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Full text of "The Asa Gray bulletin."

N.S. Vol. Ill 



Spring, 1955 



No. 1 







Edited and published jot 

\ 

THE GRAY MEMORIAL BOTANICAL ASSOCIATION, 

BOTANICAL GARDENS ASSOCIATION 
OF THE UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN 

and 
THE MICHIGAN BOTANICAL CLUB 

by 
Harley H. Bartlett and Rogers McVaugh 



CONTENTS 



History and Philosophy of Japanese Flower Arrangement 



Mary Cokely Wood 



Real Values 



3 



E. D. Merrill 



Death of Frank C. Gates 



27 
32 



(Continued over) 



ANN ARBOR, MICHIGAN 



CONTENTS 

(Continued) 



A Study of Mahogany 

F. Bruce Lamb 



Wyoming Newsletter and Report from the Rocky Mountain 
Herbarium 

C. L. Porter 

New Method of Handling and Preserving Soft-Matrix Fossils 

Herman F. Becker 

Flora of Mexico as Described in the 16th Century Relaciones 

Ida K. Langman * . . , 

Camp Arbuckle, a Century Later 

George J. Goodman 

Francois Crepin on Botanizing 

Lloyd H. Shinners 

Charles W. Fallass, Pioneer Michigan Botanist 

Edward G. Voss .... 

Philippine Journal HI 

Pierre Dansereau . . . - . 

Dansereau to Head Botany at Montreal 



33 



49 



57 



59 



63 



65 



77 



97 
126 



Publication Dates of the Asa Gray Bulletin 126 



Errata •.,.... 

Editorial Notes . , 

Warren Gookin Waterman, 1872-1952 

Margery C. Carlson 

Letter Regarding Professor Waterman from His Son 

French Waterman . 



126 
126 



127 



130 



k ^ 



HISTORY AND PHILOSOPHY 
OF JAPANESE FLOWER ARRANGEMENT 

Mary Cokely Wood 



Foreword, by H. H. Bartlett 



During the fall of 1952 the University of Michigan and the Ann Arbor Citizens 
Flower Show sponsored a Japanese Festival through the collaboration of several 
units of the University, namely, the Museum of Art, the College of Architecture and 
Design, the Center for Japanese Studies and the International Center, and of several 
civic groups whose interest was enlisted through the Ann Arbor Citizens Flower 
Show, namely, the Ann Arbor Garden Club, the Garden Section of the Faculty Women's 
Club, and the Farm and Garden Club. 

Prior to World War II the Alumni in Tokyo had provided for a gift to the Univer- 
sity of Japanese cherries of the more hardy horticultural varieties, to be planted at 
Ann Arbor. At first, uncertainty about which varieties would be most likely to with- 
stand the severe winters, and then the circumstances of the war and its aftermath, 
prevented anything being done about the matter until interest in it was renewed in 
1951 by the present writer. The Japanese Festival was then arranged for the follow- 
ing summer. The Honorable Eikichi Araki, Ambassador of Japan, visited Ann Ar- 
bor, honoring the occasion by making the formal presentation of the gift in behalf of 
the Tokyo Alumni of the University, which was accepted by President Harlan Hatcher. 

The reason for the Japanese Festival was so well stated by Professor Jean Paul 
Slusser of the Museum of Art, that I venture to quote his explanation from the pro- 
gram of events which was issued by the University. He wrote: 

r 

"Nearly a century has elapsed since an American, Commodore Perry, opened up 
the Japanese Empire to western trade, and in this time there has been a constant 
interchange of ideas and influence between the United States and Japan. A climax to 
the impact, moral as well as material, of the two civilizations upon each other was 
reached in the war, now at least officially concluded. At this moment, when the 
treaty of peace between these two great nations has just been signed, Japanese Fes- 
tival is presented both as a gesture of celebration and good v/ill and as an attempt to 
promote a closer understanding of our friend and neighbor in the East. 

"The present occasion, with its reference to several typical aspects of Japanese 
life and art, has developed naturally out of materials that were lying ready to hand. 
A store of enthusiasm for flowers and gardens has long existed in Ann Arbor, as 
also some special interest in the art of Japanese flower arrangement. An impres- 
sive number of Japanese objects is to be found in the private and public collections 
of this area. In the University itself, the Museum of Art, prompted by the direction 
towards Far Eastern studies in the Department of Fine Arts, has for some time 
been ready to undertake an oriental exhibition. The Center for Japanese Studies 
maintains a field branch in Okayama and has been an active influence of cultural in- 
terchange between the United States and Japan. Quite recently a group of Tokyo 
alumni made the University a present of flowering-cherry trees, and an occasion for 
dedicating these was definitely indicated. To members of the College of Architec- 
ture and Design staff the subject of Japanese architecture and interior design has 
been of increasing interest, particularly since many traditional tenets of Japanese 
building come close to the newer thinking of our own best men in these fields. 



3 



4 ASA GRAY BULLETIN N.S. VoL III, No. 1 



^Japanese Festival d^ve\o\)Qd out of the ideas, wishes and plans of various per- 
sons, groups and organizations and was made possible through the generous contri- 
bution of advice, time, services and money on the part of a number of devoted indi- 
viduals, some of them laymen, some of them specialists. In certain aspects it is an 
exhibition of art, in others a particular kind of flower show. A community as well 
as a University project, it has implications which reach beyond either one. Its 
sponsors hope that it may contribute to an understanding of a culture in which we as 
Americans are destined to be increasingly interested. 

"As regards the installation, no attempt has been made to reproduce the exact 
details of a Japanese house and garden. Not only would this have been impractica- 
ble within the fixed limitations of space and budget, but it would have militated 
against the unity of style necessary for the total arrangement of the galleries. The 
intention throughout has been merely to suggest with greatly simplified means the 
spirit of the Japanese original." 

The events of tlie Japanese Festival were spread over the period from 12 October 
through 2 November 1952. The Festival Exhibition of Japanese Art, was open in the 
galleries of Alumni Memorial Hall throughout the period, and the special events were 
as follows: 

October 12. Opening of the three-day chrysanthemum show; First Demonstration 
of Japanese Flower Arrangement by Mrs. Tomoko Yamamoto. 

October 13. Second Demonstration of Japanese Flower Arrangement, by Mrs. 

Yamamoto. 

October 14, Lecure by Mrs. Mary Cokely Wood, "The History and Philosophy 
of Japanese Flower Arrangement." 

October 19. The Presentation of the Goft of Japanese Flowering-Cherries by 
the Tokyo Alumni to the University. 

October 23. Lecture by Professor James Marshall Plumer, "Japanese Sculp- 
ture." 

November 2. Japanese Tea Ceremony, demonstrated by Japanese students at 
the University. 

Needless to say, the success of the Japanese Festival depended upon the cooper- 
ation of far too many persons for all to be mentioned, but the central committee 
consisted of Mrs. Frederick A. Coller, who was especially responsible for promo- 
tion and personnel, Mr. Walter W. J. Gores, who was in charge of planning and di- 
recting, Professor Robert B. Hall, who provided Japanese materials, and Professor 
J. P. Slusser, who, assisted by Professor James M. Plumer, Mrs. Kamer Oga- 
Oglu, and Miss Helen B. Hall, was in charge of the art exhibits. The arrangement of 
a Japanese garden was undertaken by Professor Otto Laporte and Mrs. Robert F. 
Ward. The Chrysantherr.um show was managed by Mrs. Robert T. Ball, Mrs. Ra- 
leigh Schorling and Mrs. Ruth Moser Place. Mural decorations, photographic and 
floral displays, and the doll exhibition were contributed by Mr. Donald B. Gooch, Mr. 
Richard Wilt, Mr. David Reider, Mr. Philip C. Davis, Mrs. Frank N. Wood, Mrs. C. 
Merle Dixon, Mr. Alfred Goodhew, and Mrs. Joseph K. Yamagiwa. The reception, 
the publicity, and the details of construction and installation were taken care of by 
Miss Linda Eberbach, Mrs. Otto Laporte, Mrs. Otto Graff, Mr. Aarre K. Lohti, Mr. 
Thomas F. McClure, and many others. 

Mrs.. Wood's lecture on the "History and Philosophy of Japanese Flower Ar- 
rangement" was illustrated by slides, and supplemented by an exhibition of recent 
and classical books on the subject, demonstrations of arrangements, and accesso- 
ries for them, such as antique bronze vessels. Too much time and effort were de- 
voted to it for her lecture to lie unpublished. Since it was especially interesting to 
the botanists and gardeners, we have considered it an obligation as well as a pleas- 



Spring, 1955 ASA GRAY BULLETIN 5 



ure to publish it in the Asa Gray Bulletin, feeling sure that our readers will enjoy 
it. Much has been written on Japanese flower arrangement that is merely trivial. 
Consequently many who think they know something about it have really only a su- 
perficial acquaintance. Mrs. Wood is the author of a successful book* on the sub- 
ject which has met with commendation in Japan where it was published. 

Asked about her background for writing on this subject, Mrs. Wood replied as 
follows: 

"My interest arose from living in Nara, Japan, where my husband, Mr. Frank 
E. Wood, and I had been sent by the Brotherhood of St. Andrew of the Protestant 
Episcopal Church in America. We had always been interested in botany and since 
Japan is so rich in plants, every tree and flower and shrub and fern invUed inves- 
tigation. ' 

"I had lessons at Nara from a teacher of the Ikenobo School in Kyoto about 1900. 
My early study of Japanese floral art resulted in steadily increasing interest, in- 
viting research, which has been furthered by Japanese friends in both Japan and 
America. They have contributed much, especially in procuring for the the old 
block-printed books from which some of the illustrations for my article have been 
taken, and without access to which one can hardly be thought of as qualified to 
write on the history of the subject. I prize these old volumes among my dearest 
possessions, for it is difficult indeed to make a good collection of them. Even the 
best American libraries have only scanty or far from complete holdings. 

"Since the War interest in Japanese Flower Arrangement has grown, much to 
the pleasure and satisfaction of those who have visited Japan and to those with whom 
they have talked. Japanese floral art has power, mentally, bodily and spiritually." 



We were living in Kyoto in 1900, when my husband brought home 
one day in early spring, tickets to a Flower Show. A Flower Show 

r 

was a new idea to me. I had never heard of such a think in America 
and I visualized it as many bouquets of spring flowers. I looked at 
the "tickets/' neat pieces of white wood almost an inch thick and 

about 3^ inches wide and 7 or 8 inches long, with Japanese characters 
brushed on in bold black ink. 

At that time there were few foreigners in Kyoto. The appearance 
of one or more always drew a crowd of children crying ^^Ejin san! 
Ejin sanT meaning, ^^Oh! look at the foreigners.'' We never minded 
that, for they were not meaning to be rude. 

We arrived at the door where the Flower Show was being held and 
stepped in, — into another world. Into a world where men, women and 
children were silent, utterly silent, reverently silent, and it was just 
that. They were absorbed in what looked at first like a long row of 
living plants, not bouquets, for some had no blossoms, all were in 
heavy bronze pots. It was not in the least spectacular. We, of course, 
were non-existent. 

Each man, woman, and child, in turn, with no crowding, no word 



*Wood, Mary Cokely; Flower Arrangement Art of Japan. Charles Tuttle Company, 
Tokyo. Ed. 1, 1951; ed. 2 (revised), 1952. 



6 ASA GRAY BULLETIN N.S, VoL HI, No. 1 



Y 
f 



spoken, as his turn came, bowed deeply before the first arrangement 
(I didn't know the term "flower arrangement'' then) looked as long as 
he wished, bowed deeply again, passed on to repeat the ceremony be- 
fore each arrangement. We, of course had no manners, or under- 
standing but we were taller and so could pass quietly behind the silent 
procession until we came to the exit. It was not a large show, only 
about 15 or 20 pots of flowers. At the exit I turned, loath to leave. 
All of these spectators were getting something I missed, and I was 
bewildered and intri^p^ed, 

I stood at the door gazing and all sorts of questions arose. Why 
these heavy bronze pots? In America people put flowers, short 
stemmed blooms, into anything, old sugar bowls, a fancy colored 
vase, glass ware, old pickle jars. Then too, here were long branches 
of pine. We had pine branches on Christmas trees or above doors at 
Christmas time. Why so few flowers? Why had each arrangement a 
long purple drapery behind it? And why were the stems so long and 
not stuck down into the pot, and why were there so few in each pot? 
I was loath to leave. I looked down to see an elderly man half risen 
from his deep bow in front of an oblong bronze basin about 10 or 12 
inches across and on a footed base. In it were some iris leaves, a 
fully opened flower, one half open, and a bud, looking as if the plant 
had been taken bodily from the edge of a pond. The old man had such 
a look of adoring ecstasy on his face that the scene was unforgettable, 
I was to remember that look when some other elderly man told me 
how his father as long as he lived would study flower arrangement and 
practise the art. 

I think of this first flower show in Japan every time I go to a 
flower show in America. 



an 



their volcanoes, alps, valleys, gorges, cascading waterfalls and 
shores, are equally remarkable in picturesqueness of the vegetation. 
Its plants have enriched the horticulture of most countries of the 
world. 

It seems quite natural then, that the Japanese should have a deep 
sensitivity to beauty and that they should feel strongly their identifi- 
cation with nature. The people were sensitive to beauty because 
there was such an amount of it everywhere. They lived in it and had 
the same experiences that plant and animal life had; people were 
born, lived, died as did animals and plants. They saw a mountain 
burst into life, a volcano born, so the Japanese identified themselves 
with all living things; everything had life; Winter burst into Spring, 
Spring passed into Summer, Summer into Fall, Fall died away in 
Winter; just so man had birth, youth, maturity, senescence, death. 
Mankind was just one form of Nature, Japanese love of beauty and 
aesthetic appreciation of Nature have been expressed in various arts 
as their civilization has advanced through the centuries. 



Spring, 1955 ■ ASA GRAY BULLETIN 7 



The ancient Japanese settled at Nara in the Yamato valley which 
was to become the ^cradle of Buddhism.^ Buddhism came to Japan by 
way of Korea in 552. Priests brought the Buddhist scriptures and the 
^mitsu-do^ the three holy vessels for the altar, namely a candlestick, 
a censer, and a flower vase, probably all of bronze. Bronze had been 
made and used in China for making ritual vessels (as well as for 

other purposes) for 2500 years, in beautiful shapes and designs. 
Many archaic Chinese bronze vessels may be seen in American mu- 
seums today. 

It is therefore quite reasonable to suppose that the ^mitsu-do^ 
were of bronze, because both Buddhism and bronze had gone from 
China to Korea and then to Japan. ^^Mitsu-dcf are not petty in size 
and the flower vase was undoubtedly twelve or even more than twelve 
inches high. It was natural that this height and material should set 
the pattern for ritual vessels that would come after, and for the early 
forms of flower arrangement that would have to be appropriate to 
them. So was taken the first step in The Way of Flowers, the Kado. 

Pure Buddhism always fostered the beautiful, whether in Nature, 
in Art, or in the minds of men. In the 200 years following 552 A. D., 
over 400 gorgeous Buddhist Temples were erected. During the re- 



Shotoku 



and 



and 



Japan. The devotees 



and 



other trees and shrubs as offerings to be placed on the altar. The 
artist priests, many of whom had painted pictures of the Deity or dei- 
ties, or carved their statues, arranged the branches in bronze vases 
patterned after the first one. It is said that one priest, Ono-no-Omo- 
ko^ who had been one of those sent by Prince Shotoku to China, was 
in charge and that what he did about those plant offerings was the be- 
ginning of the Ikenobo School of flower arrangement, which is still the 
outstanding one. The arrangements of offerings were called Shin-no- 
hana or ''Flowers for the Lord Buddha.^ 

Because the offerings were seasonal and local, that again set a 
pattern for the future art. The art had to make use of materials that 
were near at hand, as well as suitable for a bronze vase 12-20 inches 
high, which called for long branches. Having an innate sense of line 
and composition there was no thought of putting into such a container 
a crowded, short- stemmed bunch of flowers. Flowers, in the mind of 
the Japanese people, were incidental in their appreciation of Nature. 
The center axis of pine in these primitive arrangements rose at least 
3 or more feet high. Other branches were added in an orderly fash- 
ion. This center axis rising straight up was called shirty or heaven, 
or heart, signifying the essence of living upon which all else depends. 
And, too, perhaps it was a symbol of aspiration wafted to Buddha, the 
Lord of Heaven, through the beauty of the offering. 



8 



ASA GRAY BULLETIN 



N.S. VoL III, No. 1 




Fig. 1. "SJiin-no-Jiana" (from Josiuh Conder's "The Theory of Japanese Flower 
Arrangement/' Tokyo, 1889). 

This was the style created by the early Buddhist monks for adorning the Buddhist 
altar. It set the pattern of using seasonal and local plant material which in this in- 
stance (as probably in all of the first arrangements) consisted of perhaps two kinds 
of pine and a branch or two of plum. It has a solemn dignity and set the pattern for 
indicating vitality by the closely united branches at the base just above the water. It 
also set the pattern for using bronze containers, dark and earthy-looking. The 

classic styles have followed these patterns to this day. 



Spring, 1955 



ASA GRAY BULLETIN 



9 



t 3 



I 



The arrangement of the whole did not give the appearance of "cut'' 
stems, soon to die. Those artist priests conveyed the idea of unified 
and continuing life by uniting all the stems so closely as to give the 
feeling of one stem for some distance above the water which repre- 
sented the earth. All branches arose from this point with the grace 
and freedom of nature aided by man's art. (In practice this distance 
might be about four inches.) 

How seriously the priest, or priest-in-charge took this duty of 
making a shin-no-hana is revealed in a pretty story of one whose ar- 
tistic sense had not been pleased with his results. He left the temple 
and was gone a long time climbing mountains, trudging along in val- 
leys, looking for what he did not know. It was hot, it was cold, it 
rained, it snowed, the winds blew, but he kept on and on until at length 
he lay down utterly exhausted. Finally he slept and dreamed that the 
gentle Goddess Quannon came to him and gave him heavenly help. 

How long the making of the shin-no -hana continued is unknown, 
nor is it known when the great bronze lotus arrangement such as that 
before the Daibutsu at Nara superseded the shin-no-hana of natural 
plant material. I asked my friend, a Lord Abbot of the ancient Shoko- 
kuji Temple in Kyoto if shin -no -hana were used in that Temple now. 
He told me that occasionally a devotee would order a floral artist to 
make one and would present it to the Temple but that it would not be 
placed on the altar but in the great hall. Such an arrangement might 
be 15 feet high. There was never a limit to the height except as ma- 
terial and good taste limited it. 

It was inevitable that the building of Buddhist temples of imposing 
architecture and magnificent interiors should stimulate the building of 
palaces and great houses of emperors and lords (daimyo). As the 
altar was the inmost shrine of a temple, so the tokonoma, a specially 
made alcove in the reception room of the palace or home, was devoted 
to the exhibition of special treasures. It might contain a choice ka- 
kemono or hanging scroll and a flower arrangement. The kakemono 
might be a landscape or an elegant calligraphy, as much prized as a 
fine painting. The arrangement of course could not be a ritual shin- 
no-hana, so a style was developed called rikkwa, meaning built-up 
flowers, i, e. flowers arranged for man's enjoyment. The great dif- 
ference between the two styles was one that might be called philo- 
sophical; the tip of the main stem was placed off center to emphasize 
this difference. Although the shin-no-hana^^s not entirely symmet- 
rical, it was nearly enough so as to make it, as it were, fit for man's 
imperfect offering to the Lord Buddha. Rikkwa indicated identification 
of man with nature in the greater naturalness of art. 

The basic ideas of shin-no-hana, however, were incorporated in 
rikkwa; namely, the use of the bronze container twelve to twenty 
inches high; the uniting of the stems for four inches above the water; 



10 



ASA GRAY BULLETIN 



N.S. Vol. m, No. 1 



Itf^ 



iiib wW4l&.JkhilJl^-Aah^.^^^^ 



> 













I . I 



^HiF 



I 



^ ft^ ll H» FT^ 



i 






<-c^' 


























L . 



, I 












I 



Huui iHimW ' . Mf^^mu-Ji^aDtAr 



Ml PdMin f^^Wqi'ii W 'lwa' M ti. >«^-^^?i>inwMiaMniEHM«^^ 







Fig, 2, Kaleidoscopic view of a landscape using briinches of pine, loquat leaves, 
plum leaves and berries of Rhodea and two as yet unidentified plant materials in a 
nnost beautiful rikkwa, {"Rikkwa" means built-up flowers.) The rugged pines on a 
distant slope, the loquat leaves suggestive of a nearer lower area, and the Rhodea 
near at hand, might all be met with on a journey in mid-winter. The arrangement 
does not suggest "cat" branches because of the close union of stems at the vase 
above the water. In this rikkwa^ which was probably at least 6 feet high, the artist 
has arranged his lines and voids in beautiful lines and rhythms in spite of the natural 
irregularity of the branches. The heavy bronze vase has an interestingly suggestive 
zoomorphic shape and gives a weighty earth- like base below the trees. 



Spring, 1955 ASA GRAY BULLETIN 11 



and 



seasonal and local plant material. Perhaps too, at that time the re- 
flection of the lines of the container in the main line of the plant ma- 



and 



highly developed. Rikkwa 



■Ct 



es- 



Jiana had. and in a more subtle wav. Rikkwa 



represents a kaleidoscopic view of a landscape and causes in the 



an 



him in all its seasonal beauty. The daimyo viewing a rikkwa had seen 
landscapes in which there grew all the plant materials he now beheld 
in the arrangement before him. Rikkwa used a greater variety of 
plant material than did s hin -no - hana , pine as well as other tree 
branches, iris, narcissus, lillies, loquat, and other distinctive leaves: 



in fact whatever was distinctive in season and landscape, that would 
stand up well. Today, in looking at old books with illustrations of 
rikkwa, one knows exactly at what time of the year the arrangements 
were made. Maple was much used in autumn. Emperor of daimyo or 
mere subject sought to have the beauty of nature as close to him as 
possible at all times and in all places. He made gardens which copied 
landscapes and so he tamed nature. He wanted the faraway places 
close and the outofdoors, indoors. 



'R ikkwa 



Rikkwa) the author, Jiuky 



and 



and rivers. The 



changes in the life of trees and flowers is mirrored in the space of a 



tokonorna. 



ancient 



arrani 



an 



Rikkwa was at its height in 1684. This Jiukyu shi must have been 
outstanding man in floral art. The "shi'' on the end of his name 
means what today we call a researcher. He must have devoted con- 
siderable time to collecting over 100 rikkwa designs and hand color- 
ing them or having them hand colored. It was a hard and fast rule in 
flower arrangement art of the earliest period that illustrations in 
books on that subject should be in black and white only because ''color 
Hi.qf-rnrtfi the eve from line.'' and line from the besrinnin^^ had been an 



outstandin 



rikkwa 



and 



know 



Undoubtedly from the earliest period a twig or a flower may have 
been put into a vessel, either as an offering to the dead, or for pure 
enjoyment, and that is still done. This style, if it can be called a 
style was called nagaeire or thrown in,'' referring perhaps to the 
lack of balance. But as time went on a third style was developed for 
the ordinary home. This was a simple pure style called ikehana, 
^putting flowers in water" or seikwa, ""living flowers." Like 



12 



ASA GRAY BULLETIN 



N.S. VoL III, No. 1 



tiMia>iiili^^ 






- -f^ltl il ^> fiiA rttM 



— ^«mmmhmimmm^^ 



timfli'.i,., 



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iiMJh^ikiiJ M i jn l l O^H IW^.^itWH^'AlHnfflrttH^i ■^^U..1^,dkfBlT^L^^^i44^E^,%KWhH-im-riun WL4„whhi--^l ■- 1 |i«tiliLfliAlK^ihhlh^|i4l 



n^nj rlMU&,lLta-l- 



Fig- 3, Rikkwa made of maple branches only, in their fall coloring: a magnifi- 
cent composition. The figure is taken from the three- volume work on rikkwa^ ''Rik- 
kwa shodo shu'* (The right Principles of Rikkwa) collected by Jiukyu shi in 1684, when 
rikkwa was at its height. This arrangement must have been 8 feet high or more and 
strongly reminiscent of the places in Japan where maples give gorgeous masses of 
color. The maple leaves, on account of their rich coloring and small size, are called 
'flowers\ The odd shape of the bronze container is in full accord with the many 
points of the 'flowers'- The beautiful lines imd rhythms were the composition of a 
master. Floral artists and nobles vied in making rz/e/eu^rt arrangements. 



Spring, 1955 



ASA GRAY BULLETIN 



13 












/ 



f 



? 



% A^ 














7 








Fig. 4. A man is seated on the floor before a small lacquer table, making an ar- 
rangement of iris. The bronze container is a cone on the crest of crashing waves, a 
shape much liked by the Enshiu School, and called edobata. A rabbit gaily jumping 
the waves gives a whimsical effect. This picture is from a book of illustrated poems 
by little known authors, published in Tokyo in 1815. The author of the particular 
poem is Teishi Hokub^:. and the illustrator Thachi Asakura, 

The poem tells the man's thoughts while he is arranging the flowers, an occupa- 
tion he has greatly enjoyed all his life. He is hoping that his little son will also learn 

this art. 

Floral art was originated in Japan by men rather than women, and was carried on 

by them just as our Western music has been. The great artists with few exceptions 
have been men though it is considered a necessary part of a woman's education. 
Emperors, scholars, priests, and soldiers found flower arrangement relaxing and 
made it a part of their artistic and intellectual life. It was even taken up as an ac- 
complishment by some of the famous beauties of the Yoshiwara, 

Shunsho, one of the great teachers, wrote: "The study of Floral Art is a necessity 
for every man of culture, not only to develope the vigor of his mind but to draw out 
the kindly qualities of his heart." 



14 ASA GRAY BULLETIN N.S. Vol. Ill, No. 1 



shin-no-hana and rikkwa this was a man's art as was Western music. 
The great composers with few exceptions have been men, though 
women as well practised the art. Ikebana became an integral part of 
home life, and also, it must be said, an accomplishment of the Yoshi- 
wara. 

It followed the basic pattern set by the two earlier styles but much 
more simply. Only a floral artist could command the time and the ef- 
fort to make a rikkwa. An arrangement in the tokonoma, the tradi- 
tional spot for kakemono and flower arrangement, became a family 
bulletin- For instance, an arrangement of pine or juniper symbolized 
congratulation and good wishes for the birthday child; pine, plum, and 
bamboo, the ^three friends of winter" was the greeting for a wedding 
and almost an essential for the New Yearns season. Every ceremoni- 
ous occasion had a symbolic arrangement. Even arrivals and depar- 
tures were indicated by the arrangement for the day. The social 
standing of a guest was recognized by his seating with regard to a 
flower arrangement. Each ikebana brought Nature to the family circle 
as an honored guest. The daughters of the family were taught that 
they were not ready for marriage until they had had feome years study 
of the art. It was an honor too, if a good teacher took on a pupil. The 
teacher did not charge a stated sum for a lesson or a course, but he 
was paid as much as could be afforded, and a little more. The sum 
was carefully wrapped in a bit of tissue and slipped into the sleeve of 
the teacher. It has been said that a certain teacher in a suburb of 
Tokyo earned more by teaching flower arrangement than he earned as 
mayor of the town. 

After completing a required course of some years a star pupil 
would be given certificates and prizes, one of which would be a scroll 
on the "Etiquette of Flowers,^ i.e. how to behave in their presence, as 
well as rules from his laboratory book, such as: ^^A flower should 
never stare at a person.^ Nothing connected with Japanese flower ar- 
rangement was casual or too trivial for attention. 

The floral calendar determined the time of the traditional family 
outing once a month. The family would go to some local and seasonal 
display for the day. The arrangement in the tokonoma was sugges- 
tive of times and places. The identity of man with nature resulted in 
the sumbolism that permeated every floral arrangement. 

Understanding the symbolism is w^hat makes the Japanese flower 
arrangement appeal not to the eye alone but to the spirit as well. The 
pine was a sumbol of long life which appealed to the soldier because it 
withstood the blasts of typhoons for years uncounted, yet stood green 
and glowing with life. The floral art was likened to it in the hard-to- 
translate "^Sokwa mafsu no rnidori" which is, roughly, *'Art that is 
eternally old, eternally new, eternally green, and growing like the 
pine tree. 



Spring, 1955 



ASA GRAY BULLETIN 



15 






.-iL.j.-ii-.M I' :l■l-.r^l -:it 7:l^-i_.:-r. 'f-ii:'!. ,i'.i ."-ii nr'n i:i',i il ...:... ti^-.i-.i^ /.-' .z-i^n-^ m 



J |j.. 



It' I l1 ■i'.ll'.|-!.-.| -. i-nr-.l"l^l.i^-_l 1":^- -:1-- -l- ■ "TlrrH'Ir-nLli- H ■> .iLi>> -,i''■\^ -,'X 



,i\'- m .[■■iMi"'i-iii|i .r"l 



.L.. „jb- 



■ 1^ 









.=t 
■_ri 







1—1 

, L 



Fig. 5. A print by Keisai Eisen (1789-1851) showing a famous beauty making a 
flower arrangement. The print is one of those entitled ^'Glimpses of the Yoshiwara," 
and this one is labelled "At the Okamoto-ya, Haginosuke.* The art of flower ar- 
rangement started with the lofty motive of adorning the Buddhist altar, but became so 
popular as even to become an accomplishment by which the inhabitants of the Yoshi- 
wara whiled away the time and entertained their patrons, 

(Print from the collection of Mr. Henry N. Shabsin, Washington, D. C, on loan to 
the Museum of Art, University of Michigan.) 



16 ASA GRAY BULLETIN N,S. Vol, III, No. 1 



The bamboo may be bent but not broken and once it is rooted main- 
tains its stand. So it is a symbol of integrity. The plum, the earliest 
blossoming tree of the year, blooming even in the snow, is a symbol 
of courage, sweetness and purity. Ume-ko is a common name for 
little girls because their mothers wish them to grow up with these 
qualities. Around Nara and Kyoto especially where the art of flower 
arrangement developed, these ^three friends of winter^ symbolized 
ideal characteristics in a way to be remembered by a sensitive peo- 
ple. Names of these trees were common family and given names. 

I remember making a New Year's call on a Japanese friend in 
Nara. There were several inches of snow on the ground. We sat 
warming our hands over a few live charcoals in the hihachi, the only 
heat in the room. Presently my hostess said: Wouldn't you like to 
see my plum tree?*' '^Oh, yes!'^ I said, thinking it was a dwarf one in 
bloom, a common sight at that time. She threw open the shoji the 
outside sliding doors, and there was the plum tree looking like a huge 
popcorn ball, with snow on the ground and green pine trees behind, 
unforgettable. 

The cherry is symbolic of patriotism in Japan because its petals 
fall before they wither. Iris is the symbol of victory with its sword- 
like leaves and flowers that come after spring has conquered winter. 
The willow of gentleness is used only when the catkins are small or 
the branches are leafless. Flowers are in general, less important 
than plant habit. Common flowers are not used in floral arrangement. 
The plant material used must have personality, distinction, must 
stand up well, and the arrangement must show the habit of growth. 
The appearance of life, vitality, is one of the most important features. 
The word "/zana", which we translate as flower, does not mean exactly 
that to the Japanese. 

There is no doubt that the Buddhist flower vase sent to Japan in the 
year 552 set the pattern of bronze flower containers for the art for all 
time. Though pottery has been and is still used, and bamboo in its 
many shapes, yet bronze containers have proved permanently satisfy- 
ing because they symbolize the earth and its life-giving attributes. 

The householder as well as the floral artist needed several con- 
tainers because tradition and his inbred sense of the appropriate in- 
sisted on a close harmony between plant material and container, the 
two together making a unit of design. What suited a morning glory 
would not suit a pine. One could not make an arrangement until he 
found a container of the type to give a feeling of outward and inward 

(spiritual) harmony. 

There were three general types of containers, the erect, cylindri- 



ragmg 



and rectangular: and 



ing or suspended types. All of these were made in bronze, pottery or 



/ 



Spring, 1955 



ASA GRAY BULLETIN 



17 



$ 




Fig, 6. This plate is taken from "Ikenobo sen ryii" (The Principles of the Flower 
House) issued to students, in an 1892 reprint of an earlier edition, published in Kyoto 
where the original Ikenobo still exists. 

It is a beautiful example of an arrangement of "the three friends of winter," pine, 
plum, and bamboo, which is traditional for the New Year and for wedding ceremo- 
nies. Pine symbolizing longevity, plum, courage and sweetness, and bamboo, integ- 
rity, have been associated through centuries but still mean as much as they ever did* 

The cosmic symbolism of the earth-colored bronze container is enhanced by the 
design showing clouds, among which young dragons disport themselves, indicating a 
beautiful and auspicious day. The container is more interesting because it is footed. 
The arrangement has elegance and dignity. The sturdiness of the old plum branches 
is in harmony with the heaviness of the bronze, balanced by the delicacy of the blos- 
soms and the crisp greenness of the bamboo. 

This arrangement was made by Muto Sho-an, head of the Flower House, and was 
exhibited in Tokyo. 



18 



ASA GRAY BULLETIN 



N.S. VoL III, No. 1 




Fig, 7. An illustration from the '' Ikebana Chigiisa Shu" (Collection of 1000 plants 
in Flower Arrangement) published at Mito in 1903. It shows an arrangement of a 
"thread willow' according to precepts of the Enshiu school in a simple bronze basin 
ornamented with only a Greek key design. There is a rare aesthetic harmony be- 
tw^een the kakemono (hanging picture) with a crane (symbol of long life) resting in 
what we "may suppose a damp spot, witli willows^ appropriate for felicitous occasions 

Beiyuan a pupil of Go Sho-an (the honora}5le master who lives in a cottage where 
five pines grow) made the arrangement. The dai or stand on which the arrangement 
is placed repeats the sweeping curves of the willow, (or should we say the willow 
sets the pattern for the stand?). And again there is a suggestion of those sweeping 
curves in the grain of the wood at the edge of the iokonoma. 



spring, 1955 ASA GRAY BULLETIN 19 



bamboo with infinite variations of shape or decoration as fancy or 
genius might suggest. Exact duplicates were rarely made since those 
artist- artizans had so many ideas waiting to be born. 

If a father, when he bought his daughter's trousseau, bought her a 
flower container, a favorite wedding present, an heirloom-to-be, he 
might choose one that had a wide plate- like top on the footed bowl, , 
called a usuhata. It would probably have on it the figures of an old 
man and an old woman under a pine tree, symbols of conjugal fidelity 
through a long life. With these there might be the crane and the tor- 
toise, also symbols of a long and prosperous life. 

As different schools of flower arrangement arose, each showed 
some preference for a container of a particular shape. The Koriu 
School, established by RiMu, and the later Enshiu school liked a trun- 
cated cone set on the crest of a wave. This was called an edohata in 
distinction from the usuhata of the original Ikenobo school. Fre- 
quently used in summer is a basin with grasses or water plants. 
Many of the basin style had a footed base which varied the design. 



and 



Japanese flower arran 



man and nature, each an important part of the universe, shows itself. 
The san-sui or mountains and water of landscapes, the plant and ani- 
mal life which ministered to him and he to them, were one. A tall 
cylindrical vase encircled by a dragon symbolized the earth sur- 
rounded by clouds, with thunder and lightning. Slender young dragons 
as vase handles may mean a gentle breeze, slightly bending the bam- 
boos, rippling the growing rice, and cooling man. Every bit of design 
on a bronze container has a spiritual and symbolic meaning. 

I ' ^ 

Handles and feet were a definite part of the design of a container 
and important in symbolizing the unity of life and the universe. Both 



id motion, extending 
the lines of the plant 



heaven above. 



Floral containers were never bric-a-brac. When not in use they 
were stored with other precious family treasures. They had only one 



use, 



and 



tokonoma 



relation of the latter to the kakemono and the flower arrangement it- 
self. The kakemono must not be too long or too wide; the arrangeme 
miicf nnt rrnwH pither the tokonoma or obscure the kakemono. Then 



plant 



arran 



landscape an arran 



either blooming or non-blooming plant material is correct. If the 
scroll is simply beautiful calligraphy, which in Japan is as much^ 
mired as a naintins. one may use almost any kind of plant materia 



20 



ASA GRAY BULLETIN 



N.S. Vol. Ill, No. 1 




I 




( 







Fig. 8. This illustration of tree peony arranged in Enshiu style is taken from the 
""Ikebana Ckignsa Shu'' (Collection of 1000 Plants in Flower Arrangement), Mito, 1903 

The arrangement is in an edobata of bronze on a stand or dai with curved-under 

ends. The receptacle to hold the water and stems is broadly conical, with clouds 

around the rim, :md arising from a crest of waves in which a dragon is angrily 

thrashing about and throwing sand which sticks to the cone. It is symbolic of cosmic 

turmoil, in spite of which and because of which plant life thrives and produces 
beauty. 

Peony is called the "Pang of Flowers'' and this is a truly royal design. The basic 
elements of rhythm, unity, harmony, contrast, and balance are all here; the lines of 
the design are strong and full of vitality. One cannot take away even one leaf without 
destroying the unity. The broken off ends of the large branches miuke as Interesting 
a part of the design as the blossoms. A magnificent arrangement by Tsubome Susuki. 



Spring, 1955 



ASA GRAY BULLETIN 



21 



f I 




Fig. 9. Another illustration from the 1892 reprint of the book entitled Principles 
of the "Flower Way House" (as the Ikenobo School is called). It is not on general 
sale but is issued to students at the Ikenobo School in Kyoto. The picture shows a 
naturalistic arrangement of iris, in a simple low rounded quatrefoil shaped bowl, 
footed, and with a conventional border design. It is probably of bronze. 

The Ikenobo School advocated little bending of stems. The natural growth habit of 
the iris is emphasized and idealized. The feeling, not of "cut" stems but of growing 
material is emphasized by the realistic approximation of stems at the emergence 
from the water and also by the succession of gradually diminishing leaves. The ar- 
rangement talks of a spring day, and of iris growing in a pool in the sunshine. 



^ 



22 ASA GRAY BULLETIN N.S. VoL III, No. 1 

A waterscape should be accompanied with an arrangement of plants 
growing in or near the water. The harmonies are all simple, natural 
ones. 

There is a general rule that the height of the chosen material 
above the water line must be at least wo and one half times the height 
of the container. Height allows harmonious curves, and elegance of 
proportion, all of which must accord with the tokonoma. 

The aim of a Japanese flower arrangement is to encompass in a 
single view an idealized moment of arrested growth in the life of a 
living plant or tree, In which it is dissociated from all that is extra- 
neous and unharmonious, but is brought into close relation to human 
life. The ability to conceive such a harmony comes from close ob- 
servance of Nature coupled with innate artistry, and a compelling de- 
sire to understand and project it. 

Plant materials with symbolic attributes were favorites. The 
floral artist tried to make a perfection indoors, of the beauty which 
Nature had started out to make but which noisy cosmic disturbances 
had prevented. 

That could not be done by mass, nor was color overly important. 
A sense of line is innate In Japanese art. Line, the path which the eye 
travels from one spot to another is much more interesting and reveal- 
ing. The selection of the main stem of the plant material was most 
important. On it depended the strength and beauty of the whole ar- 
rangement as a design. It had to have vitality, dominance, force. It 
needed a curve, whether provided by wind or the hand of the artist. 
It had to have a good tip stretching toward heaven as trees and plants 
naturally do. Other stems or branches arising from a point some 
inches above the water, in various harmonizing curves, each with its 
tip pointing upward, repeat the theme and itensify the feeling. The 
symbol of earth had lines harmonizing with the heaven line. The 
wave pattern on so many containers was symbolic of ocean waves sur- 
rounding Japan. A dragon design encircling the earth had similar sig- 
nificance. 

These patterns, seen everywhere in nature by the observant, have 
all the basic aesthetic qualities demanded by good design. The har- 
mony of the three lines is perfect in every flowing curve and motion 
of each line in relation to every other. Rhythms animate the whole. 
Unity dominates, for without it no design is satisfying. Unity of the 
whole idealizes the characteristics of the plant species used, con- 
densing much into little. The perfection aimed at does not include 
syriimetry which speaks of completion. Nature is never complete, but 
ever changing, and an arrangement catches a moment during change. 

But the mind of the observer does not stop then, any more than 
when we look at a lovely tree or shrub in nature. Prince Shotoku said: 



Spring, 1955 



ASA GRAY BULLETIN 



23 



"Buddhism looks to the future, ** and this is the imprint put upon Japa- 
nese floral art by the Buddhist priests who originated and developed it* 

The seasonal use of flowers resulted in great attention to the floral 
calendar. So, in looking at the old books of flower arrangement, one 
can tell almost the day of the month by the material used in the ar- 
rangements* The prevalent Japanese and Chinese philosophy of the 
cosmos conceived of two great forces called in and yo or the more fa- 
miliar, to us, yang and ying. To us these are male and female. This 
conception was incorporated into floral art. The Japanese as well as 
the Chinese apply these names to all contrasts in nature and life, such 
as sun and moon, day and night, long and short, wide and narrow, big 
and little. Thus they speak of a yang stone in contrast to a ying. This 
conception as applied to stones is frequently encountered in their 
landscape gardening, which makes great use of stones. It was natural 
to apply these terms to flower arrangement. It seemed natural and 
necessary to show the contrast between the under side of a leaf and 
the upper, to have some long stems and some short, to include buds as 
well as blossoms. Floral art developed from a love of nature to an 
art that has its appeal not only to the eye and emotions but to the intel- 
lect. A Japanese flower arrangement was never meant to be just an 
eye catcher or a colorful adjunct to a room. 

The logic of the art requires that we accept certain assumptions, 
postulates and conventions before it becomes valid to us. 

The balances in an arrangement are important. The first great 
one is that between container and plant material; the dark heavy 
earth-colored bronze balances the lightness and delicacy and openness 
of the leaves and flowers with their variety of forms. The strength 
and beauty of the Heaven line balances the man and earth lines, while 

^ ^ m ^ ^ ^* 4 



and 



All of these are in bal- 



ance either singly or in masses or curves. The voids must balance 
the aneles which must be sharp angles. The ratios of the lines are 



/3, 1/3 



2/3 



/3. A fully open flower is balanced by a bud; the 
fronts of the leaves are balanced by a proper number showing the 
backs. In many plum arrangements a heavy, trunk- like, main line ii 



balanced 



balance 



materials. Chrysanthemum blossoms balance 



Aspi- 



distra leaves, wide and shiny green, are much used to balance pre- 



ring 



Euonym 



"7 

Aspidistra leaves are used 



throughout the year either alone or in countless combinations. Large 
curly cabbage leaves balance pine branches very interestingly. 

But no matter what the materials or combinations are, there is 
always a pleasing and natural harmony suggestive of time and place 
as well as relationship. This harmony should be enticingly, excitingl; 



J^ 



24 



ASA GRAY BULLETIN 



N.S. VoL III, No. 1 




Various lineal distributions for three main lines. 



Fig. 10. There are the basic patterns which every student must know and memo- 
rize in order to choose a pattern suitable for the plajit material in hand. Other lines 
(branches) may be added as desired. In order to make a pattern with good lines, 
plant material must be at least once and a half the height of the container above the 
water line. Two and a half times that height is preferable. 

Lines (branches) must be long enough to give a feeling of energy to whatever ar- 
r^uigement is planned. If a line, whether curved or non-curved, lacks vigor, the ar- 
rangement falls short of being an achievement. Too short a line cannot express pur- 
pose in any form of art, nor can unrelated lines. Tlie close union of stems at the 
base for several inches gives vitality to a flower arrangement. 

All of the traditional plant materiiils used in Japanese flower arrangement are 
adaptable to these patterns. One must remember that not all plants were used. 
Some common ones that were left out had no suitable characteristics or traditional 
symbolism, and others v;ere considered as being actually ill-omened. 



spring, 1955 ASA GRAY BULLETIN 25 



beautiful, in agreement of height, curves, color, proportion and vi- 
tality, but never casual. If differing plant materials are used such as 
iris and pine, the iris is never placed between the tree branches but 
to one side, because there is too much difference in their natures. 
Sometimes the harmony is very subtle. A container shaped like a 
frog blowing a bubble of air which forms the receptacle for the water 
which holds an iris arrangement may signify a breath of life. 

The harmony in an arrangement is always consistent. The rela- 
tionship between the curve of the heaven line and the others is re- 
peated over and over. 



For 



In any work of art, contrast is necessary, as necessary as har 
mony. In a Japanese flower arrangement the contrasts are many, 
instance the man and earth lines are not like the curve of the heaven 
line nor do they exactly imitate the line of the container. There is 
contrast in the materials used, pine and plum, willow and narcissus, 
grasses and rushes, pomegranate and pine; sharp contrasts in winter 
arrangements especially; angles and voids in construction; small 
curves in container and greater ones in the flowing harmonies of stenr 
lines; contrasts in color, although color is not the predominating fea- 
ture. The lesser contrasts among shades of green, as seen in nature, 
are emphasized, with occasional greater color contrasts. The two 
great exceptions are the maples, a favorite subject in the Fall when 
they are gorgeous masses of flame and green and the glorious chrys- 
anthemums. 

In old Japan cosmic rhythm dominated seasonal arrangements, as 
one can tell by the illustrations in old books. In Spring the arrange- 
ments are forceful, in Summer full, in Fall rich in color, in Winter 
sparse and lean. The seasonal rhythm was simple, was reflected 
early in the art of flower arrangement, and its interpretation has be- 



come traditional. 



Japanes 



ment is never a bouquet for color effect nor an exhibition of horticul- 
tural perfection. 

Japanese floral art with its history, its traditions, its logical sys- 
tem, epitomizes the universe and man's relation to it. All this can be 
expressed by the symbolism of the earth encircled by the dragon, rep- 
resenting the cosmic forces, typhoons, rain, snow, thunder, lightning, 
cold, and heat. The plants of the seasons, indicating the alternation of 
dormancy and growth, of old age and youth, the perpetual contrast in 
life denoted by the ying and yang; the rhythm of continuing life, ex- 
pressed in repeated curves and contrasts. All this started as the 
shin-no-hana, the ritual offering on the Buddhist altar, continued 
through the rikkwa, and lives still in ikebana or seikwa, the art of 
living flowers. 



26 



ASA GRAY BULLETIN 



N.S. Vol. Ill, No. 1 




Fig. 11. An arrangement of chrysanthemums in a three- mouthed bamboo con- 
tainer, from the work entitled ''The L^ike Hamana," published by the Enshiu School 
in 1835. The illustrations are by Kcisai Eiscn a contemporary and collaborater of 
Hokusai and Hiroshige, and a noted landscape artist. The pen name of the floral 
artist is Torinuki Saiyo lishi. 

Bamboo has been used for flower containers since about 1400. It is cut into m;my 
shapes, sometimes including only the more or less irregular lower or "root*' portion, 
but often, as in the example shown here, having "root" joints only at the bottom. The' 
basal, shortened joints placed in their naturiil position give a certain feeling of up- 
ward flowing grace, regardless of the plant material of the arrangement. The "daF^ 

a plain black lacquered board harmonizes with the facing of black lacquer of the to- 
konoma. 

The beautiful rhythmic curves and grace of line idealize and unify the multiplicity 
of leaf, bud, flower and stem elements so well that nothing can be subtracted without 
a loss. The balances and contrasts are equally composed so that the arrangement as 
a whole is completely satisfying. 






REAL VALUES 



E. D. Merrill 



known days when everyth 



means 



August 



1917, was such a day in my' career. Having been domiciled in Manila 
for the preceding fifteen years working on various botanical problems, 
I had long since realized that the special characters of the Philippine 
flora could not be properly understood without reference to the vege- 
tation of the surrounding areas. Gradually our field work was ex- 
tended outside of the limits of the Philippine Archipelago to such ob- 
viously related regions as Borneo to the southwest, to the Moluccas 
directly to the south, to the Marianas Islands to the east, to Indo- 
China to the northwest, and to southeastern China. 

In 1917 I had an opportunity of making a second botanical field trip 
in Kwangtung Province which was too good to miss. A group of mis- 
sionaries, mostly residents of Canton, had organized a summer camp 
on Lo-fau-shan, the highest mountain in eastern Kwangtung, about 
ninety miles northeast of the city. Mount Lo-fau, its upper slopes in 
part well wooded, had previously been explored only in a sort of des- 



ultory manner. True, I had only my annual 



ably 



was clear that I could count on about three weeks time in the field and 
still return to my Manila office within the limits of the time available. 
Here was a real opportunity to do a considerable amount of botanical 
exploration and at the same time train certain staff members of what 
is now Lingnan University in field methods. 

The summer camp was very pleasantly located near the lower 
limits of a forested area on the southern slope of the mountain, with a 
considerable amount of interesting terrain readily available. The 
camp was a mat-shed community, that is, the shelters were of strictly 
temporary construction with light frames, the walls made of mats, and 
the roofs thatched with palm leaves. On pleasant evenings it was cus- 
tomary for the personnel of the camp, about forty individuals, to 
gather around a bonfire on a flat ledge near the camp from which one 
had a magnificent view over the broad valley to the south. On the eve- 



bandit 



an 



Philippines. I must state frankly that there was little which might be 
construed as wildly exciting in those adventures, so that I am afraid 
■ that the evening was a rather dull one for my listeners. 



27 



28 ASA GRAY BULLETIN N.S. VoL III, No. 1 



They included various arduous overland trips, mountain climbing 
adventures and routine exploring expeditions of one type or another, 
but normally there was little that might be interpreted as other than 
normal occurrences for those who, like myself, were intent on prose- 
cuting field work in natural history. True, there were adventures in 
fording swollen rivers, some chances taken in landing on open beaches 
through the heavy surf, weathering a severe typhoon in a seventy-five 
foot launch, sleeping (the term used advisedly) on the summit of a high 
mountain during a raging typhoon, and other items of this nature. On 
one expedition in the Bataan Peninsula I inadvertently ran into a much- 
wanted ladrone who had established his hide-away camp in a remote 
and densely forested river valley which was distinctly difficult of ac- 
cess. But even here the ladrone ^'^s much more disconcerted than we 
were, for when we again visited the site the following day he had de- 
camped. On anothei' occasion I had the rather gruesome experience 
of botanizing among the bones of the defenders of Bud Dajo. This was 
a few weeks after that mountain stronghold of dissident Moros in Sulu 
had been reduced. The trenches excavated along the rim of the an- 
cient crater for defense purposes had been used for the burial of 
somewhat more than 1000 bodies of the slain defenders, but in places 
the tropical rains had eliminated much of the covering soil. Then 
there were experiences such as getting separated from one's food 
supply and being obliged to subsist on what food one can secure in a 
tropical forest, which in quantity and quality is nothing to write home 
about. I still remember my companion's comment on the occasion of 
the 1906 Thanksgiving dinner following our ascent of Mount Halcon, 
when we had exhausted our food supplies, which festive meal con- 
sisted solely of two broiled wood rats each and some boiled fern tips. 
The comment was: "Cheer up, you couldn't buy a meal like this at 
Delmonico's*^ It is some consolation that on the basis of the skins 

and skulls of these edible rats a new species was described, the 
specimens now preserved in the National Museum* On this same as- 
cent we had previously consumed what must have been the grandfa- 
ther of all the monkeys in Mindoro, a memorable feat in itself, be- 
cause of the toughness of the flesh. 

Such were the wild adventures of fifteen years in the Philippines. 
After all, these were of more or less casual occurrence in such a 
country as was the Philippines four or five decades ago. They were 
matters to which we, who were prone to get into the out-of-the way 
and not easily accessible places, gave little attention, for on such 
trips one could never foresee what might happen. 

As intimated above, everything seemed to go wrong on the memo- 
rable day at Mount Lo-fau. After attending to what needed to be done 
in camp, including taking care of the partly dried plants which were in 
the presses, I descended into a deep narrow valley for somewhere be- 
tween 1000 and 1500 feet, in the hope of finding some plants of 



\ 



Spring, 1955 ASA GRAY BULLETIN 29 



sufficient interest to warrant their collection, but in this I was dis- 
appointed. The valley proved to be a very sterile one, such scant 
vegetation as was present, mostly grasses, being composed of species 
of very wide and common occurrence, so that I returned several 
hours later almost empty-handed. About all that I now remember was 
the long climb up the steep open slopes on a hot, dry day. I had se- 
cured very little for my pains and exertions, as not infrequently hap- 
pens on collecting trips. I had taken care of the very few plants that 
I brought back, and was relaxing in anticipation of luncheon, when I 
heard someone exclaim, ^the drying house is on fire." This was a 
palm thatched shed where we kept the botanical presses on racks over 
a slow fire to expedite the actual drying of the specimens. The loss of 
the collecting equipment would have been serious, as there was no 
local source of supply for the necessary replacement papers. We did 



and 



reached them, and so ended the littl< 
but the drying shed was a total loss. 



Hancock 



pened that the date of our adventure was her birthday. Because of her 
efficiency in seeing that the daily food requirements of about 40 peo- 



taken care of. not an easy task 



Canton 



cided to serve a surprise dinner that evening in honor of her services. 
I Was asked to take her out on a botanical expedition and not to return 
until dinner time. (We were not fated to get back until considerably 
after that important hour!) Accordingly, we planned a trip over the 
top of the mountain to the north in the direction of So-lio-koon in 
which village lived the contractor who had constructed the camp, and 
who was due to receive approximately 1,000 silver dollars for fulfill- 
ing his contract. Immediately after luncheon we started out, our party 
consisting of Miss Hancock, Professor Levine, myself, and one Chi- 
nese coolie. We knew that there were plenty of bandits operating in 



an 



ticipate trouble this time: we were unarmed. 



About three miles from camp while we were travelling single file 



an 



of rifle shots, with bullets whizzing overhead. Levine casually com- 
mented, ^^Somebody must be out hunting." But as he spoke came an- 



splashin 



and 



cinity. It immediately became apparent that we were the hunted, 
that there was trouble ahead. In order to reconnoitre with safety, we 
threw ourselves down behind some boulders on the slope below the 
trail and surveyed the scene. Everytime we showed our heads above 
the boulders came another volley of shots, some unpleasantly close. 
The pattern became evident, for on a ridge, fortunately perhaps a 
thousand feet distant, were nine bandits, each armed with a rifle, and 






30 ASA GRAY BULLETIN N.S. Vol, HI, No. 1 

each apparently quite willing to expend any, or all, of us. Fortunately 
they were by no meiins expert shots, and the distance was so great 
that we had time to dodge behind our individual boulders before the 
bullets arrived, the give-away being the puffs of powder smoke. This 
intermittent, one-sided warfare continued some time, until the bandits 
felt sure that we were unarmed, and that they could approach much 
closer with impunity. This they did by moving in to a smaller subsid- 
iary ridge not more than 300 feet from where we were: one had to be 
a quick dodger to escape getting hit at this short distance. Matters 
looked distinctly serious, for there was little that we could do* For- 



bandit 



Hancock 



After a certain amount of palaver back and forth, we gave ourselves 
up, rifle fire having ceased. 

The immediate demand was a ransom of $1,000 Mexican silver, 
after all not a very flattering amount for four captives. We argued 
the case through Miss Hancock who acted as interpreter. I assure 
you that when a wild- eyed bandit pokes a loaded rifle in the pit of your 
stomach with his finger on the trigger and demands in a language that 
you cannot understaad except through an interpreter, ^a thousand dol- 
lars immediately or TU pull the trigger" it gives one a sort of hollow 
sensation in the pit of said stomach. We continued to argue that they 

could not expect the missionaries, school teachers and botanists had 
that much money. The demands became more and more insistent. In 
proof of our assertions that we were impecunious we turned our 
pockets inside out, in the course of which I was relieved of an Ingersoll 
dollar watch. Incidentally, an experienced explorer never takes an 
expensive watch on trips of the kind I was addicted to. We kept no 
funds in the camp for the simple reason that we knew that this would 
not be safe in a country overrun by bandits. Our camp funds were de- 
posited in the Sheklung bank where they were reasonably safe. The 
arguments continued, insistence on the unflattering ransom being re- 
peated over and over again, and we countered that we didn^t have any 
money. Time passed, all of us were more than uncomfortable, and no 
solution was in sight. It then occurred to me that I did have a cache of 
small change in camp amounting to about five silver dollars, which I 
had taken in with me for minor emergency purchases. With the 
thought of a possible way out I mentioned this small fortune, and fi- 
nally the bandits agreed that I would be permitted to return to camp, 
distance about three miles, to bring the small change, but they insisted 
on holding the other three as hostages. 

I suspect that I broke the Lo-fau-shan records as to speed for the 
three-mile course over the top of the mountain and down to the camp 
site, where I reported what had happened* There I got my five dollars 
(Mexican) and started back* Fortunately I didnH have to return the 
entire distance, for the bandits with their hostages had followed the 



Spring, 1955 ASA GRAY BULLETIN 31 



an 



the mountain, where I met them. In the meantime a sort of truce had 



rani 



ters were discussed. I turned over my five dollars, a total loss, as 
I couldn't put the item on an expense account, we were each presented 
with an empty brass cartridge, contents of which had been expended in 
our direction, and permitted to depart. It was late in the afternoon, 
we were still perhaps two miles from camp, it was getting dark, mak- 
ing it very difficult to keep to the trail, and to cap the climax rain 
commenced to fall in torrents, so that we were quickly drenched to the 
skin. We eventually reached the comparative safety of camp, and, 
perhaps stimulated by the adventure, greatly appreciated the surprise 
banquet which had been prepared for the occasion. 

r 

The explanation was simple enough, but in the rather wild excite- 
ment we didn't think of it at the time. The Chinese contractor who 



$ 



fulfilling 



khaki 



Hancock 



in coolie costume; at the distance of 1000 yards when we were inter- 



bandits 



ompanied 



didn't matter at all if they succeeded in disposing of the soldiers pro- 
vided they could capture the contractor. Reasoning a bit further they 
could hold the contractor, if they captured him, for $ 1000 ransom, 
even if he didn't have that amount with him, all of which explains the 
unflattering valuation placed on our group of four persons. When they 
discovered that our party did not consist of the Chinese contractor, 
his servant and guards, they were probably more disconcerted than 
we were, but I'll frankly admit that for one, I was very thoroughly diS' 
concerted while the shooting was going on. They simply have to save 
face and carry the demand through, for they knew that there might be 

r 

serious future trouble for them. 



4h 

and 



ican consuls in Canton, and 



transformed 



obody 



knew who they were, and so the punitive expedition ended 



think 



important 



dividual, before permitting myself to be overcome by my importance, 
I remembered the ransom demand. One doesn't have to use higher 
mathematics t.o determine actual values if one can divide the combine 
price of an IngersoU dollar watch, plus five dollars in Mexican silver 
bv four, for this would figure out at somewhat less than one dollar 



32 ASA GRAY BULLETIN N.S. Vol. Ill, No. 1 

each, United States currency, per person. Either our real values 



an 



hundr 



figu 



Whicheve 



We 



perhaps the bandits reimbursed themselves for what the cartridges 
expended upon us may have cost them, for most fortunately for us they 
were far from expert shots, otherwise this simple tale of real values 
might not have been told. And so the story ends, a demonstration of 
the real value of one missionary, one teacher, one botanist, and one 



and 



an 



DEATH OF FRANK C. GATES.— His many former students and other 
friends have been shocked to learn of the death of Dr. Frank C. Gates 
at his home in Manhattan, Kansas, on March 21, 1955. He had been in 
excellent health, had conducted his classes as usual that day, and was 
stricken very suddenly a few minutes after returning home. 

Frank Caleb Gates was born September 12, 1887, the son of a 
Great Lakes ship captain. He received his A. B. from the University 
of Illinois and his Ph. D. from the University of Michigan. During 
the summer of 1911, as an agent of the Michigan Geological and Bio- 
logical Survey, he did his first ecological work in the Douglas Lake 
region of Michigan, in the vicinity of the then two-year old University 
of Michigan Biological Station. 

After three years in the Philippines, Dr. Gates returned to the Bio- 
logical Station in 1915. Here he continued to teach plant ecology 
through the summers with the rare personal experience of having 
witnessed the changes wrought by lumbering, fire, and natural suc- 
cession. After three years on the faculty of Carthage College, he 
served as acting assistant professor of botany at the University of 
Michigan, 1919-1920, before going to Kansas State College, where he 
was Professor of Ta.xonomy and Ecology at the time of his death. 



Known as an authority on poisonous plants and on the vegetation of 
Kansas and Michigan, he wrote many articles and reports, both popu- 
lar and technical in nature, including his Field Manual of Plant Ecol- 
ogy (1949), which was based on his Douglas Lake course. He was 
active in several scientific societies, particularly the Ecological 
Society of America, which he had served as president and for which 
he did a great volume of work toward compiling the cumulative index 
to Ecology . — E. G. Voss. 



1 



* 



A STUDY OF MAHOGANY 



F. Bruce Lamb 



War 



II while I was on an assignment with the Rubber Development Corpora- 
tion in the Amazon Valley. One of the Brazilians working with us on 
the rubber program was a botanist, Ricardo Froes, who had previous- 
ly worked with Dr. B. A. Krukoff on his collecting expeditions in the 
Amazon. Froes was an ardent collector and student of the Amazon 
flora. On one of his field trips to the Rio Tocantins in eastern Para 
he found and collected herbarium material of the mahogany tree 
{Swietenia macrophylla) . Previously this tree had not been identi- 
fied east of the Rio Machado in western Matto Grosso. Later Froes 
also found mahogany on the Rio Xingu. His description of mahogany 
logging operations in the Acre Territory of Brazil and the significance 
of this extension of the known distribution of the tree thoroughly arous- 

s 

ed my interest. 

J 

Consequently when, after the war, Professor D. M. Matthews 
offered me a position with the Puerto Rico Industrial Development 
Company investigating sources of timber in the Caribbean area for 
industrial use in Puerto Rico I was more than eager to go. 



My first assignment from Puerto Rico in June of 1946 was to in- 
vestigate a large forest property in Santo Domingo which was report- 
ed to have rich virgin stands of mahogany. Plans were made and I 
went ahead to Ciudad Trujillo where I made headquarters at the beau,- 
tiful resort hotel, the Jaragua, which was in fact the only place where 
foreigners were allowed to stay. The area to be investigated was out 
on the eastern tip of the Seibo Peninsula, and I had been instructed to 
meet a guide at the little town of Higuey which could be reached by 
bus. Arrangements were finally completed and I started off in a di- 
lapidated old bus that hardly appeared capable of making a trip around 
the block. It had a full load of passengers plus baggage and consider- 
able livestock. It soon became evident that I was a rather unusual 
passenger. At every crossroads the bus had to stop while a policeman 
checked on the extranjero to be sure I hadn't given them the slip 
somewhere. As soon as my presence was verified we were always 

waved on. 



It took the whole day to make the 75-mile trip to Higuey. On our 



33 



34 ASA GRAY BULLETIN N.S. VoL III, No. 1 



arrival late in the afternoon I located a pension and then started to 
hunt my guide. No one knew him by the long formal name I had been 
given. However, he was finally located in a small bar and^ after a 
preliminary drink to cover the formalities, arrangements were made 
for the remainder of the jouiniey by mule. 



We decided to start as soon as we had eaten, since it would be a 
moonlight night. I returned to the pension to eat, get my gear, and 
await the arrival of the mules. My guide, in addition to getting the 
mules, had to report his expected movements to the police. 



Our moonlight ride in the cool evening was a slow pleasant jaunt 
along country lanes, interrupted several times when we reported our 
progress to local politicos to be relayed back to the authorities- As 
the moon was setting about midnight we reached a small hut and hung 
our hammocks for a rest until sunrise. 



At sunrise we had a tortilla and coffee breakfast and proceeded on 
our journey. The trail now led through uninhabited, rough, limestone 
country that only a mule could navigate. The growth was short, scrub- 
by dry forest, and I began to have serious doubts about the worth of 
my mission. As we approached the sea coast the vegetation improved 
somewhat and we saw a few small mahogany trees, but nothing to justi- 
fy the trip. A combination of meagre rainfall and shallow soil under- 
lain by porous limestone had produced a site that supported only xero- 
phytic vegetation — a virgin tropical forest, yes, but one with no com- 
mercial timber whatever. 



Further investigation showed that mahogany was available in limit- 
ed quantities in Santo Domingo but would be very difficult to obtain be- 
cause of tight goverament control. 



I continued on to Cuba to determine what, if anything, could be done 
about the embargo placed on the export of mahogany that had recently 
eliminated Puerto Rico's main source of supply. After meeting in 
Havana with representatives of the Cuban lumber manufacturers' 
association and various individuals interested in exporting mahogany, 
I found that there was not enough mahogany left in Cuba to supply the 
local demand. The embargo was established to protect the local wood- 
using industries. 



At a meeting of the lumber manufacturers, James Cortada of the 
Commercial Section of the U. S. Embassy suggested that tf mahogany 
was so scarce where it formerly had been abundant^ perhaps it would 
be a good idea to plant it. Immediate interest was shown in the idea 
but no one present, including myself, could answer the questions that 
followed regarding costs, yields, and suitable growing conditions; and 



Spring, 1955 



ASA GRAY BULLETIN 



35 



I left that meeting deter- 
mined to investigate the 
problems involved in 
growing mahogany. 



Since no reliable source 
of badly needed mahogany 
was found in Santo Domin- 
go or Cuba, it was decided 
that I should make a sur- 
vey of sources in Central 
America. On a three- 
month trip from Mexico 
to Colombia in the fall of 
1946, it became evident 
that even in Central Am- 
erica mahogany was not 

r 

an easy item to obtain. 
Procurement procedures 
involved the advancing of 
large sums of money to 
logging contractors whose 
reliability was difficult to 
determine, and logging op- 
erations where mahogany 
remained were in extreme- 
ly isolated locations and 
the risks were high. 



All of this stimulated 
my interest further in the 
possibility of growing ma- 
hogany in plantations or 
managed stands. While 
spending parts of 1947 and 
1948 with a firm of Consult- 
ing Forest Engineers in 
Portland, Oregon, studying 
aerial mapping and the 
possibilities of tropical 
applications, I began to 
make serious plans for a 
complete study of the ma- 
hogany situation. Dean S. 

T- Dana of the School of 
Forestry and Conservation 
at the University of Michigan 




The strangle r fig attacking a mahogany 
tree in the forest of Darien, Panama, 



36 ASA GRAY BULLETIN N.S. VoL III, No. 1 



encouraged me to undertake the study as a doctoral research problem 
at the University, 



During the summer session of 1949 I worked at Michigan, with 
Professor H. H. Bartlett^ laying the ground work for a field study by 
surveying the literature on mahogany. Toward the end of the summer 
a Travel and Maintenance Grant for work in Central America from the 
Office of Education in the Federal Security Agency, and a fellowship 
at the Inter-American Institute of Agricultural Sciences in Costa Rica 
made it possible for me to embark on the field study. 



After leaving New Orleans late in August our first stop was 
Guatemala City, Here my wife and daughter made headquarters while 
I went further afield., a custom we followed in each country visited 
during this year of study. Arrangements were made first to observe 
the United Fruit Company forest nursery and planting program at 
Tiquisate on the Pacific Coast, where Almyr Bump, manager of the 
Tiquisate Division, put the facilities of his modern plantation at my 
disposal during an informative two-day visit- The planting of foxiest 
trees had begun here three years earlier in an attempt to utilize land 
that had gone out of banana production because of deterioration and to 
improve forest holdings that were not suited to cultivation. During 
the first year, until nurseries could be established, wildings of cedar, 
mahogany, and primavera were used for planting stock with some 
success. Several problems in the control of gophers, termites, and 
leaf blights brought out the complexities to be faced in dealing with 
planting programs in the tropics. 



Sr, Sargastunie, Chief Forest Inspector of the Guatemalan Forestry 
Department, took me on a tour of the government forest nurseries 
supplying planting stock for government and private planting programs 
Visits were also made to the private plantings of Owen and John Smith 
at Guatalon and Lind Peterson at Escuintla, all of whom furnished 
valuable information on problems and costs of establishing mahogany 
plantations. 



Through Dr, L. R. Holdridge, cacao specialist from the Inter- 
American Institute of Agricultural Sciences, I met Jorge Ahumada of 
the Guatemalan Development Institute, INFOP. He asked me to sub- 
mit a proposal for a forest survey of Guatemala, the results of which 
would be incorporated in a general plan for the development of the 
country*s natural resources. After a conference with Dr. Holdridge 
and Dr. Ralph Allee. Director of the Inter-American Institute of Ag- 
ricultural Sciences, a proposal was submitted to INFOP for a survey 
of the forests of Guatemala. This project opened up unexpected op- 
portunities to study the mahogany-producing forests of Peten, Guate- 
mala, and also provided much needed funds to cover the expense of 



Spring, 1955 



ASA GRAY BULLETIN 



37 



extensive field work. However, approval was delayed until late 
November. 



Meanwhile I was fortunate in meeting in Guatemala Dr- V. C. _ 
Dunlap, Director of Research for the Tela Railroad Company, a sub- 
sidiary of the United Fruit Company in Honduras, and arranged to 
visit the nurseries and forest plantations in Honduras in company 
with Dr. Holdridge. We spent a valuable week in Honduras observing 
various phases of the United Fruit Company's extensive forestry pro- 
gram and enjoying the gracious hospitality of various members of the 
staff. Of great interest was our visit to the Lancetilla Experiment 
Station and Plant Introduction Garden at Tela. Here we made the 
acquaintance of various exotic tropical fruits from Asia, such as the 
delicious mangosteen, the rambutan, the pulasan, and the doubtful 
durian which tastes good if you can get it past your nose. Probably 
nowhere else in the western hemisphere could one taste all these 
fruits. The work at Lancetilla was begun many years before by the 
noted plant scientist. Dr. Wilson Popenoe. We met Dr. Popenoe on 
this same trip at Zamorano, where he is head of the Escuela Agrfcola 
Panamericana, and enjoyed with him a stimulating discussion of Latin 
American forestry problems. 



From Honduras I went to Nicaragua where Modesto Valle, head of 
the newly organized Forest Department, accompanied me on visits to 
several government forest nurseries established to provide growing 
stock for private planting programs on the Pacific side. A trip was 
also made to Bluefields on the Atlantic coast to see the Cukra Develop- 
ment Company mahogany plantations on the Rio Escondido and to visit 
the Cooperative Agricultural Experiment Station at El Recreo where 
experimental plantings of mahogany had been made. At Bluefields 
when I needed some dollars changed to cordobas I was amazed to have 
the money changer state a preference for personal checks over travel- 
er's checks. I hadn't even taken a check book with me so he finally 
cashed the others. Personal checks could be sent out of the country 
by mail for U. S. purchases without going through the established 
government import channels, and so were at a premium. 



Several old-time mahogany loggers live in Nicaragua, and I learned 
a lot about early logging operations from such men as Philip Martinez, 
Eduardo Canteiro, and Robert Hooker. All these men gave me informa- 
tion regarding the mahogany planted by the G. D. Emry Company in 
the 1890^ s and cut in the 1920' s. Unfortunately, no specific data on 
these early successful mahogany plantings could be found and no trace 
of them could be located in the field. 



On completing the field work in Nicaragua I returned to Tegucigalpa, 
Honduras, and called Guatemala on radio telephone to determine the 



38 



ASA GRAY BULLETIN 



N.S. VoL III, No. 1 



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Large mahogany log at river-bank log yard on Rio Sabana, Panama, being in- 
spected by the author. Beautifully figured wood is generally obtained from plank 
buttresses like those shown here. 



cause for the delay on the proposed forest survey. After a most frus- 
trating garbled conversation in Spanish with Sr. Ahumada in which the 
wave length had to be changed several times in order to get through 
at all, it came out that our original proposal had apparently been lost 
in the shuffle between the various government offices that had to ap- 
prove it. I radioed the Institute in Costa Rica to airmail extra copies 
to Guatemala so that Sr. Ahumada could expedite the approval, and I 
took off for Costa Rica to make preparations and final arrangements 
for the survey. 



Spring, 1955 



ASA GRAY BULLETIN 



39 



It was the end of November before all the details were arranged 
and I arrived in Guatemala City to organize the forest survey. A 
telephone call to INFOP the day I arrived brought the response that 
I should take a few days to rest up after my trip. However, after 
waiting for two months for approval of the project I was extremely 
anxious to get started without delay, especially with the dry season, 
best time for the field work^ only a month away. My insistence on 



pold 



ension 



to discuss arrangements. Sr. Zeissig was extremely 
helpful throughout the project, but his guidance was especially valu- 
able in setting up working arrangements with the Department of For- 
estry in the Ministry of Agriculture, the Cartographic Department in 
the Ministry of Public Works, and other government agencies. Com- 
plete cooperation was given on all sides. 



^ Valuable information on the past development of mahogany and 
cedar logging operations in the Province of Peten was obtained from 
former members of the Forestry Department. The personnel of this 
Department and their equipment, which included airplanes on loan from 
the Air Force, were put at our disposal by Ricardo Lavagnino, head of 
the Department of Forestry. 



The Cartographic Department made an unusually valuable contri- 
bution by opening to us their map and aerial photographic files which 
contained complete photographic coverage of the Province of Peten 
and a forest type map made up from these photographs. They also 
put their office space and valuable equipment at our disposal. Bert 
Mason, Jr., photogrammetrist from the Kendall B. Wood, Consulting 
Forest Engineers organization of Portland, Oregon, arrived early in 
December to undertake the interpretation of the aerial photography. 



The study of the aerial photographs turned out to be a fascinating 
phase of the project. Our first examination of them showed that they 
would be extremely useful in planning the field work and several fea- 
tures stood out that we wanted to investigate on the ground. We were 
looking for features that would help us classify the vegetation into 
types or associations, and characteristics that might make possible 
the identification of individual species. From the first we noted that 
on some of the photographs certain individual tree crowns stood out 
white on the dark background of the other vegetation. Further investi- 
gation showed that these white crowns were concentrated in certain 
areas and were most prominent in pictures taken in March or April. 
Further investigation uncovered two lines of photography taken at 
different times of the year covering the same area near Uaxactun. 
The white crowns that interested us showed up on the line taken late 
in March, whereas photographs taken in early January of the same 
area showed nothing unusual. Since there was an airport at Uaxactun 



^ 



40 ASA GRAY BULLETIN N.S. VoL III, No. I 



this area was one that could be investigated. 



Based on accessibility and interest from the standpoint of vegeta- 
tion seen on the photographs, four areas were chosen for ground 
studies that would contribute the most to our knowledge of the timber 
resources of the area. Uaxactun and Paso Caballos were chosen as 
centers of field operations in northern Peten; La Libertad and Poptun 
for central and southern Peten. 



Sr. Zeissig located a chiclero who had been all over Peten to serve 

u 

as a guide. Jose Galeano proved to be a resourceful and experienced 
bushman, capable of following a compass bearing with very few ref- 
erences to the instrument and able to live off the bush with a minimum 
of supplies. Though without formal education, he had an intuitive 
understanding of the job to be done and was always interested in try- 
ing to learn and understand, rather than ridiculing procedures he did 
not see through. 



At Uaxactun, our first center of operations, we found a chicle- 
gathering center in full swing. Daily, several mule trains would leave 
with supplies for the producing camps and return loaded with blocks 

of chicle. As soon as a loaded mule train approached the village a 
bugle was sounded and everyone in the little town turned out to help 
unload the mules so that they could be relieved of their burdens as 
soon as possible to rest for the next trip. 



We did our sampling of the vegetation along established trails lead- 
ing from Uaxactun, and our work took us to several chicle camps. In 
some ways these men lead a rougher life than a caucho cutter in the 
Amazon. 



We found the Maya ruins at Uaxactun, where twelve years of exca- 
vation and restoration by the Carnegie Institution of Washington had 
ended in 1937, so grown up again with vegetation in 1950 that one could 
hardly tell from casual observation that any work had been done there. 
During my travels in Peten I talked with several of the laborers who 
had worked on the excavations at Uaxactun and it was the consensus 
of opinion that the work was done in search of buried Mayan treasure. 
Many were sure that it had been found and smuggled out, and I never 
got far with my arguments that the excavations and other studies were 
made solely in search of knowledge. In this connection Morley's com- 
ment in The Ancient Maya, p. 325, is of interest. He states that two 
small fragments of gold found at Copanare the only pieces of gold or 
of any metal ever recovered from an Old Empire Maya city. 



I approached the work around Uaxactun with a great deal of antici- 
pation. Professor Bartlett, who had collected in the area while work- 



\ ■ 



Spring, 1955 



ASA GflAY BULLETIN 



41 



ing with the Carnegie Institution of Washington in 1931, first aroused 

I r 

my interest in this area during a class in systematic botany in 1938. 
Preparation for the field work in Peten^ which included a study of the 
Carnegie publications and interviews with Carnegie people still in 
Guatemala, further heightened my interest. 



Entering Peten by plane from Guatemala City, we avoided much of 
the intrigue that was reported to have surrounded Professor Bartlett's 
work because he had entered Peten from British Honduras, the only 
logical point of entrance at that time. Like the excavators, he was 
suspected of all sorts of ulterior motives from making surveys for 
rubber plantations to taking out fabulously valuable plant material. 
The Guatemalan authorities even went so far as to plan to seize his 
collections at the border as he departed. 



We became involved in a somewhat similar situation in getting to 
La Libertad, our second field survey area. The plane took us from 
Uaxactun to Flores^ the capital of Peten^ whence we hoped to drive 
with the head of the Peten Forest Department, Francisco Solano, to 
La Libertad, On our arrival at Flores we found that the only means 
of conveyance was a truck with no driver. It was suggested by the 
owners of the truck that I drive, and since there appeared to be no 
other way of avoiding a serious delay in our schedule I consented. 



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Mahogany logs in forest log dump being loaded on trucks to be transported to 
river bank during dry season. 



42 ASA GRAY BULLETIN N.S. VoL III, No. 1 



On arriving at La Libertad we drove up to the police station on the 
village square. Almost before the usual formalities were completed 
the police sergeant asked to see my driver's license. Of course I had 
none valid in Guatemala, and Sr. Solano had to step in and inform the 
police sergeant that I was on a government mission and did not need 
one. This did not seem to be a very satisfactory answer, but the 
police sergeant said no more. 



We located a local driver, with a license, to drive us to several 
places of interest on the large savanna near La Libertad. Just at 
dusk we arrived back in town and found an urgent telephone call from 
Flores for Sr. Solano, Word had come that the Minister of Agriculture 
and a Government delegation from Guatemala City was expected in 
Flores early the following morning. This meant that Solano had to 
return to Flores immediately to prepare for the delegation. The only 
means of transportation was the truck we had come in, I wanted to 
spend the following day studying the vegetation around the edge of the 
savanna and then return to Flores in time to meet an Air Force plane 
that was scheduled to take us to Paso Caballos a day later. It was 
decided that Solano would take the truck to Flores and send it back 
for us on the following day. 



After spending the whole of the next day on the savanna we returned 
to La Libertad to find no truck. Calls on the hand-grinder telephone 
to Flores brought no response. Finally after more than an hour of 
intermittent ringing we got the Flores operator. However, it was ob- 
vious from his conversation that he was in no condition to understand 
us, so we started to investigate the local transportation situation more 
thoroughly. 



We found a Jeep owned by the partner of the logging contractor 
who had loaned us the truck. We were welcome to use the Jeep if I 
would drive, for the owner had been unable to get his driver's license 
approved because of his expressed disapproval of the government 
policy to subdivide Peten. This Jeep would have been the answer to 
our transportation problem had not the police sergeant refused to let 
it leave town without a licensed driver, and there was none! All of 
my expostulating about the necessity of being in Flores to meet an 
Air Force plane the next day was to no avail. 



Again we tried to get Flores on the crank phone. This time the 
operator was more coherent and I made him understand I had to speak 
to Solano, head of the Forest Department. After a long delay he in- 
formed me that Solano could not be found and probably was not in con- 
dition to talk anyway. He also informed me that the telephone was 
shutting down for the night. This seemed to bring us up against a 
dead end. 



Spring, 1955 



ASA GRAY BULLETIN 



43 




Large defective mahogany tree (center), Darien, Panama. Note abundance of 
palm [Sabal sp. ) and the large quipo tree [Cavanillesia platanifolia ) at right. 



We were making preparations for the 15- mile night hike in to 
Flores when we heard a motor approaching from the savanna- In a 
few minutes another Jeep drove up and stopped in front of the only 
eating place in town. An Army Colonel got out. After taking care of 
the usual formalities we discovered it was Colonel Cassasola return- 
ing to Flores after installing a light plant for the Government at the 
village of Say axe he. He would be glad to take us to Flores with him 
as soon as he had something to eat. Without taking leave of our police 
sergeant, we returned to Flores and found that our former companion 
had been too engrossed in political affairs to remember to send the 
truck back for us. He had recovered enough by the time of our arrival 



44 ASA GRAY BULLETIN N.S. VoL III, No. 1 



to be fairly coherent and to give us a colorful review of the political 
rally. 



The next morning was foggy and we did not expect the plane to ar- 
rive very early to fly us to Paso Caballos. However, at about eight 
o'clock, we heard the drone of the motors as the plane circled in 
search of an opening through the heavy mist. We rushed our gear 
and supplies out to the airport to meet the plane when it got down. 
We took off immediately under the heavy fog and flew at tree top level 
in competition with the parrots — reminding me of our jungle flying 
in the Amazon during the war. 



We found the forests north of Paso Caballos of great interest, 
ranging from recently burned-over land to high forest. On the Paso 
Caballos-Carmelita trail were some of the most magnificent mahog- 
any trees I have seen anywhere. 



The next center of operations was Poptun in southeastern Peten. 
Our plane came within an ace of cracking up when it headed, almost 
out of control, for brush along the edge of a rough narrow field while 
landing at Santo Toribio, an intermediate landing field between Flores 
and Poptun. While we circled, prior to landing, the pilot pointed out 
as yet unexplored Maya ruins on the hilltops nearby. 



The Poptun pine savanna provided unusual opportunities for study- 
ing the ecological relationships of mahogany in the transitional vege- 
tation between savanna and high forest, and for comparing forest con- 
ditions on the ground with those observable on aerial photographs. 
Field trips took us to the villages of San Luis and Pusilha where the 
effects of the hurricane of October 4thj 1945 were still visible. When 
the studies at Poptun were finished we returned to Guatemala City, 
going by truck over the 70-kilometer Poptun-Cadenas road, by launch 
from Cadenas on the Sarstun River to Livingston and Puerto Barrios^ 
and from Puerto Barrios by plane to the capital. 



This ended our study of the forests of Guatemala and in late April 
I returned to Turrialba, Costa Rica to collaborate with Dr. L. R. 
Holdridge, who had surveyed the coniferous forests of the mountain- 
ous areas, in writing the report on the forests of Guatemala which was 
transmitted to the Instituto de Fomento de la Produccion in Guatemala, 
with copies going to the Institute in Costa Rica and the Pan American 
Union in Washington. 



In July I flew to Changuinola, Panama, to see a small 25-year 
old mahogany plantation established by the United Fruit Company, and 
on to Panama City to visit the Canal Zone Experimental Gardens at 
Summit and to observe the new Panama Forest Products Company 



/ 



Spring, 1955 ASA GRAY BULLETIN 45 



plywood plant which was utilizing various tropical hardwoods, includ- 
ing mahogany. 

From Panama the trip was continued to Puerto Rico to study the 
progress of the many mahogany plantations established by the U. S- 
Forest Service and private land holders. Dr. Frank Wadsworth, 
Director of the U. S. Tropical Forest Experiment Station at Rio Pied- 
ras, was extremely helpful in taking me on a personally conducted 
tour of the island mahogany plantations and providing valuable and 
interesting information on the establishment and progress of the plan- 
tations. The whole staff at the Experiment Station helped in assembl- 
ing the written information on mahogany available in the Station files 
and library. I consider the week spent in Puerto Rico one of the most 
valuable and interesting periods of the whole mahogany study. 

r 

Late in August we returned to the United States and the University 
of Michigan, where additional library work was completed and the job 
of bringing my material together in written form was begun. 

. A year later I was assigned by the U. S. Plywood Corporation to 
the Panama Forest Products Company plywood plant in Panama as 
Logging Superintendent, One of my major tasks on this project was 
to develop a supply of mahogany logs for the plant. This brought me 
to grips with the problems of locating and tying up a long range supply 
of logs, finding reliable logging contractors and determining their 
financial needs, and maintaining a check on the progress of their log- 
ging operations in order to assure production and maintain log quality 
standards. 



Our greatest problem in this log procurement program was that of 
maintaining log quality. Two of our logging contractors had small 
sawmills in which they sawed up reject logs into lumber for local sale. 
In some ways, even though this led to utilization of reject logs, this 
was a disadvantage to us because the loggers were careless with the 
logs, knowing that they could always be sawn up even if rejected. We 
found that a great deal of time and money was spent in bringing out 
logs that would not pay the extraction costs. Efforts to correct this 
difficulty by working with the men in the woods was only partially 
effective because they all thought they knew more about the business 
than we did. Three associates were of great help in carrying out this 
program. Jose oTaz and Gil Villalaz, because of their knowledge of 
local conditions and the handling of the local people, were invaluable 
assistants. Peter Arnold, a Yale forester, assumed an ample share 
of the responsibility for the technical phases of the program. 



Locating adequate stands of timber for our production program 
usually involved travel in primitive areas. Shortly after going to 



46 ASA GRAY BULLETIN N.S. VoL m, No, 1 



Panama we had reports of the good timber stands in the upper Bayano 
River Valley. This territory was controlled by the Cuna tribe of In- 
dians and in the past they had strongly discouraged visitors to their 
territory. However, preliminary contacts indicated that an explora- 
tory trip could be made to this territory without difficulty as long as 
we conformed to the wishes of the tribe. 



A trip was planned for early December and we left Panama City 
by motor launch, traveling down the coast to the mouth of the Rio 
Bayano and up the river to El Llano, From there we continued by 
piragua and arrived at the first Indian village, only to find it practi- 
cally deserted. No one in authority was present to give or refuse 
permission to continue up the river. The ciders had been called to 
the annual conclave at Agua Clara, our destination. 



We decided to go on and arrived at Agua Clara just at dusk. This 
village is built on both sides of a small stream. A big pow wow was 
underway. Our reception was rather cool and we were told that we 
could not attend the conclave then in progress. However, we were 
furnished a house on the opposite side of the river where we could 
spend the night. 



By the time we had our hammocks swung and food cooked, delibera- 
tions across the river were well underway. We could hear long 
speeches and uproarious shouting and applause. This went on for 
hours. 



Sometime during the wee hours of the night I woke to hear group 
and solo singing in the house next to ours. The solo voice had a very 
unusual and extraordinary quality. 



The next morning a group of village chiefs came to talk to us 
through an interpreter. After the usual formalities the Cacique 
(Chief) expressed the hope that the deliberations of the night before 
had not disturbed us. I assured him that quite to the contrary I had 
found the singing, especially, very pleasing. After this our confer- 
ence went very well. We were given a guide and were even invited to 
visit the farthest villages on the Canaza River, which was forbidden 
territory to outsiders. The entire Indian country was open to us. 



The guide who took us to see the timber stands in the vicinity ex- 
plained later that one of the principal singers of the night before had 
been the Cacique who had been much impressed with my favorable 
comments. However, we had come prepared for a limited stay and 
after looking over the most accessible timber stands we returned to 
another civilization. 



Spring, 1955 



ASA GRAY BULLETIN 



47 



Shortly after our trip a mission of doctors entered the territory 
to investigate rumors of an epidemic. They were turned back and 
word came out that all visitors were unwelcome. Our own logging 
activities took us elsewhere and I had no further opportunity to de- 
velop my contact with the Cunas. 



A great deal of the woods work in the mahogany camps was done 
by migrant labor from neighboring Colombia. We found most of this 
labor below par in comparison with men in logging camps in the other 
mahogany-producing countries. They wasted time in felling trees that 




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Family of Choco Indians delivering a raft of logs to log boat on the Rio Balsas, 
Darien, Panama. 



48 



ASA GRAY BULLETIN 



N.S. VoL III, No. 1 



mM\ 




9r^X^ 











Mahogany log (left) showing splits caused by wedges during log bucking opera- 
tion. The author's finger points to the wedge inark. At right is a defective ma- 
hogany log showing heart rot and ring shake. Because of stain caused by water 
spreading from the rotten areas into sound wood during the rafting to a ship load- 
ing point, this log is not worth transporting to the mill. The author (at right) is 
shown with Peter Arnold. 



should have been left standing for various reasonS; and unnecessarily 
damaged many valuable logs in felling and bucking. 



In addition to organizing the logging program I had the opportunity 
of following the logs through the plant, observing the production of 
lumber and veneer flitches in the sawmill, production of veneer at 
the slicer and dryer, the classification of veneer in the sample room, 
and the manufacture and classification of plywood in the plywood 
section. 



After two years of operation the plywood mill in Panama was 
closed for economic reasons and we were transferred back to the 
United States. This seemed to bring to a close the major portion of 
my study of mahogany and I took advantage of the opportunity to put 
the finishing touches on my dissertation and present it to my com- 
mittee. Nevertheless, many interesting problems in connection with 
managing tropical forests and growing mahogany commercially re- 
main to be studied. Some of these I hope to undertake if and when my 
work takes me back to the tropics. 



A WYOMING NEWSLETTER AND REPORT 
OF THE CURATOR OF THE ROCKY MOUNTAIN 

HERBARIUM FOR THE TWELVE YEARS 

ENDING APRIL 30, 1953 



C. L. Porter 



Professor C. L, Porter has sent a copy of his report to the Presi- 
dent of the University of Wyoming on the progress of the Rocky Moun- 
tain Herbarium through the year ending April 30, 1953, Believing that 
it will interest our readers, it has been condensed for publication here, 
and is preceded by the good letter which accompanied it — Eds. 



Laramie, Wyoming 
May 13, 1953 



Dear Professor Bartlett: 



It has been a long time since my wife, Marjorie (Fleecy) Woollett 
Porter, and I were at Douglas Lake and assisting in the Botany De- 
partment at Ann Arbor . . . We came west to Wyoming in our Model 
T Ford in 1929, and have been here almost continuously since then 
except for a period of graduate study at the University of Washington 
in 1936-1937. The years have been good to us: we like it here in the 
uncongested West; our work is fascinating; we have a daughter about 
to graduate from high school into a nursing program, one son in the 
final stages of university commerce work, and another son who will 
receive his BS degree with honor in Wildlife Management but who has 
an appointment as an officer in the infantry next December. We often 
recall with a feeling of nostalgia our Michigan days and hope to visit 
Ann Arbor again before it becomes totally unrecognizable. 

The enclosed report will give you an idea of what goes on at the 
Rocky Mountain Herbarium, and some of the things we are trying to 
do, so I shall not go into that subject. 



One matter in which you might be interested, however, concer-ns a 
most interesting and profitable visit we had recently with Dr. K. H. 
Rechinger, the director of the Vienna Herbarium, who stayed with us 
long enough to go over all our Rumex collection and tell us some of 
his wartime and post-war experiences. His story was pathetic, and 
without any optimism for the future, although he is carrying on as 



49 



50 ASA GRAY BULLETIN N-S. VoL III, No. 1 



best he can. A truly delightful person^ too^ despite terrific hardships. 



The specimens in the Natural History Museum of Vienna were 
removed for safe keeping to a place in the country when the bombings 
started. Dr. Rechinger's life was spared when a bomb penetrated to 
the first floor of the museum building but failed to explode. (A curi- 
ous coincidence was the fact that my present graduate assistant, Mr. 
T. H. Bell, was probably the bombardier who released that bomb and 
who lost an eye over Vienna.) The specimens were unharmed by 
bombings, but about one-fifth of the collection, including types, was 
lost when a careless Russian soldier tossed a match into the building 
where the specimens had been secreted. That loss included almost 
all the families of seed plants in sequence from Cycadaceae to Laura- 
ceae, with the exception of the grasses. They are very anxious to 
replace as much of this material as possible and would greatly appre- 
ciate receiving gifts or exchanges to that end from any place on earth. 



With best wishes for the continued success of the Asa Gray Bulletin 



which I am glad to see revived, 



Sincerely, 



C. L. Porter, Curator 
Rocky Mountain Herbarium 



PERSONNEL OF THE ROCKY MOUNTAIN HERBARIUM, 

UNIVERSITY OF WYOMING 



The personnel of the herbarium has included the Curator, the Aven 
Nelson Research Fellow, a part time clerk, and a part time student 
assistant. 



The Curator, Dr, Porter, devotes half time to herbarium work 
and half time to teaching during the regular school year, and during 
the summer he spends two months or more mostly in the field making 
collections for our institution and for exchange with others. 



The Aven Nelson Research Fellow during the past year has been 
Mr. Thomas A. Bell, a graduate student from Lander, Wyoming. 
This position, newly created by the Board of Trustees in 1952, replac- 
ing the former graduate assistantship in the herbarium, was estab- 
lished in honor of the founder of the herbarium and its first curator. 



■S-™. 



\ 



Spring, 1955 ASA GRAY BULLETIN 51 



In addition to his other duties, Mr. Bell, with some assistance, has 
made a detailed study of the genus Potamogeton (Pondweeds) in 
Wyoming, and has done much to clarify our understanding of these 
plants which are difficult to identify but which are of much value as 
a source of food for wildfowl and shelter for fish in our ponds, lakes, 
and streams. His studies will materially aid research in the field of 
wildlife management. 

The part time clerk, Miss Nancy Barnes, a student from Evanston, 
Wyoming, and the student assistant, Miss Gail Bithell of Laramie, 
have carried the brunt of the routine work necessary for the mainte- 
nance of the growing herbarium. 



/ 



THE HERBARIUM 



The herbarium is located on the fourth floor of the Engineering 
Hall, occupying part of the east half of that floor, including three 
rooms as well as the hallway in which there are 14 steel filing cabi- 
nets for which no other space could be found. 

* 

The collection now includes 232,710 accessioned specimens. This 
represents an increase of 5,524 specimens within the past year, and 
40,291 in the past ten years. Some of this increase of the past year 
is due to the gradual incorporation into the general collection of the 
Hapeman Herbarium which was received as a gift over a year ago, 
and whose specimens must be repaired, sorted, identified, numbered, 
and filed in their proper places. Much more of this work remains to 
be done. 



A TWELVE 
OBJECTIVES 



When 



about twelve years ago, its most apparent needs seemed to be the 
following: 

(1) A complete revision of the approximately 190,000 specimens in 
the collection at that time. There was a need to bring the nomencla- 
ture up to date and a similar need for many corrections in identifica- 
tion soon became apparent. 

(2) Type specimens, which are irreplaceable and extremely valu- 
able, were mixed in with the ordinary specimens and could neither be 



f 



52 ASA GRAY BULLETIN N.S. VoL IH, No. 1 



readily located nor could they be protected from careless handling by 
Inexperienced persons using the herbarium. Segregation of types 
was needed. 



(3) No attempt had been made to segregate Wyoming material 
from that from other regions, so that it was often difficult to deter- 
mine just what plants were in Wyoming and what their distribution 
might be. With all published manuals dealing with the flora of the 
region out of print, the preparation of a Wyoming Flora had become 
increasingly urgent so that students, research agencies, foresters, 
grazing interests, game and fish interests, and many others might 
have a useful tool to enable them to identify the plants of the region. 

(4) There was no effective way for locating published data on the 
flora of the region, spread through a greatly scattered and diversified 
literature. Such a person as Dr. Nelson, blessed with a prodigious 
memory, might be able to lay his hands on just the reference desired, 
but those of us who had not grown up with the subject needed other 
assistance, for in research work of any kind one must be familiar 
with the published literature. 



These four needs are gradually being satisfied as shown below. 

(1) Some 13,892 new, mechanically lettered file folders have now 
replaced old, worn-out ones (1,822 in the past year), and the names 
of the specimens have been corrected. 



(2) Some 3,164 type specimens (121 types in the past year) have 
been segregated from the general files into two special cabinets which 
are reserved for special use. 



(3) As new file folders are inserted in corrected groups, Wyoming 
specimens are given red folders, to contrast with the manila folders 
used to designate specimens from other areas. This color-key system 
was suggested by the similar system used at the Chicago Natural 
History Museum. 



An estimated fourth of the collection remains to be renovated in 
these ways; but it was gratifying to learn from a recent visitor, Dr. 
K. H. Rechinger, director of the Natural History Museum of Vienna, 
Austria, who is just completing a tour of all leading herbaria in this 
country and abroad, that the Rocky Mountain Herbarium was the most 
up-to-date and least confused herbarium he had encountered. 

(4) The problem of keeping abreast of published literature has been 
largely solved by the development of a card file of about 7,200 entries 
keyed primarily to subject matter, and the establishment of an 



"- 



Spring, 1955 ASA GRAY BULLETIN 53 



extensive file of separates of research papers contained in 120 stand 
ard library-type boxes. These aids are in addition to the extensive 
library facilities of the department. 

Needed literature, not otherwise available, has been secured on 
microfilm through the kind cooperation of the Harvard University 
library, and a microfilm reader, secured some years ago, has made 
such material immediately usable. 



SERVICE RENDERED 



Services rendered had to do with matters of identification of plants, 
and with loaning specimens to various experts who are engaged in re- 
search on the flora of a particular region or on monographic studies 
of a particular group of plants. The herbarium is also an aid in teach- 
ing. 

It has been the policy of the Rocky Mountain Herbarium to attempt 
to identify whatever plants are submitted by persons within the State, 
as well as certain specialties from other sources. If not already un- 
necessarily duplicated, and if in suitable condition, such specimens 
enrich the herbarium. 

In the past year approximately 200 identifications have been made 
for twenty individuals and agencies. Some of these were relatively 
simple, but others were definitely difficult, some requiring several 
days. The type of plant material submitted has varied, including 
ordinary house plants, various types of forage plants, poisonous 
plants, and even stomach contents of big game animals. 

During the past year 3,917 specimens have been loaned to the fol- 
lowing institutions; Harvard University, Indiana University, Universi- 
ty of Washington, Washington State College, University of Wisconsin, 
University of Minnesota, Cornell University, The New York Botanical 
Garden, The Missouri Botanical Garden, Colorado A. & M. College, 
University of California, the Canadian Department of Agriculture, and 
the Canadian National Museum. Largest users of this service have 
been Harvard University (634 specimens), Indiana University (370 
specimens), Washington State College (713 specimens), University of 
Washington (1016 specimens), University of Minnesota (106 specimens), 
and Cornell University (631 specimens). 

Field collectors are often requested by various individuals and 
agencies to make special collections of seeds, herbarium specimens 
and living plants. A number of such services have been rendered 



/^ 



54 ASA GRAY BULLETIN N.S. VoL III, No. 1 



during the past year. An urgent request from the Eli Lily Company, 
for a large quantity of a certain rare kind of lily plant {Zigadenus 
paniculatus) from which a certain drug (probably cortisone) might 
be obtained, resulted in an expedition to southwestern Wyoming, 
near the summit of Cedar Mountain, where the plant was known to 
be abundant. Approximately 100 lbs. of this plant was secured by 
arduous pickaxe work in the cobblestone hillsides to secure the 
bulbs as well as the upper parts of the plants. Of course various 
other plant collections were made in that area for our own purposes. 



VISITORS 



Being somewhat isolated from the major centers, it is always a 
pleasure to receive visitors from other institutions and to thus re- 
new acquaintanceships and learn of the activities of persons engaged 
in similar work. During the past year we have entertained the fol- 
lowing visitors: 



Dr. Yoshiharu Matsumura, University of Tokyo, a specialist 

in aquatics. 

Dr. Arthur Cronquist, New York Botanical Garden, a specialist 

in the Sunflower Family. 

Mr. C. F. Baker, California Academy of Sciences, a well 

known collector. 

Dr. J. F. Brenckle, Mellette, South Dakota, a specialist in 

Polygonum. 

Dr. D. V. Baxter and students, School of Forestry, University 

of Michigan, enroute to Alaska. 
Dr. T. Arnborg, University of Uppsala, Sweden, a forester. 
Dr. Louis Williams, School of Agriculture, Tegucigalpa, Honduras, 

a specialist in orchids and Central American plants. 
Dr. K. H. Rechinger, director of the Natural History Museum, 

Vienna, Austria, the expert on docks (Rumex). 



More facilities and space for visiting specialists who spend some 
time with us are badly needed and are being planned for the future 
when new quarters for the herbarium become available. 



FIELD WORK 



The purpose of field work during the summer months is four- 
fold: to secure new or different specimens for the Rocky Mountain 
Herbarium; to secure duplicates of such specimens for exchanges 
with other institutions; to fill in gaps in our knowledge concerning 
the distribution of species of plants in Wyoming so that such records. 



Spring, 1955 ASA GRAY BULLETIN 55 



substantiated by specimen vouchers, may be incorporated into publi- 



Wy 



poiso 



and forage plants. 



One of the deficiencies of the Rocky Mountain Herbarium has 
been in aquatic plants of the region, probably because it is often 
necessary to have special equipment to collect them and because 
these plants often present technical difficulties of identification. 
Yet aquatic plants play an important role in fish and wildfowl manage- 
ment, and persons working in that field wanted to know more about 
them. So a special effort was made during the summer of 1952 to 
collect aquatics extensively in our ponds, lakes, streams, and rivers. 
The specimens collected have been the object of intensive study by 
both the curator and Mr. Bell. Much has been learned, but it is also 
apparent now that much more can be accomplished by further work. 
Since the study of aquatic vegetation is often neglected even by large 
institutions, this might well be a profitable field for specialization 
at Wyoming. 

Another highlight of the past collecting season was an expedition 
by pack train into the high Wind River Range in Sublette County. 
Pack and saddle horses and other equipment for this trip were 
generously furnished by Mr. C C Skinner of Pinedale. A large 
collection of plants from that area was secured, together with various 
aches, pains, and bruises! 

Transportation into the field is furnished by University pool car, 
a Chevrolet suburban carryall with four-speed transmission, entirely 
satisfactory for our work. Living accommodations in the field are a 
tent and sleeping bag, and we do our own cooking except when close 
to a town. During the past three years much assistance and good 
company has been freely furnished by Mr. B. F. Miller of Laramie 
who has accompanied most of the expeditions. 



EXCHANGES 



Most herbaria are able to augment their resources through ex- 
changes of specimens. Duplicates are traded on a specimen-for- 
specimen basis, unmounted, but with complete data given on labels 
furnished with the specimens. The Rocky Mountain Herbarium has 
exchange relations with 20 major institutional herbaria in the United 
States, Canada, and Europe; and much worthwhile material has been 
received in this way. Balance sheets are maintained for each exchange 
account, and an attempt is made to maintain a fair balance with all 
institutions. The records show that we owe three institutions, while 



56 ASA GRAY BULLETIN N.S. VoL III, No. I 

seventeen institutions owe us. 



Two notable sets of specimens have been received recently in ex- 
change: a large set of plants of the Canadian Arctic, including plants 
from as far north as Baffin Island, sent us by the Canadian Department 
of Agriculture, and a similar set of European Arctic plants from Lap- 
land sent us by the University of Uppsala, Sweden. In addition we have 
received many fine collections from the northwestern United States 
and from the Southwest. 



SUMMARY OF ACCESSIONS 



This includes those specimens which have been received from all 
sources and which have been mounted, labeled, numbered, and filed 
in the regular collection. It does not include specimens which are 
on hand but which have not yet been thus processed. 



Collections by staff members 454 

From exchanges with other institutions 2793 

From identifications furnished others 104 

Gifts received 2173 



Total 5524 



These specimens represent virtually all parts of the world, but 
the majority are from northern, arctic, or alpine regions, since this 
institution does not specialize in tropical floras. 



RESEARCH IN PROGRESS 



The major research project being undertaken at the present time 
is a long-term one: the preparation of a modern Flora of Wyoming. 
Initiated a number of years ago, this project has now resulted in the 
preparation of treatments of 19 plant families, each such treatment 
being issued to all major institutions in the form of Rocky Mountain 
Herbarium Leaflets, a numbered series put out in mimeographed 
form. When completed, these will be assembled in book form and 
formally published, if possible. Since no published manual of the 
flora of the region is currently available (the well-known Coulter- 
Nelson Manual is out of print), this project has become increasingly 
urgent. 



A second project, already mentioned, is the study of aquatic vege- 
tation, initiated last summer. This will be continued for at least an- 
other year. 



A NEW METHOD OF HANDLING AND PRESERVING 

SOFT-MATRIX FOSSILS 



Herman F. Becker 



Every fossil hunter will at times be confronted with the problem 
of collecting specimens from a soft, breakable matrix. The following 
suggestions may help to avoid unnecessary loss or irreparable damage 

to rare fossils. 

f 

Various kinds of shales contain a certain amount of moisture while 
covered with a protective overload. Upon exposure to air these rocks 
will dry very rapidly and split or fracture conchoidally, often damag- 
ing fossil impressions contained in them. 

Experience with bentonitic Tertiary soft shales of the Ruby River 
Basin of southwestern Montana, which contain leaves, seeds and in- 
sects, has shown that wrapping fossils in moist newspaper or towel- 
ing is not sufficient to slow down the drying process. Unless the 
fossils are kept in air-tight containers, paper will not only dry out 
rapidly but will also adhere to and damage the fossil imprints. Trans- 
portation of such fractured material increases the damage and calls 
for extensive repair work on the specimens. 

