having direct connection at Panama, we 
reached Guayaquil May 13th. Unable to find any convenient ship 
to take us to the islands, we had to stay at Guayaquil until June 
1st, on which day we sailed on a schooner to Chatham, the most east- 
ern island of the group, on which the hacienda of Senor Manuel Cobos 
is placed. We arrived at Chatham June 9th. Here we remained, 
examining the island and making extensive collections, until June 26th. 
From this date to August 26th, when we returned to Chatham, the 
following islands were visited : Charles Island (stopped at three different 
ports and went over the whole island), Hood, Barrington, South In- 
defatigable, Brattle (not landed), South Albemarle (opposite Brattle), 
Grossman (not landed), Duncan, West Indefatigable, Jervis, East 
Albemarle (opposite Cowley), West James, North James (two differ- 
ent ports visited), North Chatham, West Chatham. 

On the second trip we intended to visit the following islands, and all 
arrangements had been made : Tower, Bindloe, Abingdon, West Albe- 
marle, Narborough, Weismann, and Culpepper ; but on my return here 
I found news from home which necessitated my return at once. 
Therefore I proposed to make only a short visit to the most important 
of the above islands — Tower, Bindloe, Abingdon — on my return to 

The following collections have been made : Mammals, birds (so far 
about 600 skins prepared by Mr. Adams, and the same number in 
alcohol), reptiles (many hundred specimens, complete series of Tropi- 
durus from all islands), spiders, land shells, insects, etc. The flora I 
have collected as much as possible of every island touched at. 

No mammals had been collected on these islands since Darwin's visit 
in 1835. Mr. Adams shot a bat on Chatham (the first one ever coU 
lected) and saw one on Albemarle. Hesperomys was secured on 


1891.] Geography and Travel. 903 

Barrington (eight specimens), South Albemarle (one specimen), Dun- 
can (one specimen), East Albemarle (one specimen) ; on Chatham one 
was observed. There cannot be any doubt that this mammal is an 
original inhabitant of the group. 

The birds are exceedingly interesting, and I hope to be able to give 
a satisfactory solution of the Geospiza question. As I have shown in 
a paper published in the Biologische Centralblatt, the Iguanoid 
Tropidurus is represented by a single species on each island, and 
nearly every island contains a different species or race of Tropidurus. 
This has been absolutely sustained. Now in the plastic genera of birds 
we find exactly the same. Let us first consider the genera Nesomimus 
and Certhidea, of which only a single species is found on each island. 
The genus Nesomimus is represented by a different species or race on 
every island, and there is never more than one species or race found 
on one island. The same is true of Certhidea, but this genus is not 
quite so plastic. On Hood, as it is known, Nesomimus is much differ- 
ent from the other species ; but so are Certhidea and Tropidurus. On 
the central islands — Chatham, Indefatigable, Jervis, James, Albe- 
marle — Nesomimus shows only slight differences ; but so do Certhidea 
and Tropidurus. What I want to state is the absolute harmony in the 
distribution and the grade of difference in these forms. This is also 
true of the flora, as far as I could make out. 

It is now necessary to examine such genera as Geospiza, Camarhyn- 
chus, and Cactornis, which are represented by a greater number of 
species on one island. As it is well known, there has been a great 
uncertainty as to the number of species found one ach island ; on some 
islands not less than eight species have been recorded. 

So far as my present investigation reaches, probably on none of the 
islands visited is the number of species greater than three ; but these 
three species vary nearly on each island, each separately, as if they 
would represent three different genera. The same view I have for 
Camarhynchus and Cactornis, and all such genera which contain more 
than one species of a genus on a single island, — like Bulimus, for 
instance. But often we find that the highest number of species is not 
reached by every island, but that the number of species is reduced. 
This can be explained by the extinction of one of the species. In this 
respect I have first to make some remarks about Nesomimus. As is 
known, Nesomimus existed on Charles Island in 1835 when Darwin 
visited the island ; it still was found there in 1868 during Dr. Habel's 
visit. We did not see a single specimen on Charles Island, notwith- 
standing the whole island was crossed and three different ports were 

904 The American Naturalist. [October, 

visited, and there is hardly any doubt that Nesomimus is extinct on 
Charles Island ; and the same is true of Duncan. We have been all 
over the island, and not a single^pecimen was seen. On all the other 
islands Nesomimus was exceedingly common. It is highly interesting 
to see thatTropidurus is greatly reduced on Charles Island. During my 
whole stay there I saw two specimens, of which I was fortunate enough 
to secure one. I do not need to state that I took the greatest pains to 
find more. On Duncan only twelve specimens could be secured after 
long hunting. On all the other islands Tropidurus is exceedingly 
frequent. Exactly the same we find in such genera which are repre- 
sented by different species on one island. 

One or two, perhaps three, of the "three original species" 
may be extinct. This condition can only be explained by the 
subsidence theory, which, as I have stated in my article published 
in your journal, also gives the only satisfactory explanation of the 
harmonious distribution and differentiation of fauna and flora. 

My opinion is that at the time when these islands were still in 
connection there existed already a great number of species of certain 
genera. As soon as separation begun each of these species was differ- 
entiated for itself, just in the same way as if it were a genus. It 
might happen that one or more, even all, of the species of such a genus 
became extinct on certain islands, or were not present there during the 
time of separation. 1 

Let us suppose the number of the species of Geospiza was four in 
the time when these islands were still in connection. These four 
species maybe called a, b, c, d, and may be represented by G.fuli^inosa, 
G. fortis, G. strcnua, and G. dentirostris, which latter species I have 
not yet seen, a, b, c, d is dependent on the different conditions on 
the different islands ; taking three islands with the conditions x, y, z, 
we can express the species on these three different islands, which 
formerly were all in connection, in this way : 

ist island, a x /(*) - b X /(*) - c x /(*) -dx /(*) 
2d island, a x f(y) - b x f(J) - c X J (y) -dx f (y) 
3 d island, axf(z)-bx /(*) - c x /(*) -dx/ (*) 


i*9*0 Geography and Travel. 

difference of the species. If one or the other of 

3d island, 0—0 — c +f(x)— o 

This, I think, will be sufficient to express my opinion on the differ- 
entiation of such genera which contain more than one species. 

Now some words about the birds themselves. Creagrus, of which, so 
far as I know, only four specimens exist in the museums, has been 
considered a very rare bird ; all the authentic specimens of which have 
been collected at Dalrymple Rock, west of Chatham. This bird is 
quite common here. We have seen it near Freshwater Bay, Chatham, 
between Charles and Hood, and found it in considerable numbers on 
the rocks in Gardner Bay, and on Gardner Island, near Hood, in 
hundreds of specimens; it was seen on Brattle, where many specimens 
were collected ; it was also found on a rock north of Sullivan Bay, 
James, and on the Seymour Islands, north of Indefatigable. Creagrus 
is probably found on every steep rock which contains holes, in which 
the bird breeds. 

On Albemarle, from which island only a few species of birds were 
known, we found over forty species (South Albemarle), a number 
greater than ever recorded from any island. Geospiza magnirostris , 
not observed since Darwin, was found on South Albemarle and Jervis ; 
it is simply the representative of G. strenua of other islands, as 
G. conirostris is the representative of this form on Hood. 

I will conclude this letter with a few words about the reptiles. Of 
Tropidurus I have already spoken. Geckos were found in great 
numbers on Charles (one species, G. galapagoensis), on Albemarle, and 
on Chatham. Snakes I observed on Hood (one specimen collected), 
Barrington, and Albemarle. Conolophus exists in great numbers on 
Barrington and the Seymour Islands, but was not noticed on any of the 
others. Amblyrhynchus is found on all islands, but is rare on some ; 
on Charles only two specimens were seen. 

The land tortoises are extinct on Charles, Chatham, Barrington, 
and Jervis, on which islands they formerly existed. They are probably 
extinct on Hood, on which a thorough search of two days over the 
whole island was without result. They are said to still exist in reduced 
numbers on James (an examination of two days was without result) and 
on Indefatigable. On South Albemarle, where we remained twenty 
days, we found the land tortoises still in considerable numbers, but it is 

go6 The American Naturalist. [October, 

exceedingly difficult to reach the places where they live. We secured 
eight living ones, of different size : five with shells one meter or more 
in length, and one, probably the largest one ever taken from the 
islands, with the carapace one meter and forty centimeters in length. 
You may imagine the amount of work when I tell you that these speci- 
mens had to be carried from eight to twenty miles over the lava fields 
and through the densest brushwood. 

I do not need to say that there was no possibility of bringing the large 
tortoises down alive. The largest one must have had a weight of 400 
pounds. On Duncan we secured eight tortoises; they are much 
smaller than the forms from South Albemarle, and resemble the 
Abingdon specimens. On the northeast side of Albemarle I tried to 
penetrate to the interior, but had to return after two days on account 
of the nearly impassable lava fields. 

So far I can say that the expedition has had the greatest success, 
and I am convinced that my expressed opinion on the origin of this 
group of islands is the correct one. I may add that in a single 
instance (near Barrington) I have found a land bird flying over the 
ocean ; it was the common Dendrmca aureola, found on all islands. 
It is certain, therefore, that these birds do not travel from one island to 
the other, as is also fully sustained by the collections. 

The birds are still as tame as formerly, especially on such islands 
which are not often visited. On Duncan a Butco galapagoensis sat 
down on a bush next to me. I touched him with a stick ; he did not 
move. I began to tickle him on the head ; this he seemed to like ; 
and an hour later, when I had gone to a smaller island near that place, 
he also came over and sat down next to me to be tickled by the stick. 
Myiarchus is the tamest bird, and often sat down on my hat or my 
stick when I kept quiet. 

I finish this letter, hoping that the expedition will be followed by 
others of the same nature. Biology is of the greatest importance for 
dynamical geology, and is in many cases the only source of informa- 
tion. The Fiji or Friendly Islands, which are considered as oceanic 

Is, but which I belk 

ntinental, ought t 

and also a group of islands which is doubtless of oceanic origin. 
Harmony or disharmony in the distribution of flora and fauna will 
always, I think, solve the problem of the origin. That variation goes 
on in definite lines, determined by the nature of the conditions, I am 
fully convinced. The theory of natural selection, especially the 
view of the " Neo- Darwinians," has not received any support; but 

1 891.] Geology and Paleontology. 907 

I left Chatham on September 1st for Tower Island. This island was 
very interesting, having never been visited before. Creagrus was found 
there in great numbers, breeding, besides Fregetta, Sula, and Phaethon. 
Of Fregetta a considerable number of embryos and nestlings were 
procured. Of land birds the following species were found : Geo- 
piza, two species ; Cactornis, one species ; Nesomimus, one species ; 
Certhidea, one species ; Dendrceca, one species ; the dove and owl were 
also observed. Not a single specimen of Tropidurus was seen; Am- 
blyrhynchus is frequent, but small. 

From Tower we went to Bindloe. All the birds collected by Dr. 
Habel were also obtained. Tropidurus is very common, and quite dis- 
tinct from the Abingdon form. Nesomimus, which had not been 
recorded before from this island, is a very abundant bird. 

On Abingdon we remained only a very short time. Nothing new is 
to be added to the results of Dr. Habel and the "Albatross." 

We reached Guayaquil September 16th, and sailed to Panama on 
the 19th on the " Santiago."— G. Baur, Clark University. 


The Desert Sandstone of Australia. — A paper by Mr. 
Charles Chewings, published in the Proceedings of the Royal Geograph- 
ical Society, June, 1891, contains the following interesting account of 
the " desert sandstone "of Central Australia : 

"At what period or periods the Lake Eyre depression was formed 
has not yet been satisfactorily decided ; but we may fairly conjecture 
that an opening at one time existed to the south into Spencer's Gulf. 
During Cretaceous times, however, that and all other outlets were 
things of the past, and the detritus from the Macdonnell and James 
ranges, as well as many other high lands, was washed into this large 
basin, of which, so far as ascertained at present, the outline extends 
from the Coast range, situated a little south of the Gulf of Carpentaria, 
westward nearly to the overland telegraph line. It then runs north- 
east towards Lake Eyre, and, skirting the Macdonnell ranges elevation, 
curves round to the north of the Charlotte Waters telegraph station, 
in about the latitude of Lake Amadeus, which lake it approaches, if 
not includes. This is probably the western boundary of this system. 

" From Lake Amadeus the Lake Eyre system extends northeasterly 
towards Port Augusta, takes a curve to the eastward, and runs along 

908 The American Naturalist. [October, 

east and west a few miles to the south of Lake Eyre. It then makes 
southeasterly for Barrier, and taking a long sweep to the east and north 
embraces the extent of those rivers that flow from south of the Gulf of 
Carpentaria into Lake Eyre. The shape is semicircular, and crescent- 
shaped, extending towards a half moon. No doubt detritus from the 
extensive area covered by the already-mentioned red sandstone forma- 
tion contributed largely towards filling it up to a level much higher 
than the present level of the country ; this is easily seen by the numer- 
ous tent-hills and table-lands scattered throughout the area of the 
basin, ranging from 200 to 500 feet high, of which Chamber's pillar is 
a remnant. As the basin sank, or surrounding land became elevated, 
so the flood waters carried this newer Cretaceous formation to the lowest 
depression, cutting deep gullies and wide waterways through the newer 
deposits, and generally lowering the basin. This has been going on 
probably from time immemorial ; certainly from Cretaceous (second- 
ary) age, down through Tertiary and Quaternary ages to the present 
time. When the seas that washed the softer and newer deposits away 
from the Macdonnell ranges and laid bare much of the primary rocks 
had subsided, and Central Australia was elevated quite above sea-level, 
and long ages of scorching summers had evaporated its larger lakes and 
surface waters, and the Cretaceous age (during which Lake Eyre was an 
inland sea) was rapidly becoming a thing of the past, a newer influence, 
and one that exists to-day, — viz., that of the wind, — probably blew 
into all secluded and rock-bound spots, depressions, shallow lakes, and 
like places the sandy weatherings from around their base, and a newer 
formation was the result. This is the commonly called ' desert sand- 
stone,' for what reason I have never had a satisfactory explanation. 
Both as a shallow- water deposit and a dry wind-blown deposit it 
retains its unmistakable characteristics. Its color is that of an ordi- 
nary grindstone, and it consists of horizontal layers, the cap of each 
being harder than that underneath it. By weathering its sides get 
hollowed out, and in the caves thus formed the aborigines find a refuge 
from the extremes of weather, often painting devices on the walls. 

" The great extremes of heat and cold, a dry atmosphere, and strong 
winds caused through radiation, tend to constant degradation of the 
rocks, the detritus being blown into sand-hills and distributed through- 
out this large area. In Western Australia, along the line of route taken 
by the Hon. John Forrest, surveyor-general of Western Australia, in 
'at. 26 S., a sandstone is met with that covers all other rocks from E. 
lung. 122 to E. long. 126 30'. In this extensive area of 'desert 
sandstone' all the rising ground is composed of it. < Very often one 

1 891.] Geology and Paleontology. 909 

side of the rise forms a cliff.' Further to the north the late Colonel 
Warburton found this same sandstone formation taxed his camels to 
the utmost. In the eastern colonies a desert sandstone exists, but 
whether similar to that in Western Australia, I cannot say. Mr. Wood- 
ward has satisfied himself that this formation overlies most, if not the 
whole of the western coast formations from Cambridge Gulf to King's 
Sound, and that it extends far inland towards Central Australia. 

" Under this sandstone formation the Carboniferous series he 
describes as well developed, and if it continues right across the conti- 
nent, as it does in China, coal deposits may yet be found in the 
interior of Australia. He has also discovered a large lava flow in the 
northwest, and fixes the Leopold range as of Carboniferous age ; also 
that the coast of Western Australia is rapidly rising, and he describes 
the sandstone area as extending inland ' as a vast table-land of from 
1,000 to 2,000 feet above sea-level. No volcanoes exist in the colony 
of Western Australia, and the general appearance of the country 
throughout indicates a condition of remarkable quiescence, continuing 
even further back than the Carboniferous epoch.' He describes the 
rivers, for the most part, as ' simply immense storm-water channels. 
Several large rivers have their sources in the western edge of this 
plateau, and cutting deep gorges through their upper horizontally 
bedded rocks, expose the underlying crystalline rocks across the strike 
of which they have cut their channels,' and considers that 'precious 
stones may be found in the amygdaloid regions. The mineral-bearing 
districts have been greatly decomposed and altered by thermal waters 
and steam at the time of the deposition of the lodes, and later by the 
heat evolved by the oxidation of the metallic sulphides.' He corrob- 

opinion that the uppermost 

desert sandstone is of to 

restrial origin, and probably formed shortly after the elevation of this 
continent. In places these beds are of terrestrial origin, there is not 
the slightest doubt ; in other places the indications point to a swampy 

Structure of the Piedmont Plateau.— Prof. Williams, of Johns 
Hopkins University, offers the following hypothesis as to the structure 
of the Piedmont region in Maryland : 

" That the eastern area is composed of rocks far more ancient than 
the western, which extend out under these, forming the floor upon 
which they were deposited ; and that although already much folded and 
metamorphosed, this crystalline floor underwent at least one more fold- 
ing after the schists had been laid down, carrying these with it and 

910 The American Naturalist. [October, 

involving them in a considerable but not an extreme amount of dis- 
turbance and metamorphism." 

The hypothesis seems to account for the difference between the rocks 
of the two areas and for the abruptness of their contact, while at the 
same time it explains the conformity along this contact, and the fact 
that this boundary and the axes of the synclinals are not coincident. 
(Bull. Geof. Soc. Am., Vol. II., pp. 301-322, pi. 12.) 

The Triassic of Massachusetts.— Mr. Benjamin Emerson does 
not accept the theory that the Triassic deposits of Massachusetts are, as 
a whole or in part, of glacial origin, but that they result from cur- 
rents. This will explain the sudden and irregular transitions from 
coarest to finest sediments, and the derivation of many of the coarse 
beds from rocks not known in place among the crystallines of the sur- 
rounding region. He believes the region to have been a narrow bay, 
with tides that swept up the eastern and down the western side, and 
left the center of broad, shallow mud-flats at a considerably higher 
level than the shoreward portion, so that they alone were regularly 
abandoned by the water at low tide. It follows from this that the 
deposits were contemporaneous, and this is shown by the position of 
the trap sheets. (Bull. Geol. Soc. Am., Vol. II., pp. 451-456, pi. 17.) 

The Relations of the Traps of the Newark System in 
New Jersey. — Mr. N. H. Darton makes known the following facts : 

"The trap outcrops inclosed by the Watchung Mountains of North- 
eastern New Jersey, and the outlying mass near New German town, are 
lavas, contemporaneous with the inclosing sediments, while all the 
other traps described are intruded sheets and dikes. 

" The igneous rocks are basalts, the eruptives are fine-grained and 
generally somewhat glassy, and the intrusives are coarser-grained, gen- 
erally being dolerite, in some cases including considerable biotite and 
often near gabbro in structure. 

"The great hooks characterizing the southernmost outcrops of the 
Watchung traps are mainly due to flexure, and the bowed course of 
their northern terminations and of Towakhow Mountain are due to the 
same cause." (Bull. U. S. Geol. Surv., No. 67.) 

The Iron Ore District of East Texas.— The second annual 
report, 1890, of the Geological Survey of Texas contains an interest- 
ing account of the iron ore district of East Texas, by Mr. E. T. 
Dumble. The territory described lies east of the 96th degree of longi- 
tude and north of the 31st parallel of latitude. From this area is 

1891.] Geology and Paleontology. 911 

excluded, as being non-iron-bearing, the portion north of Sulphur 
Fork, and also the northwestern corner, in which the black waxy 
prairies of the Cretaceous are the prevailing formation. 

In this district, so restricted, there are nineteen counties, containing 

ore exists in greater or less quantities and of varying qualities. 

The region is underlaid for the most part by strata of Cenozoic age. 
In only a few places are there exposures of Cretaceous strata, and when 
they do appear as inliers they belong to its uppermost members and 
are accompanied by salines. 

Meniscotheriidae and Chalicotherioidea. — The Meniscotheriid 
family of Condylarthra, which has been found only in the American 
Wasatch, and is represented by a single genus, has always been placed in 
a very doubtful phylogenetic position. Dr. Wortman in 1886 ' was in- 
clined to " regard Meniscotherium as the direct ancestor of the 
Hyracoidea, notwithstanding their wide separation in time and space." 
Schlosser in the same year 2 recognized the striking likeness of the molars 
of Meniscotherium to those of Chalicotherium, which was at the time 
believed to be a true perissodactyl, so that he naturally did not trace 
any ancestral relationship between these forms. He considered Men- 
iscotherium {op. cit., p. 120), with Macrauchenia, to be Perissodactyla 
which had retained a very primitive foot structure. Since this paper was 
published Chalicotherium has been removed to a separate division of 
Mammalia, affiliated to the Perissodactyla, but representing a distinct 

I find there are many striking resemblances between the dentition of 
Meniscotherium and Chalicotherium, and it appears to me probable 
that the Wasatch genus is related to the ancestral forms of Chalico- 
therium. The resemblances consist (a) In the enlargement of the 
posterior half of the dental series, and reduction of the anterior half. 
(£) The upper molars are of precisely the same pattern ; the protocone 
is isolated ; the hypocone and metaconule are united in a short 
transverse crest, (c) The similarity in the lower molars is seen espe- 
cially in the reduplication of the metaconid in both forms, and the 
absence of the third lobe upon the last lower molar. 

The differences between these genera are such as separate many 
higher from lower types, in the displacement of the foot bones and 

'" Beit. z. Kennt. Niss der S 

912 The American Naturalist. [October, 

evolution of the teeth. Chalicotherium shows adiplarthrous condition 
of both carpus and tarsus and no fibulo-calcaneal facet ; there is no 
third trochanter ; the anterior intermediate cusps of the upper molars 
(protoconule) is reduced. 

We shall remain in the dark as to the truth of this suggestion until 
we find the complete feet of Meniscotherium. In the meantime the 
striking resemblances seen in the teeth point strongly towards a distant 
relationship between these forms. — Henry F. Osborn, American 
Museum of Natural History, New York, August 27th, iSpi. 

The Family of Astrapotheriidae.— Senor Alcides Mercerat has 
recently published a paper on the Astrapotheriidae, to which he refers 
two* new genera, Listriotherium and Xylotherium, as well as Bur- 
meister's genus, Astrapotherium. Listriotherium is represented by two 
new species: L. patagonicum Merc, from the Eocene of Monte Leon, 
and L, filholii Merc, from the Eocene of Santa Cruz. Xylotherium 
has but one representative, X. mirabile Merc, also from the Eocene of 
Santa Cruz. To Astrapotherium belong A. patagonicum Burm., A. 
augustidens Merc sp. no v., A. marshii Merc. sp. nov., A. gaudryi 
Merc. sp. nov., all from the Eocene of Mt. Leon, Patagonia; also A. 
magnum Owen, A. burmeisierii Merc, sp nov., A. robustum Merc. sp. 
nov., from Santa Cruz, Patagonia, and A. voghtii Merc. sp. nov., from 
the Eocene of Chubut. (Extr. Rev. Mus. de la Plata, Tomo I.) 

On a Skull of the Equus excelsus Leidy, from the Equus 
Bed of Texas. — I have received from my valued correspondent, 
William Taylor, a skull of the Equus excelsus, which is of much 
interest as the first that has come to light in the United States. It 
lacks only the posterior and inferior walls of the brain-case, and the 
premaxillary region was detached in such a way that its length is not 
absolutely certain, though contact of the adherent matrix was found. 
This skull shows that the Equus excelsus is intermediate in characters 
between the horse and the quagga and allied species, and possesses 
some Hippidium characters in addition. The resemblance is, how- 
ever, greater to the quagga. This is shown by the shortness 
of the premaxillary region, the abbreviation of the maxillary 
posterior to the last molar, and the long excavation of the posterior 
nares, which extends to the line of the anterior border of the penul- 
timate superior molar. It differs from both of these species in the 
posterior prolongation of the vomer over the presphenoid, and in the 
small size of the last superior molar. The latter tooth is smaller than 

1891.] Geology and Paleontology. 913 

the penultimate, as in the species of Hippidium and the three-toed 
horses. The glenoid surface of the squamosal is of nearly uniform 
width, as in the Hippidiums, and not expanded at theexternal extremity, 
as in the horse and quagga. The E. excelsus differs from the quagga 
in the very slight decurvature of the symphyseal portion of the pre- 
maxillary bone. It approaches nearer the horse, but is even flatter. The 
incisor teeth do not exhibit the anterior longitudinal grooves of the crown 
seen in the two recent species mentioned. The patterns of the crowns 
of the superior molars are much like those of the two species named, 
but the internal inflections of the anterior and posterior borders of the 
external lakes are not so deep as in one or both of those of the E. 
quagga and E. caballus. The size of the skull is about that of the 

The skull is that of an adult female. The frontal bone is crushed in 
between the orbits so as to crush the descending anterior plates of the 
former behind the nasal cavity. The free orbital borders and the 
parietal bones are not crushed. It is singular that that part of the 
arch of the skull which presents the strongest resistance to pressure is 
crushed, while the weaker regions remain entire. Unless a stone 
occupied the exact position calculated to produce this result, it might 
be imagined that this horse was knocked in the head with a stone 
hammer, such as has been found in the same bed by Mr. Taylor. — 
E. D. Cope. 

The Glacial Deposits at Hendon, England. — In a paper read 
before the London Geological Society, May 27th, 1891, Mr. Henry 
Hicks showed that glacial deposits had been spread out to a much 
wider extent over the Hendon plateau than had hitherto been sup- 
posed. There is evidence to show that these deposits have extended 
in a south and southwest direction across the Brent and Silk valleys, 
and now occur on most of the heights in the parishes of Kingsbury 
and Willesden. As the sands, gravels, and boulder clay which cover 
the Hendon plateau are found to rest on an undulating floor of Lon- 
don clay,- the author considers it clear that the main physical features 
of this portion of Northwestern Middlesex were moulded at a very 
early stage in the Glacial period, and before the so-called middle 
sands and gravels and overlying upper boulder clay were deposited. 
At this time there could have been no barrier of any importance to 
prevent these deposits from extending into the Thames valley, and 
the evidence clearly points to the conclusion that the implement-bear- 
ing deposits on the higher horizons in the Thames valley should be 

9 i 4 

Tin American Naturalist. 

classed as of contemporaneous age with the undoubted glacial de 
at Hendon, Finchley, and on the slopes of the Brent valley. 
Hicks is therefore satisfied that man lived in the neighborhood c 
Thames valley in the early part of the Glacial period, probably ii 
Glacial times. (Geo/. Mag., July, 1891.) 


Botany at the Washington Meetings.— From the 12th until 
the 29th of August there were almost constant sessions of scientific 
men in Washington at which botanical papers were presented. In the 
first place, the Association of the American Agricultural Colleges and 
Experiment Stations held a four days' convention, and during the 
opening session there was a report from the chairman of the botanical 
section of the work done at the various stations by the botanists* thus 
employed. It was evident from this report that while systematic 
botany, making of collections, and the field study of various plants 
were important features, the main one in several states is the study 
of the fungous enemies of cultivated crops. In the meetings of the sec- 
tion of botany much time was spent in a consideration of the question 
of an exhibition to be made by the stations at Chicago in 1893. The 
work in botany will be divided, and those workers best able to exhibit 
fungi of the cereals will have them in charge, while others take the 
fruits, etc. Professor Tracy, of Mississippi, is chairman of the Botan- 
ical Committee of the Columbian Exhibition. 

Professor Atkinson presented a paper upon the cotton fungi, and 
exhibited several oil paintings of diseased leaves showing the rust, blight 
" frenching," etc. The question of the importance of common names 
for fungi came up, and was discussed, with the conclusion that finely 
illustrated bulletins are the best way to overcome the difficulty. Pro- 
fessor Alwood presented two papers, one upon an apple-leaf blight 
which is very destructive in Virginia, and the results of his successful 
crossing of wheats. Many specimens of the latter were shown, and a 
lengthy discussion followed. A bacterial disease of the cabbage was 
reported upon by Professor Garman, while Professor Crandall exhib- 
ited a quantity of Rocky Mountain June berries, and spoke of them 
as one of the coming fruits for Colorado. Professor Brewer exhibited 
some hybrid butternuts, and Professor Halsted presented a paper upon 
the germination of spores of species of fungi. 

During the sessions of the College and Station Association, Mr. R. 
Worthington, F.C.S., of Rothamsted, England, delivered six lectures, 

1891.] Botany. 9 1 5 

a large portion of which was made up of botanical matter. The 
microbes, for example, that take an active part in the nitrification of 
the soil were shown, enlarged by lantern projection upon a screen, as 
also were some other forms of bacteria of great interest to agriculture. 

During the two days of the meetings of the Society for the Promo- 
tion of Agricultural Science there were many botanical papers. Thus 
Professor Arthur presented the results of field experiments under the 
title of "A Physiological Basis for the Comparison of Potato Produc- 
tion. ' ' Many practical points were developed. Professor Beal considered 
the description of varieties of strawberries and raspberries. Additional 
information was presented by Professor Burrell upon the bacterial dis- 
ease of potatoes that is now quite widespread throughout the country. 
Professor Forbes treated of a bacterial disease of the chinch bug, while 
Professor Kedzie still further considered bacteria in his paper upon soil 
extract in relation to development of tubercles on clover roots. 
Injurious fungi received attention at the hands of Professor Galloway, 
who gave results of some experiments made the present year in the 
treatment of plant diseases, while Professor Halsted outlined conclu- 
sions from soaking seed beans to check anthracnose. Professor Green 
considered arsenic and copper as a fungicide and insecticide, and also 
gave the results of a treatment of raspberry anthracnose with fungi- 
cides. Professor Taft reviewed his work with fungicides for apple 
scab, and Professor Pammel considered some of the conditions which 
modify the appearance of parasitic fungi in plants. 

The opening day of the American Association for the Advancement 
of Science had its full share of botany. President Coulter, as chair- 
man of the section of biology, gave an address upon the future of sys- 
tematic botany, and in the evening Dr. Goodale, as retiring president, 
unfolded the possibilities of economic botany. These excellent 
addresses the reader will peruse with much profit as presented in the 
scientific journals. 

On Thursday, at the first meeting of the Botanical Club, Professor 
Arthur explained the working of some apparatus to be used in 
physiological botany ; Professor Halsted spoke of a fungous disease of 
the egg-plant ; Professor Atkinson showed the connection between a 
cercospora and sphserella ; while Professor Pammel considered some 
conditions favoring the growth of fungi. In the discussion the 
importance of making yearly notes of important species was 
mentioned. Professor Fernow spoke of the value of a national 
arboretum, and resolutions were offered favoring it. In Sec- 
tion F Professor Atkinson presented a paper upon the structure 
and dimorphism of Hypoctea tuberiformis. Professor MacFarland, of 
Edinburgh, added another chapter in the history of the Venus fly-trap ; 

gi6 The American Naturalist. [October, 

specimens illustrating the peculiar quality of irritability possessed by 
these plants were shown and the subject discussed. Professor Camp- 
bell gave a paper on the prothallium and embryo of Osmunda clayton- 
iana and O. cinnamomea, fully illustrated by blackboard drawings. A 
new nectria found upon the sweet potato and associated with the stem 
rot was treated of by Professor Halsted. The Compositae collected by 
Dr. Palmer in Colima, and the flora of Carmen Islands, were two 
papers by Professor Rose. Professor T. Smith illustrated fully the uses 
of the fermentation tubes in bacteriology by a score of specimens, 
many containing important disease germs. 

On Friday, during the morning hour for the Botanical Club, papers 
were presented by Professor Fairchild on a new currant disease, by 
Professor Riley upon Mexican jumping beans, by Professor Rose upon 
two new weeds, while one of the most enjoyable features was the presen- 
tation to the members of the club of a souvenir by the Washington 
Botanical Club, consisting of twenty-two photographs of Washington 
points of interest, neatly bound. In the biological section notes upon 
bacteria of Cucurbits by Professor Halsted were followed by the four 
papers of the physiological series prepared by appointment, as follows : 
"Transportation or Loss of Water in Plants," by Professors Bessey 
and Woods; " Movements of Fluids in Plants," by Professor Beal; 
"Absorption of Fluids by Plants," by Professor Pammel; and " Gases 
in Plants," by Professor Arthur. After some discussion, and particu- 
larly as to the absorption of carbonic gas in soil water by roots, the botan- 
ical papers for the day in the section closed with notes upon an 
anthracnose by Professor Halsted. The botany for the day, however, 
was continued far into the evening by Professor John M. MacFarland, 
who gave a public lecture upon heredity in plants, by which it was 
shown with a series of three simultaneous lantern projections that the 
differences in the parents were blended in the offspring even to the size 
of cells, ducts, thickness of bark, and many other microscopic details. 