Immediate preservation of such material in the field involves 
simply a thin, transparent plastic bag. Tinted or colored plastic bags 
are less desirable because they prevent a clear view of the specimen 
for later observation. For most convenient handling an 8 x 12 or 
10 X 15 inch bag should be used. It must be placed on cardboard or 
thick newspaper and laid flat on the ground. Trimming specimens to 
size is best done in the field while the matrix is moist. Some rocks, 
especially bentonitic shales or clays, may then be cut and shaped with 
a knife as easily as chocolate. In fact, the term "chocolate rock" 
would do justice to the color, consistency and texture of this shale. 
The freshly dug and trimmed fossils are then immediately placed in 
the bag in a single layer. To prevent excessive heat and condensation 
within, the bag must be covered at all times with paper, cardboard or 
cloth, 'when the bag is filled to within two or three inches of the open- 
ing, the cardboard slipped under it will serve to lift it evenly into a 
box or other container. To prevent any loss of moisture the open end 
of the bag is folded under. Bags may be stacked in four to five layers, 
separated by cushions of folded newspapers. Fossils so treated in 
the field remained in this condition several weeks and were transported 



57 



-y^ 



58 



ASA GRAY BULLETIN 



N.S. Vol III, No. 1 



by car for over 3000 miles via rough mountain roads. Every fossil 
arrived in excellent condition, although previous experience in the 
same area had shown the difficulty of successful drying of this matrix 



For the curing and drying-out process the bags are placed singly 
on tables or shelves after arrival at their final destination. Direct 
sunshine must be avoided because it tends to cause excessive con- 
densation and dripping. With the aid of one fossil turned on edge or 
any other device, the mouth of the bag is now kept open. A moderate 
and constant amount of air will help to cure the fossils evenly and 
therefore more successfully. Humidity must be held at a minimum. 
At least ten days to two weeks of ventilation is required before the 
fossils may be placed in their final depository. While curing it is 
well to remove the drier specimens occasionally and place them to- 
gether in another bag. By the same token the remaining moist ones 
should be kept together for uniform results. Once completely dry 
these shales will not deteriorate, split or fracture if unusual tempera 
ture and humidity changes are avoided. They may then be handled 
freely. It is not advisable to cut or chip excess matrix when dry. 
If the size of the specimen permits, however, later diamond-saw 
cutting may be employed. 




4 -.---'^/^- ^ -b-«<^"-'' 



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Fig.l (above). Plastic bag;s containing fossils for drying. Photograph by the 

author. 

Fig. 2 (below). Insect wing (center) trimmed with diamond saw; other specimens 



trimmed in the field before 



"curing" 



Photograph by Stewart Lowther. 



T * -r ■ 



THE FLORA OF MEXICO AS DESCRIBED IN 

16TH CENTURY RELACIONES 



Ida K. Langman 



know 



time complaining about governmental red tape and bureaucracy, about 
the lengthy forms they have to fill out, about the answers they must 
supply to endless questionnaires, etc. To hear them talk one would 
imagine this was all a development of the last twenty years or so. 
But questionnaires and red tape have been with us for a long time, 
as witness a questionnaire that the King of Spain sent out at the close 
of the 16th century to the local officials in his New World possessions. 
The answers to the questionnaire were to provide for the King a pic- 
ture of the regions he owned and, as you will see from the questions, 
he wanted as complete a picture as possible. The questionnaire went 
to all the cities, towns and villages in the King's realm, to be filled 
out by what would correspond to the mayor, or the city council, or, 

in some cases, both. The r< . 

may be exceedingly important to botanists, for they provide in some 
cases the earliest references to the flora of many areas of North and 
South America. This is particularly true for Mexico, since the Mexi- 
can officials seem to have been unusually conscientious about getting 
the answers to the questions and sending them off to Spain. 

The first questionnaire was sent out in 1577 and the heading reads 
in translation as follows: INSTRUCTION AND MEMORANDUM OF 



ports 



PORTS WHICH ARE TO BE MADE FC 
INDIES, WHICH HIS MAJESTY ORDE 
^TR GOOD GOVERNMENT AND ENNC 



There are 



50 questions: Name of the village and its discoverer, its climate, 
surface of the surrounding areas, the altitude, cities or towns nearby, 
their distance from the locality in question, the nearby rivers, lakes, 
mountains, and volcanoes. For coastal areas, there are questions re- 
lating to the shoreline, tides, ports, and islands. Then there are ques- 
tions on the plant life, and, of course, on animal life as well, and on 
the rocks and minerals found in the area. Much information about the 
Indians is requested : their mode of life, governmental procedures, 
customs and traditions, the illnesses to which they are subject and 
the cures they use. For the more advanced communities there are 
questions on important constructions: churches, monasteries, and 
hospitals. 



59 



60 ASA GRAY BULLETIN N.S. VoL III, No. 1 



Some of the relaciones have been published, but many remain in 
the original manuscript form. Many of the manuscripts have fallen 
into the hands of private owners, of whom a few, like Francisco del 
Paso y Troncoso, have spent considerable sums to have the manu- 
scripts edited and published. So far, the states of Oaxaca and Yuca- 
tan have the best record of relaciones published. Oaxaca alone 
boasts of records for about 50 localities. Other states represented 
are Veracruz, Tabasco, Guerrero, Michoacan, Jalisco, Mexico, 
Tlaxcala and Morelos. 



The questions which concern the botanist are numbered 22 to 26. 
In substance, they read as follows: No. 22 Trees and Fruits: The 
native trees which commonly occur in the said territory and the 
fruits and the use which is made of them, and their woods, and for 
what they are, or could be, used. 



No. 23 The cultivated trees and fruit trees which are in the said 
land, and those which have been brought from Spain and other parts, 
and if they do well (in the region) or not. 



No. 24 The grains and seeds and other vegetables and greens 
which are used, or have been used, as sustenance by the natives. 

No. 25 Those which have been brought from Spain; and if in the 
land they have wheat, barley, wine and oil; in what quantity it is pro- 
duced; and if silk or cochineal is there, and in what quantity. 

No. 26 The herbs and aromatic plants with which the Indians cure 
themselves, and their medicinal virtues or their poisonous qualities. 



As typical of the answers which were prepared, I have selected the 
following report sent in by Antonio de Leyva for the town of Ameca, 
in what is now the state of Jalisco.^ The translation, with some com- 
ments by me, follows : 

To the 22d chapter the answer is that in the territory and mountain 
ranges surrounding the village there are many trees: oaks [for which 



encina 



Discripcion hecha por el Uustre senor Antonio de Leyva, alcalde mayor per S. 
M. del pueblo de Ameca, ano de 1579. Instruction, y memoria, de las relaciones que 
se han de hazer para la descripcion de las Indias, que su Magestad manda hazer, 
para el buen gouierno y ennoblescimiento deltas. Noticias Varias de Nueva Galicia, 
edicion de "El Estado de Jalisco", pp. 233-282. Guadalajara, 1878. 



Spring, 1955 ASA GRAY BULLETIN 61 



[Lysiloma to the botanist]; and mezquite: This wood is very tough 
and is good for water mills and mills for crushing ores, and for other 
things which require a hard material. There are some ash trees and 
pines in the higher altitudes of the mountain regions, very difficult to 
get out because of the harsh terrain. There are many other kinds of 
wood but they are not used by the natives of this village nor can they 
be taken out to other parts. 

To the 23d chapter, the answer is that the fruit trees that are in 
this said village and its territory, and which were used, and are used, 
are the mezquites, a kind of carob bean tree, very sweet and health- 
ful; zapotes, a round white fruit [probably i Casimiroa ]; ciruelas [not 
plums, but species of Spondias , still so-called], yellow and purple, 
sweet and unwholesome;! aguacates, black and green, with a large 
stone inside and with a taste like nuts; guavas, a round fruit with 
sweet seeds; huamustli [probably Pithe c elloUum dulce, widely known 

as guamuchil ]. 

Those which have now come from Spain are oranges, limes, lemons, 
pomegranates, figs, quinces and citron. All these fruits do well in 
this village, although there are very few of them because the people 
here are lazy and have no interest in raising trees. Peaches do not 
do well although they have been planted, nor are there apples, olives, 
pippins, nor pears, nor grapes, nor have they been tried, so it is not 
known if they would grow or not. And this is what is known for this 
chapter. 

To the 24th chapter it is answered that seeds of wheat, barley and 
corn do well and other things that they plant, like chick peas, beans, 
coriander or anise, and all kinds of vegetables. 

To the 25th chapter, it is answered that in this said village, nor 
in its territory is there cochineal, nor is it produced in small or large 
quantities, nor do the natives here know of its culture. And this is 
what is answered to this chapter. 

To the 26th chapter, the answer is given above, in the 17th chapter, 
as far as medicinal herbs are concerned [I will return to this below]. 
In this village there are neither poisonous herbs nor roots, nor do the 
natives know of any. The aromatic plants that they use are: 
cacalojochitl [Plumeria]: they are like carnations with a good fra- 
grance, and they are not used for anything else. Umijochitl is a 
white flower with a good fragrance like that of lilies [I cannot identify 



hn the Spanish text the word is enfermas. 



62 ASA GRAY BULLETIN N.S. VoL III, No. 1 



this plant]. There is another one, a red one of pretty appearance but 
little odor, which they call tzacjochitl [this is perhaps an orchid]: 
The roots of this serve as paste or glue for the dyes and colors of 
the images they make. They have none of the flowers of Castile like 
carnations, lilies, irises, nor chamomile, nor have they been sown or 
planted, nor is anything given for them. 



Chapter 17, referred to above, discusses diseases and the medicines 
used for curing the illnesses. The appropriate part of the text follows: 



The illnesses which are most common among the natives are: 
coughs and colds and for this illness they use an herb which they call 
tlacopahtli, ground and drunk and placed on the forehead [this is 
probably a species of Aristolochia]. They have the tertian fevers 
and for this illness they use an hei'b which they call yauhtli [perhaps 
the author means huauhtli, Amaranthus] and one which they call 
cempoaljochitl [Tagetes]- These herbs are ground and dissolved in 
water and with them they lave the body, since it is something cold 
and good for fevers. They have pains in the side and fevers, and for 
a remedy they have the pulpy leaves of the maguey [Agave], which is 
found in great quantities in this territory and with the juice of these 
leaves, and with the roots of another herb which they call tetlatiani 
[Burse7'a]y they annoint themselves and drink of it. They have the 
itch, mumps and pustules; they use for these ills a resin of some 
trees called copalquahuitl [probably also Bursera] and an herb which 
they call, or its root, which they call camitl [I think this should be 
camotl, Ip077wea], This is an herb which they give to the ones who 
are ill. They give the roots well cooked and with water in which it 
was cooked they purge them. It is so strong and so effective that it 
purges them through the ordinary ways by mouth and other openings, 
and they remain cured. There is in this territory a root that is ex- 
tremely good as a purge, so that from all around they come for it. 
They call it the root or purge of Jayamitla [perhaps he refers here to' 
Ipomoea piirga, jalap]. In addition there are other purgative herbs, 
but the natives do not use either purges or bleeding. 



Careful study of this and the other relaciones could result in an 
interesting and valuable picture of the most common and useful plants 
of Mexico as they were reported some fifty years after the Conquest. 
They often include records of the introductions of cultivated plants, 
and for this reason alone they well deserve further attention from 
botanists. 



Following is a list of the published works, which have come to my 
attention, which include Relaciones Geograficas: Anales del Museo 
Michoacano, 1946; Archivos de la Historia de Tamaulipas, by Gabriel 
Saldivar, 1946; Boletin de la Sociedad Mexicana de Geografia y 



Spring, 1955 ASA GRAY BULLETIN 63 



Estadistica, 2a Epoca, VoL 2, 1870; Boletin del Archivo General de 
la Nacion, 1945, 1948; Boletin del Museo Nacional de Mexico, 1924; 
Coleccion de Documentos Ineditos Relatives a la Historia de America 
y Oceania, 1865; Coleccion de Documentos Ineditos Relativos al Des- 
cubrimiento, Conquista y Colonizacion de los Posesiones Espanoles 
en America y Oceania, 1864-1868; Coleccion de Documentos Ineditos 
Relativos al Descubrimiento, Conquista y Organizacion de las Antig- 
uas Posesiones Espanoles del Ultramar, 1898; Coleccion de Documen- 
tos para la Historia de San Luis Potosi, by Hernando de Vargas, 1897; 
Cronicas y Relaciones del Occidente de Mexico, by Fernando Ocaran- 
za, 1937-1939; Archivo Historico Geografico de Tabasco by Manuel 
Mestre Ghigliazza, 1907; Memorias de la Sociedad Cientifica "Antonio 
Alzate", 1889; Papeles de Nueva Espafia, by Francisco del Paso y 
Troncoso, 2d Series, 1905; Relaciones de Texcoco y de la Nueva 
Espana by Juan Bautista Pomar, 1941; Relaciones Geograficas de las 
Indias, by Marcos Jimenez de la Espada, 1881-1897; Relaciones Geo- 
graficas de Nueva Espana, edited by German La Torre (Biblioteca 
Colonial Americana, 1920), published first in Boletin del Centro de 
Estudios Americanos de Sevilla 7 (32-33): 1-32. 1920; Relaciones 
Geograficas del Siglo XVIH, collected by Francisco del Paso y Tron- 
coso, edited by Vargas Rea (one group covers Jalisco, another Oaxaca, 
etc. These are still being published); Revista Mexicana de Estudios 
Historicos, 1928; Tlalocan, edited by Robert Barlow, 1943-48; Voyages, 
Doiof^^r,c M Mpmnirps. nuhlished bv Ternaux-Compans, 1840. 



^ 



CAMP ARBUCKLE, A CENTURY LATER. — George J. Goodman. 

In the spring of 1849, Captain Randolph B. Marcy was ordered to 
head an escort from Fort Smith to Santa Fe "for the purpose of afford- 
ing protection to our citizens migrating to our newly acquired terri- 
tories." The following year Marcy established a fort along the route. 
The site he chose is about two and one half miles northwest of Byers 
in McClain County and was known as Camp Arbuckle or Fort Arbuckle. 
The next year, 1851, army officers moved the garrison to the site near 
Davis, where it became known as Fort Arbuckle. The old Camp Ar- 
buckle was occupied by a group of Indians headed by Black Beaver, 
and hence the station became known as BeaverviUe, or Beavertown, 
or Beaversville, or Beaverstown. In but two more years. Lieutenant 
A. W. Whipple was leading an expedition from Fort Smith to the Pacific 
with Doctor J. M. Bigelow as physician and botanist. The appearance 
of the prairie through this central part of what is now Oklahoma often 
brought admiring praise from the early explorers, and descriptions 
of the region are frequent in log and diary. Doctor Bigelow wrote 



^Bigelow, J. M., 1857, in Pac. R. R. Rept. 4: p. 2 



64 ASA GRAY BULLETIN N.S. VoL III, No. 1 



"Near old Fort Arbuckle, and in the vicinity of the 'Cross Timbers', 
the scenery is most beautiful and picturesque. Belts of timber cross- 
ing the more elevated plateaux in various directions many times, at 
right angles with each other, give them the appearance of vast culti- 
vated fields, formed on a scale of great magnificence, stretching away 
in every direction as far as the eye can reach. The same beautiful 
views were noticed in the vicinity of Delaware Mount, near the centre 
of the Indian Territory." Five days were spent at the old camp, and 
Bigelow devoted part of the time to collecting. Lespedeza capitata, 
Ammania latifolia, Oenothera speciosa, Ludwigia nutans and Gaura 
biennis var. Pitcheri were specifically stated as having been collect- 
ed at or near Beavertown. Many other characteristic prairie plants 
were listed as having been collected in the area between the present 
towns of Holdenville and Hinton. Whipple records that wood and grass 
were plenty, but the season was dry and only standing pools of water 
occurred in the creek near the camp. The days that Whipple and Bige- 
low were at the old garrison were from August 17 to August 21, 1853. 
On August 22, 1953, the writer wandered over the hills and down the 
ravines at the site of old Camp Arbuckle. Again, the season was dry. 
This time no water was in the stream. Except for the wooded ravines 
nearly every foot of ground is or has been plowed. Perhaps, more or 
less by chance, the area around old Camp Arbuckle is about as changed 
from the original prairie as pasture and plowed field can be. At the 
outer edge of a barnyard, Parthenium Hysterophorus , an introduction 
from tropical America, was common. In the adjacent sandy fields, 
Solanum carolinense forma albiflorum was infrequent, and Solatium 
Torreyi was common. In a nearby ravine, Acalypha virginica was 
occasional and an aggressive Lippia grew at the edge of the upland 
forest. Far more common than Bigelow could have seen it was sand 
bur {Cenchrus pauciflorus) , where it infested the pastures at the site 
of the old fort, along with the introduced Bermuda grass and Johnson 
grass. Agressive natives, such as Eragrostis oxylepis , Andropogon 
saccharoides, Froe He hia gracilis, Monar da punctata, Solanum elaeag- 
nifolium, Gutierrezia dracunculoides (a good indicator of eroded soils 
in this region), and Vernonia, were abundant among the mass of Croton 
glandulosus and C. monantho gynus . 

A wooded ravine, scarcely a hundred yards from the site of the old 
fort, includes in its woody flora black willow, green ash, black hickory 
{Carya texana), and sycamore. The sycamore, incidentally, is here 
at its westernmost limits in central Oklahoma. The abundance of the 
willow is indicative of change that the woody flora has undergone dur- 
ing the century. As the sun dropped into the beautiful prairie skyline 
that Whipple and Bigelow had viewed, a rabbit scampered into a thick- 
et. He, and a nearby farmer's milk cows, seemed to represent the 
vanished bear and buffalo as the weeds and crops of today replace the 
far-flung prairies of yesteryear. 



FRANCOIS CRfiPIN ON BOTANIZING 

Lloyd H. Shinners 



Late in the 19th Century the younger Hooker was led to exclaim to some of the 
botanical students of the day, 'Tou young men do not know your plants!^' What 
would he think of the modern graduate in botany? Now one gets a Ph.D. in the 
science without knowing most of the plants he encounters every day. Chromosomes, 
statistics, fancied phylogenies, current fads in morphology and physiology —about 
such things, like the modern major general, he is "teeming with a lot of news," at 
least until oral exams are over. If he goes on to teach, it will be to relay the same 
things, occasionally refurbished, to hordes of freshmen. The general student, 
though he have no intention or desire to become a professional botanist, must never- 
theless master the technicalities of the whole professional field. A simple, direct, 
spontaneous interest in plants will not do; that is not Science. But to preserve him 
from extreme specialization, he may be compelled to take "integrated" courses, 
^'progressive education" courses (to what?), or "general education" courses. He 
must not take up any modest, specific pursuit that he can go ahead with on his own, 
and that will remain actively a part of his life; such things are old-fashioned. 

No one has yet explained clearly just what was so bad about those old-fashioned 
ways. Amateur naturalists of the past century contributed heavily to the great re- 
search collections in our museums, and very many of them carried on worthy re- 
search themselves. Their avocations were useful and beneficial both to themselves 
and to others; they were not merely devices to waste time. Today in America the 
amateur naturalist is nearing extinction. Part of this may be laid to the social trends 
of the times: to the rise of spectator sports and mass entertainments of a passive 
kind. But at least as great a share of blame must be laid to the botanical and zoo- 
logical teaching of the present day. It does not lead students into participation; it 
deadens them with efforts to get across quantities of information and perspective 
that can be really absorbed or acquired only through prolonged experience. 

Formerly in Europe a number of great botanical exchange clubs existed, largely 
patronized by amateurs. Now, after two world wars, only one survives. By two paths 
we can witness the realization of T. S. Eliot^s flippantly grim declaration: "This is 
the way the world ends. Not with a bang but a whimper." Cultural impoverishment 
does not reveal itself only in the direct results of bombs and weapons of war. 

Franqois Crepin's Manuel de la Flore de Belgique was published in 1860. Typical 
of the many local floras and pocket guides published for most European countries, it 
reveals also the enthusiasm and enjoyment that botany once occasioned. It is techni- 
cally respectable and adequate, in contrast with the flimsy, trivial wild flower guides 
which serve the American public of today. There has been an appalling deficiency of 
local floras in the United States — works of a kind which amateur naturalists could 
well undertake. Is there any prospect of such works being produced in the future, or 
has progress down hill already gone too far? I dare to hope that this resurrection of 
Crepin's words of a century ago may lead one or two moderns to attempt something 
of the kind. 

The following somewhat free translation is of one paragraph of the foreword, and 
almost the whole of the first three parts of the introduction. The remainder (cover- 
ing the plant geography of Belgium, the nature of plant species, a glossary, list of 
Belgian botanists, and publications cited, as well as the keys and catalogue of species) 
has been omitted. 



65 



66 ASA GRAY BULLETIN N.S. VoL III, No. I 



FOREWORD 



In publishing this work, it is my intention to come to the aid of the 
numerous pupils in our schools and of our local botanical amateurs, 
hitherto reduced to employing foreign books in which only an incom- 
plete representation of our flora is found. The real desire to be use- 
ful has perhaps led me to presume upon my abilities, and has inspired 
me to undertake a project which others would doubtless have elabora- 
ted with better knowledge- While rightly attributing most of the im- 
perfections of this work to the inexperience of the author, one should 
still be mindful of the low state in which descriptive botany finds itself 
in Belgium. Our weakness in phanerogamic botany cannot be conceal- 
ed; it leaps to the eye of anyone who glances over our modest scien- 
tific resources. We must all work with diligence, if we would raise 
ourselves to the level reached by our neighbors. They, I am confident, 
will look with kindly eye upon our efforts, and extend a hand for the 
courageous exertions we make to rejoin them. 



BOTANIZING 



Everybody knows that botanizing means taking a walk in the midst 
of the fields or woods with the aim of collecting plants, to study them 
first, then to dry them and preserve them afterwards in a herbarium. 



At the start of his botanical studies, the beginner should limit him- 
self to walks in the immediate neighborhood where he lives. There, 
in a quite limited area, along roadsides, in the shade of hedgerows, 
in fields, meadows and woods, he will encounter many unknown plants 
v/hich will occupy all leisure time during the first year of study. 

In his first botanical excursions, he should be restrained and con- 
tent himself with a few plants which are not completely strange to him, 
and of which he knows the common names. Frequently, at the locality 
of his collecting, in the midst of a meadow or under the shade of a 
tree, he will stop, and, seated on the grass or on a bed of moss, will 
try to identify the flowers he has collected. His botany manual open 
on his knees, all absorbed in analysing the different parts of a plant, 
pulling apart the petals and stamens, dissecting the fruit with his 
pocket knife, and examining all these structures with naked eye or 
with the aid of a lens, he will force himself to work through the key 
characters, couplet by couplet, which will lead him to the name of the 
species. With a little attention and patience, he will succeed fairly 
often in his first attempts at determination. What will his joy not be, 
to return home with a fist full of flowers that he has finally been able 



Spring, 1955 ASA GRAY BULLETIN 67 



to name! Who is the botanist, now old, who does not recall with pleas- 
ure his earliest identifications, made out in the field , and does not 
remember how proud he was at being able to name an anemone, a 
buttercup, or a spring Draba among the other mustards? Who is there 
who has lost all memory of those first days when he began to babble 
scientific jargon and talk of stamens, pistil, corolla, cauline leaves 
and radical leaves? 



Back in his room for study, the apprentice botanist should carefully 
review the determinations made during his ramble, and make sure that 
the complete and detailed descriptions in his Flora apply exactly to 
the species he has just named by means of the analytical keys in his 
botany manual. 



?* 



His first steps in the science will not be without some difficulties, 
especially if he is alone and dependent on his own resources. That 
which appears simple and elementary after a few months of work is 
singularly obscure at first; the very words calyx, corolla, stamens, 
so frequently repeated in the books, inspire a sort of dread. To gain 
an acquaintance with the names of the first plants, every means can 
be used: analytical keys, common names, books with illustrations, 
etc., etc. The first two or three dozen species to become well known 
will serve as landmarks, to guide one among the multitude of plants 
which decorate the fields and woods, and this nucleus of knowledge so 
painfully acquired will soon grow like a snowball- The first hundred 
identifications cause more difficulty than the next five hundred. If the 
beginner should fall in with an experienced botanist or teacher, his 
first difficulties will be lessened, for when he fails to figure out the 
name of a species, he can turn as last resort to the knowledge of an- 
other, after having exhausted all the means at his command. 



During a year at least there will be no^ point in going farther than 
the neighborhood where one lives, and since the excursion will be 
short, one can, if necessary, do without a box for bringing back the 
plants; only one should choose for his outings the hours of the day 
when the sun is not too hot. The vasculum is often a veritable calami- 
ty for the beginner, to whom it is distasteful to appear in the streets 
of a village or town with this contraption at his side. After a whole 
season of practise and short outings, the most timid grows bold, and 
one sees him, the second spring, take off resolutely with the vasculum 
at his back, defying the raillery of his friends and braving the gossip. 
I know one ardent amateur naturalist who did not care at all for using 
the vasculum, and who thought up an ingenious means of doing without 
it. On seeing the beautiful specimens in his herbarium, one would 
never suspect the method he found for bringing them back from the 
field. On his walks, one would never guess he was botanizing, unless 
one saw him stop suddenly before a plant and collect a specimen of it, 



68 ASA GRAY BULLETIN N.S. VoL III, No. 1 



then gently place his huge felt hat on the ground and fill its ample 
interior with his gatherings. 

The ordinary apparel of botanists is the cause of minor tribulations. 
They are often taken for salesmen, land surveyors, and I know not 
what! Sometimes when you are busy in a meadow or at the edge of a 
field digging up some plant, the owner of the field or some old shep- 
herd will drop by, full of curiosity, to watch what you are doing and 
invariably to ask what good the plant is and what sort of drug or salve 
can be made with it. Don't be at all dismayed at being thus demoted 
to a mere herb-gatherer, and be sure to explain the purpose of your 
scientific work: you won't compromise yourself at all, and your 
questioner will leave with a smile, giving you to understand thereby 
that you haven't taken him in. If the sight of a vasculum results in 
our being taken for pedlars, of what concern to us is the opinion of 
the good gentlemen we happen to meet along the way? 

After this first season spent in collecting and determining most of 
the common species forming more or less the bulk of the vegetation, 
one can undertake, about the spring of the second year, to extend one^s 
excursions for two or three leagues around. And only after the first 
year of trying and experimenting does one begin to realize that in order 
to have a real acquaintance with plants, it is not enough just to know 
their names and to have dried scraps of them, but that it is necessary 
to study them from various aspects, at different times of their life, 
and to prepare complete specimens both in flower and in fruit, -The 
use of a vasculum and small trowel then become indispensable. Be- 
fore going any further, let us say more of these objects. For the 
vasculum, aluminum is preferable to zinc, on account of its light 
weight. Its form is that of a cylinder with square-cut ends of elliptic 

shape In the larger towns, one finds these vasculums ready 

made at certain stores The trowel is an indispensable instru- 
ment for digging up roots and bulbs The botanist will round out 

his equipment with a stick of dogwood, hooked at the end. The hook of 
this cudgel is very useful, either for pulling to shore floating or sub- 
merged water plants, or bringing down branches of trees for the 
flowers or fruits, or helping oneself over trunks or stumps, climbing 
steep hills, or clambering among rocks. Further, this staff serves to 
test the ground in crossing bogs or marshes, and its weight renders 
it a redoubtable weapon in warding off attacks of the canine race, whose 
anger is sometimes aroused by the botanist's attire. 



^In the distant wilds of the U.S. of North America, especially in drier regions, it 
may prove better to collect directly into the plant press, and eschew the use of the 
vasculum altogether. Also, a small hand pick or geologist's hammer, or a heavy 
knife, may serve better than a trowel. (Translator's note.) 



Spring, 1955 ASA GRAY BULLETIN 69 



Before setting out on an all-day excursion, it is necessary to be 
equipped also with a Manual or analytical Flora, a good route book/ 
and a book for field notes. Too often the field notebook is neglected, 
and I cannot sufficiently recommend it to the serious amateur who 
wishes to know exactly the composition of the flora of the areas he 
explores. These field books should be filled out right during the 
excursion, and the names of the species observed written right when 
they are found. If one waits till returning to take notes on observation, 
he risks making errors. Anyway, nothing is easier than to jot down 
in pencil as one goes along the names of the plants and their locations. 
If later on one proposes to publish the results in a Flora or systematic 
catalogue, he will have a valuable resource in the field notebook. It 
is only necessary to reorganize the many notes contained in it to have 
a faithful account of the territory covered. In case one does not wish 
to make use of them oneself, these notes will still not be without value 
to science, for sooner or later some botanist may have need of data 
on the district or province studied. In either case, if one has failed 
to take notes of discoveries and observations, what complications 
will not present themselves, whether in publishing a Flora or in 
responding to requests for information? Memory must serve, but 
she is deceitful, and details found in the herbarium are not enough. 



Apart from the scientific aspect, the field notebooks become a 
fascinating record to peruse. In going over these long lists of names 
and places, memories throng to the mind; one is transported anew to 
the midst of the fields, finds himself again in this or that place, in 
the company of friends with whom he has shared the pleasures of 
happy labors. The dry lists are transformed into a detailed history, 
in which are recorded down to the most trivial items the events of 
past days. 



The book intended for notes may be of 50 or 100 pages of white, 
fairly durable paper of small format. At the end of each season, it 
is deposited in the library, and a new one started the next spring. 
The pages of one part of this small volume are divided into three 
vertical columns: the first for the names of the species, the second 
for the kind of area and nature of the terrain, the third for the name 
of the locality. The record for each outing is preceded by the date, 
and separated from the next preceding by a prominent pen line. It 
goes without saying that very common species seen at every step 
need not be entered, but only those judged to be somewhat common, 
rather rare, or rare for the area. 



So now our botanist is ready to take off with tools and equipment 
in search of the unknown. He leaves with the pleasant anticipation 
of returning at evening, his vasculum full of interesting items. In 
his rambles, let him disdain fatigue, and not confine himself to beaten 



70 ASA GRAY BULLETIN N-S. VoL III, No. 1 



paths, for, like a luckless hunter, he risks coming back as empty- 
handed as when he started; let him visit the corners and recesses 
of the woods, follow up shaded streams, and hardily climb up the 
cliffs. What to him is weariness if, at evening, he returns home 
burdened with a precious harvest? For some time his local trips 
will be rich in novelties, but as the country becomes better known, 
these discoveries will become less common. On the other hand, he 
will more fully appreciate the value of rarities which he happens to 
encounter. What emotion will he not feel, after long and difficult 
search, to find himself face to face with a long coveted species, which 
he perhaps had knov/n through seeing dried specimens or a picture? 
He will experience the real and deep joy of a hunter who bags a noble 
specimen of game, or of the bibliophile who discovers a rare and 
priceless edition. If at such a moment he is by himself, the joy of 
discovery will not be quite so full as if a companion were there to 
enjoy it with him. Solitary excursions are generally the lot of ama- 
teurs living in the country or small villages; in a town there may 
rarely be two botanists to join forces in their rambles and their work. 
These solitary walks have a tinge of sadness, but nonetheless they 
offer certain advantages over those more gay ones made with a small 
crowd. Alone with his thoughts, beholding the panorama of nature, 
and in continual communion with the objects of his studies, the 
observer is ceaselessly led to reflect upon the laws which govern 
living things, and to seek a solution to the countless problems that 
Nature presents everywhere. In the solitude of the woods, in the midst 
of an immense heath, the meditations of the naturalist are more 
connected, and his thoughts rise to loftier heights than between the 
four walls of a study room. Aside from that, the isolated searcher 
possesses greater freedom: he stops where he sees fit; he studies 
a plant at his leisure, seated against a tree or perched on a rock, and 
has no need to consider the impatience of a travel companion. If he 
has just made a valuable find, can he not still share his pleasure with 
his correspondents, who will rejoice in his good fortune? Whatever 
the drawbacks of solitude, let the botanist avoid, while botanizing, the 
company of those who are strangers to science, or who pursue another 
branch, A botanist cannot adjust himself to the pace of a geologist, 
still less that of an entomologist. I strongly recommend to the isolated 
observer that he get in touch with kindred spirits in the region. It 
sometimes happens that between two neighboring districts two bota- 
nists, unknown to each other, make excursions even to the same field, 
without suspecting the existence of a confrere in the vicinity. 



Let us go back to plant collecting, and review the various means 
of keeping fresh the plants taken. During the hours of the day when 
the sun is hottest, be careful to carry the vasculum on the shady side 
of the body. On warm days, plants will keep better if numerous and 



Spring, 1955 ASA GRAY BULLETIN 71 



crowded in the vasculum . A good way of keeping them fresh is to 
moisten them from time to time, and to keep a layer of moss or 
damp grass in the bottom of the container. If ill luck should have it 
that there is a shower, do not stop collecting under the pretext that 
rain-wet specimens dry poorly and mold afterward in the herbarium. 
For my part, I have never encountered difficulties in preparing plants 
that have been rained on: in such cases one must change driers 
which have absorbed the external moisture of the plants sooner after 
putting in press. Whenever, at evening, one returns tired and hungry^ 
and so less able to attend with proper care to the preparation of the 
material, it is well to leave the vasculum in a cool place or a cellar. 
During the night, plants slightly wilted the evening before become re- 
freshed like the botanist, and the next morning plants and botanist 
function very nicely. 



Before leaving for excursions of several days' duration, I want 
again to call the attention of beginners to several recommended prac- 
tises, to help them succeed in their investigations and give an intelli- 
gent direction to their searches. A good route map (one pasted on a 
stiff back and folded so that it can be carried in the pocket) will be of 
the greatest assistance in becoming oriented in a region one did not 
know before, and learning the names of villages, creeks and rivers- 
A shortcoming of most botanists, young and old, is to follow almost 
the same route in going to one or another distant point in their dis- 
trict. They habitually stick to the same course, the same path, with- 
out wondering if to right or left there is not a field or meadow which 
might conceal a new species. It sometimes happens that for a whole 
decade one can pass by a spot which all the while contained several 
novelties. This eccentricity explains how botanists who are strangers 
to the area lead you to finds which you have overlooked. So vary your 
itinerary as much as possible, and take advantage in going to or from 
distant points of the chance to cross a field or follow a hedgerow which 
has not yet been inspected. 



The use of a geological map is likewise most helpful. The obser- 
ver living in a region of varied geological structure will notice early 
the marked preference of certain species either for calcareous rocks 
or for siliceous ones. He will be struck by the contrast presented be- 
tween the rich and varied flora of limestone hills compared with the 
monotonous and poor one of schist outcrops. He will want to know 
the reason for these differences, and thus will be led to the study of 
plant ecology.^ The desire will grow on him to check on a geologi- 
cal map the extent of the various rock formations of his district, to 



"^-'Thytostatiques" was Crepin's word; ecology was not to be invented for another 
third of a century. (Translator's note.) 



72 



BULLETIN N.S. VoL III, No. 1 



follow the continuation of these same formations into neighboring pro- 
vinces and even beyond, and to see, by examining Floras of these re- 
gions, if the same species occur consistently through the entire ex- 
tent of the different outcrops. This scrutiny of Floras of neighboring 
areas will furthermore lead him to make new discoveries. Noting the 
regular presence of certain species on rock types represented in his 
area only by isolated outcrops or narrow extensions, he will xnake 
special visits to these spots, perhaps previously neglected, and will 
quite often meet with success. 



The goal of the botanist- explorer thus becomes multiple: it is no 
longer merely in order to obtain plants to study and to keep in a her- 
barium that he botanizes, but he will remember at all times to indi- 
cate the type of habitat preferred by these same plants. To these two 
items will soon be added a third; for, having seen right at the start 
that plants do not grow indifferently in all sorts of places, he will sus- 
pect that the preference of certain plants for this or that kind of soil, 
which is necessarily a consequence of the breakdown in greater or 
lesser degree of the rocks or of their chemical composition, is often 
subordinate to a more general influence, that of the distribution of 
heat over the surface of the globe. He will thus be led to a general 
study of plant geography.... Then his studies will acquire a greater 
significance for him, as he realizes how much the data he assembles 
can advance our knowledge of plant geography. In his own district, 
he may perhaps be able to record the northernmost occurrence of a 
southern species, or the southernmost occurrence of a northern one. 
From a very local point of view, he will be stimulated to cooperate in 
advancing the knowledge of the plant geography of his own country. 



A practise which I recommend to the collector is to abstract from 
floras and catalogues the data they contain about the territory to be 
explored, and to arrange the information by flowering time and local- 
ity. My work has often benefited from this useful practise. In order 
to have the species better in mind, it is well to read the descriptions, 
look at the illustrations, or examine dried specimens. If no flora has 
been published for the region, check those of neighboring countries 
with similar physical conditions, and abstract them in the same man- 
ner noted above. If one botanizes without system—in other words, 
without having obtained a precise idea of the nature of the country, 
without knowing its geological and mineralogical constitution, without 
any notion of the composition of its flora, and without taking prelimi- 
nary notes, he will overlook or mistake a great many interesting spe- 
cies which escape the inattentive eye, because of small size, or un- 
usual habitat, or resemblance to common species. 



In concluding these recommendations, it will be worth while to 
warn beginners against the fear of exhausting the field of their 



Spring, 1955 ASA GRAY BULLETIN 73 



researches within a few years- Such a fear should not be allowed to 
diminish one's efforts, for the more they seem likely to exhaust the 
area, and the more the flora becomes familiar, the more it will be- 
come plain that this fear is groundless. Finally, after several years, 
one will have collected 800 or 1,000 species, with a certain number of 
varieties, but there will still remain for study and collection those 
thousands of forms which constitute the varieties and minor variants 
of the 800 or 1,000 already obtained. And there is no guarantee that 

■ r 

among these thousands there may not be still a certain number which 
are distinct but hitherto unknown, and on closer study one may have 

the pleasure of elevating them to the rank of species. These numerous 
forms are an inexhaustible mine for the industrious worker. It is 
true that botanizing becomes less interesting, and does not so often 
offer the chance to discover one of those species vulgarly called Lin- 
nean, but it can be varied from time to time by trips to neighboring 
districts where fellow botanists live. During the favorable months of 
the year, small expeditions can be arranged by two or three amateurs 
to distant localities. The hope of some day making a trip to the high 
mountains or the sea shore, or to foreign countries, may sustain the 
patient worker in the somewhat monotonous task of studying home spe- 
cies in close detail. 



This leads me to some remarks about trips made out of the usual 
area, and lasting perhaps eight to fifteen days. 

r 



Before undertaking such an expedition, it is essential to study maps 
of the soil, topography and streams of the country to be visited. It is 
also necessary to go through the floras of the country, and enter sys- 
tematically in a notebook the data they contain about sections that have 
already been thoroughly explored. Once the place and date have been 
settled, one looks to the gear to be taken. As regards clothing, this 
should be kept at a minimum, so that all can easily be contained in a 
single overnight bag. Above all do not forget a pair of slippers, a 
most welcome comfort after a tiring day spent in hobnail boots. The 
overnight bag may likewise hold an elementary Flora, paper and other 
needs for writing and drawing, as well as dissecting 'scope, a lens, 
forceps and scalpels. It will be necessary to carry one or two presses 
with straps, and enough paper for the anticipated collections. It is not 
wise to leave with empty presses, in the expectation of obtaining paper 
on arrival, for one might be disappointed. Even in a county seat it is 
not always possible to obtain paper suitable for pressing plants, and 
the lack of it is even more to be feared in smaller towns, where it is 
sometimes necessary to stay. 



I have assumed that such an excursion will be made with a small 
group, and it is then that it offers the greatest attraction. I appeal to 
other botanical travelers, to say if trips made in the company of two 



i . 



74 ASA GRAY BULLETIN N-S. VoL III, No. 1 



or three friends have not left them the most fresh and charming rec- 
ollections. Do they not recall with lively pleasure those days when 
they set out bright and early, vasculum on back, when they rambled 
across unknown woods^ meadows and bogs which promised to yield so 
many new things; do they not remember with enjoyment the pictur- 
esque scenes admired together, the emotions produced by the abundant 
collections; do they not find pleasure in thinking sometimes of those 
noonday halts, made under the shade of an oak or on the turfy bank of 
a clear stream, to eat out of hand some morsel carried that morning 
in the vasculum? These memories are ineffaceable, and long years 
afterward are still the subject of conversation among botanists. 



It is better to leave in the morning and return at night than to di- 
vide the day in two. While traveling, after having seen to gastronomic 
needs, it is necessary, instead of resting, to busy oneself forthwith in 
caring for the plants collected during the day. It is a job which must 
not be left till the next morning, for upon arising it is necessary to 
change driers of specimens of the previous evening and preceding 
days, and spread them out so that they can dry and be ready, by day*s 
end, to receive a new batch of specimens. After these duties, and be- 
fore breakfasting, one takes notes on plants left for this purpose in the 
vasculum the previous evening. Days thus passed in botanical travel 
are laborious, but on returning home, one has truly won the right to 
repose^ and the leisurely study of the fruits of his endeavors. 



COLLECTION AND PREPARATION 
OF SPECIMENS. HERBARIUM. 



Plants intended for the herbarium should, so far as possible, be 
collected in dry weather. Each one should be collected with all parts. 
If the plant is herbaceous, of small or medium size (which is most of- 
ten the case), collect it entire, with root or base; if it is tall, the upper 
part and some basal leaves will do. For trees and shrubs, it is suffi- 
cient to take branches with a bit of bark. Finally, if the plant is a par- 
asite, collect it with a bit of the species to which it is attached. 



Do not confine yourself to collecting species in flower only, but 
take fruiting specimens also; further, if the plant loses its lower 
leaves before flowering time, take the trouble to collect rosettes in 
winter. The species should be so represented in the herbarium that 
it can be studied completely from the earliest leaves to final maturity. 



Ordinarily a certain number of plants will necessarily be ruined by 
dissecting for study, and it is always well to collect several: the best 
are kept for the herbarium. If it happens that a species of one's area 
is very rare elsewhere, provision should be made to satisfy the needs 



spring, 1955 ASA GRAY BULLETIN 75 



of correspondents. However one should take care not to exterminate 
rare or interesting plants at their localities. There are already so 
many destructive influences that the botanist concerned about the fu- 
ture should avoid impoverishing the area of his studies by unre- 
strained collecting; he should even be careful about revealing the sta- 
tions where certain rare plants grow to any but amateurs on whose 
discretion he can depend. To anyone conscious of the importance and 
interest of plant geography, such a caution is superfluous. The bota- 
nist planning to collect for exchange should select localities where the 
species occurs in abundance. A good way to conserve those less plen- 
tiful is to collect only the tops, and not to take roots, bases or bulbs. 



On returning home after each trip^ one takes care of the day's col- 
lections. If this job is postponed to the next day, the plants should be 
kept in a cellar or other cool place. They should be carefully removed 

from the vasculum and neatly arranged in drying papers In the 

center of each sheet, place one plant, or several if they are small, 
laying them out with care, and always without changing the natural di- 
rection of branches, leaves and roots. If the plant is very bushy, one 
may remove branches or leaves; if the stem exceeds the size of the 
sheet, it can be bent down at a sharp angle. One should not remove 
dead stalks or leaves which may be present at the base of the plant, on 

artistic gtounds; these remains are of great value for study When 

first one tackles the job of drying, a thousand cares will be taken: the 
petals of each flower are spread out with the most scrupulous atten- 
tion, the leaves separated from one another by slips of paper, etc.; 
finally a great deal of time will be consumed by a single specimen. 
Drying under such conditions becomes a very tedious job, able to re- 
pel the most courageous. Actually the extra pains are unnecessary: 
plants tossed on the drying sheets, stuck in bundles, lightly pressed at 
first, then gradually more strongly so, with frequent change of driers, 
are just about as well prepared as those dried with minute care. With 
a little practise, the drying of plants becomes easy, and one becomes 
able to dispose of large numbers of specimens rapidly and without ex- 
cessive effort 



LIBRARY OF THE YOUNG BOTANIST 



He who commences the study of botany is often faced with difficulty 
in choosing elementary books suitable for an introduction to the sci- 
ence. As if by a kind of fatal affliction, it is not at all rare to see him 
assemble a small library of quite mediocre books, or even plain bad 
ones. If he wishes to study botany as a simple amateur, the books lis- 
ted below will suffice him, but if he plans to delve more deeply into 
some phase of the science, he will need to have a lot of other publica- 
tions. I have listed works in different languages, for nowadays it has 



76 ASA GRAY BULLETIN N.S. VoL III, No. 1 



become indispensable to know several foreign languages: the scholar 
or the serious amateur must consult the writings of botanists who use 
German, French, Italian, etc. 



ELEMENTARY WORKS 



DE JUSSIEU (Adrien). Cours elementaire de botanique ... — A new 
edition is printed almost every year. 

RICHARD (Achille). Nouveaux elements de botanique et de physiolo- 
gic vegetale. 

DE SAINT-HILAIRE (Auguste). Lemons de botanique. 

DE CANDOLLE (A. Pyr.). Organographie vegetale. — Physiologie 
vegetale. 

LINDLEY (J.)- An introduction to botany. 

LINNE. Philosophia botanica. 

DE CANDOLLE (A. Pyr.). Theorie elementaire de la botanique. 

GERMAIN (Ernest). Guide du botaniste. 



GENERAL WORKS ON THE CLASSIFICATION OF PLANTS 



LINNE. Genera plantarum. 

ENDLICHER (Steph.). Enchiridion botanicum. 

LINNE. Species plantarum. 

WILLDENOW (C.-L.)- Linnaei Species plantarum. 

ROEMER et SCHULTES. Systema vegetabilium. 

SPRENGEL. Linnaei Systema vegetabilium, 

DE CANDOLLE (A. Pyr.). Prodromus systematis naturalis... 



Crepin's words are apt to be read with some condescension by the modern reader 
who, especially if he is a professional botanist^ may find them naive and unsophisti- 
cated. But how many m(xierns, even with a bachelor's degree, would consider works 
of equivalent calibre to those by Linnaeus, De Candolle, and Lindley, in three differ- 
ent languages, suitable for beginners in botany? Yet Crepin was writing for persons 
who did not possess even the equivalent of a high-school education (at least in number 
of years of schooling). I have at hand a recent paper-backed booklet on American 
wild flowers, full of colored pictures, but with only sketchy and superficial descrip- 
tions, no keys, and not a single mention of a Latin name. What would Crepin have 
thought of such milk and water? 

Late in the 19th century a sensitive English observer wrote that the United States 
had successfully solved its political and economic problems, but not the human one. 
Had Matthew Arnold been a botanist, he might have made some qualification, for in 
his day at least botanical study worthy of the name was a popular avocation, as at- 
tested by the wide sale of works by Asa Gray, Alphonso Wood, and Mrs. Lincoln 
(none of whom avoided Latin names, keys, or technical terms) to a public among 
whom college degrees were a rarity. Progress within technical fields is easily 
mistaken for universal progress. 

In the often repeated comment of a famed though fictional Belgian detective, 
*'lt gives one to think," 



CHARLES W. FALLASS (1854-1942), A PIONEER 

MICHIGAN BOTANIST' 



Edward G. Voss 



One hundred years after the birth of one of Michigan's finest ama- 
teur botanists would seem an appropriate time to bring together such 
facts as can be ascertained about his life and to bring the long- 
neglected work of Charles W. Fallass to the attention of a wider circle. 



The earliest reference to Mr. Fallass in botanical literature 
appears to be in Emma Cole's Grand Rapids Flora of 1901, in which 
she mentions (p. v-vi) his herbarium and his assistance in the prepa- 
ration of her catalog. Several of the lists of Michigan plants which 
have subsequently been published have acknowledged records from 
Fallass' work: Darlington, on Orchidaceae (1921); Kenoyer, on 
Umbellales and Ericales (1924); Gates and Ehlers, on the Douglas 
Lake region (1925, 1928, 1931, & 1948); Walpole, on Cruciferae (1927); ■ 
Oosting, on Potamogeton (1932); and Walp, on shrubs (1935). Sargent 
(1907, p. 564) cites a Crataegus collection by Fallass. Darlington 
(1945, p. 37) refers to a manuscript list of the Emmet County flora by 
Fallass and Swift. Jones and Meadows (1948, p. 736) state that his 
collections are now in the Albion College Herbarium. These are all 
the references to Fallass which I have noted in botanical literature; 
there may be occasional citations in other works, but the number is 
doubtless small since he rarely distributed specimens to the larger 
institutional herbaria and his own herbarium has received compara- 
tively little attention in recent years, even by Michigan botanists, 
Fallass published nothing himself. 

r 

L 

It was originally intended to prepare only a brief account of the 
Fallass herbarium, with a few remarks about the man who assembled 
it. So helpful were those who could supply information, however, and 
so many were the statements made by those who knew him that here 
truly was a man worthy of biographical treatment, that the work has 
been considerably expanded. The life of Charles Fallass is, in a sense, 
typical of an era now past, and as such, worthy of record. Yet, in 
another sense, so outstanding were his accomplishments and the 



IContribution from the Biological Station of the University of Michigan. 



77 



78 ASA GRAY BULLETIN N-S. VoL III, No. 1 



quality of his life as to be well above the "typical/' and so there is 
further reason for undertaking the present task. 



ANCESTRY AND YOUTH; FALLASSBURG 



Charles Wesley Fallass was born October 27, 1854, the second son 
of John Wesley and Phoebe Brown Fallass, of Fallassburg, Kent 
County, Michigan. Fallassburg remains today, a small settlement a- 
bout three miles north of Lowell, on the Flat River near the eastern 
edge of Kent County. A county park has been established ("Fallas- 
burg Park'') occupying 81 acres, much of it wooded, along the west 
side of the Flat River just above the old covered bridge at Fallass- 
burg. The 1954 "Road Map of Kent County, Michigan," issued by the 
Board of County Road and Park Commissioners, reproduces a photo- 
graph of the covered bridge on the front of the folded map; the name 
is spelled "Fallasburg." The county map of Kent County by the Mich- 
igan State Highway Department uses the spelling "Fallasberg." Local 
usage in the Grand Rapids region frequently corrupts the pronuncia- 
tion to "Fallsburg." There seems to be little or no knowledge of the 
original settlers among residents of the area today. 



Historical accounts do not exactly agree regarding the year in 
which John Wesley Fallass settled at the site of Fallassburg. The 
earliest published history of the region which I have been able to con- 
sult makes the following statement under the history of Vergennes 
Township (Dillenback & Leavitt, 1870, p. 100); "Among the early set- 
tlers may be mentioned the following: Silas S, Fallass, who settled in 
the year 1838, J, Wesley Fallass, in 1839, ,.." Another early history 
states that Silas S. and J, Wesley Fallass settled in the spring of 1837 
(Chapman & Co., 1881, p, 1368). Everett (1878, pp. 210-211) states that 
the mouth of the Flat River was one of the points of earliest occupation 
in the Grand River Valley. The first white resident, Daniel Marsac, 
came from Detroit for the purpose of trading with the Indians, and es- 
tablished a regular trading station in 183L In October, 1836, four men 
from Scipio, New York, settled two miles up from the mouth of the 
Flat River; at that time there was no one resident but Marsac. Two 
more settlers came in 1836. "In their immediate vicinity," writes 
Everett, "and in intimate relations with them were three or four hun- 
dred Indians, ... Quite an influx of settlers signalized the year 1837, 
many of whom were transient. With regard to some there is doubt as 
to the date of their advent; the memory of the old settlers not alto- 
gether agreeing. We can without much hesitation place in this year: 
[sixteen, including] Silas Fallass, John W. Fallass. ... These took up 
land before it was surveyed." 



spring, 1955 ASA GRAY BULLETIN 79 



The three works quoted above were all written while both of the 
settlers named were yet alive; Silas Fallass died in 1886 and his 
brother, John Wesley Fallass, in 1896. A later history (Fisher, 1918, 
p. 230) says: ''J. Wesley Fallass was a native of Madison County, New 
York. He came to Kent County when a young man, in 1837, and loca- 
ted at what has since been known as Fallassburg, where he built a 
mill and early began the manufacture of lumber and flour. Going back 
to his native State, in 1842, he there married, 2 and with his bride re- 
turned to Vergennes township, and until the year 1875 continued to op- 
erate his mill. In that year he disposed of it to his sons and turned 
his attention to his farm, which he cultivated until his death, Nov. 5, 
1896. He was the father of the late Henry B. Fallass, long a promi- 
nent lawyer in Grand Rapids." And, we must add, he was also the 
father of Charles W. Fallass. (There were no daughters.) Mr. and 
Mrs. J. Wesley Fallass "maintained a home of comfort and hospital- 
ity, which the relatives appreciated and where they loved to gather." 
(Alexander, p. 51.) 



Although we cannot date it exactly, Fallassburg was evidently set- 



tled about 1837 or 1838. 



Wil 



Wesley 



wife "to Kent Co., Mich., making the long trip in covered wagons"; 
and that in 1839 Mr. and Mrs. William Fallass, their parents, had fol- 
lowed the children to Kent. Co. The town of Lowell, still an Indian 
village when Fallassburg was settled, was organized in 1848 (the name 
being changed from Dansville to Lowell in 1857). Its later growth at 
the mouth of the Flat River marked the decline of industry in Fallass- 
burg, the up-river section of the Vergennes community. 



It was in Fallassburg that Charles W. Fallass spent his youth, about 
which we know very little. His oldest daughter (June), writing of the 
grist mill which her grandfather had built in 1840, says, "Father used 
to tell me hair raising stories of swimming in the mill pond and rid- 
ing logs when they came down the river (the Flat) in the spring." She 
continues: "He told about collecting gunpowder to explode under cans 
on the Fourth of July, which was always his favorite holiday — and he 
used to buy us all kinds of fireworks and turn us loose with no prohi- 
bitions on that day." He was very proud of the smoke house for hams 
and bacon which he built when he was twelve. 



At the age of 14, he entered Albion College. He spent a semester 
at Ann Arbor, but was unhappy there and went back to Albion, where 

^The Fallass genealogy states that he married Phoebe Brown on April 8, 1841. 

^This William Fallass was the fifth generation to bear that name in America, his 
great- great- grandfather William having come to Boston from England some time 
prior to 1724. 



80 ASA GRAY BULLETIN N.S. VoL III, No. 1 



he graduated (while only 18) in 1873. 



'In his youth [he] displayed much ability as an artist'' (Alexander, 
p. 66)* A class note in the September, 1941, issue of ''lo Triumphe/' 
the Albion College alumni magazine, states that Fallass had on ex- 
hibit at an art show in Petoskey some oil paintings, one of which he 
had done at the age of 16, 



POST-COLLEGE YEARS AND FIRST INTEREST IN BOTANY 



Although it is now difficult to determine with certainty what 
Charles Fallass did during the first two decades after his graduation 
from Albion, the sequence of events was about as follows. He first 
taught school in Cedar Springs (Kent Co,). There he persuaded one 
of his pupils, Ida Estelle Sharer, to go to Albion— apparently an 
unheard of thing for a girl in that little community to do. She gradu- 
ated from the college in 1882. On June 1, 1883, she and Charles W. 
Fallass were married in Cedar Springs. In the meantime, he had 
gone to Big Rapids (Mecosta Co.) to teach,"^ but presumably stopped 
teaching when he had saved enough money to study law. He was 
admitted to the bar but practiced for less than a year, for he loathed 
it, ' 'Skullduggery/' he called it, and stated that law and justice were 
two different things. 



Next he went into the real estate business in Grand Rapids, and 
was very successful until the 1892-^93 panic. In 1893, he took his 
family to Cedar Springs, his wife^s home town, where he bought an 
interest in a drug store. Here he stayed three years, after which he 
decided to return to his father's farm, which he still owned. ^ He had 
the old house in Fallassburg fixed up, and enjoyed life as a farmer. 
Mrs. Fallass, however, was not happy on the farm; in 1898 the family 
moved to Petoskey (Emmet Co.). 



The Fallasses had four children: June (now Mrs, Charles M. Bergin, 
living in Arlington, Virginia); (Mary) Marguerite (now Mrs. Clyde M. 
Barber, Dowagiac, Michigan, and going by the name of Margaret); 
Charles Henry (now of Cross River, New York); and Carol (now Mrs. 

^Newspaper accounts at the time of his death and at the time of acquisition of his 
herbarium by Albion College state that he taught at Ferris Institute in Big Rapids. 
However, President Victor F. Spathelf of Ferris Institute writes me: "We have made 
an extensive search of institutional records and we can find no record of a Mr. 
Charles W. Fallass having taught at Ferris Institute." Almost all his specimens 
from Big Rapids were collected in April, May, and June of 1881. The Institute was 
not founded until 1884. 

^As previously noted, a historical account states that in 1875 J. Wesley Fallass 
turned over his mill to his sons. Neither son must have worked at the mill or the 
farm for long, since Henry B. became a lawyer in Grand Rapids. Perhaps it was this 
example which had led Charles, eight years his junior, to take up law. 



Spring, 1955 ASA GRAY BULLETIN 81 



r 

Leslie Wolfenden, San Francisco^ California). All were exceedingly 
healthy children and were successfully reared with a very minimum 
of discipline. 



There seems to be no definite information now available as to 
exactly how or when Fallass became interested in botany, although 
some promising guesses are possible. Dr. Charles H. Swift, who 
was associated with him for almost 40 years in his botanizing in 
Emmet County, tells me that Fallass said his interest had been 
aroused through the study of drug plants — many more drugs in those 
days being directly of botanical origin. His son, C. Henry Fallass, 
writes: '1 seem to recall my father once saying that his interest in 
botany was first aroused by the influence and example of his second 
cousin, Mary Brown, who was seven or eight years his senior and who 
eventually married my father's older brother, Henry B." So perhaps 
both the interest of his second cousin (sister-in-law) and an original 
interest in pharmaceutical botany combined to lead Charles Fallass 
to take up the avocation seriously. Another factor, which I am strong- 
ly tempted to believe may have gotten both Mary Brown and Charles 
Fallass interested at the very beginning has been suggested by Mrs. 
Bergin, who writes me: 'There was a Miss Cole living at my uncle's 
in Grand Rapids. . . and I think she first aroused his interest in col- 
lecting.'' 

Miss Emma J. Cole^ (1845-1910), author of the Grand Rapids Flora, 
taught at Central High School in Grand Rapids from 1881 till her retire- 
ment in 1907. Prior to that, she taught at Lowell and Greenville; and 
before that, for four years in the country school at Vergennes which 
she had earlier attended as a pupil. Perhaps here one of her students 
was Charles Fallass; if we had more dates we might know. At any 
rate, the fact that she lived at the home of Henry B. Fallass makes im- 
portant the probability of her influence on Henry's wife, Mary Brown, 
and on his brother, Charles. 

7 

Henry B. and Mary Brown Fallass had one daughter, Florence. ' 
Both Mary and her daughter were interested in botany, kept herbaria 

of their own, and would send specimens of interest to Charles. He has 

mentioned "my sister Mary'' as the source of specimens on a number 

of his herbarium sheets; she provided him with material from several 

localities in Europe, as well as elsewhere, Mary Fallass' herbarium 

%ata about Miss Cole are taken from a 6-page duplicated leaflet prepared in 1941 
by Arlene I. Whittemore and distributed to holders of the Emn:ia J. Cole Fellowship 
in Botany at the University of Michigan. (It was my privilege to hold this fellowship 
for the year 1953-54.) 

'^The genealogy by Alexander gives her name as "Phoebe Florence"; her own her- 
barium labels read "Herbarium of Florence P. Fallass" (or sometimes simply 
Florence Fallass), In any event, she apparently went by the name of Florence. 



82 ASA GRAY BULLETIN N.S- VoL III, No. 1 



is referred to by Emma Cole in the Grand Rapids Flora (p. v). And it 
can hardly be doubted that it is her name for which the initials "M. B. 
F/' stand after a poem and illustration of witch hazel facing page 160 j 
at the end of the text of that volume. 



Mrs. C, M. (June Fallass) Bergin has most generously sent me her 
father's copy of the sixth (1889) edition of Gray's Manual of Botany. It 
is copiously supplied with marginal notes giving dates and localities in 
her father's hand. These must be used with caution^ however, for they 

constitute a record of specimens in his herbarium ^ including exchang- 
es, not merely his own collections. The earliest records supported by 
specimens collected by Fallass himself are numerous ones for 1880^ 
all from August 2 through 30, except for three in July (7, 12 and 28). 
These are all accompanied by the initial 'T/' for Fallassburg, There 
is a record from Cedar Springs, August 17, 1880, and several species 
are noted from Cedar Springs in 1881 and later years, the last being in 
June of 1897. The only records from Big Rapids are the 1881 ones 
mentioned in note 4 above. There are many records from Fallass- 
burg beginning with July of 1881 and from Grand Rapids beginning in 
June of 1881. There are no dates after 1897 (except for two in 1898); 
evidently after moving to Petoskey in 1898 he stopped recording data 
in this manual. His copy of the seventh (1908) edition of Gray's Man- 
ual is with the herbarium at Albion. It includes not only the marginal 
notes as entered in the sixth edition, but also carries the notations up 
to 1934, after which he did almost no collecting. In this edition, he 
indicated the source of specimens which had been collected by others, 
so the volume is a useful index to his collecting and exchanges as well 
as to the herbarium. 



In a letter written by Fallass to Dr. A- M. Chickering, of Albion, 
on May 18, 1935, he said: "I must confess however that I am not giv- 
ing as much time to botany as I gave to it during most of the sixty 
years that it [the herbarium] was accumulating." If taken literally, 
this would place his earliest collections no later than 1875. It may be 
that his interest camie before he left Albion in 1873, although the speci- 
mens now extant appear to begin in 1880. 



EMMlET COUNTY; FALLASS AND SWIFT 



W 



in the latter part of the 19th century. When he began collecting in 
Emmet County, however, he was in territory almost completely un- 
known botanically. For 22 years (until the establishment of the Uni- 
versity of Michigan Biological Station in 1909), his was the only con- 

T 

tinning botanical work at the northern tip of the Lower Peninsula of 



• v^ I 



Spring, 1955 ASA GRAY BULLETIN 83 



Michigan. It is primarily for his work on the Emmet County flora 
that he became known among Michigan botanists in the present century. 

The year 1887 was the second season of the Bay View Assembly, 
and the Bay View Assembly Herald for April of that year (Vol. 1, No. 
4, p. 5) predicted that 'At least fifty and perhaps seventy-five cottages 
will be erected this year at Bay View." One of them was the cottage^ 
of C. W. Fallass, who came to join the growing community at the east- 
ern end of Little Traverse Bay, first organized in 1875 as "The Michi- 
gan Camp Ground Association of the Methodist Episcopal Church"— 
now the "Bay View Association. "^ Entered at the back of his copy of 
Gray's Manual, seventh edition, is a list of the plants growing on his 
cottage lot in 1887. It numbers 81 species; 14 additional species are 
listed which had been transplanted to the lot and were growing there 
in 1924. The earliest Bay View dates entered in his copy of Gray's 
Manual, sixth edition, are for July 10 and July 27, 1887. 

In 1898, Fallass left the farm in Fallassburg and moved that sum- 
mer to Petoskey, the county seat of Emmet County, on the south side 
of Little Traverse Bay, adjacent to Bay View (where he still main- 
tained his summer cottage). In Petoskey, he entered into partnership 
with Coburn and Harner, who, according to an advertisement in the 
Bay View Assembly Program for 1897, had dealt in books, stationery, 
and news; fishing tackle, northern views, medallions, sporting goods, 
daily newspapers, and all periodicals; Kodaks and supplies. In time, 
Fallass became sole owner of the business, and for many years "The 
Fallass Drug Store" on the corner of Mitchell and Howard streets in 
Dofr.Qir*.T7 was nne of the citv's leadinff business establishments. 



In 1927 Fallass sold out to John Lake, who had been in the meat 
and grocery business in Petoskey. "The Lake Drug Company, Suc- 
cessors to the Fallass Drug Store" eventually moved to the middle of 
the block oh Mitchell Street; Lake later established a paint and wall- 
paper business, and the drug store is no longer in operation. 

The Fallass home, on the southeast corner of Williams and Bay 
streets in Petoskey, was a large, three-story frame house, excel- 
lently furnished; it was in a room here that the herbarium was kept. 

An active member of the First Methodist Church of Petoskey, 
Fallass served for many years on its committees and boards. He was 



8on Lot 17, Block 39. 



J 

^For the history of Bay View, see the recent volume compiled by Clark S 
Wheeler. The first cottages in Bay View were built in 1877. 



84 



GRAY 



N.S. Vol. Ill, No. 1 




Charles W. Fallass. Date unknown, probably about 1900 



a faithful trustee of the Bay View Association from July 27, 1904, to 
August 2, 1939, and hardly ever missed a meeting. From 1914 to 1922, 
he was secretary of the Association, and from 1928 to 1939 he served ' 
as vice president. When he retired as a trustee, he was elected by 
the cottage owners as a "trustee emeritus." He had served Bay View 
in an official capacity longer than anyone else in its history. 

In her genealogy of the Fallass- Fallas and allied families, Lura 



W 



afte 



* T I T — I . 3 , * T 1 i> f. J1 * ^ Pdj 



Spring, 1955 ASA GRAY BULLETIN 



85 



(p. 68): "He has kept family records with the same careful concern 
with which he has carried on his business, and has sympathetically 
responded when called upon for family dates, and early traditions." 

The Fallass Drug Store might have been a less successful business, 
due to the devotion of its owner to botany and to the affairs of the Bay 
View Association, had it not been for the faithful clerks and pharma- 
cists employed. On December 1, 1919, Virgil Barmore, a registered 
pharmacist, came to work for Fallass, joining Joseph B. Seward, who 
had been employed some years before and in whose hands the store 
had been left during the many botanizing trips which Fallass took 
whenever a friend could persuade him to go out. Mr. Seward is no 
longer living, but Mr. Barmore still resides in Petoskey and recalls 
how he would take care of the store while Fallass went botanizing 
with someone, taking Joe Seward to drive them to a suitable collect- 
ing site. 

His earliest botanizing in the region was, of course, done on foot 
or was aided by train travel to nearby localities. He did not use a 
horse. He early acquired a car, which facilitated travel. Fallass 
almost always carried his vasculum with him— one with a handle 
rather than a shoulder strap-and a small trowel. Sometimes he also 
took a press into the field (His field portfolio is now with the herbari- 
um at Albion.) Many trips were affairs lasting most of the day, and he 
would sometimes carry his lunch in his vasculum. After returnmg 
home, he placed his plants between single sheets of newspaper sepa- 
rated'by thick blotting paper, roping the press of wooden slats tightly 
together. Newspapers were changed as the plants dried. 

In much of his botanical work in northern Michigan, Fallass had the 
collaboration of Dr. Charles H. Swift, whose name is frequently asso- 
ciated with his. Dr. Swift, Associate Professor Emeritus of Anatomy 
at the University of Chicago, has spent his summers at Bay View 
since 1899. Although he had heard of Fallass, he had never seen him 
before the first of July, 1903. Then, he writes, "I had been collecting 
plants in a sphagnous swamp and wood beyond, i. e. west of, Harbor 
Springs. On the way out I met a man near the Indian village carrymg 
a vasculum; I had one over my shoulder. We at once struck up an 
acquaintance which lasted for nearly forty years. ... From that time 
we saw each other frequently. At first we went by the then frequent 
trains to various parts of the county (Emmet) or walked. In this way 
we visited lakes, lake shores, swamps, and dunes in the region of 
Harbor Springs, Bay View, Oden, Carp Lake, and Mackinaw City. 
When he got an auto we could get out better and went all over the 
county. I am ashamed to think of the times I took him away from his 
drug store, but he was always willing. ... He was tireless and on 



86 



GRAY BULLETIN N.S. VoL III, No. 1 



these trips he hated to leave the collecting field." 



An enthusiastic botanist by avocation, Swift did not make herbarium 
specimens for himself. Whatever specimens of his have been pre- 
served went into Fallass' herbarium. 10 Swift was only interested in 
identification; once he knew a plant and noted it in his manual he pre- 
served no specimen. It was Swift, however, who suggested to Fallass 
the idea of a list of the county flora. It was met with enthusiasm, and 
in the fall of 1918 Sv/ift made up a list in a notebook and sent it to 
Fallass for additions. Two pages of this original list, kindly lent me 
by Dr. Swift, are reproduced herewith. The composite list was then 



W 



Beal 



wrote Swift that he intended to incorporate the data in the next edition 
of his list of the Michigan flora (Unfortunately, there has not been 
another edition of the "Michigan Flora" since 1904.) Another copy 
of the entire list in Swift's hand is in a notebook with the herbarium 
at Albion. In this copy, Fallass had added annual additions through 
1934, the last entry being numbered 1125. He also indicated where 
these additions would be entered in taxonomic order, and noted at the 
beginning of the list that adjacent portions of Cheboygan and Charle- 
voix counties were included in the area covered. 



It was evidently Fallass' copy of the list (the copy now at Albion) 
which was made available to Gates and Ehlers at the University of 
Michigan Biological Station, on Douglas Lake in neighboring Cheboy- 
gan County. The list is referred to and some records from it are 
cited in Gates and Ehlers' reports on the flora of the "Douglas Lake 
Region"— Emmet and Cheboygan counties. Dr. Gates has recently 
placed in the Biological Station library a carbon copy of this typed 
copy of the Fallass and Swift list; another carbon copy was apparent- 
ly given to Fallass, for it is with the herbarium at Albion. The copy 
in the Biological Station library includes the annual additions through 
1922. Considering the number of times that it has been copied, it is 
not entirely unexpected that there are some minor differences between 
the text of the original composite manuscript and the copy in the 
Station library. Dr. Swift estimates that Fallass added approximately 
fifty per cent more species to his (Swift's) original manuscript list. 
The total list, as of 1918, included about 800 entities. Gates and 
Ehlers utilized it for Emmet County records when they had found a 
species only in Cheboygan County. They did not (with few exceptions) 
quote it as a source for Emmet County records alone, nor did they 
consult Fallass' herbarium in preparing their lists of Emmet and 
Cheboygan county plants. 



^ Habenaria psycodes var. varians and var. ecalcarata were described by Bryan 
(1917) from specimens collected on the north and west sides of Round Lake (northeast 
of Day View) by Swift and sent by him to Greenman at the Missouri Botanical Garden. 



Spring, 1955 



ASA GRAY BULLETIN 



87 




Mr. and Mrs. Charles W. Fallass on their 50th wedding anniversary, June 1, 1933 
He was 79 and she, 75. 



88 ASA GRAY BULLETIN N.S. VoL III, No. 1 



Fallass was a very cautious man, according to Dr. Swift, and if he 
were not certain of an identification in the field would withhold judg- 
ment until he could return home and check the specimen thoroughly. 
In a letter written in May of 1935, Fallass referred to a collection of 
over 200 specimens he had made that winter in Arizona and which 
were determined for him at the University of Arizona: "I shall re- 
examine all of these, as has always been my practice with exchanges." 

In the 1930's, Fallas became troubled with tic douloureux. He 
entered the University Hospital in Ann Arbor on April 27, 1936, where 
he was operated on the next day by Dr. Max Minor Peet, famed neuro- 
surgeon (and ornithologist). The operation eased much of the pain, 
but substituted an inevitable numbness on the affected side of his face. 
At this time his memory also seemed affected— a memory which has 
been described: "He had one of the finest minds I ever knew and a 
prodigious memory— -I never remember his having forgotten anything 
he ever knew." The effects of age were becoming apparent. He had 
not driven a car since he was eighty. And the botanizing ceased. 

In October of 1942, about 12 days before his death, he was brought 
by ambulance to the home of his daughter Margaret Barber, in 
Dowagiac, where it was thought his health would improve. On the 
afternoon of November 5, 1942, he passed on at the age of 88— the end 
of a long and useful life. Mrs. Fallass, who had also been unwell, died 
at Mrs. Barber's home on May 11, 1943. 

Statements which have been made to me by Petoskey and Bay View 
residents as I have been gathering data show the esteem in which the 
memory of Charles W. Fallass is held: "He was a fine man, an excel- 
lent husband, and a devoted father." "Mr. Fallass was held in highest 
esteem in Bay View and Petoskey. He loved Bay View and gave much 
of himself to the Association." "He was the last word of integrity and 
honesty; I can't speak highly enough of him." John Lake, who bought 
his business in 1927, pointed out that there had been no written agree- 
ment on the transaction— and that none was needed in dealing with a 
man of the integrity and character of C. W. Fallass. 



THE FALLASS HERBARIUM 



Fallass mounted his specimens on sheets of good cardboard (rather 
than heavy paper) 11 I/4 by 17 l/4 inches in size, using narrow strips 
of gummed cloth tape. In the case of smaH plants, two or more col- 
lections were frequently mounted on the same sheet, numbered (1, 2, 
3, etc.) to correspond with data entered (very concisely and often much 
abbreviated) on the label in the corner. One label sufficed for all 



Spring, 1955 



ASA GRAY BULLETIN 



89 



I 



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A characteristic note attached to a herbarium sheet of Crataegus (this specimen 
proves actually to be C. succulenta ; det, confirmed by E. J. Palmer, 1953). 



90 



ASA GRAY BULLETIN 



N.S. Vol III, No. 1 



.7 

collections on a sheet; data for collections affixed later were added 
between the lines of the original label. 



When 



tied together with several little loops of string serving to bind the 
left margin. Over each individual sheet or group of sheets was placed 
a thin tissue fly-leaf attached at the left by bits of gummed tape. Older 
specimens often bear "Correction Labels" bringing the nomenclature 
in line with later editions of the manuals. Many sheets have attached 
to them notes written by Fallass explaining his determinations and 



po 



determination. These are often very detailed, and their presentation 
is in an argumentative style which brings to mind Fallass' earlier 
days as a lawyer. 



Several groups in the herbarium were examined by specialists or 
students: Potamogeton has been annotated by Henry J. Oosting; 
Amelanchier (eastern species), by K. M. Wiegand in 1924; the Com- 
positae have been examined by S. E. Wolff. All Salix specimens were 
annotated by C. R. Ball in 1943; the Michigan Gramineae have been 
recently examined by N. W. Katz; and Stanley Cain checked the 
Pteridophytes in 1950 for Billington's posthumous Ferns of Michigan. 
I have annotated [1953-54] a number of the Emmet and Cheboygan 
county specimens [and a few others], and have sent several sheets of 
Carex, Crataegus , and Aster to F. J. Hermann, E. J. Palmer, and 
L. H. Shinners, respectively, for checking. In addition, individual 
sheets sometimes bear notes giving the opinions of others, and letters 
from men to whom specimens were sent for determination may be 
filed with the appropriate material. 



<^ Ho.3//£,5 Herbarium of C. W FALLASS 



C^ C/- /j^- C-, 



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The herbarium label from the sheet to 
which the note shown in the previous fig- 
ure was attached. 




AT 




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Two pages from the original Fallass and Swift manuscript list of the Emmet County flora. The larger writing is Swift's. 



as 



t3 










Kj 






:z; 



CD 



92 ASA GRAY BULLETIN N.S. VoL III, No. 1 



Fallass carried on exchanges with many collectors, and the 
herbarium includes specimens from the Biltmore Herbarium, C. C. 
Deam, Branson A. Walpole, Homer C Skeels and Jennie Shaddick 
("Our Herbarium"), E. E. Sherff, J. M. Grant, D. Potter, Earle 
Mulliken, A. A. Heller, and many others. There are a number of early 
collections by Emma J. Cole, including some from New York and 
Colorado as well as from Michigan. Fallass' own collections are from 
all parts of the United States, with considerable material from Arizona 
and Florida (apparently collected in large part after his retirement, 
although his first trip to the west coast was in 1915). Only a very few 
of the ubiquitous specimens of C. K. Dodge are included. Many local 
people would leave specimens with Fallass to be identified, sometimes 
depositing them on his desk in the drug store; some of these have found 
their way into the herbarium. There is a small amount of European 
material. 



As has been mentioned before, the Fallass herbarium is now at 
Albion College, Albion, Michigan. It constitutes almost the whole 
college herbarium, and has been safely housed in four standard steel 
herbarium cases. 



The herbarium was given to Albion after Fallass' death. Apparent- 
ly he had not made specific provision in his will for its disposition, 
but this was known to be his wish. A letter written to Professor A. M. 
Chickering, chairman of the biology department of Albion, on May 18, 
1935, states: "As to the herbarium I do not know of any reason why 
Albion should not have it when I am through with it which may be ■ 
several years hence for I am only ! 80 and 'still going strong.'" 
In a letter to Dr. G. W. Prescott, then of the Albion biology faculty, 
Fallass wrote on January 29, 1939: "I spent so many years accumu- 
lating it that it has almost become a part of myself and the wrench of 
parting with it would not be easy. I do not forget that I cannot take it 
with me but I also know that it would be much easier for my family to 
part with it than for me. I have talked the whole matter over with 
Mrs. Fallass and we are in entire agreement that the herbarium 
should remain where it is until our home is finally broken up. That 
event cannot, in the nature of things, be very far in the future. She is 
80 and I am 84 years old and no matter which one of us goes first the 
survivor will be ready ... to let the herbarium go to its final rest- 
ing place, which, so far as I can see is the old college of which we are 
both graduates - I in 1873 at the age of 18, and my wife in 1882." 

Given by the Fallass estate to Albion College, the herbarium was 
packed up in the spring of 1943 by Dr. Prescott, who went to Petoskey 
for the purpose. In 18 large packing cases the collection arrived on 
campus in early June, 1943. For a while it was housed in the three 



Spring, 1955 



ASA GRAY BULLETIN 93 



glass-doored oak cabinets in which Fallass had kept it. (A few cryp- 
togamic specimens collected by Emma Cole remain in one of the oak 
cabinets; Fallass evidently did almost nothing with non- vascular ^ 
plants.) With the herbarium, Albion was given over 20 of Fallass' 
botanical books; these include such choice items as Howeirs 1903^ 
Flora of Northwest America and Rydberg's 1917 Flora of "' " 
Mountains and Adjacent Plains. His copy of Beal and 
1892 "Michigan Flora" contains abundant marginal annotations; the 
other works have a few notes. 

4 

In his letter to Dr. Chickering, May 18, 1935, Fallass makes an 
interesting evaluation of the cost of the physical part of the herbari 

1 



Wheele 



um: 




"The 3 oak cases cost in cheap times not 
far from 50.00 each , 150.00 

each. (After several trials I found that 

nothing but the finest card board I could 

buy would answer) 5000 sheets 150.00 

Fly sheets to protect from dust & which no 
other herbarium has 25.00 

Books, labels, genus covers, etc. about IQQ-QQ 



425.00 



TT 



William 



at Albion, states that a student counting the number of sheets in the 
Fallass herbarium found a total of 5694. Since more than one col- 
lection is often mounted on a sheet, the total number of specimens 
might approach the 10,000 estimate publicized at the time the herbari- 
um was given to Albion. As implied in the course of the preceding 
pages, the collection is a valuable one, particularly regarding the 
Michigan flora. Very few Fallass specimens are in the herbarium 
at Michigan State College or that of the University of Michigan. It 
should be pointed out, however, that not all species on the Fallass 
and Swift manuscript list are supported by specimens (whether or not 
correctly determined) in the herbarium. On the other hand, there are 
supporting specimens for a number of species which are very rare 
or otherwise unknown in the State [e.g., Psilocarya scirpoides and 
Senecio coneestus var. palustris ). 






One difficulty which users of the herbarium may encounter is 
interpreting the often cryptic data on the labels. Many localities are 
much abbreviated {e.g., C S. = Cedar Springs; B. V. = Bay View; 
Pet. = Petoskey; B. R. = Big Rapids; F. = Fallassburg). Local names 
are frequently given without county designation. Localities such as 



94 ASA GRAY BULLETIN N.S. VoL III, No. 1 



Menonaqua, Roaring Brook, and Wequetonsing are indicated on de- 
tailed Emmet County maps today along the shore of Little Traverse 
Bay. "Paige," where Fallass did a great deal of collecting, is not on 
maps and does not consist today of even so much as a remnant of the 
old bath house which once was there; it is just north of Menonaqua 
Beach, along the shore. A 1902 county plat book in the County Clerk's 
office in Petoskey is of help in locating extinct sites. Those familiar 
with localities frequented by members of the University of Michigan 
Biological Station must undergo some reorientation: e.g., Fallass' 
"Mud Lake" is a small body of water between Round Lake and Bay 
View, not the familiar bog northeast of Douglas Lake; his "Mill Creek" 
is in Kent County, not southeast of Mackinaw City in Cheboygan County. 
A few errors of county designation occur or are implied: "Pine bar- 
rens east of Petoskey" would have to be in Cheboygan County, for the 
jack pine association is not developed anywhere in Emmet County; 

the "shore of Burt Lake" cannot be in Emmet County, as occasionally 
stated. 



Fallass' numbering systems make it difficult to cite specimens by 
number. Evidently he had two series, one for herbarium sheets and 
one for specimens. As shown on the label illustrated above, both are 
sometimes given. Occasionally one is given. Often a number appears 
at the top of the label, without any indication as to whether it is a 
"sheet number" or a "specimen number." Often there is no number. 
There are no notebooks extant— if they ever existed— with his field 
notes and collection numbers in chronological order, although some 
early herbarium numbers are recorded in the back of his copy of 
Gray's Manual, sixth edition, and a few other lists or portions of lists 
are stored in one of the old oak cabinets at Albion. 



As to the quality of the specimens and the accuracy of their identi- 
fication, Dr. F. J. Hermann, of the U. S. Department of Agriculture, 
wrote the following comment when returning several assorted sheets 
of Carex which had been sent to him for checking: "His collections 
show painstaking work, and he did a very creditable job in their 
identification considering the limitations under which he had to work." 
In a master list of the Emmet and Cheboygan county flora which I have 
recently prepared, approximately 35 species (or 3% of the flora) are 
known thus far from the entire region only on the basis of specimens 
in the Fallass herbarium. The proportion for Emmet County alone 
would be considerable higher. Considering the fact that botanists from 
the University of Michigan Biological Station have worked in the region 
since 1909, the thoroughness of the work of C. W. Fallass is evident. 



Spring, 1955 ASA GRAY BULLETIN 95 



STATEMENT 



PETOSKEY, MICH, ^ 192- 



In Account With Q^ ^^ FALL ASS Wholesale-Retail 



330-332 Mitchell St. 



BOOKS 



DRUGS 



Manufacturer and Proprietor of wai.l paper 

BORONOL BALM ™r,T,--"- 



STATIONERY 
KODAKS 

SCHOOL 
m 1 y*'p\ IKS 

PEKioDicALs T^he Great Skin Remedy 



SUPI'LIKS 
ART SUPPMES 



Heading of a statement indicating the scope of merchandise handled by the Fallass 
Drug Store. Wallpaper was one of his major commodities. 



ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 

It is a pleasure to express my heartfelt appreciation to all those who made this 
biographical sketch possible, whether by supplying information or, equally important, 
directing me to sources and people who could help. I should mention first of all C. W. 
Fallass' son and daughters. C. Henry Fallass, June Fallass Bergin, and Margaret 
Fallass Barber have patiently responded to my several letters. Mrs. Bergm has 
kindly lent the photographs reproduced above. Several residents of Petoskey and Bay 
View generously shared their recollections by letter or in personal conversation: 
Mr. Virgil Barmore, Mr. C. W. Christopher, Mr. Chalmers Curtis, Sr., Mr. John 
Foley, Mr. John Lake, Dr. Charles H. Swift, and Bishop Raymond J. Wade. Others 
without whose assistance this account would have been less complete include the staff 
of the Bay View Library; Mr. Claude L. Barkley, Deputy Clerk of Kent County; Mr. 
Kenneth J. HoUinshead, Executive Secretary, Albion College Alumni Association; Mr. 
Kees Lems, of Ann Arbor, who was able to visit Fallassburg for me; Dr. G. W. Pres- 
cott, of Michigan State College (formerly of Albion); Mr. John E. Rutherford, of 
Lowell, Michigan (who lent me the Fallass genealogy); and Mrs. Thomas J. (Katherme 
Foley) Ward, of Mackinaw City (formerly of Petoskey). Dr. William J. Gilbert, of 
Albion College, has been most helpful and gracious in searching for information as 
well as facilitating my study of the herbarium. 



REFERENCES 



Alexander, Lura F. 1929. Genealogy. Descendants of William and Dorcas Fallass 

[Cover title is "Fallass - Fallas and AUied Families -- Genealogy"] Com- 
piled, edited and published by Lura F. Alexander. Kansas City, Mo. 325 pp. 

^ ■ 

Bay View Bulletin. May 1943. Charles W. Fallass [Obituary notice]. (Bay View Bull. 
25 (3): 17.) 

r 

Bryan, Mary M. 1917. A Spurless Variety of Habenaria psycodes, Ann. Mo, Bot. Card 
4:37-42. 

(Chapman & Co.)- 1881. History of Kent County, Michigan . . . Chicago: Chas. C. 
Chapman & Co. 1426 pp. 



96 



BULLETIN N.S. VoL III, No. 1 



Cole, Emma J. 1901. Grand Rapids Flora. Grand Rapids: A. van Dort. 170 pp. 

Darlington, H. T. 1921 ["1920"]. Distribution of the Orchidaceae in Michigan. Rep. 
Mich. Acad. Sci. (for 1919) 21:239-261. 

. 1945. Taxonomic and Ecological Work on the Higher Plants of Michigan. 

Mich. Agric. Exper. Sta. Tech. Bull, 201. 59 pp. 

Dillenback & Leavitt (compiled & published by). 1870. History and Directory of Kent 
County, Michigan . . . Grand Rapids: Daily Eagle Steam Printing House. 318 pp. 

Everett, Franklin. 1878. Memorials of the Grand River Valley. Chicago: The Chicago 
Legal News Company. 545 + 74 pp. 

Fisher, Ernest B., ed. 1918, Grand Rapids and Kent County, Michigan, Historical 
Account of their Progress from First Settlement to the Present time. Vol. I. 
Chicago: Robert O. Law Co. 566 pp. 

Gates, Frank C, & J. H. Ehlers. 1925. An Annotated List of the Higher Plants of the 

Region of Douglas Lake, Michigan. Papers Mich. Acad. Sci., Arts, Letters (for 
1924) 4:183-284. 



. 1928, Additions to an Annotated List of the Higher Plants of the Region of 

Douglas Lake, Michigan. Ibid, (for 1927) 8:111-120. 

, 1931. do., IL Ibid, (for 1930) 13:67-88. 

. 1948. do., III. Ibid, (for 1946) 32:27-46. 

Jones, George NeviHe, & Edna Meadows. 1948. Principal Institutional Herbaria of 
the United States. Amer, Midi. Nat. 40:724-740. 



Kenoyer, L. A. 1924, Distribution of the Umbellales in Michigan. Papers Mich. Acad 
Set., Arts, Letters (for 1923) 3:131-165. 

. 1924. Distribution of the Ericales in Michigan. Ibid, (for 1923) 3:166-191. 

Costing, Henry J. 1932. Distribution of the Genus Potamogeton in Michigan. Ibid. 
(for 1931) 15:141-171. 

Sargent, C. S. 1907. Crataegus in Southern Michigan. State Board Geol. Surv. Rep. 
1906: 509-570. 



Walp, Russell Lee. 1935. Shrubs of Cheboygan and Emmet Counties, Michigan. Amer 
Midi. Nat. 16:230-247. 



Walpole, Branson A. 1927. Distribution of the Cruciferae in Michigan. Papers Mich 
Acad. Sci., Arts, Letters (for 1926) 6:307-349. 



I. 



Wheeler, Clark S. n. d. Bay View. A History . . . from . . . 1875 to . . . 1950. 
Bay View: Bay View Association of the Methodist Church. 179 pp. 



PHILIPPINE JOURNAL HV 



Pierre Dansereau 



1 



531126. - MANILA - LOS BANGS 



A sparkling day for the pan-congress excursion to Los Banos. A 
welcome break. My former student, Albert Stage (on duty here) joins 
me. No time wasted on reminiscing about the beauty of Michigan oaks 
and the Bitterlich method of basal area measurement. Not with 

Al has had good luck, visiting 



Barringtonia and dipterocarps aoout. 

Mindanao forests; has also done some underwater colour photography 

successfully. 

The College of Agriculture and Forestry is at the foot of Mount 
Makiling. Buildings in a beautiful setting of planted trees: native 
Dipterocarpaceae, and large specimens of Hura crepitans, Beaumonh 
grandiflora. The African Spatkodea campanulata, its vermilion 
blossoms, reminds me of the landscaped avenues of Rio. 



We 



road upslope. The orderly grove replaced by jungle, the gravel by 
mud. The bus, stranded in a slippery curve, stalls. We jump out, 
glad at last to touch natural vegetation. A detachment of soldiers, 
olive-green and smiling, accompany us. Mountain still infested with 
Huks? We may not go to the top. Also, there is hardly time. Al and 
I follow in the footsteps of Mr. Sulit, who once taught at the Forestry 
School and knows the flora well. Make notes and collect. Something 
acquired, it seems at the mere touch of a leaf. The snapping of the 
stem makes this definitely yours. The careful spreading of the m- 
florescence on the sheets in the press graves the image in your mmd. 

.'■ - 

This is jungle: many scattered, tall trees, remnants of the primeval 
forest (destroyed by Japanese and Americans) and dense undergrowth, 
of smaller trees, palms, lianas, bamboos, weeds on the roadside. But 
even weeds are interesting. 



Isee Asa Gray Bulletin, N.S. 2:323-330, 419-438. 1953 [1954], 



97 



98 



GRAY BULLETIN N.S. VoL III, No. I 



Many of the second-growth heliophilous trees have large peltate 
leaves: Macaranga bicolor, M. gigantifolia , Homalanthus populneus , 
Endospermum peltatum; so do vines such as Merremia peltata. 
On the contrary the "laurel" type prevails among the tall, straight- 
trunk rainforest trees: Canarium luzonicum, Hopea (foxworthyi ?), 
Parashorea plicata, Nothophoebe maldbonga, Leucosyke capitellaia, 
Ficus variegata, F„ nervosa. There are many other species of fig 
(F. odorata, hauili, minahassae, satterthwaitei, nota, rihes ), their 
trunks bristling with short branches bearing orange, purple or brown 
fruits about the size of cherries. Among the palms, Arenga pinnata 



axirnus 



The latter is a climber with spines at the 
tips of its leaf, which curves out beyond the host as a long searching 
whip (The related C. omatus has such a flagellum at the base of its 
leaf). Another climber, not unlike a palm in its life-form, is one of 
many species of Freycinetia (New Zealand and Hawaii each have but 
one species!). Several orchid and fern epiphytes. The most abundant 
of the latter is Drynaria quercifolia, with its curious dimorphic 
fronds: the compact, broad cup-like grayish ones surround the slender 
bases of the more delicate green expanded ones. A beautiful example 
of Asplenium nidus catches the light of the canopy in its translucent 
crown, high on the expanded branch of a Ficus nervosa. 

In the larger openings, solid stands of Trema orientalis : like pin 
cherries in Pennsylvania or Quebec, very viable seeds distributed by 
birds, quick to fill a clearing. Also the ubiquitous Leucaena glauca, 
itself like a locust thicket. Rank graminoids: Pennisetum macrostach- 
yum, Setaria palmifoUa , Paspalum conjugatum , Scleria scrobiculata. 
The enormous zingiberaceous herb Caulostraphis elegans can reach a 
length of about 20 feet, although its huge stalks are usually arched 
down to about 6 feet. .The neatly distichous, shiny leaves make it look 
like a huge frond. 



Al and I leave the trail several times and explore the forest. There 
is not much more there, a few herbs (a Begonia , a Habenaria ), a 
denser growth of saplings. The soil is black and slippery, but there 
is no open, aerated humus layer! 



As it is not permissible to stray farther up, we do not see any 
undisturbed forest (such as was studied by Brown many years ago). 

h 

Return to the Agricultural Station. The whole Congress milling in 
and out of a large room where an excellent lunch is being served: hot 
bouillon, meat sandwiches, sweets and coffee. Our hosts, and particu- 
larly the members of the resident scientific staff, are attentive to our 
every need, and engage us in conversation with a grace which we now 
recognize as typically Filipino and which relieves our own awkward- 
ness. Several of thera have studied in the United States. All of them 



1 h 



Spring, 1955 



ASA GRAY BULLETIN 



99 







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quercifoUa, 



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speak excellent English. 



As there will be no more botanizing today, we join a "general" 
party which is bound for the South-Eastern College where we have 
been promised native dances- 



We wind rather leisurely through the countryside. This is one of 
the best experiences so far. The bus stops when we want to take pic- 
tures. The patient men and their carabaos ploughing the flooded, 
sticky soil- The lovely girls walking on the highway, carrying food or 
leading children. The farmer feeding his cattle. Small boys, naked, 
climbing the glistening flanks of the half-submerged buffaloes, sliding 
off their hides or quickly plunging between their static horns into the 
opaque water. I can evoke no truer image of joy (A low standard of 
living? What do you mean?). 



Through the rich rice plain. Thatched roofs, carabao shelters, 
brightly-coloured clothes on the lines, a banana plant, a papaya tree, 
fowl pecking, children playing - lots of children. A thin translucent 
macaroni, made from rice paste, is spread out on wire frames to dry 
in the sun. 



100 ASA GRAY BULLETIN N.S. VoL III, No. 1 



Through the town of Santa Rosa. A nice Mediterranean bridge 
where we pause. The estuary is a rich gray. The fishing boats have 
small thatched cabins, pontoons, arachnean cranes to lower and hoist 
their delicate nets. Fishermen in canoes, or up to their necks in the 
water, on the edge of the sword-like rushes. In the background a low 
mangrove curtain. 



We 



boy. A poor, bare, whitewashed church, an unsophisticated but un- 
sentimental music. There was never gold nor marble here. All of 
the space is for prayer. The eye can feast only on the golden light 
that filters through the fig-trees in the yard and touches the rough 
pillars and the floor. 



We drive away to the suburbs of Manila. Through devious streets 
to the yard of the South-Eastern College. One of many privately- 
owned schools, this one is run by Mrs. Canuto G. Manuel, wife of the 
head of the Zoology section at the Museum. We are received in their 
house, a beautifully panelled, airy residence. A delicious cocoanut 
punch is served. And we are so thirsty. It is well to beware, how- 



ever 



I 



The students (how old are they? they seem to be 12-15, must be 
15-20?) put on two series of dances. The native Filipino numbers are 
by far the best. Many revolve around a story of courtship, or a comic 
incident of some kind. But some are more ritualistic and consist in 
stepping in and out from between two large bamboos that are rhyth- 
mically struck together by kneeling performers. This lends itself to 
many graceful variations of mood and tempo. Some of the dancers 
are exquisitely agile and seem to invent new steps. One boy is tre- 
mendously enthusiastic, very nimble, and quite a showman. 



There follows a number of cow-boy and chorus girl tricks right 
out of Hollywood. Gone is the grace, the invention. And gone are we, 
for it is dusk and we must get on to the next event. 



Roger Heim and I have dinner together at a small, intimate Chinese 
restaurant. It is good, it is restful to speak French. Heim and I speak 
the same language in more ways than one, *'Nous qui savons toujours 
raison garder?" Reason carries something else besides its meaning 
in English. We discuss expeditions and their organization. He plans 
a rather ambitious undertaking to Africa for the staff of the Paris 
Museum. To Africa in a ship. Bring 'em back alive. Zoological 
garden, Botanical Garden personnel to go. Out of Bordeaux to Dakar, 
along the coast, and up the rivers, I express my admiration for the 
excellent work done in Tropical Africa by the French, for their 

F 



Spring, 1955 



ASA GRAY BULLETIN 



101 



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A Filipino farmer and his carabaos under their shelter; farmhouse and clump of 
banana plants in the rear, ricefield to the right. 



102 ASA GRAY BULLETIN N.S. VoL III, No. 1 



capacity to work together and to maintain individual points of view and 
distinct interpretations, Heim takes issue with Mangenot's acceptance 
of the Montpellier methods and their application in wet tropical areas! 



531127 



Oliver presides over Botany meeting today. I am very disappointed 
by the absence of Bharucha, who is on the programme with a paper on 
''Uniform nomenclature for the study of vegetation in the Tropics/' 
Not even an abstract. India is hardly represented at all at the Con- 
gress. More is the pity, since so much excellent work has been done 
there. 



I give a brief account (in English) of Leandri's paper on the Thyme- 
leaceae in Eastern Indochina. 



Mona Lisa Steiner. How optimistic her parents must have been! 
What a chance they took. But they were right: she does indeed look 
like Leonardo's enigmatic woman (Frangipani flowers in her dark 
hair are more reminiscent of Gauguin^ however!). Has much to say 
about endemism in the Philippine flora, after a great deal of field 
work (under Quisumbing's general direction, but never with Quisum- 
bing). Euphorbiaceae, Rubiaceae, Moraceae, Annonaceae, Lauraceae, 
Sapindaceae, Melastomaceae, all have high percentage of Philippine 
endemics. On the contrary: Thymeleaceae, Scrophulariaceae, Con- 
volvulaceae have not! Generic endemism low: 36 out of 1350; specific 
endemism high: 5850 out of 8500! This is because the separation of 
the Philippines from neighbouring islands is comparatively recent. 



Mrs. Steiner has done most of her work in the Orchidaceae (on 
which she has published a book). She is growing a number of them. 
An interesting case: Dendrobium heterocarpum occurs from the 
.Manila Plain to the Highlands, where the plants are shorter and 
stouter. After three years growth in Manila, highland specimens 
retain their original characteristics. 



By lunch time I am a bit heavy with the humid heat. Glad to sit with 
a party of Frenchmen. Less of an effort to talk. We are joined by the 
head of the Thailand delegation, Mr. Indrambarya, and by Julian Huxley 
Interesting faces around the table. Monod, dark, lined, with intense 
brows, a small strong chin, lucid stare. Saurin, a smooth, taut skin, 
kindly but somehow disillusioned eyes. Serene, the image of Mephis- 
topheles, with his long, drawn face, pointed whiskers, sparkling eyes, 
unless he is more like Don Quixote with high brow, windmill arms. 
Ranson, the French "jeune premier" nearing middle age, handsome 
features easily disfugured by a pout. Groslier, squarejawed, athletic, 



r 



Spring, 1955 



ASA GRAY BULLETIN 



103 





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The Administration Building of the University of the Philippines and part of the Cam- 
pus seen through the patio of the Arts Building* The flags of all the nations are lined 
up in front of this building. 




Three Filipino students, in one of the many beautifully landscaped courtyards 
of the University of the Philippines. 



104 ASA GRAY BULLETIN N.S. VoL III, No. 1 



looking more soldierly than intellectual, ready to dissent and affirm. 
Morechand: is he not ''le grand Meaulnes" in person? Huxley: crisp, 
curly, thinning hair, sharp eyes, energetic face cast like an iron mask 
and yet sensitive, responsive; inquiring; demanding, yet generous; 
hands that move, that seem to control a silent play. An urge for 
directness. 



I walk back to the main building with Huxley. He is scheduled to 
debate publicly on population with a Catholic priest. ^Who will win?'^ 
I ask him. He shrugs his shoulders, as one who has been deadlocked 
before on this issue, says something about ^this disgusting pullulation^' 
and the "unrealistic*' attitude of the Catholic Church. But we are now 
in a darkened room and a documentary is about to be shown. We do 
not have time to develop the argument: the politically illogical vs. 
the humanly unrealistic. The Church whose goal is in another world, 
the scientist whose kingdom is here and now. 

Harold Coolidge introduces a film made in Indo-China in 1951-52 
by the Coolidge Foundation Expedition. It concerns a rare bovine 
species, the kouprey, or Indo-Chinese forest-ox, and shows its habitat 
and habits as well as those of three other bovines. Film is in colour, 
photographed by Charles Wharton, head of the expedition. A great 
deal of the savana and woodland country is revealed in soft-focus 
impressionistic pictures. The animals are seen in herds roaming 
among the slender blue trunks of the trees, crushing the tender green 
crowns of the ferns and bending towards purple and yellow grass. 
First we see the banting (or red ox). White rump patch. Males turn 
black with age. Bull looks like Hereford, cow like Guernsey. Elds 
deer and Sambar does also roam this land. Myna birds perch on big 
mammals. Next comes the formidable (but widespread) water buffalo, 
with the Jivaru'ibis (largest in the world), the scaly anteater (pangolin). 
More savana (perpetuated by burning) and the gaur (6' 6" high at the 
hump!), very black, with its "roman nose." Grazes in abundant tall 
grass forming an even layer under scattered trees. Finally the curious 
kouprey (which Coolidge has described as a new genus: Novibos)- Old 
males very dark, have a very prominent dewlap, shed their horns! 
This rare mammal is something more than a curiosity, may be related 

in an pnrpcitnr of BoS indicuS. 



At business meeting of Botany section, a number of excellent reso- 
lutions drafted. More realistic than those submitted at Christchurch. 
Not much use recommending projects on which no one is likely to 
work in the near future. I was myself guilty, in 1949, of pushing reso- 
lutions concerning phytosociological work and physiognomic classifi- 
cation of vegetation. Was subsequently offered trips to the Tuamotus 
and to Ifalik which I was not able to accept! The present resolutions 



S 1 



Spring, 1955 ASA GRAY BULLETIN 105 



all concern research which is reasonably "in progress/' Should 
be ratified by main body. 



At 16:303 the Botany Department offers what it calls a "light 
merienda. " This turns out to be a generous and exquisite display of 
Philippine delicacies, I rather wish my appetite were a la hauteur! 
Our hosts explain the composition and culinary techniques involved 
with much grace and patience. The hyaline macaroni, the rice wrapped 
in leaves, the sweet cakes are delicious. 



An hour later , in our Sunday best; we are at the Malacanan Palace, 
where President Quirino greets us. The presidential residence is a 
vast, airy, mediterranean construction, luxurious, but not pretentious. 
The president looks very worn, in fact ill, but speaks at length. It is 
a warm evening. Much standing and stomping about and balancing of 
glasses, munching of crunchies. I exchange a few words with the 
Indian delegate, a very handsome man in white tunic and sash. By 
now many people have become well acquainted- There is a general 
feeling of purpose, of work done together (Zusammen-something-or- 
other that has bred Gemiitlichkeit!), 



Velasquez has invited us (St. John, Doty, Walker and me) to his 
home. Back to Campus and an attractive modern home. Painted 
cinder blocks; fine tropical wood paneling- The dinner offers a pleas- 
ant compromise between Spain, America and Malaya. A small, roasted 
bird, exquisitely seasoned vegetables. The company is charming, in- 
cluding a young girl, a cousin of Velasquez, who is studying at the 
University. Mrs. Velasquez also teaches at the University. Both were 
students in Ann Arbor (before my time), and seem to remember those 
days with much pleasure. 



The ride home at the end of this most busy day is long. The bumpi- 
ness, the heat, the slow progress. But this weariness is different, a 
tropical oppression, a heavy-scented restless night. 



531128 



Final session. Attendence reduced. Resolutions cut down a good 
deal, as far as the Botany section is concerned. Fortunately, attention 
is drawn to the great ''Flora Malesiana" enterprise and a plea is made 
for effective international support. Thailand invitation accepted. Next 
meeting, Bangkok, January 1959. Vietnamese delegate speaks flawless 
metropolitan French. Strong contrast of French colonization which 
operates from the top down, really assimilates an elite, with the 
American conquest of the Philippines! 



106 ASA GRAY BULLETIN N.S. VoL III, No. 1 



And noW; return to town. Delegates departing in various directions. 
Let-down feeling of parting and thought unexpressed. But also, some- 
thing accomplished. A need for hours of solitude and reflexion. 



At the "Taza de Oro/' I run into Russell Fifield. I ask him about 
the elections, which he witnessed (a few days before our arrival)- He 
shows me newspaper clippings which I do not like: the Church had 
stepped into the arena in favour of Magsaysay. Even bishops have 
been rather explicit in their advice on how to vote. Worst of all: 
''Vote for Catholic candidates.'' 



We go off to the Jesuits' mother-house to find out more about this. 
We are very cordially received by a Filipino father, the superior of 
the Retreat House, who gives us a good-humoured account of the 
situation. The Jesuits play an important role in labour affairs, with 
their usual courage and facing up to controversial issues and their 
usual preoccupation with social order and orderliness. Here, as in 
Brazil, I have the impression of their being more liberal than the 
Dominicans (which will always seem odd to me!). The Retreat House 
is in a lovely setting, a garden by a river. But it has a garishly deco- 
rated concrete and papier-mache oratory dedicated to the great St. 
Francis Xavier, which defeats all the temptations of a vain aestheti- 

cism! 



Fifield and I walk back part of the way, through the dusty streets, 
the breath of the open shops upon us, the pleasant stare of the people 

about us. 



I am back in my room. The sky darkens in my broad window. The 
grass a deeper green in the square. The barringtonias static in the 
quiet twilight. And just beyond, the stream of jeepneys rushing down 
the boulevard. All these oriental faces, not mysterious, A joy that 
wells up into the eyes. Acceptance of fate, such as we know not? How 
kind they have been to us. Not as we are to them, not as we who live 
in plenty. 



The congress has been a success. It marks an important date in 
meetings of this kind. The attitude of the organizers. Their knowl- 
edge of the cultural heritage (as well as of the national peculiarities) 
of their guests has really allowed common ground to be established 
from the beginning on something broader than exchange of scientific 
information. I am inclined to think that the Spanish influence has 
something to do with this. Dead as Iberian culture may be in the 
Philippines at this time, a peculiarly Latin feeling for intellectual 
exchange and for social grace still prevails (One very interesting 
point: the Hawaians call themselves: Tom Chang, Mary Nakamura, 



Spring, 1955 ASA GRAY BULLETIN 107 



Bob Escudero. The Filipinos have first-names in harmony with their 
family names: Jose Avellanos, Maria Santos; no Toms, Dicks and 
Harrys here!). 

The Congress itself was very competently organized (Not the least 
stimulating part was the participation of the U. P. students!). One 
very useful item was the printing of a thick volume which contained 
substantial abstracts of the papers to be presented. Unfortunately 
many of these abstracts were actually read to the section members. 
The organizers had no control over this and could hardly have pre- 
vented it. But it seems to me that something could be done in the fu- 
ture to improve the procedure of national and international congresses. 
Here as elsewhere, we simply do not make adequate use of our modern 

gadgets! 

What I have in mind is this. Each speaker should provide his audi- 
ence with printed or multigraphed sheets which include the pertinent 
factual data. These should never be read or projected on the screen. 
The author should also transmit an outline of his argument and con- 
clusions very much in the style of the present "abstracts." He could 
then stand on the platform to develop his argument or a part thereof, 
rather briefly, and then answer questions. In fact, he should himself 
launch the discussion. This would spare us long periods of listening 
to enumerations and descriptions that too frequently take up the entire 
time allotted to one speaker. 

As I jot down these impressions- -the outcome of much conversation 
with fellow-delegates--! think of so many ways in which we are falling 
short of our technological advantages and making inadequate use of our 
intellectual opportunities. How timid we are in breaking with tradition, 
how unimaginative in our innovations. We still let things happen, let 
institutions grow "naturally" (Who dreams of releasing the pressure 
at Ann Arbor and Lansing by founding "de toutes pieces" a full-fledged 
university at Marquette, opening next year to 5000 students? No prece- 
dent!). 



531129. MANILA to BAGUIO 



Un matin nous partons, le cerveau plein de flamme, 

Le coeur gros de rancune et de desirs amers, 

Et nous allons, suivant le rythme de la lame, 

Bergant notre infini sur le fini des mers. 

Les uns, joyeux de fuir une patrie infame; 

D'autres I'horreur de leurs berceaux, et quelques uns . 



108 



ASA GRAY BULLETIN 



N.S. VoL III, No. 1 



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Just outside the town of Bontoc: modern, large houses, broad rice terraces at lowest 

level; narrow ones higher up, on left side. Background and right: deforested, eroded 
slopes. 



Spring, 1955 ASA GRAY BULLETIN 109 



\ 



It was dark when I entered the church this morning. No birds flit- 
ting about the altar this time. Mostly grave old women and happy 
young picnickers. 

Having compressed our baggage to a minimum, we all chat opti- 
mistically on the hotel steps. Dr. Quisumbing, unfortunately cannot 
come, as one of his grandsons is dangerously ill. Dr. Santos will 
direct the field party, aided by Mr. Mendoza (of the Museum). Mrs. 
Mona Lisa Steiner is also here; and three charming girl students. 
The foreign members: Fosberg, Egbert Walker (U.S.A.), van Steenis 
(Netherlands), Heim (France), St. John (Hawaii), Oliver (New Zealand), 
Hoogland (Australia), Sutarman (Indonesia), Wyatt-Smith and his wife 
(Malaya). 

Here comes the bus, with its cheerful driver. It is a boxlike affair, 
looks small for 18 people. Baggage and presses (empty now) are piled 
on turret-top, sheathed and strapped. As we sit down we are reminded 
that Filipinos are small, do not have long legs. Diagonals are adopted. 
Shifts. We rattle off on the cobblestones. For the first hour, the three 
girls (crowded into a seat for two) giggle at every bump. 



Half-way up the Plain, at San Miguel, we stop in a dry, harvested 
rice field and identify a number of weeds. Clumps of umbrella-palm 
( Corypha data ) in the distance. Lustrous floating carpets of water- 
hyacinth in the ditches. Here and there, as though planted, the white 
flowering shrub Tabernaemontana pandacaqui. 



Lunch at Tarlac. This is the real thing, a roadside, small-town 
restaurant. Oil cloth on tables. Big fan, crepe- paper streamers and 
flies. Excellent rice and fish, good, cold San Miguel (Pilsner) beer. 
Rumble of the street, calls of bus drivers, the lackadaisical other- 

4 

wordly waitresses of the dull-black eyes. It is very warm (I do not 
have to remind myself of the Ann Arbor December climate. I really 
like this. If I lived awhile in this unremarkable town, would I not 
wander down the street looking for all the world like that happy middle- 
aged man with the mustache? Would I not be speaking Tagalog and 
have known this steaming plain all my life? Who, in the name of 

Mitty, ....). 

Across the river on a handsome new bridge. More miles of flat 
rice country, of deep gray muddy fields and muddy carabaos, grace- 
ful palms and cheerful faces. Across an ultimate river and upgrade. 
No more rice. The narrow Kennon valley. We stop at a place where 
the road is cut in the side of a cliff. The seeping walls covered with 
mosses and algae. Long streaks, now dried, with hanging strands of 
dead bamboo { Sckizostachyum brachycladum). Narrow ledges, mere 



110 ASA GRAY BULLETIN N.S- Vol. Ill, No. 1 



notches on the face of the rock, harbour dense clusters of the beauti- 
ful dimorphic fern Drynaria quercifolia : its clasping lower leaves 
sheathing its base in a dull-gold shell, its radiant upper leaves like 
green plumes emerging. 



There has been no particular planning of stops. Our guide , Santos^ 
Mynheer van Steenis and Fosberg, between them can name most of the 
plants. Santos knoM's the grasses very well. I follow in their traces 
and get the interesting ones identified, write down names, stuff away 
specimens in my press. 



We reach the Pines Hotel before dark and have time to press a few 
plants before dinner. Roger Heim and I share a room quite similar to 
the one I had before. Again it is somewhat cool up here, but I am 
equipped with more clothes this time. 



After dinner, pressing questioning, quizzing, exclamations, noting, 
revision of notes. L'esprit de Tescalier: "Now, why did I not record 
this and that? How moist was the soil? I should have collected a 
better specimen. . .'* 



531130. BAGUIO to BONTOC 



Overcast day. The yellow grass of the pine savanna against the 
pearl-gray sky. But no sky when our bus plunges into the winding 
ravines headlong. Our driver is one of the best I have ever known 
anywhere. These murderous roads are reminiscent of many a vicari- 
ous adventure in XVIIth Century Spain and France (the romances of 
Dumas, Feval or even Merimee). We rattle like peas in a pod in this 
square rigging as our chins meet our knees in a friendly tussle. But 

we rattle happily, because this is new, this is the first time, the first 
look, an initiation. 



As we climb a particularly steep grade on a twining road, a great 
valley opens below us. It reaches out between the folds of many hills, 
exploring unseen regions beyond. The rice flats way down there are 
a tender green. Like termite mounds several rows of palm-thatched 
huts hug the edge of a gentler slope. But up at our level, open pine 
savannas, in various stages of regeneration. The big, scattered trees 
have black scars on their bark. The coarse grass and the bracken 
form a rank growth over the bare, rolling pebbles, the sticky pink mud 



The pines are truly in love with the wind. They bathe so freshly in 
this drifting air, they gently nod their inaudibly clanging stiff needles. 
Their branches flow not with the present wind, but are fixed in their 
flag- like motion by years and years of the ascending breath of valleys 



Spring, 1955 ASA GRAY BULLETIN 111 



down below. The green hair of the grass also curls and waves* But 
tomorrow it will be aflame and the naked earth will be beaten and 
channelled by the rains. 



We stop many times. When the spirit (and usually also van Steenis) 
moves. There are many discoveries to be made. Almost all of us 
come here for the first time (Walker was through this country before, 
many years ago). Few plants v. Steenis does not know. Few species 
do I know. The lovely Dianella javanica . How impressed I had been 
with the delicate blue fruits and the luscious leaves of this liliaceous 
genus ; first in New Zealand, then in Hawaii, The same suggestion of 

E 

wetness and equability in the lovely Blechnum (cloud-forest in Brazil, 
beech forest in New Zealand, coastal hemlock forest in British Colum- 
bia!). 



But here are some old friends: Rhododendron, Gaultheria, Stereo- 
caulon, Lycopodium complanatum and Lycopodium clavatum. 
This clubmoss runs up and down the moist, recently cut roadside 
trench, rooting at the nodes, catching beads of dew in its silky leaf 
tips. I gather quite a bit of it for my friend, Leo Marion, who may 
find a new alkaloid in it! On these same road cuts a luscious Gunnera 
now past fruiting and two species of Nepenthes. I had always thought 
of these tropical pitchers as suspended on the branches of shrubs and 
trees around which their stems twined. But here they are nodding 
among the coarse grasses, precariously rooted in the plastic mud of 
the escarpment! 



We stop for lunch at the bend of a road. It is raining. We take 
refuge on a veranda, amid anxious dogs and inquisitive children. We 
munch absent-mindedly on sandwiches as we look out on the misty 
hills where so many unknown plants grow. Many wander off, so that 
we spend more time than we should in a relatively unrewarding search. 
Each time we clamber back into the bus it is more of a hardship. 
Passageway more and more cluttered with presses, oversize speci- 
mens, displaced baggage. We all seem now to have too many legs, 
arms, too broad shoulders and buttocks. Heim and I have exhausted 
our store of variegated French adjectives to express our feeling of 
discomfort and must resort to less pungent English (Unless it can be 
said in Tagalog?). 



It is already afternoon and we have more than 100 kilometres to go 
over this winding, rocky, sticky road! Frequently we must stop to let 
a car go by from the opposite direction. Thus we encounter many 
large buses- These vehicles are truly extraordinary, being wide 
enough to accomodate 6 or 7 people in a row. One or two even sit to 
the left of the driver. It is cool, on this wet day, but some of these 



112 



ASA GRAY BULLETIN 



N.S. Vol. Ill, No. 1 




Village high up on the mountainside. Very narrow rice terraces, small, conical huts. 














Narrow highland terraces. A good deal of Miscantkus floridulus on the dry ground 



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Spring, 1955 



ASA GRAY BULLETIN 



113 



people wear very few clothes. Strangely enough, many of them have 
knotted a kerchief over their faces to keep their noses clean of dust, 
which is supposed to carry '^germs/' This gives them the air of 
benign highway robbers. But the unsheathed faces all look at us with 
a friendly stare. Frequently people wave and cheer us as we go by- 
More eroded hills, small flooded terraces, winding road, the gravel 
churning under our wheels. Pines on the slopes, evergreens in the 
ravines. Hours of this, and then suddenly the first podocarp! I sit up 
in my seat and peer out of the window, as excited as the day I left Ann 
Arbor. I have dreamed of podocarps, to me the symbol of the cloud- 
forest! Here it is: Podocarpus imbricata, a good- sized tree, with 



us 



dacrydioide 



It is so late that we cannot stop, for soon we shall be 



overtaken by the darkness (And to think we spent so much time on 
those roadside weeds!). The podocarps grow in a mixture with many 
broadleaf- evergreen trees {Saurauia elegans, Helicia, Clethra, Eugenia, 



Medinilla 
We see a 



The pines remain on the fringe. 



ifolia ! Also Phyllocladus hypophyllus ? Epiphy- 



tic growth very rich. Lots of ferns everywhere. A few stands, just 
by the road, of reasonably intact forest, reminiscent of Campos do 
Jordao (Brazil) at the cloudforest level. 



But now, about 65 km. S- of Bontoc, we come to another pine area 
and it is a long while (some 13 km.) before we see another podocarp. 
The pines occur in denser stands--in true forest. Also the 
has become conspicuous, hanging from the branches in long silver- 
green strands. Pine reproduces sparingly, except in clearings. Very 
few broadleaf evergreens, but lots of tree ferns, especially in ravines 



Just before dark (52 km. S. of Bontoc), a few more podocarps, an 
evergreen oak! And now the night, as I sink back on my bench ex- 
hausted by the tension. Our he?,dlights pick up the occasional clump 
of yellow Mexican sunflowers. It is raining again. We are tired and 
not a little hungry. 



Pitch dark when we clatter into Bontoc and sidle up to the inn, a 
rustic, open place. All woodwork. A cordial innkeeper, almost in 
the Swiss tradition although he is a Syrian. He cannot lodge all of us. 
So we go off to the Hotel Baylis. A truly wonderful country inn where 
things used to happen when we were very young and read Paul-Louis 
Courier, or Daphne Du Maurier: kindly Corsican assassins and rebel 
refugees quietly looking up as you entered. A large airy common 
room, completely open on one side, A lateral outdoor stairway- A 
gloomy corridor with cubicles on either side. Electric bulbs dangling, 



114 ASA GRAY BULLETIN N.S. Vol. Ill, No. 1 



solitary. A hard, broad bed with a mosquito net. Very poor^ very 
clean. The essence of good hospitality. Home for the traveller. A 
shower. Uncertain shaving in the dark. Back to the Bontoc Hotel for 
dinner: good rice^ chicken, San Miguel beer, at a very long table. 
Other parties (Anthropology, Public Health) have preceded us. We do 
not make merry for long, as we are exhausted. 



But I cannot sleep yet. The wet air seeps in at my window. I can 
feel this unseen village breathing softly in the night. All these other 
houses beyond our house shelter many dreams that seem to drift out 
to me. But my longing is for the podocarps in the mountains above, 
drenched in the sweet tropic rain, spread over the glorious crowns 
of fern, sheathed in the green fur of mosses. 



531201. BONTOC to MOUNT POLIS. 



Wet pavement in the early morning light. Something more than 
mist ("Quand le ciel bas et lourd pese comme un couvercle . . . /'). 
Main street well paved, clean, lined with shops. Men in G-strings and 
T-shirts. G-T is all the rage, and is topped off with aluminum helmets. 
Old bontoc culture quietly going to pieces. The women wear full gar- 
ments, mostly a lovely striped cloth which they weave themselves. 
Market place very quiet: fish and fruit, squirming children and patient 
old women- The men squat in the doorway of the many open-front 
shops. Familiar country store (The same faces, really, as at St. 
Antoine in the Richelieu Valley when I was a boy). 



It takes awhile after breakfast to round up all of our people. Suter- 
man seems to be lost. We go the full round of the village in search of 
him- Several large streets, the marketplace, nice modern schools and 
post-office. And small alleys that lose themselves among the thatched 

huts. Palms, bananas, papayas, patches of vegetables. Girls are 
frightened of being photographed, run away. 



Out of town, over the broad river, now at a low ebb. Rocky flats, 
very silty water. Long broad terraces in lowland. People at work, 
mostly women. Few cattle. We follow the river bottom quite awhile. 
As we rise along the hillside, terraces more congested, narrower. 
Rice and sweet potato alternate- The latter cultivated in small mounds, 
the mounds arranged in rows, crescents, circles, and even spirals: 
green motifs on the dark red earth. 



^. 



The highest point between Bontoc and Banaue is a windy gap up on 
the shoulder of Mt. Polls. There we stop. As we get out of the bus, 
the rain takes possession of us. Whipping, ripping, drenching. It is 
hard to write down notes. By the roadside an enormous Anemone 



Spring, 1955 ' ASA GRAY BULLETIN 115 



vitifolia (Himalayan plant on its southern edge). Wrapped in our rain- 
coats, hugging our presses, we walk up and down the road. The forest 
here looks interesting. Gone are the pines and open slopes. This is 
thickly clothed with evergreens. 

Our guide shows up, a young Igorote, his bare thighs and buttocks 
dry in spite of the downpour. He climbs upslope ahead of us, showing 
the way, cutting down lianas and young tree ferns that stand in the way. 
One of these has a very spiny trunk. Our guide knows: there are no 
spines in his flesh. 

Stop I Think! This is it. This is what you have been dreaming of. 
Moss forest. Every trunk and branch thickened by a green sheath. 
Orchids and gesneriads on the boughs. The trees with medium- sized 
dark- green leaves. The peppery taste of one reveals DHmys piperita 
(or Illicium ?). There are several rough, entire-leaved oaks, very 
twiggy; Saurauia with its golden pubescence; also Medinilla, Platea, 
Homalanthus, Polyosma and even Ilex and Vaccinium with fine lus- 
trous leaves. Van Steenis grasps a twig from an overhanging tree and 
thrusts it at me: "What is this?" 

Apparently I should know: opposite, entire leaves, medium-sized, 
hard texture. It is Acer niveum ! What stories have I not told my 
students about this precious Indonesian highland evergreen maple? 
And here it rests in my hand, inoffensive enough, and yet it holds the 
clue to the origin of the deciduous forest? Here I am surrounded by 
oaks, maples, hollies, blueberries! But they are somehow less evi- 
dent than the exquisite Cyathea tree ferns, the flaming red gesneriads, 
the delicate filmy ferns, the climbing Freycinetia with its tufts of 
sharp leaves, the precisely channelled blades of melastomes, the 
numerous unknown herbs on the forest floor. Above all, these maples, 
oaks, hollies, and blueberries do not look like maples, oaks, 
hollies, and blueberries! It is a long way from here to Michigan or 
Quebec. The detour is through China and Japan or maybe back down 
Indonesia-New Zealand way, and up along the Chilean coast and at 
mid-altitudes in the Andes to Mexico? After all, the podocarps are 
just a few miles away and they run north and south. China ("cross 
the bay") has a wealth of maples and oaks. In Japan and Kamtchatka 
they mix with northern Gyranosperms. . . 

The rain has not stopped, but in this dense forest we are fairly 
sheltered. Our guide literally slides between the raindrops, his thighs 
and hands dry, whereas every exposed surface of our skins glistens 
with sweat and rain. The soil is very slippery on the slope where the 
trees tend to buttress and stilt. Lianas are not very numerous, no- 
where really form a tangle. At the top of the slope, the canopy is more 
open and the undergrowth denser. The middle third of the trees is 



116 ASA GRAY BULLETIN N.S. Vol. Ill, No. 1 



especially thick with moss and fern epiphytes (the famous "moss line" 
of Richards). How I wish Hosokawa were here; he knows a great deal 
about this kind of forest! 



As we sidle down through the moss forest, grappling at the lianas, 
the spiny tree fern, the smooth trunks, the deceptive moss sheaths, 
losing our foothold frequently, we grab twigs and branches, flowers 
and fruit. I attempt to write on the soggy pages of my notebook whose 
red cover stains the paper and my hands. 



Back to the village. Downhill. Downpour. Workers in the flooded 
fields. The red Cordyline on the terrace edge, a whole row of them 
where labourers were killed in war. 



Several hours drying, pressing, re-writing notes at our hotel. A 
hot cup of tea very welcome. This strange mountain inn would become 
home in no time! The family takes a discreet interest in our botanical 
operations. I daresay the careful preservation of so many branches 
and grasses seems less strange to the children than to the adults! 

At dusk I wander up to the ruins of the church. Bombed out. Tempo- 
rary church roughly constructed ("C'etait une humble eglise au cintre 
surbaisse"). I stop in at the rectory and meet a very pleasant young 
Belgian priest (who unfortunately speaks no French}. He tells me of 
the strong tribal habits that persist here. People of one village mis- 
trust "strangers" from nearby areas. For instance, a few weeks ago, 
a peasant 10 miles from here had a serious accident. A force of twenty 
men escorted him to Bontoc hospital, for safety's sake. 

The young priest walks down to the inn with me, seems happy to 
talk to an outsider. He has the clear speech, the calm look, the joyous 

gait of some of my Jesuit friends. 



At Bontoc Hotel, George Clarke has arrived, after a miserable 
trip. A landslide held them up for many hours. Their driver has 
remained there, up in the mountains, on the other side of the gap in 
the road. They got a rugged ride down to Bontoc, are dead tired. But 
do honour to an excellent meal. 



Evening of dances. A few women participating, but the active part 
is played by the men. Music by clanging metal drums. Monotonous 
tong'ga-tong'ga-tong'ga! Varies in rhythm and tempo. Principally a 
circular, crouching-surging movement. Some war-like skirmishes. 
Nothing erotic. Some of the older men wear only the traditional G- 
string, usually of bright red cloth. The younger men pride themselves 
on T-shirts and helmets. The esthetic effect is dubious. At the centre 



Spring, 1955 ASA GRAY BULLETIN 117 



a large truck tire ("lasse d'un long voyage") is set aflame. Sandal- 
wood, flowers in the hair of dusky beauties, palm mats to sit upon are 
a thing of the past. 

These people are not good-looking. At least, they appear quite 
healthy. Short, compact, very strong bodies, broad, intelligent and 
friendly faces. Some of the young men talk to us in halting but toler- 
ably good English. They complain that roads are not being well kept, 
that local labor is not made use of (Am I back in St. Antoine-sur-le- 
Richelieu? or in Podunk, Michigan?). 



531202. BONTOC to BAGUIO. 

The road is still "out." So we may have to spend the day in Bontoc. 
A pleasant persprective. I pay another visit to the Belgian fathers 
who are having breakfast with three other priests from neighbouring 
settlements. I get some interesting information from them. I am 
curious about their approach to the native culture on which their con- 
frere, Father Vanoverbergh, is a leading authority. They do not make 
a fuss about clothing, for instance. No mission dresses here. It is 
heartening to know missionaries who do not rely on western culture 
as the necessary vehicle for the Christian faith. 

Father Baute, whom I had met yesterday, has to teach a class and 
leaves us. Father Nollet conducts me on a tour of the classrooms. I 
enjoy myself thoroughly by making little speeches to the children, to 
whom I bring the greetings of American children and schoolmasters. 
They all rise politely when I enter and walk down the aisle. They 
smile and titter. I say who I am and what my purpose is, and how 
beautiful are tree ferns and how lucky they are to live surrounded by 
them (This is ridiculous of course, but aren't all foreigners eccentric 
anyway?). To the biology class: look hard, look at the ferns, not at 
the textbook! 

These children appear healthy. But it seems that 7 out of 10 die 
before they are 3 years old. This the official statistics do not show. 
The priest tells me of one occasion when he was called to a distant 
settlement during an epidemic. He baptized 47 sick children. Came 
home and alerted the health service. A nurse went out the following 
day, could get no one to acknowledge illness and be treated. Wide- 
spread, almost systematic suspicion of "officials" (If the pattern is 
anything like that of the Amazon, where even Red Cross and UNICEF 
relief were bartered or sold, they have good reason!). 

'a 

The Sanitary Service officer in this village is a very fine man who 
gives me an outline of the local situation. I am surprised to hear that 



118 



BULLETIN N.S. Vol. Ill, No. 1 



■ 

tuberculosis is no problem here (it is in the Lowlands); but broncho- 
pneumonia and other pulmonary diseases take a heavy toll. Malaria 
is endemic in two-thirds of the Mountain Province. 



It is a pity that we missed the fiesta, which occurred a few weeks 
ago and is held every 5-7 years. Involves a great deal of "conspicu- 
ous spending." For instance carabaos are slaughtered, their heads 
strung up in front of their owner's house. 

A visit to the road engineer. Bustling office with lots of clerks, 
piles of paper. The engineer a very urbane fellow. He says it costs 
850 pesos per kilometer per year to keep the roads passable. It seems 
that we may now go, as the landslide has been mended. 



We retrace our steps towards Pingat (which we had not seen on the 
way in, for it was then dark). Beautiful clumps of the ubiquitous 
Melastoma malabathricum , its large deep- rose blossoms fully opened 
in the morning sun. The weedy Mexican sunflower nods brightly all 
over the landscape. On the road-cuts, clumps of Rhododendron. A 
dusty Artemisia {capillaris ? japonica?) by the roadside. 

From Pingat to Clark Village, much pine, a good deal of it forest 
or at least woodland rather than savanna. We stop and survey one 
plot at an altitude of about 6000 feet. Slope to the East approximately 
30O, trees 30-45 cm in diameter and 65-75 feet high, canopy cover 
about 50%. A second layer (also of Pinus insularis) 15 cm. in diame- 
ter, 30 feet high with very little coverage. Grasses (Miscanthus 



floridulus 



Lower grasses 



(Imperata ), shrubs, very few pines and some herbs {Cirsium 
luzoniense, Dianella javanica, Elephantopus mollis, and the tremen- 
dously aggressive Eupatorium adenophorum) below 2 meters are 
quite dense, 60% cover. A good deal of humus in soil despite runways 
made by man, and fires. Saurauia is the most frequent broadleaf- 
evergreen invader under pines in this region. 

A few miles before Clark Village, the first Podocarpus imhricata 
is seen. Here is a zone of rather intensive, and as it seems success- 
ful agriculture. It is a sort of high plateau, gently rolling. Soil dark 
red, almost black. Acres of sweet potato. Also lots of recently 
burned trees. Looks like the final scene of the first part of "Gone 
with the Wind." Infernal devastation. Wounds of fire and water. 
Gouging of the machine. The painful scorching of the soil by man. 

At km. 52 (52 km. N. of Trinidad), another stop, the last. I am in 
a state of desperate excitement at the idea that I shall not, on this 
trip, really see, touch, feel, and penetrate into podocarp forest. Here 



Spring, 1955 



ASA GRAY BULLETIN 



119 



— _. „^,. ^^^_ ^x^rv -^-'^"^Fl-_7— 7^ 



-r j^v'?^"^'-^ '.-"."= V'.'"""n^"'.V''/'i'^-^^ 



f 



\\ 



^ 




Near Clark Village. Gentle slope where sweet potato is grown. In foreground eroding 
bank with solitary relict Podocarpus imhricata. 



r.^'-^'\-^--^.-'>^--- 



-S.r-U-f-.j^j-^.>- . 



. .1 




A stand of Podocarpus, Polyosma, Elaeocarpus, Litsea, Saurauia, about 52 km 
Trinidad, 



120 ASA GRAY BULLETIN N.S. VoL III, No. 1 



it is, here are we, on the road, on the lip of a deep ravine full of ever- 
green trees dripping with epiphytes. A lovely temperate rainforest 
of podocarps and evergreen broadleaf trees [Quercus , Polyosma, 
Elaeocarpus, Litsea). Most of them openly and freely but irregu- 
larly and asymmetrically branched in the upper third, extending out 
to terminal leafy tufts. Upper trunk and branches clothed in a thin 
sheath of moss (not as thick as on Mt. Polls) and bristly with 
epiphytes. The orchid Dendrochilum nestles in the asperities and 
forks, its long grasslike leaves spilling gracefully downward. Big 
blotches of Peltigera cling to the very surface of bark or moss. A 
Schefflera is almost the only liana. I can do little more than snatch 
branches or tufts of all these. The Podocarpus neriifolia's fruit, its 
bulbous red terminal part as amazing as the great width of its leaves 
(I already knew the vegetative parts from our Michigan Botanical 
Garden plants). 



Again it is dark and the day is spent. And we can only sit and talk 
about plants. Heim is fairly well pleased with his collections: he has 
gathered a reasonable number of Fungi, some of which are probably 
new. He tells me of some of the controversies that are going on in 
France concerning the rainforest and the vegetation of West Tropical 
Africa. I am most anxious to meet the men who have done field work 
there, at the forthcoming International Botanical Congress, of which 
Heim is to be president. The programme is most promising. 

Back to the now almost familiar Baguio. It is nice to dry oneself, 
wash, warm up. A pleasant dinner with the charming Mona Lisa, Heim, 
Fosberg, van Steenis and Walker. And then more pressing of plants, 
revision of notes. A final nightcap alone with van Steenis. ' He tells 
me of monsoon forests of Java with Schleichera oleosa, Acacia 
tomentosa, Tectona grandis (I had not thought that teak was indigenous 
there). It seems that there are quite a few evergreens in the upper 
canopy of this forest. Natives used to burn the vegetation deliberately. 
This would cause sprouting of herbs and attract deer. I wish there 
were more time to "exploit" him: he has a tremendous store of 
knowledge. 

I must go to bed with an aching heart, a longing for the podocarps 
my hands have reached out for, I will dream that I wander all alone, 
at leisure, in their misty shade and that I have found an answer to 
many troublesome questions. 

531203. BAGUIO - MOUNT SANTO- TOMAS - BAGUIO - MANILA. 

We never seem really to get off to an early start. We ramble a 
good deal before hitting the road to Mt. Santo- Tomas, northwest of 



Spring, 1955 ASA GRAY BULLETIN 121 



town. To the foot of the mountain, mixed agricultural small plots. A 
winding road much like the road to Bontoc. But today is dry and the 
pink peppery dust rises around us. Poorly vegetated hillsides. Hard 
grasses on slopes, and patches of evergreen hardwoods in ravines. 
Saurauia most prominent. Grade gets steeper, road twists more 
acutely. A few men working, digging, filling up erosional breaches. 
We plan to drive the bus (our battered bus, now without a door-handle, 
its windows vibrating, encumbered with full presses, loose specimens, 
shoes, jackets, boxes, trinkets) to within 2 km. of the top. This should 
be interesting. 

But it shall not be. The driver stops. Peering over his shoulder, 
we sight a gaping precipice 1000 feet below us. The road is no more: 
the cornice that bore it has been scraped clean of the hillside; the 
waterlogged clay has made a grand slide downwards. Nothing to do 
but walk. As it is late and we must travel to Manila tonight, Dr. Santos 
rules that we shall spend an hour hereabouts. So we scatter in various 

directions. 



The landscape is most unpromising. Nothing in sight looks any- 
where near "virgin" vegetation. Hoogland and I climb to the top of a 
rise and survey the land. We cross a small garden on a plateau, 
where strawberries, peas, potatoes and onions are being grown. On 
a very steep hill, among charred trunks, the untidy vines of sweet 
potato. A scrub of Saurauia, shabby tree ferns, the coarse, tangled 
grasses (Miscanthus floridulus mostly). 



Erosion and more erosion. Deep gashes on the road banks. Some 
Lycopodium trailing on the wetter exposures. Many weeds and weedy- 
looking Composites (Among them, the blue Centaurea-like plant I had 
seen in Trinidad, which turns out to be the endemic Centratherum 
fruticosum ). Hoogland and I start marching downhill, thinking that 
the bus will overtake us presently, as the hour is up and there is not 
time to explore further. We collect a lovely Begonia nestling on top 
of a shaded boulder (reminds me of Begonia itatiaiensis on Brazil's 
most famous mountain!). We walk and walk. Golden arrows of the 
noonday sun. Puffs of dust from the rolling stones under our now 
dragging feet. Shirts off. More sun, and a pleasant torpor that numbs 
all frustration. We reach the plain long before the bus comes rattling 
toward us. 

Almost everyone takes group pictures before we part. On a street 
corner in Baguio. Self-conscious faces against a bituminous back- 
ground. Actually, this farewell tardy meal in a Chinese restaurant is 
excellent and most cordial. It has been a too short but exciting trip. 
Heim remains in Baguio. Standing on the street corner, waving 



I 



122 ASA GRAY BULLETIN N.S. VoL III, No. 1 



goodbye, looks a bit like Tartarin de Tarascon. 



Down the Kennon River Gorge once more. The reddish trunks of 
the deciduous trees in the lower area now almost look familiar. And 
the beautiful, steaming, fertile plain: this wealth of sugarcane and 
deep rich earth after the crumbling gravel and sticky red mud of the 
mountains. 



Manila Hotel, all agog yesterday to pay homage to vice-president 
Nixon, now has spread all banners in favour of a visiting pugilist. 



531204. MANILA. 



We leave tomorrow afternoon. I am happy that there will be a 
little time for the idle wandering which I so enjoy in a strange town. 
I have taken in so little, as yet, of the atmosphere, the mood, the tem- 
per of the Filipinos. 



Allan and I go to the Philippine Education centre. Very interesting 
Philippiniana. We buy a few books and pamphlets. I am deeply frus- 
trated by my lack, at this time, of any immediate insight into Filipino 
culture. I have not met a single writer, poet, sociologist (as I had, 
and of such excellent quality, in New Zealand!). But here comes an 
archaeologist, who is also a man of letters, to whom Allan introduces 
me: Dr. Arsenio Manuel. He and his wife promise to come and have 
a cocktail with me this afternoon. The "objets d'art" here are of bet- 
ter quality than most I have seen so far, although the nut-cracker 
female is still with us. I buy a pair of unserviceable but exquisitely 
carved salad forks. 



Groslier and Morechand are also in the shop. The latter wanders 
out with Allan and me and we casually stroll through the market, the 
busy street, somewhat nostalgically rubbing elbows with this pleasant- 
tempered crowd. Tomorrow we shall go. All those faces will forever 
become dim, not each one recognizable and individual and alive as it 



is now. We 



hand or tap a shoulder, but who would understand? 



I would gladly shake a 



An excellent lunch at a Chinese restaurant with Allan and More- 
chand, with whom I wander back to the Manila Hotel. He plans to 
return to France next year, gives me his address. Does not seem to 
have much to say about life in Indo-China, except that war has not 
actually put a stop to scientific investigations. He is a very soft- 
spoken and discreet person. Morechand is an archaeologist, has not 
yet completed his thesis, on which he has been working for several 
years. He tries to explain to us that this is not like an American 



Spring, 1955 



ASA GRAY BULLETIN 123 



^ 



Ph.D. thesis. It apparently involves a great deal beyond meeting 
"requirements." 

At five, Dr. Manuel and his wife show up and we go to the bar. 
They are small, sensitive, earnest people, who speak their minds in 
a flawless but pleasantly accented English. All they take is fruit 
juice, but the conversation has plenty of sparkle. Their approach to 
the cultural situation and its future development in the Philippines is 
a very detached, and, as it seems to me, mild one. Again I miss the 
resentment against the U. S. which I believe should exist. I cannot 
understand its apparent absence in the face of American power (al- 
though this is not accompanied by obvious arrogance). The Philippines 
are an American colony, economically. The autonomy of their politi- 
cal decisions itself can be questioned. If a high degree of economic 
dependance, the successful implantation of a foreign language, the 
infiltration of a way of life, do not spell conquest and submission, I 
fail to see what they do mean! I do not disguise my bewilderment in 
the face of this cultural growth: the functions of the family still involve 
communication in Tagalog; the intercourses of public life are carried 
on in English. Manuel points out some genuine achievements by Fili- 
pinos in English, names the following writers: Jose Garcia Villa, 
Manuel Arguilla, N. V. M. Gonzalez, Joaquin, Francisco Avellana, 



Daguio, Maximo 



He inclines to think of this, it 



seems to me, as another stage, to be succeeded by an authentic Ma- 
layan-language culture. 

This thought is somewhat discouraging to me: after the Spanish 
dead-end, an American dead-end followed by a Tagalog renaissance. 
Combiende recommencements? It is appalling. Yet logical, and in 
a way the most satisfying condition. But how many sacrificed gener- 
ations must labour in the uneasy strait- jacket of a borrowed medium, 
an ill-fitting, uncongenial culture? It seems to me that the measure 
of this lack of fitness is revealed by the fact that no Filipinos speak 
English entirely without an accent, even those whose command of the 
vocabulary and grammar are impeccable. Must we think, then, that 
they are imperfectly assimilated (the Indo-Chinese speak French with- 
out the remotest trace of an accent!) and are even now forging a new 
idiom more different from American speech than the latter is from 
the British? In fact, not many Filipinos speak in a peculiarly Ameri- 
can way. They do not appear to be fond of slang (which they italicize 
or put in quotes) and their tone, rhythm and vocabulary generally has 
no provincialism but their own. 

Allan and I spend the evening studying another cultural manifes- 
tation- jai-alai, the Basque handball game. A whole building devoted 
to it Players, a closed corporation of pure-blooded Basques. 



124 ASA GRAY BULLETIN N.S. VoL III, No. 1 



Exciting to watch. The long sweep of the arm prolonged by its "basket." 
Agility of the players, of which very few are really young, mostly in 
their late thirties, some in the forties. Most spectators more excited 
by the betting than by the play. Score is relayed to downstairs restau- 
rant on a lighted screen. Some enthusiasts never see the game, bet 
according to a "system" in the best Monte-Carlo tradition. 



531205. MANILA 



Last hours in the capital. Pouring rain on the mirroring sidewalks. 
Fruitful visit to the Forest Service with Mona Lisa and Ray Fosberg. 
I get wood samples, a large coloured map of forest regions. Mr. 
Tamesis, the retiring chief, a capable and cordial man. 



531206. GUAM 



W 



deal of cut-over land, waste places invaded by Ipomoea indica, 
Pipturus argenteus. An interesting tall scrub-growth on sharp 
scoriae lava, with Carica papaya, Flagellaria indica, Triplasia 
trifolia, Leucaena glauca ; large patches of Oplismenus hirtellu 
soil; Ipomoea indica. tangling. 



A great 



A more advanced stage (or a remnant of the original vegetation?) 
is seen farther inland where we stop to look in briefly. Pandanus 
tectorum and Pandanus dubius extend here and there above a slight- 
ly lower canopy of broadleaved evergreens which (Fosberg says) 



probably do not shade them out. 



andis (the cli- 
oppositifolia (the climax 



dominant of some of the wetter coral islands?). Also present, 
Muntingia cauliflora. the rare Guamia, and Cestrum diumum 
The most conspicuous understory: Cycas circinalis. 



points 



us 



two species and many curious intermediates. Introgression? 



We must take leave of Ray Fosberg who is remaining on Guam for 
a couple of months. 



531207. HONOLULU 



How tedious our arrival. I almost spent the night in jail. Did not 
have a re-entry visa! Was liberated temporarily when a young air- 
force officer vouched for me. This morning, long parley with immi- 
gration "judge," who finally gives me the official stamp. 



1 



Spring, 1955 ASA GRAY BULLETIN 125 



Spoehr 



Wharf 



but quite good). 



Short visit to Hawaii Sugarcane Planters Association. Renner 
Kahle laboratory and library, working facilities. Peraberton shows 
us impressive insect collection. 



531208. HONOLULU - PALO ALTO 

This lapse tiring. A plush airplane with reclining seats. I cannot 
sleep. The night will never end. Sordid dreams, all poetry spent. 
Karl Meyer very kindly offers McMullen and me a ride to San Fran- 
cisco. I telephone Bill Steere in Palo Alto. 

It is a joy to see the Calif ornian landscape again, although this part 
is the least picturesque. The long undulations of the foothills around 
Vallejo. The industries, the Bay. But now, San Francisco, the most 
beautiful city in North America. Up the curving white- lined streets. 
Stucco, tiles, neat shrubbery of Junipero Serra Boulevard. Now out 
beyond to San Mateo, Palo Alto. Is this a dream? The flowing yellow 
grass and the solid black shapes of oaks spread across the hills. The 
hills that rise to the darker and greener coastal range. The known 
sea beyond with its probable bank of fog. 



Was 



was here before? 



Here we are, unshaven, haggard, tired, hungry, I must look like a 
soiled Greco ghost to Bill. We go to his home, a lovely house. A 

strange mauve-fruited Eugenia in the garden. Fortunately Dorothy 
is not there to see me looking so ragged. Bill gives me a cup of tea, 
then he goes back to the University. I take a shower and sleep. 



531209. PALO ALTO 

This morning, in Palo Alto, rose late, breakfasted alone, took a 
deep breath of the sweet December California air, nodded to the oaks, 
the eucalypti, the casuarinas, all good friends of happy days. Went 
over to the Carnegie, had quite a gay and cordial chat with Bill Hiesey 
and Paul Grun (he is leaving for Penn State College!). Jens Clausen 
will return tomorrow from Brazil! A few minutes with Spoehr. Lunch 
with Dorothy and Bill at the Stanford Cafeteria. Herbert Hoover not 

there. 



531211. WASHINGTON 



Arrive weary, in the early morning. Bus to railroad station. No 



m 



^2^ ASA GRAY BULLETIN N.S. Vol. Ill, No. 1 



train till night. Stumbled over to hotel. Slept till ten. Phoned Montre- 
al and home. A movie, a cup of tea. And a long dispirited wait. How 
lovely Ann Arbor will look, even if it is cold and windy and wet. Life 
begins tomorrow. The old life that I love. The same man that I was? 



DANSEREAU TO HEAD BOTANY AT MONTREAL.-We hope readers 
of the Asa Gray Bulletin have enjoyed reading Pierre Dansereau's 
Philippine Journal, which is concluded in these pages. Now with 
mixed feelings we vnsh the author well in his new work. It has re- 
cently been announced that Professor Dansereau will leave Ann Arbor 
and the University of Michigan after the Summer of 1955, to take up 
his duties as Dean of the Faculty of Science, and Chairman of the De- 
partment of Botany, at the University of Montreal. We at Ann Arbor 
have valued his stimulating companionship since he came here in 
1950; we are unhappy to see him go, but we congratulate him on his 
challenging new opportunity, and we congratulate the University of 
Montreal on their choice.— Eds. 



GRAY BULLETIN— The number 



for Autumn, 1953 (New Series, Volume H, number 4), was mailed on 
27 July 1954. The present number begins a new volume and a new 
year, and it is our intention to publish 4 numbers (Spring, Summer, 
Autumn and Winter) during the year 1955. Librarians and bibliog- ' 
raphers should note that although two numbers (Volume II, numbers 
3 and 4) were published during the calendar year 1954, there is no 
volume of the Bulletin for that year: The running heads of Volume 
II bear the date 1953, and those of Volume III will be dated 1955. 

ERRATA— The following have been called to our attention by Drs. 
Jenkins and Bitancourt, the authors of an article in Volume II, number 
4: Page 415, line 2 (of title), for 451, read 450; p. 415, par. 2, line 10 
for (2) read (5), for (3) read (6); p. 416, last par., line 9, for (3 4 5) 
read (2,3,4). ' ' ^ 



EDITORIAL NOTES - News notes by our subscribers and readers on botanical ac- 
tivities of last year and those now current will be appreciated by the editors of 
A. G. B. It is especially suggested that general accounts of botanical excursions and 
expeditions be based upon note-books and diaries while impressions are fresh and 
that these be accompanied by some of the best photographs, from which a selection 
can be made for publication. Each photograph should have an adequate legend giving 
such data as careful botanists would find desirable on the label of a good herbarium 
specimen. In fact, if a picture represents an actual collecting locality the numbers 
of corresponding specimens may well be cited. The longer notes, of which authors 
may wish reprints, should be titled. Short ones will be alphabetically arranged as a 
group. Informal letters from the field may be published as such, but will be appro- 
priately titled by the editors. Much interest is taken in the news notes by those who 
do not bother to contribute any themselves! 



WARREN GOOKIN WATERMAN, 1872-1952 

Margery C. Carlson 



Warren Gookin Waterman 
3kin Waterman in Southpoi 



He married Anna 



daughter 



M 



Warren 



John 



Dr. Waterman spent his boyhood on the estate of his grandparents 
in Southport, where he wandered in the woods and along a brook, 




Professor Waterman on a field trip at Frankfort, Michigan. Photograph by 



Jack Van Coevering. 



127 



128 ASA GRAY BULLETIN N.S. VoL III, No. 1 

developing the love of nature which persisted throughout his life. He 
attended Southport Dames School, directed by Miss Smith, who encour- 
aged him to read e?d:ensively, particularly in the field of natural science 



Me am not attend high school, but received a diploma from Bridgeport 
High school by examination. 

He received his B.A. in 1892 and his M.A. in 1907 from Yale Uni- 
versity, and his Ph.D. in botany from the University of Chicago, in 
1917. He taught at Fisk University, Nashville, Tenn., from 1896 to 
1911; at Knox College, Galesburg, HI., from 1912 to 1915; and at North- 
western University, Evanston, HI., from 1917 until his retirement in 
1937. He was made Professor and Chairman of the Botany Department 
in 1928. 

He was a fellow of the American Association for theAdvancement 
of Science; former president of the Illinois Academy of Sciences; mem- 
ber of the Board of Advisors, Illinois State Museum, and of the Con- 
servation Council of Chicago, the Michigan Academy of Sciences, and 
the Botanical Society of America. He held memberships in the Con- 
gregational Church and the University Clubs of Evanston and Chicago. 
He was an honorary member of the Evanston Garden Club. 

After his graduation from Yale, he took a trip around the world, 
spending several mionths in India. He had been active in the Student 
Volunteers for Foreign Missions at college, and planned to work in 
India as a missionary, but these plans did not materialize because of 
an illness. 

During his years at Northwestern University, he taught courses in 
ecology and landscape gardening. Through his contacts with the owners 
of renowned gardens in the Chicago area, particularly along the North 
Shore, he gave his students an unusual opportunity for practical study. 
He was an advocate of natural, rather than formal, garden planting. 
He often took groups of students to the Frankfort area of Michigan and 



ky 



ler lieid courses in ecology. His 

the ecology of dunes areas. He studied 

Dune, Leelanau Countv, Mich., and the 



Frankfort, an 



his work. 



Plant Communities. Du 



chairmanship, the botany department grew in staff and student body. 

After his retirement, he moved to his farm. River Bend, near Frank- 
fort. He built a home on a hillside, overlooking the beautiful valley of 
the Betsie River, with a view to the sunsets over Lake Michigan. In 
the spring and summer, he tramped over the country, studying the 
haunts and habits of native orchids, and in the autumn, he hunted with 
his dogs. He probably knew more about wild orchids, especially the 
showy lady-slippers {Cypripedium reginae Walt.) than any other person. 
He located probably all of the stations where they grow within a radius 
of 50 miles of his home and visited them at least once a year. He 
studied the environment, the vigor, the number of flowers and the 



^ :.i-.^''* '^ 



spring, 1955 



ASA GRAY BULLETIN 



129 



increase from year to year, and worked out the life history from seed 

to maturity. 



abundance 



tion of the wild orchids in former years, and crusaded to prevent their 
extermination by writing articles for newspapers and magazines and by 



exhibits 



He had accumulated 



voluminous notes for a monograph on the showy Lady-slipper, and had 
published two articles in the bulletin of the American Orchid Society. 

Photography was one of his hobbies, and he pioneered in Lumiere 
color photography long before the introduction of kodachrome. Co- 
incident with his retirement, he began painting in oils, and his love of 



expres 



paintings. 



On the several occasions when I visited him, I was privileged to 
share with him the discovery of many a new colony of some rare plant 



knowledg 



woods, bogs, and swampy meadows. 



ankfort. Michigan 



15, 1952. He was buried in the Benzonia cemetery, in the heart of the 
country he loved. 




Professor Waterman, after his retirement from teaching, transplanting orchids 
from a habitat about to be destroyed. Photograph by Jack Van Coevering. 



130 ASA GRAY BULLETIN N.S. VoL HI, No. 1 



A LETTER REGARDING PROFESSOR WATERMAN FROM HIS SON 



2018 Orrington Avenue, 
Evanston, Illinois. 
Thurs. Dec. 4, 1952. 



H. H. Bartlett, 
Department of Botany, 
University of Michigan, 
Ann Arbor, Michigan, 



Dear Sir: 

Your letter addressed to the administrator of the estate of the late Professor 
W. G. Waterman at Frankfort has been forwarded to me by the post office in ac- 
cordance with my request. There are enclosed various items which may be useful 
to you for the project you have in mind. 

He was a member of the Agassiz Association while a young man in Southport, 
Connecticut. After graduating from college, he intended to become a medical mis- 
sionary but turned to teaching instead because of an injury during a trip to India in 
1894. It is believed that he taught Natural History at Fisk University. At any rate, 
he was teaching Geology at Knox College under Doctor Neale. 

At the University of Chicago, he studied under Dr. Cowles and Dr. Fuller, spe- 
cializing in plant ecology, doing most of his research in the dunes around Point Bet- 
sie and Crystal Lake, Benzie County, Michigan.* After going to Northwestern, 
where Professor Atwell was his immediate superior in the beginning, he conducted 
several classes in Botany from his cottage at the Congregational Assembly Grounds 
near Frankfort, during his summers. Professor Alfred Povah was his assistant in 
Botany at Northwestern for a while. 

His collections are at present located in his house near Frankfort, with his notes, 
pictures and other materials. The will leaves to the Boyce Thompson Institute of 
Plant Research at Yonkers, New York, the ladyslipper plants and data. This was his 
chief study since his retirement. 

His family had lived in Connecticut for many years. One of his sisters still lives 
there. His pre-college education was obtained at Southport, as well as at Bridgeport 
High SchooL For the best part of his life, he was widely traveled, having continued 
around the world after visiting India. He spent considerable time in Canada and 
Alaska, with several trips to the Colorado and Canadian Rockies, 

If there Is any other way that you wish my assistance in this, please do not hesi- 
tate to request it. 



Sincerely, 



French Waterman 



♦[Aside from easily located articles in the Papers of the Michigan Academy of 
Sciences, Botanical Gazette, American Orchid Society Bulletin, etc., he published a 
pamphlet entitled ^'Forests and Dunes from Point Betsie to Sleeping Bear, Benzie 
and Leelanau Counties, Michigan," Northwestern University. Evanston Illinois 
1922 J 



TO BE EXPECTED IN FORTHCOMING ISSUES 



Botanizing in the Tahquamenon Area, by Alexander H. Smith 

Wilhelm Hillebrand, by Otto Degener 

Persian Diary. I, by Walter N. Koelz 

An Autobiography for his Family and Friends, by Cornelius L. Shear 

Glimpses of the Natural History of Koror, by Peter J. and Alma Hill 

Ekman, Botanical Explorer in the West Indies, by Siri Von Reis 

Biographical Sketches of Louis H. Jordal, Ray C. Friesner, 

Charles C. Deam, and Alice Eastwood 

^ 

Observations on the Edwards Plateau, by Winifred O. Moore 

Botanist's Visit to Mount Sisipitan, by Jose Vera Santos 

Letters from Alaska, by Gertrude Frohne 

Ethnobotany of Popcorn, by Volney H. Jones 

Collecting in the Aleutians, by Walter J. Eyerdam 

The Everett G. Logue Collection of Hybrid Oaks, by H. H. Bartlett 

Nathan A, Cobb as a Botanist, by Frieda Cobb Blanchard 

Expedicion Onate, by John A. Nystrom, translated by Siri Von Reis 

Botanical Publications on the Ryukyu Islands, by Egbert H. Walker 

Notes on the Flora of Agattu, by Harvey Alfred Miller 

^ 

Personal Recollections and Military Record of Colonel Valery Havard, 

r 

U. S* Army 
Evaluation of Havard' s Botanical Work, by Rogers McVaugh 

Sphagnum Flora of the Vicinity of Douglas Lake, Michigan, by Bodil 

Lange 



THE ASA GRAY BULLETIN, NEW SERIES.-- A quarterly publi- 
cation devoted to more or less informal communication among the 
members of the three organizations listed below and our sub- 
scribers in general. For the present, progress reports of current 

r 

field, garden, and herbarium work, with readable and relatively 
non-technical articles in the fields related to systematics, botani- 
cal history, biography, and bibliography, will be preferred. There 
will be special emphasis upon preparatory work for a new "Flora 
of Michigan". Free use will be made of letters to the Editors (if 
released for publication by their writers) and of current news notes 
regarding botanists. 

Items for publication should be addressed to either of the Edi- 
tors at the Department of Botany, University of Michigan, Ann 
Arbor, Michigan, Contributors of major articles may secure 100 
copies of their contributions, at a cost of $1.25 per page or frac- 
tion thereof. Covers furnished without additional charge. 

L 

Address subscriptions to Dr. Ruth B. McVaugh, Business Man- 
ager, 403 Arbana Drive, Ann Arbor, Michigan. Subscription price 

for Volume I (if available) is $6.00; single copies of Nos. 2, 3, and 
4, $1.00 each. Vols. II and III, $3oOO each; single copies (if not 
breaking volumes) 75<? each. 

THE GRAY MEMORIAL BOTANICAL ASSOCIATION, FOUNDED 
1887. — This organization sponsored publication of early volumes 
of the Asa Gray Bulletin. Later it issued a mimeographed "Bulle- 
tin''. Its object is to commemorate the life and botanical work of 
Asa Gray and to assist its members in botanical activity by fur- 
thering friendly correspondence and cooperation among them. In- 
terested persons are invited to communicate with the Permanent 
Secretary, Professor R. Lee Walp, Department of Biology, Mari- 
etta College, Marietta, Ohio. 



MICHIGAN BOTANICAL GARDENS ASSOCIATION. — Founded in 
1925 to Include persons interested in promoting the development 
and current activities of the Botanical Gardens of the University of 
Michigan. There are no dues, but subscription to the Asa Gray 
Bulletin is invited. For further information, communicate with 
Dr. Frieda Cobb Blanchard, Secretary, 2014 Geddes Avenue, Ann 
Arbor, Michigan. 



MICHIGAN BOTANICAL CLUB. The membership is about 

350, made up of persons interested in the Michigan flora, nature- 
study, wild-flower protection, preservation of natural areas, and 
conservation. It has members at large and the following chapters: 
Southeastern, Bay County, Marquette, Wild-Life (Houghton), For 
information address Mr. Paul W. Thompson, 17503 Kirkshire, 
Birmingham, Mich., or Dr. Marion T. Hall, Cranbrook Institute 
of Science, Bloomfield Hills, Mich. 



N.S. Vol. Ill 



Spring, 1957 



No. 2 




\ 

I 

Edited and published for 
THE GRAY MEMORIAL BOTANICAL ASSOCIATION, 

BOTANICAL GARDENS ASSOCIATION 
OF THE UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN 

and 
THE MICHIGAN BOTANICAL CLUB 

by 
Harley H. Bartlett and Rogers McVaugh 

CONTENTS 

Persian Diary, L 

Walter N. Koelz 133 

Personal Recollections and Military Record of 

Colonel Valery Havard 177 

A Brief Evaluation of Havard' s Botanical Work 

Rogers McVaugh . 188 

(Continued over) 



ANN ARBOR, MICHIGAN 



CONTENTS 

(Continued) 



The Explorations of Major Livermore in Texas, 1878-1883 

Rogers McVaugh 191 



Wilhelm Hillebrand, 1821-1886 

Otto Degener 193 



Linaceae in Michigan 



C. M. Rogers 



199 



Nathan A. Cobb^ Botanist and Zoologist, a Pioneer Scientist 
in Australia 

Frieda Cobb Blanchard 205 



Botanical Gardens of the University of Michigan, and the New 
Director, Dr. A. Geoffrey Norman. 

Elizabeth Sunderland Trow 273 



About the Project for a New Flora of Michigan, and Edward G. 
Voss, Who is Working On It. 

Elizabeth Sunderland Trow 277 



Editorial Note 279 



Dr. Walter N. Koelz and Thakur Rup Chand, Collaborators in 
Asiatic Research, Botanical Gardens and Musuem of Zoology, 
University of Michigan 

Elizabeth Sunderland Trow 281 



Editorial Note 284 



X, 



PERSIAN DIARY. I 



Walter N. Koelz 



FOREWORD 



The "Persian Diary" by Dr. Walter Koelz is sure to interest our readers, and we 
are beginning serial publication in this number. As a record of travel it will be of 
permanent interest, for it gives the background for better understanding of the dated 
botanical specimens which were obtained concurrently with the collecting of useful 
plants for the Division of Plant Exploration and Introduction of the United States 
Department of Agriculture. The specimens are being worked over by Dr. K. H. 
Rechinger of the Natural History Museum of Vienna, whose recent letter follows: 



Wien, January 11, 1954 



Dear Dr. Koelz: 



It was indeed a great pleasure to receive a personal letter from you after having 
worked several years with your collections from Persia and Afghanistan. I have 
sent you few days ago all my reprints in which material collected by you is dealt 
with. It will still last many years until I am through, as I am working out at the 
same time, family by family, all the material available from Persia, Afghanistan 
and Baloochistan. I hardly need to stress that your collections are among the very 
best which ever have been brought back from those regions. As I am still planning 
to write a Flora of Iran and the neighbouring countries I would appreciate very much 
to have your itinerary notes as complete as possible. I have received through Dr. 
Archer, in Beltsville, lists of collecting numbers according to dates and localities 
visited by you in Afghanistan which complete similar lists received before through 
Dr. Koie from Dr. Paludan, but I have no notes on your expeditions in Persia, I 
tried to form a picture of your activities by putting the dates and localities from 
your labels together but this information seems to be not very complete. 

In case you are going back to Iran please let me know in due time so that I may 
give you lists of places and regions which are in need of more intensive collecting. 

I am still in contact with Dr. Gauba, He is just publishing an account of his 
Persian trips in Annalen des Naturhistorischen Museums in Wien^ Vols. 57: p. 42; 
58: p. 13; and 59 (under press). His present address is; Dr. Erwin Gauba, Depart- 
ment of the Interior, Parks & Gardens Section, Canberra A.CT., Australia, 

Thank you for mentioning the collection from Luristan, I shall write about it to 
Dr. Rogers McVaugh. 



With the kindest regards and best wishes, 



Dr. K. H. Rechinger 



The reason for publishing the "Persian Diary" now instead of the "Letters from 
India" which have been announced and which our readers have expected, arises from 
the fact that Dr. Koelz's long residence in India has been broken by a forced return 
to the United States and continuation of his interrupted work in India is not certain. 
Some of the letters might well be superfluous if he were to return and complete the 
program of field work upon which he was engaged when his activities were perhaps 
only suspended and perhaps terminated. In any event, the Persian residence is a 
closed book, and it seems better to start with that. 



133 



134 ASA GRAY BULLETIN N. S. VoL UI, No. 2 



Dr. Koelz completed his work for the doctorate at the University of Michigan in 

1920 in ichthyology, and wrote as his dissertation a monograph of the white fish of 

the Great Lakes. Always deeply interested in natural history in general, he employed 

his free time in botany and ornithology as freely as in ichthyology. Until 1925 he was 

with the U. S. Bureau of Fisheries, and in 1925 represented that Bureau in Arctic 

collecting, as naturalist with the MacMillan-Byrd Arctic Expedition. The Arctic trip 

marked the beginning of his addiction to travel, and after his return he was soon off 

again to New Mexico, where he lived for two years, engaged in study and observation 
of a sub-arid region. 

He returned to the University of Michigan to hold a Lloyd Post-doctoral Fellow- 
ship for the academic year 1927-28, and was appointed as State Ichthyologist of 
Michigan for the brief period that such a position existed. He then became Assistant 
Curator of Fish in the University Museum (1928-29) but held that position only a few 
months. 

The event which led to his long career in Asia was a request from Dr. E. D. 
Morrill, then Director of the New York Botanical Garden, to nominate someone to go 
as Botanist to the institution which had been established by supposedly "White" 
Russians, directed by Nicholas Roerich, at Naggar in the Kulu Valley, India, and 
which was known as the "Urusvati Himalayan Research Institute." It was ostensibly 
a research institution, but when its aims appeared to be more in the direction of 
political {or maybe just theosophical) penetration of trans-Himalayan Asia rather 
than scientific research, Koelz dropped the connection. It resulted, while it lasted 
(1929-1932), in the collecting of much botanical and ornithological material, of which 
the plants went largely to Kew and the New York Botanical Garden and the birds to 
the American Museum of Natural History, and to British collections. On return to 
the U. S. A. the University appointed him Freer Fellow in Asiatic Art, 1933-34, which 
time was spent in making a collection of Tibetan art and ethnographic objects and 
also a large collection of plants and some 7000 birds. In the interval from 1934-41 
he was engaged chiefly as agricultural explorer for the U. S. Department of Agricul- 
ture and travelled extensively in India, Afghanistan and Iran. The seeds and plant 
parts have yielded valuable material for American agriculture. 

Regarding what he did in this field I venture to quote the present chief of the Divi- 
sion, Mr. C. O. Erlanson, who has written as follows: 

"Some years ago a new disease reached epidemic proportions on the large com- 
mercial cantaloup crop in California, where are produced most of the cantaloups 
which reach the off-season market here in the United States. Resistance to this 
disease could not be found among the breeding stocks held in the United States. 
Doctor Koelz was fortunate enough to find near Calcutta a wild, inedible melon which 
had one superlative quality, as far as we were concerned, in that it was resistant to 
the disease which was attacking our melons in California. From the handful of seed 
which Doctor Koelz collected in India, we were able to develop breeding stock which 
saved the melon industry of California. In published statements which were made after 
the breeding work was done, it was claimed that this one collection saved the melon 
growers of California an estimated five million dollars a year. 

"The United States is always short in vegetable oils and investigations continue 
through the years for crops which might produce vegetable oil and which would at the 
same time give the growers of this country a profit. Among the plants which show 
promise for this purpose has been Perilla. However, in all the samples brought in 
from southern Asia and investigated, only one of them produced enough oil per acre 
to make it worth while. The collection of Perilla seed made by Doctor Koelz near 
Surag in the United Provinces of India turned out to be a much more highly produc- 
tive strain than anything we had found before. This plant is still under active inves- 
tigation, but results indicate that under our conditions it may yield as high as 1100 
pounds of seed per acre, and it is from the seed that the oil is obtained. This may 
become a new crop for the United States. 

"One of the great problems in the strawberry industry of this country is the 
prevalence of virus diseases which are very difficult to eliminate and which, under 
proper climatic conditions, often wipe out the complete crop of a grower. Near 
Garhwal, Doctor Koelz in 1948 collected seed of a strawberry which has been re- 



Spring, 1957 ASA GRAY BULLETIN 135 

ported as immune to all of the virus diseases known in the United States. This 
material is now being used in breeding for all our commercial varieties of straw- 
berries and, if it proves to be true that it can bring resistance to these virus dis- 
eases, it will mean millions of dollars to the growers of strawberries in this country. 

"An alfalfa picked up by Doctor Koelz near Dehra Dun is now being used exten- 
sively as a parent in breeding programs for this crop, merely because this particular 
strain has a very hairy stem. One of the pests of alfalfa fields in the United States 
is a small sucking insect which, under proper climatic conditions, multiplies 
rapidly and sucks the sap from the stems of alfalfas until the whole crop wilts and 
becomes useless over thousands of acres. The particular alfalfa strain which 
Doctor Koelz collected is sufficiently hairy on its stem so that the sucking insect 
can not reach the skin of the plant to suck out the juices and, therefore, commercial 
crops with this hairiness characteristic bred into them remain immune from the 

attacks of this insect pest. 

"Seed of a cucumber picked up near Bhavnagar has been found to be highly re- 
sistant to a disease called downy mildew, which has been very damaging in the State 
of North Carolina. The material collected by Doctor Koelz has been used in the 
breeding programs and new varieties have been developed which are now resistant 

to this disease. 

"These are only a few of perhaps 150 examples of very valuable collections 

which have been made by Doctor Koelz in southern Asia." 

The extensive herbarium material has been used by botanists of the world in 
systematic revisions and descriptions of new species. From 1940 to 1946 Koelz 
was in Iran, and in addition to the botanical studies concerned himself with collecting 
birds and antiquities, and learning the Persian language. In 1946 he returned to 
India and except for a period of plant exploration for U. S. Department of Agriculture 
in 1947-9 in that country, he has spent his time in collecting plants, birds and mam.- 
mals in various parts of India, |lately in Assam. The plant collections to date total 
over 33,000 numbers and his private collection of Asiatic birds numbers 55,000 
specimens. His constitutes the best collection in existence of Iran, Afghanistan and 

Indian Birds. 

The Diary relates the general experiences and impressions of one who has lived 

long abroad and in places far from the beaten path. In his wanderings since 1929, 
he has been accompanied by his devoted friend Thakur Rup Chand, whom he met 
under curious circumstances, which may perhaps be sometime related, at the 
summit of a pass leading into Lahul from the Indian side of the Himalayas. Rup 
Chand decided almost on the spot that he would rather be a naturalist than a Prince 
of Lahul, and has been such ever since. He is also, like Dr. Koelz, a keeper of 
diaries, as those with limited companionship are likely to be, and we may sometime 
have the privilege of publishing some translations from his pen. He writes as the 
spirit moves him, in Tibetan, Urdu or English. He has worked independently at times 
when separation from Dr. Koelz's headquarters has seemed likely to be botanically 
profitable, and we shall hope to have his Tibetan-border journal of a period when 
Koelz was working in Nepal. During aU these years of travel Dr. Koelz or Thakur 
Rup Chand or both have been attached to the Botanical Gardens of the University of 
Michigan as Collaborators in Asiatic Research and the great bulk of their botanical 
collections have come to us. As a matter of fact, Dr. Koelz's collecting of botanical 
material began in New Mexico, then continued in the Arctic and then in his home 
state of Michigan, where, with Mr. Carl O. Grassl, now of the U. S. Department of 
Agriculture, he studied plant distribution along the shores of Lakes Huron and 
Superior. They chugged along in a motor boat, starting at Detroit, and covered 
hundreds of miles in the summer of 1932. 

This now seems far away and long ago. Wherever he has been during his whole 
professional career I have prized the association with Dr. Koelz (his doctoral commit- 
tee was one of the three first on which I served as a member of the Michigan graduate 
, school faculty) and have kept in touch with his valuable work through the years. I 
believe that his accomplishments in field work have been the greatest of any general 
naturalist of our time. 

H. H. Bartlett 



136 



ASA GRAY BULLETIN 



N. S. Vol III, No. 2 



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GURGAN ' ^ ^ 



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( Shahrud 



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HAMADAN 



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Maina J 



35 M 



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\ Drujird 

■ Dorud 



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Niriz 

sfabanat 



KERMAN 



Shahdad 

IChahar Farsakh 
'Pushie 

,Mahun 



/ 



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Pdfk 



Zahidan -"^ 

Deh Bakrix^ , , , , 

Monamaddbad 

Tomogaon 
Hajiabad ^Dusari 



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-I 



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50 O 50 lOO I50 ZOO' 

MILES 



\i^ Jask 



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50 



V 



25' 



feO' 



25 



Map of Iran showing route and places mentioned in the Diary. 



Spring, 1957 ASA GRAY BULLETIN 137 



PREFACE 



This series of continued articles is a selection of pages from my 
diary, written during travels in Iran on a project of plant exploration 
sponsored by the United States Department of Agriculture. Its period 
extends from late 1939 to the beginning of 1941. With me were my 
three companions from the Western Tibetan province of Lahul who 
had accompanied me in several years of earlier explorations in India 
and Afghanistan. The Thakur Rup Chand, known to American news- 
paper-readers by his Tibetan name of Surja Dawa, had also spent 
several years with me in the United States. Wangyel and Rinchen 
Gialtsen made their first sea-voyage on this trip. 

The Iran Government received us hospitably and did all possible 
to facilitate our travels, usually even sending a representative of 
their Department of Agriculture to smooth our way. These men 
mostly acquitted themselves of their unwonted and not easy task in a 
manner that would reflect credit on the citizenry of any nation. 

Some 3000 samples of seeds and 4000 collections of herbarium 
specimens were gathered on the expedition. Many of the seeds were 
varieties of cultivated plants that will be a useful addition to our seed 
and fruit-tree catalogs. Others, of wild and cultivated stock, may be 
used for breeding experiments in producing disease-resistant, 
drought-tolerant, and other agriculturally important strains of culti- 
vated plants. And among them also are representatives of the nu- 
merous species of wild flowers that glorify the Persian plain and 
mountain. 

The days thus spent were happy days and I am grateful to those 
who helped to make them so. To my friend, B. Y. Morrison of the 
Office of Plant Introduction, is due the conception of the program and 
to his skillful administration belongs the credit of its successful 
execution. My Tibetan companions would be puzzled at my thanks for 
their part; moreover I can find no words to thank them for a relation 
that transcends friendship. To the gentle and friendly Persian people 
I have the pleasantest obligation and perhaps my voluntary sojourn 
among them is its most convincing expression. 



138 ASA GRAY BULLETIN N. S. VoL III, No. 2 



INTRODUCTION 



We 



of a people 
who saw in fire a symbol of worship, not fire the consumer, but fire 

the cleanser, fire the emblem of purity and of light. And as the eter- 
nal fires lighted their ancient altars, for long centuries after, the fires 
of genius lighted the Persian soul and the glow of their sunset reflec- 
tions still lingers. In the years of our wanderings in India our eyes 
were ever drawn to that western afterflow. For, Circus of Creation as 
it is, with its sideshows of marvels and horrors, India nevertheless 
does show the sublimest works of the hand of man and those mira- 
cles of man drew from the inspiration of Persia, ennobled, it may be^ 
by the contemplation of the sublimest works of the hand of God, which 



stand 



the mystic ^Abode of Snow^ that 



Indian 



the noonday sun of Realism has not dispersed its supernatural haze. 
We had seen the morning sun gild Everest and Nanga Parbat and felt 
the soul tug to be free in the rare air of the heights before these out- 
posts of the Infinite. We had dreamed in the fabulous flowerstrewn 
uplands of Kashmere and languished in the oppression of scent and 
color of Ceylon. To senses steeped in this magic atmosphere the 
monuments of Persian thought, among which the revelation in white 
marble at Agra rises supreme, stand in transfiguring light and the 
comprehension quickens of the meaning of Beauty — that infinite 
formless Something that hovers above Creation and to which, the poets 
say, the artist gives a local habitation. And as mankind has ever been 
drawn by the mystery of Beginnings to worship the river's source or 
the rising sun or the birthplace of an embodied idea, we were drawn 
toward the source of inspiration of these things of supernal beauty and 
turned our steps toward Persia with a pilgrim^s devotion. 



Spring, 1957 ASA GRAY BULLETIN 139 



Chapter I 



THE MEDIEVAL SEA GATE AND THE COAST 



December 14. 



Karachi 
makes ; 



all the ports. 



nged 



is fit to touch the romantic shores of the Medes and Persians, of Bab- 



and 



ong 



never touches. The crew and cargo are also drab, products of India 
though they be, for even myrrh and sandalwood have nothing of ro- 
mance about them done up in gunny sacks, nor natives, however shiny- 
limbed and limpid of eye, if they are dressed in dingy pants and shirt. 
When we stop and the little boats come from shore to take a box or a 
sack or two that the shallows don't allow us to deliver, for a few mo- 
ments there is something to see: a strange rug woven in black and 
white in one of the boats; a bunch of dates as it was cut from the tree; 
queer fish that look like Japanese drawings, swimming in the clear 
water around the boat; but we are soon off again, and the cheerless at- 
mosphere of a country church settles on us once more. It would have 
been pleasanter if I could have stayed on deck with my friends. They 
had taken food along for the journey and cooked on their charcoal fire 



and 



For me there 



bleak 



sleep in a tiny cabin, darkened from fear of submarines. A repre- 
sentative of the United States Department of Agriculture, the subject 
of diplomatic representations and official reception, must travel first 

class. 

The servant of the British Consul at Bandar Abbas is returning 

Mo iiQo ViPPn nn a visit to Ms folks in Kashmere. He 



with his master. 



and 



thingi 
id and 



has to support the widow and her children, and he got into a cudgel 
fight with his other brother. He brought a pot of honey from his vil- 
l^e for his master. He got it with his own hands because his master 
wanted it clean and last night spilled it on the deck and had a bad time 
scraping it up again. He warned my men not to tell me what had hap- 



pened or I'd be sure to blab to the Consul, 
talked about at the table. At Lucknow a 



knew 



and 



his finger in it. We found he had boiled the water and was cooling 
His master would brush his teeth only in sterilized water. Verily, 



140 



GRAY 



N. S. Vol. m, No. 2 



.efif ,;&Fiii 




Wangyel, the Thakur Rup Chand and Rinchen Gialtsen. These three Tibetans have 
been my constant companions in my long exile in India, Afghanistan and Iran. The 
Thakur Rup Chand has friends in Ann Arbor and is a staff member of the University 
Botanical Gardens. 



what you don't know won't hurt you. The sea has hardly been dis- 
turbed by a breeze in the four days since we left India and Rinchen 
Gialtsen thinks sea travel is pleasant. Rup Chand knows the horrors 
of seasickness and told him how a rough sea can make you long for 
the calm of the grave, but Rinchen Gialtsen is of the opinion that he 
would find it exhilarating and hopes the wind will blow. 



We 



The ship's help had been 



trying hard since supper to catch their two longhaired cats but 



couldn't. 



and 



back to them on the return trip. The ydung Fourth Engineer said he 
was sorry I was leaving because the food is better when there is a 
first class-passenger aboard. A group of pleasant Persian officials 
said they had had telegraphic instructions about us from the CapitoL 
They asked about nothing but our e:uns and cartridges and made out ? 



spring, 1957 



ASA GRAY BULLETIN 



141 



slip for each gun for me to sign. At midnight they loaded our luggage 
into a launch and in an hour we were ashore. They took us to a build- 
ing fronting the sea and lodged us in two richly and heavily carpeted 
rooms with no wall ornaments but photographs of the King, a fine re- 

and of the good-looking Crown Prince. A magnificent 



onage 



and 



the street below us, both extraordinary performances of their kind, 
closed our day and ushered in our Persian adventures. 

December 15. Everyone on the ship, even the Kashmiri, had told 
us what a dirty place the town was and we wondered what filth we 
should see if an Indian were shocked. The streets, however, look 
clean enough to us and the sandy beach too is clean. The people are 
plain- featured, very swarthy and well-mannered. Somewhere in the 
environs they say are remains of the forts the Portuguese, Dutch or 
British had held three centuries ago in the days of Shah Abbas, the 
last great administrator of the remnants of the Empire of the Medes 
and Persians. Along the beach are plenty of wintering birds, mostly 
curlews, plovers, gulls and the like and also flocks of oyster catcher 
that I had never seen before in Asia. They say that there are plenty 
of fish at certain seasons and the best of them are the qodr, zalaibi. 



habur 



Danes 



ood 



uct. Children along the shore are fishing with a basin over which they 
tied a cloth with a hole in the center. A crushed crab is the bait. 
When they pulled up they often had a couple of fish, like perch. 









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Drying Nets at Bandar Abbas on the Persian Gulf. Fish are caught in the Gulf 
and in the Caspian Sea and very salty dried ones may be found in inland markets. 
Small and miscellaneous produce is usually dried in the sand without salt and doesnH 
get far inland. Fresh water fish are often abundant and in the Diz River may be 
enormous, but they are not much esteemed, and in places not disturbed. 



142 



ASA GRAY BULLETIN 



N. S. Vol, III, No. 2 



December 16. 



Iky 



and 



coats came for us in the morning. We loaded three of them 
started off at half past ten for Isin, toward the Kuh Ganu, a rather 
sizable pealc that looks to be some 15 miles inland. The way soon 
runs over a limestone ridge through which a stream has dug a narrow 
gulch. In the broad bed of the stream are now pools of very salty 
water in which plenty of minnows are swimming. The path over the 
bare rock is deeply cut into narrow troughs, some of them to a foot in 
depth, often a dozen of them together, where the feet of the ages have 




Paths in the bedrock near Bandar Abbas. These grooves have been worn in the 
rock by the feet of travelers that have gone that way through the centuries. On the 
Pariz massif near Dorud in Luristan the ibex herds, forced to descend for water in 
summer, have carved on the cliff face a similar record. Their path is nearly sheer 
and the marble that records it has been polished to glisten. 



worn away the stone. There is little vegetation and what there is is 
mostly shrubby and grows best in the cracks of the rocky walls. 
There are few birds too but we found a little sparrow {Emberiza stri- 
olata) that we sometimes found in India only among the barren ruins 
of ancient buildings. On the way is a large cistern closed in with a 
domed roof in which is collected the winter rain. Along the coast the 
wells are brackish and the water here though fresh is dark and stag- 
nant. A sweet cold drink from a spring is a thing unknown in the des- 
ert. Long hewn bars of stone set in the wall provide the rungs of a 



ladder to descend to the scummy water level. 



Isin is a bright spot 



of cultivation in the broad plain that slopes gently down from the 



Spring, 1957 ASA GRAY BULLETIN 143 

mountain. There are large groves of date palms, with trees 20-40 
feet apart, and tiny lawnlike fields of grain. The houses are humble 
shelters, often inwalled-in gardens, where, crowded together for 
protection against the blasting desert wind, are found at least a few 
sorts of most of the subtropical fruits, -papayas, sapistas, citrus, 
bananas, mangos and even mulberries. There are at least five kinds 



fimonest a lime, a fine fragrant 
indispensables of the Persian c 



the country. 



etables too: melons 



innine to run: corn is earing; tomatoes and 



splanted 



In the trees 



and 



pond 



and white woodpecker {Dryobates assimilis) makes a living 
ilm trunks, which seem infested with borers. They say date 
rp cipt nut from root- shoots and come to bear in about seven 



years. The weather is springy like a fine late April day at home. 
Clouds floated high all day and in the afternoon heavy storm clouds 
swept from behind the mountain and with thunder and lightning fled 
seaward, leaving the desert in a strip a mile wide covered with pools. 

December 23. Wangyel guessed that the solstice is at hand from 
the position of Orion on the horizon. Tibetans call the constellation 
Golak. The nomad Tibetans have names for all the constellations and 
keep their calendar by their position in the sky. All the men here 
wear felt hats that sit in their mop of hair like a bird's nest, often at a 
right angle with the ground. I hear the hats aren't of their own choice 



Kin 



c ount r y . 



■e veiled and there is no seclusion of 
Stan and India. They say the women 



(chaddar) 



and 



can 



recognize them. That it gets sweltering-hot 
under the airproof garment that constitutes the chaddar and that it 
seems impossible to keep it clean doesn't detract from its popular- 
ity. 

There was a shower yesterday and they are planting grain. We 



Saadatabad 



any 



names 



date- growing villages, to rejoin the Bandar Abbas- Kirman road af 
four days of march. We sent what we didn't need on ahead by true 
and set off across the plain to Patku. For a few miles the plain is 



ene 



last seen in India. The tamarisks 



two 



eter. When the tamarisks petered out the desert became soft and 



144 



ASA GRAY BULLETIN 



N. S. Vol. Ill, No. 2 



r'^' 



7ir.'mi 




'^l!V'!lK!'-(!^l!iW'-'' '''Viii^'^^W'-i 



■ ■■■S^:■Silr'^i^/■'^l^'^^f!'l!i^^ 



■'fr'ir'i/rri!i^^^-Ji|/-Fflih!i!: 



■i!^'t-i\:'fi III'.' ' I.;' 'VI I '^,'1 :,iii'.'ii/i' a "< ' 'fi'mf^^ \f'\i^} \'f! > 



..'iir: 




A landscape like this might be found anywhere in Southern Iran, that is, if moun- 
tains were somewhere near, whence water could be brought to irrigate the dates. 
The donkey is the commonest and cheapest mode of transport in the area, and the 
little traffic the traveler meets in the great spaces of the desert is sustained by this 
admirable beast. In some places there are fine breeds and some people ride animals 
of which they are obviously proud, but too often it is otherwise. The normal load the 
donkey is expected to carry is about what a horse usually does, and it is no rare sight 
to see the owner riding on top of the load, as here. The goods are carried in bags, 
woven, in pairs, of goat hair usually, and are thrown across the animal's back. 



springy and the walking therefore a bit troublesome but my Tibetan 
friends seemed to like it. Heavy alkali content often gives the desert 
this physical quality and the vegetation then is of low and fleshy halo- 
phytes. Five bustards (Persians call them ahubareh; the scientific 
name is Chlamydotis mcqueenii) flew up almost at our feet, and we 
wondered how they managed to conceal themselves so well. These 
same birds usually are unapproachable in the open, I have noticed 
birds that can hide well seem to know when they are hidden. The 
chicken tribe are particularly clever at disappearing, large and 
bright- colored as they are, and I have several times seen them in the 
Himalayas freeze themselves into inconspicuousness against a tuft of 
grass or in the open on the leaf- strewn ground. There were plenty of 



Spring, 1957 ASA GRAY BULLETIN 145 



pig and gazelle tracks and once we came near three gazelles (Persian 
Aha). Patku is a village of a few houses surrounded by date palms and 
with a few huge wild jujube trees. As always, a pleasant clean place 
was ready for us in the second story of the best house. The owner had 
apparently gone somewhere else to make room for us but the goats 
didn't know it and when they were brought home in the evening, in 
spite of all the shepherd boy could do to stop them, they got up the 
stairs to their usual quarters. We had some nice dates and good rice, 
said to be grown here. They say the rice has to be watered every eve- 
ning and one wonders how they can spare the water in such a desert. 



December 25. Teserj. We went down to a huge spring that comes 
out at the foot of a low cliff, A strong stream, usually too deep to 
wade and 10-15 feet across flows from it and cloaked in cattails and 
bulrushes runs out of sight among the bare rocky hills. There are 
plenty of fish in the stream, some probably 8 pounds in weight, and in 
the swampy border are numbers of wild pigs. No one seems to bother 
them and I came upon several monsters at thrillingly close range. 



franc ol 



and 



such a hunter's paradise, 
often eaten and nigs of co 



Iran 



guns 



any 



man 



in the thighs. He said a boar had attacked him when he ran into him 
(the boar) asleep in a dry irrigation ditch. The wound was old but 
clean and was healing nicely. A boy had a lesser wound that he got 
yesterday when he surprised a sleeping pig among the rocks. It seems 



animal is taken 



an 



and take after a peasant 



he happened to catch sight of, with no provocation at all. The peasant 
ran for his life and the pig chased him a few minutes but probably 

The wild boar we later had as a pet in Persia 



ran 



anyone 



his victims even if they fell in their terror. He waited instead till 



again and 



He especially 



donkeys and 



too. Donkeys seem to have a natural fear of pigs and Piggy was the 
cause of many a donkey- rider's being dumped in the dirt by his 
frightened mount. -- The soldiers who are escorting us found no sugar 
h^vp «n wP have to move on to the next village. (Persians must have 



si^ar 



stead, but that savors of poverty.) 

lorhood and our guard has hi 



ands 



146 



ASA GRAY BULLETIN 



N. S. VoL UI, No. 2 



I I I 



I. IIh -1. 



mmv4 



,-,|iipiil 



, '|i ■!■ 'Ni'IIJF«'l|,'l|,-l|,'li:i!! lli;j||/r"i!|imiyrL ■iigf=Priui-nF-Jir .-Ji:=ir-iic.i 







^U 



i'.»^jAii4*_J -f|Jiir|^t^h^tfHU^i 



The camel is the desert truck, as the donkey is the desert Ford. Camels and 

goats are the only domestic animals that you seldom feel sorry for. Both beasts are 
dble to wrest what they need from the parsimonious desert and bear well the demands 
of their host. The camel by his size and wit has established his position in the trans- 
port scheme as satisfactorily as the Brotherhood of Railway Engineers, and more 
permanently. He gets what he needs. He gets no abuse, because he tolerates none. 
This caravan is bringing forage. Loads are commonly prepared in two flaps that 
straddle the animal's back. It is convenient to load and unload such packages. The 
method of loading, however, varies from place to place, and the various methods 
are not equally effective. The path has been marked by hoof wear, but, if it were not, 
an experienced camel would find the way just the same. 



visitation on a small population and we feel we must hurry along. 
There is rich black soil in the valley and the date palms thrive. 

December 28, The truck had stood all day without anyone thinking 
of making any repairs. Cars are often not disturbed, even to the ex- 
tent of refueling, as long as they will run, and such treatment may 
make things unpleasimt for travellers. Hardly out of the town our car 
balked and for the first couple of hours we got as many miles. When 
at last stops were no longer necessary we began, out of habit probably, 
to stop all along and for long periods at small adobe huts called "cof- 
fee houses," We had a place on the dates our truck was hauling and 



Spring, 1957 ASA GRAY BULLETIN 147 



and 



Our 



and 



went in for refreshment too. After these halts everyone came back 



and laughed at our snoring, and 



anothe 



^ _ . In the morning we arrived at 

villages of the Sirjan group and had breakfast. The Per- 
sians borrowed our .22 and shot some desert larks which they pluckec 
and roasted. We offered them some partridges that we had killed but 
since we hadn't cut the throat as their religion requires the flesh 
wasn't edible, wasn't what they call halal. The Mohamedan religion 
enjoins its followers to eat meat of no warm-blooded animal that 
hasn't died by having its throat cut "in the name of God." In the case 
of game, that often is dead when you get to it, many people are broad- 



and 



The town super- 



and 



sunnm 



anted 



and 



next stuck on top of a high frail wall ai^d was as inaccessible as the 



first. 



taken 



a huge garden apparently newly laid out. A nice-looking youth who is 



agri 



His 



and 



times seen in India and there recognized often as Persian- made. The 
material from which shawls were woven is ^cashmere" (Persian kurk) 
the soft underhair that some kinds of goats develop in winter. The 



ans 



where it is called "lena," Urdu '"pasham," and aside from the fact that 
the style of design of Indian shawls is different, they are usually 
softer in texture. The Persian kurk resembles very fine wool. They 
say shawls are still made in Kirman and Yezd and one often sees fur- 
niture upholstered in a shawl-like material said to come from these 
places. The old shawls seem to be rarer here than i^ India and those 
that show up are most often quilted squares said to have been used in 
the bath. 

The youth apparently had expected us and had prepared a wonder- 
fully varied and well cooked feast. Already on the table were the 
"ajeel," a collection of hazelnuts, /jjstos (English pistachio) and water- 
melon and pumpkin- seeds, all roasted and coated with salt and tur- 
meric. "Ajeel" is very popular in the coimtry and an important social 
institution. The host puts his guests at ease by employing their hands 
and teeth, which is the best he can do without a radio. Tea was served 
with short cup- cakes and a strangely scented mar shmallow- like cake, 
with disks of a kind of butterscotch. Tea in Persia is served every- 
where, even in public offices, and you can hardly make a call in one 
on any matter without being offered tea. Certainly you will have tea if 



148 ASA GRAY BULLETIN N. S. VoL III, No. 2 



you call at any house, however humble. It is served in small glasses, 
silver-based if possible, with cube sugar or loaf sugar on the side, 
which the Persian often puts in his mouth and dissolves with the tea. 
Porcelain tea-cups may be offered at important social gatherings and 
often then lemon slices as an accompaniment but I don't recall ever 
having seen milk. The custom of tea drinking is said to have been in- 
troduced from Russia about a century and a half ago. Then followed 
several courses of meat, — mutton, chicken, quails, with /)iZo — but- 
tered boiled rice seasoned with saffron, almonds, pistas, currants. 
Pilo (English pilau, supposed to have come in from Malay) is a staple 
Moslem dish and the decorative elements vary, but fat seems to be a 
weighty item. The Persian, like the Afghan, likes grease and also 
sugar and it seems aothing can be too greasy or too sweet for his 
palate. I have been served fried egg-plant drowned in melted butter 
and smothered in cream and the dish was stone cold to boot. Jaundice 
conditions are comraon among them and the cause is ascribed to burnt 
food, which is of course accordingly avoided. I have never seen a 
Persian who wouldn't, I believe, sooner eat a spider than a piece of 
burnt bread. They also have a horror of dust, though heaven knows in 
this desert they see and breathe plenty of it, but especially they dread 
dust raised by the broom. Toward the end of the meal a pink quince- 
preserve was brought in and vodka scented with lemon, and such 
fruits as still were in season, apples, pears, grapes, pomegranates, 
melons. 

In the bazar I found my size in givehj the comfortable native shoes 
so commonly worn. They are made ankle height, without laces, of 
white cotton thread crocheted onto a sole. The sole may be leather, 
sometimes a piece of old auto tire, though rubber soles are believed 
to be bad for the eyes, but in some places a special sole is made of 
small strips of rags pounded down and strung on thongs. The quality 

of the giveh depends on the fineness of the thread and the sole. The 
nicest have a design crocheted on the toe and around the top. For or- 
dinary wear they are durable and of course can readily be slipped off 
and on— an important consideration for people who don't like to carry 
the dirt of the street into their houses. 

I went then with three of the young men of the company to look at 
the cultivation. The gardens were all walled in with mud walls 10 feet 
and more high, but people were friendly and always let us in when we 
asked. Many had only bushtrees oipista 10 to 15 feet high; some had 
trees of apple and other deciduous fruits. The trees were widely 
spaced and grain had been sown under them. By mistake I used a car- 
tridge Rup Chand had loaded with lead slugs, in case he came onto a 
pig, to shoot at a little owl and missed ignominiously. All three boys 
volunteered to do the shooting henceforth so I gave one the gun. He 
asked where to aim. I said at the head and with the first shot he got 
two crows. He gravely examined the corpses and seeing blood in the 



Spring, 1957 ASA GRAY BULLETIN 149 



mouth said he had hit where I had told him. Persians seem to like 
guns but no one we ever came across showed any skill in handling 
one. Just now their possession is much restricted in the country and 
the contraband sort are apt to be of ancient models and not suited for 
displays of skill. We have, however, almost everywhere been told of 
remarkable feats that are commonly performed, such as shooting a 
dime in the air with a revolver, and very often some one has told us 
that when he owned a gun^ in the days before the government disarmed 
everybody, he used to shoot game half a mile away: we tried always to 
get too close. 

The agriculture officer knows some French and calls me ^'Musoo.^ 
Many people, even peasants, know so much French as that and we are 
generally called that or something like it. French is the foreign lan- 
guage most commonly taught in schools, and many educated people 
know it. Numbers of Persians of both sexes have been schooled 
abroad, mostly in France. The little son of the caretaker of our build- 
ing who has been watching our housekeeping, prodded by his father, 
greeted me with: ^^Bon soir, monsieur, comment allez-vous?^ When 
I obviously understood him, the father nearly burst with pride. He 
knew one more French sentence that had, however, no conversational 
value. — The town is the usual uninteresting accumulation of mud- 
walled one- storied houses and lies in a plain perhaps 50 miles across, 



Kir man and 



capped. 

December 29, A youth from the agricultural office came this 
morning to take us over to Ahmedabad, 9 miles off, where they said 
there was good hunting. We have had to emphasize the hunting or elsi 
our guide would hustle us across the landscape with the promise of 
having all the seeds we could want sent after us, and it works out all 
right because the best hunting is in the best- cultivated regions, since 
food for game is more abundant there. The plain is strewn with rows 
r^f mr^iinric fhaf mark fhp mnr.QP of 'A nnr}ni or hari?. ^ the undersfroimd 



channel 

15 miles, across the desert. 



making 



terranean channels may be imagined. The excavated earth is brought 
to the surface in pails on a windlass through shafts, like wells, sunk at 



gular intervals and 



Here 

many 



are much deeper, even (at Yezd) to 300 feet. The upkeep of a qanat is 
much less than of a surface ditch since these are always being cloggec 
by plants and by the perpetually drifting dust of the Persian desert tha 
has buried even great cities so that their site is unknown. Then there 
is the colossal loss of water by evaporation under the thirsty air, pil- 



and seepage 



qanat 



itated out of the water they carry and 



150 



ASA GRAY BULLETIN 



N. S. Vol. Ill, No. 2 



''ms'mk^'^''i!^;f^'v^^^^^^^^ 







Digging the shaft of a qanat. The underground irrigation canals that water many 
of the Persian settlements are dug by sinking shafts and burrowing in both directions 
from these shafts. The digger is in the hole and signals when he has a load of earth 
to be hauled up. The qanats run commonly for 8 or 10 miles, and the shafts, though 
ordinarily not more than 50 feet, may be much deeper. The strings of mounds that 
mark their course on the plain are a common feature of the Persian landscape. 



surrounding earth. Qanats are seen almost everywhere in desert 
Iran and I had once seen very shallow ones too at Mukur in Afghani- 
stan. One often sees numerous blind chains marking qanats aban- 
doned and left to fill in, the people say, after the massacre of the pop- 
ulation in the course of the savage wars that swept the country. In 
places these ruined systems are more numerous than those now in 
use and from this it has been argued the ancient population of the 
country was greater than now. Certainly the population may be in 
proportion to the water available for irrigating the land, for the coun- 
try is fertile in general and the amount of land now under cultivation 
is proportionally as insignificant as the pupil is to the rest of the eye* 
The qanat wells or shafts are usually left open and naturally all kinds 
of hapless animals fall into them. Fish are usually to be seen at the 
mouths. Without the qanat great stretches of Iran must remain des- 
ert waste. 



■-I 



Spring, 1957 ASA GRAY BULLETIN 151 



Our companion often asked the peasants we met how much farther 
it was to Ahmedabad and one boy showed on his finger the proportion 
between the distance we had come and that yet to go. Near the village 
there were nice fields of grain, some neatly planted in rows such as I 
never had seen anywhere but in Japan. Almost eversrwhere from India 
to here the seed is broadcast and then plowed under. Plenty of the 
fields had been planted to cotton and the yard- high stalks were still 
standing. There were flocks of sand grouse in the stubble, some 
great blue herons on the dry plain and flocks of green-winged teal in 
the green grain. We walked from 8 to 5. Our poor friend who wasn't 
used to such exertion nevertheless firmly refused to hire a donkey, 
though we said weM ride too, and we got him home with no more visi- 
ble effects of his excursion than a fiery face. He hadn't recognized 
the town from the distance and thought we ought to turn sharply to the 
right. 

People here are very interested in our doings. A crowd of both 
sexes sit and watch our activities and from time to time make com- 
ments on the plants or the birds. A soldier said it was a sin to shoot 
wagtails and I can quite understand how he got the idea. They are 
pleasant to look at with their neat black and white bodies seemingly sc 
delicately balanced on wiry little legs and then they are so cheerful 
and friendly in habit. They commonly come to open pools and 
streams, even in city patios. At Karaj they fed at our window box and 
nested somewhere on the roof. The doors in our room are of plane- 

nf hpfmtifnl fTr;^in hut said to be frail. In the mar- 



ichenar) 



handsome fragrant 



kinds of good pomegranates, nice large walnuts. We found no cue 
ber nor cabbage seed in our search. Cabbage is a rare vegetable 
all the countries of Asia I have visited but cucumbers are usually 
found everywhere. 



Chapter II 



KIRMAN AND THE GREAT DATE OASES 



January 3. We left Sirjan for Kirman yesterday on a truckload ( 
dried limes that is going to Tehran and had to change over to a trui 
load of stovewood at a town 5 farsakhs from Kirman at half past tw 
this morning. Distances in Iran are measured in farsakhs (about 



know kilometer too, though no two 



same 



anyone else s. After an 



and perilously perched on a top-heavy 



twisted limbs that writhed and 
Soon somethir^ fell off. The d 



an 



152 ASA GRAY BULLETIN N. S. VoL III, No. 2 



back up for it and sent one wheel off the shoulder. The load tottered 
and for a horrible second threatened to catapult us off into the dark 
and the desert* Unlocked by the sway, the sinuous limbs slid sharply 
and with a lurch shifted the balance of the load to the other side and 
we stayed up- right. Someone walked back to get what had fallen off. 
Then the car broke down and it was 8:00 when we got to Kirman. In 
the dismal dark of early dawn we plowed through swarms of donkeys 
that were bringing loads of dry desert plants to town to sell for fuel. 
They would arrive before daylight. I could not see why one need thus 
take Time by the forelock and the sight depressed lower still my 
weary spirits. I dislike to get up early myself and therefore feel 
sorry for anyone v/ho does. Even when one surmounts the natural 
sloth that makes him loathe to leave his bed untimely, there still is 
the cold, the wet, the dark, and the loneliness, and the need must be 
great that can drive one over all of these. 

Kirman lies at one end of a great plain walled in by chains of bar- 
ren mountains. Here and there at the base of the enclosing wall 
where springs give up the mountains' hoard of winter water small vil- 
lages can be seen, and here and there too over the floor of the desert 
plain are scattered spots of cultivation, if qanats have brought down 
from the mountain some hidden stream. With this you have the setting 
of most of the towns of Iran and the only variant is the quantitative 
one: the spots of cultivation are fewer or smaller and the distances 
less. The urban beauty treatment that has come in vogue with the new 



rman 



and its pleasant Persian 



its weatherbeaten old face. Poor and humble it is, to be sure, but 
poor and humble it still would be even if the streets took on the met- 



an mainstreet width that, with the erection of a tw 



an 



rag 



staring frights. How much better warm water and a soapy 
have been and aftenvards maybe a little judicious rouge. The old 
roofed-in bazar still stands - the word bazar is properly used only for 
this section of commercial life of a city that has the streets covered 



and 



advantage in the bitter stru 



ages 



Whatever is on the market is to be had in the bazar and that isn t 
much besides the staple products of the country. Such inexpensive 
articles of foreign manufacture are found as the simple housekeeping 
and husbandry require and a luxury or two in the way 



drugs 



couldn 



Woolwo 



worsted in a competition of quality. Goods are offered for sale piled 
on shelves or on the floor, in small rooms or booths fully open to the 
street and often with a living room joined on behind, and it isn't 



Spring, 1957 



ASA GRAY BULLETIN 



153 









;r:^!r 



II? 






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pr' 



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t. I- I - -ilzrffiiK^" 



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11.' 



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■ ■ ■■.■■.r-:irj;[i:i;!:j"i.^L^"' 

-- Jz:::-i7J:7J="JrTi|- . 

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A Kirman Oasis. The settlements in all of Iran, except along the Caspian Sea, 
are like this, larger or smaller, as the supply of water is more or less. Here the 
magic fluid is brought from mountain springs by canals, their course marked by the 
pollarded willows. The bridge is of several centuries ago, probably from the reign 
of Shah Abbas, who left many architectural monuments throughout his realm. It is a 
winter landscape, else there would be no clouds. 



necessary usually to go inside to do your shopping. If the proprietor 
is out he generally indicates his absence by hanging a piece of cloth 
across the front of the booth. The cloth covers only the lower part of 



and vou can 



think 



bors. 



The 



and arched doors and windows, and 



and 



Often the houses 



are set in walled-in gardens that have shrubs and trees: pines, cy- 
presses, Judas trees, or a willow with fiery branches like a red osi 



154 



ASA GRAY BULLETIN 



N. S. VoL III, No. 2 



and their tended freshness bespeaks a love of home that in the East is 
not so often manifested in this way. We were shown into one of these 
gardens and lodged in two pleasant rooms that as usual were heavily 
carpeted. A friendly woman hastily made a blaze of straw in the 
stove, apparently as a symbol of warmth and welcome, and said her 
husband would be along in a minute to see what else we needed. Out- 
side in the garden petunias and calendulas still defied the winter with 
a stray flower or two, while a Judas tree and some narcissus were al- 
ready welcoming the spring with theirs. 

My first business was at the bank and Nikbur asked me as tactfully 
as his simple nature allowed him to wear the nice clothes I had on 
yesterday. Clothes are as important in these parts as in others and I 
often have to be reminded of it. In the Himalayas a Tibetan horseman 
once told my men to ask me to wear better clothes since my appear- 
ance touched on his honor, though nobody could see how, except that 
servants are proud of the figure their masters cut. Indian servants, 
for example, take great pride in the quantity of their master's luggage, 
though often it is only a headache for them. On that score at least no 



i^'i'iuiiJiri'iii '■■11^ 






bK'H'I ■;■..■., ■■■'■ ; ,■ U^-iSk'^:':^^^^^^ '■:■■■ ■■■: 






'"''"''luiu-i::'. 



, ,■!]-■■■ "r ■ ■' 

■'■,;■■:■!.■'■ 



I .1 

"I I.' 



■Mr 



■ i' ... 




■!■ '^r^r ■■'.,'i,,,.'l4i„ 

'.i.n 'i ..Jin' ' J|l&, 




Deh Shib in Kirman,. The houses in the Kirman settlements are often single, not 
clustered into the defense unit that constitutes the usual ^dllage of this part of the 
world. The walls are solid and built with care. The openings are arched in the 
typical manner of the (Country. 



Spring, 1957 ASA GRAY BULLETIN 155 



servant of ours ever had cause to complain, for however hard we 
tried to go light, carrying for subsistence and comfort only the min- 
imum that seemed scant even to the Tibetan nomads, we inevitably 
accumulated great bundles, bags, and boxes of specimens so nonde- 
script in appearance that we were sometimes taken for one of the nu- 
merous wandering groups of jugglers and dancers that roam from the 
Himalayas to Afghanistan. These wanderers travel with their miser- 
able goods tied on donkeys, and with a following of curs and children. 
Invariably there is in the caravan a corded wooden bedstead under 
which its donkey bearer is completely hidden so that it seems to be 
floating along by itself except that the several hens always to be seen 
tied on top stagger and totter from the jolting of some unseen cause. 
Our resemblance to them wasn't quite complete but the difference 
must have seemed small because we were even asked now and then to 
give a performance of our skill. The bank manager spoke German 
well and gave me 17 rials for my dollar. In the produce market there 
are the usual winter vegetables and late season fruits, and also plenty 
of two kinds of wild partridges. There are good tangerines, a sort of 
Valencia orange, a fine orange- colored lemon that can be peeled and 
segmented like a navel orange, very good pomegranates, and a few 
watermelons, still edible. Pumpkins, of the sort we call Japanese, 
are common; cabbage is tender and mild; the carrots are a foot and 
more long, smooth, black, purple, or yellow. Potatoes seem to be 
rare and are, I understand, not much eaten, except by those who have 
nothing else. It may be that they don't know how to use them in their 
diet, for after all you can't do much with a potato without milk, fat, or 
gravy. Beets and turnips are a godsend to the poor and are sold 
steaming hot by street-vendors. Here the people usually raise their 
voices to make us understand better; at Balvard they often whispered. 

January 7. The village of Deh Bala lies a few hours walk from 
Kirman, well hidden against the bai 



valley. 



Village and 



of settlements of that name in the country. Hussainabad, Yusaf abad, 
Aliabad, Mohamedabad, and the like are also much multiplied desig- 
nations, perpetuating as they do the names of popular religious fig- 
ures. Huge fig trees grow about 18 inches in diameter, often five or 
more in a clump, tall and vigorous as an old apple tree. I had hitherto 
seen only fig bushes. They said the fruit was of three kinds, but no 
samples were to be had. Somewhere in the neighborhood 



Kirman 



and 



and 



there were even better ones. Figs are a popular fruit in Persia and 
there are numerous varieties, both cultivated and wild. Some of the 
latter are as good as some of the cultivated kinds. Most of them are 
eaten fresh and only in relatively small quantities are high class 
dried fruits to be found on the market. From the neighborhood of 



156 



ASA GRAY BULLETIN 



N. S. Vol. Ill, No. 2 




A Figtree at Deh Bala,"Kirman., Figs are common in Persian gardens, even in the 
cold parts, and in places they grow wild. The fruit is variable in quality in these 
wild growths, often edible. Figs are usually bushes, and rarely do they grow to such 
trees as these. The large trunks in the background are mulberry. Walls are usually 
higher than these. They must be high enough to keep the goats from climbing over 
and are sometimes high enough to keep out men. 



Kermanshah come the greatest quantity of these, prepared 



nkl 



fruit. 



The houses of the village are small, well built, with nicely domed 
roofs and ceilings, and well- modeled doors and windows. The rugs on 
the floor of our room were nearly worn out — of excellent colors, but 
as different in design from what we call ^Kirmani'^in the United States 
as is a Navajo blanket- It seems these rugs with the insipid flowery 
design are of a type that suits the luxury trade and the people for 



Spring, 1957 ASA GRAY BULLETIN 157 



and more artistic* They took us 



rugweavers 



said the Shah had ordered through a Kirman contractor. A design had 
been drawn up on cross- section paper, colored appropriately, and 
this pattern was now in the hands of three men who were singing to 
two looms, behind which sat men, women, and even children, some of 
them not more than ten. We could see nothing but the back of the rug 
with its pretty vine design and the fingers of the weavers flying 
through the warp. On the ends where the weaving was most intricate 
sat adults. Not even Ali, our companion, could understand the chant- 
ing instructions to the weavers so we never found out how the individ- 
ual sorted out his particular grain from the chaff of confusion, and we 
wondered no less how the reader followed the tiny squares of the pat- 
tern without a pointer to aid the eye. While a reader let me examine 
his script a woman had to wait. Then he asked: ""Where was I? "" The 
woman said something and he started singing again. A baby was 



and a granny 



They say a 



man can weave about an incli a day over the stretch of about a foot 
that is his field to weave on. 

The wage they get for weaving is only enough to sustain life and 



range 



thing created. 



unhappy 



between an Irish e:irl and 



Chand in America. They decided Tibet and Ireland were indeed poor, 
but said the lassie: "You didn't think you were poor, did you?'' These 
people have handsome soft dark eyes and look as if they were capable 
of doing nice things. 



We 



able to expl 



top of the pass. 



scent is continuous and 
came to Mohamedabad 



donkeys were at home. The qanats were rarer today. Yesterday near 
Deh Bala they were running grist mills with qanat water. The water 
is led out of its subterranean channel to drop into a deep pit {tanureh)^ 
in the bottom of which the mill is built. In the Himalayas one would 
never have found such an ingenious application of water-power prin- 
ciples to these simple mills. Some of the Himalayan villagers are so 
stupid they haven't even thought of a hopper for feeding in the train 



and do it by hand. The most interesting thing 
else about mills is the practice of some Westc 
beef shoulder-blades to make the paddles of tl 

Wangyel came down from the mountain and 



anywhere 



pings! 



and sought to convince us with a handful ( 
das lived all his life amoner snowcock and 



a good hunter besides, 
and surnrisine: ones he 



and 



158 



ASA GRAY BULLETIN 



N. S. VoL III, No. 2 



people he has the uncanny sharpness that is characteristic of his race 

from whom the human heart has few secrets. 




Dugout Homes of the Desert Poor in Kirman. Trees and stones are not always 
available for building in the desert and these people have managed to make shelters 
with simpler materials. These houses that look like great termite mounds have two 
apertures, one for tenants, the other for the smoke. The desert vegetation is shrubby 
and abundant, but not abundant enough to support cows. They have a feeding place in 
the reeds lower down. 



January 



onotus leuco 



and 



than 



Ali 



said his heart sank (in Persian idiom "his times got bitter") when the 
order came from Tehran for him to escort the American scientist. 
Perhaps things turned out better than he expected, or he wouldn't have 

told me* 



*Bulbul is the vulgar term currently applied by ornithologists to some kinds of 
birds of the family Pycnonotidae. To the Persian the bulhul is the nightingale. 



Spring, 1957 ASA GRAY BULLETIN 159 



The way today they said was 8 farsakhs and added for greater lu- 
cidity that it would take from dawn to dark. There is a shortcut over 
the mountain that the donkey drivers didn't want to take, but I went 
that way, along with Rup Chand and two of the three soldiers who are 
accompanying us. The mountain is of marble, nearly bare, steep 
walled, and since we are headed for the date district, the descent was 
longer than the climb. A road has been made that donkeys apparently 
can go over, since we met two bringing onions. The soldiers weren't 
so surefooted as the donkeys and had some trouble going down. Fuz, 
at the foot of the steep descent, is the first settlement we came to. A 
wild rambler had crawled 10 feet up into a fruit tree. A boy said its 
flowers were yellow and about 2 inches across. In the gulches here 
we had seen bushroses with still an occasional single pink bloom, but 
not since northeastern Afghanistan, where wild roses are enormously 
varied, do I remember having seen a yellow rambler and the flowers 
of that rambler aren't much bigger than a dime. There were plenty of 
woodpeckers in the orchard, a black thrush, and numerous flocks of 
chukors {Alectoris graced). The latter were fearfully shy, though it 
doesn't seem likely they are much hunted here. In parts of the Hima- 
layas they are also inordinately shy in the fall but tame enough in 
spring. We often found even the small birds on the Tibetan plateau 
very wary, and almost everywhere in open country it was more diffi- 
cult for us to approach birds than for the natives to whose style of 
dress they had been accustomed. Springs that rose in the village 
joined to make a little stream that received other reinforcements on 
its way down the gulch and soon made a pleasant rivulet bordered 



oleander bushes and 



In one of the earth 



nstanc 



walls of the gulch some caves had been dug and several donkey cara- 
vans were having lunch. Their owners too were lunching and invited 
us to share their bread and tea and pipe. They might have managed 
between them to feed us without going hungry themselves, but in Irar 
the quantity or quality of the food has nothi 
of hospitality. I don't remember even one 
failed to offer to share his meal with me, however miserable it may 

have been. 