On Saturday, at the Botanical Club, the first paper was read by Miss 
Southworth, on some strange fungi. Dr. Mohr gave a contribution 
upon some phanerogams of Alabama. A novel method of caring for 
Myxomycetes was explained by Professor Cook, and Mrs. Claypole 
gave a paper upon an onion disease. In Section F Professor Riley 
treated of microorganisms as insecticides, followed by further observa- 
tions on a bacterial disease of oats by Professor Galloway. Dr. Vasey 
outlined the botanical field work of his division, while Professor Waite 
presented results from recent investigations of pear blight. The spec- 
troscope in bacterial studies, by Professor Brashear, closed the long list 
of botanical papers presented at Washington.— Byron D. Halsted. 

Studies in Cephalopods. 2 — Dr. S. Watase, of Clark University, 

publishes under the above title No. i of his contributions on the cleavage 
of the ovum. The opening paragraph indicates the contents of the paper. 
" In the following pages I will first attempt to treat the general mor- 
phology of the animal ovum from the standpoint of some embryological 
and morphological facts and theories. In the next place, the relation 
of the external phenomena of cleavage, as shown in the behavior of the 

be discussed. In this connection some theories on karyokinesis will 
examined, my interpretation of the cleavage phenomena being that 
they are essentially the analysis of the potential tissues contained in 
the cleavage nucleus, and this karyokinesis is the method of such 
analysis and the achromatic spindle the instrument used in the analy- 
sis. The cleavage of the squid will then be described, and finally 
variations in the cleavage of the same animal will be discussed." It 
is impossible to here go into the theoretical discussions that occupy the 
larger part of the paper, but the following quotations, taken here and 
there, may serve to give some idea of the author's convictions. From 
a'review of the literature the author concludes that " however diverse 
the examples, they all point to one and the same conclusion, — namely, 
that in the metazoan ovum and its derivations the tissue cells are more 
than a homogeneous, isotropic mass of protoplasm devoid of a definite 
symmetry. The study of the karyokinetic figure shows, Van Beneden 
points out, that the cell is not only unaxial, but also bilateral. In 
several forms of ova, carefully studied, the axes of the karyokinetic 
figure correspond in a definite way with the recognizable axes of a 
given ovum, the external shape of which is chiefly determined by the 
quantity and distribution of the food yolk. The axes thus determined 
are maintained through the different stages of growth, and give rise to 
definite axes of the larvae or of the adult organism. If these facts 
be more firmly established by the further investigation of the subject, 
we may say with Van Beneden ' that the old theory of evolution is not 
deprived of all foundation, as is generally believed to-day.' 

In this connection a communication from Dr. C. Ishikawa is of 
great interest, — viz., that the summer and winter eggs of a "certain 

i Edited by Dr. T. H. Morgan, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Md. 

91 8 The American Naturalist. [October, 

form of Daphnidae undergo different types of cleavage, one being 
holoblastic and the other meroblastic, the difference being probably 
produced by the amount of food yolk ; the summer eggs belong 
to the regular holoblastic type of cleavage,- and the winter egg to the 
meroblastic type, showing a close resemblance to the ova of some 

The author's view as to the mechanism of karyokinesis is explained. 
The conclusion is based largely on a study of karyokinesis in the squid 
and starfish, and the author believes this same explanation may apply 
to the whole phenomena of cell divisions, the essential point of the 
theory being that the " archoplasmic filament" radiates from two 
centers on opposite sides of the eggs penetrate the cell membrane, 
flattening the chromosomes into a plate, the radiating fibers (archo- 
plasmic filaments), continuing to push, break up the plate into two 
portions, driving each in the opposite direction,— /'.*., away from the 
archoplasmic spheres. The bilaterality of the egg of the squid is the 
same as the bilaterality of the adult animal ; and the arrangement of 
the protoplasmic cap at the animal pole also shows well-marked 
bilaterality, corresponding to that of adult animal. 

The Regeneration of the Tail of Lumbriculus. 3 — Miss Ran- 
dolph has an abstract of her work on the growth of new tails in the 
Annelids. The new ectoderm arises by proliferation of the ectoderm 
around the line of fission. From this new ectoderm arises the ven- 
tral nerve-chain and the dorsal setae. The new digestive tract is 
formed from the cells of the old. The most interesting fact is in the 
formation of the new mesoderm, which " is formed in great part 
from specialized cells in the region of the peritoneal epithelium of the 
ventral longitudinal muscles, on each side of the ventral nerve-cord, 
between it and the ventral row of setae. These cells, which I propose 
to call neoblasts, are distinguished from the cells of the peritoneum 
by their great size and by the presence of a cell body. They are to 
be found in every variety, with the possible exception of one or more 
at the anterior extremity, and represent the ' chorda cells ' described 
by Semper in the Naids and Chaetogaster. Very soon after the fission 
of the worm the neoblasts in the end somite begin to divide, and give 
rise to the greater part of the embryonic tissue that is afterwards differ- 
entiated into mesodermic structures. 

" The neoblasts are to be regarded as specialized embryonic cells, 
set apart for the rapid formation of new mesodermic tissue immedi- 

^ Zoo!. Anz., No. 362, i8qi. 

ately upon the fission of the worm. They are present in great num- 
bers in the Naids, where the formation of new tissue is much more 
rapid than in Lumbriculus, and also in Tubifex, in which regeneration 
is a very slow process." 

Neuroblasts in the Arthropod Embryo. 4 — Mr. William M. 
Wheeler publishes a short paper on the discovery c 
formative ganglion cells in Arthropods. " Carefully made 1 
sections through either lateral chord are seen to consist, in early stages, 
of two kinds of ectoderm elements : smaller ones with rather deeply 
stainable elongate oval nuclei, and four large succulent cells with pale 
spherical nuclei. These four large cells, the neuroblasts, lie side by 
side just beneath the smaller ectoderm elements in a plane parallel to 
the surface of the yolk." The author believes the eight rows of the 
lateral chords to be homologous with the two rows of cells derived from 
the neuroteloblasts of Annelids, and " the fact that there are two rows 
in an Annelid, whereas there are eight in Xiphidium, can constitute on 
very serious obstacle to this homology." The neuroblasts have been 
seen in Xiphidium, Melanoplus, Blatta, and Dolyphora. 

Morphological Notes from the Biological Laboratory of 
the Johns Hopkins University. — The anatomical and embryo- 
logical work done in the morphological laboratory of Professor Brooks 
is published annually, in the form of complete papers and preliminary 
notes, in the University Circular? 

The May (1891) number contains the following embryological 

" On the Structure and Development of the Gonophores of a Certain 
Siphonophore Belonging to the Order Auronectge Haeckel. ' ' By W. W. 
Brooks and E. G. Conklin. 

" Preliminary Note on the Embryology of Crepidula fomicata and 
Urosalpinx einerea." By E. G. Conklin. 

"The Anatomy and Transformation of Tornaria : A Preliminary 
Note." By T. H. Morgan. 

" Note#<on the Habits and Larval Stages of the American Lobster." 
By F. H. Herrick, of Adelbert College. 

"The Reproductive Organs and Early Stages of Development of 
the American Lobster." By F. H. Herrick, of Adelbert College. 

" On the Early Stages of Echinoderms. " By W. H. Brooks. 
^Journal Morphology, Vol. IV., No. 3, 1891. 

9 20 The American Naturalist. [October, 

"Contributions to the Embryology of Asterias vulgaris." By 
G. W. Field. 

The first of these contributions treats of the structure and develop- 
ment of the Gonophores in Rhodalia, from the Pacific Ocean. Haeckel 
regarded the animal as so unlike all other Siphonophores as to necessi- 
tate its being placed in an. entirely new order, — Auronectae. Haeckel's 
description of the structure of the female (and male) gonophores is 
shown to be in all probability erroneous. The authors conclude : 
" The egg-pouch must be regarded as a part of the stem where the 
growth of the cells may take place while the gonophore is developing. 
As soon as the gonophore is formed, one of the eggs, already quite large, 
passes into it, where it lies between the ectoderm and entoderm of the 
mambrium. Then by the disintegration of the egg-cells remaining in 
the egg-pouch, and by the formation of large entodermal folds which 
have a secretory function, the egg is rapidly nourished, and grows to 

development of the sexual cells as possible," as in the Hydromedusse. 

Mr. Conklin has studied the early stages in the development of 
Crepidula and Urosalpinx. Of the first four macromeres two meet in 
the center on a line which Rabl has called the "cross furrow " ; the 
other two are acute towards the center, and do not meet each other. 
" By the position of the macromeres with regard to the ' cross furrow ' 
the first and second cleavage furrows may easily be distinguished ; 
e.g., if the egg be viewed from the formative pole, and so that one of 
the cleavage furrows is in the line of vision, the macromere to the 
right of this furrow and farthest from the observer will be acute at its 
center if the furrow on the line of vision be the first cleavage furrow ; 
it will be obtuse, — i.e., will meet the opposite macromere in the cross ^ 
furrow — if the furrow in the line of vision be the second cleavage fur- 
row. Of course the reverse would hold if the egg were viewed from the 
vegetative pole. The examination of many hundred eggs has shown 
that the position of the macromeres in relation to the cross furrows 
and to the first cleavage planes is a constant one." 

Urosalpinx differs from Crepidula in the fact that while the four 
macromeres of Crepidula are equal in size, the four macromeres of 
Urosalpinx are very unequal, one being much larger than the other 
three. " Two furrows appear simultaneously, and seem to divide the 
ovum into one large sphere and two smaller ones. Really, however, 
one of the smaller spheres is not completely separated from the larger 
one, and soon after fuses with it. This smaller sphere is merely a con- 
stricted portion of the larger sphere, and contains the nucleus. Thus 

Embryology. 92 1 

furrow, and it divides the egg into a larger and a smaller moiety. One 
of these protuberances is cut off to form a macromere equal in size 
with the two smaller ones ; the other protuberance is a part of the 
larger macromere, and again fuses with it. There have thus been formed 
by two vertical furrows, comparable to the first and second cleavage 
furrows of Crepidula, three small and one large macromere." 

A preliminary note is published by T. H. Morgan on the larva of 
Balanoglossus, — Tornaria. Reasons are given for regarding the common 
Tornaria of the NVu i Bg to a different species 

from the B. kovalevskii of the same coast, so that the parent form is not 
at present known in connection with the larva. A description is given 
of the formation of the different organs as they appear in the life of 
the larva; for instance, the so-called heart (proboscis vesicle or 
gland) probably originates from a very few mesenchyme cells ; the first 
pair of paired cavities arise as proliferations from two points in the 
walls of the stomach, and the second (last) pair of paired cavities 
arise as solid folds from the posterior division of the digestive tract 
(endodermal) ; the nerve-chord is formed by the collar rolling over 
the invaginating plate of ectoderm from the two sides, exactly as in 
Amphioxus. " The similarities of Tornaria to the Echinoderm larva 
are very numerous, and I cannot believe are due to superficial resem- 
blances. If this be true, the antiquity of the larva must be very great, 
though not necessarily ancestral. The relationship of Balanoglossus to 
the vertebrates seems more than probable, as Bateson has pointed out." 

The two papers by Prof. F. H. Herrick on the American lobster have 
been already reviewed in the July number of the Naturalist. 

Prof. Brooks has a short note on some interesting structures in 
the early stages of echinoderm larvae. " Several observers have 
recorded the occurrence of a right water pore and pore canal, as well as 
those which occur normally on the left side, . . . but the former have 
heretofore been regarded as monstrosities. In the summer of 1889 I 
collected with a tow net, in the open waters of Wood's Holl, great 
numbers of normal, vigorous starfish larvae ; and upon studying their 
structure by serial sections I found that the water system is at first 
bilaterally symmetrical in every particular, although the right water pore 
and pore canal degenerate and disappear very early in the life of 
the larvae, so that the older larvae exhibit no traces of those structures. 
.... The phenomenon in question has a direct bearing upon the 
significance of the ciliated, bilateral swimming larva of 'Echinoderms, 

922 The American Naturalist. [October, 

and it furnishes a strong argument in favor of the view that the larva is 

Mr. Field published a contribution to the Embryology of 
Asterias. In this form the mesenchyme formation precedes and 
is continued during the process of invagination, confirming the view of 
Metschnikoff and Korchelt as to the absence of two " urmesenchyme- 
zellen " in the Echinoderms. The author agrees with Semon's recent 
paper on the formation of the adoral band. At the apex of the 
preoral lobe there is an ectodermic thickening comparable with the 
apical plate of Tornaria and Trochophore. The formation of a right 
water pore is described in detail, confirming Prof. Brooks's discovery 
and reaching the same conclusion that " the state with two bilaterally 
symmetrical water pores is a definite stage in the ontogeny of 
Asterias, and that it has a phylogenetic significance. The view 
that the bilateral larval form of the Echinoderms is ancestral, and not 
secondarily acquired, is gaining ground," and the author believes that 
the bilateral water pores may be homologous with a pair of nephridia. 
The later history of the Enterocoels is described. 


Entomology at Washington.— Three entomological societies 
met at Washington, in connection with the Association of Agricultural 
Colleges and Experiment Stations and the A. A. A. S., during the 
week of August 15th to 2 2d. These were the Section of Entomology 
of the Experiment Stations, the Association of Economic Entomolo- 
gists, and the Entomological Club of the A. A. A. S. Besides these 
gatherings many papers upon entomological subjects were read before 
the Society for the Promotion of Agricultural Science and Section F 
of the A. A. A. S. Many entomologists were present at these 
meetings from various states, and the entomologists of Washington 
added greatly to the interest taken in these meetings. 

Section of Entomology of Experiment Stations.— The opening 
session of this section was held on Saturday afternoon, August 
15th, at the Columbian University, and consisted of a discussion of 
the proper duties of the entomologist of a station. Nearly all the 
members present held that so far as practicable but few subjects 

Entomology. 923 

time, and that as soon as a subject had 
s and remedies published in a 
bulletin of the station, that particular investigation should be con- 
sidered ended, unless future investigation brought to light some new 
points of importance. It was not considered the duty of a station 
entomologist to visit various parts of his state for the purpose of 
showing individual farmers how to handle insecticide machinery or 
how to destroy the locusts, after such a subject had been thoroughly 
explained in a station bulletin. 

Many other subjects relating to station work were brought up and 
discussed. An election of officers resulted in the choice of Lawrence 
Bruner, of Nebraska, chairman, and F. M. Webster, of Ohio, 

Monday evening Prof. A. J. Cook, of Michigan, read his report as 
chairman for the past year, before the Association of Agricultural 
Colleges and Experiment Stations. The report consisted of a resume 
of the work done at the stations during the year, and that which is now 
in progress. Owing to the early date at which a report was called for, 
many of the stations had not reported ; but from the reports obtained 
it is seen that the present season has been a most active one on the 
part of the station workers in entomology. The results obtained at 
the different stations were given, and the equipments of the stations 
were also described. In most of the stations the entomologist has 
some other department in charge, and in some cases teaches as well. 
The best combination shows itself when the entomologist has no other 
department of the station, but teaches entomology and perhaps zoology 
in the college connected with the station. 

The Association of Economic Entomologists. — This association, 
while as yet very young, promises to become one of if not the 
foremost of its kind. Twenty-six working entomologists were present 
at the opening meeting on August 17th. Many new members were 
elected, some being corresponding members residing in foreign 

The opening address by Prof. James Fletcher, president of the 
association, was listened to with marked interest. Prof. Fletcher 
thought the entomologist should strive to popularize entomology as 
much as possible, in order that all might realize the importance of the 

924 The American Naturalist, [October, 

Lawrence Bruner followed with an interesting paper upon " The 
Locust Appearances of 1891." Mr. Bruner had just returned from 
the western states, where the locusts are unusually abundant this year. 
It is feared that, unless prompt action is -taken to destroy the eggs now 
being laid, many localities will be laid waste next year. Newspaper 
reports stated that railroad trains had been stopped by the locusts, and 
have implied that the locusts were so thick that the trains could not 
force their way through. The manner in which trains are stopped, 
however, has been by the crushing of a few hoppers upon the track, 
which so greased the rails as to stop the trains until sand was put upon 
the rails. In many of the localities infested local species have been 
found, although the migratory locust (M. spretus) was the most 
commonly distributed. Other species common are M. brantatus. 
M. atlantis, and D. longipennis. 

Mr. C. L. Marlatt read three short papers from C. H. Tyler Town- 
send, of New Mexico, upon some observations made in that region. 

Prof. J. B. Smith followed with papers upon "Notes on Blackberry 
Borers and Gall Makers," and " The Melon Borer, Melittia cucurbita." 
Several points of interest were brought out. 

Prof. Geo. F.Atkinson presented two papers: "A Cotton Cut- 
Worm," and " Note on a Nematode Leaf Disease." The case of the 

Dr. D. S. Kellicott read a paper on " The Horn Fly in Ohio." He 
spoke of the appearance of this insect in Ohio and New York, and the 
probability as to the damage in the future. 

Dr. C. V. Riley presented a paper on « Kerosene Combines with 
Pyrethrum." The origin and use of the so-called pyrethrum-kerosene 
emulsion was given. Many trials of this emulsion^as proved it of but 
little value, and it does not merit the praise it has received. 

Howard Evarts Weed followed with a paper on the " Work of the 
Season in Mississippi." The results of many experiments made during 
the season were given. Hippodamia convergent had been found 

worms (Compsomyia macellaria) have been abundant in some parts of 
the state during the year. Cattle at the station are kept free from 
ticks hy feeding sulphur and salt in vnu;x\ parts bv keeninff it before 

i89i-] Entomology. 925 

Ormerod is a corresponding member of the association, and by her 
work had done much to popularize entomology in England. 

Dr. C. V. Riley then presented two papers: "Dermestes vulpmus in 
Tobacco," and "Government Work vs. the Patent Office." The first 
paper dealt with a case of serious damage to a large cargo of tobacco 
while in shipment. It was thought the Dermestes had gained access 
to the tobacco while in shipment, and that it was not in the tobacco 
at the time of packing. The second paper presented the difficulties 
undergone by the Department of Agriculture owing to that depart- 
ment not having a lawyer to represent it in the courts. The hydro- 
cyanic acid gas treatment for scale insects in California originated with 
the department, but a man not connected with the department has 
recently received a patent on the mere technicality of using the treat- 
ment at night. In the discussion which followed it was the opinion of 
most of the members that the patent would not be valid if brought up 

that state. The outbreak has 
covered an extensive area, and much damage has been done. 

Mr. M. H. Beckwith, of Delaware, presented some interesting 
" Notes on a Corn Crambid." In some localities much injury has 

Prof. J. B. Smith next presented two papers, one on "A Note on 
the Habit of Saperda Candida" and the other, " Notes of the Year in 
New Jersey." The latter consisted of an account of the principal 
insects which have caused injury in New Jersey the present year. 

Mr. L. O. Howard presented an interesting paper on "A Note on 
Parasites." Several new genera and species were exhibited. 

Prof. Herbert Osborn presented a joint paper by himself and Mr. 
H. A. Gossard on " Experiments with the Hopperdozer for Grass-Leaf 
Hoppers." The paper gave the results obtained with this machine in 
Iowa this season. The hopperdozer was said to be an excellent agent 
in the destruction of the leaf hoppers. 

Another paper, on "The Clover-Seed Caterpillar," by the same 
authors as the above, was read by Prof. Osborn. This insect has been 
very numerous at Ames this year, and has proved very injurious. 

A paper upon " Notes "of the Season in South Dakota" was read by 
the secretary from Mr. J. M. Aldrich Grasshoppers have appeared 
in large numbers in this state the present season, but by the constant 
use of hopperdozers many are killed, and fall plowing is practiced in 
order to kill the eggs. 

926 The American Naturalist. [October, 

Prof. Osborn gave the results of " An Experiment with Emulsions," 
in which it was thought the Hubbard formula was the best combination 

nd kerosene. 

At the meeting last year Mr. W. B. Alwood was appointed chairman 
of a committee to request the various force-pump manufacturers to use 
a standard fitting on spray machinery, in order that any nozzle will fit 
any pump. Entomologists and others who have had occasion to use 
spray machinery have had difficulty in using nozzles upon spray pumps 
other than the pumps made for the particular nozzle used. Mr. Alwood, 
in presenting his report, stated that most of the manufacturers had 
agreed to use a standard fitting for the spray nozzles manufactured by 
them. Correspondence with the manufacturers will be continued still 
further, and a printed report will soon be made, giving the arrange- 

who have given their consent to the arrangements made by the 

The meetings of the association were held at the Columbian University 
the two days preceding the meeting of the A. A. A. S. The committee 
.on nominations of officers presented its report as follows, which was 
adopted : 

President, Dr. J. A. Lintner, of New York ; first vice president, Dr 
S. A. Forbes, of Illinois; second vice president, Prof. J. H. Comstock, 
of New York ; secretary, F. M. Webster, of Ohio. 

Prof. Cook gave some interesting notes upon some parasites, and 
Mr. Wallace presented a paper upon silk culture. At the conclusion the 
association adjourned to meet next year on the Monday and Tuesday 
before the meeting of the A. A. A. S., and at the same place. 

Entomological Club.— The Entomological Club of the A. A. A. S. 
held its meetings at the Columbian University, at Washington, August 
19th to 22d. Many entomologists were present, and it was probably 
the largest meeting of entomologists ever held in this country. By an 
arrangement with the Association of Economic Entomologists papers 
relating to economic entomology were presented before this body, 
while those relating to life-histories and classification were presented 
before the club. 

ddress as president of the club 
nmendations of much importance. 
One was the advisability of an international gathering of entomologists 
at the World's Columbian Exposition in Chicago in 1893. He also 
recommended that a manual of entomology be prepared. 

the antennae were variously branched. 

Insect Life in the Hot Springs of Yellmustone National Park. — This 
consisted of a letter to Mr. Schwarz from Mr. H. G. Hubbard, who is 
now collecting at the Yellowstone Park. Mr. Hubbard complained of 
the scarcity of species in this region. 

Preliminary Notes on the Insect Fauna of the Great Salt Lake, Utah. 
— Mr. Schwarz presented many interesting notes upon the insect fauna 
of this region, especially Coleoptera. 

Occurrence of the Pear Midge., Diplosis pyrivora. — Dr. Lintner gave 
an account of the appearance of this insect in various parts of New 

Notes on the Pear Tree Psylla, Psylla pyricola. These notes were 
presented by Dr. Lintner, who also exhibited specimens. 

Eye-Spotted Bud Moth in Western N Y. Some of Our Orgygias.— 
These two papers were presented by Dr. Lintner. The first treated of 
Tmetocera ocellana in western New York, habits, and damage caused by 

Habits of Xyleborus dispar and Volucella fasciata.—Mx. J. B. Smith 
presented two papers upon these insects. Xyleborus dispar has been 
quite injurious this season in New Jersey, and samples of the borings of 
this insect were presented. 

Upon the Classification of dcpidoptera.—Yxoi. Smith is preparing a 
new list of this order, which will be out soon. Many changes have 
been made in the arrangement of the list from that of previous lists, 
and the reason for these changes were given. Prof. Smith also presented 
two papers upon "Revision of the Genus Cucullia," and "Staining 
Insect Structures." 

Preserving Larvce for Class Use.—Yxoi. E. W. Claypole spoke of 
the various means for preserving larvae for study and illustration in 

A Substitute for Cork.— In this paper Prof. Claypole recommended 
cross-sections of soft woods asasubstitute for cork. It seemed to he the 
general opinion of the entomologists present, however, that substitutes 
for cork did not pay, as specimens are more apt to be broken. 

Natural Habitat of the Screw -Worm.— -Prof. H. E. Weed presented 
observations upon this insect, which leads to the belief that its natural 
habitat is in dead flesh and decaying vegetable matter, rather than live 
animals, as is generally supposed. 

928 The American Naturalist. [October, 

The following papers were also read : "Two Borers Destructive to 
Mountain Ash," by Dr. D. S. Kellicott ; " Bibliography of Ento- 
mology, " by Mr. B. P. Mann ; « < Notes on Sphecins speciosus. " " Some 
Interesting Phylloxeras,", by C. Y. Riley ; " Longevity of Ixodes and 
Trombidium," by Miss M. E. Murfelt ; "Modification of Habit in 
Paper Wasps," by Miss Murfelt, showing that these wasps sometimes 
use paper already made instead of making it from wood. 

The committee on recommendation of the president's address 
reported that a manual of entomology should be. prepared, and recom- 
mended that specialists in the different orders be invited to prepare 
such a manual. The committtee was continued another year, with 
instructions to correspond with specialists in the different orders and 
publishers, to report at the next meeting of the club. 

The following officers were elected for the ensuing year : President, 
E. A. Schwarz ; secretary, F. M. Webster. 

The following entomological papers were read before Section F of 
the A. A. A. S. : "Origin and Development of Parasitic Habit in 
Mallophaga and Pediculidae," by Herbert Osborn ; " The Origin and 
Development of Parasitism Among the Sarcoptidse," by H. Garman ; 
" On the Habits of the Proctotrypidae," by Wm. H. Ashmead ; " The 
Biology of the Chalcididae," by L. O. Howard; " Parasitism in Cole- 
optera, in Diptera, in Braconidse, and Ichneumonidce," by C. V. Riley; 
"Microorganisms as Insecticides," by C. V. Riley; "Enemies of 
the Honey-Bee," by A. J. Cook; "Notes on the Homology of the 
Hemipterous Mouth," by John B.Smith; " Epipharynx and Hypo- 
pharynx of Odonata," by John B. Smit 
Carolina, and Notes on the Homology of t 

Before the Society for the Promotion of Agricultural Science the 
following papers were read: "Fighting the Rose Chafer," by A. J. 
Cook; "Bees and Fertilization," by A. J. Cook; "A Bacterial 
Disease of the Chinch Bug," by S. A. Forbes; "Northward Spread 
of a Tropical Injurious Insect," by L. O. Howard ; "The Kerosene 
Emulsion and Its Increasing Usefulness," by C. V. Riley.— Howard 
Evarts Weed, Agricultural College, Mississippi. 

Archeology a?id Ethnology. 


Proceedings of the Section of Anthropology (H) of the 

American Association for the Advancement of Science. — 

Washington, I). C August 17-25, 1S91. — The section held its first 
session in the Chemical Hall of the Columbian I niversity on Wednes- 
day, August 19th, at 2 p.m., Prof. Joseph Jastrow, of Madison, 
Wisconsin, vice president of the section, and Mr. W. H. Holmes, of 
Washington, D. C, secretary. 

Vice president Jastrow's annual address was entitled "The Natural 
History of Analogy." He described the study of analogy in its 
bearings on various forms of culture, and went on to indicate that this 
form of argument is used only with great caution by societies of to-day. 
Analog) was, however, a very predominant method of argument 
nmongst pi nnitn c people Jhesii 1 - > < ■ .-.'■ . > \ spiking 

of instances of a further degree of resemblance from a given degree 
of resemblance. The various types of agreement differing slightly 
from the standard were also treated. In almost all savage customs and 
beliefs, the professor said, abundant instances of reasoning by analogy 
were to be found. In m «ns of omens 

and dreams, in medicinal practices, and social and tribal customs 
striking instances of analogous argument abounded. The Zulu who 
chews a bit of wood to soften the heart of the man he wants to buy an 
ox from ; the fetish d« ' * a stick stands or falls 

whether a war shall be kept up or allowed to stop ; the medicine man 
who performs incantations over some personal belonging of his victim 
or by the use of out-of-the-way drugs, — all these were instanced as the 
results of analogy or the feeling of analogy. Similar traits in children 
were described and illustrated. He said that an abundant field of 
illustration was found in the popular superstitions, folk lore, and 
customs that have survived from a lower to a higher culture. The 
modern dream book, household medicinal practices, charms, and. in 
the more elaborate system of details of astrology', the doctrine of 

took his illustrations. From this progressive scientific thought has 
reached its present pi u g position once occupied 

by the argument of analogy- "That which was serious reasoning to 
our forefathers," he said in conclusion. " now takes its place as a 
proper instrument for amusement and lies at the basis of a joke. This 

93° The American Naturalist. [October, 

offspring of our race is also connected by history with this earlier form, 
and, furthermore, close relation is traced between the bypaths of 
modern civilization and the outgrown forms of culture among which it 

The committee elected by the section were as follows : Fellow to the 
council, Rev. J. Owen Dorsey, Washington. Sectional committee, 
Prof. O. T. Mason, National Museum; Prof. Thomas Wilson, National 
Museum ; Prof. George H. Perkins, University of Vermont. Member 
nominating committee, Prof. Thos. Wilson. Subcommittee on nomi- 
nations, Prof. Paul Carus, editor Monist ; Prof. C. P. Hart, Wyoming, 
Ohio ; Mr. Walter Hough, National Museum. 

The meetings for reading papers commenced Thursday morning, 
August 20th, at 10 a.m. Prof. W. H. Leaman delivered an address on 
" The Essentials of a Good Education, with a New Classification of 
Knowledge." Mr. Walter Hough gave a description of " The Custom 
of Kava-Drinking as Practiced by the Papuans and Polynesians," 
followed by Major J. W. Powell's exhibition of his new linguistic 
map of the Indians of North America. 

This map is the chef-d'oeuvre of the Bureau of Ethnology, and one 
in which Major Powell takes much pride. It represents many years of 
patient, careful labor of himself and some of his most valuable assist- 
ants. It has been presented before in rather an inchoate form to 
several scientific societies, but now it has been completed and will 
appear in the next volume of the reports of the Bureau of Ethnology. 
It attempts to represent the locality of the various Indian tribes of 
North America at the beginning of history. As the Atlantic coast 
was occupied by white men much earlier than the interior and the 
Pacific slope, so of course its representation on this map dates to an 
earlier time. Fifty-eight linguistic stocks or families are represented 
on the map, and these are divided into 264 dialects, representing as 
many different Indian tribes. The major said that over 1,000 Indian 
languages are spoken, which can be divided among seventy-five differ- 
ent stocks, and that while the number was large the tendency was 
not toward multiplication, but toward a unification or parent stock. 
He explained his system of segration and aggregation, and said that 
this map represented our earliest knowledge of the locations of Indian 
tribes in North America as shown by their language. It might require 
correction in the future, according as our knowledge of them might 
increase. In conclusion he made some humorous remarks on Volapiik 
as a universal language, and compared it to the most barbaric of bar- 
baric tongues, and that it approached closely primitive Indian tongues 

1891.] Archeology and Ethnology. 931 

of North America. He showed that civilized languages had little or 
no inflection, while the more primitive a language the greater the 
extremes of inflection, which is the case with Volapuk. "To go to 
Volapiik for a modern language would be like taking up the old wooden 
plow in agriculture again." 

Mr. E. P. Vining, of St. Louis, Mo., criticised the map, disputed 
some of the propositions, and declared our knowledge of the Indian 
language of early times to be too indefinite and uncertain to form a 
foundation for so extensive a scheme of localization. 

Dr. Thomas Wilson presented a collection of fifty or more of gold 
ornaments from his department of prehistoric archeology in the 
National Museum, taken from prehistoric graves chiefly in the province 
of Antioquia, United States of Colombia, lately procured ; also a 
series of prehistoric jade implements from Mexico and Central America. 
All of them were beautifully wrought, and many of them had been 
sawed into two or more parts, and holes drilled for suspension as for 
amulets. Dr. Wilson said these were one of the varieties of jade called 
jadeite, the component parts of which were silica 59.4, alumina 25.8, 
soda 15.3. Hedescribed other varieties of jade, — nephrite, which was 
silica, magnesia, lime ; fibrolite, silica and alumina ; pectolite, silica, 
lime, and soda ; and said pectolite was local in Arizona and New Mexico, 
implements made of it in prehistoric times being found among the ruins 
of the cliff dwellers of those territories. Nephrite was local in Alaska 
and British Columbia, where the wrought implements were found 
belonging to both historic and prehistoric times. These jadeite imple- 
ments were confined to Mexico and Central America, though none of 
the raw material had been found nearer than New Zealand and the 
Asiatic coast. On this, with some addition, he said Prof. Putnam 
had founded the theory of the migration of the Central American and 
Mexican aboriginal population from Asia. If the theory be true, he 
did not believe that it had been, as claimed, by way of Behring Strait, 
because throughout the length of the continent no trace of such a pas- 
sage had been found. On the contrary, similar implements made of a 
different material coming from the Yukon and other rivers had been 
found for a thousand miles over this route between Behring Strait and 
Mexico. Prof. Morse called on Prof. Putnam (who had just come in), 
and he expanded his theory, which in turn was attacked by Major 
Powell, who prophesied that jadeite would yet be discovered in that 
country. Prof. Putnam replied when it was there would be time 
enough, etc. 