When the stream reached the mountain we left it and began to 
climb up the barren side of the highest peak. Dry rhubarb leaves 
were blowing about over the slope and I wondered if it had the large 
heavy roots that in Afghanistan we sometimes used for fuel and that 
burned with such a beautiful blue flame. The descent from the crest of 
the pass is long and gentle through a deep gulch that permits no view 
till it opens on the endless vista of the Great Desert, the Dasht Loot 



Afghanistan. The way all 



bleak 



and orar^e 



har-farsakh, their flaunting fronds and sunsteeped foliage shielding 
the gaze from the awful sublimity of the infinite desert beyond. - We 



^i- 



160 ASA GRAY BULLETIN N. S. VoL m, No. 2 



stopped in one of the gardens where some other travellers with their 
camels and donkeys had halted and the soldiers went off to find some 
food. Then till dark we waited, watching the caravans that in the late 
afternoon poured steadily out of the gulch, hoping to see ours among 
them, or watching every speck on the desert for the foodbearing sol- 
diers. At seven, Ali came along and at once set off to see what had 



agers. The dear lad 



the desert. 



anything but continuing his promenade 
)ear, but sent rugs and a lantern, and ^ 



luxuriously imde 



gaillardias. We 



and waited. The soldiers didn't come back, but at 



donkeys 



of the travellers. For all their hard day they were fresh enough and 
after a roll in the ashes of an old camp fire dashed off to grajze in the 
garden. Food for us wasn't so easy to come by, so we ate cake and 
drank coffee and went to bed in the fresh breeze that slid off the 
mountain. 

Jantcary 10, The gardens of Shahdad have high walls and the pas- 
sage-ways between them are narrow. In the gardens date palms are 
planted at regular intervals and the remaining space is filled with a 
dense growth of citrus. Violets grow wild under the trees. There are 



and 



as I had never seen in other countries. The tang 



and often with little rag 



orange, and 



thing 



diameter. 



of the lemon class.. The otroj is a rough lemon, five inches long, with 
salmon-tinted flesh and a pleasant acid flavor, milder than a lemon. 
The data is larger and smoother than the otroj ^ with a nice lemon 
flavor. The bakh is a grapefruit- like lemon, three to four inches in 

Then there is the common limu khargi^ separable into seg- 
ments, that we saw in the Kirman market. The dates are of a dozen 
varieties or so. The Shamsai and Basmuni which are of the best, are 
of a quality I had seen heretofore only in the much larger Piyaruni 
that I found at Hajiabad on the way to Kirman. These dates are not at 
all sticky outside ajxd can thus be carried in the pocket like nuts. 
They are of good flavor and of the consistency of a caramel. Another 



, orange 
tannic a 



It is supposed that 



the imperfect development of these fruits is due to some fault in fer- 
tilization. The fruit trees here all appear healthy. There are fewer 
dead palms than at Bandar Abbas, possibly because the ground water 
along the coast is nearer the surface. They say that dates thrive 
better still arid give better fruit at Chaharfarsakh on the slope at the 
foot of the mountain where it freezes and snow falls. The people 
carry torches of dry date leaves at night. 



Spring, 1957 ASA GRAY BULLETIN 161 



Toward sunset a storm rose in the west and in its struggle to put 
out the dying sun, piled up battalions of black and ragged clouds that 
towered jinn- like into the sky. The sun shot volleys of arrows into 
the monster that pierced his writhing depths and deepened his inky 
wrath. Higher surged his awful mass. For a few brief moments 
Light and Darkness thus battled and then as the shafts fell faster, the 
apparition dimmed and faded, and the storm spirit swept in empty 
fury into the desert, leaving the sun to set in fiery glory among the 
tattered banners of the conquered foe. Desert storms often are such 
fantastic and fearsome visitations that pass in the gale and spitefully 
spill a tantalizing sip to the parched creation. More generous are the 
storms that arise from great low-pressure areas that move slowly 
and may refresh large stretches. In the Himalayas rains are often 
local and one may see the manufacture of the storm. A cloud wisp 
appears on the peak and floats forward, gathering volume so swiftly 
that it covers the sky as by magic and rain falls. 

A big flock of goats came from the direction of the mountain at 
evening, tended by two boys. The shepherds are probably hired by the 
village goat owners and every morning assemble their charges and 
every evening bring them back. A young woman with a baby and a 
bleating kid came out on the plain to meet the herd, and when the kid's 
mother joined them, they went back again. I had never seen so many 
red goats in Iran before. In many desert places the goats are mostly 
black, though offhand it would seem that white would be a more suit- 
able color in the heat. A flock of at least 50 ravens was busy feeding 
on the desert, but what the barren ground was yielding, I couldn't de- 
termine. 

A man told us garlic was an excellent tonic for the eyes; Lahulis 
on the contrary positively know that garlic weakens the sight! Garlic 
is also considered beneficial for malaria in Iran, and Lahulis again 
have the opposite idea. Garlic here and in Lahul has at least the 
same odor and it is quite possible that it has no effect either on vision 
or malaria. Then too, Lahulis are apt to have something against ev- 
erything on their meager bill of fare, except mutton and roast barley 
flour {sattu), but so, for that matter, are the Persians. It is unthink- 
able that a physician in either place shouldn't rigidly restrict the 
choice of diet of his patient. Two children told us it was a sin to kill 
a woodpecker and then were frightened at their temerity: we might 



take it as a reproof. Th 
drink— alwavs the same 



donkeys and 
Lahuli 



horses drink but don't bother for donkeys. The children here have 
their heads clipped except over the front one-third and the sun has 
often bleached to a queer red what hair they have. Those whose hair 



make 



plant 



age 



of the country. From India to Per 
something to be ashamed of in both 



162 ASA GRAY BULLETIN N. S. VoL UI, No. 2 




Where 



and 



commonest people seldom show white hair. 

January 16. The weather looked hopeful this morning, so we got 
ready to leave Chaharfarsakh. By searching in the gardens here and 
at Shahdad we finally got a collection of seeds of most of the usual 



etables. Many 



and egg-plants in another, and notl 
eens and what we call ^herbs" and 



plant. We got much help from a schoolboy, who, tempted by an Amer- 
ican jackknife, ransacked the village with good effect, and every eve- 
ning delivered his finds on a handsome blue donkey. There are sev- 
eral woodcock here in the orange groves. They say their name is 
khoftu and that they stay the year round, but that can hardly be. — As 
we entered the Dar, the gulch that leads to the pass, we shot a golden 



agl 



teasing. As is often the case with birds 
expert hunters like duckhawks, there 



was no trace of food in his digestive system. Golden eagles 



often found thus empty of food. 



agl 



and in Darts of Asia and 



least, is a common bird of prey, it seems well adapted to survive and 
it may be it is abstemious by nature. In Afghanistan we used to take 
live chickens to the mountain tops to bait the eagles, but though they 
clearly saw the bait none ever attacked it. Other wild birds such as 
chukors and snowcocks I have often seen them chasing, once even a 
Great Bustard, but I never could be certain they ever caught one. On 



hand 



An old fe- 



Karai 



bird had struck at some pigeons and had hit the ground so forcibly that 
it couldn't rise again, and one dropped from the sky within a few feet 
of where I sat one day, attracted by the punch-bag we put up for our 
wild boar to exercise on. I have also frequently seen them sitting 
around or looking over carrion, though whether they ate it, I couldn't 
be sure. Smaller birds of prey like kestrels and also harriers I have 
usually found to be feeding regularly, but the game they look for is of 
course commoner \md more easily got. -As we started climbing, 
snow began to fall, soft, thick flakes, and by the time I got to the top of 
the pass at one, everything was white. The ravens and crows had 
flown high last night, circled and dropped and sailed again and the na- 
tives said a storm was in the offing. The passage of the seasons 
alters little the face of the desert but the passing cloud has for a brief 
moment transfigured it, and I thought of the lines of Omar Khayyam: 

The worldly hope men set their hearts upon 
Turns ashes— or it prospers; and anon. 
Like snow upon the desert's dusky face 
Lighting a little hour or two -is gone. 



Spring, 1957 



ASA GRAY BULLETIN 



163 



'^-X-^^'^'-^'^^-'^^^^K^f^' H-r ■ 

































■■■■ -^■^^ri3E^■■^ i.a 











r-^i." 
















dt. 






zitfT. :" '= .J: 






Rup Chand and a Golden Eagle near Kirman. The Golden Eagle is at times a 
common bird of prey in Iran and Afghanistan, as it is in places in our own country. 
The largest of his tribe, he is also the most interesting and often puts on a spectacu- 
lar act in the Desert's show. 



[lock of fine donkeys reached the crest with me, carrying oranges 
Kirman. I brushed off the wet snow that hung heavily on the uneven 



load and their i 
scent was easy 



: ^Tou 
and tov 
avy light now looked wild and 



The de- 

. The 



and the pleasant little stream below stood out swollen and muddy. A 
scrubby tree growing out of a boulder along the way had numerous 
rags tied to it — just as one sees in the mountains from here to Tibet: 



ancient 



effaced. In 



are tied on with a prayer that the god of the region is besought to 
bring into fulfillment. Along the stream a sparrow hawk {Accipiter 
nisus) flew out of a bush with a red ball that looked like a pomegranate 



164 ASA GRAY BULLETIN N. S. VoL UI, No. 2 



ani 



Toward four o'clock we arrived at Pushte, a lone house with a little 
orchard and a few fields, the only stopping place till five hours' jour- 
ney ahead. Room had been made for us, but we were a considerable 



and 



the lone woman who ran the place, and her assorted livestock. We 
seemed to have trespassed especially on the rights of a swarm of 
dapper particolored cockerels that till dark, rasped the air with their 



intrusion. Our 



baggage had been stored in th 
nidit. The hostess had taken 



any traffic with her lodg 



even to supplying us with a couple of the supernumerary roosters. At 
last, however, she consented to give two hens, and even to give two 
eggs with each hen, if we'd take them instead. This struck me as the 
height of imprudence, to kill hens in the beginning of the laying season 
when there was this obvious plethora of unprofitable males. The root 
of the difficulty seems to have been that hen meat is "warm'' and cock 
meat "cold,^ or perhaps vice versa. Ali probably thought my insist- 
ence on roosters was motivated by these considerations instead of 
economic ones and finally triumphed, but he had to give a letter saying 
that he had requisitioned the birds. Probably the woman would be 
held accountable to someone for the shortage. In the fresh damp air 
today the whole route was perfumed and one came to understand what 
the old poets meant when they sang of the fragrant earth of Iran. 
Since then I have often noticed striking fragrances from freshly 
plowed fields, due probably to the broken roots of scented plants. The 
Artemisia or wormwood freshened by the rain gave off its bittersweet 
odor and at times on the slopes there was a strong smell like lemon 
verbena. In the valley along the stream some tall sugar-cane- like 
grasses were redolent of honey. I may have been a bit fanciful be- 
cause Rup Chand said he had smelt nothing but the "old house^ smell 
that you get around the tamarisks. - One of our donkey men has a 
job, from which he was temporarily released to go with us, that pays 



and food. What the food 



didn 



The peo- 



Kirman are eenerallv poor, even judged 



try where almost everyone is poor. Fuel is a luxury and is seldom 
used for heating houses: One tries to keep warm with clothes. Not 
everyone can manage to buy fuel even for cooking and food is com- 
monly bought cookisd, or for a small sum you can have your dish of 
stew cooked by the foodsellers in the bazar. One of the men thought 



younger 



an 



I was a bit surprised at a sugges- 



Chand because he is usually taten 



than 



Spring, 1957 ASA GRAY BULLETIN 16 



5 



January 20. Today is some Icind of a holiday and the city is quie 
as the grave. Accordingly I had Nikbur phone the mission hospital, 
which they said was run by Americans, to see if I might call. The 



aji 



there. Afterwards everyone wondered that I had found my way back. 
They say there are two horse- carriages in town that haul people about 
but neither crossed my path. I found a gentle kind woman in charge of 



and 



and 



She 



said septic conditions were common, likewise deformed pelvises from 



rusT 



seen at home. I had assumed that hysteria was an abnormal condition 
and that where every woman got a husband and therefore lived ap- 
parently more normally, neuroses might be less common. We gen- 
erally feel sorry for the downtrodden females of the East but from 



and 



West 



downright corkers. A young Persian woman has as wholesome a fear 
of her mother-in-law as she has of hellfire, and when I asked a friend 
once what was the trouble with her mother-in-law, she countered with 
"Do your girls like them? " Then I asked what sort of a life they had 
when there were a couple of wives in the house and was told the hus- 
band had to spend most of his time away from home if he wanted 
peace. The Persian woman impresses me as an intelligent, capable, 
and active creature. The man likewise intelligent, but more the 
dreamer, and easygoing. I thought I noticed about the same difference 
between the sexes in our South, and have read that but for their mag- 
nificent fire-eating spouses the men would have thrown up the Civil 
War much earlier. Certainly if I wanted to do something in Iran, I 



band 



bands or their sons. 



My friend said there was no foreign parcel post, except sample 
post, but that there was a reliable parcel post for the interior; that 
she thought I might find baking powder but dried milk she hadn't seen. 
She said there were so many beggars they were forced to go out with 
empty pockets so they could truthfully say they hadn't money. A 
teacher had told her that the children had fine memories but that it 



make 



two 



agricultural 



of the educational system and its effects. I should have to say with 
the unknown teacher that logic wasn't the forte of the finished product 
of the Persian schools, but it seems I could understand that if a boy 
didn't learn to think it wasn't exactly his fault, since thinking is no 
more encouraged in school than, under the despotic government, out- 
side it. Education in Iran, as in old Europe, is a stuffing of the mem- 



and 



plants and animals 



166 ASA GRAY BULLETIN N. S. VoL III, No, 2 



if the teacher chanced to know them, the English, French, and German 
names as well, of endless morphological and physiological terms of 
botany and zoology and whatever the other sciences could yield in the 
way of polysyllabic words, so that for weeks before the examinations 
the boys used to pace the avenues mumbling their jargon in prepara- 
tion for the ordeaL And ordeal the examination was, a veritable aca- 
demic trial by fire. The victim might be made to sit a day, or even 
two, outside the examiner's room waiting his turn before the Inquisi- 
tion and then have his fate settled by a question, or maybe two, such 
as: ''Name the breeds of French horses." One boy did especially well 
by being able to give the name of the elm tree in six languages and 
neither he nor I (I had had two year's experience by then) was sur- 
prised that he didn't recognize the tree itself as it grew in the avenues 
of the grounds. The fact that the names learned were sometimes 
partially or totally incorrect was a trifling matter because neither 
teacher nor student could believe that the correct scientific name of a 
Chinese plant or of the details of the digestive tract of some unknown 
insect had any bearing on Persian education, so the wrong one was no 
more irrelevant. Instead of showing the boys a cow's skull, the 
teacher described it; instead of letting them raise chickens, statistics 

were read on the status of French egg imports from Belgium, so it 
isn't strange you could find graduates who couldn't tell wheat from 
barley, nor a peach tree from a willow, nor was it an idiot either who 
having watched me dip water from the stream and put out the fire, 
asked if the liquid had been gasoline. Let no one suppose from the 
foregoing that the Persians are feeble-minded. I should rather say 
that they are mentally as agile as any people I have ever been among. 
Certainly for learning languages they have the extraordinary aptitude 
one often finds also among the Indians. One boy who came to me for 
English lessons after school could with ease carry on a conversation 
in that language at the end of eight months and had read with me all 
the reading material prescribed in the seven years of English instruc- 
tion in the schools. Another student who studied German mostly by 
himself could converse with reasonable fluency after four months. 
And coupled with this remarkable ability one finds a keen appreciation 
of literary beauties but rarely met with among us. The amount of 
poetry most Persian boys know is colossal. A"^ common way of killing 
time is a game called moshaireh. One boy quotes a line of poetry and 
the next has to quote one in return beginning with the letter that ended 
the previous quotation. Such a game would soon be finished in the 
most intellectual group we could collect in the United States, but the 
agricultural school boys had sessions that lasted through the after- 
noon without any of the competitors falling out. 

The Persian peasant, on the other hand, never goes to school and 
is by no means mentally constipated. He has to use his wits to wrest 
a living from a parsimonious Providence and a conservative landlord. 
He has observed and profited by his observations. He has seen that 



^4 ' 



1 L 



Spring, 1957 ASA GRAY BULLETIN 167 

only certain lateral shoots of the muskmelon vine bear fruit well and 
he will show you on the growth rings of a stump that young trees need 
three years to establish their roots. The Karaj peasants, though my 
fame as a foreign specialist in agriculture was bruited abroad, didn't 
rush for advice till they saw results that they hadn't expected, and 
their discussion of world politics had more sound sense than an arm- 
ful of Reader's Digests. I often recall a conversation I once had with 
a Georgia cracker. I expressed my surprise at the originality and 
soundness of his views and he replied: "You see, we can't read. We 



think thing 



Iran 



prolonged always in the stimulating hope that I might be able to get 
some government interested in letting me try to do something for a 
people so worthy of a decent life. No Persian ever believed that I c 



an 



and 



all progress in the country on the British. The Germans, they said. 



and 



eign pressure had always effected their rejection. The strong pro- 



German sent 
liefs as this. 



On the way home someone hailed me in the half- lighted street and 
I found one of the young military officers who had come up with us 



Bandar 



and 



hugged each other and exchanged vows of friendship, - The men 
were bargaining today for a piece of cloth, fine handloom stuff of cot- 
ton warp and cashmere weft, such as one seldom finds nowadays 
since there are weaving factories that reproduce foreign designs. 



to pay 65 rials against the asked- for 80 when a 1 
wink and they got it for 60. Ali said that was the 



and 



prospective buyers. 

Children and youths here often have the whole side of the cheek 
bright red, but for some reason they fade soon. The men gave the 
housekeeper's little girl some candy and her father came with a sla 
of bread. They gave some to Nikbur who had wanted to bring us all 
supper from his own home the night we came back from Shahdad, a 
hospitality he could probably afford less than I could giving away an 



and 



The aforemen- 



candy was enclosed in 
thing that I cut up and 



Wan 



and not till he cut the size to no more than twic 



the runts one sees here was it allowed likely. 

January 24. We expected to leave Kirman for Jiroft today and 
ready. Nikbur took home such things as we wouldn't need on the 
and at 3:30 they took our luggage to the bus station and weighed i 



168 ASA GRAY BULLETIN N. S. VoL III, No. 2 



We had been warned the bus would start at 4:00. Nikbur wanted ter- 
ribly to go along with us because officials get a little travelling al- 
lowance, but the job fell to a youngster named Zand who had seem- 
ingly never undertsiken such an adventure before. His friends came 
in hordes to bid him goodbye and the garage courtyard showed scenes 
like those before the gangplank of an ocean- liner, but still the bus 
didn't start and eventually the cold emptied the courtyard of all but 
the passengers. The last to go was one of Zand's relatives, a boy of 
16 with the usual nice Kirmani smile. He knew some English and was 
delighted to talk in public in that language. We got off at six, well 
loaded with human cargo. We were given the ^"^best^^ seats, behind the 
driver, but there were sacks on the floor so that my knees were 
wrapped around my ears. Outside the city we stopped for the custom- 
ary police inspection, and for an hour the passengers had their passes 
registered by a nice-looking youth who did his job pleasantly. We 
didn't have any passes but there had been a telephone call about us. 
A lot more people got aboard at the police station, but I was too weary 
to see where they could possibly stow them, and a little fartlier on we 
picked up a couple more who hadn't passes and therefore were put to 
the inconvenience of walking past the police post. At 8:30 we got to 
Mahun and stopped for supper. They said we could have anything we 
wanted to eat which is the usual way of saying tea, bread, and eggs. 
An hour later we piled back into the bus and drove a bit to pick up one 
of the passengers who had gone to someone's house. He came out and 
said he hadn't eaten yet, might he eat. In 15 minutes he came and we 
started. 

There is a famous old mosque in Mahun, the turquoise dome of 
which shone in the moonlight, the first impressive building I had seen 
since the Moghul remains of India. The road soon ran through a 
snowy landscape with low ridges on either side. At three we stopped 
somewhere for tea, about the first building since Mahun. There 
wasn't any place to wait except in the crowded "coffee house," as 
these places are called for some reason (Persians seldom serve cof- 
fee except at wakes), so we crawled back on our seats in the bus and 
crouched there benumbed till the driver came to start at half past five 
We got to Bam sometime after sunrise, too stupified even to be bad- 
tempered. This was our first ride on the public buses, smart-looking 
light-blue glassed-in things that gave no clue from their appearance 
to what agony one might endure from a ride in them. I could never 
get any other reason for riding through the night than that it was too 
warm for the cars in the daytime. More enlightened comment sug- 
gested that since camel caravans had always set out at evening, folks 
had come to like nig;ht travel. With trifling added inconveniences such 
as derive from association with carsick or lousy neighbors, this trip 
was a sample of our travel in these vehicles while we were in Iran. 
One wonders perhaps that I don't mention quarrels and bloodshed, but 
the Persian is singularly patient and tolerant, and almost never 



Spring, 1957 



ASA GRAY BULLETIN 



169 



and 



omfort 



omfortable 



They said folks 



at Bam suffer much from malaria which they get from eating so many 
dates. At Bandar Abbas they also knew that the disease was con- 
tracted from date- eating and that such a diet made the complexion 
dark. I had heard in India that malaria may result in a deepening of 
the skin color and it may be that the swarthier complexion of the olde: 
Persians is due to malaria. It may be mentioned that the cause of 

F 

malaria is ascribed in different places, to different things such as 
spring water, stagnant water, grapes, cucumbers, etc., and I don't re- 
member ever hearing the right cause mentioned. Even at the Agri- 



Karai 



axed 



stant 



a dog could have gone through, slept outside without a mosquito net. 



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The Shrine at Mahun. There are countless shrines (Imamzadeh) throughout the 
country in varying degrees of size and sanctity depending on the repute of the person 
whose remains they house, A few cities have superlative structures and the great 
mosques of Qom, Isfahan and Meshed might well draw to worship gentle people of 
any faith. 



170 ASA GRAY BULLETIN N. S. VoL HI, No. 2 



Persians have very mobile faces, and like us their mask is stiff 
and repelling. Tibetans, on the other hand, can make their faces such 
a blank that you are as unaffected by them as by a statue. 

January 30. Deh Bakri is in the foothills of the great Jamal Bariz 
range that forms part of the southern rim of the Great Desert, the 
Dasht Loot that runs for more than 500 miles to the north. We have 
come on foot from the date plantations of Bam to visit the more im- 
portant and more extensive ones across the mountains in the Jiroft 
district that stretches off southward to the ocean* People here com- 
monly wear for shoes a big piece of wood tied on with a string. One 
man has cloth giveh like mine but he has reinforced the sole with a 
piece of heavy sheet-iron. He said he couldn't be buying new shoes 
all the time. A nice purple Colchicum is blooming in the fields. One 
garden has a most attractive almond tree, much like our yellow birch, 
which they said had bitter nuts. 

We arrived here day before yesterday in the rain that was her- 
alded by a gale so tremendous that walking was difficult. The rain 
kept on for 36 hours and we have been sheltered in the one- room tel- 
ephone office, apparently the finest building in the village. It required 
a skillful comprehension of space relations to find room for everyone 
to stretch out his length at night among the piles of luggage, but sleep 



was another matter. 



began 



ing in trickles through the reeds that formed the ceiling and then 



human 



mg 



and 



even the Persians lost patience a couple of times and chased them out 
through the windowless apertures. During the day there was no peace 



either. 



and 



way to the instrument by stepping over us with an ''Excuse me'' apiece, 
as we sat huddled in the mud on the floor. For a few minutes he 
would shout at his distant auditor who seemed not to be giving full at- 
tention and constantly was admonished to ''look*' and ''listen. ** After 
a brief interval of calm the whole thing would be repeated. Apparently 
they only wanted to see if the line was working and thought it would be 
impolite to let it go at that. There are times in this part of the world 
when a simple "How do you do'' won^t do for a greeting. In Afghani- 
stan the salutatoi:y ritual was perhaps the most complicated. Both 



simultaneously and 



omp anted 



The performance is 



than our handshake and exchange 



and has the advantagje of having a prescribed and predictable end. 

Our poor camel had to sit outdoors in all the rain because the 
doors of none of the buildings are over five feet high. He was heavily 
blanketed but nevertheless complained dismally to anyone who ap- 
proached. Camels are said to be very intelligent. Their haughty 
bearing: and measured e:ait would bear this out and I was always 



Spring, 1957 ASA GRAY BULLETIN 171 



favorably impressed by the air of disdain with which they regard hu- 
manity. I am told if you load them too heavily they won't get up and it 
is dangerous to mistreat them — they keep it in mind. Their incredi- 
ble hardiness and their uncanny skill in finding their way through 
trackless wastes are proverbial. I learned here that in places they 
are stimulated on hard journeys by tobacco smoking. People have 
also told me of tamed sparrows, foxes, pigeons, and other animals 
that became tobacco or opium addicts and came regularly at smoking 
time. When there is a particularly long waterless stretch ahead the 
drivers inform the camels at watering time by a special song so they 
will drink more heavily. The Tibetans have a special song they sing 
to their sheep while loading them to remind them there's a hard day's 
work ahead. The plowing cattle are also encouraged with a song that 



make 



and 



flowers." Unlike the noble horses, the camel isn't greedy. A caravan 
of these great animals kneeling shoulder to shoulder around their 
meal of shredded herbage, served on a cloth like their master's su- 
freh and munching in dignified silence gives a chastening air to the 
camp, and whether from association with their magnificent beasts or 
from their life in the solitude of the desert, the camel drivers are a 
manlier group of human beings, simple creatures with more sense 
of human dignity. The tree of the windswept plain takes a different 
form from that of the sheltered forest, 

I found three magpies dead, apparently of exposure, under a tree. 
The other magpies seemed none the worse for the protracted rain. At 
Kara] I occasionally found corpses of magpies, that seemed to have 
died of intestinal troubles. Other birds were seldom found to have 
died except through violence. 

We started on our way through the long stretch of broken ground 
that separates us from the coastal plain. For most of the day the 
road ran through rocky ravines rather densely grown up to scrubby 
trees and bushes of wild pista {beneh), maple, and almond. In places 



and 



osbeak 



stes). Goldfinches and chickadees were common; there was one black 
bird {Turdus merula) and a flock of serins {Serinus pusillus); and we 
collected a golden eagle ready to lay. Since our stage today was to be 



take 



Maskun 



Luckily we met a traveller who said our things had gone on to Moha- 
medabad; so on we went in pursuit, Mohamedabad is off the road and 



knowin 



caravan 



3 still on the march. His neighbor joined 
him now and urged us to stop and rest a bit while he made tea for us 
and he'd find out something definite about the travellers ahead. A man 



172 



ASA GRAY BULLETIN 



N. S. Vol. in, No. 2 



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Mountain Forest near Deh Bakri in Kirman. The higher mountains of the great 
Iran Plateau have or had. forests of oak, and more rarely juniper, growths that may 
properly be called trees. In much of the country the "forests" will be such growths 
as this, of almonds of several sorts, cherry, maple and pista (wild pistacchio). 
There Is always game in such places, partridges and pigs the commonest. 

came just then and said that they had made camp at a settlement three 
miles farther on^ It was now five o'clock and near sundown and it 
was always possible that the distance might be more than three miles, 



pany 



; sent Wangyel on to find them. Our host sent a man to accom- 
him and to bring back our bed* Us he took into his dugout — he 
had three in a row; he had two wives, he said— and got out his lan- 
tern. One of the wiv6s was told to get ready bread of the best white 
flour, to make tea, to kill a chicken. This last was a remarkable or- 
der since Muslims in these parts don't l^ill things after sundown, but 
we saved the chicken's life. We had shot two partridges on the way 



and 



preparing 



Iran 



and called kabob. Our host's brother and son and a 
couple of neighbors sat with us. The boy was a nice lad of about 1 
but for some reason they insisted he was 12. It seems the official 



Spring, 1957 ASA GRAY BULLETIN 173 

birth records are somewhat lax and in the identification cards that ev- 
ery male has to carry the recorded age is, for one reason or another, 
likely to be incorrect. Many don't ' " " ^i-^=- i,:„i.i,j 



know 



many 
an 



„_ ^^e to the compulsory military service law. The boy had just 

shot into a flock of partridges with an ancient homemade shotgun, but 
without effect. I remarked that if heM got a bird with his shot we'd 
have had a nice meal. The uncle observed if he had got two, it would 
have been still nicer. I said how nice that they had so much wood, 
and they answered that that was about all they did have. To approach 
the partridges the boy used a screen made of a sheet on which were 
painted in various colors, dots, bars, and other figures. Such screens 
are used from here to the Himalayas to delude the chicken tribe that 
seem especially fascinated by strange sights. Himalayan hunters^of- 
ten use leopard skins for the purpose. 



We 



ranes 



sooner The boy brought out his geography book and took a look at the 
map of'the United States; what did we buy from Persia; what was the 
news of the war? Tibetans always like to have war news too. When 
the bed came, we went out and slept in the alfalfa field, to our host s 
dismay They had sent a sack of candy with the bedding and this we 
divided'among the small crowd that had collected to help put us to bed. 
The man who had brought the bedding got the biggest share but he 
promptly distributed what he got among the poorer lookers-on. There 
are apple trees here three feet through and peach- and apricot-trees 



two 



Usually apple trees and peach trees hardly get larger 
than po^sts in the desert regions we have visited. They have a husk- 
less barley {jau khilu) that looks like wheat; it isn't glutinous enough 
for good bread, they say. 

February 3. Tomagaon lies several miles beyond the foothills at 
the edge of the great plain in a landscape that is reminiscent of the 
Punjab Half of the fields are planted to grain now beginning to head, 

Apparently there is plenty of water for irri- 



and the rest are 
gation. Outside 
bushes. A few i 



"jungle," all of grass and 
and there. The word jungle is 



rsian 



dense forest, as has come to be its signification with us. In fact out- 
side of the narrow Caspian coast strip, Iran has no forests worthy of 
the name. In India, the term may be applied to a stretch of wild grass 
without necessarily a tree or bush in it, while Persians call such 
places hesheh. Across the river to the west in the desert are patches 
of green- villages lying in palm and orange groves. Those nearest 
the mountain have best citrus, they say, while Dusan, 6 farsakhs be- 
low, is recommended for its dates. 

The houses here are mostly built of cattails on stick frames. Last 






174 



ASA GRAY BULLETIN 



N. S. Vol. Ill, No. 2 



night when we arrived we camped under a large Zizyphus tree in 
which the birds were busily eating the fruit and raining down on us the 
pits. But a thunderstorm came over the mountain below and looked so 




"^■HpPI^^^^Wi™ 



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.,;i>.i-«^^ 



;■'- 





-:!Frj-^f^^j=^: 



f" i 






ID 







Reed houses in Tomogaon, Kirman. The people of these parts make shelters of 
grasses of one sort and the other that grow abundantly in the undrained parts of 
Jiroft. The air circulates through the walls and they can be cooled by water. The 
strangers have Just arrived and the populace has not yet collected to admire their 
funny things. Some one will move out to give them his house. 

threatening that we carried our things into a house. It had early, been 
cleared for us of all inhabitants except two hens and their chicks. 
The mothers were distrustful of the foreign infidels and until we put 
out the lantern croaked and squawked alarms to their unconcerned and 
drowsy family. 

We paid up the horsemen but they decided they mig-ht as well take 



journey begins. 



during 



donkey 



fields and in the desert and at evening we'll give them some grain and 
some grass to keep them occupied through the night. Cattle have to be 
brought in at night everywhere on account of the wolves and leonards 



Spring, 1957 ASA GRAY BULLETIN 175 



The collection of seeds went on briskly all day. 



an 



prising lot as these villagers we hadn't seen in a long while. They 
ransacked their fields and their houses to get what we wanted and 



mb 



shaitan 



These wild 



cucumbers are the size and shape of an egg and keep well, but seem 
to be eaten by wild animals, probably for their seeds, since the flesh 
is bitter. Edible sorts, of the size and shape of a football, that are 
cultivated in parts of southern India, keep for months hung up in the 
house. India has many varieties of cucumber; another remarkable one 
doesn't run like the rest of its tribe but stays bushy. Egg-plant, cu- 
cumber, carrot, squash, and onion seeds have been rare; leek and 
pepper have not yet appeared. There is a curious long white and pur- 
ple turnip as long as an icicle radish, the like of which I had never 
seen anywhere. The foliage even is different from that of orthodox 
turnips. Peas we find for the first time in Iran. 

Birds, as birds in desert places go, are common. On the river are 
some waterfowl and the grainfields provide forage for many others. 
The fields are especially the haunts of two kinds of partridge: Franco- 
linus pondicerianus called karmanzil; and F. francolinus, or toraj. 
The former sings in the morning from 6:15 to 6:30; the latter from 
6:30 to 8:00. Without a dog they can't be flushed from the grain and 
outside the grainfields they are very shy. Our host- a nice boy- said 
he could get them for us, but we didn't take the promise seriously 
since they wouldn't dare use guns in front of our soldier- escort, and 
even if they had firearms they would hardly be equipped for partridge 
hunting. In India these birds are often netted, but here folks had a dif- 
ferent way of hunting. They got them with sticks! In the evening they 
brought eight. A crowd of men and boys having flushed the bird hurl 
their sticks at it and if they miss they rush to the spot where it 
alighted and try again. The price we paid for the birds was so tempt- 
ing that a protesting hen was brought afterwards with the assurance 
that she too was a karmanzil. 

The ladies of the community gathered to watch us eat breakfast 
and then one asked for a taste of the funny- looking cake. A good Mu- 
salman would never think of eating anything a Kafir cooked. There 
might be a dozen reasons why it would be unclean, none of them of 
course having the remotest connection with actual cleanliness. A 
Hindu goes the Musalman one better - he not only won't eat anything 
an unbeliever touches, but what's more, not what lower castes of be- 
lievers touch, and I am told the matter has been carried to its logical 
conclusion by one sect. Its members eat nothing that anyone touches 
each member of the family does his own cooking. 

A bee- eater is boring a hole in the wall of one of the few mud 
houses I wonder if he will make his nest before he bores through. 



l'^6 ASA GRAY BULLETIN N. S. VoL III, No. 2 

Some of the women in the mountain above here blaclcen their teeth 
with something they call "ahmen" and here to enliven their tea they 
add a mint called "alale" or "aglale." - A goat got caught in the 



and 



vultur 



There seems to be only one cat here, but dogs are plentiful. One poor 
puppy got a lot of beatings for trying to steal his living; so Rinchen 
Gialtsen has been feeding him and the yelping has stopped. 

The women all appear to be pregnant and most of the birds seem 
to be breeding: duck hawk, barn swallow, shrike {Lanius lahtora), 



(A 



anywhe 



s decaptus)y etc. The women 
>aw such skillful spinners 
from it. Its width is only 
an make of it. The goats 



avy 



say a goat may yield as much as two pounds, Tibetan goats have a 



and 



The Governor at iSabzwarun sent a stone jug with about ten pounds 
of Murdasing dates preserved in date syrup, each fruit separate and 
sugary, something quite new and nonpareil in the date line. The date 
syrup, or shireh, is in itself a most delicious thing, though it is but 



known 



Who 



bunches are cut and hung up to dry, the juice that drips from them is 
collected and made into shireK Grape shireh made by boiling down 
grape juice is found everywhere, but always has a cream of tartar 
tang that limits its usefulness as a sweetener. The earliest ripening 
date, they say, is the Alimeteri that ripens about the first of July; the 
latest the Halili, in September. 

At night a little boy came with ?ikarmanzil. He could hardly con- 
tain his joy at the prospect of the twenty-five cent reward he would 
get. He had caught the bird himself and probably was getting the firsi 
money he ever had, and such a lot of it too. There are a few pairs of 
mongoose about camp but they never come near. In India they some- 
times came into the tent after meat, and at one place in the Hima- 
layan foothills a pair stayed with us and came regularly for the dis- 
carded birdmeat of the taxidermy operations. An enormous lizard 
was likewise attracted by the meat and took up his quarters in a hole 
nearby. He came to blows with the mongooses one day and for a few 



an 



takin 



the hole when the trouble began. I had expected from what I remember 
of the Jungle Book that a mongoose would make short work of anything 
in the reptile line. It is said there are in the mountains two kinds of 
wild grapes with large berries. I had noticed vines with huge trunks 
in the ravines on our way down. ,jo be continued) 



Of 



PERSONAL RECOLLECTIONS AND MILITARY RECORD 

OF 
COLONEL VALERY HAVARD, 

MEDICAL CORPS, U.S. ARMY 

Fairfield, Connecticut 
The Librarian, Army Medical Library October 15, 1924 

Sir, 

In compliance with Circular Letter No. 20, S.G.O., April 15, 1924, 
I respectfully submit the following record of my life and services as 
medical officer in the U.S. Army \ 

I was born in Compiegne, "Departement" of Oise, France, Febru- 
ary 18, 1846. My father (Louis Stanislaus) and mother (Eugenie Pru- 
dence), as well as most of my ancestors, so far as known, were also 
native of the same province (He de France). '"^ "' ''"'" '"" 

are still living (1924). 

Most of my early education was received in the Ecole Normale 
and later the Institut Agricole of Beauvais, Oise; I graduated from the 
latter establishment in 1865. 

In October, 1865, 1 left France and came to New York, having been 
offered a position on the staff of Manhattan College, New York. Real- 
izing in due time that the practice of medicine offered me the best 
chance of success, under my circumstances, I matriculated in the 
University Medical College of New York, receiving the degree of M.D. 
in 1869, and entering, as intern, the Childrens Hospital on Wards Is- 
land and later on Randalls Island. This same year I received the de- 
gree of M.S. from Manhattan College. 

In July 1869 I was called to San Francisco, California, by an old 
friend, Felix Demesn:iay Templeure, of Nord, France, who was then 
engaged in the business of exporting wheat to France and who had in- 
duced me to join him in it. But the outbreak of the Franco- Prussian 
War broke up these arrangements. My friend returned at once to 
France. I became a professor in St. Mary's College, and at the same 
time, began the practice of medicine. 

^Colonel Havard's account is pubUshed with the kind permission of his son, Cap- 
tain Valery Havard, U.S.N., of Arlington, Virginia. With the consent of Captain 
Havard we have also added certain supplementary information. Some years ago the 
junior editor of the Asa Gray BuUetin, in the course of work, in the United States 
National Archives in Washington, D.C., made a series of notes pertaining to the 
career of Valery Havard the elder, with the intention of expanding these and incor- 
porating them into a paper on the work of this important early botanist. The prepar- 
ation of such a separate paper has been indefinitely deferred by pressure of other 
work, but dates and certain other information and annotations have been supplied in 
the following pages. These editorial additions are in italic type, and are included in 
square brackets; the data are from the National Archives, or from other sources as 
noted. Appendices 1 and II have likewise been supplied by the junior editor. - R. McV 



177 



1'78 ASA GRAY BULLETIN N. S. VoL HI, No. 2 

In June, 1871, desirous to see something of the Great American 
Desert and its Indian inhabitants, I accepted a contract [dated at 
San Francisco, May 26, 1871] for service as Acting Assistant Surg- 
eon, U. S. Army. I left San Francisco in July under orders to Camp 
McDowell, Arizona, and proceeded by steamer to San Diego and 
thence by stage to Fort Yuma, Arizona. From this point I traveled 
by ambulance on the Gila River road, with a detachment of soldiers. 
At Maricopa Wells [July 4 ], we turned north across the Gila, and 
further on across its affluent, Salt River, near Phoenix (then consist- 
ing chiefly of a flour mill), reaching Camp McDowell on the Rio 
Verde, the same day [ July 6] . K week later I went out on my first 
field service against Indians. They were not very dangerous and 
seldom attacked white people, but frequently robbed the post of sup- 
plies left unguarded, especially canvas sheeting off haystacks, an 
article of great necessity to their comfort. We pursued them as far 
as the Tonto Basin but without success. 

Transferred in November, 1871, to Camp Grant [Wt Camp Mc- 
Dowell Nov. 14; arrived Camp Grant Nov. 18] ^ on the Rio San Pedro 
then the reservation of several Apache tribes, and a short time pre- 
viously the scene of a terrible Indian massacre by a party of white 
men from Tucson. In May, 1872, General O. O. Howard, as special 
inspector, reviewed the Indian agency and camps, and in the presence 
of delegations from civil authorities, settlers, Pimos and Papagos, 
endeavored to establish durable peace relations between the citizens 
and Indians of Arizona. About 800 Indians drawing rations at the 
agency and receiving medical care from the post surgeon. Post 
abandoned in 1873. 

Transferred to Camp Hualpai, in beautiful hilly country, between 

Prescott and the Colorado River [Left Camp Grant March 20, 1873 
arrived Camp Hualpai March 29, 1873], 

Arizona Indians, in those days, unless fed by the Government were 
often hard pressed for food. The Cactus Family supplied them with 
some edible fruits, especially the Giant Cactus { Cereus giganteus ), 
the largest representative of the family and the most curious tree of 
the American Desert, imparting a very singular and lonely aspect to 
its barren hills. The straight shaft, armed with formidable thorns, 
is often 40 or 50 feet high, and from it spring a verticil of a few 
branches parallel with it. At the apex are borne gorgeous flowers 
succeeded by succulent fruit. Several species of Opuntia were like- 
wise utilized, less desired but much more easily obtained. The 
Amaryllis Family also furnished highly nutritive species of Agave 
[A. Palmeri and A. Parryi), the Mescal plants of the Apaches, pre- 
pared by trimming the leaves and baking the "head" in a heated pit. 

Realizing the danger of professional stagnation in my situation, 
and desiring to devote more time to the extension of my medical 



' d 






Spring, 1957 ASA GRAY BULLETIN 179 

studies, I resigned in July, 1873, and returned to San Francisco by 
stage and Army ambulance, by way of San Bernardino and Los 
Angeles, connecting with the terminus of the Southern Pacific at 
Bakersfield [left Camp Hualpai July 14, 1873] . 

I may note that the possibly dangerous effects of the high and dry 
temperature of Arizona and southern California can, with ordinary 
care, be readily guarded against, so as to avoid sunstrokes and other 
dangers to health. Twice I suffered in that climate from serious 
isolation, contracted by unnecessary and prolonged exposure to a 
temperature exceeding lOQO F. The first time, while at Fort Yuma, 
taking a foot ramble through the town (across the river), with intense 
light and heat reflected from the sandy soil and the whitewashed 
buildings, I incurred a severe attack of vertigo, which compelled me 
to remain several days in a tub of cold water. The second time, 
while I was travelling by stage across the valley of the Colorado, on 
the San Bernardino road, the driver allowed his thirsty horses to 
drink freely from a cold spring. One of the animals became found- 



ered. 



Afte 



walking a few miles on the desert road, feeling tired and overheated, 
I sat in the shade of a large bush. A singular noise soon attracted my 
attention, namely a quick succession of sharp clicks in regular rhythm 
each two clicks followed by a brief interval. They seemed to be loud 
enough to proceed from a distance of at least a few hundred yards. 
I thought at first of an Indian encampment. T listened and searched 
the bushes round about with wondering eyes, but without any explan- 
ation of the mysterious noise, until, placing a hand over my left side 
I quickly realized to my great astonishment, that the clicks in ques- 
tion were nothing else than the greatly strained and exaggerated 
beats of the heart. Fortunately the station was quite near by. Here 
an Army ambulance, drawn by four spirited mules, offered me a seat, 
so that after a suitable rest I was able to continue my trip with great 
comfort. 

Left San Francisco early in August, 1873, and later in the same 
month sailed from New York to France, spending most of my time 
while in Europe in the hospitals of Paris- 
Returned to New York in January, 1874 and in September success- 
fully passed my examination for admission to the Army Medical 
Corps. In October I was assigned to Fort Pembina, N. D., on the Red 
River of the North, and the boundary line between North Dakota, 
Minnesota, and Manitoba, The navigation being closed on the Red 
River I proceeded by stage from Fargo, N. D. [Arrived FL Pembina 
Oct. 26 ] , Fort Pembina has the record of being the coldest military 
post in the United States, the thermometer falling to -480 my first 
winter, and the ice on the river reaching five feet in thickness. Dur- 
ing my stay, very pleasant relations were maintained with British 



180 ASA GRAY BULLETIN N. S. VoL III; No. 2 

civil and military authorities of Manitoba, as well as the halfbreed 
population of the neighborhood. In summer steamboats plied on the 
Red River between Fargo and Winnipeg. The temperature then not 
infrequently reached and even exceeded 100*^F. Mosquitoes^ for at 
least six weeks of June and July, become so numerous and voracious 
as to constitute a plague. In that period, masks and gloves are nec- 
essary, and cattle have to be protected by smoke fires. In winter, 
the river offers excellent sleighing, provided the air holes (always 
left by nature) are carefully marked with bundles of brush. It is seen 
from the above figures that the range of temperature throughout the 
year in this section of North Dakota, Minnesota, and Manitoba is 
about 1480F., probably as great as in any part of North America. 

On the Red River the timber is mostly oak, ash, elm, aspen and 
box-elder. On the James River, further west, it is mostly elm and 
box-elder. No cottonwood grows on either of these streams. 

Wishing to acquire experience with troops in the field I made ap- 
plication, in 1876, for duty with Gen. Custer's command but was in- 
formed that all assignments had been made. Dr. Lord, the medical 
officer selected, was one of the victims of that tragic campaign. 

In 1877 I renewed my application for field duty and, in May, was 
assigned to Gen. S. D. Sturgis' command (7th Cav.) at Fort Lincoln, 
N. D., and thence, through the summer and fall took part in various 
expeditions, part of the time in union with Gen. Miles on the Upper 
Missonari and the Yellowstone. Having been informed of the advance 
of the Nez Perce Indians (about 500, including women and children, 
under Chief Joseph), through the National Park, Gen. Sturgis turned 
south into Wyoming and after crossing the Stinking Water River, into 
the National Park, so as to intercept them; but they eluded us, pass- 
ing undetected on our right flank, not only the Indians but also the 
command of Gen. Howard in pursuit of them. We overtook this com- 
mand on Clark's Fork and took its place in the immediate rear of the 
Indians, coming in contact with them the next day a few miles north 
of the Yellowstone, A sharp skirmish ensued, a few men being killed 
and wounded on both sides, but the enemy could not be stopped. Gen, 
Miles being advised of our failure, speedily led his command from 
Fort Keogh, Tongue River, northwest to the trail of the Nez Perces 
and inasmuch as the latter had not been permitted to pass the frontier 
and enter the Canadian territory, they were compelled to surrender. 
Returned to Fort Lincoln in November, with battalion of 7th Cav, and 
some infantry. 

[Havard left Fort Pembina April 12, 1877, and reached his new 
post at Fort Lincoln (then commonly called Fort Abraharr.. Lincoln), 



near 



field duty on the upper Missouri 
Cavalry, under command of CoL 



May 



^f 



Spring, 1957 ASA GRAY BULLETIN 181 



the movements of this command, together with Havard^s account of 
the botany of the country traversed, may be found in Appendix QQ, 
House Exec. Doc. i, pt. 2, vol. 11, 45th Congress, 3rd Session (Ann. 
Kept. Chief Engineers , U.S.A. 1878: 1672 - 1687. 1878). The first 
part of this appendix, pages 1672 - 1680, comprises Lt. L. R. Hare's 
report of the march itself. Pages 1681 - 1687 are occupied with 
Havard's ^'Botanical outlines of the country marched over by the 
seventh United States Cavalry, during the summer of 1877^\ Havard 
later published an expanded and more comprehensive account of the 
botany of the Upper Missouri, combining data from his trips of 1877 
and 1879 (see below). The troops in 1877 actually spent most of the 
summer in the valley of the Yellowstone , which was ascended from 
the mouth to near the headwaters of Clarks Fork, in northwestern 
Wyoming (dates in Wyoming, September 4-10); after this they crossed 
to the Missouri near the Little Rocky Mountains in present Phillips 
Co., Montana, and descended the Missouri to Ft. Buford, 4 miles 
below the mouth of the Yellowstone. Havard reached Ft. Buford on 
November 10, and Fort Lincoln November 19^ . 

Left Fort Lincoln on leave of absence March {27\ 1878, reach- 
ing Paris in [late] April. Then, in the company of my friend, Capt. 
Henry Nowlan, U.S.A., travelled through France, Italy and Switzer- 
land. Returned to New York in September [Sept. 11]. The scenes 
of these travels, although very instructive and thoroughly enjoyed, 
would be deemed out of place in this more or less official record and 
are therefore omitted from it. 

In October, reported to Headquarters Department of the South, in 
Cincinnati, and was assigned to post at Chattanooga. Yellow fever 
had been prevailing in this town and the garrison was still camped 
on Missionary Ridge when I arrived [Oct. 26, 1878]. In November 
no new case having appeared, the command returned to its barracks 

in town. 

In April, 1879, the Chattanooga post was abandoned and I was 
directed to proceed with the command to the site of the future Fort 
Assiniboine on the Upper Missouri [Left Chattanooga Apr. 12, 1879; 
arrived Bismarck, D.T., Apr, 17, 1879]- The entire regiment (18th 
Infantry), having united at Bismarck, embarked on three steamers 
and proceeded up the Missouri, the navigation being slow and ren- 
dered difficult by sand-bars and rapids which, several times, com- 
pelled the troops to land and march past them. The Indians were 
said to be restless and leaving the reservations but gave us no 
serious trouble. Passed Fort Buford, near mouth of the Yellowstone 
[ April 24 ]. 



\ 



182 ASA GRAY BULLETIN N. S. VoL III, No. 2 



Arrived at Coal Banks ^, early in May [May 4], where the regi- 
ment was landed and marched to site of the new post (Fort Assini- 
boine) north of the Bear Paw Mountains. Soon after I accompanied 
a scouting expedition to Fort Belknap, the Indian agent there being 
apprehensive of an attack. Sitting Bull was then on Black Creek (35 
miles north) with 800 lodges. 

Visited Fort Benton^ a small, uninteresting military post, and 
near it a rather shabby settlement, paved with cast-off playing cards, 
a revelation of the chief business of the settlers. About 40 miles to 
the southwest are the Falls of the Missouri where now stands the 
prosperous town of Great Falls. At that time the only habitation in 
sight between the two places was a cattle ranch^ the falls forming a 
wild and lonely scene hidden below the surface of the level prairie. 
As an ornament to this scene were noted, on the declivity of the 
banks, several clumps of the two varieties of poplar ( Populus balsam - 

), namely vars. candicans and augustifolia) they take the place of 
the Cottonwood which disappeared before reaching this altitude. Here 
were also some box-elder and red cedar, as well as shrubs like 
choke cherry, prickly gooseberry and rosebush. No pine was seen on 
the banks nor on the grassy plains above. 

In June, 1879, I returned East by the Missouri to Bismarck, 
thence by rail to Duluth, and again by steamer to Detroit. Lastly by 
rail to Columbus and Cincinnati where I reported to Department 
Headquarters. Assigned to Fort Johnson, N.C., picturesque little 
post at mouth of Cape Fear River, reached by way of Chattanooga, 
Atlanta and Wilmington, an ideal locality for sailing, fishing and 
botanizing, in peacetime, but with little opportunity for anything else. 
Relieved from duty at Fort Johnson in June, 1880 [left June 14]y and 
ordered to New York for professional examination for promotion. 

[There are numerous references to Havard^s spring trip of 1879 
in Ms second paper on the flora of the upper Missouri River basin; 
this is in Appendix SS, House Exec. Doc, l,pt. 2, voljl, 46th Congress, 
3rd Session (Ann. Rep. Chief Engineers , U.S.A. 1880: 2513 - 2530. 
1880). His paper is entitled '^List of plants found on the plains of 
western Dakota and eastern Montana during the summer of 1877 and 

spring of 1879^\ ami is intended to incorporate most of the informa^ 
tion contained in his earlier ^'Botanical Outlines'^ of 1878. In the 

spring of 1879, with a detachment of the 18th Infantry, he left Bis- 
marck about April 18 and reached the point of debarkation. Coal 
Banks, about May 4. Apparently he went directly to Fort Assiniboine 
and remained near there, except for his trip to Fort Belknap, until 

^ Coal Banks, never a permanent settlement, and long since vanished from maps, 
appears on the Army Engineers' Map of Montana , 1 inch = 12 miles, 4th and 5th 
editions, 1881. This was about 30 miles northeast of Fort Benton, at the northern- 
most bend of the Missouri River, just west of the 110th Meridian, and the nearest 
point on the river to Fort Assiniboine, 



Spring, 1957 ASA GRAY BULLETIN 183 



May 28, when he left for Fort Beiiton and the falls of the Missouri. 
He was in the vicinity of the falls on May 29 and 30, and at Coal 
Banks on the 31st, presumably to take the steamer to Bismarck. He 
was in Cincinnati, Ohio, June 19, and reached Fort Johnston, at 
Smithville, North Carolina, June 27]. 

Assigned to Department of Texas, reaching Headquarters at San 



West 



Soon 



W 



ment (1st Infantry) was under orders to Presidio del Norte and Fort 
Davis (later, in 1898, in command of the division which invaded and 
compelled the surrender of Cuba). The Rio Grande, at Presidio, in 
December, had risen and become so rapid as to be impassable. Two 
companies were left at Presidio (Camp Eagle Nest) in provision of 
further Mexican trouble. Here, at my request, I remained as post 



surgeon 



Galveston, by steamer from 
Antonio Aug. 6; reported fo^ 



August 20, and 



_xas, August 31. Havard^s 
headquarters were in Presidio, show 



he spent a portion of his time with troops in the field. His report of 
Sept. 30, 1880, mentions a trip already made to Meyer's Spring, to 
Pena Colorado, to the Chinati Mts. and to "Cibola Canon 7iear Fauer^ 
Ranch' ^. A later report shows that on December 20-24 he was on dut 
with Seminole scouts in the Chinati Mts. ] . 

F 

Having always made a special study of Botany, especially econ- 
omic and medical, and desirous to investigate the vegetation of 
Western Texas, still very imperfectly known at that time, I applied 
to accompany the Chief Engineer Officer of the Department (Major 
Wm. R. Livermore) then under orders to explore and study the 
natural history and resources of that country, and was accordingly 
assigned to his command. 

I left Presidio in June, 1881, proceeded to Fort Davis and thence 
by stage to Fort Stockton and Fort Concho where I reported to Major 
Livermore, having had plenty of time to study the botanical features 
of the Rio Concho before his arrival. \Left Presidio June 



left 



Medical Offi 



We left Fort Concho August 1 [sic] and proceeded northward to 
Abilene on the Texas Pacific^; then turning westward, followed in a 



^ The Texas and Pacific Railroad was pushed through, in the summer of 1881, 
from Fort Worth westward, and a junction with the Southern Pacific was effected at 
Sierra Blanca, January 1, 1882. At this time there was no other railroad in western 
Texas, making it necessary for Havard to go from Fort Davis to Fort Stockton and 
thence to Fort Concho (on the site of present San Angelo), by stage. The Southern 
Pacific was pushing eastward from El Paso at this same period; on May 22, 1882 



184 ASA GRAY BULLETIN N. S. VoL III, No. 2 



general way the line of the railroad as far as the Guadalupe Moun- 
tains, the most interesting point of our exploration, where we spent 
most of September and October. Reached El Paso early in Novem- 
ber and, after visiting the surrounding country, on both sides of the 
Rio Grande, returned by way of Fort Davis. Taking the train at 
Toyah, I arrived at San Antonio Dec. 12, 1881. 

[Havard, as dated by one of his monthly reports, was at Big 
Spriiig, with Livermore^s expedition, on August 31. His report of 



Pine 



>/ 



n 



Mts'\ On 



left 



Guadalupe 



Mts. and proceeded to El Paso, thence returned 



Spriyig (South of the Davis Mountains, Nov. 30) and Ft. Davis (Dec. 1 ?^ 
Havard was relieved of expedition duty on December 6, and reached 
Ban Antonio December 25], 

On duty at Headquarters and post of San Antonio until August, 
1882. Thereafter, until June, 1883, post surgeon at Fort Duncan 
(Eagle Pass). One incident well remembered while in the field with 
a scouting party in the neighborhood of this post is the terrible 
"norther" to which we were exposed in the open prairie, a revelation 
of the intense cold one may suffer from in winter (fortunately, not for 
more than a day or two) on the lower Rio Grande. 

From June to October 1883, again with exploring expedition of 
Major Livermore, mostly in the Chinati Mountains and other little 
lown points of the Great Bend of the Rio Grande [Left San Antonio 



/< 



Duncan 



Aug. 2. Left Fort Duncan June 28, 1883, aM reached San Antonio 
next day, and reported again to Captain Livermore]. 

[The routes of the 1883 party , and especially those over which 
Havard travelled, can be determined a little more precisely from 



notes thanf 



4 



f 



mer left San Antonio July 3, and reached Fort Davis on July 8; pre- 



^f 



in his textp 1 . 



journey was by rail, Livermore ^s account 
went to Bone Spring, presumably overland from 
)f Pena Colorado (by error printed '^Pena, Colo.'^ 



the line had been opened as far as Strobridge, 314 miles from El Paso, and the track 
was laid nearly to the Pecos River, 40 miles farther east, leaving a gap of about 75 
miles between the rails here and the extension westward from San Antonio. On 
January 15, 1883 the rails met at the Pecos Crossing, and transcontinental service 
began February 1. See Poor, Henry V., Man. R.R. of U.S., 1882, 1883. 

^ See Appendix II. 

^ The military post at Pena Colorado [about 3 miles southwest of present Mar- 
athon ], was established about the beginning of the year 1880 by two companies of 
the 25th Infantry. -- Letter from Post Commander to the Adjutant General, Decem- 
ber 20, 1880. 



Spring, 1957 ASA GRAY BULLETIN 185 



[During the latter part of July the expedition explored for the most 
part what is now Big Bend National Park , from their supply 
camps at Bone Spring and at Tomillo Creek, on the north side of the 
Chisos Mountains. On July 31 Dr. Havard notes that he is with the 
troops at the Tomillo Camp. At least the second and third weeks of 
August may have been occupied in the trip , described by Livermore, 
down Maravillas Creek and the Rio Grande to a point near the mouth 
of San Francisco Creek, probably about 20 miles south of present 
Sanderson. Following this Livermore ^s account becomes somewhat 
vague, but a letter from Dr. Havard, at the Tomillo Creek camp, 
September 12, notes that he has just returned from an ^'extended ex- 
ploration of the Chisos Mountains ^\ 

[Thus it may have been after the middle of September that the 
supply camp was moved to the Davis Ranch, as noted by Livermore. 
The "southern route" across country to the west, to intercept the 
Presidio road — the route then followed by Livermore and Havard 
cannot be readily determined, but apparently all the parties met at 
Marfa about the end of this month or before. We find Havard in Ft. 
Davis on September 28, and near Marfa on the 30th. His m.ovements 
during the early part of October are unknown, but on October 21 he 

had completed his work in western Texas and left Ft. Davis for San 
Antonio ] . 

From November [1 ], 1883, to October 9, 1884, attending surgeon 
at Department Headquarters, San Antonio; part of this time also in 
charge of the Medical Director's Office, and one or two weeks devot- 
ed to an exploring botanical trip to the lower Rio Grande, district of 
Fort Laredo [Left San Antonio August 24, 1884, detailed on 7 days^ 



August 31, and returned 



Rio Grande. Was at Corpus Christi 



In October, 



1884, ordered to the Department of the East and assigned to Fort 
Schuyler, N. Y. 

My botanical investigations in Western Texas, with Major Liver- 
more and at other times, were especially of rare and unknown species, 
or those not before collected in the United States. Full notes were 
also made of the economic and medical value of the more common 
plant species. Quite a number of species were new to botany, my 
name being given to several of them by Dr. Asa Gray and his col- 
league Sereno Watson, The full report of my botanical work in Texas 
was published by the Smithsonian Institution in 1885^. 

^Havard, V. Report on the flora of western and southern Texas. Proc. U.S. 
Nat. Museum 8: 449 - 533. 23 - 30 S 1885. This report wa^ based almost wholly 
on Dr. Havard' s personal notes and collections made during his four years of 
army service in western Texas. The collections were donated to the Smithsonian 
Institution in 1885 [Smithsonian Accession no. 16688, estimated to add "probably 
1500 species to the Herbarium"; letters, Havard to Spencer F. Baird, August 14, 
1885 and October 14, 1885] . Havard's botanical work in western Texas was the 



186 ASA GRAY BULLETIN N. S. Vol. Ill, No. 2 



Transferred to Fort vVadsworth, Staten Island, N. Y. in February 



1885. 



Married, in November, 1885, A.J.H. of Bridgeport, Conn, First 
child (E.P.) born in 1886 at Fort Wadsworth. 

Ordered for duty at Fort Lincoln, N.D., in 1887, at Fort Buford, 
N.D. (15th Inf, and 8th Cav.) in 1889, and at Fort D. A. Russell, 
Wyoming (17th Inf.) in 1891. 

At Fort Russell, in addition to my duties as post surgeon, I organ- 
ized and commanded, under instructions from the Surgeon General, a 
Hospital Corps Company of Instruction, being the second thus organ- 
ized in the service. I may say that my interest in this important sub- 
ject of the instruction and training of the Hospital Corps never les- 
sened; that I have been a member of most of the boards convened to 
prepare and perfect the Drill Regulations of the Hospital Corps, and 
that at the date of my retirement (1910) no one had done more to 
bring our ambulance and field litter to their perfected state. 

In 1894 I was transferred to Fort Slocum (Davids Island), N. Y., 
an artillery post as well as recruiting depot. 

Shortly after the breaking out of the Spanish War, in compliance 
with orders, I left Fort Slocum, May 28, 1898, and, on the 31st, re- 
ported to Major General Joseph Wheeler, U.S.V., at Tampa, Fla., for 
duty as Chief Surgeon of the cavalry division. This division consist- 
ed of the 1st, 3d, eith, 9th and 10th regiments, U.S.A., and the 1st 
U.S,V, (Rough Riders), in all about 5,000 men. 

[Here with the onset of the Spanish- American War we leave 
Major Havard's oivn account of his life. The rest of his long and use- 
ful career was devoted mainly to military medicine, afield in which 
he became internationally known. He was in Cuba from 1898 until 
1902, and became in 1900 Chief Surgeon of the Department of the 
Island of Cuba, with supervision of all infectious diseases on the is- 
layid. Following his Cuban service he held various posts in the 

first significant accompUshment in that field since the work of the Mexican Bound- 
ary Commission in 1849 - 1853. His "Report" consists of two parts; Part I (pp. 
449 - 49.7) is a "General View" including descriptions of the country and annotated 
floristic lists; Part 11 is entitled "Economic notes on the Texano-Mexican flora", 
and consists of a list of more than 200 species with notes on uses and sometimes 
on localities. Part I :lS divided physiographically, with sections devoted to valleys, 
hills, the Staked Plains, prairies, coast and mountains. Especially interesting to 
botanists are his descriptions of the flora in the vicinity of San Antonio (pp. 457 — 
462), where he was stationed for about 19 months in two long periods; his descrip- 
tion of the immediate valley of the Rio Grande; and his accounts of the flora of the 
Guadalupe, "Limpio" [Davis], Chinati, and Chisos Mountains. The accounts of 
the individual mountain ranges, as well as those of other areas in western Texas, 
bear witness to Dr. Havard's personal familiarity with the scenes he was describ- 
ing, and provide a valuable documentary record of a vegetation now largely modi- 
fied, where not entirely destroyed, by grazing animals. 



.; 



i m r 



Spring, 1957 



ASA GRAY BULLETIN 



187 



United States. In 1904 he was detailed as medical attache with the 
Russian army in Manchuria, was captured by the Japanese, and so 
was afforded an opportunity to see and report upon military hygiene 
and medical field service of both armies. In 1906 he was transferred 
to Washington, D. C. , where he held position of President of the Army 
Medical School and the chair of military hygiene there until his re- 
tirement in 1910. He was the author of a standard textbook on mili- 
tary hygiene, published first in 1908. In 1917 Colonel Havard applied 
to be restored to active duty, and was assigned as a special adviser 
to the Cuban Army and Navy, which services were attem.pting to re- 
organize their medical departments. He remained in this duty until 
1922 after which he made his home in Fairfield, Connecticut until his 
death on November 5, 1927]. 






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:-4 '-----v..Sirv7L>ii.w-i.^iy 



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Colonel Valery Havard, U.S.A., while President of the Army Medical School, 
1906-1910 (from a photograph in the files of the ^rnied Forces Medical Library, 
Washington, D.C.) 



188 ASA GRAY BULLETIN N. S. Vol. HI, No. 2 



Appendix I 
A brief evaluation of Havard's botanical work 



For the most part the name of Valery Havard is associated by 
botanists with western Texas, where he spent four productive years. 
The reasons for this are apparently two: his "Report on the flora of 
western and southern Texas" was published where it was readily 
accessible to botanists, and became widely known, and secondly, most 
of his herbarium specimens that have survived seem to have originat- 
ed in Texas. Botanical literature contains occasional references to 
his specimens from the vicinity of Fort Pembina, or from North Car- 
olina, but such citations are rare in comparison with the number 
based on Texan collections. I have never seen or heard of any botan- 
ical specimens resulting from his work in Arizona. 

Dr. Havard's earliest (and except for his Texas report the most 
comprehensive) publications on botany were his two papers on the 
flora of the upper Missouri River basin. The second, and more im- 
portant, of these is a well-annotated list of about 375 species, and 
includes general notes on geographical distribution of vegetation, and 
on climate, as well as notes on localities, habitats, flowering period, 
and dates observed, for individual species. This paper, and the pre- 
ceding one which forms a part of it, are little-known to botanists, 
possibly because they were published in the Annual Report of the Chief 
of Engineers to the Secretary of War. They are mentioned, however, 
in Blankinship's Century of Botanical Exploration in Montana [Mont. 
Agr.ColLScLStudies (Bot.) 1: 8 - 9. 1904]. 

In Texas, in addition to what time he could spare from his pro- 
fessional duties, Dr. Havard was officially detailed as botanist to 
Major Livermore^3 expeditions of 1881 and 1883, and doubtless had 
more time for botany than at any other time in his career. Although 
he did not discover a large number of species new to science (chiefly 
because of the thoi'oughness with which his predecessors on the Mex- 
ican boundary, Messrs. Wright, Parry, Schott and Bigelow, had 
combed the area 30 years before), he did have opportunities for long 
stays in several areas that had been poorly known, and his collections 
from these areas are important as early records of the flora. Exam- 
ples of areas that were thoroughly collected by Havard are: San An- 
tonio and vicinity; Eagle Pass and vicinity (including as far up the 
Rio Grande as the mouths of the Devils and Pecos Rivers); Presidio 
and vicinity, including the Chinati Mountains and the area as far north 
as Capote Peak; Guadalupe Mountains (southeastern slopes and 
southern summits), and Chisos Mountains (including the desert coun- 
try to the north). 



Spring, 1957 ASA GRAY BULLETIN 189 

■I 

His contribution to botany did not stop with his collections. As 
was perhaps natural in one of his medical bent, Dr, Havard was 



ethnology 



His 



published notes on economic plants, in his Texas report, comprised 
one of the most important sources of data for Coulter's Botany of 
Western Texas {Contr. U.S.Nat. Herb. 2: 1 - 588, 1891 - 1894). He 



ethnobotanical 



}f the North American Indians 



K 



123. 1895) and Drink plants of the North American Indians (Bull. 
Torr.Bot.Club 23: 33 - 46. 1896 [abstracted, with same title, in 
Amer.Jour.Pharm. 68: 265 - 268. 1896]), and published several 
shorter notes on similar subjects. 

The United States National Herbarium, as noted above, contains 
the largest series of Havard' s botanical specimens. The Gray Her- 
barium of Havard University also has certain important collections. 
Many of the Montana collections were originally determined by 
Sereno Watson, and Watson's help, with that of George Vasey, was 
acknowledged in the introduction to the Texas "Report". Havard' s 
specimens in herbaria are not always completely satisfactory, for 
many of them were ultimately distributed with inadequate data. Many 
bear a general locality (e.g. "Western Texas") only, few bear a defi- 
nite collection-date (usually month and year only). For botanists 
who may be interested in obtaining precise information about locali- 
ties where he obtained specimens, the following general summary of 
his early travels and assignments is appended. 



Chronological summary of Havard's work in western 

and southern United States, 1871-1880 

1871-1873 
June, 1871 San Francisco, California, to Camp Mc- 

Dowell, Arizona 
June, 1871 - July, 1873 Southern Arizona 
Oct. 1874 - Apr., 1877 Fort Pembina, N.D. 

1877 
May - November Fort Lincoln, N.D., to upper Missouri and 

Yellowstone Rivers, and return, 

1878 - 1879 

Oct. 1878 - Apr. 1879 Chattanooga, Tenn, 

1879 
April - June Bismarck, N.D., to upper Missouri River 

and Ft. Assiniboine, and return 

1879 - 1880 

June, 1879 - June, 1880 Fort Johnson, North Carolina 



190 



ASA GRAY BULLETIN 



N. S. VoL III, No. 2 



Chronological Summary of Havard's sojourns in Texas 



August 



1880 

Galveston to Presidio, via San Antonio, Fort 
Clark (near Brackettville, Kinney County), 
thence probably to Del Rio, but the remainder 
of the route unknown to me. 



September - December Post Surgeon at Camp Eagle Nest, Presidio. 

Probably most of his knowledge of the 
Chinati Mountains gained during this period. 



January - June 
June 14 - 27 



July 



August 
September 



October 



November 7-30 



December 



1881 
Post Surgeon at Presidio. 

Presidio to Fort Davis (doubtless via Marfa, 

and on horseback); thence by stage to Ft, 

Stockton and Ft. Concho {present San Angelo, 
Tom Green County). 

Fort Concho, awaiting Livermore's arrival, 
with little to do except botanize. 

Fort Concho to Abilene and Big Spring, 

Big Spring to the Guadalupe Mts. (camp at 
Pine Spring), The route probably went from 
Big Spring west to a point between present 
Odessa and Monahans, south to the Pecos 
River near the falls (below present Grand- 
falls), up the Pecos to near the mouth of 
Delaware Creek (about the border of New 
Mexico) and then generally westward to 
Pine Spring. 

Guadalupe Mountains, especially the south- 
eastern parts and foothills. 

Pine Spring to El Paso (probably via the 
Hueco Tanks), and return to Barrel Spring 
and Fort Davis. 

On duty at San Antonio 



January - July 
August - December 



1882 
On duty at San Antonio 
Post Surgeon at Fort Duncan, Eagle Pass 



k t^ 



Spring, 1957 



ASA GRAY BULLETIN 



191 



January - June 
July 3 - 8 



1883 

Post Surgeon at Fort Duncan, Eagle Pass, 

San Antonio to Fort Davis, probably by rail 
at least to Marfa. 



July 8 - mid-September With expedition camped in present Brewster 



mid-September - 
October 



County, north of the Chisos Mountains 

Expedition centers at Marfa, Presidio 
County, and vicinity 



November - December Department Headquarters, San Antonio 



January - October 9 



1884 

Department Headquarters, San Antonio, 
with a trip toward the lower Rio Grande, 
across to Corpus Christi and return. 



Appendix 11 
The explorations of Major Livermore in Texas, 1878 - 1883 



In 1878, when Major W. R. Livermore was assigned to duty as 
engineer officer of the Department of Texas, the western part of the 
state was almost entirely unsurveyed and parts were quite unknown. 
In July, 1880, Major Livermore was sent out to explore the country 
west of the Pecos River, with a view to the selection of sites for new 
army posts and to obtain a general knowledge of the region. Prelim- 
inary mapping operations were undertaken in the Chinati Mountains 
in the fall of this year. In July, 1881, began "another expedition to 
survey and explore the country between the line of the Texas and 
Pacific Railroad and the head of Red River, also the country in Texas 
north and west of Fort Davis, towards Fort Bliss, including the 
Guadalupe Mountains, with references to sites of military posts". 
Major Livermore was furnished with 30 infantry, 30 cavalry, 6 Indian 
scouts, with 7 wagons and 20 pack mules. Dr. Havard accompanied 
the expedition as surgeon and botanist; other officers had as their 
special charges the subjects of triangulation, astronomy, topography, 
and geology. The party "arrived at Abilene, on the Texas and Pacific 
Railroad, August 4, and traveled along the line of the railroad until 
September 5, when it crossed the country to the Pecos River, up this 



r 



192 ASA GRAY BULLETIN N, S. VoL III, No. 2 



river to Pope's Crossing^, and thence to Pine Spring, in the Guada- 
lupe Mountains, where it arrived September 25." Supplies for the 
field encampment at Pine Spring, which was occupied until Novem- 
ber 14, were sent by rail to Toyah. From Pine Spring the expedition 
returned to Fort Davis (November 22), and on December 7 the officers 
were all ordered back to their respective posts. 

The country explored by the 1881 party actually included chiefly 
that from Fort Davis to the Guadalupe Mountains, and west to El Paso. 
The topography of all this country was duly sketched, and nearly all 
the mountain summits connected by triangulation. 

In 1883 another expedition was sent out, at Major Liver more' s 
request, to complete the survey of the country west of the Pecos. 
Dr. Havard joined the party in San Antonio on June 29. The official 
report says "The expedition started on the 1st of July and proceeded, 
via Pena, Colo, [sic], to Bone Spring. Here Lieutenant [S.W.] 
Fountain was left in charge of a supply camp, while the country to the 
south was explored and surveyed as far as the Rio Grande. The 
supply camp was moved to Tornillo Creek on the 1st of August." 

Immediately after August 7 the exploring parties were withdrawn 
from the area south of the supply camp, and with all the cavalry, 
scouts, and pack-train the expedition followed Maravillas Creek to 
its mouth, and then went down the Rio Grande to a point near San 
Francisco Creek, and returned to camp on Tornillo Creek after 
having completed the reconnaissance and survey of the country to the 

east. The supply camp was then moved to Davis Ranch, and the sur- 
veying parties proceeded by three different routes to cover the 
ground as far as the Presidio road. "With Dr. Havard and Lieutenant 
[E. B.] Ives", Livermore took the "southern route". The report, in 
continuing, states that after a few weeks in the country around Marfa, 
the party was again divided: one detachment to follow down the Rio 
Grande from the Vieja Mountains to Polvo, one to remain at Marfa, 
one to occupy Guadalupe Peak and survey the surrounding country, 
and a fourth, including Major Livermore, to go north and east as far 
as Fort Stockton. The parties all assembled at Fort Davis at the end 
of October, and the expedition was broken up. For the above, and 
further details, see Major Livermore' s report, in Ann. Rept. Chief 
Engineers, U. S. A. 1884: 2391-2396. 1884 (House Exec. Doc, 1, pt. 2, 
vol. II, 48th Congress, 2nd Session). 



'Captain Pope, enroute from El Paso to the Red River, "discovered an ex- 
cellent crossing" of the Pecos River near the mouth of Delaware Creek, just 
within the borders of New Mexico. This was on March 8, 1854. See Rept. Expl. 
& Surv. Miss R. to Pac. Ocean 2: 59, 1855 (Senate Exec. Doc. 78, 33rd Congress, 
2nd Session). 



WILHELM HILLEBRAND 

1821-1886 



otto Degener ^ 



ONE HUNDRED YEARS ago, a man in search of health came to the 
kingdom of Hawaii, then known to the outer world as the Sandwich 
Islands, The man^ Dr. Wilhelm Hillebrand, not only regained his 
health but served his adopted country. He gave the people of Hawaii 
wise advice, both as their physician in the sick room, and as a mem- 
ber of the Privy Council in the court of Kamehameha V. He radical- 
ly influenced the racial make-up of the Islands. He beautified and en- 
riched Hawaii nei by importing the choicest shade and flowering trees, 
valuable introductions from the farthest corners of the earth. He 
diligently collected and expertly studied the plants native to the 
Hawaiian Islands. His botanical researches culminated with the pub- 
lication of a Flora that has been the valued handbook of two genera- 
tions of local scientists. 













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Wilhelm Hillebrand in his earlier years. (Published by courtesy of the Honolulu 

"Star-Bulletin.") 



^From Hawaii Weekly, Nov. 18, 1951. 



193 



194 ASA GRAY BULLETIN N. S. Vol. Ill, No. 2 

Dr. Hillebrand was born in Nieheim, Westphalia, a province of 
Prussia at the time and now in the British occupation zone, on Nov. 13, 
1821. He was the son of Judge Franz Joseph Hillebrand and Louise 
Pauline (Koenig) Hillebrand. His sisters, Pauline and Wilhemina, 
both died young. His brothers were Heinrich, Franz and Herman. 
The latter, brother-in-law of the Rev. Sereno E, Bishop, was a pros- 
perous dairyman near Honolulu until his death. Completing his early 
education at Nieheim, Wilhelm studied in Goettingen, Heidelberg and 
Berlin. 

After receiving his degree in Berlin, Hillebrand practiced medi- 
cine in Paderborn, near his birthplace, a few years until illness, pre- 
sumably pulmonary tuberculosis, forced him to cease. Searching for 
a more healthful climate, he sailed to Australia, then to the Philip- 
pines. In Manila he resumed the practice of his profession until de- 
clining health induced him again to travel, this time to San Francisco. 
Not satisfied, he sailed for the Hawaiian Islands, arriving just 100 
years ago. The following year, Nov. 16, 1852, he married Anna 
Post, stepdaughter of Dr. Wesley Newcomb, prominent local physician 
and amateur conchologist. 

Dr. Wilhelm, or William, Hillebrand, according to the description 
of Dr. Willis T. Pope in Thrum's Annual for 1919, at middle age was 
a "quiet, sober, practical man of medium height and weight, complex- 
ion fair, eyes gray and as possessing an abundance of rather dark 
hair. He was fond of his family and took particular interest in the 
education of his children, two sons, William Francis and Henry 
Thomas . . . The doctor was very fond of music and enjoyed playing 
on the piano, but his favorite recreation was that of working among 
his horticultural specimens in his home garden." 

Soon a favorite family physician in Honolulu, Dr. Hillebrand in- 
cluded the royal family among his patients. He was a physician of 
Queen's hospital for most of the time from its founding by Queen 
Emma until his departure from the Islands. He was connected with - 
the insane asylum, and was a member of the board of health. He was 
likewise in partnership with J. Mott-Smith, their drugstore standing 
at Hotel and Fort Sts., Honolulu. 

With the natives dwindling in numbers due to the advent of dis- 
eases and customs novel to them, Dr. Hillebrand spent considerable 
time in repopulating the Islands from outside sources. In April, 1865 
as commissioner of the bureau of immigration, accompanied by his 
family, he traveled to China, India and Malaya to arrange for the im- 
portation of laborers. At the same time he was also to investigate 
means for control of "mai pake" or leprosy, then incurable and of 
relatively recent introduction into the Hawaiian Islands. In 1877 he 
arranged for the emigration of workers from Madeira, where he was 
then living, and the Azores, to Hawaii. This pioneer group of 180 
Portuguese reached Honolulu Sept. 30, 1878. 



Spring, 1957 ASA GRAY BULLETIN 195 



Long associated with the Royal Hawaiian Agricultural society and 
its corresponding secretary, Dr. Hillebrand arranged for the intro- 
duction of desirable seeds — as of the monkeypod and royal palm — 
for growing in Honolulu, at that time rather bleak and dusty. 

When he was about to set out in his search for immigrants in 1865, 
the society and the Planters' association jointly appropriated $500, a 
worthy sum those days, for the introduction of worthwhile plants and 
animals. In the Hawaiian Gazette for July 28, 1866, is the report that 
Dr. William Hillebrand had forwarded 10 Wardian cases from Singa- 
pore, nine from Calcutta, one from Ceylon, eight from Java and two 
from China containing plants and chiefly birds. From this and subse- 
quent records we learn that Dr. Hillebrand's importations, not every 
one wise, included camphor, cinnamon, jak fruit, litchi, mandarin 
orange, Chinese plum, Java plum, several kinds of eugenias and 
banyans, and a considerable number of other useful or ornamental 
plants. He likewise imported carrion crows, goldfinches, Japanese 
finches, linnets, mynah birds, Chinese quail, rice birds, Indian 
sparrows, golden, silver and Mongolian pheasants, and a pair of deer 
each from China and Java. 

The introduced seeds and growing plants were distributed through- 
out Honolulu, their progeny by this time gracing gardens and streets 
throughout the Islands. Many trees, now veritable giants, planted by 

Dr. Hillebrand himself, are still standing about Queen's hospital, on 
the grounds of the old plant nursery at King and Keeaumoku Sts., and 
especially about the spacious grounds of the doctor^s former home on 
Vineyard and Nuuanu Sts. 

The Hillebrand homestead, passing through several successive 
ownerships since the doctor's departure from the Islands, was saved 
from "progress" and real estate subdivision by the generosity and 
wisdom of Mary Foster and Harold Lyon. Now known as Foster Park, 
it attracts local residents and tourists alike with its magnificent trees 
and lovely flowers. 

Though Dr. Hillebrand resided in the Hawaiian Islands only the 
20 years, from 1851 to 1871, he maintained his interest in their flora 
until his death 15 years later. He visited all the larger islands of the 
group, often with his son William, botanizing wherever possible. He 
employed Hawaiians as guides, and attracted to himself congenial 
companions like young John Lydgate and Horace Mann, the latter the 
son of the famous educator. He carefully preserved and studied 
these plants as well as those which correspondents on various islands 
sent him. 

Asa Gray, a professional botanist at Harvard, had described some 
new plants collected in the Hawaiian Islands chiefly by the U. S. ex- 
ploring expedition under Commander vVilkes, In the winter of 1871-72 
Dr. Hillebrand lived in Cambridge, Mass., to begin with Prof. Gray's 



196 



ASA GRAY BULLETIN 



N. S. Vol. Ill, No. 2 



4 

assistance the manuscript of his monumental "Flora of the Hawaiian 
Islands: A Description of their Phanerogams and Vascular Crypto- 
gams." Thereafter Dr. Hillebrand traveled extensively in Germany 
and Switzerland^ in Madeira and Teneriffe. He returned finally to 
Heidelberg, where he had spent such pleasant student years, to end 

his days- 




Wilhelm HiUebrand in his later years. (Photograph by Dr. W. T. Pope.) 



Though already painfully ill for two years, he managed to com- 
plete writing much of his manuscript, submitting part of it to "Carl 
Winter, University-Bookseller." Dr. Hillebrand, after having the 
satisfaction of correcting the first few pages of proof, died July 13, 
1886, his remains being interred in the cemetery near Heidelberg and 
overlooking the Rhine. 

Fortunately, his son Dr. William F. Hillebrand, chemist then con- 
nected with the bureau of standards in Washington, D. C, with the 
help of Prof. E. Askernasy of Heidelberg, carefully and expertly 
edited the work, publishing it posthumously in 1888, 

Curiously enough, though Dr. Hillebrand's Flora of almost 800 
pages is written in English, it was evidently printed in Heidelberg, 
the Prussian government contributing 1,000 marks toward defraying 
expenses. How large an edition was printed I do not know. 



Spring, 1957 ASA GRAY BULLETIN 197 

Though the book, long thought out of print, has been a rare col- 
lectors' item and invaluable aid to botanists interested in Hawaiian 
plants, I discovered unbound copies in Germany some 20 years ago, 
importing several dozen for local use. This German supply was 
probably lost during the second world war, 

A few of Dr. Hillebrand's historical herbarium specimens exist, 
mostly in fragmentary form in the Bishop Museum and in other in- 
stitutions in America and Europe. The main collection, following a 
verbal wish expressed a few hours before his death, had been be- 
queathed to the botanical museum at Berlin-Dahlem. This collection 
of inestimable scientific value was almost totally destroyed, except- 



World War 



our air force. 



Dr. Hillebrand's Flora was an excellent book for its time, super- 
ior in many ways to Floras written by contemporary professional 
botanists. But botany and other sciences are not static. They have 
progressed by leaps and bounds since 1888. Also, new roads and 
trails have been opened up in the Islands, enabling present botanists 
to penetrate regions closed in Hillebrand's time and harboring plants 
hitherto unknown. 

Not only that, thousands of exotic plants have reached our shores, 
both purposely and accidentally by man since 1888. A modern Flora 
Hawaiiensis must include all these. To be correct it must be built 
upon the firm foundation established by our greatest pioneer botanist, 
Dr. Hillebrand. 

Dr. William Hillebrand, versatile citizen of the kingdom of Hawaii 
was one of the titans of his time. Hawaii nei gained immeasurably by 
his 20 years' residence. 



Otto Degener: Botanist of the South Seas - Otto Degener, author of the article on 
Wilhelm Hillebrand, which we have reprinted (with the kind permission of "The Hono- 
lulu Advertiser," in which it first appeared) is of course best known to our readers 
as the author of "Flora Hawaiiensis or the new illustrated Flora of the Hawaiian Is- 
lands," but he has written much else, including, besides articles in various journals, 
his "Illustrated Guide to the more common or noteworthy Ferns and Flowering 
Plants of Hawaii National Park, with Descriptions of ancient Hawaiian Customs and 
an Introduction to the Geologic History of the Islands" (1930) and "Naturalist's South 
Pacific Expedition: Fiji" (1949). Extremely active in the study of the plants of Poly- 
nesia and Melanesia, he has had, until recently, a very distinctive name in botanical 
authorship. That may, however, be no longer true in the future for in 1953 he mar- 
ried Dr. Isa Hansen, formerly of the Berlin Botanical Garden, after a botanical 

correspondence of several years. 

Degener was bom at Orange, New Jersey, 13 May 1899; graduated B. S. at Massa 
chusetts State CoHege, Amherst, 1922; M, S., University of Hawaii, 1923. He also 
carried on research at the Woods Hole Biological Station, Columbia University, and 
the New York Botanical Gardens; since 1935 he has been connected with the latter 
institution as collaborator in Hawaiian Botany. In June 1952 the degree of Doctor of 







198 



ASA GRAY BULLETIN 



N. S. Vol. m, No. 2 



Science was conferred upon him by the University of Massachusetts, which tlius ap- 
propriately honored one of its leading botanical alumni. 

From 1925 to 1927 Degener was Instructor in Botany at the University of Hawaii. 
Subsequently he was Naturalist at the Hawaii National Park, In 1940 he was botanist 
on the Archbold Cheng- Ho Expedition to Melanesia. 

In 1947 Degener was able to purchase the expedition's 99-foot teak and camphor- 
wood yacht, the ''Cheng Ho." He organized, with a dozen stockholders, most of them 
American citizens, the Cheng Ho Trading and Exploring Co. In the group, unfortu- 
nately, was the former Vichy-French Consul at Honolulu, who registered the yacht 
in his own name in Tahiti, and involved the Company in a long litigation. 

IXiring his career as botanical explorer in the Pacific, Degener has distributed 
some 200,000 specimens to various institutions, and of course some of them have 
come to the University of Michigan, Many species have been named for him, the 
most notable being a unique "tree buttercup" of Fiji, Degeneria, the type of a new 
family, Degeneriaceae. 

At the 34th International Flower Show in Grand Central Palace, New York, 
Degener was designated as "the outstanding botanist or naturalist of the Pacific." 
- H. H. B. 




Botanists Dr. Otto Degener and Dr, Isa Hansen Degener, of Waialua, Hawaii 



^ 



. ' : 



LINAGE AE IN MICHIGAN 



CM. Rogers 



The family is represented in Michigan by the single genus Linum. 

Erect annual or perennial herbs; leaves simple, entire, sessile; 
flowers regular; sepals, separate petals, stamens, and carpels five 
(the last apparently ten); fruit a ten-seeded capsule. 



Key to Species 

!• Flowers blue or white with yellowish base; fruiting pedicels 
mostly more than 1 cm. long, plants annual. 
2. Petals blue, 10 mm. long or more; stigmas elongate; leaves 

alternate 1. L. usitatissimum 

2. Petals white with yellowish base, 5 mm. long or less; stigmas 

capitate; leaves opposite 2. L. catharticum 

1. Flowers yellow;, fruiting pedicels mostly less than 1 cm. long; 
plants perennial (except L. sulcatum). 
2. Annual; sepals more than 4 mm. long, all glandular serrate; 

styles united below 3* L, sulcatum 

2. Perennial; sepals 3.5 mm. long or less, all entire or only the 
inner glandular serrate; styles distinct. 

3. Inflorescence corymbose with stiffly ascending branches; 
inner sepals conspicuously glandular serrate (Fig. 1, A 

and B) 4. L. medium 

3. Inflorescence either corymbose with slender flexuous 

branches (Fig. 1, C) or paniculate (Fig. 1, E); inner sepals 

glandless or with inconspicuous glands. (Fig. 1, D) 

4. Inflorescence corymbose with slender flexuous branches; 

stem terete or nearly so; leaves mostly alternate 
5 . L. virginiamim. 



4. Inflorescence paniculate, branches stiffly ascending; 
stem conspicuously striate -angled above; leaves mostly 
opposite 6. 



1. L, usitatissimum L. Common Flax. Map I. This, the culti- 
vated flax, is a casual weed along roadsides, railroads, and other 
waste places in all parts of Michigan, though most of the collections 
come from the southern part of the state. 

Throughout most of the U- S.; introd. from Eur. 



199 



200 



ASA GRAY BULLETIN 



N. S. VoL III, No. 2 



Specimens examined: ^ BERRIEN: Ames, July 30, 1867 (MICH); 



EMMET: 



INGHAM 



KEWEENAW 



illass 1997 (ALB I); GRATIOT: Davis, Aug., 
jels, July 4, 1894 (MSC); KALAMAZOO: 
"runk R. R. (CRH); KENT: Skeels, Sept. 1, 
Farwell, July 25, 1885 (BLH); MAR- 
QUETTE: Barlow, Aug. 17, 1901 (MSC); MIDLAND: Dreisbach 2258 
(RRD); OAKLAND: Farwell 9031 (BLH, MICH); ST. CLAIR: Dodge, 
Aug. 24, 1892 (MICH); ST. JOSEPH: Rogers 7787 (WAY); WASH- 
TENAW: Billington, Sept. 3, 1917 (WAY); WAYNE: Farwell, Aug. 25, 
1892 (BLH). 

2. L, catharticum L. Fairy Flax. Map II. This little annual is 
adventive in Michigan from the east. It is known in the state only 
from two collections, both from Keweenaw County. One of these con- 
sisted of several dozen plants, indicating that at the time it was at 
least locally plentiful. 

Newf. to N. S. and N. Y., w. to no. Mich.; natzd. from Eur. 

Specimens examined: KEWEENAW: Farwell 12555, near Central 
Mine, Aug. 6, 1940 (BLH); Farwell 13057, near Horseshoe Harbor, 
Sept. 13, 1942 (BLH). 



MAP I 



MAP (( 





L USITATlSSlMUM 



L CATHARTICUM 



L. SULCATUM 



^One specimen is cited from each county; the counties are considered alpha- 
betically; for list of symbols used to designate herbaria, see Asa Gray Bulletin 
N. S., Vol. II; 267-268. 1953. 



Spring, 1957 



ASA GRA.Y BULLETIN 



201 



MAP MI 



MAP IV 





L MEDIUM 



L. VIRG\NIANUM 



3. L. sulcatum Riddell. Grooved Yellow Flax. Map 11. This 
species is limited to prairie areas in the southern part of the state. 
A rare plant in Michigan, it is known only from about a half dozen 
scattered collections. 

Mass. to Man., s. to Ga. and Tex. 

Specimens examined: KALAMAZOO: Houghton^ August 1, 1838 
(NY); KENT: Cole, July 30, 1896 (MSC); NEWAGO: Bazuin 3925 
(BLH); OAKLAND: Farwell 8132 (BLH); TUSCOLA: Dodge, Sept. 18, 
1910 (MICH, US). 



4. L. medium (Planch.) Britton. 



Flax. Map HI, 



With the exception of a single specimen from Van Buren County, col- 
lections of this species have come from the southeastern part of the 
state where it is found in open sandy fields • Out plants are var. 
texanum (Planch.) Fern, which is generally larger than the typical 
variety, with somewhat thinner leaves and more glandular serrate 
inner sepals. L. medium is one of a complex of species which in- 
cludes L. virginianum and L. striatum, but is ordinarily easily dis- 
tinguished from those species by the glandular serration of the inner 
sepals. In addition the principal cauline leaves of L. medium are 
predominantly broadest below the middle while those of the other two 
species are commonly broadest at or above the middle, while the 
habits of the three species also differ. Though the gross features 
vary somewhat, most Michigan material of L. medium can be readily 
placed without resorting to a lens. 

Me. to s. Mich., s. to Fla. and Tex. 



202 



GRAY 



N. S. Vol. m, No. 2 



Specimens examined: HURON: McVaugh 12461 {BLE); UVUSiG- 
STON: Farwell, July 16, 1905 (BLH); OAKLAND: BilUngton, Aug, 7, 
1920 (MICH, WMC); ST. CLAIR: Dodge , Aug. 20, 1895 (MICH, MSC, 
NY); VAN BUREN: Kauffman, July 18, 1910 (MICH); WAYNE: Bill- 
ington, June 28, 1914 (BLH). 

5. L. virginianum L. Slender Yellow Flax. Map IV, Scattered 
collections of this species have come from dry to moist soil, hill- 
sides and open woods from several counties in the southern part of 
the state. As with L. medium and L. striatum, Michigan specimens 
come from the nortliern and western edge of the total range. 

Mass, to s, Mich*, s. to Ga* and Ala. 

Specimens examined: BERRIEN: Ames, July 26, 1867 (MICH); 
EATON: Wheeler, Aug. 23, 1894 (MSC); INGHAM: Hicks and Wheeler, 
June 19, 1891 (US); KALAMAZOO: Hanes and Hanes 2035 (CRH); 
KENT: Fallass , 1899 (ALBI); MACOMB: Cooley, July 7, 1850 (MSC); 
OAKLAND: Bingham^ July 22, 1936 (BLH); WASHTENAW: Foote, 
Aug. 3, 1862 (MICH); WAYNE: Farw ell 7842 (BLH). 

6. L. striatum Walt. Ridged Yellow Flax. Map V. This species is 
found in low, damp, commonly sandy soil, occasionally in drier situa- 
tions, in southwestern Michigan. Flowers and fruit are quite similar 
to those of L. virginianum, but is distinguished from that species by 
the stricter habit, the prominently striate stem, and the larger pro- 
portion of opposite leaves. Some material, such as Hebert, June 30, 



WAP V 




L STRIATUM 



Spring, 1957 



ASA GRAY BULLETIN 



203 




Fig. 1. A, habit, B, inner sepal, L. medium; C, habit, L. virginianum ; D, inner 
sepal, L. virginianum and L. striatum; E, habit, L. striatum. 



204 ASA GRAY BULLETIN N. S, VoL IE, No. 2 



(NDL, Bazuin 5018 (BLH), and Katz^ Aug. 9, 1951 (BLH) 



tw 



species is likely. Additional collections should be made where the 
ranges of the two overlap in the southwestern part of the state. 

N. E. to s. Mich., s. to Fla. and Tex. 

Specimens examined: ALLEGAN: Bazuin 5018 (BLH); BERRIEN: 
Lansing 2876 (F, GH, US); CASS: Pepoon, Aug. 1905 (MSC); KALA- 
MAZOO: Hanes andHanes 1816 (CRH); KENT: Bazuin 606 (AQ); 
MASON: Katz, Aug. 19, 1951 (BLH); MUSKEGON: McLouth, July 20, 
1899 (MSC); OCEANA: F 293010 (F); OTTAWA: Kauffman , Aug. 16, 
1910 (MICH); VAN BUREN: Kaufmann , July 25, 1910 (MICH). 



Excluded Species 

L. grandiflorum L. A single collection which appears to be this 
species, Farwell, from "Detroit (BLH), was probably an escape from 
cultivation, 

L. Lewisii Pursh. One collection, Podolski^ also from "Detroit'' 
(MICH), was probably under cultivation, since this species if known 
only from farther west. 



REFERENCES 
Beam, C.C. Flora of Indiana. Linaceae: 629-631. 1940. 
Fernald, M. L. Gray's Manual of Botany, Ed. 8. Linaceae: 940-943. 1950. 

Gleason, H. A. New Britton and Brown mustrated Flora of the Northeastern 
United States and Adjacent Canada. Linaceae: Vol. 2: 462-465. 1952. 

Lawrence, G. H. M. Taxonomy of the Vascular Plants. Linaceae: 553-554. 1951 

Nestler, H. Beitrage zur systematischen Kenntnis der Gattung Linum. Beih. 
Bot. Centralbl. 50 (2): 497-551. 1933. 

Small, J. K. Linaceae. North American Flora. 25: 67-87. 1907. 

Winkler, H. Linaceae. In Engler and Prantl, Die Natiirlichen Pflanzenfamilien, 
Ed. 2, Bd. 192: 82-130. 1931. 



NATHAN A. COBB, BOTANIST AND ZOOLOGIST 

A PIONEER SCIENTIST IN AUSTRALIA 



Frieda Cobb Blanchard^ 



In the United States, it is mainly for his work on nematodes, 
started in Jena as a doctoral dissertation and continued with never- 
waning ardor, that Nathan Augustus Cobb will always be known. But 
on the other side of the world, in Australia and Hawaii, he will be 
remembered for the first half of his career, and will be thought of 
as a botanist, especially a pathologist, whose work with plant diseases 
was of economic importance as well as of permanent scientific value. 
It is with his early life and his years as a botanist that this account 
is concerned. 



AND 



1859-1876 



The story of how Nathan A. Cobb became a botanist should perhaps 
begin with an account of the school days of Alice Vara Proctor, who 
later became his wife. It was her early love of the study of flowers 
and plants which had a good deal to do with his earliest botanizing. 
The farm of her father, Edward Proctor, lay about two miles from the 



Worceste 



There 



his children went to school, and attended the Congregational Church, 
of which he was a deacon. Until 1856 there was no high school in 
Spencer. "There was, at irregular times", my mother, Alice Proctor 
Cobb, told us nearly a century later, "a select school taught for a few 
months at a time by some college student or graduate, in need of funds 
to continue his education, who would come to the town, canvass it for 
pupils, and hold classes for a limited number of weeks at so much a 
pupil." But in time for the younger Proctor children, the town grew 
to the size at which a high school was required by law. Alice attended 
eagerly the classes of her choice until in 1872 she and two others were 
graduated from the Spencer High School as its first class. Recently 
I have learned that it was then a greater distinction for her to be 

^Second daughter of N. A. Cobb. His three other daughters (Margaret Vara Cobb 
of Concord, New Hampshire; Ruth Cobb Ross of Golden, Colorado; and Dorothy Cobb 
Adams of Falls Church, Virginia) made many helpful suggestions during the prepa- 
ration of this account. His three sons are not living. 



205 



206 ASA GRAY BULLETIN N. S. VoL III, No, 2 



graduated from high school than it was for her five children in their 
day to receive college degrees, or perhaps for her grandchildren to 
receive their master's and doctor's degrees today. 



Seventy years later, in 1940, when my mother was eighty-six, she 
told us (and her words were written down): ''Until my last year at 
high school, 1871-1872, there was no course of study, but each pupil 
could enter any class in which he could do the work, and I had early 
joined a class starting botany. Our textbook was "How Plants Grow 

^ 

Gray" as we called it. It was my first introduction to plant study in 
any form and it was a new world to me. I soon became deeply inter- 
ested and my interest has never ceased. Three springs, I think, I 
studied our little textbook on botany, as no further course presented 
itself. Then our principal (the 'faculty' consisted of principal only) 
suggested to another girl and myself that we take a higher course, 
using Wood's textbook (he was a Yale man!). This we did, and even 
attempted herbariums. I pressed my specimens in an old cheese- 
press lent to me by my mother. Many years later I realized that both 
my mother and my father had a strong interest in outdoor matters, 
beyond coming home from the berry-pasture with a full pail, or com- 
pleting successfully the haying in the lower meadow. This meadow was 
so swampy that we children were not allowed to go into it by ourselves; 
the horses, when working there, had to wear strapped, buckled-on, 
wooden shoes to prevent them from sinking in. (They didn't like 
these, laid back their ears when they saw them, and did not seem, 
happy until they got them off.) The grass there was of a very coarse, 
tough variety, used only for bedding the animals, and the flowers were 
somewhat different from those of the uplands. When working there, 
my father would bring me any flower he saw which might be new to 



me." 



Perhaps that calla, legendary in our family, came from this meadow 
It was one of the first flowers she pressed, and it remained long in the 
press, and long in the memory of the young botanist. Her ideal herb- 
arium specimen was brittle and paper-thin, and she was determined 
to bring the calla to this ideal. I think it became a permanent occupant 
of the press. 



If my mother led my father into his early botanizing this came 
about because she had had opportunities, at home and at school, that 
he had not; and, moreover, she was five years older than he. His 
natural interest and ability were not less than hers. But while my 
mother's family had a permanent farm home and a normal family 
life, my father, an only child, had since birth (June 30, 1859) been 
moved from one temporary home to another, on an average of nearly 
once a year. After he was fourteen, he had no home in the ordinary 
sense. His father, William Henry Cobb, was at various times a 



r ^ 



Spring, 1957 



ASA GRAY BULLETIN 



207 



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carpenter, builder^ contractor, 
Wright, sawmill manager, factory 
foreman and farmer, and he moved 
from place to place as his work re- 
^^^iilSfliril quired, so there was never for long 

a fixed home for his family. He 
was a skillful and versatile man; 
and because his son, Nathan, re- 
sembled him in many ways, it seems 
likely that the father, too, was un- 
usually enterprising and even ad- 
venturous. Anyway, about nine 
years after William Henry Cobb 
came back from the Civil War, he 
took the long trip to California, 
perhaps thinking that his health, 
which had been damaged during his 
months of active soldiering in the 
South, would improve there. His 
wife, a practical nurse, supported 
herself from then on. The plan was 
for the wife and son, then fourteen 
years old, to join him as soon as he 
could save money enough for the 
fares. After a time he sent enough 
for one fare. But the mother would 
neither send the son alone nor leave 
him; so they waited for the second 
fare, which never came. Occasionally they had word. It was not until 
long afterward, when there had been no letter for years, that they 
learned that he had suffered loss of memory after being injured by a 

falling log. 



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Nathan Cobb at about five years 



of age. 



Until Nathan was fourteen, when his father went west and he became 
self-supporting, he worked at various jobs under his father's direction, 
generally without regular wages. In that rural region it was not then 
uncommon for farm boys to be in school for the winter term only 
(three months), when their help was not needed for the crops. For my 
father, this was a most fortunate thing, he felt later (though at the 
time it was heart-breaking, as he had always taken the greatest inter- 
est in his books); he once said that if asked what parts of his early 
training had most influence on the success of his later work, he would 
give a high place to his early intimacy with a great variety of practical 
operations. Before he was fourteen, he had, for weeks at a time, been 
left in charge of a 150-acre farm, with stock and crops, while his father 
was away on a contract; and he was often left in charge of the wire 



208 ASA GRAY BULLETIN N. S. VoL HI, No. 2 

milL (Drawing wire was the local industry for which Wire Village 
was named,) He learned manual skills, how things should be done, 
and what it meant actually to do them. The result was that for the 
rest of his life he was able to put his ideas and inventions into materi- 
al form as devices, instruments, buildings. An active craftsman and 
technician to the end of his career, he built not only darkrooms but 
cameras; not only laboratory table and window installations for using 
the microscope, but microscopes too. Generally when he bought a 
microscope, camera or other instrument he quickly saw some way in 
which it could be improved, and straightway altered or added to it. 



Little Nathan's first regular employment for wages came when he 
was eight years old. He had attended school during the winter term 
without absence or tardiness; he was, in fact, too studious and zealous 
in his school work. The offering of prizes by the teacher was perhaps 
a good way to encourage effort in the class; but this little boy, who 
loved his books and lessons, was over-stimulated. He became rest- 
less in his sleep, spelling aloud long lists of words and repeating other 
memorized matter. The doctor whom his parents consulted suggested 
taking the boy from school and setting him to other tasks. This was 
done; and to make the break more complete, and lessen the chance of 
his meeting his schoolmates, his father put him to work on the night 
shift in the shingle mill which he was tiien managing. Here the boy 
stacked shingles by night, sleeping by day, and was paid as a regular 
mill hand. His children and grandchildren remember this story, for 
each in turn used and passed down the little silver fork which was a 
souvenir of an episode of this time. 



At the end of the season, he came home quietly with his earnings 
in his pocket, and being the silent son of a taciturn mother said noth- 
ing about it. Next day he went to the accustomed place for his over- 
alls and found the peg empty. He turned to his mother. She answered 
his look: "When overalls get so pitchy that they'll stand alone, it's 
time they were burned!" 



Poor boy — and poor mother! She had no means of replacing the 
burned paper money. There was nothing said, I believe. But after 
her next trip to town, he found at his place at table a child's silver- 
plated fork with his initials engraved on it. Again, I suppose, nothing 
was said; but he understood a meaning in the gift. 



During his early years, his jobs were various; but because his 
home had been on farms and much of his work was farm labor he had 
always been with plants and animals, and his mind had dwelt on them. 
From his earliest years he had the greatest curiosity as to the be- 
havior of plants. When he was fifteen, and for the first time was out 



Spring, 1957 



ASA GRAY BULLETIN 



209 



in charge of crops upon which he was at liberty to experiment, he 
began to make trials of various kinds. For example, he tried to im- 
prove the germination of corn by soaking the seed in various liquids, 
using test plots to compare results; and he attempted to grow a crop 
of wheat (which he had never seen) in a region where, for some rea- 
son, its cultivation had years before been dropped- He supposed that 

r 

his tests were new, not knowing that experiments for the improve- 
ment of agriculture had been made through centuries. Always the 
tests were attempts to answer the questions that arose in his inquir- 
ing mind whenever he saw a crop of anything. But his coming to the 
Proctor farm, my mother's family home, must have given him his 
first thoughts on botany itself, on plants aside from agriculture. 