The American Naturalist. [October, 

Rev. J. Owen Dorsey read a paper, and described, with charts, some 
of the peculiarities and phonetic types of the Siouan language. 

Mrs. Anita Newcomb McGee read a paper entitled " An Experi- 
ment in Human Stirpiculture." 

" It is not generally known that a carefully planned and methodi- 
cally conducted experiment in human stirpiculture, probably the most 
extensive and systematic of modern times and civilized people, was 
carried on during the years 1808 to 1879 in Central New York. The 
originator of the experiment was a zealous but logical enthusiast, the 
late John Humphrey Noyes ; the purpose was the promotion of sanc- 
tity 3 the place and the means were the Oneida community. 

" In early life Noyes founded the peculiar sect called perfectionists, 
which in 1848 gathered disciples to the number of eighty-seven at 
Oneida. Here the community of goods and also of person was prac- 
ticed, a system of complex marriage in which the amative and propa- 
gative functions were separated having been established. 

"Until 1868 the birth-rate in the community was carefully limited, 
but at this date, financial success being assured and the members having 
increased to 250, the experiment in stirpiculture was begun. Its object t 
was the increase of sanity in succeeding generations in order that sin, 
disease, and finally death might be abolished. Physique, intellect, 
hereditary qu u lion, etc., were secondarily con- 

" The first principle <>f this stirpii ulture was continued in and in 
breeding with judicious mixture of foreign blood from time to time. 
Its second principle was the careful selection of individuals. From 
1869 to 1880 sixty children were born in pursuit of this plan. Of these 
five died at birth from unforeseen causes depending on the mothers, 
and one child was acknowledged a failure physically. Otherwise the 
experiment was progressing admirably, the children being given the 
best of care, when an unexpected result caused the failure of all Noyes's 
plans. The spirit of monogamy, ruthlessly kept in check before, 
became so strong in consequence of the mating of one-quarter of the 
community for stirpicultutal purposes that the complex marriage system 
was given up in 1879. The dissolution of the Oneida community by 
mutual consent followed a year later. Noyes, foreseeing the end, had 
retired from Oneida, and died in 1886. 

"Of the stirpicultural children only one has since died. The 
others, now aged eleven to twenty-two years, are on the whole some- 
what above the outside average in physique and intellect. The blood 
of the children came largely from farmers and mechanics, with a 

1891. Archeology and Ethnology. 933 

strong infusion from the intellectual Noyes family. It is therefore 
noteworthy that of the oldest sixteen boys ten are in business as clerks, 
foremen, etc., one is a musician of repute, two are students of law and 
medicine, two at college, and only one following a manual occupation, 
being a mechanic. Of the oldest six girls, two are at college and one- 
is a student of the kindergarten system." 

Mrs. Zelia Nuttall's paper on " Relics of Ancient Mexican Civiliza- 
tion " was, in her absence, read by Prof. Putnam. It described many 
Mexican antiquities, and threw a great deal of light on the civilization 
of ancient Mexico. The paper was illustrated with a number of small 
reproductions of Aztec ornamental designs, and of a chief's shield sent 
to Italy by Cortez, the only thing of the kind known to anthropolo- 
gists, which were collected by the distinguished lady. One of the 
drawings she presented represented four peculiarly horrible-looking 
Aztec gods. 

Prof. Edward S. Morse, of Salem, read two very clever papers on 
the allied subjects of "Bow Stretchers" and "Prehistoric Bows." 
The first of these papers referred to the puzzling little bronze imple- 
ments found associated with Roman antiquities. The professor 
exhibited one of them. They are usually a couple of inches long, 
with three spurs of varying size and shape on one side, the ends of the 
main portion of the implement being two rings large enough to allow 
a man's fingers to be thrust through. They have always been called bow 
stretchers on the supposition that prehistoric archers used them in draw- 
ing back the strings of their powerful bows ; but Prof. Morse pointed out 
the fallacy of such a conclusion, and showed the impossibility of their 
being so used. What the little affairs were used for by prehistoric man 
is, and may always be, a conundrum to the world's anthropologists. 
Incidentally Prof. Morse described the way various nations held and 
drew the bow-string, and said that in China the archer of to-day shoots 
his arrow by hooking his thumb around it, his thumb being protected 
by a peculiar ring, just like an immeasurably ancient bronze ring that 
the professor had got from prehistoric graves that dated back to the 
bronze age of man. His second paper, on "Prehistoric Bows," 
showed the great simplicity and similarity of the prehistoric bows 
found in Peru, Egypt, the peat bogs of Denmark, Holland, the Swiss 
lake villages, and other places. 

" The Nez Perce Country," written by Miss Alice Fletcher, was read 
by Mrs. Barnes. This paper was an explanation of a map of the Nez 
Perce country, drawn by a native of the tribe, and showing the location 
of seventy-eight villages, and giving the Nez Perce names of mountains 

934 The American Naturalist. [October, 

"and streams. A summary of the dimensions and groups of these villages 
was given and an outline of the tribal organization, with a brief 
account of the mode of living in the village and some deductions 
concerning the relation of the environment to the development of the 
people. A short biographical sketch of the Indian who made this map 
was also given and his photograph shown. 

Dr. Wilson told of his connection with the Nez Perce tribe of 
Indians in his endeavor to recover possession of the land now occupied 
by the Lapwaii reservation for the benefit of the A. B. C. F. M. (for- 
eign missions), who had sent the first missionaries to that country 
before it became the property of the United States, and who had by 
their possession materially aided in making it such. The title of the 
board to the 640 acres, one mile square, was, he said, as good as that of 
any person in Washington to the house in which he lived ; but they 
had never been able to get possession. 

Mr. Frank Leverett, of Madison, Wisconsin, described by means of 
maps and charts the "Relation of the Loveland, Ohio, Implement- 
Bearing Terrace to the Moraines of the Ice Sheet." 

" The Utility of Physical Study of Child Life " was next presented 
by Mrs. Laura Osborne Talbott. If " the child of to-day is to become 
the man of to-morrow," is not the responsibility of the present gener- 
ation great regarding the civilization of the coming century ? No 
thoroughly philosophical study has taken up the subject of child life at 
a sufficiently early period ; the school laws do not permit a child to 
enter the public school before the age of six years. This is the most 
important period of a child's life, as its acquired perceptions then are 
most numerous, its inherited tendencies become fixed, and the creative 
power of the brain is most easily awakened. From the time that 
consciousness begins to unfold there is begun a series of acts that 
might engage the attention of psychical experts whose duty it would 
be to watch every indication of development for good or for evil. No 
crude management is required for child life, but teachers of rarest gift, 
whose tact, discernment, and wisdom will best assist in bringing forth 
from the embryo the fully rounded and complete being. Comcnius, 
Pestalozzi, and Froebel have, in their philanthropic labors, conferred 
great benefits upon mankind, yet deeper insight into the child's mind 
is demanded than has been afforded by them. The demand of the 
age is for more creative power, or for an intellectual force that may be 
able to harmonize the different elements of our civilization. All ques- 

[ from the n 

eventually revert to the final question, How can we best develop all the 

1891.] Archeology and Ethnology. 935 

energies of the individual? According to Herbert Spencer, " the pro- 
cess in which life essentially consists is the continuous maintenance of 
an equilibrium between the organism and its environment." It is 
evident that this want of equipoise or correspondence between the inner 
and outer life of the individual causes great failures in life. For ages the 
human race has been a prey to every variety of crime, and nations have 
risen only to fall into degradation. The same fate is before us unless we 
give to each child its inalienable right to develop its whole nature to its 
highest power of development. What an uplifting to all civilization 
would take place in a few generations if a truly wise and philosophical 
training could be given to young children in order rightly to stimulate 
their mental and moral powers. There are families who for many 
years have given great attention to this important subject, but there 
has been no general movement toward this object. From an economical 
standpoint it might by wise to endeavor to uplift the masses in this 
manner, for the ancients teach us that one member cannot suffer injury 
without danger to the whole body. 

The paper on the '.* Origin of the Name Chautauqua," by Albert S. 
Gatschet, stated at length the linguistic reasons why this name, which 
is worded on the Seneca-Iroquois language still spoken in Western New 
York, cannot signify anything else but "one has taken out fish 
there." It is pronounced by these Indians T'kan Tchatak Wan, and 
the old English and French documents vary enormously in their mode 
of writing it. It is probable that fish were taken out by the Indians 
from Lake Chautauqua to stock the brooks and ponds of the vicinity. 
The author proposes to change the orthography of Chautauqua into 
the more scientific Chatakwa. 

The American Naturalist. 

American Association for the Advancement of Science.— 

The fortieth meeting of this body met in Washington, D. C, from 
August igth to 25th, inclusive. The officers were: President, 
Albert B. Prescott, Ann Arbor, Mich. Vice Presidents, (A) Mathe- 
matics and Astronomy — E. W. Hyde, Cincinnati, Ohio ; (B) 
Physics— ¥. E. Nipher, St. Louis, Mo. ; (C) Chemistry— R. C. 
Kedzie, Agricultural College, Mich.; (D) Mechanical Science and 
Engineering— Thomas Gray, Terre Haute, Ind. ; (E) Geology and 
Geography— J. J. Stevenson, New York ; (F) Biology— J. M. Coulter, 
Bloomington, Ind. ; (H) Anthropology — Joseph Jastrow, Madison, 
Wis. ; (I) Economic Science and Statistics — Edmund J. James, Phila- 
delphia, Pa. Permanent Secretary, F. W. Putnam, Cambridge (office, 
Salem), Mass. General Secretary, Harvey W. Wiley, Washington, 
D. C. Secretary of the Council, Amos W. Butler, Brookville, Ind. 
Secretaries of the Sections, (A) Mathematics and Astronomy — E. D. 
Preston, Washington, D. C. ; (B) Physics— A. Macfarlane, Austin, 
Texas; (C) Chemistry— T. H. Norton, Cincinnati, Ohio; (D) 
Mechanical Science and Engineering — William Kent, New York, 
N. Y.; (E) Geology and Geography— W. J. McGee, Washington, 
D. C. ; (F) Biology— A. J. Cook, Agricultural College, Mich. ; (H) 
Anthropology— W. H. Holmes, Washington, D. C. ; (I) Economic 
Science and Statists i — 1'.. F. Fernow, Washington, D. C. Treasurer, 
William Lilly, Mauch Chunk, Pa. 

Wednesday, August iqth. — In the afternoon the chairmen of the 
sections delivered their addresses. Prof. Stevenson, of Section E, 
spoke " On the Relations of the Chemung and Catskill on the Eastern 
Side of the Appalachian Basin." Prof. Coulter, of Section F, spoke 
" On the Future of Systematic Botany." The subject of the address 
of Prof. Jastrow, of Section H, was "The Natural History of 
Analogy." In the evening the retiring president, Prof. G. L. 
Goodale, delivered an address "On the Possibilities of Additions to 
our Cultivated and Useful Plants from New Sources." 

The papers read in Sections E, F, and H were as follows : 
. Thursday, August 2oth.— Section ^.—Source of Supply to Lateral 
and Medial Moraines, John T. Campbell. New Meteoric Iron from 
Arizona Containing Diamonds, A. E. Foote. Post-Glacial Anticlinal 
Ridges near Ripley and Caledonia, N. Y., G. K. Gilbert. Purposes of 

1 891.] Proceedings of Scientific Societies. 937 

Mountain-Building and Their Relationship to the Earth's Construction, 
Warren Upham. Notes on an Extinct Volcano at Montreal, Canada, 
Henry Lampard. On a New Horizon of Fossil Fishes, E. D. Cope. 
On the Cranial Characters of E 'quits txcehus Leidy, E. I). Cope. On 
Problematic Organisms and the Preservation of Algae as Fossils, Joseph 
F. James. On the Age of the Mount Pleasant, Ohio, Beds, Joseph ]•'. 
James. Preliminary Report of Observations at the Deep Well near 
Wheeling, W. Va., William Hallock. The Eureka Shale of Northern 
Arkansas, T. C. Hopkins. 

Section F. — Notes on the Physiological and Structural Changes in 
Cayuga Lake Lampreys, Simon H. Gage. Notes on the Heart of 
Certain Mammals, Ida H. Hyde. The Transformation of the Ver- 
milion-Spotted Newt, Simon H. Gage. On the Kinds of Motion of 
the Ultimate Units of Contractile Living Matter, John A. Ryder. On 
the Extinction of the Scapular and Pelvic Arches and Limbs of Laccr- 
tilia, E. D. Cope. On the Structure and Dimorphism of Hypocrea 
tuberiformis, Geo. F. Atkinson. Another Chapter in the History of 
the Venus Fly Trap, J. M. Macfarlane. On the Prothallium and 
Embryo of Osmunda claytoniana and O. cinnamomea, Douglas H. 
Campbell. A New Nectria, Byron D. Halsted. The Compositae 
Collected by Dr. Edward Palmer in Colima, Joseph N. Rose. The 
Flora of Carmen Island, Joseph ' N. Rose. Uses of the Fermentation 
Tube in Bacteriology, with Demonstrations, Theobald Smith. The 
Foraminifera, with a New Device for the Exhibition of Specimens, 
James M. Flint. 

Section H.~ The Essentials of a Good Education, with a New Classi- 
fication of Knowledge, Wm. H. Seaman. The Custom of Kava- 
Drinking as Practiced by the Paquans and Polynesians, Walter Hough. 
A Linguistic Map of North America, J. W. Powell. Jade Implements 
from Mexico and Central America, Thomas Wilson. Gold Ornaments 
in the United States National Museum from the United States of Col- 
ombia, Thomas Wilson. Siouan Onomatopes Interjections and 
Phonetic Types, J. Owen Dorsey. On a Collection of Stone Pipes 
from Vermont, G. H. Perkins. The Importance and Methods of the 
Science of Comparative Religion, Merwin Marie Snell. 

Friday, 21^.— Section ^.—Fossil Tracks in the Triassic of York 
county, Pa., A. Wanner. New Footprints of the Connecticut Valley, 
M. N. Mitievier. The Plant-Bearing Deposits of the American Trias, 
Lester F. Ward. A Reply to Professor Marsh's Note on Mesozoic 
Mammalia, Henry F. Osborn. Principles and Methods of Geologic 
Correlation by Means of Fossil Plants, Lester F. Ward. Exhibition of 

938 The American Naturalist. [October, 

Certain Bones of Megalonyx Not Before Known, James M. Safford. 
On the Probable Existence of a Second Driftless Area in the Mississippi 
Basin, R. D. Salisbury. The Cincinnati Ice Dam, Frank Leverett. 
The Structure of the Ouachita Uplift of Arkansas, Leon S. Griswold. 
The Relations of the Archean and "the Algonkian in the Northwest, 
C. R. Van Hise. Results of a Well-Boring at Rochester, N. Y., Her- 
man L. Fairchild. 

Section F. — A Monograph of the Carolina Paroquet, Edwin M. 
Hasbrouck. Notes on Bacteria of Cucurbits, Byron D. Halsted. On 
Coloration in Certain Reptilia, E. D. Cope. Transpiration or the 
Loss of Water in Plants, Chas. E. Bessey and Albert F. Woods. 
Movements of Fluids in Plants, Wm. J. Beal. Absorption of Fluids 
by Plants, L. H. Pammel. Gases in Plants, J. C. Arthur. Notes 
Upon an Anthracnose, Byron D. Halsted. Origin and Development 
of Parasitic Habit in Mallophaga and Pediculidae, Herbert Osborn. 
The Origin and Development of Parasitism Among the Sarcoptidae, 
H. Garman. On the Habits of the Proctotrypidae, Wm. H. Ashmead. 
The Biology of the Chalcididae, L. O. Howard. 

Section H. — An Experiment in Human Stirpiculture, Anita New- 
comb McGee. Relics of Ancient Mexican Civilization, Zelia Nuttall. 
Bow Stretchers, Edward S. Morse. # Prehistoric Bows, Edward S. 
Morse. The Nez Perce Country, A*lice C. Fletcher. Relation of a 
Loveland, Ohio, Implement-Bearing Terrace to the Moraines of the 
Ice Sheet, Frank Leverett. Utility of Psychical Study of Child Life, 
Laura Osborne Talbott. Origin of the Name Chautauqua, Albert 

Saturday, 22D.— Section E.— The Attitude of the Eastern and 
Central Portions of the United States During the Glacial Period, T. C. 
Chamberlin. Neocene and Pleistocene Continent Movements, W. J. 
McGee. Results of a Well-Boring at Rochester, N. Y., Herman L. 
Fairchild. On a Deep Bore near Akron, Ohio, E. W. Claypole. The 
Relations of the Archean and the Algonkian in the Northwest, C. R. 
Van Hise. A Study of the Fossil Avifauna of the Silver Lake Region, 
Oregon, R. W. Shufeldt. The Peninsula and Volcano Cosignina, J. 
Crawford. The Geological Survey of Nicaragua, J. Crawford. The 
Highest Old Shore Line on Mackinac Island, F. B. Taylor. Striae 
and Slickensides at Alton, Illinois, J. E. Todd. 

Section F — Parasitism in Coleoptera, in Diptera, in Braconidae, and 
Ichneumonidae, C. V. Riley. Micro6rganisms as Insecticides, C. V 
Riley. Enemies of the Honey Bee, A. J. Cook. Notes on the 
Homology of the Hemipterous Mouth, John B. Smith. Epipharynx 

1 89i.] Proceedings of Scientific Societies. 939 

and Hypopharynx of Odonata, John B. Smith. The Mouth of the 
Copris Carolina, and Notes on the Homology of the Mandible, John 
B. Smith. On the Phylogeny of the Archegoniata, Douglas H. 
Campbell. On the Turtles of the Genus Malaclemys, O. P. Hay. 
The President Condition of the Study of the Deep-Sea Fishes, G. 
Brown Goode. On the Injection of Blood from the Eyes of Horned 
Toads, O. P. Hay. Abnormal Bees, A. J. Cook. On the Importance 
of a Table at the Naples Station, Chas. W. Stiles. Further Observa- 
tions on a Bacterial Disease of Oats, B. T. Galloway. Botanical 
Field-Work of the Botanical Division, George Vasey. Results 
from Recent Investigations of Pear Blight, M. B. Waite. 
The Spectroscope in Botanical Studies, I. S. Brashear. The Per- 
sistence and Relation of Faunal Realms, -Theodore Gill. The New 
Zealand Fish Fauna, Theodore Gill. A Case of the Loss of Sense 
of Smell, Joseph Jastrow. A Novel Color Illusion and a New Method 
of Color Mixture, Joseph Jastrow. Modification of Habit in Paper- 
Making Wasps, Mary E. Murtfeldt. The Fate of the Fur Seal in 
American Waters (lantern illustrations), Wm. Palmer. 

Section H. — An Ancient Human Cranium from Southern Mexico, 
F. W. Putnam. The Length of a Generation, C. M. Woodward. Burial 
Customs of the Hurons, Chas. A. Hirschfelder. The Messiah Religion 
and the Ghost Dance, James Mooney. Study of a Dwarf, Frank 
Baker. Stone Drills and Perforations in Stone from the Susquehanna 
River, Atreus Wanner. Evidences of the High Antiquity of Man in 
America, Thos. Wilson. On Bone, Copper, and Slate Implements 
Found in Vermont, G. H. Perkins. Some Archeological Contraven- 
tions, Gerard Fowke. On the Distribution of Stone Imple 1 e n the 
Tide-Water Province, W. H. Holmes. Aboriginal Novaculite Quarries 
in Arkansas, W. H. Holmes. Games of Teton Dakota Children, 
James Owen Dorsey. Geographical Arrangement of Prehistoric 
Objects in the U. S. National Museum. Thos. Wilson. Curious Forms 
of Chipped Stone Implements Found in Italy, Honduras, and the 
United States, Thos. Wilson. Inventions of .Antiquity, Thos. Wil- 
son. Study of Automatic Motion, Joseph Jastrow. Race Survivals 
and Race Mixture in Great Britain, W. H. Babcock. 

Excursions. — On Saturday, Sunday, Monday, and Tuesday the 
following excursions were proposed for the association : To Luray, Va. 
(expense, £7.50); to Atlantic City ; Norfolk, and Virginia Beach, Va. 
(expense, $8.00) ; Baltimore ($2.00) ; Mount Vernon, Va. On 
account of the expense, some of these excursions were not or but little 
patronized. This was a unique feature in the history of the American 

On the evening of Friday the 21st, Prof. John M. Macfarlane, of 
Edinburg, delivered an address consisting of " Illustrations of Heredity 
in Plant Hybrids," which was illustrated by enlarged views of plant 

At the conclusion of the lecture the council met and elected the 
following officers for 1892 : 

President, Prof. Joseph LeConte, of the University at Berkeley, 
Cal. ; permanent secretary, Prof. F. W. Putnam, Cambridge, Mass. ; 
general secretary, Prof. Amos W. Butler, Brookville, Ind. ; council 
secretary, Prof. T. H. Horton, of Cincinnati University; and treas- 
urer, William Lilly, Mauch Chunk, Pa. The vice presidents of sections 
number: A, Prof. J. R. Eastman, of the Naval Observatory, Washing- 
ton ; B, Prof. B. F. Thomas, State University, Columbus, Ohio ; C, 
Dr. Alfred Springer, Cincinnati ; D, Prof. J. B. Johnson, Washington 
University, St. Louis j E, Prof. H. S. Williams, Cornell University ; 
F, Prof. S. H. Gage, Cornell University ; H, W. H. Holmes, of the 
Ethnological Bureau ; and I, Prof. S. Dana Horton, Pomeroy, Ohio. 

Dr. H. Wheatland, of Salem, Mass., and Mr. Thomas Meehan were 
chosen auditors, and the following gentlemen will be the new setre- 

A, Prof. Winslow Upton, Brown University, Providence, R. I. ; B, 
Prof. Browne Ayers, Tulane University, New Orleans ; C, Prof. J L. 
Howe, Louisville Polytechnic Institute ; D, Prof. O. H. Landreth, 
Vanderbilt University; E, Prof. R. D. Salisbury, University of Wis- 
consin ; F, Prof. B. D. Halsted, Rutgers College, New Brunswick, 
N. J. ; H, Dr. Stewart Culin, Philadelphia ; and I, Lester F. Ward, of 
the Geological Survey, Washington. . 

The council was in receipt of a hearty invitation to select Rochester, 
N. Y., as the place of the next convention, and a ballot resulted in the 
choice being made. 

A general session was held on the evening of Tuesday, August 25th, 
when the above officers and place of meeting were chosen for 1892. 
An invitation to meet m Chicago during the exposition in 1893 was 
presented by a Mr. Young in a speech commensurate with the antici- 
pated grandeur of the event. Resolutions of thanks to the various 

The Geological Society of America.— This organization com- 

mi need its session August 24th in the Columbian University building, 
Washington, D. C, and closed it on the evening of August 25th. 

i8 9 i.] Proceedings of Scientific Societies. 941 

Owing to the death of the president, Prof. Alex. Winchell, the vice 
president, Mr. G. K. Gilbert, took the chair. 

In opening the meeting the acting president, Mr. G. K. Gilbert, 
made a few brief remarks, in which he welcomed the society to Wash- 
ington, and, in the name of President Welling, to the university. A 
touching memorial of the deceased president of the society, Alexander 
Winchell, was read by Prof. N. T. Winchell, brother of the deceased. 
The paper gave a sketch of the life and work of Prof. Winchell, and 
was a fitting tribute to a man who occupied his high position among 

The following papers were read : 

Monday, Auuust 24 ih. — A Geological Map of South America, 
Prof. Dr. Gustav Steinmann. University of Freiburg, Germany. On 
the Permian, Triassic, and Jurassic Formations in the East Indian 
Archipelago (Timor and Rotti), Dr. August Rothpletz, University of 
Munich, Germany. Thermometamorphism in Igneous Rocks, Mr. 
Alfred Harker, St. John's College, Cambridge, England. The Lower 
Silurian (Ordovician) Ichthyic Fauna, and Its Mode of Occurrence, 
C. D. Walcott. Relations of the Plant-Bearing Deposits of the 
American Trias, Lester F. Ward. Studies in Problematic Organisms : 
The Genus Scolithus, Joseph F. James. The Tertiary Iron Ores of 
Arkansas and Texas, R. A. F. Penrose, Jr. Contribution to the 
Geology of the Plains, Sandstone Dikes iri Northwestern Nebraska, 
Robert Hay. Some Recent Experimental Reproductions of Scottish 
Mountain Structures, Henry M. Cadell, Esq., Scotland. Mechanics of 
Appalachian Structure (with lantern illustrations), Bailey Willis. 

Tuesday, August 25TH.— The Relations of the Fossil Echinoid 
Faunas of Europe and America, Mr. John Walter Gregory, British 
Museum, London, England. On the Eurypterus Beds of Oesel as 
Compared with Those of the Waterlime of North America, Dr. Fried- 
rich Schmidt, Academy of Sciences, St. Petersburg, Russia. Sur les 
Couches Marines Terminant le Jurassique et Commencant le Cretace 
et sur l'Histoire de leur Faune, Prof. Alexis Pavlow, University of 
Moscow, Russia. Sur 1' Homme Contemporain du Mammouth en 
Belgique, Prof. Max Lohest, University of Liege, Belgium. On the 
Quaternary Changes of Level in Scandinavia, Baron Gerald de Geer, 
State Geologist, Stockholm, Sweden. The Black Earth of the Steppes 
of Southern Russia : Its Origin, Distribution, and Points of Resem- 
blance With the Soils of the American Prairie>. I'roi". A. Krassnof. 
Sur l' Existence du Dinotherium en Roumaine, Prof. Gr ego ire Stefan- 
escu, University of Bucharest, Roumania. The Present Standing of 


The American Naturalist. 

the Several Hypotheses of the Cause of the Glacial Period, Thomas 
C. Chamberlin. On the Northward and Eastward Extension of Pre- 
pleistocene Gravels in the Basin of the Mississippi ; On Certain 
Extra Morainic Drift Phenomena of New Jersey, R. D. Salisbury. In- 
equality of Distribution of the Englacial Drift, Warren Upham. 
Defloration and Deformation of Alluvial Deposits in New England, 
Homer T. Fuller. The Eteolite Syenite of Beemerville, N. Y., J. F. 
Kemp. On the Separation and Study of the Heavy Accessories of 
Rocks, Orville A. Derby. Contributions to the Areal Geology of the 
Texas-New Mexico Region : (a) The Tertiary History of the Rio 
Grande Embayment ; (b ) The Llano Estacado and Edwards Plateau ; 
(V) The Basin Formations of New Mexico, and Accompanying Volcanic 
Craters ; (</) The Las Vegas Raton Plateau, R. T. Hill. The Missouri 
Coal Measures and the Conditions of their Deposition, Arthur Wins- 
low. The Well's Creek Basin and Uplift in Stewart and Houston 
Counties, Tennessee ; The Pelvis of the Megalonyx, and the Lot of 
Undescribed Bones Among which It is Found, from Big Bone Cave, in 
Tennessee, James M. Safford. The Cienegas of Southern California; 
A Description and Discussion of Their Geological Structure and Origin, 

E. W. Hilgard. Notes on the Crystalline Rocks of Central Texas, 
with Maps, T. B. Comstock. On a Deep Boring near Akron, Ohio, 
and Its Significance, E. W. Claypole. The Natural Bridges of Florida 
and the Chattahoochee Embayment, Lawrence G. Johnson. On 
Some Peculiar Causes which are Influencing Topographical Changes 
and Geological Formations in the Channel Islands of California, 
Lorenzo G. Yates. 

The International Geological Congress. — This body met in 
the Columbian University, Washington, D. C, from August 26th to 
September 2d, inclusive. The officers of the meeting were : Honorary 
presidents, J. D. Dana, James Hall. President, J. S. Newberry. 
Vice presidents— United States, Joseph Le Conte, J. W. Powell, and 
Raphael Pumpelly ; Canada, J. C. K. Laflamme and W. Macfarlan ; 
Mexico, A. del Castillo ; England, T. McK. Hughes ; Scotland, H. M. 
Cadell; France, A. Gaudry and Charles Barrois; Belgium, E. 
Van den Broeck ; Holland, G. A. F. Molengraaff; Norway, H. 
Reusch ; Sweden, Gerard de Geer ; Russia, Th. Tschernychew, 

F. Schmidt, and A. Pavlow ; Denmark, Dr. Johnstrup ; Germany, 
Dr. Von Zittel and H. Credner ; Austria, Dr. E. Tietze ; Hungary, 
Joseph Von Szabo; Spain, M. F. de Castro; Portugal, Joaquin Filippe 
Nery Delgado ; Italy, Prof. G. Uzielli ; Switzerland, H. Golliez ; 

1891.] Proceedings of Scientific Societies. 943 

Roumania, G. Stefanescu ; India, F. R. Mallet; New Zealand, F. 
Hutton ; Australia, Arch. Liversidge ; Chili, F. J- San Roman. 
General Secretaries, H. S. Williams, S. F. Emmons. Secretaries, 
J. C. Branner, Emm. de Margerie, G. H. Williams, Dr. F. Freeh, Dr. 
Diener, Whitman Cross. Treasurer, Arnold Hague. 

Owing to the illness of Prof. Newberry the chair was taken by 
Prof. T. McKenna Hughes, of England ; Prof. Karl Von Zittel, of 
Munich ; Prof. Albert Gaudry, of Paris ; and by Prof. Joseph LeConte, 
first vice president. Prof. Hughes made the opening address, and was 
succeeded by the Hon. Gardner C Hubbard, of Washington, in an 
address of welcome from the city. On behalf of the president and 
the government Hon. J. S. Noble, Secretary of the Interior, delivered 
an address of welcome, which was followed by a few remarks from 
Major J. W. Powell. 

The program of proceedings was as follows : 

Wednesday, August 26m. — 10 a.m., meeting of the council for 
nomination of bureau. 2 p.m., opening of the congress, election of 
bureau, addresses, etc. 9 p.m., reception at the Arlington Hotel by 
the Geological Society of America. 

a.m., morning meeting of congress. 2.30 p.m., afternoon meeting of 
congress. Evening reception by Mr. and Mrs. S. F. Emmons, at 1725 
H Street, 10 p.m., and by Mr. and Mrs. Thomas Wilson, 1218 
Connecticut Avenue. 

Friday, August 28th. — 10 a.m., meeting of council, n a.m., 
morning session of congress. 2.30 p.m., afternoon session of con- 
gress. Evening, the National Museum was opened to members of the 

Saturday, August 29TH. — 10 a.m., morning session of congress. 
Afternoon, no special program made. 

Monday, August 31ST. — 10 a.m., meeting of council, n a.m., 
morning session of congress. Evening, 9 to 11, reception by the 
director and members of the Geological Survey at 1330 F Street. 

Tuesday, September est. — 10 a.m., meeting of council. 11 
a.m., closing session of congress. Afternoon, excursion on the 
Potomac, on steamer furnished by the committee, and dinner at Mar- 

Correlation by structural data. 

a. By stratigraphical data. 

b. By lithological data. 

c. By physiographical data. 

, Correlation by paleontological data. 
C a. By fossil plants, (a. By i 

III. Genetic classification of the Plistocene rocks. 

The consideration of the first division of the above plan was taken 
up by the presentation of a synopsis of the subject by Prof. G. K. 
Gilbert. The third part of the subject was opened by the presentation 
of two systems of glacial phenomena, one by President Chamberlin 
and the other by Mr. W. T. McGee. The discussion was as follows : 

Prof. Gaudry spoke as follows : In the Parisian basin there are two 
different horizons distinguished by different faunas, the one indicating 
a cold, the other a warm climate. It is, however, impossible to decide 
which of these two periods was the earlier. In England the same con- 
dition of affairs is to be observed. In Germany there is but one 
Quaternary fauna, which indicates a cold climate, whilst in Italy the 
fauna of the cold period is absent. 