My father's first introduction to the Proctor home came through 
my mother's younger brother, Fred, who asked if he could bring his 
chum, Nate, to dinner. My mother remembered the guest as very 
quiet, and 'the family did not see much of him, for he looked only at 
his plate". At this time he was fourteen, and was helping his father, 
who was running a small farm, by caring for the animals. After the 
harvest was in, he was able to attend the winter term at Spencer High 
School, one of the three terms of the school year. At fifteen he cared 
for the grounds and horses of Mr. Charles N. Prouty, a prominent 
citizen, who kept a good stable; and there he had his board, and a 
comfortable room on the second floor of the barn. From this time 
on he had no home life and was self-supporting, though he was still 



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The house near Wire Village where Nathan Cobb lived when fourteen years old. 
This sketch was made by him on July 8, 1883, when he was teaching in Easthampton. 
It and a similar one in the book of Alice Proctor Cobb suggest that they were vaca- 
tioning at the old Proctor home, with their year-old baby, and found time to sketch 
together again. 



210 



ASA GRAY BULLETIN 



N. S. Vol. Ill, No. 2 








Alice Vara Proctor at fourteen 



Nathan A. Cobb at about fourteen 
years, when he was six feet tall. The 
original is a tintype, in a fram^ of years 

black walnut which he whittled for his 
mother, 

going on eagerly with his scanty schooling, as shown by his perfect 
attendance record for the winter term. 



At this time, when he was full of curiosity not only about the plants 
and animals that he worked with but about the things too small for 
him to see, he found in some magazine an advertisement of a micro- 
scope sold by N. Waldstein, New York City. Having very little knowl- 
edge of the business methods of the city, and knowing little or nothing 
about checks and money orders, he put into an envelope and mailed 
twenty-five precious dollar bills, a third of his year's cash earnings. 
I remember hearing my father say that he had always been thankful 
that the microscope came, not entirely because of itself^ but because 
otherwise, unaware of his own business short-comings, his trust in 
the world would so early have been shaken. 



TEACHER, 1876-1878 



Soon Nathan Cobb began to teach Mr. Prouty's young children 



Spring, 1957 ASA GRAY BULLETIN 211 



about the things that he could see with his microscope. This may be 
what caused Mr, Prouty and a neighbor, who was a member of the 

_ - 

town school committee, to encourage him to try the examination for 
teachers in the town's public schools. He passed, and at seventeen 
was assigned charge of the ungraded Wire Village school in Spencer, 
with an assistant. He had had no training as a teacher but must have 
made up for this by enthusiam, intelligence, and natural ability, for 
he was soon promoted to take charge of District No. 3 Grammar 
School, in the centre of the town, with another teacher under him. 
For his teaching in Spencer he was paid eleven dollars a week, and 
on this he began saving to go to college. Here, in 1877, he organized 
the first teachers' association of the town, and introduced into the 
curriculum what is now known as nature study. 



In 1876, Fred Proctor had gone west to Nebraska, where his older 
half-brother was farming. This was a journey important in the desti- 
nies of my parents; for at Fred's request to his mother, his friend 
Nathan took over his room in the Proctor home and his chores on the 
farm, as he was doing also with Fred's position as teacher in the 
Wire Village school. During his two years of teaching, he lived with 
the Proctors; and even after he had gone to Worcester for his three 
years at Worcester "Tech^', he came back to their farm for the sum- 
mers. He got on well with my Grandpa Proctor; but especially be- 
tween him and Grandma there grew a deep friendship. 

In July, 1876, the year in which Nathan Cobb became a member of 
the Proctor household, Alice Proctor was graduated in the first class 
of the new normal school in Worcester. Her two fellow-graduates of 
the first class of the Spencer High School, Ella and Joseph Chauncey 
Lyford were also among the ten graduates. For the next five years she 
taught in Worcester, coming home (an eight mile buggy or sleigh ride) 
on week-ends. During these week-ends there must have been much for 
Alice and Nathan to talk about, for he was having his first teaching 
experience, and she was for the first time teaching with the benefit of 
a normal-school training, though she had taught for two years before 
going to normal school. And during the summer vacations (when 
house and farm work permitted) they were companions in botanizing, 
sketching and painting. On August 7, 1877 they became engaged, but 
were not married until four years later, August 8, 1881, when he had 
completed the course at Worcester Free Institute and accepted a 
teaching position. 

There was another recreation in these years besides botanizing 
which was dear to them both — drawing and painting, a hobby which not 
only brought my parents together but also helped to lay the foundation, 
I believe, for the outstanding illustrations of my father^ s scientific 



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Page from a sketchbook of Nathan Cobb, in his late teens. Species of Viola named in accordance with Gray's Manual, probably 
the 5th edition. They would now probably be known as Viola fimhriatula , V. sagittata and V, blanda. 



o 

IN3 



Spring, 1957 ASA GRAY BULLETIN 213 



publications. When he was sixteen, and earning his living caring for 
the horses and grounds of Charles Prouty, both Nathan and Fred 
Proctor, who was then greatly interested in drawing, were attracted 
to the painting of another boy, Joe Greenwood. (Joe was to become the 
well known painter of New England scenery, J. H. Greenwood, and hus- 
band of Fred's younger sister, Lizzie)- Nathan was so fascinated by 
Joe's work that he bought a box of oil paints and started painting. Soon 
he offered Alice his box provided she would use it. She had always had 
a keen interest in drawing, and he wanted her to paint, too. Her broth- 
er Fred took her to call on Joe, and they found him painting a card, 
which he gave her to finish. Thus she was launched into painting, and 
with my father's encouragement, she continued it, off and on as time 
and circumstances allowed, for the next twenty years. She took a 
few lessons; but the copied paintings done in class, as they later hung 
on our walls, did not appeal to her children as did the several ''up 
country'' scenes which she painted from nature in Australia. These 
are good work, and we treasure them. By the middle nineties the care 
of six children had pushed the pleasure of painting out of her life. Her 
pencil sketching had of necessity been given up earlier; the latest 
sketch I remember seeing was made at the Suez Canal on the way 
from Naples to Australia, in 1889, 



But for my father, drawings and water colors became routine forms 
of scientific recording, and he sketched freely. In the days of his 
early biological work in Australia, little could be done photographical- 
ly; so in choosing assistants for his work, he first of all made sure of 
a good team of illustrators, the very best available. He insisted on 
lavish illustrating of the highest possible quality in his published pa- 
pers. I believe that the early companionship of my parents in their 
sketching and painting had given my father his first inkling of the value 
of these arts in scientific work. 



Some of the old sketch-books from the four years of their engage- 
ment and the early years of their married life were among my moth- 
er's treasures to the end of her long life. In her last years, even 
when ninety- six years old, she would sit on her couch in my living 
room looking at them for hours at a time; and nothing pleased her 
more than having someone to sit beside her and admire them and to 
listen to the stories which went with the sketches. These sketch-books 
were her mementos; through all her years they had helped her to hold 
memories of her youth. Cameras then were only in studios for por- 
traits; and no souvenir books of pictures cheaply reproduced from 
photographs could be bought- What my mother had as a reminder of 
the day they spent in the woods at Mad Brook, — or the birds' eggs 
they found during one summer, or her wonderful journey to Kennebunk, 
Maine, or the new kind of violet they found — was her own sketch-book 



214 ASA GRAY BULLETIN N. S. VoL III, No. 2 

When one draws^ one looks, and sees; what my mother drew^ she re- 
membered. Now her grandchildren^ at the same age, take for granted 
the marvels of color photography, and have their boxes of kodachrome 
slides to help them relive their auto trips west; but I wonder — can 
they see as much on our projection screen as their grandmother found 
in those little pencil sketches as she mused over them? 



Mother's and father's sketch-books of these years are a good deal 
alike; often the same scene was drawn in the two books — of the view 
of the farm looking down from Howard's Hill; of the man mowing in the 
meadow, from only slightly different view-points; or of the same flow- 
ers or birds^ eggs. Certainly they must generally have sketched to- 
gether, and botanized together; and sketching was a part of botanizing. 
The dainty little drawings of wild flowers were done with sharp pencils 
and great care, and were labeled with the Latin names. And I believe 
that, though the interest was inherent, and he must inevitably have be- 
come a scientist, this was where my father's study of botany actually 
started. 



A series of letters to his ''brother-to-be, Fred", written when 



Nathan was eighteen, and teaching in Spencer, show the variety of his 
interests and duties. On December 9, 1877, he wrote: "I have 65 
pupils in my ^academy' running from 11 to 18 years inclusive. I have 
20 boys over 15 years of age, a tough lot, too — Irish from the boot 
shops. The boot manufactories'are closed now and consequently these 
young peggers run in upon the 'man-teacher' in No. 3, . . In order to 
be contented in the school- room, scholars must have some new and 
attractive thing to catch their attention as soon as it is drawn from 
study. Last summer I paid no attention to this. But next summer, 
when flowers are plenty, the days will be few when my desk does not 
boast of something new in the way of 'blossoms^^' 



"Have been botanizing a little lately upon some western flowers 
which the folks brought home. Classed the 'blazing star'; also the 
'sensitive pea/ Perhaps you didn't know that your beautiful yellow 
prairie flower, the sensitive pea (Wood) is nearly related to the fa- 
mous 'sensitive plant', and is very slightly irritable by the touch. I 
am beginning to find that winter has interesting things for those who 
will brave him and walk out and observe. Last Saturday Allie and I 
went down the lane through the pasture and down by Mr. Ford's brook. 
Running water is not yet frozen. In the brook, under water, covering 
the entire bottom was a very curious structure. It consisted of small 
tubes, apparently made of mud, set very closely and rather firmly to- 
gether. These were about 3 inches long and less than l/l6 of an inch 
in diameter, and, I should think, of animal make, though in poking 
about a good deal we discovered no sign of life. It is mysterious yet. 



Spring, 1957 



ASA GRAY BULLETIN 



215 



Am going down to see Mr. Kingsbury about it. By the way Mr. Kings- 
bury has been chosen member of the Natural History Society of 



Worceste 



At the brook we also found some 



'case-worms' or 'caddis-worms' as they are called. They are the 
larvae of an insect resembling the dragon-fly and pass the first two 
stages of development under water, emerging in a perfect state. They 
are called 'case-worms' because they make a case of some short 
pieces of straw and pass the second state of their existence within the 

Mr. Kingsbury showed us some once, I think. Those which he 
had [in] a bottle when we were down there one time early in the spring. 
Have lately found the way in which our common rock-moss reproduces 
or rather I guessed at it and the microscope told me that I was right. 
Buy a Mike with the first moneys you have to spare. 1 never got rid 

to so much advantage before. Allie said that you remarked 



case. 



$ 



Well 



that 'Nate never could keep any money' when I got mine, 
about so. My supply is so low at the present time that I can't afford 
to subscribe for any periodical and shall have to be 'parsimonious' per 
necessitatem. 1 should like much to take the Popular Science." 



March 



"I shall teach in the same school next 







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View of the Edward Proctor farm, July 14, 1880, from the sketchbook of N. A. Cobb. 
The house with its ell is at the centre of the picture. At the left is the barn and next to 
it the shop that was used for leather tanning and currying. The road from Worcester to 
Spencer runs from lower right, between the shop and the house. The North Road, to 
Wire Village, branches off at the small elm tree in the triangle. 



216 ASA GRAY BULLETIN N. S. VoL III, No. 2 



term. What are you doing now that school has finished? I am at 
work for Sike. . . I work 3 days per week for my board carpentering 
in his barn — raising a scaffold and making a set of horse stalls 
underneath, etc/' 



And the following month, April 29, "I have the permission of the 
school committee to use the high school building on Saturdays, and 
shall start a drawing school soon if I can get scholars enough. *' This 
he did, and taught it in the summer. Even then, before his courses in 
drawing taken at Worcester 'Tech", he had learned enough, by himself, 
to undertake to teach it. 



COLLEGE, 1878-1881 



An ambition to go to Harvard University is shown in his letter of 
March 18, 1878, to Fred in Nebraska: "Have you decided where to go 
to school yet? Is it Harvard College? I hope so. If it is we'll go to 
school together yet. . . I have saved $175 this last year. Have in all 
about $230. I think I can go to school in one year from this time." 
(He went sooner than that — in winter of that year.) 



But on July 28 of the same year he wrote: "The graduation exer- 
cises of the Worcester Normal School took place July 9. The entrance 
examination of the Technical School occurred the same day and so it 
happened that while Alice went to the former and while Lizzie went to 
Ada Rockwood's I went to the Technical School. The examination was 
easy, oral, and short. Passed for some months in advance and hope 
to enter the school at the end of next term (my school). 



"I find, Fred, that it will take too long for me to prepare for college 
I don't think I can afford to spend the time preparing for college which 
I can as well spend at some lower school studying nearly the same 
branches as would be taken up at college. The teachers at the Tech- 
nical School cannot of course be compared with those at Harvard or 
Yale, but after all the teachers are not everything: if one is smart it 
will show anywhere; and if one is dull no amount of good teaching can 
make him sharp. Prof. Thompson of the Technical School is well 
known as a chemist and man of science. He is an excellent teacher 
and a man of good moral principles. All his students just about wor- 
ship him. His school has graduated ten classes since 1867 and the 
students who have been a dishonor to the school have been remarkably 
few. The school has three courses, one in civil engineering, one in 
mechanical engineering, and one in chemistry. I intend to take as 
thoroughly as possible the first and last courses, civil engineering and 



Spring, 1957 



ASA GRAY BULLETIN 



217 



chemistry. Now here I would like your advice. You know I lean natu- 
rally to the natural sciences, not the physical. I care more to inves- 
tigate the form and structure of plants and animals than to look into 
their chemical composition; but as each branch of science is dependent 
upon every other it is necessary to have a good knowledge of physical 
science in general in order to succeed in the natural sciences. Now 
my knowledge of chemistry amounts to this mark: 0. So I intend to 
study chemistry at the Technical School solely for the purpose of 
applying it to the natural sciences. But they use Barker's College 
Chemistry which work I have before me. It is divided into two parts 
viz: Part I Theoretical Chemistry, Part II Inorganic Chemistry. Now 
I want organic chemistry, what am I going to do? In point of expense 
the Technical School is the cheapest school that I can enter the tuition 
being free to the youth of Worcester County. There are no schools 
making a specialty of the natural sciences excepting the high priced 
colleges. I would rather take a thorough course in the natural sciences 
than any other, but lacking the means am obliged, for ought that I can 
see, to study mathematics and earn my living by the tripod, making 
the study of nature a pastime for leisure hours, when I would much 
rather study nature always and let mathematics go to grass. What 

shall Ido?'^ 



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The remains of the first schoolhouse of the town of Spencer, Massachusetts, It 
was finally used as a wagon-shed. This sketch was made by Alice V. Proctor on 
May 1, 1879. 



220 ASA GRAY BULLETIN N. S. VoL III, No. 2 



the weather instruments. He needed to live frugally, to get through 
his college years on his savings, and habitually ate in cheap restau- 
rants or bought his own insufficient food. A professor told of seeing 
him on a windy, cold day standing in the snow and leaning against the 
trunk of a large tree, on the sheltered side, while he ate a supper of 
plain brown bread. He had wandered out to be alone, fearing discov- 
ery of his poverty. The poor living and the unsanitary condition of 
the cheap restaurants were blamed for a severe case of typhoid fever 
in his second year. Three months were lost, November, December 
and January; for a relapse followed the first attack. His mother went 
daily from Spencer to care for him, and his school-mates took turns 
staying with him at night, until he was well enough for his mother to 
take him home. He was discouraged by this setback in his work, and 
suggested quitting; but Alice Proctor encouraged and urged him to go 
on (and I don^t doubt helped him financially, too, for she was teaching 
then — though she must still have had a debt to pay to her family for 
their help in financing her two-year course at Normal School). So at 
the end of the three year course, in 1881, he was graduated at the 
head of his class of about fifty on June 30, the day on which he became 
22 years old. 



As there was no biology taught at the Institute, my father special- 
ized in chemistry, the mos.t closely related available subject- He 
continued his botanical studies outside of school^ probably mostly in 
the summers at the Proctor farm, and he accumulated a large herbar- 
ium. He excelled in mathematics, as well as chemistry, and his grad- 
uation thesis, entitled ''Notes on Miller's System of Crystallography" 
was a demonstration of Miller* s conclusions by analytical geometry 
instead of the spherical trigonometry used by Miller. The thesis was 
submitted to outside examiners, one of whom, Professor E. Dana, sug- 
gested submitting it for publication in the "Krystallographische 
Zeitung^'. A Worcester daily newspaper item on the examiners' re- 
port read: 'It will excite no envy to repeat the praise that Judge 
Dewey gives to the extraordinary thesis on crystallography by Nathan 
A. Cobb, of Spencer. 'It appears to be the work of a teacher rather 
than a scholar. In his essay of 50 pages he gives many new demon- 
strations of his own. For patient and thorough investigation and per- 
fect drawing of the diagrams, for a clear statement of propositions, 
intelligent definitions and demonstrations, the essay is to be highly 
commended, and may be preserved for its usefulness and value and 
as an evidence of what can be accomplished by a student at the Insti- 
tute.' We are informed that the opinion of the examiner is more than 
sustained by high scientific authority." 



The examiner of the graduating class of most importance, from the 
point of view of Nathan Cobb's career, was the president of Williston 



Spring, 1957 ASA GRAY BULLETIN 221 

Seminary. He attended the commencement exercises and heard the 
delivery of the abstract of the thesis and the presentation to my father 
of a Salisbury prize, one of six given each year to members of the 
graduating class with highest scholarship. There was a vacancy at 
Williston then, and the position of teacher of chemistry and drawing 
was offered to and accepted by my father. 



EASTHAMPTON, 1881-1887 



What 



in 1881 I do not know; but his acceptance of the position of teacher of 
chemistry and drawing at Williston Seminary must have been a fortu- 
nate choice. Here, in congenial surroundings, in an area of abundant 
material, he was able to go on with his self-education, his studies of 
plants and animals. Had he joined the faculty of a school of narrower 

m 

vision or one in a city, his scientific career would perhaps never have 
developed so fully. 



Williston Seminary was founded in 1841 by Samuel Williston, the 
son of a minister, who had been forced by failing eyesight to give up 
his ambition to study for the ministry. He became a successful busi- 
ness man, but kept his devotion to church, charity and education, giv- 
ing his wealth away as fast as he earned it. As "a pioneer in manufac- 
turing, he foresaw needs not then generally felt and had the imaginative 
enterprise and the organizing ability to devise profitable ways of sup- 
plying those needs before others were awake to them. 



^'In similar manner when this man turned his mind to education his 
sturdy independence and keen insight refused to be satisfied with 
schools as they were. Greek and Latin, then almost the only subjects 
in the course, were necessary studies for embryo ministers, and his 
school should give an unsurpassed training in them; but not all students 
were to become ministers and education in other directions was sore- 
ly needed. His prophetic mind foresaw, what fifty years later was 
clear to everyone, that alongside the classical education and holding 
equal rank with it there should go an English education made up of 
English, science, mathematics, history, modern languages. At the 
time, this was a startling innovation, if not rank heresy; but Samuel 
Williston was no slave to tradition, he had already departed from it in 
daring ways and he had faith in this new vision. In the end the vision 
triumphed." 

^In 1929, Principal Galbraith of Williston Academy (formerly the Seminary) gave 
to the Sunday gathering of the school a talk on Samuel Williston which was published 
in the Williston Bulletin Vol. XV , No. 1, Dec. 1929. From it these paragraphs are 
quoted. 



222 ASA GRAY BULLETIN N. S. VoL III, No. 2 



So Williston Seminary was founded with "a classical and a scientific 
department, existing on a parity with each other/' as stated in the cat- 
alog of 1878, which explains that 'the work of our scientific depart- 
ment is by no means limited to preparation for the scientific schools 
at Harvard and Yale and elsewhere. Extending beyond this, it provides 
fully for the needs of those who do not intend to add a special or tech- 
nical education to the general education furnished here''. 



Though in the first year my father's duties were the teaching of 
chemistry and drawing (including assisting in the field work of the 
senior class in practical surveying), he was soon given charge of 
nearly all the natural science work as well — zoology, physiology, 
botany, each one term for the second year students; chemistry, chem- 
istry with laboratory, and geology for the fourth year students; and 
drawing for the second, third and fourth years. According to the cat- 
alog he inherited a rather comprehensive program of drawing: sec- 
ond year — freehand, outline and perspective drawing; third year ~ 
drawing from models, geometrical drawing and projections; fourth 
year — architectural drawing, mechanical drawing, plotting and 
topography. 



At his instigation, the laboratory equipment was increased and 
improved. For physics and chemistry, better work-tables and stools 
and probably apparatus were provided; and for a new biology labora- 
tory, enough microscopes were bought to supply the classes. Though 
we have no record of this, we "have always known" that our father, 
hearing that new teaching laboratories were being installed at Harvard, 
took a trip to Cambridge, and brought back ideas for setting up a biol- 
ogy laboratory at Williston. So in 1885 appears a novelty in the cata- 
log of a secondary school: 'A new natural science laboratory is at 
the service of pupils in zoology and botany ." Williston thus became 
one of the first secondary schools in the country, if not the first, to 
have a compound and a dissecting microscope for each member of the 
class. Direct experience was always stressed by my father. (Years 
later, he used to tell his children to go about their studies "thing-end 
first"; in fact he did not give us books at all, but magnifying glasses, 
and microscopes.) It is not surprising that during the time he was in 
charge of the natural sciences at Williston^ several significant words 
were added to the printed curriculum in the catalog of the school: to 
zoology, "with laboratory practice"; to physiology, "with laboratory 
practice"; to botany, "with laboratory practice and excursions"; to 
geology, "with excursions". 



But even here this science teacher sometimes had to campaign to 
maintain his educational standards. From some quarter there was 
criticism of the laboratories on account of expense. The chemistry 



Spring, 1957 ASA GRAY BULLETIN 223 



laboratory was suspected of adding unduly to the gas bills of the Sem- 
inary. One page in his ^Annual Report to the Principal from the De- 
partment of Natural Science and Drawing (1883-4)" gives the readings 
of a gas metre at three o'clock and again at five o'clock (evidently the 
class period) on Monday, Tuesday, Thursday and Friday, for a three 
month period^ with the total used, 445 cubic feet, and the cost, $1.56 
for the three months! — I remember hearing that story. My father 
tried all methods of impressing economy on the boys, including the 
posting of numerous signs:\"Turn off the gas when you are not using 

r 

it!'' This was harped upon so much that the pupils became amused 
and took it up as a slogan. Two boys chatting on the campus would 
part with a cheerful: "Well; turn off the gas when you're not using 

it!" 



Doubtless the boys liked him as a teacher; young people with whom 
he worked were generally very fond of him. After leaving Williston 
he was so long abroad that he lost touch with his pupils there. Forty 
years later, in 1925, he had a letter from Dr. Richard E. Dickson, a 
member of Williston '86, a successful physician, who happened to 
learn his whereabouts and wrote: 'Tm very glad to write you after 
the many years since I last saw you, thanking you for giving me the 
many lifts you handed me, resulting in much better scholarship than 
I started on the first year at W. S., as well as a different viewpoint 
later on. Getting me waked up and at work by a few lines to my father 
at the end of the Junior Middle year to the effect that I had next to the 
highest marks in the class, and you hoped I would continue to, roused 
my pride sufficiently to make me work, and thanks to Billy Parsons of 
Southampton being too bashful to stay his senior year and graduate, 
when he would have taken the scientific oration, I got that, and you and 
I tramped all over the valley looking for red sandstone outcropping, 
etc., to my lasting benefit. After that you went across to get your de- 
gree, and I went to work to get cash enough to secure further educa- 
tion." On closing the long letter: "I've drawn this our unduly, but 
with the purpose of emphasizing the fact that if my good friend Cobb 
hadn't helped me a whole lot to think and get started way back in those 
mid-teen days at Williston, this whole story would undoubtedly have 
been quite different, and so again thank you for hitting me up, and get- 
ting me interested." 



I like Jo think of my parents' six years in Easthampton, a quiet lit- 
tle Massachusetts town in a beautiful part of the Connecticut River 
Valley. The area was noted as well for its cultural atmosphere, with 
several well-known colleges clustered close by — Amherst College 
and State Agricultural College at Amherst, eleven miles off; Mt, 
Holyoke Female Seminary at South Hadley, seven miles south; and 
Smith College, and Clark Institute for Deafmutes, at Northampton, 






to 

CO 



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> 



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r 



^ 



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• 

o 



The laboratory in the Easthampton home. The room adjoining was the tool shop. 



o 

to 



Spring, 1957 ASA GRAY BULLETIN 225 

four miles north. Otherwise it was a community not very different 
from the one in which they had always lived, and close enough to it (a 
journey of about a hundred miles) so that they could occasionally go 
home. They were in a friendly group of fellow teachers, and lived 
comfortably and simply, without pretension. Though their salary was 
not large (starting at $800, it was increased yearly until at the end of 
the six years it was $1700) they were able to provide for their needs 
and save for a year at a university. It must have been a peaceful and 
contented time, in the home which they had so well earned. The first 
four of their seven babies were born here. But their happiness was 
shattered by one of the two great griefs of their lives: the death of 
their first child, Russell, when he was nearly two years old, shortly 
before the birth of the second. 



Here my father engaged in a good deal of outside study. He had a 
laboratory in his home and made chemical analyses of water, paper, 
beer, and other things for manufacturers in neighboring towns, busi- 
ness men and private citizens, which helped to piece out his salary. 
His study of biology went on steadily here. That of course must have 
been necessary for his teaching, as he had never had a school course 
in botany or zoology; but he studied much further, for his own satis- 
faction, always with the thought of going back to school for a higher 
degree. He did so much in fact, so carefully, that without any previous 
school training in the natural sciences, he was able to earn his doctor's 
degree at the University of Jena in ten months — his only period of 
formal study of biology; and he passed the examination in geology with- 
out attending any lectures, from his own experience in Easthampton. 



During his years in Easthampton he was occasionally in corre- 
spondence with Asa Gray, who had kindly advised him in his work 
since 1878, when he had sent Gray some specimens of interest. Leo 
Lesquereux took interest in his moss studies, and lent him some val- 
uable books on this subject. His study of mosses must have been ex- 
tensive, for he collected a large herbarium, bought Sullivant's Icones 
Miiscortim and other standard works, and added several species to 
the known moss flora of the region. Here, too, he prepared his first 
publication: 'A List of Plants Found Growing Wild Within Thirty 
Miles of Amherst". 



According to one of his printed advertisements, these "other things" included 
tea, coffee, cocoa, starch, flour, butter, cheese, vinegar, soap, chloride of lime, 
gunpowder, guano, super-phosphates, urine, milk, all alcoholic liquors, iron, steel, 
boiler scale, soils and manures! 



226 ASA GRAY BULLETIN N. S. VoL III, No. 2 



SOJOURN IN EUROPE, 1887-1889 



All this time my father was looking forward to higher formal edu- 
cation. At the end of five years, he proposed to resign to carry out 
this ambition. But at that time there was to be a change of presidents 
at the school and he was especially asked to stay for another year if 
possible. This he did, and as a result became ineligible^ by being a 
few months too old (he had turned twenty eight), for a fellowship for 
which he applied at Johns Hopkins University, Why he then chose to 
go to Germany I never thought to ask; though of course he was attract- 
ed by Haeckel and Hertwig. My parents set out for Jena in August 
1887, with three little children aged three and a half, nearly two, and 
the baby two months old on the day they sailed from New York. They 



$ 



increased by $700 lent them for their venture t 
had confidence in them, Mr. Prouty of Spencer. 



Once I sat at my typewriter and as my mother talked, giving me a 
brief account of some of the high spots in their early life, I made 
notes, intending sometime to write from them a finished story. The 
paragraphs following, from my notes, are practically in her words, - 
which, though sketchy, I now like better than anything I could write. 
She was then about ninety years old, but remembered clearly, as she 
always had, the dates and details of the family's doings. My father 
used to say that he had never needed to keep a diary — she could re- 
member it all. I have heard him laugh over experiences that he had 
quite forgotten until he heard her relate them. 



'^Nathan had majored in chemistry at Tech, but felt that such rapid 
progress had been made in chemistry in the six years since then that, 
though he had been teaching it, it would be hard to qualify for an oral 
examination". This seems to me perhaps a rationalization to justify 
slipping over into the field which had always been his choice but had 
been denied him by circumstances! 

"Sailed from New York Sept. 28, 1887, on the ^Westernland' , Red 
Star Line, second class. Nine day trip, fare forty dollars each (none 
for the three little children). Landed at Antwerp, and stayed there 
three days — just before the fires in the hotel begun by date instead 
of by weather were started. The children had to keep their coats on. 
A pitcher of hot water for the baby was the only warmth. Baby Roger 
slept in a trunk, on the clothing, Margaret on a couch, Victor between 

his parents. 



''On the way to Jena, stayed at Cologne for two nights and a day, 
the first day of sunshine. Left the babies with the chambermaid in 



Spring, 1957 



ASA GRAY BULLETIN 



227 




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N. A. Cobb immediately following 
his student days in Germany. The 
photograph, a tintype, was taken April 
5, 1889, after he reached Australia. 






m^^' 






the afternoon^ and spent part of the half day in the cathedral and part 
in the art gallery ^ where we saw the painting ^Queen Louise', At Jena, 
went to 'The Three Bears' inn for eight days 



time to find a house 
and a maid. Took the second floor of a new villas seven rooms, rent 
400 marks (100 dollars) per year. Stayed ten months. Intended to 
return to U. S. A. at end of year, planning to get the degree in that 
time. At University by middle of October; in March^ five months 
later, Nathan was told he might begin his Arbeit ; five months more, 
and he rented a dress suit from a waiter at 'The Three Bears', 
bought white kid gloves, and took the oral examination'^ 



Thus, with attendance at set school courses for only about seven 
years of his life (four years between high school and Ph. D.) Nathan 
Cobb secured the degree for which usually twice or thrice that amount 
of attendance is accorded. As he said, his education was to an unusual 
degree through contact with men and things. 



My mother's notes continue: 'Two months vacation between finish- 
ing at Jena and starting four-month appointment to the Table of the 
British Association at Naples. A toss-up between Munich (where an 
art exhibition was in progress) and Freiburg. Tossed a coin and went 
to Munich for two months, "^he children had whooping cough for the 
whole stay. No laboratory here.*' (My father has mentioned his "free 
use of the hospitality of the professors at the University of Munich.") 
'Yisited art gallery, Wagner Theater, etc. 



"Left for Naples with a lunch basket containing rye bread, butter, 
cream cheese, bottles of cocoa (and material for making more, and a 



228 ASA GRAY BULLETIN N. S. VoL III, No. 2 



cream cheese, bottles of cocoa (and material for making more, and a 

spirit lamp), and a roast goose (boned) — the one which fell from the 
second floor window-sill, where it had been set to cool, to the stone- 
paved court below. Two nights on the train. Baby put for naps on 
coats in the baggage rack. In a rooming house in Naples took one 
large room, fourth floor, overlooking the Bay of Naples with Mt. 
Vesuvius in view. House against a steep hill, so all were front rooms; 
street on level with tops of houses of next street below. Each room 
had one pair of big glass folding French doors, the only windows, 
which opened onto separate stone balconies with iron railing, about 
six feet long and two feet wide, where the children played. All market 
produce bought over the balcony, by letting down a basket. Donkeys 

came with panniers (hard to see the donkey) or sometimes a two- 
wheeled cart. Children said 'Come and see what this donkey has to 

sell!' Milk from goats, milked on the spot, was half froth. Did not 
like itj so used canned milk entirely. AH 'butter' was margarine, so 
used olive oil instead, on toasted bread/' (They never got over this 
habit, and olive oil was always on our table; some of us still use it on 
our toast.) "The room was large enough to keep the trunks in one 
corner. Had a washstand where the children's small clothes were 
washed. There were fleas in the room. The three children slept in 
the double bed; parents in single beds on either side, to prevent the 
children falling out. Had use of one grate of the charcoal 'stove' of 
yellow tile in the kitchen; able to prepare only two dishes for each 
meal. Saw a woman cook an octopus there. 'Everything that comes 
out of the Bay of Naples is good to eat', so Nathan got me to try cook- 
ing Amphioxus , Mountain water running perpetually in kitchen 
the only convenience. 



"Landlord was a well-educated Dutch M, D.; his wife, Italian, also 
'educated' — i.e. could read and write when seventy percent could not. 
One Sunday they took care of the children, while the parents went to 
Pompeii, Nathan climbed Vesuvius, in eruption, and saw a man's stiff 
coat tail taken off by a falling red-hot rock, as he bent forward to 
avoid it. Only once took all the children down from the fourth floor to 

the pavement. Baby, who ran about upstairs, sat down on the pave- 
ment and would not walk; had to be carried to the Biological Station." 



Though in the year and a half in Europe his work was more zoologi- 
cal than botanical, in the ten months at Jena my father had taken work 
in botany under Stahl and done some work on fungi. At the Naples 
Station the work was of course entirely on the marine fauna. 



Spring, 1957 ASA GRAY BULLETIN 229 



OFF TO AUSTRALIA, 1889 



Whe 



for my father: it might never again be so convenient to go to Aus- 
traliaj the biological wonderland! There was money enough to get 
there; no farther. They talked it over. My mother was ready to 
try whatever seemed best to him. Whenever later someone ex- 
claimed at her courage in moving her rather large family all the 
way around the world, and half way around twice again^ in those 
days of uncomfortable traveling, she always asserted that she had 
no courage at all; that all she did was on the strength of her husband* s. 
However, she also was a good pioneer. So they paid eighty-one pounds 
for tickets for the 39 day voyage to Australia and sailed on the S.S, 
Iberia, Orient Line, on Jan. 28, 1889. My father warned my mother 
that hard times might be ahead; that they might have to eat from a 
barrel-top- She told us that they never did, but added that she did 
see the time when she would have been glad of one to eat from! 



'Took tickets to Sydney", my mother continued, "not because 
there was any particular objective there, but because the fare was 
the same as to the nearer city of Melbourne. Nathan left the boat 
at Adelaide and went by rail to Melbourne, in order to have time for 
interviews to determine whether to remain there or to continue with 
the boat to Sydney. He had a letter of introduction from Ernst 
Haeckel to Baron Ferdinand von Mueller, Victoria State Botanist, 
The latter knew of no opening in Victoria, but gave letters to men 
in Sydney, where the re-united family arrived on March 7. The 
American Consul gave names of American business men there, 
among them an importer, a Mr. Chipman. After Nathan had hunted 
a position in Sydney every day for four weeks, he went to Chipman 
who gave him the job of advertising a shipment of St. Jacob's oil, 
Waterbury watches and Colgate's Cashmere Bouquet soap, which 
had just come in." With this assurance of $25 a week, for a while 
at least, he counted what he had left — forty dollars. 



Having a good share of Barnumism in his nature, he had the 
shipment sold in record-breaking time, so that another was ordered 
at once. For the St. Jacob's oil, he secured testimonials which he 
used in advertising. For the soap, he made chemical analyses of all 
the competing soaps in Sydney and was able to advertise with a 
clear conscience "none purer". For the Waterbury watches, there 
was spectacular advertising. Striking displays were made in store 
windows; in one, a huge watch was designed, made up of Waterbury 
watches, and in another a Waterbury was shown running in a tumbler- 
ful of water (and replaced when it stopped!). The first full-page 
advertisement to appear in a Sydney newspaper was made up of a 



230 



ASA GRAY BULLETIN 



N. S. Vol. Ill, No. 2 



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Reproduction of a water-color of "Monadnock" done by N, A, Cobb between 1889 
and 1892. This was his first Australian home. After three years, when there were 
five little children, it was possible to have a larger home, in which the last was born 



Spring, 1957 ASA GRAY BULLETIN 231 

woodcut of the Waterbury factory as centre piece, with a long 
murder-mystery-love story in which the hero, who would seem by 
circumstances to be the culprit, was saved from prison by the 
evidence of his Waterbury, which had fallen from his pocket while 
he was boating, been swallowed by a fish, which in turn was eaten 
by a shark, and finally the watch was found still going when the shark 
was captured! The full page advertisement was turned down by one 
morning paper, because such a thing was unheard of. So it was 
offered to the rival daily, with the previous refusal used as an 
argument, and was taken. 



For about a year my father worked for the importer. At the same 
time he did odd jobs for a publisher such as traveling for a series 
entitled "Picturesque Australia" and criticizing and comparing school 
books, with the help of his wife in her "spare time" (with three little 
children and soon the first of their three Australian babies, who 
was born during this year). And in addition to these jobs, the young 
Ph.D. started working on a six months' appointment by the New South 
Wales government as Consulting Pathologist of the newly formed 
Department of Agriculture. He was to give enough time, mostly 
evenings, to answer letters from farmers, examine specimens, etc., 
and was paid two pounds a week; but soon found that he put in much 
more time than the salary paid for. Thus he came to hold a pro- 
fessional position as botanist. 



At the end of the half year's temporary government appomtment. 
Dr. N. A. Cobb accepted the position of Vegetable Pathologist, and 
became the senior scientist of the New South Wales Department of 
Agriculture, the position which he held until his resignation in 1905. 
When he was finally leaving Australia for good, in 1905, an adminis- 
trative officer asked him if he knew why his first appointment had 
been temporary. He had never wondered. Then he was told that it 
was to give them time to write to Easthampton, to find out why , 
with his family of little ones he had come to Australia. Of course 
it was then well past the convict days; but Australia was still far 
away -- a safe distance, perhaps! They wondered. 



In 1891, he held for a semester the position of professor of biology 
at Sydney University during the leave of absence of Professor Haswell 
(co-author of the Parker and Haswell textbook of zoology) of whose 
courses he took charge. 



For the first three years in Australia the growing family lived 
at 'Monadnock," the little house shown in reproduction of my fathe 
water color sketch. The plan shows the "living room" which was 
also sleeping room for the parents and their three (to five) babies, 



232 ASA GRAY BULLETIN N. S. Vol. Ill, No, 2 



and the laboratory, which were in the masonry part of the house. 
Behind this, and reached only by going outdoors, was the low, rather 
rough little ''wash-house and kitchen'' shed; and leading from this, 
a little frame unit on piles, the dining room. 



At the back of the house (upper view) was the iron ship's tank, 
holding the household's water supply (rainwater) in which occasionally 
a tree frog was found -- which purified the water, the landlord said. 
Drinking water was brought from the well of his house next door. 
From this time on, for as long as the family was in Australia, 
(about thirteen years) all the drinking water was boiled, and cooled 
without benefit of refrigerator or ice. 



The spray of Buddie ja was from the hedge along the front fence. 



The houses here were given names instead of numbers, often an 
aboriginal word, otherwise generally a good old English name. 
When Dr. Goodale, Harvard Botanist, who on his visit to Australia 
carried an introduction from Asa Gray to my father, strolled along 
our street in North Sydney looking for some sign by which to guess 
the right house, he came upon this cottage called "Monadnock", 
and knew he had found it. -- My parents had become engaged on the 
top of Mt. Monadnock. 



PLANT PATHOLOGIST, 1890-1898 



As the bibliography shows, the duties of the first official full 
time Plant Pathologist in Australia were wider than the title would 
suggest: work not only with fungus diseases of all kinds of plants, 
as well as diseases those caused by nemas, but also with the 
nematodes themselves; studies of parasites of animals - nematode, 
tapeworm and fluke; studies of wheat, not only its diseases, but the 
qualities of different varieties, their improvement by selection, 
their nomenclature, the grain itself, the handling of grain in commerce 
and the wheat industry in general. A rather diversified program, it 
seems now. He answered letters from farmers and stockmen, 
studied and experimented with the serious diseases of plants and 
animals at the government experiment farms and at temporary 
laboratories on ranches, and published numerous papers on the 
results of his research for the benefit of farmers and the use of 
scientists. His office was in Sydney, but he did a great deal of 
field work, and made many brief trips of a few hundred miles. For 
two years, 1897-98, he managed the Government Experimental 
Farm at Wagga Wagga, three hundred miles from Sydney, and spent 
many nights on the train - to the farm for a day or two, a night 
trip down to Sydney for a day in the office, and back to the farm again 



spring, 1957 



ASA GRAY BULLETIN 



233 



during the night 



In all this work the Doctor, as he was generally known, was 
given a very free hand. He had full responsibility for the scientific 
work on the problems that he undertook, and largely for the whole 
program of his office. He was under officers of administration 
only; in the management of his research he was entirely free. 

From the inception of the Department of Agriculture until my 
father's absence from the Colony in 1898, he had charge of the 
wheat work of the Department, and personally directed the hundreds 
of wheat experiments at the Wagga Wagga Experimental Farm, wher 
the total area in the seed wheat studies reached some seven hundred 
acres. 

In 1892, an Intercolonial Conference on Grain Rust was called;, 
and he acted on most of its important committees during nearly all 
the years of its existence, no member contributing more to the 



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The kitchen at ^Monadnbck**, marked "washroom" in the plan. There was of 

course no refrigeration. Half a dozen eggs, extravagantly bought in the "off season" 
from laying, when each egg cost as much as did a pound of mutton chops, were so 
carefully hoarded here that four of them spoiled. 



234 



ASA GRAY BULLETIN 



N. S. VoL m, No. 2 










^* 1 ■ 








. The pathologist, about 1891 or 2 in' 
a veranda laboratory near Queanbeyan. 



N. A. Cobb nearing forty years 
(about 1897). 



published reports of the Conference. As chairman of the committee 
on nomenclature he directed its efforts, more particularly in New 
South Wales. When he began working on rust of wheat, the nomen- 
clature of the varieties in cultivation was in chaos. Half a dozen 
wheats differing materially from each other could be bought under the 
same name. And a drill of wheat only twelve feet long might contain 
five different sorts. In some instances the mixture was so bad that 
it was impossible to decide which plants deserved the name under 
which the sample was procured. Not only was the same name applied 
to several totally distinct kinds of wheat, but the same wheat was 
known under several different names. 



By careful examinations and measurements, made in part with 
a microscope in the field (often in blazing heat all day) and in 
part in the laboratory, he reduced the confused nomenclature to 
some sort of order, to the great benefit of the wheat breeder and 
the farmer, who were enabled to identify varieties. More than a 
third of a century later, S. T. Pridham, wrote in The Agricultural 



Gazette of 



(June 1, 1928): "In 1892, Dr. N. A. 



Cobb (now Nematologist to the United States Department of Agri- 
culture) was Plant Pathologist to the New South Wales Department 
of Agriculture, and as such attended an Intercolonial Rust-in-Wheat 
Conference held in Adelaide in that year. At that conference, a 
committee to deal with the nomenclature of wheats was formed, 
and Dr. Cobb was appointed chairman. 



"A report of his, written in January of the following year, has 
recently come under notice, which throws an interesting light on the 



Spring, 1957 ASA GRAY BULLETIN 235 

recently come under notice, which throws an interesting light on the 
beginnings of wheat breeding and selection work by the Department 
of Agriculture. 



Wo 



was grown by the late Mr. William Farrer, at Lambrigg, at the 
instance of this committee. Actually 546 samples of wheat obtained 
from prominent seedsmen, well-known farmers, and Government 
departments were grown in short rows with the object of finding out 
and describing the number of distinct varieties amongst them, and 
also of selecting plants with rust resisting qualities for breeding work 

"The report finally recommends that 'it is the duty of the Govern- 
ment experiment farms to raise and supply pure seed true to name'.' 



I T 



The excellent position which is found in this State today with 



regard to the nomenclature and purity of seed wheat is largely due 
to the prompt action taken by the Department, and to its subse- 
quent efforts to lay the foundation for pure seed production. 

* Although concerned with these matters of nomenclature, my father 
at the same time continuously studied and sought control of rust, the 
most serious disease of wheat. Not only was the rust itself fought, on 
the varieties in use, but by cross-fertilization and selection new rust- 
resistant varieties were obtained. This, of course, was before the re- 
discovery of Mendelism, and was one of the earliest attempts to breed 
rust- resistant varieties of wheat by hybridization and selection. 

INTERIM IN THE UNITED STATES AND EUROPE 

1898-1900 



In 1897 Nathan Cobb proposed to resign his position in New South 
Wales in order to visit other countries to refresh himself by obser- 
vation and, by contact with scientific men in Europe and America, to 
bring himself more closely in touch with the progress of science than 
was possible in Australia. There was reluctance to accept his resig- 
nation. For his purpose he needed two or three years. As there was 
no provision in the Public Service Act for so lengthy a leave, cabinet 
action was taken to appoint him half-time Special Commissioner to 
report on agriculture and other industries of America and Europe, 
for two and a half years, and to re-appoint him, in advance, to his 
former position in the Department of Agriculture. So in May, 1898, 
we all eight sailed for "home" (Massachusetts), a month-long trip. 



\ 



236 



BULLETIN 



N. S. VoL III, No. 2 



During the two and a half years his studies were various, and 
his travels extensive --to all the states in the Union, Alaska, 
western Europe and Algeria. He attended agricultural congresses, 
visited universities, inspected agricultural experimental stations, 
studied dairying and cooperative farming in Denmark, the contral 
of the gipsy-moth in New England, date growing in Algeria, road 
making, barns, all kinds of. crops and farming, and above all, 
wherever he went, the wheat industry, with a special study of 
the handling of wheat on our Pacific coast. 



Wo 



out his plan of travel in the United States, coming home to us from 
time to time. We children lost the chance of a year of study in 
schools of Germany or France, which had been planned, by coming 
down with all the children's diseases (we had had only chicken pox 
in Australia), sometimes all six of us together, sometimes stringing 
it out, a few at a time. Finally, when what looked like a clearing 
ahead was abruptly ended by the broken leg of the youngest, he 
went off alone to Europe. However, I think we all felt that nothing 
could have been better than the two years in Massachusetts. 



AGAIN IN 



*■- 



No aspect of wheat or the wheat industry 
failed to interest my father and to get his 
attention. In 1901, when he returned to Aus- 
tralia, he published several long papers on 
wheat: "Universal Nomenclature", the longest 
and last, of seventy five pages; "Grain Ele- 
vators", a paper of about fifty pages, with over 
50 original illustrations; and his beautifully 
illustrated "The California Wheat Industry" 
of thirty-two pages. After reading the latter, 
E. S. Wickson, Professor of Practical Agri- 
culture at the University of California wrote: 
"I cannot refrain from expressing my admi- 
ration of the writing you are doing in the 
Agricultural Gazette. It seems to me the 
description of our harvesting and other ar- 
rangements for handling grain have never 
been approached for clearness and accuracy. 
In fact I believe the people operating the 
The first of the Aus- machines would learn very much from your 
trahiin babies was prob- description of them. I am also interested in 




ably three or four years 
old at the time of this 
photograph. 



your study of the wheat grain, and trust you 
may meet with some satisfactory response 



Spring, 1957 ASA GRAY BULLETIN 237 



to your pertinent suggestions." 

In Australia in those days wheat was handled in sacks. While in 
charge of the Wagga Wagga Experimental Farm, my father had put 
up a grain elevator to show the manner of bulk handling; but it was 
ridiculed and called "Cobb's Folly". On returning to Australia after 
studying the wheat industry in the United States and Europe, he more 
than ever urged bulk handling, but without avail. Finally he left 
Australia for good with the prophecy that he would give them twenty 
years to change their method. But the change started before that: : 
in fifteen years it came, when during World War I sacks of wheat 
were dumped on railway platforms and docks faster than they could 
be transported. By the time the sacks were picked up, their contents 
ran out through rat and mouse holes --or "ran away on many sets 
of four little legs." That lesson was enough to start action. 

His most comprehensive wheat paper of this period was his 



Tf 



Wheat". In studying the commercial 



varieties to revise the nomenclature, my father not only considered 
the life history and aspect of the plant, but studied exhaustively the 
grain of each sample: its size, shape, weight, hardness, color, 
thickness of bran, internal structure, aleurone layer, gluten content, 
milling qualities, food value, etc. This required years of patient 
dissection of the grain under magnification, manipulations of its 
parts, examinations by microscope, chemical analyses, and delicate 
weighings. Hundreds of samples were compared in this way. Thus 
not only was a "house-cleaning" in the nomenclature of varieties 
accomplished, but correlations of characters were noted through 
which it became possible to predict commercial value by the ap- 
pearance of a small sample of the grain, without growing quantities 
large enough for field and milling tests. 

Extensive comparisons of internal structure of the grain of many 
commercial wheats showed that in the aleurone layer there is a 
striking variation in the ratio of cell cavity to cell wall. In some 
varieties the cells of the aleurone layer are small, in others large; 
in some the walls are thick, in others, thin. It was found too that 
wheats known from their analyses to be rich in protein (largely 
gluten) had also an aleurone layer composed of large cells with 
thin walls- -though the gluten does not occur in the aleurone layer 
but is derived from the protoplasm of the flour cells in the interior 
of the grain. This correlation gave a method, easier than chemical 
analysis, for estimating from a sample the probable "strength" of 
flour producible from any variety or hybrid of wheat. 



238 ASA GRAY BULLETIN N. S. Vol. Ill, No. 2 



and 



(and 



techniq 



ing, and photographed with a magnification of 100 diameters. The 
negative so made was projected to a magnification of about 1500 diam- 
eters with the image caught on stout, translucent tissue paper placed on 
a glass screen. The outlines of the cells 



The outlines of the cells and cell cavities were trace 
on the sheet of paper, which was about thirty inches square, I can re 
member seeing the cells being traced on the paper over the big glass 
screen in the projection gallery (a boarded-in, large upper balcony 
of our home); but, for good reason, I remember the next step more 
vividly. With a scratch or retouching tool (like a pencil with the lead 
replaced by a sharpened steel) the inner cell wall lines were cut, re- 
leasing the paper "cell cavites" (55% to 70% of the paper area) and 
leaving a network of paper "cell walls" ; and the weights of the two 
were then compared. The cutting was our job. 



After school we four girls sat around the all-purpose dining table, 
with its smooth, natural wood top, each with an ''aleurone layer" 
and a soup plate in front of her, and a tool in hand. Though we did 
not know just why, there was something tremendously important, 
almost sacred, about the aleurone layer. The breeze was shut out 
of the room; if one "cell" accidentally was lost, or blown into the 
wrong plate, probably our father's scientific career would be wrecked 
-- or, anyway, we would have failed him and he would be disappointed 
in us, an equally great calamity. We could not always do a whole 
sheet at a sitting. Those in process, as well as those done, were 
carried with utmost care and laid on the beds of the secluded guest- 
room. I don't know how many aleurone layers were studied, how many 
score of these sheets the four girls cut, nor how many weeks they 
lasted as a daily chore--perhaps not so many as my memory tells 
me. In his publication my father wrote: "This method gave greater 
speed, insured greater accuracy, and gave a chance to introduce 
lower-priced labor, and is the best that I have so far been able to 
devise for the purpose." The "lower priced labor", I remember, got 
threepence a sheet. 



The "Universal Nomenclature of Wheat", with its five-page index 
of about a thousand entries, reminds me of another routine job that 
fell to the children. We remember well how our father's indexes 
were put together, our eagerness to make speed records on them 
and the thrill of team accomplishment. With a sheet of gummed 
paper in his Blickensderfer typewriter (he was a "Blick" enthusiast), 
he went through the manuscript from beginning to end, selecting and 
typing entries as he went along. With this part, the real making of 



Spring, 1957 



ASA GRAY BULLETIN 



239 



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Hybridizing wheat, probably about 1893 



240 ASA GRAY BULLETIN N. S. Vol. Ill, No, 2 

an index, we of course had nothing to do. Then with the guillotine 
paper cutter, the entries were cut apart, and we had a heap of "paper 
spaghetti". Dinner plates, one for each letter of the alphabet, were 
placed in order around the dining table (always large, for our family, 
and always used between meals for various purposes) and, each of 
us supplied with a handful of slips, we rapidly dodged back and forth 
around the table distributing them, until the slips were all sorted 
alphabetically into the plates. Putting the rest by for the time, we 
took the "A" slips and repeated the sorting according to the second 
letter of the word. If the slips were many, they might be sorted the 
same way for the third letter. By this time it was easy to lay them 
in index order on sheets of foolscap paper. The final step was 
sticking the slips to the paper, and it was done very rapidly: with 
forceps, a slip was picked up by the right-hand end, drawn across 
a wet plate, and set in place on the sheet. Good! vVe had all pulled 
together and it was done--in time to free the table for dinner! 



About these analyses of wheat, Phillippe de Vilmorin wrote to him 
from Paris: "I have been deeply interested in your articles on the 
Universal Nomenclature of Wheat, and especially in your new method 
of analysis. I hope you will soon come to Europe, as I would have 
many advices to ask from you." And A. D. Hall, Director of the 
Rothamsted Experiment Station, England, wrote: 'Tour method seems 
to give what we are looking for, a means of testing new cross-bred 
varieties so that we can form a sufficiently accurate judgment to en- 
able us to discard 90% of them without having to grow them to any 
bulk." 



In various parts of the world there was great interest in this work 
on wheat, which was giving a boost to the Australian industry, and 
N. A. Cobb was recognized at home and abroad as an authority, E. H. 
Gurney, Chemist to the Department of Agriculture, Queensland, wrote: 
'Tour method will give the means of research on entirely new lines 
in connection with the production of flour." Dr. E. W. Hilgard, Pro- 
fessor of Agriculture in the University of California and Director of 
the U. S. Experiment Station wrote:' "I have read with great interest 
your papers on the gluten and aleurone grains of cereals, (and note 
your almost German patience in this difficult investigation), which have 
given me some new ideas witn regard to whole wheat flours, etc. 
I am strongly interested in whatever pertains to this subject." 



Not quite half of the published work during his sixteen years 
as Plant Pathologist in the Department of Agriculture of New South 
Wales, reckoned either by number of titles or number of pages, 
dealt with plant diseases. Of the total of nearly two thousand pages 
(with the number of illustrations greater than the number of pages), 



Spring, 1957 



ASA GRAY BULLETIN 



241 




A part of the home laboratory of N. A, Cobb at «Kuring-gai", Pymble, N. S. W. 



almost half dealt with bacterial and fungus diseases of cultivated 
plants; nearly one-fourth dealt with worm parasites of animals 
(tape worm J fluke and nematode) or with nematodes, either free- 
living or those parasitic in or on plants; and one-fourth dealt with 
wheat and the wheat industry - nomenclature, standardizing and 
improving the varieties, harvesting and handling the grain, grain 
elevators, diseases of wheat, and the structure of the wheat grain. 
In addition to papers in these main groups, there are about a dozen 
dealing with insteuments, laboratory techniques, and methods. Some 
of these papers were published by the Linnean Society of New South 
Wales, but the greater number are official publications of the Depart- 
ment of Agriculture, and may mostly be found in the Agricultural - 
Gazette of New South Wales and as separate government reprints. 



The Agricultural Gazette was a highly creditable monthly 
publication of the government. Though it contained an occasional 
trifling article, it was mainly of solid worth. It was an unusually 
well illustrated publication, most of the illustrations of which were 
prepared in the office of the Pathologist by himself and the team of 
artists which he had gathered together. At this time drawings, 
paintings and engravings were still used more than photography for 
both scientific and popular illustrating, and many of the numerous 
plates in the Agricultural Gazette were truly works of art. Beauti- 
fully colored lithographs were not uncommon; lively line drawings 
and the finest of woodcuts were plentiful. As a child, though quite 
unconcerned with the text, I loved to look at the Agricultural Gazette 
as a picture-book. 



This publication was intended for practical use by farmers, and 
contained much non-technical explanation and advice. At the same 
time it published original research and many articles of purely 
scientific value, such as taxonomic studies and descriptions of new 
species. While he was in the Department, N, A. Cobb contributed 



242 ASA GRAY BULLETIN N. S. Voh III, No. 2 

to it about twice as much material as any other one writer. His 
articles combined pure and applied science, — and common-sense 
advice. Application of science to practical problems appealed to his 
Ingenuity, while the purely scientific was inescapable because of his 
lively innate curiosity. Perhaps advice to farmers could be given as 
well on an empirical basis, but that he could not do. He had to know 
how and why, and every disease and its host had to be thoroughly 
studied, and the science of the subject presented. Then, the matters 
of purely scientific value found along the way had to be studied and 
an excuse found for their publication. The published "practical" 
paper had to carry with it as heavy a load of pure science as it 

could bear. 



An additional reason for father's proposed resignation in New 
South Wales in 1898 (which had resulted instead in a leave-of- 
absence of two and a half years) had been the educational needs of 
his children, for the oldest was then thirteen. When our parents 
had decided, in 1890, to stay on in Australia, they had agreed 
together to return "home" when the oldest child should become 
twelve years old, in order that all might have their higher education 
in American schools. So though we were back in Sydney again in 
1901, we were not to remain for many years. When the reports 
resulting from his recent travels had been written, and the ac- 
cumulated work taken care of, my father began to look for an opening 
in the United States — a slow proceeding from that distance, with 
letters taking about a month in each direction if they happened just 
to catch a steamer. 



In 1903, United States Secretary of Agriculture, James Wilson 
asked my father to take charge of the organization of a Department 
of Agriculture in the Philippine Islands, a position important in 
determining American policies in tropical agriculture. This was 
of course a gratifying and alluring invitation, — but there was still 
the matter of his children's American education. I believe that it 
was hard for him to decline this offer. 



In 1905, my father used his accumulated vacation of four months 
for making a trip to the United States, which resulted in the arrange- 
ment for his employment in the Department of Agriculture in Washing- 
ton. I have told that Erwin F. Smith, on his own initiative, had 
gone to the Secretary of Agriculture to make a personal recom- 
mendation that my father be appointed, being led to this act by his 
appreciation of the ingenuity and research ability my father had 
shown in handling the bacterial disease of sugar cane called "gum- 
ming" (or "Cobb's disease") in an improvised make-shift plantation 
"laboratory" in Australia. 



Spring, 1957 ASA GRAY BULLETIN 243 

The appointment in Washington was to be preceded by a stay of 
about two years in Hawaii, in order to establish and direct the 
Division of Pathology and Physiology of the Hawaiian Sugar Planters 
Association Experiment Station in Honolulu. So we left Australia 
a few weeks after my father's return — weeks spent in arduous 
packing by all members of the family, each in accordance with his 
strength and ability. As transportation was by water, rates were 
low and furniture was taken in order to avoid having to replace it 
in Honolulu, where prices were much higher. The piano, a side- 

u 

board of equal size, bureaus and other large pieces were crated. 
But the main job of packing was not the furniture, nor the many 
pictures framed under glass and the large oil paintings, nor the 
china, glassware and general household goods, nor books. It was 
the contents of the shop and laboratory — carpenter's tools, micro- 
scopes, microtome, chemical balance, cameras of various sizes, 
tripods, several typewriters, bottles of stains and chemicals, 
specimens in liquid, guns, cabinet letter files, and many other lesser 
instruments and items large and small. School was given up and 
we all "pitched in" and learned how to pack then if we never had 
beforel As each crate, huge zinc-lined importing case, or box 
was nailed up it received a painted number and its content was 
recorded in *the book". (The number seventy- something comes to 
mind but that may be only approximate.) And were we proud when 
the goods arrived in Honolulu — One thin drinking glass alone was 
broken! 



A problem of ''plant industry" confronted us as we got ready to 
leave Australia. The house in which we lived, as well as some 
others scattered sparsely in this rural suburb, nine miles north of 
Sydney, had perhaps been built in one of the old abandoned orange 
orchards. Several large, old, untended trees stood at the back of 
our big yard and were now laden with ripe fruit. The fruit was 
scale-covered, slightly sour and seedy, but juicy and of good flavor. 
My father and I roughly estimated about a thousand to twelve hundred 
oranges on the best tree, and calculated that to empty the tree in 
the few weeks remaining before sailing we must use twenty-four a 
day: With a little help from the rest of the family we nearly did it. 



HAWAII, 1905-07 



Planning the new laboratory building and its equipment, and, 
organizing the Division of Pathology and Physiology, were the ne 
directors first duties. The building was planned by my father, on 
shipboard during his return trip to Australia, I believe, and was 
built and ready for use when he arrived again in Honolulu. And 
before leaving Australia he secured for his new office two of the 



244 ASA GRAY BULLETIN N. S. VoL III, No. 2 



of three artists who had worked with him for about fifteen years in 
New South Wales--E. M. Grosse, expert in pen drawing, black-and 
white wash and water-color painting, and W. E, Chambers, wood 
engraver and pen artist, (At the end of the two years in Honolulu, 
the former returned to Sydney, the latter went on to Washington 
with my father, and became known as a distinguished scientific 
illustrator.) 



In this laboratory my father was able for the first time to put 
into effect his idea of mounting his microscope on a firm foundation 
completely free from the building, to avoid vibrations; and from 
this time on the microscope for his finest work always escaped the 
jarring of the building by being attached to a steel pillar or rail, 
imbedded in cement in the earth below and free from contact with 
the building through which it passed. This microscope foundation 
was always at a window or in a bay window, for to him no other light 
was equal to sunshine on white clouds, or to sunlight reflected from 
a white cloth which could be turned at will to direct the light into 
the mirror of the microscope. For such a reflecting screen he 
used white cotton sheeting (removable for occasional washing) on a 
frame about three by four feet, mounted on a Hill clothes drier 
frame, which could be pulled in when desired. The reflecting 
surface was kept at the correct angle to the sun through use of 
attached cords by which it could be turned by the microscopist with- 
out moving far from his instrument, though the screen might be 
fifteen feet away. A two-inch piece of mirror on one corner of the 
screen was used as a finder to spot the microscope. 



Diseases of sugar cane and their prevention were the subjects of 

study during the two years in Hawaii (1905-07). From the laboratory 

in Honolulu, trips were made to plantations on the various islands. 

The five bulletins of his Division which my father wrote contain 

over five hundred pages, with many figures and colored plates by 

the artists. His other botanical publications of this time were a 

short paper on some diseases of the pineapple and two articles for 

Bailey's Cyclopedia of American Horticulture, on Sugar Cane and 
on Agriculture in Hawaii. 



Because he knew that his stay here would be short, and because 
his home was only a few minutes walk from the experiment station, 
my father did not establish his usual elaborate home laboratory; 
but he did make the bathroom into a convenient darkroom so we 
could make photographs of the strange and beautiful scenes and 
plants. The lovely specimen palms on the lawns of Honolulu charmed 
him and he decided to get a series of photographs of the various 
species. There is a time at dawn, just before sun-up, when the trade 



Spring, 1957 ASA GRAY BULLETIN 245 



winds which all day wave the palm leaves have not yet begun to stir. 
The light is already bright enough for short time-exposures, and the 
effect much better than in sunshine. We took advantage of this daily 
lull. My father chose the subjects ahead of time, and his four 
daughters got up before dawn and went out as two teams, with two 
5X7 cameras. In this way we got some fine photographs; but they 
have never been used. 



BUREAU OF PLANT INDUSTRY 
WASHINGTON D. C, 1907-32 



The half century of my father's adult professional life, from the 
age of twenty-two, when he received his bachelor's degree at 
Worcester Free Institute in 1881, to the time of his death, June 4, 
1932, fell into two periods of about equal length. In the earlier 
quarter century his occupations were various and his work largely 
abroad. The second quarter century was spent with the Department 
of Agriculture in Washington. 



The first few years in Washington were largely given to work 

on cotton, especially to the setting of the "U. S. Official Cotton 
Standard Grades'' in accordance with which cotton is marketed, 

to devising a method for their storage in a vacuum and to problems 
of spinning and milling; but for the greater part of the quarter 
century his time was devoted entirely to the study of nematodes, 
though for several yesrs he was Acting Assistant Chief of the 

Bureau of Plant Industry. As head of the Division of Nematology 
of the Bureau of Plant Industry, which grew under his headship from 
a newly formed office to a flourishing division, his work was with 
the free-living nematodes found in soil and fresh water, and those 
parasitic on or in plants. At the same time, in his private laboratory 
at home, often with the help of one or another of his daughters (who 
for the time made it a major job) he worked on marine nematodes, a 
study highly valuable from the point of understanding nemas but not 
of enough immediate economic importance to be justifiable in his 
government office. 



After joining the Bureau of Plant Industry as Agricultural Tech- 
nologist, N. A. Cobb's botanical publishing was entirely on cotton, 
except for an address before the Bakers' Institute on "The Inner 
Structure of the Grain as Related to Flour and Bread". From 1912 
to 1916 he published about 200 pages of writings on cotton, most 
of this in two papers elaborating his addresses of 1912 and 1916 to 
the National Association of Cotton Manufacturers, and published by 
the Association: "An Accurate Method of Measuring Cotton Staple" 



246 ASA GRAY BULLETIN N. S. VoL III, No. 2 



and 'Methods of Determining Length of Cotton Staple and Illus- 
trations of Their Application". In 1916 he was given the medal of 
the National Association of Cotton Manufacturers in appreciation of 
the value of his work. Two pamphlets published by the government 
(1914) summed up the results of his work in setting the U. S. 
Standard Official Cotton Grades. 



During these earlier years in Washington he was continuing his 
nematode research and publication as usual; but he took great satis- 
faction also in this work with cotton— setting government standard 
grades of quality and especially with the problems of techniques in 
milling. This was a field in which he could exercise his Yankee 
ingenuity, as in his study of wheat in Australia, and his heart was 
in the work. But in 1915 a blow fell: without warning, or discussion 
with him, the work on cotton was suddenly taken from his office. 
Aside from the death of his son, Roger, in Australia, in 1901, this 
was his greatest shock within my own memory. He was so hurt by 
the action, and by the manner of it, that he offered his resignation, 
which of course was not accepted. From then on, for the rest of his 
life, his work for the government was entirely in the field of nema- 
tology, and before his death he was acknowledged to be the world's 
authority in his field. His last paper dealing with textiles was a 
short one in the Textile World Journal, 1920, 'An Approach to 
Textile Fibre Research". His last work with sugar cane was in 
1909 when he went twice to Jamaica to serve the sugar industry, 
once staying for most of a month. 



WRITINGS 



Though my father had little time for reading beyond scientific 
books and journals, the daily news, and at times a news weekly, he 
had a keen appreciation of literary style, and did sometimes take 
a little time for good literature, in part for recreation and in part 
for his own improvement. In the earlier years he must have read 
fairly widely; but later, in the limited time spared, he stuck rather 
closely to rereading a few favorite authors--Stevenson, Mark Twain, 
Joel Chandler Harris, Thoreau, John Burroughs and Louisa M. 
Alcott (!) He read aloud well, and was especially good in repro- 
ducing dialects. One of our most delightful childhood memories 
is of his reading the Brer Rabbit stories to us; of these we never 
tired, any more than did the Little Boy to whom they are originally 
told. 



Though he had always shown great interest in the doings of his 
own four daughters, I was once quite puzzled at his apparent 
interest in the doings of the four young heroines of Little Women. 



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N. A. Cobb at work at one of his rotating microscope tables, Division of Nematology, Bureau of Plant Industry, U, S. Departn).ent 
of Agriculture. 



^4^ 



248 



ASA GRAY BULLETIN 



N. S. VoL m, No. 2 



A few years later I found him again reading Little Women, and this 
time was old enough and perplexed enough to ask him why. He was 
amused at my wonder, and rather surprised that I had to ask; to 
him it was so plain. Very earnestly he told me that it was for the 
improvement of his style in writing his scientific papers, Louisa 
Alcott gave him a model of simple, clear writing, and he aimed to 
follow her example. Open one of her books anywhere, he told me, 
read a page, and see if you find any ponderous Latin words. The 
little, vivid Anglo-Saxon words in simple construction give a much 
livelier and more telling style, he pointed out. Just as the drawings 
illustrating his papers have the sparkle resulting from their great 
reduction from unusually large originals, so he aimed to have his 
text composed with such care for simple words as to have a corre- 
sponding brilliance. 



My father wrote no books, so called; but several of his ''papers" 
ran over a hundred pages, the longest being a "bulletin*' of 254 pages. 
His publications were mainly devoted to the results of his own re- 
searches. The space on my book shelves taken by the bound publi- 
cations of his lifetime (unfortunately incomplete by more than fifty 
papers written during the Australian years, and by many short 
papers read before the Helminthological Society of Washington), 
measures over ten inches - about four and a half inches on nema- 
tology, four on plant pathology (including much on practical application 
to agriculture), and one and a half on wheat and cotton. He contributed 
to the science and literature of three major plant industries - wheat, 
sugar cane (in Australia, Hawaii, and Jamaica), and cotton. 



INSTRUMENTS 



One could hardly write about 
my father without writing of 
instruments and equipment. He 
loved equipment; loved to design 
and make it, to remake and im- 
prove it if bought, and to have it 
everywhere in abundance. He was 
an ingenious inventor, and held a 
number of patents for photographic 
devices and microscope accesso- 
ries. Because of being in govern- 
ment service he was unable to 
utilize these patents and they 
lapsed without the devices ever 
having been put on the market. 
It was his plan, I believe, to do 




Sieving for nematodes at Car- 
lisle Bay, Jamaica, Dec. 19, 1909 



Spring, 1957 ASA GRAY BULLETIN 249 

something with them after retiring, a time which never came. But 
his own laboratories bristled with these unique instruments and 
unusual arrangements. Among these his round tables of micro- 
scopes became famous. 



In comparing specimens under the microscope, for identification, 
my father thought it impossible to hold an image in mind long enough 
to remove a slide from the stage, to replace it by one bearing the 
specimen to be compared, to focus, to find the object, and to shift 
to the immersion lens. He wanted each of the specimens under com- 
parison to be already in adjustment on its own microscope. So 
finally he built revolving round tables, both in his government offices 
and in his own home laboratories, with nine or eleven microscopes 
placed around the edge, each with its mirror turned to the central 
light which had a face to serve each mirror. Without changing his 
position, he turned the table to bring to him one or another micro- 
scope with its specimen already in position and in focus. When 
there was a question of two specimens being of the same species, 
he would turn the table back and forth, back and forth, comparing 
one feature after another until he reached his conclusion -- just as 
one working with larger forms might hold a specimen in either hand, 
and look first at one and then the other. 



As my father disliked glitter and cared little for the glamor of 
a handsome instrument, and as the use of this battery system left 
need for very little manipulation of the instruments beyond focusing 
after the object was under the immersion lens, very simple stands 
would serve. (In fact, at one time he used home-made wooden micro- 
scopes.) Even non-standard instruments with substandard stages 
could qualify, for with his own highly efficient but absurdly simple 
^'mechanical stage" and "finder slide" he could dispense with an 
ordinary mechanical stage. For his ho^ne laboratory, he once bought, 
at a low price, a batch of ten microscopes which had been discarded 
by a university for a more up-to-date model. These he partially 
rebuilt, equipping them with surprisingly simple but extremely 
sensitive fine adjustments of his own make and design, and supplying 
them with objectives as condensers. (He thought that the lens below 
the object should be like that above, and for his finest work used a 
pair of oil immersion lenses.) On these "battery" stands, all that 
was needed was an ordinary low |)ower objective, to find the object, 
and an oil immersion lens. Good immersion lenses, good light, a 
sensitive fine adjustment, and rigidity were his requirements. These 
multi-microscope set-ups were used for sorting and identifying 
specimens; but for critical work on anatomy and physiology, the single, 
more elaborate microscope with more accessories was used, with 
sunlight reflected from a white surface. 



250 ASA GRAY BULLETIN N. S. VoL HI, No. 2 

As scientific activities never ceased for my father with the 
ending of office hours^ he had well-equipped laboratories and shops 
in his home. During his years as plant pathologist, there was much 
planned field work at experiment farms^ field stations^ and plan- 
tations, and these, too, were well stocked with apparatus as far as 
feasible. His trips were burdened with baggage. As a last degree 
of preparedness he carried on his person a rather elaborate as- 
sortment of instruments and tools, as permanent equipment. 



His was a wonderful vest--the 'White Knight vest" it should be 
called! At first my mother used to alter the vest pockets of a new 
suit to fit his instruments; but later he had his suits tailored and 
the vest pockets made to order. In the lower tier were two watch 
pockets, one on each side, and in them a good gold watch, and a 
silver one for use in the laboratory and dark room— and to check 
the gold one. For several years (until it ceased to work well) the 
second was a gunmetal alarm watch. Each watch fastened to the 
front buttonhole by a gold chain, and in the centre dangled a bunch 
of little charms, souvenirs of his travels. His children when small 
loved to sit on his knee and have him tell the story of each: a tiny 
New Zealand greenstone club; a red coral drop from a. pair of 
earrings taken off and given him by an Algerian girl when he asked 
to buy them; an alligator's tooth from Florida; a tiny white sphere 
of Niagara spar; a bead from an Indian chief's moccasin; a tiny 
gold heart with red enamel front and a pearl in the centre, from 
London; western agate, green, in the form of a little buffalo horn; 
and a small oval, closed gold locket holding two pictures of my 
mother. Though his dress was otherwise exceedingly conservative 
and almost drab, he had a quiet pleasure in these bright little dangles 



Beside the watch pockets were a case of his professional and 
social calling cards and a wee black japanned tin box (2 l/S by 
1 3/4 by 1/2 inches) of Windsor and Newton water color paints with 
two good sable brushes, the wooden handle detached from the metal 
ferrule for packing. My father's notes abound with sketches, in 
pencil or water color, of all kinds of things that interested him: 
some large slugs that he found one morning at the base of the 
apricot tree at his first little Australian home; an idea for a 
photographic shutter that just came to his mind; an odd nema in a 
temporary mount in the field; a disease spot on a leaf, etc. More 
than anyone I have known he used pencil, pen and water color 
sketches in field and laboratory as a quick accurate method of 
making notes. Of course the little paint box that he carried in his 
vest pocket was mostly used for unpremeditated work; for planned 
drawing he had more elaborate outfits. And it is surprising how 
many little color notes can be made from even so small a box; 



Spring, 1957 ASA GRAY BULLETIN 251 



after many years of use^ the pans are still half full! 



The upper vest pockets on one side were divided into slots for 
two fountain pens (one with red ink), pencil, red-blue pencil, sable 
brush set in a metal thermometer case for protection, a pair of dull 
pointed curved forceps, 2 dissecting needles reversed in metal 
handles with chucks, a very narrow 6-inch steel rule, and a diamond 
glass cutter. On the other side were two shallow tin boxes ("Bengal 



L^ by 3 1/4 



^A 



deep, curved to fit the body. One held paper of various kinds cut to 
fit it -- Whatman's "hot-pressed'' for watercolor notes, plain and 
cross-ruled paper of various sorts. The other held a variety of 
small tools: a pocket spirit level; fine oil stone for sharpening his 
pocket knife and needles; a pair of folding compasses, with reversible 
pencil and point on one legand pen and point on the other, a try- 
square (in 3 pieces) with changeable straight and angled blades; 
and needles of several kinds. 



His hand lens and pocket knife were always with him among the 
coins, buttons, etc. in his trouser pockets. The knife, of good 
English make (George Wostenholm, Sheffield) I think must have 
been bought soon after he reached Australia, and as long as he lived 
~ there the larger of the two blades was kept razor-sharp and reserved 
but never used for first aid in case of snake-bite. 



FAMILY COOPERATION 



Not only at the beginning but all through my father's scientific 
career my mother was his admiring and devoted helper. In an account 

of his accomplishment she must be included; whatever he did, bo- 
tanically and otherwise, should be credited also to her. She 'lived 
by the code that scientific work must go on whatever the inconvenience 
or sacrifice", Dr. J. R. Christy wrote. "Great should be her satis- 
faction in realizing that hers was no minor contribution towards 
securing for her husband an undisputed place among the eminent men 
of Science." 



Her help was direct, at times when that was possible, as for 
instance in Jena, where because of the three babies she was seldom 
able to leave their apartment. Here for his use she carefully traced 
figures and transcribed in her own good script many, many pages 



Transactions of the American Microscopical Society, Vol. LI, No. 4, p. 278 



Oct. 1932. 



252 ASA GRAY BULLETIN N. S. VoL III, No. 2 



from German works^ which she could not understand, as well as 
illustrations, from reference books which he could not have or did 
not need in full. 



Always there were difficult jobs of "scientific" sewing being 
sweetly requested: dust covers for dozens of microscopes; little 
cases for special instruments; a large box kite for some photo- 
graphic experiments; sets of black curtains for microscope 
windows of successive home laboratories, to relieve the eyes of all 
light except that coming through the microscope; rubber cloth 
covers for camera plate holders; a light-proof bag of black velvet 
lined with rubber cloth for changing the plates in a camera he was 
making; a cotton sheeting cover for a thirty-foot long aluminum 
model of a cotton fibre, to be used in a lecture. 



There was usually material left over from these sewing jobs, 
as well as from other construction and experiments; and this 
happened so often that my mother used to remark, with a smile, 
that she had "brought up the family largely on the by-products of 
science". I remember family underwear made of the box-kite 
material for long afterwards. For years, the fancy crackers which 
we bought were sure to be the small Nabisco wafers; these were 
the exact size of microscope slides, and the neat tin boxes in which 
they came were needed for storing the aluminum microscope 
slides which he invented and used for mounting nematodes, slides 
permitting stacking of one on another without grooves for separation. 
We all grew up using Colgate's Cashmere Bouquet soap fOr brushing 
our teeth, from the first year in Australia when he undertook to 
sell this product, among others, for the American merchant. In 
order to be able to say "none purer", he sawed in two several cakes 
of all obtainable soaps, to secure centre samples for analyses, 
and was so convinced of the high quality of Cashmere Bouquet that, 
while the other discarded half-cakes were soon used up for various 
household purposes, this kind was saved for the children to use in 
brushing their teeth! The half-cakes lasted, I believe, several years 
into the time of my memory; and by then its use was habitual. 



But my mother's direct help in my father's work was not so 
essential to his success as was her constant effort to keep for him 
a home environment in which he could peacefully do his best. There 
were, of course, occasional illnesses in the family; and at these 
times my father was troubled, for he was a loving father, unusually 
fond of babies and little children, and a most gentle nurse. But 
illness aside, there was in his home much to help and little to hinder 
his work; my mother kept the household running smoothly, backed 
his undertakings and plans, and fitted the housekeeping into them. 



Spring, 1957 ASA GRAY BULLETIN 253 

There seemed always to be perfect accord between them; had we 
ever heard them quarrel or speak unkindly to one another we would 
have thought the bottom of the world had dropped out. 

Not only my mother's "devotion to the cause" was passed on to 
her children, but also her admiration of my father, confidence in his 
ability and pride in his accomplishments. To her he was truly the 
most wonderful man in the world; to us, too! Even now, in writing 
this account, it is plain that I cannot escape from that ingrained 
regard for him; cannot presume to try, even, to appraise him. We 
were all grown up, I believe, before we ever thought of the possibility 
that he might have any human frailty, could ever be at fault or make 
a mistake. (Well, twice I knew him to lose patience and temper with 
one of us, a pretty good record for a father of six normal children; 
but those two times made a terrible impression on me and I never 
could quite believe them really true.) We had profound respect for 
him and deep admiration as well as love. I believe that not one of 
his children ever spoke to him rudely or saucily, or of him disre- 
spectfully. It was never even thought of. As is usual, our mother 
was taken for granted by us, and only when grown up did we become 
aware of the complete devotion of her life to her family, and her 
unbroken cheerfulness and good temper. But, by our mother's 
example, we were conscious from the first of our admiration for 
our father; and of his importance in the household we were always 



aware. 



We 



After the health of the family, his working needs came first. 
Always when we moved (and we lived in eight houses, in Australia, 
Hawaii, and Eastern United States, before I was through high school), 
the health of the family was the most important factor in choosing 
a locality and house. But once the house was selected, he naturally 
had the first choice of a room for his work; where the light was best 
and the conditions most suitable, his laboratory would be. There 
was a shop, too, and in our largest home my father had a separate 
study as well, and a projection gallery, 
importance of his laboratory and our awe of it --not that it was a 
place forbidden to us, far from it! We were encouraged to join in 
the scientific activities; in fact very frequently were drafted for 
wearisome scientific routine, not for only a few minutes, but perhaps 
for hours at a time, sometimes for weeks together. Not my mother 
alone, but the whole family gave creditable support to my father's 
research. If ever a scientist had a cooperative family, he did. 
For us it was all to the good in training, and later most of us chose 
scientific fields of work; but I fear that, in spite of our loyalty and 
docile help, we sometimes thought enviously of the homes of our 
young friends, which lacked the laboratories we had always taken for 



254 ASA GRAY BULLETIN N. S. VoL III, No. 2 

granted. 



While as little ones we were contributing our mites to our 
father's career and carrying out his wishes with devotion, we were 
unconscious of his concern for our education and for our feelings 
toward him; but grown up, we could appreciate this other side of that 
equation which brought about a delightfully perfect relation between 
him and his children. He provided a college education for all five 
of us, and when we wished to go on into graduate work, advanced to 
us the means if needed. That is, the parents together did all this, 
for he always insisted that it was my mother's saving, more than his 
earning, that made possible our education and traveling. And he 
was right. She was a good economist. Our needs were well supplied, 
physical and intellectual, but nothing was wasted in our household, 
and absolutely nothing was spent on display or frills; all that it was 
possible to save was put by for education and scientific needs. 



We started off to college each fall with a check large enough 
for the initial expenses and several months of routine, and the 
cheerful invitation to ask for more when needed. But so imbued 
were we with the spirit of thrift and so proud of our ability to keep 
down our expenses and keep up the family economy that not one ever 
took advantage of parental generosity. All that our father asked 
in exchange for the checks was that we keep careful expense accounts 

not that he ever questioned them or even looked at them, but he 
was doubtless thinking that carefully kept and summarized records 
of spending lead toward careful spending. And how keen was the 
competition between us! Not only did we question: "Did I get 
through on less than last semester? " but "Did I do better than you 
did?" 



How deeply our parents treasured our affection for them is 
shown by a letter from my mother to her son for his thirty- sixth 
birthday, in 1921. Sentimental letters were a great rarity in the 
family, and this one was saved and remembered. She wrote, in 
part: "Naturally my thoughts go back about thirty-six years just 
now. I wonder how far I have realized my ideal as a mother. Some 
of my children appear to rise up and call me blessed — which is 
a mother's fullest measure of reward and happiness. I am sure 
of Daddy's success in his greatest aim in connection with his 
children — to keep their affection, even at the sacrifice of other 
things. He has many times told me he desired to have their love 
above everything else." Of this he never spoke to us; but welelFit. 



Dr. Gilbert Grosvenor wrote, in 1932: "Your father always took 
more pleasure in the affection of his children than in his remarkable 



Spring, 1957 ASA GRAY BULLETIN 255 

scientific achievements. I wonder sometimes if his children know 
how much they contributed to his happiness." 



SCIENTIFIC PIONEER 



It used to seem to me that my father had been unusually fortu- 
nate in having opportunities open for him at the right time --a good 
free technical school recently established in Worcester when he 
could not afford to go to college; on graduation, a position at an 
unusually progressive preparatory school having sciences already 
in its curriculum and willing to allow him to pioneer in methods of 
teaching them; when he had received his doctor's degree in Jena, 
an opening for him at the table of the British Association at the 
Naples Zoological Station; a Department of Agriculture starting in 
New South Wales soon after he arrived there, with need of a trained 
biologist; the Division of Pathology and Physiology being formed by 
the Hawaiian Sugar Planters' Association at the time when he wished 
to return to this country; and then an opening in Washington. All 
this seemed like good luck; but now I see that it was, rather, his own 
persistence in eager study in a wide field that prepared him to be 
ready when he was needed. He may have had no specific training 
for jobs for which he engaged himself; but he was always qualified 
for them — or for. whatever biological opening chance might bring 

for his curiosity, imagination, and endless delight in research 
had gained him early a sound foundation from which he could branch 
out in any needed direction. He had the vision and the spirit and the 
confidence of an intellectual pioneer. 

My father's entrance into the study of fungus diseases of plants 
came about because he was able and available in New South Wales 
when governments began to feel responsible for undertaking such 
studies. Though he never knew it, he was the first appointed full- 
time plant pathologist in the over-seas governments of the British 
Empire. Dr. E. J. Butler, in his presidential address* before the 
British Mycological Society, 1929, on "The Development of Economic 
Mycology in the Empire Overseas" said: 

"From the middle of the last century, there was a rapid growth 
in appreciation of the injury done to living plants by parasitic fungi. 
The calamity of the potato blight in the years following 1845 focussed 
attention on the terrible potentialities for harm of these organisms, 
and when from 1869 onwards the coffee plantations of Ceylon, on 
which the prosperity of that Colony mainly depended, were swept 
by disease, the lessons of the potato blight epidemic were still 



* 



Transactions of the British Mycological Society, Vol. 14, Part I, 1929. 



256 ASA GRAY BULLETIN N. S. Vol. Ill, No. 2 

fresh in men's minds. Nevertheless, it was more than ten years 
before the appeals of the Ceylon planters for scientific assistance 
were met by the decision to send out a special investigator from 
home. Harry Marshall Ward, whose biological training was begun 
under Huxley at South Kensington and completed under Sachs at 
Wurzburg, was appointed Government Cryptogamist for Ceylon in 
1880, and sent out on a temporary mission to study the coffee leaf 
disease caused by Hemileia vastatrix, which by that time had caused 
a loss of some L 15,000,000. He remained only two years, but in that 
brief period carried out one of the most complete, as it was the 
first, of the detailed studies of a disease of a tropical plantation crop 
caused by a fungus. 



^'In 1887 Mr. (afterwards Sir) Arthur E. Shipley was sent out on 
a special mission by the Colonial Office to investigate a disease of 
onions in Bermuda, the cause of which in a short time he elucidated 
as the fungal parasite Peronospora SchleidenL 



^Ten years later the Ceylon planters were again faced with a 
serious disease in one of the crops -cacao- that had replaced the 
now abandoned coffee. This time they took matters into their own 
hands and secured a scientific adviser for themselves. John Bennett 
Carruthers, the son of William Carruthers, the Keeper of Botany at 
the Natural History Museum, was appointed Cryptogamist to the 
Ceylon Planters* Association in 1897 and remained in Ceylon until 
1899, a period during which he published a series of reports on 
cacao canker. 



"By this time, however, it was abundantly evident that these short 
tours by specially sent out men did not meet the needs of the rapidly 
growing agricultural industries of the overseas Empire, and as each 
Dependency founded a Government agricultural department the ap- 
pointment of officers for the study of fungous diseases of plants 
became more and more common. 



•In this development Australia led the way. In 1890 Daniel 
Mc Alpine, who had arrived in Melbourne from Scotland six years 
previously to take up a lectureship in biology, was appointed Vegetable 
Pathologist to the Department of Agriculture, Victoria. This and the 
almost coincident appointment of Cobb to a similar post in New South 
Wales were, so far as I have been able to ascertain, the first whole- 
time appointments to permanent posts in applied mycology in the 
Government service of any Dominion or Colony. 



"Nathan Cobb arrived in Australia, after studying in the United 
States, not long after McAlpine, and was appointed as Vegetable 



Spring, 1957 ASA GRAY BULLETIN 257 



Pathologist to the Department of Agriculture, New South Wales, at 
about the same time as the latter. Though in 1893 he published a 
Host and Habitat Index of Australian Fungi, his interests were more 
in the study of function than of structure and his aims were to 
discover what the parasites with which he worked did, rather than 
what they were. In his pamphlet on Fungus Diseases of the Sugar- 
cane, published in the same year, he gave the first description of 
the bacterial disease still often known as Cobb^s disease of sugar- 
cane, which has since proved such a serious menace to this crop in 
Australia, Fiji, Porto Rico and elsewhere. He is also responsible 
for the name 'Bitter Pit^^ applied to the disease that has attracted 
so much attention in all apple-growing countries, and in his "Letters 
on the Diseases of Plants", published in the Agricultural Gazette of 
New South Wales from 1897 to 1904, a large amount of information 
on the economic aspect of fungous diseases in Australia is contained. 
The campaign against rust in wheat, the lines of which were laid 
down in a series of annual interstate Conferences from 1891 to 1894 
and which stands out as one of the most fruitful instances of the co- 
operation of scientific and practical men on record, had no more 
energetic supporter than Cbbb. During this period too, he commenced 
his studies of the nematode worms that attack plants, to which he 
became more and more attracted as time went on. In 1905 he was 
appointed Director of the Division of Pathology and Physiology at 
the Experiment Station of the Hawaiian Sugar Planters^ Association 
and he remained in Honolulu until called to the Bureau of Plant 
Industry in Washington. In recent years he has abandoned mycology 
for helminthology, but he ranks with McAlpine as one of the founders 
of plant pathology in the overseas parts of the Empire." 



In recalling her school days, my mother told as how in the fine 
spring weather the little girls used to run out at recess to their 
corner of the playground to "play house". First, each would choose 
her house site; then, with a small branch, carefully sweep the hard 
earth, brushing away the litter which had come since yesterday. 
Next they gathered up the small stones, scattered since their last 
play, with which they marked out the rooms of their new houses. 
Intent on her own plan, each arranged and re-arranged her house 
until finally she was satisfied and would turn to begin the play, to 
call on her neighbors, when the bell would ring! 

My father, listening to this tale of the school-girls^ play, looked 
sadly thoughtful. His home in Falls Church, Virginia, the first 
house he had ever owned, had through twenty-four years been 
carefully prepared for continuation of eager research, so that 
retirement, when forced upon him, would not mean laying down his 
work. He heard my mother's story, and said wistfully: 'Tes, that 
is the way it is; always the bell will ring!". 



258 ASA GRAY BULLETIN N. S. Vol. Ill, No. 2 



When in June of 1929 my father reached seventy years, and was 
at the height of his career, with no sign of mental or physical 
aging, he was given by the government a three-year extension of 
service, an unusual recognition. This period was not quite completed; 
his work, still undiminishing, was abruptly ended by The Bell. 



To my mother, in 1933, Dr. Butler wrote: 



IMPERIAL MYCOLOGICAL INSTITUTE 

Ferry Lane, Kew, Surrey. 
England, 



25th May, 1933 



My dear Mrs. Cobb, 



It was most kind of you to send me the reprint containing a 
photograph of Dr. Cobb- We are having it enlarged and placing it 
in this Institute in a prominent position. You will see from the 
brief historical survey of which I am sending you a copy that Dr. 
Cobb will always rank with Daniel McAlpine as one of the two 
founders of the science of plant pathology in the overseas parts 
of the British Empire. These were the first two men to be 
appointed by any of our overseas Governments to whole-time perma- 
nent appointments as plant pathologists. Dr. Cobb's appointment 
antedated that of McAlpine by a few weeks, a fact which I had not 
been able to ascertain when I wrote this paper. He was appointed 
in April, McAlpine in May, 1890 and both died within a few months 
of one another in 1932. McAlpine I never met, but I had the pleasure 
of spending an hour with your husband on my first visit to the 
United States in 1921. It is fitting that both their portraits should 
adorn our walls in company with that of Berkeley, the father of 
British mycology. All three were outstanding men and true pioneers 
in science. 



Will you in conclusion permit me to express my deep sympathy 



with you in your loss. 



Yours sincerely, 



E. J. Butler 



Spring, 1957 ASA GRAY BULLETIN 259 



A LIST OF THE PUBLICATION? OF N. A. COBB, 
COMPLETE FOR THE PERIOD OF HIS BOTANICAL ACTIVITY, 

1885 THROUGH 1916. 



Subsequent contributions, (1917-1932), with few exceptions, deal with nematodes 
and have botanical interest only to the plant pathologist and general ecologist, since 
most of them concern species that live in the roots of plants. Of these, only nine of 
relatively general bearing are recorded here. 

In the listing of the earlier Australian articles, reprints are noted because they 
were often repaged and altered, and of later date. Unchanged author's separates 
of more recent years are not noted. Numerous newspaper articles are omitted. 



1885 



1. Elements of Chemistry. Part first . . . Easthampton, Mass. [1885] 2 + 101 



pp., illust. 



1887 



2. Botany of Hampshire County — Introductory Remarks — Catalog of plants 
growing wild within thirty miles of Amherst. In: Gazetteer of Hampshire County, 
Mass., Part First 1654-1887. Compiled and edited by W. B. Gay. 1887. Published 
by W. B. Gay & Co., Syracuse. N. Y- (pp. 22-72). 

3. A list of Plants found growing wild within Thirty Miles of Amherst. S. E. 
Bridgman & Co., Northampton, Mass., 1887. 51 pp.: second ed. of preceding. 



1888 



4. Beitrage zur Anatomie und Ontogenie der Nematoden. Sonder-Abdruck aus 
der Jenaischen Zeitschrift fur Naturwissenschaft, XXHI Bd., N. F. XVI, pp. 41-76, 

pl. III-V. 1888. 

Reprinted. "Inaugural-Dissertation z. Erlangen der Doktorwurde". Jena: 

Gustav Fischer. 1888. 



1889 



5. The differentiator. Modified from report read before the British Association, 
September 11, 1889, at Newcastle, England. Amer. Nat. 23: 745-747. 1889. 

6. Neue parasitische Nematoden. Sonder-Abdruck. 3 pp. Berlin, 1889. (Archiv 
fur Naturgeschichte, 55, vol. II, Heft 3: 49.) 



260 



BULLETIN N. S. VoL UI, No, 2 



1890 



7. A nematode formula. Agric. Gaz. New South Wales, 1: 131-135. 

Reprinted. New South Wales, Dept. Agric, Pamph. 1. Sydney: Gov't. 
Printer. 1890. 5 pp. 

8. Tylenchus and root-gall. Agric. Gaz. New South Wales, 1: 155-184, 1 pL, 
8 figs. 1890. 

9. Contributions to an economic knowledge of the Australian rusts (Uredineae) 
I-II [and Appendix A]. Agric. Gaz. New South Wales, 1: 185-214, 18 figs. 1890. 

10. Two new instruments for biologists. Proc. Linn. Soc. New South Wales s 
2, 5: 157-167, pi. 7. 1890. 

11. Oxyuris larvae hatched in the human stomach under normal conditions. 
Proc. Linn. Soc. New South Wales, s. 2, 5: 168-185, pi. 8, 1900. 

12. Arabian nematodes. Proc. Linn. Soc. New South Wales, s. 2, 5: 449-468 
[viiij. 1890. 

13. Report on the Occupation of the Table at the Zoological Station at Naples. 
Brit. Assoc. Adv. Sci., Rep. 59th Meeting, 1889, 97-100. 1890. 



1891 

14. Notes on diseases of plants. Agric. Gaz. New South Wales, 2: 60-62, 155- 
157, 285-287, 347-348, 492-494, 616-624. 1891. 

Reprinted ]n part (pp. 616-624) and repaged. Sydney; Gov't Printer. 1891 
9 pp., pi., 5 figs. 

15. (A. Sidney Olliff, joint author.) Insect-larva (Cecidomyia sp.) eating rust 
on wheat and flax. Agric. Gaz. New South Wales, 2: 67-70. 

Reprinted. Annals & Mag. Nat. Hist., ser. 6, vol. 7: 489-493. June 1891. 

16. Pathological notes. Agric. Gaz. New South Wales, 2: 107-108, 4 figs.- 
215-216. 1891. 



17. Hair-worm (Gordius sp.). Agric. Gaz. New South Wales, 2; 213-214. 1891. 

18. Strawberry-bunch. (A new disease caused by nematodes.) Agric. Gaz. New 
South Wales, 2: 390-400, 1 pi., 1 fig. 1891. 

Reprinted. 



19. Maize for the table. Agric. Gaz. New South Wales, 2: 524-534. 1891. 

20. Parasites in the stomach of a cow^ Agric. Gaz. New South Wales, 2: 614-615, 
fig. 1891. 



21. Smuts. Agric. Gaz. New South Wales, 2; 672-677. 1891. 

Reprinted, repaged and enlarged. Sydney: Gov't Printer. 1892. 7 pp., 7 figs. 



Spring, 1957 ASA GRAY BULLETIN 261 



22. The devastating eel-worm {Tylenchus devastatrix, Kuhn). Agric. Gaz. 

New South Wales, 2: 678-682. 1891. 

Reprinted and repaged. New South Wales, Dept. Agric, Misc. Publ. 9. 

Sydney: Gov^t Printer. 1891. 8 pp., 3 figs. 

23. Dialogue concerning the manner in which a poisonous spray does its work 
in preventing or checking blight. Agric. Gaz. New South Wales, 2: 779-786, 6 figs 



1891. 



Reprinted, repaged. Sydney: Gov't Printer. 1892. 8 pp., 6 figs. 



24. Anticoma: a genus of free-living marine nematodes. Proc. Linn. Soc. New 
South Wales, s. 2, 5: 765-774. 1891. 

25. Onyx and Dipeltis; new nematode genera, with a note on Dorylaimus. 
Proc. Linn. Soc. New South Wales, s. 2, 6: 143-158. 1891. 

26. Report on rust in wheat experiments, New South Wales. Rpt. Proc. Rust 
in Wheat Conf., 2 (1891) : 31-36. 1891. 



1892 

27. Contributions to an economic knowledge of the Australian rusts (Uredineae) 
[III-IV and Appendix B.] Agric. Gaz. New South Wales, 3: 44-68. figs. 19-32. 1892. 

28. Contributions to an economic knowledge of Australian rusts (Uredineae). 
[V, Appendices C-F!] Agric. Gaz. New South Wales, 3: 181-212, figs. 32-44. 1892. 

Reprinted, repaged. Dept. Agric. New South Wales. Sydney: 1892. 32 pp., 

13 figs. 

29. Plant diseases and how to prevent them. Agric. Gaz. New South Wales, 
3: 276-303, 436-439, 991-1006, 1 plate, 22 figs. 

Reprinted in part ^pp. 276-303). Dept. Agric. New South Wales, Misc. Publ 
12. Sydney: Gov^t Printer. 1892. 30 pp., 4 pi., 26 figs. 

30. Cold storage for apples from the vegetable pathologist's point of view. 
Agric. Gaz. New South Wales, 3: 581-585. 1892, 

Reprinted, repaged. Sydney: Gov't Printer. 1892. 5 pp. 

31. Cooke's Handbook of Australian fungi. Agric. Gaz. New South Wales, 3: 
696-697. 1892. 

32. Notes on the diseases of plants. Agric. Gaz. New South Wales, 3: 833-834. 
1892. 

33. Report on experiments. Rpt. Proc. Rust in Wheat Conf., 3 (1892) : 27-34, 
1892. 



1893 



34. Nematodes, mostly Australian and Fijian. In: Macleay Memorial Volume 



262 ASA GRAY BULLETIN N. S. VoL III, No. 2 



Sydney, London and Berlin: Linnean Society of New South Wales. 1893. (p. 252-308, 
pi. XXXVI-XLII) 

Reprinted. Dept. Agric, New South Wales. Misc. Publ. 13. Sydney; 
F. Cunninghame & Co. 1893. 59 pp., 6 pi. 



35. Contributions to an economic knowledge of Australian rusts (Uredineae). 
[VI, VTI-IX.l Agric. Gaz. New South Wales, 4: 431-470, 503-515, figs. 45-97. 1893 

36. Plant diseases and their remedies. Diseases of the Sugar-cane. Agric. 
Gaz. New South Wales, 4: 777-833, 46 figs. 1893. 

Reprinted and repaged. Sydney: Chas. Potter Government Printer. 1893. 
56 pp. 



37. Host and habitat index of the Australian Fungi. Dept. Agric, New South 
Wales, Misc. Publ. 16. Sydney: Gov^t Printer. 1893. 2+44 pp. 

38. The gumming of sugar-cane. Preliminary report. Dept. Agric, New 
South Wales, Ann. Rpt., 1893: 8-10. 1893. 

Extract. Royal Gardens, Kew, Bulletin, 1894: 1-4. Also in: Revue Agricole 
et Journal de la' Chambre d' Agriculture, Maurice. 1894. 



39. Tricoma and other new nematode genera. (With fifty illustrations in the 
text). Proc Linn. Soc New South Wales, s. 2, 8: 389-421, 14 figs. 1893. 



1894 



40. Contributions to an economic knowledge of the Australian rusts (Uredineae). 
X. Agric. Gaz. New South Wales, 5: 239-252. 1894. 



Same, with title 'Improving Wheats by Selection": Dept. Agric New South Wales, 
Misc. Publ. 18. Sydney: Gov't Printer, 1894. 1+14+2 pp., illust. 

41. Notes on the diseases of plants. Agric Gaz. New South Wales, 5: 379-389. 
1894. 

Reprinted and repaged. Sydney: Gov't Printer, 1894. 11 pp., 14 figs., 1 pi. 

42. A new Australian fungus. Agric Gaz. New South Wales, 5: 390. 1894. 
Reprinted, unpaged. Sydney: Gov't Printer. 1894. [Peziza Lyonsiae.] 

43. Wheat Rust. Rpt. Proc Rust in Wheat Conf., 4: 37-43. 1894. 

44. Improving wheats by selection. Agric Gaz. New South Wales 5: 239-257, 
5 figs. 1894. 

Reprinted, repaged. Dept, of Agric, New South Wales, Misc. Publ. 20. 
Sydney: Gov't Printer. 1894. 18 pp., 5 figs. 



1895 

45. The cause of gumming in sugar-cane. Agric. Gaz. New South Wales, 
6: 683-689. 1895. 

Reprinted, repaged. Sydney: Gov't Printer. 1895. 7 pp., 2 figs. 



Spring, 1957 ASA GRAY BULLETIN 263 



46. Notes on the form and size of the grain in different varieties of wheat. 
Agric. Gaz. New South Wales, 6: 744-751. 1895. 

Reprinted, repaged. Dept. Agric. New South Wales, Misc. Publ. 260. 
Sydney: Gov't Printer. 1895. 8 pp. 

47. Diseases of plants and their remedies. Agric. Gaz. New South Wales, 

6: 858-867, figs. 1-13. 1895. 

Reprinted, repaged. Sydney: Gov't Printer. 1896. 10 pp., 13 figs. 



1896 



48. The hot-air treatment of bunt or stinking smut. Agric. Gaz. New South 
Wales, 7: 82-83. 1896, 

49. Notes on the threshing of wheat. Agric. Gaz. New South Wales, 7: 204-208. 



1896. 



Reprinted. 



50. The hardness of the grain in the principal varieties of wheat. Agric. Gaz. 
New South Wales, 7: 279-298, 28 figs. 1896. 

Reprinted, repaged. Sydney. Gov't Printer. 1896. 23 pp., 28 figs. 

51. The relative hardness of Australian and American Fife wheats. Agric. 
Gaz. New South Wales, 7: 430-437, figs. 1-28. 1896. 

Reprinted and repaged. Sydney: Gov't Printer. 1896. 8 pp., 21 figs. 1 pL 

52. Notes on the colour of the grain in different varieties of wheat. Agric. Gaz 
NewSouth Wales, 7: 517-520. 1896. 

Reprinted and repaged. Sydney: Gov't Printer. 1896. 4 pp. 

53. The common crow. Agric. Gaz. New South Wales, 7: 565-578. 1896. 
Reprinted. Dept. Agric. New South W^les, Misc. Publ. 103. Sydney: 

Gov't Printer. 1896. 14 pp. 1 fig. 

54. Agricultural experiment work. Agric. Gaz. New South Wales, 7: 663-689. 

1896. 

Reprinted. Dept. Agric. New South Wales, Misc. Publ. 116. Sydney: 

Gov't Printer. 1896. 29 pp., 49 figs. 

55. Wormy fowls. Agric. Gaz. New South Wales, 7: 746-753, 8 figs. 1896. 
Reprinted, repaged. Dept. Agric. New South Wales, Misc. Publ. 123. 

Sydney: Gov't Printer. 1896. 8 pp., 8 figs. 



1897 



56. The cause of an important apple disease, Agric. Gaz. New South Wales, 

8: 126-127. 1897. 

Reprinted, repaged. Dept. Agric. New South Wales, Misc. Publ. 140. Sydney 

GovH Printer. 1897. 2 pp., 1 pi., 1 fig. 



264 ASA GRAY BULLETIN N. S. VoL III, No. 2 



57. Some useful observations on germinating wheat. Agric. Gaz. New South 
Wales, 8: 128-129, 1 pi. 1897. 

Reprinted, repaged. Dept. Agric. New South Wales, Misc. Publ. 141. 
Sydney: Gov't Printer. 1897. 2 pp., 1 pi. 



58. A method of using the microscope. Agric. Gaz. New South Wales, 8: 130-134 
1897. 

Reprinted. Dept. Agric, New South Wales, Misc. Publ. 142. Sydney: Gov't 
Printer. 1897. 5 pp., 3 figs. 

Reprinted. Journ. Roy. Micros. Soc, 1897: 433-438. 

59. Letters on the diseases of plants. Agric. Gaz. New South Wales, 8; 208-252. 
1897. 

Reprinted, repaged. Dept. Agric. New South Wales, Misc. Publ. 149. Sydney 
Gov't Printer. 1897. 54 pp., 60 figs. 

60. The abandoned orchards of Cumberland County. Agric. Gaz. New South 
Wales, 8: 281-288, 4 pi., 9 figs. 1897. 

Reprinted, repaged. Sydney: Gov't Printer. 1897. 10 pp., 4 pi., 9 figs. 

61. The sheep-fluke- Agric. Gaz. New South Wales, 8: 453-481, 1897. 
Reprinted. Dept. Agric. New South Wales. Misc. Publ. 167. Sydney: 

Gov't Printer. 1897. 32 pp., figs., 1 pi. 

62. The ^'brush" of wheat grains. Agric, Gaz. New South Wales, 8: 524-527, 
figs. 1-20. 1897. 

Reprinted, repaged. Dept. Agric. New South Wales, Misc. Publ. 172. 
Fydney: Gov't Printer. 4 pp., 20 figs. 

63. The grading of wheats. Agric. Gaz. New South Wales, 8: 855-859, 6 pi. 
1897. 

Reprinted, repaged. Dept. Agric. New South Wales, Sydney: Gov't Printer. 
1898. 7 pp., 6 pi. 



1898 



64. Notes on pests and crops. Agric. Gaz. New South Wales, 9: 182-186, 
figs. 1-2. 1898. 

Reprinted, repaged. Sydney: Gov't Printer. 1898. 7 pp., 2 figs. 

65. Some tools useful in crop experiment work. Agric. Gaz. New South Wales 
9: 187-189, 1898. 

Reprinted. Dept. Agric. New South Wales, Misc. Publ. 210. Sydney: 
Gov't Printer. 1898. 3 pp., 7 figs. 

66. Extract from MS. report on the parasites of stock. Agric. Gaz. New South 
Wales, 9: 296-321, 419-454. 1898. 

Reprinted, repaged. Dept. Agric. New South Wales, Misc. Publ. 215. Sydney 
Gov't Printer. 1898. 62 pp., 129 figs. 

67. Allora spring wheat. Agric. Gaz. New South Wales, 9: 608-609, col. pi. 1898. 



Spring, 1957 ASA GRAY BULLETIN 265 



68. The weight per bushel of Australian wheats. Agric. Gaz. New South Wales, 

9: 876-881, illust. 1898. 

Reprinted, repaged. Dept. Agric. New South Wales, Misc. Publ. 249. 

Sydney: Gov't Printer. 6 pp., illust. 

69. Rattling Jack Wheat. Agric. Gaz. New South Wales, 9: 1395-1396, 1 col. 

pi. 1898. 

Reprinted, repaged. Sydney: Gov't Printer. 1898. 

70. Australian free-living marine nematodes. Proc. Linn. Soc. New South Wales, 

23: 383-407. 1898. 

Reprinted, Sydney: F. Cunningham & Co. 1898. 



1899 



71. Testing the speed of a photographic lens shutter. Jour. Worcester (Mass.) 
Polytech. Inst., 2: 202-208. 1899. 



1900 



72. Grain elevators. Agric. Gaz. New South Wales, 11: 187-194, 1900. 

Reprinted, repaged. Dept. Agric, New South Wales. Sydney: Gov't Printer 
1900. 28 illust., 3 plates. 



1901 



73. Grain elevators. Agric. Gaz. New South Wales, 12: 255-301, 1 pL, 29 figs. 



1901. 



Reprinted, repaged. Dept. Agric, New South Wales, Misc. Publ. 452. 



Sydney: Gov't Printer. 1901. 47 pp., 29 figs., pi. 

Reprinted. Queensland Agric. Journ., Brisbane, 1902. 

Reprinted. Agric. Gaz. New South Wales, 17: 219-235, 327-339. 1906. 

74. Woodiness of the passion fruit. Agric Gaz. New South Wales, 12: 407-418. 

1901. 

Reprinted, repaged. Dept. Agric New South Wales, Misc. Publ. 459. 

Sydney: Gov't Printer. 12 pp., 1 pi., 16 figs. 

75. Root-gall. Agric Gaz. New South Wales, 12: 1041-1052. 1901. 
Reprinted, repaged. Dept. Agric New South Wales, Misc. Publ. 495. 

Sydney: Gov't Printer. 1901. 12 pp., 8 figs. 

76. A new eel-worm infesting the roots of the passion vine. Agric. Gaz. 
New South Wales, 12: 1115-1117. 1901. 

Reprinted. Dept. Agric New South Wales, Misc. Publ. 503. Sydney: Gov't 

Printer. 3 pp., 1 fig. 1901. 



266 ASA GRAY BULLETIN N. S. VoL III, No. 2 



77. Foliage areas of different varieties of wheat. Agric. Gaz. New South 
Wales, 12: 1117. 1901. 

Reprinted. Dept. Agric. New South Wales, Misc. Publ. 504. Sydney: 
Gov't Printer. 1901. 1 p. 



78. The Californian wheat industry. Agric. Gaz. New South Wales, 

12: 1317-1348, illust. 1901. 

Reprinted, repaged. Dept. Agric. New South Wales, Misc. Publ. 519. 

Sydney: Gov't Printer. 1901. 32 pp., illust. 



79. Universal nomenclature of wheat. Agric. Gaz. New South Wales, 
12: 1614-1629, col. pi. 1901. 13: 74-90, figs. 1-9, pis. 1-4; 241-243, fig. 10, 
1 pi; 415-418; 850, pis. 5-7. 1902. 14: 546-549, pis. 8-[l0]. 1903. 15: 159-174, 
figs. 11-68; 358-363, figs. 69-73; 509-513, fig. 74, pis. 13-15. 1904. 

Reprinted, repaged, in 1905, q. v. 



1902 



80. Tomato blights. Agric. Gaz. New South Wales, 13: 410-414. 1902. 



Reprinted, repaged. Dept. Agric. New South Wales, Misc. Publ. 569. 
Sydney: Gov't Printer. 5 pp., 3 figs. 

81. Comparative observations on the brush of about fifty varieties of wheat. 

Agric. Gaz. New South Wales, 13: 647-649. 1902. 

Reprinted, repaged. Dept. Agric. New South Wales, Misc'. Publ. 578. 
Sydney: Gov't Printer. 1902. 3 pp., 3 figs. 

82. Probably occurrence of the tapeworm (Taenia ovilla) in Australian sheep 
Agric. Gaz. New South Wales, 13: 796. 1902. 



83. The nematode formula. Agric. Gaz. New South Wales, 13: 1023-1030. 1902. 
Reprinted, repaged. Dept. Agric. New South Wales, Misc. Publ. 601. Sydney: 
Gov't Printer. 1902. 8 pp., 5 figs. 



84. Internal structure of the gall-worm. Agric. Gaz. New South Wales, 
13: 1031-1033. 1902. 

Reprinted. 



85. Rattling Tom wheat. Agric. Gaz. New South Wales, 13: 1229, 1 col. pi. 1902. 
Reprinted, repaged. Sydney: Gov't Printer. 1902. 



1903 



86. Effect of engine boiler steam on the vitality of seeds and spores. Agric 
Gaz. New South Wales, 14: 26-29. 1903. 

Reprinted, repaged. Dept. Agric. New South Wales. Misc. Publ. 623. 
Sydney: Gov't Printer. 1903. 



Spring, 1957 ASA GRAY BULLETIN 267 



87. Seed wheat: an investigation and discussion of the relative value as seed 
of large plump and sn:iall shrivelled grains. Agric. Gaz. New South Wales, 

14: 33-50, 145-169, 193-205. 1903. 

Reprinted, repaged. Dept. Agric. New South Wales, Misc. Publ. 625. 
Sydney: W- A. Gullick, GovH Printer. 1903. 60 pp. 36 figs. 

88. A handy horse power. Agric. Gaz. New South Wales, 14: 170. 1903. 
Reprinted. Sydney: Gov't Printer. 1903. 

89. A disease of larkspur. Agric. Gaz. New South Wales, 14: 341. 1903. 

90. Letters on the diseases of plants. Second series. Agric. Gaz. New South 
Wales, 14: 627-651, 681-712, 955-986, 1057-1072. 1903. 15: 1-19. 1904. 

Reprinted, Department of Agriculture, New South Wales, Misc. Publ. 
666. Sydney: Gov't Printer. 1904. T.p+133 pp., 7 col. pL, 132 figs. 



1904 



91. The sheep fluke. Agric. Gaz. New South Wales, 15: 658-669. 1904. 
(Continuation of item 61, 1897.) 

92. Quantitative estimation of disease spores. Agric. Gaz. New South Wales, 

15: 670-680. 1904. 

Reprinted. Dept. Agric. New South Wales, Misc. Publ. 768. Sydney: 

Gov't Printer. 1904. 11 pp., 7 figs. 



93. Parasites as an aid in determining organic relationships. Agric. Gaz. 
New South Wales, 15: 845-848. 1904. 

Reprinted. Dept. Agric. New South Wales, Misc. Publ. 788. Sydney: Go,v't 

Printer. 1904, 4 pp. 

94. A grain of wheat; its structure and properties. Journ. Dept. Agric. West 
Aust,, 9: 165-170. 1904. 

95. Free-living fresh-water New Zealand nematodes. Proc. Cambridge Phil. 
Soc, 12, Pt. V: 363-374, 4 figs. 1904. 



1905 



96. The tapeworms of Australia. Agric. Gaz. New South Wales, 16: 153-168, 
209-219,311-318,619-631, 1905. 

97. The parasitic worm Heterakis inflexa, included in a fowl's egg. Agric. 
Gaz. New South Wales, 16:561-562. 1905. 

98. Quantitative estimation of bunt in seed-wheat. Agric. Gaz. New South 
Wales, 16: 1113-1117. 1905. 

99. Annual Report Division of Pathology and Physiology. Rept. Exp. Sta. Comm., 
Hawaiian Sugar Planters' Assoc, 1904-05: 39-59. 1905. 



268 ASA GRAY BULLETIN N. S. VoL III, No. 2 



100. Methods of using the microscope, camera-lucicia and solar-projector 
for purposes of examination and the production of illustrations. Being the first 
annual report of the Division of Pathology and Physiology, Experiment Station of 
the Hawaiian Sugar Planters' Association. Honolulu, 1905. 1 + 29 pp., illust. 



101. The inspection and disinfection of cane cuttings. Exp. Sta., Hawaiian 
Sugar Planters' Assoc, Div. Path. & Physiol. j Bull. 1: 1-35, i-vi, 8 pi. Honolulu, 
1905. Second editioUj with eight original plates. 



102. Third report on gumming of the sugar-cane. Exp. Sta., Hawaiian Sugar 
Planters^ Assoc, Div. Path. & Physiol., Bull. 3: 1-46, figs. 1-12. Honolulu, 1905. 

Reprinted. Hawaiian Planters' Monthly, 25: 13-36. 



103. Universal nomenclature of wheat. Dept. Agric New South Wales, Misc. 
Publ. 539. Sydney: W. A. Gullick, Government Printer. 1905. 1 + 75 pp., XV+1 pi 
(partly col.). 

(Reprinted from Agric Gaz. New South Wales, vols. 12-15. 1901-1904.) 



1906 



104. Some elements of plant pathology. Exp. Sta., Hawaiian Sugar Planters' 
Assoc, Div. Path. & Physiol., Bull. 4. Honolulu, 1906. 46 + 4 pp., 32 figs. 



105. Fungus maladies of the sugar cane. Exp. Sta., Hawaiian Sugar Planters' 
Assoc, Div. Path. & Physiol., Bull. 5. Honolulu, 1906. 254 pp., frontisp., 7 pi., 
102 figs. 



106. Construction and fittings of a microscope room. Journ. Roy. Microsc 
Soc 446-508. 1906. 

(Extracts from Rept. Exp. Sta. Comm., Hawaiian Sugar Planters' Assoc, 
1904-05: 39-59.) 



107. Annual report Division of Pathology and Physiology. Rept. Exp. Sta, 
Comm., Hawaiian Sugar Planters' Assoc, 1905-06: 51-55. 1906. 



1907 



108. Agriculture in Hawaii. In Bailey, L. H., Cyclop. Amer. Agric, 1: 114-121, 
pi. VI, figs. 128-136. 1907. 



109. Sugar-cane. In Bailey, L. H., Cyclop. Amer. Agric, 2: 599-611, pi. 
XXIII, figs. 826-836. 1907. 



110. Universal nomenclature of wheat. Amer. Miller, 35: 700-701, 792-793, 
890-891, 957. 1907. 

(Abridged from Agric Gaz. New South Wales, 12-15. 1901-1904.) 



111. Some Hawaiian crop blights. Hawaiian Forester & Agric, 4: 60-64. 1907. 



Spring, 1957 ASA GRAY BULLETIN 269 



112. Notes on some diseases of the pineapple. Hawaiian Forester & Agric, 

4: 123-144. 1907. 

Reprinted^ repaged. Honolulu: Privately published. 1908. 

113. Report on the germination of the seeds of rubber producing plants. 
Hawaiian Forester & Agric, 4: 233-235. 1907. 

114. The sugar-cane disease known as Top- Rot. Exp. Sta. Hawaiian Sugar 
Planters Assoc, Div. Path. & Physiol., Circular No. 5. Honolulu, 1907. 6 pp. 



1909 



115. The inner structure of the grain as related to flour and bread. Bienn. 
Report Bur. Labor & Indust., State of Wisconsin, 13 (1907-08) :735-749, 5 figs. 

1909. 

(An enlargement in water-color of a flour-cell of wheat from this publi- 
cation, done by the compiler of this bibliography, is used in teaching by the 
Department of Botany of the University of Michigan. This, and other highly detailed 
illustrations of grain histology from Dr. Cobb's publications should sometime have 
wider distribution as text-book illustrations.) 

116. Fungus maladies of the sugar cane. Exp. Sta., Hawaiian Sugar Planters' 
Assoc, Div. Path. & Physiol. Bull. 6, 3+ [5-100]pp., illust., 7 col. pL Honolulu: 
Hawaiian Star Print. 1909. 



1910 



117. The house fly. Nat. Geogr. Mag., 21, No. 5: 371-380, 4 figs. 1910. 

118. Notes on the distances flies can travel. Nat. Geogr. Mag., 21, No. 5: 
380-383. 1910. 



1912 



119. An accurate method of measuring cotton stapeL A paper read before the 
National Association of Cotton Manufacturers at its ninety-first meeting, Manchester, 
Vermont, Sept. 28, 1911. Boston, 1912. 26 pp., 19 figs. 

120. Further notes on Tricoma. Journ. Wash. Acad. Sci., 2: 480-484, 2 figs. 
1912. 

121. Memorandum of information concerning official cotton grades. U. S. Dept. 
Agric, Bur. Plant Industry, Document 720. 1912, 



270 ASA GRAY BULLETIN N. S. Vol. m, No. 2 



1913 



122. Draconema: A remarkable genus of marine free-living nematodes. 
Journ. Wash. Acad. Sci., 3: 145-149, 1 fig. 1913. 

In author's separates the figure was hand-colored. 

123. Notes on Mononchus and Tylenchulus. Journ. Wash. Acad. Sci., 3" 287-288 
2 figs. 1913. 

124. New nematode genera found inhabiting fresh water and non-brackish 
soils. Journ. Wash. Acad. Sci., 3: 432-444, pi. 1913. 

125. United States Official Cotton Grades. U. S. Dept. Agric, Bur. Plant 
Industry, Circ. 109. 1913. 6 pp. 



1914 



126. Antarctic Marine Free-Living Nematodes of the Shackleton Expedition- 
Contrib. to a Science of Nematology. I. Baltimore: Williams and Wilkins Co. 
1914. 33 pp., illust. 

127. Rhabditin. Journ. Parasitology, 1: 40-41, pi. 1914. 

Reprinted. Rhabditin: Contribution to a science of npm^^^nlnoT/ 4 nn r- 



128. North American free-living fresh-water nematodes. Trans. Amer. 
Microsc. Soc, 33: 69-134, 25 figs. 1914. 

Reprinted. Contrib, Sci. Nematology. II [i.e., pp. 35-99] [WashinRton-1. 
1914. ■* 



129. Approximate measurement of textile fibers. Science, N. S., 40* 683-684 
4 figs. 1914. 

Reprinted, repaged. 

130. Tests of the waste, tensile strength, and bleaching qualities of the 
different grades of cotton as standardized by the United States Government. U. S. 
Dept. Agric, Bull. no. 62. Washington: Gov^t Print. Off. 1914. 8 pp. 1 fig. 

131. Citrus- root nematode. Journ. Agric. Research, 2: 217-230, 13 figs. 1914 



1915 



132. The Asymmetry of the Nematode Bunonema inequale, n. sp. Contrib. to 
a Science of Nematology. III. [i.e., pp. 101-112, 2 figs.] [Washington; privately 
published]. May 1915. 

133. Selachinema, a new Nematode Genus. Contrib. to a Science of Nematology 
IV. [i.e., pp. 113-116, 1 fig.) [Washington: privately published.] May, 1915. 

(This series was extended to twenty-six numbers, Nos. V to XXVI, 
appearing from 1917 to 1935. The. last one, "A Key to the Genera of Free-Living 
Nemas.") posthumously published, was edited by Margaret V. Cobb. 



Spring, 1957 ASA GRAY BULLETIN 271 



134. Some fresh- water nematodes of the Douglas Lake region of Michigan, 
U. S. A. (With M. V. Cobb.) Trans. Amer. Micros. Soc, 34: 21-47, illust. 1915. 

135. [Note dealing with a new species of free-living nematode . . . aerophagous 
. . . nitrogen-fixing]. Journ. Parasitol., 1: 154-155. 1915. 

136. A system for locating objects on microscope slides. Trans. Amer. 
Micros. Poc, 34: 189-190. 1915. 

137. Tylenchus similis, the cause of a root disease of sugar cane and banana. 
Journ. Agric. Research, 4: 561-568. 2 figs. 1915. 

138. Nematodes and their relationships. U. ?. Dept. of Agriculture, Yearbook, 

1914: 457-490, figs. 26-45. Washington, 1915. 

Same: Yearbook separate 652. iii+pp. 457-490, figs. 26-45. Washington, 

1915. 



1916 



139. Methods of Determining Length of Cotton Staple and IllustraJ:ions of their 
Application. A Paper read before The Nat. Assoc. Cotton Manufacturers at their 
99th Meeting . . . [n. p.] 1916. 108+xx pp., 39 figs. 



140. Notes on new genera and new species of nematodes. Journ. Parasito^L., 
2: 195-196. June, 1916. 

141. Notes on filter-bed nematodes. Journ. Parasitol., 2: 198-200, 1 fig. 
June, 1916. 

4 

142. Masonry bases for the installation of microscopes and their accessories, 
including the camera lucida and the microscope camera. Trans. Amer. Microsc. 
Soc, 35: 9-22, 5 figs. 1916. 

143. Diplogaster labiata; Diplogaster aerivora. In Merrill, J. H. and Ford, 
A. L., Life history and habits of two new nematodes parasitic on insects. Journ. 
Agric. Research, 6: 115-119, 121, 124. 1916. 



1917 



So far as is known, the foregoing list includes all that Dr. Cobb wrote prior 
to 1917, on all subjects. From that year on, the numerous technical contributions 
on nematodes are omitted, as well as newspaper articles, but several scattered ones 
on nematodes of general interest as well as the few papers on other subjects are 
listed. Many of those which are not listed here, over eighty titles, are major 
articles. 

It is interesting that at the end of his career he published privately, on the 
50th anniversary of writing it, the thesis which, at graduation in 1881, he submitted 
to the Worcester Polytechnic Institute. Had it been published then, it would have 
been his first scientific contribution. Beginning with mineralogy (mathematical 



272 ASA GRAY BULLETIN N. S. VoL m, No. 2 



crystallography) and local flora studies in New England, he published later on what- 
ever a pioneer plant and animal pathologist would encounter in Australia. In his 
later years, however, he was enabled to devote himself to what became his major 
field of interest, the classification, description, physiology and life histories of the 
nematodes. 



144. Free-living Nematodes. Chapter XV in Ward, H.B., & Whipple, G. C, 
Fresh-water Biology, pp. 459-505, figs. 766-810. 1918 

145. Estimating the nema population of the soil, with special reference to the 
sugar-beet and root-gall namas, Heterodora schachtii Schmidt and Heterodoca 
radicicola (Greef) Miiller ... U. S. Dept. Agric, Bur. Plant Ind., Agric. Tech. 
Circ. 1, 48 pp., illust. 1918. 



146. Microtechnique; suggestions for methods and apparatus. Trans. Amer. 
Micros. Soc, 39: 231-242, figs. 1-6, 1920. 



147. An approach to textile fibre research. Textile World Journal, 57, no. 6* 
211, 421-422. 1920. 

Reprinted without pagination. 1921. 



148. The Thermolethe; a device for using hot fixatives. Trans. Amer. Micro. 
Soc, 46: 2. 1927. 



149. Some recent aspects of nematology. Science, N. S., 73: 22-29. 
Jan. 9, 1931. 

+ 

Extract from presidential address, American Society of Parasitologists, 
meeting at Des Moines, Iowa, 1929. 



150. Mathematical Crystallography. Being a Thesis presented in Partial 
Fulfillment of Conditions for Receiving the Degree of Bachelor of Science from the 
Worcester Polytechnic Institute, June, 1881. Washington: Privately published. 
1931. 43 pp., 22 figs. 

151. The use of live nemas (Metoncholaimus pristiurus) in zoological 
courses in schools and colleges. Science, N. S., 74: 489. Nov. 13, 1931. 

Also in: The Collecting Net, Aug. 29, 1931. Woods Hole, Mass. 

152. The English Word "nema". Journ. Amer. Med. Assoc, 98: 75. 1932. 



BOTANICAL GARDENS OF THE UNIVERSITY OF 

MICHIGAN, AND THE NEW DIRECTOR, 

DR. A. GEOFFREY NORMAN* 



Elizabeth Sutherland Trow 



Directed by Dr. A. Geoffrey Norman, Professor of Botany, the 
Gardens staff performs a variety of services for the University. 
The purpose of the Botanical Gardens, according to Professor 
Norman, is "to support all botanical interests on campus by pro- 
viding living plants and collections for undergraduate and graduate 
instruction and for research by students and faculty." 

The Botanical Gardens was first started in 1897, and since has 
changed location twice. Now situated off Packard Road on Iroquois 
Drive, it has about 40 acres of land and 18,000 square feet of 
greenhouse space. Previously it owned over 50 acres, but a slice 
was cut off a year ago by the right of way for a new industrial 
highway without making provision for adding other immediately 
adjacent land by way of replacement, which had been urgently re- 
quested by the Director. 



Harley H. Bartlett, Professor Emeritus of botany, directed the 
Gardens for 36 years. The Assistant Director for nearly all that 
time was Dr. Frieda C. Blanchard, who retired last June. Professor 
Norman, who has been Director since July, 1955, is assisted by Dr. 
P. A. Hyypio and Dr. P. B. Kaufman, Research Associates and part- 
time instructors in botany. 

Walter F. Kleinschmidt has been resident superintendent of the 
Gardens for about 20 years. On the staff of eight gardeners are 
Harold Allen, Harvey Allen, Albert Bek, Forrest Cochran, Paul 
Gensley, John Ludwig, Louis Ludwig, and Donald Trout. 

Members of the Michigan Botanical Gardens Association will 
naturally wish to know more about the new Director, who took charge 



pon 



sabbatical leave, before retiring a year later. 



Professor Norman came to the University in 1952 as a research 
biochemist and Professor of Botany in the College of Literature, 



♦Based upon an article in The University [of Michigan] Record, Vol. 12, No. 1, 



pp. 4,5. 



273 



274 ASA GRAY BULLETIN N. S. Vol. EI, No. 2 

Science and the Arts; is currently directing researches in the field 
of plant and soil relationships under a $100,000 grant from the Ford 
Motor Company Fund. He was born November 26, 1905 in Birming- 
ham, England. While attending King Edward's School, a secondary 
school in Birmingham, Professor Norman became interested in 
biological sciences and has "stayed with it" ever since. He received 
the degrees of Bachelor of Science in 1925 from the University of 
Birmingham and Doctor of Philosophy in 1928. 



In 1930 Dr. Norman came to the United States as a Rockefeller 
Fellow at the University of Wisconsin. Here he did postdoctoral 
work in agricultural bacteriology, and was granted the N. S. in this 
field in 1932. After serving as Research Associate at Wisconsin, 
he returned to England, where he became Doctor of Science in 1933 
at the University of London. 



Remaining in England, Professor Norman was biochemist in 
charge of the Biochemistry Section, Rothamsted Experimental 
Station, Harpenden, Herts, England, from 1933 to 1937. He returned 
to the United States in 1937, and was appointed Professor of Soils 
at Iowa State College and also Research Professor at the Iowa 
Agricultural Experiment Station, positions which he held until 1946. 
During the war period, however, from 1943 to 1945 he was Con- 
sultant assigned to the Chemical Corps of the U. S. Army, in 
Washington, D. C. From 1946 to 1952 Professor Norman became 
Biochemist and Division Chief for the Chemical Corps Biological 
Laboratories at Camp Detrick, Maryland. He became a member of 
the U. S. Air Force Reserve as a Colonel in 1949. 



Professor Norman belongs to numerous organizations. In 1956, 
he was Vice-President of the American Society of Agronomy, and 
became President in 1957. He is also a member of the Biochemical 
Society, the Society of American Bacteriologists, the American 
Society of Plant Physiologists, and the Iowa Academy of Science. He 
is a member of the Division of Biology and Agriculture of the National 
Research Council in Washington, D. C 

As chairman of the Committee on Effects of Atomic Radiation on 
Agriculture and Food Supplies, Professor Norman recently took part 
in a broad, nationwide study by the National Academy on the biological 
effects of atomic radiation. 



Throughout his career. Professor Norman has written "well over 
a hundred" scientific and research papers for technical journals. 



Spring, 1957 ASA GRAY BULLETIN 275 

He was married on September 5, 1933 to Marian Esther Foote 
of Huron, South Dakota. They have two children, Anthony Westcott, 
born January 19, 1938 and Stephen Trevor, born March 16, 1942. 
His home is at 2132 Brockman Blvd., Ann Arbor, Michigan. 



One of the chief activities of the Botanical Gardens over the 
years has been the growing of plants for identification in connection 
with the field work of faculty and students. 



Botanical expeditions have added greatly to the Gardens' col- 
lections from time to time, Professor Norman points out. To cite 
an example, Mr. Lems, doing research on the ecology of the Canary 
Islands, sent back many specimens. 



A laboratory course in applied botany meets regularly at the 
Gardens, and other botany classes frequently visit the greenhouses 
to observe collections of living plants. In addition to class trips, the 
Gardens receives many visitors each year. Last May about 500 
members of school, club, and University groups came on tours, 
Professor Norman estimates. For easy identification, all plants 
in the greenhouses or outside are marked with a zinc label, but a 
new type of laminated plastic label bearing descriptive information 
will be added this fall to many of the greenhouse plants of special 
interest. 



Greenhouse facilities include planting rooms where seedlings 
are set out, rooms for tropical and semitropical plants, a cactus 
room, space for the general collections and for the propagation of 
the plants studied by botany classes. 

L 

There are many special out-door collections, even including a 
planting of telephone poles for a study (supported by the Detroit 
Edison Company) of resistence to rot-producing fungi, conducted 
by Dr. Dow V. Baxter, Professor of Forest Pathology and of Botany. 

Although it has a close relationship with the Botany Depart- 
ment, the Botanical Gardens is an autonomous unit. 



276 



ASA GRAY BULLETIN 



N. S. Vol III, No. 2 



i:*5^S"^^>-i>-"'^^^^>:'>-'S^-?^'^-^]'^^^ ;^^>^rS^i^EiS^?S¥if 



WK-3-LV^r^->-" W^F* i-J^^:^ WiilvLTitrv : o ■.y^^:-^^">MS^r^. v:^^■^-^^■■■- 1- -^x 




To keep track of all the plants 
in the collection, a careful accessions 
system is necessary. Each new plant 
is recorded and given a number. A 
card is made for it containing all 
known information about where, when 
and how it was acquired. Cards of 
current plants are kept in a "live" 
file. 



. .^'r'".v-.'.^'.'"^.\'.'J ' ^' "; 

■- . ^.^ .■- .' -,\\ 

- <-.\^.'^'.^"'n'. 

^-.V...r.-L«Lr.;Ji 




Professor A. Godfrey Norman, 
Director of the Botanical Gardens, 
University of Michigan. 



Although encouragement of 
expeditionary activities has been 
well to the front in the past of the 
Botanical Gardens, genetics and 
plant breeding have always been 
greatly emphasized. For example, 
5,000 or 6,000 evening primroses 
are grown annually for research in 
genetics carried on by Dr. Erich E. 
Steiner, Assistant Professor of 
botany. 



A perennial garden of types of cultivated hibiscus is used in a 
study of color inheritance by Dr. Edwin B. Mains, director of the 
University Herbarium. 



The Botanical Gardens will develop some new projects as a 
part of the independent research program directed by its own staff, 
as well as "servicing" the special collections maintained for indi- 
vidual investigators. Professor Norman also hopes to start some 
new outside plantings, including a bulb garden which will have 
flowers blooming continuously from spring to fall, a genetic garden, 
and a collection of flowering shrubs hardy in the Michigan climate. 



Something new is the growing of ragweed for the study of pollen 

release and travel directed by Dr. E. Wendell Hewson, Professor 

of Meteorology. Plants are also grown at the Gardens for Professor 

Norman's research on root physiology at the Plant Nutrition Labora- 
tory. 



Of course the growing of plants for use in physiological research 
and class work has always been a specialty, and this requires no 
little knowledge and experience on the part of Mr. Kleinschmidt. 
In order to have two-foot sunflower plants by November 1, for ex- 
ample, one must know exactly when to plant them. 



ABOUT THE PROJECT FOR A NEW FLORA OF 
MICHIGAN, AND EDWARD G. VOSS, WHO IS 

WORKING ON IT* 



Elizabeth Sutherland Trow 



For a good many years botanists at the University of Michigan 
have looked forward to the preparation of a new Flora of Michigan, 
There has never^ however, been any adequate provision for carrying 
out such a project, since it had to be done in connection with other 
duties by staff members who were fully occupied otherwise. Still, 
there was a committee which carried on various activities of col- 
lecting and compilation of data for a flora. The first chairman of 
this committee was H. H. Bartlett, who was succeeded by Dr. Rogers 
McVaugh. Two of the most notable workers on the local flora were 
Dr, J. H. Ehlers, who taught systematic botany from 1915 until his 
retirement in 1939, and Frederick J, Hermann, now botanist with the 
U- S, Department of Agriculture, a most enthusiastic student of the 
whole flora of Michigan but especially of the Upper Peninsula, and a 
recognized authority on the difficult sedge family, the Cyperaceae. 
No one else at the University of Michigan had contributed so largely 

as these two until Dr. Edward G. Voss entered the local flora field, 
and presented an extensive and critical study of the plants of Emmet 

and Cheboygan Counties as his doctoral dissertation. In order not 
to lose the impetus provided by his extraordinary activity, the present 
Chairman of the Department of Botany, Professor Kenneth L. Jones, 
undertook to stabilize the too insecure "Flora of Michigan'' project 
by the appointment of Dr. Voss for five years as Research Associate, 
with the specific duty of producing a manuscript for publication at the 
end of that period. Dr. Voss has entered upon his duties, and has 
likewise consented to serve as a third member of the editorial staff 
of the Asa Gray Bulletin. 

So Dr. Voss expects to spend five years on the job of preparing 
a handbook on state flora which will be both accurate and intelligible 
to laymen. The book is scheduled for publication in 1961 by the Uni- 
versity Press. 



Planned for use in schools, colleges, libraries, and by individuals 
who like to identify plants, the handbook will include not only native 
Michigan flowering plants and ferns but also those which have been 
introduced and have become established. 



*This article is a slight modification of one which appeared under the title 
"Michigan Flowers to be Described" in the University [of Michigan] Record, Vol. 12, 

No. 4 (p. 8). 

277 



278 



ASA GRAY BULLETIN 



N. S. Vol. Ill, No. 2 











i**^' 



1 







-_^^- 




■--i 



.jj 



■■i^ 



vKiVi^^'A^i^ 



r--;V 



Dr. Edward G. Voss, who Is engaged in writing a new Flora of Michigan, which, 
it is planned J will be ready for publication in 1961 by the University of Michigan 
Press. Dr. Voss is also to be Editor of the Asa Gray Bulletin. 



Line drawings are planned to illustrate each major group of 
plants^ and to show certain details which are difficult to describe. 
In addition, small maps will indicate the distribution of the plants 
by counties following the precedent of the late C. C- Deam^s Flora 

of Indiana. 



Dr. Voss is doing much of his research in the University Her- 
barium, which has approximately 300,000 flowering plant specimens, 
including one of the most complete collections of identified Michigan 
plants. He is also borrowing specimens from other institutions, in- 
cluding Wayne State University, Michigan State University, the 
Cranbrook Institute of Science, Aquinas College, and Albion College. 



Because some areas of Michigan have not been thoroughly 
explored by botanists, Dr. Voss and his assistant, James Wilson, 
plan a series of field trips starting in the spring of 1957 to gather 
additional material from several central and southern counties of 
the state, which have been especially neglected. Several local 
amateur botanists have done excellent local flora work in the state, 
and also not a few former and present students at the University 
and other state institutions. The contributions of all will be 



K . 



Spring, 1957 ASA GRAY BULLETIN 279 



appropriately recognized by Dr. Vo£ 
and notes for the Asa Gray Bulletin. 



The projected Flora of Michigan will not be the final word on 
Michigan plants, according to Prof. Kenneth L. Jones, chairman of 
the Botany Department, because new plants are continuously being 
found in all areas. For example, Dr. Voss reports that he has col- 
lected plants in Emmet and Cheboygan Counties for the past 12 years 
and each year has found kinds previously unknown in that region. 
Revisions are planned from time to time to keep the handbook up to 

date. 



Money for the project has been provided from Faculty Research 
Funds of the Graduate School, although Professor Jones expects the 
book to pay for itself. Supervising the work is a faculty committee 
composed of Professor Jones; Prof. Edwin B. Mains, director of 
the University Herbarium; Prof. Rogers McVaugh, curator of vascu- 
lar plants in the Herbarium; Associate Prof. Elzada U. Clover, asso- 
ciate curator in the Botanical Gardens; and Assistant Prof. Warren 
H. Wagner, Jr. 



Dr. Voss received the degrees of Master of Arts in biology from 
the University in 1951 and Doctor of Philosophy in botany in 1954. 
He has published many articles on plant life, of which the most recent 



botany 



He is 



likewise one of the most active entomologists in Michigan. For the 
past two years he has been a research assistant in the Metabolism 
Research Laboratory of the University Hospital. 



EDITORIAL NOTE. — It has been four^d impracticable to promise 
publication of the Asa Gray Bulletin on a regular quarterly basis, 
but volumes consisting of approximately 400 pages will continue 
to be issued. Subscriptions will be entered for entire volumes, 
regardless of publication date, rather than for the issues of a year 



The two remaining issues of Vol. Ill will be sent to press as 
soon as possible. One of the forthcoming issues will consist of a 
single article, publication of which should not be considered as 
setting a precedent for any change in editorial policy, since the 
extra cost of publication of the special number has been covered 
by gifts. Other future numbers will be as diversified in content 
as in the past. 



DR. WALTER N. KOELZ AND THAKUR RUP CHAND, 

COLLABORATORS IN ASIATIC RESEARCH, 
BOTANICAL GARDENS AND MUSEUM OF ZOOLOGY, 

UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN* 



Elizabeth Sutherland Trow 



It is believed that readers of Dr. Walter Koelz's Persian 
Diary, begun in this issue of the Asa Gray Bulletin^ may wish to 
know something about his zoological as well as his botanical 
activities. 



From one man's travels in Iran, Afghanistan, and India have 
come 25,000 bird skins purchased last spring by the University. 
Collected over a 14-year period by Dr. Walter N. Koelz, collabo- 
rator in Asiatic research for the Botanical Gardens, and the 

r 

Museum of Zoology, these birds are the most important single 
acquisition ever made by the Museum of Zoology, according to 
Prof. Josselyn Van Tyne, curator of birds. Nevertheless they 
represent only part of Dr, Koelz's ornithological work, for his 
collections are also largely represented in the Chicago Museum 
of Natural History in Chicago. They have been the subject of 
extensive publication by ornithologists of the American Museum of 
Natural History, New York, and many of the new races have been 
described by Dr. Koelz himself in a publication of the Institute for 
Regional Exploration of Ann Arbor. 



Especially valuable are 15,000 birds from the province of 
Assam in eastern India near the Burmese border, where Dr, Koelz 
spent several years with his Tibetan assistant, who is also Col- 
laborator in Asiatic Research in the Michigan Botanical Gardens, 
the Thakur Rup Chand. (^'Thakur,'' Dr. Koelz explains, is an Indian 
title,) This province is particularly interesting to scientists be- 
cause each range in the Assam Mountains has a distinct bird fauna. 
The same species may have variations in color or form within a 
few miles, for no known reason. To show these minute differences, 
Dr. Koelz regularly collected a series of specimens of each species 



This is the first really adequate representation of the birds of 
Assam, and, Dr. Koelz believes, is likely to be the last such col- 
lection that can ever be brought from that area- Current political 



*This article is somewhat modified from one which appeared in "The University 
[of Michigan] Record, Vol. 12, No. 4 (pp. 4, 5) under the title "Museums* Collector 
of Asiatic Birds is World Traveller and Scientist." 



281 



282 



ASA GRAY BULLETIN 



N. S. VoL m, No. 2 



conditions make it impossible for scientists to go there in the for- 
seeable future, and a swelling human population is destroying the 
natural cover for birds very rapidly. Species which Dr. Koelz 
collected in numbers are now disappearing, and some may already 
be extinct in the area, for the extermination of the last remnants of 
primary vegetation naturally destroys whole ecological groups of 
animals as well as plants. 



Of major importance in the Koelz Collection are 125 type speci- 
mens of "new'' kinds of birds. The type specimen is the final refer- 
ence for ornithologists identifying later collections or studying 
related species. 









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Dr. Walter Koelz and Thakur Rup Chand, Collaborators in Asiatic Research, 
at his homCj examining a pheasant collected in the Himalayan Mountains. 



Spring, 1957 ASA GRAY BULLETIN 283 



More than a dozen of the rarest birds in the world are included 
in the collection, such as the Indian honey-guide, which probably no 
other scientist has seen alive, and the largest heron in the world, 
of which only a single specimen can be found in all the other 
museums in America, 



On their expeditions, Dr. Koelz, the Thakur Rup Chand, and 
their helpers prepared the specimens the same day the birds were 
shot. They were sometimes able to prepare 100 specimens in an 
evening, Dr. Koelz reports. Each specimen has a label telling 
where and when it was obtained, and whether it is male or female. 



The Koelz Collection was being studied up to the time of his 
death by the late lamented Professor Van Tyne and by Assistant 
Prof. Robert W. Storer. All the larger birds have been identified 
and catalogued, and the scientists are now working on the smaller 
species. 



Dr, Koelz has published several articles on this collection, and 
plans to write an account of the birds of Assam. He is working with 
Dr. Philip S. Humphrey, research associate in the Museum of 
Zoology, on details of certain families of birds. Dr. Humphrey, 
unfortunately for Michigan, is about to transfer to Yale, 



This new acquisition is just a part of the Museum^s bird col- 
lection, now numbering over 143,000 study skins, a great many of 
which have been contributed by Dr. Koelz over the years.' Orni- 
thologists from many areas have already come to work with the 
specimens, gathering fundamental information about new species 
and the evolution of birds. The collection has been helpful to 
ornithologists and museums in the identification of birds, as well as 
providing material for individual research projects by students, 
faculty members, and scientists from other universities. It is also 
used as illustrative material in extension courses and lectures. 



Birds, strangely enough, are a sideline with Dr. Koelz. He 
received the Doctor of Philosophy degree in zoology at the University 
in 1920, and, then chiefly interested in ichthyology, at the same 
time was the first curator of fish in the Museum of Zoology- As 
associate biologist of the U, S. Bureau of Fisheries from 1919-27, 
he investigated the Great Lakes commercial fisheries. He has also 
been naturalist of the Macmillan Expedition at Arctic Greenland, 
fisheries investigator for the Institute for Fisheries Research, and 
plant explorer for the U. S. Department of Agriculture. On the last 
assignment he gathered thousands of plant seeds from the Near East, 
as well as 30,000 herbarium specimens. 



284 ASA GRAY BULLETIN N. S. VoL lU, No. 2 



^ 



Dr. Koelz first went to India in 1930. Since then he has col- 
lected in India, Iran, Afghanistan, and Tibet, sending the University 
many botanical collections and much valuable material in the field 
of ethnology and art. In 1934 he gave the Museum of Anthropology 
an important collection of Buddhist paintings and sculpture, cere- 
monial objects, jewelry, ornaments, and other items of Tibetan 
and Indian origin, including the finest collection of Tibetan temple 
banners in existence, as well as textiles of Kashmir and Persia. 
He has in manuscript form an analytical study of the collection of 
Persian shawls he made for the University. 



In recognition of his achievements in introducing economic 
plants of Asia for use in breeding new agricultural varieties, Dr. 
Koelz was awarded the Frank N. Meyer Medal of the American 
Genetic Association, a medal which has been awarded to only 14 
other Americans. 



Since his return to this country in 1953, Dr. Koelz has been 

living in Waterloo, where his current project is the remodeling 
of his boyhood home. The Thakur Rup Chand has joined him there 
and is still working as a collaborator in Asiatic research for the 
Botanical Gardens, organizing a vast collection of plants made for 
incorporation with the Herbarium of the University of Michigan. 



EDITORIAL NOTE. — Two years ago the Asa Gray Bulletin planned 
to publish a series of notes, with photographs if possible, of the 
largest and most notable specimens of each species of American 
trees. Some material has been accumulated, publication of which 
will soon begin, but there should be many more contributors than 
there have been. It has seemed that the location of trees of 
unusual size and longevity might be equivalent^ in at least some 
instances, to the selection of trees of unusually valuable genetic 
constitution, especially worthy of propagation. 



More recently the Michigan Botanical Club has undertaken to 
bcate the largest, most unusual, and historically most interesting 
trees in Michigan. All who are interested in contributing infor- 
mation should communicate with Miss Margaret Haigh, 36910 Ann 

Arbor Trail, Livonia, Michigan. 



TO BE EXPECTED IN FORTHCOMING ISSUES 



Botanizing in the Tahquamenon Area, by Alexander H. Smith 



Persian Diary, IIj by Walter N. Koelz 



An Autobiography for his Family and Friends, by the late Cornelius 
L. Shear 



Glimpses of the Natural History of Koror, by Peter J. and Alma 
Hill 



Ekman, Botanical Explorer in the West Indies, by Siri Von Reis 



Expedicion Onate, by John A. Nystrom, translated by Siri Von Reis 



Biographical Sketches of Charles C. Deam, Alice Eastwood, 
Ray C. Friesner, and Louis H. Jordal 



Botanist's Visit to Mount Sisipitan, by Jose Vera Santos 



Ethnobotany of Popcorn, by Volney H. Jones 



Collecting in the Aleutians, by Walter J. Eyerdam 



Observations on the Edwards Plateau, by Winifred O. Moore 



The Everett G. Logue Collection of Hybrid Oaks, by H. H. Bartlett 



Botanical Publications on the Ryukyu Islands, by Egbert H. Walker 



Notes on the Flora of Agattu, by Harvey Alfred Miller 



Sphagnum Flora in the Vicinity of Douglas Lake, Michigan, by 
Bodil Lange 



The Nucleus of a Library: the Gray Collection, General Library, 
University of Michigan, by Russell E. Bidlack 



Science vs, the Military: Dr. James Morrow and the Perry Expe- 
dition, by A. Hunter Dupree 



The Glastonbury Thorn at the Washington Cathedral, by Theodore 
C. Taylor 



Three articles on Michigan florulas, by Marjorie T. Bingham 



Continuation of articles on the representation of various families 
in the flora of Michigan, by C. M. Rogers. 






f 

t 



THE ASA GRAY BULLETIN, NEW SERIES, --An irregularly published jour- 
nal of which four numbers constitute a volume, devoted to more or less in- 
formal communication among the members of the three organizations listed 
below and our subscribers in general. Progress reports of current field, 
garden, and herbarium work, with readable and relatively non-technical 
•^^^r articles in the fields related to systematics, botanical history, biography, 
'*^and bibliography, will be preferred. There will be special emphasis upon 
preparatory work for a new "Flora of Michigan'*. Free use will be made of 
letters to the Editors (if released for publication by their writers) and of 
current news notes regarding botanists. 



Items for publication should be addressed to either of the Editors at the 
Department of Botany, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, Con- 
tributors of major articles may secure 100 copies of their contributions, 
at a cost of $1.25 per page or fraction thereof, 
additional charge. 



Covers furnished without 



Address subscriptions to Miss Hazel Bartlett, 1601 Brooklyn Ave., Ann 
Arbor, Michigan. Subscription price for Voume I (if available) is $6.00; 
single copies of Nos. 2, 3, and 4, $1.00 each. Vols. II and III, $3.00 each; 
single copies (if not breaking volumes) 75^ each. 



THE GRAY MEMORIAL BOTANICAL ASSOCIATION, FOUNDED 1887.-- 
This organization sponsored publication of early volumes of the Asa Gray 
Bulletin. Later it issued a mimeographed "Bulletin'', Its object is to com- 
memorate the life and botanical work of Asa Gray and to assist its member; 
in botanical activity by furthering friendly correspondence and cooperation 



rr 



among them. Interested persons are invited to communicate with the Per- 
manent Secretary, Professor R. Lee Waip, Department of Biology, Marietta 
College, Marietta, Ohio. 



MICHIGAN BOTANICAL GARDENS ASSOCIATION. --Founded in 1925 to in- 
clude persons interested in promoting the development and current activitie 
of the Botanical Gardens of the University of Michigan. There are no dues, 
but subscription to the Asa Gray Bulletin is invited. For further informa- 
tion, communicate witli Dr. Frieda Cobb Blanchard, Secretary, 2014 Geddes 
Avenue, Ann Arbor, Michigan. 



MICHIGAN BOTANICAL CLUB. --The membership is about 283, made up of 
persons interested in the Michigan flora, nature-study, wild-flower protec- 
tion, preservation of natural areas, and conservation. It has members at 
large and the following chapters: Southeastern, Bay County, Marquette, 
Wild- Life (Houghton). For information address Mr. Paul W. Thompson, 



W 



Maplehurst St., Ferndale, Michigan. 



N.S. Vol. Ill 



Spring, 1961 



Nos. 3-4 




Edited and published jar 

THE GRAY MEMORIAL BOTANICAL ASSOCIATION 

and the 
BOTANICAL GARDENS ASSOCIATION 
OF THE UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN 

by 
Rogers McVaugh 



CONTENTS 



Japanese Botany During the Period of Wood-Block Printing 



Harley Harris Bartlett & Hide Shohara 



289 



/ 



ANN ARBOR. MICHIGAN 



EDITORIAL NOTE. --With this issue we briim' to a close the third 



fc> 



volume of Asa Gray Bulletin, new series. The first number of this 
volume was issued 10 June 1955, and the second number 12 July 1957 

We have no definite plans for additit)nal volumes, and we cannot 

accept new subscriptions. If the demand warrants, how^ever, and if 

funds become available, we shall be glad to consider the possibility 
of continuing' publication. 



Editorial policy in the first tliree volumes was a very simple one: 
We insisted that articles be interesting and readable, and tliat in 
addition tliey contain some useful botanical information. We felt that 
in this way the Asa Gray Bulletin served a useful i)urpose in tlie 
botanical community. 



The moving spirit in the new Asa Gray Bulletin was Harley 
Bartlett, to whose memory we gratefully dedicate this volume. His 
infectious enthusiasm, liis wide variety of interests and acquain- 
tanceSj his ability to make lucid and readable prose out of the 
merest scraps of information, his unfailing optimism and his wholly 
unassumed pleasure in each succeeding issue as it was published, 
made working with him an inspirational task. Every article in the 
new Asa Gray Bulletm bore the stamp of his personality. 

In his last years Professor Bartlett spent almost all his working 
hours in the preparation of an annotated bibliography on Fire in 

^ w 

Relation to Primitive Agriculture and Grazing in the Tropics. After 
the publication of the first two volumes (in 1955 and 1957 respective- 
ly), he was much gratified by the very considerable demand for tliem. 
Volume I soon went out of print. Professor Bartlett planned to com- 
plete the work in 5 volumes but only the first 2, and Volume III, soon 
to be issued by the University of Michigan, had been completed at 
tlie time of iiis death. 



Even in the midst of his preoccupation with tlie bibliography, lie 
eonlinued to work at intervals on a project he had envisioned many 
years before--a piuject that had become timely in 1954, the centen- 
nial year of Commodore Perry's visit to Japaji. In tliis work on 



[Continued on inside back cover] 



A sensitive aiici aj:prec ia 1 1 ve account nC his 1 1 1 l' and woiM-: , by li i s 
roIi(N\giic and ['ormor student, lulward C. \'oss , has recently been publi- 
slied in the BuLleLm of the Tnrrcy Bolanicai Ciab, Vol. S& , pp . 47-56. hU31 



v. 



I 



\ 



f 



THE ASA GRAY BULLETIN 



NEW SERIES 



' ^^ 



VOLUME III 



Edited by 
Harley H. Bartlett and Rogers McVaugh 



A Botanical Quarterly published in the interests of the Gray 
Memorial Botanical Association, The Botanical Gardens 

Association of the University of Michigan, 

and the Michigan Botanical Club 



\ 



ANN ARBOR, MICHIGAN 1955-1961 



1 




Harley Harris Bartlctt 
A nn A rbor , Mic h iga n , 1 ft 3 8 



Dedicated to the 



Memory of 



HARLEY HARRIS BARTLETT 



March 9, 1886 -- February 21, 1960 



*^ 



For the unsparing aid and encouragement that he gave 
equally to all; his infinite curiosity and enthusiasm, and 
the extraordinary capacity of his versatile mind; for his 
gift of tongues and for his generous heart; his prodigious 
industry; his magnificent disregard of time and the limit- 
ations it imposes; for his intolerance of sham and his bold 
support of the truth as he saw it, we remjember him^ with 
love and admiration. 



IV ASA GRAY BULLETIN N. S. Vol. Ill 



ERRATA, Vol. Ill, Nos. 1 and 2 



p. 4, line 25: for "Goft" read "Gift^". 



p. 14, line 6 from botton;: for "sumbol" read ^'symbol". 



p. 22, line 5: for ''wo" read "two". 



p. 32, line 18: for "Great Lakes ship captain" read "Chicago 

physician". 



p. 88, line 8: for "Fallas" read "Fallass". 



p. 102, last line: for "disfugured" read "disfigured", 

p. 109, line 14 from bottom: for "wordly" read "worldly" 

p. 117, line 12: for "persprective" read "perspective". 



p, 199, line 6 from bottom: after "6. " read "L. striatum" 



p. 204, line 1: for "(NDL, " read "(ND)/ 



p. 204, line 17: for "if" read "is". 



p, 227, delete last line. 



p. 234, delete last line. 



p. 251, line 14: for "legand" read "leg and" 



p. 274, line 11: for "N. S. " read "M. S. ". 



p. 276, line 1 of legend beneath picture: for "Godfrey" read 

"Geoffrey". 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 



Bartlett, H. H. 



Foreword, to article by Mary Cokely Wood. ....... 3 

Foreword, to article by Walter N. Koelz 133 

Otto Degener: Botanist of the South Seas 197 



Bartlett, H. H. (with Hide Shohara) 

Japanese Botany During the Period of Wood-block 

Printing 289 



Becker, Hernnin F. 

A New Method of Handling and Preserving Soft- Matrix 



Fossils 



57 



Blanchard, Frieda Cobb 

Nathan A. Cobb, Botanist and Zoologist, a Pioneer Scien- 



tist in Australia 



205 



Carlson, Margery C 



Warren Gookin Waterman, 1872-1952 127 



Dansereau, Pierre 

Philippine Journal III 



97 



Dansereau to Head Botany at Montreal 126 



Degener, Otto 

Wilhelm Hillebrand 1821-1886 



193 



Editorial Notes, 126, 279, 284, 288 [inside cover] 



Errata in Volume II 126 



in Volume III 



IV 



Goodman, George J. 

Camip Arbuckle, a Century Later 



63 



Havard, Valery 

Personal Recollections and Military Record of 

Colonel Valery Havard, Medical Corps, U.S. Army. . 177 



Koelz, Walter N. 

Persian Diary 1 133 



Lanjb, F. Bruce 

A Study of Mahogany 



33 



V 



VI ASA GRAY BULLETIN N. S. Vol. Ill 



Lany;nian, Ida K. 



The Flora of Mexico as Described in the 16th Century 
Relaciones . , . 



The Explorations of Major Livermore in Texas, 
1878-1883. ... 



Merrill, E. D. 

Real Values 



Porter, C. L. 

A Wyoming: Newsletter and Report of the Curator of the 
Rocky Mountain Herbarium for the Twelve Years 
Ending April 30, 1953 



Rogers, C. M. 



Linaceae in Michigan 



Shinners, Lloyd H. 

Franyois Crepin on Botanizing 



Shohara, Hide (with H. H. Bartlett) 

Japanese Botany During the Period of Wood-block 
Printing 



Voss, E. G. 

Death of Frank C. Gates 

Charles W. Fallass (1854- 1942), a Pioneer Michigan 
Botanist 



Wood, Mary Cokely 



59 



A Letter Regarding Professor Waternian fromi his Son. . . . 130 



McVaugh, Rogers 

Annotations on paper by Valery Havard 177 

A Brief Evaluation of Havard's Botanical Work 188 



191 



27 



49 



Publication dates of the Asa Gray Bulletin 126 



199 



65 



289 



Trow, Elizabeth Sutherland 

Botanical Gardens of the University of Michigan, and 

the New Director, Dr. A. Geoffrey Norn^an 273 

About the Project for a New Flora of Michigan, and 

Edward G. Voss, W'^ho is Working on it 277 

Dr. Walter N. Koelz and Thakur Rup Chand, CoHabo- 

rators in Asiatic Research, Botanical Gardens and 

Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan 281 



32 



7 



History and Philosophy of Japanese Flow^er Arrangement 3 



JAPANESE BOTANY 



DURING THE PERIOD 



OF WOOD-BLOCK PRINTING 



By Harley Harris Bartlett 



& Hide Shohara 



Part I. An Essay 



On the Development of Natural History, Especially Botany, 
in Japan; On the Influence of Early Chinese & Western Contacts; 

On Japanese Books & Wood-block Illustration. 



Part n. An Exhibition Of 



Japanese Books & Manuscripts, Mostly Botanical, Held at 

the Clements Library of the University of Michigan, 

In Commemoration of the Hundredth Anniversary (1954) of 

the First Treaty Between the United States and Japan. 



To 

Rachel Mc Masters Miller Hunt 
with affection and appreciation 



CONTENTS 



PART I 



Introduction 



A Few Important Western Collections of Pre-Meiji Japanese 
Books 



Japanese Books and Prints as Described in the Report of the 
Perry Expedition 



The Pents'ao or Honzo Period of Chinese Dominance of 
Japanese Botany 



The Influence of leyasu and Hidetada in the Beginning of the 
Natural History Period 



The Medical-Plant Gardens and the Interpretation of the 
Honzo 



European Influence at Nagasaki 



The Transition from Black to Tinted; and Then to Fully 
Colored Illustrations 



295 



On Collecting Japanese Books and Prints 296 



Early Collections of Japanese Scientific Books; the Collection 

at the University of Leiden; the Visits of Siebold in Japan 300 



Early Experiments in European Methods of Illustration 



p * 



lU 



305 



308 



The Periods in the History of Japanese Botany 311 



Beginning of Japanese Literature and Science 315 



3 17 



Portuguese Influence on Japanese Science 318 



319 



320 



322 



Early History of Japanese Woodcut Illustration 328 



331 



Copper-plate Engraving and Lithography 337 



Transition to Western Style Books and Illustrations 339 



The Make-up of Old Chinese and Japanese Books 339 



292 ASA GRAY BULLETIN N.S. VoL III 



Manuscripts of Unpublished Works; Publication by Manu- 
script Copies; Manuscript Copies of Printed Books 342 



Extent of Pre-Meiji Botanical Literature 343 



Classification of Japanese Books on Plants and Animals 346 



Encyclopaedias and Dictionaries 



Some of the Great Naturalists 



The Famine Herbals 



Pioneer Floras of Japan 



Agricultural Botany and Agronomy 



The Horticulture of Old Japan in General and Horticultural 
Hobbies in Particular 



The Interpretation of Ancient Plant Lore and of Plant Names 
in Literature 



The Kacho Tradition in Japanese Art 



Flowers of the Four Seasons 



Artists' and Naturalists' Notebooks 



Textbooks of Botany 



IV 



3 48 



352 



3 55 



357 



362 



367 



Investigators of Economic Natural Products 374 



Geography of Foreign Lands and of Japan 376 



Books of Exploration to tlic Northward, and on the Ainu 377 



379 



381 



385 



The Japanese Art of Flower Arrangenient 386 



Landscapes and Views of Famous Places 386 



Gardens as Famous Places: the Gardens of Kyoto 388 



Model Sketches for the Use of Art Students and Others 389 



392 



393 



Spring, 1961 ASA GRAY BULLETIN 293 



PART II EXHIBITS 



(1) Encyclopaedias and Related Works (Exhibits 1 to 4) 395 



(2) Herbals and Related Works of Natural History with Special 

Reference to materia medica (Exhibits 5 to 9) 404 



(3) Works on Medicine with Some Reference to Natural History 

in Connection with n^ateria miedica (Exhibits 10 to 11) 410 



(4) 'Tannne Herbals"; Description of Wild Plants Available 

for Food in Tinie of Famine (Exhibits 12 to 14) 412 



(5) Early Monographic Botanical and Zoological Works Show- 
ing Little or No European Influence (Exhibits 15 to 20) 416 



(6) Pioneer Floristic Works of Japan and Related Areas; 
European Influence: 



1. Pioneer Floristic Works Cited by Franchet and 
Savatier (Exhibits 21 to 23) 



425 



2. Pioneer Floristic Works Showing European Influence 
and Final Post-Meiji Transition to Latin Nomenclature 
and Western Form.at (Exhibits 24 to 30) 431 



(7) Economic Botany in General (Exhibit 31) 441 



(8) Agricultural Botany; Agronomy (Exhibits 32 to 34) 442 



(9) Horticultural Botany: Special Groups; Horticultural Hobby 
Specialties: 



1. Special Groups (Exhibits 35 to 36) 448 



2. Horticultural Hobby Specialties (Exhibits 37 to 54) 450 



(10) Books on Geography; Famous Places; Travel; Exploration: 



1. Famious Places Including Gardens of Incidental Botani- 
cal Interest (Exhibits 55 to 59) 



471 



2. Exploration of Hokkaido and Northward; the Ainu 
(Exhibits 60 to 72) 



480 



(11) Books on Plant and Animjal Raw Products, Technology, 



Manufactures and Trade (Exhibits 73 to 75) 498 



V 



294 ASA GRAY BULLETIN N. S. VoL III 



(12) Botanical Commenlaries on Ancient Literature 

(Exhibits 76 to 77) 



504 



(13) Books of Arts or Single Prints Illustrating Plants; 



Artists' Sketch Books (Exhibits 78 to 89) 508 



(14) Books of Art or Single Prints Following the kacho 

Tradition of "Flower and Bird Painting" (Exhibits 90 

to 101) 



522 



(15) Books of Art and Prints Following the Tradition of 

Painting of the Conventional "Flowers of the Four 
Seasons" (Exhibits 102 to 103) 



536 



(16) Books Illustrating ikebana, the Art of Flower Arrange- 
ment (Exhibits 104 to 106) 



539 



(17) Books of Japanese Garden Craft and Gardens (Exhibits 

107 to 110) 



5 42 



(18) Textbooks Showing the Beginning of the Western Influence 

(Exhibits HI to 112) 



5 50 



Literature Cited 



553 



VI 



PART I 



An Essay on the Development of Natural History, Especially 
Botany, in Japan; On the Influence of Early Chinese & Western 
Contacts; On Japanese Books & Wood-block Illustration 



INTRODUCTION 



The American Expedition of Commodore Perry to Japan, a 
century ago, resulted in the signing of the first treaty between the 
two nations, on the thirty-first of March 1854, and subsequent 
treaties within the following twenty years were soon to bring about 
the opening of Japan to commercial and cultural relations with all 
countries. With rapid cultural interchange came a gradual fading 
away of many age-old aspects of Japan. A centennial exhibition at 
the Clements Library of the University of Michigan, commemorating 
the signing of the treaty, illustrated the development of Japan's liter- 
ature of natural history during the long Edo period, two and a half 
centuries of isolation, during which outside contacts were almost ex- 
clusively with Holland, China and Korea. For this exhibition the 
senior author loaned a collection of books and manuscripts which had 
been gradually accumulated during the years following 1918. The 
cataloging of the collection began with preparing rather detailed 
descriptive cards for the exhibits, which were then expanded to form 
Part II of the present publication. Part I of the present work pro- 
vides a background for the better understanding of Part II, which is 
an elaborately annotated catalogue of the items exhibited at the 
Clements Library. 



The mainly botanical book collection was not too highly special- 
ized to illustrate well mjany aspects of the cultural, technological and 
artistic history of old Japan, and was not without interest for political 
history as well. It was brought together with the idea of including 
creditably illustrated representative books in every class of pre- 
Meiji (or at any rate old-style) Japanese literature that had any bear- 
ing on plants. It therefore contains works of mixed subject matter, 
such as old encyclopedias, and some that would be classified as geo- 
graphy, history, or exploration, because they are of minor or inci- 
dental botanical interest. The latter are mostly on Japan's explora- 
tions to the northward and are historically important in the history 
of moves to consolidate her hold on the loosely held northern posses- 
sions. In the Edo period down to the restoration of imperial rule 
(1868) even the great island of Hokkaido (then Ezo) was inadequately 



1 



296 ASA GRAY BULLETIN N.S. VoL III, Nos. 3-4 



explored and only thinly colonized. Books about the North and its 
Ainu inhabitants had the same interest to the Japanese that books 



West 



period. 



Russian colonization had swept eastward across Siberia and had 
moved on to Alaska and the Aleutians. To the southward it had 
reached to coastal outposts of Manchuria at the mouth of the Amur 
River^ a region then known, in books of travel, as Eastern Tartary, 
It was destined to overflow the whole coastal part of Manchuria, now 
Russian, down to Korea. It menaced Sakhalin and the Kuriles, also 
now Russian. Most Japanese books on the North have some botani- 
cal bearing, as well as being highly prized sources for the ethnology 
of the Ainu. 



Our special botanical exhibition demonstrated, as well as any 
other would, the development of Japanese book publication during 
the Edo period (except for the first sixty years), the dominance, at 
first of cultural borrowings from China, the influence of the popular 
ukiyo-e art on book illustration, the gradual infiltration of Euro- 
pean ideas by way of the Dutch at Nagasaki, adding to what the 
Portuguese and Spanish Jesuits had accomplished, and the establish- 
ment long before the Meiji period of a rich and diversified indigenous 
literature. After the restoration of imperial rule the Westernization 
of education, science, art, literature and technology was in full 
swing twenty-five years after Perry's expedition, and was to reach 
its climax within fifty years. In the history of science in general and 
of botany in particular no precise date can be set, but the relinquish- 
ment of the old and adoption of the new was especially evident about 
1877, a quarter of a century after the arrival of the Perry mission 
and the year of the establishment of the University of Toky5, 



Much of the traditional culture of Old Japan, of course, still 
lingers or has been revived. Therefore a hard and fast date limit 
has not been set for inclusion of books in the exhibition, and a few 
items have been chosen to show beginnings of definitely Western 
styles in bookmaking, illustration, etc. Nothing prior to 1666 is 
shown because nothing is available. Books of the first half of the 
17th century, and, of course, the still earlier ones have become very 
rare. Most of the books shown, however, are older than the date of 
the treaty between Japan and America (1854). 

ON COLLECTING JAPANESE PRINTS AND BOOKS 

The reader of this descriptive account of the centennial exhi- 
bition may be interested in how such a collection came to be made. 
As a high-school boy and later as assistant in biology and chemistry 
at the old Shortridge High School in Indianapolis (1899-1904) the 

2 



v/' p 



J 



Spring, 1961 ASA GRAY BULLETIN 297 



collector was well acquainted with Miss Roda Selleck, * a vivacious 

little lady who taught art with vast enthusiasm and enterprise. Miss 
Selleck was indefatigable in preparing interesting exhibits in her class 

room, for which her Japanese prints frequently supplied material. 
Miss Selleck became, probably about 1890, an enthusiast for Japanese 
popular art, and as opportunity arose she collected single-sheet wood- 
block color prints and a few old-style illustrated books. The latter, 
mostly of the sort called ' ^kacho, " containing prints of birds and 
flowers, she had taken apart in order to display the pictures separate- 
ly, and some of these were destined never to be reassembled. After 
her death the writer was given some of her chrysanthemum prints 
by her niece, Mrs. Roda (Selleck) Pollock, the wife of Professor 
James B, Pollock, a botanist and colleague at the University of 

Michigan, Mrs. Pollock had inherited a number of color prints, among 
them the chrysanthemums, of unknown source, bibliographically, but 
undoubtedly some that Miss Selleck had periodically displayed. To 
Mrs, Pollock also came Miss Selleck's copy of Josiah Condor's folio 
volume of 1891 entitled The Flowers of Japan and the Art of Floral 
Arrangement in the original paper covers, the pioneer book in Eng- 
lish on ikebana, or flower arrangement, illustrated by colored plates 
done fromppaintings by Japanese artists and printed from wood blocks. 
In the official inventory of Miss Selleck's estate the administrator 
placed a total value of 50^ on ^^a chest containing Japanese art refer- 
ence material'^ and $10, 00 on ^^a lot of 59 books, " In this lot was the 
very rare folio by Conder (16). The prints from the ^^chest" are 
now scattered among family and friends. 



*Roda Selleck was a contemporary of David Starr Jordan, later Presi- 
dent of Stanford University , during the time that he taught Botany and 
Zoology at Shortridge, and was very active in the Indianapolis Nature 
Study Club. One of her earliest enthusiasms was for Botany. Jordan 
held Miss Selleck in high regard and was one of the contributors to 
a fund for establishment of the Roda E. Selleck Memorial Scholarship 
at Butler College , where she had been a member of the summer session 
staff. Miss Selleck organized the first sketching club in Indianapolis , 
and was active in the development of the John Herron Art Institute of 
Indianapolis. She taught art in the Shortridge High School for many 
years . Many artists and commercial designers started their careers in 
her high -school studio . 



3 



298 ASA GRAY BULLETIN N.S. Vol. Ill, Nos. 3-4 



The senior author's collection of Japanese prints and books, dis- 
played in the Clements Library exhibition, was begun in 1918. He 
was asked before visitmg the Orient in that year to pick up some 
prints in Japan for his friend Professor DeWitt Parker, who was 
then lecturing and writing chiefly about aesthetics and had become 
greatly interested in the popular art of Japan. So the few hours at 
each Japanese port, on the outward voyage and returning, were large- 
ly spent in the book shops. A few old illustrated books were acquired, 
and plenty of prints, for the book shops of Kobe, Yokohama, Tokyo 
and Nagasaki then offered the traveller great piles to rummage 
through. Some were found that Parker would surely like and others 
that satisfied the collector's own taste for natural history and land- 
scape, or that were based on myths, legendary tales and history. 



The little that was retained of these earlier gatherings was a 
small group of landscapes by Hiroshige and Hokusai, and three or 
four odd volumes, for nearly everything else was quickly given away. 
A group of quaint old maps was given to the Library of the University 
of Michigan. The prints of Hokusai, ''Old-Man-Mad-About-Painting," 
appealed to the collector as much as those of Hiroshige, but were 
scarcer and more expensive. (Japanese dealers hardly expected an 
American to be interested in any artists except these two, and priced 
their prints accordingly.) It was impossible to find the flower and 
bird prints of either. After being so lucky as to pick up a few odd 
parts of Hokusai' s Manga , the published notebooks reproducing by 
wood-cuts hundreds of miscellaneous little sketches, including some 
few pictures of plants, the collector gave them away (expecting to get 
a complete set eventually) but was never able to replace them, except 
by a reprint edition of 1912 (Exhibit No. 89). 



More specialized and intelligent gathering began in 1926, when the 
collector was in Japan as a delegate of the University of Michigan to 
the Pacific Science Congress. Professor Shirai Mitsutaro ( 70 ) had 
written a captivating chapter for the preliminary publication of the 
Congress entitled "A Brief History of Botany in Old Japan^ That 
stimulated renewed searching for old botanical prints and books, but 
the great earthquake of 1923 had greatly reduced the abundance of such 
things. Still, a couple of good accessions were then secured and 
others in 1935 and 1940, some of them dog-eared, wormed and soiled, 
but nevertheless very desirable. Shirai' s essay crystallized collect- 
ing objectives as follows: (1) to secure those illustrated works con- 
sidered as historically the more important in the Natural History 
period of Japanese Botany, (2) to get one or more books by each of 
the more eminent old-time naturalists, and (3) to make the collection 
representative of every type of Japanese books that touched upon 
plants. It was soon found that there were a few serious elderly 



4 



Spring, 1961 ASA GRAY BULLETIN 299 



Japanese collectors of the same sort of books. These, however, were 
utterly disdained by the earnest young people who crowded the book- 
stores at night to study, sometimes so densely that it was hard for a 
genuine customer to get in. It seemed to be an unwritten law of the 
book-sellers that any student who wanted to read badly enough to 
stand up all evening was welcome to do so. It wasn't a matter of 
browsing^ with the idea of buying, for there seemed to be little of 
that. Each student eagerly seized upon some volume and stood stock 
still in one place, reading intently. Out of politeness and to exercise 
his school-book English he could be diverted long enough to explain 
to the proprietor that here was an American traveller who actually 
seemed to want to buy pre-Meiji books about plants, quite incredible 
as that might seem. The collector did not even have command of 
enough Japanese to express proper gratification when led to a pile 
of old bookSj or parts of old books, for many were incomplete. In 
the old days Japanese books were published in many thin volumes 
(maki) with flexible paper covers, and in the shops one got the im- 
pression that more sets were incomplete than complete. 



Old experience in looking for Hokusai's Manga in 1918 had still 
not taught the lesson that a "cripple" might be better than nothing 
at all, and so odd parts of several works were turned down that are 
now remembered too vaguely to guess at an identification but subse- 
quently were thought to have been very desirable. Also snobbishly 
and resolutely refused were some beautiful reprints that were 
(because they were then new) never available later. So the collector's 
hunting in Tokyo, Yokohama and Kobe was not too profitable. 



The next collecting actually in Japan was in 1935, when a few hours 
yielded a couple of trophies, including the Ka-i of Yonan Shi, and 
Ono Ranzan (Exhibit No. 22). Short stops in transit in 1940 and 1941 
although not entirely unproductive, especially the latter, for the 
"President Coolidge" was on her last regular run before the war 
broke. Many of the last Americans to leave Japan were coming 
aboard. The shops were closed early by police order, and book 
sellers were too distressed and nervous to try to find anything out 
of the ordinary on such short notice. In 1947 there wasnU even time 
to get permission to change or spend money. 



Although there isn't the glamor in ordering one's Japanese bibli- 
ophilic treasures from American dealers that there is in finding them 
oneself in a Tokyo book shop, the collector, by force of circumstances 
has of late years secured all of his accessions from the two chief 
American dealers in Far-Eastern books, namely Dawson's Book 
Shop of Los Angeles and the Charles E. Tuttle Company of Rutland, 
Vermont and Tokyo. For greatly appreciated help in finding 

5 



300 ASA GRAY BULLETIN N.S. VoL III, Nos. 3-4 



desiderata we thank Mr. Glen Dawson, the proprietor, and Mr. 
Richard Zumwinkle, a former staff member, of Dawson's, also Mrs. 
Hide Inada and Mrs. D. Frawley of Tuttle's. They have all taken 
great pains to help round out the collection by finding certain books 
that are certainly elusive and others that actually must be very rare. 

The collection does not contain much more than is included in the 
exhibition and listed herewith. It may be considered reasonably 
representative of the botanical literature of the Japanese natural- 
history period, containing something of each main category and many 
of the historically more important works. One like the senior author 
who does not know Japanese can have, of course, only a shockingly 
superficial knowledge of Japanese books, but can appreciate their 
charming illustrations. The old books are mostly in a confusing 
cursive mixture of kanji (Chinese Characters) and hiragana 
writing, which makes the pre-Meiji books and manuscripts difficult 
reading even for Japanese. The collector of the books has attempted 
to review much of what has been written on the topic of old Japanese 
botany and block books in European languages. The junior author is 
of course responsible for what has been translated from the Japanese. 
Miss Su-Ying Liu has helped with purely Chinese passages and has 
written out the titles in conventional Chinese characters. The pre- 
liminary cataloging by members of the two book firms already men- 
tioned has been very helpful, especially that by Miss Inada of Tuttle's 
Tokyo branch. In preparing the numerous illustrations Mrs. Alvina 
M. Woodford has helped greatly by her great skill and care in making 
photostats from often soiled originals. Mr. Karoly Kutasi has made 
the photographs. Mrs. Josephine K. Hoffman, Mrs. Stella Theros, 
and Mrs. Garnet E. Wubbena have helped greatly in typing and copy- 
reading from "gruesome" manuscript. Access to the rich resources of 
the library of the Center for Japanese Studies has been greatly appre- 
ciated, and especially the never-failing helpfulness of its Librarian, 
Mr. Yotarb Okuno. 



EARLY COLLECTORS OF 

JAPANESE SCIENTIFIC BOOKS: THE 

COLLECTION AT THE UNIVERSITY OF 

LEIDEN: THE VISITS OF 
SIEBOLD TO JAPAN 



The first to bring Japanese books and botanical illustrations to 
Europe is said to have been the physician Andreas Cleyer, who col- 
lected some from 1683 to 1686 which went to the Berlin Library. A 
larger selection was brought by Kaempfer, of which 49 wood-cut books 
and prints were acquired by Sloane after Kaempfer's death (1716) and 
are now at the British Museum, but some went to other libraries. The 



6 



. \ 



Spring, 1961 ASA GRAY BULLETIN 301 

great Swedish botanist Thunberg acquired some few Japanese books, 
and these are at Upsala. Allusions to them are found in his Voyages 
and they have been referred to elsewhere in this article. ~ 



Aside from the medical men who were also naturalists, one of the 
few officers of the Dutch East India Company in Japan who showed 
scholarly proclivities was Isaak Titsingh, director of the Deshima 
Island factory at Nagasaki for three periods between 1779 and his re- 
tirement to Europe in 1784. He is supposed to have been the first 
European who collected, or at any rate saved, some of the individually 
published single-sheet color prints of Japan. As we have seen, there 
were earlier European collectors of the illustrated books, but 
Titsingh also secured a good many. After he died at Paris, in 1812, 
a collection of his literary work was published in French and subse- 
quently translated into English ( 89). The volume listed his Japanese 
collections of works of art, books, maps and prints. Among them were 
nine engravings printed in colors .... representing Japanese ladies 
in various dresses. These seem to have been the first single-sheet 
Japanese color-prints that came to notice in Europe. 



Titsingh* s Japanese books, were in part accompanied by free trans- 
lations into Dutch, as he wrote them from the dictation of Japanese 
translators at Deshima. About these, he is quoted by Hildreth to have 
said: ^'I found, among the interpreters belonging to our factory, four 
individuals sufficiently well informed for my purpose; a fifth had de- 
voted himself chiefly to medicine, in which he had made rapid prog- 
ress, in consequence of the instruction given to him by Dr. Thunbergy 
Titsingh had extensive publication in mind after his return to Europe, 

but died with most of his designs unaccomplished. The spendthrift 

Eurasian son who inherited his books and manuscripts dispersed them 
widely, but some fell into the possession of appreciative owners. 
Murakawa ( 48 ) refers to a notice of Titsingh' s collection by Remusat 
( 56 ) in which are mentioned colored drawings of plants and several 
botanical treatises with very good woodcuts. A manuscript history of 
Japan in 80 volumes and a Chinese- Japanese encyclopaedia are also 
mentioned. The latter was presented to the French royal library. 



Titsingh had been the first director of Deshima to interest himself 
deeply in Japanese science and letters, or at least, to pass on any in- 
formation by publication in Europe or by bringing important collec- 
tions. 



ethno 



graphica and books, and whose gatherings were united at the Hague 
as the "Cabinet of Curiosities" but later (1883) were incorporated 
with the National Ethnographic Museum at Leiden. They will be found 
listed in Serrurier^s Catalogue (66) of the library of the University 

7 



302 ASA GRAY BULLETIN N.S. VoL III, Nos. 3-4 



of Leiden, for the affiliation of the Ethnographic Museum Library and 
also that of the Leiden Rijks Herbarium with the University Library 
enabled the holdings of all three units to be listed together. The books 
of the Etlinographic Museum were collected by J. Cock Blomhoff who 
returned from Desima, or Dezima, as the little island was called 
where the Dutch had their "factory" at Nagasaki (linguists now prefer 
the spelling Deshima) in 1824, and by J. F. Van Overmeer Fisscher 
who returned in 1831 and wrote a copiously illustrated book which in- 
cluded much about Japanese customs, crafts, etc. Each of these of- 
ficials wrote a catalogue of his collections; both remain in manu- 
script in the Museum Library. The Japanese books, however, appear 
to have had the status of ethnographic specimens, rather than books, 
until listed by Serrurier, for they do not appear in Schmelz^s cata- 
logue (64). 



The eminent orientalist Klaproth (39) acquainted much for his pri- 
vate library from many sources. One was indeed unique. In 1805 and 
1806 he had been secretary to a Russian embassy to China, and re- 
sided at Irkutsk, in Siberia, where the Empress Catherine II had es- 
tablished a Japanese professorship. He found the post occupied by a 
Japanese who had embraced the Greek Orthodox faith. Klaproth 
studied Japanese with him, and procured books from him. 



Next came von Siebold. He published extensively on almost every 
phase of natural history and Japanese culture in general, partly in 
collaboration with the botanist Zuccarini. He wrote an essay on the 
status of Botany in Japan at the time of his visit (73). Like Thunberg, 
he had many contracts and exerted greet influence. He collected about 
525 Japanese books at the time of his first residence in Japan, 1823 
to 1830, which became the property of the Dutch Government, were 

combined with other collections at the University of Leiden, and cata- 
logued by Serrurier in 1896. During the Edo period of restricted 
foreign trade the export of books and inland maps, as we know from von 
Siebold* himself, was forbidden, so whatever books he and his prede- 
cessors brought out were technically smuggled, even if Japanese of- 
ficials winked at the infraction of the law. The biographical sketch of 
von Siebold by his sons (78) tells of the serious trouble that he and 
his Japanese disciples got into at the end of his stay. It became known 
that he was copying a map of the northern regions of Japan with the 
connivance of the imperial librarian and astronomer Takashasi 
Sakusayemon. The Government, suspecting that the intention might 
be, to put the map to some use harmful to Japan, imprisoned all of 
von Siebold's known Japanese students and friends, searched his 



+ 



Siebold listed the articles that could not be legally exported as fol 
lows : gold and si L ver coins , weapons , idols and cult symbols , books and 

land maps , paintings of famous old masters , clothing , costumes or silk 
embroideries worn at the court of the Mikado; also horses and cattle. 

8 



Spring, 1961 ASA GRAY BULLETIN 303 



house repeatedly, confiscated religious objects and other things 
which he might have intended to export illegally, and informed him 
that he would not be allowed to leave Japan. At the first alarm, how- 
ever, he had begun to conceal the things that he was most anxious to 
retain. His official friend at Deshima, TsujirOj first informed him 
of what was about to befall on 16 Dec. 1829, and himself took some 
of von Siebold's maps to the director of the Dutch factory on the 
Island of Deshima for safe keeping. Von Siebold spent the night 
finishing a copy of the important map of Ezo, and gave the original 
back to Tsujiro for return to Takahashi the next day. Everything 
that was essential to his description of Nippon, manuscripts, maps, 
and books, he packed in a large lead-lined chest which was hidden 
^'as well as possible/' and Director G. F. Maylan of the Dutch 
Factory was informed. This gentleman was also personally en- 
trusted with the copy of the Ezo map, to be placed in the archives. 
All this was done in the name of science. It was illegal, but at that 
time the objectives of the anticipating smuggling must have been 
purely scientific, not political, although years later Siebold had 
contacts with Russia of a suspicious nature. 



Affairs went from bad to worse, and finally, 22 February 1829, 
the storehouse on the Island of Deshima where some of von Siebold's 
collection was stored, was officially searched and many of his most 
prized articles confiscated. It was 22 Oct. before he was informed 
of the decree that he was to be permitted to leave, but was to be 
forever banished from Nippon. By the time his ship sailed for 
Batavia, 30 Dec, some of his less suspected friends and students 
had been released from prison and assembled at the fishing village 
of Kosedo, where the ship stopped for them to bid him goodbye. His 
best friend, Takahashi, however, was not there, and von Siebold 
never heard from him again or ever learned what had become of 
him. It was finally assumed that his end had been a sad one. 



The fate that overtook some of von Siebold's loyal Japanese 
friends was feared to have been tragic indeed. So when we read in 
Serrurier's Leiden Catalogue the bibliographic entries for the old 
items about Ezo that the explorer and geographer Mogami Tokunai 
had sent him, we realize that these and the hundreds of other books, 
maps, and manuscripts came out of Japan to Holland only by much 
suffering and possibly at the cost of the lives of some of his friends. 
Five years after the treaty with the United States was signed, the 
ban on von Siebold's return to Japan was lifted, and he revisited 
that troubled country. It was presumably then that he got the second 
collection of books which his son sold to the British Museum. 



Von Siebold had hoped to make his second visit to Japan under 
the auspices of the American Government, and made application to 

9 



304 ASA GRAY BULLETIN N.S. VoL III, Nos. 3-4 



accompany Perry's expedition. He was much disgruntled when his 
offer was refused. The official report stated; "As soon as it was 
publicly announced that the United States had resolved on sending 
an expedition to Japan, applications came from all quarters of the 
civilized world for permission to take part in the service. Literary 
and scientific men^ European as well as native^ and travellers by 
profession, eagerly sought to accompany the expedition; and ex- 
traordinary influences, in some instances, were brought to bear 
upon our government inducing it to second some of the applications 
thus made; but Commodore Perry resolutely persisted in an un- 
qualified refusal to all such requests" (33, p. 78). The very brief 
American allusion to the incident was made in connection with 
Perry's ruling that "all journals and private notes kept by members 
of the expedition were to be considered as belonging to the govern- 
ment until permission should be given from the Navy Department 
to publish them/' The object of these regulations was to withhold 
information from other powers, which, if communicated, might 
jeopard the success of our mission. It was known that other nations, 
particularly Russia, had ordered ships to Japan as soon as it was 
known that the United States had sent there a squadron. . . Such 
were the general causes which led the Commodore to the determi- 
nation we have mentioned, without reference to persons. It is 
proper, however, to add, that with respect to one individual, who 
manifested extraordinary desire to be of the expedition, and who 
has published untruths concerning it since its return (Dr. von 
Siebold), Commodore Perry refused on personal grounds. From 
information received from abroad, he suspected him of being a 
Russian spy, and he knew that he had been banished from Japan, 
where, by a violation of law, he had forfeited his life;' (33 , p. 79). 



Certain it was that after the American expedition departed for 
Japan, von Siebold made a trip to Russia, which was explained by 
his son (78) as follows: In the year 1853 Siebold was called to 
Russia in order to give, as the Minister of Foreign Affairs put it, 
information that no other European could furnish. ("A fin de 
receivoir de ma bouche des renseignements sur une question 
qu'aucun autre Europien etait a meme de donner" ) Siebold's hope, 
he said, was to draw Japan into friendly relations with Russia to 
the northward, to open Japan peacefully to foreign intercourse by 
the intervention of Russia, and thus to forestall any forceful 
measures that might be resorted to by America, England, or 
France. Siebold would have undertaken to continue preferential 
trading status for Holland, since, as he explained, the interests of 
the Russians and the Dutch were no wise in conflict. The Crimean 
War (1853-1854) and the death of Czar Nicholas (1855), however, 
as the Siebolds state, were reasons why Russia ceased to push her 
policy of expansion for years, and in the meantime America took 

10 



Spring, 1961 ASA GRAY BULLETIN 305 



action in 1854 to bring about the opening of Japan. Although Siebold 
may have been naive in trusting to his own ability to temper Russian 
aggression and expansion in the interest of Japan and of peace, there 
is no evidence, in view of the turn of events, that his willingness to 
play Russia's game had any political effect. 

The ban against Siebold' s return to Japan was lifted and his second 
visit took place at a time of great political disturbance, when diplo- 
matic representatives of several foreign nations were murdered, but 
he was again somewhat in favor and was able to take a hand in the 
course of events. He had assumed credit for the success of the Perry 
Expedition by asserting that it was he who softened the attitude of the 
Japanese toward foreigners and reconciled them to the Inevitability 
of opening of treaty relations with foreign nations. Certainly in Japan 
scientist Siebold had a following, it seems, which supported his own 
conception of his diplomatic accomplishments, for his disciples in- 
scribed a memorial monolith at Nagasaki of which a translation would 
be about as follows: That, in the Years of the Periods Kaei and Ansei, 
the Party which sought to expel the Europeans and again to close the 
Empire, did not resort to War, and that a fortunate and peaceful Inter- 
course with Europe was established, is solely and completely the 
Service of those Men who were the Teachers and Exemplars of Euro- 
pean Science. Finally, the Fame of the Great Deed', the Introduction 
of Civilization into contemporary Japan, rested upon Siebold to whose 
Memory this Stone is dedicated. (The German equivalent will be found 
in the biographical sketch by his sons (78). 



A FEW IMPORTANT 
WESTERN COLLECTIONS OF 
PRE-MEIJI JAPANESE BOOKS 



Only those collections of pre-Meiji Japanese books in Europe and 
America that have printed catalogues can readily be referred to, but 
some others, such as those of the Library of Congress and the 
University of California, are extremely important. 

BRITISH MUSEUM. According to Douglas ( 23, 24 ) the first Japanese 
books and manuscripts in the Library of the British Museum were 
obtained by the accession of the Sloane, Cottonian, Harleian and 
Banksian Libraries, but the first collection of considerable size was 
obtained by purchase from Herr von Siebold in July 1868. This must 
have been Alexander von Siebold, whose father, the famous Philipp 
Franz von Siebold, had died in 1866. Even though small, however, 
the Sloane collection contained Kaempfer's books, and it was probably 



11 



306 ASA GRAY BULLETIN N.S. VoL III, Nos. 3-4 



Kaempfer who was the first to refer to a Japanese work in European 
literature. In 1882 and 1894 the works on art which had been gathered 
by William Anderson were bought. Others came from a famous 
orientalist, Sir E. M. Satow, in 1884. Miscellaneous additions down 
to 1898 brought the total to upwards of 5^000 separate works, some in 
many volumes. 



Douglas's Catalogue of this great collection is alphabetically ar- 
ranged, but there is an incomplete classified summary. This "Select 
Subject Index" contains only those books which seemed "likely to prove 
of permanent importance." 



STOCKHOLM. Forming part of the Royal Library of Sweden, the 
Japanese book collection of Nordenskiold was roughly catalogued 
while being collected in Japan. Recataloging was entrusted to Leon 
de Rosny ( 58 ) whose useful work was nevertheless defective, since 
it did not give the names of authors or editors of most of the books, 
but only the titles. 



The Nordenskiold collection was acquired during the famous 
"Voyage of the Vega". The Vega had been successfully navigated 
along the northern coast of the Eurasian continent in 1878 and 1879, 
and had achieved the "Northeast Passage" Reaching Japan, the ex- 
pedition met with great acclaim, and at Yokohama was given a general 
ovation. 



Nordenskiold ( 50 ) began purchasing books in Yokohama, but did 
not find many there because this port had not been long enough of 
sufficient importance to have become a book center. There was a 
general technical laboratory in Yokohama whose proprietor was the 
Dutch scientist, A. G. C Geerts, author of perhaps the first scientific 
work to be written and published by a European in Japan ( 29 ). 
Geerts' s assistant was Mr. Okushi, a young Japanese, familiar with 
French, and it was the latter who was engaged to gather the greater 
part of the books, at, first by trips back and forth between T'okyo and 
Yokohama. Later, when the Vega was about to leave Yokohama, Mr. 
Okushi was sent to Kyoto on a book-buying mission and took his 
purchases to Kobe by railway to meet tJie ship. 



Nordenskiold selected by preference books that were printed 
before the ports were opened to foreigners. In all he secured 1036 
works in five or six thousand volumes, of which he classified 68 works 
as "Natural Science." This must have been by liberal inclusiveness, 
for so many titles are found in the de Rosny Catalogue only by count- 
ing some placed in other categories. De Rosny' s Catalogue lists the 
natural history and related items approximately as follows: 



12 



Spring, 1961 ASA GRAY BULLETIN 307 



(1) Agriculture 25 

(2) Art 2 

(3) Botany 11 

(4) Dictionaries 1 

(5) Education (actually natural products) 3 

(6) History of outlying regions 2 

(7) Materia medica 12 

(8) Mineralogy; Fossils 2 

(9) Natural history H 



Total 69 



One who views the Clements Library exhibition will detect a 
liberality as great as Nordenskiold's in the classification as ''Botany 
of certain books which are not chiefly or even largely botanical in 
content, A few books in other fields of natural history are included. 



r 1 



CHICAGO, In the United States the collection of Japanese illustrated 
books in the Ryerson Collection of the Art Institute of Chicago is one 
of the most important. The books have been meticulously described 
and annotated by Mr. Toda Kenji ( 90 ), Artist in the Department of 
Zoology of the University of Chicago. Mr. Martin A. Ryerson, founder 
of the Library of the Institute, began the collection prior to 1913. 
Its first bulk accession came from a private library which was sold 
by a Japanese art dealer in Chicago. In 1923 most of the Fenollosa 
book collection was added, after having been owned by Francis Lathrop 
and then by Mr. Hamilton E. Field. Next, in 1926, Mr. Ryerson added 
the great collection made during several years in Japan by Louise 
Norton Brown, which formed the basis for her very important book 
which is so frequently quoted in this work. 



Todays catalogue contains descriptions of about 1050 carefully 
selected works. Enhanced in utility by Todays fine catalogue, the 
Ryerson collection is the outstanding one in America for the field 
that it covers. 



ANN ARBOR. The Center for Japanese Studies at the University of 
Michigan has built up one of the best Japanese libraries in America, 
second in range of subject matter and availability only to that of the 
Library of Congress. It is publishing a series of bibliographical 
contributions which at first took into consideration not only its own 
holdings but also, in part, those of the Claremont Colleges, Stanford 
University, Yale, University of California, Library of Congress,, 
University of Chicago, Northwestern University, Harvard, the New 
York Public Library, Columbia, and the University of Washington. 
Beginning, however, with the fourth number it has discontinued 
indicating the libraries in which each item occurs, because the more 



13 



308 ASA GRAY BULLETIN N.S. VoL III, Nos. 3-4 



recently published or less rare materials are being acquired with 
such rapidity by various American institutions that it is impossible 
to keep up with the current influx. 



In the United States other important collections aside from the 
two largest, at the Library of Congress and the University of Cali- 
fornia (still uncataloged) are at the University of Chicago and the 
Boston Museum of Fine Arts- The latter institution has one of the 
world's greatest collections of Japanese prints, many of which are 
of botanical interest, and also the highly specialized Bigelow bequest 
of 137 books on flower arrangement, which for half a century seem 
to have remained unavailable. It is understood that the great col- 
lection of Far Eastern books that was gathered by Laufer ( 42 ) for 
the Newberry Library of Chicago has passed to the University of 
Chicago. Among private collectors of Japanese illustrated scientific 
books, Dr. Frans Vei^doorn, head of the Biohistorical Commission of 
UNESCO, has been active, and there must be many others in the 
United States and Europe. 



JAPANESE BOOKS AND PRINTS 
AS DESCRIBED IN THE REPORT OF 

THE PERRY EXPEDITION 



There is no evidence in the published reports on the Perry Expedi- 
tion ( 33 and 5!^ that the collection of books and prints brought back to 
the United States was a large one. There were, of course, the two 
samples of color prints that were reproduced by color lithography, 
these being two landscape prints by Hiroshige and a curious repre- 
sentation of punishment by crucifixion, which doubtless attracted the 
attention of the Americans as possibly reminiscent of the period of 
suppression of Christianity in Japan at the beginning of the seventeen- 
th century when missionaries and Japanese Christian converts were 
crucified. Then there is mention of a two-volume work (among the 
^'several specimens'' of books and pictures) entitled "The Points of a 
Horse / illustrated by a large number of woodcuts. This work, 
reported by the Perry report to have been written by Prince Hayashi, 
the chief member of the imperial commission appointed to negotiate 
the treaty with the United States, was presented by its author to 
Commodore Perry. The favorable comment upon these book illustra- 
tions and prints appears not to be that of the editor of the report, but 
of Professor Duggan of the Free Academy of New York who was asked 
to give his professional opinion, which was reported as follows: "In 
examining into the character of art exhibited by the Japanese in the 
illustrated books and pictures brought home by the officers of the 



14 



^ H hH ^ 



Spring, 1961 ASA GRAY BULLETIN 309 



expedition . . . the same surprising advancement of this remarkable 
people, as they have shown in so many other respects, is strikingly 
observable. . . We are reminded, in a degree truly surprising, of 
the monochromatic designs upon Etruscan vases. . . The character 
and form in these Japanese illustrations, although apparently much in 
advance of Chinese art, are still typical rather than naturalistic; yet 
they are marked by an observation of nature which removes them from 
anything like conventionalism or manner." 



The report reproduces by black woodcuts, one of the pictures of 

horses, and says of them: "These illustrations are from woodcuts of 

bold outline, and apparently printed with a tint to distinguish each in 

the various groups of the animal, by sober greys, reds, and blacks. 

The style might be classed as that of the mediaeval, and the horses 

might pass for those sketched in the time of Albert Durer, though with 

a more rigid adherence to nature. . . There is great freedom of hand 
shown in the drawing. The animals are shown in various attitudes, 

curvetting, gambolling, and rolling upon the ground, positions requir- 
ing and exhibiting an ability in foreshortening which is found, with no 
small surprise, in Asiatic art." 



The pictures of horses which so greatly impressed the Ameri- 
cans were not original with Prince Hayashi, whose gift of a work 
supposedly by himself to Commodore Perry has not been found, but 
appeared much earl ier in a work of Kyokuzan (Sawamoto Gaitei) en- 
titled Kayo Hiso , illustrated by Juyogi, 2 vols, (in 1) of Chinese 
text and two volumes of Japanese text with illustrations, Edo 

(Suhara Mohei Bookstore; Sekine Shimbei, Printer), Kansei 1 (1789). 

This work, of which the title has been freely rendered ''Kinds of 
Horses, "although it means, literally ''Brilliant Coat Aspects, " was 
secured for the collection through the kindness of Mr. Glen Dawson. 
It contains the presumed originals of the black wood-block reproduc- 
tions of Perry's Report, but variations in the ideographs (which the 
American engraver would have had to trace exactly) indicate that 
Prince Hayashi did not give Commodore Perry the old work of 1789, 
but doubtless a later composition of his own reproducing older 
illustrations. 



Our author goes on to comment with enthusiasm upon "a species of 
frieze, if we may so call it, cut in wood and printed on paper in colors. 
It presents a row or line of the huge wrestlers. . . The chief point of 
interest in this illustration, considered in an artistic sense, is, that 
apart from its being a successful specimen of printing in colors — a 
process, by the way, quite modern among ourselves — there is a 
breadth and vigor of outline compared with which much of our own 
drawing appears feeble, and, above all things, undecided." 



15 



310 



ASA GRAY BULLETIN N.S. VoL III, Nos. 3-4 



The report also comments on "an unpretending, illustrated child's 
book, purchased in Hakodadi [Hakodate] for a few Chinese copper 
'cash'/' One of the woodcuts represented "what appears to be some 
Tartar Hercules, or Japanese St. Patrick cleaning the land of reptiles 



and vermin. 



This is drawn with a freedom and humorous sense of 



the grotesque and ludicrous . . , rarely found in similar books prepar- 



ed for the amusement of children with us. 



All these 



illustra- 



tions . . . show a humorous conception and a style of treatment far in 
advance of the mechanical trash which sometimes composes the nurse- 
ry books found in our shops. A people have made some progress worth 
studying who have a sense of the humorous, can picture the ludicrous. 




From Kayo Hiso (Brilliant coat aspects) which contains 
the presumed originals of the black wood-block reproduc- 
tions of Perry's Report. 



16 



'\ 



Spring, 1961 ASA GRAY BULLETIN 311 



and good-naturedly laugh at a clever caricature.'* 

It has often been remarked that American appreciation of Japanese 
popular art generally begins and sometimes ends with admiration of 
the landscapes of Hiroshige and Hokusai. It was quite in keeping with 
Hiroshige's later popularity that the two first Japanese prints that 
were seen in America, the ones reproduced in color by lithography in 
the official report of the Perry Expedition, should have been by 
Hiroshige. One was from the very rare series Kyoto Meisho 
(Famous Views in Kyoto) which according to Stewart ( 80 ) was an 
early work, consisting of ten large prints (recognized by the double 
line around each view) several of which are masterpieces. It was 
printed by Eisuido. The print entitled ^'River Yodo of Kyoto'' shows 
a company of people on a moonlight excursion being poled along the 
river in a large boat. Alongside is a smaller boat from which hot 
refreshments are being served. A bird is flying across the face of 
the full moon. The other print has been reconstructed by the lithog- 
rapher from a triptych so that there is no discontinuity between the 
thirds, but the duplication of Hiroshige' s signature on the outside 
thirds and the repetition thrice of non-marginal seals indicates the 
original form. The dark shading along the top margin, so character- 
istic of prints by Hiroshige, must have been eliminated by the lithog- 
rapher, as well as the marginal seals of two of the thirds. The subject 
is "Crossing the River Oi /' so difficult to ford that it gave rise to a 
proverb. The scene shows a multitude of fine lords and ladies being 
carried across in dignity on platforms, but one is perched with only 
a pretence of dignity on the shoulders of a single bearer. This print 
is more curious as a record of the times than artistic. 



THE PERIODS IN THE HISTORY 
OF JAPANESE BOTANY 



The history of botany in Japan has been roughly divided by Shirai 
(70 and 71) into three periods. These are: (1) The Pents'ao period, 
during which there was dependence upon books brought from China or 
Korea, and every effort was made to identify the plants of Japan with 
those of the mainland. The botanical works chiefly used were editions 
printed in Japan of the Chinese works on materia medica , and if il- 
lustrated, the wood-cuts were copies of those in the Chinese originals; 
(2) The Natural History period, during which Japanese plants were 
described and illustrated from wild or cultivated specimens, more or 
less from a utilitarian or artistic standpoint, but at any rate in a 
naturalistic manner, and, whether given a Chinese identification or 
not, constituting a beginning in the dependable recording of Japanese 



17 



312 



ASA GRAY BULLETIN N. S. VoL III, Nos. 3-4 




■»v 




■r --^y 




•-' ^-.-.-. -^/^-.K L 



A company of people on a moonlight excursion on River Yodo of Kyolo 




A multitude of lords and ladies crossing the River Oi 



18 



J.I . ^ . 



Spring, 1961 ASA GRAY BULLETIN 313 



botany, horticulture, and agriculture; (3) The modern or systematic 
period, during which plants of Japan have been classified by Linnaean 
or later European systems. 



Needless to say, these periods overlap, just as they do in the some- 
what parallel history of European botany. The first corresponds to 
the period in Europe down to the publication of Brunfels' famous and 
epoch-making herbal in 1532. Chinese and Korean manuscripts on 
plants and plant products had possibly initiated the study of Chinese 
medicine in Japan as early as 415 A.D. It became well established 
by 701 A.D., when a botanical garden of medicinal plants at Nara 
came under the control of a medical bureau, and Shirai tells us that 
this garden was in charge of two professors and six students of drugs. 
This was not long after the Tang Pents'ao in 20 volumes (669 A.D.) 
was compiled in China and taken to Japan by a Japanese student soon 
after. Subsequently various works were produced which depended upon 
Chinese originals. Shirai calls especial attention to three books 
written in 1156 by Henchiin Seikin which contain reproductions of the 
illustrations in a Chinese Pents'ao which he says is known in Japan 
as Tuku Honzo Dsukyo , and of which the original edition of 1060 is 
no longer extant in China. But the Pents'ao period can only be alluded 
to in this article, and so it must suffice to say that it corresponds 
culturally (and somewhat, also, chronologically) to the Middle Ages 
in Europe. Even if the conception of the "Middle Ages" is elastic 
and depends upon the special interests of the definer, to botanists it 



begins during the centuries when there was little botany aside from 



copies of Dioscorides and classical works, and ends when woodcut il- 
lustrations of plants in printed books ceased to be copies of often 
meaningless designs from old manuscripts. It ended rather abruptly 
for botany, with the publication of naturalistic woodcuts of actual 
plants by Brunfels, Fuchs, and Tragus. 



As we shall see, the beginning of the natural history era in Japan 
was likewise connected with improvement in the art of illustration 
which came with the rise of the ukiyo-e school of popular woodcut 
art. 



In Japan there would seem to have been a premonition of the 
second, or natural history period as early as 1274, when, Shirai tells 
us, Seia wrote a book, Bai-zu Kan , on diseases of the horse, illustrat- 
ed by colored illustrations of seventeen medicinal plants so exactly 
depicted and so artistic as to be a treasure of the fine arts as well as 
of botany. Still the natural history period really began at a date after 
which there was continuous growth, and that depended upon the evolu- 
tion of illustration. Shirai considers the approximate time at which 
Japan turned to the study of its own natural history as about 1601. A 

19 



314 ASA GRAY BULLETIN N.S. VoL III, Nos. 3-4 



new start was then made in the progress of Japanese civilization when 
peace was established by the Tokugawa Shogun leyasu after a long 
period of war. 



Of course there was a long overlap during which Japanese editions 
of old Chinese works continued to be avidly studied and regarded as 
authoritative, even thougli antiquated and at best only imperfectly 
adapted to Japan. More and more, however, European science came 
to be regarded as superior, and the little trickle that came in through 
the Dutch trading post at Nagasaki was quickly magnified into a great 
stream through wide dissemination by their disciples of the learning 
brought by a succession of such men as Kaempfer, Thunberg, von 
Siebold, Rein and Savatier. 



The third period had some intimations of origin long before the 
natural history period ended, but for the sake of having a date, Shirai 
chose, for botany, 1868. Then Yatabe Ryokichi, the first Japanese 
botanist who studied abroad, went to Cornell University. He returned 
to Japan in 1877, and became Professor of Botany at the Tokyo Im- 
perial University, which had grown out of the establishment in 1857 

of a bureau for researches in western learning, namely, the Bansho 
Shirabe-jo. In this bureau there was a Natural History Investigation 
Section in wliich Ito Keisuke and Tanaka Yosliio were active. The year 
1878 was remarkable for the publication of many works in Western 
style, or showing more marked Western influence than before, and 
might therefore seem a better date than 1868 for the close of Shirai' s 
third period. It depends upon where one places the emphasis. Publi- 
cations that are primarily in the field of art, but of strong interest to 
botany and horticulture as well, were continuously produced in an old 
mode until after the beginning of the present century. So the Clements 
Library exhibition has no fixed dates, but includes the sort of books 
in the old traditional style that were current when Commodore Perry 
visited Japan a century ago, togetlier with a few to represent the 
transition to European style. The oldest available for exhibition dates 
from 1666. Admitting the arbitrary decisions that have to be made in 
attempting to delimit periods in cultural progress, one may consider 
convenient the periods Shirai chose for botany, namely: I. The 
Pents'ao or Chinese materia medica period, approximately A.D. 700 
to 1601; 11. the natural history period, 1601 to 1868; III. the modern 
period, in which Japanese botany has fused with the general current 
of world botany, 1868 to tlie present. 



It is with the condition of Japanese science, art, and letters in 
1854 and earlier tliat the Clements Library exhibition has to do, and 
because of the limitation of the collection they are little touched upon 
except insofar as they can be illustrated by the older types of botani- 
cal literature. 

20 



Spring, 1961 ASA GRAY BULLETIN 315 



BEGINNINGS OF JAPANESE LITERATURE AND SCIENCE 



Chinese influence, at first by way of Korea, had reached Japan as 
far back as there is dependable history. Since the first writing done 
in Japan was in the Chinese character, it is obvious that there must 
have been profound Chinese influence before there was any written 
Japanese literature. According to tradition it was a Korean scholar 
named Wani, invited to the Japanese court as imperial tutor, who be- 
came the ancestor of a hereditary class of official chroniclers known 
as the Chiefs of Writing ( Fumi no Obito ). It was Wani who introduced 
into Japan the Analects of Confucius and a curious poem, the Senjimon, 
unique among Chinese literary works in being written in exactly a 
thousand different characters of which no two are alike in form or 
meaning. This poem, according to Chinese chronology, was written 
by command of an emperor of the Liang dynasty by an author who 
flourished about 550 A. D. Lombard (45 ) mentions a record that 
there was difficulty about 575 in reading Chinese messages sent to 
the Japanese court from Korea. So the effective establishment of 
Chinese as a subsidiary language of the learned waited until Japan 
came directly into contact with China rather than through Korea. 



In 608 A- D. an emissary was sent to China to bring back books and 
teachers, which he did a year later. By the year 654 as many as two- 
hundred and forty students were abroad. Most of the learned ones 
were or became Buddhist priests. Chinese influence was completely 
dominant in education. The first Japanese school that history records 
was established about 668; another, most nearly of university status 
for the time, dated from 681. Under Emperor Mommu (697-708) a 
code of law was compiled in twelve volumes, of which the eleventh 
volume concerned education. In the capital was to be a ^'university" 
to which the children of families of fifth rank or higher were to be ad- 
mitted, together with the children of the Fumi no Obito , the heredi- 
tary chroniclers. There were also to be provincial schools of lesser 
status. All the schools were open to children of lower than fifth rank 
families by special consideration. 