Prof. H. Credner: The North German plain contains deposits 
closely related to those of the Plistocene in America. Prof. Chamber- 
lin's classification is admirable and wholly applicable to Germany. 

Baron de Geer expressed his approbation of the classification pro- 
posed by Prof. Chamberlin. He had for some years been advocating 
a similar classification for Scandim 
be suggested to suit Scandinavian condit 
deposits might be made* a separate class ; classes IV. and V. of Prof. 
Chamberlin could, perhaps, be reduced to subclasses under III., as 
the formations frequently seem to be accidental or local. He agreed 
with the distinction suggested between osars and kames, — that is, that 
the former are in the main radial and the latter peripheral with refer- 
ence to the distribution of land ice. 

Prof. T. McK. Hughes pointed out that the classification given by 
Prof. Gaudry was purely chronological, whereas that suggested by 
Prof. Chamberlin was purely genetic. He then explained the abun- 
dance of striated boulders in one part of the glacial deposits and their 
absence in another. If the supply of material (that is, of rock bosses 

1891.] Proceedings of Scientific Societies. 945 

above the ice) ceases at any point, then all the boulders will gradually 
sink through the ice and become glaciated at the bottom. Prof. 
Hughes also thought that two distinct types of ridges formed of glacial 
material were confused under the names kames, osars, and eskar. He 
also explained that "pitted plains " as due to an unusual interruption 
between the hills or ridges of eskar character. He expressed his opin- 
ion that the Glacial period was a continuous one, in England at least, 
except for slight changes due to unimportant oscillations. 

Dr. Wahnschaffe advocated the chronological classification, and con- 
sidered such a one possible for the Quaternary deposits of North 
Germany. These deposits begin with pre-Glacial sands and gravels 
containing Paludina ,/. '.:■-. : :..', \vhi< h is still a living form, and Litho- 
glyphus naticoides. Above these follows a typical ground moraine, 
which is overlaid by stratified sand and gravel, containing the well- 
known diluvial fauna ; and to these again succeeds the upper till, 
considered now as the ground moraine of the second glacial epoch. 

Prof. H. Credner : The occurrence of the sand between two ground 

Germany always local, and no proof 
layers between the moraines 
are not continuous, but local, and cannot be given the significance 
attributed to them by Wahnschaffe. 

Prof. Pavlow : In order to secure a satisfactory classification of 
Quaternary deposits, we must secure a satisfactory definition of Pleis- 
tocene. Prof. Pavlow said he would like to give his own views, but 
would postpone them until such accepted definition had been arrived at. 

Baron de Geer agreed with Wahnschaffe that the chronological 
classification is at least locally possible. He also recognized two glacial 
epochs, due to two great oscillations. These cannot always be 
separated, as, for instance, in Russia. For this reason it is best to 
commence with a genetic classification, since this causes less confusion 
to the field geologist. 

Dr. Wahnschaffe replied to Prof. Credner's assertion that there is no 
proof of an interglacial period in Northern Germany. He that that 
the existence of a diluvial fauna between the two tills is sufficient 

Prof. Credner replied that no complete skeleton had been found, 
but only single bones which might have been transported and deposited 
with the gravel. 

Dr. Wahnschaffe again replied that the bones occurring in these 
gravels are proportionately large, when compared with the gravels 

themselves, and therefore cannot well have been transported from a 

Prof. Shaler : Organic deposits may possibly occur very near the ice 
sheet, which allows an interweaving of organic and glacial deposits. 

Mr. G. K. Gilbert remarked on the observation of I. C. Russel in 
Alaska, that where the movement of the ice is very sluggish it may 
become covered with soil, or even with a growing forest, in which such 
animals as bears still live. 

Dr. Diener remarked that intercalated beds of sand were no positive 
proof of interglacial periods. In the Austrian Alps moraines no more 
than twenty years old are covered with pasture, and in the Caucausas 
the rhododendron grows to the very edge of the ice. 

Dr. Hoist mentioned two moraines separated by interpolated sand, 
and thought that they might both have been formed by the same ice 
sheet. The melting of the ice leaves un unoxidized (blue) ground 
moraine, with an overlaying oxidized (yellow) upper moraine. This 
also occurs in Northern Sweden, where there is no indication of a 

Baron de Geer could not understand the occurrence of thirty or forty 
feet of stratified sand between two moraines of the same glacier. The 
colors are sometimes the reverse of what has been stated by Dr . Hoist, 
and the boulders in the two moraines have been derived from different 

Mr. Christie described the section of peat and silt between two layers 
of till occurring on the river Clyde, above Glasgow. 

Mr. Cadell described some five distinct layers of till occurring in a 
pre-Glacial river channel in Eastern Scotland ; and also mentioned 
another river channel, filled with coarse gravel derived from rocks 
occurring farther north in Scotland, which was covered with a later 
layer of boulder clay. 

Mr. McGee mentioned the importance of land forms in interpreting 
geological processes. Any primary geological classification must be 
genetic. He discussed in detail the following scheme of classification 
of Plistocene deposits : 

Classification of Plistocene Formations and Land Forms. 

1891] Proceedings of Scientific Societies. 947 

2. At bass level. 

b. Marsh. 

c. Alluvial (certain terraces, etc.) 

3. Above base level. 

a. Torrential. 

b. Talus (including playas). 

B. Glacial : 

1. Direct. (Chamberlin's class I.) 

2. Indirect. (Chamberlin's classes II. to V., in part.) 

C. Aqueo-Glacial : (Chamberlin's classes II. to V., in part.) 

D. Eolic : (Chamberlin's class (?) VI.) 

1. Direct. 

b. Cinder cones. 

c. Tuffs, lapilli sheets, etc. 

a. Ash beds. 

b. Lapilli sheets. 

Prof. Chamberlin, in closing the discussion, said that there was great 
difficulty in applying a chronological classification, and that such a 
classification might even act as a barrier to observation and to the 
recognition of the truth. ^Chronological classification is the ultimate 
goal of glacial studies, but it is something for which we are not as yet 
prepared. Red, oxidized subsoils are not developed in northern 
latitudes. Organic deposits between glacial layers are abundant in the 
west, but do not belong to a single horizon. Many facts of erosion 
and physical geology indicate that the Glacial epoch in America was 
widely differentiated, and of long duration. How many distinct 
periods it embraced we do not as yet know. 

Prof. Cope: An abundant tropical fauna is found in the "Equus 
beds," which, if they be of interglacial age, indicates at this time a 
warm climate. This fauna is succeeded by a truly boreal fauna. In 
this is contained material for a chronological subdivision of Pleisto- 
cene deposits. 

Prof. Gaudry read the following remarks at the close of the 
congress : 
Mr. President and Ladies and Gentlemen : 

We regret that Prof. Joseph Prestwich, president of the fourth in- 
ternational geological congress, was not able ,'to be present to install 

948 The American Naturalist. [October, 

the officers of the fifth congress, but we are pleased that he should 
have delegated in his place Prof. Hughes, who is so appreciated by all 
geologists. We regret also that Prof. Newberry is not in attendance 
to preside over our deliberations, as we had hoped. In the excellent 
work which he has recently published on the fossil fishes we were 
shown a sample of his vigor and his spirit, but unhappily his physical 
strength would not permit him to attend at our call, and preside over 
this congress. But to console us we have chosen another eminent 
geologist, Prof. Joseph LeConte. In the name of my brother geolo- 
gists I have to thank him for the talent and kindness with which he has 
directed our session. It is now thirteen years since we organized at 
Paris the first international congress of geologists. My friends 
MM. Delaire and Barrois, who are here with us to-day, and who were 
secretaries of that first congress, can tell you that we were not then 
without inquietitude for its success. Thanks to the Lord and thanks 
to you, it has developed into a complete success. We ought not to 
forget that if it was at Paris that the first congress was organized, it 
was in America that the project was started. Hence sprang the 
generous and fecund idea to unite the different members of the great 
family of geologists. I am but the interpreter of the sentiments of my 
brother members of the international congress of geologists, whether 
present or absent, in addressing the most cordial thanks to the Ameri- 
can savants who were the inspiration of this congress. The congresses 
at Bologna, Berlin, and London had grand success, while this at Wash- 
ington is not less satisfying. In truth, we have not made any new 
regulations, and the anterior congresses made many. There are regu- 
lations for nearly everything en peufaut, pas ri en faut. We should 
guard against personality, and ought always to respect the liberty of 
science. It is most important that we should elevate science in the 
greatest degree possible. Our domain is immense, since we make the 
history of all the earth. We should give to our spirits an amplitude 
equal to that of the vast domain which we are charged to explore. By 
the natural force of things each one of us is drawn to study special 
branches ; in order to make original work, one must concentrate his 
power upon a single branch of science. Some of us are pleased to 
make our researches among the vertebrates,— strange and gigantic 
animals which peopled our continents in past times. Others attach 
themselves to the study of invertebrates, — creatures humbler, but which 
render great service to geology in the determination of the ages of the 
earth. Still others consider the flora, and make corresponding classifi- 
cations. Some prefer the primitive terrains which reveal to us the 

1891.I Proceedings of Scientific Societies. 949 

origin of life, while still others prefer tin; so ondarv and Tertiary 
terrains, which show the world in a more advanced state, and so con- 
tinue the mystery of the origin of humanity. Many of our brethren 
occupy themselves with physical or chemic al g« ologv. We have reason 
to hope much from this division fit tabor. It is necessary that at 
certain periods we should collect all the products of our activity, that 
we should show to the world wherever interested, and to our brother 

elusions. Each one of us is but a minimum, but the entirety of our 
knowledge will form a marvelous structure, and one of great strength. 
Such is the work of our international congress. 

Gentlemen, we have the good fortune to be co-workers, and as such 
we should love and be loved by one another. I believe I am the 
oldest of all the geologists who ha\ e < rosst d the Atlantic ( )< can to attend 
this congress. I have met many ardent workers in my life, and I 
declare to you in all the sincerity of my soul that the more I see and 


sts, but we come now 

• ' 


ir ho 

mes in the Old World 


carry with 


members of the inte 



The following names were recorded as the Founders* Committee : 
James Hall, T. Sterry Hunt, J. W. Dawson, J. S. Newberry, C. H. 
Hitchcock, R. Pumpelly, J. P. Lesley, T. H. Huxley, O. Torell, 
E. H. de Baumhauer. 

The following members of the congress were present from foreign 
countries : Austria- Hungary — Dr. Karl Diener, a. d. k. k. Universi- 
ty, Wien ; Dr. Emil Tietze, Chefgeolog des K. K. geol. Reichsan- 
stalts, Wien. Belgium — Prof. Max. Lohest, a l'Universite, Liege; 
Dr. Xavier Stainier, Com. geol. de Belgique, Bruxelles ; Mr. E. Van 
Broeck, Commission geoligique de Belgique, Bruxelles ; Canada— 
Frank D. Adams, McGill College, Montreal ; Thomas MacFarlane, 
Inland Revenue Dept., Ottawa. France— Prof. Dr. Charles Barrois, 
a l'Universite, Lille ; Mr. Marcellin Boule, du Museum d'hist. nat., 
Paris ; Prof. Albert Gaudry, du Museum d'hist. nat., Paris; Mr. Emm. 
de Margerie, Service de la carte geol. de la France, Paris. Germany 
—Prof. Dr. Achilles Andreae, an der Universitat, Heidelberg ; Prof. 
Dr. K. W. Benecke, an der Universitat, Strassburg; Dr. Alfred Ber- 
geat, Munchen ; Dr. Georg von dem Borne, Halle; Prof. Dr. Her- 

950 The American Naturalist. [October, 

mann Credner, an der Universitat, Leipzig . Prof. Rudolf Credner, an 
der Universitat, Greifswald ; Dr. F. Freeh, an der Universitat, Halle ; 
Dr. Otto Jaekel, an der Universitat, Berlin ; Prof. Dr. Emanuel Kay- 
ser, an der Universitat, Marburg ; Dr. W. Koenigs, an der Universitat, 
Munchen ; Dr. Carl Ochsenius, an der Universitat, Marburg ; Dr. 
Alfred Osahn, an der Universitat, Heidelberg; Herr Felix Plieninger, 
Munchen ; Herr Julius Romberg, Berlin ; Dr. August Rothpletz, an 
der Universitat, Munchen ; Herr Ulrich Sohle, Munchen ; Prof. Dr. 
G. Steinmann, an der Universitat, Freiburg ; Dr. Arnold, Ulrich, an 
der Universitat, Strassburg ; Herr Adolf Viedenz, Bergrath, Ebers- 
walde-Berlin ; Dr. Felix Wahnschaffe, an der Universitat, Berlin ; Dr. 
Bruno Weigand, Strassburg ; Dr. Baron Sidney von Wohrmann, 
Munchen ; Dr. E. A. Wiilfing, an der Universitat, Tubingen ; Prof. 
Dr. von Zittel, an der Universitat, Munchen. Great Britain — John 
W. Gregory, Esq., F.G.S., British Museum, London ; Alfred Harker, 
Esq., F.G.S., St. John's College, Cambridge, Eng. ; Prof. T. 
McKenny Hughes, Esq., F.R.S., F.G.S., Cambridge University, 
Cambridge, Eng. ; Mrs. Mary C. Hughes, Cambridge, Eng. ; Hugh 
Leonard, Esq., late Chief Engineer Indian Pub. Works Dep't, 
London; Lieut.-Col. A. O. Tabuteau, F.G.S., Bath, Eng. Mexico 
—Antonio del Castillo, Dir. de l'Ecole des Ingenieurs, City of 
Mexico. Norway — Dr. Hans Reusch, Director of the Geological 
Survey of Norway, Christiana. Roumania— Prof. Stefan Sihleana, a 
l'Universite, Bucharest; Mdme. Henriette Sihleano, Bucharest; Prof. 
Gregoire Stefanescu, a l'Universite, Bucharest; Mdme. Maria G. 
Stefanescu, Bucharest. Russia — Prof. A. N. Krassnof, a l'Universite, 
Charkow; Prof. Alexis Pavlow, a l'Universite, Moscow; Mdme. Marie 
Pavlow, Moscow ; Prof. F. Schmidt, Comite geologique de la Russie, 
St. Petersburg; Prof. P. Tschernyschew, Comite geologique de la 
Russie, St. Petersburg. Sweden— Gerard de Geer, Geological Survey 
of Sweden, Stockholm ; Nils Olaf Hoist, Geological Survey of Sweden, 
Stockholm; Hjalmar Lundbohm, Geological Survey of Sweden, 
Stockholm; Prof. Hjalmar Sjogren, at the University, Upsala. 
Switzerland— Prof. H. Gollier, a l'Universite, Lausanne ; Prof. Dr. C. 
Schmidt, a l'Universite, Bale. 

An excursion to the Rocky Mountains under the guidance of the 
U. S. Geological Survey followed the adjournment of the congress. 
On reaching Salt Lake the party divided, one part visiting the Grand 
Canyon of the Colorado, the other the Yellowstone Park. A remark- 
able peculiarity of this excursion was the fact that it was made at the 
expense of the visitors, the hosts charging each of them $265. 



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Vol. XXV. NOVEMBER, 1891. 299. 


"TPHE talented linguist who has contributed the series on" Lan- 
guage and Thought " to the Open Court says : " Certain it is 
that no philosopher has as yet utilized the new facts which the 
science of language has placed at his disposal." As most of these 
new facts are but corollaries of the evolutionary theory, and as 
philology was revolutionized by that theory and put upon a sure 
foundation, the remark is incautiously made. Herbert Spencer 
pointed out paths for the philologist and anticipated much that 
has been proven; August Schleicher discusses in accordance 
with the theory of natural selection how the various forms of 
speech have developed and divided into dialects and species ; and 
Wilhelm Bleek has dipped into the origin of language. Friedrich 
Muller's ethnography, which accords language the first place in 
racial determinations, supplanted the Blumenbachian division into 
five races, based upon the Semitic myth of descent from a single 

Language and speech are used interchangeably by Max Miil- 
ler, though gesticulation is tacitly and finally directly included ; and 
how proper this inclusion is the science of cerebral physiology 
fully shows, yet not a single allusion was made to this important 
field of research. Miiller ■ claims a place among the physical 
sciences for the science of language, though he seems to com- 
pletely ignore brain anatomy, general physiology, ethnology, and 
other cognate sciences that interpret speech processes. 

952 The American Naturalist. [N 

There should be no underrating of the great value c 
Miiller's work. He has built himself an endurin 
his contributions to philology ; but I affirm that his labor has been 
more in the line of polyglot grammar generally. It is no slur 
upon the value or extent of Miiller's work to say this, for this 
department of philology is just as capable of being deeply mined 
as any other portion of human knowledge; but Muller has 
missed availing himself of what had been worked out by other 

That he has become entangled in the mere wordiness of some 
ideas is apparent in his stating that Darwin has shown the 
inappropriateness of the word species, but that he has substituted 
varieties in its stead. Muller admits genera and individuals, but 
neither varieties nor species. Now if there was one thing above 
all others that Darwin did make clear, it was the trashiness of all 
these terms, from genus to variety, when used in the olden fixation 
sense. Nevertheless, in chemistry, botany, zoology, and even 
where the arbitrary relative terms genus, species, and variety are 
indispensable, nothing is capable of absolute classification ; for 
everything is relative. Even the vertebrates cannot be sharply 
set apart from the invertebrates, for we are compelled to include 
the notochordal animals without backbones among the verte- 
brates. What Darwin did was to show that species, the limbs of 
a tree, were not trunks of separate trees, but that twigs and 
branches were often undistinguishable apart. 

Throughout Max Miiller's writings he is handicapped by his 
exaggeration of the importance of his particular line of research 
carried on as an isolated study. Could he but have a fair 
knowledge of associated sciences, such as that of anthropology, 
anatomy, physiology, and zoology, the value of his work would 
be greatly increased, and his inferences would undergo radical 
changes. He seems to base everything upon the derivation of a 
word, and says that etymology should not be laughed at 
Undoubtedly a careful study of vocabularies aids us in tracing 
the origin of races, but languages have always been in an eternal 
flux, even though the meaning of words may ! 
intention with which words were framed, and 

1891.] Language and Max Mullcr. 953 

give an insight to the thoughts of Paleozoic people. Those who 
have lived with savages, and are familiar with the puerility of their 
conceptions and their disposition to incessantly invent words and 
then forget them, are able to estimate gibberish at its proper 
value. When Chicago was a frontier trading post, log cabins and 
tents domiciled the people. Frame houses took the place of 
these as the village grew. Occasional small brick houses 
appeared as the town spread out ; but scarcely a vestige of any of 
these dwellings remains among the towering masonry of the 
Chicago of to-day, with its million and a quarter of inhabitants. 
Too little attention has been paid to the fact that a growing, living 
language receives accessions from all sides. Our modern English 
is a fearful jargon, combined from many ancient and modern lan- 
guages, civilized and savage ; and necessarily so will speech be 
with a people who are living, expanding, in a restless age, accu- 
mulating ideas from all parts of the world. It is a very common 
mistake of the theologically biased, who imagine that language 
had a directly divine origin, that simplicity of construction of a 
tongue indicates this and is to be admired ; when the fact of the 
matter is, irregularity of declension and conjugation are invaria- 
bly produced by the mingling of people who speak different 

The Australian savage language is exceedingly regular and 
simple, in keeping with its poverty of ideas. The Spanish lan- 
guage is probably the most beautiful, resonant, inflexible, of any 
of Latin descent. But what is there in the Spanish language ? 
The inquisition, in destroying thousands of thinkers in that 
country, male and female, helped to fix and impoverish Spanish 
brains and tongues. There is always wanting a proper consid- 
eration of the fact that, so far from being dependent upon 
language, far too often language has deranged thought, intro- 
duced confusion where even the deaf and dumb have thought 
more clearly. Gesticulation is an important means of communi- 
cation between savages, so much so that the Australian primitive 
people could not understand each other in the dark ; and the 
Chinese frequently resort to writing to make themselves better 

954 The American Naturalist. [November, 

Miiller wishes language to be regarded as a physical science. 
Granting that it is such, why then should it be isolated from 
all other sciences ? Chemistry would be lame indeed without 
physics ; and what would astronomy be without either ? 

Berkeley was right in saying that words are often impediments 
to thoughts. They do in many cases convey wrong impressions. 
They are false symbols, and, being inadequate, choke the intel- 
lectual processes. 

Huxley says that the sooner you forget the derivation of a word, 
and use it in zoology, etc., as a mere arbitrary associated name 
{nomen proprium), the better you are off. 

The fact cited, that the Greeks had but one name for language 
and thought, is about as important as that the Cheyenne Indians 
have but one word for head and leg. 

The illustration of Gambetta shows that by habit thinking can 
be elicited in some only by speaking. It is an exercise of the 
symbolic field ; but how is it that we find some of our greatest 
thinkers most reticent? Sir John Hunter could express himself 
with difficulty, and the most voluble elocutionist or orator may 
have an empty head. 

Miiller is unequivocal in making thought inseparable from 
language and considering them identical. " We think in names, 
and names only," he says. Do we ? What did Caspar Hauser 
name his guardian ? 

Hobbes is quoted approvingly in saying that " truth and falsity 
have no place but among such living creatures as use speech," 
when the fox and wolf resort to subterfuges, and dogs and cats 
know that playing is not in earnest. 

He reduces all languages to a few words, and then turns his 
back upon what it indicates,— that man came from primitive 
stock. He states that " nature produces the greatest effects by 
the smallest means," and yet Miiller turns to the supernatural to 
account for language. 

The " bow-wow theory " is contemptuously disposed of, and 
" clamor concomitans " is not anatomically referred to as depend- 
ing upon effort and air expulsion from the throat 

1 891.] Language and Max Muller. 955 

He is like a blind would-be botanist who tries to picture 
trees by listening to the wind blowing through the branches. 

Attempt a word analysis of a single expression, — appearance 
of eyebrows, wrinkles, corrugations, depression or elevation of 
nose and mouth, — and reflect what cumbersomeness words entail 
upon thought. 

What words does the momentarily rapidly performed face 
reading require ? You see expressions of myriad kinds flitting 
over faces, — you read them, but not in words. You cannot or do 
not analyze them. The unconscious association of the expression 
with an impression, true or false, which that expression makes 
upon your mind, it is impossible to put into words. 

Mill is referred to as making logic depend upon words. Now 
imagine the logical deduction of a soldier who sees a gun pointed 
at him, and hence reads himself an essay that ends in advising 
himself to dodge behind a tree. 

" Dumb animals " cannot be denied thought, they do not even 
analyze consciously their impressions, yet they study conditions 
to advantage, make up their minds to act offensively or defensively 
without a word ; the infant does pretty much the same, so do the 
deaf and dumb. 

Passing now to demonstrate facts, making a study of the 
machine instead of the noises it makes, it is well known to 
physicians that the seat of language in the brain in right-handed 
people is in the left side a little in front of and above the ear. In 
left-handed people the location is upon the corresponding right 
side of the brain. 

These facts have been ascertained by exceedingly simple means, 
an injury to those portions causing an interference with the speech 
function, sometimes to the extent of destroying it. This speech 
function may be wholly and totally obliterated by disease, and 
yet the individual maybe capable of transacting business, buying, 
selling, and directing his affairs generally and intelligently. He 
may make a will disposing of his property, he may think 
deeply and correctly, and yet be unable to express himself by 
speech ; and on the other hand thought may be badly deranged 
and the speech faculty may remain intact. If language and 

95 6 The American Naturalist. [November, 

thought develop together and symmetrically, then the voluble 
Blind Tom should be a pundit instead of the idiot which he is. 
The ability to write may be taken away from us by disease and 
the faculty for speaking be left unimpaired ; and per contra aphasia, 
or speech interference, may exist without agraphia, or the loss of 
the ability to write. These facts alone tend to disprove Max 
Muller's dicta. But much more can be added. In the disease 
called chorea or St. Vitus's dance, if the derangement of the 
motions begins on the left side the speech is not affected until the 
right side also of the body is diseased. Although in a very 
severe case of chorea in a young lady of twenty two the patient 
told me that her thoughts were perfectly clear until she attempted 
to speak, and then she became confused, this does not indicate 
that her thoughts and speech were inseparable, but that when she 
voluntarily attempted to translate her thoughts into speech the 
want of coordination produced mental confusion, and conse- 
quently speech inability. The maniac thinks too fast to be able 
to connect his words intelligently. It is a pernicious notion that 
ideas depend upon words ; but " object teaching " alone disproves 
it. The senses may know things better than words can express 
them. We know that we can understand objects better by seeing, 
feeling, etc., rather than by description. Words indicate things ; 
but we have to understand what those words mean first, showing 
that understanding precedes words. Language may in some 
increase the capacity for higher thought, but language cultivation 
alone does not increase thoughtfulness. The gymnast is not a 
watchmaker or pianist, nor is the elocutionist an originator. The 
talking ability of the parrot may be cultivated to its highest 
extent, but that bird will remain as thoughtless as any of his dumb 

When the right side of the body is paralyzed the speech ability 
s usually lost at the same time, and the mind may or may not be 
nvolved ; but when the left side is paralyzed the speech is not 
Impaired unless the patient is left handed, and the mind is less 

t to be affected in left-sided paralysis. 

An arm, a leg, one side of the face may be paralyzed, with or 

thout speech disease, from brain injury, depending upon the 

i8 9 i.] Language and Max Mullcr. 95 7 

part of the brain affected. Certain areas of the brain preside over 
voluntary control of fingers, arms, legs, lips, lungs, etc., and move- 
ments of these to perform intelligent coordinate action are regu- 
lated by spots of brain surface called centers, which are nourished 
by special blood vessels. According to the extent of damage to 
these vessels will be the degree of paralysis, whether restricted or 
general, involving one or many bodily parts. 

Slanting diagonally downward and forward in the outer part of 
the brain, just above the ear, lie these centers that control the 
arm, leg, fingers, and speech parts, and this portion has been 
appropriately termed the " symbolic field," because through its 
exercise and integrity man is able to gesticulate, point, threaten, 
with hands or feet, or to regulate the motions of the diaphragm, 
larynx, tongue, lips, in a comparable manner, to produce con- 
ventional sounds that serve better purposes than making ges- 
tures, but to the same end, — to make himself understood. It is 
difficult for us to consider the regulation of sounds into language 
as equivalent to gesticulation, but nevertheless nature makes but 
little distinction between her methods of symbolizing in these 
ways. The savage uses gestures where his speech centers are 
poorly educated, and the linguist represses his use of bodily con- 
tortions because his words can make him better understood. The 
ear has been trained to understand the minute variations in sound 
involved in speaking, where previously the eye interpreted less 
satisfactorily the symbolic movements. 

And just as the symbolic field develops in man, so that part of 
the brain was built up and lifted the forehead into a more upright 
plane. But the fact that this symbolic field may be destroyed and 
thought remain shows that thought is not centered in that part, 
but is merely associated with it. To a great extent the mentality 
resides in the left frontal lobe, just in front of this symbolic field. 
This part may develop with or independently of the speech, leg, 
or arm centers, proving that thought is not language, but that 
language is merely a means of expressing thought, just as any 
other gesticulation is. 

The baby's movements are at first badly regulated ; he kicks, 
sprawls, and throws his arms, often in the wrong direction, when 

958 The American Naturalist. [November, 

he attempts to grasp some object. He merely denotes pleasure 
and pain in general by laughing and crying. Little by little the 
infant regulates his movements for walking and handling, and 
acquires the ability of pointing at or motioning away persons, 
denotes pleasure by nods and smiles, and displeasure by shaking 
his head or turning away, and soon he begins to articulate such 
words as " go way," " lemme alone," etc. 

Nothing could be simpler and more convincing, by way of 
refutation of Muller's position, and innumerable facts of the kind 
could be additionally brought forward to demonstrate that thought 
is one thing and language another, and that he might as well say 
that thought is gesticulation of all kinds, for language is, after all, 
only gesture of vocal parts. 

An important inference from this is that manual training would 
develop the symbolic field of the brain and afford a basis for 
mental development, where purely linguistic studies would tend 
to create inefficiency by crowding the speech center with symbols 
that are seldom used, comparable to the differences in education 
and usefulness that exist between the skilled mechanical engineer 
and the clownish contortionist. 

Formations in the East-Indian Archipelago. 


'TWO years ago my friend Wichmann, professor in the Uni- 
versity of Utrecht, in Holland, sent me a rich collection of 
Mesozoic and Paleozoic fossils, which he had made during his 
geological exploration of the Dutch colonies in India, in i888-'8c). 
All these fossils came from the west side of the island of Timor 
and the little neighbor island of Rotti. 

Timor is a locality well known for Carboniferous fossils, which 
were described in 1865 by Professor Beyrich, in Berlin. He 
knew then eighty species from a little river near Kupang, and 
from another place one Ammonite, which he considered as a rep- 
resentative of the Mesozoic fauna. But Professor Wichmann 
found nearly the same Ammonites in the Paleozoic strata of that 
little river near Kupang. Therefore we must regard all these 
Ammonites as of Paleozoic age. 

Though Triassic strata are not yet known at Timor, they have 
been found on Rotti by Wichmann, with the shells of European 
species of Monotis and Halobia ; and in the mud of a volcano 
have, been included, together with some Paleozoic fossils, like 
those of Timor, a few truly Jurassic remains, — also in part of 
European character. From the Paleozoic strata I know at pre- 
sent forty-three species, of which twenty-five are not yet known 
from any other country. The other eighteen only give us the 
opportunity to make out the exact age of these deposits. I shall 
mention them especially : 

Six species are spread out over many parts of the earth and 
during many epochs of the Carboniferous and Permian periods : 
Spirigera royssi, Spirifer lineatus, Spiriferina cristata, Productus 
semireticidatus, Fenestella virgosa, and perhaps Ample xns coralloi- 
des. Three species are found in the Upper Carboniferous and Per- 

960 The American Naturalist. [November, 

mian strata of India, and in part of Russia : Terebratula hima- 
layensis, Retsia grandicosta, and Spirifer masateheylensis. Nine 
species at least belong only to the Permian period, and seven of 
them have been found in the Salt range of India, three in Armenia, 
and one in Russia. 

So we have in Timor no species which could be considered as 
of exclusively Carboniferous age (except perhaps Amplcxiis coral- 
loides), but nine species of exclusively Permian age; and therefore 
we cannot doubt that the fossiliferous Paleozoic strata of Timor 
belong really to the Permain period. 

In favor of this opinion may also be mentioned the presence of 
Ammonites, which are not yet known as having existed in the 
Carboniferous period. The Ammonites megaph) 7us, which was 
described by Beyrich, and placed, together with the Triassic 
Ammonites farbas, in a particular group, has since played a remark- 
able part in the story of systematic arrangement. 

First it was raised by Mojsisovics to the rank of a head of the 
genus Megaphyllites, in 1878. But after a few years the head got 
disgusted with his family, and fell in love with a young American 
lady, called by Hyatt Propanoceras (1886), in whose bonds he 
remained but a very short time, for he had become a very 
fickle fellow, and was running after some other Russian and 
Italian ladies, as Waagenia, Waagenina, and Stacheoceras. But 
these seem to have been only transitory passions, and, becoming 
older and calmer, he found at last the harbor of the genus Arcestes, 
where I hope he will pass his days peacefully, together with his 
new compatriot, the Arcestes Widens. 

Now we have to consider another very interesting fact : that 
none of the exclusively Permian species of Timor occur in Aus- 
tralia or America. This seems to prove that Timor was a part 
of that Permian sea that covered the northern part of East 
India, Armenia, and Russia, and which was limited at the south, 
and perhaps at the east too, by that old Australian-Indian and 
African continent on which* in the same time, the wonderful Glos- 
sopteris flora was growing. 

So also no near relations exist with the middle and northern 
parts of Europe. The European flora and marine fauna of the 

T8gi.] Formations in the East-Indian Archipelago. 961 

Permian period is more distinguished from the Carboniferous flora 
and fauna by the dying out of older species and genera than by 
the growing up of new types. It looks as if Europe, with her 
shallow seas and her isolated and often inundated land masses, 
had been at that time the refuge for the Carboniferous world, 
which was retiring from the battle with younger and stronger 
people that came in from the east and south. 

Therefore, if we would become acquainted with the true Permian 
flora and fauna, we must not address ourselves to Europe, but to 
the eastern and southern continents. There we find the marine 
fauna in a free and rich developement like that which we are 
accustomed to see in the Lower Carboniferous period in Europe ; 
and this gives to the eastern Permian fauna an appearance by 
which it looks more"related to the older Carboniferous than to the 
contemporaneous Permian fauna of Europe. Some geologists 
have been really disappointed by that appearance, and take the 
true Permian fauna as the development of a separate period 
that existed between the Carboniferous and the Permian periods, 
and which they have called the Permo-Carboniferous period. 