The "University," by the time the court moved to KyTTto (794), 
taught the reading and interpretation of the Chinese classics, history, 
law, mathematics, penmanship, Chinese composition, and Chinese 
phonetics. It was limited to 430 students and the provincial schools 
to a number from 20 to 50 each, so the maximum enrollment at oae 
time for formal education could have been no more than 3000. Stu- 
dents were provided with food and books, so far as they had any books, 
for these are presumed to have come from China or to have been 

21 



316 ASA GRAY BULLETIN N.S. VoL III, Nos. 3-4 



made by the students who took down dictation from teachers to sup- 
plement the scarcity of books. The '^University" and the provincial 
schools were supported by grants from the families whose children 
were benefited by them and by the interest on loans made to farmers 
by the government. In 794 one hundred thirty-two ch5 of rice land 
(the cho was a unit equal to about two and a half acres) were set 
aside to meet the needs of the "University," 



As time went on a group of six schools were loosely attaclied to 
the "University" and supported by the great families for their own 
members, the first for peers at the west of the "University," others 
to the east and south, and one actually within the grounds of the "Uni- 
versity." Those to the south became known as the southern depart- 
ments. In addition to the family departments or schools there came 
into existence institutes of special knowledge, for medicine (including 
pharmacy, which led to the first teaching of botany), music, and div- 
ination (including astronomy and the compilation of the almanac). 



Religion was excluded from the schools, so the Buddhist monas- 
teries became secondary and eventually almost the only continuously 
maintained seats of learning during the dark centuries which were to 
follow. 



Direct regular contact with China by the sending of students and 
embassies ended during the reign of Emperor Uda (889-897) and after 
flourishing through two centuries the educational system began to 
disintegrate. Break-down began about the year 1100, and governmen- 
tal interest in education almost ceased when the "University" burned 
in 1177. Its function survived in part through the persistence of a 
school of the Ashikaga family, which held the shogunate. In 1439 a 
library was established for this school, which was especially famed 
for its books of the Sung dynasty. This school and library persisted 
as one of three great "universities" which Xavier mentioned as of 
good repute when he reached Japan in 1549. 



In Musashi Province there was one other notable mediaeval libra- 
ry, the heart of a school, which was established by the Governor of 
Echigo about 1270, It had a large collection of books and writings, 
both Japanese and Chinese, and Lombard (45 ) informs us that some 
four hundred of its books were eventually to be preserved in the Cab- 
inet Library in Tokyo, 



During the dark centuries of political confusion and almost con- 
tinuous civil war, broken only by lighter intervals, education was 
chiefly fostered in the Buddhist temples and monasteries. Art 
flourished, for it was patronized in narrow circles about the court 



22 



Spring, 1961 ASA GRAY BULLETIN 317 



and by the powerful families, but learning went more or less into 
hiding and thus merely survived, becoming more and more attenuated 
because of the lack of a sufficient educational system. The Buddhist 
priests sedulously preserved whatever books and writings they could 
gather together and fostered veneration for the written word, so that 
there was something to build upon when peace was finally restored 
and Japan entered upon the Edo period of prodigous indigenous cul- 
tural growth, which was built upon ancient Chinese tradition but con- 
stantly enriched by infiltration of European learning during and in 
spite of relative isolation from contact with other countries except 
Holland. 



It must not be thought, however, that science and literature, but 
more especially art and technology, made no appreciable gains dur- 
ing the long period of general educational gloom. Art and artisanship 
had powerful patrons and there were intervals of peace during which 
there was enough intercourse with China to bring in additional books 
and to refresh teaching, and even war with Korea at the end of the 
pre- Edo period was eventually to bring booty in the way of books. 



The significance, from the immediate standpoint of the history of 
Japanese botany, of the auspicious early beginning of Japanese letters 
and science and their more or less precarious foothold during a long 
period down into the seventeenth century lies in the fact that when the 
renaissance of learning began under the Shogun leyasu the literature 
that was available for study, for dissemination by printing, and for 
scholarly interpretation was almost entirely Chinese. So the period 
of dominance of Chinese intellectual influence over European, and 
over indigenous and distinctively Japanese developments, ran over in- 
to the Edo period by more than half a century, and even after that 
there was a long period of overlap. So some of the books of the pres- 
ent exhibition (such as the encyclopaedias and the famine herbals) 
have a definitely Chinese stamp, or are translations from the Chinese. 
This would be even more apparent if books of the first two thirds of 
the seventeenth century were not entirely missing from the collection. 
They have become too scarce to be readily found. 



THE PENTS'AO OR HONZO PERIOD OF 
CHINESE DOMINANCE OF JAPANESE BOTANY 



The botany of Japan down to 1614 was almost entirely that of China 
and Korea and was associated with medicine. What was known of 
plants (and animals) except for the unwritten indigenous lore, was 
derived from old Chinese general encyclopaedias or from the more 



23 



318 ASA GRAY BULLETIN N.S. VoL III, Nos. 3-4 



restricted pents'ao or herbals, the latter dealing with plants in gen- 
eral, but mostly from the standpoint of medicine^ and works on agri- 
culture and horticulture. There was no essential difference, however ^ 
between the natural history section of an encyclopedia and a honzo 
or herbal. The latter title might apply to a quite general treatise on 
natural history or to a work that might be more appropriately classi- 
fiable as materia medica. A honzo might deal with plants only or 
include some animals and inorganic substances as well. 



For convenience J because it coincided with a period in Japanese 
political history, Shirai, Japanese historian of Botany, designated the 
Edo period of shogunate rule, during most of which Japan was closed 
to foreign intercourse, except for the Dutch contact at Nagasaki, as 
the Natural History Period, as distinguished from the Herbal 
(Pents^ao or Honzo) Period before it. This was because there was a 
rapid growth of interest in natural history for its own sake during the 
later period, and relatively less special emphasis on materia medica. 
The earlier Herbal Period was dominated by rather slavish accept- 
ance of borrowed learning directly from Chinese sources or from 
China through Korea. The natural history period extended from the 
accession of the Shogun leyasu to the restoration of imperial rule in 
1868, after which all science, including botany, was rapidly western- 
ized. 



PORTUGUESE INFLUENCE ON JAPANESE SCIENCE 



The Jesuits entered Japan at the middle of the 16th century, near 
the end of the pre-Edo period and prior to the development of the gen- 
eral natural history outlook. They had already been established in 
China, and finding that Japanese literacy was based upon tliat of China, 
they built upon it by the introduction of Chinese books which were 
translations of European originals, as well as by direct teaching. 
Their scientific influence was chiefly in astronomy and the practice 
of medicine. Xavier himself taught geocentric astronomy and geog- 
raphy, and his teachings were considered a revelation. In China the 
Christian missionaries had been successful in having volumes on 
astronomy and the calendar published with imperial patronage, and 
these works, brought in by the Jesuits, established European scien- 
tific prestige which did not end with the expulsion of the Portuguese 
and Spaniards and the suppression of Christianity. 



In medicine the missionaries also made a great impression. They 
established their medical art so successfully that it grew into a spe- 
cial school of theory and technique called "Surgery of the Southern 
Foreigners." (See Fujikawa, 28). 

24 



Spring, 1961 ASA GRAY BULLETIN 319 



There is little remaining literary evidence of Portuguese influ- 
ence on Japanese botany, but the Jesuits do seem to have accomplished 
something in the way of introducing foreign plants. There appears 
to be no record that they brought any European botanical books that 
reached Japanese hands, but they may have done so. They asked for 
land on Ibuki Mountain for starting a yakuen botanical garden for 
medicinal plants, which was granted them in 1569, and Uyeda says 
that certain alien plants in that area may have become established 
from their introductions. The Jesuits might have been expected to 
introduce useful plants into Japan from China or anywhere in the 
Orient as well as from Europe. According to Fujikawa (28) Father 
Louis Almeida was a dispenser of medicine to the poor. "In 1568, . . 
the Viceroy. . .allowed Portuguese missionaries to build a Chris- 
tian Church in Kyoto. . , Of these Gregorio and Louis knew the medi- 
cal art; they dispensed medicine among the poor and taught the art 
to students, thus using medicine as a means of missionary work." 
Shirai tells us that the Jesuits' garden of medicinal plants on Mt. 
Ibuki was to have been five cho square, about 62 acres, which, if ever 
planted, and intensively cultivated, would have produced a great sup- 
ply of drugs for their medical-missionary enterprise. 



THE INFLUENCE OF lEYASU AND HIDETADA 
IN THE BEGINNING OF THE NATURAL HISTORY PERIOD 



The first Edo Shogun, leyasu, inaugurated in 1601 a period of 
isolation, peace, and prosperity. Books were multiplied and learning 
grew apace. In 1607 a single copy of the great Chinese herbal Pen- 
ts'ao Kang Mu came into the hands oi leyasu through the foreigners 
at Nagasaki. It was copied, commented upon, the names in it were 
tentatively synonymized with Japanese, and finally there was a first 
Japanese edition in 1637, and a second in 1652, with improved illus- 
trations. These Japanese editions, entitled Honzo Kammu are 
scarce, and neither is available for our Clements Library exhibition. 
They inaugurated a period during which there was renewed study of 
Japanese natural history and natural products, and an intensive effort 
to correlate Chinese and Japanese names in general natural history 
as well as in materia medica . Several elaborate commentaries on 
the Honzo Kammu were written which showed indigenous achievement 
in the study of the Japanese flora. Synonymizing had gone so far as 
to show that Japan had plants for which no names were to be found in 
Chinese encyclopaedias or herbals. The Natural History period was 
inaugurated gradually and of course there was a long overlap during 
which unmodified Chinese works satisfied many, but original Japanese 
literature was more and more replacing mere translations or tran- 



25 



320 ASA GRAY BULLETIN N.S. VoL III, Nos. 3-4 



scriptions of older Chinese books. 



leyasu stimulated activity of the medicinal-plant gardens and gath- 
ered information from experts in Kyoto and Nagasaki on drug plants, 
in which he was interested because of the wide-spread false-labelling 
of commercial drugs. His successor, Hidetada, continued his activity. 
Hidetada was a lover of ornamental flowers and plants in general. He 
established new botanical gardens (yakuen) of which the scope was 
broadened in order to study the characteristics by which the pure me- 
dicinal plants J yakuso, could be distinguished from the false. The 
value and effectiveness of many plants came to be studied at new 
yakuen in Edo and Kyoto, for stocking which 36 species of authentic 
yakusQ were imported from Korea. As more gardens were estab- 
lished, the study of ornamental plants was pursued along with the 
medicinal, and so the study of materia medica was more and more 
transformed into that of natural history. The same naturalists were 
likely to write books in both the narrower and the broader field. In 
Chinese the greater compendia on materia medica dealt largely witli 

^ ^ ■ — ^^^^^^^^ 

general natural history, just as the greater herbals did in Europe, and 
the Chinese pents'ao became the Japanese honzo, both corresponding 
to the European herbal. In either China or Japan there was little if 
any difference between the natural history part of a classified ency- 
clopaedia and an herbal. So in tlie Japanese literature of the 17th 
century there is no liard and fast distinction between an encyclopaedia, 
an herbal, and a natural history. Still distinctions are useful even if 
vague, and the inclination of the honzo was predominantly medical. 



THE MEDICINAL-PLANT GARDENS AND 
THE INTERPRETATION OF THE HONZO 



The growing of medicinal plants contributed much to the develop- 
ment of botany in old Japan. Before they were established the inter- 
pretation of the old Chinese herbals (honzo in Japanese) was a very 
hit or miss matter, for descriptions were vague and illustrations ex- 
tremely crude. (If Linnaeus had known them and taken account of 
them in his P hilosophia Botanica he would have consigned them to tlie 
rudissimae, with such companions as most of those which, in Europe, 
preceded the German fathers.) When, however, seeds were brought 
from Korea and China, so that entire plants could be studied and com- 
pared with what was native in Japan, a great improvement in the study 
of materia medica and of botany took place, which came about largely 
through the standardization of names. At the same time growing of 
medicinal plants was one of the chief means by which botany advanced, 
for it led to the establishment of botanical gardens, yakuen. We 



26 



Spring, 1961 ASA GRAY BULLETIN 321 



are indebted to Shirai ( 70 , 71 ) and particularly to Ueda Sampei 
( 91 ) for investigating the history of this subject. 

The medicinal plant gardens were known as yakuen . At first only 
medical in their objectives, interest in ornamentals and curiosity 
about other plants led to their expansion into general botanical gar- 
dens, and one of those at Tokyo evolved into the present Koishigawa 
Botanical Garden of the University of Tokyo. The others, however, 
fell into neglect or ruin at about the beginning of the restoration of 
imperial rule in 1868. Enough vestiges and records still remained 
thirty years ago so that Ueda was able to obtain many historically 
Interesting pictures and other data to indicate what the yakuen were 
like during their prime before the end of the period of the Tokugawa 
shogunate, from 1615 to 1868. Before then there were yakuen , but 
very little information is available about them, in the form of scat- 
tered and often vague references in old literature. 

The earliest specific mention of yakuen is found in the Taiho-ryo, 
the code of law of 701 A. D., but before that time there is evidence 
that medicinal- plant gardens may have existed, unless medicine made 
from native Japanese herbs was made from material gathered in the 
wild. It is known that medicinal herbs had been imported before then 
from Korea. 



prior to A. D. 793 charity hospitals were established and the de- 
mand for medicinal plants (yakuso) was greatly increased.^ They 
were imported from China and brought in to the capital (Kyoto) from 
many provinces. Some provinces contributed as few as ten kinds, 
others as many as fifty. A prime objective was to identify Chinese 
medicinal plants described in the honz5 with species that were found 
in Japan. As literature on medicine was brought in from China it be- 
came necessary to know what Chinese ideographs represented the na- 
tive Japanese plants, and so a beginning was made in a written scien- 
tific Chinese nomenclature for plants, just as the learned men of all 
European countries, regardless of spoken language, struggled to know 
what classical Latin and Greek names might be applied to their native 
plants, and many were loath until late in the seventeenth century to 
admit that plants were to be found anywhere that had not been men- 
tioned by old Greek and Latin authors. So in Japan the main botanical 
effort for centuries was to find Chinese names applicable to Japanese 
plants, and these Chinese names, whether correctly applied or not, 
became a scientific terminology for plants, especially medicinal ones. 

Serrurier (66) who catalogued the great Japanese collection 
of Japanese books in the Library of the University of Leiden considered 
that this correlated nomenclature was one of the merits of Chinese 



27 



322 ASA GRAY BULLETIN N.S. VoL III, Nos. 3-4 



and Japanese science. At least the plants wei^e named by two Chinese 
characters, the first to indicate the genus and the second the species. 
The criteria of classification (as in European botany at tlie same stage 
of progress) might be bad or superficial, resulting in unrelated plants 
appearing in the same genus, or vice versa. Consequently the older 
Japanese works might have seemed to Europeans of little utility if it 
had not been for the recognizable illustrations. The art of the illus- 
trator rendered a true service to science. This was equally true, of 

course, of early European printed works of botany. As an example we 
may instance Brunfels, who made a great contribution through his ex- 
cellent figures, although he did little in the way of characterizing 
species in words. 



Knowledge of many yakuso is indicated in a still extant 50-volume 
work on medicine which was completed about 982 A. D., namely, the 
Ishlnho of Tamba Yasuyori. Knowledge of drug plants grew con- 
currently with increase in their cultivation and with development of 
the yakuen down to 1333, when a decline set in that was to last for 
years. The country was disrupted by war and lawlessness to such an 
extent that any scientific advance that took place was sporadic and 
discontinuous. There was an upturn during the period of Portuguese 
influence but that came to an abrupt end when Japan was closed to 
foreigners except for limited but potent contact with the Dutch at 
Nagasaki. The closing of Japan coincided with the beginning of a long 
period of peace with cultural restoration and growth. 



EUROPEAN INFLUENCE AT NAGASAKI 



There was constant European influence on development of Japan- 
ese natural history during the period (1641-1854) when the Dutch had 
a monopoly of trading at Nagasaki. 



In the Dutch period however, three or four eminent naturalists or 
other men of learning visited Japan in the employ of the Dutch East 
India Company. Cleyer has been mentioned. The most distinguished 
of them, early visitors, Engelbert Kaempfer (1651-1716), left two 
works that rate as botanical landmarks, namely the Amoenitates 
Academicae and the History of Japan . These contained px^actically all 
that Europe was to learn of Japanese botany down to the time of 
Thunberg. Kaempfer was a man of the utmost intellectual curiosity 
and industry. His accomplishments put to shame most of the other 
servants of the Dutch East India Company at Deshima, who, since the 
time of the worthy Francois Caron, had made little progress in studies 
of Japan. A succession of the company physicians before Kaempfer 



28 



Spring, 1961 ASA GRAY BULLETIN 323 



hadj however, established the custom of giving medical instruction to 

Japanese. Caspar Schmabergen (1649) was the most influential in 
establishing the Dutch school of surgery. 



Kaempfer was a German^ son of the minister in the town of Lem- 
gow. He was educated at the Universities of Cracow and Konigsburg, 
and then went to Sweden. Here he became secretary of a Swedish em- 
bassy to Persia, and travelled through Russia to Ispahan, occupying 
his spare time in a diligent study of natural history. When the embas- 
sy was about to return home he was recommended by the Swedish 
ambassador for a post as chief surgeon to the Dutch East India Com- 
pany's fleet, then in the Persian Gulf on the outward voyage to Batavia 
Through that connection he was enabled to reach Java, and later reach 
Japan, where he remained two years, 1690-1692. In Java he had a 
chance to study tropical plants at the establishment of the Director- 
General of the Dutch East India Company in Batavia and in the garden 
of Heer Moller on Edam Island, a few hours distant from Batavia. 
This experience explains his references to plants of Java in the fifth 
fascicle of his Amoenitates, which is an excellent illustrated enumer- 
ation of many important Japanese plants under Chinese and Japanese 

names. 



At the Dutch factory facing Nagasaki, on the little three-acre 
artificial island of Deshima, where he was practically a prisoner, the 
Japanese officers were solemnly bound not to talk to the Europeans 
except as trade required or to make any disclosures regarding domes- 
tic affairs of Japan, its religion, or its politics. Their stringent regu- 
lations were somewhat relaxed in such matters as the Dutch language, 
astronomy, natural history, and medicine, especially if orders came 
from high official circles to make specific enquiries of the Western 
Barbarians. So various officers and interpreters whom Kaempfer 
assisted with advice and medicines, information in astronomy, mathe- 
matics, etc., came to be very liberal in imparting information to him 
in turn. In particular a very discreet young Japanese was appointed 
to wait upon Kaempfer as his servant, and at the same time to be in- 
structed in medicine and surgery. The chief Japanese officer of 
Deshima during serious illness was attended by him under Kaempfer's 
direction, with such a favorable outcome that the young man was per- 
mitted to attend Kaempfer on two journeys to the shogun's court, and 
to be tutored by the foreign physician in the Dutch language until he 
had a competent knowledge of it. Kaempfer said there was not a book 
that he wished to see that this young man did not bring and explain, 
and that within a year no other interpreter had so good a knowledge of 
Dutch. 



In May 1690, Kaempfer went as physician of the annual Dutch mis- 



29 



324 ASA GRAY BULLETIN N,S. VoL III, Nos. 3-4 



sion to the shogun's courts when he made the observations recorded 
in his Anioenitates and in the later History of Japan. 



When Kaempfer left Japan in 1692 he had made a great impres- 
sion on Japanese natural history and medicine. He was permitted to 
take home with him a valuable collection of books and speciniens. In 
addition to the four trips back and forth between Nagasaki to Edo he 
had been allowed the special privilege, as a physician seeking medici- 
nal plants, to make local trips to botanize in the environs of Nagasaki, 
accompanied by the chief island officer and a numerous retinue of 
lesser ones, all of whom had to be feasted, which made a botanical 
trip too great an expense to be undertaken often, and likewise greatly 
interfered with collecting. 



Kaempfer left Japan in November 1692 to return to Europe. He 
was too busy with teaching and medical practice to publish his Anioe- 
nitates until 1712, and his History of Japan remained unpublished until 
after his death, when his manuscripts and papers were acquired by 
Sir Hans Sloane, foremost patron of natural science, who was to be- 
come the founder of the British Museum. 



Mention of what Kaempfer secured in the way of books will be 
found in the following chapter. 



Physicians who came after Kaempfer and accompanied the annual 

embassies to the shogun's court continued to instruct through inter- 
preters and by demonstration, but the prohibition against reading or 
importing European books was still stringent. It appears that books 
that had been legally imported prior to the closing of Japan to foreign 
intercourse and were preserved in such a library as that the sho^uns 
were still assiduously studied. Fujikawa ( 28) states that toward 
the end of the 17th century a Dutch version of Ambrose Fare's book 
on surgery was imported into Japan, and after the lapse of over a cen- 
tury was published in 1706 in an abridged Japanese translation. Its 
influence was great, for it started a new school of orthopedics as a 
subdivision of the science of surgery. 



During the shogunate of Yoshimune the prohibition of all foreign 
books was relaxed, and in 1741 Noro Genjo was ordered to visit the 
Dutch captain who came to Edo every year to bring presents to the 
Shogun, and to ask him questions about Jonston's animal book (1615) 
and the herbal (Kruid Boek) of Dodonaeus (1618) of which the former 
had been in the Shogun's library since 1674. Captain Jacob van der 
Waijen was assisted in the interview by the assistant surgeon, Muscu- 
lus, and the conversation was completely recorded and is still extant- 



30 



Spring, 1961 ASA GRAY BULLETIN 325 



The same interrogation and discussion of the herbal of 
Dodonaeus continued every year until 1750, and all the dialogue 
was duly preserved and published. All this interest in Dodonaeus's 
great but by then antiquated two-century-old herbal crystallized 
in renewed study by Udagawa Yoan, who, according to Shirai (70, 71 ) 
published in 1816 a list of 670 species of Europe which he considered 
to have counterparts in Japan. The same author, in 1827, published 
Waran Yakukyo , on materia medica of the Dutch. Otsuki Gentaku 
wrote a treatise on natural objects, based upon Dutch works, in 
1817. It seems (fidede Rosny) that the excellent Japanese botanist 
Ito Keisuke actuallylDublished in Dutch the following work, which 
has become very rare: ^'Naamlyst van Gewassen door den beroemden 
Natuuronder-zoeker C P. Thunberg, M. D,, op Japan gevonden, 
herzien en met Japansche en Chineesches Namen virrykt, door Itoo 
Keiske, te Nagoya. Boenzi XI (1828);' This work, a synonomy of 
Japanese and European plant names, appeared in a Japanese-titled 
edition in 1829, Taisie honzo meisc , 3 vols., with a woodcut 
portrait of Thunberg copied from the copper- plate in the Voyage, 
But in mentioning Thunberg we have jumped ahead of the proper 
sequence of events. 

Carolus Peter Thunberg, Swedish botanist and student of the 
great Linnaeus, visited Japan in 1775-76 as a physician of the Dutch 
East India Company in order to study the plants and to make the 
collections upon which the first organized and usable flora of Japan 
was based. He made Japanese friends to whom he was devoted, and 
came to exercise a great personal influence in Japan. Although 95 
years had intervened between the departure of Kaempfer and his 
arrival, he found little change in the restrictions imposed upon the 
Dutch or their non-Dutch European employees at Deshima. Through 
the liberal views of Yoshimune (Shogun from 1677 to 1751) the 
Japanese had become more anxious to secure foreign books of 
science, and letting them enter the country was not so strictly 
regulated, but otherwise conditions were about as before. 



Thunberg had much trouble in getting permission to botanize 
in Japan. A delay of three months was occasioned because someone 
who had previously been permitted to do so had been entitled 
''surgeon's mate/' whereas Thunberg was ^'surgeon/' Why persons 
of different status should do the same thing either perplexed the 
Japanese officials, or they pretended that it did. Finally the permit 
was granted but each excursion cost him sixteen or eighteen taels 
because of the feasting of the twenty to thirty Japanese officials who 
attended him. With this great retinue he was permitted to roam 
over the hills near Nagasaki. Later, on a visit to Edo, he passed 
through the mountainous tract of Hakone which separated the bays of 



31 



326 ASA GRAY BULLETIN N.S. VoL III, Nos. 3-4 



Totomi-nada and Edo. Here there were numerous shrubs and trees. 
Thunberg frequently deserted the norimono (palanquin) in which he 
was carried by bearers^ ran ahead and scrambled up the slopes^ to 
the great distress of the inferior officers who were assigned to keep 
constantly with him. Having previously been used to running up rocks 
in the African mountains^ he said, he frequently got far ahead of his 
anxious and panting followers and was able to gather many of the 
curious and scarcest plants, which had just begun to flower. 



During 26 days at Edo, Thunberg was not allowed to go out of 
quarters, but was ceaselessly interrogated about astronomy, in 
which he couldn't help, and matters of natural history and medicine. 
Of plants and materia medica the Japanese had considerable 
knowledge, which he supposed to have been collected from Chinese 
and Dutch books, and partly from the instruction of Dutch physicians, 
some of whom, however, Thunberg opined, were little better than 
"horse-doctors.*' Two Japanese who became his friends came to 
see Thunberg every day and questioned him unceasingly. They 
often stayed until late at night. At Thunberg' s leave-taking from his 
two medical friends, to whom he was warmly attached, he gave each 
a certificate in Dutch of their proficiency, which they treasured as 
highly as young European physicians would their diplomas. Both 
corresponded with them after his return to Europe. One of them 
is said to have been the emperor's personal physician, the other 
(older and better informed) was physician to one of the chief princes. 
They sometimes wearied Thunberg at first, and one suspects that 
he wished the questioning might be less one-sided! but they were 
friendly and acutely intelligent, so he had much pleasure in their 
company. They had a number of Dutch works on botany, medicine 
and surgery, and Thunberg sold them some of his. They brought 
him botanical specimens, ores, minerals, fishes, and insects. 



In the account of his travels, Thunberg ( 86 ) had little to say 
about printing and books in general. He seemed to have seen no 
type-set books, for he said that all were printed from engraved wood 
blocks. Regarding those that he procured or saw he said that one 
of his disciples, the studious Sunnan, had given him a work on 
botany in eight volumes, printed in Japanese, containing the de- 
scription of some plants, with detestable figures; each volume 
having a thickness of a line or two at most. He encountered other 
more or less voluminous works of botany, embellished with crudely 
executed figures, such as the "Sooqua-Ienso" Soka-enso,(. herbs and 
garden flowers), an herbal divided into three parts, treating only 
of the indigenous plants of Japan; the " Morokonsi-Koomoosi '' 
( Morokoshi Kimm5-zui , see Exhibit No. 2), a kind of a general 
natural history in several parts, which contains the description of 



32 



Spring, 1961 ASA GRAY BULLETIN 327 



different plants, animals, mammals as well as birds and fish, with 
treatises on arts and crafts and of rural and domestic economy, 
provided with figures. This, it was said, originated in China. 
Another existed called ''Kimoonsi'' (Kimmozui , see Exhibit No. 
1) printed in Japan in thirteen volumes 'In quarto/' more 
beautiful and better than the preceding. 



From the insufficient descriptions and titles which Thunberg 
gave we are unable to identify some works which he referred to 
as herbals, but he did not think too highly of the figures. He did 
refer to one as ''a pretty herbal" under a title suggesting somewhat 
the title of one illustrated by Tachibana Yasukuni (1756) but he 
described it as in eight instead of five volumes. 
An early enough 8-volume edition is not known to us, but one is 
reported as having been published later than Thunberg's time. 



He was offered a chance to acquire a work on ichthyology, in 
two parts, ''in quarto, '^ with well engraved pictures of the fishes of 
Japan. It enlightened him greatly and he remarked that the figures 
showed exactitude and intelligence "that would do credit to our 
European artists" (Vol. Ill, p, 386). 



He remarked that export of Japanese printed books and maps 
was forbidden. ( 86, Vol. Ill, p. 19, 300). Still, he was not 
prevented from getting some and taking them away. 



Thunberg had a low opinion of the Japanese wood-cut illustrations, 
which in his eyes were crude, but some, he admitted, had the merit 
of being faithful to nature. He commended the artists for drawing 
actual plants and animals rather than drawing upon their imaginations 



Other scientific visitors to Japan followed Thunberg. The im- 
portant work of Siebold has been referred to in the section on the 
Japanese books of the University of Leiden. Rein was a German 
scientist who visited Japan at about the same time as Siebold, and 
wrote various books and articles that called the attention of Europe 
and America to the status of science, art and technology in Japan 
( 54 , 55 ). They were beautifully produced. 



In the period closely following the Perry Expedition the most 
important European botanist in Japan was Savatier. His collections 
formed the basis of Franchet and Savatier 's Flora Japonica (27). 
He tells how he tried to get one of the chief current Japanese works 
but failed for two years because in asking for it he used the pronunci- 
ation Kwa-i for the title, as was current in Yokosuka, whereas in 
Edo (then Yedo, now Tokyo) it was Ka-i . This work of Ono Ranzan 



33 



328 ASA GRAY BULLETIN N.S. VoL III, Nos. 3-4 



and Shimada Jubo" is shown in two editions (Exhibit No, 22, 1st and 
2nd eds)- In addition, he made use of two other indigenous botanical 
works J the Somoku Zusetsu of linuma Yokusai (Exhibit No. 29) 
and the Honz5 Zufu of Iwasaki Tsuncmasa (Exhibit No. 23) 
to which he referred in the translation which he and Saba made of 

the Ka-i* 



EARLY HISTORY OF JAPANESE WOODCUT ILLUSTRATION 



The first wood-cuts printed in Japan were on single sheets, and 
represented Buddhist divinities. They had their prototypes in 
China, in the Buddhist prints called ' 'tunjiuang' ' of which one, of 
607 A. D. is the earliest known dated print of any kind that is known 
to exist. Others of the years 659 and 670 were in the Yamanaka 
collection which was exhibited by the College Art Association about 
1932 at various institutions ^ including the University of Michigan, 
(Yamanaka, 95 ). These ancient Chinese prints are not only tlie 
oldest dated printing extant but also the first printed representations 
of a plant, even though it is depicted as a religious symbol, for 
Buddha is shown standing on a lotus pedestal or seated on a lotus 
throne in those of 659, and is standing under a lotus-leaf canopy on 
a lotus pedestal in that of 670. The lotus was sacred to Buddhism. 



The corresponding Japanese prints were printed at temples and 
served as souvenirs for worshippers and especially for pilgrims 
from afar. They date back to the eighth century, and have been 
found among the ancient records and treasures of several temples. 
Some have been found inside of hollow Buddhist statues. Their 
purpose was indicated by an inscription of date corresponding to 
A. D. 1333 attached to the main statue of Kwannon in a temple near 
Kyoto which read: "Printed every day 333 figures of Kwannon to 
divide among believers" (Brown 12, p. 9). 



These old Japanese Buddhist pictures were known as omi-e ^ 
They were portraits of the sacred images in the temples^ and 
themselves esteemed as Iioly, since they were printed and dis- 
tributed to worshippers in order to propagate tlie faith and llius 

I 

secure the future happiness of ancestors of the donors to the temples 
The founder of tlie modern interest in collecting them, Yamanaka 
Sadajiro ( 95 ) secured and exhibited in America numerous 
interesting examples, dating from 1407 to 1830, as well as four of 
the Chinese prototypes mentioned above. It was quite natural that 
such religious pictures came to be used as illustrations for books 
of prayers or sacred Buddhist books. Brown ( 12 ) cites a book 
of the period A. D. 1166-1169 with a single-block frontispiece on 
which are shown the nine Buddhist images of the temple where the 
book was published, 

34 



Spring, 1961 ASA GRAY BULLETIN 329 



A book of prayers dating from the year 1287, with several illustrations 
printed in the text, came to light in 1914 during the rebuilding of an 
old temple library. Books printed in Japan without illustrations 
preceded those of Europe by about four hundred years. The first 
unillustrated Japanese book may have been printed in 1080 A. D. 



The next stage of Japanese book illustration was marked by the 
passage from mere picturing of divinities to a series of story- 
telling pictures. The first of these is in a book of 1412, in which 
the illustrations depict the passage of the soul along a path from 
earthly life to the Buddhist paradise. This included perhaps the 
first Japanese printed illustration of plants, which may have been 
engraved about 1441, although the book can be dated only by close 
similarity of binding, printing and paper to one which is definitely 

dated. It is entitled Jugyu-zu (Ten Pictures of the Ox). In Zen 
Buddhism the ox is a symbol of truth, and ten stages in the search 
for and comprehension of truth are represented by pictures of a 
man hurrying along a path, carrying a rope; of his finding evidence 
that the ox is somewhere ahead of him; of his catching sight of the 
creature itself, disappearing into a thicket; of his roping the ox 
and being helplessly dragged by it; of his subduing and leading it; 
of his riding on its back, peacefully playing his flute; of his meditation 
in the mountains; of his attainment of spiritual calm; of his absorption 
in the appreciation of beauty; and, finally, of his meeting with Buddha. 
It is the picture representing appreciation of beauty which introduces 
the flowers, and, as they had to be placed within a circle three inches 
in diameter, they are presumably more symbolic than naturalistic. 



Flower painting, however, had long since been highly developed 
in Chinese and Japanese art, both in decorative design, and as 
naturalistic representation, so the beginning of flower engraving 
for book illustration in Japan could lead in either direction, or in 
both directions at once, for to a people as appreciative of natural 
beauty as the Japanese it was entirely consistent to strive simul- 
taneously for beauty and accurate representation. 



Obviously there should be no further repetition of the disproved 
statement that the first Japanese book with printed illustrations 
was the Ise MonoR:atari , a book of hero tales published in 1608. 
This book, however, is nevertheless an exceedingly notable one in 
the history of Japanese printing, for it seems to have been the first 
dated Japanese illustrated book that was printed from movable type. 
Furthermore, the subject matter was indigenous, not Chinese in 
origin. The collector of old Japonica will find volumes printed from 
type to be rare, whereas those printed from blocks on which the text 
was engraved in cursive Chinese characters supplemented by 



35 



330 ASA GRAY BULLETIN N.S. VoL III, Nos, 3-4 



hiragana, together with the pictures, are common. After 1856 
Japanese books were more often printed from type in Chinese 
ideographs (which they call kanji) generally with hiragana or 
katakana (truly Japanese syllabic characters) to indicate Japanese 
grammatical construction. The Japanese have taken pride in 
maintaining the clumsy ideographic writing which is neither 
necessary nor even well adapted to their non-tonal language. It 
was useful, of course, in the early days when imported Chinese 
books were the only printed ones in Japan, and even later, when 
the multiplicity of Japanese local dialects would have made phonetic 
writing difficult of general comprehension. Now that literary 
Japanese has become standardized, however, it would be a great 
gain to the Japanese to use phonetic spelling, which has in fact 
made some headway but seems to be opposed mainly because it 
would make obsolete, except to antiquaries, such a great body of 
literature. This is indeed an important consideration. Certainly 
the Japanese dialect societies would now welcome purely phonetic 
rendering of local folk-lore, names of plants and other natural 

objects, etc. 



Most of the illustrated books shown in the Clements Library 
exhibition were not printed from movable type, but from solid 
engraved wood-blocks, although they are from one to three 
centuries later than the Ise Monogatari, The latter coincides 
fairly closely with the beginning of non-religious book illustration, 
which probably did not long precede an illustrated book on swords 
that appeared in 1596. 



The scientific book illustrations of Japan were at first mainly 
copies of those in Chinese books, many of which were excessively 
crude. Tlie earliest were printed in black, even though some of them 
were apparently intended to be colored individually by hand, and 
often were, just as European wood-cuts were in the same period. 
These were the precursors of pictures that were later actually 
printed in color. 



Needless to say, black illustration continued and flourished 
side by side with color throughout the history of the wood-cutting 
craft. Some of the same artists who were successful in painting 
for reproduction in color also made beautiful drawings for black 
pictures. The illustrators in black were favorably influenced by 
the development of the popular or ukiyo-e school of artists, who 
did their work for reproduction, but insofar as they copied (as they 
had to do in preparing Japanese editions of Chinese botanical works) 
from very crude Chinese woodcuts of plants which had not yet been 
identified with species of the Japanese flora, they had no way of 



36 



Spring, 1961 ASA GRAY BULLETIN 331 



improving upon the pictures in the imported books. 



It therefore came about that indigenous works of romance and 
legend were being printed in Japan with artistic illustrations while 
Chinese books of natural history still continued to appear in Japanese 
editions with utterly inadequate copied woodcuts. This condition 
could only be slowly remedied (so long as the Chinese literature was 
all there was) as the naturalists identified the plants and animals 
of Japan with those of China and furnished the artists with actual 
specimens for illustration. This was a long-drawn-out process 
of which the results began to be manifest after the middle of the 
seventeenth century. Japanese scholars had an aversion to writing 
about anything exclusively in their own excellent katakana syllabic 
writing. Until they knew Vv^hat Chinese characters to use for a 
plant, the latter had no literary recognition, regardless of how 
well known it might be in unwritten folk-lore. So the beginning of 



the true "Natural History Period" in Japanese science had a long 
overlap with the preceding "Honzo" period that was dominated by 
the ancient learning embodied in Chinese herbals and encyclopaedic 



greater inclusiveness. 



distinguished 



A reaction of popular art upon scientific illustration must be 
supposed to have come from the depicting of plants for surimono 
(single sheet wood engravings) to be used as New Yearns greetings. 
Strange ( 82 , p, 148) translates from an old Japanese work 
as follows: "In the period Genwa (1616-1623) Katsushika Hokyushi, 
a comic poet who lived in Musashi, ordered Chikamatsu Ryusai 
to engrave on cherry-wood a picture of a pine branch, and this 
was the beginning of surimono ," This would presumably have been 
printed in black, and, if colored at all, the basic print would have 
been painted by hand, for this was the way in which most of the 
early colored pictures were produced. As soon as realistic and 
beautiful pictures of plants became common, and the same artists 
who made them were employed as book illustrators, there was bound 



and 



of the old Chinese herbals. 



TRANSITION FROM BLACK TO TINTED; AND 

FULLY COLORED ILLUSTRATIONS 



The first Japanese color prints were called beni-e, from the 
pink pigment beni for which a second wood block was cut in 
addition to the basic one. The earliest Japanese color print of a 
flower was discovered by Brown (12, p. 29) in a book of about 
1627, It pictures a camellia printed from two blocks in pink (beni) 



37 



332 ASA GRAY BULLETIN N.S. VoL III, Nos. 3-4 



and grayisli green. This was obviously an experiment for it was 
the only color print in the book, and preceded the general use of 
color printing by ukiyo-e artists by almost a hundred and twenty 
years. Later editions of the same book had a plain black print 
in place of the tinted one. In the long meantime, however, there 
were hundreds of illustrated books printed and one precisely 
dated scientific book of 1644 was the earliest with an indisputable 
date and bicolored illustrations. A copy has very recently been 
offered for sale in the United States by the Charles E. Tuttle 
Co. A reproduction of an earlier Chinese original, it is 

entitled "Enlightening Discourses" { Semmei Reki ) and deals 
with phases of the moon, latitude and longitude, Chinese time 
measurement by water clocks, etc. The illustrations are prints 
of the kind that the Japanese call tane-e from the red-lead pigment 
(tane) which was used to intensify the illustrations. Except for 
subjects properly illustrated in red, neitlier pink beni-e nor deeper 
red tane-e were any more naturalistic tlian black prints. Color 
may have been used in illustrating many other early books which 
probably no longer exist in even a single copy, for there was a long 
time (before antiquarian book-collecting was in vogue) when old 
books that seemed to have been supplanted by newer ones were 
considered of no value, and were not kept. Students of cultural 
and scientific history would now compete for their possession. 



The next stages in the development of color printing were of 
course the use of more colors and the representation of objects 
in at least approximately natural colors. 



Ooka Shunboku was a famous artist and illustrator of books, both 
in black and in color. Brown ( 12 ) states that his work "embraces 
some of the most striking black-and-white sketches which, perhaps, 
have ever been done for wood-engraving." He imitated in his color 
wood-cuts the Kano style of painting in flat masses of color^ and 
Chinese painters of the Ming dynasty, and was one of the earliest 
Japanese artists to illustrate by color prints. Unfortunately, his 
two volumes of natural history prints are excessively rare. They 
arc entitled Minch o Sei do Gayen , and contain thirty-six double-page 
flower and insect prints in from five to seven colors. The date, 1746, 
was only three years later than the same artist's use of two-block 
illustration. Up to 1920 only one copy of the first edition of this work 
was known, at least in Europe, and that one was in the British Museum 
Until Arthur Morrison described it, Japanese wood-block printing in 
natural colors was supposed to have dated from the decade 1760-1770. 



38 



Spring, 1961 ASA GRAY BULLETIN 333 



Masanobu produced 2-color prints, beni-e, beginning about 1742. 
He was a publisher as well as an artist, and was in a position to 
lead in the popularizing of color printing. Color printing of the sort 
he did never entirely ceased during the entire woodcut period of 
illustrating, down to the present century. 



Hand-coloring of black prints^ of course, played its part in 
popularizing prints and in leading up to printing in full color. 
Moronobu (ca. 1625 ca. 1695) had a trennendous impact upon book 
illustration. He dealt a death blow to the copying of crude Chinese 
woodcuts. Beginning about 1660 he illustrated a hundred or more 
books and volumes, including many of the first ones that were 
distinguished for artistic value. Ficke ( 26 ) said: 'These 
books and prints, widely circulated, carried to the eyes of the masses 
a new and delightful diversion, spreading far and near the contagious 
fascination of this lively ukiyo-e manner of drawing . . . ." Although 
issued with black illustrations, many were colored by hand, and 
Brown ( 12 ) states that Hishikawa Moronaga, Moronobu' s son-in- 
law, was especially noted for the beautiful coloring which he applied 
to his own illustrations and those of his father-in-law. Hand coloring 
continued for a century or more. 



These hand-colored illustrations, and the unnaturalistic but 
effective black and red ( beni-e and tane-e) prepared the way for 
full-color printing. Regardless, however, of the previous long 
history of black wood-cut pictures, of the experimental beginnings 
of bicolor prints, and the earlier Chinese origin of color printing, 
book illustrating became distinctively and essentially Japanese in 
spirit after it was taken in hand by Moronobu, who has been called 
the second founder of ukiyo-e art. He consciously modified his style 
to suit the possibilities of reproduction by woodcut. It was he who 
created a new style of book in which pictures largely eliminated the 
need for text. In black unless colored by hand, these were the early 
ehon, or picture books. He also produced the first of the single- 
sheet prints, the ichimai-e , characteristic expression of the 
school, and these were sometimes hand-colored. 



Until 1765 most actual color prints, as distinguished from hand- 
colored prints were the beni-e and tane-e , in black (varied to gray) 
and pink, or vermilion, and sometimes with blue or green. Such 
actually persisted in book illustration for many years after printing 
in full color was common. Moronobu' s black prints were sumi-e , 
i, e . , in black only except as tones of gray were achieved by dilution 
of ink or partial wiping of the inked wood-block. There had previously 
been cheap popular paintings in color called otsu-e and for centuries 
some of the old temple prints of Buddhist divinities had been 



39 



334 ASA GRAY BULLETIN N.S. VoL III, Nos. 3-4 



hand-colored. The same was true for the early books of the 17th 
century which had been printed on especially heavy paper of excellent 
quality. By using the black print as a base, the same pigments used 
for otsu-e could easily be flatly applied so as to imitate somewhat 
the effect of paintings of the Kano school. Black and hand-colored 
prints began to be replaced by color prints about 1765. According 
to Binyon, ^'Bakin the novelist, in his E nseki Zatsushi wrote that 
brocade-prints, nishiki-e ^ first appeared about the second year of 
Meiwa (1765) and rivalled (or 'copied') the Chinese color prints." 

Brown (12 , p. HI) expresses the belief that color printing in 
Japan arose as a result of Chinese refugees bringing color prints 
from China to Japan early in the seventeenth century.* She had 
heard of, from Japanese book collectors, but had not seen, a 1744 
edition of a Chinese book, of which the Japanese title was Kaishiyen 
G^fu , with color prints of orchids, bamboos and landscapes. She 
notes that the color woodcuts of Shunboku's first book in full color 
(MinchS Seido Gayen, 1746) were in pure Ming style. 



A six-volume Chinese work on drawing was republished in Japan 
in 1748 as Saiseiyen Gaden, and that is said to have contained color 
woodcuts. In the same year, Brown reported, ( 12 , p. 112) a Chinese 
book of 1701 ( Ling Mao Efua Hui ) was reproduced in Japan by 
Yamamoto Kihei. 



Kusumoto So Shiseki (ca. 1711-1786) illustrated books with the 
mainly black pictures varied toward gray and accented with touches 
of color. His works included So Shiseki Gafu (Sketches of land- 
scapes, flowers, birds, etc.) 1765, (Exhibit No. 92) and Genji 



*CniNESI-: ORIGIN OF THE I^RINTING OF WOODCUl^S IN FULL COLOI? 



The earliest illustrating of plants and animals by color printing 
lay back in China, where, however it never had great vogue. In fact, 
good Chinese color prints , ei ther in books or as single sheets , are 
exceedingly rare. So, in the British Museum, according to Binyon 
( 8 ) the best examples are old ones which have been in the col- 
lection since they were received with the other possession of Sir 
Hans Sloane, presumably brought by Kaempfer from Japan (1692-3). 
Binyon described them as "printed in gay colours on very thin brittle, 
white paper made from rice pulp. Twelve colours were produced by 
single printings, and ten more by superimposed printing of one tint 
over another." Some of them were: flower arrangement, with box of 
paintings; pomegranate & other flowers in a tall vase; crimson hibi- 
scus and purplish-brown orchid actually peony , reproduced by Binyon 
and showing a true t lower arrangement resembling some of the Japa- 
nese; begonia & chrysanthemum; crimson peony, spray of magnolia, etc.; 

crimson hibiscus, russet-hued chrysanthemums, and white hibiscus 
flushed with yellow. 



40 



Spring, 1961 ASA GRAY BULLETIN 335 



Ike-bana-no-kl (Flower Arrangement), 1765, These are both scarce, 
but a copy of the latter has recently been offered by the Charles E. 
Tuttle Company of Rutland, Vermont. The former is the earliest 
color-print book that we are able to show. 



From the remarks about the So Shiseki Gafu by the artist's 
disciple Fuku Mogi we learn that the pictures were in large part 
based upon earlier ones by the Chinese artist Chin Nampin, a Ching 
dynasty artist who worked and taught in Nagasaki about 1731-1733 
and greatly influenced the course of Japanese art. The work of some 
of Kusumoto's pupils at Nagasaki is also represented, and we must 
suppose, some of his own that were not copies but original with him. 
His brush-name, So Shiseki, was made up from the name of his own 
master at Nagasaki, who had succeeded Chin Nampin as leader of 
the Chinese school of painting there. 



The various artists whose work is represented in the So Shiseki 
Gafu did not work in the same style, so there is great variation in 
the technique of reproduction. The most effective are those in one 
color with modulation of tone affected by partial wiping of the block. 
Brown, however, has a different interpretation, saying: ^'Even when 
color was not introduced, the printing was peculiar and interesting, 
emphasis of tone being obtained by holding a part of the paper much 
more closely to the inked block than the rest, thus gaining a sharpness 
and definiteness where these qualities were desired, and a more or 
less misty affect where distance was expressed or too great clearness 
not wished.^' 



Unfortunately these early prints are not dated. They indicate 
that however, refugee Chinese artists from China, or the normal course 
of trade J may have brought models to Japan for the early experiments 
in color printing. Binyon also listed seven Chinese prints of birds 
and flowers (therefore corresponding in China to the derived kacho 
tradition in Japan) which he describes as less elaborate in printing 
and coloring than those just described, and considered probably to 
have been made during the reign of Kang Hsi, which began in 1662. 
These prints were probably less than 30 years old when Kaempfer got 
them. Isolated experimentation in Japan as early as 1627 merely sub- 
stantiates the probability that contact with China led to the later 
Japanese developments . 

Binyon says that the first Chinese color prints did not appear 
before the close of the Ming period (1368-1644) "when they begin to 
appear in books on the practice of drawing and painting." Langdon 
Warner, he said, considered that 1625 A.D. "is the earliest date we 
know for an actually existing colour-print." Binyon concluded that 
"when the Japanese took up . . . printing in colours, there was 
really nothing left for them to discover that had not already been 
practised in China . . . /' 

41 



336 ASA GRAY BULLETIN N.S. VoL III, Nos. 3-4 



Some of the plants are printed in pale^ flat masses of color with- 
out any outline, in the style later used by Masayoshi. Tliere are 
landscapes with the pale color applied in masses without any detailed 
conformity with the outline block; in the impressionistic bunjinga 
impressionistic style, and black, unshaded line drawings such as 
those done regularly for botanical illustration. The three volumes 
are indeed remarkable for diversity of style and clear evidence of 
experimentation. The volumes are of the ordinary sliape because 
printed for very wide margins, where sewed together. The page 
figures and half-diptychs are, however^ of an unusually tall and 
narrow shape. The diptychs which we reproduce are brought 
together enough to unify the designs. 



Brown says: ''So Shiseki's books are not well known in Europe 
and America, and even in Japan complete sets in good condition 
are very difficult to obtain especially those printed on the Chinese 
paper, Japanese collectors prizing them too highly to leave many 
to the Europeans who have fallen under the spell of the old ehon. " 



Utamaro ( 92 ) produced early color-print books in which 
insects, birds, and shells were exquisitely illustrated. Thereafter 
a constant succession of fully colored wood-block prints of plants 
appeared in books tliat were mostly of interest as art (such as the 
kacho and related productions) whereas the scientific books and 
those in wliich text was important as well as the pictures continued 
to be illustrated mostly in black. This was true so long as the 
woodcut was an essential feature of Japanese books, which was far 
into the Meiji period^ after 1868. 



Binyon wrote: "During the Meiji period a certain number of 
prints were made after designs which had never been engraved in 
the artists' lifetime. There is^ for example, a set of large 'Flowers 
and Birds', after HoI<.usai, signed Zen f former] Hokusai litsu, which 
are sometimes mistaken for work published by tlie master himself 

Another (oblong) set of 'Flowers and Birds', with the same 

signature, was vamped up from Taito's book 'Kacho Gaden' , published 
in Osaka, 1848-9." 



The entire period of color printing falls within the Natural History 
Period of Japanese scientific history. Likewise all of the naturalistic 
illustrating from actual Japanese plants or animals falls within the 
same period. So far as our exhibition is concerned, the only books 
illustrated with copies of older Chinese woodcuts are in the nature 
of hold-overs from the Herbal Period. Other coincidences of the 
Natural History period of science are with the Edo or Tokugawa 
Period of internal political affairs, and with the period of Dutch 



42 



Spring, 1961 ASA GRAY BULLETIN 337 



monopoly of intercourse with Europe, 



EARLY EXPERIMENTS IN EUROPEAN METHODS 

OF ILLUSTRATION: 
COPPER-PLATE ENGRAVING AND LITHOGRAPHY 



During the period of Dutch trade with the Japanese at Nagasaki 
many European books reached Japan, regardless of laws prohibiting 
their entry^ and the Japanese showed great curiosity about the 
technique of copper-plate engraving. Their experiments with it 
in map-making have been recorded in a list by Beans ( 6 ). The 
replacement of the older wood-cuts was never extensive, however^ 
down to the time when these newer methods were themselves being 
replaced by line and half-tone illustration by photographic processes 
and by collotypes. So we find only a few liberally illustrated books 
in which there are only copper-plate engravings or lithographs^ but 
a considerable number containing one or a few such European-style 

pictures-. 



Copper- plate engraving is said by Ryu Susumu ( 60 ) to have 
been first practiced in 1783; for landscape pictures and maps. One 
of the pioneers in the use of the process was Shiba Kohan (1746- 
1816) who produced one of the great books of travel within Japan 
(see Exhibit No. 56). He learned recess engraving and other 

Western methods by contact with the Dutch at Nagasaki, and several 
of the books which he illustrated contained copper-engraved maps. 
One had eight copper engravings. Brown ( 12 , p. 147) says that 
two of his books which are highly prized for their historical value 
as souvenirs of Dutch influence and command high prices in Japan 
are devoid of the slightest beauty, one of them containing his 
pictures of flowers. His true namie was Ando Kichijiro. He was 
a pupil and possibly an adopted son of the great artist, Harunobu, 
calling himself for a time Harunobu II, and, according to Brown, 
''confessing to having forged a number of the true Harunobu' s 
prints as well as signing that artist's name to work of his own.'' 
Brown goes on to say, regarding the works that he produced while 
under Dutch influence at Nagasaki, that they ''are among the 
curiosities of Japanese art." 



Examples of copper- plate printing found in the books of our 
exhibition are the following: An illustration of Reseda o dorata 
dating from 1835 (Exhibit No. 25) , maps in the history of 
Okinawa (Exhibit No. 59) , and maps in a work on geographical 
exploration of Ezo (Exhibit No. 70) . 



43 



338 ASA GRAY BULLETIN N.S. VoL III, Nos. 3-4 



Lithography J much later in Europe than intaglio engraving, 
came correspondingly late in Japan. The second edition of linuma's 

Somoku Zusetsu (Exhibit No. 29) contains a lithographic 
portrait of this botanist which Anderson ( 1 , p. 55) says is "probably 
the earliest effort of the Japanese at this process of reproduction," 
The date given (1869) is two years too early, and perhaps the date 
of signing a preface. In order to perfect the art of lithographic 
printing, Japanese observers were sent to the United States, and 
an American and an Austrian were invited to Japan to help introduce 
it. An eminent Italian expert in engraving and printing, Chiossone, 
was invited to take a position in the Printing Bureau at Tokyo in 1875. 



Experiments in foreign methods of type founding were going on 
simultaneously with those in lithography, and also in the further 
application of recess engraving on copper and steel. It was not 
until 1870 that the making and use of Western-style type was 
perfected in Japan, and a botanical book of 1878 (Exhibit No. 112) 
is an excellent example of type-setting in both Chinese characters 
and katakana . The hundred obviously engraved black plates of the 
same book, showing no evidence, however, of intaglio printing, were 
probably printed from transfers of recess-engraved original plates 
to stone by a photographic process, for Ryu tells us that lithographic 
printing was introduced into Japan at the time of the opening of Edo 
harbor to trade, and came to be practiced at the end of the Edo period 
(1868). A book of 1885 on Rhodea japonica has early color lithographs 
(Exhibit No. 46) . Another later work is included to show some 
of the best examples of botanical illustration by lithography before 
the craft was supplanted by tricolor half-tones, namely, the remarka- 
ble illustrated flora of Japan in which Makino collaborated with the 
Tokyo Research Institute of Natural History^ 

Half-tone printing has no place in the books of our exhibition, for it 
started in Japan only about 1883, after experimentation by Hori 
Kenkichi who based his work on a translation of a French book. 
Ten years later Ogawa brought back a half-tone process from 
America which was widely used. The tricolor method was experi- 
mented with in 1900 and first successfully used in 1902 on a magazine 
cover. It is now the ordinary method of producing botanical color 
plates. Japanese have been markedly successful in their collotype 
printing, but that, also, came too late to have been used for the old- 
style botanical books. So the two borrowed European methods of 
illustration that the botanists of the Edo and early Meiji period had 
experience witli were copper-plate (possibly also steel-plate) 
engraving and lithography, the latter for illustrating in both black 
and color. 



44 



Spring, 1961 ASA GRAY BULLETIN 339 



TRANSITION TO WESTERN-STYLE 
BOOKS AND ILLUSTRATIONS 



Among the works showing transition to Western techniques of 
book-making and illustration none is more interesting than one of 
1878 with the preface signed by Sakurai Tsutomu, Dai-Nihon 
Jumokushi Ryaku (Abbreviated history of Japanese Plants). One 
hundred species of woody plants are described and illustrated often 
without either flowers or fruit. The text is type- set with classical 
Chinese characters supplemented by katakana , with scientific names 
in Roman, and the plates for the illustrations seem to have been 
engraved by a pantographic process on steel, or maybe copper. 
Each is printed in halves from two plates on two sheets, in the 
manner of the old double-page wood-cuts, and the extremely heavy 
paper shows no impress of the plate edges, which would be expected 
to show, especially if the paper had been moistened for making 
the impressions. Copper plates would not have withstood the 
enormous pressure for dry-printing with paper as heavy and dense 
as Bristol board, such as this book is printed on. The printing 
would seem to have been of an experimental sort, and the edition 
was probably small. The engraved plate captions are in Chinese 
characters and hiragana , but the typographic text has Latin names 
in Roman. The edges are full gold-leaf, and the binding of European 
style. Each species has an illustration showing a planed surface 
of the wood, as though the author (or at any rate he who signed the 
preface) were a specialist in the study of wood, even though Director 
of the Government Geographical Bureau. No other people have ever 
derived such aesthetic satisfaction from the natural grain of un- 
varnished wood, whether smoothly planed or weathered, as the 
Japanese, so it seems quite natural to find that they had a relatively 
early work illustrating the texture of their own native woods for the 
purpose of identification and description. One suspects this to be 
the same work listed in the Leyden Catalogue (Serrurier No. 994) 
as 'AperQu des arbes du Japon." 



THE MAKE-UP OF OLD 
CHINESE AND JAPANESE BOOKS 



Old-style Japanese printed books of the Edo period were made 
up in Chinese format, in from one to many parts and volumes. By 
the time that books came to be published in great numbers after 
the unification and rule of the country by the Tokugawa shoguns, 
Chinese literature had already reached maturity many hundreds of 
years before, and much of it existed largely in the form of extended 
encyclopedic works and uniformly published collections of books 
corresponding not a little to President Eliot's "Five-foot Shelf," 



45 



340 ASA GRAY BULLETIN N.S. Vol. Ill, Nos, 3-4 



although of course vast numbers of independent works as well were 
appearing constantly. These were freely borrowed for publication 
in Japan, using Chinese characters (which mean tlie same in any 
language, since basically they represent an idea rather than a sound) 
supplemented by Japanese hiragana or katakana syllabic characters 
when these were needed to represent sound and termination of 
Japanese words. 



There were some type-set Japanese books, but in the main 
printing was by wood-cut. A manuscript in the exact form in which 
it would appear printed was prepared by the author himself, or from 
the author's copy by a scribe, with collaboration of tlie artist if the 
book was to be illustrated. The pages were pasted on smooth hard- 
wood blocks, face down in pairs side by side but with a space between 
arranged, of course, to agree with the Japanese method of reading a 
book from right to left. In the narrow space between the pages was 
pasted a strip on which was written, vertically from top to bottom, 
a running head, consisting of title, part or volume number, and 

number of the leaf. A publisher's scribe would prepare the entire 
layout for a printing block on one sheet. 



The next operation was the cutting of the block by the engraver, 
using knife and chisel to rout away the wood around the lines of 
script and illustrations so as to leave in rather high relief the 
remnant of the original surface that was to be inked as a mirror 
image of the manuscript, now entirely destroyed. Corrections, 
if necessary, had to be made by cutting out part of the block, plugging 
in a patch with a fresh surface, and re-engraving. 



The soft paper used for the cheaper old-style books was nearly 
always thin, soft, highly absorbent, and semitransparent. It could 
therefore be printed on one side only. So the printed sheets were 
folded down the midline, right through the middle of the running head 
and folio-numbering, and assembled into book form with the folds 
outward, and the unprinted half-sides in contact. The single edges 
were sewed together in a flexible cover to make a volume or maki^ 
This volume with doubled leaves could be much more easily read 
than one with soft thin single leaves would be. 



Regardless of size most of the Japanese old-style books were 
made up of doubled single leaves. All such are therefore intermediate 
in format between our folios and quartos. Each folded leaf, liowever, 
corresponds to the single leaf of a European style book, printed on 
both sides, but has only one number, like the folios of older books. 
So it seems reasonable enough to call the folded sheets "leaves,^' 
and in referring to illustrations printed in halves and carried 
across from one leaf to another, many of which we reproduce, it has 

46 



',. » ■.- 



Spring, 1961 ASA GRAY BULLETIN 341 



seemed convenient to hyphenate the numbers of the two leaves. So 
we have given such references as ''leaves 4-5." 



The title of an old-style Japanese book is generally on a slip 
pasted to the cover of each volume ^ with the number of the volume. 
Three-volume works often have the volume numbers replaced by 
the characters for "heaven, " "earth" and "man. " If the title slip 
has worn off, it is sometimes found to have been replaced in 
manuscript by some former owner of the book. What corresponds 
to a title page may sometimes be found pasted to the inside of the 
first cover, but often there is none. The book may begin with no 
title page at all, but perhaps with one or more individually leaf- 
numbered prefaces by friends of the author or the illustrator. Then 
the title and volume number will usually be found at the upper right 
of the leaf numbered "1" on which the author's own text begins. 



During the course of publication each individually leaf-numbered 
part, no matter how thin, was likely to be put on sale for early 
subscribers or buyers as an individual volume in a flexible cover, 
this being a maki- After completion of printing several of these 
small volumes might be combined, so we have works issued by the 
publisher that have to be described as "9 volumes in 3, "etc., with 
the outer title slips reading "volume 1," "vol. 2, " and "vol. 3," 
but the titles and volume-numbering and leaf-numbering within 
corresponding to the original 9 volumes or parts. 



Reprints of various dates, variously assembled, were often made 
from the original blocks. Finer lines might have become broken or 
crushed from repeated use or careless handling, and there would 
inevitably be some difference in the inks used in successive printings 
of books with colored illustrations. Consequently, copies that would 
be exactly the same in text and illustration might differ in date and 
beauty of printing as well as in quality of paper, number of volumes, 
etc. 



There was of course printing from moveable type as well as 
from entire carved wood-blocks, and the latter differed in style of 
the Chinese characters from meticulously drawn ones of classical 
form to the most careless or individualistic cursive forms which 
nowadays present great difficulty even to Japanese who have been 
brought up to read modern type-set books. The cursive characters 
often have to be guessed at and the meaning then verified by consul- 
tation of a special dictionary. Most of the writing of the block- 
printed books is described in the Serrurier bibliography as "semi- 
cursive. »' Classical Chinese characters would generally be combined 
with clear angular katakana, but cursive ideographs with the more 



47 



342 ASA GRAY BULLETIN N.S. VoL III, Nos. 3-4 



variable curved and flowing hiragana , with which they were more 



conformable. 



MANUSCRIPTS OF UNPUBLISHED WORKS; 

PUBLICATION BY MANUSCRIPT COPIES; 

MANUSCRIPT COPIES OF PRINTED BOOKS. 



Perplexities in collecting Japanese books arise, when a manu- 
script is offered for sale, in guessing or learning if it is a late copy 
of a printed work, made by or for some scholar who could not secure 
the original, or is one of several old copies which were prepared 
simultaneously, and never otherwise published, or possibly even a 
draft of the author's manuscript, that preceded publication. 



In view of the way in which most books of pre-Meiji Japan were 
printed, the author's manuscript, if prepared with production of the 
final printed pages in mind, must often have been destroyed in the 
process of preparing the wood blocks. If an author's copy was not 
written with a view to such use, it would have to be copied again 
before wood blocks would be cut. Manuscripts are therefore often 
copies of printed works. 



The early European collectors of Japanese books, such as von 
Siebold, Nordenskiold and others whose collections are now in the 
Library of tlie University of Leyden, at Stockholm, and in the 
British Museum, contain manuscripts of works that may never have 

been printed. Dealers in Japanese books frequently offer manuscripts, 
which, if unrevised copies of printed works, are of course less 
desirable than printed copies would be. On the contrary, they may 
rarely be works of some importance that were never published. 
They are not infrequently unsigned. Tliis is likely to be true of 
notebooks and collections of drawings and paintings, whicli vary from 
copy-books and other efforts of unknown beginners to the memoranda 
and unpublished drawings of well known illustrators and artists, whose 
work may nevertheless be quite unidqntifiable. 



The best example of an important botanical work published in 
manuscript is the great collection of illustrations and descriptions 
of Japanese plants by Iwasaki Tsunemasa (No. 10-) whicli was 
begun as a printed work in 1828 and later continued by tlie distri- 
bution of a few hand-colored manuscript copies at the rate of three 
or four volumes a year during a quarter of a century. It was first 
printed as a whole in 1920, when it appeared in 93 volumes, with 
2 volumes of index, edited by Shirai. 



48 



Spring, 1961 ASA GRAY BULLETIN 343 



EXTENT OF PRE-MEIJI 
BOTANICAL LITERATURE 



It would be interesting to have some idea of the extent of Japanese 
literature in general and of botanical literature in particular down to 
the time of the restoration in 1868. Even after that time and down to 
the present there have been many books in the older rather than the 
newer traditions. The more popular books of botanical illustration, 
especially those which are primarily classified as art rather than 
natural history^ showed no abrupt change. Japanese botanical 
literature retained a pre-Meiji aspect down to about a decade after 
the restoration. 



A census of the pre-Meiji and post-Meiji botanical books in the 
older tradition might indicate about 500 titles. The number would 
of course depend upon inclusiveness of horticultural, agricultural 
and medical works, upon the amount of botany that would qualify a 
book on topography, natural products, or technology to be included, 
upon the vague limitations in the direction of art, and upon the number 
of relatively unchanged editions to be included. A list of 100 titles 
would easily include one edition of each of the basic works in all 
aspects of the botany of the natural history period. Since the more 
outlying categories of botanical books would also include animals 
and maybe a few fossils, rocks and minerals, there would be so 
much overlapping that a list of 150 titles might cover the important 
works in the whole of natural history, and a list of 750 cover it 
rather inclusively. 

Admittedly these guesses are not too reliable, for many of the 
books are unknown except in Japan. The upper estimate of 500 is 
admittedly based upon the number of botanical or marginally botanical 
items that were included in Serrurier's catalogue of the Japanese 
books at the University of Leyden in 1896. These were very roughly 
counted and classified as follows: 



Encyclopedias; Chinese-Japanese dictionaries; 
general compendia 



8 



Bibliography 



6 



Herbals; floras; monographs of groups; 
botanical commentaries on old authors; 
terminology 



50 



Agriculture, horticulture, books on plant 
industries and technology 



42 



49 



344 ASA GRAY BULLETIN N.S. VoL III, Nos. 3-4 



Topography; geography; natural products 50 



Travel; ethnography; guide-books 20 



Materia medica 



Art; landscape design; flower arrangement 



17 
50 



Total 243 



This count is very liberal in some parts of the classification, 
for some provincial descriptions are included even if not actually 
known to deal with plant products and may be entirely non-botanical. 
On the contrary there are known to be many books in the art field, 
not listed by Serrurier^ but available in this country in the Ryerson 
Library (see Toda, 90 ) that depict plants with great fidelity. 
If the several early travelers who assembled the Leyden collection 
got nearly 250 works, and if it be assumed that they may have 
secured half of what there was, in the whole range from botanically 
important to trivial, we arrive at 5(53 as a possible number. It 
must be remembered that this collection includes that of the great 
naturalist von Siebold who gave especial attention to works in his 
own field of interest. 



The lower estimate of 100 is arrived at by a little more than 
doubling the 31 titles in the Japanese appendix to Merrill and 
Walker's Bibliography of Eastern Asiatic Botany ( 47 ) with 
addition of those titles which, because of a few Latin names, are 
included in the body of that work, as being partly in a European 
language. 



Neither the upper nor lower estimate is intended to give more 
than a rough idea of what a librarian or botanist might look forward 
to assembling if his objective were to make a select, or representa- 
tive, or fairly complete book collection in the field of pre-Meiji 
botany. 



Other lists of Japanese books add a few natural history titles 
to those in Serrurier's catalogue. Especially important are those 
of Anderson ( 1 ), de Rosny ( 58 ) , Brown ( 12 ), Toda Kenji 
( 90 ) , and, above all, Shirai (70, 71 ), although the latter work 
does not have transliterated titles or notes in a European language. 



A rapid perusal of the British Museum Catalogue ( 11 ) under 
the headings where books with some botanical content might be found 
(and classification of some titles is difficult) gives a count as follows 



50 



Spring, 1961 ASA GRAY BULLETIN 345 



Agriculture and Botany 



55 



Encyclopaedias 



22 



Natural History (including Natural Products) 21 



Medicine (only if possibly including Materia 
Medica) 



62 



Geography 



29 



Travels (and Exploration) 



44 



Art (unless obviously non-botanical) 50 



Total 283 



It seems lil^ely that so old a collection derived from so many 
sources might be assumed to have half of what is important. Such 
a guess as this would indicate that old-style books of botany or 
books with some perhaps slight botanical bearing might number 600, 
but it would be difficult indeed to assemble so many. 



Louise Norton Brown ( 12 ) said in 1924 of the illustrated books 
of old Japan: ^There are literally thousands of these illustrated 
books by means of which the Japanese historian can reconstruct 
the past life of the country. It would require a large volume merely 
to list such as are easily available, and even a superficial acquaintance 
with them is enough to give the foreign student an immense respect 
for a people who so manifestly for hundreds of years have been book- 
lovers and seekers after knowledge/' She and the others (including 
Fenollosa), whose collections have found their way into the rich and 
important Ryerson Library of the Chicago Institute of Art, so 
obviously gathered books of art and general literature in preference 
to science, that we have not counted the more or less botanical 
items in the Catalogue. It contains many books with historically 
interesting illustrations of plants, but mostly such as kacho rather 
than those more strictly classified as botany or general natural 
history. 



51 



346 ASA GRAY BULLETIN N.S. VoL III, Nos. 3-4 



CLASSIFICATION OF JAPANESE 
BOOKS ON PLANTS AND ANIMALS 



The difficulty of classifying is perhaps no greater for Japanese 
books than for those of any other country. If one is concerned with 
bibliography in general, the books incidentally containing plant 
illustrations and descriptions would go primarily under various 
subjects other than botany^ and one collecting botanical books with 
the objective of historical study would expect to find them so listed 
here and there throughout such a bibliography as Serrurier's 
"Catalogue (66)." 



The earliest ones are encyclopedic, or on materia medica , or on 
agriculture. Only considerably later are there books strictly about 
plantSj and any well balanced collection in the history of Japanese 
botany will contain books on natural liistory in general. As would 
be expected, certain books on agriculture^ horticulture, landscape 
design, technology, geography, and art have continued to be botanically 
interesting from the time of earliest publication down to the present. 



So the Clements Library exhibition contained a diversity of kinds 

'l 

of books. Since the collector was at first most concerned with getting 
the items that were more particularly Japanese in character there 
is less than a proportional representation of early Japanese editions 
or adaptations of Chinese works, which were nevertheless exceedingly 
important in establishing in Japan a Chinese technical vocabulary for 
plants and materia medica. Likewise the exhibition contains little 
in the way of separately issued prints as contrasted with book 
illustration, for they were part of popular art rather than science 
and were largely neglected by Japanese naturalists themselves, since 
the majority of them illustrate relatively few species over and over 
again. Their great significance, from the standpoint of botanical 
history, lies in the fact that the skill of some of the same illustrators 
went into both book illustration and art prints and the high quality 
demanded in their art work was reflected in the natural-history 
drawings. One cannot overestimate the importance in the advance 
of natural history that resulted from the popular enthusiasm for 
ukiyo-e art of the naturalistic, truth-telling sort, and of publishers' 
preference for the services of the most competent artists, 



Old, mostly pre-Meiji Japanese books of botanical interest may 
be classified as follows. The exhibits in Part II (pp. 395 to 552) 
are grouped in accordance with this classification. 



(1) Encyclopedias and related works (Exhibits 1 to 4) 



52 



Spring, 1961 ASA GRAY BULLETIN 347 



(2) Herbals and related works of natural history with special 
reference to materia medica (Exhibits 5 to 9) 

(3) Works on medicine with some reference to natural history in 
connection with materia medica (Exhibits 10 to 11) 

(4) 'Tamine herbals'^; description of wild plants available for food 
in time of famine (Exhibits 12 to 14) 

(5) Early monographic botanical and zoological works showing 
little or no European influence (Exhibits 15 to 20) 

(6) Pioneer floristic works of Japan and related areas; European 
influence (Exhibits 21 to 30) 

(7) Economic botany in general (Exhibit 31) 



(8) Agricultural botany; agronomy (Exhibits 32 to 34) 

(9) Horticultural botany: special groups; horticultural hobby 



specialties (Exhibits 35 to 54) 



(10 



(11 



(12 



(13 



(14 



(15 



(16 



(17 



Books on geography; famous places; travel; exploration 
(Exhibits 55 to 72) 



Books on plant and animal raw products, technology, manu- 
factures, and trade (Exhibits 73 to 75) 



Botanical commentaries on ancient literature (Exhibits 76 
to 77) 



Books of art or single prints illustrating plants; artists' 
sketch books (Exhibits 78 to 89) 



Books of art or single prints following the kacho tradition of 
^'flower and bird^' painting (Exhibits 90 to 101) 



Books of art and prints following the tradition of painting of 

the conventional ''flowers of the four seasons" (Exhibits 102 
to 103) 



Books illustrating Ikebana , the art of flower arrangement 
(Exhibits 104 to 106) 



Books of Japanese garden craft and gardens (Exhibits 107 
to 110) 



53 



348 ASA GRAY BULLETIN N.S. VoL III, Nos. 3-4 



(18) Textbooks showing the beginning of the Western influence 

(Exhibits 111 to 112) 



ENCYCLOPAEDIAS AND DICTIONARIES 



Japanese encyclopaedic works are not easily classified. The 
more inclusive of the old ones were by no means like ours but 
frequently consisted of mere descriptions, names and pictures of 
things or concepts, omitting persons and events. Some were hardly 
different from herbals. The largest one of the Edo period was based 
upon the Chinese encyclopaedia of Wang-khi, originally published 
in 1609, which, considerably expanded by the Japanese editor 
Shimayoshi Anko, wlio added volumes describing the provinces of 
Japan, appeared as Wakan san-sai-zue (The three kingdoms of 

nature in Japan and China), 105 parts in 80 volumes, 1714. This 
important work, however, was by no means the first. The copy of 
Paris was brought to France by Isaac Titsingh and described by 
Remusat (56). 



Encyclopaedic dictionaries have had a long history in Japan, 
and the making of them doubtless began when Japan first undertook 
to assimilate Chinese culture, and her scholars needed, in order 
to write about anything at all, to know what the Chinese idiographs 
meant in Japanese. Shirai tells of the compilation by Minamoto no 
Shitago from 925 to 929 A. D. of the Wamy'oruiJushS' , a dictionary 
of the Chinese names of all things, with Japanese equivalents, in 
18 volumes. This has had many editions from 1517 to those of 
recent date, some abridged, but that of 1798 was especially good. 
This was the one which, according to the British Museum catalogue 
( 11 ) appeared as Yamatomeiruijusho . The printing of extensive 
books in Japan goes back at least to the year 1080, but those older 
than the seventeenth century are rare and too highly prized in Japan 
to be sold abroad and even those of the first half century of the Edo 
period are exceedingly uncommon. They correspond in rarity to 
European incunabula. 



The earliest encyclopaedia in our exhibition, Nakamura Tekisai's 
Kimm'o-zui (Exhibit No. 1 ) is in the nature of a "Child's Book of 
Knowledge, " for it is a picture book covering almost everything 
that could be pictured, published in 1666. Toda Kenji (90) says that 
it was the first illustrated Japanese encyclopaedia. It seems to 
have been the first Japanese work dealing with natural history that 
was referred to by a European author, for it was taken to Europe 
by the pioneer in Japanese natural history Engelbert Kaempfer, and 

54 



Spring, 1961 ASA GRAY BULLETIN 349 



the references are in his own Amoenitates Academicae (37) 
of 1712, on the plates illustrating tea^ lacquer, and an epiphytic 
orchid, where tiny accessory figures are attributed to the Kimmo'- 
zul without indicating its author. (See Exhibit No. 1) There are 
other references in the same author's History of Japan. 



Kaempfer's collection of Japanese books, as listed by Scheuchzer 
( 38 ) , who was engaged by Sloane to translate the Histor 
Japan from the German manuscript into English^ (which was again 




translated into Dutch) included, beside the one described as an 
''herbal/' an illustrated book on birds, a book on minerals, stones, 
corals, etc., an illustrated book on agriculture, and many others, 
as well as a collection of niaps. Kaempfer had seen and listed 
others in Japan, which he was apparently unable to procure, 
including two books containing nearly a hundred illustrations of 
fish, crabs, mollusks, and other aquatic animals. 



It is naturally the so called ''herbal'^ that interests us most, 
entitled by Kaempfer Kinmodsui ( Kimmo-zu i) which is described 
by Scheuchzer as divided into eight books, with the pictures of about 
five hundred plants. Kaempfer seems not to have had the entire 
work. Scheuchzer calls attention to a reduced copy of the picture 
of tea from the Japanese ''herbal" inserted on one of the plates in 
the History. Shirai (70, 71 ) comments that the Kimmo-zui 
illustrated all visible objects, with Japanese and Chinese names 
affixed, "for the use of ignorant boys, to instruct them by intuition 
in the names and Chinese ideographs denoting those objects, " 
Despite Shirai^ s disparaging words, this old children's compendium 
is a treasure, for its pictures display the whole extent of popular 
knowledge of science and technology in early Edo Japan. 



The Kimmo-zui has the peculiar arrangement that each page is 
divided by vertical and horizontal lines into quarters. The text at 
the top of each quarter is very slight, consisting chiefly of the 
supposedly correct Chinese ideographs for the thing figured, followed 
by synonyms, both Chinese and Japanese. (In order to illustrate 
more things of greater general interest than might be found on any 
single page, we have made up a "synthetic" page of four quarter pages 
from different parts of the work, but also show another unchanged 
full page. (See exhibit No. 1 ). 



Of the several later encyclopaedias the next that we are able to 

show is the Illustrated Book of Things Chinese of 1719 (Exhibit No. 
2). In this one the text is hardly more than Chinese and Japanese 
names. The figures are of the same antique cast as those of the 
Kimmo-zui of 1666, but in some of the volumes nine on a page, and 



55 



350 ASA GRAY BULLETIN N.S. VoL III, Nos. 3-4 



the arrangement of some of the parts is very similar. Lest it be 
thought that such works were not highly important in Japanese 
science and education, even if harking back to Chinese prototypes;, 
it must always be remembered that the establishment of synonymy 
of plant names between Chinese and Japanese was a process that 
took centuries, and that it was essential to the adoption and 
development in Japan of the Chinese written scientific nomenclature, 
which in that country and in Korea as well as in China, quite as 
essential as Latin was in Europe at the same period, because the 
only early writing in Japan was in Chinese ideographs. Syllabic 
systems developed later, after Japanese culture, largely a 
reflection of Chinese, had become well established. 



We may now turn to the third of our children's encyclopaedias, 
one of 1789 (Exhibit No. 3 ) which was prepared to supplement 
Nakamura Tekisai's then antiquated Kimmo-zui of 1666, of which, 
however, it seems from too vague bibliographic mentions, new 
editions were still to be issued until 1849. The work of 1789 was 
definitely intended as a supplement to the older work and not an 
edition of it. In the preface it is stated that the supplementary 
encyclopaedia had been prepared by Nakada and Kawabe; that 
although Chinese characters were employed as titles of illustrations, 
Japanese names were primarily employed; that the drawings had 
been made from familiar Japanese objects when possible, but that 
if things were included that were not known to exist in Japan, 
foreign sources had been drawn upon for illustrations; that reference 
books were mentioned; and that the objects included were chiefly 
those omitted from the original Kimm'o-zuL 



The illustrations, however, show the greatest departure from the 
style of the old encyclopaedias. The rigid formalism of the quartered 
pages and the unrealistic figures are largely a thing of the past. A 
few figures, however, although rearranged and improved, show traces 
of their origin from the old work. The greater part are entirely new. 
Each page has text above and generally a pleasing scene below in 
which several related things are shown. If a scene could not be 
invented, as, for example, when too many objects had to be shown, 
they were merely grouped. 



This encyclopaedic work, therefore, marks a real departure in 
that it is so largely Japanese in subject matter and illustration. Its 
authors broke away from rigid dependence upon Chinese models, 
for slavish copying in the future could only retard knowledge. 



Synonymizing had been carried as far as was then profitable. 
It was time to "study nature, not books." Nakada and Kawabe deserve 



56 



Spring, 1961 ASA GRAY BULLETIN 351 



all credit for saying that they illustrated things that they observed 
around them, and made enquiries before drawing unfamiliar things. 
If it be said that these illustrated encyclopaedic dictionaries were 
for the ignorant children and were not intended for the learned we 
must retort that Japan must have been full of highly intelligent and 
remarkably inquisitive children! The children's books could not 
have failed to instruct old as well as young. 



Even if it was time to break away from Chinese models it is not 
to be supposed that the long period of dependence upon China was 
scientifically unfruitful. There is of course a great overlap in the 
distribution of plants and animals of China, Korea, and Japan, and 
great scientific progress came from recognition of identities and 
close similarities of genera and species through a broad range. 
The result of the scientific synonymizing and dictionary making 
was that the characters used by the Chinese for writing names in 
botany and zoology came to designate the same or sihiilar things 
in all three countries. This was a great achievement. Only later 
could come the period of building on this good foundation of having 
scientific written designations (even if they were sometimes 
generic and not pronounced alike in the three countries) for a 
majority of commonly distinguished natural productions. 

The old encyclopaedias in the Clements Library exhibition 
or other similar ones might of course be included as basic works 
for almost any exhibition of old Japanese books, for showing the 
state of astronomy, geography, technology, architecture, transpor- 
tation, ethnology, zoology, etc. If it seems strange that the first 
Japanese botanical work shown is part of an encyclopedia, it 
must be remembered that Japan made wholesale borrowings from 
the already ancient and mature literature of China, and found 
encyclopedic works more readily at hand than separate specialized 



books on various subjects. Even the works known as "honzo, 
Japanese equivalent of the Chinese "pents^/' roughly translated 
as '^herbals, ''were treatises on the three kingdoms of nature, with 
primary emphasis on the plant kingdom, which supplied most of 
the drugs. 



57 



352 ASA GRAY BULLETIN N.S. VoL III, Nos. 3-4 



SOME OF THE GREAT NATURALISTS 



Pre-eminent among Japanese botanists, Kaibara Ekken (1630-1714) 
was the universal genius of his time. Shirai says: ''He was at the 
same time philosopher, man of letters, physician, geographer, his- 
torian, agronomist, and naturalist. He wrote books on sixty differ- 
ent subjects in two hundred and seventy volumes . . . . " His great 
work the Yamato Honzo (Exhibit No. 9) was published between 1707 
and 1715, having been completed after his death at the age of eighty- 
four. It was so comprehensive and so largely botanical that it must 
rate as the first general flora of Japan as well as the first distinc- 
tively Japanese work on materia medica. It would be a foundation 
work for any collection of books or general Japanese natural history 
or natural products. 



Writers variously give 1707, 1708, and 1709 as the date of the first 
edition of the Yamato Honzo , but 1709 was apparently the publication 
date and 1707 the date of completion of writing or beginning of print- 
ing. Our older copy is identical in content with that used by Shirai 
in editing the modern edition. The title slip for the illustrations 
indicates that they should be in two parts. The eighty-four double 
leaves of figures are consecutively numbered but leaf 55, the first 
for the birds, which follow the plants, actually has a marginal title 
to show that it is the beginning of part 2, The postface also indicates 
that the work is complete. The issue of 1715 is identical in content, 
but added to the title slips, after the words Yamato Honzo are the 
characters meaning ''Revised/' No revision, however, is apparent, 
except in the issuance of the original text, appendices and figures at 
one time and in 10 binder's volumes instead of 6. 



The preface says that the Yamato Honzo was the result of Kaibara 
Ekken* s life work, from early childhood up to the age of 79, that 
throughout his life he read books on plants, and natural products, 
studying as well the forms and utilities of all things, both Chinese 
and Japanese. His great scientific advance came through not forcing 
the use of a Chinese name for a Japanese plant unless it was clearly 
applicable or had already become well established. Instead, he pre- 
ferred to admit that it had no literary history, and describe it under 
a Japanese name. He included references to literature in general, 
not merely to writings about plants. His book was printed in clear 
Chinese characters supplemented by simple kana ( katakana ^ syllabic 
characters) to make reading easy. He did not include any groundless 
or false reports. So, in critical and scientific acumen Kaibara was 
ahead of his time. 



In the oric^rinal text of the Yamato Honzo Kaibara described 1362 



58 



Spring, 1961 ASA GRAY BULLETIN 353 



things. Of these, 772 were to be found in the older honzo (herbals); 
203 had been found in other miscellaneous writings; 358 Japanese 
objects under Japanese names and 29 foreign things were described 
to which no reference had been found either in herbals or other 
writings. 

Kaibara treated as independent objects, for the purposes of des- 
cription and classification, a few products derived from organisms. 
Thus, "mummy" appears as a sort of hum an being. Similarly, among 
inorganic things we find, of course, water and salt, but likewise salt 
water, as a special kind of water. 



The illustrations of Kaibara' s great work vary greatly in quality. 
Some are copies from the Chinese herbals or the author's Japanese 
contempraries and predecessors. Many have not been seen else- 
where, and are probably original. The animal pictures in general 
have the appearance of being better and later than those of the plants. 

Ino Jyaksui (Inau Jakusui) (1655-1715) was contemporary with 
Kaibara. He was also an editor and commentator on the Pents'ao 
Kang Mu. Aside from publishing other works (of which, unfortunately, 
no example is available for exhibition) he began the compilation of a 
great encyclopedia of natural products which was planned to be com- 
pleted in 1000 volumes. Of these 362 had been finished when he died. 
The lord of Kaga presented these to the Tokugawa government in 1719, 
and the Sh^gun Yoshimune in 1729 ordered the work to be completed^ 
as originally projected. This was done by Niwa Seibaku, pupil of Ino 
Jyakusui. This enormous encyclopedia seems not to have been printed. 

Matsuoka Joan (Matsuoka Gentatsu) of Kyoto was a friend of Ino 
Jyakusui and followed him there as a leader in natural history. Ino 
had written on edible wild plants as early as 1675, but Matsuoka 
edited from Chinese works what may have been the first Japanese 
"famine herbal" in 1716 (Exhibit No. 12 ). It was an edited reprint of 
three Chinese works on natural resources available in time of famine, 
with illustrations. Such works had been found useful in China when 
the crops failed, and proved to be equally so in Japan. (His, and an- 
other, are described under the heading "Famine Herbals.") 

Matsuoka Joan was the author of so many other works that only 
those included in the exhibition can be mentioned. He wrote on the 
flowering plums (Exhibit No. 37 ) and a book on crustaceans and 
molluscs (No. 19 ) which is shown with the botanical books to indicate 
that even judged by his specialized shorter writings he was a general 
naturalist. The short monographs have titles beginning with his most 
usual pen-name, "Igansai." 



59 



354 ASA GRAY BULLETIN N.S. VoL III, Nos. 3-4 



One who examines the work on orchids will find that it contains a 
selection of choice large-flowered plants, trees such as Magnolia as 
well as herbs. This is because many but not all of the plants whose 
names are compounded with the simple word "ran" are orchids, but 
not all orchids are "ran" and not all "ran" are~orchids. The classi- 
fication was aesthetic rather than scientific, or if based on definite 
properties of the plants may have had relation to odor instead of 
form. So in the Igansai Ranhin there are plants of various families 



Ono Ranzan (1729-1810) was a pupil of Matsuoka Joan and continued 
along the same lines, but in the opinion of Shirai (71 ) excelled him, 
being one of the three great figures of the natural history period. 
He was born after Kaibara and Ino were dead, but the love and know- 
ledge of plants had been passed on to him through Matsuoka. He 
edited a new edition of the latter's famine herbal in 1799 with new 
and m^ore illustrations (for the old blocks had been destroyed by fire 
at Kyoto in 1789. Of his numerous works we are able to exhibit (No. 
22, 1st, 2nd eds.) two editions of the beautifully illustrated work 
for which he is best known to Western botanists, written in joint 
authorship with Shimada Mitsufusa who is known under a confusing 
number of pen-names (Shimada Mitsufusa, Shimada Terufusa, Yonan 
Den, Yonan Si). 



According to the prefaces, this work was started by Shimada alone, 
but he found himself too busy to carry on with it after he had finished 
the second volume of eight. He then asked and received aid from 



Ranza 



I, who is supposed to have done most or possibly all of the 
work for the six succeeding volumes. That Shimada may have con- 
tinued to participate is indicated by quotations throughout from works 
that have not been alluded to by European bibliographers and may 
not be known except in Japan. If these were manuscripts by Shimada, 
and if much of the material of the Ka-i had already been written 



not have done the lion's share. 



Ranzan 



The Ka-i was the second Japanese botanical work that appeared 
as a whole in a European language. Savatier and Saba ( 62 ) trans- 
lated it into French, and it was published in 1875, but unfortunately 
without the pictures. (A somewhat similar work, translated into 
English, fully illustrated, was published in the United States in 1871.) 
The Ka-i was one of the three Japanese works of which was made 
use in the writing of Franchet and Savatier' s Enumeratio Plantarum 
in Japonia Crescentium (1875-79). The others were those of Iwasaki 
Tsunemasa and linuma Yokusai. 



Shirai ( 71 ) wrote a biographical sketch of Ono Ranzan for the 



60 



Spring, 1961 ASA GRAY BULLETIN 355 



hundredth anniversary of his death. He classified Ono as one of the 
general naturalists on account of the great commentary on the 
Honzo Kammu and a monograph on birds, but most of Ono's pub- 
lished work was botanical. He left many unpublished manuscripts. 
His lectures were extensively copied and much esteemed. In his 71st 
year he was called to Edo to lecture in the College of Chinese 
Medicine. Beginning then, in 1880, and continuing until 1905, he made 
annual excursions to the mountains for natural history study. Among 
Ono's students was Ohara Genzabur5, whose chief work, a miscellany 
of natural history, we are able to show. (See Exhibit T ), Ohara 
was the first to hold a post established by the lord of Kii for investi- 
gating the natural products of the region of Wakayama, and wrote a 
treatise on the resources of the province of Kishu. 



Later general naturalists, if represented by books in our exhibition, 
are mentioned in other connections, for only their botanical works 
are likely to be represented in the collection. 



THE FAMINE HERBALS 



As the name implies, the books called ^'famine herbals" described 
and illustrated uncultivated plants that could be used as food in time 
of scarcity. They formed a distinct group from books on foods or 
food plants in general, which dealt mainly with agricultural plants and 
products, but sometimes included some of the wild edible plants. 
The first famine herbals were borrowed from China. The well-known 
naturalist, Matsuoka Joan, prepared a collected Japanese edition of 
two such works in 1715, using as a general title that of the longest of 
them, namely, in Japanese, the Kyuko Honzo , the other being the 
Kyuko Yafu together with its supplement, the Kyuko Hoi . This work 
(Exhibits Nos. 12 and 13 ) long remained the chief source of 

information for authors of later books of the same sort. The wood 
blocks from which the first Japanese edition was printed were burned 
in the great Kyoto fire of 1789, The edition of 1799 (No. 969 of the 
Serrurier Cat.) for which the editor, Ono Ranzan, is said to have 
written an additional volume, was therefore from new blocks. (We 
have not seen this edition.) An 8-Volume commentary on the Kyuko 
Honzo by Iwasaki Tsunemasa was never printed but exists in manu- 
script, and a similar work by Ono Keiho, the grandson of Ono Ranzan, 
was published in 14 volumes in 1842. (Shirai; cf. no. 269 of de Rosny. 

58). 

The copied woodcuts in the Japanese edition of 1715 of the earlier 
Chinese work included by Matsuoka Joan in his Famine Herbal 



61 



356 ASA GRAY BULLETIN N.S. VoL III, Nos. 3-4 



exemplify the crudity of most Chinese botanical illustrations of the 
time in comparison with those of purely Japanese origin that soon 
followed. Vol. I contains the Kyuko Yafu as part 1 of the whole work, 
with 60 illustrations, and part two, in the same volume, is the Kyuko 
Yafu, Hoi , this being a supplement, also with 60 figures. The pictures, 
with a few exceptions, are so unrealistic that without the names and 
text most of them would be unrecognizable. In fact many are as bad 
as the majority of those that were printed in Europe before the ap- 
pearance of the herbals of Brunfels and Fuchs. The early European 
pictures had been copied with progressive deterioration by one scribe 
after another until little semblance to nature remained, and the same 
may have been true of early printed Chinese illustrations. VoL II 
contains the preliminary text of the Kyuko Honzo proper and a begin- 
ning of the descriptions and figures, as part 1 of the same work. The 
consecutively numbered parts continue through successive volumes, 
parts 13 and 14 making up VoL 8. The pictures range from a few 
that are almost as bad as possible to several that are really charac- 
teristic. 



Another edition dated 1716 is an almost indistinguishable copy of 



wo 



placed first and the two supplements follow, but this is only a matter 
of the title slips pasted on the covers, for if the original covers, 
with these binders titles, were lost, the great majority of the inside 
pages would be indistinguishable except for the slight differences in 
form of the characters, throughout all the volumes and in one double 
leaf of text being present in one edition that is absent from the other. 



Since it has seemed so inconceivable that blocks for an extensive 
work in many volumes should have been completely recut for a 
pirated edition as soon as the first issue had appeared, it is suggested 
that one or the other of the copies in our collection was intended to 
be a facsimile edition essentially without editorial changes, and that 
in spite of date it was prepared long after the original had gone out 
of print, perhaps after the Kyoto fire. There has been no chance to 
compare our two copies with Ono Ranzan's Miyako edition of 1799, 
which may have utilized the same new blocks. Certain it is, however, 
that in spite of the similarity being mostly so great as to deceive the 
eye at first sight, the whole work was recut, with only a very few 
characters being replaced by others. Someone in Japan may be able 
to solve this bibliographical puzzle. 



Our exhibition contains only one other of the several later famine 
herbals, but probably one of the best, namely, Takebe Seian's, as 
issued by Sugita Rikkyo in 1838 (Exhibit 14 ), 



62 



Spring, 1961 ASA GRAY BULLETIN 357 



PIONEER FLORAS OF JAPAN 



We have seen that the Yamato Honzo of Kaibara Ekken was the 
first work that could be looked upon as a flora of Japan^ but it was 
more inclusive than a flora, since it also dealt with animals and in- 
organic things. The Ka-i or "selection" of plants that was issued 
with illustrations by Shimada Terufusa and Ono Ranzan was likewise 
a start toward a flora, and the latter was one of the three works that 
Savatier was able to find in Japan (about 1872) that he considered to 
contain records of plants so definitely identified as Japanese that 

they were cited all the way through Franchet and Savatier' s 
Enumeratio (27), 



The other two works were very much more inclusive ones, by 
Iwasaki Tsunemasa and linuma Yokusai. Savatier was the field 
worker in Japan who collected the botanical specimens and biblio- 
graphic materials upon which he and his co-author Franchet based 
their enumeration. They tell us that they had access to about 150 
illustrated volumes of Japanese botanical books, of which 116 belonged 
to the three works that they considered important, and they do not 
even tell us what the others were. The Ka-i was in 8 volumes. 
They had a large part, 84 volumes out of the total of 93 (they and also 
Savatier say 96), of Iwasaki Tsunemasa's Honzo Zufu , and a com- 
plete set of the 1856 edition of linuma Yokusai' s Somoku Zusetsu 
in 20 volumes. This leaves only about 38 volumes which they had 
but did not consider important enough to mention by title or author. 



The two more extensive works, according to Shirai, were the great 
pioneer floristic efforts of the late natural history period. They 
show European influence. Iwasaki had become acquainted with von 
Siebold in 1826 at Edo. Iwasaki's work (partly in print and partly in 
manuscript) appeared earlier but had singularly ineffective distribu- 
tion in comparison with linuma' s. 



Before embarking on his flora, Iwasaki had written an 8 volume 
commentary on the Kyuko Honzo which was finished in 1817, but 
was never published. 



Next came his excellent work on plant propagation which 
alone would place him among the leaders in the horticultural history 
of Japan. It is discussed elsewhere. Then in 1828 certain volumes 
entitled Honzo Zufu (4 vols., dated 1830, are in the collection: 
Exhibit No* 23 ) were printed, with uncolored woodcuts. Beginning 
in 1829 manuscript copies of a vastly expanded work under the same 
title and illustrated by water-color paintings, said to have been in 96 
volumes, were distributed at the rate of about four volumes a year 



63 



358 ASA GRAY BULLETIN N.S. VoL III, Nos. 3-4 



until the work was finished at some time between 1844 and 1854. A 
set is said to have been presented to the Shogun in the latter year, 
but is also said to have been dedicated to the Shogun in 1844. There 
were very few copies of this elaborate work, which appeared in a 
modern printed edition of 93 volumes in_J920, each volume of which 
had supplementary pages by Shirai and Onuma Kohei, giving the 
Latin names. It was followed in 1922 by an index in two volumes 
annotated by Shirai, Of the original printed work of 1828 (1830?) six 
volumes (perhaps all, but there may have been eight) are to be found 
in the Library of Congress, 

Five volumes were printed in a modern edition at Tokyo (from the 
copy of Seikado Bunko, by Nihon Koken Zenshu Kanko-kai) in 1937, 
as Honzo tsukan shozu (Comprehensive Herbals illustrated) from 
an edition of 5 vols, published in 1853. This does not agree at all 
with the original printed work, of which our set has only 4 volumes, 
but a colophon sheet on the end cover indicates that these four were 
published as a complete work on "mountain herbs." It was announced 
that forthcoming parts would be on "fragrant" and on "wet" (aquatic?) 
herbs. Actually one of the additional volumes in the Library of 
Congress which we do not have is largely on mints and the other on 
sedges. The volumes are numbered on the title slips pasted to the 
original covers as I to IV, but inside as Volumes V to VI. We have 
not seen the edition of 1853, nor have we been able to verify the 
existence of editions of 1844 and 1884 which authors have mentioned. 
Only a few late volumes of the manuscript edition with water-color 
figures are available for our exhibition, together with a collection in 
4 volumes of paintings only to which the text was never added. As 
indicated below, some of the figures have been considered as prob- 
ably copies of old and poor European originals. There are no infer- 
ior borrowed figures in the few volumes which we happen to have seen: 
All are artistic and botanically admirable for their time. In his 
article of 1926 Shirai did not mention the original printed volumes of 
1828, and the illustrations cited by Franchet and Savatier are all from 
the manuscript edition. Their authors remark that they always cite 
the volume number found at the edge of each leaf, and not the number 
found on the cover, which, they say, is too high by four, because 
volume 5 as numbered on the cover, is the first volume with figures. 
It is surmised that it may have been intended, while it was in prepara- 
tion, to appear as volume I, but was preceded by four of the six 
printed volumes. So throughout the manuscript edition the covers and 
the actual pages carry volume numbers differing by four. 



Franchet and Savatier said of the Honzo Zufu : "This vast collection, 
giving figures in color of more than fifteen hundred species, herbs, 
trees, algae, and fungi, is only, to our eyes a compilation without 



64 



I 
I ■ 



Spring, 1961 ASA GRAY BULLETIN 359 



order, which, even though bearing the name of a single author, seems 
attributable to the collaboration of several artists of very unequal 
talent. Actually, beside certain volumes devoted more especially to 
Orchidaceae, Campanulaceae, Rhododendron , Hibiscus , Camellia , 
and Nelumbium , which testify to an experienced touch and a skilled 
observer^ there are others in which the artist is not appreciably 
above the level of the figures of the Kwa-wi [ Ka-i ] when not actually 
below it. The assemblage merits so well the title of a compilation 
that we believe it possible to say that several designs are not made 

from nature, but are derived from considerably older collections, 
even, indeed, from European works previously imported into Japan, 

It is impossible to overlook in certain figures of the nature of fanta- 
sies the style of artists of the period of Pison [Piso] and Aldrovande 
[Aldrovandus]. These figures are those in which one sees hatching 
and cross-hatching intended to express shadow and relief, artifices 
of illustration which were not usual in Japan, as one knows, and that 
point irrefutably, in our opinion, to borrowings made in the fashion 
of foreign originals. It is, nevertheless, proper to say that borrow- 
ings of this sort are few in the Phonzo Zoufon [ Honzo Zufu ]. We 
never cite these copies. In this collection horticulture was made a 
large part. One entire volume is devoted to camellias and to their 
different varieties. Another, admirably painted, gives all the forms 
of Hibiscus. The illustrating of the numerous variations of the 
Nelumbium, the cultivation of which is held in high esteem in Japan, 
occupies no less than five volumes. Whatever may be the inequalities 
of execution of this work, it would nevertheless be interesting to be 
able to enumerate all the determinable species that it includes. We 
now confine ourselves to mentioning, in our catalogue, the rarer 
plants figured in this great collection." 



With respect to the disparaging reference to the wood cuts of the 
Ka-i one may remark that down to the time when woodcuts were 
largely replaced in Europe by copper-plate engraving, there were few 
European botanical illustrations that were superior to those of the 

Ka-i. 



Shirai had said that the Honzo Zufu illustrated more than two 
thousand species of plants, chiefly of Japanese origin. The discrep- 
ancy with the number given by Franchet and Savatier is explained by 
the fact that the latter writers had an incomplete copy, lacking, they 
said, twelve volumes. They and Shirai both regarded linuma 
Yokusai's work as much better than Iwasaki' s. Certainly it was 
technically more detailed and accurate. 



linuma was a pupil of Ono Ranzan. He began his S omoku Zusetsu 
in 1832, and twenty volumes of it were published in 1856, containing 



65 



360 ASA GRAY BULLETIN N.S. VoL III, Nos. 3-4 



descriptions of 1201 species of herbaceous plants. Other parts, con- 
taining descriptions of about 600 species of woody plants^ were never 
published but were preserved in manuscript. 



A second edition was published in 1874 (Exhibit No. 29 ) and this 
one contains Latin names in Roman letters. The illustrations are 
both artistic and accurate. Sometimes in addition to the drawing of 
the plant as a whole there are excellent enlarged details, nicely hand- 
colored in tempera. 



Franchet and Savatier describe this work as the most remarkable, 
to their knowledge ^ that Japan had produced in the field of botany, and 
by no means a new edition of the Ka-i as Miquel had thought it 
was. They say that von Siebold instructed linuma, and his work 
gives evidence of his acquaintance with European languages. The 
order of the work is Linnaean. The orderliness of the arrangement, 
accuracy of the detailed colored figures, and characteristic aspect 
of the black wood-cuts of the entire plants create a very favorable 
impression. The identification of most of the plants was given by 
Franchet and Savatier ( 27 ) in a Japanese-name index appended to 
their Enumeratio , which included also the names fron:i tlie Ka-i 
and the Honzo Zufu . The French authors were assisted by Tanaka 
Yoshio, Ono Motoyoshi, and Ito Keisuke. 



The second edition of linuma' s remarkable flora was published 
with a preface in French and a lithographic portrait of the author. 
The editors were Tanaka and Ono Motoyoshi. The former tells us 
that they added the Latin names to the illustrations, as well as spell- 
ing out the Japanese names in Roman following the English pronunci- 
ation. They thanked Savatier, resident in Yokosuka, for verifying the 
scientific names. The figures are striking for the contrast between 
upper and lower leaf surfaces, the former rendered in white on black 
and the latter in black on white. 



After publication of the 20 volumes of the first edition, linuma had 
continued his labors in preparation of tlie remainder of the herbs, 
namely, the Gramineae , Cyperaceae and Pteridophyta, and the whole 
of the woody plants, planning to bring the work up to 40 volumes. The 
ten volumes on trees and shrubs for which linuma had completed the 
manuscript were presented to government authorities with tlie recom- 
mendation that they be published, but the request seems not to have 
been favorably received. 



Of the three botanists who were chiefly concerned in editing and 
promoting the publication of the second edition, Tanaka and Ono pub- 
lished an index to the work in 1875. Tanaka became well known as 



66 



Spring, 1961 ASA GRAY BULLETIN 361 



the author of a work on the useful plants of Japan (Exhibit No. 28 ) 
and wrote various articles. He was botanically active until the end 
of the century, and his own publications bridged from the old to the 
new. Ono was known chiefly for his study of botanical terminology 
and for rendering of technical terms in Japanese. He wrote a botani- 
cal dictionary based upon Lindley's. Ito Keiske had a long career in 
botany. He was one of the group who were associated with von 
Siebold in 1826, In 1827 he was president of the natural history 
Society of Owari at Nagoya and at least twice participated in publish- 
ing its proceedings. In 1829 he published in two 
volumes and a supplement a catalogue of Japanese plants with Latin 
names, based upon a manuscript of Thunberg, When the Bureau for 
Western Learning was organized in 1857 he and Tanaka Yoshio be- 
came associated with it, for research in natural history, and his 
work matured as a descriptive natural history of twelve provinces, 
separately treated, published in Japanese style in 1873. In 1874 ap- 
peared Japanese plants illustratea (Exhibit No. 24 ) with a preface 
in French, by Savatier, xylographically reproduced in Japanese style. 
This is so interesting that we may translate with modernized spelling 
a bit of it, as follows: 



'The great illustrated works on botany, such as the books Ka-i 
written by Yonan Si [Shimada Mitsufusa], Somoku Zusetsu by linuma, 
and Honzo Zufu by Iwasaki, accompanied by many figures, give a 
general idea of the flora of Japan, but still lack many things . . . 



■ 

'The best disciple of Ono Ranzan (the Linnaeus of Japan) was 

Mizutani Sugeroku, who has written on the flora of his country. Ito 
Keisuke was, in turn, the favorite student of Sugeroku, at the same 
time as linuma, author of the Somoku Zusetsu , for which he wrote 
a preface. All his life he has been busy in the study of plants, and 
his relations with Siebold made him conversant with classifications 

adopted in Europe. 



''At a time when Siebold studied the flora of Japan, when it was not 
permitted that Europeans should traverse the country, M. Ito Keisuke 
shared his collections and discoveries, so that the name Ito Keisuke 
is honorably known to all Europeans who study botany. It is quite 
understandable that he had found it necessary to describe the plants 
that he has discovered and that had not been described in the Japan- 
ese works or had not been well illustrated; moreover, that, in spite 
of his advanced age, he is about to publish several volumes that are 
the fruit of his new researches . . . Instead of tiring him, his labors 
seem to rejuvenate him and the passing years neither to diminish 
his ardor for science nor to blemish his amiable character. May we 
hope that even yet he may live long years to reveal still unknown 



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362 ASA GRAY BULLETIN N.S. VoL III, Nos, 3-4 



botanical riches of Japan/' 



Ito Keiske began his career by a study of Latin plant nomen- 
clature based upon Thunberg, was a friend of von Siebold, and car- 
ried on research in botany for half a century to become a helpful 
friend of Savatier, who was delighted to pay him honor for his scien- 
tific accomplishments and his noble character. His last work, in 
Japanese only, appeared in 1881 and 1883, two volumes describing 
plants of the Koishikawa Botanical Garden at Tokyo* 



AGRICULTURAL BOTANY AND AGRONOMY 



Japanese scientific literature has a number of interesting early 
books on agriculture, but only a very few find a place in this primari- 
ly botanical collection, included because they deal with crop plants 
from a more or less botanical standpoint and contain plant illustra- 
tions. We are able to show the best of the works on agricultural 
botany, the most expensive and finest of the pre-Meiji monographs 
on the cultivation of a single species, namely, that on the Japan tal- 
low- or wax-tree (Rhus Succedanea), and two of the more interesting 
books on tobacco (one of them of greater ethnographic than agrono- 
mic interest, but the other, of late date, a most remarkable agrono- 
mic monograph), a modern facsimile of an old book on paper plants 
and paper-making, and one of the monographs on bamboo. Special 
books on tea, the lacquer tree, rice and other individual economic 
plants have not turned up, but have not been especially sought. 



According to Shirai the great encyclopaedic treatise on agri- 
culture which was begun in 1792 by the Bureau of Natural Products 
of Kagoshima (Exhibit No. 33) never progressed beyond the 30 
volumes that were published in 1804, although it was intended that 
the work should extend to 100 volumes. The great fire of Edo in 
1806 burned the residence of its sponsor, Lord Shimazu, where the 
blocks of the parts already printed were stored, and these were des- 
troyed, as also the manuscript which had been prepared for the con- 
tinuation. So Senshun, the chief author, was a prolific writer on 
natural history. The treatise begins with the usual prefaces, and 
through VoL VI deals with generalities, illustrated by several very 
curious scenes of ceremonies and farmsteads, then with rice planting, 
agricultural festivals, harvesting, etc. Following volumes through 
VoL XII take up surveying, irrigation, drainage, flood control, etc. 
Vols. XIII and XIV deal with farm tools, implements, measures, etc. 
The actual agricultural botany begins with the description of rice 
varieties in Vols. XV and XVI, followed by other cereals and the 
legumes in Vols. XVII through XX. Cruciferous root crops and 



68 



Spring, 1961 ASA GRAY BULLETIN 363 



green vegetables come in VoL XXI; aroids and yams in Vol. XXII; 
burdock, umbellifers, Amaranthus , and other miscellanea in Vol. 
XXITI; onions and ginger in Vol. XXIV, more miscellaneous plants, 
including Capsicum in Vol. XXV; cucurbits and egg-plant in Vol. 
XXVII; lotus (i.e., Nelumbo) and the water chestnut in VoL XXVIII; 
more Cruciferae in VoL XXIX, and a final miscellany of wildlings 
for famine food, ranging from Compositae to Equisetum , in VoL 

XXX. ~~ 



This great work on agriculture and agricultural botany is a 
priceless record, beautifully illustrated. The parts extant were to 
have been continued by those on fungi, and after the fire work ceased 
except on that one subject. Much progress had been made when a 
second fire in 1829 again wiped out all that had been done. So Senshu 
had prepared more manuscript and part of the blocks had been cut. 
Even then the project was not entirely abandoned, but died a lingering 
death. It had been a noble one in conception, and also in execution 
so far as it went, but could not survive the succession of calamities. 



The work on the tallow- or wax-tree (Rhus succedanea ) is one 
of the most remarkable monographs on a single economic plant in 
the literature of Japanese botany. Its author, Okura Nagatsune, evi- 
dently had great faith that the cultivation of this tree as a special 
crop would alleviate the poverty of many farmers. It is interesting 
to see that encouragement of agricultural diversification by promoting 
highly specialized local crops is nothing new in Japan. The preface, 
signed by Okuno, states that Okura had already written works on the 
raising of sugar-cane, cotton, indigo, cedar trees, Paulownia, and on 
paper making. Obviously he was a genuine enthusiast for special 
cultures! Okuno said that of the four classes of people, namely the 
samurai , the farmers, the artisans and the merchants, the farmers 
worked hardest and got the least reward for their labor. Recently, 
however, a few farmers had made some profit from planting wax 
trees. Mr. Okura's prospectively beneficial work on wax trees and 
wax manufacture had greatly impressed him, and so he had advised 
its publication. An English rendering of the title might be "Bene- 
fiting Farmers/^ Serrurier ( 66 , no. 1074) made it (in French) 
"The Profit of the Laborer/' Okura's book, as we have it (Exhibit 
No. 34) consists of a first series of three volumes published in 1802, 
a second series of two volumes, with no indication of the date being 
later (but Serrurier says 1803) and a third series of two volumes in 



1818. 



expanded 



(1818, 1820 and 1854), which Serrurier cites in indicating that the 
work consists of 22 volumes. 



Running through this fully illustrated work gives a view of the 
botanical aspect of the plant, the appearance of plantings, the de- 

69 



364 ASA GRAY BULLETIN N.S. VoL III, Nos. 3-4 



capitation of the trees to induce a low-branching orchard-type of 
growth, the complete procedure of grafting superior scions into the 
base of old trunks, completely divested of their own crowns, the 
grafting of undetached branches of old trees onto young trees, the 
harvesting of the fruits, the flailing of the inflorescences and subse- 
quent pounding of the fruits in a mortar operated by a pestle attached 
to a "teeter-totter" for operation by foot, the cooking out of the wax, 
and subsequent operations in the preparation and marketing of the 
commercial product. 

The books on tobacco (Exhibits 31 and 32) are remarkably 
different from each other. The old one (1809) is only to a minor 
extent agronomic, but if not placed here it would fit best under eth- 
nology. The author, Otsuki Gentaku, tells us that 15 or 16 years 
before writing his own, he had come across a considerable number 
of books in which there were accounts of tobacco. He knew twenty- 
four Dutch (or Latin) writings on tobacco, but seems to have used 
about nine. The first author mentioned was Dodonyusu, who can be 
none other than Dodonaeus, but others are less easily recognizable. 
It is from Dodoen's herbal that the botanical illustrations were copied 
Regarding the history of tobacco in Japan, he tells us that the seeds 
were brought by a foreign ship in the Tensho period (1673-1687) or 
maybe Keicho period (1596-1614) and that plants were grown in 
Sakurababa, Nagasaki, (Shirai gives the same place of original 
planting, but 1605 as the date.) Otsuki gathered together a great 
many pictures of tobacco smoking and the implements associated 
with it in many countries and these are reproduced in his book. One 
of them may have given the Japanese some of their earliest ideas of 
the American Indians, for a picture is introduced of a native of 
Tobacco Island (!) in America smoking a long twist of tobacco 
leaves. This he savs is from "Shomeriru's book." He mentions 29 
Japanese authors on tobacco, the earliest being of the Kan'ei period 
(1624-1644) and others of the Tenwa period (1681[1684). He also 
refers to 38 Chinese authors. 



By way of contrast, we show the chiefly agronomic treatise 
on tobacco by Aoe which appeared in 1881. It does not neglect the 
history of tobacco smoking, however, and gives pleasingly precise 
information, partly in the English legends of the 156 figures, but 
also largely quoted from the preceding author, Otsuki Gentaku. He 
is very definite about the date at which the Japanese were becoming 
acquainted with the smoking of tobacco, for a picture of a pipe is 
given which was made in 1577 by the order of Toyotomi Hideyoshi 
by Minakuchi Gombei. 



70 



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Spring, 1961 ASA GRAY BULLETIN 365 



This remarkable monograph is richly illustrated by 156 
colored figures, many of them large, folded inserts. It deals with 
morphology of the tobacco plant, planting, handling and care of seed 
beds, shelters, transplanting, weeding, trapping moles, final trans- 
planting, use of wheat as a ''nurse" crop to prevent wind damage, 
insect pests, various named diseases, harvesting, curing, prepara- 
tion for market, history of smoking, geography of the Japanese tobac- 
co-growing region, grading and qualities of the product. It is proba- 
bly as interesting a monograph of a single crop plant as any nation 
could show at the same time. From the standpoint of book-making, 
the format is distinctly Western except for the superficially Japanese 
appearance of the paper-covered parts. It is printed from type in 
Chinese characters and neat katakana . The leaves are not doubled, 
are printed on both sides. The illustrations, alas, are not neat 
Japanese diptychs, but big irregularly folded inserts in Western 
style. The pagination is Western, for both sides of each leaf are 
numbered. This work is one of those which began to appear in large 
numbers about a decade after the restoration of imperial rule and 
which are modern in typography. At first glance this one appears 
to be transitional in retaining the traditional wood-cut illustrations. 
These, however, have had the black outlines printed from metal, 
with the frame-lines of the pages and the text, probably from photo- 
graphically produced line engravings on zinc. Only the colors were 
added with a succession of printings from wood blocks. That the 
color printing was actually from wood may be seen by examination 
with a good lens, which will show up the grain of the wood in many 
of the illustrations. All in all, the printing of this copiously illus- 
trated work with its effective coloring was a marvel of technical 
ingenuity. 



At the end of the last volume the author has an English post- 
face, in which he abstracts the content of his work. One pleasing 
sentence is this: "Small kinds of birds, as sparrows, and also some 
kinds of bees and tree frogs, etc., are useful to the tobacco cultivator, 
as they eat some of the most injurious insects." One wonders about 
the bees, but the general sentiment is admirable. As to the history 
of tobacco in Japan, he tells us that the Portuguese introduced 
smoking when Christianity was first brought, but there was no mention 
at first of cultivation of the plant. About 1596 tobacco seed was im- 
ported from some foreign country and cultivated in the town of Ebusuki 
in the province of Satsuma. This was the first cultivation in Japan. 
It was reported that seeds brought by a foreign ship were planted at 
Sakurababa in the town of Nagasaki, and that seeds from there were 
taken to Shinano by a travelling Buddhist priest. From there tobacco 
was disseminated all over eastern Japan. 



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366 ASA GRAY BULLETIN N.S. VoL III, Nos. 3-4 



It was soon realized that tobacco was an evil in more ways 
than one- About 1652 a Chinese Buddhist priest admonished his 
Japanese brethren against its use, in Chinese poetry. The Shogun, 
Prince Tokugawa Hidetada, prohibited its use for the second time 
in 1607, and a third time in 1609, after his first order had been dis- 
regarded. In 1609 he prohibited not only smoking but also tobacco 
growing- In 1611 he decreed the penalty for selling tobacco as con- 
fiscation of property, which should be given to the informer. Any 
man arresting a person on horseback who had tobacco in his possess- 
ion should have both horse and baggage (but presumably not the 
tobacco!). In 1615 it was found that the officers who served the 
Shogun himself, in Edo, were smoking, and the order for confiscating 
the property of offenders was again issued. After that, numerous 
edicts followed one after another, to no avail. The vice continued. 
A poem by the Mikado mentioned that smoking went on in his own 
palace! By 1624 the government began to give in to the inevitable 
and relaxed the regulations, but still would not allow the economic 
loss that resulted from planting tobacco on rice fields or in vege- 
table gardens. This law was in effect until 1679, when the law 
courts refused to listen to any further contention about tobacco. 
The shoguns themselves took to smoking, and had finely wrought 
pipes of silver and brass. In 1789 it was prohibited to ornament 
pipes with silver, gold, or brass. In spite of everything tobacco 
production became one of the chief industries of Japan. 



Our agricultural-botanical books are few and the last (Exhibit 
No. 36) deals with a Japanese specialty, the bamboos. These have 

as extensive a place in Japanese life as they do elsewhere in the 
Far East. The Nihon Chikufu ( Japanese bamboos ) appears to 
be typeset because it is printed in such neat kanji and kana, but 
careful comparison of different examples of the same characters 
reveals the individual differences of penmanship. So it is a very 
late old-style book in imitation of new-style. There are no Latin 
names. The illustrations are beautiful black line drawings, and 
illustrate the chief Japanese bamboos not merely in superficial as- 
pects, but in considerable detail, extending even to the underground 
parts, to abnormalities, and to diseased conditions. The pictures 
give little evidence that the author had a chance to study flowering 
specimens. 



Some of the books that might be considered agricultural are 
best placed elsewhere, with economic products or with horticulture. 



72 



Spring, 1961 ASA GRAY BULLETIN 367 



THE HORTICULTURE OF OLD JAPAN IN GENERAL 
AND HORTICULTURAL HOBBIES IN PARTICULAR 



Horticulture was highly advanced in pre-Meiji Japan. There 
were a number of horticultural hobbies, some of which can be 
traced back to China, but others were local in origin. "Plants of 
the four seasons", favorite ornamentals in both countries, and 
generally of some symbolic significance, were for the most part 
the same in both countries , and the older art based upon them was 
very similar. For instance, the cultivation of plum and cherry 
goes far back, and Old Japan had special books on the ornamental 
varieties of each. The lotus was sacred to Buddhism and culti- 
vated early in both countries. The chrysanthemum (kiku) was 
popular in both countries, and especially in Japan, because it was 
the emblem of the Imperial House. 



Literature on ornamentals in general and their cultivation 
goes back at least to 1664. The work which in a later and greatly 
expanded edition became the standard work on Japanese garden 
botany was first published by the florist Sannojyo in 1695 and is 
included in the collection. It includes such favor- 

ites as garden varieties of peony (mutan), morning-glory, camellia, 
azalea, and many other plants. 



Just as in America, there came to be hobby societies in Japan 
for growing and exhibiting particular groups of plants, or miscel- 
laneous plants of similar utility in the garden. These horticultural 
hobby organizations as well as individual growers held shows or 
opened their gardens to their friends or to the public at times when 
the plants were at their best. They started special branches of 
horticultural literature. The growing of natural or artificial dwarf 
trees ( bonsai) was (and still remains) a specialty of great antiquity, 
taken to Japan from China, and a bibliography of its special litera- 
ture, dating at least from 1827, would be of imposing length, but, 
curiously enough, all of our numerous special publications on this 
hobby are too late for inclusion in the exhibition. We are able to 
show the standard work on variegated leaved plants (Exhibit No. 52) 
and representative illustrated books dealing with several horti- 
cultural specialties. 



The three earliest works on the chrysanthemum mentioned by 
Shirai were published in 1699, 1712, and 1713, The fourth, of 1715 
(Exhibit No. 54) is the first that we can show. The author, Shimizu, 
tells us that he found chrysanthemums superior to other flowers. 



73 



368 ASA GRAY BULLETIN N.S. VoL III, Nos. 3-4 



for they did not compete with the flowers of spring and diffused a 
fine fragrance late in the falL He wished posterity to remember 
his love for them and so was led to write his book. The first volume 
(Jo) dealt with cultivation and propagation; the second (Chu) with 
tlie harmful insects and other pests, and how to destroy them; the 
third [Ge ) w^ith five special varieties^ with the making- of chrysan- 
themum sake (Japanese wine) and its medicinal use, with the nature 
of the floral variations shown by 49 varieties, and, finally, with 100 
poems inspired by the chrysanthemum. 



Vol. II is a pioneer contribution on pests. One finds text 
figures of the tender growing tip crowded witli aphids, of the lady- 
bug who carried tliem there, of an eel-worm, of boring larvae, of a 
slug and a snail. The illustrations in vol. Ill begin with the varieties 
in which all of the disc flowers are transformed into flat ligulate 
flowers. Next come those with the disc flowers reduced in number 
but very large, surrounded by the numerous ligulate ones. In the 
next the disc remains the same but the ligulate flowers become 
transformed into quills with mouths varying in obliquity, in flare, 
or in having more or less of a spatulate or spoon-like appendage. 
All the varieties illustrated down to this date were apparently small- 
flowered. 



The species to which the cultivated varieties are conventionally 
referred is Chrysanthemum sinense^ but, by the time the prolifer- 
ation of chrysanthemum literature began, there were already un- 
numbered horticultural varieties. The history of some of the chief 
lines of descent of the varieties might perhaps be traced far back 
by study of authentically dated old Japanese and Chinese paintings 
rather than by book illustrations, for the chrysanthemum lias a long 
record in art because of inclusion among the "Flowers of the Four 
Seasons/' which afforded an inexhaustible theme for Chinese and 
Japanese painters long before book illustration was of much signifi- 
cance for botanical and horticultural history. 



Since the existence of numerous chrysanthemum varieties 
goes so far into the past there is no certainty tliat Mendelian or 
other segregation following interspecific hybridization may not have 
started the extraordinary diversity that already existed two and a 
half centuries ago. There has been considerable speculation on the 
subject of origin but the subject still needs more study with the aid 
of modern techniques. 



By the time the first special book on chrysanthemums was 
published in 1699 there must have been hundreds of horticultural 
forms not as large-flowered as those developed a little later but in- 
cluding most of the usual morphological variations that are now 



74 



Spring, 1961 ASA GRAY BULLETIN 369 



grown, Shirai tells us that this beginning of a special literature on 
chrysanthemums led to the publication of at least two other books 
before 1715, when the earliest one included in our exhibition (No. 
54 ) appeared, namely the Kadan yogiku Shu of Shimizu Kanji, 
Soon there were various others, closely spaced, leaving a record 
of the immensely popular chrysanthemum shows. The publication 
on a Kyoto show of 1717 described 710 horticultural forms and 
named 249 members of the exhibiting society as having attended. 
Such shows have continued down to the present, and must have long 
preceded the surviving published accounts of them. 



The work of 1715 which is exhibited has as a frontispiece a 
chrysanthemum show. It occupies two pages of the first of the three 
horizontally oblong volumes, but the different shape of our pages 
requires the vertically divided halves of the scene to be shown one 
above the other instead of side by side. The house of the exhibition 
was opened to the garden by removal of the shutters, a charac- 
teristic feature of old-fashioned Japanese house architecture* 
Among the arriving departing guests are samurai, wearing their 
two swords, and other gentry. Sitting formally on their heels, in 
pairs or little groups, the guests within the house are engaged in 
contemplation of the flowers and polite conversation. The flowers 
are displayed as solitary stalks in widely spaced bamboo containers, 
allowing each to be separately admired. 



Illustrations that follow in the second volume show diseased 
conditions of the chrysanthemum and some of its animal pests, such 
as cutworms, beetles, plant lice (with a lady-bug!) snails and slugs. 
This volume must surely rate as a pioneer publication in the field 
of plant pathology! The third volume pictures 48 types of floral 
morphology useful as a basis for classifying the varieties, and in- 
cluding most of the main genetic combinations and mutations that 
would be found among the varieties grown today. 



Large-flowered varieties, Shirai tells us, were exhibited for 
the first time at Kyoto in 1717. With their appearance the interest 
in cultivation of chrysanthemums grew apace, and the shows became 
popular annual events, as they have been ever since. Published 
catalogues listed hundreds of exhibitors and thousands of cultural 
types. 



Books on chrysanthemums alone were probably numerous 
after the first ones appeared but they are lacking in our exhibition 
down to some of recent date. An especially interesting one is that 
of Kono Bairei, Kiku Hyakushu (One hundred chrysanthemums). 
Although late (1892) it was done in imitation of the old tane - e prints 
of about 1770-1830 in which the tints were not necessarily imitative 

75 



370 ASA GRAY BULLETIN N. S. VoL III, Nos. 3-4 



of nature but provided contrast. They are highly naturalistic in 
form but not in color, and represent an interesting experiment in 
reversion to a bye-gone mode by an artist remarkable in the later 
days of ukiyo-e art for the fidelity with which his full coloring was 
reproduced by the printer. Although considerably later than the 
date at which experts on Japanese color-printing have generally 
said the craft had become hopelessly degenerate, but still long 
before the conscious efforts at regeneration that began some decades 
later, Kono Bairei produced some of the most successful flower and 
bird prints of any date. These will be found exhibited with the Kacho 
and Related Art Books. 



The last of our chrysanthemum pictures are unfortunately un- 
identified. They are from a book taken apart by Miss Roda Selleck 
of Indianapolis perhaps forty or fifty years ago (in order to exhibit 
the prints separately) and never reassembled. They are strikingly 
successful in representation of form and color, and depict a con- 
siderable number of the morphological types that are found among 
modern large-flowered varieties. 



In the 19th and 20th centuries there were so many chrysan- 
themum shows, so much alike even though constantly becoming 

larger and attracting more public attention, that few of them could 
be signalized by printed catalogues. Every large city had them 
annually, and they came to be routine and expected seasonal at- 
tractions, as much a part of the life of the Japanese people as county 
agricultural fairs in America. 



The great naturalist Matsuoka Gentatsu (Matsuoka Joan) wrote 
early books on the plums and the cherries. The former (Exhibit No. 
37 ) was published in 1760 after Matsuoka's death, which occurred 
in 1745, by his disciples Koga Keigen and Imaeda Eisai. The first 
volume dealt with white-flowered varieties, of which 29 varieties 
were illustrated and described. All the names were given, both 
Chinese and, if there were any, Japanese. The preface by Koga 
Keigen told how plum blossoms were esteemed in olden times above 
all other flowers, and how they had been anciently planted by imperial 
edict. In the second volume 25 pink-flowered varieties were de- 
scribed and figured, as well as a group of six that were of various 
colors. Finally, a group of flowering trees were considered that 
were similar to plums but were probably actually different. Some 
such were included that had no Japanese names, and some that were 
known by names ending in "-ume" and therefore should be plums, 
but might not be such. 



76 



Spring, 1961 ASA GRAY BULLETIN 371 



Matsuoka's horticultural monograph on the flowering cherries 
appeared with black illustrations in (Exhibit 38 ). We have not seen 
early editions with pink and green tinting. One of later date (Ex- 
hibit 38) is so colored, however, but otherwise a copy of the original 

edition. 



A monograph of a horticultural assemblage of plants for which 
the name is often translated as ''orchids'' was also written by Mat- 
suoka (Exhibit 17). According to the Japanese conception the or- 
chids were included in the herbaceous division of the plants called 
ran with plants of other families. The chief "hobby'' orchids were 
of the genera Dendrobium and Goodyera. The tree division of the 

^^^^^_^-^^^_-^^^^-^^^^_— ■ ■ ■■■II > 

ran included such trees as Magnolia. 



As defined by Japan's older botanists the name "ran belonged 
to a category of plants that were not at all botanically related. 



Orchids, for example, were included among the grass - ran and 
Magnolia among the "tree-ran/^ As in some early European 
classifications by name, the concept of the group depended upon 
some non- morphological similarity. At least many ran were 
fragrant when fresh, pleasantly aromatic when dry, and would com- 
municate their fragrance to the hair or clothing. Some orchids 
develop coumarin or vanillin in drying, and some grasses do like- 
wise, so it need not surprise one to find sweet-grass included among 
the "orchids/' if we so translate ranhin. 



Only one of the several Japanese works that deal mostly or 
largely with orchids, Matsuoka's is one of the earliest. Serrurier 
renders the title of this "orchid" book as "Ornamental plants of 
which the name is compounded with the character ''ran," 



Other plants for which there was an early "hobby" literature 
included Ardisia (Exhibit 47 ), for which the first special horti- 
cultural book appeared in 1797, and Psilotum triquetrum. 



The latter is a curious fern ally of isolated systematic relation- 
ship, slow-growing and difficult to cultivate. It is not the sort of a 
species in which one would expect to turn up many mutations. Such 
either originated in cultivation in numbers, however, or were perhaps 
spontaneous and genetically distinct forms found in nature, and of 
unknown antiquity. Psilotum was known to Japanese horticulture 
by a name which meant "pine-leaf orchid/' and presumably its 
classification with the orchids may have come about because of the 
frequently epiphytic habit of both. We are able to display an appar- 
ently unpublished manuscript on Psilotum (Exhibit No. 48 ) and 
two printed works. 



77 



372 ASA GRAY BULLETIN N.S. VoL III, Nos. 3-4 



Another horticultural hobby that had a great vogue was the 
cultivation of Rhodea japonica . This plant of the lily family (known 
in Japanese as omoto ; it has no common name in English) has only 
one Jaoanese species, and, being geographically as well as geneti- 
cally isolated, can only produce hereditary variations of various 
types by mutation. About the same time that morning-glories were 
becoming so diverse by mutation, similar diversity was appearing 
in Rhodea. A good many of the aberrant types were irregularly 
malformed or streaked and spotted with white, which might suggest 
virus infection as well as mutation, but other types had every appear- 
ance of being hereditary. They were very numerous, and a number 
of books illustrated them. One especially interesting sort had the 
midvein of the leaves extended beyond the lamina as a tail-like 
curved appendage, and this mutation suggests the manner in which 
the same characteristic may have arisen in the rare genera in 
which it is a constant generic feature, as in Flagellaria and 
Nepenthes. This feature has appeared by mutation in other genera, 
Oenothera , for example, in which it is not characteristic of any 
established species or variety. The old books on Rhodea, of which 
several are shown (Exhibits No. 45 to 46 ) point out material which 
the experimentalist might find useful. In Japan Rhodea is prized 
as one of the "plants of winter" for its broad lustrous leaves persist 
through very cold weather and contrast strikingly with the red berries 



One of the nicest books on Rhodea appears to have been 
written after the variety with caudate-tipped leaves had died out, 
for the authors do not include it. They state that no detailed account 
of the plant had been made public, that their pictures were truthful 
(the implication being that some others might not be) and that in 
spite of extensive variation in size and color of flowers, leaves, 
and fruit there were actually only seven chief types. 

The most interesting of the horticultural hobbies from a scien- 
tific standpoint was the growing of morning glories. Although the 
varieties supposedly arose by mutation from a single species, 
Pharbitis Nil, which is somewhat isolated, from a systematic 
standpoint, the possibility that hybridity rather than mutation had 
something to do with the origin of a remarkable plexus of very 
different types cannot be ruled out without experimental evidence. 



The varieties show the most astounding morphological changes, 
ranging all the way from the familiar and normal flared flowers, 
with corolla round in outline, to deeply cleft narrow-petaled varie- 
ties. In some the corolla divisions are fimbriate. Some flowers 
show the "hose-in-hose" form, as English gardeners term a type 
in which one gamopetalous corolla occurs within another. The 
stamens of some varieties were non-functional and their large. 



78 



■' ^ 



Spring, 1961 ASA GRAY BULLETIN 373 



colored, modified sterile anthers hung out of the flowers on long 
filaments. The mutations are so numerous and striking that we 
seem to see in them evidence that the evolution of very widely 
different morphological types in nature need not always have re- 
quired a long time. 



Just as in European horticulture it has been assumed that all 
the varieties and forms of the sweet-pea, Lathyrus odoratus, 
have developed by successive mutations from the wild type, since 
no species is known that hybridizes with it, so it is presumed, until 
there is evidence to the contrary, that Pharbitis Nil is so isolated 
in relationship that its varieties are not the result of Mendelian 
segregation in a line of descent from a wide cross^ but are actually 
the result of a succession of mutations. These are the horticultural 
forms of the Japanese morning glory, or asagao . The peculiarity 
of its behavior, which makes it especially appeal to floricultural 
hobbyists, is that its most divergent forms appear sporadically and 

unpredictably, and are likely to be physiologically or morphologi- 
cally so aberrant, that often they can not be perpetuated by seed. 
They appear by chance among large numbers of seedlings, are 
recognized by expert growers as unusual, are singled out and 
pampered in every possible way in the hope that they may prove 
to be rare or even unique types when they flower, and bring recog- 
nition to a lucky exhibitor at a morning-glory show. 



At the beginning of the 19th century morning-glory societies 
were rapidly formed to support the hobby of growing and exhibiting 
the asagao . It is truly strange that some Japanese Hugo de Vries 
of a century ago did not anticipate the theory of evolution by 
mutation, for the annual exhibitions included such strange and 
bizarre deviations from what might be expected that there were 
indications of several possible evolutionary lines of descent from 
the ordinary type as a progenitor. These supposedly mutational 
types included, it seems, remarkable somatic mutations. Some of 
the most remarkable ones may have been the result of virus in- 
fections, but enough of them were clearly hereditary to have pro- 
vided material for generations of genetical experimentation. 



So the old books on asagao ought to appeal to the geneticist, 
antiquated as they are, for there is nothing more interesting on the 
origin of widely deviating types in the whole of botanical literature. 
The first two of the asagao books may have been published in 1815, 
but by then there were already 160 different forms. These were 
described in 1815 by Master of Kotendo, in Kadan Asagao- tsu 
(Complete collection of morning glories), and in the Kengyu 
Hinruik o both of which are exhibited (Nos. 39 and 40). In 1817 
there were three works, namely the Kengyu Hin (Exhibit No. 41 ) 

79 



374 ASA GRAY BULLETIN N.S, VoL III. Nos. 3-4 



and in 1818 two more, of which the Asagao Fu by Master of 
Shusui Charyo, illustrated by Notansai, is in the collection (No. 42). 
From this time on the morning glory societies of Edo, Kyoto, 
Osaka^ and elsewhere held frequent exhibitions. The Asagao Zufu 
(Morning glory pictures) of 1854 by Naritaya Tomejiro is the latest 
of the pre-Meiji books in the collection. After its sudden rise, the 
hobby was destined to decline, but revived again. 



There have been times when tlie cultivation of Japanese 
morning glories seemed to make progress in America, and some 
of the rare mutations were even grown and exhibited at the "Japan- 
ese Tea Garden" in Atlantic City, New Jersey, for a couple of years 
about 1900. This enterprise failed, however, and the hobby did not 
persist. It was revived in the United States by Jenny (36) who not 
only grew many varieties and distributed seeds to many garden en- 
thusiasts, but also succeeded in making iterative crosses of a large- 
flowered crimson variety of the Japanese morning-glory as the 
pistillate parent with the white American moon-flower, Calonyction 
which some consider to be a separate genus from Ipomoea and 
others classify as a subgenus only. The resulting hybrid had a 
crimson center surrounded by white, and Jenny named it "Banzai," 
hoping that its cultivation would be continued by Japanese growers. 
He presented seeds to Japanese officials in Washington for trans- 
mittal to Japan. As a result of Jenny's efforts, in the United States 
gardeners grew his "Banzai" and other varieties. The interest of 
Mrs. Mary Cokely Wood (94) who published on her experiences, 
was independent, however, having been aroused during her residence 
in Japan, where she secured her own seeds. 



INVESTIGATORS OF ECONOMIC NATURAL PRODUCTS 



The Shogun Yoshimune himself promoted the investigation 
of natural products and ordered provincial governors and clan 
chieftains to do likewise. The lord of Kii therefore established 
the Bureau for Natural Products of Wakayama in 1794 and placed 
in charge of it Ohara Genzaburo, who was a pupil of Ono Ranzan, 
(See Exhibit No, 7 ). Ohara wrote a Miscellany of Natura l 
History , which we exhibit (No. 7 ). He was succeeded by Kuroda 
Suizauj who was a nrolific author. This was also true of Sato Seigo, 
naturalist of the "Natural Products Bureau of Mito/' who, according 
to Shirai, completed his Products of Mountains and Seas ^ in 100 
parts (maki) in 1830. One of the most active of the local Bureaus 
was that of the Lord of Shimazu in Kagoshima, which produced in 



80 



Spring, 1961 ASA GRAY BULLETIN 375 



1789 an iniDortant work on the flora of the Ryukyu Islands and, in 
1804; the first great Japanese compendium of agricultural botany 
(Exhibit No. 33), the latter by So Senshun. 



Insofar as the conception of natural products drifted toward 
emphasis on economy, subsequent works were likely to deal only 
with a few selected products that were important in industry and 
technology. The earliest work of the more industrial sort that is 
included in the exhibition (No. 73) is the 5-volume work of Hirase 
Tetsusai, 1754, illustrating Jaoanese products of land and sea. 
(Brown refers to an earlier edition of 1730 which we have not seen.) 
The pictures were by Hasegawa Mitsunobu, described as a contem- 
porary and doubtless a friend of the famous caricaturist Shunboku 
and "possibly the willing scapegoat whom that artist chose to bear 
the responsibility for his caricatures." Mitsunobu himself is said 
to have published three volumes of caricatures in 1724, and no one 
will doubt that he did so after seeing how he poked fun at the author 
of the Fam ous Products in his drawings of monstrous crabs, 
turnips and burdock roots. The author, Hirase Tetsusai said of 
the turnips that the "kabura" of Omi Province were so much larger 
than those produced anywhere else that only five or six could be 
carried in one load. As is evident from the amusing picture (Ex- 
hibit No. 73) the waggish artist had to have his little joke at the 
expense of the enthusiastic author. As for the burdock roots of lyo, 
those were three or four shaku (up to six feet) long, our naturalist 
said, and too big to be pulled — they had to be dug. Our artist has 
a stalwart carrier loaded down with four medium roots, and two 

young people together struggling away from the garden with one 
really big root. Another amusing picture shows a giant crab as 
large as the two fishermen together scuttling away from their net 
with the outline of a broadly grinning face on his back, formed by 
the grooves of his carapace. It forecasts the industry in canned 
crabmeat for export that was to develop in Japan a couple of cen- 
turies later. 



Another of the group of books on "products of land and sea" 
is so far industrial in content as to have only minor bearing on 
natural history. It is the Illustrated review of remarkable products 
of land and sea (1799) by Kimura Kokyo (Exhibit No. 74 ). The 
first volume tells about the making of sake ^ the rice wine of Japan, 
the second concerns ores and other products of the earth (including 
fungi!), the third and fourth deal with fisheries, and the fifth is 
miscellaneous, but ends by describing foreign trade at Nagasaki 
with the Dutch and the Chinese. 



81 



376 ASA GRAY BULLETIN N.S. VoL HI, Nos. 3-4 



Certain books on natural products merge with those on 
agriculture and special plant industries. Others Lall more logically 
under natural history. There is mention in bibliographies of various 
other works in this classification that are represented in Western 
collections and some of them may have been disseminated only by 
manuscript copies. 



GEOGRAPHY OF FOREIGN LANDS AND OF JAPAN 



The Japanese were always interested in foreign lands and 
loved books of geographic description, in which fact and fable re- 
garding the outside world were quaintly scrambled. Some of the 
books were quite frankly stories with a foreign setting which gave 
some idea of conditions and peoples in distant places. Since most 
were hardly at all botanical they had to be resolutely neglected in 
making the present collection. 



One book of stories of the outer world which is included 
(Exhibit No. 57) has mention of the sacred banyan tree of India 
and reproduces an old picture that appeared originally in works of 
the Belgian botanist Clusius. Another (Exhibit No. 58) is hardly 
botanical at all, but a characteristic example of its class of Japan- 
ese literature. The type of geographic literature that the English 
call topography liad a very early rise in Japan, following the models 
set, by the Chinese provincial gazeteers. It is said that the fore- 
runner in Japan of the whole class of books known as Meisho was 
the Izumo Fudoki, written in 733. The origin of such works in Japan, 
according to Aston ( 2) came about when early in the eighth century 
the Japanese Government gave orders for the compiling of geo- 
graphical descriptions of all the provinces. The mineral^vegetable, 
and animal productions were to be noted, with the quality of the soil, 
the origin of the names of places, and local traditions." 



Brown (12, p. 34) states that between 1650 and 1700 there 
were over fifty different meisho-ki published, nearly all profusely 
illustrated. From descriptions of provinces they came to be guide- 
books to particular nlaces of note, such as Kyoto, Edo, and Kamakura, 
descriptions of the things to be seen along the Tokaido, the great 
road from Kyoto to Edo, and some have no botanical content. Others 
have sketches of famous trees, show interesting general aspects of 
vegetation, horticulture, and agriculture, although the botanical in- 
terest of these fascinating books is incidental and varies to the 
vanishing point. Later they were greatly multiplied in number, and 
in selecting examples the collector quite generally preferred tliose 



82 



Spring, 1961 ASA GRAY BULLETIN 377 



dealing with Japan's growing interest in her northern island of Hok- 
kaidO; in Karafuto^ in the Kuriles, and even in Kamchatka. 



We do show, however^ a notable book (Exhibit 59) on Oki- 
nawa and the Ryukyus in general in which there is some account of 
the vegetation, and good pictures of some of the tropical plants, such 
as the coconut, in part copied from the pioneer flora of the Ryukyus 
which we have already mentioned as having been produced by the 
Wakayama Natural Product Bureau. 



BOOKS OF EXPLORATION TO THE NORTHWARD, 

AND ON THE AINU 



Siebold (78 , 2, p. 249) wrote that in his time the Japanese 
knew their own country better than most Europeans knew their 
fatherlands. The dependencies and protectorates, however, were 

<! 

transitional to that outer world where they were forbidden to travel. 
So the northern islands (Karafuto, the Kuriles, and Ezo or Hokkaido), 
the Ryukyu (Loochoo) Islands to the southward, and Korea were the 
subjects of most of their travel literature. There was always, how- 
ever, a lively interest in the world beyond their limits, and a con- 
siderable literature dealt with stories from old sources about China 
and ''barbarian" countries. There was even a Japanese edition of a 
Chinese work on the tropical plants that prevailed mostly to the 
southward of China proper, from the region of Canton down through 
Indochina. There was avid interest in foreign ''barbarians^' 



Siebold remarks that since the Japanese had an especial 
aptitude for drawing and painting, the travel reports might be illus- 
trated with remarkable paintings in the form of rolls many feet long 
giving a panoramic view of land and people. Siebold came into pos- 
session of one from Tami Hachir5 who in 1807 had accompanied 
Takahashi "Jetsizen'' [Echizen] no Kami to Ezo. He in turn had ob- 
tained it from a skillful painter who resided long at Matsumai, the 
seat of Japanese administration, and a center of Ainu life. In the 
present exhibition there is a pictured work on the Ainu (NO- 62) in 
three rolls which is similar to that described by Siebold, and possi- 
bly by the same artist* It is entitled Ezo Kikan and is by the 
artist Nankei. The date is uncertain, but there was a work of the 
period 1798 to 1801 entitled Ezoto Kikan which almost exactly 
corresponds to the greater part of the content of these rolls. This 
appears from a work which appeared in 1899 and 1900, Ishikawa 
Kosai's Ezo Miyage (Exhibit No. 64), stated to be a revised 
edition of Ezoto Kikan . The printed book contains the Ainu 



83 



378 ASA GRAY BULLETIN N. S. VoL III, Nos. 3-4 



pictures from the rolls, somewhat simplified. The chief change is 
in the modified picture of the sacrificial bear surrounded by cere- 
monial objects^ held in reverence before the sacrificial feastj 
showing numerous inau sticks (whittled willow sticks with attached 
shavings, used as offerings to the gods) at the back of the altar. In 
the artist's picture these carry the skulls of previous sacrificial 
bears J but in the book of 1899 the skulls are omitted. This late 
edition also omits some of the less distinctively Ainu materials of 
the three rolls of the old Ezo Kikan but has a good many supple- 
mentary pictures of the marine mammals, fish, and crustaceans of 
the North. The rolls, however, contain parts on gathering marine 
products, fishing, and whaling, that are not in the printed work and 
may be of somewhat different date. 



The Japanese explorer, Mamiya Rinzo, visited Sakhalin or 
Karafuto (his "North Ezo") and the opposite mainland coast 
("Eastern Tartary^') in 1807 and 1808. Von Siebold (78) had a copy 
of his narrative and published a German translation, or conden- 
sation, in his Nippon . In the renewal of interest in regions to 
the northward which followed Perry's visit and treaty, a version 
of Mamiya's North Ezo was published in 1855* 



In the preface (dated Kaei 7th year, 1854) Suzuki Yoshinori states 
that even before Western foreigners investigated North Ezo, identi- 
fied with "old Karafuto," and therefore Sakhalin, Mr, Mamiya, a 
government official, explored for two years not only that region but 
even the region of the Amur, in Manchuria. His investigations 
covered the material culture of the natives of Sakalin and also their 
ceremonies and religion. The two tribes which he described were 
the "Rarokko" and the "Sumerenku" (Siebold calls them Orotsko 
and Smerenkur), both non-Ainu, although with some customs similar 
to those of the Ainu. 



Explorer Mamiya was of course elderly when he narrated 
this version of the report which he had made officially decades 
before. His account was published in German by Siebold (77) ap- 
parently as a translation (without pictures) of an earlier work en- 
titled Totatsu Kiko (Voyage to eastern Tartary). According to 
the German version Mamiya left the nortt^ernmost point of Ezo on 
13 August 1808, and sailed up the west coast of Sakhalin. His men 
were terrified by threats of slavery if they travelled beyond a place 

called Rijonai. Detained there until the sea froze over, Mamiya 
occupied himself by a winter land journey southward. During the 
following summer he finally got across to "Tartary" (Totatsu) or 
Manchuria, made his observations and inquiries about Russian 

penetration along the coast of the mainland southward from Siberia, 
returned to Sakhalin, and by the end of October was back in Ezo. 



84 



Spring, 1961 ASA GRAY BULLETIN 379 



Mamiya found that on the east coast of Tartary near Taraika in 
the '*Bogt Patientie" of the Dutch version there stood a boundary 
pillar, erected by the Manchu, with an inscription on it, but so 
weathered that he was unable to make it out. He was told that the 
Russians ordinarily came down the coast from the direction of 
Kamchatka. 



The next work of the exhibition on exploration in the north 
may be the manuscript of Fujii Tashiro (Exhibit No. 65). 



Immediately following the Perry Expedition there was much 
activity by the Japanese in Hokkaido and Sakhalin, and we are able 
to exhibit several of the books that appeared as a result of it. All 
are by or edited by Matsuura Takeshiro. 



THE INTERPRETATION OF ANCIENT PLANT LORE AND 

OF PLANT NAMES IN LITERATURE 



From the beginning of contact of the Japanese with Chinese 
and Korean science and learning, which, according to Japanese 
tradition was at least as early as 285 A.D. there was a steady trend 
toward the adoption of foreign ideas and, of course, a steady sup- 
pression or replacement of indigenous lore. Since the oldest Japan- 
ese literature had to be written in Chinese characters it is clear 
that even from early times only comparative study of the literatures 
and folk lore of each country would indicate what was purely Japan- 
ese in plant lore and what may have taken on a Chinese or Korean 
tincture. The most authentic body of primitive Japanese tradition 
and lore is the Kojiki , Record of Ancient Matters , compiled by 
Ono Yasumaro, about 712. Much antiquarian research has been 
devoted to determining the identity of plants mentioned in the Kojiki, 
in much the same spirit that the Christian West has built up an ex- 
tensive literature in the attempt to interpret the plant names in the 
Bible. Shirai, the historian of Japanese botany, wrote on the subject, 
and considered the Kojiki as the first work on Japanese botany. He 
tells us that in it ''several scores of plant names are mentioned by 
Chinese idiographs. This is the first document which shows the 
efforts of the comparative study of Chinese and Japanese plants. 
In 701 in the reign of the Emperor Mommu, a school of higher 
learning was erected in Nara, then the capital of Japan." At the 
same time a botanic garden of medicinal plants was established to 
which two professors and six students were attached. This is pre- 
sumed to have been the beginning of formal or academic botanical 
teaching and research in Japan, so far as there is record, but it had 

85 



380 



ASA GRAY BULLETIN N. S. VoL III, Nos. 3-4 



been preceded by a hundred and fifty years of the bringing in and 
study of Chinese and Korean books. In 554, Shirai tells us, a 
Chinese professor of medicine whose Japanese name was Oyuda 
came to Japan, and also two Korean explorers for drugs, named 
Hanryoho and Teiyuda, "who contributed much to the advancement 
of medicine and the knowledge of drugs." Then in 562 came the 
learned Chisu of the Chinese Kingdom of Wu, bringing Chinese books 
which afforded great aid in the study of materia medica . 



As an example of the sort of names in ancient literature 
that needed interpretation we quote certain passages from Brinkley 
(10), containing old plant names as interpreted by modern botanists: 



"References to ceremonial uses of plants are found in the 
literature of Japan of the legendary period. An example is the ap- 
pointment of two Kami to procure from Mount Kagu a "five-hundred- 
branched sakalti tree" ( Cleyera japonica ) from which various 
ritual objects were suspended, including paper-mulberry cloth 
(p. 12). 

"Susanoo [Susano, brother of the Sun-goddess and one of the 
Kam i or ancestral founders] visiting the plain of high heaven, asked 
something to eat from the Kami of food. Offered bodily filth, he 



slew the Kami, and from her corpse sprang rice, millet, small and 
large beans, and barley. His sword, found in the tail of a fabulous 
mighty eight-headed serpent, was known as the "herb-queller" and 
subsequently belonged to the warrior Yamato-dake, hero of wars 
waged against the Kumaso to the southward and the Ainu, who then 
extended down to the middle of the main island. The Yamato were 
the main ancestors of the Japanese" (p. 13). 

A son of Susano, brother of the Sun-goddess and one of the 
Kami or ancestral founders under the name of Iso-Takeru, "is re- 
corded to have brought with him from the high plain of heaven a 
quantity of seeds of trees and shrubs, which he planted, not in Korea, 
but in Tsukushi (Kyushu) and the eight islands of Japan" (p. 14). 

"Cotton was introduced in 799 by seeds carried on a ship 
that drifted from India to the coast of Mikawa. Fifteen years later 
tea plants were brought from overseas" (p. 280). 



So the rise of botany in Japan was largely by bodily trans- 
plantation from China directly or by way of Korea. Nevertheless, 
purely Japanese plant lore persisted in other literature aside from 
medical, and lived on in popular tradition, but every old record of 

Japanese plant lore had to be written in Chinese, which required 
identification of Japanese plants with those of Chinese literature. 



86 



Spring, 1961 ASA GRAY BULLETIN 381 



Shirai (71) has published (in Japanese) a most interesting 

I 

Chronology of Japanese Botany , of which a greatly expanded 
edition appeared in 1943. One may glean from it that aside from 
incidental mention of plants in Japanese literature from the time of 
the Kojiki until 1600 there was little record of Japanese Botany 
except in the special field of materia medica. Formal study in all 
fields of learning had its beginning with Chinese literature, which 
had already attained maturity if not hoary antiquity. Plant names 
in the old Chinese poetry, which became popular and was imitated 
in Japan, afforded endless material for literary speculation and 
commentary. 



In the latter half of the eighth century, there appeared the 
Man yo Shu , a collection of some 4, 500 poems. Plants mentioned 
in the Manyoshu have been the subject of later works, including a 
recent "Manyo Flora^' by Koshimizu ( 40 ), Such works are written 
in much the same spirit as the works that have been written in 
English on the plants of Shakespeare. 

In time there arose indigenous poetry in Japan which took 
its inspiration from nature and things of nature. Each poem was 
about some definite scene or tree or herb or animal which could be 
illustrated. So there also came to be various books illustrating 
flowers the object of which was to show what had inspired the poem 
An example is the beautiful Adonis flower book (Exhibit 78). 



A poet and artist who preferred to paint subjects of natural 
history was Katsuma Ryusui, but his works are scarce and not avail- 
able for our exhibition. He was a well-known composer of the 17- 
syllable poems called haiku. In his Umi-no-Sachi (Riches of the 
Sea) and Yama-no-Sachi (Riches of the Mountains) he illustrated 
molluscs, crustaceans, turtles and other creatures of the sea in 
two volumes (1762) and flowers and insects in two volumes (1765). 



THE KACHO TRADITION IN JAPANESE ART 



In Japanese bibliography kacho (pronounced and often 
spelled kwacho ) signifies a book or collection of prints illus- 
trating plants and birds together. The tradition of painting the 
^'flowers of the four seasons'^ in combination with birds goes back 
beyond Japanese art to that of China. In China, however, there 
never arose so much popular demand for illustrated books that 
great artists turned their attention to the production of drawings 
and paintings specifically for woodcut reproduction, either black, 



87 



382 ASA GRAY BULLETIN N. S. VoL III, Nos. 3-4 



tinted, or in full color. Well illustrated old Chinese books are 
therefore rare, although they exist, whereas in Japan there were 
thousands of volumes before the era of woodcut books had passed. 
So, in the earliest Japanese books of natural history, following or 
copying Chinese originals, the illustrations are crude^ as they 
mostly continued to be in Chinese books, whereas in Japan the 
impetus of a popular art ukiyo-e, largely directed toward book 
illustration, improved scientific books as it did those of every other 
branch of literature. Since from the early times of Japanese book 
illustration there were l<:acho, it was inevitable that those artists 
whose motives were wholly artistic should influence those whose 
motives were botanical. The artistic and the scientific objectives 
could not remain wholly apart when the number of artists working 
for the wood-block publishers was limited, when many artists of 
the poDular school tended to become acutely naturalistic in their 
work and cultivated independent powers of observation; likewise, 
it should be stated, when the very same artists who followed the 
kacho tradition made pictures for the books of natural history, 
and the same readers bought both kinds of books, the scientific 
and the aesthetic. 



It is useless to try to make any clear distinction between 



the flower and bird prints of the popular or ukiyo-e movement 
and others, for complete difference of style did not necessarily 
exist. The old schools of painting conceived of only certain tra- 
ditional subjects as worthy of artistic treatment, and so long as 
wood-engraving merely reproduced conventional subjects there 
was nothing about it that marked any great departure in art. The 
real departure came with the minute observation and utilization of 
incidents of everyday life as less conventional and fresh subject 
matter. As for flowers and birds, they belonged to the subject 
matter of classical art tradition, and in the rendering of them there 
could be any degree of intergradation between the utmost fidelity 
to nature of the illustrator and his tendency to formalize or invent. 
In both China and Japan, however, the best artists held to the con- 
ception of fidelity to nature, however much of their conceptions 
might be etherialized. However devoid of detail the most impres- 
sionistic flower painting might be, whatever remained was likely 
to be true to nature. The classical art had not been afflicted with 
insanity when the popular art took over, even though mere copyists 
might have brought about some degeneration. Classical art had 
passed over wrestlers, acrobats, popular actors and the meaner 
aspects of daily life, Ukiyo-e art took them up, but did not abandon 
the older conventional subjects either. So it is quite useless to try 

to make any fine distinction between classical and ukiyo-e renderings 
of plants. Both ranged from the crudest gawkiest illustration to the 
most graceful and artistic, and both ranged from utter realism to 



88 



Spring, 1961 ASA GRAY BULLETIN 383 



purely decorative design and symbolism- So far as ukiyo-e art in 
depicting plants is concerned, it would be merely the representation 
of plants by artists who dealt in the ukiyo-e manner with other and 
nontraditional subjects. 



It is not correct, therefore, even if customary, to consider 
the wood-cut book illustrations of Japan as all belonging to ukiyo-e 
art. It was, however, the popularity and cheapness of ukiyo-e that 
led to a wide market for books and so botanical publication profited 
as much as all other book-making from the exuberant popularization 
of art. It is amazing what a quantity of books Japan produced after 
ukiyo-e came in. The latter, in some of its manifestations may 
have lost dignity and charm, as many critics have said, becoming 
offensively grotesque and exaggerated. As for wood-cut botanical 
illustration, however, it is impossible to say that it fell into any 
decline in quality. It was merely replaced by more modern methods 
which gradually replaced it after the restoration of 1868, which is 
commonly given as the date after which it is an article of faith with 
some collectors that Japanese prints were all bad. The writers be- 
lieve that critics are inconsistent who complain, almost in the same 
breath, that wood-cut printing then suddenly became hopelessly bad, 
but that one cannot too carefully scrutinize reprints made in the late 
period because they deceive even experts! Why, if they deceive 
experts, are they not good? There are excellent modern reproduc- 
tions of some of the old floral illustrations that should be highly 
prized by anyone lucky enough to have them. 



The art of wood-block printing in color was long ago pro- 
nounced by several European and American critics to have died at 
least by 1889 if not as early as 1858. Fortunately, however5the 
Japanese bird and flower artists and their publishers did not know 
it, and continued to produce kacho as good as any by older masters 
that the critics approved. It is of course true that the indiscriminate 
use of aniline dyes (especially violet) resulted in much crudely 
printed work, but the publishers of kacho realized the danger to the 
craft and continued to use traditional pigments. So some good arti- 
sanship in that field actually survived while modern Western methods 
of illustration gained ground, for they were destined to replace wood- 
cut printing quite regardless of whether the latter was technically 
good or not. Some of the kach5 produced down to about 1925 were 
as beautiful and showed as excellent artisanship as those of a 
century earlier. Those who hold reprints in disdain may have to 
study a single print diligently to decide whether it is an original 
and a treasure or a worthless facsimile, which seems to indicate 
lack of appreciation of the wood-cut art for its own sake, regardless 
of cost or rarity. 



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384 ASA GRAY BULLETIN N.S. VoL III, Nos. 3-4 



During the period of rapid westernization, artistic plant 
illustration perhaps adhered more closely to tradition than did 
scientific. At any rate we have extended the time limit for our 
display of kacho , and art books displaying plants only, down to 
about 1917. In some of the later works depicting birds and 
flowers the emphasis was almost entirely on the birds to the 
disregard of the plants, so that the latter form only a more or 
less impressionistic setting or background. 



If one were to attempt to classify the kacho and the less 
scientific flower books as belonging to various schools of art 
other than ukiyo-e , one of the earlier color-printed items of the 
collection (Exhibit No. 53) would best represent the Chinese 
school. The artist who produced it was Kitao Keisai Masayoshi 
(ca. 1761-1824) whose early work was similar to that of his mas- 
ter Shigemasa in the ukiyo-e or naturalistic manner. Later he 
was influencedi by the Chinese school of artists that flourished at 
Kyoto. His first impressionistic work appeared as Drawings of 
birds and flowers in the Chinese manner in 1789. Books"of hFs" 
which arc shown (Exhibits 53 and 102) include the S^iection_o^ 
skctcj^es_ of 1813, consisting of drawings of flowers without"out- 
line. Some of the very pale colors have faded greatly in the 
course of years, but the book remains of great interest. Perhaps 
50 years ago Bertha Lockwood (a friend of Miss Roda Selleck and 
herself the other one of the two Indianapolis devotees of Japanese 
art) attempted to reproduce some of Masayoshi's flower prints 
by wood-block printing, and issued ten prints on paper imported 
from Japan, with a single page of text, the latter on poor wood- 
pulp paper of the worst period of paper-making. All ten prints 
differ considerably in color from the originals, but it must be 
remembered that the printers varied their colors from time to 
time. Collectors all know the tremendous differences that exist 
among authentic prints of Hiroshige of different printings. The 
collector is indebted to Mrs. Roda Selleck Pollock for the gift 
of one of her two sets of the Lockwood reproductions, and to Mrs. 
Grace L. Kuehnle for an interesting letter about them. 

The impressionistic school of painters at Kyoto was 
founded by Ganku Utanosuke (1748-1838) who was at first a painter 
of flowers and birds. He was a follower of the Chinese master Chin 
Nampin who established a studio in Nagasaki about 1730. Ganku's 
pupil Kawamura Bumpo of Kyoto was a great illustrator, active from 
1800 to 1824, and his books, are said by Brown (12, p. 103) to be 
"among the most delightful and typical examples of the work done 



90 



Spring, 1961 ASA GRAY BULLETIN 385 



by the men of the Kyoto schools." The very rare Kimpayen Gafu 
(Exhibit no. 94), published in 1820, is stylistically unusual in that 
the pictures are printed in pale hues, and frequently but not invari- 
ably without outlines. Brown described it as resembling the Rya- 
kuga-shiki by Kitao Masayoshi Keisai, (Exhibit No. 102 ) published 
seven years earlier, "which, although a much more famous book than 
the Kimpayen Gafu , is no more delightful." BumpTi employed a 
technique for representing the veins of leaves without printing them 
against the general green of the leaf blade with another block. In- 
stead, he employed only a single block for printing the green of each 
leaf surface, and brought out the veins by leaving a narrow white 
space on each side. This method he used very skillfully, and his 
employment of it was a great improvement over the flat coloring of 
many plant paintings of the Kano school. The different hues of the 
upper and lower sides of the leaf however, required the use of two 
blocks for green and his contrasting of the two in the design was 
effectively handled. 



FLOWERS OF THE FOUR SEASONS 



Closely related to the kach5 and grouped with them are 
works illustrating plants only, but from an aesthetic standpoint, 
without descriptive text (Exhibits No. 81 to No. 84); likewise works 
picturing the birds of conventional art only, without flowers, or 
showing plants in a merely subsidiary and undetailed manner, as an 
impressionistic setting or background (Exhibit No. 91). Here fall 
the works showing the traditional "Flowers of the Four Seasons" 
(Exhibit No. 103), which often include birds. 



We have thrown with the kach5 those collections of mis- 
cellaneous artists sketches containing a considerable proportion of 
bird and flower pictures as a group, if the object of the work was 
aesthetic rather than scientific or instructional. 



Like the kach5, the traditional studies of flowers alone 
or birds alone had their inspiration from Chinese art. There are 
many old Chinese paintings on silk, backed with paper or cloth, or 
with both, and sometimes preserved as rolls many feet long. Except 
that these were seldom or never intended to be reproduced as prints, 
these corresponded exactly with similar Japanese works of art, but 
the latter were often originally intended for publication by wood-block 
printing or were likely to be so reproduced sooner or later by devoted 
pupils, or admirers, or mere plagiarists. 



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386 ASA GRAY BULLETIN N.S. VoL III, Nos. 3-4 



It has to be confessed that artistic flower studies merge 
into works on landscape and garden design. Landscape as such is 
meagerly represented in our exhibition, for lack of material except 
single prints, such as those of Hokusai and Hiroshige, which are 
more familiar to most persons than Japanese books, and which have 
been exhibited frequently in Ann Arbor, including a few from the 
senior author^s collection. 



THE JAPANESE ART OF FLOWER ARRANGEMENT 



In 1954 a celebration was sponsored by the Museum 
of Art of the University of Michigan in commemoration of the 
hundredth anniversary of the sending of the Perry Expedition to 
Japan. One of the public lectures on that occasion, by Mrs. Mary 
Cokely Wood (94), published in the Asa Gray Bulletin, dealt with 
the "History and Philosophy of the Flower Arrangement Art of 
Japan. " Mrs. Wood's book on the subject of ikebana (93) has been 
published in Tokyo. Her collection of ancient and rare 

Japanese books was drawn upon to illustrate her lecture. It seems 
needless here to go into detail about matters which she has already 
so fully presented to our readers. It is enough to say that the art 
of flower arrangement was originally highly formal and symbolic, 
even ritualistic, and that even today plant materials are avoided 
which traditionally have been considered useless or of ill omen in 
connection with it. The art of ikebana goes farther back than the 
printed books about it. There was a printed edition of one book in 
1643 that went back, possibly only in manuscript copies, at least to 
1445. Other early books on i kebana in Mrs. Wood's collection 
date from 1681, 1684, 1688, 1696, 1790, and 1798. With later ones, 
also rare and interesting, they are referred to in her book. The 
three that we exhibit happen not to be included among the illustrative 
materials for her lecture, and the lack of duplication only goes to 
illustrate that the literature of ikebana is not only extensive, but 
that th^ historically important items are by no means easily obtained. 



LANDSCAPES AND 



Early books on famous places with black illustrations even- 
tually gave way largely to colored picture books which were immense- 
ly popular. Some were without text, and some were collections of 
single sheets, although often belonging to a numbered series, and the 
more famous ones are seldom seen in complete sets. If the single 



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Spring, 1961 ASA GRAY BULLETIN 387 



■ 

sheets were issued at intervals it is probable that very few complete 
sets of some were ever assembled when they were current. Some 
sets are unknown in complete condition and may never have been 
finished, but others were issued in book form in sufficient numbers 
so that they are fairly frequent. One of the lesser works of Hiro- 
shige is shown (Exhibit No. 85). 



Sets of landscape pictures, with only a title by way of text, 
or even lacking that, sometimes followed old conventions of certain 
paintings that were intended to correspond in subject matter with a 
group of poems. Sets of eight, for instance^ depicted the same idyl- 
lic place in a manner appropriate for eight different traditional titles. 
Whatever the place was (generally Lake Biwa) the titles would be 
the same, namely, Snow, Evening Rain, Autumn Moon, Evening Bells, 
Home-coming Boats at End of Day, Geese in homeward Flight, Sun- 
set, and Clearing-up after Rain. These same titles were, of course, 
used for Edo, or any other scenic place. An easy variant was to do 
eight scenes at a place, but not to follow the poetic pattern, or eight 
waterfalls anywhere, or eight bridges. Hiroshige's favorite subject 
in landscape was the Tokaido, the famous post road from Kyoto to 
Edo, and there are several series of the 53 stations. Hokusai's 
most famous prints were the 36 views of famous Fujiyama shown in 
every aspect in every season. Another favorite series which was 
completed by Hiroshige consisted of one view of each of the six 
rivers named 'Tama." The Japanese particularly enjoyed pictures 
that recalled the scenes of a trip or a pilgrimage, and served as a 
memento. The landscape art of the Japanese print artists has ap- 
pealed more generally to Americans than any other phase of their 
work. There is hardly a naturalist or geographer who is not more 
or less interested in landscape, natural and as modified by man, but 
the single prints of the chief artists are so well known and so fre- 
quently exhibited that they are not included in our exhibition. 



Most of the same artists who made single prints also illus- 
trated books. Their pictures were then engraved in two parts if 
they were to cover two pages. The left and right sides were printed 
from different sets of blocks. This enabled the book to be sewn into 
a regular volume without any of the divided picture being sewn into 
the back, for the inner margins of the pages were unprinted. Book 
illustrations originally printed in halves were sometimes removed, 
trimmed; and very cleverly mounted side by side with no gap between 

the halves. This has been done with a bound set of book illustrations 

which we show in this exhibition. These have been trimmed, mounted, 
and made into a volume of accordion format, to the great detriment 
of the prints from a collector's standpoint, for the precious margins 
should never have been cropped off. Pictures engraved on separate 



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388 ASA GRAY BULLETIN N.S. VoL III, Nos. 3-4 



left and right blocks seldom fitted exactly, and so are instantly de- 
tected, even without looking for the line of contact of the abutting 
mounted sheets of such a remade volume as we exhibit. Likewise 
the inking of the different colors could rarely be indistinguishably 
the same on the two halves. 



A curious little volume that we show, although not in origi- 
nal state, is unusually interesting for the map of Mount FujL It is 
a circular panorama, the aspect from every direction being what 
would be seen looking from the periphery directly toward the crater. 
This map should be compared with another peculiar panorama, a 
double one, to be seen at right angles to a transverse axis as the 
observer travelled along a river, rather than viewed radially toward 
the top of a mountain, as the observer travelled all the way around 
it. 



The volume of maps and views that we refer to (Exhibit 
58) is by Kikugawa Yeizan (1787-1867). He imitated Utamaro's 
style in portraying heads of beautiful women and actors so success- 
fully that when he signed Utamaro's name even experts could not 
tell the difference. He also imitated Hokusai in landscape, and 
Kunisada in full length figures of women* His later prints were 
elaborate but of little originality. Stewart (80) states that "he ceased 
designing colour-prints about 1829, after which he turned his attention 
to literature and the illustrating of books. . J' He was the teacher of 
Eisen Keisai, a contemporary and collaborator of Hiroshige. 



GARDENS AS FAMOUS PLACES: THE GARDENS OF KYOTO 



Garden art is very ancient in Japan, and one would expect 
a more abundant and specialized pre-Meiji literature on it than seems 
to exist. JVIost of the descriptions and pictures of gardens in the Edo 
period are probably to be found scattered through tlie numerous books 
on famous places. One definitely on gardens, of the late Edo period, 
turned up in the course of making the present collection. We have 
not seen any edition of an ancient work, the Sakutei-ki (Memor- 
anda for Garden Making) dating from about 1200 A. D. which, as 
Tamura (84) remarks, is certainly one of the oldest books in the 
world on landscape art- Neither have we found a work entitled 
Tsukiyama Teizoden (Record of Building Gardens) upon which the 
only garden book we are able to display was based. (See Exhibit 
No. 107). The latter, Akizato Rido's Illustrations of Fa mous 
Places , is one of the most interesting in the exhibition, however, 
showing as it does, many of the most admired garden scenes of 



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Spring, 1961 ASA GRAY BULLETIN 389 



Kyoto at the close of the 18th century. The author tells us that he 
found a dearth of poems about gardens (rinsen), to accompany his 
text and pictures, so, to have enough, he suggested that various 
famous people of Kyoto should write some to go with his own. He 
took unusual care about preserving the identity of the artists who 
illustrated his five (actually six) volumes so copiously, and so each 
of the three artists signed his own pictures. These volumes of 
Kyoto scenes are a delightful record of the gardens of the capital 
toward the end of the Edo period. Our author said that not all of 
the scenes would necessarily show gardens. Nearly all, however, 
have some relation to garden craft, for they include pictures of 
flower-viewing picnics when the cherries were in bloom, of flower- 
arrangement parties, of tea-ceremonies of the ''tea-men" ( cha-jin ), 
of boating parties and pleasure boats, of markets where flowers and 
plants were sold, of rock arrangement "gardens ,'' of processions, 
festivals and fairs, and of unarranged, beautiful accidental groupings 
of trees with water. At the time the prevailing styles in gardening 
emphasized the use of picturesque rocks and stone lanterns, of a 
pond with an island and bridges, or (nearly always) with carefully 
arranged stepping stones and, at Kyoto, running water. The artists 
had been instructed to show the size of trees and extent of water in 
each picture by drawing the people to proper scale. 



MODEL SKETCHES FOR THE USE 
OF ART STUDENTS AND OTHERS 



Hardly any books are more likely to turn up in Japanese 
collections than books of designs and sketches that were intended 
to be used as models by art students. Many such representing 
their own work were produced by the original artists themselves 
or by copyists who based their pictures upon work of their own 
teachers, or upon paintings by famous older Japanese artists or 
still more ancient Chinese. The pupils of the more popular 
artists seemed to demand such instruction books from their masters 
The model sketches best known in Europe and America are in the 
15-volume series by Hokusai, entitled Manga . This famous work 
has been reviled by some critics as contemptible and praised to 
the skies by others. Regarding its origin we find in the introduction 
to volume 1, as translated by F. Victor Dickins (20), the following 
explanation by his friend "Honshu Keijin of Biroka in Bishu": 
"During this autumn the master chanced to come westward, and 
stopped under my roof, and came to know Bokusen of Gekko-tei, 
to the great delight of both, and over three hundred compositions 



were t^^e result of their meeting. 



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390 ASA GRAY BULLETIN N.S. VoL III, Nos. 3-4 



'Trom [portraying] pious recluses and Buddhist saints^ 
from men and women of position, to beasts and birds, and flowers 
and trees, nothing in Nature was unattempted — his brush limned 
the spirit of all things. . . . 



'What can be said more? The volume is a very model 



for art students. 



"As to the title "Mangwa'', it was chosen by the master 



himself, 



'The tenth month of Mizo-no-e, Saru (Monkey) year of 



Bunkwa (December 1812)/' 



Dickins goes on to say: "Perhaps as good an equivalent 
as any for the title Mangwa would be Liber Studiorum, for it is in 
truth a collection or selection of ^studies', completed for publi- 
cation, and arranged to some extent according to subjects. I can- 
not myself help thinking they were as much intended for instruction 
as for amusement, and were, no doubt, often resorted to by Hokusai 
himself and his pupils in connection with later productions/' 



East (25) rendered the title Manga as "rough or rapid 
sketches/' Each of the first ten volumes of the Manga, as well as 
the last, has a preface by one of Hokusai's friends, from which 
certain extracts are helpful for an understanding of the work. These 
follow, all as translated by Dickens. 



(From VoL IV*) "His pupils being distressed over the want of 
sketches by the master, Hokusai took pity on them, and when he 
could find time drew landscapes, scenes from human life, animals, 
and even household objects of all kinds in continuous succession, 
which he caused to be copied and engraved on wood, and so produced 
a ladder for those who were beginning their art careers, collecting 
all the sketches thus into volumes. . . On a careful comparison of 
the present with the last volume, it will be seen that the sketches 
in the latter are finely drawn, like the strokes of square characters, 
but now we have a scries of drawings distinguished by the rapidity 
and vigour of tlieir execution. Pictures may be classified as gwa 
(rapid sketches), zu (pictures), and utsushi (faithful copies of 
objects). The third volume contains zu and utsushi^ the fourth 
gwa . . . To guide the master's pupils in the right way would be 
no small merit, the merit of a true teacher, and it is in the hope 
of working to that end that this preface has been written". - Hozan 
gyo-5 shiki (tlie sage old angler of Mt. Ho). 



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Spring, 1961 ASA GRAY BULLETIN 391 



(From VoL VO "The fertility of the master's brush is inexhaustible, 
the niceness of his touch so great that bloom and blossom of tree 
and herb almost acknowledge as rivals the faithful portrayals of 
their beauties. . /' Rokujuyen^ 



(From VoL VII.) '\ . . through the mists that cling to Miho's shore, 
I discern the far-famed Pine of Sumino'e and wonder how many ages 
hath affronted the deathless tree. Anon I stand tremblingly on 

Kameji's high bridge, or marvel at the great Akita fuki ( Nardosmia ) 
and consider with awe the immeasurable grandeur of nature, flowers, 

and tinted woods, and moonlight, and dazzling snow, and the beauties 
of spring and autumn; how can I find words here to describe the joy 
and delight they cause?. . -" 



(From VoL VIII.) "Then pupils flocked to his studio desirous of 
instruction, but the master said, 'There is no teaching of Art; one 
has but to follow Nature closely to become an artist, as it were, 
of oneself. The students were not satisfied with this doctrine, and 
remonstrance was made. 'The master has founded the Katsushika 
school' , it was said, 'and there are many who would fain follow in 
his footsteps and approach his excellence, but how can one do this 
with the aid of any other teacher than himself?. . .' The master 
took this view and produced a number of sketches. . , as he found 
leisure, which were collected into volumes for the use of his pupils. 
To this, the eighth of the series, I have been asked to write a preface, 
but as I know nothing of art, I have simply related the way in which 
these Mangwa volumes have come into existence."' By Hozaa 



(From VoL XV.) 'The works of the Mangwa series being in the 
possession of my family, I have thought it well to supplement the 
work and fulfill the author's intentions by adding this fifteenth 
volume of various sketches. I have been moved thereto, also, by 
coming across a foreign book containing some of Hokusai's work, 
so that I have understood how widely extended was his fame. . . . 
By good hap I came across a number of unpublished sketches in an 
old box, many of which are included in this volume. . . ."Katano 
T5jir5, 7th month, 11 Meiji (1878). 



Dickins tells us how in 1863 he picked up at Nagasaki an 
odd volume (the ninth) of Hokusal's Manga . ^T well remember,"' 
he wrote "my delight in the volume — one of the best among the 
fifteen. . .'' The collector of the books in the present exhibition 
was too inexperienced in 1918 to realize that one was very lucky 
to find even an odd volume or two of the Manga , and did not 
properly prize the three or four that he picked up at the ports of 
call of the "Empress of Russia," Yokahama, Kobe, and Nagasaki, 
on his first trip to the Orient. All these he gave away, assuming 



97 



392 ASA GRAY BULLETIN N.S. Vol. Ill, Nos. 3-4 



that a full set would eventually turn up, but it never did. So the 
collection contains only a recently acquired modern reprint (Ex- 
hibit 89). 



The sadly inexperienced collector of 1918 should have run 
across some warning like the later one of Brown, who, before 1924, 
gathered ehon, picture-books, most industriously during several 
years in Japan, but her experience was still in the future. She said: 
"A complete set of the original edition of the Manga in good order 
can now hardly be obtained. By virtue of patience and continued 
search, however, one may sometimes forn:i a full set by finding 
single volumes here and there and uniting them; a set thus collected 
engendering a greater affection, perhaps, in the heart of the col- 
lector than one found complete in a curio shop/' 



Another odd volume of the same general type, by Japan's 
other great landscape artist, Hiroshige, is shown in the original 
edition, (Exhibit 85), 

If it be asked why such artists* sketches for artists are of 
any interest in connection with the history of botany and zoology, 
the answer, of course, is that from the time of Moronobu on, the 
leading artists who made paintings for woodblock reproduction de- 
lighted in doing a volume or more of birds and flowers or of flowers 
of the four seasons, which set the standard toward which the less 
talented artists would all strive. Without the ukiyo-c art, the de- 
picting of the passing world, it is safe to say that botanical and 
zoological illustrating would have remained in a rudimentary state. 



ARTISTS* AND NATURALISTS* NOTEBOOKS 



Allied to such works as the Manga of Hokusai there were 
of course many artists* and naturalists* notebooks that never came 
to publication. Such turn up occasionally, and may be quite unidenti- 
fiable. Some manuscripts may be the copies made by a learner. 
Others may obviously have been done by a mature and talented artist, 
as an excellent naturalist might be. About acquiring such things a 
collector has to make up his mind about whether he likes them or not, 
and act accordingly, hoping, of course, that they may sometime be 
identified. Of many manuscripts containing drawings there may have 
been several or many copies, and copies made from an already 

printed work, no matter how skillfully, can hardly be as desirable as 
the older printed edition. Rarities were often copied by hand in 

Japan, as also in China. Interesting sketches by unidentified artists 



98 



Spring, 1961 ASA GRAY BULLETIN 393 



in the present collection are Exhibits 81 and 82. Only those have 
been acquired which might have been studies for some published 
or unpublished work on plants or animals. 



There is also shown a modern manuscript by one of the 
best known botanists of the group who made the transition from 
the old to the new in the early decades following the Restoration. 
Tanaka Yoshio was one of the two who edited the second edition of 
the famous flora of linuma Yokusai (Exhibit 29) for publication. 
Then he wrote a pioneer work on the economic botany of Japan 
(Exhibit 28). Various articles and books followed until as late as 
1897. What may have been his last work was a study of the vari- 
eties and forms of Adonis amurensis done in 1900, The manuscript 

is beautifully written and illustrated by dainty water-color 
paintings. We have not yet found that it was ever published. 

It is a beautiful memento of the life and work of one of the foremost 
of Japan's Meiji naturalists. 



Adonis amurensis may be potted and brought indoors in 
midwinter, when it will promptly flower. It has long been popular 
in Japan as one of the earliest and most charming flowers of early 
Spring. The finest early picture book of flowers and poems (Ex- 
hibit 78) was the Ad onis Flower Bookj but there seems to have 
been no special Japanese literature of Adonis until Tanaka Yoshio 
made his study, which is botanically as well as horticulturaliy of 
unusual interest, and should be published if it has not been. 



TEXTBOOKS 



Textbooks, especially translations from Dutch and other 
European languages, played a great part in the westernization of 
Japanese science. They seem to have been especially numerous 
in the pre-Meiji literature of medicine. They may or may not be 
regarded as worthy of a place in a library, depending upon whether 
one looks upon them as documentary evidence of a great trend in 
the cultural history of a great nation or as contributions to know- 
ledge. From the former standpoint they are of the greatest signifi- 
cance: from the latter they are negligible. An otherwise undis- 
tinguished textbook, one that in the literature of its own language 
might well have suffered the fate of most textbooks, to be forgotten 
with no regret by anyone, if translated into Japanese might have 
had an important part in modernizing the thought or science of the 
Orient. 



99 



394 ASA GRAY BULLETIN N.S. VoL III, Nos. 3-4 



In botany there were not many early textbooks. Most of 
them were to follow the Restoration. The most important, ac- 
cording to Shirai's essay of 1926, were a treatise on natural objects^ 
translated from the Dutch by Otsuki Gentaku (1817), and a famous 
textbook of 1833 by Udagawa Yoan (Exhibit 111)* Later, to quote 
Shirai ''Commander Perry came to Uraga, and in 1859 five ports 
of Japan were opened to Western nations and the flow of Western 
civilization pouring into the bosom of the awakened nation suddenly 
increased." In 1857 a bureau called the Bansho Shirabe-jo was 
established in Yedo [Edo, later Tokyo] in which researches in 
Western learning were intended to be carried on. This bureau was 
the origin of the Tokyo Imperial University of the present day. In 
this bureau Ito Keisuke and Tanaka Yoshio worked as representatives 
of the Natural History Investigation Section. 



Now we pass to the modern period which begins about 1868. 
The first botanist who appeared in this period is Yatabe Ryokichi. 
He studied botany in Cornell University in the United States of 
America and returned to Japan in 1877, and became Professor of 
Botany in the Tokyo Imperial University. It was he who educated 
most of the Japanese botanists of the present century. We also 
show (Exhibit 112 ) the first important botanical textbook of the 
Meiji period. 



100 



Spring, 1961 ASA GRAY BULLETIN 395 



PART II 



Catalogue of an Exhibition of Japanese Books and Manuscripts, 
mostly Botanical, Held at the Clements Library of the University 
of Michigan, in Commemoration of the Hundreth Anniversary 
(1954) of the First Treaty between the United States and Japan. 



The record of each exhibit in the following Catalogue consists 
of three items, (a) a Romanized bibliographic entry, (b) a charac- 
teristic illustration, and (c) a legend for the illustration. Since 
the titles of Japanese books are not always Romanized exactly 
alike by all bibliographers, Dr. Su-Ying Liu has kindly copied the 
Kanji titles, and these are uniformly inserted just above the accom- 
panying illustrations. (Of course book titles do not appear in this 
position in the original books. ) Whenever spacing allowed, the 
illustrations have been inserted below the corresponding bibliograph- 
ic entry, or in the following note, but in any event the figures are 
numbered to correspond with the numbers of the exhibits. 



The classification of the exhibits follows the listing on pp. 293 
and 346. 



I. ENCYCLOPEDIAS AND RELATED WORKS 

(Exhibits 1 to 4) 



Exhibit 1. Nakamura Tekisai, Kimmo-zui (Pictures to teach 
children). 14 vols. , i. e. , 20 parts in 12 vols, index, 2 vols, 
n. p.: Kambun 6 (1666). Vol. I, parts 1-3^ astronomy, geography, 
habitations; Vol. II, parts 4 & 5, classes of society, the human 
body; Vol. Ill, parts 6 & 7, clothing, valuables; Vols. IV, V, VI, 
parts 8-11, arts and crafts; Vol. VII, parts 12 & 13, mammals 
and birds; Vol. VIII, parts 14 & 15, fish and reptiles; Vol, DC, parts 
16 & 17, rice and other cereals, vegetables; Vol. X, part 18, fruits 
and melons; Vol, XI, part 19, trees and bamboos; Vol. XII, part 
20, flowering plants. 



101 



396 



ASA GRAY BULLETIN N.S. VoL III, Nos. 3-4 




)) 



I'l^fii 




^j i^i'f 



i^ i^ 













Fig. L 



Four pictures from the Kimmo-zui 



which do not belong 



together, but are regrouped to retain the quartered-page arrange- 
ment of this old Japanese children's encyclopaedia. Upper left; the 
Chinese and Japanese conception of a mythical shojo , identified in 
modern dictionaries with the orang utan of Sumatra and Borneo, 
stories of which doubtless reached Japan via China in ancient times. 
Upper right; the legendary phoenix, 
male and the 5 the female." 



called hoo, the ho being the 

"tetusho 



Lower left; Cycas revoluta, 



(other names kaiso and hobisho): the kind that comes from Ryukyu 
is called bansho. " This is doubtless one of the earliest Japanese 
records of the botany of the Ryukyu C'Loochoo") Islands. Lower 
right; shuro, the hemp-palm, Trachycarpus excelsa^, perhaps the 
northernmost Oriental palm. 



102 



Spring, 1961 



ASA GRAY BULLETIN 



397 



Exhibit 2. Hirazumi Seian, Morokoshi Kimmo zui (Picture 
encyclopaedia of things Chinese^ to instruct children), 15 vols. 
Osaka: (publishers^ Hobundo; Onigi Ichibei) and Edo (publisher, 
Suhara Mohei). Kyoho 4 (1719), Illustrated by Naramura Yuzei^ 
(Tachibana). Vol. I, astronomy; Vol. II, geography; Vol. Ill, the 
palace; Vols. IV and V, personalities; human and legendary begins; 
Vol. VI, sports and contests; Vol. VII, implements, ornaments, 
ceremonial objects; Vol. VIII, ships, vehicles, fishing gear, in- 
signia, weapons; Vol. IX, weapons, utensils, furniture, machinery; 
XII, plants; Vol. XIII, birds and mammals; Vol. XIV, the dragon, 
fish, turtles, invertebrates; Vol. XV, index. 



Vol. I has one picture to each half-leaf; Vol. II, one or two; 
Vol. Ill, one, two, or four; Vol. IV, four; Vol. V, mostly four; 
Vol. VI, one to four; Vol. VII, mostly six or four; Vols. VIII and 
IX, two to many; Vols. X, six or more; Vols. XI and XII, six; Vols 
Xm and XIV, mostly four. 






i^J^ 



f'T^* 




103 



398 ASA GRAY BULLETIN N.S. VoL III, Nos. 3-4 



Fig. 2. Two mythical creatures. Above is the shin, which was 
imagined as snake -like, but with horns like a dragon, and able to 
produce by blowing a mirage of a plain and a castle. Below it is 
the oryu, the fabled winged dragon of Kyokyu Mountain. Although 
the figures of this encyclopedia are extraordinarily crude (one of 
the turtles has six legsl) the natural history is not entirely un- 
natural. If tempted to feel superior, we should remember the uni- 
corns, griffins, mermaids, and even dragons that long persisted in 
our own natural historyl The plant illustrations are at least as good 
as those of Europe less than a century earlier, down to the time of 
Brunfels and Fuchs. We must also remember that at the date of 
this work Japan already had beginnings of indigenous natural history 
superior to our zoological selections from this old Encyclopedia, 
which was borrowed from China and was already antiquated there. 
In all countries well known comprehensive works remain current 
long after much that they contain has been discredited. 



Exliibit No. 3. Nakada and Kawabe, Zoho Kashiragaki Kimmo zui 
Taisei (Supplementary illustrated book for children). 21 parts in 
11 vols. Kyoto: (published by Kyukodo). Kansei 1 (1789). 



Supplementary to Nakamura Tekisai, Kimmo zui, of 1666. 
The entire work is exhibited, but only as made up by combining two 
imperfect copies acquired at different times. The publisher's 
grouping of parts into volumes varied in making up sets. Some 
parts, therefore, are represented twice in the assembled complete 
set. The last part, maki XXI, seems to have been added by after- 
thought, for it is not included in the table of contents. 



Contents: VoL I, five separately paged prefaces and table of 
contents. VoL II, 24 consecutively numbered leaves, part 1, 
astronomy and the sky; part 2, geography; part 3, buildings. VoL 
III, part 4, occupations of men and mythical beings. VoL IV, part 
5, anatomy; part 6, ornaments and clothing; part 7, fossils, 
minerals, curiosities, textiles, etc.; part 8, paintings, other works 
of art, masks, musical instruments, games, toys. VoL V, part 9, 
insig-nia, weapons, transportation; part 10, agricultural implements, 
craftsmen's tools, machines, fishing gear, rope, traps, ceramics, 
utensils; part 11, furniture, lacquer work, metal work. VoL VI, 
part 12, mammals; part 13, birds. VoL VII, dragons and all lower 
animals; part 16, cereals, hemp, legumes, poppy, sesame. Vol. 
VIII, part 16, (repeated: see note above); part 17, root crops, other 
vegetables, edible sea-weeds and fungi; part 18, fruits, nuts, sugar- 
cane, hops, water-chestnut. Vol. IX, parts 17 and 18 (repeated: 
see note above); part 19, woody plants. VoL X (mislabelled IX), 
part 20, herbs. Vol. XI (mislabelled X), part 21, celestial beings, 
legends, fine arts, sports, games, flower arrangement, dancing, 
music, drama, etc. 

104 



Spring, 1961 



ASA GRAY BULLETIN 



399 





Fig. 3a. The Phoenix, from the Illustrated Book for children, 1789 
On Account of Ann Arbor's current interest in this mythical bird, 
whose name is associated with its Phoenix Memorial Project, in 
honor of those who died in World War II, we show a Japanese con- 
ception of it from the beginning of Vol. 6, part 13. "The Phoenix 
is called the Bird of the Holy Spirit. The male is ho, the female 5. 
The body is like that of the domestic chicken; the feathers gay; the 



height four or five feet; the voice like the note of a flute. 



It does 



not eat living insects, does not step on the ground, likes the Pau- 
lownia tree, and eats the fruits of certain kinds of bamboos.'' 

105 



400 



ASA GRAY BULLETIN N.S. Vol. Ill, Nos. 3-4 



^H'^m^A 



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Fig. 3b. Another picture from the Il lustrated Book for Chil dren; 
the making of a flower arrangement in the style named for Rikka, 
steward of Rokkakudo of Kyoto, a master of the School of Ikenobo. 
Annually on the 7th of July he gathered his disciples and they enjoyed 



t ! 



Recently another style," our 



seeing his flower arrangement, 
author says, "has become popular, called nageire, literally "throw- 
ing'* and there are many meetings for nageire arrangement. No 
wonder all people enjoy flowers, for they console the mind and dis- 
pell gloom" Our encyclopaedia does not picture the newer, more 
popular and less formal style of flower arrangement. 



106 



^ k 



Spring, 1£61 ASA GRAY BULLETIN 401 



Exhibit 4. Ehon Shoshin Hashiradate, Jo; Chu (Picture book; a 



:__ 



guide for beginners). 2 Vols., 2nd edition. Osaka: Shibukawa 
Seimon; Kyoto: Imai Kenibei; Iniai Shichiro. Kansei 6 (1797). 

The short unsigned foreword and prologue (supposedly the 
same as in the earlier edition) state that the writer hin.self 
rtiade the pictures for this wor.c from the drawings of masters, 
and that he apologizes for this poor copying. Following these 
is the date of the original edition, Shotoku 5 (1715). There is 
no text except the names of the aninials and plants figured. 
This curious old book of natural history follows closely the 
tradition of the zoological and botanical sections of earlier 
picture encyclopaedias. It is said to have been first printed 
in 1715, and its early origin is clearly indicated by the por- 
trayal of mythical creatures in VoluRje I. The first picture, 
entitled Shojo (orangutan), symbolic of the wonders to follow, 
is in the nature of a pipe dream, reminiscent of the tale in 
the Arabian Nights representing genii emerging from a jar. 
The picture shows an elaborately clad and by no means 
drenched and dripping humian figure with long and sparse hair 
like the old Japanese conception of an orangutan popping up in 
the air fromj the disturbed surface of what is apparently sake 
in a large jar. Two figures with astonished expressions (one 
with another dipper a yard long, and the other with a fan and 
a sake cup), much smaller than the imimense jar, are viewing 
the'Tpparition. This picture is followed by others represent- 
ing other mythical and exotic animials, and one finds here 
prototypes of the pictures of elephants which appeared with 
somje variations in later Japanese books and prints bearing 
Indian potentates on their backs. Dragons, turtles, crabs, 
fish and sea-shells follow the real and imaginary animjals. 



Volume II is a forerunner of the later kacho, illustrating 

birds and plants, but the latter is highly conventionalized pine, 

bamboo, cherry, etc. , and intended only as a setting for the 

birds. 



107 



402 



ASA GRAY BULLETIN N.S. VoL III, Nos. 3-4 




Fi 



rr 



4a, An a[^parition calleu forlh by drinking saKe. 



108 



J FT 



Spring, 1961 



ASA GRAY BULLETIN 



403 




Fig. 4b. A page of the book illustrating jakuro (pomegranate) above 
theicho (gingkgo). 



109 



404 ASA GRAY BULLETIN N. S. VoL III, Nos. 3-4 



II. HERBALS AND RELATED WORKS OF 
NATURAL HISTORY WITH MORE OR LESS 
SPECIAL REFERENCE TO MATERIA MEDICA 



(Exhibits 5 to 9) 



Exhibit 5^ Ushiyama Kogetsu, Yakuro Honzo (Japanese plants 

useful for medicine). 6 vols, Kyoto, Kyoho 19 (1734). 



An unillustrated herbal which was highly esteemed and went 
through several editions; notable for the clarity of the classical 
Qiinese characters, and actually all written in Chinese^ (kanbun ) 
without accessory Japanese characters. 



Exhibit 6 . Nin (or Jin) An'o^ Zotei Honzo Biyo_^ Kan ; Kon fEsscntial 
herbal, enlarged and revised, I; II). 2 vols. Kyoto: copyright, 
Sanseido; bookstore, Kimura Kichiuemon, Kansei 5 (1793). 



Shirai states that the first edition was published in Ky5ho 3 (1728) 
Vol. I of the 1793 edition deals with 190 kinds of herbs; Vol. II with 
81 woody plants, 22 grains, 17 vegetables, 5 metals, 37 stones, 
5 earths, with water, 5 kinds of birds, 20 other animals, and 9 
things pertaining to man. This work is chiefly concerned with 
medicinal properties of the things dealt with. 



Exhibit 7 . Ohara Todo (alias Yoshinao, or Gcnzaburo), Todd 
Ihitsu (Todo's posthumous works). 9 vols. Wakayama: publishers, 
Seireido, Seidado, Seijudo, Tempo 4 (1833). Edited by Ohara 
Rankei, Todo^s grandson. Preface by Kondo Kodd, Kishu Clan 
physician. 



Described by de Rosny (Cat. No. 826) from the apparently 
incomplete Nordenski51d copy as a botanical treatise in 5 vols, and 
by Merrill and Walker ( 47 ), apparently from the last three 
volumes only, as a botanical treatise in three books consisting of 
extracts from other authors, Chinese and Japanese, supplemented 
by the author's observations. The copy exhibited consists of three 
series of three volumes each, the first six of the consecutively 
numbered volumes consisting of alternating items of botany and 
zoology. The illustrations range from seals on snow-covered rocks 
to tropical figs, from snowy owls to a citrus fruit. Those of vols. 
IV -- VI are signed by artists' seals. Volumes VII -- IX are botani- 



cal. 



110 



V 



Spring, 1961 



ASA GRAY BULLETIN 



405 



Todo, according to Kondo Kodo, the physician^ had been inter- 
ested in plants from childhood. He received instruction from Ono 
Ranzan^ with whom he explored Nikko and Kumano mountains and 
collected plants. Although his knowledge and writings were ex- 
tensive, he was too modest to arrange for the publication of his 



works 



Ranke 



There is much curious zoological as well as botanical lore in 
the works of Todo. The two are combined in the account of the 
fungi which grow from the bodies of insects. These were called 
t5chukaso, and were known from Japan as well as from foreign 
countries, Tod5 tells us that those from foreign countries are long, 
more than 1 shaku, and as big around as a writing brush; color dark 
blue. The ^'worm'^ itself is slightly yellowish and when dried up 
looks like coral. According to Mr. Hirokawa in his Record of 
Nagasaki , some Chinese merchants prized them as medicine for the 
kidneys. This tosSkachu appears in old Chinese writings. According 
to Todo, in Japan it is found in various places in Honshu but never in 
sunny places. In Goshu (Omi Province) it grows either above the 
ground or 2 or 3 sun in the soil. The shapes are varied. A man 
observed recently that all he saw in a mountain area had the plant 
growing out of the worm's mouth. In the Kumano Mountain it grows 
at the foot of the mulberry trees; length 2 or 3 sun ; and looks like a 
slender holder of a writing brush. The worms were brown and they 
squirmed, and from their mouths threadlike things were growing in 
clusters. 



Remarkable as it may seem, the old Japanese literature seems 
to have had a whole volume on the recondite subject of clavate fungi 
growing from the bodies of dead insects. Serrurier cities (Cat. , No. 
1023): Yunoki Tokiva, Ka-sau toutsiu no dzu [ Kasotochu no Zu ] 
(Dessins des insectes de hiver et des plantes de Tete. . . . Serie de 
planches en couleurs avec quelques notes. . . ) s. 1. , 1801. As is 
frequently true of Japanese books, the title gives no clue to the 
subject matter of this one. 




I. 



111 



406 ASA GRAY BULLETIN N.S. VoL III, Nos. 3-4 



Fig. 5 . Reproduction of one of the colored figures from Todo 
Ihitsu, showing the blue-green lepidopterous larva called tegu on 
chestnut leaves. 



This insect yields ''cat-gut" for fishing lines, a transparent and 
very strong thread. In April or May, when fully grown, the tegu 
looks like a silk-worm, is blue-green (according to the colored 
illustration) with black head and legs, and a '^sting" at its tail. It 
is covered with white hairs. Cut it open longitudinally, said Todo, 
to find the two lines of thread, which may be stretched out to a length 
of 5 or 6 shaku (about the same number of feet). To raise the '*worm 
(caterpiller) plant chestnut or wax trees and dig a ditch around them 
to keep the worms from escaping. 



According to the dictionaries the larva that yields ''cat-gut 



IT 



gu 



Hiroshima district. It is there known as yamamayu (mountain silk- 
worm). The dictionaries give "Japanese oak worm" "tussah" and 
"tussore" as English equivalents. The word tussah is defined as 
coarse strong silk produced by "undomesticated" silkworms and 
also as the name of the insects, one of them being Antheraea paphia. 



Exhibit 8 , Kiuchi Koshige, Kojosekiwa Unkonshi (Record of 
unusual stones). 18 vols. Osaka, An*ei 2 (1773). 



This work on stones contains stories calculated to tax the 
credulity of the most credulous, but also some credible natural 
history. Although medieval and folk-loristic in flavor and not 
covering the whole field of natural history it is placed here for want 
of a more appropriate category in our classification. It contains 
perhaps as early an illustration as illustration as one can find of 
fossil Japanese gymnosperm cones. There are such titles and 
entries as: "stones that have been transformed from other things, 
animate and inanimate," "a woman named Tora transformed into 
a tiger while grieving for her dead lover^'; "stones once deposited 
inside an animal's stomach"; "stones quite resembling familiar 
everyday things"; "stones loved by people"; "fossils, etc."; "ancient 
people's sculptures, dug up from underground'/ One of the volumes 
illustrates "a Dutchman buying a stone in which a fish is swimming. 
He bought it to be presented to his noble officer, for when a part of 
the stone is ground off, one can see the fish alive inside the stone." 



112 



Spring, 1961 



ASA GRAY BULLETIN 



407 




Fig. 6. Fossil gymnosperm cones as figured by Kiuchi Koshige in 
the Record of Unusual Stones ^ 



113 



408 ASA GRAY BULLETIN N.S. Vol. Ill, Nos. 3-4 



Exhibit 9 . Kaibara Ekken, Yamato Honzo (Yamato natural history) 
16 parts in 5 vols. Kyoto, Hoei 5 (_1708-1709; actually published), 
VoL VI contains (I) Yamato Honzo Furoku (Appendix to Yamato 
natural history) 2 parts (or 'Volumes"), and (II) Yamato Honzo 
Shohinzu (Miscellaneous illustrations) 2 parts ("volumes") with 85 
consecutively numbered leaves, (part I, Ivs. 1-54; part II, Ivs. 55- 
84, figs.; leaf 85, postface). Kyoto, Shotoku 5 (1715). 



Another issue: ("Revised"), 16 parts in 8 vols,; Appendix, 2 
parts in 1 vol. ; illustrations, 2 parts on 84 consecutively numbered 
leaves in 1 vol. No postface: 10 vols, in all. Kyoto: Bookstore 
Nagata Chohei, Shotoku 5 (1715). 



One wonders if the "revised" issue of the same year as the 
original cannot be explained as referring to numerous manuscript 
emendations and additions, which may have been made uniformly in 
a number of copies which were offered for sale. It is not impossible, 
on the contrary, that the "revision" with manuscript changes was 
never regularly published and that the copy exhibited is unique. The 
same pages from the original and "revised" copies are illustrated 
to show the nature of the manuscript emendations. 



Modern typeset edition, edited by Shirai Mitsutaro, 2 vols. , 
Tokyo, 1932 and 1936. This work is historically of such preeminence 
that the content of the 16 parts or books that were grouped by the 
publisher for binding as vols. I to V (not including Vol. VI, the 

Appendices) should be enumerated, as illustrating Kaibara's classi- 
fication of natural things. Part I has the table of contents and 
general introduction; II, medicines and drinks; III, the various kinds 
of water; IV, fire (10 kinds!), metals, beads, stones, earth (67 kinds); 
grains (26 kinds) and spirituous drinks (29 kinds); V, VI, and VII, 
three books of herbs, containing 67, 79, and 73 kinds, respectively; 
VIII, melons (9 kinds), vines (27 kinds) plants of various sorts (16), 
water plants (36 kinds), and marine plants (28 kinds); IX, miscel- 
laneous plants (34 kinds); X, the "four trees" (i.e., woody plants) 
of industry and fruit trees (7 kinds); XI, medicinal "trees" (37 kinds) 
and garden "trees" (36 kinds); XII flowering "trees" (40 kinds) and 
miscellaneous (92 kinds); XIII, fish (river fish, 39 kinds, ocean fish, 
83 kinds); XIV, water and marine "insects" (i.e., invertebrates) (20 
kinds) and land "insects" (64 kinds); XV, birds, grouped as water 
birds (25 kinds), mountain birds (12 kinds), domestic birds (4 kinds), 
miscellaneous birds (10 kinds) and foreign birds (10 kinds); XVI, "ani- 
mals" (i.e. , mostly quadrupeds) 46 kinds; human beings and derived 
things, such as mummies, nails, hair, etc. (10 kinds). Total, 1362 



kinds of things. 



114 



Spring, 1961 



ASA GRAY BULLETIN 



409 



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Fig, 7. Pages from the original issue of the Yamato Honzo . 

Left (fish); above, Inimicus japonicus ; below, Ostracion tuber - 
culatum . Right (plants); above, Tricyrtis hirta Hooker; below, 
Corchoropsis tomentosa Makino. The latter is described as a 
kind of hemp plant namied asagusa with leaves and flowers resen 
bling those of indoasa, which is Corchorus . Agreement is good 
with the significance of the scientific namie Corchoropsis , 



J- 



115 



410 



ASA GRAY BULLETIN N.S. VoL III, Nos. 3-4 



ni. WORKS ON MEDICINE WITH SOME REFERENCE 

TO NATURAL HISTORY IN CONNECTION 
WITH MATERIA MEDICA. (Exhibits 10 to 11) 



Exhibit 10 . Taki Yasumoto, Kokeisai Kyuho , Jo; Chu; Ge (First 
aid in sudden illness, Vols. I, II, III). Osaka: bookstores, Akitaya 
Taemon and two others; Edo: Bookstores, Ol^adaya Kishichi and 
six others, Kansei 2 (1790). Volume I, t.+ 4 + 4+12+2 + 79 Ivs. ; 
Volume II, 3 95 Ivs.; Volume III, 94+1+1+5+1 leaves. 




4 




CO 






116 



Spring, 1961 ASA GRAY BULLETIN 411 



Figs. 8 a and b. Adjoining figures from the book of Taki on First 
aid in sudden illness (Volume I^ leaves 43-44) showing on the left 
the snake gourd, Trichosanthes cucumeroides ( karasuuri in Japanese) 
and on the right an unconscious, possibly dead, man. The instruc- 
tions are to lay him on his face with arms out-stretched, to pass a 
rope from elbow to elbow, and on the line of the rope to cauterize 
a spot on each side of the spine by burning moxa on it. Burning 
moxa at specified points on the body was standard medical practice 
for many ailments. The substance called mokusa (n 



ogusa 



Japanese is tne tomentum brushed ott o± the leaves oi Y2i]fH£f (herb 
for cauterizing) identified as Artemisia indica, but the tomentum 
of various other plants was apparently used, among them, Senecio 
and certain ferns. A Chinese wormwood, Artemisia Moxa, received 
its specific name because of the use of the abundant tomentum in 
medicine, and the plant as well as the product bears the name. The 
word moxa (mokusa; mogusa) is a contraction of moegusa, '^burning 



herb" from its medical use as a cautery. 



Exhibit 11. Okamoto Ippo, Wago Honzo Komoku (Treatise on drugs 
in Japanese terms). 23 books in 10 volumes. Kyoto: publisher, 
Kosaji Han'emon, Genroku 11 (1698). Another title for the same work 
is Koeki Honzo Taisei. 



This sparsely illustrated work deals with 1834 varieties of plants, 
animal, and mineral drugs. The drawings, copied from ancient 
sources, are very bad. Here are interesting drawings such as 
Ginseng, suggesting the fancied resemblance to the human form, 
which was considered an indication of efficacy. In the preface a 
certain Ri is mentioned, on whose work this one may possibly be 
based. 



117 



412 



ASA GRAY BULLETIN N.S. Vol. Ill, Nos. 3-4 



IV. FAMINE HERBALS (Exhibits 12 to 14) 



Exhibit 12. [Matsuoka Gentatsu (Joan), editor], Kyuko Honzo , 
Kosei (Famine relief plants, revised). 8 vols. Kyoto: publisher, 
Nagamatsudo, Shotoku 5 (1715). 



Vol. 1: Prefaces by Ito Choin, Matsuoka Gentatsu (on famine 
plants in general), Kagawa Shotoku (on famine vegetables) and the 
Chinese author of the Ming dynasty (on famine grains, koku ) ; 



by Oseiro (Wang Hsi-lou); Part 2, Kyuko Yafu, Hoi (Supplement) 
by Yokasei (Yao K'o-cheng) of the Ming dynasty. Vols. 2-8, 
Kyuko Honzo, Kosei (Famine relief plants, revised), 14 parts, by 



Shu Ken'o of the Ch'ing period. Vol. 2 contains Introduction and 
part 1; Vol. 3, parts 2 and 3; Vol. 4, parts 4 and 5; Vol. 5, parts 
6 and 7; Vol. 6, parts 8 and 9; Vol. 7, parts 10, 11 and 12; 
Vol. 8, parts 13 and 14. 



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Fig. 9. For illustrations from the less extensive and earlier of 
the Chinese works edited by Matsuoka for his "famine herbal" we 
have chosen two extremely unrealistic fig\ires that remind one of 
some early European herbals in which the same woodcut had to 
serve for two or miOre subjects. The illustrator has modified his 



118 



Spring, 1961 



ASA GRAY BULLETIN 



413 



amazingly crude picture of the dandelion ( Taraxacum sp.) to appear 

as that of the Shepherd's Purse ( Capsella Bursa-pastoris ) or vice 
versa. 



Exhibit 13. (samework as Exhibit 12) Matsuoka Joan (editor). 
Kosei Kyuko Honzo _(Famine relief plants, revised). 14 vols, in 
7. Kyoto: Hakushodo, Ryushidd, Gansuitei, joint printers; Fujino 
Kurobei, Ibaragi Tazaemon and Kawakatsu Shichirobei, publishers 
Kyoho 1 (1716). (2nded.) 



_This edition differs from the first in that the supplement to the 
Kyuko Yafu is incorporated with that work. Commenting on this 
edition, Shirai remarked of the former, which had appeared a year 
earlier, that Matsuoka Gentatsu had constructed it by adding to the 
original Chinese characters the marks which would enable them to 
be read in Japanese, had given the Japanese names of the plants 
wherever possible, and had induced Hakuundo of Ky5to to print it. 



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119 



414 ASA GRAY BULLETIN N.S. VoL III, Nos. 3-4 



Fig. 10 . This more extensive of the two famine herbals edited by 
Matsuoka has superior woodcuts and we reproduce one of the best, 
illustrating a variety of Coix Lachryma-Jobi (Job's tears) which, 
in contrast with that reproduced from Takebe Seian (no. 11) has 
close internodes, lower growth, and relatively broad leaves. This 
is presumed to be the same type (probably grown in both China and 
Japan) which has received the scientific name of Coix Ma -Yuen 
Makino, or Coix Lachryma-Jobi var. frumentacea Makino. The 
grain, enclosed in a horny involucre, is edible, but it took consider- 
able labor to prepare it. It is called _t5 mugi in the present text, 
and is sweetish. If boiled in water it makes a sticky gruel or mush 
like that of glutinous rice. It is very fragrant, our author says, 
and 2:ood food for the sick. 



Exhibit 14. Takebe Seian, Biko Somoku Zu,Kan, Kon . (Pictures 
of Plants necessary in preparation for Famine Relief). Completed 
in Myowa 8, 1771. Illustrated by Kitago Shimei. Publication pro- 
vided for by the author's descendant, Sugita Rikkei, with original 
pictures corrected by Sugita Rikkei and others. Prefaces by 
Takebe Seian, Sugita Rikkei and i^tsuki Gantaku's heir. 2 vols. , 
n. p. (Copyright: Tenshinro-zo), Tempo 4, 1833. 

Serrurier (Cat. 983), gives the descendant's name as Sugita 
Haku-gen; Shirai as Sugita Rikkei. Sugita Rikkei had inherited the 
manuscript and was aided in publication by those feudalcan phy- 
sicians who contributed prefaces. 



In addition to the printed copy we exhibit an old manuscript 
tracing of incredible perfection. It is almost the same in the 
coarser parts, but diverges more clearly in those parts where 
there are numerous fine lines close together. Someone must have 
wanted a copy very much to have gone to such extraordinary pains 
to have even text as well as pictures made almost minutely iden- 
tical. In our exhibition the printed and manuscript copies are 
opened to corresponding pages for comparison. 



120 



Spring, 1961 



ASA GRAY BULLETIN 



415 




Fig. 11 . The grass Coix Lachryma-Jobi, known as Job*s tears, a 
tall variety with relatively narrow leaves and long internodeSj 
called zuzutama (river grain). Cakes could be made of grain 
and leaves pounded together, or of flour from the grain alone. 
Compare this illustration from Takebe Seian^s famine herbal with 
the very different variety in Matsuoka's famine herbal, a low, 
broad-leaved type. Structurally the genus Coix is a highly evolved 
and interesting group with hard, shining involucres which, enable 
these seed-like structures to be strung on a cord as beads. 

Otsuki Gentaku's preface relates the origin of this work, which 
he knew about from his father, Gentaku. The work was written 
with the aid of his