But in this they are quite wrong. The aggregation of Car- 
boniferous and Permian species in the fauna at the beginning of 
the Permian period is nothing extraordinary or nothing that 
should not be expected. We know the same as existing on the 
boundaries of the Triassic and Liassic, of the Jurassic and Creta- 
ceous, of the Cretaceous and Tertiary periods. The fact is suffi- 
ciently marked by the names of Rhaetic and Infraliassic, of Tithonic 
and Berrias, and of Laramie. 

The Triassic formation is represented on the island of Rotti by 
white, gray, and red limestone plates, sometimes full of bivalves, 
Except one new species, Halobia wkhmantm, I could state the 
presence of six European species : Monotis salinaria, Halobia lom- 
vitli, lineata, charlyana (syn of • Utaranea Gemallaro), norica" 
and Daonclla cassiana. All are representatives of the upper 
Alpine Trias, three have also been found in Sicily and two in the 
Himalaya. Therefore we must suppose that, as in the Permian 
period, so also in the Triassic time, a large sea-basin existed that 
covered and united Europe and East India. 


The American Naturalist. 


But as the Permian fauna did not show a close relation to the 
eastern fauna, so also there are no relations between the East Indian 
Triassic fauna and that of New Caledonia, New Zealand, and 
Japan, where the Monotis seems to be represented by the genus 

That this remarkable connection of the East-Indian archi- 
pelago with Europe by the intervention of the Himalaya still 
continued during the Jurassic period is proved by the discovery 
of Liassic and Oolitic fossils on the island of Rotti, — as, for exam- 
ple, Arietites geometricus, Harpoceras cf. Eserii, and Belemnites 

It is probable that only after the Jurassic period the East- 
Indian archipelago came out of direct connection with the Euro- 
pean sea, and remained so until now. 


5 ible, 

— who could refuse the trip ? The four who made up our party 
certainly could not. So we started, taking the train for Harrison, 
Sioux county, aiming to visit the little Bad Lands of the Hat 
Creek valley, for these were more easily reached than the larger 
Bad Lands of the White River, and besides they were not as well 
known or so much explored. 

A week's trip is not much to write about, but in a week one 
can see a good deal, and then in a week the novelty of the strange 
scenes has not worn off, and the features of the wonderful land- 
scape can be better described. No inhabitant of the West Indies 
could describe these striking features in such a striking manner 
as has the late Canon Kingsley. The Bad Lands are often 
mentioned, but as yet the descriptions of the regions are not 

The journey from Lincoln was without event. First came the 
climbing out of the valley of Salt Creek, then the long, straight 
line of track for thirty-five miles, and next the descent .into the 
valley of the Platte at Grand Island. The Platte is a strange 
stream. Geologically speaking, it is a new river, which has not 
yet been able to master its sediment. It is broad and shallow, 
and a deep hole is excavated only to be immediately filled by the 
shifting sands of the bottom. In dry seasons there are long 
stretches where no water is visible, but down in the sand the 
water is still running to the Missouri. 

Across the Platte the railroad strikes for the Loup valley, 
crosses the South Loup, and follows up the fertile fields of. Mud 
Creek. A little beyond Broken Bow the "sand hills" are 
reached, and through them for two hundred miles we ride. There 
is nothing picturesque in the landscape now. One can easily 
imagine himself among the sand dunes of Cape Cod or the New 

964 The American Naturalist. [November, 

Jersey shore. Yet these hillocks of shifting sand and scattered 
tufts of coarse grass are interesting, for in them we find evidence 
that this portion of Nebraska was not so treeless as it was when 
the first settlers entered it. As the sand blows it uncovers here 
and there the well-preserved trunks of pine trees. What could 
have caused their extinction ? Certainly not change of climate, 
for in the canons in this same region the same pine grows 

Beyond Alliance we cross the upper Niobrara, and the land- 
scape again changes, for we have now to cross that long line of 
hill, Pine Ridge, which extends for over a hundred miles across 
the northwestern corner of the state. On the southern side there 
is nothing striking except the pine trees. These have a different 
habitus from pines in the east. In Maine and in Michigan the 
pines form dense forests ; but here they are scattered like the 
spruces on a lawn. The train now goes through a tunnel, and we 
enter the valley of the White River. What a change in the 
landscape ! It is no longer tame, but it is cut and eroded into the 
most fantastic shapes. To the north is the valley of the river,— 
here a small stream, — and from it the grassy slopes ascend gradu- 
ally for several miles ; then a more rapid rise, and then the Buttes. 
Look where you will, you see them. You are among them while 
far to the north. Clear across the White River you see the same 
formations. One cannot help thinking that here the process of 
world-making was suddenly interrupted. 

From Crawford to Harrison we follow up the White River. 
We climb first to the foot of the Buttes ; then above them to a 
broad, level prairie, much like those in the eastern part of the 
state. Here we find the town of Harrison, 5,000 feet above the 
sea, where we leave the cars ( and take a wagon for the Bad 

For three miles north the road gradually ascends, and we strike 
the head of one of the canons which are to lead us to the Hat 
Creek valley. Did I say we were above the Buttes ? Even in 
this highest point we see here and there slight piles of rock, the 
last remnants of Buttes which once covered this region. 

i8 9 i.] The Hat Creek Bad Lands. 965 

Down the canon we go, three or four miles, thirteen hundred 
feet fall. Again we enter the line of Buttes. Those we saw 
before were the buttresses on the White River side of this divide ; 
those we now see are those of the Hat Creek valley. Follow the 
horizon around, and everywhere there are the same fantastic forms, 
extending thirty or forty miles to the north. Away beyond them 
rise the dark outlines of the Black Hills, and towering above all 
is Harney's Peak, a hundred and twenty miles away. Halfway 
down the canon we followed, came in a side canon, and here were 
the most wonderful Buttes of all. In their outlines they reminded 
us of ruined castles, fortifications, and the like, on a gigantic scale. 
The lines of stratification of the creamy-white limestone resembled 
the courses of masonry, while the crevices cut the outline into 
buttresses, terraces, and embrasures. At the end of the canon 
nearest us the resemblance was most striking. The corners were 
square cut, and the perpendicular walls were between a hundred 
and fifty and two hundred feet in height. Above them, in the 
center, towered another mass of rock, fifty feet or more, — just as 
did the keep in many a mediaeval castle. 

The broad valley of Hat Creek slopes gradually down from the 
Buttes, and as we first saw it it looked as if carpeted with grass. 
A closer glance at the vegetation showed us that here the buffalo 
grass was not extinct, while the cactuses and sage-bush showed 
that the land was none of the best. A most striking feature was 
the number and brightness of the flowers. A little white lily was 
everywhere, while the bright-colored "loco weeds" (Astragalus 
and Oxytropis) gave a variety. Throughout all the west these 
weeds are said to render the animals which feed upon them crazy 
or " locoed." There is a chance for some investigation here. One 
of the most striking of the flowers was a little Frittillaria, never 
before known to occur as far east as Nebraska. It is a graceful 
lily, with its petals nicely marked with yellow and a purplish 
brown. At Lincoln fully half the flowers were old acquaintances 
which I knew in the Atlantic states ; but here, four hundred miles 
from Lincoln, every plant was a novelty. It was interesting to 
note how closely every plant hugged the earth, the sage-bush and 
the Spanish bayonet excepted. 

966 The American Naturalist [November, 

As yet no Bad Lands. At last, as we rode along, one of the 
party, who had been there before, told us not to look up until he 
spoke. Three minutes passed, and then the signal came. We 
gazed on the most desolate spot I ever saw. For miles it was all 
the same. The names Bad Lands and its French equivalent, 
Mauvaises Terres, need no defense. Not a bit of green, — nothing 
but that creamy-white, calcareous, clayey rock ; and this was 
not level and flat, but eroded into the most irregular surface one 
could imagine. Ridge and gully, ridge and gully succeeding 
each other for miles, — the summits of rhe ridge as sharp as the 
roof of a house, while the gullies in most instances were not wide 
enough to allow the passage of anything larger than a wheel- 
barrow. It was a magnificent chance to study erosion ; but how 
was it eroded ? The gullies were as dry as the crests of the 
ridges. Here and there we struck broader gullies, but even here 
soil was lacking and nothing green was to be seen. The light 
reflected from the creamy ground was very trying to the eyes, 
while the heat on a warm day was oppressive. Not a breeze 
finds its way into these narrow valleys. The walls sometimes rise 
at the angle of forty-five degrees ; at others they are all but per- 
pendicular. They vary from fifty to one hundred and fifty feet in 
height. The strata of which they are composed are not homoge- 
neous. For the most part they can be easily cut with a knife ; but 
here and there there are harder bands, and this alternation gives 
rise to strange erosion figures. The lower and softer strata wear 
away more rapidly than the upper and harder beds, and at one 
place the result was startlingly like a sitting man with a slouch 
hat. In places one finds vertical fissures filled with — now gyp- 

These Bad Lands are most celebrated for the fossils they con- 
tain. In the higher levels of the Buttes fossils are scarce. I am 
told that they yield but few turtles, and nothing else. In these 
lower strata of the Bad Lands mammalian remains are abundant, as 
well as turtles. Some of these latter are small, scarcely three 
inches in length ; some are veritable giants, the carapaces measur- 
ing nearly three feet by four. Turtle remains are very abundant. 
Some are as perfect as when the animal died, while others have 

IB91 .-1 The Hat Creek Bad Lands. 9^7 

succumbed to the frosts and present the collector naught but 
disarticulated plates. The scarcity of turtle skulls is noticeable; 
our party collected only a lower jaw, while we found two turtle 
eggs, one in perfect condition. In one place the turtles presented 
an interesting phenomenon. They had resisted erosion better than 
the underlying stone, and as a result in a small area there were 
about a dozen turtles, each supported on a slender post about two 
feet above the surrounding surface, while there were as many more 
which had tumbled down and left the standard to disintegrate. 

We had not sufficient time to carefully hunt for fossils and to 
take only the best, so we did but little digging. It 

fossil out from its bed. The necessary apparatus 

consists of a picking hammer, a quantity of tough manilla paper, 
paste, and patience. When a fossil is found imbedded in the 
rock, the exposed portions are covered with paper pasted on, and 
then the paste is allowed to dry. Now more is uncovered with 
the pick ; paper is pasted on again, and so on until the whole is 
separated from the rock. Excavated in this way the bones are kept 
in just the relations in which they were found, while the paper 
protects them from injury in transit. Instead we followed- along 
the gullies searching for the fossils which had been weathered 
out, and when a portion was found we followed up the wall above 
it hunting for the rest of the animal. The result of this method 
of collecting was that we got quantities of fragments ; but we also 
found considerable that was more complete, some of it valuable. 

Most abundant of all the mammalian remains were the Oreodons 
gracilis and major. These were small animals about the size of 
a good-sized dog, unlike anything which now exists. Their line 
is extinct. In some of their features they resembled the pigs, and 
in others they were more like the ruminants. 

Prof. Cope has recently shown their position in the conspectus 
of the vertebrates which he has published in this journal. He 
also published a synopsis of the Oreodontids in the Proceedings 
of the American Philosophical Society for 1884, while Prof. 
Scott, of Princeton, has a valuable and beautifully illustrated 
paper on them in the Morphologisches Jahrbach, of later date. 
Other forms which occur more or less abundantly in these beds 
hardly agree with the fauna of Nebraska to-day. There are 

968 The American Naturalist. [November, 

bones which recall the camels and the alpacas ; forms which are 
intermediate between the rats and the squirrels, and others which 
may be the granddaddies of the horse. Then there were still 
others which fed on these grass-eating species : tigers with enor- 
mous canine teeth, and the still larger Hysenodons with teeth 
which close together like shears. It was a wonderful fauna 
which inhabited Nebraska and Dakota in the ages long past. 

Will the Bad Lands ever be exhausted of fossils ? The treas- 
ures of this region and of the larger bad lands of Dakota adorn 
the museums of the east, and every year collectors are at work. 
Of course the specimens which are weathered out can soon be 
picked up, but there are quantities left. In fact, the beds may be 
said to be inexhaustible. Each spring a new crop may be 
expected. What has been the history of the region ? How did all 
these animals accumulate here ? What makes the land bad ? Why 
is it not like disintegrating rock elsewhere ? These are some of the 
questions. There are few problems in geology which give their 
answer in a plainer manner. It is a veritable classic and pony. 

These regularly stratified beds, layer after layer of marly 
material, twelve or fifteen hundred feet in thickness, must have 
been deposited on the bottom of an inland sea, while the charac- 
ter of the fossils — for mollusks occur here and there — shows that 
the water must have been fresh. To-day these strata are nearly as 
level as when they were first laid down. The eye cannot detect 
any departure from the horizontal ; and in the Buttes to the north 
can be traced layer for layer the same beds which occur in the 
Buttes to the south. There is, however, a slight dip in the strata 
caused by the upthrust of that strange mountain region, the 
Black Hills, to the north. 

This lake drained the region around, but the geological history 
of all that region known as the plains shows that then, as now, 
the streams largely ran from west to east. Hence the principal 
affluents of this Miocene lake must have come from the west. 
The climate then was probably different from that to-day, for 
nowhere within two hundred miles is there rainfall sufficient to 

On the shores of this lake and on the banks of the tributary 
streams lived those animals which supplied the fossils of to-day. 

1891.] The Hat Creek Bad Lands. 969 

First and most abundant were the Oreodons and their allies. 
The number of their remains shows that they most probably 
formed large herds. Rarer were the horse-like forms, which, how- 
ever, resembled but little the horses of to-day. Then there 
were camels and rhinoceroses, and largest of all the immense 
Menodus, the lower jaw of which measured about two feet in 
length. These animals fed on the vegetation, while the cats 
and Hysenodons of the time preyed on these. How the bodies 
were transferred to the place where we find the bones is a prob- 
lem easily solved. Probably there were freshets caused by abun- 
dant rains, and numbers of animals were swept by the stream 
into the lake. Here the bodies floated about, disturbed by the 
gases of decomposition, until a part dropped here and another 
there. This explains»the scattered condition of the bones to-day. 
Even in the solid rock it is unusual to find more than two or 
three bones together. Certain it is that these animals were not 
mixed where we find them. 

At length the conditions changed. The lake still remained, 
gathering sediment at the bottom, but the mammalian remains 
are much scarcer than before, and even in the upper portions of 
these bad-land strata they are much less abundant than in the 
lower beds. What was the cause ? I do not know. Still the 
lake continued laying down stratum after stratum until there was 
at least more than a thousand feet of rock piled upon the top of 
the fossils. How much more there was we do not know. The 
Buttes are our sole register in this respect. We no not know- 
how much erosion there has been from their tops. 

At last the lake became dry, and its old bottom was exposed 
to the air, and now erosion began. Looking across the Bad 
Lands from the tops of the Buttes, and seeing that valley forty or 
fifty miles across, and with an average depth of eight hundred or 
a thousand feet, one no longer wonders at the muddy Missouri 
or at the immense alluvial deposits which the Mississippi has 
made ; and yet this same erosion is going on and has been going 
on at a thousand other places of equal extent. 

Rapid erosion now ceased, and the broad valley with its gently- 
undulating surface gained a soil. Then a second erosion began, 
and it is this second erosion which has produced the Bad Lands. 

970 The American Naturalist. [November, 

Here and there in this area we find a bit of what might be termed 
tableland or a small scale. The upper surface is covered with a 
scanty vegetation of buffalo grass, cacti, sage-brush, and Agave 
angustifolia, with the ever-present loco weeds. But the slopes of 
the tableland are abrupt, and not a bit of green can be found on 
them. The geological history of the region can be predicted. 
This erosion will go on until the ridges are all worn away, and 
the bad lands again become reduced to a plain. Then as Hat 
Creek wears a deeper channel, erosion will again be increased, and 
the Bad Lands will be repeated. 

At first sight we all thought that the erosion was extremely 
rapid. The rock looks at first sight as if it would melt like 
sugar when it rained, but apparently this is not the case. My 
conclusions are that the winter frosts are the really efficient agents 
in the process. Rain and melting snow penetrate for an inch or 
two into the rock, and then the expansion of the freezing water 
disintegrates the outer surface of the rock, and it is only this 
outer portion which is soft. We found a place where for two 
years an irrigating ditch had emptied itself into the Bad Lands. 
It had nearly washed away this outer softened layer. The solid 
rock showed no signs of wear. 

In studying erosion in this region one must remember that 
here the rainfall is not excessive. Some ten or fifteen years ago 
Prof. Samuel Aughey published some charts and tables, the object 
of which was to show that the rainfall was increasing rapidly in 
Nebraska. The lines on his maps were as firmly drawn as the 
contour lines in a topographical survey. But alas ! there is no 
evidence, nor has there ever been, to support these charts and 
these conclusions drawn from them. The annual rainfall is given 
or regions and times when there were no observations and no one 
there to observe. To-day our statistics are scanty, and now reach 
back far enough to enable us to say whether the annual rainfall is 
increasing at all. Apparently from the slight data we have in the 
Bad Land region a rainfall of sixteen inches in a year is unusual. 
With that slight amount extensive erosion is not probable. 

The question is asked, Will these Bad Lands ever be of value ? 
Not in the immediate future. A country so extremely irregular 
is not available for agriculture. A few years ago this whole 

1891.J The Hat Creek Bad Lands. 971 

region was occupied by cattle rangers, and thousands of heads 
were to be found here. Here and there, flowing down from the 
canons, are small streams which afforded water, while in the dry- 
climate the grass cures on the ground and is available for 
pasturage the whole year round. Rarely are the snows suffi- 
ciently deep to prevent the animals feeding in the open field. A 
few years ago the region was preempted by settlers. The cattle 
were driven out, and to-day the barb-wire fence shows the limits 
of the farms. But these farmers have a sorry time of it. No 
rain, no crops. I should not be surprised to see the whole country 
go back to grazing. 

Owing to various circumstances we had but twelve hours' 
actual collecting time; and we went over but a corner, some six 
miles across, of the Bad Lands. Not much could be expected in 
so short a time and in such hurried and superficial collecting, yet 
when we got back to the railroad and packed our fossils we 
found that all four had obtained over 450 pounds. A list of the 
species we obtained would prove dry, but a rapid examination of 
the fossils showed some thirty or forty species represented by 
fragments or more complete remains. 

Of animals we found comparatively few traces. The region is 
not such as to support an extensive fauna. We were told that 
mountain lions, timber wolves, and coyotes were comparatively 
common. In the Bad Lands and in the country surrounding we 
found several skulls and a good many horns of the buffalo. 
Horned toads are comparatively common in the whole region. 
The cacti form a habitation for a true cochineal insect ; but to me 
the most surprising find was a scorpion in the Bad Lands. I did 
not suppose that they occurred nearer than Southern Kansas and 
Colorado, three or four hundred miles nearer the equator. 

One of our party was an entomologist, and he obtained 
numerous good things on the trip. One evening, as we were 
making up our beds in the open air, we were completely covered 
by a small June bug. The entomologist told us that the species 
was described but a few years before from specimens which he 
collected. Scarcely half a dozen specimens represented the 
species in all the collections of the world. He took hundreds of 
specimens away with him. 

The American Naturalist. 


T7 VERY ONE knows that the animal tissues are not fixed and 
unvarying quantities. From the time of an animal's first 
appearance in the outer world to that of its disappearance by the 
natural processes of dissolution it exhibits many morphological 
changes, so obtrusive as not to require comment. They are spoken 
of as developmental changes, and are often so radical and 
thoroughgoing that the later forms in the series bear no resem- 
blance to their antecedent forms. Such are the total metamor- 
phoses of certain insects, crustaceans, worms, and sponges. Partial 
metamorphoses are gone through even by the highest types, so 
that the adult form often possesses morphological characteristics 
which are not present in the young, or vice versa. But there are 
other less obvious changes which affect the tissues, and are not so 
easily studied by direct observation. Such are the changes in 
quantity arising from varying rates of nutrition and other dis- 
turbing causes. Besides these fluctuations, which are directly 
referable to immediate causes, there are others which appear to be 
constitutional, and proceed along definite paths of development 
throughout the lifetime of the animal. Moreover, these less 
apparent changes seem to adhere to animal species with much the 
same persistency that the more ostensible outward differences do. 
That is to say, just as one can distinguish an adult deer from its 
young by change in the form of its antlers, so, if he were a 
thorough expert, he could detect equally important changes in its 
internal parts which might serve as the basis of distinctions just 
as important as the ones here employed. In the absence of any 
extended investigations, it is impossible to speak with quantitative 
exactness of the inner changes from the time of birth to the 
attainment of old age. Such a record upon any one animal would 
be impossible from the very fact that the first investigation would 
deprive the animal of life. To conduct intelligent experiments 

1891.] Quantity and Dynamics of Animal Tissues. 973 

on different representatives of the same species would require a 
knowledge of the age, food, and environments of the different 
animals dissected, and then we would have to proceed upon a 
supposition, probably never realized in nature, that all the subjects 
of the experiment varied together in the quantity and distribution 
of all their tissues. Obviously such a supposition would be 
purely artificial ; and to insure all the conditions for the faithful 
execution of the experiment would require precautions so labored 
and extraordinary as to baffle the most skillful experimenter. 

But while it is impossible to obtain exact and absolutely reliable 
data which may serve as the basis of laws of specific develop- 
ment, yet there are certain general and approximate methods 
which may lead to very much the same end. Such data may be 
derived in part by observations of the outward contour as deter- 
mined by the plumpness or leanness of the animal. It is true 
that inferences based upon such observations may often be mis- 
leading, owing to our ignorance as to just what tissues produce 
the fullness or shrinkage in any given instance, and as to whether 
the same amount of shrinkage at different times is caused by the 
degeneration of the same or different tissues. Many valuable 
suggestions may be gleaned, however, from post-mortem examina- 
tions of typical cases. Such examinations, if found to be often 
confirmatory of previous conjectures, will tend to inspire confidence 
in our methods and results. There can be nothing more certain 
than that most mammals are subject to easily observable changes 
in. their external contour from the time of their birth onward, 
Puppies and kittens, for example, are clumsy and thick-set when 
born, the latter being positively corpulent. As growth proceeds 
however, the legs and body elongate, and the relative proportions of 
limbs and body are altered in a marked manner, the body becom 
ing often quite lank. Quite the reverse happens to the calf and colt 
They are very gaunt and long-legged, to begin with ; but grown 
cow r s and horses become decidedly thick and sometimes unwieldy. 
The muscles also change in form and relative dimensions. 
Changes like these are points of common remark in the human 
subject. Plump babyhood and childhood, spare youth, stout 
manhood, and weazen old age have all found place in familiar 

974 The American Naturalist. [November, 

proverb and song. All these outward changes are certainly 
expressions of inner changes equally important and significant. 

In early life the vegetative functions preponderate. Eating and 
attendant growth are the all-important activities. But bye and 
bye the animal functions # of motion come into play. Nutrition 
then ceases to be the dominant function, and the surfeited tissues 
give up their useless store to the growing demands of higher 
activities. The result is a redistribution to suit the specific needs 
of the animal organization in question. This redistribution does 
not cease until a new equilibrium is established which harmonizes 
with the existing orders of activity. Then a stage of equilibrium 
ensues, which may be called the balance of middle life. It con- 
tinues until the already abridged functions of nutrition begin to 
yield further ground, weakened by the approaching exhaustion of 
an ebbing and dwindling vitality. This waning of the nutritive 
functions is manifested by a loss of flesh, and the angular, bony 
framework projects out through the wasted habiliments of mus- 
cular and adipose tissue. At last the vital store is exhausted, the 
nutritive processes cease, and the animal dies. Such, in brief, is 
the story of the average mammal's life, though the details are 
often disguised in various ways. While we cannot exactly for- 
mulate the variations of tissue at different periods, yet an average 
of many weighings will not lead us much astray. Such averages 
of different species closely allied may be compared with profit. 

We are all more or less familiar with certain differences of abso- 
lute and relative weight and volume in the homologous tissues of 
different species. Results of this sort, especially on the brains of 
animals, are quite frequently met with. In all such cases, how- 
ever, we are often perplexed to know, especially in animals 
with only remote systematic affinities, just how far it is legitimate 
to compare apparently homologous organs, and where such com- 
parisons should end. For this reason it is generally well to 
restrict our comparison to animals of the same subkingdom, and, 
better still, of the same class, for the greater the divergence of 
remotely analogous tissues the less reliance can be placed on the 
comparative results. There are other difficulties which arise in 
the study of the quantities of tissue in the same animal. In 

1891.] Quantity and Dynamics of Animal Tissues. 975 

highly organized animals the differentiation of parts is often 
carried to such extremes, and the histological and anatomical 
lines of division are so ill defined, that we cannot say precisely 
where one tissue begins and another ends, and even the distinc- 
tions of a tissue as the material endowed with specific physiolog- 
ical functions is necessarily arbitrary and includes heterogeneous 
elements. To illustrate, it is not uncommon to find tables of the 
comparative weight of vertebrate brains. The value of such 
tables from the standpoint of strict homology is not very great 
How utterly impossible it would be to find strictly homologous 
parts in all the cerebral tissues even in the different members of 
the class Mammalia ! Certainly the range of physiological and 
psychological functions which these tissues discharge in the 
different members of the class is a very wide one. Some of them 
are unique and peculiar to one order, and are not represented in 
the others. Considerations like these bring us to realize that all 
quantitative studies of the tissues must necessarily proceed upon 
arbitrary assumption as to what parts are proper subjects of com- 
parison. Probably, after all, the best method of pursuing such 
studies is to compare tissues with approximately the same physio- 
logical functions. This method I have pursued in the case of a 
few of the higher animals. The weight of the skins, skeleton, 
muscles, bones, and viscera were made the subjects of comparison. 
Under the last division were included not only the viscera proper, 
but also the lungs, brain, and all parts not properly falling under 
the other divisions. Under the head of skeletal muscles, tendons 
and ligaments were necessarily included ; and under the head of 
the bones, cartilages and fatty marrows were included. Only a 
few dissections were made, and hence all inferences based upon 
them are necessarily incomplete, and require to be stated with 
extreme caution. The following comparative table gives the 

Gray squirrel 
Black squirrel, 

Gray squirrel, 
Black squirrel, 

Gray squirrel, 
Black squirrel, 

Woodchuck, I 
Gray squirrel, 
Black squirrel, 

The fact which impresses us most about these figures is that the 
relative proportions of the tissues here considered are far from con- 
stant in the same and in different animals. The right-hand figures 
in the column of ratios are well calculated to emphasize this fact. 
The tegumentary, bony, nutrient, and motor tissues do not each 
have equal weights in the same animal, and the ratio of their 
weights to the body-weights are not the same in different animals. 
For example, the ratio of the weights of the skin to the body vary 
all the way from i : 8 in the rabbit to 1 : 4}4 in the skunk ; the 
ratios of the muscles from i : 2 in the rabbit and squirrels to 
1 :4}4 in the skunk ; the ratios of bones from 1 : 4}i in the rab- 
bit to 1 : 6 in the squirrels ; and the ratios of the viscera from 1 : 3 
in the woodchuck to 1 :6 in the gray squirrel. Thus it appears 
that variations of one-half are not uncommon for the same tissue 
in different animals, and much profounder differences exist in the 
weights of different tissues of the same animal. Without doubt, 
more extensive dissections would reveal even greater extremes 
in the quantities of tissue in other mammals and in verte- 
brates generally. Certainly the nerves and the brain exhibit 

1 891.] Quantity and Dynamics of Animal Tissues. 977 

immense quantitative differences in animals of different species- 
While the brain of the elephant, the largest of terrestrial mam- 
mals, has the greatest absolute weight, and that of the whale, the 
largest of all mammals, the next in size, yet among the smaller 
animals it is well known that the brain of man is preeminent in 
size. The brains of fishes and reptiles are exceedingly small in 
proportion to the size of the body, and the brain of Coryphodon, 
the prototype of the Ungulata, from the early Tertiary, was rela- 
tively much less than the average existing mammalian brain. 
The several tissues differ immensely in the range of their quanti- 
tative variations. Some of them, as the bones and muscles, grow 
under mutual limitations prescribed by the mechanical conditions 
of animal movement. If the animal is to move it must have 
motor tissues, and it must have hard parts upon which the motor 
tissues can act. The existence of the one necessitates the existence 
of the other, and that in certain quantity as well. The quantity 
of the one is reactionary upon the quantity of the other. If one 
is destroyed the other no longer has any use, and eventually 
suffers degeneration. Like relations subsist between certain cor- 
related organs of the viscera. They act and react upon one 
another, and hence their growth and decline must go on together. 
There are other tissues the growth of which is mutually antago- 
nistic. Darwin and Cope have cited the examples of the Artio- 
dactyla where the evolution of the antlers is accompanied by a 
disappearance of some of the teeth. Facts of like import are not 
wanting in the case of the other tissues. Cope explains them by 
assuming that the animal has a fixed complement of vitality or 
bathmic force, and hence, by the principle of the conservation 
of energy, an expenditure in one form of growth must be com- 
pensated for by an equivalent suppression of some other form of 
growth. Cephalization is really a special case of this general 
principle, where the lines of maximum growth converge in a com- 
mon direction. The acceleration of parts headward is coincident 
with the abortion of parts tailward. Under this view it is easy to 
suppose that the disappearance of the tail in man was accom- 
plished by an enlargement of his cranial capacity, and the vital 
energy that was expended in its movement has now been trans- 

978 The American Naturalist. [November, 

formed into some higher psychical energy. Finally, there are 
some other tissues^ the quantity of which does not seem to be 
subject to the limitative adjustments of other tissues, because they 
are not directly concerned in the vital economy, and they fluc- 
tuate very perceptibly with the changing conditions of the ani- 
mal's environment. Such is the adipose tissue. Cells of fat may 
increase independently of any mechanical laws prescribed by 
other tissues (of course within limits compatible with life), as in 
the omentum of corpulent people and the layers of adipose tissue 
in swine. We thus see that there are quite well-defined types of 
growth among the tissues of animals. There are those which 
increase and decrease together, those which increase at the expense 
of others, and those which vary independently. Of course these 
lines are not absolutely distinct, and probably every tissue in 
some degree embodies them all. This classification is given as 
having a general value only ; but while there are specific and indi- 
vidual variations which have no apparent connection with any 
general evolutionary principles, there are variations, extending 
over longer periods of time, which have a historical value to the 
anatomist and paleontologist. They are the larger cycles of 
change in which these individual cycles move and exist. In the 
brief period of a human lifetime they are disguised by the seem- 
ingly irrelevant fluctations of the present, and it is only in the light 
of a remoter history that we gain a full conspectus of the progress 

All through the Paleozoic and Mesozoic ages there was a remark- 
able profusion of molluscan and radiate life. Lime-secreting animals 
were the prevailing type in all seas, and the seas were everywhere. 
In many places the rocks are almost entirely composed of the 
remains of these animals. Finally fishes made their appearance. 
They continued to develop, and have reached their highest phase of 
specialization at the present time. Then the reptiles came, and at 
length the mammals. This succession has been marked by a 
concomitant succession in the relative quantities of animal tissues. 
When the primeval seas were surcharged with carbonate of lime 
the organisms then living rapidly used up the excess in secreting 
protective coverings for their softer parts. In some of the early 

1891.] Quantity and Dynamics of Animal Tissues. 979 

Brachiopoda, as Discina and Productus, a calcareous shell made 
up a large part of their weight. The rugose and tabulate corals, 
the Cephalopods, and many other forms were permeated through 
and through with walls and tables of calcareous masonry. This 
process continued for a long succession of ages. Even when the 
early fishes appeared they too were plated and shielded by thick 
secretions of carbonate of lime. But as the type of fishes 
expanded a new tendency became developed, which has con- 
tinued to manifest itself ever since. Even the early Ganoids pos- 
sessed a much greater quantity of soft tissue in proportion to the 
hard parts than did the Brachiopods and corals. This, of course, 
was an indispensable prerequisite to the free and roving life which 
they led. Had they been weighted as heavily as some of the 
Brachiopods, locomotion would have been out of the question ; in 
fact, it may be enunciated as a general principle that wherever an 
animal is found capable of vigorous and long-continued locomo- 
tion, there we may be sure to find the motile elements of the body 
sustaining a high ratio to the inert elements. But later on forms 
like the Cestracionts and other sharks must have had a very large 
excess of soft parts over hard parts. Later still the heavy ganoid 
scales were discarded for the lighter ones of the Teleosts. The 
secretions of lime became less, and the excess of hard parts over 
soft parts was diminished until the opposite relation existed. 
While this tendency may not be traceable in all cases, yet there 
are a sufficient number of instances to warrant the generalization 
that the development of animal life has been marked by a grow- 
ing diminution in the quantity of hard parts, and a relative 
1 the quantity of soft parts. The gigantic reptiles of the 
; age and mammalian life of later times all point to this 
conclusion. The change in the relative quantities of hard and 
soft parts was attended by other correlated changes. As the soft 
parts were liberated from the incubus of the hard parts they 
gradually differentiated in various directions, to suit the altered 
conditions of their environment. By reducing its calcareous 
integument the animal was more exposed to the attacks of its 
enemies ; and this exposure necessitated one of two things, — either 
it must take on protective colors or spines, or it must differentiate 

gSo The American Naturalist. [November, 

motor tissues and organs by which to escape those enemies. In 
some cases both lines of development have been pursued in some 
part by the same animal. The locomotive function must certainly 
have played a highly important part in the life of fishes from the 
very first, and in birds its manifestations are even more intense. 
But with the evolution of locomotive powers there arose a need 
of a system of external or internal leverage, and the result of that 
necessity is the exoskeleton and endoskeleton of the Arthropoda 
and Vertebrata respectively. A nutritive apparatus necessarily 
coexisted with the lime-secreting activity. But when the factor 
of locomotion became added to the animal life new differentia- 
tions of structure were called into being. Function and tissue 
reacted again and again in endless combinations, and the present 
diversities of organic structure were the result. That result was 
marked not only by qualitative but quantitative peculiarities, and 
it is these peculiarities that we have been discussing. Such, in 
brief, is the historical outline. 

We now pass on to consider the dynamics of the subject. It 
is a patent fact that a division of labor is beneficial to all the 
laboring elements. It is no less true that it results in some 
degree of dependence between those elements. The degree of 
the dependence is heightened the farther the specialization is car- 
ried. This is eminently true of the animal organism. In its 
simplest expressions as Protamceba an absolute independence 
between the parts everywhere prevails. All parts alike respond 
to all stimuli, and no part is anything in particular, but every- 
thing in general. In higher forms the structures are more diver- 
sified, and they assert their individuality by differential responses 
to external stimuli. Moreover, each member gives a complete 
response only when it sustains a connection with all its fellow- 
members. The several members form a joint society, whose 
union is strength and whose dissolution is ruin. Such is the 
polity of the animal body. Now we have seen that the several 
tissues vary in quantity. They vary in the same individual at 
different periods of life, and in individuals of equal age in the 
same and in different species. Such variations in the tissues must 
profoundly affect the amount of functional activity. Suppose we 

1891.] Quantity and Dynamics of Animal Tissues. 981 

compare two of the animals given in the tables, the woodchuck 
and the rabbit. The ratios of the weight of muscle to the weight 
of body in the two animals stand in the proportion of 1:2. 
That is to say, the rabbit has two pounds of muscle for everyone 
possessed by the woodchuck, which it can use in moving its body. 
Now the specific energy of striped muscle in animals as widely 
separated as the bird and man stand only in the insignificant ratio 
of 1200: 1087 ("Animal Mechanism," E. J. Marey), so that 
we do not feel that we are assuming too great impossibilities when 
we call the specific muscular energies of the woodchuck and 
rabbit equal. Now this equality can only subsist for a period of 
extended duration on condition of equal metabolic activities in the 
two tissues. These activities, in turn, will depend on the food 
supply, digestion, and all the preliminary acts of nutrition. But 
to avoid complications we will adhere to our first assumption. 
Now the woodchuck has to move twice the inert mass in propor- 
tion to its muscular weight as the rabbit. To do this it can exe- 
cute only one-half the quantity of motion as the rabbit. Then 
the rabbit leads a life twice as active as the woodchuck. But the 
viscera of the woodchuck are to those of the rabbit nearly as 
3 : 2, and assuming equal nutritive powers in equal weights of the 
viscera, the difference of muscle weight would be partially offset 
by a canceling difference in the rates of repair of the wasting 
tissues. This assumption, however, that equal quantities of vis- 
cera repair equal amounts of waste, is not a safe one. Besides, it 
will be remembered that in these experiments organs as widely 
diverse in function as the brain, lungs, liver, and heart were, to 
avoid confusing details, weighed together and classed as viscera. 
The rate of assimilation and repair of the muscles would clearly 
depend upon the size and activity per unit quantity of the organs 
concerned in the vegetative functions. Organs of different func- 
tion, as the brain (which is extremely variable in size), would viti- 
ate the comparison between equal quantities of viscera as here 
employed. But, what is still more adverse to the assumption, 
there is no good reason for supposing that equal quantities of 
organs discharging the same functions create equal functional 
products. Butchers say that in old cows the intestines have a 

982 The American Naturalist. [November, 

much greater size in proportion to the body than in young cows 
and heifers. They are also poorer, and it requires a much greater 
amount of food to produce a given amount of flesh than in 
younger animals. This case seems to indicate that the efficiency 
of the organ degenerates with increasing size. Of course this is 
not always true, and there are marked instances to the contrary, 
as in the relatively large brains of certain intellectual prodigies 
and the heavy biceps of professional pugilists. Probably the dif- 
ferences of size in the functional organs of the viscera are, in 
many cases, due to the growth of indifferent tissues as fat and 
connective fibers. Perhaps their presence in the case of the cows 
already mentioned may even impede the normal discharge of the 
functions. Be this as it may, it is undeniable that the greater 
quantities of viscera are by so much an added incubus to the 
movements of the animal. It is, of course, self-evident that in 
most cases all the tissues not directly concerned in the contrac- 
tions which produce motion are in some degree adversative to 
such contractions. Only a few of the voluntary muscles are used 
in any one movement, and all the rest of the body is, for the time 
being, a dead weight to be overcome ; so that in the simplest of 
our daily movements the active and passive parts are continually 
shifting about, and the waves of maximum activity travel now 
here and now there. All the tissues, save the voluntary muscles, 
are perpetually inert relative to movements in the environment. 
They are at one time impelled to passive movements, and at 
another time are quiescent, according to the character of the 
movement. They are in one sense a necessary evil, impeding and 
yet indirectly promoting the movements of the animal. 

Lastly, we have to consider the bones. Without doubt they are 
inert elements. Yet that very inertness serves a useful purpose in 
the animal movements. If we compare the ratios of the bones to 
the body and of the muscles to the body in the woodchuck and 
rabbit, we are surprised at the absence of parallelism which a 
knowledge of their mutual connection would lead us to expect. 
While the muscles of the woodchuck are to those of the rabbit 
relative to the body as 1 : 2, the bones are nearly equal in the 
his is explained by the fact that the total 

i8qi.] Quantity and Dynamics of Animal Tissues. 983 

weight of body to be supported is greater in the woodchuck, and 
since the quantity of muscle is relatively smaller, the animal is 
forced to a sedentary life and does not move about much. Even 
the forms of body in the two animals harmonize with this view. 
The woodchuck is stout and heavy, the rabbit is agile and slender. 
Just as the heavy bones of the woodchuck are indicative of its 
sluggish habits, so the light bones of the rabbit point to an 
opposite inference. Very much more could be said of the quan- 
tities and dynamical values of the animal tissues, but this must 
suffice at present. It is hoped that further evidence will be 
brought forward on some of the points here barely alluded to. 
The subject is certainly a very fruitful one for future research. 


BY J. S. K 


(Continued fro m Vol 

Osbokn, H. — Local problems 

n science Proc Iowa Acad 

Sci. for 1 888, p. 19, 1890.— Resu 

tie of work done on natural his- 

tory of Iowa. 

Cope, E. D.— Lamarck vs. We 

smann. Nature, XLI., p. 79, 


* McNiell, J.— The male elem 

snt the originating factor in the 

development of species. Psyche, \ 

T ., p. 269, 1889. 

\.— Proofs of the effects of habitual use in the modi- 
imal organisms. Proc. Am. Phil. Soc, XXVI., p. 


\. M._Cytolf 

gy orce! 




ope, X., 

p. 360 


. T.— Diverge 



Am. /i 

ur. S 

•/., XXXIX., 


K, J 

A.— An attt 

npt to 1 

f the 1 


p. 62. 


C. R.— A m 

ition. P 

arine lab 



1 891, 

VII., p 


890. — Suitable localiti 

■s nea 

- San 


go. Ca 




R. E. C— On 

J. A.— Lam 

, VII., p. 

dly h 

n,i I. 




of ani- 
. Bost. 

Soc. N 


XXV, p. 42, 


Am. P 

». J 
d th< 

)c, XXVIII., 

p. 109, 1 







v. J- 

—Remarks on 

the nature of o 


c species. 


Stokes, A. C. — Notices of new fresh-water Infusoria. Proc. 
Am. Phil. Soc, XXVIII., p. 74, 1890.— 1 8 new sp. New genera 
^Lre : Macromastix, Furcilla (preoc.), Homalozoon. As usual, no 
^localities are given. 

Atwell, C. B. — Procuring amceba for the laboratory. Am. 
Mo. Micros. Jour., XI., p. 264, 1890. 

Ryder, J. A. — On two new and undescribed methods of con- 
tractility manifested by filaments of protoplasm. Proc. A. N. S. 
Phila., 1 89 1, p. \o.— Vjde Am. Nat., XXIV., p. 

Potts, E.— Fresh-water sponges. V. The determination of the 

species. Microscope, X., p. 307, 1890. 

Leidv, J. — Note on the boring sponge of the oyster. Proc. 
A.N. S. Phila., 1 891, p. 122. 

Potts, E. — Report on seme fresh water sponges collected in 
Florida. Trans. Wagner Free Inst., II, p. 5, 1889.— N. sp., 
SpongL'ui imgncri. 

Brooks, W. K, and Conklin, E. G.— On the 
development of the gonoph ires of a certain siphonophore belong- 
ing to the order Auronects Haeckel. J. H. U. Circ, X., p. 87, 
1 891.— See Am. Nat., XXV., p. 

Bigelow, R. P.— Notes on the physiology of Caravella maxima 
Haeckel {Physalia caravella Eschscholz). J. H. U. Circ, X, p. 
90, l8or. 

,\.-_ On the rate of growth of corals. Bull. Mus. 
Comp. Zool., XX, No. 2, 1890. 

FORBES, S. A. — On an American earthworm of the family 
Phreoryctidse. Bull. 111. Lab. X. H, III, p. 107, 1890.— Phre- 

Leidy, J.— Beroe on the New Jersey coast. Proc. P 
Acad, 1890, p. 341. 

Remarks on Velella. Proc. Phila. Acad, 1890, p. 

986 The American Naturalist. [November, 

Heilprin, A. — The corals and coral reefs of the western waters 
of the Gulf of Mexico. Proc. A. N. S. Phila., 1890, p. 303. 

Fewkes, J. W. — A new instance of parasitic hydroids. Micro- 
scope, X., p. 329, 1890. — Sertularia on Hemitripterus. 

Heilprin, A.— Rate of coral growth. Proc. A. N. S. Phila.* 
i8 9 i,p. 75. 


Brooks, W. K. — On the early stages of Echinoderms. J. H. 
U. Circ, X, p. 101, 1891. 

Field, G. W. — Contributions to the embryology of Asterias 
vulgaris. J. H. U. Circ, X., p. 101, 1891. 

Ives, J. E. — Echinoderms from the northern coast of Yucatan 
and the harbor of Vera Cruz. Proc. A. N. S. Phila., 1 890, p 3 1 7. — 
H. silamensis and H. nitida are new ; new genus, Thyraster for 
Echinaster serpentarius ; notes on other forms. 


Brandegee, K. — Ccenurus of the hare. Zoe, I., p. 265, 1890. 

Leidy, J. — Notices of Entozoa. Proc. Phila. Acad., 1890, 
p. 410. — Describes as new Distomum trapezium (from Osprey), 
D. aniarum (from Tropidonotus sipcdon), D. gastrocolum (from 
Trichiurus Upturns), D. ischium (from Saurus fccteus), D. lasiutn 
(from Ilyanassa obsoleta), Cercana platyura (Wyoming), Tcenia 
nematosoma (from Esoxrctiadatus) ) Phyllobothrium inchoatum (from 
Mesoplodon sowerbiensis). 

Parasites of Mola rotunda. Proc. A. N. S. Phila., 1890, 

p. 281. — Distomum pedocotyli nov., Anthocephalus elongatus. 

Sharp, B.— On a probable new species of Bipalium. Proc. 
A. N. S. Phila., 1891, p. 120. — B. manubriatum (greenhouse in 

Woodworth, W. M. — Contributions to the morphology of the 
Tubellaria. I. On the structure of Phagocata gracilis Lcidy. 
Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., XXI., No. 1, 1891. 

Mark, E. L.— Trichinge in swine. 20th Rep. Mass. Board of 
Health, p. 1 13, 1888 [1890]. 

1 891.] Record of American Zoology. 987 

Calvin, S.— Notes on Trichina., Bull. Lab. Nat. Hist., Univ. 
Iowa, II., p. 85, 1890. 

Leidy, J. — Notices of Entozoa. Proc. Phila. Acad., 1890, p. 
410. — New forms are : (?) Filaria primaria (from Orang), Ascaris 
diacis (purple grackle), Atractis (Ascaris) opeatura (from Cyclura 
bceolophd), Trichosomum (?) / 


Leidy, J. — Notices of Entozoa. Proc. Phila. Acad, 1890.- 
Describes (p. 413) as new, Ech ': imatus (froi 

black bass). 

Ives, J. E. — On Arenicola cristata and its allies. Proc. 
A. N. S. Phila., 1890, p. 73. 

Andrews, E. A. — A commensal annelid. Am. Nat., XXV., 
p. 25, 189 1. — Polydora commcnsalis. 

The distribution of Magelona. J. H. U. Circ, X., p. 

96, 1891.— See Am. Nat. 

Randolph, H. — The regeneration of the tail in Lumbriculus. 
Zool. Anz., XIV., p. 154, 1891. — See Am. Nat. 

Andrews, E. B.— A new Phoronis. Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., 
June, 1890. Vide Nat., XXIV., p. 1083. 

Dall, W. H.— Notes on some recent Brachiopods. Proc. 
A. N. S. Phila, i89i,p. 172. 

Davenport, C. B. — Cristatella : the origin and development of 
the individual in the colony. Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool, XX., 

Preliminary notice on budding in Bryozoa. Proc. Am. 

Acad. Arts and Sci, XXV, p. 278, 1 891. —See Am. Nat. 

Andrews, E. A. — Notes on the anatomy of Sipunculus gouldii 
Pourlates. Studies Biol. Lab.* J. Hopkins Univ., IV, p. 389, 

Conklin, E. G.— Prelimi 


note c 

n th 

■ cm 


gy o f 

Crepidida fornicata and Urt 


ix cine 


J. 11. 

u. c 

re, X., 

p. 89, 1 89 1. 

Watase, S.— Studies on 


5. I. 



of the 

ovum. Journ. Morp., IV., p 


Stearns, R. E. C— On the 





• bica 

hiatus. ■ 1 

West Am. Scientist, VI, p. 1 

0, 1889. 

Pilsbrv, II. A.— New an 

d litt 


m A 

» eric 

in m 

No. III. Proc. A. N. S. P 


1890, y 

■ 296 

— Vi 

U Aj 

. Nat., 

XXIV., pp. 354,814. New 


s are: 





Zonites shimeki (Iowa), Vagi) 



? (Be 


), ^V 


crandallii (Ark.). 

Yates, L. G.— The Mo 


of S 





California. Bull. Sta. Barba 

a S< 

c. Nat. 



37- * 


Nominal list. 

Barbara Soc. Nat. Hist., I., p. 46, 1 890 —New species are: Venus 
fordii, Vertagus lordii, Vermiculus 

, Cockerell, T. D. A.— The Virginia colony of Helix ncmoralis. 
Nautilus, III., p. 73, 1889. 

Baker, F. C— Description of a new species of Ocinebra. 
Nautilus, III, p. 80, i88g.—0.jenksii; hab. unknown. 

Stearns, R. E. C— Helix (Stenotrema) hirsuta Say, on the West 
Coast. Nautilus, III, p. 81, 1889. 

Carpenter, H. F.— The shell-bearing Mollusca of Rhode 
Island. Nautilus, III, p. 82, 1889.— Continued. 

Pilsbry, H. A.— Note on a southern Pupa. Proc. A. N. S. 
Phila, 1890, p. 44.—/'. hordeacella (Tex, Ariz, Fla.). 

Baker, F. C— Remarks on Urosalpinx pcrntgatus. Proc. 
A. N. S. Phila, 1890, p. 46. 

Pilsbrv, H. A.— On a new Bulimulus. Proc. A. N. S. Phila, 
1890, p. 63.— #. ragsdalei (Tex.). 

Baker, F. C— On the modifications of the apex in Murex. Proc. 
A. N. S. Phila, 1 890, p. 66. 

Sharp, B.— Variations in Bulimus cxilis. 
1890, p. 14S, 

Pilsbry, H. A.— On Helix albolabris, v 
A. N. S. Phila., 1890, p. 282. 

Jackson, R. T.— Studies of Pelecypoda. 
p. 1 132, 1890 [1891]. 

The mechanical origin of structure 

Nat., XXV., 


A neu 


lity for /fr/w 

dands offCa! 

* Ball, W. H.— Results of dredging in the Gulf of Mexico 
and the Caribbean Sea, [etc.].— Report on the Mollusca. 1't. II. 
Gastropoda and Scaphopoda. Bull M. C. Z., XVIII.— Describes 
3S5 n. sp. 

* Lamellibranches sans branchies. Bull. Soc. JZool. Fr., 

XIII., p. 207. 

* Bixxey, W. G.— Third supplement to the fifth volume of the 
terrestrial air-breathing molluscs of the United States. Bull. 
M. C. Z., XIX., p. 183. 

Shimek, B.— A new species of fresh-water mollusc. Bull. 
Lab. Nat. Hist., Univ. Iowa, I., p. 214, 1890. — Ancylus ohliquus 

Hemphill, H.— A collector's notes on variation in shells, with 


varieties of Anodonta. 

Stkrki, V.— On new forms of Vertigo. Proc 
1890, p. 31.— V. callosa (Mass., Ohio), V. binney 
1 (Fla.), V. rugulosa (So. States). 

. N. S. Phila., 


^17 E have had occasion from time to time to animadvert on the 
attitude of our government towards the intellectual rights 
of the people as exhibited by its tariff taxation on scientific and 
and artistic books and apparatus. After several years of per- 
sistent applications to Congress, a committee of the American 
Association for the Advancement of Science has succeeded in 
obtaining a remission of the 25 per cent, duty levied on scientific 
books not printed in the English language. All apparatus, and 
books printed in English, must still pay the tax. Engravings, 
photographs, etc., not bound in books must still pay duty. All 
this means a great deal to the science of the country. The 
money thus obtained by the United States government comes 
directly from the pockets of a class whose profession is not 
remunerative, but whose activity it is of the greatest importance 
to the country to preserve. 

But this exaction does not satisfy the authorities of the treasury 
department at Washington. To make it more onerous it is now 
ruled by .Secretary Foster that engravings, photographs, and 
other representations of objects, natural and artificial, are not 
mailable, but must be sent by express. Fancy this government 
collecting duties on photographs of minerals, insects, geological 
sections, etc., made in foreign countries and sent to scientific men 
in this country for their proper information, and for use in the 
preparation of scientific memoirs and books. Fancy the corps 
of men employed at large salaries in inspecting and appraising 
these matters of which they know so much (!) and add to this 
the express charges that necessarily exceed those of the post on 
packages weighing from a half ounce upwards. Add to this the 
time employed in these examinations and transmissions from hand 
to hand, and the injury easily done to delicate objects in the 
process, and we find ourselves wondering whether this is a country 
of which we ought to be proud or not. 



The fact is that the Republican party has made itself odious 
all over the land by the extreme to which it has carried the idea 
of protection, and the pettiness of its tariff legislation. (Among 
the objects recently detained or sold under our tariff laws may be 
mentioned imported snakes, monkeys an 1 postage stamps.)* It is 
a party that has been of great service to the country, but it is 
estranging more and more the most intelligent class of our 
citizens. The Democratic party will have a trial in our next 
Congress, and we will see whether it will do better or not. It is 
probable that the intellectual interests of the country will have to 

represented in the councils of the nation. \ 

—We are glad to see that Major Powell, director of the United 
States Geological Survey, has withdrawn his proposed scale of 
colors for his geological maps, in favor of a more reasonable 
system. The scheme presented by him to the international 
congress at Washington was more in accordance with that in 
general use, and though it did not escape snv.u: criticism, it passed 
the ordeal fairly well. It is cause of just congratulation that the ■ 
country has been spared an expense of many hundreds of 
thousands of dollars for geological maps, which would have gone 
far towards making us ridiculous in the eyes of geologists and 
their friends. The protest of the Naturalist has wrought such 
a saving to the government that we feel that we are entitled to 
some special consideration at its hands ; say a subscription which 
will place a copy on the table of each member of the Senate and 
House of Representatives in pcrpctuum. 

— CONSIDERABLE progress has been recently made in the dis- 
covery of the phylogeny of man. two steps of which are 
noticed in the present number of the Naturalist. In the first 
place, the men of Spy (Belgium) described by MM. Lohest and 
Fraipont, of Liege, constitute a well-marked ancestral type 
within the genus Homo. The Neanderthal skull, represented by 
a calvarium only, was for a long time without corroborative 
support as the representative of a race of man, and it was hence 
supposed by some persons to have belonged to an idiot or a 

temberg, rendered it certain that the type \ 

the Cat 
the Ca 

Distinct traces of it arc' said t 
The senior editor of the 

whether he means by this the anthropoids or the t 
characters of the skull and teeth between the 

Recent Books and Pamphh 

The American N 

une Collection de Reptiles du Congo. Extn 

ileniidse voisin des Clinus 

q-_X lte s L i- un n.-ii Cird i im-Mit 

des ganglions cerebro'fdes 

i la Langonste; do. ^.-Observations sur des embryons 

ochi/us; do. i886.-Contri- 

:ond Contribution a 1' his- 

le espece d'Atractaspis {A. 

. du Comptc-Rrndu des Sconces du Congn's Intern, d 

e Zool., 1890. From the 

'moreno, F. P.-Es P loracion Arqueologica dela Provim 

:ia de Catamarca. Estracto 

rFaunn. Fr..;n t! 

tiologist, 1889. Ext. Ann. Rept. Dept. Agri., 1889. From the S 

\, October 1st, 1889, t 

una and Labora 

, Geo! ..and Nat. Hist. 

Doelter's Allgemeine Chemische Mineralogie ' is a collec- 
tion in logical order of all those facts relating to the chemistry of 
minerals that are so interesting to the modern mineralogist. After 
discussing crystal structure in its relation to the chemical molecule, 
and defining isomorphism, isomerism, poh morphism, and isoganism, 
and briefly touching upon morphotropism, the author describes the 
ordinary methods of chemical anal\ sis, and then occupies about seventy 
pages in a treatment of the subject of mineral synthesis. It is this 
latter portion of the volume that is most interesting. The author is 
himself such an indefatigable worker in this line of investigation that 
his remarks on the manufacture of minerals must be accepted as worthy 
of great confidence. Everywhere in these pages he writes himself 
master in his chosen study. He distinguishes clearly between terms 
that seem to approach each other in meaning, and defines them in 
such simple language that they need no longer be misunderstood. 
He divides the subject into two parts, — viz., the recrystallization of 
mineral substances already prepared, and the production of minerals 
and their crystallization. Under each head the methods that have 
proven most satisfactory for the purposes desired are given in detail, 
and following these is a brief but sufficiently full account of experi- 
ments that have yielded mineral products, with references to the arti- 
cles in which they are described. Nearly every synthesis that has 

has heretofore been possible only with the greatest difficulty. The 
last three parts of the volume deal with the chi mieal changes effected 
in minerals by change in temperature and by the action of solvents, 
the formation of minerals in nature, and the chemical composition and 

Physik in its treatment of those subje, • ts that both di-cn 

and demands a place beside this in every mineralogist' 
W. S. B. 

Fewkes's Coelenterates and Echinoderms. 7 — Dr. 

The . Imcricau Naturalist. 

Gco/ogy and Paicontolo^ 


The Californian Cave Be 

chopped off, and 

998 The American Naturalist. [November, 

vex anteroposterior!}', as in the U. spelceus, but it is regularly convex 
transversely, which it is not in that species. The two species of Ursus 
named have relatively larger molar teeth than in the other species of 
the genus, but in the Californian cave bear they are relatively still 
larger, and especially broader, having a swollen area between the 
tubercles not recognizable in the m. 1. in those species, and but feebly 
in m. 11. The canines are also relatively larger, judging from the size 
of their alveoli. Another peculiarity is the presence of three infra- 
orbital foramina. Ameghino/ represents two in the A. boncerense. 

In dimensions this skull equals that of the largest grizzly bears, 
and the average of the European cave bears. Some of the latter 
exceed it in length, but the form in the A. simian is more robust 
than in either of those species. To judge by the skull alone, the 

has lived on our continent. Its short nose and full rounded forehead 
must have given it a peculiar physiognomy. The living mammal 
which approaches nearest in general appearance is probably the rare 
black-and-white bear of Thibet, the Ailuropoda melanoleuca of Milne- 
Edwards, which connects the Arctotheria with the extinct Hysenarctos 
of the Neocene ages. It was a much larger animal than the A. melano- 
leuca. Unfortunately we can form no idea as to the color of its fur. 

Like its South American congener, the Californian Arctotherium 
was associated with gigantic sloths (Mylodon), and it belongs to a 
fauna which has left in other localities in North America Megatheriums 
and Glyptodonts. In other words, it is one of the forms which justify 
the statement which I have made elsewhere (Proc. Phila. Acad., 1867, 
p. 156; Proc. Amer. Philos. Soc, 1871, p. 99), that during the late 
Pliocene or early Plistocene an invasion of Mammalia from the south 

north had been covered by an ice sheet which prevented immigration 
from Asia and permitted it from the south, since no predecessors of 
the southern types of Mammalia had been found at that time in older 
North American horizons. Since that was written no ancestral forms 
of the Megatheriidae and Arctotherium have been found, but ancestors 

1 89i.] Geology and Paleontology. 999 

It has been assumed that South America received its llamas and horses 
from North America on abundant evidence ; and it is now probable 
that she received the tapirs and peccaries from the same source, since no 
early types of these lines have been revealed in South American forma- 
tions by recent extensive researches in that continent. Sloths and 
Glyptodons are, however, shown by these investigations to have 
existed in South America during the Eocene period, so that our 
primitive Glyptodont and Caryoderma may have been an early immi- 
grant from that continent, while the sloths came later. As regards 
bears, it is well known that we have not found their ancestral types in 
either of the Americas, but that they are abundantly found in the 
Neocenes of Europe and India. Arctotherium is both the earliest and 
most primitive form which we possess, and the time of their appear- 
ance is the same in both North and South America. They probably 
reached this continent at a comparatively late date, but earlier than 
the arrival of the true genus Ursus. Between the two genera occurs 
the Tremarctos, of which one species exists still in the Andes, 
T. ornatus Cuv., and one exists in the fossil state, T. etruscus, in 
Europe (Cuvier, Oss. Fossiles, PI. 189, Fig. 8). This indicates the 
possible origin of the genus Ursus on the American continent, as well 
as on that of Eurasia ; but prior to Arctotherium America has nothing, 
while Eurasia has everything. — E. D. Cope. 

Explanation 01 

t Plate. 

Skull c 

>f Arctothtrium si mum less than < 

one-fifth natural si 

ze, linear. 

Fig. I , profile ; 

.., rotundum ; As 
[A., meatus audi 

2, from below ; 3, from 
[., alisphenoid ; Ov., oval 

Op., optic ; So., sphenoorbital ; 
e; Pg., postglenoid; Ca., carotid; 
cerum posterius ; Co., condylar ; 

Ps., postsquamosal ; Op., postparietal. 

The Work of White Ants in Australia.— In a recent paper 
on Central Australia, published in the Proceedings of the London 
Geographical Society, June, 1891, Mr. Charles Chewings quotes Mr. 
Woodward as authority for the statement that extensive alterations in 
the surface of the country are due to the industry of the white ants. 
Mr. Woodward has traveled over a large part of Australia, and he has 
had the especial advantage of examining the so-called desert sandstone 
formations, to the disintegration of which we attribute those endless 
sandhills that have been so often described as a dessert, but which can- 
not be strictly so called, since this sandy land is covered, often 
very thickly, with trees and shrubs. He is of the opinion that a 

iooo The American Naturalist. [November, 

" great deal of work is done, vastly altering the appearance of the 
country, by what may appear to many people at first sight a perfectly 
ridiculous agency, — viz., the white ants; but after passing over the 
plains or through the thickets, where their hills are so numerous that 
it is difficult to drive through them, the immense amount of their work 
can be better appreciated. The clay, cemented with resinous matter, 
with which they build their nests is as hard as brick, and when these 
fall to pieces they form clay flats almost impervious to water, and so 
hard that they will bear a great deal of traffic without being cut up. 
The work of these creatures can be studied in all stages : first in the 
thickets where they are commencing work ; then in the more open 
country, where they have got the upper hand of the timber ; next on 
the plains, where half the hills will be found deserted ; and lastly on 
the clay flats, where they have almost entirely disappeared and the 
scrub has begun to grow again. Another remarkable thing about these 
nests is the amount of iron they contain, for when a tree has been 
burnt in which they have built a nest there will be found at its base a 
mass of iron clinker, looking just as if it had come out of a furnace." 
More New Mammalia from the Eocene of Patagonia.— 
M. F. Ameghino describes in a new extract from the Revista for 
August, 1891, the results of the last exploration in Patagonia of M. C. 
Ameghino. These consist of no less than 1 73 species of Mammalia, by 
far the greater number of which are new to science. 

The most interesting novelty described is a new species of a new 
genus of Quadrumana, which has the dental formula of the Old- World 
monkeys, with especial resemblances to that of man. This is seen 
especially in the small canine teeth, which are not followed by a dias- 
tema. This genus accentuates the prop, .sition which I have advanced, 
that the line of the Anthropoid apes and man has been derived directly 
from the Anthropoid lemur Anaptomorphus of the Eocene period. 
The Homnuculus patagonicus, as this remarkable form is called by 
Ameghino, certainly has considerable resemblance to the former genus, 
but is more like the true monkeys in its quadritubercular lophodont 
The Mammalia described are referable to the following orders : 

Marsupialia (?) 38 

Edentata 62 

Glires 23 

Bunotheria (Insectivora) 1 

(Creodonta) 8 

Taxeopoda (Litopterna) 23 

(Quadrumana) 1 

Toxodontia 13 

1891.] Geology and Paleontology. 1001 

Among the important discoveries are the numem;!^ ? Mar-uinaha. 
Several of these belong to the genera allied to the Plagiaulaeidae 
already described by M. Ameghino. The author has discovered a 
fact long since (American Naturalist, 18S4) pointed out by myself, — 
viz., that the cutting inferior molar of the Plagiaulacidse is not homol- 
ogous with the cutting tooth of the mandible in the Marsupialia Dipro- 
todonta, but is one position posterior to it. I regarded it as the P. m. 
i. (iv.), but Ameghino, following Thomas's nomenclature, regards it as 
the m. i. Garzonia g. n., Epanorthus, and Microbiotherium are made 
types of new families with apparent reason. So is Abderites, but no 
sufficient ground appears to be given inits case. Three new genera and 
seven new species are referred to the existing family Thylacynidse, thus 
bringing to light the lost relatives of the Tasmanian wolf-opossum. 
An affinity between these animals and the Creodonta of the same age 
is insisted on. 

In a previous essay Ameghino shows that Propalaehoplophorus has 
distinct vertebrae, and represents therefore a family entirely distinct 
from the Glyptodontidss. Cochlops belongs to the same family. He 
adds much to our knowledge of Peltephilus, which M. Mercerat 
declares to be identical with Cochlops. Family names appear to be 
rather carelessly used among the Glires ; there are too many of them. 
Among Litopterna, Mesorhinus Amegh. is made the type of a new family, 
which has the external nares placed more anteriorly than in the Macrau- 
cheniidae ; he includes in it the genera Mesorhinus, Oxyodontotherium, 
Coelosoma, Theosodon, and the new Pseudocoelosoma. Several impor- 
tant points in the structure of Homalodontotherium are added ; among 
the rest, that it has an ungrooved astragalar trochlea. A new species is 
described, and a new genus (Diorotherium) is added to the family. 
Eleven new species are added to the Proterotheriidae. Astropother- 
iidae are still referred to the Amblypoda Taligrada, and a new genus 
(Astrapodon) is added. Many striking novelties are added to the 

This contribution increases our interest in this wonderful fauna, and 
leads to the hope that we shall soon see the illustrations of some of the 
forms already promised by M. Ameghino. — E. D. Cope. 

TJie American Naturalist. 

Petrographical News.— The gabbros of the United States, which, 
until a few years since, were scarcely known, have recently been studied 
in typical regions. Prof. Chester 2 has lately communicated the results 
of his study of the great belt of these rocks crossing the northern part of 
Delaware and running southwesterly until it unites with that investigated 
by Williams in the Baltimore area. The rocks of the Delaware region 
differ from those of the Maryland area in that the former very fre- 
quently contain quartz. The normal rock is a hypersthene-gabbro, 
containing brown hornblende and biotite. This graduates into a more 
acidic phase by an increase in quartz, and at the same time an equally 
noticeable gain in biotite, until it becomes more properly a pyroxene- 
granite than a gabbro. On the other hand, by the increase of brown 
hornblende, regarded as original, and the assumption of a schistose 
structure, the normal gabbro grades into a gabbro-diorite or a horn- 
blende-gneiss. Further, uralitization of the pyroxene gives rise to 
green schistose rocks, identical in nearly all of their characteristics 
with the gabbro-diorites of the Baltimore region. The author describes 
in detail each type found by him, and gives analyses of the feldspars 
of many of them. The plagioclase of the typical diallage-hypersthene 
gabbros is AbjAn,, while that of the more acid biotitic rock is Ab s An. 
Gabbro-diorite is the name given to the schistose rock in which brown 
hornblende predominates over pyroxene. Since the hornblende is 
regarded as original, there would seem to be no sufficient reason for not 
calling the rock a diorite-schist, thus reserving gabbro-diorite for those 
schistose phases of gabbro in which the hornblende is largely second- 
ary. By the loss of nearly all of their pyroxene the gabbro-diorites of 
both classes pass into hornblende-gneisses. In the gabbro -granites, 
derived from the gabbros by an increase in quartz and biotite, there 
are evidences of pressure action in the shattered condition of the quartz 
and feldspar. Norites, described by the author, are aggregates of 
quartz and feldspar, in which are imbedded phenocsyts of hypersthene. 

Messrs. Campbell and Brown s add two new varieties to the Tnassic 

traps of Virginia, differing from those described from more northern 
localities in that they contain hypersthene. One is a hypersthene- 

i Edited by Dr. W. S. Bayley, Colby University, Waterville, Me. 
•Bull. U.S. Geol.Sur., No. 59. 

1891] Mineralogy and Petrography. 1003 

diabase, and the other an olivine-hypersthene-diabase. The latter has 
been found only in one place,— viz., two miles north of Rapidan Station 
on the Virginia Midland R. R. The hypersthene-diabase occurs not 
only in various places in Virginia, but it has also been found north. 
It is slightly ophitic, inclining somewhat to the porphyritic. Its feld- 
spar is a basic labradorite of the formula Ab 2 An 5 . The pyroxenes are 
a slightly pleochroic, polysynthetically twinned diallage, and a 
strongly pleochroic hypersthene. The former contains numerous 
microlitic inclusions, while the latter is free from them. Quartz, apa- 
tite, and green hornblende are accessories. In the olivine rock the 
olivine is largely idiomorphic, and is in large grains. The other con- 
stituents are the same as those of the hypersthene-diabase. The paper 
contains an excellent series of analyses of the rocks and their most 

important components. Barrois' has given us a masterly discussion of 

the diabases and diabase-porphyrites of Silurian age, occurring atdykes 
and flows in Menez-Hom, Finistere, France. The diabases he divides 
according to structure into granular and ophitic types. Among the 
former are olivine-bearing varieties, sometimes containing hypersthene, 
and olivine-free kinds, containing orthoclase, quartz, and occasionally 
porphyritic augite. The porphyrites are divided into andesitic varie- 
ties in which the feldspar-microlites are older than the augite, and into 
variolitic kinds with feldspar younger than augite. A large part of the 
rocks of the region studied occur in the form of tuffs, in which the 
cementing material is shale, limestone, or sandstone, and the fragments 
are sometimes large enough to be called bombs. Schalstein is also 
common. The contact effects noticed in the eruptives are insignifi- 
cant in amount. The schists in contact with the bedded diabases are 
spilosites, containing nodules of chlorite. The most interesting con- 
tact effects are those noticed in the case of nodules originally consisting 
of pyroxene and quartz. Under the influence of sea-water made hot 
by submarine ejections, these nodules have become zonal, in which the 

both contain pyrite, albite, quartz, sphene, and limonite. In 
conclusion, the author makes some general remarks on the study of 
ancient volcanoes, and gives quite a good resume' of the work done in 

this direction. A dyke of basic rock on Stop Island, in Rainy Lake, 

Canada, consists of diabase-porpln rite with an almost aphanitic texture 
on its contact. It contains occasional rounded masses of augite. Four 
feet from the contact it is a diabase, with the ophitic texture, and at 
fifteen feet from the contact it is also a diabase. Here, however, a 

1004 • The American Naturalist. [November, 

portion of the augite is in idiomorphic crystals and in polysomatic 
grains, while another portion is in allotriomorphic masses between the 
feldspars. In the middle of the dyke the texture is gabbroitic, while 
hornblende replaces the augite. Quartz is also a prominent constitu- 
ent of the center of the dyke, whereas it is only sparingly present at 
fifteen feet from the contact, and is entirely absent at the contact. Dr. 
Lavvson 5 calls attention to these facts, and states that in the single geo- 
logical unit represented by the mass of the dyke we must distinguish 
between three distinct rock types if we make use of present methods of 
nomenclature. He further thinks that the phenomena indicate that 
rate of cooling, rather than pressure, is the principal cause determining 
the textural condition assured by a solidifying magma. Other dykes 
exhibiting similiar pecularities are described from other localities in 
the Rainy Lake region. All show larger percentages of Si0 2 in their 
middle, portions than are shown near their contacts, — a fact ascribed to 
the separation of basic augite, magnetite, etc., in those portions that 

cooled rapidly. The larger part of the area of the Dippauer Gebirge 

in Northwestern Bohemia is covered by basalts, occurring in flows, 
dykes, and bosses, with their tufas and conglomerates. These are cut 
by phonolites and andesites, in the former of which are large grains of 
peiofskite, in some cases showing parallel striations in parallel light. 
The basalts occur in all varieties, according to Clements. 6 The cen- 
tral portions of the hills are composed principally of leucite and neph- 
eline basalts and the closely related rocks, nephelinites, leucitites, 
nepheline and leucite tephrites, and leucite-basanites. On the peri- 
pheries of the mountains are feldspathic basalts, limburgites, and augites. 
Among the most interesting features of the several rocks noticed are 
corroded biotite plates, surrounded by rims formed of secondary crys- 
tals of the same mineral, in the nepheline basalts; pseudomorphs of 
phillipsite after olivine in the leucitites ; augite crystals with second- 
ary twinning lamellae produced by pressure in the nephelinites and 
feldspathic basalts ; zonal augites in the leucitites, with an extinction 
varying gradually from the center to the periphery, and others with the 
hour-glass structure and an outer zone containing colorless microlites 
with their long axes lying parallel to the bounding walls of the crys- 
tals ; and sanidine inclusions surrounded by augite crystals in leucite 
basalt. Leucite is more abundant in close proximity to an orthoclase 
inclusion in the last-mentioned rock than elsewhere in the rock-mass. Of 
the feldspathic basalts it was found that the youngest is most acid. 

*Amer. Geo/., VII., 1891, p. 153. 

• Jahrb. d. Kais-Kon. geol. Reichsanst, 1890, XL., p. 317. 

«89i] Mineralogy and Petrography. 1005 

Dr. Wolff » calls attention to the existence of ottrelite and ilmenite 
schists among the Paleozoic crystalline rocks of the Taconic region in 
the Green Mountains and in Massachusetts and Rhode Island. The 
Rhode Island rocks comprise micaceous schists and graywackes. In 
the former are grains of quartz, scales of muscovite, and occasional small 
patches of chlorite and ,bands of a mixture of graphite and ilmenite. 
Ottrelite crystals are scattered indiscriminately among the other con- 
stituents. In the graywacke the ottrelite occurs in irregular plates, 
which are fiee from optical deformities, while the other components of 
the rock give evidence of having been subjected to intense pressure. 
Even the mica, which owes its presence to metamorphic agencies, is 
bent and twisted. The absence of optical deformities in the ottrelite 
points to a very late origin for this mineral. The author also briefly 
describes a graphite-schist with ilmenite plates from Rhode Island. 

All the Rhode Island rocks are known only in boulders. Singaeliaj 8 

•describes specimens of glassy lava from Vesuvius in the cabinet of the 
University of Berlin. Those from the streams of 1753 and 1809 con- 
sist largely of glass in which are tiny perfectly formed crystals of leu- 
cite and olivine and good crystals of augite and plagioclase. Other 
leucites are skeleton crystals, with their edges sharply defined, but their 
faces hollow. Two other specimens contain glassy portions between 
crystalline portions. Of these, one from the flow of 1822 contains 
hornblende, and another, whose age is unknown, has its anorthite and 

other crystals surrounded by rims of little rutile needles. The 

ophiolites of Essex Co., N. Y., and the serpentines from Aque- 
duct Shaft No. 26, New York city, and from near Easton, Pa., have 
resulted by metasomatic changes from pyroxene, according to Merrill. 9 
In the first-named rock the larger part of the serpentine, which is light 
green in color, is from a colorless pyroxene. Small particles of a 
darker-colored serpentine are scattered through the rock, and in these 
are enclosed graphite scales. Thin sections of these portions show 
them to consist of calcite, dolomite and serpentine. Originally they 
were probably composed of the first two minerals only. The serpen- 
tine is a subsequent formation, but by what method it was produced 

the author has not succeeded in determining. A remarkable example 

of a Huronian volcanic tufa, from the nickel region at Sudbury, Can- 
ada, is reported by G. H. Williams 10 as composed of a glass breccia 

7 Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., XVI., No. 8. p. 159. 

ioo6 The American Naturalist. [November 

with its original flowage structure and the shapes of its included frag- 
ments well preserved through silicification. Calcite, glassy feldspar, 
and chlorite are the only minerals, with the exception of quartz and 

chalcedony, that can still be detected in the rock. In a report on the 

iron ores of Minnesota," by Messrs. N. H. and H. V. Winchell, Dr. 
Hensoldt describes a few of the rocks associated with the ores. Among 
them are various green schists, jaspers, chalcedony, etc. 

Mineralogical News.— American Minerals.— Within the last few # 
months a large number of articles have appeared containing the results 
of investigations of American minerals. Prof. Genth 12 reports some 
analyses of interesting minerals from the United States and Mexico. 
Bladed crystalline masses of tetradytnite from Bradshaw City, Yavapai 
Co., Ariz., consist apparently of orthorhormbic plates, whose composi- 
tion corresponds to Bi 3 (S^Fe % ) [Bi = 62.2 3 ; S = 4-5°i Fe = 33.25]; 
so that in all probability the mineral belongs in the stibnite group. 
Ziron from Mars Hill, Madison Co., N.C., yielded him : SiO,= 31.83 ; 
ZrO a =63.42 ; Fe,0 3 =3.23 ; Loss=i.2o. Its specific gravity is 4.507. 
Small crystals of scapolite associated with garnet at Elizabeth Mine, 
French Creek, Pa., gave : 

SiO, A1,0 3 Fe,0 3 MgO CaO Na,0 K,0 CO, Loss Sp. Gr. 
52.30 23.68 .58 .05 12.36 6.29 .77 2.63 1.50 2.675 
Both minerals appear to be alteration products of essonite. The 
garnet is brownish-gray or ash-gray in color. Its composition is given 
opposite (I.). A titaniferous variety, from the Jones Mine, Henderson 
Co., N. C, has a composition as opposite (II.) : 

SiO, A1,0 3 Fe u 3 FeO Mgo CaO MnO TiO, CO, Loss Dens. 
(I.) 41-42 18.09 10.81 .59 26.19 -88 1.71 -5 1 3-39° 

(IIO35.56 4.43 20.51 1.88 .17 31.90 4.58 -55 3-738 

Analysis of pyrite from French Creek, Pa., and of allanite, are also 
given in the same paper. The green substance associated with the 
gold at Los Cerillos, N. M., supposed to be turquoise, was found in one 
instance to be chromiferoiis clay, and in another to be cupriferous quartz. 
Pseudomorphs of the latter mineral after stibnite are mentioned by 
the author as occurring at Durango, Mexico. In another article Prof- 
Genth I3 gives the result of an examination of lettsumite from the Cop- 

1 891.] Mineralogy and Petrography. 1007 

per Mountain Mine, near Morenci, Arizona, and from the American 
Eagle Mine, Copperopolis, Utah. In the first-mentioned locality, the 
substance forms incrustations of small, blue, fibrous tufts in a quartz 
gangue. Upon alteration it gives rise to a greenish-yellow, and finally 
to a fibrous yellowish-white material, often associated with hydrous 
aluminium sulphate. The Copperopolis specimens are velvety coatings 
of azure-blue silky fibers on a mixture of clay and lettsumite. The 
analyses of the two varieties, which are almost identical in composition, 
lead to the formula Cu 4 Al J (OH)„S0 4 +2H 1 0. 

S0 3 CuO A1 2 3 Fe 2 2 H 2 Ins. Sp. Gr. 
12.49 46.71 16.47 J -34 2I - 8 9 -44 2 -737 

Crystallized metaeinnabarite (which has heretofore been found 

only in amorphous masses) has recently been discovered in the New 
Almaden Mine, California." The crystals are implanted on quartz 
containing cinnabar crystals, which in turn occurs incrusting a selvage 
of clayey material forming an ore seam, whose origin is referred to 
solfataric action on the country rock. Spheres of a black organic 
substance are imbedded in the metaeinnabarite, whose density is 
7- 1 18. Its composition follows : 

* S Hg Fe Co Zn Mn CaCO, Quartz Org. Matter 
13.68 78.01 .61 tr. .90 .15 .71 4-57 - 6 3 
The crystals are rhombohedral and hemimorphic,with an acute pyram- 
idal habit, and an axial ratio a :c= 1 : .2372. In rotted galena on 

a contact between limestone and mica-schist at Mountain View Lead 
Mine, near Union Bridge, Md., Williams 16 has found small but good 
crystals of anglesite and cerussite, and a single crystal of sulphur, all of 
which are products of the decomposition of the lead ore. The three 
principal types of the anglesite are prismatic, parallel to the brachy- 
axis, with P^ and P- predodominating, cuboidal, with P^ and 
°°Po6" the principal forms, and prismatic in the direction of the 
macro-axis, with iP^ determining the habit. The cerussite presents a 
great variety of habits. One elbow twin is peculiar in that each of the 
two individuals is bounded on the inner side by ooPsr, while the 
outer side contains in addition the brachy-domes JP^, P^, and 2?^. 
The sulphur crystal is very small, but it contains thirteen forms, of 
which eight are in the zone of the ground-pyramid and one f P is new. 

The poly erase reported by Messrs. Hidden and Mackintosh 16 as oc- 

" Melville. lb., Oct., 1890, p. 291. 

1008 The American Naturalist. [November, 

curring four miles from Marietta, S. C, and in Henderson Co., N. C. 
has been examined by these gentlemen, who find it forming tabular 
crystals with 00P35- largely developed, and the new forms oP, iP£o"> 
and P-| occurring on it. Several of the crystals are apparently twins, 
and those from South Carolina, when doubly terminated, appear to be 
both hemihedral and hemimorphic. The material for analysis was 
obtained by washing kaolinized coarse granite. This, when corrected 
for impurities, yielded : 

Cb,0 6 TiO, Y 2 3 (etc.) FeO UO s PbO Fe 2 3 CaO H 2 Ins. Si0 2 
N.C. 19.48 29.31 27.55 2.8713.77 5.18 
S.C. 19.3728.51 21.23 2.47 19.47 .46 .18 .68 4-46 -i2 1.01 
Prof. Rowland, to whom the South Carolina specimens were sub- 
mitted for microscopic study, found in them large amounts of scan- 
dium. The same investigators I7 have examined lemon-yellow 

auerlite from Price's Land, Henderson Co., N. C, and a few other 
rare minerals. The auerlite has a density of 4.051-4-075, and a 
composition: P t O,= 8.58; Si0 2 = 6.84; ThO, = 72.16 (diff.); Fe 2 O s 
=1.78; H,0=io.64. Sulphohalite they find to be probably tetrahe- 
drally hemihedral. The fayalite ,8 of Cheyenne Mt, Colorado, occurs 

Analysis: Si0 3 =2 7 .66; FeO=65.7 9 ; MnO= 4 .i7; CaO=.47- Mr- 
Hidden 19 also announces the discovery of bastnaesite and tysonite, near 
Manitou, Colorado, in a mass weighing over six kilograms, and gives 
four new localities for the occurrence of fergusonite, as follows: Asso- 
ciated with allanite, at Amelia Court House, Virginia ; accompanying 
zircon, in the mines at Storeville, Anderson Co., South Carolina; 
at the Grassy Creek Mica Mine, in Mitchell Co., N. C. ; and in the 
gold placers near Golden, Rutherford Co., N. C. The orangite of 
Landbo, Norway, is declared to be uranothoritc. Its density is 4-3 22 - 
A partial analysis gave 11.97 percent. H 2 ; 18.50 percent. Si0 2 ; 
52.53 per cent. Th0 2 ; 9 per cent. UO„ and small quantities of other 

substances. Associated with beryl and spodumene in the granite of 

the Nickel Plate tin claim, in Pennington Co., South Dakota, are 
nodules of a phosphate near triphyllite in composition. It is dark 
green in mass, and light yellowish-green in thin splinters. Its hardness 
is 5, and density 3.612. Analysis 20 yielded: 

P 2 5 FeO MnO CaO MgO Na.0 K 2 Li,0 F Ign. Gangue 
38.6425.05 15.54 5.53 1.50 7.46 2.00 .28 .69 .73 2-47 

1891.] Mineralogy and Petrography. 1009 

Penfield 2l has analyzed an aurichalcite , occurring in narrow- 
seams in an impure limonite from Utah, which yielded an average : 
CO, CuO ZnO H 2 CaO Dens. 
16-36 19-37 5309 9-92 .61 3 .57=2RCO s3 R(OH) 2 , 

in which R = Zn and Cu, with CuO: Zno = 2:5. Inexhaustible beds 

of beauxite have been discovered near Little Rock, Arkansas, and near 
Benton in the same state. According to Branner 22 they are geneti- 
cally related in some unknown way with eruptive granites. The 
material is pisolitic in structure. A partial analysis of one specimen 
gave: A1 2 3 = 55.64; Si0 2 = 10.38: Fe,0, = i.95; TiO t = 3 .5oj 
Loss= 27.62. An analysis of halotrichite from Pitkin Co., Colo- 
rado, is given by Bailey M as follows : 

S0 3 Al 2 O s Fe 2 3 FeO MgO H,0 at ioo° H 2 at over ioo° 
33-46 12.98 1.60 5.18 .17 33-i° 12.94 

Farrington 24 has carefully examined the Arizona azurites, on 

which he finds the new forms f P, f P, 3 P| and ^Pf Four distinct 
types of crystals are recognized ; one is pyramidal with 2P predomi- 
nant. The others are prismatic, dome-like, and lath-shaped. The 
latter came from the Longfellow Mine, and are peculiar for their 
ortho-diagonal elongation and the large development of the ortho- 
dome P35-. The axial relation calculated from the measurements of 

the different types is a. -b .-^=.85676: 1: .88603 ; ,5r=87 36'36" The 

very rare mineral pollucite has just been reported by Wells 25 as asso- 
ciated with quartz crystals aud clay, and with psilomelane and a nearly 
colorless calcium beryl at Hebron, Maine. The pollucite is in 
irregular fragments, perfectly colorless, and as brilliant and transparent 
as plate glass. Its index of refraction for sodium light is 1.5247, and 
its density = 2.976-2.985. Its analysis gave : 

H a O SiO, A1 2 3 CaO Cs 2 K,0 Na,0 Li 2 
I -5° 43-5 1 l6 -3° -22 3 6 - 10 -43 i-68 -05 

corresponding to H 2 R' 4 AI<(Si0 3 ) 9 , with which formula all the analyses 

of the Elba mineral may likewise be made to agree. Columbite^ 

crystals from the Bob Ingersoll Claim and the Etta Mine in the Black 
Hills have a tabular habit with 00 P-^ predominating. Snow 27 re- 

The Flora of Chicago. 2 — In this clearly printed catalogue the 
authors have made a valuable addition to the list of local floras of this 
country. Very properly the catalogue is prefaced by a brief sketch of 
Prof. H. H. Babcock, who did so much to make known to the world 
the peculiarities of the vegetation of Chicago and its vicinity. Then 
follows an interesting chapter on the geology of the region covered by 
the catalogue. At the close of the chapter the matter is summed up 
as follows: "Though Cook county, Illinois, and Lake county, 
Indiana, have neither mountains nor valleys, no frowning cliffs nor 
rocky glens, they have an interesting geological history, the outcome 
of which is a very unique botanical area. The rolling prairies, the 
river bottoms, the sandy ridges, the lake shore, the drift clay and its 
ravines, the sloughs among the ridges at the south end of the lake, the 
peat logs which are found in many places, the shallow ponds and 
sluggish streams, give a great variety of soil for native plants." 

In this area there are catalogued 1,140 species and varieties of native 
plants, 182 of which have been introduced. The largest order is 
the Compositse, with 170 species and 19 varieties. The next in order 
are: Cyperaceae, 97 species and 19 varieties; Gramineae, 85 species 
and 5 varieties. The largest genus is Carex, with 55 species and 15 
varieties. The Pteridophytes have 31 representatives. No attempt is 

The conformation of the nomenclature to modern ideas, and the 
uniform " decapitalization " of specific names, will commend this 
catalogue to the majority of the botanists of the country.— Charles 
E. Bessey. 

The Action of Bacteria on the Rapid Souring of ^Milk 
During Thunder Storms.— That milk will sour with unusual 
rapidity during thunder storms is a theory very commonly held among 
dairymen, and probably is to a certain extent true. It has been stated 
by various writers that this is due to an oxidation of the milk by the 
ozone generated in the air at such times, the oxygen of the air being 
converted into ozone by the electrical discharges. 

1 Edited by Dr. Charles E. Bessey, University of Nebraska, Lincoln. 

1 The Flora of Cook County, Illinois, and a Part of Lake County, Indiana. By 
Wiliam K. Higley and Charles S. Raddin. In the Bulletin of the Chicago Academy of 
Sciences, Vol. II., No. 1, Chicago, 1891. 


This is the conclu: 

nvestigators have recently 
arrived as a result of their experiments. 3 These two, though differing 
somewhat in methods, arrived at practically the same conclusions,— viz., 
i. Ozone will attack milk, and produce lactic acid by a process of 
direct oxidation ; 2. During a thunder storm sufficient ozone is 
generated by the electrical discharges to exert this oxidizing action 
on milk. 

The method of both these experimenters, in brief, was to expose milk 
to the action of ozone generated by a spark of electricity passing through 
oxygen. This was done in a closed vessel, partly filled with milk, and the 
air above the milk displaced by oxygen ; ozone could then be generated 
by passing a spark across through the oxygen. According to both 
observers, a spark passed in this way from fifteen to twenty minutes 
would generate enough ozone to coagulate the milk in less than an 
hour. According to Prof. Tolomei, this action is even more rapid if, 
instead of a spark, a "silent discharge" of electricity from the two 
poles of the battery be employed. This is due simply to the fact that 
a larger amount of ozone can be generated from a given quantity of 
oxygen by the " silent discharge " than by a spark. 

These results differ considerably from some obtained in this labora- 
tory some time ago. Sin e the publication of Tolomei's work ours 
! results as were obtained 

Our methods were similar to those described above. A Wolff bottle 
was taken and filled with milk and oxygen. Wires connected with a 
Holtz induction machine were then passed in at the opposite necks of 
the bottle, and ozone generated by passing electricity, either as a 
spark or in the form of a silent discharge, across through the oxygen. 
A second bottle was partly filled with milk and kept as a control. 

Although repeated over and over, under various conditions of 
temperature, and with milk of various degrees of sweetness, from that 
just from the cow to that a day or more old, in no case were we able 
to produce any such rapid souring as was described by lies and 
Tolomei. We did, however, get a slight hastening of the time of 
souring. If the control coagulated in thirty-six hours, that experi- 
mented on would coagulate only an hour or two earlier. Moreover, 
we found that free oxygen alone was sufficient to produce this slight 

io 1 2 The American Naturalist. [ November, 

A further experiment showed that if the milk used be sterilized before 
it is treated with oxygen and ozone, and is then protected from con- 
tact with unfiltered air, no coagulation occurs, no matter how much 
oxygen is introduced. We have subjected sterilized milk to the action 
of the electric spark for over an hour, and then kept this, milk in our 
laboratory two months, without the appearance of the least sign of 

From the fact that only a slight hastening of the time of souring 
resulted in the case of ordinary milk, and that no coagulation at 
all was produced if the milk were sterilized, we conclude that the 
process cannot be one of oxidation, but is due rather to the rapid 
growth of the bacteria of the milk under the influence of the free 
oxygen, and, possibly, to a certain extent, of the ozone also. 

It is possible that during a thunder storm a sufficient amount of 
ozone may be generated to stimulate the bacteria and bring on a rapid 
souring. It seems very improbable, however, that the small amount 
of ozone usually produced at such a time could have any such effect. 

The true cause, it seems to us, is to be found in the warm, sultry 
atmosphere which usually precedes and accompanies these storms. 
These atmospheric conditions, as is well known, are especially favora- 
ble to the growth of bacteria, and this rapid growth brings on a cor- 
respondingly rapid souring of the milk. 

These are, in brief, the conclusions at which we have arrived from 
the results of our experiments. They are, to a certain extent, borne 
out by the experience of the proprietor of a neighboring creamery. He 
finds that if milk be kept at a uniformly low temperature, no trouble 
results from souring during the thunder-storm season. 

It will be seen from the above that ozone, at least in the small 
amount (about five per cent.) which can be generated from a given 
amount of oxygen by the electric spark, is not destructive to the 
bacteria which causes the souring of milk. This fact is of interest, in 
view of the common use of ozone as a disinfectant.— Aaron L. 
Treadwell, Biological Laboratory, Wesleyan University. 

The Parry Herbarium. — This important collection of plants 
has been carefully arranged and catalogued, and is now offered for sale 
by Mrs. E. R. Parry, the widow of Dr. Parry. It is particularly 
rich in western and southwestern species. The whole number of 
determined specimens is eighteen thousand, representing 6,780 species. 
By far the greater portion of the species are N< " 
seven hundred being natives of other parts of th< 

Palmer's Mexican and Arizona Plants of 1890.— The plants 
collected by Dr. Edward Palmer during the year 1890 have been 
determined by Mr. J. N. Rose, of the National Herbarium, whose 
report has just appeared as one of the '• Contributions." A good many 
new species are described, one of the most interesting of which is 
Echinopepo7i cirrhopriunatlatus, a near relative of our familiar Echino- 
cystis lobata. In the new species the female flowers are borne upon 
slender, coiled, tendril-like peduncles, from three to six inches in 
length. Apparently we have here a hint as to the morphology of 
the tendrils of the Cucurbitacese. This would indicate their cauline 

Three Months of Elementary Botany.— By setting the stu- 
dent at work collecting green-slimes, pond-scums, smuts, leaf-spots, 
toad-stools, lichens, scouring rushes, together with flowering plants, 
many kinds of vegetable forms are presented to him, and their resem- 
blances or differences readily impress themselves upon his mind. 
This discursive collecting is not so symmetrical or simple as the 
ordinary selective method which rejects anything without a flower at 
least half an inch in diameter. It is calculated however, to give a 
more just idea of the plant world as a whole. With ..reference to 
structure, much more can be seen with the unaided eye than teachers 
suppose. For example, a thin slice of squash stem held up to the 
light shows clearly enough the subepidermal tissues and the bicol- 
lateral structure of the vascular bundles. A vast amount of dissecting 
and anatomical work can be done with pins and pocket-knives. If 
rightly used, the eye is a splendid microscope, but one must use it 
with the "fine adjustment." Even things which it is fashionable to 
slight may become productive under proper handling. Phyllotaxy— 
that much abused and ridiculed section of anatomy and physiolog) 
presents admirable fields of study in the mechanics of development. 
Close examination of the shoot-epidermis opens up almost every divi- 
sion of physiology. For the epidermal system is specialized for 
defence, nutrition, growth, irritability, attraction— sometimes — of 
insects, and, with its color, texture, thickness, extent, perforations, 
projections, secretions, is a most convenient and instructive object of 
attention in a three-months' course of botany. In connection with 
such work in morphology and physiology, the structure of flowers, the 
physiology of reproduction, the principles of classification may be 

The American Naturalist. [Novemb< 

studied. The demonstrations — by 
lower to the highest plants — that t 
pendent plant, is instructive. 

Let us see what the method of presentation should be in the depart- 
ment of plant physiology. In its modern aspect, this is rather the 
newest field of botanical investigation. It is commonly supposed to 
be quite beyond the resources of an ordinary equipment, and is men- 
tally associated with regiments of flasks, brigades of induction-coils, 
and whole armies of expensive and delicate pieces of apparatus. 
Certainly all the resources of chemistry, physics, and mechanics may 
be brought to bear upon the science of botany, and the result is our 
present mechanical or physico-chemical theory of plant life. But, 
although one may conduct experiments of great delicacy, it is scarcely 
imperative, on that account, for the teacher trying to give an evenly 
balanced six fortnights of botany to present such experiments. The 
truth is, one may do. most of the physiological experiments without 
apparatus. Seedlings planted in little boxes which may be set on edge 
illustrate geotropic curvatures; others set in the window illustrate the 
heliotropic position. To etiolate a plant needs but an empty flower- 
pot turned over it. Tissue tensions are illustrated by slicing a radish 
or parsnip and soaking awhile in water. Tendrils may be stimulated 
to curvature, bladderworts and pitcher-plants may be grown for exami- 
nation, leaves may be covered with felt pads to illustrate the transitional 
movements of the chorophyl bodies within ; the phenomena of wilt- 
ing, artificial culture solutions, fermentation, temperature changes 
in germinated seeds, and a hundred others are demonstrated without 

For such a course there is no text-book. The teacher must give it 
by brief lectures, or better, by occasional dictations. Some such 
compilations as Dr. Goodale's "Physiological Botany," or "Vine's 
Lectures on Plant Physiology," may be used for reference. Pfeffer 
and Detmer are the best authors for those who read German, and 
Frank's little books are admirable. By such a course, brief though it 
may be, the student will learn that there is not a position of a leaf, 
not a coil in the tendril, which has not its sufficient cause. Thus he 
will learn in proper fashion what is meant by scientific investigation. 

It may be urged, and not without reason, that such courses as have 
been briefly outlined are too extended for the time allotted them. 
Such is not the case, however, for such courses are practical, as is 
shown by their adoption in more than one college and academy in 
America. Students should not be persistently underrated. Even 

1891.] Zoology. 1015 

the dull ones will be able to radiate a little light of their own if 
opportunity is given them to do something more than repeat the 
feeble beams of a text-book. And this is the greatly needed thing; 
this is the essential thing,— that students should think for themselves. 
Original thought is the spirit of the present, the genius of the future. 
A rational course of study is the alembic which can precipitate such 
thought from a solution of confused and half-formed notions. Science 
itself is to be defined as that mass of facts within experience by which 
we criticize our primitive ideas. Therefore, everything should be bent 
to bringing forth true thought from the pupil ; otherwise he cannot 
arrive at intellectual manhood. — Conway McMillan, in Education. 


The Anatomy of Phagocata. — Woodworth's paper ' on the struc- 
ture of this Triclad is a valuable contribution to our knowledge of the 
Turbellaria. This worm, described by Leidy forty years ago, has been 
neglected until now. Woodworth has investigated the anatomy in a thor- 
ough manner, and besides confirming Leidy's account of the many phar- 
ynges — doubted by several helminthologists —has investigated all parts 
of the animal. Phagocata possesses a main pharynx which opens at 
the junction of the three branches of the alimentary tract, and, besides, 
many others which open into the posterior trunks of the intestine. 
These are arranged without apparent order, except that the further they 
are from the median pharynx the smaller they become. The develop- 
ment of the rhabdites is traced. They arise in gland cells lying in the 
mesenchyme, and pass up into the hypodermis, where they have an 
intercellular position, by means of tubular projections of the mother 
cells. Woodworth thinks the function of the rhabdites to be to aid in 
the capture of prey, since by their slow solution in water they form a 
thick mucus. The body of the animal is usually darkly pigmented, 
the pigment being scattered granules intercellular in position. In its 
nervous system Phagocata stands intermediate between Gunda and 
Rhynchodesmus. There is a superficial and a deeper portion, the two 
being indirectly connected by means of a marginal nerve. The vasa 
efferentia are products of the testes j and the growth of the yolk glands 

1016 The American Naturalist. [November, 

shows that these and the ovaria are formed by differentiation from a 
common anlage. The pseudoccele spaces in the parenchyma are inter- 

Crustacea and Echinoderms of Japan.— Mr. J. E. Ives has 
recently studied 2 the collections made by Mr. Frederick Stearns in 
Japan. The novelties described are : Pectinura stearnsii, Cryptodromia 
stearnsii, and Ascorhynckus japonicus. 

The Affinities of the Molluscs.— Thiele has done some good 
word in the anatomy of the Mollusca, and hence his recent paper 3 is 
a surprise. Thiele not only considers the phylogenetic relationship of 
the molluscs, but of most of the invertebrates as well. Space is avail- 
able but for a few samples of his conclusions. The lowest Ctenophores 
stand lower than all other Ccelenterates and nearest to the primitive 
metazoan. From them with " kaum ein Zweifel," the sponges " ohne 
Schwierigkeit '' are to be derived, the apical pores of the Ctenophore 
giving rise to the pores of the sponge ! So, too, from them come the 
Cnidaria and the bilateral animals. In the group of molluscs, derived 
from the Plathelminthes, some peculiar "homologies " arc recognized. 
Thus the operculum of many Gasteropods is the homologue of the 
posterior element of the chiton shell. The Trochophore is homolo- 
gized, bit by bit, with the Ctenophore, etc., etc. The whole is supported 
by an idea of " centralization " which, in its application, is carried to 
the same extreme as was a few years ago the principle of " cephaliza- 
tion " advanced by an American author, and which receives its death- 
blow in the same group (the Crustacea) in which it was supposed to 
receive its strongest confirmation. 

The Head of Elasmobranchs.— Miss Julia B. Piatt continues* 
her studies of the vertebrate head, to which reference has already been 
made in our pages. She shows that in Acanthias the alimentary canal 
at first extends forward beyond the neural plate to the anterior extrem- 
ity of the embryo, and later the anterior portion of the entoderm is 
separated from the rest by the downward growth of the infundibulum. 
There is evidence which goes to show that the notochord formerly 
extended to the anterior end of the entoderm. From the anterior ento- 
derm arise the anterior head-cavities, and a second pair of cavities in 
front of the mouth are formed by cells proliferated from the dorsal ento- 

5 Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 1891, p. 210. 
*Jenaischc Zeitschrift, XXV., p. 480, 1891. 

derm. These cavities have at early stages a nerve supply in which both 
motor and sensory roots occur ; one nerve, called the " thalamicus," 
being apparently a new discovery, and is probably to be regarded as 
the dorsal root of the oculomotorius. 

The Reproduction of the Conger.— Mr. T. J. Cunningham 
thinks 6 that the conger eel reproduces but once in a lifetime, and then 
dies. He gives many facts, new and collected, to support this view, 
although he has never obtained ripe eggs. The female increases in 
size towards the period of maturity, and this growth, sometimes so 
excessive as to burst the body open, is the result of the enlargement of 
the ovaries. During some months before maturity both male and 
female congers refuse all food, and all reserves stored up in the body 
are transferred to the reproductive organs. This process goes so far 
that the teeth are lost, while the bones of the skull lose all osseous 
characters and cut like cheese. From various facts Cunningham rea- 
sons that the eggs of the conger are pelagic and transparent, and he 
attempts to identify certain unknown eggs from Naples with several 
Muraenoid fishes. 

A New Species of Frog from New Jersey.— It is well known 
that the coastal plain of New Jersey is both zoologically and botani- 
cally very different from the Piedmont regions, and that its species 
have a greater or less distribution in the corresponding region of the 
states to the southwest of it. Among fishes, the few species of the 
Percid genera Acantharchus and Enneacanthus range through the 
entire coastal region, with the Etheostoma barrattii. The Mesogonistius 
chce.todon covers so far, only New Jersey and the Chesapeake peninsula, 
while the Lepomis phenax has not yet been found south of New Jersey. 
Among Batrachia a marked instance of this distribution is furnished 
by the Hyla andersonii, which has been found at two localities in New 
Jersey and one in South Carolina. I have now to add to this list a 
species of Rana found in Southern New Jersey, which has hitherto 
escaped detection. It is a most distinct one, and about the size of the 
wood frog {Rana silvatica). 

Rana virgatipes, sp. nov. — Vomerine tooth patches between the 
choanae, and extending posteriorly to their posterior border. Hind 
legs short, the heel extending from the middle of the tympanum in 
some to near the eye in other specimens. Webs rather short, two 
phalanges of the fourth toe free. Praehallux small, but quite promi- 

1018 The American X 

nent ; no external solar tube; 
posterior limb covered with i 
folds. Males with, females without, external vocal vesicles. Inter- 
ocular width one-half that of each eyelid. Tympanic disk distinct, 
equaling the eye in longest diameter. Head (to posterior border ot 
tympanic disk) about one-third length of head and body. End of 
muzzle oval-acuminate, projecting moderately beyond mouth border. 
Nostril opening vertically equidistant between border of orbit and end 
of muzzle. First and second fingers subequal and longer than the 

The color of the upper surfaces is an olive-brown, varying to more 
or less yellowish or blackish. Two light-brown longitudinal bands on 
each side, one commencing at the orbit and extending above the 
tympanum to the sacrum or beyond it ; the other commencing at the 
muzzle, involving the upper lip, and extending to the groin. The 
dark color of the top of the muzzle contrasts strongly with the lighter 
color of the upper lip, at the canthus rostralis. The inferior band is 
bounded below from the axilla to the groin by a wide black band, 
which is made up of several more or less confluent spots. Inferior 
surface of head and body white ; the former dusted with blackish in 
both sexes, the latter with or without blackish blotches. Fore limbs 
brown above, black on anterior and posterior faces, and white, with 
blackish blotches, below. Hind limbs brown on upper surfaces, with 
two or three black blotches on the femur and tibia. Remainder of 
hind limb and foot black, with the following exceptions : A light-yellow 
band commences at the groin and extends along the femur, passing 
under the knee to and along the external border of the tibia and the 
anterior face of the foot. It expands here, and extends on the 
anterior surfaces of the first, second, and third digits. A subtriangular 
white blotch occupies the middle of the inferior surface of each femur, 
meets its fellow, and sometimes connects with the white of the belly on 
the middle line. A narrow, horizontal white line, generally broken 
into spots, divides the black of the posterior face of the femur. Inner 
edge of tibia with some white spots. 

Length of head and body, 60 mm. ; width of head at posterior bor- 
ders of tympana, 21.5 mm. ; length of fore limb from axilla, 28 mm. ; 
length of hind limb from vent, 76 mm. ; length of hind foot, 39 
mm. ; of tarsus, 15 mm. ; of tibia, 23 mm. 

This frog is not nearly related to any species of the genus. It has 
some points of resemblance to the R. temporaria, as the short posterior 
legs and moderate web ; but the interocular space is much narrower, 

the vomerine teeth more anteriorly placed, and there are no dermal 
folds. In coloration there is no resemblance to any other species. 

I obtained five adult and two half-grown individuals, and had two 
other adults almost within my grasp, but they escaped me. The 
specimens agree nearly in size, the chief differences being observed in 
the amount of dark blotching of the belly and the regularity of the 
markings on the inferior side of the femur. The specimens were 
found in a cut-off of a tributary of the Great Egg Harbor, River in 
Atlantic county, New Jersey. The water is stagnant, and is well 
grown with Nymphoeas, Utricularia, and Sphagnum. The frogs did 
not display any considerable powers of leaping or swimming, but con- 
cealed themselves with much ease within the aquatic vegetation. I 
did not observe any voice. In the same locality I observed the Ranee 
virescens and clamata. The cut-off is in the woods, and I found no 
individuals in similar situations in the open country, nor any along 
running water in the woods. 

The oversight of this conspicuous species is a curious circumstance. 
— E. D. Cope. 

Zoological Notes. — General. — Dr. A. Voeltzkow has been 
giving 6 a general resume of fresh-water fauna of Madagascar. The 
present paper gives promise of many interesting farts when the com- 
pleted paper appears, both of new forms and of geographical relation- 
ships. Frenzel describes, 7 without naming, an interesting infusore 

from a salt-water aquarium in Argentina. It is saccular, pointed at 
either end, and depressed so that it may be called bilateral, the ventral 
surface being flattened, the back rounded. The lower surface is ciliated, 
the dorsal with a few short bristles. In front is a mouth, posteriorly an 
anus, the mouth b^ing surrounded by strong cirri. The wall of this 
organism is composed of a single layer of cubical cells, bounding the 
"alimentary canal." Reproduction takes place in two ways : (i) by 
transverse fission, and (2) by conjugation and subsequent encystment. 
Two individuals oppose the ventral surfaces, and contract into a sphere 
which secretes a cyst. The internal processes were not clearly 
Observed ; it appears that the alimentary lumen is filled by cell division, 
so that the whole cyst is filled with similar cells, each of which is to be 
regarded as a spore which, after liberation, swims about as a ciliate, and 
by cell division develops directly into the adult. No hints are given 
as to the relationships of this form. Mr. F. A. Lucas describes 8 

* Zoo/. Anzeijrtr, XIV., iS 9 i. 

1020 The American Naturalist. [November, 

several points in the structure of the humming-bird's tongue. This 
organ is tubular, but as it lacks any pumping apparatus it can take fluids 

the capture of small insects, a view supported by the size of the salivary 

glands. Tetraprion jordani is the name of a new tree toad from 

Ecuador described 9 by Dr. L. Stejneger and Mr. F. C. Test. It differs 

from all other Hylid;e in the presence of palatine teeth. A recent 

paper by Barton A. Bean 10 on the fishes of the Chesapeake is interesting 
from its richness in local names. Thus, the file-fish is locally called 
fool-fish ; the flounder (Paralichthys dentatus) is the chicken halibut ; 
the toad-fish, bull-fish ; Stromateus paru, butter-fish ; the weakfish as 
trout or gray trout ; scup is maiden ; the sea-bass is black will or black 
nell ; the blue-fish is tailor ; the menhaden is old wife, etc. 

Embryology of the Sea Bass.— Dr. H. V. Wilson has published 
in the bulletin of the United States Fish Commission for 1889, Vol. 
IX., a contribution to the embryolgy of Serranus atrarius in particu- 
lar, and teleostean embryology in general. The paper covers sixty- 
eight pages of text, and is accompanied by twenty photo-lithographic 
plates. Dr. Wilson has given a most excellent account of the develop- 
ment of a single fish, from the egg to the time when the young fish 
hatches. To those desiring a simple and straightforward account of 
fish development, brought up to date, the present contribution will 
meet every want. Asa contribution of original research the different 
parts are of different values. For instance, while the sections on 
gastrulation, concrescence, and the formation of the lateral line are 
valuable, and largely, more especially the last, original contributions 
to modern embryology, yet the sections dealing with the central 
nervous system, blood vessels, notochord , gill-slits, anterior body-cavi- 
ties, etc., are by no means so fully treated, and little addition is made to 
our present knowledge. This, perhaps, is a necessity of the attempt 
to cover so large and so well worked a field ; indeed, one of the most 
prominent facts brought out in the paper is that the grounds seem so 

l8 9i] Embryology. 1021 

thoroughly to have 'been covered by previous writers, and the author 
attempts to show in the fairest manner possible which of the (always) 
several accounts is the more probable from his "observations on the bass." 
We may now pass critically over the different sections of the paper. 

The egg of the sea bass is a small pelagic egg, about one mm. in 
diameter. Imbedded in the yolk, but near the surface, is a single 
large oil globule, which is always uppermost in the floating egg. After 
fertilization the protoplasm, which heretofore formed a thin layer over 
the egg, begins to flow to the pole opposite to the oil globule (lower). 
This patch of protoplasm at the lower pole is at first circular. Just 
before or during the first act of cleavage there arises an inequality in 
the axes, so that by the time the first two blastomeres are marked off the 
germ is bilateral. In the bass and mackerel the first two blastomeres 
are of equal size. " This is normally so with the cod as well ; but on 
one occasion I observed that in all the eggs got from a single codfish 
the first two blastomeres were unequal in size. The inequality was 
very marked ; but the eggs were healthy and the average percentage of 
fish was hatched out." 

This observation, which the author does not further follow up, must 
have an important bearing on the relationship of the first cleavage 
furrow to the plane of the adult body, and hence on the problem of the 
quantitative relationships of protoplasm (and nucleus?) in cell divi- 
sion. The somewhat hasty generalization, that in the Triploblastica 
the first cleavage plane divided the egg into right and left halves with 
reference to the adult, is meeting with general and inexplicable excep- 
tions; and it is the exceptions determined by casual observation as the 
above that show clearly that we do not yet understand the relationship 
between egg cleavage and adult structures. 

" The teleostean segmentation [cleavage of the egg] has undoubtedly 
been derived from a total segmentation essentially like that of Amphi- 
bia ; and convinced of this, Rauber, Agassiz and Whitman, and Zieg- 
ler have endeavored to homologize the early furrows in the two groups. 
In regard to the first two furrows there can no be difference of opinion. 
The homology of the third teleostean furrow is by no means so clear. 
Ziegler, without entering into a detailed discussion of the matter, regards 
the first three furrows in the two groups as homologous. Agassiz and 
Whitman, after a critical examination of Rauber's views, also pronounce 
in favor of this homology, deciding that the third teleostean furrow rep- 
resents the equatorial furrow of Amphibia. I do not find, however, their 
reasons sufficient for discarding the homology offered by Rauber, sup- 
ported as it is by variations (atavistic) in the teleostean germ toward 

1022 The American Naturalist. [November, 

the amphibian segmentation which so exactly imitat^the teleostean types. 
.... According to Rauber, the first equatorial furrow of the frog has 
been lost in the Teleost. Agassiz and Whitman would seem to believe 
that the a priori improbability of such a loss taking place is so great 
that, in spite of the variations just described, it is preferable to regard 
the first three furrows as homologous in the two groups. I do not see 
the inherent improbability of the loss. On the contrary, the disap- 
pearance of segmentation in the ventral half of the egg, coupled with 
the early contraction of the protoplasm (belonging to this half) towards 
the upper pole, make it easy, I think, to understand how the loss was 
brought about." The author seems to have come to this conclusion 
largely on account of the close resemblance in the arrangement of the 
eight micromeres in the 16-celled frog's egg with the eight-celled stage 
in the bass; but inasmuch as there exist the greatest individual differ- 
ences in the arrangement of the micromeres in the frog, and also in the 
fish, we have every reason to believe such a general resemblance might 
have been independently acquired in each case, and that the eight-celled 
stage in the fish corresponds to the 16-celled stage in the frog J and that 
the resemblance between the 16-celled stage (eight micromeres, eight 
macromeres) in the frog and the eight-celled in the fish is entirely super- 
ficial. Moreover, if, as the author attempts to show, the fish gastrula 
may by derived directly from the frog's gastrula, we have every reason to 
believe that so fundamental a process as the cleavage stages must be 
similar, making a very strong " a priori improbability " that the third 
furrow of the frog has dropped out of the fish egg. 

As is well known, the eight-celled stage of the frog separates in gen- 
eral the micromere cells of the upper (anterior?) pole from the lower 
cells containing more yolk. Now if the view taken by Agassiz and 
Whitman be true, it would seem probable that in the eight-celled stage 
of the fish four (most probably the more central four) cells would be 
entirely cut off from the protoplasm covering the yolk, and that the 
other four cells would have their protoplasm continuous, in part at 
least, with the protoplasm covering the yolk. To some extent the 
author's figures bear out such an interpretation, although he does not 
seem to have examined the sections from such a point of view. 

The origin of the periblast in the bass is the same as is described in 
Ctenolabrus by Agassiz and Whitman. " These authors proved 
beyond a doubt that in Ctenolabrus the nuclei are derived from the 
marginal cells of the blastodisc, which from the earliest stages of seg- 
mentation are connected with the yolk or periblastic protoplasm." 
(See above.) 

«89i.] Embryology. 1023 

The whole of the periphery of the blastoderm turns in, forming a 
layer between the periblast and the superficial ectoderm of the animal 
pole. The invaginated layer from the posterior pole gives rise to the 
mesoblast and notochord by delamination, and the remaining cells go 
to form the midgut, the periblast taking no part whatever in the latter 
structure, but remaining encircling the yolk, and ultimately assisting to 
digest it when it begins to disappear by absorption by the liver cells. 
The blastodermic cap grows over the yolk. "As the blastopore 
grows smaller, the extra embryonic part of the germ-ring is pari passu 
drawn into the tail end of the embryo, and there is thus built up in 
this region a constantly increasing wall of undifferentiated cells. . . . 
In the bass there is no actual concrescence in the middle line; but 
the terminal" notch observed in some fish, as well as the general 
considerations derived from a comparison of Teleost with Amphibia, 
warrant us in regarding the closure of the blastopore as a process 
of concrescence, the result of which is to establish the primitive streak. 
The entire mass of undifferentiated cells left at the tail of the embryo 
after the blastopore closes serves as a cellular material for the back- 
ward growth of the several organs. Thus, while the extra embryonic 
germ-ring, as has been insisted upon by Agassiz and Whitman, and 
Cunningham, assuredly forms part of the embryo, it does not form 
any special part; but, on the contrary, its cells eventually find their 
way into ectodermic, mesodermic, and notochordal tissues" of the 
tail. In other words, the author believes the two halves of the trunk 
of the embryo are not formed by concrescence of the blastopore, 
mesoderm, or any modification of it, but that all of the mesoderm 
turned in around the rim (except at the post-embryonic pole) accu- 
mulates at the upper ridge of the blastopore (in the caudal mass) and 
at its sides, and this latter differentiates into the mesoderm and its 
products in the tail. 

" The alimentary canal is formed from the simple endoderm lamella 
[invaginated endoderm without the parablast] by a process of folding 
along the median line. The fold is converted into a tube by the 
meeting of its lower edges. There is a solid postanal gut formed as a 
thickening of the endoderm lamella, not as a fold. At the end of the 
postanal gut is Kupffer's vesicle, which is formed in essentially the 
same way as the permanent alimentary tube. It is scarcely necessary 
to say that Kupffer's vesicle and the entire post-anal gut [subsequently] 
atrophy." "The discovery of this vesicle was made by Kupffer in 

1024 The American Naturalist [November, 

1868, and since then it has occupied a conspicuous place in the embry- 
ology of Teleosts. . . . The alimentary canal is formed by a process 
of folding, and Kupffer's vescicle, as the terminal part of the postanal 
gut, follows the same method. After the gut has once been folded off, 
the homology of the vesicle with the postanal vesicle of Selachians 
is obvious. In each group the vesicle forms the dilated extremity of 
the postanal gut, and receives, or would receive if it existed, the 
neurenteric canal. ... But if Kupffer's vesicle in its early stages 
indicates that the terminal portion of the archenteron was primitively 
dilated, we naturally inquire both for the causes and for a correspond- 
ing phenomenon in the ontogeny of those ainmals in which the 
archenteron is bodily transformed into the permanent gut. As to the 
latter point it would seem very common in the Amphibia for the archen- 
teron to be thus dilated. The existence of such a dilatation in the 
enteron of the primitive Chordata is further made probable by, and 
receives an explanation from, the relation of the neurenteric canal to 
the blastopore. It will be seen that in the interpretation of Kupffer's 
vesicle I substantially agree with Cunningham : it is the terminal part 
of the archenteron." 

The most interesting addition to our knowledge is the author's dis- 
covery that the ear, branchial sense-organs, and organs of the lateral 

been noticed in the trout that the anlage which was supposed to develop 
into the ear is remarkably long. I have found that this anlage not only 
gives rise to the ear, but to a functional branchial sense-organ and to 
the organs of the lateral line as well. Before the blastopore closes there 
is found behind the eye a long, shallow furrow [the sensory furrow] in 
the nervous layer of the ectoderm. At two points the furrow begins 
to deepen, the deepening taking place downwards and inwards. At 
these two points the auditory sac and the branchial sense-organs will 
respectively be formed. ... A further stage in the development 
shows that the deepening of the furrow in the auditory and branchial 
sense-organ regions has continued until there are are two well-marked 
sacs, the anterior of which is the branchial sense-organ, the posterior 
the auditory sac. Between the two sacs persists the connecting "portion 
of the sensory furrow, and behind the auditory sacs the furrow is con- 
tinued for some distance. The posterior portion of the furrow consti- 
tutes the anlage of the lateral line. 

"The homology instituted by Eisig between the lateral line organs 
of fishes and the ' seiten organ ' of certain Annelids is well known. 
Balfour, in his text-book, declined to accept it ; and though Beard 

i8 9 t.] Embryology. 1025 

favored the homology in his paper on the teleostean lateral line, after 
studying the Selachians he gave it up. Now that the early develop- 
ment of the lateral line is approximately known in Teleosts and 
Selachians, there seems less than ever to be said for the homology. If 
it could be shown that the segmental sense-organs of Annelids, leeches, 
etc., arise from an anterior anlage, which grows and, so to speak, dis- 
tributes the sense-organs along the trunk, the homology might well be 
supported. But as far as I know the invertebrate segmental organs 

"The fact that there is in the bass a common anlage for the ear, 
branchial sense-organ, and lateral line has certainly no phylogenetic 
significance. It can only be regarded as a convenient method of 
forming these sense-organs which the embryos of certain animals have 
adopted. It, however, serves to emphasize in a striking way the serial 
homology between the organs which previous work has already made 
so probable." The interpretation of this latter quotation is somewhat 
obscure and the author's meaning difficult to read betweeen the lines. 
If he means that the ear, branchial sense-organs, and lateral line have 
arisen in the adult in the same position found in the adult to-day, and 
have subsequently concentrated in the embryo into a single anlage, he 
brings no evidence forward to support his position. If he means that 
in the adult these three sets of organs arose from a single anterior 
organ, and the ontogenetic phases repeat the ancestral process, then 
the theory seems in better accord with the facts, but his words seem 
to bear out no such interpretation. At any rate, to announce that in 
their origin, which he has himself discovered, there is no " phylo- 
genetic significance " seems an extremely hazardous affirmation. In 
any case, however, the discovery itself is extremely important, and may 
have an important bearing upon the question of metamerization of the 
vertebrate as contrasted with that of the Annelid. 

The last section deals with " General Morphological Questions," 
touching mainly upon concrescence and the interpretation of the 
process of gastrulation in the Teleost. " In the growth of the blasto- 
derm around the yolk, the head end of the embryo does not remain a 
fixed point, as His supposed. On the contrary, the tail end of the 
embryo (posterior pole of the blastoderm) remains a comparatively 
fixed point, as Oellacher first showed, while the anterior pole of the 
blastoderm travels rapidly around the yolk. The point where the 
blastopore closes is thus but a short distance from the original position 
occupied by the posterior pole of the blastoderm. Owing to the 
constant position of the single oil globule, these facts can easily be 

1026 The American Naiuralist. [November, 

made out." This argument itself is vitiated in the assumption of a 
fixed point for the oil globule, as the author gives little reason for 
believing that the latter may not change position with the growth of 
the embryo. Moreover, and this is much more important, the author's 
conception as to the position of the frog's gastrula in relation to the 
poles of the embryo may not be correct, and must seriously alter his con- 
ception of the position of the fish embryo to the egg if he insists on a 
strict comparison of the two forms. (See below.) 

The author's conception of gastrulation in the fish may be gathered 
from the following quotation : "Accepting Ziegler's homologies, it 
will be seen that the whole course of the fish development becomes 
easy to understand. Starting with the blastula, and disregarding for 
the present the non-embryonic part of the germ-ring, the primitive 
hypoblast corresponds to the primitive hypoblast which invaginates 
around the dorsal lip of the blastopore in the frog gastrula. The chief 
point of difference is the lack of continuity in the fish embryo between 
the inner edge of the invaginated layer, and the yolk is easily explained 
as an adaptation to the method of forming the alimentary canal from 
the invaginated layer exclusively. The archenteron lies between the 
primitive hypoblast and the periblast. In consequence of the absence 
of continuity between the yolk and the invaginated ldyer, the archen- 
teron at its edge is not separated from the segmentation cavity The 
growth of the anterior pole of the blastoderm around the yolk represents 
the growth of small cells around the yolk-cells in amphibian gastrulation. 
The closure of the blastopore takes place in the same way as in the 
Amphibia : there is formed a short primitive streak behind the position 
of the neurenteric canal (Kupffer's vesicle in Teleosts) ; at the posterior 
end of the primitive streak the final closure takes place. . . . The 
asymmetry which Balfour showed to be a characteristic attribute, of 
vertebrate gastrulation is present in the highest degree in the Teleost 
gastrula. At the posterior pole of the blastoderm (dorsal lip of blasto- 
pore) there is an extensive invagination which gives rise to the roof of the 
archenteron. The cause of the asymmetry must be looked for in the 
peculiarly localized distribution of the yolk in the egg." 

The italics above are my own, and emphasize the fact that the 
author does not realize that in the gastrulation of the Amphibia, to which 
he, so constantly refers, the anterior pole does not grow over the yolk in 
an epibolic fashion, but that the anterior (black) extension of the 
blastoderm over the yolk takes place by a delamination of ectoderm 
cells from the large yolk-containing cells (see Am. Nat., Embryology, 
August, 1 891). This latter view has been recognized by Kupffer and 

1891.] Embryology. 1027" 

Hertwig. " Now the growth of the blastoderm over the yolk does not 
take place, according to Kupffer, in a true epibolic fashion, but is 
accomplished through the medium of a zone of tissue in which the 
yolk-cells become transformed into the cells of the two primary layers. 
Hertwig holds the same opinion. If this be really the case in Amniota, 
two explanations of the process are possible : First, that it is a modi- 
fication of the ancestral, epibolic growth, such as occurs in Teleosts, 
which view Kupffer and Hertwig would of course reject, because it is 
equivalent to admitting the homology of the blastoderm edge in 
Teleosts and Amniotes, and consequently the correctness of the Balfour- 
Rauber hypothesis ; secondly, that the process is, to refer it to simple 
embryonic forms, one of progressive delamination. It will be seen 
f hat Kupffer's hypothesis really implies the occurrence of the latter 
process, for when he explains the spreading of the blastoderm as the 
completion of the blastula stage he really means that the embryo splits 
off ectoderm progressively from a to a 1 towards m (anterior embryonic 
portion). Thus, again, to refer the processes to their simplest forms, 
over one half of the blastula (yolk half) delamination occurs ; 
but in the other half there is a true invagination (region of prostomia 
and primitive streak). . . . However, the analysis I have given is, I 
think, a perfectly fair one, and the result is evidently prejudicial to 
their theory. For the conclusion is that the Amniotic vertebrates have 
a blastula which invaginates over one half and delaminates over the 
other^. Such an embryonic form is nowhere known to occur, and the 
theory which is forced to assume its existence is in so far a weak theory, 
and must give place to any other which can explain the facts by 
making use only of known processes." Unfortunately for the author, 
the weak theory is probably to be regarded as a real fact, and if so 
the author's argument collapses. Whether -or not a readjustment of 
the author's views may show him to be largely in the right, is another 
question for the future to settle. Meanwhile any conception of fish 
(and Amniote) gastrulation must take into account as a starting point 
the delamination over the anterior and ventral face of the early stages 
of the frog's development.— T. H. M., September 9th, 1891. 

The Development of Hydra. 2 — The ground already covered 
by Kleinenberg ('72), Kerschcr ('89), and Korotneff C&3) has a g ain 
been worked over by Dr. August Brauer. The following species of 
brown (" not green ") hydras were studied : H. grisea. Eggs and 

*Zeit. Wissen. Zoo/., Bd. 51, Heft. 2, 1891. 

1028 The American Naturalist. [November, 

•spermatozoa. May, June, and July. Bisexual. The eggs fall off from 
the mother as soon as the outer coat of the embryo is formed. The 
embryos do not hatch for one or two months. H. fusca. Eggs 
mature in October. Bisexual. The eggs do not fall off, but are stuck 
to surrounding objects by means of a jelly, and flatten down somewhat 
on the support. Probably the eggs are deposited in different places. 
The time between egg-laying and hatching is as in the last species. 
H. sp. ? Adult resembles closely H. fusca. More than half of the indi- 
viduals kept in the aquarium developed into males alone, and later 
after the disappearance of the testes they did not develop eggs, but 
continued to bud. The remaining individuals developed into females. 
The eggs remain attached to the mother. When all of the eggs have 
developed as far as the two-layered stage the mother contracts strongly 
her body down to the base. The eggs come to lie around the base of 
the mother, remaining sticking to her. The mother remains in this 
strongly contracted condition for several weeks, and the embryos often 
escape from the shell before the parent again extrudes. Three embryos 
hatched in one case fourteen days after the contraction had taken 

The author suggests that the adult species may be identified in the 
form of the eggs and the structure of the egg-case : 

i. Hydra viridis. Egg falls off. Form spherical. Case smooth. 

2. Hydra grisea. Eggs fall off. Form spherical. Case covered with 
large and often branched spines. 

3. Hydra fusca. Eggs singly stuck to objects. Form below, flat ; 
above, convex. Case covered with spines only on the upper surface. 

4. Hydra sp. ? Eggs (at base of mother) generally all stuck at one 
place. Form spherical. Case covered with short spines. 

The maturation and fertilization of the egg is described in much 
greater detail than ever before. The egg begins to round up, drawing 
in the protoplasmic processes, but still remaining beneath the ecto- 
derm. At this stage the two polar bodies are extruded. The egg 
later breaks through the overlying ectoderm, but remains attached by 
a broad base. Fertilization then takes place. 

The eccentric position of the segmentation nucleus causes the first 
furrow to begin at the distal pole (away from the mother), and then, 
after many changes in the outline of the egg, the yolk follows the 
nuclear division, and moreover, in the same way as Bergh* describes in 
Gonothyrcea,—viz., the nucleus divides a second time, and the second 

l8 9iJ Embryology. • 1029 

furrow is visible wfiile the first furrow lias not finished.* With the pass- 
ing of the furrows through the egg the nuclei pass to the middle. If 
they have reached this after the end of the second cleavage, then the 
segmentation proceeds more rapidly and regularly. 

A blastula stage follows, and from it the endoderm is formed at all 
points over the surface, by both delamination (Theilung) and migra- 
tion (Einwanderung). Later the blastula cavity is fdled with solid 
endoderm. From the ectoderm the outer chitinous case is secreted, 
and later the inner germ-membrane. The ectoderm remains intact, 
and goes over into that of the adult. The sequence of the appearance 
of the tentacles does not follow any defined law. The mouth-pole is 
in all probability identical with the pole that gave rise to the polar 

Morphology of the Vertebrate Head. 5 — In the Anatomischer 
Anzeiger (VI. Jahr., '91) Julia B. Piatt publishes a contribution of 
the " work presented last October for publication in the Journal of 
Morphology." The present paper deals with the origin of the head 
segments and their nerve supply. " The anterior limit of the fusion of 
the edges of the neural plate is therefore not the neuropore, but the 
anlage of the optic stalk. . . . The optic nerve which later develops 
into the optic stalk is therefore primarily a dorsal structure, and mor- 
phologically the first or most anterior of the cranial nerves. An- 
terior to the first gill-cleft, Aca